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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Authority figures in Henry Fielding’s Joseph Andrews, Tom Jones and Amelia Sumpter, Eleanor 1978

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AUTHORITY FIGURES IN HENRY FIELDING'S JOSEPH ANDREWS, TOM JONES AND AMELIA by ELEANOR SUMPTER B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS xn THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Dept. of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1978 (c) Eleanor Marion Sumpter, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thesis for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of English  The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October 11, 1978 ABSTRACT i I t was n o t e d t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s i n F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s c a s t i n a u t h o r i t y r o l e s , m a i n l y c l e r g y , m a g i s t r a t e s , s q u i r e s and p a r e n t s , are u s e d f o r some o f t h e same p u r p o s e s as i s the p e r s o n a o r n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , b u t a r e d i s t i n c t f rom i t . T h e r e i s a f a i r l y c l e a r d i c h o t o m y between e v i l o r f a l s e c h a r a c t e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s and good o r t r u e c h a r a c t e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , the l a t t e r o f w h i c h a r e u s e d as spokesmen f o r and examples o f F i e l d i n g ' s r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l b e l i e f s . I t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a t r e n d away f rom the p r o m i n e n t "good man" as a m a j o r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n Joseph AncfoCMJi w h i c h c u l m i n a t e s i n an a u s t e r e m a j o r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e who i s f r e q u e n t l y a b s e n t f r o m the a c t i o n i n Ame£t<X, and t h a t t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g number a n d p r o m i n e n c e o f e v i l o r f a l s e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . T h i s t h e s i s u n d e r t o o k t o examine the n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s on the w o r l d v i e w and t o n e o f e a c h n o v e l . F i r s t , the t h e s i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s w h i c h F i e l d i n g uses h i s a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s t o s u p p o r t . T h a t F i e l d i n g was w i d e l y r e a d i n b o t h r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e and c l a s s i c a l e t h i c s i s e v i d e n t f r o m h i s f i c t i o n a l and c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s and f r o m the c o n t e n t s o f h i s l i b r a r y a t h i s d e a t h . F i e l d i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s e s p e c i a l l y r e f l e c t h i s b e l i e f s and h i s g r a d u a l movement away f rom an o p t i m i s t i c w o r l d v i e w . The a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n the t h r e e m a j o r n o v e l s were t h e n examined i n terms o f F i e l d i n g ' s v a l u e s . The comic f e a t u r e s o f P a r s o n Adams, t h e m a j o r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n JoAHph And>WA)A, were r e c o n c i l e d w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n as an e t h i c a l and d o c t r i n a l t o u c h s t o n e , and a l a t i t u d i n a r i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f New Tes tament t h e o l o g y was f o u n d t o be a m a j o r b a s i s f o r Adams' a u t h o r i t y . The e f f e c t the m i n o r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s have on a u t h o r i t y was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d , a g a i n i n terms o f l a t i t u d i n a r i a n C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e . Tom JonU was examined i n terms o f i t s o c c a s i o n a l f o c u s on a u t h o r i t y and on the m a j o r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y , as a P r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t . A l l w o r t h y , as a good man, a p a t r i a r c h , a m a g i s t r a t e and a g u a r d i a n , was a l s o shown t o be the e x a m p l a r f o r s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , j u d i c i a l and p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i n t h e n o v e l . He i s , however , more d e t a c h e d from the a c t i o n and l e s s l o v e a b l e t h a n Adams w a s , and t h i s d i s t a n c i n g o f t h e m a j o r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e f r o m the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s and from the r e a d e r h e l p s t o make Tom Jonei l e s s comic and l e s s o p t i m i s t i c t h a n i s 3o£>2.ph kndAQMb. kmoJLLa. i s f i l l e d w i t h e v i l and f a l s e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , and i t was shown t h a t t h e m a j o r good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , a l t h o u g h i n t e n d e d as a good man and a P r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t , i s n o t s u c c e s s f u l l y p r e s e n t e d as such and i s a l s o t o o d e t a c h e d f rom the a c t i o n t o p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t e n t sense o f a c o n t r o l l i n g a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e by whose m e d i a t i o n the s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r s w i l l be p r o t e c t e d o r u l t i m a t e l y r e s c u e d . The t h e s i s showed t h a t the c h a r a c t e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n Joseph kYidfiQJM, Tom Jonea a n d kmzLia. a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the w o r l d v i e w . The s u c c e s s o r l a c k t h e r e o f o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e m a j o r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e as a P r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t and as a "good man" and h i s amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l o t are i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g de l ement s t o the degree o f o p t i m i s m i n each n o v e l . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i Table of Contents i i i Acknowledgements i v The Setting: Religious and E t h i c a l Background 1 The L a t i t u d i n a r i a n Comic World 12 God's i n His Heaven; (Almost) A l l ' s Right with the World 42 Optimistic Benevolism versus Murphy's Law 79 Conclusion 112 Footnotes 118 Selected Bibliography 12 3 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the very wide range of people who assisted me in practical or personal ways in the writing of this thesis. I would especially like to thank my advisor for his invaluable assistance, particularly on the revisions. For personal assistance, I would like to thank my parents and my brother for their encouragement, my friends for their empathy and prayer support and my husband for putting up with me and my typing. THE SETTING: RELIGIOUS AND ETHICAL BACKGROUND Fiel d i n g ' s major works, 3o&2.ph kndh.<mi>, Tom Jon&i and kmeJLia, each contain one character who i s a major authority f i g u r e , and who, as a spokes-man f o r F i e l d i n g ' s moral, e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , contributes to the p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases: and world view of the novel and also establishes the tone to some degree. The world view i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n each novel, because d i f f e r e n t aspects of the bases are emphasized, and because the treatment of the spokesmen for and examples of F i e l d i n g ' s moral stance, the major authority f i g u r e s , changes with F i e l d i n g ' s outlook and l i t e r a r y i n t e n t i o n s . The authority f i g u r e s , of course, are not the only, or even the main factors e s t a b l i s h i n g the world views of the major novels, but they are important, contributing elements. The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to show that, i n F i e l d i n g ' s major novels, the treatment of authority figures i s instrumental i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the tone and world view of each novel to the extent that the successful presentation of the main authority figure i n each novel as a good man, and as a representative of Providence, i s necessary to the creation of an o p t i m i s t i c and comic world. In f a c t , the d i f f e r e n t treatment of authority figures helps to e s t a b l i s h a d i f f e r e n t , d i d a c t i c content and a l t e r s the tone and l e v e l of comedy, mirroring F i e l d i n g ' s growing seriousness and i n t e l l e c u a l pre-occupation. A "complete works" was not used as the text f o r t h i s thesis because more recent i n d i v i d u a l e d i t i o n s seemed more trustworthy (especially the incomplete Wesleyan e d i t i o n ) . Accordingly, the Wesleyan e d i t i o n of Tom TonQAt, 2 1974, e d i t e d by M a r t i n C . B a t t e s t i n a n d F r e d s o n Bowers ,was u s e d , b u t the Wes leyan e d i t i o n o f JoAdph kndh£Wi> was n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e C r o w e l l C r i t i c a l L i b r a r y e d i t i o n o f JoiZph knd/ieMb, b a s e d on F i e l d i n g ' s f i r s t e d i t i o n b u t i n c l u d i n g a l l a l t e r a t i o n s o f s u b s e q u e n t e d i t i o n s ( u s i n g a s y s t e m o f d i f f e r e n t b r a c k e t s ) , e d i t e d by S h e r i d a n B a k e r , was c h o s e n . The t h i r d e d i t i o n has b e e n f o l l o w e d w h e r e v e r a p p l i c a b l e . No t r u s t w o r t h y c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n o f KmoXXa. was a v a i l a b l e , so the l a s t r e p r i n t (1974) o f t h e 1930 e d i t i o n o f t h e Everyman e d i t i o n was u s e d s i n c e i t was b o t h r e a s o n a b l y r e c e n t and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l f o c u s o n l y on the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s who are c h a r a c t e r s i n a n o v e l . T h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f a u t h o r i t y i n F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s . One i s the p e r s o n a , an a u t h o r i t y "par e x c e l l e n c e , " c o n t r o l l i n g , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e r e a d e r s ' r e a c t i o n s t o c h a r a c t e r s and e v e n t s and e s t a b l i s h i n g , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , the t o n e and message o f e a c h n o v e l . The a l m o s t c o n t i n u a l and marke'd p r e s e n c e o f the p e r s o n a i s a h a l l m a r k o f F i e l d i n g ' s w r i t i n g and has b e e n t h e s o u r c e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e - c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e F i e l d i n g a l m o s t demanded c r i t i c a l comment on t h i s f e a t u r e . The o t h e r t y p e o f a u t h o r i t y p r e s e n t i n F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s i s t h a t embodied i n c o n v e n t i o n a l " c h a r a c t e r " a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s : c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l s c a s t i n the a u t h o r i t y r o l e s commonly f o u n d i n s o c i e t y ( c l e r g y m e n , m a g i s t r a t e s , p a r e n t s OX ceXeMl), who a r e a u t h o r i t i e s i n the sense o f c o n t r o l l i n g o r m o d i f y i n g the a c t i o n s o f the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e p e r s o n a o c c a s i o n a l l y becomes a l m o s t a c h a r a c t e r i n t h e n o v e l (a t l e a s t i n Tom JonU) , b u t t h e p e r s o n a i s n o t a c h a r a c t e r i n t h e sense o f b e i n g p a r t o f the p l o t o r w i t h i n the k e n o f t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . I t i s an ouuutkohAjtij, r a t h e r t h a n an Odxth.0HA.ty ^L^OJUZ. Some c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n F i e l d i n g ' s 3 n o v e l s , b u t u s u a l l y s u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n has b 6 e h n e i t h e r s i m p l y a c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s i s o r i n c i d e n t a l t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a as an a u t h o r i t y . The a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , h o w e v e r , a r e n o t m i n i a t u r e , cos tumed p e r s o n a s ; t h e y a r e a d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e w h i c h F i e l d i n g uses as a n o t h e r method t o convey h i s i d e a s , and as a d i f f e r e n t v e h i c l e f o r F i e l d i n g ' s i n t e n t i o n s t h e y d e s e r v e i n d i v i d u a l t r e a t m e n t . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e s t a b l i s h the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s t o the w o r l d v i e w o f e a c h n o v e l . Mos t c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f the atom " a u t h o r i t y " i n F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s has< c o n c e n t r a t e d on the n u c l e u s : t h e p e r s o n a . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f o c u s on the e l e c t r o n s — the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s — and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the p e r s o n a w i l l be i n c i d e n t a l and as r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h the b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e e t h i c s and m o r a l i t y f u r t h e r e d by the c h a r a c t e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . O n l y the m a j o r works w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d , because t h e p l a y s and m i n o r w o r k s , and o b v i o u s l y the j o u r n a l i s t i c m a t e r i a l , have n e i t h e r r o u n d e d w o r l d v iews n o r t h e a c c e p t a b l e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s l i k e l y i n a r e a s o n a b l y d e t a i l e d and n o n - s a t i r i c p o r t r a i t o f s o c i e t y . The Voyage, to LL&bon, o f c o u r s e , as a d i a r y a c c o u n t r a t h e r t h a n a work o f f i c t i o n , c l e a r l y does n o t p r e s e n t " c h a r a c t e r " a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . The m i n o r w o r k s , e s p e c i a l l y the p l a y s , c o n c e n t r a t e on a f r a g m e n t o f l i f e f o r g e n e r a l l y s a t i r i c p u r p o s e s , b u t do n o t e s t a b l i s h a comple t e " r e a l w o r l d " s e t t i n g . The l a c k o f a d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e o f s o c i e t y i s i n t e n t i o n a l and n o t j u s t t h e r e s u l t o f b r e v i t y , a p o s s i b i l i t y i f o n l y F i e l d i n g ' s p l a y s were c o n s i d e r e d , because Jonathan WZZd, ShameXa. and lovJinay fafiom tki& WoftZd to the. Hext do n o t p r e s e n t b e l i e v a b l e w o r l d s e i t h e r . F i e l d i n g ' s m a j o r w o r k s , t h e n , may be t r e a t e d as d i s t i n c t f r o m the r e s t o f h i s w r i t i n g s , a t l e a s t i n s o f arras e l e m e n t s o f a f i c t i o n a l , d e t a i l e d and n o n - s a t i r i c w o r l d v iew a r e c o n c e r n e d . 4 Given Fi e l d i n g ' s temperament and p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine how he would write a n o n - s a t i r i c novel without good and at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l authority f i g u r e s . In the f i r s t place, the r e a l world abounds with authority f i g u r e s . F i e l d i n g ' s facade, stated or implied, of w r i t i n g a "history" requires the presence of authority figures unless a statement i s intended about a lack of r e a l or good a u t h o r i t i e s i n the r e a l world. In the second place, a u t h o r i t i e s enforce t r a d i t i o n a l , conservative values: values i n which F i e l d i n g believed. F i n a l l y , authority i s necessary to a b e l i e f that things are under c o n t r o l , which i s , i n turn, necessary f o r l o g i c a l optimism (in the mundane rather than p h i l o s o p h i c a l sense of the term). With two assumptions, the endings of F i e l d i n g ' s novels, and the general optimism of 3oi>2.ph knd>X2J>di> and Tom 30YlZi>, become l o g i c a l , even i n e v i t a b l e . I f F i e l d i n g believed, f i r s t , that a benevolent God or Providence e x i s t s , and second, that Providence takes an active part i n events through mortal agents, then the good must be protected and the e v i l punished. Of course, F i e l d i n g was not b l i n d to the misfortunes of the virtuous and successes of the corrupt i n r e a l l i f e , and made c l e a r that he d i d not believe appropriate rewards and punishments ne c e s s a r i l y took place i n t h i s world.''' However, F i e l d i n g was not w i l l i n g to l e t h i s virtuous characters s u f f e r t h e i r fates l i k e l y i n the r e a l world, p a r t i a l l y , at l e a s t , because to do so would be to discourage v i r t u e , and sooner or l a t e r he rescued them from serious misfortunes. However, F i e l d i n g also i n s i s t e d that h i s characters be prudent i f they were to avoid hardship and misfortune; v i r t u e , or goodness without t h i s safequard i s co n s i s t e n t l y shown as p a t h e t i c a l l y inadequate. F i e l d i n g was, of course, on s o l i d t h e o l o g i c a l ground with numerous Scriptures i n c u l c a t i n g h i s view, and he added a l o g i c a l 5 b a l a n c e t o s i m p l e g o o d n e s s . N o n e t h e l e s s , the u n r e a l i s t i c p l o t s t r u c t u r e s r e q u i r e d agen t s t o c a r r y o u t o r i n s t i g a t e t h e e l e v e n t h - h o u r r e s c u e s and F i e l d i n g uses the n a r r a t o r and t h e good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s t o r e p l a c e t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l a s s i s t a n t s he s p e c i f i c a l l y r e j e c t e d (such as g h o s t s and f a i r i e s ) and any d i r e c t D i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h w o u l d be somewhat o u t o f p l a c e i n h i s n o v e l s . S u p e r n a t u r a l e n e m i e s , o f c o u r s e , a r e r e p l a c e d w i t h b a d a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . In o t h e r w o r d s , i t w o u l d seem t h a t a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s are one e l e m e n t o f t h e r e c o n c i l a t i o n o f an o p t i m i s t i c m o r a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n c e w i t h the r e a l w o r l d . F i e l d i n g ' s u p b r i n g i n g d i d n o t i n c l u d e any p e r i o d s o f s p e c i f i c o r i n t e n s e r e l i g i o u s o r e t h i c a l t r a i n i n g , b u t e v e n a c u r s o r y g l a n c e a t F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s and c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g i n d i c a t e s h i s t h o r o u g h knowledge o f , a n d p r o f o u n d r e s p e c t f o r , r e l i g i o n and e t h i c s . M o r e o v e r , as M i c h a e l I r w i n has p o i n t e d o u t i n Tkz TuntatUvZ RttaJLlitt, " s i n c e E n g l i s h s o c i e t y a t t h e t i m e was p r e d o m i n a n t l y C h r i s t i a n , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , m o r a l and e v e n p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y were l a r g e l y subsumed 2 u n d e r r e l i g i o u s t h o u g h t , " though t h e r e were v e r y n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , b u t u n l e s s F i e l d i n g h a d made a d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n t o r e j e c t C h r i s t i a n i t y , h i s e t h i c s and p h i l o s o p h y w o u l d have been l a r g e l y C h r i s t i a n . M o r e o v e r , F i e l d i n g ' s e s s a y s i n the Champion, and sometimes i n the Convent GoJidzn JouAnat, p r o v e t h a t " f o r a l a y m a n , he was more t h a n o r d i n a r i l y e x p e r t i n t h e o l o g i c a l m a t t e r s " a n d "had e v i d e n t l y d e v o t e d an a p p r e c i a b l e 3 amount o f s t u d y t o t h e s u b j e c t o f r e l i g i o n . " H i s knowledge e n a b l e d h i m t o expound c o m p e t e n t l y on a wide range o f , m a i n l y , New T e s t a m e n t t e a c h i n g s (e.g.,Champion, 8 J a n . , 1740, 5 A p r . 1740, 29 M a r . , 1740), and t o argue f a i r l y c o n v i n c i n g l y on "the i m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e s o u l , and t h e c e r t a i n t y o f 4 a f u t u r e s t a t e . " T h a t F i e l d i n g s u p p o r t e d h i s f a i t h w i t h s t u d y i s i n d i c a t e d 6 by h i s l i b r a r y , which, at h i s death, included several e d i t i o n s of the Bi b l e , several commentaries, the sermons of T i l l o t s o n , Barrow and South, and "a 5 great number of t r e a t i s e s on topics connected with r e l i g i o n . " I f h i s i n t e r e s t and the depth of h i s study were a l i t t l e unusual, the form of his r e l i g i o n was not. He seems to have believed prejudiced accounts about Romanism, and accordingly hated i t , and considered Methodism to be a c l a s s i c case of being "righteous overmuch." He followed the Church of England and "accepted i n substance the orthodox creed as interpreted by the more 6 conservative of the l a t i t u d m a n a n churchmen of the time." Following the l a t i t u d i n a r i a n s , he put h i s emphasis on the pr a c t i c e of f a i t h i n the form of good works, e s p e c i a l l y c h a r i t y , and seems to have concerned himself l i t t l e with the d e t a i l s of the f a i t h motivating good actions. Dogmatism was, therefore, never a serious part of h i s w r i t i n g , and, indeed, served as a subject for s a t i r e . Concerning e t h i c s , F i e l d i n g d i d not work out a coherent system of his own, or s t r i c t l y follow that of anyone e l s e . F. Homes Dudden claims that F i e l d i n g ' s " e t h i c a l doctrine was mainly derived from the B i b l e , the writings 7 of Cicero, and Lord Shaftesbury's InqvuAy conc&intng VsJvtue.," many of Fiel d i n g ' s ideas seem to echo Butler's 'Sermons," and most, i f not a l l , of Fiel d i n g ' s e t h i c a l statements are traceable to we l l known contemporary thought. However, i n an apparent attempt to inculcate a few main e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n t o h i s readers, F i e l d i n g concentrated on the importance of good nature and on the beauty of vi r t u e and i t s inherent rewards, with the c o r o l l a r y : the ugliness of v i c e . Moreover, j u s t as F i e l d i n g emphasized a p r a c t i c a l r e l -i g i o n , he argued for p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e . Abstract speculation, or the appearance and forms of v i r t u e , were of no i n t e r e s t to him; he sought to prove that these 7 had no r e l a t i o n to r e a l v i r t u e , and were, i n f a c t , l i k e l y to be found i n v i l l a i n s . Real v i r t u e , on the other hand, was a contributing element, with sincere r e l i g i o n , to l a s t i n g happiness and s a t i s f a c t i o n . F i e l d i n g ' s most frequent method of demonstrating the p r a c t i c a l values of sincere r e l i g i o n and v i r t u e was to demonstrate h i s b e l i e f s and theories through the actions and attitudes of h i s major authority f i g u r e s . They were his examples: "for an example i s a kind of p i c t u r e , i n which v i r t u e becomes, as i t were, an object of sight, and s t r i k e s us with an idea of that l o v e l i n e s s 8 which Plato asserts that there i s i n her naked charms," and the majority of doctrine, r e l i g i o u s or e t h i c a l , put f o r t h by Parson Adams, Squire Allworthy and Dr. Harrison seems to be F i e l d i n g ' s own. Their actions, likewise, are intended to support and demonstrate the p r a c t i c a l i t y of r e l i g i o n and v i r t u e . The minor good authority figures a s s i s t i n the demonstration of v i r t u e , while the e v i l authority figures reveal the unattractiveness of v i c e . The most prominent authority figures i n F i e l d i n g ' s novels are clergy, magistrates and p a t r i a r c h s , i n c l u d i n g squires i n s o f a r as they act as father figures for an area; neither rank nor wealth by i t s e l f i s a s u f f i c i e n t basis f o r authority. There seems to be, i n F i e l d i n g ' s w r i t i n g , a sense of an i d e a l authority by which the reader may judge the authority figures i n the novels. This con-cept of an i d e a l authority i s reminiscent of one element i n Plato's philosophy: j u s t as Plato describes a table on earth as a copy of an i d e a l — the concept of "table" — so F i e l d i n g seems to see h i s authority figures as copies (they may be good or bad copies) of an i d e a l authority. Since i d e a l authority i s often p e r s o n i f i e d as God i n C h r i s t i a n (e.£ at) terms, or "supreme providence" characterized as "divine reason, creative reason, nature [or] the s p i r i t or 9 purpose of the universe" m Stoic terms, and since F i e l d i n g was strongly 8 i n f l u e n c e d by b o t h C h r i s t i a n i t y and c l a s s i c a l S t o i c i s m , i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e i d e a l a u t h o r i t y b e h i n d h i s a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s be r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n and S t o i c c o n c e p t s . F i e l d i n g keeps t h i s i d e a l i n . . s i g h t i n a l l t h r e e n o v e l s by r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e s t o God and P r o v i d e n c e w i t h some a p p l i c a -t i o n t o the ma in a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s ( e s p e c i a l l y i n Tom JonQJ>) . The c o n c e p t o f a u t h o r i t y i s the mode l f o r a u t h o r i t y on e a r t h ( F i e l d i n g g i v e s d i v i n e a t t r i b u t e s t o h i s a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s t o j u s t i f y t h e i r a c t i o n s and j u d g e m e n t s ) , b u t a u t h o r i t y i s o n l y one o f t h e p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l , p e r s o n -i f i e d i d e a l a u t h o r i t y . A l l p o s i t i v e o r "good" n o n - p h y s i c a l c o n c e p t s , s u c h as j u s t i c e , l o v e , m o r a l i t y and e t h i c s , are u s u a l l y s een as a homogeneous : c o l l e c -t i o n w h i c h makes up the i d e a l a u t h o r i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , any a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e b a s e d on o r r e m i n i s c e n t o f i d e a l a u t h o r i t y i n f l u e n c e d by C h r i s t i a n i t y o r S t o i c i s m w i l l a l s o have e l e m e n t s o f t h e o t h e r p o s i t i v e c o n c e p t s o f t h a t i d e a l . F i e l d i n g ' s a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , t h e n , a r e d i s t a n t p a r a l l e l s t o God i n the sense o f embodying p o s i t i v e i d e a l s . However , b e c a u s e t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s a r e c h a r a c t e r s i n a n o v e l , t h e y are n o t c o p i e s o f t h e i d e a l c o n c e p t so much as c o p i e s o f a copy ( l i k e , i n P l a t o ' s t e r m s , a p i c t u r e o f a t a b l e ) . The s ense o f t h e i d e a l o r i g i n a l i s s i m i l a r l y d i s t a n c e d and i s c r e a t e d p a r t l y by the l i m i t e d C h r i s t i a n (and S t o i c ) d o c t r i n e i n the n o v e l s , p a r t l y b y the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s as good and g o o d - n a t u r e d p e o p l e , a n d p a r t l y b y t h e a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a w h i c h r e i n f o r c e s and d i s c u s s e s b o t h the d o c t r i n e and the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s . These s o u r c e s a r e , o f c o u r s e , n o t p r e s e n t i n e q u a l amounts and v a r y i n s t r e n g t h f r o m n o v e l t o n o v e l . The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Adams, a s s i s t e d by a u t h o r i a l comment, i s p r o m i n e n t i n JoAZph AndA2JM&, a u t h o r i a l comment and d o c t r i n e s t a n d o u t i n Tom Jon£&, and kmoJLLa. depends l a r g e l y on d o c t r i n e a l o n e . 9 In other words, authority figures i n F i e l d i n g ' s world view are, to some extent, earthly representatives of divine c o n t r o l . The clergy should be most s i m i l a r to t h e i r e t e r n a l prototype, the magistrates are representa-t i v e s of the state, an earthly manifestation of i d e a l authority, and p a t r i -archs, e s p e c i a l l y r e a l fathers, represent the r e l a t i o n s h i p between God the Father and man, so that they have authority over t h e i r children s i m i l a r to that which God exercises over man (although, as emphasized i n Tom 30Yi<Li>, p a t r i a r c h a l authority i s not absolute), but they have no power over anyone e l s e . As representatives of a divine authority comb;ining C h r i s t i a n and Stoic d e f i n i t i o n s , the three types of authority figures i n F i e l d i n g ' s novels have a god-like r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to non-authority figures: they must employ reason, promote good and provide p r a c t i c a l and s p i r i t u a l guidance and c o n t r o l . Authority derived from any other source — 2..Q. money or rank — i s n e c e s s a r i l y empty or e v i l , because i f i d e a l authority embodies a l l that i s good, the remainder must be nothingness, or e v i l . The e a r t h l y authority derived from t h i s remainder w i l l c l e a r l y have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s source and cannot be morally, or, given an o p t i m i s t i c world view, permanently enforceable. As Butler s a i d , " a l l t h i s i s no more than the d i s t i n c t i o n . . . between mOAZ. p0U)2A. and CUlthoJvLty . . . . . "''"0 HOwever, because F i e l d i n g based h i s novels on the world as he saw i t , there i s some f l u c t u a t i o n i n the novels i n the flow of divine authority from Providence to the authority f i g u r e s , and there are strong reminders that a lack of moral sanction had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the p r a c t i c a l power of e v i l authority f i g u r e s . The pessimism i n d i c a t e d by instances of lapses i n good authority figures and uncontrolled power i n e v i l authority figures increases chronologically from 3oi>2,pk AndJieWA to kmO&lfX. 10 In JoAHph , the o p t i m i s t i c e l e m e n t o f p h i l o s o p h y and t h e most c o m f o r t i n g a s p e c t s o f New T e s t a m e n t C h r i s t i a n i t y p r o d u c e a happy n o v e l . In Tom Jon&A, g r a v e r S t o i c i s m e n t e r s the w o r l d o f t h e n o v e l , w i t h a more d e t a i l e d , b e l i e v a b l e p i c t u r e o f the w o r l d , and F i e l d i n g b e g i n s t o show f laws i n o p t i m i s m and t o i g n o r e o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n as a f o r c e f o r g o o d . By kmoXL<X, n e i t h e r p h i l o s o p h y , c l a s s i c a l o r c o n t e m p o r a r y , n o r C h r i s t i a n i t y has much power , and t h e r e i s a sense t h a t good w i n s o u t i n the e n d , n o t b e c a u s e i t i s u l t i m a t e l y s t r o n g e r t h a n e v i l , b u t b e c a u s e F i e l d i n g c o u l d n o t b e a r t o abandon h i s c h a r a c t e r s t o the i n j u s t i c e o f what he saw, by t h e n , as the r e a l w o r l d . I t i s as i f F i e l d i n g were i n i t i a l l y enamoured o f a l l t h i n g s o p t i m i s t i c , a n d g r a d u a l l y , t h r o u g h a c l o s e c o m p a r i s o n o f p h i l o s o p h y w i t h the r e a l i t y o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e as an i n d i v i d u a l and as a m a g i s t r a t e , became d i s i l l u s i o n e d . T h i s change i n F i e l d i n g ' s a t t i t u d e towards t h e w o r l d i s m i r r o r e d b y a change i n t h e good m a j o r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s ' a n d some change i n the e v i l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . As the w o r l d o f t h e n o v e l s becomes g r i m m e r , t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e g r a d u a l l y becomes a l o o f , f o r m a l and r e l a t i v e l y d e t a c h e d from t h e a c t i o n . He a l s o becomes l e s s t r u s t i n g , l e s s f r i e n d l y and g e n e r a l l y l e s s l i k e a b l e . O b v i o u s l y , the c h a r a c t e r s must s u i t the n o v e l ; P a r s o n Adams w o u l d be a b u f f o o n i n kmzSLla.. However , t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s do n o t become more s e r i o u s o n l y b e c a u s e the n o v e l s become more s e r i o u s . The a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s a r e spokesmen f o r p h i l o s o p h y and C h r i s t i a n i t y , f o r e t h i c s and m o r a l i t y . They are a l s o t h e g u i d e s , c o u n s e l l o r s and c o n f i d a n t s o f t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l s . T h e y , t h e r e f o r e , c o n t r i b u t e t o the e t h i c a l v i ews i n t h e n o v e l , and t h e degree o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l and o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s d e t e r m i n e s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e r o l e 11 of F i e l d i n g ' s underlying o p t i m i s t i c philosophy i n the p l o t . Parson Adams i s not j u s t a j o l l y character i n a j o l l y book; he i s the soul of the book: the other humorous characters are comic sketches, but Adams i s a rounded character who embodies l a t i t u d i n a r i a n C h r i s t i a n philosophy as well as being the most amusing and loveable character i n the novel. In kmtSLLa., on the other hand, the authority figure i s not only an austere character: Dr. Harrison i s also inconsistent and very d i f f i c u l t to l i k e . Moreover, he i s the only "good" character i n the novel who i s treated unsympathetically, but he establishes the philosophy of the novel (or a t l e a s t the philosophy which i s f i n a l l y shown to be c o r r e c t ) . Tom Jon2A i s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t case i n that the philosophy i s established through several characters and frequently by the a u t h o r i a l voice, but again the authority figure influences the world view. There are heroes and v i l l a i n s , comic, sympathetic and despicable characters, but the dimension i n the p l o t of a moral existence i s established to a large extent by Allworthy, who i s neither hero nor v i l l a i n . In F i e l d i n g ' s novels, philosophy and doctrine are expounded by the authority figures and other characters (the works would be p r i m a r i l y d i d a c t i c i f there were not such an abundance of £>oZ/xaA to coat the £&nt<inC(L) , there i s no doubt about how each character i s meant to be judged, and an e t e r n a l , i n f i n i t e being i s almost a character i n Tom J0Y12A and JoiZph AndA2Wi. F i e l d i n g may have overemphasized the presence of r e l i g i o n and philosophy i n the world, for a purpose, but such a p o s s i b i l i t y r e a l l y comments on the percentage of authority figures F i e l d i n g chose to introduce among h i s char-acters rather than the accuracy of h i s world view, and, again, indicates the importance of authority figures i n the novels. 12 THE LATITUDINARIAN COMIC WORLD Despite a predominant comic element, the importance i n 3oi><Lph kn&\2SA£> of Parson Abraham Adams, the main authority figure, who i s himself a comic figure i n many ways, creates an emphasis i n the novel on the s p i r i t u a l and e t h i c a l values, based on general and non-dogmatic C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s , which he represents. Although the simultaneous presence of comedy and Ch r i s t i a n morality might seem a n t i t h e t i c a l to a sympathetic presentation of the l a t t e r , F i e l d i n g has been successful i n creating a character who i s both a comic figure and a serious statement of Fi e l d i n g ' s moral and e t h i c a l views. Jo&dpk hn&hfZWh, mainly through Parson Adams, who i s , as Michael Irwin points out, " c l e a r l y the embodiment of Fi e l d i n g ' s p o s i t i v e precept of Good-nature,""'' contains the important elements of F i e l d i n g ' s philosophy: h i s emphasis on good nature and on a p r a c t i c a l , simple and sincere C h r i s t i a n i t y . Of the three novels to be examined, 3oi>zph And>i2JA)6 i s by f a r the most o p t i m i s t i c , and the presentation of i t s main authority figure i s important i n achieving that optimism. The world view of the main l i n e of the novel shows e v i l c onsistently defeated, hardship co n s i s t e n t l y r e l i e v e d and innocence con s i s t e n t l y protected. Providence i s an e f f e c t i v e force i n the novel, and F i e l d i n g uses h i s sympathetic authority figure as a l i n k between Providence, the narrative voice, and the world of the novel. The authority f i g u r e , though not always a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, i s c e r t a i n l y a spokesman and c a t a l y s t f o r good, and i s connected to Providence by h i s nature, h i s education and his r e l i g i o n . 