UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Regional recreation policy plan development Neilson, John Fergus Andrew 1977

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1977_A8 N45.pdf [ 7.8MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094347.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094347-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094347-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094347-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094347-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094347-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094347-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094347-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094347.ris

Full Text

REGIONAL RECREATION POLICY PLAN DEVELOPMENT by John Fergus Andrew N e i l son B.A. Nottingham U n i v e r s i t y 1970 P o s t g r a d u a t e Diploma. U n i v e r s i t y o f E a s t A n g l i a 1 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF CEMENTS FOR THE MASTER OF ARTS THE REQUIREM THE DEGREE OF i n THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conf o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1977 (o) John Fergus Andrew Neilson 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date i ABSTRACT REGIONAL RECREATION POLICY PLAN DEVELOPMENT The r e c r e a t i o n a l environment o f the Thompson P l a t e a u i n s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n q u a l i t y . Demands f o r out d o o r r e c r e a t i o n space and f a c i l i t i e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g ; p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t o f r a p i d l y growing l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s and i n c r e a s i n g i n f l o w s o f both d e s t i n a t i o n s e e k i n g and t r a n s i e n t v a c a t i o n e e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , contemporary p o l i c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements seem to be d e c r e a s i n g l y c a p a b l e o f managing the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h i s a r e a . As a re s p o n s e t o thes e problems the t h e s i s d e v e l o p s a p o l i c y p l a n f o r p a r t o f the Thompson P l a t e a u . I t f o c u s e s on l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n s i n c e t h i s i s the p r i m a r y r e c r e a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n o f the a r e a . The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p o l i c y p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d . S p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n a r e d e f i n e d and then a p p l i e d i n a c r i t i q u e o f c u r r e n t management approaches u s i n g f i e l d s t u d y and p u b l i s h e d d a t a on the e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m - i t s p a s t t r e n d s , i t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s and p o s s i b l e f u t u r e . As an a l t e r n a t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h e d management i n s t i t u t i o n s and t e c h n i q u e s , t h r e e p o l i c y p l a n s a r e p r e s e n t e d . Each p o l i c y p l a n i s c o n s i d e r e d and judged i n the l i g h t o f the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n . A p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n i s chosen, w i t h due acknowledgement g i v e n t o the a u t h o r ' s b i a s e s , and a p p l i e d to the l a k e s system i n the st u d y a r e a . In a d d i t i o n , f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements f o r r e g i o n a l management a r e d e s c r i b e d and e v a l u a t e d . The a l t e r n a t i v e chosen from i i amongst the f o u r was t h a t c o n s i d e r e d to be most c a p a b l e o f e f f e c t i v e l y managing the s t u d y a r e a r e c r e a t i o n a l system i n l i g h t o f e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r e n g t h s , c o n s t r a i n t s and b i a s e s . T h i s p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e would demand a permanent chairman, s u p p o r t e d by a small s e c r e t a r i a t , who would have m a n a g e r i a l r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y , on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , f o r a committee t h a t i n c l u d e d t h o s e government o f f i c e r s i n charge o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a g e n c i e s ' r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . A l s o i n v o l v e d on the committee would be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the commercial r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r and s p o r t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s . The p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n l a y s emphasis on two major p o i n t s . F i r s t l y , the p r o v i s i o n o f t h r e e r e c r e a t i o n zone types w i t h i n one r e c -r e a t i o n a l environment: 1. Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones; 2. Mid-range A t t r a c t i o n Zones; 3. Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zones. The c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e zones would imp l y the assignment o f s p e c i f i c use l e v e l r a t i n g s i n each zone, and hence, s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t d i f f e r e n t l a k e s i n the s t u d y a r e a . T h e i r e x i s t e n c e would e n a b l e the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a w i d e r range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l demands, the p r o t e c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g l o c a l a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s and the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the more f r a g i l e n a t u r a l environments w i t h i n the s t u d y a r e a . S e c o n d l y , the p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e would de-emphasise c o e r c i v e mechanisms as t o o l s f o r b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l i n the r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l environment. I n s t e a d , a mix o f c o e r c i v e and n o n - c o e r c i v e mechanisms a r e i i i p r e s e n t e d , i n c l u d i n g the c o n c e p t o f a c c e s s m a n i p u l a t i o n , the i d e a t h a t h e a v i l y a d v e r t i s e d Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones would reduce use i n the o t h e r zones and the p o t e n t i a l f o r more e f f i c i e n t manpower u t i l i s a t i o n through the development o f c r o s s - a g e n c y p o l i c i n g powers. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chap t e r s Page One INTRODUCTION 1 S e c t i o n 1.1: T h e s i s O b j e c t i v e s 1 1.2: Problems Statement 2 1.3: C r e a t i o n o f a P o l i c y P l a n 11 1.4: T h e s i s O u t l i n e 12 1.5: F i e l d Study 13 1.6: T h e s i s C o n s t r a i n t s 14 Two DEVELOPMENT OF A POLICY PLAN 16 S e c t i o n 2.1: The P o l i c y P l a n Concept 16 2.2: E s s e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s 17 2.3: Main F e a t u r e s o f the P o l i c y P l a n 21 2.4: C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n 24 2.5: The Role o f the P o l i c y P l a n i n a Lake Based R e c r e a t i o n a l Environment 28 Three RECREATION DEMANDS AND POTENTIALS 33 S e c t i o n 3.1: A n a l y s i s o f Study Area R e c r e a t i o n a l Use and P a s t Trends 33 3.2: A n a l y s i s o f Study Area R e c r e a t i o n P o t e n t i a l s 41 3.3: Tragedy o f t h e Commons 45 Four CURRENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND PROBLEMS 49 S e c t i o n 4.1: C u r r e n t Management Approaches 49 4.2: C r i t i q u e o f C u r r e n t Management Systems. 62 4.3: Problems o f the Study Area R e c r e a t i o n a l Environment 71 F i v e THREE ALTERNATIVE POLICY PLANS 85 S e c t i o n 5.1: I n t r o d u c t i o n 85 5.2: P o l i c y P l a n One: High P r o f i l e Development/Low o r L i m i t e d B e h a v i o u r a l C o n t r o l 87 5.3: P o l i c y P l a n Two: Medium P r o f i l e D e v e l o p m e n t / S i g n i f i c a n t B e h a v i o u r a l C o n t r o l 92 5.4: P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e : Mixed Development Approach/ D i v e r s e B e h a v i o u r a l I n f l u e n c e s 99 5.5: Chapter Summary 111 C h a p t e r s v Page S i x A REGIONAL APPROACH 113 S e c t i o n 6.1: The Concept o f R e g i o n a l i s m 113 6.2: R e g i o n a l Management Format 116 Seven CONCLUSIONS 124 S e c t i o n 7.1: P r e f e r r e d P o l i c y P l a n 124 7.2: A p p l i c a t i o n o f P o l i c y P l a n Three to the Study Area 125 BIBLIOGRAPHY 132 APPENDICES 142 Appendix 1 P o p u l a t i o n Trends 142 Appendix 2 M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n 143 Appendix 3 Timber P r o d u c t i o n 144 Appendix 4 Lake S p e c i f i c I n f o r m a t i o n 145 Appendix 5 S i t e V i s i t Data C o l l e c t i o n Example I S ! Appendix 6 I n t e r v i e w e e s 152 Appendix 8 P r o v i n c i a l Park F a c i l i t i e s 15.3 Appendix 9 Commercial R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s 153 Appendix 10 Highways Department Rest Stops 154 Appendix 11 ' U n i n c o r p o r a t e d ' R e c r e a t i o n Areas 154 Appendix 12 L e t t e r from B.C. Parks Branch 155 v i LIST OF MAPS No. Page 1.1 Study Area D e f i n i t i o n l a 1.2 R e g i o n a l S e t t i n g 2a 1.3 M i n e r a l Resources 5a 1.4 B.C. Hydro T r a n s m i s s i o n System 6a 1.5 P i p e l i n e s 7a 1.6 Average D a i l y T r a f f i c Flows 8a 1.7 D D a i l y T r a f f i c Volumes/ T r a f f i c & V e n i c l e L i c e n c e Trends 9a 3.1 P r o v i n c i a l Parks F a c i l i t i e s 33a 3.2 B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Developments 34a 3.3 , Commercial R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s . 35a 3.4 ^Highways Department Rest Stops 36a 3.5 F i s h and W i l d l i f e S t o c k i n g P r i o r i t y 37a 3.6 F i s h and W i l d l i f e S t o c k i n g L o c a t i o n s 38a 3.7 D P r o v i n c i a l Park A t t e n d a n c e . Camper N i g h t s 39a 3.8 D P r o v i n c i a l Park A t t e n d a n c e . Day V i s i t s . P e r c e n t a g e Change 40a 3.9 P r o v i n c i a l Park A t t e n d a n c e . Use L e v e l s 41a 3.10 B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development-Use L e v e l s 42a 3.11 ' U n i n c o r p o r a t e d ' R e c r e a t i o n Areas 43a 4.1 D Annual R e s i d e n t A n g l e r L i c e n c e Purchases 77a 4.2 D Annual Non R e s i d e n t A n g l e r L i c e n c e Purchases 78a 5.1 Study A r e a Road A c c e s s 88a 7.1 P o l i c y P l a n Three A p p l i c a t i o n to Study Area 127a 7.2 Lakes ' F o l d Out' 131a Note: A l l maps and diagrams e x c e p t Maps 5.1 and 7.1 appeared o r i g i n a l l y i n the "Thompson P l a t e a u R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Study"(B.C. P a r k s . 1976A). Note: Map 7.2 Lakes ' F o l d Out' can be f o l d e d o u t o f t h e main body o f the t e x t f o r easy r e f e r e n c e w h i l e r e a d i n g . Lake numbers i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t a p p l y to the numbers on t h i s map and those i n Appendix 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Tony Dorcey, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , Westwater Research C e n t r e , U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C. F i r s t Reader. M i c h a e l S e e l i g , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C. Second Reader. P e t e r D o o l i n g , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , Department o f F o r e s t r y , U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C. Reader. Jim Anderson, i / c C e n t r a l S e c t i o n , P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , Parks Branch, Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and T r a v e l , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Ken Baker, Mike G a l l and Donna Macey. Parks Branch. 1 CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION S e c t i o n 1.1: T h e s i s O b j e c t i v e s . O b j e c t i v e One: The development o f a p o l i c y p l a n f o r R e c r e a t i o n on t he Thompson P l a t e a u ; an a r e a f o r m i n g p a r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia's I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u Natural'. Region i n which the bulk o f r e c r e a t i o n i s l a k e - o r i e n t e d . O b j e c t i v e Two: The c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the fundamentals o f a p o l i c y p l a n development p r o c e s s , and the c r i t e r i a t h a t c o u l d be used to e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s . O b j e c t i v e Three: The e s t i m a t i o n o f demand l e v e l s f o r v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the Study Area and the p o t e n t i a l o f the ar e a t o s a t i s f y i n c r e a s e d demands i n the f u t u r e . O b j e c t i v e Four: The d e s c r i p t i o n o f c u r r e n t approaches t o r e c -r e a t i o n management w i t h i n t he Study Area and the s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r s u c c e s s i n terms o f s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a . O b j e c t i v e F i v e : The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f p o l i c y p l a n s t h a t might be c o n s i d e r e d and the s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r l i k e l y s u c c e s s i n terms o f the s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a . O b j e c t i v e S i x : The a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n , a l o n g w i t h i t s c o n s t i t u e n t p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and implementary mechanisms, to the Thompson P l a t e a u r e c r e a t i o n a l environment. 1 2 S e c t i o n 1.2: Problems Statement As t h r o u g h o u t North A m e r i c a , r e c r e a t i o n on the Thompson P l a t e a u i s under p r e s s u r e from i n c r e a s i n g and competing demands, and i s t h r e a t e n e d by the p r o s p e c t o f a growing c o n f l i c t between r a p i d l y r i s i n g use l e v e l s and l i m i t e d r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y . The growth o f a v a i l a b l e l e i s u r e time, a reduced work week, more h o l i d a y s and l o n g e r v a c a t i o n s , h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , u r b a n i s a t i o n and an i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d toward expanded l e i s u r e demands. The Thompson P l a t e a u i s h i g h l y exposed t o t h e s e problems, l o c a t e d , as i t i s , a s t r i d e major communications r o u t e s l i n k i n g the P r o v i n c e ' s major p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . Because the a r e a i s so a c c e s s i b l e to the r e c r e a t i n g p u b l i c i t i s s u b j e c t not o n l y to i n c r e a s i n g use, but a l s o a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f uses, not a l l o f which a r e n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p a t i b l e . The Study Area c o n t a i n s no t r u e " W i l d e r n e s s " . I t has been logge d a t one time o r a n o t h e r v i r t u a l l y i n t o t o . I t i s a l s o a major c e n t r e f o r both mining and r a n c h i n g and as a consequence i s c r i s s - c r o s s e d by a dense network o f both s u r f a c e d and u n s u r f a c e d roads (see map 5.1). Because o f t h i s homogeneous ease o f a c c e s s r e c r e a t i o n i s t s may i n d u l g e t h e i r v a r i o u s whims w i t h f r e e r e i n t h r o u g h o u t the a r e a . R e c r e a t i o n a l uses t h e r e f o r e run the gamut from ' w i l d l a n d ' , o r b a c k c o u n t r y h i k i n g , c r o s s c o u n t r y s k i i n g and w a l k - i n f i s h i n g , to camping i n 'hardened', h i g h l y c a p i t a l i s e d , f a c i l i t y r i c h , commercial camp s i t e s and c o u n t r y i n n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e e x i s t s a p o t e n t i a l not o n l y f o r c o n f l i c t between p a r t i c i p a n t s i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , f o r example b a c k c o u n t r y h i k e r s and a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e u s e r s , but a l s o c o f l i c t between d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t i e s o f s i m i l a r 2a REGIONAL SETT ING map 1.2 3 a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s l a t t e r c o n f l i c t i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by the p h i l o s o p h i c a l gap t h a t s e p a r a t e s the paddle-powered and motor d r i v i n g f r e s h water f i s h e r m a n . The main r e c r e a t i o n a l emphasis i s on f i s h i n g f o r l a k e rainbow t r o u t i n the summer, and i n c r e a s i n g l y E a s t e r n Brook T r o u t i n the w i n t e r . V i r t u a l l y a l l o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t i n the Study Area a r e r e l a t e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r to the l a c u s t r i n e environment. P i c n i c i n g , p l e a s u r e b o a t i n g , beach use and m o t o r c y c l e r i d i n g t e n d t o be c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d to f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y . They p r o v i d e r e s p i t e to the f i s h e r m a n who has. rea c h e d h i s day's c a t c h l i m i t , and a c t as an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s o r spouses who a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n f i s h i n g , o r who a r e n o t a l l o w e d to f i s h . In a d d i t i o n t o s p o r t f i s h i n g , which remains p r i m a r i l y a s p r i n g , summer and e a r l y f a l l a c t i v i t y , the Study Area a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r the hunt e r i n the f a l l , and the s k i e r (both c r o s s - c o u n t r y and d o w n h i l l ) and snow m o b i l e r i n w i n t e r . These a c t i v i t i e s do not, i n f a c t , r e c e i v e t h e i r due a t t e n t i o n i n the t h e s i s p r i m a r i l y because o f l i m i t e d f i e l d s tudy time. However i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t , as w i t h summer r e c r e a t i o n , the range o f p o t e n t i a l s s t r e t c h from b a c k c o u n t r y i c e f i s h i n g to the s o p h i s -t i c a t e d n i g h t l i f e and f l o o d l i g h t d o w n h i l l s k i i n g o f Lac Le Jeune Lodge. The Study Area i s a d j a c e n t t o major, and r a p i d l y g rowing, urban a g g l o m e r a t i o n s . I t i s a l s o u n d ergoing l a r g e s c a l e r e s o u r c e development and i s as a consequence s u b j e c t t o p r e s s u r e s on i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n -ment a t a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y than v i r t u a l l y any o t h e r s i m i l a r 4 r e c r e a t i o n a r e a i n B r i t i s h Columbia. P r e s s u r e s t h a t a r e i n t e n s i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t the a r e a forms a major communications and energy t r a n s f e r node; f o r road t r a f f i c , f o r r a i l w a y s as w e l l as f o r Hydro and p i p e l i n e networks. More s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e s e p r e s s u r e s i n c l u d e : P o p u l a t i o n Growth I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t between 1961 and 1980, the p o p u l a t i o n o f "Kamioops-Li1Tooet"wi11 i n c r e a s e by 126 per c e n t (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972) and t h a t o f the Thompson-Nicola R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (between. 1961 and 1981), by 162 per c e n t (G.V.R.D-. 1973). Whereas the i n c r e a s e f o r G r e a t e r Vancouver i s e x p e c t e d to be o n l y 67 per c e n t (G.V.R.D. 1973) and f o r B r i t i s h Columbia (1961-1980) as a whole, 78 per c e n t (.B.C.I JD_., T. and C. 1972). These t r e n d s were e x p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e . By 2000 i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t " K a m i o o p s - L i l l o o e t " would have i n c r e a s e d 352 per c e n t from a 1961 base, o r about 8 per c e n t per annum, w h i l e B r i t i s h Colubmia would have i n c r e a s e d a t an average o f 5 per c e n t per annum (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972). In f a c t between 1927 and 1972 the annual r a t e o f growth f o r the Thompson-Nicola R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was 3.6 per c e n t per annum, and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1.8 per c e n t per annum (Canada S t a t i s t i c s , 1976). The r a t e s may have s l a c k e n e d , but the a b s o l u t e f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e s s u r e s s t i l l e x i s t and t h a t the Study Area i s s u b j e c t t o the impact o f a growing p o p u l a t i o n . A p o p u l a t i o n w i t h r i s i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l demands. T h i s growth, both i n t e r n a l and p e r i p h e r a l , t o the s t u d y a r e a , w i l l i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s and may t h e r e f o r e have a marked impact on the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f the Study A r e a . (§ee aVppendix 1.) 5 M i n i n g I n d u s t r y T h i s i s the l e a d i n g i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i n the Study A r e a , and the number o f known l a r g e m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s a w a i t i n g development i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e s s u r e s from the growth o f t h i s s e c t o r w i l l be r e i n f o r c e d i n the near f u t u r e (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972). Between 1963 and 1974 the q u a n t i t y o f o r e s h i p p e d from, o r t r e a t e d by Bethlehem, Craigmont and Lornex Mines (see map 1.3), i n c r e a s e d by 767 per c e n t (B.C. M i n e s ) . The t r e n d w i l l c o n t i n u e w i t h the commencement o f p r o d u c t i o n a t A f t o n Mine i n l a t e 1977, and w i t h V a l l e y Copper and Highmont Mines (see map 1.3) as p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c e r s i n the f u t u r e . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e s e s i x mines a l s o have r e s e r v e s o f m e t a l l i c copper t o t a l l i n g 11 m i l l i o n t o n s . The e x i s t e n c e o f thes e d e p o s i t s i s l i k e l y t o a c t as a b a r r i e r t o any f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n development i n the H i g h l a n d P l a t e a u , an a r e a t h a t c u r r e n t l y c o n t a i n s some c o t t a g e development (Pifnainus Lake L . 5 6 ) , one commercial F i s h i n g Camp (Chataway Lake Lodge), one " Q u a l i t y A n g l i n g Lake" ( I s l a n d Lake) and some p o t e n t i a l f o r h i k e - i n f i s h i n g ( t h e F a r r / A b b o t t / T y n e r / Gordon Lakes c h a i n . L.58). In a d d i t i o n , a number o f o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l m i n e r a l s found i n the a r e a c o u l d form the b a s i s o f f u t u r e m i n i n g a c t i v i t y o r i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t i o n . While c o a l d e p o s i t s near Cache Creek and M e r r i t t , and i n the Tulameen and P r i n c e t o n B a s i n s , have p o t e n t i a l f o r use i n thermal power p l a n t s o r i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s (B.C.I.D, T. and C. 1972). Without a doubt the development by B.C. Hydro o f a c o a l f i r e d thermal e l e c t r i c i t y p l a n t a t Hat Creek w i l l have s p i l l - o v e r e f f e c t s on the r e c r e a t i o n system w i t h i n the Study Ar e a . The e x t e r n a l i t i e s p o s s i b l e MINERAL RESOURCES. Map 1.3 5a \ / \ ) * > \ Source: ( B.C.I.D.T. andC.) 6 from a l l t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , p o l l u t i o n , l a n d a l i e n a t i o n by m i n i n g c l a i m s , r e c r e a t i o n d i s p l a c e m e n t from l a k e s to be used f o r water s u p p l y , o r v a l l e y bottoms used f o r s e t t l i n g ponds, may a l l have a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the o v e r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l o f the a r e a , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f s p a t i a l a v a i l a b i l i t y . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t the a d d i t i o n a l manpower demands o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l add to the p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s on the r e m a i n i n g r e c r e a -t i o n a l environment. Mine and m i l l workers a t the c u r r e n t l y p r o d u c i n g mines w i t h i n the Study Area i n c r e a s e d by 113 per c e n t between 1963 and 1974 (B.C. M i n e s ) . A p a r t from any e x p e c t e d impact i n terms o f employment growth, t h e r e has been, and w i l l be, a marked m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t from t h i s employment growth on the economy o f the Study A r e a . An e f f e c t t h a t may w e l l encourage f u r t h e r employment growth i n , and hence f u r t h e r popu-l a t i o n p r e s s u r e from, o t h e r s e c t o r s o f the Study Area economy. see appendix 2-) F o r e s t I n d u s t r y . 1 ^ A l t h o u g h i t might be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t l o g g i n g would have o n l y a. minimal impact on the l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n o f the Study A r e a , i n as much as the 10 c h a i n r u l e p r o t e c t s l a k e shores and prime spawning c h a n n e l s , i t has had a major and s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e f o r a n o t h e r r e a s o n . Over a 120 y e a r r o t a t i o n system the whole a r e a i s l i a b l e t o be f o r e s t e d . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e the b u i l d i n g o f roads f o r the removal o f timber. As a r e s u l t the e n t i r e Study Area is' c o v e r e d by a c l o s e network o f l o g g i n g r o a d s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e roads a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y B.C. HYDRO TRANSMISSION Map 1.*f SYSTEM. 6a I \ T • » \ " y t \ \ i . MAP 1.4 B. C HYDRO TRANSMISSION SYSTEM March 31,1974 • Substations' 1 Nicola 2 K a m l o o p s 3 Highland 4 Savona "<•• 500 kv planned • ~ 500 kv existing & under construction ••••• 60 -360kv planned " ~ ~ C 0 - 3 6 0 k v existing & under construction 7 i n the b e s t o f c o n d i t i o n , they a r e v i r t u a l l y a l l open t o f o u r wheel d r i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s o r m o t o r c y c l e s under any weather c o n d i t i o n s . Most a r e p a s s a b l e f o r two wheel d r i v e t r u c k s under good weather con-d i t i o n s , and o f c o u r s e , a l l are open to snow-mobiles i n w i n t e r . Hence t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no l a k e t h a t i s n o t a c c e s s i b l e t o the m o t o r i s e d r e c r e a t i o n i s t , and hence, no l a k e t h a t may not e v e n t u a l l y be s u b j e c t t o u n a c c e p t a l l y h i g h r e c r e a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s . As w i t h the M i n i n g S e c t o r , f o r e s t r y may have both d i r e c t and • i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on r e c r e a t i o n . The l o g g i n g road a c c e s s f a c t o r h a v i n g an i n d i r e c t impact, w h i l e the p o t e n t i a l f o r growth i n the l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y c o u l d have a d i r e c t impact on the r e c r e a t i o n a l environment. I n c r e a s e d l o g g i n g t r a f f i c , i n c r e a s e d 'blow-down' i n the v i c i n i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n l o c a t i o n s and i n c r e a s e d l o g g i n g r e l a t e d s i l t a t i o n c o u l d a l l c r e a t e d i r e c t c o n f l i c t s w i t h the r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . S i n c e the 1971 t i m b e r c u t amounted to j u s t o v e r 60 per c e n t o f the e s t i m a t e d a l l o w a b l e c u t from the P.S.Y.U's and T.F.L. ar e a s p a r t i a l l y , o r w h o l l y , w i t h i n the Study A r e a , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n d u s t r y c o u l d be e x p e c t e d to expand beyond the c u r r e n t l e v e l s (B.C.I.D, T. and C. 1972). I f t h i s e x p a n s i o n were t o take p l a c e the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t between l o g g i n g and r e c r e a t i o n would be markedly i n c r e a s e d (see appendix 3 ) . Hydro L i n e s E l e c t r i c i t y and P i p e l i n e T r a n s m i s s i o n systems (see maps 1.4 and 1.5) may a c t as a l i e n a t i n g f a c t o r , to r e c r e a t i o n , not o n l y as v i s u a l ( a l t h o u g h t h i s i n t r u s i o n may be m i t i g a t e d by d e s i g n ) i n the l a n d s c a p e , 8 but a l s o through the ease o f a c c e s s t h a t they p r o v i d e i n t o p r e v i o u s l y i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n s . T r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s tend t h e r e f o r e t o m u l t i p l y h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e s on a r e a s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y managed to c o n t a i n t h o s e p r e s s u r e s . With the c o m p l e t i o n o f the t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s c o n n e c t e d to the N i c o l a Sub S t a t i o n i n the h e a r t o f the Study Area t h e s e impacts may r e a c h c r i t i c a l l e v e l s . I t s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t the i n t e n s e e l e c t r o -magnetic f i e l d s s u r r o u n d i n g Hydro l i n e s may have d e l e t e r i o u s p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s on man, animal and p l a n t l i f e . The f i e l d t h a t emenates from 765 Kv l i n e s i s so s t r o n g t h a t i t w i l l l i g h t up a f l o u r e s c e n t l i g h t b u l b h e l d i n a hand as f a r as 400 f e e t from the l i n e ( F u t u r i s t . 1975). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t m e d i c a l c o n f i r m a t i o n o f any problem may s t i m u l a t e c o n t r o l s on a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y o f Hydro l i n e s . The r e c r e a t i o n a l environment may be f u r t h e r l i m i t e d . Highways R e c r e a t i o n i n the Study Area i s l a r g e l y highway and t r a n s i e n t o r i e n t e d , i n as much as o v e r 90 per c e n t o f P r o v i n c i a l Park Camper R i g h t s (B.C. Parks 1975) and about 50 per c e n t o f Crown Land Use (B.C. Parks 1973B) i n the Study Area were a s c r i b e d to non l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s . The Study Area i s bounded by the two main c r o s s P r o v i n c e highways, Number 1, the T r ans Canada Highway and Number 3, the Hope, P r i n c e t o n , Keremeos Highway. I t demonstrates the c l a s s i c A t t r a c t i o n - A c c e s s i b i l i t y C y c l e (Ladd 1975) i n which i n c r e a s i n g use, encouraged by an improved, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network, may c o n t r i b u t e to a d e g r a d a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l q u a l i t y ; a l t h o u g h w h i l e q u a l i t y may d e c l i n e , a c t u a l r e c r e a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s may r i s e w i t h i n c r e a s e d u s e r numbers and use l e v e l s ; 8a AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC FLOWS JULY-AUGUST 1975 Map 1.6 © Traffic Count Locations . UC LA MACMt 4900—^^fe 6700—|T 100 VILE HOUSE i f - 3 2 0 0 -740 ~4i00 TRAFFIC SCALE A.DX 2700-800- -2900 -3770 S<3> |4 CHE CP.U4 - 5 4 0 0 -5700 / - 6 7 0 0 M2 6O0 >-*SHcnorT -8300 -7300 -7900 5100— -I II 100-250 5300 9232-j ^6500 SALMON I ARM I -3300 r^-7500 fNOERBY -6950 ;900 9CX>\1 LYTTOi r9)00 ' -1700 4 5 0 0 ^ 14 900-0 500( NO 800 -13 800 -5200 8400 3000-^ 9000-23 3!l K E L O U f l ^ j - D 9 0 0 -700 r 6490 660O--~l 200 8200-x PEACHLANDj SUMMERLANnj 12; r 8000 -10 200 J-9200 -4587 3 3 0 0 6479- -6900 43CK>J 2200-,,,•1000 a ^ 9 - 2 i o o K C , I/GREENWOOD/ I GRAM 1-3100 * « F 0 H Source: B.C. Highways Department. 9 ATTRACTION FACTOR Thus the development o f major highway c o r r i d o r s (see map 1.6), compounded by the r a p i d r i s e o f d a i l y t r a f f i c volumes and v e h i c l e l i c e n s i n g i n the Study Area (see diagram 1.7), makes the a r e a p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e to the m o t o r i s e d r e c r e a t i o n i s t . T h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d w i t h the c o m p l e t i o n o f the r e c e n t l y announced (Vancouver Sun, J a n u a r y 17th 1977) f o u r l a n e highway from Hope to M e r r i t t through the C o q u i h a l l a Pass (see map 5.1). T h i s new highway r o u t e w i l l c u t the d i s t a n c e from Vancouver to the North Okanagan by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 m i l e s , t o Kamloops by 50 m i l e s and t o M e r r i t t by 70 m i l e s (B.C.I.D, T. and C. 1972). The highway may be extended p a s t Douglas Lake and through the Salmon R i v e r V a l l e y t o Westwold on Highway 97. I n e v i t a b l y the a d d i t i o n o f t h i s major highway c o r r i d o r ( i n r e s p o n s e to commercial and r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a f f i c p r e s s u r e s on the F r a s e r Canyon) w i l l s u b j e c t the Study Area to f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n r e c r e a t i o n a l use, e s p e c i a l l y i n the C o q u i h a l l a and Coldwater d r a i n a g e b a s i n s . C a t t l e Ranching i s the a r e a ' s t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t economic s e c t o r . Most o f the a v a i l a b l e , s u i t a b l e r a n g e l a n d i s b e i n g used t o c a p a c i t y and i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t o u t p u t w i l l p r o b a b l y o n l y o c c u r through improved l a n d Ranching 9a Diagram 1.7 D A I L Y T R A F F I C V O L U M E S J U L Y & A U G U S T 10,000 B000 6000 -A 4000 H 2000 A V E R A G E DAILY T O T A L S L o c a t i o n 0 .8 k m n o r t h of C o a l m o n t R o a d 0.16 k m s o u t h of S t u m p L a k e A c c e s s R o a d 8 .96 k m north of F a u l k l a n d C o m m u n i t y H a l l 1.2 k m west of S a v o n a B r i d g e 4 . 4 8 k m w e s t of r o u t e 97 at M o n t e C r e e k / / A \ H W Y 1 H W Y 1 R O U T E 9 7 H W Y 5 H W Y 5 Y E A R 1963 Sourcei B . C . D e p t . of Hwys 1965 1967 1969 1 1971 1973 1975 T R A F F I C A N D V E H I C L E L I C E N S I N G T R E N D S 180 10O-60-20-'/. C H A N G E — •—• P a s s e n g e r a n d C o m m e r c i a l L i c e n c e s ; to ta l R C . P a s s e n g e r and C o m m e r c i a l L i c e n c e s ; K a m l o o p s , M e r r i t t , and P r i n c e t o n A v e r a g e Dai ly Traf f i c F l o w Tota l s for Tra f f i c C o u n t P o i n t s , July a n d A u g u s t Note- Decl ine in 1974 and 1975 l i c e n c e s r e f l e c t s the c o n v e r s i o n f r o m l i c e n c i n g t h e c a r to l i c e n c i n g the dr iver . y Y E A R 1963 1965 I 1967 — I 1969 1971 1973 1975 Source-. B.C. Motor Vehicles Branch 10 management (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t improved range management c o u l d i n c r e a s e the deer p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t r e d u c i n g the c a t t l e c a p a c i t y (Anderson and S c h e r z i n g e r . 1975). T h i s c o u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e the r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e o f the r a n g e l a n d . However a t p r e s e n t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a n c h e r and r e c r e a t i o n i s t remains one o f c o n f l i c t . In c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s c a t t l e and campers mix a t the l a k e s h o r e , r a n c h e r s complain o f v a n d a l i s m and r u s t l i n g , r e c r e a t i o n i s t s complain o f b l o c k e d a c c e s s i n t o and a c r o s s crown l a n d , as w e l l as f l u c -t u a t i n g water l e v e l s i n l a k e s used both f o r r e c r e a t i o n and i r r i g a t i o n . I n d i a n Reserves In the main the l o c a t i o n o f n a t i v e r e s e r v e s a r e not c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the major r e c r e a t i o n zones. However i n two c a s e s , t h a t o f a c c e s s t o Harper Lake (L.73) and a c c e s s a l o n g the Skuhun Creek r o a d , r e s e r v e s have been c i t e d as l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s t o r e c r e a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y . C o n c l u s i o n Thus the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t and q u a l i t y d e c l i n e i s both p r e s e n t , and l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e . C o n f l i c t , as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n the a r e a , and q u a l i t y d e c l i n e as t h e s e n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a t t r a c t g r e a t e r numbers o f t r a n s i e n t s and r e s i d e n t s t o l i v e and r e c r e a t e i n the a r e a . The s p e c i f i c d e t a i l i n g o f both c o n f l i c t s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r . S u f f i c e to say a t the present,,that the most v i s i b l e problems a r e t h o s e r e l a t e d to growing p o p u l a t i o n 11 p r e s s u r e s and case o f a c c e s s . The problems a r e t h o s e o f V a n d a l i s m , E n v i r o n m e n t a l O v e r l o a d , the e f f e c t s o f the I n t e r n a l Combustion e n g i n e , Permanent Camper Re s i d e n c e and a n t i - s o c i a l Camper B e h a v i o u r , O v e r f i s h i n g and c o n f l i c t between the P u b l i c and P r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n sectors'. In a d d i t i o n t h e r e e x i s t problems o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l management and i n t e r agency c o o p e r a t i o n ( o r l a c k o f i t ) . S e c t i o n 1:3 C r e a t i o n o f a P o l i c y P l a n In view o f r a d i c a l use and r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n p r e s s u r e s upon the r e c r e a t i o n system, t h i s t h e s i s has, as i t s p r i m a r y aim, the d e f i n i t i o n , the c r e a t i o n , the e v a l u a t i o n and e v e n t u a l c h o i c e o f a p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s i n the Thompson P l a t e a u . A p o l i c y p l a n ^ i s c o ncerned w i t h the s e v e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a r e t o govern the development o f a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n . A p l a n would c o n f i n e i t s a t t e n t i o n t o s p e c i f i c s , such as the l o c a t i o n o f r o a d s , t r a i l s , c a m p s i t e s , boat l a u n c h i n g ramps and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . I t would a l s o i n d i c a t e the p r o b a b l e c o s t s o f development, o p e r a t i o n , main-tenance and management arrangements. The p o l i c y p l a n however c o v e r s a much br o a d e r range o f m a t t e r s , s p e c i f y i n g how a g i v e n r e c r e a t i o n a r e a i s to f i t s p a t i a l l y i n t o the t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n system, what r o l e i t would p l a y i n the t o t a l a c t i v i t y a v a i l a b i l i t y system, the k i n d s o f f a c i l i t i e s t o be p r o v i d e d , the approximate s i z e and p r o b a b l e g e n e r a l l o c a t i o n o f such f a c i l i t i e s . I t would a l s o e s t a b l i s h the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s t h a t were to govern the c r e a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f the system. The c h o i c e o f the f i n a l a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y p l a n would depend upon the s e l e c t i o n o f the 12 p r e f e r r e d p l a n from amongst a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . The p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n would be t h a t p l a n which came c l o s e s t to s a t i s f y i n g a v a r i e t y o f s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t he p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e s o f t h e p o l i c y p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s . The development o f the p o l i c y p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s i s seen t o be a n e c e s s a r y a l t e r n a t i v e to the more normal ad-hocism e x p e r i e n c e d i n p u b l i c p o l i c y making. To d a t e p o l i c y making p r o c e s -ses have a p p a r e n t l y f a i l e d to s o l v e the problems g e n e r a t e d i n a r a p i d l y growing and c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y . The e x i s t i n g p o l i c y p l a n making p r o c e s s e s tend t o r e s u l t i n outcomes t h a t may not match p u b l i c a s p i r a t i o n s ; p o l i c y development tends to be r e a c t i v e r a t h e r than a n t i c i p a t o r y , and f r e q u e n t l y i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y i s s u e s f a i l t o be a d e q u a t e l y examined (Fox and Dunn. 1976). S e c t i o n 1.4: T h e s i s O u t l i n e The remainder o f t h i s t h e s i s , c h a p t e r s 2 thro u g h 8, i s concerned w i t h t he development o f a p o l i c y p l a n a p p l i c a b l e t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f the Study Area and which i s r e s p o n s i v e to e x i s t i n g and a n t i c i p a t e d problems. A p o l i c y p l a n t h a t r e c o g n i s e s no i d e a l end s t a t e , but which aims a t s p e c i f i c s h o r t term g o a l s . In which s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e can be o b s e r v e d , and s u c c e s s encouraged by p e r i o d i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n t e n d e d t o e n s ure t h a t t r e n d s , a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l , always remain p o s i t i v e . C h a p t e r 2 p r o v i d e s a more d e t a i l e d , t h e o r e t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the proposed p o l i c y p l a n c o n c e p t . ^ C h a p t e r 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e use l e v e l s , t r e n d l i n e s and p o t e n t i a l s f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n the Study A r e a , w h i l e 13 c h a p t e r 4 i s a c r i t i q u e o f e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n management systems and the s p e c i f i c problems t h a t seem t o have a r i s e n under t h e s e systems. C h a p t e r 5 p r e s e n t s t h r e e p o t e n t i a l p o l i c y p l a n s f o r f u t u r e development c o n c e p t s i n t he a r e a , a l l o f which would demand a r e g i o n a l management approach such as i s d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r 6, and a l l o f which would be e v a l u a t e d i n l i g h t o f the s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r 2. F i n a l l y , c h a p t e r 7 p r e s e n t s the p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t he Study A r e a . S e c t i o n 1.5: F i e l d Study During J u l y and August o f 1976 a t o t a l o f t h r e e weeks was s p e n t t r a v e l l i n g and o b s e r v i n g the Study A r e a , which c o v e r s more than 10,000 square m i l e s , as p a r t o f a B r i t i s h Columbia Parks Branch s t u d y (B.C. P a r k s . 1976A). The p r i m a r y aim o f t h a t s t u d y was to e s t a b l i s h how the p r e s s u r e s and problems o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r had a f f e c t e d , and might i n the f u t u r e a f f e c t the r e c r e a t i o n a l environment o f the Study A r e a . A c t u a l f i e l d s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e d on the o b s e r v a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r and problems a t 53 l a k e s . D e t a i l s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s e l a k e s , and an example o f the type o f data c o l l e c t e d a t each, can be found i n a p p e n d i c e s 4 and 5. I t was f e l t t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n , though merely d e s c r i p t i v e , was a v a l i d t e c h n i q u e i n view o f the magnitude o f the t a s k and the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e f o r f i e l d s t u d y . However, i t was a l s o r e c o g n i s e d t h a t o b s e r -v a t i o n a l o n e i s never enough. What p e o p l e seem,to an o b s e r v e r , t o be d o i n g and a c h i e v i n g may not be what they p e r c e i v e themselves as d o i n g and a c h i e v i n g ( C a t t o n . 1975). Thus, i n o r d e r t o go beyond the s i m p l e 14 o b s e r v a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and problems,a s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s was h e l d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e c r e a t i o n managers, p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n i n t e r e s t s and government o f f i c i a l s w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l management i n t e r e s t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A l i s t o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s i s g i v e n ' i n appendix 6. The bulk o f the raw s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a used i n the t h e s i s was p r o v i d e d by t h e s e i n t e r v i e w e e s . S e c t i o n 1.6: T h e s i s C o n s t r a i n t s I t s h o u l d a t t h i s s t a g e be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the t h e s i s i s s u b j e c t to two major c o n s t r a i n t s , o r i n f l u e n c e s . F i r s t l y , c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d upon the f i e l d study by the d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o c o v e r 10,000 square m i l e s and o v e r 50 l a k e s w i t h any k i n d o f d e t a i l i n under t h r e e weeks. T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c o n s t r a i n t s r e s u l t i n g from the l i m i t e d s e a s o n a l coverage o f an a r e a t h a t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y an a l l season r e c r e a -t i o n a l l o c a t i o n . No p e r s o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s p r i n g , f a l l o r w i n t e r con-d i t i o n s was p o s s i b l e . S e c o n d l y , c o n s t r a i n t s imposed upon the t h e s i s as a whole ,by the p e r s o n a l v a l u e s t a n c e , b i a s e s and assumptions o f the a u t h o r . These v a l u e s , b i a s e s and assumptions are d e t a i l e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n because i t i s f e l t t h a t i f a P l a n n e r a r r i v e s a t a p e r s o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d 'best' s o l u t i o n , as i n c h a p t e r 7, t h a t P l a n n e r s h o u l d admit to h i s p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e framework. The framework c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g components: 1. The P l a n n e r s h o u l d be an a d a p t i v i s e r , e m p h a s i s i n g experimen-t a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n and i n c r e m e n t a l ism i n which c r e a t i v i t y i s a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t as judgement. 