UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Regional recreation policy plan development Neilson, John Fergus Andrew 1977

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REGIONAL RECREATION POLICY PLAN DEVELOPMENT by John F e r g u s Andrew N e i l son B.A. N o t t i n g h a m U n i v e r s i t y 1970 P o s t g r a d u a t e Diploma. U n i v e r s i t y o f E a s t A n g l i a 1  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS CEMENTS FOR THE THEDEGREE O F MASTER OF ARTS in  THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1977 (o) John Fergus Andrew N e i l s o n  1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree that  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I  f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by his r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n permission.  School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  Columbia  i ABSTRACT REGIONAL RECREATION POLICY PLAN DEVELOPMENT The r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e Thompson P l a t e a u i n s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n q u a l i t y .  Demands f o r o u t d o o r  r e c r e a t i o n s p a c e and f a c i l i t i e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g ; p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t o f r a p i d l y growing l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s and i n c r e a s i n g i n f l o w s o f both d e s t i n a t i o n s e e k i n g and t r a n s i e n t v a c a t i o n e e r s .  Furthermore,  contemporary  p o l i c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s seem t o be d e c r e a s i n g l y c a p a b l e o f managing t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h i s a r e a . As a r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e problems t h e t h e s i s d e v e l o p s a p o l i c y p l a n f o r p a r t o f t h e Thompson P l a t e a u .  I t f o c u s e s on l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n  s i n c e t h i s i s the primary r e c r e a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n o f the area.  The main  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p o l i c y p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d . S p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n a r e d e f i n e d and t h e n a p p l i e d i n a c r i t i q u e o f c u r r e n t management a p p r o a c h e s u s i n g f i e l d s t u d y and p u b l i s h e d d a t a on the e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m - i t s p a s t t r e n d s , i t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s and possible future. As an a l t e r n a t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h e d management i n s t i t u t i o n s and techniques, three p o l i c y plans are presented.  Each p o l i c y p l a n i s  c o n s i d e r e d and judged i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n .  A  p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n i s c h o s e n , w i t h due acknowledgement g i v e n t o t h e a u t h o r ' s b i a s e s , and a p p l i e d t o t h e l a k e s s y s t e m i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . a d d i t i o n , four a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements f o r r e g i o n a l management a r e d e s c r i b e d and e v a l u a t e d .  The a l t e r n a t i v e c h o s e n from  In  ii amongst t h e f o u r was t h a t c o n s i d e r e d  to be most c a p a b l e o f e f f e c t i v e l y  managing t h e s t u d y a r e a r e c r e a t i o n a l s y s t e m i n l i g h t o f e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r e n g t h s , c o n s t r a i n t s and b i a s e s . T h i s p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e would demand a permanent c h a i r m a n , supported  by a small s e c r e t a r i a t , who would have m a n a g e r i a l r e s p o n -  s i b i l i t y , on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , f o r a committee t h a t i n c l u d e d t h o s e government o f f i c e r s i n c h a r g e o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a g e n c i e s ' interests.  recreational  A l s o i n v o l v e d on t h e committee would be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  the commercial r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r and s p o r t i n g  of  associations.  