13 The work i s a comedy - a "comic epic-Poem i n prose" - and, consequently, a l l aspects of e v i l and hardship must be e i t h e r muted by presentation as ri d i c u l o u s f o i b l e s or defeated before serious harm i s done. JoACph Andn.£U)A avoids the common weakness of comedies - lack of realism (in the most basic sense of the term) - by depending on these two techniques, and on a strong presentation of a l l forms of good (including assigning the good authority figure a major role) rather than by avoiding e v i l e n t i r e l y . However, the presence of e v i l i n a novel intended to amuse could e a s i l y lead to s a t i r e rather than to l i g h t e r comedy, which would mar that ex c e l l e n t creation, Parson Adams, and the presence of Providence and authority i n themselves would be i n s u f f i c i e n t to maintain a general sense of optimism. E v i l i t s e l f must be treated c a r e f u l l y . As F i e l d i n g says to j u s t i f y h i s introduction of vices i n t o a work purportedly comic: f i r s t , . . . i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to pursue a se r i e s of human actions and keep c l e a r of them. Secondly, . . . the vices to be found here, are rather the accid e n t a l consequences of some human f r a i l t y , or f o i b l e , than causes h a b i t u a l l y e x i s t i n g i n the mind. Th i r d l y , . . . they are never set f o r t h as the objects of r i d i c u l e , but detestation. Fourthly, . . . they are never the p r i n c i p a l figure at that time on the scene; and l a s t l y , they never produce the intended e v i l . 2 F i e l d i n g ' s second j u s t i f i c a t i o n depends l a r g e l y on one's d e f i n i t i o n of v i c e . C e r t a i n l y the bad temper of several inn-keepers' wives can be seen as a human f r a i l t y , and on a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l the l u s t and greed of other characters can be seen i n the same l i g h t , but l u s t and greed are g e n e r i c a l l y v i c e s , not f o i b l e s . Moreover, those minor elements of e v i l which are c l e a r l y the r e s u l t of human f o i b l e s and f r a i l t y — pet t i n e s s , parsimoniousness, s e l f i s h n e s s , and a f f e c t a t i o n — are usually, despite F i e l d i n g ' s t h i r d j u s t i f i c a t i o n , made r i d i c u l o u s rather than detestable. I t i s c l e a r , then, that F i e l d i n g ' s d e f i n i t i o n of e v i l i s not dependent upon an absolute, but upon the degree, effectiveness and power of the e v i l . (The same c r i t e r i a , i n c i d e n t a l l y , define good.) Instead of any manifestation of the seven deadly sins (pride, lechery, greed, s l o t h , envy, anger and gluttony) being e v i l , only sins which are predominant i n a character and l i k e l y to cause e v i l or severe hardship to other characters are a c t u a l l y seen as v i c e s . Thus inn-keepers and inn-keepers' wives who demonstrate greed and lack of ch a r i t y are comic, because no serious i l l comes of t h e i r f a i l i n g s . F i e l d i n g ' d i f f e r e n t presentations of e v i l are best demonstrated by the four scenes i n which someone t r i e s to rape Fanny. When the highwayman, the squire or the servant demonstrate t h e i r l u s t , no comedy i s intended, because the danger i s r e a l . Only the greater power of good, i n the f i r s t and l a s t instance, and of Providence, i n the second instance, prevent serious e v i l . When Beau Didapper t r i e s to rape Fanny, though, the same vice of l u s t i s made r i d i c u -lous > because, even i f Beau Didapper's sexual v i r i l i t y were not questionable, he seems p h y s i c a l l y unable to overcome the stronger Fanny. Fi e l d i n g ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , however, i s s t i l l not c l e a r , since a catalogue of the vices introduced would include some which contradict Fi e l d i n g ' s second point and others which contradict h i s t h i r d . Much of the d i f f i c u l t y i s avoided i f an "either/or" q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s assumed between the points, but the main explanation of the apparent discrepancy l i e s i n the clause "causes h a b i t u a l l y e x i s t i n g i n the mind." I f a l l the sins and vices... introduced i n Jo6tph knd>WX)i> may be traced to human f r a i l t i e s and f o i b l e s , then e v i l p2Ji AO. does not e x i s t i n any of the characters. I f the characters i n JoA&pk kndA2lM£> are assumed to be representative of types of people, and i f i t i s assumed that most, i f not a l l , t y p e s are portrayed (see P. 241) , then e v i l p2A. t>0, does not e x i s t i n most people, and humans are b a s i c a l l y 3 good. However, the clause "the vices to be found here" suggests that other vices e x i s t , which presumably, are "causes h a b i t u a l l y e x i s t i n g i n the mind" and i t may be assumed that b a s i c a l l y e v i l people do e x i s t . George Sherburn's statement, then, that " F i e l d i n g does not accept any 4 doctrine of the natural goodness of a l l men" i s true, but i t needs the modification of Martin Battestin's observation that F i e l d i n g believed that "love and benevolence and compassion were very r e a l components, operative i n some men more strongly than i n others, but present i n a l l 5 to some degree." Thus F i e l d i n g avoids denying the orthodox Anglican concept of o r i g i n a l s i n ( A r t i c l e IX, The. ThVxX.y-Hi.ne. KhXA.cX.QJi>) while e s t a b l i s h i n g a more l a t i t u d i n a r i a n world where a l l the characters, though r i d d l e d with f a u l t s , are good enough, or weak enough, to be comic. This theory of good and e v i l i s important to F i e l d i n g ' s presentation of h i s main authority f i g u r e , Parson Adams (and, consequently, to the p r e v a i l i n g optimism), and, although the theory i t s e l f i s not pa r t of the world of the novel, s u f f i c i e n t elements and examples of the theory are present to ensure i t s relevance to an examination of F i e l d i n g ' s i n t e n t i n his p o r t r a y a l of authority i n general and Parson Adams i n p a r t i c u l a r . F i r s t , Adams' goodness, and the law and r e l i g i o n which support other good authority f i g u r e s , would be almost i r r e l e v a n t i f there were no p o s s i b i l i t y of e v i l . Even i f no absolute v i l l a i n s appear, they must be allowed to e x i s t or Adams cannot be a good man, a concept which demands the opposite concept of an eviX man; he can only be better than those around him. Second, and more important, Adams' "vices" are mitigated by defi n i n g e v i l on the basis of r e s u l t s , so that h i s vices do not c o n f l i c t with the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Adams as a good man and w h e r e , w i t h some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , t h e y do n o t s e r i o u s l y r e d u c e h i s a u t h o r i t y . S i m i -l a r l y , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r good a u t h o r i t y a r e made r e a s o n a b l e : p e r f e c -t i o n o r even n e a r p e r f e c t i o n a r e d i s p e n s a b l e i f , i n t u r n , e v i l s a r e n o t j u d g e d as a b s o l u t e s , and an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y an e v i l o r f a l s e a u t h o r i t y b e c a u s e he has f a u l t s o r b e c a u s e he i s n o t as good as some o t h e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . In o t h e r w o r d s , an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e can be b o t h human and a P r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a u t h o r i t y i n JoAZph Attcfoeuti i s n o t i c e a b l e i n the d i f f e r e n c e between the f i r s t t h i r t e e n c h a p t e r s and t h e r e s t o f the n o v e l : i t i s a l m o s t a c l i c h e t h a t JoAZph And/LQMXi r e s e m b l e s ShamoAa. b e f o r e P a r s o n Adams, an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , becomes an i n f l u e n c i n g f i g u r e i n C h a p t e r F o u r t e e n . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a g o o d , i n f l u e n t i a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i s a k e y v a r i a n t between F i e l d i n g ' s m i n o r works and h i s f i r s t m a j o r n o v e l . O f c o u r s e , the n a r r a t o r i s p r e s e n t a t a l l t i m e s , a l t h o u g h n o t a lways as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s e t t i n g f o r t h e t h i c a l c r i t e r i a ( £ . . £ } . C h a p t e r s One and T w o ) , b u t , as i s e m p h a s i z e d on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , t h e n a r r a t o r i s n o t an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n t h e sense o f b e i n g a b l e t o m o d i f y the b e h a v i o u r o f the c h a r a c t e r s , o r a d v i s e them. T h e r e f o r e , t h o u g h the n a r r a t o r f r e q u e n t l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e r e a d e r ' s r e a c t i o n s , o n l y P a r s o n Adams and o t h e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s who a r e a c t u a l l y c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l can i n f l u e n c e t h e o p t i m i s t i c deve lopment o f t h e p l o t . As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r O n e , P a r s o n Adams, reprer-s e n t i n g P r o v i d e n c e , a f o r c e o f g o o d , a c t s as spokesman f o r and example o f much o f t h e d i d c a t i c m a t e r i a l s u g g e s t e d by the n a r r a t o r , and t h e r e b y e s t a b l i s h e s e t h i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r the n o v e l upon w h i c h r e s t s much o f t h e l o v e and good n a t u r e w h i c h make 3o£>Q,pk AndJUHMi> s u c h a h a p p y , o p t i m i s t i c n o v e l . 17 The most s i g n i f i c a n t point i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the importance of Parson Adams, and hence the importance of authority, i s the simple observation of his almost constant presence. However l i m i t e d Adams' p r a c t i c a l power, h i s p o s i t i o n as a clergyman gives him some authority and hence some c o n t r o l , and his presence means that h i s influence i s constant, providing a sense of d i r e c t i o n throughout the novel. I t i s usually assumed that the authority figures i n a novel are of no more than secondary importance, and the t i t l e "3oi>2.ph Andfi2U)&" suggests that the novel i s mainly concerned with the adventures of a young footman. Instead, Joseph Andrews i s of secondary importance, except at the beginning, and the novel concentrates on Parson Adams, often i n h i s r o l e of an authority f i g u r e , and examines pertinent d e t a i l s of h i s character, attitudes and b e l i e f s . Consequently, Parson Adams i s of primary importance i n an examination of F i e l d i n g ' s authority f i g u r e s , because the prolonged focus provides many d e t a i l s of F i e l d i n g ' s opinions on authority figures i n general and r e l i g i o u s authority figures i n p a r t i c u l a r . Parson Adams does not, at f i r s t glance, seem w e l l - s u i t e d to the r o l e of a major authority f i g u r e , e s p e c i a l l y one whose authority must not be comic too often because he i s the only r e a l , serious authority figure i n the novel. There are two minor fathers d i r e c t l y introduced, two magistrates, both comic butts, and three minor clergymen. There i s also an abundance of would-be a u t h o r i t i e s i n lawyers and upper servants. Parson Adams, then, i s not only the main representative of r e a l authority exercised honestly and conscientiously; he i s also the guardian of authority against the ranks of imposters and t r a i t o r s . Despite the solemnity of h i s p o s i t i o n , though, Adams himself i s often comic, even during h i s most serious moments. Although Adams 18 6 i s n e i t h e r the j e s t e r n o r f o o l s u g g e s t e d by some c r i t i c s — h i s comedy i s u n i n t e n t i o n a l and does n o t d e m o n s t r a t e s t u p i d i t y — he i s c e r t a i n l y n o t a c o n v e n t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e (as d e m o n s t r a t e d by h i s u n c o n c e r n f o r a p p e a r a n c e s and by h i s n a i v e t y ) , . Adams' d i v e r g e n c e from t h e norm i s b a s e d on a c o n c e p t w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e s much o f the meaning the n o v e l . When G o d , t h e o r i g i n a l f o r a u t h o r i t y , i s c o n t e m p l a t e d by a b e l i e v e r , awe, r e s p e c t and s o l e m n i t y a r e u s u a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e b e l i e v e r ' s a t t i t u d e a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , e a r t h l y a u t h o r i t y p a r a l l e l i n g . ' . God l o g i c a l l y evokes p a r a l l e l f e e l i n g s ( p r o v i d i n g , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e p e r s o n c o n s i d e r i n g e a r t h l y a u t h o r i t y draws t h e p a r a l l e l and does n o t c o n s i d e r t h e m o r t a l i n the a u t h o r i t y r o l e t o o c l o s e l y ) . . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , where awe, r e s p e c t and s o l e m n i t y a r e e l i c i t e d on e a r t h , a l l t o o f r e q u e n t l y pomp, r i c h e s and ceremony a r e added on as n e c e s s a r y t r a p p i n g s , and come t o be e x p e c t e d r e g a r d l e s s o f the d i s t a n c e between the m o r t a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e and t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l . F u r t h e r m o r e , l o v e , w h i c h i s i n c l u d e d i n . t h e c o n c e p t o f the u l t i m a t e C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r i t y , i s s e ldom a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s p o n s e t o e a r t h l y a u t h o r i t y . The m a j o r e x c e p t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s t h e f a t h e r who i s p r e s u m a b l y l o v e d even i n h i s a u t h o r i t y r o l e , b u t a f a t h e r has f a r l e s s power i n t h e w o r l d t h a n has a h e a d o f s t a t e , a m a g i s t r a t e o r a c l e r g y m a n , and does n o t , o f c o u r s e , e x p e c t t h e c e r e m o n i a l t r a p p i n g s o f a p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . F i n a l l y , C h r i s t , t h e God o f the r e l i g i o n c r e a t i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s and s u p p o r t i n g o t h e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l a n d , e x e m p l i f i e d h u m i l i t y ; t h e v a n i t y o f most p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n J o 6 £ p h kndfiQM> i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s u p p o r t a b l e when t h e y a r e compared t o t h e o r i g i n a l o f the f a i t h t h e y p r o f e s s . P a r s o n Adams, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a v o i d s most o f the p r i d e o f a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s : he i s q u i t e 19 happy without riches or t h e i r consequences and without personal regard (although he expects considerable respect f o r h i s order). When Parson Adams does succumb to pride — on the subjects of h i s knowledge, h i s sermons, and h i s a b i l i t y as a schoolteacher — he i s temporarily cast i n a comic, not an authority r o l e , and authority s h i f t s completely to the narrator with b r i e f , judgemental comments so that the sense of c o n t r o l l i n g authority i s maintained. For example, the comment that the "patience of Joseph, nor perhaps of Job, could bear no longer" (p. 363) c l e a r l y puts Adams i n the wrong, while "nor perhaps of Job" introduces the a u t h o r i a l presence. The s h i f t to comedy i s possible because Adams' pride i s l i m i t e d , and necessary, i f he i s to be be l i e v a b l e . A character completely lacking i n such a basic human t r a i t as pride would s t r a i n the reader's b e l i e f . Consequently, since much of the source of humour invo l v i n g minor a u t h o r i t i e s i n 3oi>Zph kndhgWit i s t h e i r hubhJJs i n demanding more respect f o r t h e i r authority than i t merits, and c e r t a i n l y more than C h r i s t demanded, and since when the r e a l authority figure lapses i n t o a s i m i l a r f a u l t he i s also comic, Ch r i s t ' s values, as portrayed i n the gospels, would seem to be a major e t h i c a l base f o r 3oi><Lph AYldhJiM)i>. Although there i s some discussion of t i t h e s (£.g. p. 129), and reference to passages of counsel on l i m i t e d topics (£.g. Adams' reference to II Corinthians, p. 237) , the e t h i c a l emphasis i n Joseph f\nd/l2lM> i s on New Testament basics: love, charity and, to some extent, submission to divine w i l l . P a r t i c u l a r attention, with favourable a u t h o r i a l comments, i s drawn to small, even ludicrous, examples of cha r i t y (t.Q. Adams o f f e r i n g Fanny h i s breakfast) and several scenes revolve around searches f o r and discussions of more important c h a r i t i e s (for example, the T r u l l i b e r scene 20 and the discussion of cha r i t y with Peter Pounce). Invariably, charitable (XctA are established as the only r e a l c h a r i t y . Romantic love, and sexual appetite deemed love, rather overshadow the less i n t e r e s t i n g agape,, but Adams' actions and words towards everyone who does not prove to be s e l f i s h , avaricious or c r u e l demonstrate a fundamentally loving nature. The strangers he a s s i s t s turn out to be previous f r i e n d s , but t h i s i s a p l o t convenience rather than a reduction of h i s spontaneous warmth. Notably, the goodness of minor sympathetic characters, such as Mr. Wilson, and the pedlar, which i s not established through extended passages of character examination, i s demonstrated by p r a c t i c a l acts of love and c h a r i t y , a s s i s t e d , or course, by a u t h o r i a l approval. Submission to divine w i l l does not enjoy quite so favoured a presenta-t i o n , since i t i s b a s i c a l l y f a i t h and F i e l d i n g ' s l a t i t u d i n a r i a n bent n a t u r a l l y made him pref e r works. However, much of the doctrine discussed involves submission to divine w i l l with some implication that the doctrine i s easi e r preached than p r a c t i s e d Adams' advice to Joseph when Fanny i s c a r r i e d o f f ) . On some occasions (primarily f i n a n c i a l c r i s e s ) , Adams does demonstrate a sincere submission to divine w i l l , but not when there i s extended discussion on the subject (e..g. when h i s son i s reported drowned) . Again, the p r a c t i c a l side of basic doctrine i s emphasized: i t i s by following New Testament doctrine, rather than by preaching i t , that Adams proves h i s goodness. Adams, i n f a c t , follows Christ's example as c l o s e l y as a character can while taking part i n the d a i l y l i f e of a comic novel. The depth of devotion that Adams has could be portrayed i n two ways. He could be shown as a s a i n t "as we rather too t h e o r e t i c a l l y conceive saints to be, s t r a i n i n g 21 7 w i l l s to follow the rugged paths of p e r f e c t i o n , " but such a character could hardly be loved and, i n l i t e r a t u r e , could only be treated with deepest reverence, or with deepest s a t i r e . Or, he could be shown as a human, unconcernedly s u f f e r i n g the p r a c t i c a l consequences of unworldly attitudes i n the midst of the world, and demonstrating b l i n d l y human views on h i s own f a i l i n g s . Such a character i s lovable, comic, and subtly d i d a c t i c . Adams' incompetence i n p r a c t i c a l matters and h i s c h i l d i s h naivety are c e r t a i n l y funny, but he i s so much happier than the competent and the sophisticated, and so much more l i k e a b l e , that the worldly consequences of sincere C h r i s t i a n i t y seem minor inconveniences. Thus, Adams has much of the s p i r i t u a l and e t h i c a l authority one would accord to the s a i n t , but s t i l l deserves the love one would accord to any sincere, f a t h e r l y person. The combination of s p i r i t u a l authority, love and Church orders, i f no other elements were present i n the treatment of Adams, would create a nearly i d e a l authority f i g u r e . Adams i s the true authority figure i n Jo&Q.ph kn.dh.0JM,, then, not only because he i s a clergyman, although he must have some conventional p o s i t i o n of authority i f he i s to have any p r a c t i c a l power, but also because he i s a good man. (The concept of the "good man" i s more f u l l y developed i n Tom Jon&i.) A composite of F i e l d i n g ' s good characters, plus h i s nar r a t i v e comments, suggest that, i n h i s eyes, a good man (or woman) must have moral strength {Q..Q. Adams, Amelia, Joseph Andrews, and Allworthy), an inborn good-nature (note e s p e c i a l l y Adams, Tom Jones, and Allworthy), i n c l u d i n g high s p i r i t s and the a b i l i t y to empathize with others (e.g. Adams and Tom Jones) , sincere C h r i s t i a n i t y (e.g. Adams, Allworthy, Joseph Andrews and Amelia), and a good education (e.g.Adams and Dr. Harrison). In general terms, "Fielding's good men exemplify the sum 22 g o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d u t y t o G o d , s o c i e t y and h i m s e l f . " The e d u c a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n e c e s s a r y f o r a good man i n an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , s i n c e o t h e r p e o p l e depend on the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e ' s k n o w l e d g e , b u t any t r u l y good man must be e d u c a t e d i f he i s t o u n d e r s t a n d and d e v e l o p t h e b e s t a s p e c t s o f hms n a t u r e , a c c u r a t e l y f o l l o w t h e p r e c e p t s o f h i s r e l i g i o n , and a v o i d t h e d a n g e r s o f h i s h i g h s p i r i t s and warm d i s p o s i t i o n . M o r e o v e r , a l l t h e f e a t u r e s o f b e i n g a "good man" s h o u l d be i n t e r m i n g l e d i f t h e goodness i s g e n u i n e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e d i f f e r e n c e between Adams' n a t u r e and h i s C h r i s t i a n i t y , and even h i s e d u c a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by h i s n a t u r e as h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c e n j o y m e n t o f t h e c l a s s i c s d e m o n s t r a t e s . Adams a l s o e n j o y s h i s f a i t h , and e v e r y good a s p e c t o f l i f e : he e x e m p l i f i e s a sermon by I s a a c B a r r o w (whom F i e l d i n g admired) w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t "a C h r i s t i a n , as such ( a c c o r d i n g t o the d e s i g n o f h i s R e l i g i o n , a n d i n p r o p o r -t i o n t o h i s c o m p l i a n c e w i t h i t s d i c t a t e s ) i s t h e most j o c u n d , b l i t h and 9 gay P e r s o n i n the W o r l d ; a lways i n humour and f u l l o f c h e a r . " I n f a c t , i f i t were n o t f o r the e v i l s and t r i a l s w h i c h b e s e t h im i n the c o u r s e o f the n o v e l , i t w o u l d n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t Adams i s m o r a l l y s t r o n g enough t o be an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , and s i n c e Adams depends l a r g e l y on h i s r e l i g i o n f o r c o m f o r t and d i r e c t i o n d u r i n g t h e s e t r i a l s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t h i s m o r a l s t r e n g t h i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y a consequence o f h i s f a i t h . Adams' goodness and n a t u r a l p r o p e n s i t y f o r the l o v i n g a s p e c t s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a k i n g h i s a u t h o r i t y v i a b l e and p a l a t a b l e , b u t i t i s h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o G o d , t h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , w h i c h s u p p l i e s the power and p u r p o s e n e c e s s a r y f o r a t r u e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e : Adams must d e m o n s t r a t e human p a r a l l e l s t o God i f h i s a u t h o r i t y i s t o be a c c e p t e d . Adams' most C h r i s t - l i k e f e a t u r e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e s t r o n g e s t p r o o f 23 of h i s r i g h t to authority, i s h i s constant concern f o r everyone's s p i r i t u a l well-being. Even i n the "scene of roasting" Adams h e a r t i l y prays that God w i l l forgive the sins committed by the company (p. 300). In every case where Adams i s i n s u l t e d or mistreated or where cha r i t y i s refused him, he i s predominantly concerned with two things: the honour of the c l o t h and the soul of the person who i s not acting as a C h r i s t i a n . There are times, of course, when t h i s concern seems a l i t t l e l i k e a preservation of dig n i t y rather than genuine concern. Adams' pious disquietude f o r the soul of the squire comes at the end of a very d i g n i f i e d speech following most undignified circumstances. He could simply be demonstrating that he i s h o l i e r than they. Again, there i s a s l i g h t suggestion not that Adams "could not r e c o l l e c t a l l the je s t s of t h i s kind p r a c t i s e d on him, which the i n o f f -ensive d i s p o s i t i o n of h i s own heart made him slow i n discovering" (p. 297), but that he would not re l a t e a l l the jests out of tenderness f o r h i s p r i d e . On the other hand, most, and perhaps a l l , of the d i f f i c u l t y i n accepting . Adams' concern and inoff e n s i v e d i s p o s i t i o n as genuine i s that i f i t were, Adams would be too C h r i s t - l i k e to be human. The normal reader, perhaps, cannot imagine himself expressing Adams' sentiments except out of a sense of i n j u r e d p r i d e . Besides, Adams' sermons do not need to be excused e n t i r e l y , because Adams r e a l l y i s h o l i e r than h i s opponents, and surely correction of those i n e r r o r i s sometimes better than humility. Some moments of concern, where injured pride could explain Adams' reaction only i f he were an exceptionally proud person, are undoubtedly genuine. When Adams begins to lecture T r u l l i b e r on h i s lack of c h a r i t y , the narrative comments make i t c l e a r that he i s worried about T r u l l i b e r ' s soul, not h i s own lack of success i n acquiring the fourteen s h i l l i n g s . On the other side of the coin, when Adams i s given money by Mr. Wilson, Adams i s "glad to see such an instance of goodness, not so much f o r the conveniency which i t brought them, as f o r the sake of the doer, whose reward would be great i n heaven" (p. 284). The e f f e c t , then, of some instances when h i s concern may be genuine (or, at l e a s t , when some r e a l concern i s mixed with less admirable f e e l i n g s ) , and some when i t c l e a r l y i s genuine, i s that Adams' primary i n t e r e s t when faced with s t r i k i n g l y C h r i s t i a n or s t r i k i n g l y non-Ch r i s t i a n actions i s the doer's s p i r i t u a l well-being. Probably the most important of the other elements which characterize Adams as an i d e a l C h r i s t i a n and clergyman, and hence as a good authority f i g u r e , i s h i s concern for h i s parishioners. We are introduced to Adams as he questions Joseph on basic t h e o l o g i c a l subjects, and t r i e s to improve Joseph's s t a t i o n i n l i f e by o f f e r i n g to teach him La t i n and t r y i n g to i n t e r e s t Squire Booby i n educating him. Although Adams' i n t e r e s t could have pecuniary motivation, a genuine good-nature proves to be the source of h i s questioning and suggestion when more i s known of h i s character. Moreover, that he troubles himself to catechize Joseph j u s t because he has "observed the singular devotion of young Andrews" (p. 78) indicates a very conscientious attitude towards h i s p o s i t i o n as a clergyman. Presumably, t h i s attitude has been consistent throughout h i s curateship, f o r we are t o l d that "his word was l i t t l e less than a law i n h i s pari s h : f o r . . . he had shown h i s parishioners by a uniform behaviour of t h i r t y - f i v e years duration, that he had t h e i r good e n t i r e l y at heart. . ." (p. 103). A "uniform behaviour" f o r t h i r t y - f i v e years i s i n i t s e l f an achievement, and since i t s r e s u l t was a considerable de gree of power held by v i r t u e of h i s goodness, the achievement i s remarkable. Adams' p r a c t i c a l r e l i g i o n , with i t s l a t i t u d i n a r i a n emphasis on the importance o f works ( though Adams a l s o has a good d e a l o f f a i t h : £ . g . p . 336) , g i v e s h i m an a u t h o r i t y s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f C h r i s t ' s : Adams' a d v i c e i s obeyed as law n o t p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e he has some p r a c t i c a l p o w e r , b u t b e c a u s e h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s t r u s t t h a t h i s a d v i c e i s sound and a lways t o t h e i r b e n e f i t even when he a d v i s e s a g a i n s t t h e i r f a v o u r e d c o u r s e . E i t h e r t h e p a r i s h -i o n e r s a r e v e r y s i n c e r e and p h i l o s o p h i c a l C h r i s t i a n s (and e v e n t h i s assump-t i o n i s t o Adams' c r e d i t s i n c e he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r s p i r i t u a l g u i d a n c e and i n s t r u c t i o n ) , o r Adams' goodness i s so a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e d i v i n i t y i n h e r e n t i n h i s a u t h o r i t y as a p r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t can be r e c o g n i z e d and t r u s t e d as s u c h . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h q u i t e the same e f f e c t i n a r e n d i t i o n o f a j o u r n e y l a s t i n g u n d e r two.; weeks and p e r h a p s a n o t h e r two weeks a t home, as i n t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s o f c o n s i s t e n t g o o d n e s s , b u t s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e o f Adams' s i n c e r i t y i n h i s b e n e v o l e n t i n t e r e s t i n h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s i s g i v e n t o d e m o n s t r a t e why h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s w o u l d w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t h i s a u t h o r i t y . H i s e c s t a s y a t the r e u n i o n o f J o s e p h and Fanny — he i s so c a u g h t up i n h i s j o y f o r o t h e r s t h a t he a c c i d e n t a l l y throws h i s ffischylus i n t o t h e f i r e — shows some o f h i s s i n c e r i t y : b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d w i t h j o y y b e c a u s e two l o v e r s meet a f t e r b e i n g s e p a r a t e d f o r a few months d e m o n s t r a t e s a r e m a r k a b l e d e p t h o f empathy. I n d e e d , some p h i l o s o p h e r s , F i e l d i n g p r o b a b l y amongst them, "may p e r h a p s d o u b t w h e t h e r he was n o t t h e h a p p i e s t o f t h e t h r e e , f o r t h e goodness o f h i s h e a r t e n j o y e d the b l e s s i n g s w h i c h were e x u l t i n g i n the b r e a s t s o f b o t h the o t h e r two, t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s own" ( p . 2 0 9 ) . A more s e r i o u s a s p e c t o f Adams' o p i n i o n o f h i s d u t y as a c l e r g y m a n i s shown a t t h e v e r y end o f the n o v e l when he a t f i r s t r e f u s e s a l i v i n g o f one h u n d r e d and t h i r t y pounds a y e a r , d e s p i t e h i s p o v e r t y , " r e s o l v i n g n o t 26 to q u i t h i s parishioners, with whom he hath l i v e d so long" (p. 3 9 9 ) . H e accepts the l i v i n g only on the r e c o l l e c t i o n that he can farm i t out to a curate and thus remain with h i s parishioners. F i e l d i n g notably avoids any consideration of pluralism; a l l that i s established i s that Adams i s no longer poor and i s s t i l l with h i s f l o c k . The best proof, though, of Adams' devotion to h i s f l o c k , and of the serious attitude he has towards h i s p o s i t i o n , i s h i s stand on marrying Joseph and Fanny. Despite Lady Booby's p r a c t i c a l power i n the neighbourhood, and her probable power to di v e s t Adams of the small l i v i n g he has, he refuses to follow her orders and i n s i s t s on publishing the banns f o r Joseph and Fanny. Moreover, he even lectures Lady Booby on the ri g h t s of the poor and on the nature of h i s duty as a clergyman. Obviously, Adams sees h i s duty as absolute; personal and family considerations do not enter i n t o the execution of any aspect of h i s r o l e as a clergyman. The parishioners are j u s t i f i e d i n t r u s t i n g Adams. An examination of other elements of Adams' character suggests that on a personal l e v e l he i s a good C h r i s t i a n i n a conventional sense, and that, more important i n F i e l d i n g ' s eyes, he i s a good man. As Aurelien Digeon says, Adams " i s a clean,vigorous C h r i s t i a n , with a C h r i s t i a n i t y which pays less heed to pure dogma than to active sympathy f o r the weak and d i s i n h e r i t e d of t h i s w o r l d . w h e n e v e r a s i t u a t i o n o f f e r s a l t e r n a t i v e s , one consistent with the l e t t e r of the New Testament B i b l e , and one consistent with i t s s p i r i t , Adams follows the s p i r i t of the New Testament. Again, when a s i t u a t i o n requires action more or less against the dicta t e s of the New Testament, and c e r t a i n l y against the established role of a clergyman, Adams does not hesitate to follow the necessary course to prevent serious harm to others. The best action f o r Adams to take when he finds a r u f f i a n attempting to rape 27 a young woman, Fanny as i t h a p p e n s , i s t o r e s c u e h e r by a t t a c k i n g t h e v i l l a i n . S l i p s l o p ' s o p i n i o n , m o t i v a t e d , o f c o u r s e , by h e r j e a l o u s y ? i s , t h a t s i n c e Adams i s a c l e r g y m a n he s h o u l d n o t have r e s c u e d Fanny b e c a u s e t h e r e s c u e r e q u i r e d f i g h t i n g . She a r g u e s " t h a t i t d i d n o t become a c l e r g y m a n t o l a y v i o l e n t hands on a n y o n e , t h a t he s h o u l d have r a t h e r p r a y e d t h a t she m i g h t be s t r e n g t h e n e d " ( p . 2 1 2 ) . Adams does p r a y when t i m e a l l o w s , b u t he p r a y s i n a d d i t i o n t o p r a c t i c a l p r o t e c t i o n , n o t i n s t e a d o f i t . F o r e x a m p l e , when the t r a v e l l e r s m i s t a k e t h e s h e e p - s t e a l e r s f o r m u r d e r e r s , Adams " f e l l on h i s k n e e s , . . . c o m m i t t e d h i m s e l f t o the c a r e o f P r o v i d e n c e . . . a n d . . . h a v i n g f i n i s h e d h i s e j a c u l a t i o n s , g r a s p e d h i s c r a b s t i c k " ( p . 245) and p r e p a r e d t o f i g h t . T h i s " w a r - l i k e d i s p o s i t i o n , " however , i s b a s e d on t h e danger o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f o r we a r e t o l d t h a t " n o t h i n g c o u l d p r o v o k e Adams t o s t r i k e , b u t an a b s o l u t e a s s a u l t on h i m s e l f o r h i s f r i e n d " ( p . 2 2 1 ) . When, f o r e x a m p l e , Adams and Fanny a r e a r r e s t e d on the a c c u s a t i o n o f t h e h ighwayman, we see Adams "not o n l y s u b m i t t i n g p a t i e n t l y t o h i s own f a t e , b u t c o m f o r t i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g h i s companion u n d e r h e r s u f f e r i n g s " ( p . 