15 2. The P l a n n e r s h o u l d be a f a c i l i t a t o r who i s c a p a b l e o f c r e a t i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h i n g s t o happen, h e - s h o u l d be an a c t o r r a t h e r than a r e a c t o r , an a c t o r w i t h one eye on the f u t u r e . 3. The P l a n n e r s h o u l d i n v o l v e h i m s e l f i n an a c t i v e management r o l e both as a m e d i a t o r between c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and as manager o f a b a r g a i n i n g market. 4. The P l a n n e r c a n n o t p r o v i d e any s i n g l e c o r r e c t answers to e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e i s s u e s because o f the u n c e r t a i n t i e s and the v a l u e judgements i n v o l v e d (Fox and Dunn 1976). The P l a n n e r must t h e r e f o r e con-c e n t r a t e on the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and the p r o v i s i o n o f v a l i d e v a l u a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t o f the u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n v o l v e d . 5. Without managerial c o n t r o l s the freedom and s p o n t a n e i t y o f the w i l d l a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i l l i n e v i t a b l y e v a p o r a t e under growing use p r e s s u r e s . The i s s u e i s n o t whether management i s r e q u i r e d , but what form t h a t management s h o u l d take (Stankey 1972). FOOTNOTES ^ I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by I.K. Fox, D i r e c t o r , the Westwater Research C e n t r e , U.B.C. Vancouver, B.C. 16 CHAPTER TWO. DEVELOPMENT OF A POLICY PLAN S e c t i o n 2.1: The P o l i c y P l a n Concept. Few p e o p l e l i k e problems. Hence the n a t u r a l tendency i n problem s o l v i n g i s to p i c k t he f i r s t s o l u t i o n t h a t comes to mind and run w i t h i t . The d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s approach i s t h a t one may run e i t h e r o f f a c l i f f , o r i n t o a worse problem than one s t a r t e d w i t h . A b e t t e r s t r a t e g y i n s o l v i n g problems i s to s e l e c t the most a t t r a c t i v e path ( o r paths) from many i d e a s and c o n c e p t s . (Adams. 1974. p. x i ) James Adams s u c c i n c t l y summarises the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f the p o l i c y p l a n c o n c e p t as a problem s o l v i n g d e v i c e and p l a n n i n g mechanism, i n v o l v i n g , the development o f s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s , from which a s i n g l e p r e f e r r e d P o l i c y P l a n i s chosen a f t e r a l l have been r i g o r o u s l y e v a l u a t e d . The c o n c e p t r e p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l approach t o p l a n n i n g , e m p h a s i s i n g the c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n o f broad p r i n c i p l e s and main f e a t u r e s . T h i s approach can, as a consequence, be both r e a d i l y u n d e r s t o o d by the p u b l i c and p o l i c y making o f f i c i a l s , as w e l l as be a p p l i e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s and e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y p l a n c o u l d then be u t i l i s e d to i n f l u e n c e the c r e a t i o n o f master pl a n s t h a t would be s i t e s p e c i f i c and r e a d i l y a d a p t a b l e to changes i n exogenous f a c t o r s and v a r i a t i o n s i n l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . The use o f the term " P o l i c y P l a n " i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s t o the i d e a o f d e v e l o p i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e , o r s t a n c e s , each o f which responds i n a p a r t i c u l a r way to g e n e r a l r e g i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , problems and demands. For example, i n W i l l i a m Morton and I r v i n g Fox's s t u d y o f the 17 the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r B a s i n , t h r e e a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d and e v a l u a t e d , P o l i c y P l a n "A" - C o n t i n u a t i o n o f P a s t P r a c t i c e , P o l i c y P l a n "B" - I n t e g r a t e d Resource Management and P o l i c y P l a n "C" - E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a P r o v i n c i a l Park (Morton and Fox. 1975). Each o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s would have emerged from a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , i n v o l v i n g c e r -t a i n s p e c i f i c e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e d e t a i l e d i n s e c t i o n 2.2. Furthermore each p o l i c y p l a n ( o r a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e ) , would c o n s i s t o f a package, or mix, o f p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and Implementary Mechanisms, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f which a r e d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 2.3. F i n a l l y the p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n would be s e l e c t e d by a c h o i c e p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f each p o s s i b l e p o l i c y p l a n and hence i t s component p o l i c y B b j e c t i v e s and impelementary mechanisms i n l i g h t o f s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n which a r e l i s t e d i n s e c t i o n 2.4. The r o l e o f the p o l i c y p l a n c o n c e p t i n a l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n a l environment i s c o n s i d e r e d i n s e c t i o n 2.5. S e c t i o n 2.2: E s s e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . The e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e t a i l e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , comprehen-s i v i t y and i t e r a t i o n , would p r i m a r i l y be a p p l i c a b l e t o the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s o u t o f which a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s ( a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e s ) emerge. However i t s h o u l d be emphasised t h a t the impact o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would be f e l t t h r o u g h o u t the p r o c e s s . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f both would imply the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f an h o l i s t i c and dynamic mind s e t t h r o u g h , i n t o , and a l s o beyond, the development o f p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , implementary mechanisms, c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n and the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s i t s e l f . 18 For example, the e x p e r i m e n t a l component o f ' i t e r a t i o n ' would be e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n an o p e r a t i o n a l phase t h a t p r o v i d e d f o r the on-going e v a l u a t i o n o f changing c o n d i t i o n s and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f f u t u r e poten-t i a l s . C o m p r e h e n s i v i t y C o m p r e h e n s i v i t y s h o u l d imply the need f o r r e c o g n i s i n g the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between tho s e sub-systems embraced by the p l a n n i n g e f f o r t , the o t h e r a c t i v e sub-systems and s e c t o r s w i t h i n the Study Area and t h o s e systems t h a t extend beyond, o r which a r e l o c a t e d o u t s i d e and s e p a r a t e d from, t h e r e g i o n o f c o n c e r n . C o m p r e h e n s i v i t y t h e r e f o r e i n v o l v e s the r e c o g n i t i o n o f an e c o s y s t e m i c approach t o p l a n n i n g and a l l which t h a t i m p l i e s i n terms o f an h o l i s t i c mind s e t and systems t h i n k i n g . In a d d i t i o n , c o m p r e h e n s i v i t y s u g g e s t s the need f o r an o v e r v i e w o f the r e g i o n . b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d which i s as d e t a i l e d as p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s i n e v i t a b l y imposed by time and r e s o u r c e l i m i t a t i o n s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e the o v e r v i e w i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the f i e l d s t u d y , r e l a t e d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a number o f i n t e r v i e w s . I t attempts a f u l l c o verage o f the r e s o u r c e s , both n a t u r a l and i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l , w i t h i n the Study A r e a and the demands, both e x p r e s s e d and l a t e n t , f o r p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s and l e v e l s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . I t a l s o c o v e r s an a n a l y s i s o f c o n f l i c t s , both e x i s t i n g and p o s s i b l e , as w e l l as the problems and c o n s t r a i n t s r e l a t i n g t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . Furthermore the o v e r v i e w s h o u l d i n c l u d e a s t u d y o f the p o t e n t i a l o f each p o r t i o n o f the Study Area t o p r o v i d e t h o s e s e r v i c e s , i n d i c a t e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g demand, to 19 be i n s h o r t s u p p l y , o r even a b s e n t . P o t e n t i a l s t h a t would i n e v i t a b l y be i n c l u e n c e d by the e x i s t e n c e o f c o n f l i c t s and c o n s t r a i n t s . I t e r a t i o n The term i t s e l f s u g g e s t s the need f o r a s t e p - w i s e approach which r e c o g n i s e s t h a t a b s o l u t e g o a l s do not emerge a t t h e s t a r t , but e v o l v e through and d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case i t e r a t i o n i n v o l v e s two b a s i c s u b c a t e g o r i e s , mutual adj u s t m e n t and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . The former i m p l i e s t h a t no p o l i c y p l a n can a r r i v e a t f r u i t i o n w i t h o u t some form o f r e g i o n wide agreement about i t s major elements. The c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s s h o u l d be s t r u c t u r e d so as t o ensure communication and c o o p e r a t i o n between i n v o l v e d a g e n c i e s . Without e f f e c -t i v e i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n , both the c r e a t i o n and the a c t i v e manage-ment o f any p o l i c y p l a n w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i n d e r e d . C o n f l i c t r e d u c -t i o n s h o u l d be a p p l i e d to t h o s e g u l f s t h a t may e x i s t between the r e c r e a t i o n a l and n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l s e c t o r s , t h o s e between d i f f e r e n t r e c -r e a t i o n a l groups as w e l l as t h o s e p r e s e n t i n i n t e r - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Furthermore the p o l i c y p l a n c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s and i t s e v e n t a u l o p e r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n s h o u l d encourage the g e n e r a t i o n o f both p u b l i c and agency feedback i n o r d e r to a l l o w a comprehensive i n p u t t o the c r e a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s , as w e l l as p e r c e i v e d changes i n v a l u e s , demands and p o t e n t i a l s . These elements a r e c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l because i t would seem t h a t p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s embracing i n t e r - r e l a t e d sub systems f r e q u e n t l y p r o c e e d s i m u l t a n e a o u s l y , y e t s e p a r a t e l y . The p o l i c y p l a n p r o c e s s s h o u l d 20 a l l o w f o r the development o f a communications system, o r o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n program, a l l o w i n g f o r s e p a r a t e a g e n c i e s and s e c t o r s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h , and a d j u s t t o , each o t h e r s e f f o r t s and p r i o r i t i e s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n view o f the d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and b e h a v i o u r a l r u l e s h e l d by d i f f e r e n t groups, a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . There i s a need f o r the development, through compromise, o f what a r e r e c o g -n i s e d by s o c i e t y as a whole, to be l e g i t i m a t e d e c i s i o n s , p r o c e s s e s and end p r o d u c t s . The second s u b c a t e g o r y w i t h i n the c o n c e p t o f i t e r a t i o n i s t h a t o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ; an e s s e n t i a l element i f the p o l i c y p l a n p r o c e s s i s seen as a continuum i n which elements a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y a d j u s t e d i n the l i g h t o f new knowledge (Fox and Dunn. 1976). The c o n c e p t o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n has an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f both p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and implementary mechanisms i n the l i g h t o f v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s and v a r y i n g l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . I t h a v i n g a l r e a d y been acknowledged t h a t t h e r e i s no one c o r r e c t answer to a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l problem, n e i t h e r are t h e r e any v a l u e s nor p e r c e p t u a l frameworks h e l d u n i v e r s a l l y t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y (although' t h e r e may be 'Higher V a l u e s ' / E t h i c s a c c e p t e d as g e n e r a l r u l e s o f b e h a v i o u r ) . Each e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n would be i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e feedback, a l l o w i n g f o r the e v o l u t i o n a r y development o f a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t s and approaches, e i t h e r a t the g e n e r a l ( p o l i c y p l a n ) , o r the s p e c i f i c (master p l a n ) l e v e l s . Should the r e s u l t s o f any p r o c e s s emerge c o u n t e r -i n t u i t i v e l y , the e x p e r i m e n t a l approach a l l o w s f o r on-going i n v e s t i g a t i o n and adjustment. T h i s r e f l e c t s the P r a g m a t i c P r i n c i p l e ( B r o s s 1953) which su g g e s t s t h a t n o t h i n g s h o u l d be implemented as a permenancy and t h a t change 21 s h o u l d always be p o s s i b l e and f e a s i b l e . E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a l s o i m p l i e s the need f o r a c r e a t i v e and i n n o v a t i v e p l a n n i n g a pproach, an approach which i s a c t i v e r a t h e r than r e a c t i v e . The p l a n n e r s h o u l d p r e p a r e f o r , and e x p e r i m e n t w i t h , the f u t u r e , because i t i s t h e r e t h a t he w i l l spend the r e s t o f h i s l i f e (Ewald. 1968). S e c t i o n 2.3: Main F e a t u r e s o f the P o l i c y P l a n . P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t the term ' p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e ' s h o u l d r e f e r to those f e a t u r e s which the p l a n n e r ( h a v i n g s p e c i f i e d the need f o r comprehen'-s i v i t y and i t e r a t i o n ) , wishes t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o each p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y p l a n , ( o r a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e ) . A 'package' o f s e p a r a t e p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s would r e s u l t h o p e f u l l y , i n a s p e c i f i c end s t a t e r e p r e s e n t i n g t he chosen a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e which b e s t responds to the p o t e n t i a l c o n s t r a i n t s and demands (both e x p r e s s e d and l a t e n t ) , as w e l l t h e commonly h e l d v a l u e s p r e s e n t w i t h i n the i n t r a - a n d e x t r a - r e g i o n a l systems. For example, P o l i c y P l a n B - I n t e g r a t e d Resource Management, which i s proposed as one o f t h r e e p o l i c y p l a n s i n the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r B a s i n Study (Morton and Fox. 1975), i s made up o f s i x c o n s t i t u e n t p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . 1. The development o f r o a d s , t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s t h a t would be d e s i g n e d t o m i n i m i s e e r o s i o n . 2. The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s u f f i c i e n t w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t t o a s s u r e maintenance o f h e a l t h y p o p u l a t i o n s o f w i l d l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y u n g u l a t e s . 22 3. The p r o v i s i o n o f b u f f e r s t r i p s a l o n g s t r e a m s , and a stream r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program to p r e s e r v e and improve the f i s h e r i e s h a b i t a t . 4. The r e s t r i c t i o n o f timber h a r v e s t i n g so as t o m a i n t a i n the v i s u a l q u a l i t y o f the l a n d s c a p e f o r the b e n e f i t o f r e c r e a t i o n u s e r s . 5. The s u p p l y o f s u f f i c i e n t t r a i l s , camp s i t e s and o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s t o meet r e c r e a t i o n demands. 6. The a p p r o v a l o f second home development o n l y a t tho s e l o c a t i o n s t h a t a r e p h y s i c a l l y s u i t a b l e . (Morton and Fox. 1975'p. f x -Implementary Mechanisms These mechanisms a r e those i n s t r u m e n t s by which the p l a n n e r pursues chosen p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . For example, i n the case i l l u s t r a t e d above, the o b j e c t i v e i m p l i e d by the a p p r o v a l o n l y o f tho s e second home developments t h a t were l o c a t e d on p h y s i c a l l y s u i t a b l e s i t e s would p o s s i b l be imposed by the c r e a t i o n o f z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . I t would be t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t were the implementary mechanism. In a n o t h e r example, the i m p o s i t i o n o f maintenance c o s t on u s e r s would be a p o l i c y 6 b j e c t i v e , which might be implemented by the development o f a f e e s c h e d u l e and a t r a n s i t i o n program from f r e e a c c e s s to f e e payment. I t i s t h e s e l a t t e r e l e m e n t s , the f e e s c h e d u l e and t r a n s i t i o n program t h a t a r e the implemen-t a r y mechanisims. A c r u c i a l component o f such mechanisms i s the development o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements i n v o l v i n g both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s to a d m i n i s t e r the s u c c e s s f u l achievement o f p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . P u b l i c a g e n c i e s w i l l be i n v o l v e d both i n the d i r e c t p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n 23 s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as i n the inducement o f d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r from the u s e r s o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , and from the d e v e l o p e r s and managers o f p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y such b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l has emphasised the p r o m u l g a t i o n and enforcement o f r e g u l a t i o n s and o r d e r s (Morton and Fox. 1975). There i s however a p e r c e i v e d need t o go beyond t h i s . Implementary mechanisms s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the p r o v i s i o n o f both c o e r c i v e enforcement and-n o n - c o e r c i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n . There i s a need f o r d i s i n c e n t i v e s t h a t would p r e v e n t unwanted a c t i v i t i e s , but a t the same time t h e r e s h o u l d be p o s i t i v e i n c e n t i v e s t o encourage wanted b e h a v i o u r . I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t h a t the d i s i n c e n t i v e o r p o s i t i v e i n c e n t i v e s h o u l d r e l a t e t o wanted o r unwanted b e h a v i o u r a t the e x a c t l o c a t i o n on which t h e y a r e imposed. For example, the unwanted b e h a v i o u r o f sewage dumping a t a p a r t i c u l a r l a k e , may be p r e v e n t e d by a s i t e s p e c i f i c t h r e a t o f punishment s h o u l d such a c t i v i t y be d i s c o v e r e d . A t the same time d i r e c t i o n s t o the n e a r e s t sewage dumping c e n t r e and the promise o f 'backwoods brownie p o i n t s ' , s h o u l d the dumping c e n t r e be used, would be non s i t e s p e c i f i c p o s i t i v e i n c e n t i v e s to wanted b e h a v i o u r . The l a t t e r may be a more e f f e c t i v e method o f c o n t r o l i n l i g h t o f the known tendency f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e a c t more p o s i t i v e l y t o the promise o f reward than t o the t h r e a t o f s a c r i f i c e ( D eutsch. 1970). A g e n c i e s concerned w i t h implementary mechanisms s h o u l d c o n s i d e r 2 1 the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p p l y i n g a B e h a v i o u r M o d i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x , ' to the problem o f b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l i n r e c r e a t i o n management. For example: 24 POSITIVE INCENTIVE NEGATIVE INCENTIVE WANTED BEHAVIOUR + REINFORCE - WEAKEN e.g. sewage drop I n c r e a s e p o s i t i v e i n v e n - Reduce n e g a t i v e i n c e n -a t Treatment t i v e toward wanted t i v e to wanted b e h a v i o u r . C e n t r e b e h a v i o u r . e.g.: Cash Reward f o r e.g.: e n sure t h a t e x i s -Sewage Drop a t Treatment te n c e o f Treatment C e n t r e C e n t r e . i s common knowledge and d i r e c t i o n s to i t a r e v i s i b l e UNWANTED - WEAKEN + REINFORCE BEHAVIOUR Reduce p o s i t i v e i n c e n t i v e I n c r e a s e n e g a t i v e i n c e n -e.g.: sewage d i s - to unwanted b e h a v i o u r t i v e t o unwanted b e h a v i o u r . p o s a l i n r e c r e a - e.g. r e q u i r e f i t t i n g o f a l l e.g.: i n c r e a s e f i n e s f o r t i o n a l l a k e campers w i t h s t o r a g e capa- i l l e g a l d i s p o s a l c i t y f o r sewage S e c t i o n 2.4: C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e and implementary mechanism 'packages' emerge i n response to r e g i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , v a l u e s and c o n s t r a i n t s , as the main f e a t u r e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e s e s e v e r a l 'packages' undergo a r i g o r o u s e v a l u a t i o n b e f o r e a p a r t i c u l a r p r e -f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e i s f i n a l l y chosen. I t would seem n e c e s s a r y t h e r e f o r e , t o e s t a b l i s h , and then a p p l y , c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n t o each o f the a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s . Compliance by a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y p l a n w i t h t h e s e c r i t e r i a would imply the e s s e n t i a l s u i t a b i l i t y ( a c c o r d i n g to one s e t o f v a l u e s ) o f t h a t package o f o b j e c t i v e s and implementary mechanisms t o the achievement o f d e s i r e d ends. For the sake o f c o n v e n i e n c e the sugge s t e d C r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n a r e d i v i d e d below i n t o those t h a t a p p l y p r i m a r i l y to the p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e element w i t h i n the p o l i c y p l a n , 25 and t h o s e t h a t a p p l y p r i m a r i l y t o the implementary mechanisms. P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s C o n s e r v a t i o n E t h i c The p o l i c y p l a n s h o u l d n o t t h r e a t e n the n a t u r a l environment i n any way t h a t might t r i g g e r i r r e v e r s i b l e change. I t s h o u l d be s t r u c t u r e d so as t o r e c o g n i s e the need f o r a " C o n s e r v a t i o n E t h i c ' (Morton and Fox. 1975). The a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s e t h i c would ensure t h a t the l o n g term p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the r e g i o n ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s was not i m p a i r e d , nor the d i v e r s i t y o f s p e c i e s reduced. I t would a l s o emphasise the need f o r l e a v i n g open o p t i o n s f o r a c t i o n i n the f u t u r e . S o c i a l Well Being The p o l i c y p l a n s h o u l d r e c o g n i s e the importance o f the m a x i m i s a t i o n o f n e t r e t u r n s t o the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e members o f s o c i e t y as a whole (Morton and Fox. 1975); and the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s would c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t t h a t each p o l i c y had on the g e n e r a t i o n o f income i n the r e g i o n . I t s h o u l d a l s o acknowledge the need f o r a d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . Much o f c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n development s i m p l y c l o s e s e n v i r o n m e n t a l a l t e r n a t i v e s and narrows the b r e a d t h o f p e o p l e ' s a v a i l a b l e l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; the l a c k o f d i v e r s i t y l e a d s t o an e n f o r c e d c o n f o r m i t y and a l e v e l l i n g o f l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to a lower common denominator ( D i t t o n . 1971). Fur t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s a g r e a t tendency to p r o v i d e i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s o f what has a l r e a d y been p r o v i d e d i n the p a s t ( K r u t i l l a and Knetsch. 1971). Any development under the p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n s h o u l d 26 t h e r e f o r e s a t i s f y a f u l l range o f both e x p r e s s e d and l a t e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l demands. T h i s would imply t he need f o r genuine v a r i e t y , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y u n d i s t u r b e d ' w i l d l a n d a t one end o f the spectrum and perhaps 'hardened' ca m p s i t e development w i t h i n t e n s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f use a t the o t h e r . Rather than the gr a d u a l c o n v e r s i o n t o v a r i o u s s o r t s o f s e m i - w i l d e r n e s s (Lucas 1970). S o c i a l w e l l b e i n g would, i n a d d i t i o n , imply the need f o r a p o l i c y p l a n t h a t a c h i e v e d some measure o f mutual c o o p e r a t i o n and s a t i s -f a c t i o n between r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and o t h e r n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l s e c t o r s . E q u i t a b l e Treatment The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s and c o s t s i m p l i e d by the P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d not damage l o c a l , nor n o n - l o c a l i n t e r e s t s , t o the b e n e f i t o f the o t h e r . Nor s h o u l d one a c t i v i t y s e c t o r , e x t r a c t i v e o r non-e x t r a c t i v e , r e c e i v e b e n e f i t s t h a t i m p l y any unnecessary.,, o r a v o i d a b l e d i s a d v a n t a g e to a n o t h e r a c t i v i t y s e c t o r . E v a l u a t i o n o f e q u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t would i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f who a c t u a l l y i n c u r s the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f each p o l i c y p l a n . Implementary Mechanisms C o n t r o l E f f e c t i v e n e s s The mechanisms imposed s h o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e to the p u b l i c , and s h o u l d n o t , c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e l y , encourage v a n d a l i s m by d e s i g n (Weinmayr. 1973). T h i s need f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g mechanisms t h a t c o v e r a range o f enforcement p r o c e s s e s , i n c l u d i n g both C o e r c i v e , or punishment o r t e n t e d t e c h n i q u e s , as w e l l as d o n - c o e r c i v e , o r m a n i p u l a t i v e and p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t methods. I t 27 s h o u l d however be noted t h a t what was once c o n s i d e r e d u n a c c e p t a b l e , f o r example, the r a t i o n i n g o f w i l d l a n d use, may now and i n the f u t u r e , become more f u l l y a c c e p t a b l e (Lucy Fox. 1975). Mechanisms s h o u l d o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l i f they appear to ensure a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y between p o l i c y o u t p u t and p o l i c y outcome, and i f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements encourage the r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s t o a c t i n a manner c o n d u c i v e to the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f the p o l i c y p l a n . C o s t E f f e c t i v e n e s s No mechanism t h a t i s l i k e l y t o impose a s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l burden on the r e s o u r c e s o f p a r t i c u l a r management a g e n c i e s , to the d e t -r i m e n t o f t h e i r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s c r i t e r i c i m would a p p l y both t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the manpower demands and the c a p i t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r implementing a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y p l a n . E f f i c a c y i n a c h i e v i n g D i s t r i b u t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s The implementary mechanisms c o n s i d e r e d s h o u l d n o t d i s a d v a n t a g e any e x i s t i n g , o r l a t e n t u s e r groups ( u n l e s s t h a t group a c t s i n an a n t i -s o c i a l , o r a n t i - e n v i r o n m e n t a l manner). The mechanism s h o u l d thus e x h i b i t s a l u t a r y - ; d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f e c t s and an e q u i t a b l e s p r e a d o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s . However i t i s noted t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n o f u s e r f e e s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y imply an unequal t r e a t m e n t o f the poor. The broad s c a l e r e -d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income s h o u l d take p l a c e a t a h i g h e r l e v e l , such as through income t a x , r a t h e r than a t r e c r e a t i o n a r e a e n t r y p o i n t s . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r would i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f whether o r not 28 the implementary mechanisms o f each p o l i c y p l a n had the c a p a b i l i t y t o a l t e r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i m p l i e d i n the p l a n . S e c t i o n 2.5: The Role o f the P o l i c y P l a n i n a Lake based R e c r e a t i o n a l Environment The o v e r a l l goal i n any r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n system o r i e n t e d to o n - l a k e , o r s h o r e - l i n e a c t i v i t y , s h o u l d be t o g a i n c o o p e r a t i o n between P r o v i n c i a l , R e g i o n a l and L o c a l l e v e l a g e n c i e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and implemen-t i n g a common s t r a t e g y a p p l i c a b l e to t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n system. To o r g a n i s e f o r t h i s goal i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o a p p l y t h e p r e c e p t s o f p o l i c y p l a n development t h a t were o u t l i n e d i n the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , and adapt them t o the s p e c i f i c needs o f l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y i t would be a d v i s a b l e t o c o n s i d e r t he v a r i e t y o f uses made o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , and the v a r i o u s uses t h a t a r e l i a b l e to be de v e l o p e d i n the f u t u r e . In o t h e r words, the e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l uses t h a t a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o the r e l e v a n t p u b l i c groups and which a r e d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n c h a p t e r 3. Se c o n d l y , t he p l a n n e r s h o u l d i n d i c a t e the consequences o f the c u r r e n t l e v e l s and ty p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n terms o f both s o c i e t a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact. These consequences s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d both f o r p r e s e n t a c t i v i t y l e v e l s and f o r l i k e l y f u t u r e l e v e l s , assuming the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s . The consequences o f c u r r e n t a c t i v i t y t y p e s and l e v e l s a re d e t a i l e d i n s e c t i o n 4.3. T h i r d l y , assumptions s h o u l d be made about the use o f broad 29 g u i d e l i n e s r e g a r d i n g use l e v e l s , a c t i v i t y d i s p o s a l o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and a c t i v i t y p r i o r i t i e s . These would then be i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i s e d i n the development o f s e p a r a t e p o l i c y p l a n s p r e p a r e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n . I t has been su g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y l e v e l and a c t i v i t y z o n i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Both c o n c e p t s however c o n t a i n s e r i o u s p i t f a l l s . D e s p i t e a v a s t a c c u m u l a t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a , t o g e t h e r w i t h subsequent s t u d i e s based around t h i s d a t a , t h e r e remains an a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l f a i l u r e t o i n c o r p o r a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o an o p e r a t i o n a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r m u l a f o r i n l a n d l a k e s ( L o f t u s . 1973). I t i s not on t h i s p o i n t however t h a t the a u t h o r d e c l i n e s t o i n t r o d u c e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o p o l i c y p l a n development, because the p l a n n e r cannot i g n o r e the f a c t t h a t o v e r c r o w d i n g s t i l l e x i s t s , w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grow, and i n some way must have s p e c i f i c l i m i t s p l a c e d upon i t . However, c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y s o c i o l o g i c a l ( r a t h e r than e n v i r o n m e n t a l ) c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , v a r i e s w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e c r e a t i o n a l demands o f the r e c r e a t o r and the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the r e l e v a n t management agency. For example, the U.S. N a t i o n a l Parks S e r v i c e l o c a t e s 8-10 f a m i l y c a m p s i t e s per a c r e , the U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 3 c a m p s i t e s p e r a c r e , w i t h n e i t h e r c a p a c i t y a c t u a l l y r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g v i s i t o r s a t i s f a c t i o n s , but r a t h e r to c o s t and o p e r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y c r i t e r i o n (Bury. 1976). I n s t e a d o f imposing g e n e r a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y c r i t e r i a , i t would be b e t t e r to s e a r c h f o r the most l i m i t i n g o r s e n s i t i v e f a c t o r a t a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e , the one t h a t produces most d i f f i -c u l t i e s o r the most s e r i o u s l o n g term consequences, and r e l a t e the c r i t e r i a t o t h a t f a c t o r (Bury. 1976). Thus o p t i m i s a t i o n would be unique a t each 30 s i t e , w i t h each one c a p a b l e o f b e i n g 'hardened' o r l e f t undeveloped as d e s i r e d . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , and t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , a c t i v i t y z o n i n g , t h e r e f o r e does n o t b e l o n g i n p o l i c y p l a n f o r -m u l a t i o n , but a t the secondary l e v e l o f master p l a n n i n g w i t h i n the ' g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s s e t by t h e p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n . F o u r t h l y , i n view o f the e s t a b l i s h e d g u i d e l i n e s , the p l a n n e r would then c r e a t e a s e r i e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s , f o r example: 1. A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f p r e s e n t use t y p e s , a c t i v i t y l e v e l s and management i n s t i t u t i o n s . 2. A p o l i c y e n c o u r a g i n g i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y , development and „ d i s p e r s i o n . 3. A p o l i c y w i t h an emphasis on the p r o v i s i o n o f a d i v e r -s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n environments and a c t i v i t y t y p e s . Each o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s ( o r a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e s ) would c o n t a i n a number o f P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s and a l s o a s s o c i a t e d implemen-t a r y mechanisms d e s i g n e d t o e n s ure the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . The implementary mechanisms i n v o l v e both the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements, and t h e mechanisms used by the a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s : 1. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangements: a p p r o p r i a t e l e g a l c o n t r o l s , management systems and f i n a n c i n g arrangements. 2. C o n t r o l Mechanisms: a p p r o p r i a t e p o l / i c i n g a c t i v i t y by a g e n c i e s o r p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s groups, 1 r a t i o n i n g / r e g i s -t r a t i o n systems and i n c e n t i v e s , both c o e r c i v e and non-c o e r c i v e . F i n a l l y , the l a k e - o r i e n t e d p o l i c y p l a n s , and t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t o b j e c t i v e s and mechanisms, would be s u b j e c t t o e v a l u a t i o n and c h o i c e a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n , i n o r d e r to judge the r e l a t i v e s u i t a b i l i t y ( a c c o r d i n g t o one s e t o f v a l u e s ) o f a l t e r n a t i v e g o a l s , o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f g o a l s , t o which a g i v e n t r a c t o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d c o u l d be d e d i c a t e d . 32 FOOTNOTES ' B e h a v i o u r M o d i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x d e v e l o p e d from i d e a s g e n e r a t e d a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Dr. Susan B u t t - F i n n . A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , D e p a r t -ment o f P s y c h o l o g y , U.B.C. 33 CHAPTER THREE: RECREATION DEMANDS AND POTENTIALS No d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s has been made o f the e x a c t t r e n d s i n use l e v e l o r a c t i v i t y t ypes i n the Study Area r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t , and c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o j e c t i o n s o f f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n uses and use l e v e l s a r e not l i k e l y t o be w h o l l y a c c u r a t e . I t has however been assumed t h a t demands f o r e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n types w i l l c o n t i n u e , and t h a t t h e y w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e t o r i s e a t l e a s t as f a s t as the e s t i m a t e d t r e n d s f o r p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n " K a m l o o p s - L i l l o o e t " , namely 352 per c e n t between 1961 and 2000 (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972), and t h a t f o r the Thompson-N i c o l a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f 302 per c e n t between 1961 and 1966 (G.V.R.D. 1973) (see appendix 1). The v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and demands, and the f a c i l i t i e s t h a t w i l l be a f f e c t e d by the i n c r e a s i n g demand a r e g i v e n d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t i n the s e c t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w . S e c t i o n 3.1: A n a l y s i s o f Study Area R e c r e a t i o n a l Use and P a s t Trends E x i s t i n g R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s A summary o f the a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and use l e v e l s w i t h i n the Study A r e a d u r i n g the summer o f 1975 (B.C. P a r k s . 1976A). F a c i l i t y Number Use (1975) P r o v i n c i a l Parks and 8 212,000 camper n i g h t s - u s e f i g u r e not R e c r e a t i o n Areas w h o l l y a c c u r a t e as "camper n i g h t s " a r e n o t a f u n c t i o n o f v e h i c l e numbers, not i n d i v i d u a l r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , "camper n i g h t s " c a l c u l a t e d s u b t o t a l was c a l -c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g v e h i c l e a t t e n -dance by f o u r . (B.C. Parks Data 1975) (see map 3.1) (see appendix 9) PROVINCIAL PARK FACILITIES. Map 3.1 33a N - T O .<f. \ { 1 r 5" \ - N 'A c f DM K 4 ( MAP 3.1 PROVINCIAL PARK FACILITIES ^ ® Class A Park ^ O C | a s a A P a r k • U 3 » ° n , y ^ ^ Recreation Area \ ^ . ^ [-] Ecological Reserve ( Lands Branch) ,> ( see appendix 8 for ) f a c i l i t y names ) <f Source: B.C. Parks Branch 1 7 34 F a c i 1 i t y B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Develop-ments Commercial R e c r e a t i o n F a c i 1 i t i e s Highway Department Rest Stops " U n i n c o r p o r a t e d " R e c r e a t i o n Areas Number 87 31 7 Use (1975) 95,000 p e r s o n s ; t h i s use f i g u r e s h o u l d be viewed w i t h some c i r c u m s p e c t i o n , as i t i s based on i n t e r m i t t e n t v i s u a l e s t i m a t e s , r a t h e r than r e g u l a r mechani-c a l c o u n t i n g . The use f i g u r e i s p r o -b a b l y a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e . (B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Data 1975) (see map 3.2) (see appendix 4 ) . Use l e v e l s not o b t a i n a b l e , (see map 3.3) (see appendix 10) Use l e v e l s n o t o b t a i n a b l e , (see map 3.4) . The map does not i n c l u d e the numerous " d r i v e - o f f l o c a t i o n s t h a t a r e w i t h o u t f a c i l i t i e s . The Rest Stops t h a t a r e marked, a l t h o u g h i n t e n d e d o r i g i n a l l y f o r temporary daytime use, a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y under p r e s s u r e from o v e r - n i g h t campers. Use l e v e l s not o b t a i n a b l e . These f o u r a r e a s a r e w i t h o u t formal maintenance o r management, y e t they a r e under p r e s s u r e s a t l e a s t as g r e a t as t h o s e a t the m a j o r i t y o f F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments, (see map 3.11) (see appendix 11). C u r r e n t R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s A l l but seven o f the one hundred and t h i r t y - e i g h t (138) a r e a s noted above a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y l a k e s o r i e n t e d . The r e c r e a t i o n environment w i t h i n the study a r e a emphasises beach and water use, though i n a l e s s c o s m o p o l i t a n sense than t h a t i m p l i e d by beach r e c r e a t i o n on the Okanagan and Shuswap Lakes. The m a j o r i t y o f the f a c i l i t i e s , e v e n the commercial r e s o r t s , l a y an heavy emphasis on the p r o v i s i o n o f space f o r camper/ r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s , r a t h e r than on the p r o v i s i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s , The r e s u l t i n g a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s have tended t h e r e f o r e to l i m i t the Study B.C. FOREST SERVICE DEVELOPMENTS. Map 3.2 34a it r • i \ M A P 3.2 » B .C . F o r e s t S e r v i c e D e v e l o p m e n t s Source: B.C. Forest Service 35" Area to a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t r e c r e a t i o n s e a s o n , t h a t p e r i o d d u r i n g which r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g and s p o r t f i s h i n g a r e f e a s i b l e . In some a r e a s the h u n t i n g season p r o v i d e s an e x t e n s i o n to the season o f a f e w . o f . t h e p r i v a t e commercial f a c i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , e f f o r t s are b e i n g made to f u r t h e r y e a r - r o u n d a c t i v i t y w i t h the development o f : 1. Downhill S k i i n g a t Le Jeune Lodge (see map 3.3 and appendix 10). 2. C r o s s Country S k i i n g a t Le Jeune Lodge and C o r b e t t Lake ( C o u n t r y Inn (see map 3.3 and appendix 10). 3. W i n t e r f i s h i n g f o r E a s t e r n Brook T r o u t a t Trapp ( L . 6 8 ) , B l a c k (1.67) and McGlashan (L.66) Lakes t o the south e a s t o f Kamloops, and Edna Lake sou t h o f M e r r i t t (see map 3.5). S p o r t F i s h i n g In 1971 t h e r e were .388 m i l l i o n f i s h e r m e n r e s i d e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, o r 18.3 per c e n t o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ( S i n c l a i r . 