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The bandit of the Comedia of the Spanish golden age theatre Duca, Antonino Gennaro 1978

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THE BANDIT OF THE COMEDIA OF THE SPANISH GOLDEN AGE THEATRE by ANTONINO GENNARO DUCA B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES i n the Department of H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1978 ^c) Antonino Gennaro D u c a , 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s fi an advanced deg ree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g ree tha the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g or pub 1 i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f H i s p a n i c & I t a l i a n S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia 207S Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to make a v a i l a b l e to those i n t e r e s t e d i n the Cornedia of the Span ish Golden Age an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the Band i t p l a y s . The l i s t of p lays makes no c l a i m at be ing e x h a u s t i v e . I have i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the t e x t w e l l - k n o w n p lays and some unknown p l a y s . The method used i n i d e n t i f y i n g b a n d i t p l a y s was to examine c o l l e c t i o n s of the works of famous p l a y w r i g h t s such as C a l d e r o n , T i r s o and Lope. Those p l a y s w h i c h , i n the d ramat is personnae, c a l l e d f o r b a n d o l e r o s , s a l t e a d o r e s or f a c i n e r o s o s were read f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g whether they c o u l d be used fo r t h i s s tudy . B a n d i t p l a y s , and b a n d i t r y , have r e c e i v e d min imal a t t e n t i o n from s c h o l a r s , s t u d i e s of the theme l i m i t e d to a few a r t i c l e s . Th is n e g l e c t i s u n f o r t u n a t e because the b a n d i t p l a y forms an e n t i r e sub -genre o f the Cornedia o f the Golden Age and a study of t h i s sub -genre w i l l p r o v i d e a f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the f u n c t i o n o f the many - faceted Cornedia. The p l a y s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s f o l l o w a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n . W i t h i n the l i m i t s of an M.A. t h e s i s my i n t e n t i o n i s to i l l u s t r a t e and a n a l y z e on a b a s i c l e v e l the s a l i e n t l i t e r a r y convent ions common to the b a n d i t p l a y s . Th is I attempt to do by g i v i n g a s y s t e m a t i c , but b r i e f , p l o t a n a l y s i s o f each p l a y , drawing c o n c l u s i o n s from the common elements which emerge. In o rder t h a t t h i s s tudy be p l a c e d i n a proper c o n t e x t , I have i n -c l u d e d a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of h i s t o r i c a l and p o s s i b l e l i t e r a r y sources f o r the f i g u r e of the bandolero and b a n d o l e r a . I t i s my s t r o n g c o n v i c -t i o n t h a t t h i s modus operand i i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e i n e n a b l i n g us to a r r i v e a t an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f i g u r e of the b a n d i t w i t h i n the Cornedia. Once the bandi t i s seen w i t h i n h i s h i s t o r i c a l context - - and i t i s ev ident tha t t h i s t o p i c r e q u i r e s more a t t e n t i o n and r e s e a r c h by h i s t o r i a n s - - any changes that the p laywr igh t makes to the f i g u r e of the h i s t o r i c a l band i t w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e a c h i n g an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Cornedia Bando lera . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v CHAPTER I 1 PART A. THE HISTORICAL BANDIT 1 PART B. POSSIBLE LITERARY SOURCES FOR THE BANDIT OF THE COMEDIA 13 I I THE BANDIT OF THE SECULAR COMEDIA 21 INTRODUCTION 21 PART A. THE BANDOLEROS 23 PART B. THE BANDOLERAS 34 PART C. CONCLUSIONS 49 I I I THE BANDIT OF THE RELIGIOUS COMEDIA 55 INTRODUCTION 55 PART A . BANDOLEROS AND BANDOLERAS 57 PART B. THE BANDOLERAS 78 PART C. THE BANDOLEROS 85 PART D. CONCLUSIONS 95 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY 100 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In p r e p a r i n g fo r t h i s t h e s i s I should l i k e to thank, above a l l , Dr. John V. Bryans fo r h i s innumerable s u g g e s t i o n s , ideas and encouragement. Without h i s i n s p i r i n g enthusiasm f o r the Golden Age Theatre t h i s t h e s i s would not have come to be w r i t t e n . I should a l s o l i k e to thank Dr. A r s e n i o Pacheco, Mr. H a r o l d V. L ivermore and Dr. Derek Car r f o r h i s k i n d a s s i s t a n c e i n p r o o f r e a d i n g and e d i t i n g the f i n a l manuscr ip t . L a s t , but not l e a s t , many thanks to Miss K a t h a r i n e Cook fo r her p a t i e n c e and endurance i n t y p i n g my f i n a l manuscr ip t . 1 CHAPTER I PART A. THE HISTORICAL BANDIT The dictionary of the Real Academia Espanola summarily defines Bandolero as "Ladron, salteador de c a m i n o s . T h i s definition un-doubtedly complies with the popular picture of a bandit: an individual who steals, perhaps k i l l s , because he is poor. The Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada reports: El bandolerismo constituye una plaza social que debe su origen a multiples causas, las cuales se comprenden en estas dos: n a n n p r i c m a y ripHm"ra1 i ^ p j r f n . 2 Eric Hobsbawm in Bandits summarizes the modern legal definition of Bandit: For the law, anyone belonging to a group of men who attacks and robs with violence is a bandit, from those who snatch payrolls at an urban street corner to organized insurgents or guerillas who happen not to be o f f i c i a l l y recog-nized as such. . 4 Banditry, today, is associated with poverty, but originally a bandit, 1 j «/ Diccionario de la Lengua Espanola (Madrid: Real Academia Espanola, 1956), p. 164. 2 "Bandolerismo," Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeoamericana (19077-1930), VII, 533. 3 Eric Hobsbawm, Bandits (New York: Delacorte Press, 1969), p. 13. 4 On this point, see Hobsbawm's work. 2 or bandolero , was very d i f f e r e n t from h i s modern c o u n t e r p a r t , as can be seen from the etymology o f the word. In the D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o e t i m o l o g i c o de l a lengua c a s t e l l a n a , Corominas r e p o r t s : Bandolero ' s a l t e a d o r 1 , a n t . p a r t i d a r i o , b a n d e r i z o 1 . . . tornado d e l c a t . bando le r , der i vado de bandol como consecuencia d e l gran d e s a r r o l l o de l a s bander ias y luchas c i v i l e s en l a Cata luna de l o s S . S . XV -XV I I I , que a l a l a r g a degeneraron en bando ler i smo.6 The word bandol i s borrowed from the Spanish bando; voz muy v i v a en e l c a s t e l l a n o de todos los tiempos . . . e l got . BANDW&* ' s i g n o ' fue l a t i n i z a d o en bandum 'bandera ' . . . y de es te se formo banda como p l u r a l c o l e c t i v o . De l espanol paso a l catala 'n ya en e l s i g l o X I I I . ^ What i s i n t e r e s t i n g about the o r i g i n a l bandolero and the bandi t f i g u r e s found i n the Come d i a i s t h a t , u n l i k e t h e i r modern c o u n t e r p a r t s , they do not s t e a l because they are poor ; Bandear a n t . 'ayudar ' (S. X IV ) , der i vado de l a f r a s e i r en bando 'p res ta r a u x i l i o ' (propiamente ' i r con e l bando de a l g u i e n ' ; ya en e l C i d , V. 754) , bandearse ' saberse gobernar, i n g e n i a r s e ' (propiamente 'ayudarse ' ) {h. 1600; tambien 3 S p a n i s h t r a n s l a t e s bandi t as bandolero and bandido; "En s e n t i d o v u l g a r se usa (bandoler ismo) como sinonimo de l a voz a f rancesada band ida je , haciendo a bandolero sinonimo de bandido; pero e s t a s i n o n i m i a no e x i s t e en s e n t i d o e s t r i c t o , porque bandolero es e*l que con o t ros forma un bando o c u a d r i l l a para robar por caminos y poblados, mientras que e l bandido es e l d e l i n c u e n t e (bandolero o no) que l lamado por medio de bando ( e d i t t o , preg6*n, l lamamiento j u d i c i a l ) no comparece antes l o s jueces a compugarse de sus d e l i c t o s " ( " B a n d o l e r i s m o , " E n c i c l o p e d i a  u n i v e r s a l i l u s t r a d a , ^ V I I , 533) . In t h i s study I use bandolero ' b a n d i t ' as i n the t e x t of the p l a y s ; t h i s i s a l s o the term used i n the dramat is  personae. ^J. Corominas, D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o et imolo 'g ico de l a lengua  c a s t e l l a n a (Berna: E d i t o r i a l F ranke , 1961) , 1, 386. Corominas, DCELC, I, 386. 3 Quevedo, Buscon ed. Se lden Rose, p. 1757] Bander fa ' p revenc ion en favor de a l g u i e n ' , 'bando' A l f o n s o X . Bandear a n t . 'apas ionado , p a r c i a l ' y?ar t idas_| . In the M i d d l e Ages, a bandolero was an i n d i v i d u a l who j o i n e d a group of men f o r some u n s p e c i f i e d m i l i t a r y f e a t . Th is seems to f i n d i t s precedence i n the r o b b e r - k n i g h t of M e d i e v a l Germany: En l a Edad Media e l bandoler ismo o f r e c e una gran r e c r u d e s c e n c i a , debido a l a s t u r b u l e n c i a s de l a epoca, que no podIan menos que f a c i l i t a r su d e s a r r o l l o . En e l s i g l o XIV a p a r e c i e r o n en Alemania l o s r a u b r i t t r e s , c a b a l l e r o s que v i v i a n d e l robo a pesar de per tenecer algunos de e l l o s a d i s t i n g u i d a s f a m i l i a s . 9 The o r i g i n a l meaning of b a n d i t r y and band i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e . In the Cantar d e l d e s t i e r r o of the Poema de Mio C i d one reads : Cava lgad, Minaya , vos sodes e l mio d i e s t r o bra^o.' Oy en es te d i a de vos abre' grand bando (11 .753-54) i n the Cantar de Corpes: Essora s a l i e n apar te i n f a n t e s de C a r r i o n con todos sos p a r i e n t e s y bandos que y son. (11.3161-62) Another romance of the C i d c y c l e : P e n s a t i v o estava e l C i d v iendose de pocos anos para vengar a su padre "DCELC, I, 386. 9 " B a n d o l e r i s m o , " E n c i c l o p e d i a u n i v e r s a l i l u s t r a d a , V I I , 534. ^Poema de mio C i d , ed. Ramon Menendez P i d a l (Madr id : Espasa -C a l p e , 1971) . P i d a l e x p l a i n s 'bando' as f o l l o w s : ' " a u x i l i o , a p o y o ' . E s t e s i g n i f i c a d o a b s t r a c t o d e r i v a natura lmente d e l concreto ' p a r t i d o ' o conjunto de p a r i e n t e s y secuaces que en l a Edad Media estaban ob l igados a apoyarse mutualmente en p r e t e n s i o n e s , enemistades y venganzas" (p. 147, n. 754) Ed. P i d a l , p. 270. 4 matando e l conde Lozano miraba e l bando temido d e l poderoso c o n t r a r i o que t e n i a en l a s montanas m i l amigos a s t u r i a n o s . 1 2 E x a c t l y when b a n d i t r y took the form of r e b e l l i o n w i t h which we are f a m i l i a r today one cannot say . By the t ime Covar rub ias p u b l i s h e s h i s Tesoro de l a lengua (1611) b a n d i t r y i s g i ven a wider a p p l i c a t i o n ; he de f ines bando; . . . e l pregon que se da, l lamando a lgun d e l i n c u e n t e que se ha ausentado, y de a q u i se d i x i e r o n bandidos y bando leros , comunmente v a n d o l e r o s , por e s t a r ^ echado vando y preg6n c o n t r a e l l o s en l a r e p u b l i c a . The term "a lgun d e l i n c u e n t e " i s s i g n i f i c a n t because, as w i l l be shown below, o r i g i n a l l y a bandolero was a nobleman. When one comes to i n v e s t i g a t e the o r i g i n s of b a n d i t r y i n Spa in one i s conf ronted w i t h a d i smal v o i d . J u l i a n de Z u g a s t i ' s monumental study E l b a n d o l e r i s m o , ^ i n ten volumes, deals p r i m a r i l y w i t h 19th century b a n d i t r y . In volumes four and f i v e , de Z u g a s t i d i s c u s s e s the o r i g i n s of b a n d i t r y before the 15th centu ry . The o r i g i n s and h i s t o r y of b a n d i t r y i n C a t a l o n i a have r e c e n t l y been the sub jec t of a study by the •^Ed. R. Menendez P i d a l , F l o r nueva de romances v i e j o s (Buenos A i r e s ; E s p a s a - C a l p e , 1938) , p. 199. S e b a s t i a n de C o v a r r u b i a s , Tesoro de la. lengua c a s t e l l a n a £ espano la , ed. M a r t i n de R iquer ( B a r c e l o n a : H o r t a , 1943) , p. 190. 14 f J u l i a n de Z u g a s t i , E l bando ler ismo, 2nd e d . , 10 v o l s . (Madr id ; F o r t a n e t , 1877). 5 historian Joan Regla.J"J What follows in this brief introduction of historical banditry in Spain is based solely on de Zugasti's and Regla's observations. * According to de Zugasti, the origins of banditry in Spain are to be found somewhere during the period of p o l i t i c a l and social unrest which preceded the Catholic monarchs. During that time Spain was divided into independent kingdoms. The rulers of these kingdoms were often engaged in rivalries and blood feuds: En efecto, la reina Isabel encontro' en Castilla a l comenzar su reinado una nacion profundamente corrompida e infestada de malhechores, una nobleza turbulenta, audaz y desmoralizada, un trono debil y vilipendiado, una corona sin rentas, un pueblo pobre, prelados opulentos y revoltosos ... caballeros ambiciosos y rebeldes ... magnates avarientos e intrigantes ... nobles alcaides que erigian el bandolerismo en sistema.-'-^ In his Relazione di Spagna, the historian Francesco Guicciardini (1483-1540), Florentine ambassador to the Spanish court from 1512 to 1516, describes the p o l i t i c a l situation in Castile before Ferdinand and Isabella: Aquistato cos I i l governo del regno s i trovarono in grandissime d i f f i c u l t a , e tutta la Castiglia in molti disordini. Era stato i l re don Enrico uomo di poca qualita, ed oltre a avere distribuito tutto '1 suo nobile, aveva donato a' signori quasi 1 5Joan Regla, El bandolerisme catala del barroc (Barcelona: Edicions 62, 1966); Bandolers, pirates i hugonots a la Catalunya del  segle XVI (Barcelona: Editorial Selecta, 1909). 16 1 de Zugasti, EI'bandolerismo, IV, 356. 6 t u t t e l e c i t t a . d e l regno ed e n t r a t e , i n modo che l u i s i t rovava pover i ss imo ed impotent i ss imo , ed avuto e ' Grandi questo argumento, o l t r e a essere d i na tu ra i n t r a t t a b i l i , avevano preso tanto a r d i r e che n l e l re ni e ' sua m i n i s t r i erano q u a s i u b b i d i t i . Le cose d e l l a g i u s t i z i a erano t r a s c o r s e e t u t t a C a s t i g l i a p iena d i l a t r o c i n i , ne s i poteva u s c i r e d i c i t t a o luogo grosso senza p e r i c o l o grande d i essere a s s a s i n a t o . Tut te l e c i t t a e c a s t e l l a d e l regno i n su l e arme ed ogn i g io rno s i faceva o m i c i d i i o sangue.17 Thus, a nobleman would r i d e out w i t h h i s men fo r the purposes o f a t t a c k -ing and p l u n d e r i n g an enemy kingdom. The c o n d i t i o n s which engendered t h i s behaviour on the par t of the Spanish n o b i l i t y was the l a c k of a s t r o n g c e n t r a l monarch, and i t i s o n l y when the C a t h o l i c monarchs i n -s t i t u t e the Nueva Santa Heriiiandad i n 1476 tha t domestic chaos i s subdued. De Z u g a s t i c i t e s two major reasons which rendered order i n the P e n i n s u l a v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . The f i r s t i s what he c a l l s a long l i n e of Reyes usurpadores d u r i n g the V i s i g o t h i c p e r i o d , fo l l owed by M i n o r l a s 18 Z r e g e n c l a s . For i n s t a n c e : The Reyes usurpadores Cae Turismundo [451-4533 bajo e l punal - f r a t r i c i d a de Teodor i co , usurpando l a corona , para caer mis tarde C466^ ases inado a su vez por su hermano E n r i c o ; usurpa G e s e l a i c o e l t rono de su hermano A m a l a r i c o £511-531 ?J , que se h a l l a b a en l a i n f a n c i a , y a l f i n muere aque l v io lentamente a manos de sus poderosos enemigos; es ases inado T e u d i s e l o por A g i l a £549?j[ y sus p a r c i a l e s y a l f i n es te sucumbe bajo l o s golpes homicidas de A t a n a g i l d o [ 554 ] ; L i v n a I I (J501-603] r e c i b e muerte v i o l e n t a d e V i t e r i c c v J603-610J , y es te Francesco G u i c c i a r d i n i , R e l a z i o n e d i Spagna, i n Opere, ed. V i t t o r i o da C a p r a i i s ( M i l a n o - N a p o l i : R i c c a r d i , 1953), p. 34. l^These are the t i t l e s of chapters 12 and 13, volume IV of de Z u g a s t i ' s El_ bandoler ismo. 19 I supply the d a t e s . 7 a su turno paga su cr imen bajo e l acero d e l usurpador Gundemaro; S u i n t i l a £621-631} puede s a l v a r l a v i d a , pero no e l t rono , que l e a r r e b a t a Sisenando [633-636] ; e l benef i co y v a l e r o s o Wamba [672-680] , modelo de reyes , pue destronado por E r v i g i o [?-687] a favor de un n a r c o t i c o , cuyo l e t a r g i c o e f e c t o f a c i l i t d e l c r imen de e s t a u s u r p a c i o n , y f ina lmente W i t i z a Qo2-7l6] . . . p e r d i o l a corona a manos de es te jdon Rodr igo] . ( v o l . 4, pp. 241-42) A s i m i l a r s t a t e of a f f a i r s e x i s t e d i n Moor ish Spa in where, i n Granada 20 over a t ime span of 69 y e a r s , 12 r u l e r s met w i t h v i o l e n t death . De Z u g a s t i draws the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n : R e s u l t a , pues, que s i e l bandoler ismo p o l i t i c o entrana e l despojo mis c r i m i n a l , a l a vez que e j e r c e e l i n f l u j o mas c o r r u p t o r para l a s muchedumbres, Espana, por su d e s d i c h a , ha s u f r i d o este despojo y es te i n f l u j o , acaso mas que ningun o t r o pueblo , merced a tan numerosos y funestos ejemplos de v i o l e n t a s usurpac iones d e l poder supremo, como nos presenta su h i s t o r i a , y l o s cua les han c o n s t i t u i d o en nuest ro p a i s una de l a s mas permanentes y poderosas causas de l o s o r i g i n e s d e l bandoler ismo. ( v o l . 4, p. 246) The death of Fernando IV, K i n g of C a s t i l e and Leon (1285-1312) marks the beg inn ing of Las regeneias y_ m i n o r l a s . The examples de Z u g a s t i p laces under t h i s heading show that b a n d i t r y was a means which the n o b i l i t y used to f u r t h e r t h e i r ends: p o l i t i c a l aggrandizement. The p e r i o d o f h i s t o r y under Enr ique I I I , e l d o l i e n t e of C a s t i l e (1379-1406), whose r e i g n begins i n 1390, i s a good example, from the many which de Z u g a s t i o f f e r s , to show the v i c i s s i t u d e s and domestic s t r i f e which the regenc ies produced. When Henry ascended the throne he was b a r e l y 12 years of age. As he was b e r e f t o f c l o s e r e l a t i v e s , those who a s p i r e d to the Regency met i n M a d r i d . Among the c h i e f contenders were the Archbishop of Toledo and the de Z u g a s t i , IV, 245-46. 8 masters of the order of Sant iago and C a l a t r a v a . The c h a n c e l l o r Pedro Lopez de A y a l a informed those convened tha t John I had l e f t a w r i t t e n testament (1385) i n which he des ignated a regent i n the event of h i s death before h i s son ' s m a j o r i t y . The c h a n c e l l o r a l s o s t a t e d t h a t , s h o r t l y before d y i n g , the K i n g s i g n i f i e d h i s d e s i r e to change the w i l l . In the l i g h t of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the w i l l was d e c l a r e d n u l l and v o i d . A motion from the Archbishop t h a t , i n accordance w i t h the law, a regent or regents should be named, was d e f e a t e d . Then, as a f o r m a l i t y , the w i l l was in t roduced and r e j e c t e d by a l l but the A rchb ishop . The meet ing then moved to e l e c t a Consejo de r e g e n c i a . The r e s o -l u t i o n met w i t h o p p o s i t i o n from the Count of T rastamara, the Duke of Benavente, and the A rchb ishop . The A rchb ishop , perhaps, had a b e t t e r reason to oppose the Consejo than the Count or Duke, f o r i n the w i l l the K i n g had bequeathed him some l a n d . The shrewd Archbishop had gone through the t r o u b l e o f p i c k i n g up the d i s c a r d e d w i l l and as a r e t a l i a t o r y a c t i o n sent l e t t e r s d e s c r i b i n g what happened a t the meeting to the Pope, the Kings of Aragon and F rance , and those named regents by the dead K i n g . He a l s o sent a l e t t e r u r g i n g a l l to c o n s i d e r the Consejo i l l e g a l and a copy of the w i l l to every town and c i t y of the Kingdoms. The young monarch and the Consejo begged the Archbishop to r e s t r a i n h i s anger but to no a v a i l . The r e s u l t - - domestic s t r i f e : La terquedad d e l pe r ju ro a r z o b i s p o , sus s e d i c i o s a s c a r t a s y subvers i vas e x c i t a c i o n e s produjeron tan poderoso y e f i c a z e f e c t o , que e l r e i n o se d i v i d i o en dos grandes bandos, uno que defend ia l a s d i s p o s i c i o n e s d e l testamento, y e l . o t r o que apoyaba a l consejo de r e g e n c i a ; y en es te mot ivo , l a s v i l l a s y c iudades a r d i a n en d i s c o r d i a s , escanda los , r i n a s , muertes, venganzas, despojos , l a t r o c i n i o s , y crimenes de todo genero, cometidos por l o s dos bandos que s i n cesar contendian y peleaban con implacab le y p o r f i a d o 9 encono. (de Z u g a s t i , IV, 287) In 1476, the C a t h o l i c monarchs i n s t i t u t e d the Nueva Santa Hermandad i n order to subdue i n t e r n a l h o s t i l i t i e s . In i t Ferd inand and I s a b e l l a found the p o l i t i c a l t o o l through which they cou ld check the power of the nobles and h o l d them s u b s e r v i e n t to the Crown. Consequent ly , the n o b i l i t y , who p r e v i o u s l y had enjoyed a great dea l of freedom and i n d e -pendence, opposed the new Hermandad. I s a b e l l a was p e t i t i o n e d by the nobles and c l e r g y to d isband i t , but she r e f u s e d . Now the nobleman cou ld no longer c a r r y on i n h i s o l d ways, fo r i f he d i d , he would be 21 punished by a p r o g r e s s i v e l y harsh law. Membership i n the Hermandad c o n f e r r e d great p r e s t i g e , the h i g h posts be ing ass igned to members of the n o b i l i t y , thereby s t r e n g t h e n i n g t i e s between nobles and crown. 22 L u c i o Maineo S i c u l o (1460-1533) , an h i s t o r i a n of the t imes , w r i t e s : Cesaron en todas par tes l o s h u r t o s , s a c r i l e g i o s corrompimientos de v f r g e n e s , o p r e s i o n e s , i n j u r i a s , 2 1 The ' e d i c t law: "Mandamos que l o s d e l i n c u e n t e s que hub ie ran robado, o hurtado en yermo o en despoblado sean pun'Mos. - y cas t igados en es ta manera; que s i e l robo o hur to fuere de v a l o r de c i e n t o y c i n c u e n t a maravedis y dende a b a j o , que se sea d e s t e r r a d o , y l e den pena de azotes y pague mas l o que a s i robd con e l dos tanto a l a p a r t e , y con e l cuat ro tanto para l o s gastos de l a Hermandad; y s i fuere de c i e n t o y c i n c u e n t a maravedis a r r i b a h a s t a q u i n i e n t o s maravedis , que l e sean cor tadas l a s o r e j a s , y l e den c i e n a z o t e s ; y s i fuere de q u i n i e n t o s maravedis a r r i b a h a s t a c i n c o m i l maravedis , que l e c o r t e n e l p i e , y que sea condenado a que nunca cabalgue en c a b a l l o o en mula, so pena de muerte de s a e t a ; y s i e l d icho robo fuere de c i n c o m i l maravedifs a r r i b a , que muera por e l l o e l t a l malhechor muerte de s a e t a ; pero en todos l o s o t ros casos de Hermandad, excepto en l o s contenidos en l a l e y antes de e s t a , mandamos que l o s jueces de l a Hermandad den a l o s malhechores l a pena o penas que segun l a c u a l i d a d ^ o gravedad de l o s d e l i t o s hub ie ren merecido o deber ian merecer, segun derecho y l eyes de nuest ros r e i n o s : con tanto que l o s que fueren condenados a pena de muerte s u f r a n y l e s sea dada muerte de s a e t a . " (Quoted by de Z u g a s t i , E l bandoler ismo, IV, 339) . 