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"A chance to make good" : juvenile males and the law in Vancouver, B.C., 1910-1915 Matters, Diane Louise Janowski 1978

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A CHANGE TO MAKE GOOD:" JUVENILE MALES AND THE LAW I N VANCOUVER, B.C., DIANE LOUISE JANOWSKI MATTERS A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( H i s t o r y ) ( E d u c a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 (T) Diane L o u i s e J a n o w s k i M a t t e r s 1910-1915 MASTER OF ARTS In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of -rj\£>TA R Y The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date A b s t r a c t The f e d e r a l J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t o f 1908 c o n f i r m e d and expanded upon an i n f e r i o r c i v i l s t a t u s f o r C a n a d i a n c h i l d r e n and young p e o p l e . U s i n g t h e v e h i c l e o f a s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t i t s c l i e n t e l e w i t h s u c h i n n o v a t i o n s as p r i v a t e h e a r i n g s and i n f o r m a l e v i d e n c e , l e g i s l a t o r s d e n i e d t h e b e n e f i t o f t r a d i t i o n a l l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n s t o c h i l d r e n . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s e changes was t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t wayward c h i l d r e n were i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l y c r i m i n a l i z e d by c o n t a c t w i t h t h e r e g u l a r c o u r t s y s t e m and w i t h a d u l t o f f e n d e r s . P r o p o n e n t s o f t h e new j u v e n i l e c o u r t s y s t e m b e l i e v e d t h a t a p a t e r n a l i s t i c p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r who k e p t a c l o s e watch on t h e c h i l d and i t s f a m i l y w o u l d p r o v i d e a n e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e c y c l e whereby j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s became i r r e v e r s i b l y c o m m i t t e d a d u l t o f f e n d e r s . T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t , one o f t h e p i o n e e r C a n a d i a n c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t s , w i t h a v i e w t o t e s t i n g some o f t h e s e p r e m i s e s . F i l e s were c o m p i l e d on a l l j u v e n i l e males who came b e f o r e t h e c o u r t d u r i n g i t s f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n . A computer a n a l y s i s was made o f t h e c a s e s t o d e t e r m i n e how d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s , such a s t h e c h i l d ' s home s i t u a t i o n and who i n i t i a t e d h i s i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c o u r t a f f e c t e d h a n d l i n g o f t h e c a s e s . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e Vancouver C o u r t d i d n o t f u n c t i o n a s i t s p r o m o t e r s had i n t e n d e d . C h i l d r e n were s t i l l f r e q u e n t l y p i c k e d up by p o l i c e and h e l d i n r e g u l a r p o l i c e c e l l s f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f t i m e . They were s u b j e c t e d , f u r t h e r , t o f r e q u e n t and l e n g t h y p e r i o d s o f d e t e n t i o n i n t h e C o u r t ' s D e t e n t i o n Home. I n s t e a d o f b e i n g t h e s u b j e c t s o f an e x h a u s t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n by a f a t h e r l y j u d g e , t h e i r c a s e s were d e c i d e d , o c c a s i o n a l l y o v e r t h e t e l e p h o n e and u s u a l l y a f t e r o n l y t h e most c u r s o r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n , by a p o l i c e m a g i s t r a t e a f t e r h i s o t h e r d u t i e s were c o m p l e t e d . i i A l m o s t a l l male o f f e n d e r s who came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e C o u r t were f o r m a l l y c h a r g e d . Of t h e s e , f e w e r t h a n h a l f were b r o u g h t back f o r a subsequent o f f e n c e . Most o f t h o s e who d i d r e t u r n t o C o u r t on one o r more new c h a r g e s were b r o u g h t i n f o r e i t h e r t h e same o r l e s s e r o r d e r s o f o f f e n c e s t h a n t h e i r f i r s t c h a r g e s . Many r e p e a t i n g o f f e n d e r s were b r o u g h t f o r w a r d on c h a r g e s a r i s i n g d i r e c t l y o u t o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e i r f i r s t c a s e s . The J u v e n i l e C o u r t t h u s may have e i t h e r s u c c e e d e d i n b r e a k i n g t h e presumed c y c l e whereby boys a r r e s t e d on a s i n g l e c h a r g e went on t o commit more f r e q u e n t and more s e r i o u s o f f e n c e s , o r i t may have a c t u a l l y i n f l a t e d t h e numbers o f o f f e n d e r s by c a u s i n g t h e a r r e s t o f boys whose mi n o r m i s b e h a v i o u r s might o t h e r w i s e have been o v e r l o o k e d . The C o u r t ' s i n f l u e n c e went beyond t h e power i t h e l d o v e r i t s wards. F a m i l i e s , f r i e n d s , t e a c h e r s and e m p l o y e r s o f t h e boys were a l s o b r o u g h t u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o r i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r as p a r t o f h i s e f f o r t s t o c o n t r o l t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s . I n a l a r g e r s e n s e , t h e e n t i r e community was a f f e c t e d by C o u r t campaigns f o r new b y l a w s t o c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s . The J u v e n i l e C o u r t s e r v e d a s o c i a l f u n c t i o n by e n f o r c i n g a s t a n d a r d p e r i o d o f dependency f o r a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l a n d / o r t h e i r p a r e n t s ' w i s h e s i n t h e m a t t e r . The l e n g t h i e r c h i l d h o o d had a l w a y s e x i s t e d i n l a w , b u t C o u r t enforcement a n d e l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e i s s u e made i t a m a t t e r o f w i d e r p r a c t i c e a s w e l l . The J u v e n i l e C o u r t a l s o f u n c t i o n e d a s an economic i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h a t i t c o n t r o l l e d b o t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o f i t s wards and t h e r e g u l a r i t y w i t h w h i c h t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s were p r a c t i c e d . I t p l a y e d a s i m i l a r r o l e f o r p a r e n t s who came under i t s power. The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t i n b o t h i t s s o c i a l and i t s e c o n o m i c s f u n c t i o n s , t h e C o u r t was a c t i n g i n f u l l c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e w i s h e s o f the g e n e r a l community. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i C h a p t e r 1 E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t 1 C h a p t e r 2 A L e g a l D e v i c e ; A S o c i a l O b j e c t i v e 19 C h a p t e r 3 The Community G u a r d i a n 51 C h a p t e r 4 C l i e n t e l e o f t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t 70 C h a p t e r 5 The I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l E x p e r i e n c e 95 C h a p t e r 6 C o n c l u s i o n 11^ B i b l i o g r a p h i c Note 123 A p p e n d i x 1 127 i v LIST OF TABLES 1. Incidence of F i r s t Offences 72 2. Or ig in at or of F i r s t Contact (Overall) 73 3. Originator of F i r s t Contact ( S p e c i f i c ) 7^  4. Originator of Victimless Crime Charges-First Offence 75 5. Home Si t u a t i o n and D i s p o s i t i o n of F i r s t Charge 81 6. Incidence of Second Offences 82 7. Ultimate D i s p o s i t i o n of Boys 85 V Acknowledgements I would l i k e t o t h a n k my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , and t h e o t h e r members o f my committee f o r t h e i r k i n d s u g g e s t i o n s and a d v i c e . Dr. J o y P a r r ' s a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s e c t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s was g r a t e f u l l y r e c e i v e d . The e n t i r e p r o j e c t was p o s s i b l e because Ms. Sue B a p t i e , C i t y A r c h i v i s t , and Mr. B i l l McKee, o f t h e Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s , k i n d l y a r r a n g e d f o r my a c c e s s t o t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l C o u r t r e c o r d s . Ms. Joan F r a s e r , o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a Law L i b r a r y , a s s i s t e d i n s o l v i n g c e r t a i n l e g a l q u e s t i o n s . CHAPTER I ESTABLISHING THE JUVENILE COURT S i n c e t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y , t h e t e r m " j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y " has been a euphemism f o r c h i l d crime."'" T h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t has been p e r c e i v e d a s a p r o b l e m i n t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d f o r s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s . Responses t o c o n c e r n w i t h t h e i s s u e have v a r i e d however, r e s u l t i n g f o r example, i n p a s s a g e o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and p o o r l a w s i n t h e s i x t e e n t h -2 c e n t u r y and e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h . A n o t h e r p e r i o d o f k e e n i n t e r e s t was t h e l a t e - n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y - t w e n t i e t h 3 c e n t u r i e s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s t i m e by t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t movement. D u r i n g t h i s t h r e e - c e n t u r y e v o l u t i o n , c h i l d r e n who a t t r a c t e d t h e s t a t e ' s a t t e n t i o n had come t o be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e g r o u p s - n e g l e c t e d , dependent and d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n . Dependent y o u n g s t e r s - t h o s e who were orphans o r whose p a r e n t s were t o o s i c k o r p o o r t o p r o p e r l y c a r e f o r them - were t h e most e a s i l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s . N e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n , on t h e o t h e r hand, were f r e q u e n t l y dependent a s w e l l , b u t were c l a s s e d a s n e g l e c t e d because t h e i r p a r e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a v o i d i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r v i c i o u s r e a s o n s s u c h a s d r i n k o r i mmoral h a b i t s . D e l i n q u e n t young p e o p l e were t h o s e who had a l r e a d y c r o s s e d t h e t h i n l i n e t h a t s e p a r a t e d r e s p e c t a b i l i t y f r o m a d i s s o l u t e l i f e . I n t h e o r y t h e t h r e e c l a s s e s o f c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t e d d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m s and were t o be h a n d l e d i n d i s t i n c t ways. I n p r a c t i c e , t h e d e m a r c a t i o n l i n e s were b l u r r e d and a l l were t r e a t e d as o f f e n d e r s t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r e x t e n t . I n m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y O n t a r i o (Upper Canada), f o r example, t h e r e was much c o n c e r n about t h e i n c i d e n c e o f c h i l d r e n who n e i t h e r worked n o r a t t e n d e d ' s c h o o l . The c o n c e r n was f o r t h e maintenance o f 1 2 p u b l i c o r d e r , however, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t many o f t h e s e young p e o p l e f e l l i n t o t h e n e g l e c t e d and dependent, r a t h e r t h a n d e l i n q u e n t c a t e g o r i e s . The same s i t u a t i o n a p p l i e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s t h a t mushroomed i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e l a t e - n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y - t w e n t i e t h e n t u r i e s . A l t h o u g h s u p p o s e d l y p h i l a n t h r o p i c v e n t u r e s , a l l t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f c h i l d r e n were f o r c i b l y committed t o them and d i s c i p l i n e and p r o c e d u r e s had t o be a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . F o r most l e g a l p u r p o s e s , c h i l d r e n were m i n o r s u n t i l t h e age o f twenty-one y e a r s . As s u c h , t h e y g e n e r a l l y c o u l d n e i t h e r sue n o r be sued and t h o s e u n d e r s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d were bound by t h e i r p a r e n t s ' w i s h e s i n most ways. I t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w i t h g r e a t e r c l a r i t y t h e c i v i l s t a t u s o f m i n o r s a t t h e t i m e t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t movement peaked i n Canada.^ The movement f i t t e d v e r y w e l l i n t o t h e n a t u r a l e v o l u t i o n c f i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f c h i l d r e n . I t was p r i m a r i l y promoted as a way i n w h i c h d e l i n q u e n t y o u n g s t e r s w o u l d be t r e a t e d more humanely t h a n t h e y were under t h e e x i s t i n g j u s t i c e s y s tem. I t was a l s o i n t e n d e d t o be a p r e v e n t a t i v e measure i n t h a t n e g l e c t e d , o r p r e - d e l i n q u e n t , c h i l d r e n c o u l d a l s o be b r o u g h t b e f o r e i t and h a n d l e d i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e y would n o t become wayward. S i m i l a r l y , dependent, o r p r e - n e g l e c t e d , c h i l d r e n were a l s o t o be b r o u g h t b e f o r e i t f o r d i s p o s i t i o n i n a s a f e manner. The movement c u l m i n a t e d i n Canada i n 1908 w i t h p assage o f t h e f e d e r a l J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d s e p a r a t e c o u r t s and l e g a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r c h i l d r e n under t h e age o f 16 y e a r s and c r e a t e d t h e c r i m e o f d e l i n q u e n c y . Under t h i s a c t , t h e new c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t s were t o be o p e r a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f p o l i c e and o t h e r c o u r t s ; 3 p r o c e e d i n g s were t o be h e l d i n p r i v a t e and w i t h o u t t h e r u l e s o f e v i d e n c e ; a n d p r o b a t i o n was t o be employed f r e e l y w i t h t h e aim o f r e h a b i l i t a t i n g t h e c h i l d i n h i s own home r a t h e r t h a n p u n i s h i n g him. O f f e n c e s a g a i n s t any f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e o r l o c a l b ylaw were t o be t r i e d i n t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and e a r l y o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t , t h e f i r s t s u c h c o u r t e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and one o f t h e o r i g i n a l c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t s i n t h e c o u n t r y . I t w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e c o u r t o n l y i n s o f a r a s i t a f f e c t e d j u v e n i l e males s i n c e g i r l s were t r e a t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t manner and were a r r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y f o r o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t m o r a l s ; t h e y must t h u s be c o n s i d e r e d i n a m a le-female r a t h e r t h a n an o f f e n d e r - e n f o r c e m e n t "agent continuum. Approaches t o t h e h i s t o r y o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y have v a r i e d w i d e l y . G i l l i s p r e s e n t e d t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t i n terms o f a B r i t i s h model o f c l a s s c o n f l i c t , w i t h a g g r e s s i v e m i d d l e - c l a s s r e f o r m e r s s t r u g g l i n g t o impose t h e i r h a b i t s and i d e a l s on r e s i s t a n t members o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . I n h i s v i e w , t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l e n g t h e n e d p e r i o d o f dependency f o r c h i l d r e n . Schlossman t r e a t e d t h e c o u r t a s a r e l a t i v e l y h a r m l e s s p r o d u c t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e f o r m t r a d i t i o n whose o n l y r e a l i m p a c t was t h a t i t a l l o w e d t h e l a w t o be e n f o r c e d a g a i n s t c h i l d r e n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t p o l i c e and j u d g e s had r e f u s e d t o e n f o r c e t h e l a w a g a i n s t y o u n g s t e r s u n t i l t h e r e were s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r them. S u t h e r l a n d p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e new s y s t e m b e n e f i t t e d young. o f f e n d e r s by p r o v i d i n g n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e f o r them, t h u s s a v i n g them f r o m b e i n g f o r m a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d as and s o c i a l i z e d i n t o becoming c r i m i n a l s . The most r e w a r d i n g a p p r o a c h t o t h e c o u r t , however, a p p e a r s t o be t h a t o f t r e a t i n g i t a s a c a s e s t u d y w i t h i n t h e framework of a morphology 4 o f s o c i a l r e f o r m movements. The morphology, w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d by C a r l K a e s t l e i n r e f e r e n c e t o changes i n p a t t e r n s o f u r b a n e d u c a t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t c y c l i c a l r e f o r m movements a r e composed o f f o u r d i s t i n c t , b u t c o n c u r r e n t 7 c y c l e s . These a r e t h e c y c l e s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , p e r s o n n e l , s u p p o r t and i d e o l o g y . A l l f o u r c y c l e s work t o g e t h e r t o cause s t a f f and p u b l i c , b o t h o f whom o r i g i n a l l y a p p r o a c h t h e m a t t e r c o n f i d e n t l y , t o l o s e f a i t h i n t h e i r r e f o r m . K a e s t l e ' s framework w i l l be u t i l i z e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . There a r e many r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g t h e ways i n w h i c h j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s were h a n d l e d . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e manner i n w h i c h a s o c i e t y d e f i n e s and d e a l s w i t h j u v e n i l e o f f e n c e s i s one o f t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e ways t o l e a r n a b o u t t h a t s o c i e t y and t h e v a l u e s i t r e v e r e s . K a i E r i c k s o n , and E m i l e Durkheim b e f o r e him, have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e v a l u e o f a l l forms o f g c r i m e i n terms o f e l a b o r a t i n g community b o u n d a r i e s . E r i c k s o n e x p l a i n e d t h a t c r i m e p e r f o r m s : ... a needed s e r v i c e t o s o c i e t y by d r a w i n g p e o p l e t o g e t h e r i n a common . p o s t u r e o f anger and i n d i g n a t i o n . The d e v i a n t i n d i v i d u a l v i o l a t e s r u l e s o f c o n d u c t w h i c h t h e r e s t o f t h e community h o l d s i n wide r e s p e c t ; and when t h e s e p e o p l e come t o g e t h e r t o e x p r e s s t h e i r o u t r a g e o v e r t h e o f f e n c e and t o b e a r w i t n e s s a g a i n s t t h e o f f e n d e r , t h e y d e v e l o p a t i g h t e r bond o f s o l i d a r i t y t h a n e x i s t e d e a r l i e r . . . . U n l e s s t h e rhythm o f group l i f e i s p u n c t u a t e d by o c c a s i o n a l moments o f ^ d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r , p r e s u m a b l y , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e . When t h i s p r o c e s s i s u n d e r s t o o d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o n o t e t h e b o u n d a r i e s and s t u d y t h e community w i t h i n . W h i l e Durkheim and E r i c k s o n p o s t u l a t e d a b e n e f i t i n t h e s t u d y o f r e s p o n s e s t o a l l t y p e s o f c r i m e , t h e v a l u e o f t h e m i s b e h a v i o u r i s even g r e a t e r when i t i s j u v e n i l e d e v i a n c e . T h i s i s because most s o c i e t i e s v i e w c h i l d r e n i n a s p e c i a l way and w i t h an e x a g g e r a t e d i m p o r t a n c e because t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e f u t u r e . T h i s was c e r t a i n l y t r u e o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y : 5 We r e c o g n i z e i t s o u t s t a n d i n g i m p o r t a n c e , f o r we know t h a t t h e c h i l d i s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e n a t i o n ' s manpower, and t h a t upon a h e a l t h y c h i l d h j g d depends t h e h e a l t h , v i g o u r and m e n t a l a l e r t n e s s o f t h e a d u l t . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e r o l e o f c r i m e i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t y p e o f d e v i a n c e and t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e community. E r i c k s o n e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e community w i l l be most t h r e a t e n e d by a t y p e o f c r i m e t h a t o f f e n d s t h e p r i n c i p l e s d e a r e s t t o i t . " ' " " * ' I n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , Canada was a n a t i o n o b s e s s e d w i t h economic development and n a t i o n a l 12 e f f i c i e n c y . Even a s t u d y d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o s t o f l i v i n g i n Canada d i s c u s s e d t h e i m p a c t o f e f f i c i e n c y on p r i c e s and drew t h e o b v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m i t : I t i s beyond q u e s t i o n t h a t p r o d u c t i v e e f f i c i e n c y i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e a v e r a g e c i t i z e n i f he i s t o be c a p a b l e o f m a i n t a i n i n g h i s economic v a l u e t o t h e community, and becoming and c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l l y and-, ~ i n d u s t r i a l l y a s u s t a i n i n g and h e l p f u l u n i t r a t h e r t h a n a b u r d e n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o b v i o u s between t h i s c o n c e r n and a j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y t h a t most o f t e n m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n boys w a n d e r i n g about t h e s t r e e t s a t n i g h t w i t h o u t a p p a r e n t s u p e r v i s i o n o r s e l f - c o n t r o l . The R o y a l Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n , w h i c h h e a r d f r o m Vancouver's C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r d u r i n g 14 i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s , made t h e p o i n t most c l e a r l y : The i n t e r e s t o f t h e S t a t e , a s s u c h , i s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who compose i t s h o u l d be h e a l t h y , i n t e l l i g e n t , c a p a b l e , a n i m a t e d by g o o d w i l l t owards t h e i r f e l l o w s and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be a b l e and w i l l i n g t o f i l l t h e i r p l a c e s i n t h e community, as c i t i z e n s d i s c h a r g i n g t h e i r d u t i e s and p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r r i g h t s , as i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e economy o f l i f e , , -and as e a r n e r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e S t a t e . S c h o o l b o y s who d i s r e g a r d e d t h e i r s t u d i e s i n f a v o r o f l e s s demanding l i f e s t y l e s o r w o r k i n g boys who gambled away t h e i r e a r n i n g s , r a t h e r t h a n s a v i n g them, c l e a r l y had l i t t l e o f v a l u e t o o f f e r t h e i r c o u n t r y . As S e n a t o r T. C o f f e y (London) t o l d h i s c o l l e a g u e s , "To us ... b e l o n g s t h e 6 t a s k o f t r a n s f o r m i n g them as much as we may i n t o u s e f u l c i t i z e n s . " " ' " ^ A s p e c i a l j u v e n i l e c o u r t t h a t might s u c c e e d i n s a l v a g i n g i n t o p r o d u c t i v e c i t i z e n s , c h i l d r e n who would o t h e r w i s e p r o b a b l y t u r n i n t o human wreckage i n economic t e r m s , had much t o commend i t s e l f t o " r i g h t - t h i n k i n g " p e o p l e . L e g i s l a t o r s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t had no doubt a b o u t what t h e y were d o i n g : I n o u r t i m e we a r e making any amount o f s a c r i f i c e f o r a l l k i n d s o f improvements. We see ... t h a t d o n a t i o n s o f m i l l i o n s and m i l l i o n s a r e g i v e n t o t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s and t o i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a l l k i n d s .... I f i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o come t o t h e h e l p o f s u c h c l a s s e s a s a t t e n d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , such as u n i v e r s i t i e s , s t i l l more d e s i r a b l e i s i t t o s p a r e no e f f o r t s i n coming t o t h e r e s c u e o f the p o o r , and e s p e c i a l l y o f c h i l d r e n . The u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n s f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e c o u r t , however, were seldom d i s c u s s e d . F o r w o r k i n g p u r p o s e s , t h e a c t ' s preamble was most o f t e n c i t e d : Whereas i t i s e x p e d i e n t t h a t y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s s h o u l d be c l a s s e d o r d e a l t w i t h a s o r d i n a r y c r i m i n a l s , t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e community demanding t h a t t h e y s h o u l d on t h e c o n t r a r y be g u a r d e d a g a i n s t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h c r i m e a n d c r i m i n a l s , and s h o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o su c h w i s e c a r e , t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l as w i l l t e n d t o check J ^ e i r e v i l t e n d e n c i e s and t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r b e t t e r i n s t i n c t s . . . . S p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s had t o be met by each community b e f o r e the a c t c o u l d come i n t o f o r c e t h e r e and a Vancouver group q u i c k l y t o o k up t h e c h a l l e n g e t o b r i n g the i n n o v a t i o n t o t h e i r c i t y . The J u v e n i l e P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ( J . P . A . ) , a l s o known a s t h e C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t A s s o c i a t i o n and f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e C h i l d W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , was f o u n d e d i n 1907 t o promote j u v e n i l e c o u r t s b e f o r e t h e a c t had even been p a s s e d . The a s s o c i a t i o n had grown o u t o f a m e e t i n g c a l l e d by a l o c a l temperance group t o d i s c u s s methods o f h a n d l i n g j u v e n i l e s . I t s main o b j e c t was " t h e improvement o f c o n d i t i o n s a s t h e y a f f e c t t h e 19 i n t e r e s t and f u t u r e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e boys and g i r l s . " An a s s o c i a t i o n l e t t e r h e a d f r o m December, 1908, s a i d t h a t "any o r g a n i z a t i o n i n sympathy 7 w i t h t h e a i m s and o b j e c t s o f t h i s A s s o c i a t i o n i s i n v i t e d t o e l e c t d e l e g a t e s . " By 1908, t h e T r a d e s and L a b o u r C o u n c i l ; t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women; t h e Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance U n i o n ; t h e S a l v a t i o n Army; b o t h P r o t e s t a n t a n d Roman C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s ; t h e M o r a l Reform A s s o c i a t i o n ; t h e M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n ; A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s ; and s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l u n i o n s and f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s had a l r e a d y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e 20 A s s o c i a t i o n . E l e c t e d members i n c l u d e d the mayor, c h a i r m a n -of t h e P o l i c e Committee; C h i e f o f P o l i c e ; C h i e f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n ; a n d , among o t h e r s , S a l v a t i o n Army S t a f f C a p t a i n H e r b e r t W. C o l l i e r , who l a t e r became 21 t h e c o u r t ' s C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r . The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s p r e s i d e n t , F.C. Wade, a l a w y e r who was a f r i e n d o f J . J . K e l s o , t h e O n t a r i o " c h i l d - s a v e r , " and was rumored t o be a main c o n t e n d e r f o r t h e B.C. L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s p o s i t i o n , was a c c u r a t e when he w r o t e t h a t t h e J.P.A. " i s a n u n u s u a l l y 22 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body...." A t t h e ti m e t h e A s s o c i a t i o n was fo u n d e d , t h e c i t y o f Vancouver was e x p e r i e n c i n g v e r y r a p i d growth. D u r i n g t h e decade f r o m 1901 t o 1911, i t s p o p u l a t i o n s o a r e d f r o m 27,010 t o 95»260 and i t c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d 23 i t s e l f a s t h e m a j o r west c o a s t C a n a d i a n c i t y . I t s e n t i r e a r e a was s e r v i c e d by s t r e e t r a i l w a y l i n e s and i n t e r u r b a n l i n e s made t h e u r b a n development o f s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s p o s s i b l e . As a r e s u l t , by 1911, t h e 25 e f f e c t i v e V ancouver p o p u l a t i o n was more t h a n 123,902. A r e a l e s t a t e boom had been underway s i n c e 190 -^ and t h e c i t y was s p l i t t i n g i n t o 26 c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . S i n c e t h e 1911 c e n s u s d i d n o t b r e a k the p o p u l a t i o n down by age g r o u p s , i t i s n o t e a s y t o d e t e r m i n e what p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was under 16 y e a r s o l d . One i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s i z e o f a j u v e n i l e c o u r t ' s p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t group, however, was t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l e n r o l m e n t i n 27 December, 1912, was 11,828 s t u d e n t s . The t y p e o f home l i f e o f most o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n c a n o n l y be s u g g e s t e d by g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . There were, f o r example, 17,681 f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n o n l y 15,081 d w e l l i n g s i n Vancouver 28 i n 1911. Because o f the c i t y ' s r o l e a s "a m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e f o r t h e p r o v i n c e , many men k e p t t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n t h e c i t y w h i l e t h e y t h e m s e l v e s 29 l i v e d and worked i n l o g g i n g o r m i n i n g camps o r t h e l i k e . The s t a t e o f f a m i l y s t a b i l i t y i n t h e n a t i o n g e n e r a l l y was s u g g e s t e d by c e n s u s changes i n 1901 a d d i n g a c a t e g o r y f o r d i v o r c e d p e r s o n s and i n 1911 a d d i n g a c l a s s 30 fir th e l e g a l l y s e p a r a t e d . Many c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s f e a r e d t h a t t h e f a m i l y u n i t was crumbling."^" C h i l d r e n who a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t came f r o m a wide v a r i e t y o f f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s . The C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r was a l w a y s c a r e f u l t o n o t e when a boy came f r o m a "good home," b u t a p p a r e n t l y few 32 o f h i s wards f e l l i n t o t h a t c a t e g o r y . Most c h i l d r e n who l i v e d w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s were b r o u g h t i n t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home i n such a f i l t h y 33 c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e y had t o be g i v e n d i f f e r e n t c l o t h e s t o wear. The c a s e o f a n e l e v e n - y e a r o l d P o l i s h boy, who was c h a r g e d as a runaway, was more extreme t h a n most, b u t i n d i c a t e d t h e t y p e o f p r o b l e m c o u r t s t a f f f e l t t h e y had t o d e a l w i t h : "The f a t h e r i s a l a b o r e r . They l i v e i n a d i r t y p l a c e and keep a l o t o f t h e i r countrymen a s roomers o c c u p y i n g b u t two rooms t h e m s e l v e s , one f o r s l e e p i n g a n d t h e o t h e r as a l i v i n g room w h i l e t h e y 3 4 -have t w e l v e rooms." S e v e r a l o t h e r f a m i l i e s l i v e d a s u n i t s i n roomi n g 35 houses r a t h e r t h a n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own h o u s e h o l d s . Some c h i l d r e n l i v e d i n room i n g houses by t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h t h e r e n t p a i d by p a r e n t s who l i v e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e c i t y . Boys i n t h i s 9 s i t u a t i o n o f t e n came b e f o r e t h e c o u r t c h a r g e d w i t h h a v i n g t a k e n t h e r e n t money f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t s and h a v i n g s p e n t i t f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . The c a s e s o f two b r o t h e r s who boarded " i n a p o o r m i s e r a b l e p l a c e where he j u s t had a bed i n t h e d i n i n g room" were n o t uncommon. Some boys d i d n o t seem t o have a home a t a l l . I n s u c h c a s e s , r o o m i n g house o p e r a t o r s o c c a s i o n a l l y 37 t o o k an i n t e r e s t i n them and became de f a c t o g u a r d i a n s . O t h e r b o y s , s u c h a s Case No. 6 7 , r e t a i n e d t h e i r f u l l i n d e p e n d e n c e : T h i s boy was f o u n d ... w a n d e r i n g about t h e l a n e s i n t h e e a s t end i n a most f i l t h y c o n d i t i o n and h i s c l o t h e s l i t e r a l l y f a l l i n g o f f him. He was t a k e n t o t h e home o f h i s ' s i s t e r ' ... who s a i d he d i d n o t l i v e t h e r e b u t t h a t he sometimes s l e p t under t h e i r house. He i s a p p a r e n t l y a b o u t 11 y e a r s o f age. The J.P.A. was c o n c e r n e d w i t h a l l c h i l d r e n , b u t i t s f i r s t o b j e c t was " t o s e c u r e t h e en f o r c e m e n t o f l a w s r e l a t i n g t o n e g l e c t e d and dependent 39 c h i l d r e n o r j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s . " The A s s o c i a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d i t had much t o do i n t h i s r e g a r d . The 1894 f e d e r a l and 1901 p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r s e p a r a t e t r i a l s a nd d e t e n t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n had a l w a y s been a dead l e t t e r i n Vancouver. Wade warned o f t h e dan g e r s o f c o n f i n i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e c i t y g a o l , w h i c h had h e l d up t o 97 p r i s o n e r s a l t h o u g h i t had accommodation f o r o n l y 54. He s a i d : "When i t was remembered t h a t t h e s e p r i s o n e r s i n c l u d e d some o f t h e w o r s t c h a r a c t e r s on t h e c o a s t t h e e f f e c t o f p l a c i n g j u v e n i l e s i n t h e m i d s t o f s u c h a crowd c o u l d be s e e n i n 40 a moment." I n a Vancouver s p e e c h , Dominion P a r o l e O f f i c e r A.P. A r c h i b a l d s p e c i f i e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y f o r anyone who m i g h t be u n a b l e t o see i t : "... i t was a v e r y s e r i o u s wrong t o h e r d boys w i t h o l d and h a r d e n e d c r i m i n a l s who n e v e r l o s t a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o make bad i m p r e s s i o n s on t h e boys' minds, 41 w h i c h soon a f t e r w a r d d e v e l o p e d t h e w o r s t k i n d o f c r i m i n a l i t y . " P h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e g a o l were i n such a s t a t e t h a t t h e vie w was e x p r e s s e d t h a t i t "was n o t f i t f o r a d u l t p r i s o n e r s , l e t a l o n e c h i l d r e n 42 o f t e n d e r y e a r s . " The g a o l was g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t o be " a b s o l u t e l y 10 i n s a n i t a r y " a n d so d a r k t h a t even w i t h e l e c t r i c l i g h t s on i n m i d - a f t e r n o o n , " i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o r e c o g n i z e men 20 f e e t away." P r i s o n e r s a w a i t i n g 44 t r i a l , i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n , were r e q u i r e d t o wear p r i s o n e r s ' c l o t h e s . The use o f j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s on t h e c i t y C h a i n Gang a l s o a r o u s e d t h e 45 A s s o c i a t i o n ' s i r e . A s s o c i a t i o n members were f u r t h e r o u t r a g e d a t t h e P o l i c e M a g i s t r a t e ' s f a i l u r e t o h e a r c h i l d r e n ' s c a s e s i n p r i v a t e . Newspaper r e p o r t e r s were a l w a y s a l l o w e d and t h e c o u r t r o o m was n o t o t h e r w i s e c l e a r e d . Nor d i d a two-hour i n t e r v a l e l a p s e , a s r e q u i r e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n A c t , between t h e end o f o t h e r t r i a l s and t h e s t a r t o f t h o s e o f 46 y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s . The e n t i r e p r o c e d u r e was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , a c c o r d i n g t o R.P. P e t t i p i e c e , a w e l l - k n o w n l o c a l l a b o u r l e a d e r , who s a i d h i s 10-year o l d s o n had been: ... summoned ( a t t h e s c h o o l h o u s e d o o r ) by the c i v i c p r e s e r v e r s o f law and o r d e r f o r t h e h e i n o u s o f f e n c e o f r i d i n g a b i c y c l e on t h e s i d e w a l k . I a p p e a r e d w i t h my boy i n 'open' c o u r t a t 10 o ' c l o c k and w i t h him w a i t e d t i l l n e a r l y 12 o ' c l o c k b e f o r e h i s c a s e was c a l l e d and d i s m i s s e d . M eanwhile, f o r the f i r s t t i m e i n h i s l i f e , t h e c h i l d was t r e a t e d t o the e v i d e n c e o f about a dozen p a i n t e d women who c o n f e s s e d t o h a v i n g been f o u n d i n Canton a l l e y w e a r i n g n o t h i n g b u t a p l e a s a n t l o o k ; a l l o f w h i c h f o r m e d a cause f o r wonderment by t h e f i r e p l a c e t h e f o l l o w i n g e v e n i n g . . . . B u t t h e h a r s h t r e a t m e n t meted out i n 1909 t o T.F., an a c c o m p l i c e i n a b i c y c l e t h e f t , g e n e r a t e d t h e g r e a t e s t p r o t e s t . D e s p i t e h i s p r e v i o u s l y c l e a r r e c o r d and t e s t i m o n i a l s on h i s b e h a l f f r o m f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s and n e i g h b o u r s , t h e 11-year o l d was s e n t e n c e d t o f i v e y e a r s a t h a r d l a b o u r i n t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y . I n t h e f a c e o f g r e a t c r i t i c i s m , M a g i s t r a t e 48 A d o l p h u s W i l l i a m s changed t h e s e n t e n c e f r o m p e n i t e n t i a r y t o r e f o r m a t o r y . Wade c o m p l a i n e d t h a t , even s o , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d s u c h a l e n g t h y s e n t e n c e f o r a boy who was " l i t t l e beyond t e n d e r y e a r s " t o be " u n j u s t i f i a b l e , 11 s h o c k i n g and u n n a t u r a l , " h u t t h e p e n a l t y a p p e a r s t o have h e l d . ^ The J.P.A. c o n s i d e r e d i t had won a major v i c t o r y when t h e same judge d e c i d e d a g a i n s t s e n d i n g "a s m a l l boy" t o g a o l t o a w a i t t r i a l on a b i c y c l e t h e f t c h a r g e . The campaign t o s e c u r e enforcement a n d e x t e n s i o n o f j u v e n i l e l e g i s l a t i o n t o o k t h e f o r m o f b r i e f s , r e s o l u t i o n s and d e l e g a t i o n s t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , c i t y c o u n c i l , t h e P o l i c e Commission a n d f e d e r a l members o f P a r l i a m e n t . By mid-1909» t h e J.P.A. had manouvred c i t y c o u n c i l i n t o v o t i n g t o r e n o v a t e a n o l d c i v i c b u i l d i n g f o r use a s a j u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n c e n t r e . No f u n d s a c t u a l l y changed hands, however, and c o n c r e t e r e s u l t s were d e l a y e d f o r a y e a r . D u r i n g t h a t t i m e , t h e p r o v i n c i a l government p a s s e d t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t A c t , p r o v i d i n g f o r e x t e n s i o n o f t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t t o a l l p a r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and a c h a r t e r amendment g i v i n g Vancouver a u t h o r i t y t o make e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s u c h p u r p o s e s . Wade s a t on t h e three-man J u v e n i l e C o u r t Committee a p p o i n t e d by c i t y c o u n c i l t o make ar r a n g e m e n t s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t . ^ A t t h a t p o i n t , he and t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , among o t h e r s , hoped t h a t t h e S a l v a t i o n Army would u n d e r t a k e t h e management f u n c t i o n s as i t had i n 52 W i n n i p e g , M a n i t o b a . The Winnipeg J u v e n i l e C o u r t judge s a i d t h e S a l v a t i o n Army had t a k e n o v e r t h e d e t e n t i o n home when i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1907 und e r a l o c a l a c t and t h e arrangement had worked w e l l : \jlhe d e t e n t i o n home manager] and h i s w i f e were chosen e s p e c i a l l y by t h e army s t a f f i n T o r o n t o f o r t h i s work and e x c e l l e n t p e o p l e t h e y a r e . F a c t o f t h e i r s t i l l b e i n g w i t h t h e Army h e l p s o u t a l o t a s t h e y g e t a s s i s t a n c e and c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e i r work. S t a f f C a p t a i n ... a c t s as a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and o u r C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r ... i s S u p e r i n t e n d -e n t o f N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n under o u r C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n A c t . L o c a l a n t i p a t h i e s t o t h e S a l v a t i o n Army won o u t , however, a n d a l t h o u g h 1 2 C o l l i e r ' s o f f e r t o assume t h e p o s i t i o n o f C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r was 54 a c c e p t e d , he was r e q u i r e d t o i m m e d i a t e l y s e v e r a l l t i e s w i t h t h e c h u r c h . H i s f i r s t y e a r ' s s a l a r y o f $ 1 , 5 0 0 was g u a r a n t e e d by t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . The J.P.A.'s c o n c e r n w i t h d e v e l o p i n g new p r o c e d u r e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s r e f l e c t e d t h e community's i n c r e a s e d c o n c e r n w i t h t h e c h i l d a s a r e s o u r c e , b u t went beyond i t . A new v i e w o f c h i l d r e n , and a d o l e s c e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r , had been d e v e l o p i n g i n N o r t h A m e r i c a s i n c e t h e c l o s i n g y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y . George S t a n l e y H a l l , t h e f o u n d e r o f p s y c h o l o g y i n A m e r i c a , f o r m u l a t e d many o f t h e new i d e a s and e l a b o r a t e d 55 on them i n a monumental two volume s t u d y . H i s s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n was t h a t t h e " c h i l d a nd t h e r a c e a r e each k e y s t o t h e o t h e r , " and t h e c h i l d ' s p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h l i f e r e p r e s e n t s t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y s t a g e s o f t h e r a c e i t s e l f . 