1972). However, i n the K a m l o o p s - L i l l o o e t r e g i o n , the p e r c e n t a g e , a t 26.51 per cent,was the h i g h e s t o f any i n l a n d r e g i o n ( t h i r d b ehind Powell R i v e r / Sunshine Coast a t 37.0 per c e n t and Campbell River/Nanaimo w i t h 29.31 per c e n t ) ( S i n c l a i r 1972). Fur t h e r m o r e , d u r i n g the 1969-70 se a s o n , 24.31 per c e n t o f the t o t a l f i s h i n g e f f o r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the Kamloops r e g i o n ; 70.4 per c e n t o f t h i s e f f o r t (measured i n a n g l e r -days) b e i n g a t t r i b u t a b l e to n o n - l o c a l a n g l e r s (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972). Not o n l y a r e f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e s on the Study Area h i g h i n a b s o l u t e terms, but they a r e a l s o r i s i n g at..rates s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n e x c e s s o f the r a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e as a whole. Between 1963 and 1975 r e s i d e n t a n g l e r l i c e n c e purchases out o f Kamloops, M e r r i t t and P r i n c e t o n r o s e by 110 per c e n t . Over the whole o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 35a 36 purchases r o s e by o n l y 72 per c e n t (see diagram 4.1). T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l i s even more n o t i c e a b l e i n terms o f a l l t y p e s o f n o n - r e s i d e n t l i c e n c e p u r c h a s e s . W i t h i n the Study A r e a , p u r c h a s e s r o s e by 180 per c e n t , w h i l e p r o v i n c e wide r i s e was l i m i t e d t o 21 p e r c e n t (see diagram 4.2). The Study Area i s f o r t u n a t e i n t h a t i t c o n t a i n s what i s one o f the most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f rainbow t r o u t spawn i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Pennask Lake (L.27) p r o v i d e s the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch s t o c k i n g p r o g -ram w i t h between 2% and 4 m i l l i o n rainbow t r o u t eggs each y e a r . Many o f t h e s e eggs p r o v i d e f o r the s t o c k i n g program i n the Study A r e a , which i n 1976 r e q u i r e d 743,000 f i s h . A l l but f o u r o f the s e v e n t y t h r e e ' p r i o r i t y l a k e s i n the Study Area (see map 3.5) have been s t o c k e d a t l e a s t once w i t h rainbow t r o u t i n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s . The e x c e p t i o n s b e i n g those l a k e s now b e i n g s t o c k e d w i t h e a s t e r n brook t r o u t f o r w i n t e r i c e f i s h i n g . The f i s h a r e d i s t r i b u t e d among the l a k e s on the b a s i s o f a P r i o t i t y R a t i n g (see map 3.6). The a c t u a l number o f f i s h p l a c e d i n a l a k e and t h a t l a k e ' s p r i o r i t y r a t i n g a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e n t . However, the r a t i n g , from 1 down to 15 does i n d i c a t e l a k e use l e v e l s i n terms o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y , r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y , s t o c k i n g q u a n t i t y and the p r e s e n c e , not, o f a commercial r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y . P r i o r i t y r a t i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a c t u a l a r e a use l e v e l s , do p r o v i d e a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n o f the major f i s h i n g l a k e s w i t h i n the Study A r e a . I t s h o u l d however be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , t o d a t e , the main d r i v e o f the s t o c k i n g program has been towards demand re s p o n s e . Many l a k e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e most a c c e s s i b l e to the m o t o r i s e d r e c r e a t i o n t s t , have been s t o c k e d s i m p l y t o keep :pace w i t h use l e v e l s , and have now become 'Put and Take' l a k e s . 36a HIGHWAYS DEPARTMENT REST STOPS. Map J>A ( see appendix 10 for facility-names ) 37 A l t h o u g h s t u d i e s (Smith, H a l s e y , S t r i n g e r and Sparrow. 1969) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to c r e a t e an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e l a t e d s t o c k i n g f o r m u l a , i t would seem t h a t s t o c k i n g p o l i c y s t i l l r e l a t e s i n the main t o human p r e s s u r e r a t h e r than the l a k e ' s n a t u r a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n Data on use l e v e l s a t the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments have o n l y become a v a i l a b l e s i n c e 1971, when the program was f o r m a l l y i n a u g u r a t e d . T h u s , no l o n g term comparison i s p o s s i b l e w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s a t P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s , nor w i t h use l e v e l s a t Commercial R e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , f o r which no use f i g u r e s were o b t a i n a b l e d u r i n g the s t u d y p e r i o d . Furthermore the f i g u r e s t h a t were p r o v i d e d by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e as e s t i m a t e s o f use a t t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n developments were s i m p l y t h a t - e s t i m a t e s . Use l e v e l s a r e c a l c u l a t e d on a weekly, o r f o r t - n i g h t l y , b a s i s by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e maintenance p e r s o n n e l , who r e l a t e e s t i m a t e d use to the q u a n t i t y o f garbage c o l l e c t e d and v i s i b l e e v i d e n c e o f e n v i r o n -mental impact. However, r e c o g n i s i n g t h e s e f a l i b i l i t i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to say t h a t use l e v e l s f o r the summer months o f 1975 r e a c h e d a l i t t l e o v e r 200,000 camper n i g h t s " a t t h e 8 P r o v i n c i a l Park F a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the Study Area and a l i t t l e under 100,000 camper n i g h t s a t the 87 B.C. F o r e s t 3 1 S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments ' (B.C. • Parks.*! 1975A). I t i s p o s s i b l e to s u rmise from the B.C. Parks Branch f i g u r e s (see diagrams 3.7 and 3.8) t h a t s i n c e 1969 P r o v i n c i a l Park a t t e n d a n c e w i t h i n the Study Area has i n c r e a s e d a t a s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r r a t e than i n B.C. as a whole. T h i s would a l s o be the case f o r the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n FISH AND WILDLIFE ,STOCKING PRIORITY. Map 3-5 37a o » i ft © ) o 1 MAP 3.5 F I S H & WILDLIFE \ S T O C K I N G PRIORTY Priority 1 Q Priority 2 O Priority 3 Source: B.C. Fish And Wildlife Branch 38 Development use l e v e l s ; i f i t i s assumed t h a t an h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development u s e r s a r e l o c a l f i s h e r m e n . V i s i t o r s from the Lower M a i n l a n d and Vancouver I s l a n d , whose p r i m a r y v a c a t i o n d e s t i n a t i o n i s f u r t h e r i n l a n d , form the l a r g e s t p r o p o r -t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the a r e a ' s t r a n s i e n t r e c r e a t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks system w i t h the Study Area appears t o be u t i l i s e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e s e n o n - l o c a l s . R e s i d e n t s o f the f o u r lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s o c c u p i e d , d u r i n g 1975, an average 56 per c e n t o f a l l camper s i t e s (B.C. P a r k s . 1975A), and n o n - r e s i d e n t s (from the r e s t o f Canada and the U.S.A.) accou n t e d f o r c l o s e t o 24 per c e n t o f a l l o c c u p i e d s i t e s (B.C. P a r k s . 1975B). Only about 7.6 per c e n t o f camper n i g h t s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g 1975 i n t he P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s a t O t t e r Lake ( L . 3 4 ) , A l l i s o n Lake ( L . 4 0 ) , Bromley Rock and Monck Park ( t h e o n l y P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the Study Area a t which campers were, i n 1975, charged a n i g h t l y f e e o f $2) (see map 3.1), were due to use by r e s i d e n t s o f the Thompson-Nicola and Okanagan-Similkameen R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s (B.C. P a r k s . 1975A). I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s accommodate the t r a n s i e n t market, n o t o n l y because they tend to be more a c c e s s i b l e and c o n v e n i e n t , but a l s o because the n o n - l o c a l might p r e f e r the known q u a l i t y / q u a n t i t y o f the Parks f a c i l i t y to the unknown commercial camping ground o r the more p r i m i t i v e F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development. L o c a l r e s i d e n t s to however con-s t i t u t e between 20 and 25 per c e n t o f d a y - u s e r s a t Lac Le Jeune (L.48) P r o v i n c i a l Park (B.C. P a r k s . 1973A), i n which day use i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e d a l m o s t 40 per c e n t o f t o t a l a t t e n d a n c e . The l a r g e number o f p r i v a t e c a m p s i t e s i n the s o u t h western s e c t i o n o f the Okanagan a r e a a r e v i r t u a l l y empty on many n i g h t s , w h i l e the Bromley 38a FISH AND WILDLIFE STOCKING LOCATIONS. Map 3»6 39 Rock and Stemwinder campgrounds a r e more than 100 per c e n t f u l l (B.C. Parks. 1973B) (see map 3.1). T h i s phenomenon was a l s o noted d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d a t Monte Lake. The P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t y was more than f u l l t o c a p a c i t y , w h i l e Blue Mountain Park and Nex-Door Camp-s i t e s i n immediate p r o x i m i t y to the government development were, t o a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , empty, (see map 3.1 and 3.3). The B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments (see map 3.2), as a r e s u l t o f l o c a l knowledge and an h i g h e r s e n s i t i v i t y amongst l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o crowding w i t h i n t h e i r 'own area!, a r e u t i l i s e d to a much h i g h e r degree by r e s i d e n t s o f the Study Area ( a l t h o u g h 'permanent r e s i d e n c e 1 by n o n - l o c a l s was i n e v i d e n c e on B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments a t Tunkua Lake ( L . 1 3 ) , Roche Lake (L44) and Kentucky Lake ( L . 0 6 ) ) . In the Okanagan-Simi1kameen R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l o c a l r e s i d e n t s c o n s t i t u t e a l m o s t 40 per c e n t o f Crown Land Users (B.C. Parks. 1973B). In the Logan Lake a r e a (see map 1.1), t h i s f i g u r e ( f o r K a m l o o p s - S e l k i r k l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ) i n c r e a s e s t o 43 per c e n t , around M e r r i t t i t i s up to 52 per c e n t (B.C. P a r k s . 1973A). I t i s assumed t h a t 'Crown Land Use' can be c l o s e l y equated w i t h F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development use, because the b u l k o f Crown Land r e c r e a t i o n a l use i n the summer i s o r i e n t e d t o the l a k e a s s o c i a t e d F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments. In the f a l l h u n t i n g tends not t o be so n a r r o w l y c o n f i n e d . Maps 3.9 and 3.10 g i v e a v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f use l e v e l s a t t h o s e a r e a s managed by the Parks Branch and the F o r e s t S e r v i c e which a r e under the g r e a t e s t r e c r e a t i o n use p r e s s u r e s . Each a r e a usedc. by more than 100 i n d i v i d u a l s i n 1975 i s f e a t u r e d . I t s h o u l d however be emphasised 39a Diagram 3.7 P R O V I N C I A L P A R K A T T E N D A N C E I N C A M P E R N I G H T S P E R A N N U M CAMPER NIGHTS ATTENDANCE / / / A // \ / / MONCK / L E JEUNE A \4 5000 A ALLISON BROMLEY :» MONTE LK -OTTER LK" 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 YEAR — 1 1 1973 1975 Source> B.C. Provincial Parks Branch 40 a g a i n t h a t the B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e f i g u r e s a r e o f q u e s t i o n a b l e a c c u r a c y and a r e p r o b a b l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e s . In s e v e r a l c a s e s the use l e v e l e l l i p s e does not c o v e r one, but s e v e r a l l a k e s ; f o r example, Davis ( L . 1 0 ) / Boss ( L . 0 9 ) / T h a l a l a k e s , o r the Lundbom/Marquart (L.05) l a k e s g r o u p i n g s , which t o g e t h e r c r e a t e s i n g l e r e c r e a t i o n a l l o c a l e s . Stump Lake ( L . 4 3 ) . an ' u n i n c o r p o r a t e d ' r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , w i t h o u t any formal management, i s i n c l u d e d on the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development use l e v e l map (map 3.10). I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h i s l a k e has a p r o b a b l e annual minimum use l e v e l o f between 5,000 and 10,000 i n d i v i d u a l s ; an e s t i m a t e based on comparison w i t h p e r c e i v e d l e v e l s o f use a t the o t h e r F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a s f o r which o f f i c i a l , though not n e c e s s a r i l y a c c u r a t e , e s t i m a t e s were a v a i l a b l e . S e c t i o n 3.2: A n a l y s i s o f Study Area R e c r e a t i o n P o t e n t i a l s The Canada Land I n v e n t o r y o f R e c r e a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y i n the Study Area suggests t h a t the a r e a has o n l y moderate p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c -r e a t i o n . There a r e no C l a s s 1 o r 2 a r e a s c l a s s i f i e d , a n d o n l y 20 o f the a r e a ' s l a k e s a r e f r o n t e d by a r e a s w a r r a n t i n g a C l a s s 3 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( m o d e r a t e l y h i g h ) , w i t h some 30 i n the C l a s s 4 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( h i g h ) . However, i n a d d i t i o n t o l a k e s a l r e a d y i n c l u d e d i n the F i s h and W i l d l i f e s t o c k i n g program, t h e r e a r e 33 l a k e s c l a s s i f i e d as ' P o t e n t i a l F i s h e r i e s ' (see f o o t n o t e 3.1). Presumably t h e r e f o r e the Study Area demonstrates some c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r e x p a n s i o n as a s p o r t f i s h i n g r e g i o n . Furthermore, the Thompson P l a t e a u i s w i t h i n easy d r i v i n g d i s t a n c e o f the p r o v i n c e ' s main p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , i t i s open t o camper v e h i c l e t r a f f i c , and would appear t o be well s u i t e d to b o a t i n g and f i s h i n g , Diagram 3.8 40a PROVINCIAL PARK ATTENDANCE DAY VISITS PER ANNUM 60000 50000 40000H 300O0-] 20000 10000 D A Y V I S I T O R A T T E N D A N C E N o t e . T h e s e f igures d o not n e c e s s a r i l y represent a t r u e p ic ture as r e c o r d i n g t e c h n i q u e s a n d survey p e r i o d s vary f r o m p a r k to park a n d year to year. / / L E J E U N E / / / A \ ._ :^...\-/ V B R O M L E Y • S A V O N A < / M O N C K M O N T E > ^ A L L I S O N \ v ' . . . . Y E A R 1963 1065 1997 1969 1971 1973 — 1 1973 PROVINCIAL PARK ATTENDANCE DAY VISITS & CAMPER NIGHTS (PERCENT CHANGE FROM 1963 BASE) 150-J 100 50 X C H A N G E T o t a l B . C . A t t e n d a n c e Total A t t e n d a n c e for P e n n a s k , A l l i s o n , B r o m l e y Otter L k , L e J e u n e , M o n c k , M o n t e & S a v o n a 1963 S o u r c e . B . C . P a r k s B r a n c h 1967 1969 41 t o g e t h e r w i t h beach use. i n some o f the lower, s h a l l o w e r l a k e s . I t would a l s o appear to be m o d e r a t e l y r e s i l i e n t t o the impacts o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use. I t has been found t h a t i n most U.S. and Canadian Parks some form o f water body proved to be the most c r i t i c a l s i n g l e f a c t o r used o r enj o y e d by 70-80 per c e n t o f park v i s i t o r s ( M a t t y a s o r s k y . 1968). T h i s f i n d i n g has been v e r i f i e d f o r w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i n C a l i f o r n i a ( M c K i l l o p . 1975). By 1980 Stream and Lake Use may w e l l be .the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e a t t r a c t i o n t o many p a r t s o f the Study Area (B.C. Parks 1973A). A t the same time the i n c r e a s i n g development o f o f f - s e a s o n a t t r a c t i o n s , h u n t i n g , s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g , i c e - f i s h i n g , snow-mobiling.and s k i i n g , both d o w n - h i l l and c r o s s - c o u n t r y , a r e a d d i n g to the p o t e n t i a l o f the Study Area as a major r e c r e a t i o n a l f o c u s (B.C.I.D.,T. and C. 1972). Undoubtedly t o u r i s m i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a major i n c e n t i v e to economic growth. These p o t e n t i a l s a r e f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by ongoing programs d e v e l o p e d under the a u s p i c e s o f the p r o v i n c i a l F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, t h a t have been d e s i g n e d to upgrade the f i s h e r i e s environment w i t h i n the Study Area. In r e c o g n i t i o n o f growing use p r e s s u r e s on t h o s e l a k e s open t o the m o t o r i s e d r e c r e a t i o n i s t , the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n Kamloops has i n i t i a t e d a program o f l a k e s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and a e r a t i o n , which i n 1976 was i n o p e r a t i o n a t seven l a k e s w i t h i n the Study A r e a . The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program i n v o l v e s the i n i t i a l removal o f a l l f i s h i n the' d e s i g n a t e d l a k e ( u s i n g f i s h s p e c i f i c p o i s o n ) , i t s e v e n t u a l r e - s t o c k i n g and, i f n e c e s s a r y , the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f a e r a t i o n equipment. A c c o r d i n g t o John C a r t w r i g h t , F i s h e r i e s B i o l o g i s t w i t h the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n Kamloops, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s the most s u c c e s s f u l program t h a t t he Branch PROVINCIAL PARK USE. Map 3.9 41a S o u r c e : B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h 42 has. A e r a t i o n i s s t i l l v e r y much i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e . I t i s t e c h n i c a l l y v i a b l e , and works v e r y w e l l i n c e r t a i n l a k e s . However, i n the p a s t a e r a t i o n has depended upon d i e s e l o r e l e c t r i c c o m p r e s s o r s , which a r e e x p e n s i v e i n both c a p i t a l and maintenance terms ( a l t h o u g h such compressors a r e i n use a t t h e C o r b e t t Lake Country Inn t o a e r a t e C o r b e t t L a k e ) . F i s h and W i l d l i f e a r e now e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h wind d r i v e n compres-s o r s and p o n d m i l l s . A t t h e same time F i s h and W i l d l i f e have e s t a b l i s h e d t h r e e programs t h a t a re i n t e n d e d t o c r e a t e a w i d e r range o f f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and an h i g h e r q u a l i t y o f s p o r t f i s h i n g . These programs a r e : 1. ' Q u a l i t y A n g l i n g Lakes': o f which t h e r e a r e two i n the Study A r e a . B l u e Lake, s i t u a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y t o the n o r t h - e a s t o f P e t e r Hope Lake ( L . 0 1 ) , and I s l a n d Lake to the south west o f the Lornex Mine i n the H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . On t h e s e l a k e s F i s h and W i l d l i f e have imposed r e g u l a t i o n s r e s t r i c t i n g the f i s h e r m a n t o s i n g l e , n o n - o r g a n i c a l l y b a i t e d , hook use and two f i s h c a t c h l i m i t . The i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e s e c o n t r o l s , and p o s s i b l y a l s o a motor ban, s h o u l d p r e v e n t o v e r - f i s h i n g and a l l o w the growth o f 'Trophy 1 s i z e d f i s h . 2. " F l y F i s h i n g Only Lakes': o f which t h e r e a r e now t h r e e i n the Study A r e a , P e t e r Hope ( L . 0 1 ) , Salmon (L.22) and Pennask (L.27) l a k e s . R e g u l a t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o those imposed upon the ' Q u a l i t y A n g l i n g L a k e s ' , but t he c a t c h l i m i t remains a t e i g h t p er day. 3. Wi n t e r Ice F i s h i n g development t h r o u g h t h e s t o c k i n g o f Mc Glashan ( L . 6 6 ) , B l a c k ( L . 6 7 ) , Trapp (L.68.) and Edna (L.72) l a k e s (see map 3.5) w i t h E a s t e r n Brook T r o u t . FOREST SERVICE RECREATION DEVELOPMENT USE. Map 3.10 42a MAP3J0F0REST SERVICE RECREATION DEVELOPMENT USE S o u r c e : B . C . F o r e s t S e r v i c e 43 In a d d i t i o n John C a r t w r i g h t mentioned t h a t F i s h ~ a n d W i l d l i f e were aware o f the p o t e n t i a l f o r ' H i k e - i n Only' l a k e s and were s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g B l a c k w e l l Lake (L.64) f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Through the use o f such programs S p o r t F i s h i n g remains the major r e c r e a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n i n the Study A r e a . I f i t i s t o c o n t i n u e as such, the q u a l i t y and d i v e r s i t y o f the f i s h i n g r e s o u r c e s h o u l d be both improved and extended. I t s h o u l d a l s o be c u s h i o n e d a g a i n s t growing use p r e s s u r e s . There does however remain a s e r i o u s problem i n t h a t t h e s e programs a r e o n l y o p t i o n a l . T h e i r c r e a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r e not p a r t o f o f f i c i a l F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch p o l i c y but depend on the whim and i n i t i a t i v e o f the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e r s , and as a r e s u l t t h e r e m a y be i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s . I t would appear t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to the p o t e n t i a l f o r improvement, the Study Area a l s o demonstrates a p o t e n t i a l f o r d e c l i n e i n the q u a l i t y o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l environment. Between 1966 and 1980 the p o p u l a t i o n o f ' K a m l o o p s - L i l l o o e t ' was e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a t around 6.3 per c e n t per annum (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972), t h a t f o r the Thompson-Nicola R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , between 1966 and 1981, a t around 8.1 per c e n t per annum (G.V.R.D. 1973). However t h e s e e s t i m a t e s do o v e r s t a t e the p o s i t i o n . The r a t e o f i n c r e a s e f o r the Thompson-Nicola R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t d e c l i n e d d u r i n g the s e v e n t i e s , between 1971 and 1976 i t s p o p u l a t i o n r o s e from 75,754 to 90,294, a t an average o f 3.6 per c e n t per annum. ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1976). The p o p u l a t i o n o f Kamloops, a f t e r a djustment f o r m u n i c i p a l boundary changes r o s e from 46,765 t o 57,241, a t an average o f 3.6 per c e n t p e r annum, w h i l e t h a t o f Okanagan-Similkameen R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 43a 'UNINCORPORATED' 'RECREATION AREAS. Map 3.11 S e e appendix ll for fac i l i ty n a m e ) M A P 3.11 "fa Unincorporated' Recreation Areas 44 between 1971 and 1976, a l s o r o s e by 3.6 per c e n t p e r annum ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada). However the p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole i n c r e a s e d from 2.184 m i l l i o n t o 2.406 m i l l i o n d u r i n g the same p e r i o d , an i n c r e a s e o f 9 p e r c e n t o r 1.8 per c e n t per annum. I t i s e v i d e n t t h e r e f o r e t h a t p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s i n the Study A r e a , d e s p i t e d e c l i n e i n growth e x p e c t a t i o n s , s t i l l o u t s t r i p those f o r the P r o v i n c e , (see appendix 1) In view o f t h e s e growth p r e s s u r e s , as w e l l as the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t i n g growth from the non r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n s e c t o r , i t would n o t seem u n l i k e l y t h a t the h i s t o r i c d e c l i n e e v i d e n c e i n r e c o r d s 3 2 o f s p o r t f i s h i n g q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y i n the p r o v i n c e w i l l c o n t i n u e ' i n t he f u t u r e . I n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o l a k e s , f u r t h e r o v e r s t o c k i n g , f o o d k i l l from o u t b o a r d motor g e n e r a t e d o i l f i l m and h a b i t a t d i s t u r b a n c e ( Y o n s e f f . 1974) a r e a l l l i k e l y to cause a q u a l i t a t i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n . I n e v i t a b l y p r e s s u r e s o f the s p o r t f i s h i n g e nvironment have c o n t r i b u t e d to what many e x p e r t f l y f i s h e r m e n , r e s i d e n t w i t h i n the Study Area and i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d , c l a i m t o be a marked d e c l i n e i n f i s h i n g q u a l i t y a t a l l but the most i s o l a t e d l a k e s . D e c l i n e not o n l y i n f i s h i n g q u a l i t y , but a l s o i n the ambient q u a l i t y o f the t o t a l r e c r e a -t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s a p p a r e n t l y n o t r e a l l y s i g -n i f i c a n t i n terms o f 'meat p r o d u c t i o n and so i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y o b v i o u s to the i n t e r m i t t e n t o r t r a n s i e n t f i s h e r m a n . I t i s however e v i d e n t t o the 'trophy' f i s h e r m a n who would be concerned w i t h q u a l i t y r a t h e r than q u a n t i t y . Hunting w i t h i n the Study Area has a l s o undergone a q u a n t i t a t i v e d e c l i n e . The b i g game s t o c k s have f a l l e n , as has the h a r v e s t , the number 45 o f g u i d e s and the number o f n o n - r e s i d e n t h u n t e r s (B.C. I.P.A. 1976). The l a s t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s however may be the r e s u l t e q u a l l y o f F i s h and W i l d -l i f e l i c e n c i n g p o l i c y , and o f h u n t i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n . Other elements o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l environment a r e a l s o i n danger o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n . D u r i n g the summer months most f a c i l i t i e s o p e r a t e a t c a p a c i t y , y e t i t may be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y heavy use w i l l be made o f beach f a c i l i t i e s a t Paul Lake, Lac Le Jeune (L.48) and N i c o l a Lake (L.04) i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f Kamloops (.B.C Parks 1973A). I n c r e a s e d encroachment by a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s '; ' may make many l a k e s , t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y l i t t l e used, open to a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f a growing p u b l i c and f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e the e x p r e s s e d demand f o r Stream and Lake Use (B.C. Parks. 1973A). C o t t a g i n g has y e t t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the Study A r e a , y e t i t i s now an o b j e c t o f con-t r o v e r s y a t Lac Le Jeune ( L . 4 8 ) , Stump Lake ( L . 4 3 ) , Glimpse Lake (1.02) and o t h e r s . C o t t a g i n g , u n l e s s c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d and regulated',-;is. l i a b l e to have an i n c r e a s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact i n the f u t u r e . Thus the p o t e n t i a l f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t s and a d e c l i n e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i s e v e r on the r i s e . T here i s e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e s on the r e s o u r c e base from i n d u s t r i a l , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n demands w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grow (B.C.I.P.A. 1976); i t may soon become n e c e s s a r y t o implement s t r o n g c o n t r o l s i f d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s not to c o n t i n u e (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1971). S e c t i o n 3.3: The Tragedy o f the Commons Adam Smith's ' i n v i s i b l e hand' does n o t e x i s t t o ' l e a d the i n d i v i d u a l 46-i i n t e n d i n g to promote o n l y h i s own good, t o i n f a c t promote the p u b l i c ' s i n t e r e s t ' . I n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s a r e not the b e s t d e c i s i o n s f o r the e n t i r e s o c i e t y , - y e t i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l environment i t i s more o f t e n than not i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s , both o f the r e c r e a t i o n i s t and the r e c r e a t i o n e n t r e p r e n e u r (both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ) , t h a t c o l o u r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and d e c i s i o n making. As a r e s u l t , overcrowded r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t s , o f which the Study Area i s an example, a r e prone t o d e m o n s t r a t i n g , w i t h v i v i d c l a r i t y , the Tragedy o f the Commons as d e s c r i b e d i n G a r r e t t H a r d i n ' s i n f l u e n t i a l e s s a y ( H a r d i n . 1968). Under c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y , the r a t i o n a l herdsman ( r e c -r e a t i o n i s t ) seeks to maximise h i s p e r s o n a l g a i n . The p o s i t i v e u t i l i t y r e c e i v e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f j u s t one animal ( m o t o r c y c l e , b o a t , camper, e t c . ) goes d i r e c t l y t o the herdsman ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t ) . However, i n con-d i t i o n s o f o v e r c r o w d i n g the n e g a t i v e u t i l i t y caused by a l l the herdsmen ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ) adding e x t r a a n i m a l s ( m o t o r c y c l e s , b o a t s , campers, e t c . ) l e a d s t o o v e r g r a z i n g ( o v e r - f i s h i n g , - c r o w d i n g , - w o o d c u t t i n g , e t c . ) , and w i l l be s p r e a d e q u a l l y between a l l the herdsmen ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ) . The a p p a r e n t i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i v e u t i l i t y g a i n seems, a t l e a s t i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s , t o outweigh the n e g a t i v e u t i l i t y which w i l l be a veraged ou t amongst a l l the herdsmen ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ) . Hence each man i s l o c k e d i n t o a system t h a t compels him to i n c r e a s e h i s herd ( r e c r e a t i o n a l consumption) w i t h o u t l i m i t . The i n d i v i d u a l may c o n t i n u e to a c h i e v e a m a r g i n a l b e n e f i t through some p s y c h o l o g i c a l g a i n even though s o c i e t y , as a whole, i s s t a r t i n g t o s u f f e r . The p u r s u i t o f i n d i v i d u a l freedom w i l l l e a d i n e v i t a b l y t o community r u i n . The s i t u a t i o n i s d o u b l y c o m p l i c a t e d because 47 the herdsman ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t ) w i l l tend not t o back o u t o f the d e t e r i o r a -t i n g commons ( r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t ) , because he r e a l i s e s t h a t h i s e x i t w i l l i n f a c t b e n e f i t t h o s e who remain, as the q u a l i t a t i v e d e c l i n e would be t e m p o r a r i l y h a l t e d by h i s d e p a r t u r e . I t i s o f c o u r s e r e a l i s e d t h a t e v e r y new e n c l o s u r e o f "the commons ( i m p o s i t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l c o n t r o l s ) may i n v o l v e the i n f r i n g e -ment o f somebody's p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y , but a t the same ti m e , as Hegel put i t , 'freedom i s the r e c o g n i t i o n o f n e c e s s i t y ' . The independent working o f the c o n s c i e n c e , whether i t i s a p e r s o n a l c o n s c i e n c e , a p a r -t i c u l a r agency o r s e c t o r c o n s c i e n c e , i s not enough. The achievement o f t he f u l l p o t e n t i a l o f a g i v e n environment must i n v o l v e c o n t r o l s , l i m i -t a t i o n s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o o p e r a t i o n . 48 FOOTNOTES 3 1 ' I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n Kamloops. 3 2 ' I n f o r m a t i o n on h i s t o r i c d e c l i n e o f B.C. Most f i s h i n g q u a l i t y was g a t h e r e d d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C h r i s Houston, g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n the I n s t i t u t e o f Animal Resource E c o l o g y , U.B.C. 49 CHAPTER FOUR: CURRENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND PROBLEMS I t i s the i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r to p r o v i d e a rough s k e t c h o f the p o l i c i e s o f the two most i n f l u e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n ' " management a g e n c i e s i n the Study A r e a , the P r o v i n c i a l Parks branch and F o r e s t S e r v i c e . The F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i s not c o n s i d e r e d here as i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e i r management approach was d e s c r i b e d f u l l y i n c h a p t e r 3. These two s k e t c h e s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by f i v e s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a c t u a l p l a n s o r p l a n n i n g approaches t h a t have been produced o r d i s c u s s e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o a r e a s w i t h i n o r c l o s e t o the Thompson P l a t e a u . A c r i t i q u e , based upon c h a p t e r 3's C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n , w i l l be made o f a l l seven management o r p l a n n i n g approaches i n s e c t i o n 4.2, and t h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the major problems found t o be p r e s e n t i n the Study Area d u r i n g the f i e l d t r i p p e r i o d (B.C. Parks. 1976A). S e c t i o n 4:1 C u r r e n t Management Approaches. B.C. Parks Branch. The Parks Branch has, as w i t h v i r t u a l l y e v e r y o t h e r n o n - e x t r a c t i v e r e s o u r c e management agency, the problem o f m u l t i p l e p r i o r i t i e s . . . . Parks Branch i s g i v e n a u t h o r i t y o v e r Crown r i g h t s i n Parks A r e a s , N a t u r a l Resources w i t h i n Park A r e a s , W i l d l i f e and h a b i t a t s i n parks and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s ; p r e s e r v a t i o n , development and use; r e g u l a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n d i -v i d u a l s u s i n g o r e x p l o i t i n g t h e park. (B.C. Parks A c t . S e c t i o n 2. R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B.C. 1973) 50 I t i s the c o n t r a d i c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by the need f o r both p r e s e r -v a t i o n and use t h a t c r e a t e s t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s . S hould o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s be ' p r e s e r v e d 1 , and hence i m p l i c i t l y r e q u i r e a t l e a s t some c u r t a i l m e n t o f use, o r be d e v e l o p e d to c a t e r t o r i s i n g demands and t h e r e b y i n e v i t a b l y undergo some e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n ? Which i s more v a l u a b l e , the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f c u r r e n t demand, o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o p t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks Branch r e c o g n i s e s the need f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s e r v a t i o n , i n t h a t i t i s the aim o f the Parks Branch t o ensure t h a t a t l e a s t one u n d i s t u r b e d , o r near u n d i s t u r b e d , example o f each o f the p r o v i n c e ' s ' N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Themes' i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a P r o v i n c i a l Park o f C l a s s A s t a n d a r d o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t (B.C. P a r k s . 1973A). Now t h a t most o f the 'Themes' a r e i n c l u d e d and the Parks Branch's ' e x p l o r a t o r y ' , a c q u i s i t i v e growth phase i s s l o w i n g down, c o n s e r v a t i o n needs may s t a r t t a k i n g a back s e a t to r e c r e a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s . P o l i c i e s may i n c r e a s i n g l y emphasise the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c demands ( w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g the n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s o f park a r e a s f o r the employment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s ) (B.C. Rec. and Con. 1975). To meet t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the Parks Branch must examine and p r e d i c t p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l needs, e v a l u a t e the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f p o t e n t i a l park a r e a s , recommend the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e a r e a s f o r park use, and d e v e l o p park management p l a n s t o s a t i s f y both p u b l i c demands and park c a p a b i l i t i e s . (B.C. Rec. and Con. 1975. p. 67) 4 1 The parks system i s d i v i d e d between t h r e e main park t y p e s . W i t h i n the parks system a t which annual a t t e n d a n c e passed the 10 m i l l i o n 51 mark i n 1974: 1. C l a s s A. Parks - the backbone o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks System emphasising the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o u t s t a n d i n g n a t u r a l , s c e n i c o r h i s t o r i c a l a r e a s o f p r o v i n c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Intended p r i m a r i l y f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n , C l a s s A Parks e n j o y the h i g h e s t degree o f e n v i r o n -mental p r o t e c t i o n and a l l o t h e r r e s o u r c e uses a r e p r o h i b i t e d w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . 2. C l a s s B. Parks - i n t e n d e d t o p r o t e c t n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s and a t t r a c t i o n s w i t h a p r i m a r y emphasis on r e c r e a t i o n . However, o t h e r r e s o u r c e uses a r e p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n t he park b o u n d a r i e s , i f , i n the judgement o f the M i n i s t e r , they do not damage r e c r e a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . The C l a s s B s t a t u s i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g phased o u t and i s now seen p r i -m a r i l y as an h o l d i n g d e v i c e p r i o r to r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o C l a s s A. 3. C l a s s C. Parks - t h e s e a r e g e n e r a l l y small parks i n t e n d e d f o r use by l o c a l communities and a r e g r a d u a l l y b e i n g t u r n e d o v e r t o the Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t s : T h i s s t a t u s group may a l s o i n c l u d e i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l developments, as i n the case o f the S i l v e r S t a r S k i A r e a , near Vernon. These t h r e e s t a t u s groups may a l l be d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . For example, c a t e g o r y 1 i n d i c a t e s an emphasis on the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r atmosphere, environment o r ecosystem. Cat e g o r y 3 i n d i c a t e s an emphasis on o f f e r i n g enjoyment, c o n v e n i e n c e and co m f o r t to the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c and c a t e g o r y 5 o f f e r s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . The system i s broken 52 down on a p r o v i n c e wide b a s i s as f o l l o w s : Type C l a s s A C l a s s B C l a s s C R e c r e a t i o n Areas W i l d e r n e s s Number Acerage 248 6 66 18 5.198m 3.321m .027m .561m Conservancy .325m 9.432m ( D o o l i n g . 1975B) In the Study A r e a , s i x o f the e i g h t P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s a r e C l a s s A c a m p s i t e s (see map 3.1) c a t e r i n g l a r g e l y to the t r a n s i e n t . and one, Pennask Lake, i s a R e c r e a t i o n Area. The ca m p s i t e s a r e n o t i n any way c o n s i d e r e d to be d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t s , and t h e r e f o r e f a l l v e r y c l o s e to the commercial camping f a c i l i t i e s i n terms o f market catchment group. T h i s poses problems s i n c e i t i s the d e c l a r e d aim o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks Branch t o r e f r a i n from c o m p e t i t i o n when a p r i v a t e f a c i l i t y c o u l d not r e a l i s t i c a l l y compete w i t h a government f a c i l i t y : . . . the Branch s h o u l d c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y r e t a i n a p r i m i t i v e atmosphere i n i t s c a m p s i t e s p r o v i d i n g o n l y the b a s i c f a c i l i t i e s and r e s i s t i n g the t e m p t a t i o n t o o v e r d e v e l o p s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s i n the park . . . i f t h i s p o l i c y i s f o l l o w e d , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w i l l e x i s t between .the type o f campsite p r o v i d e d by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and t h a t p r o v i d e d by the Branch . . . i n t h i s way the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c h o i c e s open to the p u b l i c w i l l be maximised. Of the two r e m a i n i n g , one, Savona, i s a C l a s s A day use o n l y f a c i l i t y , (B.C. Parks. 1973A) 53 B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e The F o r e s t S e r v i c e t a k e s the p o s i t i o n t h a t f o r e s t s s h o u l d be managed t o p r o v i d e the f u l l range o f goods and s e r v i c e s d e s i r e d from them. Under t h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f '''Integrated Use' the S e r v i c e i s i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g from the l a n d base, b e n e f i t s i n a d d i t i o n t o t i m b e r . I t i s a l s o aware o f the need t o i n t e g r a t e the v a r i o u s p o t e n t i a l uses so t h a t t h e y i n t e r f e r e w i t h each o t h e r as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e , w i t h due r e g a r d t o t h e i r v a r i o u s o r d e r s o f importance t o the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n d i f f e r e n t management a r e a s . Thus the F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c i a l l y attempts t o complement, r a t h e r than compete w i t h the aims and p r i o r i t i e s o f o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n management a g e n c i e s . F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments a r e i n t e n d e d t o be i n f o r -mal and low key, w i t h an emphasis on d i s p e r s e d use and the minimal d i s -t u r b a n c e o f n a t u r a l systems. The bulk o f c u r r e n t e x p a n s i o n work i s l a r g e l y i n t h e development a r e a s which a l r e a d y e x h i b i t some use impact and which f r e q u e n t l y have p r e v i o u s l y been r e s e r v e d under an O r d e r - i n -C o u n c i l f o r the use, r e c r e a t i o n and enjoyment o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . While e m p h a s i s i n g ' s m a l l - s c a l e ' a t i n d i v i d u a l developments, the o v e r a l l b i a s i s towards e x p a n s i o n and d i s p e r s i o n . H a r r y M a r s h a l l , the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n O f f i c e r i n V i c t o r i a s u p p o r t s the case f o r a c o n t r o l l e d d i s p e r s i o n a l o n g 32,000 m i l e s o f the p r o v i n c e ' s l o g g i n g roads and more than 3000 m i l e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l y s u i t a b l e open t r a i l s ; f u r t h e r , he s u g g e s t s t h a t : 54 We would not be d i l i g e n t as r e s o u r c e managers i f we f a i l e d t o a c c e p t the c h a l l e n g e o f o pening up t h i s tremendous a s s e t . (B.C.'s 220 m i l l i o n a c r e s and 4.5 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f l a k e s ) f o r the use and enjoyment o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . ( M a r s h a l l . 1975. p. 4-1) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , i n the Study A r e a , the F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n developments a r e o r i e n t e d towards the Stream and Lake Use c l u s t e r o f a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e the mainstream system, and r e c e i v e e x t e n s i v e , r a t h e r than i n t e n s i v e use (B.C. Parks. 1973B). In 1974 t h e r e were 830 d e v e l o p e d r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s managed by the B.C.F.S., which were u t i l i s e d by about 672,000 v i s i t o r s ( M a r s h a l l . 1975). I n d i v i d u a l P l a n n i n g Approaches Roche Lake Land Use Pl a n (Kamloops. 1976) T h i s p l a n was p r e p a r e d by the Kamloops F l y - F i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n i n response to t h r e e major t h r e a t s t o the Roche Lake (L.44) a r e a : 1. E x c e s s i v e timber h a r v e s t i n g - 45 per c e n t o f l a n d base. 2. D e t e r i o r a t i n g water q u a l i t y . 3. P o t e n t i a l f o r temporary o r permanent l a n d a l i e n a t i o n . In r e c o g n i t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and economic commitments i n the Roche Lake a r e a , the A s s o c i a t i o n p r e s e n t e d ten main p r o p o s a l s f o r -ming the b a s i s o f a c o o r d i n a t e d l a n d use p l a n i n t e n d e d t o i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e l a n d use. The ten p r o p o s a l s were, ( i n a condensed f o r m ) : 1. A l l government a g e n c i e s must r e c o g n i s e and conform t o a s i n g l e l a n d use p l a n . T h i s p l a n s h o u l d be c o o r d i n a t e d and e n f o r c e d by the E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t . 2. No a d d i t i o n a l l a n d a l i e n a t i o n ( e i t h e r temporary o r p e r -manent) s h o u l d o c c u r i n the v i c i n i t y o f the l a k e . 3. Logging s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d u n t i l t he a r e a s , which a r e a t p r e s e n t c l e a r c u t , have a good s t a n d o f advanced r e g e n e r a t i o n . 4. No a d d i t i o n a l water l i c e n c e s s h o u l d be g r a n t e d i n the a r e a ( f l u c t u a t i n g water l e v e l s a d d i n g to w i n t e r k i l l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n ) . 5. P r i v a t e l a n d s i n the a r e a s h o u l d be zoned t o p r e v e n t r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n . 6. A m i n e r a l r e s e r v e s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d o v e r the c o r e a r e a . 7. A r e s t - r o t a t i o n system o f g r a z i n g s h o u l d be implemented i n t h e a r e a and the number o f c a t t l e s h o u l d not be i n c r e a s e d . 8. The f i s h e r i e s h a b i t a t s h o u l d be improved i n the small l a k e s s u r r o u n d i n g Roche Lake. 9. Small r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d and a d m i n i s -t e r e d by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e . T h i s a r e a s h o u l d not be s e t a s i d e as a P r o v i n c i a l Park. 10. L i m i t a t i o n s must be p l a c e d on the use o f o u t b o a r d motors on the l a k e s w i t h i n the Study A r e a . B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e Moratorium Study (B.C. P a r k s . 1975B) T h i s s t u d y was p r e p a r e d by the Parks Branch f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o the Thompson-Okanagan Resource Management Committee, a group comprised o f the (Kamloops. 