196) , w h i c h demon-s t r a t e s a d i f f e r e n t and g r e a t e r c o u r a g e . Adams' i n n o c e n c e i s a n o t h e r p r o o f o f t h e p u r i t y o f h i s m i n d and hence i s , i n some r e s p e c t s , a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f h i s p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y . E v i l so se ldom e n t e r s h i s p e r s o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t he f r e q u e n t l y does n o t r e c o g -n i z e i t , and when e v i l a c t i o n s o r m o t i v e s i n d i c a t e a c o n s c i o u s l y b a d p e r s o n , Adams s i m p l y r e f u s e s t o b e l i e v e t h a t s u c h a p e r s o n c o u l d e x i s t . E v e n on t h e r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r s u b j e c t o f " m a l i c i o u s " l i e s , Adams s a y s : Out o f l o v e t o y o u r s e l f , y o u s h o u l d c o n f i n e y o u r s e l f t o t h e t r u t h , . . . f o r by d o i n g o t h e r w i s e , y o u i n j u r e t h e n o b l e s t p a r t o f y o u r s e l f , y o u r i m m o r t a l s o u l . I c a n h a r d l y b e l i e v e any man s u c h an i d i o t t o r i s k t h e l o s s o f t h a t b y any t r i f l i n g g a i n , and t h e g r e a t e s t g a i n i n t h i s w o r l d i s b u t d i r t i n c o m p a r i s o n o f what s h a l l be r e v e a l e d h e r e a f t e r . , 28 This b e l i e f i n honesty as a general p r a c t i c e among a l l but i d i o t s leads Adams to take everyone at face value: he "never saw farther i n t o people than they desired to l e t him" (ppo.197-98) . On the other hand, the extent and r e s u l t of t h i s naivety 1 i s often comic and although i t enhances Adams' authority i n s o f a r as i t proves the i n t e g r i t y of h i s intentions, the immediate r e s u l t of such innocence i s comedy. Usually a comic authority figure i s e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t l y comic or comic with s i n i s t e r overtones the magistrates i n VoZpone.) . In e i t h e r case, the source of comedy i s misuse of authority or the authority figure's i n f l a t e d view of himself because of h i s authority, and the r e s u l t of the comedy i s reduction or a n n i h i l a t i o n of the character's authority. Adams i s comic to some degree most of the time, but, although the extent of the comedy cannot but reduce h i s authority, Adams remains b a s i c a l l y an acceptable authority f i g u r e . The extent of the reduction can be established by an examination of the type and sources of Adams' comedy. The most frequent source of comedy based on Adams i s h i s appearance. Adams wears a rather shabby greatcoat, a wig "not over-new" (p. 297), and a cassock which i s constantly f a l l i n g down around hi s knees. The wrinkles i n his face are so deep that F i e l d i n g describes them as "furrows." His mannerisms add to h i s comic appearance: he walks with great strides,"capers" when happy, snaps h i s fingers when emotionally excited, and groans at anything revealing less than C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e s . He obviously lacks a l l outward aspects of di g n i t y and hence does not appear to be an authority f i g u r e . The reader's n a t u r a l reaction to such a figure w i l l be amusement, and most of the other characters react with amusement or disdain. On f a i r e r consideration, though, the reader w i l l begin to have much t h e same r e a c t i o n t o Adams as have h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s . The p a r s o n ' s a t t i r e i s p a r t l y a n e c e s s a r y consequence o f h i s p o v e r t y , and p a r t l y the r e s u l t o f h i s comple t e u n c o n c e r n f o r a l l w o r l d l y t r a p p i n g s . H i s mannerisms a r e t h e r e s u l t o f h i s s p o n t a n e i t y and h i s comple t e l a c k o f a f a l s e f r o n t and o f s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g . What i s on the s u r f a c e a comic r e d u c t i o n o f h i s a u t h o r i t y i s i n r e a l i t y f u r t h e r p r o o f o f h i s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r c o m p l e t e a u t h o r i t y , b e c a u s e i t i s f u r t h e r p r o o f o f h i s h o n e s t y and o f h i s l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r s e l f . As Samuel Tave p o i n t s o u t i n The. ArrtixibZe. HimohJJst "the w o r l d may judge Adams t o be a f o o l — and he i s a f o o l by w o r l d l y d e f i n i t i o n b u t t h e g o o d - n a t u r e d r e a d e r sees how the w o r l d i s j u d g e d by t h e f o o l , too'.! ( p . 1 4 1 ) . Those who c o n c e n t r a t e "on h i s o d d i t i e s o f d r e s s and b e h a v i o u r . . . a r e the p r o p e r o b j e c t s o f r i d i c u l e , n o t t h e i n n o c e n t man h i m s e l f " 11 ( p . 1 4 4 ) . C l e a r l y , F i e l d i n g i n t e n d s t o show " t h a t a p o o r , b a d l y - d r e s s e d man, humble and s c o r n e d , can p l a y t h e p a r t o f a h e r o , i f he c a r r i e s b e n e a t h 12 h i s r a g s a b e a u t i f u l s o u l and a c o u r a g e s u p e r i o r t o h i s f o r t u n e . " S i m i l a r l y , o t h e r a s p e c t s o f Adams' comedy s u g g e s t f e a t u r e s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y i f he i s , i n f a c t , t o be seen as a p u r e , C h r i s t - l i k e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . As m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , Adams' i n n o c e n c e and n a i v e t y a r e a r e s u l t o f t h e p u r i t y o f h i s m i n d . H i s f o r g e t f u l n e s s , a m i n o r comic f e a t u r e , can be seen as a d i s s o c i a t i o n from w o r l d l y c o n c e r n s , b u t t h e p r e d o m i n a n t e f f e c t o f t h e s e comic f e a t u r e s i s a r e d u c t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , b e c a u s e , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r , t h e y a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a c o n v e n t i o n a l v i e w o f an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a d e r i s s u r p r i s e d i n t o some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Adams' degree o f p e r f e c t i o n , s i n c e F i e l d i n g r e f u s e s t o g r a n t h im the s a i n t h o o d l i k e l y f o r a good c l e r g y m a n c r e a t e d by a s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e i s some 30 suggestion that s t r i c t adherence to C h r i s t i a n values w i l l create some c o n f l i c t with any form of secular power. In a j u s t , pious consideration, Adams i s not at a l l comic, and h i s "comic" features are a c t u a l l y proofs of h i s r i g h t to authority, but the reader and, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , F i e l d i n g are not i n c l i n e d to view Adams with j u s t and pious consideration. A mental p i c t u r e of Adams with drooping cassock, capering around a room, snapping his fingers w i l l not r a i s e any idea of r e l i g i o u s appreciation i n most readers. I f Adams i s not viewed i n pious l i g h t , he i s comic, and although unworldly j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r the comic e f f e c t s e x i s t they do not e n t i r e l y restore the degree of authority l o s t by comic e f f e c t . Some aspects of Adams' comedy, of course, do not have any saving grace except as further proof that he i s human. When Adams i s comic because he i s proud i n any way, he demonstrates a f o i b l e , i f not a f a i l i n g , and consequently becomes r i d i c u l o u s . Pride encompasses a l l Adams' remaining comic aspects; even when he i s comic because he does not p r a c t i s e what he preaches, and i s unable to see that he does not, i t i s h i s f a i t h i n h i s own learning and righteousness — which i s b a s i c a l l y pride — that i s the source of comedy. This brand of comedy has serious consequences f o r Adams' authority because i t undercuts his advice, sometimes to the point of destruc-t i o n . For example, Adams' remonstrance, with reference to Abraham's s a c r i f i c e of Isaac, that no C h r i s t i a n ought so to set h i s heart on any person or thing i n t h i s world, but that whenever i t s h a l l be required or taken from him i n any manner by Divine Providence, he may be able, peaceably, q u i e t l y , and contentedly to resign i t (p. 362) i s immediately undercut by Adams' reaction to the reported death of h i s youngest son. On the one hand, both the reaction and the undercutting are necessary. Without comic reduction of the moral doctrine with which JoA&ph AndA.2W& abounds, the reader might suspect that the comic epic poem i n prose was a s l y t r i c k designed to inculcate wholesome i n s t r u c t i o n under cover of amusing the reader with l i g h t comedy. The suspicion usually remains, since an element of comedy i n a l i n e or so — such as the comment that Adams had f a l l e n asleep during Joseph's analysis of cha r i t y — does not balance several pages of doctrine. Occasionally, though, the e f f e c t of the doctrine i s balanced or destroyed by the comic reduction. In the f i r s t example, not only i s the e f f e c t of the doctrine reduced by Adams' reaction, i t i s further reduced by Adams' going back to the doctrine, o b l i v i o u s of the discrepancy between h i s words and actions, and reduced again by Mrs. Adams' contrary advice and assurance that Adams has been a "loving and cherishing husband" to her despite h i s opinion that a man ought to love h i s wife "with moderation and d i s c r e t i o n " (p. 364). This doctrine must be undercut by Adams' actions i f h i s character i s to remain l i k e a b l e . We might respect someone with s u f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l over h i s emotions to act as Adams suggests, but i t would be d i f f i c u l t to l i k e him. Again, though we might condemn Abraham, as Adams suggests, on r e l i g i o u s grounds i f he had refused to s a c r i f i c e Isaac, and though on s i m i l a r grounds we would f e e l Adams lacks absolute f a i t h i n Divine Providence, i t i s hard to respond i n human terms to Abraham, and i t would be equally hard to respond so to Adams i f he had been able to resign h i s son "peaceably, q u i e t l y , and contentedly." On the other hand, these necessary reductions s e r i o u s l y lessen Adams' c r e d i b i l i t y as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . I f Adams' s e r i o u s a d v i c e on s e r i o u s C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e i s made c o m i c , c a n h i s a d v i c e be a c c e p t e d ? I f h i s a d v i c e on s u b j e c t s o f o b v i o u s i m p o r t a n c e t o h i m c a n n o t be a c c e p t e d , can h i s a u t h o r i t y be a c c e p t e d ? I n f a c t , whenever Adams' a d v i c e , though b a s e d on o r t h o d o x i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , d e n i e s o r mutes the " s i n g l e s t r i n g o f t h e New Testament" — the command t o l o v e one a n o t h e r — h i s a u t h o r i t y c a n n o t be a c c e p t e d , and t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e n a r r a t o r becomes p r e d o m i n a n t . Adams' r e a l a u t h o r i t y i s b a s e d on l o v e j u s t as h i s r e a l n a t u r e i s b a s e d on l o v e , and n e i t h e r h i s n a t u r e n o r h i s a u t h o r i t y can be r a d i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by . comedy when l o v e , t h e i r b a s i s , does n o t have t h e f a l s e d i g n i t y w h i c h comedy d e s t r o y s . Adams' a u t h o r i t y i n the w o r l d o f 3oi>Q,pk AndA.QJ/U>, however , i s a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . H i s p a r i s h i o n e r s have come t o l o v e and t r u s t h im t h r o u g h t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s , and the r e a d e r q u i c k l y f e e l s much t h e same t h r o u g h t h e f a s t e r p r o c e s s o f b e i n g t o l d o f Adams' c h a r a c t e r on the a u t h o r i t y o f t h e n a r r a t o r , and t h e n shown h i s c h a r a c t e r . Most o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l , t h o u g h , have o n l y h i s a p p e a r a n c e , manners and speech on w h i c h t o judge h i m , and s i n c e h i s a p p e a r a n c e and manners a r e comic and h i s s p e e c h n e e d n o t r e f l e c t h i s t r u e n a t u r e , t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l have o n l y h i s d u b i o u s p o s i t i o n as a c l e r g y m a n on w h i c h t o base t h e i r e s t e e m . The g e n e r a l i m p l i c a -t i o n i n the m o v e 1 , e s t a b l i s h e d b o t h by t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e and comments by t h e c h a r a c t e r s , i s t h a t the mere f a c t o f h i s c a l l i n g g i v e s h im s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y e n t i t l i n g h im t o r e s p e c t and o b e d i e n c e (note t h e f r e q u e n t i n j u n c t i o n t o "honour the c l o t h " and Adams' comment t h a t " h i s o r d e r i s n o t t h e o b j e c t o f s c o r n " ( p . 299) — see a l s o p p . 172 and 3 3 6 ) , and the g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s j m . ' i n t h e n o v e l i s t h a t s o c i e t y does n o t r e n d e r s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y i t s due u n l e s s t h e 33 clergyman has the secular trappings which a c t u a l l y c o n f l i c t with h i s s p i r i t u a l authority (see pp. 80, 172, 217-18, 222, 226 QJt a t ) . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s c r i t i c i s m , of course, i s the more serious c r i t i c i s m that because the generality of clergy depend on such trappings, r e a l s p i r i t u a l authority i s not recognized, or, at l e a s t , not respected. Didgeon notes that " i t i s 13 only the virtuous people i n the book who love Parson Adams. . . ." • . That Adams has r e a l s p i r i t u a l authority i s established by the f i n a l consideration of the source of h i s authority. Adams i s a father and t h i s p o s i t i o n i s , as mentioned before, the c l o s e s t analogy of God's r e l a t i o n s h i p to man. Adams' role as a r e a l father i s important i n that i t establishes a standard by which the other fathers may be judged. Adams says that he has "never scourged a c h i l d of [his] own, unless as h i s schoolmaster, and then [has] f e l t every stroke on [his] own p o s t e r i o r s " (p. 278). The r e a l importance of Adams' ro l e as a father, though, i s that he sees himself i n that r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s parishioners (p. 225). Moreover, he acts as a father to h i s parishioners, i f h i s behaviour to Joseph and Fanny may be accepted as an example of h i s usual behaviour, i n d i c a t i n g a paternal auth-o r i t y over them, based on h i s s p i r i t u a l authority, which suggests a necessar i l y l i m i t e d human p a r a l l e l to God's authority over them. With the exception of the Catholic p r i e s t and the two other fathers, Wilson and Andrews, the other authority figures i n the novel are comic butts. This f a c t , of course, increases Adams' authority, since he i s seen i n compar-ison to authority figures who demonstrate t h e i r usual f a i l i n g s , and h i s lack of those f a i l i n g s i s even more impressive when i n contrast with corrupt authority figures than i t i s when considered on i t s own. Moreover, the emphasis on corrupt secular authority f i g u r e s , with only one r e a l l y corrupt e c c l e s i a s t i c a l authority figure whose e f f e c t i s more than balanced by Adams' 34 e f f e c t , enhances the p o s i t i o n of Adams' r e l i g i o n , a modified L a t i t u d i n a r i a n stance, as the e t h i c a l basis f o r JoA&ph Andh.2lti&. The two other father figures have very l i t t l e importance i n the scheme of authority i n the novel. Wilson i s an e n t i r e l y sympathetic father figure and his concern for h i s children i s part of the i d y l l i c l i f e he leads. Aside from t h i s , the only importance of h i s r o l e as a father i s that he admits, even boasts of, playing with h i s ch i l d r e n , which demonstrates the s u p e r i o r i t y of love over d i g n i t y i n an i d e a l existence. Andrews has f a r too minor a role i n the novel to have much importance i n the presentation of authority, but i f anything he i s a less than i d e a l father. He accepts Fanny as h i s daughter and "blessed and kissed her" (p. 394), but f i r s t has to be thoroughly convinced she i s h i s daughter because he "very l i k e l y desired to have no more children than he could keep" (p. 394), and when he i s convinced he " t e s t i f i e d no remarkable emotion" (p. 394). C l e a r l y , he does not abound with love: one imagines Adams i n the same s i t u a t i o n i n raptures. The main function of both minor father f i g u r e s , then, i s to e s t a b l i s h further the importance of love f o r true f u l f i l l m e n t of the r o l e . The other clergy i n the novel can only be f o i l s or reinforcements to Adams since h i s being a clergyman i s consistently emphasized. There are three other clergymen i n the novel: Barnabas, T r u l l i b e r and the Catholic p r i e s t . That Barnabas i s a clergyman i s mentioned only i n passing, and, although h i s discussion with Adams of some of the r e l i g i o u s philosophies of the time c l a r i f i e s Adams' p o s i t i o n to some extent, Barnabas' role as a clergyman i s f a r too minor to q u a l i f y him as an authority figure i n the novel. T r u l l i b e r i s , of course, the most prominent, since an e n t i r e scene revolves around him, but the Catholic p r i e s t i s more i n t e r e s t i n g despite the b r e v i t y 35 of h i s appearance. The p r i e s t , f i r s t of a l l , bears a p h y s i c a l resemblance to Adams which suggests some association of the two. He i s described as "a grave man who sat smoking h i s pipe by the f i r e " (p. 304) (cp. Adams "had not the l e a s t a f f e c t i o n f o r joking" [p. 118] ). Moreover, he bears a s p i r i t u a l resem-blance to Adams, since Adams declares that the Catholic p r i e s t ' s discourse on the e v i l s of r i c h e s , both i n terms of t h i s world and the next, expresses exactly h i s own sentiments. Also, the continuing p a r a l l e l discussion, with Adams and the p r i e s t taking turns expanding on the theme of love of money as the root of a l l e v i l , confirms t h e i r s p i r i t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . However, t h i s b r i e f scene i n i t s e l f only c l a r i f i e s Adams' views by having him discuss them, and d i r e c t l y establishes the attitude towards wealth i n JoAzph kn.dn.2Mi>. Given Fi e l d i n g ' s d i s l i k e of Catholicism, though, the scene takes on added importance. F i e l d i n g ' s choice of a p r i e s t of the /Church of Rome to agree with Adams must e i t h e r be a c r i t i c i s m of Adams' views or a statement about the true nature of a C h r i s t i a n . The f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y i s c l e a r l y untenable. The sentiments expressed d i r e c t l y are the same as those implied throughout the r e s t of the novel where they consistently have the approval of the narrative voice. In the scene i n question, only the omission of the greater part of the discussion, on the grounds that "most of which [Adams] sai d occurs among many authors, who have treated t h i s subject" (p. 305), and the comment that the p r i e s t continued the discourse "with great b i t t e r n e s s and invective" (p. 305) could be interpreted as sarcasm or c r i t i c i s m . However, the f i r s t point i s no more than reasonable on l i t e r a r y grounds since Jo&Zph kndA.2lti& i s a comic novel, not a r e l i g i o u s t r e a t i s e , and the 36 second point i s no more than reasonable on r e l i g i o u s grounds since i t i s an e v i l which the p r i e s t i s discussing. Consequently, no c r i t i c i s m of Adams can be intended i n the dup l i c a t i o n of h i s b e l i e f s i n a Catholic p r i s t . Instead, F i e l d i n g c l e a r l y intends to e s t a b l i s h that every sect of C h r i s t i -anity has bel i e v e r s who follow basic tenets of New Testament theology, and and the sect i t s e l f i s of l i m i t e d importance. The onus: i s upon the i n d i v i d -ual to exercise h i s f a i t h . Furthermore, that a member of a sect which F i e l d i n g d i s l i k e d i s a sincere C h r i s t i a n emphasizes the f a i l u r e of those who are not sincere C h r i s t i a n s even though they have the advantage of belonging to the " r i g h t " sect i n Fi e l d i n g ' s view — the Church of England. There i s one p o r t r a i t of a corrupt Church of England clergyman — T r u l l i b e r — and notably h i s main f a i l i n g i s c r i t i c i s e d i n the p r i e s t ' s c r i t i c a l discourse. T r u l l i b e r i s r i c h and a l l h i s f a u l t s are i n some way dependent on the importance he places on money'. He has no c h a r i t y , and he has no respect f o r anyone who i s not r i c h . This i s demonstrated by h i s lack of manners i n h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s : to h i s wife to "draw a l i t t l e of the worst ale," a f t e r he fastens the parlour door and takes Adams in t o the kitchen (p. 217) , and i n snatching a cup of ale from Adams' hand "crying out I QJXOJCd uuAi-t" (p. 218) . F a i r l y high on his l i s t of f a u l t s i s the way he t r e a t s , or rather mistreats, h i s wife, which proves he has no love even where i t i s ea s i e s t and most natural to bestow love. A l l these f a u l t s are summed up i n two forms: Adams" criticism:and T r u l l i b e r ' s main source of income. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that T r u l l i b e r r a ises hogs. In the f i r s t place, i t i s c l e a r that the hogs take precedence over T r u l l i b e r ' s duties as a parson (in defiance of 14 ' Church law ), for we are t o l d that "Mr. T r u l l i b e r was a parson on Sundays, but a l l the other s i x might more properly be c a l l e d a farmer" (p. 216). 37 I f we compare Adams' work as a c u r a t e s even days o f t h e week t o h i s work on S u n d a y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t T r u l l i b e r m i g h t as w e l l be c a l l e d a f a r m e r a l l t h e t i m e . The a s s o c i a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d between T r u l l i b e r and h i s hogs i s even more t e l l i n g . Not o n l y i s T r u l l i b e r e s t a b l i s h e d as a s w i n e h e r d . r a t h e r t h a n as a "good s h e p h e r d , " he even r e s e m b l e s a p i g i n b u i l d - - " h i s own s i z e b e i n g w i t h a l e r e n d e r e d l i t t l e i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f the b e a s t s he s o l d " ( p . 216) — and a l s o i n manners and i n e a t i n g h a b i t s . He i s a p o r t r a i t o f g r e e d and h i s g r e e d e x c l u d e s a l l p o s s i b l e f a v o u r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Adams' a n a l y s i s n o t e s T r u l l i b e r ' s l a c k o f c h a r i t y , a consequence o f g r e e d , f r o m w h i c h Adams c o n c l u d e s t h a t T r u l l i b e r i s n o t a C h r i s t i a n . T h a t a p e r s o n embodies v a l u e s o p p o s i t e t o t h o s e w h i c h h i s p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s he t e a c h o t h e r s i s a t r a v e s t y o f the a u t h o r i t y o f t h a t p o s i t i o n . What i s even worse i n T r u l l i b e r ' s c a s e , however , i s t h a t he e n j o y s , by v i r t u e o f h i s s i n f u l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f a r more p r a c t i c a l power and f a r more r e s p e c t f o r h i s d i s t o r t e d a u t h o r i t y t h a n Adams does f o r h i s r e a l and j u s t i f i e d a u t h o r i t y . (Cm the o t h e r h a n d , Adams e n j o y s the l o v e o f hLi> p a r i s h i o n e r s . ) On one l e v e l t h i s i s a c r i t i c i s m o f one type o f p e r s o n who j u s t happens t o be a p a r s o n . I t i s o b v i o u s l y n o t a c r i t i c i s m o f C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d p a r s o n s , ' s i n c e Adams i s a l s o a p a r s o n , b u t t h a t someone l i k e T r u l l i b e r can be i n o r d e r s must be a g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m a D f o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h o u g h , T r u l l i b e r makes Adams seem even b e t t e r t h a n b e f o r e , s i n c e i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t Adams' p o v e r t y i s a consequence o f h i s p i e t y . I f he f o l l o w e d T r u l l i b e r ' s r o u t e , he c o u l d have a l l t h e p o w e r , r e s p e c t and w e a l t h t h a t he now l a c k s . He w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , p r o b a b l y l o s e h i s p i e t y and g o o d - n a t u r e i n t h e b a r g a i n . T h u s , the c o n t r a s t between Adams and T r u l l i b e r , and t o some e x t e n t t h e s i m i l a r i t y between Adams and the p r i e s t , e s t a b l i s h t h a t a u t h o r i t y b a s e d on 38 l o v e , h o n e s t y and s p i r i t u a l p r i n c i p l e s s u c h as t h o s e o f p r i m i t i v e New Tes tament C h r i s t i a n i t y , has l i t t l e w o r l d l y es teem o r p o w e r , w h i l e a u t h o r i t y b a s e d on c o r r u p t i o n a n d w o r l d l y p r i n c i p l e s , i n c l u d i n g , t o some e x t e n t , o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n ; , draws added es teem and power f rom a p r e t e n c e o f s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y . However , the c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c l e r g y s u g g e s t t h a t on a permanent and p e r s o n a l l e v e l — compare the f e e l i n g s o f Adams' p a r i s h i o n e r s towards Adams t o T r u l l i b e r ' s p a r i s h i o n e r s towards h i m — s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y i s g r e a t e r and more s a t i s f y i n g . In F i e l d i n g ' s l i t e r a r y p i c t u r e , even r e a l p o l i t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e f o r e , can be no more t h a n s e c o n d b e s t , and i t s l e s s e r s i g n i f i c a n c e l e s s e n s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i t s c o r r u p t i o n . The c o r r u p t m a g i s -t r a t e s i n Joseph. kndJteitib, t h e n , a r e c o m i c e x c e p t when t h e y a r e s l i g h t l y s i n i s t e r , and s o c i a l c o r r u p t i o n does n o t seem t o be as i m p o r t a n t t o F i e l d i n g as r e l i g i o u s c o r r u p t i o n . On the o t h e r h a n d , s o c i e t y a p p e a r s i n a worse s t a t e t h a n r e l i g i o n i n 3o£>zph kndA2JM, because t h e r e i s no good m a g i s t r a t e t o b a l a n c e the c o r r u p t m a g i s t r a t e s . The two s q u i r e s who a p p e a r i n t h e i r r o l e s as m a g i s t r a t e s and t h e s q u i r e a t t h e "scene o f r o a s t i n g , " who we may assume i s a m a g i s t r a t e , a r e a l l c o r r u p t and use t h e i r power and w e a l t h t o promote t h e i r own o r t h e i r f r i e n d s ' a d v a n t a g e . P r a c t i c a l a u t h o r i t y has no sound m o r a l b a s i s i n 30£>2.ph AndAQJAi>. The m a g i s t r a t e s do n o t u p h o l d j u s t i c e and the l a w , and hence t h e y b e t r a y the o r i g i n a l s o u r c e o f t h e i r a u t h o r i t y - - the c o n c e p t " j u s t i c e . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , on p r a c t i c a l grounds t h e y have j u s t as much a u t h o r i t y as i f t h e y were s e c u l a r p a r a l l e l s t o G o d . I n b o t h c a s e s where i n n o c e n t p e o p l e a r e b r o u g h t b e f o r e a m a g i s t r a t e , i t i s o n l y the p r o v i d e n t i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e o f someone w i t h p r a c t i c a l power o r r e p u t a t i o n t h a t p r e v e n t s t h e g r o s s i n j u s t i c e o f due p r o c e s s o f l a w . 39 The f i r s t magistrate scene p a r t i c u l a r l y attacks the country magistrate "type." When Adams and Fanny are arrested on suspicion of highway robbery, they are f i r s t incarcerated i n the stable, because the j u s t i c e has not fi n i s h e d h i s dinner, then examined when the j u s t i c e i s " i n the height of his mirth and his cups" (p. 198) , because "he believed they [his company] should have good sport i n t h e i r examination" (p. 199). The j u s t i c e amuses himself " i n cracking jests on poor Fanny" and at f i r s t refuses to hear Adams' defence, rebuking him for taking up so much of his time (p. 201). The magistrate c l e a r l y has no sense of the gravity and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h i s p o s i t i o n . Instead, h i s authority role i s to him a licence to torment unfortunates accused, however unjustly, of any crime, and h i s behaviour i n that r o l e reveals him to be an i n s e n s i t i v e drunkard. Even the reason f o r the restoration of j u s t i c e reveals the magistrate's corruption, for he releases Adams and Fanny on the assurance that Adams i s a gentleman. The magistrate claims, obviously intending to e s t a b l i s h h i s respect f o r j u s t i c e , that "nobody can say [he has] committed a gentleman since [he has] been i n the commission" (p. 203), and i t i s c l e a r that " j u s t i c e " to t h i s magistrate means convicting the lower classes and acqu i t t i n g the upper classes without consideration of g u i l t or innocence. The corruption i s made comic because i t i s exaggerated, and because the intended e v i l i s avoided, but the squire's attempt at comedy i s too tainted with i n j u s t i c e to be amusing. The scene i s a balance of comedy and c r i t i c i s m with only the narrative voice maintaining some elements of o p t i m i s t i c perspective. The second scene of j u s t i c e more or less ignores the personal corruption of the magistrate, concentrating instead on the corruption of the law and the perversion of j u s t i c e . Joseph and Fanny are to be committed to Bridewell f o r 40 larceny — " s t e a l i n g " a hazel twig. The reason f o r t h i s obvious perversion of j u s t i c e , as the magistrate f r e e l y confesses to h i s fellow squire, i s that "Lady Booby desires to get them [Joseph and Fanny] out of the parish"(p342). Here, f a r more than i n the f i r s t case, the power of wealth and p o s i t i o n i s established and attacked. Lawyer Scout characterizes the j u s t i c e and further reveals the i n j u s t i c e f o r which the law i s used: The j u s t i c e w i l l s t r e t c h i t [the law] as f a r as he i s able, to oblige your ladyship. To say t r u t h , i t i s a great b l e s s i n g to the country that he i s i n the commission; for he hath taken several poor o f f our hands, that the law would never lay hold on. I know some j u s t i c e s who made as much of committing a man to Bridewell as h i s lordship at S^LZZ would of hanging him: But i t would do a man good to see h i s worship our j u s t i c e commit a fellow to Bridewell: he takes so much pleasure i n i t : And when once we ha' un there, we seldom hear any more o' un. He's e i t h e r starved or eat up by vermin i n a month's time. (p. 338) The passage i s a most e f f e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m of Bridewell, because i t i s the exceptionally virtuous Joseph and Fanny who are threatened, and the c r i t i c i s m of the l e g a l system involved i s also severe. The s i t u a t i o n described here i s not "wretches hang that jurymen may dine," but wretches die of hunger and disease because a j u s t i c e takes pleasure i n committing them, and because a "lady" wants them removed from her p a r i s h . F i e l d i n g , however, seems less concerned about corrupt magistrates than about corrupt clergymen, po s s i b l y because the l a t t e r are more h y p o c r i t i c a l , or because some recourse i s possib l e , although not l i k e l y , against the corruption o f t h e former, or possibly F i e l d i n g ' s l e s s e r concern i s the r e s u l t of some feature of h i s own C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . In Jo&e.ph And)Wti&, of course, the e f f e c t of the corruption of j u s t i c e i s less severe than i t might be, because the 'Intended e v i l " i s always prevented. 41 I t w o u l d a p p e a r , t h e n , t h a t t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i n Jo&2.ph kndJWM c o n c e r n s r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y and t h e r o l e o f t h a t a u t h o r i t y i n a p a t e r n a l s e n s e . S e c u l a r a u t h o r i t y i s p r e s e n t e d u n f a v o u r a b l y , the s o l e e x c e p t i o n b e i n g Lawyer S c o u t ' s m e n t i o n o f some j u s t i c e s who "make as much o f c o m m i t t i n g a man t o B r i d e w e l l as h i s l o r d s h i p a t S<LZZ w o u l d o f h a n g i n g him" (p . 3 3 8 ) . C o r r u p t r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y , s e r i o u s b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no o u t s i d e p r o t e c t i o n from i t s e f f e c t s , i s s i m i l a r l y a t t a c k e d i n t h e p o r t r a i t o f T r u l l i b e r , b u t t h e f a v o u r a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the C a t h o l i c p r i e s t and the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the n o v e l on Adams as a c o n s c i e n t i o u s and d e v o u t s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y more t h a n b a l a n c e the a t t a c k on T r u l l i b e r , and e s t a b l i s h Adams' d e m o n s t r a t e d v a l u e s and c o n c e r n s as the e t h i c a l and m o r a l o b a s i s o f Jo&tph knd>i2lti£>. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n on Adams a l s o overshadows t h e a t t a c k on c o r r u p t s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t y u n t i l i t i s no more i m p o r t a n t t h a n o t h e r i l l s o f s o c i e t y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t s e f f e c t s , l i k e o t h e r r e a l d a n g e r s , are p r o v i d e n t i a l l y p r e v e n t e d . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s i n c e r e s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y as t h e o n l y r e a l a u t h o r i t y i n the p l o t e m p h a s i z e s F i e l d i n g ' s C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s and t h e l a t i t u d i n a r i a n d o c t r i n e i n JoA2.ph kn&hSStiis. Adams' p a t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s and h i s i n h e r e n t l y good c h a r a c t e r r e f l e c t h i s d i v i n e mode l and e s t a b l i s h h i s r i g h t t o a u t h o r i t y . The c o m i c t r e a t m e n t o f Adams somewhat r e d u c e s h i s c r e d i b i l t i y as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , b u t m a i n l y c r e a t e s an a u r a o f h a p p i n e s s w h i c h enhances h i s e f f e c t . The t r e a t m e n t o f the main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n Joi^ph kndJWtiit, t h e r e f o r e , s u p p o r t s New T e s t a m e n t C h r i s t i a n i t y and a f f i r m s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l o v e , w h i l e f u r t h e r i n g t h e comic atmosphere o f the n o v e l . 42 GOD'S IN HIS HEAVEN; (ALMOST) A L L ' S RIGHT WITH THE WORLD F i e l d i n g ' s m a j o r w o r k , Tom JonU, f r e q u e n t l y f o c u s e s on t h e n a t u r e , e x t e n t and e x e r c i s e o f a u t h o r i t y . A u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s n o t o n l y a b o u n d , b u t d i s c u s s a u t h o r i t y , s o t h a t i n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y the " p i t i f u l r e p t i l e o f a c r i t i c " i s u s u a l l y b l e s s e d w i t h d i r e c t e v i d e n c e . Where "none o f [the] c h a r a c t e r s can be p r e v a i l e d upon t o speak i t " the a u t h o r i a l : v o i c e i s h e a r d , f u r t h e r c l a r i f y i n g F i e l d i n g ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a u t h o r i t y . As i n Jo6£ph AndA&Wii, i t i s t h e t r e a t m e n t o f a u t h o r i t y as an e x t e n s i o n o r t y p e o f p r o v i d e n t i a l c o n t r o l t h a t c r e a t e s t h e sense t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g w i l l t u r n o u t a l r i g h t i n t h e end" w h i c h i s c r u c i a l i n any k i n d o f comedy, b u t t h e emphas i s i s on a u t h o r i t y as an a s p e c t o f a "good man," r a t h e r t h a n as o t h e r w o r l d l y c o n t r o l , and t h i s emphas i s makes a u t h o r i t y immedia te and r e a l i s t i c . A l l w o r t h y i s human; he makes m i s t a k e s . However , the c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i s a u t h o r i t y r o l e s w i t h h i s g o o d - n a t u r e and b e n e v o l e n c e e n s u r e s b o t h t h a t a l l h i s a c t i o n s a r e p a r t o f an o v e r a l l p l a n and t h a t t h e y w i l l c r e a t e as much immediate h a p p i n e s s as p o s s i b l e . The a u t h o r i t y i n Tom JonU may be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : d e m o n s t r a t e d and d i s c u s s e d . D e m o n s t r a t e d a u t h o r i t y i s s i m p l y an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e u s i n g o r m i s u s i n g h i s a u t h o r i t y , and d i s c u s s e d a u t h o r i t y may be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o d i s c u s s i o n by the c h a r a c t e r s and o b s e r v a t i o n s by t h e a u t h o r — t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e . The n a r r a t o r i n Tom JonU i s a commentator , a p a t e r n a l a d v i s o r , a g u i d e and a c o m p a n i o n , and the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e v a r i e s f rom an i r o n i c t o n e t o a d i r e c t " A p p e a r a n c e , by way o f C h o r u s , on t h e Stage" ( p . 