5 6 B u t H a l l was b e s t known f o r h i s f l o w e r y c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f a d o l e s c e n c e as a p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h i n s t a b i l i t y was t h e norm: The momentum o f h e r e d i t y o f t e n seems i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e n a b l e t h e c h i l d t o a c h i e v e t h i s g r e a t ' r e v o l u t i o n and come t o complete m a t u r i t y , so t h a t e v e r y s t e p o f t h e upward way i s s t r e w n w i t h t h e wreckage o f body, mind and m o r a l s ... The c o h e s i o n s between t h e e l e m e n t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y a r e l o o s e n e d by t h e d i s p a r i t i e s o f b o t h s o m a t i c and p s y c h i c development, and i f t h e r e i s a r r e s t a t any s t a g e o r i n any p a r t b e f o r e the h i g h e r u n i t y i s a c h i e v e d t h e r e i s a l m o s t s u r e t o be d e g e n e r a t i o n and r e u n i o n on a l o w e r l e v e l t h a n b e f o r e . He t h o u g h t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s were o b v i o u s f o r j u v e n i l e c r i m e i f y o u n g s t e r s were n o t t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r age and g i v e n " a n o t h e r chance t o make good:" A mere a c c i d e n t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t e n condemns t o c r i m i n a l c a r e e r s y o u t h s c a p a b l e o f t h e h i g h e s t s e r v i c e t o s o c i e t y , and f o r a mere b r i e f s e a s o n o f temperamental o u t b r e a k o r o b s t r e p e r o u s n e s s exposes them t o a l l t h e i n f a m y t o whi c h i g n o r a n t and c r u e l p u b l i c o p i n i o n condemns a l l t h o s e who have once been detectedgOn t h e wrong s i d e o f t h e i n v i s i b l e a nd a r b i t r a r y l i n e o f r e c t i t u d e . 13 Wade b e l i e v e d i n H a l l ' s a p p r o a c h . He s a i d c h i l d r e n " a r e c r i m i n a l s o r d e l i n q u e n t s by o c c a s i o n o n l y " and c o n t i n u e d : C h i l d r e n who have n o t y e t l e f t t h e i r mother's knee a r e o f t e n a r r e s t e d l i k e grown men and s h u t up even b e f o r e t r i a l w i t h t h e w o r s t c l a s s e s o f c r i m i n a l s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y i t was t h e p r a c t i c e t o t r y them i n open c o u r t a s o r d i n a r y c r i m i n a l s . . . and t o s e g r e g a t e them a s c r i m i n a l s , when as a m a t t e r o f f a c t t h e y were o n l y c h i l d r e n who had s t r a y e d f r o m t h e p a t h o f r i g h t , a n d who needed o n l y t o be s e t r i g h t a g a i n a n d encouraged t o g r a p p l e once more w i t h t h e e v i l c o n d i t i o n s a n d t e m p t a t i o n s and t o overcome thenij^who, a s P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t s a i d needed ' c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g . ' L e g i s l a t o r s t o o k t h e same p o s i t i o n when t h e y c h a r a c t e r i z e d j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s a s " a c t i v e c h i l d r e n j_who] a r e f u l l o f m i s c h i e f , a n d [j-rhose] v i c i o u s t e n d e n c i e s a r e e a s i l y d e v e l o p e d i f any o c c a s i o n i s a f f o r d e d t o t h e m . " 6 1 The new a p p r o a c h t o v i e w i n g t h e moods and c a p a c i t i e s o f j u v e n i l e s was i n t e n d e d t o be more humane t h a n t h e o l d way o f t r e a t i n g them much t h e same as a d u l t s . I t was, however, a l s o f a r more p a t r o n i z i n g and d e g r a d i n g t o the o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . I t d e n i e d t h a t any c h i l d r e n had adequate m e n t a l c a p a c i t y a n d judgement t o a s s e s s s i t u a t i o n s and a c t i n t h e i r own b e s t i n t e r e s t s , and i g n o r e d t h e wide r a n g e o f c h i l d r e n t h e c o u r t would have t o d e a l w i t h . By e s p o u s i n g t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f u n l i m i t e d r e s t r a i n t s on t h o s e u n d e r t h e age of 16, p r o m o t e r s o f t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t were a c t i n g t o i n c r e a s e t h e l e n g t h o f c h i l d h o o d o r t h e p e r i o d o f dependency f o r y o u n g s t e r s . T h i s meant a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h a t p a r e n t s , o r t h e s t a t e a c t i n g i n l o c o p a r e n t i s , h e l d a l m o s t a b s o l u t e power o v e r them. W i t h t h e passage o f t h e new l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e y sought t o h a l t t h e e x e r c i s e o f judgement t h a t had c h a r a c t e r i z e d j u v e n i l e s o v e r t h e age o f seven f o r c e n t u r i e s , b o t h i n p r a c t i c e and i n l a w . Under t h e new arrangement, t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x e r c i s e o f judgement was t o be r e p l a c e d w i t h 14 an u n c o n s i d e r e d r e s p o n s e t o t h e o f f i c i a l s t a t e judgement as a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t s t a f f . The p r o b l e m s o f t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n were t o be e x p e c t e d , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e b a s i c c h a l l e n g e i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f f e r e d t o t r a d i t i o n . 15 Footnotes to Chapter I "Stobert Mennel, Thorns and Thistles, Juvenile Delinquents In the  United States, 1 8 2 5 - 1 9 4 0 , (Hanover: University Press of New England. 1 9 7 3 ) , P. x i i . 2 For the general history of efforts to control juvenile delin uency in the English-speaking world, see Mennel, Thorns and Thistles...; Joseph Hawes, Children in Urban Society, Juvenile Delinquency in Nineteenth- Century America, (N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1971); Steven Schlossman, Love and the American Delinquent, The Theory and Practice of "Progressive"  Juvenile Justice, 1 8 2 5 - 1 9 2 0 , (Chiacgo: The University of Chicago Press. 1 9 7 7 ) ! D a v i d Rothman, The Discovery of the Asylum, Social Order and  Disorder in the New Republic (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co.. 1 9 7 1 ) ; John G i l l i s , Youth and History, Tradition and Change in European Age Relations,  1770-Present, (N.Y.: Academic Press, 1 9 7 4 ) ; Margaret May, "Innocence and Experience: The Evolution of the Concept of Juvenile Delinquency in the Mid-Nineteenth Century," Victorian Studies, Sept., 1 9 7 3 , pp. 7 - 2 9 ; and Richard Splane, Social Welfare in Ontario, 1 7 9 1 - 1 8 9 3 , A Study of Public  Welfare Administration, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1 9 6 5 ) . 3 For the actual establishment and operation of juvenile courts, see Mennel, Thorns and Thistles...; Schlossman, Love and the American  Delinquent...; Anthony Piatt, The Child Savers/The Invention of Delinquency, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1 9 6 9 ) ; Neil Sutherland, Children i n  English-Canadian Society: Framing the Twentieth Century Consensus,(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 9 1 - 1 5 1 ; and John G i l l i s , "The Evolution of Juvenile Delinquency i n England, 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 1 4 , " Past and Present, Vol. 67 ( l 9 7 5 ) » PP. 9 6 - 1 2 1 . Jack Holl, Juvenile Reform in the Progressive  Era, William R. George and the Junior Republic Movement, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1971) deals with other aspects of juvenile delinquency during the same period. 4 Susan Houston, "The Vagrant Child in Upper Canada, I 8 5 O - I 8 6 5 : A Case for State Responsibility in the Mid-Victorian Era," MSS., Spring, 1 9 6 9 . •^ The c i v i l status of minors in British Columbia was governed by British statute and common law as i t stood in I 8 5 8 , modified by subsequent provincial legislation and case law. See R.G. Herbert, "A Brief History of the Introduction of English Law i n B.C.," UBC Legal Notes, Vol. 2 , No. 2 (March, 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 9 3 - 1 0 1 , and Law Reform Commission of Br i t i s h Columbia, Report on Minors' Contracts, (Department of Attorney-General: Queen's Printer, 1 9 7 6 ) . Canada Statutes, 1 9 0 8 , Ch. 40. 7 "Social Reform and the Urban School," History of Education Quarterly, (Summer, 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 211-228. 8 Roger B.M. Cotterrell, "Durkheim on Legal Development and Social Solidarity," British Journal of Law and Society, Vol. 4 , No. 2 (Winter, 1 9 7 7 ) , pp. 241-252. 9 1 6 Kai T. Erickson, Wayward Puritans, A Study of the Sociology of Deviance, (N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966), p. 4. "^Dr. F.W. Brydone-Jack, Medical Inspector, Vancouver Schools, Second Meeting of Medical Health Officers, held at Labour Temple, Sept. 12 & 13, 1917, in Report of the Provincial Board of Health, 19171 i n B.C. Sessional Papers, 1918. "^Wayward Puritans..., p. 20. 12 Robert Craig Brown and Ramsay Cook, Canada, 1896-1921, A Nation  Transformed, (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., The Canadian Centenary Series, 1974), Chapter One, passim. 13 ^Canada, Board of Inquiry into Cost of Living, Report of the Board, Vol. I, (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1915)1 p. 13. 14 Juvenile Court Advisory Committee Minutes, Nov. 28, 1910. "^Report of the Commissioners, Parts I & II (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1913). p. 16. Senate, Debates, May 21, 1908, p. 976. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 975. Ibxd. 19 Notice of Annual Meeting and Election of Officers, Juvenile Protection Association, Aug. 12, 1909, in Wade Papers, Vancouver City Archives. 20 Letterhead, Dec. 1908, i n Wade Papers. 21 Ibid. 22 Canadian Annual Review, 1909> pp. 578-579, and Wade to Attorney-General, undated, c. May, 1908, i n Wade Papers. 23 Canada, Census, 1911, Vol. I, p. 39. The population of Victoria during this period only rose from 20,919 to 3I166O. 24 Norbert MacDonald, "A C r i t i c a l Growth Cycle for Vancouver, 1900-1914," B.C. Studies, No. 17 (Spring, 1973), p. 28. 25 This includes Vancouver City, North Vancouver, South Vancouver and Point Grey, Census, 1911, p. 39. 26 MacDonald, C r i t i c a l Growth Cycle...," pp. 33-36. 27 Province, Jan. 6, 19131 p. 15• 2 8Census, 1911, Vol. I, pp. 248-249. 17 29 'In Feb., 1925, there were 2,549 schoolchildren with 1,400 fathers in this category. Bri t i s h Columbia, Survey of the School System, by J.H. Putnam and G.M. Weir, (Victoria: King's Printer, 1925), p. 279. 30 Census, 1911, Vol. I, p. v i i . 31 William O'Neill has demonstrated with American figures that this impression was false since family s t a b i l i t y was actually increasing during this period. Divorce During the Progressive Era, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967), pp. 30-31. 32 J Day Book, Chief Probation Officer, Case No. 7. 3 3 I b i d . , Nov. 30, 1912; and J.C.A.C. Minutes, Oct. 3, 1910. 34 Day Book, Case No. 73« See also John Modell and Tamara Hareven, "Urbanization and the Malleable Household: An Examination of Boarding and Lodging in American Families," Journal of Marriage and the Family, August, 1973, pp. 467-479. 3 5Day Book, Nov. 4, 1913. 36 Ibid., Cases No. 57 and 65. 37, •^Day Book, Case No. 67. 42 Ibid., p. 7. 'Minutes, Nov. 28, 1910. 3I 39 Bylaws, J.P.A., in Wade Papers. 40 Province, May 1, 1908, p. 7. 41 Ibid., p. 24. 1 43 Vancouver Daily News-Advertiser, Feb. 17, 1911, p. 1. ^ I b i d . , May 12, 1910, p. 2. 45 Draft of J.P.A. Resolution to Attorney-General, n.d., c. May, 1908, in Wade Papers. 46 Province, May 18, 1908, p. 14. 47 Letter to Editor, Ibid. While the description of the experience has universal applicability, a study of police methods would have to be made before we can know i f bylaw offences were usually dealt with i n this manner or i f this boy was a special target because of his father's a c t i v i t i e s . 48 n F.C. Wade to Minister of Justice, June 18, 1909, in Wade Papers. 18 49 7Ibid. ^Province, May 18, 1908, p. 4 . ^Resolution passed by City Council, June 3i 1908, i n Wade Papers. 52 Vancouver Daily News-Advertiser, April 24, 1910, p. 7. 53 ^Hon. T. Mayne-Daly, Winnipeg, to F.C. Wade, July 29, 1909, in Wade Papers. 54 Teleg. George Healey to F.C. Wade, Winnipeg, May 20, 1910, copy in Wade Papers. The intent of the requirement to sever ties with the church i s unclear, but his diary shows that he no longer attended Salvation Army meetings after this time. Dominion Parole Officer W.P. Archibald and Vancouver Assistant Probation Officer Thomas Coll i e r were only two other examples of former Salvation Army officers who were in the f i r s t generation of juvenile court workers in Canada. 55 Adolescence, Its Psychology, and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education. (N.Y.: D. Appleton and Co., 1904), 2 v o l s . F o r Hall himself, see Dorothy Ross, G. Stanley Hall, The Psychologist as Prophet, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1972). Ibid., Vol. I, p. v i i i . This theory, known as recapitulation, posited that the child had to li v e through a l l the stages that mankind had, from the Stone Age to the present, and that growth of the race occurred during advancement i n the adolescent period. The theory was stated as a fact, i n almost the same words used by Hall, in a 1924 B.C. government report. See Survey of the School System, by J.H. Putnam and G.M. Weir (Victoria: King's Printer, 1925), p. 73. 57 Adolescence, Vol. I, pp. x i i i - x i v . C O This phrase was frequently used by court personnel to describe the opportunity they gave to their wards. 59 Adolescence, Vol. I, p. 410.• 60 "Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Courts," Speech by F.C. Wade, n.d., copy i n Wade Papers. 6 lSenate, Debates, May 21, 1908, p. 975. CHAPTER I I A LEGAL DEVICE; A SOCIAL OBJECTIVE The V a n c o u v e r J u v e n i l e C o u r t b o r e l i t t l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o the j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e system t h a t had been a r t i c u l a t e d and promoted by t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t . C h i l d r e n were f a r more f r e e l y i n c a r c e r a t e d t h a n t h e y c o u l d have been under o r d i n a r y p o l i c e c o n t r o l s and t h e C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r u s e d h i s a l m o s t a b s o l u t e power i n a t y r a n n i c a l f a s h i o n . The f e d e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e c o u r t o p e r a t e i n f o r m a l l y i n p r i v a t e w i t h o u t b e i n g bound by t h e r u l e s o f e v i d e n c e sometimes made t h e c o u r t i n t o a S t a r Chamber r a t h e r t h a n a p r o t e c t i v e agency. The t r i p a r t i t e s y s t e m o f c o n t r o l s s h a r e d among t h e C.P.O., judge and c i t i z e n s ' a d v i s o r y committee was b a d l y out o f k i l t e r and C.P.O. C o l l i e r r a n a l m o s t a one-man i n s t i t u t i o n . The p e o p l e who had fr a m e d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n had n o t c o n s i d e r e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h a s i t u a t i o n . I n t h e i r minds, t h e C.P.O. was s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t t h e ju d g e , who was e x p e c t e d t o s e t t h e tone f o r t h e c o u r t , was by f a r t h e more i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e . A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d , and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t system had d e v e l o p e d , i n l a r g e p a r t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p u b l i c i t y a b o u t t h e sys t e m as i t o p e r a t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Foremost among t h e p u b l i c i s t s was t h e famous j u d g e , Ben L i n d s e y , o f Denver, C o l o r a d o . Few p e o p l e who were i n t e r e s t e d i n c h i l d w e l f a r e , whether i n Canada o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , were unaware o f h i s s y m p a t h e t i c a p p r o a c h t o y o u t h and t h e s u c c e s s e s he c l a i m e d w i t h t h e i n f o r m a l way he c o n d u c t e d h i s c o u r t . An u n i d e n t i f i e d newspaper c o r r e s p o n d e n t , r e p o r t i n g i n 1910 on t h e l e g i s l a t i v e d e b a t e on t h e b i l l t o i n t r o d u c e t h e c o u r t i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , d e s c r i b e d t h e sys t e m he e n v i s i o n e d : 19 20 E x p e r i e n c e had d e m o n s t r a t e d ... t h a t a t l e a s t 90 p e r c e n t o f a l l j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s a r e n o t c r i m i n a l a t a l l , h u t o n l y i n need o f g u i d a n c e and p r o p e r c a r e . What was wanted ... was a ... s p e c i a l j u d g e , a man who w o u l d t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n t h e c h i l d r e n , a man o f good temperament, w i s e , perhaps h a v i n g boys o f h i s own, one who c o u l d t a l k t o them a s boys and a c c o m p l i s h what c o u l d n e v e r be done by t h e u s u a l methods o f c r i m i n a l p r o c e d u r e . . . . I t would p a r t a k e more o f a t a l k w i t h t h e boy and. d e a l i n g w i t h him a l o n g t h e same l i n e s a s a d o p t e d by Judge L i n d s a y . H i s l i n k i n g o f t h e s y s t e m t o a s p e c i f i c A m e r i c a n example was n o t u n i q u e t o t h e p r o v i n c e . I n t h e Senate d e b a t e on t h e f e d e r a l b i l l , S e n a t o r T. C o f f e y (London) r e c o u n t e d one o f L i n d s e y ' s f a v o r i t e a n e c d o t e s about how he a p p r o a c h e d d e l i n q u e n t s . I n t h e s t o r y , t h e judge t o l d a boy t h a t w h i l e he would l i k e t o h e l p and p r o t e c t him, L i n d s e y had t o be a s s u r e d t h a t he would r e s p e c t t h e l a w , i f o n l y t o p r o t e c t t h e j u d g e h i m s e l f . L i n d s e y had c o n t i n u e d : .... I c o u l d n ' t h o l d my j o b v e r y l o n g i f I p e r m i t t e d t h i e v e s t o r u n l o o s e on t h e community.... W i t h t e a r s i n h i s eyes t h i s 1 3-year o l d boy s t o o d up l i k e a man and s a i d , so s i n c e r e l y and e a r n e s t l y f o r a boy o f h i s age, t h a t he would n e v e r g e t me i n t o t r o u b l e , t h a t I , a l m o s t t e a r f u l l y , a c c e p t e d h i s p r o t e c t i o n . I r a n g f o r t h e j a i l e r and t h r o u g h t h e c l a t t e r o f t h e i r o n g a t e s , t h e b o l t s and b a r s , ^ w a l k e d o u t o f t h a t j a i l w i t h t h a t boy and t o o k him t o h i s mother. The boy n a t u r a l l y became a model c i t i z e n "and would f r e q u e n t l y come t o me d u r i n g t h e week, w i t h a f a c e f u l l o f g l a d n e s s , t o t e l l me how w e l l 3 he was d o i n g , and how a b l y he was p r o t e c t i n g me." W r i t i n g s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r , W.L. S c o t t , who had f r a m e d t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , s t r o n g l y e n d o r s e d and e n l a r g e d on t h e c e n t r a l r o l e o f t h e judge. The p e r s o n who f i l l s s u c h a p o s t , he w r o t e , s h o u l d have b o t h " s o c i a l s y m p a t h i e s " and l e g a l t r a i n i n g ; be a b l e t o l i n k " s o c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and sympathy;" know c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y ; g i v e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n t o t h e c o u r t ' s work; spend enough t i m e a t c o u r t a f f a i r s " t o keep d e t e n t i o n a t a minimum;" t a k e t i m e t o t h o r o u g h l y c o n s i d e r each c a s e p r i o r t o t h e 21 c o u r t h e a r i n g ; meet f r e q u e n t l y w i t h c o u r t s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g a r d i n g c a s e s h a n d l e d o u t o f c o u r t ; and c a r r y on l i a s o n work between t h e c o u r t and t h e r e s t o f t h e community. The j u d g e ' s r o l e was t o be so i m p o r t a n t , i n f a c t , t h a t d u r i n g d e b a t e , s e n a t o r s s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i g n o r i n g a l l p r e s s u r e s t o a p p o i n t a man p r i m a r i l y because o f h i s community s t a n d i n g . " ^ By t h e s e c r i t e r i a , t h e two j u d g e s who were a p p o i n t e d t o t h e Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t d u r i n g i t s e a r l y y e a r s f e l l f a r s h o r t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s . B o t h Judge A l f r e d E. B u l l , who s e r v e d t h r o u g h 1910, and Judge Henry C. Shaw, who s a t f r o m 1911 u n t i l s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s d e a t h i n 1931i were a l s o t h e c i t y ' s P o l i c e M a g i s t r a t e s . An i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e C.P.O.'s d a i l y d i a r y r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e j udges had a l m o s t no c o n t a c t w i t h t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t o r i t s s t a f f a s i d e f r o m t h e w e e k l y c o u r t s e s s i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , combined w i t h t h e i r a l m o s t t o t a l l a c k o f p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o u r t , s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t b o t h B u l l and Shaw c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r m a g i s t r a t e ' s p o s i t i o n t o be t h e p r i m a r y one and j u v e n i l e work a s b e i n g a d d i t i o n a l t o t h e i r r e g u l a r , more i m p o r t a n t d u t i e s on t h e bench. The e x t e n t o f t h i s v i e w was d e m o n s t r a t e d by an o b i t u a r y e d i t o r i a l p r a i s i n g Shaw f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o V ancouver j u r i s p r u d e n c e . The a r t i c l e d e a l t w i t h h i s work a s m a g i s t r a t e and m entioned o n l y i n p a s s i n g t h a t he had a l s o been judg e o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t . ^ The B i l l ' s f r a m e r s had f o r e s e e n d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s u c h d u a l a p p o i n t m e n t s and had s p e c i f i c a l l y warned a g a i n s t use o f p o l i c e m a g i s t r a t e s . Most s u c h p e o p l e , s a i d S e n a t o r C o f f e y , " a r e q u i t e u n f i t f o r t h e h a n d l i n g o f c a s e s o f c r i m i n a l i t y among t h e young. They have p i n n e d t h e i r f a i t h t o methods o f the h a r s h o r d e r . To them k i n d n e s s i s an a l m o s t unknown 7 q u a n t i t y . " The s h e e r volume o f t h e p o l i c e m a g i s t r a t e ' s w o r k l o a d was s u c h t h a t a Vancouver judge c h a r g i n g a G r a n d J u r y i n 1908 s u g g e s t e d t h a t 22 t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t p r o p o s a l a s a method t o " r e l i e v e Lthe m a g i s t r a t e ] o f a b r a n c h o f work w h i c h a t p r e s e n t encumbers a c o u r t a l r e a d y g o v e r b u r d e n e d . " The o n l y acknowledgement by t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , however, o f p r o b l e m s w i t h d u a l a p p o i n t m e n t s was h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a t b e f o r e naming t h e new P o l i c e M a g i s t r a t e , he w o u l d c o n s i d e r h i s p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i s d e a l i n g w i t h j u v e n i l e c a s e s and w o u l d i n c r e a s e h i s s a l a r y because g o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s o f t h e new c o u r t . U n i m p o r t a n t though t h e y o u t h work may have been t o him, a s c h i e f j u v e n i l e o f f i c i a l , t h e judge h e l d g r e a t power o v e r t h e c h i l d r e n who a p p e a r e d b e f o r e him. Shaw, who was by f a r t h e more i m p o r t a n t j u d g e , must have been an i m p o s i n g s i g h t f o r d e f e n d a n t s : Huge-framed and w i t h g r e a t s h o u l d e r s ... |_he] was i n e a r l i e r d ays known among h i s f r i e n d s a s an a t h l e t e and i n w r e s t l i n g b o u t s he a s t o n i s h e d chance l o g g i n g camp a c q u a i n t a n c e s whom he m e ^ o n t h e c o a s t v oyages by d e f t l y p i n n i n g t h e i r s h o u l d e r s on t h e f l o o r . H i s c o u r t r o o m manner, however, a t l e a s t c e r t a i n l y i n t h e P o l i c e C o u r t , c o u l d n o t have been as a b r u p t a s h i s v a c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . A e u l o g i z i n g e d i t o r i a l o b s e r v e d : He made h i s c o u r t a c o u r t o f j u s t i c e r a t h e r t h a n o f l a w , and j u s t i c e he tempered w i t h mercy.... H i s sympathy f o r the u n f o r t u n a t e was w e l l -known, but h i s wide e x p e r i e n c e d i v e s t e d t h a t sympathy o f any t r a c e o f m a u d l i n o r s e n t i m e n t a l i t y and p r e v e n t e d h i s b e i n g imposed upon. There was a s t r e a k o f i r o n i n t h e m a g i s t r a t e , t o o , and a v i v i d sense o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s o c i e t y , w h i c h employed him. He c o u l d be s t j r n when c o n d i t i o n s seemed t o demand i t , and, on o c c a s i o n , even s e v e r e . Most o f t h e c h i l d r e n who a p p e a r e d b e f o r e Shaw on minor c h a r g e s were t r e a t e d l e n i e n t l y and w i t h an a p p a r e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Two v e r y s m a l l b o y s , who l i v e d n e a r t h e home o f a member o f t h e p r o b a t i o n s t a f f , were a l l o w e d t o r e p o r t t o t h a t o f f i c e r t h e r e t o s p a r e them t h e l o n g e r t r i p t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home. I n a s i m i l a r way, he a l l o w e d a young boy on p r o b a t i o n t o s t o p r e p o r t i n g a t t h e s t a r t 23 o f w i n t e r because h i s age, combined w i t h t h e weather and h i s p a r e n t s ' l a c k 12 o f f u n d s . f o r c a r f a r e , made i t t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r him t o r e a c h t h e Home. A n o t h e r boy was a l l o w e d t o drop t o r e p o r t i n g monthly i n s t e a d o f w e e k l y , 13 a l s o b e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f f u n d s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Shaw f u r t h e r d i s p l a y e d empathy w i t h t h e boys on t h e i s s u e o f k e e p i n g t h e D e t e n t i o n Home s c h o o l open d u r i n g v a c a t i o n s . When C o l l i e r f i r s t r e q u e s t e d p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e change, t h e judge r e f u s e d , s a y i n g t h a t he would n o t 14 d e p r i v e t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r h o l i d a y s . He d i s p l a y e d no sympathy, however, f o r a y o u t h who t h o u g h t he became f r e e o f t h e c o u r t when he r e a c h e d t h e age o f 16 y e a r s . Upon l e a r n i n g t h a t t h e boy had become d i s o b e d i e n t a t home and was now s t a y i n g o u t a t n i g h t s , t h e judge warned t h a t a s a c o u r t ward, he must c o n t i n u e t o ' l i v e up t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f h i s p r o b a t i o n " t h e same a s i f he were under 16 y e a r s o f age.""'"^ Judge Shaw was o f t e n l e s s s t e r n i n d e a l i n g w i t h p a r e n t s t h a n he was i n t r e a t i n g t h e boys t h e m s e l v e s . U n l i k e t h e C.P.O., who l i k e d t o h o l d c h i l d r e n h o s t a g e a g a i n s t t h e i r p a r e n t s ' c h a n g i n g t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s , Shaw was i n c l i n e d t o t u r n t r o u b l e s o m e , b u t n o n - c r i m i n a l c h i l d r e n back t o the f a m i l y . I n s u c h i n s t a n c e s , he t o o k t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e c o u r t would no l o n g e r waste i t s t i m e t r y i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e c h i l d f r o m d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a d e l i n q u e n t , b u t would i n s t e a d p l a c e a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e p a r e n t s , who must be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e consequences s h o u l d t h e c h i l d be r e t u r n e d t o 16 c o u r t . Nor was t h e judge p r e p a r e d t o push h i s powers t o t h e l i m i t . When t h e p a r e n t s o f a boy who had been p l a c e d i n d e t e n t i o n f o r f a i l i n g t o appe a r on a c u r f e w c h a r g e " r a i s e d a n a w f u l row," he s a i d "he t h o u g h t we 17 s h o u l d l e t him go home and t h e n t h a t we m i g h t l e t t h e m a t t e r d r o p . " Boys who t r a n s g r e s s e d t o o f r e q u e n t l y o r committed a s e r i o u s c r i m e were w e l l aware o f t h e jud g e ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r s e v e r i t y . A.A., who had been Zk on p r o b a t i o n f r o m a t h e f t c h a r g e when i t was l e a r n e d he "had used h i s i n f l u e n c e t o encourage s m a l l e r boys i n s e v e r a l t h e f t s , " was d i s p a t c h e d 1 Pi t o t h e Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l w i t h o u t f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Nor d i d t h e j u d g e seem t o c o n s i d e r t h e c o n c e p t o f a s t a t u t e o f l i m i t a t i o n s when d e a l i n g w i t h a boy's r e c o r d , as G.S. l e a r n e d when he a p p e a r e d i n 1915 c h a r g e d w i t h t h e f t . A l t h o u g h he had l a s t been b e f o r e t h e c o u r t i n 1911, h i s new o f f e n c e was t r e a t e d a s p a r t o f a c o n t i n u i n g p a t t e r n and he 19 was s e n t t o t h e B . I . S . When c o m m i t t i n g b o y s , Shaw o f t e n s p e c i f i e d whether he d i d so f o r t h e boy's b e s t i n t e r e s t s , f o r t h e good o f the community, o r b o t h . I n s u c h c a s e s , he o b v i o u s l y saw t h e community good as t h e more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . A ward o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e c o u r t as i n c o r r i g i b l e , was committed because " t h e good o f t h e boy and t h e w e l l b e i n g o f t h e community demanded i t , " p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e he "had no home and was c o l o r e d o r I n d i a n and i t seemed i m p o s s i b l e t h a t any p e r s o n would have been w i l l i n g t o have t a k e n 1 > „20 him. Judge B u l l had t a k e n a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h i n d i s p o s i n g o f h i s c a s e s . S t r e n u o u s e f f o r t s were made t o f i n d employment f o r t h e boys and he r e p e a t e d l y e x t e n d e d p r o b a t i o n f o r v i o l a t o r s . He went t o g r e a t l e g n t h s " i n hopes o f s a v i n g []a] boy" who had a l r e a d y s p e n t t h r e e y e a r s i n t h e r e f o r m a t o r y and whose f a m i l y was f r i g h t e n e d " o f him d o i n g them b o d i l y 21 harm." I n t h i s c a s e , a f t e r p r o b a t i o n and work had b o t h f a i l e d , t h e judge was s t i l l w i l l i n g t o g i v e t h e boy a chance t o a t t e n d s c h o o l a s a means o f r e f o r m . A n o t h e r boy, P.O., was c o m mitted t o t h e B . I . S . f o r a s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d , i n s t e a d o f t h e more u s u a l t w o - y e a r minimum. Even s o , i n p a s s i n g s e n t e n c e , t h e judge e x p l a i n e d t h a t " i t was n o t h i s i n t e n t i o n t o keep s t r i c t l y t o t h e term, b u t w o u l d , a l l o w him o u t s o o n e r i f c o n d i t i o n s 25 22 were s a t i s f a c t o r y . " B u l l was j u v e n i l e c o u r t judge f o r l e s s t h a n a y e a r , however, d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e he c o n s i d e r e d o n l y 43 c a s e s , o r 7.6 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h o s e d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y (N=567). A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e judge w i l l d e a l w i t h h i s s u c c e s s o r , Shaw, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d . Shaw c o n s i d e r e d i t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o o b s e r v e c a r e f u l l y t h e terms o f t h e g o v e r n i n g f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . He r e f u s e d p e r m i s s i o n f o r a worker f r o m t h e Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance U n i o n (W.C.T.U.) t o a t t e n d c o u r t s e s s i o n s b e c a u s e " i t was c o n t r a r y t o t h e s p i r i t a nd i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 24 o f the a c t . " He o c c a s i o n a l l y a l l o w e d v o l u n t e e r s t o a t t e n d s e s s i o n s , however, so he may have been more i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e W.C.T.U. w o r k e r ' s 25 p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f t a c t t h a n w i t h the a c t u a l l e g i s l a t i o n . I n any e v e n t , he a l s o d e n i e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a boy's p a s t r e c o r d t o t h e p o l i c e 26 f r o m L y n n V a l l e y . T h i s ban was one o f t h e few i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e judge o v e r r o d e t h e w i s h e s o f t h e C.P.O. As C.P.O., H e r b e r t W. C o l l i e r was c l e a r l y t h e k e y p e r s o n i n t h e c o u r t ' s o p e r a t i o n . He was i n v e s t i g a t o r , p r o s e c u t o r and k e e p e r o f c h i l d r e n who came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h him, a s w e l l as c o u r t s e c r e t a r y , and a d m i n i s t r a -t o r o f b o t h c o u r t s t a f f a n d t h e c o u r t i t s e l f . H i s i n f l u e n c e was so g r e a t t h a t he and t h e c o u r t may be c o n s i d e r e d a s one f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s . I n most m a t t e r s , Judge Shaw was g u i d e d by h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s recommendations. C o l l i e r , i n f a c t , f u l f i l l e d f o r t h e Vancouver c o u r t 27 more o f t h e i n t e n d e d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e judge t h a n Shaw d i d h i m s e l f . W i t h t h e demands o f h i s work a s m a g i s t r a t e and h i s p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s , Shaw had l i t t l e t i m e f o r j u v e n i l e c o u r t m a t t e r s . He a p p e a r e d a t t h e D e t e n t i o n Home a maximum o f once a week f o r t h e r e g u l a r c o u r t s e s s i o n and w o u l d even phone i n d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t a p p e a r i n g i f t h e number o f 26 28 c a s e s was v e r y s m a l l . Advance c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e C.P.O. were h e l d o n l y i n c a s e s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . I n f o u r y e a r s , t h e judge a t t e n d e d o n l y two m e e t i n g s o f t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t A d v i s o r y Committee (j.C . A . C . ) and t h e s e o c c a s i o n s were a t t h e members' r e q u e s t t o d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c m a t t e r s . 29 Even t h e n , he l e f t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h i s a d d r e s s e s t o t h e committee. The C.P.O. f i l l e d t h e vacuum l e f t by Shaw's a b d i c a t i o n o f h i s e x t r a d u t i e s . C o l l i e r came t o t h e c o u r t a f t e r f i f t e e n y e a r s a s a c a p t a i n i n t h e S a l v a t i o n Army, where he had been i n c h a r g e o f t h e s o c i a l and p r i s o n g a t e 30 d e p a r t m e n t . He had been s t a t i o n e d i n V a n c o u v e r f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s p r i o r t o h i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e c o u r t . C i t y c o u n c i l made i t a c o n d i t i o n o f employment t h a t he r e s i g n f r o m t h e S a l v a t i o n Army i m m e d i a t e l y and t h a t 31 Mrs. C o l l i e r s e r v e as matron f o r t h e D e t e n t i o n Home. The C.P.O.'s g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f young o f f e n d e r s was s i m p l e : The i d l e boy i s f a t h e r t o the i d l e man.... I r e g a r d t h i s [_court] r a t h e r a s a p r e v e n t a t i v e measure t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e . My e x p e r i e n c e has shown me c l e a r l y t h a t t h e unemployed boy l e a d s t o t h e unemployed man, and t h a t t h e boy who i s p r o p e r l y employed a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e w i l l n o t be f o u n d s t a n d i n g i n t h e b r e a d l i n e i n y e a r s t o come. Under t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , t h e C.P.O. was g i v e n a l m o s t u n l i m i t e d powers o v e r t h e c h i l d r e n under h i s c a r e . A s i d e f r o m making recommendations t o t h e judge a n d t h e J.C.A.C. r e g a r d i n g t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n , he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e s e n t e n c e s and t h e boys' subsequent s u p e r v i s i o n . C o l l i e r d e c i d e d when c h i l d r e n w o u l d be c h a r g e d , when t h e y would be p i c k e d up, how l o n g t h e y w o u l d be d e t a i n e d , and how t h e y w o u l d be t r e a t e d d u r i n g d e t e n t i o n . H i s powers e x t e n d e d t o p a r e n t s and a l l o t h e r s who had any d e a l i n g s w i t h j u v e n i l e s , b ecause under t h e a c t , a d u l t s c o u l d be c h a r g e d w i t h c o n t r i b u t i n g t o d e l i n q u e n c y i f t h e i r 33 a s s o c i a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be l e s s t h a n wholesome. 