1975) s e n i o r o f f i c e r from each o f the e l e v e n p r o v i n c i a l government a g e n c i e s a c t i v e i n the r e g i o n : E x t r a c t i v e Resources Lands Branch Water Resources Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e Parks Branch F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch 5-6 P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch H e a l t h S e r v i c e s Highways Department M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s The mandate o f the committees i s somewhat u n c l e a r , and between the f i v e a c t i v e committees i n the p r o v i n c e t h e r e a r e f o u r d i s t i n c t o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . However the committees do have as t h e i r one common aim t h a t o f a c t i n g as a v e h i c l e f o r i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n . In response t o p u b l i c demand the Thompson-Okanagan Resource Management Committee p l a c e d a Moratorium on development i n the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e P l a t e a u between December 1924 and December 1925. D u r i n g t h i s time v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s d e v e l o p e d statements r e g a r d i n g the f u t u r e o f the P l a t e a u . The B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e Study o u t l i n e s the p o l i c y d e v e l o p e d by Parks Branch f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a m u l t i p l e r e s o u r c e use s t u d y and i n t e g r a t e d management p l a n f o r the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e a r e a . An h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d , l a k e studded p l a t e a u w i t h s i m i l a r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o , but l y i n g t o the n o r t h o f , the t h e s i s Study A r e a . In a d d i t i o n , Parks Branch e s t a b -l i s h e d s u b s i d i a r y o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t i n g t o the development o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y , the s t u d y o f the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s on o t h e r e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and a l s o the p r o d u c t i o n o f a management p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n development i n the a r e a . The c o n c l u s i o n s reached i n t h e Study were t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s o f the a r e a h e l d i n t e r e s t , but not o f the type nor s c a l e which e i t h e r w a r r a n t e d , or c o u l d w i t h s t a n d i n t e n s e development and P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n v o l v e m e n t . The Study recommended t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l s be p l a c e d on a c c e s s and t i m b e r c u t t i n g w i t h i n 10 c h a i n s o f a l l l a k e s , streams S e t t l e m e n t S e r v i c i n g and meadows i n the a r e a . The Study a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t the p l a n would be b e s t implemented by r e t a i n i n g the a r e a w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m a n a g e r i a l g r a s p o f the p r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t S e r v i c e . I t a l s o recom-mended t h a t s p e c i f i c O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l r e s e r v e ( f o r the use, r e c r e a t i o n and enjoyment o f the p u b l i c ) s t a t u s be imposed on the t h r e e l a r g e r p r e s e r v a t i o n e n t i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the Study (Bare Lake, S k o a t l e P o i n t and P o r c u p i n e Ridge),and t h a t l i m i t a t i o n s on l o g g i n g , mine c l a i m s , water l i c e n c e s and A.T.V. use be imposed on p a r t s o f the p l a t e a u . These recommendations were a c c e p t e d v i r t u a l l y i n - t o t o . D u r i n g O c tober 1976, O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t management o f the a r e a would be i n c o r p o r a t e d under the F o r e s t S e r v i c e F o l i o System, and t h a t i n a d d i t i o n , a moratorium would be p l a c e d on m i n e r a l c l a i m s t a k i n g , the g r a n t i n g o f water l i c e n c e s and some l o g g i n g i n the a r e a . P o r c u p i n e Ridge was p r o t e c t e d by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l from any a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e o r snowmobile use. Pennask Lake a r e a C o o r d i n a t e d Land Use P l a n Based upon the C o o r d i n a t e d Land Use p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s (Anderson and S c h e r z i n g e r . 1975) d e v e l o p e d f o r Range Management, and used w i t h some s u c c e s s i n the E a s t Kootenays, t h i s ' P l a n " i s not y e t a p l a n , but r e p r e s e n t s a p o t e n t i a l approach to a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g problem. On August 13th 1976 Jean Le Douc o f the B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e i n Kamloops c h a i r e d a meeting i n M e r r i t t t h a t proposed the use o f t h i s approach f o r use i n the a r e a around Pennask (L.27) and Hatheume (L.26) l a k e s . The p r o c e s s depends upon i n p u t from, and the ongoing i n v o l v e m e n t 58 o f , a l l the r e s o u r c e management a g e n c i e s and s e c t o r s h a v i n g i n t e r e s t s i n the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a ; t o g e t h e r w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r c e i v e d needs, p l a n s , p o s s i b l e a r e a s o f c o n t e n t i o n and o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s f o r the next 10-15 y e a r s . As each r e s o u r c e manager, from both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , l a y s o u t h i s p o s i t i o n and o b j e c t i v e p r i o r i t i e s , i t i s assumed to be p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s e n c o u r a g i n g mutual adjustment and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . The o u t p u t from t h i s p r o c e s s then becomes an O p e r a t i o n a l Approach t o r e s o u r c e management i n the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a . A l t h o u g h the p r o c e s s bears some s i m i l a r i t y to the F o r e s t S e r v i c e Resource F o l i o system, the l a t t e r remains e s s e n t i a l l y an i n v e n t o r y p r o c e s s , w h i l e the C o o r d i n a t e d Land Use approach i n v o l v e s e v e n t u a l o p e r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n . Once a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f p r i o r i t i e s have been a c c e p t e d , f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s , c h a n g i n g emphases and new c o n f l i c t s a r e s u b j e c t t o annual e v a l u a t i o n , r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n by the o r i g i n a l l y i n v o l v e d p a r t i e s , o r Task F o r c e . Members o f the Task F o r c e would be i n d i v i d u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h o s e a g e n c i e s and s e c t o r s a c t i v e l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a a t the l o c a l l e v e l . Lake f r o n t P l a n n i n g G u i d e l i n e s f o r the C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ( K a r l s e n . 1971) Prepared by E r i k K a r l s e n , now a c t i n g a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r o f the Resource P l a n n i n g U n i t w i t h i n the E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t , f o r the C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and a c c e p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e June 1971. A l t h o u g h a p p l i e d t o an a r e a some d i s t a n c e to the n o r t h - n o r t h west o f the Study A r e a , t h e s e 59 G u i d e l i n e s were i n t e n d e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n to a l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n a l environment s i m i l a r t o t h a t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The Lake f r o n t P l a n n i n g G u i d e l i n e s were based upon an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Chimney Lake and the problems o b s e r v e d i n i t s e n v i r o n s ; among them, the l o s s o f s c e n i c v a l u e s , a d e t e r i o r a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l environment, s e r v i c i n g problems and competing l a n d and r e s o u r c e uses. The aim o f the Guide-l i n e s was to ensure the development o f l a k e f r o n t a g e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes i n such a way t h a t the n a t u r a l environment, on which r e c r e a t i o n a l q u a l i t y depends, would be m a i n t a i n e d and the p u b l i c would c o n t i n u e to have a c c e s s t o a range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The G u i d e l i n e s i n c l u d e ( t h i s i s not an e x h a u s t i v e l i s t i n g ) : 1. The p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t each l a k e be viewed w i t h the p r o s p e c t o f z o n i n g , p a r t i a l l y o r w h o l l y , f o r a s p e c i f i c use. 2. The emphasis on development a t l a k e s a l r e a d y under some use. 3. The i m p o s i t i o n o f a l i m i t on l a k e f r o n t development a t one 'use u n i t ' f o r e v e r y 2% a c r e s o f water s u r f a c e . On s m a l l e r l a k e s t h i s l i m i t i s reduced t o one 'use u n i t ' f o r e v e r y 5 a c r e s . 4. The recommendation t h a t a 30 per c e n t minimum o f the l a k e shore ( e x t e n d i n g back 10 c h a i n s from the H.W.M.) remains i n r u r a l , o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n use. 5. The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a l a n d use c o n t r a c t be r e q u i r e d f o r a l l i n d u s t r i a l , commercial and o t h e r developments c o v e r i n g more than 4 a c r e s and coming c l o s e r than 10 c h a i n s to the waters edge. ( K a r l s e n . 1971) The Shuswap Lakes R e c r e a t i o n a l System. (B.C. P a r k s . 1976B) T h i s Study had not r e a c h e d f i n a l a p p r o v a l s t a g e a t the time the t h e s i s was w r i t t e n , c o n s e q u e n t l y what i s r e a d here s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y as an i n d i c a t i o n o f Parks Branch t h i n k i n g , r a t h e r than o f f i c i a l 60 p o l i c y . The problems t h a t i t o u t l i n e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r to those p r e s e n t e d i n the o t h e r examples o u t l i n e d above; they i n c l u d e : 1. C o n f l i c t between r e c r e a t i o n a l and o t h e r uses o f the l a k e s . 2. C o n f l i c t between v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l uses. 3. The dominance o f c e r t a i n t ypes o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y as d i c t a t e d by the economic market p l a c e i n which p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e o p e r a t e s . 4. The v i r t u a l l y complete l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on who i s d o i n g what and why. 5. I n c r e a s e d o v e r c r o w d i n g from the growth o f Kamloops, the l o c a l a r e a and t o u r i s t o v e r - s p i l l from the Okanagan. 6. The r e d u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y range as d e v e l o p -ment p r e s s u r e makes a l l p a r t s o f the l a k e a c c e s s i b l e by ro a d . (B.C. P a r k s . 1976) C u r r e n t l y the Parks Branch handles t h r e e major a r e a s o f r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y i n the Shuswap Lakes System; f i r s t l y , i n t e n s i v e use road a c c e s s a r e a s (Camping and Day U s e ) ; s e c o n d l y , a water way park system; and t h i r d l y , p r e s e r v a t i o n a r e a s . In response to the problems l i s t e d above, Parks Branch sees a need to d e v e l o p a number o f P r i m a r y and Secondary o b j e c t i v e s . The Primary o b j e c t i v e o f the Parks Branch i n the Shuswap Study Region s h o u l d be to e s t a b l i s h a system o f parks which c o m p l i -ment the major p r o v i n c e wide system by d e v e l o p i n g a v a r i e t y o f parks which r e f l e c t t he c h a r a c t e r o f the Study Region and the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the r e c r e a t i n g p u b l i c . (B.C. P a r k s . 1976B.p. 14) The s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t i v e i n c l u d e s f o u r e l e m e n t s , the development 61 o f Water A c c e s s Areas and I n t e n s i v e Use Road A c c e s s A r e a s ; the d e l i -n e a t i o n o f P r e s e r v a t i o n Areas and the p r o v i s i o n o f a d i v e r s e range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Each o f t h e s e elements i s backed up by an o u t l i n e p l a n f o r the achievement o f aims. The s t u d y a l s o mentions a f u r t h e r s t a g e i n which canoe r o u t e a c c e s s s i t e s and p o t e n t i a l p r o p e r t y p urchases c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d , a w i n t e r r e c -r e a t i o n p l a n produced and a c o n c e p t u a l p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o n g the.Adams R i v e r p r e p a r e d . These o b j e c t i v e s make i t appear as i f the Parks Branch i n t e n d s t o take s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a r e a ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l c o n t e n t . However, the study does d e c l a r e the Branch's r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need f o r a c o o r d i n a t e d approach i n v o l v i n g i t s e l f , the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Lands Branch, Highways Department and the P r i v a t e S e c t o r . I t i s f o r e s e e n t h a t i n f u t u r e an i n t e g r a t e d r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g body w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o o v e r s e e the p l a n n i n g and management o f t h i s e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e system. Implementary Mechanisms: An Overview The need f o r implementary mechanisms i s r e c o g n i s e d i n a l l the p l a n n i n g approaches view i n t h i s s e c t i o n . However v i r t u a l l y a l l the mechanisms suggested depend a l m o s t e n t i r e l y on c o e r c i v e o r p o l i c e power t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n . An o u t b o a r d motor ban and speed l i m i t s recommended by the Kamloops F l y - f i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , the a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e ban (now f o r m a l i s e d by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l ) s u g g e s t e d i n the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e s t u d y , vandal c o n t r o l a t Pennask, Zoning and l a n d use c o n t r a c t s o r Chimney Lake and the sewage d i s p o s a l c o n t r o l s demanded on the Shuswap Lakes w i l l a l l r e q u i r e p o l i c e enforcement. In r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s , the Parks Branch, d u r i n g 1974, employed 37 62 p a t r o l m e n , 8 g a t e k e e p e r s as w e l l as 25 back c o u n t r y Rangers, o v e r and above t h e i r s t a n d a r d Ranger complement (B.C. Rec. and Con. 1975). F i s h and W i l d l i f e i n the same y e a r added a second C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r t o each o f the a r e a s t a t i o n s a t M e r r i t t , C l i n t o n and Salmon Arm, w h i l e i n the Okanagan a r e a t h e y i n i t i a t e d n i g h t p a t r o l s ( i n c l u d i n g a i r - g r o u n d c h e c k s ) and i n c r e a s e d t h e i r s p e c i a l p a t r o l s . I t was o n l y on r a r e o c c a s i o n s i n the f i v e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g approaches t h a t t h e r e was any s u g g e s t i o n o f u s i n g some form o f non-c o e r c i v e mechanism. For example, i n the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e Moratorium Study i t was s uggested t h a t development around, and a c c e s s t o , Bonaparte Lake be encouraged. Thereby p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e to o r a n o n - c o e r c i v e p r o t e c t i o n d e v i c e f o r , the r e s t o f the T r a n q u i l l e P l a t e a u . S e c t i o n 4.2: C r i t i q u e o f C u r r e n t Management Systems The emphasis i n t h i s s e c t i o n , . w i l l l i e not so much on the p o l i c y c r e a t i o n p r o c e s s e s ( o r ' e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' as o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r 2 ) , but on t h e c r i t i c i s m o f main f e a t u r e s , o r t h o s e elements t h a t can be seen to f a l l under the heading o f e i t h e r p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e o r implementary mechanism Pol i c y O b j e c t i v e s C o n s e r v a t i o n E t h i c . A l l o f the p l a n n i n g approaches o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 4.1 were i n i t i a t e d i n r e s p o n s e to the r e c o g n i t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems; d e t e r i o r a t i n g water q u a l i t y i n Roche Lake ( L . 4 4 ) , the p e r c e i v e d p o t e n t i a l f o r o v e r f i s h i n g 63 a t Pennask Lake ( L . 2 7 ) , the i n c r e a s i n g a l l - t e r r a i n damage on P o r c u p i n e Ridge i n the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e P l a t e a u . A l l , i n some way, a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e s e problems. The Parks Branch emphasises p r e s e r v a t i o n , the maintenance o f ' h i k e - i n ' o n l y s t a t u s on many o f the s m a l l e r l a k e s on the T r a n q u i l l e P l a t e a u and c o n t r o l s on sewage e f f l u e n t e n t e r i n g the Shuswap Lakes. The F o r e s t S e r v i c e encourages ' I n t e g r a t e d Use' and low p r o f i l e c a m p s i t e s i n t e n d e d to a v o i d e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e . The Kamloops F l y - f i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n recommend an out-board.motor ban on some o f the s m a l l e r l a k e s around Roche Lake ( L . 4 4 ) . However the o v e r - a l l i m p r e s s i o n i s one o f a h t h r o p o c e n t r i c i t y ; e m p h a s i s i n g the enhancement and f a c i l i t a t i o n o f man's w i l d l a n d use. The maintenance o f the i n t e g r i t y o f a l a k e ' s n a t u r a l environment take s on o n l y a s e c o n d a r y r o l e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e may be some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s approach i n an a r e a so c l o s e to the p r o v i n c e ' s main p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , i t d i d cause the a u t h o r some s u r p r i s e when a F o r e s t S e r v i c e Ranger a t the ; Pennask Lake C o o r d i n a t e d Land Use Meeting s t a t e d t h a t : There i s a need to m a i n t a i n y i e l d s o u t o f the P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t s , so we w i l l not back away from p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s . . . don't n e c e s s a r i l y b e l i e v e i n m a i n t a i n i n g the t e n - c h a i n r u l e . . . the Government has c o n t r a c t e d t o a l l o w timber companies s p e c i f i c o u t p u t . ... i f , to m a i n t a i n t h i s o u t p u t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o g r i g h t to the l a k e shores they w i l l be a l l o w e d to do so . . . i f we are g o i n g to i n t e n s i f y use o f the f o r e s t s we s h o u l d put o u r e f f o r t s i n t o the b e s t q u a l i t y l a n d s . . . t h e s e a r e the l a k e s h o r e s and the v a l l e y bottoms . . . we c a n ' t a f f o r d to l o o s e stands from blow down and bark b e e t l e even i f the timber i s i n v a l l e y bottoms and l a k e s h o r e s . Lake environment p r e s e r v a t i o n , nor i n d e e d spawning bed and game range p r o t e c t i o n , do not seem here to have been major p r i o r i t i e s . 64 S o c i a l Well Being I t c o u l d be argued t h a t as the Study Area i s s i m p l y one p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l r e c r e a t i o n environment i t s h o u l d m e r e l y form an homogeneous u n i t w i t h i n an heterogenous whole. However the a r e a i s c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s , and i s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the p r o v i n c e ' s major p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s . Many o f the r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s e c e n t r e s w i l l be unable t o t r a v e l the l e n g t h o f the p r o v i n c e i n o r d e r to e x p e r i e n c e i t s n a t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l v a r i e t y . I t i s f e l t t h e r e f o r e t h a t the Study A r e a , t o g e t h e r w i t h e v e r y o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l environment, s h o u l d p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e f l e c t i n g the a r e a ' s n a t u r a l p o t e n t i a l s and s a t i s f y i n g a range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l demands. U n f o r t u n a t e l y much o f the p l a n n i n g p o l i c y w i t h i n the Study Area seems t o be f a l l i n g i n t o the t r a p o f p r o v i d i n g 'minimum'standards which soon become the norm and c a t e r m erely t o homogeneous demands. The F o r e s t S e r v i c e encourages the d i s p e r s i o n o f low p r o f i l e r u s t i c c a m p s i t e s , Parks Branch attempts to c r e a t e 'a p r i m i t i v e atmosphere 1 and both compete wi t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , which as a consequence may d e c l i n e i n q u a l i t y t o an e q u a l l y ' p r i m i t i v e ' l e v e l , j e o p a r d i s i n g incomes w i t h i n the commercial r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . Both F o r e s t S e r v i c e and F i s h and W i l d l i f e respond to p u b l i c p r e s s u r e s f o r roads i n t o , and c a m p s i t e s a t , p r e v i o u s l y i n a c c e s s i b l e l a k e s . Management and development p r o c e d u r e s have c o n v e n i e n t l y been t i e d to the wishes o f m a j o r i t y i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than the maintenance o f a wide number o f u s e r groups ( D i t t o n . 1971), r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s have c a t e r e d to the average when the average camper does no t e x i s t ( S h a f e r . 1971). 65 T h i s homogenisation has been happening even though i t i s r e c o g -n i s e d by the Parks Branch t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f v a r i e t y i n f a c i l i t i e s and the range o f p o t e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them (B.C. P a r k s . 1976B). With a g r e a t e r r e s i d e n t and t o u r i s t p o p u l a t i o n , demands w i l l grow f o r a l t e r n a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to g i v e v a r i e t y to the system. U n l e s s new p o l i c i e s p r o v i d e f o r a d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s e p o l i c i e s w i l l have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on S o c i a l Well B e i n g . The p u r s u i t o f S o c i a l Well Being s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e the r e d u c -t i o n o f i n t e r - s e c t o r a l and -agency c o n f l i c t s , as w e l l as the encouragement o f feedback from the p u b l i c . To date r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g has not r e a l l y succeeded i n d o i n g e i t h e r . However, w i t h changing a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e and p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l t h i s i s g r a u a l l y i m p r o v i n g . The Parks Branch r e c o g n i s e s t h a t i t s h o u l d : m a i n t a i n l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Parks System i s d e v e l o p e d as a c o m p l e m e n t a r y p a n t o f o v e r a l l p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e . (B.C. Rec. and Con. 1975. p. 67) The R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committees have as t h e i r o n l y commonly agreed upon aim ( t h e i r mandate remains i l l - d e f i n e d , f o r reasons o f f l e x i b i l i t y r a t h e r than n e g l i g e n c e ) i s t h a t o f e n c o u r a g i n g i n t e r agency c o o p e r a t i o n and c o i n c i d e n c e o f o b j e c t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n , S o c i a l Well Being would p r o b a b l y b e n e f i t from the a d d i t i o n o f c r e a t i v e o p t i o n s t o the r e c r e a t i o n system. Y e t , the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch have not y e t i n c o r p o r a t e d the p r o v i s i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f s p o r t f i s h i n g environments ( F l y F i s h O n l y / Q u a l i t y A n g l i n g / I c e F i s h i n g e t c . ) 66 i n t o t h e i r o f f i c i a l p o l i c y . The F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c o g n i s e s the v a l u e o f bedding down and r e - s e e d i n g f o r e s t roads no l o n g e r used f o r l o g g i n g , however they have y e t to i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n i n t o l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t s ; and Parks Branch has a tendency t o b u i l d c a m p s i t e s e x h i b i t i n g a d e p r e s s i n g r e g u l a r i t y o f d e s i g n and l a y o u t . E q u i t a b l e Treatment S o c i e t y has c o n v i n c e d i t s e l f t h a t equal o p p o r t u n i t y means the same o p p o r t u n i t y , and thus has c o n c e n t r a t e d on the p r o v i s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s as the s i m p l e s t , c l e a r e s t and most d e c i s i v e way o f demon-s t r a t i n g a commitment t o e q u a l i t y . Nowhere has t h i s been more e v i d e n t than i n the p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( B u r t o n . 1976). However, ' e q u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t ' i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g s h o u l d n o t be under-s t o o d as meaning equal and f r e e a c c e s s , f r e e c a m p s i t e s o r freedom from c o n t r o l , but s h o u l d be taken t o mean t h a t no one be s e r i o u s l y d i s a d v a n -taged ( w i t h i n the l i m i t s d i c t a t e d by a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the c o n s e r v a t i o n E t h i c ) by any p a r t i c u l a r P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s r e l a t e s to the need to p r e v e n t b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g ; t o the t r a n s i e n t t o u r i s t which p l a c e l o c a l p a t t e r n s o f ownership and r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n j e o p a r d y ; and a l s o to l o c a l income g e n e r a t i o n and i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n . In s u p p o r t o f t h i s aim the Parks Branch compensates f a i r l y f o r a l l l a n d s absorbed by park development and i n the Shuswap Lakes Study s p e c i f i -c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t the day use needs o f both l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and v i s i t o r s s h o u l d be r e c o g n i s e d and a d e q u a t e l y s e r v i c e d (B.C. P a r k s . 1976B). The r i g h t s o f commercial f i s h i n g camps were acknowledged i n the Bonaparte-67 T r a n q u i l l e Moratorium Study (B.C. Parks. 1975B) and a r e not j e o p a r d i s e d by F i s h and W i l d l i f e s t o c k i n g p o l i c y . However, c o m p l a i n t s o f u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n were heard from the o p e r a t o r s o f s e v e r a l commercial r e s o r t s because o f a demonstrated tendency, by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e , to e s t a b l i s h f r e e c a m p s i t e s w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f f e e c h a r g i n g commercial camp-s i t e s . T h i s a c t i o n , r a t h e r than i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y may s i m p l y remove i t by p u t t i n g the commercial b u s i n e s s out o f commission. Implementary Mechanisms C o n t r o l E f f e c t i v e n e s s For a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r o l mechanism to be e f f e c t i v e i t must f i r s t l y be a c c e p t a b l e to t h o s e whom i t i s t o c o n t r o l . In t h a t the i m p l e -mentary mechanisms f o r b e h a v i o u r c o n t r o l a r e c u r r e n t l y a t a minimal l e v e l i t i s hard to determine whether they a r e ' a c c e p t a b l e ' o r n o t , o r indeed whether 'minimal management' w i l l i t s e l f l o n g remain a c c e p t a b l e . The f a c t t h a t no one i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d complained o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n heavy handedness may be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the e x i s t i n g c o n t r o l mechanisms a r e c o n s i d e r e d ' a c c e p t a b l e ' . However, the v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f the problems d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.3 would s u g g e s t t h a t the mechanisms a r e i n e f f e c t i v e and hence u n a c c e p t a b l e . The Shuswap Lakes P l a n c a l l s f o r c o n t r o l s on p r i v a t e r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l use (B.C. Parks. 1975B), as do the C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t G u i d e l i n e s ( K a r l s e n . 1971), and, i n as much as both Shuswap Lake and Chimney Lake a r e m o d e r a t e l y ' u r b a n i s e d ' t h e s e c o n t r o l s a r e l i k e l y to be e f f e c t i v e . Any abuses would be h i g h l y v i s i b l e . However, i n the o t h e r 68 a r e a s i t would seem u n l i k e l y t h a t the recommendations on the r e s t r i c t i o n o f a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e use, the i m p o s i t i o n o f speed and horsepower l i m i t s on p a r t i c u l a r l a k e s and the removal o f roads from a l o n g l a k e s h o r e s would be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e . The B.C. A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e A c t has no r e a l t e e t h . I t has no mandate to c o n t r o l m o t o r c y c l e use, and so w i l l c o n t i n u e to be i n e f f e c t i v e u n t i l i t i s made more s p e c i f i c as to v e h i c l e type and to management a u t h o r i t y . Any motor b o a t i n g c o n t r o l s r e q u i r e F e d e r a l s u p p o r t , but t o date t h i s has proven v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n . F i n a l l y , v a n d a l s have been known t o s t e a l l o g g i n g equipment and punch a t r a i l t h rough the 10 c h a i n b a r r i e r to p r o t e c t e d l a k e s . The e x i s t e n c e o f con-t r o l s does not g u arantee t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s . T h i s dichotomy between e x i s t e n c e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s can even be found i n the l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d parks i n the f i r s t p l a c e . In F e d e r a l Law and i n the S t a t u t e s o f A l b e r t a and O n t a r i o the r e s p e c -t i v e Parks A c t s i n c l u d e ' P e r p e t u i t y 1 c l a u s e s ; f o r example: . . . and the N a t i o n a l Parks s h a l l be m a i n t a i n e d and made use o f so as t o l e a v e them unimp a i r e d f o r t h e enjoyment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . S e c t i o n 4 N a t i o n a l Parks A c t (Canada. 1970) There i s no such c l a u s e i n the B.C. Parks A c t . However, even i f t h e r e were, the l a c k o f ' S t a n d i n g ' i n Canadian Law e f f e c t i v e l y removes the r i g h t o f the p r i v a t e c i t i z e n t o c h a l l e n g e any a b r o g a t i o n o f ' p e r p e t u i t y 1 , o r any o t h e r law r e l a t i n g t o r e c r e a t i o n o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f the e n v i r o n -ment. The l a c k o f 'Standing' means t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h o u t ' s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o r damages' may not make a l e g a l case a g a i n s t any p r o j e c t h a v i n g ' s i g n i f i c a n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact' ( O n t a r i o . 1973). The case o f L a r r y  Green vs. Queen i n the O n t a r i o Supreme C o u r t demonstrated both t h a t 69 ' p e r p e t u i t y ' , even when w r i t t e n i n t o t he p r o v i n c i a l Parks A c t , was merely an i d e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t , not a s t a t u t o r y t r u s t , and t h a t the p r i v a t e c i t i z e n w i t h o u t ' S t a n d i n g ' was l i a b l e t o f i n d h i m s e l f l a n d e d w i t h t he f u l l c o s t o f a case t h a t he had i n i t i a t e d as a p u b l i c s e r v i c e ( O n t a r i o . 1 9 7 3 ) . U n t i l p r i v a t e c h a l l e n g e becomes a d m i s s a b l e under Canadian Law, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e s a r e t r e a t e d as p r o p e r t y e n t i t l e d to be m a i n t a i n e d and p r o t e c t e d f o r the b e n e f i t o f i t s owners (the p u b l i c ) , the p r o v i n c e ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l environment w i l l remain under t h r e a t and a l l l e g a l c o n t r o l mechanisms w i l l e s s e n t i a l l y be l e s s than f u l l y e f f e c t i v e . For implementary mechanisms to be e f f e c t i v e the a g e n c i e s r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r them must a l s o be e f f e c t i v e , and, i n as much as i n s t i t u t i o n a l power to c o n t r o l b e h a v i o u r r e s t s upon the p u b l i c impact o f t h e i r o f f i c e r s , t h e s e o f f i c e r s must be e f f e c t i v e . Y e t t h e s e o f f i c e r s , Park Wardens, C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r s , F o r e s t S e r v i c e Rangers and Maintenance Perso n n e l have been i n v e s t e d w i t h l i m i t e d powers a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o a l i m i t e d s phere. There i s no al l o w a n c e f o r c r o s s agency p o l i c i n g . The F o r e s t Ranger has no a u t h o r i t y to i n s p e c t f i s h i n g c r e e l s , the Park Warden has no i n f l u e n c e o u t s i d e park b o u n d a r i e s and a l l must hand o v e r ' p o l i c e ' m a t t e r s t o the R.C.M.P. (B.C. Parks. 1 9 7 2 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e o f f i c e r s , c o ncerned as they a r e w i t h r e c r e a t i o n , f i n d i t hard t o approach campers on an a u t h o r i t a r i a n b a s i s ( H a d i k i n . 1 9 7 3 ) . I t seems t h a t they w i l l always be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y dependent upon b l u f f , p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e s and peer group p r e s s u r e s f o r b e h a v i o u r c o n t r o l . The f i n a l element t o be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f the C o n t r o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n i s t h a t o f v a r i e t y . C u r r e n t 70 p r a c t i c e depends almo s t e n t i r e l y upon c o e r c i v e mechanisms f o r c o n t r o l , mechanisms t h a t have not always proven e f f e c t i v e . In o n l y l i m i t e d c a s e s was the p o t e n t i a l o f n o n - c o e r c i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n r a i s e d i n the v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g approaches d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.1. One example was a s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e Roche Lake Land Use P l a n (Kamloops. 1976) t h a t a sewage dumping p o i n t be p r o v i d e d o u t s i d e the a r e a (presumably where the sewage c o u l d be t r e a t e d ) . T h i s would be seen as a n o n - c o e r c i v e i n c e n t i v e not to dump camper wastes i n Roche Lake. Such implementary mechanisms a t p r e s e n t r e c e i v e s c a n t a t t e n t i o n , y e t t h i s i s an o p t i o n t h a t has much promise f o r the f u t u r e . C o s t E f f e c t i v e n e s s . I t was a p p a r e n t from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h agency o f f i c i a l s t h a t under-manning was a r e a l problem. Y e t , i n the f u t u r e , government a g e n c i e s a r e l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e even g r e a t e r numbers o f s t a f f , which, i f p r e s e n t t r e n d s c o n t i n u e a r e not l i k e l y t o be p r o v i d e d . None o f the p l a n s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.1 make s p e c i f i c demands f o r e x t r a manpower, and c o u l d c o n s e -q u e n t l y be c o n s i d e r e d c o s t e f f e c t i v e from a manpower c o s t p o i n t o f view. However the p l a n n i n g demands made, p a t r o l l i n g o f P o r c u p i n e Ridge on the T r a n q u i l l e P l a t e a u f o r i l l i c i t a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e u s e r s , sewage dumping away from Roche Lake (L.44) and so on i m p l y i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i n g f o r both s a l a r i e s and c a p i t a l . U n l e s s t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d dependence on ' p e r s o n a l ' i n i t i a t i v e s , c i t i z e n s p a t r o l s and e d u c a t i o n programs, a l l the 71 p l a n s c o u l d run i n t o f u n d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . E f f i c a c y i n a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . As w i t h the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , implementary mechanisms s h o u l d a l s o encourage e g a l i t a r i a n d i s t r i b u t i o n a l ends. None o f the few i m p l e -mentary mechanisms d i s c u s s e d o r i m p l i e d i n s e c t i o n 41 r e a l l y a d d r e s s t h i s i s s u e nor do they r e a l l y have the c a p a b i l i t y o f a l t e r i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i m p l i e d by the p l a n o b j e c t i v e s . Yet i t s h o u l d be g uaranteed t h a t p o l i c e a c t i o n does not d i s a d v a n t a g e the l o c a l r e s i d e n t and t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements do not advantage the t r a n s i e n t (advance booking e t c ) . T h i s i s s u e w i l l be a d d r e s s e d more f u l l y i n c h a p t e r 5. S e c t i o n 4.3: Problems o f the Study Area R e c r e a t i o n a l Environment. T h i s s e c t i o n attempts to s y n t h e s i s e s t a t i s t i c a l d ate (use l e v e l s , s t o c k i n g f i g u r e s e t c . ) w i t h p e r s o n a l i m p r e s s i o n s absorbed d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d (B.C. Parks. 1976A). The problems d e s c r i b e d r e l a t e s p e c i f i -c a l l y to the Study A r e a ; they a r e , i n summary: 1. A c c e s s : freedom o f a c c e s s h a v i n g extended the range o f problems a r i s i n g from-The i n t e r n a l combustion engine V a n d a l i s m E n v i r o n m e n t a l o v e r l o a d Permanent r e s i d e n c e Over f i s h i n g P u b l i c / P r i v a t e s e c t o r c o n f l i c t 2. C o n t r o l : problems o f b e h a v i o u r c o n t r o l h a v i n g been compounded by-Lack o f a c c e s s l i m i t a t i o n Lack o f b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l s 72 3. Data: p a u c i t y o f dat a making any a n a l y t i c a l t a s k l e s s r i g o r o u s and p o s s i b l y l e s s v a l i d . Use'data Environmental C a p a b i l i t y C o t t a g i n g A c c e s s I t would not be u n r e a s o n a b l e t o su r m i s e t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f problems a p p a r e n t i n the Study Area a r e the r e s u l t o f improved a c c e s s . F r e q u e n t l y the ease o f a c c e s s was blamed f o r the d e c l i n e o f f i s h i n g q u a l i t y , the i n v i t a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and the m u l t i -p l i c a t i o n o f l a n d use c o n f l i c t s . To quote a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Ralph Shaw, e x - P r e s i d e n t .of t he Kamloops F i s h and Game C l u b : . . . the major t r a g e d y l i e s , not i n the pres e n c e o f the P r o v i n c i a l Parks o r F o r e s t S e r v i c e Developments t h e m s e l v e s , but i n the f a c t t h a t such developments, a l l i e d t o f o r e s t r y r e l a t e d road improvements, tend t o p l a c e i n d i v i d u a l s , who have no sense o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e t h i c , i n the bush where t h i s l a c k o f awareness can cause i r r e p a r a b l e damage. Today's w i l d l a n d u s e r s have no knowledge o f what t h e i r m o t o r b i k e s , a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s and o u t b o a r d motors a r e d o i n g t o the environment and to t h e c o l l e c t i v e psychs o f o t h e r w i l d l a n d u s e r s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , improved a c c e s s has a p p a r e n t l y c r e a t e d prob-lems i n s i x main a r e a s : The I n t e r n a l Combustion Engine Parks a r e not so much ov e r crowded with, p e o p l e as they a r e w i t h c a r s , camper v e h i c l e s , t r a i l e r s and the boats t h a t p e o p l e b r i n g w i t h them ( D o e l l and Twardzik. 1973). The improvement o f road q u a l i t y t o many l a k e s has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r owners o f l a r g e power boats t o haul t h e i r 73 c r a f t i n t o l a k e s t o t a l l y i n c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g the p r e s s u r e s p l a c e d on them by such boat use. Heinz Lange o f the M e r r i t t Rod and Gun Club s t a t e d t h a t Boot Lake, i n the v i c i n i t y o f Pennask Lake (L. 2 7 ) , had r e c e n t l y been opened t o f i s h e r m e n u s i n g a c c e s s a l o n g an hydro t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e . He c l a i m s t o have seen t h i s l a k e , o f l e s s than 50 a c r e s , s u p p o r t i n g more t h a t 20 boats a t one time. One hundred b o a t s , the m a j o r i t y u s i n g gas motors, were counted on Roche Lake (L44) d u r i n g a F i s h i n g Derby i n e a r l y August 1976.' The l a k e has a s u r f a c e a r e a o f 384 a c r e s and, a c c o r d i n g t o s t a n d a r d s recommending 10 a c r e s o f water per boat (Jaakson. 1972), was o v e r two and a h a l f times more crowded than might be c o n s i d e r e d r e a s o n a b l e . Fishermen i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d p o i n t e d to o i l s p i l l a g e from o u t board motors as a major cause o f f i s h f e e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h m o t o r i s e d f i s h i n g i s a l e g i t i m a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , d i s t u r -bance caused by p r o p e l l e r s can cause s e r i o u s damage a l o n g s h o r e l i n e s and i n r e e d beds, the most c r i t i c a l p o r t i o n s o f the a q u a t i c environment ( Y o u s e f f . 1974). A l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e use, i n c l u d i n g m o t o r c y c l i n g and snow-mobiling, i s a l s o w i d e s p r e a d i n the Study A r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y around Stump ( L . 4 3 ) , Kentucky (L.06) and Tunkwa (L.13) l a k e s . Damage t o v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l c o v e r i s e v i d e n t and c l o s e l y resembles the 'Zones o f D i s t u r b a n c e ' d e s c r i b e d by Bury, Wendling and McCool i n t h e i r paper on o f f - r o a d r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s : 74 The zone o f d i s t u r b e d s o i l on the t r a i l s i s t y p i c a l l y about ten f e e t wide. In some l o c a l i s e d a r e a s as much as two f e e t o f s o i l has been eroded away; a g e n e r a l average i s e s t i m a t e d t o be f o u r i n c h e s . Ruts a r e t y p i c a l l y s i x t o e i g h t e e n i n c h e s deep. The s o i l l o s t e q u a l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 250 tons f o r each major t r a c k up a s t e e p h i l l . ( Bury, Wendling and McCooT. 1976. p. 49) The i n c r e a s i n g : use l e v e l s o f t h e s e machines r e f l e c t s a growing tendency among r e c r e a t i o n i s t s t o pack g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r e x p e n d i t u r e s i n t o t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l time s l o t s . There i s a s t e a d y d r i f t towards c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e a c t i v i t i e s (Grey and P e l l e g r i n o . 1973). The problem t h e r e f o r e becomes not so much the a c t i v i t y , but the s c a l e and c o n t e n t o f the a c t i v i t y . A l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e use l e a d s t o an ' a c c e l e r a t e d h a r v e s -t i n g ' o f w i l d l i f e (Bury, Wendling and McCool. 1976), snowmobiles c r e a t e i c e pack on l o g g i n g roads and compress snow c o v e r so t h a t s e e d l i n g s a r e d e s t r o y e d and sm a l l mammal runs c r u s h e d . Furthermore the problem i n c r e a s i n g l y c r e a t e s b e h a v i o r a l problems. Snow-mobilers c o n f l i c t w i t h c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i e r s , and m o t o r c y c l i s t s c o n f l i c t w i t h n o n - m o t o r c y c l i s t s . For example, one campground s t u d y found t h a t most campers: . . . p e r c e i v e m o t o r c y c l i s t s t o be s e l f c e n t e r e d , a n t i - s o c i a l , i n c o n s i d e r a t e o f the r i g h t s o f o t h e r s and u n i n t e l l e c t u a l . By comparison, the r i d e r p e r c e i v e d h i m s e l f as s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d and c o n s i d e r a t e o f the f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s ; however he r a t e d h i m s e l f lower i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l d i m e n s i o n . (Badaracco 1976. p. 32) Vandal ism One o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e Rangers a t t e n d i n g t he Pennask Lake C o o r d i n a t e d ' Land Use meeting i n M e r r i t d u r i n g August 1976, s t a t e d t h a t 75 he r a r e l y went i n t o the woods w i t h o u t s e e i n g some e v i d e n c e o f v a n d a l i s m , and t h a t he r a r e l y t a l k e d to r a n c h e r s who d i d n o t p o i n t out wounded c a t t l e , o r a cow w i t h o u t a c a l f . The Crown Z e l l e r b a c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t the same meeting complained o f damaged l o g g i n g equipment and the a d d i t i o n o f sugar or s a l t t o machine gas t a n k s . Owners o f commercial r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s mentioned the need f o r c o n s t a n t v i g i l a n c e t o p r o t e c t t h e i r p r o p e r t y . A l l o f t h i s v a n d a l i s m i s r e l a t e d to the ease o f a c c e s s made p o s s i b l e by a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s and the c l o s e network o f l o g g i n g r o a d s . Environmental O v e r l o a d A l t h o u g h , d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d , no r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y was found to be degraded t o the l e v e l a t which danger t o human h e a l t h might o c c u r , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t i n many cases permanent b i o l o g i c a l o r p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n was i n f a c t imminent. The d e s t r u c t i o n o f s o i l c o v e r and damage to the a q u a t i c environment have a l r e a d y been c o v e r e d , and to t h i s s h o u l d be added mention o f s e r i o u s f o r e s h o r e d e t e r i o r a t i o n noted around the m a j o r i t y o f boat l a u n c h i n g ramps. T r e e and branch c u t t i n g (from both f a l l e n and s t a n d i n g ) t i m b e r s were e v i d e n t a t both Parks Branch and F o r e s t S e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s . B e a r s , a t t r a c t e d by p o o r l y b u r i e d o r c a r e l e s s l y d i s c a r d e d f i s h e n t r a i l s were s t a t e d t o be a problem a t M i s s e z u l a ( L . 