The p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n l a y s emphasis on two m a j o r p o i n t s . F i r s t l y , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h r e e r e c r e a t i o n zone types w i t h i n one r e c reational environment: 1.  M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones;  2.  M i d - r a n g e A t t r a c t i o n Zones;  3.  M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones.  The c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e zones would i m p l y t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f s p e c i f i c use l e v e l r a t i n g s i n each zone, and hence, s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t d i f f e r e n t l a k e s i n t h e s t u d y  area.  T h e i r e x i s t e n c e would e n a b l e t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a w i d e r r a n g e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l demands, t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g l o c a l a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s and t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n study  o f t h e more f r a g i l e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h i n t h e  area. S e c o n d l y , t h e p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e would de-emphasise  mechanisms as t o o l s f o r b e h a v i o u r a l environment.  coercive  c o n t r o l i n the r u r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l  I n s t e a d , a mix o f c o e r c i v e and n o n - c o e r c i v e  mechanisms a r e  iii presented, i n c l u d i n g the concept o f access manipulation, the idea that h e a v i l y a d v e r t i s e d Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones would r e d u c e use i n t h e o t h e r zones and t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r more e f f i c i e n t manpower u t i l i s a t i o n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f c r o s s - a g e n c y p o l i c i n g powers.  through  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapters One  Two  Three  Four  Five  Page INTRODUCTION S e c t i o n 1.1: 1.2: 1.3: 1.4: 1.5: 1.6:  Thesis Objectives Problems S t a t e m e n t Creation o f a P o l i c y Plan Thesis Outline F i e l d Study Thesis Constraints  DEVELOPMENT OF A POLICY PLAN S e c t i o n 2.1: The P o l i c y P l a n C o n c e p t 2.2: E s s e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C r e a t i v e Process 2.3: Main F e a t u r e s o f t h e P o l i c y P l a n 2.4: C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n 2.5: The R o l e o f t h e P o l i c y P l a n i n a Lake Based R e c r e a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t RECREATION DEMANDS AND POTENTIALS S e c t i o n 3.1: A n a l y s i s o f Study A r e a R e c r e a t i o n a l Use and P a s t T r e n d s 3.2: A n a l y s i s o f Study A r e a R e c r e a t i o n Potentials 3.3: T r a g e d y o f t h e Commons  1 1 2 11 12 13 14 16 16 17 21 24 28 33 33 41 45  CURRENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND PROBLEMS S e c t i o n 4.1: C u r r e n t Management A p p r o a c h e s 4.2: C r i t i q u e o f C u r r e n t Management Systems. 4.3: Problems o f t h e S t u d y A r e a Recreational Environment  49 49 62  THREE ALTERNATIVE POLICY PLANS S e c t i o n 5.1: I n t r o d u c t i o n 5.2: P o l i c y P l a n One: High P r o f i l e Development/Low o r L i m i t e d Behavioural Control 5.3: P o l i c y P l a n Two: Medium P r o f i l e Development/Significant Behavioural Control 5.4: P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e : Mixed Development Approach/ Diverse Behavioural Influences 5.5: C h a p t e r Summary  85 85  71  87 92 99 111  Page  Chapters Six  A REGIONAL APPROACH S e c t i o n 6.1: The C o n c e p t o f R e g i o n a l i s m 6.2: R e g i o n a l Management Format  113 113 116  Seven  CONCLUSIONS S e c t i o n 7.1: 7.2:  124 124  Preferred P o l i c y Plan A p p l i c a t i o n o f P o l i c y Plan Three to t h e S t u d y A r e a  125  BIBLIOGRAPHY  132  APPENDICES  142  Appendix 1 P o p u l a t i o n Trends Appendix 2 M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n Appendix 3 Timber P r o d u c t i o n Appendix 4 Lake S p e c i f i c I n f o r m a t i o n Appendix 5 S i t e V i s i t Data C o l l e c t i o n Example Appendix 6 Interviewees Appendix 8 P r o v i n c i a l Park F a c i l i t i e s A p p e n d i x 9 Commercial R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s Appendix 10 Highways Department R e s t S t o p s A p p e n d i x 11 ' U n i n c o r p o r a t e d ' R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s Appendix 12 L e t t e r from B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h  142 143 144 145 IS! 152 15.3 153 154 154 155  v  vi LIST OF MAPS No.  