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Harmony and counterpoint in the works of Gerard Manley Hopkins Peters, Doreen Catherine 1978

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HARMONY AND COUNTERPOINT IN THE WORKS OF GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS by DOREEN CATHERINE PETERS B.A., Goshen College, 1961 B.Ed., University of Manitoba, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1978 (c) Doreen Catherine Peters, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of E n g l i s h The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1WS TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE 11 CHAPTER TWO 59 " t h e r o l l , the r i s e , the c a r o l , the c r e a t i o n " CHAPTER THREE 118 " t h e music of h i s m i n d " . . . " the r e h e a r s a l / Of own, of a b r u p t s e l f . . . " EPILOGUE 154 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 155 LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED 158 i v INTRODUCTION I t i s a "much n e g l e c t e d law of l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y — t h a t p o t e n t i a l genius can never become a c t u a l u n l e s s i t f i n d s or makes the Form which i t requires.""'" Throughout h i s l i f e , Gerard Manley Hopkins searched f o r the e x p r e s s i v e form h i s genius r e q u i r e d . Although he r e s p e c t e d the laws r e g u l a t i n g p o e t i c form, he f e l t compelled to f i n d new forms f o r the new rhythms t h a t beat i n the ear of h i s mind. The r e s t r i c t i o n s of the sonnet form, f o r example, which presented him w i t h an e x h i l a r a t i n g c h a l l e n g e i n h i s e a r l y m a t u r i t y , became too c o n f i n i n g f o r h i s i n v e n t i v e n e s s . S i m i l a r l y c o n f i n i n g to him were the l i m i t a t i o n s of common E n g l i s h rhythm. In a l e t t e r to Coventry Patmore, Hopkins s t a t e d h i s view of what c o n s t i t u t e s p o e t i c genius: every t r u e poet, I thought, must be o r i g i n a l and o r i g i n a l i t y a c o n d i t i o n of p o e t i c genius; so t h a t each poet i s l i k e a s p e c i e s i n nature (not an individuum genericum or specificum) and can never r e c u r . That nothing shd. be o l d or borrowed however cannot be.2 C. S. Lewis, The A l l e g o r y of Love (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1936), p. 250. 2 C. C. Abbott, ed., The L e t t e r s of Gerard Manley  Hopkins to Robert Bridges (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955), p. 263. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as LB. 2 Patmore was not p r e p a r e d f o r H o p k i n s 1 s t a r t l i n g o r i g i n -a l i t y : he found too much " i m p r a c t i c a b l e q u a r t z " among the " v e i n s o f r a r e g o l d . " H o p k i n s , however, i n h i s l a s t y e a r s , u n d e r s t o o d more f u l l y and a c c e p t e d f r e e l y the e x t e n t o f h i s o r i g i n a l i t y . In r e s p o n s e to B r i d g e s ' c r i t -i c i s m of " H e r a c l i t e a n F i r e , " he w r o t e , the e f f e c t of s t u d y i n g m a s t e r p i e c e s i s to make me admire and do o t h e r w i s e . So i t must be on e v e r y o r i g i n a l a r t i s t to some d e g r e e , on me to a marked d e g r e e . Perhaps then more r e a d i n g would o n l y r e f i n e my s i n g u l a r i t y , w h i c h i s not what you w a n t . i Hopkins admired much i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y : K e a t s , Words-w o r t h , B u r n s , M i l t o n , S h a k e s p e a r e . He found i n s p i r a -t i o n as w e l l i n the rhythms and t o n a l e f f e c t s of G r e e k , A n g l o - S a x o n , I t a l i a n , W e l s h , and I c e l a n d i c p o e t r y . A l t h o u g h t r a c e s o f i n f l u e n c e from these s o u r c e s can be found i n H o p k i n s ' p o e t r y , he t u r n e d e lsewhere f o r h i s d e e p e s t i n s p i r a t i o n . The c e n t r a l source and f o c u s o f H o p k i n s ' a r t i s t i c i n s p i r a t i o n were sounds i n n a t u r e , the rhythm and f l o w o f n a t u r a l s p e e c h , and the m e l o d i c and harmonic form o f m u s i c . In n a t u r a l sounds and u l t i -m a t e l y i n music Hopkins found the form h i s g e n i u s r e q u i r e d . The system of p o e t i c s which was t a k i n g shape d u r i n g the t ime he wrote h i s l e c t u r e notes on r h e t o r i c , was more C . C . A b b o t t , F u r t h e r L e t t e r s o f G e r a r d Manley  Hopkins (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952) , p . 222. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as F L . 3 f u l l y developed i n h i s P r e f a c e , and which we see a p p l i e d i n v a r i o u s ways i n the poetry of h i s e a r l y , middle, and l a t e m a t u r i t y , i s a system whose p r i n c i p l e s are based on music. Hopkins was i n t r o d u c e d to the study of music a t the age of s i x by an aunt who taught him the piano. At the end of h i s Oxford years (1867) he s t a r t e d to p l a y the v i o l i n . In 1874 Hopkins' i n t e r e s t i n the s t r u c t u r e of music l e d him to continue w i t h the piano. As h i s i n t e r e s t i n m u s i c a l composition developed, he concentrated on the study of music theory: harmony and c o u n t e r p o i n t . During the l a s t two decades of h i s l i f e , Hopkins' c r e a t i v e impulse g r a d u a l l y came to center on music. In h i s l e t t e r s to Bridges and Dixon, Hopkins d e s c r i b e d the song melodies and harmonies t h a t f i l l e d h i s mind, and the e l a t i o n he f e l t when the m u s i c a l s e t t i n g of a w e l l -l o v e d poem grew i n t o the r i g h t shape: I endeavour to make the under p a r t s each a f l o w i n g and independent melody and they cannot be independently invented, they must be f e l t f o r along a few c e r t a i n necessary l i n e s e n f o r c e d by the harmony. I t i s a s t o n i s h i n g to see them come.1 Hopkins was f r e q u e n t l y i m p a t i e n t w i t h the t h e o r i s t s . He found the standard forms of modern m u s i c a l time C. C. Abbott, ed., The Correspondence of Gerard  Manley Hopkins and R i c h a r d Watson Dixon (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955), p. 135. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as'CoD. 4 " s t i f l i n g . " ' ' " He chafed under the r u l e s governing harmony and c o u n t e r p o i n t , and threw the r u l e s a s i d e to develop new melodies and new harmonies. "I have invented a new s t y l e , " he wrote to Bridges i n 1880. He c o n f i d e n t l y i n s i s t e d t h a t h i s "new a r t " was "a k i n d of advance on 2 advanced modern music." C r i t i c s have r e c o g n i z e d Hopkins 1 m u s i c a l a b i l i t y and accomplishment, as w e l l as t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p to h i s p o e t i c s . W. H. Gardner, i n an appendix to h i s comprehensive two-volume study of Hopkins, e v a l u a t e s both the poet's depth of music knowledge and h i s innova-t i v e music t h e o r i e s . Gardner concludes t h a t d e s p i t e the poet's "genuine urge to composition," and h i s "musical i m a g i n a t i o n which, because i t i s based upon an under-st a n d i n g of the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g a l l a r t , i s i n 3 some measure independent of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l , " he was, 1LB, p. 120. 2 I b i d . , pp. 103 and 211-212. 3W. H. Gardner, Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889) :  A Study of P o e t i c I d i o s y n c r a s y i n R e l a t i o n t o P o e t i c  T r a d i t i o n , V o l . I I (London: M a r t i n Seeker & Warburg, 1958), p. 382. To s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s c o n c l u s i o n s , Gardner draws on analyses of Hopkins * songs made by fo u r competent musi-c o l o g i s t s : Dr. J . Dykes Bower (his a n a l y s i s appears i n the t h i r d appendix to CoD) f i n d s Hopkins' m u s i c a l ideas v a r i o u s l y " a t t r a c t i v e . . . i n t e r e s t i n g , " but a l s o says t h a t Hopkins' "inadequate knowledge of harmony prevented h i s making r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e use of them." (p. 388) Mr. L. H. Baggarley says t h a t the melodic s t r u c t u r e of one of Hopkins' songs seems "to i n d i c a t e an adventurous mind l o o k i n g forward to e f f e c t s i n music which were not used on any wide s c a l e u n t i l some time l a t e r . " (p. 389) Mr. Norman S u c k l i n g " b e l i e v e s t h a t Hopkins the musician was something more than a b l i n d l y -g r o p i n g , amateur e n t h u s i a s t . " (p. 391) John F. Waterhouse i s r e f e r r e d to elsewhere on these pages. n e v e r t h e l e s s , l i m i t e d i n e x p r e s s i n g h i s ideas m u s i c a l l y : t h a t music " w i l d and strange" which Hopkins heard when he "groped i n h i s s o u l ' s very v i s c e r a " and "thrummed the sweetest and most s e c r e t c a t -gut of the mind" i s a vaguely apprehended new world of musi c a l d e l i g h t which a wider t e c h -n i c a l accomplishment would have enabled him to o b j e c t i f y and make a u d i b l e to others.1 In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Volume II of h i s c r i t i c a l work, Gardner r e f e r s b r i e f l y to the r e l a t i o n s h i p music and poetry have i n Hopkins' t h i n k i n g : " h i s p r o s o d i c t h e o r i e s e s p e c i a l l y l a t e r i n l i f e , were always c l o s e l y bound up 2 w i t h h i s mu s i c a l t h e o r i e s . " Gardner does not, however, attempt to analyze t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . He says t h a t the J purpose of h i s appendix has been merely to r e v e a l the g e n e r a l t r e n d of h i s [Hopkins'] a c t i v i t i e s i n a s i s t e r a r t which i n t h i s case bore a s p e c i f i c and not simply a g e n e r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s main a r t , which was poetr y . ^ S e v e r a l chapters of Gardner's work d e a l w i t h Hopkins' "new rhythm," which, as Hopkins w r i t e s i n h i s P r e f a c e , i s found i n a l l "but the most monotonously r e g u l a r music. Gardner does not, however, approach h i s study w i t h a view to showing how the p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g t h i s new rhythm are s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to music. Gardner, I I , p. 391. 2 I b i d . , p. 101. 3 I b i d . , p. 389. 6 A major study of Hopkins and music, one on which Gardner was ab l e to draw f o r h i s a n a l y s i s , appeared i n the J u l y 1937 i s s u e of Music and L e t t e r s . In t h i s s i g n i -f i c a n t essay, John F. Waterhouse d i s c u s s e s Hopkins' m u s i c a l i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s , and progress i n formal music theory. He maintains t h a t the time and e x e r t i o n Hopkins spent i n music i s not poe t r y ' s l o s s ; i n s t e a d , i t i s p r e c i s e l y the i n t e r p l a y between the two a r t s t h a t made Hopkins' poetry what i t i s . Waterhouse b e l i e v e s , f o r example, t h a t the words and music of a poem w r i t t e n i n 1879, "Morning, Midday, and Evening S a c r i f i c e , " "grew together."''" He goes on to say t h a t j o i n i n g words and music i n t h i s simple, l y r i c a l way was c l e a r l y not the d i r e c t i o n e i t h e r Hopkins 1 p o e t r y o r h i s music took i n the ensuing y e a r s : " h i s p r o s o d i c t h e o r i e s l e d h i s poetry i n t o a new world where music c o u l d stand by and he l p but c o u l d not have j o i n e d to mutual advantage" u n l e s s he co u l d f i n d some way out of 2 the r e s t r i c t i n g laws of modern harmony and c o u n t e r p o i n t . Waterhouse suggests t h a t Hopkins found t h i s new freedom and i n s p i r a t i o n i n a n c i e n t Greek modal music: as a J e s u i t Hopkins was w e l l acquainted w i t h Gr e g o r i a n chant and the medieval modal system; but as a Greek s c h o l a r , and a remarkably i n t e l -l i g e n t and o r i g i n a l student of Greek l y r i c metres, he had a l s o found h i s way i n t o the John F. Waterhouse, "Hopkins and Music," Music  and L e t t e r s (18, 1937), p. 231. Waterhouse bases h i s s u p p o s i t i o n on the " f a c i l e metre and p a t t e r n " of the poem. 2 I b i d . , p. 231. 7 very problematical world of ancient Greek music and modes. . . . Hopkins' musical theorizing c e r t a i n l y sprang mainly from the Greek.^ •Given Hopkins' innovativeness i n both poetry and music, i t i s a small step, from t h i s point, to speculate, as Waterhouse does at the end of his essay, that Hopkins might perhaps, granted a longer l i f e , have turned consistently to his own verse and become a neo-Greek poet-musician, creating simultan-eously with the words a barless, unaccompanied enharmonic music. 2 This sort of speculation, however int e r e s t i n g , i s r e l a -t i v e l y f u t i l e . More to the point i s an e f f o r t to d i s -cover the function of music i n the "new world" of poetry Hopkins found. In an essay published i n 19 56, William L. Graves adds "an inter p r e t i v e postscript" to the studies of Waterhouse and Gardner. He traces the steps i n Hopkins' musical development much as the e a r l i e r c r i t i c s had done. He agrees that Hopkins' pote n t i a l as a composer exceeds his actual achievement, but he also finds that Hopkins "understood the complementary relationship between the 3 values of poetry and music," and that, therefore, i n Waterhouse, p. 23 4. 2 Ibid., p. 235. 3 William L. Graves, "Hopkins as Composer: an Interpretive Postscript," V i c t o r i a n Poetry (I, 1963), p. 146. 8 h i s a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n the two a r t s are both i n v o l v e d : the same s e n s i b i l i t y of ear which l e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n the d i r e c t i o n of music and, s p e c i -f i c a l l y , i t s melodic v i r t u e s , has y i e l d e d i n h i s p o e t r y perhaps those very q u a l i t i e s which he had hoped to achieve i n an a r t which remained e s s e n t i a l l y a l i e n t o him through the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and circumstance.1 Graves mentions a few of the b a s i c q u a l i t i e s o f Hopkins 1 p o e t r y t h a t are d e r i v e d from or t h a t p a r a l l e l the melodic s t y l e of h i s m u s i c a l compositions, but he g i v e s no example nor o f f e r s any d i s c u s s i o n . Waterhouse, Gardner, and Graves a l l agree t h a t Hopkin m u s i c a l t h e o r i z i n g i s very c l o s e l y bound up w i t h h i s p o e t i c s . None of these s t u d i e s , however, d i s c u s s the s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n any d e t a i l e d or comprehensive way. Waterhouse appends an i n t r i g u i n g p o s t s c r i p t to h i s study of Hopkins and music: I have i n t e n t i o n a l l y postponed f o r f u r t h e r and more d e t a i l e d study the most important aspect of a l l : the r e l a t i o n of Hopkins's m u s i c a l i n t e r e s t s to h i s prosody.2 T h i s proposed study has a p p a r e n t l y never appeared. The a f f i n i t y of music and poetry i n Hopkins' mind deserves a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P r e c i s e l y how d i d the sounds, the melodies, the music Hopkins heard i n f l u e n c e h i s p o e t i c a l t h e o r i z i n g ? I f music remained b a s i c a l l y an Graves, p. 155. Waterhouse, p. 235. a l i e n a rt to him, how did i t "stand by and help" him i n composing poems? A close reading of the numerous r e f e r -ences to music i n Hopkins' l e t t e r s indicates that his in t e r e s t was deeply serious. During the very time Hopkin was struggling to gain competence i n music, he found the natural, authentic expression of his creative impulse i n poetry, i n the fully-matured st y l e of "The Wreck of The  Deutschland," and i n the equally mature, although struc-t u r a l l y very d i f f e r e n t , s t y l e of "Harry Ploughman" and "Heraclitean F i r e . " The s i s t e r arts, music and poetry, share a number of common elements: both are structured by rhythmic, sounded movement. Their natural a f f i n i t y suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of similar a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s operating i n each of the art forms. If such common a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e can be found, then i t becomes an eminently reasonable procedure for a poet to b u i l d a system of poetics on musical p r i n c i p l e s . The term "music" used i n reference to poetry, then, i s "a quality . . . denoting a substan-t i a l analogy to, and i n many cases an actual influence from, the art of music.""'" When modes of expression are transferred from a musical to a verbal organization, the l i t e r a r y forms that r e s u l t are "musical." In t h i s study I propose that Hopkins found musical ideas and p r i n c i p l e s to be equally operable i n poetry, Northrop F r y e , ed., Sound and Poetry (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), p. x i . 10 t h a t h i s p o e t i c s based on m u s i c a l ideas and p r i n c i p l e s g r a d u a l l y developed and matured through a n a t u r a l process of growth, and t h a t t h i s development can be t r a c e d i n h i s w r i t i n g s - - j o u r n a l s , l e t t e r s , and poems. The development o f Hopkins' p o e t i c s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n th r e e s t a g e s : the e a r l y y ears through 1874 l a y the fo u n d a t i o n f o r a system of p o e t i c s based on music; the years of h i s e a r l y and middle m a t u r i t y , 187 5 t o 1884, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the composition of most of h i s " f e e l i n g a i r s , " e s t a b l i s h h i s p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s ; and the years of h i s l a t e m a t u r i t y , 1885 to 1889, d u r i n g which Greek modal music c a p t i v a t e d h i s mind, show the c u l m i n a t i o n of h i s p o e t i c a l system i n p o e t r y t h a t comes as c l o s e to the " c o n d i t i o n of music" as any poet has ever come. 11 CHAPTER ONE ". . . a changeless note . . . the a u t h e n t i c cadence . . ." Hopkins' e a r l y y e a r s , i n c l u d i n g h i s f i r s t seven years w i t h the S o c i e t y of Jesus, l a i d the found a t i o n f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s p o e t i c theory. The r e c o r d o f h i s thought i s found p a r t l y i n the s u r v i v i n g poems of t h i s p e r i o d , but p r i m a r i l y i n the d i a r i e s and the l a t e r j o u r n a l which ends a b r u p t l y on February 7, 1875. These w r i t i n g s show t h a t Hopkins' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mode of p e r c e p t i o n i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l and a n a l o g i c a l ; t h a t i s , phenomena per-c e i v e d by one of the senses are transformed by analogy i n t o phenomena p e r c e i v e d by another sense, o r , phenomena are transformed by a b s t r a c t i o n i n t o s e t s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Whatever the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , Hopkins' observa-t i o n c e n t e r s on form. These w r i t i n g s a l s o r e v e a l two b a s i c s h i f t s i n Hopkins' mode of p e r c e i v i n g the world: p e r c e p t i o n of s t a t i c form i s superceded by p e r c e p t i o n of form i n motion, and a predominant i n t e r e s t i n v i s u a l phenomena i s changed to an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n a u d i t o r y phenomena. Thus, Hopkins' i n t e r e s t i n a u d i t o r y form i n  motion g r a d u a l l y developed d u r i n g h i s e a r l y y e a r s . The e a r l y f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s p o e t i c theory, as found i n h i s 1873 "Lecture Notes on R h e t o r i c , " shows t h a t Hopkins was s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the forms of music to base 12 h i s p r i n c i p l e s of prosody on them. Hopkins 1 e a r l y w r i t i n g s abound wit h images employing a l l the senses; v i s u a l images, however, predominate. His keen, observant eye focusses on the sky (clouds, s t a r s , sunsets, b i r d s i n f l i g h t , t r e e s etched a g a i n s t the b l u e ) , on the f i e l d s and h i l l s (sods, hedges, f l o w e r s , r i v e r banks), and on faces (eyebrows, l i p s , h a t s , h a i r ) . The o b j e c t h i s eye p e r c e i v e s then undergoes a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n h i s mind. He p a i n t s i t w i t h f i n e l y - c h o s e n words, p r e c i s e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i t from others of i t s k i n d ( " s u l p h u r - c o l o u r 1 d l i l i e s , " "pure g o l d l i l y " ) ; he compares the o b j e c t to an u n l i k e one ( " l e v e l curds and whey sk y " ) ; or he a s s o c i a t e s the o b j e c t w i t h another of the senses ("one t r a n s l u c e n t c r e s t of tremulous f i l m . . . sway'd i n s i l k e n u n d u l a t i o n " ) . At times he sees the o b j e c t i n r e l a t i o n to o b j e c t s around i t , i n r e l a t i o n to foreground or backdrop: the h e i g h t s bounding the v a l l e y soon became a mingle of l i l a c and green, the f i r s t the c o l o u r of the rock, the other the grass c r e s t -i n g s , and seemed to group above i n crops and rounded b u t t r e s s e s , y e t to be c u t sharp i n h o r i z o n t a l or l e a n i n g planes below;! or he notes the i n t r i n s i c form of the o b j e c t : Humphrey House and Graham Storey, eds., The  J o u r n a l s and Papers of Gerard Manley Hopkins (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p. 177. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as JP. 13 oaks . . . a system of b r i e f contiguous and continuous tangents, whereas those of the cedar wd. roughly be c a l l e d h o r i z o n t a l s and those of the beech r a d i a t i n g but m o d i f i e d by droop and by a screw-set towards j u t t i n g p o i n t s . (JP_, p. 144) H i s mind d w e l l s on the o b j e c t or scene so t h a t the i n i t i a l , spontaneous f l u s h i n g of h i s v i s u a l sense f u n c t i o n s as the t r i g g e r to a complex i n t e l l e c t u a l a n a l y s i s . He i s con-s t a n t l y i n search of the p a t t e r n or form t h a t w i l l make the whole i n t e l l i g i b l e . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Hopkins' v i s u a l s e n s i b i l i t y a l s o found e x p r e s s i o n i n drawing and p a i n t i n g . Three s k e t c h -books, dated 1862-1868, c o n t a i n p e n c i l s t u d i e s of landscapes, cl o u d e f f e c t s , f l o w e r s , and t r e e s , some of which are f i n -i s h e d i n i n t r i c a t e d e t a i l . Sketches o u t l i n i n g the bare form of an o b j e c t and r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y to the e n t r i e s are s c a t -t e r e d through h i s notebooks. C. C. Abbott i s not impressed w i t h Hopkins' sketches. He says t h a t the impression l e f t by t h i s work (except f o r the e a r l y drawing [of the mermaids]) i s i n c o n t r a s t to t h a t conveyed by the poems. The a t t r a c t i o n l i e s i n the c a r e f u l , s u s t a i n e d ob-s e r v a t i o n of d e t a i l and b e a u t i f u l f i n i s h r a t h e r than i n b o l d grasp or f r e s h n e s s of approach. Here i s charm, not s t r e n g t h ; acceptance, n o t , d i s c o v e r y : and the charm has i n i t s m a l l s i g n of f u t u r e growth.1 True, the " s u s t a i n e d o b s e r v a t i o n of d e t a i l " i s remarkable f o r i t s own sake. Abbott's judgment, however, f a i l s to CoD, p. 168. In Appendix I I I , Abbott b r i e f l y comments on "G. M. H. as A r t i s t and M u s i c i a n . " 14 take into account one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of the sketches: they reveal the same a n a l y t i c a l cast of mind that i s noted i n Hopkins' verbal descriptions. Hopkins records the v i s u a l impression i n terms of i t s form, i n terms of the relationships of i t s parts. There i s a simple acceptance of the object as i t i s , but there i s also discovery of the true shape that marks the object's i d e n t i t y . For example, the texture, colour, and shape of rock worn by f a l l i n g water captures Hopkins' mind during a walking expedition on the I s l e of Man. Hopkins describes i n words and i n an outline sketch the action of the water and the shape produced by the action: round holes are scooped i n the rocks smooth and true l i k e turning:, they look l i k e the hollow of a vault or bowl. . . . A blade of water played on i t and shaping to i t spun off making a bold big white bow c o i l i n g i t s edge over and splaying into r i b s . (JP, p. 235) In both pencil and words, Hopkins seeks to discover the inherent form of the scene before him. On an e a r l i e r occasion, instressing the ruins of Netley Abbey, he i s "taken" primarily by the "predominance of the series 1, 2, 4, 8" and writes, i n an analysis of the experience, that t h i s deserves note. D i v i s i o n by 2 i s of course the simplest of a l l d i v i s i o n but t h i s w i l l not explain the choice of the four mould-ings for instance here, which are so taken for t h e i r own sake and c l e a r l y do not ar i s e from subdivision. (JP, p. 216) 15 An i l l u s t r a t i o n of "four p i l l a r s . . . each c a r r y i n g a moulding of f o u r r i b s " accompanies the e n t r y . Here Hopkins expresses i n mathematical terms, both v i s u a l l y and v e r b a l l y , what i s f o r him the g r e a t e s t beauty of the Abbey: i t s b a s i c , r e p e t i t i v e form. The a b s t r a c t beauty of a concr e t e o b j e c t i s the s u b j e c t of Hopkins' P l a t o n i c d i a l o g u e , "On the O r i g i n of Beauty," w r i t t e n i n 1865 w h i l e he was a student a t Oxford. In i t he concludes t h a t , a t the a b s t r a c t l e v e l , beauty i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p of p a r t s and of t h i n g s , of l i k e compared t o u n l i k e . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , however, does not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f y him. He t e n t a t i v e l y reaches toward a more complete d e f i n i t i o n t h a t would i n c l u d e "higher forms of beauty 2 . . . something m y s t i c a l . " In e f f e c t , h i s j o u r n a l i s the r e c o r d of t h i s search f o r the t r u t h about beauty. By 1868 h i s search had r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of the concept of "inscape": a m y s t i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o r e a l i t y whereby "the eye or mind" takes i n the "marked f e a t u r e s " of a c r e a t e d o b j e c t and p e r c e i v e s i t s t r u e i n d i v i d u a l form 3 and understands i t s meaning. In the r u i n s of N e t l e y Abbey, f o r example, Hopkins f i n d s t h i s deeper meaning i n the form: "a p a i r of p l a i n t h r e e - l i g h t l a n c e t s . . . """This r e f e r e n c e to the p r i n c i p l e of r e p e t i t i o n , a b a s i c m u s i c a l p r i n c i p l e , i s noteworthy. See pp. 50-51 of t h i s study. 2 J P , p. 95. 3 I b i d . , p. 170. d w e l l on the eye w i t h a s i m p l e d i r e c t i n s t r e s s of t r i n i t y . H o p k i n s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of the b l u e b e l l , i n h i s e n t r y of May 18, 1870, s i m i l a r l y d w e l l s on the meaning of the f o r m : I do n o t t h i n k I have ever seen a n y t h i n g more b e a u t i f u l than the b l u e b e l l I have been l o o k i n g a t . I know the beauty o f our L o r d by i t . I [ t s i n s c a p e ] i s [mixed o f ] s t r e n g t h and g r a c e , l i k e an ash [ t r e e . ] (JP, p . 199) • W. H . Gardner d i s c u s s e s the r e l i g i o u s d i m e n s i o n the term " i n s c a p e " has f o r H o p k i n s . I n s c a p e , he s a y s , i s something more than a d e l i g h t f u l s e n s o r y i m -p r e s s i o n : i t [ i s ] an i n s i g h t , by D i v i n e g r a c e , i n t o the u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y — s e e i n g the " p a t t e r n , a i r , melody" i n t h i n g s f r o m , as i t were , G o d ' s s i d e . 2 T h u s , i n H o p k i n s ' d e v e l o p i n g t h o u g h t , form and meaning f u s e to become a s i n g l e e n t i t y , an e n t i t y which i n essence i s a r e v e l a t i o n of G o d . The f u l l i m p o r t of an o b j e c t ' s i n s c a p e , i n H o p k i n s ' e x p e r i e n c e , comes by way o f the s e n s e s . In h i s e n t r y o f May 9, 1871, he w r i t e s : The b l u e b e l l s i n your hand b a f f l e you w i t h t h e i r i n s c a p e , made to e v e r y s e n s e : i f you draw your f i n g e r s t h r o u g h them they are l o d g e d and s t r u g g l e / w i t h a shock of wet h e a d s ; the l o n g s t a l k s rub and c l i c k and f l a t t e n to a f a n on one another l i k e your f i n g e r s themselves would when you passed the palms h a r d a c r o s s one a n o t h e r , making a b r i t t l e rub and j o s t l e J P , p . 215. G a r d n e r , I , p . 27. 17 l i k e the noise of a hurdle strained by leaning against; then there i s the f a i n t honey smell and i n the mouth the sweet gum when you b i t e them. But t h i s i s easy, i t i s the eye they b a f f l e . They give one a fancy of panpipes and of some wind instrument with stops. (JP, p. 209) Hopkins learns to know the blu e b e l l intimately by touching i t , f e e l i n g i t s wetness, hearing the b r i t t l e n e s s of i t s st a l k s , smelling and tasting i t . T a c t i l e and auditory images interlock; images of motion ("struggle," "strain") i n t e n s i f y the experience. And through the whole descrip-t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when he goes on to analyze the inscape v i s u a l l y , his imagination brings a host of comparisons to bear on the insig h t . The i n i t i a l sensory impression i s thus transformed i n Hopkins' mind: his thinking moves from a bea u t i f u l object to the form which marks i t s nature. In his e a r l i e s t d i a r i e s , Hopkins i s most aware of the colour and shape of v i s u a l phenomena. As time goes on, he adds texture to the verbal r e a l i z a t i o n of an object. Then, on May 14, 1870, he records an important discovery: when the wind tossed them [the chestnuts] they plunged and crossed one another without losing t h e i r inscape. (Observe that motion mult i p l i e s  inscape only when inscape i s discovered, other-wise i t d i s f i g u r e s ) . (JP, p. 199) Trees tossed by the wind r e t a i n t h e i r inscape but express i t i n multiple variations. Thus motion adds the pulsation of l i f e to s t a t i c form. Several months before making th i s 18 observation, Hopkins describes a deep experience of motion e l i c i t e d under d i f f e r e n t circumstances: I had always taken the sunset and the sun as quite out of gauge with each other, as indeed p h y s i c a l l y they are . . . but today I inscaped them together and made the sun the true eye and ace of the whole, as i t i s . It was a l l active and tossing out l i g h t and started as strongly forward from the f i e l d as a long stone or a boss i n the knop of the chalice-stem: i t i s indeed by s t a l l i n g i t so that i t f a l l s into scape with the sky. (JP, p. 196) The motion Hopkins observes here i s a construct within his own mind: the sun i s not physically active, nor i s he describing the gradual change of l i g h t and colour i n the sunset. Motion which "multiplies inscape," then, may be either actual, v i s i b l e motion, or the r e l a t i o n -ship of parts so integrated that one 1s eye perceives the whole to be f u l l of motion. More and more frequently, afte r the May 14 discovery, Hopkins' eye and mind are caught by v i s u a l motion.- Often the movement i s caused by wind, as when clouds scud across the sky: the bright woolpacks that p e l t before a gale i n a clear sky are i n the t u f t and you can see the wind unravelling and rending them f i n e r than any sponge t i l l within one easy reach overhead they are morselled to nothing and consumed. (JP, p. 204) Hopkins also describes with meticulous d e t a i l the move-ment of birds i n f l i g h t , the lacing flashes of lightning, and waves c r e s t i n g and b r e a k i n g . The i d e a of mot ion becomes i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the c o n c e p t o f i n s c a p e , so t h a t Hopkins w r i t e s , " I r e a d a b r o a d c a r e l e s s i n s c a p e f l o w i n g t h r o u g h -2 o u t , " and "I caught an i n s c a p e as f l o w i n g and w e l l marked 3 almost as the f r o s t i n g on g l a s s and s l a b s . " He a l s o d e -s c r i b e s "wrought b r a s s c h a n c e l gates w i t h a r u n n i n g i n s c a p e . " S e v e r a l c r i t i c s have noted the s i g n i f i c a n c e of H o p k i n s ' s e n s i t i v e awareness of m o t i o n . W. H . Gardner c o n s i d e r s t h i s i n t e r e s t to be the main r e a s o n why Hopkins 5 t u r n e d away from p a i n t i n g to the p r o g r e s s i v e a r t s . A r t h u r M i z e n e r says t h a t an acute sense o f movement was f o r Hopkins the h e a r t of r e a l i t y , and the d r a m a t i c b a l a n c e o f movements the t h i n g he responded to most ; i t was, f o r h i m , f u l f i l l m e n t . ^ Hopkins i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the s c i e n t i f i c a s p e c t of t h e s e movements as w e l l as the s e n s o r y elements t h a t i n i t i a t e the e x p e r i e n c e of i n s c a p e . A t the c o n c l u s i o n of a p a r t i c u -l a r l y d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o l o u r s , s h a p e s , and movement o f a heavy s e a , he s a y s , " T h i s i s m e c h a n i c a l r e f l e c -t i o n and i s the same as o p t i c a l : i n d e e d a l l n a t u r e i s m e c h a n i c a l , b u t then i t i s not seen t h a t mechanics c o n t a i n t h a t w h i c h i s beyond m e c h a n i c s . " (JP, p . 252) T h i s i n t e r e s t f i n d s a p a r a l l e l i n H o p k i n s ' i n t e r e s t i n the " s c i e n c e " of m u s i c , as w e l l as i n the m e c h a n i c a l a s p e c t of h i s p o e t i c method. 2 J P , p . 218. 3 I b i d . , p . 227. 4 I b i d . , p . 255. 5 G a r d n e r , I , p . 15. ^ A r t h u r M i z e n e r , " V i c t o r i a n H o p k i n s , " i n G e r a r d  Manley H o p k i n s , e d . , The Kenyon C r i t i c s ( N o r f o l k , C o n n : New D i r e c t i o n s Books , 1945), p . 112. 