22 Quoted by de Z u g a s t i , IV, , 354. No r e f e r e n c e g i v e n . 10 b l a s f e m i a s , bandos, robos p u b l i c o s y muchas muertes de hombres y todos o t ros generos de m a l e f i c i o s , que s i n r i e n d a n i temor de j u s t i c i a hab ian d i s c u r r i d o por Espafia mucho t iempo. In c o n c l u s i o n : before 1476, because of the l a c k of a s t r o n g r u l e r b a n d i t r y was a means by which the n o b i l i t y s e t t l e d d i spu tes among each o t h e r . In C a t a l o n i a , b a n d i t r y , a g a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the n o b i l i t y , dates 23 from the 14th cen tu ry , the f i r s t recorded ins tance be ing i n 1340. The h i s t o r i a n , Joan R e g l a , r e p o r t s : J a hem d i t que e l s o r igens d e l bandoler isme es p e r d i e n en l a n i t de l s temps. Amb t o t , p e r i , sembla ben demonstrat que e l bandoler isme, com a fenomen s o c i a l , commenca a t e n i r impor tanc ia a Cata lunya amb l a c r i s i de l a B a i x a Edad M i t j a n a , des de l a pesta negra i pr imeres m a n i f e s t a c i o n e s de l a c r i s i economica genera l a p a r t i r de m i t j a n s e g l e XIV. Les seves pr imeres man i fes tac iones son p ro tagon i t zades p e l s bandols f e u d a l a c a r r e c d 'una nob lessa i n q u i e t a o arruTnada. E l bando le ja r de l s n o b l e s , e*s a d i r , l e s l l u i t e s ent re e l l s , a i x i com e l s " p r i v i l e g i s de^ b a n d o l e j a r , " e q u i v a l e n t s a l e s marques o r e p r e s a l i e s , c o n t r a e l s f r a n c e s o s , c o n s t i t u e i x e n e l s atfels d e l p o s t e r i o r desenro t l lament d e l bandoler isme de l s h u m i l s , f i l l s de l a miseSr ia . 2 ' ^ The n o b i l i t y had been g i ven p r i v i l e g i s de bando le ja r a g a i n s t the C a l v i -n i s t s and Huguenots who, a f t e r escap ing from France , sought re fuge i n the mountains of C a t a l o n i a . These r e l i g i o u s f u g i t i v e s were a menace as 23 * See Anton io B o r r a s , " C o n t r i b u c i o n a l o s or igenes d e l bandoler ismo en Cata luna (La pragmatica de C a r l o s V de 1 5 3 9 ) , " Es tud ios de h i s t o r i a moderna, 3 (1933), 163. 24 * x Joan R e g l a , El_ bandoler isme c a t a l a , p. 37 . 11 they would f i n a n c e t h e i r wars w i t h go ld s t o l e n from C a t a l a n churches . The C a t a l a n n o b i l i t y f r e q u e n t l y abused t h e i r p r i v i l e g e to b a n d o l e j a r , 26 o f t e n u s i n g i t to s e t t l e b lood feuds . Under the r u l e of P h i l i p I I (1556-1598) , b a n d i t r y reached i t s apex i n C a t a l o n i a . As i n the r e s t of S p a i n , the C a t a l a n n o b i l i t y were the 27 bando le ros . The reason f o r the widespread ac ts of b a n d i t r y a t t h i s t ime was, i n R e g l a ' s words, " 1 1 e x a c e r b a c ion p a s s i o n a l . " The " p a s s i o n a l e x a c e r b a t i o n " of the n o b i l i t y r e s u l t e d from the f a c t tha t the C a t a l a n n o b i l i t y was v i r t u a l l y cut o f f from the r o y a l cour ts a t M a d r i d : . . . . s i t o t a l a nob lessa p i r i n e n c a hagues t i n g u t p o s s i b i l i t a t s d 'ocupar c a r r e c s m i l i t a r s o p o l i t i c s , encara que haguess in e s t a t de poca i m p o r t a n c i a , com e l s h i d a l g o s c a s t e l l a n s , segurament no h a u r i a e x i s t i t e l bandoler isme n o b i l i t a r y . 2 8 B a n d i t r y i n Spain was a widespread modus operand i which the gent ry used to s e t t l e t h e i r d i s p u t e s . I t i s a foregone c o n c l u s i o n that i n a s o c i e t y where there i s no v i a b l e means of s e c u r i n g law and o r d e r , as was the case i n Spa in before the C a t h o l i c monarchs, i t i s the w i l l of the s t ronges t which p r e v a i l s . G u i c c i a r d i n i , i n h i s R e l a z i o n e d i Spagna, r e p o r t s a ve ry i n t e r e s t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Ferd inand : La causa [ f o r Spa in hav ing been sub jec ted to so many invas ions] puo essere s t a t a che l a a b b i avuto 9 S ^ J S e e Joan R e g l a , Bando le rs , p i r a t e s , _i hugonots a l a Cata lunya d e l seg le XVI (Barce lona : E d i t o r i a l S e l e c t a , 1969). 2^See B o r r a s , " C o n t r i b u t i o n a los or 'genes d e l b a n d o l e r i s m o , " pp. 163-65.' 27 In fo rmat ion on i n d i v i d u a l band i ts from the lower c l a s s i s very scant and what i s a v a i l a b l e i s o f t e n i n t e r l a c e d w i t h myth. For an e x p o s i t i o n see Joan Regla and Joan F u s t e r , Joan S e r r a l o n g a : V i d a i. mite  d e l famos bandoler (Barce lona : E d i t o r i a l Aedos, 1961) . 'Regla, Bandolers , ' p l r a t s y l . hugonots', p. 20. 12 m i g l i o r i s o l d a t i che c a p i t a n i , e che g l i uomini sua s ieno s t a t i p i u a t t i a combattere che governare e comandare; e venendo i o un g iorno c u a s i su questo q u e s i t o c o l re don Fernando, mi d i s s e che l a naz ione e ra a l t a a s s a i n e l l e armi ma d i s o r d i n a t a , e se ne t raeva buono f r u t t o quando v i f u s s i c h i l a s a p e s s i tenere ben o r d i n a t a . ^ 9 The b a n d i t r y which the Golden Age p l a y w r i g h t s p o r t r a y i n the Cornedia bears l i t t l e resemblance to i t s h i s t o r i c a l counte rpar t or the modern b a n d i t . The bandolero of the Cornedia i s never seen s t e a l i n g money or g o l d . There i s , however, a common f a c t o r shared by the bandi t -nobleman of C a t a l o n i a and the band i t of the Comedia. Dur ing the M i d d l e Ages, the C a t a l a n n o b i l i t y , through b a n d i t r y , s e t t l e d d i sputes amongst each o t h e r . By the m i d - s i x t e e n t h centu ry , b a n d i t r y became a means of r e g i s t e r i n g gr ievances which the a l i e n a t e d nobles bore a g a i n s t the crown. One need not remark at l e n g t h on the importance of the K i n g i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the t i m e s . B r i e f l y , the monarch was the g i v e r of Honour; d e p r i v a t i o n of access to the r o y a l person was i n t o l e r a b l e to the n o b i l i t y and equated to a l o s s of Honour. The p r o t a g o n i s t of the Comedia Bandolera r e s o r t s to b a n d i t r y e x a c t l y because he or she has been depr i ved of Honour. G u i c c i a r d i n i , R e l a z i o n e , p . 3 2 . PART B. POSSIBLE LITERARY SOURCES FOR THE BANDIT OF THE COMEDIA Desp i te the moderate p o p u l a r i t y of the band i t i n the Golden Age Theater there i s no c h a r a c t e r i n the pre -Lopean t h e a t e r who resembles him so d i r e c t l y tha t he can be c a l l e d h i s p redecessor . To my knowledge, Lope de Rueda (1505-10?-1565) i s the on ly d r a m a t i s t who in t roduces Ladrones . These appear i n E l d e l e i t o s o , pasos 5 and 6, i n the R e g i s t r o de r e p r e s e n t a n t e s , pasos 2 and 4. ^ Rueda's Ladrones have n o t h i n g i n common w i t h the bando le ros . The Ladron s t e a l s because he i s hungry and, i f n o t h i n g e l s e , he shows tha t even at t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d there i s a p l a c e fo r the de l inquent i n the t h e a t e r . As a matter of f a c t , the 2 bandi t of the Cornedia shares f a r more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h the C i d than w i t h any c h a r a c t e r found i n the t h e a t e r before Lope. I t i s a p e c u l i a r f a c t that the n a t i o n a l E p i c of Spanish L i t e r a t u r e shou ld be about an ou tcas t and a r e b e l . 3 The C i d , a l o y a l v a s s a l , i s e x i l e d because of m a l i c i o u s l i e s . From the town of B i v a r , the C i d and h i s mesnada set out f o r e x i l e . He has become such an ou tcas t tha t no one w i l l t a l k to him or o f f e r him l o d g i n g s : . . . que a mio £ i d Roy Diaz que n a d i v o l d i s s e n posada, e a que ge la d i e s s e sop iesse vera p a l a b r a que p e r d e r i e l o s averes e mas l o s ojos de l a c a r a , e aun demas l o s cuerpos e l a s a lmas .4 •'-Lope de Rueda, Teatro completo, eds . A . Cardona de G i l b e r t and G a r r i d o P a l l a r d o (Barce lona : E d i t o r i a l Bruguera , 1967) . Hence fo r th , I use band i t to mean both bandolero and b a n d o l e r a . "^ A s i t u a t i o n to be repeated i n E l t e j e d o r de Segov ia , p a r t I. 4Poema de mio C i d , 11 . 2 5 - 2 9 . 14 A f t e r s e c u r i n g funds by t r i c k i n g Raquel and V i d a s , and t a k i n g leave of h i s f a m i l y , the C i d departs from C a s t i l e and enters the Moor i sh Kingdom. Here, he begins h i s m i l i t a r y fea ts which w in him fame and honour. Through t h i s he i s a b l e to i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f w i t h K i n g A l f o n s o and be pardoned. ~* The development of the main a c t i o n , the e x i l e , b r i e f l y summarized above, bears a s i m i l a r i t y to tha t of the bandi t p l a y s . The C i d , l i k e the b a n d i t , i s the v i c t i m o f an a g r a v i o , o r , to be exac t , an a g r a v i o de honor. Before h i s depar tu re , the C i d intends to exonerate h i s name and r e t u r n to C a s t i l e to a g r e a t e r honour: Mecid" mio (Jlid l o s hombros y grameo l a t i e s t a : a l b r i c i a s A l v a r Fanez, ca echado somos de l a t i e r r a ! mas a grand ondra tornaremos a C a s t i e l l a . (11. 13-15) The C i d engages i n b a t t l e w i t h the enemy not s imply because he f i n d s h i m s e l f e x i l e d , not n e c e s s a r i l y out of p a t r i o t i c l o v e , but because through these f e a t s he w i l l r e g a i n h i s honour: " M a r a v i l l a es d e l C i d , que su ondra c rece t a n t o , " (1 . 1861) . The marr iage of h i s two daughters to the i n f a n t e s de C a r r i o n i s another means to o b t a i n more honour: abra y ondra e c r e ^ e r a en honor por conssagrar com i f f a n t e s de C a r r i o n . (11 .1905-6) Here l i e s the most s i g n i f i c a n t common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the bandi t and the C i d , f o r the bandi t too i s fo rced out of s o c i e t y because of an a g r a v i o - - a l o s s of Honour. The development of the f i r s t canta r may be i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g p l a n : A s i t u a t i o n to be repeated i n El_ t e j e d o r de Segov ia , p a r t I I . 15 1. The i n d i v i d u a l i n harmony w i t h s o c i e t y , 2 . an a g r a v i o d i s r u p t s harmony i n s o c i e t y , 3 . the i n d i v i d u a l becomes a p a r i a , 4 . seeks refuge away from s o c i e t y fo r the purpose of avenging the a g r a v i o . L a t e r , I hope to show that the band i t p lay conforms w i t h t h i s p l a n . * The Bando1era One o f the c h a r a c t e r s of the Cornedia i s tha t p u z z l i n g mix ture of the mujer v a r o n i l and e s q u i v a , such as L a u r e n c i a i n Lope 's Fu ent e ove j una. At the beg inn ing of the p l a y she w i l l have n o t h i n g to do w i t h men; a t t h i s s tage she i s e s q u i v a . L a t e r , when abducted by the comendador, she adopts manly behav iour , she becomes v a r o n i l . In the s u b p l o t , L a u r e n c i a ' s contempt fo r men weakens when Frondoso, mot ivated by l o v e , saves her from the c l u t c h e s of the comendador. L a u r e n c i a now r e a l i z e s that men are not a l l e v i l and moved by Frondoso's a l t r u i s t i c a c t i o n s she consents to marry h im. On a very s imple l e v e l of i n t e r -The mujer v a r o n i l has a l r e a d y been the sub jec t of a number o f s t u d i e s , e . g . Carmen Bravo V i l l a s a n t e , La mujer v e s t i d a de hombre en e l t e a t r o espartol : s i g l o s XV I -XV I I I (Madr id : R e v i s t a de Occ idente , 1955) , espec. pp. 21-32 (see a l s o 32-35 f o r a schematic diagram t r a c i n g sources from a n t i q u i t y to s i x t e e n t h century I t a l i a n l i t e r a -t u r e ) . See a l s o B. Ashcomb, "Concern ing 'La mujer en h a b i t o de hombre' i n the Comedia," H i s p a n i c Review, 28 (1960), 4 3 - 6 2 ; Margaret Ruth L u n d e l i u s , "The Mujer V a r o n i l i n the Theater of the S i g l o de P r o , " D i s s . P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1969; Melveena McKendr ick , Woman and  S o c i e t y i n the Spanish Drama of the Golden Age: A Study of the Muj er  V a r o n i l (London and New York : The Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974) . 16 p r e t a t i o n , the mujer esquiva or v a r o n i l represents disharmony i n s o c i e t y - - nature gone awry. As T i r s o has one of h i s c h a r a c t e r s say i n Las amazonas en l a s I n d i a s : A q u i N a t u r a l e z a e l orden ha a l t e r a d o C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the mujer v a r o n i l or esqu iva i s the bando le ra , fo r embodied i n the bandolera there i s one, or bo th , aspects of the v a r o n i l or esqu i va . Lope 's Leonarda (La ser rana de La vera) i s c l e a r l y not e s q u i v a , whereas the same c h a r a c t e r i n Guevara 's p lay of the same name, i s both esquiva and v a r o n i l , as i s T i r s o ' s N i n f a of La n i n f a d e l c i e l o . In the preced ing pages i t was shown that the p laywr igh t had h i s -t o r i c a l precedents from which he drew the f i g u r e of the bando lero . Whether h i s t o r y a l s o f u r n i s h e d him w i t h examples of bandoleras i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. In a study on b a n d i t r y , Bernardo de Qui ros r e p o r t s : . . . l o pr imero que debemos hacer no ta r y que s a l t a a l a v i s t a es l a e x c l u s i o n de l a s hembras . . . no h a l l a r f a m o s nunca, en cambio, mujeres bando le ras , n i a i s l a d a s , s o l i t a r i a s como l a famosa ser rana de l a v e r a . On the other hand, de Z u g a s t i s t a t e s that there were a c t u a l bando le ras : . . . en t re o t r a s muchas que pud ie ran c i t a r s e , l a c e l e b r e cap i tana de ladrones en Anda lucLa , que hab i taba en l a t o r r e l lamada de l a C a b r i l l a , y no l a menos c e l e b r e S e r r a n a , de l a vera de P l a c e n c i a . Ed. B lanca de los R f o s , i n T i r s o de M o l i n a , Obras d r a m i t i c a s  completas (Madr id : A g u i l a r , 1969), I I I , 701. ^C. Bernardo de Q u i r o s , E l bandoler ismo en Espana y Mexico (Mexico: E d i t o r i a l J u r i d i c a Mexicana, 1959), p7 3 1 . 17 The l a t t e r , he goes on to say: . . . s u m i n i s t r o asunto a Lope de Vega, L u i s Ve lez de Guevara y o t ros poetas de marca, para e s c r i b i r comedias con e l t f t u l o de Serrana de l a Vera . ( v o l . 5 , p. 13) As h i s t o r i a n s are i n c o n f l i c t as to whether bandoleras e x i s t e d or not , her l i t e r a r y roots must l i e somewhere e l s e . The s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the bandolera i s not o n l y that a l l a re v a r o n i l but a l s o they are b e l l i c o s e . Such women e x i s t e d both i n l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y . Med ieva l l i t e r a t u r e presents a host of mujeres 9 v a r o n i l e s and esqu i vas . From Greek mythology: P e n t h i s e l e a , A r e s , A p h r o d i t e s , and Semiramis. V i r g i l ' s A e n e i d ; C a m i l l a , the B i b l e , J u d i t h . The German medieval romance o f the N i e b e l u n g e n l i e d o f f e r s K h r i e m h i l d and B r u n h i l d . B o i a r d o ' s Orlando innamorato (1487) and Tasso ' s Gerusalemme l i b e r a t a (1575) present two mujeres v a r o n i l e s : M a r f i s a and C l o r i n d a r e s p e c t i v e l y . Spanish l i t e r a t u r e had i t s own t r a d i t i o n of mujeres v a r o n i l e s i n the S e r r a n a . In Juan R u i z ' s L i b r o de buen  amor, l a chata t e l l s the A r c h i p r e s t e : "Yo so l a Chata r e s i a , que a l o s omes a t a "Yo guardo e l pasaje e e l portadgo c o j o : " A l que de grado paga, non l e fago enojo ; " A l que pagar non q u i e r e , p r i a d o l e despojo : ^ "Pagam' t u , synor veras ccSmo t r i l l a n r a s t r o j o . " See Bravo V i l l a s a n t e , La mujer v e s t i d a de hombre en e_l t e a t r o  espano l , i n s e r t pp. 3 2 - 3 3 . •*-^Arcipreste de H i t a , L i b r o de buen amor, ed. J u l i o Cejador y Frauca (Madr id : E s p a s a - C a l p e , 1963) , 1 1 . 9 5 2 - 9 5 6 . 18 11 Lope's La serrana de la vera is based on a romance of the same t i t l e . Ivan Perez de Moya (1513-1596) in the second chapter of his Varia historia de sanctas e_ ilustres mujeres de todo genero de virtudes. Recopilada de varios autores (Madrid, 1583) gives a compendium of actual women who were engaged in masculine act i v i t i e s . Here is one example from the many.^ Maria Puteolona ... natural de Puteolo ciudad de Campania, fue hija de padres nobles y muy emparentada. En los primeros anos de su juventud comenzo a seguir el Arte Militar. Era tan fuerte y animosa que ningdn trabajo ni cansancio corporal le espantava ... Todos los que quisieron provar con ella en hechos de armas que a su fama venfa muchos eran rendidos, y ella victoriosa. (p. 216 recto, 217 verso) The correspondence between Mar La and Guevara's Gila of La serrana de ^ F o r an edition of this romance, see R. Men^ndez Pidal, Flor  nueva de romances viejos, p. 220. For romances about bandoleras, see Romancero general: Coleccion de romances castellanos anteriores al  siglo XVIII, ed. Agustfn Duran, Biblioteca de Autores Espanoles, 16 (Madrid: Real Academia Espanola, 1945), nos. 1327, 1328, 1329, 1330. These romances are classified as "Romances vulgares que tratan de  va lent fas, guapezas y_ desafueros" (pp. 350-90). The romances immediately following those listed above deal with the men involved with the contraband of tobacco. None of these romances bear dates and most of them are anonymous. Those dealing with contraband are clearly later than 1549, when tobacco was introduced into Europe. It is un-fortunate that the bandolera romances cannot be dated, as i t renders i t impossible to determine whether they had an influence on the bandolera plays. Menendez Pidal says of the anonymous romance "La serrana de la vera": "En nuestro romance la serranilla decae en el tono de las modernas historias de bandoleras. Sin duda es tardfo ... las primeras versiones que han llegado a nosotros son del siglo XVII" (Flor nueva, p. 222). Judging from the action and the argument set forth in the bandolera romances, they would seem to be veritable con-densations of plays, and for this reason I am inclined to believe that they post date the bandolera plays. 12 The t i t l e of the second chapter i s : Libro segundo en que se ponen  mugeres que senalaran en hechos heroycos assi de cosas de guerra como de consejo y gouierno. 19 l a vera i s s i g n i f i c a n t . In c o n c l u s i o n , g iven tha t the muj er v a r o n i l and esquiva e x i s t s both i n l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y , then the bando le ra , as she embodies both of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i s the f i n a l s tage i n a long l i t e r a r y development of i n t r e p i d and b e l l i c o s e women. The bandolera f i r s t appeared on the stage w i t h L o p e ' s La ser rana 13 de v e r a ; nonethe less , Lope was not the f i r s t to employ the convent ion of the woman agrav iada who seeks re fuge i n the mountains. Mar io P a v i a 14 i n Drama of the S i g l o de Pro p o i n t s out that i n the pre -Lopean t h e a t e r , the dishonoured woman would engage the s e r v i c e s of an a l c a h u e t a e i t h e r to w in back her g a l l a n t by magic or to be "re-made anew". In Juan d e l E n c i n a ' s Egloga de P l a c i d a y_ V i c t o r i a n o there i s r e f e r e n c e to t h i s . E r i t r e a , the a l c a h u e t a , i s t a l k i n g to F u l g e n c i a , a v i l l a g e g i r l : 1-20) c r e d i t s Lope de Vega w i t h f i r s t i n t r o d u c i n g the bandolera on the s tage w i t h La ser rana de l a ve ra (M. B. 1595 -98) . E s t a b l i s h i n g a date f o r the f i r s t bandolero on the stage i s next to i m p o s s i b l e as dates of compos i t ion a r e , i n most cases , unknown. "^Mar io P a v i a , Drama of the S i g l o de P r o , a Study i n W i t c h c r a f t (New York : The H i s p a n i c I n s t i t u t e of the U n i t e d S ta tes of Amer ica , 1959) . E r i t r e a : F u l g e n c i a E r i t r e a : Pues por v i r g e n se l e han dado Yo l o c r e o , mal pecado, E r i t r e a , y no l o dudo. Vos cons igo Le z u r c i r e ' i s luego e l v i r g o Que sea ma's que t a l l u d o Si" cuantos v i r g o s he fecho Tanto t u v i e s e ducados No cabr£*an h a s t a e l techo . Hago e l v i r g o tan e s t r e c h o , Que van b i e n descalabrados Ma's de dos Esto b i e n l o sabe is vos 13 Y ^ cdmo os va en aquel ^ A quien dimos los hechizos? 1 fi With Joaquim de Cepeda's Comedia salvage (1582) the theme of the dis-honoured woman takes on a new twist. In this comedia, Lucrecia seeks refuge in the mountains when her father discovers that she has been involved in an i l l i c i t a f fair. While there she becomes a serrana; the stage directions read: "Lucrecia sale con un arco y saetas, vestida de hombre," the usual costume of the bandolera. Later, her parents find her, she is pardoned and allowed to marry her beloved. This play, I believe, can be called the forerunner of the comedia bandolera which deals with the female bandit. As Pavia notes, i t is innovative in the treatment of the traditional development of the mujer agraviada, that is : she does not employ an alcahueta. Possibly Lope^ knew of the play and, aware of the long literary tradition of mujeres varoniles in literature and mythology, created in La_ serrana de la vera the prototype which was to serve subsequent playwrights. JL. "Franc is co Asenjoy Barbieri, ed., Teatro completo de Juan del Encina (Madrid: 1893; rpt. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969), pp. 289-291. ^ T h i s play is found in L. Fernandez de Moratin, Origenes del  teatro espanol (Paris: Libreria europea de Baudry, 1838), pp. 286-99. Also see G i l Vicente's, Comedia da devisa da,cidade de Coimbra. ^On this point, see A.K. Jameson, "Lope de Vega's Knowledge of Classical Literature," Bulletin Hispanique, 35 (1936), 444-566; "The sources of Lope de Vega's Erudition," Hispanic Review, 5 (1937), 124-39. Mentioned by Lundelius, The Mujer Varonil, p. 43. 