Page  1.1  Study A r e a D e f i n i t i o n  la  1.2 Regional Setting 1.3 Mineral Resources 1.4 B.C. Hydro T r a n s m i s s i o n System 1.5 Pipelines 1.6 Average D a i l y T r a f f i c Flows 1.7 D D a i l y T r a f f i c Volumes/ T r a f f i c & V e n i c l e L i c e n c e T r e n d s 3.1 P r o v i n c i a l Parks F a c i l i t i e s 3.2 B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Developments 3.3 , Commercial R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s . 3.4 ^Highways Department R e s t S t o p s 3.5 F i s h and W i l d l i f e S t o c k i n g P r i o r i t y 3.6 F i s h and W i l d l i f e S t o c k i n g L o c a t i o n s 3.7 D P r o v i n c i a l Park A t t e n d a n c e . Camper N i g h t s 3.8 P r o v i n c i a l Park A t t e n d a n c e . Day V i s i t s . P e r c e n t a g e Change 3.9 P r o v i n c i a l Park A t t e n d a n c e . Use L e v e l s 3.10 B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development-Use L e v e l s 3.11 'Unincorporated' R e c r e a t i o n Areas  2a 5a 6a 7a 8a 9a 33a 34a 35a 36a 37a 38a 39a 40a 41a 42a 43a  4.1 D 4.2 D 5.1  Annual R e s i d e n t A n g l e r L i c e n c e P u r c h a s e s Annual Non R e s i d e n t A n g l e r L i c e n c e P u r c h a s e s Study A r e a Road A c c e s s  77a 78a 88a  7.1  P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e A p p l i c a t i o n to Study A r e a  127a  7.2  Lakes ' F o l d Out'  131a  Note:  A l l maps and diagrams e x c e p t Maps 5.1 and 7.1 a p p e a r e d o r i g i n a l l y  D  i n t h e "Thompson P l a t e a u R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n S t u d y " ( B . C . P a r k s . 1976A). Note:  Map 7.2 Lakes ' F o l d Out' can be f o l d e d o u t o f t h e main body o f the t e x t f o r e a s y r e f e r e n c e w h i l e r e a d i n g . Lake numbers i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e x t a p p l y t o t h e numbers on t h i s map and t h o s e i n Appendix 4.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Tony D o r c e y , A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , Westwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , U.B.C., V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  F i r s t Reader.  M i c h a e l S e e l i g , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  Second Reader.  P e t e r D o o l i n g , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , Department o f F o r e s t r y , U.B.C., V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  Reader.  Jim Anderson, i / c Central S e c t i o n ,  Planning D i v i s i o n , Parks Branch,  Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and T r a v e l , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Ken B a k e r , Mike G a l l and Donna Macey.  Parks Branch.  1 CHAPTER ONE. S e c t i o n 1.1:  INTRODUCTION  Thesis Objectives.  O b j e c t i v e One:  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p o l i c y p l a n f o r R e c r e a t i o n  on t h e Thompson P l a t e a u ; an a r e a f o r m i n g p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u Natural'.  Region i n which the bulk o f r e c r e a t i o n i s  lake-oriented. O b j e c t i v e Two:  The c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f a p o l i c y  p l a n d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s , and t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t c o u l d be used t o e v a l u a t e alternative p o l i c y plans. Objective Three:  The e s t i m a t i o n o f demand l e v e l s f o r v a r i o u s  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a and t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e a r e a t o s a t i s f y i n c r e a s e d demands i n t h e f u t u r e . O b j e c t i v e Four:  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f c u r r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o r e c -  r e a t i o n management w i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a and t h e s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r s u c c e s s i n terms o f s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a . Objective Five:  The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f p o l i c y p l a n s  t h a t m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d and t h e s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r l i k e l y s u c c e s s i n terms o f t h e s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a . Objective Six:  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n , a l o n g  w i t h i t s c o n s t i t u e n t p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and  i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms, t o  the Thompson P l a t e a u r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  1  2 S e c t i o n 1.2:  Problems S t a t e m e n t  As t h r o u g h o u t  North America,  r e c r e a t i o n on the Thompson P l a t e a u  i s under p r e s s u r e from i n c r e a s i n g and c o m p e t i n g demands, and i s t h r e a t e n e d by the p r o s p e c t o f a growing c o n f l i c t between r a p i d l y r i s i n g use l e v e l s and l i m i t e d r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The growth o f a v a i l a b l e  l e i s u r e time, a reduced work week, more h o l i d a y s and l o n g e r v a c a t i o n s , h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , u r b a n i s a t i o n and an i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d toward expanded l e i s u r e demands. The Thompson P l a t e a u i s h i g h l y e x p o s e d t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s , l o c a t e d , as i t i s , a s t r i d e major communications r o u t e s l i n k i n g the P r o v i n c e ' s m a j o r population concentrations.  Because the a r e a i s so a c c e s s i b l e to the  r e c r e a t i n g p u b l i c i t i s s u b j e c t n o t o n l y to i n c r e a s i n g use, but a l s o a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f u s e s , not a l l o f w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p a t i b l e . The S t u d y A r e a c o n t a i n s no t r u e " W i l d e r n e s s " . a t one time o r a n o t h e r v i r t u a l l y i n t o t o .  I t has been l o g g e d  I t i s a l s o a major centre f o r  both m i n i n g and r a n c h i n g and as a c o n s e q u e n c e i s c r i s s - c r o s s e d by a dense network o f both s u r f a c e d and u n s u r f a c e d roads (see map t h i s homogeneous ease o f a c c e s s r e c r e a t i o n i s t s may whims w i t h f r e e r e i n t h r o u g h o u t  the a r e a .  5.1).  Because o f  indulge t h e i r various  R e c r e a t i o n a l uses t h e r e f o r e  run the gamut from ' w i l d l a n d ' , o r b a c k c o u n t r y  h i k i n g , cross country  s k i i n g and w a l k - i n f i s h i n g , to camping i n 'hardened', h i g h l y c a p i t a l i s e d , f a c i l i t y r i c h , commercial c a m p s i t e s exists a  and c o u n t r y i n n s .  Consequently  there  p o t e n t i a l n o t o n l y f o r c o n f l i c t between p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , f o r example b a c k c o u n t r y  h i k e r s and  all-terrain  v e h i c l e u s e r s , but a l s o c o f l i c t between d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t i e s o f s i m i l a r  2a REGIONAL map  SETTING 1.2  3  activities.  This l a t t e r c o n f l i c t i s characterised  gap t h a t s e p a r a t e s  t h e p a d d l e - p o w e r e d and motor  by t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l  d r i v i n g f r e s h water  fisherman. The main r e c r e a t i o n a l emphasis i s on f i s h i n g f o r l a k e rainbow t r o u t i n t h e summer, and i n c r e a s i n g l y E a s t e r n Brook T r o u t i n t h e w i n t e r . V i r t u a l l y a l l other a c t i v i t i e s present  i n the Study Area a r e r e l a t e d i n  one way o r a n o t h e r t o t h e l a c u s t r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t .  Picnicing,  b o a t i n g , beach use and m o t o r c y c l e r i d i n g t e n d t o be c l o s e l y  pleasure associated  to f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y . They p r o v i d e r e s p i t e t o t h e f i s h e r m a n who has. r e a c h e d h i s day's c a t c h l i m i t , and a c t as an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s o r s p o u s e s who a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n f i s h i n g , o r who a r e n o t allowed to f i s h . In a d d i t i o n t o s p o r t f i s h i n g , which r e m a i n s p r i m a r i l y a s p r i n g , summer and e a r l y f a l l a c t i v i t y , t h e S t u d y A r e a a l s o p r o v i d e s h u n t e r i n t h e f a l l , and t h e s k i e r (both c r o s s - c o u n t r y snow m o b i l e r i n w i n t e r .  