27 D u r i n g d e b a t e on t h e A c t , some s e n a t o r s had e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a t g r a n t i n g a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r such power o v e r t h e c h i l d r e n he e n c o u n t e r e d . S e n a t o r J.H. W i l s o n ( S t . Thomas), f o r example, a r g u e d : Here we p a s s a n A c t t o p e r m i t a c h i l d b e i n g t a k e n away f r o m i t s p a r e n t s and p u t i n o t h e r c h a r g e , and who i s a s s o l i c i t o u s f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c h i l d a s t h e p a r e n t ? We p u t young c h i l d r e n i n t h e hands o f an o f f i c e r and t h a t o f f i c e r has a b s o l u t e power and c o n t r o l o v e r them. He may do a n y t h i n g under t h e A c t and he i s p r o t e c t e d . . . . i t i s an u n r e a s o n a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n t o make, and I am f e a r f u l t h a t i n s t e a d , o f l e s s e n i n g t h e c r i m i n a l j u v e n i l e c l a s s i t w i l l i n c r e a s e them.... S e n a t o r R.W. S c o t t ( O t t a w a ) , a d e f e n d e r o f t h e B i l l , r e s p o n d e d t h a t h i s c o l l e a g u e ' s c o n c e r n s were u n w a r r a n t e d s i n c e o f f i c e r s " a r e s e l e c t e d f r o m p e o p l e who t a k e a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n t h e c h i l d a nd h i s w e l f a r e . " He a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e i r d u t i e s would be s u c h a s t o r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n : They go i n t o a home where f a t h e r a nd mother a r e f i g h t i n g , o r per h a p s d r u n k a r d s , and t h e y b r i n g t h e c h i l d away and p r o t e c t i t i n o r d e r t h a t i t may become a v a l u a b l e member o f s o c i e t y . Does t h e hon. gentleman say t h a t anyone a c t i n g i n t h a t c a p a c i t y s h o u l d n o t be p r o t e c t e d when l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e v i t a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d and t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f s o c i e t y ? C o l l i e r ' s a c t i o n s s u g g e s t e d t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d h i s most i m p o r t a n t power t o be t h e r i g h t t o c o n f i n e c h i l d r e n i n t h e c o u r t ' s D e t e n t i o n Home on P i n e S t r e e t . A r e g u l a t i o n l i s t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t had t o be met b e f o r e t h e A c t c o u l d come i n t o f o r c e i n any c i t y d e s c r i b e d t h e t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t had t o be p r o v i d e d a s a Home f o r t h e "te m p o r a r y c o n f i n e m e n t o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s , o r o f c h i l d r e n c h a r g e d w i t h d e l i n q u e n c y . " I t f u r t h e r s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e Home c o u l d "not be under t h e same r o o f a s , o r i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y o f " any p l a c e where a d u l t s were, o r might be c o n f i n e d , and s t r e s s e d t h a t i t s h o u l d "be c o n d u c t e d more l i k e a f a m i l y home t h a n l i k e a p e n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . " W r i t i n g many y e a r s l a t e r , W.L. S c o t t r e a f f i r m e d t h e p o s i t i o n he had t a k e n r e g a r d i n g d e t e n t i o n when he 28 framed t h e A c t . He s a i d : The c h i l d s h o u l d be ... o n l y i n r a r e c a s e s , d e t a i n e d i n c u s t o d y even by t h e C o u r t o f f i c e r . No c h i l d s h o u l d e v e r be removed f r o m i t s home, even t e m p o r a r i l y , u n l e s s i t s c o n t i n u a n c e t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y u n s a f e f o r t h e c h i l d a nd t h e community. Such c a s e s o b v i o u s l y w i l l be few. U n l e s s home c o n d i t i o n s a r e v i c i o u s and d e p l o r a b l e ; t h e o f f e n c e e x c e e d i n g l y s e r i o u s ; t h e c h i l d , a p r o b l e m c a s e r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l s t u d y and l i k e l y s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s ; o r the a s s u r a n c e o f appearance f o r t h e h e a r i n g d o u b t f u l , t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be l e f t i n i t s home p e n d i n g h e a r i n g . The c h i l d i s i n e v i t a b l y d i s t u r b e d a t such a t i m e . To d i s t u r b i t f u r t h e r , by r e m o v a l t o s t r a n g e s u r r o u n d i n g s , p e r h a p s f o r i t s f i r s t n i g h t away _ 7 f r o m home, seems a d d i n g t o , r a t h e r t h a n r e m e d y i n g , i t s m a l a d j u s t m e n t . C o l l i e r c l e a r l y r e j e c t e d t h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o d e t e n t i o n . He v i e w e d the Home a s t h e most e f f i c i e n t , and hence, p r o p e r way t o t e a c h t h e boys d i s c i p l i n e ; s t u d y and a s s e s s them; and g e n e r a l l y i n f l u e n c e b o t h them a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s . He u s e d t h e f a c i l i t y f r e e l y . Boys c h a r g e d w i t h any s o r t o f c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e s o r a s runaways o r c h i l d r e n "under i n v e s t i g a t i o n " were a l m o s t a l w a y s d e t a i n e d , a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e n e x t r e g u l a r c o u r t s e s s i o n . He and h i s f a m i l y r e s i d e d i n t h e D e t e n t i o n Home and boys on p r o b a t i o n were r e q u i r e d t o r e p o r t t o him t h e r e . C h i l d r e n were b r o u g h t t o t h e Home f o r ' i n t e r v i e w s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n Vancouver, a t l e a s t , i t was a l s o t h e s i t e o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t i t s e l f s i n c e , l i k e t h e d e t e n t i o n f a c i l i t y , t h e c o u r t t o o had t o be c o m p l e t e l y removed f r o m a d u l t f a c i l i t i e s . As S e n a t o r C o f f e y had a r g u e d i n t h e Senate d e b a t e : There i s t h a t a b o u t t h e v e r y atmosphere o f t h e p o l i c e c o u r t w h i c h g r a t e s upon t h e boy n a t u r e ( s i c ) , and h i s r e c l a m a t i o n w i l l be r e n d e r e d a l l t h e more d i f f i c u l t i f he be f o r c e d i n t h e by-way o f t h e h a r d e n e d c r i m i n a l f r o m whom hope o f c o r r e c t l i v i n g has f l e d a nd whose o n l y a m b i t i o n i s t o p r e y upon s o c i e t y . C a l l i t by what you w i l l , t h e C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t , t o t h e waywagd boy, r e m a i n s the p o l i c e c o u r t so l o n g as t h e same r o o f c o v e r s b o t h . A t c o u r t Judge Shaw n o r m a l l y a c c e p t e d t h e C.P.O.'s recommendations f o r f u r t h e r d e t e n t i o n and remands o f two, t h r e e and f o u r weeks a t a t i m e were v e r y common. The two had d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s , however, f o r t h e i r 2 9 a f f i n i t y for the use of detention. Shaw prefered to remand cases in custody so that children could "have the advantage of the home l i f e at the Detention 3 9 Home." Collier, on the other hand, wanted to detain boys "to cure |_themj of some habits." Fifty-five, per cent of the 5 6 7 boys who came before the court during i t s early years were detained at the Home. The average period of detention, including boys who were brought in late at night and released the following morning was 3 9 . 6 days, hardly the minimal stay legislators had anticipated when they passed the Act. Longer stays were quite common and i t was not unusual for boys to spend over 2 0 0 days confined at the Home. The longest instance was A.B.'s 4 3 0-day detention, ranging over a one and a half-year period and s p l i t by a two-year gap. The boy f i r s t entered the system at age eight when he was charged with theft. Although this charge was dismissed "as i t was thought that he was not responsible," he was brought in again three months later, this time charged with breaking and entering. He was allowed out of the Home and placed with the Alexandra Orphanage on condition that he continue to attend the Detention Home school. He escaped from the orphanage, however, and was returned to the Home after recapture. He was held there for thirteen months before being released. He then dropped from sight for two years, to reappear charged with theft, and later, breaking and entering. He was committed to the B.I.S. for the latter offence and served three years before he was paroled. Six months later, when he was 14 years old, he was 41 returned to the B.I.S. on a new charge of breaking and entering. The 404-day detention of T.S.,'whose only offences were single charges of curfew, vagrancy and begging, i s more d i f f i c u l t to understand. A truant, 42 he was deported to England at his father's suggestion. 30 W.L. S c o t t had been a b s o l u t e l y opposed t o t h e d e t e n t i o n f a c i l i t y b e i n g t u r n e d i n t o a j u v e n i l e j a i l i n s u c h a manner. S e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r , he w r o t e : C e r t a i n l y , i f d e t e n t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y i t s h o u l d be f o r a s s h o r t a p e r i o d a s p o s s i b l e , a n d n e v e r l o n g e r t h a n s e v e n d a y s . . . . W h i l e t h i s i s t h e maximum p e r i o d g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n t h e f a i r l y i n v o l v e d c a s e s , u s u a l l y o c c u r r i n g under t h e C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n A c t s , a much s h o r t e r p e r i o d s h o u l d s u f f i c e f o r i n i t i a l a c t i o n i n t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t . J W h i l e C o l l i e r o b v i o u s l y d i d n o t s h a r e t h e s e qualms, he d i d make a p o i n t o f t r y i n g t o n o t i f y p a r e n t s w i t h i n 4 8 h o u r s t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were b e i n g d e t a i n e d . The i s s u e s o f b a i l and i m p r o p e r d e t e n t i o n seldom a r o s e , b u t C o l l i e r i n v a r i a b l y b a c k e d o f f when a f a m i l y w i t h a l a w y e r b r o u g h t them up. I n one i n s t a n c e , t h e C.P.O. and t h e a c t i n g p o l i c e c h i e f a r r a n g e d t o r e l e a s e a boy on $25 b a i l a f t e r a l a w y e r h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s i n c e the j u v e n i l e c o u r t judge was o u t o f town, t h e d e t e n t i o n o f a boy on a c h a r g e o f 4 4 wounding was i m p r o p e r . A f a m i l y w h i c h s i m p l y p r o t e s t e d was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n moving C o l l i e r , a s he t o l d them t o g e t a l e g a l f i r m t o t a k e up t h e 4 5 m a t t e r i f t h e y were d i s s a t i s f i e d . L i f e i n t h e D e t e n t i o n Home o f f e r e d few a d v a n t a g e s f o r a c h i l d o r young man. By s p e c i a l d i s p e n s a t i o n f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n department a n d w i t h f u l l a p p r o v a l o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , t h e 4 7 s c h o o l o p e r a t e d y e a r r o u n d . ^ A " s t r o n g room" i n t h e basement h e l d u n r u l y i n m a t e s o r t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h s e r i o u s c r i m e s o r a t t e m p t i n g t o escape. The l e a s t s i g n o f i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , a s i n t h e p a s s i n g o f n o t e s i n s c h o o l , 4 8 was s e v e r e l y met w i t h c o r p o r a l punishment. A d i e t o f b r e a d and w a t e r was o f t e n employed a s punishment: a boy who t r i e d t o s t e a l f o o d f r o m t h e s t a f f t a b l e , f o r example, e a r n e d f o r h i s e f f o r t s a Sunday d i n n e r of two 31 49 s l i c e s o f b r e a d and a cup o f w a t e r . W i t h p u n i s h m e n t s , C o l l i e r most o f t e n s i m p l y n o t e d t h a t he had " d e a l t w i t h " t h e boys, so t h e i n c i d e n c e o f s p e c i f i c p e n a l t i e s c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d . " C o m m i t t i n g n u i s a n c e " i n bed was one o f t h e most f r e q u e n t o f f e n c e s f o r w h i c h boys were p u n i s h e d . " ^ The C.P.O.'s methods o f m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r n a l d i s c i p l i n e were s u g g e s t e d by h i s c o m p l a i n t s t h a t he "had t o keep t h e boy n e a r l y a l l t h e f o r e n o o n t o g e t t h e t r u t h o u t o f him" and t h a t a n o t h e r boy l i e d u n t i l " I g o t t h e s t r a p out."^ I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e government's mandatory h o m e - l i k e atmosphere, bedroom d o o r s were l o c k e d a t n i g h t . The c h i l d r e n who t a u n t e d s i b l i n g s o f a d e t a i n e d boy beca u s e he was " i n ' J a i l ' a s t h e y c a l l i t , " may have been 52 c l o s e r t o t h e mark t h a n c o u r t p e r s o n n e l were w i l l i n g t o acknowledge. D e s p i t e t h e s e a n o m a l i e s , C o l l i e r t r u l y b e l i e v e d t h a t he was p r o v i d i n g a p r o p e r home atmosphere f o r h i s wards. He h a r s h l y c r i t i c i z e d j u v e n i l e c o u r t s he v i s i t e d i n T o r o n t o , W i n n i p e g and C h i c a g o . As he s a i d : ... t h e r e was l o t s o f b o l t s , b a r s and l o c k s , q u i t e a l o t o f P o l i c e E v i d e n c e , and i n f a c t a l m o s t a sub P o l i c e C o u r t f o r C h i l d r e n , i n s t e a d o f a s he saw i t a t r e a t m e n t of what home l i f e s h o u l d be, work, s t u d y , work ( s i c ) , r e c r e a t i o n , and r e s t and a generous t r e a t m e n t o f p a r e n t i a l ( s i c ) f o n d n e s s g e n e r o u s l y g i v e n , and w i t h a n evenness a s t o ti m e and d i s c i p l i n e . The i m p a c t o f d e t e n t i o n on a boy's f a m i l y was o f t e n s e v e r e , a n d many, on h e a r i n g t h e news t h a t t h e i r y o u n g s t e r was d e t a i n e d , a d v i s e d C o l l i e r t h a t t h e y would t h e n r e q u i r e some fo r m o f r e l i e f t o r e p l a c e h i s income. The mother o f M.L., who was h e l d f o r f i v e weeks on a c u r f e w c h a r g e , e x p l a i n e d i n v a i n t o t h e C.P.O. t h a t she needed h e r s o n t o d e l i v e r h e r work and s e l l newspapers, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e she had a two-week o l d baby 54 and a husband who d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h e f a m i l y . C o l l i e r ' s main c o n c e r n , however, seemed t o be whether o r n o t s l e e p i n g accommodation was a v a i l a b l e a t t h e Home and t h e o n l y c h i l d r e n who c o u l d be c e r t a i n o f a v o i d i n g d e t e n t i o n were p o l i t e boys who met him a t a t i m e when t h e Home was 32 55 a l r e a d y f u l l . Boys w i t h " e x c e l l e n t home c o n d i t i o n s " were u n l i k e l y t o he 56 d e t a i n e d even i f space was a v a i l a b l e a t t h e f a c i l i t y . As h i s t i t l e s u g g e s t s , however, t h e C.P.O.'s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n r e m a i n e d h i s s u p e r v i s i o n o f the p r o b a t i o n p r o c e s s . Under t h i s p r o c e d u r e , c h i l d r e n c h a r g e d w i t h some o f f e n c e were b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e c o u r t , b u t r e l e a s e d , w i t h t h e s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t t h e y f o l l o w a l i n e o f c o n d u c t d e s i g n e d t o e n s u r e f u t u r e good b e h a v i o u r . The i n t r o d u c t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s p r a c t i c e was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t . I n d e b a t e on t h e B i l l , f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e was made t o t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s i n n o v a t i o n . As one S e n a t o r a r g u e d : .... The c h i l d r e n who would ... be watched i n t h e i r homes, and whose p a r e n t s would a l s o be under t h e eye o f t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , a r e more l i k e l y t o grow up w i t h some l o v e f o r home and r e g u l a r h a b i t s t h a n t h e y would be i f t h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r e x e r c i s e d no s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r them .... I f t h e s e j u v e n i l e s a r e t o be t a k e n away f r o m t h e p a r e n t s and s e n t t o a s c h o o l , t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e home and t h e c h i l d i s b r o k e n . . . . Keep t h e c h i l d w i t h i t s p a r e n t s ; see t h a t t h e p a r e n t s l o o k a f t e r him p r o p e r l y , and save t o t h e s t a t e t h e expense of h i s e d u c a t i o n , f o r the p a r e n t i s t h e n a t u r a l g u a r d i a n o f t h e c h i l d ... and i n t h a t way you weave i n t o and i n t e r f u s e i n t o t h e community t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a c o u r t , o f a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . . . o f h i g h c h a r a c t e r , and t h u s m o d i f y and improve t h e m o r a l o r immoral h a b i t s o f c h i l d r e n . . . . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l p r e s e n t e d t h e i s s u e t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n much t h e same t e r m s . He e l a b o r a t e d , d e s c r i b i n g the a c t u a l p r o c e d u r e t o be f o l l o w e d : The o f f i c e r would go t o see t h e boy, would q u e s t i o n him, see what h i s temperament was and what h i s e n v i r o n m e n t and companions. He would t a k e c h a r g e o f t h e boy, b u t he would be p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f the o f f i c e r f o r t h e t i m e s t a t e d and b r o u g h t back f r o m t i m e t o t i m e t o see whether he had i m p r o v e d . I f f o u n d a f t e r a t i m e t h a t he was i n c o r r i g i b l e he w o u l d b e g b r o u g h t back f i n a l l y and s e n t e n c e d t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l . Terms o f p r o b a t i o n u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d a f o r m o f r e p o r t i n g t o t h e C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r a t t h e Home. W h i l e most boys were r e q u i r e d t o a p p e a r w e e k l y - s c h o o l boys on S a t u r d a y mornings and w o r k i n g boys one e v e n i n g 33 d u r i n g t h e week - o t h e r s were t o l d t o r e p o r t m o n t h l y , t w i c e a week, by m a i l , o r even a t i r r e g u l a r and" u n s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s . The a c t u a l t i m e o f r e p o r t i n g was o c c a s i o n a l l y changed t o p r e v e n t s p e c i f i c boys f r o m m e e t i n g 59 each o t h e r a t t h e Home. C o l l i e r was q u i t e i n s i s t e n t t h a t t h e r e p o r t i n g c o n d i t i o n be m a i n t a i n e d f a i t h f u l l y , a s shown, f o r example, by h i s t r e a t m e n t o f a boy who d i d n o t a p p e a r one e v e n i n g because o f a bad s t o r m . The C.P.O. a d v i s e d him i n no u n c e r t a i n terms t h a t he was t o ' r e p o r t t h e f o l l o w i n g day w i t h no e x c u s e s b e i n g a c c e p t e d . R e p o r t i n g boys were g i v e n a p r o b a t i o n c a r d which had t o be s i g n e d by C o l l i e r a t each m e e t i n g . An u n s i g n e d c a r d , whether because t h e boy d i d n o t come o r because t h e C.P.O. had r e f u s e d t o endorse i t , u s u a l l y because t h e p r o b a t i o n e r had a r r i v e d l a t e , meant t h e y o u t h c o u l d be d e t a i n e d and r e t u r n e d t o c o u r t a t any t i m e f o r a b r e a c h o f p r o b a t i o n o f f e n c e . E.M. was c o m m i t t e d t o t h e B . I . S . f o r g e t t i n g a n o t h e r boy t o mark h i s c a r d a f t e r 60 he f a i l e d t o r e p o r t . P a r e n t s who o b j e c t e d t o t h e r e p o r t i n g p r o v i s i o n were g i v e n s h o r t s h r i f t a t t h e Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t . Judge Shaw s u p p o r t e d C o l l i e r c o m p l e t e l y i n t h i s r e g a r d and r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t r e q u e s t s f o r c e s s a t i o n 6l u n l e s s t h e y were p r e v i o u s l y e n d o r s e d by him. The two a c c e p t e d , as v a l i d , r e q u e s t s b a s e d on d i s t a n c e t o be t r a v e l l e d o r f a m i l y i l l n e s s , b u t had l i t t l e sympathy w i t h o t h e r r e a s o n s . Mrs. J . , f o r example, who a s k e d Shaw t o change t h e o r d e r t h a t h e r son r e p o r t , was r e f u s e d "as t h e o n l y r e a s o n 62 g i v e n was t h a t t h e i r p r i d e was i n j u r e d . " The c h i l d was c aught i n t h e m i d d l e i n c a s e s where t h e p a r e n t s o b j e c t e d t o t h e r e p o r t i n g , b u t C o l l i e r 63 c o n t i n u e d t o demand i t . O t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o b a t i o n v a r i e d f r o m c a s e t o c a s e . R.M. was 34 r e l e a s e d on c o n d i t i o n " t h a t he go t o s c h o o l e v e r y day, be k e p t f r o m a t t e n d i n g p i c t u r e shows and be a t t e n d e d when n e c e s s a r y t o come i n t o t h e 64 G i t y . A l s o t o a t t e n d t o Sunday S c h o o l . " I n t h e c a s e o f H.L., t h e boy was f o r b i d d e n t o s e l l p a p e r s o r a t t e n d p l a y s a n d r e q u i r e d t o be i n by 6^ 9 p.m. each n i g h t . I n some c a s e s , boys were o r d e r e d t o s t a y away f r o m c e r t a i n companions and t o d i s b a n d g a n g s . 6 6 One boy, who was f o r b i d d e n t o engage i n p r o f e s s i o n a l b o x i n g d u r i n g h i s p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d , was a l s o t a k e n t o t a s k f o r h a v i n g c r i t i c i z e d h i s t r e a t m e n t w h i l e i n t h e D e t e n t i o n Home.6''7 C o n d i t i o n s o f p r o b a t i o n n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d c o n t i n u e d a t t e n d a n c e a t work o r s c h o o l . I n t h i s way, t h e c o u r t caught, up o t h e r community members i n t h e e n forcement p r o c e d u r e . S c h o o l o f f i c i a l s and employers were r e q u e s t e d t o keep a c l o s e w a tch on t h e c h a r g e s and were f r e q u e n t l y c o n t a c t e d by t h e C.P.O., b o t h i n p e r s o n and by t e l e p h o n e , f o r i n f o r m a t i o n 68 on t h e i r p r o g r e s s " i n c a s e t h e y show any s i g n s o f s l i p p i n g away." As w i t h t h e r e p o r t i n g p r o v i s i o n s , a f a i l u r e by t h e boys t o a b i d e by t h e s e terms c o u l d r e s u l t i n a new c h a r g e b e i n g l a i d f o r b r e a c h o f p r o b a t i o n . S c o t t had e n v i s i o n e d t h a t t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y p r o c e s s w o u l d be a l l -e n compassing when he d r a f t e d the f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . He l a t e r w r o t e : "The P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r must be t h e f r i e n d o f t h e p r o b a t i o n e r , must know 69 him i n t i m a t e l y , h i s home, s c h o o l , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e n v i r o n m e n t . " B u t he and a l l o t h e r p r o m o t e r s and c o u r t o f f i c i a l s seemed t o v i e w i t a s s o m e t h i n g the c h i l d w o u l d welcome, because o f i t s p r o t e c t i v e a s p e c t . There i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e , however, t h a t f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h and deep r e s p e c t f o r t h e C.P.O. d i d i n f a c t d e v e l o p , a t l e a s t i n Vancouver. A few " o l d boys" d i d c o n t i n u e t o seek C o l l i e r o u t f o r a d v i c e , b u t t h e a t t i t u d e o f the 35 " g r e a t crowds o f b o y s " who r a n o f f when t h e y saw him a p p r o a c h i n g was more 7 0 i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g . Nor was i t v e r y uncommon f o r b o y s t o t e l l t h e p o l i c e t h a t t h e y were o v e r 1 6 y e a r s o l d t o a v o i d b e i n g s e n t t o 7 1 t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t . The C.P.O. f e l t f r e e t o a c c o s t p r o b a t i o n e r s whenever a n d w h e r e v e r he w i s h e d , whether a t home, s c h o o l o r work. The same a p p l i e d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d a c q u a i n t a n c e s . A t l e a s t one employer t o o k o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s p r a c t i c e , and when C o l l i e r began t o i n t e r v i e w a second employee i n h i s l a u n d r y a s t o the whereabouts o f a f r i e n d o f h e r s , he " p r a c t i c a l l y o r d e r e d me o u t o f t h e p l a c e , s a i d ... t h a t I was d e l a y i n g h i s p e o p l e 72 t h a t he p a i d wages t o . " On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , when he was n o t i f i e d t h a t a boy had n o t a p p e a r e d a t work, t h e C.P.O. went t o the l a u n d r y where t h e l a d ' s mother was employed and made h e r come t o l e t him i n t o h e r r e s i d e n c e 73 t o check i f t h e boy was s t i l l s l e e p i n g . One mother a r t i c u l a t e d h e r r e s e n t m e n t o f C o l l i e r ' s c o n s t a n t harassment o f t h e f a m i l y : "As I came out o f the do o r she commenced t o s a y t h a t my a c t i o n s were d r i v i n g h e r t o 74 h e r g r a v e b e f o r e h e r t i m e . " N e e d l e s s t o s a y , h e r d e s p a i r d i d n o t d e t e r him f r o m c o n t i n u i n g t o m o n i t o r h e r c h i l d t i g h t l y . The C.P.O. o f t e n had h o s t i l e d e a l i n g s w i t h p a r e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e he was so s e n s i t i v e t o s l i g h t s t o h i s a u t h o r i t y t h a t he saw i n s u l t s e v e r y w h e r e . The c a s e o f a boy, who r e p o r t e d v e r y l a t e one e v e n i n g d e s p i t e a p r e v i o u s w a r n i n g on t h a t c o u n t , i l l u s t r a t e s h i s o v e r r e a c t i o n s . C o l l i e r r e f u s e d t o endorse h i s c a r d and o r d e r e d him t o appear i n t h e morning w i t h h i s f a t h e r . When t h e f a t h e r s e n t word t h a t he had t o work, b u t w o u l d come a t noon, C o l l i e r a n g r i l y r e s p o n d e d t h a t he need n o t b o t h e r as t h e m a t t e r w o u l d go t o c o u r t f o r the judge t o s e t t l e . He w r o t e : " T h i s man 36 75 w i l l have t o be t a u g h t t h a t t h e o r d e r o f t h e c o u r t must be obeyed." I n o t h e r c a s e s , however, t h e c h a l l e n g e f r o m p a r e n t s was c l e a r . When young F.S., who had f a i l e d t o a p p e a r i n c o u r t on a c u r f e w c h a r g e , was p i c k e d up and d e t a i n e d a t the D e t e n t i o n Home, h i s p a r e n t s a n g r i l y came t o p r o t e s t . The C.P.O. was o u t , b u t t h e mother t h r e a t e n e d t o s i t on t h e v e r a n d a h u n t i l 1 a.m. u n l e s s he r e t u r n e d t o see h e r . He d i d so and a r r a n g e d f o r h e r t o r e t u r n i n t h e morning. When he t e l e p h o n e d Shaw a b o u t t h e m a t t e r and t h e judge s u g g e s t e d i t be d r o p p e d , C o l l i e r v i g o r o u s l y o b j e c t e d , w a r n i n g t h a t t h e f a t h e r was the s o r t "who would make 76 a g r e a t d e a l o f t a l k a b o u t b e a t i n g u s , e t c . " Shaw y i e l d e d t o h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n s and t h e f a t h e r was f o r m a l l y r e p r i m a n d e d when t h e c a s e 77 came t o c o u r t . R e l a t i o n s w i t h many o t h e r p a r e n t s were f r i e n d l y and t h e y o f t e n s o u g h t out C o l l i e r t o a s k f o r a d v i c e i n h a n d l i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d home s i t u a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l . I f t h e d i f f i c u l t y was p r i m a r i l y between husband and w i f e , he u s u a l l y a t t e m p t e d t o b r i n g a b o u t a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . B u t i f c o n d i t i o n s had d e t e r i o r a t e d t o • a p o i n t a t w h i c h t h a t was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e , he r e f e r r e d t h e i n j u r e d p a r t y t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e agency, u s u a l l y t h e w i f e t o t h e p o l i c e t o l a y a charge o f n o n - s u p p o r t . When f a m i l y c i r c u m s t a n c e s were s u c h t h a t t h e p a r e n t o r p a r e n t s c o u l d no l o n g e r p r o v i d e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n , he s e n t them t o t h e p r o p e r C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . He made arrang e m e n t s f o r o t h e r p e o p l e t o c a l l on them t o a s s i s t i n c a s e s o f i l l n e s s o r l a c k o f f o o d o r c l o t h i n g . P a r e n t s who were h a v i n g p roblems w i t h c h i l d r e n , most o f t e n because t h e y were d i s o b e d i e n t and e i t h e r coming i n l a t e o r s t a y i n g away n i g h t s , were u s u a l l y a s k e d t o b r i n g them i n t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home f o r a c o n f e r e n c e . 37 C o l l i e r f r e q u e n t l y commented a f t e r s u c h m e e t i n g s t h a t he had had a t a l k 78 w i t h t h e boy "and b e l i e v e he w i l l do b e t t e r . " I n some c a s e s , t h e t a l k was s o b e r i n g enough t h a t "when she had g o t t o t h e D.H. she had r e p e n t e d 79 f a s t and a s k e d t o be g i v e n a n o t h e r chance." O t h e r c h i l d r e n wept b i t t e r l y and a s k e d t h e i r s u r p r i s e d and d e l i g h t e d p a r e n t s t o t a k e them back 80 a g a i n . I n many o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , t h e C.P.O. s e n t p a r e n t and c h i l d home w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e p a r e n t s t o a d m i n i s t e r s t r o n g c o r p o r a l punishment. He t o l d a woman w i t h a l a r g e boy t h a t i f h e r son r e s i s t e d , she c o u l d g e t 81 a n o r d e r f r o m t h e judge and C o l l i e r w o u l d a d m i n i s t e r t h e p e n a l t y . He o f t e n c o m p l i m e n t e d s u c h c o n c e r n e d p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r " e a r n e s t e f f o r t s t o save t h e b o y £ s ] . " ^ Not a l l p a r e n t s who b r o u g h t t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e Home were t r e a t e d i n s u c h a warm manner. - One c o u p l e , whose 15-year o l d s o n had been away f r o m home f o r a few da y s , a s k e d C o l l i e r " t o p u t him away somewhere. The f a t h e r was t o l d t o go home and r i s e t o h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He became v e x e d a n d went away i n a r a g e . " The C.P.O. a d v i s e d a n o t h e r 84 woman t h a t "she was o n l y t o o a n x i o u s t o d r o p t h e c h i l d . " One f a t h e r who came i n t o d i s c u s s h i s c h i l d was t o l d t h a t " i t was u n r e a s o n a b l e t o t a l k o f a c h i l d s e v e n b e i n g unmanageable" a n d t h e n l e c t u r e d a b o u t h i s 85 p e r s o n a l d r i n k i n g h a b i t s . C o l l i e r w r o t e : "He was a l i t t l e i n d i g n a n t a t f i r s t t o t h i n k t h a t anyone s h o u l d d i c t a t e t o a man o f h i s age b u t 86 f i n a l l y came down and was w i l l i n g t o be a d v i s e d . " The C.P.O. o f t e n w a l k e d out on u n f r i e n d l y p a r e n t s o r o r d e r e d them t o l e a v e , as i n t h e case o f a f a t h e r who was " u n r e a s o n a b l e . I t o l d him a t the l a s t t h a t I had no 87 more t o s a y and he would have t o go." C o l l i e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h boys began w i t h t h e same p r e m i s e s as 38 w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s . H i s a u t h o r i t y had t o be r e c o g n i z e d and a c c e p t e d i n t o t o . He remarked t h a t he had e x p e c t e d t o s e t t l e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t h e case o f a boy who was s l e e p i n g o u t n i g h t s and was a c c u s e d o f p e t t y t h e f t s , " but a s t h e boy was so s t u b b o r n i t was d e c i d e d t o h o l d him t o t r y t o g e t 88 a s t a t e m e n t f r o m him." The C.P.O. made t h e same a s s u m p t i o n s when d e c i d i n g how t o d e a l w i t h c u r f e w v i o l a t o r s : "... a s none o f t h e s e 89 c h i l d r e n o f f e r e d any r e s i s t a n c e I d i d n o t t a k e t h e i r names." When a n e i g h b o u r t o l d him t h a t t h e f a m i l y o f one o f h i s wards " s i m p l y make a j o k e o f t h e syst e m under w h i c h we have been t r y i n g t o r e g u l a t e Bob's 90 c o n d u c t , " the boy was committed t o t h e B. I . S . t h e f o l l o w i n g day. T h i s was d e s p i t e t h e woman's c o n c e r n t h a t "she does n o t want t o be c a l l e d i n t o 91 C o u r t , b u t e v e r y word she s a y s i s p e r f e c t l y t r u e . " C o l l i e r ' s e a s i l y - a r o u s e d i n d i g n a t i o n a l s o o f t e n showed i t s e l f when d e a l i n g w i t h C . J . S o u t h , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . B u t i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s he was u n a b l e t o b r a z e n h i s way t h r o u g h s i n c e S o u t h was a s p o w e r f u l i n h i s own r e a l m a s t h e C.P.O. was i n h i s . The two c o o p e r a t e d a g r e a t d e a l , as t h e i r work f r e q u e n t l y complemented each o t h e r ' s . I n t h e s e c a s e s , C o l l i e r was u s u a l l y t h e f i r s t on t h e scene i n a home and d e c i d e d t h a t c o n d i t i o n s w a r r a n t e d c a l l i n g i n Sou t h o r h i s Roman C a t h o l i c c o u n t e r p a r t , J.S. F o r a n . The C.P.O. t h e n d i d most, i f n o t a l l , o f t h e r e q u i r e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n , b r o u g h t t h e c h i l d r e n t o c o u r t a s n e g l e c t e d , and had them f o r m a l l y committed t o t h e S o c i e t y . The y o u n g s t e r s u s u a l l y s t a y e d i n t h e D e t e n t i o n Home d u r i n g t h e s e p r o c e e d i n g s . The o v e r l a p was so g r e a t t h a t t h e two o f f i c e r s met i n J u l y , 1914, t o c o n s i d e r making a j o i n t r e q u e s t t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l government f o r the ap p o i n t m e n t o f a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f N e g l e c t e d and Dependent C h i l d r e n . They a g r e e d t h a t i f 39 c i t y c o u n c i l a p p r o v e d , t h e new o f f i c i a l would be a t t a c h e d t o t h e j u v e n i l e 92 c o u r t r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e G.A.S. Pro b l e m s a r o s e between t h e two whenever S o u t h d e c i d e d , a s he f r e q u e n t l y d i d , t h a t he was n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n a c a s e . The p r o b l e m , f o r example, o f a three-month o l d baby l i v i n g i n a p o o r s i t u a t i o n w i t h i t s u n m a r r i e d 17-year o l d mother and an o l d e r man d i d n o t i n t e r e s t him a t a l l , p r o b a b l y because o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l expense t h e S o c i e t y i n c u r r e d when i t had t o d e a l w i t h a baby. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , C o l l i e r , who a l r e a d y had more t h a n enough work o f h i s own t o do, had t o c o n t a c t v a r i o u s women i n 93 t h e community and a s k them t o t a k e t h e m a t t e r i n hand. A n o t h e r i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h S o u t h " a b s o l u t e l y r e f u s e d " t o a c t , and even w a l k e d o u t o f t h e room t o a v o i d d i s c u s s i o n o f i t , i n v o l v e d a s i x and an e i g h t - y e a r o l d whom C o l l i e r f o u n d i n "rooms f i l t h y beyond d e s c r i p t i o n - s e v e r a l w h i s k e y b o t t l e s , a b i t c h w i t h s e v e n p u p p i e s o c c u p y i n g bed w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n and 94 a l l o f t h e b l o o d s t a i n s f r o m where t h e y had been b o r n i n t h e bed...." The c h i l d r e n ' s mother was a n a t i v e I n d i a n , and t h e C.A.S. s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , who had a l w a y s r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t c h i l d r e n he c o n s i d e r e d t o be u n d e s i r a b l e , t o l d t h e C.P.O. to a d v e r t i s e t h e i r p r o b l e m i n t h e p r e s s . A f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h Judge Shaw, C o l l i e r t o o k t h e c h i l d r e n t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home where he 95 h e l d them f o r two weeks u n t i l S outh was p e r s u a d e d t o a c c e p t them. T e n s i o n s between t h e two o f f i c i a l s were a g g r a v a t e d when t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t began t o r e f e r c o m p l a i n t s , such a s t h o s e i n v o l v i n g c h i l d - b e a t i n g c a s e s , t o h i s c o u r t c o u n t e r p a r t . C o l l i e r p r o t e s t e d " t h a t i t was CA work pu r e and 96 s i m p l e , " b u t a g r e e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e p o r t s . " The C.P.O. was a l s o f o r c e d t o n e g o t i a t e , r a t h e r t h a n o r d e r , i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e c i t y p o l i c e . The a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e c o u r t t o 40 t h e p o l i c e i s c l o u d e d . A l t h o u g h t h e y were e s t a b l i s h e d as two s e p a r a t e c i v i c d e p a r t m e n t s a n d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g the c o u r t s t r e s s e d t h a t i t was t o be k e p t a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e o t h e r , C o l l i e r f r e q u e n t l y a p p e a r e d t o a c c e p t o r d e r s f r o m t h e P o l i c e C h i e f . T h i s u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d i n minor c a s e s , o f t e n i n v o l v i n g v e r y young c h i l d r e n , where t h e C.P.O. had d e c i d e d n o t t o b r i n g t h e m a t t e r i n t o c o u r t . He r e v e r s e d h i s p o s i t i o n s e v e r a l t i m e s i n c a s e s o f t h i s n a t u r e on i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e 97 c h i e f . Such a c t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t he, i n some way, v i e w e d h i m s e l f a s a s u b o r d i n a t e o f t h e p o l i c e . I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t Judge Shaw, who was t e c h n i c a l l y h i s s u p e r v i s o r , may have a d v i s e d him t h a t he w o u l d s u p p o r t t h e p o l i c e p o s i t i o n i n t h i s s o r t o f d i s p u t e . There was c e r t a i n l y n o t h i n g o f t h e u n d e r l i n g i n t h e way C o l l i e r a t t a c k e d any p o l i c e o f f i c e r who c o n t i n u e d t o d e a l w i t h j u v e n i l e c a s e s i n t h e t i m e - h o n o u r e d manner o f r e p r i m a n d i n g them and s e n d i n g them on t h e i r way. He p r o t e s t e d i n d e f i n i t e t e rms t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u c h 98 d e c i s i o n s r e s t e d w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t . The Deputy C h i e f a g r e e d w i t h h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , s a y i n g t h a t he t h o u g h t t h e o f f i c e r had a c t e d i n e r r o r i n s e n d i n g t h e c h i l d home "as he c o n s i d e r e d we s h o u l d have an o p p o r t u n i t y o f d e a l i n g w i t h a l l j u v e n i l e m a t t e r s b e f o r e 99 b e i n g d i s p o s e d . " When s i m i l a r e p i s o d e s r e c u r r e d , t h e c h i e f was q u i c k t o a d v i s e t h e C.P.O. t h a t no one had a c t e d w i t h any t h o u g h t o f p a s s i n g him b y . 