4 2 ) , Kentucky ( L . 0 6 ) , D u f f y (L.51) and Roche (L.44) l a k e s . Garbage and sewage d i s p o s a l d i r e c t l y i n t o the l a k e s and a l s o onto d r y l a n d , t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n e v i t a b l e a e s t h e t i c impact, was noted a t the m a j o r i t y o f l o c a t i o n s v i s i t e d . A c t u a l e u t r o p h i c a t i o n o f the l a k e s i n the Study Area d i d not appear to have reached n o t i c e a b l e l e v e l s , though dense a l g a e growth was o b s e r v e d a t Salmon (L.22) and Chain L.35) l a k e s . However i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Beach Use R e c r e a t i o n may d e c l i n e i f , as i s p o s s i b l e , a w i d e s p r e a d d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f water q u a l i t y s h o u l d o c c u r i n the f u t u r e (B.C. P a r k s . 1973B). I t would seem i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e s e problems w i l l i n c r e a s e i f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y development encourages use beyond the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a b i l i t y o f the s p e c i f i c a r e a . The Chimney Lake Study ( K a r l s e n . 1971) suggests t h a t development i n the v i c i n i t y o f l a r g e r l a k e s be l i m i t e d to a r a t i o o f one p a r k i n g space f o r day use o r o v e r n i g h t camping t o e v e r y 2% a c r e s o f water o r 5 a c r e s i n s m a l l e r l a k e s . C l e a r l y 165 r e c r e a t i o n ' u n i t s ' around Tunkwa Lake (L.13)(486 a c r e s ) and L e i g h t o n Lake (L.14) (205 a c r e s ) r e c o r d e d on S a t u r d a y August 1 s t , o r the r e p o r t e d 150-200 campers t h a t a r r i v e o v e r l o n g weekends a t Roche Lake (L.44) (384 a c r e s ) , r e p r e s e n t use l e v e l e d g i n g v e r y c l o s e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l o v e r l o a d . Permanent Residence The absence o f ' s t a y l i m i t s ' has r e s u l t e d i n a s e r i o u s abuse o f use p r i v i l e g e s a t both F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments and 'Unin-c o r p o r a t e d ' R e c r e a t i o n Areas ( a t which t h e r e i s no o f f i c i a l r e c r e a t i o n management). I n d i v i d u a l s and groups move i n as 'permanent r e s i d e n t s ' , both f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the summer season and f o r the whole y e a r . By v i r t u e o f improved a c c e s s q u a l i t y i t i s f a i r l y s i m p l e f o r a l a r g e camper or t r a i l e r t o g a i n e n t r y t o - a r e c r e a t i o n a r e a and be l e f t t h e r e f o r the whole o f the r e c r e a t i o n season. At Q u i l t a n t o n Lake (L.12) two 77 permanently e n t r e n c h e d campers d i s p l a y i n g 'For S a l e ' s i g n s were seen on a Lands Branch U.R.E.P. r e s e r v e . A t Roche Lake (L.44) an A i r s t r e a m t r a i l e r w i t h U.S. l i c e n c e p l a t e s had r e p o r t e d l y been i n r e s i d e n c e f o r the t h r e e months p r e c e e d i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d . The owner o f t h i s t r a i l e r had not o n l y been i n r e s i d e n c e f b r t h e d u r a t i o n , but had a l s o b u i l t h i m s e l f a s u b s t a n t i a l f i s h smoking shack. At both Tunkwa (L.13) and Kentucky (L.06) l a k e s , t r a i l e r s were seen w i t h s e v e r a l weeks wood s u p p l y p i l e d a l o n g s i d e , waste water d i s p o s a l p i p e s l a i d down and t e l e v i s i o n a e r i a l s a t t a c h e d t o t r e e s . I t was ajlso r e p o r t e d by one o f the owners o f the Tunkwa Lake F i s h i n g Camp, Mrs. Doreen Summers, t h a t a f a m i l y who own a camper permanently l o c a t e d a t the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development by L e i g h t o n Lake (L.14) a c t u a l l y a d v e r t i s e i t i n the Vancouver Sun, f o r weekly r e n t a l . The Roche Lake Land Use P l a n r e c o g n i s e s t h i s problem and recom-mends t h a t a 14 day l i m i t be p l a c e d on a l l s t a y s a t F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments (Kamloops .1976). The F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s a p p a r e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g l i m i t s , and the ty p e o f l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be used to e n f o r c e them. O v e r f i s h i n g T h i s s u b j e c t has a l r e a d y been l a b o u r e d i n c h a p t e r 3 and w i l l t h e r e f o r e not be c o v e r e d here i n d e t a i l . However, i t cannot be o v e r -emphasised t h a t v i r t u a l l y e v e r y e x p e r t f l y f i s h e r m a n i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g > the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d f e l t t h a t t h e r e had been a marked d e t e r i o r a t i o n , o v e r the l a s t two decades, i n the q u a l i t y o f the b e t t e r f i s h a v a i l a b l e 77a Diagram k.l ANNUAL RES IDENT A N G L E R L I C E N C E P U R C H A S E S ( P E R C E N T C H A N G E FROM 1963 B A S E ) ZCHANGE B . C . T o t a l Total of Kamloops, Merritt & Princeton / 9 / / / / y~— Y E A R "I 1 1 1 1 1 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 N o t e ; F i g u r e for 1 9 6 3 r e p r e s e n t s p u r c h a s e s d u r i n g c a l e n d a r year . A l l s u b s e q u e n t f igures represent p u r c h a s e s b e t w e e n A p r i l 1st of t h e year i n d i c a t e d a n d M a r c h 31st of the year fo l lowing . S o u r c e " B . C F i s h & Wi ld l i f e B r a n c h 78 from the Study Area l a k e s . The d e t e r i o r a t i o n has a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y been due t o the r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e s on the a r e a as i n d i c a t e d by the r a t e o f f i s h i n g l i c e n c e purchase growth (see diagrams 4.1 and 4.2). The g e n e r a l f e e l i n g i n the a r e a , e x p r e s s e d most c o n c i s e l y by Jack Shaw, a u t h o r , f i s h e r m a n , and a t t h a t t i m e , manager o f the f i s h i n g s e c t i o n o f B u r f i e l d s S p o r t Shop i n Kamloops, was t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d a need to e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l a k e ' s c a p a c i t y t o re p r o d u c e and the number o f f i s h e r m e n a l l o w e d to use i t . I t was f e l t t h a t i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h very, s p e c i f i c c a p a c i t y o r 'output' s t a n d a r d s f o r l a k e s i n the a r e a , based on l a k e s i z e and fo o d produc-t i v i t y , and t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be used t o s u g g e s t the c o r r e c t s i z e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y p r o v i d e d and thus i n f l u e n c e the p r e s s u r e s imposed on i n d i v i d u a l l a k e s . P u b l i c / P r i v a t e S e c t o r C o n f l i c t I f i t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t one o f the most i m p o r t a n t r o l e s o f any r e c r e a t i o n system i s the p r o v i s i o n o f a v a r i e t y and range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , then i t must a l s o be a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e r e i s an i m p o r t a n t s r o l e f o r p r i v a t e development i n the l e i s u r e f i e l d . There i s no way t h a t a gover n -ment o r g a n i s a t i o n c o u l d d u p l i c a t e the superb q u a l i t y o f c u i s i n e a v a i l a b l e a t P e t e r McVey's C o r b e t t Lake Country Inn, the l u x u r y o f Tim T u l l i s ' s Hatheume Lake Lodge, o r the back c o u n t r y charm o f Qicj^McMaster's S u r r e y Lake F i s h i n g Camp. Y e t , t h e r e i s a danger t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d e v e l o p -ment and e x p e n d i t u r e s , and a b r o a d e n i n g o f f a c i l i t y s t a n d a r d s i n both the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s , t h e r e w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be an i n t e r -s e c t o r a T c l a s h , the b e g i n n i n g s o f which a r e a l r e a d y i n e v i d e n c e . I t was 78a Diagram k.2 ANNUAL NON RESIDENT ANGLER LICENCE PURCHASES (PERCENT CHANGE FROM 1963 BASE) 1 2 0 J y. CHANGE B . C . To ta l / Tota l of K a m l o o p s , M e r r i t t & P r i n c e t o n * 80-I /" / / / / / 60-| / i s ! /' * ' / * • f \ i 40-I / \ \ \ 20 i / / I I i 1 / • \ 10O-| / / / / • V'' YEAR 20-1 , , ¥ 1 1 , , 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 5 N o t e : F i g u r e for 1963 represents p u r c h a s e s d u r i n g the c a l e n d a r year . A l l s u b s e q u e n t figures represent p u r c h a s e s b e t w e e n A p r i l 1st of t h e year i n d i c a t e d a n d M a r c h 31st of the year f o l l o w i n g . S o u r c e : B . C . F i s h & W i l d l i f e B r a n c h 79 the c o n s t a n t c o m p l a i n t o f commercial r e s o r t managers and owners w i t h i n the Study Area t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n from the p u b l i c s e c t o r was making a tough b u s i n e s s h a r d e r . I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t a c c e s s improvement i n t o , and f r e e campsite development a t , l a k e s t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y the assumed p r e s e r v e o f a p a r t i c u l a r r e s o r t was making i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r the commercial o p e r a t i o n t o p r o v i d e camping f a c i l i t i e s as a n y t h i n g o t h e r than a l o s s l e a d e r . The same a c c e s s improvement a l s o tended t o encourage o v e r - f i s h i n g and the subsequent d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e on which the commercial o p e r a t i o n was dependent. The c o n f l i c t problem was m a i n l y seen to be o f c o n c e r n a t the lower end o f the commercial f a c i l i t y q u a l i t y spectrum, Chataway Lakes F i s h i n g Camp and Bolean Lakes F i s h i n g Camps, f o r example. These b e i n g the a r e a s p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s s i m i l a r t o those i n t r o d u c e d by the govern-ment a g e n c i e s . I t was made c l e a r i n s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s t h a t i f the Study Area was to c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e a f u l l y d i v e r s e range o f r e c r e a t i o n oppor-t u n i t i e s , the p u b l i c s e c t o r s h o u l d be encouraged t o c o n c e n t r a t e on p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s and f a c i l i t y s t y l e s , the p r i v a t e s e c t o r ( s t r e n g t h e n e d perhaps by some government s u b s i d y ) on d i f f e r e n t f a c i l i t y t y p e s and a r e a s o u t s i d e the scope o f the p u b l i c s e c t o r . I t was f e l t t h a t c l e a r l i n e s s h o u l d be drawn between the two. C o n t r o l To undermanage r e a l i i t y i s not to keep i t f r e e . I t i s s i m p l y t o l e t some f o r c e r a t h e r than reason shape r e a l i t y (B.C. L e i s u r e . 1973). I t i s a p p a r e n t from the problems o u t l i n e d above t h a t i n keeping the Study 80 Area ' f r e e ' from management c o n t r o l s i t i s i n danger o f d e t e r i o r a t i n g as a r e c r e a t i o n a l environment. C o n t r o l s t h a t might f a c i l i t a t e more e f f i c i e n t management and hence a b e t t e r r e c r e a t i o n a l environment were s u g g e s t e d on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d . Road A c c e s s One o f the major con c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e r s i n the Study Area was t h a t o f p u b l i c a c c e s s . L o g g i n g companies o f c o u r s e have t o b u i l d roads i n o r d e r to l o g . These roads a r e a t p r e s e n t l e f t open once l o g g i n g i s complete, o f t e n because o f p r e s s u r e s from h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s . However c e r t a i n F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e r s e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e to 'put the roads t o b e d 1 . P r e c e d e n t s have been s e t f o r removing c u l v e r t s , e f f e c t i v e l y b l o c k i n g f o r e s t r o a d s ; and i t was t hought t h a t a l l l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t s s h o u l d have w r i t t e n i n t o them, a c l a u s e demanding the r i p p i n g o u t and r e - s e e d i n g o f both roads and l a n d i n g s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from both Crown Z e l l e r b a c h and Gorman B r o t h e r s a t the Pennask Lake C o o r d i n a t e d Land Use meeting s u p p o r t e d t h i s view, s e e i n g i t as an e f f e c -t i v e way o f r e d u c i n g v a n d a l i s m and e v n i r o n m e n t a l abuse. A t the moment the o n l y a c c e s s l i m i t a t i o n t o o l i n use i s t h a t o f i g n o r a n c e . R e c r e a t i o n i s t s u s i n g the more remote ar e a s tend to be l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , and hence r e l y on l o c a l knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s . The l a c k o f s i g n p o s t i n g on the m a j o r i t y o f u n s u r f a c e d roads remains a s e r i o u s d e t e r r e n t t o the t r a n s i e n t . However, i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e f o r s i g n p o s t i n g was r e p o r t e d and d i r e c t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( f i s h i n g maps e t c . ) i s now more w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a s t e p p e d up s i g n p o s t i n g 81 and map p r o d u c t i o n program w i l l take p l a c e ( M a r s h a l l . 1975). U n l e s s t h i s i s i n someway b a l a n c e d by road removal and a c c e s s m a n i p u l a t i o n , the problems o b s e r v e d a t many o f the l a k e s i n the Study A r e a w i l l be d i s p e r s e d e v e n t u a l l y t o a l l t h o s e l a k e s t h a t a r e now p r o t e c t e d by t h e i r remoteness. The m a n i p u l a t i o n o f a c c e s s need not be seen as a l o c k i n g away o f r e s o u r c e s which ought t o be made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c , but i n c e r t a i n c a s e s the o n l y way t h a t an unique e x p e r i e n c e and v u l n e r a b l e ecosystems may be p r e s e r v e d . B e h a v i o u r a l C o n t r o l I t was r e p e a t e d l y suggested d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d a need f o r s t r o n g e r law enforcement c a p a c i t y from t he p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n management a g e n c i e s . Without t h e s e c o n t r o l s , van-d a l i s m , f l o u t i n g o f the B.C. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t and abuse o f c a t c h l i m i t would remain w i d e s p r e a d . A l t h o u g h l o c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n M e r r i t t have a r r a n g e d f o r d a i l y p a t r o l s and e d u c a t i o n a l programs d u r i n g both the h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g s e a sons, and even w i t h the p r e s e n c e o f some p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s who c l a i m to have taken wrong doers to the R.C.M.P., the ge n e r a l f e e l i n g was t h a t e x i s t i n g b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l s were i n a d e q u a t e . Data An ongoing problem i n t h i s , and i n f a c t v i r t u a l l y e v e r y , r e c r e a t i o n environment was the p a u c i t y o f a v a i l a b l e a c c u r a t e use d a t a . The Parks Branch d a t a on parks use i s c o m p i l e d from d i f f e r e n t c o l l e c t i o n mechanisms, i n d i f f e r e n t y e a r s and a t d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . Some o f the use d a t a i s 82 d e r i v e d from mechanical c o u n t i n g machines r e c o r d i n g v e h i c l e a t t e n d a n c e and, some o f the d a t a i s d e r i v e d from 'manual' head coun t s r e c o r d i n g i n d i v i d u a l campers. F o r e s t S e r v i c e d a t a on c ampsite use i s accumulated not by any c o u n t i n g d e v i c e , but from v i s u a l e s t i m a t e s taken d u r i n g o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t s t o the c a m p s i t e s by F o r e s t S e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l . At some o f the s m a l l e r developments, use l e v e l s a r e e s t i m a t e d s o l e l y a c c o r d i n g to the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f garbage. The i n a c c u r a c y o f the d a t a g a t h e r e d by t h e s e means i s demonstrated by the e s t i m a t e s g i v e n by a F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e r o f camper use a t t h r e e s m a l l l a k e s i n the Study Are a . Chain ( L . 3 5 ) , L i n k (L.36) and Osprey (L.37) l a k e s , which have a combined c a p a c i t y f o r about twenty campers a t any one time. The o f f i c e r e s t i m a t e d t h a t use o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e developments a t t h e s e l a k e s exceeded 9000 i n d i v i d u a l s per y e a r , o r about ten times more than use l e v e l e s t i m a t e s a t o t h e r l a k e s w i t h a s i m i l a r c a p a c i t y and a p p a r e n t use. No i n f o r m a t i o n on use a t the commercial developments, the ' u n i n c o r p o r a t e d ' r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s nor the highway r e s t s t o p was a v a i l a b l e . In a d d i t i o n t o the p a u c i t y o f use d a t a , t h e r e were weaknesses i n d a t a r e l a t i n g t o l a n d use r e l i a b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n . There i s o n l y l i m i t e d c o i n c i d e n c e between Canada Land I n v e n t o r y i n d i c a t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y and a c t u a l r e c r e a t i o n a l use. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch dat a c o l l e c t e d i n Kamloops f o r the Study Area l a k e s had n o t , i n 1976 reached the l e v e l o f r e f i n e m e n t a t which i t c o u l d i n d i c a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y , o r c o n d i t i o n d e t e r i o r a t i o n t r e n d s l i k e l y to cause a d e c l i n e i n r e c r e a -t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y . Furthermore i t became e v i d e n t t h a t v e r y l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e o r d a t a e x i s t s p e r t a i n i n g t o the growth o f c o t t a g i n g , and i t s 83 a l l i e d problems, i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t s e l f . Y e t t h i s i s a growing problem t h a t i s l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l mechanisms i n the f u t u r e . Without t h i s d a t a i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to d e v e l o p a r e a l l y a c c u r a t e image o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use and problems i n the Study A r e a , o r p r o j e c t l i k e l y changes i n the f u t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e even the p o p u l a t i o n growth e s t i m a t e s have a l r e a d y proven to be o f q u e s t i o n a b l e a c c u r a c y . At b e s t , i t i s p o s s i b l e to admit to the e x i s t e n c e o f a problem w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e to a c c u r a t e l y q u a n t i f y the e x t e n t o f the problem o r e x t r a p o l a t e i t s f u t u r e r a m i f i c a t i o n s , FOOTNOTES " I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from Dr. P.J. D o o l i n g , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r . Department o f F o s t e r y , U.B.C. Vancouver. / 85 CHAPTER FIVE. THREE ALTERNATIVE POLICY PLANS S e c t i o n 5.1: I n t r o d u c t i o n I t was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t h a t f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s would be d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The f i r s t , a 'Do N o t h i n g 1 a p p r o a c h , was t o have d e s c r i b e d a p l a n n i n g s c e n a r i o i n which the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s would have c o n t i n u e d t o pursue t h e i r s e p a r a t e o b j e c t i v e s and o p e r a t i o n a l approaches. T h i s s c e n a r i o c o u l d s t i l l o c c u r i n a t i g h t e n i n g economy i f i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n were not e f f e c t i v e l y enhanced by c u r r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanisms ( E . L . U . C , R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committees e t c . ) . F i s h and W i l d l i f e might c o n t i n u e m a r g i n a l i n c r e a s e s t o i t s s t o c k i n g program as p u b l i c p r e s s u r e d i c t a t e d ; the F o r e s t S e r v i c e might s t a b i l i s e i t s R e c r e a t i o n Development program and Parks Branch might slow development because o f l o c a l agency a t t i t u d e s toward what has been d e s c r i b e d as 'empire b u i l d i n g ' . However, i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t though the 'Do N o t h i n g 1 s c e n a r i o i s a v e r y r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y , i t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l consequences would be so d r a s t i c t h a t i t c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as a r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . I t would l e a d i n e v i t a b l y t o a d e c l i n e i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y as the Study Area became i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e s s u r e d by more p o s t - b i c e n t e n n i a l t o u r i s t s from the U.S.A., by i n c r e a s e d f l o w s from the lower mainland up the proposed C o q u i h a l l a Highway and by c o n t i n u e d l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n growth. F i s h i n g q u a l i t y would p r o b a b l y d e c l i n e , c a m p s i t e s d e t e r i o r a t e and an homogeneously poor r e c r e a t i o n c h a r -a c t e r be imposed t h r o u g h o u t the Study Ar e a . 86 Having r e j e c t e d t h i s n o n - p l a n n i n g approach t h e r e remained t h r e e r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s as p o t e n t i a l p o l i c y p l a n s f o r f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n development i n the Study A r e a . One, based on a p o s t u l a t e d government s c e n a r i o , the second, r e l a t e d to the i d e a s o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y v o c a l segment o f the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g f r a t e r n i t y and the t h i r d , p e r d o m i n a n t l y the p r o d u c t o f i d e a s d e v e l o p e d by the a u t h o r d u r i n g and s i n c e the f i e l d s t udy p e r i o d . The t h r e e , i n o r d e r o f appearance, a r e : 1. High P r o f i l e Development/Low o r L i m i t e d B e h a v i o u r a l C o n t r o l -the Department o f Economic Development s c e n a r i o e m p h a s i s i n g t o u r i s m development i n the Study Area urban s e t t l e m e n t s , w i t h l i t t l e o r no c o n t r o l on the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h o s e r e c r e a t i o n i s t s who happen t o s p i l l o v e r from the urban c o r e a r e a s (B.C.I.P.A. 1976) 2. Medium P r o f i l e D e v e l o p m e n t / S i g n i f i c a n t B e h a v i o u r a l C o n t r o l -an approach t h a t would encourage r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y development on a d i s p e r s e d b a s i s , a l l i e d t o a major i n c r e a s e i n c o e r c i v e b e h a v i o u r c o n t r o l . 3. Mixed Development A p p r o a c h / D i v e r s e B e h a v i o u r a l I n f l u e n c e s -a p o l i c y p l a n a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e s on the p r o v i s i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f developmental and b e h a v i o u r a l p o t e n t i a l s . I t a t t a c h e s l e s s importance to the c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e and s t r o n g l y c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s demanded i n a l t e r n a t i v e s one and two. A l l t h r e e a r e " d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , and i n each case the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and implementary mechanisms w i l l be s u b j e c t e d to the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 2.3. The p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e i s then f u r t h e r j u s t i f i e d i n s e c t i o n 7.1, and a p p l i e d to the Study Area i n s e c t i o n 7.2. 87 S e c t i o n 5.2: P o l i c y P l a n One: High P r o f i l e Development/Low o r  L i m i t e d B e h a v i o u r a l C o n t r o l T h i s p o l i c y p l a n i s based upon the model f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment proposed i n 'The C e n t r a l Report 76' (B.C.I.P.A.1976), the most r e c e n t o f the p r o v i n c e ' s economic development summary r e p o r t s . T h i s r e p o r t p o s t u l a t e s a p a r t i c u l a r development f o r m a t f o r r e c r e a t i o n development i n a r e g i o n c o v e r i n g most o f the Study A r e a . The main emphasis o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r approach l i e s on the economic development o f the r e g i o n by the r a p i d improvement o f t o u r i s m f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s however o n l y a p o s t u l a t e d approach and so s h o u l d not be seen as an o f f i c i a l v e r s i o n o f government p o l i c y , nor s h o u l d i t be e x p e c t e d to be d e s c r i b e d i n as much d e t a i l as P o l i c y P l a n s Two and Three. The C e n t r a l R e p o r t 76 (B.C.I.P.A. 1976) s i m p l y d i d not commit a g r e a t deal o f energy o r d e t a i l to i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n . P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s In t h a t s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t which d e t a i l s the p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c r e a t i o n developments, the ' P r o f i l e Two' approach recommends the encouragement o f r e c r e a t i o n 'Core' a r e a s . In the Study Areas the s e 'Cores' a r e Kamloops and M e r r i t t , and would presumably i n c l u d e P r i n c e t o n ( o u t s i d e the ' C e n t r a l Report' s t u d y a r ea) i f such a P o l i c y P l a n were adopted. The r e p o r t sees the need, f i r s t l y , f o r the development o f s i g n i f i c a n t t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s i n t h e s e urban 'Core' a r e a s , each e v e n t u a l l y h a v i n g a f u l l complement o f t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . S e c o n d l y , f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f government i n i t i a t i v e s aimed a t 88 d i v e r s i f y i n g and s t a b i l i s i n g the economies o f the s e c o n d a r y communities and r u r a l a r e a s . The r e p o r t assumes t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government would p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l and managerial a s s i s t a n c e to t o u r i s t accommodation and s e r v i c e s o p e r a t o r s , and would a l s o h e l p l o c a l and r e g i o n a l groups d e v e l o p and promote f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t would a t t r a c t and h o l d v i s i t o r s d u r i n g a y e a r l o n g r e c r e a t i o n a l season. T h i s attempt a t m a x i m i s i n g the r e c r e a t i o n r e l a t e d economic growth o f the a r e a emphasises the development o f urban o r semi-urban f a c i l i t i e s . I t would a l s o i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e a c o n c e r t e d road b u i l d i n g program, from the C o q u i h a l l a highway down to an u p g r a d i n g o f the s e c o n d a r y r o a d network (see map 5.1). These r o a d developments would open up more o f the Study Area to r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and would presumably be accompanied by a g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t o f the p r o v i n c i a l Highways Department i n r e c r e a t i o n a l development. More Highway Rest Stops would be r e q u i r e d , b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e s e Rest Stops and perhaps even the p r o v i s i o n o f space f o r o v e r n i g h t campers, because i n c r e a s i n g l y t he Rest Stops a r e b e i n g used u n o f f i c i a l l y f o r o v e r n i g h t s t a y s . T h i s a c c e s s improvement would add impetus t o the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development program, e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r d i s p e r s i v e approach and p r o b a b l y demanding a s t e p p e d up s i g n p o s t i n g a l o n g the upgraded r o a d system. The p o l i c y p l a n would a l s o a c t t o s t i m u l a t e the Parks Branch i n t o e xpanding t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s t o cope w i t h t h e i n f l u x o f t o u r i s t t r a f f i c a t t r a c t e d by the urban 'Cores'. E v a l u a t i o n o f the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s f o r p o l i c y p l a n One, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n , r e v e a l s the ROAD ACCESS. Map 5.1 88a M A P 5.1 R O A D A C C E S S '—. Paved Roads L o o s e S u r f a c e Rough Roads • • ©©Proposed route of Coquihalla Highway 89 f o l l o w i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses: C o n s e r v a t i o n E t h i c A l t h o u g h P o l i c y P l a n One encourages urban o r i e n t e d development, i t would i n e v i t a b l y a t t r a c t s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f v i s i t o r s t o f o r c e an o v e r s p i l l i n t o an a l r e a d y crowded n a t u r a l environment f o r which no a d d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n i s a d v o c a t e d . S o c i a l Well B e i n g In one sense the p o l i c y p l a n adds to the d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h a t i t would p r o v i d e a whole new range o f urban a t t r a c t i o n s . However the a r e a i s now a t t r a c t i v e t o the t o u r i s t and the l o c a l r e s i d e n t , not because o f i t s urban a m e n i t i e s , but because o f i t s s p o r t s - f i s h i n g . Urban a t t r a c t i o n s a r e a l m o s t i r r e l e v a n t . In the l o n g term s p i l l - o v e r from the 'Core' a r e a s w i l l l i k e l y cause an h o mogenisation o f non-urban r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The p l a n v i s u a l i s e s the government t a k i n g on a more ' e n t r e -p r e n e u r i n g ' r o l e , w i t h permanent a g e n c i e s much more a c t i v e i n a n t i c i p a t i n g and g u i d i n g t h e demand f o r , and s u p p l y of, s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . I t a l s o appears t o c a l l f o r g r e a t e r development, s u p p o r t e d by government f u n d i n g and a d v i c e , w i t h i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , e s p e c i a l l y o f t h o s e accommodations and s e r v i c e s t h a t would l e n g t h e n the r e c r e a t i o n season. I t would seem t h a t the p u r s u i t o f both the s e aims, government i n v o l v e m e n t i n r e c r e a t i o n a l development and an upgraded p r i v a t e s e c t o r , c o u l d r e s u l t i n a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n . At the same ti m e , any i n c r e a s e d i n t e n s i v e development might p r e c i p i t a t e c o n f l i c t between the r e c r e a t i o n 90 and the n o n - r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r s . A f o r e - t a s t e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n f l i c t i s seen i n the p r o t e s t s d i r e c t e d a t I r o n Mountain R e s o r t , an h o t e l / condominium/conference c e n t r e proposed f o r l o c a t i o n on r a n g e l a n d near M e r r i t t (Kamloops S e n t i n e l . 12.8.76). The a c t u a l development o f t h i s r e s o r t would p r o b a b l y i n s t i g a t e the a c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n o f r a n c h i n g i n t e r e s t s i n the a r e a . T h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t does not s t r e n g t h e n s o c i a l Well b e i n g . However, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t P o l i c y P l a n One p r o b a b l y has the h i g h e s t b e n e f i c i a l impact o f the t h r e e , i n terms o f l o c a l income g e n e r a t i o n . E q u i t a b l e Treatment The i l o l i c y p l a n would p r o v i d e f o r the t o u r i s t , and f o r the f i n a n -c i n g o f l o c a l l y owned r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . However, t h i s does not g u a rantee t h a t i n the l o n g term l o c a l use p a t t e r n s would no t be s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by the t o u r i s t o r i e n t e d developments, the p r o b a b l e i n c r e a s e i n c o t t a g i n g and the consequent e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the n e t s o c i a l c o s t s o f t o u r i s m development to l o c a l r e s i d e n t s may exceed n e t t o t a l b e n e f i t s i n c l u d i n g s h o r t term l o c a l income g e n e r a t i o n . Costs may be f e l t by a l l l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , whereas the monetary b e n e f i t s may be l i m i t e d s o l e l y t o t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a l r e a d y i n v o l v e d i n s e r v i c i n g t o u r i s t s . Implementary Mechanisms A l t h o u g h implementary mechanisms o t h e r than an emphasis on g o v e r n -ment f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , are not c o v e r e d i n the C e n t r a l R e p o r t , i t can be assumed t h a t , o t h e r than the n o n - c o e r c i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the 'Core' a r e a s 91 ( c o n t r o l l i n g use i n r u r a l a r e a s by e m p h a s i s i n g development i n urban a r e a s ) , the main implementary emphasis w i l l be through e x i s t i n g i n s t i -t u t i o n a l mechanisms and on c o e r c i v e c o n t r o l s . C o n t r o l E f f e c t i v e n e s s As the p o l i c y p l a n s t a n d s i n the r e p o r t , i t c o n t a i n s no demand f o r o v e r t c o e r c i o n and c o u l d thus be c o n s i d e r e d ' a c c e p t a b l e ' by a m a j o r i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . However whether t h i s l a c k o f c o n t r o l would, i n the l o n g term, prove ' a c c e p t a b l e ' , depends on how e f f e c t i v e e x i s t i n g c o n t r o l s were a t h a n d l i n g f u t u r e p r e s s u r e s . Without i n c r e a s e d r e s o u r c e s i t would seem u n l i k e l y t h a t the government a g e n c i e s would be a b l e to handle the o v e r s p i l l from the 'Core' a r e a s . E x i s t i n g c o n t r o l s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanisms t h e r e f o r e might be c o n s i d e r e d ' a c c e p t a b l e ' , but c e r t a i n l y not e f f e c t i v e . C o s t E f f e c t i v e n e s s Nowhere i n the r e p o r t i s mention made o f l i k e l y s o u r c e s f o r f i n a n -c i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanisms t h a t would be n e c e s s a r y t o a r r a n g e the i n c r e a s e d government i n v o l v e m e n t i m p l i e d i n the r e p o r t . Nor whether the c o s t s o f t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t would outweigh the b e n e f i t s g a i n e d from i t . U n t i l more f i n a n c i a l d e t a i l i s a v a i l a b l e i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o make a s p e c i f i c judgement on t h i s m a t t e r . However i t would not be u n r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t the i n c r e a s e d demand f o r , and d i s p e r s i o n o f , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s might p l a c e s e r i o u s , and hence c o s t i n e f f e c t i v e , p r e s s u r e s on a l r e a d y s t r a i n e d manpower, u n l e s s l o c a l ' f r e e ' o r g a n i s a t i o n s can be coopted i n t o the controls-management p r o c e s s ( p a t r o l s , c r e e l c h e c k s , e t c . ) . 92 E f f i c a c y i n a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s The ' C e n t r a l Report '76' has as one o f i t s p r i m a r y aims, the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t y i n t o the s m a l l e r communities and r u r a l a r e a s . P o l i c y P l a n One might t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d t o have the p o t e n t i a l f o r r e d i s t r i b u t i n g the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g from r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m . However, i t would seem more l i k e l y t h a t the i n j e c t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l government f i n a n c i n g i n t o the p r i v a t e s e c t o r as a development mechanism would encourage the 'have's', p o s s i b l y t o the d e t r i m e n t o f the 'have-nots'. In as much as the o t h e r implementary mechanisms assumed i n P o l i c y P l a n One would be no d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e c u r r e n t l y i n use, the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f e c t s would be no b e t t e r , nor any worse than a t p r e s e n t . N e i t h e r would the c a p a b i l i t y t o a l t e r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s be changed. S e c t i o n 5.3: P o l i c y P l a n Two. Medium P r o f i l e D e v e l o p m e n t / S i g n i f i c a n t B e h a v i o u r a l C o n t r o l . P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s P o l i c y P l a n Two would encourage a lower p r o f i l e approach to r e c r e a t i o n development than t h a t proposed i n P o l i c y P l a n One, concen-t r a t i n g l a r g e l y on the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s . However, i t would n o t i g n o r e the f a c t s p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n 1.2; t h a t the Study Area i s s u b j e c t t o m a j o r . p o p u l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n p r e s s u r e s . P o l i c y P l a n Two would t h e r e f o r e have as i t s prime p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e , the e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a b s o r p t i o n o f l i k e l y f u t u r e i n c r e a s e d i n t o u r i s t and l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n needs. T h i s a b s o r p t i o n 93 would be planned i n such a way as t o m i n i m i s e c o n t a c t between r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and o t h e r r e s o u r c e u s e r s . I t i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t i s f i r m l y based upon the o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d both i n the Roche Lake Land Use P l a n (Kamloops. 1976) and the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e M oratorium Study (B.C. Park s . 1954B), o b j e c t i v e s t h a t c o u l d be adopted and t u i l i s e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . As t he emphasis i n P o l i c y P l a n Two i s on implementary mechanism, t h e r e w i l l be no s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n t o the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s ; o t h e r than to emphasise t h a t t he o b j e c t i v e s would be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a c o n s e r v a t i o n e t h i c , s o c i a l w e l l b e i n g and e q u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t . Implementary Mechanisms In o r d e r to a c h i e v e the o b j e c t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n and s o c i a l w e l l b e i n g , P o l i c y P l a n Two would be dependent p r i m a r i l y upon the use o f c o e r c i v e b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l s . The i n s t i t u t i o n o f such c o n t r o l s f o r recreation-management has r e c e i v e d s t r o n g s u p p o r t i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e : The q u a l i t y o f the environment i s under i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e from both i n d u s t r y and t o u r i s m . . . w i l l need t o implement s t r o n g c o n t r o l s i f d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s not t o c o n t i n u e . (B.C.I.T. and C. 1971: p. 13) . . . peopl e have t o be g u i d e d , i n s t r u c t e d , c o e r c e d and somehow made t o und e r s t a n d t h a t a s p e c i f i c park ( o r o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l environment) was d e s i g n e d f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose as s e t f o r t h by t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f o r no o t h e r purpose. ( D o e l l and Twardzik. 1972. p. 251) 94 . . . by 1980: p r o h i b i t i o n o f use o f cans and g l a s s i n w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s ; . . . by 1985: r e c r e a t i o n i s t s w i l l be a c c e p t i n g r e s t r i c t i v e management p r o c e d u r e s and the a l t e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use; . . . by 1990: r e c r e a t i o n a l boat s i z e r e s t r i c t e d on a l l p u b l i c water b o d i e s ; . . . by 2000: a l l m o t o r i s e d v e h i c l e s e x c l u d e d from h u n t i n g a r e a s d u r i n g the h u n t i n g season. ( S h a f e r , M o e l l e r and G e t t y . 1974) The c o e r c i v e approach has now been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d . M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y h a v i n g r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d a Park and R e c r e a t i o n Law Enforcement I n s t i t u t e , and t h e R.C.M.P. f e a t u r e d as g u e s t speakers a t a 5 1 ' r e c e n t w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n c o n f e r e n c e . ' F u r t h e r m o r e , when such con-t r o l s , g e n e r a l l y r e l a t i n g to r a t i o n i n g o r the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f u s e r s , have been implemented, t h e y have been r e c e i v e d w i t h r e m a r k a b l y l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n from the p u b l i c . The U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e has c o n d u c t e d some s t u d i e s on whether r e c r e a t i o n a l managers f e l t t h a t t h e y were a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r through the i m p o s i t i o n o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s (Oregon 1968). Most managers f e l t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s t s would r e s i s t and r e s e n t any such l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e i r freedoms. Yet when the U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e q u e s t i o n e d the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s t h e m s e l v e s , o u t d o o r u s e r s were f a r more ready t o a c c e p t new and expanded r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s than was e x p e c t e d by the managers (Oregon 1968). R a t i o n i n g systems i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y met w i t h g r e a t e r s u c c e s s and a c c e p t a n c e than managers o r i g i n a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d (Lucy Fox. 1976). Hendee and Lucas a r r i v e d a t a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n : . . . s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t most w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s f a v o u r , o r a t l e a s t do not o b j e c t t o , the c o n c e p t o f mandatory p e r m i t s , r e g i s t r a t i o n o r r e l a t e d c o n t r o l s . (Hendee and Lucas. 1973. p. 207) 95 Thus i t would seem t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n o f P o l i c y P l a n Two i n the Study A r e a , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t r i c t c a p a c i t y l e v e l s a t each r e c r e a t i o n l o c a l e and t h e i r i m p o s i t i o n , u s i n g r a t i o n i n g , o r r e g i s -t r a t i o n systems, might have a s i g n i f i c a n t chance o f s u c c e s s . To check t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s , the implementary mechanisms a r e e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the e s t a b l i s h e d C r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n : C o n t r o l E f f e c t i v e n e s s I t has a l r e a d y been demonstrated t h a t the r a t i o n i n g mechanisms were more r e a d i l y a c c e p t a b l e than might be e x p e c t e d . T h e i r a c c e p t a b i l i t y might be s t i l l f u r t h e r upgraded i f the p u b l i c were educated t o t h i n k o f such r a t i o n i n g m e rely as an e x t e n s i o n o f c o n t r o l s a l r e a d y imposed upon h u n t e r s and f i s h e r m e n . However, a r e c e n t s t u d y (Lucy Fox. 1976) d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t amongst back-packers i n Manning Park, B r i t i s h Columbia, 53 per c e n t o f t h o s e q u e s t i o n e d i n f a c t r e a c t e d n e g a t i v e l y t o the i d e a o f r a t i o n i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , the B.C. Parks Branch now r e c e i v e s a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c o m p l a i n t s r e l a t e d to e x c e s s i v e c o n t r o l s , gatehouse r e g i s -t r a t i o n , c a mpsite assignment and h i g h p r o f i l e p r e s e n c e o f warden p a t r o l s , than c o m p l a i n t s r e l a t e d to v a n d a l i s m o r c a m p s i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s ( J o r d a n . 1976). In h e a v i l y used r e c r e a t i o n a l environments b e h a v i o u r a l v i o l a t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e to o c c u r when park r u l e s i n t e r f e r e w i t h what r e c r e a t i o n i s t s r e g a r d as t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o have a good time ( H a d i k i n . 1973). When r u l e s i n t e n d e d t o r e g u l a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and the n a t u r a l environment i n t e r f e r e w i t h the more s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f camping, h o s t i l i t y toward the r e s p o n s i b l e management i s al1 too commonplace. The s u c c e s s o f the U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e g i s t r a t i o n / r a t i o n i n g 96 system has been l i m i t e d t o s p e c i f i c , l i m i t e d a c c e s s , w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s i n which use i s g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t o b a c k p a c k i n g (Washington and Oregon), c a n o e i n g . (Boundary Waters Canoe Area) (Hendee and Lucas. 1972) o r M o u n t a i n e e r i n g (Mt. M c K i n l e y N a t i o n a l P a r k ) ( H a r r i s o n . 