and  f o r the d o w n h i l l ) and  These a c t i v i t i e s do n o t , i n f a c t , r e c e i v e t h e i r  due a t t e n t i o n i n t h e t h e s i s p r i m a r i l y because o f l i m i t e d f i e l d s t u d y time.  However i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t , as w i t h summer r e c r e a t i o n , t h e  range o f p o t e n t i a l s s t r e t c h from b a c k c o u n t r y i c e f i s h i n g t o t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d n i g h t l i f e and f l o o d l i g h t d o w n h i l l  s k i i n g o f L a c Le Jeune  Lodge. The Study A r e a i s a d j a c e n t agglomerations.  t o m a j o r , and r a p i d l y g r o w i n g , urban  I t i s also undergoing large scale resource  and i s as a c o n s e q u e n c e s u b j e c t t o p r e s s u r e s  development  on i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l  ment a t a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y t h a n v i r t u a l l y any o t h e r  environ-  similar  4 r e c r e a t i o n a r e a i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  P r e s s u r e s t h a t a r e i n t e n s i f i e d by  the f a c t t h a t the a r e a forms a m a j o r communications  and e n e r g y t r a n s f e r  node; f o r r o a d t r a f f i c , f o r r a i l w a y s as w e l l as f o r Hydro and p i p e l i n e networks.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e s e p r e s s u r e s i n c l u d e :  P o p u l a t i o n Growth I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t between 1961 and 1980, the p o p u l a t i o n o f "Kamioops-Li1Tooet"wi11  i n c r e a s e by 126 per c e n t (B.C.I.D., T. and C.  1972) and t h a t o f the Thompson-Nicola  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (between. 1961  and 1981), by 162 per c e n t (G.V.R.D-. 1973). G r e a t e r Vancouver  i s e x p e c t e d t o be o n l y 67 per c e n t (G.V.R.D. 1973)  f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and C. 1972).  Whereas the i n c r e a s e f o r and  (1961-1980) as a w h o l e , 78 p e r c e n t (.B.C.I JD_., T.  These t r e n d s were e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e .  By 2000 i t was  e x p e c t e d t h a t " K a m i o o p s - L i l l o o e t " would have i n c r e a s e d 352 per c e n t from a 1961  base, o r about 8 p e r c e n t per annum, w h i l e B r i t i s h Colubmia  would  have i n c r e a s e d a t an a v e r a g e o f 5 p e r c e n t p e r annum (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972).  In f a c t between 1927 and 1972 the annual r a t e o f growth f o r the  Thompson-Nicola  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was 3.6 per c e n t p e r annum, and B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1.8 p e r c e n t per annum (Canada S t a t i s t i c s , 1976).  The r a t e s  may have s l a c k e n e d , but the a b s o l u t e f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e s s u r e s s t i l l e x i s t and t h a t the Study A r e a i s s u b j e c t t o the impact o f a growing p o p u l a t i o n .  A p o p u l a t i o n w i t h r i s i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l demands.  growth, both i n t e r n a l and p e r i p h e r a l , t o the s t u d y a r e a , w i l l  This  inevitably  a f f e c t r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s and may t h e r e f o r e have a marked impact on the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f the Study A r e a .  (§ee aVppendix  1.)  5 Mining  Industry T h i s i s t h e l e a d i n g i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e S t u d y A r e a , and  the number o f known l a r g e m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s a w a i t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e s s u r e s f r o m t h e growth o f t h i s s e c t o r w i l l be r e i n f o r c e d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972).  Between 1963 and 1974 t h e  q u a n t i t y o f o r e s h i p p e d f r o m , o r t r e a t e d by B e t h l e h e m , C r a i g m o n t and Lornex Mines ( s e e map 1 . 3 ) , i n c r e a s e d by 767 p e r c e n t (B.C. M i n e s ) .  