20 Hopkins' journal record supports Mizener's statement. Once Hopkins has understood that "motion m u l t i p l i e s i n -scape," his a n a l y t i c a l mind perceives motion everywhere. An extension of Hopkins' concept of motion that gradually c r y s t a l l i z e d i n his thinking, i s the "selving" action of natural phenomena; that i s , the expression of the s e l f , of the individual's inscape. Hopkins uses the word "behaviour" to s i g n i f y t h i s action. Four uses of "behaviour" i n the March-to-June entries of 1871 estab-l i s h t h i s concept: the behaviour of the opening clusters [of sycamores] i s very beautiful and when f u l l y opened not the single leaves but the whole t u f t i s strongly templed l i k e the b e l l y of a drum or b e l l ; (JP, p. 2 06) a simple behaviour of the cloudscape I have not r e a l i z e d before. Before a N. E. wind great bars or r a f t e r s of cloud a l l the morning and i n a manner a l l the day marching across the sky i n regular rank and with equal spaces between; (JP, p. 208) a b e a u t i f u l instance of inscape sided on the s l i d e , that i s / successive sidings of one i n -scape, i s seen i n the behaviour of the f l a g flower from the shut bud to the f u l l flowing: each term you can di s t i n g u i s h i s i n i t s e l f [beautiful] and of course i f the whole 'behaviour' were gathered up and so s t a l l e d i t would have a beauty of a l l the higher degree; (JP, p. 211) i t i s not that inscape does not govern the behaviour of things i n slack and decay as one can see even i n the pining of the skin i n the old and even i n a skeleton. (JP, p. 211) In the f i r s t example, Hopkins sees the behaviour of the opening leaf clusters as a progressive movement i n which the mature t u f t i s the f i n a l act. In the t h i r d example, Hopkins focusses on the successive acts i n the opening of the flower, and poses the p o s s i b i l i t y of " s t a l l i n g " these acts (the " s l i d e " of successive inscapes) to per-ceive the whole 'behaviour'" simultaneously. This counter-pointing of inscapes would express a higher degree of beauty than would any single inscape. In example four, Hopkins indicates that, i n decay as well as i n growth, successive acts are governed by the basic form that ex-presses the s e l f . Successive action i n a cloudscape, described i n example two, i s not progressive i n the same way as i t i s i n organic growth and decay: the cloudscape expresses kaleidoscopic action, a flux of inscapes not governed by a single basic form. The inscape of each moment i s beautiful i n i t s e l f without being related to a graduated s l i d e of preceding and succeeding acts. The main point, however, i s that inscape, by vi r t u e of being the "selving" act of an object, contains motion. While Hopkins 1 eye i s the major vehicle by means of which he grasps the selfhood of an object, his ear i s constantly engaged as well. Hopkins hears, absorbs, and analyzes both natural and a r t i f i c i a l sounds: the sounds of wind and water, birds and b e l l s ; the sounds of words; the voices of people talking and singing; songs and music. For Hopkins, the ear i s "the s i s t e r sense," and, next to the eye, i d e n t i f i e s the beauty that awakens the mind and emotions to perceive inscape and to experience i t s 22 in s t r e s s . In the poem that records the act of his de-tachment from the world, Hopkins places the organs of sound—-the ear and the l i p s — i n the prime po s i t i o n : Elected Silence, sing to me And beat upon my whorled ear, Pipe me to pastures s t i l l and be The music that I care to hear. Shape nothing, l i p s ; be lovely-dumb: I t i s the shut, the curfew sent From there where a l l surrenders come Which only makes you eloquent.1 The most severe penance Hopkins can i n f l i c t upon himself i s d e l i b e r a t e l y shutting his eyes to the beauties around him and putting aside the music he loves. Hopkins' ear i s tuned to take i n the sounds of nature. The c r i e s and songs of birds, i n p a r t i c u l a r , bear his care-f u l scrutiny. At times he simply notes the timbre of the i r c r i e s : Peewits . . . pronounce peewit pretty d i s -t i n c t l y , sometimes querulously, with a s l i g h t m e t a l l i c tone l i k e a bat's cry. (JP, p. 24) Cormorants . . . flew by screaming. (JP_, p. 221) We saw a vast multitude of s t a r l i n g s making an unspeakable jangle. (JP, p. 261) References to the song of the cuckoo, i n which not only the q u a l i t y of the sound but also the shape of i t s song W. H. Gardner and N. H. MacKenzie, eds., Poems of  Gerard Manley Hopkins, 4th ed. (London: Oxford University Press, 1967), p. 31. Hereafter c i t e d as Poems. The t i t l e of t h i s poem i s "The Habit of Perfection." s t r i k e s h i s e a r , r e c u r a g a i n and a g a i n . Hopkins notes the mechanics o f the s o n g : Now l i k e the b i r d t h a t shapes a l o n e A t u r n of seven notes or f i v e . . . . Cuckoo c a l l s cuckoo up the wood, F i v e notes or s e v e n , l a t e and few. (Poems, p . 1 2 0 ) 1 The cuckoo has changed h i s t u n e : the two n o t e s can s c a r c e l y be t o l d a p a r t . (JP, p . 191) A l a t e r a n a l y s i s of the c u c k o o ' s song i n a l e t t e r to B r i d g e s , w r i t t e n June 5, 1882, i s t e c h n i c a l l y more com-p l e x and shows a remarkable s e n s i t i v i t y of e a r : I have been s t u d y i n g the c u c k o o ' s s o n g . . . . I f i n d i t to v a r y much. In the f i r s t p l a c e cuckoos do n o t always s i n g (or the same cuckoo does n o t always s ing) a t the same p i t c h or i n the same k e y ; t h e r e a r e , so to. s a y , a l t o cuckoos and t e n o r c u c k o o s . In p a r t i c u l a r they s i n g lower i n f l y i n g and the i n t e r v a l i s then a l s o l e a s t , i t b e i n g an e f f o r t to them to s t r i k e the h i g h e r n o t e , which i s t h e r e f o r e more v a r i a b l e than the o t h e r . When they p e r c h they s i n g wrong a t f i r s t , I mean they c o r r e c t t h e i r f i r s t t r y , r a i s i n g the upper n o t e . The i n t e r v a l v a r i e s as much as from l e s s than a minor t h i r d to n e a r l y as much as a common f o u r t h and t h i s l a s t i s the tune when the b i r d i s i n l o u d and good s o n g . 2 The a c u t e n e s s of H o p k i n s ' ear i s no l e s s than a s t o u n d i n g He was a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h h a l f and q u a r t e r t o n e s , as w e l l as shades of p i t c h d i f f e r e n c e . I t i s no wonder, I t i s not c l e a r why Hopkins hears " f i v e notes or s e v e n , " u n l e s s these are the u s u a l s e r i e s of two-note songs the cuckoo s i n g s . 2 L B , p p . 145-146. 24 then, t h a t h i s a u r a l g i f t urged him to f i n d words t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t e d as s u b t l y between sounds as the p i t c h e s of a f i n e l y - g r a d e d s c a l e . Hopkins' ear was a l s o c a p t i v a t e d by the melodious beauty of the cuckoo's notes: Sometimes I hear the cuckoo w i t h wonderful c l e a r and plump and f l u t y notes: i t i s when the hollow of a r i s i n g ground conceives them and palms them up and throws them out, l i k e blowing i n t o a b i g humming ewer. (JP, p. 23 2) An undated fragment of p o e t r y c l e a r l y echoes the elements of t h i s experience: Repeat t h a t , r e p e a t , Cuckoo, b i r d , and open ear w e l l s , h e a r t - s p r i n g s , d e l i g h t f u l l y sweet, With a b a l l a d , w i t h a b a l l a d , a rebound O f f t r u n d l e d timber and scoops of the h i l l s i d e ground, hollow hollow hollow ground: The whole landscape f l u s h e s on a sudden a t a sound.1 Hopkins a l s o t r a n s c r i b e s the profuse melodies of the n i g h t i n g a l e and the l a r k i n t o l i n e s t h a t c o n t a i n the e c s t a s y of both s i n g e r and poet: We heard a n i g h t i n g a l e u t t e r a few s t r a i n s — s t r i n g s of very l i q u i d g u r g l e s . (JP, p. 243) Or ever the e a r l y s t i r r i n g s of s k y l a r k Might cover the neighbour downs wit h a span of s i n g i n g . (JP, p. 50) He shook wi t h r a c i n g notes the standing a i r . (JP, p. 65) . . . the flown s k y l a r k . . . had sown w i t h notes The unenduring f a l l o w s of the heaven. (JP, p. 66) 1Poems, p. 183, 25 A decade l a t e r , Hopkins i s able to translate the lark's song into the following l i n e s of fresh poetic beauty: Teevo cheevo cheevio chee: 0 where, what can that be? Weedio-weedio: there again! 1 So tiny a t r i c k l e of song-strain. He f i r s t transcribes the actual sound of the song ("teevo, cheevo . . . " ) , and then, by analogy, transforms the burst of melody into "a t r i c k l e of song-strain," a tiny stream of l i q u i d song. In the remaining l i n e s of the poem, Hopkins enlarges the meaning of the bird's song by seeing i t i n r e l a t i o n to the bird's movement i n f l i g h t ( c i r c l i n g , hover-ing, plummeting down) and i n r e l a t i o n to i t s backdrop: Today the sky i s two and two With white strokes and strains of the blue. The blue wheat-acre i s underneath And the corn i s corded and shoulders i t s sheaf, The ear i n milk, lush the sash, And crush-silk poppies aflash, The blood-gush blade-gash Flame-rash rudred Bud s h e l l i n g or broad-shed Tatter-tangled and dingle-a-dangled Dandy-hung dainty head. In both the swift, darting f l i g h t and the bursting beauty of sky and f i e l d , Hopkins finds a p a r a l l e l to the expres-sion of joy i n the bird's song. He catches the l i l t of the song i n the alternating duple and t r i p l e rhythmic feet (cheevo, cheevio), a rhythm he then repeats through-out the remaining l i n e s . This rhythm creates a d e l i g h t f u l Poems, p. 176. t e n s i o n t h a t f u n c t i o n s as another p a r a l l e l to the e c s t a s y of the b i r d ' s song. In words t h a t can be a p p l i e d here, C. C. Abbott d e s c r i b e s the development of Hopkins' a b i l -i t y to t r a n s c r i b e v e r b a l l y , w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p o e t i c beauty, what he p e r c e i v e d through the senses: T h i s q u a l i t y of sensuous apprehension, l a t e r to be d i s c i p l i n e d and enlarged by c o n c e n t r a t i o n and u n i t i n g with p o e t i c v i s i o n c e r t a i n a t t r i -butes of p a i n t e r and musician, i s to be one of the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Hopkins' poetry.1 By 1876, when Hopkins wrote the l i n e s of the u n f i n i s h e d "Woodlark," the e f f e c t of t h i s d i s c i p l i n e can a l r e a d y be 2 seen. Hopkins hears music not onl y i n the o b v i o u s l y melo-dious songs of b i r d s , but i n other sounds of nature as w e l l . H i s d i a r i e s of 1864-65 c o n t a i n fragments of ve r s e i n which he compares b i r d s ' songs to the sounds of wind and water: Or e l s e t h e i r cooings came from bays of t r e e s , L i k e a contented wind, or g e n t l e shocks Of f a l l i n g water. T h i s and a l l of these We tuned to one key and made t h e i r harmonies. (JP, p. 34) The y o u t h f u l poet d i s c o v e r s t h a t the m u s i c a l e f f e c t of f l o w i n g water i s i n t e n s i f i e d when he p e r c e i v e s i t w i t h h i s ear alone; t h a t i s , when s i g h t does not i n t e r f e r e LB, p. xxv. 2 Two poems of 1877, "Spring" and "The Sea and the Sk y l a r k , " are examples of t h i s d i s c i p l i n e d t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the song of b i r d s . 27 w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n of sound: I hear a n o i s e of waters drawn away, And, headed always downwards, with l e s s sounding Work through a cover'd copse whose hollow rounding Rather to ear then eye shews where they s t r a y , Making them double-musical. (JP, p. 54) -In these l i n e s , w r i t t e n i n 1865, the poet does not t r a n -s c r i b e the a c t u a l music of the water, and consequently, the d e s c r i p t i o n remains l a r g e l y mechanical. S e v e r a l e f f e c -t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s of thunder, another sound i n nature to which Hopkins responds, are contained i n h i s l a t e r j o u r n a l : a thunder storm w i t h hard r a i n , the thunder m u s i c a l and l i k e gongs and r o l l i n g i n g r e a t f l o o r s of sound; (JP, p. 183) a thunderstorm on a g r e a t e r s c a l e — h u g e rocky clouds l i t w i t h l i v i d l i g h t , h a i l and r a i n t h a t f l o o d e d the garden, and thunder r i n g i n g and echoing round l i k e b r a s s . (JP, p. 212) In these d e s c r i p t i o n s , a p t l y - c h o s e n images drawn from o r c h e s t r a l music express an emotional response to the sound as w e l l as the f a c t and q u a l i t y of the sound i t s e l f . In a sonnet of 1865, Hopkins i n d i c a t e s t h a t the sounds of nature c o n t a i n a s p i r i t u a l l e v e l of r e a l i t y as w e l l . He sees i n the upward c i r c l i n g movement of the b i r d and the bat, and i n the "changeless note" each s i n g s , a s p i r i t u a l dimension t h a t serves as an analogue to ex-p r e s s h i s l o v e f o r God. In the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a c t i o n of the b i r d and the b a t — t h e y f l y and s i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y — motion and sound fuse to mark t h e i r i d e n t i t y and the 28 purpose of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e : L e t me be t o Thee as the c i r c l i n g b i r d , Or b a t w i t h t e n d e r and a i r - c r i s p i n g wings T h a t shapes i n h a l f - l i g h t h i s d e p a r t i n g r i n g s From b o t h o f whom a c h a n g e l e s s note i s h e a r d . I t i s the sound of the b i r d and the b a t t h a t c a p t u r e s H o p k i n s ' i m a g i n a t i o n . In the next t e n l i n e s of the poem Hopkins d e v e l o p s h i s thought i n c u m u l a t i v e f a s h i o n , u s i n g e i g h t f u r t h e r terms to p a r a l l e l "a c h a n g e l e s s n o t e . " Of t h e s e , "my m u s i c , " " t h e a u t h e n t i c c a d e n c e , " and " t h e dominant of my range and s t a t e " express i n t h r e e v e r b a l v a r i a t i o n s H o p k i n s ' p e r s o n a l i n s c a p e : I have found my music i n a common word , T r y i n g each p l e a s u r a b l e t h r o a t t h a t s i n g s And e v e r y p r a i s e d sequence of sweet s t r i n g s , And know i n f a l l i b l y which I p r e f e r r e d . The a u t h e n t i c cadence was d i s c o v e r e d l a t e Which ends those o n l y s t r a i n s t h a t I a p p r o v e , And o t h e r s c i e n c e a l l gone out of date And minor sweetness s c a r c e made mention o f : I have found the dominant o f my range and s t a t e — L o v e , 0 my God, to c a l l Thee Love and L o v e . ^ The r e c i p r o c a l m o t i o n of l o v e between the poet and God i s the s i n g l e genuine e x p r e s s i o n of the p o e t ' s b e i n g (h is " range and s t a t e " ) . I t i s the r e s t i n g or home p o s i t i o n ("dominant") i n which a l l d i s s o n a n c e s are r e s o l v e d and harmony i s f o u n d . Love i n c l u d e s b o t h mot ion (the a c t of l o v i n g , e x e m p l i f i e d by the b i r d o r b a t c i r c l i n g h i g h e r and h i g h e r , i n " d e p a r t i n g r i n g s " ) and sound ( c a l l i n g G o d ' s Poems, p . 28. The emphasis t h r o u g h o u t i s m i n e . name, L o v e , e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e " c h a n g e l e s s n o t e " ) . H o p k i n s s a y s he d i s c o v e r e d t h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s e s s e n t i a l b e i n g r e c e n t l y , a f t e r t e s t i n g a l l t h e v o i c e s and m e l o d i e s t h a t he f o u n d p l e a s i n g and good, o r , i n t h e terms o f t h e a n a l o g y he i s u s i n g , a f t e r m o d u l a t i n g t h r o u g h v a r i o u s f o r e i g n k e y s , a l t h o u g h b e a u t i f u l i n t h e m s e l v e s , t h e m u s i c f i n a l l y comes t o r e s t i n i t s d o m i n a n t k e y . H i s d i s c o v e r y p u t an end t o a l l o t h e r "music" i n h i s l i f e : a c t i v i t i e s l e g i t i -mate i n t h e m s e l v e s ( " s t r a i n s t h a t I a p p r o v e " ) , s t u d i e s f o r m e r l y d e s i r e d o r s t i m u l a t i n g ( "other s c i e n c e a l l gone o u t o f d a t e " ) , and p o s s i b l y t h e l o v e o f a woman ("minor s w e e t n e s s " ) b a r e l y a c k n o w l e d g e d ( " s c a r c e made m e n t i o n o f " ) . H o p k i n s f i n d s , i n h i s l o v e f o r God, b o t h h i s t r u e i d e n t i t y and h i s p u r p o s e f o r b e i n g . The r e i t e r a t i o n o f " s o n g , " "melody," " m u s i c , " " n o t e s , " and "harmony" i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e sounds o f n a t u r e i n d i -c a t e s t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h H o p k i n s 1 t h o u g h t was d e v e l -o p i n g d u r i n g h i s e a r l y y e a r s . On t h e one hand, he p e r -c e i v e d m u s i c , b o t h a c t u a l and v i r t u a l , i n t h e s e s o u n d s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h i s m u s i c i n i t i a t e d a p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e o f s u c h d e p t h , i n t e n s i t y , and m a g n i t u d e t h a t i t became t h e most f u n c t i o n a l metaphor f o r a l l t h e f a c e t s o f H o p k i n s ' l i f e and e x p e r i e n c e . F o r t h i s r e a o n s , " L e t me be t o Thee as t h e c i r c l i n g b i r d " i s one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t poems o f H o p k i n s ' e a r l y p e r i o d . H o p k i n s ' e a r i s t u n e d as w e l l t o o t h e r sounds c o n -s t a n t l y s u r r o u n d i n g him: t h e sounds o f words, and t h e v o i c e s of people speaking and s i n g i n g . His e a r l i e s t note-book e n t r i e s d e a l w i t h the o r i g i n of words, n o t a b l y w i t h the onomatopoetic theory which r e l a t e s a u d i t o r y image t o word. Words w i t h d i s t i n c t i v e l y common sounds such as g r i e f , and g r u f f , or crack, creak, croak, and crake, Hopkins main-t a i n s , are r e l a t e d by sound, and t h e r e f o r e , most probably have a common o r i g i n i n an a c t u a l sound now echoed by the word. 1 Hopkins' a t t e n t i v e n e s s to the a u r a l s t r u c t u r e of speech i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n h i s study of north - c o u n t r y , Welsh, and I r i s h d i a l e c t s . H is r e f e r e n c e s to these d i a -l e c t s f r e q u e n t l y focus on the p e c u l i a r i n t o n a t i o n of words, the drawing out of diphthongs, and the f l a t t e n i n g of con-2 sonants. In a n a l y z i n g the sounds of speech, Hopkins i s concerned about accuracy and p r e c i s i o n , and o b v i o u s l y takes p r i d e i n h i s a b i l i t y to d e t e c t even s l i g h t v a r i a -t i o n s i n sound from one speech p a t t e r n to another. In an amusing note soon a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l a t Roehampton, he analyzes the v a r i a t i o n s i n L a t i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n of a number of J e s u i t f a t h e r s . On one o c c a s i o n , a f t e r con-v e r s i n g w i t h a Maltese b r o t h e r , he w r i t e s , "Rather t o my h u m i l i a t i o n , I found g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n h e a r i n g the 3 g u t t u r a l s (gh, kh, and another there i s ) . " In the e a r l y poems the v o i c e s of people are o f t e n heard as they p l e a d , 1 J P , p. 5. 2 I b i d . , p. 191. 3 I b i d . , p. 259. 31 pray, c r y , sob, moan, breathe, whisper, laugh, and p r a i s e . Hopkins notes and d e l i g h t s i n the spontaneous song of c h i l d r e n and.of men a t work. 1 Hopkins' i n t e r e s t i n and l o v e f o r music can be i n f e r r e d from the r e f e r e n c e s to music i n the e a r l y d i a r i e s and j o u r n a l s , although these r e f e r e n c e s are r e l a t i v e l y few. V i s i t s to the Kensington museum, f o r example, e l i c i t de-s c r i p t i o n s and l i s t s of medieval m u s i c a l instruments. References to c o n c e r t s Hopkins attended and songs he heard i n d i c a t e h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of f o l k s o n g , the l i e d e r of Schumann, piano music, canons, and Gregorian chant. One of these r e f e r e n c e s , a p a r t i c u l a r l y f r e s h and spontaneous response to v i s u a l beauty, shows Hopkins' s y n e s t h e t i c bent o f mind: "the warm greyness o f the day, the r i v e r , the s p r i n g green, and the cuckoo wanted a canon by which 2 to harmonise and round them i n . " Hopkins' s p e c i a l fond-ness of v o c a l music i s suggested by h i s comparatively, f r e -quent r e f e r e n c e to songs. About h i s p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y to s i n g he maintains a modest s i l e n c e . That he had t h i s a b i l i t y and used i t Father Lahey confirms i n h i s biography of Hopkins: h i s c o r r e c t ear and c l e a r , sweet v o i c e made him an easy and g r a c e f u l master of the t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h , Jacobean, and I r i s h a i r s . T h i s l o v e f o r music never l e f t him, and years afterwards, i n the S o c i e t y of Jesus, he used o f t e n to appear JP., pp. 133, 197, and 221. 2 I b i d . , p. 135. 32 at t h e i r m u s i c a l entertainments to s i n g , l i k e W i l l i a m Blake, the songs he had composed and put to music. During h i s Oxford years, Hopkins' l o v e f o r music l e d him to begin a study of the v i o l i n . He w r i t e s to B r i d g e s , "I have a l s o begun the v i o l i n and i f you w i l l w r i t e a t r i o o r q u a r t e t I w i l l some day take the f i r s t or second 2 p a r t i n i t . " Hopkins makes no f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e e i t h e r t o h i s study of the v i o l i n or t o h i s d e s i r e to perform. Although h i s l e t t e r s t o Br i d g e s i n d i c a t e a p e r s o n a l p r e f -erence f o r the smooth, r i c h timbre of the v i o l i n above the sharp snapping of the piano, the next r e f e r e n c e to h i s p e r s o n a l e f f o r t s , seven years a f t e r he began to study the v i o l i n , shows him t u r n i n g to the piano: "I myself am l e a r n i n g the piano now, s e l f - t a u g h t a l a s J not f o r execu-t i o n ' s sake but to be independent of others and l e a r n some-t h i n g about music." Hopkins' i n t e r e s t i n music had come to focus on i t s s t r u c t u r e . Except f o r a s i n g l e ambiguous, p o s s i b l y m e t a p h o r i c a l , r e f e r e n c e , Hopkins does not mention h i s i n t e r e s t i n m u s i c a l composition i n h i s j o u r n a l s . In the e n t r y of September 6, 1874, a f t e r being discouraged by h i s Rector from s t u d y i n g Welsh, he says, "At the same time my music seemed to come to an end." In i t s context, G. F. Lahey, Gerard Manley Hopkins, (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1931), p. 2. 2LB, p. 18. 3 I b i d . , p. 30. 4 J P , p. 258. "my music" c o u l d be taken l i t e r a l l y to mean the melodies he was composing; however,, st a n d i n g i n i s o l a t i o n , as i t does, from any other r e f e r e n c e to a c t u a l music, i t seems r a t h e r to mean e i t h e r h i s c r e a t i v e impulse or h i s z e s t f o r l i v i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e f e r e n c e s to m u s i c a l composi-t i o n i n h i s l e t t e r s to B r i d g e s , w r i t t e n a few years a f t e r h i s r e t u r n to w r i t i n g poetry, s t r o n g l y suggest t h a t h i s mind had been deeply engaged wi t h i t f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of time. On October 25, 1879, f o r example, he w r i t e s , Do you l i k e Weber? For p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e and f e l l o w f e e l i n g I l i k e him of a l l musicians b e s t a f t e r P u r c e l l . I f e e l as i f I cd. have composed h i s music i n another sphere. I do not f e e l t h a t of Handel or Mozart or Beethoven. Moreover I do not t h i n k h i s g r e a t genius i s a p p r e c i a t e d . x Not o n l y does Hopkins here express deep a p p r e i c a t i o n f o r the works of f i v e g r e a t composers, he a l s o r e f e r s to h i s a f f i n i t y f o r Weber's music i n terms t h a t suggest h i s own s e r i o u s a s p i r a t i o n s as a composer. In h i s l e t t e r of September 5, 1 8 8 0 , he c r i t i c i z e s the harmonization h i s s i s t e r wrote f o r one of h i s own melodies i n a manner t h a t shows h i s s e r i o u s concern to r e a l i z e a p o e t i c i d e a i n """LB, pp. 9 8 - 9 9 . To e l u c i d a t e the k i n s h i p Hopkins f e e l s f o r Weber, Abbott says t h a t Weber "was a c o n s c i e n t i o u s Roman C a t h o l i c , s e r i o u s and devout i n d i s p o s i t i o n : hence the ' v i r g i n sweetness and u n e a r t h l y beauty' of Agatha i n Der F r e i s c h u t z . . . . C r i t i c s remark on h i s o r i g i n a l i t y ('complete s i m p l i c i t y , combined w i t h complete n o v e l t y ' ) , on h i s s u b t l e s k i l l i n o r c h e s t r a t i o n , but above a l l on the u n r i v a l l e d f r e s h n e s s and v a r i e t y of h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Nature i n dramatic music." (LB, p. 98) 34 music: i n the s e t t i n g I should have been g l a d i f Grace had been b o l d e r . The accompaniment should have a shower of semi-quavers or demisemis, wi t h g r e a t chords a t c e r t a i n p l a c e s . . . . I f I c o u l d make my own harmonies much of the e x p r e s s i o n of the p i e c e c o u l d be conveyed i n the accompaniments of course.-'-There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Hopkins composed music p r i o r t o 187 5 w i t h the s e r i o u s n e s s i n d i c a t e d here; n e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s i n t e r e s t was awakened and the fou n d a t i o n was l a i d by h i s study of music d u r i n g h i s e a r l y y e a r s . Hopkins' h a b i t u a l mode of p e r c e i v i n g the w o r l d — b y a n a l o g y - - i s again e v i d e n t i n many of h i s r e f e r e n c e s to music. On one o c c a s i o n he expresses a p e a l of b e l l s i n terms of c o l o u r : touched by the "magical r i g h t n e s s " of a lunar h a l o , Hopkins says, " t h i s sober grey darkness and pa l e l i g h t was h a p p i l y broken through by the orange of 2 the p e a l i n g of M i t t o n b e l l s . " He f r e q u e n t l y r e l a t e s the s t r u c t u r e of p i t c h e d sound to the c o l o u r spectrum: I counted i n a b r i g h t rainbow two, perhaps t h r e e / complete octaves, t h a t i s / t h r e e , perhaps f o u r / s t r i k i n g s of the keynote or nethermost r e d , count-i n g from the outermost red rim. (JP, p. 237) There are two s c a l e s of c o l o u r i n t h i s p i c t u r e - -browns running to s c a r l e t . . . and greys t o b l u e . (JP, p. 244) LB, pp. 105-106. See p. 69 of t h i s study f o r a f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e to t h i s q u o t a t i o n . 2 J P , p. 219. 35 There was i n the p i c t u r e a l u s c i o u s chord of c o l o u r . . . glaucous (blue, w i t h green and p u r p l e s i d i n g s ) browns (with reds to match) . (JP, p. 246) Hopkins 1 d e l i b e r a t e way of n o t i n g the correspondence be-tween p a i n t i n g and music, between p i t c h and c o l o u r , and between v i s u a l and a u r a l s e n s a t i o n s , shows not o n l y t h a t he p e r c e i v e s a s i m i l a r i t y of s t r u c t u r e between the u n l i k e p a i r s , but a l s o t h a t e x p r e s s i n g one i n terms of the other i l l u m i n a t e s both. J u s t as Hopkins i n c o r p o r a t e d motion ( a m p l i f i e d to i n -clude "behaviour," the " a c t of s e l v i n g " ) i n t o h i s concept of inscape, so he a l s o added sound ( i n c l u d i n g the double va l u e of speech and music) to t h i s concept. The f u s i o n of motion and sound i n the e x p r e s s i o n of an o b j e c t ' s i n -scape has a l r e a d y been noted i n the e a r l y poem, "Let me be to thee as the c i r c l i n g b i r d . " In an undated poem belo n g i n g , most probably, to Hopkins' middle p e r i o d , the poet u n i v e r s a l i z e s the theme begun i n the e a r l i e r poem. "As k i n g f i s h e r s c a t c h f i r e " i s the key to understanding both the poet's philosophy and h i s p o e t i c s : As k i n g f i s h e r s c a t c h f i r e , d r a g o n f l i e s draw flame; As tumbled over ri m i n roundy w e l l s Stones r i n g ; l i k e each tucked s t r i n g t e l l s , each hung b e l l ' s Bow swung f i n d s tongue to f l i n g out broad i t s name; Each mortal t h i n g does one t h i n g and the same: Deals out t h a t being indoors each one dwells; S e l v e s — g o e s i t s e l f ; myself i t speaks and s p e l l s , C r y i n g What I do i s me: f o r t h a t I came. 1 Poems, p . 90. Each i n d i v i d u a l creation reveals i t s true nature ("deals out that being indoors each one dwells") i n a s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c action. This action i d e n t i f i e s or names the object: i t i s "the word" by which the object i s known. "Each mortal thing" i s thus an incarnate word that r e f l e c t s the image of Ch r i s t , the Incarnate Word.''" Hopkins' search for the truth about beauty led him from a simple sensuous response to the v i s u a l beauties of nature to an i n t e l l e c t u a l perception of ultimate r e a l i t y — t o the "higher forms of beauty" understood by the terms "incarnation" and "the word." This poem shows that, for Hopkins, the elements of r e a l i t y — b e i n g , name, action, and'purpose of b e i n g -int e r lock. At the heart of his philosophy, Hopkins equates "the act" and "the word": here i s auditory form i n motion. Both major s h i f t s i n Hopkins' mode of perceiving the world (perception of s t a t i c form superceded by perception of form i n motion, and a predominant in t e r e s t i n v i s u a l phenomena changed to an increasing int e r e s t i n auditory phenomena) are thus incorporated i n th i s sonnet. In l i n e one the eye marks the selving action of kingfishers and dragonflies by th e i r v i v i d colour and darting movements (images of sight and mo-tion are used) . - In the next l i n e s the act of selving i s associated with a sound (images of sound are added to images of sight and motion) that becomes the object's language of J. H i l l i s M i l l e r describes the doctrine of Christ, as expressed i n t h i s poem, as "a Catholic version of the Parmenidean theory of being," i n The Disappearance of God (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963), p. 313. b e i n g . The modulation of imagery from l i n e one to l i n e s two and t h r e e r e p r e s e n t s the s h i f t from the use of predominantly v i s u a l to a u d i t o r y images as the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as w e l l as the most complete e x p r e s s i o n of Hopkins' thought. Hopkins' c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the a u r a l s t r u c t u r e of speech i s one aspect o f h i s i n t e r e s t i n the nature of language. H i s word s t u d i e s a l s o show him r e a c h i n g toward a p h i l o -s o p h i c a l understanding of the deep s t r u c t u r e of language, of common o r i g i n s and common form. Thus Hopkins' p h i l o -l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s l e a d to the same end as a l l h i s other o b s e r v a t i o n s do: inscape. Near the end of h i s Oxford y e a r s , Hopkins r e c o r d s h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l probing i n t o the natu r e o f words i n a s e r i e s o f notes dated February 9, 1868. 1 Although some of Hopkins' terms need c l a r i f y i n g , h i s understanding of "the word," the f i e l d of meaning surrounding i t , and the v a r y i n g degrees to which t h i s meaning may be p e r c e i v e d , as he analyzes i t i n these notes, can be summarized as f o l l o w s : "The word" c o n s i s t s of three p a r t s : p r e p o s s e s s i o n , d e f i n i t i o n or e x p r e s s i o n , and a p p l i -c a t i o n . Of these t h r e e p a r t s , the second p a r t o n l y i s the a c t u a l word. Whether thought, w r i t t e n , or spoken, "the word i s the . . . u t t e r i n g of the i d e a i n the mind." "The i d e a i n the mind" a l s o c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s : the image (scape) p e r c e i v e d by the senses, and the con c e p t i o n (inscape) p e r c e i v e d through contemplation. The mind i s JP, pp. 125-126. 38 e n e r g i z e d i n two ways corresponding to the two p a r t s of "the i d e a " : e i t h e r i n the s u c c e s s i o n of thoughts or sensa-t i o n s or i n the contemplation of one thought or s e n s a t i o n . In music, f o r example, Hopkins w r i t e s , the mind f o l l o w s the s u c c e s s i o n of rhythmic sound but i t may a l s o p e r c e i v e "the u n i t y of the whole" which serves as "the framework of . . . the p a r t s . " The mind i s a c t i v e a t each l e v e l of p e r c e p t i o n ; however, i t i s more p h y s i c a l l y and l e s s i n -t e l l e c t u a l l y a c t i v e a t the s u r f a c e l e v e l , where o n l y the outward form or scape i s p e r c e i v e d , and l e s s p h y s i c a l l y but more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a c t i v e a t the deep l e v e l of i n -scape. Hopkins then goes on to analyze the s t r u c t u r e of "the word" and i t s a f f e c t i v e power i n r e l a t i o n to the v a r y i n g degrees of i t s complexity: the f u r t h e r i n anything, as a work of a r t , the o r g a n i s a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out, the deeper the form p e n e t r a t e s , the p r e p o s s e s s i o n f l u s h e s the matter, the more e f f o r t w i l l be r e q u i r e d i n apprehension, the more power of comparison, the more c a p a c i t y f o r r e c e i v i n g t h a t s y n t h e s i s of ( e i t h e r s u c c e s s i v e or s p a t i a l l y d i s t i n c t ) impressions which g i v e s us the u n i t y with the p r e p o s s e s s i o n conveyed by i t . ' "The word" i s thus an e x p r e s s i o n of e s s e n t i a l form. In-s t r e s s i s the f u l l apprehension of form. I t i s an exper-ience i n which two kinds of knowing are u n i t e d : the f i r s t i s i n t u i t i v e , i n v o l v e s the f e e l i n g s , and accompanies the i n i t i a l sensory impression; and the second i s i n t e l l e c t u a l , and comes when the f u l l powers of the mind are focussed on "the word." Hopkins g i v e s "music" as an example of "the 39 word" i n w h i c h " f u l l e n j o y m e n t , " o r f u l l a p p r e h e n s i o n o f f o r m , comes when " t h e s y n t h e s i s o f the s u c c e s s i o n " u n l o c k s " t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e enjoyment of the u n i t y of the w h o l e . " Because o f i t s " g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y and l e n g t h , " music i s the supreme example of " t h e w o r d . " On numerous o c c a s i o n s Hopkins uses " t h e word" i n h i s j o u r n a l to express i d e n t i t y o r s e l f h o o d . A s tudy o f these uses shows t h a t the 18 68 Notes on " t h e word" are not mere j o t t i n g s , b u t a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t the p o e t ' s p h i l o s o p h y . In e f f e c t , the j o u r n a l e n t r i e s compose the s p e c i f i c exam-p l e s of the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e he o u t l i n e d i n h i s N o t e s . The j o u r n a l e n t r y of J u l y 8, 1861, d e s c r i b e s an u n u s u a l e l e c t r i c a l s t o r m : t h e r e was a p e r c e p t i b l e i n t e r v a l between the b l a z e and f i r s t i n s e t o f the f l a s h and i t s s c o r e i n the sky and t h a t t h a t seemed to be f i r s t of a l l l a i d i n a b r i g h t c o n f u s i o n and then u t t e r e d by a tongue  o f b r i g h t n e s s (what i s s t range) r u n n i n g up from the ground to the c l o u d , n o t the o t h e r way. (JP, p . 212)1 On A p r i l 20, 1874, he notes how the l e a v e s of the elm o u t -l i n e the t r e e ' s i n s c a p e : f i e l d s about us deep green l i g h t e d underneath w i t h w h i t e d a i s i e s , y e l l o w e r f r e s h green of l e a v e s above which bathes the s k i r t s of the e l m s , and t h e i r tops are touched and worded  w i t h l e a f t o o . (JP, p . 243) A n a l y z i n g the c o m p o s i t i o n o f a p a i n t i n g a t the Academy The emphasis here and i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s of t h i s p a r a g r a p h i s mine . 