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Authority figures in Henry Fielding’s Joseph Andrews, Tom Jones and Amelia Sumpter, Eleanor 1978

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AUTHORITY FIGURES IN HENRY FIELDING'S JOSEPH ANDREWS, TOM JONES AND AMELIA  by  ELEANOR SUMPTER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  xn  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  Dept. o f E n g l i s h  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1978  (c) E l e a n o r Marion  Sumpter, 1978  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  s h a l l make i t  freely  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r of B r i t i s h  available  for  Columbia,  I agree  that  reference and study.  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  representatives.  this  It  thesis for financial  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n gain shall  written permission.  Department o f  English  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  October 11, 1978  Columbia  not be allowed without my  i ABSTRACT  I t was authority for  roles,  some o f  distinct  noted that  the  same p u r p o s e s  from i t .  latter  religious away  There i s  and e t h i c a l  number a n d p r o m i n e n c e  authority  examine  figures  First,  fictional  the  the  thesis  religious  nature  Fielding's in  away  figures values.  authority the  to  ethical  support.  three  The c o m i c  is  figure  a  trend  Joseph  in who  is This of  a  is growing  thesis the  and r e l i g i o u s  is  evident  of his  especially world  values  which  widely  from  library  reflect  his at  his  his  beliefs  view.  m a j o r n o v e l s were of  character  novel.  contents  features  false  Fielding's  figure  there  are  figures,  T h a t F i e l d i n g was  from an o p t i m i s t i c the  there  influence  ethics  figures  of  figures.  and tone o f each  and from the  in  that  major a u t h o r i t y  and c l a s s i c a l  then examined  P a r s o n Adams, t h e  in  major  JoAHph And>WA)A, w e r e r e c o n c i l e d w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n as a n  and d o c t r i n a l touchstone,  Testament t h e o l o g y  f o r and examples  used  but  or  character authority  and e x t e n t o f  figures  are  dichotomy between e v i l  also noted  the  in  or narrative voice,  i n Ame£t<X, a n d t h a t  established  cast  and p a r e n t s ,  a major a u t h o r i t y  character authority  The a u t h o r i t y  figure  was  or false  and c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s  g r a d u a l movement  ethical  action  doctrine  and h i s  authority  It  squires  persona  spokesmen  i n an a u s t e r e  authority  Fielding's  of  as  of e v i l  death.  terms  the  on the w o r l d v i e w  F i e l d i n g uses h i s read i n both  is  "good man" as  absent from the  undertook to  as  beliefs.  AncfoCMJi w h i c h c u l m i n a t e s frequently  magistrates,  and good o r t r u e  used  prominent  i n F i e l d i n g ' s novels  a fairly clear  figures  o f which are  from the  characters  mainly clergy,  character authority the  the  was  f o u n d t o be  and a l a t i t u d i n a r i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a major b a s i s  f o r Adams' a u t h o r i t y .  of  New The  effect again in  the minor a u t h o r i t y i n terms  terms  figure,  occasional  social,  a magistrate religious,  focus  on a u t h o r i t y  distancing  o f t h e major a u t h o r i t y t o make  a n d i t was shown  that  is  a l s o too detached  will  authority  be p r o t e c t e d The t h e s i s  Tom Jonea success  and  less  figure  showed  is  that  each  plot  authority  t o be the  examplar He i s ,  t h a n Adams w a s , a n d  from the o t h e r  characters  and  comic and l e s s  optimistic  than  and f a l s e  figure,  to provide  b y whose m e d i a t i o n  authority  although  not successfully  intended  presented  a consistent  the sympathetic  figures,  as  sense  as  such of  a  characters  rescued.  the c h a r a c t e r  authority  o f the presentation  figures  in  Joseph kYidfiQJM,  the w o r l d view.  o f the major a u t h o r i t y  are important c o n t r i b u t i n g delements  novel.  examined  i n the n o v e l .  loveable  a P r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t a n d a s a " g o o d man" a n d h i s the  shown  are instrumental i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  or lack thereof  was  A l l w o r t h y , as a good man,  f i l l e d with e v i l  from the a c t i o n  or ultimately  kmzLia.  figure  the major good a u t h o r i t y  a g o o d man a n d a P r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t ,  controlling  and l e s s  Tom Jonei  3o£>2.ph kndAQMb. kmoJLLa.  and i s  a n d on t h e m a j o r  a n d a g u a r d i a n , was a l s o  from the a c t i o n  established,  Tom JonU  doctrine.  j u d i c i a l and p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y  more d e t a c h e d  from the r e a d e r h e l p s is  o n a u t h o r i t y was a l s o  S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y , as a P r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t .  however, this  have  of latitudinarian Christian  of its  a patriarch, for  figures  figure  amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  t o the degree  The as in  o f optimism i n  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  Table  i  o f Contents  i i i  Acknowledgements  The S e t t i n g :  iv  R e l i g i o u s and E t h i c a l Background  1  The L a t i t u d i n a r i a n Comic World  God's i n H i s Heaven;  (Almost) A l l ' s R i g h t w i t h  O p t i m i s t i c Benevolism versus  Murphy's Law  12  the World  42  79  Conclusion  112  Footnotes  118  Selected Bibliography  12 3  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e to thank the very wide range of people who a s s i s t e d me i n p r a c t i c a l or personal ways i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s .  I would  e s p e c i a l l y l i k e to thank my advisor f o r h i s invaluable assistance, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the r e v i s i o n s .  For personal assistance, I would l i k e  to thank my parents and my brother f o r t h e i r encouragement, my friends for t h e i r empathy and prayer support and my husband f o r putting up with me and my typing.  THE  SETTING:  RELIGIOUS AND  3o&2.ph kndh.<mi>, Tom Jon&i and kmeJLia, each  F i e l d i n g ' s major works, contain man  one  c h a r a c t e r who  ETHICAL BACKGROUND  i s a major a u t h o r i t y  f o r F i e l d i n g ' s m o r a l , e t h i c a l and  f i g u r e , and who,  r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , contributes  p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases: and w o r l d view o f the n o v e l and tone t o some degree.  The  major a u t h o r i t y intentions.  authority  because  o u t l o o k and  f i g u r e s , o f course, are not  elements.  i n F i e l d i n g ' s major n o v e l s , the  the  o n l y , o r even  and  treatment o f a u t h o r i t y  l e v e l o f comedy, m i r r o r i n g  are  In f a c t , the  the  f i g u r e i n each n o v e l as a good creation  d i f f e r e n t treatment of  f i g u r e s h e l p s t o e s t a b l i s h a d i f f e r e n t , d i d a c t i c c o n t e n t and and  the  figures i s instrumental  o f P r o v i d e n c e , i s n e c e s s a r y t o the  comic w o r l d .  the  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o show t h a t ,  o f the main a u t h o r i t y  as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  an o p t i m i s t i c and  The  they  tone and w o r l d view o f each n o v e l t o the e x t e n t t h a t  successful presentation man,  the  literary  main f a c t o r s e s t a b l i s h i n g the w o r l d views o f the major n o v e l s , b u t  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the  the  examples o f F i e l d i n g ' s moral s t a n c e ,  f i g u r e s , changes w i t h F i e l d i n g ' s  important, c o n t r i b u t i n g  the  w o r l d view i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n each n o v e l ,  spokesmen f o r and  The  to  also establishes  because d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f the bases are emphasized, and treatment o f the  as a spokes-  of  authority  a l t e r s the  tone  F i e l d i n g ' s growing s e r i o u s n e s s and i n t e l l e c u a l  pre-occupation. A  "complete works" was  not  used as the  t e x t f o r t h i s t h e s i s because  more r e c e n t i n d i v i d u a l e d i t i o n s seemed more t r u s t w o r t h y incomplete Wesleyan e d i t i o n ) .  (especially  the  A c c o r d i n g l y , the Wesleyan e d i t i o n o f Tom  TonQAt,  2 1974,  e d i t e d by M a r t i n  Wesleyan e d i t i o n the  Crowell  first system  of  third edition edition of  the  edition  brackets),  has been  thesis w i l l  a novel.  alterations  used since  it  was  There are  focus two  only  types  on t h e  both  Therefore,  editions was  (using  chosen.  a  The  No t r u s t w o r t h y  reasonably  of  authority  critical  recent  edition  and  "par e x c e l l e n c e , "  the  readers'  reactions  characters  extent,  the  presence  of  of  tone the  persona i s  considerable  a hallmark  -critical  i n F i e l d i n g ' s novels  authority commonly  figures:  in  characters.  i n the  characters.  Some c r i t i c a l  the It  c h a r a c t e r i n the  character  characters  found i n s o c i e t y  authorities  is  novel  sense It  that  novels  attention  that  (at  least  the  been  paid  One  especially  since  The o t h e r t y p e  cast  in  plot  extent,  to  a  large  the  the  almost  authority "character"  authority  roles  OX ceXeMl), who  parents  or within  been  Fielding  of  persona occasionally  the  is  c o n t i n u a l a n d marke'd  i n Tom JonU) , b u t t h e  a n ouuutkohAjtij, has  The a l m o s t  c o n t r o l l i n g o r m o d i f y i n g the  true  characters  a large  and e s t a b l i s h i n g ,  magistrates,  of being part of is  to  embodied i n c o n v e n t i o n a l  i n the  of  who a r e  F i e l d i n g ' s w r i t i n g and has  feature.  (clergymen,  sense is  of  attention,  comment on t h i s  controlling,  and e v e n t s  and message o f e a c h n o v e l .  demanded c r i t i c a l present  to  figures  authority in Fielding's novels.  an a u t h o r i t y  other  subsequent  applicable.  persona,  a  of  e d i t e d by S h e r i d a n B a k e r ,  the  other  the  available. This  are  but  JoiZph knd/ieMb, b a s e d o n F i e l d i n g ' s  of  followed wherever  E v e r y m a n e d i t i o n was  source  used,  KmoXXa. was a v a i l a b l e , s o t h e l a s t r e p r i n t (1974) o f t h e 1930  of  readily  in  Library  but including a l l  different  and F r e d s o n Bowers,was  JoAdph kndh£Wi> was n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  of  Critical  edition  C. Battestin  actions becomes  of  almost  persona i s the  the  ken o f  not  a  the  r a t h e r t h a n a n Odxth.0HA.ty ^L^OJUZ. to  the  authority  figures  in  Fielding's  3 novels,  but usually  analysis  or incidental  authority  figures,  a different ideas,  such c o n s i d e r a t i o n has  treatment.  importance  of  has<  be  electrons  vehicle  on t h e —  the  works,  the  the  acceptable  account  concentrate establish society  if  only  and  the  they  persona. —  This  the  of  discussion  and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  establish  the  considered,  figures  society.  and n o t  The  likely  of  fiction,  were  the  considered,  least  and n o n - s a t i r i c w o r l d view  are  the  especially  persona ethics  rounded w o r l d detailed  of  the  course,  a  as  present plays, b u t do  a detailed  of b r e v i t y ,  not  picture  possibility  Jonathan WZZd, ShameXa.  not present treated  i n s o f arras elements  the  and m i n o r  s a t i r i c purposes,  because  focus  the  plays  does n o t  The l a c k o f  t h e n , may be  concerned.  in  clearly  result  novels  figures.  Voyage, to LL&bon,  for generally  just  each  will  background of  because  The m i n o r w o r k s ,  life  his  deserve  establish  w o r l d view  are  atom " a u t h o r i t y " i n F i e l d i n g ' s  "real world" setting.  at  to  convey  a reasonably  intentional  writings,  to  is  The  they  authority  F i e l d i n g ' s major works,  of his  intentions  character authority  figures.  Fielding's plays  costumed personas;  thesis  figures  figures  be  an a u t h o r i t y .  a n o t h e r method t o  lovJinayfafiomtki& WoftZd to the. Hext do  either. rest  is  p e r s o n a as  character  neither  on a f r a g m e n t o f  a complete  of  the  r a t h e r t h a n a work o f  "character" authority  as  simply a  j o u r n a l i s t i c m a t e r i a l , have  and n o n - s a t i r i c p o r t r a i t o f a diary  this  the  required to  m a j o r works w i l l  and o b v i o u s l y  views n o r the  of  authority  and m o r a l i t y f u r t h e r e d by the Only  uses  of  nucleus:  i n c i d e n t a l and as  the  for Fielding's  The p u r p o s e  discussion  of  miniature,  character authority  Most c r i t i c a l  concentrated  on t h e will  the  are not  which F i e l d i n g  a different  individual  novel.  a discussion  however,  technique  a n d as  to  b6ehneither  of  as  believable distinct  a fictional,  worlds  from  the  detailed  4 Given F i e l d i n g ' s temperament and p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s it  i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine how  interests,  he would w r i t e a n o n - s a t i r i c n o v e l w i t h o u t good  and a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . r e a l w o r l d abounds w i t h a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s .  In the f i r s t p l a c e , the  F i e l d i n g ' s facade, s t a t e d o r  i m p l i e d , o f w r i t i n g a " h i s t o r y " r e q u i r e s the presence o f a u t h o r i t y  figures  u n l e s s a statement i s i n t e n d e d about a l a c k o f r e a l o r good a u t h o r i t i e s i n the r e a l w o r l d .  In the second p l a c e , a u t h o r i t i e s e n f o r c e t r a d i t i o n a l ,  conservative values:  v a l u e s i n which F i e l d i n g b e l i e v e d .  Finally,  authority  i s n e c e s s a r y t o a b e l i e f t h a t t h i n g s are under c o n t r o l , which i s , i n t u r n , n e c e s s a r y f o r l o g i c a l optimism  ( i n the mundane r a t h e r than p h i l o s o p h i c a l  sense o f the t e r m ) . With two assumptions,  the endings o f F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s , and the g e n e r a l  optimism o f 3oi>2.ph knd>X2J>di> and Tom 30YlZi>, become l o g i c a l , even If Fielding believed, f i r s t ,  inevitable.  t h a t a b e n e v o l e n t God o r P r o v i d e n c e e x i s t s ,  and  second, t h a t Providence takes an a c t i v e p a r t i n events through m o r t a l agents, then the good must be p r o t e c t e d and the e v i l p u n i s h e d . was  Of c o u r s e , F i e l d i n g  n o t b l i n d t o the m i s f o r t u n e s o f the v i r t u o u s and s u c c e s s e s o f the c o r r u p t  i n r e a l l i f e , and made c l e a r t h a t he d i d n o t b e l i e v e a p p r o p r i a t e rewards and punishments n e c e s s a r i l y took p l a c e i n t h i s world.'''  However, F i e l d i n g was  w i l l i n g t o l e t h i s v i r t u o u s c h a r a c t e r s s u f f e r t h e i r f a t e s l i k e l y i n the w o r l d , p a r t i a l l y , a t l e a s t , because  not  real  t o do so would be t o d i s c o u r a g e v i r t u e ,  and sooner o r l a t e r he r e s c u e d them from s e r i o u s m i s f o r t u n e s .  However, F i e l d i n g  a l s o i n s i s t e d t h a t h i s c h a r a c t e r s be p r u d e n t i f they were t o a v o i d h a r d s h i p and m i s f o r t u n e ; v i r t u e , o r goodness w i t h o u t t h i s s a f e q u a r d i s c o n s i s t e n t l y shown as p a t h e t i c a l l y i n a d e q u a t e .  F i e l d i n g was,  o f c o u r s e , on s o l i d  theological  ground w i t h numerous S c r i p t u r e s i n c u l c a t i n g h i s view, and he added a l o g i c a l  5 balance  to  simple  r e q u i r e d agents Fielding  uses  supernatural  goodness.  to  the  carry  Nonetheless,  the  unrealistic plot  out or i n s t i g a t e  the  eleventh-hour  n a r r a t o r and the  assistants  he  good a u t h o r i t y  specifically  rejected  figures (such  and any d i r e c t D i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h w o u l d be  of  in his  bad a u t h o r i t y are  one  the  of  novels  in  course,  and  somewhat are  w o u l d seem t h a t  out  replaced  authority  an o p t i m i s t i c m o r a l  include  any p e r i o d s  t r a i n i n g , but even  writing indicates  r e l i g i o n and e t h i c s .  Tkz TuntatUvZ RttaJLlitt,  Christian,  it  of  the  with  figures  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l  world.  or e t h i c a l  and c r i t i c a l for,  reconcilation of  upbringing d i d not  religious  respect  In o t h e r w o r d s ,  the  real  Fielding's intense  Supernatural enemies,  figures.  element  stance with  novels.  and  replace  ghosts  fairies) place  rescues  to  as  structures  English  specific  a cursory glance  thorough knowledge  M o r e o v e r , as  "since  p h i l o s o p h i c a l , moral  his  of  Michael  society  at  at  of,  pointed  t i m e was  and e v e n p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y were  Fielding's  and profound  I r w i n has the  or  out  predominantly  largely  subsumed  2 under r e l i g i o u s  thought,"  though there  generalization,  but unless  F i e l d i n g h a d made a d e f i n i t e  Christianity,  his  Moreover,  ethics  in  F i e l d i n g ' s essays  theological  very notable  and p h i l o s o p h y would have been  Convent GoJidzn JouAnat, p r o v e expert  were  matters"  in  that  the  Champion,  exceptions  decision largely  a n d "had e v i d e n t l y  to  devoted  this  reject  Christian.  and sometimes  " f o r a l a y m a n , he was  to  in  more t h a n  the ordinarily  an  appreciable  H i s knowledge  enabled him  3 amount o f  study  to  the  expound competently  (e.g.,Champion, 8 fairly  subject  on a w i d e  of  religion."  range  of,  m a i n l y , New T e s t a m e n t  teachings  J a n . , 1740, 5 A p r . 1740, 29 M a r . , 1740), a n d t o  c o n v i n c i n g l y on  "the  immortality of  the  soul,  and the  to  argue  certainty  of  4 a  future  state."  That  Fielding  supported his  faith with  study  is  indicated  6 by h i s l i b r a r y , which, a t h i s death, i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l e d i t i o n s o f the B i b l e , s e v e r a l commentaries, the sermons o f T i l l o t s o n , Barrow and South, and "a  5 g r e a t number o f t r e a t i s e s on t o p i c s connected w i t h  religion."  I f h i s i n t e r e s t and t h e depth o f h i s study were a l i t t l e form o f h i s r e l i g i o n was n o t .  He seems t o have b e l i e v e d p r e j u d i c e d  about Romanism, and a c c o r d i n g l y h a t e d i t , and c o n s i d e r e d c l a s s i c case o f b e i n g and  unusual, the  "righteous  overmuch."  accounts  Methodism t o be a  He f o l l o w e d t h e Church o f E n g l a n d  "accepted i n substance the orthodox c r e e d as i n t e r p r e t e d by the more  6 conservative  o f t h e l a t i t u d m a n a n churchmen o f the t i m e . "  F o l l o w i n g the  l a t i t u d i n a r i a n s , he p u t h i s emphasis on the p r a c t i c e o f f a i t h i n the form o f good works, e s p e c i a l l y c h a r i t y , and seems t o have concerned h i m s e l f w i t h the d e t a i l s o f the f a i t h m o t i v a t i n g  good a c t i o n s .  little  Dogmatism was,  t h e r e f o r e , n e v e r a s e r i o u s p a r t o f h i s w r i t i n g , and, i n d e e d , s e r v e d  as a  subject for s a t i r e . C o n c e r n i n g e t h i c s , F i e l d i n g d i d n o t work o u t a c o h e r e n t system o f his  own, o r s t r i c t l y  Fielding's  f o l l o w t h a t o f anyone e l s e .  " e t h i c a l d o c t r i n e was mainly d e r i v e d  F. Homes Dudden c l a i m s  that  from the B i b l e , the w r i t i n g s  7 o f C i c e r o , and L o r d S h a f t e s b u r y ' s InqvuAy conc&intng VsJvtue.," many o f F i e l d i n g ' s i d e a s seem t o echo B u t l e r ' s 'Sermons," and most, i f n o t a l l , o f F i e l d i n g ' s e t h i c a l statements are t r a c e a b l e t o w e l l known contemporary thought.  However, i n an apparent attempt t o i n c u l c a t e a few main e t h i c a l  p r i n c i p l e s i n t o h i s readers,  F i e l d i n g concentrated  nature and on the beauty o f v i r t u e and i t s i n h e r e n t the u g l i n e s s o f v i c e .  rewards, w i t h the c o r o l l a r y :  Moreover, j u s t as F i e l d i n g emphasized a p r a c t i c a l  i g i o n , he argued f o r p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e . and  on the importance o f good  Abstract  rel-  s p e c u l a t i o n , o r the appearance  forms o f v i r t u e , were o f no i n t e r e s t t o him; he sought t o prove t h a t these  7 had  no r e l a t i o n t o r e a l v i r t u e , and were, i n f a c t , l i k e l y  villains.  Real v i r t u e , on the o t h e r hand, was  s i n c e r e r e l i g i o n , t o l a s t i n g happiness and F i e l d i n g ' s most f r e q u e n t  t o be  found i n  a c o n t r i b u t i n g element, w i t h  satisfaction.  method o f demonstrating the p r a c t i c a l  o f s i n c e r e r e l i g i o n and  v i r t u e was  through the a c t i o n s and  a t t i t u d e s o f h i s major a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s .  his  t o demonstrate h i s b e l i e f s and  values  theories They were  examples: " f o r an example i s a k i n d o f p i c t u r e , i n which v i r t u e becomes,  as i t were, an o b j e c t o f s i g h t , and  s t r i k e s us w i t h an i d e a o f t h a t l o v e l i n e s s  8 which P l a t o a s s e r t s t h a t t h e r e  i s i n h e r naked charms,"  d o c t r i n e , r e l i g i o u s o r e t h i c a l , put and  Dr. H a r r i s o n  intended The  seems t o be  t o s u p p o r t and  and the m a j o r i t y  f o r t h by Parson Adams, Squire  F i e l d i n g ' s own.  of  Allworthy  T h e i r a c t i o n s , l i k e w i s e , are  demonstrate the p r a c t i c a l i t y o f r e l i g i o n and v i r t u e .  minor good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s a s s i s t i n the demonstration o f v i r t u e , w h i l e  the e v i l  a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s r e v e a l the u n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s  of v i c e .  The  most  prominent a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s are c l e r g y , m a g i s t r a t e s  and  p a t r i a r c h s , i n c l u d i n g s q u i r e s i n s o f a r as they a c t as f a t h e r f i g u r e s f o r an area; n e i t h e r rank nor w e a l t h by i t s e l f i s a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r a u t h o r i t y . There seems t o be, by which the r e a d e r may  i n F i e l d i n g ' s w r i t i n g , a sense o f an i d e a l  judge the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n the n o v e l s .  cept o f an i d e a l a u t h o r i t y i s r e m i n i s c e n t j u s t as P l a t o d e s c r i b e s of "table" — may  o f one  authority This  element i n P l a t o ' s  a t a b l e on e a r t h as a copy o f an i d e a l —  philosophy:  the  concept  so F i e l d i n g seems t o see h i s a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s as c o p i e s  be good o r bad  copies)  i n C h r i s t i a n (e.£  o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d as God c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  o f an i d e a l a u t h o r i t y . at)  Since  (they  ideal authority i s  terms, o r "supreme p r o v i d e n c e "  " d i v i n e reason, c r e a t i v e reason, nature  [or] the s p i r i t  9 purpose o f the u n i v e r s e "  m  S t o i c terms, and  con-  s i n c e F i e l d i n g was  strongly  or  8 influenced the  ideal  Christian three tion of  by b o t h  authority behind his  authority  and S t o i c  F i e l d i n g keeps  concepts.  n o v e l s by r e p e a t e d to  the  is  to  ideal  justice,  the  his  but authority ified  is  love,  of  up t h e  because of  Plato's  terms,  a picture  the  distanced in  sources novel is  to  the  of  novel.  prominent i n and  to  the  ideal of  novels,  or  the  in..sight with  actions of  s e e n as  influenced  then,  all  some  applica-  The  and  judgements),  concepts,  personsuch  a homogeneous : any a u t h o r i t y  concepts  distant  concept  divine  by C h r i s t i a n i t y  positive  are  in  .  parallels  that  the  conventional,  Consequently,  other  of  (Fielding gives  their  of to  as  collecfigure or  that God i n  ideals.  authority concept  figures  are  s o much a s  a table).  p a r t l y by the  The s e n s e o f  doctrine  present  of  authorial  kmoJLLa.  largely  ideal  of  author's  a novel, (like,  Christian the  persona  and d o c t r i n e alone.  Stoic)  authorities  and v a r y i n  on d o c t r i n e  is  (and  as  which These  strength  a s s i s t e d by a u t h o r i a l  comment  they  in  original  characterizations.  amounts  Adams,  JoAZph AndA2JM&, depends  the  in  a copy  limited  and the  i n equal  The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n  of  characterization  and p a r t l y by the the  characters  copies  c r e a t e d p a r t l y by the  not  ideal  Tom JonQJ>)  in  usually  inevitable  reminiscent  attributes  authority of  is  "good" n o n - p h y s i c a l  are  figures,  people,  course,  this  justify  authority.  elements  be  on e a r t h  positive  ideal  and d i s c u s s e s b o t h  are,  Tom Jon£&,  of  and i s  good and g o o d - n a t u r e d reinforces  ideal  embodying p o s i t i v e  copies  doctrine  the  authority  are n o t  similarly  figures  of  figures  it  God a n d P r o v i d e n c e  authority  A l l positive  a l s o have  However,  to  Stoicism,  (especially  m o r a l i t y and e t h i c s ,  Fielding's  sense  for  one  reminiscent  Stoicism w i l l  figures  authority  authority.  on o r  ideal.  model  only  t i o n w h i c h makes based  references  main a u t h o r i t y  authority  attributes  the  C h r i s t i a n i t y and c l a s s i c a l  stand  from  comment, out  in  9 In o t h e r words, a u t h o r i t y  f i g u r e s i n F i e l d i n g ' s w o r l d view a r e ,  some e x t e n t , e a r t h l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of divine c o n t r o l .  The  clergy  be most s i m i l a r t o t h e i r e t e r n a l p r o t o t y p e , the m a g i s t r a t e s are t i v e s o f the archs,  s t a t e , an e a r t h l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n  e s p e c i a l l y r e a l fathers, represent  F a t h e r and man,  exercises  over man  p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y i s not As  representatives  S t o i c d e f i n i t i o n s , the have a g o d - l i k e  patri-  r e l a t i o n s h i p between God  the  as emphasized i n Tom 30Yi<Li>,  (although,  absolute), but  they have no power o v e r anyone  o f a d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y comb;ining C h r i s t i a n  three  types o f a u t h o r i t y  Authority  derived  from any  and  figures i n F i e l d i n g ' s novels  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to non-authority figures:  reason, promote good and p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l and control.  representa-  so t h a t they have a u t h o r i t y over t h e i r c h i l d r e n s i m i l a r t o  t h a t which God  else.  should  o f i d e a l a u t h o r i t y , and  the  to  they must employ  s p i r i t u a l guidance 2..Q.  o t h e r source —  and  money o r rank  —  i s n e c e s s a r i l y empty o r e v i l , because i f i d e a l a u t h o r i t y embodies a l l t h a t i s good, the derived  remainder must be n o t h i n g n e s s , o r e v i l .  from t h i s remainder w i l l  source and  cannot be m o r a l l y ,  enforceable.  c l e a r l y have the  or, g i v e n  The  earthly  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s  an o p t i m i s t i c w o r l d view, permanently  As B u t l e r s a i d , " a l l t h i s i s no more than the  between mOAZ. p0U)2A. and  CUlthoJvLty .  authority  ...  distinction.  . "''"  0  HOwever, because F i e l d i n g based h i s n o v e l s on the w o r l d as he it,  there  i s some f l u c t u a t i o n i n the n o v e l s i n the  from Providence t o the a u t h o r i t y a l a c k o f moral s a n c t i o n had authority  figures.  The  authority  f i g u r e s and  . .  f i g u r e s , and  there  flow o f d i v i n e are  saw  authority  s t r o n g reminders  l i t t l e e f f e c t on the p r a c t i c a l power o f  pessimism i n d i c a t e d by  instances  of lapses  u n c o n t r o l l e d power i n e v i l a u t h o r i t y  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y from 3oi>2,pk AndJieWA t o kmO&lfX.  figures  that  evil  i n good increases  10  JoAHph  In comforting  aspects  Tom Jon&A, detailed, flaws  in  has  of  graver  bear to  abandon h i s  things with  is  became  reality  change  the  out  o f what  initially  a close  in  In  a more to  show  for nor  the  good. Christianity  end,  not  Fielding could he  saw,  by  comparison  of  a  not  then,  enamoured o f  an i n d i v i d u a l a n d a s  As the  world of  novels.  interaction  the  the  towards  figures'and the  all  philosophy  magistrate,  with  their the  trusting,  evil  n o v e l s becomes g r i m m e r ,  the  authority  However,  less  must the  counsellors  characters  detached  friendly  suit  the  authority  novel; figures  to  the  the  determines,  of  to  less  P a r s o n Adams w o u l d do n o t  become more  of  the  figures  and m o r a l i t y .  the  ethical  action  the  The a u t h o r i t y  for ethics  and c o n f i d a n t s  from  and g e n e r a l l y  serious.  and C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  participation in  other  some c h a n g e  m i r r o r e d by the  They, t h e r e f o r e , c o n t r i b u t e of  world is in  n o v e l s become more  guides,  the  formal and r e l a t i v e l y  characters  for philosophy  a l s o the  degree  less  kmzSLla..  only because  They a r e  attitude  good m a j o r a u t h o r i t y  in  spokesmen  and the  in Fielding's  Obviously,  a buffoon  the  as  a force  but because  injustice  through  with  contemporary,  good wins  F i e l d i n g were  experience  He a l s o b e c o m e s  serious  in  his  figures.  likeable.  are  if  or  as  most  a happy n o v e l .  novel,  religion  that  the  the  and the  and F i e l d i n g b e g i n s  than e v i l ,  to  g r a d u a l l y becomes a l o o f ,  action.  be  as  world,  classical  and g r a d u a l l y ,  of  change  in  authority figure  is  world of  organized  stronger  philosophy  disillusioned. This  a  It  the  a sense  characters  real world.  the  is  element o f  C h r i s t i a n i t y produce  the  philosophy,  ultimately  optimistic,  of  ignore  and there  it  the  picture  neither  much p o w e r ,  optimistic  New T e s t a m e n t  optimism and to  because  as  the  Stoicism enters  believable  kmoXL<X,  By  ,  other  views novel  a large  characters  in  the  novel,  and o f  extent,  the  their role  11 of F i e l d i n g ' s underlying o p t i m i s t i c philosophy  i n the p l o t .  Parson Adams  i s not j u s t a j o l l y c h a r a c t e r i n a j o l l y book; he i s the s o u l o f the book: the o t h e r humorous c h a r a c t e r s are comic s k e t c h e s , but Adams i s a rounded c h a r a c t e r who embodies l a t i t u d i n a r i a n C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y the most amusing and l o v e a b l e c h a r a c t e r i n the n o v e l .  as w e l l as b e i n g  I n kmtSLLa., on the  o t h e r hand, the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i s not o n l y an austere  c h a r a c t e r : Dr.  H a r r i s o n i s a l s o i n c o n s i s t e n t and very d i f f i c u l t t o l i k e . i s the o n l y  "good" c h a r a c t e r i n the n o v e l who i s t r e a t e d  but he e s t a b l i s h e s the p h i l o s o p h y  o f the n o v e l  which i s f i n a l l y shown t o be c o r r e c t ) . case i n t h a t the p h i l o s o p h y  Moreover, he unsympathetically,  (or a t l e a s t the  Tom Jon2A i s a s l i g h t l y  philosophy different  i s e s t a b l i s h e d through s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s and  f r e q u e n t l y by the a u t h o r i a l v o i c e , but a g a i n the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n f l u e n c e s the w o r l d view. despicable  There are heroes and v i l l a i n s ,  comic, sympathetic and  c h a r a c t e r s , but the dimension i n the p l o t o f a moral e x i s t e n c e  i s e s t a b l i s h e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by A l l w o r t h y , who i s n e i t h e r hero nor villain. In F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s , p h i l o s o p h y a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s  and d o c t r i n e are expounded by the (the works would be p r i m a r i l y d i d a c t i c  i f t h e r e were n o t such an abundance o f £>oZ/xaA t o coat the £&nt<inC(L) , t h e r e i s no doubt about how each c h a r a c t e r i s meant t o be judged, and an e t e r n a l , i n f i n i t e b e i n g i s almost a c h a r a c t e r i n Tom J0Y12A and JoiZph AndA2Wi. F i e l d i n g may have overemphasized the presence o f r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h y i n the w o r l d , f o r a purpose, but such a p o s s i b i l i t y r e a l l y comments on t h e percentage o f a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s F i e l d i n g chose t o i n t r o d u c e a c t e r s r a t h e r than the accuracy  o f h i s w o r l d view, and,  importance o f a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n the  novels.  among h i s  char-  again, i n d i c a t e s the  12  THE  LATITUDINARIAN COMIC WORLD  D e s p i t e a predominant comic element, the importance i n 3oi><Lph kn&\2SA£> o f Parson Abraham Adams, t h e main a u t h o r i t y  f i g u r e , who i s h i m s e l f a comic  f i g u r e i n many ways, c r e a t e s an emphasis i n the n o v e l on the s p i r i t u a l and e t h i c a l v a l u e s , based on g e n e r a l and non-dogmatic C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s , which he r e p r e s e n t s . Christian morality  Although the simultaneous presence o f comedy and  might seem a n t i t h e t i c a l t o a sympathetic  o f the l a t t e r , F i e l d i n g has been s u c c e s s f u l i s both a comic f i g u r e and a s e r i o u s e t h i c a l views.  i n creating  presentation  a c h a r a c t e r who  statement o f F i e l d i n g ' s moral and  Jo&dpk hn&hfZWh, mainly through Parson Adams, who i s , as  Michael Irwin points  o u t , " c l e a r l y the embodiment o f F i e l d i n g ' s  positive  p r e c e p t o f Good-nature,""'' c o n t a i n s t h e i m p o r t a n t elements o f F i e l d i n g ' s philosophy: sincere  h i s emphasis on good nature and on a p r a c t i c a l , simple and  Christianity. Of  the t h r e e n o v e l s t o be examined, 3oi>zph And>i2JA)6 i s by f a r t h e  most o p t i m i s t i c , and the p r e s e n t a t i o n important i n a c h i e v i n g  t h a t optimism.  the n o v e l shows e v i l c o n s i s t e n t l y and  o f i t s main a u t h o r i t y  The w o r l d view o f the main l i n e o f  defeated, hardship c o n s i s t e n t l y  innocence c o n s i s t e n t l y p r o t e c t e d .  authority  relieved  Providence i s an e f f e c t i v e f o r c e i n  the n o v e l , and F i e l d i n g uses h i s sympathetic a u t h o r i t y between P r o v i d e n c e , t h e n a r r a t i v e  figure i s  voice,  f i g u r e as a l i n k  and the w o r l d o f the n o v e l . The  f i g u r e , though n o t always a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e  Providential  agent, i s c e r t a i n l y a spokesman and c a t a l y s t f o r good, and i s connected t o Providence by h i s n a t u r e , h i s e d u c a t i o n and h i s r e l i g i o n .  13 The work i s a comedy - a "comic epic-Poem i n p r o s e " - and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , a l l a s p e c t s o f e v i l and h a r d s h i p must be e i t h e r muted by p r e s e n t a t i o n as r i d i c u l o u s f o i b l e s o r d e f e a t e d b e f o r e s e r i o u s harm i s done. a v o i d s the common weakness o f comedies - l a c k o f r e a l i s m sense o f the term) - by depending  JoACph Andn.£U)A  ( i n the most b a s i c  on these two t e c h n i q u e s , and on a s t r o n g  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l forms o f good ( i n c l u d i n g a s s i g n i n g the good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e a major r o l e ) r a t h e r than by a v o i d i n g e v i l  entirely.  However, the presence o f e v i l i n a n o v e l i n t e n d e d t o amuse c o u l d e a s i l y l e a d t o s a t i r e r a t h e r than t o l i g h t e r comedy, which would mar t h a t e x c e l l e n t c r e a t i o n , Parson Adams, and the presence o f Providence and a u t h o r i t y i n themselves would be i n s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n a g e n e r a l sense o f optimism. E v i l i t s e l f must be t r e a t e d c a r e f u l l y .  As F i e l d i n g says t o j u s t i f y h i s  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f v i c e s i n t o a work p u r p o r t e d l y comic: f i r s t , . . . i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o pursue a s e r i e s o f human a c t i o n s and keep c l e a r o f them. Secondly, . . . the v i c e s t o be found here, a r e r a t h e r the a c c i d e n t a l consequences o f some human f r a i l t y , o r f o i b l e , than causes h a b i t u a l l y e x i s t i n g i n the mind. T h i r d l y , . . . they a r e never s e t f o r t h as the o b j e c t s o f r i d i c u l e , but d e t e s t a t i o n . F o u r t h l y , . . . they are never the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e a t t h a t time on t h e scene; and l a s t l y , they never produce the i n t e n d e d e v i l . 2  F i e l d i n g ' s second j u s t i f i c a t i o n depends l a r g e l y on one's d e f i n i t i o n o f vice.  C e r t a i n l y the bad temper o f s e v e r a l i n n - k e e p e r s ' wives can be seen  as a human f r a i l t y , and on a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l t h e l u s t and greed o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s can be seen i n the same l i g h t , b u t l u s t and greed are g e n e r i c a l l y vices, not foibles.  