The  t r e n d w i l l c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e commencement o f p r o d u c t i o n a t A f t o n Mine i n l a t e 1977, and w i t h V a l l e y Copper and Highmont Mines ( s e e map 1.3) as p o t e n t i a l producers  i n the future.  I t i s estimated  t h a t t h e s e s i x mines  a l s o have r e s e r v e s o f m e t a l l i c c o p p e r t o t a l l i n g 11 m i l l i o n t o n s .  The  e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e d e p o s i t s i s l i k e l y t o a c t as a b a r r i e r t o any f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n development i n the Highland  P l a t e a u , an a r e a t h a t c u r r e n t l y  c o n t a i n s some c o t t a g e d e v e l o p m e n t (Pifnainus Lake L . 5 6 ) , one commercial F i s h i n g Camp (Chataway Lake L o d g e ) , one " Q u a l i t y A n g l i n g Lake" ( I s l a n d Lake) and some p o t e n t i a l f o r h i k e - i n f i s h i n g ( t h e F a r r / A b b o t t / T y n e r / Gordon Lakes c h a i n . L . 5 8 ) . In a d d i t i o n , a number o f o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l m i n e r a l s found i n the a r e a c o u l d form t h e b a s i s o f f u t u r e m i n i n g a c t i v i t y o r i n d i v i d u a l production.  W h i l e c o a l d e p o s i t s n e a r Cache Creek and M e r r i t t , and i n  the Tulameen and P r i n c e t o n B a s i n s , have p o t e n t i a l f o r use i n thermal power p l a n t s o r i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s (B.C.I.D, T. and C. 1972).  W i t h o u t a doubt t h e d e v e l o p m e n t by B.C. Hydro o f a c o a l f i r e d  thermal  e l e c t r i c i t y p l a n t a t Hat Creek w i l l have s p i l l - o v e r e f f e c t s on  the r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m w i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a .  The e x t e r n a l i t i e s p o s s i b l e  5a  MINERAL RESOURCES. Map 1.3  \ /  \  *  ) >  \  Source: ( B.C.I.D.T. andC.)  6 from a l l t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , p o l l u t i o n , l a n d a l i e n a t i o n by m i n i n g c l a i m s , r e c r e a t i o n d i s p l a c e m e n t from l a k e s t o be used f o r w a t e r s u p p l y , o r v a l l e y bottoms used f o r s e t t l i n g ponds, may a l l have a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the o v e r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l o f t h e a r e a , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f spatial  availability. I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t the a d d i t i o n a l manpower demands o f t h e s e  a c t i v i t i e s w i l l add t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s on t h e r e m a i n i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l environment.  Mine and m i l l workers a t t h e c u r r e n t l y p r o d u c i n g  mines w i t h i n the Study A r e a i n c r e a s e d by 113 p e r c e n t between 1963 and 1974 (B.C. M i n e s ) .  A p a r t from any e x p e c t e d i m p a c t i n terms o f employment  growth, t h e r e has been, and w i l l be, a marked m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t from t h i s employment growth on t h e economy o f t h e Study A r e a .  An e f f e c t t h a t  may w e l l e n c o u r a g e f u r t h e r employment growth i n , and hence f u r t h e r l a t i o n p r e s s u r e from, o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e Study A r e a economy.  popu-  see a p p e n d i x  2-) Forest Industry  .  1  ^  A l t h o u g h i t might be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t l o g g i n g would have o n l y a. minimal i m p a c t on the l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Study A r e a , i n as much as t h e 10 c h a i n r u l e p r o t e c t s l a k e s h o r e s and prime spawning c h a n n e l s , i t has had a major and s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e f o r a n o t h e r r e a s o n .  Over a 120  y e a r r o t a t i o n system the whole a r e a i s l i a b l e t o be f o r e s t e d .  The  requirements o f a l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e the b u i l d i n g of roads f o r the removal o f t i m b e r .  As a r e s u l t t h e e n t i r e Study A r e a is' c o v e r e d by a  c l o s e network o f l o g g i n g r o a d s .  