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The implementation of chem study in British Columbia secondary schools : a survey Nasr, Gamal El-Din Ibrahim 1977

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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CHEM STUDY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS: A SURVEY by GAMAL EL-DIN IBRAHIM NASR B.Sc. (Hons.), C a i r o U n i v e r s i t y , 1956 Diplom Chemiker, 1960 & Dr. r e r . n a t . , 1962, U n i v e r s i t y o f H e i d e l b e r g A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o . t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1977 (c) Gamal E l-Din Ibrahim Nasr In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the re q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s un d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f £OJUA,CX>. ,£^>U2,octC\(yvv_ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia '2075 Westbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date S\ GcAaW-r l^TV i i ABSTRACT The CHEM Study program was adopted w i t h minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n 1966 i n B r i t i s h Columbia s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y aimed a t i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s t a t u s o f CHEM Study i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s i n 1976/77, i n c l u d i n g t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s and problems en c o u n t e r e d w i t h the im p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the CHEM Study program. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was de v e l o p e d and d i s t r i b u t e d to the c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s ; two hundred and t h i r t y one t e a c h e r s r e t u r n e d i t . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 88% o f a l l c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The a n a l y s i s o f the data shows m a i n l y t h a t t he CHEM Study program was not g e n e r a l l y implmented a c c o r d i n g to the methodology o u t l i n e d by i t s d e s i g n e r s , and t h a t the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s were s u b j e c t e d to v a r i o u s m o d i f i c a t i o n s and a d a p t a t i o n s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Purpose o f the Study 1 1.2 Background to the Study 1 1.3 General Problem 2 1.4 The S p e c i f i c Problem 9 1.5 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Problem 11 1.6 Method o f Study 12 1.6.1 P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Instrument . . . . 12 1.6.2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . 13 1.6.3 Return o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 14 1.7 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study . . 14 2. THE CHEM STUDY PROGRAM - REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 16 2.1 The Development o f CHEM Study M a t e r i a l s . . . 16 2.1.1 H i s t o r i c a l Background 16 i v Chapter Page 2.1.2 Bru n e r ' s Ideas on S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . . 18 2.1.3 The H i s t o r y o f the Development o f CHEM Study M a t e r i a l s 20 2.1.4 The P h i l o s o p h y o f CHEM Study As Viewed by I t s D e v e l o p e r s 21 2.1.5 Shortcomings o f T r a d i t i o n a l C h e m i s t r y Courses 23 2.2 D i s c u s s i n g Some Problems E n c o u n t e r e d With the CHEM Study Program 26 2.2.1 Developmental L e v e l o f S t u d e n t s . . . . 26 2.2.2 D i f f i c u l t y o f Some T o p i c s 31 2.2.2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 31 2.2.2.2 Chemical e q u i l i b r i u m 32 2.2.2.3 The mole c o n c e p t 33 2.2.2.4 U n c e r t a i n t y o f measure-ment 35 2.2.3 The D i s c o v e r y Approach 36 2.2.4 Lack o f Mathematical S k i l l s R e q u i r e d 38 2.2.5 T e a c h e r - S t u d e n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s 43 2.3 Review o f E m p i r i c a l S t u d i e s 45 2.3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 45 2.3.2 S t u d i e s Comparing Achievement 46 2.3.3 S t u d i e s comparing Development o f C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s 55 2.3.4 The E f f e c t o f High School C h e m i s t r y on Achievement i n C o l l e g e C h e m i s t r y . . 57 C h a p t e r Page 2.4 The Impact o f CHEM Study on the T e a c h i n g o f High School C h e m i s t r y 61 2.5 CHEM Study i n B r i t i s h Columbia 63 2.5.1 CHEM Study i n Canada i n General . . . 63 2.5.2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Chem 11 and Chem 12 i n B r i t i s h Columbia 63 2.5.3 S t a t i s t i c a l Data 65 3. METHOD . 68 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 68 3.2 Development o f the Instrument 69 3.2.1 P r e l i m i n a r y P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 69 3.2.2 The P i l o t Run 69 3.2.3 F i n a l P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 70 3.3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 70 3.3.1 Communication w i t h S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . . 70 3.3.2 Communication w i t h P r i n c i p a l s . . . . 71 3.4 Return o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 72 3.4.1 E s t i m a t i o n o f P e r c e n t Return 73 3.4.2 P o s s i b l e Reasons f o r High Response Return 75 3.5 A n a l y s i s o f the Data 76 v i C h a p t e r Page 4. RESULTS 77 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 77 4.2 Demographic Data 79 4.3 S c h o o l s and Semester System 82 4.4 Time A v a i l a b l e f o r the Course . . . . . . . . 84 4.5 The C h e m i s t r y L a b o r a t o r y i n B.C. S c h o o l s . . . 87 4.6 The CHEM Study F i l m 91 4.7 The CHEM Study Textbook 91 4.8 The E x p e r i m e n t a l P a r t o f the Course 91 4.9 Mathematical S k i l l s 98 4.10 Content o f the Course 99 4.11 A d a p t a t i o n s o f the Course 101 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 107 5.1 C o n c l u s i o n s 107 5.2 Recommendations 110 5.2.1 C o n t e n t o f the Course . I l l 5.2.2 Mathematical S k i l l s 112 5.2.3 The Math-Chem Sequence i n Grade 11 113 5.2.4 School L a b o r a t o r y 113 5.3 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY • 115 v i i A p p e ndices Page APPENDIX A - A SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY TEACHING IN B.C. SECONDARY SCHOOLS - THE QUESTIONNAIRE 123 APPENDIX B - SAMPLE SHOWING TWO PAGES OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE AS DISTRIBUTED 134 APPENDIX C - COVER LETTER TO CHEMISTRY TEACHERS 136 APPENDIX D - COVER LETTER TO SUPERINTENDENTS 138 APPENDIX E - COVER LETTER TO PRINCIPALS . 140 APPENDIX F - TEACHERS'COMMENTS 142 v i i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 2.1 C h e m i s t r y T e a c h e r s and S t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1976-77 66 2.2 Decrease i n S t u d e n t E n r o l l m e n t from Grade 11 i n 1975-76 to Grade 12 i n 1976-77 66 3.1 E s t i m a t i o n o f P e r c e n t Return o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Based on Number o f T e a c h e r s 74 3.2 E s t i m a t i o n o f P e r c e n t Return o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Based on Number o f S c h o o l s 74 4.1 E d u c a t i o n a l Background o f the C h e m i s t r y T e a c h e r i n B.C 80 4.2 T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e 81 4.3 S c h o o l s and Semester System 83 4.4 T o t a l Time A l l o c a t e d f o r the Course 83 4.5 Time A l l o c a t e d f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l Work Done by S t u d e n t s 85 4.6 Time A l l o c a t e d f o r Demonstrations 85 4.7 Adequate Coverage o f the Course i n the Time A v a i l a b l e 86 4.8 Problems With the C h e m i s t r y L a b o r a t o r y i n B.C. S c h o o l s 88 4.9 Problems With the CHEM Study F i l m s 92 4.10 T e a c h e r s ' Responses to Statements About the Textbook 94 i x T a b l e Page 4.11 T e a c h e r s ' Responses to Statements About the Ex p e r i m e n t a l P a r t o f the Course 95 4.12 T e a c h e r s ' Responses t o Statements R e l a t e d t o Mathematical S k i l l s R e q u i r e d 96 4.13 T e a c h e r s ' Responses t o Some A s p e c t s o f the Course's C o n t e n t 100 4.14 E x t e n t o f Course's A d a p t a t i o n as C o n c e i v e d by T e a c h e r s 103 4.15 D e t a i l e d I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the Course's A d a p t a t i o n s 103 4.16 T e a c h e r s ' Responses t o Statements About t he D i f f i c u l t y L e v e l o f the CHEM Study Course 105 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My b e s t thanks to P r o f e s s o r s W.B. B o l d t and F.A. G o r n a l l f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e guidance and a s s i s t a n c e . A l s o b e s t thanks t o Dr. G.L. E r i c k s o n , Dr. E.D. Hobbs and Mr. R. D u f f f o r many h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . The C o o p e r a t i o n o f B.C. C h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s -t r a t o r s , s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and p r i n c i p a l s , i s acknowledged w i t h g r a t i t u d e . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose o f the Study The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s to examine the problems a s s o c -i a t e d w i t h t he imp l e m e n t a t i o n o f the c h e m i s t r y program i n B r i t i s h Columbia s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , and to i n v e s t i g a t e how c l o s e l y t h e p r a c t i c a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f a c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w s t h e p h i l o s o p h y and methodology, which was e n v i s o n e d and o u t l i n e d by i t s d e v e l o p e r s . 1.2 Background to the Study The Chemical E d u c a t i o n M a t e r i a l Study c o u r s e , known as CHEM Study, was adopted w i t h a few minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1966. In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i t i s u s u a l l y o f f e r e d as a one y e a r f i r s t c o u r s e i n c h e m i s t r y , but i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s g i v e n as a two-part c o u r s e d e s i g n a t e d as Chem 11 and Chem 12 f o r Grades 11 and 12 s t u d e n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . When t h i s s t u d y was i n -i t i a t e d ( i n November 1976) CHEM Study was the o n l y major c h e m i s t r y program s a n c t i o n e d by the Department o f E d u c a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s . 2 The CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s were d e v e l o p e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1960's w i t h g r a n t s from the U.S. N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n t o t a l l i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y $2,800,000 [ M e r r i l l & Ridgway, 1969, p. 1 ] . The development o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s was p a r t o f a g r e a t C u r r i c u l u m Improvement Movement, a l s o known as the C u r r i c u l u m Reform Movement, aimed a t u p g r a d i n g h i g h s c h o o l s c i e n c e . The movement a c t i v e l y took p l a c e d u r i n g the l a t e 1 950 1s and e a r l y 1960's, an e r a u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o i n the l i t e r a t u r e as the p o s t -S p u t n i k e r a . In a d d i t i o n to CHEM Study, the C u r r i c u l u m Improvement Movement produced among o t h e r s the Chemical Bond Approach c o u r s e i n c h e m i s t r y (CBA), the P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e Study Committee c o u r s e i n p h y s i c s (PSSC), and the B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s C u r r i c u l u m Study c o u r s e i n b i o l o g y (BSCS). The CHEM Study p r o j e c t , o r g a n i z e d and d i r e c t e d by a s t e e r -i n g committee and "headed by Nobel L a u r e a t e Glenn T. Seaborg, attempted t o s t a f f the Study w i t h the c o u n t r y ' s most a b l e s c i e n t i s t s and h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , . . . , never b e f o r e has such an a r r a y o f t a l e n t been assembled to c o n s t r u c t a high s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e . " [Pimentel, e t a l . , 1963] 1.3 General Problem To the c a u s a l r e v i e w e r the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s appear to be e x c e l l e n t . One i s impressed by the t e x t - b o o k which t r e a t s a g r e a t d e a l o f u p - t o - d a t e c h e m i s t r y t o p i c s and c o n c e p t s i n a l u c i d 3 and r e l a x e d way. The l a b o r a t o r y manual c o n t a i n s a good number o f w e l l chosen e x p e r i m e n t s , which can be c a r r i e d o u t by the u n s o p h i s -t i c a t e d high s c h o o l s t u d e n t w i t h i n an hour o r so. The i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s a r e b r i e f but c l e a r and complete. Most o f the CHEM Study f i l m s a r e w e l l p r e p a r e d , i n f o r m a t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g . The t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e i s comprehensive and e n c y c l o p e d i c . Yet the use o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s on a l a r g e s c a l e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and e l s e -where has g e n e r a t e d s e r i o u s problems f o r the p r a c t i c i n g c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r and h i s s t u d e n t s a l i k e . The CHEM Study c o u r s e demands a f a c i l i t y i n mathematical s k i l l s l a c k e d by most h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s [Osborne, 1969; Greenwood, 1976] Though the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s were presumably d e s i g n e d f o r the average and above average s t u d e n t [ M e r r i l l , 1964; L o c k a r d , 1972, p. 461], e x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t the c o u r s e may be o n l y s u i t a b l e f o r the above-average s t u d e n t s [ F o n t a i n e , 1970; M c C u l l o u g h , 1966; M o r r i s , 1966]. In f a c t most o f the c o u r s e s produced by t h e C u r r i c u l u m Improvement Movement o f the p o s t - s p u t n i k e r a were c o l l e c t i v e l y a c c u s e d o f b e i n g too p r o f e s s i o n a l , a b s t r a c t , and not t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and needs o f the y o u n g s t e r s [Saadeh, 1973; Sutman, 1966; Watson, 1967; Welch, 1968]. The r o l e o f the s c i e n t i s t s i n t h a t movement has been s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d by many a u t h o r s . K l i n e (1965) w r i t e s : "The c u r r i c u l u m 4 has been taken o v e r b y ( p r o f e s s i o n a l ) s c i e n t i s t s whose aim judged by the c u r r i c u l a they have produced i s to t r a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s . . These r e f o r m e r s assume t h a t mathematics and s c i e n c e a r e ends i n t h e m s e l v e s , and t h a t t he goal i s to r u s h the e d u c a t i o n so t h a t t he seventeen y e a r o l d s can s t a r t w r i t i n g r e s e a r c h p a p e r s . " Watson [1967] contended t h a t the new c u r r i c u l a have n e g l e c t e d the average s t u d e n t s "who f i l l o ur s c h o o l s and a r e f a c e d d a i l y by most t e a c h e r s " ; and f o r most o f whom e d u c a t i o n i n s c i e n c e i s t e r m i n a l i n the h i g h s c h o o l . "The c u r r e n t s c i e n c e program has f a i l e d a l a r g e f r a c t i o n o f the p u p i l s . They t e l l us so c l e a r l y by not e l e c t i n g s c i e n c e c o u r s e s . " Cronbach [1964] n o t i c e s t h a t "prominent c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p -ment has been a s t r e s s on p u s h i n g t o p i c s downwards. . . . I t has been the s p i r i t o f many c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s to say ' I f t h i s i s worth t e a c h i n g a t the n i n t h grade l e v e l , why c a n ' t we t e a c h i t i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n " 1 ? He remarks t h a t "The n o t i o n t h a t you can t e a c h t h i n g s e a r l i e r i s t h r e a t e n e d by P r o f e s s o r P i a g e t ' s s t a t e m e n t about the c h i l d ' s moving through stages, not n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h a f i x e d t i m i n g but w i t h a t i m i n g t h a t i s d i f f i c u l t to a c c e l e r a t e . " M e r r i l l [1964] p r a i s e s the CHEM Study c o u r s e f o r d r o p p i n g d e s c r i p t i v e c h e m i s t r y o f g l a s s - m a k i n g , s m e l t i n g , f e r t i l i z e r s and d o u b l e - a c t i n g b a k i n g powder t h a t was u s u a l l y found i n o l d t e x t -books, and f o r p u t t i n g g r e a t emphasis i n c o n t e n t upon u n i f y i n g c o n c e p t s . 5 Yet by d r o p p i n g d e s c r i p t i v e c h e m i s t r y the c o u r s e becomes too a b s t r a c t and o n l y r e m o t e l y r e l a t e d t o the e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e o f the s t u d e n t s . P a u l i n g [1970] i n the l a s t r e v i s i o n o f h i s book on g e n e r a l c h e m i s t r y says t h a t though d e s c r i p t i v e c h e m i s t r y "has been d e c r e a s e d somewhat i n t h i s e d i t i o n " he s t i l l f e e l s t h a t " i t i s impor-t a n t f o r the ( c o l l e g e ) s t u d e n t t o know some o f t h e f a c t s o f d e s c r i p t i v e c h e m i s t r y . " Pode [1966] who has a v e r y f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards CHEM Study n o t i c e s t h a t the c h e m i s t r y i n everyday l i f e o c c u p i e s b u t a small p o r t i o n i n the c o u r s e a l t h o u g h the chemical i n d u s t r y " i s an admir-a b l e example o f the problems and rewards o f a p p l i e d s c i e n c e and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . . . the i n e v i t a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t c h e m i s t r y i s an e x c l u s i v e academic p u r s u i t ( s h o u l d have been) a v o i d e d a t a l l c o s t s . " Bond [1974] a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r o f c h e m i s t r y o b j e c t s to the growing tendency " f o r more and more t a x i n g t h e o r e t i c a l con-c e p t s to be i n t r o d u c e d e a r l i e r and e a r l i e r . " He adds t h a t " c u r r i c u l u m development seems to have f a l l e n i n t o the hands o f w e l l -meaning b u t a c a d e m i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d p e o p l e who have l i t t l e n o t i o n o f what f i r e s the i m a g i n a t i o n o f young p e o p l e . . . c h e m i s t r y i s about s m e l l s and c o l o u r s , about p r e c i p i t a t e s coming and g o i n g , about g e t t i n g n i c e c r y s t a l s and even about s u p e r v i s e d bangs and f l a s h e s . I t i s not ( a t the h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l ) about i o n i c r a d i i , r a t e c o n s t a n t s o r the change i n f r e e energy." U n i v e r s i t i e s need, Bond s u g g e s t s , s t u d e n t s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c h e m i s t r y and i t i s the t a s k o f the t e a c h e r s and c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s " t o i n c u l c a t e t h i s i n t e r e s t . " 6 McCullough [1966] a d v o c a t e s a s i m i l a r p o i n t o f view. "The r o l e o f the s c h o o l i s to p r o v i d e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e the p l a c e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s the c o l l e g e o r the t r a d e s c h o o l . What i s needed f o r the average s t u d e n t i s a c o u r s e t h a t w i l l be a l i v e and y e t f u n d a m e n t a l , a c o u r s e t h a t c o n t a i n s a l o t o f d e s c r i p t i v e c h e m i s t r y so t h a t the s t u d e n t can see the r o l e t h a t c h e m i s t r y p l a y s i n e v e r y d a y l i f e . " The CHEM Study c o u r s e i s a l a b o r a t o r y - o r i e n t e d c o u r s e , based on what i s c a l l e d the " d i s c o v e r y approach." Chemical c o n c e p t s and p r i n c i p l e s a r e to be l o g i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d from d a t a g a t h e r e d by the s t u d e n t s i n the l a b o r a t o r y . The t e a c h e r ' s guide [ M c C l e l l a n e t a l . , 1963, p. 2] o u t l i n e s the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n method: In the CHEM Study c o u r s e the s t u d e n t i s o f t e n s e n t to the l a b o r a t o r y t o i n v e s t i -gate p r o p e r t i e s o f m a t t e r b e f o r e they a r e t r e a t e d i n c l a s s . He g a t h e r s some f a c t s - - t h a t i s g e t s an e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s f o r under-s t a n d i n g c o n c e p t s — w h i c h the t e a c h e r then d e v e l o p s the next day. Most ex p e r i m e n t s r e c e i v e a s h o r t p r e - l a b d i s c u s s i o n devoted l a r g e l y to e x p e r i m e n t a l and m a n i p u l a t i v e d e t a i l s . The t e a c h e r i s warned not to r e v e a l "any element o f d i s c o v e r y . " A l l experiments are t o be f o l l o w e d by a p o s t - l a b s e s s i o n devoted to the s y s t e m a t i c d e v e l o p -ment o f r e l e v a n t p r i n c i p l e s . The development o f p r i n c i p l e s [CHEM Study N e w s l e t t e r , 1965] s h o u l d i n v o l v e a minimum o f l e c t u r i n g and a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f r e a l d i s c u s s i o n i n which i d e a l l y a l l members o f the c l a s s s h o u l d be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . 7 I t has been s a i d [ P i m e n t e l & Ridgway, 1972] t h a t such a s t r a t e g y r e n d e r s t he t e a c h i n g o f c h e m i s t r y n o n a u t h o r i t a r i a n . I t a l s o encourages s t u d e n t s to t h i n k and to q u e s t i o n , thus d e v e l o p s h a b i t s o f c l e a r and a n a l y t i c a l t h o u g h t . T h i s 'wondering w h y ' - - ' d i s c o v e r y ' — 'problem s o l v i n g ' approach engages the s t u d e n t i n "the most e x c i t i n g p a r t o f s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . " S e v e r a l a u t h o r s f i n d t h a t the c l a i m s advanced i n f a v o u r o f the d i s c o v e r y approach, on which the whole CHEM Study c o u r s e i s su p p o s e d l y b u i l t , a r e s t i l l u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d [ A u s u b e l , 1968; Cronbach, 1966; Smith, 1969]. I t i s a l s o d o u b t f u l t h a t small d i s c o v e r i e s o f minor r e g u l a r i t i e s a r e as t h r i l l i n g to most s t u d e n t s as the c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s assume them to be. Cronbach [1966] w r i t e s "when a w r i t e r argues t h a t d i s c o v e r y i s a t h r i l l i n g p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e he seems to have i n mind the s o r t o f s t a r t l i n g r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e d on the g r a n d - s c a l e by K e p l e r and on a l e s s e r s c a l e by KeKule. These a r e D i s c o v e r i e s t h a t appear to be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y from d i s c o v e r i e s o f s i m p l e r e g u l a r i t i e s . Big-D d i s c o v e r i e s a r e i n f r e q u e n t even i n the l i f e o f the s c i e n t i s t . " F urthermore t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t the assumption t h a t i n d u c t i v e t e a c h i n g i s more e f f e c t i v e than d e d u c t i v e t e a c h i n g f o r a l l l e a r n e r s under a l l s i t u a t i o n s . Shayer [1970] does not b e l i e v e t h a t the CHEM Study program r e a l l y f o l l o w s the d i s c o v e r y a p p r o a c h . "The i n t r o d u c t i o n ( t o the text - b o o k ) i s f u l l o f the b e s t i n t e n t i o n s . So, t o o , i s the f i r s t 8 c h a p t e r . The s t u d e n t i s to l e a r n how to do s c i e n c e as an e x p l o r a t o r y a c t i v i t y . Y e t , d e s p i t e one o r two e x c e l l e n t f i l m s , . . . , and d e s p i t e some e x c e l l e n t p r a c t i c a l s where c o n t r o l l e d e x p l o r a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , the r e s t o f the c o u r s e proceeds as an e x e r c i s e i n con-d i t i o n i n g and i s t o t a l l y a t odds w i t h the ( d e c l a r e d ) i n t e n t i o n s . " Walker [1967] g i v i n g examples a l s o n o t i c e s t h a t " i n a number o f p l a c e s the s t u d e n t i s t o l d t h a t he has ' d i s c o v e r e d ' some-t h i n g where i n f a c t he was j u s t t o l d . " One o f the major d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the CHEM Study program i s t h a t i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as o u t l i n e d by i t s d e v e l o p e r s [ P i m e n t e l , 1963; M c C l e l l a n , 1963] needs s u b s t a n t i a l adjustment on the p a r t o f the t e a c h e r and the s t u d e n t s [ M e r r i l l , 1964]. T h i s a d j u s t m e n t appears t o be v e r y hard t o e s t a b l i s h [ S h a y e r , 1970]. Ramsey [1970] i n v e s t i g a t e d the development o f the CHEM Study c o n t e n t i n the c l a s s r o o m o f seven t e a c h e r s . He n o t i c e d t h a t the t e a c h e r s adopted a d e d u c t i v e t e a c h e r - o r i e n t e d approach to t e a c h i n g c o n t e n t . More than n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f c o n t e n t e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g i n c l a s s were i n i t i a t e d by the t e a c h e r . Ramsey c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e r e appeared to be wide d i f f e r e n c e s between t e a c h i n g p r o -cedures employed by t h i s group o f t e a c h e r s and p r a c t i c e s d e s c r i b e d by t he w r i t e r s o f the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s as b e i n g c o n d u c t i v e to l e a r n i n g . " R e s earch i s i n c o n c l u s i v e as to the e f f e c t o f the use the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s on impr o v i n g s t u d e n t s ' achievement i n h i g h 9 schoo l c h e m i s t r y o r i n d e v e l o p i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . With the e x c e p t i o n o f T r o x e l [1970] who r e p o r t s s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t i n c o n c l u s i v e f i n d i n g s . [Anderson, 1964, Hardy, 1970; Heath & S t i c k e l l , 1963; Her r o n , 1966; Pye & Anderson, 1967; Rainey, 1964] The e f f e c t o f hi g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e s i n c l u d i n g CHEM Study on achievement i n c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y c h e m i s t r y has been i n v e s t i g a t e d by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y s c o r e s may be used to p r e d i c t s u c c e s s i n c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y . However math/physics background, h i g h placement s c o r e s , achievement t e s t s s c o r e s , i n t e l l i g e n c e and sex may p r e d i c t t h a t s u c c e s s e q u a l l y o r even b e t t e r . To c o n c l u d e , a q u o t a t i o n from Sutman [1966] i s i n o r d e r . "I am not s a y i n g the o l d i s good enough. Means must be found to p r e s e n t the newer c o n t e n t i n a n o n - a b s t r a c t non-mathematical way, so t h a t a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f the hi g h s c h o o l age p o p u l a t i o n can become more l i t e r a t e and h o p e f u l l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n c e . " 1.4 The S p e c i f i c Problem The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s to determine how the CHEM Study program was implemented i n B r i t i s h Columbia s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s and to determine i f t h e r e was a d i s c r e p a n c y between the c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e o r y and i n p r a c t i c e . I t is; a l s o i n t e n d e d to i n v e s t i g a t e to what e x t e n t the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s were used as sug g e s t e d by 10 i t s d e v e l o p e r s . [ P i m e n t e l , e t a l . , 1963; M c C l e l l a n e t a l . , 1963] To a r r i v e a t a c o n c l u s i o n response to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were s o l i c i t e d : 1. Were the l a b o r a t o r i e s s u i t a b l y equipped and a v a i l a b l e when needed? 2. Were the CHEM stu d y f i l m s a v a i l a b l e and s c r e e n e d a t a p p r o p r i a t e p e r i o d s as sug g e s t e d by the program d e s i g n e r s ? 3. Was t h e r e an adequate a l l o c a t i o n o f time f o r the co u r s e ? 4. What p r o p o r t i o n o f the time was used f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l work? 5. What were tea c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the " d i s c o v e r y approach" i n the t e a c h i n g o f sec o n d a r y s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y ? 6. What were the t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f the CHEM Study c o u r s e and m a t e r i a l s ? A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was sought to determine t he f o l l o w i n g : 7. What was t h e e d u c a t i o n a l background and e x p e r i e n c e o f c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia? 8. What was the p e r c e n t a g e o f s c h o o l s i n which c h e m i s t r y was t a u g h t on a semester b a s i s ? 11 1.5 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Problem A r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n about the t i m i n g o f the s t u d y and t h e i r doubt about i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t was g e n e r a l l y noted t h a t the Chem 11 r e v i s i o n had been completed and t h a t a new program i s to be implemented i n September, 1977, and t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e to be g a i n e d from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The a u t h o r was w e l l aware o f the work o f the R e v i s i o n Committees and p l a n s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . But s i n c e no comprehensive s u r v e y o f c u r r e n t problems and p r a c t i c e s o f t e a c h i n g c h e m i s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia seems t o have been under-t a k e n , the a u t h o r f e l t t h a t such a s t u d y was needed. T h i s s t u d y i s not an e v a l u a t i o n o f the CHEM Study program, as many r e s p o n d e n t s may have b e l i e v e d i t to be. I t aims p r i n c i p a l l y a t r e v e a l i n g t e a c h e r s c o n v i c t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and methods o f implemen-t i n g any c h e m i s t r y program, as w e l l as the problems t h e y e n c o u n t e r i n d o i n g so. The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t a f t e r a few y e a r s o f t e a c h -i n g e x p e r i e n c e , e v e r y t e a c h e r e s t a b l i s h e s h i s s t r a t e g y and t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h any c u r r i c u l u m . In f a c t the c u r r e n t r e v i s i o n i s minor i n scope. The new programs a r e s t i l l g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by CHEM Study w i t h regards to both c o n t e n t and methodology. . T e a c h e r s may c o n t i n u e u s i n g the o l d p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n the same way they a r e used t o , a f t e r some rearrangements o f the sequence o f the t o p i c s and a few minor a d d i t i o n s o r d e l e t i o n s . 