1 ^ On t h e whole, however, C o l l i e r e n j o y e d v e r y good r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e p o l i c e . The same c a n n o t be s a i d o f h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e t h i r d arm of t h e c o u r t s y s t e m - t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t A d v i s o r y Committee ( j . C . A . C . ) . Under t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , p r o v i s i o n was made f o r a committee f r o m t h e 41 l o c a l C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s t o c o n s i d e r each c a s e and make recommend-a t i o n s f o r i t s d i s p o s a l . As t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l p u t i t : "The judge w o u l d have t h e a d v a n t a g e o f c o n s u l t i n g w i t h a committee.... T h i s committee was a most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e w o r k . A row i m m e d i a t e l y e r u p t e d i n V a ncouver because t h e C.A.S.'s were s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e t h e committee membership " d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e two s o c i e t i e s had n o t 102 been v e r y a c t i v e i n t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t h e a c t . Such a s s o c i a t i o n s e l s e -where i n Canada, most n o t a b l y i n O ttawa, O n t a r i o , had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g t h e a c t i n t o b e i n g . I n V a n c o u v e r , however, t h e J u v e n i l e P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n had been a g i t a t i n g f o r j u v e n i l e c o u r t s s i n c e 190? and f e l t i t s members s h o u l d f o r m t h e committee. As one member o b s e r v e d , "the a s s o c i a t i o n m i ght a s w e l l d i s b a n d i f i t were n o t a l l o w e d t o c o n d u c t t h e j u v e n i l e work w h i c h i t had 103 begun." T h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h t h e "awkward s i t u a t i o n t h a t has a r i s e n " was 104 s h a r e d by o t h e r s w i t h s p e c i a l knowledge o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . J . J . K e l s o a d v i s e d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n : When t h e Dominion A c t was b e i n g f r a m e d t h e t h o u g h t n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o me t h a t t h e r e would be any d i f f i c u l t y o f t h i s k i n d , and t h e r e c e r t a i n l y s h o u l d have been a c l a u s e s t a t i n g t h a t where a s o c i e t y i s s p e c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d t o d e a l w i t h y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s i t s h a l l be g i v e n t h e f u l l s t a t u s o f a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y . . . . W.L. S c o t t , who a c t u a l l y d r a f t e d t h e A c t , s u g g e s t e d t o K e l s o t h a t t h e p r o b l e m need n o t a r i s e s i n c e t h e t e r m C.A.S. was n o t d e f i n e d : " I t a p p e a r s t o be r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r t h a t t h e 'JPA' i s a 'CAS' w i t h i n t h e meaning o f t h e A c t . " ^ ^ The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l t r i e d t o evade t h e i s s u e a t f i r s t by s a y i n g he was bound by t h e terms o f t h e f e d e r a l a c t . B u t he soon y i e l d e d t o p r e s s u r e and r e o r g a n i z e d t h e J.C.A.C. t o i n c l u d e two d e l e g a t e s f r o m t h e J . P . A . 1 0 7 42 The Committee's operating premise was that " i t i s wiser and less 108 expensive to save the children than to punish the criminals." The members met weekly to discuss the cases for the next court schedule. They made recommendations for disposition of most children, although they did not venture to make suggestions as to how to deal with the most serious offences. Like Collier and Shaw, they favored frequent and lengthy periods of detention. They also recommended corporal punishment or deportation as favored methods of treatment, but this advice was usually ignored. Members devoted considerable time to trying to find positions for the boys who came before the court. After two months of operation, they put out a c a l l for volunteers to help them and the C.P.O. by procuring situations 109 and finding foster homes and clothing for the destitute. A few volunteers were used, but most work continued to be done by the appointed J.C.A.C. members. The C.P.O. occasionally had the Committee assist him in cases where extensive investigation of home circumstances was required. On two occasions, members had boys examined by the superintendent of the provincial mental h o s p i t a l . 1 1 ^ As described in Chapter III, they spent much of their time on campaigns to change community standards with regard to children's range of experiences. Despite their relatively innocuous a c t i v i t i e s , f r i c t i o n soon developed between Collier and the Committee. In other c i t i e s , similar antagonisms also destroyed the J.C.A.C. potential. As Scott explained in retrospect: It was thought by those who framed the Act that a Juvenile Court Committee would prove extremely useful, i f not indeed actually necessary to the proper functioning of the Court. Nor was this notion based solely on theory.... Unfortunately the idea of a Juvenile Court Committee did not eventually prove popular and few of them are now |_1927j existing in Canada. The result appears to have been 43 c h i e f l y duj^t-o a t e n d e n c y t o f r i c t i o n between t h e j u d g e and t h e c ommittee. Judge Shaw had m i n i m a l c o n t a c t , f r i c t i o n o r o t h e r w i s e , w i t h t h e J.C.A.C. 112 and seemed t o f a v o r members' i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e c o u r t p r o c e s s . D i s p u t e s w i t h C o l l i e r were more f r e q u e n t , a l t h o u g h t h e y were' seldom s e r i o u s enough t o be n o t e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e C.P.O. made h i s a t t i t u d e a p p a r e n t when he o m i t t e d a l l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e J.C.A.C. i n t h e c o u r t ' s f i r s t a n n u a l r e p o r t . When c h a l l e n g e d on t h e m a t t e r , C o l l i e r " a s s u r e [ d ] t h e committee t h a t t h e r e was no d i s c o u r t e s y i n t e n d e d and i f t h e committee would b e a r up i n t h i s f u t u r e r e p o r t s would be s u b m i t t e d t o 113 them f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e f o r e b e i n g p r i n t e d . " The members d i d " b e a r up" b u t t h e i n c i d e n t must have r a n k l e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e amount o f t i m e some were d e v o t i n g t o t h e work. T h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n showed i t s e l f t h r e e weeks l a t e r when t h e y c h a l l e n g e d C o l l i e r ' s r o u t i n e p r o c e d u r e s . J.S. F o r a n , s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f t h e H o l y R o s a r y , r a i s e d " q u e s t i o n s a s t o t h e a c t i o n o f t h e P.O. ( s i c ) i n r e f e r r i n g m a t t e r s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c o u r t , t o t h e judge f i r s t , i n s t e a d o f t h e Committee, an d t h e i r f i n d i n g s 114 t o t h e Judge." The m a t t e r was g l o s s e d o v e r , b u t t h e n e x t i s s u e on t h e agenda a l s o c a u s e d a d i s p u t e . I n t h a t i t e m , C o l l i e r recommended t h a t h i s b r o t h e r f r o m T o r o n t o be a p p o i n t e d t o r e p l a c e t h e r e t i r i n g A s s i s t a n t P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r . When F o r a n , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s , a s k e d "what s t e p s i f any had been t a k e n t o s e c u r e t h e s e r v i c e s o f a r e s i d e n t man," t h e C.P.O. 115 s i m p l y r e s p o n d e d t h a t " t h e r e was n o t any." H i s b r o t h e r was a p p r o v e d s i n c e t h e p o s i t i o n had t o be f i l l e d i m m e d i a t e l y . C o l l i e r ' s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d l a y i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the j u v e n i l e c o u r t was made c l e a r i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . 44 • When one man c a l l e d t h e D e t e n t i o n Home t o g e t t h e names o f J.G.A.G. members, t h e G.P.O. r e f u s e d t o g i v e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n u n t i l t h e c a l l e r e x p l a i n e d a t l e n g t h the r e a s o n s f o r h i s r e q u e s t . He was f i n a l l y g i v e n the name o f t h e committee c h a i r m a n . I n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e a d o c t o r and "a c o u p l e o f p r e a c h e r s " came r e g a r d i n g one o f t h e boys who was b e i n g 116 d e t a i n e d . C o l l i e r i n f o r m e d them " t h a t we v e r y w e l l knew ou r work and r e s e n t e d i n t e r f e r e n c e , t h a t t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e f u t u r e o f t h e boy 117 w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . " As committee members became d e m o r a l i z e d , t h e y grew l e s s and l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c a b out t h e i r commitment. A m o t i o n was made " t o have w e e k l y m e e t i n g s d i s c o n t i n u e d and monthly m e e t i n g s ... s u b s t i t u t e d o r when 118 n e c e s s a r y . " The m o t i o n was n o t e n d o r s e d a s i t "appeared t o be n o t i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e a c t , " b u t r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s began t o grow s h o r t e r and " 119 s h o r t e r . Members' c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s was f u r t h e r s h a ken when t h e mayor d e c l i n e d t o resume t h e p r a c t i c e o f a p p o i n t i n g a c o u n c i l member a s d e l e g a t e t o t h e J.C.A.C. He r e s p o n d e d t h a t " t h e c o u n c i l l o r s a r e v e r y b u s y men and c o u l d n o t a t t e n d . And t h a t a l l c o n f i d e n c e had been shown i n t h e p a s t , and w o u l d no doubt i n t h e f u t u r e , 120 i n t h e e f f i c i e n t work b e i n g done and i n t h o s e c a r r y i n g i t o u t . " D e s p i t e " g r e a t p r a i s e " f r o m C o l l i e r f o r t h e committee's r o l e i n g e t t i n g a p p r o v a l and f u n d s f o r a new e x t e n s i o n t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home, 121 r e l a t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e d f u r t h e r . The p r e d i c t a b l e c r i s i s a r r i v e d on 122 March 29, 1915f when t h e J.C.A.C. s i m p l y v o t e d t o d i s c o n t i n u e m e e t i n g . Members r e t a i n e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e c o u r t , however, an d t h e i s s u e came up a g a i n t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r when amendments t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l I n f a n t s A c t were b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e Vancouver c o u r t as 45 a "one man machine system," F o r a n w r o t e t o t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l r e g a r d i n g t h e A c t ' s c o u r t c l a u s e : What we mean i n t h i s i s t h a t Mr. Shaw and Mr. C o l l i e r ... have s i d e s t e p p e d t h e custom and p r a c t i c e ... w h e r e i n t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s recommend-a t i o n t o t h e C o u r t i n t h e case o f t h e c h i l d , was f o r m e r l y r e v i e w e d by t h e Committee, t h e y have changed t h a t and t h e r e i s no p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e chijd,„between t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s recommendation and t h e c o u r t ' s a c t i o n . F o r a n was c o r r e c t i n t h i s because a l t h o u g h committee members o f t e n u r g e d s t e r n p u n i s h m e n t s , t h e y b r o u g h t a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h e work. When r e f e r r i n g , f o r example, t o a runaway who was a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f c o n c e r n t o them, t h e y homorously n o t e d t h a t "Andy has a g a i n evaded t h e v i g i l a n t 124 eye o f t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , b u t i s e x p e c t e d t o t u r n up a g a i n soon." I t was n o t t h e s o r t o f comment t h a t C o l l i e r , who would have been o r d e r i n g h i s s t a f f t o use a l l d i l i g e n c e t o f i n d t h e boy, woul d have made. The f o r e g o i n g a l l s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e how v e r y f a r t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t s ystem, a s i t o p e r a t e d i n Vancouver, d e v i a t e d f r o m t h e sys t e m e n v i s i o n e d by t h e p e o p l e who wrote and promoted t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s  A c t . I n t h e name o f p r o t e c t i o n a n d r e c l a m a t i o n , c h i l d r e n l o s t some o f t h e r i g h t s t h e y u s e d t o have b e f o r e t h e l a w and were p l a c e d under t h e a l m o s t a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l o f w e l l - m e a n i n g p e o p l e who sought t o f o r c e new a t t i t u d e s and l i f e - s t y l e s on them. U s i n g as a r e f e r e n c e t h e framework e s t a b l i s h e d by t h o s e who i n i t i a l l y g r a n t e d them, t h e c o u r t powers were s e r i o u s l y a b u s e d by Vancouver c o u r t p e r s o n n e l . Any a p p a r e n t s u c c e s s e s i n terms o f r e d u c i n g t h e numbers of c h i l d r e d who a c t u a l l y became c r i m i n a l s must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h t h i s i n mind. 46 Footnotes to Chapter II ''"Victoria Daily Times, Feb. 5, 1910, p. 10. 2 Quoted in Senate, Debates, May 21, 1908, p. 977. 3Ibid. 4 The Juvenile Court i n Law and the Juvenile Court in Action, (Ottawa: The Canadian Council on Child Welfare, 1927), p. 40. ^Senate, Debates, May 21, 1908, p. 976. Vancouver Province, Sept. 30, 1931, PP- 6, 10. 7 'Senate, Debates, May 21, 1908, p. 976. g Province, May 8, 1908, p. 7. 9Ibid.. Dec. 24, 1909, p. 1. 1 0 I b i d . , Sept. 29, 1931, pp. 6, 10. ^ I b i d . , p. 6. 1 2Day Book, C.P.O., Oct. 1, 1913. 1 3 I b i d . , April 28, 1914. l Z jIbid., June 25, 1913-1 5IMd. , Oct. 1, 1913. 1 6 J.C.A.C. Minutes, Dec. 19, 1910; March 17, 1913. 1 7Day Book, Oct. 8, 9, 1914. 18 Committed Nov. 11, 1914, see my f i l e I-2-A. 19 ^Committed Aug. 25, 1911, see my f i l e I-472-A. 20 J.S., committed Sept. 19, 1919, see my f i l e I-460-A. 2 1Minutes, Aug. 10, 29, 1910, see my f i l e I-431-A. 22 Minutes, Nov. 21, 1910, see my f i l e I - 3 8 I - A . 23 N i s the symbol for the total figure on which a percentage i s based. 24. Day Book, July 30, 1913. 47 2 5 I b i d . , S e p t . 16, 1913. ?6 I b i d . , Nov. 4, 1914. 27 S c o t t , The J u v e n i l e C o u r t . . . , p. 40. pQ Day Book, J u l y 23, 1913-29 7 M i n u t e s , Nov. 27, 1911; March 15, 1915-30 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y N e w s - A d v e r t i s e r , Aug. 11, 1910, p. 4. 3 1 I b i d . , A p r . 17, 1910, p. 7-3 2 I b i d . , A p r i l 18, 1912, p. 2. - ^ S e c t i o n 28. 34 ^ S e n a t e , Debates, June 4, 1908, p. 1044. 35 ^ I b i d . ?6 Canada G a z e t t e , S e p t . 26, 1908, q u o t e d i n S c o t t , The J u v e n i l e C o u r t . . . , P. 15. 37 The J u v e n i l e Court...', p. 37. ^ S e n a t e , Debates, May 21, 1908, p. 976. 3 9 M i n u t e s , Nov. 28, 1910. 40 Day Book, Dec. 3. 1912. 41 See my f i l e I-70-A. 42 See my f i l e I-442-A. 43 The J u v e n i l e C o u r t . . . , p. 37. 44 Day Book, Aug. 7, 8, 1913-45 ^ I b i d . , O c t . 2, 1914. 46 M i n u t e s , June 3, 1912. ^7 T Day Book, Feb. 4, 912. 49, 48 I b i d . , J u l y 8, 1914. 7 I b i d . , Aug. 15, 1914. 5°Ibid., June 11, 1913--^Ibid., March 21, 1911i Feb. 5, 1914. 5 2 I b l d . , July 9, 1914. 3-54. ^Minutes, Oct. 14, 1912. ^ I b i d . , June 21, 1912. Day Book, Dec. 5, 1912. Ibid., Sept. 28, 1911. ^Senate, Debates, June 16, 1908, pp. 1154-1155. ^ V i c t o r i a Daily Times, Feb. 5, 1910, p. 10. 5 9Judge's Book, May 30, 1917. 6°Ibid., May 6, 1914. 6 l Day Book, June 17, 1914. 6 ? Ibid., Jule 2, 1912. 6 3 I b i d . , Aug. 19, 1914. 64 Minutes, Sept. 12, 1910. 6 5 I b i d . , March 6, 1911. Ibid., Jan. 19, 1911; Day Book, Sept. 27, 1911. 6 7Day Book, April 8, 1914. 6R Ibid., April 28, 1914. 69 The Juvenile Court..., p. 42. 7°Day Book, Aug. 30, 1914. 73"See my f i l e , G.L., I-261-A. 7 2Day Book, May 23, 1913. ^ I b i d . , March 8, 1914. ^ I b i d . , Dec. 31, 1913-7 6 I b i d . , Oct. 7, 8, 9, 1914. 7 3 I b i d . , Oct. 1, 1912. 77 " i b i d . , O c t . 14, 1914. 7 8 I b i d . , Dec. 3, 1914. 79 ' 7 D a y Book, Aug. 12, 1914. 80 I b i d . , Dec. 15, 1912. I b i d . , J u l y 4, 1914. 8 2 T , . , I b i d . , A p r i l 14, 1914. 83 " T b i d . , Aug. 17, 1912. I b i d . , S e p t . 11, 1913. 8 5 I b i d . , O c t . 14, 1913. 86 I b i d . , O ct. 15, 1913. 8 7 I b i d . , S e p t . 5. 1914. I b i d . , J a n . 23, 1912. 89 7 I b i d . , Aug. 16, 1913. 9 0 I b i d . , O ct. 21, 1913. 9 1 I b i d . 9 2 I b i d . , J u l y 9, 1914. 9 3 I b i d . , June 19, 1913. 94 7 I b i d . , A p r i l 17, 1914. 9 5 I b i d . , A p r i l 30, 1914. 9 6 I b i d . , Feb. 2, 1914. 9 7 D a y Book, May 16, 1911. 9 8 I b i d . , Nov. 30, 1914. 99 7 7 I b i d . , J a n . 10, 1914. I b i d . i , Nov. 30, 1914. 1 0 1 V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, Feb. 5, 1910, p. 10. 1 0? P r o v i n c e , Feb. 16, 1910. p. 9. 50 1 0 3 r b i d . , Dec. 17, 1909, p. 9. 104 J . J . K e l s o t o Mr. H e a l e y , J.P.A., May 10, 1910, i n Wade P a p e r s , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . 1 0 W . 106 W.L. S c o t t t o J . J . K e l s o , May 10, 1910, copy e n c l o s e d w i t h I b i d . 107 ' Vancouver D a i l y N e w s - A d v e r t i s e r , A p r i l 26, 1910, p. 7. "I OPt I b i d . , S e p t . 7, 1910, p. 7. 1 0 9 I b i d . 110 M i n u t e s , March 11, 1912; Feb. 6, 1911. "'""'""'"The J u v e n i l e C o u r t . . . , p. 11. 1 1 2 M i n u t e s , Nov. 27, 1911. 113 I b i d . , A p r i l 1, 1912. l l i k E b i d . , A p r i l 22, 1912. 1 : L 5 i b i d . l l 6 D a y Book, O c t . 26, 1913. 1 1 7 I b i d . , O ct. 25, 1913. l l 8 M i n u t e s , May 13, 1912. 1 1 9 I b i d . , May 20, 1912. 1 2 0 I b i d . , Feb. 17, 1913. 1 21 I b i d . , May 26, 1914. 122 I b i d . , March 29, 1915. 123 -'J.S. F o r a n t o A.G., March 21, 1918, i n A.G. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , F i l e 1026-12-18. 1 2Slinutes, May 1, 1911. CHAPTER I I I THE COMMUNITY GUARDIAN C o l l i e r and members o f t h e J.C.A.C. f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e e n t i r e community had a r o l e t o p l a y i n t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f wayward y o u t h and i n p r e v e n t i n g f u t u r e d e l i n q u e n t s f r o m d e v e l o p i n g . The i n v o l v e m e n t , as t h e y saw i t , c o n s i s t e d i n p r o v i d i n g a m o r a l l y s a f e environment i n w h i c h young p e o p l e c o u l d l i v e . C o u r t p e r s o n n e l v i e w e d t h e m s e l v e s a s t h e c a t a l y s t s f o r s t e p s t o r a i s e g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d s o f c o n d u c t . T h e i r g u i d i n g p h i l o s o p h y f r o m t h e s t a r t was " t o t a k e up m a t t e r s o f g e n e r a l and p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f t h e l i v e s o f t h e Children."''" Such a b r o a d l y c o n s t r u e d mandate b r o u g h t p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h i n g s w i t h i n t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t ' s p u r v i e w . D e s p i t e some f r i v o l o u s v e n t u r e s , t h e Committee and C o l l i e r d i s p l a y e d a p e r s i s t e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o t a k e s p e c i f i c a c t i v e s t e p s t o c i r c u m s c r i b e t i g h t l y t he freedom o f a c t i v i t y o f j u v e n i l e s . T h e i r major i n t e r e s t s d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s were s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e , c u r f e w , and a 2 campaign f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . These e f f o r t s , however, by no means e x h a u s t e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . An o b s e r v e r a t one o f t h e J.C.A.C. m e e t i n g s may have b e s t d e s c r i b e d t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r e f f o r t s a t c o n t r o l when he: ... e x p r e s s e d h i s g r e a t p l e a s u r e i n what he had seen and h e a r d and compared t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f the p r e s e n t where so many p e o p l e were i n t e r e s t i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n b e t t e r i n g t h e l i v e s a nd c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e y o u t h o f t o d a y compared w i t h h i s e a r l i e r days.„ The wonder i s how d i d t h e c h i l d r e n escape f r o m t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s . S i n c e t h e s p e a k e r was i n f u l l sympathy w i t h a c t i o n s t a k e n by t h e Committee, h i s comment was n o t t e n d e r e d i n a f a c e t i o u s v e i n . C o l l i e r and t h e Committee worked t o g e t h e r v e r y c l o s e l y i n t h e i r e f f o r t s a t 51 52 community c o n t r o l and i t was o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e p r e c i s e l y whether he was o p e r a t i n g a t t h e i r b e h e s t o r t h e y a t h i s . I n any e v e n t , t h e t e n s i o n s t h a t s t r a i n e d t h e i r w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i n o t h e r a r e a s d i d n o t d e v e l o p i n t h i s one. The k e y t o a c t i v i t y o f t h e c o u r t i n r e g u l a t i n g a d u l t s i n t h e community was S e c t i o n 28 o f t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , under w h i c h i t was an o f f e n c e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e development o f d e l i n q u e n c y . T h i s c r i m e r a n g e d f r o m a c t i v e l y a s s i s t i n g a y o u t h i n i m p r o p e r a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h l e s s o b v i o u s encouragement o f t h e a c t s and even e x t e n d e d t o s i m p l e knowledge o f a j u v e n i l e o f f e n c e . Some c o n c e r n o v e r t h e w i d e - r a n g i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c l a u s e had been r a i s e d d u r i n g Senate d e b a t e on t h e A c t , b u t i t had been e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e s e c t i o n w o u l d n o t be u s e d u n l e s s a p e r s o n a c t i v e l y e n couraged, a i d e d o r a s s i s t e d a c h i l d t o commit a c r i m e . C o l l i e r , w i t h t h e Committee's s u p p o r t , i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s p r o v i s i o n v e r y f r e e l y . The Committee even d i s c u s s e d a p p o i n t m e n t o f a s p e c i a l p r o s e c u t o r t o h a n d l e c h a r g e s l a i d under t h i s s e c t i o n , b u t no c o n c r e t e a c t i o n seems t o have come f r o m t h e p r o p o s a l . " ' C o l l i e r f o u n d t h e c l a u s e p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l when t r y i n g t o d e a l w i t h s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e . P r o b a t i o n s t a f f and t h e s c h o o l b o a r d ' s t h r e e s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e o f f i c e r s worked t o g e t h e r q u i t e c l o s e l y on t h i s g e n e r a l p r o blem. The i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t r u a n t s was a c o n s t a n t , i f f r u s t r a t i n g , a f f a i r f o r p r o b a t i o n s t a f f . C h i l d r e n f o u n d o u t o f s c h o o l were q u e s t i o n e d and s e n t t o c l a s s e s a f t e r t h e i r names and a d d r e s s e s were r e c o r d e d . A f u l l e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made i f t h e c h i l d was n o t a l r e a d y r e g i s t e r e d a t some s c h o o l . I n b o t h i n s t a n c e s , f u l l r e p o r t s were made t o t h e s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e s t a f f . 53 The p o l i c y o f c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e two e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s had been I n i t i a t e d by C o l l i e r a s soon as t h e c o u r t was e s t a b l i s h e d . James I n g l i s , C h i e f A t t e n d a n c e O f f i c e r , g r a d u a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e o f an a l l y and i n O c t o b e r , 1911, had gone t h r o u g h t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t r e c o r d s " t o see how many o f t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s t h e r e r e g i s t e r e d have p r e v i o u s l y been d e a l t ' w i t h f o r t r u a n c y . " The c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y c l a u s e o f t e n i n v o k e d t o deny i n f o r m a t i o n t o o t h e r s was n o t a p p l i e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . A s i d e f r o m t h e a l m o s t d a i l y c o n t a c t between t h e two d e p a r t m e n t s , t h e r e were f u r t h e r f o r m a l m e e t i n g s h e l d t o d i s c u s s methods o f i m p r o v i n g s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e . I n A p r i l , 1912, C o l l i e r met w i t h S c h o o l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t W.P. Argue and t h e f u l l a t t e n d a n c e s t a f f r e g a r d i n g "an agreement whereby 7 we c o u l d keep b e t t e r t a b s on t r u a n t s . " There was no r e f e r e n c e t o d e t a i l s o f t h e p l a n and d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s seemed t o c o n t i n u e as b e f o r e . I n e a r l y 1913, however, I n g l i s p r o v i d e d t h e D e t e n t i o n Home w i t h a s e c t i o n o f f i l i n g c a b i n e t t o h o l d t h e r e c o r d s o f " a b s e n t e e s who a r e r e p o r t i n g . " The l i m i t e d a c t i o n t a k e n by t h e c o u r t a g a i n s t t r u a n c y d i d n o t mean t h a t i t was p e r c e i v e d as a minor p r o b l e m . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t A rgue, who was a l s o a J.C.A.C. member, e x p r e s s e d t h e m a j o r i t y f e e l i n g d u r i n g one of t h e Committee's f r e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e t o p i c : He spoke as t o t h e e a r l y f a i l u r e s o f c h i l d r e n , gave s t a t i s t i c s t o show t h a t a v e r y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t s were t r u a n t s a t s c h o o l , and e x p r e s s e d h i s v i e w t h a t i f we c o u l d a p p l y o ur sys t e m t o t h e t r u a n t s v e r y many c a s e s would be p r e v e n t e d f r o m d e l i n q u e n c y . The d i f f i c u l t y , a s t h e c o u r t saw i t , l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t t r u a n c y was n o t a c r i m e i n i t s own r i g h t . Under the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t , t h e f a i l u r e o f c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d s c h o o l was a p a r e n t a l o f f e n c e . " ^ P a r e n t s who n e g l e c t e d t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l , employers who h i r e d them, o r t h e a t r e managers who a d m i t t e d them d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s c o u l d be p r o s e c u t e d under a p p r o p r i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n , b u t a c t i o n c o u l d be t a k e n a g a i n s t t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s o n l y i f t h e p a r e n t s w o u l d c h a r g e them w i t h i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y . The J u v e n i l e C o u r t was g e n e r a l l y n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h e m ployers and c o n s i d e r e d the s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t p a r e n t s and o t h e r s t o be i n a d e q u a t e . T h e i r p r e f e r r e d s o l u t i o n was f o r t h e government t o make t r u a n c y a d e l i n q u e n c y . The J.C.A.C. members e x p l a i n e d t h e i r r a t i o n a l e d u r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c a s e o f a boy who was n o t r e g i s t e r e d a t s c h o o l and whose p a r e n t s had been f i n e d t h e maximum f i v e d o l l a r s when t h e y were p r o s e c u t e d a f t e r r e p e a t e d w a r n i n g s . Members o b s e r v e d t h a t " i n t h i s c a s e i t was shown t h a t t r u a n c y was n o t a d e l i n q u e n c y . I f i t was, a c t i o n c o u l d be b r o u g h t a g a i n s t t h e p a r e n t s f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o , T -.11 d e l i n q u e n c y . A l t h o u g h t h e gap i n t h e a r r a y o f l e g i s l a t i o n made i t d i f f i c u l t t o t a k e s t e p s a g a i n s t a c h i l d whose o n l y m i s b e h a v i o u r was t r u a n c y , h i s immunity v a n i s h e d once he committed any o t h e r o f f e n c e , however minor. A f r e q u e n t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n i n s u c h c a s e s was t o c o n f i n e t h e c h i l d i n t h e D e t e n t i o n Home f o r two o r t h r e e weeks, d u r i n g w h i c h p e r i o d he would be under d i s c i p l i n e and would a t t e n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s c h o o l . C o n t i n u e d a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l was n o r m a l l y made a c o n d i t i o n o f p a r o l e o r suspended s e n t e n c e when t h e c h i l d was r e l e a s e d . C o n f i r m e d t r u a n t s were u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d t h e Home's s c h o o l f o r s e v e r a l months b e f o r e b e i n g a l l o w e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . F o r a l l s t u d e n t s , however, i m p r o p e r a b sences became b r e a c h o f p r o b a t i o n o f f e n c e s because a t t e n d a n c e had been made mandatory by c o u r t o r d e r . L i k e w i s e , p a r e n t s o f t h e boys were t h e n s u b j e c t t o p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t a s w e l l 55 as t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t f o r t h e i r r o l e i n p e r m i t t i n g t h e t r u a n c y . The C.P.O. sometimes t o o k advantage o f s u c h s i t u a t i o n s t o f o r c e p a r e n t s t o d e c l a r e t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n c o r r i g i b l e i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s f r o m p r o s e c u t i o n . B u t l e g i s l a t i v e change r e m a i n e d the p r e f e r r e d s o l u t i o n and the s u b j e c t o f c o n t i n u e d a g i t a t i o n by c o u r t p e r s o n n e l . The c u r f e w q u e s t i o n , u n l i k e t r u a n c y , was one t h a t was a l r e a d y e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t p u r v i e w . I t was a l s o t h e s i n g l e i s s u e t h a t a b s o r b e d more a t t e n t i o n t h a n any o t h e r d u r i n g t h e c o u r t ' s e a r l y y e a r s . C i t y B y l a w No. 576, p a s s e d i n O c t o b e r , 1907, under e n a b l i n g p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , p r o h i b i t e d c h i l d r e n under t h e age o f 16 y e a r s f r o m b e i n g out between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m. u n l e s s b e a r i n g messages o r 12 accompanied by a g u a r d i a n . B u t a l t h o u g h r e m a i n i n g on t h e books, c u r f e w was no l o n g e r e n f o r c e d by 1910. Lack o f enforcement was seen i n t e r m i t t e n t l y a s a p r o b l e m even p r i o r t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e c o u r t . I n A p r i l , 1910, f o r example, t h e Mayor warned t h a t i t might be n e c e s s a r y t o remove t h e a t r e l i c e n c e s f r o m o f f e n d i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . He s a i d : " C o m p l a i n t s have been made t h a t many o f t h e c h i l d r e n who o f f e n d i n t h i s r e s p e c t do so t h r o u g h t h e inducements h e l d out by t h e dime n o v e l t y and moving p i c t u r e 13 t h e a t r e s . " P r e s s u r e was n o t c o n s i s t e n t enough t o f o r c e a r e v e r s a l i n t h e p o l i c e p o l i c y o f i g n o r i n g t h e c u r f e w , however, u n t i l C o l l i e r t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m a t t e r . The C.P.O. a l w a y s e n f o r c e d t h e b y l a w h i m s e l f and b e l i e v e d o t h e r e n f o r c e m e n t b o d i e s s h o u l d do t h e same. Soon a f t e r h i s a p p o i n t m e n t , he began t o l o b b y t h e p o l i c e and t h e mayor t o pers u a d e them t o make h i s p o s i t i o n o f f i c i a l p o l i c y . He a p p e a r e d t o have s u c c e e d e d i n March, 1911, when t h e mayor o r d e r e d P o l i c e C h i e f C h a m b e r l a i n t o resume c u r f e w 56 14 e n f o r c e m e n t . A t f i r s t , t h e r e was an immediate improvement i n t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h a t t h e r e was a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e numbers o f c h i l d r e n on t h e s t r e e t s l a t e a t n i g h t . The i m p a c t f a d e d , however, and a y e a r l a t e r C o l l i e r was a g a i n p r e s s u r i n g f o r more a s s i s t a n c e i n e n f o r c e m e n t . A f t e r he a s k e d t h a t " c o n s t a b l e s g i v e more s t r e e t a t t e n t i o n t o boys b e i n g on t h e s t r e e t s a f t e r 9 p.m.," s e n i o r p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s p l e d g e d renewed c o o p e r a t i o n . ^ W h i l e a c c e p t i n g t h i s , C o l l i e r t h o u g h t t h a t t h e r e a l s o l u t i o n was f o r t h e bylaw t o "be made s u b s t a n t i a l l y s t r o n g e r t h a n i t i s now.""^ He d i d n o t r e c o r d t h e s p e c i f i c s o f h i s p r o p o s a l , b u t when he p u t h i s v i e w t o t h e mayor and t h e e n t i r e P o l i c e Commission, he s u c c e e d e d o n l y i n h a v i n g a n o t h e r 17 announcement made t h a t t h e c u r f e w was t o be o f f i c i a l l y r e i n t r o d u c e d . P r e s s u r e f o r a s t r o n g e r bylaw was m a i n t a i n e d , b u t i n t h e i n t e r i m , c o u r t p e r s o n n e l t r i e d a new a p p r o a c h i n t h e c u r f e w s t r u g g l e - a b i d t o have an o f f i c e r a p p o i n t e d t o d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h c u r f e w m a t t e r s . C o l l i e r b o t h i n i t i a t e d t h i s p r o p o s a l w i t h t h e J.C.A.C. and p r o v i d e d t h e main :e „19 18 i m p e t u s f o r t h e u l t i m a t e a p p o i n t m e n t o f s u c h an o f f i c e r . The P o l i c e C h i e f gave i t h i s u n q u a l i f i e d s u p p o r t , c a l l i n g t h e p o s i t i o n "a n e c e s s i t y . ' Nor was t h e r e any d i s p u t e between t h e p o l i c e and t h e c o u r t r e g a r d i n g t h e c o r r e c t s t a t u s o f s u c h a n o f f i c i a l . Deputy C h i e f M u l h e r n s a i d t h e c u r f e w o f f i c e r w o u l d have t o be a t t a c h e d t o t h e p r o b a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t o the p o l i c e d epartment "as t h e y [ j p o l i c e ] c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y g i v e i t t h e 20 a t t e n t i o n i t r e q u i r e d . " I t a p p e a r e d as i f t h e r e was no o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t and a c t i o n was v e r y s w i f t d e s p i t e a c i v i c e l e c t i o n n e c e s s i t a t i n g i t s a p p r o v a l by two s e p a r a t e c i t y c o u n c i l s . Curfew O f f i c e r A r t h u r Capon assumed h i s d u t i e s Feb. 11, 1913> o n l y n i n e weeks a f t e r 21 C o l l i e r h ad f i r s t made the s u g g e s t i o n . 57 Capon's day began a r o u n d 11 a.m. when he r e v i e w e d the p r e v i o u s e v e n i n g ' s work w i t h t h e C.P.O. He t h e n c a l l e d a t t h e homes o f many o f t h e c h i l d r e n whom he had o r d e r e d o f f t h e s t r e e t s . These m e e t i n g s were u t i l i z e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e homes, t o a d v i s e p a r e n t s o f t h e r i s k s t h e i r c h i l d r e n were r u n n i n g i n v i o l a t i n g t h e bylaw, and t o warn r e c a l c i t r a n t c h i l d r e n a n d p a r e n t s a l i k e o f t h e need f o r r e f o r m . He went on t o check t h e a t r e s t o e n s u r e t h a t c h i l d r e n V s h o u r s were b e i n g o b s e r v e d . As c u r f e w o f f i c e r , he was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h e c k i n g h o t e l s and l o d g i n g houses t o be c e r t a i n t h a t no j u v e n i l e s were s t a y i n g t h e r e . H i s most o b v i o u s d u t i e s d i d n o t even b e g i n u n t i l the f i r e d e p a r t m e n t ' s c u r f e w b e l l sounded a t 9 p.m. From t h e n u n t i l s h o r t l y a f t e r m i d n i g h t , he went a b o u t t h e downtown s t r e e t s , a r c a d e s , t h e a t r e s and any p l a c e s t h a t boys m i g h t be f r e q u e n t i n g . I n most c a s e s , he warned them o f t h e i r v i o l a t i o n a n d o r d e r e d them home i m m e d i a t e l y ; many o t h e r s had t h e i r names and a d d r e s s e s r e c o r d e d b e f o r e t h e y were s e n t on t h e i r way. I f t h e c h i l d r e n were p a r t i c u l a r l y s m a l l , t h e o f f i c e r u s u a l l y e s c o r t e d them home. He t o o k boys t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i f t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e s u g g e s t e d t h e y had been away f r o m home f o r a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . The new o f f i c i a l ' s work was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h a t i t g r e a t l y r e d u c e d t h e number o f j u v e n i l e s on t h e s t r e e t a t n i g h t . C o l l i e r f r e q u e n t l y r e c o r d e d remarks a b o u t c u r f e w o f f e n d e r s a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s comments changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y by t h e t i m e Capon had been a t work f o r a b o u t s i x months. From t h e n on, C o l l i e r o f t e n r e m arked t h a t he had been "much s t r u c k w i t h t h e absence o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t r e e t , s h o w i n g o f f t h e good 22 work o f t h e c u r f e w o f f i c e r . " T h i s r e s u l t was a c c o m p l i s h e d even though 58 probation o f f i c i a l s were not quick to rush curfew violators and their parents into court. As with many of their prerogatives, they preferred to use threats as a means of producing the desired results. In Capon's f i r s t eleven weeks, for example, he reported that he had personally taken notes on 729 violators, an average of 9.5 per night. Of these, he paid follow-up v i s i t s to the homes of 307i or 42 per cent. During the same period i n the Juvenile Court, however, only eleven such charges were 23 f i l e d , that i s , only 1.5 per cent of the violators he actually reported. The number of children spoken to and sent home was really much higher than those reported, since a l l court o f f i c i a l s and police officers could and did deal with violators without bothering to identify them, and even Capon himself usually recorded less than half of those he encountered. Although Capon's nightly patrols reduced the urgency for a new curfew bylaw, Collier continued to press for amendments. He slowed his campaign only after the city s o l i c i t o r warned that i f he formally wrote to council about the matter at that stage, the attendant publicity to the existing bylaw's shortcomings could do his cause more harm than good. Solicitor Hay recommended that changes could more easily be made without 24 publicity i n the next amendments to the Street Traffic Bylaw. As Collier was already well-occupied with other campaigns, he accepted this argument and temporarily l e t the curfew issue rest, leaving himself more time for attention to the many other areas of community l i f e in which he and the J.C.A.C. had involved themselves. Some of the areas were clearly peripheral to their youth work. For example, the sending of a delegate to a committee "working on immoral literature" may have legitimately represented the J.C.A.C.'s moral 59 25 s u p p o r t f o r t h e c a u s e . B u t t h e a c t a l s o i n d i c a t e d an u n c o n s i d e r e d r e s p o n s e t o i n v o l v e m e n t i n a l l f orms o f g e n e r a l community improvement r a t h e r t h a n any p a r t i c u l a r commitment t o t h a t i s s u e . On t h e o t h e r hand, C o l l i e r ' s w a r n i n g s t o a c o m m e r c i a l p h o t o g r a p h e r t o c e a s e t a k i n g p i c t u r e s o f boys " w i t h p i p e s i n t h e i r mouths" o r t o a n o t h e r " t o s t o p t a k i n g p i c t u r e s 26 o f s m a l l boys w i t h o u t t h e i r p a r e n t s " were n o t s i m p l y i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t s . They were, r a t h e r , p a r t o f t h e c o u r t ' s d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t t o make l a r g e -s c a l e changes i n t h e e x t e n t o f t h e freedom o f a c t i v i t y p r e v i o u s l y a c c o r d e d t o j u v e n i l e s . A l t h o u g h a l l m i n ors were a l r e a d y s u b j e c t e d t o numerous l e g a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , t h e s e were i n i t i a l l y g e n e r a l l y p o t e n t i a l r a t h e r t h a n a c t u a l . The e n f o r c e m e n t o f co m p u l s o r y s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e was a n example. O f f i c i a l s o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h r e g u l a r i z i n g a t t e n d a n c e p a t t e r n s o f c h i l d r e n who were a l r e a d y r e g i s t e r e d b e f o r e t r y i n g t o impose t h e l a w 27 on t h o s e who r e s i s t e d t o t a l l y . S i m i l a r l y , c o u r t p e r s o n n e l sought t o s t a n d a r d i z e j u v e n i l e a c t i v i t i e s by e x t e n d i n g enforcement o f o f f i c i a l l y -a c c e p t e d l i m i t s t o a l l e l ements o f t h e community. Seen i n l i g h t o f t h i s u l t i m a t e g o a l , a c t i o n s t o r e s t r i c t t h e s a l e o f q u e s t i o n a b l e p o s t c a r d s and t o e n f o r c e a c t i v e l y t h e f e d e r a l Tobacco A c t 28 p r o h i b i t i o n on t h e s a l e o f c i g a r e t t e s t o j u v e n i l e s were p r e d i c t a b l e . T h i s a l s o a p p l i e d t