1 0 3 ) . F i e l d i n g ' s f a v o u r i t e t o n e - s e t t i n g words and p h r a s e s a r e " p o s s i b l y , " p e r h a p s , " and " f o r some o t h e r 43 reason," which, along with numerous s i m i l a r phrases, suggest that a given explanation may not be correct, and maintain a d i s t i n c t a u t h o r i a l presence i n the novel. F i e l d i n g also achieves tonal irony by the use of d i r e c t a u t h o r i a l i n t e r j e c t i o n s , such as "very wisely," " c e r t a i n l y , " "and r i g h t l y so," which, as elements of external judgment, help e s t a b l i s h the narrator's m a g i s t e r i a l character, as do s i m i l a r forms of emphasis using h i s own voice ("I doubt not," "I suppose" e t c ^ ) . In other words, elements of Fi e l d i n g ' s w r i t i n g s t y l e i n Tom Jon£4 create an omnipresent authority w h i c h ensures that F i e l d i n g ' s o p t i m i s t i c moral and e t h i c a l values, established d i r e c t l y by Squire Allworthy, F i e l d i n g ' s " d i d a c t i c mouthpiece" 1, are i n controls even when he i s absent. A l l aspects of authority, however, are not expressed d i r e c t l y , since, a f t e r a l l , Tom JonQA i s not a t r e a t i s e on authority. The discussions by the characters, for example, require an examination of each character and some consideration of what kind or kinds of authority the character holds before the merit of these discussions can be established. Demonstrated authority, of course, lends i t s e l f to c r i t i c a l examination, e s p e c i a l l y whenever F i e l d i n g himself does not analyse i t . Demonstrated authority i s e s p e c i a l l y important because i t d i r e c t l y establishes what kinds of authority are most important i n the world of Tom JoneA. Authority based s o l e l y on established r e l i g i o n and philosophy i s limited, although r e l i g i o n and philosophy are s t i l l i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s . The clergymen and the philosopher i n Tom JORg-6 are comic f i g u r e s , which i n i t s e l f says something about authority, and r e l i g i o n and philosophy as sources of authority are mainly supports f o r the &<L fiacto authority of other char-acters. J u d i c i a l authority i s f a r more important i n Tom Jon&A than i t i s i n Jo&zph kndJiQJM, and the use o f m a g i s t r a t e s as comic b u t t s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e comedy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S q u i r e W e s t e r n . Much o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y , o f c o u r s e , r e s u l t s from the main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y , b e i n g a m a g i s t r a t e , b u t , on the o t h e r h a n d , the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y must be p o s i t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t A l l w o r t h y i s a "good man" i n e v e r y r e s p e c t . I n d e e d , j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y e v e n t u a l l y d e p a r t s from i t s c o n v e n t i o n a l r o l e as t h e s o u r c e o f a m a g i s t r a t e ' s power and becomes a " s o c i a l " a u t h o r i t y : t h e r i g h t o f a "good man" t o judge o t h e r s ' a c t i o n s . I t i s p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , however , w h i c h i s p r e d o m i n a n t i n Tom JonZA. The number o f f a t h e r s , f a t h e r f i g u r e s , mothers and o t h e r a d u l t s a c t i n g as g u a r d i a n s o v e r young p e o p l e i m m e d i a t e l y e s t a b l i s h e s some o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f a u t h o r i t y , w h i l e the d i s c u s s i o n s o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , and t h e emphas i s o f the p l o t on the degree o f a u t h o r i t y a p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n h a s , make p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y a m a j o r c o n c e r n i n Tom 3onzA>. R e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h y , t h o u g h t h e y a r e n o t p r o m i n e n t i n the p l o t , a r e the f o u n d a t i o n s o f some k i n d s o f d e m o n s t r a t e d a u t h o r i t y and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : i n Tom JonZA and n e c e s s a r i l y i n f l u e n c e t h e t r e a t m e n t o f a u t h o r i t y . F i e l d i n g r e f e r s t o r e l i g i o n and v i r t u e as "the g r e a t e s t P e r f e c t i o n s o f Human N a t u r e " and as "the Bands o f C i v i l S o c i e t y " ( p . 96) , w h i l e t h e f r e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and p h i l o s o p h y , b o t h by t h e c h a r a c t e r s and t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , e s t a b l i s h t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e w o r l d v i e w o f Tom JonZA as b a s i c e l e m e n t s i n the make-up o f a good man. A l t h o u g h the c h a r a c t e r s who o s t e n t a t i o u s l y draw t h e i r a u t h o r i t y from t h e s e s o u r c e s a r e comic b u t t s h a v i n g no r e a l a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e i s a sense i n w h i c h A l l w o r t h y seems t o have some degree o f r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y . ( T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y w i l l be examined l a t e r t o see i f a t y p e o f r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y , l i k e m o d i f i e d 45 j u d i c i a l authority, i s somehow annexed, i n F i e l d i n g ' s v i s i o n , to a good man.) A good man must be a sincere Christian, since the "good Turk" of Adams' consideration would be an improbable character i n F i e l d i n g ' s s e t t i n g s , and F i e l d i n g does not seem to entertain the idea that anyone w i l l be b a s i c a l l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y good without the assistance of r e l i g i o n and philosophy (cf Col. James i n AmoJLLa.) . By v i r t u e of h i s s i n c e r i t y and goodness, the good man eventually acquires some the minor power bestowed by r e l i g i o u s authority. Although the concept of the priesthood of a l l b e l i e v e r s i s f a r too r a d i c a l a view f o r F i e l d i n g , the treatment of r e l i g i o u s authority with respect to Allworthy minimizes the conventional Anglican p o s i t i o n that only a clergyman tends the s p i r i t u a l f l o c k , and emphasizes the r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e of Allworthy's role as a father f i g u r e . The philosophy i n Tom Jon&A i s a non-dogmatic undertone, with both c l a s s i c a l ideas and views current i n eighteenth-century philosophy, e s p e c i a l l y those verging on r e l i g i o u s philosophy, apparent, piecemeal, throughout the novel. F i e l d i n g ' s ideas are strongly reminiscent of those i n Butler's ' 2 sermons, although F i e l d i n g does not seem to accept, or at l e a s t he does not emphasize, the good and eviil_d i6botomy which i s the basis of Butler's philosophy. 3 The only contemporary philosopher quoted d i r e c t l y i s Shaftesbury, but F i e l d i n g , again, se l e c t s only some aspects and tends towards a more r e a l i s t i c philosophy than Shaftesbury's. Generally, though, F i e l d i n g i s less than kind to the multitude of contemporary philosophers. Didgeon comments that " f o r a l l these quacks and t h e i r panaceas, F i e l d i n g expresses the same scorn, which i s professed 4 without exception by a l l the humourists and best minds of h i s century." C l a s s i c a l philosophy i s given more respect. There are a number of b r i e f quotations, Stoicism i s apparent, though not d i r e c t l y discussed i n Tom Jon.HA, 46 and the "Antients" are mentioned i n general by the Man on the H i l l (p. 357) , by Philosopher Square (p. 716), and by Parson Supple (p. 231). In other words, the philosophy i n Tom JonU i s not based on s p e c i f i c philosophies, but i s general. F i e l d i n g ' s c o n t r o l l i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l stance i s expressed i n the Dedication to George L y t t l e t o n . Here F i e l d i n g claims the reader w i l l f i n d "nothing p r e j u d i c i a l to the Cause of Religion and Vir t u e , " and that i t has been h i s "sincere endeavour" "to recommend Goodness and Innocence" (p. 7). The use of " v i r t u e " and " r e l i g i o n " i n general terms sets the tone f o r the treatment of both philosophy and C h r i s t i a n i t y . When Thwackum uses the term " r e l i g i o n " i n such a general way, he i s forced by Square to be more s p e c i f i c , and accordingly expands h i s thought: "When I mention Religion, I mean the C h r i s t i a n Religion; and not only the Ch r i s t i a n Religion, but the Protestant Religion, and not only the Protestant Religion, but the Church of England" (p. 95). That F i e l d i n g puts t h i s r e s t r i c t i v e d e f i n i t i o n i n t o the mouth of Thwackum does not nec e s s a r i l y mean that he did not define r e l i g i o n i n a s i m i l a r way, e s p e c i a l l y as the main characters seem to be Anglicans (since they attend the services given by Anglican c l e r g y ) , and since the other Protestant r e l i g i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s of the time are occasionally mentioned with amusement and come under d i r e c t attack i n the l i n e "the pernicious P r i n c i p l e s of Methodism, or . . .any other h e r e t i c a l Sect" (p. 327) . On the other hand, F i e l d i n g himself uses "Religion" only i n a general sense, and only i n s i s t s on the Anglicanism of unsympathetic or comic characters; a sense of dogmatic didacticism i s e n t i r e l y avoided. The "Cause" of Virtue r e f e r s to Stoicism, e s p e c i a l l y as discussed i n contemporary philosophies such as those of both Shaftesbury and Bolingbroke. 47 When F i e l d i n g s a y s t h a t B e s i d e s d i s p l a y i n g t h a t B e a u t y o f V i r t u e w h i c h may a t t r a c t t h e A d m i r a t i o n o f M a n k i n d [he has ] a t t e m p t e d t o engage a s t r o n g e r M o t i v e t o Human A c t i o n i n h e r F a v o u r , b y c o n v i n c i n g Men, t h a t t h e i r t r u e I n t e r e s t d i r e c t s them t o a P u r s u i t o f h e r (p . 8) 5 he n o t o n l y e x p r e s s e s a g e n e r a l S t o i c s e n t i m e n t , b u t a g r e e s w i t h B u t l e r , 6 S h a f t e s b u r y , and B o l m g b r o k e . The most s i m i l a r , and most f r e q u e n t , p a s s a g e s a r e i n S h a f t e s b u r y , a l t h o u g h B u t l e r e x p r e s s e s much the same i d e a ( e s p e c i a l l y 7 r e g a r d i n g t h e a d m i r a t i o n mankind has towards v i r t u e ) . However , s i n c e t h e c o n c e p t was f i r s t S t o i c , i t may be assumed t h a t S h a f t e s b u r y , B o l i n g b r o k e , B u t l e r and F i e l d i n g a r e a l l b u i l d i n g on S t o i c f o u n d a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n e c h o i n g e a c h o t h e r . N o t a b l y , F i e l d i n g t r e a t s v i r t u e , i n the S t o i c s e n s e , as b e i n g as n e c e s s a r y t o a good man as C h r i s t i a n i t y ( e . g . " H i s m i n d was , i n d e e d , t empered w i t h t h a t P h i l o s o p h y w h i c h becomes a man and a C h r i s t i a n " [ p . 213] ) , and t h e r e i s a s ense i n w h i c h S t o i c v i r t u e i s n e c e s s a r y t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . The i m p o r t a n c e o f n o n - r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y t o t h e e t h i c a l b a s i s o f Tom Jone6 can be gauged by the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l p h i l o s o p h e r . T h a t t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s , i n f a c t , a p r o f e s s i o n a l p a r a s i t e , a s c o u n d r e l and a h y p o c r i t e may s e r v e t h e cause o f p h i l o s o p h y by e x p o s i n g a " p r e t e n d e d C h a m p i o n , " b u t i t a l s o comments on many o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y p h i l o s o p h e r s who, i t i s s u g g e s t e d , may a l s o be " p r e t e n d e d C h a m p i o n s . " P h i l o s o p h e r S q u a r e was d e e p l y r e a d i n t h e A n t i e n t s , and a p r o f e s t M a s t e r o f a l l the Works o f P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e . . . . I n M o r a l s he was a p r o f e s t P l a t o n i s t , and i n R e l i g i o n he i n c l i n e d t o be an A r i s t o t e l i a n . ( p . 94) The r e p e t i t i o n o f " p r o f e s t " e n c o u r a g e s a s u s p i c i o n a b o u t t h e d e p t h o f h i s l e a r n i n g , and F i e l d i n g expands on the theme o f S q u a r e ' s s u p e r f i c i a l i t y t o s t a t e t h a t S q u a r e r e g a r d e d " a l l V i r t u e as M a t t e r o f T h e o r y o n l y " ( p . 9 4 ) . 48 This, of course, i s the only explanation which can reconcile Square's actions with h i s words, but, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t emphasizes that the philosophy which Square professes i s t h e o r e t i c a l only and scarcely ever p r a c t i c a l . When Square's philosophy states that "human Nature [is the] Perfection of a l l V i r t u e , and that Vice [is] a Deviation from our Nature i n the same Manner as Deformity of Body i s " (p. 94) , i t n e c e s s a r i l y enters the realms of theory because p r a c t i c a l experience shows, i f not the contrary, at l e a s t that human nature i s f a r from being p e r f e c t l y anything, and i s c e r t a i n l y not p e r f e c t l y virtuous. Square's philosophy bears a resemblance to Hutcheson's, but also contains elements of the^philOsophies of Shaftesbury, Bolingbroke and even Bu t l e r , a l l of whom, f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons, came to the conclusion that man was n a t u r a l l y good. F i e l d i n g himself seems to agree with t h i s philosophy (with some reservations) i f the characters i n Tom JOYIU are any i n d i c a t i o n : most of the characters are b a s i c a l l y good. Those characters whose emphasis i s on the boAslc rather than the good have too l i t t l e c o n t r o l over t h e i r passions and desires, but intend no harm. A few characters, however, are indeed morally deformed and seem to have no p r a c t i c a l i n k l i n g of goodness or v i r t u e . With the exception of Dowling, though, most of these characters have a firm working knowledge of the theory of goodness and v i r t u e . Captain B l i f i l , B l i f i l , Thwackum and Square are the most vocal proponents of r e l i g i o n and v i r t u e , but t h i s t r a i t a c t u a l l y shows the depth of t h e i r v i l l a i n y . Many of the minor characters who are not exactly good do not, at l e a s t , prove t h e i r e v i l by/hypocritical canting, but those who profess goodness while meditating e v i l are consciously bad. Of the v i l l a i n s i n the novel, Philosopher Square stands apart because 49 he f i n a l l y r e p e n t s and becomes an a g e n t f o r g o o d . On t h e one h a n d , t h i s i s a p l o t c o n v e n i e n c e ; A l l w o r t h y must be a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the d e c e p t i o n p r a c t i s e d on h i m , a n d , t h e r e b e i n g no r e l i a b l e w i t n e s s e s p a r t y t o a l l e l e m e n t s o f t h e d e c e p t i o n and no m o t i v e f o r A l l w o r t h y i n q u i r i n g f u r t h e r i n t o t h e m a t t e r t h a n he a l r e a d y h a d , t h e f a s t e s t way o f s t r a i g h t e n i n g t h e p l o t i s f o r one o f t h e agent s i n the d e c e p t i o n t o r e l a t e t h e t r u t h . On the o t h e r h a n d , s i n c e F i e l d i n g does have a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r e s t o r e good t o a p o s i t i o n o f power , S q u a r e ' s c o n v e r s i o n , though p r e d o m i n a n t l y m o t i v a t e d by f e a r o f d e a t h , i s a s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t o f the power o f good o v e r e v i l and d e m o n s t r a t e s b o t h a r e s p e c t f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y and r e l i g i o u s o p t i m i s m . F i e l d i n g ' s a t t i t u d e towards C h r i s t i a n i t y i s , i n f a c t , e s t a b l i s h e d j u s t as c l e a r l y i n t h i s work w h i c h p r o f e s s e s a S t o i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w and w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s two comic and somewhat u n f a v o u r a b l y p r e s e n t e d c l e r g y , as i t i s i n Joseph kYldJiZWb where C h r i s t i a n i t y i s f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . N o t o n l y i s C h r i s t i a n i t y ' s power r e v e a l e d i n S q u a r e ' s c o n v e r s i o n , i t s n e c e s s i t y i n the make-up o f a good man i s i m p l i e d i n A l l w o r t h y ' s o b v i o u s l y deep and s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , i n Tom J o n e s ' e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d f o r t h e P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h ( w h i c h , i f n o t h i n g e l s e , shows t h a t F i e l d i n g f e l t o b l i g e d t o make h i s h e r o a C h r i s t i a n , s i n c e Tom J o n e s ' c l a i m o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i s q u i t e u n n e c e s s a r y t o t h e p l o t ) . I n the i n t r o d u c t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n o f S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y (p . 2 7 ) , t h e d e p t h o f h i s C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f i s e s t a b l i s h e d by h i s a t t i t u d e t o h i s w i f e ' s d e a t h . H i s b e l i e f i n Heaven i s so s t r o n g t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d h i s W i f e as o n l y gone a l i t t l e b e f o r e h im a J o u r n e y w h i c h he s h o u l d most c e r t a i n l y . . . t a k e a f t e r h e r ; and t h a t he h a d n o t t h e l e a s t Doubt o f m e e t i n g h e r a g a i n , i n a P l a c e where he s h o u l d n e v e r p a r t w i t h h e r more . 50 Our a c t u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o A l l w o r t h y i s when " h a v i n g s p e n t some M i n u t e s on h i s K n e e s , a Custom w h i c h he n e v e r b r o k e t h r o u g h on any a c c o u n t " ( p . 2 9 ) , he f i n d s the i n f a n t i n h i s b e d . S i m i l a r p r o o f s o f h i s C h r i s t i a n i t y abound t h r o u g h o u t the n o v e l , and i n a l m o s t e v e r y p r o l o n g e d a p p e a r a n c e o f A l l w o r t h y g some r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e r e v e r e n c e he has f o r r e l i g i o n . M o r e o v e r , A l l w o r t h y ' s C h r i s t i a n i t y p l a y s a l a r g e p a r t i n h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s r o l e as a m a g i s t r a t e . E v e n g i v e n t h a t t h e l a w , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y E n g l a n d , h a d s t r o n g r o o t s i n O l d , and o c c a s i o n a l l y New, T e s t a m e n t C h r i s t i a n i t y , A l l w o r t h y ' s l e c t u r e s t o t h e d e f e n d a n t s seem sermons r a t h e r t h a n e x p r e s s i o n s o f s e c u l a r law (e.g. , h i s l e c t u r e t o J e n n y Jones on c h a s t i t y i s b a s e d on r e a s o n , p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and C h r i s t i a n i t y , n o t on t h e l a w ) . Tom J o n e s , o f c o u r s e , does n o t seem p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l i g i o u s and many o f h i s most memorable e x p l o i t s w o u l d make few c h u r c h e s w i s h t o own h i m . B e s i d e s , h i s main f u n c t i o n i n t h e n o v e l i s as "hero i n l o v e , " n o t as an e x p o s i t o r o f m o r a l d o c t r i n e . N o n e t h e l e s s , Tom J o n e s c l e a r l y , as he h i m s e l f s a y s , " tho ' . . . a v e r y w i l d young F e l l o w , s t i l l i n [ h i s ] most s e r i o u s Moments and a t t h e B o t t o m , . . . [ i s ] r e a l l y a C h r i s t i a n " ( p . 2 9 2 ) . A f t e r a l l , he does s e t o u t as a " h e a r t y W e l l - w i s h e r . . . o f the P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o n " (p . 280) t o f i g h t a g a i n s t the P r e t e n d e r (which p r o v e s , I s u p p o s e , more o f h i s d o c t r i n a l and p o l i t i c a l l e a n i n g s t h a n h i s C h r i s t i a n i t y ) , and he f i n d s s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g h i s b r i e f s o j o u r n w i t h the army t o r e f e r t o h i s b e l i e f s . H i s c h a r i t y i s e v i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e book and i s , a t l e a s t t o some e x t e n t , an e x p r e s s i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y s i n c e F i e l d i n g e m p h a s i z e s c h a r i t y as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . E s p e c i a l l y r e m a r k a b l e i s Tom J o n e s ' s c h a r i t y t o B l i f i l n e a r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the s t o r y , when he t r i e s t o m i t i g a t e A l l w o r t h y ' s a n g e r 51 and p r e v e n t s M r s . M i l l e r from d e l i v e r i n g A l l w o r t h y ' s message o f c o n d e m n a t i o n , w i t h the c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t B l i f i l must n o t be d r i v e n "to sudden and v i o l e n t D e s p a i r " b e c a u s e he was n o t f i t t o d i e i n h i s p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n (II, 9 6 7 ) . T h a t J o n e s i s g e n u i n e l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t the i>Oi)JL o f h i s enemy, r a t h e r t h a n j u s t h i s t e m p o r a l w e l l - b e i n g , i s c e r t a i n l y an i n s t a n c e o f h i s C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h i s t r e a t m e n t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e t r e a t m e n t o f a u t h o r i t y i n Tom JonU. The c o r r u p t i o n and s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h e v i d e n t i n many o f the c l e r g y c r e a t e d o u b t s (as i n JoAZph kndJWJOb) a b o u t the v a l i d i t y o f the a u t h o r i t y o f o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n and a l s o p r o v i d e s some s o r t o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l n e g l e c t o f C h r i s t i a n p r e c e p t s , f o r , as C h a u c e r ' s P a r s o n s a y s , . . . i f g o l d r u s t e , what s h a l i r e n do? F o r i f a p r e e s t be f o u l , on whom we t r u s t , No wonder i s a l ewed man t o r u s t e ; And shame i t i s , i f a p r e s t t a k e k e e p , A s h i t e n s h e p h e r d e and a c l e n e s h e e p . F i e l d i n g p r e s e n t s an example o f the " s h i t e n shepherde" and t h e " c l e n e s h e e p , " and s u g g e s t s t h a t r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y b e l o n g s t o the r e l i g i o u s , be t h e y s h e p h e r d s o r s h e e p . A l l w o r t h y (and Jones ) must d e m o n s t r a t e m o r a l and e t h i c a l e x c e l l e n c e b e f o r e t h e y have t h e r i g h t t o a d v i s e and admonish o t h e r s {<L.Q. Jones can p r e a c h c h a r i t y b e c a u s e he i s c h a r i t a b l e , b u t he i s l e s s s u c c e s s f u l p r e a c h i n g s e x u a l m o r a l i t y ) . M o r e o v e r , once t h e i r goodness i s p r o v e n , i t i s n o t o n l y t h e i r r i g h t , b u t t h e i r d u t y t o e x e r c i s e some form o f r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y . On the o t h e r h a n d , t h e " s h i t e n shepherde" l o s e s h i s r i g h t t o a u t h o r i t y (but n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h i s power) t o t h e same d e g r e e he s t r a y s f rom C h r i s t i a n p r e c e p t s o r from h i s d u t y as a r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y . P a r s o n S u p p l e d e m o n s t r a t e s the l a t t e r r e a s o n f o r l o s s o f a u t h o r i t y . He seems t o be i n t e n d e d as a comic b.utt — h i s name s u g g e s t s someone who w i l l e q u i v o c a t e and c o n t r a d i c t h i m s e l f t o p l e a s e h i s p a t r o n — and h i s r o l e as a h a n g e r - o n o f a v i o l e n t l y t e m p e r a m e n t a l man makes p o s s i b l e many comic s c e n e s . F o r some r e a s o n , t h o u g h , t h e comedy o f h i s r o l e i s f r e q u e n t l y m u t e d . P e r h a p s F i e l d i n g h a d s e c o n d t h o u g h t s a b o u t t h e humour o f a "supple" p a r s o n , o r p e r h a p s he d e c i d e d t h a t P a r t r i d g e ' s s l i g h t l y o b s e q u i o u s n a t u r e p r o v i d e d much the same s o r t o f comedy w i t h o u t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c a s t i n g a r e f l e c t i o n on the c l e r g y . A t any r a t e , P a r s o n S u p p l e m a i n l y e x i s t s "to s w e l l a p r o g r e s s and t o p e r f o r m n e c e s s a r y m i n o r d u t i e s such as p h y s i c a l l y r e s t r a i n i n g W e s t e r n from a c t s o f v i o l e n c e . P a r s o n S u p p l e i s i n t r o d u c e d as f o l l o w s : a g o o d - n a t u r e d w o r t h y Man; b u t c h i e f l y r e m a r k a b l e f o r h i s g r e a t t a c i t u r n i t y a t T a b l e , t h o ' h i s Mouth was n e v e r s h u t a t i t . . . . However , t h e C l o t h was no s o o n e r t a k e n away, t h a n he a lways made s u f f i c i e n t Amends f o r h i s S i l e n c e : F o r he was a v e r y h e a r t y F e l l o w ; and h i s C o n v e r s a t i o n was o f t e n e n t e r t a i n i n g , n e v e r o f f e n s i v e . ( I , 187-88) E x c e p t f o r " w o r t h y , " t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n t o i n d i c a t e a c l e r g y m a n , though t h e i n c l u s i o n o f " g o o d - n a t u r e d " i m m e d i a t e l y i n d i c a t e s he i s a s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r . He may be c o m i c , i n t h e same way t h a t Adams i s c o m i c , b u t b i t t e r c r i t i c i s m does n o t seem t o be i n t e n d e d . I n F i e l d i n g ' s p h i l o s o p h y , b e i n g g o o d - n a t u r e d e x c u s e s a m u l t i t u d e o f human w e a k n e s s e s . And i t i s weakness t h a t i s S u p p l e ' s f a u l t . He i s a p r a c t i s i n g , n o t j u s t a p r o f e s s e d C h r i s t i a n , f o r i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g c o n c e r n e d about t h e s i n f u l n e s s o f a c t i o n s ( I , 1 8 9 ) , he d e m o n s t r a t e s many C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s : he i s .meek, and a peacemaker a n d seems g e n u i n e l y c o n c e r n e d about t h e w e l l -b e i n g a n d h a p p i n e s s o f o t h e r s . On one o c c a s i o n , m e n t i o n i s made t h a t he "began t o m e d i t a t e a P o r t i o n o f D o c t r i n e f o r t h e e n s u i n g Sunday" ( I I , 624) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he i s a c o n s c i e n t i o u s p r e a c h e r and t h a t he knows S c r i p t u r e 53 w e l l enough t o f o r m u l a t e a sermon w i t h o u t h i s B i b l e i n f r o n t o f h i m . E v e n the d e v i l can quote S c r i p t u r e s , o f c o u r s e , b u t S u p p l e n e v e r m i s u s e s h i s knowledge i n s o p h i s t r y as Thwackum d o e s . T h e r e i s a s l i g h t s u g g e s t i o n o f g l u t t o n y i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n and a m e n t i o n o f some prowess "at h i s c u p s , " b u t F i e l d i n g does n o t r e q u i r e a b s t i n e n c e o f h i s c l e r g y m e n and Supp le . ' s a p p e t i t e seems more a p r o o f o f h i s h e a r t i n e s s t h a n an i n s t a n c e o f one o f the s even d e a d l y s i n s . I n d e e d , S u p p l e i s one o f the most s i n l e s s men i n the n o v e l ( a t l e a s t i n terms o f " s i n s o f c o m m i s s i o n " ) , b u t as M r s . Honour p u t s i t , he needs "more S p i r i t " o r , as h i s name s u g g e s t s , needs more b a c k b o n e . M r s . Honour m e n t i o n s t h a t S u p p l e ' s whole Dependance i s on the S q u i r e , and so t h e p o o r G e n t l e m a n , though he i s a v e r y r e l i g i o u s good s o r t o f Man and t a l k s o f t h e Badness o f s u c h D o i n g s b e h i n d t h e S q u i r e ' s B a c k , y e t he d a r e s n o t say h i s S o u l i s h i s own t o h i s F a c e . ( I I , 809) T h e r e i s an e l e m e n t o f p i t y i n t h i s p a s s a g e . S u p p l e i s i n bondage t o W e s t e r n , and h i s weakness f o r g e s h i s c h a i n s . Adams was i n a worse economic s i t u a t i o n t h a n S u p p l e i s , b u t Adams h a d t h e c o u r a g e and s t r e n g t h o f s p i r i t , as w e l l as t h e n a i v e t y , t o e x e r c i s e h i s judgement and a u t h o r i t y as he saw f i t . The adage "use i t o r l o s e i t " h o l d s t r u e f o r a u t h o r i t y , and S u p p l e , b e c a u s e he d a r e s n o t use h i s a u t h o r i t y , l o s e s i t . T h i s , h o w e v e r , i s more r e g r e t t a b l e t h a n l o s s c a u s e d by m i s u s i n g a u t h o r i t y o r a b a n d o n i n g a c t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y , b e c a u s e S u p p l e i s s t i l l a v e r y l i k e a b l e p e r s o n . H i s weakness i s n o t r e p r e -h e n s i b l e , a n d , t h o u g h c o m i c , S u p p l e i s t o o n i c e a p e r s o n t o m e r i t many o f F i e l d i n g ' s s a t i r i c a l c u t s . Thwackum, on the o t h e r h a n d , l o s e s h i s a u t h o r i t y b e c a u s e he c u t s h i m s e l f o f f f rom i t s s o u r c e b o t h by h i s l a c k o f good n a t u r e and l a c k o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . 54 In f a c t , i f i t were not for several reminders of the fact scattered throughout the novel, Thwackum would not be remembered as a clergyman at a l l . Our introduction to Thwackum i s as he administers "so severe a Whipping, that i t p o s s i b l y f e l l l i t t l e short of the Torture with which Confessions are i n some Countries extorted from Criminals" (I, 222) . Our i n i t i a l impression i s continued i n a de s c r i p t i o n of Thwackum's tenets as we f i n d that, along with Square, he never mentions the word "goodness" i n any discourse on morality ( I , 126), and the aut h o r i a l voice describes Thwackum as a " f a l s e and pretended Champion" ( I , 129) of C h r i s t i a n i t y . We f i n d that Allworthy "never l i k e d t h i s Man. He knew him to be proud and i l l - n a t u r e d ; he also knew that h i s D i v i n i t y i t s e l f was t i n c t u r e d with h i s Temper. . ." ( I I , 929). Of a l l these f a u l t s , i t i s the i l l - n a t u r e which makes him a v i l l a i n , because although pride, anger, c r u e l t y and hypocrisy are a l l serious f a u l t s , the f i r s t two are instances of lack of c o n t r o l and even the second two could e x i s t i n someone who was t r y i n g to reform, but, to F i e l d i n g , bad nature means that pride and temper are constant companions and that the i l l - n a t u r e d person does not see them, or even c r u e l t y and hypocrisy, as v i c e s . Faults w i l l appear i n a good-natured person, as Jones proves, and not s e r i o u s l y mar h i s character, but, i n Fi e l d i n g ' s view, bad nature t a i n t s a person's e n t i r e l i f e , turning everything to e v i l . Thwackum, of course, appears to have good points which induce Allworthy to keep him as a tutor f o r Tom and B l i f i l . Thwackum was "an e x c e l l e n t Scholar, and most indefatigable i n teaching the two Lads. Add to t h i s the s t r i c t Severity of h i s L i f e and Manners, an unimpeached honesty, and a most devout Attachment to Religion" ( I I , 929). His knowledge and h i s r e l i g i o n , however, only make him more e f f e c t i v e i n h i s s o p h i s t i c arguments, h i s dili g e n c e i n 55 teaching i s revealed mainly i n a s a d i s t i c d e l i g h t i n whipping, and the " s t r i c t Severity of h i s L i f e and Manners" suggests only a cold, i n s e n s i t i v e person incapable of experiencing the beauty, pleasure and joy of the world around him. None of the good characters could be sa i d to manifest " s t r i c t Severity i n L i f e and Manners" i n the sense that Thwackum appears to; even Allworthy enjoys the pleasures of sense and f l e s h . In F i e l d i n g ' s opinion, the wisest Man i s the l i k e l i e s t to possess a l l worldly Blessings i n an eminent Degree: For as that Moderation which Wisdom prescribes i s the surest Way to useful Wealth; so can i t alone q u a l i f y us t o t a s t e many Pleasures. The wise Man g r a t i f i e s every Appetite and every Passion, while the Fool s a c r i f i c e s a l l the r e s t to p a l l and s a t i a t e one. (I, 282) . Severity and goodness can only be combined i n wise j u d i c i a l moments, and Thwackum's uncontrolled temper makes such j u s t i c e u n l i k e l y . The r e s u l t of Thwackum's bad natured character i s the f o r f e i t u r e of hi s authority. A minor example i s that Tom reje c t s Thwackum's authority as a teacher because a teacher-pupil r e l a t i o n s h i p had never exi s t e d . Thwackum r e l i e d on beatings (power) rather than authority to e s t a b l i s h c o n t r o l , and so when the beatings are no longer p o s s i b l e , neither i s any c o n t r o l . S i m i l a r l y , Thwackum finds he has no r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o l over Allworthy; instead, as discussed l a t e r , Allworthy holds authority over him by v i r t u e of having r i g h t on h i s side. Here i s a prime example of a "shiten Shepherde and a clene sheep," and the sheep has more power than the shepherd. Indeed, when Thwackum t r i e s to exercise h i s authority as a clergyman, he a c t u a l l y destroys what t r u s t and tolerance Allworthy had f o r him. At the end of the novel, Thwackum continues at h i s Vicarage. He hath made many f r u i t l e s s Attempts to regain the Confidence of Allworthy, or to 56 i n g r a t i a t e himself with Jones, both of whom he f l a t t e r s to t h e i r Faces, and abuses behind t h e i r Backs. (I I , 980) A l l h i s great "Appearance of Religion," l i k e that ofiCalpt. B l i f i l , does not prevent him from becoming a toadying v i l l a i n , nor can r e l i g i o u s trappings supply actual r e l i g i o u s authority as defined previously. The clergy, then, i n Tom 3onU have no r e l i g i o u s authority. Supple i s comic rather than e f f e c t i v e l y good, while Thwackum i s s l i g h t l y comic and e f f e c t i v e l y e v i l , but no clergyman e x i s t s who Is a sincere C h r i s t i a n conscientiously f u l f i l l i n g h i s duties as a s p i r i t u a l authority. Even the chaplain of the army i s mentioned with a suggestion of drunkenness, and the only casual reference to a good r e l i g i o u s authority concerns Abraham Adams and i s at the very end of the novel. Moreover, Adams i s being i n s t a l l e d as a tutor, h i s most i n e f f e c t i v e r o l e , which allows l i t t l e scope f o r r e l i g i o u s authority. The treatment of the clergy i n Tom Jon&6, then, would suggest an unfavourable attit u d e towards r e l i g i o u s authority, but, despite the Lieutenant' claim that "to abuse the Body i s to abuse the Function i t s e l f " ( I , 373), F i e l d i n g claims the novel contains "nothing p r e j u d i c i a l to the Cause of Religion" ( I , 7). Moreover, the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of the novel supports F i e l d i n g ' claim. Much of the p o s i t i v e treatment, of course, i s the r e s u l t of the favourable comments by the narrative voice, but i f the n a r r a t i v e voice were the only element supporting r e l i g i o n , the tone of the novel would be much more s a t i r i c than i s the case because the a u t h o r i a l voice would be i n c o n f l i c t with the characters and p l o t . I t i s at t h i s point that Allworthy's importance to the r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e of the novel becomes c l e a r . He i s the mainstay, both as an example and as a spokesman, of the p o s i t i v e side of the treatment of r e l i g i o n i n Tom JonU. He i s , however, not a clergyman, which means that e i t h e r actual r e l i g i o u s authority, i n terms of the r i g h t , power and duty to guide, counsel and reprimand others i n r e l i g i o n and morality, does not e x i s t i n Tom Jon(U>, and need not e x i s t i n a p o s i t i v e r e l i g i o u s s e t t i n g , or that one need not be a clergyman to have r e l i g i o u s authority. Allworthy's p o s i t i o n as the head of the leading household i n the neighbourhood, as the Squire, and as a magistrate makes him somewhat akin to an Old Testament p a t r i a r c h , and, l i k e a p a t r i a r c h , h i s f a t h e r l y c o n t r o l over the d i s t r i c t has r e l i g i o u s overtones. He repeatedly counsels and guides others on r e l i g i o u s matters even when he has no personal i n t e r e s t i n them and when i t would be much less troublesome to ignore the r e l i g i o u s aspects of the s i t u a t i o n and concentrate s o l e l y on the l e g a l and p r a c t i c a l aspects ( £ . g . i n r e l a t i o n to Jenny Jones, Partridge, Western and Mr. Nightingale). Therefore, he must f e e l i t i s h i s duty. That others accept h i s reprimands and t r y to follow h i s r e l i g i o u s counsel proves that he has some authority i n matters of r e l i g i o n , and since there i s never the s l i g h t e s t i