Although these roads are not n e c e s s a r i l y  6a B.C. HYDRO TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. Map 1.*f  \  I  T y \  "  • »  t  \  i .  \  MAP 1.4 B. C HYDRO TRANSMISSION SYSTEM March 31,1974 • Substations' 1 Nicola 2 Kamloops 3  Highland  4  Savona  "<•• 500 kv planned • ~  500 kv existing & under construction  ••••• 6 0 - 3 6 0 k v planned "~~C0-360kv  existing & under  construction  7 i n the b e s t o f c o n d i t i o n , t h e y a r e v i r t u a l l y a l l open t o f o u r wheel d r i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s or motorcycles  under any w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s .  Most a r e p a s s a b l e f o r two wheel d r i v e t r u c k s under good w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , and o f c o u r s e , a l l a r e open to snow-mobiles i n w i n t e r . t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no l a k e t h a t i s n o t a c c e s s i b l e t o the r e c r e a t i o n i s t , and hence, no l a k e t h a t may u n a c c e p t a l l y high r e c r e a t i o n a l  motorised  not e v e n t u a l l y be s u b j e c t t o  pressures.  As w i t h the M i n i n g S e c t o r , f o r e s t r y may i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on r e c r e a t i o n .  Hence  have both d i r e c t and •  The l o g g i n g road a c c e s s f a c t o r h a v i n g  i n d i r e c t i m p a c t , w h i l e the p o t e n t i a l f o r growth i n the l o g g i n g c o u l d have a d i r e c t impact on the r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  an  industry Increased  l o g g i n g t r a f f i c , i n c r e a s e d 'blow-down' i n the v i c i n i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n l o c a t i o n s and i n c r e a s e d l o g g i n g r e l a t e d s i l t a t i o n c o u l d a l l c r e a t e d i r e c t c o n f l i c t s w i t h the r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r .  S i n c e the 1971  timber  cut  amounted to j u s t o v e r 60 per c e n t o f the e s t i m a t e d a l l o w a b l e c u t from the P.S.Y.U's and T.F.L. a r e a s p a r t i a l l y , o r w h o l l y , w i t h i n the S t u d y A r e a , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n d u s t r y c o u l d be e x p e c t e d the c u r r e n t l e v e l s (B.C.I.D, T. and C. 1972).  to expand beyond  I f t h i s expansion  were t o  take p l a c e the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t between l o g g i n g and r e c r e a t i o n would be m a r k e d l y i n c r e a s e d (see a p p e n d i x 3 ) . Hydro L i n e s E l e c t r i c i t y and P i p e l i n e T r a n s m i s s i o n  systems (see maps 1.4  and  1.5) may a c t as a l i e n a t i n g f a c t o r , to r e c r e a t i o n , not o n l y as v i s u a l ( a l t h o u g h t h i s i n t r u s i o n may  be m i t i g a t e d by d e s i g n ) i n the  landscape,  8  but a l s o t h r o u g h the ease o f a c c e s s t h a t they p r o v i d e i n t o p r e v i o u s l y isolated locations.  Transmission  l i n e s tend t h e r e f o r e t o m u l t i p l y  and f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e s on a r e a s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y managed to c o n t a i n pressures.  With the c o m p l e t i o n  o f the t r a n s m i s s i o n  hunting those  l i n e s c o n n e c t e d to  the N i c o l a Sub S t a t i o n i n the h e a r t o f the S t u d y A r e a t h e s e i m p a c t s reach c r i t i c a l l e v e l s .  I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t the i n t e n s e e l e c t r o -  magnetic f i e l d s surrounding e f f e c t s on man,  Hydro l i n e s may  animal and p l a n t l i f e .  have d e l e t e r i o u s p h y s i o l o g i c a l  The f i e l d t h a t emenates f r o m  765 Kv l i n e s i s so s t r o n g t h a t i t w i l l l i g h t up a f l o u r e s c e n t l i g h t h e l d i n a hand as f a r as 400 f e e t from the l i n e ( F u t u r i s t . 1975). p o s s i b l e that medical  c o n f i r m a t i o n o f any p r o b l e m may  on a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y o f Hydro l i n e s . e n v i r o n m e n t may  may  stimulate  The  bulb It is  controls  recreational  be f u r t h e r l i m i t e d .  Highways Recreation  i n the S t u d y Area i s l a r g e l y highway and  transient  o r i e n t e d , i n as much as o v e r 90 per c e n t o f P r o v i n c i a l Park Camper R i g h t s (B.C.  