12 By a s s e s s i n g how c l o s e l y t e a c h e r s f o l l o w e d the r i g i d method o u t l i n e d by the CHEM Study d e v e l o p e r s , how th e y used and modi-f i e d the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s , and by i n v e s t i g a t i n g t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards the d i s c o v e r y approach and t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s about the r o l e o f the l a b o r a t o r y i n t e a c h i n g c h e m i s t r y , one can aim from the o u t s e t a t r e a l i s t i c o b j e c t i v e s , and make s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t would be f o l l o w e d . One can b e t t e r s e l e c t c o u r s e c o n t e n t and m a t e r i a l s to s u i t the needs o f s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t the a d o p t i o n o f new c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s may not cause much change i n the b e h a v i o u r o f t e a c h e r s . On the c o n t r a r y , w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r may cause much change to the c u r r i c u l u m . 1.6 Method o f Study 1.6.1 P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Instrument S i n c e the purpose o f the st u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the problems w i t h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the CHEM Study c o u r s e , i t was d e c i d e d to co n d u c t a s u r v e y d i r e c t e d a t al1 t e a c h e r s who tea c h the c o u r s e i n p u b l i c s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s o f . - B r i t i s h Columbia. Based on the a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s and on d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t e a c h e r s i n workshops, c o n f e r e n c e s and s c h o o l s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d r a f t e d and s u b m i t t e d to t h r e e j u d g e s f o r s u g g e s t i o n s and c o n t e n t v a l i d a t i o n . The m o d i f i e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was then s u b j e c t e d to a p i l o t run i n the t h r e e 13 s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s o f Richmond School D i s t r i c t . F u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n p r o v i d e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was c i r c u l a t e d . 1.6.2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f the s e v e n t y - s i x s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were c o n t a c t e d i n w r i t i n g and asked f o r a u t h o r i z -a t i o n to c a r r y o u t the s u r v e y i n the s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s o f t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . A l l but two g r a n t e d t h e i r a u t h o r i z a t i o n . Richmond School D i s t r i c t , which s e r v e d f o r the p i l o t run o f the s t u d y was e x c l u d e d . A l t o g e t h e r t h r e e d i s t r i c t s and t h e i r t en s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were i n i t i a l l y e x c l u d e d from the s t u d y . C h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s i n 157 s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e . T e a c h e r s i n 139 s c h o o l s were c o n t a c t e d v i a t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s , who d i d the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . The Vancouver School D i s t r i c t d i s t r i b u t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e v i a i t s m a i l i n g system. In a l l c a s e s the t e a c h e r s were asked to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e t u r n i t i n [ i n c l u d e d ] s e l f - a d d r e s s e d prestamped e n v e l o p e . 14 1.6.3 Return o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Most o f the l e t t e r s were m a i l e d to s c h o o l s on A p r i l 18, 1977. Two hundred and t h i r t y - o n e r e s p o n s e s were r e c e i v e d , the l a s t on J u l y 4, 1977. I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t o v e r e i g h t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f a l l c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s u r v e y . The r e t u r n was u n e x p e c t e d l y h i g h , t h e r e f o r e , no f o l l o w -up was a t t e m p t e d . 1.7 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study One l i m i t a t i o n to the s t u d y a r i s e s from i t s method. A s u r v e y m a i l e d to the r e s p o n d e n t s cannot be too demanding o f t h e i r t i m e , o t h e r w i s e they would not answer i t . Hence the number o f q u e s t i o n s to be i n c l u d e d i n a s u r v e y must be l i m i t e d . One i s o b l i g e d t o drop l e s s i m p o r t a n t t o p i c s i n f a v o u r o f more i m p o r t a n t ones. A l s o one cannot i n v e s t i g a t e any p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c i n g r e a t depth as the r e s p o n d e n t s a r e l i m i t e d t o a f i x e d number o f r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s . A second l i m i t a t i o n to the s t u d y comes from some o f the items t h a t a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the CHEM Study program. T e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s on such t o p i c s as the t e x t - b o o k o r the f i l m s a r e o f s p e c i f i c n a t u r e and a p p l y o n l y to CHEM Study. However, some o t h e r items such as the r e p o r t e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s and a d a p t a t i o n s o f the o r i g i n a l CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s a r e not as s p e c i f i c as t h e y may 15 appear to be. They g i v e a good i n d i c a t i o n o f the m o d i f i c a t i o n s t h a t would be a p p l i e d to a new c u r r i c u l u m w i t h s i m i l a r methodology and comparable c o n t e n t . The average e x p e c t a t i o n o f r e t u r n s from mail s u r v e y s seldom exceeds o n e - t h i r d o f the m a i l - o u t [Hambleton e t a l . , 1970]. G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s i n such c a s e s may be d o u b t f u l , i f the d a t a a r e not s u b j e c t e d to r i g o r o u s s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t . S i n c e a g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s a r e i n c l u d e d , the g e n e r a l i z -a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y t o the p o p u l a t i o n o f c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s i s p r o b a b l y v e r y h i g h . 16 CHAPTER 2 THE CHEM STUDY PROGRAM - REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 The Development o f CHEM Study M a t e r i a l s 2.1.1 H i s t o r i c a l Background By the midd l e f i f t i e s many U.S. r e s e a r c h s c i e n t i s t s had become concerned w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t the r a t e o f t r a i n i n g s c i e n t i s t s was l a g g i n g e s p e c i a l l y i n comparison w i t h the r a t e i n communist c o u n t r i e s . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c d e v e l o p e d a sense o f urgency when the S o v i e t s e x p l o d e d t h e i r f i r s t n u c l e a r bomb. T h i s was h e i g h t e n e d when they o r b i t e d t h e i r f i r s t s a t e l l i t e , S p u t n i k I , i n O c t o b e r 1957. Research s c i e n t i s t s w i t h i n and o u t s i d e o f the U.S. f e d e r a l government s p a r k e d a movement to upgrade and update the t e a c h i n g o f high s c h o o l s c i e n c e and mathematics. The assumption was made,although e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e was l a c k i n g , t h a t t h e . h i g h s c h o o l was a t f a u l t to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than any o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . One o f the outgrowths o f the whole movement was the s e t t i n g up o f n a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s f o r hi g h s c h o o l s c i e n c e s . The f i r s t o f these was the P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e Study Committee (PSSC). The math e m a t i c i a n s had a l r e a d y shown the way w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s Committee on School Mathematics 17 (UICSM), and the School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG). The p a t t e r n was s e t . S e l e c t e d r e s e a r c h s c i e n t i s t s worked w i t h c o l l e g e and h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r s p e c i a l f i e l d s . T h e i r i n i t i a l p r o d u c t was t r i e d o u t i n a l i m i t e d number o f s c h o o l s d e s i g n a t e d as t e s t c e n t e r s . The m a t e r i a l s were r e v i s e d and r e w r i t t e n on the b a s i s o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , and then t r i e d o u t on a l a r g e r s c a l e . F i n a l l y the r e s u l t s o f these t r i a l s and r e w r i t e s were p u b l i s h e d by one o f the commercial companies. Ot h e r h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s i n the s c i e n c e s were soon to f o l l o w . The major programs were: the B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s C u r r i c u l u m Study (BSCS), the Chemical Bond Approach (CBA), the Chemical E d u c a t i o n M a t e r i a l Study (CHEM S t u d y ) , and the E a r t h S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t (ESCP). A l l o f these were s t a r t e d o r w e l l underway s h o r t l y a f t e r the b e g i n n i n g o f the 1960's [Van Deventer, 1966]. Sutman [1966] n o t i c e d t h a t d u r i n g the 1940's and 1950 1s hi g h s c h o o l s c i e n c e c o u r s e s were a c c u s e d o f b e i n g p r e p a r e d w i t h too much emphasis on the method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , w h i l e the c o n t e n t o r s u b j e c t m a t t e r was b e i n g i g n o r e d . When founded i n the middle 1950's the U.S. N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e Foundation s u p p o r t e d o n l y i n s t i t u t i o n s whose major o b j e c t i v e was to upgrade the c o n t e n t o f s c i e n c e c o u r s e s . "Any mention o f method i n an i n s t i t u t e p r o p o s a l was s u r e to e l i m i n a t e the NSF S u p p o r t . " But i n 1959 B r u n e r ' s r e p o r t o f the Woods Hole C o n f e r e n c e on E d u c a t i o n t u r n e d the emphasis a g a i n towards method. . . "And from t h a t 18 time on each a l p h a b e t c u r r i c u l u m (CBA, BSCS, PSSC, ESCP, e t c . ) s t r e s s e d the importance o f the method used i n t e a c h i n g . We are w e l l aware o f the terms ' d i s c o v e r y o r i e n t e d , ' 'process approach.' ' e n q u i r y ' and the l i k e . A l l o f the secondary l e v e l Course Content Improvement P r o j e c t s had as t h e i r major concern the method by which the s u b j e c t was to be t a u g h t . T h e i r m a t e r i a l s were deve l o p e d to be l a b o r a t o r y - p r o c e s s o r i e n t e d . . . . The emphasis on method i s r e f l e c t e d i n such t i t l e s a s : 'Teaching the P u r s u i t o f S c i e n c e , ' 'Teaching S c i e n c e Through D i s c o v e r y , ' 'Substance S t r u c t u r e and S t y l e i n the T e a c h i n g o f S c i e n c e ' and many more." 2.1.2 Bruner's Ideas on S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n Jerome S. Bruner's r e p o r t o f the Woods Hole Conference on E d u c a t i o n was p u b l i s h e d i n a book form i n 1960 under the t i t l e The P r o c e s s o f E d u c a t i o n . B r u n e r ' s i d e a s had a s u r p r i s i n g l y g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on the s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m improvement movement. Some o f these i d e a s a r e g i v e n below, emphasis added. I t w i l l become c l e a r i n S e c t i o n 2.1.4 how they i n f l u e n c e d the CHEM Study program both i n c o n t e n t and method. Mastery o f the fundamental i d e a s o f a c h i l d i n v o l v e s n o t o n l y the g r a s p i n g o f g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , but a l s o the development o f an a t t i t u d e toward l e a r n i n g and i n q u i r y , toward g u e s s i n g and hunches, toward the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f 19 s o l v i n g problems o f one's own. . . . To i n s t i l l such a t t i t u d e s by t e a c h i n g r e q u i r e s something more than the mere p r e s e n t a t i o n o f fundamental i d e a s . J u s t what i t takes to b r i n g o f f such t e a c h i n g i s something on which a g r e a t deal o f r e s e a r c h i s needed but i t would seem t h a t an i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t  i s a sense o f e x c i t e m e n t about d i s c o v e r y - - d i s co ve r y o f r e g u l a r i t i e s o f p r e v i o u s l y u n r e c o g n i z e d r e l a t i o n s and s i m i l a r i t i e s between i d e a s , w i t h a r e s u l t i n g sense o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n one's a b i l i t i e s , [p. 20] An unconnected s e t o f f a c t s has a p i t i a b l y s h o r t h a l f - l i f e memory. O r g a n i z i n g f a c t s i n terms o f  p r i n c i p l e s and i d e a s from which they may be i n f e r e d  i s the o n l y way o f r e d u c i n g the q u i c k r a t e o f l o s s o f  human memory. LP- 31] F o l l o w i n g a summary o f P i a g e t ' s developmental s t a g e s : But the i n t e l l e c t u a l development o f the c h i l d i s no clockwork sequence o f e v e n t s , i t a l s o responds to i n f l u e n c e s from the environment, n o t a b l y the s c h o o l e n vironment. Thus i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c i d e a s , even a t the e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l , need n o t f o l l o w s l a v i s h l y  the n a t u r a l c o u r s e o f c o g n i t i v e development o f the c h i l d . I t can a l s o l e a d i n t e l l e c t u a l development by p r o v i d i n g c h a l l e n g i n g but u s a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the c h i l d to f o r g e ahead i n h i s development. E x p e r i e n c e has shown  t h a t i t i s worth the e f f o r t to p r o v i d e the growing c h i l d  w i t h problems t h a t tempt him i n t o the n e x t s t a g e s o f  development, [p. 39] We b e g i n w i t h the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t any s u b j e c t can  be t a u g h t e f f e c t i v e l y i n some i n t e l l e c t u a l l y h onest form  to any c h i l d a t any s t a g e o f development. I t i s a b o l d h y p o t h e s i s and an e s s e n t i a l one i n t h i n k i n g about the n a t u r e o f the c u r r i c u l u m . No e v i d e n c e e x i s t s to con- t r a d i c t i t , c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e i s b e i n g amassed t h a t  s u p p o r t s i t . [p. 33] I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t we warn o u r s e l v e s to be c a r e f u l o f a s s i g n i n g an a b s o l u t e l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y to any p a r t i c -u l a r t o p i c . . . . Of c o u r s e , i t may be t h a t n o t h i n g i s  i n t r i n s i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t , [p. 40] 20 2.1.3 The H i s t o r y o f the Development o f CHEM Study M a t e r i a l s The Chemical E d u c a t i o n M a t e r i a l Study grew o u t o f the recommendations o f a committee s e t up by the American Chemical S o c i e t y i n mid-1959 to c o n s i d e r needed changes i n h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y . Pimentel and Ridgway [1972], who a r e p r e s e n t l y the D i r e c t o r and E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f the p r o j e c t t e l l us the s t o r y o f the development o f the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s . A group r e p r e s e n t i n g the American Chemical S o c i e t y and the N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e Foundation met w i t h Glenn T. Seaborg i n Washington, D.C. l a t e i n 1959 and persuaded him to head a c u r r i c u l u m improvement program i n C h e m i s t r y . Seaborg persuaded J . A r t h u r Campbell (Chairman, C h e m i s t r y Department, Harvey Mudd C o l l e g e , Claremont, C a l i f o r n i a ) and George Pimentel ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a ) to be d i r e c t o r and e d i t o r r e s p e c t i v e l y o f the new p r o j e c t . A s t e e r i n g committee meeting was c a l l e d f o r e a r l y i n January 1960, then a meeting o f c o n t r i b u t o r s was h e l d i n A p r i l 1960. In a few days a t e n t a t i v e approach and a proposed c o n t e n t f o r the c o u r s e were developed. By the summer o f 1960 u n i v e r s i t y s c i e n t i s t s , c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r s , i n d u s t r i a l s c i e n t i s t s and some h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r a t Harvey Mudd C o l l e g e i n Claremont, C a l i f o r n i a , to embark upon the task o f w r i t i n g a c h e m i s t r y textbook and l a b o r a t o r y manual i n s i x weeks. 21 The group succeeded d u r i n g t h a t summer i n p r o d u c i n g an e n t i r e c o u r s e , i n c l u d i n g a t e x t and an i n t e g r a t e d l a b o r a t o r y manual. The c o u r s e was t r i e d i n twenty f i v e s c h o o l s d u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r . In the summer o f 1961 the m a t e r i a l s were r e w r i t t e n on the b a s i s o f the e x p e r i e n c e which had been ga i n e d d u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r . A second s o f t - c o v e r e d i t i o n o f the t e x t and l a b o r a t o r y manual were completed and ready f o r t r y - o u t by some 140 s c h o o l s and 12,000 s t u d e n t s . While the c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s were b e i n g w r i t t e n , p r o -d u c t i o n proceeded on a s e r i e s o f f i l m s . Fundamental to t h e i r s u c c e s s was the d e c i s i o n t h a t the f i l m s s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c o n t e n t o f the c o u r s e . A l s o a comprehensive and e n c y c l o p e d i c Teacher's Guide was developed. A f t e r t h r e e y e a r s o f use, r e - w r i t i n g and e n d l e s s i n t e r a c t i o n among the u s e r s and p r o d u c e r s o f the c o u r s e , the h a r d - c o v e r e d i t i o n s o f the t e x t and paperback e d i t i o n s o f the L a b o r a t o r y Manual and Teacher's Guide were p u b l i s h e d and ready f o r the s c h o o l s i n the f a l l o f 1963. Sooner t h e r e a f t e r a s e r i e s o f twenty-seven f i l m s was completed. 2.1.4 The P h i l o s o p h y o f CHEM Study As Viewed by I t s D e v e l o p e r s Important c o n c e p t s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f c h e m i s t r y s h o u l d be based on e v i d e n c e and d e v e l o p e d i n d u c t i v e l y . Whenever p o s s i b l e , t h i s e v i d e n c e i s g a t h e r e d d i r e c t l y by the s t u d e n t s i n the l a b o r a t o r y . Where i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l to i n t r o d u c e the 22 e v i d e n c e i n t h i s way, t e a c h e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o r f i l m s a re used, o r p e r t i n e n t experiments are d e s c r i b e d i n the text-b o o k . In the CHEM Study approach l e a r n i n g i s based as much as p o s s i b l e upon  l a b o r a t o r y d i s c o v e r y . I t i s hoped t h a t by u s i n g the l a b o r a t o r y t o d i s c o v e r some i d e a s which a r e new to them, r a t h e r than merely to c o n f i r m t h i n g s they have a l r e a d y l e a r n e d , s t u d e n t s w i l l come to a b e t t e r i d e a o f the n a t u r e o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n h e r e n t i n a l l s c i e n t i f i c work, and w i l l t a s t e the e x c i t e m e n t t h a t comes w i t h d i s c o v e r i n g something f o r them-s e l v e s . G r e a t emphasis i n c o n t e n t i s upon fundamental u n i f y - i n g c o n c e p t s o f c h e m i s t r y . D i s c u s s i o n s o f the d e s c r i p t i v e c h e m i s t r y o f g l a s s m a k i n g , s m e l t i n g , f e r t i l i z e r s , and d o u b l e - a c t i n g b a k i n g powder, which c o u l d be found i n most h i g h s c h o o l t e x t - b o o k s , are ab s e n t o r a r e g i v e n f a r l e s s emphasis i n the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s . Gone too i s the usual heavy dose o f chemical h i s t o r y . The development o f i d e a s i s l o g i c a l r a t h e r than c h r o n o l o g i c a l . A c o n v e n t i o n a l c o u r s e which i n t r o d u c e s a g r e a t deal o f h i s t o r y and a g r e a t many o f the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s must n e c e s s a r i l y s a c r i f i c e , t o a l a r g e d e g r e e , i t s t r e a t m e n t o f the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n c e . [ M e r r i l l , 1964] Pimentel and Ridgway [1972] s t a t e t h a t t he CHEM Study c o u r s e e n a b l e s the s t u d e n t to a c q u i r e a knowledge o f c h e m i s t r y n o t merely some knowledge about i t . Abandoned are a u t h o r i t a r i a n pedagogy f o r t e a c h i n g , d e s c r i p t i v e chemical f a c t s f o r conte n t , m e m o r i z a t i o n f o r s t u d y , and r e g u r g i t a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i o n . I n s t e a d the s t u d e n t 23 i s engaged c o n t i n u a l l y i n the p a t t e r n o f s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y - -e x p e r i m e n t a l c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a , assessment and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f a c t s , d e d u c t i o n o f u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e s and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i n d e v e l o p i n g e x p e c t a t i o n (making p r e d i c t i o n s ) . He i s g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s c o v e r y . He i s i n v i t e d to t h i n k about what goes around him. He i s encouraged to q u e s t i o n dogma, to seek d e f i n i t i v e t e s t s t h e r e f o r e , to frame h i s own h y p o t h e s e s , and to become aware o f u n c e r t a i n t y i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how the u n i v e r s e o p e r a t e s . T h i s "wondering why" — " d i s c o v e r y " - - " p r o b l e m , s o l v i n g " approach engages the s t u d e n t i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f s c i e n c e . I t a l s o d e v e l o p s h a b i t s o f c l e a r and a n a l y t i c a l thought. The s t u d e n t can l e a r n to r e c o r d f a c t s , to a s s e s s r e l e v a n c e , to frame judgments, to submit these judgments to c r i t i c a l v a l i d i t y t e s t s , and then to use these judgments as a b a s i s f o r u s e f u l f u t u r e a c t i o n . These are i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s t h a t a r e a p p l i c a b l e through-o u t s c i e n c e — n o t j u s t c h e m i s t r y — t h r o u g h o u t e d u c a t i o n , n o t j u s t s c i e n c e — t h r o u g h o u t l i f e , not j u s t e d u c a t i o n . 2.1.5 Shortcomings o f T r a d i t i o n a l C h e m i s t r y Courses A c c o r d i n g to Pode [1966] and Weinstock and DePrimo [1972] the s h o r t c o m i n g s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e s might be summarized as f o l l o w s : 24 1. Courses were too e x t e n s i v e , b u i l t up by a p r o c e s s o f a c c r e t i o n . No one seemed to take i n t o c o n s i d e r -a t i o n t h a t i t was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e to know and even l e s s p o s s i b l e to t e a c h more than a fragment o f any one f i e l d o f knowledge. 2. Courses were composed o f much i r r e l e v a n t h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e n t , o r g a n i z e d i n t o l a r g e l y u n r e l a t e d t o p i c s , and l a c k i n g a c e n t r a l theme. 3. L a b o r a t o r y work was d e s i g n e d to prove to the s t u d e n t s what they a l r e a d y knew i n s t e a d o f e n a b l i n g them to d i s c o v e r new i d e a s . 4. Much s t r e s s was p l a c e d on memori z a t i o n o f f a c t s . S t u d e n t s s p e n t much time memorizing v a l e n c e t a b l e s and b a l a n c i n g e q u a t i o n s i n s t e a d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e a c t i o n mechanisms and the p r o c e s s o f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n v e r s i o n s . 5. The t e a c h e r tended to become an a u t h o r i t a t i v e c o n v e y o r o f i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than a more s e n i o r e n q u i r e r i n t o the m y s t e r i e s o f n a t u r e . Summerlin and C r a i g [1966] n o t i c e d t h a t the c o n t e n t o f hi g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e s f o r more than t h r e e decades p r i o r to 1957 was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by a r e p o r t o f the American S o c i e t y ' s Committee on Chemical E d u c a t i o n . The r e v i s e d r e p o r t 25 p u b l i s h e d i n the May 1924 i s s u e o f the J o u r n a l o f Chemical E d u c a t i o n under the t i t l e "A S t a n d a r d Minimum High School Course i n C h e m i s t r y , " r e q u i r e d t h a t the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s s h o u l d be c o v e r e d : 1. Water, S o l u t i o n s and C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . 2. Oxygen. 3. Hydrogen. 4. Laws, Hypotheses and T h e o r i e s . 5. Symbols, Weight, Volume r e l a t i o n s and Chemical change. 6. A i r . 7. Ni t r o g e n . 8. Oxides o f N i t r o g e n . 9. N i t r i c A c i d . 10. Ammonia. 11. A c i d s , Bases and S a l t s . 12. Theory o f I o n i z a t i o n . 13. S u l f u r . 14. Oxides o f S u l f u r . 15. S u i f u r i c A c i d . 16. Hydrogen S u l f i d e . 17. Halogens. 18. Carbon. 19. Carbon Monoxide. 20. M e t a l s i n G e n e r a l . 21. Sodium 22. C a l c i um. 26 23. I r o n . 24. Aluminum. 25. Copper. 26. Sources o f O r g a n i c Compounds. 27. O r g a n i c Compounds. 2.2 D i s c u s s i n g Some Problems E n c o u n t e r e d With the CHEM Study  Program 2.2.1 Developmental Level o f St u d e n t s Fontaine [1970] i n d i c a t e s t h a t the U.S. N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n (NSF) has s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 142 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s s u p p o r t i n g 400 p r o j e c t s a t the p r e - c o l l e g e and undergraduate l e v e l through the f i s c a l y e a r 1969, and t h a t one o f the s e v e r e s t c r i t i c i s m o f p a s t NSF s u p p o r t e d p r o j e c t s has been t h a t the m a t e r i a l s have been d e s i g n e d f o r hi g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s o n l y " t r u e i n g e n e r a l , but deemed n e c e s s a r y a t the time." In s p i t e o f a l l t h i s money and e f f o r t t h a t went w i t h i t Saadeh [1973] wonders "whether the new d i r e c t i o n i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n i s a n y t h i n g more than a storm i n a cup." Welch [1968] f i n d s t h a t "the c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m movement c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s e n l i s t m e n t s o f s c h o l a r s and s c i e n t i s t s " has n o t been, w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s " s u b j e c t e d to r i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n . " The r o l e o f the s c i e n t i s t s i n the development o f the new c u r r i c u l a has been c h a l l e n g e d . H i l g a r d [1964] b e l i e v e s t h a t 27 the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t tends to t h i n k t h a t h i s m a t e r i a l i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t as l o n g as i t i s a r r a n g e d i n a l o g i c a l sequence "the p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems w i l l take c a r e o f t h e mselves. T h i s i s no more t r u e today than i t e v e r was." Smith [1969] r e f e r s to the f a c t t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i s t s were e x c l u s i v e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m . T h e i r i n f l u e n c e was n o t o n l y marked i n the c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t -m a t t e r c o n t e n t , but a l s o i n the emphases on the l a b o r a t o r y and i n q u i r y e x p e r i e n c e s , i n the c o g n i t i v e and a b s t r a c t a s p e c t s o f the d i s c i p l i n e , the d i f f i c u l t y o f the m a t e r i a l and the grade l e v e l a t which a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s are i n t r o d u c e d . "The wisdom o f some o f the new emphases was q u e s t i o n e d by a few s k e p t i c s , b u t the the s c i e n t i s t s ' judgments were u n c r i t i c a l l y a c c e p t e d f o r a time even, s t r o n g l y enough,-by most s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s . " Sutman [1966] e x p r e s s e s a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n : "The c h o i c e and l e v e l o f c o n t e n t has been s e l e c t e d a t the whim o f the s c i e n t i s t s w i t h o u t r e g a r d to the a b i l i t y o f the y o u n g e s t e r s to deal i n a b s t r a c t i o n s and w i t h l i t t l e c o n c e p t f o r i n t e r e s t g e t t i n g o r m o t i v a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . " The main theme o f t h e s e a u t h o r s i s t h a t the new c u r r i c u l a have no t taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the mental a b i l i t y o f the m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s , are a b s t r a c t , p r o f e s s i o n a l , o u t o f touch w i t h r e a l i t y and beyond the reach o f the average s t u d e n t . 28 McCullough [1966], a hi g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r , t a u g h t CHEM Study f o r t h r e e y e a r s to a very small s e l e c t group. He a l s o t a u g h t , a t the same time, t r a d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s f o r o t h e r groups. He f i n d s the CHEM Study c o u r s e e x c e l l e n t f o r the a b l e but he adds: " I f I were f o r c e d to o f f e r o n l y t h i s c o u r s e and drop the t r a d i t i o n a l , I would end up doing one o f two t h i n g s , e i t h e r f a i l i n g t h o s e n o t a b l e to keep up, o r w a t e r i n g i t down and n o t o f f e r i n g a r e a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g c o u r s e to those c a p a b l e o f i t . . . . What i s needed f o r the average s t u d e n t i s a c o u r s e t h a t w i l l be a l i v e and y e t fundamental." Cronbach [1964] quotes P i a g e t as s a y i n g "whenever you t e l l Americans about some p r o c e s s o f development, t h e i r f i r s t q u e s t i o n i s 'how can you a c c e l e r a t e i t ? 1 I t has been the s p i r i t o f many o f the c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s to say ' I f t h i s i s worth t e a c h i n g a t the n i n t h grade l e v e l , why c a n ' t we tea c h i t i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n ? 