Moreover, those minor elements  the r e s u l t o f human f o i b l e s and f r a i l t y — s e l f i s h n e s s , and a f f e c t a t i o n —  o f e v i l which  pettiness,  are c l e a r l y  parsimoniousness,  are usually, despite F i e l d i n g ' s  j u s t i f i c a t i o n , made r i d i c u l o u s r a t h e r than d e t e s t a b l e .  third  I t i s clear,  then,  t h a t F i e l d i n g ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f e v i l i s not dependent upon an a b s o l u t e , upon the degree, e f f e c t i v e n e s s and power o f the e v i l . i n c i d e n t a l l y , d e f i n e good.) deadly  (The same c r i t e r i a ,  I n s t e a d o f any m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the seven  s i n s ( p r i d e , l e c h e r y , greed,  s l o t h , envy, anger and g l u t t o n y )  e v i l , o n l y s i n s which are predominant i n a c h a r a c t e r and  and i n n - k e e p e r s '  wives who  c h a r i t y are comic, because no s e r i o u s i l l  being  l i k e l y t o cause  e v i l o r severe h a r d s h i p t o o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s are a c t u a l l y seen as Thus inn-keepers  but  vices.  demonstrate greed and  lack of  comes o f t h e i r f a i l i n g s .  Fielding'  d i f f e r e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f e v i l are b e s t demonstrated by the f o u r scenes i n which someone t r i e s t o rape Fanny.  When the highwayman, the s q u i r e o r  the  s e r v a n t demonstrate t h e i r l u s t , no comedy i s i n t e n d e d , because the danger i s real.  Only the g r e a t e r power o f good, i n the f i r s t and  of Providence,  i n the second i n s t a n c e , p r e v e n t  l a s t instance,  serious e v i l .  and  When Beau  Didapper t r i e s t o rape Fanny, though, the same v i c e o f l u s t i s made r i d i c u l o u s > because, even i f Beau Didapper's s e x u a l v i r i l i t y were n o t  questionable,  he seems p h y s i c a l l y unable t o overcome the s t r o n g e r Fanny. F i e l d i n g ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , however, i s s t i l l not c l e a r , s i n c e a catalogue o f the v i c e s i n t r o d u c e d would i n c l u d e some which c o n t r a d i c t F i e l d i n g ' s second p o i n t and o t h e r s which c o n t r a d i c t h i s t h i r d .  Much o f  the d i f f i c u l t y i s a v o i d e d i f an " e i t h e r / o r " q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s assumed between the p o i n t s , but the main e x p l a n a t i o n o f the apparent d i s c r e p a n c y c l a u s e "causes h a b i t u a l l y e x i s t i n g i n the mind." i n t r o d u c e d i n Jo6tph knd>WX)i> may  l i e s i n the  I f a l l the s i n s and  be t r a c e d t o human f r a i l t i e s and  then e v i l p2Ji AO. does not e x i s t i n any  o f the c h a r a c t e r s .  I f the  vices... foibles,  characters  i n JoA&pk kndA2lM£> are assumed t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f types o f p e o p l e , i f i t i s assumed t h a t most, i f not a l l , t y p e s are p o r t r a y e d  (see P. 241) ,  and  then e v i l p2A. t>0, does n o t e x i s t i n most p e o p l e , and humans are b a s i c a l l y  3 good.  However, the c l a u s e "the v i c e s t o be found h e r e " suggests  o t h e r v i c e s e x i s t , which presumably,  that  are "causes h a b i t u a l l y e x i s t i n g i n  the mind" and i t may be assumed t h a t b a s i c a l l y e v i l people do e x i s t . George Sherburn's  statement, t h e n , t h a t " F i e l d i n g does n o t a c c e p t any  4 d o c t r i n e o f the n a t u r a l goodness o f a l l men"  i s t r u e , b u t i t needs the  modification of Martin Battestin's observation that F i e l d i n g t h a t " l o v e and benevolence  and compassion  believed  were v e r y r e a l components,  o p e r a t i v e i n some men more s t r o n g l y than i n o t h e r s , b u t p r e s e n t i n a l l 5 to  some degree."  Thus F i e l d i n g a v o i d s denying the orthodox A n g l i c a n  concept o f o r i g i n a l s i n ( A r t i c l e IX,  The. ThVxX.y-Hi.ne. KhXA.cX.QJi>) w h i l e  e s t a b l i s h i n g a more l a t i t u d i n a r i a n w o r l d where a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s , though r i d d l e d w i t h f a u l t s , are good enough, o r weak enough, t o be comic. T h i s t h e o r y o f good and e v i l i s important t o F i e l d i n g ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , Parson Adams (and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , t o the p r e v a i l i n g optimism), and, although the t h e o r y i t s e l f i s n o t p a r t o f the w o r l d o f the n o v e l , s u f f i c i e n t elements and examples o f the t h e o r y are p r e s e n t t o ensure i t s r e l e v a n c e t o an examination o f F i e l d i n g ' s i n t e n t i n his  p o r t r a y a l o f a u t h o r i t y i n g e n e r a l and Parson Adams i n p a r t i c u l a r .  First,  Adams' goodness, and the law and r e l i g i o n which s u p p o r t o t h e r good  a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , would be almost i r r e l e v a n t i f t h e r e were no p o s s i b i l i t y of  evil.  Even i f no a b s o l u t e v i l l a i n s  e x i s t o r Adams cannot be a concept o f an  appear, they must be a l l o w e d t o  good man, a concept which demands the o p p o s i t e  eviX man; he can o n l y be b e t t e r than those around him.  Second, and more i m p o r t a n t , Adams' " v i c e s " a r e m i t i g a t e d by d e f i n i n g on t h e b a s i s o f r e s u l t s , so t h a t h i s v i c e s do n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e  evil  presentation to  be  the  later,  a g o o d man a n d w h e r e ,  t h e y do n o t  requirements  for  false  absolutes,  are  and an a u t h o r i t y  authority  figure.  The i m p o r t a n c e the  difference  novel:  it  is  of  between almost  first  a cliche  P a r s o n Adams, an a u t h o r i t y Fourteen. figure  is  novel. as  This  suggests  Of c o u r s e ,  but,  authority  as  influences  is  in  the  that  the  of  actually the  Providence,  much o f  the  establishes  plot.  of  as  not evil  good  as  can  be  present  being  Therefore,  in  As d i s c u s s e d good,  c r i t e r i a for  in  of  all  occasions, able  the  to modify  though  and h i s  times,  criteria  the  figure  the  the in  acts  novel  the  novel  i n Chapter authority  first  major  although not  (£..£}.  narrator is the  always  C h a p t e r s One a n d not  an  behaviour of  narrator  the  frequently  o n l y P a r s o n Adams a n d o t h e r  characters  of  at  forth ethical  of  rest  influential  can i n f l u e n c e  authority the  optimistic  C h a p t e r O n e , P a r s o n Adams, repreras  spokesman  for  and example  n a r r a t o r , and  upon w h i c h  rests  a n d g o o d n a t u r e w h i c h make 3o£>Q,pk AndJUHMi> s u c h  novel.  an  figure  and the  a good,  d i d c a t i c m a t e r i a l s u g g e s t e d by the ethical  not  an a u t h o r i t y  chapters  presence  reactions,  a force  are  necessarily  b e c o m e s an i n f l u e n c i n g  on s e v e r a l  sense  them.  perfec-  evils  is  Simi-  JoAZph And/LQMXi r e s e m b l e s ShamoAa. b e f o r e  that  setting  reader's  senting  love  not  turn,  o r b e c a u s e he  thirteen  narrator is  the  authority.  JoAZph Attcfoeuti i s n o t i c e a b l e  in  figure,  emphasized  or advise  who a r e  development  the  figure  figure  characters,  figures  is  in  a key v a r i a n t between F i e l d i n g ' s m i n o r works  an a u t h o r i t y  Two),  his  qualifications  agent.  authority  the  if,  In o t h e r words,  b o t h human a n d a P r o v i d e n t i a l  some  a r e made r e a s o n a b l e :  figure  faults  with  reduce  dispensable  a u t h o r i t y b e c a u s e he has  some o t h e r  seriously  good a u t h o r i t y  o r even n e a r p e r f e c t i o n  j u d g e d as or  Adams as  discussed  larly, tion  of  of  thereby much o f  a happy,  the  optimistic  17 The most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the importance o f Parson Adams, and hence the importance o f a u t h o r i t y , i s the simple o b s e r v a t i o n o f his  almost c o n s t a n t p r e s e n c e .  However l i m i t e d Adams' p r a c t i c a l power, h i s  p o s i t i o n as a clergyman g i v e s him some a u t h o r i t y and hence some c o n t r o l , his  and  presence means t h a t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s c o n s t a n t , p r o v i d i n g a sense o f  d i r e c t i o n throughout the n o v e l .  I t i s u s u a l l y assumed t h a t the a u t h o r i t y  f i g u r e s i n a n o v e l are o f no more than secondary importance, and the "3oi>2.ph Andfi2U)&"  title  suggests t h a t the n o v e l i s m a i n l y concerned w i t h the  adventures o f a young footman.  I n s t e a d , Joseph Andrews i s o f secondary  importance, except a t the b e g i n n i n g , and the n o v e l c o n c e n t r a t e s on Parson Adams, o f t e n i n h i s r o l e o f an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , and examines p e r t i n e n t d e t a i l s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s .  Consequently, Parson  Adams i s o f primary importance i n an examination o f F i e l d i n g ' s f i g u r e s , because  authority  the p r o l o n g e d focus p r o v i d e s many d e t a i l s o f F i e l d i n g ' s  o p i n i o n s on a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n g e n e r a l and r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y in  figures  particular. Parson Adams does n o t , a t f i r s t g l a n c e , seem w e l l - s u i t e d t o the r o l e  of  a major a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , e s p e c i a l l y one whose a u t h o r i t y must n o t be  comic t o o o f t e n because he i s the o n l y r e a l , s e r i o u s a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n the  novel.  There are two minor f a t h e r s d i r e c t l y i n t r o d u c e d , two m a g i s t r a t e s ,  both comic b u t t s , and t h r e e minor clergymen.  There i s a l s o an abundance o f  would-be a u t h o r i t i e s i n lawyers and upper s e r v a n t s . not  Parson Adams, then, i s  o n l y the main r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f r e a l a u t h o r i t y e x e r c i s e d h o n e s t l y and  c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y ; he i s a l s o the g u a r d i a n o f a u t h o r i t y a g a i n s t the ranks o f imposters and t r a i t o r s .  D e s p i t e the s o l e m n i t y o f h i s p o s i t i o n , though, Adams  h i m s e l f i s o f t e n comic, even d u r i n g h i s most s e r i o u s moments.  Although Adams  18 is  neither  the  unintentional conventional appearances  authority  contemplated in  the  God  logically  considering mortal  in  the  are  regardless  the  power  elicited  the  ideal.  in  authority  ecclesiastical  course,  authority  figures  in  the  the  other  avoids  certainly  unconcern  is  not  a  for  the  Christ,  most o f  and s o l e m n i t y  are  usually  earthly of  too  the  course,  frequently a n d come  which  of  role, state,  is  course,  is  a father  trappings  the  the  humility;  faith pride  be  the  ceremonial  is  where  awe,  and  respect  the  response  father has  concept  who  far  or a  is  clergyman,  religion  creating  authority  figures  vanity  most  of  they p r o f e s s .  he  of  public  when  P a r s o n Adams, figures:  to  less  a public  authority  the  and  of  the  person  expected  p a r t i c u l a r l y unsupportable  of  the  riches  figure  a magistrate  God o f  that  associated with  but  paralleling.'.  consider  pomp, to  is  present  included in.the  and s u p p o r t i n g o t h e r  the  authority  Unfortunately,  seldom  exemplified  o r i g i n a l of  authority,  mortal authority  is  establishes  for  trappings,  kndfiQM>  which  p a r a l l e l and does n o t  all  a head o f  figures  Jo6£ph  compared t o  is  comedy  original  closely)..  authority  expect  England,  are  hand,  too  the  authority,  Finally,  eighteenth-century authority  draws  The m a j o r e x c e p t i o n ,  figure.  he  his  on a c o n c e p t  (providing,  Furthermore, love,  Christian  of  feelings  between the  w o r l d t h a n has  and does n o t ,  —  by h i s  based  consequently,  necessary  l o v e d even i n h i s  the  respect  on e a r t h ,  distance  authority.  presumably  and,  role  added on as  of  awe,  authority  norm i s  When G o d , t h e  evokes p a r a l l e l  ultimate  earthly  attitude  are  philosophical of  novel.  authority  and s o l e m n i t y ceremony  the  earthly  demonstrated  from the  by a b e l i e v e r ,  believer's  (as  stupidity  —  naivety),.  divergence  meaning  s u g g e s t e d b y some c r i t i c s  demonstrate  figure  and by h i s  the  fool  and does n o t  Adams' much o f  jester nor  6  is  they  on quite  19 happy w i t h o u t r i c h e s o r t h e i r consequences and w i t h o u t p e r s o n a l (although  he e x p e c t s c o n s i d e r a b l e  respect  for his  When Parson Adams does succumb t o p r i d e —  order). on the s u b j e c t s  knowledge, h i s sermons, and h i s a b i l i t y as a s c h o o l t e a c h e r temporarily  regard  —  of h i s  he i s  c a s t i n a comic, n o t an a u t h o r i t y r o l e , and a u t h o r i t y  shifts  c o m p l e t e l y t o the n a r r a t o r w i t h b r i e f , judgemental comments so t h a t the sense o f c o n t r o l l i n g a u t h o r i t y i s m a i n t a i n e d . t h a t the " p a t i e n c e (p. 363)  F o r example, t h e comment  o f Joseph, n o r perhaps o f Job, c o u l d b e a r no l o n g e r "  c l e a r l y p u t s Adams i n the wrong, w h i l e "nor perhaps o f J o b "  introduces  the a u t h o r i a l p r e s e n c e .  The s h i f t t o comedy i s p o s s i b l e  because Adams' p r i d e i s l i m i t e d , and n e c e s s a r y , i f he i s t o be b e l i e v a b l e . A character  c o m p l e t e l y l a c k i n g i n such a b a s i c human t r a i t as p r i d e would  s t r a i n the r e a d e r ' s b e l i e f . humour  Consequently, s i n c e much o f the source o f  i n v o l v i n g minor a u t h o r i t i e s i n 3oi>Zph kndhgWit i s t h e i r hubhJJs i n  demanding more r e s p e c t  f o r t h e i r a u t h o r i t y than i t m e r i t s ,  and c e r t a i n l y  more than C h r i s t demanded, and s i n c e when the r e a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n t o a s i m i l a r f a u l t he i s a l s o comic, C h r i s t ' s v a l u e s ,  lapses  as p o r t r a y e d  i n the  gospels, would seem t o be a major e t h i c a l base f o r 3oi><Lph AYldhJiM)i>. Although there i s some d i s c u s s i o n o f t i t h e s (£.g. p . 129), reference  t o passages o f c o u n s e l  on l i m i t e d t o p i c s  (£.g. Adams'  and reference  to I I C o r i n t h i a n s , p . 237) , t h e e t h i c a l emphasis i n Joseph f\nd/l2lM> i s on New Testament b a s i c s : divine w i l l .  l o v e , c h a r i t y and, t o some e x t e n t ,  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n , with favourable  a u t h o r i a l comments, i s  drawn t o s m a l l , even l u d i c r o u s , examples o f c h a r i t y (t.Q. Fanny h i s b r e a k f a s t )  and s e v e r a l scenes r e v o l v e  submission t o  Adams o f f e r i n g  around searches f o r and  d i s c u s s i o n s o f more i m p o r t a n t c h a r i t i e s ( f o r example, t h e T r u l l i b e r scene  20 and  the d i s c u s s i o n o f c h a r i t y w i t h P e t e r Pounce).  Invariably, charitable  (XctA a r e e s t a b l i s h e d as the o n l y r e a l c h a r i t y . Romantic l o v e , and s e x u a l less interesting  a p p e t i t e deemed l o v e , r a t h e r overshadow the  agape,, b u t Adams' a c t i o n s and words towards everyone who  does n o t prove t o be s e l f i s h , a v a r i c i o u s o r c r u e l demonstrate a fundamentally loving nature.  The s t r a n g e r s  he a s s i s t s t u r n o u t t o be p r e v i o u s  t h i s i s a p l o t convenience r a t h e r than a r e d u c t i o n  f r i e n d s , but  o f h i s spontaneous warmth.  N o t a b l y , t h e goodness o f minor sympathetic c h a r a c t e r s ,  such as Mr. Wilson, and  the p e d l a r , which i s n o t e s t a b l i s h e d through extended passages o f c h a r a c t e r examination, i s demonstrated by p r a c t i c a l a c t s o f l o v e and c h a r i t y , a s s i s t e d , o r c o u r s e , by a u t h o r i a l  approval.  Submission t o d i v i n e w i l l does n o t enjoy q u i t e so f a v o u r e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n , s i n c e i t i s b a s i c a l l y f a i t h and F i e l d i n g ' s l a t i t u d i n a r i a n b e n t n a t u r a l l y made him p r e f e r works.  However, much o f the d o c t r i n e  discussed  i n v o l v e s s u b m i s s i o n t o d i v i n e w i l l w i t h some i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t h e d o c t r i n e i s e a s i e r preached than p r a c t i s e d carried o f f ) .  On some o c c a s i o n s  Adams' advice  t o Joseph when Fanny i s  ( p r i m a r i l y f i n a n c i a l c r i s e s ) , Adams does  demonstrate a s i n c e r e submission t o d i v i n e w i l l , b u t n o t when t h e r e i s extended d i s c u s s i o n on the s u b j e c t  (e..g. when h i s son i s r e p o r t e d drowned) .  A g a i n , t h e p r a c t i c a l s i d e o f b a s i c d o c t r i n e i s emphasized: f o l l o w i n g New Testament d o c t r i n e , r a t h e r than by p r e a c h i n g  i t i s by i t , t h a t Adams  proves h i s goodness. Adams, i n f a c t , f o l l o w s C h r i s t ' s example as c l o s e l y as a can w h i l e t a k i n g p a r t i n the d a i l y l i f e devotion  o f a comic n o v e l .  t h a t Adams has c o u l d be p o r t r a y e d  i n two ways.  character  The depth o f He c o u l d be shown  as a s a i n t "as we r a t h e r t o o t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o n c e i v e s a i n t s t o be, s t r a i n i n g  21 7 w i l l s t o f o l l o w t h e rugged p a t h s o f p e r f e c t i o n , " b u t such a c h a r a c t e r c o u l d h a r d l y be l o v e d and, i n l i t e r a t u r e , c o u l d o n l y be t r e a t e d w i t h reverence,  o r w i t h deepest s a t i r e .  deepest  Or, he c o u l d be shown as a human,  unconcernedly s u f f e r i n g the p r a c t i c a l consequences o f unworldly  attitudes  i n the m i d s t o f the w o r l d , and demonstrating b l i n d l y human views on h i s own f a i l i n g s .  Such a c h a r a c t e r i s l o v a b l e , comic, and s u b t l y d i d a c t i c .  Adams' incompetence i n p r a c t i c a l matters and h i s c h i l d i s h n a i v e t y a r e c e r t a i n l y funny, b u t he i s so much h a p p i e r  than the competent and t h e  s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and so much more l i k e a b l e , t h a t t h e w o r l d l y of s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n i t y seem minor i n c o n v e n i e n c e s .  consequences  Thus, Adams has much  o f the s p i r i t u a l and e t h i c a l a u t h o r i t y one would a c c o r d t o the s a i n t , b u t still The  deserves the l o v e one would a c c o r d t o any s i n c e r e , f a t h e r l y p e r s o n .  combination o f s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y , l o v e and Church o r d e r s , i f no o t h e r  elements were p r e s e n t authority  i n the treatment o f Adams, would c r e a t e a n e a r l y  ideal  figure.  Adams i s the t r u e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n Jo&Q.ph kn.dh.0JM,, then, n o t o n l y because he i s a clergyman, although  he must have some c o n v e n t i o n a l p o s i t i o n  o f a u t h o r i t y i f he i s t o have any p r a c t i c a l power, b u t a l s o because he i s a good man.  (The concept o f the "good man" i s more f u l l y developed i n Tom Jon&i.)  A composite o f F i e l d i n g ' s good c h a r a c t e r s , p l u s h i s n a r r a t i v e comments, suggest t h a t , i n h i s eyes, a good man ( o r woman) must have moral s t r e n g t h Amelia, Joseph Andrews, and A l l w o r t h y ) , an i n b o r n good-nature  {Q..Q. Adams,  (note e s p e c i a l l y  Adams, Tom Jones, and A l l w o r t h y ) , i n c l u d i n g h i g h s p i r i t s and t h e a b i l i t y t o empathize w i t h o t h e r s  (e.g.  Adams and Tom Jones) , s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n i t y  Adams, A l l w o r t h y , Joseph Andrews and A m e l i a ) , and Dr. H a r r i s o n ) .  and a good e d u c a t i o n  In g e n e r a l terms, " F i e l d i n g ' s good men e x e m p l i f y  (e.g.  (e.g.Adams the sum  22  g of  the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s duty to  particularly  necessary  God, society  other people  truly  g o o d man m u s t b e e d u c a t e d i f aspects  of  and a v o i d the all  the  Adams' his  hms n a t u r e ,  features  goodness i s  as  Adams a l s o  of  his  a sermon by I s a a c  tion  to  as  his  It  such  authority figure's he  is  difficult  faith,  u n d e r s t a n d and develop  the  the p r e c e p t s  (according to  compliance with  its  the  his  religion,  his the  the  classics  admired)  dictates)  of  is  of  the  is  between  influenced  life:  he  exemplifies  that  "a  Religion,and in  most  by  demonstrates.  which s t a t e s  his  the  difference  education  good a s p e c t  design  Moreover,  intermingled i f  establish  enjoyment o f  (whom F i e l d i n g  of  a n d warm d i s p o s i t i o n .  and even  and e v e r y  knowledge,  is  authority, any  follow  to  of  but  a " g o o d man" s h o u l d be  enthusiastic  Barrow  to  high s p i r i t s  Christianity,  his  is  accurately  his  being  and h i s  enjoys  Christian,  of  genuine.  nature  nature  depend on the  dangers  The e d u c a t i o n  f o r a g o o d man i n a n o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n  since  best  and h i m s e l f . "  propor-  jocund, b l i t h  and  9 gay P e r s o n i n if  it  the  were n o t  novel,  t o be for  it  the for  World; the  always  evils  i n humour a n d f u l l  and  since  comfort and d i r e c t i o n d u r i n g  strength  is  at  least  f o r making h i s God,  the  for a true  to  his  Adams'  the  most  trials,  to  Christ-like  of  and p a l a t a b l e ,  be  it  his  loving aspects  of  In  the  largely  course  on h i s  evident  faith.  that  Adams'  Christianity  but  fact,  morally strong  is  which supplies  authority figure:  authority is  Adams i s  Adams d e p e n d s  these  authority figure,  necessary God i f  for  authority viable  ultimate  that  p a r t l y a consequence  and n a t u r a l p r o p e n s i t y  chear."  and t r i a l s which b e s e t him i n  w o u l d n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d  an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e ,  of  it the  is  his  of  enough religion  his  moral  goodness  are  responsible  relationship  to  power and p u r p o s e  Adams m u s t d e m o n s t r a t e  human p a r a l l e l s  accepted.  feature,  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  the  strongest  proof  23 o f h i s r i g h t t o a u t h o r i t y , i s h i s c o n s t a n t concern f o r everyone's well-being. will  spiritual  Even i n the "scene o f r o a s t i n g " Adams h e a r t i l y p r a y s t h a t God  f o r g i v e t h e s i n s committed by the company (p. 300). In e v e r y case  where Adams i s i n s u l t e d o r m i s t r e a t e d o r where c h a r i t y i s r e f u s e d him, he i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y concerned w i t h two t h i n g s :  the honour o f the c l o t h  and the s o u l o f the person who i s n o t a c t i n g as a C h r i s t i a n . times, o f c o u r s e , when t h i s concern seems a l i t t l e d i g n i t y r a t h e r than genuine  concern.  There a r e  like a preservationof  Adams' p i o u s d i s q u i e t u d e f o r the s o u l  o f the s q u i r e comes a t t h e end o f a v e r y d i g n i f i e d speech f o l l o w i n g most u n d i g n i f i e d circumstances. h o l i e r than t h e y .  He c o u l d simply be demonstrating t h a t he i s  A g a i n , t h e r e i s a s l i g h t s u g g e s t i o n n o t t h a t Adams " c o u l d  n o t r e c o l l e c t a l l the j e s t s o f t h i s k i n d p r a c t i s e d on him, which the i n o f f e n s i v e d i s p o s i t i o n o f h i s own h e a r t made him slow i n d i s c o v e r i n g "  ( p . 297),  but t h a t he would n o t r e l a t e a l l the j e s t s o u t o f tenderness f o r h i s p r i d e . On t h e o t h e r hand, most, and perhaps  all,  o f the d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g .  Adams' concern and i n o f f e n s i v e d i s p o s i t i o n as genuine Adams would be t o o C h r i s t - l i k e t o be human.  i s t h a t i f i t were,  The normal r e a d e r , perhaps,  cannot imagine h i m s e l f e x p r e s s i n g Adams' sentiments except o u t o f a sense of i n j u r e d p r i d e . because  B e s i d e s , Adams' sermons do n o t need t o be excused  Adams r e a l l y i s h o l i e r than h i s opponents,  entirely,  and s u r e l y c o r r e c t i o n o f  those i n e r r o r i s sometimes b e t t e r than h u m i l i t y . Some moments o f concern, where i n j u r e d p r i d e c o u l d e x p l a i n Adams' r e a c t i o n o n l y i f he were an e x c e p t i o n a l l y proud p e r s o n , a r e undoubtedly genuine.  When Adams b e g i n s t o l e c t u r e T r u l l i b e r on h i s l a c k o f c h a r i t y , t h e  n a r r a t i v e comments make i t c l e a r t h a t he i s w o r r i e d about T r u l l i b e r ' s n o t h i s own l a c k o f success i n a c q u i r i n g the f o u r t e e n s h i l l i n g s .  soul,  On the  o t h e r s i d e o f the c o i n , when Adams i s g i v e n money by Mr. W i l s o n ,  Adams i s  " g l a d t o see such an i n s t a n c e o f goodness, n o t so much f o r t h e conveniency which i t brought them, as f o r the sake o f the doer, whose reward would be g r e a t i n heaven"  (p. 284). The e f f e c t , then, o f some i n s t a n c e s when h i s  concern may be genuine  ( o r , a t l e a s t , when some r e a l concern i s mixed w i t h  l e s s admirable f e e l i n g s ) , and some when i t c l e a r l y i s genuine, i s t h a t Adams' p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t when f a c e d w i t h s t r i k i n g l y C h r i s t i a n o r s t r i k i n g l y nonC h r i s t i a n a c t i o n s i s the doer's s p i r i t u a l Probably  the most important  well-being.  o f the o t h e r elements which c h a r a c t e r i z e  Adams as an i d e a l C h r i s t i a n and clergyman, and hence as a good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , i s h i s concern f o r h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s . as he q u e s t i o n s  We a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o Adams  Joseph on b a s i c t h e o l o g i c a l s u b j e c t s , and t r i e s t o improve  Joseph's s t a t i o n i n l i f e by o f f e r i n g t o teach him L a t i n and t r y i n g t o i n t e r e s t S q u i r e Booby i n e d u c a t i n g  him.  Although Adams' i n t e r e s t c o u l d have  m o t i v a t i o n , a genuine good-nature proves t o be the source and  s u g g e s t i o n when more i s known o f h i s c h a r a c t e r .  pecuniary  of h i s questioning  Moreover, t h a t he  t r o u b l e s h i m s e l f t o c a t e c h i z e Joseph j u s t because he has "observed the s i n g u l a r d e v o t i o n o f young Andrews" (p. 78) i n d i c a t e s a very a t t i t u d e towards h i s p o s i t i o n a s a clergyman.  conscientious  Presumably, t h i s a t t i t u d e has  been c o n s i s t e n t throughout h i s c u r a t e s h i p , f o r we a r e t o l d t h a t " h i s word was little  l e s s than a law i n h i s p a r i s h : f o r . . . he h a d shown h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s  by a uniform b e h a v i o u r o f t h i r t y - f i v e years d u r a t i o n , t h a t he had t h e i r good e n t i r e l y at heart. is  . ." (p. 103). A "uniform  behaviour"  forthirty-five  years  i n i t s e l f an achievement, and s i n c e i t s r e s u l t was a c o n s i d e r a b l e de gree  o f power h e l d by v i r t u e o f h i s goodness, t h e achievement i s remarkable. Adams' p r a c t i c a l r e l i g i o n , w i t h i t s l a t i t u d i n a r i a n emphasis on t h e importance  o f works  (though  Adams a l s o  him an a u t h o r i t y s t r o n g l y as  law n o t p r i m a r i l y  parishioners  trust  e v e n when h e  advises  ioners tion  are  is  Adams'  trusted  in his as  It  is  the  at  in his  since  he  is  responsible  goodness i s  so  advice  to  their the  (and even  for  their  apparent that  gives  is  obeyed  but because  Either  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l C h r i s t i a n s  being  separated  Indeed,  the  benevolent  the  goodness,  interest  Joseph  the  his  benefit parishthis  assump-  spiritual  guidance  divinity  recognized  same e f f e c t  being  throws  in his  h e was n o t  together  the  and  aspect  v e r y end o f  of the  one h u n d r e d a n d t h i r t y p o u n d s  is  so  his  happiest  caught  into  the  joy because  two  y  Adams'  (p.  of  evidence is  of  given  authority. up i n h i s fire  —  the  three,  exulting  in  f o r the  the  joy  shows  lovers  them,  to His  meet  a remarkable depth  F i e l d i n g p r o b a b l y amongst  own"  of  "may goodness  breasts  of  both  209).  opinion of  n o v e l when he  a year,  accept  a rendition  two weeks a t home,  parishioners  demonstrates  b l e s s i n g s w h i c h were with his  in  sufficient  ffischylus  transported with  f o r a few m o n t h s  the  his  another  but  and Fanny — he  some p h i l o s o p h e r s ,  heart enjoyed  shown a t  consistent  accidentally  sincerity:  two,  of  reunion of  t h a t he  quite  p a r i s h i o n e r s would w i l l i n g l y  A more s e r i o u s is  favoured course.  u n d e r two.; w e e k s a n d p e r h a p s  years  why h i s the  his  other  sound and always  establish  sincerity  others  his  is  to  perhaps doubt whether of  some p r a c t i c a l p o w e r ,  not possible  thirty-five  empathy.  Adams'  336) ,  such.  demonstrate  after  Christ's:  £ . g . p.  a p r o v i d e n t i a l a g e n t c a n be  in  some o f  their  faith:  as  as  for  against  of  of  authority  a journey l a s t i n g  ecstasy  he h a s advice  o r Adams'  of  Adams'  his  credit  and i n s t r u c t i o n ) , inherent  that  a good d e a l  reminiscent  because  very sincere  to  has  despite  at his  his first  d u t y as refuses  poverty,  a clergyman a living  "resolving  of  not  26 t o q u i t h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s , w i t h whom he hath l i v e d so l o n g "  (p. 3 9 9 ) . H e  a c c e p t s the l i v i n g o n l y on the r e c o l l e c t i o n t h a t he can farm i t o u t t o a c u r a t e and thus remain w i t h h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s .  F i e l d i n g notably  avoids any  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p l u r a l i s m ; a l l t h a t i s e s t a b l i s h e d i s t h a t Adams i s no l o n g e r poor and i s s t i l l w i t h h i s f l o c k . devotion  The b e s t p r o o f ,  though, o f Adams'  t o h i s f l o c k , and o f the s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e he has towards h i s  p o s i t i o n , i s h i s stand  on m a r r y i n g Joseph and Fanny.  Despite  Lady Booby's  p r a c t i c a l power i n the neighbourhood, and h e r p r o b a b l e power t o d i v e s t Adams o f the s m a l l l i v i n g he h a s , he r e f u s e s  t o follow her orders  p u b l i s h i n g the banns f o r Joseph and Fanny.  and i n s i s t s on  Moreover, he even l e c t u r e s  Lady Booby on the r i g h t s o f the poor and on the n a t u r e o f h i s duty as a clergyman.  Obviously,  Adams sees h i s duty as a b s o l u t e ;  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s do n o t e n t e r i n t o the e x e c u t i o n a clergyman.  personal  o f any a s p e c t  o f h i s r o l e as  The p a r i s h i o n e r s a r e j u s t i f i e d i n t r u s t i n g Adams.  An examination o f o t h e r elements o f Adams' c h a r a c t e r a personal  and f a m i l y  l e v e l he i s a good C h r i s t i a n i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l  more important i n F i e l d i n g ' s eyes, he i s a good man. says, Adams " i s a c l e a n , v i g o r o u s  suggests t h a t on  sense, and t h a t ,  As A u r e l i e n Digeon  C h r i s t i a n , w i t h a C h r i s t i a n i t y which pays  l e s s heed t o pure dogma than t o a c t i v e sympathy f o r the weak and d i s i n h e r i t e d o f t h i s w o r l d . w h e n e v e r a s i t u a t i o n o f f e r s a l t e r n a t i v e s , one c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the l e t t e r o f the New Testament B i b l e , and one c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s s p i r i t , Adams f o l l o w s the s p i r i t o f the New Testament.  A g a i n , when a s i t u a t i o n  r e q u i r e s a c t i o n more o r l e s s a g a i n s t the d i c t a t e s o f the New Testament, and c e r t a i n l y a g a i n s t t h e e s t a b l i s h e d r o l e o f a clergyman, Adams does n o t h e s i t a t e t o f o l l o w the n e c e s s a r y course t o p r e v e n t s e r i o u s harm t o o t h e r s . The  b e s t a c t i o n f o r Adams t o take when he f i n d s a r u f f i a n a t t e m p t i n g t o rape  27 a y o u n g woman, villain. that the to  Fanny as  Slipslop's  since  a c l e r g y m a n he  required fighting.  lay violent  hands  strengthened"  he p r a y s  in addition  when  travellers  his  knees,.  having  .  danger to  of  for  mistake  212).  rescue of  argues  that  he  the  course,  to  "that  Adams " n o t o n l y  not  the  care  assault  told  that  on h i m s e l f  arrested  of  is,  in  some r e s p e c t s ,  seldom e n t e r s nize  it,  his  personal  a n d when e v i l  Adams s i m p l y r e f u s e s relatively  aspect of  to believe  minor subject  of  his  considerations  actions  a  clergyman  rather prayed that allows,  of  it.  she  but  For  example,  .  (p.  .and.  245)  is  .  on  .  and  based  on  the  or his  friend"  accusation  to his  (p. of  own f a t e , (p.  221).  the  but  When,  highwayman,  comforting  196) , w h i c h  demon-  courage.  another proof of  another  become  " n o t h i n g c o u l d p r o v o k e Adams  and g r e a t e r is  did not  however,  strates  innocence  Fanny because  crabstick"  companion under h e r s u f f e r i n g s "  Adams'  rescued  instead  and e n c o u r a g i n g h i s a different  jealousy?is,  Providence.  on t h e  submitting patiently  the  f o r m u r d e r e r s , Adams " f e l l  disposition,"  f o r we a r e  Adams a n d F a n n y a r e  it  by h e r  s h o u l d have  grasped his  "war-like  b u t an a b s o l u t e  have  sheep-stealers  ejaculations, This  h e r by a t t a c k i n g  Adams d o e s p r a y when t i m e  . committed h i m s e l f  fight.  example,  we s e e  (p.  circumstances,  strike,  to  to p r a c t i c a l p r o t e c t i o n ,  finished his  prepared to  is  should not  She  on a n y o n e ,  m i g h t be  the  happens,  opinion, motivated,  Adams i s  rescue  it  or motives that  such  "malicious"  the  p u r i t y of  his  mind and hence  primitive Christianity.  that  he  frequently  does n o t  Evil  so  recog-  indicate  a consciously  bad p e r s o n ,  a person  could exist.  E v e n on  lies,  Adams  says:  Out o f l o v e t o y o u r s e l f , you s h o u l d c o n f i n e y o u r s e l f t o the t r u t h , . . . f o r by d o i n g o t h e r w i s e , y o u i n j u r e the n o b l e s t p a r t o f y o u r s e l f , your immortal s o u l . I c a n h a r d l y b e l i e v e a n y man s u c h a n i d i o t t o r i s k t h e l o s s o f t h a t by any t r i f l i n g g a i n , and t h e g r e a t e s t g a i n i n t h i s w o r l d i s b u t d i r t i n c o m p a r i s o n o f what s h a l l be r e v e a l e d h e r e a f t e r . ,  the  28 T h i s b e l i e f i n honesty  as a g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e among a l l but i d i o t s l e a d s Adams  to take everyone a t f a c e v a l u e : d e s i r e d t o l e t him"  he  (ppo.197-98) .  On  "never saw  f a r t h e r i n t o people than  the o t h e r hand, the e x t e n t and  they  result  o f t h i s n a i v e t y i s o f t e n comic and although i t enhances Adams' a u t h o r i t y 1  i n s o f a r as i t proves o f such innocence  the i n t e g r i t y o f h i s i n t e n t i o n s , the immediate  result  i s comedy.  U s u a l l y a comic a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i s e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t l y comic o r comic w i t h s i n i s t e r overtones  the m a g i s t r a t e s i n VoZpone.) .  In e i t h e r  case, the source o f comedy i s misuse o f a u t h o r i t y o r the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e ' s i n f l a t e d view o f h i m s e l f because o f h i s a u t h o r i t y , and the r e s u l t o f the comedy i s r e d u c t i o n o r a n n i h i l a t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y .  Adams  i s comic t o some degree most of the time, b u t , a l t h o u g h the e x t e n t o f the comedy cannot b u t reduce h i s a u t h o r i t y , Adams remains b a s i c a l l y an a c c e p t a b l e authority figure. examination  The e x t e n t o f the r e d u c t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d by  an  o f the type and sources o f Adams' comedy.  The most f r e q u e n t source o f comedy based on Adams i s h i s appearance. Adams wears a r a t h e r shabby g r e a t c o a t , a wig "not over-new" (p. 297), a cassock which i s c o n s t a n t l y f a l l i n g down around h i s knees.  The w r i n k l e s i n  h i s face are so deep t h a t F i e l d i n g d e s c r i b e s them as "furrows." add t o h i s comic appearance:  H i s mannerisms  he walks w i t h g r e a t s t r i d e s , " c a p e r s " when happy,  snaps h i s f i n g e r s when e m o t i o n a l l y e x c i t e d , and groans a t a n y t h i n g l e s s than C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e s .  and  revealing  He o b v i o u s l y l a c k s a l l outward a s p e c t s o f  d i g n i t y and hence does n o t appear t o be an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e .  The  reader's  n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n t o such a f i g u r e w i l l be amusement, and most o f the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s r e a c t w i t h amusement o r d i s d a i n . On  f a i r e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , though, the r e a d e r w i l l b e g i n t o have much  the is  same r e a c t i o n partly  his  to  a necessary  complete of  his  social  conditioning.  authority  is  authority, for  the  (p.  141).  .  .are  .  (p.  it  self.  his of  his  and h i s  poverty,  on t h e  surface of  further proof  of  good-natured  a fool  reader  —  a false  result  front  reduction  honesty  for  attire  are and  of  of  the of  his  complete  and o f  his  lack  of  out  in  The. ArrtixibZe. HimohJJst  a n d he  is  a fool  s e e s how t h e  T h o s e who c o n c e n t r a t e  of  suitability  his  the  H i s mannerisms  a comic  his  As Samuel Tave p o i n t s  Adams t o b e  lack  The p a r s o n ' s  and p a r t l y  trappings.  complete  further proof  is  parishioners.  a l l worldly  What i s  reality  because  w o r l d may j u d g e but  for  spontaneity  in  have  consequence  unconcern  result  concern  Adams a s  "on h i s  by w o r l d l y  world is  judged by the  oddities  of  dress  and  definition  fool,  too'.!  behaviour  t h e p r o p e r o b j e c t s o f r i d i c u l e , n o t t h e i n n o c e n t man h i m s e l f " 11 144). C l e a r l y , F i e l d i n g i n t e n d s t o show " t h a t a p o o r , b a d l y - d r e s s e d  man,  humble  and s c o r n e d ,  can p l a y  the  part of  a hero,  if  he  carries  beneath  12 his  rags  a beautiful  Similarly, character which  soul  other  are  authority  naivety  a result  comic  feature,  because,  although  consistent with the  reader  perfection, good  is  of  the  seen  they are  Adams' comedy  he  as  in  fact,  his  features  necessary  mind.  by a s i n c e r e  to  fortune."  suggest to  be  of  an a u t h o r i t y of  g r a n t him the  Christian.  of  forgetfulness,  they  the  are  not  Nevertheless,  Adams' d e g r e e sainthood  but  authority,  character, figure.  and a minor  concerns, of  his  a pure,  Adams' i n n o c e n c e  His  his  features  seen as  a reduction  some c o n s i d e r a t i o n  F i e l d i n g refuses  his  from w o r l d l y  is  results  view of  to  before,  a dissociation  comic  surprised into  created  is,  p u r i t y of  these  superior  As m e n t i o n e d  a conventional  since  clergyman  of  of  if  figure.  c a n be  predominant e f f e c t  aspects  necessary  Christ-like are  and a courage  of  likely  Moreover, there  "the  is  for  some  a  30 suggestion w i t h any  t h a t s t r i c t adherence t o C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s w i l l c r e a t e  some c o n f l i c t  form of s e c u l a r power.  In a j u s t , p i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , Adams i s n o t a t a l l comic, and "comic" f e a t u r e s are a c t u a l l y p r o o f s r e a d e r and,  A mental p i c t u r e o f Adams w i t h d r o o p i n g cassock,  around a room, snapping h i s f i n g e r s w i l l n o t r a i s e any  r e l i g i o u s a p p r e c i a t i o n i n most r e a d e r s . l i g h t , he  the  i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , F i e l d i n g are not i n c l i n e d t o view Adams w i t h  j u s t and p i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . capering  o f h i s r i g h t t o a u t h o r i t y , but  his  i s comic, and  idea  of  I f Adams i s n o t viewed i n p i o u s  a l t h o u g h unworldly j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r the  comic  e f f e c t s e x i s t they do not e n t i r e l y r e s t o r e the degree o f a u t h o r i t y l o s t  by  comic e f f e c t . Some a s p e c t s o f Adams' comedy, o f c o u r s e , do n o t have any grace e x c e p t as f u r t h e r p r o o f he i s proud i n any way,  t h a t he i s human.  comic a s p e c t s ; p r e a c h e s , and l e a r n i n g and o f comedy.  even when he  —  i t i s his faith in his  which i s b a s i c a l l y p r i d e —  T h i s brand o f comedy has  t h a t i s the  own  source  s e r i o u s consequences f o r Adams' sometimes t o the p o i n t o f  For example, Adams' remonstrance, w i t h r e f e r e n c e  s a c r i f i c e of Isaac,  and  i s comic because he does n o t p r a c t i s e what he  i s unable t o see t h a t he does n o t , righteousness  a failing,  P r i d e encompasses a l l Adams' r e m a i n i n g  a u t h o r i t y because i t undercuts h i s a d v i c e , tion.  When Adams i s comic because  he demonstrates a f o i b l e , i f not  consequently becomes r i d i c u l o u s .  saving  t o Abraham's  that  no C h r i s t i a n ought so t o s e t h i s h e a r t on any person or t h i n g i n t h i s w o r l d , but t h a t whenever i t s h a l l be r e q u i r e d or taken from him i n any manner by D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e , he may be a b l e , p e a c e a b l y , q u i e t l y , and contentedly to resign i t (p. 362)  destruc-  i s immediately  undercut by Adams' r e a c t i o n t o the r e p o r t e d death o f h i s  youngest s o n . On the one hand, both the r e a c t i o n and the u n d e r c u t t i n g are n e c e s s a r y . Without  comic r e d u c t i o n o f the moral d o c t r i n e w i t h which JoA&ph AndA.2W&  abounds, t h e r e a d e r might s u s p e c t t h a t t h e comic e p i c poem i n p r o s e was a s l y t r i c k d e s i g n e d t o i n c u l c a t e wholesome i n s t r u c t i o n under cover o f amusing the r e a d e r w i t h l i g h t comedy.  The s u s p i c i o n u s u a l l y remains,  element o f comedy i n a l i n e o r so — f a l l e n a s l e e p d u r i n g Joseph's s e v e r a l pages o f d o c t r i n e .  s i n c e an  such as the comment t h a t Adams had  analysis of charity —  does n o t b a l a n c e  O c c a s i o n a l l y , though, the e f f e c t o f the d o c t r i n e  i s b a l a n c e d o r d e s t r o y e d by the comic r e d u c t i o n .  In the f i r s t example, n o t  o n l y i s the e f f e c t o f the d o c t r i n e reduced by Adams' r e a c t i o n , i t i s f u r t h e r reduced by Adams' g o i n g back t o the d o c t r i n e , o b l i v i o u s o f the d i s c r e p a n c y between h i s words and a c t i o n s , and reduced again by Mrs. Adams' c o n t r a r y a d v i c e and assurance  t h a t Adams has been a " l o v i n g and c h e r i s h i n g husband"  to h e r d e s p i t e h i s o p i n i o n t h a t a man ought t o l o v e h i s w i f e "with and d i s c r e t i o n "  moderation  (p. 364). T h i s d o c t r i n e must be undercut by Adams' a c t i o n s  i f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t o remain  likeable.  We might r e s p e c t someone w i t h  s u f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l over h i s emotions t o a c t as Adams s u g g e s t s , b u t i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o l i k e him.  A g a i n , though we might condemn Abraham, as Adams  s u g g e s t s , on r e l i g i o u s grounds i f he had r e f u s e d t o s a c r i f i c e I s a a c , and though on s i m i l a r grounds we would f e e l Adams l a c k s a b s o l u t e f a i t h i n D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e , i t i s hard t o respond i n human terms t o Abraham, and i t would be e q u a l l y hard t o respond  so t o Adams i f he had been a b l e t o r e s i g n h i s son  "peaceably, q u i e t l y , and c o n t e n t e d l y . " On the o t h e r hand, these n e c e s s a r y r e d u c t i o n s s e r i o u s l y l e s s e n Adams'  credibility Christian  an a u t h o r i t y  doctrine  on s u b j e c t s be  as  of  accepted?  is  made c o m i c ,  obvious In  figure.  denies  o r mutes  New T e s t a m e n t "  —  the  comedy when comedy  though,  nor his  one  accepted? accepted,  the  If  on  "single  — his  serious his  can h i s  though based  another  on  just  as  his  real  a u t h o r i t y c a n be  nature  false  authority  string of  the  a u t h o r i t y cannot  is  based  dignity  be  Adams' on  radically affected  the  advice  orthodox  n a r r a t o r becomes p r e d o m i n a n t .  love, by  does n o t  have  reflect  his  position  of being  world of  3oi>Q,pk AndA.QJ/U>, h o w e v e r ,  as  true  nature,  is  that  the  299) that  him to  .  which  respect  a n d Adams'  —  also  society  pp.  does n o t  of  in  the  same  his  on w h i c h t o  n o v e l have esteem.  and 336),  (note  "his  the the  the  need  novel,  not dubious implica-  a n d comments  the  a  judge h i m ,  The g e n e r a l  by  him s p i r i t u a l frequent  order is  and the  in  only his  c a l l i n g gives  and obedience  through  characters  speech  is  him through  authority of  narrative voice  comment t h a t  172  the  and speech  base t h e i r  fact  and t r u s t  comic and h i s  b o t h by the  cloth" see  are  characters  mere  love  much t h e  Most o f  manners  and manners  the  to  c h a r a c t e r on t h e  character.  established  entitling  "honour the  is  Adams'  a c l e r g y m a n on w h i c h t o  characters,  scorn" (p.  t o l d of  appearance,  appearance  come  reader quickly feels  shown h i s  only his  i n the m o v e 1 ,  authority  and the  and then  his  the  H i s p a r i s h i o n e r s have  years,  have  and s i n c e  novel  on l o v e  authority in  process  narrator,  to  the  their basis,  matter.  thirty-five  tion  nature  love  advice  destroys.  different  faster  based  love,  Adams'  the  authority of  authority is  and n e i t h e r h i s  command t o  be  h i m c a n n o t be advice,  Christianity,  real  advice  Adams'  of  and the  to  serious  whenever  interpretation  accepted,  Adams'  can h i s  importance  fact,  If  not  general  render s p i r i t u a l authority i t s  the  injunction object  of  criticisjm.'in the due u n l e s s  the  33 clergyman has the s e c u l a r t r a p p i n g s s p i r i t u a l authority  which a c t u a l l y c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s  (see pp. 80, 172, 217-18, 222, 226 QJt a t ) .  Implicit  i n t h i s c r i t i c i s m , o f course, i s the more s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m t h a t because the g e n e r a l i t y o f c l e r g y depend on such t r a p p i n g s , i s not recognized,  or, at l e a s t , not respected.  real spiritual  authority  Didgeon notes t h a t " i t i s 13  o n l y the v i r t u o u s p e o p l e i n the book who l o v e Parson Adams. . . ." •• . That Adams has r e a l s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d by the f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the source o f h i s a u t h o r i t y . p o s i t i o n i s , as mentioned b e f o r e , t o man.  then  the c l o s e s t analogy o f God's r e l a t i o n s h i p  Adams' r o l e as a r e a l f a t h e r i s important i n t h a t i t e s t a b l i s h e s  a standard has  Adams i s a f a t h e r and t h i s  by which the o t h e r  f a t h e r s may be judged.  "never scourged a c h i l d o f [ h i s ] own, u n l e s s  Adams says t h a t he  as h i s s c h o o l m a s t e r , and  [has] f e l t e v e r y s t r o k e on [ h i s ] own p o s t e r i o r s " (p. 278). The r e a l  importance o f Adams' r o l e as a f a t h e r , though, i s t h a t he sees h i m s e l f i n that r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s parishioners  (p. 2 2 5 ) . Moreover, he a c t s as a  f a t h e r t o h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s , i f h i s b e h a v i o u r t o Joseph and Fanny may be a c c e p t e d as an example o f h i s u s u a l b e h a v i o u r , i n d i c a t i n g a p a t e r n a l  auth-  o r i t y o v e r them, based on h i s s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y , which suggests a n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d human p a r a l l e l t o God's a u t h o r i t y over them. With the e x c e p t i o n  o f the C a t h o l i c p r i e s t and the two o t h e r  W i l s o n and Andrews, t h e o t h e r  a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n the n o v e l  fathers,  a r e comic b u t t s .  T h i s f a c t , o f c o u r s e , i n c r e a s e s Adams' a u t h o r i t y , s i n c e he i s seen i n compari s o n t o a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s who demonstrate t h e i r u s u a l f a i l i n g s , and h i s o f those f a i l i n g s i s even more i m p r e s s i v e  when i n c o n t r a s t w i t h  a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s than i t i s when c o n s i d e r e d emphasis on c o r r u p t  on i t s own.  lack  corrupt  Moreover, t h e  s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , w i t h o n l y one r e a l l y  corrupt  e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e whose e f f e c t i s more than b a l a n c e d by Adams'  34  e f f e c t , enhances the p o s i t i o n o f Adams' r e l i g i o n , a m o d i f i e d L a t i t u d i n a r i a n s t a n c e , as the e t h i c a l b a s i s f o r JoA&ph Andh.2lti&. The  two o t h e r f a t h e r f i g u r e s have v e r y l i t t l e  scheme o f a u t h o r i t y i n the n o v e l .  Wilson  importance i n the  i s an e n t i r e l y  sympathetic  f a t h e r f i g u r e and h i s concern f o r h i s c h i l d r e n i s p a r t o f the i d y l l i c he l e a d s .  Aside  life  from t h i s , the o n l y importance o f h i s r o l e as a f a t h e r i s  t h a t he admits, even boasts o f , p l a y i n g w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n , which demonstrates the s u p e r i o r i t y o f l o v e over d i g n i t y i n an i d e a l e x i s t e n c e .  Andrews has f a r  too minor a r o l e i n the n o v e l t o have much importance i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , b u t i f a n y t h i n g he i s a l e s s than i d e a l f a t h e r . as h i s daughter and " b l e s s e d and k i s s e d her" thoroughly  convinced  He accepts  Fanny  (p. 3 9 4 ) , b u t f i r s t has t o be  she i s h i s daughter because he "very l i k e l y d e s i r e d t o  have no more c h i l d r e n than he c o u l d keep" (p. 3 9 4 ) , and when he i s convinced he " t e s t i f i e d no remarkable emotion" (p. 3 9 4 ) . with love:  C l e a r l y , he does n o t abound  one imagines Adams i n the same s i t u a t i o n i n r a p t u r e s .  f u n c t i o n o f both minor f a t h e r f i g u r e s , then,  The main  i s t o e s t a b l i s h f u r t h e r the  importance o f l o v e f o r t r u e f u l f i l l m e n t o f the r o l e . The  o t h e r c l e r g y i n the n o v e l can o n l y be f o i l s o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t s t o  Adams s i n c e h i s b e i n g a clergyman i s c o n s i s t e n t l y emphasized. There are three o t h e r clergymen i n the n o v e l :  Barnabas, T r u l l i b e r and t h e C a t h o l i c  priest.  That Barnabas i s a clergyman i s mentioned o n l y i n p a s s i n g , and,  although  h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Adams o f some o f the r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s  o f the time c l a r i f i e s Adams' p o s i t i o n t o some e x t e n t , Barnabas' r o l e as a clergyman i s f a r t o o minor t o q u a l i f y him as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n t h e n o v e l . T r u l l i b e r i s , o f course, t h e most prominent, s i n c e an e n t i r e scene  revolves  around him, b u t t h e C a t h o l i c p r i e s t i s more i n t e r e s t i n g d e s p i t e the b r e v i t y  35 o f h i s appearance. The  p r i e s t , f i r s t o f a l l , bears a p h y s i c a l resemblance t o Adams which  suggests some a s s o c i a t i o n o f the two. sat  smoking h i s p i p e by the f i r e "  affection f o r joking"  [p. 118] ) .  He i s d e s c r i b e d  as "a grave man who  (p. 304) (cp. Adams "had n o t the l e a s t Moreover, he bears a s p i r i t u a l  blance t o Adams, s i n c e Adams d e c l a r e s  resem-  t h a t the C a t h o l i c p r i e s t ' s d i s c o u r s e  on the e v i l s o f r i c h e s , both i n terms o f t h i s w o r l d and t h e n e x t , e x p r e s s e s e x a c t l y h i s own s e n t i m e n t s .  Also, the continuing p a r a l l e l d i s c u s s i o n , with  Adams and the p r i e s t t a k i n g turns expanding on the theme o f l o v e o f money as the r o o t o f a l l e v i l ,  confirms t h e i r s p i r i t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s .  t h i s b r i e f scene i n i t s e l f  However,  o n l y c l a r i f i e s Adams' views by h a v i n g him  d i s c u s s them, and d i r e c t l y e s t a b l i s h e s the a t t i t u d e towards w e a l t h i n  JoAzph kn.dn.2Mi>. Given F i e l d i n g ' s d i s l i k e o f C a t h o l i c i s m , added importance.  F i e l d i n g ' s choice  though, t h e scene takes on  o f a p r i e s t o f the /Church o f Rome t o  agree w i t h Adams must e i t h e r be a c r i t i c i s m o f Adams' views o r a statement about the t r u e n a t u r e o f a C h r i s t i a n .  The f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y i s c l e a r l y  u n t e n a b l e . The sentiments e x p r e s s e d d i r e c t l y are the same as those  implied  throughout the r e s t o f the n o v e l where they c o n s i s t e n t l y have t h e a p p r o v a l o f the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e .  I n the scene i n q u e s t i o n ,  o n l y the o m i s s i o n o f the  g r e a t e r p a r t o f the d i s c u s s i o n , on the grounds t h a t "most o f which s a i d occurs among many a u t h o r s , who have t r e a t e d t h i s s u b j e c t " the comment t h a t the p r i e s t c o n t i n u e d and  the d i s c o u r s e  [Adams]  (p. 305), and  "with g r e a t b i t t e r n e s s  i n v e c t i v e " (p. 305) c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as sarcasm o r c r i t i c i s m .  However, the f i r s t p o i n t i s no more than r e a s o n a b l e on l i t e r a r y  grounds  s i n c e Jo&Zph kndA.2lti& i s a comic n o v e l , n o t a r e l i g i o u s t r e a t i s e , and the  36 second p o i n t i s no more than r e a s o n a b l e on r e l i g i o u s grounds s i n c e i t i s an e v i l which the p r i e s t i s d i s c u s s i n g . can be i n t e n d e d Instead,  Consequently, no c r i t i c i s m o f Adams  i n the d u p l i c a t i o n o f h i s b e l i e f s i n a C a t h o l i c p r i s t .  F i e l d i n g c l e a r l y intends  t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t every s e c t o f C h r i s t i -  a n i t y has b e l i e v e r s who f o l l o w b a s i c t e n e t s  o f New Testament t h e o l o g y , and  and  the s e c t i t s e l f i s o f l i m i t e d importance.  ual  to exercise h i s f a i t h .  The onus: i s upon the i n d i v i d -  Furthermore, t h a t a member o f a s e c t which  F i e l d i n g d i s l i k e d i s a s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n emphasizes the f a i l u r e o f those who a r e n o t s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n s even though they have the advantage o f belonging  t o the " r i g h t " s e c t i n F i e l d i n g ' s view —  the Church o f E n g l a n d .  There i s one p o r t r a i t o f a c o r r u p t Church o f E n g l a n d clergyman Trulliber —  and n o t a b l y  c r i t i c a l discourse.  h i s main f a i l i n g i s c r i t i c i s e d i n the p r i e s t ' s  T r u l l i b e r i s r i c h and a l l h i s f a u l t s a r e i n some way  dependent on the importance he p l a c e s on money'. has  no r e s p e c t  f o r anyone who i s n o t r i c h .  He has no c h a r i t y , and he  T h i s i s demonstrated by h i s l a c k  of manners i n h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s : t o h i s w i f e ale,"  —  t o "draw a l i t t l e  o f the worst  a f t e r he f a s t e n s the p a r l o u r door and takes Adams i n t o t h e k i t c h e n  (p. 217) , and i n s n a t c h i n g uuAi-t"  (p. 218) .  a cup o f a l e from Adams' hand " c r y i n g o u t I  QJXOJCd  F a i r l y h i g h on h i s l i s t o f f a u l t s i s the way he t r e a t s , o r  r a t h e r m i s t r e a t s , h i s w i f e , which proves he has no l o v e even where i t i s e a s i e s t and most n a t u r a l t o bestow l o v e . two  forms:  A l l these f a u l t s are summed up i n  Adams" c r i t i c i s m : a n d T r u l l i b e r ' s main source o f income.  s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t T r u l l i b e r r a i s e s hogs.  It is  In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t  the hogs take precedence o v e r T r u l l i b e r ' s d u t i e s as a p a r s o n  (in defiance o f  14 ' Church law  ) , f o r we a r e t o l d t h a t "Mr. T r u l l i b e r was a p a r s o n on Sundays,  but a l l t h e o t h e r  s i x might more p r o p e r l y be c a l l e d a farmer" (p. 216).  37 If  we  c o m p a r e Adams' w o r k a s  Sunday, time.  it  is  clear  The a s s o c i a t i o n  more t e l l i n g . as  216)  greed  ale  —  is  established  greed excludes  notes  Trulliber's  w h i c h Adams c o n c l u d e s That a person requires What i s virtue  he  sinful  for his  authority. On one  his  level  this It  Adams i s  m u s t be  is  T r u l l i b e r makes Adams'  poverty  route,  he  a travesty case,  authority  a c r i t i c i s m of  to  the  the  is  type  of  someone  of  probably lose  Thus,  contrast  course,  his  piety.  he  piety  priest,  the  even than  size  sold"  a portrait  characteristics. of  greed,  of  Adams'  from  of  that  he  of  position position.  enjoys,  like  real  and  happens  since  it  can be  is  followed that  and good-nature and to that  to  parsons,'  Most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  he  justified  hLi> p a r i s h i o n e r s . )  Trulliber  and wealth  establish  by  a n d f a r more  Church o f England  If  b e t w e e n Adams a n d T r u l l i b e r ,  b e t w e e n Adams a n d t h e  He i s  for his  than b e f o r e ,  respect  is  own  p e r s o n who j u s t  criticismaDf organized r e l i g i o n .  He w o u l d ,  "his  beasts  that  love  that  power,  - -  f a r more p r a c t i c a l p o w e r  one  his  hogs  those which h i s  however,  but  of  and h i s  authority  also a parson,  a consequence  a farmer a l l  Christian.  a c r i t i c i s m of  a l l the  similarity  a  work on  a swineherd.rather  t h a n Adams d o e s  Adams seem e v e n b e t t e r  week t o h i s  a consequence  the  h a n d , Adams e n j o y s  c o u l d have  the  not  of  as  favourable  not  is  called  of  obviously  a general  be  habits.  opposite  characteristics,  other is  is  values  Trulliber's  distorted  (Cm t h e  a parson.  since  in  that  charity,  Trulliber  is  the  in build  eating  a l l possible  embodies  others  even worse of  respect  teach  and i n  lack of  that  a pig  i n f e r i o r to  i n manners  well  of  between T r u l l i b e r  Trulliber  rendered l i t t l e  and a l s o  and h i s  analysis  be  T r u l l i b e r m i g h t as  established  Not o n l y  seven days  a "good s h e p h e r d , " he e v e n r e s e m b l e s  being with (p.  that  a curate  in  orders  though,  obvious  that  Trulliber's  h e now in  the  some e x t e n t  lacks. bargain. the  a u t h o r i t y based  on  38 love,  honesty  and s p i r i t u a l p r i n c i p l e s  Testament C h r i s t i a n i t y , based  spiritual suggest Adams'  draws  authority.  that  towards  spiritual authority is  lessens  balance  the  law,  concept  in  are  and hence  all  they  if  prevents  different  compare  at  the  the  they were  gross  is  towards  of him  lesser  The c o r r u p t m a g i s are  slightly  important to  appears  Fielding  i n a worse  who a p p e a r i n  t h e i r power Practical  roles assume  and w e a l t h  to  promote  a u t h o r i t y has  no  sound  do n o t of  to  they  God.  a magistrate,  uphold justice  their  on p r a c t i c a l grounds  it  of  law.  authority - have  just  In both  cases  is  the  someone w i t h p r a c t i c a l p o w e r o r due p r o c e s s  state  to  their  r o a s t i n g , " who we may  o r i g i n a l source  of  feelings  no good m a g i s t r a t e  squires  secular parallels  injustice  of  clergy  and i t s  as  The m a g i s t r a t e s  are brought before of  be  society  "scene o f  advantage.  betray  the  parishioners  corruption.  there  T h e two  extent,  r e a l p o l i t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l  hand,  c o r r u p t and use  interference the  —  seem t o  because  Unfortunately,  innocent people  providential  squire  friends'  "justice."  the  c o m i c e x c e p t when t h e y  other  30£>2.ph AndAQJAi>.  much a u t h o r i t y a s  that  On t h e  3o£>zph kndA2JM,  own o r t h e i r  moral basis  are  its  some  authority  satisfying.  even  c o r r u p t i o n does n o t  and the  a magistrate,  where  a n d more  corrupt magistrates.  as m a g i s t r a t e s  level  Trulliber's  importance of  corruption.  than r e l i g i o n i n  the  greater  of  while  from a p r e t e n c e  c a n be n o more t h a n s e c o n d b e s t , the  and s o c i a l  religious  their  Adams t o  i n Joseph. kndJteitib, t h e n ,  sinister,  characters  literary picture,  therefore,  significance trates  the  on a p e r m a n e n t a n d p e r s o n a l  parishioners  authority,  is  o f p r i m i t i v e New  w o r l d l y esteem o r power,  added e s t e e m and power  However,  In F i e l d i n g ' s  as  little  those  on c o r r u p t i o n a n d w o r l d l y p r i n c i p l e s , i n c l u d i n g , t o  organized religion;,  —  has  s u c h as  only  reputation  as  and the  39 The "type."  f i r s t magistrate  scene p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t a c k s the c o u n t r y  magistrate  When Adams and Fanny are a r r e s t e d on s u s p i c i o n o f highway robbery,  they are f i r s t i n c a r c e r a t e d i n the s t a b l e , because t h e j u s t i c e has n o t f i n i s h e d h i s dinner, his  mirth  then examined when the j u s t i c e i s " i n the h e i g h t o f  and h i s cups"  (p. 198) , because "he b e l i e v e d they  [ h i s company]  s h o u l d have good s p o r t i n t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n " (p. 199). The j u s t i c e amuses himself  " i n cracking  j e s t s on poor Fanny" and a t f i r s t r e f u s e s t o hear Adams'  defence, r e b u k i n g him f o r t a k i n g up so much o f h i s time (p. 2 0 1 ) . The magistrate  c l e a r l y has no sense o f the g r a v i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h i s  position.  Instead,  unfortunates  h i s a u t h o r i t y r o l e i s t o him a l i c e n c e t o torment  accused, however u n j u s t l y , o f any crime, and h i s b e h a v i o u r i n  t h a t r o l e r e v e a l s him t o be an i n s e n s i t i v e drunkard. the r e s t o r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e r e v e a l s the m a g i s t r a t e ' s  Even the reason f o r corruption,  f o r he  r e l e a s e s Adams and Fanny on the assurance t h a t Adams i s a gentleman. magistrate  claims, obviously  intending to e s t a b l i s h h i s respect  t h a t "nobody can say [he has] committed a gentleman s i n c e the commission"  for justice,  [he has]  (p. 203), and i t i s c l e a r t h a t " j u s t i c e " t o t h i s  The  been i n magistrate  means c o n v i c t i n g the lower c l a s s e s and a c q u i t t i n g the upper c l a s s e s w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f g u i l t o r innocence.  The c o r r u p t i o n i s made comic because  i t i s exaggerated, and because the i n t e n d e d  e v i l i s avoided, but the squire's  attempt a t comedy i s t o o t a i n t e d w i t h i n j u s t i c e t o be amusing.  The scene i s  a balance o f comedy and c r i t i c i s m w i t h o n l y the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e  maintaining  some elements o f o p t i m i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . The  second scene o f j u s t i c e more o r l e s s i g n o r e s  of the m a g i s t r a t e , perversion  concentrating  of justice.  the p e r s o n a l  corruption  i n s t e a d on the c o r r u p t i o n o f the law and the  Joseph and Fanny are t o be committed t o B r i d e w e l l f o r  40 larceny —  " s t e a l i n g " a hazel twig.  The reason f o r t h i s obvious p e r v e r s i o n  o f j u s t i c e , as the m a g i s t r a t e f r e e l y c o n f e s s e s t o h i s f e l l o w s q u i r e , i s t h a t "Lady Booby d e s i r e s t o g e t them  [Joseph and Fanny] out o f the p a r i s h " ( p 3 4 2 ) .  Here, f a r more than i n the f i r s t c a s e , the power o f w e a l t h and p o s i t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d and a t t a c k e d .  Lawyer Scout c h a r a c t e r i z e s the j u s t i c e  and  f u r t h e r r e v e a l s the i n j u s t i c e f o r which the law i s used: The j u s t i c e w i l l s t r e t c h i t [the law] as f a r as he i s a b l e , t o o b l i g e your l a d y s h i p . To say t r u t h , i t i s a g r e a t b l e s s i n g t o the c o u n t r y t h a t he i s i n the commission; f o r he h a t h taken s e v e r a l poor o f f our hands, t h a t the law would never l a y h o l d on. I know some j u s t i c e s who made as much o f committing a man t o B r i d e w e l l as h i s l o r d s h i p a t S^LZZ would o f hanging him: But i t would do a man good t o see h i s worship our j u s t i c e commit a f e l l o w t o B r i d e w e l l : he takes so much pleasure i n i t : And when once we ha' un t h e r e , we seldom hear any more o' un. He's e i t h e r s t a r v e d o r e a t up by vermin i n a month's time. (p.  338)  The passage i s a most e f f e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f B r i d e w e l l , because i t i s the e x c e p t i o n a l l y v i r t u o u s Joseph and Fanny who o f the l e g a l system i n v o l v e d i s a l s o s e v e r e . n o t "wretches hang t h a t jurymen may  are t h r e a t e n e d , and the c r i t i c i s m The s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d here i s  d i n e , " but wretches d i e o f hunger and  d i s e a s e because a j u s t i c e t a k e s p l e a s u r e i n committing them, and because a " l a d y " wants them removed from h e r p a r i s h .  F i e l d i n g , however, seems l e s s  concerned about c o r r u p t m a g i s t r a t e s than about c o r r u p t clergymen, p o s s i b l y because the l a t t e r are more h y p o c r i t i c a l , o r because some r e c o u r s e i s p o s s i b l e , a l t h o u g h n o t l i k e l y , a g a i n s t the c o r r u p t i o n o f  the  former, o r  p o s s i b l y F i e l d i n g ' s l e s s e r concern i s the r e s u l t o f some f e a t u r e o f h i s own Christian faith.  In Jo&e.ph And)Wti&, o f c o u r s e , the e f f e c t o f the c o r r u p t i o n  o f j u s t i c e i s l e s s severe than i t might be, because the 'Intended e v i l " i s always p r e v e n t e d .  41 It  would appear,  kndJWM c o n c e r n s authority the as  sole  in  being  the  concentration  or s p i r i t u a l authority  Lawyer S c o u t ' s  mention  (p.  of  338).  Corrupt  protection  Trulliber,  religious  from i t s  but  the  effects,  is  of  the  novel  devout  s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y more t h a n b a l a n c e demonstrated values  a u t h o r i t y i n Jo&2.ph role  of  presented  some  who  because  s i m i l a r l y attacked  on Adams a s the  as  the  of  there  in  the  Catholic  a conscientious  attack  and concerns  "make  S<LZZ w o u l d  serious  of  that  unfavourably,  justices  lordship at  favourable presentation  and the  Adams'  of  authority,  priest  establish  concentration  his  of  and the  Secular authority is  c o m m i t t i n g a man t o B r i d e w e l l a s  no o u t s i d e  portrait  that  a paternal sense.  h a n g i n g him" is  religious  exception  much o f  then,  and  on T r u l l i b e r ,  the  ethical  and  and m o r a l  o  basis attack other  of  Jo&tph knd>i2lti£>.  on c o r r u p t s e c u l a r ills  of  society,  are p r o v i d e n t i a l l y The  in  the  latitudinarian his  model  an  plot  and e s t a b l i s h  aura of  authority  it  its  is  n o more  effects,  overshadows  important  like  other  a sincere  in  his  Fielding's  JoA2.ph  and h i s  s p i r i t u a l authority  kn&hSStiis.  inherently  right to  good  authority.  Christian Adams'  as  the  values  paternal  character reflect The c o m i c  only  real  treatment  figure,  happiness  which enhances  his  The t r e a t m e n t  in  Joi^ph kndJWtiit,  and a f f i r m s the  dangers,  his  an a u t h o r i t y  of  than  novel.  the  effect.  therefore,supports  importance o f  love,  while  the  relationship  c r e d i b i l t i y as  figure  the  real  and  his  Christianity atmosphere  of  emphasizes  doctrine  reduces  since  o n Adams a l s o  prevented.  parishioners  somewhat  authority until  especially  presentation  authority  to  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n  divine o f Adams  but mainly  New  of  creates  the  main  Testament  f u r t h e r i n g the  comic  42 GOD'S IN H I S H E A V E N ;  Fielding's  major work,  e x t e n t and e x e r c i s e  of  authority,so  that in  reptile  of  is  is  [the]  of out  characters  heard,  Jo6£ph  a critic"  further  providential alright  emphasis  in  is  realistic. of all  clarifying  his  control the  as  is  the  crucial in  part of  his  authority  in  Tom JonU  may be  and d i s c u s s e d .  Demonstrated  figure  or misusing  authority,  the  narrative The  and  his  by t h e  the  the  abound,  Where  that  "everything  However,  than  two  in  type turn the  as and  the  combination  ensures both  they w i l l  is  but  immediate  and b e n e v o l e n c e  authority  or  will  comedy,  voice  As  an e x t e n s i o n  any k i n d o f  "none  authorial:  toward a u t h o r i t y . as  but  "pitiful  create  as  that much  categories:  simply  an  and d i s c u s s e d a u t h o r i t y  characters  nature,  and o b s e r v a t i o n s  authority may be  by the  further  author  —  voice.  narrator in  a companion,  "Appearance,  it"  divided into  demonstrated  discussion  speak  an o v e r a l l p l a n a n d t h a t  The  only  a "good m a n , " r a t h e r  good-nature  possible.  on t h e  evidence.  human; h e makes m i s t a k e s .  as  into  direct  sense  not  e m p h a s i s makes a u t h o r i t y  happiness  divided  focuses  authority  authority  an a s p e c t o f  immediate  using  of  attitude  of  creates  and t h i s  roles with are  upon t o  treatment  that  Allworthy is  actions  blessed with  Fielding's  end" w h i c h  control,  authority  his  the  on a u t h o r i t y  otherworldly  an e x a m i n a t i o n  usually  is  frequently  Authority figures  c a n be p r e v a i l e d  AndA&Wii, i t  A L L ' S RIGHT WITH THE WORLD  Tom JonU,  authority.  discuss  of  (ALMOST)  Tom JonU  and the  b y way o f  t o n e - s e t t i n g words  is  narrative  Chorus,  and p h r a s e s  a commentator, voice  on t h e are  varies  Stage"  "possibly,"  a paternal  f r o m an i r o n i c  (p.  advisor, tone  103).  Fielding's  perhaps,"  and " f o r  to  a  guide  a  direct  favourite some  other  43 reason," which, a l o n g w i t h numerous s i m i l a r p h r a s e s , suggest t h a t a g i v e n explanation  may n o t be c o r r e c t , and m a i n t a i n a d i s t i n c t a u t h o r i a l presence  i n the novel.  F i e l d i n g a l s o a c h i e v e s t o n a l i r o n y by the use o f d i r e c t  a u t h o r i a l i n t e r j e c t i o n s , such as "very w i s e l y , " so," which, as elements o f e x t e r n a l magisterial character, ("I doubt not,"  " c e r t a i n l y , " "and r i g h t l y  judgment, h e l p e s t a b l i s h the n a r r a t o r ' s  as do s i m i l a r forms o f emphasis u s i n g h i s own v o i c e  " I suppose" e t c ^ ) .  w r i t i n g s t y l e i n Tom Jon£4 c r e a t e  In o t h e r words, elements o f F i e l d i n g ' s  an omnipresent a u t h o r i t y  which  ensures t h a t F i e l d i n g ' s o p t i m i s t i c moral and e t h i c a l v a l u e s , d i r e c t l y by Squire  Allworthy,  established  F i e l d i n g ' s " d i d a c t i c mouthpiece" , are i n 1  c o n t r o l s even when he i s absent. A l l a s p e c t s o f a u t h o r i t y , however, a r e n o t e x p r e s s e d s i n c e , a f t e r a l l , Tom JonQA i s n o t a t r e a t i s e on a u t h o r i t y . by t h e c h a r a c t e r s ,  The d i s c u s s i o n s  f o r example, r e q u i r e an examination o f each c h a r a c t e r and  some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f what k i n d o r k i n d s before  directly,  the m e r i t o f these d i s c u s s i o n s  a u t h o r i t y , o f c o u r s e , lends  itself  o f a u t h o r i t y the character  can be e s t a b l i s h e d .  holds  Demonstrated  t o c r i t i c a l examination, e s p e c i a l l y  whenever F i e l d i n g h i m s e l f does n o t a n a l y s e i t . Demonstrated a u t h o r i t y i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t because i t d i r e c t l y e s t a b l i s h e s what k i n d s JoneA.  o f a u t h o r i t y are most important i n the w o r l d o f Tom  A u t h o r i t y based s o l e l y on e s t a b l i s h e d r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h y i s  l i m i t e d , a l t h o u g h r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h y The  clergymen and t h e p h i l o s o p h e r  itself  are s t i l l i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s .  i n Tom JORg-6 a r e comic f i g u r e s , which i n  says something about a u t h o r i t y , and r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h y  as s o u r c e s  o f a u t h o r i t y are mainly supports f o r the &<L fiacto a u t h o r i t y o f o t h e r acters.  char-  J u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y i s f a r more i m p o r t a n t i n Tom Jon&A than i t i s  Jo&zph kndJiQJM,  in the  and the use o f m a g i s t r a t e s  comedy a s s o c i a t e d  authority, being  with Squire Western.  of course,  a magistrate,  results  every  respect.  conventional authority: parental of  authority, father  young p e o p l e authority, plot  while  figures,  96) , w h i l e  world view  will  its  actions.  adults  acting  It  "social"  is  The number  as g u a r d i a n s  over  type  of  and the emphasis  of  a p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n h a s , make p a r e n t a l  though  they  Fielding  authority  and are  refers  discussions  a r e comic b u t t s  elements  seems t o h a v e later  having no r e a l some d e g r e e  establish  Society"  their  importance  both  i n the  i n the make-up o f a good man. draw t h e i r  authority,  of religious  t o see i f a type  as "the  o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and p h i l o s o p h y ,  and the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e ,  o f Tom JonZA a s b a s i c  influence  to r e l i g i o n and v i r t u e  o f Human N a t u r e " a n d a s " t h e B a n d s o f C i v i l  the frequent  be examined  are n o t prominent i n the p l o t ,  Tom JonZA a n d n e c e s s a r i l y  t h e c h a r a c t e r s who o s t e n t a t i o u s l y  Allworthy  from  power a n d becomes a  others'  o f some k i n d s o f d e m o n s t r a t e d  of authority.  the characters  sources  Allworthy,  judicial  some o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s  important considerations:in  treatment  Although  and other  judicial  a "good man" i n  departs  of parental authority,  of authority  and p h i l o s o p h y ,  greatest Perfections  by  is  of  to  a m a j o r c o n c e r n i n Tom 3onzA>.  