21 CHAPTER I I THE BANDIT OF THE SECULAR COMEDIA INTRODUCTION P l a y s which dea l w i t h the bandi t p u r e l y from a s e c u l a r p o i n t of v iew w i l l be examined i n t h i s chapter . Band i ts appear ing i n cornedias of t h i s type w i l l be c a l l e d the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t . Th is d i s t i n c t i o n i s necessary i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t from t h a t of the r e l i g i o u s dramas where, as w i l l be seen i n a subsequent chapte r , the bandi t becomes a v e h i c l e f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g C h r i s t i a n dogma. The chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s : i n A and B the p l o t s and common elements a re examined; i n C c o n c l u s i o n s a re drawn. The order i n which the p lays a re d i s c u s s e d i s a r b i t r a r y ; where dates of compos i t ion are known they are given. ' ' ' The p lays to be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter are the f o l l o w i n g : 2 Lope de Vega ( ? ) , Nardo Anton io bandolero . Juan Ruiz de A l a r c o n , El_ t e j e d o r de Segov ia , par ts I and I I . •""Plays are not d i s c u s s e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order as i n many cases dates of compos i t ion are not known. Th is i s un fo r tunate as i t renders i t i m p o s s i b l e to determine e x a c t l y when the b a n d i t p lays were popu la r . For Lope de Vega I f o l l o w S . G . Mor ley and C. B r u e r t o n , The Chronology of  Lope de Vega's Comedias (New York : The Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n of Amer ica , 1940) . 2 A q u e s t i o n mark a f t e r the a u t h o r ' s name s i g n i f i e s that there i s u n c e r t a i n t y as to - .authorship. ^Par t I o f E l t e j e d o r de Segovia i s w i d e l y a t t r i b u t e d to A l a r c o n . 22 Calderon de l a Barca, Las tres j u s t i c i a s en una. Canzer, Rosete, Rojas, La gran cornedia del vandolero Sol Posto. Lope de Vega, La_ serrana de la. vera. Velez de Guevara, La. serrana de l a vera. Lope de Vega, Las dos bandoleras, y_ fundacion de l a Santa Hermandad de Toledo. Baltasar de Caravajal, La bandolera de Flandes (El h i jo de l a  t i e r r a ) . Needless to say the b r i e f plot analyses are not meant to replace the reading of the plays themselves, and I base my discussion s o l e l y on the most relevant and s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of each play. There i s minimal character analysis simply because most of the characters do not 4 lend themselves to deep psychological scrutiny. I hope to show that the characters are shallow because a l l react out of unpremeditated impulse to the Code of Honour. The exception i s one of the bandits of the religious-comedia, namely, Don G i l of E l esclavo del demonio and Caer para levantar. 23 PART A. THE BANDOLEROS Lope de Vega ( ? ) , Nardo Anton io bando le ro .^ Nardo i s a s o l d i e r i n love w i t h Leonarda. A l though he i s brave, w e l l l i k e d and esteemed by a l l , R i c a r d o , Leonarda 's f a t h e r , opposes the match because Nardo i s of low b i r t h . The f a t h e r and Gera ldo , a nobleman and s u i t o r to Leonarda, ask the Count of Miranda to put an end to Nardo and Leonarda 's romance. The Count does so and i n exchange promises Nardo such m i l i t a r y rewards tha t even Mars w i l l envy him. Nardo cannot accept the b r i b e as he i s a man of Honour: Confuso me habe'is dejado*, pero b ien es a d v i r t a i s que a un hombre honrado q u i t a i s l a o p i n i o n de ser honrado. (p. 5) He does not accept the b r i b e because he loves Leonor , but : La p a l a b r a prometida a un hombre honrado es razon que se cumpla o su o p i n i o n quedara' siempre rompida. (p. 5) As i s the case i n the bandi t p l a y the author i s s e t t i n g up the c o n d i -t i o n , the a g r a v i o de honor, which causes the p r o t a g o n i s t to r e b e l . The Count now commands a r e l u c t a n t Nardo to do as he i s t o l d : "yo l o p ido y ha de s e r . " Nardo r e p l i e s : "En todo podeis mandar," but , i n an a s i d e , he l e t s i t be known that he i s master of h i s own Honour: I use the e d i t i o n by M a r c e l i n o Menendez y P e l a y o , Obras  d ramat i cas , V o l . V I I I of Obras de Lope de Vega (Madr id : Rea l Academia Espano la , 1938) . Authorsh ip of t h i s p l a y i s not c e r t a i n ; Menendez y Pe layo a t t r i b u t e s i t to M i r a De Amescua, and M. B. s t a t e i t i s not by Lope. The date of compos i t ion i s e q u a l l y u n c e r t a i n ; i t i s f i r s t mentioned i n a l i s t of p lays dated 1628. 24 No r e p l i c a l l e es mejor , porque se puede eno ja r ; yo sabre b i e n g ran jear l o que pretende mi honor (p. 5) L e f t w i t h an u l t imatum he cannot accept - - to do so he would deny h i s c l a i m to Honour - - the p r o t a g o n i s t engages i n a type of speech which I s h a l l c a l l the vengeance speech. The vengeance speech serves a t w o - f o l d purpose: f i r s t , i t i s a foreshadowing of the a c t i o n to f o l l o w ; second ly , the p r o t a g o n i s t i s pe rmi t ted to g i ve vent to h i s f e e l i n g s i n an impassioned t i r a d e : Caute laSj \ Ah Nardo.1 e l c i e l o mi venganza ha de animar, y a sus ojos he de dar temores a todo e l s u e l o . Sera venganza m o r t a l , Sera r i g o r a t r e v i d o ; que a un hombre honrado ofendido es como f u r i a i n f e r n a l . Amigos tengo ob l igados que defenderme podran, y para es ta empresa estan de mi amistad con jurados . (p. 6) 2 The "amigos" to whom Nardo r e f e r s are b a n d i t s ; l a t e r i n t h e i r company he p l o t s the s t r a t e g y fo r the venganza: Salgamos a l a cainpana y ganeremos nombre e te rno ; conqu is temoSjs i os agrada, l a s p r o v i n c i a s mas remotas, v e r b i s s i v a l o r me f a l t a . (p. 9) As there i s no one to a r b i t r a t e Nardo 's case , and as the Count, the a r b i t e r of law, by o r d e r i n g Nardo to end h i s a f f a i r has c l e a r l y shown In the p l a y i t i s not made c l e a r why Nardo i s i n league w i t h b a n d i t s . For the theme of n o b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h band i ts see a l s o Lope 's E l cordobes v a l e r o s o (M.B. 1603, a u t h e n t i c ) , E l p r i n c i p e  despenado (M.B. 1602, a u t h e n t i c ) , and C a l d e r o n ' s Pr imero soy yo . These are not band i t p l a y s ; i n them b a n d i t r y p lays a very minimal r o l e . 25 whose s i d e he i s on, Nardo kidnaps Leonarda and, a long w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s , they escape to the c o u n t r y s i d e . Here the p l a y w r i g h t in t roduces a f u r t h e r dramat ic convent ion found i n a l l band i t p lays - - the r e t r e a t o f the hero to the c o u n t r y s i d e . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the p laywr igh t i s f a i t h f u l to h i s t o r y . In the Q u i j o t e we read ; . . . n i debia i r a S e v i l l a , has ta que hubiese despojado todas a q u e l l a s s i e r r a s de ladrones y malandr ines , en quien era fama que todas estaban l l e n a s . ( I , c h . X I V ) 3 In the metaphor i ca l language of the Comedia, the c o u n t r y s i d e stands f o r c o n f u s i o n . I t i s a p l a c e where nature and i t s d e s t r u c t i v e fo rces are i n cont inuous p l a y - - a p l a c e where the D e v i l l u r k s . The c o u n t r y s i d e r e f l e c t s the f u r i a i n f e r n a l of the dishonoured Man or Woman, as Nardo in t imates i n h i s vengeance speech. In the eyes of the law, Nardo has become a c r i m i n a l - - h e i s a b a n d i t . But h i s a c t i o n s do not conform to those commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b a n d i t s . The nobleman of o l d turns to b a n d i t r y to s e t t l e m i l i t a r y d i s p u t e s , i n modern t imes an i n d i v i d u a l turns bandi t because of the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s he f i n d s h i m s e l f i n : he has no means of s u s t a i n i n g 4 l i f e so he s t e a l s from those who are w e l l o f f . Nardo i s not poor . In essence, h i s b a n d i t r y i s spurred on, as tha t of the C a t a l a n nobleman i s , by a l o s s of Honour. I t must be remembered tha t i n the Comedia a l o s s of Honour i s equated w i t h a l o s s of l i f e and by convent ion s t a i n e d Honour must be exonerated. M i g u e l de Cervantes Saavadra, Don Q u i j o t e de l a ' Mancha: Texto y_ notas de M a r t i n de R iquer (Barce lona : E d i t o r i a l Juventud, 1971), I, 134. 4 On t h i s p o i n t see E. Habshawm, B a n d i t s . 26 In the last scenes of the play, Nardo is captured. Aware that he w i l l meet with certain death he asks that Leonarda be spared. The Count finds i t d i f f i c u l t to sentence Nardo but the law demands i t . Nardo dies, but his desire to be recognized as un hombre honrado is f u l f i l l e d : the Count orders that Leonarda marry Nardo so that Ricardo's promise w i l l not be broken. The wedding is to take place at the Count's palace where the bride and groom w i l l be honoured by the Count's attendance. This ending is ironic because in order to gain the very essence of l i f e , Honour, Nardo must forfeit his l i f e . The implications of this w i l l be considered in the conclusions of this chapter. * * Ruiz de Alarcon, El_ tejedor de Segovia, parts I and II. ~* The f i r s t part of El tejedor serves very much as a prologue for part two. The story of part one, essential to the action of the second part, is as follows: Beltran Ramirez, court favourite, is accused of plotting against the King's l i f e . When his son, Fernando, returns home from fighting the infidel, he finds that his father has been put to death. Investigating the matter, Fernando discovers that his father has been the innocent victim of a sinister plot perpetrated by the Marquis Suero Pelaez, a contender for the King's favour. Shamed in the eyes of society, not Eurelio Abreu Gomez, ed., Teatro Completo de Don Juan Ruiz de Alarcon (Mexico: Compania general de ediciones, 1951). This edition contains both parts of El tejedor de Segovia. 27 a b l e t o prove h i s case a g a i n s t the M a r q u i s , and pursued by the law, Fernando f l e e s . He seeks re fuge i n the b u r i a l v a u l t of a church where he exchanges h i s c l o t h e s w i t h those of a r e c e n t l y bu r ied man. He d i s -f i g u r e s the dead man so tha t when the K i n g ' s men a r r i v e they t h i n k tha t the corpse was once Fernando. In the l a s t scene, Fernando d i s g u i s e d as a t e j e d o r , and go ing by the name of Pedro A l o n s o , swears to seek revenge i n a second p a r t . In the opening Jornada of pa r t two, Pedro i s l i v i n g p e a c e f u l l y i n Segovia w i t h h i s w i f e Teodora. T h e i r i d y l l i s suddenly d i s r u p t e d by the Count Don Juan , the son of Suero Pe laez who, we now l e a r n , has become pr i vado d e l rey . Don Juan i s i n l o v e w i t h Teodora and has come to her house to cour t he r . The a c t i o n that f o l l o w s shows Don Juan to be a none too savoury c h a r a c t e r . Understanding the i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o u r t i n g a marr ied woman h i s servant t r i e s to d issuade h im. But , an annoyed Don Juan r e p l i e s : "Un hombre bajo , Jref e r r i n g to Pedro"^ ha de hacer/ Competencia a mi a f i c i o ' n ? " ( I , v) . Don Juan gains entrance to the house but i s caught i n the ac t by Pedro . A heated exchange f o l l o w s i n which both c h a r a c t e r s , nobleman and commoner, defend t h e i r Honour: Pedro : *c.Corresponde a l o s he ro i cos t r o f e o s , de v u e s t r a sangre. e s t a hazana? Conde: \Bas ta , a t r e v i d o ! tQue es esto? IA mi me h a b l a i s descompuesto.' i.Que c o n f i a n z a os engana? *| Idos a l puntoj • Pedro : |Tratadme b i e n , y mirad Que soy, aunque, t e j e d o r Tan bueno . }. Conde: [Que a t rev imiento . ' *Eso me dec i s a ml*? (Dale un bofeton) Pedro : Hasta aquf Ha l l e g a d o e l s u f r i m i e n t o (sacan l a s espadas) ( I , v i ) Whi le the two f i g h t the law a r r i v e s and Fernando i s put i n j a i l . Here 28 f o l l o w s h i s vengeance speech: Pues anoche, me h i z o c i e r t o senor un a g r a v i o , con l a v e n t a j a a t r e v i d o de t r e s que l e acompanaban; mas mi buena s u e r t e quiso que, dando muerte a l o s dos, comenzase su c a s t i g o ; y s i . l a . j u s t i c i a t a r d a , hago en l o s demas l o mismo que a un hombre honrado ofendido es un t o r o agarrochado que en l a s capas, v e n g a t i v o , l o s r i g o r e s e j e c u t a que en sus duenos no ha podido . ( I , x) As the speech shows, Fernando"s a g r a v i o i s one of honour and, l i k e tha t of other p r o t a g o n i s t s , he must now avenge i t . Can Pedro s e t t l e h i s a g r a v i o by any other means than b a n d i t r y ? He can appeal to the law but h i s r e f e r e n c e to "what i f j u s t i c e d e l a y s " and the f a c t tha t he decides to take matters i n t o h i s own hands i m p l i e s that he, a commoner, would 6 have no chance a g a i n s t the Count, a nobleman. Pedro i n c i t e s the other p r i s o n e r s to attempt an escape, and once f ree they w i l l h i d e i n the mountains where: Los agrav iados podran yengarse ; que es c i e r t a cosa que e l tiempo dara ocas iones y l a v e n t a j a v i c t o r i a s . ( I , x i x ) In the ensuing a c t i o n the p r o t a g o n i s t avenges h i s two a g r a v i o s : a f t e r k i l l i n g Don Juan he j o i n s the K i n g ' s army i n f i g h t i n g the Moors. In the c o n f u s i o n of the b a t t l e , he f i n d s and k i l l s Suero P e l a e z . When brought to face j u s t i c e , i n t h i s case the K i n g , Pedro e x p l a i n s : ^It i s t rue that Pedro i s a nobleman but i n P a r t I I h i s d i s g u i s e makes him a commoner. 29 Yo, senor, l e d i l a muerte por ag rav ios que me ha hecho* que su i n j u s t a t i r a n i a me ob l igo ' a se r bandolero . ( I l l , x x i i i ) The p l a y ends h a p p i l y w i t h the K i n g r e - e n s t a t i n g Pedro - - h i s bravery a g a i n s t the Moors has saved him. Caldero'n de l a B a r c a , Las t r e s jus t i c ias en una. ^  Th is p l a y i s by f a r the most i n t e r e s t i n g of the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t p l a y s . In i t Ca lderon , i n an i n n o v a t i v e f a s h i o n , c rea tes a p l a y which i s q u i t e u n l i k e the r e s t . Las t r e s j u s t i c i a s i s i n e f f e c t two p lays condensed i n one, fo r i t s p r o t a g o n i s t , Lope, becomes a bandi t t w i c e , adding d i v e r s i t y and a new dimension to a s tandard p l o t . Whi le c r o s s i n g the mountains, V i o l a n t e and her f a t h e r , Mendo, f a l l c a p t i v e to Lope. As Lope shows unusual mercy, Mendo promises the bandi t g to use h i s i n f l u e n c e on the K ing to grant h im pardon. Unknown to a l l , Mendo i s Lope 's f a t h e r , V i o l a n t e Lope 's h a l f s i s t e r . A t Mendo's request Lope t e l l s why he has become a b a n d i t . He s t a t e s that he i s of noble b lood and b i r t h but as a c h i l d he was not p r o p e r l y d i s c i p l i n e d . H i s f a t h e r , Don Lope, marr ied l a t e i n l i f e . L a c k i n g persona l guidance Lope was l e f t to h i s own r e s o u r c e s : Ed. A. Valbuena B r i o n e s , i n Don Pedro Ca lderon de l a B a r c a , Obras completas (Madr id ; Agui lar , . , 1969) . Q f The theme of the- l o s t progeny i s a r e c u r r i n g one i n Ca lderon : see A . A . P a r k e r , "The Father -Son C o n f l i c t i n the Drama of C a l d e r o n , " Forum  f o r Modern Language S t u d i e s , 2 (1966) , 9 9 - 1 1 3 ; W.J. E n t w i s t l e , " C a l d e r o n ' s La devocio'n de l a c r u z , " B u l l e t i n H ispan ique , 50 (1948) , 47^2-82. 30 Criome s i n darme maestros, cuyo desorden me h i z o mas l i b r e de l o que fuera , a tener mis desat inos quien l o s c o r r i g i e r a , puesto que a l mas c r u e l , mas esquivo b ru to , t r a t a b l e l e hacen o e l halago o e l c a s t i g o . desbocado mi a l b e d r f o , c o r r i o s i n r i e n d a n i f reno l a campana de l o s v i c i o s . (p. 679a and b) I t happens tha t through the e f f o r t s of Mendo and Don Lope Lope (the p r o t a g o n i s t ) i s pardoned. He r e t u r n s home where he f i n d s Mendo and V i o l a n t e s o j o u r n i n g . Whi le at home Lope engages i n a due l w i t h a former f r i e n d and now, r i v a l s u i t o r to V i o l a n t e . The due l takes p l a c e and Lope i s fo rced aga in to f l e e to assume the r o l e of bandolero . He i s captured and sentenced to death by the K i n g . The f i n a l scenes of the p lay are of great importance. Mendo, V i o l a n t e and a l l the c h a r a c t e r s present l e a r n of the k i n s h i p . In the l i g h t of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the K i n g f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t to sentence Lope to death . Who i s the r e a l c u l p r i t ? the K i n g reasons . Don Lope d i d not o f f e r proper p a r e n t a l guidance; Mendo, the n a t u r a l f a t h e r , d i d not l i v e up to h i s duty as a f a t h e r thereby c h e a t i n g Lope out of a f a m i l y . D e p r i v a t i o n of the f a m i l y and f a m i l y name i s , i n essence, the i n i t i a l a g r a v i o which l e d Lope to a c r i m i n a l l i f e . In f a c t , j u s t i f y i n g h i s a c t i o n s to the K i n g , Lope a t t r i b u t e s h i s mis fo r tune to h i s f a t h e r , Don Lope (Lope d ies not knowing the t r u e k i n s h i p ) : Aunque s i de d iscu lparme t r a t a r a , yo os c e r t i f i c o que p u d i e r a , pues e l fue de mis desdichas p r i n c i p i o . (p. 678b) Th is i m p l i e s that had Don Lope prov ided the proper guidance d u r i n g h i s 31 youth , . Lope would have grown up a w e l l ad jus ted person . Lope d ies w i t h -out knowing who the f a t h e r i s ; the el_ i n the above speech r e f e r s to Don Lope, but fo r the aud ience , knowing the b lood t i e s , the el_ may a l s o r e f e r to Don Mendo. But , whether v i c t i m of c i rcumstance or not , Lope, l i k e most other b a n d i t s , must pay w i t h h i s l i f e : Don Lope ofendio a su padre en l a p u b l i c a o p i n i d n de todo e l pueb lo ; e l sec re to no he de r e v e l a r l o yo, que importa o c u l t o ; Don Mendo t ra idoramente b u r l o e l honor de Laura muerta; y B l a n c a , en f i n , engano'' a su esposo; t r e s d e l i t o s p A b l i cos y o c u l t o s son. Luego aunque yo haya sabido que no es su h i j o , debo yo , por Lope, por B lanca y Mendo, y por m i , que soy quien soy, dar a p i i b l i c o s d e l i t o s p t l b l i c a sat i s face ion y a l o s s e c r e t o s , s e c r e t a . (p. 707a and b) The p l a y i s an example of what A . A . Parker l a b e l s tragedy fo r the p r o t a g o n i s t caused by " d i f f u s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " : The wrong do ing of an i n d i v i d u a l may, many years l a t e r , produce c i rcumstances which a re d e c i s i v e i n l e a d i n g another i n d i v i d u a l i n t o a wrong doing that b r ings him s u f f e r i n g and death , which i n the n a t u r a l order of events he would not have i n c u r r e d but f o r the wrong do ing , which might have taken p l a c e even before he was b o r n . ^ * * y P a r k e r , "The Father -Son C o n f l i c t , " p. 99; see a l s o "Towards a D e f i n i t i o n of Ca lde ron ian Tragedy , " B u l l e t i n , of H i s p a n i c S t u d i e s , 39 (1962), 227 -37 . Canzer , Rosete , Ro jas , La gran comedia d e l vandolero S o l P o s t o . S o l Posto i s not la_ gran comedia the th ree ingenios c l a i m ; i t s poet ry l a c k s beauty and the p l o t i s s t a n d a r d . The p lay reads l i k e one o f those p o t - b o i l e r s h a s t i l y concocted f o r the express purpose of p l e a s -i n g the mosqueteros. I t does, however, show to what extent an a g r a v i o can be f e l t by the p r o t a g o n i s t of a bandi t p l a y . The a g r a v i o which fo rces Simon i n t o a l i f e of cr ime i s t h a t h i s b r i d e - t o - b e , Leonor , i s raped by Don F e l i x , a C a s t i l i a n nobleman whose l i f e Simon had p r e v i o u s l y saved. Leonor commands Simon and her b r o t h e r : " p a r t i d l o s dos en busca / y demanda de mi h o n o r , " (p. 55b) . Ac t I c l o s e s w i t h Simon swear ing that a l l C a s t i l i a n s s h a l l d i e : Todos mueran y pues p e r d i l a hermosura de Leonor , t i emble C a s t i l l a e l asombro de S e t u b a l . (p. 56b) As a c t I I opens, Simon has moved from the c i t y to the c o u n t r y s i d e where he p l o t s h i s revenge: Ha v a l e r o s o s bandidos, a cuyas i r a s sangr ien tas miedo i r a c i o n a l aprenden de l a s r a c i o n a l e s quejas en e l monte, y en e l a i r e cuanto c o r r e , y cuanto v u e l a . (p. 56b) The deshonra i s f e l t to such a degree by Simon tha t he changes h i s name to S o l Posto - - a name he d e r i v e s from the f a c t that he operates i n the mountains of P o r t u g a l when the sun has s e t : y a s i e l S o l Pues to , comienza mi prevencid'n, mi venganza, mi v a l o r , mi v i o l e n c i a . (p. 58a) Found i n ; P a r t e t r e i n t a y_ dos de comedias nuevas, nunca impresas, escogidas de l o s mejores i n j e n i o s de Espana (Madr id : 1669). A f t e r k i l l i n g a hundred men Simon i s captured by the law and sentenced to death . H is l a s t speech shows the f u t i l i t y of the b a n d i t ' s attempt to avenge Honour. Simon d ies r e g r e t t i n g tha t he has not avenged L e o n o r ' s deshonra: . . . l o que ahora mas en toda e l alma s i e n t o , es que no pueda Leonor ser esposa mia , puesto que no he vengado su honor, (p. 80b) The p l a y c l o s e s w i t h the c o r r e g i d o r commanding: . . . ponedle para que s i r v a de ejemplo a P o r t u g a l y C a s t i l l a , pendiente de aque l madero. (p . 80b) In the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t p lays there i s an i n t e r e s t i n g s o c i a l commen-t a r y , not s t a t e d but i m p l i e d . Does Simon have any other means of avenging h i s dishonour? Why does the p r o t a g o n i s t not demand r e p a r a t i o n d i r e c t l y from Don F e l i x , i n s t e a d of avenging h i m s e l f on the whole of s o c i e t y ? The a g r a v i o i n t h i s p l a y , as i n Nardo Anton io and El_ t e j e d o r ( I I ) , i s p e r p e t r a t e d by a member of the n o b i l i t y a g a i n s t a commoner. The f a c t that SimoV does not t r y to avenge h i s deshonra i n the conven-t i o n a l f a s h i o n , a d u e l , and a l s o the f a c t that he decides to take matters i n t o h i s hands and a c t a g a i n s t s o c i e t y i n genera l suggest ' that there i s no t r i b u n a l i n which he, a commoner, may p lead h i s case . 34 PART B. THE BANDOLERAS The s e c u l a r - b a n d o l e r a p lays f o l l o w c l o s e l y the p l o t of the p lays examined so f a r . The h e r o i n e , u s u a l l y an embodiment of the v a r o n i l or e s q u i v a , or bo th , turns to b a n d i t r y i n order to avenge an a g r a v i o . T h i s , to say the l e a s t , i s a p e c u l i a r d e v i a t i o n from the tenets of the Code of Honour. In the s o c i e t y por t rayed i n the Comedia, the i d e a l of womanhood i s dependent upon her uns ta ined Honour. Once Honour i s l o s t , 1 i t i s the c o m p e l l i n g duty of her c l o s e s t male r e l a t i v e to avenge i t . Th is does not happen i n the p lays to be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . None of the bandoleras are w i thout male k i n ; however, the p laywr igh t shows the p r o t a g o n i s t to be surrounded by p h y s i c a l and moral w e a k l i n g s ; the hero ine w i l l o f t e n r e f e r to them as g a l l i n a s , as does L o p e ' s Leonarda i n La ser rana de l a v e r a . 