1975). Whether such c o n t r o l s would be e f f e c t i v e i n a r e g i o n such as the Study Area i n which ease o f a c c e s s i s a p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (see map 5.1) i s a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . Without a l i m i t on e n t r y p o i n t s t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y no way t h a t r a t i o n i n g or r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s c o u l d be implemented w i t h r e a l e f f i c i e n c y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e c o n t r o l s a r e p u n i t i v e , r a t h e r than r e w a r d i n g , and d e s p i t e the demonstrated s u c c e s s e s o f r a t i o n i n g systems i n the U.S., i t i s n o t g u a r a n t e e d , w i t h o u t g r e a t e r - c o n t r o l on a c c e s s , t h a t the t e c h h i u q e s would be d i r e c t l y t r a n s f e r a b l e t o the Study A r e a . The l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l p u b l i c u s i n g the s t u d y a r e a might be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s r e s p o n s i v e to o v e r t c o e r c i o n ( w i t h o u t some promise o f r e w a r d ) , than the more h i g h l y e d u c a t e d , s o p h i s t i c a t e d and p r o b a b l y more e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e b a ck-packers who use w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . S o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s b e i n g one o f the prime i n f l u e n c e s on r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and m o t i v a t i o n ( C a t t o n . 1969). The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s t r o n g l y c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s o f b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l w i l l depend upon a r a d i c a l u p g r a d i n g o f the p o l i c e powers o f the agency f i e l d o p e r a t i v e s . Or a t l e a s t an i n c r e a s e i n the a v a i l a b l e number o f uniformed f i e l d o p e r a t i v e s , v i s i b i l i t y v e r y o f t e n b e i n g an e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l on i t s own. I f the e x i s t i n g c o n t r o l s on sewage and garbage dumping, c a t c h l i m i t s , l o n g term r e s i d e n c e , a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r 97 and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y damaging r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e t o be e n f o r c e d , Park Wardens, F o r e s t S e r v i c e Rangers and Maintenance Men, as w e l l as F i s h and W i l d l i f e C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r s must be p e r m i t t e d a b r o a d e r range o f powers. Powers, which a c c o r d i n g to s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s , the o f f i c e r s see as b e i n g n e c e s s a r y and which they would be w i l l i n g t o adopt. Cross agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p o l i c e , r a t h e r than c i t i z e n ' s powers o f a r r e s t and more o b v i o u s s u p p o r t from the p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t s , would a l l be i m p o r t a n t elements i n the b r o a d e n i n g o f a power base. None o f t h e s e powers a r e a v a i l a b l e t o the o p e r a t i v e s under e x i s t i n g agency e n a b l i n g a c t s . Thus, b e f o r e t h e s e powers were a v a i l a b l e , and so b e f o r e P o l i c y P l a n Two c o u l d be implemented, the B.C. F o r e s t A c t , the B.C. Parks A c t and the B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e A c t would have to undergo major changes. The i n s t i t u t i o n o f r a t i o n i n g , r e g i s t r a t i o n and r e g i o n wide ' p o l i c e ' a c t i v i t y , a l t h o u g h perhaps n e c e s s a r y , would r e q u i r e a massive i n c r e a s e i n o p e r a t i o n a l f i n a n c i n g . I n c r e a s e d manpower, i n c r e a s e d v e h i c l e demands, p r o l o n g e d c o u r t a c t i v i t y and p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e d c a p i t a l c o s t s ( r e g i s t r a t i o n s t a t i o n s , check p o i n t s e t c . ) , would a l l impose s t r a i n s on e x i s t i n g budgets. However, w i t h o u t s t a i s f y i n g t h e s e needs, the more t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e , and F i s h and W i l d l i f e p e r s o n n e l might be hampered by the a d d i t i o n o f new T a s k s . I t has been suggested t h a t t h e s e e x t r a c o s t s c o u l d be met by c h a r g i n g f o r e n t r y t o the v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l l o c a l e s . C h a r g i n g f o r use would, i n a d d i t i o n , s u p p o r t an e q u i t y p r i n c i p l e (he who b e n e f i t s , p a y s ) , i t might encourage more r e s p o n s i b l e b e h a v i o u r ( p e o p l e a r e perhaps more c a r e f u l w i t h something t h a t has a d o l l a r v a l u e a t t a c h e d t o i t ) , and 98 i t would e x e r t an i n v o l u n t a r y r a t i o n i n g e f f e c t . However the a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e c o s t s o f c o l l e c t i n g such payments a r e v e r y h i g h , f u n d i n g would tend t o go t o t h o s e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h the h i g h e s t revenue f l o w back ( n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h o s e most i n n e e d ) , payments might induce e x c e s s commer-c i a l i s a t i o n and s o c i a l e x t e r n a l i t i e s ( p r e j u d i c e the p o o r ) , and c o u l d a l s o n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t the a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n any r e c -5 2 r e a t i o n a l environment. ' However the most p e r t i n e n t argument a g a i n s t c h a r g i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n use i s t h a t a l t h o u g h e n t r a n c e f e e s have been used i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e 1956, o n l y about 10 per c e n t o f c o s t s a t f e e c h a r g i n g r e c r e a t i o n l o c a t i o n s a r e c o v e r e d by revenues d e r i v e d ; and o n l y 5 per c e n t o f the t o t a l U.S. N a t i o n a l Parks S e r v i c e e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e c o v e r e d by revenues from e n t r y f e e s . E f f i c a c y i n a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . The emphasis on c o e r c i v e mechanisms ad v o c a t e d under P o l i c y P l a n Two would expose the p l a n to the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c e r t a i n u s e r groups would be i n e q u i t a b l y t r e a t e d by ' p o l i c e ' a c t i o n o r the i n s t i t u t i o n a l systems i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the p l a n . However, t h e r e i s a l s o the d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t w i t h e f f e c t i v e c o e r c i o n the r e c r e a t i o n environment would be b e t t e r equipped t o s a t i s f y a l l u s e r s , w i t h each group c o n t r o l l e d so t h a t i t s a c t i o n s would not d i s a d v a n t a g e any o t h e r group; and e x i s t i n g c o s t and b e n e f i t s were more e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d . 99 S e c t i o n 5.4: P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e . Mixed Development A p p r o a c h / D i v e r s e  B e h a v i o u r a l I n f l u e n c e s Behan, i n h i s p r o v o c a t i v e a r t i c l e " P o l i c e S t a t e W i l d e r n e s s " , r e j e c t s the type o f c o e r c i v e a u t h o r i t a r i a n approach taken i n P o l i c y P l a n Two. He senses 'a r u s t i c 1984-Big B r o t h e r Bear i s w a t c h i n g us s t e r n l y 1 , i n which the r e c r e a t i o n i s t r i s k s the l o s s o f anonymity, freedom and an unwelcome c o n t r o l by management a g e n c i e s (Behan. 1974). T h i s p o i n t o f view has some v a l i d i t y ( a l t h o u g h Behan does have a tendency toward o v e r s t a t e m e n t ) , but a t the same time t h e r e i s a need f o r something r a t h e r more e f f e c t i v e than Behan's 'Spontaneous R a t i o n -i n g ' (when a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e becomes s u f f i c i e n t l y degraded p e o p l e w i l l l e a v e i t ? ) . T here i s a need t o d e v e l o p a w i l d e r n e s s management t e c h n o l o g y t h a t can u n o b t r u s i v e l y c o n t r o l o r r e - d i s t r i b u t e the impact o f use w i t h i n a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s . I t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the number o f u s e r s , but t h e i r impact on the w i l d l a n d environment t h a t must be c o n t r o l l e d , and t h o s e uses c a u s i n g the g r e a t e s t impact which s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d o r r e d i s t r i b u t e d (Hendee. 1974). The c h a l l e n g e i s to d e v i s e ways o f m a i n t a i n i n g d i v e r s i t y and q u a l i t y i n our r e c r e a t i o n a l programs, on small budgets t h a t c o n t i n u e t o s h r i n k (Downing. 1975). In o t h e r words, i t becomes n e c e s s a r y t o ensure some c o n t r o l o v e r accommodation, c o m p e t i t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a f l e x i b l e r e c r e a t i o n system which, by reason o f f i n a n c i a l and manpower l i m i t a t i o n s , would remain r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f l e g i t i m i s e d a u t h o r i t y . P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e , a t the same ti m e , r e c o g n i s e s t h a t W i l d l a n d s cannot be managed f o r everyone: 100 The c o s t . o f t a k i n g everyone's p r e f e r e n c e s i n t o a c c o u n t might be p a r a l y s i s . . . worse, i t may r e s u l t i n grand o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e g o n e , o r i n i n e v i t a b l e damage to the environment. ( W i l d a v s k y . 1967. p. 1127) I t a l s o r e l i e s on the premise t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l i s as much a p a r t o f the d e s i g n i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s as i t i s a p a r t o f the a c t u a l implementary mechanisms. N i n e t y per c e n t o f what i s commonly l a b e l l e d v a n d a l i s m can be p r e v e n t e d t h r o u g h d e s i g n (Weinmayr. 1973). P o l i c y P l a n Three a t t e m p t s t o a c h i e v e i t s d e s i r e d p o l i c y outcome through a f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d and d i v e r s e program o f p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and implementary mechanisms. P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f P o l i c y P l a n Three would be the p r o v i s i o n o f a range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s : Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones These zones would be e s t a b l i s h e d near the major highways. They would be h e a v i l y p u b l i c i s e d and s i g n p o s t e d t o a t t r a c t t he t r a n s i e n t , as w e l l as the c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n equipment u s e r from amongst the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . The zones would be 'hardened' c o n s i d e r a b l y i n o r d e r t o w i t h s t a n d h i g h use p r e s s u r e s , and i n many r e s p e c t s would resemble Douglas's ' C e n t r a l ' c a m p s i t e : . . . might be l i t t l e more than a few s t e p s from c i t y l i v i n g . . . for m a l l a y o u t , though a l l o w s f o r 'group camping' . . . f l u s h t o i l e t s , hot showers, e l e c t r i c a l and water hook-ups . . . a g e n e r a l 101 s t o r e and l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s . Major s i t e m o d i f i c a t i o n s . v e g e t a t i o n h a r d e n i n g , p a v i n g , b a r r i e r s , e t c . Must be near a major r e c r e a t i o n a t t r a c t i o n . ( Douglas. 1975. p. 136) A l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e use might be r e s t r i c t e d t o such zones, a l t h o u g h the r e c r e a t i o n management s h o u l d a v o i d b e i n g c o - o p t e d by the v e r y t h i n g t h a t i t was o r i g i n a l l y meant to c o n t r o l and end up by promoting an a c t i v i t y t h a t i n f a c t needs r e s t r i c t i n g (Dunn. 1970). Any such Major A t t r a c t i o n Zone would be l o c a t e d on a ' l a r g e ' l a k e , where speed b o a t i n g , water s k i i n g and 'meat' o r 'put and t a k e ' f i s h i n g were the a c c e p t e d norms. The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones and P o l i c y P l a n One's 'Cores' i s t h a t the former would be based i n the r u r a l e n v i r o n -ment t h a t i s the Study Area's main use a r e a . The Major A t t r a c t i o n Zone a t t r a c t s the r e c r e a t i o n i s t t o an a r e a i n which he can s a t i s f y h i s r e c r e a t i o n needs, and i n which h i s impact may be l e s s e n e d through d e s i g n . Rather than t o an urban 'Core' t h a t m e r e l y p r o v i d e s temporary appeal b e f o r e the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s p i l l s out i n t o an i l l - p r e p a r e d w i l d l a n d environment. Mid-Range A t t r a c t i o n Zones These zones would bear a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e x i s t i n g F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s t r i c t i o n Areas and the more p r i m i t i v e f i s h i n g camps. In such zones development would be kept 'low p r o f i l e ' and ' r u s t i c ' , though i t s h o u l d be emphasised t h a t f r e e F o r e s t S e r v i c e 'low p r o f i l e ' s h o u l d not be encouraged t o compete w i t h commercial ' r u s t i c ' . S t o c k i n g 102 by F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, and the p r o v i s i o n o f camping s i t e s , would not exceed the c a p a c i t y o f each s p e c i f i c l a k e ( t o be de t e r m i n e d a t the Master P l a n n i n g S t a g e ) . Small o u t b o a r d motors would be a l l o w e d , but permanent r e s i d e n c e and garbage/sewage d i s p o s a l r i g o r o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d . The management agency, o r commercial o r g a n i s a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such a r e a s s h o u l d encourage the camper t o pack o u t t h e i r own wastes ( t o c e n t -r a l l y l o c a t e d d i s p o s a l c e n t r e s ) . The Mid-Range A t t r a c t i o n Zone bears some s i m i l a r i t y t o Douglas's ' F o r e s t ' camping a r e a , e m p h a s i s i n g a b l e n d i n g w i t h t he n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , a s c a t t e r i n g o f camp s i t e s , c o n v e n i e n c e , p r i v a c y and some s i t e p r o t e c t i o n (camper p a r k i n g s p o t c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d by t a b l e l o c a t i o n o r l o g b a r r i e r s ) (Douglas. 1975). Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zones The most e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e a r e a s would be d e s i g n a t e d as Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zones. Such zones would be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by l i m i t e d a c c e s s , e i t h e r on f o o t a l o n g h i k e - i n t r a i l s , o r by f o u r wheel d r i v e v e h i c l e s a l o n g o l d l o g g i n g roads kept i n a d e l i b e r a t e l y poor c o n d i t i o n . Around such zones t he 10-chain r u l e would be s t r i c t l y adhered t o and the emphasis would be on h i g h q u a l i t y 'Trophy' f i s h i n g . Lakes i n the Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zones would be c a r e f u l l y s t o c k e d to ensure l a r g e r f i s h p r o d u c t i o n , c a t c h l i m i t s might be s e t a t two f i s h p er day and f i s h e r m e n c o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d to u s i n g s i n g l e a r t i f i c i a l f l i e s . Gas powered boats would be banned, and the o v e r a l l f i s h i n g approach encouraged i n t h e s e zones would be adopted as o f f i c i a l F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch p o l i c y . In terms o f the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n t h i s p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e approach can be judged as f o l l o w s : 103 C o n s e r v a t i o n E t h i c By c o n c e n t r a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y a t 'hardened' l o c a t i o n s c a p a b l e o f b e a r i n g heavy use, and by p r o v i d i n g a continuum o f r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s r i g h t down t o l i m i t e d a c c e s s M i n or A t t r a c t i o n Zones, the p o l i c y p l a n s a t i s f i e s the two major elements o f the c o n s e r v a t i o n e t h i c . The p r o t e c t i o n o f thos e a r e a s l e a s t c a p a b l e o f c a r r y i n g on heavy r e c r e -a t i o n a l l o a d a l l o w s f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a d i v e r s i t y o f s p e c i e s and l e a v e s a v a r i e t y o f o p t i o n s open f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n . S o c i a l Well Being By p r o v i d i n g a d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t h i s system i s c a p a b l e o f s a t i s f y i n g both t r a n s i e n t s and l o c a l s , as w e l l as the v a r i e t y o f demands and v a l u e s w i t h i n t h o s e two groups. Uses, and l e v e l s o f use, a r e s e p a r a t e d so t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t may choose the a t t r a c t i o n zone most s u i t e d to h i s needs, and i n which he can pursue thos e needs w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g o t h e r s whose i n c l i n a t i o n s and demands a r e d i f f e r e n t from h i s own. Furt h e r m o r e , P o l i c y P l a n Three i s a b s o l u t e l y dependent on the u t i l i s a t i o n o f c r e a t i v e o p t i o n s . I t demands t h a t the F o r e s t S e r v i c e make a p o s i t i v e move i n u t i l i s i n g o l d l o g g i n g roads i n a c r e a t i v e f a s h i o n , i t i n s i s t s t h a t F i s h and W i l d l i f e i n c o r p o r a t e a v a r i e t y o f f i s h i n g o p t i o n s i n t o t h e i r o f f i c i a l p o l i c y and i t i m p l i e s t h a t t he Parks Branch, which would p r o b a b l y h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones, would have t o d e v e l o p s i t e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s o f g r e a t e r v a r i e t y than t h o s e c u r r e n t l y i n vogue. However the p o l i c y p l a n 104 would not have as s i g n i f i c a n t an impact on r e g i o n a l income g e n e r a t i o n as p o l i c y p l a n One, p r i m a r i l y because the major developmental and o p e r a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would remain w i t h the p u b l i c s e c t o r . E q u i t a b l e Treatment The p r o v i s i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l environments a l l o w s f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f both t r a n s i e n t and l o c a l needs. N e i t h e r i s b e n e f i t t e d to the e x c l u s i o n o r i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f the o t h e r . R e c r e a t i o n a l needs a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g the t h r e a t o f l o n g term n e t s o c i a l c o s t s . L o c a l use p a t t e r n s w i t h i n , and the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e g r i t y o f , the Study Area remain on the whole u n d i s t u r b e d . A Comparison An i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l to t h i s system i s now o p e r a t i o n a l i n Wales under the Glamorgan H e r i t a g e C o a s t Programme (Glamorgan. 1975). T h i s programme, implemented on the South Wales c o a s t l i n e between B a r r y and P o r t h c a w l , d i v i d e s the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s between R e c r e a t i o n a l S i t e s and Remote Zones. The for m e r p r o v i d e a range o f a n c i l l a r y f a c i l i -t i e s f o r the encouragement o f i n f o r m a l c o a s t a l r e a c t i o n . A t t h e s e s i t e s the e f f e c t s o f use can be m o n i t o r e d and h a r d e n i n g o f the n a t u r a l s i t e e f f e c t e d . In the Remote Zones p r i o r i t y ( b e h i n d the c l i f f l i n e ) i s g i v e n o v e r to a g r i c u l t u r e and to e c o l o g i c a l c o n s e r v a t i o n ; v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s i s r e s t r a i n e d and p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s l i m i t e d to c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o u t e s . The Remote Zones c o n t a i n a few s m a l l r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s c a t e r i n g t o a v e r y l i m i t e d number o f p e d e s t r i a n s . A c c e s s t o the Remote Zones 105 from the R e c r e a t i o n a l S i t e s i s not encouraged i n any way ( s i g n p o s t s , e t c . ) . T h i s comparison i s r e l e v a n t to the B r i t i s h Columbian e x p e r i e n c e , s i n c e , j u s t as l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n i s t h i s p r o v i n c e ' s major r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , so the c o a s t l i n e o f B r i t a i n i s t h a t c o u n t r y ' s major r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a y ground. Implementary Mechanisms The mechanisms recommended f o r P o l i c y P l a n . T h r e e r e c o g n i s e t h a t w h i l e come c o e r c i o n may be n e c e s s a r y , p e o p l e a r e i n f a c t more i n t e r e s t e d i n rewards than i n s a c r i f i c e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s a need f o r both p o s i t i v e (reward p r o m i s i n g ) and n e g a t i v e (punishment t h r e a t ) i n c e n t i v e s (Deutsch. 1970). Thus t h e r e ought t o be an emphasis on b a l a n c i n g c o e r c i v e and n o n - c o e r c i v e mechanisms, r e i n f o r c i n g one w i t h the o t h e r . As was mentioned i n s e c t i o n 2.1, t h i s b a l a n c e can be e x p r e s s e d by b e h a v i o u r m o d i f i c a t i o n m a t r i c e s .(as shown o v e r ) ; one m a t r i x b e i n g a p p l i c a b l e t o each s i t u a t i o n o r l o c a t i o n , and each m a t r i x i n v o l v i n g elements from both the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and the implementary mechanisms. 106 Major A t t r a c t i o n Zone Wanted B e h a v i o u r heavy use by t r a n s i e n t s and A.T.V. owners Unwanted Behaviour! l i m i t e d use Non C o e r c i v e : P o s i t i v e I n c e n t i v e C o e r c i v e : N e g a t i v e I n c e n t i v e + R e i n f o r c e : A t t e n d a n c e by the p r o v i s i o n o f a f u l l range o f f a c i l i -t i e s and a c t i v i t y e nvironments -- Reduce: appeal o f Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zones demanding r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a l l back c o u n t r y u s e r s -Reduce: remove d e s i g n c o n s t r a i n t s o f 'group camping' + R e i n f o r c e : banning o f A l l - T e r r a i n v e h i c l e use i n a l l o t h e r zones i n r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n system Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zone Wanted B e h a v i o u r l i m i t e d use heavy use Non C o e r c i v e : P o s i t i v e I n c e n t i v e C o e r c i v e : N e g a t i v e I n c e n t i v e + R e i n f o r c e : p u b l i c i t y and s i g n p o s t i n g emphasis on Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones - Reduce: a l l o w a b l e f i s h i n g c a t c h l i m i t s on Minor A t t r a c t i o n Lakes - Reduce: Removal o f s i g n p o s t i n g and encouraged d e t e r i o -r a t i o n a l o n g a c c e s s r o u t e s to Minor A t t r a c t i o n Lakes + R e i n f o r c e : ban on a l l o u t b o a r d motors a t a l l Minor A t t r a c t i o n Lakes The m a t r i c e s make i t c l e a r t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e and r e a s o n a b l e to d i v i d e the Implementary Mechanisms a c c o r d i n g l y . 107 C o e r c i v e Mechanisms In r e s p o n s e t o the r e c o g n i t i o n o f h o s t i l i t i e s g e n e r a t e d by o v e r t ' p o l i c e 1 c o n t r o l s , these c o e r c i v e mechanisms would remain f a i r l y low-key and would be more h e a v i l y dependent on r e i n f o r c e m e n t from the non-fcoercive mechanisms than on d i r e c t p o l i c e a c t i o n . F i n e s f o r i l l e g a l and a n t i -s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r would however be i n c r e a s e d and thos e i n c r e a s e s f u l l y a d v e r t i s e d . The c o u r t s s h o u l d , i n a d d i t i o n , be encouraged t o be l e s s l e n i e n t w i t h r e c r e a t i o n o f f e n d e r s than they have been i n the p a s t . An e x t e n s i o n o f c r o s s - a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and powers would a l l o w f o r an i n c r e a s e o f c o e r c i v e c o n t r o l w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n t manpower i n c r e a s e s . A broa d e n i n g o f the B.C. A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e A c t and the encouragement o f f e d e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s on o u t b o a r d motor use s h o u l d a l s o be pursue d , i n o r d e r to a l l o w f o r more e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . N on-Coercive Mechanisms The p r o v i s i o n o f 'hardened', h i g h p r o f i l e , i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n zones would a c t as a 'reward' f o r wanted b e h a v i o u r , t h a t o f r e d u c i n g back c o u n t r y use; as would the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i a l i c e - f i s h i n g l a k e s f o r w i n t e r snow-mobiles. D e s i g n , combined w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones, would a c t as a s t r u c t u r a l f i x c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the m a n i p u l a i t o n o f b e h a v i o u r a l o p p o r t u n i t y . I n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r would be m o d i f i e d , r a t h e r than c o e r c e d , by the a l t e r a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s . T h i s a l t e r a t i o n would i n c l u d e t he removal o f e x i s t i n g roads i n o r d e r t o l i m i t a c c e s s t o the Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zones'. Temporary roads s h o u l d be 108 c l o s e d t o v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c and p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t e r o s i o n when l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s were complete. Once seeded w i t h g r a s s e s o r legumes the roads c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o boundary l i n e c l e a r i n g s and f i r e breaks t o form an h i k i n g t r a i l network l i n k e d t o , and between, the l i m i t e d a c c e s s l a k e s . These mechanisms might be f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by the agency encouragement o f l o c a l p a t r o l s , p o s s i b l y under the a u s p i c e s o f the l o c a l Rod and Gun C l u b s , o r F l y F i s h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n s . These o r g a n i s a t i o n s would depend upon ' b l u f f o r f r i e n d l y p e r s u a s i o n r a t h e r than c o e r c i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l programs would a l s o be d e v e l o p e d , e i t h e r , as i n M e r r i t t , under the a u s p i c e s o f the Rod and Gun C l u b , o r through the ' v o l u n t a r y ' r e g i s -t r a t i o n o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups i n t e n t on l e a v i n g the major road network. T h i s r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s would i n c l u d e the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l . As w i t h the p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s , t h e s e mechanisms a r e e v a l u a t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n : C o n t r o l E f f e c t i v e n e s s In t h a t the implementary mechanisms a r e e i t h e r m o d e r a t e l y c o e r c i v e , o r n o n - c o e r c i v e , and hence a c t i n g a t s u b c o n s c i o u s l e v e l s , P o l i c y P l a n Three u t i l i s e s mechanisms t h a t would, on the whole, be ' a c c e p t a b l e ' . The road removal program does however pose a problem. The l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , l o n g used t o v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s t o p a r t i c u l a r l a k e s may become f a i r l y v o c a l i n o p p o s i t i o n to any p l a n s r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r a c c e s s t o t h o s e l a k e s . However, i f management a g e n c i e s baulk a t t h i s p r o s p e c t o f c o n f l i c t t h e r e s t i l l remain s e v e r a l l a k e g r o u p i n g s i n the a r e a which as y e t remain 109 ' i n a c c e s s i b l e 1 , t h i s s t a t u s s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d . The maintenance o f the S t a t u s Quo i s always more a c c e p t a b l e than change. The mutual r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f c o e r c i v e and n o n - c o e r c i v e c o n t r o l s would seem t o o f f e r a g r e a t e r chance o f c o n t r o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s than s o l e r e l i a n c e on a s i n g l e t e c h n i q u e . However the use o f n o n - c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s does l a y the p o l i c y p l a n open to the weaknesses o f a ' C o g n i t i v e F i x 1 noted by H e b e r l e i n . Many p e o p l e do n o t a s s o c i a t e t h e i r own b e h a v i o u r w i t h p a r t i c u l a r problems, they may be l i m i t e d by r o l e s o r m o t i v a t i o n s , o r they may o p e r a t e under 'bounded r a t i o n a l i t y ' and w i l l be c o n s t r a i n e d by s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ( H e b e r l e i n . 1973). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the more v o l u n t a r y n a t u r e o f the n o n - c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s , r a t h e r than the ' S t r u c t u r a l ' p r e s s u r e s i n h e r e n t i n c o e r c i o n , may r e n d e r them i n e f f e c t i v e under the a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s o u t l i n e d by H e b e r l e i n . I t s h o u l d not however be f o r g o t t e n t h a t the e s s e n c e o f P o l i c y P l a n t Three i s t h a t i t c o u l d use n o n - c o e r c i v e mechanisms, backed up by and r e i n f o r c e d w i t h c o e r c i v e mechanisms where n e c e s s a r y . F u r t h e r m o r e , n o n - c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s have been h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n c e r t a i n c a s e s . ' P a c k - i t - o u t ' garbage programs have met w i t h a g r e a t deal o f s u c c e s s i n the P a c i f i c North West U.S.A. (Du Lac and G r e y e r ) , v o l u n t a r y s e l f r e g i s -t r a t i o n and t h e a l m o s t w h o l l y s e l f r e g u l a t e d f i s h c a t c h l i m i t s a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t n o n - c o e r c i o n can be s u c c e s s f u l . R e c r e a t i o n s t s a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y i r r e s p o n s i b l e , they j u s t need to be encouraged, s u b t l y . P o l i c y P l a n Three does a l l o w f o r a v e r y c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f agency c o n t r o l powers through the use o f v o l u n t e e r p a t r o l s and c r o s s -n o agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o l i c i n g where n e c e s s a r y . The implementary mechanisms demanded t h e r e f o r e would appear to impose a s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d s t r a i n on e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s , they c o u l d , as a consequence be c o n s i d e r e d c o n t r o l e f f e c t i v e . C o s t E f f e c t i v e n e s s P o l i c y P l a n Three would r e q u i r e a s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l i n p u t t o e s t a b l i s h and 'harden' the Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s c a p i t a l would not be made a v a i l a b l e . However thos e a r e a s , which a r e a t p r e s e n t most h e a v i l y used, c o u l d be upgraded w i t h o n l y moderate e x p e n d i t u r e s t o g i v e them a semblance o f a Major A t t r a c t i o n Zone, s u f f i c i e n t t o a c t as a d e t e r r e n t t o back c o u n t r y d i s p e r s i o n . The r e m a i n i n g elements o f the proposed system would have low manpower and i n v e s t m e n t demands. The scheme c o u l d f e a s i b l y be made o p e r a t i o n a l under e x i s t i n g budgetary l e v e l s and c o n s t r a i n t s . E f f i c a c y i n a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s The mix o f mechanisms proposed under P o l i c y P l a n Three p r o v i d e f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t pol i c e a c t i o n and c o e r c i o n , h a v i n g been de-emphasised w i l l not t h r e a t e n the e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e c r e a -t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . Furthermore the mix has the p o t e n t i a l c a p a b i l i t y o f b e n e f i c i a l l y c h a n g i n g the c u r r e n t i n e q u i t i e s i n r e c r e a t i o n a l c o s t and b e n e f i t d i s t r i b u t i o n . I l l S e c t i o n 5.5: Chapter Summary Chapter 5 p r e s e n t s t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e P o l i c y P l a n s , each o f which c o u l d p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n management i n the Study A r e a . A l t h o u g h i t i s r e a l i s e d t h a t e v e n t u a l l y management p h i l o s o p h i e s c o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e elements from a l l t h r e e , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h r e e s e p a r a t e P o l i c y P l a n s expose the b a s i c elements o f the t h r e e most l i k e l y , and d i s t i n c t management approaches. The p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e , P o l i c y P l a n Three (Mixed Development A p p r o a c h / D i v e r s e B e h a v i o u r a l I n f l u e n c e s ) i s chosen because o f i t s p e r c e i v e d c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h the C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n . I t w i l l be a p p l i e d t o the Study Area i n Chapte r 7. 112 FOOTNOTES 5 1 ' A Conf e r e n c e on W i l d l a n d R e c r e a t i o n . B a n f f Feb. 28-Mar. 3, 1977. S e s s i o n 26 'Vandalism and Law Enforcement i n W i l d l a n d A r e a s ' . O f f i c e r s o f the R . C . M . P . > I n f o r m a t i o n Source: Dr. P. D o o l i n g , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , Department o f F o r e s t r y , U.B.C. Vancouver. B e h a v i o u r M o d i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x d e v e l o p e d from i d e a s g e n e r a t e d a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Dr. Susan B u t t - F i n n , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , Department o f P s y c h o l o g y , U.B.C. 113 CHAPTER SIX. A REGIONAL APPROACH S e c t i o n 6.1: The Concept o f R e g i o n a l i s m . P o l i c y P l a n s One, Two and Three a l l depend u l t i m a t e l y on a r e g i o n a l approach f o r t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . A r e g i o n a l approach 1 t h a t i n v o l v e s h i s t o r i c and s p a t i a l r e g i o n a l i t y , w i t h each l a k e p l a nned as one p a r t o f the r e g i o n a l l a k e system, and a l s o as p a r t o f an e x t r a -r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n and r e s o u r c e complex. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s approach demands agency r e c o g n i t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l whole,and thorough i n t r a -r e g i o n a l agency c o o p e r a t i o n and mutual adjustment. Without an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework c a p a b l e o f r e s p o n d i n g t o r e g i o n a l needs, which i s a l s o c o n s c i o u s o f the e c o s y s t e m i c n a t u r e o f the p u b l i c l e i s u r e system, the management o f t h a t system w i l l remain r e l a t i v e l y i n e r t . I t w i l l l i k e l y remain i n t e r n a l l y f a c t u r e d and fragmented (B.C. L e i s u r e . 1973). U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s i s j u s t the s i t u a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s a t p r e s e n t . The l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e and r e l e v a n t g u i d e l i n e s mean t h a t d e c i s i o n s a t f i e l d l e v e l t e n d t o remain p a r o c h i a l and agency b i a s e d : The c r i t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n which w i l l be made here and i s l i b e r a l l y r e - i t e r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s r e p o r t i s the a p p a l i n g l a c k o f communication between a g e n c i e s a t a l l l e v e l s (D. 50) . . . Much of the l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and the absence o f any s i n g l e p l a n n i n g body stems, not from any m a l e v o l e n t d e s i r e to r e j e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but r a t h e r r e p r e s e n t s the f a c t t h a t a f r a g -mented s t r u c t u r e r e c e i v e s fragmented i n p u t . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e e x i s t s a c i r c u l a r i t y whereby need c a n n o t be m o n i t o r e d because government i s not s t r u c t u r e d t o r e c o g n i s e i t (B.C. L e i s u r e . 1973. p. 53) 114 T h i s l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and communication a l s o r e f l e c t s the range o f b e h a v i o u r and a c t i o n e x i s t i n g between a g e n c i e s , v a r i a t i o n s t h a t stem p r i m a r i l y from d i f f e r i n g v a l u e frameworks w i t h i n each o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s . Each agency w i l l have s e p a r a t e goal o r i e n t a t i o n s : F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch: To p r o t e c t , p r e s e r v e and enhance f i s h and w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d h a b i t a t s f o r the b e n e f i c i a l use and enjoyment o f the p e o p l e o f the P r o v i n c e . F o r e s t S e r v i c e : To manage f o r e s t and r e l a t e d r e s o u r c e s f o r the economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t o f the p e o p l e o f the P r o c i n c e . P arks Branch: To p r o t e c t , p r e s e r v e and a d m i n i s t e r a v a r i e t y o f n a t u r a l environments f o r t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l , a e s t h e t i c , and e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e . : (Morton and Fox. 1975. pp. XX-11 and 12) Each agency w i l l a l s o s u b s c r i b e t o d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and p e r -c e p t i o n s . For example, the Parks Branch Study which p r o v i d e d much o f the background m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s , the "Thompson P l a t e a u R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Study" (B.C. Park s . 1976A), was w r i t t e n i n f u l l awareness o f the assumed p r i o r i t i e s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s o f the o t h e r r e s o u r c e management a g e n c i e s a c t i v e i n the a r e a . I t was c a l c u l a t e d not t o o f f e n d , and a f t e r v e r y c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y and r e v i s i o n by the Parks P l a n n i n g h i e r a r c h i e s i n both V i c t o r i a and Kamloops, became p u b ! i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e . The r e p o r t has L now been withdrawn from c i r c u l a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n because i t was seen, by George S t i n g e r , R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n Kamloops, to be a d e l i b e r a t e and unprovoked a t t a c k on F i s h and W i l d l i f e management p o l i c y . A nother example o f t h i s a t t i t u d i n a l gap, o r c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e 115 o c c u r e d d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the Pennask Lake C o o r d i n a t e d Land Use Pl a n p r e l i m i n a r y meeting. D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the Parks Branch h o l d s management r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o n l y p u b l i c a c c e s s p o i n t t o the l a k e , the Pennask Lake R e c r e a t i o n A r e a , Parks Branch was n o t i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d the meeting. I t was o n l y by chance t h a t the meeting was brought to the a t t e n t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Parks Branch o f f i c e i n Kamloops, and i n v i t a t i o n s a r r a n g e d a t the l a s t moment. These gaps and d i f f e r e n c e s a r e encouraged f u r t h e r by the v a r i e t y and q u a l i t y o f r e s e a r c h and management r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s , and by t h e i r d i f f e r e n t b a r g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h s . Y e t , w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e d g o a l s a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l , a n d w e l l d e f i n e d c h a n n e l s f o r i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n and communication, none o f the t h r e e proposed a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s has any chance o f s u c c e s s . There remains a v i t a l need f o r an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on c o m p r e h e n s i v i t y and mutual adjustment i n v o l v i n g an e x p l i c i t - r e c o g n i t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s p a t i a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c sub-systems embraced by the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e f f o r t . Thus, a change i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements may be more i m p o r t a n t than changes i n r e g i o n a l p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s o r f i e l d l e v e l implementary mechanisms. For i t i s o n l y w i t h c h a n g i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements t h a t i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n / c o m m u n i c a t i o n can be improved, and c o n f l i c t s r e s o l v e d . Only w i t h r e g i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n can c r o s s agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p o l i c i n g powers be e f f e c t e d , agreement reached on r e g i o n wide c a p a c i t y l e v e l p o l i c i e s , a c c e s s management and r o t a t i o n p o l i c i e s d e v e l o p e d , i n t e r - a g e n c y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c o n d u c t e d , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and r e s e a r c h 116 b e n e f i t from c r o s s - f e r t i l i s a t i o n , and r e g i o n a l p o l i c y p l a n p h a s i n g be implemented. Furthermore, i t i s o n l y w i t h some form o f i n t e r - a g e n c y r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n management system t h a t e x i s t i n g i n t e r - a g e n c y r i v a l r i e s and p a r a n o i a might be eased. A t the same time, t h i s approach might a l l o w f o r a more c o n s i s t e n t , and h o p e f u l l y c o n f l i c t r e d u c i n g , p o l i c y a p p roach toward t he commercial r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r and the o t h e r r e s o u r c e u s e r s . S e c t i o n 6.2: Re g i o n a l Management Format. Under s e c t i o n 92 o f the B r i t i s h North American A c t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing Canada's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s has been d e l e g a t e d t o p r o v i n c i a l governments. T h e r e f o r e the i n i t i a t i v e f o r the management o f the t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s must come a t a p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The q u e s t i o n however remains as to the c h o i c e o f r e g i o n a l management approach. In t h i s s e c t i o n f o u r s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t management approaches a r e d e s c r i b e d and e v a l u a t e d ; t he p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e i s a p p l i e d t o the Study Area i n c h a p t e r 7. 1 S e p a r a t e B u r e a u c r a t i s e d Agency. 2 R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee. 3 Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e . 4 Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e w i t h s m a l l S e c r e t a r i a t . S e p a r a t e B u r e a u c r a t i s e d Agency Such an independent agency would be w h o l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y , problems s o l u t i o n and 117 and p o t e n t i a l s development. I t would be i n c o n s t a n t communication w i t h e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s , and a l s o w i t h the commercial r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s . The s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y , powers and o f f i c e r s o f t h i s agency would add a s i g n i f i c a n t measure o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o i t s management approach; e s p e c i a l l y i f p a r t o f i t s mandate i n c l u d e d a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r ' e n c o u r a g i n g ' o t h e r a g e n c i e s n e g l i g e n t i n t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s . S u p p o r t to t h i s c o n c e p t i s g i v e n by Parks Branch i n the Shuswap Lakes Study. T h i s s t u d y r e c o g n i s e s , t h a t i n the f u t u r e , an i n t e g r a t e d r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g body w i l l be r e q u i r e d to o v e r s e e the p l a n n i n g and management o f the e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e Shuswap Lakes r e c r e a t i o n system (B.C. P a r k s . 1976B). I t would be the t a s k o f such a body t o r e v i e w a l l proposed a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o any o v e r a l l development p l a n , i n i t i a t e a c t i v i t y when a government agency f a i l e d to p a r t i c i p a t e , s e t p r i o r i t i e s and time s c h e d u l e s f o r any p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n amendment. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s approach would be h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e i f the agency were p r o v i d e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s to g e n e r a t e i t s own d a t a , r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s and p o l i c i e s f o r t h e f u t u r e ; and i f i t had s u f f i c i e n t power (from both c o e r c i v e and non-c o e r c i v e mechanisms) to i n d u c e the n e c e s s a r y c o o p e r a t i o n between i t s e l f and the o t h e r a g e n c i e s and s e c t o r s concerned w i t h r e c r e a t i o n . However, the c r e a t i o n o f a s i n g l e , s e p a r a t e agency would almos t c e r t a i n l y c r e a t e as many communications and c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d problems as i t s o l v e d . E x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were t h r e a t e n e d would j e a l o u s l y guard t h e i r s t a t u s and would p r o b a b l y 118 s i m p l y t h r o t t l e the new agency by h o l d i n g back i n f o r m a t i o n and r e f u s i n g t o c o o p e r a t e . The new agency would i n e v i t a b l y d e v e l o p i t s own p e r c e p t i o n s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and as a consequence, i t s own b l i n d s p o t s and b o t t l e necks. I t would a l s o demand a major i n p u t o f t r a i n e d t e c h n i c a l manpower and hard c a s h , as w e l l as s i g n i f i c a n t b u r e a u c r a t i c changes a t p r o v i n c i a l government l e v e l i n V i c t o r i a . R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee One way o f a v o i d i n g the problems r a i s e d by the s e p a r a t e bureauc-r a t i s e d agency would be t o u t i l i s e e x s i t i n g management systems, manpower and r e s o u r c e s . In the Roche Lake Land Use P l a n i t was recommended t h a t : A c o o r d i n a t i n g and e n f o r c i n g agency i s r e q u i r e d to ensure t h a t a l l government a g e n c i e s a r e working toward a s i n g l e l a n d management c o n c e p t . (Kamloops. 1976. p. 23) The Roche Lake P l a n recommends t h a t the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t be a p p o i n t e d as a c o o r d i n a t i n g and e n f o r c i n g agency. However, i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether t h e S e c r e t a r i a t ' s mandate o r i n c l i n a t i o n s would p e r m i t i t to f u l f i l l t h i s r o l e ; i t c o u l d a s s i s t i n p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s but c o u l d not be e x p e c t e d t o a p p l y a c o n t i n u o u s and i n t e n s i v e f o c u s on the whole l e i s u r e f i e l d (B.C. L e i s u r e . 1973). As an a l t e r n a t i v e , E.L.U.C. would p r o b a b l y encourage the R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee to handle the l e a d e r s h i p and c o o r d i n a t i o n r o l e . The b a s i c f o r m a t and f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e committees has a l r e a d y been c o v e r e d , s u f f i c e to say t h a t t h e i r p r i m a r y aim i s the p e r i o d i c exchange 119 o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t i n t e r a g e n c y r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l . However t h i s approach does have problems o f i t s own. The i n t e r e s t o f t h e s e committees, by the v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e i r make up, c o v e r a wide spectrum from e x t r a c t i v e r e s o u r c e s , t h r o u g h n o n - e x t r a c t i v e r e s o u r c e s t o s e t t l e m e n t s e r v i c i n g . R e c r e a t i o n , as such, would n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e c e i v e a h i g h p r i o r i t y . When i t d i d , t he p r i o r i t y r a t i n g would p r o b a b l y l a s t f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d and r e f e r o n l y t o one p a r t i c u l a r problem o r a r e a , as was the case w i t h the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e Moratorium Study (B.C. Parks. 1975B). F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e the committee members a r e always the s e n i o r o f f i c e r o f each p r o v i n c i a l agency, t h e r e i s a tendency f o r some o f the o l d r i v a l r i e s t o c o n t i n u e ; and i n some c a s e s f o r the l a c k o f a s p e c i f i c mandate o r s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s t o be used as an excuse f o r i n a c t i o n . ' The l i k e l i h o o d o f c o n t i n u e d b i a s e s and b a r g a i n m a n i p u l a t i o n remains, and c o u l d l i k e l y be f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d i f , as i s recommended i n the Pearse Commission R e p o r t , t he F o r e s t S e r v i c e and the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch were j o i n e d t o g e t h e r under a s i n g l e m i n i s t e r and the so-6 2 c a l l e d Department o f F o r e s t and W i l d l i f e Resources ( P e a r s e . 1976). Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e The v i r t u e o f m u l t i p l e agency i n v o l v e m e n t i n both p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s t h a t a b r o a d e r range o f i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s tend t o be c o n s i d e r e d than i f o n l y a s i n g l e agency h o l d s f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (Morton and Fox. 1975). These b e n e f i t s a r e r e i n f o r c e d immeasurably i f the m u l t i - a g e n c y t a s k f o r c e r e s t r i c t s i t s i n t e r e s t t o one 120 f i e l d , i n t h i s case r e c r e a t i o n ; and i f t h a t t a s k f o r c e c o n s i s t s o f younger o f f i c e r s . The c o o p e r a t i v e i n s t i n c t i s s e e m i n g l y h i g h e r amongst the u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e e ducated agency o f f i c i a l s , than amongst the Ft 1 o l d guard ' f i e l d - r a i s e d ' s e n i o r o f f i c e r s . Thus, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t Permanent R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e , c o m p r i s e d o f younger o f f i c e r s from those a g e n c i e s w i t h r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s and i n c l u d i n g r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s o f the commercial r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r , h a v i n g f u l l agency powers but w i t h o u t independent b u r e a u c r a t i c s t a t u s , would go someway toward overcoming the d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f the f i r s t two a l t e r n a t i v e s . The l o c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f the Task F o r c e , and the emphasis on l o c a l c o n t a c t s , would s t r e n g t h e n i t s knowledge base. The minimal changes demanded o f e x i s t i n g b u r e a u c r a c i e s , e i t h e r a t r e g i o n a l o r p r o v i n -c i a l l e v e l , and the absence o f a d d i t i o n a l manpower needs (Task F o r c e members e f f e c t i v e l y ' m o o n l i g h t i n g ' from ongoing agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) , s u g g e s t t h a t the scheme would be s i m p l e and cheap to e s t a b l i s h . The freedom o f f e r e d by a g r a n t o f f u l l agency powers would encourage i n n o v a t i o n and would a l l o w s u f f i c i e n t i n f l u e n c e t o e n f o r c e common p o l i c i e s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f agency r e s o u r c e s would add t o the a v a i l a b l e r e c r e a t i o n d a t a base and a n a l y t i c a l competence, as w e l l as a l l o w f o r a systems t h i n k i n g approach t o the r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n environment. T h i s m u l t i p l e agency approach has been proposed i n the Study Area f o r use i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a C o o r d i n a t e d Land Use P l a n f o r the Pennask Lake Area (L. 2 7 ) , and a l t h o u g h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l a n would be a p p l i c a b l e o n l y on a l i m i t e d s p a t i a l b a s i s , and does not r e s t r i c t i t s e l f 121 to r e c r e a t i o n , i t does p r o v i d e a model from which a Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . However, i t a l s o demonstrates the one fundamental f l a w o f the scheme. The C o o r d i n a t e d Land Use P l a n demands a l o n g term view, and a c o n s t a n t update on c h a n g i n g p r i o r i t i e s and p r e s s u r e s . Yet, e s s e n t i a l l y no one person i s r e s p o n s i b l e , on a l o n g term b a s i s , f o r any c o n t i n u i t y i n the scheme. Every one, o r r a t h e r each agency r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e , i s deemed e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e . With everyone r e s p o n s i b l e , e v e n t u a l l y no one w i l l be, as each agency o r s e c t o r assumes t h a t r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y l i e s e l s e w h e r e . With no one r e s p o n s i b l e n o t h i n g w i l l e v e r g e t done. Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e w i t h Small S e c r e t a r i a t I t c o u l d e a s i l y be assumed t h a t the c o s t l y t a s k o f d e v e l o p i n g and implementing a r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n P o l i c y P l a n c o u l d be made p r o h i b i t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e by the a d d i t i o n a l demand f o r a permanent independent chairman s u p p o r t e d by a small s e c r e t a r i a t . Y e t , t h i s demand i s the o n l y way t h a t the major f l a w o f a Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e c o u l d be r e c t i f i e d . A permanent chairman would be s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Task Fo r c e p o l i c y . He would, i n a d d i t i o n , p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i t y t o the P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i l e c o o r d i n a t i n g a changeable committee o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from tho s e agen-c i e s w i t h r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s , the commercial r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r and the Rod and Gun C l u b s / F l y F i s h i n g A s s o i c a t i o n s . Permanent c h a i r m a n s h i p would a v o i d the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t o f a r e v o l v i n g l e a d e r s h i p , and the small s e c r e t a r i a t would a l l o w f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f problems and p o t e n t i a l s beyond the scope o f i n t e r e s t o f the l i n e a g e n c i e s . 122 The c o s t s o f t h i s scheme would not be n e a r l y as h i g h as f o r the s e p a r a t e B u r e a u c r a t i s e d Agency and i t would ensure an h i g h p r o f i l e con-c e n t r a t i o n on the r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f the chairman and s e c r e t a r i a t were e s t a b l i s h e d under the a u s p i c e s o f the E.L.U.C. S e c r e -t a r i a t i t would n o t i n v o l v e complex a l t e r a t i o n s o f the p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a c y . I t would not seem u n r e a s o n a b l e t o p o s t u l a t e the e s t a b -l i s m e n t o f such r e c r e a t i o n s e c r e t a r i a t s i n each o f the p r o v i n c e ' s major t o u r i s t p l a y grounds.^"^ -123 FOOTNOTE D' 1 I n f o r m a t i o n on Resource Management Committees o b t a i n e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , from Bruce Heayn, g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t , School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C. 6 2 ' Pearse Commission: the g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( o f the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h ) , from the r e g u l a t i o n o f h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g i n t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , i n v o l v e s the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s a r e dependent upon the n a t u r a l h a b i t a t , which i s i n t u r n t h e r e f o r e dependent on F o r e s t S e r v i c e p o l i c y i n use and development p a t t e r n s (p. 342). Now t h a t t h e r e i s a n e u t r a l agency (E.L.U.C.) t h a t has assumed a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r broad p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g - " t h e r e i s a v e r y s t r o n g case i n f a v o u r o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r the e x p e r t i s e i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n t h a t has been d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, and the f o r e s t management r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e " . I t i s f e l t t h a t the c o n t i n u e d s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s e b o d i e s i s an impediment t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y sound r e s o u r c e development (p. 345) ( P e a r s e . 1976). 6 3 ' I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the Chairman might a l s o combine r o l e s as t h e Parks Branch R e g i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r ; t h e R e g i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r b e i n g a new Parks Branch s e r v i c e t o be i n a u g u r a t e d d u r i n g 1977 and 1978. 124 CHAPTER SEVEN. CONCLUSION S e c t i o n 7.1: P r e f e r r e d P o l i c y P l a n I n e v i t a b l y the c h o i c e o f a ' p r e f e r r e d ' p o l i c y p l a n w i l l depend h e a v i l y on the v a l u e judgements and b i a s e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l o r group a c t u a l l y d o i n g the c h o o s i n g . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c ase the s u b j e c t i v e judgements made i n the c h o i c e p r o c e s s r e l a t e back t o the a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l v a l u e s t a n c e , b i a s e s and a s s u m p t i o n s , which were l i s t e d i n c h a p t e r 1. S u b j e c t t o t h i s c o n s t r a i n t i t would seem e s s e n t i a l t h a t the p o l i c y p l a n chosen from amongst the t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e s i s t h a t which appears to have the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r managing the Study Area r e c r e a t i o n a l system i n the f a c e o f growing p r e s s u r e s from the p o p u l a t i o n growth, i n c r e a s i n g l e i s u r e demands and expanding r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the p o l i c y p l a n chosen must c a t e r t o t h o s e p r e s s u r e s w i t h an awareness o f the f r a g i l i t y o f the n a t u r a l environment and the need f o r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n i n t o the f u t u r e ; i t must a l s o demonstrate some p o s i t i v e l i k e l i h o o d o f management 's u c c e s s ' and p u b l i c ' a c c e p t a b i l i t y ' . Only P o l i c y P l a n Three would appear to f u l f i l l a l l t h e s e demands. The emphasis on mutual r e i n f o r c e m e n t between d i v e r s e p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s and mixed implementary mechanisms would seem to promise an h i g h e r chance o f management 's u c c e s s ' than e i t h e r P o l i c y P l a n One o r Two. The a d a p t a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l environments t o a continuum o f n a t u r a l environments would appear t o make i t the most e c o l o g i c a l l y r a t i o n a l o f the t h r e e . As was i m p l i e d i n c h a p t e r 6, the f i n a l c h o i c e o f P o l i c y P l a n would a l s o depend upon i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y t o an o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l management 125 approach f o r both p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and implementary mechanisms. Al t h o u g h a l l t h r e e c o u l d be managed on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , i f adequate r e g i o n a l management mechanisms and i n s t i t u t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s f e l t t h a t P o l i c y P l a n One would be dependent upon management by a s e p a r a t e B u r e a u c r a t i s e d Agency. Only a s e p a r a t e agency would have s u f f i c i e n t i n dependent i d e n t i t y and powers t o h a n d l e the major f i n a n c i a l and i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l developmental demands o f t h a t P l a n . P o l i c y P l a n Two, e m p h a s i s i n g , as i t does implementary mechanisms which c o u l d c o n t i n u e to be handled by the s e p a r a t e a g e n c i e s , might be a d e q u a t e l y s e r v i c e d under a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g Resource Management Committee p r o c e s s . However, P o l i c y P l a n Three would r e q u i r e an i n n o v a t i v e management and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n approach r e q u i r i n g the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l a g e n c i e s , management o r ownership b o d i e s , and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups i n v o l v e d i n , o r h a v i n g c o n f l i c t s w i t h , the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the Study Are a . I t i s f e l t t h a t o n l y a Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task Fo r c e would be a b l e to handle the r e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e , and r e c o g n i s i n g the c o n t i n u i t y problems o f the s t a n d a r d Task F o r c e f o r m a t , o n l y a Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task Fo r c e w i t h a permanent chairman and a s m a l l s e c r e t a r i a t . S e c t i o n 7.2: A p p l i c a t i o n o f P o l i c y P l a n Three t o the Study Area The a p p l i c a t i o n o f P o l i c y P l a n Three and an a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i o n a l approach to r e c r e a t i o n management w i t h i n the Study Area demands f i r s t l y , an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down i n 126 c h a p t e r s 5 and 6, and s e c o n d l y , the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework The i n i t i a l p r i o r i t y would be f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e manned by a f u l l time chairman and a small s e c r e t a r i a t . Members o f i t s o p e r a t i o n a l committee would be t h o s e o f f i c e r s o f the a p p r o p r i a t e government a g e n c i e s and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t groups (commercial r e s o r t s o p e r a t o r s and s p o r t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s ) whose major c o n c e r n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , was r e c r e a t i o n . The Task F o r c e committee members would be employed f u l l time a t a v a r i e t y o f communities w i t h i n the Study A r e a . I t would t h e r e f o r e seem a d v i s a b l e t h a t the s e c r e t a r i a t have a permanent o f f i c e base, but t h a t the r e g u l a r meetings o c c u r i n d i f f e r e n t communities on a c i r c u i t b a s i s . L B e f o r e the Task F o r c e a c t u a l l y moved toward p h y s i c a l l y a l t e r i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l environment i t would need to c r e a t e a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n by r e c t i f y i n g two v i t a l weaknesses e v i d e n t i n the e x i s t i n g r e c -r e a t i o n system. F i r s t l y , the l a c k o f a c c u r a t e , r e l i a b l e and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e d a t a , and s e c o n d l y , the l a c k o f c r o s s - a g e n c y p o l i c i n g powers and p e r c e i v e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A l l i n i t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l e n e r g i e s s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward t h e s e two problems. Once s a t i s f a c t o r y d a t a s t a r t e d t o become a v a i l a b l e and the p o l i c y powers o f f i e l d o p e r a t i v e s were f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , then the Task Fo r c e s h o u l d t u r n i t s a t t e n t i o n t o the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n management suggested, i n t h i s t h e s i s . As the Task Fo r c e 127 moves i n t o the developmental stage, f u r t h e r d a t a needs and p o l i c i n g p r i o r i t i e s may emerge i n an i t e r a t i v e p r o c e s s . Feedback from the added data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s may then s u g g e s t developmental changes, and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c o u l d be bought i n t o p l a y t o e s t a b l i s h the most a p p r o p r i a t e changes t o be s e l e c t e d from amongst a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . P h y s i c a l M a n i f e s t a t i o n Once the base r e q u i r e m e n t s o u t l i n e d above and t h e more g e n e r a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n i m p l i c i t i n the Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e c o n c e p t were a c h i e v e d , the Study Area c o u l d be s u b d i v i d e d t o p r o v i d e the range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s demanded i n P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e . Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones These would be e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h o s e e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s t h a t r e q u i r e immediate c o n t r o l s on use l e v e l s and p o s i t i v e p r o t e c t i v e ' measures i n o r d e r to p r e v e n t any f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n both l a k e s h o r e and a q u a t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s , as w e l l as i n the s o c i a l environment o f camp-s i t e s . They would a l s o i n c l u d e the more h e a v i l y used P r o v i n c i a l Park a r e a s . Thus, the f o l l o w i n g l a k e s , o r l a k e g r o u p i n g s , would be a s s i g n e d 'Major A t t r a c t i o n Zone 1 s t a t u s (see map 7.1). Monck P a r k / N i c o l a L a k e - p r o v i n c i a l park and commercial f a c i l i t i e s Lac Le J e u n e / W a l l o p e r / S l a k e / M c C o n n e l l Lakes - d i t t o O t t e r L a k e - P r o v i n c i a l park and commercial f a c i l i t i e s Roche L a k e - f o r e s t s e r v i c e and commercial f a c i l i t y Tunkwa/Leighton L a k e s - f o r e s t s e r v i c e and commercial f a c i l i t y K e n t u c k y / A l l e y n / B l u e y L a k e s - f o r e s t s e r v i c e Stump L a k e - ' u n i n c o r p o r a t e d ' r e c r e a t i o n a r e a 127a POLICY PLAN THREE. APPLICATION TO STUDY AREA ' Map 7.1 Major Attraction Zones Mid-range Attraction Zones Minor Attraction Zones .__ —» Proposed Coquihalla Route 128 The l a k e s w i t h c u r r e n t f o r e s t s e r v i c e i n t e r e s t s a r e t h o s e w i t h the h i g h e s t use o f a l l the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments i n the Study A r e a , and were those l a k e s t h a t o f f i c e r s o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e a c t u a l l y p i n p o i n t e d as problem a r e a s , o r as t h e y put i t , 'Grey A r e a s ' . L o c a l e s i n which i t was f e l t t h a t the e x i s t i n g F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c i e s were a p p a r e n t l y no l o n g e r c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g c u r r e n t use p r e s s u r e s . I t would seem n e c e s s a r y i n t h e s e Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones e i t h e r t o encourage P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n v o l v e m e n t , o r d e v e l o p a whole new l e v e l and i n t e n s i t y o f F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n management. The Pearse Commission Report q u o t e s : A l t h o u g h the Parks Branch i s m a i n l y concerned w i t h Crown F o r e s t Land, t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n between i t s a c t i v i t i e s and t i m b e r e x t r a c t i o n . For t h e time b e i n g a t l e a s t , I see no c o m p e l l i n g need t o merge i t w i t h the F o r e s t S e r v i c e . ( P e a r s e . 1976. p. 344) There may i n f a c t be c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n s t o merge c e r t a i n F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n developments i n t o the P r o v i n c i a l Parks system. A l l those p o t e n t i a l Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones t h a t do not have P r o v i n c i a l Park management show e v i d e n c e o f o v e r c r o w d i n g , s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r break down, i r r e s p o n s i b l e sewage d i s p o s a l , o i l s p i l l a g e , permanent r e s i d e n c e and o v e r f i s h i n g . I t would seem l i k e l y t h a t they w i l l , i n the near f u t u r e , r e q u i r e management and a c t i v i t y c o n t r o l s a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n t e n s i t y than are now i n f o r c e . A l l Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones would be p r o v i d e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t ' hardening' and f a c i l i t i e s t o s e r v e both as d e s t i n a t i o n use camping, as w e l l as day use r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s f o r the Study Area's main urban 1 a g g l o m e r a t i o n s . Mid-Range A t t r a c t i o n s Zones These would be a r e a s a l r e a d y under p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n use, but which, w i t h due r e g a r d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u i t a b i l i t y , c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , and f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d as v i a b l e a l t e r n a t e a t t r a c t i o n s t o the Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones. The Mid-Range A t t r a c t i o n Zones would p r o b a b l y be used p r i m a r i l y by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and would c o r r e s p o n d , i n terms o f l o c a t i o n and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n , to the b u l k o f e x i s t i n g F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments. The main a d d i t i o n s would be i n t h o s e a r e a s c u r r e n t l y w i t h o u t major use o r management, but which, i n the f u t u r e , might r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r use. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h o s e a r e a s i n need o f u p g r a d i n g would be c o n c e n t r a t e d a l o n g the proposed C o q u i h a l l a Highway r o u t e , p o s s i b l y a l s o a l o n g i t s l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n l i n e t hrough Douglas Lake Country, and a t Q u i l t a n t o n Lake (L.12) ( c u r r e n t l y ' u n i n c o r p o r a t e d ' t h i s l a k e c o u l d be managed as a r e c r e a t i o n l o c a t i o n by one o f the H i g h l a n d V a l l e y m i n i n g companies). These p o t e n t i a l zones a r e , i n the main, a c c e s s i b l e to the b u l k o f m o t o r i s e d r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . T h e i r p r o g r e s s i v e development f o r a h i g h e r l e v e l of use, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l a k e , or l a k e - z o n e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l c a p a c i t y l i m i t a t i o n s , would a l l o w f o r a b e t t e r c o n t r o l o f t h s p r e a d o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s t h r o u g h o u t the Study Area ( w i t h o u t a l l o w i n g rampant and b r o a d s c a l e d i s p e r s i o n ) (see map 7.1). 130 M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zone Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zones would i n c l u d e t h o s e a r e a s t h a t c o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d f o r s p e c i f i c uses and s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s , e n f o r c e d by a mix o f c o e r c i v e and n o n - c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s . These zones would be i n t e n d e d t o e n r i c h t h e d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l oppor-t u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e Thompson P l a t e a u . The program o f c o e r c i v e and non-c o e r c i v e r e g u l a t i o n s might i n v o l v e a ban on gas motors, a r e d u c t i o n o f c a t c h l i m i t s and a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r the l i m i t a t i o n o f a c c e s s . The a r e a s a s s i g n e d Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zone s t a t u s are t h o s e l a k e s , o r l a k e g r o u p i n g s , which have e i t h e r been s u g g e s t e d by Study Area a g e n c i e s as s u i t a b l e ' l i m i t e d a c c e s s ' l a k e s , o r which a r e now managed a d e q u a t e l y by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r on a ' l i m i t e d a c c e s s ' b a s i s , o r which were f e l t by the a u t h o r t o have p o t e n t i a l as ' l i m i t e d a c c e s s ' l a k e s . For example, B l a c k w e l l Lake (L.64) was s u g g e s t e d by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n Kamloops as b e i n g s u i t a b l e f o r c a t e g o r i s a t i o n w i t h i n an ' h i k e - i n o n l y ' s t a t u s . S u r r e y Lake (L.28) and Tepee Lakes (L.38) a r e both c u r r e n t l y managed by commercial f i s h i n g camps who main-t a i n t h e i r a c c e s s roads i n d e l i b e r a t e l y poor c o n d i t i o n i n o r d e r t o l i m i t a c c e s s . Such o r g a n i s a t i o n s s h o u l d be encouraged t o m a i n t a i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s quo, a l t h o u g h on such ' p r i v a t e ' l a k e s i t might be more d i f f i c u l t t o demand motor bans o r c a t c h l i m i t r e d u c t i o n s . The development, o r r a t h e r d e s i g n a t i o n , o f t h e s e Minor A t t r a c -t i o n Zones would ensure t h a t a l l r e c r e a t i o n l o c a t i o n s i n the Study Area were no t reduced i n s t a n d a r d and q u a l i t y t o a 'lower common 131 denominator'. I t would ensure t h a t the q u a l i t y and v a r i e t y o f a major l e i s u r e environment was m a i n t a i n e d and p r e s e r v e d d e s p i t e mounting use p r e s s u r e s . C o n c l u s i o n The l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e zone d e s i g n a t i o n s i s i l l u s t r a t e d on map 7.1. However, the d e t a i l s o f 'hardening' a t the Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones, t he roads t h a t s h o u l d be removed t o ensure l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o the Minor A t t r a c t i o n Zones, the s p e c i f i c s o f f i s h s t o c k i n g f o r m u l a e and l e v e l s , o r o f the Task F o r c e ' s p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e not i n c l u d e d . These d e t a i l s b e l o n g a t the master p l a n n i n g s t a g e ( t o be done by the s e c r e t a r i a t w i t h t h e f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n and h e l p o f the committee members), and would be l e f t u n t i l more a c c u r a t e and l a k e s p e c i f i c s t u d y was complete. A f i n a l c a u t i o n a r y note remains. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can o n l y e v e r be a p p l i e d w i t h the knowledge t h a t d a t a on p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w i l l always be i n c o m p l e t e , and t h a t a l l e s t i m a t e s can o n l y be based on assumptions made about human b e h a v i o u r and the f u t u r e , assum-p t i o n s t h a t have about as much chance o f b e i n g wrong, as o f be i n g r i g h t . F l e x i b i l i t y t o change, t o r e c o g n i s e m i s t a k e s and a c t on them, must always remain the e s s e n t i a l element i n any p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 131a L A K E SYSTEM Map 7.2 r17A|0MlKlrt I 3 POUdft-AS -' J?CKt>OH" •vs. ^ ^ L r Ast J T B O O T / JALUEfN ?60 &UIE7 s 27 P&HM^bK . 62 tiLANP " • 25 CAMEO "^61 PASAD&E. r > . I 3 4 OTP** BIBLIOGRAPHY 132 Adams, James L. ' C o n c e p t u a l B l o c k b u s t i n g . A G u i d e t o B e t t e r I d e a s . ! W.H. Freeman and Company, San F r a n c i s c o . (1974);. A h r e n s , R.H. 'The M u l t i p l e Use o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s i n Non-Urban P a r k s f o r N o n - R e c r e a t i o n P u r p o s e s - Bane o r Boon? The Case A g a i n s t M u l t i p l e Use o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s f o r N o n - R e c r e a t i o n a l P u r p o s e s i n P a r k s . ' Mimeo. P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S e v e n t h F e d e r a l / P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s C o n f e r e n c e . ( O c t o b e r 1 s t 1 9 5 8 ) . A n d e r s o n , J.D. ' P r i v a t e R e c r e a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e and G o v e r n -ment O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n P o l i c y . ' M.A. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . A n d e r s o n , E. W i l l i a m and R . J . S c h e r z i n g e r . ' I m p r o v i n g Q u a l i t y o f W i n t e r F o r a g e f o r E l k by C a t t l e G r a z i n g . ' J o u r n a l o f Range Management p.120-125. 2 8 ( 2 ) . (March 1 9 7 5 ) . B a d a r a c c o , R o b e r t J . 'O.R.V.'s: O f t e n Rough on V i s i t o r s . ! P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n p p s . 32-35, 68. V o l . 1 1 . No.9. (September 1976). Behan, R.W. ' P o l i c e S t a t e W i l d e r n e s s . , A Comment on Manda-t o r y W i l d e r n e s s P e r m i t s . ! J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , p p 98-99. V o l . 72. No. 2. ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 4 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t T r a d e and Commerce. L i l l o o e t - N i c h o l a R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c S t u d y . Department o f I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e and Commerce. V i c t o r i a , B.C. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t T r a d e and Commerce. The Okanagan-Shuswap R e g i o n . A B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E c o n o m i c S t u d y A p r i l 1971. C a n a d a - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Okanagan B a s i n Agreement P r e p a r e d f o r t h e Okanagan S t u d y Committee. De p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l D e velopment, T r a d e and Commerce. E c o n o m i c s and S t a t i s t i c s B r a n c h . P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s . V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e . ' F o r e s t R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 A B r i e f S u b m i t t e d t o t h e R o y a l Commis-s i o n on F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e . (September 1 9 7 5 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F u t u r e L e i s u r e Management T a s k F o r c e . 'Towards a P o l i c y f o r F u t u r e L e i s u r e Management i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ' C.K. C a m p b e l l ( C h a i r m a n ) . R e p o r t t o t h e Man and R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e a t Naramata f r o m t h e L e i s u r e Management Ta s k F o r c e . (September 1 9 7 3 ) . 133 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I.P.A. 'The C e n t r a l R e p o r t '76.' A Summary R e p o r t o f D e v e l o p m e n t P o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e C e n t r a l R e g i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r e p a r e d by I.P.A. S t a f f . D e p a r t m e n t o f Ec o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t . Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V i c t o r i a , B.C. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s D e p a r t m e n t . A n n u a l R e p o r t s 1963-1974. B.C. M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s D e p a r t m e n t . V i c t o r i a , B.C. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s A c t . An A c t R e s p e c t i n g P a r k s . S t a t u t e s o f B.C. 1965. C h a p t e r 31. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s A c t . An A c t t o Amend t h e P a r k A c t . S t a t u t e s o f B.C. 1973. C h a p t e r 67. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h . 'The Thompson P l a t e a u R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n S t u d y . 1 F e r g u s N e i l s o n . P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n R e p o r t #76-33. B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . V i c t o r i a , B.C. (1976A). B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h . P a r k s P r o f i l e s . U n p u b l i s h e d d a t a . B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h . V i c t o r i a , B.C. (1975A). B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h . ' B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e Mora-t o r i u m S t u d y . A P a r k s P l a n n i n g S t u d y . ' Y.K. Youds and D. Thompson. P l a n n i n g R e p o r t #4 3. P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n . B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h . V i c t o r i a , B.C. (1975B).' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h . The Shuswap L a k e s R e c r e a t i o n a l S t u d y . A R e c r e a t i o n S y s t e m S t u d y and P r o p o s a l . D. Thompson. P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h . V i c t o r i a , B.C. (1975C). B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h . ' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s P a r k System. A G r a p h i c P r e s e n t a t i o n . ! P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h . V i c t o r i a , B.C. ( J a n u a r y 1975D). B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h . ' K a m l o o p s - S e l k i r k . R e c r e a -t i o n a l F a c i l i t y O b j e c t i v e s . ' B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h . V i c t o r i a , B.C. (1973A). B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h . 'Okanagan R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t y O b j e c t i v e s . ' B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h . V i c t o r i a , B.C. (1973B). B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h . Law E n f o r c e m e n t M a n u a l . B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h . V i c t o r i a , B.C. (197:2 - amended 1 9 7 3 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . A n n u a l R e p o r t 1974. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . V i c t o r i a , B.C. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h . ' V i s i t o r s '74. A S t u d y o f V i s i t o r s t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e Summer o f 1974.' P r e p a r e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y . Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1975. 134 Brockman, F.C. and L.C. M e r r i a m , J n r . ' R e c r e a t i o n a l Use o f W i l d l a n d s . ' M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. T o r o n t o . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . B r o s s , I r w i n D.J. ' D e s i g n F o r D e c i s i o n . ' The F r e e P r e s s . New Y o r k . ( 1 9 5 3 ) . B u l l e n , J.G. ' A l l R e s o u r c e s C o n s i d e r e d i n L o g g i n g P l a n s . ' F o r e s t a l k . V o l . 2 . No.2. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . B i r c h , W i l l i a m R., J n r . ' O b s e r v a t i o n as a T e c h n i q u e f o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h . ' f r o m : F i s c h e r , L e w i s and P r i d d l e ( E d s ) . (1974) . B u r t o n , Dr. Thomas L. 'The C h a l l e n g e o f L e i s u r e . ' C o n t a c t . J o u r n a l . o f U r b a n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l A f f a i r s . V o l . 8 N o . l . ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 6 ) . B u r y , R i c h a r d L. ' R e c r e a t i o n C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y - H y p o t h e s i s o r R e a l i t y ? ' P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n pps 22-25, 56-67. V o l . 1 1 . N o . l . ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 6 ) . B u r y , R i c h a r d L., R o b e r t C. W e n d l i n g , S t e p h e n ' F . M c C o o l . ' O f f - R o a d R e c r e a t i o n V e h i c l e s . A R e s e a r c h Summary 1969-75.' The T e x a s A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n . C o l l e g e S t a t i o n , T e x a s . The T e x a s A & M U n i v e r s i t y System. ( J u l y 1 9 7 6 ) . Canada N a t i o n a l P a r k s A c t . An A c t R e s p e c t i n g P a r k s . R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f Canada 1970. C h a p t e r 189. S e c t i o n . . 1 : S e c t i o n 4 ( G e n e r a l P u r p o s e s ) . Canada S t a t i s t i c s . P o p u l a t i o n : P r e l i m i n a r y C o u n t s . 1976. C e n sus o f Canada. C e n s u s D i v i s i o n s . C e n s us S u b d i v i s i o n s . S t a t i s t i c s Canada. O t t a w a . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . C a n a d i a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . 'An E n v i r o n m e n t a l E t h i c - i t s F o r m u l a t i o n and I m p l i c a t i o n s . ' C a n a d i a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l A d v i s o r y C o u n s i l , O t t a w a , O n t a r i o . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . C a t t o n , W i l l i a m R. J n r . , 'The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n t o t h e I n d i v i d u a l . 1 f r o m : D o o l i n g , P . J . (Ed.) (1975) . C a t t o n , W.R. J n r . ' M o t i v a t i o n s o f W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s . ' P u l p and P a p e r M a g a z i n e o f Canada. (December 1 9 t h 1 9 6 9 ) . C l a w s o n , M a r i o n . 'The D e v e l o p m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n i n t h e U.S. and Canada and i t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s . ' f r o m : J.G. N e l s o n and R.C. S c a c e (Eds.) ( 1 9 7 3 ) . C l a w s o n , M a r i o n . 'The F e d e r a l L a n d s S i n c e 1956.' R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e I n c . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . C o r n e l i u s , R i c h a r d R. *A Summary and A n a l y s i s o f O b s e r v a t i o n s on B o a t i n g - 1972.' D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , F i s h Management B u r e a u , Management R e p o r t No. 67. M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . 135 D e u t s c h , K a r l W. ' P o l i t i c s , I n t e r e s t s and V a l u e s ' . From: D e u t s c h , K a r l W., P o l i t i c s and Government. Houghton, M i f f l i n Co., B o s t o n . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . D i t t o n , R o b e r t B. ' W r e c k r e a t i o n i n o u r N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s . ' P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n . V o l . 6 . No. 6. ( J u n e 1971).. D o e l l , C h a r l e s E . and L o u i s F. T w a r d z i k . E l e m e n t s o f P a r k and R e c r e a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . B u r g e r s P u b l i s h i n g Company, M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n e s o t a . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . D o o l i n g , P . J . (Ed.) P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t Rocky M o u n t a i n - P a c i f i c Rim P a r k and F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r . (1975A). D o o l i n g , P . J . Summary o f a l l P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s t o June 3 0 t h 1975. Mimeo t o F o r e s t r y 491. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . (1975B). D o r c e y , A n t h o n y H.J. ' P o l i c y Mechanisms f o r Water Q u a l i t y Management i n a M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r and t h e F r a s e r E s t a u a r y . ' From: S t e p h e n s o n , James B. The P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n o f E c o n o m i c I n c e n t i v e s f o r t h e Con-t r o l o f A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s . V a n c o u v e r . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . D o r c e y , A n t h o n y H.J. (Ed.) 'The U n c e r t a i n F u t u r e o f t h e Lower F r a s e r . ' The W e s t w a t e r R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s . (1976) . D o u g l a s , R o b e r t W. ' F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n . ! . Pergamon P r e s s L t d . E l m s f o r d . New Y o r k (1975-2nd e d i t i o n ) . Downing, Dr. K e n t B. "Emerging C h a l l e n g e s and T r e n d s i n O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . ' From: D o o l i n g , P . J . (Ed.) ( 1 9 7 5 ) . D r i v e r , B.L. and S. Ross T o c h e r . 'Toward a B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R e c r e a t i o n a l Engagements w i t h I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P l a n n i n g . ' From: Fisher,'-Lewis_ancL P r i d d l e . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . D u l a c , D a l t o n and J o h n G e y e r . 'A C o m p r e h e n s i v e S y s t e m o f S e l f - S e r v i c e Garbage D i s p o s a l and L i t t e r C o n t r o l . ' Monte C h r i s t o Ranger D i s t r i c t . Mount B a k e r N a t i o n a l F o r e s t . G r a n i t e F a l l , W a s h i n g t o n . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Dunn, D i a n a R. ' M o t o r i z e d R e c r e a t i o n V e h i c l e s . ' P a r k s and  R e c r e a t i o n . V o l . 5 . No.7. ( J u l y 1 9 7 0 ) . E C e h e l b e r g e r , H e r b e r t E . and George H. M o e l l e r . 'Towards a B e t t e r U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g i n t h e A d i r o n d a c k L a k e s R e g i o n . ' Water R e s o u r c e B u l l e t i n . V o l . 9 . No.6. (December 1 9 7 3 ) . E w a l d , W i l l i a m R. (Ed.) ' E n v i r o n m e n t and Change. The N e x t F i f t y Y e a r s . ' I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B l o o m i n g t o n and L o ndon. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . 136 F a r q u a r s o n , , K e n . ' R e c r e a t i o n - The N e g l e c t e d R e s o u r c e . ' From: D o o l i n g , P . J . (Ed.) ( 1 9 7 5 ) . F i s c h e r , D a v i d W., J o h n E . L e w i s and George B. P r i d d l e (Eds.) 'Land and L e i s u r e : C o n c e p t s a n d Methods i n O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . ' M a a r o u f a P r e s s I n c . C h i c a g o . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Fox, I r v i n g K. and E d g a r S. Dunn, J n r . ' C a n a d i a n P o l i c y D e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e Management o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l R e s o u r c e s . ' W estwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . (1976) . Fox, L u c y . 'The B a c k c o u n t r y Use o f Manning P r o v i n c i a l P a r k . Management and U s e . 1 M.A. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( A p r i l 1 9 7 6 ) . F u t u r i s t . ' E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c R a d i a t i o n : An I n c r e a s i n g H a z a r d . ' V o l . 9 . No.6. (December 1 9 7 5 ) . 'Glamorgan H e r i t a g e C o a s t . P l a n S t a t e m e n t . ' V a l e o f G l a -morgan B o r o u g h C o u n c i l . Ogur B o r o u g h C o u n c i l . C o u n t y o f S o u t h G l a m o r g a n . M i d Glamorgan C o u n t y C o u n c i l . G l a m o r g a n , U.K. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . G r a y , A.V. ' T o u r i s m D e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l P a r k . ' A.V.G. Management S e r v i c e L t d . V a n c o u v e r . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Gray, D a v i d and D o n a l d A. P e l e g r i n o ( E d s . ) . ' R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e R e c r e a t i o n and P a r k Movement.' A Book o f R e a d i n g s . Wm. C. Brown Company, P u b l i s h e r s . U.S.A. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . ' P o p u l a t i o n F o r e c a s t . ' G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 3 ) . H a d i k i n , J . ' D e p r e c i a t i v e B e h a v i o u r i n t h e P a r k S e t t i n g . ' R e p o r t #146. D e p a r t m e n t o f T o u r i s m , R e c r e a t i o n a l and C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s , R e s e a r c h a n d P l a n n i n g B r a n c h , W i n n i p e g , M a n i t o b a . (December 197 3 ) . H a r d i n , G a r r e t t . ' Tragedy o f t h e Commons.' S c i e n c e . V o l . 1 62,pp.1243-1248. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . H a r r i s o n , Gordon S. 'The P e o p l e and t h e P a r k : R e a c t i o n s t o a S y s t e m o f P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Mt. M c K i n l e y N a t i o n a l P a r k , A l a s k a . ' J o u r n a l o f L e i s u r e Research., pp.6-15. V o l . 7 . N o . l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . H a r v i e , C H . 'The P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s o f A l b e r t a ' . From: N e l s o n , J.G. and R.C. S c a c e (Eds.) 1968. 137 H e b e r l e i n , Thomas A. 'The T h r e e F i x e s : T e c h n o l o g i c a l , C o g n i t i v e and S t r u c t u r a l . 1 U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . , ( r e v i s i o n o f an e a r l i e r d r a f t p r e s e n t e d a t t h e Water and Community C o n f e r e n c e a t S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , May 23-25, 1 9 7 3 ) . Dept. o f R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n . (June 1 9 7 3 ) . . Hendee, J o h n C. 'A S c i e n t i s t ' s V i e w s on Some C u r r e n t W i l d e r n e s s Management I s s u e s . ' W e s t e r n W i l d l a n d s . V o l . 1 . No.2. ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 4 ) . Hendee, J o h n C. ' W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , V a l u e s , and Management P r e f e r e n c e s . ' U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h P a p e r PNW-61. P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t F o r e s t and Range E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n . P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n . ( 1 9 6 8 ) . Hendee, J o h n C. and R o b e r t C. L u c a s . ' P o l i c e S t a t e W i l d e r -n e s s . A Comment on a Comment.' J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , pp.100-101. V o l . 7 2 . No.2. ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 4 ) . Hendee, J o h n C. and R o b e r t C. L u c a s . 'Mandatory W i l d e r n e s s P e r m i t s : A N e c e s s a r y Management T o o l . ' J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , pp.206-210. V o l . 7 1 . No.4. ( A p r i l 1 9 7 3 ) . I l l i n o i s . T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y C o m m i s s i o n on Water R e s o u r c e s . 'Water f o r I l l i n o i s - A P l a n f o r A c t i o n . ' D e p a r t m e n t o f B u s i n e s s and E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t . S t a t e o f I l l i n o i s . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s . ( 1 9 6 7 ) . J a a k s o n , R e i n e r . ' S h o r e l i n e R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g : A Systems View.' O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r #7. F a c u l t y o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a t e r l o o . W a t e r l o o , O n t a r i o . (1973) . J a a k s o n , R. ' R e c r e a t i o n a l Z o n i n g and L a k e P l a n n i n g . ' Town  P l a n n i n g Review. V o l . 4 3 . N o . l . ( 1 9 7 2 ) . J a a k s o n , R. ' P l a n n i n g f o r t h e C a p a c i t y o f L a k e s t o Accom-modate Water O r i e n t e d R e c r e a t i o n . ' P l a n . V o l . 1 0 . No.3. (1970) . J o r d a n , H a r r y L. ' C u r b i n g O b j e c t i o n a b l e B e h a v i o u r i n Our P a r k s . ' R e c r e a t i o n Canada. No.34.4.pp.46-50. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Kamloops F l y F i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n . 'Roche Lak e L a n d Use P l a n . ' P r o p o s e d by t h e Kamloops F l y F i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n . Unpub-l i s h e d R e p o r t . (March 1 9 7 6 ) . K a r l s e n , r E r i k ' ' L a k e s h o r e R e c r e a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t . The C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . ' C a n a d i a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l S c i e n c e s . R e p o r t . (September 1 9 7 1 ) . K o o t e n a y B o u n d a r y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . ' C h r i s t i n a L a k e S t u d y . ' The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K o o t e n a y B o u n d a r y . T r a i l , B.C. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . 138 K r u t i l l a , J o h n V. (Ed.) ' N a t u r a l E n v i r o n m e n t s , S t u d i e s i n T h e o r e t i c a l and A p p l i e d A n a l y s i s . ' R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e I n c . The J o h n s H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B a l t i m o r e and London. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . K r u t i l l a , J o h n V. and A n t h o n y C. F i s h e r . 'The E c o n o m i c s o f N a t u r a l E n v i r o n m e n t s . S t u d i e s i n t h e V a l u a t i o n o f Commodity and A m e n i t y R e s o u r c e s . ' (Review C o p y ) . (1975?) K r u t i l l a , J o h n V. and J.K. .Knetsch. 'Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n E c o n o m i c s . ' The A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Academy o f S o c i a l  and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e s . (May 197 0 ) . K u s l e r , J o h n A. ' P u b l i c / P r i v a t e P a r k s and Management o f P r i v a t e L a n d s f o r P a r k P r o t e c t i o n . 1 I n s t i t u t e f o r E n v i r o n -m e n t a l S t u d i e s . R e p o r t #16. U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n . (March 1974) . La d d , R i c h a r d A. ' R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e T o t a l E n v i r o n m e n t . ' XIX I n t e r n a t i o n a l M e e t i n g o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Management S c i e n c e s . H o u s t o n , T e x a s . ( A p r i l 5 t h 19 7 2 ) . L a n c a s t e r , Roger A., E a s t e r A. L a n c a s t e r and G e r a l d A. B r u c e . ' F e a s i b i l i t y S t u d y f o r t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e f o r t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Okanagan.' R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Of N o r t h Okanagan. V e r n o n . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . L e n t r i e r , B a r r y , C a r l t o n S. Van Do r e n and James R. T r a i l . ' S p a t i a l B e h a v i o u r i n R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g . ' From: F i s c h e r , L e w i s and P r i d d l e (Eds.) ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Lime, D a v i d W. and George H. S t a n k e y . ' C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y : M a i n t a i n i n g O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Q u a l i t y . ' P r o c e e d i n g s , 1971 F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n Symposium. S y r a c u s e . New Y o r k . O c t . 1 2 -14. pp.174-184. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . L o f t u s , Rod. ' C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y and t h e I n l a n d L a k e : A Review o f Some R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e on O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . ' U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r s u b m i t t e d t o P r o f e s s o r P e t e r Murphy, S e l k i r k C o l l e g e , B.C. (December 1 9 7 3 ) . L u c a s , R o b e r t C. ' F o r e s t S e r v i c e W i l d e r n e s s R e s e a r c h i n t h e R o c k i e s . What We've L e a r n e d So F a r . ' W e s t e r n W i l d l a n d s . V o l . 1 . No.2. ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 4 ) . L u c a s , R o b e r t C. 'User C o n c e p t s o f W i l d e r n e s s and T h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r R e s o u r c e Management.' f r o m : P r o s h a n s k y , H.M., W.H. I t t e l s o n and L.G. . J R i v l i n (Eds.) E n v i r o n m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . Man and H i s P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n I n c . . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . M c K i l l o p , W i l l i a m . ' W i l d e r n e s s Use i n C a l i f o r n i a : A Q u a n t i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s . ' J o u r n a l o f L e i s u r e R e s e a r c h . V o l . 7 . No.3. pp.165-178. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . 139 'Man i n N a t u r e . ' P r o c e e d i n g s - S i x t h A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e on P a r k s and O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n . Eugene, O r e g o n . May 19, 20, 21. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . M anning. G.H. 'The E c o n o m i c S i g n i f i c a n c e o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a -t i o n . ' From: D o o l i n g , P . J . (Ed.) (19 7 5 ) . M a r s h a l l , H.N. 'Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n C h a l l e n g e s and T r e n d s i n t h e Use o f F o r e s t and W i l d l a n d s . " From: D o o l i n g , P . J . (Ed.) ( 1 9 7 5 ) . M a t t y a s o r s k y , Eugene. ' R e c r e a t i o n A r e a P l a n n i n g : Some P h y s i c a l and E c o l o g i c a l R e q u i r e m e n t s . ' From: L.O. G e n t l e r (Ed.) P l a n n i n g t h e C a n a d i a n E n v i r o n m e n t . H a r v e s t House, M o n t r e a l , ( 1968).. M o r t o n , W i l l i a m and I r v i n g K. F o x . (Eds.) ' R e g i o n a l N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s P l a n n i n g . A Framework and i t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r B a s i n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ' ( P r e l i m i n a r y D r a f t ) . W e s t w a t e r R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. J u l y 1975. N a t i o n a l P a r k s and C o n s e r v a t i o n M a g a z i n e . ' S h o r t c h a n g i n g t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k S y s t e m : N a t u r a l A r e a s . ' ( F e b r u a r y 1976). N e l s o n , J.G. and R.C. S c a c e (Eds.) 'The C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l P a r k s : Today and Tomorrow. S t u d i e s i n La n d Use H i s t o r y and L a n d s c a p e Change.* N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r i e s No. 3. N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada. Ott a w a . O n t a r i o . ( 1 9 6 8 ) . N o r t h c o t e , T.C. ' E n t r o p h i c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n a l F i s h i n g i n Two L a k e s B a s i n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ' P r o c e e d i n g s -Symposium on t h e L a k e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . N o r t h e r n M i n e r . C a n a d i a n M i n e s Handbook. 1976-1977. C o m p i l e d by t h e N o r t h e r n M i n e r . N o r t h e r n M i n e r P r e s s L t d . T o r o n t o . O n t a r i o . ( J u l y 1 9 7 6 ) . ' O n t a r i o Supreme C o u r t R u l e s t h a t P r o v i n c i a l P a r k A c t L a c k s T r u s t P r o v i s i o n s . ' C a n a d i a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law News. V o l . 1 1 . N o . l . ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 3 ) . O ' R i o r d a n , Tim. 'Camping P e r m i t s and L i m i t s P r o p o s e d . ' The P r o v i n c e . ( F e b r u a r y 2 5 t h 1 9 7 4 ) . O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Review C o m m i s s i o n . 'Water f o r R e c r e a t i o n - V a l u e s and O p p o r t u n i t i e s . ' ORRRC S t u d y R e p o r t #10. U.S. Government P u b l i c a t i o n s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. ( 1 9 6 2 ) . P a r k e r , W.S. 'Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n and t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t : A S t u d y i n Land-Use C o n f l i c t s . * M.A. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( 1 9 6 4 ) . P e a c e R i v e r - L i a r d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . ' C h a r l i e L a k e and i t s W a t e r s h e d L a n d s . A P l a n n i n g S t r a t e g y . ' P e a c e R i v e r - L i a r d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . F o r t S t . J o h n . ( 1 9 7 2 ) . 140 P e a r s e C o m m i s s i o n . 'Timber R i g h t s and F o r e s t P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s . P e t e r H. P e a s e , C o m m i s s i o n e r . V i c t o r i a , B.C. (1976>. 1 P e n z , A l t o n J . ' N a t u r a l R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s : C a p a c i t y and t h e F o r m u l a t i o n o f Use P o l i c y . ' I n s t i t u t e o f P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g . R e s e a r c h R e p o r t No. 37. C a r n e g i e - M e l l o n U n i v e r -s i t y . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Rees, W.E. 'The Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y . A C o n c e p t u a l Frame-work f o r R e g i o n a l Land Use P l a n n i n g . ' U.B.C. C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , P a p e r s on L o c a l Government. V o l . 1 . No.7. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . R o t h e n b u r g , J . 'The E c o n o m i c s o f C o n g e s t i o n and P o l l u t i o n : An I n t e g r a t e d View.' The A m e r i c a n E c o n o m i c Review, V o l . L X . No.2. (May 19 7 0 ) . Sax, J o s e p h L. 'The P u b l i c T r u s t : A New C h a r t e r o f E n v i r o n -m e n t a l R i g h t s . ' From: J o s e p h L. Sax (Ed.) D e f e n d i n g t h e E n v i r o n m e n t . A l f r e d A. K n o p f . New Y o r k . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . S h a f e r , E . L . , G.H. M o e l l e r and R.E. G e t t y . ' F u t u r e L e i s u r e E n v i r o n m e n t s . ' U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h P a p e r . NE-3 01. N o r t h e a s t e r n F o r e s t E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n . Upper D a r b y , P e n n s y l v a n i a . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . S h a f e r , E l w o o d L. J n r . 'The A v e r a g e Camper Who D o e s n ' t E x i s t . ' U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h P a p e r NE-142. N o r t h e a s t e r n F o r e s t E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n . Upper D a r b y , P e n n s y l v a n i a . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . ' S h o r e l a n d R e c r e a t i o n . An E n v i r o n m e n t a l A p p r o a c h t o Development.' P r e p a r e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g B r a n c h . M a n i t o b a D e p a r t m e n t o f Urb a n D e v e l o p m e n t and M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . P l a n n i n g G u i d e No.2. M a r c h 1971. S i n c l a i r , W i l l i a m F. 'The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n t o t h e Economy.' From: D o o l i n g , P . J . (Ed.) ( 1 9 7 5 ) . S i n c l a i r , W i l l i a m F. 'The S o c i o E c o n o m i c I m p o r t a n c e o f M a i n t a i n i n g t h e Q u a l i t y o f R e c r e a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s i n N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The Case o f L a k e l s e L a k e . ' F i s h e r i e s and M a r i n e S e r v i c e . D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. and K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , T e r r a c e , B.C. : (June 1 9 7 4 ) . S i n c l a i r , W i l l i a m F. 'The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n S p o r t F i s h e r m a n . ' Department o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t . F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e . P a c i f i c R e g i o n . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . S m i t h , S.B., T.G. H a l s e y , G.E. S t r i n g e r and R.A.H. S p a r r o w . 'The D e v e l o p m e n t and I n i t i a l T e s t i n g o f a Rainbow T r o u t S t o c k i n g F o r m u l a i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L a k e s . ' F i s h e r i e s Management R e p o r t No.60. B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . ( O c t o b e r 1 9 6 9 ) . 141 S p u r r , S t e p h e n H. ' W i l d e r n e s s Management.' No.IV. H o r a c e M. A l b r i g h t C o n s e r v a t i o n L e c t u r e s h i p . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a . S c h o o l o f F o r e s t r y . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . S t a n k e y , George H. ' V i s i t o r P e r c e p t i o n s o f W i l d e r n e s s R e c r e a t i o n C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y . ' U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h P a p e r INT-142. I n t e r m o u n t a i n F o r e s t and Range E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n . Ogden, Utah.. (1973) . S t a n k e y , G e o r g e H. 'A S t r a t e g y f o r t h e D e f i n i t i o n and Management o f W i l d e r n e s s Q u a l i t y . " From: K r u t i l l a , J o h n V. (Ed.) (1972) . T a y l o r , Gordon S. 'Demand f o r R e c r e a t i o n - An E s s e n t i a l T o o l f o r R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g . ' From: N e l s o n , J.G. and R.C. S c a c e (Eds.) ( 1 9 6 8 ) . T h r e i n e n , C S . 'Some S p a t i a l A s p e c t s o f A q u a t i c R e c r e a t i o n . ' F i s h Management D i v i s i o n M i s c e l l a n e o u s R e p o r t No.6. W i s c o n -s i n C o n s e r v a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t . M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n . ( 1 9 6 1 ) . V e l a y , C . J . 'The C h a l l e n g e and T r e n d s i n O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . ' From: D o o l i n g , P . J . (Ed.) ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Wagar, A l a n J . 'The P l a c e o f C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y i n t h e Management o f R e c r e a t i o n L a n d s . ' T h i r d A n n u a l Rocky M o u n t a i n - H i g h P l a i n s P a r k and R e c r e a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g s . N o . l . F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o . U t a h S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . ( 1 9 6 8 ) . Weinmayr, V. M i c h a e l . ' V a n d a l i s m by D e s i g n . A C r i t i q u e . ' From: G r a y , D. and D.A. P e l e g r i n o . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . W e i s k o p f , D o n a l d C. 'A G u i d e t o R e c r e a t i o n and L e i s u r e . ' A l l y n and B a c o n , I n c . B o s t o n . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . W i l d a v s k y , A a r o n . ' A e s t h e t i c Power o r t h e T r i u m p h o f t h e S e n s i t i v e Few o v e r t h e V u l g a r Mass. A P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f t h e New E c o n o m i c s . ' D a e d a l u s . V o l . 9 6 . No.4. p.1127. (1967) . W i l s o n , George T. 'Lake Z o n i n g f o r R e c r e a t i o n - How t o Improve R e c r e a t i o n a l Use o f L a k e s T h r o u g h R e g u l a t i o n and C o n t r o l . ' Management A i d s B u l l e t i n . No. 44. N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n and P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. Worf, W.A. 'The O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n C h a l l e n g e and T r e n d s i n t h e Use o f F o r e s t s , W i l d l a n d s and Non-Urban P l a c e s . ' From: D o o l i n g , P . J . (Ed.) ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Y o u s s e f , Y.A. ' A s s e s s i n g A f f e c t s on Water Q u a l i t y by B o a t -i n g A c t i v i t y . ' N . E . R . C , U.S.E.P.A., C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . 142 Appendix I P o p u l a t i o n Trends From: Thompson-Nicola. R e g i o n a l Economic Study. Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, V i c t o r i a . B.C. (1972), K a m l o o p s - L i l l o o e t Okanagan B r i t i s h Columbia 1961 66,300 base 94,000 base 1.629m base 1966 8 1 , 2 0 0 + 2 2 % 105,000+ 12% 1.873m + 1 5 % 1980 150,000 + 126% 175,000 + 86% 2.895m + 78% 1990 222,000 + 235% 230,000 + 145% 3.387m + 136% 2000 300,000 + 352% 290,000 + 209% 4.810m + 195% From: G.V.R.D. P o p u l a t i o n F o r e c a s t . G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . Vancouver, B.C. (Ja n u a r y 1973). G r e a t e r Vancouver Lower M a i n l a n d Thompson-Nicola 1961 790,540 base 896,193 base 44,876 base 1966 8 9 2 , 8 5 3 + 1 3 % 1,005,369+ 12% 58,303 + 30% 1981 1,321,814+ 67% 1,491,000+ 66% 117,444 + 1 6 2 % 1991 1,629,226 + 106% 1,807,689 + 102% 159,911 + 256% 1996 1,957,306 + 118% 180,594 + 302% 2001 1 ,928,087 + 144% From: P o p u l a t i o n : P r e l i m i n a r y Counts. 1976 Censum o f Canada. Census D i v i s i o n s . Census S u b d i v i s i o n s . S t a t i s t i c s Canada Ottawa (1976. *1971 1976 Kamloops 46,765 57,241 M e r r i t t 5,289 5,581 P r i n c e t o n 2,607 3,092 Kelowna 40,877 50,111 Vernon 13,964 17,162 B r i t i s h Columbia 2.185m 2.406m G r e a t e r Vancouver 1.028m 1.057m Thompson-Nicola R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 75,752 90,294 Okanagan-Similkameen Reg i o n a l 50,673 D i s t r i c t 42,752 C e n t r a l Okanagan R e g i o n a l D i s t . 50,177 69,121 North Okanagan R e g i o n a l D i s t 34,039 45,794 D e w d n e y A l l o u e t t e R e g i o n a l D i s t . 40,096 50,867 F r a s e r Cheam Regio n a l D i s t . 46,119 50,349 C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y Reg. D i s t . 58,063 85,692 Columbia-Shuswap Reg. D i s t 30,641 34,801 * Based upon 1976 l i m i t s and i n c l u d i n g boundary changes 143 Appendix 2 M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n Ore s h i p p e d o r T r e a t e d . M i l l i o n Tons. 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1975 1975 Bethlehem 1.047 1.788 3.948 5.387 5.626 6.339 6.346 Craigmont Lornex 1.738 1.314 1.934 1.810 1.834 1.430 13.987 1.796 16.445 2.835 3.092 5.882 7.197 7.460 21.756 25.587 Copper C o n c e n t r a t e Shipped. Thousand Tons. 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 Bethlehem 24.8 32.1 62.4 57.7 86.1 115.0 89.6 Craigmont Lornex 108.3 55.7 106.6 71.7 75.4 65.1 154.4 91.6 167.9 133.1 87.8 169.0 129.4 161.5 334.5 349.1 Average Annual Mine Emoloyment. Mine and M i l l Workers Only. 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 Beahlehem 135 187 249 328 329 341 348 Craigmont 512 467 357 389 450 294 425 Lornex 464 613 648 663 606 717 770 1099 1386 I n c l u d i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Workers 740 849 928 1434 1569 F o o t n o t e 1: M i n e r a l Resources (see map 1 .3). D e p o s i t s under P r o d u c t i o n o r p r o d u c t i o n p r e p a r a t i o n . 1. A f t o n : ore r e s e r v e s 34m t o n s . C o n s t r u c t i o n began March 1976. E v e n t u a l m i l l c a p a c i t y o f 25,000 tons b l i s t e r copper per y e a r . 2. Bethlehem: o r e r e s e r v e s 500m tons 3. A l w i n : p r o d u c t i o n c e a s e d . 4. V a l l e y Copper: o r e r e s e r v e s 800m t o n s . No p r o d u c t i o n p l a n s t o date 5. Lornex: ore r e s e r v e s 419m t o n s . P i l o t p l a n t o n l y 6. Highmont: ore r e s e r v e s 145m t o n s . F e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y complete, no p r o d u c t i o n p l a n s t o d a t e . 7. Craigmont: ore r e s e r v e 7m tons (copper c o n t e n t 1.83%) Foot n o t e 2. M e t a l l i c Copper r e s e r v e s e s t i m a t e c a l c u l a t e d from t o t a l r e s e r v e s g i v e n 2553 m i l l i o n tons (3) and average copper c o n t e n t , 0.45%. Source: Canadian Mines Handbook 1967^1977. Compiled by the N o r t h e r n Miner. N o r t h e r n Miner P r e s s L t d . T o r o n t o . ( J u l y 1976). Appendix 3 Timber P r o d u c t i o n 144 T o t a l Annual Timber P r o d u c t i o n , i n CUNITS, f o r 1) B o t a n i e , Kamloops, N i c h o l a , Similkameen, B a r t o n H i l l s and Salmon Arm P.S.Y.U.'s and 2) T.F.L.'s #16 and #32 A l l b e i n g w h o l l y o r p a r t i a l l y w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 542,007 432,600 289,900 415,600 466,880 779,600 497,400 Source: B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e V i c t o r i a , B.C. 145 Appendix 4 Lake S p e c i f i c I n f o r m a t i o n Note: a) S t o c k i n g f i g u r e s f o r 1976 ( e x c e p t where i n d i c a t e d ) . b) Use f i g u r e s f o r 1975. c) (mid-week) r e f e r s t o f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d s between 8th and 3 1 s t J u l y , d) (weekend) r e f e r s t o f i e l d s t u d y on S a t u r d a y 1 s t August; (weekend) boat count d u r i n g a e r i a l r e c o n a i s a n c e o f s t u d y a r e a Sunday 2nd August. On t h e s e days a F i s h i n g Derby was i n p r o g r e s s on Tunkwa Lake (L.13), Salmon Lake ( L . 2 2 ) , Roche Lake (1.44) and Stump Lake (L. 43). e) a l l l a k e s i n c l u d e d below were v i s i t e d i n the c o u r s e o f f i e l d work. f ) r e f e r e n c e number r e l a t e d t o l o c a t i o n number on f o l d o u t map 1. P e t e r Hope Lake: S t o c k i n g 25000 rainbow ( F l y F i s h i n g O n l y ) . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 2000, 4 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 2 c a r top boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 8 u n i t s (mid-week); 7 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r P e t e r Hope F i s h i n g Camp and s u b d i v i s i o n . P o t e n t i a l s Area -a l t e r n a t i v e t o Roche Lake 2. Glimpse Lake: S t o c k i n g 25000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p -ment u s e r s 1000, 2 t o i l e t s , 3 t a b l e s , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 0 u n i t s (mid-week); 17 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Glimpse Lake Lodge and s u b d i v i s i o n . 3. Douglas Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . One camping a r e a m a i n t a i n e d by Douglas Lake C a t t l e Company; s i t e use 3 u n i t s (mid-week). 4. N i c o l a Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e s . Monck P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 70900, 61 c a m p s i t e s , 27 p i c n i c s i t e s . P r i v a t e S e c t o r N i c o l a Bay R e s o r t , Kokanee Beach R e s o r t , Q u i l c h e n a H o t e l , and s u b d i v i s i o n . 5. Lundbom/Marquart Lakes: S t o c k i n g 8000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 8000, 5 t o i l e t s , 1 t a b l e , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 20 u n i t s (mid-week); 15 boats (weekend). P o t e n t i a l Area - a t t r a c t i v e e nvironment, p r o x i m i t y t o M e r r i t t . 6. K e n t u c k y / A l e y n / B l u e y Lakes: S t o c k i n g 50000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c -c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 17300, 14 t o i l e t s , 37 t a b l e s , 8 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 60 u n i t s (mid-week); 45 boats (weekend). Problems A r e a . 7. Kane Lakes: S t o c k i n g 15000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 900, 1 t o i l e t , 1 t a b l e , 1 c a r t o p b o a t l a u n c h , s i t e use 0 u n i t s (mid-week). P o t e n t i a l s Area - a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h good road a c c e s s . 8. Harmon Lake: S t o c k i n g 15000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p -ment u s e r s 5400, 3 t o i l e t s , 1 t a b l e , 3 c a r top boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 9 u n i t s (mid-week). P o t e n t i a l s A r e a - a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h good road a c c e s s . 9. Boss Lake No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 1000, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 6 u n i t s (mid-week). 146 10. Davis Lake: Mo S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 1500, 4 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 1 u n i t (mid-week); 6 boats (weekend). P o t e n t i a l s Area - a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h good road a c c e s s . 11. B a r n e s / W i l l a r d Lakes: S t o c k i n g 15000 rainbow i n Barnes. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 6000, 8 t o i l e t s 0 t a b l e s , 8 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 5 u n i t s (mid-week); 16 boats (week-end). 12. Q u i l t a n t o n Lake: No S t o c k i n g . " U n i n c o r p o r a t e d " r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , 2 t o i l e t s ; s i t e use 15 u n i t s (mid-week). I n d i a n Reserve on e a s t s i d e o f l a k e . 13. Tunkwa Lake: S t o c k i n g 55000 rainbow ( a l s o spawn c o l l e c t i o n ) . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 3000, 4 t o i l e t s 0 t a b l e s , 4 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 20 u n i t s (mid-week) 98 u n i t s (weekend); 115 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Tunkwa Lake F i s h i n g Camp; s i t e use 41 u n i t s (weekend). S u b d i v i s i o n . Problem A r e a . 14. L e i g h t o n Lake: S t o c k i n g 15000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 3000, 2 t o i l e t s , 6 t a b l e s , 2 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 32 u n i t s (weekend); 8 boats (weekend). Problem A r e a . 15. Paska/Face Lakes: No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 800, 3 t o i l e t s , 3 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r b o a t l a u n c h ; s i t e use 6 u n i t s (mid-week); 10 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r M i l e High Lodge, 30 r e n t a l boats on the two l a k e s . 16. Chum Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e A r e a . 17. S k i m i k i n Lake: No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 400, 1 t o i l e t , 3 t a b l e s , c a r top boat l a u n c h o n l y ; s i t e use s c h o o l p a r t y o f 30 (mid-week). T r e e k i l l from water l e v e l f l u c t u a t i o n . 18. W a l l e n s t e e n Lake: No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 200, 1 t o i l e t , 0 t a b l e s , c a r top boat l a u n c h o n l y , s i t e use 1 u n i t . Poor road a c c e s s . 19. P i l l a r - Lake: S t o c k i n g 10000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 950, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h , s i t e use 3 u n i t s (mid-week); 16 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r P i l l a r Lake R e s o r t . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s . 20. Chapperon Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e A r e a . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s . 21. Rush Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s . 22. Salmon Lake: No S t o c k i n g ( F l y F i s h i n g O n l y ) . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Salmon Lake F i s h i n g camp; s i t e use 12 u n i t s (mid-week 32 boats (weekend), camp has 30 r e n t a l b o a t s . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s -l a u n c h charge. 147 23. B o l e a n / A r t h u r / S p a Lakes: S t o c k i n g A r t h u r o n l y 4000 rainbow (1972). F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 1000, 3 t o i l e t s , 3 t a b l e s , 2 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 0 u n i t s ; 20 boats on Bblean (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Bolean Lake F i s h i n g Camp 30 c a m p s i t e s 18 c a b i n s , 40 r e n t a l boats on the t h r e e l a k e s . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s - l a u n c h charge. 24. Pinaus Lake: S t o c k i n g 30,000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 940 ( i n c l u d e s L i t t l e Pinaus and Square L a k e s ) , 4 t o i l e t s , 4 t a b l e s , 2 c a r top boat l a u n c h e s ; 8 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Pianus Lake R e s o r t 35 c a m p s i t e s , 15 c a b i n s , 45 r e n t a l boats on f o u r l a k e s . S u b d i v i s i o n . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s . 25. Cameo Lake: No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 750, 1 t o i l e t , 1 t a b l e , 1 c a r t o p boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 1 u n i t (mid-week). 26. Hatheume Lake: S t o c k i n g 30000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 800, 1 t o i l e t , 2 t a b l e s , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 2 u n i t s (mid-week); 24 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Hatheume Lake Lodge 6 c a m p s i t e s , 6 c a b i n s , c o n t r o l s a c c e s s t o l a k e s i n a r e a o t h e r than Hatheume. 27. Pennask Lake: No S t o c k i n g (spawn c o l l e c t i o n . F l y F i s h i n g O n l y ) . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . Pennask Lake P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n Area u s e r s 8460, 6 t o i l e t s , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 23 u n i t s (mid-week) 12 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Pennask Lake F i s h i n g C l u b . Poor road a c c e s s . 28. S u r r e y / S u s s e x Lakes; No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . P r i v a t e s e c t o r S u r r e y Lake F i s h i n g Camp, 8 camp, 8 c a b i n s , 21 r e n t a l boats on t h r e e l a k e s ; use, 3 boats (weekend). Poor road a c c e s s , 4-wheel d r i v e o n l y . 29. Frogmore Lakes: O c c a s i o n a l S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . 2 " U n i n c o r p o r a t e d " camping a r e a s . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Frogmore Lake Hunting and F i s h i n g Camp. Boats 8 (weekend). Poor ro a d a c c e s s . 30. Chataway Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e development u s e r d a t a f o r 5 a r e a s i n v i c i n i t y , 1 t o i l e t o n l y , c a r top boat l a u n c h o n l y . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Chataway Lake Lodge, 20 c a m p s i t e s , 10 c a b i n s on two l a k e s , 6 r e n t a l boats - l a u n c h charge. P o t e n t i a l s Area - i n t e r e s t i n g l a k e complex. 32. Lodgwick Lake: S t o c k i n g 8000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Development 4300, 3 t o i l e t s , 1 t a b l e , 2 c a r top boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 4 u n i t s (mid-week). P o t e n t i a l s Area - i n t e r e s t i n g l a k e Complex. 33. Frembd Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . A c c e s s l i m i t e d by r a i l r o a d . 148 34. O t t e r Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . O t t e r Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 21484, 20 c a m p s i t e s , 4 p i c n i c s i t e s . P r o v i n c i a l Parks day use beach a t Tulameen. P r i v a t e s e c t o r s u b d i v i s i o n . 35. C h a i n Lake: S t o c k i n g 20000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 4000*, 2 t o i l e t s , 3 t a b l e s , 2 c a r top l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 5 u n i t s (mid-week). P r i v a t e s e c t o r s u b d i v i s i o n . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s . 36. L i n k Lake: S t o c k i n g 6000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 3000*, 1 t o i l e t , 1 t a b l e , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h -a c r o s s r a i l r o a d ; s i t e use 0 u n i t s (mid-week). P r i v a t e s e c t o r sub-d i v i s i o n . 37. Osprey Lake: S t o c k i n g 3000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 4000*, 1 t o i l e t , 1 t a b l e , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 1 u n i t (mid-week). P r i v a t e s e c t o r s u b d i v i s i o n . *Note: t h e s e use f i g u r e s a r e d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n s o f e s t i m a t e s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d by the a u t h o r , on the b a s i s o f p e r c e i v e d use and a v a i l a b l e s p a c e , t o be o u t r a g e a u s l y e x t r a v a g a n t . 38. Tepee Lakes: S t o c k i n g 10000 rainbow i n Sunday l a k e o n l y . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Tepee Lakes F i s h i n g Camp, 8 c a b i n s , 6 r e n t a l boats on 3 l a k e s . 20 boats (weekend). Poor road a c c e s s , 4-wheel d r i v e o n l y . 39. Dry Lake: S t o c k i n g 5000 rainbow. No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Dry Lake R e s o r t . 40. A l l i s o n Lake: S t o c k i n g 15000 rainbow. No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a A l l i s o n Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 15248, 22 c a m p s i t e s , 14 p i c n i c s i t e s . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Skye Blu e Lodge and s u b d i v i s i o n . 41. C o r b e t t / C o u r t n e y Lakes: S t o c k i n g ( C o r b e t t ) 8000, and (Courtney) 20000 rainbow (Lake a e r a t i o n programmes i n both.) No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . Highway Department r e s t - a r e a under v e r y heavy use f o r s p r i n g g i s h i n g . P r i v a t e s e c t o r C o r b e t t Lake Country Inn, superb c u i s i n e , 7 c a b i n s , 8 r e n t a l b o a t s ; 6 boats (weekend). P o t e n t i a l s Area - a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h good roa d a c c e s s , p r o x i m i t y t o Kamloops. 42. M i s s e z u l a Lake: S t o c k i n g 20000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development no u s e r d a t a , 1 t o i l e t , 4 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 5 u n i t s (mid-week); 8 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r s u b d i v i s i o n l i m i t s a c c e s s a t s o u t h end o f l a k e . 43. Stump Lake: S t o c k i n g 50000 rainbow. No F o r e s t S e r v i c e s i t e . " U n i n c o r p o r a t e d " r e c r e a t i o n a r e a ; s i t e use 25 u n i t s (mid-week) i n c l u d e s use a t U.R.E.P. a r e a , p u b l i c a c c e s s through s u b d i c i s i o n and h i g h e a y d r i v e - o f f ) 80 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r s u b d i v i s i o n . Problems a r e a . LEAF 149 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. 150 44. Roche Lake: S t o c k i n g 45000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 1100, 6 t o i l e t s , 9 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h 3 c a r top boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e sue 36 u n i t s (mid-week); 100 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Roche Lake F i s h i n g Camp, superb c u i s i n e c a b i n s , c a m p s i t e s , t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h , r e n t a l boats and s t o r e . Problems Ar e a . 45. Monte Lake: S t o c k i n g 25000 rainbow. No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . Monte Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 8004, 7 c a m p s i t e s , 3 p i c n i c s i t e s ; s i t e use 8 u n i t s (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r B l u e Mountain Park and Nex-Door Campsites; s i t e use 3 u n i t s (weekend). 46. Mamit Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . " U n i n c o r p o r a t e d " r e c r e a t i o n a r e a ; s i t e use (on o l d highway c u r v e s ) 4 u n i t s (weekend). 47. W a l l o p e r Lake: S t o c k i n g 12000 rainbow (Lake A e r a t i o n ) . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 150, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 8 u n i t s (weekend); 8 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r W a l l o p e r Lake F i s h i n g Camp. 48. Lac Le Jeune: S t o c k i n g 30000 rainbow. No F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . L a c Le Jeune P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 46536, 144 c a m p s i t e s , 27 p i c n i c s i t e s 15 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Le Jeune Lodge and s k i a r e a , s u b d i v i s i o n . 49. Stake Lake: S t o c k i n g 12000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 550, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 15 u n i t s (weekend). P o t e n t i a l s Area - p r o x i m i t y t o Kamloops, o v e r f l o w from Lac Le Jeune. 50. McConnell Lake: S t o c k i n g 15000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 500, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 9 u n i t s (weekend). P o t e n t i a l s A r e a - p r o x i m i t y t o Kamloops, o v e r f l o w from Lac Le Jeune. 51. Jacko Lake: S t o c k i n g 30000 rainbow. No F o r e s t S e r v i c e s i t e . M a i n t a i n e d by Kamloops F i s h and Game C l u b , 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r t op boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 3 c a r s (weekend); 8 boats (weekend). 53. D u f f y Lake: S t o c k i n g 10000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n development u s e r s 250, 1 t o i l e t , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 1 u n i t (weekday); 10 c a r s (weekend). 68. Trapp Lake: S t o c k i n g 60000 e a s t e r n brook t r o u t . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e s i t e . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s . P o t e n t i a l s Area - f o r w i n t e r i c e f i s h i n g , p r o x i m i t y t o Kamloops. Appendix 5 S i t e V i s i t Data C o l l e c t i o n Example 151 S i t e V i s i t Lundbom and Marquart Lakes (L.05) 9 J u l y 76. Lundbom: West end - 6 u n i t s , 1 t e n t , 1 t o i l e t - t r e m b l i n g aspen g r o v e . Four small aluninum boats w i t h o u t b o a r d s . Two l a r g e 14-16 f e e t 65hp. 'open-runner b o a t s ' . Smooth g r a v e l beach, boat l a u n c h ramps, good g r o s s c o v e r a g e and shade, f o u r garbage cans. N o r t h s i d e - open meadow, 5 u n i t s , 1 t e n t , 2 t o i l e t s , 4 boats E a s t end - open t r e e c o v e r a g e , 10 u n i t s , 6 sluminum boats w i t h o u t b o a r d s . A l l a r e a s e v i d e n c e much p a s t use. S i g n s d f c a t t l e a t e a s t end, s t o c k w a t e r i n g . Marquart: F i s h e r i e s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t . No e v i d e n c e o f camper u n i t s . S i t e v i s i t Q u i l t a n t o n Lake (L.12) 20 J u l y 76 No a p p a r e n t s e r v i c i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Permanent r e s i d e n c e . S e v e r a l rough l a u n c h i n g s i t e s down t o l a k e through bush. C o n s t a n t heavy equipment n o i s e from mine. 4 boats on l a k e . 7 u n i t s a t s i t e c l o s e s t t o highway. Very heavy use a l o n g whole western s h o r e l i n e . North s i d e c a b i n development I n d i a n r e s e r v e a t e a s t end. S e v e r a l abandoned c a r s on s i t e . Random t r a i l l a y o u t . 2 Pan Abode t o i l e t s . T r e e limb c u t t i n g . Garbage h i g h l y v i s i b l e 152 Appendix 6 I n t e r v i e w e e s Heinz Lange, Rod and Gun C l u b , M e r r i t t . Tim T u l l i s , owner, Hatheume Lake Lodge. N e i l Wooliams, manager, Douglas Lake C a t t l e Company, M e r r i t t . Bob C h r i s t i e , Gorman B r o t h e r s , Bud Ward, F i s h and W i l d l i f e M e r r i t t . Jean Le Douc, F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Kamloops. John C a r t w r i g h t , F i s h and W i l d l i f e , Kamloops. J a c k Shaw, B u r f i e l d s S p o r t s Goods, Kamloops. Sandy S a n d i f o r d , p r e s i d e n t , I n t e r i o r R e s o r t Owners A s s o c i a t i o n . D i c k McMaster, p a r t n e r , S u r r e y Lake F i s h i n g Camp. R a l f Shaw, e x - p r e s i d e n t Kamloops Rod and Gun C l u b . Russ Hughes, F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Kamloops. Mr. P a l i p o s k y , Highway Department, Kamloops. C h r i s Houston, Animail Resource E c o l o g y Research C e n t r e , U.B.C. Doreen Summers, p a r t n e r , Tunkwa Lake F i s h i n g Camp. Mr. Macdonald, Bolean Lake F i s h i n g Camp. P e t e r McVey, owner C o r b e t t Lake C o u n t r y Inn. Debra Smith, p a r t n e r , Salmon Lake F i s h i n g Camp. Messrs. Cohen and C a l d w e l l , owners, Roche Lake F i s h i n g Camp. D.W. Roddy, owner, Chataway Lakes R e s o r t . A l s o p a r t n e r s i n M i l e High Lodge and Pinaus Lake R e s o r t , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f Crown Z e l l e r b a c h , Weyerhauser and Pennask Lake Company. 153 Appendix 8. P r o v i n c i a l Park F a c i l i t i e s R e f e r s t o map 3.1 1. Savona. (Mass A. Day Use Only. 12 p i c n i c s i t e s . 4 a c r e s . ^ 2. Lac Le Jeune Park. C l a s s A. No water u n t i l summer 1977. 94 c a m p s i t e s . 24 p i c n i c s i t e s . 138 a c r e s . 3. Monte Lake Park. C l a s s A. No water. 7 c a m p s i t e s . 3 p i c n i c s i t e s . 19 a c r e s 4. Monck Park. C l a s s A. 61 c a m p s i t e s . 27 p i c n i c s i t e s 216 a c r e s . 5. A l l i s o n Lake Park C l a s s A. 22 c a m p s i t e s . 14 p i c n i c s i t e s . 57 a c r e s . ^ 6. O t t e r Lake Park. C l a s s A. 20 c a m p s i t e s . 4 p i c n i c s i t e s . 57 a c r e s . 7. Bromley Rock Park. C l a s s A. 17 c a m p s i t e s . 12 p i c n i c s i t e s . 367 a c r e s 8. Pennask Lake R e c r e a t i o n A r e a . 9. Soap Lake E c o l o g i c a l Reserve ( A d m i n i s t e r e d by Lands Branch) Source: B.C. Oarks Branch. Appendix 9 Commercial R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s R e f e r s t o map 3.3. 1. Kamloops - 38 mot e l s 17. Glimpse Lake Lodge 2. M e r r i t t - 6 motels 18. P e t e r Hope F i s h i n g Camp 3. P r i n c e t o n - l e mot e l s 19. Frogmore F i s h i n g and Hunting Camp 4. Tunkwa Lake F i s h i n g Camp 20. S u r r e y Lake F i s h i n g Camp 5. Dominic Lake F i s h i n g Camp 21. Chataway Lake Lodges 6. M i l e High Lodge 22. N i c o l a Bay R e s o r t 7. W a l l o p e r Lake F i s h i n g Camp 23. Kokanee Beach R e s o r t 8. Le Jeune R e s o r t 24. Q u i l c h e n a Hotel 9. K n u t s f o r d T e n t & T r a i l e r Park 25. C o r b e t t Lake Country Inn 10. Roche Lake F i s h i n g Camp 26. Skye Blue Lodge 11. Blue Mountain Park 27. Tepee Lakes F i s h i n g Camp 12. Nex-Door Campsite 28. P a r a d i s e Lake R e s o r t 13. P i l l a r Lake R e s o r t 29. Pennask Lake F i s h i n g C l u b 14. Bolean Lake F i s h i n g Camp 30. Hatheume Lake Lodge 15. P i n a u s r Lake R e s o r t 31. Kam-Ver-Lando Motel 16. Salmon Lake F i s h i n g Camp' 32. Dry Lake R e s o r t Source: B r i t i s h Columbia T o u r i s t D i r e c t o r y 1976 B.C. Dept. o f T r a v e l I n s u t t r y (1976). B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Kamloops 15 4 Appendix 10. Highways Department Rest Stoas. R e f e r s t o map 3.4 1. Savona View P o i n t 2. Kamloops Lake Look Out Rest Area 3. Monte Creek Rest Area 4. N i c o l a Lake T a b l e Stop 5. N i c o l a Lake Rest Area 6. Courtney Lake Rest Area 7. G u l l i f o r d Lake T a b l e S i t e . S ource: B.C. Highways Department Kamloops. Appendix 11 ' U n i n c o r p o r a t e d ' R e c r e a t i o n Areas R e f e r s t o may 3.11 1. Stump Lake 2. Mamit Lake 3. Q u i l t a n t o n Lake 4. N i c o l a Lake - West S i d e 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094347/manifest

Comment

Related Items