consequently  (p.  Allworthy  of a magistrate's  mothers  restricted  Squire  w h i c h i s p r e d o m i n a n t i n Tom JonZA.  the discussions  the foundations  the  that  authority eventually  immediately establishes  Religion are  however,  figure,  the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f a "good man" t o j u d g e  on t h e d e g r e e  authority  judicial  as t h e s o u r c e  the r i g h t  fathers,  the  Indeed,  role  from the main a u t h o r i t y  to establish  is  Much o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  b u t , on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  a u t h o r i t y must be p o s i t i v e  as comic b u t t s  authority  there  is  authority.  of religious  from  a sense (This  authority,  these  i n which possibility  like  modified  45 j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y , i s somehow annexed, i n F i e l d i n g ' s v i s i o n , t o a good man.) A good man must be a s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n , s i n c e t h e "good Turk" o f Adams' c o n s i d e r a t i o n would be an improbable  c h a r a c t e r i n F i e l d i n g ' s s e t t i n g s , and  F i e l d i n g does n o t seem t o e n t e r t a i n the i d e a t h a t anyone w i l l be b a s i c a l l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y good w i t h o u t ( c f C o l . James i n AmoJLLa.) .  the a s s i s t a n c e o f r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h y  By v i r t u e o f h i s s i n c e r i t y and goodness, the  good man e v e n t u a l l y a c q u i r e s some the minor power bestowed by r e l i g i o u s authority.  Although  the concept  o f the p r i e s t h o o d o f a l l b e l i e v e r s i s f a r  too r a d i c a l a view f o r F i e l d i n g , the treatment r e s p e c t t o A l l w o r t h y minimizes a clergyman tends  of r e l i g i o u s authority with  the c o n v e n t i o n a l A n g l i c a n p o s i t i o n t h a t o n l y  the s p i r i t u a l f l o c k , and emphasizes the r e l i g i o u s  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f A l l w o r t h y ' s r o l e as a f a t h e r f i g u r e . The p h i l o s o p h y i n Tom Jon&A i s a non-dogmatic undertone, w i t h c l a s s i c a l i d e a s and views c u r r e n t i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p h i l o s o p h y , those v e r g i n g on r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y , apparent, novel.  piecemeal,  both especially  throughout the  F i e l d i n g ' s i d e a s a r e s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f those i n B u t l e r ' s  '2 sermons, although  F i e l d i n g does n o t seem t o a c c e p t , o r a t l e a s t he does n o t  emphasize, t h e good and e v i i l _ d i 6 b o t o m y which i s the b a s i s o f B u t l e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y . 3 The  o n l y contemporary p h i l o s o p h e r quoted d i r e c t l y i s S h a f t e s b u r y ,  a g a i n , s e l e c t s o n l y some a s p e c t s and tends than S h a f t e s b u r y ' s .  towards a more r e a l i s t i c  but F i e l d i n g , philosophy  G e n e r a l l y , though, F i e l d i n g i s l e s s than k i n d t o the  m u l t i t u d e o f contemporary p h i l o s o p h e r s .  Didgeon comments t h a t " f o r a l l t h e s e  quacks and t h e i r panaceas, F i e l d i n g expresses  the same s c o r n , which i s p r o f e s s e d  4 w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n by a l l the humourists and b e s t minds o f h i s c e n t u r y . " C l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i s g i v e n more r e s p e c t . q u o t a t i o n s , S t o i c i s m i s apparent,  There a r e a number o f b r i e f  though n o t d i r e c t l y d i s c u s s e d i n Tom Jon.HA,  46 and the " A n t i e n t s " a r e mentioned i n g e n e r a l by the Man on the H i l l by P h i l o s o p h e r  Square  words, t h e p h i l o s o p h y but i s g e n e r a l .  (p. 716), and by Parson Supple in  (p. 231). In o t h e r  Tom JonU i s n o t based on s p e c i f i c p h i l o s o p h i e s ,  F i e l d i n g ' s c o n t r o l l i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l stance  i n the D e d i c a t i o n t o George L y t t l e t o n . will  (p. 357) ,  i s expressed  Here F i e l d i n g c l a i m s the r e a d e r  f i n d "nothing p r e j u d i c i a l t o t h e Cause o f R e l i g i o n and V i r t u e , " and  t h a t i t has been h i s " s i n c e r e endeavour" " t o recommend Goodness and Innocence"  (p. 7 ) . The use o f " v i r t u e " and " r e l i g i o n " i n g e n e r a l terms  s e t s the tone f o r the treatment o f both p h i l o s o p h y  and C h r i s t i a n i t y .  When Thwackum uses the term " r e l i g i o n " i n such a g e n e r a l way, he i s f o r c e d by Square t o be more s p e c i f i c , and a c c o r d i n g l y expands h i s thought: "When I mention R e l i g i o n , I mean the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n ; and n o t o n l y the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n , b u t t h e P r o t e s t a n t R e l i g i o n , and n o t o n l y the P r o t e s t a n t R e l i g i o n , b u t the Church o f England"  (p. 9 5 ) . That F i e l d i n g p u t s  this  r e s t r i c t i v e d e f i n i t i o n i n t o the mouth o f Thwackum does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t he d i d n o t d e f i n e r e l i g i o n i n a s i m i l a r way, e s p e c i a l l y as the main c h a r a c t e r s seem t o be A n g l i c a n s  ( s i n c e they a t t e n d the s e r v i c e s g i v e n by  A n g l i c a n c l e r g y ) , and s i n c e the o t h e r P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s o f the time are o c c a s i o n a l l y mentioned w i t h a t t a c k i n the l i n e other h e r e t i c a l Sect"  amusement and come under d i r e c t  "the p e r n i c i o u s P r i n c i p l e s o f Methodism, o r . . .any (p. 327) .  On the o t h e r hand, F i e l d i n g h i m s e l f uses  " R e l i g i o n " o n l y i n a g e n e r a l sense, and o n l y i n s i s t s on the A n g l i c a n i s m o f unsympathetic o r comic c h a r a c t e r s ; a sense o f dogmatic d i d a c t i c i s m i s entirely The  avoided. "Cause" o f V i r t u e r e f e r s t o S t o i c i s m , e s p e c i a l l y as d i s c u s s e d i n  contemporary p h i l o s o p h i e s such as those o f both S h a f t e s b u r y  and B o l i n g b r o k e .  47 When F i e l d i n g s a y s  that  B e s i d e s d i s p l a y i n g t h a t B e a u t y o f V i r t u e w h i c h may a t t r a c t t h e A d m i r a t i o n o f M a n k i n d [he h a s ] attempted t o e n g a g e a s t r o n g e r M o t i v e t o Human A c t i o n i n h e r F a v o u r , by c o n v i n c i n g Men, t h a t t h e i r t r u e I n t e r e s t directs  them t o  a Pursuit of  her (p.  8)  5 he n o t  only  expresses  a general  Stoic  sentiment,  but agrees with  Butler,  6 Shaftesbury, and B o l m g b r o k e . The most s i m i l a r , and most f r e q u e n t , p a s s a g e s a r e i n S h a f t e s b u r y , a l t h o u g h B u t l e r e x p r e s s e s much t h e same i d e a (especially 7 regarding concept Butler  was  a d m i r a t i o n mankind has  first  Stoic,  and F i e l d i n g are  echoing being  the  each  as  other.  necessary  tempered w i t h and t h e r e  is  That this  it  Fielding treats  of  ).  However,  Shaftesbury,  foundations virtue,  in  the  since  character i s , the  in  cause  is  necessary  philosophy  introduction of  fact,  a professional  of  on many o f  may a l s o be  virtue  to  than  Stoic  sense,  mind was,  the  "pretended  ethical  a professional parasite,  indeed, [p.  213]  basis  of  philosopher.  a  "pretended  Philosopher  who,  Champion,"  it  is  of  his  Square  was d e e p l y r e a d i n t h e A n t i e n t s , a n d a p r o f e s t M a s t e r o f a l l t h e Works o f P l a t o a n d A r i s t o t l e . . . . In M o r a l s he was a p r o f e s t P l a t o n i s t , a n d i n R e l i g i o n he i n c l i n e d t o be a n A r i s t o t e l i a n . ( p . 94) The r e p e t i t i o n learning, state  that  of  "profest"  encourages  and F i e l d i n g expands  on t h e  Square regarded " a l l V i r t u e  a suspicion theme o f as  about  Square's  Matter of  ),  a s c o u n d r e l and a  contemporary p h i l o s o p h e r s  Champions."  as  to C h r i s t i a n i t y .  the  p h i l o s o p h y by e x p o s i n g  the  Bolingbroke,  rather  C h r i s t i a n i t y (e.g."His  non-religious  gauged by the  a l s o comments  suggested,  that  a l l b u i l d i n g on S t o i c  a sense i n which S t o i c  can be  virtue  P h i l o s o p h y w h i c h b e c o m e s a man a n d a C h r i s t i a n "  h y p o c r i t e may s e r v e but  assumed  a g o o d man a s  The i m p o r t a n c e  Tom Jone6  may b e  Notably, to  that  it  towards  the  depth  superficiality  Theory only"  (p.  to  94).  48 T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s the o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n which can r e c o n c i l e Square's a c t i o n s w i t h h i s words, but, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t emphasizes t h a t the p h i l o s o p h y which Square p r o f e s s e s i s t h e o r e t i c a l o n l y and practical.  When Square's p h i l o s o p h y  s t a t e s t h a t "human Nature  P e r f e c t i o n o f a l l V i r t u e , and t h a t V i c e i n the same Manner as Deformity  l e a s t t h a t human n a t u r e  [ i s the]  [ i s ] a D e v i a t i o n from our Nature  o f Body i s " (p. 94) , i t n e c e s s a r i l y e n t e r s  the realms o f t h e o r y because p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e at  s c a r c e l y ever  shows, i f n o t the  i s f a r from b e i n g p e r f e c t l y a n y t h i n g , and i s  c e r t a i n l y not p e r f e c t l y v i r t u o u s .  Square's p h i l o s o p h y bears  a resemblance  t o Hutcheson's, b u t a l s o c o n t a i n s elements o f the^philOsophies o f Bolingbroke  Shaftesbury,  and even B u t l e r , a l l of whom, f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons,  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t man  was  contrary,  came t o the  n a t u r a l l y good.  F i e l d i n g h i m s e l f seems t o agree w i t h t h i s p h i l o s o p h y r e s e r v a t i o n s ) i f the c h a r a c t e r s i n  Tom  the c h a r a c t e r s are b a s i c a l l y good.  Those c h a r a c t e r s whose emphasis i s on  JOYIU  are any  (with some  the boAslc r a t h e r than the good have too l i t t l e and d e s i r e s , b u t i n t e n d no harm. m o r a l l y deformed and  A few  indication:  most o f  c o n t r o l over t h e i r  c h a r a c t e r s , however, are  passions  indeed  seem t o have no p r a c t i c a l i n k l i n g o f goodness o r v i r t u e .  With the e x c e p t i o n o f Dowling, though, most of these c h a r a c t e r s have a f i r m working knowledge of the t h e o r y o f goodness and v i r t u e . Blifil,  Captain  Blifil,  Thwackum and Square are the most v o c a l proponents o f r e l i g i o n  v i r t u e , but t h i s t r a i t a c t u a l l y shows the depth o f t h e i r v i l l a i n y . the minor c h a r a c t e r s who  e v i l are c o n s c i o u s l y  Many o f  are not e x a c t l y good do not, a t l e a s t , prove  e v i l b y / h y p o c r i t i c a l c a n t i n g , but those who  p r o f e s s goodness w h i l e  and  their  meditating  bad.  Of the v i l l a i n s i n the n o v e l ,  P h i l o s o p h e r Square stands  a p a r t because  49 he  finally  a plot  repents  convenience;  on h i m , a n d , deception he  there  in  the  does have Square's strong  the  a number o f conversion,  in  introduces  two  the  is  to  restore  good t o  a g o o d man i s  obliged  faith  t o make h i s  quite  unnecessary  In  the  to  hand,  in  fact,  a Stoical point  of  unfavourably presented  if  frequently i n Square's  extent,  the Fielding  power, is  both  a  a  in  established  view  the  since  as  it  is  foreground.  conversion,  its deep  expressed  shows t h a t  Tom J o n e s '  just  and which  clergy,  i n Tom J o n e s '  nothing else,  a Christian,  of  death,  implied in Allworthy's obviously  a lesser  than  of  since  a position of  the  optimism.  revealed  (which,  the  f o r one  fear  of  matter  and demonstrates  Christianity is,  necessity and regard  Fielding  claim of  felt  Christianity  plot).  introductory description  Christian  His b e l i e f  hero  to  the  is  practised  elements  is  other  hand, t h i s  deception  all  plot  On t h e  Christianity is  C h r i s t i a n i t y ' s power  Protestant  the  the  truth.  good o v e r e v i l  towards  where  for  his  the  a n d somewhat  C h r i s t i a n i t y and,  of  relate  power o f  sincere  is  witnesses party to  work which p r o f e s s e s  comic  make-up o f  the  though p r e d o m i n a n t l y m o t i v a t e d by  Joseph kYldJiZWb  Not only in  to  alternatives  the  one  for Allworthy inquiring further into  attitude  this  On t h e  acquainted with  f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y and r e l i g i o u s  clearly  good.  f a s t e s t way o f s t r a i g h t e n i n g  deception  Fielding's  i n  b e i n g no r e l i a b l e  statement of  respect  as  A l l w o r t h y m u s t be  and no m o t i v e  already had,  agents  and becomes an a g e n t f o r  of  S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y (p.  belief  is  established  by h i s  i n Heaven i s  so  strong  he  that  attitude  to his  27), wife's  c o n s i d e r e d h i s W i f e a s o n l y gone a l i t t l e b e f o r e h i m a J o u r n e y w h i c h he s h o u l d most c e r t a i n l y . . . t a k e a f t e r h e r ; a n d t h a t he h a d n o t t h e l e a s t D o u b t o f m e e t i n g h e r a g a i n , i n a P l a c e where he s h o u l d n e v e r p a r t w i t h h e r more.  the  depth  death.  50 Our a c t u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o on h i s he  Knees,  finds  the  Allworthy  is  when  "having spent  some M i n u t e s  a C u s t o m w h i c h he n e v e r b r o k e t h r o u g h o n a n y a c c o u n t " infant  throughout the  in his  novel,  bed.  and i n  Similar proofs  of his  (p.  29),  C h r i s t i a n i t y abound  almost every p r o l o n g e d appearance  of  Allworthy  g some r e f e r e n c e Allworthy's as  is  a magistrate.  Christianity,  Even  reverence  of  that  the  roots  secular  b a s e d on r e a s o n ,  he has  for  religion.  a large part i n his law,  to  the  (e.g.,  law  especially  practical social  defendants  his  Moreover,  conception that  lecture  his  role  eighteenth-  New,  Testament  seem s e r m o n s  to  considerations  of  of  i n O l d , and o c c a s i o n a l l y  Allworthy's lectures  rather  Jenny Jones  on  chastity  and C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  not  on  law). Tom J o n e s ,  of  given  had strong  than expressions  the  the  Christianity plays  century England,  is  made t o  his  course,  does n o t  most memorable e x p l o i t s  Besides,  his  expositor says,  of  main f u n c t i o n  of moral  "tho'  .  .  Moments a n d a t  .  he  does  set  (p.  280)  to  fight  w o u l d make few  in  the  doctrine.  Bottom,  out  as  a  against  .  .  .  the  during his  an e x p r e s s i o n part  of  near the  evident of  as  conclusion  of  still  sojourn with  throughout  the  in  [his]  .of  the I  own h i m .  as  (p.  army t o  book and i s ,  Fielding  emphasizes  himself  292).  suppose,  least  an  serious  Protestant  refer to at  as he  most  C h r i s t i a n i t y ) , a n d he  the  a n d many  not  clearly,  a Christian" .  to  love,"  (which p r o v e s ,  than h i s  C h r i s t i a n i t y since  Christianity.  "hero i n  Tom J o n e s  really  Pretender  occasions  brief  [is]  churches wish  "hearty W e l l - w i s h e r .  and p o l i t i c a l l e a n i n g s  charity is  is  Nonetheless,  doctrinal  His  novel  a v e r y w i l d young F e l l o w ,  the  all,  seem p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l i g i o u s  religion"  more o f  finds  his to  After  several  beliefs.  some  c h a r i t y as  extent, an  integral  E s p e c i a l l y remarkable i s  Tom J o n e s ' s  c h a r i t y to  the  to m i t i g a t e  Allworthy's  story,  when he  tries  his  Blifil anger  51 and p r e v e n t s with  the  Mrs. M i l l e r  consideration that B l i f i l  Despair" because That Jones just  his  is  authority  the  he was n o t  genuinely  i n Tom JonU.  v a l i d i t y of  the  the  Chaucer's Parson  to  is  die  in his  Christianity  is  The c o r r u p t i o n clergy  driven  "to  present  i>Oi)JL o f h i s  create  essential  to  enemy,  of his the  (as  in  violent  (II, 9 6 7 ) . r a t h e r than  Christianity.  treatment  and s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f  doubts  condemnation,  sudden and  situation  c e r t a i n l y an i n s t a n c e  authority of  justification  m u s t n o t be  concerned about the  treatment of  i n many o f  sort of  fit  temporal w e l l - b e i n g ,  This  evident  from d e l i v e r i n g A l l w o r t h y ' s message o f  the  of  church  JoAZph kndJWJOb) a b o u t  o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n and a l s o p r o v i d e s  for individual  neglect  of  Christian precepts,  some  for,  as  says,  . . . i f g o l d r u s t e , w h a t s h a l i r e n do? F o r i f a p r e e s t be f o u l , on whom we t r u s t , No w o n d e r i s a l e w e d man t o r u s t e ; And shame i t i s , i f a p r e s t t a k e k e e p , A s h i t e n shepherde and a c l e n e sheep. Fielding presents  an example  and s u g g e s t s  religious  shepherds  o r sheep.  excellence Jones  that  before  of  (and Jones)  the  r i g h t to  can p r e a c h c h a r i t y because  preaching not only  sexual morality).  shepherde"  he  is  Moreover,  to  On t h e  advise  once  the  "shiten  (but n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  his  power)  o r from h i s  d u t y as  Parson Supple demonstrates He seems t o be  i n t e n d e d as  the  "clene  religious,  be  some f o r m o f  shepherde" to  the  a c o m i c b.utt — h i s  loses  reason  {<L.Q.  successful  proven,  it  is  religious  his  same d e g r e e  a religious latter  and e t h i c a l  less  t h e i r goodness i s  sheep,"  they  and admonish o t h e r s  c h a r i t a b l e , b u t he i s  other hand,  Christian precepts  the  and the  must demonstrate m o r a l  t h e i r r i g h t , but t h e i r duty to exercise  authority. authority  "shiten  a u t h o r i t y belongs  Allworthy  they have  the  right  to  he  strays  from  of  authority.  authority. for loss  name s u g g e s t s  someone  who  will  equivocate  and c o n t r a d i c t h i m s e l f  hanger-on  of  a violently  F o r some r e a s o n ,  though,  F i e l d i n g had second perhaps  he  much t h e on the  decided  same s o r t  clergy.  of  from a c t s  of  patron —  man makes p o s s i b l e  the  comedy o f  his  about  humour o f  the  Partridge's  A t any r a t e ,  role  slightly  comedy w i t h o u t  and t o p e r f o r m n e c e s s a r y  his  temperamental  thoughts that  to please  the  is a  obsequious  as  many c o m i c  "supple"  possibility  such  role  as  of  "to  or  provided  casting  physically  Perhaps  parson,  nature  a  scenes.  f r e q u e n t l y muted.  Parson Supple mainly e x i s t s  minor duties  and h i s  a  reflection  swell  a  progress  r e s t r a i n i n g Western  violence.  Parson Supple  is  i n t r o d u c e d as  follows:  a g o o d - n a t u r e d w o r t h y Man; b u t c h i e f l y r e m a r k a b l e f o r h i s g r e a t t a c i t u r n i t y a t T a b l e , t h o ' h i s M o u t h was n e v e r shut at i t . . . . H o w e v e r , t h e C l o t h was n o s o o n e r t a k e n a w a y , t h a n he a l w a y s made s u f f i c i e n t Amends f o r h i s Silence: F o r h e was a v e r y h e a r t y F e l l o w ; a n d h i s C o n v e r s a t i o n was o f t e n e n t e r t a i n i n g , n e v e r offensive. (I, Except  for  clergyman, is  "worthy," though  a sympathetic  comic,  a professed  sinfulness is  is  of  "began  in  weakness  He may b e  that  Christian, (I,  to meditate he  of  for in  189), and  others.  a Portion of is  is  he  this  description  "good-natured" comic,  in  seem t o be  good-natured excuses  actions  that  of  c r i t i c i s m does n o t  and happiness  indicating  nothing  inclusion  .meek, a n d a p e a c e m a k e r  being  is  character.  being  And i t just  the  but b i t t e r  philosophy,  there  addition to  occasion,  a conscientious  for  the  he  Adams  is  Fielding's  human w e a k n e s s e s .  He i s  being  seems g e n u i n e l y  Doctrine  of  In  a  indicates  same way t h a t  intended.  demonstrates  On o n e  the  fault.  indicate  immediately  a multitude  Supple's  to  187-88)  a practising,  concerned  many C h r i s t i a n concerned  about  the  values:  about  mention  is  ensuing  Sunday"  p r e a c h e r and t h a t  not  the  well-  made t h a t  he knows  (II,  he  he 624)  Scripture  53 well the  enough t o  f o r m u l a t e a sermon w i t h o u t h i s  d e v i l can quote  knowledge gluttony  in  sophistry  in his  but F i e l d i n g appetite  Scriptures, of  Thwackum d o e s .  does n o t  seems more a p r o o f  seven  deadly s i n s .  the  novel  (at  it,  least  he n e e d s  backbone.  There  require abstinence of his  Indeed,  in  terms  of  of  "sins  "more S p i r i t "  or,  M r s . Honour mentions  of  as  that  front of  one  is  a slight  some p r o w e s s  his  heartiness  Supple i s  in  him.  but Supple never misuses  i n t r o d u c t i o n and a mention o f  the  puts  as  course,  Bible  "at h i s  of  cups,"  clergymen and Supple.'s  the  most  commission"),  his  his  suggestion  t h a n an i n s t a n c e of  Even  of  one  of  sinless  men  in  b u t as  name s u g g e s t s ,  M r s . Honour  n e e d s more  Supple's  whole Dependance i s on the S q u i r e , and so t h e p o o r G e n t l e m a n , t h o u g h he i s a v e r y r e l i g i o u s good s o r t o f Man a n d t a l k s o f t h e B a d n e s s o f s u c h D o i n g s b e h i n d t h e S q u i r e ' s B a c k , y e t he d a r e s n o t say h i s S o u l i s h i s own t o h i s F a c e . (II, There Western,  as  The a d a g e he  loss  because  the "use  naivety, it  use  Fielding's  or lose his  pity  forges  in  his  this  exercise it"  holds  passage.  chains.  b u t Adams h a d t h e  authority,  still  and, though satirical  Thwackum, off  to  of  his  Adams was courage  from i t s  i n a worse  and s t r e n g t h  for authority,  it.  This,  likeable person.  c o m i c , Supple i s  economic  of  too  nice  spirit, he  and S u p p l e ,  however,  is  H i s weakness a person  more  to  saw  fit.  because  regrettable  Christianity, is  not  repre-  t o m e r i t many o f  cuts.  on t h e  source  a very  i n bondage  judgement a n d a u t h o r i t y as  true  loses  Supple i s  caused by m i s u s i n g a u t h o r i t y o r abandoning a c t i v e  Supple i s  hensible,  weakness  than Supple i s ,  dares not  than  an e l e m e n t  and h i s  situation as w e l l  is  809)  other hand,  b o t h by h i s  loses his  lack of  a u t h o r i t y because  good n a t u r e  and l a c k o f  he  cuts  himself  Christianity.  54 In f a c t , i f i t were n o t f o r s e v e r a l reminders o f the f a c t throughout the n o v e l , all.  Thwackum would n o t be remembered as a clergyman a t  Our i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Thwackum i s as he a d m i n i s t e r s  Whipping, t h a t i t p o s s i b l y f e l l  little  C o n f e s s i o n s are i n some C o u n t r i e s initial  scattered  "so severe a  s h o r t o f the T o r t u r e  extorted  from C r i m i n a l s "  w i t h which ( I , 222) .  Our  i m p r e s s i o n i s c o n t i n u e d i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Thwackum's t e n e t s as  we f i n d t h a t , a l o n g w i t h Square, he never mentions the word "goodness" i n any  discourse  on m o r a l i t y  ( I , 126), and the a u t h o r i a l v o i c e  describes  Thwackum as a " f a l s e and p r e t e n d e d Champion" ( I , 129) o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . We f i n d t h a t A l l w o r t h y  "never l i k e d t h i s Man. He knew him t o be proud and  i l l - n a t u r e d ; he a l s o knew t h a t h i s D i v i n i t y i t s e l f was t i n c t u r e d w i t h h i s Temper. . ." ( I I , 929). Of a l l these f a u l t s , i t i s the i l l - n a t u r e which makes him a v i l l a i n , because a l t h o u g h p r i d e , anger, c r u e l t y and h y p o c r i s y are a l l s e r i o u s  f a u l t s , the f i r s t  two a r e i n s t a n c e s  o f l a c k o f c o n t r o l and  even the second two c o u l d e x i s t i n someone who was t r y i n g t o r e f o r m , b u t , t o F i e l d i n g , bad n a t u r e means t h a t p r i d e and temper  a r e c o n s t a n t companions and  t h a t t h e i l l - n a t u r e d p e r s o n does n o t see them, o r even c r u e l t y and h y p o c r i s y , as v i c e s . not  F a u l t s w i l l appear i n a good-natured p e r s o n , as Jones p r o v e s , and  s e r i o u s l y mar h i s c h a r a c t e r ,  a person's e n t i r e l i f e ,  b u t , i n F i e l d i n g ' s view, bad n a t u r e t a i n t s  turning everything  to e v i l .  Thwackum, o f c o u r s e , appears t o have good p o i n t s which induce t o keep him as a t u t o r f o r Tom and B l i f i l . and most i n d e f a t i g a b l e i n t e a c h i n g  Allworthy  Thwackum was "an e x c e l l e n t  the two Lads.  Scholar,  Add t o t h i s the s t r i c t  S e v e r i t y o f h i s L i f e and Manners, an unimpeached honesty, and a most devout Attachment t o R e l i g i o n "  ( I I , 929). H i s knowledge and h i s r e l i g i o n , however,  o n l y make him more e f f e c t i v e i n h i s s o p h i s t i c arguments, h i s d i l i g e n c e i n  55 t e a c h i n g i s r e v e a l e d m a i n l y i n a s a d i s t i c d e l i g h t i n w h i p p i n g , and t h e " s t r i c t S e v e r i t y o f h i s L i f e and Manners" suggests o n l y a c o l d , i n s e n s i t i v e p e r s o n i n c a p a b l e o f e x p e r i e n c i n g the beauty, p l e a s u r e him.  and j o y o f the w o r l d  None o f the good c h a r a c t e r s c o u l d be s a i d t o m a n i f e s t  " s t r i c t Severity  i n L i f e and Manners" i n the sense t h a t Thwackum appears t o ; even enjoys  the p l e a s u r e s  o f sense and f l e s h .  around  Allworthy  In F i e l d i n g ' s o p i n i o n ,  the w i s e s t Man i s the l i k e l i e s t t o p o s s e s s a l l w o r l d l y B l e s s i n g s i n an eminent Degree: F o r as t h a t Moderation which Wisdom p r e s c r i b e s i s the s u r e s t Way t o u s e f u l Wealth; so can i t alone q u a l i f y us t o t a s t e many P l e a s u r e s . The wise Man g r a t i f i e s every A p p e t i t e and every P a s s i o n , w h i l e the F o o l s a c r i f i c e s a l l t h e r e s t t o p a l l and s a t i a t e one. ( I , 282) . S e v e r i t y and goodness can o n l y be combined i n wise j u d i c i a l moments, and Thwackum's u n c o n t r o l l e d temper makes such j u s t i c e u n l i k e l y . The  r e s u l t o f Thwackum's bad n a t u r e d  his authority.  c h a r a c t e r i s the f o r f e i t u r e o f  A minor example i s t h a t Tom r e j e c t s Thwackum's a u t h o r i t y as  a t e a c h e r because a t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p had never e x i s t e d . r e l i e d on b e a t i n g s  Thwackum  (power) r a t h e r than a u t h o r i t y t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t r o l , and  so when the b e a t i n g s  a r e no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e , n e i t h e r i s any c o n t r o l .  S i m i l a r l y , Thwackum f i n d s he has no r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o l over  Allworthy;  i n s t e a d , as d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , A l l w o r t h y h o l d s a u t h o r i t y over him by v i r t u e of having and  r i g h t on h i s s i d e .  Here i s a prime example o f a " s h i t e n Shepherde  a c l e n e sheep," and t h e sheep has more power than the shepherd.  Indeed,  when Thwackum t r i e s t o e x e r c i s e h i s a u t h o r i t y as a clergyman, he a c t u a l l y d e s t r o y s what t r u s t and t o l e r a n c e A l l w o r t h y had f o r him.  A t t h e end o f t h e  n o v e l , Thwackum continues a t h i s Vicarage. He h a t h made many f r u i t l e s s Attempts t o r e g a i n the Confidence o f A l l w o r t h y , o r t o  56 i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f w i t h Jones, both o f whom he f l a t t e r s t o t h e i r Faces, and abuses b e h i n d t h e i r Backs. (II,  980)  A l l h i s g r e a t "Appearance o f R e l i g i o n , " l i k e t h a t ofiCalpt. B l i f i l , p r e v e n t him  from becoming a t o a d y i n g v i l l a i n , nor can r e l i g i o u s  does n o t  trappings  supply a c t u a l r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y as d e f i n e d p r e v i o u s l y . The  c l e r g y , then, i n Tom  3onU have no r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y .  Supple  i s comic r a t h e r than e f f e c t i v e l y good, w h i l e Thwackum i s s l i g h t l y comic e f f e c t i v e l y e v i l , b u t no clergyman e x i s t s who  Is a s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n  c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y f u l f i l l i n g h i s d u t i e s as a s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y .  Even the  c h a p l a i n o f the army i s mentioned w i t h a s u g g e s t i o n o f drunkenness, and o n l y c a s u a l r e f e r e n c e t o a good r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y concerns and i s a t the v e r y end o f the n o v e l .  The treatment  unfavourable  the  Abraham Adams  Moreover, Adams i s b e i n g i n s t a l l e d  a t u t o r , h i s most i n e f f e c t i v e r o l e , which a l l o w s l i t t l e authority.  and  o f the c l e r g y i n Tom  as  scope f o r r e l i g i o u s  Jon&6, then, would suggest  a t t i t u d e towards r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y , but, d e s p i t e the  c l a i m t h a t " t o abuse the Body i s t o abuse the F u n c t i o n i t s e l f "  an  Lieutenant'  ( I , 373),  F i e l d i n g c l a i m s the n o v e l c o n t a i n s " n o t h i n g p r e j u d i c i a l t o the Cause o f Religion"  ( I , 7).  Moreover, the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of the n o v e l supports  Fielding'  claim. Much o f the p o s i t i v e treatment,  o f c o u r s e , i s the r e s u l t o f the  f a v o u r a b l e comments by the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , but i f the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e were the o n l y element s u p p o r t i n g r e l i g i o n , the tone o f the n o v e l would be much more s a t i r i c than i s the case because the a u t h o r i a l v o i c e would be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s and p l o t .  I t i s at t h i s p o i n t that Allworthy's  t o the r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e o f the n o v e l becomes c l e a r .  He  importance  i s the mainstay,  both as an example and as a spokesman, o f the p o s i t i v e s i d e o f the  treatment  o f r e l i g i o n i n Tom JonU.  He i s , however, n o t a clergyman, which means t h a t  e i t h e r a c t u a l r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y , i n terms o f the r i g h t , power and duty guide, c o u n s e l and reprimand  o t h e r s i n r e l i g i o n and m o r a l i t y , does n o t  to  exist  i n Tom Jon(U>, and need n o t e x i s t i n a p o s i t i v e r e l i g i o u s s e t t i n g , o r t h a t one need not be a clergyman to have r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y . p o s i t i o n as the head o f the l e a d i n g household  Allworthy's  i n the neighbourhood, as  the  S q u i r e , and as a m a g i s t r a t e makes him somewhat a k i n to an O l d Testament p a t r i a r c h , and,  l i k e a p a t r i a r c h , h i s f a t h e r l y c o n t r o l over the  has r e l i g i o u s o v e r t o n e s . r e l i g i o u s matters  He  district  r e p e a t e d l y c o u n s e l s and guides o t h e r s  on  even when he has no p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n them and when i t  would be much l e s s troublesome t o i g n o r e the r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s o f the  situation  and c o n c e n t r a t e s o l e l y on the l e g a l and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s  (£.g.  t o Jenny Jones, P a r t r i d g e , Western and Mr. N i g h t i n g a l e ) .  T h e r e f o r e , he must  f e e l i t i s h i s duty.  in relation  That o t h e r s accept h i s reprimands and t r y t o f o l l o w h i s  r e l i g i o u s c o u n s e l proves  t h a t he has some a u t h o r i t y i n matters  of  religion,  and s i n c e t h e r e i s never the s l i g h t e s t i n d i c a t i o n o f a u t h o r i a l d i s a p p r o v a l of any o f the i n s t a n c e s o f A l l w o r t h y ' s u s i n g r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y , i t may  be  assumed t h a t F i e l d i n g f e l t A l l w o r t h y had the r i g h t t o r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y . H i s p o s i t i o n as a m a g i s t r a t e expands the scope o f s i n c e he would have been i n charge o f such matters f o r "maimed s o l d i e r s , "  1 0  his authority,  as p e n s i o n  overseeing p a r i s h o f f i c e r s ,  1 1  arrangements  and m a i n t a i n i n g b r i d g e s ,  12 g a o l s , and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s .  In a v e r y p r a c t i c a l way,  then,  would have had c o n t r o l over the w e l l - b e i n g o f the p a r i s h and over i t s o b j e c t s o f c h a r i t y .  Allworthy  particularly  Moreover, the i n c l u s i o n o f matters  of morality  under the l e g a l system extends A l l w o r t h y ' s a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l over what would now  be c o n s i d e r e d p u r e l y r e l i g i o u s concerns  (e.g.unwed mothers,  swearing  58 etc.).  The union  o f c o n t r o l over p u b l i c w e l l - b e i n g ,  c h a r i t y and m o r a l i t y  g i v e s a p a t r i a r c h a l and r e l i g i o u s c a s t t o A l l w o r t h y ' s  r o l e as an a u t h o r i t y  figure. The  combination o f these  r e l i g i o u s overtones i n A l l w o r t h y ' s  authority  r o l e s e s t a b l i s h e s a f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n f o r r e l i g i o n i n Tom JoneA d e s p i t e the comedy and l a c k o f a u t h o r i t y o f the c l e r g y i n the n o v e l .  However, o n l y  r e l i g i o n i n a g e n e r a l sense and on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l are enhanced; religion  (and p h i l o s o p h y )  are u n d e r c u t .  profession o f r e l i g i o n o r philosophy  "official"  There i s a sense t h a t making a  suggests i n s i n c e r i t y , o r a t l e a s t t h a t  those who p r o t e s t the l o u d e s t and those who say n o t h i n g  are e q u a l l y  to  Supple's c h a r a c t e r ,  have s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s .  moreover, suggests t h a t even s i n c e r i t y and s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s are adequate; one must have a s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r as w e l l . balance  o f r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s p h y .  not  Also necessary  is a  The r i v a l r y o f Thwackum and Square  s a t i r i z e s , t o some e x t e n t , the q u a r r e l s , o f r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h y the e i g h t e e n t h  likely  c e n t u r y , e s p e c i a l l y those which c o n c e n t r a t e d  or p h i l o s o p h i c a l problem to the e x c l u s i o n o f a l l o t h e r s .  during  on one r e l i g i o u s  As F i e l d i n g  says,  "had n o t Thwackum too much n e g l e c t e d V i r t u e , and Square R e l i g i o n . . .and had n o t both d i s c a r d e d a l l n a t u r a l Goodness o f Heart, represented Man  as O b j e c t s  on the H i l l  they had never been  o f D e r i s i o n i n t h i s H i s t o r y " ( I , 129).  Again, t h e  f i n d s i n n e r peace o n l y when he understands both  philosophy  and r e l i g i o n , and even P h i l o s o p h e r Square f i n a l l y d i s c o v e r s t h a t alone does n o t teach one how t o d i e .  The Man on the H i l l , though, i s n o t  as happy as he might be because he does not l o v e h i s f e l l o w man — o f n a t u r a l goodness o f h e a r t .  philosophy  As i n JoiZph  an a s p e c t  kndh£W&, then, the good man must  have sound r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s , a s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r , and  n a t u r a l goodness o f h e a r t which induces him t o d e l i g h t i n man and n a t u r e and engage i n a c t s o f benevolence. The concept o f the "good man" i s v i t a l t o the p h i l o s o p h y o f Tom 3on&6 Mr. A l l w o r t h y i s a good man; he i s n o t p e r f e c t o r i n f a l l i b l e traits  have "never y e t been seen i n human Nature"  such  ( I , 136). I n f a c t ,  A l l w o r t h y ' s mistakes cause a g r e a t d e a l o f t r o u b l e . the courage  because  However, he always has  t o a c t as he f e e l s i s b e s t , and h i s sound r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h  i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s g i v e him the wisdom t o make the r i g h t d e c i s i o n whenever i t i s humanly p o s s i b l e t o judge a c c u r a t e l y the t r u t h o f the e v i d e n c e on which the judgement i s made. because  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the good man i s a t some disadvantage  o f the number o f a p p a r e n t l y good men who p r e s e n t c o n v i n c i n g l i e s as  e v i d e n c e , and because  t h e good man i s always  o t h e r s ; e v i l i s so l i t t l e recognize i t . compassion to  slow a t d i s c o v e r i n g e v i l i n  i n h i s thoughts t h a t he does n o t immediately  N o n e t h e l e s s , the good man's benevolence, good-nature,  and wisdom make him supremely  justice  happy, e s p e c i a l l y when d o i n g good  o t h e r s , and make him b e l o v e d o f a l l who a r e b a s i c a l l y good.  a l s o has a n a t u r a l a u t h o r i t y o f l i m i t e d r e l i g i o u s and j u d i c i a l  A good man power over  b a s i c a l l y good people who have some f a u l t s , and even over c o r r u p t people who are,  a f t e r a l l , a t some p a i n s t o appear good and t o impose on good p e o p l e .  