2 Lope de Vega, La ser rana de l a v e r a . (M.B. a u t h e n t i c 1595-1598) . Leonarda, a young and b e a u t i f u l country g i r l , i s engaged to a nobleman, Don C a r l o s . F u l g e n c i o , a r i v a l s u i t o r , informs L u i s , Leonarda 's b r o t h e r , that . C a r l o s p lans to marry another . To add i n s u l t to i n j u r y F u l g e n c i o a l s o t e l l s him that C a r l o s has been t e l l i n g every -See: J .V. Bryans , "Rosaura L i b e r a t e d or a Woman's R e b e l l i o n : A New Reading o f the Subplot of La v i d a es sueno , " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia H i s p a n i c S t u d i e s , ed. Haro ld L ivermore (London: Tames i s , 1974) , pp. 1 9 - 3 2 . 2 Ed. Feder i co C a r l o s Sa inz de Robles i n T e a t r o , V o l . I l l o f Lope F e l i z de Vega C a r p i o , Obras escogidas (Madr id : A g u i l a r , 1962) . 35 one that L u i s i s a mal nac ido (p. 1303a). Where such s l a n d e r would f o r c e a c h a r a c t e r to demand s a t i s f a c t i o n , L u i s conso les h i m s e l f by-f i g h t i n g i n s u l t w i t h i n s u l t : l os ag rav ios y l a s i r a s c a s i tambien l a s ment i ras unas con o t r a s se pagan (p. 1303a) The above q u o t a t i o n i s i n d i c a t i v e of L u i s ' p r o p e n s i t y to s h i r k h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a man. Throughout the p lay he shows h i m s e l f to be an i n e f f e c t i v e w e a k l i n g ; i n Ac t I I , scene i , he w i l l not concede that a b ro ther i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s s i s t e r ' s Honour, w h i l e Leonarda main -t a i n s : "No ves que l a honra es a i r e / en que se s u s t e n t a e l mundo?" (p. 1307a). L a t e r , i n I I . i x , when faced w i t h a l i o n , L u i s runs away w i t h f e a r , w h i l e t e l l i n g Rodr igo that he never meant to o f fend him (p. 1313b). Lope juxtaposes L u i s ' cowardly behaviour w i t h that of Leonarda who 3 l i v e s s t r i c t l y by the Code of Honour. A mujer v a r o n i l from the s t a r t , Lope desc r ibes her thus : S a l e Leonarda, como ser rana , con capote de dos h a l d a s , y f a l d d n de p e l l e j o de t i g r e y montera de l o mismo, 4 zapato y p o l a i n a , espada en tahalf*, y arcabuz (p. 1318b) She r e a l i z e s tha t L u i s w i l l not do any th ing to avenge C a r l o s ' , calumny towards the f a m i l y name; Leonarda, t r u e to her name, dec ides to take the task upon h e r s e l f . She argues w i t h L u i s tha t l o s i n g Car los to another Lope approved of the mujer v a r o n i l i n the male d i s g u i s e as a t h e a t r i c a l d e v i c e : Las damas no desdigan de su nombre, y s i mudaren t r a j e , sea de modo que pueda perdonarse, porque sue le e l d i s f r a z v a r o n i l agradar mucho (Ar te nuevo, 11 . 281-284) See: J . Homero A r j o n a , " E l d i s f r a z v a r o n i l en Lope de V e g a , " B u l l e t i n  H i span ique , 14 (1923), 1 2 0 - 4 5 . 4 Note a l s o F u l g e n c i o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of Leonarda, too long to quote, i n Ac t I, v i , and Juan 's d e s c r i p t i o n i n the l a s t scene of the l a s t a c t . 36 woman i s n o t h i n g , but to have the f a m i l y name maligned i s a grave o f f e n c e : no s i e n t o que me dejase por E s t r e l a s i e n t o que se haya a t r e v i d o para jugar c o n t r a de t i The d ia logue tha t f o l l o w s i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y - - i t shows what a w e a k l i n g L u i s i s ( the i t a l i c s are mine) : Leonarda: Que no l e busques te p i d o ; aguarda tiempo y lugar que puedas vengarte d e l L u i s : N i aun p ienso verme con e^l. Leonarda: La p a l a b r a me has de dar de que h a s t a de que yo te a v i s e no l e h a b l a r a s . L u i s : Yo l a doy. Leonarda: J u r a l o . L u i s : A fe de quien soy, aunque l a boca me pise' , que por tan cuerda te tengo, que mi a g r a v i o , mi d i s g u s t o pongo en manos de t u gusto , (p. 1305a and b) L a t e r , ( I I . i ) Leonarda t e l l s her b ro ther tha t she w i l l leave P l a s e n c i a , and go to the mountains. As she leaves she t e l l s L u i s that she w i l l awai t h im there (p. 1308a), but L u i s turns a deaf ear . hago juramento y voto de no v o l v e r a P l a s e n c i a ; de v i v i r ent re estos montes, en l a s mas c6ncavas cuevas, en t re l o s s i l v e s t r e s gamos y ent re l a s cabras montesas; de abor recer a l o s hombres y de t r a t a r con l a s f i e r a s ; de s a l i r a los caminos y h a c e r l e s no tab les o fensas ; y de matar y de h e r i r t a n t o s , que haya por aquestas cuestas tantas cruces como matas, t a n t a sangre como a d e l f a s ; de v e s t i r de sus despojos , 37 y de ser en e s t a s i e r r a una e s f i n g e ma's c r u e l que l a que e s c r i b e n en Tebas. (p. 1315a) She proceeds to k i l l no l e s s than one thousand men. Here i s i l l u s t r a t e d another negat i ve va lue of the Code of Honour: the a g r a v i o causes i n Leonor , as i n a l l bando le ras , a r e v e r s a l i n c h a r a c t e r . I t i s obvious tha t L u i s ' and Leonarda 's r o l e s a re complete ly r e v e r s e d : L u i s i s a coward, Leonarda takes on the s t r e n g t h her b ro ther l a c k s . Leonarda i s captu red , but only w h i l e a s l e e p . The people of P l a s e n c i a are ready to execute her when a messenger from the K i n g enters b e a r i n g Leonarda 's pardon. In the p l a y i t i s not made a t a l l c l e a r why Leonarda i s pardoned. Perhaps she i s not executed because, a l though she behaves l i k e a t r u e bando le ra , she i s not a s s o c i a t e d i n the p l a y w i t h b a n d i t s . •* / 5 L u i s Ve lez de Guevara, La ser rana de la. v e r a , 1613. Undoubtedly the most, i n t e r e s t i n g of the s e c u l a r - b a n d o l e r a p l a y s , Guevara 's Serrana adopts Lope 's Leonarda, makes c o n s i d e r a b l e changes and c rea tes G i l a - - i n d i s p u t a b l y the epitome of the mujer bando le ra . G i l a d i s p l a y s both the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the v a r o n i l and esquiva i n the extreme. As the p lay opens, a f i e s t a i s i n p r o g r e s s . G i l a takes p a r t i n the contes ts and k i l l s a b u l l w i t h her bare hands w h i l e the men, to whom she w i l l r e p e a t e d l y r e f e r as g a l l i n a s , run away to h i d e . In a lengthy speech (11 . 121-168) her f a t h e r , G i r a l d o , says tha t h i s daughter i s worth two - 'Lu is Ve lez de Guevara, La ser rana de l a v e r a , ed. Enr ique Rodrfguez Cepeda (Madr id : C o l e c c i 6 n A u l a Magna, 1967). 38 sons. There i s no man who can outdo her i n any c o n t e s t ; her stamina i s such t h a t : De bueyes de t iene un c a r r o , de un mol ino l a v i o l e n c i a ; c o r r e un c a v a l l o mejor que s i en e l c o s i d a f u e r a . (11. 147-150) Her mascul ine behaviour i s to be e x c e l l e d o n l y by her esqu ivez . L a t e r on i n the p lay she t e l l s her f a t h e r : No me qu iero c a s a r , padre , que creo que mientras que no me caso que soy hombre. No qu iero ver que nad ie me s u j e t e , no qu ie ro que ninguno se imagine dueno de m i , l a l i b e r t a d pretendo. (11. 1584-1588) The remark, "que soy hombre" i s to be noted because G i l a , u n l i k e other bando le ras , shows s igns of a l a t e n t l e s b i a n i s m ; at the f i e s t a , p r i o r to k i l l i n g the b u l l , i n an a s i d e she says ; Que de vos a l t a senora , [the queenj ha muchos d i a s que estoy enamorada. (11. 871-873) In Act I, scene i i , she r e p l i e s to the c a p t a i n who has come to woo her : S i imag ina is que l o soy [ a woman], os enganais que soy muy hombre. (11. 350-352) L a t e r , i n the same scene: Madalena: Er ro ' l a N a t u r a l e z a , G i l a en no hacer te varo'n G i l a : \Ay prima.' T ienes r a z o n . (11. 659-661) F u l l y aware that Nature e r r e d , i n a s o l i l o q u y G i l a expresses her d e s i r e to change: ya no podre a mi pesar d e j a r l o de confesar por no parecer mujer , que es l o que yo mas deseoj que e l v a r o n i l corazon me d i o con e s t a pens ion . (11. 1082-1088) 39 Her s u i t o r , Mingo, overhear ing G i l a ' s speech t e l l s her tha t the on ly t h i n g tha t w i l l l e t G i l a be a woman i s l o v e : tA.' \S± q u i s i e s e s amar.' \ S i d ieses como l a s o t ras zagalas en dar favores a sus f irmes amadores.' Ama y v o l v e r a s por t i Ama, G i l a , pues que ves que ama e l oso, e l j a b a l i e l t o r o , e l jumento. (11. 1105-1177) But i r o n i c a l l y , i t i s love that b r ings G i l a her nemesis . G i r a l d o has arranged fo r h i s daughter to marry Don Lucas , c a p t a i n of the K i n g ' s army. The f a t h e r t e l l s G i l a tha t the marr iage w i l l be her cure (1 . 1750) but , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e not to read more i n t o G i r a l d o ' s a c t i o n s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , G i l a i s but a pawn which the f a t h e r uses to inc rease h i s own Honour. Two key scenes i n the p l a y i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . In Ac t I, scene i , G i r a l d o i s conf ronted w i t h Don L u c a s ' a c c u s a t i o n tha t commoners have no c l a i m to Honour. He r e p l i e s : . . . soy un l a b r a d o r con honrado nac imiento , c r i s t i a n o v i e j o y honrado que nosotros no pudimos e s c o j e r cuando nacimos l a nob leza y e l es tado ; but , he would a s p i r e to a g rea te r Honour; que a fe que, a ser en mi mano, y a q u e r e r l o tambie'n D i o s , n a c i e r a mejor que vos (11. 15-23) L a t e r i n I I . i v , the d i a l o g u e between the same two c h a r a c t e r s shows that the marr iage G i r a l d o has arranged i s but a s t e p p i n g stone which w i l l l ead him to more Honour. Don Lucas knows w e l l what i s G i r a l d o ' s 40 weakness: a d e s i r e fo r r e c o g n i t i o n . Knowing that G i l a i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n h im, Don Lucas t r i e s to get to her through her f a t h e r : he dangles Honour, i n the form of mar r iage , i n f r o n t of G i r a l d o ' s eyes: A l z a d G i r a l d o que no vengo a ofenderos , s i n o a daros ocas i o n de que honre'is l a sangre v u e s t r a Pues yo pretendo honraros con haceros G i r a l d o , padre mio. (11. 1462-1477) G i r a l d o at f i r s t re fuses but then a l l too e a s i l y and c o n v e n i e n t l y a c c e p t s : Ya fuera necedad y g r o s e r i a no a d m i t i r l a merced, senor Don Lucas , que h a c ^ i s a G i l a y a mi sangre . (11. 1514-1516) G i r a l d o accepts and fo rces h i s daughter i n t o marr iage . G i l a accepts the advances of Don Lucas i n good f a i t h on ly to f i n d h e r s e l f be t rayed ; \T ra i c ionJ \Tra ic ion . ' \Padre.' \Prima.'  \Mingo.' \Pascual . ' \Antc5n.' \ P r e s t o , socor red mi a f r e n t a todos.' \A de mi casa.' ^A d e l pueblo.' \Que se me van con mi honor; que un i n g r a t o c a v a l l e r o me l l e v a e l alma.' ^Socorro. ' , Vque me abraso , que me quemo.' \Ay confusos a tanbores , enemigos instrumentos de l a muerte y de l a e n v i d i a , que en alma d a i s l o s ecos d e l animo y l a venganza, despertadores s o b e r b i o s , r e l o j e s de mis desd ichas , de mi a g r a v i o pregoneros.' c.Que os h i z o mi honor que v a i s tocando alarma y huiendo? £Por que s i v a i s v i c t o r i o s o s , l a s espaldas habeis bue l to? Esperad o no v e n c e i s , que no es b i e n , cobardes s iendo d e j e i s a mi honor vencido en l a m u r a l l a d e l sueno. • fc • \Ay fur ia . " vAy rab ia . 1 l A y ^ c i e l o s . 1 , fi ique se me abrasa e l alma.' VFuego.' \Fuego.' (11. 2050-2075) " G i l a ' s vengeance speech i s i n th ree pa r t s and too long to quote. See a l s o 11. 2979-2113, 2116-2151. 41 In order to avenge her Honour G i l a becomes a bando lera . She must become her own avenger because, as i s o f t e n the case i n the bandolera p l a y s , she f i n d s h e r s e l f i n an environment where the men are m o r a l l y weak and cowardly : At the f i e s t a the men were a f r a i d to f i g h t the b u l l . G i r a l d o ' s d e s i r e fo r Honour causes G i l a to l o s e her own Honour. When G i l a i s betrayed she c a l l s on a l l to avenge her but i t i s she, not her f a t h e r , not even Mingo,^ who r e s o l v e s to seek vengeance. G i l a does avenge her Honour by k i l l i n g Don Lucas and count less other men. Then she i s captured and sentenced to death . Before she d ies she b i t e s her f a t h e r ' s ear and blames him f o r her m i s f o r t u n e . . . . esto merece qu ien pasa por l a s l i b e r t a d e s todas de l o s h i j o s . S i t i l usaras r i g o r conmigo a l p r i n c i p i o de mi i n c l i n a c i o n g a l l a r d a , y no l l e g a r a a es te estremo: escarmienten en tus canas y en mi l o s que t i e n e n h i j o s . (11. 3251-3259) G i l a i s another v i c t i m of what p r o f e s s o r Parker c a l l s " d i f f u s e d r e s o n -s i b i l i t y . " (see p. 3 3 ) . This ending may have been taken from Aesop's f a b l e , Spare the Rod and S p o i l the C h i l d , a s t o r y which u n d e r l i n e s the importance of proper f a m i l y u p b r i n g i n g . In Aesop's s t o r y a man i s about to be hanged fo r h i s c r imes . He c a l l s h i s mother as G i l a c a l l s her f a t h e r i n the p l a y : The moment she went up to h im, he took the lobe of her ear i n h i s t e e t h and b i t i t . She r e -Mingo i s not even capable of be ing a good l o v e r . In I I . i i , G i l a dec ides to g i ve i n to h i s e n t r e a t i e s but what f o l l o w s i s pure comedy: G i l a : A l a pr imera v u e l t a cantas en e l tormento, g a l l i n a ? Mingo: Los huesos me has hecho h a r i n a (11. 1287-1289) proached him f o r h i s u n f i l i a l conduct . . . . "The t ime when you shou ld have reproved me," he s a i d , "was when I committed my f i r s t t h e f t . . . Then I should not have ended up i n the hands of the e x e c u t i o n e r . ° In Guevara's p l a y , the K i n g i s a t odds w i t h h i m s e l f when s e n t e n -c i n g G i l a (see a l s o C a l d e r o n ' s Las t r e s j u s t i c i a s ) . This suggests that the monarch sanc t ions the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t to avenge h i s , or h e r , Honour, but cr imes have been committed a g a i n s t s o c i e t y and the c r i m i n a l , f o r the sake of m a i n t a i n i n g order i n s o c i e t y , must pay. In the K i n g ' s words: "La merece j^eath} por razon de estado" (1 . 3171) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the p lay ends: Ya vos , que luego os entreguen e l cuerpo para e n t r a l l a , quedando a q u i una memoria que de ejemplo s i r v a a Espana. F i n a l l y , Guevara's La ser rana i s a f i n e example of the bandolera p l a y ; i n i t one f i n d s a l l the convent ions : the hero ine i s esqu iva and v a r o n i l . A l o s s of Honour and the l a c k of a man to avenge the h e r o i n e ' s ag rav io i s the reason why the h e r o i n e turns to b a n d i t r y . U n l i k e most o ther p l a y w r i g h t s , the e x c e p t i o n b e i n g Ca lderon (see Las t r e s j u s t i c i a s and La devocidn de l a c r u z , to be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) , Guevara s t r e s s e s proper f a m i l y u p b r i n g i n g and p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y as e s s e n t i a l i n the growth of an i n d i v i d u a l . The p l a y can be read as an a m p l i f i c a t i o n of 9 Aesop's d ic tum: " Impunity leads o f fenders from bad to w o r s e . " Fables of Aesop, t r a n s . S . A . Hanford (Great B r i t a i n : Penguin Books, 1954) , p. 172. 9 H a n f o r d , F a b l e s , p. 172. 43 Lope de Vega, Las dos bandoleras v_ fundac ion de l a Santa Hermandad de  T o l e d o . 1 0 Al though , i n my e s t i m a t i o n , p o e t i c a l l y i n f e r i o r to Lope 's La s e r r a n a , the p l o t and a c t i o n of Las dos bandoleras are a good dea l more e f f e c t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g . In Las dos bando le ras , Lope presents two s i s t e r s , who, f i n d i n g themselves bet rayed , revenge t h e i r Honour by k i l l i n g as many men as p o s s i b l e . Th is i n essence i s the p l o t of the p l a y . The a g r a v i o de  honor i s aga in a t work. L i k e the hero ine of the prev ious p l a y s , the two s i s t e r s are p laced amidst an environment where men are weak. T h e i r f a t h e r w i l l not l i v e up to the duty of avenging the f a m i l y Honour. Two c o u s i n s , Don Lope and A l v a r P e r e z , are i n love w i t h Ines and Te resa . The four arrange to meet, the two women are seduced and aban-doned. To h i d e t h e i r shame the two g i r l s dec ide to l e a v e : Mas e l deseo se enc iende, Animando a l a p a r t i d a La causa que e l honor pretende; Que una mujer o f e n d i d a , Lo mas impos ib le emprende. (p. 13a) As the second a c t opens they have become bando le ras ; Las dos fuimos enganadas De l o s t i r a n o s de amor, Que, a dejarnos sus espadas, V i e r a n de Dido e l r i g o r . Pr imero nos promet ieron E l •s'er'-'de l a s dos "maridos.j, Y sus deseos cumpl idos , 1 0 E d . M a r c e l i n o Menendez y P e l a y o , Obras de Lope de Vega, IX (Madr id : Rea l Academia Espano la , 1899) , 1 - 3 8 . There i s some d i s p u t e as to the au thorsh ip of t h i s p l a y . Menendez y Pe layo unquest ionab ly a t t r i b u t e s the p l a y to L o p e ' s " p r i m e r a ' p a r t e " (p. x x ) , date of composi -t i o n 1604-1605. M.B. p l a c e the p l a y i n the l i s t of dudosas, date of composi t ion . .1597-1603. The p l a y was r e f u n d i d a by Juan de Matos Fragoso, and S e b a s t i a n de V i l l a c i o s i n A Lo que o b l i g a un a g r a v i o , y_ l a s hermanas  bandoleras (see Obras de Lope de Vega, p. x x ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y I have not been ab le to examine t h i s p l a y . 44 A l punto se a r r e p . i n t i e r o n . Enganadas nos d e j a r o n , S i n honra en nuest ro l u g a r , Y a Cordoba se marcharon. A cobrar hemos venido Aquf , s i l o s dos q u e r e i s , Ya que e l p l e i t o habeis o i d o . (p. 16b) When T r i v i n o d i s c o v e r s that h i s daughters have brought shame to the f a m i l y he does a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g . Ins tead of r e a c t i n g the way a f a t h e r s h o u l d , l i k e L u i s , i n Lope 's La s e r r a n a , he r e s i g n s h i m s e l f to the s i t u a t i o n . £,Mas, que me canso en vano? Que donde no hay c o r d u r a , Con hermosura no hay honra segura . (p. 19a) An odd r e a c t i o n , but i n the f o l l o w i n g scene ( I I . x ) one r e a l i z e s the reason fo r T r i v i n o ' s r e l u c t a n c e to r e g a i n h i s f a m i l y Honour. The K i n g has come to T r i v i n o ' s house to marry h i s daughters to two noblemen. Th is be ing an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to i n c r e a s e h i s Honour, T r i v i n o decides to h i d e the shame brought to h im by h i s daughters . In an a s i d e , he reasons : t S i sabe e l rey mi deshonra? '^Puede haber ma's confus ion? A f l i g i d o corazdn , Sosegaos, que esta*is s i n honra . M i r a d que es j u s t a l e y D e c i r que por vos se sabe Una a f r e n t a que es tan grave , Y mas contada ante un Rey. Una ment i ra he t r a z a d o , Y jamas supe d e c i l i a ; Mas no sera m a r a v i l l a Que ahora mienta un deshonrado. (p. 20a) When the K i n g asks f o r the two g i r l s , T r i v i n o , l y i n g , t e l l s h im that they have gone to nurse a s i c k aunt . Th is i s h a r d l y the commendable behaviour of a v a s s a l . But the f a t h e r has to l i e because too much i s a t s t a k e : were the K i n g to know the t r u t h , h i s h i g h post i n the Hermandad would be 45 i n p e r i l ; worse s t i l l , he would l o s e the honour of hav ing the K i n g marry h i s daughters to the noblemen. In essence, T r i v i n o i s a c a l c u l a t i n g o p p o r t u n i s t ; h i s daughters are ob jec ts which he uses to i n c r e a s e h i s Honour. The s i t u a t i o n i s p a r a l l e l to that between G i l a and G i r a l d o i n Guevara 1 s Se r rana . In order to avo ide a recur rence of the embarassing s i t u a t i o n d e s -c r i b e d above, T r i v i n o decides tha t he w i l l make h i m s e l f u n a v a i l a b l e by go ing o f f to f i g h t b a n d i t s . In a monologue ( I I . x i i ) he reasons cunn ing l y that t h i s w i l l keep him out of the K i n g ' s way, but , i t w i l l a l s o g i ve him a chance to punish h i s daughters i n s e c r e t : D i r e que t r a s los G o l f i n e s Voy de esa s i e r r a morena, Aunque me l l e v a mi pena A b i e n d i f e r e n t e s f i n e s . Pero- en mirando en r i g o r , No ment i re en l o que d i g o , Pues a l o s G o l f i n e s s i g o Que me han robado e l honor B i e n mi i n t e n t o se r e s u e l v e ; Y a s i , l o que e l Rey me p i d e , M i l a r g a ausenc ia l o impide Pues no me h a l l a r a s i v u e l v e . En buena ocas i o n emplea Un padre hazanas famosas. (p. 21a and b) T r i v i n o wants to avenge h i s deshonra i n s e c r e t , but he cannot . In the l a s t scene a l l the major c h a r a c t e r s a re r e - u n i t e d : T r i v i n o : Exce l so senor , l a muerte Merecen, Rey: La l e y l a s sa l va De esa pena por ahora , Pues han v i s t o a l Rey l a c a r a ; Demas, que he dado a l a s dos Perhaps the " l e y " to which the K i n g r e f e r s here i s the Med ieva l custom whereby the k i n g was o b l i g e d to p r o t e c t the womenfolk of h i s rea lm. See Menendez P i d a l , e d . , Poema de mio C i d , p. 182, n. 1356. 46 Rey: De ampara l las mi p a l a b r a . i^Adonde e s t a vues t ro padre? Ines : £Hay pregunta mas est rana? A q u i l e t i e n e s presente Orgaz: ^ E s t a s c iego? Con e l h a b l a s . Rey: 't,Quien es su padre? Orgaz; T r i v i t fo T r i v i n o : ^Infame.' c P o r 1U& n o c a l l a s ? (p. 37b) T r i v i n o e x p l a i n s tha t as h i s daughters have dishonoured h im, he has come to punish them. He i s r e l u c t a n t to t e l l the whole s t o r y , f o r were he to do so , the K i n g would know t h a t T r i v i n o had l i e d to h im. The t r u t h , however, i s known and the p lay ends h a p p i l y w i t h the marr iage of the two daughters . One of the r a r e ins tances where the c r i m i n a l i s not punished, compared to other p lays i n which the bandi t i s pun ished , Las dos  bandoleras i s a p lay which shows the ambigu i ty of the Code of Honour and s o c i a l j u s t i c e . To avenge t h e i r Honour, Ines and Teresa go about k i l l i n g and, l i k e other b a n d i t s , as Lope 's Nardo, or Guevara's G i l a , they should pay f o r t h e i r c r i m e s . But the K i n g grants pardon. Admi t -t e d l y , the K i n g ' s d e c i s i o n should be beyond reproach , but the f a c t i s that Ines and Teresa are c r i m i n a l s , and they are not d e a l t w i t h a c c o r d -i n g l y . T h e i r pardon on ly shows that j u s t i c e i s not the same f o r a l l . 