1 Thus u n i v e r s i t y m a t e r i a l s were pushed down i n t o the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s i n t o the el e m e n t a r y g r a d e s . " T h i s conforms w i t h B r u n e r ' s [1965] d i c t u m " i f I may r e p e a t a phrase t h a t d e s e r v e s to be r e p e a t e d e n d l e s s l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e to tea c h any s u b j e c t to any c h i l d a t any age i n some form t h a t i s honest--and i n t e r e s t i n g . The c h a l l e n g e i s to f i n d how to r e p r e s e n t the i d e a i n a mode t h a t i s w i t h i n the c h i l d ' s r e a c h and then to proceed from t h e r e to a more p r e c i s e and deeper r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t i s t h i s t h a t I once c a l l e d a s p i r a l c u r r i c u l u m . " 29 A l l i n d i c a t i o n s show t h a t the c h a l l e n g e has n o t been met i n the CHEM Study program. By p u s h i n g too much u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e t o p i c s down i n the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , c h e m i s t r y became i n c r e a s i n g l y a b s t r a c t and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y too demanding f o r a l l b u t a m i n o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s . C h e m i s t r y as p r e s e n t e d i n the CHEM Study program r e q u i r e s t h a t the s t u d e n t o p e r a t e s a t what Bi-aget c a l l s ; t h e formal o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l . In a paper d i s c u s s i n g the l e v e l o f thought r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s on v a r i o u s s c i e n c e q u e s t i o n s , K a r p l u s [1973] comments: "I was s u r p r i s e d when I o r i g i n a l l y examined e i g h t teacher-made b i o l o g y t e s t s and f a i l e d to l o c a t e any q u e s t i o n s t h a t , i n my j u d g -ment, i n v i t e d formal thought. . . . (But i n c h e m i s t r y ) I found problem r e q u i r i n g formal thought everywhere I l o o k e d . I had d i f f i c u l t y l o c a t i n g items t h a t c o u l d be s o l v e d on the c o n c r e t e l e v e l and d i d n o t depend on r e c a l l o f f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g the p r o p e r t i e s o f s p e c i f i c elements and compounds." Herron [1975] n o t i c e d t h a t c o l l e g e freshmen, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n c o u r s e s f o r n o n - s c i e n c e majors f i n d c h e m i s t r y d i f f i c u l t and i n some cases i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . "Over the y e a r s I have ob-s e r v e d t h a t any c o n c e p t which i n v o l v e s a r a t i o i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t f o r many s t u d e n t s ; d e n s i t y , v e l o c i t y , a c c e l e r a t i o n , m o l a r i t y , and r e a c t i o n r a t e s are names f o r a few o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s . S t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o memorize an a l g o r i t h m f o r making n u m e r i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e s e q u a n t i t i e s but appear to have 30 such poor comprehension o f the i d e a t h a t they a r e unable to a p p l y the c o n c e p t to any problem d i f f e r e n t from those a n a l y z e d and d i s c u s s e d i n c l a s s . . . . These are good s t u d e n t s who make a c o n s c i e n t i o u s e f f o r t to a c h i e v e . But these s t u d e n t s j u s t c annot seem to u n d e r s t a n d a b s t r a c t i d e a s such as atoms, m o l e c u l e s , and i d e a l gas." B e l a n g e r [1969] agrees t h a t a knowledge o f P i a g e t ' s development sequence may be u s e f u l i n d e v i s i n g c u r r i c u l a ; but he f i n d s t h a t such knowledge i s o f l i m i t e d v a l u e . P i a g e t , f o r example, d e s c r i b e s the c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e i n v e r y g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n between seven and t w e l v e . Y e t e v e r y one knows t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n the development between the s e v e n - y e a r and the t w e l v e - y e a r o l d s , which the t h e o r y does n o t r e v e a l . The t h e o r y s t i l l l a c k s the f i n e s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e d to make i t t r u l y u s e f u l i n d e t a i l e d c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Hobbs [1977] p o i n t s to a n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y . There i s y e t no r e l i a b l e way f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s i n t o c o n c r e t e and formal o p e r a t i o n a l s . T h i s i s shown by the f a c t t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n s o f s u b j e c t s o f the same age c l a s s i f i e d as formal o p e r a t i o n a l s v a r y w i d e l y from one task to a n o t h e r and from one e x p e r i m e n t e r to a n o t h e r . And s i n c e e d u c a t i o n i s to t e a c h p e o p l e , i n the f i r s t p l a c e , what they do not u n d e r s t a n d , i t i s dangerous to a s s i g n , w i t h o u t e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , a degree o f d i f f i c u l t y to any c o n c e p t o r i d e a . 31 Hobbs proposed a method to f i n d o u t the a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y f o r t e a c h i n g a g i v e n c o n c e p t . T h i s method c o n s i s t s o f i n t e r v i e w i n g s u b j e c t s u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f problem s i t u a t i o n s i n the mould o f the P i a g e t i a n ' c l i n i c a l method.' T h i s w i l l h e l p i n i d e n t i f y i n g c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s o f development o f the p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i n q u e s t i o n . The e l a b o r a t e a n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r v i e w s w i l l d i s c l o s e the key i d e a s t h a t make the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the co n c e p t p o s s i b l e . Common 'st u m b l i n g b l o c k s ' o r m i s c o n c e p t i o n s w i l l be a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . Such knowledge c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n t e a c h i n g by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the key i d e a s , and a n t i c i p a t i n g o r r e c o g n i z i n g the s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s . T h i s same t e c h n i q u e may be used i n d e t e r m i n i n g a t which grade l e v e l a c e r t a i n c o n c e p t may be i n t r o d u c e d o r n o t i n t r o d u c e d . Good t e a c h i n g a l o n e may not be s u c c e s s f u l i f the s u b j e c t has n o t y e t the s t r u c t u r e s n e c e s s a r y f o r accommodating the new c o n c e p t . I t would be p e d a g o g i c a l l y sound to postpone the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f some co n c e p t s to a l a t e r grade o r to drop them a l l t o g e t h e r from the h i g h s c h o o l . However, t h i s s h o u l d be done on the b a s i s o f r e s e a r c h and e m p i r i c a l d a t a and n o t on the base o f s p e c u l a t i o n s . 2.2.2 D i f f i c u l t y o f Some T o p i c s 2.2.2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n I n g l e and Shayer [1971] on a n a l y z i n g the B r i t i s h 0 - l e v e l N u f f i e l d program i n c h e m i s t r y s p e c u l a t e d t h a t some t o p i c s such as the mole c o n c e p t , p e r i o d i c t a b l e , E q u a t i o n s and E n e r g e t i c s ( i n c l u d -i n g r e a c t i o n r a t e s and e q u i l i b r i u m ) would be beyond the grasp o f s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t reach the formal o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e . 2.2.2.2 Chemical e q u i l i b r i u m Wheeler and Kass [1974] a s s e s s e d the c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i o f s i x c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d to chemical e q u i l i b r i u m by n i n t y - n i n e grade twelve s t u d e n t s i n A l b e r t a . They used a 30-item m u l t i p l e " M i s c o n c e p t i o n I d e n t i f i c a t i o n T e s t " d e v e l o p e d by them f o r the stu d y . The s t u d e n t s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o c o n c r e t e - and f o r m a l -o p e r a t i o n a l s on the b a s i s o f two e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k s and a w r i t t e n t e s t . They were: 3 s t u d e n t s : e a r l y c o n c r e t e , 24 s t u d e n t s : l a t e c o n c r e t e , 61 s t u d e n t s : e a r l y formal and 11 s t u d e n t s : l a t e f o r m a l . The M i s c o n c e p t i o n I d e n t i f i c a t i o n T e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t : 1. 95% o f the sample had m i s c o n c e p t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to Le C h a t e l i e r P r i n c i p l e . 2. 84% o f the sample were unable to a p p r e c i a t e t h a t the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c e r t a i n s u b s t a n c e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the e q u i l i b r i u m r e a c t i o n may remain c o n s t a n t when some f a c t o r s such as temperature and p r e s s u r e a re changed. 3. 60% o f the sample were unable to c o n s i d e r a l l p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n s o f a chemical system. 33 4. 29% o f the sample c o u l d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h between mass and c o n c e n t r a t i o n . 5. 29% o f the sample c o u l d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h between how f a s t a r e a c t i o n proceeds ( r a t e ) and how f a r ( e x t e n t ) the r e a c t i o n goes. 2.2.2.3 The mole c o n c e p t Duncan and Johnstone [1973] i n v e s t i g a t e d problems r e l a t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p l y i n g the mole c o n c e p t i n n i n e S c o t t i s h s c h o o l s . 1. They found t h a t most s t u d e n t s (92%) have no d i f f i c u l t y c a l c u l a t i n g gram f o r m u l a w e i g h t s and hence the we i g h t s o f mole q u a n t i t i e s o f s e v e r a l compounds, i f they were g i v e n the f o r m u l a and atomic w e i g h t s . 2. When i t came to c a l c u l a t i o n s from e q u a t i o n s u s i n g the mole c o n c e p t , they n o t i c e d t h a t s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d 1:1 r e l a t i o n (such as A + B p r o d u c t s ) p r e s e n t e d l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y . 3. When f a c e d w i t h o t h e r r e l a t i o n s (such as 2A + B p r o d u c t s ) o n l y 50.5% o f the s t u d e n t s chose the r i g h t answer, 32% o f them were s t i l l c l i n g i n g to the 1:1 r e l a t i o n , and 15% chose the i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n . 34 4. When g i v e n an unbalanc e d e q u a t i o n t o s t a r t w i t h , the task became more c o m p l i c a t e d . F i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the s t u d e n t s c o u l d b a l a n c e the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n : (Al +0^ -+ A ^ O g ) , w h i l e o n l y 37% c o u l d b a l a n c e the e q u a t i o n (N2 + H2 -»- NH^) and then f i n d o u t how many moles o f would r e a c t w i t h one mole o f N2. 5. Q u e s t i o n s on molar s o l u t i o n s l e d to c a t a s t r o p h i c r e s u l t s , when the 1:1 r e l a t i o n s h i p d i d n o t h o l d . For example, u s i n g the mole c o n c e p t as a b s s i s f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o n l y 7% o f the s t u d e n t s c o u l d choose the r i g h t answer to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : i f 20 ml o f 2M HgSO^ n e u t r a l i z e 100 ml o f NaOH s o l u t i o n , what i s the m o l a r i t y o f the NaOH s o l u t i o n ? Duncan and Johnstone commented t h a t i n the o l d c o u r s e s s t u d e n t s c o u l d f a l l back on the s t a n d a r d N-|V-| =N2V2 e q u a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s t a u g h t the e q u i v a l e n t w e i g h t c o n c e p t . Normal-i t i e s (N) o f a c i d s and bases were then e a s i l y c a l c u l a t e d from m o l a r i t i e s (M). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t i c e t h a t the two American c u r r i c u l a CBA and CHEM Study as w e l l as the B r i t i s h O - N u f f i e l d C h e m i s t r y Program have dropped to the " E q u i v a l e n t Weight" c o n c e p t . Pode [1966] f i n d s t h a t "the o m i s s i o n o f the e q u i v a l e n t w e i g h t s and m o l a l i t i e s o n l y s e r v e s to make the mole c o n c e p t s t a n d o u t c l e a r l y . " 35 Walker [1967] on the o t h e r hand r e g r e t s t h i s o m i s s i o n and q u e s t i o n s i t s m o t i v e s . " I t i s m i s l e a d i n g to the s t u d e n t to l e a v e him w i t h the f a l s e i d e a t h a t a c i d - b a s e n e u t r a l i z a t i o n i s a m o l e c u l a r f u n c t i o n , r a t h e r than b e i n g dependent on the number o f r e p l a c e a b l e hydrogen i o n s and the number h y d r o x i d e i o n s . " A l s o i n the o x i d a t i o n - r e d u c t i o n r e a c t i o n s , i t i s a g a i n the c o n c e p t o f e q u i v a l e n t w e i g h t which accounts to the f a c t t h a t one mole o f copper d i s p l a c e s two moles o f s i l v e r from an aqueous s o l u t i o n con-t a i n i n g s i l v e r i o n s . "The a v o i d a n c e o f the co n c e p t i s more s e r i o u s than the i n c l u s i o n o f the e l e c t r o n charge/mass r a t i o , the mass s p e c t r o g r a p h , X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s and i n f r a - r e d s p e c t r o s c o p y . " 2.2.2.4 U n c e r t a i n t y o f measurement The CHEM Study puts g r e a t s t r e s s on the c o n c e p t o f u n c e r t a i n t y i n measurement and c o n s i d e r s i t one o f the main themes. Q u a l i t a t i v e l y t h i s c o n c e p t can be un d e r s t o o d and a p p r e c i a t e d by most s t u d e n t s . The q u a n t i t a t i v e t r e a t m e n t o f the u n c e r t a i n t y o f measurements b e w i l d e r s most s t u d e n t s and re n d e r s the c o n c e p t more o b s c u r e . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y was s p o t t e d d u r i n g the t r i a l p e r i o d o f the m a t e r i a l s , w i t h the o n l y consequence " t h a t more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t was added both to Chapte r 1 and to an Appendix." [ M e r r i l l and Ridgway, 1969, p. 42] I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t the CHEM Study c o u r s e was s u b j e c t to t r i a l s i n s e v e r a l s c h o o l s o v e r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s , and 36 went c o n s e q u e n t l y i n t o s e v e r a l r e v i s i o n s . Y e t , t h e s e t r i a l s a r e open to doubt. The p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s were o f t e n too z e a l o u s i n e n s u r i n g t h a t the new c o u r s e s h o u l d s u c c e e d . In a d d i t i o n , i t was c o n s i d e r e d wise t h a t the o p i n i o n s o f the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s about d i f f i c u l t y o f c o n c e p t s were no t always a c c e p t e d . [ M e r r i l l and Ridgway, 1969, p. 16] 2.2.3 The D i s c o v e r y Approach CHEM Study i s a l a b o r a t o r y - c e n t e r e d c o u r s e based on what i s c a l l e d the " D i s c o v e r y Approach." Cronbach [1966] w r i t e s "In s p i t e o f the c o n f i d e n t e n d o r s e -ment o f t e a c h i n g through d i s c o v e r y t h a t we r e a d i n s e m i - p o p u l a r d i s c o u r s e s on i m p r o v i n g e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e i s p r e c i o u s l i t t l e sub-s t a n t i a t e d knowledge about what advantages i t o f f e r s and under what c o n d i t i o n s t h e s e advantages a c c r u e . . . . I s u s p e c t t h a t i n -d u c t i v e t e a c h i n g i s more v a l u a b l e f o r some l e a r n e r s than o t h e r s . " Ausubel [1963] f i n d s the d i s c o v e r y method u s e f u l f o r c e r t a i n p e d a g o g i c p u r p o s e s , but he o b j e c t s to "some o f i t s un-w a r r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n s , o v e r s t a t e d c l a i m s , i n a d e q u a t e l y t e s t e d p r o p o s i t i o n s and, above a l l , some o f the reasons advanced f o r i t s e f f i c a c y . " He f i n d s the d i s c o v e r y t e c h n i q u e s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f complex and a b s t r a c t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r e s p e c i a l l y i n the p r i m a r y s c h o o l . He a l s o f i n d s t h a t the d e v e l o p -ment and improvement o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t y i s a s i g n i f i c a n t 37 d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e , "but t h i s i s a f a r c r y from a d v o c a t i n g t h a t the enhancement o f problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y i s the major f u n c t i o n o f the s c h o o l . " Ausubel a c c u s e s the proponents o f the d i s c o v e r y approach o f c o n f u s i n g the g o a l s o f the s c i e n t i s t w i t h the g o a l s o f the s c i e n c e s t u d e n t . "Thus, w h i l e i t makes p e r f e c t l y good sense f o r the s c i e n t i s t to work f u l l - t i m e f o r m u l a t i n g and t e s t i n g new h y p o t h e s e s , i t i s q u i t e i n d e f e n s i b l e f o r the s t u d e n t to be d o i n g the same t h i n g — e i t h e r f o r r e a l o r i n the sense o f r e -d i s c o v e r y . " A u s u b e l ' s [1968] e x a m i n a t i o n o f a sample o f the r e s e a r c h b e a r i n g on the d i s c o v e r y method leads him to the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. t h a t most o f the a r t i c l e s most commonly c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as r e p o r t i n g r e s u l t s s u p p o r t i v e o f d i s -c o v e r y t e c h n i q u e s a c t u a l l y r e p o r t no r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w hatsoever, but c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n , a s s e r t i o n and c o n j u c t u r e ; o f d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g programs u t i l i z i n g d i s c o v e r y methods; and o f e n t h u s i a s t i c but w h o l l y s u b j e c t i v e t e s t i m o n i a l s r e g a r d i n g the e f f i c a c y o f d i s c o v e r y approaches. 2. t h a t most o f the r e a s o n a b l y w e l 1 - c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s r e p o r t n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s , and 3. t h a t most s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s e i t h e r f a i l to c o n t r o l o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s o r employ q u e s t i o n a b l e t e c h n i q u e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . 38 Ausubel c o n c l u d e d t h a t a c t u a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e a l l e g e d l y s u p p o r t i v e o f l e a r n i n g by d i s c o v e r y r e v e a l s t h a t v a l i d e v i d e n c e o f t h i s n a t u r e i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . B e l a n g e r [1969] r e v i e w e d e i g h t theses and a r t i c l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h on s c i e n c e l e a r n i n g between F a l l 1964 and W i n t e r 1969 and commented: "In g e n e r a l , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e to c o n c l u d e t h a t the v a r i o u s c l a i m s made f o r i n q u i r y o r d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g remain u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d a t l e a s t i n the s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d h e r e . " 2.2.4 Lack o f Mathematical S k i l l s R e q u i r e d F a s t [1963] i n an a r t i c l e p r a i s i n g the CHEM Study program and a d v o c a t i n g i t s a d o p t i o n i n more s c h o o l s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a good comprehensive 7th and 8th grade a r i t h m e t i c w i l l e n a b l e the s t u d e n t to p e r f o r m p r a c t i c a l l y a l l n e c e s s a r y o p e r a t i o n s , " o c c a s i o n a l l y a l g e b r a i s r e q u i r e d and i t i s t r u e t h a t a s t u d e n t w i t h comprehension i n a l g e b r a c o u l d do o u t s t a n d i n g work i n the c o u r s e . " Pimentel [ M e r r i l l and Ridgway, 1969] r e p o r t e d t h a t one o f the problems t h a t f a c e d the t e a c h e r s d u r i n g the f i r s t t r i a l o f the m a t e r i a l s was the s t u d e n t s ' l a c k o f f a c i l i t y i n mathematical s k i l l s , and the l a c k o f c l a s s time to t e a c h these s k i l l s . "In response to t h i s problem, the s t a f f p r e p a r e d programmed i n s t r u c t i o n sequences d e a l i n g w i t h e x p o n e n t i a l n o t a t i o n and the use o f the s l i d e r u l e . These reme d i a l pamphlets were found to 39 be u s e f u l d u r i n g the subsequent t r i a l use and were l a t e r r e f i n e d and p u b l i s h e d . " M e r r i l l [1964] wrote t h a t s i m p l e a l g e b r i a c m a n i p u l a t i o n s 23 and e x p o n e n t i a l n o t a t i o n ( e . g . , 6.02 x 10 ) a r e used i n a l l h i g h s c h o o l t e x t s and s t u d e n t s who have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e s e s k i l l s w i l l have problems w i t h a l m o s t any c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e . He a d m i t t e d , however, t h a t CHEM Study, i n s t r e s s i n g the q u a n t i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f c h e m i s t r y , c a l l s upon the s t u d e n t to use these s k i l l s c o n t i n u o u s l y r a t h e r than j u s t o c c a s i o n a l l y as i n many c o n v e n t i o n a l c o u r s e s . Osborne [1969] b e l i e v e s t h a t the p r o c e s s o f t e a c h i n g i n which the s t u d e n t i s asked to behave as a s c i e n t i s t , and to d i s c o v e r s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s may be u s e f u l , b ut i s i s n o t w i t h o u t r i s k s and d i f f i c u l t i e s . The p o t e n t i a l f o r thes e d i f f i c u l t i e s i s p r e s e n t whenever the s t u d e n t i s e x p e c t e d to i n c o r p o r a t e mathematical c o n c e p t s i n h i s d i s c o v e r y p r o c e s s f o r s c i e n c e . Osborne quoted s e v e r a l examples from the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e which i n d i c a t e t h a t the l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c e p t u a l base i n mathematics caused the f a i l u r e to make e a r l i e r s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s . One o f thes e examples i s t h a t o f A r i s t o t l e who d e v e l o p e d the c o n c e p t o f impetus i n a way which s u g g e s t s to today's s c i e n t i s t s the c o n c e p t o f momentum. However, i t was two thousand y e a r s b e f o r e the c o n c e p t o f momentum was to be mathematized. Osborne asks the p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n : "Are we e x p e c t i n g too much o f s t u d e n t s when they a r e to co n d u c t a s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y which demands d i s c o v e r y i n both s c i e n c e and mathematics?" 40 Denny [1971] a n a l y z e d the c h e m i s t r y t e x t s c o p y r i g h t e d between 1960 and 1970 and f o u n d t h a t ten mathematical s k i l l s used by a l l t e x t s as a b a s i s f o r s o l v i n g chemical problems are the f o l l o w i n g : 1. computation. 2. use o f p a r e n t h e s e s . 3. s i g n e d number. 4. use and m a n i p u l a t i o n o f f r a c t i o n s . 5. use o f d e c i m a l s . 6. use o f exponents, m a n i p u l a t i o n o f numbers w i t h exponents and l o g a r i t h m e q u i v a l e n c e . 7. use o f p e r c e n t a g e . 8. m a n i p u l a t i o n o f o n e - v a r i a b l e e q u a t i o n s . 9. use o f r a t i o and p r o p o r t i o n . 10. p r o d u c i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g x,y graphs. To a s c e r t a i n the mastery o f t h e s e s k i l l s by c h e m i s t r y s t u d e n t s the Mathematics S k i l l T e s t (MAST) was composed and v a l i -d ated. Two hundred and f o r t y two s t u d e n t s wrote the t e s t t o g e t h e r w i t h the 1969 ACS-NSTA High School C h e m i s t r y T e s t . The l a t t e r was formed o f 80 i t e m s , 47 o f which used one o r more mathematical s k i l l s . C o r r e l a t i o n between the two t e s t s were c a l c u l a t e d and the f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d : 41 1. There was no i n s t a n c e o f a s t u d e n t a c h i e v i n g above the mean i n the c h e m i s t r y t e s t and a c h i e v i n g low on the mathematical s k i l l t e s t . 2. There were s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s o f average to h i g h a c h i e v e -ment on the mathematical s k i l l s w i t h low achievement on the c h e m i s t r y t e s t . Greenwood [1976] n o t i c e d t h a t f i v e o f the ten mathematical s k i l l s r e p o r t e d above are not t a u g h t i n the mathematics c o u r s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s u n t i l Grade 11. Of these s k i l i s , l o g s and exponents are not r e a c h e d u n t i l the end o f Grade 11. T h i s means t h a t Math 11 s h o u l d i d e a l l y be a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r the c h e m i s t r y program. Under the Semester S c h e d u l e , now w i d e l y used i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s , a s t u d e n t may e n r o l l i n Chem 1.1 i n the f i r s t s emester and then take Math 11 i n the second. By r e v e r s i n g the r i g h t o r d e r o f sequences the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the s t u d e n t w i t h the c h e m i s t r y program might be compounded. I f the semester system i s to be r e t a i n e d , i t i s a d v i s a b l e , whenever p o s s i b l e , to o f f e r Math 11 p r i o r t o Chem 11, o r a t l e a s t to t e a c h both c o u r s e s c o n c u r r e n t l y . Rimer [1970] i n B r i t a i n p o i n t s to the modern mathematics as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t u d e n t s ' l a c k o f mathematical s k i l l s . In o l d e r c o u r s e s , he s a y s , emphasis was l a i d on p l e n t y o f d r i l l e x e r c i s e s , w h i l e the newer schemes l a y more s t r e s s on u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n c e p t s and f a r l e s s on m a n i p u l a t i v e p r a c t i c e s . 42 Booth [1974] r e t o r t s : " I t i s i n f a c t d o u b t f u l whether modern mathematics has made m a t t e r s worse, i t i s r e a s o n a b l y c e r t a i n t h a t i t has n o t made them any b e t t e r . " The problem w i t h mathematics i s much more s e r i o u s than the l a c k o f c o m p u t a t i o n a l s k i l l s . The use o f e l e c t r o n i c c a l c u l a t o r s i n the c l a s s room may n o t a p p r e c i a b l y improve the s i t u a t i o n . Some s t u d e n t s would be saved time and e f f o r t but many s t u d e n t s would j u s t keep l o o k i n g a t the c a l c u l a t o r n o t knowing what to do w i t h i t . A f t e r a l l t h e r e i s a g r e a t s t e p between b e i n g a b l e to e x c u t e c o r r e c t l y 7.95 - 6.35 and to r e l a t e t h i s a b i l i t y to the f o l l o w i n g problem: Mass o f copper o x i d e = 7.950 g Mass o f copper = 6.350 g What i s the mass o f oxygen i n 3.975 g o f copper o x i d e ? The c h e m i s t i s s u b s t r a c t i n g , m u l t i p l y i n g and d i v i d i n g n o t numbers but q u a n t i t i e s ; i t i s the c h e m i s t who has to make i t mean-i n g f u l t h a t s u b s t r a c t i n g c o p p e r from c o p p e r o x i d e l e a v e s oxygen. I t i s n o t the mere t r a n s f e r o f knowledge from mathematics t h a t w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r the s t u d e n t to u n d e r s t a n d t h i s . [ Booth, 1974] Duncan and Johnstone [1973] r e f e r to the f a c t t h a t the developmental s t a g e o f the s t u d e n t i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g h i s a b i l i t y to a p p l y mathematical c o n c e p t s i n s c i e n c e problems. I t i s a t P i a g e t ' s formal o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l , they t e l l 43 us, t h a t the e f f i c i e n t use o f a l g e b r a becomes p o s s i b l e — a b s t r a c t symbols b e i n g used to s o l v e problems and then t r a n s l a t i n g back to r e a l i t y . I t i s a l s o a t t h a t s t a g e t h a t the making and t e s t i n g o f hypotheses and s i m p l e p r o p o r t i o n s become p o s s i b l e . 2.2.5 T e a c h e r - S t u d e n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the CHEM Study program, i n the way recommended by i t s d e v e l o p e r s , needs s u b s t a n t i a l a d j u s t m e n t on the p a r t o f the t e a c h e r and the s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r i s n o t r e g a r d e d anymore; as the t r a n s m i t t e r o f knowledge, who p r e p a r e s a l l the answers i n advance and puts them b e f o r e h i s s t u d e n t s . He i s merely the o r g a n i z e r o f the p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g d u r i n g which the s t u d e n t s u p p o s e d l y d e r i v e s and f o r m u l a t e s v a l u a b l e knowledge o u t o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e . The s t u d e n t , who has been c o n d i t i o n e d by p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s to take c a r e f u l n otes o f the f a c t s which the t e a c h e r and t e x t - b o o k s i n d i c a t e as s i g n i f i c a n t , memorizes the s e f a c t s , and produces them on an e x a m i n a t i o n , i s su d d e n l y c o n f r o n t e d by a new method which s t r e s s e s l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s i n which he i s " d i s c o v e r i n g " i n s t e a d o f " p r o v i n g " f a c t s , and which r e q u i r e s h i s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g c o n c e p t s and t h e o r i e s based on h i s d i s c o v e r i e s . [ M e r r i l l , 1964] Shayer [1970], a B r i t i s h t e a c h e r , who used the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s f o r about t h r e e y e a r s r e p o r t e d about h i s e x p e r i e n c e . The use o f the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s i n the f i r s t 44 o f the t w o - y e a r - A - l e v e l program d i d n o t i n c r e a s e the number o f s t u d e n t s g e t t i n g the h i g h e s t grades. Y e t , the performance o f the d o u b t f u l c a n d i d a t e s on the A - l e v e l e x a m i n a t i o n has c o n s i d e r a b l y improved. N e v e r t h e l e s s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r a i n s must have been g r e a t , b e c a u s e the s t y l e o f the c o u r s e presupposes a d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c l a s s and i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l to the one t e a c h e r than t h a t they were accustomed t o . Shayer f e l t t h a t he c o u l d n o t o f t e n answer d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s o t h e r than by r e f e r r i n g the s t u d e n t back to the t e x t . The young s t u d e n t may have l e a r n e d d e e p l y "by t r u s t i n g a more l i m i t e d a r ea o f c a p a b i l i t y , which a t e a c h e r has made h i s own, than by t a k i n g p a r t i n a c o u r s e d e s i g n e d by a team, each member o f which has a f a r deeper knowledge o f h i s own s p e c i a l i t y than the t e a c h e r on the s p o t . " As he c o u l d n o t i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h the w r i t e r s o f the t e x t , "whose depth o f knowledge and back-ground was c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than h i s own," he l o s t the Master S t a t u s t h a t was the m o t i v a t i n g l i n k t h a t he was used to h a v i n g w i t h h i s s t u d e n t s . He then ended by i n c r e a s i n g l y summarizing the t e x t , "which seemed o d d l y d e g r a d i n g , " b e f o r e he e v e n t u a l l y dropped the use o f the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s a l l t o g e t h e r . 