Although the good man's c h a r i t y , j u s t i c e and benevolence  naturally increase  the amount o f good i n the w o r l d and l e s s e n i t s s u f f e r i n g , he a l s o f u n c t i o n s as a p r i c k t o p e o p l e ' s c o n s c i e n c e s .  F i e l d i n g does n o t seem t o p r o v i d e t h e  m o r a l l y deformed, such as B l i f i l , w i t h c o n s c i e n c e s , b u t those on the verge of  c o r r u p t i o n o r those whom f a t e has l e d i n t o courses which they know a r e  n o t r i g h t a r e shamed by the good man's r i g h t e o u s n e s s and encouraged example.  by h i s  F o r example, t h a t A l l w o r t h y e x i s t s i s reason enough f o r Jones t o  60 keep a moral p e r s p e c t i v e and n o t become a "hardened s i n n e r . " i s enough o f a good man t o s t i m u l a t e c o n s c i e n c e s about goodness, b u t h i s i n c o n t i n e n c e on p o i n t s o f m o r a l i t y  {Z.Q.,  Jones h i m s e l f  i n o t h e r s and c o u n s e l them  lessens h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y  when he i s t a l k i n g t o N i g h t i n g a l e about Nancy).  Indeed, F i e l d i n g a l l o w s every good-natured c h a r a c t e r the p o t e n t i a l t o become a good man volence  ( o r a good woman), and as a good-natured person's n a t u r a l bene-  and sense o f r i g h t and wrong g r a d u a l l y overcome any p r o p e n s i t y t o  v i c e , he o r she approaches the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e degree o f human e x c e l l e n c e . In terms o f a u t h o r i t y , the concept o f the good man i s v e r y The  good man has r e l i g i o u s and q u a s i - j u d i c i a l  important.  ( s o c i a l ) a u t h o r i t y , b u t OVlZy  a good man has such a u t h o r i t y t o any degree because a c c e p t a b l e  exercise of  a u t h o r i t y demands t h a t the person e x e r c i s i n g a u t h o r i t y be more honest and v i r t u o u s than the p e r s o n b e i n g  counselled or corrected.  Accordingly, the  b e t t e r , i n r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l terms, an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i s , the g r e a t e r his authority.  Hence a clergyman o r a m a g i s t r a t e  d i v i n e b u t h i s r o l e has v e r y l i t t l e n e a r l y a n g e l i c i n nature  who has n o t h i n g  a u t h o r i t y , while  o f the  a private individual,  and a c t i o n , w i l l have c o n s i d e r a b l e  authority, but  complete human a u t h o r i t y o n l y e x i s t s when a clergyman o r m a g i s t r a t e  i s also  a good man, f o r he n o t o n l y has p u b l i c acceptance o f h i s a u t h o r i t y , he has support  and s a n c t i o n from g r e a t e r a u t h o r i t i e s .  B a s i c a l l y , a magistrate  o r clergyman w i t h v i r t u a l l y no f a u l t s has, o r i s accorded, more r i g h t t o reprimand o t h e r s  f o r t h e i r f a u l t s than has a m a g i s t r a t e  i s r i d d l e d w i t h v i c e s , and the good m a g i s t r a t e  o r clergyman i s t h e r e f o r e  more e f f e c t i v e and has more a u t h o r i t y than h i s c o r r u p t A l l the above, o f c o u r s e ,  o r clergyman who  colleague.  a p p l i e s more d i r e c t l y t o r e l i g i o n t h a n t o  j u s t i c e s i n c e the law demands l e s s p e r s o n a l p e r f e c t i o n , and s i n c e t h e authority o f a magistrate  i s p h y s i c a l l y enforced  r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s moral  61 right  to  authority.  will,  to  some e x t e n t ,  on t h e has  moderately  Moreover, though the enforce  religious,  any p o w e r e x c e p t i n  law and r e l i g i o n  Jones.  basis  of  of  by a m a g i s t r a t e  on t h e  justice.  that  for  Support of  authority  of  Benevolence  justice  demands  his  a g o o d man c o n t a i n s and mercy a r e ,  in  Wife  rights.  is  basis  matters  authority  a n d some  matters  law o r by a  good to  rob  a highwayman, b u t J o n e s ,  some a d v i c e and F a m i l y "  primary  of  between  Secular  spiritual)  least  magistrate  Mr. Anderson's attempt  a considerable  fact,  an a c t u a l  a magistrate,  h a n g e d A n d e r s o n as  good man, d e c i d e s immediate  Such a case  people  o f honour which f a l l  opposed t o  than under t h a t  The law w o u l d have  the  (as  religious  a g o o d man a t  concerned only  regions  social  other  authority of  involving personal  under the  decided either  man on t h e  law i s  those nebulous  a g o o d man more e v e n  c o u l d be  religious  where  and i n m a t t e r s  i n v o l v i n g honour f a l l of  the  opinion of  and "a c o u p l e (II,  680).  portion of  features  of  of  The  as  a  Guineas  social  benevolence.  the  authority  of  a good man. There Allworthy  are  only  two m a g i s t r a t e s  and S q u i r e W e s t e r n .  magistrates  and p r o v i d e ,  Squire Western, importance  of  although  judicial  of  any i m p o r t a n c e i n  They r e p r e s e n t  respectively, a real  direct  Tom 30Y12J>: S q u i r e  opposites  in  country  exemplary and comic s c e n e s .  magistrate,  seldom appears  a u t h o r i t y i n Tom 3OYI<U> i s  entirely  as  However,  such;  the  established  by  Allworthy. Squire Western u s u a l l y are  concerned,  E n g l a n d where accepted  the  exercise  of  acts  as  a magistrate  a p p a r e n t l y a common e n o u g h "the  majority of  those nominated  honour and i g n o r e d the judicial  situation [as  o n l y when h i s in  interests  eighteenth-century  Justices  duties." ^  Mention i s  a u t h o r i t y i n minor points  indifferent  1  own  of  the  made o f to  Peace! Western's  him such  as  62 swearing:  Supple's sermons a g a i n s t  swearing  so f a r o p e r a t e d on h i s [Western's] c o n s c i e n c e , t h a t he p u t the Laws v e r y s e v e r e l y i n E x e c u t i o n a g a i n s t o t h e r s , and the M a g i s t r a t e was the o n l y Person i n the P a r i s h who c o u l d swear w i t h Impunity. (I, The Mrs.  304)  o n l y a c t u a l example o f Western a c t i n g as a m a g i s t r a t e , Honour and Mrs.  Western.  Honour had  i n s u l t e d Mrs.  though, concerns  Western,  who  e a r n e s t l y d e s i r e d "her B r o t h e r t o execute J u s t i c e s h i p ( f o r i t was S y l l a b l e more than J u s t i c e ) on the Wench" ( I , 357).  indeed a  Western i s , a t  first,  q u i t e w i l l i n g t o o b l i g e h i s s i s t e r , which i n d i c a t e s e i t h e r h i s contempt f o r o r i g n o r a n c e o f the law. mention o f h i s c l e r k who implying  t h a t Western has  scene, and for his  has  That i t i s the  l a t t e r i s i n d i c a t e d by  "some u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n the Law  no such u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  the  o f t h i s Realm,"  Western's conduct i n  F i e l d i n g ' s comments, r e v e a l t h a t Western has  no  the  qualifications  office. More f r i g h t e n i n g i n a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e x e c u t i o n  d i g r e s s i o n on Western's u s u a l procedure as a  o f the  law  i s the  magistrate:  In M a t t e r s o f h i g h Importance, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Cases r e l a t i n g t o the Game, the J u s t i c e was not always a t t e n t i v e t o these Admonitions o f h i s C l e r k : For, i n d e e d , i n e x e c u t i n g the Laws under t h a t Head, many J u s t i c e s o f Peace suppose they have a l a r g e d i s c r e t i o n a r y Power. By V i r t u e o f which, under the N o t i o n o f s e a r c h i n g f o r and t a k i n g away Engines f o r the D e s t r u c t i o n o f the Game, they o f t e n commit T r e s p a s s e s , and sometimes F e l o n y at t h e i r Pleasure. (I, In o t h e r words, Western, o b l i v i o u s to the law, magistrate  t o p r o t e c t h i s own  interest.  uses h i s a u t h o r i t y as  In terms o f a b s o l u t e  a u t h o r i t y , then, o r a u t h o r i t y as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n Western has  little  actual authority.  He  has  357) a  judicial  o f the concept  "justice,"  power, because o f h i s s t a t i o n ,  h i s wealth  and h i s b i r t h , but h i s power i s n o t j u s t i f i e d by a u t h o r i t y .  A g a i n , the onus o f e s t a b l i s h i n g good a u t h o r i t y i s on A l l w o r t h y ,  and  h i s p o s i t i o n as a m a g i s t r a t e makes him even more e f f e c t i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p o s i t i v e treatment  o f j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y than he i s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  p o s i t i v e r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y , s i n c e he has no outward c l a i m t o the  a  latter.  U n l i k e Western, A l l w o r t h y takes h i s duty as a m a g i s t r a t e s e r i o u s l y .  Western  seems t o a c t as a m a g i s t r a t e o n l y to p r o t e c t h i s game, b u t A l l w o r t h y seems t o have taken h i s d u t i e s as J u s t i c e o f the Peace s e r i o u s l y . h i s r o l e as m a g i s t r a t e i n t h r e e scenes  He  i s shown i n  i n the n o v e l , and the o b s e r v a t i o n  that As Mr. A l l w o r t h y was a J u s t i c e o f Peace, c e r t a i n Things o c c u r r e d i n Examinations c o n c e r n i n g B a s t a r d s , and such l i k e , which are apt t o g i v e g r e a t Offence t o the chaste Ears of V i r g i n s ( I , 55-56) suggests  t h a t A l l w o r t h y e x e r c i s e d h i s j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y w i t h some  Mention i s a l s o made ( I I , 969)  frequency.  o f A l l w o r t h y h a v i n g been on the Grand J u r y ,  which i n d i c a t e s t h a t he attends t o a l l elements o f h i s duty as a m a g i s t r a t e . Simply  a t t e n d i n g t o h i s d u t i e s as a m a g i s t r a t e , however, would n o t  enough t o e s t a b l i s h a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e i n Tom JonU, towards  be  judicial  a u t h o r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e no g r e a t d e t a i l i s p r o v i d e d and Western e s t a b l i s h e s a moderately  unfavourable  a t t i t u d e i n the r e a d e r .  ( I t i s only  "moderately"  unfavourable  because Western's r o l e as a m a g i s t r a t e i s v e r y minor.)  i n s t e a d , A l l w o r t h y ' s a t t i t u d e both i n a c t u a l h e a r i n g s and i n p e r s o n a l  It i s , matters  r e q u i r i n g judgement which argues f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f r e a l j u s t i c e i n the world of  Tom 3on2A. As S h a f t e s b u r y s a i d , "a v i r t u o u s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s i n a  manner n e c e s s a r i l y accompany'd w i t h V i r t u e i n the M a g i s t r a t e .  Otherwise i t  14 c o u l d be o f l i t t l e e f f e c t , and o f no l o n g d u r a t i o n . "  Allworthy i s described  64 as  one whose n a t u r a l Love o f J u s t i c e , j o i n e d t o h i s Coolness o f Temper, made him always a most p a t i e n t M a g i s t r a t e i n h e a r i n g a l l the Witnesses which an accused Person c o u l d produce i n h i s Defence. (I,  We  a l s o f i n d t h a t A l l w o r t h y never p u n i s h e d  and was  100)  anyone i n a p a s s i o n  ( I , 309),  p a r t i c u l a r l y c a r e f u l to a v o i d b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by " p r i v a t e Resentment."  A l l o f these p o i n t s prove h i s f a i r n e s s as a judge. n o t a b l e about A l l w o r t h y , t h o u g h , i s  What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  t h a t he c a r r i e s h i s j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y  beyond a c t u a l h e a r i n g s i n t o d a i l y l i f e and a p p l i e s the same standards himself.  to  H i s l e c t u r e s t o Jones are i n the same s t y l e as h i s l e c t u r e s t o  defendants,  and he examines the d e t a i l s o f every m a t t e r as i f he were  determining  the m e r i t s o f a l e g a l case.  This practice i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  n o t a b l e when Mrs. Waters i s r e v e a l i n g the s e c r e t s o f Jones's Although  birth  ( I I , 940).  A l l w o r t h y i s p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the d i s c l o s u r e , h i s a t t i t u d e  i s t h a t o f an i m p a r t i a l judge, as i t i s on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s when A l l w o r t h y l i s t e n s t o evidence  a g a i n s t Jones and e s p e c i a l l y when he examines Dowling.  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s o f j u s t i c e form p a r t o f A l l w o r t h y ' s c h a r a c t e r as a p e r s o n , n o t j u s t o f h i s c h a r a c t e r as a m a g i s t r a t e , and element o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s e s s e n t i a l t o h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n as a good A c c o r d i n g t o A l l w o r t h y , God has  "implanted  this man.  i n our Minds"  P r i n c i p l e s o f n a t u r a l J u s t i c e , and . . . o r i g i n a l Notions o f R i g h t and Wrong . . . by which we were t o judge, n o t o n l y i n a l l Matters which were not r e v e a l e d , b u t even o f the T r u t h o f R e v e l a t i o n itself. (I, A good man  80)  must have easy access to these p r i n c i p l e s and be a b l e t o a p p l y  them i n a l l cases i f he i s t o choose h i s own  actions correctly.  He  must,  65 moreover, be a b l e t o judge o t h e r s i f he i s t o c o u n s e l o r reprimand them effectively.  However, i f the good man,  r e l y i n g on h i s n a t u r a l sense o f  j u s t i c e , makes the wrong d e c i s i o n based on i n c o r r e c t o r incomplete e v i d e n c e when he has no reason t o s u s p e c t the e v i d e n c e , he i s no l e s s a good  man.  Here F i e l d i n g d r a m a t i z e s h i s concept o f b e n e v o l i s m as he demonstrates  that  temporary and apparent e v i l s e v e n t u a l l y work out t o b e t t e r s o l u t i o n s than would have been p o s s i b l e i f the temporary i l l s  had been a v o i d e d .  Blifil  must be g i v e n enough rope t o hang, n o t j u s t hobble h i m s e l f , and Jones must be tempered i n t o a h e r o , n o t j u s t warmed by h i s pedagogue's d i s c i p l i n e . S i n c e A l l w o r t h y ' s m i s t a k e s are e x p r e s s i o n s o f j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y based on a good man's sense o f j u s t i c e , h i s m i s t a k e s work u l t i m a t e l y f o r the b e s t , which suggests some degree o f P r o v i d e n t i a l  control.  I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n , among o t h e r s , t h a t f o r g i v e n e s s i s n o t synonymous w i t h j u s t i c e , even when t h e r e are m i t i g a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , so t h a t j u d i c i a l and s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y c a r r i e s the o b l i g a t i o n t o condemn and t o p u n i s h whenever n e c e s s a r y f o r the good o f a l l o r f o r the u l t i m a t e o f the i n d i v i d u a l  (cp. B u t l e r , WohkA, Sermon 8, pp. 139-140).  A l l w o r t h y has j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y — and Jones does n o t have i t .  good  T h i s i s why  even o u t s i d e h i s r o l e as m a g i s t r a t e  —  A l l w o r t h y d e s c r i b e s Jones's p r o p e n s i t y t o  f o r g i v e n e s s as mistaken Mercy [which] i s n o t o n l y Weakness but b o r d e r s on I n j u s t i c e , and i s v e r y p e r n i c i o u s t o S o c i e t y , as i t encourages V i c e . (II,  969)  A l l w o r t h y ' s d e c i s i o n s demonstrate p r o p e r mercy because he uses mercy t o encourage a d e l i n q u e n t t o r e f o r m , not t o d i s p e n s e w i t h punishment F o r example,  he e x i l e s Jones as a j u s t punishment  altogether.  f o r (supposed) c r i m e s , but  66 g i v e s him 500£ so t h a t Jones w i l l n o t be f o r c e d i n t o o t h e r consequence o f the punishment.  Jones e x e r c i s e s  crimes as a  this sort of j u d i c i a l  d i s c r e t i o n when he f o r g i v e s Anderson o n l y a f t e r he i s c o n v i n c e d Anderson i s n o t r e a l l y a c r i m i n a l .  On the o t h e r hand, such  c o u l d w e l l have been f a t a l t o some o t h e r but,  as A l l w o r t h y  says,  that  forgiveness  t r a v e l l e r i f Jones had been mistaken,  "the L o r d d i s p o s e t h  a l l Things"  ( I I , 942), and Jones's  d e c i s i o n s , s i n c e he i s a f l e d g l i n g "good man," take an a c t i v e p a r t i n the divine plan  for ultimate  good, a t l e a s t as l o n g as Jones does n o t f o r g i v e  indiscriminately. F i e l d i n g , however, does n o t depend o n l y on i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e r e i s a d i v i n e p l a n and some P r o v i d e n t i a l c o n t r o l over e v e n t s i n t h e n o v e l . two  occasions,  On  Tom Jones i s c i t e d as a P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, and a l t h o u g h ,  when he r e s c u e s Mrs. Waters, h i s c l a i m t h a t "heaven seemed t o have d e s i g n e d him  as the happy Instrument o f h e r P r o t e c t i o n "  t o " i t was l u c k y I came a l o n g , "  ( I , 496) i s r o u g h l y  the unnecessary i n v o c a t i o n o f "heaven" suggests  t h a t more than l u c k i s i n v o l v e d i n the p r e v e n t i o n and Hill  repeated, reference  equivalent  o f s e r i o u s harm.  The d i r e c t ,  t o P r o v i d e n c e a f t e r Jones's rescue o f the Man o f the  ( I , 448) s i m i l a r l y suggest t o the r e a d e r t h a t e v i l  f o r c e s w i l l n o t be  u l t i m a t e l y v i c t o r i o u s i n the n o v e l : ' i . .we were j u s t d e p a r t i n g when we heard you c a l l f o r A s s i s t a n c e , which I must say, P r o v i d e n c e alone seems t o have s e n t you.' — 'Providence indeed,' c r i e s the o l d Gentleman, ' i f i t be so.'. . . .'Be t h a n k f u l t h e n , ' c r i e s Jones, 'to t h a t P r o v i d e n c e t o which you owe your D e l i v e r a n c e . . . . " I was a f r a i d your Worship would have been angry w i t h me f o r l e t t i n g him i n ; and t o be c e r t a i n I s h o u l d n o t have done i t , had I n o t seen by the M o o n l i g h t , t h a t he was a Gentleman, and almost f r o z e n t o Death. And t o be c e r t a i n i t must have been some good Angel t h a t s e n t him h i t h e r , and tempted me t o do i t . ' ( I , 448-89)  67 Moreover, even the a u t h o r i a l v o i c e suggests t h a t P r o v i d e n c e may be an a c t i v e agent i n t h e n o v e l : Here an A c c i d e n t happened o f a v e r y e x t r a o r d i n a r y Kind; one i n d e e d o f those s t r a n g e Chances, whence v e r y good and grave Men have concluded t h a t Providence o f t e n i n t e r p o s e s i n the D i s c o v e r y o f the most s e c r e t V i l l a n y , i n o r d e r t o c a u t i o n Men from q u i t t i n g the Paths o f Honesty, however w a r i l y they t r e a d i n those o f V i c e . (II,  920)  Less d i r e c t than these i n s t a n c e s , and f a r more f r e q u e n t , a r e the s u g g e s t i o n s by r_numerous b e n e f i c i a r i e s t h a t both Jones and A l l w o r t h y are angels i n human form.  Again, such phrases  c o u l d be p l a t i t u d e s , b u t t h e i r  r e p e t i t i o n and the s e r i o u s language i n which they are couched cannot b u t c r e a t e an i m p r e s s i o n o f d i v i n e Although  influence.  t h e r e i s o n l y one r e a l j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n Tom JonQA,  he i s t h e c o n t r o l l i n g a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e and a l s o a major c h a r a c t e r i n the novel.  These f a c t s make j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y prominent, though n o t as  prominent as p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , and the o v e r l a p between A l l w o r t h y ' s p r a c t i c a l r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y and h i s a u t h o r i z e d j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y g i v e a f l a v o u r o f j u s t i c e and judgement even t o r e l i g i o u s matters  (and occe.  VQA&0L) .  More i m p o r t a n t l y , though, t h i s o v e r l a p i n d i c a t e s a u n i t y o f a u t h o r i t i e s based on t h e i r s i n g l e s o u r c e .  There i s some sense t h a t A l l w o r t h y has  r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y because he i s an e x c e l l e n t m a g i s t r a t e and i s an e x c e l l e n t m a g i s t r a t e because he i s a good man (and hence i s a good C h r i s t i a n and i s good n a t u r e d ) .  The o v e r l a p c o n t i n u e s i n t o the realms o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y .  Among the n o v e l ' s p a r e n t s and g u a r d i a n s , once again i t i s A l l w o r t h y who s e t s the s t a n d a r d f o r a u t h o r i t y .  That A l l w o r t h y has p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y  even though he i s n o t a p a r e n t i s n o t unusual s i n c e p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y u s u a l l y devolves on g u a r d i a n s , b u t i t i s perhaps a l i t t l e  strange t h a t with  s e v e r a l r e a l p a r e n t s i n the n o v e l A l l w o r t h y i s the exemplar.  As w i t h  68 A l l w o r t h y ' s o t h e r r o l e s , h i s e x c e l l e n c e as a guardian i s a n e c e s s a r y o f b e i n g a good man, b u t t h e r e i s a more important authority.  feature  feature of h i s parental  To anyone as w e l l read i n t h e S c r i p t u r e s as F i e l d i n g was, t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between God and man would be a model on which t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r e n t s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and e s p e c i a l l y o f f a t h e r s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n , w o u l d be b u i l t . t h a t o f a guardian  That A l l w o r t h y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s , i n f a c t ,  t o -his wards would n o t d i s a l l o w t h e comparison, s i n c e  n e i t h e r God n o r a guardian i s b i o l o g i c a l l y a f a t h e r o f h i s " c h i l d r e n . " S e v e r a l h i n t s a r e made i n Tom JonQA about t h e s i m i l a r i t y between God  and A l l w o r t h y , although A l l w o r t h y ' s humanness and p r o p e n s i t y f o r human  e r r o r a r e emphasized f a r t o o much f o r A l l w o r t h y t o be an a l l e g o r y f o r God. The p o i n t F i e l d i n g seems t o be making i s t h a t a t t r i b u t e s o f God a r e p r e s e n t i n man (c$. Tom JoneA,  I, 80), b u t t h a t presence  m a i n l y becomes apparent i n  a good : man and i n c r e a s e s i n s t r e n g t h when he i s engaged i n any a u t h o r i t y role.  The s u g g e s t i o n s  o f A l l w o r t h y ' s d i v i n e resemblance, however, a r e n o t  e n t i r e l y attached t o instances o f h i s a u t h o r i t y . F i r s t o f a l l , Allworthy's residence i s c a l l e d "Paradise H a l l " a f a c t which would be o f p r o f o u n d  ( I , 98),  s i g n i f i c a n c e and a source o f much commentary  on r e l i g i o u s symbolism i f i t were n o t t h a t t h e name i s o n l y mentioned once i n passing.  D e s p i t e B a t t e s t i n ' s comment t h a t t h e name i s s i g n i f i c a n t , "^ i t  seems u n l i k e l y t h a t F i e l d i n g would i n s i s t s o l i t t l e on t h e name o f A l l w o r t h y ' s r e s i d e n c e i f he i n t e n d e d c l o s e comparison between i t and Heaven o r Eden. The comparison i s made even more u n l i k e l y s i n c e P a r a d i s e H a l l i s f i l l e d most u n s u i t a b l e t e n a n t s  f o r Heaven o r Eden.  with  Most l i k e l y , t h e name i s a  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p u r e l y e a r t h l y beauty o f t h e e s t a t e , d e s c r i b e d a t some l e n g t h . On  the o t h e r hand, t h e p l o t supports  the concept  o f an u n d e r l y i n g a l l e g o r y .  69 s i n c e Jones's  e x p u l s i o n , w i t h i t s e v e n t u a l happy r e s u l t s , i s c l e a r l y  "fortunate f a l l , " the  a  and he does r e t u r n , i f n o t t o P a r a d i s e H a l l , a t l e a s t t o  vicinity. Next, t h e r e i s A l l w o r t h y ' s name.  o m n i s c i e n t and omni-present.  God  i s d e s c r i b e d as onmipotent,  " A l l w o r t h y " suggests  a description  similar  i n genre t o the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f God,although the "worthy" d e f i n i t e l y suggests humanness r a t h e r than  divinity.  F i n a l l y , t h e r e are s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s t o and s u g g e s t i o n s o f A l l w o r t h y ' s resemblance t o D i v i n i t y . "indeed such as we may Mankind"  ( I I , 885).  F i e l d i n g d e s c r i b e s A l l w o r t h y ' s "Smiles a t F o l l y "  as  suppose the Angels bestow on the A b s u r d i t i e s o f  I t seems l i k e l y t h a t i f the s m i l e s are s i m i l a r ,  the  n a t u r e s m o t i v a t i n g the s m i l e s are s i m i l a r , which would make A l l w o r t h y a n g e l i c , at l e a s t i n h i s attitude to others' foolishness. most p a s s i o n a t e Acknowledgments o f t r u l y s a i d , savoured  Mrs. Waters makes "many  [ A l l w o r t h y ' s ] Goodness, which, as  more o f the d i v i n e than human Nature"  ( I I , 947) .  Waters might be c o n s i d e r e d t o o poor a judge o f d i v i n e n a t u r e  worthy and God.  Mrs.  f o r her o p i n i o n  t o c a r r y much weight, but the " t r u l y s a i d " i n d i c a t e s F i e l d i n g ' s Other passages are n o t so d i r e c t , but s t i l l  she  accord.  suggest p a r a l l e l s between A l l -  F o r example, F i e l d i n g t e l l s us t h a t "though Mr.  Allworthy  had the utmost Sweetness and Benevolence i n h i s S m i l e s , he had g r e a t T e r r o r i n h i s Frowns" nature o f God.  ( I I , 899).  The  language i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f a sermon on  Perhaps F i e l d i n g meant no more than t h a t A l l w o r t h y had  most e x p r e s s i v e f a c e , but s i n c e s m i l e s and p r o v i d e images o f God's r e a c t i o n s t o man,  the a  frowns are f r e q u e n t l y used t o i t i s l i k e l y that Fielding  i n t e n d e d some comparison. I f Allworthy i s  g o d - l i k e t o some e x t e n t , he must be an  p a r e n t t o t h a t e x t e n t , s i n c e God  the f a t h e r i s a p a r e n t model.  ideal Moreover,  70 i n New Testament t h e o l o g y , God's r o l e as a f a t h e r f i g u r e i s emphasized more than h i s r o l e as a judge,  so t h a t a s i m i l a r i t y t o God would most l i k e l y  r e s u l t i n a s t r o n g l y f a v o u r a b l e performance as a p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n . On the one hand, A l l w o r t h y i s l e s s prominent as a f a t h e r than Western, b u t t h i s i s because A l l w o r t h y i s h i m s e l f c h i l d l e s s and because Western i s made conspicuous i s the.  by h i s f a u l t s .  On the o t h e r hand, A l l w o r t h y  f a t h e r f i g u r e i n the n o v e l , as emphasized by h i s h a b i t o f r e f e r r i n g  t o a wide range o f u n r e l a t e d young people a u t h o r i t y over sundry  as " c h i l d . "  Even A l l w o r t h y ' s  a d u l t s , such as Mrs. M i l l e r , o l d Mr. N i g h t i n g a l e and  Western, i s q u a s i - p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s matters usually pertaining to f a m i l i a l relationships.  Western  and c o n t r o l  says  I don't know how ' t i s , b u t d — n me, A l l w o r t h y , i f you don't make me always do j u s t as you p l e a s e and y e t I have as good an E s t e a t e as you, and am i n the Commission o f the Peace as w e l l as y o u r s e l f . ( I I , 958) T h i s emphasizes t h e type o f a u t h o r i t y A l l w o r t h y h o l d s , f o r he and Western are m a t e r i a l l y e q u a l s and e q u a l l y m a g i s t r a t e s i n the eyes o f the law, b u t A l l w o r t h y has a u t h o r i t y over Western i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  (see a l s o  I I , 920 f o r A l l w o r t h y ' s a u t h o r i t y over o l d Mr. N i g h t i n g a l e ) . As Hugh Amory p o i n t s o u t , ". . .Squire A l l w o r t h y e x e r c i s e s an a u t h o r i t y which i s completely  16 unwarranted by the law which made him a m a g i s t r a t e . "  The p e r s o n a l  nature  o f A l l w o r t h y ' s c o n t r o l over Western suggests p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y because A l l w o r t h y I s m o d i f y i n g Western's j u v e n i l e and e x c e s s i v e l y b o i s t e r o u s behaviour  j u s t as a wise p a r e n t might manage an u n r u l y c h i l d .  Even though  A l l w o r t h y ' s q u a s i - p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y i s n o t so p r e v a l e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , t h e r e i s a c o n t r o l l i n g thought  i n the n o v e l t h a t A l l w o r t h y a c t s  as a p a r e n t i n some way towards everyone w i t h whom he comes i n c o n t a c t .  71 Allworthy's  r o l e as a major f a t h e r f i g u r e . i s , o f course, most d i r e c t l y  e s t a b l i s h e d by h i s b e i n g the g u a r d i a n o f two o f t h e t h r e e major young people in  the n o v e l ,  and by the c o n t r a s t he p r e s e n t s t o the f a t h e r and g u a r d i a n s o f  the t h i r d major young p e r s o n i n the n o v e l . is  an i d e a l g u a r d i a n .  of v i s i t i n g  From the b e g i n n i n g ,  While Jones was an i n f a n t , A l l w o r t h y  [him], a t l e a s t once a Day,  i n h i s Nursery"  than many f a t h e r s d i d f o r t h e i r own c h i l d r e n .  Allworthy  t r o u b l e and expense i n e d u c a t i n g Tom and B l i f i l , of i n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  Allworthy  "seldom  failed  ( I , 78), much more a l s o goes t o some  and chooses t h e i r method  ( I , 135).  He has the boys  educated a t home, which w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e more o f h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  t h e i r upbringing  than i f he had s e n t them t o s c h o o l ,  and he a l s o  intends  t h a t "as they were b r e d up i n h i s own House, and under h i s own Eye, be  able  t o c o r r e c t whatever was wrong i n Thwackum's I n s t r u c t i o n s "  His inherent  he s h o u l d  (II,  930).  goodness as a p a r e n t i s thus demonstrated i n h i s p l a n s t o take  an a c t i v e p a r t i n r a i s i n g two c h i l d r e n , n e i t h e r o f whom i s h i s own and one o f whom, t o h i s knowledge, i s n o t even r e l a t e d t o him. F i e l d i n g p o i n t s o u t t h a t " i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e  f o r the b e s t  Parent  t o observe an e x a c t I m p a r t i a l i t y t o h i s C h i l d r e n , even though no s u p e r i o r M e r i t s h o u l d b i a s s h i s A f f e c t i o n " ( I I , 857), i m p a r t i a l i t y towards Tom and B l i f i l . i n t e r f e r e n c e o f young B l i f l h i m s e l f ,  but Allworthy  He t r e a t s them as e q u a l l y  by  as t h e  Thwackum and Square w i l l a l l o w .  o n l y d i s t i n c t i o n he makes i s i n t h e d i v i s i o n o f h i s e s t a t e death bed,  does m a i n t a i n  on h i s supposed  b u t t h a t i s a m a t t e r o f j u d i c i a l concern where t h e law,  custom and by S c r i p t u r e s , demands t h a t the  inheritance.  Even on t h i s o c c a s i o n  both B l i f i l ' s  and Jones's i n h e r i t a n c e s  The  supported  r e l a t i v e s r e c e i v e most o f an  he t r e a t s them e q u a l l y i n one sense, f o r a r e as g r e a t as j u d i c i a l and r e l i g i o u s  72 considerations remarkable relative  since  other  illegitimate indeed,  will the  child  the  Western's made o f  is  sister,  to  a serving g i r l be  able  treatment  of  his  of  i m p a r t i a l i t y are  A l l w o r t h y ' s knowledge,  and the  to  Since  latter  of  elements  Western's  These i n s t a n c e s  one b o y i s ,  than h i s  divine  negligent.  allow.  o t h e r boy i s ,  love  only  the  child  is,  in  teens,  enter  is  not possible  and A l l w o r t h y ' s e x e c u t i o n  of  parental duties,  education.  Basically,  she  living  the  Allworthy  comparison,  it  Sophia's  late  more  has,  two c h i l d r e n e q u a l l y .  n e i t h e r Western nor Sophia a c t i v e l y  i n her  only  supposedly,  and a s c h o o l m a s t e r .  to  his  even  to  had none,  exceptionally  the  novel  compare but  not  until  closely  some m e n t i o n  entirely  is  unusual  17 for  a girl  suitable  of  the  for a  female  S o p h i a was  eleven  hand,  is  this  period,  seems t o  t o be e x p e c t e d ,  When S o p h i a r e t u r n s  his  violent  affection  (II,  subject  to  house  feelings,  at  c o n t r o l , while  love  depends  d o g s more t h a n h i s  On t h e  b u t even  360).  any p a r e n t a l  age  in  eighteen,  these  Allworthy  is  there  Western's  child. Western  is  a  clear as  having  but Western " r e a l l y doated  love  for his  of  reason.  is  a  on  reasoned  daughter  is  a  Moreover,  bestowed  daughter  Allworthy's affection  199).  himself On t h e  described  A l l w o r t h y ' s love  one  authority a  on p r o x i m i t y and i s (I,  until  relatives.  s h e was n o l o n g e r about  loved ones, I,  upon h e r a u n t .  exercised  and W e s t e r n .  also  on h e r m o t h e r  h a n d l e d by female  i n Sophia u n t i l  for his  knowledge  Western c o u l d h a r d l y i n s t r u c t her  been  father's  841; s e e  and then  and impetuous p a s s i o n w i t h no semblance  Western's his  her  between A l l w o r t h y  Daughter"  passion,  to  strong paternal  deep and t e n d e r  devolved e n t i r e l y  seem t o h a v e  o r d e m o n s t r a t e d much i n t e r e s t  distinction  since  c o u l d b e s t have  h a n d , Western does n o t  does e x h i b i t  have  (when h e r m o t h e r d i e d )  and h e r e d u c a t i o n other  b u t h e r u p b r i n g i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n i n  unnaturally:  he is  loves constant.  73 He  l o v e s h i s wards as i n f a n t s , as c h i l d r e n and as young a d u l t s .  Western  seems t o i g n o r e Sophia u n t i l she i s a young a d u l t , and then h i s a f f e c t i o n grows by l e a p s and bounds, a s s i s t e d , i t seems, by s t r o n g p r i d e i n h e r p h y s i c a l charms. l o v e s h i s own  Nonetheless,he  still  l o v e s h i s p l e a s u r e more than  he  c h i l d , which i n d i c a t e s some l a c k o f p a r e n t a l duty, and h i s  e x e r c i s e o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , m o t i v a t e d by h i s unreasoned h i s incompetence as a p a r e n t .  love,  indicates  Western's m i s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s duty and  the  dangers o f h i s v e r s i o n o f p a r e n t a l a f f e c t i o n are most c l e a r l y seen i n the treatment o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y c o n c e r n i n g m a r r i a g e . P a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i n marriage than any o t h e r k i n d o f a u t h o r i t y . a u t h o r i t y over marriage  r e c e i v e s more o f F i e l d i n g ' s emphasis  The q u e s t i o n o f the degree  of p a r e n t a l  i s i n t e g r a l t o the p l o t and i s a l s o examined i n  s e v e r a l minor s k e t c h e s and s u b - p l o t s .  The p a r e n t s and g u a r d i a n s i n the  n o v e l , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f Mrs. M i l l e r , are d i v i d e d i n t o camps.  In  one  camp are S q u i r e Western, Mr. N i g h t i n g a l e , h i s b r o t h e r , the Quaker and  the  p a r e n t s o f the Andersons.  Mr.  In the opposing  camp i s S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y .  N i g h t i n g a l e ' s b r o t h e r n o m i n a l l y agrees w i t h A l l w o r t h y ' s p h i l o s o p h y , b u t h i s a c t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the marriage Western's camp.  o f h i s daughter prove h i s a l l i a n c e w i t h  Western dt at.think  that a parent's authority i s absolute  and t h a t the main c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a r r a n g i n g a marriage c i t i n g God  i s money.  Allworthy,  and n a t u r e , g i v e s the p a r e n t a n e g a t i v e vote o n l y ( I I , 957) , and  c o n s i d e r s l o v e t o be the most important element i n a m a r r i a g e . emphasis on l o v e i n marriage . of S c r i p t u r e ,  i s , o f c o u r s e , i n accordance  Allworthy's  w i t h many  passages  18 and i t seems t o be F i e l d i n g ' s , s i n c e m  the q u e s t i o n i n Tom lOYlQA where the happiness  each t r e a t m e n t  of  marriages based on l o v e are shown as happy, except  i s marred by an i r a t e p a r e n t , and marriages based  on  74 anything else  are  unhappy.  The t h e o r e t i c a l The t h e o r y ' s and i t s child  main e x p r e s s i o n  basis  as  is  that  affluent  midst of  that  happiest  Man i n  [him]  position  as  the  possible,  World"  heart  (II,  and o t h e r s  and w e l l - b e i n g  he  daughter's expressed  I,  subject  The b a s i s  and F i e l d i n g in  conflict  untenable  when t h e  happiness  of  Western's)  is  unhappiness  good,  to  the  for wealth  the  to the  as  with  that  is  reasonable  but the  either  of  existence  similarity is is  the of  a parent's make h i s  position  ingredient. is  position  of  the  any form o f  family.  union.  a temporary e v i l which w i l l  s u p e r f i c i a l , because and the  evil  not  the is  die  happiness no  implication, age  not  and  on  the  332),  implied position, It  is  the  even  This motive will  Although i t result  in  more  supposed (Mrs. cause appears a  "good" o f m a r r y i n g  real.  gee  happiest  I,  g o o d n e s s when i t  the  the  were  (see  "the  his  greater  it  untenable. is  his  child  Western's  consideration  principals in  limited,  if  e n j o i n e d by S c r i p t u r e  authorities,  i r r e c o n c i l a b l e with  o r rank  side,  the  Sophia  receive  other  know w h a t w i l l  in  will  he h a s  oUL) ,  his  is  for  is  added t o which i s  parent or guardian's  child,  (it  that  it  love  i n w h i c h he w i l l  philosophy is  seeing  he w i l l  884),  a necessary these  [him],  his  nt  make W e s t e r n  refuses  that  335  child  (II,  a very  love  she  non-existent. (I,  in  the  will  preserve  and i f  a matter  wisdom t o  T h i s w o u l d be  Blifil  interesting  of Western's  o f m a r r i a g e , where  tradition  similar  over  at heart  g i v e s him the  is  ha'un"  camp, i n c r e d i b l y s e l f i s h  i n an argument f o r t h e  776).  