o t h e b i d t o l i m i t t h e use o f t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t 29 a r c a d e s and pool-rooms by y o u t h s . The p r e s s u r e t o c o n t r o l t h e s a l e o f 30 r e g u l a r and a i r - g u n s t o m i n o r s was i n t h e same v e i n . The r e a s o n s f o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s were l e s s o b v i o u s , a s i n t h e case o f C o l l i e r ' s c o n c e r n t h a t messenger s e r v i c e s l o c a t e d i n t h e s e g r e g a t e d j _ r e d - l i g h t ] d i s t r i c t 31 m i g h t d e c i d e t o b e g i n e m p l o y i n g young p e o p l e . A t h i s u r g i n g , t h e p o l i c e 60 warned the companies and advised a l l madams i n the d i s t r i c t not to allow 32 any deliveries^ to be made by boys. His campaign to ensure that bellboys in hotels would not be used to serve alcohol to guests resulted in one boy losing his job and the drafting of a proposed legislative amendment that would make i t i l l e g a l for anyone under the age of 21 years to do such work. In these latter cases, the C.P.O. was clearly looking for any sort of potential for an undesireable situation rather than responding to actual situations. Concern over the number of thefts by boys led to sanctions against people who made any sort of purchases from juveniles. The J.C.A.C. discussed the possibility of adopting a licensing system for pedlars and junk dealers to ensure that they would be prohibited from such 34 transactions. At the Committee's urging, ci t y council disregarded a warning from i t s s o l i c i t o r that such a ban would be ultra vires as a restraint of trade, and passed a bylaw prohibiting second-hand dealers 35 from buying from children under the age of 18 years. Collier used the bylaw frequently, laying charges against merchants who ignored i t s provisions, particularly i f the goods they had bought were later found to have been stolen. It i s interesting to note that in such situations dealers were charged under the bylaw, while boys who bought items from one another were charged with the more serious criminal offence of receiving or retaining stolen goods. Like the ban on the use of second-hand and pawn shops, the clause in the Lodging House Bylaw prohibiting operators from renting rooms to juveniles without reporting them to the police or the C.P.O. struck ^ 6 hardest at the independence of working youths. The ban was enforced 61 i n s u c h a c a s u a l manner t h a t some p r o p r i e t o r s seemed l e g i t i m a t e l y 37 unaware o f i t u n t i l t h e cu r f e w o f f i c e r began h i s work. Enfo r c e m e n t o f t h i s b y l a w t h e n became h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and he had c a r d s f o r r e c o r d i n g young g u e s t s p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o most h o t e l s and roomin g h o u s e s . He made t h e ro u n d s d a i l y t o p i c k up t h e c a r d s and q u e s t i o n any boys who were s t a y i n g on t h e p r e m i s e s . The c u r f e w o f f i c e r was a l s o g i v e n much o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n f o r c e m e n t o f l a w s g o v e r n i n g a t t e n d a n c e a t movie t h e a t r e s . The s t r u g g l e t o f o r c e t h e a t r e o p e r a t o r s t o r e s t r i c t a c c e s s t o c h i l d r e n had been g o i n g 39 on s i n c e t h e c o u r t was f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d . A t t h a t t i m e , t h e p r o b a t i o n s t a f f ' s main c o n c e r n had been t h a t no unaccompanied m i n o r s were a d m i t t e d d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s o r a l l o w e d t o e i t h e r e n t e r o r l e a v e a f t e r t h e c u r f e w h o u r . To t h i s end, C o l l i e r s p e n t much ti m e c h e c k i n g t h e a t r e s , s e n d i n g y o u t h f u l p a t r o n s home and w a r n i n g a n d t r y i n g t o pers u a d e o p e r a t o r s t o 40 h e l p w i t h c h i l d c o n t r o l . Some o f the t h e a t r e s e n t e r e d i n t o agreements w i t h t h e C.P.O. s t i p u l a t i n g t h a t t h e y would n o t s e l l t i c k e t s t o boys a f t e r 7:30 p.m. t o ensure t h a t t h e y w o u l d be o u t and on t h e i r way home by c u r f e w . C o l l i e r ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e a t r e s p r o v i d e s one o f t h e c l e a r e s t examples o f the way i n whi c h o v e r a l l community s t a n d a r d s were a f f e c t e d by t h e p e r c e i v e d need t o p r o t e c t young p e o p l e f r o m bad i n f l u e n c e s . P r i o r t o th e a d v e n t o f p r o v i n c i a l f i l m c e n s o r s h i p i n 1913> r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t r o l r e s t e d w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e l i c e n c e i n s p e c t o r i n Vancouver. As t h i s was o n l y one o f h i s many d u t i e s , t h e i n s p e c t o r f r e q u e n t l y a s k e d C o l l i e r t o r e p l a c e him i n h i s c a p a c i t y a s c e n s o r . On many o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , t h e i n s p e c t o r and t h e C.P.O. j o i n t l y 62 v i e w e d and d e a l t w i t h p r o d u c t i o n s . The need f o r an o f f i c i a l c e n s o r was 42 r a i s e d f r o m t i m e t o time by t h e J.C.A.C. and t h e J.P.A. The b e g i n n i n g o f p r o v i n c i a l movie c e n s o r s h i p removed t h e i s s u e o f f i l m c o n t e n t f r o m C o l l i e r ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n and f u r t h e r r e l i e v e d him by p r o v i d i n g c l e a r , e n f o r c e a b l e r u l e s f o r t h e a t r e s t o f o l l o w w i t h r e g a r d t o a d m i s s i o n o f j u v e n i l e s . Under t h e new r e g u l a t i o n s , unaccompanied c h i l d r e n under 14 , 43 y e a r s c o u l d n o t be a d m i t t e d a f t e r 6 p.m. The s c h o o l - h o u r s ban r emained i n e f f e c t . D u r i n g t h e c o u r t ' s f i r s t y e a r s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i o r t o d i s b a n d i n g o f t h e J . C . A . C , c o u r t w o r k e r s engaged i n s e v e r a l o t h e r minor schemes t o improve t h e l o t o f Vancouver c h i l d r e n . A l a b o u r b u r e a u e x c l u s i v e l y f o r boys was s t a r t e d , b u t p r o v e d i n e f f e c t i v e a n d was soon 44 dropped. P l e a s were f r e q u e n t l y made f o r someone t o e s t a b l i s h a w e l l - r u n b o a r d i n g home f o r b o y s , a l t h o u g h c o u r t o f f i c i a l s d i s p l a y e d o n l y 45 a n t a g o n i s m when two women a c t u a l l y t r i e d t o s e t up s u c h an i n s t i t u t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a t r a i n i n g s h i p , where boys c o u l d l e a r n 46 d i s c i p l i n e and m a r i t i m e s k i l l s , a l s o came up a t l e a s t once a y e a r . One Committee member even wanted t o d e v e l o p some arrangement f o r 47 " c h i l d r e n t o have o p p o r t u n i t y o f a Bank A c c o u n t " t o t e a c h them t h r i f t . C o u r t p e r s o n n e l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y C o l l i e r , met w i t h s t r o n g and s u c c e s s f u l o p p o s i t i o n t o o n l y one o f t h e i r s e r i o u s p r o p o s a l s - the c o n t r o l o f newsboys. Young boys worked a s hawkers f o r o l d e r y o u t h s and men who had newsstands. W i t h f r e q u e n t " e x t r a " and l a t e " f i n a l " e d i t i o n s , t h e boys were o f t e n on t h e s t r e e t s u n t i l l a t e a t n i g h t . They had t h e i r own f a v o r i t e "newsboy h a u n t s " and o f t e n engaged i n g a m b l i n g , f i g h t i n g and f l i r t a t i o n s w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r p a p e r s a t t h e r e a r o f newspaper o f f i c e s . 63 The c o n t r o l o f newsboys was a r e c u r r i n g i s s u e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a because t h e boys "from t h e i r o f f i c e were exposed t o numerous t e m p t a t i o n s 48 w h i c h y i e l d e d t o , t e n d e d t o l a n d so many boys i n t h e r e f o r m a t o r y . " C o l l i e r had c l e a r a u t h o r i t y t o d e a l w i t h any boys he caught g a m b l i n g , c r e a t i n g a d i s t u r b a n c e , o r t h o s e under 14 y e a r s who were o u t a f t e r c u r f e w , b u t t h e o t h e r s evaded h i s c o n t r o l . The C.P.O. p r o p o s e d a system o f badges an d l i c e n c e s t o c o r r e c t t h i s s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h he v i e w e d a s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . U n l i k e o t h e r y o u t h s , however, t h e newsboys were o r g a n i z e d a n d C o l l i e r had t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n a s w e l l as h i s u s u a l l o b b y i n g w i t h c i t y c o u n c i l , t h e p o l i c e 49 department and t h e P o l i c e Commission. He met w i t h t h e " k i n g o f newsboys" and g o t h i s endorsement f o r t h e scheme."^ The a d v e n t o f W o r ld War I d i s r u p t e d normal m u n i c i p a l b u s i n e s s , however, and t h e p r o p o s a l was n o t implemented d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The C.P.O.'s good r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e newsboys f a d e d when t h e war i n c r e a s e d t h e number o f s p e c i a l e d i t i o n s and he p r o p o s e d t o e n f o r c e t h e c u r f e w r i g o r o u s l y even a g a i n s t them. A t t h i s j u n c t u r e , t h e p o l i c e r e f u s e d , w a r n i n g him t h a t s u c h a c o u r s e was inadvisable.' 5"'" R e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s d i s p u t e a r e s k e t c h y and w h i l e t h e p o l i c e may have b a s e d t h e i r a d v i c e s o l e l y on a c o n c e r n f o r the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f war news, i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t newsboy o r g a n i z a t i o n was a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e c i s i o n . T h i s was t h e o n l y r e c o r d e d i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h anyone, o t h e r t h a n f a m i l i e s o r b u s i n e s s p r o p r i e t o r s s u c h a s t h e a t r e o p e r a t o r s who were b e i n g d i r e c t l y and a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p r o b a t i o n s t a f f , o b j e c t e d t o any a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e V ancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t . As e x t e n s i v e as t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c o u r t p e r s o n n e l were, t h e r e were 64 two major areas of child l i f e with which they did not concern themselves -the school and the "regular" workplace. Compulsory attendance at school until the age of 14 years, unless i n special circumstances, had been required i n the province in stages since 1872 by the Public Schools Act. Child labour on a wide scale in industry and commerce had been checked by the Factories Act i n 190-8. This act prohibited employment of boys under 14 and g i r l s under 15 years old by non-seasonal firms with at least five employees. The Vancouver Juvenile Court system did not concern i t s e l f with the regular conduct of children while at school or at most types of work, even i f the latt e r were i l l e g a l . There appears to have been no contact whatsoever between court o f f i c i a l s and the Factories Inspector during the court's f i r s t five years of existence. The court's concern with children improperly absent from school, working on evening schedules or i n street trades, and a l l juveniles during a l l free hours thus completed the c i r c l e of controls on youth that had been started with the imposition of compulsory education. Within five years of establishment, the Vancouver Juvenile Court had managed to institutionalize new community attitudes towards permissable juvenile behaviour and to r e s t r i c t significantly the freedom of activity of youngsters. The impact of the new restrictions on schoolboys was not great since they merely put into effect many constraints that had been presumed, even i f not enforced before this time. The situation regarding working youths was quite different, although legislation subjected them to the same restraints simply because of age. The J.C.A.C. and Collier's intervention in community organization had both a nuisance and an economic impact on these boys. 65 The i m p a c t was d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e c a s e o f R.S., a f o u r t e e n - y e a r o l d l a b o u r e r who had moved t o Vanc o u v e r f r o m Vernon s i x weeks b e f o r e h i s 52 e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e C.P.O. C o l l i e r met him w h i l e t h e boy was a t t h e s t r e e t r a i l w a y depot w a i t i n g f o r a c a r home a f t e r t h e c u r f e w o f f i c e r had o r d e r e d him o f f t h e s t r e e t s . I n r e s p o n s e t o q u e s t i o n s , he e x p l a i n e d t h a t he l i v e d i n a r o o m i n g house, had a f a t h e r l i v i n g i n West Vancouver, and had j u s t q u i t h i s j o b because t h e pay was t o o low. The C.P.O. o r d e r e d him t o keep i n a t n i g h t and t o b r i n g h i s f a t h e r t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home f o r a d i s c u s s i o n . He a l s o had Curfew O f f i c e r Capon p e r s o n a l l y e s c o r t him home. When t h e boy came t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home, C o l l i e r o r d e r e d him t o t r y t o g e t h i s o l d j o b back and t o l d t h e f a t h e r t o g e t m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t f o r t h e boy's p a r a l y s e d hand. P a r e n t s were s i m i l a r l y l i m i t e d by a c t i o n s o f t h e c o u r t . I n many i n s t a n c e s t h e y were d e n i e d needed f a m i l y revenue because t h e i r c h i l d r e n were f o r b i d d e n t o work a s newsboys and f a c e d a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s because t h e boys were r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d s c h o o l . They l o s t t h e economic and e m o t i o n a l advantage t h a t accompanied t h e i r c h i l d r e n becoming a d u l t s f o r a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s a t t h e age o f 14 y e a r s . P a r e n t s who had c h i l d r e n who came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c o u r t f u r t h e r l o s t t h e i r f o r m e r p r i v a c y and independence as t h e y a l s o came under t h e c o u r t ' s o r d e r s and t h e C.P.O.'s s c r u t i n y . There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e new community watchdogs a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o u r t e v e r s t o p p e d t o c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e y were s e e k i n g t o impose on a l l c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s , s t a n d a r d s o f c o n d u c t t h a t had no r e l e v a n c e f o r most o f them. T h i s i s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t c o u r t p e r s o n n e l were w e l l aware t h a t s c h o o l b o y s and p o t e n t i a l s c h o o l b o y s were n o t t h e i r o n l y 66 c l i e n t s . The a c t i v i s t s ' " blindness i n t h i s r e g a r d i s a s t r o n g t e s t i m o n y t o t h e d e g r e e o f b i a s t h e y h e l d f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i f e - s t y l e s . What i s even more r e v e a l i n g , however, i s t h e f a c t t h a t a p a r t f r o m t h e f a m i l i e s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d , a l m o s t no o p p o s i t i o n d e v e l o p e d t o t h e new community s t a n d a r d s f o r y o u t h . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e j u d g e , t h e C.P.O. and t h e J.C.A.C. e n j o y e d a r e m a r k a b l e degree o f community s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s s u p p o r t must be b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t t h e i r a s s a u l t on t h e independence o f a l l c h i l d r e n , and w o r k i n g y o u t h s i n p a r t i c u l a r , when a s s e s s i n g t h e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f f o r m a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c o u r t . 6? Footnotes to Chapter III """J.C.A.C. Minutes, April 24, 1911. 2 The latter campaign w i l l not be treated as this study i s dealing with the Court only as i t affected juvenile males. ^Minutes, July 31, 1911. 4 Senate, Debates, June 4, 1908, p. 1045. ^Minutes, April 3. 1911. Day Book, C.P.O., Oct. 20, 1911. 7 I b i d . , April 22, 1912. o Ibid., Jan. 24, 1913-9Minutes, May 27, 1911. 1 QB.C. Revised Statutes, 1911, Ch. 206, s. 140-142. i : LMinutes, May 29, 1911. 1 2Bylaw regulating occupation and conduct of persons in or upon Avenues, Streets, Lanes, etc., and providing for control of same.... The bylaw i s no longer extant. The enabling provincial legislation was the Curfew Act. 1907, Ch. 13. 13 Vancouver Daily News-Advertiser, April 7, 1910, p. 14. 14 Day Book, March 2, 1911. ^ I b i d . , May 30, 1912. 1 6 Ibid., June 24, 1912. 17 News-Advertiser, June 25, 1912, p. 2. 18 Day Book, see entire month of Dec, 1912. 1 9 I b i d . , Dec. 17, 1912. 2 0 I b i d . , Dec. 12, 1912. 21 The only recorded biographical information regarding him i s that he was previously employed by the B.C.E.R. ? 2 Day Book, Dec. 29, 1913. 68 23 ^Statistics compiled from Minutes, Feb. 24, 1913. through May 26, 1913. and Day Book for the same dates. This period was used because i t was the only time for which relatively detailled curfew officer s t a t i s t i c s were reproduced. 24 Day Book, Feb. 13, 1913. 25 -^Minutes, March 13, 1911. ?6 Day Book, Feb. 16, 1911, and Oct. 23, 1911. 27 Timothy Dunn, "Work, Glass and Education: Vocationalism in Br i t i s h Columbia Public Schools, 1900-1929," M.A. Thesis, University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1978, pp. 79-80, 209-210. 28Day.Book, March 25, Nov. 10, Aug. 24, 1911; Sept. 12, 1912; June 24, 1913; and Aug. 19, 1914. 2 9 I b i d . , June 12, 1911; Aug. 24, 1912; Nov. 12, 1913; and Sept. 24, 1914. 3°Ibid., Jan. 2, Oct. 15, and Dec. 31, 1912. 3 1 I b i d . , April 23, 1912. 3 2 I b i d . , May 7, 1912. 3 3Minutes, Oct. 17, Nov. 14, 1910, and Day Book, July 29 and Aug. 7. 1912. 34 -^Minutes, Sept. 12, 1910. -^Ibid. , Nov. 28, Dec. 12, 1910, and Day Book, July 31, 1911. 3 6Minutes, July 5, Aug. 17, 1910, and March 27, 1911. 3 7Day Book, March 14, 1911. 3 8 I b i d . , Feb. 22, 1913. 3 9Minutes, Oct. 17, Oct. 24, Nov. 28, 1910. 4 0 Ibid., Feb. 4, April 24, 1911; March 22, April 2, April 19, 1912. 41 News-Advertiser, Aug. 11, 1910, p. 4, and Day Book, Jan. 2, 1913-Minutes, July 20, Aug. 17, Nov. 28, 1910, and Province, Feb. 16, 1910, p. 9. 43 "Tlay Book, June 2, 1913. 44 News-Advertiser, April 18, 1912, p. 2. 69 ^Minutes, Sept. 26, 1910, and Day Book, Dec. 10, 12, 15, 1914. 46 News-Advertiser, April 19, 1911, p. 2, and Minutes, Oct. 24, 1910. 47 'Minutes, April 24, 1911. 48 Province, Feb. 18, 1909, p. 6, and Minutes, Vancouver Local Council of Women, April 4, 1910, in Special Collections, University of British Columbia Library. 49 7Day Book, Sept. 27, 1914. ^°Ibid., May 2, 1914, and Minutes, Sept. 21, 1914. 5 1Day Book, Aug. 10, 1914. 5 2See my f i l e 1-440-A. CHAPTER IV CLIENTELE OF THE JUVENILE COURT L e g i s l a t o r s who p a s s e d t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t had many p r e c o n c e p t i o n s about t h e c l a s s o f boy who f o u n d h i m s e l f i n t r o u b l e w i t h t h e l aw. The major a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t he came f r o m a p o o r f a m i l y . 1 H i s f a m i l y was a l s o seen a s one i n w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s e i t h e r had a f l a w e d c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between r i g h t and wrong o r were t o o l a z y o r u n c a r i n g t o t e a c h a n d d i s c i p l i n e t h e c h i l d . A s i n g l e mother was c o n s i d e r e d v e r y l i k e l y t o produce a d e l i n q u e n t boy, and c h i l d r e n were o f t e n s e e n a s g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e even d u r i n g t e m p o r a r y , s h o r t - t e r m a b s e nces o f t h e i r f a t h e r s . O t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h a s t r u a n c y and a f o r e i g n b a c k g r o u n d were a l s o seen by many a s l i k e l y t o l e a d t o c r i m i n a l i t y . The v i e w t h a t any p e r i o d i n g a o l , however, s l i g h t , was a l m o s t c e r t a i n t o condemn a c h i l d t o l i f e a s a c r i m i n a l was a t r u i s m . The i n n o v a t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n was seen a s a k e y t o b r e a k i n g t h e v i c i o u s c y c l e whereby a c h i l d was a r r e s t e d f o r some o f f e n c e , p l a c e d i n d e t e n t i o n w i t h hardened c r i m i n a l s who t a u g h t him t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , and t h e n r e l e a s e d t o 2 go on t o more s e r i o u s c r i m e s . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e c a s e s t h a t came b e f o r e t h e Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d p r o v i d e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o 3 t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f some o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s . I c o m p i l e d f i l e s on a l l c a s e s who came b e f o r e t h e c o u r t f r o m i t s i n c e p t i o n i n May, 1910, u n t i l J a n u a r y , 1915- Of t h e s e , I s t u d i e d 567 c a s e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d a l m o s t a l l male d e l i n q u e n t s who were a c t u a l l y c h a r g e d b e f o r e t h e c o u r t f o r any r e a s o n . U n l i k e t h e p r a c t i c e i n some o t h e r j u v e n i l e c o u r t s , Vancouver o f f i c i a l s l a i d f o r m a l c h a r g e s a g a i n s t a l m o s t a l l o f f e n d e r s t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d . A n o t h e r 199 f e m a l e c a s e s were e l i m i n a t e d 70 71 f o r t h e r e a s o n s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r I . A f u r t h e r 94 c a s e s were d i s c a r d e d because a l t h o u g h t h e y were h a n d l e d t h r o u g h t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t , t h e y were c h i l d w e l f a r e , r a t h e r t h a n d e l i n q u e n c y c a s e s . Twelve more c a s e s were e l i m i n a t e d because t h e y d e a l t w i t h a d u l t o f f e n d e r s , m o s t l y t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h c o n t r i b u t i n g t o d e l i n q u e n c y . Who a c t u a l l y were t h e boys who came b e f o r e t h e c o u r t d u r i n g i t s e a r l y y e a r s ? Many f i t t h e c a t e g o r y o f A.B., who was a r r e s t e d f o r the 4 t h e f t o f t o b a c c o and c i g a r e t t e p a p e r s : " I t i s a case o f a wayward boy." Some, s u c h a s J . L . , who s t o l e o r anges he had f o u n d w h i l e d e l i v e r i n g newspapers i n an a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g , were good boys who had s i m p l y " y i e l d e d t o t h e t e m p t a t i o n . " ' 5 O t h e r s were " s m a l l b o y ^ s ] " who were t o o young t o know any b e t t e r . 6 Some c h i l d r e n were c a l l e d b e f o r e t h e c o u r t t o 7 answer f o r h a v i n g r i d d e n t h e i r b i c y l c e s on t h e s i d e w a l k . O t h e r s , s u c h as A.F., an e i g h t - y e a r - o l d t r u a n t who had a l r e a d y r u n away f r o m home t w e l v e g t i m e s , were t h e r e t o be g i v e n a f i n a l chance " t o see i f he can make good." S t i l l o t h e r s were c h a r g e d w i t h s e r i o u s o f f e n c e s . The s o r t o f boys c l e a r l y c o v e r e d a wide range o f c h i l d r e n . The t y p e o f f i r s t o f f e n c e s t h a t m ight have been e x p e c t e d f o r t h e most p a r t was s u g g e s t e d by S e n a t o r C o f f e y ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r as a " l i t t l e w a i f ... a c h i l d o f n a t u r e who has wandered f r o m t h e p a t h o f r e c t i t u d e b u t who s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d homeward t o t h e i d e a l once 9 a g a i n . " T a b l e one, w h i c h shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i r s t c h a r g e s , l e n d s s u p p o r t f o r C o f f e y ' s v i e w t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were n o t r e a l l y c r i m i n a l s i m p l y because t h e y had committed o f f e n c e s . M i n o r t h e f t a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t h a l f o f a l l f i r s t o f f e n c e s . 1 1 ^ A l t h o u g h t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d t h e o c c a s i o n a l charge f o r p i c k i n g f l o w e r s i n someone's g a r d e n , t h e boys' f a v o r i t e t a r g e t s 72 were b i c y c l e s . T h e f t s o f money f r o m p a r e n t s and l o d g e r s o r n e i g h b o u r s were a l s o common, a s was t h e s h o p l i f t i n g o f candy and r a i s i n s . Gar t h e f t was a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y because i t a l m o s t ' i n v a r i a b l y i n v o l v e d j o y r i d i n g and was t r e a t e d a s a minor c h a r g e , as i f the t h e f t were one o f t h e r i d e r a t h e r t h a n t h e a u t o . G a m b l i n g , d r u n k e n n e s s , t o b a c c o v i o l a t i o n s and b r e a c h i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o b a t i o n were c l a s s e d a s "most minor" o f f e n c e s f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t a b l e . " V i c t i m l e s s c r i m e s i n c l u d e d c u r f e w , t r u a n c y , v a g r a n c y , w a n d e r i n g a b r o a d , and i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y . W i l f u l damage, r e c e i v i n g o r r e t a i n i n g s t o l e n goods, and b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g were c o n s i d e r e d t o be " r e l a t i v e l y s e r i o u s " c h a r g e s and a l l o t h e r o f f e n c e s were c l a s s e d a s " s e r i o u s . " TABLE 1 INCIDENCE OF FIRST OFFENCES Charge A b s o l u t e F r e q u e n c y P e r c e n t a g e V i c t i m l e s s 150 26.5 Most m i n o r 45 7.9 M i n o r 232 40.9 R e l a t i v e l y s e r i o u s 105 18.5 S e r i o u s 32 5«6 M i s s i n g 3_ Q«6 T o t a l 567 100.0 There was an i m p l i c i t , b u t c l e a r h i e r a r c h y o f c h a r g e s a s p e r c e i v e d by c o u r t s t a f f . I n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f s e v e r i t y , o f f e n c e s r a n g e d f r o m smoking c i g a r e t t e s , bylaw o f f e n c e s , t r u a n c y , g a m b l i n g , d r u n k e n n e s s , c u r f e w v i o l a t i o n s , i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y , w a n d e r i n g a b r o a d , b r e a c h i n c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o b a t i o n , v a g r a n c y , w i l f u l damage, mi n o r t h e f t , r e c e i v i n g o r r e t a i n i n g s t o l e n goods, b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g , f o r g e r y , f a l s e p r e t e n c e s , major t h e f t , a r s o n , a s s a u l t , e s c a p i n g c u s t o d y and highway r o b b e r y t o i n d e c e n t a c t s . 73 Writing many years l a t e r , W.L. Scott explained that when he had drafted the act, he had assumed that the court's probation o f f i c e r would become the major enforcement agent f o r j u v e n i l e s . 1 1 This was not the case i n Vancouver, where p o l i c e continued to f u l f i l l t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l function with regard to juveniles, even a f t e r establishment of the court. This was unlike the s i t u a t i o n i n Chicago, where p o l i c e were very r a r e l y involved 12 with juvenile offenders. Information regarding the o r i g i n a t o r of the c h i l d ' s f i r s t contact with the Vancouver Juvenile Court i s a v a i l a b l e f o r 13 59.4 per cent of a l l cases (N=567). The r e s u l t s are recorded i n table two and the extent of p o l i c e involvement i s obvious. TABLE 2 ORIGINATOR OF FIRST CONTACT (OVERALL) Originator Absolute Frequency Percentage P o l i c e 177 52.5 Probation s t a f f 89 26.4 Parent or guardian 42 12.5 Other _29_ 8.6 u Total 337 100 M.D.=230 The o r i g i n a t o r s varied from offence to offence, with p o l i c e tending to bring i n a l l boys charged both with the most serious and the most minor (bylaw) offences. Table three i n d i c a t e s the extent of p o l i c e involvement throughout the range of charges, and p a r t i c u l a r l y at i t s two extreme ends, and suggests c e r t a i n things about the C.P.O.'s a t t i t u d e toward the p o l i c e . For the more serious crimes, the boys were usually taken to the p o l i c e s t a t i o n and held u n t i l C o l l i e r picked them up. Since he d i d not object to t h i s p r a c t i c e , i t seems evident that he did not share the concern of many of h i s contemporaries regarding juvenile contact with 74 c r i m i n a l s . The f a c t t h a t p o l i c e a l s o b r o u g h t i n most m i n o r o f f e n d e r s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e C.P.O. was s u c c e s s f u l i n s t o p p i n g them f r o m d e a l i n g w i t h s u c h c a s e s on t h e s p o t , a s t h e y p r o b a b l y had done p r i o r t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e c o u r t . TABLE 3 ORIGINATOR OF FIRST CONTACT (SPECIFIC) Hharge V i c t i m l e s s Most m i n o r M i n o r i R e l a t i v e l y S e r i o u s s e r i o u s D r i g i n a t o r P a r e n t 22 * 0 12 1 1 61.1%,, 0 33. J 5% 2.8% 2.8% 19. Of 0 9.2 % 2.3% 5-0% G u a r d i a n 3 0 3 0 0 50.0% 0 50.C % 0 0 2.7% 0 2.J 0 0 P o l i c e 41 13 72 38 13 28.2% 7.3% 40.7% 21.5% 7.3% 36.6% 48.1$ 55-c % 86.4% 65.0% P r o b a t i o n 43 12 29 5 4 s t a f f 46.2% 12.9% 31.2 5.4% 4.3% 38.4% 44.4% 22.1% 11.4% 20.0% Other 3 2 15 0 2 13.6% 9.1% 68.2 % 0 9.1% 2.7% 7.4% 11.1 5% 0 10.0% Row P e r c e n t ( t h a t i s , 6 l . l % o f a l l c a s e s r e p o r t e d by p a r e n t s were f v i c t i m l e s s ) Column P e r c e n t ( t h a t i s , 19.6% o f a l l v i c t i m l e s s o f f e n c e s were r e p o r t e d by p a r e n t s ) N=335, M.D.=2. P a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n b r i n g i n g c h i l d r e n b e f o r e t h e c o u r t was c e n t e r e d on t h e v i c t i m l e s s c r i m e s o f i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y , c u r f e w and wa n d e r i n g a b r o a d . T h i s was t o have been e x p e c t e d , s i n c e many o f t h e l a t t e r c h a r g e s came about when p a r e n t s who were w o r r i e d about t h e whereabouts o f t h e i r 75 c h i l d r e n had c a l l e d t he p o l i c e o r t h e D e t e n t i o n Home t o a s k f o r h e l p i n l o c a t i n g them. Vagrancy was t h e o n l y v i c t i m l e s s o f f e n c e w h i c h d e v i a t e d from t h i s p a t t e r n , a s shown i n t a b l e f o u r , and p o l i c e were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g i n most o f t h e boys i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . P r o b a t i o n s t a f f were i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g i n a l l t y p e s o f c a s e s e x c e p t b y l a w o f f e n d e r s , b u t f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on c u r f e w v i o l a t o r s , gamblers and t r u a n t s . TABLE 4 ORIGINATOR OF VICTIMLESS CRIME CHARGES - FIRST OFFENCE Charge Curfew V a g r a n c y Wandering I n c o r r i g i b l e P a r e n t 10.5% 26.7% 52.9% P o l i c e 34.2% 73.7% 43.3% P r o b a t i o n s t a f f 55.3?o 26.3% 25.7% 23.6% O t h e r — — 4.3% 23-6% T o t a l 100% 100% 100% 100% N 56 24 35 24 V a r i o u s f orms o f p r o b a t i o n d o minated j u v e n i l e c o u r t s e n t e n c e s f o r f i r s t o f f e n c e s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c o u r t p e r s o n n e l were q u i c k t o use t h e i r new r e h a b i l i t a t i v e t o o l . O t h e r f a v o r i t e s e n t e n c e s i n c l u d e d w a r n i n g s t o p a r e n t a n d / o r c h i l d ; f o rms o f suspended s e n t e n c e , some i n v o l v i n g c o r p o r a l punishment; and o u t - o f - c o u r t s e t t l e m e n t s . 1 - 5 O n l y s i x t e e n boys were 16 committed t o t h e Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l a t t h i s s t a g e . As w i t h o f f e n c e s , t h e r e was a c l e a r h i e r a r c h y o f p e n a l t i e s . I n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f s e v e r i t y , i t was a s f o l l o w s : r e s t i t u t i o n , s e t t l e d o ut o f c o u r t , f o u n d j o b , f i n e , d i s m i s s e d o r w i t h d r a w n , suspended s e n t e n c e , s c h o o l t o p u n i s h , s p a n k i n g , 76 d e t a i n e d u n t i l p a r e n t s improve home, c h i l d warned, c h i l d t o a t t e n d t h e D e t e n t i o n Home s c h o o l , p a r e n t and c h i l d c a u t i o n e d , p r o b a t i o n , f l o g g i n g , c o m m i tted t o c a r e o f g u a r d i a n , committed t o C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , l e a v e c i t y , l e a v e c o u n t r y , committed t o B . I . S . , and t r a n s f e r r e d t o P o l i c e C o u r t . The r e a s o n s f o r c h o i c e o f d i f f e r e n t p e n a l t i e s were u s u a l l y o b v i o u s t o c o u r t p e r s o n n e l . F i n e s , f o r example, were seen a s p a r e n t a l r a t h e r t h a n c h i l d r e n ' s p e n a l t i e s , and were a p p l i e d t o p a r e n t s who were " i g n o r a n t o f t h e i r d u t y , £ancQ v e r y n e g l i g e n t . . . " C h a r ges i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n e i g h t 18 y e a r s o l d and younger were u s u a l l y d i s m i s s e d because o f age. P o o r home c o n d i t i o n s o f t e n l e d t o a s e n t e n c e o f p r o b a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n suspended s e n t e n c e "as i n p r o b a t i o n we a r e e n a b l e d t o keep i n t o u c h t h r o u g h v i s i t i n g 19 and r e p o r t i n g and i n so a s s i s t t o b e t t e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s . " C o u r t s t a f f o f t e n made d e c i s i o n s b a s e d on t h e i r d i s t r u s t o f t h e c i t y e n v ironment a s a s u i t a b l e p l a c e f o r w e a k - w i l l e d boys t o t a k e h o l d o f t h e m s e l v e s . T h e i r a t t i t u d e i n t h i s r e g a r d s u p p o r t e d t h e views" o f S e n a t o r S u l l i v a n , who had t o l d h i s c o l l e a g u e s d u r i n g d e b a t e , t h a t "... t h e m o r a l atmosphere i n [^townships o r v i l l a g e s ^ ] i s p u r e r t h a n i n c i t i e s o r towns." Work on a "farm a s a means o f r e f o r m " was se e n a s t h e i d e a l by l o c a l s t a f f 21 and s t r e n u o u s e f f o r t s were made t o l o c a t e s u c h p o s i t i o n s f o r boys. Where t h i s c o u l d . n o t be a c c o m p l i s h e d , o t h e r f orms o f work were s e c u r e d i n t h e h i n t e r l a n d and many c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d t o l e a v e t h e c i t y f o r t h e s e p l a c e s under t h r e a t o f c o m m i t t a l t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . Troublesome boys who had come t o Vancouver f r o m o t h e r c i t i e s were u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d t o r e t u r n t o them, w i t h o r w i t h o u t t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The same ap p r o a c h was a p p l i e d t o i m m i g r a n t s , a l t h o u g h s u c h c a s e s t e n d e d t o be more i n v o l v e d . The e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s r u l e were boys f r o m S e a t t l e and o t h e r p o i n t s i n 77 northern Washington state. These hoys were immediately deported i f they came into contact with the juvenile court. The case of P.N. was more representative of the s i t u a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n who were deported elsewhere. O r i g i n a l l y charged with possession of an offensive weapon, he was sent to l i v e with a school attendance o f f i c e r who had taken an i n t e r e s t i n him. He was returned to school four months l a t e r as "a better way of l i v i n g does not seem to appeal to him" and deported as soon as i t could he 22 arranged. Several other hoys were allowed to remain i n Vancouver, but were turned over to the care of a guardian, often a r e l a t i v e , f r i e n d or employer, and usually with approval of the parents. This was e s p e c i a l l y l i k e l y i n the case of foreign boys, who were frequently turned over to a l o c a l representative of the p a r t i c u l a r ethnic community. Other boys were ordered to begin l i v i n g with t h e i r parents to ensure better control over 23 t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Reasons f o r committal to the B.I.S. ranged between optimism and despair. G.C. was sent "so that h i s education |_couldj be properly attended to," while R.D. was committed because he had f a i l e d to 24 reform even though "society had done i t s best f o r him." In recommending and assessing p e n a l t i e s , the C.P.O. and the judge c l e a r l y considered i n d i v i d u a l circumstances, rather than a r b i t r a r i l y imposing sentences based on the category of offence. Breaking and entering, f o r example, was considered to be a f a i r l y serious charge. The punishments awarded, however, were r e l a t i v e l y minor, although none of the boys charged with t h i s offence were simply warned and released. Only two of 1 the seventy-two youths charged with t h i s crime were committed to 25 the B.I.S. f o r the f i r s t charge. 