45 2.3 Review o f E m p i r i c a l S t u d i e s 2.3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n U r i c h e c k [1967] n o t i c e d t h a t many t e a c h e r s o f the "new" c h e m i s t r y c u r r i c u l a o f CBA and CHEM Study were c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i r c o u r s e s were s u p e r i o r to the s o - c a l l e d " t r a d i t i o n a l " ones, though t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s were n o t based on o b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e . He r e p o r t e d the f o u r p r i n c i p l e o b j e c t i v e s o f the "new" c u r r i c u l a to be: 1. To im p a r t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b a s i c c o n c e p t s . 2. To f o s t e r c r e a t i v i t y . 3. To b e t t e r p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y . 4. To m o t i v a t e the s t u d e n t s i n t o c o n s i d e r i n g c h e m i s t r y as a c a r e e r . In view o f these o b j e c t i v e s , he proposed t h a t the f o l l o w i n g f o u r q u e s t i o n s must be e v a l u a t e d i n o r d e r to determine the s u c c e s s o f t h e s e c o u r s e s : 1. Are these new c o u r s e s b e t t e r t h a n , as good a s , o r p o o r e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l ones i n terms o f i m p a r t i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f ch e m i c a l c o n c e p t s ? C o n s e q u e n t l y , do s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h e s e c o u r s e s g e t high s c o r e s on the c h e m i s t r y achievement p a r t o f the c o l l e g e boards? 2. Do the new c o u r s e s d e v e l o p c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and c r e a t i v i t y ? 46 3. How w e l l do s t u d e n t s who have taken e i t h e r CHEM Study o r CBA c o u r s e s i n h i g h s c h o o l a c h i e v e i n the i n t r o -d u c t o r y c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e ? 4. What i s the n a t i o n a l t r e n d o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s who ar e m a j o r i n g i n c h e m i s t r y ? 2.3.2 S t u d i e s Comparing Achievement Heath and S t i c k e l l [1963] s t u d i e d and compared the a c h i e v e -ment o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g the then new CBA and CHEM Study c o u r s e s t o t h a t o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s . They used the e x p e r i -m e n t a l - c o n t r o l group d e s i g n . The CHEM Study group c o n t a i n e d 87 t e a c h e r s w i t h a t o t a l o f 7,000 s t u d e n t s . I t s c o n t r o l group was comprised o f 30 t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s e s . The CBA Study group c o n t a i n e d 69 t e a c h e r s w i t h about 6,300 s t u d e n t s . I t s c o n t r o l group was comprised o f 55 t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s e s . The two e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h e r groups were s t r a t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n , commun-i t y s i z e and sex o f t e a c h e r . The two c o n t r o l groups were chosen to match the two e x p e r i m e n t a l groups. A l l s t u d e n t s , both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l , took the f o l l o w i n g t e s t s : 1. The School and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t Form 1 A , o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as SCAT, as a measure o f s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y . 47 2. The C o o p e r a t i v e C h e m i s t r y T e s t Form 2 t h a t are p u r p o r t e d to t e s t the c o n t e n t o f h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e s . 3. E i t h e r the CHEM Study o r the CBA f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s purpose. SCAT was a d m i n i s t e r e d e a r l y i n the y e a r , the o t h e r two measures were o b t a i n e d near the end o f the y e a r . The main f i n d i n g s a r e the f o l l o w i n g : 1. The c o r r e l a t i o n between s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e and a c h i e v e -ment i n c h e m i s t r y i s f a i r l y s t r o n g f o r a l l groups. 2. There was v i r t u a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group on.average SCAT s c o r e . 3. CHEM Study and CBA' e x p e r i m e n t a l group s t u d e n t s s c o r e d h i g h e r than the c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n t r o l group s t u d e n t s on the t e s t s t h a t were e s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r them. 4. The c o n t r o l group s t u d e n t s were s u p e r i o r on the b a s i s o f the t e s t s d e s i g n e d f o r t r a d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e i r s t u d i e s d i d n o t i n v o l v e compar-i s o n between the t h r e e c o u r s e s i n c h e m i s t r y , o n l y " i f t h e r e was any doubt about whether o r n o t the new c o u r s e s t a u g h t d i f f e r e n t c o n t e n t , t h e s e r e s u l t s s h o u l d remove such doubt. . . . However, one can t e l l which c o u r s e i s b e s t o n l y i n some p a r t i c u l a r way, f o r some p a r t i c u l a r purpose." 48 Rainey [1964] compared the achievement o f a group o f s t u d e n t s u s i n g the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s to a n o t h e r group o f s t u d e n t s u s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Due t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s he c o u l d n o t randomize h i s p o p u l a t i o n among the two groups. He i n s t e a d used a matched p a i r t e c h n i q u e based on matching s c o r e s i n v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g o r Numerical A b i l i t y o f the D i f f e r e n t i a l A p t i t u d e T e s t . Out o f 118 s u b j e c t s t w e n t y - f i v e such p a i r s were o b t a i n e d . The CHEM Study group was t a u g h t a c c o r d i n g to the p h i l o s o p h y o f the CHEM Study program. L a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s were used so t h a t s t u d e n t s c o u l d deduce ten p r i n c i p l e s o p e r a t i n g i n c h e m i s t r y . In terms o f time, a minimum o f t h r e e days p e r week were s p e n t i n the l a b o r a t o r y . The t e x t - m a t e r i a l d e v e l o p e d and expanded the l a b o r a t o r y work which preceded i t . Rather d i f f i c u l t problems a t the end o f each c h a p t e r were used as homework. E i g h t f i l m s were shown to supplement the c o u r s e . The c o n v e n t i o n a l group used "Modern C h e m i s t r y " as a b a s i c t e s t . The p r o c e d u r e used w i t h t h i s group had one u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e : t e x t assignment and c l a s s r e c i t a t i o n - d i s c u s s i o n p r e c e d e d a l l l a b o r a t o r y work. A l l l a b o r a t o r y work was an outgrowth from c l a s s m a t e r i a l and attempted to e x t e n d i t to a new s i t u a t i o n s . No g e n e r a l l a b o r a t o r y manual was used. The experiments were m o d i f i -c a t i o n s o f c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s . The average time spent i n the l a b o r a t o r y was two days per week. No f i l m s were shown to t h i s group. 49 Both groups were s u b j e c t e d to a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t t e c h n i q u e . Two c h e m i s t r y t e s t s were used: the ACS Form 1959 t e s t and the CHEM Study f i n a l t e s t . The a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e r e was no d i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence between the s c o r e s o f the two groups a t the s t a r t o r a t the end o f the s t u d y (P < 0.05). Rainey o b s e r v e d t h a t s t u d e n t s o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l c l a s s e s c o n s i s t e n t l y produced b e t t e r w r i t e - u p s o f exp e r i m e n t s than the CHEM Study c l a s s e s . The CHEM Study s t u d e n t s seemed to e n j o y t h e i r l a b o r a t o r y work more, though they f e l t more h u r r i e d i n t h e i r l a b o r a -t o r y work because o f the more r i g i d time s c h e d u l e imposed on them to f i n i s h a l l the m a t e r i a l w i t h i n one y e a r . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t on the b a s i s o f h i s r e s u l t s n e i t h e r approach showed s u p e r i o r i t y i n s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g as measured by the two t e s t s used. Pye and Anderson [1967] a n a l y z e d the r e s u l t s o f a t e s t taken by 695 h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s from 100 h i g h s c h o o l s i n Southern C a l i f o r n i a . There were 253 CHEM Study s t u d e n t s and 48 CBA s t u d e n t s . The r e m a i n i n g 394 s t u d e n t s f e l l i n two groups: CONVENTIONAL group w i t h 306 s t u d e n t s and OTHER group w i t h 88 s t u d e n t s . The OTHER group c o n t a i n e d s p e c i a l l y g i f t e d s t u d e n t s who were s c r e e n e d , s e l e c t e d , and g i v e n an advanced placement c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e , which was e s s e n t i a l l y a c o l l e g e freshman l e v e l c o u r s e . The t e s t used was not pl a n n e d f o r the s p e c i f i c e v a l u a t i o n o f any one o f thes e approaches. I t was the 5 1 s t Annual High School C o n t e s t s p o n s o r e d by the Southern C a l i f o r n i a S e c t i o n o f the 50 American Chemical S o c i e t y . T h i s c o n t e s t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d i f f i c u l t e x a m i n a t i o n i n c h e m i s t r y and o f f e r s monetary awards. The c o n t e s t a n t s were s e l e c t e d f o r the c o n t e s t by t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s . The e x a m i n a t i o n was t h r e e hours i n d u r a t i o n and c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r p a r t s : P a r t I: General P r i n c i p l e s P a r t I I : Numerical C a l c u l a t i o n s P a r t I I I : S p e c i a l A p p l i c a t i o n s P a r t IV: T e s t f o r L o g i c a l Reasoning. T h i s l a s t p a r t p r o v i d e d a d i s c u s s i o n o f some a s p e c t s o f c h e m i s t r y w i t h which the s t u d e n t presumably was not f a m i l i a r , f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e t o p i c s were d i s c u s s e d : n u c l e a r c h e m i s t r y , quantum and wave mechanics, and e l e c t r o - c h e m i c a l c e l l s . The main f i n d i n g s were the f o l l o w i n g : 1. The OTHER s t u d e n t s l e d a l l the groups i n a l l p a r t s o f the e x a m i n a t i o n w i t h o n l y one e x c e p t i o n ( P a r t I) where CHEM Study s t u d e n t s s c o r e d e q u a l l y . 2. CHEMS Study s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l o u t p e r f o r m e d both CONVENTIONAL and CBA s t u d e n t s . 3. In a l l the q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n a t e d by the a u t h o r s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e q u e s t i o n s , the CONVENTIONAL group o u t p e r f o r m e d the CHEM Study group e x c e p t f o r the two q u e s t i o n s t h a t f e l l i n p a r t IV.. ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e 51 q u e s t i o n s f i t the c r i t e r i u m t h a t a t l e a s t one o f the f o u r s t u d e n t groups had 85% c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s ) . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t would be hazardous to draw c o n c l u s i o n s about the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n t approaches s o l e l y from the r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y . The group t e s t e d was a s p e c i a l group. Other i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s s h o u l d have been taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . They s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s u s i n g the con-v e n t i o n a l approach were f o r the most p a r t the more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s both i n t o t a l t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e and i n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the approach t h a t they employed. T r o x e l [1970] compared the achievement o f CBA, CHEM Study and "Modern C h e m i s t r y " s t u d e n t s u s i n g f o u r i n s t r u m e n t s on a p r e t e s t -p o s t t e s t b a s i s . These i n s t r u m e n t s were the f o l l o w i n g : 1. ACS C o o p e r a t i v e E x a m i n a t i o n i n General C h e m i s t r y (ACS), Form 1963, formed o f t h r e e s u b t e s t s . 2. T e s t on U n d e r s t a n d i n g S c i e n c e , Form W (TOUS) formed o f t h r e e s u b t e s t s . 3. Watson-Glaser C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g A p p r a i s a l , Form Ym formed o f f o u r s u b t e s t s . 4. Prouse S u b j e c t P r e f e r e n c e Survey. A t o t a l o f 1333 s t u d e n t s (Grades 10, 11 and 12) and 23 t e a c h e r s took p a r t i n the s t u d y i n Iowa and I l l i n o i s . In o r d e r to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y a t e a c h e r had to have a minimum o f 35 52 semester hours o f c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y and to have a background i n the type o f c h e m i s t r y t h a t he was t e a c h i n g ( e . g . , CBA t e a c h e r s — C B A i n s t i t u t e s , i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o r through h a v i n g t a u g h t the c o u r s e f o r more than one y e a r ) . Only s c h o o l s w i t h a minimum o f 500 s t u d e n t s i n Grades 10-12 were i n c l u d e d . A l l t e a c h e r s agreed to a d m i n i s t e r the p r e t e s t s d u r i n g the f i r s t two weeks o f f a l l semester and the p o s t t e s t s d u r i n g the f i r s t two weeks o f A p r i l . Each t e a c h e r was supposed to be implementing the p h i l o s o p h y o f the p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s which he was u s i n g . The s t u d e n t s were compared on the b a s i s o f : 1. the t o t a l group w i t h o u t r e g a r d to grade l e v e l o r abi 1 i t y . 2. each grade l e v e l w i t h o u t r e g a r d to a b i l i t y . 3. each grade l e v e l s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e a b i l i t y groups as determined by the "Watson-GIaser C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g A p p r a i s a l " p r e t e s t t o t a l s c o r e . The comparison was made by a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . I f the F - r a t i o was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l , then a t - t e s t was a p p l i e d t o determine the d i r e c t i o n o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e between the v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d . In a l l o f the measures ( t e s t s and s u b t e s t s ) the s t u d e n t s o f CHEM Study and/or CBA c l a s s e s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than d i d s t u d e n t s i n the "Modern C h e m i s t r y " c l a s s e s . 53 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t i c e t h a t , c o n t r a r y to a l l expec-t a t i o n s , s t u d e n t s t a k i n g the "new" c o u r s e s s c o r e d even h i g h e r than d i d those s t u d e n t s t a k i n g the c o n v e n t i o n a l "modern c h e m i s t r y " c o u r s e on the ACS s u b t e s t " r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n . " T r o x e l c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who use CHEM Study o r CBA c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c h e m i s t r y , d e v e l o p a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e , and d e v e l o p a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . Ramsey [1970] commented t h a t i t i s now d i f f i c u l t to determine what a " t r a d i t i o n a l " o r " c o n v e n t i o n a l " c o u r s e i s . The "new" c o u r s e s a r e no l o n g e r new, and i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t a l a r g e amount o f d i f f u s i o n o f new c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s and methods has o c c u r r e d . "The t e a c h e r v a r i a b l e i s l i k e l y to be a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r ( i n s t u d e n t achievement),, and p r o b a b l y what the t e a c h e r does w i t h the m a t e r i a l s , r a t h e r than the m a t e r i a l s p er se may be i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g s t u d e n t s outcomes." Hardy [1970] compared 104 s t u d e n t s t a k i n g CHEM Study w i t h an equal number o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c h e m i s t r y i n terms o f achievement and l e v e l o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . He a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d whether t h e r e was any i n t e r a c t i o n between program, mental a b i l i t y , and the dependent v a r i a b l e s (achievement i n c h e m i s t r y and l e v e l o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ) . P r e l i m i n a r y d a t a f o r each s t u d e n t were o b t a i n e d from s c h o o l r e c o r d s . These i n c l u d e d the s t u d e n t ' s age, IQ, n a t u r a l s c i e n c e achievement l e v e l , and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c a t e g o r y . 54 The p o s t t e s t o n l y - c o n t r o l group d e s i g n was used. Two t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d . The Watson-Glaser C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g A p p r a i s a l T e s t Form Ym and The Chemical S o c i e t y - N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e T e a c h e r s C o o p e r a t i v e E x a m i n a t i o n Form 1967. Adjustment o f the means o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups and the t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups was a c c o m p l i s h e d by a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . C o r r e l a t i o n s among the v a r i a b l e s were e x p l o r e d f o l l o w i n g the development o f Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s . Hardy r e p o r t e d the f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s : 1. CHEM Study s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e d h i g h e r than the con-v e n t i o n a l s t u d e n t on the c h e m i s t r y t e s t . 2. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t e s t . 3. The s t u d e n t v a r i a b l e s o f IQ, background i n n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , composite achievement l e v e l and s o c i o -economic c l a s s a r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n s u c c e s s f u l achievement i n c h e m i s t r y and i n a t t a i n i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . The IQ o f the s t u d e n t appears to be the most i m p o r t a n t o f the above f a c t o r s . 4. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between program, mental a b i l i t y , and the dependent v a r i a b l e s . ( 2.3.3 S t u d i e s Comparing Development o f C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s The Taxonomy o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s Handbook I e d i t e d by Benjamin S. Bloom [1956] was used to d e v e l o p achievement t e s t s . The c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s a r r a n g e d i n a h e i r a r c h i c a l o r d e r from the s i m p l e s t to the more complex are b e l i e v e d to f a l l i n the f o l l o w i n g s i x c a t e g o r i e s : 1. Knowledge (K) 2. Comprehension ( C ) . 3. A p p l i c a t i o n (Ap). 4. A n a l y s i s (An). 5. S y n t h e s i s ( S ) . 6. E v a l u a t i o n ( E ) . Anderson [1964] d e v e l o p e d a t e s t based on the f i r s t f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f the Bloom's Taxonomy and a d m i n i s t e r e d i t to CHEM Study and c o n v e n t i o n a l c h e m i s t r y groups. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n means f o r the two groups e x c e p t i n one i n s t a n c e : low a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l c o u r s e performed h i g h e r on the A n a l y s i s (An) s u b t e s t , than d i d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t i n the CHEM Study program. Herron [1966] deve l o p e d an i n s t r u m e n t based on a l l the s i x c a t e g o r i e s . F i v e judges who p o s s e s s e d knowledge o f c h e m i s t r y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the taxonomy were asked to v a l i d a t e each i t e m o f the t e s t . They agreed p e r f e c t l y on 33 o u t o f the 83 items i n the t e s t . D i f f e r e n c e s between the judges n o r m a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d 56 a d e v i a t i o n o f o n l y one l e v e l from the mode. The t e s t drew c o n t e n t from t h r e e g e n e r a l areas b e l i e v e d to be t r e a t e d i n any c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e : the p e r i o d i c t a b l e , o x i d a t i o n - r e d u c t i o n , and a c i d - b a s e c h e m i s t r y . S t u d e n t s o f f o u r Chicago suburban s c h o o l s were used i n the s t u d y . The f o u r s c h o o l s were o f comparable s i z e e n r o l l i n g 150 - 200 c h e m i s t r y s t u d e n t s . The s t u d e n t s were s t r a t i f i e d i n t o t h r e e a b i l i t y groups on the b a s i s o f t h e i r c e n t i l e rank on Iowa T e s t o f E d u c a t i o n a l Development. The p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t d e s i g n was used. S t u d e n t s were g i v e n t w i c e the t e s t based on the Taxonomy t o g e t h e r w i t h Watson-Glazer T e s t on C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g . Two p a r a l l e l forms o f the l a t t e r t e s t (Ym and Zm) were used s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . D i f f e r e n c e s i n p o s t t e s t means on each s u b t e s t were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e by a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e u s i n g p r e t e s t s c o r e s as c o v a r -i a t e . Herron r e p o r t e d the f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s : 1. CHEM Study h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s s c o r e d h i g h e r on A n a l y s i s , b ut the c o n v e n t i o n a l low a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h i s same s u b - t e s t than d i d the low a b i l i t y CHEM Study s t u d e n t s . 2. CHEM Study s t u d e n t s s c o r e d h i g h e r on A p p l i c a t i o n than d i d the c o n v e n t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . 3. C o n v e n t i o n a l low and average a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on Watson-GIaser s u b - t e s t , R e c o g n i t i o n o f Assumptions, than d i d the comparable CHEM Study groups. 57 4. No o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n means were found. 2.3.4 The E f f e c t o f High School C h e m i s t r y on Achievement i n C o l l e g e C h e m i s t r y H e n d r i c k s , K o e l s c h e , Bledsoe [1963] s t u d i e d the i n f l u e n c e o f high s c h o o l c o u r s e s i n c h e m i s t r y , p h y s i c s and advanced mathe-m a t i c s on grades o b t a i n e d i n f i r s t q u a r t e r c h e m i s t r y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a . The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 200 freshmen s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d a t random from 643 who o b t a i n e d grades i n c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y . They n o t i c e d the f o l l o w i n g : 1. C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s w i t h o r w i t h o u t c r e d i t i n high s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y and w i t h o u t c r e d i t i n advanced mathematics showed r e l a t i v e l y equal achievement i n f i r s t q u a r t e r c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y . 2. C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s h a v i n g c r e d i t i n advanced mathematics from h i g h s c h o o l but w i t h o u t c r e d i t i n h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r achievement i n c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y than those w i t h o u t such c r e d i t . 3. C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h s c h o o l c r e d i t s i n both advanced mathematics and c h e m i s t r y showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r achievement than those w i t h o u t c o m b i n a t i o n o f background c o u r s e s . 58 4. C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s w i t h c r e d i t i n h i g h s c h o o l p h y s i c s and advanced mathematics b u t n o t c h e m i s t r y a c h i e v e d h i g h e r grades i n c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y than those w i t h c r e d i t i n c h e m i s t r y a l o n e . 5. The b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f s u c c e s s i n c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y work were a s t u d e n t ' s h i g h s c h o o l average and h i s achievement on the mathematical p o r t i o n o f the S c h o l a s -t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t . Lamb, Waggoner and F i n d l e y ' s [1967] sample c o n s i s t e d o f 601 s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d f o r the b e g i n n i n g c o u r s e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a ( C h e m i s t r y 111 o r 121) d u r i n g the 1964-65 academic y e a r . W i t h i n t h i s group 512 s t u d e n t s had taken one y e a r o f h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y , 38 s t u d e n t s had taken two y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y and 51 s t u d e n t s had had no p r e v i o u s c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e s . I n f o r m a t i o n on s t u d e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l background was g a t h e r e d from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which were completed by the s t u d e n t s a t the s t a r t o f the c o u r s e . A d d i t i o n a l d a t a i n the form o f h i g h s c h o o l averages and s c o r e s o f both the v e r b a l and the mathematical p a r t o f S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t (SAT) were o b t a i n e d from the u n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d o f f i c e . S t u d e n t s were t e s t e d p r i o r to t h e i r t a k i n g the c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y course to e v a l u a t e the knowledge on s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s a c q u i r e d i n h i g h s c h o o l . A second e v a l u a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n o f the c o l l e g e c o u r s e would p e r m i t c o r r e l a t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g w i t h achievement 59 on the c o l l e g i a t e l e v e l . Based upon the f i n d i n g o f t h i s s t u d y the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were a r r i v e d a t : 1. The v a l u e o f a h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . 2. The m e r i t s o f two y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y , as opposed to a s i n g l e y e a r , i s unproved. 3. The o l d e r s t u d e n t s , whether o r n o t they had taken c h e m i s t r y i n h i g h s c h o o l , a c h i e v e d b e t t e r . 4. S t u d e n t s who had the b e t t e r academic r e c o r d s as e v i d e n c e d by h i g h s c h o o l a v e r a g e s , h i g h e r SAT mathematics s c o r e s and/or h i g h e r SAT v e r b a l s c o r e s , made b e t t e r grades on the t e s t . C o l e y [1973] attempted to f i n d the b e s t p r e d i c t o r o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r e d i c t o r s which c o u l d be used to p r e d i c t a s t u d e n t ' s p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n the f i r s t y e a r g e n e r a l c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e taken by a l l s t u d e n t s m a j o r i n g i n s c i e n c e i n a community j u n i o r c o l l e g e . E x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s some s t u d e n t s a r e n o t p r e p a r e d to b e g i n g e n e r a l c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e upon t h e i r e n t r a n c e to the c o l l e g e . Some may n o t have completed h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y o r h i g h s c h o o l a l g e b r a . Thus, i t i s r e q u i r e d t h a t al1 s t u d e n t s pass the T o l e d o C h e m i s t r y Placement E x a m i n a t i o n (TCPE) w i t h an a r b i t r a r y raw s c o r e o f 50 to be e l i g i b l e f o r the g e n e r a l 60 C o l l e g e C h e m i s t r y IA. Those s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t s u c c e s s f u l must then e n r o l l i n a p r e r e q u i s i t e c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e : C h e m i s t r y 31. Data was c o l l e c t e d o v e r a s i x y e a r . p e r i o d from 336 s t u d e n t s . Ten i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d as p o s s i b l e p r e d i c t o r s : 1. C h e m i s t r y 31. 2. T o l e d o C h e m i s t r y Placement E x a m i n a t i o n (TCPE). 3-7. ACT S c o r e s (Composite, Mathematics, N a t u r a l S c i e n c e , E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S c i e n c e ) . 8. High School C h e m i s t r y . 9. School A l g e b r a I. 10. School A l g e b r a I I . Two dependent v a r i a b l e s ( c r i t e r i a ) were used to determine s u c c e s s : (1) C h e m i s t r y IA g r a d e s , and (2) The American Chemical S o c i e t y General C h e m i s t r y E x a m i n a t i o n s c o r e s . The f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d : 1. For those who took the p r e r e q u i s i t e c o l l e g e c o u r s e C h e m i s t r y 31, the o n l y p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e found to have any s i g n i f i -cance w i t h C h e m i s t r y IA, as the c r i t e r i o n o f s u c c e s s , was C h e m i s t r y 31. 2. For those who d i d n o t take C h e m i s t r y 31, the b e s t p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e found to have any s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h the c r i t e r i o n o f s u c c e s s was the TCPE. High s c h o o l A l g e b r a I was found to be the second b e s t v a r i a b l e . 61 3. The two p r e d i c t o r s , C h e m i s t r y 31 and TCPE, were n o t found to i n c r e a s e the s i g n i f i c a n c e by combining them when a p p l i c a b l e . 