n d i c a t i o n of a u t h o r i a l disapproval of any of the instances of Allworthy's using r e l i g i o u s authority, i t may be assumed that F i e l d i n g f e l t Allworthy had the r i g h t to r e l i g i o u s authority. His p o s i t i o n as a magistrate expands the scope of h i s authority, since he would have been i n charge of such matters as pension arrangements for "maimed s o l d i e r s , " 1 0 overseeing parish o f f i c e r s , 1 1 and maintaining bridges, 12 gaols, and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . In a very p r a c t i c a l way, then, Allworthy would have had control over the well-being of the parish and p a r t i c u l a r l y over i t s objects of c h a r i t y . Moreover, the i n c l u s i o n of matters of morality under the l e g a l system extends Allworthy's authority to c o n t r o l over what would now be considered purely r e l i g i o u s concerns (e.g.unwed mothers, swearing 58 e t c . ) . The union of control over p u b l i c well-being, c h a r i t y and morality gives a p a t r i a r c h a l and r e l i g i o u s cast to Allworthy's role as an authority f i g u r e . The combination of these r e l i g i o u s overtones i n Allworthy's authority roles establishes a favourable p o s i t i o n f o r r e l i g i o n i n Tom JoneA despite the comedy and lack of authority of the clergy i n the novel. However, only r e l i g i o n i n a general sense and on a personal l e v e l are enhanced; " o f f i c i a l " r e l i g i o n (and philosophy) are undercut. There i s a sense that making a profession of r e l i g i o n or philosophy suggests i n s i n c e r i t y , or at l e a s t that those who protest the loudest and those who say nothing are equally l i k e l y to have strong r e l i g i o u s or ph i l o s o p h i c a l convictions. Supple's character, moreover, suggests that even s i n c e r i t y and strong convictions are not adequate; one must have a strong character as w e l l . Also necessary i s a balance of r e l i g i o n and philosphy. The r i v a l r y of Thwackum and Square s a t i r i z e s , to some extent, the quarrels, of r e l i g i o n and philosophy during the eighteenth century, e s p e c i a l l y those which concentrated on one r e l i g i o u s or p h i l o s o p h i c a l problem to the exclusion of a l l others. As F i e l d i n g says, "had not Thwackum too much neglected V i r t u e , and Square R e l i g i o n . . .and had not both discarded a l l natural Goodness of Heart, they had never been represented as Objects of Derision i n t h i s History" (I, 129). Again, the Man on the H i l l finds inner peace only when he understands both philosophy and r e l i g i o n , and even Philosopher Square f i n a l l y discovers that philosophy alone does not teach one how to d i e . The Man on the H i l l , though, i s not as happy as he might be because he does not love h i s fellow man — an aspect of natural goodness of heart. As i n JoiZph kndh£W&, then, the good man must have sound r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l convictions, a strong character, and natural goodness of heart which induces him to del i g h t i n man and nature and engage i n acts of benevolence. The concept of the "good man" i s v i t a l to the philosophy of Tom 3on&6 Mr. Allworthy i s a good man; he i s not perfect or i n f a l l i b l e because such t r a i t s have "never yet been seen i n human Nature" (I, 136). In f a c t , Allworthy's mistakes cause a great deal of trouble. However, he always has the courage to act as he feels i s best, and h i s sound r e l i g i o u s and philosoph i c a l convictions give him the wisdom to make the r i g h t decision whenever i t i s humanly possible to judge accurately the truth of the evidence on which the judgement i s made. Unfortunately, the good man i s at some disadvantage because of the number of apparently good men who present convincing l i e s as evidence, and because the good man i s always slow at discovering e v i l i n others; e v i l i s so l i t t l e i n his thoughts that he does not immediately recognize i t . Nonetheless, the good man's benevolence, good-nature, j u s t i c e compassion and wisdom make him supremely happy, e s p e c i a l l y when doing good to others, and make him beloved of a l l who are b a s i c a l l y good. A good man also has a natural authority of l i m i t e d r e l i g i o u s and j u d i c i a l power over b a s i c a l l y good people who have some f a u l t s , and even over corrupt people who are, a f t e r a l l , at some pains to appear good and to impose on good people. Although the good man's ch a r i t y , j u s t i c e and benevolence n a t u r a l l y increase the amount of good i n the world and lessen i t s s u f f e r i n g , he also functions as a p r i c k to people's consciences. F i e l d i n g does not seem to provide the morally deformed, such as B l i f i l , with consciences, but those on the verge of corruption or those whom fate has led i n t o courses which they know are not r i g h t are shamed by the good man's righteousness and encouraged by h i s example. For example, that Allworthy e x i s t s i s reason enough f o r Jones to 60 keep a moral perspective and not become a "hardened sinner." Jones himself i s enough of a good man to stimulate consciences i n others and counsel them about goodness, but h i s incontinence lessens h i s effectiveness, e s p e c i a l l y on points of morality {Z.Q., when he i s t a l k i n g to Nightingale about Nancy). Indeed, F i e l d i n g allows every good-natured character the p o t e n t i a l to become a good man (or a good woman), and as a good-natured person's natural bene-volence and sense of r i g h t and wrong gradually overcome any propensity to vi c e , he or she approaches the highest possible degree of human excellence. In terms of authority, the concept of the good man i s very important. The good man has r e l i g i o u s and q u a s i - j u d i c i a l (social) authority, but OVlZy a good man has such authority to any degree because acceptable exercise of authority demands that the person ex e r c i s i n g authority be more honest and virtuous than the person being counselled or corrected. Accordingly, the better, i n r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l terms, an authority figure i s , the greater his authority. Hence a clergyman or a magistrate who has nothing of the divine but h i s role has very l i t t l e authority, while a private i n d i v i d u a l , nearly angelic i n nature and action, w i l l have considerable authority, but complete human authority only e x i s t s when a clergyman or magistrate i s also a good man, for he not only has pu b l i c acceptance of h i s authority, he has support and sanction from greater a u t h o r i t i e s . B a s i c a l l y , a magistrate or clergyman with v i r t u a l l y no f a u l t s has, or i s accorded, more r i g h t to reprimand others f o r t h e i r f a u l t s than has a magistrate or clergyman who i s r i d d l e d with v i c e s , and the good magistrate or clergyman i s therefore more e f f e c t i v e and has more authority than h i s corrupt colleague. A l l the above, of course, applies more d i r e c t l y to r e l i g i o n than to j u s t i c e since the law demands less personal p e r f e c t i o n , and since the authority of a magistrate i s p h y s i c a l l y enforced regardless of h i s moral 61 r i g h t t o a u t h o r i t y . M o r e o v e r , t h o u g h t h e o p i n i o n o f o t h e r r e l i g i o u s p e o p l e w i l l , t o some e x t e n t , e n f o r c e t h e r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y o f a good man a t l e a s t on the m o d e r a t e l y r e l i g i o u s , where law i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y an a c t u a l m a g i s t r a t e has any power e x c e p t i n t h o s e n e b u l o u s r e g i o n s o f h o n o u r w h i c h f a l l between law and r e l i g i o n and i n m a t t e r s i n v o l v i n g p e r s o n a l r i g h t s . S e c u l a r m a t t e r s i n v o l v i n g h o n o u r f a l l u n d e r the s o c i a l (as opposed t o s p i r i t u a l ) a u t h o r i t y o f a good man more even t h a n u n d e r t h a t o f a m a g i s t r a t e , and some m a t t e r s c o u l d be d e c i d e d e i t h e r by a m a g i s t r a t e on t h e b a s i s o f law o r by a good man on t h e b a s i s o f j u s t i c e . Such a c a s e i s M r . A n d e r s o n ' s a t t e m p t t o r o b J o n e s . The law w o u l d have hanged A n d e r s o n as a highwayman, b u t J o n e s , as a good man, d e c i d e s t h a t j u s t i c e demands some a d v i c e and "a c o u p l e o f G u i n e a s f o r t h e immediate S u p p o r t o f h i s W i f e and F a m i l y " ( I I , 6 8 0 ) . The s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y o f a good man c o n t a i n s a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f b e n e v o l e n c e . B e n e v o l e n c e and mercy a r e , i n f a c t , p r i m a r y f e a t u r e s o f t h e a u t h o r i t y o f a good man. T h e r e a r e o n l y two m a g i s t r a t e s o f any i m p o r t a n c e i n Tom 30Y12J>: S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y and S q u i r e W e s t e r n . They r e p r e s e n t d i r e c t o p p o s i t e s i n c o u n t r y m a g i s t r a t e s and p r o v i d e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , e x e m p l a r y and comic s c e n e s . However , S q u i r e W e s t e r n , a l t h o u g h a r e a l m a g i s t r a t e , s e ldom a p p e a r s as s u c h ; t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y i n Tom 3OYI<U> i s e n t i r e l y e s t a b l i s h e d b y A l l w o r t h y . S q u i r e W e s t e r n u s u a l l y a c t s as a m a g i s t r a t e o n l y when h i s own i n t e r e s t s a r e c o n c e r n e d , a p p a r e n t l y a common enough s i t u a t i o n i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l a n d where "the m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e n o m i n a t e d [as J u s t i c e s o f the P e a c e ! a c c e p t e d t h e h o n o u r and i g n o r e d t h e d u t i e s . " 1 ^ M e n t i o n i s made o f W e s t e r n ' s e x e r c i s e o f j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y i n m i n o r p o i n t s i n d i f f e r e n t t o h im s u c h as 62 swearing: Supple's sermons against swearing so f a r operated on h i s [Western's] conscience, that he put the Laws very severely i n Execution against others, and the Magistrate was the only Person i n the Parish who could swear with Impunity. (I, 304) The only actual example of Western acting as a magistrate, though, concerns Mrs. Honour and Mrs. Western. Honour had i n s u l t e d Mrs. Western, who earnestly desired "her Brother to execute J u s t i c e s h i p (for i t was indeed a S y l l a b l e more than Justice) on the Wench" (I, 357). Western i s , at f i r s t , quite w i l l i n g to oblige h i s s i s t e r , which indicates e i t h e r h i s contempt for or ignorance of the law. That i t i s the l a t t e r i s i n d i c a t e d by the mention of h i s c l e r k who has "some understanding i n the Law of t h i s Realm," implying that Western has no such understanding. Western's conduct i n the scene, and F i e l d i n g ' s comments, reveal that Western has no q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r h i s o f f i c e . More frightening i n a consideration of execution of the law i s the digression on Western's usual procedure as a magistrate: In Matters of high Importance, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Cases r e l a t i n g to the Game, the J u s t i c e was not always attentive to these Admonitions of h i s Clerk: For, indeed, i n executing the Laws under that Head, many Justices of Peace suppose they have a large d i s c r e t i o n a r y Power. By Virtue of which, under the Notion of searching for and taking away Engines f o r the Destruction of the Game, they often commit Trespasses, and sometimes Felony at t h e i r Pleasure. (I, 357) In other words, Western, oblivious to the law, uses his authority as a magistrate to protect h i s own i n t e r e s t . In terms of absolute j u d i c i a l authority, then, or authority as a manifestation of the concept " j u s t i c e , " Western has l i t t l e a ctual authority. He has power, because of h i s s t a t i o n , h i s wealth and h i s b i r t h , but h i s power i s not j u s t i f i e d by authority. Again, the onus of e s t a b l i s h i n g good authority i s on Allworthy, and his p o s i t i o n as a magistrate makes him even more e f f e c t i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p o s i t i v e treatment of j u d i c i a l authority than he i s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p o s i t i v e r e l i g i o u s authority, since he has no outward claim to the l a t t e r . Unlike Western, Allworthy takes h i s duty as a magistrate s e r i o u s l y . Western seems to act as a magistrate only to protect h i s game, but Allworthy seems to have taken h i s duties as J u s t i c e of the Peace s e r i o u s l y . He i s shown i n h i s r o l e as magistrate i n three scenes i n the novel, and the observation that As Mr. Allworthy was a J u s t i c e of Peace, c e r t a i n Things occurred i n Examinations concerning Bastards, and such l i k e , which are apt to give great Offence to the chaste Ears of V i r g i n s (I, 55-56) suggests that Allworthy exercised h i s j u d i c i a l authority with some frequency. Mention i s also made ( I I , 969) of Allworthy having been on the Grand Jury, which indicates that he attends to a l l elements of h i s duty as a magistrate. Simply attending to h i s duties as a magistrate, however, would not be enough to e s t a b l i s h a favourable attitude i n Tom JonU, towards j u d i c i a l authority, e s p e c i a l l y since no great d e t a i l i s provided and Western establishes a moderately unfavourable attit u d e i n the reader. ( I t i s only "moderately" unfavourable because Western's role as a magistrate i s very minor.) I t i s , instead, Allworthy's a t t i t u d e both i n actual hearings and i n personal matters requiring judgement which argues f o r the existence of r e a l j u s t i c e i n the world of Tom 3on2A. As Shaftesbury s a i d , "a virtuous Administration i s i n a manner n e c e s s a r i l y accompany'd with Virtue i n the Magistrate. Otherwise i t 14 could be of l i t t l e e f f e c t , and of no long duration." Allworthy i s described 64 as one whose natural Love of J u s t i c e , joined to h i s Coolness of Temper, made him always a most p a t i e n t Magistrate i n hearing a l l the Witnesses which an accused Person could produce i n h i s Defence. (I, 100) We also f i n d that Allworthy never punished anyone i n a passion (I, 309), and was p a r t i c u l a r l y c a r e f u l to avoid being influenced by "private Resentment." A l l of these points prove h i s fairness as a judge. What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y notable about Allworthy, though,is that he c a r r i e s h i s j u d i c i a l authority beyond actual hearings i n t o d a i l y l i f e and applies the same standards to himself. His lectures to Jones are i n the same s t y l e as h i s lectures to defendants, and he examines the d e t a i l s of every matter as i f he were determining the merits of a l e g a l case. This p r a c t i c e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y notable when Mrs. Waters i s revealing the secrets of Jones's b i r t h ( I I , 940). Although Allworthy i s personally i n t e r e s t e d i n the d i s c l o s u r e , h i s attit u d e i s that of an i m p a r t i a l judge, as i t i s on several occasions when Allworthy l i s t e n s to evidence against Jones and e s p e c i a l l y when he examines Dowling. This indicates that the p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e form part of Allworthy's character as a person, not j u s t of h i s character as a magistrate, and t h i s element of h i s character i s e s s e n t i a l to h i s presentation as a good man. According to Allworthy, God has "implanted i n our Minds" P r i n c i p l e s of natural J u s t i c e , and . . . o r i g i n a l Notions of Right and Wrong . . . by which we were to judge, not only i n a l l Matters which were not revealed, but even of the Truth of Revelation i t s e l f . (I, 80) A good man must have easy access to these p r i n c i p l e s and be able to apply them i n a l l cases i f he i s to choose h i s own actions c o r r e c t l y . He must, 65 moreover, be able to judge others i f he i s to counsel or reprimand them e f f e c t i v e l y . However, i f the good man, r e l y i n g on h i s natural sense of j u s t i c e , makes the wrong decision based on i n c o r r e c t or incomplete evidence when he has no reason to suspect the evidence, he i s no less a good man. Here F i e l d i n g dramatizes h i s concept of benevolism as he demonstrates that temporary and apparent e v i l s eventually work out to better solutions than would have been possible i f the temporary i l l s had been avoided. B l i f i l must be given enough rope to hang, not j u s t hobble himself, and Jones must be tempered i n t o a hero,not j u s t warmed by h i s pedagogue's d i s c i p l i n e . Since Allworthy's mistakes are expressions of j u d i c i a l authority based on a good man's sense of j u s t i c e , h i s mistakes work ulti m a t e l y f o r the best, which suggests some degree of P r o v i d e n t i a l c o n t r o l . I t i s f o r t h i s reason, among others, that forgiveness i s not synonymous with j u s t i c e , even when there are m i t i g a t i n g circumstances, so that j u d i c i a l and s o c i a l authority c a r r i e s the o b l i g a t i o n to condemn and to punish whenever necessary for the good of a l l or f o r the ultimate good of the i n d i v i d u a l (cp. B u t l e r , WohkA, Sermon 8, pp. 139-140). This i s why Allworthy has j u d i c i a l authority — even outside his role as magistrate — and Jones does not have i t . Allworthy describes Jones's propensity to forgiveness as mistaken Mercy [which] i s not only Weakness but borders on I n j u s t i c e , and i s very pernicious to Society, as i t encourages Vice. (II, 969) Allworthy's decisions demonstrate proper mercy because he uses mercy to encourage a delinquent to reform, not to dispense with punishment altogether. For example, he e x i l e s Jones as a j u s t punishment f o r (supposed) crimes, but 66 gives him 500£ so that Jones w i l l not be forced i n t o other crimes as a consequence of the punishment. Jones exercises t h i s sort of j u d i c i a l d i s c r e t i o n when he forgives Anderson only a f t e r he i s convinced that Anderson i s not r e a l l y a c r i m i n a l . On the other hand, such forgiveness could w e l l have been f a t a l to some other t r a v e l l e r i f Jones had been mistaken, but, as Allworthy says, "the Lord disposeth a l l Things" ( I I , 942), and Jones's decisions, since he i s a f l e d g l i n g "good man," take an active part i n the divine plan for ultimate good, at l e a s t as long as Jones does not forgive i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . F i e l d i n g , however, does not depend only on implications that there i s a divine plan and some P r o v i d e n t i a l c o n t r o l over events i n the novel. On two occasions, Tom Jones i s c i t e d as a P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, and although, when he rescues Mrs. Waters, h i s claim that "heaven seemed to have designed him as the happy Instrument of her Protection" ( I , 496) i s roughly equivalent to " i t was lucky I came along," the unnecessary invocation of "heaven" suggests that more than luck i s involved i n the prevention of serious harm. The d i r e c t , and repeated, reference to Providence a f t e r Jones's rescue of the Man of the H i l l (I, 448) s i m i l a r l y suggest to the reader that e v i l forces w i l l not be ultimately v i c t o r i o u s i n the novel: ' i . .we were j u s t departing when we heard you c a l l f o r Assistance, which I must say, Providence alone seems to have sent you.' — 'Providence indeed,' c r i e s the o l d Gentleman, ' i f i t be so.'. . . .'Be thankful then,' c r i e s Jones, 'to that Providence to which you owe your Deliverance. . . . " I was a f r a i d your Worship would have been angry with me f o r l e t t i n g him i n ; and to be cert a i n I should not have done i t , had I not seen by the Moonlight, th a t he was a Gentleman, and almost frozen to Death. And to be cer t a i n i t must have been some good Angel that sent him h i t h e r , and tempted me to do i t . ' (I, 448-89) 67 Moreover, even the aut h o r i a l voice suggests that Providence may be an active agent i n the novel: Here an Accident happened of a very extraordinary Kind; one indeed of those strange Chances, whence very good and grave Men have concluded that Providence often interposes i n the Discovery of the most secret V i l l a n y , i n order to caution Men from q u i t t i n g the Paths of Honesty, however warily they tread i n those of Vice. ( I I , 920) Less d i r e c t than these instances, and f a r more frequent, are the suggestions by r_numerous b e n e f i c i a r i e s that both Jones and Allworthy are angels i n human form. Again, such phrases could be p l a t i t u d e s , but t h e i r r e p e t i t i o n and the serious language i n which they are couched cannot but create an impression of divine influence. Although there i s only one r e a l j u d i c i a l authority figure i n Tom JonQA, he i s the c o n t r o l l i n g authority figure and also a major character i n the novel. These facts make j u d i c i a l authority prominent, though not as prominent as parental authority, and the overlap between Allworthy's p r a c t i c a l r e l i g i o u s authority and his authorized j u d i c i a l authority give a flavour of j u s t i c e and judgement even to r e l i g i o u s matters (and occe. VQA&0L) . More importantly, though, t h i s overlap indicates a unity of a u t h o r i t i e s based on t h e i r single source. There i s some sense that Allworthy has r e l i g i o u s authority because he i s an excel l e n t magistrate and i s an ex c e l l e n t magistrate because he i s a good man (and hence i s a good C h r i s t i a n and i s good natured). The overlap continues i n t o the realms of parental authority. Among the novel's parents and guardians, once again i t i s Allworthy who sets the standard f o r authority. That Allworthy has parental authority even though he i s not a parent i s not unusual since parental authority usually devolves on guardians, but i t i s perhaps a l i t t l e strange that with several r e a l parents i n the novel Allworthy i s the exemplar. As with 68 Allworthy's other r o l e s , h i s excellence as a guardian i s a necessary feature of being a good man, but there i s a more important feature of h i s parental authority. To anyone as well read i n the Scriptures as F i e l d i n g was, the rel a t i o n s h i p between God and man would be a model on which the conception of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of parents to t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and e s p e c i a l l y of fathers to t h e i r children,would be b u i l t . That Allworthy's r e l a t i o n s h i p i s , i n f a c t , that of a guardian to -his wards would not disallow the comparison, since neither God nor a guardian i s b i o l o g i c a l l y a father of h i s " c h i l d r e n . " Several hints are made i n Tom JonQA about the s i m i l a r i t y between God and Allworthy, although Allworthy's humanness and propensity f o r human error are emphasized f a r too much f o r Allworthy to be an allegory f o r God. The point F i e l d i n g seems to be making i s that a t t r i b u t e s of God are present i n man (c$. Tom JoneA, I, 80), but that presence mainly becomes apparent i n a good : man and increases i n strength when he i s engaged i n any authority r o l e . The suggestions of Allworthy's divine resemblance, however, are not e n t i r e l y attached to instances of h i s authority. F i r s t of a l l , Allworthy's residence i s c a l l e d "Paradise H a l l " (I, 98), a fac t which would be of profound s i g n i f i c a n c e and a source of much commentary on r e l i g i o u s symbolism i f i t were not that the name i s only mentioned once i n passing. Despite Battestin's comment that the name i s s i g n i f i c a n t , "^ i t seems u n l i k e l y that F i e l d i n g would i n s i s t so l i t t l e on the name of Allworthy's residence i f he intended close comparison between i t and Heaven or Eden. The comparison i s made even more u n l i k e l y since Paradise H a l l i s f i l l e d with most unsuitable tenants for Heaven or Eden. Most l i k e l y , the name i s a reference t o the purely earthly beauty of the estate, described at some length. On the other hand, the p l o t supports the concept of an underlying a l l e g o r y . 69 since Jones's expulsion, with i t s eventual happy r e s u l t s , i s c l e a r l y a "fortunate f a l l , " and he does return, i f not to Paradise H a l l , at l e a s t to the v i c i n i t y . Next, there i s Allworthy's name. God i s described as onmipotent, omniscient and omni-present. "Allworthy" suggests a d e s c r i p t i o n s i m i l a r i n genre to the descriptions of God,although the "worthy" d e f i n i t e l y suggests humanness rather than d i v i n i t y . F i n a l l y , there are several references to and suggestions of Allworthy's resemblance to D i v i n i t y . F i e l d i n g describes Allworthy's "Smiles at F o l l y " as "indeed such as we may suppose the Angels bestow on the Absurdities of Mankind" (II, 885). I t seems l i k e l y that i f the smiles are s i m i l a r , the natures motivating the smiles are s i m i l a r , which would make Allworthy angelic, at l e a s t i n h i s attitude to others' foolishness. Mrs. Waters makes "many most passionate Acknowledgments of [Allworthy's] Goodness, which, as she t r u l y s a i d , savoured more of the divine than human Nature" (II, 947) . Mrs. Waters might be considered too poor a judge of divine nature f o r her opinion to carry much weight, but the " t r u l y said" indicates F i e l d i n g ' s accord. Other passages are not so d i r e c t , but s t i l l suggest p a r a l l e l s between A l l -worthy and God. For example, F i e l d i n g t e l l s us that "though Mr. Allworthy had the utmost Sweetness and Benevolence i n h i s Smiles, he had great Terror i n h i s Frowns" (II, 899). The language i s reminiscent of a sermon on the nature of God. Perhaps F i e l d i n g meant no more than that Allworthy had a most expressive face, but since smiles and frowns are frequently used to provide images of God's reactions to man, i t i s l i k e l y that F i e l d i n g intended some comparison. I f Allworthy i s god-like to some extent, he must be an i d e a l parent to that extent, since God the father i s a parent model. Moreover, 70 i n New Testament theology, God's role as a father figure i s emphasized more than h i s role as a judge, so that a s i m i l a r i t y to God would most l i k e l y r e s u l t i n a strongly favourable performance as a parent or guardian. On the one hand, Allworthy i s less prominent as a father than Western, but t h i s i s because Allworthy i s himself c h i l d l e s s and because Western i s made conspicuous by h i s f a u l t s . On the other hand, Allworthy i s the. father figure i n the novel, as emphasized by h i s habit of r e f e r r i n g to a wide range of unrelated young people as " c h i l d . " Even Allworthy's authority over sundry adults, such as Mrs. M i l l e r , o l d Mr. Nightingale and Western, i s quasi-paternal authority since i t involves matters and c o n t r o l usually p e r t a i n i n g to f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Western says I don't know how ' t i s , but d — n me, Allworthy, i f you don't make me always do j u s t as you please and yet I have as good an Esteate as you, and am i n the Commission of the Peace as w e l l as yourself. (II, 958) This emphasizes the type of authority Allworthy holds, f o r he and Western are m a t e r i a l l y equals and equally magistrates i n the eyes of the law, but Allworthy has authority over Western i n personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s (see also I I , 920 for Allworthy's authority over o l d Mr. Nightingale). As Hugh Amory points out, ". . .Squire Allworthy exercises an authority which i s completely 16 unwarranted by the law which made him a magistrate." The personal nature of Allworthy's control over Western suggests parental authority because Allworthy Is modifying Western's juvenile and excessively boisterous behaviour j u s t as a wise parent might manage an unruly c h i l d . Even though Allworthy's quasi-paternal authority i s not so prevalent i n r e l a t i o n to other characters, there i s a c o n t r o l l i n g thought i n the novel that Allworthy acts as a parent i n some way towards everyone with whom he comes i n contact. 71 Allworthy's role as a major father f i g u r e . i s , of course, most d i r e c t l y established by h i s being the guardian of two of the three major young people i n the novel, and by the contrast he presents to the father and guardians of the t h i r d major young person i n the novel. From the beginning, Allworthy i s an i d e a l guardian. While Jones was an in f a n t , Allworthy "seldom f a i l e d of v i s i t i n g [him], at l e a s t once a Day, i n h i s Nursery" (I, 78), much more than many fathers d i d for t h e i r own c h i l d r e n . Allworthy also goes to some trouble and expense i n educating Tom and B l i f i l , and chooses t h e i r method of i n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r c a r e f u l consideration (I, 135). He has the boys educated at home, which w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y involve more of h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r upbringing than i f he had sent them to school, and he also intends that "as they were bred up i n h i s own House, and under h i s own Eye, he should be able to correc t whatever was wrong i n Thwackum's Instructions" ( I I , 930). His inherent goodness as a parent i s thus demonstrated i n h i s plans to take an active part i n r a i s i n g two chi l d r e n , neither of whom i s h i s own and one of whom, to his knowledge, i s not even r e l a t e d to him. F i e l d i n g points out that " i t i s almost impossible f o r the best Parent to observe an exact I m p a r t i a l i t y to his Children, even though no superior Merit should biass h i s A f f e c t i o n " ( I I , 857), but Allworthy does maintain i m p a r t i a l i t y towards Tom and B l i f i l . He treats them as equally as the interference of young B l i f l himself, Thwackum and Square w i l l allow. The only d i s t i n c t i o n he makes i s i n the d i v i s i o n of h i s estate on h i s supposed death bed, but that i s a matter of j u d i c i a l concern where the law, supported by custom and by Scriptures, demands that the r e l a t i v e s receive most of an inheritance. Even on t h i s occasion he treats them equally i n one sense, f o r both B l i f i l ' s and Jones's inheritances are as great as j u d i c i a l and r e l i g i o u s 72 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l a l l o w . These i n s t a n c e s o f i m p a r t i a l i t y a r e even more r e m a r k a b l e s i n c e t h e one boy i s , t o A l l w o r t h y ' s k n o w l e d g e , h i s o n l y l i v i n g r e l a t i v e o t h e r t h a n h i s s i s t e r , and the o t h e r boy i s , s u p p o s e d l y , t h e i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d o f a s e r v i n g g i r l and a s c h o o l m a s t e r . A l l w o r t h y h a s , i n d e e d , d i v i n e e l e m e n t s t o be a b l e t o l o v e t h e two c h i l d r e n e q u a l l y . W e s t e r n ' s t r e a t m e n t o f h i s o n l y c h i l d i s , i n c o m p a r i s o n , e x c e p t i o n a l l y n e g l i g e n t . S i n c e n e i t h e r W e s t e r n n o r S o p h i a a c t i v e l y e n t e r t h e n o v e l u n t i l t h e l a t t e r i s i n h e r l a t e t e e n s , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o compare c l o s e l y W e s t e r n ' s and A l l w o r t h y ' s e x e c u t i o n o f p a r e n t a l d u t i e s , b u t some m e n t i o n i s made o f S o p h i a ' s e d u c a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , she had n o n e , n o t e n t i r e l y u n u s u a l 17 f o r a g i r l o f t h e p e r i o d , b u t h e r u p b r i n g i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n i n knowledge s u i t a b l e f o r a female seems t o have d e v o l v e d e n t i r e l y on h e r mother u n t i l S o p h i a was e l e v e n (when h e r mother d i e d ) and t h e n upon h e r a u n t . On t h e one h a n d , t h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d , s i n c e W e s t e r n c o u l d h a r d l y i n s t r u c t h e r h i m s e l f and h e r e d u c a t i o n c o u l d b e s t have been h a n d l e d by female r e l a t i v e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , W e s t e r n does n o t seem t o have e x e r c i s e d any p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y o r d e m o n s t r a t e d much i n t e r e s t i n S o p h i a u n t i l she was no l o n g e r a c h i l d . When S o p h i a r e t u r n s t o h e r f a t h e r ' s house a t about age e i g h t e e n , W e s t e r n does e x h i b i t s t r o n g p a t e r n a l f e e l i n g s , b u t even i n t h e s e t h e r e i s a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between A l l w o r t h y and W e s t e r n . A l l w o r t h y i s d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g deep and t e n d e r a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s l o v e d o n e s , b u t W e s t e r n " r e a l l y d o a t e d on h i s Daughter" ( I I , 841; see a l s o I , 3 6 0 ) . A l l w o r t h y ' s l o v e i s a r e a s o n e d p a s s i o n , s u b j e c t t o c o n t r o l , w h i l e W e s t e r n ' s l o v e f o r h i s d a u g h t e r i s a v i o l e n t and impetuous p a s s i o n w i t h n o semblance o f r e a s o n . M o r e o v e r , W e s t e r n ' s l o v e depends on p r o x i m i t y and i s bes towed u n n a t u r a l l y : he l o v e s h i s dogs more t h a n h i s d a u g h t e r ( I , 199). A l l w o r t h y ' s a f f e c t i o n i s c o n s t a n t . 73 He loves h i s wards as i n f a n t s , as children and as young adults. Western seems to ignore Sophia u n t i l she i s a young adult, and then h i s a f f e c t i o n grows by leaps and bounds, a s s i s t e d , i t seems, by strong pride i n her p h y s i c a l charms. Nonetheless,he s t i l l loves h i s pleasure more than he loves h i s own c h i l d , which indicates some lack of parental duty, and h i s exercise of parental authority, motivated by h i s unreasoned love, indicates h i s incompetence as a parent. Western's misconception of h i s duty and the dangers of h i s version of parental a f f e c t i o n are most c l e a r l y seen i n the treatment of parental authority concerning marriage. Parental authority i n marriage receives more of F i e l d i n g ' s emphasis than any other kind of authority. The question of the degree of parental authority over marriage i s i n t e g r a l to the p l o t and i s also examined i n several minor sketches and sub-plots. The parents and guardians i n the novel, with the exception of Mrs. M i l l e r , are divided i n t o camps. In one camp are Squire Western, Mr. Nightingale, h i s brother, the Quaker and the parents of the Andersons. In the opposing camp i s Squire Allworthy. Mr. Nightingale's brother nominally agrees with Allworthy's philosophy, but h i s actions following the marriage of h i s daughter prove h i s a l l i a n c e with Western's camp. Western dt at.think that a parent's authority i s absolute and that the main consideration i n arranging a marriage i s money. Allworthy, c i t i n g God and nature, gives the parent a negative vote only ( I I , 957) , and considers love to be the most important element i n a marriage. Allworthy's emphasis on love i n marriage i s , of course, i n accordance with many passages . 