78 O f f e n c e s i n v o l v i n g c u r f e w , w a n d e r i n g a b r o a d , v a g r a n c y , t r u a n c y and i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y were d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m each o t h e r by f i n e p o i n t s . A c h i l d c h a r g e d w i t h w a n d e r i n g a b r o a d , f o r example, was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a runaway who s t i l l h ad a home, w h i l e a v a g r a n t was se e n s i m p l y a s a c h i l d who had no f i x e d a d d r e s s . An i n c o r r i g i b l e might a l s o be g u i l t y o f t r u a n c y , c u r f e w v i o l a t i o n a n d wan d e r i n g a b r o a d . The e x a c t c h a r g e t h a t was l a i d a p p e a r s t o have been a t t h e whim o f t h e C.P.O. Runaways b r o u g h t i n by t h e p o l i c e , however, t e n d e d t o be c h a r g e d a s v a g r a n t s and t r e a t e d more s e v e r e l y t h a n t h e o t h e r s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the d i s p o s i t i o n o f f i r s t o f f e n c e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o u r t d i d n o t d i r e c t l y p r e s s t h e p a r e n t s t o o h a r d a t t h i s p o i n t . A l t h o u g h 22 c h i l d r e n were d e t a i n e d u n t i l p a r e n t s made improvements t o t h e home, w a r n i n g s were i s s u e d t o o n l y a n o t h e r 21 p a r e n t s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e c h i l d r e n a l o n e were c a u t i o n e d 43 t i m e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e c o u r t took t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t most c h i l d r e n had been a c t i n g a g a i n s t t h e i r p a r e n t s ' w i s h e s i n c o m m i t t i n g t h e o f f e n c e s . The a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e o r i g i n a t o r s o f t h e f i r s t c h a r g e and i t s d i s p o s i t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o see how a s s u m p t i o n s about t h e methods by w h i c h c h i l d r e n were b r o u g h t b e f o r e the c o u r t a f f e c t e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f the c h i l d ' s f u t u r e chances f o r r e f o r m a t i o n . The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o u r t p e r s o n n e l d i d n o t e x p e c t boys b r o u g h t i n by t h e p o l i c e t o r e f o r m s u c c e s s f u l l y , p r o b a b l y because t h e p o l i c e e x e r c i s e d no c o n t i n u i n g o v e r s e e r f u n c t i o n . C h i l d r e n b r o u g h t i n by p a r e n t s , on the o t h e r hand, were seen a s h a v i n g a good chance t o r e a d j u s t , s i n c e t h e i r p a r e n t s were o b v i o u s l y c o n c e r n e d and i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r b e h a v i o u r , and u s u a l l y o n l y needed s u p p o r t f r o m t h e c o u r t . Boys b r o u g h t i n by t h e p r o b a t i o n s t a f f were 79 c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n good hands a l r e a d y , and more of t h e same t r e a t m e n t was i n d i c a t e d f o r them. I t was f o u n d t h a t a l l o f t h e c a s e s who were s e n t t o P o l i c e C o u r t o r o r d e r e d t o l e a v e t h e c o u n t r y and most who were r e q u i r e d t o l e a v e t h e c i t y o r were c o m m i t t e d t o t h e c a r e o f a g u a r d i a n had been b r o u g h t i n by t h e 26 p o l i c e . S i n c e t h e a c t u a l c h a r g e s i n v o l v e d r a n g e d w i d e l y , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e c o u r t c o n s i d e r e d p o l i c e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e m a t t e r a s a f u r t h e r n e g a t i v e f a c t o r . O n l y one boy whose f i r s t c o n t a c t had been o r i g i n a t e d by t h e p o l i c e was committed t o t h e C.A.S., r e i n f o r c i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n would have n o t h i n g 27 t o do w i t h boys whom he p e r c e i v e d a s h a v i n g a bad r e c o r d . By c o n t r a s t , a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e C.A.S. c o m m i t t a l s were made f r o m c a s e s g e n e r a t e d by p a r e n t s , a s were t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e suspended s e n t e n c e s under w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d t h e D e t e n t i o n Home s c h o o l . S i x t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f a l l w a r n i n g s were i s s u e d t o d e f e n d e n t s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e c o u r t by p r o b a t i o n s t a f f (N=64). Combined w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e t y p e o f c a s e s b r o u g h t i n by p o l i c e and p a r e n t s , t h i s s u g g e s t s ' t h a t s t a f f v i e w e d t h e m s e l v e s a s t h e v a n g u a r d o f t h e c o u r t ' s p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n , b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g i n boys whose s h o r t c o m i n g s were so s l i g h t t h a t t h e y might o t h e r w i s e have been o v e r l o o k e d . The f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n , inasmuch a s t h e r e c o r d s r e f e r r e d t o i t , was a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e t h a t was examined f o r i t s r e l a t i o n -28 s h i p t o t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t c h a r g e . The i m p a c t o f t h e many a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t were made a b o u t t h e r o l e o f t h e f a m i l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e boys' f u t u r e s c o u l d have been e x p e c t e d a t t h i s s t a g e o f t h e p r o c e s s . Two-p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , i f o f t h e r i g h t k i n d , were assumed t o be t h e b e s t m i x t u r e 80 f o r the c h i l d , since a mother's a f f e c t i o n was required to complement the 29 father's d i s c i p l i n e . Not a l l dual-parent f a m i l i e s were s a t i s f a c t o r y , however, as demonstrated by the case of B.P.A. C o l l i e r observed that the father who "does not seem to be too r e l i a b l e , " was a " t e r r i b l e drunk," and that the mother had been forced to nurse f o r several years to r a i s e the 30 c h i l d r e n with p r a c t i c a l l y no help from her husband. The C.P.O. also found that conditions were often poor i n f a m i l i e s where one of the parents was a stepparent. The case of E.R., whose stepfather advised the C.P.O. that the mother must choose between her son and her husband, was an example 31 of such a s i t u a t i o n . Despite numerous cases of f a m i l i e s of t h i s s o r t , however, the myth p e r s i s t e d that a family u n i t with two parents was more l i k e l y to prevent a boy's progress toward delinquency. The pressure to maintain "normal" family units was so strong that the judge sometimes p e r s i s t e d i n ordering both-parents to appear with the boy even a f t e r the 32 husband and wife had separated. Where there was no a l t e r n a t i v e to single-parent f a m i l i e s , s t a f f seemed to prefer that the f a t h e r be the parent, and references such as, "he has no proper home h i s mother having to go to her d a i l y work," were 33 common. C o l l i e r intervened more d i r e c t l y i n household a f f a i r s when a mother was head of the family, as seen i n the case of A.H., whose mother was allowed to move to a new residence "with the understanding that she 34 was to s e t t l e down to housekeeping." Boys were seen as l i k e l y to get into trouble even during b r i e f absences of t h e i r f a t h e r s , and i t was not unusual f o r s t a f f to make notations such as: "... i t was only through the / \ 35 absence of Mr. F. from the C i t y (.sic J that he got i n bad company." Fewer boys from father-only households d i d i n f a c t come before the court, but t h e i r offences were more serious and they tended to be treated more 81 h a r s h l y t h a n were t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s f r o m m a t e r n a l f a m i l i e s . T a b l e f i v e i l l u s t r a t e s how f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e a p p e a r e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f TABLE 5 HOME SITUATION AND DISPOSITION OF FIRST CHARGE Home Two F a t h e r Mother ! A d o p t e d A l o n e P a r e n t s O n l y O n l y D i s p o s i t i o n D i s m i s s e d 24 ^  0 6 1 1 66.7%, 0 16.7% ' 2.8% 2.8% 9.8f 0 20.0% 3.2% 6.3% Suspended 96 0 6 11 2 Sentence 78% 0 4.9% 8.9% 1.6% 39% 0 20% 35-5% 12.5% P a r e n t & 17 0 0 l 1 C h i l d 85% 0 0 5% 5% C a u t i o n e d 6.9% 1 0 0 3.2% 6.3% P r o b a t i o n 88 3 16 9 5 68.2% 2.3% 12.4% 7% 3.9% 35.8% 37.5% 53.3% 29% 31-3% Leave 13 l l 2 1 J u r i s d i c t i o n 59% 7.7% 7.7% 15.4% 7.7% 5.3% 12.5% 3.3% 6.5% 6.3% G u a r d i a n 5 3 0 5 3 27.8% 16.7% 0 27.8% 16.7% 2% 37.5% 0 16.1% 18.8% B . I . S . 3 l 0 0 • 1 42.9% 14.3% 0 0 14.3% 1.2% 12.5% 0 0 6.3% Row P e r c e n t ( t h a t i s , 66.7% o f a l l c a s e s t h a t were d i s m i s s e d were ^ f r o m t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s ) Column P e r c e n t ( t h a t i s , 9«8% o f a l l c a s e s f r o m t w o - a p r e n t f a m i l i e s were d i s m i s s e d ) N=36l, M.D.=206. c a s e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s u g g e s t i v e o f t e n d e n c i e s , r a t h e r t h a n d e f i n i t i v e , s i n c e i t i s a v a i l a b l e f o r o n l y 63.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s (N=567). 8 2 A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s e c o n d o f f e n c e s s u g g e s t s t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t was s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s g o a l o f p r e v e n t i n g d e l i n q u e n t s f r o m p r o g r e s s i n g i n t o a d u l t c r i m i n a l s . S i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e boys who came b e f o r e t h e c o u r t committed no f u r t h e r o f f e n c e a s j u v e n i l e s i n Vancouver d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d ( N = 5 6 7 ) . O n l y 2 2 7 were r e t u r n e d t o c o u r t f o r a s e c o n d charge and v e r y few o f t h e s e i n v o l v e d s e r i o u s o f f e n c e s . Many o f t h e new o f f e n c e s , s u c h a s b r e a c h i n c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o b a t i o n and e s c a p i n g c u s t o d y , stemmed d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e f i r s t c h a r g e . V i c t i m l e s s c r i m e r e p l a c e d minor t h e f t a s t h e major new c h a r g e g r o u p , w i t h f u l l y 4 0 . 5 p e r c e n t o f s e c o n d o f f e n c e s f a l l i n g i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h i s was a t r i b u t e t o t h e d e g r e e o f w a t c h f u l -n e s s t h e C.P.O. and h i s s t a f f e x e r c i s e d o v e r boys once t h e y had e n t e r e d t h e system. T h e i r s c r u t i n y seemed t o be so c l o s e t h a t t h e wards were b e i n g p i c k e d up f o r any m i n o r i n f r a c t i o n a n d o f t e n no l o n g e r had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r more s e r i o u s c r i m e . T a b l e s i x shows th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f second o f f e n c e s . TABLE 6 INCIDENCE OF SECOND OFFENCES Charge A b s o l u t e F r e q u e n c y P e r c e n t a g e V i c t i m l e s s 92 4 1 . 4 Most m i n o r 10 4 . 5 M i n o r 8 4 37.8 R e l a t i v e l y s e r i o u s 17 7.7 S e r i o u s 19 8 . 6 T o t a l 222 100 N= 2 2 2 , M.D .=0 . S e n t e n c i n g p a t t e r n s d i f f e r e d f o r s e c o n d o f f e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e use o f t h e p r o b a t i o n and w a r n i n g s p e n a l t i e s , b o t h o f w h i c h g r e a t l y 37 d r opped o f f . The s h a r p l y r e d u c e d use o f t h e s e o p t i o n s r e f l e c t e d t h e c o u r t ' s f e e l i n g t h a t i t had o f f e r e d t h e c h i l d a chance t o make good, b u t 83 op that the boy d i d "not seem anxious to help h i m s e l f . " The range of p o s s i b l e sentences was g r e a t l y reduced, w i t h no one, f o r example, being detained while h i s parents improved the home. A major assumption of l e g i s l a t o r s and promoters of the j u v e n i l e court had been that boys almost i n e v i t a b l y progressed from minor offences to more s e r i o u s crimes. This was not the experience o f the group of boys who appeared before the Vancouver J u v e n i l e Court. Most of the boys who were o r i g i n a l l y t r i e d f o r curfew v i o l a t i o n s and wandering abroad had only 3 9 a f i r s t charge r e g i s t e r e d . For those curfew v i o l a t o r s who were returned on a new charge, curfew was a g a i n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o n e - f i f t h of the new charges (N=24). Most of the other charges f o r these boys were i n the same offence category and the i n c i d e n c e of those who progressed to minor t h e f t was so s l i g h t t h a t the offence was underrepresented by 0.48 i n t h i s 40 category. Boys whose f i r s t offence had been minor t h e f t were s l i g h t l y 41 overrepresented i n t h a t category f o r the second charge. Youths who had been a r r e s t e d f o r breaking and e n t e r i n g , l i k e w i s e , were overrepresented i n 42 that category f o r the second offence. Both these groups of c h i l d r e n were 43 overrepresented i n the breach of probation category. These examples suggest t h a t the l e v e l of c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y tended to e i t h e r remain constant or f a l l . I n c o r r i g i b i l i t y was the only category whose members 44 g e n e r a l l y advanced to more s e r i o u s crimes. Many of the boys who were brought i n on a second charge had the f u r t h e r contact as an outgrowth of the p r o b a t i o n and r e p o r t requirement from t h e i r f i r s t offence. Thirty-seven per cent of a l l boys who had o r i g i n a l l y appeared i n court had been sentenced i n t h i s manner (N=567). The l e n g t h 84 45 o f t i m e t h e s e 210 boys c o n t i n u e d t o r e p o r t r a n g e d f r o m two t o 114 weeks. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e boy, and h i s e n t i r e f a m i l y t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , were s u b j e c t t o the t y p e o f h a r r a s s m e n t f r o m C o l l i e r t h a t was d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r Two. The most f a v o r e d t i m e s t o end r e p o r t i n g were a t t h e 11 t o 13 46 week and 17 t o 20 week s t a g e s . C h i l d r e n were f r e q u e n t l y s e n t e n c e d t o r e p o r t u n t i l t h e end o f t h e s c h o o l t e r m . The l e n g t h o f time o t h e r b o y s s p e n t r e p o r t i n g was b a s e d l a r g e l y on i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a l t h o u g h t h i s was skewed t o some e x t e n t by Judge Shaw's p r a c t i c e o f a n n o u n c i n g t h e end o f p r o b a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l boys a t a t i m e i n l a t e December each y e a r . He a c t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y upon recommendation f r o m C o l l i e r , however, and t h e C.P.O. o f t e n t o o k i t upon h i m s e l f n o t t o a d v i s e t h e boys o f the r u l i n g u n t i l he c o n s i d e r e d t h e t i m i n g t o be more a p p r o p r i a t e . The o r i g i n a t o r s o f t h e j u v e n i l e - c o u r t movement had assumed t h a t a p p e a r a n c e s i n any t y p e o f c o u r t had a bad i m p a c t on c h i l d r e n and s h o u l d be 47 a v o i d e d i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e . Once a g a i n , t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e Vancouver e x p e r i e n c e was f a r removed f r o m t h a t i d e a l . The number o f j u v e n i l e c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e s p e r boy, d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t c h a r g e s , r a n g e d f r o m one t o twenty-one. Most c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d o n l y once on t h e o r i g i n a l c h a r g e . A f u r t h e r 20.8 p e r c e n t were c a l l e d i n t o c o u r t a s e c o n d t i m e and 48 h a l f a g a i n as many made a t h i r d a p p e a r a n c e i n c o u r t (N=567). The number o f t r i p s c h i l d r e n made t o c o u r t f e l l o f f a b r u p t l y a f t e r t h e f i f t h a p p e a r a n c e , and c o n t i n u e d t o d e c l i n e d e s p i t e a s l i g h t r i s e a t t h e e i g h t and n i n e - t r i p 49 l e v e l s . The number o f c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e s b o r e l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e 50 number o f c h a r g e s p e r c h i l d , w h i c h r a n g e d f r o m one t o t h i r t e e n . A boy might a p p e a r s e v e r a l t i m e s on each o f one o r two o f f e n c e s o r once f o r each o f s e v e r a l new c h a r g e s . 85 Most o f t h e hoys l e f t t h e c o u r t a f t e r t h e i r one o r two app e a r a n c e s and d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t , t h e i r u l t i m a t e d i s p o s i t i o n unknown. The f a t e o f t h e 37 p e r c e n t f o r whom i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i s shown i n t a b l e s e v e n (N=567). G e n e r a l l y , o n l y t h o s e boys who g o t i n t o f u r t h e r t r o u b l e w i t h t h e l a w i n Vancouver d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d l e f t a d d i t i o n a l r e c o r d s , so i t c a n be see n t h a t most boys e i t h e r l e f t town o r must have "made good" a s j u v e n i l e s . TABLE 7 ULTIMATE DISPOSITION OF BOYS D i s p o s i t i o n A b s o l u t e F r e q u e n c y P e r c e n t a g e B . I . S . 79 39.3 G u a r d i a n 26 12.9 L e f t c i t y o r c o u n t r y 69 34.3 L e f t j u r i s d i c t i o n _27_ 13.4 T o t a l 201 99.9 N=201, M.D.=366. C e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n g , a nd p r o b a b l y i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s c o u l d n o t be e x p l o r e d due t o a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n . E t h n i c i t y , f o r example, was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r boys who a p p e a r e d b e f o r e A m e r i c a n j u v e n i l e c o u r t s , and one e s t i m a t e has s u g g e s t e d t h a t more t h a n 70 p e r c e n t o f s u c h c a s e s were t h e c h i l d r e n o f immigrants.' 5"'" T h i s s o r t o f i n f o r m a t i o n , however, was seldom mentioned i n t h e Vancouver c o u r t r e c o r d s . W h i l e t h i s was a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y due t o t h e s t a t e o f t h e m a t e r i a l s , i t may have f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d t h e e t h n i c mix i n Vancouver where p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h b a c k g r o u n d were the pred o m i n a n t g r o u p . A modern a u t h o r has n o t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e Vancouver p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d u n d e r s t u d y was made up o f p e o p l e o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g b a c k g r o u n d , whether 52 f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , B r i t a i n o r Canada. T h e r e was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t s p r i n k l i n g o f Germans, Norwegians and Swedes who b l e n d e d i n i m p e r c e p t i b l y 86 and a number o f R u s s i a n s and I t a l i a n s who were met w i t h c l e a r e t h n i c h o s t i l i t y . The O r i e n t a l community met w i t h even g r e a t e r h o s t i l i t y t h a n t h e l a t t e r g r o u p s . A t e l l i n g o b s e r v a t i o n was made when Judge A.E. B u l l , who s a t on t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t d u r i n g 1 9 1 0 , r e p o r t e d t h a t " s i n c e t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e c o u r t ... I have f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o s e n d o n l y 2 boys t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l 53 S c h o o l , and b o t h o f t h e s e were o f f o r e i g n b i r t h and p a r e n t a g e . " I n any e v e n t , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r more t h a n a few o f t h e c a s e s . Where r e f e r e n c e s were made, as t o t h e o c c a s i o n a l I t a l i a n , Greek, R u s s i a n o r B u l g a r i a n c h i l d , t h e c o n t e x t makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e C.P.O. was p r e d i s p o s e d t o e x p e c t i m p r o p e r b e h a v i o u r f r o m them because o f t h i s b a c k g r o u n d . F a m i l y income cannot be e s t i m a t e d w i t h o u t k n o w i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s , b u t t h i s was seldom mentioned. D e s c r i p t i o n s o f home c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were r e c o r d e d s u g g e s t , however, t h a t most boys who came b e f o r e t h e c o u r t were t h e c h i l d r e n o f l a b o r e r s . E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f c h i l d a n d p a r e n t and f a m i l y r e l i g i o n were o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d n o t be a s s e s s e d because t h e r e c o r d s do n o t show t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The m a t e r i a l s r e c o r d t h e ages f o r o n l y 27.3 p e r c e n t o f t h e 567 boys and t h i s was t h u s n o t c o n s i d e r e d . C o l l i e r p r e f e r r e d t o r e f e r t o h i s wards w i t h d e s c r i p t i v e t erms such a s "young boy," " l a d , " "young man," a n d " b i g boy." H i s a t t i t u d e s c o u l d n o t be a s s e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e s e p h r a s e s w i t h o u t k n o w i n g t h e a c t u a l ages t o w h i c h t h e y c o r r e s p o n d e d . The m a t e r i a l i n t h i s c h a p t e r d e f i n i t e l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t was a t l e a s t a l i m i t e d s u c c e s s i n terms o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f i t s f o u n d e r s . L e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e boys who f a c e d a n 8? o r i g i n a l c h a r g e r e t u r n e d t o c o u r t , a n d w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , t h o s e who d i d come f o r w a r d a s e c o n d t i m e were c h a r g e d w i t h t h e same, o r l e s s e r o r d e r s o f o f f e n c e s . The p r o b a t i o n system seemed t o have been s u c c e s s f u l i n h a l t i n g , o r a t t h e v e r y l e a s t s l o w i n g t h e p r o g r e s s i o n i n t o f u l l a d u l t c r i m e . I t w ould n o t be p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f t h i s s u c c e s s , however, w i t h o u t a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e manner i n w h i c h j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s were h a n d l e d p r i o r t o passage o f t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t . B e f o r e t h a t t i m e , p o l i c e p r o b a b l y o n l y l e c t u r e d c h i l d r e n f o r minor o f f e n c e s and s e n t them on t h e i r way, so t h e c o u r t ' s e x i s t e n c e may a c t u a l l y have i n f l a t e d t h e numbers a p p e a r i n g f o r f i r s t o f f e n c e s . The f a c t t h a t many se c o n d c h a r g e s grew d i r e c t l y o u t o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s f i r s t o f f e n c e s a l s o l e n d s c r e d e n c e t o the w a r n i n g sounded d u r i n g d e b a t e o f t h e a c t by a s e n a t o r who s a i d he t h o u g h t t h a t t h e new s y s t e m w o u l d i n c r e a s e " i n s t e a d o f l e s s e n i n g t h e c r i m i n a l 54 j u v e n i l e c l a s s . " L i k e w i s e , t h e o r i g i n a l i d e a t h a t c h i l d c r i m i n a l s t e n d e d t o move on t o more s e r i o u s c r i m e was a c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom and may n e v e r 55 have been c o r r e c t . The c o u r t ' s s u c c e s s , s u c h a s i t may have been, was o n l y l i m i t e d , i n any e v e n t , s i n c e t h e c o u r t ' s f o u n d e r s had e x p e c t e d and wanted t h e c h i l d r e n t o become w i l l i n g a i d e s i n t h e i r r e c l a m a t i o n . C h a p t e r Two has i l l u s t r a t e d how v e r y f a r t h a t was f r o m h a p p e n i n g i n Vancouver. Footnotes to Chapter IV "'"Senate, Debates, May 21, 1908, p. 979. 2 N e l l Sutherland, Children i n English-Canadian Society: Framing the  Twentieth-Century Consensus, (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1976), pp. 96-7; 101-107; and 149-151. 3 See Appendix I f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the methodology of the s t a t i s t i c a l s e c tion of t h i s chapter. 4 Day Book, C.P.O., May 4, 1911. 5 I b i d . , June 26, 1912. 6 I b i d . , A p r i l 13, 1913-7 I b i d . , Sept. 16, 1914. I b i d . , Case No. 49; and J.C.A.C. Minutes, Sept. 12, 1910. ^Senate, Debates, May 21, 1908, p. 976. "^The modern categories of t h e f t under $50 and over have no relevance f o r the early twentieth century. "'""'"The Juvenile Court i n Law and the Juvenile Court i n Action, (Ottawa: Canadian Council on C h i l d Welfare, 1927), pp. 36-37. 12 Joseph M. Hawes, Children i n Urban Society, Juvenile Delinquency i n  Nineteenth-Century America, (New York: Oxford Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), p. 180. 13 N i s the t o t a l number of cases on which a percentage i s based. 14 M.D.=missing data, i . e . , the number of cases f o r which information on t h i s v a r i a b l e i s missing. 89 D i s p o s i t i o n o f f i r s t o f f e n c e s Charge V i c t i m l e s s Most minor M i n o r 1 R e l a t i v e l y - S e r i o u s s e r i o u s D i s p o s i t i o n D i s m i s s e d 12 # 8 22 7 6 21. ag 14.5% 40% 12.7% 10.9% df 17.8% 9.6% 6.4% 18.8% Suspended 50 28 75 34 15 s e n t e n c e 24.8% 13.9% 37.1% 16.8% 7-4% 33.3% 62.2% 32.6% 32.7% 76.9% P a r e n t and 12 2 7 0 0 c h i l d 57.l/0 9.5% 33.3% 0 0 c a u t i o n e d 8.0% 4.4% 3% 0 0 P r o b a t i o n 39 5 108 52 5 18.7% 2.4% 51.7% 24.9% 2.4% 26% 11.1% 47% 50.0% 15.6% Leave 14 1 9 6 1 j u r i s d i c t i o n 5% 30% 9.1% 9.3% 2.2% 1.7% 2.9% 6.3% G u a r d i a n 14 0 4 2 0 70% 0 20% 10% 0 1.3% 0 1.7% 1.9% 0 B . I . S . 6 1 4 3 2 37.5% 6.3% 25% 18.8% 12.5% 4.0% 2.2% 1.7% 2.9% 6.3% Row P e r c e n t ( t h a t i s , 21.8% o f a l l c a s e s t h a t were d i s m i s s e d were i v i c t i m l e s s ) Column P e r c e n t ( t h a t i s , 8% o f a l l v i c t i m l e s s c r i m e s were d i s m i s s e d ) N=565, M.D.=2. 'Reasons f o r c o m m i t t a l t o B . I . S . - f i r s t c h a r g e M i n o r t h e f t 4 B r e a k i n g a n d e n t e r i n g 2 R e c e i v i n g s t o l e n goods 1 I n c o r r i g i b l e 1 V a g r a n c y 5 I n d e c e n t a c t 1 M a j o r t h e f t 1 O t h e r 1 T o t a l 16 90 i ? 18. J.C.A.C. Minutes, Aug. 7, 1911. Ibid., June 10, 1912. 1 9 I b i d . , July 31, 1911. 20 21 Senate, Debates, June 4, 1908, p. 1045. J.C.A.C. Minutes, Feb. 12, 1912. 22 23-24 See my f i l e I-370-A. 'Day Book, Feb. 13, 1914; and Minutes, Nov. 28, 1910. Judge's Book, April 28, 1915, and Nov. 24, 1917. 25 Disposition of victimless crimes - f i r s t offence Disposition Dismissed Suspended sentence Out of court Warnings Sent home D.Home school Charge Curfew 1.8% 26.8% 1.806 26.6$ 14.3% 1.8% Vagrancy 12.5% 0 8.4% 0 0 Wandering 2.9% 37.2% 5.7% . 11.5% 20% 2.9% Incorrigible 1.8% 26.8% 20.8% 8.3% 8.3% 12.5% (Disposition cont'd) Got • job Probation Leave city Guardian B.I.S. N Curfew 0 37.5% 1.8% 3.6% — 56 Vagrancy 4.2% 16.7% 16.6% 16.7% 20.8% 24 Wandering 8.6% 20% 22.6% 5.8% 35 Incorrigible 4.2% 20.8% 4.2% 16.7% 4.2% 24 91 ' R e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i c e a n d d i s p o s i t i o n o f f i r s t c h a r t s P o l i c e c o u r t Leave c o u n t r y Leave c i t y B . I . S . G u a r d i a n G • A • S • % f r o m p o l i c e 100 100 73.3 66.7 55.6 14.3 N 5 11 20 16 11 9 % o f a l l p o l i c e c a s e s 0.6 . 1.5 3-3 2.4 1.5 0.3 27 See my f i l e , J.H., I-206-A, f o r boy r e j e c t e d because o f "a r e c o r d l i k e he h a s . " 28, 29. 30 M.D.=206. D. Do n a l d s o n t o A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , A.G. F i l e 650-3-18. See my f i l e I-3-A. 3 1 S e e my f i l e 1-417-A. 3 2 D a y Book, J a n . 28, 1914. ^ J u d g e ' s Book, A p r i l 28, 1915. •^Day Book, March 18, 1913-Wade t o M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , June 18, 1908, i n Wade p a p e r s . 92 Home s i t u a t i o n and d i s p o s i t i o n o f f i r s t c harge Home Two F a t h e r Mother A d o p t e d A l o n e p a r e n t s o n l y o n l y D i s p o s i t i o n -D i s m i s s e d 24 * 0 6 1 1 66.7| 0 16.7% 2.8% 2.8% 9.8^  0 20% 3.2% 6.3% Suspended 96 0 6 11 2 s e n t e n c e 78% 0 4.9% 8.9% 1.6% 39% 0 20% 35.5% 12.5% P a r e n t and 17 0 0 1 l c h i l d 85% 0 0 5% % c a u t i o n e d 6.9% 0 0 3.2% 6.3% P r o b a t i o n 88 3 16 9 5 66.2% 2.3% 12.4% 7% 3.9% 35.8% 37.5% 53-3% 29% 31.3% Leave 13 l l 2 l j u r i s d i c t i o n 59% 7.7% 7.7% 15.4% 7.7% 5.3% 12.5% 3.3% 6.5% 6.3% B . I . S . 3 l 0 0 1 42.9% 14.3% 0 0 14.3% 1.2% 12.5% 0 0 6.3% G u a r d i a n 5 3 0 5 3 27.8% 16.7% 0 27.8% 16.7% 2% 37.5% 0 16.1% 18.8% Row P e r c e n t ( t h a t i s , 66.7% o f a l l c a s e s t h a t were d i s m i s s e d were t f r o m t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s ) Column P e r c e n t ( t h a t i s , 9.8% o f a l l c a s e s f r o m t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s were d i s m i s s e d ) N=36l, M.D.=206. 93 Disposition of second offences Charge Victimless Most Minor Relatively Serious minor serious Disposition Dismissed 7 11 3 3 40% jt 17.9% '• 27.5% 7.5% 7.. 5% 17. k<f 70% 3.1% 17-6% 20% Suspended 38 l 25 5 3 sentence 52.8% 1.4% 34.7% 6.9% 4.; S 41.3% 10% 29.8% j 29.4% 20% Parent and 1 0 1 1 0 0 child 50% 0 50% 0 0 cautioned 1.1% 0 1.2% 0 0 Probation 21 0 23 6 2 40.4% 0 44.2% 11.5% 3.c 3% 22.8% 0 27.4% 35.3^  13.: 3% Leave 9 1 6 0 1 jurisdiction 52.9% 5.9% 35-3% 0 5.< 9.8% 10% 7.1% 0 6.', •>% B.I.S. 4 0 15 2 4 .16% 0 60% 8% it 'ifo 4.3% 0 17.9% 11.8% 26.7% C • A • S • 3 1 3 1 2 30% 10% 30% 10% 20% 3-3% 10% 3.6% 5-9% 13.: 5% Row Percent (that i s , 40% of a l l cases that were dismissed were t victimless) Column Percent (that i s , 17.4% of a l l victimless offences were dismissed) N=222, M.D.=5. 3 8Day Book, Dec. 2, 1914. -^Curfew = 55-Wo (N=56); wandering = 79.2% (N=24). 40 An index i s an indicator of the extent to which a variable i s over-or underrepresented in a sample. It i s calculated by dividing the percentage of the value of a variable (column percentage) into the percentage of the value of the variable with which i t i s being compared (row total). 41 Index = 1.14. 94 ^ 2 I n d e x = 3•6. 43 I n d e x f o r minor t h e f t c a s e s = 1.17, i n d e x f o r b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g c a s e s = 1.8. 44 Second o f f e n c e s f o r o r i g i n a l i n c o r r i g i b l e s Charge A b s o l u t e F r e q u e n c y P e r c e n t a g e I n c o r r i g i b i l i t y 4 21.1 V a g r a n c y 1 5«3 Wandering a b r o a d 2 10.5 B r e a c h o f p r o b a t i o n 1 5-3 E s c a p e 3 15.8 M i n o r t h e f t _8_ 42.1 T o t a l 19 100.1 45 The two c h i l d r e n who r e p o r t e d f o r o n l y two weeks were b o t h t a k e n i n t o d e t e n t i o n a t t h e end o f t h a t t i m e and committed t o t h e B.I.S. upon r e l e a s e f r o m t h e D e t e n t i o n Home. The n e x t s h o r t e s t r e p o r t i n g t i m e was f o u r weeks. 46 R e l e a s e d a t 11 t o 13 week s t a g e = 5.6% (N=210); r e l e a s e d a t 17 t o 20 week s t a g e = 5.6% (N=210). 47 W.L. S c o t t , The J u v e n i l e C o u r t i n Law..., p. 39. 49, » 50 t e -^"Hawes, C h i l d r e n i n Urban S o c i e t y . . . , pp. 182-183. 52, 48 S i n g l e a p p e a r a n c e on f i r s t c h a r g e = 44.4 p e r c e n t (N=567). ^Three a p p e a r a n c e s = 10.8%; f o u r a p p e a r a n c e s = 5>3%» f i v e a p p e a r a n c e s = 5.9%> e i g h t a p p e a r a n c e s = 2.5%; n i n e a p p e a r a n c e s = 2.1% (N=567). ^Three c h a r g e s = 7.4%; f o u r c h a r g e s = 4.8%; f i v e c h a r g e s = 3«9%J t h i r e n c h a r g e s =0.7% (N=567). " N o r b e r t MacDonald, "A C r i t i c a l Growth C y c l e f o r Vancouver, 1900-1914," B.C. S t u d i e s , No. 17 ( S p r i n g , 1973), p. 39. 53 Vancouver D a i l y N e w s - A d v e r t i s e r , March 22, 1911, P« 6. 54 - ^ S e n a t e , D e b a t e s , June 4, 1908, p. 1044. 55 L y n n McDonald, "Crime and Punishment i n Canada: A S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t o f th e C o n v e n t i o n a l Wisdom," C a n a d i a n Review o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , V o l . V I (November, 1969), pp. 212-236. CHAPTER V THE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL EXPERIENCE S e v e n t y - n i n e , o r 13.0 p e r c e n t o f t h e 567 boys who came b e f o r e t h e Vanco u v e r J u v e n i l e C o u r t f r o m i t s f o u n d i n g i n 1910 u n t i l e a r l y 1915, e x p e r -i e n c e d a n o t h e r l e v e l o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e s y s tem. These were t h e boys who were committed t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l f o r Boys ( h e r e a f t e r B.I.S.) a t P o i n t Grey i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. A t t h e S c h o o l , t h e y were mixed w i t h boys f r o m a l l o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , boys who had been c h a r g e d w i t h a wide v a r i e t y o f o f f e n c e s , and many o f whom had been t h r o u g h t h e o r d i n a r y c r i m i n a l c o u r t p r o c e s s . G e n e r a l r h e t o r i c i n s i s t e d t h a t boys i n t h e B . I . S . were s t i l l seen a s y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s who might be r e f o r m e d , b u t a c t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s made i t c l e a r t h a t t h e y were r e a l l y v i e w e d i n t h e same l i g h t a s a d u l t c r i m i n a l s . The B . I . S . was t h e s u c c e s s o r t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l J u v e n i l e R e f o r m a t o r y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1890 " w i t h a v i e w t o t h e e d u c a t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g , and m o r a l r e c l a m a t i o n , o f such boys as s h a l l be l a w f u l l y s e n t e n c e d t o c o n f i n e m e n t therein."''' When a new b u i l d i n g r e p l a c e d t h e o r i g i n a l i n 1905, a new s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o o k u n o f f i c i a l a d vantage o f t h e move t o change i t s name f r o m r e f o r m a t o r y t o i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l . T e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s d e v e l o p e d because t h e i n s t i t u t i o n l e g a l l y r e m a i n e d a r e f o r m a t o r y , and so 2 new l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d i n 1909 l e g i t i m i z i n g t h e name change. The mandate r e m a i n e d t h a t o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . The S c h o o l r e c e i v e d boys 16 y e a r s o l d and younger and c o u l d h o l d them f o r f i v e y e a r s , u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d by t h e s e n t e n c i n g o f f i c i a l . Boys c o u l d be committed by A s s i z e , m a g i s t r a t e ' s , o r j u v e n i l e c o u r t s o r under t h e terms o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l I n f a n t s A c t o r t h e f e d e r a l J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t . From 1910 t o 1915» however, t h e boys f r o m t h e Vancouver c o u r t , who made up 59.9 p e r c e n t o f 95 96 t h e 132 new a d m i s s i o n s t o t h e inmate p o p u l a t i o n , were p r a c t i c a l l y t h e o n l y 3 ones s e n t e n c e d u n d e r t h e f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . I n a s p e e c h b e f o r e t h e Vancouver C a n a d i a n C l u b , J . J . K e l s o , t h e p r o m i n e n t C a n a d i a n c h i l d w e l f a r e w o r k e r , a r t i c u l a t e d t h e p h i l o s o p h y t h a t t h o s e g u i d i n g t h e B.I.S. had c l a i m e d a s t h e i r own. D e s c r i b i n g O n t a r i o boys who had been committed t o r e f o r m a t o r y t h e r e , he s a i d : Many o f t h e l a d s were v i c t i m s o f wrong s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , d r u n k e n p a r e n t s , i l l e g i t i m a c y , m o t h e r l e s s , l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n , l e a r n e d no t r a d e , t o o much s t r e e t l i f e , no m o r a l o r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , no p l a y g r o u n d , f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h c r i m e by f r e q u e n t a r r e s t , t o o much 'law' i n d e a l i n g w i t h them and an a l m o s t e n t i r e absence o f l o v e and True C h r i s t i a n c o mpassion. They were h e a r t - h u n g r y boys, m i s u n d e r s t o o d , u n a p p r e c i a t e d , u n i n s p i r e d , and I n s t i t u t i o n s , a s s u c h , c a n n o t save o r r e c l a i m , b u t o n l y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f some good man o r woman g a i n i n g t h e a f f e c t i o n and s t i m u l a t i n g t h e l a t e n t s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s i n t o h e r o i c e f f o r t f o r a b e t t e r l i f e ... r e f o r m a t o r i e s ... s h o u l d be r e s o r t e d t o o n l y when o t h e r means f a i l , o r s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d on a h i g h e t h i c a l p l a n e , a i m i n g t o ^ d e v e l o p c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h freedom o f a c t i o n and s e l f - c o n t r o l . . . . A d d r e s s i n g t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly t h e f o l l o w i n g day, A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l W. J . Bowser echoed K e l s o ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e ca u s e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y and added t h e s p e c i f i c l a c k " o f s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e , t h e boys b e i n g m o s t l y t r u a n t s . " - ' B . I . S . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t D a n i e l D o n a l d s o n , a f o r m e r men's c l o t h i e r who had been a member o f t h e f i r s t B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s o f the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , t r a n s l a t e d t h i s a p p r o a c h i n t o a c t i o n , s a y i n g : "We a i m t o do f o r t h e boy what h i s f o r m e r environment has f a i l e d t o do...." He was f o n d o f b o a s t i n g t h a t " w h i l e I have f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o demand and e n f o r c e a somewhat s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , a t t h e same t i m e we have t r i e d a s f a r as p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e i d e a o f a p r i s o n and 7 p r i s o n s u r r o u n d i n g s . " D o n a l d s o n d i s c u s s e d h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s f u n c t i o n , w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e boys f r o m Vancouver: ... a more d i f f i c u l t c l a s s ... now comes t o u s , a s i t i s a f t e r t h e home, t h e s c h o o l , t h e C h u r c h , suspended s e n t e n c e , and p r o b a t i o n have 97 a l l f a i l e d ... a s i t were, i n t h e l a s t s t a g e s o f j u v e n i l e c r i m e ; and t o t a k e h o l d o f s u c h boys w i t h c r i m i n a l t e n d e n c i e s , who by c o n s o r t i n g w i t h v i c i o u s companions have f o r m e d many bad h a b i t s , and i n t h e c o u r s e o f a y e a r o r two t o g i v e s u c h a boy a b e t t e r c o n c e p t i o n o f l i f e , t e a c h him o b e d i e n c e t o l a w and o r d e r , b u i l d him up m e n t a l l y , and m o r a l l y , t h e n r e t u r n him t o h i s home, and u n f o r t u n a t e l y u s u a l l y t o o l d companions and o l d t e m p t a t i o n s and s t i l l e x p e c t s u c h a boygto r e m a i n a good and u s e f u l member o f s o c i e t y , i s a b i g p r o p o s i t i o n . . . . He s a i d he f o u n d t h a t a good example w i t h c o n s i s t e n t a dherence t o p r o p e r p r e c e p t s "combined w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f p a t i e n c e and p e r s e v e r a n c e ... w i l l Q u s u a l l y b r i n g o u t t h e b e s t t h a t i s i n t h e boy." H i s methods were n o t a l w a y s s u c c e s s f u l , however, and he spoke w i t h sympathy and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h o s e g r a d u a t e s " t h a t s t a r t e d out w e l l a n d gave good p r o m i s e ... b u t g o t weary i n w e l l - d o i n g and have f a l l e n back i n t o e v i l h a b i t s . " " ^ L i f e a t t h e S c h o o l was n o t easy. From i t s i n c e p t i o n , t h e government had p l a n n e d t h a t t h e B.I.S. w o u l d o p e r a t e on a v e r y s m a l l budget. As t h e Department o f Lands and Works p u t i t d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S c h o o l : I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t u n d e r good and i n t e l l i g e n t management t h e boys w i l l be a b l e t o do a g r e a t d e a l o f work w h i c h o t h e r w i s e would have to be done by h i r e d l a b o u r . There i s no r e a s o n why, u n d e r p r o p e r manage-ment-^ t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d n o t be, t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , s e l f - s u p p o r t -i n g . D o n a l d s o n p r o v i d e d t h e t y p e o f management t h e government had hoped f o r and u n d e r h i s d i r e c t i o n t h e boys p r o d u c e d most o f t h e i r f o o d , made t h e i r own u n i f o r m s , shoes and f u r n i t u r e , s u p p l i e d a l l t h e i r own f i r e w o o d f r o m s u r r o u n d i n g b r u s h and c a r r i e d o u t a l m o s t a l l m aintenance. Most o f t h e work was seen a s manual o r i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e t a i l o r i n g , shoemaking and c a r p e n t r y , a l t h o u g h a d u b i o u s case was a l s o made f o r o t h e r e f f o r t s . I n 1911, f o r example, D o n a l d s o n had i n m a t e s d i g a 200-foot l o n g t r e n c h 12-to-15-feet deep f o r r e p l a c e m e n t o f a sewer l i n e : "The e x c a v a t i n g ... meant a g r e a t d e a l o f h a r d work f o r the b o y s , b u t t h e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r -i e n c e r e c e i v e d by t h e h a l f - d o z e n boys who d i d t h e work ... w i l l be u s e f u l 12 t o them l a t e r on." 98 The days began w i t h t h e r i s i n g w h i s t l e a t 6:15 a.m., and the boys were i m m e d i a t e l y r e q u i r e d t o f i l e i n t o t h e h a l l where t h e y d r e s s e d i n s i l e n c e . They t h e n marched down t o t h e ass e m b l y room and washrooms, a f t e r w h i c h t h e y s p l i t up, w i t h some boys g o i n g t o t h e k i t c h e n and d i n i n g - h a l l t o h e l p p r e p a r e b r e a k f a s t a n d o t h e r s t o t h e s t a b l e t o c a r e f o r t h e a n i m a l s . The d a i l y s c h e d u l e c o n t i n u e d a s f o l l o w s : . 7:15 a.m. - b e l l f o r b r e a k f a s t , f o l l o w e d by mor n i n g p r a y e r s ; . 8-8:30 a.m. - r e c e s s , w i t h boys a l l o w e d t o p l a y o u t d o o r s u n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n d u r i n g f i n e weather; . 8:30 a.m. - b e l l f o r work, some boys s e n t t o manual t r a i n i n g workshop and o t h e r s t o work i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e b u i l d i n g , b a r n , g arden and bush; • 9:30-9:45 a.m. - r e c e s s t o p r e p a r e f o r m o r n i n g s c h o o l ; . 9:45-12 noon - some boys a t t e n d s c h o o l w h i l e o t h e r s do v a r i o u s t y p e s o f work; . 12-12:30 a.m. - r e c e s s f o r a l l boys e x c e p t t h o s e w o r k i n g i n k i t c h e n o r d i n i n g h a l l ; . 12:30-1 p.m. - d i n n e r t i m e ; . 1-1:30 p.m. - s p o r t s ; . 1:30-2:30 p.m. - some boys a t t e n d manual t r a i n i n g workshop and r e s t t o work; . 2:30-2:45 p.m. - r e c e s s t o p r e p a r e f o r a f t e r n o o n s c h o o l ; . 2:45-4:15 p.m. - s c h o o l f o r boys who d i d n o t a t t e n d i n m o r n i n g and o t h e r s t o do o u t s i d e work, e x c e p t f o r s m a l l e r boys who work i n k i t c h e n ; . 4:15-5 p.m. - r e c e s s ; . 