which i s  It  shatunt  how m i s e r a b l e  "it will  everything"  in his for)  best interest  experience (see  argues  of  basically,  great pleasure  marriage to  838),  839).  makes W e s t e r n ,  direct benefit.  (II,  i f  receive  regardles  Life,  camp i s ,  " d — n me t h e n  Sophia's  Health, Happiness,  and b r e a k h i s  is  parent w i l l  affluence. the  of Western's  lasting solely  75 Allworthy's  camp i s f a r more a r t i c u l a t e , which suggests t h a t t h e r e i s  more o f an argument t o p r e s e n t here.  The argument a g a i n s t a p a r e n t f o r c i n g  h i s c h i l d i n t o a marriage f o r monetary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i s g i v e n by Mr. N i g h t i n g a l e ' s b r o t h e r b e f o r e he r e v e a l s t h a t h i s membership i n A l l w o r t h y ' s camp i s o n l y t h e o r e t i c a l .  He p o i n t s o u t t h a t  t o p r e s c r i b e Rules o f Happiness t o o t h e r s , h a t h always appeared t o me v e r y absurd, and t o i n s i s t on d o i n g t h i s v e r y t y r a n n i c a l . . . . And i f t h i s be absurd i n o t h e r Things, i t i s m o s t l y so i n the A f f a i r o f M a r r i a g e , t h e Happiness o f which depends e n t i r e l y on the A f f e c t i o n which s u b s i s t s between the P a r t i e s . ( I I , 776) He  a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e i l l o g i c i n d i s i n h e r i t i n g a c h i l d because he p r e v e n t s  the p a r e n t  from making him even r i c h e r than he would have been w i t h t h e  o r i g i n a l l y intended  inheritance.  As F i e l d i n g p o i n t s out, however, these  arguments, though r a t i o n a l l y unanswerable, have no e f f e c t on " h a b i t u a l avarice." Allworthy  i s more concerned w i t h the r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t o f the matter:  i s i t n o t c r u e l , nay impious, t o f o r c e a Woman i n t o t h a t S t a t e a g a i n s t her W i l l ; f o r h e r B e h a v i o u r i n which she i s t o be accountable t o the h i g h e s t and most d r e a d f u l Court o f J u d i c a t u r e , and t o answer a t the P e r i l o f h e r S o u l . To d i s c h a r g e the M a t r i m o n i a l D u t i e s i n an adequate Manner i s no easy Task, and s h a l l we l a y t h i s Burthen upon a Woman, w h i l e we a t the same Time d e p r i v e h e r o f a l l t h a t A s s i s t a n c e which may enable h e r t o undergo i t ? S h a l l we t e a r her v e r y H e a r t from h e r , w h i l e we e n j o i n h e r D u t i e s t o which a whole H e a r t i s s c a r c e e q u a l . . . . i s t h e r e a S o u l who can b e a r the Thought o f h a v i n g c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e Damnation o f h i s C h i l d ? ( I I , 883-84) The  o n l y problem w i t h A l l w o r t h y ' s  Thought o f h a v i n g  argument i s t h a t no one c a n bear  "the  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the Damnation o f h i s C h i l d , " so no one,  l e a s t o f a l l Western, w i l l admit the p o s s i b i l i t y s e l f i s h n e s s i s as s t r o n g as h a b i t u a l a v a r i c e .  (see I I , 884).  Habitual  76 The  f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d by Mrs. Honour when she p o i n t s  out t h a t i t i s Sophia who i s " t o go t o Bed t o him [ B l i f i l ] , (I,  291-92).  and n o t Master"  F i e l d i n g h i m s e l f expands on t h i s p o i n t , p r o b a b l y  comparison he makes would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an A l l w o r t h y Honour's u n d e r s t a n d i n g . "legal Prostitution  because the  and beyond  F i e l d i n g c a l l s f o r c i n g a c h i l d t o marry f o r money  for Hire"  ( I I , 866), and draws a comparison between  bawds and p a r e n t s who so t r e a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  He c o n t i n u e s  thus:  t h i s Resemblance would be e x a c t , was i t n o t t h a t the Bawd hath an I n t e r e s t i n what she doth, and the F a t h e r , though perhaps he may b l i n d l y t h i n k o t h e r w i s e , can i n R e a l i t y have none i n u r g i n g h i s Daughter t o almost an equal P r o s t i t u t i o n . ( I I , 840) Although the argument c o u l d h o l d as t r u e f o r f a t h e r s f o r c i n g t h e i r sons t o marry (as Mr. N i g h t i n g a l e attempted t o d o ) , F i e l d i n g p r o b a b l y  d i d n o t have  t h i s aspect o f t h e problem i n mind. A g a i n s t Western's camp, then, is  illogical,  impious and verges on the immoral, b u t the crux o f the m a t t e r  i n v o l v e s the r i g h t o f the p a r e n t is  t h a t a parent's  Allworthy voice  are the considerations that i t s p o s i t i o n  to control h i s c h i l d .  a u t h o r i t y over h i s c h i l d i s a b s o l u t e  Western's p o s i t i o n ( I I , 884), b u t  contends t h a t God and Nature a l l o w a p a r e n t no more than a n e g a t i v e  ( I I , 957). C e r t a i n l y t h a t i s a l l the p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y Allworthy  claims.  Western f e e l s t h a t God a l l o w s him more, f o r he suggests  Allworthy  t e l l S o p h i a o f the d r e a d f u l punishment " i n t ' o t h e r World" f o r d i s o b e d i e n c e (II, and  945) .  N e i t h e r s i d e , however, p r e s e n t s  the problem can be reduced t o :  a p o i n t o f theology  any support  fori t s position,  do we b e l i e v e A l l w o r t h y  and n a t u r a l r i g h t ?  o r Western on  S i n c e i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t  A l l w o r t h y has some r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y and he e x e r c i s e s h i s i n h e r e n t sense  77 of  right  and wrong  support of parental  the  (see  aspect  constant  control father  in  towards  is  end"  comic  of  influence  reason  falls  novel  in  the  has  the  against  absolute  novel,  or,  is  Since  for  suggest that  Stoicism.  human a u t h o r i t i e s  are in  the  of  no i n o r d i n a t e  prominence  the  degree  success  as  in  simply  the  over-  authorities.  which w i l l  words,  wards,  and  impression  "everything w i l l  other  his  religious  parental  a position the  with  a favourable  and s e l f i s h of  education  demands  because h i s  controlling authority  he e x e r c i s e s authority  assist  turn  treatment  out of  Of  Tom a n d all  right  parental  be  bases  Tom JontA,  for  the  three  usually  seldom  it  religion  other  all  very  is  (and t h e n has  hand,  in Allworthy's  the  actively since  based  indirect  on,  demonstrated the  in  character,  consequent  with  direct  or at  respect expressed  and t h e i r  especially  limited  an i m p o r t a n t  from m o r a l i t y and v i r t u e  On t h e  for  authority  Tom JonZA t h o u g h seems t o  figure  j u d i c i a l and p a r e n t a l  authority)' religion  C h r i s t i a n i t y and S t o i c i s m , they  the  the  optimism.  the  and r e l i g i o u s  in  in  in  Allworthy is  Allworthy's general  creating  favour  novel's  then,  in  element i n  indistinguishable of,  considered,  discipline  errors,  incompetent  Much o f w h a t  reminiscent the  the  on a u t h o r i t y  is  tempers  his  j u d i c i a l or parental  influence. course,  of  consideration  the  atmosphere,  authority.  of  in  another  furthers  some f r e q u e n c y , support  Despite  Allworthy is  Allworthy, of  careful  authority  effect  that  authority  types  weight  parental authority  instrumental  Sophia to marry i s the  Allworthy's position  and, most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  return.  figure  whelms t h e  in  the  affection,  p h i l o s o p h i c a l wisdom,  course,  of  He e x e r c i s e s  demonstrates  reader  and s i n c e  authority.  exemplar.  a  80),  narrative voice,  In every  of  I,  of  least  throughout  importance, secular  and  C h r i s t i a n i t y and,  to  78 some e x t e n t , These  the  Stoicism  strong bases,  authority  figure,  considered  added t o  the  a u t h o r i t y makes  there  is  d i r e c t i o n and s t r e n g t h  is  control  for  in  exercising  ending is  is  crucial  (see  p p 20-21  that  the  novel of  important i n  w o r l d view i n behind the  above),  c o n t r o l so  inevitable. to  the  the  existence  make a u t h o r i t y  sense of  in  that  The t r e a t m e n t  p e r v a d i n g sense  of  the  one  frequently strong,  novel  events  a strong  evil  a passing  of  authority  optimism.  in  prevalent  very optimistic  i n the  novel.  instrument shadow the  authority.  controlling  Tom JonZi>, a n d t h e  and has is  concern  Providence in  Allworthy  and the  novel,  because  happy  therefore,  79 OPTIMISTIC BENEVOLISM VERSUS MURPHY'S LAW  kmzLLa.,  i n some ways, demonstrates the importance o f a s t r o n g o r  a c t i v e good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e t o an o p t i m i s t i c w o r l d view more c l e a r l y do 3o6Z.ph AndAZiM  o r Tom Jone4, because i n Amelia  than  the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e  main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e as a good man and a P r o v i d e n t i a l agent i s n o t c o n v i n c i n g , and the n o v e l ' s pessimism i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y t r a c e a b l e t o t h i s source.  Moreover, Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s emergence a t the end o f the n o v e l  as a s t r o n g P r o v i d e n t i a l agent i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the sudden to  optimism  shift  (although n e i t h e r the optimism n o r Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s new s t r e n g t h  is entirely convincing).  Amenta's pessimism, d e s p i t e t h e d i d a c t i c and  sometimes heavy-handed treatment  o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , a l s o demonstrates t h a t  even the b a s i c optimism o f C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h o u t c r e a t e an o p t i m i s t i c w o r l d view.  an e f f e c t i v e agent does n o t  Moreover, the g e n e r a l u n o b t r u s i v e n e s s o f  the a u t h o r i a l v o i c e , t h e l a c k o f o t h e r e f f e c t i v e sympathetic  c h a r a c t e r s , and  Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s absence through much o f t h e n o v e l , combined w i t h the p r e v a l e n c e e v i l c h a r a c t e r s and a somewhat sombre p l o t , g i v e AmnZLci by f a r  of powerful  the d a r k e s t w o r l d view o f any o f F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s . of  On the o t h e r hand, some  the h a p p i e r elements o f t h e n o v e l depend on Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s a u t h o r i t y , which  along with  f r e q u e n t s u p p o r t i v e comments from sympathetic  F i e l d i n g ' s persona, authority  e s t a b l i s h H a r r i s o n ' s A,YVt<LYld(Ld p o s i t i o n as a "good"  figure.  kmolMl  has never been c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l n o v e l among  general readers. satiric  c h a r a c t e r s and from  T h i s i s , perhaps, because t h e r e are t o o many comic and  touches t o p l e a s e a p e s s i m i s t i c mind and f a r t o o much pessimism and  80 b i t t e r n e s s f o r the good n a t u r e d r e a d e r who would f i n d F i e l d i n g ' s o t h e r n o v e l s appealing.  kmoIMl  has been c a l l e d "the most i n t e l l e c t u a l "  1  of Fielding's  n o v e l s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which would n o t a s s i s t i t s p o p u l a r i t y among the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , and the d i d a c t i c i s m apparent i n JoAZpk AndA,2JMl> and Tom JoneA has escaped  the bounds o f a s i d e s , d i s c o u r s e s and s u b t l e f l a v o u r i n g o f t h e  s t o r y l i n e t o become an i n t e g r a l , even major, a s p e c t o f the p l o t and theme. Worse, i n terms o f p o p u l a r i t y , the d i d a c t i c i s m and i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m are seldom o f the " t h i s i s how i t s h o u l d be" v a r i e t y , but much more o f t e n a r e the dogmatic " t h i s v i l e , c o r r u p t , d i s g u s t i n g p i c t u r e i s how i t i s . "  Of  course, the d i d a c t i c i s m can be handled i n such a way t h a t those who " l o v e 2 a tender emotion"  w i l l race t o buy the n o v e l , b u t t h e r e s h o u l d be u n d e n i a b l y  good c h a r a c t e r s b e s e t by u n d e n i a b l y e v i l c h a r a c t e r s . There are very few such b l a c k and white d i s t i n c t i o n s i n  AmdJLLa.  Booth, who i s the main c h a r a c t e r i n the n o v e l d e s p i t e the t i t l e ,  c o u l d have  been a b a s i c a l l y good c h a r a c t e r , a f l e d g l i n g "good man" l i k e Jones, t h a t h i s e r r o r s have f a r too d i s a s t r o u s an e f f e c t on the i n n o c e n t Amelia.  except  martyr  Who c o u l d r e a l l y l i k e Booth a f t e r he squanders t h e i r l i t t l e sum  and c o n t r a c t s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e debt gambling,  w h i l e Amelia  s i t s a t home  denying h e r s e l f h a l f a p i n t o f wine because they cannot a f f o r d i t ? D r . H a r r i s o n h i m s e l f , the c o u n t e r p a r t o f A l l w o r t h y , although o b v i o u s l y i n t e n d e d as an undeniably good c h a r a c t e r , i s a t times so u n l i k e a b l e t h a t he encourages the r e a d e r t o deface the margins o f the book w i t h o p p r o b r i o u s comments.  On  the o t h e r hand, few o f the e v i l c h a r a c t e r s are developed enough f o r the  reader  to  hate them, and many o f them have t h e i r good p o i n t s .  C o l o n e l James, f o r  example, i s r e a l l y Booth's f r i e n d u n t i l l u s t f o r Amelia s i d e t r a c k s him. Even L o r d  may have been c o n t r i t e about the e f f e c t h i s a c t i o n s had on  81 Mrs. Bennett and h e r f a m i l y .  He may even r e a l l y l i k e c h i l d r e n .  In f a c t ,  o f the prominent c h a r a c t e r s , none can be c a t e g o r i z e d as completely  evil,  and o n l y Amelia i s c l e a r l y a good c h a r a c t e r , though even she has g r a t e d on the nerves o f many r e a d e r s who o b j e c t t o h e r p r o p e n s i t y t o c r y and f a i n t . Another probable organization.  source  o f the u n p o p u l a r i t y o f  kmeJLixL i s i t s  The n o v e l begins -in me.dU.OA HJLA and i n c l u d e s lengthy  o f two minor c h a r a c t e r s .  The second h i s t o r y , t h a t o f Mrs. Bennett, i s  necessary  t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t she i s a good c h a r a c t e r , which i s i n t u r n  necessary  t o prove t h a t L o r d  completely  histories  i s an e v i l c h a r a c t e r , b u t much o f i t i s  extraneous t o the p l o t .  I t c o v e r s , moreover, e i g h t c h a p t e r s . Mrs.  Matthews' h i s t o r y i s almost e n t i r e l y extraneous, and i t takes up three chapters. books.  two complete  I n o t h e r words, s l i g h t l y over t h r e e books out o f twelve take  before  place  the main s t o r y b e g i n s , and n e a r l y an e n t i r e book c o u l d be o m i t t e d  without has  The background o f the n o v e l , r e l a t e d by Booth, covers  a b b r e v i a t i n g the main s t o r y a t a l l .  a purpose.  This e x t r a m a t e r i a l , o f course,  I n f a c t , both e x t r a h i s t o r i e s , and the b r i e f backgrounds o f  a few o t h e r minor c h a r a c t e r s , e s t a b l i s h the same harsh w o r l d e v i d e n t i n the r e s t o f kmeXXxi. world  The e f f e c t o f these h i s t o r i e s , then, i s t o prove t h a t t h e  o f AmeJLLa. i s the r e a l w o r l d , t h a t s e r i o u s m i s f o r t u n e s  and t h a t n o t h i n g e x i s t s t o p r o t e c t t h e i n n o c e n t .  b e f a l l nice  people,  Unfortunately, the authority  f i g u r e a c t i n g as a w o r l d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Providence  i s seldom p r e s e n t , and  can o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l events when he i s p r e s e n t . S u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e end o f kmeXAM. takes an abrupt  turn.  Booth i s c o n v e r t e d  t o a c t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y , which e s t a b l i s h e s a channel f o r a u t h o r i t y , and ensures t h a t Dr. H a r r i s o n w i l l i n f l u e n c e and c o n t r o l Booth so t h a t he w i l l ' . n o t squander Amelia's new-found f o r t u n e .  Moreover, t h e main c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e s t o r y r e t u r n  82 to  D r . H a r r i s o n ' s p a s t o r a l domain,  for  exercising  his  authority.  end of the-novel w i t h  the  so  Even  that  he w i l l  i n the  introduction of  city,  have  frequent  authority is  opportunities  reborn at  a good and c o n s c i e n t i o u s  the  magistrate,  3 and the chain  "hand o f  of  events  Providence" i s causing  authority  of  money,  overthrown.  is  fellowship,  evident,  Robinson's  Lord ;  to  confession.  and C o l o n e l The w o r l d a t  and b e n e v o l e n t  even  an e v i l A t the  character,  same  the  false  the  the  KmdHLa. shows man a n d God i n  authority in  c o n t r o l of  events  derived  the  James o v e r end o f  Booths,  time,  in  from  affecting  the  main  characters. Unfortunately, be  argued that  were the  Booth's  responsible intervention  therefore,  this  given  been  Fielding's  Fielding's  reject  the  theory  onizes  his  audience  help  until  were  necessary  prepare  Fielding's hardships  and dependence  on w o r l d l y p h i l o s o p h y  but  that  other  intent, over,  but in  evil,  this  Even  the  world.  assumption  far too  hardships  if  that  and t h a t in  this  long before  unwilling were  novel  is  the  next  most  to  hardships in to  likely-  l i m i t e d because world is  to  reserva-  P r o v i d e n c e was  is  to  evidence  Him w i t h o u t Booth's  that  antag-  world are necessary  explanation  the  there  and  heretical  caused him  God was  accept  One i s  fold,  application in  that  acceptable  The s e c o n d  large part,  is  such an i m p l i c a t i o n w o u l d  explanations.  the  possible  The a s s u m p t i o n  own f a i t h w o u l d h a v e  u r g i n g Booth to  the  could  some r a t h e r u n o r t h o d o x ,  situation  that  It  c o n v e r s i o n made  u n l i k e l y assumptions.  Fielding's  that  its  and h i s  requires  c o n t r o l the  God was  is  next  of  H i m c o u l d o n l y be  two p o s s i b l e  f o r the  are  atheism  to b r i n g him back t o  and the one  believable.  consideration  did not.  novel  There are  control,  intent: the  not especially  faith,  unable t o  B o o t h came t o  throughout the tion:  if  is  ascendance  Providence,  God o r P r o v i d e n c e was have  virtual  f o r the of  reversal  an  the  imminent  83 possibility  f o r Booth and A m e l i a .  The f i r s t  explanation  does n o t seem v a l i d  because Amelia s u f f e r s f a r more than Booth and she i s a l r e a d y Christian. his  I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s a book o f sermons, n o t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  s i n s and f o l l i e s , t h a t c o n v e r t s  c o n t r o l , why a r e such c h a r a c t e r s The  a sincere  Booth.  Moreover, i f P r o v i d e n c e i s i n  as Mr. Bennett and Miss Matthews d e s t r o y e d ?  h a r s h w o r l d so t h o r o u g h l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the d i g r e s s i o n s cannot be  r e f u t e d by a m e l i o r a t i o n o f one scene i n t h a t w o r l d .  Consequently, t h e  r e s t o r a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i s u n c o n v i n c i n g , and, a l t h o u g h Booth and Amelia may be p r o t e c t e d by P r o v i d e n c e from the end o f the n o v e l  t o e t e r n i t y , the  p r e v a i l i n g sense i s t h a t they have escaped from a c h a o t i c , c o r r u p t w o r l d , n o t t h a t chaos and c o r r u p t i o n have been overcome. retirement  Irwin  o f the Booths i n t o the c o u n t r y r e p r e s e n t s  Eventually,  f o r Booth, Amelia and o t h e r  comments t h a t "the  an admission o f d e f e a t . "  i n h a b i t a n t s o f Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s  parish,  l i f e i s seen t o be under the a u t h o r i t y and d i r e c t i o n o f Dr. H a r r i s o n and Providence.  F o r the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ,  life  i s s t i l l the p l a y t h i n g o f  i n j u s t i c e and c o r r u p t i o n . T h i s treatment o f l i f e makes AmeJLla. a t l e a s t p a r t l y a comment on c o r r u p t contemporary l e g a l and s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , which i s n o t  simultaneously  consistent with a presentation  o f good and i n f l u e n t i a l a u t h o r i t y .  innocent  are unrewarded, and the g u i l t y and w o r t h l e s s  triumph.  s u f f e r , the d e s e r v i n g  The  The law and i t s enforcement t r e a t p o v e r t y as the g r e a t e s t  crime, and w e a l t h as a g e n e r a l pardon, w h i l e s o c i e t y e n f o r c e s on a p r i v a t e l e v e l .  As Didgeon p o i n t s o u t " F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l  possible  the same r u l e s clearly  sets  5 f o r t h the power w i t h which s o c i e t y endows w e a l t h . " powerful characters  are t r e a t e d u n s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y ,  the poor a r e t r e a t e d s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y .  In  kmzJLla., the r i c h ,  w h i l e a t l e a s t some o f  Worst are those who a r e n e i t h e r  rich  84 nor poor in  (the  some way  live  elements of they  are  working middle off  satire  the  do p r o v i d e  a strongly  The d i f f e r e n c e works  c a n be in  himself  appears;  all  second  chapter  of  novel,  authority  three  several  in  in  figure  the  end o f  the  presentation  the  the  is  meaningless,  VIII. of  the  the  his  room.  On t h e  is  begin  to  of  of  Dr. Harrison,  background to  the  fourth chapter n o one  knows  it  He d o e s n o t become  other only  is  entirely  In  fact,  the  hand, there one  other  is  of  the  was  of  does n o t  sixth  an a u t h o r i t y  nominal  figure  t h a n H a r r i s o n who i s  Adams,  of  a  chapter  the  of  is  take  and then h i s the  kmoJLia.  until during  a hand appearance  children's  u n t i l the  presented  almost  of  novel  course,  the  the  The m a i n  does n o t  in  hero  brief,  sentencing  enter  book,  force  The  with  people.  he who s c a t t e r e d  an e f f e c t i v e  author  the  figure,  This,  Harrison  first  Tom Jonzs* d e a l s  second  guilty  book.  story;  The  chapters.  i n c l u d i n g the  several  second  the  authority.  earlier  and i n t r o d u c e s  chapter of  However,  of  the  second  a brief history  justice,  novel,  since  the  scenes.  they  of  i n which the  main a u t h o r i t y  Bridget.  of  of  opening  unfold in  The s e c o n d  of  because  However,  any good p r e s e n t a t i o n  their  gives  and r e l e a s e  chapter  novel,  main f o c u s .  who  These  b e t w e e n KmzJLia. a n d F i e l d i n g ' s  people the  from the  biographical style,  novel.  sister  its  to  on t h o s e  p o o r and u n f o r t u n a t e .  a n i n t r o d u c t o r y one  miscarriages  u n t i l the  hmoJLLa., t h e  a n d he  not  balance  attitude  plots  third  in  about  in  the  Squire A l l w o r t h y , the  several  plot  novel,  negative  a facetious  with  innocent  authority  the  of  good a u t h o r i t y  3o£>Q.ph Andn&JM  of  comic p o r t r a i t o f deals with  in  novels  the  figure  exclusively  exclude  because F i e l d i n g focuses  seen by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  chapter  the  distresses  do n o t  only elements  class),  end o f  second at  any  toys  Book  chapter length,  corrupt. attitude  created  in  the  r e a d e r towards  law and j u s t i c e  in  85  AmzZia the  is  concept  justice not  unfavourable.  is  people,  ideal  still  criminals.  earthly justice  does n o t  apply to  choked out by the  favour criminals,  and F i e l d i n g  He a r g u e s  justice  completely  corrupt  favouring  of  The i d e a o f  Injustice, realizes  of  the  law.  as  a manifestation  the w o r l d o f  kmoXJLa., b e c a u s e  Even the m a g i s t r a t e s  because  the  course,  is  reaction his  law i t s e l f  of  is  who a r e  shown  as  c u s t o m a r i l y b l a m e d on u n j u s t grimmer p o s i t i o n w i l l  encourage.  that, i t w i l l p r o b a b l y be o b j e c t e d , t h a t t h e s m a l l i m p e r f e c t i o n s w h i c h [he i s ] a b o u t t o p r o d u c e d o n o t l i e i n t h e laws t h e m s e l v e s , b u t i n t h e i l l e x e c u t i o n o f t h e m ; b u t , w i t h s u b m i s s i o n , t h i s a p p e a r s t o [him] t o be n o l e s s an a b s u r d i t y t h a n t o s a y o f any m a c h i n e t h a t i t i s e x c e l l e n t l y made, t h o u g h i n c a p a b l e o f performing i t s functions. Good laws s h o u l d e x e c u t e themselves i n a w e l l - r e g u l a t e d s t a t e . . . . (I,  In in  the  little  fact,  the  execution to  of  imperfections the  laws,  do w i t h T h r a s h e r ' s  r e a d any o f  the  introduced at  because court.  l a w b y w h i c h he  the  laws  We f i n d  this  5-6) p o i n t i n the  themselves  plot  seem t o h a v e  t h a t M r . T h r a s h e r has  s u p p o s e d l y was  to  judge h i s  cases,  are very  never and  that  although w h e r e mere i g n o r a n c e i s t o d e c i d e a p o i n t b e t w e e n two l i t i g a n t s , i t w i l l a l w a y s be an e v e n c h a n c e w h e t h e r i t decides r i g h t o r wrong: b u t s o r r y am I t o s a y , r i g h t was o f t e n i n a much w o r s e s i t u a t i o n t h a n t h i s , a n d w r o n g h a t h o f t e n h a d f i v e h u n d r e d t o one o n h i s s i d e b e f o r e t h a t m a g i s t r a t e . . . . T o speak the t r u t h p l a i n l y , t h e j u s t i c e was n e v e r i n d i f f e r e n t i n a c a u s e b u t when he c o u l d g e t n o t h i n g on e i t h e r s i d e . (I, O n l y one  of  the  considerations, the in  other  four  two v i c t i m s ,  five  cases,  resulting in cases one  are  however,  offers  the m a g i s t r a t e  7)  any p e c u n i a r y  an i n n o c e n t w i t n e s s b e i n g s e n t t o p r i s o n ,  j u d g e d w i t h n o common s e n s e  good S a m a r i t a n ,  a n d one h o n e s t  or honesty,  yet  resulting  servant being sent  to  86 prison.  It  probable,  since  The  five  negative  instances  followed  that  in  the  of  attributed  Justice  there  is  money t o  in  .  .  plot  injustice  real  law a n d i t s  In g e n e r a l ,  for  i f  not  This the  it,  extremely  initial the  negative in  that  all  able  to  counteract  it.  and,  in  fact,  though the  conscientious further  the  even  When B e t t y , establishes  the  Allworthy  of  We d o n o t h a v e two  are  obviously  e n o u g h money  to  make  a n d some who h a v e however,  (I,  the  the  n o money  t o u c h e d by  and d a u g h t e r ,  support  stolen"  be  enough  have  "the  former,  latter  and  law,  especially  an e f f e c t  so  when  the  novel,  other magistrates  in  the  novel  law,  the  the  law i t s e l f  it  unfavourable  Squire Allworthy would s c a r c e l y  the  an  17)?  in  of  where  In F i e l d i n g ' s p r i s o n ,  father  creates  by  is  chapters  is  Who w o u l d n o t  of  line  an A l l w o r t h y  a knowledge  be  however, are  works  good, to  bad i m p r e s s i o n . Amelia's maid,  necessity uses  be  novel,  and benevolence  and have  initial  to  two  of  followed  The same  The i n n o c e n t ,  presentation  the  execution,  effect  enjoyable,  i n order to  knowing i t  impression  justice  a loaf,  consist  many o f w h i c h  the  the  conviction.  then,  next  c r i m i n a l s who h a v e  most h e a r t - r e n d i n g s c e n e s .  receiving  the  heartstrings.  immediately.  for stealing  in a  kmdZXxL,  of  prison in  reader's  of  results  are p r e s e n t e d ,  Thrasher.  o n l y make c e r t a i n  and c o r r u p t i o n .  the  injustice  be b a i l e d a l m o s t  .committed  that  justice  d y i n g man a n d a y o u n g women i n r a g s . ,  former  is  legal  t u g on the  the  this  the  a prison tolerable  and p r e s e n t aged,  rank  an a s s o r t m e n t  existence  to  about the  description of  of  calculated to  pages o f  comments  more e x a m p l e s to  a bribe  any i n d i c a t i o n o f p o v e r t y  first  Fielding's several  appears  of  against  steals  her mistress's  linen,  h a v i n g h e r p u n i s h e d on much t h e Jones's  indiscriminate  Booth  same  forgiveness.  grounds The  result  87 of the t r i a l ,  then, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y unjust.  Although  " i t happened, by  v e r y g r e a t a c c i d e n t , t h a t the j u s t i c e b e f o r e whom the g i r l was understood cality.  the law"  brought  ( I I , 254), t h i s knowledge f r e e s the t h i e f on a t e c h n i -  Moreover, the good e f f e c t a good m a g i s t r a t e has d e s p i t e the i n h e r e n t  i n j u s t i c e i n the law he e n f o r c e s i s somewhat negated by F i e l d i n g ' s comment "by v e r y g r e a t a c c i d e n t , " which suggests  t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f m a g i s t r a t e s  are i g n o r a n t o f the law and p r o b a b l y v e r y much l i k e T h r a s h e r .  The  o t h e r good  m a g i s t r a t e , good enough f o r the f a v o u r a b l e c h a r a c t e r s t o d i n e w i t h him, has problems w i t h the law.  T h i s m a g i s t r a t e , though he was  alsb  j u s t s i t t i n g down  to h i s d i n n e r and very t i r e d w i t h " p u b l i c b u s i n e s s , " r e s o l v e s " t o postpone a l l refreshment  u n t i l he had d i s c h a r g e d h i s duty"  attends t o Murphy's t r i a l . the law seems determined  ( I I , 297),  and  immediately  A l s o , he l a t e r stands b a i l f o r Booth.  t o p r e v e n t j u s t i c e , f o r the m a g i s t r a t e  a s e a r c h warrant t o s e a r c h Murphy's house f o r the t i t l e because no t a n g i b l e p r o p e r t y has been s t o l e n . .  The w a r r a n t i s f i n a l l y made be done.  On  f a v o u r a b l e e f f e c t , and comes a t  the end o f the^novel when t h e r e remains l i t t l e o f the i n i t i a l to emphasize the problems w i t h the law.  cannot g r a n t  deeds o f the e s t a t e  out t o s e a r c h f o r a mere s i l v e r cup i n o r d e r t h a t j u s t i c e may the o t h e r hand, t h i s scene c r e a t e s a mainly  However,  bad  impression  The e f f e c t , then, i s t h a t j u s t i c e ,  as an a s p e c t o f a u t h o r i t y , as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  1, has been r e s t o r e d .  P a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y appears i n o n l y m a r g i n a l l y b e t t e r l i g h t than j u d i c i a l authority.  P a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i s v e r y l i t t l e emphasized, d e s p i t e the  o f a number o f p a r e n t s i n the n o v e l , e s p e c i a l l y good p a r e n t a l behaviour,  s i n c e , i n the i n s t a n c e s o f  authority i s v i r t u a l l y ignored.  Instead of a set  o f bad examples c o u n t e r a c t e d by v e r y good examples, as i n Tom Joftg-6, i n s t a n c e s o f good behaviour  presence  the  cover d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s than those of bad  or  88 weak b e h a v i o u r so t h a t the u n f a v o u r a b l e e f f e c t of the  latter  remains.  However, p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i s t r e a t e d so b r i e f l y t h a t i t s u n f a v o u r a b l e e f f e c t i s almost u n n o t i c e a b l e ,  and  o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i s t h a t one  the main s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the  treatment  k i n d of p o s s i b l e c o n t r o l l i n g authority i n  the w o r l d o f kmtJLUx. does n o t e x i s t . The He  f i r s t p a r e n t t o appear i n the n o v e l  i s v e r y much l i k e Mr.  very  good-natured man,  ineffective. is any  When Mr.  Bennet i n Austen's VhX.d(L and  and  Matthews f i r s t  ( I , 40).  t o r e c e i v e reprimands, and his  "instead of upbraiding  He  On  can  t h a t i f Mr.  the o t h e r hand, t h e r e  Matthews had  i s a suggestion  that  that and  o f a man  he  whom  There i s a l s o a  n o t become drunk, Hebbers would not (This suggestion,  have of  have been a s l i g h t s h i f t i n g o f blame on Miss Matthews' p a r t  r a t h e r than F i e l d i n g ' s comment on p a r e n t a l although Mr.  exerting  i s i n a state  a b i l i t y b l i n d e d him,  been a b l e t o f i n d access t o Miss Matthews' bedroom. c o u r s e , may  she  to c o n t r a c t a m a r r i a g e f o r  i n t r o d u c i n g i n t o the company o f h i s daughters.  suggestion  a  little  c o u l d w i t h assurances  c e r t a i n l y somewhat remiss i n n o t examining the c h a r a c t e r  he was  a  [her], or  reprimands h e r when she  then does a l l he  daughter w i t h Hebbers.  a l l he  Hebbers' f l a t t e r y c o n c e r n i n g Matthews' m u s i c a l was  clearly  l e a r n s o f h i s daughter's conduct,  anger, he endeavoured t o comfort [her] y e t be w e l l "  VtULjudLcQ,:  i n some senses an e x c e l l e n t p a r e n t , but  i n a h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l s t a t e , and  a l l should  i s Miss Matthews's f a t h e r .  Matthews may  failure.)  have been "the b e s t  o f men"  The  impression  i s that,  ( I , 40), he was  e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e as a p a r e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n the sense o f a g u i d i n g  not and  controlling authority figure. Mrs.  A t k i n s o n ' s f a t h e r e n j o y s a somewhat l a r g e r r o l e i n kmzJLLa.  a clergyman as w e l l as a f a t h e r and  initially  He  combines b o t h a u t h o r i t y r o l e s  is  89 ideally.  We  are i n t r o d u c e d t o him on the death o f h i s w i f e , a l o s s he bears  much as A l l w o r t h y bore the l o s s o f h i s w i f e . tenderness"  Mention i s made o f h i s " f a t h e r l y  ( I I , 7 ) , and h i s c o u n s e l t o h i s daughters shows him t o be a wise  s p i r i t u a l c o u n s e l l o r as w e l l as a good f a t h e r .  The,best p r o o f o f h i s  e x c e l l e n t e x e c u t i o n o f h i s p a t e r n a l d u t i e s i s t h a t he educated h i s d a u g h t e r s . Here he even outdoes A l l w o r t h y i n the guidance o f h i s c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h he had l i t t l e  c h o i c e b u t t o educate h i s daughters h i m s e l f i f he wanted them  educated. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a f t e r i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t Mrs. A t k i n s o n ' s f a t h e r i s an almost i d e a l example o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , he reneges on h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a p a r e n t a f t e r most f o o l i s h l y c o n t r a c t i n g marriage w i t h a woman young enough t o be h i s granddaughter. daughter i l l ; i t i s h e r o p i n i o n t h a t h i s own h e r , adding i n j u s t i c e t o h i s c r i m e s .  Not o n l y does he use h i s i l l - u s a g e caused him t o hate  The e f f e c t o f t h i s r e v e r s a l i s more  u n f a v o u r a b l e than a mere p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a bad p a r e n t c o u l d have been, because we  f e e l o u r s e l v e s d e c e i v e d and our g o o d - w i l l towards  betrayed.  A r e a d e r w i l l a l s o t e n d t o r e a c t a g a i n s t the f a t h e r r a t h e r than  a g a i n s t the step-mother  this character  (even though Mrs. A t k i n s o n p u t s the blame on the  l a t t e r ) , because he does n o t know the step-mother enough t o d i s l i k e personally.  P a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , then, appears i n a v e r y poor l i g h t ,  even the b e s t o f p a r e n t s , i n the w o r l d o f  exists for l i t t l e  because  AmeJtLa, can be e a s i l y c o r r u p t e d .  Another minor c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s same i n s e t h i s t o r y , Mr. u n c l e , demonstrates  her  Bennett's  another type o f f a i l u r e i n p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , and  o t h e r purpose than t o do so.  Mr. Bennett's u n c l e appears i n i t i a l l y s i n c e he i s o n l y a g u a r d i a n , y e t s t i l l  he  L i k e Mrs. A t k i n s o n ' s f a t h e r ,  i n a very favourable l i g h t , i s a good f a t h e r f i g u r e .  especially This parental  90 a u t h o r i t y , however, l a c k s wisdom and very  little  i n f l u e n c e on h i s own  i n s i g h t , and  children.  good p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y are negated by Mrs. We  t o Mrs.  on Booth and Amelia.  Her  f i n a n c i a l ruin?  which F i e l d i n g and  and  she  injustice.  i s inconsistent.  from h i d i n g i n a c l o s e t a f t e r  t i r a d e a t Amelia i n c r e a s e s t r y i n g t o do but  At t h i s p o i n t , she  had  the e f f e c t s o f a  f o r c e s o f s e l f i s h n e s s and  H a r r i s as she b u r s t s  In f a i r n e s s , though, what i s she  she has  Once a g a i n ,  H a r r i s i s the main p a r e n t i n the n o v e l ,  are i n t r o d u c e d  spying  a l s o seems t o have  our  dislike.  save h e r daughter from  i s o n l y employing.the  "negative  voice"  a l l h i s main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s c o n f e r upon a p a r e n t ,  ample reason, as b o t h Booth and Amelia have themselves r e a l i z e d , t o  o b j e c t t o the m a r r i a g e .  She  but i n a most o b j e c t i o n a b l e  i s , then, b e i n g and  p o s i t i o n as she  Mrs^  Mrs.  H a r r i s i s now  o f h i s camp.  In  as bad  i n s i s t s her  daughter  an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e as  Squire  hmzXJJX, though, the consequence o f t h i s type  o f misuse o f a u t h o r i t y i s more c l e a r l y shown than i t was H a r r i s o n , who  parent,  H a r r i s moves t o a c l e a r l y untenable  r e t r a c t s h e r hard-wrung consent, and  marry f o r money. Western o r any  a most c o n s c i e n t i o u s  i r r a t i o n a l manner.  From t h i s ambiguous s t a n c e ,  i s , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  i n Tom  JonU.  