4. A l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y , were found not to a i d i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f s u c c e s s i n f i r s t y e a r g e n e r a l c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e . The f i n d i n g s o f the t h r e e s t u d i e s mentioned above conform w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f o l d e r s t u d i e s . Ogden [1976] reviewed twenty-f o u r e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the v a l u e o f high s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to s u c c e s s i n c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y . These s t u d i e s were p u b l i s h e d between 1921 and 1967. N e a r l y a l l o f these s t u d i e s u t i l i z e d the grade r e c e i v e d i n c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y as the i n d i c a t o r o f s u c c e s s . They show t h a t achievement i n h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y may be used as a p r e d i c t o r i n c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y . However math/physics background, h i g h placement s c o r e s , achievement t e s t s c o r e s , i n t e l l i g e n c e and sex may e q u a l l y , o r even b e t t e r , p r e d i c t t h a t s u c c e s s . 2.4 The Impact o f CHEM Study on the T e a c h i n g o f High School  C h e m i s t r y CHEM Study was a s t e p i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n towards up-d a t i n g the c o n t e n t o f hi g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y , and em p h a s i z i n g the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s u b j e c t r a t h e r than i t s r o t e - m e m o r i z a t i o n . 62 M e r r i l l and Ridgway [1969] r e p o r t a s t u d y by R.J. G l a d i e u x i n which i t was found t h a t o u t o f ten new hi g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y t e x t - b o o k s p u b l i s h e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s between 1963 and 1967 f i v e f o l l o w e d the g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y and c o n t e n t o f CHEM Study w i t h h i g h f i d e l i t y . Three books were i n f l u e n c e d somewhat by CHEM Study as i n d i c a t e d by the i n c l u s i o n o f some up-to-date m a t e r i a l on phases o f m a t t e r , the mole c o n c e p t , energy r a t e , and e q u i l i b r i u m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f chemical r e a c t i o n s and o r b i t a l s . Two o f the ten books were c o m p l e t e l y t r a d i t i o n a l i n format, [p. 69] Osborn [1969] a n a l y z e d f o u r s e t s o f the hi g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y e x a m i n a t i o n s o f the u n i v e r s i t y o f the s t a t e o f New York between 1948 and 1966. He c l a s s i f i e d items as r e c a l l ( R ) , i f the answer was a m a t t e r o f pure memory, o r p r i n c i p l e ( P ) , i f the answer i m p l i e d the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p r i n c i p l e o r t h e o r y . H i s a n a l y s i s shows t h a t the pe r c e n t a g e o f P-itemswas 23.8, 49.2, 65.5, and 85.2 i n 1948, 1957, 1962, and 1966 r e s p e c t i v e l y . He a t t r i b u t e d t h a t s h i f t from r e c a l l to p r i n c i p l e items to the i n f l u e n c e o f the "new" c u r r i c u l a o f CHEM Study and CBA. No doubt t h a t "these e f f o r t s (CBA and CHEM Study) by t h e i r s u c c e s s and even by t h e i r u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e d i d s t i m u l a t e new t h i n k i n g i n chemical e d u c a t i o n . " [ J o h n s t o n e , 1974] 63 2.5 CHEM Study i n B r i t i s h Columbia 2.5.1 CHEM Study i n Canada i n General Newbold [1974] r e p o r t s t h a t Saskatchewan was the f i r s t p r o v i n c e to i n t r o d u c e CHEM Study i n 1964 i n t o some o f i t s h i g h s c h o o l s . By 1967 more than 50% o f Grades 11 and 12 s t u d e n t s i n Saskatchewan were f o l l o w i n g the two y e a r c o u r s e based on CHEM Study. F o l l o w i n g the example o f Saskatchewan, the o t h e r western p r o v i n c e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a and Manitoba soon adopted CHEM Study o r a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f i t . In 1968 O n t a r i o r e p l a c e d the Grade 13 General C h e m i s t r y Course w i t h a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f CHEM Study. Nova S c o t i a used the CHEM Study program i n some o f i t s s c h o o l s i n 1966 as a two y e a r c o u r s e o f f e r e d to s t u d e n t s i n Grades 11 and 12. T h i s was s u b s e q u e n t l y extended to o t h e r s c h o o l s t h a t were eq u i p p e d to t e a c h i t . A t about the same time p i l o t groups o f s t u d e n t s s t a r t e d t a k i n g the CHEM Study c o u r s e i n New Brunswick. In Quebec up to 1970, CHEM Study was t a u g h t i n o n l y a few s c h o o l s . The o r i g i n a l t e x t and l a b o r a t o r y were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o F r e n c h , which a l l o w e d i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o more Quebec s c h o o l s . 2.5.2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Chem 11 and Chem 12 i n B r i t i s h Columbia The CHEM Study c o u r s e i s u s u a l l y o f f e r e d i n U.S. s c h o o l s as a one y e a r f i r s t c o u r s e i n c h e m i s t r y . When adopted i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1966, i t was d e c i d e d to g i v e i t as a two p a r t c o u r s e , 64 d e s i g n a t e d as Chem 11 and Chem 12 f o r Grade 11 and Grade 12 s t u d e n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . S t u d e n t s who take Chem 11 are n o t o b l i g e d to f i n i s h the CHEM Study c o u r s e by t a k i n g Chem 12. The CHEM Study c o u r s e i s l o g i c a l l y b u i l t i n f i v e s e c t i o n s : S e c t i o n I - An I n t r o d u c t i o n to S c i e n t i f i c A c t i v i t y C h a p t e r 1. Ch e m i s t r y : An E x p e r i m e n t a l S c i e n c e S e c t i o n II - Some Fundamental Concepts o f C h e m i s t r y . * C h a p t e r 2. S c i e n t i f i c Model: The Atomic Theory C h a p t e r 3. Chemical R e a c t i o n s * C h a p t e r 4. Gas Phase: K i n e t i c Theory C h a p t e r 5. L i q u i d s and S o l i d s * C h a p t e r 6. S t r u c t u r e o f the Atom and the P e r i o d i c T a b l e S e c t i o n I I I - M a c r o s c o p i c View o f Chemical R e a c t i o n s *Chapter 7. Energy E f f e c t s C h a p t e r 8. Rates o f Chemical R e a c t i o n s C h a p t e r 9. E q u i l i b r i u m i n R e a c t i o n s C h a p t e r 10. S o l u b i l i t y E q u i l i b r i a C h a p t e r 11. A c i d s and Bases C h a p t e r 12. O x i d a t i o n - R e d u c t i o n R e a c t i o n s C h a p t e r 13. Chemical C a l c u l a t i o n s 65 S e c t i o n IV - M i c r o s c o p i c View o f Substances C h a p t e r 14. Why We B e l i e v e i n Atoms Ch a p t e r 15. E l e c t r o n s and the P e r i o d i c T a b l e C h a p t e r 16. M o l e c u l e s C h a p t e r 17. S o l i d s and L i q u i d s S e c t i o n V - D e s c r i p t i v e C h e m i s t r y * C h a p t e r 18. Carbon Compounds Chapter 19. Halogens C h a p t e r 20. T h i r d Row Ch a p t e r 21. Second Column Chapte r 22. Fo u r t h Row T r a n s i t i o n Elements C h a p t e r 23. S i x t h and Seventh Row Elements C h a p t e r 24. B i o c h e m i s t r y ( e x c l u d e d ) C h a p t e r 25. Ch e m i s t r y o f E a r t h , P l a n e t s , and the S t a r s In B r i t i s h Columbia Chem 11 i s formed o f the f i r s t s i x c h a p t e r s p l u s C h a p t e r s 7, 14, and 18 as i n d i c a t e d by a s t e r i s k s . The o t h e r c h a p t e r s make up Chem 12. C h a p t e r 25 i s e x c l u d e d from both Chem 11 and 12. 2.5.3 S t a t i s t i c a l Data Form K [1976/77] o f the E d u c a t i o n a l Data S e r v i c e s o f B.C., M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n shows t h a t Chem 11 had been t a u g h t t o a t o t a l o f 15, 335 s t u d e n t s by 258 t e a c h e r s , and Chem 12 to 6,498 s t u d e n t s by 165 t e a c h e r s . About 37% o f a l l grade 11 s t u d e n t s took Chem 11, w h i l e 18.1% o f Grade 12 s t u d e n t s took Chem 12 i n 1976-77. 66 TABLE 2.1 C h e m i s t r y Teachers and S t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1976-77 Grade T o t a l Number o f S t u d e n t s Number o f C h e m i s t r y S t u d e n t s P e r c e n t o f C h e m i s t r y S t u d e n t s Number o f C h e m i s t r y T e a c h e r s 11 41,179 15,335 37.2 258 12 35,919 6,498 18.1 165 TABLE 2.2 Decrease i n S t u d e n t E n r o l l m e n t from Grade 11 i n 1975-76 to Grade 12 i n 1976-77 Grade T o t a l Number o f Students Number o f C h e m i s t r y S t u d e n t s 11 (1975-76) 39,949 14,606 12 (1976-77) 35,919 6,498 D i f f e r e n c e 4,030 (10.1%) 8,108 (55.5%) 67 C o n s i d e r i n g the 1975-76 data one sees t h a t o u t o f the 14,606 s t u d e n t s who took Chem 11, r e p r e s e n t i n g 36.6% o f the t o t a l Grade 11 p o p u l a t i o n o f t h a t y e a r , o n l y 6,498 c o n t i n u e d t a k i n g c h e m i s t r y i n Grade 12 i n 1976-77. T h i s means a d e c r e a s e o f 55.5% i n the c h e m i s t r y p o p u l a t i o n compared to a d e c r e a s e o f 10.1% i n t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n from Grade 11 to Grade 12 between 1975-76 and 1976-77. 68 CHAPTER 3 METHOD 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n S i n c e the purpose o f the st u d y was to i n v e s t i g a t e the problems e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the CHEM Study c o u r s e , i t was d e c i d e d to co n d u c t a s u r v e y d i r e c t e d to al1 the t e a c h e r s who teac h i t i n p u b l i c s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The s u r v e y was p l a n n e d to determine p r i n c i p a l l y the f o i l o w i n g : 1. Teachers' o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f method and c o n t e n t o f the CHEM Study c o u r s e . 2. T e a c h e r s ' m o d i f i c a t i o n s and a d a p t a t i o n s o f the c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s to s u i t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . 3. T o t a l time a l l o c a t e d f o r the c o u r s e i n d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s and the pe r c e n t a g e o f i t d e v o t e d to the e x p e r i -mental p a r t o f the c o u r s e , i . e . , e x p e r i m e n t s done by s t u d e n t s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . 4. The a v a i l a b i l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y o f the s c h o o l l a b o r a t o r y f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r t o f the c o u r s e , w i t h d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the problems t h a t may be e n c o u n t e r e d i n u s i n g the l a b o r a t o r y . 69 5. The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the CHEM Study f i l m s and problems e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h u s i n g them. 6. The e d u c a t i o n a l background o f c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s and t h e i r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . 3.2 Development o f the Instrument 3.2.1 P r e l i m i n a r y P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Based on the a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s and on d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t e a c h e r s i n workshops, c o n f e r e n c e s and s c h o o l s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d r a f t e d . The items were s u b m i t t e d to t h r e e judges who a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h the CHEM Study program and w i t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n . T h e i r judgements and s u g g e s t i o n s l e d to v a r i o u s m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n s t y l e , form and c o n t e n t and e s t a b l i s h e d the c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f the i n s t r u m e n t . 3.2.2 The P i l o t Run The m o d i f i e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i t h the p e r m i s s i o n and c o o p e r a -t i o n o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f Richmond School D i s t r i c t , w a s used f o r the p i l o t run o f the st u d y i n the t h r e e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o f t h a t d i s t r i c t . Each t e a c h e r was g i v e n a copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , asked to respond to i t i n the a u t h o r ' s p r e s e n c e , to comment f r e e l y on each i t e m , and to su g g e s t d e l e t i o n s o r a d d i t i o n s . T h i s p i l o t run proved u s e f u l i n i m p r o v i n g the i n s t r u m e n t by ad d i n g to the c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n o f some ite m s . 70 3.2.3 F i n a l P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e F o l l o w i n g the p i l o t run the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f i n a l l y r e v i s e d . Some items were d e l e t e d w h i l e a few iterns were r e w r i t t e n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r i n t e d i n a book form: 13 1/2 x 20 cm (See Appendix B ) . F i v e hundred packages were p r e p a r e d . Each package was formed o f a copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a r e t u r n s e l f - a d d r e s s e d stamped en v e l o p e , a n d a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r p l a c e d i n a l a r g e r e n v e l o p e a d d r e s s e d "To the Teach e r o f Chem 11 and/or Chem 12." The c o v e r i n g l e t t e r e x p l a i n e d to the t e a c h e r the purpose o f the s t u d y , gave him b r i e f i n s t r u c t i o n s , and a s s u r e d him o f complete anonymity. (See Appendix C) 3.3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 3.3.1 Communication w i t h S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s The i n i t i a l s t e p was to i n f o r m the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f the s u r v e y and to s o l i c i t t h e i r a p p r o v a l and s u p p o r t . A l i s t w i t h the names and m a i l i n g a d d r e s s e s o f the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f the s e v e n t y - s i x s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia was o b t a i n e d from the B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n . A copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e under a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r were m a i l e d to each s u p e r i n t e n d e n t e x p l a i n i n g the purpose o f the st u d y and a s k i n g f o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n to c a r r y o u t the s u r v e y i n the s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ( s ) o f the d i s t r i c t . 71 The c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s were to r e c e i v e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e through the p r i n c i p a l s o f t h e i r s c h o o l s o r the heads o f t h e i r s c i e n c e departments. T e a c h e r s were asked to complete i t and r e t u r n i t d i r e c t l y v i a a s e l f - a d d r e s s e d stamped envelope. Complete anonymity o f the t e a c h e r s was guaranteed. (See Appendix D) Prompt a u t h o r i z a t i o n was r e c e i v e d from the m a j o r i t y o f the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . Some o f them wrote e n c o u r a g i n g l e t t e r s a p p r o v i n g o f the importance and need o f such a st u d y . W i t h i n f o u r weeks a l l but f i v e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s g r a n t e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to be d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . When a second l e t t e r was s e n t to the re m a i n i n g f i v e d i s t r i c t s , t h r e e more a u t h o r i z a t i o n s were g i v e n . Burnaby s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h f i v e s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s and Nanaimo s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h two secondary s c h o o l s d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y . Richmond s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h t h r e e s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s , which s e r v e d f o r the p i l o t - r u n o f the s t u d y , was e x c l u d e d . A l t o g e t h e r ten s c h o o l s were i n i t i a l l y e x c l u d e d from the s u r v e y . 3.3.2 Communication w i t h P r i n c i p a l s The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s a u t h o r i z a t i o n made i t p o s s i b l e to c o n t a c t t e a c h e r s i n 157 s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . However o n l y 139 s c h o o l s were d i r e c t l y c o n t a c t e d , s i n c e the Vancouver s c h o o l d i s t r i c t demanded t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d i n i t s e i g h t e e n s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s v i a i t s m a i l i n g system. 72 Data p u b l i s h e d by the E d u c a t i o n a l Data S e r v i c e s , B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , which g i v e the number o f c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s i n each d i s t r i c t show t h a t most s c h o o l s have one o r two c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s . Few s c h o o l s have t h r e e o r p o s s i b l y more c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s . I t was d e c i d e d to send t h r e e packages c o n t a i n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to each s c h o o l , e x c e p t i n a few cases where f i v e packages were s e n t . A l i s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s w i t h names and a d d r e s s e s was o b t a i n e d through the B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n . Packages were m a i l e d to each p r i n c i p a l under a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r . The p r i n c i p a l was i n f o r m e d o f the a p p r o v a l o f the s t u d y by the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f h i s d i s t r i c t . In most cases a photocopy o f the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s a u t h o r i z a t i o n was a t t a c h e d . The purpose o f the s t u d y was e x p l a i n e d . The p r i n c i p a l was asked to g i v e a package t o each c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r i n h i s s c h o o l . The t e a c h e r was to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e t u r n i t i n the i n c l u d e d s e l f -a d d r e s s e d stamped e n v e l o p e . (See Appendix E) 3.4 Return o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Most o f the l e t t e r s were m a i l e d to the s c h o o l s on A p r i l 18, 1977. The f i r s t r e s p o n s e s a r r i v e d f i v e days l a t e r . The l a s t o f the 231 r e s p o n s e s was r e c e i v e d on J u l y 4, 1977. The r e t u r n was u n e x p e c t e d l y h i g h . No f o l l o w - u p was attempted. 73 3.4.1 E s t i m a t i o n o f P e r c e n t Return A lmost a l l the respond e n t s (226 t e a c h e r s ) were t e a c h i n g Chem 11 e i t h e r e x c l u s i v e l y (54 t e a c h e r s ) o r t o g e t h e r w i t h Chem 12. One hundred and s e v e n t y two respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y were t e a c h i n g Chem 12. A c c o r d i n g t o data i s s u e d by the E d u c a t i o n a l Data S e r v i c e s o f B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n (Form K) Chem 11 and Chem 12 were tau g h t by 258 t e a c h e r s and 165 t e a c h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y d u r i n g the academic y e a r 1976-77. T a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h r e e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h twenty t h r e e Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and t h i r t e e n Chem 12 t e a c h e r s the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n would have been 96% f o r Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and o v e r 100% f o r Chem 12 t e a c h e r s , which i s o b v i o u s l y a wrong r e s u l t . Because o f t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y t he f o l l o w i n g method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the response r e t u r n was used. Out o f the 139 s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , which were c o n t a c t e d d i r e c t l y , r e s p o n s e s came from 133 s c h o o l s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t o u t o f the e i g h t e e n s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o f Vancouver d i s t r i c t , which r e c e i v e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s through t h e i r own m a i l i n g system, a minimum o f f o u r t e e n s c h o o l s may have p a r t i c i p a t e d ; e x a c t f i g u r e s a re n o t a v a i l a b l e . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a response r e t u r n o f 94%. As the t o t a l number o f s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g Chem 11 and/or Chem 12 i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s 167 s c h o o l s , i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 88% o f the t o t a l s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the stu d y . 74 TABLE 3.1 E s t i m a t i o n o f P e r c e n t Return o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Based on Number o f Teac h e r s Course T o t a l Number o f T e a c h e r s * * E x c l u d e d I n v i t e d to P a r t i c i p a t e A c t u a l l y P a r t i c i p a t i n g Response Return (%) Chem 11 258 23 235 226 96 Chem 12 165 13 152 172 113 * 0 f f i c i a l Data , 1976-77. TABLE 3.2 E s t i m a t i o n o f P e r c e n t R e t u r n o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Based on Number o f S c h o o l s T o t a l Number o f S e n i o r Secondary I n v i t e d t o A c t u a l l y Response S c h o o l s E x c l u d e d P a r t i c i p a t e P a r t i c i p a t i n g Return (%) 167 10 139 + 18 = 157 133 + 14(?) =147 94 75 3.4.2 P o s s i b l e Reasons f o r High Response Return "The average e x c e p t a t i o n o f r e t u r n s from mail s u r v e y seldom exceeds one t h i r d o f the t o t a l - m a i l o u t . Most s u r v e y r e s e a r c h e r s r e g a r d a 20%-to 25% r e t u r n w i t h f a v o u r . . . ." [Hambleton e t a l . , 1970, p. 18] One f a c t o r which may a c c o u n t f o r the heavy response r a t e i s the p o s i t i v e s u p p o r t o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and p r i n c i p a l s . The p r i n c i p a l s d i d the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i n g o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to the t e a c h e r s . They may have persuaded the t e a c h e r s to complete i t . Another f a c t o r c o u l d be the a p p e a l i n g form i n which the packages and s p e c i a l l y the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p r e p a r e d and p r e s e n t e d . T h i s made; the task o f c o m p l e t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e l e s s onerous. A t h i r d f a c t o r , and p r o b a b l y a v a l i d one, was the i n t e r e s t o f the t e a c h e r s i n the st u d y . E a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s uncovered s e v e r a l problems and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the CHEM Study program. T h i s s u r v e y i s p r o b a b l y the f i r s t compre-h e n s i v e attempt to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examine most o f the c u r r e n t problems and p r a c t i c e s i n t e a c h i n g c h e m i s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia; hence the i n t e r e s t o f the t e a c h e r s i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s t u d y which p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y to speak t h e i r minds. 76 3.5 A n a l y s i s o f the Data For each s u b j e c t s e v e n t y seven res p o n s e s were punched on two c a r d s , and a n a l y z e d u s i n g the UBC M u l t i v a r i a t e C o n t i n g e n c y T a b u l a t i o n s (MVTAB) program. T h i s program i s u s u a l l y used f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . For t h i s s t u d y the program s e r v e d e s s e n t i a l l y i n g e n e r a t i n g u n i v a r i a t e f r e q u e n c y and p e r c e n t a g e t a b l e s . 77 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s the dat a a n a l y z e d and a r r a n g e d i n s i x t e e n t a b l e s . Each t a b l e has i t s own heading, which f o l l o w s the t o p i c h e a d i n g . S h o r t t e x t s are g i v e n to d e s c r i b e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s i n the t a b l e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s does n o t f o l l o w the same o r d e r i n which the items appear on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; i t r a t h e r f o l l o w s a l o g i c a l o r d e r , i n which r e l a t e d items a re grouped and p u t t o g e t h e r i n the same t a b l e . To a l l o w c r o s s - c h e c k i n g , the items on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a re g i v e n s e r i a l numbers: from number 11 to number 87.(See Appendix A) These s e r i a l numbers appear between b r a c k e t s on the l e f t hand s i d e o f the f o l l o w i n g pages o f t h i s c h a p t e r . Each t a b l e c o n t a i n s the f r e q u e n c y and p e r c e n t a g e o f each response to e v e r y q u e s t i o n as w e l l as the t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s r e s p o n d i n g to the q u e s t i o n . The f r e q u e n c y o f a c e r t a i n r e s ponse i s d e f i n e d as the number o f s u b j e c t s who answered t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n o f a g i v e n q u e s t i o n . The f r e q u e n c i e s ( f ) and t o t a l s (N) appear always on the f i r s t l i n e . 78 P e r c e n t a g e s {%) appear always on the second l i n e . Per- centages a re rounded to the n e a r e s t one p e r c e n t . Sums o f p e r c e n t a g e s appear, whenever i t seems a p p l i c a b l e , on the t h i r d l i n e . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t take f o r example q u e s t i o n 13 which appears i n T a b l e 4.9b. Each s t a t e m e n t o f the q u e s t i o n evokes one o f the f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s : very s e r i o u s , s e r i o u s , not s e r i o u s . Frequency o f each response and the t o t a l a r e g i v e n on the f i r s t l i n e . The p e r c e n t a g e o f each response i s g i v e n on the second l i n e . The pe r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e s to v e r y s e r i o u s and s e r i o u s a re summed t o g e t h e r to appear on the t h i r d l i n e . T h i s a l l o w s comparison o f t o t a l " s e r i o u s " r e s p o n s e s v e r s u s "not s e r i o u s " r e s p o n s e s . In q u e s t i o n 14 the s u b j e c t s a re asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r degree o f agreement to d i f f e r e n t s t a t e m e n t s on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e i n which SA s t a n d s f o r S t r o n g l y Agree A stands f o r Agree U stands f o r U n c e r t a i n D stands f o r D i s a g r e e SD stands f o r S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e . A l s o i n t h i s case the sum o f p e r c e n t a g e s f o r "agreement" i s g i v e n v e r s u s the sum o f p e r c e n t a g e s f o r "disagreement" on the t h i r d l i n e . 79 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was completed by 231 t e a c h e r s , o f whom 226 responded to t e a c h i n g Chem 11 and 172 to t e a c h i n g Chem 12. In a d d i t i o n to answering the q u e s t i o n s , about h a l f o f the t e a c h e r s wrote comments v a r y i n g i n l e n g t h from one o r two s e n t e n c e s to two f u l l pages. Almost a l l o f t h e s e comments are r e a r r a n g e d i n a l o g i c a l o r d e r and grouped t o g e t h e r i n Appendix F . R e p e t i t i o n s are e x c l u d e d . 4.2 Demographic Data The c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i s an e x p e r i e n c e d w e l l q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n . Out o f the 229 t e a c h e r s who gave i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l background 73% have a B a c h e l o r s degree, 23% have a Masters degree and 4% have a D o c t o r a t e degree. Almost two t h i r d s o f a l l t e a c h e r s (64%) i n d i c a t e d c l e a r l y t h a t they have majored i n c h e m i s t r y . (See T a b l e 4.1) S l i g h t l y l e s s than h a l f (48%) o f the 229 respond e n t s have o v e r ten y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e 7% are i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r o f t e a c h i n g . In r e g a r d s to c h e m i s t r y t e a c h i n g i n B.C. s c h o o l s (see T a b l e 4.2b) 12% o f the 226 Chem 11 t e a c h e r s have t a u g h t the c o u r s e once, 19% have t a u g h t i t two o r t h r e e times and 17% have t a u g h t i t f o u r to s i x t i m e s . S l i g h t l y o v e r h a l f o f the Chem 11 t e a c h e r s 80 TABLE 4.1 E d u c a t i o n a l Background o f the C h e m i s t r y T e a c h e r i n B.C. (12) 1. H i g h e s t Academic Degree B a c h e l o r s Masters D o c t o r a t e N f 168 52 9 229 % 73 23 4 (13) 2. Major i n C h e m i s t r y Yes No N f 147 82 229 % 64 36 81 TABLE 4.2 T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e (11) (a) O v e r a l l T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e How many y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e do you have? * 1 2-3 4-6 7-10 o v e r 10 y e a r s N f 15 21 36 47 110 229 7 9 16 21 48 (b) C h e m i s t r y T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e i n B.C. A p p r o x i m a t e l y how l o n g have you been t e a c h i n g Chem 11 /Chem 12 i n B.C. s c h o o l s ? ( I f you are on semester system, Each  Semester w i l l be counted one y e a r ) . * 1 2-3 4-6 7 o r more y e a r s sum do n o t teach N (15) 1. Chem 11 f 28 43 38 117 226 4 230 % 12 19 17 52 100 (16) 2. Chem 12 f 20 33 32 87 172 54 226 % 12 19 19 51 100 * F i r s t y e a r i n t e a c h i n g . 82 (52%) have t a u g h t the c o u r s e seven o r more ti m e s . F i g u r e s f o r Chem 12 are a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . Two t e a c h e r s out o f the 231 t o t a l d i d n o t r e p o r t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l background and e x p e r i e n c e . 4.3 S c h o o l s and Semester System T a b l e 4. 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 5.6% o f the 133 s c h o o l s a r e on semester system, w h i l e 36% are not. In a d d i t i o n ten s c h o o l s (9%) are c l a s s i f i e d as o t h e r s . They a r e e i t h e r on t r i m e s t e r o r on a q u a r t e r - s y s t e m . 83 TABLE 4.3 Sc h o o l s and Semester System (14) Is y o u r sc h o o l on a semester system? Yes No Other T o t a l Number o f S c h o o l s f 75 48 10 133 % 56 36 9 TABLE 4.4 T o t a l Time A l l o c a t e d f o r the Course On the average, how many p e r i o d s / b l o c k s o f Chem 11/Chem 12 do each o f y o u r c l a s s e s g et p e r y e a r / s e m e s t e r ? 1 2 3 4 Over 135 p e r i o d s o f 60 minutes o r the e q u i v a l e n t 110-134 P e r i o d s 85-109 P e r i o d s Less than 85 p e r i o d s o f 60 minutes o r the e q u i v a l e n t N (17) 1. Chem 11 f 31 104 70 7 212 % 15 49 33 3 (18) 2. Chem 12 f 37 85 45 5 172 % 22 49 26 3 84 The e i g h t e e n s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o f the Vancouver s c h o o l d i s t r i c t are not i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 4.3. A s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u -t i o n p r o b a b l y o c c u r s ; though e x a c t f i g u r e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . 4.4 Time A v a i l a b l e f o r the Course (a) T o t a l Time: Responses g i v e n by the t e a c h e r s a re c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s i n T a b l e 4.4. Cat e g o r y 2 c o n t a i n s responses r a n g i n g from 110 to 134 p e r i o d s o f 60-minutes o r the e q u i v a l e n t , e.g., 85 to 99 p e r i o d s o f 75-minutes. T h i s range r e p r e s e n t s what i s e s t i m a t e d to be the minimum time r e q u i r e d to c o v e r a d e q u a t e l y the b a s i c s o f Chem 11 o r Chem 12. T h i s e s t i m a t i o n was done on the b a s i s o f c a l c u l a t i o n o f the time needed to work a d e q u a t e l y t h r o u g h the b a s i c assignments o f each c h a p t e r . Almost h a l f (49%) o f the resp o n s e s f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . Only 15% o f Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and 22% o f Chem 12 t e a c h e r s ( i n Category 1) have more than the minimum time a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l ; w h i l e 33% o f Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and 26% o f Chem 12 t e a c h e r s ( i n Cat e g o r y 3) have l e s s time than b a s i c a l l y r e q u i r e d . Seven Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and f i v e Chem 12 t e a c h e r s , r e p r e -s e n t i n g 3% o f respond e n t s i n each c a s e , have v e r y l i t t l e time a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l ( C a t e g o r y 4 ) . (b) E x p e r i m e n t a l work done by s t u d e n t s : T a b l e 4.5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r both Chem 11 and Chem 12 most o f the t e a c h e r s devoted 11-30% o f the t o t a l time to e x p e r i m e n t a l work. 85 TABLE 4.5 Time A l l o c a t e d f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l Work Done by S t u d e n t s A p p r o x i m a t e l y what p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l time f o r the c o u r s e i s used f o r e x p eriments done by s t u d e n t s ? 0-10% 11-20% 21-30% 31-40% 41-50% o v e r 50% N (19) f % 1. Che 12 5 m 11 94 42 75 34 30 13 9 4 3 1 223 (20) F % 2. Che 18 11 m 12 83 49 49 29 15 9 2 1 2 1 169 TABLE 4.6 Time A l l o c a t e d f o r Demonstrations A p p r o x i m a t e l y what p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l time f o r the c o u r s e i s used f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s ? , 0-10% 11-20% 21-30% N (21) 1. Chem 11 f 177 41 3 221 % 80 19 1 (22) 2. Chem 12 f 134 32 2 168 % 80 19 1 86 TABLE 4.7 Adequate Coverage o f the co u r s e i n the Time A v a i l a b l e (60) 1. Statement: Chem 11 can be a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r e d i n the time a v a i l a b l e . SA A U D SD f % 12 5 93 41 46 12 5 5 74 33 34 15 •48 225 (61) 2. Statement: Chem 12 cannot be a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r e d i n the time a v a i l a b l e . SA A D SD 59 30 61 31 26 61 _L_ 13 40 20 12 6 26 198 87 (c) D e m o n s t r a t i o n s: About 80% o f the resp o n s e s f a l l i n t o the 0-10% c a t e g o r y , w h i l e 19% f a l l i n t o the 11-20% o f t o t a l time c a t e g o r y . ( T a b l e 4.6) (d) Coverage o f the Course W i t h i n Time A v a i l a b l e : Out o f the 225 respond e n t s 46% i n d i c a t e t h a t Chem 11 can be a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r e d w i t h i n the time a v a i l a b l e w h i l e 48% o f them i n d i c a t e t h a t i t cannot. For Chem 12 26% o f the respon d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t Chem 12 can be a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r e d w i t h i n the time a v a i l a b l e compared to 61% who i n d i c a t e t h a t i t cannot. ( T a b l e 4.7) 4.5 The C h e m i s t r y L a b o r a t o r y i n B.C. S c h o o l s Two hundred and twenty t e a c h e r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g 95% o f the t o t a l 231 t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s u r v e y i n d i c a t e t h a t they can use the l a b o r a t o r y as o f t e n as they would l i k e , and t h a t t h e r e are no s e r i o u s problem w i t h a v a i l a b i l i t y when needed. Many t e a c h e r s comment t h a t they t e a c h the c o u r s e i n the l a b o r a t o r y . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l s some s e r i o u s problems. For i n s t a n c e , one f i f t h o f the respon d e n t s (20%) i n d i c a t e i n a d e q u a t e s a f e t y p r o v i s i o n s and 45% r e p o r t poor v e n t i l a t i o n . A l s o mentioned are the l a c k o f l a b o r a t o r y a s s i s t a n c e s by 33% o f the respondents and the p r e s e n c e o f too many s t u d e n t s i n the l a b o r a t o r y by 20%. Less f r e q u e n t responses a r e : i n a d e q u a t e o r poor f a c i l i t i e s by 15%, n o t enough equipment and/or c h e m i c a l s by 10% and t h a t l a b o r a t o r y p e r i o d s a re too s h o r t by 7%. ( T a b l e 4.8) TABLE 4.8 Problems With the Ch e m i s t r y L a b o r a t o r y i n B.C. S c h o o l s (23) a) Can you use the l a b o r a t o r y as o f t e n as you would l i k e to? Yes No N f 220 6 226 % 97 3 b) How s e r i o u s are the f o l l o w i n g problems e n c o u n t e r e d i n u s i n g the l a b o r a t o r y i n y o u r s i t u a t i o n ? (28) 1. L a b o r a t o r y i s n o t f r e e when needed. ver y s e r i o u s s e r i o u s n o t s e r i o u s N f - 2 224 226 % - 1 99 (24) 2. L a b o r a t o r y p e r i o d s a re too s h o r t . (30) 3. Two many s t u d e n t s i n the l a b o r a t o r y . f % 10 4 37 6 178 79 225 T a b l e 4.8 ( c o n t i n u e d ) (25) 4. Inadequate o r poor f a c i l i t i e s . v e r y s e r i o u s s e r i o u s n o t s e r i o u s N f 9 25 191 225 % 4 11 85 1 15 1 85 (26) 5. O u t - o f - d a t e f a c i l i t i e s . (29) 6. Not enough equipment and/or c h e m i c a l s , (32) 7. Lack o f l a b o r a t o r y a s s i s t a n c e , f % 25 11 50 22 153 67 228 90 T a b l e 4.8 ( c o n t i n u e d ) (31) 8. Inadequate s a f e t y p r o v i s i o n s . v e r y s e r i o u s s e r i o u s n o t s e r i o u s 14 6 33 14 20 181 79 79 228 (27) 9. Poor v e n t i l a t i o n . 91 4.6 The CHEM Study f i l m A l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s (87%) i n d i c a t e t h a t o v e r a l l CHEM Study f i l m s are good. However 25% s t a t e t h a t f i l m s are too d i f f i c u l t to u n d e r s t a n d by the average s t u d e n t and 21% o f the r e s p o n -dents c o n t e n d t h a t f i l m s do n o t c l a r i f y the t h e o r y . For 27% f i l m s are o u t - o f - d a t e . N i n e t e e n p e r c e n t o f the respondents do n o t have enough time to s c r e e n f i l m s . T h a t f i l m s are n o t a v a i l a b l e when needed r e p r e s e n t s a s e r i o u s problem f o r one t h i r d (33%) o f the r e s p o n d e n t s . Four p e r c e n t r e p o r t as a s e r i o u s problem the l a c k o f equipment and the l a c k o f a s u i t a b l e room to s c r e e n f i l m s . Almost one o u t o f e i g h t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s (12%) r e p o r t s as a s e r i o u s problem a n e g a t i v e s t u d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e towards f i l m s . ( T a b l e 4.9) 4.7 The CHEM Study Textbook The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s agree t h a t o v e r a l l the t e x t -book i s longwinded (62%) and t h a t i t i s b o r i n g ( 5 5 % ) . These two statements about the textbook evoked a g r e a t deal o f comment which appears i n Appendix F . (See T a b l e 4.10) 4.8 The E x p e r i m e n t a l p a r t o f the Course As shown i n T a b l e 4.11, o n e - f i f t h (21%) o f the 228 r e -spondents agree to a s t a t e m e n t t h a t the d i s c o v e r y approach i s the 92 TABLE 4.9 Problems With the CHEM Study F i l m s (42) a) Statement: O v e r a l l CHEM Study f i l m s a r e good. SA A U D SD N f % 43 19 « a 153 68 -j, 1 17 8 8 12 5 1 1 5 — 1 1 226 b) How s e r i o u s a r e the f o l l o w i n g problems e n c o u n t e r e d i n u s i n g the CHEM Study f i l m s i n y o u r s i t u a t i o n ? (34) 1. Film s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e when needed. v e r y s e r i o u s s e r i o u s n o t s e r i o u s N f % 33 15 1 3 41 18 3 1 152 67 67 226 (38) 2. Lack o f equipment to show f i l m s . f % 0 0 9 4 217 96 226 (39) 3. Lack o f s u i t a b l e room to show f i l m s . f % 2 1 1 7 3 4 1 1 216 96 96 225 93 T a b l e 4.9 ( c o n t i n u e d ) (36) 4. F i l m s are o u t - o f - d a t e . v e r y s e r i o u s s e r i o u s n o t s e r i o u s N f % 9 4 1 2 51 23 7 1 162 73 73 222 (35) 5. F i l m s too d i f f i c u l t to u n d e r s t a n d by average s t u d e n t s i n the c l a s s . (40) 6. F i l m s do n o t make t h e o r y c l e a r enough. (41) 7. S t u d e n t ' s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards f i l m s . 94 T a b l e 4. 9 ( c o n t i n u e d ) (37) 8. Not enough time to show f i l m s v e r y s e r i o u s s e r i o u s hot s e r i o u s N f % 9 4 1 , 34 15 9 1 183 81 81 226 TABLE 4.10 T e a c h e r s ' Responses t o Statements About the Textbook (43) 1. O v e r a l l the textbook i s longwinded. SA U D SD 61 27 80 35 62 29 13 13 52 23 25 229 (44) 2. O v e r a l l the textbook i s b o r i n g . 95 TABLE 4.11 T e a c h e r s ' Responses to Statements About the E x p e r i m e n t a l P a r t o f the Course (47) 1. Doing the recommended experiments i n Chem 11 does not a l l o w time f o r t h e o r y SA A u D S N f % 17 8 L _ 4 80 35 3 - J 21 9 9 92 41 L - 4 16 7 8 226 (50) 2. Most o f the e x p e r i m e n t s a r e c o n c e p t u a l l y too d i f f i c u l t f o r the average s t u d e n t i n the c o u r s e . (45) 3. O v e r a l l the experiments i n the manual l e a d to a f u l l under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e o r y . (62) 4. Experiments done b e f o r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g the t h e o r y , a r e a waste o f time. f 22 10 56 25 52 23 78 34 20 9 228 96 T a b l e 4.11 ( c o n t i n u e d ) (49) 5. The d i s c o v e r y method i s the most s u c c e s s f u l approach to t e a c h i n g c h e m i s t r y . SA A U D N 14 6 34 15 21 _1_ 59 26 26 84 37 37 16 53 228 TABLE 4.12 T e a c h e r s ' Responses to Statements R e l a t e d to Mathematical S k i l l s R e q u i r e d (51) 1. Most c h e m i s t r y s t u d e n t s l a c k the mathematical s k i l l s r e q u i r e d . SA U D SD 45 19 86 37 •56 16 7 7 79 34 231 (59) 2. Use o f e l e c t r o n i c c a l c u l a t o r s by s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d . 97 Tabel 4.12 ( c o n t i n u e d ) (55) 3. E r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s ( o f the ± type) are too d i f f i c u l t f o r most s t u d e n t s . SA A U D SD N f % 40 17 l — , 95 41 8 ' i 17 7 7 75 33 1 3 2 1 4 - 1 229 (56) 4. Te a c h e r s s h o u l d use s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s i n s t e a d o f ± e r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s (48) 5. The e q u i v a l e n t w e i g h t c o n c e p t i s b e t t e r than the mole c o n c e p t f o r e x p l a i n i n g a c i d - b a s e t i t r a t i o n s . 98 most s u c c e s s f u l approach to t e a c h i n g c h e m i s t r y , 53% o f them d i s a g r e e w h i l e 26% o f the respondents are u n c e r t a i n . However the s t a t e m e n t "Experiments done b e f o r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e o r y a r e a waste o f time" gets o n l y 35% o f the re s p o n d e n t s ' a p p r o v a l , 43% o f t h e i r d i s a g r e e -ment, w h i l e 23% are undecided. Some t e a c h e r s comment on the l a s t s t a t e m e n t s a y i n g t h a t one s h o u l d n o t g e n e r a l i z e o v e r a l l e x p e r i m e n t s . Only o n e - t h i r d o f the t e a c h e r s (34%) agree t h a t most ex p e r i m e n t s a r e c o n c e p t u a l l y too d i f f i c u l t f o r the average s t u d e n t s i n the c o u r s e w h i l e 53% d i s a g r e e . The s t a t e m e n t t h a t , " o v e r a l l the e x p e r i m e n t s i n the manual l e a d to a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o r y , " evokes 29% agreement and 52% disagreement. Time i s p r o b a b l y the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the amount o f e x p e r i m e n t a l work to be done. As many as 43% o f the respond e n t s agree t h a t d o i n g the recommended ex p e r i m e n t s i n Chem 11 does n o t a l l o w enough time f o r t h e o r y , w h i l e a somewhat g r e a t e r number o f respondents (48%) d i s a g r e e . 4.9 Mathematical S k i l l s The m a j o r i t y o f the r e s p o n d i n g t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s : (a) t h a t most c h e m i s t r y s t u d e n t s l a c k the mathematical s k i l l s r e q u i r e d (56% agreement ve r s u s 36% d i s -agreement) . (b) t h a t the use o f e l e c t r o n i c c l a c u l a t o r s by s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d (85% ver s u s 1 1 % ) , (c) t h a t e r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s o f the ± type a re too d i f f i c u l t f o r most s t u d e n t s (58% v e r s u s 3 4 % ) , and (d) t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d use s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s i n s t e a d o f e r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s (68% v e r s u s 18%). However the st a t e m e n t "The e q u i v a l e n t w e i g h t c o n c e p t i s b e t t e r than the mole c o n c e p t f o r e x p l a i n i n g a c i d - b a s e t i t r a t i o n s i s a c c e p t e d by 13% and r e j e c t e d by 62%. ( T a b l e 4.12) 4.10 C o n t e n t o f the Course T e a c h e r s were asked to respond to f o u r s t a t e m e n t s about some a s p e c t s o f the c o u r s e ' s c o n t e n t . Two o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s were put i n the n e g a t i v e form. Only 10% o f the respondents agreed t h a t CHEM Study p r o -v i d e d enough m a t e r i a l s on eve r y d a y a p p l i c a t i o n s , w h i l e 8% o f them d i s a g r e e d . O n e - t h i r d o f the respond e n t s (33%) agreed t h a t the co u r s e p r o v i d e d enough h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l , w h i l e 53% o f them d i s a g r e e d . To the st a t e m e n t t h a t CHEM Study does not i n c l u d e enough m a t e r i a l on modern i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s t h e r e i s 74% agreement compared to 13% disagreement. S i m i l a r l y to the s t a t e m e n t t h a t CHEM Study does n o t put enough s t r e s s on f o r m u l a w r i t i n g t h e r e i s 71%agreement v e r s u s 21% disagreement. ( T a b l e 4.13) TOO TABLE 4.13 Te a c h e r s ' Responses to Some A s p e c t s o f the Course's C o n t e n t (54) 1. CHEM Study p r o v i d e s enough m a t e r i a l on e v e r y - d a y a p p l i c a t i o n s SA A U D SD N f % 2 1 1 i 21 9 0 ' -20 9 9 139 62 1 8 44 19 i i 226 (52) 2. CHEM Study p r o v i d e s enough h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l (53) 3. CHEM Study does no_t i n c l u d e enough m a t e r i a l on modern i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . f % 40 17 1 — 7 131 57 4 1 29 13 13 27 12 1 1 2 1 3 — 1 229 (46) 4. CHEM Study does not put enough s t r e s s on w r i t i n g formulae. f % 44 19 L — 7 119 52 1 1 CO CO CO 42 18 1 8 3 21 — 1 231 101 4.11 A d a p t a t i o n s o f the Course About 56% o f the re s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t t h a t they have adapted the Chem 11 and/or Chem 12 c o u r s e s to some e x t e n t , w h i l e about 17% o f them r e p o r t t h a t the a d a p t a t i o n s took p l a c e to q u i t e an e x t e n t . Only 17% o f the Chem 11 respond e n t s and 10% o f the Chem 12 re s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e t h a t they have adapted the c o u r s e to a ver y l a r g e e x t e n t . ( T a b l e 4.14) I t seems t h a t a l a r g e number o f the t e a c h e r s a re n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h the text b o o k . They a l s o comment on the s c a r c i t y o f s u i t a b l e problems and e x e r c i s e s w i t h i n the t e x t and a t the end o f each c h a p t e r . E x t e n s i v e notes a re p r o v i d e d by 46% and 49% o f the Chem 11 and Chem 12 t e a c h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e 58% o f the Chem 11 and Chem 12 t e a c h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e 58% o f the Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and 51% o f the Chem 12 t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e some notes to supplement the t e x t b o o k . ( T a b l e 4.15a) E x t e n s i v e e x e r c i s e s a re a l s o p r o v i d e d by 58% and 52% o f Chem 11 and Chem 12 t e a c h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e 44% o f the Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and 42% o f the Chem 12 t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e some e x e r c i s e s t o supplement the textbook. ( T a b l e 4.15b) The e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r t o f the co u r s e i s a l s o s u b j e c t to a p p r e c i a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n . S u b s t i t u t e experiments a re p r o v i d e d by 42% o f the Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and by 28% o f the Chem 12 t e a c h e r s . Experiments i n the manual a r e s i m p l i f i e d by 32% o f the Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and 22% o f the Chem 12 t e a c h e r s . Experiments a re e x p l a i n e d ahead o f time by 44% o f the Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and by 34% o f the Chem 12 t e a c h e r s . ( T a b l e 4.15c) S l i g h t l y l e s s than h a l f o f the t e a c h e r s (47%) demonstrate o n l y the more d i f f i c u l t e x p e r i m e n t s . About 3% o f them demonstrate e x t e n s i v e l y the experiments o u t l i n e d i n the manual. ( T a b l e 4.15d) 103 TABLE 4.14 E x t e n t o f Course's A d a p t a t i o n as C o n c e i v e d by Tea c h e r s How e x t e n s i v e l y do you adapt Chem 11 and/or Chem 12 to s u i t y o u r s i t u a t i o n ? To a very l a r g e e x t e n t To q u i t e an e x t e n t To some e x t e n t Not worth m e n t i o n i n g Do n o t r e a l l y know N (86) f 37 Chem 11 40 123 17 3 220 % 17 18 56 8 1 (87) f 16 Chem 12 29 94 23 4 166 % 10 17 57 14 2 TABLE 4.15 D e t a i l e d I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the Course's A d a p t a t i o n s (a) Notes: Chem 11 N = 226 Chem 12 N = 172 (64/65) 1. P r o v i d e e x t e n s i v e notes o f y o u r f 103 85 own. % 46 49 (66/67) 2. P r o v i d e some notes to supplement f 130 88 the t e x t b o o k . % 58 51 104 T a b l e 4.15 ( c o n t i n u e d ) (b) E x e r c i s e s : Chem 11 N = 226 Chem 12 N = 172 (68/69) 1. P r o v i d e e x t e n s i v e e x e r c i s e s o f y o u r own. f % 131 58 90 52 (70/71) 2. P r o v i d e some e x e r c i s e s to supplement those i n the te x t b o o k . f % 100 44 72 42 (c) E x p e r i m e n t s : (80/81) 1. P r o v i d e s u b s t i t u t e e x p e r i m e n t s f o r the s t u d e n t s to do. f % 94 42 48 28 (84/85) 2. E x p l a i n most o f the e x p e r i m e n t f o r the s t u d e n t s t o do ahead o f time. f % 99 44 59 34 (78/79) 3. S i m p l i f y experiments i n the manuals f o r s t u d e n t s to do. f % 72 32 38 22 (82/83) 4. P r o v i d e supplementary e x p e r i m e n t s f o r s t u d e n t s to do. f % 71 32 42 24 (76/77) 5. A s s i g n o p t i o n a l experiments f o r s t u d e n t s to do. f % 76 34 49 28 105 T a b l e 4.15 ( c o n t i n u e d ) (d) D e m o n s t r a t i o n s : Chem 11 N = 226 Chem 12 N = 172 (72/73) 1. Demonstrate e x t e n s i v e l y the experiments f 6 5 i n the manual. % . 3 . 3 (74/75) 2. Demonstrate o n l y the more d i f f i c u l t f 107 82 experiments i n the manual. % 47 48 TABLE 4.16 Tea c h e r s ' Responses to Statements About the D i f f i c u l t y L e v e l o f the CHEM Study Course (63) 1. CHEM Study s h o u l d be taken by a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . SA A U D SD 5 2 14 6 14 6 6 76 33 119 52 85 228 (58) 2. Chem 12 i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r the average s t u d e n t t a k i n g the c o u r s e 106 T a b l e 4.16 ( c o n t i n u e d ) (57) 1. Chem 11 i s n o t too d i f f i c u l t f o r the average s t u d e n t t a k i n g the c o u r s e . SA A u D SD N f % 8 4 ' 6 136 60 4 ' 24 11 11 52 23 1 2 7 3 6 1 227 107 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 C o n c l u s i o n s Based on the data g a t h e r e d two broad c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn from t h i s s u r v e y : 1. The CHEM Study program was not g e n e r a l l y implemented i n B.C. secondary s c h o o l s a c c o r d i n g to i n s t r u c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d by i t s d e v e l o p e r s as l e a d i n g to e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g . 2. The CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s were not always used as i n t e n d e d by i t s d e s i g n e r s . Almost h a l f o f the t e a c h e r s have c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t they have s u b j e c t e d the m a t e r i a l s t o a g r e a t deal o f m o d i f i c a t i o n s and a d a p t a t i o n s . To implement the CHEM Study program as o u t l i n e d by i t s d e s i g n e r s , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d s t r i c t l y f o l l o w a r i g i d p l a n i n which the f o l l o w i n g c y c l e i s c o n t i n u o u s l y r e p e a t e d : a s h o r t p r e - l a b d i s -c u s s i o n ( t h e t e a c h e r i s warned not to r e v e a l 'any element o f 108 d i s c o v e r y 1 ) - - a n e x p eriment done by the s t u d e n t s who g a t h e r d a t a and make a d i s c o v e r y - - p o s t - l a b d i s c u s s i o n and i n d u c t i v e development o f r e l a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s and c o n c e p t s . F i l m s a re i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c o n t e n t o f the c o u r s e and s c r e e n e d a t a p p r o p r i a t e s t a g e s o f the c o u r s e [ M c C l e l l a n e t a l . , 1963] To i n v e s t i g a t e how the c o u r s e was a c t u a l l y implemented i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s , c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s were asked s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the c o u r s e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , as l i s t e d i n S e c t i o n 1.4 . T e a c h e r s were asked whether they c o u l d use t he l a b o r a t o r y whenever t h e y wanted t o , and whether s e r i o u s problems may have p r e v e n t e d them from u s i n g i t e f f i c i e n t l y . They were asked whether they had enough time f o r the c o u r s e and what p r o p o r t i o n o f i t th e y a l l o c a t e d to the e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r t o f the c o u r s e ; whether they found the d i s c o v e r y approach the b e s t approach to t e a c h i n g chemis-t r y ; whether they e x p l a i n e d most o f the l a b o r a t o r y manual experiments ahead M'.' time ; and. whether they s u b s t i t u t e d , s i m p l i f i e d o r s u p p l e -mented them. Almost a l l o f the t e a c h e r s ( o v e r 95% o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s ) c o u l d use the l a b o r a t o r y whenever t h e y wanted t o , though t h e r e were some s e r i o u s problems s p e c i a l l y w i t h s a f e t y , v e n t i l a t i o n and l a b o r a -t o r y a s s i s t a n c e ( T a b l e 4.8). Most o f the t e a c h e r s ( o v e r 75%) a l l o c a t e d 11-30% o f c o u r s e time f o r experiments done by s t u d e n t s ( T a b l e 4.5). 109 Over h a l f o f the r e s p o n d e n t s (53%) d i d not agree t h a t "the d i s c o v e r y approach i s the most s u c c e s s f u l approach to t e a c h i n g c h e m i s t r y , " w h i l e o n e - f o u r t h o f them (26%) remained u n d e c i d e d about the i s s u e ( T a b l e 4.11). As shown i n T a b l e 4 . 1 5 ( c ) , 44% o f Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and 34% o f Chem 12 t e a c h e r s d i d n o t s t r i c t l y f o l l o w the i n s t r u c t i o n s , and e x p l a i n e d a t l e a s t some o f the exp e r i m e n t s ahead o f time. Some t e a c h e r s commented t h a t the d i s c o v e r y method i s u s e f u l i f not used e x c l u s i v e l y , and when the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d a re s i m p l e . O t h e r s wrote t h a t they f i n d the d i s c o v e r y approach too much time consuming, f r u s t r a t i n g , d i f f i c u l t and o f l i t t l e v a l u e (Appendix F ) . F i l m s were not used as o f t e n a s . s u g g e s t e d . About one-t h i r d o f the t e a c h e r s c o u l d not get them when needed. O n e - f o u r t h o f the t e a c h e r s found f i l m s "too d i f f i c u l t to understand by the average s t u d e n t i n c l a s s . " About o n e - f i f t h o f the t e a c h e r s found t h a t " f i l m s do not make t h e o r y c l e a r enough." ( T a b l e 4.9) T a b l e 4.15 t a b u l a t e s d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the m o d i f i c a t i o n s and a d a p t a t i o n s o f the CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s . I t i s p e r f e c t l y normal w i t h e v e r y c o u r s e and any m a t e r i a l t h a t t he t e a c h e r s u p p l i e s h i s s t u d e n t s w i t h some notes and e x t r a e x e r c i s e s . However, the f a c t t h a t e x t e n s i v e notes a r e p r o v i d e d by 49% o f Chem 12 t e a c h e r s and 46% o f Chem 11 t e a c h e r s r e v e a l s a s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g w i t h t he CHEM Study t e x t - b o o k . T e a c h e r s were no a l m o s t unanimous i n t h e i r comments t h a t many o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s f i n d the t e x t - b o o k d i f f i c u l t to r e a d . Some r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t the t e x t - b o o k does not p r o v i d e enough good e x e r c i s e s and problems (Appendix F ) . Experiments to s u b s t i t u t e those i n the l a b o r a t o r y manual were p r o v i d e d by 42% o f the Chem 11 and 28% o f the Chem 12 t e a c h e r s . Experiments i n the manual were s i m p l i f i e d by 32% o f Chem 11 and 22% o f Chem 12 t e a c h e r s . ( T a b l e 4.15c) Though o n e - t h i r d o f Chem 11 t e a c h e r s and o n e - f o u r t h o f Chem 12 t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they p r o v i d e d supplementary and/or o p t i o n a l e xperiments f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s , some t e a c h e r s commented t h a t l a c k o f time to c o v e r the t h e o r e t i c a l p a r t o f the c o u r s e o b l i g e d them t o drop e x p e r i m e n t s t h e y would have l i k e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o p e r f o r m . Some t e a c h e r s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y a b r i d g e d some experiments to get them done w i t h i n 50 - 60 m i n u t e s . (Appendix F ) . In summary then the t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t the t e x t -book, the l a b o r a t o r y manual and the f i l m s were not g e n e r a l l y used as i n t e n d e d by the d e v e l o p e r s . Experiments were m o d i f i e d , sub-s t i t u t e d o r d e l e t e d , and the d i s c o v e r y approach was not s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d . 5.2 Recommendations A l t h o u g h the dat a were c o l l e c t e d w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e based on the CHEM Study program, the f o l l o w i n g recommendations a r e o f a i n g e n e r a l n a t u r e and may be a p p l i c a b l e t o any o t h e r C h e m i s t r y program. 5.2.1 C o n t e n t o f the Course As shown i n S e c t i o n 2.5.3, Chem 11 was taken by s l i g h t l y more than o n e - t h i r d o f grade 11 s t u d e n t s , w h i l e Chem 12 was taken by l e s s than o n e - f i f t h o f grade 12 s t u d e n t s . The drop i n the c h e m i s t r y p o p u l a t i o n between grade 11 and grade 12 was 55.5% compared to 10.1% drop i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n between the two grades from 1975/76 to 1976/77. S i n c e the c a r r y o v e r from grade 11 c h e m i s t r y to grade 12 c h e m i s t r y i s about 45%, then i t would appear t h a t Chem 11 i s a t e r m i n a l c o u r s e i n c h e m i s t r y f o r most s t u d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s sug g e s t e d t h a t i t s c o n t e n t s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g l y . Chem 11 s h o u l d be l e s s a b s t r a c t and more r e l a t e d t o e v e r y day e x p e r i e n c e o f the s t u d e n t s . I t s h o u l d c o n t a i n more d e s c r i p t i v e c h e m i s t r y w i t h o u t n e g l e c t i n g the q u a n t i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f the d i s c i p l i n e . Chem 11 s h o u l d aim, i n the f i r s t p l a c e , a t a c h i e v i n g c h e m i c a l l i t e r a c y . Chem 12, on the o t h e r hand, appears to be taken by a s e l e c t group o f s t u d e n t s who a r e c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y bound. As such i t s p r e s e n t c o n t e n t needs o n l y minor r e v i s i o n s . I t may be b e t t e r to t r e a t fewer t o p i c s i n depth, w h i l e l e a v i n g the more advanced t o p i c s , such as " e n t r o p y " o r the d e t a i l e d " m o l e c u l a r structure',' t o be t r e a t e d a t a p o s t - s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . I t i s n o t , however, w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y t o su g g e s t d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e s f o r d e s i r a b l e Chem 11 and Chem 12 112 c o u r s e s . I t i s hoped t h a t the d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y may be u s e f u l f o r t h o s e who a r e i n charge o f c u r r i c u l u m development, as w e l l as f o r s c h o l a r s who would use them as a basis f o r a t e n t a t i v e p r o j e c t . 5.2.2 Mathematical S k i l l s Most t e a c h e r s and r e s e a r c h workers a l i k e agree t h a t f a c i l i t y i n mathematical s k i l l s i s an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s u c c e s s i n e x i s t i n g c h e m i s t r y programs. T h i s t o p i c has been d i s -c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l i n S e c t i o n 2.2.4. T e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to some r e l a t e d items were g a t h e r e d i n T a b l e 4.12, and t e a c h e r s ' comments i n Appendix F. I t has been r e p e a t e d l y n o t i c e d t h a t some s t u d e n t s who c a n work r e l a t i v e l y easy w i t h x, y and z i n the mathematical c o u r s e s may e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y , when they merely s w i t c h , f o r example, t o V, P and T i n s c i e n c e c o u r s e s . F o r achievement i n c h e m i s t r y a good knowledge i n a l g e b r a i s needed i n a d d i t i o n to some c o m p u t a t i o n a l s k i l l s . I t would hence be d e s i r a b l e t o spend p a r t o f the time a l l o c a t e d f o r S c i e n c e 10 i n d e v e l o p i n g such s k i l l s , and to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l e x e r c i s e s to b r i d g e the gap between a b s t r a c t a l g e b r a and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n s c i e n c e c o u r s e s . 113 5.2.3 The Math-Chem Sequence i n Grade 11 Greenwood [1976] n o t i c e s t h a t about h a l f o f the mathematical s k i l l s needed f o r Chem 11 are i n c l u d e d i n Math 11. She b e l i e v e s t h a t under the semester-system the achievement o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g Chem 11 b e f o r e Math 11 may be a f f e c t e d . ( S e c t i o n 2.2.4) I t i s hence s t r o n g l y recommended t h a t Math 11 s h o u l d precede  Chem 11 o r a t l e a s t be t a u g h t c o n c u r r e n t l y . Perhaps t h i s may be used as an argument i n f a v o u r o f the semester-system. 