40 (May 23, 1874), Hopkins follows with his eye the movement of the form: leopards shewing the flow and slow spraying of the streams of spots down from the backbone and making th i s flow word-in and inscape the  whole animal and even the group of them. ( J P , p. 244) In as s u f f i x and pr e f i x (in "word-in" and "inscape," re-spectively) i d e n t i f i e s the deep l e v e l of perception possible when the mind contemplates the v i s i b l e flow of spots on the leopard. F i n a l l y , i n a clus t e r of entries (September-October, 1874), written upon a r r i v a l at St. Bueno's, Hopkins records his f i r s t impressions of the beau t i f u l Welsh countryside: a l l the length of the v a l l e y the skyline of h i l l s  was flowingly written a l l along upon the sky; ( J P , p. 258) the woods, thick and si l v e r e d by sunlight and shade, by the f l a t smooth banking of the tree-tops  expressing the slope of the h i l l , came down to the green bed of the va l l e y . Below at a l i t t l e timber bridge I looked at some del i c a t e f l y i n g  shafted ashes—there was one especially of single  sonnet-like inscape-- ( J P , p. 259) the strong u n f a i l i n g flow of the water [of St. Winnefred's well] and the chain of cures from year to year a l l these centuries took hold of my mind with wonder at the bounty of God i n one of His saints, the sensible thing so naturally and gracefully uttering the s p i r i t u a l reason  of i t s being . . . and the spring i n place lead-ing back the thoughts by i t s spring i n time to i t s spring i n eternity. ( J P , p. 2 61) "Each word i s one way of acknowledging Being," Hopkins wrote i n 1868 i n his notes on Parmenides. In the above 41 examples , each o b j e c t or scene Hopkins contempla tes ex-p r e s s e s i t s " s e l f " i n a v i s i b l e w o r d . Hopkins notes t h r e e degrees of o r g a n i z a t i o n i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s : the elm i s "worded w i t h l e a f " ( s imple p h r a s a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ) ; the s k y -l i n e o f h i l l s i s w r i t t e n a l o n g the sky (the g r e a t e r o r g a n i -z a t i o n of a l i n e of p o e t r y ) ; and one s p e c i a l ash t r e e i s i d e n t i f i e d by i t s " s o n n e t - l i k e " i n s c a p e (the g r e a t e s t d e -gree of o r g a n i z a t i o n — a h e i g h t e n e d p o e t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h compares i n form to a s o n n e t ) . The f i e l d of mean-i n g s u r r o u n d i n g the word a l s o i n c l u d e s the purpose o f b e i n g . T h u s , a t H o l y w e l l , Hopkins i n s t r e s s e s the " s p i r -i t u a l r e a s o n s " o f the w e l l ' s e x i s t e n c e . " A l l the w o r l d i s f u l l o f i n s c a p e , " Hopkins wrote i n h i s j o u r n a l i n 1873, "and chance l e f t f r e e to a c t f a l l s i n t o an o r d e r as w e l l as p u r p o s e . " In t h i s s e r i e s of e n t r i e s Hopkins d e s c r i b e s h i s e x p e r i e n c e of b o t h o r d e r and p u r p o s e . Not e v e r y v i e w e r w i l l see what Hopkins sees nor make the comparisons he makes. Hopkins says t h a t " t h e way men judge i n p a r t i -c u l a r i s d e t e r m i n e d f o r each by h i s own i n s c a p e , " ' ' " and he laments the l o s s to p e o p l e who do hot have the eyes to 2 see the beauty of i n s c a p e a t a l l . On the one hand, t h e n , the o b j e c t or scene i n v i t e s a n a l o g y , but on the o t h e r hand, H o p k i n s , the v i e w e r , i s an a n a l o g i s t . M a r s h a l l McLuhan a n a l y z e s H o p k i n s ' way of J P , p . 129. 2 I b i d . , p . 221. viewing the world by saying t h a t Hopkins i s . . . an a n a l o g i s t . By s t r e s s and i n s t r e s s , by i n t e n s i t y and p r e c i s i o n of p e r c e p t i o n , by a n a l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and m e d i t a t i o n he achieves a l l h i s e f f e c t s . . . . Hopkins h a b i t u a l l y s h i f t s h i s gaze from the order and p e r s p e c t i v e s of nature to the analogous but grander scenery of the moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l o r d e r . And he does t h i s method-i c a l l y . 1 McLuhan's a n a l y s i s suggests t h a t Hopkins 1 worldview i s fragmented, and i n t h i s McLuhan misjudges. Hopkins does not s h i f t h i s gaze from the n a t u r a l order to one more grand; i n s t e a d , he s y n t h e s i z e s h i s impressions i n t o a u n i f i e d view of the n a t u r a l order t h a t i n the depths of i t s being expresses the mind ( i n t e l l e c t u a l ) and c h a r a c t e r (moral) of God. Herbert Read says t h a t Hopkins "vocabulary of form, of the morphology of beauty . . . extends i n an ascending s c a l e from the minute p a r t i c u l a r s of n a t u r a l forms (as i n leaves and flowers) to composition i n the 2 a r t s and even to a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l grace of graces." A t whatever p o i n t on the s c a l e Hopkins begins, the deeper the form p e n e t r a t e s h i s mind, the more d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s he p e r c e i v e s , and the higher up he moves on the s c a l e , u l t i m a t e l y e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e v e l a t i o n of God. T h i s h a b i t of analogy or s y n e s t h e s i a i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n a l e t t e r to Herbert M a r s h a l l McLuhan, "The A n a l o g i c a l M i r r o r s , " i n Gerard Manley Hopkins, ed., The Kenyon C r i t i c s ( N orfolk, Conn.: New D i r e c t i o n s Books, 1945), pp. 18-19. 2 Herbert Read, The True V o i c e of F e e l i n g (London: Faber and Faber, 1953), p. 82. 43 Bridges: Westcountry ' i n s t r e s s 1 , [is] a most peculiar product of England, which I associate with a i r s l i k e Weeping Winnefred, Polly Oliver, or Poor Mary Ann, with Herrick and Herbert, with the Worcestershire, Herefordshire, and Welsh landscape, and above a l l with the smell of oxeyes and apple-l o f t s : t h i s instress i s helped by p a r t i c u l a r rhythms and these Barnes employs. Beginning with his response to the i n d i v i d u a l flavour of England's Westcountry, Hopkins perceives immediate r e l a -tions to folksongs, landscapes, aromas, poetry, and poetic rhythms. These relations are not merely memory associa-tions, but are based on the recognition of common form. Hopkins' understanding of the rel a t i o n s h i p between music and poetry i s the s p e c i f i c concern of t h i s study. In his essay on "Poetic Diction," written i n 18 65, Hop-kins alludes to music several times to c l a r i f y a point. Parallelism, he says, i s the single p r i n c i p l e defining the character of poetry: the structure of poetry i s that of continuous par a l l e l i s m , ranging from the technical so-called Parallelisms of Hebrew poetry and the antiphons of Church music up to the i n t r i c a c y of Greek or I t a l i a n or English verse. But p a r a l l e l i s m i s of two kinds necessarily—where the opposition i s c l e a r l y marked, and where i t i s t r a n s i t i o n a l rather or chromatic. . . . To the chromatic p a r a l l e l i s m belong gradation, i n t e n s i t y , climax, tone, expression (as the word i s used i n music), chiaroscuro, perhaps emphasis.2 1LB, p. 88. 2JP, pp. 84-85. 44 In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n Hopkins draws on the a r t of music f o r an example of p a r a l l e l i s m ("the antiphons of Church music"), f o r an analogy (to c l a r i f y t r a n s i t i o n a l p a r a l l e l i s m ) , and f o r a f u n c t i o n a l term ("expression") to i d e n t i f y one type of p a r a l l e l i s m . During the next years a system of p o e t i c s took shape i n Hopkins 1 mind t h a t can be examined at s e v e r a l stages of i t s development. Hopkins' l e c t u r e notes on "Rhythm and other S t r u c t u r a l P a r t s of R h e t o r i c — Verse," prepared and used f o r a b r i e f t e a c h i n g assignment i n 1873, and which are remarkable f o r the comparisons made between poetry and music, r e p r e s e n t the f i r s t stage of t h i s development. Hopkins approaches the s u b j e c t by p l a c i n g the two p r o g r e s s i v e a r t s a l o n g s i d e each other and then examining poetry i n the l i g h t of music. C l e a r l y , a t t h i s e a r l y stage i n the development of h i s p o e t i c s , the f o u n d a t i o n i s being l a i d f o r a p o e t i c d e r i v e d from music. Hopkins begins h i s l e c t u r e notes on verse w i t h the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n : v e r s e i s speech having a marked f i g u r e , o r d e r / of sounds independent of meaning and such as can be s h i f t e d from one word to others without changing. I t i s f i g u r e of spoken sound That i t may be marked i t must be repeated a t l e a s t once, t h a t i s / the f i g u r e must occur a t l e a s t twice, so t h a t i t may be d e f i n e d / Spoken sound having a repeated f i g u r e . (JP, p. 267) Hopkins repeats t h i s d e f i n i t i o n more c o n c i s e l y i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of "Poetry and V e r s e " : "verse then i s speech wholly or p a r t i a l l y r e p e a t i n g the same f i g u r e of sound." Then f o l l o w s a c l a r i f i c a t i o n : i t i s speech because we must d i s t i n g u i s h i t from music which i s not v e r s e . Music i s compo-s i t i o n which wholly or p a r t i a l l y r epeats the same f i g u r e of p i t c h e d sound. (JP, p. 290) Si n c e v e r s e i s a l s o a "kind o f c o m p o s i t i o n , " 1 v e r s e (or poetry) and music are d i s t i n g u i s h e d s o l e l y on the b a s i s of p i t c h . The f i r s t major p o i n t of i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s study, d e r i v e d from these d e f i n i t i o n s , i s t h a t both p o e t r y and music are a f i g u r e of sound. When Hopkins d i f f e r e n -t i a t e s between ve r s e and poetry, he e x p l a i n s t h a t the formal elements (general shape and repeated f i g u r e of sound) are the same i n both, but, whereas, verse may c o n s i s t of non-sense words or words intended f o r a u s e f u l purpose, p o e t r y i s sound couched i n words " t h a t are framed f o r contempla-t i o n of the mind." Hopkins makes very c l e a r t h a t although "some matter and meaning i s e s s e n t i a l " to poetry, i t i s important."only as an element necessary to support and employ the shape which i s contemplated f o r i t s own sake." The meaning of poetry i s not d e r i v e d from "the grammatical, h i s t o r i c a l , and l o g i c a l " d e f i n i t i o n of the words or the meaning of the context. What the mind contemplates i s the "inscape of speech f o r the inscape's sake." In other words, the content of poetry, when poetry i s v e r s e , i s found i n the s t r u c t u r e f i r s t of a l l . The matter or v e r b a l 1 J P , p. 289. 46 meaning s e c o n d a r i l y becomes p a r t of the content i n t h a t i t r e i n f o r c e s the meaning found i n the s t r u c t u r e ; t h a t i s , i t supports the shape. The f i g u r e of sound, then, common to both poetry and music i s rhythm, or the p a t t e r n of rhythm, meter. Hopkins bases h i s d i s c u s s i o n of rhythm on A r i s t o t l e and Augustine (de Musica), both of whom were ha n d l i n g an a r t f o r m t h a t combines music and p o e t r y : an-c i e n t Greek poetry i s q u a n t i t a t i v e , l i k e music, and i s chanted or sung. In t h i s context, Hopkins compares the two a r t s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l : the m u s i c a l s y l l a b l e i s the note, the m u s i c a l f o o t or word the bar, the bars i n double time stand f o r double f e e t . . . and f o r , say, un-v e r b a l subclauses, the s t r a i n s or phrases f o r wing-clauses, the passage or melody down to the cadence f o r the sentence, the movement f o r the paragraph, the p i e c e f o r the d i s c o u r s e . One may add t h a t the modulation i n t o another key stands f o r the suspension, the r e t u r n to the f i r s t key f o r the r e c o v e r y . A l s o r e s t s are allowed f o r i n the v e r s e of the a n c i e n t s . (JP, p. 273) S i n c e speaking i s not the same as s i n g i n g , the s m a l l e s t u n i t of sound i n music i s s m a l l e r than the v o i c e d s y l l a b l e of p o e t r y : i t i s the " v o i c e d b r e a t h , " the v o i c i n g of a vowel. A l l other p o i n t s on the s c a l e of s t r u c t u r a l com-p l e x i t y show a d i r e c t p a r a l l e l between the two a r t s . Hop-k i n s a l s o f i n d s p a r a l l e l s i n poetry f o r "modulation" and " r e t u r n , " and suggests t h a t m e t r i c a l allowance should be made f o r " r e s t s " i n p o e t r y . Music, as w e l l as poetry, i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of sound. Beauty l i e s i n the form of t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . When Hopkins defines both poetry and music as the "recasting of speech into sound-words, sound-clauses, and sound-sentences of uniform commensurable lengths and accen-tuations,"" 1" he i s saying that both arts are e s s e n t i a l l y verbal. The use of words i n vocal music i s obvious: both the song and the instrumental accompaniment are regulated by the words that are used. Hopkins says that "vocal music scarcely becomes wholly independent of words except i n 2 whistling (. . . . There i s also humming)." Whether or not they are used, however, words supply the structure, 3 and on t h i s point Hopkins i s clear. When he applies the above d e f i n i t i o n to music, and modifies "speech" to mean the "wide sense, of vocal utterance," he i s speaking more generally, including as well music which has no actual words attached to i t . In the widest sense, as an example of "the word," a piece of music gives utterance to i t s es s e n t i a l form—the form speaks. Hopkins i s not consider-ing the subject, however, as broadly as thi s i n his lecture notes. He i s saying that the voice i s the originator of speech, that speech gives r i s e to verse when i t i s framed i n rhythmical units, and that speech also gives r i s e to music when pitch i s dwelt on i n association with JP, p. 273. T h i s second d e f i n i t i o n i s an a m p l i f i -c a t i o n of the f i r s t one, and i n t e n t i o n a l l y s e t s poetry and music s i d e by s i d e . 2 3 I b i d . , p. 268.< I b i d . , p. 267. 48 r h y t h m i c a l u n i t s . Hopkins i m p l i e s t h a t nonvocal music (e.g., a i r s without words, homo- or polyphonic music) has r i s e n from v o c a l music. In modern times, a b s o l u t e music i s h e l d to be nonverbal. Hopkins' view, however, r e c e i v e s support from Donald Tovey who w r i t e s the f o l l o w -i n g i n an essay on "Musical Form and Matter": the absoluteness of music . . . i s a r e s u l t very i m p e r f e c t l y a t t a i n e d , i f a t a l l a t t a i n a b l e , by methods t h a t have not e a r l y f a m i l i a r i z e d the musician w i t h the m u s i c a l treatment of words. I t i s no mere a c c i d e n t t h a t three of the f o u r g r e a t e s t masters of a b s o l u t e music, Bach, Mozart, and Brahms, spent more than h a l f t h e i r time i n s e t t i n g words to music, and t h a t the f o u r t h , Beethoven, took enormous pa i n s i n the l a t e r p a r t of h i s c a r e e r to recover the a r t which he had almost n e g l e c t e d . 1 Words do not remain u n i t s of sense i n e i t h e r p o e t r y or music; instead,, they are r e - c a s t i n t o u n i t s of sound. In p o e t r y the sense-words h e l p to support the rhythmic shape, and s i m i l a r l y , i n music, i n a l e s s d e f i n a b l e way, sense-words are needed to support the s t r u c t u r e of sound. The s i n g l e b a s i c element d i s t i n g u i s h i n g music from po e t r y i s p i t c h . In h i s d e f i n i t i o n s , Hopkins s t a t e s c l e a r -l y t h a t , whereas music i s sound w i t h a f i x e d p i t c h t h a t can be sung, poetry i s spoken sound t h a t employs p i t c h as a grace r a t h e r than as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t . M u s i c a l p i t c h i n poetry i s t o n i c accent, t h a t i s , the s t r o n g e s t accent Donald Tovey, "Musical Form and Matter," Essays  and L e c t u r e s on Music (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949), p. 164. g i v e n to a word or s y l l a b l e r e c e i v e s the h i g h e s t tone. In E n g l i s h , the accent of p i t c h being weak, t o n i c accent and emphatic accent ( s t r e s s ) u s u a l l y c o i n c i d e . Another k i n d of t o n i c accent i s "the t o n i c accent of sense, the 2 i n f l e c t i o n of the v o i c e to b r i n g out the meaning." T h i s may be "emotional i n t o n a t i o n " t h a t w i l l " l i g h t up notes on unemphatic s y l l a b l e s and not f o l l o w the v e r b a l s t r e s s e s 3 and p i t c h e s . " In whatever way i t i s employed, p i t c h adds beauty--a m u s i c a l q u a l i t y — t o spoken sound. To make up f o r i t s l a c k of f i x e d p i t c h , poetry employs " l e t t e r i n g . " Thus l e t t e r i n g i n poetry has the same e f f e c t as f i x e d p i t c h i n music: both heighten or draw out those u n i t s needed to shape the melody or p o e t i c d e s i g n and t h a t c o i n c i d e w i t h the d e s i r e d p a t t e r n of sense. I t f o l l o w s , then, t h a t when poetry employs l e t t e r i n g to i t s f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l i t approaches the " c o n d i t i o n of music." The emphasis Hopkins p l a c e s on t h i s second " f i g u r e of sound" (rhythm being the f i r s t " f i g u r e of sound") i n d i c a t e s the importance i t has f o r him i n h i s whole system of p o e t i c s . Hopkins goes i n t o e l a b o r a t e d e t a i l to e x p l a i n the v a r i o u s aspects of l e t t e r -i n g : a l l i t e r a t i o n , rhyme, and assonance. A f t e r d e a l i n g w i t h examples, l a w f u l and u n l a w f u l , from the po e t r y of many languages and from a v a r i e t y of E n g l i s h poets, he JP, p. 2 69. Note t h a t the Greek word f o r accent means "the tune sung to the word, the note or p i t c h of a s y l l a b l e . " 2 I b i d . , p. 281. 3 I b i d . , p. 270. 50 makes a statement i n summary: i t w i l l be seen t h a t a l l these verse f i g u r e s . . . are r e d u c i b l e to the p r i n c i p l e of rhyme, to rhyme or p a r t i a l rhyme. A l l i t e r a t i o n i s i n i t i a l half-rhyme, 1 s h o t h e n d i n g 1 i s f i n a l half-rhyme, assonance i s vowel rhyme. (JP/ p. 287) Hopkins f i n d s "a b e a u t i f u l l y r i c h combination of them i n Norse poetry," and says of I c e l a n d i c p o e t r y t h a t i t i s " r i c h l y rhymed." I t i s c l e a r t h a t Hopkins s t r o n g l y favours the use of rhyme i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s . A t the same time, h i s s e n s i t i v e ear notes a l l the i m p e r f e c t i o n s of i t s use, however s l i g h t , and these he does not accept i n s p i t e of the a p p r o v a l of a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r i t y . 1 On the one hand, then, Hopkins separates p o e t r y from music on the b a s i s of p i t c h , but on the other hand he r e t u r n s p o e t r y to music by h i s emphasis on the p a t t e r n s of sound c r e a t e d by rhyme. In p a r t i c u l a r he r a i s e s the f u n c t i o n of the vowel (the s m a l l e s t u n i t i n music i s the v o i c i n g of a vowel) to a p o s i t i o n near i t s f u n c t i o n i n music. In h i s d e f i n i t i o n of v e r s e , Hopkins s t a t e s t h a t , to be marked, the f i g u r e of sound "must be repeated a t l e a s t once." S i m i l a r l y , he d e f i n e s music as "composition which wholly or p a r t i a l l y r epeats the same f i g u r e of p i t c h e d sound." The p r i n c i p l e of r e p e t i t i o n , a p p l i e d to the rhythmic f o o t and to every other s t r u c t u r a l element as w e l l , i s a m u s i c a l i d e a . R e p e t i t i o n i s necessary i n order For example, Hopkins c i t e s Keats as an a u t h o r i t y whose use of an unlawful rhyme cannot be excused. that the inscape may be dwelt on: 51 r e p e t i t i o n , oftening, over-and-overing, af t e r i n g of the inscape must take place i n order to detach i t to the mind and i n thi s l i g h t poetry i s speech which afters and oftens i t s inscape, speech couched in a repeating figure. ( J P , p. 2 8 9 ) Mechanical r e p e t i t i o n soon becomes monotonous and meaning-le s s , and therefore Hopkins adds th i s caution: " I t i s not necessary that any whole should be repeated bodily." He concludes his discussion of rhythm by enumerating six ways i n which the monotony of bare rhythm can be prevented. Other s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s — a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, rhyme— are by d e f i n i t i o n based on r e p e t i t i o n . I t i s i n t h i s sense that "motion mult i p l i e s inscape": a tree moving i n the wind repeats i t s form with var i a t i o n s , continuously, without a break, along a g l i d i n g or s l i d i n g scale. Hopkins became aware of the s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of r e p e t i t i o n i n nature, and records the following i n his journal: the curved type of chestnut blossoms i s e a s i l y seen i n m u l t i p l i c i t y which i n one might be un-noticed; ( J P , p. 1 3 6 ) repeated hundreds of times I believe i t i s which gives the v i s i b l e law . . . order; ( J P , p. 1 3 9 ) Found some d a f f o d i l s wild but fading. You see the squareness of the scaping well when you have several i n your hand. ( J P , p. 2 0 8 ) J . H i l l i s M i l l e r refers to thi s r e p e t i t i o n Hopkins sees i n nature as "echoing"; i t i s also "rhyme" i n the wide sense as Hopkins defines i t i n his lecture notes. The p r i n c i p l e of r e p e t i t i o n , observed i n n a t u r a l phenomena and d i s c o v e r e d i n the s t r u c t u r e of music, was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a b a s i c , g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e i n Hopkins' system of p o e t i c s . S e v e r a l f u r t h e r p o i n t s t h a t show the r e l a t i o n s h i p of music and poetry i n Hopkins' t h i n k i n g , drawn from h i s l e c t u r e notes, need to be mentioned b r i e f l y . For Hopkins, both a r t s are v o c a l u t t e r a n c e and are intended f o r per-formance. Although Hopkins does not r e f e r to performance i t s e l f , h i s f r e q u e n t mention of the ear suggests t h a t he i s t h i n k i n g i n terms of declamation. When he e x p l a i n s the meaning of a " l i n e " i n poetry, f o r example, he says, "A l i n e i s an i n t e r m e d i a t e d i v i s i o n between f o o t and v e r s e , l i k e a c l a u s e and marked o f f by rhyme or other m e a n s — f o r we must judge by the ear not by r e a d i n g or the e y e . " 1 Reading may be s i l e n t , an e x e r c i s e of the eye, but when the ear i s engaged, the judgment can be made on the b a s i s of a c t u a l sound. A f i n a l p o i n t to be noted i s Hopkins' p r a c t i c e of u s i n g m u s i c a l terms to e l u c i d a t e some aspect of h i s p o e t i c s . In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of l e t t e r i n g Hopkins a p p r o p r i a t e s s e v e r a l apt m u s i c a l terms r e l a t e d to t o n a l i t y . He r e f e r s to sharp and f l a t consonants: consonants such as £ and b he c a l l s "belonging p a i r s of sharps and f l a t s . " He a l s o e x p l a i n s the technique of v o w e l l i n g o f f as the "changing of vowel down some s c a l e or s t r a i n or keeping," and g i v e s an example of i m p e r f e c t rhyme as one t h a t takes JP, p. 273. 53 "neighbouring vowels i n one of the vowel scales, as love and o f . " 1 The most s i g n i f i c a n t term Hopkins borrowed from music i s "counterpoint." In his lecture notes he gives various examples of rhythmic counterpoint from the poetry of the L a t i n "masters of metre," and one example 2 of accentual counterpoint from Milton. He explains his use of counterpoint as follows: "By counterpoint I mean the carrying on of two figures at once, esp e c i a l l y i f they are a l i k e i n kind but very unlike or opposite i n 3 species." Hopkins' discovery of counterpointed rhythms, and his transference of the term "counterpoint" from music to poetry, i s a noteworthy contribution to general poetics. Hopkins' lecture notes on rhetoric present his per-sonal view of poetic theory inasfar as i t was c l a r i f i e d i n his mind at the time he wrote them. Hopkins d i s t i n -guishes pointedly between the poetic p r i n c i p l e s of the ancients, the p r i n c i p l e s of English poetics, and his own, which frequently d i f f e r from those of the authorities he c i t e s . During his early years i n the Society of Jesus, when he chose the way of silence for himself, he " e v i -dently pondered deeply the questions of prosody and """The series of quotations i s from JP, pp. 284-85. 2 Ibid., p. 241. The example from Milton i s the following: "Home to his mother's house private returned." 3 Ibid., p. 280. See chapter three, p. 132-134, of this study for a more complete discussion of counterpoint i n Hopkins' poetic theory. 54 r h y t h m . n ± Some t ime a f t e r b r e a k i n g h i s s i l e n c e w i t h "The Wreck of The D e u t s c h l a n d , " Hopkins wrote i n a l e t t e r to Canon R. W. D i x o n : f o r seven y e a r s I wrote n o t h i n g b u t two or t h r e e l i t t l e p r e s e n t a t i o n p i e c e s . . . . I had l o n g had h a u n t i n g my ear the echo of a new rhythm w h i c h now I r e a l i z e d on p a p e r . 2 The rhythm which had been h a u n t i n g h i s ear i s sprung r h y t h m . Hopkins was a l r e a d y h e a r i n g t h i s rhythm i n 1873, w h i l e p r e p a r i n g h i s l e c t u r e notes on r h e t o r i c . He p a r -t i a l l y d e s c r i b e s i t i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f rhythms t h a t a r e c l a s s i f i e d under "bare b e a t w i t h o u t c o u n t " : t h i s b e a t - r h y t h m a l l o w s of development as much as t i m e - r h y t h m wherever the ear or mind i s t r u e enough to take i n the e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e of i t , t h a t b e a t i s measured by s t r e s s or s t r e n g t h , not number, so t h a t one s t r o n g may be e q u a l n o t o n l y to two weak b u t to l e s s o r m o r e . 3 The examples he g i v e s h e r e , however, b e l o n g to c o u n t e r -p o i n t e d rhythms, s i n c e each supposes "a w e l l - k n o w n and 4 u n m i s t a k e a b l e or u n f o r g e t a b l e s t a n d a r d rhythm" w h i c h i s r e t a i n e d i n the mind w h i l e the ear hears the a c t u a l spoken r h y t h m . L B , p . x x v i , from the i n t r o d u c t i o n by C . C . A b b o t t . 2 C o D , p . 14. 3 J P , p . 278. Among the seven examples Hopkins c i t e s a r e the f o l l o w i n g from S h a k e s p e a r e : " T o c i d t h a t under c o l d s t o n e , " and "Why s h o u l d t h i s d e s e r t be?" 4 L B , p . 45. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f H o p k i n s ' e a r l y poems shows t h a t he was e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h a new rhythm as e a r l y as 1866 i n " L i n e s f o r a P i c t u r e o f S t . D o r o t h e a " : I bear a b a s k e t l i n e d w i t h g r a s s . l ' am so ' l i g h t ' and f a i r 7 Men are amazed to watch me pass / ' / 1 W i t h the b a s k e t I b e a r . W. H . Gardner says the poem "embodies what appear t o be 2 the p o e t ' s f i r s t exper iments i n Sprung Rhythm." H o p k i n s ' s t r e s s marks l e a v e no doubt t h a t he i n t e n d e d the e i g h t -s y l l a b l e l i n e s to e q u a l the s i x - s y l l a b l e l i n e s i n s t r e n g t h . Here i s the " b e a t - r h y t h m " he d e s c r i b e s i n h i s l e c t u r e n o t e s , b u t t h i s i s not y e t the f u l l development of the sprung rhythm he r e a l i z e d a f t e r he had f i x e d h i s p r i n c i p l e s w i t h the w r i t i n g of "The Wreck of The D e u t s c h l a n d . " H o p k i n s ' exper iments w i t h l e t t e r i n g , the second f i g u r e o f sound, a re p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n "The H a b i t of P e r -3 f e c t i o n , " a l s o w r i t t e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1866: Be s h e l l e d , e y e s , w i t h d o u b l e dark And f i n d the u n c r e a t e d l i g h t : T h i s r u c k and r e e l which you remark C o i l s , k e e p s , and t e a s e s s i m p l e s i g h t . Poems, p . 35. 2 G a r d n e r , Poems, p . 2 52. < 3 See page 22 of t h i s s tudy f o r s t a n z a s 1 and 2 of t h i s poem. 56 Palate, the hutch of tasty l u s t , Desire not to be rinsed with wine: The can must be so sweet, the crust So fresh that comes i n fasts divine! N o s t r i l s , your careless breath that spend Upon the s t i r and keep of pride, What r e l i s h s h a l l the censers send Along the sanctuary side! 0 feel-of-primrose hands, 0 feet That want the y i e l d of plushy sward, But you s h a l l walk the golden street And you unhouse and house the Lord. And, Poverty, be thou the bride And now the marriage feast begun, And l i l y - c o l o u r e d clothes provide Your spouse not laboured-at nor spun. The i r o n i c c o n f l i c t of the poet's s i t u a t i o n — h e frames his act of detachment from the world i n words that dwell on the sensuous beauty of that w o r l d — i s heightened by the tonal effects on important words. Hopkins success-f u l l y employs a l l i t e r a t i o n to heighten s i g n i f i c a n t words: "p_ipe me to p_astures s t i l l , " "double dark," "0 f e e l - o f -primrose hands, 0 feet." A l l i t e r a t i v e patterns e f f e c -t i v e l y bring out the i r o n i c c o n f l i c t : "Elected Silence, sing. . . . " "The can must be so sweet, the crust / So fresh that come in fasts divine." Hopkins' use of rhyme has a similar e f f e c t . He purposely chooses contrasting pairs of words that further heighten the irony. In stanza two, for example, the rhymed words (lovely-dumb, sent, come, eloquent) consist of two sets of opposites matched across the rhymes: "lovely-dumb" and "eloquent," "sent" and "come." "Dark" contrasts d i r e c t l y with " l i g h t " and i n d i r e c t l y w i t h " s i g h t " i n stanza t h r e e . Stanza f o u r con-t a i n s a t h i r d v a r i a t i o n of the same technique. Here the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the rhymed words ( l u s t , c r u s t , wine, d i v i n e ) produces v a r i o u s i r o n i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . Hopkins f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e s the meaning of words a l r e a d y heightened by rhyme by r e p e a t i n g the vowel sound, t h a t i s , by asso-nance: " D e s i r e not to be r i n s e d w i t h wine." A combination of assonance (breath, spend, r e l i s h , c e nsers, send) and " v o w e l l i n g o f f " (that i s , the p r o g r e s s i o n of vowels along a s l i d i n g s c a l e : send, sanctuary, side) strengthen the p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d by a l l i t e r a t i o n and rhyme i n stanza f i v e . The r e p e t i t i v e i n t e r p l a y of vowels and consonants i n such phrases as " l i l y - c o l o u r e d c l o t h e s " and P a l a t e , the hutch of t a s t y l u s t " i s h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e . F i n a l l y , the abundance of s h o r t vowel sounds, i n p a r t i c u l a r the repeated use of the s h o r t u sound i n important words, c r e a t e s the e f f e c t of c l o s i n g o f f , of s h u t t i n g down, of ending: dumb, shut, come, double, ruck, hutch, l u s t , c r u s t , plushy, unhouse, begun, c o l o u r e d , spun. "Spun," as the l a s t word of the poem, prepared f o r by i t s rhyme, "begun," and more i n d i r e c t l y , by a l l the p r e v i o u s uses of i t s vowel sound, draws the c u r t a i n w i t h an abrupt a i r of f i n a l i t y . F o r t u n a t e l y , Hopkins' commitment to s i l e n c e was a temporary one. His e a r l y y e a r s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a sen-s i t i v e response to v i s u a l and a u r a l beauty, a keen 58 o b s e r v a t i o n and p r e c i s e a n a l y s i s of form, and a growing a b i l i t y to express the beauty of form i n words, l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a unique c o n t r i b u t i o n to p o e t r y . Hopkins d i s c o v e r e d h i s "music" through h i s commitment of l o v e to God: i t became "a changeless note" d e s t i n e d to echo i n a l l the major and minor keys of h i s p o e t i c compositions. At the same time, he was i n the process of d i s c o v e r i n g h i s p o e t i c v o i c e . By l i s t e n i n g w i t h h i s ear and mind to the sounds of nature, the v o i c e s of people i n speaking and s i n g i n g , and the rhythms and melodic and harmonic shapes of music, Hopkins came to r e a l i z e "the a u t h e n t i c cadence" t h a t marks the i d e n t i t y of h i s p o e t r y . 59 CHAPTER TWO " t h e r o l l , the r i s e , the c a r o l , the c r e a t i o n " F o r the r e a d e r o f H o p k i n s ' e a r l y poems, "The Wreck of The D e u t s c h l a n d " appears on the scene w i t h the e f f e c t o f an e x p l o s i o n . The d i s c i p l i n e d c o n t r o l o f a complex r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n , a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t the s t e a d y i n g a i d o f a l i t e r a r y m o d e l , r e v e a l s the hand of a mature p o e t . H o p k i n s ' y e a r s o f s i l e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , were not u n f r u i t f u l . D u r i n g h i s o n e - y e a r appointment to t e a c h c l a s s i c s a t Roehampton (1874) he had p o r e d l o n g over Greek meter and the i n n o v a -t i v e rhythms i n P a r a d i s e Regained and Samson A g o n i s t e s . He had f o r m u l a t e d h i s thoughts i n h i s l e c t u r e notes on r h e t o r i c and had p r i v a t e l y come to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t " M i l t o n must have known" the n a t u r e and laws of sprung rhythm " b u t had reasons f o r not t a k i n g " the l a s t s t e p to r e a c h i t . X F o l l o w i n g t h i s , h i s t h r e e - y e a r ass ignment to r e a d t h e o l o g y a t S t . B u e n o ' s C o l l e g e , N o r t h W a l e s , had g i v e n him the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n the Welsh l a n g u a g e . The c h i m e s , t h a t i s , the s t r i c t l y - o r d e r e d t o n a l p a t t e r n s i n Welsh p o e t r y c a l l e d cynghanedd, had caught h i s e a r . A t the same t ime h i s i n t e r e s t i n music had deepened. He had begun to s tudy the p i a n o w i t h the purpose o f l e a r n i n g 1 L B , p . 15. 60 to understand the structure of music. Thus, when "The Deutschland" was wrecked near English shores i n December of 187 5 , Hopkins, "affected by the account," found a sub-je c t that, by i t s emotive p o t e n t i a l , could appropriately sustain the structure of the new rhythm that had long been haunting his ear. In the years of his early ( 1 8 7 6 - 7 9 ) and middle ( 1 8 8 0 - 8 4 ) maturity, Hopkins developed both as a poet and as a musician. Despite several periods when his "verse turned u t t e r l y sullen,""'" Hopkins composed, i n -the four years of his early maturity, half of the sonnets and l y r i c s he was to write i n the remaining years of his l i f e . A l -though i n a number of the poems Hopkins experiments with form, that i s , with general poetic structure and with patterns of rhythm and melody, he had c l e a r l y established his p r i n c i p l e s and worked with a confident hand. In keeping with the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e of his poetics, that poetry i s a "figure of sound," Hopkins was concerned primarily with the s p e c i f i c form of each poem. He wrote to Bridges: No doubt my poetry errs on the side of oddness. I hope i n time to have a more balanced and Milt o n i c s t y l e . But as a i r , melody, i s what st r i k e s me most of a l l i n music and design i n painting, so design, pattern or what I am i n the habit of c a l l i n g 'inscape' i s what I above a l l aim at i n poetry. Now i t i s the v i r t u e of design, pattern, or inscape to be d i s t i n c t i v e and i t i s the vice of distinctiveness to become queer. This vice I cannot have escaped.2 1LB, p. 4 7 . 2 Ibid., p. 6 6 . 61 Every t u r n of phrase, every word, every element i n the rhythmic and t o n a l p a t t e r n s was m e t i c u l o u s l y weighed and counted to f i t i n t o the t o t a l d e s i g n of the poem. In the same way, Hopkins laboured t o f i n d the exact meaning t o support the de s i g n . When Bridges questioned the l o g i c a l c l a r i t y of "The Sea and the S k y l a r k , " Hopkins r e p l i e d , The sonnet you ask about i s the g r e a t e s t o f f e n d e r i n i t s way t h a t you c o u l d have found. I t was w r i t t e n i n my Welsh days, i n my s a l a d days, when I was f a s c i n a t e d w i t h cynghanedd or consonant-chime, and, as i n Welsh englyns, 'the s e n s e 1 , as one of themselves s a i d , 'gets the worst of i t ' ; i n t h i s case i t e x i s t s but i s f a r from g l a r i n g . . . . I f e l t even a t the time t h a t i n the endless labour of r e c a s t i n g those l i n e s I had l o s t the f r e s h n e s s I wanted and which indeed the s u b j e c t demands. x Although he o f t e n asked f o r and a l s o r e s p e c t e d B r i d g e s ' c r i t i c i s m , Hopkins was not prepared to s a c r i f i c e the de-s i g n of a poem f o r the sake of immediate c l a r i t y ; i n f a c t , B r i d g e s ' c r i t i c i s m tended to c o n f i r m h i s o r i g i n a l d e s i g n . Q u i t e c o n t r a r y to h i s f e e l i n g about "The Sea and the Sky-l a r k , " Hopkins has achieved a d i s t i n c t i v e f r e s h n e s s i n the poem t h a t b e l i e s the "endless labour" i n v o l v e d i n per-f e c t i n g the composition. The meaning, too, becomes c l e a r enough when the words are dwelt on. Many of the poems Hopkins produced i n h i s e a r l y m a t u r i t y — i n h i s Welsh or " s a l a d days"--are masterpieces of form, u n e x c e l l e d by any poet o f h i s time. A d e f i n i t e s h i f t i n Hopkins' concept of h i m s e l f as LB, pp. 163-164. a r t i s t came du r i n g the years of h i s middle m a t u r i t y (1880-84). T h i s s h i f t i s expressed most c o n c i s e l y i n a l e t t e r to B r i d g e s i n September 1881: I am sometimes s u r p r i s e d a t myself how slow and l a b o r i o u s a t h i n g v e r s e i s to me when m u s i c a l composition comes so e a s i l y , f o r I can make tunes almost a t a l l times and p l a c e s and c o u l d harmonise them as e a s i l y i f o n l y I c o u l d p l a y or read music a t s i g h t . 