18 of Scripture, and i t seems to be F i e l d i n g ' s , since m each treatment of the question i n Tom lOYlQA marriages based on love are shown as happy, except where the happiness i s marred by an i r a t e parent, and marriages based on 74 a n y t h i n g e l s e a r e unhappy . The t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f W e s t e r n ' s camp i s , b a s i c a l l y , n o n - e x i s t e n t . The t h e o r y ' s main e x p r e s s i o n i s " d — n me t h e n i f s h a t u n t h a ' u n " ( I , 335 nt oUL) , and i t s b a s i s i s t h a t t h e p a r e n t w i l l r e c e i v e g r e a t p l e a s u r e i n s e e i n g h i s c h i l d as a f f l u e n t as p o s s i b l e , r e g a r d l e s o f how m i s e r a b l e t h e c h i l d i s i n t h e m i d s t o f t h a t a f f l u e n c e . S o p h i a ' s m a r r i a g e t o B l i f i l w i l l make W e s t e r n "the h a p p i e s t Man i n the W o r l d " ( I I , 8 3 8 ) , " i t w i l l p r e s e r v e [ h i m ] , i t w i l l gee [him] H e a l t h , H a p p i n e s s , L i f e , e v e r y t h i n g " and i f she r e f u s e s he w i l l d i e and b r e a k h i s h e a r t ( I I , 8 3 9 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t h i s l o v e f o r S o p h i a makes W e s t e r n , and o t h e r s i n h i s camp, i n c r e d i b l y s e l f i s h ( i t i s h i s h a p p i n e s s and w e l l - b e i n g he a r g u e s f o r ) o v e r a m a t t e r i n w h i c h he w i l l r e c e i v e no d i r e c t b e n e f i t . The b a s i s o f W e s t e r n ' s p h i l o s o p h y i s t h a t he has h i s d a u g h t e r ' s b e s t i n t e r e s t a t h e a r t ( I I , 8 8 4 ) , added t o w h i c h i s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n , e x p r e s s e d i n an argument f o r t h e o t h e r s i d e , t h a t a p a r e n t ' s g r e a t e r age and e x p e r i e n c e g i v e s h i m t h e wisdom t o know what w i l l make h i s c h i l d h a p p i e s t (see I , 7 7 6 ) . T h i s w o u l d be a v e r y r e a s o n a b l e p o s i t i o n i f i t were n o t on t h e s u b j e c t o f m a r r i a g e , where l o v e i s e n j o i n e d by S c r i p t u r e (see I , 3 3 2 ) , t r a d i t i o n and F i e l d i n g as a n e c e s s a r y i n g r e d i e n t . W e s t e r n ' s i m p l i e d p o s i t i o n , w h i c h i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s , i s u n t e n a b l e . I t i s even more u n t e n a b l e when t h e p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s n o t t h e s u p p o s e d h a p p i n e s s o f t h e c h i l d , b u t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y . T h i s m o t i v e ( M r s . W e s t e r n ' s ) i s i r r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h any form o f goodness when i t w i l l cause u n h a p p i n e s s t o e i t h e r o f the p r i n c i p a l s i n the u n i o n . A l t h o u g h i t a p p e a r s s i m i l a r t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a t e m p o r a r y e v i l w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t i n a l a s t i n g g o o d , t h e s i m i l a r i t y i s s u p e r f i c i a l , b e c a u s e the "good" o f m a r r y i n g s o l e l y f o r w e a l t h o r r a n k i s l i m i t e d , and t h e e v i l i s r e a l . 75 Allworthy's camp i s f a r more a r t i c u l a t e , which suggests that there i s more of an argument to present here. The argument against a parent f o r c i n g his c h i l d i n t o a marriage f o r monetary considerations i s given by Mr. Nightingale's brother before he reveals that h i s membership i n Allworthy's camp i s only t h e o r e t i c a l . He points out that to prescribe Rules of Happiness to others, hath always appeared to me very absurd, and to i n s i s t on doing t h i s very t y r a n n i c a l . . . . And i f t h i s be absurd i n other Things, i t i s mostly so i n the A f f a i r of Marriage, the Happiness of which depends e n t i r e l y on the A f f e c t i o n which subsists between the P a r t i e s . (II, 776) He also discusses the i l l o g i c i n d i s i n h e r i t i n g a c h i l d because he prevents the parent from making him even r i c h e r than he would have been with the o r i g i n a l l y intended inheritance. As F i e l d i n g points out, however, these arguments, though r a t i o n a l l y unanswerable, have no e f f e c t on "habitual avarice." Allworthy i s more concerned with the r e l i g i o u s aspect of the matter: i s i t not c r u e l , nay impious, to force a Woman i n t o that State against her W i l l ; f o r her Behaviour i n which she i s to be accountable to the highest and most dreadful Court of Judicature, and to answer at the P e r i l of her Soul. To discharge the Matrimonial Duties i n an adequate Manner i s no easy Task, and s h a l l we lay t h i s Burthen upon a Woman, while we at the same Time deprive her of a l l that Assistance which may enable her to undergo i t ? S h a l l we tear her very Heart from her, while we enjoin her Duties to which a whole Heart i s scarce equal. . . . i s there a Soul who can bear the Thought of having contributed to the Damnation of h i s Child? ( I I , 883-84) The only problem with Allworthy's argument i s that no one can bear "the Thought of having contributed to the Damnation of his C h i l d , " so no one, le a s t of a l l Western, w i l l admit the p o s s i b i l i t y (see I I , 884). Habitual sel f i s h n e s s i s as strong as habi t u a l avarice. 76 The f i n a l consideration i s introduced by Mrs. Honour when she points out that i t i s Sophia who i s "to go to Bed to him [ B l i f i l ] , and not Master" (I, 291-92). F i e l d i n g himself expands on t h i s point, probably because the comparison he makes would be inappropriate f o r an Allworthy and beyond Honour's understanding. F i e l d i n g c a l l s f o r c i n g a c h i l d to marry f o r money " l e g a l P r o s t i t u t i o n f or Hire" ( I I , 866), and draws a comparison between bawds and parents who so t r e a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n . He continues thus: t h i s Resemblance would be exact, was i t not that the Bawd hath an Interest i n what she doth, and the Father, though perhaps he may b l i n d l y think otherwise, can i n Real i t y have none i n urging h i s Daughter to almost an equal P r o s t i t u t i o n . ( I I , 840) Although the argument could hold as true f o r fathers f o r c i n g t h e i r sons to marry (as Mr. Nightingale attempted to do), F i e l d i n g probably d i d not have t h i s aspect of the problem i n mind. Against Western's camp, then, are the considerations that i t s p o s i t i o n i s i l l o g i c a l , impious and verges on the immoral, but the crux of the matter involves the r i g h t of the parent to con t r o l h i s c h i l d . Western's p o s i t i o n i s that a parent's authority over h i s c h i l d i s absolute ( I I , 884), but Allworthy contends that God and Nature allow a parent no more than a negative voice ( I I , 957). Certai n l y that i s a l l the parental authority Allworthy claims. Western fe e l s that God allows him more, for he suggests Allworthy t e l l Sophia of the dreadful punishment " i n t'other World" f o r disobedience (II, 945) . Neither side, however, presents any support f o r i t s p o s i t i o n , and the problem can be reduced to: do we believe Allworthy or Western on a point of theology and natural right? Since i t has been established that Allworthy has some r e l i g i o u s authority and he exercises h i s inherent sense 77 o f r i g h t and wrong (see I , 8 0 ) , and s i n c e A l l w o r t h y ' s p o s i t i o n has t h e s u p p o r t o f the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , the w e i g h t o f r e a s o n f a l l s a g a i n s t a b s o l u t e p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y . In e v e r y a s p e c t o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y c o n s i d e r e d , A l l w o r t h y i s t h e e x e m p l a r . He e x e r c i s e s c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n o f h i s w a r d s , d e m o n s t r a t e s c o n s t a n t a f f e c t i o n , t empers d i s c i p l i n e w i t h r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l w i s d o m , a n d , mos t i m p o r t a n t l y , demands no i n o r d i n a t e degree o f c o n t r o l i n r e t u r n . D e s p i t e h i s e r r o r s , A l l w o r t h y ' s g e n e r a l s u c c e s s as a f a t h e r f i g u r e i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c r e a t i n g a f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n i n the r e a d e r towards a u t h o r i t y i n t h e n o v e l , b e c a u s e h i s p r o m i n e n c e s i m p l y o v e r -whelms the e f f e c t o f t h e i n c o m p e t e n t and s e l f i s h p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s . O f c o u r s e , t h a t A l l w o r t h y i s i n f a v o u r o f a p o s i t i o n w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t Tom and S o p h i a t o m a r r y i s a n o t h e r e l e m e n t i n t h e " e v e r y t h i n g w i l l t u r n o u t a l l r i g h t i n t h e end" comic a t m o s p h e r e , o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e t r e a t m e n t o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y f u r t h e r s t h e n o v e l ' s o p t i m i s m . A l l w o r t h y , t h e n , i s t h e c o n t r o l l i n g a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e f o r a l l t h r e e t y p e s o f a u t h o r i t y . S i n c e he e x e r c i s e s j u d i c i a l and p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y w i t h some f r e q u e n c y , and r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y v e r y se ldom (and t h e n u s u a l l y i n s u p p o r t o f j u d i c i a l o r p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y ) ' r e l i g i o n has l i m i t e d d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on a u t h o r i t y i n Tom JonZA t h o u g h i t i s an i m p o r t a n t i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e . Much o f what seems t o be r e l i g i o n i n A l l w o r t h y ' s c h a r a c t e r , o f c o u r s e , i s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f rom m o r a l i t y and v i r t u e b a s e d o n , o r a t l e a s t r e m i n i s c e n t o f , S t o i c i s m . On the o t h e r h a n d , the r e s p e c t e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y and S t o i c i s m , and t h e i r c o n s e q u e n t i m p o r t a n c e , s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y a r e the b a s e s f o r the a c t i v e l y d e m o n s t r a t e d s e c u l a r and human a u t h o r i t i e s i n Tom JontA, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d , t o 78 some e x t e n t , t h e S t o i c i s m c o n s i d e r e d i n the n o v e l f r e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n a u t h o r i t y . These s t r o n g b a s e s , added t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f one s t r o n g , c o n t r o l l i n g a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , make a u t h o r i t y i m p o r t a n t i n Tom JonZi>, and t h e p r e v a l e n t s ense o f a u t h o r i t y makes t h e w o r l d v i ew i n t h e n o v e l v e r y o p t i m i s t i c b e c a u s e t h e r e i s d i r e c t i o n and s t r e n g t h b e h i n d t h e e v e n t s i n t h e n o v e l . P r o v i d e n c e i s i n c o n t r o l (see pp 20-21 a b o v e ) , and has a s t r o n g i n s t r u m e n t i n A l l w o r t h y f o r e x e r c i s i n g t h a t c o n t r o l so t h a t e v i l i s a p a s s i n g shadow and t h e happy e n d i n g i s i n e v i t a b l e . The t r e a t m e n t o f a u t h o r i t y i n the n o v e l , t h e r e f o r e , i s c r u c i a l t o t h e p e r v a d i n g sense o f o p t i m i s m . 79 OPTIMISTIC BENEVOLISM VERSUS MURPHY'S LAW kmzLLa., i n some ways, demonstrates the importance of a strong or active good authority figure to an o p t i m i s t i c world view more c l e a r l y than do 3o6Z.ph AndAZiM or Tom Jone4, because i n Amelia the presentation of the main authority figure as a good man and a P r o v i d e n t i a l agent i s not convincing, and the novel's pessimism i s at l e a s t p a r t l y traceable to th i s source. Moreover, Dr. Harrison's emergence at the end of the novel as a strong P r o v i d e n t i a l agent i s la r g e l y responsible f o r the sudden s h i f t to optimism (although neither the optimism nor Dr. Harrison's new strength i s e n t i r e l y convincing). Amenta's pessimism, despite the d i d a c t i c and sometimes heavy-handed treatment of C h r i s t i a n i t y , also demonstrates that even the basic optimism of C h r i s t i a n i t y without an e f f e c t i v e agent does not create an op t i m i s t i c world view. Moreover, the general unobtrusiveness of the a u t h o r i a l voice, the lack of other e f f e c t i v e sympathetic characters, and Dr. Harrison's absence through much of the novel, combined with the prevalence of powerful e v i l characters and a somewhat sombre p l o t , give AmnZLci by f a r the darkest world view of any of Fi e l d i n g ' s novels. On the other hand, some of the happier elements of the novel depend on Dr. Harrison's authority, which along with frequent supportive comments from sympathetic characters and from Fiel d i n g ' s persona, e s t a b l i s h Harrison's A,YVt<LYld(Ld p o s i t i o n as a "good" authority f i g u r e . kmolMl has never been considered a p a r t i c u l a r l y successful novel among general readers. This i s , perhaps, because there are too many comic and s a t i r i c touches to please a pe s s i m i s t i c mind and f a r too much pessimism and 80 b i t t e r n e s s f or the good natured reader who would f i n d F i e l d i n g ' s other novels appealing. kmoIMl has been c a l l e d "the most i n t e l l e c t u a l " 1 of Fi e l d i n g ' s novels, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which would not a s s i s t i t s popularity among the general p u b l i c , and the didacticism apparent i n JoAZpk AndA,2JMl> and Tom JoneA has escaped the bounds of asides, discourses and subtle flavouring of the st o r y l i n e to become an i n t e g r a l , even major, aspect of the p l o t and theme. Worse, i n terms of popularity, the didacticism and i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m are seldom of the " t h i s i s how i t should be" v a r i e t y , but much more often are the dogmatic " t h i s v i l e , corrupt, disgusting picture i s how i t i s . " Of course, the didacticism can be handled i n such a way that those who "love 2 a tender emotion" w i l l race to buy the novel, but there should be undeniably good characters beset by undeniably e v i l characters. There are very few such black and white d i s t i n c t i o n s i n AmdJLLa. Booth, who i s the main character i n the novel despite the t i t l e , could have been a b a s i c a l l y good character, a f l e d g l i n g "good man" l i k e Jones, except that h i s errors have f a r too disastrous an e f f e c t on the innocent martyr Amelia. Who could r e a l l y l i k e Booth a f t e r he squanders t h e i r l i t t l e sum and contracts a comparatively large debt gambling, while Amelia s i t s at home denying h e r s e l f h a l f a p i n t of wine because they cannot a f f o r d i t ? Dr. Harrison himself, the counterpart of Allworthy, although obviously intended as an undeniably good character, i s at times so unlikeable that he encourages the reader to deface the margins of the book with opprobrious comments. On the other hand, few of the e v i l characters are developed enough for the reader to hate them, and many of them have t h e i r good points. Colonel James, f o r example, i s r e a l l y Booth's f r i e n d u n t i l l u s t f o r Amelia sidetracks him. Even Lord may have been c o n t r i t e about the e f f e c t h i s actions had on 81 Mrs. Bennett and her family. He may even r e a l l y l i k e c h i l d r e n . In f a c t , of the prominent characters, none can be categorized as completely e v i l , and only Amelia i s c l e a r l y a good character, though even she has grated on the nerves of many readers who object t o her propensity to cry and f a i n t . Another probable source of the unpopularity of kmeJLixL i s i t s organization. The novel begins -in me.dU.OA HJLA and includes lengthy h i s t o r i e s of two minor characters. The second h i s t o r y , that of Mrs. Bennett, i s necessary to e s t a b l i s h that she i s a good character, which i s i n turn necessary to prove that Lord i s an e v i l character, but much of i t i s completely extraneous to the p l o t . I t covers, moreover, eight chapters. Mrs. Matthews' h i s t o r y i s almost e n t i r e l y extraneous, and i t takes up three chapters. The background of the novel, r e l a t e d by Booth, covers two complete books. In other words, s l i g h t l y over three books out of twelve take place before the main story begins, and nearly an e n t i r e book could be omitted without abbreviating the main story at a l l . This extra material, of course, has a purpose. In f a c t , both extra h i s t o r i e s , and the b r i e f backgrounds of a few other minor characters, e s t a b l i s h the same harsh world evident i n the re s t of kmeXXxi. The e f f e c t of these h i s t o r i e s , then, i s to prove that the world of AmeJLLa. i s the r e a l world, that serious misfortunes b e f a l l nice people, and that nothing e x i s t s to protect the innocent. Unfortunately, the authority figure acting as a worldly representative of Providence i s seldom present, and can only p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l events when he i s present. S u r p r i s i n g l y , the end of kmeXAM. takes an abrupt turn. Booth i s converted to active C h r i s t i a n i t y , which establishes a channel f o r authority, and ensures that Dr. Harrison w i l l influence and con t r o l Booth so that he will'.not squander Amelia's new-found fortune. Moreover, the main characters of the story return 82 t o D r . H a r r i s o n ' s p a s t o r a l d o m a i n , so t h a t he w i l l have f r e q u e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x e r c i s i n g h i s a u t h o r i t y . E v e n i n t h e c i t y , a u t h o r i t y i s r e b o r n a t t h e e n d o f t h e - n o v e l w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a good and c o n s c i e n t i o u s m a g i s t r a t e , 3 and the "hand o f P r o v i d e n c e " i s e v i d e n t , even t o an e v i l c h a r a c t e r , i n t h e c h a i n o f e v e n t s c a u s i n g R o b i n s o n ' s c o n f e s s i o n . A t the same t i m e , t h e f a l s e a u t h o r i t y o f L o r d ; and C o l o n e l James o v e r t h e B o o t h s , d e r i v e d f r o m money, i s o v e r t h r o w n . The w o r l d a t t h e end o f KmdHLa. shows man and God i n f e l l o w s h i p , and b e n e v o l e n t a u t h o r i t y i n c o n t r o l o f e v e n t s a f f e c t i n g t h e main c h a r a c t e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s r e v e r s a l i s n o t e s p e c i a l l y b e l i e v a b l e . I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t B o o t h ' s v i r t u a l a t h e i s m and dependence on w o r l d l y p h i l o s o p h y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a scendance o f e v i l , and h i s c o n v e r s i o n made p o s s i b l e the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f P r o v i d e n c e , b u t t h i s r e q u i r e s some r a t h e r u n o r t h o d o x , and t h e r e f o r e , g i v e n F i e l d i n g ' s f a i t h , u n l i k e l y a s s u m p t i o n s . The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t God o r P r o v i d e n c e was u n a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e s i t u a t i o n i s f a r t o o h e r e t i c a l t o have been F i e l d i n g ' s i n t e n t : F i e l d i n g ' s own f a i t h w o u l d have c a u s e d h im t o r e j e c t t h e t h e o r y i f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t such an i m p l i c a t i o n w o u l d a n t a g -o n i z e s h i s a u d i e n c e d i d n o t . E v e n the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t God was u n w i l l i n g t o h e l p u n t i l B o o t h came t o Him c o u l d o n l y be a c c e p t a b l e i f t h e r e were e v i d e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l t h a t God was u r g i n g B o o t h t o a c c e p t Him w i t h o u t r e s e r v a -t i o n : T h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s . One i s t h a t B o o t h ' s h a r d s h i p s were n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g h im b a c k t o t h e f o l d , and t h a t P r o v i d e n c e was i n c o n t r o l , and t h e o t h e r i s t h a t t h e h a r d s h i p s i n t h i s w o r l d a r e n e c e s s a r y t o p r e p a r e one f o r t h e n e x t w o r l d . The s e c o n d e x p l a n a t i o n i s most l i k e l y -F i e l d i n g ' s i n t e n t , b u t i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l i s l i m i t e d b e c a u s e t h e h a r d s h i p s a r e o v e r , i n l a r g e p a r t , l o n g b e f o r e t h e n e x t w o r l d i s an i m m i n e n t 83 p o s s i b i l i t y f o r Booth and Amelia. The f i r s t explanation does not seem v a l i d because Amelia s u f f e r s f a r more than Booth and she i s already a sincere C h r i s t i a n . In addition, i t i s a book of sermons, not a consideration of his sins and f o l l i e s , that converts Booth. Moreover, i f Providence i s i n cont r o l , why are such characters as Mr. Bennett and Miss Matthews destroyed? The harsh world so thoroughly established by the digressions cannot be refuted by amelioration of one scene i n that world. Consequently, the restoration of authority i s unconvincing, and, although Booth and Amelia may be protected by Providence from the end of the novel to e t e r n i t y , the p r e v a i l i n g sense i s that they have escaped from a chaotic, corrupt world, not that chaos and corruption have been overcome. Irwin comments that "the retirement of the Booths i n t o the country represents an admission of defeat." Eventually, f o r Booth, Amelia and other inhabitants of Dr. Harrison's p a r i s h , l i f e i s seen to be under the authority and d i r e c t i o n of Dr. Harrison and Providence. For the other characters, l i f e i s s t i l l the plaything of i n j u s t i c e and corruption. This treatment of l i f e makes AmeJLla. at l e a s t p a r t l y a comment on corrupt contemporary l e g a l and s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , which i s not simultaneously consistent with a presentation of good and i n f l u e n t i a l authority. The innocent s u f f e r , the deserving are unrewarded, and the g u i l t y and worthless triumph. The law and i t s enforcement t r e a t poverty as the greatest possible crime, and wealth as a general pardon, while society enforces the same rules on a pri v a t e l e v e l . As Didgeon points out "Fielding's novel c l e a r l y sets 5 f o r t h the power with which society endows wealth." In kmzJLla., the r i c h , powerful characters are treated unsympathetically, while at l e a s t some of the poor are treated sympathetically. Worst are those who are neither r i c h 84 n o r p o o r ( the w o r k i n g m i d d l e c l a s s ) , b e c a u s e F i e l d i n g f o c u s e s on t h o s e who i n some way l i v e o f f the d i s t r e s s e s o f the p o o r and u n f o r t u n a t e . These e l e m e n t s o f s a t i r e do n o t e x c l u d e good a u t h o r i t y f rom t h e n o v e l , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o n l y e l e m e n t s i n t h e n o v e l , n o t i t s main f o c u s . However , t h e y do p r o v i d e a s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e b a l a n c e t o any good p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y . The d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e between KmzJLia. and F i e l d i n g ' s e a r l i e r works can be seen by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r o p e n i n g s c e n e s . The f i r s t c h a p t e r i n a l l t h r e e n o v e l s i s an i n t r o d u c t o r y one i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f a p p e a r s ; t h e p l o t s b e g i n t o u n f o l d i n the s e c o n d c h a p t e r s . The s e c o n d c h a p t e r o f 3o£>Q.ph Andn&JM g i v e s a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f t h e n o m i n a l h e r o o f t h e n o v e l , i n a f a c e t i o u s b i o g r a p h i c a l s t y l e , and i n t r o d u c e s Adams, t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n t h e n o v e l . The s e c o n d c h a p t e r o f Tom Jonzs* d e a l s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y , t h e main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , w i t h a b r i e f , comic p o r t r a i t o f h i s s i s t e r B r i d g e t . However , t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r o f kmoJLia. d e a l s w i t h s e v e r a l m i s c a r r i a g e s o f j u s t i c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e s e n t e n c i n g o f s e v e r a l i n n o c e n t p e o p l e and r e l e a s e o f s e v e r a l g u i l t y p e o p l e . The main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e o f t h e n o v e l , D r . H a r r i s o n , does n o t e n t e r the n o v e l u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r o f the s e c o n d b o o k . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e s t o r y ; H a r r i s o n does n o t t a k e a hand i n t h e p l o t u n t i l t h e f o u r t h c h a p t e r o f t h e s i x t h b o o k , and t h e n h i s a p p e a r a n c e i s m e a n i n g l e s s , s i n c e no one knows i t was he who s c a t t e r e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t o y s a b o u t t h e room. He does n o t become an e f f e c t i v e f o r c e u n t i l t h e e n d o f Book V I I I . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e i s an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n the s e c o n d c h a p t e r o f hmoJLLa., t h e o n l y one o t h e r t h a n H a r r i s o n who i s p r e s e n t e d a t any l e n g t h , and he i s e n t i r e l y c o r r u p t . I n f a c t , t h e a t t i t u d e c r e a t e d i n the r e a d e r towards law and j u s t i c e i n 85 AmzZia i s u n f a v o u r a b l e . The i d e a o f e a r t h l y j u s t i c e as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f i d e a l j u s t i c e does n o t a p p l y t o the w o r l d o f kmoXJLa., b e c a u s e j u s t i c e i s c o m p l e t e l y choked o u t by the l a w . E v e n the m a g i s t r a t e s who a r e n o t c o r r u p t s t i l l f a v o u r c r i m i n a l s , b e c a u s e t h e law i t s e l f i s shown as f a v o u r i n g c r i m i n a l s . I n j u s t i c e , o f c o u r s e , i s c u s t o m a r i l y b lamed on u n j u s t p e o p l e , and F i e l d i n g r e a l i z e s t h e r e a c t i o n h i s gr immer p o s i t i o n w i l l e n c o u r a g e . He a r g u e s t h a t , i t w i l l p r o b a b l y be o b j e c t e d , t h a t t h e s m a l l i m p e r -f e c t i o n s w h i c h [he i s ] about t o p r o d u c e do n o t l i e i n t h e laws t h e m s e l v e s , b u t i n t h e i l l e x e c u t i o n o f them; b u t , w i t h s u b m i s s i o n , t h i s a p p e a r s t o [him] t o be no l e s s an a b s u r d i t y t h a n t o s a y o f any machine t h a t i t i s e x c e l l e n t l y made, t h o u g h i n c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g i t s f u n c t i o n s . Good laws s h o u l d e x e c u t e t h e m s e l v e s i n a w e l l - r e g u l a t e d s t a t e . . . . ( I , 5-6) In f a c t , t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e p l o t a r e i n the e x e c u t i o n o f the l a w s , b e c a u s e t h e laws t h e m s e l v e s seem t o have v e r y l i t t l e t o do w i t h T h r a s h e r ' s c o u r t . We f i n d t h a t M r . T h r a s h e r has n e v e r r e a d any o f t h e law by w h i c h he s u p p o s e d l y was t o judge h i s c a s e s , and t h a t a l t h o u g h where mere i g n o r a n c e i s t o d e c i d e a p o i n t between two l i t i g a n t s , i t w i l l a lways be an even chance w h e t h e r i t d e c i d e s r i g h t o r wrong: b u t s o r r y am I t o s a y , r i g h t was o f t e n i n a much worse s i t u a t i o n t h a n t h i s , and wrong h a t h o f t e n h a d f i v e h u n d r e d t o one on h i s s i d e b e f o r e t h a t m a g i s t r a t e . . . . T o speak t h e t r u t h p l a i n l y , t h e j u s t i c e was n e v e r i n d i f f e r e n t i n a cause b u t when he c o u l d g e t n o t h i n g on e i t h e r s i d e . ( I , 7) O n l y one o f the f i v e c a s e s , however , o f f e r s the m a g i s t r a t e any p e c u n i a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n an i n n o c e n t w i t n e s s b e i n g s e n t t o p r i s o n , y e t t h e o t h e r f o u r c a s e s a r e j u d g e d w i t h no common sense o r h o n e s t y , r e s u l t i n g i n two v i c t i m s , one good S a m a r i t a n , and one h o n e s t s e r v a n t b e i n g s e n t t o 86 p r i s o n . I t a p p e a r s t h a t a b r i b e t o t h i s j u s t i c e o n l y make c e r t a i n t h e p r o b a b l e , s i n c e any i n d i c a t i o n o f p o v e r t y r e s u l t s i n a c o n v i c t i o n . The f i r s t f i v e pages o f t h e p l o t o f kmdZXxL, t h e n , c o n s i s t o f F i e l d i n g ' s n e g a t i v e comments a b o u t t h e law a n d i t s e x e c u t i o n , f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s o f r a n k i n j u s t i c e and c o r r u p t i o n . The same l i n e i s f o l l o w e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r i s o n i n the n e x t two c h a p t e r s where more examples o f l e g a l i n j u s t i c e a r e p r e s e n t e d , many o f w h i c h a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o J u s t i c e T h r a s h e r . In g e n e r a l , t h e e f f e c t i s o b v i o u s l y c a l c u l a t e d t o t u g on t h e r e a d e r ' s h e a r t s t r i n g s . I n F i e l d i n g ' s p r i s o n , t h e r e i s an a s s o r t m e n t o f r e a l c r i m i n a l s who have enough money t o make e x i s t e n c e i n a p r i s o n t o l e r a b l e i f n o t e n j o y a b l e , and some who have enough money t o be b a i l e d a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y . The i n n o c e n t , h o w e v e r , have no money and p r e s e n t t h e most h e a r t - r e n d i n g s c e n e s . Who w o u l d n o t be t o u c h e d by an a g e d , d y i n g man a n d a y o u n g women i n rags . , f a t h e r and d a u g h t e r , "the l a t t e r . . . c o m m i t t e d f o r s t e a l i n g a l o a f , i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t t h e f o r m e r , and t h e f o r m e r f o r r e c e i v i n g i t , knowing i t t o be s t o l e n " ( I , 17)? T h i s e x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the l a w , e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s the i n i t i a l i m p r e s s i o n i n the n o v e l , c r e a t e s an e f f e c t so u n f a v o u r a b l e t h a t a l l t h e j u s t i c e a n d b e n e v o l e n c e o f S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y w o u l d s c a r c e l y be a b l e t o c o u n t e r a c t i t . We do n o t have an A l l w o r t h y i n the n o v e l , however , a n d , i n f a c t , even though t h e two o t h e r m a g i s t r a t e s i n the n o v e l a r e g o o d , c o n s c i e n t i o u s and have a knowledge o f the l a w , t h e law i t s e l f works t o f u r t h e r the i n i t i a l b a d i m p r e s s i o n . When B e t t y , A m e l i a ' s m a i d , s t e a l s h e r m i s t r e s s ' s l i n e n , B o o t h e s t a b l i s h e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g h e r p u n i s h e d on much t h e same g r o u n d s t h a t A l l w o r t h y uses a g a i n s t J o n e s ' s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e f o r g i v e n e s s . The r e s u l t 87 of the t r i a l , then, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y unjust. Although " i t happened, by very great accident, that the j u s t i c e before whom the g i r l was brought understood the law" ( I I , 254), t h i s knowledge frees the t h i e f on a techni-c a l i t y . Moreover, the good e f f e c t a good magistrate has despite the inherent i n j u s t i c e i n the law he enforces i s somewhat negated by F i e l d i n g ' s comment "by very great accident," which suggests that the vast majority of magistrates are ignorant of the law and probably very much l i k e Thrasher. The other good magistrate, good enough for the favourable characters to dine with him, alsb has problems with the law. This magistrate, though he was j u s t s i t t i n g down to h i s dinner and very t i r e d with "public business," resolves "to postpone a l l refreshment u n t i l he had discharged h i s duty" ( I I , 297), and immediately attends to Murphy's t r i a l . Also, he l a t e r stands b a i l f o r Booth. However, the law seems determined to prevent j u s t i c e , f o r the magistrate cannot grant a search warrant to search Murphy's house f o r the t i t l e deeds of the estate because no tangible property has been stolen.. The warrant i s f i n a l l y made out to search f o r a mere s i l v e r cup i n order that j u s t i c e may be done. On the other hand, t h i s scene creates a mainly favourable e f f e c t , and comes at the end of the^novel when there remains l i t t l e of the i n i t i a l bad impression to emphasize the problems with the law. The e f f e c t , then, i s that j u s t i c e , as an aspect of authority, as discussed i n Chapter 1, has been restored. Parental authority appears i n only marginally better l i g h t than j u d i c i a l authority. Parental authority i s very l i t t l e emphasized, despite the presence of a number of parents i n the novel, e s p e c i a l l y since, i n the instances of good parental behaviour, authority i s v i r t u a l l y ignored. Instead of a set of bad examples counteracted by very good examples, as i n Tom Joftg-6, the instances of good behaviour cover d i f f e r e n t subjects than those of bad or 88 weak behaviour so that the unfavourable e f f e c t of the l a t t e r remains. However, parental authority i s treated so b r i e f l y that i t s unfavourable e f f e c t i s almost unnoticeable, and the main s i g n i f i c a n c e of the treatment of parental authority i s that one kind of possible c o n t r o l l i n g authority i n the world of kmtJLUx. does not e x i s t . The f i r s t parent to appear i n the novel i s Miss Matthews's father. He i s very much l i k e Mr. Bennet i n Austen's VhX.d(L and VtULjudLcQ,: c l e a r l y a very good-natured man, and i n some senses an e x c e l l e n t parent, but a l i t t l e i n e f f e c t i v e . When Mr. Matthews f i r s t learns of h i s daughter's conduct, she i s i n a highly emotional state, and "instead of upbraiding [her], or exerting any anger, he endeavoured to comfort [her] a l l he could with assurances that a l l should yet be w e l l " ( I , 40). He reprimands her when she i s i n a state to receive reprimands, and then does a l l he can to contract a marriage f o r his daughter with Hebbers. On the other hand, there i s a suggestion that Hebbers' f l a t t e r y concerning Matthews' musical a b i l i t y blinded him, and he was c e r t a i n l y somewhat remiss i n not examining the character of a man whom he was introducing i n t o the company of h i s daughters. There i s also a suggestion that i f Mr. Matthews had not become drunk, Hebbers would not have been able to f i n d access to Miss Matthews' bedroom. (This suggestion, of course, may have been a s l i g h t s h i f t i n g of blame on Miss Matthews' part rather than F i e l d i n g ' s comment on parental f a i l u r e . ) The impression i s that, although Mr. Matthews may have been "the best of men" (I, 40), he was not e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e as a parent, e s p e c i a l l y i n the sense of a guiding and c o n t r o l l i n g authority f i g u r e . Mrs. Atkinson's father enjoys a somewhat larger r o l e i n kmzJLLa. He i s a clergyman as w e l l as a father and i n i t i a l l y combines both authority roles 89 i d e a l l y . We are introduced to him on the death of h i s wife, a loss he bears much as Allworthy bore the loss of h i s wife. Mention i s made of h i s " f a t h e r l y tenderness" ( I I , 7), and h i s counsel to h i s daughters shows him to be a wise s p i r i t u a l counsellor as w e l l as a good father. The,best proof of h i s ex c e l l e n t execution of h i s paternal duties i s that he educated h i s daughters. Here he even outdoes Allworthy i n the guidance of h i s c h i l d r e n , although he had l i t t l e choice but t o educate h i s daughters himself i f he wanted them educated. Unfortunately, a f t e r i t has been established that Mrs. Atkinson's father i s an almost i d e a l example of parental authority, he reneges on h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a parent a f t e r most f o o l i s h l y contracting marriage with a woman young enough to be h i s granddaughter. Not only does he use h i s daughter i l l ; i t i s her opinion that h i s own i l l - u s a g e caused him to hate her , adding i n j u s t i c e to h i s crimes. The e f f e c t of t h i s r e v e r s a l i s more unfavourable than a mere presentation of a bad parent could have been, because we f e e l ourselves deceived and our good-will towards t h i s character betrayed. A reader w i l l also tend to react against the father rather than against the step-mother (even though Mrs. Atkinson puts the blame on the l a t t e r ) , because he does not know the step-mother enough to d i s l i k e her personally. Parental authority, then, appears i n a very poor l i g h t , because even the best of parents, i n the world of AmeJtLa, can be e a s i l y corrupted. Another minor character i n t h i s same i n s e t h i s t o r y , Mr. Bennett's uncle, demonstrates another type of f a i l u r e i n parental authority, and he e x i s t s f o r l i t t l e other purpose than to do so. Like Mrs. Atkinson's father, Mr. Bennett's uncle appears i n i t i a l l y i n a very favourable l i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y since he i s only a guardian, yet s t i l l i s a good father f i g u r e . This parental 90 authority, however, lacks wisdom and i n s i g h t , and also seems to have had very l i t