5.2.4 School L a b o r a t o r y T e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n some s c h o o l s the s c h o o l l a b o r a t o r y needs immediate improvement. Poor v e n t i l a t i o n and l a c k o f s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o u s a r e two problems o f immediate c o n c e r n . In a d d i t i o n to p o t e n t i a l d angers, they p r o b a b l y a f f e c t the adequacy o f the c h e m i s t r y program and the e f f i c i e n t use o f the l a b o r a t o r y . One wonders how many e x p e r i m e n t s have been o m i t t e d because o f t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s . S i n c e the amount o f work needed f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l work i s u s u a l l y g r e a t , the l a c k o f l a b o r a t o r y a s s i s t a n c e puts a n . a d d i t i o n a l l o a d on the t e a c h e r , w i t h the p o s s i b l e consequence, t h a t he may c u r t a i l the e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r t o f the c o u r s e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t c h e m i s t r y t e a c h e r s g e t l a b o r a t o r y a s s i s t a n c e o r e x t r a - t i m e c r e d i t f o r d o i n g the p r e -p a r a t o r y work. 114 5.3 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research The f o l l o w i n g problems a r e recommended f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n s : 1. S a f e t y equipment and p r e c a u t i o n s i n s c h o o l l a b o r a t o r -i e s , and how to improve them. T h i s might i n c l u d e c hemical s t o r a g e , f a c i l i t i e s f o r s a f e usage, a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s a f e t y equipment and t r a i n i n g i n i t s use, and perhaps a l s o t r a i n i n g i n b a s i c f i r s t a i d . 2. The development o f r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r d i a g n o s t i c t e s t i n g and methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g and i m p r o v i n g the mathematical s k i l l s needed f o r the c h e m i s t r y program. 3. The e f f e c t o f a semester-system on achievement i n c h e m i s t r y . Some o f the t e a c h e r s ' comments i n Appendix F i n d i c a t e t h a t the change to the semester-system was accompanied by a r e d u c t i o n i n the number o f p e r i o d s a l l o c a t e d t o the c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e s . Some t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y were o b l i g e d to drop p a r t o f the e x p e r i -mental work because o f the reduced time o f the semester system. 115 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, June S. "A Comparative Study o f Chemical E d u c a t i o n M a t e r i a l s Study and T r a d i t i o n a l C h e m i s t r y i n Terms o f S t u d e n t s ' A b i l i t y to Use S e l e c t e d C o g n i t i v e P r o c e s s e s . " U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1964. A v a i l a b l e from U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n . A u s u b e l , David P. The P s y c h o l o g y o f M e a n i n g f u l V e r b a l L e a r n i n g . New Yrok: Grune and S t r a t t o n , 1963. E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y : A C o g n i t i v e View. New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, I n c . , 1968. B e l a n g e r , M a u r i c e . "1: L e a r n i n g S t u d i e s i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , " Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 1969, 39, 377-395. Bond, G.C. " P r a c t i c a l B e f o r e Theory," E d u c a t i o n i n C h e m i s t r y . 1974, 11, 102. Booth, N. "Mathematics and School C h e m i s t r y , " E d u c a t i o n i n  C h e m i s t r y . 1974, 1J_, 61 and 64. Bruner, Jerome S. The P r o c e s s o f E d u c a t i o n . Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. . " L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l Youth," The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r . November 1965, 32, 18-20. C o l e y , N e i l R. " P r e d i c t i o n o f Success i n General C h e m i s t r y i n a Community C o l l e g e , " J o u r n a l o f Chemical E d u c a t i o n . 1973, 50, 613-615. 117 Cronbach, Lee J . " L e a r n i n g Research and C u r r i c u l u m Development," J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g . 1964, 2, 204-207. . "The L o g i c o f Experiments on D i s c o v e r y , " In Shulman, Lee S. and K e i s l a r , Evan R. ( E d i t o r s ) , L e a r n i n g by  D i s c o v e r y : A C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l . C h i c a g o : Rand Mc N a l l y and Company, 1960. Denny, R i t a T. "The Mathematics S k i l l T e s t (MAST) f o r C h e m i s t r y , " J o u r n a l o f Chemical E d u c a t i o n . 1971, 48, 845-846. Duncan, I.M. and J o h n s t o n e , A.H. "The Mole Concept," E d u c a t i o n i n  C h e m i s t r y . 1973, 1_0, 213-214. F a s t , Kenneth V. "The Role o f L a b o r a t o r y E x p e r i e n c e s i n the CHEM Study Program," School S c i e n c e and Mathematics. 1963, 63, 147-156. F o n t a i n e , Thomas D. " F e d e r a l Programs f o r the Improvement o f School S c i e n c e and Mathematics," S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . 1970, 54, 209-211. Greenwood, L a v i n i a . "A Report to the Department o f E d u c a t i o n , f o r the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, on the 1972 Survey o f C h e m i s t r y 11, w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e to the E f f e c t o f S e m e s t e r i n g and Mathematical P r e p a r a t i o n Upon Boys and G i r l s , 1976." Hand, H a r o l d D. " I n t e g r i t y and I n s t r u c t i o n a l I n n o v a t i o n , " The  E d u c a t i o n a l Forum. November 1965, 30, 7-16. Hambleton, D . C , W r i g h t , E r i c a , D o o l i t t l e , Gins and S c o t t B u r b i d g e . "A Survey o f Outdoor E d u c a t i o n i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o : A t t i t u d e s , A c t i v i t i e s and F a c i l i t i e s , " Research Department  The M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o School Board, 1970. Hardy, C l i f f o r d A. "CHEM Study and T r a d i t i o n a l C h e m i s t r y ; An E x p e r i m e n t a l A n a l y s i s , " S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . 1970, 54, 273-276. Heath, Robert W. and David W. S t i c k e l l . "CHEM and CBA E f f e c t s on Achievement i n C h e m i s t r y , " The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r . September 1963, 30, 45-46. H e n d r i c k s , B. O'Neal, K o e l s c h e , C h a r l e s L. and Joseph C. B l e d s o e . " S e l e c t e d High School Courses as R e l a t e d to F i r s t Q u a r t e r C h e m i s t r y Marks," J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g . 1963, 1, 81-84. He r r o n , J . Dudley. " E v a l u a t i o n and the New C u r r i c u l a , " J o u r n a l  o f Research i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g . 1966, 4, 159-170. " P i a g e t f o r Chemists - E x p l a i n i n g What 'Good' S t u d e n t s Cannot Understand," J o u r n a l o f Chemical E d u c a t i o n . 1975, 52, 146-150. H i l g a r d , E r n e s t (1964). C i t e d from Hand, H a r o l d C. " I n t e g r i t y and I n s t r u c t i o n a l I n n o v a t i o n s , " The E d u c a t i o n a l Forum. November 1965, 30, 10. Hobbs, E.D. " P a t t e r n s o f S t u d e n t s ' B e l i e f s - I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g . " Paper p r e s e n t e d as p a r t o f a Symposium a t the Annual C.S.S.E. C o n v e n t i o n , F r e d e r i c t o n , New Brunswick, Canada, June 1977. I n g l e , R.B. and M. Shayer. "Conceptual Demands i n N u f f i e l d 0-Le v e l C h e m i s t r y , " E d u c a t i o n i n C h e m i s t r y . 1971, 8, 182-183. Jo h n s t o n e , A.H. " E v a l u a t i o n o f C h e m i s t r y S y l l a b u s e s i n S c o t l a n d , " S t u d i e s i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . 1974, 1, 21-49. K a r p l u s , Robert (1973). C i t e d from H e r r o n , J . Dudley, " P i a g e t f o r Chemists - E x p l a i n i n g What 'Good' S t u d e n t s Cannot Understand," J o u r n a l o f Chemical E d u c a t i o n . 1975, 52, 147. K l i n e , M o r r i s . "The L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n Values o f Mathematics, S c i e n c e and Techn o l o g y f o r Youth," A d d r e s s e s and  P r o c e e d i n g s . Washington, D . C : N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1965, 50-67. 119 Lamb, D.P. Waggoner, W.H., and W.G. F i n d l e y . " S t u d e n t Achievement-i n High School C h e m i s t r y , " School S c i e n c e and Mathematics, 67, 1967, 221-226. L o c k a r d , J . David ( E d i t o r ) . E i g h t h Report o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e on S c i e n c e and Mathematics C u r r i c u l a r Developments, 1972, S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g C e n t e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d , C o l l e g e Park. Malm, L l o y d E. ( E d i t o r ) , D a v i s , J r . , Joseph E. and Margaret N i c h o l s o n , ( A s s o c i a t e E d i t o r s ) . L a b o r a t o r y Manual f o r C h e m i s t r y : An Ex p e r i m e n t a l S c i e n c e . San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman and Company, 1963. M c C l e l l a n , A.L. ( E d i t o r ) , P i m e n t e l , George C. and K e i t h MacNab, ( A s s o c i a t e E d i t o r s ) . T e a c h e r s Guide f o r C h e m i s t r y : An Ex p e r i m e n t a l S c i e n c e . San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman and Company, 1963. McCullough, A l l a n . "Wanted - More R e v i s i o n f o r High School C h e m i s t r y C o u r s e s , " The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r . O c t o b e r 1966, 33, 92-95. — M e r r i l l , R i c h a r d J . "CHEM Study - I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the School C o u n s e l o r , " Chemical E d u c a t i o n M a t e r i a l Study  N e w s l e t t e r . May 1964, V o l . 4, No. 2. and Ridgway, David W. The CHEM Study S t o r y . San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman and Company, 1969. M o r r i s , D a n i e l L. "The 'New S c i e n c e ' i n High School -An O b j e c t i o n . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r . November 1966, 33, 80-83. Newbold, B r i a n T. "Some A s p e c t s o f the Development o f High School C h e m i s t r y T e a c h i n g i n Canada D u r i n g t he P e r i o d 1950-1970," Canadian Chemical E d u c a t i o n . A p r i l 1974, 9, 12-13. 120 Ogden, W i l l i a m R. "The A f f e c t o f High School C h e m i s t r y Upon A c h i e v e -ment i n C o l l e g e C h e m i s t r y : A Summary," School S c i e n c e  and Mathematics. 1976, 76, 122-126. Osborn, G e r a l d . " I n f l u e n c e o f the Chemical Bond Approach and the Chemical E d u c a t i o n M a t e r i a l s , Study on the New York Regents E x a m i n a t i o n i n High School C h e m i s t r y , " School  S c i e n c e and Mathematics. 1969, 69, 53-58. Osborne, A l a n R. "Mathematical L i m i t a t i o n s on S c i e n t i f i c C r e a t i v i t y : A H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , " School S c i e n c e and Mathematics. 1969, 69, 599-604. P a u l i n g , L i n u s . General C h e m i s t r y . San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman and Company, T h i r d E d i t i o n 1970. P i m e n t e l , George C. ( E d i t o r ) and Mahan, Bruce H., M c C l e l l a n , A.L., MacNab, K e i t h , and Margaret N i c h o l s o n ( A s s o c i a t e E d i t o r s ) . C h e m i s t r y : An E x p e r i m e n t a l S c i e n c e . San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman and Company, 1963. and David W. Ridgway. "CHEM Study: Knowledge o f C h e m i s t r y , " S c i e n c e A c t i v i t i e s . November 1972. Pode, J.S.F. "CBA and CHEM Study: An A p p r e c i a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f  Chemical E d u c a t i o n . 1966, 43, 98-103. Pye, E a r l L. and Kenneth H. Anderson. " T e s t Achievement o f C h e m i s t r y S t u d e n t s : A Comparison o f Achievement o f S t u d e n t s i n CHEMS, CBA, C o n v e n t i o n a l and Other Approaches," The S c i e n c e  T e a c h e r . F e b r u a r y 1967, 34, 30-32. Rainey, Robert G. "A Comparison o f the CHEM Study C u r r i c u l u m and a C o n v e n t i o n a l Approach i n T e a c h i n g High School C h e m i s t r y , " School S c i e n c e and Mathematics. 1964, 64, 539-544. Ramsey, Gregor A. A Review o f the Research and L i t e r a t u r e on the Chemical E d u c a t i o n M a t e r i a l s , Study P r o j e c t . Research Review S e r i e s - S c i e n c e Paper 4, 1970. A v a i l a b l e from EDRS, N a t i o n a l Cash R e g i s t e r Company. 32 pages. 121 Rimer, Jeremy G. "Modern Mathematics and the T e a c h i n g o f Ch e m i s t r y , " E d u c a t i o n i n C h e m i s t r y . 1970, _7, 159, Saadeh, I b r a h i m Q. " D i r e c t i o n o f the New S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l a : An A p p r a i s a l and An A l t e r n a t i v e , " S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . 1973, 57, 247-262. Shayer M. "CHEM Study i n An E n g l i s h School - A P e r s o n a l View," E d u c a t i o n i n C h e m i s t r y . 1970, 7 , 54-56. Smith, H e r b e r t A. "2. C u r r i c u l u m Development and I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s , " Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 1969, 39, 397-413. Summerlin, Lee R. and Sar a P. C r a i g . " E v o l u t i o n o f the High School C h e m i s t r y T e x t and P r e s e n t I m p l i c a t i o n s , " S c i e n c e  E d u c a t i o n . 1966, 50, 223-233. Sutman, Frank X. "Mass E d u c a t i o n and the New S c i e n c e , " S c i e n c e  E d u c a t i o n . 1966, 50, 494-496. T r o x e l , Verne A. "Comparison o f Achievement o f S t u d e n t s i n High School C o u r s e s , " J o u r n a l o f Chemical E d u c a t i o n . 1970, 47, 79-81. U r i c h e c k , M i c h a e l J . "Research P r o p o s a l : An Attempt to E v a l u a t e the Success o f the CBA and CHEMS C h e m i s t r y C o u r s e s , " S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . 1967, 51, 5-11. Van Deventer, W.C. "Toward A 'Comparative Anatomy' o f the C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s , " S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . 1966, 50, 196-203. Walker, N o o j i n . "CHEM Study, CBA, and Modern C h e m i s t r y : A Comparison," School S c i e n c e and Mathematics. 1967, 67, 603-609. 122 Watson, F l e t c h e r G. " T e a c h i n g S c i e n c e t o the Average P u p i l , " The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r . March 1967, 34, 24-26 and 81. Weinstock, H.R. and M;J. De Primo. "An A n a l y s i s o f Views About the T r a d i t i o n a l and New C h e m i s t r y Programs," School  S c i e n c e and Mathematics. 1972, 72, 781-788. Welch, Wayne W. " C u r r i c u l a r D e c i s i o n s - How Can E v a l u a t i o n A s s i s t S c i e n c e T e a c h e r s ? " The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r . November 1968, 35, 22-25. Wheeler, A l a n E. and H e i d i Kass. S t u d e n t M i s c o n c e p t i o n s i n Chemical E q u i l i b r i u m as R e l a t e d to C o g n i t i v e L e v e l and Achievement. Paper p r e s e n t e d to the F o r t y - S e v e n t h Annual Meeting o f the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Research i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , A p r i l 15-18, 1974. A P P E N D I X A A SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY TEACHING IN B.C. SECONDARY SCHOOLS THE QUESTIONNAIRE APPENDIX A A SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY TEACHING IN B.C. SECONDARY SCHOOLS 124 Please give us the following information about your teaching background: S e r i a l number (SN) (11) 1. How many years of teaching experience do you have? • 1 ( f i r s t year i n teaching) • 2 - 3 • 4 - 6 -• 7-10 Over 10 years 2. What i s your u n i v e r s i t y / c o l l e g e background? (12) Degree (e.g. , B.A. , B'.Sc. , B.Ed., etc.) (13) Major(s)/Concentration(s) Other (Please s p e c i f y ) : SN 125 (14) 3. Is your school on a semester system? 1 1 Yes | 1 No (15) 4. Approximately how long have you been teaching Chem 11 in B.C. schools? (If you are on semester system, EACH SEMESTER w i l l be counted ONE YEAR.) • • • 1 year 2 - 3 years 4 - 6 years • 7 or • more years I do not teach Chem 11 (16) 5. Approximately how long have you been teaching Chem 12 in B.C. schools? 1 | 1 year | [ 2 - 3 years | | 4 - 6 years | | 7 or more years • I do not teach Chem 12 SN 126 6. How long are the chemistry periods/blocks i n your school? minutes (17) 7. On the AVERAGE, how many periods/blocks of Chem 11 do each of your classes get per year/semester? periods/blocks (18) 8. On the AVERAGE, how many periods/blocks of Chem 12 do each of your classes get per year/semester? periods/blocks Concerning YOUR use of the laboratory: V 9. Approximately what percent of the t o t a l time f o r the course i s used f o r experiments done by students? (19) (20) Chem 11 Chem 12 0 - 10 % 11 - 20 % 21 - 30 % 31 - 40 % 41 - 50 % Over 50 % • • • • • • • • • • • n 127 10. Approximately what percent of the total time for the course i s used for demonstrations? (21) Chem 11 (22) Chem 0 - 10 % • • 11 - 20 % • 21 - 30 % • • 31 - 40 % • • 41 - 50 % • Over 50 % • • II. Can you use the laboratory as often as you would l i k e to? (23) L H Yes \ | No 128 SN 12. How serious are the following problems encountered in using the l a b o r a t o r y in your situation? Very Serious Serious Not S e r i o u s (24) a- Laboratory periods are too short. | | [ | j ( (25) b. Inadequate or poor f a c i l i t i e s . [ | | |  (26) c. Out-of-date f a c i l i t i e s . ( | | \  (27) d. Poor ventilation. (28) e" Laboratory not free when needed. • • • (29) f, ^ 0(- enough equipment and/or chemicals. [ | (30) g. Too many students in the laboratory (31) h. Inadequate safety provisions. (32) i . Lack of laboratory assistance. (33) j . Inadequate theoretical preparation for laboratory work. k. Other (please specify) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SN 129 Concerning the CHEM study films: 13. How serious are the following problems encountered in using the CHEM study films in your situation? Very Serious Serious Not Serious (34) a. Films not available when needed. (35) b. Films too d i f f i c u l t to understand by average student in the class. (36) c. Films are out-of-date. (37) d. Not enough time to show films. (38) e. Lack of equipment to show films. (39) f. Lack of suitable room to show films. (40) g. Films do not make theory clear enough. (41) h. Students' negative attitude toward films. i . Other (please specify): • • • • • • • • • • d • • • • • • • • • • • • SN 14. Indicate how strongly YOU agree or disagree with each of the following statements about the CHEM Study Programme (Chem 11 and Chem 12). 130 S A A U D S D Strongly Agree Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly Disagree SA A U D SD (42) a. Overall CHEM Study films are good. • • • • • (43) b. Overall the textbook is long-winded. • • • • • (44) c. Overall the textbook i s boring. • • • • • (45) d . Overall the experiments in the manual lead to a f u l l understanding of theory. • • • • • (46) e. CHEM Study does not put enough stress on writing chemical formulas. • • • • • (47) f. Doing the recommended experiments in Chem 11 does not allow enough time for theory. • • • • • (48) S- The EQIVALENT WEIGHT concept is better than the MOLE concept for explaining acid-base titrations. • • • • • (49) h. The DISCOVERY METHOD is the most successful approach to teaching chemistry. • • • • • (50) i . ' Most of the experiments.are CONCEPTUALLY too d i f f i c u l t for the average student in the course. • • • • • (51) j - Most chemistry students lack the mathmatical s k i l l s required. • • • • • (52) k. CHEM Study provides enough h i s t o r i c a l material. • • • • • (53) 1. CHEM Study does not include enough material on modern industrial applications. • • • • • SN SA U 131 D SD (54) m. CHEM Study provides enough material on every-day applications. • • • • • (55) n. Error calculations (of the ± type) are too d i f f i c u l t for most students. • • • • • (56) o. Teachers should use significant figures instead of ± error calculations. • • • • • (57) p. Chem 11 is not too d i f f i c u l t for the average student taking the course. (58) q. Chem 12 is too d i f f i c u l t for the average student taking the course. • •.• • • • • • • • (59) r. Use of electronic calculators by students should be permitted. • • • • • (60) s. Chem 11 can be adequately covered in the time available. (61) t. Chem 12 cannot be adequately covered in the time available. (62) u. Experiments done before understanding the theory are a waste of time. • • • • • (63) v. CHEM Study should be taken by a l l secondary school students. • • • • • Comments and/or information relating to Question 14 (items a - v): 132 SN SN Concerning adaptations of Chemistry 11 and/or Chemistry 12 to suit your situation 15. Check which of the following adaptations of Chem 11 and/or Chem usually make. Chem 1 a. Provide extensive notes of your own. b. Provide some notes to supplement the textbook. c. Provide extensive exercises of your own. d. Provide some exercises to supplement those in the textbook. (64) • (66) Q (68) • (70) • (72) e. Demonstrate extensively the experiments in the manual. | | f. Demonstrate only the more d i f f i c u l t experiments i 1 in the manual. (74) | | g. Assign optional experiments for students to do. (76) | "j (78) h. Simplify experiments in the manual for students to do. | | (80) | j i . Provide substitute experiments for the students to do. | | (82) j . Provide supplementary experiments for students to do. j | k. Explain most of the experiments for the students (84) to do ahead of time. 1. Other (please specify): (86)| | /'OU Chem 12 67)1 I 69) 83) 85) • 37) • Comments and/or information relating to Question 15 (items a - 1): 133 SN SN 16. How extensively do you adapt Chem 11 and/or Chem 12 to s u i t your s i t u a t i o n ? Chem 11 Chem 12 (86) (87) To a very large extent. j To quite an extent. _] | To some extent. Not worth mentioning. 1 1 Do not r e a l l y know. j PLEASE CHECK YOUR ANSWERS AND RETURN THE QUESTIONNAIRE AS DIRECTED. THANK YOU. 134 A P P E N D I X B SAMPLE SHOWING TWO PAGES OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE AS DISTRIBUTED SA A U f) s n CilEM Siudy provides enough material on e v e r y d a y a p p l i c a t i o n s . • • • • • Error c a l c u l a t i o n s (of the I type) are too d i f f i c u l t for most s tudents . • • • • • Teachers should use H i g n l f l c u n t f igures Instead of i e r ror c a l c u l a t i o n s . • • • • • Chc.a 11 la net too d i f f i c u l t for the average utudeut taking cht cource. • • • • • Chtn 12 l s too d i f f i c u l t for tha average student taking the course . • • • • • I'se of e l e c t r o n i c c a l c u l a t o r s by students should be permitted. • • • • • Cr.co 11 can be adequately covered l n tha t i c * a v a i l a b l e . • • • • • Chem 12 cannot be adequately covered l n the time a v a i l a b l e . • • • • • Experiments done before understanding the theory are a waste of time. • • • • • CHEM Study should be taken by a l l secondary school students . • • • • • C o " t - n : « and/or Information r e l a t i n g to Question U (Items a - v) t Concerning adaptations of Chemlotry 11 and/or Chcmlatry 12 co s u i t your s i t u a t i o n 15. Check which of tha fol lowing adaptations of Chem l l ' o n d / o r Chem 12 you usual ly make. Chen 11 Chen 12 a. Provide extensive notes of your own. | | b. Provlda soma notes to supplement the textbook. 1 1 c. Provide extensive exercises of your own. | 1 d. Provide some exercises to supplement those l n thts i j textbook. „ | I e. Demonstrate extensively the experiments i n the manual. [ 1 f . Demonstrate only the more d i f f i c u l t experiments I 1 i n the manual. j ] g . Assign o p t i o n a l experiments for students to do. | 1 h . S i m p l i f y experiments l n the manual for students to do. j 1 1. Provide subst i tute experiments for tha students to do. [ { J , Provide supplementary experlmento for students to do. 1 J • • k. Expla in most of the experiments for the students to do ahead of time. 1. Other (please s p e c i f y ) ; • • • • • • • • • • Commence: and/or Information r e l a t i n g to Question 15 (items a - 1) : CO cn A P P E N D I X C COVER LETTER TO CHEMISTRY TEACHERS THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 WESBROOK MALL 137 VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION March 1977 Dear Colleague: In the i n t e r e s t of improving the teaching of Chem 11 and Chem 12 i n B.C. schools would you please give us your help for a few minutes? In response to i s o l a t e d discussions with teachers about some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s they are experiencing i n teaching the present CHEM Study program, and the ways i n which they are modifying or supplementing i t to meet the problems encountered, we have prepared the attached questionnaire to determine how extensive these problems and pra c t i c e s are throughout the Province. The questionnaire i s ultimately intended to provide information for making recommendations to those concerned with r e v i s i n g and improving the program and to those charged with the task of preparing new teachers to teach i t . Here i s what we would l i k e you to do: 1. Read each question c a r e f u l l y and answer i t as honestly as you can. 2. Add your comments and suggestions i n the space provided i f you f e e l c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s needed. 3. Place the completed questionnaire i n the self-addressed, pre-stamped envelope provided. You need not sign or write your name but please write the name of your school i n the space provided on the envelope i n order to help us follow-up unreturned questionnaires. When a l l the envelopes are i n they w i l l be destroyed and your possible i d e n t i t y with i t . From that point on complete anonymity i s guaranteed. Your cooperation i s greatly appreciated. Sincerely, A P P E N D I X D COVER LETTER TO SUPERINTENDENTS THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 WESBROOK MALL 139 VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION March 1977 Dear Superintendent: We need your help i n tr y i n g to f i n d out how extensive c e r t a i n problems and teaching practices are i n the area of Chem 11 and Chem 12 i n th i s province. Discussions with chemistry teachers i n workshops, conferences, and schools suggest that some serious d i f f i c u l t i e s are being encountered and that the teachers are meeting these problems i n ways that are creating unnecessary hardships for them. Attached to th i s l e t t e r i s a questionnaire intended for Chem 11 and Chem 12 teachers which i d e n t i f i e s the problems and practices teachers seem to be concerned about. Would you help us do th i s study by sending us a note of authorization to carry out th i s survey i n the senior secondary school(s) i n your d i s t r i c t ? The survey r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d p r i m a r i l y to science education depart-ments i n the four u n i v e r s i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia for use i n t h e i r science teaching methods courses, and to the Chemistry Revision Committee of the Ministry of Education i n V i c t o r i a . Of course, you would also receive a copy of our f i n a l report. We f e e l this information would provide a good base for making curriculum decisions about Chem 11 and Chem 12. We plan to conduct the survey as unobtrusively as po s s i b l e . A l e t t e r w i l l be sent to the p r i n c i p a l s giving your authorization for the study, explaining the purpose and importance of the survey, and request to d i s t r i b u t e the questionnaire(s) and covering l e t t e r to the Chem 11 and CheiiL-12 teachers i n th e i r schools (or to science department heads for d i s t r i b u t i o n to the teachers). The chemistry teachers w i l l be asked to complete the questionnaire and to return i t to us v i a a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Complete anonymity of the teachers i s guaranteed. We are only interested i n group data. Your cooperation i n authorizing t h i s study would be very much appreciated. I f you have any advice on a better way to get th i s information or to insure that we get maximum cooperation from the teachers, please l e t us know. Sincerely, A P P E N D I X E COVER LETTER TO PRINCIPALS THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N March 1977 Dear P r i n c i p a l : In the i n t e r e s t of improving the teaching of Chem 11 and Chem 12 i n B.C. Schools would you please give us your help for a few minutes? In response to i s o l a t e d discussions with teachers about some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s they are experiencing i n teaching the present CHEM Study program, and the ways i n which they are modifying or supplementing i t to meet the problems encountered, we have prepared the attached questionnaire to determine how extensive these problems and practices are throughout the Province. The superintendent has authorized us to administer the questionnaire to the Chemistry 11 and 12 teachers i n your school. The questionnaire i s ultimately intended to provide information for making recommendations to those concerned with r e v i s i n g and improving the program and to those charged with the task of preparing new teachers to teach i t . Here i s what we would l i k e you to do: 1. Please give a copy of the questionnaire, cover l e t t e r , and return envelope to each Chem 11 and Chem 12 teacher i n your school. 