Dr.  l a t e r , a sympathetic a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e ,  f e e l s a t l i b e r t y t o marry the couple w i t h o u t f u r t h e r consent from Mrs. T h i s i n t e n t i o n n o t o n l y d e n i e s the concept o f a b s o l u t e it  and  parental  Harris.  authority;  a l s o demonstrates t h a t misuse, o r even attempted misuse, o f the  sacred  trust of parental authority r e s u l t s i n loss of that authority. D u r i n g the r e s t o f her a moderately good and  l i f e t i m e , Mrs.  H a r r i s f l u c t u a t e s between  a moderately e v i l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e .  At l e a s t some o f  h e r u n j u s t a c t i o n s , though, are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h e r o t h e r Betty:, and  j u s t as B l i f i l ' s  i n f l u e n c e on A l l w o r t h y  being  daughter,  d i d not r e f l e c t  on  91 Allworthy's  p a r e n t a l r o l e , so B e t t y ' s  Harris.  the o t h e r hand, the p o s i t i o n o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i n the  On  i s somewhat damaged by p a r t i a l l y responsible unjust w i l l  i n f l u e n c e cannot r e f l e c t on  the supposed f i n a l i n j u s t i c e o f Mrs. f o r a l l Booth's and  i s a c t u a l l y of Betty's  during  the n o v e l ,  Amelia's h a r d s h i p s .  That  Throughout most o f the n o v e l ,  children.  Amelia, s i n c e the  However,  because Booth and by v a r i o u s  the  the most obvious p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s reminded t h a t they have  h i s u s u a l treatment o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  Amelia, as v i c t i m s o f v a r i o u s  types o f i n j u s t i c e  types o f a u t h o r i t y , cannot themselves be  inflicted  seen as a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s .  Moreover, F i e l d i n g ' s u s u a l treatment i n v o l v e s c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r a b l y those i n AmeXta and p a r e n t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y the case o f some unsympathetic p a r e n t s ) .  more mature The  (who,  actions.  They are i n n o c e n t  a f t e r a l l , m a r r i e d o f her  father's a b i l i t y On  to  own  will),  Booth c h i l d r e n e x i s t p r i m a r i l y folly  of  v i c t i m s even more than Amelia and  are  t o t a l l y dependent on  their  the o t h e r hand, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o emphasize t h a t a couple have  consideration, far worthier  i n t h i s case, i s one  than Booth.  c a l needs —  The  t h a t Amelia i s  T h e i r most immediate d u t i e s as p a r e n t s are  Amelia's d u t y .  excellence  o f t h e i r a c t i o n s as p a r e n t s .  more p o i n t i n the p r o o f  the c h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l needs —  ness and  the  provide.  c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  for  o l d e r than  (or a t l e a s t o l d e r i n  t o i n t e n s i f y the t r a g e d y o f the i n j u s t i c e s done t o Booth, and some o f h i s own  has  authority.  reader i s constantly  F i e l d i n g avoids  of  Harris  b l a t a n t misuse o f a u t h o r i t y  a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on the p o s i t i o n o f p a r e n t a l  are Booth and  the  f a b r i c a t i o n tends t o r e s t o r e Mrs.  the a p p a r e n t l y  novel  H a r r i s , which i s  t o a posthumous p o s i t i o n as a "good" a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e a t the end n o v e l , but,  Mrs.  Booth's duty —  and  QjOJiLng f o r the  Frequent mention i s made o f Amelia's  i n the e x e c u t i o n  ph.0V4.cU.ng physi-  conscientious-  o f her d u t y , w h i l e the main t h r e a d  of  the  92 p l o t concerns Booth's i n a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e  for his family.  out ahead i n l e s s b a s i c f u n c t i o n s o f parenthood, f o r she and  honesty i n t o her  children.  We  ( I , 174-75), and  through a wise b l e n d  the  inculcates  religion  are t o l d t h a t " t h i s admirable woman n e v e r  l e t a day pass w i t h o u t i n s t r u c t i n g her and m o r a l i t y "  Amelia a l s o comes  c h i l d r e n i n some l e s s o n o f  f o l l o w i n g passage e s t a b l i s h e s  o f tenderness and  religion that,  s t r i c t n e s s , Amelia i s an i d e a l p a r e n t .  Though she was the t e n d e r e s t o f mothers, she n e v e r s u f f e r e d any symptom o f malevolence t o show i t s e l f i n t h e i r most t r i f l i n g a c t i o n s w i t h o u t d i s c o u r a g e ment, w i t h o u t rebuke, and, i f i t broke f o r t h w i t h any r a n c o u r , w i t h o u t punishment. In which she had such s u c c e s s , t h a t n o t the l e a s t marks o f p r i d e , envy, m a l i c e , o r s p i t e d i s c o v e r e d i t s e l f i n any o f t h e i r l i t t l e words o r deeds. (I, Booth h i m s e l f his  e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t he does n o t take p a r t i n the  c h i l d r e n i n answer t o Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s  t h e i r son's i n s t r u c t o r i n h i s r e l i g i o n " must c o n f e s s impression  175)  Amelia had  a l l the m e r i t  i n the n o v e l  e x c e p t what would be  question  o f "which o f them  ( I I , 114).  of that kind"  t h a t Booth u s u a l l y has  i n s t r u c t i o n of was  Booth's r e p l y " t h a t  he  ( I I , 114) , f u r t h e r s  the  little  t o do w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n  a n e c e s s a r y consequence o f l i v i n g i n c l o s e q u a r t e r s  with  them. If  AmeZia  i s t o f o l l o w the  main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s h o u l d be Dr. H a r r i s o n and  i s intended  l e a d o f Jo&e.ph AndAQWi and  a father figure.  as such, but he  F i e l d i n g decided he had  i n Harrison's  The  e a s i e s t way  character  the  There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t  r e s u l t i s responsible  character.  the main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s h o u l d  developed H a r r i s o n ' s  JonU,  does n o t emerge as a f a t h e r f i g u r e ,  the c o n f l i c t between apparent i n t e n t i o n and  much o f the i n c o n s i s t e n c y  Tom  t o be  for  I t i s almost as i f be  a father figure after  f a r from f a t h e r l y .  o f i n d i c a t i n g a f a t h e r l y a t t i t u d e i s through speech:  a d i s c o u r s e i n c l u d i n g the use o f the a p p e l a t i o n " c h i l d " o r "my dear" i s s o f t e n e d from r e l i g i o u s o r m a g i s t e r i a l commands t o f a t h e r l y a d v i c e .  However,  Dr. H a r r i s o n does n o t speak d i r e c t l y u n t i l a t h i r d o f the way through the second volume, and, although in  Booth r e p o r t s the body o f H a r r i s o n ' s  speech  the s e c t i o n s he r e l a t e s from the p a s t , he seldom mentions t h e d e t a i l s .  Of c o u r s e , i t would s t r a i n verbatim;  the r e a d e r ' s  c r e d u l i t y , t o have Booth  i t i s enough t h a t he remembers b a s i c a l l y what people  a few p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy e x p r e s s i o n s . on one o c c a s i o n c a l l s Amelia " h i s l i t t l e be a s t r a n g e enough e x p r e s s i o n unless a strong precedent  quoting  said plus  Booth does mention t h a t H a r r i s o n  sugar-plum"  ( I , 81), which would  f o r a r e a l f a t h e r t o use t o a grown daughter  i n endearments had a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d . I n  t h i s case, i t shows a k i n d l y n a t u r e , b u t does l i t t l e  t o establish Harrison  as a f a t h e r f i g u r e . However, once H a r r i s o n a c t i v e l y e n t e r s the p r e s e n t w o r l d o f  AmeXtOL,  and h i s speech i s r e c o r d e d d i r e c t l y , t h e f a t h e r l y e x p r e s s i o n o f " c h i l d " i s frequent.  I n f a c t , j u s t i n case  H a r r i s o n ' s speech t o Amelia, child  ( I I , 182),  the r e a d e r has missed t h e f e a t u r e i n  we a r e t o l d t h a t he o f t e n c a l l e d Amelia h i s  and an e x p l a n a t i o n i s g i v e n .  Harrison actually  Amelia h i s daughter and h e r c h i l d r e n h i s g r a n d c h i l d r e n because,  calls although  "perhaps, t o t h e suddenness o f [her f a t h e r ' s ] death i t was owing t h a t he did  n o t recommend any care, o f them  [his daughters]'to  [ H a r r i s o n ] , i n some measure, took t h a t charge upon  [Harrison]  [him]"  (II,  . ..  146).  H a r r i s o n i s c e r t a i n l y i n t e n d e d as a f a t h e r f i g u r e t o A m e l i a . In g e n e r a l , though, H a r r i s o n i s n o t i>h.OUM t o be a f a t h e r f i g u r e . We are  toZd t h a t he i s a f a t h e r f i g u r e t o h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s :  " A l l his parish-  i o n e r s , whom he t r e a t s as h i s c h i l d r e n , r e g a r d him as t h e i r common f a t h e r . Once i n a week he c o n s t a n t l y v i s i t s every house i n the p a r i s h , examines,  94 commends, and rebukes, as he f i n d s o c c a s i o n "  ( I , 149). T h i s d e s c r i b e s an  i d e a l e x e r c i s e o f p a s t o r a l duty, which would do much t o e s t a b l i s h a u t h o r i t y as i d e a l i n the w o r l d  view o f AmoJLLa., e x c e p t t h a t we a r e t o l d , n o t shown,  and what we a r e shown makes what we a r e t o l d d i f f i c u l t H a r r i s o n begins will  to believe.  Later,  h i s l e t t e r t o Booth and Amelia "My Dear C h i l d r e n — F o r  now c a l l you s o , as you have n e i t h e r o f you now any o t h e r p a r e n t  world"  ( I , 140), b u t , as Booth's p a r e n t s were presumably dead b e f o r e  I  i n the any p a r t  o f the s t o r y took p l a c e , and H a r r i s o n had n o t c a l l e d him " c h i l d " on t h i s account b e f o r e , i t seems t h a t H a r r i s o n mainly has Amelia i n mind.  Of course,  t h e r e a r e few c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l whom H a r r i s o n can address as " c h i l d " without with  giving offense.  A l l the men a r e t o o o l d t o r e g a r d t h e a p p e l l a t i o n  f a v o u r as a r e some o f the women; Dr. H a r r i s o n does n o t l i k e Mrs. A t k i n s o n ,  and so i s u n l i k e l y t o address h e r a f f e c t i o n a t e l y , and we have no r e c o r d o f h i s speech t o Amelia's s i s t e r , B e t t y . counsellor"  Booth does r e f e r t o H a r r i s o n as h i s "sage  ( I , 152), and h i s comments on the advantage t o a young man o f  "an i n t i m a t e converse w i t h one o f r i p e r y e a r s , who i s n o t o n l y able t o a d v i s e , but who knows the manner o f a d v i s i n g " ( I , 152) suggest t h a t H a r r i s o n i s v e r y much a f a t h e r f i g u r e t o Booth.' U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s seldom demonstrated, and any r e l a t i o n s h i p depending mainly on comments by a c h a r a c t e r for  i t s e x i s t e n c e has l i t t l e  i n f l u e n c e on the w o r l d view as a whole.  Harrison's  r o l e as a f a t h e r f i g u r e i s , then, minor and i s e s t a b l i s h e d mainly by h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Amelia i n the l a s t q u a r t e r o f the n o v e l . The ;only remaining  a u t h o r i t y r o l e i s t h a t o f the c l e r g y , r e p r e s e n t e d by  the young d i v i n e and by Dr. H a r r i s o n . Atkinson's  (The o t h e r c l e r g y i n the n o v e l , Mrs.  f a t h e r and h e r f i r s t husband, a r e important  f a t h e r and husband.)  o n l y i n t h e i r r o l e s as  The young d i v i n e i s as minor as Dr. H a r r i s o n i s major,  95 and e x i s t s mainly t o a l l o w Dr. H a r r i s o n scope i n expounding d o c t r i n e philosophy.  and  N e i t h e r clergyman e x h i b i t s t r a d i t i o n a l comic r o l e s f o r c l e r g y  i n l i t e r a t u r e , although  both r e v e a l a few  treatment.  the young d i v i n e i s c l o s e s t t o b e i n g s o l e l y a comic  f i g u r e , and, Tom,  Of the two, hence, has  flaws which c o u l d l e a d t o comic  the l e a s t c l a i m to a u t h o r i t y .  the .young d i v i n e , r e v e a l s h i s p r i d e a t every  o f h i s l e a r n i n g and h i s o p i n i o n , which l e a d s him H a r r i s o n i n which he him  t o h i s own  i s completely  outmatched.  turn.  i s proud  i n t o disputes with  Dr.  H i s p r i d e , however, b l i n d s  i n f e r i o r i t y , and he makes a f o o l o f h i m s e l f as f a r as h i s  l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r speech a l l o w .  He  i s a l s o very proud o f h i s  which Dr. H a r r i s o n c o n s i d e r s a most r i d i c u l o u s type o f p r i d e . p o i n t s out, Tom's s e l f - c o n c e i t even b l i n d s him l e s s , although  He  Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s  t o h i s own  order,  As h i s f a t h e r  interest.  Nonethe-  e s t i m a t i o n o f a p r o u d clergyman suggests t h a t  a comic treatment o f the young d i v i n e would be most a p p r o p r i a t e , he i s seldom so t r e a t e d .  Instead,  l i m i t e d appearance.  the young d i v i n e i s made q u i t e u n l i k e a b l e f o r such a In terms o f a u t h o r i t y , though, Tom's treatment i s n o t  p a r t i c u l a r l y important.  Although i t i s c l e a r t h a t Tom  c l e r g y t o whom Dr. H a r r i s o n r e f e r s who  w i l l be one  of  the  are p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the poor  r e p u t a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n , h i s youth and r e c e n t g r a d u a t i o n  are emphasized enough  t h a t the young d i v i n e can h a r d l y be seen as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . I t i s on Dr. H a r r i s o n , then, consequently the n o v e l :  i t must be  t h a t the burden o f a u t h o r i t y f a l l s ,  Dr. H a r r i s o n who  e s t a b l i s h e s the v a l u e  system o f  "In c o n n i v i n g a t Booth's unequal m a r r i a g e , i n a r r e s t i n g him  l i v i n g beyond h i s means, and  f i n a l l y i n r e s t o r i n g Amelia's e s t a t e ,  H a r r i s o n i s the p r i n c i p a l agent f o r Providence t h e r e are reasons  i n the n o v e l .  and  . . .  (as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d ) , t o q u e s t i o n whether Dr.  for  Dr. Although Harrison  96 has  enough a u t h o r i t y t o be c o n s i d e r e d t h e n o v e l ' s main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , he  must be so c o n s i d e r e d f o r two reasons.  First,  t h e r e i s no o t h e r a u t h o r i t y  f i g u r e both good enough and prominent enough t o q u a l i f y  f o r the p l a c e , and,  second, F i e l d i n g seems t o have i n t e n d e d t o c r e a t e i n Dr. H a r r i s o n S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y as f a r as the d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f The  f i r s t reason  i s a p o o r excuse and i s the source  another  Am&LLa.  permitted.  o f the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t  t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t a u t h o r i t y i n Am&LtCL t o s u p p o r t optimism and a p o s i t i v e v a l u e system an inadequate  ( b e a r i n g i n mind, o f c o u r s e , t h a t good a u t h o r i t y alone would be support).  The second reason e x p l a i n s , t o some e x t e n t , the  d i s c r e p a n c y between H a r r i s o n ' s a c t i o n s , a n d F i e l d i n g ' s and h i s c h a r a c t e r s ' i n s i s t e n c e on H a r r i s o n ' s goodness and b e n e v o l e n c e . As  i n Tom JonZA,  discussed —  t h e r e a r e two k i n d s o f a u t h o r i t y —  and both a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y  a t e l y , they do n o t agree.  concerned  demonstrated and  w i t h Dr. H a r r i s o n .  Unfortun-  F i e l d i n g d i s c u s s e s Dr. H a r r i s o n , and Dr. H a r r i s o n  d i s c u s s e s c r i t e r i a f o r a v a l u e system; both k i n d s o f d i s c u s s i o n e s t a b l i s h Dr. H a r r i s o n as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e pctA 2XC2Xte.YlC.<L, and suggest little  a value  system  short of ideal. H a r r i s o n ' s v a l u e system focuses on two types o f s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y :  s e c u l a r and e c c l e s i a s t i c .  I n the s e c u l a r realm, H a r r i s o n e x p l a i n s how a  c o u n t r y s h o u l d be run a c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p l e s o f v i r t u e , honour and honesty, and expounds t h e dangers o f any o t h e r bases.  According t o Harrison,  Whenever t r u e m e r i t i s l i a b l e t o be superseded by f a v o u r and p a r t i a l i t y , and men are e n t r u s t e d w i t h o f f i c e s w i t h o u t any r e g a r d t o c a p a c i t y o r i n t e g r i t y , t h e a f f a i r s o f t h a t s t a t e w i l l always be i n a d e p l o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n . . . . B u t , my l o r d , t h e r e i s another m i s c h i e f which a t t e n d s t h i s k i n d o f i n j u s t i c e and t h a t i s , i t hath a m a n i f e s t tendency t o d e s t r o y a l l v i r t u e and a b i l i t y among the p e o p l e , by t a k i n g away a l l t h a t encouragement and i n c e n t i v e which s h o u l d  97 p r o m o t e e m u l a t i o n a n d r a i s e men t o any a r t , s c i e n c e , o r p r o f e s s i o n .  aim a t  excelling  (II, Harrison  suggests  and p a r t y ,  the  that  if,  statesman  instead  of  c o n s i d e r i n g the  in  229-30)  interests  of his  friends  were  t o c o n s i d e r the t r u e i n t e r e s t o f h i s c o u n t r y . . .he w i l l engage h i s c o u n t r y i n n e i t h e r a l l i a n c e s n o r q u a r r e l s b u t where i t i s r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d ; . . .he w i l l r a i s e n o money b u t w h a t i s w a n t e d , n o r e m p l o y any c i v i l o r m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s b u t what a r e u s e f u l , a n d p l a c e i n t h e s e e m p l o y m e n t s men o f t h e h i g h e s t i n t e g r i t y , and o f the g r e a t e s t a b i l i t i e s ; . . .he w i l l e m p l o y some few o f h i s h o u r s t o a d v a n c e o u r t r a d e , a n d some few more t o r e g u l a t e o u r d o m e s t i c government. . . . (II, Social  a u t h o r i t y would thus  original  intention  Dr.  of  Harrison  its  is  the  moral  i d e a l values  and hence  cynicism to  answer  the  formation.  u n d e r s t a n d a b l y e v e n more e l o q u e n t  supplemented by c l a s s i c a l of  approximate  230-31)  philosophy. be  Didgeon c a l l s  found i n Lucian  and o f  on r e l i g i o u s  him "a s o r t  the  of  evangelical  values  synthesis teaching  7 t o be  found almost  Amelia discusses rewards o f of  the  the  of be  Christian this  a n d he  evils  of  supports  and i n s i g n i f i c a n c e  and v a l u e  On much t h e  still  next,  Harrison's f i r s t  of  heavenly  this this  letter  B o o t h and  world i n expectation advice  both with  of worldly t r i a l s  rewards,  to  and w i t h  in  of  the  considerations comparison to  reference  to  same  lines  he  g o o d n e s s makes rewarded i n  the  c a n n e v e r be  world;  the  argues  f o r d o i n g good t o  an " i l l r e t u r n " next  world.  disappointed i f  l a b o u r e r m i g h t as w e l l  "to  the  everyone,  best  Harrison points he d o t h n o t  out  receive  complain that  since,  offices,"  he  is  that his  the  Cicero's  "Humancu, hsub dzAplceAz atquz ixi^fm. &z poAlta& aAblttioAJ."  advice,  object  b e a r i n g the  transience  permanence  everywhere."  the "a  i f  (I,  141).  the  doer  will  true  reward i n  not paid his  hire  98 i n the middle  o f the day"  ( I , 147).  He  goes on t o d i s c u s s Matthew  r e g a r d i n g l o v i n g one's enemies, condemning those who  modify the passage  because "they cannot bend t h e i r mind t o the obedience so] are d e s i r o u s to wrest S c r i p t u r e t o a compliance tions"  ( I , 148-49).  Harrison  o f the passage would  j u s t i c e because a C h r i s t i a n c o u l d n o t "prosecute h i s enemy ( I , 149).  His r e p l y , that a c r i m i n a l should  be  as "an o f f e n d e r a g a i n s t the laws o f h i s country" n o t "from a  s p i r i t o f revenge"  ( I , 149),  about the dangers o f mistaken  a r t i c u l a t e s more c l e a r l y A l l w o r t h y ' s mercy  (Tom  Jon£J>, I I , 969).  abounds w i t h b r i e f comments e x p r e s s i n g a s t r i c t New  inclina-  Here H a r r i s o n sounds l i k e Adams a t h i s b e s t .  i n a court of j u s t i c e " prosecuted  o f S c r i p t u r e , [and  w i t h t h e i r own  then answers, the o b j e c t i o n t h a t a l i t e r a l acceptance d e s t r o y law and  5:44,  compliance  lecture  The n o v e l a l s o with  predominantly  Testament S c r i p t u r e , most o f which c o u l d as e a s i l y be spoken by Adams o r  A l l w o r t h y as by H a r r i s o n . the n a t u r e o f man,  Most important,  however, i s H a r r i s o n ' s comment on  which d i r e c t l y s t a t e s the g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n  through-  out Joseph Andtzm, Tom Jone6 and AmoJLia: The nature o f man i s f a r from b e i n g i n i t s e l f e v i l ; i t abounds w i t h benevolence, c h a r i t y and p i t y , c o v e t i n g p r a i s e and honour, and shunning shame and d i s g r a c e . Bad e d u c a t i o n , bad h a b i t s , and bad customs, debauch our n a t u r e , and d r i v e i t headlong, as i t were, i n t o vice. The governors o f the w o r l d , and I am a f r a i d the p r i e s t h o o d , are answerable f o r the badness o f i t . I n s t e a d o f d i s c o u r a g i n g wickedness t o the utmost o f t h e i r power, both are too a p t t o connive a t i t . (II, In a l l t h r e e n o v e l s , o n l y B l i f i l  seems t o be an e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s  and a v e r y c h a r i t a b l e r e a d e r c o u l d even apply i t t o H a r r i s o n , then, expresses  131-32)  him.  an i d e a l i s t i c q u a s i - p o l i t i c a l  and a r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y based on s t r i c t  philosophy,  philosophy,  adherence t o S c r i p t u r e supported  99 by a wide range o f c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . whenever H a r r i s o n i s n o t p r e s e n t  discusses  (though t h e use o f the a u t h o r i a l presence i s  f a r l e s s n o t i c e a b l e than i n Joseph although  The v a l u e s t h a t F i e l d i n g  KndJvmi,  and Tom Jon&6) are v e r y  he a v o i d s d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o S c r i p t u r e .  The d i s c u s s e d  similar,  (as opposed  t o demonstrated) p h i l o s o p h i c a l and moral bases i n AmeXta, t h e r e f o r e , combine the C h r i s t i a n emphasis o f Jo&Zph AndAQJM and the c l a s s i c a l and more s e c u l a r emphasis o f Tom JonU. the two e a r l i e r n o v e l s  The e f f e c t s h o u l d be a combination o f the b e s t o f and hence an o p t i m i s t i c n o v e l .  However, Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and t h e demonstration o f h i s  a u t h o r i t y c r e a t e an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e whom i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o l i k e , and he thereby  r a i s e s doubts about t h e v a l u e s d i s c u s s e d .  Moreover, D r . H a r r i s o n  i s removed from the a c t i o n much o f t h e time, and u n l i k e Tom JonZA, where a s t r o n g major c h a r a c t e r who m i r r o r s the v a l u e s o f t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i s always p r e s e n t ,  t h e r e i s no o t h e r s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r t o keep H a r r i s o n ' s  a l i v e i n the w o r l d  o f kmzJUjOL.  values  Even Amelia, who does embody many o f the  v a l u e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e n o v e l , i s v u l n e r a b l e and i n e f f e c t i v e , and i s a l s o absent from much o f the a c t i o n . n o v e l have v e r y l i t t l e  Consequently, t h e v a l u e s d i s c u s s e d i n the  s t r e n g t h , and, i n s t e a d , t h e i r presence emphasizes  the problems and f a i l u r e s i n the a c t u a l o r demonstrated a u t h o r i t y . though the a c t u a l v a l u e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y q u i t e good {Z.Q.  Even  the s e v e r a l instances  o f f r i e n d s h i p and c h a r i t y and the wedded l o v e demonstrated by Booth and Amelia and o t h e r s ) , they do n o t appear so i n c o n t r a s t t o the i d e a l and u n i v e r s a l d i s c u s s e d v a l u e s , because they are so l i m i t e d i n scope. The  d i s c r e p a n c y between r e a l and i d e a l i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n H a r r i s o n ' s  c h a r a c t e r and a c t i o n s ( s i n c e d i s c u s s i o n s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l v a l u e s a r e , a l l , expected t o be d i s t a n c e d from the r e a l w o r l d ) .  after  I t i s n o t expected,  100 however, t h a t what we  are t o l d o f a c h a r a c t e r by way  o f background i n f o r m a t i o n  and i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l be c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h a t c h a r a c t e r ' s a c t i o n s .  A t the  v e r y most, the i n f o r m a n t c o u l d be i n i t i a l l y m i s t a k e n , and re-judge the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r as the r e a d e r does so, b u t , i n kmeJLla,, both d i r e c t  authorial  comment and a u t h o r i a l comments r o u t e d through Booth and Amelia c o n t i n u e t o e s t a b l i s h a c h a r a c t e r f o r Dr. H a r r i s o n d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which he demonstrates.  F o r example, Dr. H a r r i s o n does n o t seem p a r t i c u l a r l y k i n d o r  but these q u a l i t i e s are f r e q u e n t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o him.  .  fair,  Moreover, many o f Dr.  H a r r i s o n ' s a l l e g e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are n e i t h e r a f f i r m e d nor d e n i e d by h i s b e h a v i o u r , c r e a t i n g some doubts B a s i c a l l y , the problem  about F i e l d i n g ' s endorsement o f them.  i s i n the combination  o f d<mOY\&thJXt<Ld b l u n t n e s s  and honesty w i t h the good n a t u r e and tenderness t h a t we about.  We  are m o s t l y  toZd  are t o l d t h a t "the d o c t o r ' s w i t and humour, j o i n e d t o the h i g h e s t  c h e a r f u l n e s s and good n a t u r e , made him the most a g r e e a b l e companion i n the world"  ( I , 145), and l a t e r t h a t "the d o c t o r was  one o f the b e s t companions  i n the w o r l d , and a v e i n o f c h e e r f u l n e s s , good humour, and p l e a s a n t r y , ran through h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h which i t was ( I I , 135). though, we  On o c c a s i o n , we  impossible to r e s i s t being pleased"  see evidence o f these q u a l i t i e s .  see evidence o f h i s b l u n t n e s s .  More f r e q u e n t l y ,  S i n c e H a r r i s o n ' s goodness i s  i n s i s t e d upon a t every t u r n , b l u n t n e s s c o u l d be assumed t o be a good q u a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e e v e r y comment on H a r r i s o n ' s b l u n t n e s s suggests a p p r o b a t i o n . However, when Booth speaks  o f b l u n t n e s s i n g e n e r a l , he says " b l u n t n e s s , o r  r a t h e r rudeness, as i t commonly d e s e r v e s t o be c a l l e d , i s n o t always so much a mark o f honesty  as i t i s taken t o be"  ( I , 127).  Furthermore,  instances of  H a r r i s o n ' s b l u n t n e s s are u s u a l l y i n s u l t i n g , f r e q u e n t l y unnecessary sometimes c r u e l .  and  101 Our  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o H a r r i s o n i s as he drags Booth away from a p a r t y  to impart a m a t t e r o f " g r e a t consequence" t h a t H a r r i s o n has  convinced  v e r y good i m p r e s s i o n  The m a t t e r  itself,  Mrs. H a r r i s t o l e t Booth marry Amelia,  indeed.  of H a r r i s o n ' s f i r s t , bad  ( I , 68-69).  The p r e f a c e , however, i n v o l v e s the  impressions  o f Booth, which may  gives a  expression  have been b l u n t  honest, but need n o t have been g i v e n i n such d e t a i l s i n c e H a r r i s o n ' s based on hearsay,  has now  been a l t e r e d by an opposing  instance of Harrison's i n s u l t i n g bluntness l a t t e r goes t o war. way,  'Well, boy,  comfort  He h e a r t i l y wished  I hope t o see thee  report.  Another  The  the  w e l l , saying, i n h i s blunt  crowned w i t h l a u r e l s a t thy r e t u r n ;  I have a t l e a s t , t h a t stone w a l l s and a sea w i l l p r e v e n t  r u n n i n g away'" ( I , 103) .  opinion,  i s h i s f a r e w e l l t o Booth as  Booth  comment was  and  no doubt i n t e n d e d t o be  thee  one  from  jocular,  but H a r r i s o n need n o t have c a s t a s p e r s i o n s on Booth's courage i n o r d e r t o wish him w e l l " h e a r t i l y . " N e i t h e r o f . t h e s e i n s t a n c e s caused any harm, but on some o c c a s i o n s Harrison's bluntness  does cause p a i n .  At one  time, H a r r i s o n i n s u l t s  Mrs.  A t k i n s o n about h e r l e a r n i n g u n t i l he causes a q u a r r e l between h e r and husband.  her  I t i s not c l e a r whether H a r r i s o n ' s views about l e a r n e d females  express  F i e l d i n g ' s , but H a r r i s o n ' s o p i n i o n i s c e r t a i n l y n o t shown t o be  wrong.  However, a f t e r the f i g h t s t a r t s ,  t o o f a r , began t o s o f t e n matters"  "the d o c t o r , f e a r i n g he had  ( I I , 187).  Harrison i s , of course,  h i s brand o f humour i n the i n s u l t s , but t h a t type o f humour i s o n l y when the o t h e r person o f the comments.  H a r r i s o n , i n f a c t , i s here b r e a k i n g  employing  acceptable  i s a c l o s e enough f r i e n d t o r e a l i z e the j o c u l a r  which F i e l d i n g s e t s f o r t h i n h i s "Essay Fielding,  gone  nature  s e v e r a l o f the r u l e s  on C o n v e r s a t i o n . "  According  to  102 the r a i l l e r y w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h good b r e e d i n g i s a g e n t l e a n i m a d v e r s i o n o n some f o i b l e ; which, while it r a i s e s a l a u g h i n the r e s t o f the company, d o t h n o t p u t the person r a l l i e d out o f countenance, or expose him to shame o r c o n t e m p t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e j e s t s h o u l d b e s o d e l i c a t e t h a t t h e o b j e c t o f i t s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f j o i n i n g i n the m i r t h i t occasions. 8 F i e l d i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y warns  that  " a l l r a i l l e r y on l a d i e s .  .  .should  be  9 extremely the  fine  and g e n t l e .  more m i s c h i e f  does n o t and the  enhance comment  altercation  a positive  one  is  hand, i f  James of  she  to  she  Into  this  exemplar  right,  he e v e n t u a l l y Amelia,  of  other  w i l l be  Harrison  so,  hand, i f ,  initially,  he  until  cries.  figure's comment.  and badgers  Setting  sympathetically  distressing  moments  values.  for  strife,  the  the  The u n f a v o u r a b l e us  that  a wife.  On t h e challenge  obeys the  the  arms o f  his  unsuspected  a good a u t h o r i t y  from the  forces  reader's  the  "however  cannot,  figure the  is  blunt  side  o p i n i o n as  reader  impression  of  evil.  to  at  accept  and  with  adultery.  agree  with Dr.  bluntly  as  possible,  opposition  one  of  the  her  to  most  authority  l e s s e n e d by the [Dr. Harrison]  enemy.  Although  are  of  in brutal  novel  authority  figure  sympathies  on t h e  giving his  character in  encourage  by C o l o n e l  he w i l l p r o b a b l y  a n d we know s h e  her,  as  concerns  she  main a u t h o r i t y  treated  does n o t  Fielding tells  causing pain  a wife,  p a r t and e n l i s t s  Harrison,  most  blame  as  when t h e  because A m e l i a does n o t ,  the  the  doth  authority  for marital  under attack  fears,  who a s  Amelia  Moreover,  she  an a g e n t  far" puts  her-,  thrown i n t o  takes Booth's  insults  a weapon w h i c h  M o r e o v e r , an  0  dilemma r e g a r d i n g h e r duty  should rescue  does  1  Harrison's bluntness  d i l e m m a comes D r . H a r r i s o n , of  is."  system while  h e r husband o f  On t h e she  it  When A m e l i a ' s h o n o u r i s  a serious  a duel.  her husband,  blunter  value  example  tells  r a i l l e r y "is  r a t h e r t h a n on M r s . A t k i n s o n .  Amelia. in  and t h a t  " f e a r i n g h e h a d gone t o o  The c l e a r e s t  James,  ."  b y how much t h e  on H a r r i s o n  a n o t h e r woman:  .  authorial  appeared  in  103 his  discourse,  and t h a t  he  he h a d a t e n d e r n e s s  is  "firmly  persuaded that  m i n d i n any d e g r e e ,  without  former"  While  (II,  good e f f e c t  129). of  the  Harrison's figure  Booth by r e p o r t , report. is  the  occasion is  discussed, However, sources  he  the  is  habit at  the  latter  cruel effect is  left  his  habit  his  his  of  to  the  quality, of  large  and i f  the  He m u s t  person  he n e e d n o t make a s reports  for instance,  is  j u d g i n g and then  the  as  Concerning Booth,  first  reports  b u t must have been  A m e l i a was "proving"  and r e - j u d g i n g on M r s . H a r r i s ' s foolish  i f  of  accidentally  does,  disinterested  love,  while  the  of  for  the  unreliable  "thief"  But  hearsay. the Colonel that  of Harrison's or  discourse  Booth c o u l d s i m p l y have  actually being  course,  because  possibility  sources  either  by  being  His l i k i n g  rendition of Booth's  correct.  James  hearsay.  a person  he  infallible.  and A m e l i a were m i s t a k e n .  mistaken,  basis  He  re-judging  figure,  c o u l d h a v e b e e n more r e s e r v e d o n t h e  specified,  the  authority  judgment must be by  u n q u a l i f i e d judgments  c a n n o t be e n t i r e l y  Colonel  an a u t h o r i t y  Booth  are not  on h e a r s a y .  f o r m some o p i n i o n o f  not present,  evident,  more d a m a g i n g f o r a n  and r e - j u d g e s  c r e d i b i l i t y as  is  the  imagination.  judging people  judges  a portion of  bluntness  when he h a s B o o t h i m p r i s o n e d on t h e judge?  r a r e l y f o u n d among m e n ; "  n e v e r p o s s e s s e d a n y human  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n by  a n d a g a i n when h e  to  of his  heart which i s  a t t e n d e d b y as  undesirable  Most damaging t o  how e l s e  James,  other  this  being  "tenderness"  than bluntness,  demonstrates  of  to  been  Harrison  suspected. The most f o r h a v i n g "set  serious  up a n e q u i p a g e "  on s e c o n d - h a n d e v i d e n c e . person of  the  charge  highest  against (I,  Harrison  Dr. Harrison  173),  his  condemning B o o t h  and h a v i n g him i m p r i s o n e d f o r  receives  honour" o f B o o t h ' s  is  an e x a g g e r a t e d  purchase  of  version  "from  an o l d c o a c h and  debt, a  harness,  104 and, w i t h o u t w a i t i n g f o r , o r even a s k i n g f o r , Booth's v e r s i o n , condemns, him as v a i n , f o o l i s h , and r i d i c u l o u s  ( I , 173) .  L a t e r , he a c c e p t s the m a l i c i o u s  r e p o r t s o f Booth's ex-neighbours, s t i l l w i t h o u t a p p l y i n g t o Booth, and, finally  departs from Booth's  f l a t i n a rage a f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g a few t r i n k e t s  which must have been the o n l y v a l u a b l e items i n the apartment.  Although  F i e l d i n g c l a i m s i n " t h e T r i a l o f Amelia" i n the Convznt GoJidzn JouSinal t h a t H a r r i s o n has Booth a r r e s t e d " o n l y because he had a l l i m a g i n a b l e r e a s o n t o t h i n k he [Booth] was a V i l l a i n , "  1 1  he a l s o r e a l i z e s t h a t these i n s t a n c e s a r e  i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the image o f a good a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , and goes t o some p a i n s t o prove "the l a t e conduct o f Dr. H a r r i s o n . . . t o be t r u l y w i t h a l l t h e r u l e s o f the most p e r f e c t prudence consummate goodness" ( I I , 111).  congrous  as w e l l as w i t h the most  The substance o f the argument i s t h a t  Booth  and Amelia were so s l a n d e r e d by t h e i r ex-neighbours, supposed  friends included,  t h a t H a r r i s o n was "poisoned w i t h a l l t h i s m a l i c e " ( I I , 111).  He d i d n o t a l l o w  the " c r i m i n a l " t o speak i n h i s own defense, though, and t h i s procedure i s one F i e l d i n g r e p e a t e d l y condemns i n h i s scenes o f j u s t i c e .  In f a c t , the strongest  p o i n t F i e l d i n g can make t o prove A l l w o r t h y ' s e x c e l l e n c e as a m a g i s t r a t e i s t h a t h i s " n a t u r a l Love o f J u s t i c e , j o i n e d t o h i s Coolness o f Temper, made him always a most p a t i e n t M a g i s t r a t e i n h e a r i n g a l l t h e Witnesses which an accused Person c o u l d produce  i n h i s Defence"  (Tom JonZi, I , 100). H a r r i s o n ' s  b e h a v i o u r i s e s p e c i a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t he has known Booth  f o r a y e a r , and Amelia a l l h e r l i f e . A minor problem i s t h a t H a r r i s o n i s the second worst judge o f c h a r a c t e r  i n the n o v e l .  XThe worst i s Booth))  Although Amelia says t h a t H a r r i s o n  "understands human n a t u r e t o t h e bottom" ( I I , 132), c o n t r a r y evidence i s frequently presented.  He does n o t take i n t o account envy o r i l l - w i l l  except  105 where they do n o t e x i s t . for  Allworthy  T h i s f a i l i n g i n i t s e l f c o u l d be s a l v a g e d ,  and Adams, i f F i e l d i n g had  as i t was  chosen to and had p r e s e n t e d  arguments t h a t e v i l does not o c c u r t o good minds, and t h a t the e v i l  his char-  a c t e r s appear much d i f f e r e n t t o the l i m i t e d view o f a c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n n o v e l than they do t o the o m n i s c i e n t  view o f the r e a d e r .  