47 B a l t a s a r de C a r a v a j a l , La bandolera de F landes , ( E l h i j o de l a t i e r r a ) x ^ A l though La bandolera does not f o l l o w the s t r u c t u r e of the band i t p l a y , i t i s i nc luded here because the h e r o i n e , Casandra, i s a bando le ra . The a c t i o n o f the p l a y centers f i r s t around p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l between S p a i n , England and F landers d u r i n g the f i r s t decade of the / 13 s i x t e e n t h centu ry ; second ly , on Leon, the r i g h t f u l p r o t a g o n i s t . From the t i t l e of the p lay one i s l e d to b e l i e v e that Casandra i s the p r o -t a g o n i s t , but Casandra does not make her entrance u n t i l Ac t I I , scene i i . I t does not appear t h a t her l a t e ent rance i s i n t e n t i o n a l , so as to c r e a t e i n t e r e s t and t e n s i o n i n the c h a r a c t e r . Compared to G i l a or Leonarda, Casandra i s a weak c r e a t u r e . She has sworn revenge a g a i n s t a l l men, but she f a l l s i n love w i t h Leon a l l too e a s i l y , (see 11. 1837-1900). B r i e f l y the p l o t i s as f o l l o w s : F l o r a n t e , K i n g of England, has invaded F landers to wage war a g a i n s t Count A q u i l e s . A q u i l e s e n l i s t s the a i d of h i s s i s t e r , Casandra, who leads an army of 800 b a n d i t s . The un ion of the two makes f o r an easy v i c t o r y ; the crown o f England i s r e s t o r e d to Le6*n, Leo'n and Casandra marry. i ' i E d . Anton io R e s t o r i i n Commedie spagnuole d e l s e c o l o XV I I I  s c o n o s c i u t e , i n e d i t e o_ r a r e , Romanische B i b l i o t e k , 9, gen. ed. Wendel in F o e r s t e r ( H a l l e : Max Niemeyer, 1 8 9 3 ) . C a r a v a j a l g i ves the date of compos i t ion 8/11/1604 (p. 108) . However, R e s t o r i p o i n t s out : "Come poteva i l Rojas V i l l a n d r o p a r l a r n e £pf the p lay] con lode i n una l o a d e l 1602?" (p. v i ) . 13 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the o r i g i n a l t i t l e of the p l a y had been E l h i j o de l a t i e r r a (see^pp. v - v i o f the I n t r o d u c t i o n ) , d e f i n i t e l y a more a p p r o p r i a t e t i t l e as Leon i s the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r , not Casandra. Perhaps C a r a v a j a l changed the t i t l e to La bandolera i n order to make the p l a y a "box o f f i c e a t t r a c t i o n . " 48 Towards the end of the p l a y we l e a r n why Casandra i s a b a n d i t : she had p r e v i o u s l y been bet ro thed to F l o r a n t e , but , as always i n the bandolera p l a y s , she was l e f t b u r l a d a . To a v o i d c e r t a i n death a t her b r o t h e r ' s hands she ran away and became the l e a d e r of a group of b a n d i t s . The Count 's behaviour towards h i s s i s t e r i s ambiva lent : when he found out about the deshonra he was ready to k i l l Casandra, bu t , now t h a t he f i n d s h i m s e l f i n a p recar ious p o s i t i o n he asks f o r her h e l p : . . . o tu gente me p r e s t a o con e l l a me ayuda, que con e l l a y e l v a l o r de tu d i e s t r a p ienso como o t r o A l e j a n d r o ser nuevo senor d e l mundo. (p. 66) L a t e r : Podre , s i v i ene o b l i g a d a a l a c a r t a que e s c r i b i , p e r d o n a r l a : que es honrada; y en e l campo podra a q u i hacer su Jornada, (p. 69) The Count i s , i n e f f e c t , an o p p o r t u n i s t ; now that he needs h i s s i s t e r ' s he lp he i s w i l l i n g to l e t bygones be bygones. Casandra i l l u s t r a t e s the mis for tunes t h a t b e f a l l the dishonoured woman. F l o r a n t e seduced her under the pretence of mar r iage . Her b ro ther should have t r i e d to exact revenge by k i l l i n g F l o r a n t e - - the r e a l c u l p r i t , not Casandra. 49 PART C. CONCLUSIONS The most s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these p lays i s tha t n e i t h e r bandolero nor bandolera have much i n common w i t h the b a n d i t nobles d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I, though i n some respec ts they do resemble the h o n o u r - a l i e n a t e d C a t a l a n bandi t of the s i x t e e n t h centu ry . The p r o -t a g o n i s t s of these p lays c a l l themselves bandoleros but n e i t h e r t h e i r mot i va t ions nor a c t i o n s resemble those of the C a s t i l i a n p o l i t i c a l b a n d i t . Hobsbawm s t a t e s t h a t : In so f a r as band i ts have a "program" i t i s the defense or r e s t o r a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l order of th ings "as i t should b e . " They r i g h t wrongs, they c o r r e c t and avenge cases of i n j u s t i c e , and i n do ing so app ly a more genera l c r i t e r i o n o f j u s t and f a i r r e l a t i o n s between men i n g e n e r a l , between the r i c h ° and the poor , the s t r o n g and weak.-*-In the Cornedia-bandolera, t h i s i s h a r d l y the case f o r the band i ts po r t rayed i n i t a re not i n the l e a s t mot ivated by such humanis t i c i d e a l s . The bandi t of the Cornedia does not i s o l a t e h i m s e l f from s o c i e t y because he wants to "app ly a more genera l c r i t e r i o n of j u s t and f a i r r e l a t i o n s . . . between the r i c h and the p o o r , " but r a t h e r he r e s o r t s to b a n d i t r y because he has a persona l wrong to avenge a g a i n s t s o c i e t y . H is Honour has been s t a i n e d and h i s s o l e i n t e n t i o n i s to exonerate i t . Band i ts i n the Cornedia may come from any l e v e l of s o c i e t y . A nobleman ( E l te jedor ) or a noblewoman (La bandolera de F landes) i s j u s t as l i k e l y to r e s o r t to b a n d i t r y as a commoner (Nardo A n t o n i o , La s e r r a n a ) . T h i s proves tha t a l l a re s u b j e c t to the Code o f Honour w i t h i n the terms of the Comedia. E r i c Hobsbawm, B a n d i t s , p. 13. 50 For two p l a y w r i g h t s , the f a m i l y p lays an important r o l e i n the proper development of the i n d i v i d u a l . Ca lderon and Guevara leave no doubt i n the a u d i e n c e ' s mind that th ings might have gone d i f f e r e n t l y had the p r o t a g o n i s t s ' pass ions been b r i d l e d when they were c h i l d r e n . The agravio. : de. honor fo rces the i n d i v i d u a l to exact a vengeance through b a n d i t r y - - a form of r e b e l l i o n taken up by both man and woman. M a n l i n e s s , an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the bando le ra , has been w i d e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as a s i g n r e f l e c t i n g the p l a y w r i g h t ' s d i s c o n t e n t w i t h 2 woman's p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i e t y of the t imes . Margaret L u n d e l i u s appra ises the mujer v a r o n i l : An aura of p r e s t i g e has always surrounded accomplishments and v i r t u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the male. Hence, r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the s o c i a l r u l e i s much more common among women than the male .^ This i s not so , fo r every bandolera i n the Comedia there i s a bandolero . The woman does not engage i n b a n d i t r y because there " i s an aura of p r e s t i g e " sur rounding i t . Rather , b a n d i t r y to the woman i s a necessary e v i l which she uses to avenge her Honour. Nor i s the Golden Age p laywr igh t a champion and spokesman f o r woman's r i g h t s . In a study on woman's s t a t u s d u r i n g the seventeenth century Melveena McKendrick s t a t e s : 4 The mujer esquiva represents an i n v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to seventeenth century femin in i sm because the treatment accorded to her r e v e a l s z F o r a study on the p o s i t i o n of women i n 1 6 t h - and 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y S p a i n , see J u l i a F i t z m a u r i c e - K e l l y , "Las mujeres en e l s i g l o X V I , " Revue H ispan ique , 20 (1927) , 2 1 7 - 2 9 . L u n d e l i u s , "The Mujer V a r o n i l i n the Theater of the S i g l o de P r o , " p. 274. ^Esquivez i s another e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the bando le ra . 51 e x a c t l y how f a r the d r a m a t i s t s were ready to go i n t h e i r defence of woman and t h e i r t o l e r a n c e of f e m i n i n i s t a ims. At the same time the p i c t u r e she presents i s n e c e s s a r i l y incomplete and i t must not be f o r g o t t e n tha t i n c e r t a i n v i t a l i n s t a n c e s , i l l u s t r a t e d by other v a r i a n t s of the same theme, these p l a y w r i g h t s champion women to a degree remarkable fo r men of t h e i r t i m e . 5 I f such were the case , why i s i t that i n the Cornedia women who do not comply w i t h accepted behaviour as b e f i t s t h e i r sex are e i t h e r punished or made sub jec t to men? The bandolera r e b e l s because no one w i l l avenge he r . In my v iew, the p laywr igh t i s not the l i b e r a t o r , but r a t h e r , he i s upho ld ing the t r a d i t i o n a l concept tha t woman must be s u b s e r v i e n t to man. Man i n h i s t u r n must be s u b s e r v i e n t to law and order - - the very s t u f f on which s o c i e t y i s founded. The concept of s o c i e t y por t rayed i n the Cornedia i s e s s e n t i a l l y monarchic i n n a t u r e . A r n o l d G. Reichenberger de f ines the s o c i e t y of the Cornedia: From k i n g to peasant , each person e x i s t s p r i m a r i l y as a member of h i s community to whom are ass igned d e f i n i t e d u t i e s . A k i n g has to ac t as a k i n g - - to d ispense j u s t i c e ; the nobleman as a nobleman - - to be a f a i t h f u l v a s s a l , or a r e l i a b l e f r i e n d , or a p a s s i o n a t e l o v e r ; the peasant as a peasant - - to be proud, independent and at the same t ime l o y a l to the k i n g . 6 The Medieva l b e l i e f tha t s o c i e t y i s l i k e the human body i s s t i l l a l i v e i n the Golden Age t h e a t e r . The k i n g , l i k e the human head, i s what g i ves the great complex of s o c i e t y s t a b i l i t y and o rder . But on a persona l b a s i s , i n d a y - t o - d a y l i v i n g , the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t s i n s o c i e t y , and -*M. McKendr ick, Woman and S o c i e t y i n the Golden Age Spanish Drama, p. 173. ^Arnold G. Re ichenberger , "The Uniqueness of the Comedia ," H i s p a n i c  Review, 27 (1959), 305. 52 harmony i s mainta ined i n s o c i e t y by the man-made Code of Honour. Honour i s what keeps each i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s proper p l a c e : i n E l  t e jedor the s e r v a n t , Fernando, reprimands the Count fo r not behaving i n the f a s h i o n b e f i t t i n g h i s rank i n s o c i e t y . ^ In the Comedia, the n o b i l i t y o f t e n usurps i t s power and c la ims that the commoner has no g Honour, o n l y to f i n d tha t the commoner i s e q u a l l y p u n c t i l i o u s about i t . The Code of Honour i s not a w r i t t e n law. Most c h a r a c t e r s i n the Comedia, as w e l l as the audience , the g r a c i o s o be ing the e x c e p t i o n , are aware of i t s s t r i c t and c o m p e l l i n g d ic tum: l o s t Honour must be avenged. I r o n i c a l l y , those who would f o l l o w the Code of Honour may s u f f e r u n -p leasant consequences: a f a t h e r i s fo rced to k i l l a beloved son (Lope, E l c a s t i g o s i n . v e n g a n z a ) ; a husband h i s f a i t h f u l w i f e (Ca lderon , E l  medico de su honra ) . The s e c u l a r - b a n d i t p lays belong to the same group of p lays j u s t mentioned - - the dramas i n which the Code of Honour i s c r i t i c i z e d and i t s f a l l a c i e s exposed. In El_ c a s t i g o and E l meclico, ca tas t rophe i s brought about by Honour. So i t i s i n the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t p l a y s . The reason why the p r o t a g o n i s t turns to b a n d i t r y and the denoue-ment of the p lays support t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . I t must be remembered t h a t i n the corpus of the Comedia Honour i s equated w i t h l i f e : 'Gustavo C o r r e a , " E l doble aspecto de l a honra en e l t e a t r o d e l s i g l o X V I I , " H i s p a n i c Review, 27 (1958) , 9 9 - 1 0 7 ; " E l doble aspecto de l a honra en Per ibanez y_ e l Comendador de Ocana , " H i s p a n i c Review, 27 (1958), 188-99. 8 S e e Guevara, La ser rana de l a v e r a ; E l t e j e d o r de Segov ia , P a r t I I ; Lope de Vega, Nardo Anton io bandolero ; E l a l c a l d e de Zalamea; Ca lde ron , E l a l c a l d e de Zalamea; Rojas Z o r i l l a , De l rey_ aba jo , ninguno. 53 . . . que s i hoy me q u i t a l a honra l a v i d a podra manana9 La v i d a de vos espero de mi honra ; asi* l a euro con prevenc ion ...10 T i r a n o , aguarda, espera y pues muera mi honor mi v i d a muere acabe todo de una v e z . H A long w i t h l o s s of l i f e , l o s s of Honour i s equated a l s o w i t h a l o s s of i d e n t i t y : Simon ( E l vandolero S o l Posto) f e e l s so ashamed that he can operate on ly when the sun has s e t ; Fernando ( E l te jedor ) assumes a new i d e n t i t y . In C a l d e r o n ' s Las t r e s j u s t i c i a s , . Lope i m p l i e s tha t h i s m i s -fo r tunes stem from the f a c t that from b i r t h he was depr i ved of Honour. In the bando le ra , a l o s s of Honour causes such an imbalance i n her c h a r a c t e r that her dormant manl iness i s awakened. F i n d i n g themselves depr i ved of the very t h i n g of which l i f e i s made, the p r o t a g o n i s t s of the bandi t p lays have no other cho ice but to r e i n -s t a t e themselves i n the eyes of s o c i e t y . But once the " v e s s e l " of Honour i s broken i t cannot be r e p a i r e d . Los t Honour cannot be r e g a i n e d . As most of the p r o t a g o n i s t s meet w i t h death i t shows that t h e i r e f f o r t s to avenge themselves were f u t i l e . Th is i s because Honour i s a mode of i n t e r a c t i o n as i r r a t i o n a l as I t s c r e a t o r , man. In the Cornedia, Honour i s seen to be the s t a b i l i z i n g f o r c e of the ^Lope de Vega, El_ c a s t i g o s i n venganza, Act I I I , Scene x v i i i (ed. Sa inz de R o b l e s , Obras escog idas , I ) . l°Caldero / n, E l medico de su honra , Act I I , Scene i (ed. Valbuena B r i o n e s , i n Obras completas , I ) . ''"'''Cancer, Rosete , R o j a s , La gran corned i a d e l vandolero S o l P o s t o , p. 53. 54 community, a means of m a i n t a i n i n g order i n s o c i e t y . But Honour i s man-made and i t s s t ronges t l i n k can be only as weak as i t s c r e a t o r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , man i s not p e r f e c t - - h e f o l l o w s h i s pass ions r a t h e r than h i s reason , as i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f i g u r e of the b a n d i t . None o f them, once they have l o s t t h e i r Honour, attempt to reason concern ing a l t e r n a t i v e s by which they can r i g h t t h e i r wrong. In c o n c l u s i o n , the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t p lays o f f e r a c r i t i c i s m of the Code of Honour. In the cornedia de honor man i s shown as fo reve r s t r u g g l i n g to p r o t e c t h i s l i f e - g i v i n g Honour. He may r e t i r e to l i v e i n a sec luded a r t i f i c a l w o r l d (Lope's Peribjuiiez) , or he may i s o l a t e the metaphor i ca l " v e s s e l " or c o n t a i n e r of h i s Honour (Ca lde ron ' s E l medico de su honra ) , on ly to meet w i t h d e f e a t . In the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t cornedia, the p laywr igh t exposes the f a l l a c y of the Code of Honour. He shows man entrapped i n a v i c i o u s c i r c l e which depr ives man of h i s f a c u l t y to t h i n k c o r r e c t l y . The c h a r a c t e r so t rapped cannot he lp but r e a c t i n the f a s h i o n tha t he does. 55 CHAPTER I I I THE BANDIT OF THE RELIGIOUS COMEDIA INTRODUCTION Many of the band i ts of the r e l i g i o u s cornedias resemble, outward ly , those of the s e c u l a r p l a y s . That i s to say : i n a group of p l a y s , which I c a l l Minor R e l i g i o u s Bandi t p l a y s , the p r o t a g o n i s t becomes a band i t because of the c o n v e n t i o n a l a g r a v i o de honor. P l a y s which f o l l o w t h i s convent ion a r e : La dama d e l o l i v a r ; N i n f a condesa bando le ra ; E l Catalan  S e r r a l l o n g a ; Anton io Roca; and E_l p r o d i g i o de E t i o p i a . In o ther p lays the a g r a v i o takes-, on a new d imension , the p r o t a g o n i s t , u s u a l l y a h e r m i t , turns bandi t because he b e l i e v e s that God has abandoned h im. These p lays I c a l l the Major R e l i g i o u s Bandi t p l a y s . They a r e : E l esc lavo  d e l demonio; Caer para l e v a n t a r ; and E l condenado por desconf iado . I choose the term Minor because the p lays i n t h i s s e c t i o n resemble the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t p l a y s . The a g r a v i o p e r p e t r a t e d by a member of s o c i e t y fo rces the p r o t a g o n i s t to seek revenge by r e b e l l i n g (band i t r y ) a g a i n s t the whole of s o c i e t y . In the Major p l a y s , b a n d i t r y i s a form of r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t God. I t should be po in ted out that the Banez -Mo l ina cont roversy on the i s s u e of f r e e w i l l and p r e d e s t i n a t i o n i s very much i n the background of the r e l i g i o u s - b a n d i t p l a y s . In the p lays that f o l l o w , most w r i t e r s seem to uphold the p r i n c i p l e t h a t man i s e s s e n t i a l l y f r e e to choose s a l v a t i o n or damnation, as f o r example, i n E l esc lavo d e l demonio and Caer para l e v a n t a r . But f o r the 56 most p a r t , n e a r l y a l l p lays emphasize the i n f i n i t e mercy of God ( that i s , E l lego d e l carmen, and e s p e c i a l l y La devocion de l a c r u z ) . . The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p lays to be d i s c u s s e d and those examined i n the prev ious chapte r , i s tha t i n the l a t t e r o rder and harmony were e s t a b l i s h e d by a monarch or someone i n a h i g h p o s i t i o n , i n the former order i s e s t a b l i s h e d by an emissary of God: a monk or an a n g e l . The p lays to be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter a r e : M i r a de Amescua, El esc lavo d e l demonio. A g u s t i n Moreto y Cabafla, Caer para l e v a n t a r , and San Franco de Sena. Lope de Vega ( ? ) , E_l p r o d i g i o de E t i o p i a . Ca lderon de l a Barca , La devocion de l a c r u z . T i r s o de M o l i n a , La dama d e l o l i v a r , and La n i n f a d e l c i e l o , condesa bandolera y_ o b l i g a c i o n e s d e l honor. C o e l l o , Ro jas , Guevara, El_ Catalan S e r r a l l o n g a , y_ Bandos de B a r c e l o n a . Lope de Vega ( ? ) , Anton io Roca, £ l_a muerte mas v e n t u r o s a . T i r s o de M o l i n a , E_l condenado por d e s c o n f i a d o . 57 PART A. BANDOLEROS AND BANDOLERAS M i r a de Amescua, El_ esc lavo d e l demonio . 1 2 Considered to be M i r a ' s "best p l a y " , the main p l o t of E l esc lavo focuses on the s p i r i t u a l f a l l and redemption of Don G i l , a pious and v i r t u o u s man, and L i s a r d a , a d i s o b e d i e n t daughter . M i r a ' s p l a y i s an e x c e l l e n t example of the Major R e l i g i o u s band i t p l a y s . In i t , man's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God i s e x p l o r e d . G i l breaks away from God and becomes a c r i m i n a l because he b e l i e v e s God has abandoned him. B e l i e v i n g tha t he i s condemned to the f i r e and br imstone of H e l l he cont inues i n h i s ways. I t i s on ly a f t e r he has exper ienced the v i l e s t of s i n s and b a r g a i n i n g w i t h the D e v i l that he repents and asks God's f o r g i v e n e s s . The main p l o t of the p lay i s as f o l l o w s : Marce lo has made arrangements f o r h i s daughter Leonor to enter a convent and L i s a r d a to marry Don Sancho of P o r t u g a l . In the d i a l o g u e among the three c h a r a c t e r s M i r a s t a t e s the r e l i g i o u s t h e s i s to be developed i n the p l a y : en es ta v i d a en que _ estamos todos somos peregr inos d e l c i e l o , que aunque caminamos por d i f e r e n t e s caminos . . . (Marce lo , p. 80) Leonor accepts w i t h r e l u c t a n c e her f a t h e r ' s w i l l ( "Mi lengua perpetuamente / se a t r e v e a d e c i r de n o , " p. 81) but L i s a r d a r e a c t s e m p h a t i c a l l y : •*"Ed. Angel Valbuena P r a t , M i r a de Amescua, Teatro (Madr id : E d i c i o n e s de l a l e c t u r a , 1926). Edward M. W i l s o n and Duncan M o i r , A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of S pa in' . The  Golden Age Drama 1642-1700 (London: Ernest Benn, 1971) , p. 83. 58 R a b i o , amor*muero impaciente . La venganza y l a a f i c i o n e fe tos de animo son que sue len t o r c e r e l curso de l a costumbre, a l d i s c u r s o a l honor y l a razon . (pp. 81-82) Marce lo t r i e s to d issuade h i s daughter but she does not r e l e n t and the f i r s t scene c l o s e s w i t h Marce lo c u r s i n g h i s daughter : "que v i v a s 3 infamamente" (p. 84) . To escape a marr iage she does not want, L i s a r d a sends a l e t t e r to Diego, her l o v e r , i n s t r u c t i n g him to come at n i g h t and take her away. Whi le the elopement i s about to take p l a c e Don G i l , a h e r m i t , enters and i n a lengthy speech (pp. 97-101) succeeds i n a v e r t i n g the l o v e r s ' p l a n . Don G i l , now a lone on the s tage , sees the ladder at L i s a r d a ' s window and i s overcome by t e m p t a t i o n . In a monologue he t r i e s to f i g h t i t but he succumbs to h i s pass ions f o r L i s a r d a i s a d e s i r a b l e woman: Imaginac ion, de tente , porque es hermosa L i s a r d a . Loco pensamiento mfo, mirad que s o i s como r i o que a l o s p r i n c i o s es fuente que se pasa f a c i l m e n t e , y despue's s u f r e un a g r a v i o La c o n c i e n c i a es ta o p r i m i d a . La razon va de venc ida muera, muera e l pensamiento. (pp. 102-103) Then he reasons : feMas, para que s i yo tengo en mis manos mi a l b e d r f o ? (p . 103) ' * The f a t h e r ' s curse i n the Comedia i s a u s e f u l t h e a t r i c a l convent ion . I t serves as a foreshadowing of what i s to happen. 59 G i l i s f u l l y aware of what he i s d o i n g . There i s no element of P r e d e s -t i n a t i o n i n h i s a c t i o n s . Two cho ices are o f f e r e d : he can walk away from temptat ion or he can g i ve i n t o i t : Nada se podra i g u a l a r , que es l a ocas ion s i n g u l a r y , s i d e l l a me aprovecho, gozar4 Don Diego, e l lecho que t i l q u i s i s t e gozar . (p. 103) Then he adds (and we may note h i s c o l d and premedi tated r e a s o n i n g ) : La e jecutada maldad t r e s par tes ha de tener : pensar , c o n s e n t i r , y obrar y s iendo aquesto a n s f hecho tengo l a m i t a d : que es pensamiento l i v i a n o no r e s i s t i r l e temprano dude* y c a s i es consent ido . (pp. 104-105) G i l enters L i s a r d a ' s room and as he i s about to rape her h i s common decency, or f e a r of censure , holds him back ("Con e l mundo pretendo / y conservar mi opinion" 11. 5 4 3 - 5 4 4 ) . He goes to leave but the ladder has been removed. In the l i g h t o f what i s to happen, t h i s appears to be the hand of Prov idence a t work. I t i s as i f G i l must f a l l now i n t o s i n so tha t through e x p e r i e n c i n g s i n he may d i s c o v e r God a g a i n . In the f o l l o w i n g scene (11 . 