t l e influence on h i s own c h i l d r e n . Once again, the e f f e c t s of a good parental authority are negated by forces of s e l f i s h n e s s and i n j u s t i c e . Mrs. Harris i s the main parent i n the novel, and she i s i n c o n s i s t e n t . We are introduced to Mrs. Harris as she bursts from hiding i n a c l o s e t a f t e r spying on Booth and Amelia. Her tirade at Amelia increases our d i s l i k e . In f a i r n e s s , though, what i s she t r y i n g to do but save her daughter from f i n a n c i a l ruin? At t h i s point, she i s only employing.the "negative voice" which F i e l d i n g and a l l h i s main authority figures confer upon a parent, and she has ample reason, as both Booth and Amelia have themselves r e a l i z e d , t o object to the marriage. She i s , then, being a most conscientious parent, but i n a most objectionable and i r r a t i o n a l manner. From t h i s ambiguous stance, Mrs^ Harris moves to a c l e a r l y untenable p o s i t i o n as she r e t r a c t s her hard-wrung consent, and i n s i s t s her daughter marry f o r money. Mrs. Harris i s now as bad an authority figure as Squire Western or any of h i s camp. In hmzXJJX, though, the consequence of t h i s type of misuse of authority i s more c l e a r l y shown than i t was i n Tom JonU. Dr. Harrison, who i s , as w i l l be discussed l a t e r , a sympathetic authority f i g u r e , feels at l i b e r t y to marry the couple without further consent from Mrs. H a r r i s . This i n t e n t i o n not only denies the concept of absolute parental authority; i t also demonstrates that misuse, or even attempted misuse, of the sacred t r u s t of parental authority r e s u l t s i n loss of that authority. During the r e s t of her l i f e t i m e , Mrs. Harris fluctuates between being a moderately good and a moderately e v i l authority f i g u r e . At l e a s t some of her unjust actions, though, are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of her other daughter, Betty:, and j u s t as B l i f i l ' s influence on Allworthy did not r e f l e c t on 91 Allworthy's parental r o l e , so Betty's influence cannot r e f l e c t on Mrs. H a r r i s . On the other hand, the p o s i t i o n of parental authority i n the novel i s somewhat damaged by the supposed f i n a l i n j u s t i c e of Mrs. H a r r i s , which i s p a r t i a l l y responsible for a l l Booth's and Amelia's hardships. That the unjust w i l l i s a c t u a l l y of Betty's f a b r i c a t i o n tends to restore Mrs. Harris to a posthumous p o s i t i o n as a "good" authority figure at the end of the novel, but, during the novel, the apparently blatant misuse of authority has a detrimental e f f e c t on the p o s i t i o n of parental authority. Throughout most of the novel, the most obvious parental a u t h o r i t i e s are Booth and Amelia, since the reader i s constantly reminded that they have c h i l d r e n . However, F i e l d i n g avoids h i s usual treatment of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , because Booth and Amelia, as victims of various types of i n j u s t i c e i n f l i c t e d by various types of authority, cannot themselves be seen as authority f i g u r e s . Moreover, F i e l d i n g ' s usual treatment involves children considerably older than those i n AmeXta and parents correspondingly more mature (or at l e a s t older i n the case of some unsympathetic parents ). The Booth c h i l d r e n e x i s t p r i m a r i l y to i n t e n s i f y the tragedy of the i n j u s t i c e s done to Booth, and the f o l l y of some of h i s own actions. They are innocent victims even more than Amelia (who, a f t e r a l l , married of her own w i l l ) , and are t o t a l l y dependent on t h e i r father's a b i l i t y to provide. On the other hand, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to emphasize that a couple have children without some considerations of t h e i r actions as parents. The consideration, i n t h i s case, i s one more poin t i n the proof that Amelia i s f a r worthier than Booth. Their most immediate duties as parents are ph.0V4.cU.ng for the children's p h y s i c a l needs — Booth's duty — and QjOJiLng f o r the physi-c a l needs — Amelia's duty. Frequent mention i s made of Amelia's conscientious-ness and excellence i n the execution of her duty, while the main thread of the 92 p l o t concerns Booth's i n a b i l i t y to provide f o r h i s family. Amelia also comes out ahead i n less basic functions of parenthood, for she inculcates r e l i g i o n and honesty i n t o her c h i l d r e n . We are t o l d that " t h i s admirable woman never l e t a day pass without i n s t r u c t i n g her children i n some lesson of r e l i g i o n and morality" ( I , 174-75), and the following passage establishes that, through a wise blend of tenderness and s t r i c t n e s s , Amelia i s an i d e a l parent. Though she was the tenderest of mothers, she never suffered any symptom of malevolence to show i t s e l f i n t h e i r most t r i f l i n g actions without discourage-ment, without rebuke, and, i f i t broke f o r t h with any rancour, without punishment. In which she had such success, that not the l e a s t marks of pride, envy, malice, or spite discovered i t s e l f i n any of t h e i r l i t t l e words or deeds. (I, 175) Booth himself establishes that he does not take part i n the i n s t r u c t i o n of h i s c hildren i n answer to Dr. Harrison's question of "which of them was t h e i r son's i n s t r u c t o r i n h i s r e l i g i o n " ( I I , 114). Booth's reply "that he must confess Amelia had a l l the merit of that kind" (II, 114) , furthers the impression i n the novel that Booth usually has l i t t l e to do with h i s c h i l d r e n except what would be a necessary consequence of l i v i n g i n close quarters with them. I f AmeZia i s to follow the lead of Jo&e.ph AndAQWi and Tom JonU, the main authority f i g u r e should be a father f i g u r e . There i s some evidence th a t Dr. Harrison i s intended as such, but he does not emerge as a father f i g u r e , and the c o n f l i c t between apparent i n t e n t i o n and r e s u l t i s responsible f o r much of the inconsistency i n Harrison's character. I t i s almost as i f F i e l d i n g decided the main authority figure should be a father figure a f t e r he had developed Harrison's character to be f a r from f a t h e r l y . The e a s i e s t way of i n d i c a t i n g a f a t h e r l y attitude i s through speech: a discourse i n c l u d i n g the use of the appelation " c h i l d " or "my dear" i s softened from r e l i g i o u s or ma g i s t e r i a l commands to fa t h e r l y advice. However, Dr. Harrison does not speak d i r e c t l y u n t i l a t h i r d of the way through the second volume, and, although Booth reports the body of Harrison's speech i n the sections he rel a t e s from the past, he seldom mentions the d e t a i l s . Of course, i t would s t r a i n the reader's credulity, t o have Booth quoting verbatim; i t i s enough that he remembers b a s i c a l l y what people s a i d plus a few p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy expressions. Booth does mention that Harrison on one occasion c a l l s Amelia "his l i t t l e sugar-plum" (I, 81), which would be a strange enough expression for a r e a l father to use to a grown daughter unless a strong precedent i n endearments had already been established. In th i s case, i t shows a kindly nature, but does l i t t l e t o e s t a b l i s h Harrison as a father f i g u r e . However, once Harrison a c t i v e l y enters the present world of AmeXtOL, and h i s speech i s recorded d i r e c t l y , the f a t h e r l y expression of " c h i l d " i s frequent. In f a c t , j u s t i n case the reader has missed the feature i n Harrison's speech to Amelia, we are t o l d that he often c a l l e d Amelia h i s c h i l d ( I I , 182), and an explanation i s given. Harrison a c t u a l l y c a l l s Amelia hi s daughter and her chil d r e n h i s grandchildren because, although "perhaps, to the suddenness of [her father's] death i t was owing that he di d not recommend any care, of them [his daughters]'to [Harrison] . . . [Harrison], i n some measure, took that charge upon [him]" ( I I , 146). Harrison i s c e r t a i n l y intended as a father figure to Amelia. In general, though, Harrison i s not i>h.OUM to be a father f i g u r e . We are toZd that he i s a father figure to h i s parishioners: " A l l h i s p a r i s h -ioners, whom he treats as h i s c h i l d r e n , regard him as t h e i r common father. Once i n a week he constantly v i s i t s every house i n the p a r i s h , examines, 94 commends, and rebukes, as he finds occasion" ( I , 149). This describes an i d e a l exercise of past o r a l duty, which would do much to e s t a b l i s h authority as i d e a l i n the world view of AmoJLLa., except that we are t o l d , not shown, and what we are shown makes what we are t o l d d i f f i c u l t to be l i e v e . Later, Harrison begins h i s l e t t e r to Booth and Amelia "My Dear Children — F o r I w i l l now c a l l you so, as you have neither of you now any other parent i n the world" (I, 140), but, as Booth's parents were presumably dead before any part of the story took place, and Harrison had not c a l l e d him " c h i l d " on t h i s account before, i t seems that Harrison mainly has Amelia i n mind. Of course, there are few characters i n the novel whom Harrison can address as " c h i l d " without giving offense. A l l the men are too o l d to regard the appellation with favour as are some of the women; Dr. Harrison does not l i k e Mrs. Atkinson, and so i s u n l i k e l y to address her a f f e c t i o n a t e l y , and we have no record of h i s speech to Amelia's s i s t e r , Betty. Booth does r e f e r to Harrison as h i s "sage counsellor" (I, 152), and h i s comments on the advantage to a young man of "an intimate converse with one of r i p e r years, who i s not only able to advise, but who knows the manner of advising" ( I , 152) suggest that Harrison i s very much a father figure to Booth.' Unfortunately, that r e l a t i o n s h i p i s seldom demonstrated, and any r e l a t i o n s h i p depending mainly on comments by a character for i t s existence has l i t t l e influence on the world view as a whole. Harrison's role as a father figure i s , then, minor and i s established mainly by h i s re l a t i o n s h i p to Amelia i n the l a s t quarter of the novel. The ;only remaining authority role i s that of the clergy, represented by the young divine and by Dr. Harrison. (The other clergy i n the novel, Mrs. Atkinson's father and her f i r s t husband, are important only i n t h e i r roles as father and husband.) The young divine i s as minor as Dr. Harrison i s major, 95 and e x i s t s mainly to allow Dr. Harrison scope i n expounding doctrine and philosophy. Neither clergyman e x h i b i t s t r a d i t i o n a l comic role s f o r clergy i n l i t e r a t u r e , although both reveal a few flaws which could lead to comic treatment. Of the two, the young divine i s c l o s e s t to being s o l e l y a comic fi g u r e , and, hence, has the l e a s t claim to authority. Tom, the .young divine, reveals h i s pride at every turn. He i s proud of h i s learning and h i s opinion, which leads him i n t o disputes with Dr. Harrison i n which he i s completely outmatched. His pride, however, blinds him to h i s own i n f e r i o r i t y , and he makes a f o o l of himself as f a r as h i s l i m i t e d opportunities for speech allow. He i s also very proud of h i s order, which Dr. Harrison considers a most r i d i c u l o u s type of p r i d e . As h i s father points out, Tom's s e l f - c o n c e i t even blinds him to h i s own i n t e r e s t . Nonethe-l e s s , although Dr. Harrison's estimation of a proud clergyman suggests that a comic treatment of the young divine would be most appropriate, he i s seldom so treated. Instead, the young divine i s made quite unlikeable for such a l i m i t e d appearance. In terms of authority, though, Tom's treatment i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y important. Although i t i s c l e a r that Tom w i l l be one of the clergy to whom Dr. Harrison r e f e r s who are p a r t l y responsible f o r the poor reputation of r e l i g i o n , h i s youth and recent graduation are emphasized enough that the young divine can hardly be seen as an authority f i g u r e . I t i s on Dr. Harrison, then, that the burden of authority f a l l s , and consequently i t must be Dr. Harrison who establishes the value system of the novel: "In conniving at Booth's unequal marriage, i n a r r e s t i n g him f o r l i v i n g beyond his means, and f i n a l l y i n r e s t o r i n g Amelia's estate, Dr. Harrison i s the p r i n c i p a l agent for Providence i n the novel. . . . Although there are reasons (as w i l l be discussed), to question whether Dr. Harrison 96 has enough authority to be considered the novel's main authority f i g u r e , he must be so considered f o r two reasons. F i r s t , there i s no other authority figure both good enough and prominent enough to q u a l i f y f o r the place, and, second, F i e l d i n g seems to have intended to create i n Dr. Harrison another Squire Allworthy as f a r as the d i f f e r e n t subject matter of Am&LLa. permitted. The f i r s t reason i s a poor excuse and i s the source of the proposition that there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t authority i n Am&LtCL to support optimism and a p o s i t i v e value system (bearing i n mind, of course, that good authority alone would be an inadequate support). The second reason explains, t o some extent, the discrepancy between Harrison's actions,and F i e l d i n g ' s and h i s characters' insistence on Harrison's goodness and benevolence. As i n Tom JonZA, there are two kinds of authority — demonstrated and discussed — and both are predominantly concerned with Dr. Harrison. Unfortun-a t e l y , they do not agree. F i e l d i n g discusses Dr. Harrison, and Dr. Harrison discusses c r i t e r i a f o r a value system; both kinds of discussion e s t a b l i s h Dr. Harrison as an authority figure pctA 2XC2Xte.YlC.<L, and suggest a value system l i t t l e short of i d e a l . Harrison's value system focuses on two types of s o c i a l authority: secular and e c c l e s i a s t i c . In the secular realm, Harrison explains how a country should be run according to p r i n c i p l e s of v i r t u e , honour and honesty, and expounds the dangers of any other bases. According to Harrison, Whenever true merit i s l i a b l e to be superseded by favour and p a r t i a l i t y , and men are entrusted with o f f i c e s without any regard to capacity or i n t e g r i t y , the a f f a i r s of that state w i l l always be i n a deplorable s i t u a t i o n . . . . But, my l o r d , there i s another mischief which attends t h i s kind of i n j u s t i c e and that i s , i t hath a manifest tendency to destroy a l l v i r t u e and a b i l i t y among the people, by taking away a l l that encouragement and incentive which should 97 promote e m u l a t i o n and r a i s e men t o a im a t e x c e l l i n g i n any a r t , s c i e n c e , o r p r o f e s s i o n . ( I I , 229-30) H a r r i s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t i f , i n s t e a d o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s f r i e n d s and p a r t y , t h e s t a t e s m a n were t o c o n s i d e r the t r u e i n t e r e s t o f h i s c o u n t r y . . .he w i l l engage h i s c o u n t r y i n n e i t h e r a l l i a n c e s n o r q u a r r e l s b u t where i t i s r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d ; . . .he w i l l r a i s e no money b u t what i s w a n t e d , n o r employ any c i v i l o r m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s b u t what a r e u s e f u l , and p l a c e i n t h e s e employments men o f t h e h i g h e s t i n t e g r i t y , and o f the g r e a t e s t a b i l i t i e s ; . . .he w i l l employ some few o f h i s h o u r s t o advance o u r t r a d e , and some few more t o r e g u l a t e o u r d o m e s t i c government . . . . ( I I , 230-31) S o c i a l a u t h o r i t y w o u l d t h u s a p p r o x i m a t e i d e a l v a l u e s and hence answer the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n o f i t s f o r m a t i o n . D r . H a r r i s o n i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y even more e l o q u e n t on r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s s u p p l e m e n t e d by c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . D i d g e o n c a l l s h i m "a s o r t o f s y n t h e s i s o f the m o r a l c y n i c i s m t o be f o u n d i n L u c i a n and o f the e v a n g e l i c a l t e a c h i n g 7 t o be f o u n d a l m o s t e v e r y w h e r e . " H a r r i s o n ' s f i r s t l e t t e r t o B o o t h and A m e l i a d i s c u s s e s b e a r i n g t h e e v i l s o f t h i s w o r l d i n e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e rewards o f t h e n e x t , and he s u p p o r t s t h i s a d v i c e b o t h w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e t r a n s i e n c e and i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f w o r l d l y t r i a l s i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e permanence and v a l u e o f h e a v e n l y r e w a r d s , and w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o C i c e r o ' s a d v i c e , "Humancu, hsub dzAplceAz atquz ixi^fm. &z poAlta& aAblttioAJ." ( I , 1 4 1 ) . On much the same l i n e s he a r g u e s f o r d o i n g good t o e v e r y o n e , s i n c e , i f t h e o b j e c t o f goodness makes a n " i l l r e t u r n " "to t h e b e s t o f f i c e s , " t h e d o e r w i l l s t i l l be rewarded i n the n e x t w o r l d . H a r r i s o n p o i n t s o u t t h a t "a t r u e C h r i s t i a n can n e v e r be d i s a p p o i n t e d i f he d o t h n o t r e c e i v e h i s r e w a r d i n t h i s w o r l d ; the l a b o u r e r m i g h t as w e l l c o m p l a i n t h a t he i s n o t p a i d h i s h i r e 98 i n the middle of the day" ( I , 147). He goes on to discuss Matthew 5:44, regarding loving one's enemies, condemning those who modify the passage because "they cannot bend t h e i r mind to the obedience of Scripture, [and so] are desirous to wrest Scripture to a compliance with t h e i r own i n c l i n a -tions" ( I , 148-49). Here Harrison sounds l i k e Adams at h i s best. Harrison then answers, the objection that a l i t e r a l acceptance of the passage would destroy law and j u s t i c e because a C h r i s t i a n could not "prosecute h i s enemy i n a court of j u s t i c e " (I, 149). His reply, that a criminal should be prosecuted as "an offender against the laws of h i s country" not "from a s p i r i t of revenge" (I, 149), a r t i c u l a t e s more c l e a r l y Allworthy's lecture about the dangers of mistaken mercy (Tom Jon£J>, I I , 969). The novel also abounds with b r i e f comments expressing a s t r i c t compliance with predominantly New Testament Scripture, most of which could as e a s i l y be spoken by Adams or Allworthy as by Harrison. Most important, however, i s Harrison's comment on the nature of man, which d i r e c t l y states the general impression given through-out Joseph Andtzm, Tom Jone6 and AmoJLia: The nature of man i s f a r from being i n i t s e l f e v i l ; i t abounds with benevolence, c h a r i t y and p i t y , coveting praise and honour, and shunning shame and disgrace. Bad education, bad habits, and bad customs, debauch our nature, and drive i t headlong, as i t were, in t o v i c e . The governors of the world, and I am a f r a i d the priesthood, are answerable f o r the badness of i t . Instead of discouraging wickedness to the utmost of t h e i r power, both are too apt to connive at i t . (II, 131-32) In a l l three novels, only B l i f i l seems to be an exception to t h i s philosophy, and a very charitable reader could even apply i t to him. Harrison, then, expresses an i d e a l i s t i c q u a s i - p o l i t i c a l philosophy, and a r e l i g i o u s philosophy based on s t r i c t adherence to Scripture supported 99 by a wide range of c l a s s i c a l philosophy. The values that F i e l d i n g discusses whenever Harrison i s not present (though the use of the au t h o r i a l presence i s far less noticeable than i n Joseph KndJvmi, and Tom Jon&6) are very s i m i l a r , although he avoids d i r e c t reference to Scripture. The discussed (as opposed to demonstrated) p h i l o s o p h i c a l and moral bases i n AmeXta, therefore, combine the C h r i s t i a n emphasis of Jo&Zph AndAQJM and the c l a s s i c a l and more secular emphasis of Tom JonU. The e f f e c t should be a combination of the best of the two e a r l i e r novels and hence an o p t i m i s t i c novel. However, Dr. Harrison's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and the demonstration of h i s authority create an authority figure whom i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to l i k e , and he thereby raises doubts about the values discussed. Moreover, Dr. Harrison i s removed from the action much of the time, and unlike Tom JonZA, where a strong major character who mirrors the values of the authority figure i s always present, there i s no other strong character to keep Harrison's values a l i v e i n the world of kmzJUjOL. Even Amelia, who does embody many of the values established i n the novel, i s vulnerable and i n e f f e c t i v e , and i s also absent from much of the action. Consequently, the values discussed i n the novel have very l i t t l e strength, and, instead, t h e i r presence emphasizes the problems and f a i l u r e s i n the actual or demonstrated authority. Even though the actual values are frequently quite good {Z.Q. the several instances of friendship and cha r i t y and the wedded love demonstrated by Booth and Amelia and others), they do not appear so i n contrast to the i d e a l and uni v e r s a l discussed values, because they are so l i m i t e d i n scope. The discrepancy between r e a l and i d e a l i s most noticeable i n Harrison's character and actions (since discussions of p h i l o s o p h i c a l values are, a f t e r a l l , expected to be distanced from the r e a l world). I t i s not expected, 100 however, that what we are t o l d of a character by way of background information and introduction w i l l be contradicted by that character's actions. At the very most, the informant could be i n i t i a l l y mistaken, and re-judge the other character as the reader does so, but, i n kmeJLla,, both d i r e c t a u t h o r i a l comment and a u t h o r i a l comments routed through Booth and Amelia continue to e s t a b l i s h a character f o r Dr. Harrison d i f f e r e n t from that which he demon- . s t r a t e s . For example, Dr. Harrison does not seem p a r t i c u l a r l y kind or f a i r , but these q u a l i t i e s are frequently a t t r i b u t e d to him. Moreover, many of Dr. Harrison's alleged c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are neither affirmed nor denied by h i s behaviour, creating some doubts about F i e l d i n g ' s endorsement of them. B a s i c a l l y , the problem i s i n the combination of d<mOY\&thJXt<Ld bluntness and honesty with the good nature and tenderness that we are mostly toZd about. We are t o l d that "the doctor's wit and humour, joined to the highest chearfulness and good nature, made him the most agreeable companion i n the world" ( I , 145), and l a t e r that "the doctor was one of the best companions i n the world, and a vein of cheerfulness, good humour, and pleasantry, ran through h i s conversation with which i t was impossible to r e s i s t being pleased" (II, 135). On occasion, we see evidence of these q u a l i t i e s . More frequently, though, we see evidence of h i s bluntness. Since Harrison's goodness i s i n s i s t e d upon at every turn, bluntness could be assumed to be a good q u a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y since every comment on Harrison's bluntness suggests approbation. However, when Booth speaks of bluntness i n general, he says "bluntness, or rather rudeness, as i t commonly deserves to be c a l l e d , i s not always so much a mark of honesty as i t i s taken to be" (I, 127). Furthermore, instances of Harrison's bluntness are usually i n s u l t i n g , frequently unnecessary and sometimes c r u e l . 101 Our introduction to Harrison i s as he drags Booth away from a party to impart a matter of "great consequence" (I, 68-69). The matter i t s e l f , that Harrison has convinced Mrs. Harris to l e t Booth marry Amelia, gives a very good impression indeed. The preface, however, involves the expression of Harrison's f i r s t , bad impressions of Booth, which may have been blunt and honest, but need not have been given i n such d e t a i l since Harrison's opinion, based on hearsay, has now been a l t e r e d by an opposing report. Another instance of Harrison's i n s u l t i n g bluntness i s h i s farewell to Booth as the l a t t e r goes to war. He h e a r t i l y wished Booth w e l l , saying, i n h i s blunt way, 'Well, boy, I hope to see thee crowned with l a u r e l s at thy return; one comfort I have at l e a s t , that stone walls and a sea w i l l prevent thee from running away'" (I, 103) . The comment was no doubt intended to be j o c u l a r , but Harrison need not have cast aspersions on Booth's courage i n order to wish him w e l l " h e a r t i l y . " Neither of.these instances caused any harm, but on some occasions Harrison's bluntness does cause pain. At one time, Harrison i n s u l t s Mrs. Atkinson about her learning u n t i l he causes a quarrel between her and her husband. I t i s not c l e a r whether Harrison's views about learned females express F i e l d i n g ' s , but Harrison's opinion i s c e r t a i n l y not shown to be wrong. However, a f t e r the f i g h t s t a r t s , "the doctor, fearing he had gone too f a r , began to soften matters" ( I I , 187). Harrison i s , of course, employing his brand of humour i n the i n s u l t s , but that type of humour i s only acceptable when the other person i s a close enough f r i e n d to r e a l i z e the j o c u l a r nature of the comments. Harrison, i n f a c t , i s here breaking several of the rules which F i e l d i n g sets f o r t h i n h i s "Essay on Conversation." According to F i e l d i n g , 102 t h e r a i l l e r y w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h good b r e e d i n g i s a g e n t l e a n i m a d v e r s i o n on some f o i b l e ; w h i c h , w h i l e i t r a i s e s a l a u g h i n the r e s t o f the company, d o t h n o t p u t t h e p e r s o n r a l l i e d o u t o f c o u n t e n a n c e , o r expose h i m t o shame o r c o n t e m p t . On the c o n t r a r y , t h e j e s t s h o u l d be so d e l i c a t e t h a t t h e o b j e c t o f i t s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f j o i n i n g i n the m i r t h i t o c c a s i o n s . 8 F i e l d i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y warns t h a t " a l l r a i l l e r y on l a d i e s . . . s h o u l d be 9 e x t r e m e l y f i n e and g e n t l e . . . " and t h a t r a i l l e r y " i s a weapon w h i c h d o t h the more m i s c h i e f by how much the b l u n t e r i t i s . " 1 0 M o r e o v e r , an a u t h o r i t y does n o t enhance a p o s i t i v e v a l u e s y s t e m w h i l e an a g e n t f o r m a r i t a l s t r i f e , and t h e comment " f e a r i n g he h a d gone t o o f a r " p u t s the blame f o r t h e a l t e r c a t i o n on H a r r i s o n r a t h e r t h a n on M r s . A t k i n s o n . The c l e a r e s t example o f H a r r i s o n ' s b l u n t n e s s c a u s i n g p a i n c o n c e r n s a n o t h e r woman: A m e l i a . When A m e l i a ' s h o n o u r i s u n d e r a t t a c k by C o l o n e l James , she i s i n a s e r i o u s d i lemma r e g a r d i n g h e r d u t y as a w i f e . On the one h a n d , i f she t e l l s h e r h u s b a n d o f her- , f e a r s , he w i l l p r o b a b l y c h a l l e n g e James t o a d u e l . On the o t h e r h a n d , i f , as a w i f e , she obeys t h e a u t h o r i t y o f h e r h u s b a n d , she w i l l be thrown i n t o t h e arms o f h i s u n s u s p e c t e d enemy. I n t o t h i s d i l emma comes D r . H a r r i s o n , who as a good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e and e x e m p l a r o f r i g h t , s h o u l d r e s c u e A m e l i a f rom t h e f o r c e s o f e v i l . A l t h o u g h he e v e n t u a l l y does s o , i n i t i a l l y , when t h e r e a d e r ' s s y m p a t h i e s a r e w i t h A m e l i a , H a r r i s o n t a k e s B o o t h ' s p a r t and e n l i s t s on t h e s i d e o f a d u l t e r y . M o r e o v e r , b e c a u s e A m e l i a does n o t , and we know she c a n n o t , a g r e e w i t h D r . H a r r i s o n , he i n s u l t s and b a d g e r s h e r , g i v i n g h i s o p i n i o n as b l u n t l y as p o s s i b l e , u n t i l she c r i e s . S e t t i n g the main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n b r u t a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e most s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y t r e a t e d c h a r a c t e r i n t h e n o v e l a t one o f h e r most d i s t r e s s i n g moments does n o t e n c o u r a g e t h e r e a d e r t o a c c e p t t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e ' s v a l u e s . The u n f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n i s l e s s e n e d by t h e a u t h o r i a l comment. F i e l d i n g t e l l s us t h a t "however b l u n t [ D r . H a r r i s o n ] a p p e a r e d i n 103 h i s d i s c o u r s e , he h a d a t e n d e r n e s s o f h e a r t w h i c h i s r a r e l y f o u n d among men;" and t h a t he i s " f i r m l y p e r s u a d e d t h a t t h e l a t t e r n e v e r p o s s e s s e d any human m i n d i n any d e g r e e , w i t h o u t b e i n g a t t e n d e d by as l a r g e a p o r t i o n o f t h e former" ( I I , 1 2 9 ) . W h i l e the c r u e l e f f e c t o f the b l u n t n e s s i s e v i d e n t , t h e good e f f e c t o f t h e " t e n d e r n e s s " i s l e f t t o the i m a g i n a t i o n . H a r r i s o n ' s o t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t y , more damaging f o r an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e t h a n b l u n t n e s s , i s h i s h a b i t o f j u d g i n g p e o p l e on h e a r s a y . He d e m o n s t r a t e s t h i s h a b i t a t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n by j u d g i n g and t h e n r e - j u d g i n g B o o t h by r e p o r t , and a g a i n when he j u d g e s and r e - j u d g e s C o l o n e l James by r e p o r t . Most damaging t o h i s c r e d i b i l i t y as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , o f c o u r s e , i s t h e o c c a s i o n when he has B o o t h i m p r i s o n e d on the b a s i s o f h e a r s a y . B u t how e l s e i s he t o j u d g e ? He must form some o p i n i o n o f a p e r s o n b e i n g d i s c u s s e d , and i f t h e p e r s o n i s n o t p r e s e n t , t h e judgment must be by h e a r s a y . However , he n e e d n o t make as u n q u a l i f i e d judgments as he d o e s , b e c a u s e t h e s o u r c e s o f h i s r e p o r t s c a n n o t be e n t i r e l y i n f a l l i b l e . H i s l i k i n g f o r C o l o n e l James , f o r i n s t a n c e , c o u l d have been more r e s e r v e d on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t B o o t h and A m e l i a were m i s t a k e n . C o n c e r n i n g B o o t h , t h e s o u r c e s o f H a r r i s o n ' s f i r s t r e p o r t s a r e n o t s p e c i f i e d , b u t must have been e i t h e r u n r e l i a b l e o r m i s t a k e n , and r e - j u d g i n g on M r s . H a r r i s ' s r e n d i t i o n o f B o o t h ' s d i s c o u r s e t o A m e l i a was f o o l i s h i f a c c i d e n t a l l y c o r r e c t . B o o t h c o u l d s i m p l y have been " p r o v i n g " d i s i n t e r e s t e d l o v e , w h i l e a c t u a l l y b e i n g the " t h i e f " H a r r i s o n s u s p e c t e d . The most s e r i o u s c h a r g e a g a i n s t D r . H a r r i s o n i s h i s condemning B o o t h f o r h a v i n g " s e t up an e q u i p a g e " ( I , 1 7 3 ) , and h a v i n g h i m i m p r i s o n e d f o r d e b t , on s e c o n d - h a n d e v i d e n c e . H a r r i s o n r e c e i v e s an e x a g g e r a t e d v e r s i o n " f r o m a p e r s o n o f t h e h i g h e s t honour" o f B o o t h ' s p u r c h a s e o f an o l d c o a c h and h a r n e s s , 104 and, without waiting f o r , or even asking f o r , Booth's version, condemns, him as vain, f o o l i s h , and r i d i c u l o u s (I, 173) . Later, he accepts the malicious reports of Booth's ex-neighbours, s t i l l without applying to Booth, and, f i n a l l y departs from Booth's f l a t i n a rage a f t e r discovering a few t r i n k e t s which must have been the only valuable items i n the apartment. Although F i e l d i n g claims i n "the T r i a l of Amelia" i n the Convznt GoJidzn JouSinal that Harrison has Booth arrested "only because he had a l l imaginable reason to think he [Booth] was a V i l l a i n , " 1 1 he also r e a l i z e s that these instances are inconsistent with the image of a good authority f i g u r e , and goes to some pains to prove "the lat e conduct of Dr. Harrison . . . to be t r u l y congrous with a l l the rules of the most p e r f e c t prudence as well as with the most consummate goodness" (II, 111). The substance of the argument i s that Booth and Amelia were so slandered by t h e i r ex-neighbours, supposed friends included, that Harrison was "poisoned with a l l t h i s malice" ( I I , 111). He d i d not allow the "c r i m i n a l " to speak i n h i s own defense, though, and t h i s procedure i s one F i e l d i n g repeatedly condemns i n h i s scenes of j u s t i c e . In f a c t , the strongest point F i e l d i n g can make to prove Allworthy's excellence as a magistrate i s that h i s "natural Love of J u s t i c e , joined to his Coolness of Temper, made him always a most pa t i e n t Magistrate i n hearing a l l the Witnesses which an accused Person could produce i n h i s Defence" (Tom JonZi, I, 100). Harrison's behaviour i s e s p e c i a l l y reprehensible when i t i s considered that he has known Booth f o r a year, and Amelia a l l her l i f e . A minor problem i s that Harrison i s the second worst judge of character i n the novel. XThe worst i s Booth)) Although Amelia says that Harrison "understands human nature to the bottom" (II, 132), contrary evidence i s frequently presented. He does not take i n t o account envy or i l l - w i l l except 105 where they do not e x i s t . This f a i l i n g i n i t s e l f could be salvaged, as i t was for Allworthy and Adams, i f F i e l d i n g had chosen to and had presented h i s arguments that e v i l does not occur to good minds, and that the e v i l char-acters appear much d i f f e r e n t to the l i m i t e d view of a character within the novel than they do to the omniscient view of the reader. He does present the f i r s t p a rt of t h i s argument, but he uses i t to support Amelia, not Dr. Harrison. The major problem i s that Harrison i s inconsistent, which s e r i o u s l y reduces the c r e d i b i l i t y of authority i n the novel. I f imprisoning Booth were r e a l l y "congruous with . . .the most consummate goodness," why does Harrison have second thoughts? We are t o l d that "no sooner d i d the doctor hear that Booth was arrested than the wretched conditon of h i s wife and family began to a f f e c t h i s mind" (II, 112). Why d i d he not think of them before he i n s t i g a t e d "his own v i n d i c t i v e proceedings?" In f a c t , as soon as Harrison has a l l the evidence, i t i s c l e a r even to him that h i s proceedings were u n j u s t i f i e d . I f t h i s r e v e r s a l came at the climax of the novel, when the protagonist i s reunited with the main authority f i g u r e , i t would be part of the p o s i t i v e r e s o l u t i o n . However, t h i s reunion of protagonist to authority i s at mid-point i n the novel and serves mainly to e s t a b l i s h Harrison's f a l l i b i l i t y and inconsistency. Both f a i l i n g s reduce the sense of a c o n t r o l l i n g authority i n the novel by which everything w i l l be resolved favourably at the end. On the other hand, Harrison does have h i s good points, and h i s brand of humour and h i s didacticism do not grate on the nerves of a l l readers. A. R. Humphreys, i n h i s introduction to the Everyman e d i t i o n of kmZ&JX, finds i n Dr. Harrison a strong authority figure who embodies an underlying optimism 106 i n the novel: Into Dr. Harrison F i e l d i n g has put a powerful moral r e a l i t y , more so than i n t o Mr. Allworthy, the doctor having an a l t o -gether robust and Johnsonian nature. Except when he wrangles with Mrs. Atkinson he i s nothing but welcome. He embodies a formidable p r a c t i c a l C h r i s t i a n i t y , not to be browbeaten or argued down. Worship i s h i s refreshment, and e t e r n a l l i f e r e a l to him, but he i s a c i t i z e n of the world also, f o r i t s good. 1 2 Hugh Amory considers that "Dr. Harrison, indeed seems to embody most of that 13 i n v i s i b l e authority that F i e l d i n g passed over i n the EnquuAy." Moreover, 14 Dr. Harrison seems to combine the good t r a i t s of Adams and Allworthy and the frequent approving a u t h o r i a l comments prove that Dr. Harrison i s intended as nearly an i d e a l authority f i g u r e . Hugh Amory suggests that the "most perfect prudence" (AmzLtCL, XI, i , i i i ) i s not a v i r t u e one would associate with an Adams or an Allworthy; and as i t e x h i b i t s i t s e l f i n Dr. Harrison's actions, i t d i f f e r s from normal, human prudence — i t resembles, i n etymology and e f f e c t , divine providence, whose operations seem equally monstrous,whose goodness i s equally " i n v i s i b l e and incorporeal." This supposition i s reasonable as to F i e l d i n g ' s i n t e n t , but i t seems u n l i k e l y that an experienced w r i t e r such as F i e l d i n g would t r y to create a p e r f e c t creature, or that i f he d i d t r y he would produce such g l a r i n g anomalies as having hi s "perfect" creature condemn someone unheard. Amory considered that the presentation of authority. . .involves F i e l d i n g i n a s p e c i a l poetic problem, f o r he must act i n the capacity of an a r t i s t or magistrate, and yet he i s a b e l i e v i n g C h r i s t i a n f o r whom t h i s capacity i s inadequate to a v i s i o n of authority. The modern c o r r e l a t i v e of the censor i s . . .the p r i e s t or the Chancellor. . .yet when F i e l d i n g must present them i n h i s f i c t i o n s , the very '. l i m i t a t i o n s .of h i s r o l e as. a r t i s t and the '."invisible"'. nature of t h e i r authority make t h e i r actions seem fabulous, romantic, and improbable.. 