5~5!30 p.m. - supper; • 5!30-6 p.m. - d i n i n g room c l e a n e d up and p r e p a r e d f o r morning; . 6-7:30 p.m. - r e c r e a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g games o r r e a d i n g ; • 7:30-7:45 p.m. - B i b l e r e a d i n g and group p r a y e r s , c h a n g i n g i n t o n i g h t - c l o t h e s , p r i v a t e p r a y e r s and bed; • 7:45-8:45 p.m. - b o y j - u s u a l l y a l l o w e d t o r e a d i n bed; . 9 p.m. - l i g h t s o u t . D o n a l d s o n and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e work a l l a g r e e d t h a t i d l e n e s s , 14 above a l l , was t o be a v o i d e d when d e a l i n g w i t h b o y s . The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h e f u l l s c h e d u l e t o be a p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r i n many o f t h e escape a t t e m p t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e made by new boys. A s i d e f r o m t h e i r s i m p l y b e i n g i r k e d a t b e i n g under r e s t r a i n t , he t h o u g h t i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r "boys who have been i n t h e h a b i t o f a t t e n d i n g cheap shows a l m o s t n i g h t l y , h a n g i n g a r o u n d pool-rooms, and r e a d i n g t h e most e x c i t i n g k i n d o f 99 y e l l o w l i t e r a t u r e " t o r e c o n c i l e t h e m s e l v e s t o " t h e s i m p l e l i f e " o f t h e B . I . S . 1 " 5 A n o t h e r major r e a s o n Donaldson c i t e d f o r escape a t t e m p t s was " t h e t e r r i b l e c r a v i n g t h a t comes o v e r them f o r t o b a c c o , as w i t h v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s t h e boys t h a t e n t e r t h e s c h o o l a r e c o n f i r m e d c i g a r e t t e f i e n d s , and t h e i n t e n s e l o n g i n g f o r a smoke i s s u c h t h a t t h e y a r e p r e p a r e d t o r u n a l l k i n d s o f r i s k s i n o r d e r t o g r a t i f y t h e a p p e t i t e . " " ^ A l t h o u g h t h e t o b a c c o ban d i d n o t become a major d i s c i p l i n e i s s u e u n t i l t h e end o f t h e decade when o v e r c r o w d i n g , r u i n e d b u i l d i n g s , and s h o r t a g e s o f s t a f f and o p e r a t i n g f u n d s had made t h e i n s t i t u t i o n w e l l known a s a p l a c e t o a v o i d , i t was a l w a y s a n a g g i n g p r o b l e m . As s u c h , i t was p u n i s h e d l i k e any o t h e r r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r i n t e r n a l o f f e n c e , u s u a l l y w i t h the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s f a v o r e d method o f d i s c i p l i n e - a b r e a d and wa t e r d i e t . U n l i k e C o l l i e r , who us e d c o r p o r a l punishment a t t h e D e t e n t i o n Home f o r t h e most t r i f l i n g o f f e n c e s , D o n a l d s o n was a l w a y s p r o u d o f t h e f a c t t h a t " w h i p p i n g i s a l m o s t unknown i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n " a nd e x p l a i n e d t h a t he had 17 " n o t much f a i t h i n w h i p p i n g e x c e p t f o r some s e r i o u s o f f e n c e . " T h i s p e n a l t y was n o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r d i s c i p l i n e o f r e c a p t u r e d e s c a p e e s , and even t h e n , was a l w a y s c a r r i e d o ut by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t h i m s e l f . H i s r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s was s i m p l e : I f a boy d e s e r v e s t o be whipped, I w i l l see t h a t he g e t s i t , b u t I don't t h i n k i t w i s e t o p l a c e t h e boy a t t h e mercy o f e v e r y o f f i c i a l t o g i v e him a c u f f when t h e y see f i t , when sometimes t h e o f f i c i a l may be a s much t o blame a s t h e boy, a t any r a t e when i n a temper i s not t h e t i m e t o mete out punishment and i n n i n e c a s e s o u t o f t e n b r e ^ g and w a t e r o r some o t h e r k i n d o f punishment w i l l g i v e b e t t e r r e s u l t s . When he d i d r e s o r t t o t h i s d i s c i p l i n e , h i s method was " o v e r t h e c h a i r 19 w i t h a good heavy s t r a p . " On a t l e a s t one o c c a s i o n he c a l l e d i n a d o c t o r t o examine t h e boys who had been p u n i s h e d t o ensure t h a t i n t h e 100 e v e n t o f a l e g a l a c t i o n t o have any o f them r e l e a s e d , t h e r e c o u l d n o t be 20 "any s u g g e s t i o n made t h a t he had been u n m e r c i f u l l y b e a t e n . " A more f r e q u e n t l y u s e d c h a s t i s e m e n t was a d e n i a l o f p r i v i l e g e s . As D o n a l d s o n e x p l a i n e d , "sometimes he i s p r o h i b i t e d f r o m p l a y f o r a day, a week o r a month, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e o f f e n c e . To have t o s i t on a bench and see o t h e r s e n j o y i n g a game and n o t be a b l e t o t a k e any 21 p a r t i s about t h e h a r d e s t punishment a l i v e l y y o u t h c a n be g i v e n . " T h i s t a c t i c was sometimes expanded t o t o a l i s o l a t i o n , b u t i n t h i s e v e n t , was u s u a l l y accompanied by t h e b r e a d and w a t e r d i e t . T h i s l a t t e r element o f t h e punishmentsystem was v e r y c o n t e n t i o u s . When t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l banned t h e p r a c t i c e i n l a t e 1918 "on t h e ground t h a t I c o u l d n o t see t h a t i t would be a n y t h i n g b u t i n j u r i o u s t o a g r o w i n g boy t o be d e p r i v e d o f p r o p e r n o u r i s h m e n t , " b o t h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and t h e 22 g u a r ds p r o t e s t e d l o n g and ve h e m e n t l y . A gu a r d w r o t e t h a t o f f e n d i n g i n m a t e s " s h o u l d have a punishment t o undergo t h o r o u g h l y c o r r e c t i v e and d e t e r r i n g i n e f f e c t . B r e a d and wa t e r w i t h s o l i t a r y c o n f i n e m e n t has p r o v e d 23 i t s u s e f u l n e s s . They l a u g h a f t e r t h e s t r a p i s a p p l i e d . . . . " D o n a l d s o n p r o v e d h i s d e v o t i o n t o t h e s y s t e m by h i s i m p a s s i o n e d a n d p r o l o n g e d o b j e c t i o n t o t h e ban. H i s f i n a l p l e a f o r i t s r e t u r n , e x p l a i n i n g t h a t he was now b e i n g f o r c e d t o f r e q u e n t l y r e s o r t t o t h e s t r a p , was s u b m i t t e d j u s t b e f o r e h i s d i s m i s s a l f r o m t h e p o s t : P e r s o n a l l y I n e v e r had any use f o r f l o g g i n g e x c e p t i n v e r y s e r i o u s c a s e s . F i f t e e n y e a r s i n t h i s work has c o n v i n c e d me t h a t t o p l a c e a boy a l o n e f o r a few da y s , p u t him on a l i g h t d i e t , s u p p l y him w i t h i n t e r e s t -i n g r e a d i n g m a t t e r , have a l i t t l e f r i e n d l y t a l k w i t h him and t r y t o show him t h e egror o f h i s ways, b e t t e r and more l a s t i n g r e s u l t s w i l l be a c h i e v e d . I n p r a c t i c e , t h e r e a s o n a b l e s i t u a t i o n j u s t d e s c r i b e d t r a n s l a t e d i t s e l f i n t o a boy w e a r i n g n o t h i n g b u t a n i g h t s h i r t s t a y i n g a l o n e i n a basement 101 room f u r n i s h e d o n l y w i t h a hook and a m a t t r e s s on t h e f l o o r w h i l e b e i n g d e p r i v e d o f h i s r e g u l a r meals. The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t d i d n o t seem t o c o n s i d e r a b r e a d and w a t e r d i e t l a s t i n g f o u r weeks to be u n u s u a l enough 25 t o c a l l f o r s p e c i a l comment. The q u a l i t y o f t h e r e c o r d s i s s u c h t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e punishments on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s t o d e t e r m i n e how common t h i s s o r t o f t r e a t m e n t was. H a r s h as some o f t h e p u nishments may have been, D o n a l d s o n was f r e q u e n t l y a b l e t o document examples t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d t h e r e g a r d and warm f e e l i n g s many boys r e t a i n e d f o r t h e s c h o o l and i t s s t a f f a f t e r l e a v i n g . Over 70 p e r c e n t o f a l l f o r m e r i n m a t e s "who were o f m i l i t a r y age and e l i g i b l e f o r s e r v i c e " v o l u n t e e r e d t o j o i n t h e army i n W o r l d War I and many o f them e i t h e r c a l l e d a t t h e B . I . S . o r t e l e p h o n e d b e f o r e s h i p p i n g o u t and 26 on t h e i r r e t u r n . The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and h i s f a m i l y , who l i v e d a t t h e s c h o o l , r e c i p r o c a t e d t h e boys' f e e l i n g s . Inmates were n e v e r r e f e r r e d t o by numbers a l o n e i n any c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and nicknames and a b b r e v i a t i o n s a p p e a r e d a s common a p p e l l a t i o n s . Mrs. D o n a l d s o n , who s e r v e d as matron, was a l w a y s v e r y c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e work, a s were some o f h e r c h i l d r e n . One d a u g h t e r p l a y e d t h e o rgan d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g p r a y e r s and on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s and a n o t h e r m a r r i e d d a u g h t e r r e t u r n e d t o Vancouver d u r i n g t h e p o s t - w a r i n f l u e n z a e p i d e m i c t o h e l p n u r s e t h e b o y s . D o n a l d s o n ' s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e i r w e l f a r e e x t e n d e d i t s e l f t o s e c u r i n g m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n f o r p h y s i c a l impediments t h a t had e x i s t e d p r i o r t o t h e i r e n t r y i n t o t h e s c h o o l . F o r example, one boy who was t o n g u e - t i e d and who c o u l d speak o n l y w i t h d i f f i c u l t y , was g i v e n an o p e r a t i o n t o c o r r e c t t h e 27 c o n d i t i o n . The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t n o t e d : " I n a number o f c a s e s , f r o m a p h y s i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , i t has been a b l e s s i n g t o t h e boys t h a t t h e y were committed t o t h e s c h o o l , as o t h e r w i s e t h e y w o u l d have been o b l i g e d t o go 102 28 through l i f e handicapped." The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Donaldson and the boys was warm enough that even near the end of the decade when the B.I.S. was quite l i t e r a l l y going to wrack and r u i n , "some of the very small boys came to me t h i s evening f o r protection" when a l a r g e r boy threatened 29 them. Who were these boys of whom Donaldson was so s o l i c i t o u s ? There were 132 new admissions during the period 1910 to 1915 and the t o t a l number i n residence a t the time of writing annual reports ranged from 43 i n 1910 through 57 i n 1912 to the dramatically increased 90 i n 1914. The age spread i n 1914 was t y p i c a l and ranged from nine to nineteen years, with the great majority i n the fourteen to seventeen years category. Very few - only an average of 6.7 per cent over the f i v e - y e a r period - were of non-Anglo-Saxon b i r t h . Fifty-seven per cent were born i n Canada, 22 per cent i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s and the remaining 15 per cent i n the United States. Their offences ranged from being a neglected c h i l d through the more common i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y and t h e f t to the very rare murder and p l a c i n g 30 dynamite on railway tracks. I t i s not possible to c a l c u l a t e average length of stay from the records a v a i l a b l e . Information regarding committals from the Vancouver Juvenile Court was included i n material dealing generally with a l l the boys. Court records show that, unlike the boys from areas without s p e c i a l courts, the actual offences f o r which they were committed were us u a l l y of l i t t l e importance i n determining the d e c i s i o n . More att e n t i o n was paid to the o v e r a l l record, i n c l u d i n g offences that were never brought to court, but were observed by / o f f i c i a l s . This category included breaches of probation, each of which was considered to be a separate new offence. The reasons c i t e d by Judge Shaw f o r committal included recognition 103 of the f a c t that some boys had no home to care f o r them, but most cases made reference to the b e n e f i c i a l impact the B.I.S. d i s c i p l i n e was expected 31 to have on the c h i l d . When the parents of W.W., who had been committed on a charge of vagrancy, t r i e d to have him released to go to r e l a t i v e s i n A u s t r a l i a , the court refused "on the grounds that the boy was just getting the d i s c i p l i n e he so much needed and which h i s parents had f a i l e d to 32 give." Other common reasons f o r sentence were that the boy had "been given several previous chances Land] has f a i l e d to make good," that he showed "no sign of improvement," and that he showed "a great deterior^-33 at i o n . " Other boys, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o r r i g i b l e s , were committed " f o r 34 h i s own protection and at the mother's request." The impact of committal must have v a r i e d with each boy. The predicament of L. B. i l l u s t r a t e s the way i n which the protective aspect of the Juvenile Delinquents Act could a f f e c t boys. He was sent to the B.I.S. f o r a minimum of two years' detention f o r the same offence f o r which a companion, who was a few months older than he, was sentenced i n the regular P o l i c e Court to three months i n gaol. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , L. B. soon engineered a successful escape from the School and disappeared. Boys remained wards of the Juvenile Court u n t i l they were 21 years old, but could be accepted at the B.I.S. only when they were 16 years o l d and younger. As a consequence, youths who were nearing that age and d i d not seem to be properly reforming, were sometimes brought i n and committed to 35 the B.I.S. on an o l d charge. The possible o v e r a l l impact of a committal could be seen i n the 36 case of C. T. A ward of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society, he was brought before the Juvenile Court by the C.A.S. superintendent as 104 incorrigible by reason of vicious conduct and sentenced to the B.I.S. His record from that point onwards was as follows: . July 24, 1912, to B.I.S. - four years; . arrested Nov. 25, 1916, vagrancy - withdrawn; . arrested Nov. 28, 1916, vagrancy - three months; . arrested June 6, 191?, theft of bicycle - 20 days; . arrested Aug. 25, 1917, theft of auto - 30 days; . arrested Oct. 10, 1917, theft - six months. By 1918, the provincial Attorney's-General office, disregarding the fact that almost a l l of his subsequent offences had occurred shortly after his release from one or another penal institution, had labelled him and refused to recommend clemency for a parole. The Deputy Attorney-General wrote: "Apparently he i s an incorrigible thief, having been qQ charged and convicted four times in the last 14 months." The lengthy period G. T. spent i n the B.I.S. did not seem to have helped him. The overall range of the inmates' ages and offences indicates that the arguments employed by promoters working to establish a juvenile court had a sound basis. As the B.C. Attorney-General had written to one such person, "I have always thought that the herding together in a reformatory of boys, some of whom may be very depraved, i s the surest possible way of 39 reducing a l l to the level of the worst boy amongst their number." This thesis was valid even after part of the province began to be served by a properly-constituted court and the attitude implies that despite rhetoric to the contrary, B.I.S. boys were considered to have placed themselves beyond the pale. But the superintendent did not give up on most of them. Donaldson closely observed the human element of a l l cases and applied the information to try to benefit the boys. In the case of a boy who caused considerable damage to the school through arson, he overruled his i n i t i a l impulse to send him to the reformatory because "previous to being committed to the school he had been unfortunate enough to be much 105 i n t h e company o f a g i t a t o r s a n d a n a r c h i s t s , who had p o i s o n e d t h e boy's 40 mind." He was p a r t i c u l a r l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e v e r y young i n m a t e s , t h e n i n e t o e l e v e n - y e a r o l d s , f r e q u e n t l y m a k i n g e f f o r t s t o have them r e l e a s e d w e l l ahead o f s c h e d u l e . W.F. was a c a s e i n p o i n t . A l t h o u g h t h e 10-year-o l d h ad been committed f o r a minimum o f two y e a r s f o r i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y , D o n a l d s o n recommended and s e c u r e d h i s r e l e a s e w i t h i n two months. He e x p l a i n e d h i s r e a s o n i n g : ... i n f a v o r o f a v e r y l i t t l e boy ... b e i n g r e l e a s e d and r e t u r n e d t o h i s f o s t e r p a r e n t s , who a r e v e r y f o n d o f t h e l i t t l e chap and who a r e b r e a k i n g t h e i r h e a r t s u n t i l t h e y have him back i n t h e home w i t h them. He i s a v e r y l o v e a b l e l i t t l e chap, an a d o p t e d c h i l d f r o m a C h i l d r e n ' s Home, b u t has t h e seeds of d i s e a s e i n h i s s y s t e m t h a t w i l l g i v e him t r o u b l e i n t h e n o t v e r y d i s t a n t f u t u r e . . . . He has n o t a v e r y s t r o n g c o n s t i t u t i o n and s h o u l d a n y t h i n g happen t o him t h e p a r e n t s w o u l d a l w a y s f e e l i f t h e boy jja-d been under t h e i r c a r e t h e r e s u l t s might have been d i f f e r e n t . . . . The same p h i l o s o p h y o f d o i n g what would be b e s t f o r t h e boy i n t h e l o n g r u n , however, c o u l d a l s o work a g a i n s t h i s s h o r t - t e r m i n t e r e s t s . W.G. was a f i f t e e n - y e a r - o l d i n m a t e who had been i n t h e B.I.S. f o r a y e a r , c o m mitted f o r m i n o r o f f e n c e s w h i l e h i s f a t h e r was s e r v i n g a b r o a d d u r i n g t h e war. H i s mother, who had had a bad r e p u t a t i o n and was u n a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e boy, had s i n c e l e f t t h e home and t h e f a t h e r , who had been d i s c h a r g e d f r o m t h e army, had r e q u e s t e d h i s son's r e l e a s e . The s u p e r i n t e n -d e n t r e f u s e d t o endorse t h e r e q u e s t , s a y i n g , "He i s a l a d who r e q u i r e s t o be k e p t w e l l u n d e r r e s t r a i n t and w i t h no mother a t home t o c o u n s e l a n d a d v i s e him, I have grave d o u b t s as t o h i s f u t u r e c o n d u c t . . . . t h e f a t h e r w o u l d be d o i n g t h e boy a k i n d n e s s t o l e a v e him. i n t h e s c h o o l f o r a n o t h e r 42 y e a r . " W.G. may have had some d i f f i c u l t y s e e i n g t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n was i n h i s b e s t i n t e r e s t s , b u t i n o t h e r c a s e s , D o n a l d s o n ' s e f f o r t s t o p r o t e c t t h e boys were more o b v i o u s . 106 The woman f r o m L a n g l e y P r a i r i e who r e q u e s t e d t h a t h e r two sons be r e l e a s e d because "... I have p o t a t o e s g o i n g wrong and b e r r y s ( s i c ) s p o i l i n g f o r t h e sake o f p i c k i n g . . . . " e l i c i t e d s u c h a r e s p o n s e . The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t r e p l i e d t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e boys s h o u l d e v e r have been committed " b u t t h e mother seems t o have t h e i d e a t h a t t h e s c h o o l b e i n g a Government i n s t i t u t i o n 44 she has t h e r i g h t t o use i t f o r h e r own c o n v e n i e n c e . " He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e boys was exemplary a l t h o u g h b o t h had been c o m m i t t e d a t t h e i r mother's r e q u e s t a s b e i n g beyond h e r c o n t r o l , a n d t h a t when one had been p a r d o n e d and s e n t home f o r h e a l t h r e a s o n s , she had r e t u r n e d h im t h r e e months l a t e r on a f r e s h c h a r g e o f i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y . He bas e d h i s r e f u s a l on t h e i r common l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n : " E x p e c t i n g a s I do t h a t on l e a v i n g t h e s c h o o l t h e i r s c h o o l days w i l l be about ended I have n o t been i n a s g r e a t a h u r r y t o make a recommendation f o r t h e i r r e l e a s e a s I would have been had I been s u r e t h e y w o u l d c o n t i n u e g o i n g t o s c h o o l f o r a n o t h e r c o u p l e o f 45 y e a r s . . . . " The p e r c e i v e d e d u c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s o f a te r m i n t h e B.I.S. were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t by o t h e r s i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l j u s t i c e system. M a g i s t r a t e s o f t e n committed boys o r p e r s u a d e d t h e i r p a r e n t s t o a g r e e t o t h e i r c o m m i t t a l on t h e grounds t h a t t h e y w o u l d be e d u c a t e d and w o u l d l e a r n a t r a d e w h i l e i n t h e s c h o o l . Not a l l p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e , however, made t h e same assessment o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y . As F.G. Wade w r o t e : M a g i s t r a t e W i l l i a m s ... seems t o o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e a d v a n t a g e s [_education a n ( i manual t r a i n i n g ] a r e a s n o t h i n g compared w i t h t h e b l i g h t w h i c h a s e n t e n c e t o t h e R e f o r m a t o r y p l a c e s on a boy's whole l i f e a nd c a r e e r . . . . i m p r i s o n m e n t i n a R e f o r m a t o r y i n most c a s e s i s m e r e l y a l o n g p e r i o d o f e n f o r c e d p a u p e r i s m e x p e n s i v e t o t h e S t a t e and d e s t r u c t i v e jjg a v e r y l a r g e e x t e n t t o t h e l i f e and p r o s p e c t o f t h e p r i s o n e r . . . . 107 Wade's v i e w s r e m a i n e d t h o s e o f t h e m i n o r i t y , however, a n d ju d g e s c o n t i n u e d t o e x p l a i n t o p a r e n t s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s t h e i r c h i l d r e n c o u l d e x p e c t t o r e c e i v e a t t h e B.I.S. The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t c o n s i d e r e d p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g t o be o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e : "The h e a l t h and l i v e s o f t h e boys ( n o t s a y i n g a n y t h i n g about t h e i r c o m f o r t w h i c h i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t ) s h o u l d be o u r f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n 47 H i s c o m passion f o r boys who were i l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e I n d i a n boys who were d y i n g o f t u b e r c u l o s i s , was e v i d e n t and he made e v e r y e f f o r t t o have them r e l e a s e d t o d i e a t home. H i s c o n c e r n was p a r t i a l l y p r a c t i c a l , however, a s he remarked on how q u i c k l y t h e d i s e a s e c o u l d s p r e a d t o t h e 48 w h i t e i n m a t e s . I n c a s e s where he was n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n s e n d i n g t h e boys home i n t i m e , he p r e s s e d t h e government t o a c c e p t i t s m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a s s i s t t h e p a r e n t s i n r e t u r n i n g t h e body: The mother and f a t h e r a r e w o r k i n g p e o p l e b u t ... a r e v e r y h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d a t Nakusp, and had been a s s u r e d by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t h e r e t h a t i f a n y t h i n g happened t o t h e boy, t h e Government would see t h a t t h e r e m a i n s were t a k e n home and a l l f u n e r a l e xpenses p a i d . . . . I t i s a s a d c a s e , a b r i g h t , p r o m i s i n g , young f e l l o w , manly and g e n t l e m a n l y .... t h e p a r e n t s a r e h e a r t b r o k e n . . . . I don't t h i n k t h e y have a n y t h i n g b u t the f a t h e r ' s w e e k l y wages t o r e l y upon, b u t i t would b r e a k t h e i r h e a r t s t o have t o go home w i t h o u t t a k i n g t h e r e m a i n s w i t h them, b e s i d e s , i t has c o s t them a. <|pod d e a l t o come t o Vancouver a n d s t a y h e r e f o r t h e p a s t t e n d a y s . The r e q u e s t i n t h e above i n s t a n c e was a p p r o v e d , b u t D o n a l d s o n was s e v e r e l y r e b u k e d f o r t h e s i z e o f t h e o u t l a y and warned n e v e r t o r e p e a t i t . The a l l o w a n c e s t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t made f o r t h e boys' s h o r t c o m i n g s were n o t e x t e n d e d t o t h e s t a f f , f r o m whom he demanded t h e h i g h e s t e f f o r t s . He o u t l i n e d h i s v i e w s on s t a f f i n ; 1919 when t h e newly-formed C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission f i r s t h i r e d on h i s b e h a l f . I n h i s o p i n i o n , t h e i d e a l o f f i c i a l w o u l d be "a man o f good m o r a l c h a r a c t e r , whose e v e r y day l i f e w i l l be an example t o t h e boys;" a t o t a l a b s t a i n e r and non-smoker; "an 108 a c t i v e man who can j o i n t h e boys i n a game o f f o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l , e t c . , and who can do some s p r i n t i n g i n cas e a boy o r boys s h o u l d make a sudden dash f o r l i b e r t y ; " have some knowledge o f d r i l l " i n o r d e r t h a t when he marches w i t h t h e boys he w i l l n o t ap p e a r awkward^;] ... s h o u l d be a man who has t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e boys a t h e a r t and has f u l l c o n t r o l o f h i s temper because t h e boys c a n be v e r y e x a s p e r a t i n g ; s h o u l d be a man o f t a c t and p o s s e s s e d o f a g r e a t d e a l o f common sense so a s t o keep t h e boys i n t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e and y e t a t t h e same t i m e command t h e i r r e s p e c t ; " and s h o u l d be an i n s t r u c t o r i n w h i c h e v e r department he works " f o r a new o f f i c i a l i s o n l y on d u t y f o r a few h o u r s u n t i l t h e boys have s i z e d him up and i t i s 50 a s t o n i s h i n g how a c c u r a t e t h e y a r e i n r e a c h i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . " Of a l l t h e s t a f f , he r e g a r d e d t h e d r i l l i n s t r u c t o r a s one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t . D r i l l was a r e q u i r e d d a i l y a c t i v i t y and Donaldson was c l e a r l y s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h a t was as i t s h o u l d be: "The d r i l l and p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s w h i c h t h e boys have i n t h e gymnasium each day under a competent i n s t r u c t o r a r e bound t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e i r development f r o m 51 boyhood i n t o young manhood." He f u r t h e r e n d o r s e d a l l t y p e s o f s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s , a nd s a i d he a l w a y s q u e s t i o n e d j o b a p p l i c a n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n t h a t a r e a , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t games i n w h i c h s t a f f and boys mixed were common. He e x p l a i n e d t h e r e s u l t s : ... w h i c h made f o r a ' p a l ' f e e l i n g among boys and o f f i c i a l s . I don't know o f a n y t h i n g b e t t e r t o make a boy c o n t r o l h i s temper t h a n t a k i n g p a r t i n a game o f f o o t b a l l o r L a c r o s s e ( s i c ) w h i l e t h e work i n t h e Gymnasium w i l l b u i l d up and d e v e l o p young manhood. When t h e s c h o o l was opened f o u r t e e n y e a r s ago t h e l i n e s I l a i d down a s S u p e r i n t e n d e n t were Work, S p o r t s , D r i v e and E d u c a t i o n , and I have seen no r e a s o n t o change i t f o r i f ^ we can d e v e l o p a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s t h e boy i s bound t o be a s u c c e s s . . . . H i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e development o f a warm r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a f f a n d c h a r g e s d i d n o t , however, o b v i a t e h i s r e q u e s t t h a t a l l o f f i c i a l s be s u p p l i e d w i t h badges o f a u t h o r i t y . The r e a s o n , Donaldson e x p l a i n e d , 109 was t o make t h e r e c a p t u r e o f e s c a p e e s l e s s d i f f i c u l t by e l i m i n a t i n g 53 h o s t i l i t y f r o m members o f t h e p u b l i c who might be p r e s e n t a t t h e t i m e . The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l d i d n o t seem t o c o n s i d e r t h i s r e q u e s t i n c o n g r u o u s . As h i s d e p u t y m i n i s t e r e x p l a i n e d t o a c o r r e s p o n d e n t : "The boys d e t a i n e d o r c o n f i n e d i n t h e Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l a r e n o t i n any d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n f r o m any man who might be i m p r i s o n e d i n g a o l o r p e n i t e n t i a r y . . . . " I n t h e same t o n e , t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t r e j e c t e d a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t many o f t h e boys c o u l d e i t h e r be s e n t o u t t o work w i t h f a r m e r s who had r e q u e s t e d s u c h h e l p o r be a p p r e n t i c e d t o some o u t s i d e f i r m w h i l e c o n t i n u i n t o b o a r d a t t h e B.I.S. I n c o n t r a s t t o C o l l i e r , who was u n s t i n t i n g i n h i s p r e s s u r e on employers t o g i v e h i s boys a chance, Donaldson w r o t e : V e r y few employers would be w i l l i n g t o t a k e a boy a s an a p p r e n t i c e u n l e s s t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t c o u l d p a s s h i s word i n r e g a r d t o h i s f u t u r e c o n d u c t and i f t h e boy's c o n d u c t was s u c h t h a t t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t c o u l d vouch f o r h i s f u t u r e good c h a r a c t e r i t i s o n l y r i g h t t h a t t h e boy s h o u l d be r e l e a s e d anyway and t h e n h i s p a r e n t s c o u l d a p p r e n t i c e him t o whatever t r a d e he w i s h e d t o ^ e a r n and nobody would know t h a t t h e boy had been i n a Reform S c h o o l . He e n l a r g e d on t h e a m b i v a l e n c e o f h i s a p p r o a c h t o the i n m a t e s when r e f e r r i n g t o f o r m e r wards who had s e r v e d a b r o a d d u r i n g t h e war: "many o f t h e s e young men d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s on t h e f i e l d , a s t h e i r r a n k and medals t e s t i f y , b u t t o me n t i o n names would p o s s i b l y stamp them as I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l b o y s , t h e r e f o r f o r t h a t r e a s o n t h e i r f e a t s o f d a r i n g 56 must come t h r o u g h some o t h e r c h a n n e l t h a n t h e S c h o o l . " - ^ The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e was w i d e s p r e a d , and i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n t h e famous 1&70 T u r n e r c a s e , had been g i v e n t h e f o r c e o f l a w . A d e c i s i o n o r d e r i n g t h e r e l e a s e f r o m r e f o r m s c h o o l o f a boy who had n o t committed a c r i m e , s a i d : I t can n o t be s a i d , t h a t i n t h i s c a s e , t h e r e i s no i m p r i s o n m e n t . T h i s boy i s d e p r i v e d o f a f a t h e r ' s c a r e ; b e r e f t o f home i n f l u e n c e s ; has no 110 freedom o f a c t i o n ; i s committed f o r a n u n c e r t a i n t i m e ; i s b r a n d e d as a p r i s o n e r ; made s u b j e c t t o t h e w i l l o f o t h e r s , and t h u s f e e l s t h a t he i s a s l a v e . N o t h i n g c o u l d more c o n t r i b u t e t o p a r a l y z e t h e y o u t h f u l e n e r g i e s , c r u s h a l l n o b l e a s p i r a t i o n s , and u n f i t him f o r t h e d u t i e s o f manhood.... These r e f e r e n c e s b e s t s i g n i f y t h e dilemma i n w h i c h D o n a l d s o n and many o t h e r s w o r k i n g i n j u v e n i l e c o r r e c t i o n s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s . T h e i r r h e t o r i c and p u b l i c l y - e n u n c i a t e d g u i d i n g p h i l o s o p h y s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e i r c h a r g e s were m e r e l y wayward y o u t h s whose en v i r o n m e n t had f a i l e d them. T h e i r a t t i t u d e s , however, d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , t h e y d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h e i r own d e c l a m a t i o n s . They s t i l l v i e w e d t h e boys f o r whom t h e y c a r e d a s young c r i m i n a l s b e i n g c o n f i n e d i n a j u v e n i l e g a o l . T h i s a m b i v a l e n c e i n a p p r o a c h made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e B.I.S. t o p l a y any s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n development o f t h e p o l i c y o f d e a l i n g w i t h j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s i n a n o n - c r i m i n a l s e t t i n g . I l l Footnotes for Chapter V """British Columbia Statutes, An Act for establishing a Juvenile  Reformatory, 1890, ch. 21, sec. 2. 2 Ibid., An Act for establishing an Industrial School, 1909, ch. 40. 3 This meant that previously protected Vancouver boys came into immediate contact with boys who had been tried as regular criminals. Josiah Flynt, My Life, (New York: The Outing Publishing Co., 1908), pp. 82-3, graphically describes how young people took advantage of their time in gaol prior to and during t r i a l to educate themselves as to ways of beating the legal system. Vancouver Daily Province, Feb. 16, 1909, p. 11. •^Ibid., Feb. 1?, 1909, p. 2. British Columbia, Sessional Papers, 1911, Annual Report of Provincial  Industrial School, 1910, p. 38. 7Ibid., 1914, p. 14. 8Ibid., 1911, p. 25. 9Ibid., 1913, p. 14. 1 0Ibid., 1910, p. 37. """"""British Columbia, Sessional Papers, 1905, Annual Report of Lands and  Works Department, 1904, p. 9-12 Annual Report of Provincial Industrial School, 1911, p. 28. """^ Province, March 2, 1907, p. 15. 14 See the newspaper debate on this topic in Ibid., March 2, 1907, p. 15, and March 5, 1907, p. 13-"""^ Annual Report, 1912, p. 5« Ibid. Province, March 2, 1907, p. 15» and D. Donaldson (hereafter D.D.) to Attorney-General (hereafter A.G.), Jan. 24, 1919, File 1-106-4 in A.G. Correspondence, B.C. Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C. All subsequent references to A.G. correspondence will be from this record group unless otherwise specified. 18D.D. to Dep. A.G., Oct. 23, 1905, quoted in D.D. to A.G., Feb. 2, 1912. 19D.D. to Dep. A.G., Aug. 17, 1918, File 51-3-18. 112 I b i d . 2 1 P r o v l n c e , March 2, 1907, p. 15. 99 A.G. t o D.D., Feb. 5, 1919, F i l e 1-106-4. 2 3 J . R . Thompson t o A.G., Nov. 15, 1918, F i l e 51-3-18. 24 "Annual R e p o r t , 1919," t y p e s c r i p t i n A.G. F i l e 1-106-14. 2 5D.D. t o A.G., A p r i l 11, 1918, F i l e 51-3-18. 9f> "Annual R e p o r t , 1919." 2 7D.D. t o A.G., June 11, 1912. 28 A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1913, P« 18. 2 9D.D. t o A.G., March 25, 1919, F i l e 1-106-7. 30 Gases o f n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n would n o r m a l l y be committed t o t h e c a r e o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , b u t i f i t s home was f u l l o r i t r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t them, f o r whatever r e a s o n , a n d a l t e r n a t e a rrangements c o u l d n o t be made, t h e B . I . S . was t h e o n l y i n s t i t u t i o n t o w h i c h t h e y c o u l d be s e n t . A l l s t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h have been c o m p i l e d f r o m A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1910-1914. 3 1 S e e my f i l e , J.M., I-343-A. 3 2 I b i d . , I-546-A. 3 3 I b i d . , S.S., I-464-A; W.L., I-274-A; and M.O., I-379-A. ^ I b i d . , E.S., I-476-A. 3 5 I b i d . , I-328-A. 3 6 I b i d . , I-517-A. 3 7 D e p . A.G. t o P.M. C o t e , Dept. o f J u s t i c e , Ottawa, Feb. 1, 1918. 3 8 I b i d . 3 9A.G. t o F.C. Wade, Feb. 16, 1907, i n Wade P a p e r s , Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s , MSS. 44. 40 x A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1913, P- 16. 4l D.D. t o Dep. A.G., May 6, 1919, F i l e 6_S0-3-l8. ^ . D . t o A.G., J a n . 8, 1918, F i l e 65O-3-I8. ^ 3 M r s . W.F.H. t o A.G., J u l y 5, 1919, F i l e 1-106-1. 113 hh, D.D. t o C h i e f C l e r k , J u l y 8, 1919, F i l e 1-106-1. ^ 5 I b i d . 46 F.C. Wade t o M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , June 18, 1908, i n Wade P a p e r s . 47 D.D. t o A.G., A p r i l 15, 1909, File.1-106-2. 48 D.D. t o A.G., O c t . 25, 1918, F i l e 650-3-18. 49 7D.D. t o A.G., A p r i l 19, 1918, F i l e 51-3-I8. -*°D.D. t o W.H. M a c l n n e s , C i v i l S e r v i c e Commission, S e p t . 30, 1919, r e p r o d u c e d i n "Annual R e p o r t , 1919•" -^Annual R e p o r t , 1911, p. 27. 5 2D.D. t o A.G., Feb. 5, 1919, F i l e 1-106-1. 5 3D.D. t o A.G., J u l y 15, 1912. 54 -^Dep. A.G. t o E r n e s t W. B i g e l o w , S e p t . 2, 1920, F i l e 1-106-1. 5 5D.D. t o A.G., May 31, 1918, F i l e 51-3-18. 56 J "Annual R e p o r t , 1919." 57 Quoted i n R o b e r t Bremner, C h i l d r e n and Y o u t h i n A m e r i c a , A  Documentary H i s t o r y , V o l . I I : 1866-1932, 2 v o l s . (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), 1:485-487. CHAPTER V I CONCLUSION The a d v e n t and i m p a c t o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t i n t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g w o r l d has i n c r e a s i n g l y been t h e f o c u s o f s t u d y i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The f o r e g o i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e Vanc o u v e r J u v e n i l e C o u r t has d e m o n s t r a t e d , however, t h a t none o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s u t i l i z e d t h u s f a r i s adequate f o r a p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s f u n c t i o n . G i l l i s ' v i e w o f t h e c o u r t a s a model o f B r i t i s h c l a s s c o n f l i c t has some v a l i d i t y . 