547-575) G i l hears a v o i c e which he mistakes f o r that of the D e v i l . In r e a l i t y , i t i s Domingo, D i e g o ' s l a c k e y , who has f a l l e n a s l e e p . The v o i c e i n the n igh t urges G i l : "no bajes s i n que l a g o c e s , " ( 1 . 547) . V o i c i n g the c e n t r a l theme of the p l a y , G i l a s k s : £.Si estoy condenado? Domingo: S l . G i l : Luego s i estoy condenado yana fue mi p e n i t e n c i a i y ha venido l a sentenc ia? Domingo: V i n o , v i n o G i l : ^ y ya ha l l egado? 60 Domingo: Bebe y come. G i l : S i he ayunado en balde ya comere. (p. 107) Convinced that the l i f e o f d e p r i v a t i o n he has l e d has been i n v a i n , G i l c a r r i e s out h i s p l a n , then he and L i s a r d a escape. D i s c o v e r i n g tha t the man she has escaped w i t h i s G i l , L i s a r d a wants to l e a v e . But G i l argues w i t h he r : Eso no, ade lante pasa ; que era e l alma n ieve f r i a y es un i n f i e r n o y se a b r a s a . La v i d a de aqueste pecho hoy comera mis a p r i e s a por e l gusto y e l provecho, que se ha s a l t a d o l a presa que l a s v i r t u d e s han hecho. Por t i p e r d i l a prudenc ia por e l i n f i e r n o profundo, con l a c a m e l a a b s t i n e n c i a , e l c red i t o con e l mundo y con Dios l a p e n i t e n c i a . Por t i he perd ido e l j o r n a l que pensaba r e c i b i r d e l Senor u n i v e r s a l , y entro de nuevo a s e r v i r a un amo que paga mal . Ya seran mis e j e r c i c i o s pecados f a c i n e r o s o s , que asx s a l e n de sus q u i c i o s l o s que fueron v i r t u o s o s y s iguen t r a s de l o s v i c i o s . Conmigo, L i s a r d a hermosa, has de i r , que para l o s dos no negara* e l mundo c o s a , pues nos ha. s o l t a d o Dios de su mano poderosa. (pp. 110-111) U l t i m a t e l y L i s a r d a agrees , and the two, b e l i e v i n g that God has abandoned them, s i n k lower and lower i n t o a l i f e of c r i m e . Act I I sees G i l and L i s a r d a as b a n d i t s . In an impassioned speech they make a pledge to commit the most heinous c r i m e s : L i s a r d a : . . . e l mundo me ha de l l a m a r Semiramis l a c r u e l , y en cuantos pasen por e l 61 qu iero ensenarme a matar. G i l : Yo s e g u i r e tus cu idados , pues soy, c iego con mi e r r o r , h idrd 'p ico pecador y tengo sed de pecados. Manda que emprenda a d u l t e r i o s , que l a t r o c i n i o s , i n t e n t e , que j u r e , mate y a f r e n t e , que e s c a l e l o s monaste r ies , (p. 133) The above i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of most b a n d i t s found i n the r e l i g i o u s p l a y s . The s e c u l a r bandi t k i l l s , but the bandi t of the r e l i g i o u s p l a y s takes a g r e a t , almost perverse d e l i g h t i n s p i l l i n g o t h e r s ' b l o o d . Probab ly the p laywr igh t r e s o r t s to t h i s dev i ce to make the c r i m i n a l ' s fo rg i veness a t the end of the p l a y t h a t much more f o r c e f u l f o r h i s aud ience . As the a c t i o n p rog resses , G i l f a l l s i n love w i t h Leonor . In order to possess her he makes a pact w i t h the D e v i l . G i l reasons tha t s i n c e he has almost l o s t S a l v a t i o n , g i v i n g h i s s o u l to the D e v i l w i l l be of no consequence. C l e a r l y G i l has become a symbol which M i r a uses to s h a t t e r the ph i losophy of P r e d e s t i n a t i o n . Throughout the p lay G i l i s seen to f a l l g r a d u a l l y from a s t a t e of Grace to that of a depraved i n d i v i d u a l . Now he has committed the worst p o s s i b l e s i n - - he has s o l d h i s s o u l to the D e v i l , but , i r o n i c a l l y the pact w i t h the D e v i l se ts G i l on the way to S a l v a t i o n . When the D e v i l b r i n g s Leonor , G i l , to h i s c h a g r i n , r e a l i z e s t h a t he has been t r i c k e d : Leonor i s a s k e l e t o n . A v o i c e from heaven urges G i l to mend h i s ways. The D e v i l i s removed by a m i r a c l e and G i l , i n the l i g h t of these portentous s igns from heaven appeals to h i s guard ian a n g e l . The ange l hands G i l the c o n t r a c t he had s igned w i t h the D e v i l . I n t e r p r e t a t i n g t h i s to be a s i g n of God's f o r g i v e n e s s , G i l repents and d e c l a r e s : " E s c l a v o f u i d e l d i a b l o / pero ya soy de D i o s " (11 . 2858-2859) . 62 L i s a r d a ' s convers ion takes p l a c e suddenly and u n c o n v i n c i n g l y . When she i s faced w i t h Diego she f i n d s i t i m p o s s i b l e to k i l l h im. B e l i e v i n g t h i s to be the work ing of God she decides to l ead a l i f e of repentance : she w i l l become her f a t h e r ' s s l a v e . A t the end, L i s a r d a d ies and by the stage d i r e c t i o n s : Descubrese L i s a r d a con musica , muerta, de r o d i l l a s , con un C r i s t o y una cabeza en e l j a r d f n . (p. 235) One presumes that she w i l l ascend i n t o heaven. The " p i l g r i m a g e " of the i n d i v i d u a l to which Marce lo had a l l u d e d (11. 48-50) comes to an end f o r G i l and L i s a r d a showing tha t no matter how bad a s i n n e r one i s , he can always depend on God's i n f i n i t e mercy. A g u s t i n Moreto y Cabana, Caer para l e v a n t a r . Caer para l e v a n t a r i s a re fund ic io 'n of E l e s c l a v o . L i k e the p r o -t a g o n i s t s of t h i s l a s t p l a y , G i l and V i o l a n t e become outlaws because V i o l a n t e , fo rced to marry a man she does not l o v e , attempts to e l o p e . G i l , aga in a pious man, spurred by V i o l a n t e ' s beauty f a l l s v i c t i m to temptat ion a f t e r a v e r t i n g the elopement. Each b e l i e v i n g that God has abandoned them, G i l and V i o l a n t e f l e e to the mountains and become b a n d i t s . In t h i s p l a y , more so than i n the prev ious one, the p laywr igh t probes the q u e s t i o n of P r e d e s t i n a t i o n : i s the i n d i v i d u a l who has f a l l e n L u i s Fernandez -Guerra y Orbe, e d . , B . A . E . , V. 39, pp. 583-600. The p l a y was w r i t t e n i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h de Matos and Cancer. 63 i n t o a d i s s o l u t e l i f e condemned to cont inue i n s i n w i thout hav ing the moral f o r t i t u d e to change? A g a i n , the p l a y shows tha t God's mercy i s i n f i n i t e , by u s i n g V i o l a n t e as the exponent of t h i s d o c t r i n e . In the second a c t , t i r e d o f her way of l i f e , V i o l a n t e bemoans her sad s t a t e . She and G i l have l e d a l i f e of cr ime fo r s i x y e a r s ; suddenly she expresses a d e s i r e to change: Mal h a l l a d a en tan inmensas Cu lpas , me cansa e s t a v i d a , s i n que a c i e r t e a s a l i r d e l l a ; Mas templada mi m a l i c i a En una i n t e r i o r pe lea S i yo me ayudara mas Sospecho que l a v e n c i e r a . (p. 593a) W e l l aware that she i s of a weak nature she asks God to come to her a i d : ^Ah, s i l a p iedad de Dios A p l i c a r a en mi su fuerza Tanto, que e l s o l o s i n m i , Pues conoce mi f laqueza Me sacara de es te estado.' (p. 593a) She goes on to s t a t e the t h e s i s of the p lay - - God's mercy i s i n f i n i t e : Mas V oh d i v i n a clemencia. ' \Que l e de i s a l pecador Con v u e s t r a piedad inmensa Ocasion de que esto os p i d a . (p. 593a) C l e a r l y the p lay opposes the d o c t r i n e o f P r e d e s t i n a t i o n . The b a s i c p r i n -c i p l e of that d o c t r i n e teaches tha t God g ives on ly to some chosen i n d i -v i d u a l s s u f f i c i e n t Grace f o r S a l v a t i o n . " ' In t h i s case , the oppos i te i s On the t o p i c of Free W i l l versus P r e d e s t i n a t i o n see : John F a r r e l l y , P r e d e s t i n a t i o n , Grace, and Free W i l l (New York : M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y of S t . P a u l ' s , 1964) ; Ge ra ld Smi th , e d . , J e s u i t Th inkers of the  Renaissance (Wiscons in : Marquette U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939). See a l s o "Banez and B a n e z i a n i s m , " The New C a t h o l i c Encyc loped ia (1967) , I I , 4 8 - 5 0 ; " C o n t r o v e r s i e s on G r a c e , " V I , 675-67 8; " G r a c e , " V I , 6 5 8 - 7 2 ; "Grace i n the B i b l e , " V I , 672-674. 64 stated; God's mercy is immense -- anyone, even a criminal may petition for i t . The heroine travels to a nearby cave (II. x i i i ) to seek forgiveness from a hermit. Here she repents and can now serve as an example for Gil to follow. Like the protagonist of El_ esclavo, G i l , in Caer, sells his soul to the Devil for the pleasures of Leonor, Violante's sister. Again, the protagonist is made to sink lower and lower into sin. G i l , well aware of what he has done, muses with a f a t a l i s t i c attitude over his actions. In essence, he sees himself as a sinner who has lost a l l in the sight of God, and like the social bandit, who has lost his Honour in the face of society and rebels against i t , G i l rebels against God; '^ Que* me importa que sea gran pecado Si ya estoy condenado? Ya yo desespere'; sentencia hay dada. Pues s i ya estcl mi alma condenada, £Quien podra revocarme mi sentencia del cielo? Violante, who has become God's spokeswoman, answers: Penitencia, penitencia Penitencia, pecador, Que a Dios tienes ofendido. Si en la culpa estas dormido, Este es tu despertador. (p. 594c) But G i l cannot repent; he firmly believes that there is no hope for him. Violante t e l l s him that God never turns from a contrite heart: Nunca puede llegar tarde El que llega con dolor.(p. 595a) Furthermore, i t is in his power to reject e v i l , for G i l is endowed with Free Will; 65 E l demonio te ha enganado, Porque siempre e l hombre es dueno De l i b r a r s e d e l despeno. (p. 595a) S t i l l not conv inced , G i l engages V i o l a n t e i n a long debate on Grace and the mer i t s of s e c u r i n g S a l v a t i o n by means of l e a d i n g a s i n l e s s l i f e . In the debate, G i l becomes the spokesman fo r P r e d e s t i n a t i o n , and V i o l a n t e f o r Free W i l l . Each expounds and defends h i s views f o r the b e n e f i t of the aud ience : E l que ant ic ipadamente Se prev iene a b ien y i v i r , Y v i v e para m o r i r , Ese va a Dios justamente ; Mas aquel que n e g l i g e n t e Dejo a D i o s , y c iego esta En sus v i c i o s , 4Que* h a l l a r a ^ Yendo a Dios con tanto e r r o r ? V i o l a n t e answers w i t h a p a r a b l e that needs no e x p l a n a t i o n : E l pr imero va mejor , Pero e l segundo b i e n v a . D i g a l o un ejemplo f i e l : Caminan dos, uno acaso Sabe e l camino un mal paso, Y prevenido huyo d e l ; E l o t r o fue a dar en e l y V i d l e , a l camino v o l v i o ' . Mas t r a b a j o l e costo' Que e l o t r o h u i r d e l v a i v e n : No se l i b r o es te tan b i e n , Pero tambien se l i b r o . En l a senda de l a muerte, De l i n f i e r n o esta' e l ocaso; Huye e l r i e s g o de es te paso Quien prevenido l e a d v i e r t e En e l , va a p r e c i p i t a r s e ; Pero antes de despenarse Puede v o l v e r y escapar . Trabajo l e ha de c o s t a r , Mas no de ja de l i b r a r s e . E l p e l i g r o mas extrano 6 l n essence, the argument on which T i r s o bases E l condenado por d e s c o n f i a d o . 66= Que e l hombre puede t e n e r , Es r i e s g o h a s t a suceder ; Pero en sucediendo es dano A l r i e s g o se va tu engano Mas has ta e l mismo m o r i r . A ^my i t a l i c s Q _tu lado s iempre ha de i r De Dios justo _y_ p rov idente  Aquel brazo s u f i c i e n t e  De que te puedes as i r . Coger le aqudT no es dudoso, Y a l l l * s i , porque e s t a escuro ^ u e s s i pode'is i r seguro, £Para que" has de i r p e l i g r o s o ? (p . 595a and b) V i o l a n t e leaves G i l s p i r i t u a l l y p e r t u r b e d . In a monologue he asks h i m s e l f : £.Como c i e l o s v i v o yo "Olvidado de l a muerte? Para e l a r r e p e n t i m i e n t o No puede f a l t a r perdon; A r repent i rme [my i t a l i c s j es_ a c c i o n mia  L i b r e de mi entend imiento . S i l a vo luntad es mia ^ Q u i e n me es torba este camino? (p. 595b) G i l i s g r a d u a l l y l o s i n g h i s f a t a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e . Where before he was complete ly convinced that h i s s o u l was i r r e t r i e v a b l y l o s t he now begins to wonder. Unknown to G i l , i t i s h i s own s e l f that impedes h i s repentance; h i s "hear t has hardened . " U n l i k e V i o l a n t e , he l a c k s the c a p a c i t y f o r i n t r o s p e c t i o n . G i l i s aware that man i s e s s e n t i a l l y a weak c r e a t u r e who e a s i l y g ives i n to temptat ion : i n Act I he f a l l s v i c t i m to V i o l a n t e ' s beauty ; i n Ac t I I to L e o n o r ' s . But man's innate weakness, h i s P a s s i o n s , can be overcome i f he leans on "God's a r m , " a d o c t r i n e to be repeated i n Lope 's (?) El_ p r o d i g i o de E t i o p i a . G i l cannot repent u n t i l such t ime as he understands t h i s tenet of C h r i s t i a n i t y . A g a i n , V i o l a n t e w i l l teach i t to him by example. In the monologue "£Como c i e l o s v i v o yo?" quoted above, G i l takes 67 the i n i t i a l s tep towards repentance. P r e v i o u s l y , V i o l a n t e t o l d h im that God never turns away from a c o n t r i t e h e a r t . When G i l i s aware tha t V i o l a n t e has repented , he begins to wonder whether he may f i n d f o r g i v e -ness : Pues s i e l l a perddn h a l l o Tambien yo h a l l a r l e p u d i e r a . ( p . 596a) However, h i s moment of r e c o g n i t i o n does not happen u n t i l he i s shown unmistakeably tha t w o r l d l y p leasures lead to s p i r i t u a l decay. When G i l f i n a l l y has Leonor i n h i s c l u t c h e s , the woman fo r whom he s o l d h i s s o u l , he r e a l i z e s t h a t the D e v i l has t r i c k e d him - - Leonor i s a s k e l e t o n (a s i t u a t i o n a l r e a d y seen i n El_ esc lavo) . As the macabre f i g u r e s i n k s i n t o H e l l amidst flames a hermit warns G i l : Los p lace r es temporales Paran en esto que m i r a s . (p. 597a) R e a l i z i n g the f o l l y of h i s pass ions G i l r e p e n t s , and through the i n t e r -c e s s i o n of h i s guard ian angel he i s f reed from the D e v i l ' s c o n t r a c t . The p lay c l o s e s w i t h V i o l a n t e dy ing on the c ross and G i l t e l l i n g a l l : Y yo de acabar mi v i d a En l a r e l i g i o n sagrada. In both Caer and E_l esc lavo the male p r o t a g o n i s t i s seen to f a l l from a s t a t e of Grace i n t o moral p e r d i t i o n , to r i s e aga in to a s t a t e of Grace. Caer i s , t h e o l o g i c a l l y , a more i n t e r e s t i n g p lay because i n i t the theory of P r e d e s t i n a t i o n i s f u l l y expounded, d i s c u s s e d and r e f u t e d . 68 * 1 A g u s t i n Moreto y Cabana, San Franco de Sena. San Franco i s i n n o v a t i v e i n that the male p r o t a g o n i s t i s a t the beg inn ing of the p lay an u n r u l y c h a r a c t e r . Franco, i n f a c t , ( l i k e Guevara's Serrana) i s the c h i l d that grew up w i thout proper p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y . B r i e f l y the p l o t i s as f o l l o w s : To a v o i d marry ing a man she does not l o v e , L u c r e c i a p l o t s to escape w i t h A u r e l i o , her l o v e r . The n igh t o f the elopement, an enamoured Franco comes to L u c r e c i a ' s house hoping to c a t c h a g l impse of he r . Franco and A u r e l i o exchange i n s u l t s , a f i g h t breaks out between the two which r e s u l t s i n the death of A u r e l i o . L u c r e c i a , b e l i e v i n g tha t A u r e l i o has a r r i v e d to take her away, leaves her house and i n the c o n f u s i o n of the n igh t she and her maid escape w i t h Franco. Pursued by the law on the o u t s k i r t s of S iena the two p r o t a g o n i s t s l e a d the l i f e o f b a n d i t s . F ranco 's c r i m i n a l ca reer comes to a sudden end when very unexpected ly he repents ( I I . v ) , but L u c r e c i a , want ing to avenge h e r s e l f , becomes g more b l o o d t h i r s t y as the p lay p rog resses ; i n Act I I I she becomes leader of the bandoleros . The p l a y c l o s e s w i t h Franco becoming a monk and L u c r e c i a , f o l l o w i n g F ranco ' s example, a nun. The fundamental idea expounded l a t e i n the p l a y i s , a g a i n , the q u e s t i o n of P r e d e s t i n a t i o n and Grace. L u c r e c i a , and to a l e s s e r extent Franco, i s seen to s i n k p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n t o a l i f e of cr ime and i t would appear that f o r the two c h a r a c t e r s there i s no way out . The p laywr igh t 7 L u i s Fernandez-Guerra y Orbe, e d . , B . A . E . , V. 39, pp. 121 -42 . The p lay i s a l s o known as E l lego d e l Carmen, San Franco de Sena; and San  Franco de Sena, e l lego d e l Carmen. g See her l ong speech beg inn ing on p. 1311. 69 shows that on the c o n t r a r y : Cor c o n t r i t u m et humi l ia tum Deus non d e s p i c i e s . (p. 140c) S inners who seek fo rg i veness f i n d i t because God and man are bound by a new Covenant: Ea p a s t o r , ea Padre ; Que d e l l a tu mismo has d icho Que mas gozo a l pas to r t r a e E s t a s o l a que l a s o t r a s Noventa y nueve. r e s t a n t e s Con t u p a l a b r a te o b l i g o Senor no puedes f a l t a r m e . (p. 140c) * 9 Lope de Vega ( ? ) , E l p r o d i g i o de E t i o p i a . E l p r o d i g i o i s a p l a y which exce ls i n dramat ic a c t i o n and e x q u i s i t e l y r i c a l passages. A l though the p r o t a g o n i s t i s F i l i p o , a C h r i s t i a n negro, h i s par t i s overshadowed by the Egypt ian Teodora who, a long w i t h Guevara's Ser rana , i n my e s t i m a t i o n , i s one of the most a p p e a l i n g and i n t e r e s t i n g of the mujeres v a r o n i l e s encountered i n any of the band i t p l a y s . Teodora i s w e l l - d e l i n e a t e d and a f f o r d s the reader m a t e r i a l f o r an e x c e l -l e n t study of the mu j er v a r o n i l . The p l a y i s not centered on the q u e s t i o n of P r e d e s t i n a t i o n ; r a t h e r , i t i s the Pass ions tha t come under s c r u t i n y . The Pass ions a re seen to b r i n g man's d o w n f a l l , but the p l a y -9 E d . M a r c e l i n o Menendez y P e l a y o , i n Cornedias de v i d a s de s a n t o s , V o l . IV of Obras de Lope de Vega (Madr id : Rea l Academia Espano la , 1894). The e d i t o r does not q u e s t i o n the a u t h o r s h i p of the p l a y ; M.B. say i t i s not L o p e ' s . The date of compos i t ion i s not known; the p l a y was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n Zaragoza i n 1645. El_ p r o d i g i o i s based on the l i f e of San Moysen found i n the F los Sanctorum; the s t o r y i s reproduced on pp. l x i i i - l x v i of the i n t r o d u c t i o n . w r i g h t shows how they may be c o n t r o l l e d . The a c t i o n o f the p l a y i s set i n Egypt d u r i n g the e a r l y years of the C h r i s t i a n e r a . The Egypt ian army, l e d by A l e j a n d r o , has defeated the E t h i o p i a n s . Among the vanquished i s F i l i p o who, once he looks upon " a l s o l d i v i n o de Teodora , " (p. 123a) f a l l s d e s p e r a t e l y i n love w i t h h e r . Teodora, however, loves A l e j a n d r o and hopes to marry him. Her p lans a r e ' t h w a r t e d when her f a t h e r , Leopoldo, informs her tha t he has marr ied her by proxy to a nobleman i n Memphis. Teodora r e f u s e s , Leopoldo sco lds and attempts to reason w i t h h e r . The marr iage i s to her advantage and she should f o l l o w her s i s t e r ' s example: A mi gusto es ta obediente Y se ha de casar manana. (p. 126b) Teodora asks Leopoldo whom her s i s t e r i s to marry; " A l e j a n d r o , " r e p l i e s the f a t h e r . Unable to bear the news Teodora breaks i n t o a rage : ^\Ay de mi ! VCie los , que e l alma perd i . ' V C i e l o s , que perdf mi bien. ' ' M o r i r qu iero , no casarme; No me nombres casamiento, Que de c o l e r a r e v i e n t o . (p. 126b) Leopoldo w i l l not have h i s a u t h o r i t y c h a l l e n g e d ; he o f f e r s h i s daughter an u l t imatum - - marr iage or death . To a v o i d a marr iage which n e i t h e r Teodora nor A l e j a n d r o d e s i r e the two p l a n to escape, but the l o v e r s ' p l a n does not succeed a s , by m i s t a k e , Teodora escapes to the mountains w i t h F i l i p o . In the mountains, Teodora lea rns the t rue i d e n t i t y of the man w i t h whom she has f l e d . L y i n g , F i l i p o t e l l s her that he and A l e j a n d r o had schemed that she should e lope w i t h F i l i p o . Th is cuts the hero ine to the qu ick - - she swears revenge: ^ .Ale jandro t a l t r a i c i o n ? ^ .Ale jandro t a l mudanza? \ Venganza, c i e l o s , venganza.' (p. 133a) 71 As can be seen, E l p r o d i g i o has a l l the elements of the s e c u l a r -band i t p l a y . The ag rav io a g a i n s t T e o d o r a 1 0 i s perpetuated by F i l i p o . Teodora does not become a band i t fo r the same reason tha t G i l ( E l  e s c l a v o , Caer) does. The r e s t of the p l a y a l s o f o l l o w s c l o s e l y the p l o t o f the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t p l a y : the two c h a r a c t e r s j o i n a band of outlaws and i n the end both Teodora and F i l i p o d i e . The r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g , as i n a l l minor r e l i g i o u s - b a n d i t p l a y s , i s not expounded u n t i l the l a t t e r h a l f of the p l a y . As s t a t e d above, what comes under c r i t i c i s m i n t h i s p lay are the P a s s i o n s . Love causes Teodora to d isobey her f a t h e r , d i sobed ience l e d her to her u l t i m a t e death . We have a l r e a d y noted the embi t te red d i a -logue she d e l i v e r s to her f a t h e r when she i s t o l d A l e j a n d r o i s to marry her s i s t e r (p. 126b): l a t e r , and more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , she t e l l s F i l i p o : M i amor es ya una pas i o n Y abor rec imiento v i v o ; Rabia y c o l e r a concibo De mi mismo pensamiento; Soy mujer s i n escarmiento, Soy an imal v e n g a t i v o . (p. 133b) E q u a l l y , F i l i p o ' s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h Teodora brought h i s own nemesis . He muses over h i s a c t i o n s and r e f l e c t s : •c.Es p o s i b l e que yo f u i Causa de tanto r i g o r ? La to rpeza de mi amoy i*Puso a una mujer a s i ? (p. 147a) I t was s t a t e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n s to Chapter I I that i n the s e c u l a r Cornedia the p laywr igh t exposes the problems which beset man. In the By the t i t l e of the p lay one i s l e d to b e l i e v e that F i l i p o i s the lead c h a r a c t e r of the p l a y , but Teodora w i t h her f i e r y speeches and manly demeanor complete ly upstages F i l i p o . 