2. Ask the teachers to f i l l out the questionnaire as soon as possible and return i t as directed i n the cover l e t t e r . Complete anonymity of the teachers i s guaranteed. We are only interested i n group data. Your cooperation i s greatly appreciated. Sincerely, A P P E N D I X F TEACHERS' COMMENTS 143 APPENDIX F TEACHERS' COMMENTS F . l Semester-System There i s a b i t o f a r u s h i n the semester to f i n i s h o f f the c o u r s e i n the p r o p e r time. Semestral Chem 12 i s d i f f i c u l t . Changing to semester system reduced the time o f the c o u r s e to about 75% o f what i t was used t o be. P a r t s o f the experiments a r e a b r i d g e d o r m o d i f i e d so t h a t I can complete the c o u r s e w i t h i n one semester. The D i s c o v e r y method i s too slow f o r the time a l l o c a t e d on our semester system. Time a v a i l a b l e per semester does not a l l o w us to c o v e r a d e q u a t e l y b o t h Chem 11 and 12. We have t o l e a v e o u t a number o f e x p e r i m e n t s which we f e e l s h o u l d be done. We a l s o reduce amount o f time s p e n t on some t o p i c s so t h a t they are n o t a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r e d . The c o u r s e s h o u l d not be s e m e s t e r e d . We have r e l a t i v e l y fewer p e r i o d s (though l o n g e r p e r i o d s ) under the semester p l a n . F.2 Time f o r the Course Course c o n t e n t i s too g r e a t f o r time a l l o c a t e d . To c o v e r the c o u r s e i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 95 hours w i t h t e s t i n g , I am o b l i g e d to s k i p most o f the l a b s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . I t would be d e s i r a b l e t o p r o v i d e more ex p e r i m e n t s b u t I do n o t have time. I c a n ' t even get a l l the p r e s c r i b e d l a b s done. 144 I found the 50 minute p e r i o d s too s h o r t , the 60 minutes are j u s t about r i g h t f o r most s i t u a t i o n s . Too much m a t e r i a l to be a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r e d i n the time a v a i l a b l e f o r both Chem 11 and Chem 12. Lack o f time i f e n t i r e c o u r s e i s to be c o v e r e d . Very l i t t l e time to c o v e r a n y t h i n g e x t r a . Lab i s a v a i l a b l e , but time does n o t a l l o w f o r as much l a b work as I would l i k e t o see the s t u d e n t s do. There i s enough time t o c o v e r the c o u r s e a d e q u a t e l y , p r o v i d e d the s t u d e n t s a r e c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g the c o u r s e . I f i n d t h a t some l a b work has t o be o m i t t e d i n o r d e r to f i n i s h t he c o u r s e e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the s c h o l a r s h i p s t u d e n t s . Cannot c o v e r the c o u r s e and do any more l a b s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . F.3 School L a b o r a t o r y Our l a b o r a t o r i e s were b u i l t p r i o r to 1960 and a r e not s u i t e d f o r 30 s t u d e n t s d o i n g l a b o r a t o r y work. No fume hood a v a i l a b l e . Lack o f l a b a s s i s t a n c e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a problem. Lab has a n o t h e r t e a c h e r and c l a s s i n when I want to p r e p a r e . Moving equipment from one l a b t o a n o t h e r i s my problem. S i n c e the e n r o l l m e n t i n Chem 11 and Chem 12 i n our s c h o o l i s small (7-10 s t u d e n t s i n each c o u r s e ) both c l a s s e s a r e h e l d i n the same room a t the same time. T h i s poses a b i g problem i n p l a n n i n g l e s s o n s and e x p e r i m e n t s . So i t i s not t h a t the number o f s t u d e n t s which i s the problem but the f a c t t h a t two groups a r e t r y i n g to do d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a t the same time. No d e m o n s t r a t i o n c o u n t e r p r o v i d e d , fume hood does not work and room temperature may go up t o o v e r 30°C i n hot weather. For d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t h e r e are no water, e l e c t r i c a l o r gas o u t l e t s o r s u f f i c i e n t room between the f r o n t row and the b l a c k b o a r d to f a c i l i t a t e a p r o p e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n . Inadequate t r a i n i n g i n f i r s t a i d . 145 F.4 CHEM Study F i l m s We do not use f i l m s . The s c h o o l d i s t r i c t never bought them. There i s no governmental s u b s i d y f o r f i l m s . They a r e e x p e n s i v e and must be s h a r e d among s c h o o l s . I cannot answer q u e s t i o n s about f i l m s because we o n l y have few f i l m s . Though the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f the f i l m s a r e i n . the d i s t r i c t , t h e y have been damaged beyond r e p a i r and have not been r e p a i r e d f o r two y e a r s . P u t t i n g f i l m s on v i d e o t a p e s and keeping tapes w i t h i n the s c h o o l would seem t o be the answer to the problem. C o s t o f r e n t a l i s h i g h and g e t t i n g them.to f i t i n t o the time sequence i s d i f f i c u l t . Showing f i l m s i s a l u x u r y i f t h e y come i n . We d i d s e l e c t b u y i n g . More f i l m s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e i n the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . We use 4-7 f i l m s w i t h Chem 11 d u r i n g the semester. They a r e g e n e r a l l y good. F i l m s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s not p r o v i d e d . The t e a c h e r s must d r i v e t o the l i b r a r y (about 8 m i l e s ) to get the f i l m s and d r i v e back to r e t u r n them. F i l m s have never been a v a i l a b l e when needed, hence I stopped a s k i n g f o r them. Some a r e not so good anyhow. F i l m s a r e e x c e l l e n t . I s h o u l d l i k e to have more o f them. We have t h e s e f i l m s l i s t e d as e s s e n t i a l , and I f i n d them q u i t e u s e f u l . I would a l s o l i k e t o have t h e s e l i s t e d as d e s i r a b l e . F i l m s a r e e x p e n s i v e t o buy and d i f f i c u l t t o borrow o r r e n t when needed. F i l m s go o v e r p o i n t s too f a s t . G e n e r a l l y t h e y a re good, but a b i t too d i f f i c u l t f o r s t u d e n t s to un d e r s t a n d . They a r e too p e d a n t i c - - t h e y bore s t u d e n t s . Some f i l m s a r e not ver y meaningful t o the c l a s s e.g., a c i d - b a s e i n d i c a t o r s . F i l m s a r e e x c e l l e n t . Even the s t u d e n t s t h i n k they a r e worth-w h i l e . F i l m s a re adequate i n i n t r o d u c i n g c o n c e p t s . N a r r a t o r ' s v o i c e i s mellow, monotone and i t i s v e r y easy to d r i f t away. Music and more s t i m u l a t i n g photography add a g r e a t deal to t h e s e f i l m s , which a re g e n e r a l l y b o r i n g . Some f i l m s a r e too d i f f i c u l t o r do not show t h e o r y t h a t w e l l . F i l m s a r e unders t o o d by v e r y c a p a b l e s t u d e n t s o n l y . S t i f f — u p t i g h t format and too c l i n i c a l . Too much m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d i n too s h o r t a ti m e . Chem 12 f i l m s a r e b e t t e r than Chem 11 f i l m s . F i l m s a r e too narrow i n o u t l o o k . Some f i l m s waste too much time to make a l i t t l e p o i n t . F.5 CHEM Study Text-Book Wrong q u e s t i o n s were asked about the t e x t . (a) r e a d i n g l e v e l too d i f f i c u l t f o r s t u d e n t s (b) i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s i n a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n e d (c) u n s u i t a b l e t e x t f o r independent (home) s t u d y . The t e x t - b o o k i s not b o r i n g o r longwinded so much as too t e c h n i c a l I t r e q u i r e s too hi g h a r e a d i n g l e v e l . I t s h o u l d a l s o c o n t a i n more s o l v e d problems. The t e x t - b o o k i s f a r too i n t e l l e c t u a l . The s t u d e n t s need s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d communication. S t u d e n t s r e a d t he t e x t v e r y l i t t l e . 147 Many s t u d e n t s f i n d the t e x t v e r y d i f f i c u l t to u n d e r s t a n d . There a r e few worked-out examples. The t e x t i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r many Chem 11 s t u d e n t s to u n d e r s t a n d . Note p a r t i c u l a r l y C h a p t e r 2. Even the problems i n the t e x t cannot be u n d e r s t o o d u n l e s s e x p l a i n e d . The wording i s too t e c h n i c a l . T e x t i s v i r t u a l l y u s e l e s s . The q u e s t i o n s and problems a r e poor. The p r e s e n t CHEM Study t e x t i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r the average s t u d e n t to r e a d and comprehend. A more r e a d a b l e t e x t - b o o k would make l i f e e a s i e r and would be more i n t e r e s t i n g to a l l o f us. The use o f any one t e x t - b o o k i n s c i e n c e i s u n d e s i r a b l e . A b e t t e r t e x t i s needed. We use i t v e r y l i t t l e . O v e r a l l the CHEM Study t e x t - b o o k i s a good one and o f f e r s more than newly s u g g e s t e d books. M a t e r i a l s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y too d i f f i c u l t , b ut t e x t p r e s e n t s some i d e a s and c o n c e p t s i n a v e r y poor manner. We use i t r a r e l y i n Chem 11. The b a s i c c o n c e p t s a r e v e r y o f t e n w e l l c o n c e a l e d i n the meandering wordy way i n which f a i r l y s i m p l e i d e a s a r e approached. The s t u d e n t s seem to d e v e l o p a vagueness about what they have r e a d . From t h i s a g r e a t deal o f u n c e r t a i n t y ensues. We use the t e x t and l a b manual v e r y T i t t l e . We use a s e r i e s o f 13 l e a r n i n g packages. These packages a r e c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g r e v i s e d , up-dated and added t o . We do n o t need a text--new o r o l d o r o t h e r w i s e . The CHEM Study m a t e r i a l s o r g a n i z e d i n t o t e x t - b o o k , manual f o r e x p e r i m e n t s and t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e a r e a g r e a t h e l p f o r the t e a c h e r s and save him hours and hours o f work i n t h e n i g h t . The t e x t - b o o k i s used as an o u t l i n e o f the c o u r s e and as a supplement to l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l s . A more r e a d a b l e t e x t would be b e t t e r . P r o v i d i n g some notes and e x t e n s i v e e x e r c i s e s i s n o r m a l l y done by any t e a c h e r no matter what program i s o f f e r e d . 1 Notes on b l a c k b o a r d a r e p r o v i d e d r e g u l a r l y , but o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y m i n e o g r a p h i c a l notes used. The q u e s t i o n s and problems i n the CHEM Study t e x t a r e not used. T e x t i s v e r y poor on problems, I p r o v i d e many e x e r c i s e s h e e t s . CHEM Study does not have n e a r l y enough good problems and q u e s t i o n s . F.6 The D i s c o v e r y Approach The d i s c o v e r y method has i t s advantages i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , but to use i t s o l e l y i s r i d i c u l o u s . Most s t u d e n t s t a k i n g c h e m i s t r y do n o t have the i n i t i a t i v e nor the a b i l i t y to d i s c o v e r a l l f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Experiments a r e o f t e n too l o n g and complex t o be u s e f u l f o r the d i s c o v e r y . S t u d e n t s g e t bogged down i n c a l c u l a t i o n s and o f t e n miss the p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d . D i s c o v e r y does not w o r k — C o n f u s i n g . For some l a b s d i s c o v e r y i s the b e s t method, but f o r many l a b s I f e e l i t i s not s u i t a b l e and s t u d e n t s b e n e f i t more i f they have some o r most o f the t h e o r y f i r s t . Many o f the d i s c o v e r y experiments j u s t c o n f u s e many s t u d e n t s , s i n c e t h e y do not see what the experiment i s g e t t i n g a t . A small p e r c e n t o f the d i s c o v e r y examples have some v a l u e . I do n o t w h o l e h e a r t e d l y endorse i t . Demonstrations a r e more v a l u a b l i n some c a s e s . S t u d e n t s f i n d the d i s c o v e r y method v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g and d i f f i c u l t . The d i s c o v e r y method i s a good method as l o n g as i t i s n o t used e x c l u s i v e l y . Too slow. Many never r e a c h t he ' d i s c o v e r y ' . The d i s c o v e r y approach seems to be s u c c e s s f u l i f the s t u d e n t does ' d i s c o v e r ' . U s u a l l y t h i s method i s s u p e r i o r f o r above-average s t u d e n t s but u n s u c c e s s f u l f o r p o o r e r ones. 149 A s t r a i g h t d i s c o v e r y i s a waste o f time. The d i s c o v e r y method i s too time consuming. I am q u e s t i o n n i n g the v a l u e o f the d i s c o v e r y method w i t h the s t u d e n t s o f today. I r e c e i v e much b e t t e r r e s p o n s e as t o c o n c e p t r e c e p t i o n when the ex p e r i m e n t r e i n f o r c e t h e o r y t a u g h t b e f o r e h a n d . The most i n a p p r o p r i a t e method a t the grade 11 and 12 l e v e l i n t h a t t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y asked t o d i s c o v e r f a c t s t h e y know from p a s t s c i e n c e c o u r s e s , e s p e c i a l l y the good s t u d e n t s . I t i s the s l o w e s t way o f l e a r n i n g c h e m i s t r y . S t u d e n t s l a c k m a t u r i t y to comprehend r e a s o n s f o r experiments o r even to f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s . The D i s c o v e r y approach f o r l a b s i s f i n e where the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d are f a i r l y s i m p l e and not o b s c u r e . Such i s not the case i n about 50% o f the Chem 11 and 12 l a b s . A l s o many l a b r e s u l t s a r e not dependable enough t o use as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the p r i n c i p l e s . When sma l l c l a s s e s a r e i n v o l v e d , even the c l a s s average i s not dependable enough to use as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the p r i n c i p l e s and some o f the l a b s g i v e c o n s i s t e n t l y m i s l e a d i n g r e s u l t s , which may be e x p l a i n e d by u n c e r t a i n t y , but not when e v e r y c l a s s e v e r y y e a r f i n d s the same r e s u l t s . F.7 L a b o r a t o r y Manual's Experiments Experiments a re too l o n g and too few. Too much t h e o r y to be c o v e r e d t o a l l o w time f o r many l a b s we would 1 i ke to do. Most o f the experiments i n Chem 12 a r e too l o n g (2 p e r i o d s ) and the knowledge g a i n e d from them i s not worth the time s p e n t on them. The e x p e r i m e n t s r e p r e s e n t t o o many c o n c e p t s a t one time. Many o f the l a b s t a k e too l o n g to do. They s h o u l d be s h o r t e n e d to encompass one p e r i o d f o r p r o c e d u r e , answering q u e s t i o n s , c a l c u l a t i o n s , e t c . as f a r as p o s s i b l e . There a r e too few l a b experiments e s p e c i a l l y f o r Chem 11. More ex p e r i m e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r Chem 11 and on g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f them. 150 Too many l a b s i n Chem 12. Most ex p e r i m e n t s a r e o f a t h e o r e t i c a l academic n a t u r e r a t h e r than p r a c t i c a l . Many l a b s p r e s c r i b e d r e q u i r e d more time than a l l o w e d , o t h e r w i s e would t u r n i n t o cook-book l a b s . Many experiments a r e too l o n g , s t r e t c h i n g o v e r s e v e r a l days. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to s t u d e n t s to see o v e r a l l view. They spend too much time i n the w r i t e - u p . I am f o r a l a b - o r i e n t e d c o u r s e , experiments c o u l d never i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e o r y . F.8 Mathematical S k i l l s In many c a s e s s t u d e n t s are unable to do the math r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s o r to r e a d q u e s t i o n s a c c u r a t e l y . The math i s the most s e r i o u s problem a t a l l . The g r e a t e s t h i n d r a n c e to most s t u d e n t s i n CHEM Study i s t h e i r poor mathematical background and a b i l i t y . Below average s t u d e n t s cannot handle the c a l c u l a t i o n s and the q u e s t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w the e x p e r i m e n t s . They a r e j u s t beyond t h e i r r e a c h . S t u d e n t s have problems w i t h r e a d i n g problems t o a n a l y z e what i s r e q u i r e d o f them. St u d e n t s who have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h Chem 11 u s u a l l y have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h problem s o l v i n g . They seem to have a poor background i n a r i t h m e t i c . They have t r o u b l e i n w o r k i n g w i t h numbers. T h i s i s not a problem o f CHEM Study however. The average Chem 11 s t u d e n t makes h i s e r r o r s i n the math. We s h o u l d be u s i n g c h e m i s t r y to d e v e l o p h i s math a b i l i t y . S t u d e n t s l a c k math s k i l l s , t h e y a r e unable to s o l v e problems o r to i n t e r p r e t e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s . I t e a c h a l g e b r a and problem s o l v i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r Grade 11 and l o g s f o r Grade 12. Math s k i l l s must be t a u g h t (by the s c i e n c e t e a c h e r ) . 151 I b e l i e v e t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d and mastered by t he s t u d e n t a t Chem 12 l e v e l . The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d a t l e a s t be made aware o f the ± n o t a t i o n , even though they might not be a b l e t o master the s k i l l s p e r t a i n i n g t o the co m p u t a t i o n s . E r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s and s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s s h o u l d be both used. To h i t the s t u d e n t w i t h the u n c e r t a i n t y e r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s i n the f i r s t month o f an i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e i s b r u t a l t o many average s t u d e n t s . U n c e r t a i n t y c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e a b i t too s u b t l e and complex a t a s t a g e when more fundamental c o n c e p t s s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d . E r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be w i t h i n t h e i r g r a s p , but th e y a r e un n e c e s s a r y a t t h i s l e v e l . E r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e too much time consuming. E r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s a re too t e d i o u s . A l t h o u g h I use u n c e r t a i n t y i n two l a b s , I am not t o t a l l y c o n v i n c e d o f i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to Chem 11. In many cases e r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e not too d i f f i c u l t , but they take too much time w h i l e s t u d e n t s do the a r i t h m e t i c . Weak s t u d e n t s do b e t t e r i f a l l o w e d t o use e l e c t r o n i c c a l c u l a t o r s . C a l c u l a t o r s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d i n s c h o l a r s h i p exams. C a l c u l a t o r s may be a l l o w e d , but I f e e l s l i d e r u l e s a r e b e t t e r t o get a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f numbers, s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s , and approximate answers. C a l c u l a t o r s s h o u l d not be p e r m i t t e d . When the s t u d e n t s t u r n on the c a l c u l a t o r they t u r n o f f t h e i r minds. They may use c a l c u l a t o r s to d i v i d e by 2 o r t o m u l t i p l y by 10. Not u s i n g them s h o u l d s t i m u l a t e b e t t e r grasp o f b a s i c a r i t h m e t i c which i s not w e l l u n d e r s t o o d by some s t u d e n t s . U s i n g the s l i d e - r u l e i s an i m p o r t a n t s k i l l t h a t h e l p s to approximate f i g u r e s and g i v e s a b e t t e r f e e l i n g o f co m p u t a t i o n s . 152 F.9 F o r m u l a e — E q u a t i o n s W r i t i n g We must put more emphasis on w r i t i n g chemical f o r m u l a e and naming compounds than suggested by CHEM Study. The s t u d e n t s a r e becoming c h e m i c a l l y i l l i t e r a t e . CHEM Study does not s t r e s s e q u a t i o n w r i t i n g nor problem s o l v i n g . Does not m a t t e r - - w e t e a c h i t anyhow. I f i n d Chem 11 so l a c k i n g i n the b a s i c c h e m i s t r y language (Symbols, f o r m u l a s and b a l a n c i n g e q u a t i o n s ) . W r i t i n g f o r m u l a s and e q u a t i o n b a l a n c i n g s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n Grades 9 and 10. F.10 I n d u s t r i a l A p p l i c a t i o n s Do you mean t h a t we s h o u l d r e t u r n to t e a c h i n g i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i s t r y ? Do I want t o tea c h c h e m i s t r y o r che m i c a l t e c h n o l o g y ? There w i l l n ot be enough time t o s t u d y i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o r d a i l y use e x c e p t i n the most c a u s a l and a n e c d o t a l form. F.l1 Everyday C h e m i s t r y Modern a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e a l m o s t d a i l y i n y o u r d a i l y news-paper. I would l i k e to have more l a b s r e l a t e d to e v e r y d a y l i f e . E n v i r o n m e n t a l c h e m i s t r y ( a i r and water p o l l u t i o n ) , f o o d , drugs and new t e c h n o l o g y need to be added to make the c o u r s e dynamic. The p r e s e n t c o u r s e does not (a) p r o v i d e enough examples and q u e s t i o n s f o r s o l v i n g t y p i c a l chemical problems, (b) g i v e the s t u d e n t an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f everyday c h e m i s t r y , such as the c h e m i s t r y o f c o s m e t i c s , f e r t i l i z e r s , common compounds and c h e m i c a l s used i n home and i n d u s t r y . 153 Some t o p i c s such as p o l l u t i o n , n u t r i t i o n , p e s t i c i d e s , k i t c h e n c h e m i s t r y and medical c h e m i s t r y s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . Why not s e t t l e t h e s e a r t s - c r a f t s i n d u s t r y — e v e r y d a y c h e m i s t r y v e r s u s pure c h e m i s t r y d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n by s u p p l y i n g a n o t h e r c o u r s e t o handle the a p p l i e d s t u f f ? F.12 H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l s H i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be b u i l t i n t o the t e x t r a t h e r than b i o g r a p h i c a l and s e p a r a t e from t he c h a p t e r s . No more h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s p l e a s e ! L i t t l e i s enough. We have enough h i s t o r y w i t h i n the time a v a i l a b l e f o r the c o u r s e . The l i b r a r y s h o u l d have good s o u r c e s on h i s t o r i c a l background i n s t e a d o f the te x t - b o o k h a v i n g both c h e m i s t r y and h i s t o r y . T h i s p r o v i d e s a good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s t o make use o f the l i b r a r y . F.13 Course M o d i f i c a t i o n s S o r r y , I have never r e a l l y t a u g h t the Chem 11 c o u r s e a c c o r d i n g to o u t l i n e . Two t e a c h e r s d e v e l o p e d a good c o u r s e . I have h e l p e d m o d i f y i n g i t a b i t . I do n o t know anymore what the o r i g i n a l c o u r s e l o o k s l i k e . I have not r i g o r o u s l y f o l l o w e d Chem 11 c u r r i c u l u m , but I do f o l l o w r i g o r o u s l y the Chem 12 c u r r i c u l u m . I add m o l a r i t y , n o r m a l i t y , e q u i v a l e n t w e i g h t and i d e a l gas e q u a t i o n (PV = nRT) and e x t r a problems. Do not i s s u e t he t e x t - b o o k o r lab-manual. I f i n d t h a t the use o f the lab-manual promote the cook-book approach. E l i m i n a t e many experiments f o r l a c k o f time. The c o u r s e may be made s u i t a b l e by o t h e r a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . 154 We have m o d i f i e d the sequence o f the c o u r s e to a l l o w s t u d e n t s to a d j u s t more g r a d u a l l y to the l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y . Out o f t h e t e n ex p e r i m e n t s done t o d a t e f i v e have been my own and f i v e from the CHEM Study l a b manual. Only few m o d i f i c a t i o n s to ex p e r i m e n t s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f some problems to be e n c o u n t e r e d . I have a tendency to l e a v e o u t many o f Chem 12 e x p e r i m e n t s . I p r e f e r l a b s t o be c o v e r e d i n one p e r i o d and thus m o d i f y some o f the e x i s t i n g and add some more. I omit some e x p e r i m e n t s . E x p l a i n o n l y some experiments ahead o f time. Simple e x p e r i m e n t s done b e f o r e knowing the t h e o r y can l e a d the s t u d e n t t o f i n d the t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n . Labs c o n t a i n too many c o n c e p t s i n each one. D i r e c t i o n s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l i c i t when s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m the l a b . Demonstrations a r e performed p r i n c i p a l l y to c o n s e r v e time and t o e n a b l e s t u d e n t s to u n d e r s t a n d t he experiment b e t t e r ( q u e s t i o n n i n g i s done d u r i n g the d e m o n s t r a t i o n ) . S t u d e n t s f i n d i t m e a n i n g f u l . Some t h e o r y t a u g h t b e f o r e l a b s g i v e a b e t t e r c o n c e p t u a l approach f o r the s t u d e n t . I e x p l a i n e x p e r i m e n t s ahead o f time when I f e e l t h a t the s t u d e n t w i l l not see the aim o f the exp e r i m e n t . I o n l y e x p l a i n p a r t s o f the ex p e r i m e n t w i t h which the average s t u d e n t would have d i f f i c u l t y . Chem 12 s t u d e n t s u s u a l l y complain t h a t they do n o t un d e r s t a n d the experiments u n t i l I have e x p l a i n e d them. I e x p l a i n about 5-7 o f t h e ex p e r i m e n t s ahead o f t i m e . I a l s o hand o u t h e l p f u l h i n t s on the ex p e r i m e n t s c l a r i f y i n g p r o c e d u r e s and q u e s t i o n s . 155 F.14 General Comments The major problems I e n c o u n t e r w i t h Chem 11 a r e : (a) l a c k o f time to c o v e r the c o u r s e l e t a l o n e p r o v i d e e n r i c h -ment. I would v e r y much l i k e t o p r o v i d e supplementary l a b s and o t h e r t y p e s o f a s s i g n m e n t s . (b) C h a p t e r 4 f a r too d i f f i c u l t f o r most s t u d e n t s . (c) T e x t does not a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n the t h e o r y . (d) Course aimed a t those p r o c e e d i n g t o u n i v e r s i t y ; a non-academic s t u d e n t would be c o m p l e t e l y b a f f l e d . (e) Perhaps Chem 11 c o u l d be made l e s s d e t a i l e d . Leave some o f the c o n c e p t s f o r the 12 l e v e l ( C h a p t e r 4 e s p e c i a l l y ) . Keep Chem 12 a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . ( f ) I do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t much l o n g term l e a r n i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n the rush o f the semester system. The s t u d e n t s would l e a r n a l o t more i f they had time to absorb i t . CHEM Study i s O.K. f o r u n i v e r s i t y o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s , b ut not f o r o t h e r s who want more d e s c r i p t i v e and consumer c h e m i s t r y . The p r e s e n t day average s t u d e n t i s l e s s a b l e to a n a l y z e a problem on a s u b s t a n t i a t e d b a s i s than the e a r l i e r s t u d e n t s . CHEM Study i s b a s i c a l l y a good c o u r s e . However, s t u d e n t s do n o t f i n d the t e x t r e a d a b l e . In my o p i n i o n s c i e n c e 10 needs a more complete r e v i s i o n than Chem 11 o r 12. Perhaps making c h e m i s t r y a t h r e e - y e a r program (as i n A l b e r t a ) would be the answer to the problem o f not h a v i n g enough time t o complete the p r e s e n t c o u r s e s . CHEM Study i s too wordy when i t s h o u l d be mathematical and too mathe-m a t i c a l when i t s h o u l d be p i c t o r i a l o r g r a p h i c a l . I f i n d CHEM Study a good c o u r s e f o r the s t u d e n t s who a r e b e t t e r than the a v e r a g e . I t c h a l l e n g e s the s t u d e n t s to l e a r n b a s i c c o n c e p t s about c h e m i s t r y . I t p r e p a r e s them f o r c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y . The CHEM Study approach i s not s u i t a b l e f o r an i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e i n c h e m i s t r y . A good c o u r s e s h o u l d i n my o p i n i o n emphasize the importance and a p p l i c a t i o n o f c h e m i s t r y i n d a i l y l i f e . CHEM Study c o u r s e i s too t h e o r e t i c a l . Some s e n i o r c h e m i s t r y s h o u l d be taken by a l l s t u d e n t s . There s h o u l d be an a l t e r n a t i v e c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e o f f e r e d a t s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l f o r n o n - u n i v e r s i t y bound p u p i l s . However CHEM Study s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d f o r the u n i v e r s i t y bound. 156 While the t e x t - b o o k i t s e l f i s d i f f i c u l t to use f o r the average s t u d e n t , I am t o t a l l y opposed to any r e v i s i o n t h a t waterdown the g e n e r a l c o n t e n t and s p i r i t o f CHEM Study. P r e s e n t Sc 10 c o u r s e does not a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r Chem 11. The Chem 11 and 12 c o u r s e s a r e not f o r the average s t u d e n t . Both Chem 11 and Chem 12 a r e e x c e l l e n t c o u r s e s , but too many s t u d e n t s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Chem 11 have r e c e i v e d u n r e a l i s t i c grades i n Sc. 8, 9, and 10 and cannot u n d e r s t a n d (a) why Chem 11 r e q u i r e s so much work, and (b) why t h e i r Chem 11 grades a r e so much lower. Most s t u d e n t s can cope w i t h Chem 11, though may f i n d the problems too d i f f i c u l t . In g e n e r a l CHEM Study problems a r e too d i f f i c u l t . B a s i c a l l y Chem 11 i s a v e r y good c o u r s e t h a t c h a l l e n g e s the s t u d e n t s . With the e f f o r t most o f them a r e c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g the c o u r s e (from f a i r to v e r y good). Many Chem 11 s t u d e n t s a r e t e r m i n a l . No more c h e m i s t r y beyond t h i s p o i n t i s a n t i c i p a t e d . We need a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e ( s ) f o r them. We can s t i l l be r i g o r o u s . I am not a d v o c a t i n g a mickey-mouse o r a water-down CHEM Study. I f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t CHEM Study i s a good c o u r s e . Problems encoun-t e r e d r e s u l t from the l a c k o f r i g o u r i n math p r e p a r a t i o n . Perhaps a l s o from the s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c o n c e p t t h a t d i f f i c l u t problems s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , r a t h e r than c h a l l e n g e d . CHEM Study was never i n t e n d e d f o r the average s t u d e n t . B.C. a d o p t i o n o f i t i m p l i e s t h a t Chem 11 and 12 a r e t o be a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . T h i s i s not wrong, but c e r t a i n l y o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d l o c a l l y . The c o u r s e ' s c o n t e n t i s good. More time s o l v e the d i f f i c u l t y . CHEM Study i s o n l y a problem f o r the t e a c h e r s who do n o t tea c h c h e m i s t r y as a major s u b j e c t and who do not und e r s t a n d c o n c e p t s and approach o f the t e x t . The c o u r s e i s v e r y good e x c e p t i t does not emphasize ev e r y d a y a p p l i c a t i o n . The c o u r s e c o n t e n t i s too t h e o r e t i c a l . Most s t u d e n t s cannot cope s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h Chem 11. I f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t a l e s s r i g o r o u s c o u r s e s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o more s t u d e n t s . My n i g h t s c h o o l i s g e t t i n g l a r g e r by s t u d e n t s p i c k i n g up Chem 11 t h a t t h e y have missed i n day s c h o o l . We get many weak s t u d e n t s but the Chem 11 c o u r s e i s e f f e c t i v e i n s e c u r i n g the s t u d e n t s who s h o u l d not ta k e Chem 12. They do not take i t , even i f they pass Chem 11. Chem 12 i s t o d i f f i c u l t f o r the average s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t , but not f o r thos e who a c t u a l l y e n r o l l i n the c o u r s e . Chem 12 i s not d i f f i c u l t because i t i s o f f e r e d t o a s e l e c t group o f s t u d e n t s . 

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