He  the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s argument, but he uses i t t o s u p p o r t Dr.  the  does p r e s e n t  Amelia,  not  Harrison. The major problem i s t h a t H a r r i s o n i s i n c o n s i s t e n t , which s e r i o u s l y  reduces the c r e d i b i l i t y o f a u t h o r i t y i n the n o v e l . were r e a l l y "congruous w i t h  We  are t o l d t h a t "no  b e f o r e he i n s t i g a t e d " h i s own  the p o s i t i v e r e s o l u t i o n .  and  doctor and  d i d he not t h i n k o f them In f a c t , as soon  i t i s c l e a r even t o him  that his  proceedings  the main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , i t would be p a r t o f  However, t h i s r e u n i o n o f p r o t a g o n i s t t o a u t h o r i t y  a t m i d - p o i n t i n the n o v e l and  fallibility  of h i s wife  does  I f t h i s r e v e r s a l came a t the c l i m a x o f the n o v e l , when the  protagonist i s reunited with  is  Why  v i n d i c t i v e proceedings?"  a l l the e v i d e n c e ,  were u n j u s t i f i e d .  sooner d i d the  a r r e s t e d than the wretched c o n d i t o n  f a m i l y began t o a f f e c t h i s mind" ( I I , 112).  as H a r r i s o n has  Booth  . . .the most consummate goodness," why  H a r r i s o n have second thoughts? hear t h a t Booth was  I f imprisoning  inconsistency.  s e r v e s mainly t o e s t a b l i s h H a r r i s o n ' s Both f a i l i n g s reduce the sense o f a c o n t r o l l i n g  a u t h o r i t y i n the n o v e l by which e v e r y t h i n g w i l l be r e s o l v e d f a v o u r a b l y a t the end. On  the o t h e r hand, H a r r i s o n does have h i s good p o i n t s , and h i s brand  o f humour and h i s d i d a c t i c i s m do n o t g r a t e on the nerves o f a l l r e a d e r s . A. R. Humphreys, i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Everyman e d i t i o n o f kmZ&JX, f i n d s in  Dr. H a r r i s o n a s t r o n g a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e who  embodies an u n d e r l y i n g  optimism  106 i n the  novel: I n t o Dr. H a r r i s o n F i e l d i n g has put a p o w e r f u l moral r e a l i t y , more so than i n t o Mr. A l l w o r t h y , the d o c t o r h a v i n g an a l t o g e t h e r r o b u s t and Johnsonian n a t u r e . E x c e p t when he wrangles w i t h Mrs. A t k i n s o n he i s n o t h i n g but welcome. He embodies a formidable p r a c t i c a l C h r i s t i a n i t y , n o t t o be browbeaten o r argued down. Worship i s h i s refreshment, and e t e r n a l l i f e r e a l t o him, but he i s a c i t i z e n o f the w o r l d a l s o , f o r i t s good. 1 2  Hugh Amory c o n s i d e r s  t h a t "Dr.  Harrison,  indeed seems t o embody most of  that  13 i n v i s i b l e a u t h o r i t y t h a t F i e l d i n g passed over i n the EnquuAy." Moreover, 14 Dr. H a r r i s o n  seems t o combine the good t r a i t s o f Adams and A l l w o r t h y  the  a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i a l comments prove t h a t Dr. H a r r i s o n  frequent  is  and intended  as n e a r l y an i d e a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . Hugh Amory suggests t h a t the "most p e r f e c t prudence" (AmzLtCL, XI, i , i i i ) i s n o t a v i r t u e one would a s s o c i a t e w i t h an Adams o r an A l l w o r t h y ; and as i t e x h i b i t s i t s e l f i n Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s a c t i o n s , i t d i f f e r s from normal, human prudence — i t resembles, i n etymology and e f f e c t , d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e , whose o p e r a t i o n s seem e q u a l l y monstrous,whose goodness i s e q u a l l y " i n v i s i b l e and i n c o r p o r e a l . " This supposition  i s r e a s o n a b l e as t o F i e l d i n g ' s i n t e n t , but  i t seems u n l i k e l y  t h a t an e x p e r i e n c e d w r i t e r such as F i e l d i n g would t r y t o c r e a t e  a perfect  c r e a t u r e , o r t h a t i f he d i d t r y he would produce such g l a r i n g anomalies having h i s "perfect" creature  condemn someone unheard.  Amory c o n s i d e r e d  the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y . . . i n v o l v e s F i e l d i n g i n a s p e c i a l p o e t i c problem, f o r he must a c t i n the c a p a c i t y o f an a r t i s t o r m a g i s t r a t e , and y e t he i s a b e l i e v i n g C h r i s t i a n f o r whom t h i s c a p a c i t y i s inadequate t o a v i s i o n of a u t h o r i t y . The modern c o r r e l a t i v e of the censor i s . . .the p r i e s t or the C h a n c e l l o r . . .yet when F i e l d i n g must p r e s e n t them i n h i s f i c t i o n s , the v e r y '. l i m i t a t i o n s .of h i s r o l e as. a r t i s t and the '."invisible"'. n a t u r e o f t h e i r a u t h o r i t y make t h e i r a c t i o n s seem f a b u l o u s , r o m a n t i c , and improbable..  as that  107 Most l i k e l y ,  F i e l d i n g intended  Harrison  a n d A l l w o r t h y w i t h more a u s t e r i t y divine  "perfect  evil  is  always  with  the  prudence,"  that  Harrison's errors  are  austerity),  liable  In  authority is  are  discussed,  the  values  good q u a l i t i e s  plus  some t e n d e n c y  human c a p a c i t y (cp.  or,  to  of  Adams  towards  err.  if  a  Unfortunately,  M i l t o n ' s Satan with h i s  demonstrated  established  demonstrated,  reduce  his  usually  authority  in  H a r r i s o n ' s views  a n d on g o v e r n m e n t  AmoZA.a  in his  the  effectively,  God),  and  his  (Q..Q. h i s  demonstrated  misinterpretation.  no doubt t h a t  at  good  Harrison's inconsistencies  AmQ.Zi.CL.  hinted  to  than  do n o t  education in  merely  most o f  rather  consequently,  There  either  fact,  discussed  m o d i f i e d by the  to p o r t r a y than  perfections  have  than e i t h e r ,  easier  result  to  other  are  the  in  ancients,  Fielding's in  the  novel  plot,  are  and,  demonstrated didactic : material. on S c r i p t u r e s ,  own a n d i n t e n d e d  (and a l s o  in  from the  interpolated  on t h e  contains  major novels  detached  and f a i l i n g s  Fielding's  directly  by a u t h o r i t y  as  on  touchstones .  philosophies  Jonathan WZtd  on t h e s e  subjects  }omn.nQ.y to  and  Lisbon) . On p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s , novel; shown  we  are  told  of  ideal  corrupt systems.  reinforced conduct,  systems o f  of  attitude  and m o r a l s ,  which  Unfortunately,  one  and the  as  are  author's  persona  novel is  establish  and the  tenuous  science,  from the  in  at  are  philosophy,  proper but  a  values best.  now a l i t t l e  novel.  the  yet  and c l a s s i c a l  literature,  political  have  events  v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d by a l l  diversion  discussions  with  and government,  Scriptures  u n i o n between the  an i n t e l l e c t u a l  intellectual  of  classical  w e r e r e a d i n g now a l i t t l e  and p h i l o s o p h y Harrison's  the  conflict  advancement  The d i s c u s s i o n s  discussions  cussed by both H a r r i s o n if  discussions  by the  characters.  as  the  Worse,  a p r a c t i c a l b e a r i n g on some  few disIt  is  theology when character's  108 a c t i o n s , H a r r i s o n i s again i n c o n s i s t e n t . s h o u l d go to war,  he waxes e l o q u e n t  honour i s a t s t a k e ; and you know how these  cases"  ( I , 97).  When he c o n s i d e r s whether Booth  on honour, and e x p o s t u l a t e s  . .your  n i c e the honour o f a s o l d i e r i s i n  However, when Amelia suggests t h a t her  honour i s t o be p r e s e r v e d  ".  as w e l l as h i s l i f e "  "husband's  ( I I , 278) , H a r r i s o n  describes  honour as "a custom e s t a b l i s h e d by a s e t o f b l o c k - h e a d s , founded on  false  p r i n c i p l e s o f v i r t u e , i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to the p l a i n and p o s i t i v e p r e c e p t s of r e l i g i o n .  . ."  ( I I , 278).  I t i s t r u e t h a t the f i r s t i n s t a n c e i n v o l v e s  a s p e c i e s o f k i l l i n g somewhat a k i n t o j u d i c i a l e x e c u t i o n , i n s t a n c e i n v o l v e s d u e l l i n g , which, as an e x p r e s s i o n and revenge, i s more c l e a r l y a g a i n s t the p r e c e p t s  and the  war,  second  o f p r i v a t e resentment  of C h r i s t i a n i t y .  However,  H a r r i s o n does n o t make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n ; he d e a l s s o l e l y , i n both c a s e s ,  with  the q u e s t i o n o f honour. In f a c t , most o f the v a l u e s which are i n h e r e n t i n the p l o t e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i r absence and have l i t t l e n o v e l abounds w i t h e v i l and  t o do w i t h a u t h o r i t y .  The  f o o l i s h c h a r a c t e r s , and by d e m o n s t r a t i n g  consequences o f t h e i r e v i l and  the  f o o l i s h n e s s , F i e l d i n g i m p l i e s the p o s i t i v e  v a l u e s which would, presumably, l e a d t o good consequences. p o s i t i v e v a l u e s must be e s t a b l i s h e d i f e v i l and recognized  are  Of c o u r s e , some  f o o l i s h c h a r a c t e r s are t o be  as such, and these v a l u e s a r e , b a s i c a l l y , e s t a b l i s h e d through  H a r r i s o n , Amelia, and,  t o some e x t e n t ,  through Booth> although  Fielding also  depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on h i s a u t h o r i a l v o i c e and on the r e a d e r ' s Of Amelia, we  l e a r n t h a t she has  the f o r t i t u d e and p a t i e n c e  own  values.  t o bear the  g r e a t e s t a f f l i c t i o n s a woman c o u l d have (which, i t i s suggested, are r e d u c t i o n o f her beauty and the v i c i o u s i n s u l t s o f h e r r i v a l s ) .  We  the also learn  t h a t she i s good-natured, w i l l not s a c r i f i c e l o v e t o w o r l d l y a m b i t i o n ,  is a  109 loving  and o b e d i e n t  Sophia, are we  she  is  severely  her  a n i d e a l woman,  he  is  she  is  their  soldier.  T h e r e f o r e , we  t o how t h e y  actions  affect  Basically, Booth,  Amelia,  characters, b i n d one  life  then,  t h i r d world is embodies last  the  Amelia,  who r e m a i n s  tricks  true  world  is  false  authority. only  allows  of  love  influence  as  other  Of B o o t h ,  with  and t h a t  most  of  Amelia  he  is  a  f a r as he  does  characters  consequences  forces  to  of  the  follow  rule  social  supreme,  established  of  o f most  of  the  the  world of bases  real world, its  camp.  and i s ,  of  frees  authority.  of  minor  and l o v e  and  trust  D r . H a r r i s o n ' s Utopia,  the so  two  it  when  false  good c h a r a c t e r s True a u t h o r i t y ,  This  can  Even  and h o n e s t y ,  The a u t h o r i t y o f as  and  other worlds.  good c h a r a c t e r s .  therefore,  The  levels,  powerful that  love  ideal  government.  and s o c i a l  especially  kmoJLLiX, t h i s  that  which e s t a b l i s h e s  in  and i s  One i s  several  and r e l i g i o u s  a l l her values  and r a n k ,  true  on o c c a s i o n ,  predominant,  authority into  In  and,  KmoXLiX.  in  on b o t h p e r s o n a l  values  faithful  o n money  worlds  daily existence,  aspects  the  acquisition of i t s  them t o  in  and B o o t h ,  The s e c o n d w o r l d i s  and h a p p i n e s s  evil  (good)  based  another.  unfortunately,  honesty  Amelia,  and g o o d - n a t u r e  c o r r u p t and c h a o t i c  the  falls  or d i s l i k e  three  Dr. Harrison  for a l l  pervert  unhappy by the  like  are  beyond p e r s o n a l ,  opposite  world i s ,  he  for her wealth,  like  and  a woman i n a m a n ' s w o r l d .  B o o t h a n d A m e l i a a n d how t h e  there  honesty  systems and v a l u e s  h e r power  Like  B o o t h and A m e l i a .  character to  concerning  treat  Atkinson,  where  only  not  Christian.  unfortunately,  a "good S a m a r i t a n , " t h a t  c a u s e A m e l i a h a r d s h i p , a n d we  according  that  though,  c h a r a c t e r and h e r b e a u t y ,  courageous not  a good mother and a s i n c e r e  l i m i t e d because  learn that  for  wife,  that the  is  made  world corrupt  argued p r e v i o u s l y , authority is from i t s on i t s  so  power,  own,  powerful and  cannot  110 compete  against  false  Furthermore, lives  of  figures, in  the  is  present  of  of  right,  of  happy e n d i n g .  are  at  the  but  the  of  of  false  of  ideal  values  ority  is  the  from the figure  of  the  is  treatment enough  to  a c t i o n most of  optimism of  figures,  of has  in  the  the  triumph of  a strong  detract the  lives  of  which  from the novel  are  is  so  daily  authority good  authority  statement of so  from  positive that  the  many m i n o r  major characters  this  pessimistic  the force  ordinary  powerful  that  of  people  even  furthering  the  the  presence  of  in  a good  authority  s i g h t when he  participation in  is  of  authority  daily  establish the  that  time.  not he  he  Since  convincing,  is the  life,  the  Dr. Harrison's but  once  forces  auth-  of  evil  JoACph AndAZWA  and  Tom  w o r l d as  abandoned.  except  the  a " g o o d m a n , " a n d he l i n k between the  to  3onU,  even i f  protect based  the  end,  JoAtph AndfttJMA  is  good  largely  good  and  by good  are  absent  authority  Harrison  is  a  characters,  on a b e l i e f  e x p r e s s e d and e n f o r c e d  As i n  at  H a r r i s o n ' s good q u a l i t i e s  and s i n c e ,  present  the  present,  novel,  figures.  not  good i n  is  figure.  the  position.  is  been  w o r l d view demonstrate  a predominantly pessimistic  and P r o v i d e n c e  and power  authority,  from a c t i v e  strong P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, the  removing  l e a s t be k e p t  invincible  AmoXi-d  developed  w i t h many more  o f ' P r o v i d e n c e c a n be t r i c k e d i n t o  constant  can a t  g a i n an almost  not  evil  from the  authority.  removed  because o f  s h o u l d be  level.  separated  The e v e n t u a l  c o r r u p t i o n and e v i l  The c o n s e q u e n c e s importance  time.  triumph of of  is  authority,  The p r e v a i l i n g s e n s e o f  mercy o f  false  false  the  necessity  earthly;xepresentati.ves goals  while  on a p e r s o n a l  AmoJLia.  in  major characters  influence  the  except  authority  most o f  the  c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e sphere  true  ordinary people,  lives  strength  authority  in  the  presence  authority  Tom JonU,  then,  the  Ill treatment of authority i n AmeXca. i s c r u c i a l t o the world view of the novel: in the two former novels the treatment of authority was instrumental i n achieving optimism, and, i n the l a t t e r , the treatment of authority creates much of the novel's pessimism.  112 CONCLUSION  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f then,  demonstrates  upon the  that  presentation,  "good man" a n d a s upon t h e  the the  authority degree  of  or lack thereof,  presentation  of  innocent  dential  —  p a r t i c u l a r l y by the  although  requirement  characters  applicable  f o r an a u t h o r i t y  figure  o r freedom from e r r o r ,  and S t o i c  virtuesj will  exercise  actions  of  principles the  plot  of  the of  the  good.  qualities evil  The a c t i o n s  u s u a l l y have  i n h i b i t the  Providential  agents  Each novel character,  or at  to  assures,  empathy,  expression  as  l o n g as  i n accord with  eighteenth-century  evil  on the  authority, presence  numerous v i c e s ,  comic r e s o l u t i o n ,  but  theory  error)  based  of  vices  Provi-  o f human  Christian  acts  and i n  c o r r e c t i o n . The on  the  resolution  of  a divine  plan  of  works  towards  on a l a c k o f (although  selfishness also  and  are based comic  and  important  an a b s e n c e  and w i s e  the  by  most  good-nature  they  dependent  T h e " g o o d man"  the  not  a  figures  figures  in charitable  d r a m a t i c a l l y , honest of  r a t h e r than s o l e l y  characters  naturally  most  be  it  is  as  is  authority  figures.  figures,  dependent  figure  extent,  authority  prudent counsel  figure,  optimistic  a lesser  main a u t h o r i t y  but that  guidance,  a "good man," w i l l  and w i t h  to  from e v i l  since  frequent  main a u t h o r i t y  whereby e v e r y t h i n g ( a n d , ultimate  find  benevolent  and,  novels,  largely  the main a u t h o r i t y  to non-authority  failings,  the  of  of minor sympathetic  the p r o t e c t i o n  concept,  i n F i e l d i n g ' s major  optimism perceived i s  a P r o v i d e n t i a l agent,  sympathetic  agents  figures  being  an  good  Fielding's the  most  provide opportunities  common), for  act.  contains least with  one m a i n a u t h o r i t y  Jo6e.ph AndnejWA  f i g u r e who i s i n mind,  not  who i s  the  not  main  supposed  to  113 be t h e main c h a r a c t e r , b u t who i s , n o n e t h e l e s s ,  the spokesman f o r the e t h i c a l  and r e l i g i o u s bases o f the n o v e l and who e s t a b l i s h e s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , the tone and a t t i t u d e o f the n o v e l .  The a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e has one f o r m a l , p u b l i c  a u t h o r i t y r o l e , and a t l e a s t one p r i v a t e a u t h o r i t y r o l e . a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the "good man"  Because he embodies  (although Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s  "good man"  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t l y demonstrated), he e x e r c i s e s a l l types o f a u t h o r i t y t o some degree.  In every  case o f Dr. H a r r i s o n , i s i n t e n d e d God  i n t h e n o v e l , and, although  case, the main a u t h o r i t y i s , o r , i n the  t o be, the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Providence  or  t h e main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i s n e v e r an a l l e g o r y  of_- God, he i s as g o d - l i k e as i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a d i s t i n c t l y human c h a r a c t e r t o be.  In the case o f Dr. H a r r i s o n , o f course,  the demonstrated " g o d - l i k e "  q u a l i t i e s e s t a b l i s h h i s a u s t e r i t y , the d i s c u s s e d " g o d - l i k e " q u a l i t i e s a r e n o t proven, and the human q u a l i t i e s emphasized cause temporary h a r d s h i p and unhappiness.  The degree o f optimism  i n t e n d e d i n each n o v e l may be gauged  by the presence and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, s i n c e t h e more prominent Providence  i s , the more c e r t a i n i s the happy ending.  In each n o v e l , the main source  o f an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e ' s power, and  hence h i s main e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s concern, L a t i t u d i n a r i a n stance,  i s Fielding's simplified  as m o d i f i e d by exposure t o S t o i c i s m and by some  f e a t u r e s o f contemporary p h i l o s o p h y  such as S h a f t e s b u r y ' s  b e l i e f i n t h e i n n a t e p r i n c i p l e s o f goodness i n man.  and Hutcheson's  In lo&zph And/IZWA and  AmolxXL, C h r i s t i a n i t y i s the c o n t r o l l i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . In Tom JonZA, t h e r o l e o f contemporary and c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s i s more prominent, although  God i s s t i l l  the model f o r A l l w o r t h y ' s  authority.  Moreover, A l l w o r t h y i s the most n e a r l y " d i v i n e " o f the t h r e e major a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , and h i s a n g e l i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are o f t e n d e s c r i b e d .  In a l l t h r e e  114 novels,  contemporary and c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s  a r e d i s c u s s e d , b u t they  are used t o c l a r i f y and s u p p o r t r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e , n o t t o r e p l a c e i t . S t o i c i s m , and contemporary p h i l o s o p h i e s  c o n t a i n i n g elements o f Locke,  S h a f t e s b u r y , Hutcheson, B u t l e r and B o l i n g b r o k e The. E&AGLLf on Man) , a r e used as s u p p o r t i n g while other philosophies  (as i n t e r p r e t e d by Pope i n  e t h i c a l bases f o r t h e n o v e l s ,  a r e c a s u a l l y mocked o r r e f u t e d .  then, s u p p o r t C h r i s i t i a n i t y i n F i e l d i n g ' s major  Reason and optimism,  novels.  In Toi>e.ph And/ieWA, t h e main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i s a minor clergyman, a f a t h e r and a f a t h e r f i g u r e t o h i s p a r i s h .  He i s v i s u a l l y comic and has comic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t i s a "good man" and hence a r e a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , and h i s goals  and b e l i e f s u l t i m a t e l y triumph over those o f s e r i o u s , more p o w e r f u l  false authority figures.  He emphasizes l o v e i n h i s c h a r a c t e r and a c t i o n s ,  and h i s e x p r e s s e d d o c t r i n e i s e i t h e r based on love and L a t i t u d i n a r i a n C h r i s t i a n i t y o r s e r i o u s l y reduced by comedy. i s l i m i t e d , h i s constant represents end,"  Although h i s p r a c t i c a l power  presence i s an assurance t h a t the P r o v i d e n c e he  i s i n c o n t r o l and t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g w i l l t u r n o u t a l l r i g h t i n the  and he i s , t h e r e f o r e , l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e  evident  throughout t h e n o v e l .  f o r the l i g h t - h e a r t e d n e s s  Although Adams i s n o t the main c h a r a c t e r i n  JoA&ph kndh.2JM, i n t h a t the p l o t does n o t focus on him, he i s the most prominent and most memorable c h a r a c t e r  i n the n o v e l , and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e  most important main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e o f t h e t h r e e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Allworthy,  the main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n Tom JoneA, enjoys  considerably  more p r a c t i c a l power than Adams does, b u t has l e s s s p i r i t u a l power because he i s a magistrate opportunity  r a t h e r than a clergyman, though he s t i l l  t o expound moral d o c t r i n e .  finds  frequent  Although he i s n o t an a c t u a l f a t h e r ,  h i s r o l e s as a g u a r d i a n and as a s q u i r e , and hence as a f a t h e r f i g u r e f o r t h e  115 area, his  a r e emphasized f a r more than a r e Adams' p a t e r n a l r o l e s , and much o f  a u t h o r i t y i n the n o v e l  concerns h i s p r i v a t e a u t h o r i t y r o l e s .  r o l e as a "good man" i s emphasized because he serves  Allworthy's  as a guide and example  t o Tom Jones, who, though a f l e d g l i n g "good man," needs c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i r e c t i o n and advice  than d i d Joseph Andrews.  Moreover, there  .ts^ a l a r g e  number o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s who misuse t h e i r a u t h o r i t y , and o n l y Allworthy's  "good man" f e a t u r e s g i v e him a s u p e r i o r degree o f p a r e n t a l  authority.  Allworthy  has l e s s e f f e c t on Tom Jonei than Adams has on Joi^ph  AndtZWA, because he i s n o t p r e s e n t  during  the middle s e c t i o n and d u r i n g much  o f the t h i r d s e c t i o n , b u t he e s t a b l i s h e s the e t h i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r the n o v e l before  the a c t i o n moves from h i s c o n t r o l .  The j u d i c i a l n a t u r e o f h i s a u t h o r i t y ,  as w e l l as the r e s e r v a t i o n i n h i s own c h a r a c t e r , make him a more f o r m a l , b u t s t i l l a very  l i k e a b l e character,  3on<Li> l e s s simply The  though h i s s e r i o u s o u t l o o k on l i f e makes Tom  happy than i s Joseph kndhsmb.  main a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n kmoJLLa. f o l l o w s the t r e n d t o f o r m a l i t y ,  a u s t e r i t y and absence from the a c t i o n .  L i k e Adams, Dr. H a r r i s o n  i s a clergy-  man, b u t , u n l i k e Adams, h i s "good man" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are seldom demonstrated and he i s absent from the a c t i o n most o f the t i m e . his  The f i r s t problem makes  a u t h o r i t y h a r d t o a c c e p t and the second problem makes the w o r l d view o f  the n o v e l  c h a o t i c and p e s s i m i s t i c .  the n o v e l any h a p p i e r — and h i s a c t i o n s c r e a t e  When H a r r i s o n  does appear, he seldom makes  h i s j o c u l a r i t y has a g r a t i n g e f f e c t on t h i s r e a d e r  s e r i o u s , though temporary, h a r d s h i p .  There i s no  sense t h a t P r o v i d e n c e i s i n c o n t r o l because i t s main r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  i s incon-  s i s t e n t , u n c o n v i n c i n g and seldom i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i o n , and t h e o t h e r representative role —  i s the powerless A m e l i a .  Moreover, H a r r i s o n ' s  f a t h e r f i g u r e t o Amelia and Booth —  —  private  possible authority  i s minor, which makes him formal  116 and  a l o o f and t h e r e f o r e  very d i f f i c u l t t o l i k e .  P r o v i d e n t i a l rescues a r e the work o f H a r r i s o n , the a u t h o r i a l v o i c e  and the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ,  i n t e n d e d as a good a u t h o r i t y  which w i t h the comments o f demonstrates t h a t H a r r i s o n i s  figure.  In each n o v e l , the a u t h o r i t y expressed by the a u t h o r i a l v o i c e , and  On the o t h e r hand, the few  f i g u r e demonstrates many o f the views  conveys these views t o the o t h e r  thereby i s an a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t  characters,  i n the development o f the w o r l d view.  Because he i s the spokesman, among the c h a r a c t e r s ,  f o r t h e r e l i g i o u s and  e t h i c a l bases o f t h e n o v e l s , t h e r e a d e r w i l l t e n d t o judge t h e c h a r a c t e r s and  events as would the a u t h o r i t y  strongly  objects  f o r any a u t h o r i t y  As f a r as h i s p r a c t i c a l  authority  f i g u r e , b u t when a f a l s e  authority  e v e n t s , the p r o g r e s s i o n towards the p o s i t i v e r e s o l u t i o n i s impeded,  w h i l e t h e main a u t h o r i t y  f i g u r e , as a P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, f u r t h e r s  good even when h i s c o n t r o l seems t o be erroneous. therefore The  The a u t h o r i t y  an  ultimate  figure i s  important t o the tone and e f f e c t o f the n o v e l . t h r e e main a u t h o r i t y  to t h e i r novels. and  o f c o u r s e , the r e a d e r  f i g u r e c o n t r o l s , o r a t l e a s t m o d i f i e s , events i n the  The same i s t r u e  controls  (unless,  t o the bases e s t a b l i s h e d ) .  p e r m i t s , the a u t h o r i t y novel.  figure  f i g u r e s thus demonstrate a c a u s a l  Adams i s a j o v i a l , s t r o n g l y  relationship  Christian Providential  agent,  these f a c t s enhance the o p t i m i s t i c and comic w o r l d o f Jo&zph AndAHWA.  A l l w o r t h y i s more s e r i o u s an obvious P r o v i d e n t i a l  and more remote, as w e l l as more p o w e r f u l , b u t s t i l l  agent, and Tom Jon&6\is, p a r t i a l l y  l e s s comic and l e s s o p t i m i s t i c .  f o r t h i s reason,  Harrison i s not a convincing or l i k e a b l e  P r o v i d e n t i a l agent, the a c t i o n i s l a r g e l y removed from h i s domain, and t h e s e elements h e l p t o make kmeXA.0. n e i t h e r the main a u t h o r i t y  comic n o r o p t i m i s t i c .  figure i s p r i m a r i l y responsible  I n a l l three n o v e l s ,  f o r the d i d a c t i c  material  117 and i s the character spokesman f o r each novel's e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s philosophy.  The treatment of the main authority figures i s , therefore,  one of Fielding's main techniques f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the degree of optimism i n the tone and world view of each of h i s major novels.  118 FOOTNOTES C h a p t e r One  H e n r y F i e l d i n g , The H-lAtohiJ ofi Tom JoneA: A ToundLLng, e d . F r e d s o n B o w e r s , 2 v o l s . (Oxford: Wesleyan, 1974), I I , 783. A l l further references are.'to t h i s e d i t i o n and are i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t . 2 Michael  Irwin,  The. Tentative. ReoJUAt  3 F . Homes DudidenMenAy Conn.iii A r c h o h , 1966) , Henry F i e l d i n g  4  (Oxford:  Clarendon Press,  1967),  X-i.eX.di.ng-. HiA Lifie., WonkA and TimeA, .2; 1,  vols.  p.  8.  (Hamden,  267.  The. Chompi.on, 22  J a n . 1740,  i n Dudden, I ,  268.  5  7  3  Dudden,  II,  1062.  Dudden,  II,  1084.  Dudden,  II,  679.  Fielding,  "Dedication,"  Tom JoneA,  9  1  0  I,  7.  Michael Grant, "Introduction" to 1967) , p . 1 5 .  C c c e A O : SeX.ZCte.dWoA.kA  "Sermon I I " Thz 1816), I I , 60.  WoAkA o{ JoAZph ButteA,  Joseph B u t l e r , W i l l i a m Whyte,  (Middlesex:'  2 vols.  Penguin,  (Edinburgh:  C h a p t e r Two  1  Irwin, p.  79.  2 H e n r y F i e l d i n g , " p r e f a c e t o JoAzph Andhiem," JoAzph kndnem and ShameZa, e d . S h e r i d a n B a k e r (New Y o r k : C r o w e l l , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 6 5 . A l l further r e f e r e n c e s t o JoAZph AndAZWA a r e f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n a n d a r e i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a c h a r a c t e r who i s " b a s i c a l l y g o o d " i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a "good m a n , " a c o n c e p t w i t h q u i t e r i g i d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Any g e n u i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f e m p h a t h y f o r o n e ' s f e l l o w man i s a n i n s t a n c e o f good i n F i e l d i n g ' s n o v e l s , even i f " h a b i t u a l a v a r i c e , "  119 C h a p t e r Two c o n t i n u e d  :  o r some o t h e r f a i l i n g , c u t s s h o r t t h e a c t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m t h a t g o o d ( c p . S h a f t e s b u r y , ChoJuXCXeAA^ticJb, p . 9 0 , p . 13). The b e t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e d e e p e r a n d more f r e q u e n t a r e t h e instances o f e m p a t h y a n d t h e more c h a r i t a b l e a c t s r e s u l t .  InqvJjiy,  a  G e o r g e S h e r b u r n , " F i e l d i n g ' s S o c i a l O u t l o o k , " FhiZ.oZogi.caJi QuaAtZJiZy, J a n u a r y 1 9 5 6 , p p . 1-2 3 , r p t . i n Ei.ghtzznth Czntuny EngLL&h U.tZhatuAZ, ed. James L . C l i f f o r d (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1959)', p . 2 5 7 .  4  M a r t i n B a t t e s t i n , Thz Univ. Press, 1959), p .  5  Wayne C . B o o t h , 1961) , p . 8 2 .  UohaZ BabiA o{ fi.zZdlng'& khA.  Thz Rhztofiic ofa fiction  Aurelien.Didgeon, 1962) , p . 7 2 .  (Middletown:  Wesleyan  59.  (Chicago; Univ.  Thz NovzZi oft Vi.zZdU.ng  (New Y o r k :  of  Chicago  Russell  Press,  & Russel,  g Battestin,  p.  116.  I s a a c B a r r o w , Wohk& ( L o n d o n , I I I KmiabZz HmouAiAt ( C h i c a g o : U n i v .  9  Didgeon,  p.  [1686], 124-26) i n S t u a r t T a v e , o f Chicago P r e s s , 1960), p . 4.  'Thz  75  1  1  Tave, pp.141,  144.  1  2  Didgeon, p .  74.  1  3  Didgeon, p .  65.  14 I n t h e S t a t u t e o f 21 H e n r y V I I I , c . 13 " m i n i s t e r s w e r e f o r b i d d e n t o t a k e l a n d s t o f a r m , o r t o b u y o r s e l l i n t h e way o f m e r c h a n d i s e . " The s t a t u e was l a t e r m o d i f i e d i n t h e r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h I , b u t n o t a b o l i s h e d t o p r e v e n t m i n i s t e r s from "becoming f a r m e r s . " See C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l , Economic. ?n.obZzmi> Oft thz ChuJich ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . I n p r a c t i s e , i t became a m a t t e r o f i n d i v i d u a l j u d g e m e n t on t h e p a r t o f t h e b i s h o p s w h e t h e r t h e p a r s o n s and o t h e r m i n o r c l e r g y were a l l o w e d s e c u l a r sources o f income.  216.  120 Chapter  Three  Irwin,  p.  76.  e.g. B u t l e r , [tiOAJZA, r e g a r d i n g "good men": Sermon 4 , 1 1 , 8 6 ; Sermon 6 , I I , 1 1 0 - 1 1 ( e s p e c i a l l y "to e s t e e m a m a n ' s b e i n g f r i e n d l e s s as a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , " c p . comment on A l l w o r t h y "To b e u n f o r t u n a t e i n a n y R e s p e c t was sufficient. . . t o e n g a g e h i s F r i e n d s h i p " Tom ZoneA I , 1 4 0 ) ; Sermon 1 2 , I I , 2 0 4 - 0 5 , 2 1 6 - 1 7 ; Sermon 1 3 , I I , 2 2 7 , 2 3 1 ; Sermon 1 4 , I , 2 3 9 . See a l s o Sermon 1 , I I , 35 ( c p . A l l w o r t h y ' s comments on " P r i n c i p l e s o f N a t u r a l J u s t i c e " w h i c h G o d "had i m p l a n t e d i n o u r m i n d s , " I , 8 0 ) ; Sermon 9 , II, 1 4 8 - 4 9 ( c p . H a r r i s o n ' s comments on h o n o u r [Amelia, I I , 2 7 8 ] , a n d on l o v i n g o n e ' s e n e m i e s [Amelia,1, 1 4 8 - 4 9 ] ) ; Sermon 1 0 , I I , 1 6 6 - 6 7 , 170;  et  al.  e.g.  i ,  398.  Didgeon,  p.  151.  e.g.  B u t l e r , "Sermon 1 , "  e.g.  Rhapsody,  WoflflA,  II,  46.  I I , 2 4 7 , a n d Inquijiy concerning Virtue i n A n t h o n y A s h l e y t h i r d E a r l of Shaftesbury, ChaAacteAiAticA 0j$ Men, ManneAA, Opi.ni.onA, TijneA, 3 v o l s . ( L o n d o n , 1 7 1 1 ) , V o l . I I "An I n q u i r y c o n c e r n i n g V i r t u e a n d M e r i t , " "The M o r a l i s t s ; a P h i l o s o p h i c a l R h a p s o d y . " Cooper,  B u t l e r , "Sermon  e.g.  I,  14•"  WOAkA.  32,39-42,54,72,76,183,190,213;  Geoffrey  Chaucer  II,  727,729;  et  al.  " G e n e r a l P r o l o g u e , " "The C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s , " The WOAkA F . N . Robinson (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1957),  0$ Geo^Ji&y Chauceh., e d . 11.  501-04.  JuAticeA ofi the Peace, 1361-1S48, A WiAtohjy o{ the JuAtlceA ol the Peacefaonthe CountieA o£ England ( D o r s e t : s e d g e h i l l Bertram Osborne, Press,  1960),  p.  Osborne,  p.  177.  Osborne,  p.  178.  172.  121 Chapter Three  continued  13 G.  EngLUh Landed Society  Mingay,  (London: Routledge  & Paul,  1963),  p.  118,  14 Cooper, E a r l of Shaftesbury, I I , b k . 1, 3 : 3 .  "An I n q u i r y c o n c e r n i n g  V i r t u e and M e r i t , "  15 Battestin, 16  p.  Hugh A m o r y ,  AbAfriactA,  90.  "Law a n d t h e  Structure  of Fielding's  2 7 , 1966, 452A.  Novels,"  VLb&ZAtation  17 See M i n g a y , p .  131.  18 e.g.  Colossians,  Chapter  1  3:19;  Ephesians,5:  25 a n d 2 8 ;  Ecclesiastes,  9:9.  Four  Sherburn, p .  263.  2 Fielding,  Tom JoneJ,, I ,  286.  3 H e n r y F i e l d i n g , AmoXLa, 2 v o l s . ; s e p a r a t e l y p a g i n a t e d i n , one ( r p t . 1974'; New Y o r k : E v e r y m a n ' s L i b r a r y , 1 9 3 0 ) , I I , 2 9 3 . A l l further references to AmeLLa a r e f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n a n d a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e x t . Irwin,  ^  6  p.  Didgeon,  132.  p.  201.  Hugh A m o r y , " M a g i s t r a t e o r C e n s o r , " X I I , Summer, 1 9 7 2 , N o . 3 , p . 5 1 3 .  StudleJ> Ln EngLLbk LLteJuxtuhZ,  7 Didgeon,  p.  214.  Henry F i e l d i n g , G o s s e , 12 v o l s .  " E s s a y o n C o n v e r s a t i o n " ( 1 7 9 3 ) , i n WoAk*, e d . Edmond (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1 8 9 9 ) , X I , 1 6 9 .  Vol.  Chapter Four  continued  9  1  0  1  1  Fielding,  "Essay on C o n v e r s a t i o n , "  IX,  169-70.  Fielding,  "Essay on C o n v e r s a t i o n , " X I , 170.  H e n r y F i e l d i n g , "The T r i a l o f Amelia," The Convent GaJiden JouAnal, e d G e r a r d E d w a r d J e n s e n , 2 v o l s . (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 1 5 ) , I , 179. (No. 7 , J a n u a r y 2 5 , 1 7 5 2 . )  12 A.  R. Humphreys,  "Introduction','"  Amelia,  p.  13 Amory,  "Magistrate  or Censor," p .  513.  517.  14 Dudden,  II,  859.  Amory,  "Magistrate  or Censor," p .  16 A m o r y ,  "Magistrate  or Censor," pp.  512-13.  xi.  12 3 Selected Bibliography  Primary Fielding, rpt.  Henry. kmeLia. 2 v o l s , s e p a r a t e l y p a g i n a t e d New Y o r k : E v e r y m a n ' s L i b r a r y , 1 9 7 4 .  i n one.  "Essay on C o n v e r s a t i o n " (1793). WotiSzi. E d . Edmond G o s s e . New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1 8 9 4 . X I , 1 4 8 - 7 0 .  HiAtohjy 0^ Tom JoneJ>: A Foundting. Wesleyan U n i v .  Press,  Library,  12  London;  vols.  2 vols.  Oxford:  1974.  Joseph kndJtejJO& and Shameta. Critical  E d . Fredson Bowers.  1930,  E d . Sheridan Baker.  New Y o r k :  Crowell  1972.  "The T r i a l o f kmetia." The Convent Gatden Jensen. 2 v o l s . New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v . P r e s s ,  JouAnal. 1915.  I,  E d . Gerard 178-80.  Edward  Secondary Amory,  Hugh.  "Law a n d t h e S t r u c t u r e o f F i e l d i n g ' s 2 7 , 1966, p p . 451A-52A.  Novels."  kbitAacZi,,  " M a g i s t r a t e o r C e n s o r . " StudZeA 1972, No. 3, p p . 5 0 1 - 2 7 . Barrow,  Isaac.  Battestin, Univ.  WoAk&.  M a r t i n . The UiOKoZ P r e s s , 1959.  B o o t h , Wayne C . 1962.  Zn EngZl&h LZteftjOtuAe,  London,  III  (1686),  Chicago:  WOJdiA 0& Joseph ButZetL.  Anthony A s h l e y ,  X I I , Summer,  124-26.  BoAZi> 0& Fielding'A kflt.  The RhetolZc ofa ftdtion.  B u t l e r , J o s e p h . The Whyte, 1816. Cooper,  3 vols.  ViAASAtCition  Middletown:  Univ.  2 vols.  o f Chicago  Edinburgh:  Press,  William  t h i r d E a r l o f S h a f t e s b u r y . ChaAacteAZ&tLcA 0j$ 3 vols. London, 1711.  UanneAi, Opinion*, Timet*. Didgeon, A u r e l i e n . 1962.  Wesleyan  The WoveZtt ofc TZeZdLng.  D u d d e n , F . Homes. HenAy Ti.etdi.ng: Hamden, C o n n . : A r c h o n , 1 9 6 6 .  New Y o r k :  Russell  Men,  & Russell,  HZ& LZ^e, WonkA and TZmei. 2  vols.  124 Selected Bibliography  Grant, Michael. 1967. Hill,  continued  "Introduction."  Christopher. 1956.  "Introduction." Library, 1974.  Irwin,  The Tentative  Mingay, Osborne,  G.  English  Amelia.  Realist.  Landed Society. Justice*  Bertram.  WoAkA.  Economic VAoblemi 0^ the Ch.UA.ch.  Humphreys, A . R. Everyman's Michael.  ClceAO: Selected  1972,  Oxford:  Middlesex:  Oxford:  London;  rpt.  London: Routledge  & Paul,  Clarendon  New  Clarendon Press,  Penquin  Press,  York:  1967. 1963.  ofi the Peace, 1361-1848, A Hii>toAy o£ the Justice* Ofi England. D o r s e t : S e d g e h i l l . P r e s s , I 9 6 0 .  0& the Peace ^0A the Counties Sherburn, George. J a n u a r y 1956, Tave,  Stuart  M.  "Fielding's pp. 1-23.  Social  Outlook."  The Amiable HumouAl&t.  Chicago:  VhiSLo logical Univ.  of  QuaAXeAly,  Chicago  Press,  1960.  

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