72 r e l i g i o u s Cornedia, he t r i e s to show h i s audience how man's problems can be overcome; i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case i t i s the Pass ions - - the root of a l l e v i l . In Act I I I , Scene v i i , F i l i p o , s o r r y fo r what he has done, decides to l i v e the r e s t of h i s l i f e i n repentance. F i l i p o sets out on the road to a cave where the hermit I s i d o r o l i v e s . The b r i e f exchange between the two c a r r i e s the moral o f the p l a y : I s i d o r o : c-Seras f i rme? F i l i p o : S i s e r e , I s i d o r o : ^Hasta cuando? F i l i p o : Hasta l a muerte I s i d o r o : i,Te venceras? F i l i p o : Sere f u e r t e I s i d o r o : tjQuien te da v a l o r ? F i l i p o : La fede (p. 147b) I s i d o r o : E n t r a , porque en Dios espero Ver te un santo p r o d i g i o s o . F i l i p o . ; C i r c u l o majestuoso, Engano e l mas l i s o n j . e r o , . Huyendo de vos ; De s o b e r b i a s o i s abismo Y Rey sere de mi mismo Siendo un esc lavo de Dios (p. 148a) F i l i p o t e l l s , f o r the b e n e f i t of the aud ience , that becoming a " s l a v e of God , " or hav ing f a i t h i n God, man can overcome h i m s e l f . 73 Calderon de l a Barca , La devoc i o n de_ l a c r u z . La devoc ion i s a p lay that shows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g to both Major and Minor R e l i g i o u s Bandi t p l a y s . I t i s r e a l l y a h y b r i d p l a y because Eusebio resembles the p r o t a g o n i s t of the Minor p l a y s : he becomes a band i t because he has i n a d v e r t e n t l y k i l l e d h i s h a l f - b r o t h e r . J u l i a i s a c h a r a c t e r who belongs w i t h the p r o t a g o n i s t s of the Major p l a y s . She, l i k e G i l , b e l i e v e s that God has abandoned her . The in te rweav ing of the two p l o t s makes La devoc ion a r t i s t i c a l l y a very i n t e r e s t i n g p l a y . Here, more than i n other r e l i g i o u s p l a y s , i s found the f i n a l statement on God's i n f i n i t e mercy. The p r o t a g o n i s t , Euseb io , i s a c r i m i n a l who d i s p l a y s a tenac ious and s u p e r s t i t i o u s attachment to the c r o s s . He d i e s , but i s m i r a c u l o u s l y r e v i v e d so that he may repent . The symbol of the c ross has caused a great dea l of d i s c u s s i o n among 12 c r i t i c s . Some see the p l a y as an i r r e v e r e n t mockery of C h r i s t i a n i t y . W i l l i a m E n t w i s t l e ("Gailderonis La devoc i o n de l a cruz"') i n t e r p r e t s the c ross as a symbol of God's Grace wh ich , should anyone w i s h to accept i t , w i l l save him from e t e r n a l damnation r e g a r d l e s s of ta rdy repentance. P r o f e s s o r A . A . Parker has t h i s to say : ^Ed. Angel Valbuena B r i o n e s , i n Ca lderon de l a B a r c a , Cornedias  r e l i g i o s a s , I (Madr id : E s p a s a - C a l p e , 1963) . C a l d e r o n ' s p l a y i s one of the few bandi t p lays that has been s t u d i e d ; see W. J . E n t w i s t l e , " C a l d e r d n ' s La devocion de l a c r u z , " B u l l e t i n H ispan ique , 50 (1948) , 478-82; E. Honig , " C a l d e r o n ' s Strange Mercy P l a y , " M a s s a c h u s s e t t ' s Review, 3 (1961) , 8 0 - 1 0 7 ; A. A. P a r k e r , The Approach to the Spanish Drama of the  Golden Age (London: The H i s p a n i c and L u s o - B r a z i l i a n C o u n c i l s , 1957); "Santos y bandoleros en e l t e a t r o e s p a n o l , " A r b o r , 13 (1949), 395 -416. •^see Gera ld Brenan, The L i t e r a t u r e of the Spanish People From  Roman Times to the Present Day (Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953) , pp. 287 -88 . 74-Se s a l v a Eusebio por no haber conservado una devoci6n s u p e r s t i c i o s a a l a f i g u r a de l a c r u z , s i n o porque es ta devoc ion era l a s e n a l externa de una d i s p o s i c i o n d e l a lma. ("Santos y b a n d o l e r o s , " p. 404) In my e s t i m a t i o n , the p l a y echoes one of the b a s i c tenets of C h r i s -t i a n i t y as set f o r t h i n John 3 : 1 6 : God so loved the wor ld he gave H is on ly Son, that whoever b e l i e v e s i n him should not p e r i s h but have e t e r n a l l i f e .13 As the p l a y opens a due l i s i n p r o g r e s s , Eusebio i s f i g h t i n g L i s a r d o . Unknown to both they are h a l f - b r o t h e r s . The men duel because Euseb io , a commoner, i s s u i t o r to L i s a r d o ' s s i s t e r , J u l i a , a woman of nob le b i r t h . 1 4 F a t a l l y wounded, L i s a r d o asks Eusebio tha t he be confessed . Eusebio sees to i t that h i s opponent does not d i e w i thout the l a s t r i t e s . L i s a r d o promises Eusebio that he w i l l repay h i s gesture by a s s u r i n g him t h a t , i n death , he w i l l watch over Eusebio and not l e t him d i e w i thout c o n f e s s i o n . Pursued by the law, i n the second a c t , Eusebio turns b a n d i t : Y pues mis hados f i e r o s me t r a e n a c a p i t a n de bando le ros , l l e g a r a n mis d e l i t o s a s e r , como mis penas, i n f i n i t o s . (11. 953-956) E u s e b i o ' s r e f e r e n c e to the Fates cannot be over looked - - i t i s a metaphor fo r P r e d e s t i n a t i o n . He r e f e r s to the Fates on v a r i o u s 13xhe Holy B i b l e , Rev ised Standard V e r s i o n , C a t h o l i c E d i t i o n (London: Thomas Nelson & Sons L t d . , 1966) . ^Unknown to a l l , Eusebio i s J u l i a ' s b r o t h e r . 75 o c c a s i o n s . \ M a l haya amen l a r i g u r o s a e s t r e l l a que me o b l i g o a q u e r e l l a . (11. 1055-6) VQue' r i g u r o s a es mi e s t r e l l a . 1 (1 . 1566) But unknown to h im i s the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f a s t r o l o g y : a s t r a i n c l i n a n t , non n e c e s s i t a n t . In o ther words, Eusebio has a f a t a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e about h i m s e l f : he i s a c r i m i n a l and, l i k e the r e s t of the r e l i g i o u s b a n d i t s , cannot see a way out of h i s predicament . Meanwhi le, C u r c i o , J u l i a ' s and E u s e b i o ' s f a t h e r , to put an end to h i s daughte r ' s a f f a i r , has put her i n a convent a g a i n s t her w i l l . Eusebio l e a r n s of the whereabouts of J u l i a and one n i g h t s t e a l s i n t o the convent to rape h e r . H is p l a n comes to a sudden end when he n o t i c e s a b i r thmark i n the shape of a » c r o s s on J u l i a ' s b r e a s t : tantos temores me causa l a Cruz que he v i s t o en tu pecho. Senal b r o d i g i p s a ha si-do, ) y no me permitan l o s c i e l o s que, aunque tanto l o s ofenda, p i e r d a a l a Cruz e l r e s p e t o . (11 . 1611-1616) See a l s o a speech from La c ruz en s e p u l t u r a , Ca lderon s o r i g i n a l p l a y , which i s omi t ted i n La devocx6n. Th is i s quoted i n Valbuena B r i o n e s ' e d i t i o n , p. 85, note to 1. 1882. In t h i s scene, E u s e b i o ' s men have caught an a s t r o l o g e r . The a s t r o -l o g e r , e x p e c t i n g to be k i l l e d by the band i ts t e l l s Euseb io : Yan he-" vis>toyHen ref e c t o s l - l lanos - -que he de mor i r a tus manos. Eusebio r e p l i e s : Vete l i b r e , porque a s i conozcas de tu i g n o r a n c i a e l e r r o r ; que desde e l sue lo no se ha medio e l c i e l o , que es i n f i n i t a d i s t a n c i a . As can be seen i n the o r i g i n a l p l a y , Eusebio i s f u l l y aware that the s t a r s do not compel man, but i n La devocio'n he ignores t h i s f a c t . P robab ly , Ca lderon cut t h i s scene i n the f i n a l e d i t i o n because had Eusebio known t h a t the s t a r s do not compel there would have been no argument to the p l a y . 76 B i d d i n g a l a s t f a r e w e l l , Eusebio escapes. Enraged by h i s behaviour , . J u l i a leaves the convent to set a f t e r Euseb io . She escapes her c e l l by way o f the ladder Eusebio had used to g a i n ent rance . Once o u t s i d e the convent she has a change of hear t and wants to r e t u r n . A f i n e example of the f i c k l e nature t y p i c a l of some c h a r a c t e r s (Franco and L u c r e c i a of San Franco, L u c r e c i a i n T i r s o ' s La dama d e l O l i v a r ) , they change t h e i r minds and repent suddenly f o r no 16 l o g i c a l reason . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the l a d d e r has been removed and i n -vok ing a b i t t e r apostrophe to God she heads fo r the mountains to f i n d Euseb io : Pues s i ya me habeis negado v u e s t r a c lemenc ia , mis hechos de mujer desesperada dara*n asombros a l r . e i e l o , daran espantos a l mundo, admi rac ion a j los i t j iempos h o r r o r a l mismo pecado, y t e r r o r a l mismo i n f i e r n o . ( 1 1 . 1769-1775) L i k e G i l ( E l esc lavo and C a e r ) , J u l i a f e e l s that God has abandoned her and l i k e G i l she g r a d u a l l y s i n k s lower and lower i n t o a l i f e of c r i m e . In the l a s t a c t , J u l i a , d i s g u i s e d as a man, i s captured by E u s e b i o ' s men. Unrecognized by her b ro ther she asks to speak to him i n p r i v a t e . Once a lone she draws her sword and c h a l l e n g e s Euseb io : . . . saca l a espada: pues desta manera d i g o , que soy quien v iene a matar te . (11. 1903-1905) R i n e , cobarde, conmigo, y veras que con tu muerte v i d a y c o n f u s i o n te qu i to . (11. 1910-1912) 16 m , . . Th is i s a r e v e r s a l of the scene i n E l esc lavo and Caer where G i l i s caught i n the h e r o i n e ' s room and wants to leave but someone has taken the ladder away. J u l i a wants revenge, but Eusebio r e f u s e s to f i g h t . Whi le he e x p l a i n s h i s a c t i o n s the band i s surrounded by C u r c i o and the law. In the ensu ing f i g h t , Eusebio i s f a t a l l y wounded by h i s f a t h e r . Dy ing , Eusebio t e l l s the s t o r y of h i s l i f e , C u r c i o recogn i zes Eusebio as h i s son and J u l i a recogn i zes Eusebio as her b r o t h e r . Eusebio d i e s , but i s m i r a c u -l o u s l y r e v i v e d so that he may repent and r e c e i v e the l a s t r i t e s ; J u l i a w i l l enter a convent . The ending o f the p l a y i s a d m i t t e d l y i n c r e d i b l e but , i n my o p i n i o n , Calderdn w r i t e s an i n c r e d i b l e ending fo r a s p e c i f i c purpose. Eusebio i s a c r i m i n a l ; a c r i m i n a l i s a s i n n e r , and i n the a u d i e n c e ' s mind a s i n n e r ' s s o u l i s condemned to H e l l . Were the p l a y to end w i thout a m i r a c l e then E u s e b i o ' s r e f e r e n c e to the Fates would be proven t r u e . The Fates fo rced him i n t o a l i f e of c r i m e ; consequent ly the Fates a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d h i s f a t e a f t e r death . But the m i r a c l e i s e s s e n t i a l because i t proves that F a t e , which i s read from the s t a r s , i s not to be heeded because there i s a g rea te r f o r c e than tha t emit ted by the s t a r s . The p l a y shows that i f there i s an element of P r e d e s t i n a t i o n i n man i t i s t h a t man i s p r e d e s t i n e d to God's mercy. 78 PART B. THE BANDOLERAS Tirso de Molina, La dama del olivar, 1614-1615.''" This play by Tirso is a curious mixture of the secular bandit and the religious bandit play. By convention in the latter the woman is dishonoured because of a comedy of errors. In La dama, and also in Tirso's La ninfa del cielo, there is no comedy of errors, the heroine is burlada under a false promise of marriage. As in the secular-bandolera plays (see: Lope's and Guevara's La serrana), the woman has to avenge her own honour because she is surrounded by weak and ineffective men. In this play, the heroine, Laurencia, t e l l s the men of her village that they are weaker than chickens: o_Qu£ haceis aqui* afeminados, Hombres solo en la apariencia, en conversacion infame^ que no sentis vuestra afrenta? Gallinas, y aun no gallinas, pues ya saben volver estas los picos contra el milano que sus polluelos les lleva. (p. 1196b) In this play there is no allusion to Predestination. It is true that the play ends with Laurencia's repentance but her repentance is puzzling and unconvincing. Laurencia, like Julia, is fickle. In other plays examined so far in this chapter, most characters, at times, display a capability for lurcid reasoning. For example, in E l esclavo, G i l is ful l y aware of his actions, and in reading the play i t is possible to trace each step that leads to a logical and convincing repentance. The same is Ed. Blanca de los Rxos, in Tirso de Molina, Obras dramaticas  completas, I (Madrid: Aguilar, 1969), 1173-218. 79 a p p l i c a b l e to G i l of Caer . To c i t e another example, i n Caer , V i o l a n t e ' s repentance i s a l s o c o n v i n c i n g : she i s t i r e d of her l i f e , she knows tha t she i s b a s i c a l l y a weak c r e a t u r e , and t h e r e f o r e asks God f o r h e l p . But i n La dama, L a u r e n c i a r e p e n t s , l i t e r a l l y , "out of the b l u e . " She i s l a s t seen a t the end of the second a c t , then she d isappears fo r twenty scenes to appear suddenly i n the l a s t scene, when she r e p e n t s . What i s she doing d u r i n g the whole of the t h i r d ac t? Why i s she not punished? What has happened to her that she should repent? These quest ions cannot 2 be answered because the p l a y , i n my e s t i m a t i o n , i s s t r u c t u r a l l y weak. L a u r e n c i a , a country g i r l , i s g i ven i n marr iage by her f a t h e r to Maroto, a shepherd. Maroto , however, has no d e s i r e to marry; women g i ve him " a bad i n d i g e s t i o n , " (p. 1175a); h i s on ly aim i s to serve the V i r g i n . L a u r e n c i a , who does not show any enthusiasm fo r Maroto , i s i n love and has an a f f a i r w i t h Don G u i l l e n . Under the promise of marr iage L a u r e n c i a g ives i n to Don G u i l l e n ' s e n t r e a t i e s but on ly to f i n d h e r s e l f b u r l a d a . As the men w i l l not avenge her a g r a v i o she decides to do so h e r s e l f : P r e s t o vera* l o que puede l a a f r e n t a en una mujer ; rayo d e l mundo he de s e r ; no p iense e l t r a i d o r que quede s i n c a s t i g o su d e s p r e c i o , \ V i ve Dios . ' , s i mi lugar no me procura vengar , Don G u i l l e n , infame y n e c i o , que, pues estoy deshonrada, mudando e l t r a j e y e l nombre, que ha de verme Aragon hombre, v u e l t a l a rueca en espada, hacer de mi i n j u r i a a l a r d e ; aunque l a rueca mejor fuera para t i , t r a i d o r que es i n s i g n i a de cobarde. The p l a y i s i nc luded i n t h i s study because L a u r e n c i a becomes a bando lera . 80 Mas, pues l a suer te nos t r u e c a , s e r a , t r a i d o r , desde aquf l a espada e l adorno en mi y en t i , v i l l a n o , l a r u e c a . ^ (p. 1195b) _ The hero ine f l e e s to the mountains where, d i s g u i s e d as a man, she becomes a b a n d i t . From a s t r u c t u r a l p o i n t of v iew, the p lay so f a r seems to be deve lop ing i n t o a s e c u l a r - b a n d o l e r a p l a y : the a g r a v i o i s p e r p e t r a t e d by man; to avenge h e r s e l f the woman becomes a b a n d i t . But i n Ac t I I I there i s a r e v e r s a l : the hero ine d isappears and the a c t i o n concent rates on Maroto . In I I I . i i i , the V i r g i n appears to Maroto and commands him to t e l l the people to b u i l d a s h r i n e i n her name. As no one w i l l b e l i e v e h im, i n a second m i r a c l e ( v i i i ) , the V i r g i n p h y s i c a l l y turns h i s head - - the people w i l l now b e l i e v e Maroto. The l a s t scene sees a l l the main c h a r a c t e r s r e - u n i t e d . A f t e r an absence of twenty scenes L a u r e n c i a appears and r e p e n t s : Una voz de es te o l i v a r , ent re estas o c u l t a s s i e r r a s , donde e l a g r a v i o me h i z o , de Don G u i l l e n bando le ra , me l l a m o , y v i v i e n d o aqux con l a v i r g i n a l p r e s e n c i a de e s t a Senora d i v i n a , mis v i c i o s dan hoy l a v u e l t a . Yo os consagro, i n s i g n e imagen, mi v i d a , y desde hoyfbrdena, s i en pecados l a i m i t e en v i r t u d se r Magdalena. (p. 1218b) A l l undertake to b u i l d a s h r i n e to La dama. The poor s t r u c t u r e of the p l a y makes i t d i f f i c u l t to e x t r a c t an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I f L a u r e n c i a i s the h e r o i n e s u r e l y she shou ld not be l e f t out f o r p r a c t i c a l l y a whole act. ' I f T i r s o wanted to d e a l w i t h the See a l s o her speech, too long to quote, on pp. 1196-97. 81 theme of the c r i m i n a l ' s redemption, as he does s a t i s f y i n g l y i n La n i n f a  d e l c i e l o , then why d i d he not develop t h i s theme i n the t h i r d a c t ? The on ly c o n c l u s i o n t h i s reader can draw from the p l a y i s t h a t when faced w i t h a m i r a c l e even the most c r i m i n a l w i l l repent . * T i r s o de M o l i n a , La n i n f a d e l c i e l o , condesa bandolera y_ o b l i g a c i o n e s 4 d e l honor, 1613. La n i n f a f o l l o w s c l o s e l y the s tandard p l o t of the mujer b u r l a d a as seen i n the prev ious p l a y . In t h i s p l a y , however, T i r s o does d e a l w i t h the theme of the c r i m i n a l ' s redemption. N i n f a , the p r o t a g o n i s t , i s a v e h i c l e by which the p laywr igh t shows that God's mercy i s i n f i n i t e . N i n f a , a b e a u t i f u l noblewoman, l i v e s a lone on a country e s t a t e . She i s esquiva as w e l l as v a r o n i l : No hay en Napoles senor que no l a haya pretend ido para casarse con e l l a , ya e l l a a todos a t r o p e l l a porque no qu ie re marido; su i n c l i n a c i 6 n solamente es e l campo y e j e r c i c i o de l a c a z a , y no o t r o v i c i o No hay quien l a gane a t i r a r todo cuanto a l c a n z a a v e r , quien l a aventa je a c o r r e r quien l a r i n d a a l u c h a r , (p. 930b) But fo r a l l her Amazonian d i s p o s i t i o n , N i n f a f a l l s i n l o v e , a l l too e a s i l y , w i t h C a r l o s , unbeknown to her a marr ied nobleman. She g ives i n to h i s requests but on ly to f i n d h e r s e l f b u r l a d a . As she i s a lone she "Ed. B lanca de l o s R i o s , I, 9 2 7 - 7 1 . 82 w i l l have to avenge her own honour. In her vengeance speech there i s a good example of the b l o o d - t h i r s t y q u a l i t y found i n the p r o t a g o n i s t s of the r e l i g i o u s - b a n d i t p l a y s : s . . . yo me vengare deste a g r a v i o , des ta o fensa , abor rec iendo l a s v idas de l o s hombres . . . y s a l i e n d o a l o s caminos como v i b o r a s e d i e n t a de su sangre , me pregono por p u b l i c a bando le ra , y no de t e n e r , a l C i e l o j u r o , con hombre c lemencia has ta mor i r o vengarme. (p. 940b) As the a c t i o n progresses she becomes more and more c r u e l : Es te es buen puesto por hoy: en l o que ha mandado este*n esos soldados con quien dando guerra a I t a l i a estoy y a l mundo; que aunque l a humana sangre toda d e l v e r t i e r a , s a t i s f e c h a no e s t u v i e r a mi h i d r o p i c a sed t i r a n a * y s iendo e te rna homic ida, no tendra con quien l a v i e r t e mayor amigo l a muerte, mayor c o n t r a r i o l a v i d a . Que con l a f i e r e z a ext rana que a l paso esperando estoy de aque l mar, desta montana; un r i s c o , un e s c o l l o soy t a n t o , que l l e g o a temer que han de venirme a f a l t a r v idas que poder q u i t a r muertes que poder hacer* y de mi c d l e r a f i e r a p i e n s o , de c r u e l d a d armada, que no he de quedar vengada cuanto todo e l mundo muera. (p. 945b) As can be seen, N i n f a has become an inhuman monster; she i s w i thout doubt the most b l o o d - t h i r s t y bandi t of a l l . T i r s o puts such words i n N i n f a ' s mouth because of the moral he wants to convey: God's mercy i s 83 i n f i n i t e . N i n f a has become an unspeakable s i n n e r , but , unknown to her she i s headed f o r s a l v a t i o n . Her s a l v a t i o n w i l l take four d i f f e r e n t s t e p s : In a dream ( I I . xv and x v i ) N i n f a sees the dance of death . As she approaches the w e l l of death , i n the r e a l i t y of the dream, N i n f a exper iences a sudden s p i r i t u a l awakening: E l c i e l o me p e r s i g u e , y no s i n causa en e l l a £ the f o r e s l p me he p e r d i d o . Grandes jjny i t a l i c s j cu lpas comet1 c o n t r a e l C i e l o , pues que tengo a cargo tantas v i d a s , tantos robos . Todo es sombra y miedos cuanto mi ro ; (p. 955b) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( the c rux of the p l a y ) : no me puedo s a l v a r , ya esta ' cer rado de mi s e n t e n c i a e l t l l t imo proceso . (p. 955b) The reader should pause a t t h i s p o i n t and note the acuteness of c h a r a c -t e r a n a l y s i s tha t T i r s o d i s p l a y s . N i n f a cannot come to g r i p s w i t h h e r -s e l f w h i l e c o n s c i o u s , bu t , i n the dream her a n x i e t i e s and f e a r s , c o n -demnation, r e v e a l themselves . The use of the "dream" w i l l l a t e r be s i g n i f i c a n t i n T i r s o ' s E_l condenado por desconf iado . B e l i e v i n g t h a t her f a t e i n the next wor ld i s s e a l e d , and not want ing to cont inue i n the present f a s h i o n , N i n f a decides to k i l l h e r s e l f . As she i s about to jump o f f a h i l l , her guard ian angel appears (second step) and r e v e a l s her f a t e : Deja de ser n i n f a d e l mar Que has de ser N i n f a d e l C i e l o [the a u t h o r ' s i t a l i c s ^ (p. 956b) N i n f a repents and she promises to spend the r e s t of her l i f e as a h e r m i t . That her repentance i s genuine i s a l r e a d y shown by the f a c t that on her way to the new d w e l l i n g she meets C a r l o s , the cause of a l l her misery . 84 She denies knowing him and instead of exacting vengeance she leaves him with "Busca a Dios" (p. 963a). The heroine's perils are not, however, over: s t i l l on her way she meets the Devil in the disguise of a boatman. As Ninfa has to cross a river the boatman offers a ride, she accepts and while in midstream the boatman tries to drown her: No saldras Ninfa, con lo que intentas esta vez, n i el Cielo ha de poder librarte, n i ese viejo Anselmo^ mi enemigo. No has de lograr la penitencia, \ muere.1 (p. 964b) But the Devil has no power over God's w i l l , and the guardian angel appears (third step) and saves Ninfa. Ninfa continues on what has now become a spiritual pilgrimage and fina l l y (the fourth step of her redemption) she comes to a spring where she meets Christ. This is a highly symbolical scene: Christ died for man's sins, the water in the well is that of baptism and deliverance from original sin. Christ reminds her of her fate; "Presto partiras de aqui" (p. 967b) and now having travelled her entire spiritual road, Ninfa dies, accidentally, at the hands of Carlo's wife. In dying she leaves the message of the play: Carlos, lo que importa mas es buscar a Dios: r-(p.v 970b) Again, a criminal is saved by God's mercy. Anselmo is a hermit. 85 PART C. THE BANDOLEROS Coello, Rojas, Guevara, El_ C a t a l a n Serrallonga, y_ Bandos de Barcelona. Serrallonga was a historical bandit (bl592-dl634). According to the scant information available he became a bandit when falsely accused 2 of sheep stealing. The bandit Serrallonga presented in the play bears l i t t l e resemblance to his historical counterpart. In the play, Serral-longa turns outlaw because of the conventional agravio de honor. As the play opens, Serrallonga is alone on the stage. In a long monologue he tells why he is a bandit: ... Don Felipe de Torrellas un caballero cobarde Tuvo palabras conmigo Que vinieron a enwlazarse En agravios, pues Don Felix Alzo' la pala arrogante En fin yo ifuridso 'y-ciego i* -.o. Saco el acero ofendido y antes de desvainarle ya estaba m'uerto Don Felix, (p. 565c) Pursued by the law, the protagonist fled to Flanders, France and Italy, but now he has returned to resume the blood-feud: Yo despues de seis abriles Vuelvo ciego y arrogante, Que sabiendo su intencion, Quise cuerdo anticiparme A dar laimuerte arDon Carlos 7(p. 566a) Serrallonga's father, Don Bernardo, enters and asks his son to Ramon de Mesoneros Romanos, ed., B.A.E., 54, pp. 366-388. See Joan Regla, El_ bandolerisme catala. del barroc, pp. 176-81. 