107 Most l i k e l y , F i e l d i n g i n t e n d e d H a r r i s o n t o have t h e good q u a l i t i e s o f Adams and A l l w o r t h y w i t h more a u s t e r i t y t h a n e i t h e r , p l u s some t e n d e n c y towards a d i v i n e " p e r f e c t p r u d e n c e , " m o d i f i e d by t h e human c a p a c i t y t o e r r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , e v i l i s a lways e a s i e r t o p o r t r a y t h a n good ( c p . M i l t o n ' s S a t a n w i t h h i s G o d ) , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t H a r r i s o n ' s e r r o r s a r e d e m o n s t r a t e d e f f e c t i v e l y , and h i s p e r f e c t i o n s a r e e i t h e r m e r e l y d i s c u s s e d , o r , i f d e m o n s t r a t e d (Q..Q. h i s a u s t e r i t y ) , l i a b l e t o m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n f a c t , most o f the v a l u e s e s t a b l i s h e d by a u t h o r i t y i n t h e n o v e l a r e d i s c u s s e d r a t h e r t h a n d e m o n s t r a t e d , u s u a l l y d e t a c h e d f rom t h e p l o t , a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , H a r r i s o n ' s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and f a i l i n g s i n d e m o n s t r a t e d a u t h o r i t y do n o t r e d u c e h i s a u t h o r i t y i n t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d d i d a c t i c : m a t e r i a l . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t H a r r i s o n ' s v i ews on the a n c i e n t s , on S c r i p t u r e s , on e d u c a t i o n and on government a r e F i e l d i n g ' s own and i n t e n d e d as t o u c h s t o n e s . i n AmQ.Zi.CL. AmoZA.a d i r e c t l y c o n t a i n s F i e l d i n g ' s p h i l o s o p h i e s on t h e s e s u b j e c t s h i n t e d a t i n h i s o t h e r m a j o r n o v e l s (and a l s o i n Jonathan WZtd and }omn.nQ.y to Lisbon) . On p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s , t h e d i s c u s s i o n s c o n f l i c t w i t h e v e n t s i n the n o v e l ; we a r e t o l d o f i d e a l systems o f advancement and government , y e t a r e shown c o r r u p t s y s t e m s . The d i s c u s s i o n s o f S c r i p t u r e s and c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , r e i n f o r c e d by t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , e s t a b l i s h p r o p e r c o n d u c t , a t t i t u d e and m o r a l s , w h i c h a r e v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d by a l l b u t a few c h a r a c t e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e u n i o n between the n o v e l and t h e v a l u e s d i s -c u s s e d b y b o t h H a r r i s o n and t h e a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a i s t enuous a t b e s t . I t i s as i f one were r e a d i n g now a l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , now a l i t t l e t h e o l o g y and p h i l o s o p h y as an i n t e l l e c t u a l d i v e r s i o n from t h e n o v e l . W o r s e , when H a r r i s o n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c u s s i o n s have a p r a c t i c a l b e a r i n g on some c h a r a c t e r ' s 108 actions, Harrison i s again inconsistent. When he considers whether Booth should go to war, he waxes eloquent on honour, and expostulates ". . .your honour i s at stake; and you know how nice the honour of a s o l d i e r i s i n these cases" ( I , 97). However, when Amelia suggests that her "husband's honour i s to be preserved as well as h i s l i f e " ( I I , 278) , Harrison describes honour as "a custom established by a set of block-heads, founded on f a l s e p r i n c i p l e s of v i r t u e , i n d i r e c t opposition to the p l a i n and p o s i t i v e precepts of r e l i g i o n . . ." ( I I , 278). I t i s true that the f i r s t instance involves war, a species of k i l l i n g somewhat akin to j u d i c i a l execution, and the second instance involves d u e l l i n g , which, as an expression of private resentment and revenge, i s more c l e a r l y against the precepts of C h r i s t i a n i t y . However, Harrison does not make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n ; he deals s o l e l y , i n both cases, with the question of honour. In f a c t , most of the values which are inherent i n the p l o t are established by t h e i r absence and have l i t t l e to do with authority. The novel abounds with e v i l and f o o l i s h characters, and by demonstrating the consequences of t h e i r e v i l and foolishness, F i e l d i n g implies the p o s i t i v e values which would, presumably, lead to good consequences. Of course, some p o s i t i v e values must be established i f e v i l and f o o l i s h characters are to be recognized as such, and these values are, b a s i c a l l y , established through Harrison, Amelia, and, to some extent, through Booth> although F i e l d i n g also depends to a large extent on h i s a u t h o r i a l voice and on the reader's own values. Of Amelia, we learn that she has the f o r t i t u d e and patience to bear the greatest a f f l i c t i o n s a woman could have (which, i t i s suggested, are the reduction of her beauty and the v i c i o u s i n s u l t s of her r i v a l s ) . We also learn that she i s good-natured, w i l l not s a c r i f i c e love to worldly ambition, i s a 109 l o v i n g and o b e d i e n t w i f e , a good mother and a s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n . L i k e S o p h i a , she i s an i d e a l woman, t h o u g h , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , h e r power and i n f l u e n c e a r e s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d b e c a u s e she i s o n l y a woman i n a man's w o r l d . Of B o o t h , we l e a r n t h a t he i s a "good S a m a r i t a n , " t h a t he f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h A m e l i a f o r h e r c h a r a c t e r and h e r b e a u t y , n o t f o r h e r w e a l t h , and t h a t he i s a c o u r a g e o u s s o l d i e r . T h e r e f o r e , we l i k e A m e l i a , and B o o t h , as f a r as he does n o t cause A m e l i a h a r d s h i p , and we l i k e o r d i s l i k e most o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a c c o r d i n g t o how t h e y t r e a t B o o t h and A m e l i a and how the c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r a c t i o n s a f f e c t B o o t h and A m e l i a . B a s i c a l l y , t h e n , t h e r e a r e t h r e e w o r l d s i n KmoXLiX. One i s t h a t o f B o o t h , A m e l i a , A t k i n s o n , D r . H a r r i s o n a n d , on o c c a s i o n , s e v e r a l m i n o r c h a r a c t e r s , where h o n e s t y and g o o d - n a t u r e r u l e supreme , and l o v e and t r u s t b i n d one c h a r a c t e r t o a n o t h e r . The s e c o n d w o r l d i s D r . H a r r i s o n ' s Utopia, c o n c e r n i n g l i f e b e y o n d p e r s o n a l , d a i l y e x i s t e n c e , w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e s i d e a l systems and v a l u e s f o r a l l a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s g o v e r n m e n t . The t h i r d w o r l d i s c o r r u p t and c h a o t i c on b o t h p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l l e v e l s , and embodies t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e v a l u e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e two o t h e r w o r l d s . T h i s l a s t w o r l d i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , p r e d o m i n a n t , and i s so p o w e r f u l t h a t i t can p e r v e r t t h e h o n e s t y and h a p p i n e s s o f most o f t h e good c h a r a c t e r s . E v e n A m e l i a , who r e m a i n s f a i t h f u l t o a l l h e r v a l u e s o f l o v e and h o n e s t y , i s made unhappy by the e v i l f o r c e s o f t h e r e a l w o r l d , e s p e c i a l l y when t h a t w o r l d t r i c k s t r u e (good) a u t h o r i t y i n t o i t s camp. The a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c o r r u p t w o r l d i s b a s e d on money and r a n k , and i s , t h e r e f o r e , as a r g u e d p r e v i o u s l y , f a l s e a u t h o r i t y . In the w o r l d o f kmoJLLiX, t h i s f a l s e a u t h o r i t y i s so p o w e r f u l t h a t o n l y a c q u i s i t i o n o f i t s base s f r e e s good c h a r a c t e r s f rom i t s p o w e r , and a l l o w s them t o f o l l o w t r u e a u t h o r i t y . T r u e a u t h o r i t y , on i t s own, c a n n o t 110 compete a g a i n s t f a l s e a u t h o r i t y e x c e p t on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l . F u r t h e r m o r e , t r u e a u t h o r i t y i n AmoJLia. i s s e p a r a t e d from the d a i l y l i v e s o f o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , w h i l e f a l s e a u t h o r i t y , w i t h many more a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , i s p r e s e n t most o f the t i m e . The e v e n t u a l t r i u m p h o f good a u t h o r i t y i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e m a j o r c h a r a c t e r s s h o u l d be a s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t o f the s t r e n g t h o f r i g h t , b u t t h e t r i u m p h o f e v i l i n the l i v e s o f so many m i n o r c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e m o v i n g the m a j o r c h a r a c t e r s f rom t h e s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e o f f a l s e a u t h o r i t y , d e t r a c t f rom t h e p o s i t i v e f o r c e o f the happy e n d i n g . The p r e v a i l i n g sense o f the n o v e l i s t h a t o r d i n a r y p e o p l e a r e a t t h e mercy o f c o r r u p t i o n and e v i l w h i c h a r e so p o w e r f u l t h a t even t h e e a r t h l y ; x e p r e s e n t a t i . v e s o f ' P r o v i d e n c e can be t r i c k e d i n t o f u r t h e r i n g t h e g o a l s o f f a l s e a u t h o r i t y . The consequences o f t h i s p e s s i m i s t i c w o r l d v i e w d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n s t a n t p r e s e n c e o f a good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . D r . H a r r i s o n ' s i d e a l v a l u e s c a n a t l e a s t be k e p t i n s i g h t when he i s p r e s e n t , b u t once a u t h -o r i t y i s removed from a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d a i l y l i f e , t h e f o r c e s o f e v i l g a i n a n a l m o s t i n v i n c i b l e p o s i t i o n . AmoXi-d i s a p r e d o m i n a n t l y p e s s i m i s t i c n o v e l , e x c e p t a t t h e e n d , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f the t r e a t m e n t o f a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . H a r r i s o n ' s good q u a l i t i e s a r e n o t d e v e l o p e d enough t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t he i s a "good man," and he i s a b s e n t f r o m t h e a c t i o n mos t o f t h e t i m e . S i n c e t h e l i n k between t h e good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e and P r o v i d e n c e i s n o t c o n v i n c i n g , and s i n c e , even i f H a r r i s o n i s a s t r o n g P r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t , he i s n o t p r e s e n t t o p r o t e c t t h e good c h a r a c t e r s , t h e o p t i m i s m o f JoACph AndAZWA and Tom 3onU, b a s e d on a b e l i e f i n the p r e s e n c e and power o f good i n the w o r l d as e x p r e s s e d and e n f o r c e d by good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , has been a b a n d o n e d . As i n JoAtph AndfttJMA and Tom JonU, t h e n , t h e I l l treatment of authority in AmeXca. is crucial to the world view of the novel: in the two former novels the treatment of authority was instrumental in achieving optimism, and, in the latter, the treatment of authority creates much of the novel's pessimism. 112 CONCLUSION An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n F i e l d i n g ' s m a j o r n o v e l s , t h e n , d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e degree o f o p t i m i s m p e r c e i v e d i s l a r g e l y dependent upon the p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r l a c k t h e r e o f , o f the ma in a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e as a "good man" and as a P r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t , a n d , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , i s dependent upon t h e s y m p a t h e t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m i n o r s y m p a t h e t i c a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s and t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f i n n o c e n t c h a r a c t e r s from e v i l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s by P r o v i -d e n t i a l agen t s — p a r t i c u l a r l y by t h e main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . The "good man" c o n c e p t , a l t h o u g h a p p l i c a b l e t o n o n - a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t f o r an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n c e i t a s s u r e s , n o t an absence o f human f a i l i n g s , o r f reedom from e r r o r , b u t t h a t empathy , g o o d - n a t u r e and C h r i s t i a n and S t o i c v i r t u e s j w i l l f i n d f r e q u e n t e x p r e s s i o n i n c h a r i t a b l e a c t s and i n the e x e r c i s e o f b e n e v o l e n t g u i d a n c e , p r u d e n t c o u n s e l and w i s e c o r r e c t i o n . The a c t i o n s o f t h e main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , as l o n g as t h e y a r e b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f a "good man," w i l l be i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e comic r e s o l u t i o n o f the p l o t and w i t h t h e o p t i m i s t i c e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h e o r y o f a d i v i n e p l a n whereby e v e r y t h i n g ( a n d , most d r a m a t i c a l l y , h o n e s t e r r o r ) works towards an u l t i m a t e g o o d . The a c t i o n s o f e v i l a u t h o r i t y , b a s e d on a l a c k o f good q u a l i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n s o l e l y on the p r e s e n c e o f v i c e s ( a l t h o u g h F i e l d i n g ' s e v i l c h a r a c t e r s u s u a l l y have numerous v i c e s , s e l f i s h n e s s b e i n g t h e most common), n a t u r a l l y i n h i b i t t h e comic r e s o l u t i o n , b u t a l s o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r P r o v i d e n t i a l agent s t o a c t . E a c h n o v e l c o n t a i n s one main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e who i s n o t t h e ma in c h a r a c t e r , o r a t l e a s t w i t h Jo6e.ph AndnejWA i n m i n d , who i s n o t s u p p o s e d t o 113 be the main character, but who i s , nonetheless, the spokesman f o r the e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s bases of the novel and who establishes, to a large extent, the tone and attitude of the novel. The authority figure has one formal, p u b l i c authority r o l e , and at l e a s t one p r i v a t e authority r o l e . Because he embodies a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the "good man" (although Dr. Harrison's "good man" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i n s u f f i c i e n t l y demonstrated), he exercises a l l types of authority to some degree. In every case, the main authority i s , or, i n the case of Dr. Harrison, i s intended to be, the representative of Providence or God i n the novel, and, although the main authority figure i s never an allegory of_- God, he i s as god-like as i t i s possible f o r a d i s t i n c t l y human character to be. In the case of Dr. Harrison, of course, the demonstrated "god-like" q u a l i t i e s e s t a b l i s h h i s a u s t e r i t y , the discussed "god-like" q u a l i t i e s are not proven, and the human q u a l i t i e s emphasized cause temporary hardship and unhappiness. The degree of optimism intended i n each novel may be gauged by the presence and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, since the more prominent Providence i s , the more c e r t a i n i s the happy ending. In each novel, the main source of an authority figure's power, and hence h i s main e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s concern, i s F i e l d i n g ' s s i m p l i f i e d L a t i t u d i n a r i a n stance, as modified by exposure to Stoicism and by some features of contemporary philosophy such as Shaftesbury's and Hutcheson's b e l i e f i n the innate p r i n c i p l e s of goodness i n man. In lo&zph And/IZWA and AmolxXL, C h r i s t i a n i t y i s the c o n t r o l l i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r the authority f i g u r e s . In Tom JonZA, the ro l e of contemporary and c l a s s i c a l philosophies i s more prominent, although God i s s t i l l the model f o r Allworthy's authority. Moreover, Allworthy i s the most nearly "divine" of the three major authority f i g u r e s , and h i s angelic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are often described. In a l l three 114 novels, contemporary and c l a s s i c a l philosophies are discussed, but they are used to c l a r i f y and support r e l i g i o u s doctrine, not to replace i t . Stoicism, and contemporary philosophies containing elements of Locke, Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, B u t l e r and Bolingbroke (as interpreted by Pope i n The. E&AGLLf on Man) , are used as supporting e t h i c a l bases f o r the novels, while other philosophies are casually mocked or refuted. Reason and optimism, then, support C h r i s i t i a n i t y i n Fi e l d i n g ' s major novels. In Toi>e.ph And/ieWA, the main authority figure i s a minor clergyman, a father and a father figure to h i s p a r i s h . He i s v i s u a l l y comic and has comic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but i s a "good man" and hence a r e a l authority f i g u r e , and his goals and b e l i e f s ultimately triumph over those of serious, more powerful f a l s e authority f i g u r e s . He emphasizes love i n h i s character and actions, and h i s expressed doctrine i s e i t h e r based on love and L a t i t u d i n a r i a n C h r i s t i a n i t y or s e r i o u s l y reduced by comedy. Although h i s p r a c t i c a l power i s l i m i t e d , h i s constant presence i s an assurance that the Providence he represents i s i n control and that "everything w i l l turn out a l l r i g h t i n the end," and he i s , therefore, l a r g e l y responsible for the light-heartedness evident throughout the novel. Although Adams i s not the main character i n JoA&ph kndh.2JM, i n that the p l o t does not focus on him, he i s the most prominent and most memorable character i n the novel, and, consequently, the most important main authority f i g u r e of the three under consideration. Allworthy, the main authority figure i n Tom JoneA, enjoys considerably more p r a c t i c a l power than Adams does, but has less s p i r i t u a l power because he i s a magistrate rather than a clergyman, though he s t i l l finds frequent opportunity to expound moral doctrine. Although he i s not an actual father, hi s roles as a guardian and as a squire, and hence as a father figure f o r the 115 area, are emphasized f a r more than are Adams' paternal r o l e s , and much of his authority i n the novel concerns h i s pri v a t e authority r o l e s . Allworthy's role as a "good man" i s emphasized because he serves as a guide and example to Tom Jones, who, though a f l e d g l i n g "good man," needs considerably more d i r e c t i o n and advice than d i d Joseph Andrews. Moreover, there .ts^ a large number of parental authority figures who misuse t h e i r authority, and only Allworthy's "good man" features give him a superior degree of parental authority. Allworthy has les s e f f e c t on Tom Jonei than Adams has on Joi^ph AndtZWA, because he i s not present during the middle section and during much of the t h i r d section, but he establishes the e t h i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r the novel before the action moves from h i s c o n t r o l . The j u d i c i a l nature of h i s authority, as w e l l as the reservation i n h i s own character, make him a more formal, but s t i l l a very l i k e a b l e character, though h i s serious outlook on l i f e makes Tom 3on<Li> l e s s simply happy than i s Joseph kndhsmb. The main authority figure i n kmoJLLa. follows the trend to formality, a u s t e r i t y and absence from the ac t i o n . Like Adams, Dr. Harrison i s a clergy-man, but, unlike Adams, h i s "good man" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are seldom demonstrated and he i s absent from the action most of the time. The f i r s t problem makes his authority hard to accept and the second problem makes the world view of the novel chaotic and p e s s i m i s t i c . When Harrison does appear, he seldom makes the novel any happier — h i s j o c u l a r i t y has a grating e f f e c t on t h i s reader — and h i s actions create serious, though temporary, hardship. There i s no sense that Providence i s i n con t r o l because i t s main representative i s incon-s i s t e n t , unconvincing and seldom involved i n the action, and the other possible representative i s the powerless Amelia. Moreover, Harrison's p r i v a t e authority role — father figure to Amelia and Booth — i s minor, which makes him formal 116 and aloof and therefore very d i f f i c u l t to l i k e . On the other hand, the few Pr o v i d e n t i a l rescues are the work of Harrison, which with the comments of the a u t h o r i a l voice and the other characters, demonstrates that Harrison i s intended as a good authority f i g u r e . In each novel, the authority figure demonstrates many of the views expressed by the au t h o r i a l voice, conveys these views to the other characters, and thereby i s an active ingredient i n the development of the world view. Because he i s the spokesman, among the characters, f o r the r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l bases of the novels, the reader w i l l tend to judge the characters and events as would the authority figure (unless, of course, the reader strongly objects to the bases established). As f a r as h i s p r a c t i c a l authority permits, the authority figure controls, or at l e a s t modifies, events i n the novel. The same i s true f o r any authority f i g u r e , but when a f a l s e authority controls events, the progression towards the p o s i t i v e r e s o l u t i o n i s impeded, while the main authority f i g u r e , as a P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, furthers an ultimate good even when h i s co n t r o l seems to be erroneous. The authority figure i s therefore important to the tone and e f f e c t of the novel. The three main authority figures thus demonstrate a causal r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r novels. Adams i s a j o v i a l , strongly C h r i s t i a n P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, and these facts enhance the o p t i m i s t i c and comic world of Jo&zph AndAHWA. Allworthy i s more serious and more remote, as w e l l as more powerful, but s t i l l an obvious P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, and Tom Jon&6\is, p a r t i a l l y f o r t h i s reason, less comic and less o p t i m i s t i c . Harrison i s not a convincing or l i k e a b l e P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, the action i s l a r g e l y removed from h i s domain, and these elements help to make kmeXA.0. neither comic nor o p t i m i s t i c . In a l l three novels, the main authority figure i s p r i m a r i l y responsible f o r the d i d a c t i c material 117 and i s the character spokesman for each novel's ethical and religious philosophy. The treatment of the main authority figures i s , therefore, one of Fielding's main techniques for establishing the degree of optimism in the tone and world view of each of his major novels. 118 FOOTNOTES C h a p t e r One Henry F i e l d i n g , The H-lAtohiJ ofi Tom JoneA: A ToundLLng, e d . F r e d s o n B o w e r s , 2 v o l s . ( O x f o r d : W e s l e y a n , 1 9 7 4 ) , I I , 783 . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s a r e . ' t o t h i s e d i t i o n and a r e i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t . 2 M i c h a e l I r w i n , The. Tentative. ReoJUAt ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967 ) , p . 8 . 3 F . Homes DudidenMenAy X-i.eX.di.ng-. HiA Lifie., WonkA and TimeA, .2; v o l s . (Hamden, Conn.iii A r c h o h , 1966) , 1 , 2 6 7 . 4 Henry F i e l d i n g The. Chompi.on, 22 J a n . 1740 , i n Dudden , I , 2 6 8 . 5 Dudden , I I , 1062. Dudden, I I , 1084. 7 Dudden, I I , 6 7 9 . 3 F i e l d i n g , " D e d i c a t i o n , " Tom JoneA, I , 7 . 9 M i c h a e l G r a n t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " t o CcceAO: SeX.ZCte.dWoA.kA ( M i d d l e s e x : ' P e n g u i n , 1967) , p . 1 5 . 1 0 J o s e p h B u t l e r , "Sermon I I " Thz WoAkA o{ JoAZph ButteA, 2 v o l s . ( E d i n b u r g h : W i l l i a m Whyte , 1816 ) , I I , 6 0 . C h a p t e r Two 1 I r w i n , p . 79 . 2 Henry F i e l d i n g , " p r e f a c e t o JoAzph Andhiem," JoAzph kndnem and ShameZa, e d . S h e r i d a n B a k e r (New Y o r k : C r o w e l l , 1972) , p . 6 5 . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o JoAZph AndAZWA a r e f rom t h i s e d i t i o n and a r e i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a c h a r a c t e r who i s " b a s i c a l l y good" i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a "good m a n , " a c o n c e p t w i t h q u i t e r i g i d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Any genu ine m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f emphathy f o r o n e ' s f e l l o w man i s an i n s t a n c e o f good i n F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s , even i f " h a b i t u a l a v a r i c e , " 119 C h a p t e r Two c o n t i n u e d : o r some o t h e r f a i l i n g , c u t s s h o r t the a c t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m t h a t good ( c p . S h a f t e s b u r y , ChoJuXCXeAA^ticJb, p . 9 0 , InqvJjiy, p . 1 3 ) . The b e t t e r a c h a r a c t e r i s , o f c o u r s e , the d e e p e r and more f r e q u e n t are t h e i n s t a n c e s o f empathy and t h e more c h a r i t a b l e a c t s r e s u l t . 4 George S h e r b u r n , " F i e l d i n g ' s S o c i a l O u t l o o k , " FhiZ.oZogi.caJi QuaAtZJiZy, J a n u a r y 1956, p p . 1-2 3, r p t . i n Ei.ghtzznth Czntuny EngLL&h U.tZhatuAZ, e d . James L . C l i f f o r d (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1959)', p . 2 5 7 . 5 M a r t i n B a t t e s t i n , Thz UohaZ BabiA o{ fi.zZdlng'& khA. ( M i d d l e t o w n : Wes leyan U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 5 9 . Wayne C . B o o t h , Thz Rhztofiic ofa fiction ( C h i c a g o ; U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1961) , p . 82 . A u r e l i e n . D i d g e o n , Thz NovzZi oft Vi.zZdU.ng (New Y o r k : R u s s e l l & R u s s e l , 1962) , p . 72 . g B a t t e s t i n , p . 116 . 9 I s a a c B a r r o w , Wohk& (London , I I I [1686] , 124-26) i n S t u a r t T a v e , 'Thz KmiabZz HmouAiAt ( C h i c a g o : U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 4 . D i d g e o n , p . 75 1 1 T a v e , p p . 1 4 1 , 144 . 1 2 D i d g e o n , p . 74. 1 3 D i d g e o n , p . 6 5 . 14 In the S t a t u t e o f 21 Henry V I I I , c . 13 " m i n i s t e r s were f o r b i d d e n t o t a k e l a n d s t o f a r m , o r t o buy o r s e l l i n the way o f m e r c h a n d i s e . " The s t a t u e was l a t e r m o d i f i e d i n the r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h I , b u t n o t a b o l i s h e d t o p r e v e n t m i n i s t e r s f rom "becoming f a r m e r s . " See C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l , Economic. ?n.obZzmi> Oft thz ChuJich ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 216 . In p r a c t i s e , i t became a m a t t e r o f i n d i v i d u a l judgement on the p a r t o f t h e b i s h o p s w h e t h e r t h e p a r s o n s and o t h e r m i n o r c l e r g y were a l l o w e d s e c u l a r s o u r c e s o f i n c o m e . 120 C h a p t e r Three I r w i n , p . 76 . e.g. B u t l e r , [tiOAJZA, r e g a r d i n g "good men": Sermon 4 , 1 1 , 8 6 ; Sermon 6 , I I , 110-11 ( e s p e c i a l l y "to e s teem a man's b e i n g f r i e n d l e s s as a recommen-d a t i o n , " c p . comment on A l l w o r t h y "To be u n f o r t u n a t e i n any R e s p e c t was s u f f i c i e n t . . . t o engage h i s F r i e n d s h i p " Tom ZoneA I , 140) ; Sermon 12, I I , 2 0 4 - 0 5 , 216-17; Sermon 13, I I , 2 2 7 , 2 3 1 ; Sermon 14 , I , 239 . See a l s o Sermon 1, I I , 35 ( c p . A l l w o r t h y ' s comments on " P r i n c i p l e s o f N a t u r a l J u s t i c e " w h i c h God "had i m p l a n t e d i n o u r m i n d s , " I , 8 0 ) ; Sermon 9 , I I , 148-49 ( c p . H a r r i s o n ' s comments on h o n o u r [Amelia, I I , 2 7 8 ] , and on l o v i n g o n e ' s enemies [Amelia,1, 1 4 8 - 4 9 ] ) ; Sermon 10 , I I , 1 6 6 - 6 7 , 170; et al. e.g. i , 398 . D i d g e o n , p . 151 . e.g. B u t l e r , "Sermon 1 ," WoflflA, I I , 4 6 . e.g. Rhapsody, I I , 247 , and Inquijiy concerning Virtue i n A n t h o n y A s h l e y C o o p e r , t h i r d E a r l o f S h a f t e s b u r y , ChaAacteAiAticA 0j$ Men, ManneAA, Opi.ni.onA, TijneA, 3 v o l s . (London , 1711) , V o l . I I "An I n q u i r y c o n c e r n i n g V i r t u e and M e r i t , " "The M o r a l i s t s ; a P h i l o s o p h i c a l R h a p s o d y . " B u t l e r , "Sermon 14•" WOAkA. e.g. I , 3 2 , 3 9 - 4 2 , 5 4 , 7 2 , 7 6 , 1 8 3 , 1 9 0 , 2 1 3 ; I I , 727 ,729; et al. G e o f f r e y C h a u c e r " G e n e r a l P r o l o g u e , " "The C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s , " The WOAkA 0$ Geo^Ji&y Chauceh., e d . F . N . R o b i n s o n ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 1 9 5 7 ) , 1 1 . 501 -04 . B e r t r a m O s b o r n e , JuAticeA ofi the Peace, 1361-1S48, A WiAtohjy o{ the JuAtlceA ol the Peace faon the CountieA o£ England ( D o r s e t : s e d g e h i l l P r e s s , 1960 ) , p . 172 . O s b o r n e , p . 177 . O s b o r n e , p . 178 . 121 C h a p t e r Three c o n t i n u e d 13 G . M i n g a y , EngLUh Landed Society (London: R o u t l e d g e & P a u l , 1963 ) , p . 118, 14 C o o p e r , E a r l o f S h a f t e s b u r y , "An I n q u i r y c o n c e r n i n g V i r t u e and M e r i t , " I I , b k . 1, 3 : 3 . 15 B a t t e s t i n , p . 90 . 16 Hugh Amory , "Law and t h e S t r u c t u r e o f F i e l d i n g ' s N o v e l s , " VLb&ZAtation AbAfriactA, 2 7 , 1966, 452A. 17 See M i n g a y , p . 131 . 18 e.g. C o l o s s i a n s , 3 :19 ; E p h e s i a n s , 5 : 25 and 28; E c c l e s i a s t e s , 9 : 9 . C h a p t e r F o u r 1 S h e r b u r n , p . 2 6 3 . 2 F i e l d i n g , Tom JoneJ,, I , 286 . 3 Henry F i e l d i n g , AmoXLa, 2 v o l s . ; s e p a r a t e l y p a g i n a t e d i n , one ( r p t . 1974'; New Y o r k : E v e r y m a n ' s L i b r a r y , 1930 ) , I I , 2 9 3 . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o AmeLLa a r e f rom t h i s e d i t i o n and a r e i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t . I r w i n , p . 132. ^ D i d g e o n , p . 2 0 1 . 6 Hugh Amory , " M a g i s t r a t e o r C e n s o r , " StudleJ> Ln EngLLbk LLteJuxtuhZ, V o l . X I I , Summer, 1972, No . 3 , p . 5 1 3 . 7 D i d g e o n , p . 2 1 4 . Henry F i e l d i n g , "Essay on C o n v e r s a t i o n " ( 1 7 9 3 ) , i n WoAk*, e d . Edmond G o s s e , 12 v o l s . (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1 8 9 9 ) , X I , 169 . C h a p t e r F o u r c o n t i n u e d 9 F i e l d i n g , "Essay on C o n v e r s a t i o n , " I X , 169-70 . 1 0 F i e l d i n g , "Essay on C o n v e r s a t i o n , " X I , 170. 1 1 Henry F i e l d i n g , "The T r i a l o f Amelia," The Convent GaJiden JouAnal, e d G e r a r d Edward J e n s e n , 2 v o l s . (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 1 5 ) , I , 179 . (No. 7 , J a n u a r y 2 5 , 1752. ) 12 A . R . Humphreys , " I n t r o d u c t i o n ' , ' " Amelia, p . x i . 13 Amory , " M a g i s t r a t e o r C e n s o r , " p . 5 1 3 . 14 Dudden , I I , 859 . Amory , " M a g i s t r a t e o r C e n s o r , " p . 5 1 7 . 16 Amory , " M a g i s t r a t e o r C e n s o r , " p p . 5 1 2 - 1 3 . 12 3 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y P r i m a r y F i e l d i n g , H e n r y . kmeLia. 2 v o l s , s e p a r a t e l y p a g i n a t e d i n o n e . 1930, L o n d o n ; r p t . New Y o r k : E v e r y m a n ' s L i b r a r y , 1974. "Essay on C o n v e r s a t i o n " (1793) . WotiSzi. E d . Edmond G o s s e . 12 v o l s . New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1894. X I , 1 4 8 - 7 0 . HiAtohjy 0^ Tom JoneJ>: A Foundting. E d . F r e d s o n B o w e r s . 2 v o l s . O x f o r d : W e s l e y a n U n i v . P r e s s , 1974. Joseph kndJtejJO& and Shameta. E d . S h e r i d a n B a k e r . New Y o r k : C r o w e l l C r i t i c a l L i b r a r y , 1972. "The T r i a l o f kmetia." The Convent Gatden JouAnal. E d . G e r a r d Edward J e n s e n . 2 v o l s . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v . P r e s s , 1915. I , 1 7 8 - 8 0 . S e c o n d a r y Amory , H u g h . "Law and t h e S t r u c t u r e o f F i e l d i n g ' s N o v e l s . " ViAASAtCition kbitAacZi,, 2 7 , 1966, p p . 451A-52A. " M a g i s t r a t e o r C e n s o r . " StudZeA Zn EngZl&h LZteftjOtuAe, X I I , Summer, 1972, No . 3, p p . 5 0 1 - 2 7 . B a r r o w , I s a a c . WoAk&. 3 v o l s . L o n d o n , I I I (1686) , 1 2 4 - 2 6 . B a t t e s t i n , M a r t i n . The UiOKoZ BoAZi> 0& Fielding'A kflt. M i d d l e t o w n : W e s l e y a n U n i v . P r e s s , 1959. B o o t h , Wayne C . The RhetolZc ofa ftdtion. C h i c a g o : U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1962. B u t l e r , J o s e p h . The WOJdiA 0& Joseph ButZetL. 2 v o l s . E d i n b u r g h : W i l l i a m Whyte , 1816 . C o o p e r , A n t h o n y A s h l e y , t h i r d E a r l o f S h a f t e s b u r y . ChaAacteAZ&tLcA 0j$ Men, UanneAi, Opinion*, Timet*. 3 v o l s . L o n d o n , 1711. D i d g e o n , A u r e l i e n . The WoveZtt ofc TZeZdLng. New Y o r k : R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1962. Dudden , F . Homes. HenAy Ti.etdi.ng: HZ& LZ^e, WonkA and TZmei. 2 v o l s . Hamden, C o n n . : A r c h o n , 1966. 124 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y c o n t i n u e d G r a n t , M i c h a e l . " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " ClceAO: Selected WoAkA. M i d d l e s e x : P e n q u i n 1967. H i l l , C h r i s t o p h e r . Economic VAoblemi 0^ the Ch.UA.ch. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1956 . Humphreys , A . R . " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " Amelia. 1972, L o n d o n ; r p t . New Y o r k : E v e r y m a n ' s L i b r a r y , 1974. I r w i n , M i c h a e l . The Tentative Realist. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967. M i n g a y , G . English Landed Society. L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & P a u l , 1963. O s b o r n e , B e r t r a m . Justice* ofi the Peace, 1361-1848, A Hii>toAy o£ the Justice* 0& the Peace ^0A the Counties Ofi England. D o r s e t : S e d g e h i l l . P r e s s , I960 . S h e r b u r n , G e o r g e . " F i e l d i n g ' s S o c i a l O u t l o o k . " VhiSLo logical QuaAXeAly, J a n u a r y 1956, p p . 1 -23 . T a v e , S t u a r t M . The Amiable HumouAl&t. C h i c a g o : U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1960 . 

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