1 Hopkins had mentioned h i s m u s i c a l impulse as e a r l y as 1878, i n h i s f i r s t l e t t e r t o Canon R. W. Dixon: I do not t h i n k anywhere two stanzas so crowded w i t h the pathos of nature and landscape c o u l d be found . . . as the l i t t l e song of the Feathers of the Willow: a tune to i t came to me q u i t e n a t u r a l l y . 2 In h i s l e t t e r s to B r i d g e s , although he expressed i n t e r e s t i n h i s f r i e n d ' s m u s i c a l e f f o r t s and acclaimed him as a 3 "genius i n music," he seemed to have had no reason to mention h i s own e f f o r t s u n t i l August 18 79. Then, i n June 1880, h i s i n t e r e s t i n m u s i c a l composition had become s e r -i o u s . He wrote to B r i d g e s : When you s h a l l next c a l l a t Oak H i l l I want you to hear my music to the S p r i n g Odes. . . . And say whether you l i k e them and they s u i t your mean-ing i n the words. I have a l s o a f e e l i n g a i r f o r 'I have lo v e d flowers t h a t fade', but t h a t i s not q u i t e f i x e d y e t , s t i l l l e s s w r i t t e n out. 1LB, p. 136. 2 CoD, p. 3. 3LB, p. 85. 63 I w i s h I c o u l d pursue m u s i c ; f o r I have i n v e n t e d a new s t y l e , something s t a n d i n g to o r d i n a r y music as sprung rhythm to common rhythm: i t employs q u a r t e r t o n e s . I am t r y i n g to s e t an a i r i n i t to the sonnet 'Summer ends n o w ' . ± H o p k i n s ' n a t u r a l i m p u l s e to compose t u n e s , and h i s d i s c o v e r y o f a new m u s i c a l s t y l e , c o n v i n c e d him t h a t he had an i m -p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to make to m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . In an amusing l e t t e r (two s t r a i n s o f thought run s i d e by s i d e i n a k i n d o f v e r b a l c o u n t e r p o i n t ) to another f r i e n d , A . W. M. B a i l l i e , i n May 1881, Hopkins r e f e r r e d t o h i s i n t e r e s t i n music i n terms t h a t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e the d i r e c -t i o n h i s c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e was t a k i n g : . . . and music (on which I am now v e r y keen and i n the f a c e of d i f f i c u l t i e s never y e t known i n the whole h i s t o r y of a r t - - u p o n my word t h i s i s t r u e , f o r however humble may have been the s t a t i o n from w h i c h m u s i c i a n s have r i s e n to eminence a t l e a s t they c d . r e a d music and p l a y some i n s t r u m e n t b e f o r e they at tempted c o m p o s i t i o n . ^ Hopkins r e a l i z e d t h a t h i s l a c k of p r o f i c i e n c y i n the mech-a n i c s of m u s i c — r e a d i n g music a t s i g h t and p l a y i n g an i n -s t r u m e n t — s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d h i s c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . H i s m u s i c a l i m a g i n a t i o n f a r exceeded h i s a b i l i t y to e x p r e s s the music he h e a r d . He proceeded by i n s t i n c t : "I have "''LB, p . 103. The f i r s t t h r e e poems mentioned here a r e w r i t t e n by B r i d g e s . The f o u r t h one , "Summer ends now," i s " H u r r a h i n g i n H a r v e s t , " one o f the f o u r poems Hopkins wrote f o r w h i c h he a t tempted t o c r e a t e m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s . A c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what t h i s "new s t y l e " was w i l l , a c c o r d i n g to John S t e v e n s , always remain to some e x t e n t a m y s t e r y . See J P , p . 463. 2 F L , p . 101. an i n s t i n c t of what w i l l do [ i n harmonising an a i r ] and v e r i f y by r u l e and reckoning the a i r which I do hear," he s a i d , o n l y to be d i s a p p o i n t e d when the a c t u a l r e s u l t f a i l e d t o match h i s i n t e n t i o n : I got a young lady t h i s evening to p l a y me over some of my p i e c e s , but was not w e l l p l e a s e d w i t h them. What had sounded r i c h seemed t h i n . I had been t r y i n g s e v e r a l of them as canons, but t h i s I found was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and unmeaning and the c o u n t e r p o i n t drowns the a i r . I f I c o u l d o n l y get good harmonies to I have lo v e d flowers i t would be very sweet, I t h i n k . 1 The s p e c i a l e f f e c t s Hopkins wanted, as w e l l as h i s tendency toward a modal t o n a l i t y , made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r ot h e r s to w r i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y harmonies to h i s tunes. Hopkins thus f e l t p ressed i n t o beginning an independent study of harmony. By October 18 80 he was working through S t a i n e r ' s Primer of Harmony. H i s progress was slow: he was s t i l l " g r o p i n g l y " making h i s way when, a t the end of 1881, he had composed 3 " a l l h i s most i n t e r e s t i n g a i r s . " From a study of elemen-t a r y harmony, Hopkins turned to c o u n t e r p o i n t , "not f o r 4 i t s e l f but as the s o l i d f oundation of harmony." Des p i t e f r u s t r a t i n g attempts to f o l l o w the r u l e s of c o u n t e r p o i n t , "LB, p. 136. 2 Hopkxns wrote Dixon October 18 81 t h a t h i s tune to Dixon's Rainbow" i s so very p e c u l i a r , t h a t I cannot t r u s t anyone to harmonise i t and must, i f the o p p o r t u n i t y should o f f e r and my knowledge ever be s u f f i c i e n t , do i t myself." (CoD, p. 85) 3 John Stevens, i n the appendix e n t i t l e d "GMH as a Mu s i c i a n , " JP, p. 4 63. 4LB, p. 182. to be c o n s e r v a t i v e and p l e a s e the musicians who consented to c o r r e c t h i s e x e r c i s e s , Hopkins continued to work out m u s i c a l e f f e c t s f o r which no models c o u l d be found. H i s understanding of modern harmony and c o u n t e r p o i n t grew out of y e a r s of l o v i n g a t t e n t i o n t o Gregorian chant, Renaissance a i r s , and the works of Baroque masters such as Locke, Blow, P u r c e l l , Handel, and Bach, and developed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s growing understanding of Greek modal music. T h e r e f o r e , the music he heard i n h i s mind was "a world of music o l d e r , wider, and more u n i v e r s a l than t h a t around him." 1 During the f o u r years of h i s middle m a t u r i t y , w h i l e h i s c r e a t i v e impulse was p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d toward music, Hopkins wrote e i g h t l y r i c s (three of them sonnets), among which "The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo" stands out as a unique accomplishment. Hopkins' p o e t i c g i f t was the f i r s t t o f l o w e r . Then h i s g i f t f o r music was nurtured and grew under the s h e l t e r of h i s poet r y . The two g i f t s were i n many r e s p e c t s ac-t u a l l y a s i n g l e one, and i n a l l r e s p e c t s i n s e p a r a b l e . As a m e l o d i s t , Hopkins was c h i e f l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s e t t i n g words to music (that i s , w r i t i n g melodies f o r thoughts and f e e l i n g s a l r e a d y expressed i n p o e t r y ) . Of the 27 songs 2 Stevens l i s t s , songs t h a t Hopkins r e f e r r e d to i n h i s "'"Stevens, JP, p. 463. 2 o JP, p. 464-65. Stevens does not l i s t "The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo." Graves says t h a t Hopkins a l s o attempted a m u s i c a l s e t t i n g f o r t h i s poem. I b e l i e v e Graves i s i n e r r o r . He i n t e r p r e t s "song" as "music," when, i n f a c t , Hopkins simply c l a s s i f i e d t h i s poem as a song to be sung by the maidens at St. Winnefred's w e l l . See CoD, p. 149. l e t t e r s or t h a t were found among h i s papers, on l y two are a i r s without words, and both of these Stevens judges to be u n f i n i s h e d song-tunes. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of words to music, of the p o e t i c a l to the m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n a song, i s not an a r b i t r a r y one. There are " d i f f e r e n c e s of degree i n the a b s o r p t i o n of words by music i n m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s , " 1 ranging from p l a i n c h a n t , i n which the "musical elements are 2 subordinated to the words," to the m a d r i g a l , i n which the 3 p o e t x c a l s t r u c t u r e i s f u l l y subordinated to the music. Hopkins was c e r t a i n l y c o g nizant of the problem t h a t faced him as a song-writer. As an admirer of both Dryden and P u r c e l l , Hopkins may w e l l have read Dryden 1s i n t r o d u c t i o n s to two of h i s o p e r a t i c works to which P u r c e l l wrote the music. In h i s p r e f a c e t o D i o c l e s i a n , Dryden wrote: Music and Poetry have ever been acknowledg'd s i s t e r s , which walking hand i n hand support each othe r ; As poetr y i s the Harmony of Words, so Musick i s t h a t of notes. . . . Both of them may e x c e l l a p a r t , but sure they are most e x c e l -l e n t when they are joyn'd because nothing i s then wanting to e i t h e r of t h e i r p e r f e c t i o n s ; For thus they appear l i k e Wit and Beauty i n the same Person.^ Dryden i s r a t h e r l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c i n h i s p r e f a c e to """Frye, p. x x i v . 2 I b i d . 3 Between the two extremes, p l a i n c h a n t and the mad-r i g a l , l i e the r e c i t a t i v e and songs which, i n v a r y i n g de-grees, absorb the words of the poems used. 4 Quoted by F r a n k l i n B. Zimmerman, i n "Sound and Sense i n P u r c e l l ' s 'Single Songs,'" Words to Music (Los Angeles: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a , 1967), p. 51. 67 King A r t h u r , w r i t t e n and composed a few years l a t e r : But the Numbers of Poetry and V o c a l Music, are sometimes so c o n t r a r y , t h a t i n many p l a c e s I have been o b l i g ' d to cramp my Verses, and make them rugged to the Reader, t h a t they may be harmon-io u s to the Hearer. . . . And b e s i d e s I f l a t t e r myself w i t h an i m a g i n a t i o n , t h a t a J u d i c i o u s ear w i l l e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h betwixt the Songs, wherein I have comply'd wi t h him, and those i n which I have f o l l o w e d the Rules of Poetry, i n the Sound and Cadence of the Words. The advantage of combining p o e t r y w i t h music l i e s i n the 2 g r e a t e r and more immediate expressiveness of music. Music, however, takes over the rhythm of a poem, e s p e c i a l l y when the musician f i n d s a d i s c r e p a n c y between the n a t u r a l rhythm or r h e t o r i c a l accent of the words and the m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n , and chooses to f o l l o w the former. T h i s i s what P u r c e l l d i d so superbly, and what Dryden o b j e c t e d t o . The meaning, too, may be taken over (that i s , enhanced, changed by emphasis on words other than those emphasized by the poet) by the music. When Hopkins i n v i t e d Bridges to see h i s a i r s to the "Spring Odes," he expressed h i s concern t h a t they would s u i t B r i d g e s ' "meaning i n the words." "''Zimmerman, p. 54. 2 I t may be of i n t e r e s t to quote Edgar A l l a n Poe, w i t h whose poetry Hopkins was f a m i l i a r : " I t i s i n Music, perhaps, t h a t the s o u l most n e a r l y a t t a i n s the g r e a t end f o r which, when i n s p i r e d by the P o e t i c Sentiment, i t s t r u g g l e s — t h e c r e a t i o n of supernal Beauty. I t may be, indeed, t h a t here t h i s sublime end i s , now and then, a t t a i n e d i n f a c t . . . . And thus there can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t i n the union of Poetry w i t h Music i n i t s popular sense, we s h a l l f i n d the widest f i e l d f o r the P o e t i c development. The o l d Bards and Minnesingers had advantages which we do not possess." (Edgar  A l l a n Poe: S e l e c t e d Prose and Poetry, ed. by W. H. Auden [New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1950], p. 419.) F i v e years l a t e r , a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e experience i n the a r t of song-making, he s a i d , "I never saw good poetry made to music un l e s s t h a t music i t s e l f had f i r s t been made to words." 1 The poems Hopkins chose were u s u a l l y ones t h a t pro-v i d e d an i n t e n s e experience. "I was q u i t e i n s p i r e d by t h i s , " and "Quickened by the heavenly beauty of t h a t poem I groped i n my s o u l ' s very v i s c e r a f o r the tune and thrummed 2 the sweetest and most s e c r e t c a t g u t of the mind," Hopkins wrote to Dixon and B r i d g e s , when h i s emotional response to a poem i n i t i a t e d a new melody. In g e n e r a l , the poems he s e t to music are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o n v e n t i o n a l syntax and d i c t i o n , making the thought e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the reader; by a l i g h t meter, w i t h s u f f i c i e n t rhythmic i n t e r e s t 3 to o f f e r a r t i s t i c scope to the musician; and by a simple, a t times s l i g h t , p o e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t o f f e r e d l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e to the musician's treatment. The s i m p l e s t tunes are s y l l a b i c and f o l l o w the rhythm and sense of the words c a r e f u l l y , but without much s p e c i a l emphasis. As Hopkins took more l i b e r t y with the ve r s e , he enhanced a word or a phrase m e l o d i c a l l y , r h y t h m i c a l l y , e x p r e s s i v e l y ( f o r example, "LB, p. 223. 2 These statements r e f e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , to Dixon's "Sky t h a t r o l l e s t ever," (CoD, p. 54) and C o l l i n s ' "Ode to Evening" (LB, p. 199). 3 John B r i d g e s ' "Past l i k e morning beam away" i s one poem t h a t s u r e l y i n t e r e s t e d Hopkins because of i t s rhythm: l i n e s of sprung rhythm are co u n t e r p o i n t e d over the b a s i c common rhythm. 69 he i n d i c a t e d a s t a c c a t o , a r a l l e n t a n d o , or i n s e r t e d a r e s t ) , or by r e p e t i t i o n (as i n a r e f r a i n , an opening or c o n c l u d i n g passage, or the m e l i s m a t i c r a t h e r than simple s y l l a b i c treatment of a word or p h r a s e ) . Each a i r shows h i s "meti-culous care f o r every d e t a i l of p h r a s i n g , every nuance of e x p r e s s i o n . " 1 E f f e c t i v e harmonization of a l l but a few of the a i r s eluded him: e i t h e r he l a c k e d the s k i l l t o express the harmony he e n v i s i o n e d , or the m o d a l i t y d e f i e d a l l attempts a t harmonization. In the s e t t i n g , as i n the i n i t i a l melody, Hopkins was concerned to express the mean-in g of the words as he understood them and w i t h the emo-t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y he experienced i n the r e a d i n g . D i s s a t i s -f i e d w i t h h i s s i s t e r Grace's accompaniment to h i s s e t t i n g of B r i d g e s ' f i r s t " S pring Ode," he d e s c r i b e s how the music c o u l d have matched the words more c l o s e l y : The accompaniment should have a shower of semi-quavers or demisemis, w i t h g r e a t chords a t c e r -t a i n p l a c e s . On the words 'And where the bare t r u n k s ' , where a note i s f o u r times repeated, the chord should have been v a r i e d f o u r times, r i s i n g or descending, an obvious and b e a u t i f u l e f f e c t of c o u n t e r p o i n t , and not been repeated, as she has done.^ Grace's harmonization l a c k e d the e x p r e s s i o n Hopkins wanted """Stevens, JP, p. 476. Throughout my d i s c u s s i o n of Hopkins' music I am indebted to John Stevens. 2 Of h i s s e t t i n g f o r Coventry Patmore's "The Crocus," Hopkins wrote: "The second and t h i r d v e r s e s were a k i n d of w i l d e r n e s s of u n i n t e l l i g i b l e chords." LB, p. 202. 3 LB, p. 105. 70 f o r the p i e c e . For poems wi t h more than one stanza, Hopkins maintained t h a t "the change of words from verse to v e r s e " c a l l e d f o r a corresponding change i n the music. Without changing the b a s i c d e sign e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t v e r s e - -the i nscape of the s o n g — h e e f f e c t e d a l t e r a t i o n s i n the rhythm and melody of s p e c i f i c words and phrases so t h a t "the a i r becomes a g e n e r i c form which i s s p e c i f i e d newly i n each v e r s e , w i t h e x c e l l e n t e f f e c t . " 1 The song i s thus a t r a n s l a t i o n of words i n t o music: GMH ' t r a n s l a t e s ' the p o e t i c rhythm i n t o melody (rhythm and p i t c h ) . But (and t h i s i s the i n t e r -e s t i n g thing) a t the back of the m u s i c a l ' t r a n s l a -t i o n 1 one can sense and a p p r e c i a t e h i s o r i g i n a l p o e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . . Music s t y l i z e s the p a t t e r n of sound (which i s u s u a l l y a l s o the p a t t e r n of meaning) as GMH heard i t i n the poem. 2 To t r a n s l a t e the phrase from B r i d g e s ' "Spring Ode" ("And where the bare trunks") i n t o music, Hopkins chose to ex-press the m o n o s y l l a b i c c h a r a c t e r of the words by a s i n g l e note repeated four times. The sounds and cadences of the words, however, r e q u i r e a change i n the chord f o r each new word. In t h i s way the f u l l e x p r e s s i o n of the p i e c e i s con-veyed i n the harmony. A q u e s t i o n t h a t has been r a i s e d b e f o r e needs some c o n s i d e r a t i o n : why d i d Hopkins s e t so few of h i s own 3 poems to music? One p o s s i b l e answer l i e s i n Hopkins' LB, p. 305. Stevens, JP, pp. 458-459. 3 Stevens r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n (JP, p. 457) but does not answer i t d i r e c t l y . poetic method: he dwelt so long and laboriously on the poetic l i n e s that by the time he was content to leave them the freshness of the i n s p i r a t i o n was gone. One notable exception i s "Hurrahing i n Harvest," a sonnet for which he attempted an a i r nearly three years after the words were written. In 1878 he wrote to Bridges that i t "was the out-come of half an hour of extreme enthusiasm as I walked home alone one day from f i s h i n g i n the Elwy." X No long labour was apparently needed for t h i s expression of intense en-joyment of nature and gratitude to i t s Creator. The fresh spontaneity of the experience no doubt remained with him and inspired his second a r t i s t i c attempt. The song, how-ever, remained unfinished. The second possible answer i s strongly suggested by a general analysis of the poetry Hopkins chose to set to music. None of the poetic elements --syntax, rhythm, and poetic design as a whole--are f u l l y explored from Hopkins' point of view. Ample l a t i t u d e re-mains for his own musical interpretation. On the other hand, i n Hopkins' own verse the "markedness of the rhythm," the heightened tonal pattern, the sprung (or abrupt) and e l l i p t i c a l syntax, and the "violent packing of words into 2 unexpected places," interact i n the formation of a work of a rt that r e s i s t s t r a n s l a t i o n into another idiom. Each poetic element i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Hopkinsian poem, verbal or s t r u c t u r a l , i s pressed into multiple service. LB, p. 56. Gardner, Poems, pp. xxix-xxx. The r e s u l t i s an int e n s i t y of emotion that could e a s i l y become either inappropriately weakened or excessive, i n the hands of an unskilled or undisciplined musician. "Hurrahing i n Harvest" i s the kind of poem that could not be set to a simple, ordinary song-tune. The rhythm i s d i f f i c u l t — s p r u n g with outriding feet (that i s , extra-metrical s y l l a b l e s ) , the li n e s are extended beyond the poetic l i n e , and the thought-phrases (cadences) vary greatly i n length. The sonnet form i n i t s e l f does not permit a regular strophic treatment, such as i s possible for poems written i n stanzas, and of the kind Hopkins employed for most of his a i r s . "Hurrahing i n Harvest" i s the poem to which Hopkins hoped to write a musical setting i n his new sty l e , "something standing to ordinary music as sprung rhythm to common rhythm: i t employs quarter tones." In Hopkins' own words, sprung rhythm i s the nearest to the rhythm of prose, that i s the native and natural rhythm of speech . . . com-bining, as i t seems to me, opposite and, one would have thought, incompatible excellences, markedness of rhythm—that i s rhythm's s e l f — and naturalness of expression. x Stevens suggests that the mystery of what th i s new sty l e might have been i s to be found i n the paradox just quoted: I f i n d the same paradox i n his music: a deter-mination to use the 'native and natural' combined with the highest degree of 'heightening', 'marked-ness 1. F i r s t , there i s his intere s t i n the funda-mental truths of the ear: he i s fascinated by L B , p . 4 6 . 73 modes, heptachords, and q u a r t e r - t o n e s , and by the twos and f o u r s 'at the bottom of both m u s i c a l and m e t r i c a l time'. But he i s a l s o c l e a r l y determined i n h i s songs, p a r t i c u l a r l y the more ambitious ones, to achieve s i n g u l a r i t y , h e i g h t e n i n g , d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of m u s i c a l e f f e c t . . . His d e s i g n i s , q u i t e simply, to extend the melodic re s o u r c e s ( t h i s i n c l u d e d a l s o the rhythmic) of music by a r e t u r n t o f u n d a m e n t a l s — t o the i n f i n -i t e s u b t l e t y and expres s i v e n e s s of human speech and to the 'world of mathematics' i n m u s i c . 1 Hopkins' e f f o r t s to upset the t o o - f i r m l y - e s t a b l i s h e d quad-r a t u r e of s t r i c t m u s i c a l time i s e v i d e n t i n a number of h i s tunes. I f he had been a b l e to put down the music he imagined f o r "Hurrahing i n Harvest," he would p o s s i b l y have produced a symphonic tone poem, a very s u i t a b l e i d iom f o r a poem of t h i s k i n d , which would have given him f l e x i -b i l i t y o f form to c r e a t e the mood of the poem as a whole. Or, i f h i s new s t y l e was a p r e c u r s o r of the "new world of mu s i c a l enjoyment," the "new a r t , " he d e s c r i b e d i n the l e t t e r s of h i s l a s t y e a r s , i t would have been unorches-2 t r a t e d , "an unaccompanied s o l o song," i n a mo d a l i t y r e -sembling Greek music most of a l l . Hopkins attempted m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s f o r two more of h i s own poems d u r i n g the p e r i o d of h i s e a r l y and middle m a t u r i t y . The f i r s t of these, "Morning, Midday, and Eve-n i n g S a c r i f i c e , " was completed i n August 1879. John F. Waterhouse says t h a t the " f a c i l e metre and p a t t e r n suggest x S t e v e n s , JP, p . 463. 2 Waterhouse, p. 23 5. Waterhouse says t h a t Hopkins " e v i d e n t l y . . . meant a k i n d of p l a i n s o n g " i n h i s r e f e r -ence to the "new s t y l e " and h i s s e t t i n g f o r "Hurrahing i n Harvest." (p. 231) 74 c l e a r l y t h a t words and notes grew t o g e t h e r . " 1 S i n c e Hopkins, i n h i s f i r s t r e f e r e n c e to t h i s poem, c a l l s i t a 2 "song," and o n l y l a t e r r e f e r s to the t e x t a p a r t from the music, i t seems h i g h l y probable t h a t Waterhouse i s r i g h t . The meter may w e l l be termed " f a c i l e " i n comparison to t h a t of most other poems Hopkins wrote d u r i n g the same year (such as "Binsey P o p l a r s , " "Duns Scotus's Oxford," and "Henry P u r c e l l " ) : each o f the three stanzas c o n s i s t s 3 of seven l i n e s of b a s i c a l l y iambic t r i m e t e r , grouped to form a q u a t r a i n and a t e r c e t . The rhythm, however, i s by no means r e g u l a r or simple. Hopkins "over-reaves" the c r u c i a l f i r s t l i n e (he extends the thought beyond the l i n e ) , f o r c i n g a heavy accent i n t o the weak p o s i t i o n a t the be-g i n n i n g of l i n e two: The dappled die-away / l o V / w / 4 Cheek and the wimpled l i p . Many s y l l a b l e s i n weak p o s i t i o n s , throughout the poem, r e -c e i v e a stronger than normal emphasis: ''"Waterhouse, p. 231. 2 Hopkins wrote to B r i d g e s August 1879: "I hope a l s o soon to shew you . . . a l i t t l e song not u n l i k e 'I have loved f l o w e r s t h a t f a d e 1 " ; and i n October 1879: "Did you l i k e the song 'The dappled dieaway Cheek'?" (LB, pp. 86-87 and 92.) 3 In 1879 Hopkins would have scanned these l i n e s as iambic. Sometime w i t h i n the year b e f o r e he wrote h i s P r e f a c e of 1883, he changed h i s p r i n c i p l e of s c a n s i o n so t h a t , f o r convenience, a f o o t begins with a strong beat, and i s l a b e l l e d t r o c h a i c . Poems, p. 84. 75 The gold-wisp, the a i r y - g r e y Eye, a l l i n f e l l o w s h i p - -T h i s , a l l t h i s beauty blooming. T h i s , a l l t h i s f r e s h n e s s fuming, Give God w h i l e worth consuming. i n the f i n a l t h ree l i n e s , the s e m a n t i c a l l y weak p r e p o s i -t i o n "of" p a r a d o x i c a l l y emphasizes the weakness of the l a s t s y l l a b l e : What death h a l f l i f t s the l a t c h o f , l ~ 71 r~\ 71 ^ / w What h e l l hopes soon the snatch o f , Your o f f e r i n g , w i t h despatch, o f ! The thought becomes more compressed w i t h each v e r s e , and, d e s p i t e Hopkins' apparent e f f o r t s to be l u c i d , the syntax of stanza three i s e l l i p t i c a l and d i f f i c u l t . A l l these f e a t u r e s would have made demands on Hopkins' s k i l l and i m a g i n a t i o n f o r an e f f e c t i v e m u s i c a l treatment. Hopkins began to w r i t e a melody i n p l a i n c h a n t to "Spring and F a l l " s e v e r a l months a f t e r he had completed the poem. x His ear, accustomed to modal music, p e r c e i v e d a wealth of melodic p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n p l a i n s o n g t h a t are l o s t to most people who understand o n l y the modern system of keys w i t h i t s two b a s i c arrangements of tones and semi-tones (major and minor). In 1885 Hopkins became p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n v o l v e d w i t h p l a i n s o n g through h i s work on the The poem was completed September 188 0 and the m u s i c a l s e t t i n g was w r i t t e n January 1881. 76 m u s i c a l s e t t i n g of C o l l i n s 1 "Ode to Evening." During t h a t time he d e s c r i b e d h i s p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g f o r i t : To me p l a i n chant [ s i c ] melody has an i n f i n i t e e x p r e s s i v e n e s s and dramatic r i c h n e s s . The p u t t i n g i n or l e a v i n g out of a s i n g l e note i n an 'alpha-b e t i c ' passage changes the emotional meaning: a l l we admirers of p l a i n chant f e e l t h i s , the r e s t of the world . . . do not. . . . we are sober, they i n t o x i c a t e d with r i c h harmonies cannot t a s t e our f i n e d i f f e r e n c e s . 1 The " i n f i n i t e e x p r e s s i v e n e s s " of p l a i n s o n g melody l i e s i n i t s unadorned s i m p l i c i t y : the very s c a r c i t y o f m u s i c a l elements p l a c e s a s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e on each one t h a t i s i n c l u d e d . Hopkins a l s o f e l t t h a t p l a i n c h a n t " g r e a t l y 2 b r i n g s out the nature of the rhythm" of a poem. P l a i n -chant i s thus the i d e a l m u s i c a l form f o r a poem w r i t t e n i n sprung rhythm, such as "Spring and F a l l " : i t a l s o com-bi n e s " n a t u r a l n e s s of e x p r e s s i o n " w i t h "markedness of rhythm." 3 The nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Hopkins' poetry and h i s music as i t developed d u r i n g the years of h i s e a r l y and middle m a t u r i t y can now be summarized. In many r e -spe c t s h i s g i f t i s a s i n g l e one, and i n a l l r e s p e c t s h i s p o e t i c g i f t i s i n s e p a r a b l e from h i s g i f t f o r music. T h i s ^LB, p. 214. Hopkins was a l s o f a s c i n a t e d w i t h the "mathematics" l y i n g a t the h e a r t of p l a i n s o n g . See CoD, p. 72 2 LB, p. 234. 3 Waterhouse says t h a t the tune f o r "Spring and F a l l " c o u l d have been " s e t f o r r e g u l a r b a r r i n g . " (p. 231) In s p i t e of t h i s , Hopkins most probably p e r c e i v e d g r e a t e r rhythmic s u b t l e t y i n the b a r l e s s form. i s e v i d e n t i n t h a t h i s m u s i c a l impulse focussed on the a r t of song-making. His a i r s are t r a n s l a t i o n s of v e r b a l ma-t e r i a l i n t o music. J u s t as Hopkins' aim i n music was to extend i t s melodic r e s o u r c e s , 1 so i n poetry he aimed a t h e i g h t e n i n g the t o n a l p a t t e r n — t h e p a t t e r n of repeated vowels and consonants. In both music and poetry Hopkins 2 d i s p l a y s the same "shaping ear f o r melody." He knew i n -s t i n c t i v e l y when the melodic s t r u c t u r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y ex-pressed the rhythm and the sense of the p o e t i c l i n e s . A l l the p a r t i c u l a r dramatic and r h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t s Hopkins used t o b r i n g out the rhythm, sense, and sound of the words are p a t t e r n e d i n t o the melody: they are not merely achieved 3 by marks of e x p r e s s i o n . As Stevens says, t h i s i n t e n s i f i e s the m u s i c a l l i f e of the song. The music of h i s poe t r y , too, i s i n t e n s i f i e d , so t h a t a m u s i c a l s e t t i n g i s a c t u a l l y r e -4 dundant. Hopkins' aim i n both music and poetry i s d e s i g n -p a t t e r n , or insc a p e . In h i s s t r o p h i c a i r s , as i n h i s poems, he e s t a b l i s h e d the de s i g n i n the f i r s t s tanza, and then repeated the b a s i c form w i t h s p e c i f i c v a r i a t i o n s as c a l l e d f o r by the words i n the succeeding stanzas. Hopkins ex-pected to achieve h i s aims by combining the "opposite x S t e v e n s , JP, p. 463. 2 I b i d . , p. 462. 3 I b i d . 4 Among v a r i o u s contemporary m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s of Hopkins' poems, those of M i c h a e l Young ("Four Songs," Op. 24, 19 72) a re remarkable f o r c a p t u r i n g the mood of poems as v a r i e d as "The Habi t of P e r f e c t i o n " and " H e r a c l i t e a n F i r e . " 78 e x c e l l e n c e s " of h e i g h t e n i n g and n a t u r a l n e s s . Thus he turned t o "the i n f i n i t e s u b t l e t y and exp r e s s i v e n e s s of human speech" X : p l a i n c h a n t i n music and sprung rhythm i n po e t r y . When Hopkins d e f i n e s p o e t r y i n h i s l e c t u r e notes on r h e t o r i c he admits the need f o r some meaning "to support and employ the shape which i s contemplated f o r i t s own 2 sake." H i s admission o f other necessary elements t o make po e t r y i s e q u i v o c a l : " i f p o e t r y i s the v i r t u e of i t s own k i n d of composition then a l l v e r s e even composed f o r i t s own i n t e r e s t ' s sake i s not p o e t r y — . " Here Hopkins stops, but the thought can be completed on the b a s i s of what he has s a i d e a r l i e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n : v e r s e i s poe t r y " i f you take po e t r y to be . . . the v i r t u e o f i n -scape and not inscape o n l y . " In other words, ve r s e can bear the name "poetry" i n a s f a r as i t i s the b e s t of i t s k i n d , and to t h a t extent, a l s o , the inscape w i l l be a t h i n g of beauty. Here Hopkins approaches a d e f i n i t i o n of p o e t r y which he never s t a t e s p l a i n l y , but which can be i n f e r r e d from h i s w r i t i n g s . "On the O r i g i n of Beauty," c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g comparison of prose and po e t r y : the advantage of poetry over prose may be ex-pressed by the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e of t h a t s t r u c t u r e , t h a t i s , of v e r s e . But now i s i t not always assumed t h a t the h i g h e s t l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s , c r e a -t i v e of course I mean, have been made i n ver s e Stevens, JP, p. 463. 2 J P , p. 289. 3 I b i d . , 290. 79 and not i n prose? If you want examples of the deepest pathos and sublimity and passion  and any other kind of beauty, do you not look for them i n verse and not i n prose? 1 The beauty of poetry l i e s i n i t s depth of f e e l i n g and i t s sublime expression of f e e l i n g . For Hopkins, then, poetry i s a structure of f e e l i n g . Again and again Hopkins praised Dixon's poems for th e i r quality of f e e l i n g : you have great reason to thank God who has given you so astonishingly clear an inward eye to see what i s i n v i s i b l e nature and i n the heart such a deep insight into what i s earnest, tender, and pathetic i n human l i f e and f e e l i n g as your poems d i s p l a y . 2 Bridges' poems he found to be "very b e a u t i f u l . " Recom-mending them to Dixon he wrote: In imagery he [Bridges] i s not r i c h but excels i n phrasing, i n sequence of phrase and sequence of f e e l i n g on f e e l i n g . . . . By sequence of fe e l i n g I mean a dramatic quality by which what goes before seems to necessitate and beget what comes after.3 In the same sense Hopkins found both Milton's poetry and 4 Purcell's music "necessary and eternal." A l l creative art—dance, music, poetry, painting, JP, p. 108. The emphasis i s mine. 2 CoD, p. 9. 3 Ibid., p. 8. 4 Ibid., p. 13. 80 a r c h i t e c t u r e — i s the " o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e of emotions," 1 2 or an "analogue of emotive l i f e . " Susanne K. Langer d i s -cusses the " t o n a l s t r u c t u r e s " of music to show how the l i f e of emotions i s a r t i c u l a t e d by these s t r u c t u r e s : the t o n a l s t r u c t u r e s we c a l l 'music' bear a c l o s e l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y to the forms of human f e e l i n g - - f o r m s of growth and of a t t e n u a t i o n , f l o w i n g and stowing, c o n f l i c t and r e s o l u t i o n , speed, a r r e s t , t e r r i f i c excitement, calm, or s u b t l e a c t i v a t i o n and dreamy l a p s e s — n o t joy and sorrow perhaps, but the poignancy of e i t h e r and b o t h — t h e greatness and b r e v i t y and e t e r n a l p a s s i n g of e v e r y t h i n g v i t a l l y f e l t . Such i s the p a t t e r n , or l o g i c a l form, of s e n t i e n c e ; and the p a t t e r n of music i s t h a t same form worked out i n pure, measured sound and s i l e n c e . Music i s a t o n a l analogue of emotive l i f e . 3 Langer d i s t i n g u i s h e s between poetry and music by saying t h a t p o e t r y i s a v e r b a l analogue of emotive l i f e . The n o n d i s c u r s i v e element i n poetry, however, the f e e l i n g t h a t i s communicated d i r e c t l y without v e r b a l mediation, l i e s i n the rhythmic and t o n a l s t r u c t u r e and i s a r t i c u l a t e d by these s t r u c t u r e s j u s t as i t i s i n music. In h i s poems, Hopkins expresses both the u l t i m a t e depth and the supreme h e i g h t of human experience and f e e l -i n g . In "The Wreck of The Deutschland" he f r e q u e n t l y X T . S. E l i o t ' s terminology used by W. K. Wimsatt i n The V e r b a l Icon (Lexington: U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky Pr e s s , 1954), p. 271. 2 Susanne K. Langer, F e e l i n g and Form (New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1953), p. 27. Langer t e n t a t i v e l y d e f i n e s a r t as "the c r e a t i o n of forms symbolic of human f e e l i n g . " (p. 4 0) 3 I b i d . 