86 temper his anger, and to avert any further bloodshed he takes away Serrallonga's sword. The son accepts Don Bernardo's w i l l because: Entre todas mis maldades, Solo me ha quedado bueno Este respeto a mi padre, (p. 567b) Wanting to e s t a b l i s h peace between the two families (de T o r r e l l a ' s and Serrallonga's) Don Bernardo goes to Don Carlos and i n a lengthy speech (p. 569a and b) t e l l s him that enough blood has been s p i l t . B e lieving that " a l perdonar es honra / y l a venganza bajeza," Don Bernardo proposes that the two families make peace, and, to strengthen the new t i e s , suggests that Serrallonga and Don Carlos' s i s t e r marry. Unfortunately, Don Carlos takes t h i s l a s t proposal to be an offence: fcMi hermana con vuestro h i j o ? \Buena igualdad.' .^Que' d i j e r a Cataluna, y todo e l mundo? (p. 569a) Don Bernardo reacts: Bernardo de Serrallonga, Fue -es'pejoa. de Barcelona Como aquesta cruz l o muestra, iConoceisme ... (p. 569b) Don Carlos r e p l i e s that i t is exactly because hel-knows Don Bernardo that he finds h i s proposition offensive. But, he w i l l forgive Don Bernardo -- "Por v i e j o os perdono," whereby a heated exchange follows which shows how punctilious each is about Honour: Don Bernardo: Don Carlos: Don Bernardo: Vive Dios, que mi nobleza Es timbre de Barcelona, Es mucho mas que l a vuestra; y aunque caduco esta espada ... Castigara* mi soberbia Esa desvergilenza ahora, A no mirar que era mengua Matar a un muerto, que ya A l i e n t a y r e s p i r a apenas. Ahora veras, cobarde 87 Don C a r l o s : \0h que g r a c i o s a s quimeras.' Idos a p r i s a , idos luego ; Y para que no parezca Que por un v i e j o me ade lante Con vos en es ta r e s p u e s t a , Un hi j .o t e n e i s que es mozo, Andad, d e c i d que os d e f i e n d a ; Idos a p r i s a . (p. 569b) An enraged Don Bernardo g ives back S e r r a l l o n g a h i s sword and demands of him a vengeance. Whi le a f e a s t i s i n progress a t Don C a r l o s ' house, S e r r a l l o n g a and h i s f a t h e r , accompanied by b a n d i t s , a r r i v e to exact vengeance. In the s k i r m i s h , S e r r a l l o n g a and company escape to the mountains t a k i n g w i t h them Don C a r l o s ' s i s t e r . S i x years have passed between A c t s I and I I . S e r r a l l o n g a , now abandoned by a l l , has grown weary o f runn ing from the law: Es te ahogo, es te tormento, Es cansanc io de mi v i d a No f l a q u e z a de mi cuerpo. (p. 574a) In the l a s t a c t , f l e e i n g from the law, the p r o t a g o n i s t seeks re fuge i n a church . He a c c i d e n t a l l y stumbles i n t o the b u r i a l v a u l t where h i s dead f a t h e r now l i e s . A ghost appears - - i t i s Don Bernardo come to b r i n g h i s son a message: Tu padre soy, y v i v i e n d o Escuchaste de mi boca Consejos siempre de padre;"' • Y muerto, me manda ahora E l c i e l o para e l b i e n tuyo Que a p r i s i o n te des , que estorbas t u d i c h a en l a r e s i s A e n c i a ; A D i o s , n i a mi te opongas N i a tu s a l v a c i d n que es e s t a . (p. 580a) S e r r a l l o n g a heeds h i s f a t h e r ' s a d v i c e and a l lows the law to capture h im. The p r o t a g o n i s t d ies at the hands of the law but , as Don Bernardo 's f i n a l speech i m p l i e s , S e r r a l l o n g a w i l l share the g l o r y of heaven. S e r r a l l o n g a i s saved because o f f i l i a l obedience, T i r s o ' s E n r i c o ( E l condenado por 88 desconfiado) is saved for the same reason. The play, a Minor play, is in essence an adaptation of the moral of the Christianized Indian legend 3 of the Mahabharata. • 4 Lope de Vega (?), Antonio Roca, o la muerte mas venturosa. This play and the former are the only two plays that I have en-countered which deal with historical characters. L i t t l e is known about Antonio (or Antoni) Roca. The editor of the edition used in this study reports that Antonio was a cleri c defrocked by the archbishop of Catalonia, though no reasons are given for this action. Joan Regla (El  bandolerisme catala del barroc, p. 52) states that Antoni Roca was a bandit from 1544-1546 and "sembla que era un clergue, ordenat de menos." The play explores Predestination and Free Will. As the f i r s t act opens, Antonio is on his way to enter a monastery. He receives a letter from his mother, Julia, t e l l i n g him that his father has been k i l l e d . Julia asks her son to return home. Antonio decides to turn back not to exact a vengeance, but, as he explains, "llevo intencion Ramon Menendez Pidal, Estudios literarios, 8th ed. (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1957), pp. 17-18. In the legend, a brahman sets on the road to seek what is the greatest virtue. After meeting a number of people he crosses paths: with a butcher. The butcher reveals to him man's greatest virtue: "... mira que te aconsejo lo que es tu salvacion. Ve sin tardanza a tu padre y tu madre, sirvelos y veneiralos; no conoczo virtud mas alta que esta." El brahaman arrepentido dijo: "Honrare segun dices, a mis padres. He sido salvado por t i cuando iba derecho al infierno." 4Ed. Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo, in Obras dramaticas, Vol. 1 of Obras de Lope de Vega (Madrid: Real Academia Espanola, 1916), pp. 660-92. 89 de perdonarle" (p. 663b). But, at home Antonio finds that J u l i a has other plans for him -- she t e l l s him that his father died at the hands of a Baron defending her honour: Toma h i j o aquella espada que asida a l lado s i n i e s t r o llevaba tu padre (p. 665b) Haz como honrado, aunque mueras-, que, s i vengada me veo del traidor, matarme a l punto s i mueres t i l , te prometo. (p. 666a) Antonio, who is very much unlike any other hombre agraviado, reminds J u l i a that "vengeance i s the Lord's." J u l i a r e p l i e s that i f he w i l l not avenge the family honour she w i l l do so h e r s e l f . Confronted with this ultimatum Antonio v a c i l l a t e s between C h r i s i t a n mores and duty to the Code of Honour: En mi corazon b a t t a l l a n e l estado en que me veo y l a obligacio"n de h i j o - but •• • • - - • 5 \Mi honor ha de ser primero.' (p. 666b) Por donde haya menos gente ire, porque me avergvienza ya que, s i n verme vengadq, ninguno e l rostro me vea. (p. 667b) The protagonist is plunged, against his w i l l , into a vengeance which i s dictated by society: l o s t honour must be avenged. Antonio next gains entrance into the j a i l where the baron is kept, In a study, "Honour and the C h r i s t i a n Background i n Calderon," B u l l e t i n of Hispanic Studies, 37 (1960), 73-105, Peter N. Dunn shows how Honour i n Calderon becomes a substitute for r e l i g i o n . In the play Antonio Roca, the Code of Honour replaces C h r i s t i a n mores. The argument Peter Dunn presents i n h i s a r t i c l e is applicable also to this play. 90 and k i l l s h im. Pursued by the law, he escapes to the country where he becomes the leader of a group of b a n d i t s . Caught i n what seems to him a web of m i s f o r t u n e ( l i k e Eusebio i n La devoc ion ) , he g ives h i s l i f e over to the F a t e s : Pues mi e s t r e l l a l o ha quer ido , s e g u i r su i n f l u j o pretendo, guardando mi v i d a , a c o s t a , de muchas,'^viven l o s c i e l o s . ' (p. 682a) L a t e r : . . . me quejare d e l mismo c i e l o , que cu lpa t i e n e de mi desast rada v i d a . (p. (688a) As i s common w i t h most r e l i g i o u s band i ts (Eusebio , La devocio*n; Don G i l , Caer ; E l E s c l a v o ; N i n f a , La n i n f a d e l c i e l o ) Anton io b e l i e v e s that h i s f a t e , based on a s t r o l o g i c a l p r e d i c t i o n s , i s to l e a d a l i f e of c r ime. L i k e Eusebio (La devocion) he does not r e a l i z e tha t h i s f a t e l i e s i n h i s hands. The s t a r s show what man's f u t u r e may be but man can r e c t i f y what i s w r i t t e n i n the s t a r s . Th is i s , i n essence, the moral of the p l a y , as. the l a s t scenes bear out ; In the l a s t a c t , Anton io i s conf ronted by F e l i c i a n o , h i s s p i r i t u a l f a t h e r . F e l i c i a n o t e l l s h im: E l hombre a Dios puede siempre p e d i r perddn, que aunque e l hombre s i n Dios nada es l o que puede ya l e dejo e l a l b e d r f o l i b r e porque l e p i d i e s e . (p. 687a) Anton io d ies begging God's f o r g i v e n e s s . A g a i n the c r i m i n a l d ies i n God's g race . Tirso de Molina, El_ condenado por desconfiado. Undoubtedly the most interesting of a l l the religious bandit plays El condenado has caused a great deal of debate amongst c r i t i c s . T.E. May says that "... to put this question Molinism versus Banecism into the forefront of criticism of El_ condenado por desconf iado is to put 7 the whole play out of focus." A. Valbuena Prat makes an astonishing remark: Este [Tirso^} salvo en El_ mayor des engano cuyo desenvolvimiento es completamente de nuestra comedia no demostro preocupacion teoldgica en su teatro. 8 If this were so, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to explain Ninfa condesa bandolera and El_ burlador de Sevilla. On the other hand, there are c r i t i c s who see El_ condenado, and in my estimation rightly so, as a Molinist obra de tesis. A.A. Parker states: Esta comedia famosisima es, como todo el mundo sabe una obra teologica que desarrolla el problema d i f i c i l de la predestinacion. 9 Agustin Duran: Es una parabola evangelica creada para hacer inteligible al pueblo el dogma de la g r a c i a . ^ ^Ed. Raymond MacCurdy, Spanish Drama of the Golden Age (New York: Meredith Corporation, 1971), pp. 149-201. ^T.E. May, "El_ condenado por desconf iado," Bulletin of Hispanic  Studies, 35 (1958), 138-56. ^Angel Valbuena Prat, Historia de lei literatura espanola, 4th ed., II (Barcelona: Gustavo G i l i , 1953), 417. Q "Santos y bandoleros," p. 40. l^"Examen del Condenado por desconfiado," reprinted in B.A.E., 5, p. 721. Menendez P i d a l admits t h a t : " t r a n s l u c e l a d o c t r i n a que e l poeta a d m i t i a sobre l a g r a c i a , " but the r e a l m e r i t , he c o n t i n u e s , l i e s i n how T i r s o d e p i c t s the anguished P a u l o . To Menendez P i d a l Pau lo i s a Hamlet. I t i s t r u e that T i r s o shows a deep unders tand ing of P a u l o ' s mental angu ish , but there a re s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Pau lo and Hamlet. The l a t t e r cannot make up h i s mind, w h i l e the former i s a l l too ready to a c t . In my v iew, E_l condenado i s about God's i n f i n i t e mercy. Pau lo i s the embodiment o f the d o c t r i n e of P r e d e s t i n a t i o n ; he i s l i k e the other r e l i g i o u s band i ts encountered so f a r . L i k e G i l ( E l e s c l a v o , Caer) he b e l i e v e s that he i s damned, p r e d e s t i n e d to h e l l . He d i f f e r s from G i l i n tha t G i l e x e r c i s e s h i s w i l l to ask fo rg i veness from God. E n r i c o i s the embodiment of God's grace - a grace g i ven f r e e l y to a l l men. In the p l a y , Pau lo has l e d the l i f e of a hermit not because of h i s love f o r God but r a t h e r ; " E l mundo deje por b i e n mio" (1 . 6 6 ) . H is h y p o c r i s y i s more impressed upon the audience by h i s f a l l i n g as leep w h i l e p r a y i n g . In a dream, l i k e N i n f a , Paulo i s f o r e t o l d o f h i s f a t e - -damnation (11. 140 -180) . A puzz led Pau lo asks God; £.Heme de condenar, mi Dios d i v i n o como es te sueno d i c e , o he de verme en e l sagrado a l c a z a r c r i s t a l i n o Respondedme, Senor, e t e r n o . He de i r a v u e s t r o c i e l o o a l i n f i e r n o ? (11. 185-200) The D e v i l , who has been t r y i n g to ensnare Paulo f o r the past ten y e a r s , now i s g i ven p e r m i s s i o n by God to " i n c i t e him w i t h new d e c e i t s . " Paulo i s t o l d that he w i l l share the same f a t e as one E n r i c o who l i v e s 1 •'"Menendez P i d a l , E s t u d i o s l i t e r a r i o s , p. 51 . 93 i n Nap les . T h i n k i n g presumpt ious ly tha t E n r i c o "must be a great s a i n t " ( 1 . 321) , which stands to reason because, a l though not d o g m a t i c a l l y t r u e , i n p e o p l e ' s minds o n l y s a i n t s go to heaven, Paulo and h i s s e r v a n t , P e d r i s c o , set out on the road f o r N a p l e s . Once conf ronted w i t h the f a c t tha t E n r i c o i s the worst c r i m i n a l a l i v e , Paulo cannot b e l i e v e tha t the two are going to share a common f a t e . One can understand P a u l o ' s c o n s t e r n a t i o n : how can he, a h o l y man, be worth as much as a c r i m i n a l i n the s i g h t of God? E n r i c o , as he h i m s e l f a s s e r t s , i s Fury p e r s o n i f i e d . In a long speech, E n r i c o t e l l s o f h i s portenuous b i r t h and the c r i m i n a l ' s l i f e he has l e d . The on ly redeeming q u a l i t y E n r i c o possesses , l i k e S e r r a l l o n g a , i s f i l i a l love fo r h i s f a t h e r , Anare to . L a t e r , Anareto w i l l prove to be the instrument through which E n r i c o saves h i s s o u l . Meanwhile, Paulo has been l i s t e n i n g to E n r i c o from a d i s t a n c e , and now there i s no doubt i n h i s mind tha t t h i s i s the E n r i c o w i t h whom he w i l l share a common f a t e . What l i t t l e f a i t h E n r i c o had i n God vanishes comple te l y : Pues a l c i e l o , hermano mio fLcomo ha de i r e s t e , s i vemos tantas maldades en e l , tantos robos m a n i f i e s t o s crueldades y l a t r o c i n t i o s y tan v i l e s pensamientos (11. 924-929) s i su f i n he de tener tenga su v i d a y sus hechbs; que no es b ien que yo en e l mundo es te p e n i t e n c i a hac iendo , y que e l v i v a en l a c iudad con gustos y con contentos , y que a l a muerte tengamos un f i n . . . En e l monte hay bandoleros bandolero qu ie ro s e r , 94 porque asf" i g u a l a r pretendo mi v i d a con l a de E n r i c o pues un mismo f i n tenemos. (11. 970-988) A . A . Parker says of P a u l o ' s b a n d i t r y : Pau lo se d i f e r e n c i a completamente de l o s demas bandoleros d e l t e a t r o e s p a n o l , los cua les se hacen bandoleros porque son v a l i e n t e s , sea por a r r o g a n c i a e x c e s i v a , sea porque t i e n e n c o n c i e n c i a de l o que v a l e n y se r e s i s t e n a d e j a r s e amildj&ar por c i r c u n s t a n c i a s adversas . ("Santos y b a n d o l e r o s , " p. 412) This i s not so : i n the s o c i a l band i t p lays the p r o t a g o n i s t turned band i t because of the a g r a v i o . In t h e Major r e l i g i o u s - b a n d i t p l a y s , of which E l condenado i s an example, the p r o t a g o n i s t turns band i t because he f e e l s that God has abandoned him. Pau lo b e l i e v e s that he i s d e s t i n e d to H e l l , and when g i ven the chance to repent he s tubborn l y reasons h i s way to damnation. On the other hand, E n r i c o i s a b l e to save h i m s e l f , through h i s f a t h e r ' s e n t r e a t y , because God i s e s s e n t i a l l y m e r c i f u l : D i o l e Dios l i b r e a l b e d r i o y f r a g i l i d a d l e d i o a l cuerpo y a l a lma; luego d i o po tes tad con a c c i d n de p e d i r m i s e r i c o r d i a que a ninguno l e nego. (11. 1535-1540) 95 PART D. CONCLUSIONS The Minor P lays In the Minor p lays i t was shown t h a t the a g r a v i o was the motive fo rce behind each p r o t a g o n i s t . The p lays read and resemble i n s t r u c t u r e the s o c i a l - b a n d i t p l a y s , but , w h i l e i n the l a t t e r s o c i e t y ' s problems are set s t r a i g h t by the l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n of the law, the k i n g or nobleman, i n the r e l i g i o u s p lays a g r e a t e r judge comes i n t o p l a y - - an emissary of God. These p lays show the same degree o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y when i t comes to punishment as the s o c i a l p lays d i d . Some band i ts are punished ( E l  p r o d i g i o ; S e r r a l l o n g a ; Anton io Roca; La n i n f a ) , o thers a r e . n o t (La dama; San F ranco ) . Th is i s so because each i n d i v i d u a l i s f u n c t i o n i n g under the i n f l u e n c e of the Code of Honour: the a g r a v i o i s p e r p e t r a t e d by man a g a i n s t man, cr imes of revenge are committed by man a g a i n s t s o c i e t y and i n most cases s o c i e t y w i l l not f o r g i v e the c r i m i n a l . But i n a l l cases the c r i m i n a l d i e s i n the Grace of God. In the s e c u l a r - b a n d i t p l a y s , the p l a y w r i g h t deals o n l y w i t h the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the b a n d i t . But man has a l s o a s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e ; f o r t h i s reason i n the Minor r e l i g i o u s - b a n d i t p lays there i s a f u s i o n of s e c u l a r elements ( p e r t a i n i n g to the s o c i a l band i t p lays ) and r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e (see p. 57). As a c r i m i n a l a g a i n s t s o c i e t y the r e l i g i o u s band i t l o s e s , but as a s i n n e r i n the face o f God, p r o v i d i n g he r e p e n t s , he w i n s . The p a t t e r n i s w e l l d e l i n e a t e d i n each p l a y . The passage of t ime i s necessary so tha t the i n d i v i d u a l may l e a r n through exper ience . Reasonably i t i s not a happy thought when one r e a l i z e s tha t the r e s t of h i s l i f e w i l l be spent i n cr ime and runn ing 96 away from the law. When the band i t has gone through h i s i n t e r v a l o f exper ience then he r e a l i z e s tha t h i s a c t i o n s were "sound and f u r y s i g n i f y i n g n o t h i n g . " Does not C h r i s t preach Come to me, a l l who labour and are heavy l a d e n , I w i l l g i ve you r e s t . Take my yoke upon you, and l e a r n from me; fo r I am g e n t l e and l o w l y i n h e a r t , and you w i l l f i n d r e s t f o r your s o u l s . (Matth . 11 :28 -29) In c o n c l u s i o n , the Minor p lays dea l w i t h both aspects of man: the p h y s i c a l and the s p i r i t u a l . The b a n d i t , once drunk w i t h Honour, the P a s s i o n s , or the a n i m a l - l i k e n a t u r e , a c t s u n s o c i a l l y . The p laywr igh t suggests that man has the means of overcoming h i m s e l f ; the s t ronges t statement i s to be found i n E l p r o d i g i o de E t i o p i a . In the p l a y , F i l i p o ' s l u s t f o r Teodora i s c l e a r l y shown to be the cause of the d o w n f a l l : £Es p o s i b l e que f u i yo Causa de tanto r i g o r ? La to rpeza de mi amor "cJPuso a una mujer asi*? Most p r o t a g o n i s t s i n both Minor and Major p lays f a l l v i c t i m to l u s t : L a u r e n c i a (La dama); N i n f a ; F ranco ; Don G i l ; J u l i a (La devoc i o n ) . But , the p laywr igh t shows how the Pass ions can be overcome: Y Rey sere de mi mismo Siendo un esc lavo de Dios ( E l p r o d i g i o ) becoming a s l a v e o f God (and, i n essence, once they repent a l l band i t s become s l a v e s of God), F i l i p o w i l l have the moral s t r e n g t h to overcome h i m s e l f . 97 The Major P l a y s In E_l e s c l a v o , Caer para l e v a n t a r and El_ condenado, the ag rav io took on a new d imension . The a g r a v i o i n these p lays was not p e r p e t r a t e d by man but the p r o t a g o n i s t f e l t that he was the v i c t i m o f God: "Soltome Dios de sus manos." W i t h t h i s c o n v i c t i o n i n mind and b e l i e v i n g t h a t he i s doomed to e v e r l a s t i n g f i r e , the i n d i v i d u a l s i n k s lower and lower i n t o c r i m e . The p lays are obras de t e s i s r e f u t i n g the d o c t r i n e of P r e d e s t i n a -t i o n and f o r t h i s reason the p lays make obv ious , much more so than the Minor p l a y s , God's i n f i n i t e mercy because: He d e s t i n e d us i n love to be h i s sons through Jesus C h r i s t , a c c o r d i n g to the purpose of h i s w i l l to the p r a i s e of h i s r e l i g i o u s grace which he f r e e l y bestowed on us i n the be loved . (Ephesians 1:5) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the p r o t a g o n i s t s o f these p l a y s a r e sentenced to death by s o c i e t y but w h i l e s o c i e t y cannot f o r g i v e - - God c a n . I n essence, these p l a y s have as t h e i r b a s i s the p a r a b l e o f the P r o d i g a l Son: . . . I w i l l a r i s e and go to my f a t h e r and I w i l l say to h im, " F a t h e r , I have s inned a g a i n s t heaven and before you; I am no longer worthy to be c a l l e d your son; t r e a t me as one of your h i r e d s e r v a n t s . " And he arose and came to h i s f a t h e r . But w h i l e he was yet a t a d i s t a n c e , h i s f a t h e r saw him and had compassion, and ran and embraced him and k i s s e d h im. And the son s a i d to h im, "Fa ther I have s inned a g a i n s t heaven and before you, I am no longer your s o n . " But the f a t h e r s a i d to h i s s e r v a n t s , " B r i n g q u i c k l y the best robe and put i t on h im, put a r i n g on h i s hand, and shoes on h i s f e e t ; and b r i n g the f a t t e d c a l f and k i l l i t , and l e t us make merry; f o r t h i s my son was dead, and i s a l i v e a g a i n ; he was l o s t and i s f o u n d . " (Luke 15:18-24) L i k e the P r o d i g a l Son, the band i t of the Major p lays a l i e n a t e s h i m s e l f from h i s Father i n Heaven and t r i e s to exact a vengeance by s i n n i n g a g a i n s t God - - he k i l l s God's c h i l d r e n : And the K i n g w i l l answer them, " T r u l y I say to you, as you d i d i t to one of the l e a s t of these my b r e t h r e n , you d i d i t to me." (Matt . 25:40) Don G i l goes so f a r as to ba rga in w i t h the D e v i l . The p laywr igh t must show the band i t i n such a bad l i g h t so tha t h i s redemption w i l l be that much more f o r c e f u l on the audience . E s s e n t i a l l y what these p lays show i s that even the most wicked s i n n e r can have the g l o r y of heaven p r o v i d i n g he repent . The b a n d i t ' s r e b e l l i o n takes on the same form as tha t of the s o c i a l band i t but he i s f o r g i v e n by God because the p r i c e f o r man's s i n s has been p a i d a l r e a d y by C h r i s t : The end of those th ings i s death . But now that you have been set f r e e from s i n and have become the s l a v e s of God, the r e t u r n you get i s s a n c t i f i c a t i o n and i t s end e t e r n a l l i f e . For the wages o f s i n i s death , but the f r e e g i f t of God i s e t e r n a l l i f e i n C h r i s t Jesus our L o r d . (Romans 6 :21 -23 ) * * 99 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS B . A . E . B i b l i o t e c a de Autores Espanoles M.B. Mor ley , G .S . and C. B r u e r t o n . The Chronology of Lope de Vega's Comedias. New York : The Modern Language A s s o c i a -t i o n of Amer ica , 1940. 100 BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Alarcon, Juan Ruiz de. El_ tejedor de Segovia. In Teatro completo de  Don Juan Ruiz de Alarc6n, ed. Eurelio Go"mez Abreu. 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