1 The c o u r t and i t s a c t i v i t i e s d i d s e r v e t o i n c r e a s e t h e p e r i o d o f dependency f o r c h i l d r e n f r o m a l l f a m i l i e s . L i k e w i s e , t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t C a n a d i a n l e g i s l a t o r s a nd c o u r t p r o m o t e r s saw t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n a s one i n t e n d e d t o d e a l a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e p o o r . B u t t h e a n a l o g y b r e a k s down a t t h i s p o i n t . A l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s t r i e d t o r e s i s t a d o p t i n g t h e c o u r t - o r d e r e d norms, t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e o f any w i d e s p r e a d o p p o s i t i o n t o i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I n d e e d , t h e d e m o n s t r a t e d l a c k o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s u g g e s t s , t o t h e c o n t r a r y , t h a t i t s work was g e n e r a l l y e n d o r s e d by t h e community. Schlossman's v i e w t h a t t h e c o u r t ' s r e a l i m p a c t was i n a l l o w i n g t h e l a w t o be e n f o r c e d a g a i n s t c h i l d r e n f o r the f i r s t t i m e by p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l 2 f a c i l i t i e s f o r them a l s o seems t o have m e r i t . B u t i t c a n n o t be v e r i f i e d w i t h o u t d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e manner i n w h i c h young o f f e n d e r s were a c t u a l l y t r e a t e d by p o l i c e and j u d g e s p r i o r t o t h e a d v e n t o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t . The Vanc o u v e r e v i d e n c e d e m o n s t r a t e s , however, t h a t he e r r s i n c o n s i d -e r i n g the c o u r t t o be h a r m l e s s because o f t h e e x t e n s i v e n a t u r e o f i t s community i n t e r e s t s . The o v e r a l l i m p a c t o f i t s a t t a c k on many f r o n t s was t o . s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n s t r i c t t h e a v a i l a b l e r ange o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r young p e o p l e ^ 114 115 t h e i r f a m i l i e s a n d b u s i n e s s o p e r a t o r s who d e a l t w i t h c h i l d r e n . S u t h e r l a n d r e h a b i l i t a t e d t h e arguments o f t h e o r i g i n a l r e f o r m e r s w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e new system b e n e f i t t e d young o f f e n d e r s by s a v i n g 3 them f r o m b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s and s o c i a l i z e d i n t o becoming c r i m i n a l s . The e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e Vancouver c o u r t s u g g e s t s , however, t h a t he may have been t o o k i n d i n h i s judgement. The c o u r t d i d n o t f u n c t i o n a s i t s p r o m o t e r s had i n t e n d e d a n d c h i l d r e n were b o t h k e p t i n p o l i c e c e l l s and s u b j e c t e d t o l e n g t h y and f r e q u e n t p e r i o d s o f d e t e n t i o n i n t h e D e t e n t i o n Home under r e l a t i v e l y s t r i n g e n t c o n d i t i o n s . The y o u n g s t e r s were t r e a t e d more l i k e c r i m i n a l s who mi g h t s t i l l be r e f o r m e d t h a n l i k e wayward c h i l d r e n i n need o f c o r r e c t i o n . The Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t i s p r o b a b l y b e s t a n a l y z e d a s a case s t u d y w i t h i n t he framework o f the morphology o f s o c i a l r e f o r m movements d e v e l o p e d by C a r l K a e s t l e and d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I . C y c l i c a l r e f o r m movements, a c c o r d i n g t o K a e s t l e , a r e composed o f f o u r d i s t i n c t , b u t c o n c u r r e n t c y c l e s . - 5 These a r e t h e c y c l e s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , p e r s o n n e l , s u p p o r t and i d e o l o g y . A l l f o u r c y c l e s work t o g e t h e r t o cause s t a f f and p u b l i c , b o t h o f whom i n i t i a l l y a p p r o a c h e d t h e p r o j e c t w i t h c o n f i d e n c e , t o l o s e f a i t h i n t h e i r r e f o r m . I n t h e f i r s t p h a s e , t h e c y c l e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , t h e e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i s a t t a c k e d and Utopian s o l u t i o n s a r e p r o p o s e d t o p r o v i d e f o r a t o t a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m and even t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . I n t h i s way, h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a t e d b o t h w i t h i n t h e r e f o r m movement i t s e l f a n d t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The new i n s t i t u t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d and i t s p r o g r e s s s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y c h a r t e d f o r a t i m e b e f o r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between i t s p e r f o r m a n c e and t h e e x a g g e r a t e d c l a i m s o f i t s p r o m o t e r s a r e 1 1 6 n o t i c e d and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t s e t s i n . A l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r s t a g e s o f t h i s c y c l e a r e beyond t h e t i m e frame o f t h i s s t u d y , i t s e a r l i e r p h a s e s c o i n c i d e d i r e c t l y w i t h t h o s e o f t h e V a n c o u v e r c a s e . The J u v e n i l e P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , l i k e i t s c o u n t e r -p a r t s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y , began t o s t r e n u o u s l y d e c r y t h e methods by which c h i l d r e n were t r e a t e d by t h e c o u r t s , i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e s e p r a c t i c e s a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y l e d t o g r o w t h o f t h e c r i m i n a l c l a s s . They p r o m i s e d t h a t a j u v e n i l e c o u r t w o u l d h a l t t h e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s and t u r n p o t e n t i a l l o n g - t e r m o f f e n d e r s i n t o s o l i d , p r o d u c t i v e c i t i z e n s . A f t e r t h e c o u r t was e s t a b l i s h e d , c i t y c o u n c i l was i n t e r e s t e d enough i n t h e work t o s e n d one o f i t s members a s a d e l e g a t e t o t h e J.C.A.C. A f t e r t h e f i r s t y e a r , i n t e r e s t had waned enough t h a t t h e d e l e g a t e was w i t h d r a w n . C o l l i e r gave f r e q u e n t p u b l i c a d d r e s s e s , b u t t h e s e were r a r e l y even n o t e d by t h e p r e s s a f t e r t h e c o u r t was underway. The c y c l e o f p e r s o n n e l i s t h e s e c o n d a s p e c t o f t h e movement t h a t was e x p e r i e n c e d i n Vancouver. A c c o r d i n g t o K a e s t l e , t h e t a l e n t e d amateur p r o v i d e s t h e i m p e t u s i n many r e f o r m movements, b u t i s r e p l a c e d by t r a i n e d s t a f f when t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f the new p e r s o n n e l l e a d t o e x p e r t i s e and e f f i c i e n c y , o r t h e a ppearance o f them, but a l s o t o i n s u l a r i t y and o f t e n t o m e d i o c r i t y . I n V a ncouver, the J.P.A. was made up o f i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s who worked i n o t h e r a r e a s , most n o t a b l y t h e l a w y e r F.C. Wade. B u t H e r b e r t C o l l i e r , who was a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r w i t h r e g u l a r c o u r t work f r o m h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e S a l v a t i o n Army's P r i s o n Gate Department, became t h e f i r s t C.P.O. The c o n t r a s t between h i s s t e r n a p p r o a c h t o h i s wards and t h a t o f D a n i e l D o n a l d s o n , s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , 1 1 7 was a s t r i k i n g d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e changes wrought by p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . The boys d e m o n s t r a t e d genuine a f f e c t i o n f o r D o n a l d s o n , who had been a c l o t h i e r who was i n t e r e s t e d i n c h i l d r e n , w h i l e t h e y went t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o a v o i d d e a l i n g w i t h C o l l i e r , t h e s p e c i a l i s t . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n d e v e l o p e d a t t h e B . I . S . when D o n a l d s o n was r e p l a c e d by D a v i d B r a n k i n , a t r a i n e d c h i l d w e l f a r e worker who i m m e d i a t e l y began t o r e f e r t o t h e boys by t h e i r a s s i g n e d numbers i n ' p l a c e of t h e i r p r o p e r a n d nicknames. A P r o g r e s s i v e - e r a r e f o r m e r d e s c r i b e d t h i s p r o b l e m i n g e n e r a l terms: The t r u e r e f o r m e r i s n o t w i t h o u t humor, w i t h o u t p i t y , w i t h o u t mercy, b u t he i s w i t h o u t knowledge o f l i f e o r o f human n a t u r e , and w i t h o u t v e r y much o f any s o r t o f sweetness and l i g h t . The more m o r a l he i s , and t h e more a m a z i n g l y r e a d y w i t h c r u e l judgements.... He t h i n k s t h e r e i s a n a b s o l u t e good and an a b s o l u t e bad, and hence a b s o l u t e l y good p e o p l e and a b s o l u t e l y bad p e o p l e . C o l l i e r ' s a l o o f n e s s f r o m h i s wards c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e downturn o f t h e c y c l e s i n c e t h e c o u r t ' s p r o m o t e r s had p r e d i c a t e d t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n s on t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e boys w o u l d c o o p e r a t e w h o l e h e a r t e d l y w i t h c o u r t s t a f f . The t h i r d c y c l e , t h a t o f s u p p o r t , was a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e V ancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t . As K a e s t l e e x p l a i n e d , d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m , t h e p u b l i c i s o f t e n w i l l i n g t o a l l o c a t e e x t r a o r d i n a r y f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . T h i s s u p p o r t d i m i n i s h e s , l e a d i n g t o o v e r c r o w d e d f a c i l i t i e s and i n a d e q u a t e s t a f f , a s p u b l i c e n t h u s i a s m wanes. P o o r r e s u l t s and f u r t h e r d i m i n i s h e d r e s o u r c e s r e s u l t f r o m t h i s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e i t makes i m p o s s i b l e t h e t y p e o f t r e a t m e n t t h a t had been e n v i s i o n e d by p r o m o t e r s . The Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t l i k e w i s e began w i t h f u l l f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . A b u i l d i n g was p r o c u r e d and f u r n i s h e d , a d equate s t a f f was h i r e d , an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home was c o n s t r u c t e d , and more s t a f f were h i r e d a s t h e work expanded, a l l w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g o r c o m p l a i n t f r o m t h e 118 f l i n d e r s . As t h e 1913-1^ d e p r e s s i o n wore on, however, a n d t h e o u t b r e a k o f war f o l l o w e d , t h e c o u r t began t o f e e l t h e f i n a n c i a l p i n c h w i t h s l o w payment o f s a l a r i e s and i n c l u s i o n i n a g e n e r a l wage c u t f o r c i v i c employees. The i m p a c t o f t h e new f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t s , however, i s beyond t h e t i m e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . I n e x p l a i n i n g t h e f o u r t h c y c l e , t h a t o f i d e o l o g y , K a e s t l e a r g u e s t h a t p r e v a i l i n g t h e o r i e s about t h e causes o f p o v e r t y and d e v i a n c e t e n d t o p a r a l l e l t h e c y c l e s o f r e f o r m . Thus, a l t h o u g h e n v i r o n m e n t a l and h e r e d i t a r i a n e x p l a n a t i o n s c o e x i s t a t most t i m e s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l t h e o r i e s t e n d t o dominate d u r i n g t h e o p t i m i s t i c e a r l y y e a r s o f an i n s t i t u t i o n and h e r e d i t a r i a n e x p l a n a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e p e s s i m i s t i c downturn. E n v i r o n m e n t a l and g e n e t i c arguments r e g a r d i n g c r i m i n a l i t y were b o t h a d v a n c e d d u r i n g t h e debate on t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , b u t t h e f o r m e r were c l e a r l y i n t h e m a j o r i t y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d 1910 t o 1915 and a l t h o u g h o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e was made t o t h e number o f m e n t a l d e f e c t i v e s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d e l i n q u e n t c l a s s , the m e n t a l h y g i e n e movement, w h i c h soon came t o dominate d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r o b l e m , d i d n o t g a i n momentum u n t i l l a t e r y e a r s . K a e s t l e e x p l a i n e d t h a t permanent l i n e a r changes o f t e n u n d e r l i e t h e a p p a r e n t c i r c u l a r i t y o f t h e c y c l e s o f r e f o r m movements. T h i s was a l s o t r u e i n V a n c o u v e r , a l t h o u g h t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t was. d e f i n i t e l y n o t t h e major new i n s t i t u t i o n i t i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o have been. I t s f u n c t i o n was economic i n t h a t i t sought t o p r o d u c e w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d w o r k e r s and c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e v i a n c e f r o m t h i s l i n e w o u l d no l o n g e r be t o l e r a t e d by s o c i e t y . I t s f u n c t i o n was a l s o s o c i a l i n t h a t i t was a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e m a c h i n e r y f o r e x t e n d i n g t h e l e n g t h o f c h i l d h o o d . B u t b o t h o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s c l e a r l y e n j o y e d wide p u b l i c s u p p o r t w i t h o n l y i s o l a t e d c a s e s o f r e s i s t a n c e . 119 The c o u r t m e r e l y p r o v i d e d a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d method o f e n f o r c i n g t h e new norms t h a t had a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d f r o m a c r o s s - c l a s s consensus on t h e s e i s s u e s . The c o u r t was e f f e c t i v e and a g g r e s s i v e a s an economic i n s t i t u t i o n . Under i t s a e g i s , t h e s e c t i o n o f the C r i m i n a l Code r e q u i r i n g men t o s u p p o r t t h e i r f a m i l i e s was a c t i v e l y e n f o r c e d . D i s s o l u t e p a r e n t s u s u a l l y l o s t t h e i r c h i l d r e n u n t i l t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s as s o b e r a n d i n d u s t r i o u s c i t i z e n s . The i m p a c t on boys who came b e f o r e t h e c o u r t was even more d i r e c t . They were r e q u i r e d e i t h e r t o a t t e n d s c h o o l f a i t h f u l l y o r t o work r e g u l a r l y a t a j o b p r o c u r e d o r ap p r o v e d by t h e C.P.O. O n l y t h e most r e g u l a r t y p e s o f employment were a c c e p t a b l e t o him, f o r example, f a c t o r y o r department s t o r e j o b s , a n d boys were not a l l o w e d t o work i n any m a r g i n a l a r e a s s u c h a s h o t e l s o r a s messengers o r newsboys. U n u s u a l work, s u c h a s p r i z e f i g h t i n g , was c o m p l e t e l y o ut o f t h e q u e s t i o n . Nor were wards o f the c o u r t a l l o w e d t o c o m p l a i n a b o u t t h e i r l e v e l s o f p a y o r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The c o u r t a l s o p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n l e g a l l y e x t e n d i n g t h e l e n g t h o f c h i l d h o o d . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m was d e v e l o p i n g h i g h s c h o o l programs t o d e a l w i t h o l d e r c h i l d r e n and t h e Q government was p a s s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s t o go v e r n young p e o p l e i n t h e w o r k p l a c e . The c o u r t p i c k e d up t h e s l a c k and c o n t r o l l e d c h i l d r e n d u r i n g o t h e r t i m e s and s i t u a t i o n s . I t s new r e s t r i c t i o n s , w h i c h a p p l i e d e q u a l l y t o s e v e n - y e a r o l d s a n d s i x t e e n - y e a r o l d s , made e x p l i c i t t h e new p o s i t i o n t h a t a d u l t s t a t u s was no l o n g e r f r e e l y o b t a i n a b l e . T here i s no doubt t h a t t h e Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t d i d n o t f u n c t i o n a s t h o s e who had f r a m e d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n had i n t e n d e d . The judge d i d n o t 120 a c c e p t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; t h e C.P.O. m i s u s e d h i s wide powers; and l a y i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o c e s s was s y s t e m a t i c a l l y l i m i t e d a n d e l i m i n a t e d . The s e c r e c y s u r r o u n d i n g c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s may have k e p t t h e i r t r u e n a t u r e f r o m t h e p u b l i c , b u t t h e g e n e r a l l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e c o u r t ' s o p e r a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t f u l l e r i n f o r m a t i o n would n o t have a l t e r e d t h e degree o f p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e . The r h e t o r i c o f p r o m o t e r s such a s S c o t t and K e l s o r e g a r d i n g p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d was c l e a r l y seen a s j u s t t h a t - r h e t o r i c t h a t had l i t t l e t o do w i t h i t s t r u e f u n c t i o n . The V a n c o u v e r case may have been an i s o l a t e d example. C e r t a i n l y , t h e l o c a l P r o t e s t a n t C.A.S., w i t h i t s t e n d e n c y t o h o l d i t s wards i n a l a r g e group home f o r l e n g t h y p e r i o d s o f t i m e i n s t e a d o f p l a c i n g them i n f o s t e r homes, was b r o a d l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e n a t i o n a l , o r O n t a r i o norm. The v e r y c o n c e p t o f a n a t i o n a l norm i n r e g a r d t o c h i l d w e l f a r e work i n a c o u n t r y w i t h r e g i o n s as v a r i e d as Canada may i t s e l f be s p e c i o u s . G e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e i m p a c t o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t i n Canada t h u s cannot be made u n t i l c a s e s t u d i e s o f o t h e r c o u r t s have been c o m p l e t e d . Based on t h e Vancouver e x p e r i e n c e , however, i t i s c l e a r t h a t w h i l e t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t c o u l d have an enormous i m p a c t on t h e l i v e s o f t h o s e who came b e f o r e i t , t h a t i m p a c t was e n t i r e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h community e x p e c t a t i o n s . As s u c h , t h e c o u r t a f f i r m e d , r a t h e r t h a n l e d p u b l i c o p i n i o n . T h i s does n o t mean t h a t t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t was i n s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t r a t h e r a s Durkheim and E r i c k s o n s u g g e s t e d , t h a t i t must be seen a s a bar o m e t e r o r f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e e l u c i d a t i o n o f community s t a n d a r d s . Through t h e Vancouver c o u r t , t h e community d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t above a l l , i t wanted i t s p r o p e r t y s a f e ; s e c o n d l y , t h a t i t wanted a l l c i t i z e n s t o do t h e i r s h a r e i n a s s i s t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l advancement o f t h e n a t i o n ; and 121 t h i r d l y , t h a t i t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t young p e o p l e r e q u i r e d a l e n g t h i e r p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g under r e s t r a i n t t h a n had p r e v i o u s l y been t h e p r a c t i c e b e f o r e t h e y would be r e a d y t o assume a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The Vancouver J u v e n i l e C o u r t was t h u s a s t e r n wet-nurse t o t h e modern c o n c e p t o f c h i l d -hood. 122 F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r V I """John G i l l i s , "The E v o l u t i o n o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y i n E n g l a n d , 1890-1914," P a s t and P r e s e n t , V o l . 67 (1975), pp. 96-121. 2 S t e v e n S c h l o s s m a n , Love a n d t h e A m e r i c a n D e l i n q u e n t , The"Theory and  P r a c t i c e o f " P r o g r e s s i v e " J u v e n i l e J u s t i c e , 1825-1920,(Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1977). 3 N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , C h i l d r e n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y : F r a m i n g t h e  T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y Consensus, ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of To r o n t o P r e s s , 1976), pp. 91-151. 4 " S o c i a l Reform a n d t h e Urban S c h o o l , " H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , Summer, 1972, pp. 211-228. 5 I b i d . , pp. 218-219. 6D.L. M a t t e r s , "Approaches t o D e l i n q u e n c y : A C a n a d i a n E x p e r i e n c e , " U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , S p r i n g , 1977-7 B r a n d W h i t l o c k , F o r t y Y e a r s o f I t , (N.Y.: D. A p p l e t o n , 1914), p. 239, q u o t e d i n C h r i s t o p h e r L a s c h , The New R a d i c a l i s m i n A m e r i c a , 1889-1963, The I n t e l l e c t u a l a s a S o c i a l Type, (N.Y.: A l f r e d A. Knopf, ±965), p. 153. g T i m o t h y Dunn, "Work, C l a s s and E d u c a t i o n : V o c a t i o n a l i s m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1900-1929," M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978. 123 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE The r e c o r d s o f the Vanc o u v e r J u v e n i l e C o u r t f r o m i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n May, 1910, u n t i l J a n u a r y , 1915i were t h e most i m p o r t a n t p r i m a r y s o u r c e f o r t h i s t h e s i s . The u n p r o c e s s e d r e c o r d s a r e s t o r e d i n t h e Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s i n minute books t e m p o r a r i l y marked a s numbers 1-5 a n d 8. They a r e i n t h r e e s e t s : t h e Judge's Book, w h i c h d e a l s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h c a s e s committed t o t h e B . I . S . , a l t h o u g h i t does n o t i n c l u d e a l l s u c h c a s e s ; t h e M i n u t e s o f the J u v e n i l e C o u r t A d v i s o r y Committee, w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e minutes o f m e e t i n g s o f t h e f u l l committee; and t h e Day Book o f t h e C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r , w h i c h i s a d e t a i l e d d i a r y o f h i s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g c o u r t c a s e s . A l l r e c o r d s a r e a r r a n g e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f t h e B.C. A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , w h i c h i s s t o r e d i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s on m i c r o f i l m r e e l s 20-72, 74-78, and 298-324 was a n o t h e r v a l u a b l e p r i m a r y s o u r c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t he c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l . The m a t e r i a l s , w h i c h a r e a r r a n g e d t o p i c a l l y i n f i l e s , i n c l u d e r e c o r d s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l s ; moving p i c t u r e c e n s o r ; f a c t o r i e s i n s p e c t o r ; A s s i z e C o u r t s ; Grand J u r i e s ; and p a r o l e r e q u e s t s . L e t t e r s i n w a r d and outward a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e same s e t . The f i l e s o f t h e J u v e n i l e P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n a r e i n the r e c o r d s o f t h e Wade F a m i l y i n t h e Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s (MSS 44, V o l . 5 B ) . These a r e p r i m a r i l y a n a s s o r t m e n t o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and newspaper c l i p p i n g s f r o m t h e p e r i o d p r i o r t o and d u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e c o u r t . They a l s o c o n t a i n s e v e r a l p r i n t e d i t e m s , s u c h a s c o p i e s o f a n n u a l r e p o r t s o f c h i l d r e n ' s p r o t e c t i o n o f f i c e r s f r o m o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . The m i n u t e s o f t h e Vancouver L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women, w h i c h a r e h e l d i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (Box 4), were scanned f o r r e f e r e n c e s t o j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . Most o f t h e i r 124 r e l e v a n t c o n c e r n s , however, were w i t h f e m a l e o f f e n d e r s . S enate D e b a t e s f r o m 1907 a n d 1908 d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e J u v e n i l e  D e l i n q u e n t s A c t d e m o n s t r a t e t h e few r e s e r v a t i o n s s e n a t o r s had a b o u t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a newspapers, most n o t a b l y t h e V i c t o r i a  Times a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e and D a i l y N e w s - A d v e r t i s e r , were c o n s u l t e d f o r p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e d e b a t e s and g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s and the c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t movement. The r e p o r t s o f t h r e e R o y a l Commissions - B o a r d o f I n q u i r y i n t o t h e C o s t o f L i v i n g (1915)! R o y a l Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n (1913), and B.C. S u r v e y o f t h e S c h o o l System (1925) - p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s . The 1911 Census was u s e d f o r g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n . A s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y f o l l o w s : SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Bremner, R o b e r t . C h i l d r e n and Y o u t h i n A m e r i c a , A Documentary H i s t o r y ,  V o l . I I : 1866-1932. Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1971. 2 v o l s . Brown, R o b e r t C r a i g , and Cook, Ramsay. Canada, 1896-1921, A N a t i o n  T r a n s f o r m e d . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L t d . . 1974. E r i c k s o n , K a i T. Wayward P u r i t a n s , A S t u d y i n t h e S o c i o l o g y o f D e v i a n c e . New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . . 1966. F l o u d , R o d e r i c k . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Q u a n t i t a t i v e Methods f o r H i s t o r i a n s . London: Methuen and Co.. 1973. F l y n t ( W i l l a r d ) , J o s i a h . My L i f e . New Y o r k : The O u t i n g P u b l i s h i n g Co. 1908. G i l l i s , John. Y o u t h and H i s t o r y , T r a d i t i o n and Change i n European Age  R e l a t i o n s , 1770-Present. New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s . 1974. H a l l , George S t a n l e y . A d o l e s c e n c e , I t s P s y c h o l o g y and I t s R e l a t i o n t o  P h y s i o l o g y , A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , Sex, C r i m e , R e l i g i o n a n d  E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n and Co. 1904. 125 Hawes, Joseph. Children in Urban Society,. Juvenile Delinquency in Nineteenth Century America. New York: Oxford University Press. 1971. Holl, Jack. Juvenile Reform in the Progressive Era, William R. George and  the Junior Republic Movement. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1971. Lasch, Christopher. The New Radicalism in America, 1889-1963, The  Intellectual as a Social Type. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1965. Law Reform Commission of British Columbia. Report on Minors' Contracts. Victoria: Queen's Printer. 1976. Mennel, Robert. Thorns and Thistles, Juvenile Delinquents in the United  States, 1825-1940. Hanover: University Press of New England. 1973. O'Neill, William. Divorce in the Progressive Era. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1967. Piatt, Anthony. The Child Savers/The Invention of. Delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago P r e s s . 1 9 6 9 . « Nie, Norman H. et a l . SPSS, St a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1975. Ross, Dorothy. G. Stanley Hall, The Psychologist as Prophet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1972. Schlossman, Steven. Love and the American Delinquent: The Theory and  Practice of "Progressive" Juvenile Justice, 1825-1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1977. Scott, W.L. The Juvenile Court in Law and the Juvenile Court i n Action. Ottawa: The Canadian Council on Child Welfare. 1927. Shorter, Edward. The Historian and the Computer, A Practical Guide. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1971. Sutherland, Neil. Children in English-Canadian Society: Framing the  Twentieth Century Consensus. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1976. Articles: Brenzel, Barbara. "Lancaster Industrial School for Girls: A Social Portrait of a Nineteenth-Century Reform School for Gi r l s , " Feminist  Studies 3 (Fall 1975)^0-53. ' Cotterrell, Roger B.M. "Durkheim on Legal Development and Social Solidarity," British Journal of Law and Society, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Winter 1977): 241-252. 126 G i l l i s , John. "The E v o l u t i o n o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y i n E n g l a n d , 1890-1914," P a s t and P r e s e n t 67 (1975): 96-121. H e r b e r t , R.G. "A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n o f B r i t i s h Law i n B.C.," U.B.G. L e g a l N o t e s , V o l . 2, No. 2 (March 1954): 93-101. K a e s t l e , C a r l . " S o c i a l Reform and t h e Urban S c h o o l , " H i s t o r y o f  E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y (Summer 1972): 211-228. MacDonald, N o r b e r t . "A C r i t i c a l Growth C y c l e f o r V a n c o u v e r , 1900-1914," BC S t u d i e s 17 ( S p r i n g 1973): 26-42. McDonald, Lynn. "Crime and Punishment i n Canada: A S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l Wisdom," C a n a d i a n Review o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , V o l . V I I (Nov. 1969): 212-236. May, M a r g a r e t . "Innocence and E x p e r i e n c e : The E v o l u t i o n o f the Concept o f J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y i n t h e M i d - N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " V i c t o r i a n  S t u d i e s ( S e p t . 1973): 7-29. M o d e l l , John and Hareven, Tamara. " U r b a n i z a t i o n and t h e M a l l e a b l e H o u s e h o l d : An E x a m i n a t i o n o f B o a r d i n g and L o d g i n g i n Ame r i c a n F a m i l i e s , " J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y ( A u g u s t 1973): 467-479. U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r s : Dunn, Timothy. "Work, C l a s s and E d u c a t i o n : V o c a t i o n a l i s m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1900-1929," M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978. H o u s t o n , Susan. "The V a g r a n t C h i l d i n Upper Canada, I85O-I865: A Case f o r S t a t e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e M i d - V i c t o r i a n E r a , " T o r o n t o , 1969. ( T y p e w r i t t e n ) . M a t t e r s , D i a n e . "Approaches t o D e l i n q u e n c y : A C a n a d i a n E x p e r i e n c e , " Vancouver, 1977. ( T y p e w r i t t e n ) . W r i g h t , Kenneth. "A Survey o f Male J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 1920 t o 1941," M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1941. APPENDIX I METHODOLOGY FOR CHAPTER IV The u n p r o c e s s e d r e c o r d s o f t h e Vanco u v e r J u v e n i l e C o u r t a r e i n s t o r a g e a t t h e Va n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s i n Vancouver, B.C. Those f r o m t h e p e r i o d June, 1910, t o J a n u a r y , 1915, a r e i n M i n u t e Books, t e m p o r a r i l y numbered 1-5> and 8. They a r e i n t h r e e g r o u p s : t h e Judge's Book: t h e M i n u t e s o f t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t A d v i s o r y Committee ( J . C . A . C . ) ; and t h e Day Book o f t h e C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r (C.P.O.). The j u d g e ' s book d e a l s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h c a s e s committed t o t h e Boys' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l ( B . I . S . ) , b u t does n o t i n c l u d e a l l such c a s e s . The J.C.A.C. r e c o r d s c o n t a i n o n l y t h e m i n u t e s o f me e t i n g s of t h e f u l l committee. The C.P.O.'s books l i s t h i s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n g r e a t d e t a i l , and a r e t h e most v a l u a b l e s o u r c e s i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n . S i n c e t h e contemporary f i l e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n have been l o s t , I r e c r e a t e d them w i t h combined r e f e r e n c e s f r o m the t h r e e groups o f r e c o r d s . F i l e s were a s s e m b l e d f o r 1397 c a s e s , 567 o f whi c h were s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l . The c a s e s s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d a l m o s t a l l c a s e s o f male d e l i n q u e n t s who came b e f o r e t h e c o u r t c h a r g e d w i t h any o f f e n c e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d under s t u d y . Fewer t h a n 10 s u c h c a s e s were o m i t t e d and t h e s e were f o r boys who committed t h e i r f i r s t o f f e n c e i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e t i m e p e r i o d and whose f i r s t c h a r g e had not y e t been d e a l t w i t h . A n o t h e r 199 c a s e s were e l i m i n a t e d because t h e y were f e m a l e o f f e n d e r s , who a r e n o t b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A l s o d i s c a r d e d were 94 c h i l d w e l f a r e c a s e s w h i c h were h a n d l e d t h r o u g h t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t even t h o u g h t h e y d i d n o t d e a l w i t h d e l i n q u e n c y . A n o t h e r t w e l v e c a s e s were e l i m i n a t e d b e c a u s e t h e y d e a l t w i t h a d u l t o f f e n d e r s , m o s t l y t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h c o n t r i b u t i n g t o d e l i n q u e n c y , 127 128 d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e s u c h c a s e s began t o be h a n d l e d by t h e P o l i c e C o u r t . The l a r g e s t s i n g l e c a t e g o r y o f f i l e s t o be e l i m i n a t e d was t h e 325 c a s e s f o r w h i c h t h e r e c o r d s c o n t a i n e d u s u a l l y o n l y a s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e . T h i s g r o u p i n g i n c l u d e d boys whose names may have been r e c o r d e d because t h e C.P.O. f o u n d them l o i t e r i n g i n t h e company o f a c o u r t ward, w i t h a boy who was smoking, o r even w i t h a dru n k e n a d u l t . They had committed no o f f e n c e t h e m s e l v e s and were n o t b r o u g h t t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home f o r any r e a s o n . T h i s c a t e g o r y a l s o i n c l u d e d t h o s e boys whose p a r e n t s b r o u g h t them t o t h e D e t e n t i o n Home on a s i n g l e o c c a s i o n t o be admonished by t h e C.P.O. f o r t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a t home. T h e i r m i s b e h a v i o u r s were n o t s e r i o u s and t h e p a r e n t s d i d n o t want o r e x p e c t them t o be d e t a i n e d . F i l e s were k e p t on t h e s e c h i l d r e n o n l y i n t h e even t o f o f f e n c e s b e i n g committed by them a t a f u t u r e d a t e . I d e v e l o p e d t h e f o l l o w i n g codebook t o a n a l y z e t h e c a s e s : A n a l y z e J u v e n i l e C o u r t Data F i e l d Column Code 1 1-3 I d e n t i t y number (001-56?) 2 k-7 Date o f b i r t h ( y e a r ) 3 8-9 O r i g i n a t o r o f i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h c o u r t : l = p a r e n t o r s t e p p a r e n t 2=C.A.S. o f f i c i a l 3=guardian 4=police 5=school o f f i c i a l 6=probation s t a f f ? = n e ighbour 8 = p l a i n t i f f 9=other ( i n c l u d e s o t h e r boys i n v o l v e d and o t h e r r e l a t i v e s ) 99 =unknown 129 Field Column Code 4 10-11 Firs t charge or contact with court: 1=breaking and entering (includes B,E & S, and burglary) 2=receiving stolen goods 3=wilful damage 4=incorrigible 5=curfew 6=vagrancy 7=wandering abroad (includes runaways) 8=breach in conditions of probation 9=forgery 10=indecent act ll=assault (includes wounding) 12=bylaw violation 13=escaping custody 14=gambling 15=to be paroled from B.I.S. l6=minor theft 17=truancy l8=major theft (includes highway robbery) 19= false, pretences 20=other (includes offences in the order of discharging firearms, drunkenness and Tobacco Act violations) 21=arson 99=unknown 5 12-13 Disposition of f i r s t charge or contact: l=dismissed or withdrawn 2=suspended sentence 3=suspended sentence, to attend D.H. school 4=sent home 5=spanked and sent home 6=school to punish 7=parent and child cautioned 8=probation, no conditions specified 9=probation, to report weekly 10=probation, to report monthly ll=probation, to report by mail 12=to leave city 13=to leave country (includes formal deportation) l4=to B.I.S. 15=to C.A.S. l6=to care of other guardian or institution 17=parents to pay fine l8=detained u n t i l parents improve home 19=to make restitution 20=child cautioned 21=flogged or whipped 22=settled out of court 23=found job (cont'd) 130 Field Column Code (cont'd) 24=remand indefinitely 25=to Police Court 26=escaped, not recaptured 6 14-15 As for Fie l d 4. 7 16-17 As for Field 5. 8 18-19 Total number of reported new offences during period. 9 20-21 Ultimate disposition of boy: 1=B.I.S. 2=C.A.S. or other guardian 3=left city 4=left country 5=continued probation 6=Police Court 7=escaped, not recaptured 8=beyond time frame 9=penal institution elsewhere 10=got job ll=died 99=unknown 10 22-23 Total number of court appearances. 11 24-26 Total number of days in detention for a l l charges. 12 27-28 Average number of days in detention for a l l charges. 13 29-31 Total number of weeks spent reporting. 14 32-33 Occupation: 1=student 2=working 3=changed from student to working during period 4=neither work nor school 5=unknown 15 34-37 Year of f i r s t contact. 16 38-39 Home situation: l=mother and father (natural parents as far as i s known) 2=father, no mother 3=mother, no father 4=at least one parent i s stepparent 5=adoptive parents 6=with other relatives (cont'd) 131 F i e l d Column Code ( c o n t ' d ) 7=with g u a r d i a n ^ i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r i g i n 9 = l i v e s a l o n e 10=from o u t o f town 11=had p a r e n t s , b o t h d i e d d u r i n g p e r i o d 12=reference t o mother o n l y ( p r o b a b l y two p a r e n t s ) 13=reference t o f a t h e r o n l y ( p r o b a b l y two p a r e n t s ) I n d e v e l o p i n g the codebook I d e c i d e d t o i g n o r e modern c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f o f f e n c e s even though i t would mean t h a t d a t a c o u l d n o t e a s i l y be compared f r o m p e r i o d t o p e r i o d . I d i d t h i s because modern c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s s u c h as " t h e f t u n d e r $50" o r t h e c l a s s i f y i n g o f a l l f i r e a r m s o f f e n c e s a s s e r i o u s would have d i s t o r t e d t h e s i t u a t i o n a s i t e x i s t e d d u r i n g 1910-1915• I d e c i d e d t h a t t h e v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o most v a r i a b l e s i n t h e o r i g i n a l codebook had been b r o k e n down i n f a r t o o d i s c r e t e a manner and r e c o d e d many v a r i a b l e s a s f o l l o w s : F i e l d Column Code 3 8-9 O r i g i n a t o r o f i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h c o u r t : 3=guardian ( i n c l u d e s C.A.S. o f f i c i a l ) 6=probation s t a f f ( i n c l u d e s s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s ) 9=other ( i n c l u d e s n e i g h b o u r and p l a i n t i f f - a l l o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s a s i n o r i g i n a l codebook 4 10-11 F i r s t c h a r g e o r c o n t a c t w i t h c o u r t : l = v i c t i m l e s s ( i n c l u d e s i n c o r r i g i b l e ; c u r f e w ; v a g r a n c y ; w a n d e r i n g a b r o a d ; b r e a c h i n c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o b a t i o n ; and t r u a n c y ) 2=most minor ( i n c l u d e s b y l a w o f f e n c e s ; g a m b l i n g ; p a r o l e d f r o m B . I . S . ; and o t h e r ) 3=minor ( i n c l u d e s m i n o r t h e f t a n d w i l f u l damage) 4 = r e l a t i v e l y s e r i o u s ( i n c l u d e s b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g ; r e c e i v i n g s t o l e n goods; a n d f o r g e r y ) 5=serious ( i n c l u d e s a s s a u l t ; i n d e c e n t a c t ; e s c a p i n g c u s t o d y ; major t h e f t ; f a l s e p r e t e n c e s ; and a r s o n ) 5 12-13 D i s p o s i t i o n o f f i r s t c h a r g e o r c o n t a c t : l = d i s m i s s e d ( i n c l u d e s d i s m i s s e d o r wi t h d r a w n ; a n d s e t t l e d o ut o f c o u r t ) 2=suspended s e n t e n c e ( i n c l u d e s suspended s e n t e n c e ; ( c o n t ' d ) 132 F i e l d Column Code (cont'd) attend D.H. school; sent home; spanked and sent home; school to punish; parents to pay fine; restitution; child cautioned; flogged; found job; remand indefinitely; and parent and child cautioned) 3=guardian (includes C.A.S.; other guardian or institution; detained un t i l parents improve home) 4=probation (includes a l l categories of probation) 5=sent out of jurisdiction (includes leave city; and leave country) 6=beyond jurisdiction (includes Frolice Court; and escaped) 7=B.I.S. 6 14-15 As for Fie l d 4. 7 16-17 As for F i e l d 5-8 18-19 Total number of reported new offences during period: 1=1-3 3=6-9 5=13-15 2=4-5 4=10-12 6=16-20 9 20-21 Ultimate disposition of boy: 3=left city (includes l e f t c i t y and l e f t country) 7=left jurisdiction (includes escaped, not recaptured; to Police Court; penal institution elsewhere; got job; and died) 99=unknown (includes unknown; beyond time frame; and continued probation) - a l l other categories as in original codebook 10 22-23 Total number of court appearances: 1=1-2 4=8-10 7=17-20 2=3-4 5=11-12 8=21-24 3=5-7 6=13-16 9=25-28 11 24-25 Total number of days in Detention Home for a l l charges: 1=1-3 8=43-55 15=201-250 2=4-6 9=56-65 16=251-300 3=7-14 10=66-75 17=301-350 4=15-21 11=76-100 18=351-400 5=22-28 12=101-125 19=401-450 6=29-35 13=126-150 7=36-42 14=151-200 16 38-39 Home situation: l=two parents (includes father and mother; stepparents; orphaned during period; reference to mother only; and reference to father only) (cont'd) F i e l d Column Code 133 2=father, no mother 3=mother, no f a t h e r 5=guardian ( i n c l u d e s a d o p t e d ; r e l a t i v e s ; g u a r d i a n ; and i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r i g i n ) 9=albne ( i n c l u d e s a l o n e and o u t o f town) The programmed package known a s S.P.S.S. ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) was used t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a . B o t h codebooks were u s e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . 

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