81 t e l e s c o p e s the whole spectrum o f emotion i n t o a s i n g l e l i n e : Thou a r t l i g h t n i n g and l o v e , I found i t , a w i n t e r and warm; F a t h e r and f o n d l e r of h e a r t thou h a s t wrung: Hast thy dark d e s c e n d i n g and most a r t m e r c i f u l t h e n . ( s tanza 9) Sometimes i t seems as i f the e m o t i o n a l elements of e x p e r -i e n c e are b a r e l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p o e t i c m a t e r i a l , as f o r example s t a n z a 2 8 of the same poem: But how s h a l l I . . . make me room t h e r e : Reach me a . . . F a n c y , come f a s t e r — S t r i k e you the s i g h t o f i t ? l o o k a t i t loom t h e r e , T h i n g t h a t she . . . There t h e n ! the M a s t e r , I p s e , the o n l y one , C h r i s t , K i n g , Head . In a c t u a l i t y , the b r o k e n syntax f u n c t i o n s as a m u l t i p l e metaphor : the s h i p , the l i v e s of p e o p l e , and the s p e a k e r ' s thoughts a r e fragmented by the n a t u r a l and e m o t i o n a l f o r c e s i n v o l v e d i n the e x p e r i e n c e . The h y s t e r i a i s h e l d i n check by the s t r u c t u r e of the s t a n z a . S t a n z a 18 i s another example o f extreme e m o t i o n , e x q u i s i t e l y e x p r e s s e d and c o m p l e t e l y d i s c i p l i n e d by the p e r f e c t l y measured s t r u c t u r e : A h , touched i n your bower of bone, A r e y o u ! t u r n e d f o r an e x q u i s i t e smart , Have y o u ! make words break from me here a l l a l o n e , Do y o u ! - - m o t h e r of b e i n g i n me, h e a r t . 0 u n t e a c h a b l y a f t e r e v i l , b u t u t t e r i n g t r u t h , Why, t e a r s ! i s i t ? t e a r s ; such a m e l t i n g , a m a d r i g a l s t a r t ! N e v e r - e l d e r i n g r e v e l and r i v e r of y o u t h , What can i t b e , t h i s g l e e ? the good you have t h e r e o f your own? Hopkins a c h i e v e s i n t e n s i t y of emotion by the l a y e r s of p a r a d o x i c a l meaning i n t h e s e l i n e s . He d e s c r i b e s the 82 g r i e f of a s y m p a t h e t i c h e a r t , moved to t e a r s by the t r a g e d y , and t h e n , by r e - i n t e r p r e t i n g the h e a r t ' s r e s p o n s e , he t u r n s the t e a r s of sorrow i n t o a y o u t h f u l song and dance ( " m a d r i g a l , " " r e v e l , " " y o u t h , " " g l e e " ) . The word " m a d r i g a l " sugges ts t h a t the h e a r t ' s c r y becomes a l i n e of melody to match the c r y of " t h e t a l l nun" ( s tanza 19 ) : c o u n t e r p o i n t e d , the two c r i e s form a p o l y p h o n y o f t r u t h and g r a c e . The imagery of e t e r n a l y o u t h and j o y i s evoked by the f a c t t h a t the h e a r t ' s r e s p o n s e opens the c h a n n e l f o r . the f l o w of G o d ' s g r a c e , so t h a t (again p a r a d o x i c a l l y ) , d e s p i t e i t s u n t e a c h a b l e e v i l , the h e a r t i s c a p a b l e of " u t t e r i n g t r u t h " and r e c e i v i n g the "good" t h a t i s o f f e r e d . S t r u c t u r a l l y , b o t h the p a t t e r n of rhythm and the p a t t e r n o f sound express such "forms of human f e e l i n g " as g r o w t h , a t t e n u a t i o n , s p e e d , and a r r e s t . 1 The rhythm of the f i r s t f o u r l i n e s a l t e r n a t e s speed and a r r e s t : accdemndcr —raUentanckr A h , touched i n your bower of bone, accei- V aaxt. :  A r e y o u ! t u r n e d f o r an e x q u i s i t e smart , V Have y o u ! . . . T h i s r h y t h m i c a l t e r n a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i m i t a t e s a p e r s o n ' s s o b s , the r h y t h m i c a r r e s t c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the sharp i n t a k e o f b r e a t h . Hopkins b u i l d s a s i m i l a r form of f e e l i n g t o n a l l y i n l i n e s i x : I am u s i n g L a n g e r ' s t e r m s . 83 slow V -fast V shu Why, t e a r s ! i s i t ? t e a r s ; . . . The l o n g c i r c u m f l e x e d e of " t e a r s " slows the movement, and then the s_ w i t h i t s accompanying e x c l a m a t i o n mark a r r e s t s i t c o m p l e t e l y . The two s h o r t words (both " i s " and " i t " have the s h o r t _i) , w i t h the sharp r i s e of i n f l e c t i o n and sudden t o t a l s t o p on " i t ? " , a l s o i m i t a t e the i n v o l u n t a r y spasms o f b r e a t h i n s o b b i n g . T h e n , w i t h the r e p e t i t i o n of " t e a r s , " the b r i e f a c c e l e r a t i o n of speed i s a g a i n slowed down. R h y t h m i c a l l y and t o n a l l y , the forms of growth and a t t e n u a -t i o n are s t r u c t u r e d i n t o l i n e s seven and e i g h t : N e v e r - e l d e r i n g r e v e l and r i v e r of y o u t h , What can i t b e , t h i s g l e e ? . . . The s e r i e s of s h o r t s y l l a b l e s of e q u a l l e n g t h grow by a c c u m u l a t i o n u n t i l " y o u t h , " a t the end of the l i n e , w i t h i t s l o n g , narrow vowel sound, b r e a k s the f o r c e and slows the movement. The e f f e c t o f the h i g h - p i t c h e d l o n g e ' s i n "be" and " g l e e " o f the l a s t l i n e , f o l l o w i n g each o t h e r i n c l o s e s u c c e s s i o n , i s a g a i n one o f growth , b u t t h i s t ime a growth i n i n t e n s i t y r a t h e r than a c c e l e r a t i o n s i n c e the move-ment i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g slowed down. I t i s c e r t a i n l y a d i f f i c u l t t a s k to express g r i e f and t e r r o r w i t h o u t c l o y i n g s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . Hopkins m a i n t a i n s complete c o n t r o l , v e r -b a l l y and s t r u c t u r a l l y , over h i s m a t e r i a l . In h i s hands the elements of emotive l i f e are t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a r t i s t i c e l e m e n t s : each word, each r h y t h m i c f r a g m e n t , and each 84 tone contributes to the t o t a l design. For Hopkins, says J. C. A. Rathmell, "music i n poetry i s primarily s t r u c t u r a l , only secondarily emotional." 1 This statement has v a l i d i t y i n the sense that Hopkins assumes the emotional content of poetry, but defines poetry i n terms of structure: verse i s a figure of sound. I t i s also v a l i d to equate "structure" with "music" i n Hopkins' poetry since his frame of reference for poetic thought i s music: he derives his p r i n c i p l e s of poetic structure from music. The term "musical" i n r e l a t i o n to poetry i s often misunderstood. Northrop Frye says that i t i s not "a value term meaning that the poet has produced a pleasant variety of vowel sounds and has managed to avoid the more unpronounceable clusters of consonants that abound i n 2 modern English." That would be euphony and not music. Rather, as has been noted before, i t i s "a qua l i t y i n l i t e r a t u r e denoting a substantial analogy to, and i n many cases an actual influence from, the art of music." In Hopkins' poetry th i s quality i s primarily evident i n the rhythmic and tonal design, that i s , i n the form Hopkins creates by his organization of sound. Hopkins uses the term i n t h i s sense i n a l e t t e r to Dixon. He explains that sp e c i a l attention must be paid to quantity i n a poem J. C. A. Rathmell, "Explorations and Recoveries— 1: Hopkins, Ruskin and the Sidney Psalter," The London  Magazine, ed. John Lehmann (Sept. 19 59, Vol. 6, No. 9), p. 60. Frye, p. x i . 85 composed i n sprung rhythm: And since English quantity i s very d i f f e r e n t from Greek or Latin a sort of prosody ought to be drawn up for i t . . . . We must d i s t i n g u i s h strength (or gravity) and length. About length there i s l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y : p l a i n l y bidst i s longer than bids and bids than b i d . But i t i s not recognized by everybody that bid, with a f l a t dental, i s graver or stronger than b i t , with a sharp. The strongest and, other things being a l i k e , the longest s y l l a b l e s are those with the circumflex, l i k e f i r e . Any s y l l a b l e ending i n ng_, though ng i s only a single sound, may be made as long as you l i k e by prolonging the nasal. So too n may be prolonged af t e r a long vowel or before a consonant, as i n soon or and. In t h i s way a great number of observations might be made: I have put these down at random as samples. You w i l l f i n d that Milton pays much attention to consonant-quality or gravity of sound i n his l i n e endings. Indeed every good ear does i t naturally more or l e s s / i n composing. The French too say that t h e i r feminine ending i s graver than the masculine and that pathetic or majestic l i n e s are made in preference to end with i t . One may even by a consideration of what the music of the verse requires restore ^ sometimes the pronunciation of Shakspere's time. The two elements Hopkins i d e n t i f i e s here as making up quantity i n English verse--strength, or gravity, and length both f i n d p a r a l l e l s i n music: strength i s the equivalent of p i t c h , and length equates the metrical foot with a musical bar. In the concluding summary of his lecture note on r h e t o r i c , he ten t a t i v e l y admits music into poetry as a t h i r d element: " i n general a l l the elements of verse may be reduced to (1) Rhyme . . . (2) Rhythm . . . and (3) i f we l i k e to include i t , music, which springs from tonic CoD, p. 288. 86 a c c e n t o r p i t c h . These are v a r i o u s l y combined i n m e t r e . . . . L a t e r , as Hopkins e s t a b l i s h e d h i s p r i n c i p l e by w o r k i n g them out i n h i s own p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n s , he r e c o g n i z e d t h a t " t h e music of the v e r s e " i s the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y w i t h i n w h i c h rhyme and rhythm are i n c l u d e d . H o p k i n s ' d i s c u s s i o n of E n g l i s h q u a n t i t y shows t h a t , i n h i s c o n c e r n w i t h l e n g t h , he i s a d v o c a t i n g "a s t r i c t e r v e r s e -2 p r o s o d y " of the k i n d t h a t modern music i n s i s t s o n . He 3 c a l l s t h i s " t h e p r i n c i p l e of E q u i v a l e n c e , " a p r i n c i p l e he d e s c r i b e s i n h i s P r e f a c e of 1883: " I n sprung rhythm . . . the f e e t a re assumed to be e q u a l l y l o n g or s t r o n g and t h e i r seeming i n e q u a l i t y i s made up by pause or s t r e s s -4 i n g . " In b r i e f , " i t i s the ' b o n e , f rame, and c h a r p e n t e of m u s i c " . . . t h a t recommends to Hopkins the c o m p o s i t i o n o f M o z a r t , B a c h , and P u r c e l l , " ^ and t h a t he aims a t above a l l i n h i s own p o e t r y . 1 J P , p . 288. 2 L B , p . 120. In a l e t t e r to C o v e n t r y Patmore, J a n u a r y 20, 1887, Hopkins i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t i n q u a n t i t y c o n t i n u e d : "I b e l i e v e t h a t I can now s e t metre and music b o t h of them on a s c i e n t i f i c f o o t i n g which w i l l be f i n a l l i k e the law of g r a v i t a t i o n . " (FL , p . 229) 3 LB, , p . 2 59. "I cannot b u t hope t h a t i n your m e t r i -c a l Paper you w i l l somewhere d i s t i n c t l y s t a t e the p r i n c i p l e of E q u i v a l e n c e and t h a t i t was q u i t e u n r e c o g n i z e d i n M i l t o n and s t i l l more i n S h a k e s p e a r e ' s t i m e . . . . M e t r i c a l E q u i v a l e n c e . . . i s i n use i n E n g l i s h now, and . . . i t was not t h e n - - a n d . . . i t was M i l t o n ' s a r t i f i c e s , as you e x p l a i n them, t h a t h e l p e d to i n t r o d u c e i t . " 4 Poems, p p . 47-48. R a t h m e l l , p . 61. 87 Between the w r i t i n g of "The Wreck of The Deutschland" and the w r i t i n g of h i s P r e f a c e , Hopkins e x p l a i n e d , analyzed, and defended, i n l e t t e r s to Bridges and Dixon, the sprung rhythm he claimed to have i n v e n t e d . 1 There i s evidence of some development of thought i n these l e t t e r s , so t h a t the l a t e s t f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s p r i n c i p l e s , i n the P r e f a c e , should be taken as the standard: Sprung Rhythm . . . i s measured by f e e t of from one to f o u r s y l l a b l e s , r e g u l a r l y , and f o r p a r t i -c u l a r e f f e c t s any number of weak or s l a c k s y l -l a b l e s may be used. I t has one s t r e s s , which f a l l s on the o n l y s y l l a b l e , i f there i s o n l y one, o r , i f t h e r e are more, then scanning as above / f o r Running Rhythm/, on the f i r s t , and so g i v e s r i s e to f o u r s o r t s of f e e t , a monosyl-l a b l e and the s o - c a l l e d a c c e n t u a l Trochee, D a c t y l , and the F i r s t Paeon. 2 S i n c e any one f o o t may f o l l o w any o t h e r , sprung rhythm has "only one nominal rhythm, a mixed or ' l o g a o e d i c 1 one" 3 and a l s o g r e a t " f l e x i b i l i t y of f o o t . " S t r i c t l y speaking, sprung rhythm cannot be c o u n t e r p o i n t e d i n t h a t counter-p o i n t rhythm i s the "mounting of a new rhythm upon the 4 o l d , " upon the Common E n g l i s h or Running Rhythm, as Hopkins terms i t , whereas sprung rhythm i s the new rhythm in d e -pendent of other rhythms. 1 S e e LB, pp. 44-46, 119-120, 155-157; and CoD pp. 14-15, 21-23, and 39-42. 2Poems, p. 47. 3 I b i d . 4 I b i d . , p. 46. 88 "Sprung rhythm i s a m u s i c a l i d e a " : " ' ' e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h i s new rhythm r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to m u s i c . Hopkins w r i t e s i n h i s P r e f a c e t h a t sprung rhythm " i s the rhythm of a l l b u t the most monotonously r e g u l a r m u s i c , so t h a t i n the words and choruses and r e f r a i n s and i n songs w r i t t e n c l o s e l y 2 t o music i t a r i s e s . " T h a t i s to s a y , i f words are w r i t t e n c l o s e l y to m u s i c , the rhythm of the v e r s e t h a t i s p r o -duced w i l l be a m u s i c a l r h y t h m . T h i s i s the n a t u r e of sprung r h y t h m . I t has a l r e a d y been noted t h a t H o p k i n s ' p r i n c i p l e of e q u i v a l e n c e i s d e r i v e d from the e q u a l i t y of l e n g t h and s t r e n g t h r e s i d i n g i n each m u s i c a l b a r . The v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s of s l a c k and s t r e s s i n each f o o t thus compare to w h o l e , h a l f , q u a r t e r , e i g h t h , and s i x -t e e n t h n o t e s . O t h e r v a r i a b l e s b e s i d e s s t r e s s a l s o a f f e c t the t i m i n g , as W a l t e r J . Ong has p o i n t e d o u t : v a r y i n g amounts of t ime are r e q u i r e d f o r the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t s y l l a b l e s , n a t u r a l pauses or r e s t s i n or between c e r t a i n words or s y l l a b l e s , v a r i o u s ways of c o u n t e r b a l a n c i n g minor a c c e n t s , and so o n . ^ As i n m u s i c , the r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n produced by t h e s e v a r y -i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s "would v a r y from poem to poem, b e i n g perhaps now a k i n d of 4/4 t i m e , now 6/8 , or a g a i n some-^ F r y e , p . xx . 2 Poems, p . 49. 3 W a l t e r J . Ong, S. J . , " H o p k i n s ' Sprung Rhythm and the L i f e of E n g l i s h P o e t r y , " Immortal Diamond, e d . Norman Weyand (New Y o r k : Sheed & Ward, 1949), p . 121. 89 t h i n g l i k e the f r e e rhythm of p l a i n c h a n t . " 1 Hopkins a l s o f o l l o w s the example of music i n h i s method of scanning t h i s rhythm: " i t i s a g r e a t convenience to . . . take the s t r e s s always f i r s t , as the accent or the c h i e f accent 2 always comes f i r s t i n the m u s i c a l bar," he says i n h i s P r e f a c e . Hopkins' method of scanning i n v o l v e s a f u r t h e r m u s i c a l i d e a ; t h a t i s , the o v e r - r e a v i n g of l i n e s and scanning without a break from the b e g i n n i n g of a stanza to the end to produce "one long s t r a i n " i s , i n e f f e c t , the p r i n c i p l e of continuousness i n music. The two l i c e n s e s Hopkins permits because they are " n a t u r a l " t o sprung rhythm are, as w e l l , d e r i v e d from music. The f i r s t i s the " r e s t . " The second i s the "hanger" or " o u t r i d e " 3 which compares to the grace note. Hopkins d e f i n e s the o u t r i d e as "one, two, or t h r e e s l a c k s y l l a b l e s added to 4 a f o o t and not counting i n the nominal scanning." XOng, p. 122. 2 Poems, p. 45. In December 1880, Hopkins wrote to Dixon t h a t " f o r s i m p l i c i t y i t i s much b e t t e r t o r e c o g n i z e , i n scanning t h i s new rhythm, on l y one movement, e i t h e r the r i s i n g (which I choose as being commonest i n E n g l i s h v e r s e ) , or the f a l l i n g (which i s perhaps b e t t e r i n i t s e l f ) , and always keep to t h a t . " (CoD, p. 4 0) Two years l a t e r (October 1882) Hopkins continued to use the same method: he scans to i n d i c a t e r i s i n g movement. By the time he wrote h i s P r e f a c e , however, he has r e v e r s e d h i s procedure and uses what he f e e l s i s the b e t t e r method. 3 •A grace note has no time v a l u e of i t s own. Grace notes f r e q u e n t l y appear i n s e r i e s — t w o , t h r e e , or more, depending on the type of d e c o r a t i v e element s p e c i f i e d . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d Hopkins i n t e r e s t e d i n one of the innumerable d e c o r a t i v e elements of melody. Poems, p. 48. 90 Sprung rhythm i s r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to music not onl y i n i t s s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s , but a l s o i n i t s c a p a c i t y t o express heightened emotion. "Sprung rhythm . . . lends i t s e l f to e x p r e s s i n g passion,""'" Hopkins wrote t o Bridges w h i l e working on h i s tragedy d e a l i n g w i t h S t . Winefred's martyrdom. L a t e r , of the same work, he wrote, "You w i l l see t h a t as the f e e l i n g r i s e s the rhythm becomes f r e e r 2 and more sprung." Heightening the rhythm by s t r e s s i n g more h e a v i l y , t h a t i s , by b r i n g i n g out the nature of the rhythm, goes hand i n hand w i t h r i s i n g emotion. In h i s c l a s s i c study of Hopkins' sprung rhythm, Walter J . Ong maintains t h a t Hopkins' whole system of p o e t i c s i s based on the component of f e e l i n g i n language: the a l l - i m p o r t a n t f a c t about t h i s rhythm, the f a c t which f i x e s i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e a r i n g s and s t a b i l i z e s i t as emotional c u r r e n c y : heavy s t r e s s i n g , dramatic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , h i g h f e e l i n g a re the l i f e of the rhythm i t s e l f , so much so t h a t the more dramatic the r e n d i t i o n of a pass-age becomes, the more marked the rhythmic movement i s . The converse of t h i s statement i s e q u a l l y t r u e and perhaps more important: the more the heavy s t r e s s which c o n s t i t u t e s t h i s rhythm i s brought out, the more the sense c l e a r s and the f e e l i n g a r i s e s . 3 The reason f o r Hopkins' i n s i s t e n c e on declamation and h i s f e e l i n g of repugnance a t p u t t i n g h i s compositions down 1LB, p. 92. 2 I b i d . , p. 212. 3 Ong, p. 114. ) on paper becomes c l e a r i n the l i g h t of t h i s a n a l y s i s . So does a l s o h i s compelling need to p r o v i d e a system of n o t a t i o n to prevent a s l o v e n l y r e a d i n g of h i s p o e t r y and to p r e s e r v e h i s rhythm from becoming "a shambling b u s i n e s s 2 and a c o r r u p t i o n . " Hopkins made sprung rhythm the " r e g u l a r and permanent 3 p r i n c i p l e of s c a n s i o n " f o r the f i r s t time i n "The Wreck of The Deutschland." His o r i g i n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to the reader of t h i s poem emphasize heavy s t r e s s i n g so t h a t the s t r e s s i s allowed "to f e t c h out both the s t r e n g t h of the s y l l a b l e s 4 and the meaning and f e e l i n g of the words." The rhythm Hopkins r e a l i z e s i n t h i s m a g n i f i c e n t poem—Ong a p p r o p r i a t e l y c a l l s i t a s e n s e - s t r e s s r h y t h m — f l o w s i n p e r f e c t u n i t y w i t h the emotional and semantic rhythms. Although i t i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mixed rhythm of sprung r h y t h m — a l l f o u r r e g u l a r types of f e e t , as w e l l as f e e t w i t h f i v e , s i x , and seven s y l l a b l e s are u s e d — t h e p a t t e r n shows t h a t the accen-t u a l d a c t y l l i c f o o t f u n c t i o n s as a rhythmic base. By a p p l y i n g Hopkins' p r i n c i p l e of e q u i v a l e n c e , the f e e t f a l l n a t u r a l l y i n t o a m u s i c a l rhythm, i n t o a p a t t e r n i n 6/8 See FL, p. 231, and LB, pp. 51-52 and 79. 2 LB, p. 39. Hopkins wrote to Bridges October 18 83: "You were r i g h t to leave out the marks: they were not con-s i s t e n t f o r one t h i n g and are always o f f e n s i v e . S t i l l t h e r e must be some. E i t h e r I must i n v e n t a n o t a t i o n a p p l i e d throughout as i n music or e l s e I must only mark where the reader i s l i k e l y to mistake." ( I b i d . , p. 189) 3 LB, p. 45. 4 Poems, p. 256. 92 t i m e . 1 The impassioned u t t e r a n c e and the i m p e l l i n g forward movement i t c r e a t e s r e s u l t i n a rhythmic c h a r a c t e r q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the g e n t l y f l o w i n g movement o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 6/8 time: the heavy s t r e s s i n g of two beats i n each measure, together w i t h a moderately r a p i d tempo ( a l l e g r e t t o ) , c r e a t e s the e f f e c t of a s t r o n g duple rhythm. Hopkins s p e c i -f i e s the number of heavy s t r e s s e s "belonging to each of the 2 e i g h t l i n e s of the st a n z a " : 2, 3, 4, 3, 5, 5, 4, and 6. Scanned c o n t i n u o u s l y from beginning to end of the stanza, a t o t a l of 32 heavy s t r e s s e s , or 16 bars of m u s i c a l rhythm i n 6/8 time, are produced. Thus the s t a n z a i c p a t t e r n , both the duple rhythmic e f f e c t and the f u l l number of 16 measures, e x e m p l i f i e s the quadrature of music, the funda-mental system of 2's and 4's, which Hopkins s t r o n g l y ad-vocated f o r poetry . Hopkins c o r r e c t l y maintained the f e e t 3 i n "The Wreck of The Deutschland" t o be " s t r i c t l y m e t r i c a l . " T h i s means t h a t he has c o n s i s t e n t l y h e l d to the p r i n c i p l e of e q u i v a l e n c e , and has i n c l u d e d no e x t r a m e t r i c a l e f f e c t s such as o u t r i d e s . Hopkins e s t a b l i s h e s the inscape of the poem i n the f i r s t s tanza. Each succeeding stanza then s p e c i f i e s t h i s "See the mus i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of stanzas 1 and 31 on the f o l l o w i n g pages. 6/8 time i s one of f o u r mu-s i c a l rhythms most o f t e n found i n fo l k s o n g s and i n the mu-s i c of the 18th and 19th c e n t u r i e s . (See Joseph M a c h l i s , The Enjoyment of Music [New York: W. W. Norton, 1970], p. 23.) 2 Poems, p. 256. 3 LB, p. 45. 93 ) I J I 1 I J I } J i J JL|_J. J, "'"Thou m a s t e r i n g me / 2 G o d ! g i v e r o f b r e a t h and b r e a d ; / 3 W o r I d 1 s i ; j i j- J i i j ; j } i—i. „ x 4 / /- / 5 s t r a n d , sway o f t h e s e a ; / L o r d o f l i v i n g and d e a d ; / Thou h a s t J- J J i l I I 1 J II J 1 1 I i S S / 6 ^ bound b o n e s and v e i n s i n me, f a s t e n e d me f l e s h , / And a f t e r i t j J j j i j J J i i i i J J / / / / 7 / / a l m o s t unmade, what w i t h d r e a d , / Thy d o i n g and d o s t t h o u j )• ) J - I n n i i j i J } i\ j- J R t o u c h me a f r e s h ? / O v e r a g a i n I f e e l t h y f i n g e r and f i n d t h e e . / MUSICAL PHRASES: 1 Thou m a s t e r i n g me God! 2 g i v e r o f b r e a t h and b r e a d ; 3 W o r l d ' s s t r a n d , sway o f t h e s e a ; 4 L o r d o f l i v i n g and dead; 5 Thou h a s t bound bones and v e i n s i n me, f a s t e n e d me f l e s h , 6 And a f t e r i t a l m o s t unmade, what w i t h d r e a d , Thy d o i n g , 7 and d o s t t h o u t o u c h me a f r e s h ? 8 Over a g a i n I f e e l t h y f i n g e r and f i n d t h e e . i ) l I } } } J 1 / / ,2 / Well, she has thee for the pain, for the/ Patience; but 2 3 4 A y ' 3 ^ / / p i t y of the rest of them! / Heart, go and bleed at a b i t t e r e r J. } j i i j J J / A / ' y / ' 5 / |vem for the / Comfortless unconfessed of them— / No not un--J 0 0 • - i i $ \ $ } S } } }\ } } comforted: l o v e l y - f e l i c i t o u s Providence / Finger of a tender ^ > 1 ) ) ) i l t ) ) ) ) J > i I > * #—>—0—4—4—d-\—4—0 0 4 0 * 0 •— 0-y / 1 7 / of, 0 of a feathery delicacy, the breast of the / Maiden h h > \\ > I h 0 0 0—d\—m 0 0— 0—0- h h -0 0 0-could o-bey so, be a b e l l to, ring of i t , and / 8 S t a r t l e the poor sheep back: i s the shipwrack then a harvest, does tem-0 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 pest carry the grain for thee? Well, she has thee for the pain, for the Patience; but p i t y of the rest of them! Heart, go and bleed at a b i t t e r e r vein for the Comfortless unconfessed of them— No not uncomforted: l o v e l y - f e l i c i t o u s Providence Finger of a tender of, 0 of a feathery delicacy, the breast of the Maiden could obey so, be a b e l l to, r i n g of i t , and S t a r t l e the poor sheep back! i s the shipwrack then a harvest, does tempest carry the grain for thee? 95 g e n e r i c form anew; consequently, no two stanzas are r h y t h -m i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l . 1 I f we compare, f o r example, stanzas one and t h i r t y - o n e , we f i n d an a s t o n i s h i n g v a r i a t i o n . In stanza one, m o n o s y l l a b i c and t r o c h a i c f e e t a l t e r n a t e smoothly w i t h d a c t y l l i c f e e t i n a r a t i o of 2:3:3. I t would seem t h a t a d e f i n i t e d a c t y l l i c base i s not e s t a b l i s h e d , u n t i l the two l i n e s (one and s i x ) , i n which the r e g u l a r rhythmic flow i s d i s r u p t e d , are examined. Hopkins begins the stanza (and i n doing so, the poem as a whole) wi t h a rhythmic c o n f l i c t . The a l l i t e r a t i n g m's i n "Thou mastering me / God!" r e q u i r e heavy s t r e s s i n g , w h i l e a t the same time the h e a v i e r consonants and semantic f o r c e of "God!" c r e a t e a r i v a l demand. A s i m i l a r c l a s h between the i n d i v i d u a l and God i s represented by the f o r c e d r e g u l a r i t y of "almost unmade, what wi t h dread." By unexpectedly emphasizing the weak i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e of "unmade," Hopkins suggests t h a t the rhythm i s being h e l d i n check u n n a t u r a l l y . The r h y t h m i c a l and semantic i r r e g u l a r i t i e s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a preponderance of t r o c h a i c f e e t . M u s i c a l l y , the d i s t u r -bance i s n e c e s s a r i l y marked by syncopation: "me God!" = vowels ( f o r example, "World's s t r a n d , sway of the sea"; Hopkins r e f e r s to the rhythmic v a r i e t y of the poem i n a l e t t e r to Dixon. Comparing "Eur y d i c e " and "Deutsch-l a n d , " he says, "The Deutschland . . . has more v a r i e t y but l e s s mastery of the rhythm." (CoD, p. 26) 2 Hopkins i n d i c a t e s h i s i n t e n t i o n here by heavy s t r e s s marks on a l - and un-, t h a t i s , on the a l l i t e r a t i n g vowels i n s t e a d of on the m's (almost, unmade). The l a r g e number of broad, open and "I f e e l thy f i n g e r and f i n d thee") and r e s o n a t i n g conso-nants ("bound bones and v e i n s i n me, f a s t e n e d me f l e s h " ) e f f e c t i v e l y prolong the time of the whole s t r a i n of sound. In c o n t r a s t , the rhythmic flow of stanza t h i r t y - o n e i s a c c e l e r a t e d by phrase a f t e r phrase of s h o r t , l i g h t s y l l a b l e s (that compare to m u s i c a l bars of e i g h t h , s i x -t e enth, and t h i r t y - s e c o n d n o t e s ) . No heavy monosyllables (dotted q u a r t e r notes) r e t a r d the tempo. Instead, the rush of sound-words i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o a predominant number of d a c t y l s (19 of the 32 f e e t ) , e i g h t paeons, and t h r e e f e e t w i t h f i v e or s i x s y l l a b l e s . Two s i n g l e trochees e f f e c t i v e l y b r i n g i n a s u b t l e change of tempo l e a d i n g to the cadences a t the end of l i n e s f o u r and seven. The m u s i c a l nature of the rhythm i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h i s stanza i n t h a t the n o t a t i o n shows the f i n e v a r i a t i o n s between f e e t t h a t are p o e t i c a l l y known as e i t h e r d a c t y l l i c or paeonic. These d i f f e r e n c e s are not w h i m s i c a l , but are determined by the q u a l i t y of the sound-words co n t a i n e d w i t h i n the f e e t . Sound sequences such as "pain f o r the," "bleed a t a," " v e i n f o r the," and "breast of t h e " 1 begin w i t h a s y l l a b l e i n which the time i s prolonged by long vowels, r e s o n a t i n g n's, or c l u s t e r s of consonants; conse-qu e n t l y , the f i r s t s y l l a b l e i s equal to the time value of a q u a r t e r note i n r e l a t i o n to the s i x t e e n t h notes a s s i g n e d """The seven b a s i c types of v a r i a t i o n s are i n d i c a t e d i n the m u s i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n by the corresponding number w r i t t e n above the f o o t . to the two s h o r t succeeding s y l l a b l e s . The e l i s i o n of the vowel i n " p i t y of the" (2) i s r e a d i l y t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o music by a s l u r . V a r i a t i o n from the r e g u l a r i t y of th r e e e i g h t h notes forming a d a c t y l l i c f o o t i s i n d i c a t e d f o r the two c o n s e c u t i v e d a c t y l s a t the end of l i n e two and the be-g i n n i n g of l i n e f o u r . The "of" i n " r e s t of them" ( 3 ) 1 i s a s y l l a b l e Hopkins f r e q u e n t l y uses f o r rhythmic e f f e c t , and i n t h i s stanza i t c o n s i s t e n l y r e c e i v e s a time v a l u e of a s i x t e e n t h note or l e s s . The f i n a l s i x t e e n t h note of the f o o t i s taken over by the a s p i r a t e d h and broad open vowel of "heart" i n the next f o o t ("heart go and," 4 ) . "Heart" thus r e c e i v e s the e x t r a emphasis i t needs t o b r i n g out the im p e r a t i v e . The syncopation i n v o l v i n g "them" and "heart" a l s o b r i n g s out the sense of c o n f l i c t and emotional s t r e s s contained i n the words. Another rhythmic v a r i a t i o n of the d a c t y l i s found i n "uncon-fessed" ( 5 ) . Since con-stands i n a weak p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the bar, i t r e q u i r e s the emphasis gi v e n t o i t by a d d i t i o n a l time i n order t h a t the a l l i t e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n to " c o m f o r t l e s s " ( l i n e four) and "uncomforted" ( l i n e f i v e ) i s e f f e c t i v e l y made. In the f i r s t two measures of l i n e f i v e , the time i s a d j u s t e d to emphasize the complete r e v e r s a l of thought a t t h i s p o i n t i n the stanza: the touch of the f i n g e r of God, f i r s t ex-per i e n c e d as p a i n f u l , becomes p r o v i d e n t i a l i n i t s u l t i m a t e ' - ' N O ' e f f e c t . The double n e g a t i v e ("No not un-comforted," 6) " - f e s s e d of them," a t the end of l i n e f o u r , i s a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of the same p a t t e r n . 98 s i g n a l s the t u r n , w h i l e the l i n g e r i n g on " l o v e l y - " (7) , s i n c e l o v e i s the c h i e f a t t r i b u t e of P r o v i d e n c e , shows t h a t the t u r n i s c o m p l e t e d . The l a s t t h r e e l i n e s o f the s t a n z a c o n t a i n seven of the e i g h t paeons . The paeons , as w e l l as the d a c t y l s , show f i n e , s u b t l e r h y t h m i c v a r i a t i o n s . O n l y two o f them a r e t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h i d e n t i c a l n o t a t i o n : "sheep b a c k ! i s t h e " and " s h i p w r a c k then a " — i }) ¥ } } . T h i s r h y t h m i c r e p e t i t i o n r e i n f o r c e s the rhyme of s e m a n t i c -a l l y i n c o n g r u o u s sound-words . As the emotion r i s e s , i n t h e s e l i n e s , i n s c a t t e r e d l i n e s throughout the poem, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c o n c l u d i n g s t a n z a , Hopkins uses paeons and f e e t w i t h e x t r a s y l l a b l e s . In e f f e c t , t h i s i s the m u s i c a l t e c h n i q u e o f d i m i n u t i o n 1 : the s h o r t e r note v a l u e s a c c e l e r a t e the tempo t o s i g n i f y e x c i t e m e n t , e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s , e c s t a s y , or d e s p a i r . 2 The m u s i c a l phrases of s t a n z a one , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one and s i x , f o l l o w c l o s e l y the d i v i s i o n i n t o l i n e s . As noted e a r l i e r , Hopkins used the term " o v e r - r e a v i n g " f o r the t e c h n i q u e of c a r r y i n g a phrase beyond the l i n e , a t e c h n i q u e t h a t r e i n f o r c e s the p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u o u s n e s s . " K e n n e t h B u r k e , "On M u s i c a l i t y i n V e r s e , " P e r s p e c -t i v e s by I n c o n g r u i t y , e x c e r p t e d f o r The P h i l o s o p h y o f  L i t e r a r y Form, 2nd E d . (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books , 1957) , p p . 294-304. Burke i d e n t i f i e s such m u s i c a l methodology as sound c o g n a t e s , a c r o s t i c i n v e r s i o n s , c h i a s m u s , augmen-t a t i o n , and d i m i n u t i o n . 2 A d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be g i v e n f o r o t h e r c o m p a r a t i v e t ime v a l u e s ; f o r example, " p a i n " and " p a t i e n c e . " Note a l s o t h a t the n a r r a t i v e e f f e c t Hopkins s p e c i f i e s f o r l i n e s e v e n , s t a n z a t h i r t y - o n e , i s b r o u g h t out by the t r i p l e t s . Most of the c a d e n c e s , t h e n , a re n e a t l y f i n i s h e d w i t h a rhyming word , and thus the f o r w a r d p r o g r e s s i o n i s marked w i t h c l e a r l y - d e f i n e d s t e p s . On the o t h e r hand, the c l o s e o v e r - r e a v i n g of l i n e s i n s t a n z a t h i r t y - o n e a lmost o b l i t -e r a t e s the rhyme. H o p k i n s ' f i n e c r a f t s m a n s h i p i s e v i d e n t i n the way he has f a s h i o n e d the rhymes of the s t a n z a : b o t h the l i n k e d rhymes ( " b r e a s t of the M - " and " o f i t and S-") and the t r i - s y l l a b i c rhymes emphasize the c l o s e o v e r -r e a v i n g of the l i n e s . They a l s o h e l p to a c c e l e r a t e the tempo. As the i n t e r m i t t e n t sounding of the dominant and the t o n i c i n music s t a b i l i z e s the t o n a l i t y and b r i n g s out the e m o t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r of a s t r a i n , so the rhyming u n i t s , r a t h e r t h a n f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r o r d i n a r y f u n c t i o n as e n d - o f -p h r a s e or e n d - o f - l i n e m a r k e r s , s e r v e m a i n l y as u n i f y i n g elements i n the o v e r a l l t o n a l p a t t e r n . In s p i t e of t h e i r r e g u l a r p h r a s i n g , Hopkins a c h i e v e s b a l a n c e by m a t c h i n g s h o r t phrases a g a i n s t the s i n g l e l o n g phrase of l i n e s f i v e to e i g h t . Each p h r a s e forms one l e v e l of t e n s i o n . As the r h y t h m i c l i n e moves from one l e v e l to a n o t h e r , r i s i n g and f a l l i n g w i t h each cadence , the t e n s i o n i n c r e a s e s up to the h i g h e s t peak, the c l i m a x , where a sense o f r e -s o l u t i o n i s a c h i e v e d and the l i n e can then f o l l o w t h r o u g h to i t s c o n c l u s i o n . The h i g h e s t p o i n t of t e n s i o n i n s t a n z a one comes a t the end of l i n e seven i n the form of a r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n . The f i n a l l i n e then e x p r e s s e s the r e s o l u t i o n i n f u l l , c l e a r t o n e s . In s t a n z a t h i r t y - o n e , the t e n s i o n b u i l d s to a h i g h e r l e v e l and reaches i t s peak 100 with " S t a r t l e the poor sheep back!" Hopkins varies the generic form of the resolution and expresses i t here as a question, repeated to emphasize the paradox and to allow time after the extreme tension for the resolution to take e f f e c t . The rhythmic variety of "The Wreck of The Deutschland" reveals Hopkins' prodigious musical imagination. While the generic form of the f i r s t stanza i s repeated t h i r t y -four times, each r e p e t i t i o n i s fresh and new by vi r t u e of i t s rhythmic and other p a r a l l e l v a r i a t i o n s : variations in tempo, i n dynamics (range of tension), i n timbre (tone q u a l i t y ) , i n melody (tone p a t t e r n ) 1 , and i n phrasing (sequence of thought and sequence of f e e l i n g ) . When the poem as a whole i s examined, the st r u c t u r a l elements are found to b u i l d a form that i s apparently also derived from music: i n i t s s t r u c t u r a l and thematic development, the poem bears a close analogy to the sonata form, or, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , to the sonata-allegro form associated 2 with the f i r s t movement of the sonata. The sonata form i s constructed i n three parts. The exposition states the theme and expands i t i n the home I have omitted a f u l l treatment of timbre and melody i n "The Wreck of The Deutschland" with the inten-t i o n of focussing on these elements i n the discussion of "The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo." 2 The f i r s t movement of the sonata i s "variously known as first-movement form, sonata-allegro form, or sonata form." (Machlis, p. 225) The musical analogy here i s with the f i r s t movement of the sonata and not with the sonata as a whole. 101 key. A modulating b r i d g e leads to a second theme i n a c o n t r a s t i n g key, which i s a l s o expanded, and then, i n the f i n a l cadence or c o d e t t a b r i n g s the e x p o s i t i o n s e c t i o n t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n . The development s e c t i o n f o l l o w s , b u i l d -i n g t e n s i o n by f r e q u e n t l y modulating to d i f f e r e n t keys w h i l e fragmenting and recombining the thematic elements. T h i s i s the "working-out s e c t i o n , i n which [the] . . . themes are t r e a t e d w i t h a l l the s k i l l and fancy the com-poser possesses and shown i n a dozen or more unsuspected l i g h t s . " X At the end of the development s e c t i o n , a t r a n s i -t i o n b r i n g s the p i e c e back to the home key. Then f o l l o w s the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , which i s , g e n e r a l l y - s p e a k i n g , a r e -statement of the themes as they appeared i n the f i r s t s ec-t i o n , "but w i t h the wealth of a d d i t i o n a l meaning t h a t 2 these have taken on i n the course of t h e i r wanderings." The c o n f l i c t i n g elements r e s o l v e d , the music remains i n the home key, the coda completing the movement and r e -a f f i r m i n g the r e s o l u t i o n w i t h m a t e r i a l from the c o d e t t a heard now i n the home key. In "The Wreck of The Deutschland" stanzas 1 - 1 0 form the e x p o s i t i o n . Rather than a s i n g l e theme or two c o n t r a s t i n g themes, Hopkins uses a theme group as a base f o r h i s s t r u c t u r e : God, the master of l i v i n g and dead, i n mercy touches man, h i s c r e a t u r e , again. The thematic John F. Runciman, i n "Form," Music Lovers' E n c y c l o -p e d i a , ed. Deems T a y l o r (New York: Garden C i t y Books, 1954), p. 734. 2 M a c h l i s , p. 227. 102 elements are expanded i n two keys, r e p r e s e n t i n g the p a i n and sweetness of man's experience i n r e l a t i o n to God, made p o s s i b l e by the I n c a r n a t i o n and the P a s s i o n of C h r i s t . In stanzas 9 and 10, the movement r e t u r n s to the f i r s t s t a t e -ment and repeats the elements of the theme group w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e , t h a t i s , i n a new key: the c o d e t t a i s a prayer e x p r e s s i n g man's need to be mastered, by l i g h t n i n g or l o v e , so t h a t God may "be adored King." Stanzas 11 - 31 form the development s e c t i o n of the movement. A f t e r a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n emphasizing the u n i -v e r s a l i t y of death (stanza 11), a n a r r a t i v e s e c t i o n (stanzas 12 - 17) recounts the d e t a i l s of one s p e c i f i c experience of death by water. T h i s experience o c c a s i o n s the poem and f u n c t i o n s as the base of the e n t i r e movement. As the thematic elements are explored f u r t h e r (stanzas 18 -31), each new venture i s r e l a t e d to the c e n t r a l n a r r a t i v e , and each r e p r e s e n t s a modulation i n t o a d i f f e r e n t key: the n a r r a t o r ' s response to the d i s a s t e r , the c o n t r a s t between the t a l l nun and Luther, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the f i v e nuns by t h e i r number to C h r i s t and S t . F r a n c i s , and the compar-i s o n of the t a l l nun's c r y to the c r y of the d i s c i p l e s i n the storm on Lake Gennesareth are thematic p o t e n t i a l i t i e s r e v e a l e d as the movement c o n t i n u e s . The development probes i n t o the meaning of t h i s death, and f i n d s the answer i n the words and a t t i t u d e of the t a l l nun: "O C h r i s t , C h r i s t , come q u i c k l y . " These words are spoken by one who knew her Master and submitted to h i s touch of mercy. The 103 climax of the whole movement comes i n stanza 31: the r e -b i r t h of the Word i n the nun becomes a b e l l to b r i n g o t h e r "poor sheep back." The stanza forms a tension-packed modulation back to the home key (the f i n g e r of God has touched the nun as i t had touched the n a r r a t o r i n stanza 1), but the f u l l e f f e c t of the r e s o l u t i o n i s not f e l t b e f o r e the f i r s t note of the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s heard: I admire thee, master of the t i d e s , Of the Y o r e - f l o o d , of the year's f a l l ; The recurb and the r e c o v e r y of the g u l f ' s s i d e s , The g i r t h of i t and the wharf of i t and the w a l l ; Stanching, quenching ocean of a motionable mind; Ground of being, and g r a n i t e of i t : past a l l Grasp God, throned behind Death w i t h a s o v e r e i g n t y t h a t heeds but h i d e s , bodes but abides. With a mercy t h a t o u t r i d e s The a l l of water, an ark For the l i s t e n e r ; f o r the l i n g e r e r w i t h a l o v e g l i d e s Lower than death and the dark; (stanzas 32 and 33a) Here the thematic elements of the opening statement are p i c k e d up again; t h i s time, however, the mastery o f God over the world, man's being, time, death, and h e l l e l i c i t s o n l y a d m i r a t i o n . The f i n a l s t r a i n , the coda (stanza 35), f i n i s h e s the movement wit h a r e a s s e r t i o n of the theme, God i s K ing. L i k e the c o d e t t a , i t i s a prayer t h a t man w i l l adore h i s King, but here i t i s addressed to the t a l l nun i n honour of her s a i n t l y a c t . The l a s t two l i n e s sum up, i n a grand f i n a l cadence, the knowledge gained i n the course of the poem's development. God i s : 104 P r i d e , r o s e , p r i n c e , hero of us, h i g h - p r i e s t , Our h e a r t s ' c h a r i t y ' s hearth's f i r e , our thoughts' c h i v a l r y ' s throng's L o r d . The m u s i c a l nature of Hopkins' poetry i s e v i d e n t i n i t s melodic shape as w e l l as i n i t s rhythm. The same g i f t f o r melody r e v e a l e d i n the a i r s he composed d u r i n g h i s middle p e r i o d i s e v i d e n t i n h i s poems. I t has been noted e a r l i e r t h a t i n h i s p o e t i c a l system, Hopkins employs l e t -t e r i n g to make up f o r p o e t r y ' s l a c k of f i x e d p i t c h . 1 "The economy of sprung rhythm," Ong p o i n t s out, "demands the h e i g h t e n i n g of s t r e s s , " and t h e r e f o r e the a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, f u l l and p a r t i a l rhyme--all the echoing of vowels and c o n s o n a n t s -are i n v a l u a b l e helps to the poet . . . i n ena-b l i n g him to b u i l d up the i n t e n s i t y of the s t r e s s e s so t h a t the p a t t e r n may be e v i d e n t de-s p i t e the v a r i a b l e and o f t e n l a r g e number of s l a c k s between s t r e s s e s . 2 The meter of "The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo" i s s i n g u l a r l y i r r e g u l a r ; so much so, t h a t i f the heavy s t r e s s e s are not g i v e n e x t r a f o r c e , the v e r s e breaks down i n t o p r o s e . Not o n l y do the m e t r i c a l u n i t s i n the poem range f r e e l y between monosyllables and t r o c h e e s , d a c t y l s and paeons, but the degree of s t r e s s on both heavy and l i g h t s y l l a b l e s v a r i e s c o n s t a n t l y . Hopkins was f u l l y aware of the t e n -uousness of the m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n . He wrote i n a note Chapter one, page 49. 2 Ong, p. 132. 105 attached to the poem that "with the degree of stress so perpetually varying no marking i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . " 1 To an unprecedented extent i n Hopkins' poetry up to the time of the "Echoes," rhythmic c l a r i t y depends i n th i s poem on the tonal pattern. By a p a r t i a l l y i n t u i t i v e and p a r t i a l l y mathematical weighing and matching of the units of sound, singly and i n sequence, Hopkins extends the melodic re-sources of poetry and "creates a design i n which rhythm and tone are one. Of t h i s poem, which " i s a song for St. Wine-2 fred's maidens to sing," Hopkins said, "I never did any-3 thing more musical." He described i t as a piece "very highly wrought": The long l i n e s are not rhythm run to seed: every-thing i s weighed and timed i n them. Wait t i l l they have taken hold of your ear and you w i l l 4 f i n d i t so. No . . . [ i t ] i s pure sprung rhythm. Hopkins' f i r s t attempt at th i s kind of free verse i n "Bins|ey Poplars," (1879) shows the same musical p r i n c i p l e s at work. The "Echoes," begun i n October 1880 and completed 5 i n November 18 82, i s a development,, an advance, of the """Poems, p. 282. 2LB, p. 106. 3CoD, p. 149. 4LB, p. 157. 5 In November 1882 Hopkins wrote to Bridges, "I am however somewhat dismayed about that piece and have l a i d i t aside for a while." (LB, p. 161) The version i n use c a r r i e s t h i s date. 1 0 6 e a r l i e r poem, and represents also an advance for Hopkins i n adapting music to poetry and i n approaching the condi-t i o n of music i n his poetry. The poetic idea i n the "Echoes" i s organized and de-veloped musically; that i s , modes of expression are trans-ferred from a musical to a verbal organization. The mu-s i c a l s t y l e of the poem has many baroque features. Hopkins uses the statement and departure, or question and answer structure of the binary form (A-B), a favourite form of the Baroque, and, as i s usual for thi s form, repeats each section but does not return to the opening statement (A-A-B-B). Hopkins has also followed the baroque prac-t i c e of building the whole on a single mood, one basic "af f e c t i o n , " that determines the range of emotions i n the piece. The materials of parts A and B, then, are i n es-sence the same or very c l o s e l y related. The basic mood i s established "at the outset by a s t r i k i n g musical sub-ject,""'' out of which grows, by a process of continuous expansion, the entire composition. Contrast appears i n terms of l i g h t and shade, what i s known i n baroque music as "terraced dynamics." The subject of the "Echoes" i s stated i n the f i r s t two l i n e s i n a dramatic sweep of words and tones: Machlis, p. 356. 107 How to keep — i s there any any, i s there none such, nowhere known some, bow or brooch or braid or brace, lace, latch or catch or key to keep Back beatuy, keep i t , beauty, beauty, beauty, . . . from vanishing away? "How to keep . . . back beauty" i s the subject of the piece and forms the opening s t r a i n of part A. I t establishes a mood of deep pathos, the pathos connected with the i n e v i t -a b i l i t y of fading physical beauty. The question i s re-phrased and repeated i n the next two l i n e s : O i s there no frowning of these wrinkles, ranked wrink-les deep, Down? no waving off of these most mournful messengers, s t i l l messengers, sad and stealing messengers of grey? Then follows the answer of negation, i n anguished tones, leading to the only l o g i c a l response to such knowledge: No there's none, there's none, 0 no there's none, Nor can you long be, what you now are, c a l l e d f a i r , Do what you may do, what, do what you may, And wisdom i s early to despair: Be beginning. . . . "No there's none" represents the modulation to the second s t r a i n and to the key of the dominant, "Be beginning to despair." This ends part A. Lines 9b - 16 are a r e p e t i -t i o n of Part A, not da capo, but more b r i e f l y , In A^ the question i s repeated by implication only, and the answer i s given i n heavy, somber tones of resignation to "age's e v i l s " and "death's worst": 108 s i n c e , no, nothing can be done To keep a t bay Age and age's e v i l s , hoar h a i r , Ruck and w r i n k l e , drooping, dying, death's worst, wind-in g sheets, tombs and worms and tumbling to decay; So be beginning, be beginning to d e s p a i r . A f i n a l cadence, r e p e a t i n g and echoing the modulating e l e -ments and the second s t r a i n , rounds o f f the A s e c t i o n and b r i n g s i t t o a f u l l stop: 0 t h e r e ' s none; no no no th e r e ' s none: Be beginning t o d e s p a i r , to d e s p a i r , D e s p a i r , d e s p a i r , d e s p a i r , d e s p a i r . The s t r u c t u r e of the "Echoes" i s fundamentally one of melody. Sense f i l l s a s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n : sound i s primary. By employing the b a s i c m u s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o f r e p e t i t i o n and c o n t r a s t , which produce, r e s p e c t i v e l y , u n i t y and v a r i e t y , Hopkins has composed "The Leaden Echo" out of t o n a l m a t e r i a l found i n the two s t r a i n s and the modulating elements a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o : "How to keep . . . [any, any] . . . back beauty," "No there's none," and "Be begin n i n g to d e s p a i r . " The s i g n i f i c a n t t o n a l u n i t i s not simply a rhy-ming vowel or consonant; r a t h e r , i t i s a complex of t o n a l v a l u e s i n v o l v i n g a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, and rhyme s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y , so t h a t the tone q u a l i t y or timbre of the com-bined vowel and consonant(s) c a r r i e s the weight of mean-i n g . "Keep" r e p r e s e n t s the t o n i c chord, " - s p a i r " the dominant. The r e p e t i t i o n , i n the f i r s t two l i n e s , of "keep," t h a t i s , of the three t o n a l elements (k - ee - p) 109 i n the sound-word (key to keep, keep i t ) , e s t a b l i s h e s the key and i t s c h a r a c t e r : a sharp, h i g h - p i t c h e d , h a r s h l y b r i g h t , and e x p l o s i v e q u a l i t y t h a t serves as a t o n a l con-t r a s t to the darker modulating elements t h a t f o l l o w . A r e t u r n to the f u l l t o n i c chord i n l i n e 10 ("to keep at bay") s i g n a l s the beginning of the r e p e t i t i o n (A^). Other t o n a l elements of the f i r s t s t r a i n are a l s o repeated, w i t h v a r i -a t i o n s of sound and sense: - s t r a i n one-A A± how to keep to keep i s t h e r e any any, i s age and age's e v i l s 1 back beauty at bay Although the f u l l dominant chord ("-spair") i s heard o n l y once i n A ( l i n e 8), the c i r c u m f l e x vowel ensures t h a t i t i s drawn out a t l e n g t h . The rhymes preceding ( " f a i r " ) and f o l l o w i n g ("hair") a l s o h e l p to f i x the chord, and i t s p l a i n t i v e , w a i l i n g q u a l i t y , i n the mind, u n t i l the s e v e n f o l d echoing of " d e s p a i r " i n the c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s of A^ e s t a b l i s h e s i t f i r m l y . The hollow, dark sound of "no," the r o o t chord of the modulating sequence (echoed s i x times i n A, and f o u r times i n A ^ ) , together w i t h i t s sound cognates I t should perhaps be noted here t h a t Hopkins took f o r granted "as an obvious f a c t t h a t every i n i t i a l vowel l e t t e r e d to every o t h e r , " and t h a t to h i s ear "no a l l i t e r -a t i o n i s more marked or more b e a u t i f u l " than the a l l i t e r a -t i o n of vowels." (FL, p. 183.) 110 ( " n o n e , " " n o w h e r e , " " k n o w n , " " n o r , " " n o r , " " n o t h i n g , " " O , " " m o s t , " and " s o " ) , c o n t r a s t s the s h r i l l b r i g h t n e s s o f b o t h " k e e p " and " - s p a i r . " Two o t h e r groups of sound c o g n a t e s , r e l a t e d to s t r a i n s one and two, and f o r m i n g f u r -t h e r m o d u l a t i n g e l e m e n t s , b r i n g i n somber, heavy tones i n k e e p i n g w i t h the d u l l d a r k n e s s of d e s p a i r : s t r a i n o n e - t o keep back beauty bow b r o o c h sad b r a i d deep b r a c e down — do (3 t imes) s t r a i n two- be b e g i n n i n g t o d e s p a i r t u m b l i n g done bay d r o o p i n g — d y i n g d e a t h 1 s decay w i n d i n g The p r i n c i p l e of u n i t y and v a r i e t y , o p e r a t i v e t h r o u g h the whole p i e c e , can be i l l u s t r a t e d by comparing the t o n a l m a t r i x o f l i n e s 3 and 4 (A) w i t h l i n e 12 (A.^ : A - w r i n k l e s , ranked w r i n k l e s deep_, / Down? A ^ - Ruck and w r i n k l e , d r o o p i n g , d y i n g , d e a t h 1 s A - no waving o f f of these most m o u r n f u l messengers A ^ - w o r s t , w i n d i n g s h e e t s , tombs and A - s t i l l messengers , sad and s t e a l i n g messengers o f grey? A]_~ worms and t u m b l i n g to d e c a y . Both the g e n e r a l sense and the u n i t s of sound are c a r r i e d I l l o v e r from A i n t o A ^ , b u t w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f v a r i a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c s e n s e - and sound-words . F o r the form to become a p p a r e n t to t h e ear and p e n e t r a t e the m i n d , the r e a d e r must d w e l l on the sounds w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n . 1 "The Golden E c h o , " the B p a r t of the b i n a r y f o r m , g i v e s the answer of a f f i r m a t i o n to the q u e s t i o n i n A . S p e c i a l a c c e n t s of s t r e s s on key words make the a f f i r m a -t i v e answer p a r t i c u l a r l y e m p h a t i c : There i s o n e . . . . One. Yes I can t e l l such a k e y , I do know such a p l a c e . By the p r o c e s s of " c o n t i n u a l e x p a n s i o n , " the m a t e r i a l i n B i s d o u b l e d ( i t has 32 l i n e s compared to the 16 l i n e s of A) and t r i p l e d (a g r e a t number o f l o n g l i n e s i n B c o n t r a s t the many s h o r t ones o f A ) . The t o n a l development shows an even g r e a t e r s u b t l e t y than t h a t of A . C a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n , however, i n d i c a t e s H o p k i n s ' i n t e n t i o n : l i n e s 1 - 1 5 c o n -s t i t u t e B , l i n e s 16 - 32 c o n s t i t u t e B ^ . B b e g i n s w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s - s o u n d s , t a k e n from the dominant c h o r d 2 w i t h w h i c h the s e c t i o n b e g i n s ( " S p a r e ! " ) . As the m e l o d i c l i n e o f B p r o g r e s s e s , o t h e r sounds s u c c e s s i v e l y take over W i l l i a m Empson has s a i d t h a t "most a d m i r e r s of Pure Sound . . . admit t h a t you have to be e x p e r i e n c e d i n the words used by a poet b e f o r e t h e i r sound can be a p p r e c i a t e d . " (Seven  Types of A m b i g u i t y , 3rd e d . r e v . [ N o r f o l k C o n n e c t i c u t : New D i r e c t i o n s B o o k s , 1953] , p . 9) T h i s s tatement a p p l i e s w e l l to the p o e t r y of H o p k i n s . 2 There would be no doubt i n H o p k i n s ' mind t h a t - s p a i r and spare are i d e n t i c a l phonemes. S p e l l i n g does not change the sound. 112 and predominate: "prized and p_asses," "fresh and fas t f l y -ing," "wimpled-water-dimpled," "loveliness . . . everlast-ingness . . . looks, locks," "gallantry and gaiety and g_race." In l i n e 16 the s-sounds again appear i n the foreground: Resign them, sign them, seal them, send them, motion them with breath, And with sighs soaring, soaring sighs d e l i v e r Them; only to recede into the background as develops and a l -most disappear i n the f i n a l six l i n e s ("Lost," "us," "yes_," contain the only s-sounds i n these l i n e s ) . The modula-tio n back to the tonic chord ("kept") and the key of the tonic at the end of B^ i s thus completed. The rhyme scheme confirms t h i s d i v i s i o n into two parts. B moves through f i v e rhymes, a - e, ending i n l i n e s 14 and 15 with a repeated c-rhyme: grace, -grace. B^ begins with an e n t i r e l y new rhyming seri e s . Five rhymes from f to j_ are used, and, i n addition, the key a-rhyme from B i s re-peated: B--spare, there, a i r ; B ^ — h a i r , care, where. Both B and B^ also follow the same thought pattern: the affirmation of a place where beauty i s kept, the death of physical beauty, the resurrection, and man's response. I t i s clear, then, that Hopkins has adapted the f u l l b i -nary form for the structure of the "Echoes." Hopkins has patterned many varying musical e f f e c t s into the melody of the "Echoes." B a s i c a l l y , a sound unit i s repeated two or more times, the frequency depending on 113 the c o m p a r a t i v e importance of a p a r t i c u l a r t o n a l sequence , so t h a t i t s c o l o u r emerges c l e a r l y . A new sound u n i t i s then i n t r o d u c e d , a b r u p t l y or by m o d u l a t i o n , and t r e a t e d i n the same way. A range of tone c o l o u r s are thus s e t i n b l o c k s , t o g e t h e r and a g a i n s t each o t h e r , i n a f l o w i n g s p e c -trum of sound. A s e r i e s of s h o r t s o u n d - p h r a s e s i n l i n e 7 of "The G o l d e n E c h o , " each a p p e a r i n g b r i e f l y and then g i v -i n g way t o the one t h a t f o l l o w s , r e i n f o r c e s the sense of s w i f t p a s s a g e : Where w h a t e v e r ' s p_rized and £ a s s e s o f u s , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t ' s f r e s h and f a s t f l y i n g of u s , seems to u £ sweet of us and s w i f t l y away w i t h , done away w i t h , undone. The o v e r l a p p i n g e f f e c t i n l i n e s 10 and 11 i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by a p r o g r e s s i v e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f r e p e a t e d s o u n d s : , n o t - b y - m o r n i n g - m a t c h e d f a c e , The f l o w e r of b e a u t y , f l e e c e o f b e a u t y , too too apt t o , a h ! to f l e e t , Never f l e e t s more, f a s t e n e d w i t h the t e n d e r e s t t r u t h . The music of the p r o g r e s s i o n sugges ts a s t e a d i l y - g r o w i n g c r e s c e n d o and a s teady r i s e i n p i t c h : f l e e t s marks the peak i n b o t h volume and p i t c h , f o l l o w e d by a sudden d e -c r e s c e n d o and drop i n p i t c h , i n d i c a t e d by f a s t e n e d , w h i c h i s b o t h s o f t e r and lower than the p o i n t a t w h i c h the cadence began, f a c e . L i n e 13 can be d e s c r i b e d as a sound c a t a -l o g u e , w h i c h i s then expanded i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e : 114 Come then, your ways and a i r s and l o o k s , l o c k s , maiden gear, g a l l a n t r y and g a i e t y and grace, Winning ways, a i r s innocent, maiden manners, sweet l o o k s , l o o s e l o c k s , long l o c k s , l o v e l o c k s , gaygear, going g a l l a n t , g i r l g r a c e . Sound sequences such as these, i n which the predominance of s o f t , l i q u i d , g e n t l y - r e s o n a n t consonants blend w i t h f u l l , open vowels, i l l u s t r a t e b e a u t i f u l l y the onomatopoeic aspect of the "Echoes." The t r i p p i n g t r o c h a i c f o o t a l s o emerges i n these l i n e s to echo the thought and f e e l i n g . 1 The t o n a l m a t e r i a l of l i n e s 26 - 28 i l l u s t r a t e s Hopkins' s u b t l e use of consonant-vowel u n i t s : 0 then, weary then why should we tread? 0 why are we so haggard a t the h e a r t , so c a r e - c o i l e d , c a r e - k i l l e d , so fagged, so fashed, so cogged, so cumbered, When the t h i n g we f r e e l y f o r f e i t i s kept w i t h fonder a car e , Fonder a care kept than we co u l d have kept i t . . . . By a l l i t e r a t i n g words t h a t otherwise c l a s h i n both sound and sense, Hopkins e s t a b l i s h e s h a r s h l y d i s s o n a n t t o n a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s : fagged and fashed are thus f o r c i b l y j o i n e d to fonder and f i n e r ( l i n e 29), while the dissonance i s L o u i s MacNeice r e f e r s to Hopkins' rhythms i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of f r e e v e r s e , and then adds, "I always c o n s i d e r the sound of each l i n e c o n j o i n t l y w i t h i t s adequacy as meaning. . . . Sometimes I am conscious t h a t a l i n e i s roughly onomatopoeic, but I do not t h i n k i t i s p o s s i b l e d e l i b e r a t e l y to s u i t the sound c o n t i n u o u s l y to the sense." (Modern Poetry: a P e r s o n a l Essay, [Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1968], pp. 134-35.) In the "Echoes" the sound embodied i n rhythm and melody .is "roughly onomatopoeic" throughout. 115 further emphasized by the tonal r e l a t i o n s h i p of these words to the paradox i n f r e e l y f o r f e i t . S i m i l a r l y , the violence i n care-coiled, c a r e - k i l l e d , cogged, and cumbered i s par-t i a l l y subdued but s t i l l contained i n the words that sound the tonic chord, care kept. The change of the tonic chord from keep i n A to kept i n B can be j u s t i f i e d i n terms of timbre. In music, tone colour i s r e a l i z e d by the use of d i f f e r e n t instruments as well as by varying lev e l s of p i t c h and harmonic combinations. Hopkins' sensitive ear i s per-haps nowhere more c l e a r l y evident than i n t h i s subtle s h i f t i n timbre represented by the change i n the vowel and the softening of the p_-sound through the addition of a second unvoiced consonant. Another musical technique Hopkins uses with a masterful touch i s exemplified i n phrase one of "The Leaden Echo." Here the music modulates through a l l the s i g n i f i c a n t tonal elements of the entire composi-t i o n (including the important sounds wh-, w-, m-, and 1-of B) i n an "alphabetic passage" (that i s , i n a sequence of notes from the diatonic scale), forming a virtuoso solo passage inserted as a parenthesis into the melodic l i n e of s t r a i n one. What Hopkins has composed here i s the mu-s i c a l cadenza, the improvisation section that highlights the unique "sakes" or markings of the poet. A l l the musical techniques evident i n the "Echoes" are based on the musical p r i n c i p l e of r e p e t i t i o n . As one becomes fa m i l i a r with the whole piece, the mind reaches backward and forward, when a "key" sound i s heard, to o t h e r c o n t e x t s i n which the sound i s a l s o h e a r d . Hopkins has i n g e n i o u s l y used the "echo" not o n l y as a s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e b u t a l s o as t h e c e n t r a l p o e t i c i d e a . S i g n i f i c a n t words , some extended to form l e a d i n g m o t i f s , a re echoed t o b r i n g out the s e n s e , to h e i g h t e n the p a t h o s , and to u n i f y the two p a r t s o f the s t r u c t u r e . One e c h o i n g m o t i f t h a t has n o t y e t been d i s c u s s e d o c c u r s i n l i n e two o f p a r t A : keep . Back b e a u t y , keep i t , b e a u t y , b e a u t y , b e a u t y , . . . f rom v a n i s h i n g away. L i n e 19 of p a r t B p i c k s up the e c h o i n g of " b e a u t y " but i n v e r t s the elements t o w h i c h i t i s r e l a t e d : G i v e beauty b a c k , b e a u t y , b e a u t y , b e a u t y , back to God, b e a u t y ' s s e l f and b e a u t y ' s g i v e r . Rather than f a d i n g away, as i t does when one t r i e s to " k e e p " i t b a c k , beauty grows when one " g i v e s " i t back to God, the o r i g i n a l of B e a u t y . P a r t B a l s o f o l l o w s p a r t A i n the s t y l e of the c o n c l u d i n g passage w i t h i t s m u l t i p l e e c h o i n g o f the words which embody the t o n i c k e y . The r e p e t i t i o n o f the f i n a l s t r a i n , i n l i n e s 26 - 29, w i t h o u t the p a r e n -t h e t i c a l and m o d u l a t i n g e l e m e n t s , t a k e s the f o l l o w i n g f o r m : - k e p t w i t h f o n d e r a c a r e f o n d e r a c a r e k e p t -- k e p t i t , k e p t f a r w i t h f o n d e r a c a r e -- f o n d e r a c a r e k e p t . Then f o l l o w s the coda i n the l a s t t h r e e l i n e s . The melody 1 1 7 moves, in the tonic key, into two b r i e f expanding passages, one developed as a question, the other as the f i n a l resolu-t i o n : -- Where kept? Do but t e l l us where kept, where. — Yonder. — What high as that! We follow, now we follow. — The answer, "yonder," echoed f i v e times, brings the anguished questioning and i n s i s t e n t urging of the piece to a quiet, d e f i n i t i v e conclusion. The influence of music on the poetry of Hopkins' early and middle maturity i s manifold. A l l the techniques Hopkins employs to promote continuity and stress a c c e n t 1 — o v e r -reaving of l i n e s , continuous scansion, free use of monosyl-lables and unstressed s y l l a b l e s , l i n e s of uneven length, rhymes and other tonal e f f e c t s that heighten the a c c e n t -tend towards creating musical poetry. Repetition of words and phrases i s not a poetic but a musical procedure: i t i s a musical mode of expression c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of song-writing, an art on which Hopkins' muse focussed during these years. Hopkins' aim i n poetry—design, or i n s c a p e — l i k e w i s e tends towards music: he was concerned with the architecture of the whole as well as of the i n d i v i d u a l parts and thus drew on music for the forms he needed. In p a r t i c u l a r , Hopkins' "new rhythm" shows the strong influence of music on his poetics. Incorporated into melody, t h i s rhythm became, i n Hopkins' hands, a "tonal analogue of emotive l i f e . " Frye selects these two, continuity and stress accent, as the "chief c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of musical poetry." (p. xv) 118 CHAPTER THREE "the music of h i s mind" . . . "the r e h e a r s a l / Of own, of abrupt s e l f . . . " The years of Hopkins' l a t e m a t u r i t y (1884-89) are marked by new advances i n both music and p o e t r y . Much l i k e the two corresponding forms of a medieval mode--the a u t h e n t i c and the p l a g a l , the p l a g a l being "simply the same mode taken i n another compass" x--his p o e t i c s continued to merge w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of m u s i c a l composition i n Hopkins' thought and p r a c t i c e . Throughout the D u b l i n years Hopkins s t r u g g l e d w i t h the r u l e s of c o u n t e r p o i n t , h i s a t t i t u d e a l t e r n a t i n g between bewildered r e j e c t i o n and determined acceptance. At an e a r l y p o i n t i n h i s study, he suspected i t to be "only an i n v e n t i o n of t h e o r i s t s and a would-be or fancy-music" s i n c e "not even the p r e l u d e s of Bach's fugues" are w r i t t e n 2 i n i t . In the end, s t i l l p u z z l e d w i t h the i n t r i c a c i e s o f the s c i e n c e , he bowed to the advice of the e x p e r t s : I am sure he [Wooldridge] i s r i g h t i n the a d v i c e he gave me, to be very c o n t r a p u n t a l , to l e a r n Peroy A. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music, 10th ed. (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970), p. 651. 2 LB, p. 182. 119 t h a t w e l l . I want t o " d o so i f I c a n ; i t i s the o n l y way. I have f o o l e d a t i t too much. . . . I have a f i n e fugue on hand . . . but I s h a l l not-^ h u r r y w i t h i t , b u t keep the c o u n t e r p o i n t c o r r e c t . S tevens i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t the e x p e r t s succeeded i n s u p p r e s s -i n g the " s t r e a m of c l e a r - f l o w i n g melody" and d i v e r t i n g i t i n t o a " s t a n d i n g p e o l of ' s p e c i e s ' c o u n t e r p o i n t and c o r r e c t 2 f u g a l ' a n s w e r s . ' " Other c r i t i c s of H o p k i n s ' music tend r a t h e r to r e g a r d H o p k i n s ' s t r u g g l e s w i t h modal and f u g a l harmonies to b e , on the one hand, the r e s u l t o f the s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s under which he was w o r k i n g , a n d , on the o t h e r hand, the e v i d e n c e of n a t i v e a b i l i t y t h a t would i n t ime have found a way t o express the i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s t h a t were crowding h i s m i n d . H o p k i n s ' e n t h u s i a s m f o r h i s m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s and i d e a s c e r t a i n l y was not s u p p r e s s e d . Both the melody and the harmony f o r C o l l i n s ' "Ode to E v e n i n g , " f o r example, e l i c i t e d some of h i s most e n r a p t u r e d comments: Here [ i n D u b l i n ] I began to harmonize i t , and the e f f e c t of harmony w e l l i n k e e p i n g upon t h a t s t r a n g e mode . . . was so d e l i g h t f u l t h a t i t seems t o me . . . as near a new w o r l d of m u s i c a l enjoyment as i n t h i s o l d w o r l d we c o u l d hope to b e . 3 S e v e r a l l e t t e r s l a t e r , he d e s c r i b e d the same song as "a new d e p a r t u r e and more l i k e v o l c a n i c s u n s e t s or s u n r i s e s 4 i n the m u s i c a l hemisphere than a n y t h i n ye can c o n c a v e . " A l t h o u g h o u t r i g h t c r i t i c i s m o f h i s c o u n t e r p o i n t e x e r c i s e s 1 L B , p p . 270-271. 3 4 L B , p . 200. I S t e v e n s , JP > P- 202. / P. 463. 120 and harmonies o c c a s i o n a l l y u n s e t t l e d h i m , a b a s i c c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s m u s i c a l judgment remained w i t h him to t h e e n d . P l e a s e d t h a t the w e l l - k n o w n author of t e x t - b o o k s on harmony and c o u n -t e r p o i n t , W. S . R o c k s t r o , x would s e t a p i a n o accompaniment t o h i s tune f o r "What s h a l l I do f o r the l a n d t h a t b r e d me," Hopkins n e v e r t h e l e s s f e l t c o m p e l l e d to d i s a g r e e w i t h him on the mat ter of the n a t u r e of h i s m u s i c : I b e l i e v e , i n s p i t e o f what he s a y s , t h a t i t a l l o w s o f c o n t r a p u n t a l t r e a t m e n t ; i n d e e d , w i t h some i m p r o v e -ments I have s i n c e y e s t e r d a y made, i t may be accom-p a n i e d i n canon a t the o c t a v e two b a r s o f f . Nor does i t s t r i k e me as u n l i k e modal m u s i c , but q u i t e the c o n t r a r y ; so t h a t I am s u r p r i s e d a t t h a t c r i t i c i s m . I w i l l t r a n s p o s e i t t o F of c o u r s e : a l l keys are t h e same to me and to e v e r y one who t h i n k s t h a t music was b e f o r e i n s t r u m e n t s and a n g e l s b e f o r e t o r t o i s e s and c a t s . The "new w o r l d o f m u s i c a l e n j o y m e n t , " the "new d e p a r -t u r e , " the "new a r t " Hopkins e x p e r i e n c e d and d e v e l o p e d , w h i l e based on the p r i n c i p l e s o f modern c o u n t e r p o i n t and harmony, drew i t s i n s p i r a t i o n d i r e c t l y from the modal music o f a n c i e n t Greece and i t s e x t e n s i o n i n t h a t of the m e d i e v a l c h u r c h . H o p k i n s ' contemporary , the s c i e n t i s t and m u s i c i a n , D r . W i l l i a m P o l e , c o u l d have made h i s prophecy of the young J e s u i t p o e t , when he wrote i n 1879: I t i s by no means i m p o s s i b l e t h a t composers of g e n i u s might some day open f o r themselves a c o n -s i d e r a b l e f i e l d f o r n o v e l t y and o r i g i n a l i t y by s h a k i n g o f f the trammels of our r e s t r i c t e d modern t o n a l i t y ; and t h a t they might f i n d scope f o r the development of the a r t i n some k i n d of r e t u r n to the p r i n c i p l e s o f the a n c i e n t forms [of s c a l e ] , See the f o o t n o t e on page 249, L B . L B , p p . 290-291. 1 2 1 which a t present are o n l y looked down upon as o b s o l e t e remnants of a barbarous age. x Hopkins understood t h a t , i n the l i n e s and f a b r i c of sound he heard i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of notes on the s c a l e were l i k e and u n l i k e both medieval and modern music. On three separate o c c a s i o n s Hopkins d e c l a r e d t h a t , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , he had " r e a l l i g h t s " on the matter of harmony and c o u n t e r p o i n t : I have the key to the h i s t o r y of modern music i n what my enquiry p o i n t s t o , v i z . t h a t modern harmony c o u l d not a r i s e t i l l the o l d system and i t s t u n i n g was got r i d of and . . . i t was goodness, not d u l -ness, of ear which delayed i t s growth. 2 H i s own music e s t a b l i s h e d the t r u t h of h i s theory i n h i s own mind, although he r e a l i z e d t h a t without l i t e r a r y author-i t y he c o u l d h a r d l y expect h i s claims to be accepted by o t h e r s . His s e t t i n g f o r C o l l i n s ' "Ode" e x e m p l i f i e s the modal c h a r a c t e r of h i s music: The a i r i s p l a i n chant where p l a i n chant most de-p a r t s from modern music; on the other hand the harmonies are a k i n d of advance on advanced modern music. The combination of the two t h i n g s i s most s i n g u l a r , but i t i s a l s o most solemn, and I can-not but hope t h a t I have something very good i n hand. I t i s so very u n l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t I am independent of and do h o l d myself i n abeyance to the judgments of musicians here; f o r i n f a c t they know no more than I do what r i g h t I have to employ such and such chords and such and such p r o g r e s s i o n s . Scholes, p. 653. 2 LB, p. 253, March 1887. The other two o c c a s i o n s are November 1884 (p. 199) and January 1887 (p. 249). 3 I b i d . , pp. 211-212. 122 I f Hopkins was r i g h t , h i s new music would have been under-stood b e t t e r i n t h i s century than i n h i s own. As Stevens says, there i s no music of Hopkins' t h a t one would more want to see than h i s song f o r C o l l i n s ' "Ode." No copy of i t remains extant. Seven of the eleven songs Hopkins worked on d u r i n g h i s D u b l i n years are modal i n c h a r a c t e r . Two of these, both dated 1886, are s e t t i n g s of Greek odes, "com-posed . . . i n the o l d e r heptachord s c a l e . " Hopkins claimed again to have d i s c o v e r e d a "new way" by r e t u r n i n g t o the fundamentals of music: T h i s o l d heptachord s c a l e i s founded deeply i n nature; i t can never p e r i s h ; and i t i s i t which compels us to use and to f i n d so much p l e a s u r e i n the dominant seventh, i n other words i n a chord having f o r i t s two extreme notes the e x t r e m i t i e s of the heptachord s c a l e . The octave and heptachord s c a l e s both a r i s e from doubled t e t r a c h o r d s , over-l a p p i n g , conjunct or c l o s e d i n the one case; f r e e , d i s j u n c t , or open i n the o t h e r . The v e i n I am work-i n g i n i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s double system, the heptachord and the octave, i n a new way, by founding the heptachord on La, not on S o l . l H i s music to Sappho's ode to A p h r o d i t e he d e s c r i b e d as be-in g "more c u r i o u s than b e a u t i f u l , but very f l o w i n g i n a 2 strange k i n d . " In h i s own judgment, the music of these s e t t i n g s d i s c a r d s the d i s t i n c t i o n between major and minor. In music of t h i s k i n d , r a t h e r than i n the modulations of the modern harmonic system, Hopkins found r i c h d i a t o n i c v a r i e t y . A n a l y z i n g Hopkins' music, Graves says t h a t Hopkins XLB, p. 235. 2 I b i d . , p. 239. 123 sought a melodic s t y l e which would m i r r o r every p o e t i c nuance, which i n i t s modality would be f r e e from domination by harmonic convention, and which would be a t once a r c h a i c and i n d i v i d u a l . x Waterhouse comes to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Hopkins' system, depending as i t does f o r i t s v a r i e t y and i n t e r e s t on what Hopkins c a l l s s h i f t s from one mode to another, and f o r i t s e x p r e s s i v e n e s s on the melodic sequence of notes, "could o n l y 2 have r e a l i t y , as w i t h the Greeks, i n terms of pure melody." Hopkins' e f f o r t s a t c o u n t e r p o i n t produced one success t h a t f i l l e d him w i t h e l a t i o n : I wrote a complicated canon. . . . I t was l a b o r i o u s , but I now can do canon e a s i l y . . . . Success i n canon beats the other successes of a r t : i t comes l i k e a m i r a c l e , even to the i n v e n t o r . I t does seem as i f the canon d i s c o v e r e d the musician and not he i t . . . . And the fugue i s r e a l l y a canon a t the f i f t h (or t w e l f t h ) . So t h a t I see a world of canon and fugue b e f o r e me.^ Canon and fugue are m u s i c a l forms t h a t s e t up a p e r f e c t chime w i t h the c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e s of Hopkins' m u s i c a l and p o e t i c theory. Melodic design i s a l l : "the b a s i c p a t t e r n i s s t a t e d 4 and then developed i n o v e r l a p p i n g v a r i a t i o n s . " The melodic l i n e need not be obscured by complex harmonies; i t i s , i n f a c t , strengthened by the echoing r e p e t i t i o n s . That the melodic l i n e should remain c l e a r was of utmost importance to Hopkins. R e f e r r i n g to the song on which he was then engaged, i n h i s l a s t l e t t e r to B r i d g e s , he i n d i c a t e d how the s o l o v o i c e c o u l d be used to keep the tune from being Graves, p. 148. 3LB, pp. 277-278. Waterhouse, p. 23 5. 4 M i l l e r , pp. 281-282. 124 obscured or s p o i l t : "I could, since a solo voice holds i t s own against instruments., give the canon-following to a v i o l i n . " 1 In both the madrigal i n canon, which he wrote, and the one i n fugue, which he hoped to write, Hopkins sought for c l a r i t y i n the melodic l i n e by specifying that there 2 should be "no accompaniments." Hopkins' return to the fundamentals, i n music as well as i n poetry, also meant for him a return to the supremacy of the voice. Just as Hopkins wrote his poetry for declama-tion , he wrote his music for vocal performance. A necessary element i n music of thi s kind i s words. Hopkins never wavered from his b e l i e f that good music cannot be composed without the supporting and shaping power of words. Both the "fe e l i n g a i r s " of his early and middle maturity and the harmonies of his l a s t years were songs written to words. The accompanying instruments Hopkins chose were often str i n g s , which, i n th e i r timbre and smoothness, are closest to the human voice. A "snapping" piano he found u n f i t for his compositions. Re-fe r r i n g to his settings of two poems by Barnes, he wrote: I had one played t h i s afternoon, but as the p i a n i s t said: Your music dates from a time before the piano was. The parts are independent i n form and phrasing and are l o s t on that instrument. Two cho r i s t e r s , who were at hand, sang the tune, which to i t s fond father sounded very flowing and a s t r i n g accompani-ment would have set i t o f f , I do b e l i e v e . 3 Solo voices and choirs singing i n unison, without accompani-ment or with the harmony carr i e d by accompanying strings, 1LB, p. 304. 2 I b i d . , p. 278. 3 I b i d . , pp. 229-230. 125 are arrangements most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Hopkins 1 m u s i c a l compositions d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . His fugues, too, are w r i t t e n f o r v o i c e s : "Also I am a t a fugue . . . — v o c a l , of c o u r s e " 1 ; "I am a t work on a g r e a t c h o r a l fugue! I can h a r d l y b e l i e v e 2 i t . " Hopkins' l o v e of p l a i n c h a n t i s r e l a t e d t o i t s n a t u r a l use of the v o i c e : The o n l y good and t r u l y b e a u t i f u l r e c i t a t i v e i s t h a t of p l a i n chant; which indeed culminates i n t h a t . I t i s a n a t u r a l development of the speaking, r e a d i n g , or d e c l a i m i n g v o i c e , and has the r i c h n e s s of nature; the other [the I t a l i a n r e c i t a t i v e ] i s a confinement of the v o i c e to c e r t a i n prominent i n t e r v a l s and has the poverty of an a r t i f i c e . - ^ Graves supports Hopkins' i d e a of p l a i n c h a n t : G r e g o r i a n chant, which has been termed 'elevated speech,' adheres probably as c l o s e l y t o n a t u r a l speech accent ^ and p i t c h i n f l e c t i o n as music i s capable of doing. . . . As has been noted e a r l i e r , by combining the "opposite ex-c e l l e n c e s " of h e i g h t e n i n g and n a t u r a l n e s s , i n the rhythms and tones taken from human speech, Hopkins achieved h i s s i n -5 g u l a r p o e t i c s t y l e and d e s i g n . "The human v o i c e i s immortal," he wrote i n 1888. Perhpas no ear has been more s e n s i t i v e to the f i n e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the cadences of the speaking and the s i n g i n g v o i c e than Hopkins' was. Hopkins' use of words i n h i s music and i n h i s p o e t r y i s based on two extensions of the same theory: i n both ''"LB, p. 262. 2CoD, p. 154. 3LB, pp. 280-281. 4 5 Graves, p. 249. See pp. 75-78 of t h i s study. 6LB, p. 278. 126 a r t forms words are primarily sounds, and, as e n t i t i e s of sound carrying meaning, words contain the esse n t i a l element to support the sound-structure. M i l l e r says that Hopkins' i n t e r e s t " i n words i n themselves," evident i n his early d i a r i e s , develops into a view of poetry as a kind of music of words. . . . Poetry, l i k e music, i s an autono-mous ar t . Music makes patterns of sequences of tones. Poetry makes patterns of sequences of words. 1 M i l l e r goes on to say that Hopkins' "f e e l i n g for words" leads him to reaffirm the onomatopoeic theory of the o r i g i n of language, which asserts that meaning and sound are simul-taneous elements of the substance of a word i n that the mean-ing of a word i s o r i g i n a l l y derived from i t s sound: An onomatopoeic word imitates i n i t s substance and inscape the substance and inscape of the thing i t names. Hopkins does not p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e words which are a s u p e r f i c i a l echo of the sound of a thing. The words which most a t t r a c t him are those which are a kinesthetic imitation of t h e i r meaning, and give a deep bodily, muscular, or v i s c e r a l posses-sion of the world. . . . Hopkins has a strong sense of the variations i n texture, substance, and struc-ture of the things of the world. He l i k e s the way a word, by the uniqueness of i t s inscape, i s a per-fe c t match for one certa i n quality i n the world . . . a single word opens up a precise area of the world, and gives him a way to seize i t : "Altogether peak i s a good word. For sunlight through shutter, locks of hair, rays i n brass knobs etc. Meadows peaked with flowers" (JP, p. 47). M i l l e r , p. 281. John Hollander makes a general asser-t i o n to t h i s e f f e c t : "In the world of the ear, poetry i s a kind of music, as i t i s a mode of pict u r i n g i n the context of the eye." ("The Poem i n the Ear," The Yale Review 62:4 [June 1973], p. 486.) 2 I b i d . , p. 285. 127 He wants words t o be heavy w i t h m a t e r i a l substance, and speaks of "pregnant phrases" l i k e " p u t t i n g the stone" and "to put t h i n g s , i . e. t o r e p r e s e n t them" (JP, p. 19). For most men, a word l i k e "put" f l i t s a i r i l y through the mind, p a l e and a b s t r a c t . Hopkins f e e l s i t , even i n a b s t r a c t uses, w i t h a l l the f o r c e of the muscular a c t i o n i t s u g g e s t s . 1 We would say of Hopkins' v e r s e what Hopkins s a i d of Dryden's: " h i s s t y l e and rhythms l a y the s t r o n g e s t s t r e s s of a l l our l i t e r a t u r e on the naked thew and sinew of the E n g l i s h l a n g -2 uage." Hopkins' search f o r the p r e c i s e word, the ur-word, and the word s t r i p p e d of a l l i t s dead-weight of i r r e l e v a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s made him "the g r e a t e s t master of bare" E n g l i s h . For the reader of h i s poetry, Hopkins' unconventional use of words e f f e c t s a d i s t a n c i n g of the v e r b a l meaning and helps to b r i n g the sound of the word i n t o the foreground. A remarkable sonnet, the whole of which Hopkins wrote w i t h i n a few days w h i l e on h o l i d a y i n 1887, "Harry Ploughman" epitomizes the bare, sinewy s t y l e of Hopkins' l a t e m a t u r i t y and h i s uncanny a b i l i t y to c a l l i n t o use a host of words t h a t c o n t a i n "a k i n e s t h e t i c i m i t a t i o n of t h e i r meaning": Hard as h u r d l e arms, w i t h a b r o t h of g o l d i s h f l u e Breathed round; the rack of r i b s ; the scooped f l a n k ; lank Rope-over t h i g h ; knee-nave; and b a r r e l l e d s h a n k — Head and f o o t , shoulder and s h a n k — By a grey eye's heed s t e e r e d w e l l , one crew, f a l l t o ; Stand a t s t r e s s . Each limb's barrowy brawn, h i s thew M i l l e r , p. 296. I have quoted M i l l e r a t l e n g t h because h i s a n a l y s i s of the way Hopkins understands and uses words supports the view presented i n t h i s paper, and c l a r i f i e s a c e n t r a l c r i t i c a l p o i n t : an assessment of Hopkins' poetry based on the view t h a t words are p r i m a r i l y semantic u n i t s i s w o e f u l l y inadequate. 2LB, pp. 267-268. 128 That onewhere curded, onewhere sucked or sank— Soared or sank--, Though as a beechbole firm, finds h i s , as at a r o l l - c a l l , rank And features, in f l e s h , what deed he each must d o — His sinew-service where do. Brawny, muscular, tense and poised for action, Harry Ploughman i s an analogy of Hopkins' own poetry. In the quick, bold, solid-single-stroke manner of the sketch-artist, the poet pre-sents a complete view of the ploughman, from head to foot, i n the f i r s t quatrain. The catalogue of external features reveals the taut muscles and sinews underneath the surface, as well as the ploughman's inner inscape, his purpose for being. In the second quatrain, the same picture of the ploughman i s dwelt on, to allow the form to penetrate the reader's mind; th i s time, however, the outer form i s given i n general rather than i n s p e c i f i c terms, and the inner form, the purpose of the man's being--firmness, readiness for a c t i o n — i s enlarged on. The description of Harry Ploughman matches a description of Hopkins' poetic s t y l e , i t s "extraordinarily sinewy and burly texture . . . i t s heavy substance and strongly marked inner s t r u c t u r e . " 1 In his poetry, as the a r t i s t does i n the picture of the man, Hopkins concentrates prim-a r i l y on design: both surface and inner s t r u c t u r e — t h e sonnet form and the network of tonal, rhythmic, and semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p s — a r e precisely shaped to give c l a r i t y and unity to the design. M i l l e r says, If Hopkins' poetry had substance without sinew i t might be a loose heap of words turned things. The M i l l e r , p. 283. 129 inner structure, the stress between word and word, makes the poem stand "as a beechbole firm". . . . Each word or group of words i s a stress of i n d i v i d -ualized sound. The poem i s made up of the stresses between these stresses. I t i s "one crew" of parts a l l working together i n harmonious unison. 1 The description of Harry Ploughman also exemplifies Hopkins' basic philosophy of being. Being equals doing; that i s , 2 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c action reveals inner form. The poem i s thus also a revelation of Hopkins' own mind: he i s poised, every sinew at stress, straining to "breed one work that wakes." The intensely active description of Harry Ploughman i s followed i n the sestet by a picture of the man i n action: He leans to i t , Harry bends, look. Back, elbow, and l i q u i d waist In him, a l l q u a i l to the wallowing o' the plough: 's cheek crimsons; curls Wag or crossbridle, i n a wind l i f t e d , windlaced— I See his wind- l i l y l o c k s -laced; Churlsgrace, too, c h i l d of Amansstrength, how i t hangs or hurls Them—broad i n b l u f f hide his frowning feet lashedJ raced With, along them, cragiron under and cold f u r l s — With-a-fountain's shining-shot f u r l s . The movement begins slowly: Harry leans towards the plough, limbs poised, his body tense with the s t r a i n of exertion. As the movement gains momentum, plough and ploughman, crag-iron, feet and f u r l s of earth blend i n one sweep of easy, graceful strength and speed. What i s laborious, and taxes Harry's strength to the utmost, takes on the appearance, i n •"•Miller, pp. 283-284. 2 This philosophy has been discussed i n chapter one, pp. 16-21 and 35-36. 130 the end, of ease, beauty, and grace. Hopkins' labour, too, i s rewarded by works of apparent spontaneity and rare beauty. The intense e f f o r t he speaks of putting into the fashioning of one of his poems i s no longer evident on the surface of the finished work. The sinewy style of "Harry Ploughman" p a r a l l e l s the equally muscular rhythms and sounds of the poem. Hopkins has packed the l i n e s with heavy stresses and extra s y l l a b l e s . The notation he added to his finished copy includes, besides the metrical stress (/), which he "marked i n doubtful cases only," six d i f f e r e n t marks, a l l of which add weight to the meter. 1 The following l i n e s i l l u s t r a t e the use of these reading-marks: l i n e 1: l i n e 4: l i n e 6: l i n e 8: l i n e s 9 as at a r o l l c a l l , rank """These six marks are the strong stress ) , the pause on a s y l l a b l e (^ ) , the circumflexion ) , the slur ) , the outride , and the-^ -^, used "over three or more sy l l a b l e s to give them the time of one half foot." The circumflexion makes "one s y l l a b l e nearly two"; the slur t i e s "two s y l l a b l e s into the time of one." The marks as well as the examples are outlined by Gardner i n Poems, p. 29 3. Hard as hurdle arms, with a broth of goldish f l u e / / A / / Head and foot, shoulder and shank-Stand at stress, Soared or sank— -10: Though as a beechbole firm, finds h i s , 131 And f e a t u r e s i n f l e s h what deed he each must d o — l i n e 12: He leans to i t , Harry bends, look w a i s t In him, a l l q u a i l to the wallowing o 1 the plough l i n e 16: C h u r l s g r a c e , too, c h i l d of Amansstrength. . . l i n e 17: Them—broad i n b l u f f h i d e . . . For t h i s reason Hopkins used burden l i n e s (they are t h a t , l i t e r a l l y ) . A l s o h e a v i l y weighted, they are needed to balance the abnormally heavy pentameter l i n e s : burden l i n e s (they may be r e c i t e d by a chorus) are f r e e l y used: there i s i n t h i s very h e a v i l y loaded sprung rhythm a c a l l f o r t h e i r employment. The rhythm of t h i s sonnet, which i s a l t o g e t h e r f o r r e -c i t a l , not f o r p e r u s a l (as by nature verse should be) i s very h i g h l y s t u d i e d . 1 Only i n r e c i t a l can the f u l l meaning of the poem be r e a l i z e d . T h i s i s so because the mouth i n speaking the l i n e s has to work j u s t as Harry works i n ploughing. The u t t e r e d sounds thus f u n c t i o n as a metaphor. E x p l o s i v e s , consonant c l u s t e r s , and the hard, r o l l e d r predominate. Hopkins adds to the "muscular c o n t o r t i o n " by p e r v e r s e l y s t r e s s i n g s y l l a b l e s t h a t would otherwise be c o n s i d e r e d u n s t r e s s e d and, as such, make the l i n e s smoother: / / A ' / Head and f o o t , shoulder and s h a n k — . . . . _ y y Soared or s a n k — . . . . y / y~^ And f e a t u r e s , i n f l e s h , what deed he each must d o — /\ ' s ' y The s t r e s s e s on shoulder, or, i n , and what are d e l i b e r a t e 132 rhythmic contortions that give body to the melodic struc-t u r e . 1 They reinforce further the stress and s t r a i n of the ploughman's service. Hopkins feared Bridges would f i n d the poem "in t o l e r a b l y v i o l e n t and a r t i f i c i a l . " In a c t u a l i t y , the heightened rhythm and abrupt syntax help Hopkins to achieve his aim for the poem: "I want Harry Ploughman to be a v i v i d figure before the mind's eye; i f he i s not that the 2 sonnet f a i l s . " Hopkins described "Harry Ploughman" as a "di r e c t picture 3 of a ploughman, without afterthought." In spite of the suggestion that the poem i s nothing more than t h i s , Hopkins' choice of words and metaphors reveal an undercurrent of meaning that adds depth and significance to the ploughman's p o r t r a i t . In a l e t t e r of 1883, Hopkins records an important discovery: My thought i s that i n any l y r i c passage of the tr a g i c poets . . . there a r e — u s u a l l y . . . —two strains of thought running together and l i k e counterpointed; the overthought that which everybody, editors, see . . . Stevens compares the "muscular c o n t o r t i o n " i n "Harry Ploughman" to an analogous e f f e c t i n Hopkins' a i r to "Past l i k e morning beam away." JP, p. 460. 2 LB, p. 265. F. R. L e a v i s demotes "Harry Ploughman" and "Tom's Garland" to "such t h i n g s " on grounds t h a t "the absence of c o n t r o l l i n g p r essure from w i t h i n , the e l a b o r a -t i o n s and i n g e n u i t i e s of 'inscape' and of e x p r e s s i v e l i c e n s e r e s u l t i n t a n g l e s of knots and s t r a i n s t h a t no amount of r e a d i n g can reduce to s a t i s f a c t o r y rhythm or j u s t i f i a b l e complexity." ("Metaphysical I s o l a t i o n , " Gerard Manley Hopkins by The Kenyon C r i t i c s [ N o r f o l k , C o n n e c t i c u t : New D i r e c t i o n s Books, 1945], pp. 133-134.) On the c o n t r a r y , w i t h Hopkins' n o t a t i o n e l u c i d a t i n g h i s i n t e n t i o n , and the v o i c e i n r e c i t a l b r i n g i n g out the rhythmic s t r e s s e s , pauses, and h u r r i e d f e e t , the meaning i s c l e a r and the poem h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e . 3 I b i d . , p. 262. 133 the other, the underthought, conveyed c h i e f l y i n the c h o i c e of metaphors e t c used and o f t e n o n l y h a l f r e a l i s e d by the poet h i m s e l f , not n e c e s s a r i l y having any connection w i t h the s u b j e c t i n hand but u s u a l l y having a connection and suggested by some circum-stance of the scene or of the s t o r y . . . . Perhaps what I ought to say i s t h a t the underthought i s commonly an echo or shadow of the overthought, some-t h i n g l i k e canons and r e p e t i t i o n s i n music, t r e a t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t manner, but t h a t sometimes i t may be independent of i t . x Hopkins i n t r o d u c e d the term c o u n t e r p o i n t i n t o the language of l i t e r a t u r e i n h i s 1874 l e c t u r e notes on r h e t o r i c . By rhythmic c o u n t e r p o i n t he meant "the c a r r y i n g on of two f i g u r e s a t once, e s p e c i a l l y i f they are a l i k e i n k i n d but very u n l i k e or 2 o p p o s i t e i n s p e c i e s . " In h i s P r e f a c e of 1883, he e x p l a i n s f u r t h e r t h a t , w h i l e the one rhythm " i s a c t u a l l y heard," the other rhythm, the standard one, i s s u p p l i e d by the mind: "the two rhythms are i n some manner running a t once and we 3 have something answerable to c o u n t e r p o i n t i n music." From FL, pp. 105-106. 2 JP, p. 280. S. Mooney, i n a b r i e f a r t i c l e on "Hopkins and Counterpoint," V i c t o r i a n Newsletter 18, 19 60 attempts a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of Hopkins' p r o s o d i c i n t e n t i o n i n h i s use of the term c o u n t e r p o i n t . He d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between l i n g u i s t i c and m u s i c a l c o u n t e r p o i n t ( t h i s p a r t of h i s d i s c u s s i o n h a r d l y a p p l i e s s i n c e Hopkins c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d rhythmic counter-point) , and then concludes, "Counterpoint c a l l s f o r p l u r -a l i t y of m e t r i c a l l i n e s ; i t c a l l s f o r s i m u l t a n e i t y . " John H o l l a n d e r says t h a t the c o r r e c t term would be syncopation, not c o u n t e r p o i n t , and suggests t h a t "some v i s u a l sense of the a c t u a l l i n e of v e r s e w i t h two a l t e r n a t i v e s t r i n g s of s c a n s i o n marks above and below i t " may have i n f l u e n c e d h i s c h o i c e of c o u n t e r p o i n t . In my judgment, Hopkins' m u s i c a l analogy i s a c c u r a t e : i t d e s c r i b e s w e l l the whole rhythmic d e s i g n r a t h e r than i s o l a t i n g a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e of a r e v e r s e d f o o t . H o l l a n d e r misjudges Hopkins' a u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y : i t was c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e f o r Hopkins to hear two rhythms si m u l t a n e o u s l y . (Hollander, p. 488) Poems, p. 46. 134 h i s l e t t e r w r i t t e n the same y e a r as h i s P r e f a c e , i t can be o b s e r v e d t h a t Hopkins extended the p r i n c i p l e of c o u n t e r -p o i n t i n g to i n c l u d e imagery : i t i s "an u n d e r c u r r e n t of thought g o v e r n i n g the c h o i c e of images u s e d . " 1 A l t h o u g h Hopkins d i d not d e v e l o p t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n h i s c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g , he used i t i n composing h i s own p o e t r y . Garnder says t h a t the p o l y p h o n y of m e t a p h y s i c a l , t h e o l o g i c a l , and r h y t h m i c elements i n the g r e a t e r poems of Hopkins was a new t h i n g the g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e of which B r i d g e s had not g r a s p e d . 2 McLuhan makes a more g e n e r a l s ta tement r e g a r d i n g H o p k i n s ' c h o i c e of images : F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Hopkins soon r e v e a l s t h a t each of h i s poems i n c l u d e s a l l the r e s t , such i s the c l o s e -k n i t c h a r a c t e r of h i s s e n s i b i l i t y . A r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of themes and images—such i s the i n -t e n s i t y of h i s p e r c e p t i o n — p e r m i t s him an i n f i n i t e l y v a r i e d o r c h e s t r a t i o n . 3 Both Gardner and McLuhan choose an analogy from music to e x p l a i n H o p k i n s ' use of images : the l a y e r i n g of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of images i n the same poem, the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p between images and rhythm, and the f l o w of v a r i a t i o n s a r i s i n g from the same b a s i c images compares to p o l y p h o n i c o r o r c h e s t r a l m u s i c . Hopkins used the g e n e r a l term " r e p e t i -t i o n s , " as w e l l as the more s p e c i f i c and v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c term " c a n o n s , " to c l a r i f y what he meant by c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g F L , p . 106. G a r d n e r , I , p . 210. McLuhan, p . 26. 135 the underthought and the overthought i n p o e t r y . In "Harry Ploughman" the most immediately d i s c e r n i b l e underthought i s t h a t of a s h i p a t sea. Harry i s both s h i p (h i s body p a r t s are given i n terms of a s h i p ' s s t r u c t u r e — " r i b s , " " f l a n k , " "nave") and crew (his body p a r t s compose "one crew," r e c e i v i n g the c a p t a i n ' s o r d e r s : " f a l l to . . . stand a t s t r e s s " ) . He i s a l s o a s i n g l e s a i l o r (he s t e e r s the plough as h i s grey eye s t e e r s h i s l i m b s ) . "Curded," "sucked," and "sank," a c t i o n s r e l a t e d to a l i q u i d , and the word " l i q u i d " i t s e l f , strengthen the impression of a v e s s e l i n water: the s h i p "wallows" i n the waves, i t s s a i l s "wind-l i f t e d , windlaced." In the l a s t l i n e s , the plough i s a s h i p ("cold," " f o u n t a i n , " and " s h i n i n g " suggest waves shoo t i n g out behind a speeding v e s s e l ) . F i n a l l y , the word " f u r l s " compares the s o i l s e t t l i n g down i n furrows to a s a i l wound or c u r l e d around the mast. C o u n t e r p o i n t i n g land and sea i s not i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an Englishman who loved h i s country as Hopkins d i d . The brawny, y o u t h f u l v i g o u r and innocence ( " c h i l d of Amansstrength") of the ploughman r e f l e c t s an i d e a l i z e d p i c t u r e of the E n g l i s h s a i l o r boy, s i m i l a r to t h a t of the s o l d i e r i n "The Bugler's F i r s t Communion" ("Breathing bloom of a c h a s t i t y i n mansex f i n e " ) and i n "The S o l d i e r " ("the c a l l i n g manly"; " f a i n w i l l f i n d as s t e r l i n g a l l as a l l i s smart"). A second s e t of images r e -v e a l s an undercurrent of thought t h a t i s more d i r e c t l y r e -l a t e d to the nature of the peasant ploughman: " r i b s , " " f l a n k , " and "shank" (parts of an animal's body); "rope," " b a r r e l - , " "barrow-," and " c r a g i r o n " (farm implements, used 136 i n h a n d l i n g a n i m a l s ) ; " b r o t h " and " c u r d - " ( food d e r i v e d from a n i m a l s ) ; " w a l l o w i n g " and "wag" ( a c t i o n s of t y p i c a l farm a n i m a l s ) ; " c r o s s b r i d l e " and " l a s h e d " (methods of h a r n e s s i n g o r r e s t r a i n i n g a n i m a l s ) . The s t r a i n of thought l i n k i n g these words emphasizes the e a r t h i n e s s of the ploughman's l i f e and work. More than t h a t , however, i t i m p l i e s t h a t , i n h i s p h y s -i c a l n a t u r e , man i s no more than an a n i m a l . T h i s thought i s r e l a t e d to a theme h e a r d a g a i n and a g a i n i n H o p k i n s ' p o e t r y . Man s h a r e s m o r t a l i t y w i t h the a n i m a l s . M o r t a l beauty f a d e s , d i e s , and becomes " m o r t a l t r a s h , " p r e y of the " r e s i d u a r y w o r m . " 1 H o p k i n s ' p e n u l t i m a t e sonnet sounds the l o w e s t depths of t h i s theme: man l i v e s as w e l l as d i e s l i k e an a n i m a l , no matter how much b e a u t y , g r a c e , s e r v i c e , and renown h i s l i f e has c o n t a i n e d : He! Hand to mouth he l i v e s , and v o i d s w i t h shame; A n d , b l a z o n e d i n however b o l d the name, Man Jack the man i s , j u s t ; h i s mate a h u s s y , And I t h a t d i e t h e s e d e a t h s , t h a t f e e d t h i s f l a m e , T h a t . . . . 2 A t h i r d s e t o f images i n " H a r r y Ploughman" suggest a n o b l e v a r i a t i o n o f the m o r t a l i t y theme. Man i s not o n l y an a n i m a l , he i s a l s o a s a i n t , ready to d i e a m a r t y r ' s d e a t h . The word " r a c k " i n l i n e two, by the v i o l e n c e of i t s s o u n d , s t r i k e s the f i r s t c l e a r note of t h i s theme. In the s e s t e t , H o p k i n s ' c h o i c e of " q u a i l " to d e s c r i b e t h e ploughman's a t t i t u d e as he l e a n s , h i s back b e n t , towards the p l o u g h , m o m e n t a r i l y b r i n g s t h i s theme i n t o the f o r e g r o u n d . Once the two main notes of 1 2 Poems, p . 105. I b i d . , p . 107. 137 t h i s theme, l i k e the modal dominant and f i n a l , are consciously heard, the mind s h i f t s e a s i l y to hear the f u l l theme as a f a i n t undercurrent echoing through the entire poem: Harry stands "at stress," he i s "firm," he accepts the "deed" ("serv-ice") he "must do," his " f l e s h " "quails," he i s "lashed," he "hangs" at the gallows ("wag"). The ploughman i s a l l these simultaneously: well-designed structure (ship), animal, and saint/martyr. Each of these strains of thought i s "an echo or shadow of the overthought," and, rounded together as i n a canon, give depth and r e a l i t y to the p o r t r a i t . "Harry Ploughman" i s a poetic example of the "world of canon and fugue" Hopkins saw before him. The poetry of Hopkins 1 l a t e maturity reaches a new l e v e l of s t r u c t u r a l complexity. His search for the expres-sive form his rhythms and melodies required took him again d i r e c t l y toward music. By f r e e l y using paeons, e l i s i o n s , and outrides, he had already taxed the reins of the sonnet form to t h e i r utmost. 1 In his middle period, he had extended the sonnet form by using alexandrines. Then, i n his f i n a l years, he experimented further, using 8-foot l i n e s with masterful perfection i n "Spelt from Sibyl's Leaves" (1885). Hopkins referred to t h i s poem as the "longest sonnet ever written." I t was not to be his longest sonnet, however. He •""Hopkins "grappled" w i t h the l e n g t h of the E n g l i s h sonnet, c o n s c i o u s l y t a k i n g pains to make up f o r the " s h o r t , l i g h t , t r i p p i n g , and l i g h t " c h a r a c t e r of the E n g l i s h sonnet i n comparison to the I t a l i a n as w e l l as the French sonnet. For h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the b e s t sonnet p r o p o r t i o n s , see CoD, pp. 85-87. See a l s o Gardner's f u l l treatment of Hopkins' use and development of the sonnet form, I, pp. 71-10 8. 138 next experimented with two "augmented forms," X i n which the influence from music i s obvious. In writing "Harry Ploughman he f e l t compelled to add burden l i n e s — h e added f i v e — t o carry over some of the weight from the heavily-loaded penta-meter l i n e s . The idea of the burden l i n e comes from a stroph song i n which the burden i s the r e f r a i n , usually repeated with each stanza, and echoing the main theme of the song and f i x i n g i t i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind. The burden l i n e s of "Harry Ploughman" are formed according to Hopkins' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c application of the musical p r i n c i p l e of r e p e t i t i o n : they p a r t i a l l y repeat the immediately preceding thought, but also add new words to amplify i t . For performance, Hopkins en-visioned a solo voice with a chorus taking the burden l i n e s , an arrangement he p a r t i c u l a r l y favoured i n his musical compo-s i t i o n s during t h i s period. The second augmented form Hopkins used i s the caudated sonnet. Imp l i c i t i n the general form of some of his other 2 poems , the coda becomes an e x p l i c i t addition for the f i r s t time i n "Tom's Garland." In 18 87 Hopkins wrote with urgency to Bridges: please t e l l me how co r r e c t l y to make codas to sonnets; with the most approved order of rhymes and so on. And do not say that I know and that I can f i n d for myself and that there i s one i n Milton (that one i s not enough), but do what I ask you. And soon: a sonnet i s hot on the a n v i l Gardner, p. 103. 2 See chapter two, pages 100-102, the discussion of "The Wreck of The Deutschland." 139 and wants the coda. I t i s the o n l y time I have f e l t f o r c e d to exceed the beaten bounds.1 M i l t o n ' s use of the coda gave Hopkins the a u t h o r i t y he wanted, 2 as a subsequent l e t t e r i n d i c a t e s . Hopkins found "the coda 3 [to be] an immense resource to have" f o r a s u b j e c t t h a t needs rounding o f f to make the argument complete and emphatic. "Tom's Garland" has two codas, p r o p e r l y t i e d to the main body by rhymes t h a t develop, w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f o r c e f u l n e s s and i n -d i g n a t i o n , the n e g a t i v e s i d e of the argument i n t r o d u c e d i n the s e s t e t . Both codas f o l l o w the same p a t t e r n : each i s formed by a h a l f - l i n e f o l l o w e d by two f u l l l i n e s . By over-r e a v i n g of l i n e s , the thought flows c o n t i n u o u s l y from the f i r s t t o the second coda. The p r o g r e s s i o n of thought and sound i n the sonnet which a c t u a l l y i s the l o n g e s t Hopkins wrote, "That Nature i s a H e r a c l i t e a n F i r e and of the Comfort of the R e s u r r e c t i o n , " shows a g r e a t e r resemblance to the m u s i c a l coda than the codas i n "Tom's Garland." In music, the coda i s "the f i n a l pronouncement" t h a t " a s s e r t s the 4 v i c t o r y of the home key w i t h a v i g o r o u s f i n a l cadence." I t may be o n l y a few chords or i t may be a long passage. Although the prime f u n c t i o n of the coda i s to underscore the m u s i c a l i d e a of the opening passage, new m a t e r i a l may be added to achieve t h i s purpose. "That Nature i s a H e r a c l i -tean F i r e " has two codas of unequal l e n g t h . The f i r s t c a r r i e s LB, p. 263. M i l t o n ' s s a t i r i c a l sonnet, "On the New F o r c e r s of Conscience," i s Hopkins' model f o r "Tom's Garland." 2 3 4 I b i d . , pp. 264-265. I b i d . , p. 266. M a c h l i s , p. 227. 140 on the p r o g r e s s i o n of thought from the end of the sonnet p r o p e r . T h e n , w i t h a sudden, unmodulated s h i f t , i t c o n t i n -ues w i t h a s e r i e s of v i g o r o u s t h o u g h t - c h o r d s , r e a s s e r t i n g the b r i g h t n e s s of the s o n n e t ' s o p e n i n g l i n e s on the b a s i s o f a new t h o u g h t — t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n : C l o u d - p u f f b a l l , t o r n t u f t s , t o s s e d p i l l o w s ' f l a u n t f o r t h , then chevy on an a i r -b u i l t t h o r o u g h f a r e : h e a v e n - r o y s t e r e r s , i n gay-gangs ' they t h r o n g ; they g l i t t e r i n marches . Down r o u g h c a s t , down d a z z l i n g whi tewash, ' wherever an elm a r c h e s , S h i v e l i g h t s and shadowtackle i n l o n g 1 l a s h e s l a c e , l a n c e , and p a i r . D e l i g h t f u l l y the b r i g h t wind b o i s t e r o u s ' r o p e s , w r e s t l e s , b e a t s e a r t h b a r e Of y e s t e r t e m p e s t ' s c r e a s e s ; ' i n p o o l and r u t p e e l p a r c h e s S q u a n d e r i n g ooze to squeezed ' dough, c r u s t , d u s t ; s t a n c h e s , s t a r c h e s Squadroned masks and manmarks ' t r e a d m i r e t o i l t h e r e F o o t f r e t t e d i n i t . M i l l i o n - f u e l e d , ' n a t u r e ' s b o n f i r e burns o n . But quench her b o n n i e s t , d e a r e s t ' to h e r , her c l e a r e s t -s e l v e d spark Man, how f a s t h i s f i r e d i n t , ' h i s mark on m i n d , i s gone! Both are i n an u n f a t h o m a b l e , a l l i s i n an enormous dark Drowned. 0 p i t y and i n d i g ' n a t i o n ! Manshape, t h a t shone Sheer o f f , d i s s e v e r a l , a s t a r , ' d e a t h b l o t s b l a c k o u t ; nor mark Is any of him a t a l l so s t a r k But v a s t n e s s b l u r s and t ime ' b e a t s l e v e l . Enough! the R e s u r r e c t i o n , A h e a r t 1 s - c l a r i o n ! Away g r i e f ' s g a s p i n g , ' j o y l e s s 17 d a y s , d e j e c t i o n . The f u l l s t o p at the end o f l i n e 17 i s H o p k i n s ' c l e a r i n d i c a -t i o n t h a t a s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r a l element i s c o m p l e t e d . M u s i -c a l l y , however, the sonnet cannot end h e r e : the new m o t i v i c element ("the R e s u r r e c t i o n " ) needs to be more f u l l y r e a l i z e d . The second coda d e v e l o p s t h i s m o t i f i n p e r s o n a l t e r m s , c o n -t r a s t e d to the g e n e r a l terms of the f i r s t 17 l i n e s : 141 A c r o s s my f o u n d e r i n g deck shone A b e a c o n , an e t e r n a l beam. 1 F l e s h f a d e , and m o r t a l t r a s h F a l l to the r e s i d u a r y worm; 1 w o r l d ' s w i l d f i r e , l e a v e b u t 20 a s h : In a f l a s h , a t a trumpet c r a s h , I am a l l a t once what C h r i s t i s , ' s i n c e he was what I am, 22 and T h i s J a c k , j o k e , poor p o t s h e r d , ' p a t c h , matchwood, immor-t a l diamond, Is Immortal diamond. 24 Man i s f o r g o t t e n , h i s f l e s h shares i n the ash o f p h y s i c a l d i s -i n t e g r a t i o n , but " I " share i n the e t e r n a l . The second coda i s the sonnet i n m i n i a t u r e , w i t h a l l the b r i g h t n e s s ( " g l i t t e r , " " d a z z l i n g w h i t e w a s h , " " s h i v e l i g h t s , " " b r i g h t , " " s p a r k , " " s t a r " ) t r a n s f e r r e d to the " d i a m o n d . " 1 "The approved o r d e r o f rhymes" i s a mat ter o f r e a l importance t o H o p k i n s , and the o r d e r he chooses always g i v e s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i o n o f the f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . In each o f H o p k i n s ' caudated s o n n e t s , t h e rhyming p a t t e r n c o i n c i d e s w i t h the p r o g r e s s i o n o f thought and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the poem t o each o t h e r : "Tom's G a r l a n d " main body coda 1 coda 2 a b b a a b b a c c d c c d d e e e f f G a r d n e r ' s comments on the t h o u g h t - s t r u c t u r e of t h i s poem are somewhat c o n f u s i n g , and c e r t a i n l y do not f o l l o w the f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e of the poem as he a n a l y z e s i t . He says t h e sonnet has t h r e e c o d a s , c o n t r a r y to H o p k i n s ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t , " w i t h an e x t r a b u r d e n - l i n e a t the e n d . " T h i s seems to be a s u p e r f i c i a l judgment, based more on the f a c t t h a t "Tom's G a r l a n d " has 2 - 1 / 2 - l i n e codas than on the a c t u a l development o f t h o u g h t . The rhyme scheme of " H e r a c l i t e a n F i r e " a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t the f i n a l seven l i n e s form a u n i t : the rhyme shone ( l i n e 18) connects the second coda to the sonnet p r o p e r (shone, l i n e 13) r a t h e r than to the f i r s t coda ( R e s u r r e c t i o n and d e j e c t i o n do not rhyme w i t h s h o n e ) . See G a r d n e r , I , p p . 107-108. "That Nature i s a Heraclitean F i r e " main body coda 1 coda 2 a b b a a b b a c d c d c d d e e c f f f g g g 1 ' ' I In "Tom's Garland" the l i n e of integration moves smoothly through the entire length of the poem. The rhyming pattern of "That Nature i s a Heraclitean F i r e " i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f -ferent: i t suggests the break i n thought between the two codas as well as the i n d i r e c t relationship of the codas to each other by t h e i r common relationship to the main body of the sonnet. In t h i s masterpiece of his late maturity, Hopkins achieved the freedom he found i n musical forms. Hopkins developed his system of poetics on the basic p r i n c i p l e s of music: r e p e t i t i o n , v a r i a t i o n , continuousness, stress accent. He also adapted musical forms and techniques to his poetry, i m p l i c i t l y and e x p l i c i t l y . More than that, i n poems such as "The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo," by organizing and developing the poetic idea according to musi-c a l modes of expression, he translated verbal material into music. In the poetry of his late maturity, with the excep-t i o n of some of the sonnets of extreme desolation, he continued i n the same vein, consistently s t r i v i n g to simulate "the condition of music." Gardner says that few English poets have been actuated so powerfully and consistently as Hopkins was by the p r i n c i p l e The second coda's rhyme scheme can also be written with spaces to show the grouping of l i n e s : c f f fgg g. 143 enunciated i n P a t e r ' s " A l l a r t c o n s t a n t l y a s p i r e s  towards the c o n d i t i o n of music."1 I t i s i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a t Hopkins p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the i d e a l s and achievements of the Symbolists. A c c o r d i n g to A r t h u r Symons, the Symbolists were i n s p i r e d by Wagner's i d e a l , t h a t "the most complete work of the poet should be t h a t which, i n i t s f i n a l achievement, becomes a 2 p e r f e c t music." L i k e Hopkins, the Symbolists achieved t h i s i d e a l by r e g a r d i n g t h e i r poems "as conscious c o n s t r u c t s 3 out of the m a t e r i a l t h a t i s language." Each poem i s "con-s t r u c t e d d e l i v e r a t e l y w i t h the aim of producing a c e r t a i n 4 e f f e c t , " an e f f e c t comparable to the e f f e c t c r e a t e d by music. Each poem, then, employs s o n o r i t i e s , rhythms, words, and im-ages t h a t w i l l c r e a t e a s p e c i f i c mood and evoke a s p e c i f i c emotional response. Hopkins i s the genius d e s c r i b e d by Pater who t i r e l e s s l y searches f o r the p r e c i s e word, phrase, and sen-tence, and d e l e t e s a l l unnecessary surplusage to make the f i n i s h e d c o n s t r u c t the exact shape the s u b j e c t r e q u i r e s . ^ I f he c o u l d not f i n d the p r e c i s e word, Hopkins c o n s t r u c t e d one, u s u a l l y a compound, or he pressed a word i n t o s e r v i c e Gardner, I, p. 8. 2 A r t h u r Symons, The Symbolist Movement i n L i t e r a t u r e (New York, 1919), p. 69. 3 James A. Boon, From Symbolism to S t r u c t u r a l i s m :  L e v i - S t r a u s s i n a L i t e r a r y T r a d i t i o n (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k -w e l l , 1972), p. 32. 4 Edmund Wilson, A x e l ' s C a s t l e (New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1931), p. 117. 5 Walter P a t e r , " S t y l e , " A p p r e c i a t i o n s (London: Macmillan, 1910). 144 i n an unusual c o n t e x t . In both these ways, the heightened e v o c a t i v e power of the word c r e a t e s a c o n t r a p u n t a l e f f e c t t h a t i s something l i k e the experience of a m u s i c a l s c o r e . "The l i n e a r nature of language" has u s u a l l y been con-s i d e r e d an insurmountable b a r r i e r to the s i m u l a t i o n of music i n p o e t r y . 1 T h i s o b j e c t i o n assumes t h a t a l l music i s p o l y -phonic, and does not take proper cognizance of the l i n e a r elements of music: melody and meter are both e s s e n t i a l l y l i n e a r i n c h a r a c t e r . In f a c t , these two elements c r e a t e what Langer i d e n t i f i e s as the s p e c i f i c i l l u s i o n of music, the " i l l u s i o n of passage." Both are a l s o b a s i c elements i n p o e t r y . The o b j e c t i o n a l s o d i s r e g a r d s the simultaneous elements i n a s i n g l e word, i n a phrase, and i n an e n t i r e poem. Sound and sense, each c o n t a i n i n g numerous sub-elements ( p i t c h , volume, timbre, l i t e r a l meaning, a l l u s i o n ) , f u n c t i o n i n "har-mony" w i t h each o t h e r . The number of simultaneous elements the ear w i l l p e r c e i v e or the mind supply depends on the i n -d i v i d u a l — o n h i s s e n s i t i v i t y , c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and understand-i n g . Music and p o e t r y are both autonomous a r t f o r m s . In order to achieve, however, a p e r f e c t harmony between sound and sense, o r , as Pater expressed i t , "a p e r f e c t i d e n t i f i c a -2 t i o n of matter and form," p o e t r y invades the domain of music, and usurps, by means of analogy, i t s forms and e f f e c t s . In two poems of h i s l a t e m a t u r i t y , Hopkins came c l o s e s t A. Walton L i t z , The A r t of James Joyce (Oxford, 1961), p. 73. 2 As quoted by Gardner, I, p. 8. 145 to a c h i e v i n g the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n of music. Both belong to a group of compositions to which Hopkins e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r r e d as being " h i g h l y s t u d i e d . " 1 " S p e l t from S i b y l ' s Leaves," w r i t t e n i n e a r l y 1885 but not completed b e f o r e November 1886, 2 i n Hopkins' words, "essays e f f e c t s almost m u s i c a l . " Hopkins i n s t r u c t e d Bridges t h a t the poem i s , as l i v i n g a r t should be, made f o r performance and t h a t i t s performance i s not r e a d i n g w i t h the eye but loud, l e i s u r e l y , p o e t i c a l (not r h e t o r i c a l ) r e c i t a t i o n , w i t h long r e s t s , long dwells on the rhyme and other marked s y l l a b l e s , and so on. T h i s sonnet shd. be almost sung: i t i s most c a r e f u l l y timed i n tempo rubato.^ "Tom's Garland," dated September 1887, Hopkins d e s c r i b e d as "a very pregnant sonnet and i n p o i n t of execution very h i g h l y 4 wrought." These two poems, more than any o t h e r s of t h i s p e r i o d , communicate thought and f e e l i n g without the mediating word. While Hopkins never l o s e s h i s f i r m grasp of l o g i c a l , v e r b a l meaning, not even i n the "strange c o n s t r u c t i o n s " of "Tom's Garland," the melody (which i n c l u d e s the rhythm) i s a c o n s t r u c t independent of the v e r b a l meaning, on the one hand, and, on the other, having a l i f e of i t s own powerful enough to absorb the v e r b a l elements and transform them i n t o a c t u a l music. Hopkins completed " S p e l t from S i b y l ' s Leaves" d i r e c t l y Others i n the group are "The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo" (LB, p. 157), "Harry Ploughman" ( I b i d . , p. 263), and the song he was working on immediately p r i o r to h i s death ( I b i d . , p. 304). 2 I b i d . , p. 245. 3 I b i d . , pp. 245-246. 4 I b i d . , p. 274. 146 subsequent to a b r i e f p e r i o d of i n t e n s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n on Greek music. During t h i s "Greek p e r i o d " - - t h e month of October 1886--Hopkins composed fo u r songs employing p l a i n -chant or the a n c i e n t Greek modes. 1 The i n f l u e n c e of modal music can be d e t e c t e d i n t h i s poem. Hopkins intended the poem to be chanted--"almost sung"--with rhymes, marked s y l -l a b l e s , and r e s t s drawn out and dwelt on, as the d e s i g n a t i o n , "rubato," i n d i c a t e s . A slow, smooth, l e g a t o l i n e , to ensure the k i n d of performance Hopkins wanted, i s s t r u c t u r e d i n t o the melody by the continuous flow of resonant l i q u i d and n a s a l consonants. L's f u n c t i o n to s o f t e n and smooth the melodic l i n e , w h i l e n's, ng's, and m's, p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r a long vowel and b e f o r e a consonant, can be prolonged as long as one l i k e s . The g r e a t number of a l l i t e r a t i n g vowels s i m i l a r l y h e lp to c r e a t e a s i n g i n g l e g a t o l i n e : here i t i s w e l l to be reminded from Hopkins' l e c t u r e notes on r h e t o r i c t h a t the " v o i c e d breath," as i n chanting or s i n g i n g , i s a vowel. Two a d d i t i o n a l consonants, the w (voiced) and the h (un-voiced) , are, i n e f f e c t , a l s o b r e a t h s , and thus c l o s e l y a k i n to the vowel i n e f f e c t . C i r c u m f l e x i o n s and long vowels 2 f u r t h e r n a t u r a l l y draw out the l e n g t h of the l i n e : During the month of October 1886, Hopkins wrote musi-c a l s e t t i n g s to two poems by Barnes, both i n modal s t y l e , a p l a i n c h a n t s e t t i n g to Sophocles' Antigone, and a modal s e t -t i n g t o Sappho's "Ode to A p h r o d i t e . " 2 The f o l l o w i n g marks p o i n t out the sounds r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s a n a l y s i s : v (vowel); v (w and h, near-vowels); (the l e n g t h e n i n g n's, m's, and ng's); and L. 147 E a r n e s t , e a r t h l e s s , e q u a l a t t u n e a b l e , 1 v a u l t y , voluminous V V l_ V L V ^ L L L v - y . . . s tupendous E v e n i n g s t r a i n s to be t i m e ' s v a s t , ' w o m b - o f - a l l , home-v <y w w y w v v L y ^ o f a l l , h e a r s e - o f - a l l n i g h t . V V L V. V V L Her f o n d y e l l o w h o r n l i g h t wound t o the w e s t , ' her w i l d y ^ L y. L v. ^  y y y L h o l l o w h o a r l i g h t hung to the h e i g h t V L V L V ^ y Waste; her e a r l i e s t s t a r s , e a r l s t a r s , ' s t a r s p r i n c i p a l , y v. v/ L v |_ L o v e r b e n d u s , V ^ F i r e - f e a t u r i n g heaven . F o r e a r t h ' her b e i n g has unbound: ^ V V y < ^ v v ^ her d a p p l e i s a t e n d , a s -v L v v v w v t r a y or aswarm, a l l t h r o u g h t h e r , i n t h r o n g s ; ' s e l f i n s e l f s teeped and p a s h e d - - q u i t e L V D i s r e m e m b e r i n g , dismembering ' a l l now. H e a r t , you round *-' ^ ^ v _ y v _ ^ v L V me r i g h t W i t h : Our e v e n i n g i s over u s ; our n i g h t ' whelms, whelms, and w i l l end u s . v y L v ^ v The poem i s w r i t t e n f o r an unaccompanied s o l o v o i c e , c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c o f Greek m u s i c , which b r i n g s out most c l e a r l y the n a t u r e of the rhythm and the beauty of the m e l o d y . F o r Hop-k i n s , "each word . . . has i t s own unique t o n e . . . . I t i s a t a f i x e d i n t e r v a l from o t h e r s i m i l a r words and t h e r e f o r e a b l e to chime w i t h t h e m . " 1 Each change i n the vowel o r c o n -sonant produces a d i f f e r e n t tone i n the sequence of notes t h a t make up the c h o r d . In " S p e l t from S i b y l ' s l e a v e s , " Hopkins b u i l d s r h y t h m i c - t o n a l p a t t e r n s i n t o the m e l o d i c l i n e , M i l l e r , p. 280. 148 made up of such chiming words, r e p e a t i n g them two or more times w i t h e f f e c t i v e v a r i a t i o n s : (1) womb-of-all, home-of-all, h e a r s e - o f - a l l (2) Her^fond y e l l o w h o r n l i g h t wound to the^west, ' her w i l d hollow h o a r l i g h t hung to the h e i g h t waste (3) her being has . . . her dapple i s a t end, as-t r a y or as — (4) Disremembering, dismembering (5) L e t l i f e , waned . . . l e t l i f e wind (6) reckon but, reck but, mind but (7) selfwrung, s e l f s t r u n g Hopkins 1 p r a c t i c e of s h i f t i n g from one mode to another i n h i s m u s i c a l compositions i s suggested i n t h i s poem by the change of consonants from the octave to the s e s t e t : the humming ng_ (evenincj, f i r e - f eaturing_, b eing, disremember i n g , remembering, throngs) becomes the sharp k i n the s e s t e t (beakleaved, damask, skeined, pack, reckon, reck, rack, bleak, b l a c k ) . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of b's and g's, added to the ng's and k's, a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , b r i n g a hard note i n t o the melodic t e x t u r e of the s e s t e t : octave s e s t e t humming g l o t t a l ng_ 7 i n s t a n c e s 2 i n s t a n c e s hard g l o t t a l stop k 2 " (modified) 11 e x p l o s i v e b 3 " 8 " e x p l o s i v e g none 4 " 149 The l a s t notes of the poem s t r i k e a d e c i d e d l y d i f f e r e n t chord from those heard i n the course of the poem: Where, selfwrung, s e l f s t r u n g , sheathe-and s h e l t e r l e s s , 1 thoughts a g a i n s t thoughts i n groans g r i n d . The t o n a l segments i n d and nd are f r e q u e n t l y sounded i n rhymes and other words of both octave and s e s t e t . The g i n "groans g r i n d , " however, has been on l y s l i g h t l y prepared f o r by two s i n g l e words t h a t c o n t a i n the sound, both used i n the s e s t e t , "dragonish" ( l i n e 9) and " a g a i n s t " ( l i n e 14). No other i n -stance of the hard £ appears, and the c o n j u n c t i o n of g_ and r i s e n t i r e l y new to the p r o g r e s s i o n of sound i n the sonnet. In other words, Hopkins b r i n g s the poem to r e s t on a new n o t e . 1 T h i s note compares to the " f i n a l " of a modal melody: the mode of the e n t i r e p i e c e i s determined on the b a s i s of i t s " f i n a l . " Hopkins c e r t a i n l y shows h i s modesty when he says t h a t the e f f e c t s of the poem are "almost m u s i c a l . " The s o n o r o t i e s , rhythms, words, and images of "Tom's Garland" c r e a t e a mood and evoke an emotional response i n t o t a l c o n t r a s t to t h a t of " S p e l t from S i b y l ' s Leaves." The poem, however, i s no l e s s m u s i c a l , and i t s music i s s i m i -l a r l y executed w i t h c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n . Hopkins was per-suaded of "a world of profound mathematics i n t h i s matter 2 of music." In "Tom's Garland," he proceeded, mathematic-A s i m i l a r technique i s used to end "Tom's Garland": the d u l l , resonant g of "rage" and "age" i s not repeated i n any other p a r t of the poem. 2 CoD, p. 135. 150 a l l y and i n t u i t i v e l y , along the "few certain necessary l i n e s enforced by the harmony"1 of sound and sense. In general, sound functions as a metaphor i n t h i s poem. 2 Monosyllables and short vowels joined to sharp consonants echo the hammering of pick and the staccato ringing of hobnail boots. These sound characterize the main body of the sonnet. Tom and Dick form sound-sense units that serve as basic motifs upon which the entire musical structure i s b u i l t . Two themes, developed around Tom and Dick, alternate 3 through the octave: P Theme 1 Tom--garlanded with squat and surly s t e e l -A - f r - -IpTW* Tom; then Tom' s f allowbootf ellowj [piles pick By him and r i p s out r o c k f i r e homeforth--sturdy Dickjj T^om Heart-at-ease, Tom Navvy 7j Jhe i s a l l for his meal Sure, 's bed now. Low be i t : l u s t i l y he his low lot] I (feel CoD, p. 13 5. On the comparison of mathematics and music, a quotation from Mallarme i s of i n t e r e s t : "Music i s c a l c u l a -t i o n : i t offers the i n t e l l i g e n c e an immense domain of pure combinations." (Quoted by Boon, p. 168) David I. Masson makes an appropriate comment on the means by which Hopkins (or any other poet) achieves the complete integration of sound and meaning: "They are not, one supposes, constructed i n cold blood or from theory. . . . They are a combination, i n genius, of hard work, experience, and luck or the accidents of language, i . e . , they amount to what i s usually recog-nized as i n s p i r a t i o n , and no doubt flashed b l i n d i n g l y on the poet." (In "Sound and Sense i n a Line of Poetry," B r i t i s h  Journal, 3, 1963, p. 7. 2 S y l l a b i c a l l y , t h i s i s perhaps Hopkins' shortest sonnet --exclusive of the codas: six of the fourteen l i n e s have ten s y l l a b l e s only. 3 Words underlined with a straight l i n e refer to the Tom-theme; those underlined with an arc to the Dick-theme. Note the hidden themes (counterpointed) i n l i n e s one and three. That ne'er need hunger, Tom; Tom seldom sick, [that treads through, prickproof, thick Seldomer heartsore; Thousands of thorns, thoughts) swings though-J The tonal elements i n Tom (t, o, m) occur with more than twice the frequency i n the sections designated as "theme 1" than do the tonal elements i n Dick (d, i, k). The reverse i s true for the sections l a b e l l e d "theme 2." In the over-a l l v o c a l i c structure of the poem, the short o and the short i appear with considerably greater frequency than any other vowel. In the second position from the standpoint of f r e -quency, the short e (as i n garlanded, head, bread, heaven's, l a c k l e v e l , sped, treads, mainstrength, undenizened, Despair, bred, i n f e s t ) , the long e (as i n s t e e l , Heart-at-ease, he, meal, f e e l , commonweal), and the long o (as i n fallowboot-fellow, homeforth, low, ho, no, gold, go, 0, bold, both) form further sound-sense motifs that carry much of the sym-b o l i c meaning of the poem. Head and gold, two of the symbols related to the main theses, are brought into the foreground i n the s e s t e t 1 ; Commonweal L i t t l e I ( r e c j ) ^ ) ! lackjfevej) i n i f a l l had ^rea^l; What! Country i s honour enough i n a l l us--lordly (hea^), With (^eaven^s) l i g h t s high hung round, or, mother-ground C i r c l e d words bear a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to the sounds of head and gold: the vowels chime the same tone. The other marked words bear a less d i r e c t relationship to the symbols, by means of both sound and sense. T h a t mammocks, might f o o t . But (nd) way (spe&), Nor mind, nor m a i n ^ t r e n g t ^ ; (gold)(g3) g a r l a n d e d ) W i t h , p e r i l o u s , (0)(no); nor (^et) p l o d s a f e shod s o u n d . The hammering q u a l i t y of the sound, a l r e a d y somewhat l e s s e n e d i n the s e s t e t , broadens i n the two c o d a s . In the f i r s t c o d a , another r e l a t e d symbol , s t e e l , p r e d o m i n a t e s . The l o n g vowels of g o l d and s t e e l , added t o the c i r c u m f l e x vowels i n the c h o r d o f words b a s e d . o n b a r e , slow the movement, i n k e e p i n g w i t h the change of mood from b r i g h t ( p r i m i t i v e ) o p t i m i s m t o d u l l ( s n a r l -ing) p e s s i m i s m : U n d e n i z e n e d , beyond bound Of e a r t h ' s g l o r y , e a r t h ' s e a s e , a l l ; no one , nowhere, In wide the w o r l d ' s w e a l ; r a r e g o l d , b o l d s t e e l , b a r e In b o t h ; c a r e , but share c a r e -T h i s , be D e s p a i r , b r e d Hangdog d u l l ; by Rage, Manwolf , worse ; and t h e i r packs i n f e s t the age . Hopkins uses h i s words l i k e notes on a s c a l e . The words i n "Tom's G a r l a n d " are r e m a r k a b l y s i n g l e - t o n e d ; t h a t i s , w i t h v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s , 1 each s y l l a b l e c o n t a i n s a s i n g l e , c l e a r , f u l l vowel t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a s p e c i f i c " n o t e " on the vowel s c a l e and embodies i t s own s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r or q u a l i t y . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e f o r words such as w i t h , i n , o f , a n d , and f o r s y l l a b l e s i n words such as l i t t l e , l u s t i l y , and p e r i l o u s A few of the s y l l a b l e s i n the h u r r i e d f e e t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be e x c e p t e d : "by him and r i p s , " " se ldomer h e a r t -s o r e , " " c o u n t r y i s honour enough i n a l l u s . " 153 which are o r d i n a r i l y considered unemphatic and neutral. The poem contains a great number of unusual compounds ("fallow-bootfellow," " r o c k f i r e , " "homeforth," "Heart-at-ease," "prick-proof," " l a c k l e y e l , " "mother-ground," "mainstrength," "hang-dog," "manwolf") which set off simultaneous waves of meaning to create a contrapuntal e f f e c t and to give the reader-per-former-listener a polyphonic experience. The progression of sound and sense from "Hangdog d u l l " to "Manwolf, worse" emphasizes the degree of deterioration i n the unemployed labourer that r e s u l t s i n a s p i r i t of "Despair" and "Rage," and brings the poem to a dramatic conclusion. The poems of Hopkins' late maturity are remarkable for the way i n which they observe a basic s t r u c t u r a l p r i n -c i p l e of music: each poem maintains thematic consistency. Rhythm, melody, and meaning unite i n perfect harmony to form a compact structure from which a l l extraneous elements are deleted. Each poem rehearses one mood—one melody of Hop-kins' mind--one facet of his s e l f . 154 EPILOGUE Hopkins' p r o s o d i c t h e o r i e s " l e d h i s poetry i n t o a new w o r l d " 1 as c l o s e t o the edge of music as any E n g l i s h poet has ever come. In h i s study of "Hopkins and Music," Waterhouse r a i s e s a thought-provoking q u e s t i o n : Might [Hopkins], perhaps, granted a longer l i f e , have turned c o n s i s t e n t l y to h i s own ve r s e and be-come a neo-Greek poet-musician, c r e a t i n g s i m u l t a n -e o u s l y w i t h the words a b a r l e s s , unaccompanied en-harmonic m u s i c ? 2 One i s i n c l i n e d to t h i n k t h a t t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y the d i r e c -t i o n Hopkins would have wanted to go. Waterhouse leaves the q u e s t i o n unanswered, but adds a p o i n t e d comment: "Whether h i s music c o u l d ever have matched h i s ve r s e i s d o u b t f u l , or a t bes t beyond c o n j e c t u r e . " One t h i n g i s c l e a r . Hopkins achieves, i n h i s poetry, the very q u a l i t i e s f o r which he s t r o v e i n h i s music: a speech rhythm t h a t com bin e s n a t u r a l n e s s and h e i g h t e n i n g to b r i n g out the "rhythm' s e l f , " and a melodic t e x t u r e t h a t p e r f e c t l y expresses the meaning of the words. Waterhouse, p. 231. 2 I b i d . , p. 235. >5 155 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A b b o t t , C l a u d e C o l l e e r , e d . The Correspondence of G e r a r d  Manley Hopkins and R i c h a r d Watson D i x o n . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955. F u r t h e r L e t t e r s o f G e r a r d Manley H o p k i n s . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952. The L e t t e r s of G e r a r d Manley Hopkins to R o b e r t  B r i d g e s . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955. Boon, James A . From Symbolism to S t r u c t u r a l i s m : L e v i - S t r a u s s i n a L i t e r a r y T r a d i t i o n . E x p l o r a t i o n s i n I n t e r p r e t a t i v e S o c i o l o g y s e r i e s , e d . P h i l i p R i e f f and Bryan R. W i l s o n . O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1972. B u r k e , K e n n e t h . "On M u s i c a l i t y i n V e r s e . " P e r s p e c t i v e s  by I n c o n g r u i t y , e d . Edgar Hyman. B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , . 1964, p p . 110-118. Empson, W i l l i a m . Seven Types of A m b i g u i t y . 3rd e d . r e v . N o r f o l k , C o n n e c t i c u t : New D i r e c t i o n s Books , 1953. F r y e , N o r t h r o p , e d . Sound and P o e t r y : E n g l i s h I n s t i t u t e E s s a y s , 1956. New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 57. G a r d n e r , W. H . G e r a r d Manley Hopkins (1844-1889) : a Study of P o e t i c I d i o s y n c r a s y i n R e l a t i o n to P o e t i c  T r a d i t i o n . 2 v o l s . 2nd e d . L o n d o n : M a r t i n Seeker & Warburg, 1958. G a r d n e r , W. H . and N . H . M a c K e n z i e , e d s . Poems o f G e r a r d  Manley H o p k i n s . 4 th e d . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. G r a v e s , W. L . " H o p k i n s as Composer: an I n t e r p r e t i v e P o s t s c r i p t . " V i c t o r i a n P o e t r y , I , 1963, p p . 146-155. H o l l a n d e r , J o h n . "The Poem i n the E a r . " The Y a l e Review, 62 :4 , (June 1973), p p . 486-506. House, Humphrey and Graham S t o r e y , e d s . The J o u r n a l s and  Papers of G e r a r d Manley H o p k i n s . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. L a n g e r , Susanne K . F e e l i n g and Form. New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons , 1953. 156 Lahey, G. F. Gerard Manley Hopkins. New York: H a s k e l l House P u b l i s h e r s , 1969. L e a v i s , F. R. "Metaphysical I s o l a t i o n . " Gerard Manley Hopkins, ed. The Kenyon C r i t i c s . N o r f o l k , 'Connecticut: New D i r e c t i o n s Books, 1945, pp. 115-135. Lewis, C. S. The A l l e g o r y of Love: a Study i n Medieval  T r a d i t i o n . Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1936. L i t z , A. Walton. The A r t of James Joyce. Oxford, 1961. M a c h l i s , Joseph. The Enjoyment of Music. New York: W. W. Norton, 1970. McLuhan, Herbert M a r s h a l l . "The A n a l o g i c a l M i r r o r s . " Gerard Manley Hopkins, ed. The Kenyon C r i t i c s . N o r f o l k , C o n n e c t i c u t : New D i r e c t i o n s Books, 1945, pp. 15-27. MacNeice, L o u i s . "Rhythm and Rhyme." Modern Poetry: a P e r s o n a l Essay. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1968, pp. 114-135. Masson, David I. "Sound and Sense i n a L i n e of Poetry." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c s , 3, 1963, pp. 70-72. M i l l e r , Joseph H i l l i s . The Disappearance of God: F i v e Nineteenth-Century W r i t e r s : Thomas De Quincey, Robert  Browning, Emily Bronte, Matthew A r n o l d , Gerard Manley  Hopkins. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. Mizener, A r t h u r . " V i c t o r i a n Hopkins." Gerard Manley Hopkins, ed. The Kenyon C r i t i c s . N o r f o l k , C o n n e c t i c u t : New D i r e c t i o n s Books, 1945, pp. 94-114. Mooney, S. "Hopkins and C o u n t e r p o i n t . " V i c t o r i a n N e w s l e t t e r, no. 18, 1960, pp. 21-22. Ong, Walter J . "Hopkins' Sprung Rhythm and the L i f e of E n g l i s h Poetry." Immortal Diamond: S t u d i e s i n  Gerard Manley Hopkins, ed. Norman Weyand. New York: Sheed & Ward, 1949, pp. 93-174. Pat e r , Walter. "The School of G i o r g i o n e . " Walter Pater  S e l e c t e d Works, ed. R i c h a r d A l d i n g t o n . London: W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1948, pp. 269-281. . " S t y l e . " A p p r e c i a t i o n s w i t h an essay on s t y l e . London: Macmillan, 1910, pp. 5-3 8. 157 Poe , Edgar A l l a n . "The P o e t i c P r i n c i p l e . " Edgar A l l a n  Poe : S e l e c t e d P r o s e and P o e t r y , e d . W. H . A u d e n . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1950, p p . 415-420. R a t h m e l l , J . C . A . " E x p l o r a t i o n s and R e c o v e r i e s — 1 ) : H o p k i n s , R u s k i n , and the S i d n e y P s a l t e r . " The London  M a g a z i n e , e d . John Lehmann, v o l . 6, n o . 9, (Sept . 1959), p p . 51-66. Read, H e r b e r t . . The T r u e V o i c e o f F e e l i n g : S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h Romantic P o e t r y . L o n d o n : Faber and F a b e r , 19 53. Runciman, John F . " F o r m . " M u s i c L o v e r s ' E n c y c l o p e d i a , e d . Deems T a y l o r . New Y o r k : Garden C i t y Books , 1954, p p . 733-736. S c h o l e s , P e r c y A . , e d . The O x f o r d Companion to M u s i c . 10th e d . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. Symons, A r t h u r . The S y m b o l i s t Movement i n L i t e r a t u r e . New Y o r k : D u t t o n , 1958. T o v e y , D o n a l d F r a n c i s . E s s a y s and L e c t u r e s on M u s i c . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949. Waterhouse , John F . " H o p k i n s and M u s i c . " M u s i c and  L e t t e r s , 18, 1937, p p . 227-235. W i l s o n , Edmund. A x e l ' s C a s t l e : a Study of the I m a g i n a t i v e  L i t e r a t u r e of 1870-1930. New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1931. Wimsat t , W i l l i a m K u r t z . The V e r b a l I c o n : S t u d i e s i n the  Meaning of P o e t r y . L e x i n g t o n : U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky P r e s s , 1954. Young, M i c h a e l . " F o u r Songs , Op. 24 (1972) . " Northwest  Composers : Composers a t the P i a n o . F l o r e n c e M e s l e r R e c o r d i n g s , 1972. Zimmerman, F r a n k l i n B . "Sound and Sense i n P u r c e l l ' s ' S i n g l e S o n g s . ' " Words to M u s i c , e d . V i n c e n t D u c k i e s and F r a n k l i n B . Zimmerman. Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1967, p p . 43-90. 158 LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED Atkisson, Harold F. Basic Counterpoint. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956. Bender, Todd K. Gerard Manley Hopkins: The C l a s s i c a l  Background and C r i t i c a l Reception of His Work. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1966. Boyle, Robert. Metaphor i n Hopkins. Chapel H i l l : University of North Carolina Press, 1960. 1 Chadwick, Charles. Symbolism. Methuen & Co., 1971. Chamberlain, C. M. "Hopkins' Rejection of Estheticism." Dissertation Abstracts, v o l . 28, no. 1-2, sec. A, 1967, p. 620A (Colorado). Goldman, Richard Franko. Harmony i n Western Music. New York: W. W. Norton, 1965. Johnson, Wendell Stacy. GMH: The Poet as V i c t o r i a n . New York: Cornell University Press, 1968. Leavis, F. R. New Bearings on English Poetry. Harmonds-worth: Penguin Books, 1963. Miles, Josephine. Eras and Modes i n English Poetry. Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1964. O'Dea, Richard. "The Loss of Eurydice: a Possible Key to the Reading of Hopkins." V i c t o r i a n Poetry, 4, 1966, pp. 291-293. Phare, E l s i e Elizabeth. The Poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins: a Survey and Commentary. London: Cambridge University Press, 1933. Reti, Rudolph. Thematic Patterns i n the Sonatas of  Beethoven. New York: Macmillan, 1967. Stevens, Wallace. "The Noble Rider and the Sound of Words." The Language of Poetry, ed. A l l e n Tate. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1942, pp. 91-125. 159 Thomas, A l f r e d . Hopkins the J e s u i t : the Years of T r a i n i n g . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. W i n t e r s , Y v o r . On Modern P o e t s . New Y o r k : M e r i d i a n Books , 1957 . Zimmerman, F r a n k l i n B . Henry P u r c e l l 1659-1695: H i s L i f e  and T i m e s . L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n , 19 67. 

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