P a r k s 1975)  and a b o u t 50 per c e n t o f Crown Land Use (B.C.  1973B) i n the Study A r e a were a s c r i b e d to non l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l The S t u d y A r e a i s bounded by the two main c r o s s P r o v i n c e  Parks users.  highways,  Number 1, the T r a n s Canada Highway and Number 3, the Hope, P r i n c e t o n , Keremeos Highway. C y c l e (Ladd 1975)  I t d e m o n s t r a t e s the c l a s s i c A t t r a c t i o n - A c c e s s i b i l i t y i n w h i c h i n c r e a s i n g use, e n c o u r a g e d by an i m p r o v e d ,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network, may q u a l i t y ; although may  c o n t r i b u t e to a d e g r a d a t i o n  w h i l e q u a l i t y may  of recreational  decline, actual recreational  r i s e w i t h i n c r e a s e d u s e r numbers and use l e v e l s ;  benefits  8a AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC FLOWS JULY-AUGUST 1975 Map 1.6  © Traffic  Count  Locations  . UC LA MACMt  4900—^^fe 6700—|T 100 VILE HOUSE i f - 3 2 0 0 -740  TRAFFIC SCALE A.DX  2700-  ~4i00  800-  -2900  -3770 -7300  CHE CP.U4  S<3>  |4  -5400 -5700 /-6700  -7900  250  5 1 0 0 — -I  5300 ^6500  9232-j  M2 6O0 >-*SHcnorT -8300  SALMON I ARM I  -3300 r^-7500  II 100-  fNOERBY -6950  ;900 4500^  9CX>\1 LYTTOi  r9)00 '  14 9 0 0 500(  -1700  NO 800 -13 800  0  -5200  8400 9000-  3000-^  -D900  23 3!l  KELOUfl^j -700 r  8200-x PEACHLANDj  6490  -10 200 SUMMERLANnj 200 r  8000  12;  660O--~l J-9200 -4587 3300 43CK>  J  6479-  -6900  Source: B.C. Highways Department.  2200-  ,,,•1000 a^9-2ioo K C , I/GREENWOOD/ I GRAM 1-3100 * « F 0 H  9  ATTRACTION FACTOR  Thus t h e development  o f major highway c o r r i d o r s ( s e e map  1.6),  compounded by the r a p i d r i s e o f d a i l y t r a f f i c volumes and v e h i c l e l i c e n s i n g i n the Study A r e a (see d i a g r a m 1.7), makes t h e a r e a p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e to the motorised r e c r e a t i o n i s t .  This vulnerability will  be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e r e c e n t l y announced (Vancouver Sun, J a n u a r y 17th 1977) f o u r l a n e highway from Hope t o M e r r i t t t h r o u g h t h e C o q u i h a l l a Pass ( s e e map 5.1).  T h i s new highway r o u t e w i l l  c u t t h e d i s t a n c e from Vancouver t o t h e N o r t h Okanagan by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 m i l e s , t o Kamloops by 50 m i l e s and t o M e r r i t t by 70 m i l e s T. and C. 1972).  (B.C.I.D,  The highway may be e x t e n d e d p a s t Douglas Lake and  t h r o u g h t h e Salmon R i v e r V a l l e y t o Westwold on Highway 97.  Inevitably  t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h i s major highway c o r r i d o r ( i n r e s p o n s e t o commercial and r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a f f i c p r e s s u r e s on t h e F r a s e r Canyon) w i l l s u b j e c t t h e Study A r e a t o f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e C o q u i h a l l a and C o l d w a t e r d r a i n a g e b a s i n s . Ranching C a t t l e Ranching i s t h e a r e a ' s t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t economic s e c t o r . Most o f t h e a v a i l a b l e , s u i t a b l e r a n g e l a n d i s b e i n g used t o c a p a c i t y and i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t o u t p u t w i l l p r o b a b l y o n l y o c c u r t h r o u g h improved l a n d  9a Diagram 1.7  D A I L Y  10,000  T R A F F I C  V O L U M E S  J U L Y  &  A U G U S T  AVERAGE DAILY T O T A L S  A  /  Location 0 . 8 k m n o r t h of C o a l m o n t R o a d 0.16 k m s o u t h o f S t u m p L a k e A c c e s s R o a d 8 . 9 6 k m north of F a u l k l a n d C o m m u n i t y H a l l 1.2 k m w e s t of S a v o n a B r i d g e 4 . 4 8 k m w e s t of r o u t e 97 at M o n t e C r e e k  B000  /  \  6000 -A  HWY 1  4000 H  HWY 1 2000 ROUTE 97 HWY 5 HWY 5  YEAR  1963  1965  1967  1969  1  1971  1973  1975  Sourcei B . C . D e p t . of H w y s  T R A F F I C  180  V E H I C L E  L I C E N S I N G  T R E N D S  '/. C H A N G E —  10O-  A N D  •—• P a s s e n g e r a n d C o m m e r c i a l L i c e n c e s ; t o t a l R C . Passenger and Commercial Licences; Kamloops, Merritt, and Princeton A v e r a g e D a i l y T r a f f i c F l o w T o t a l s for T r a f f i c C o u n t Points, July a n d A u g u s t  Note-  D e c l i n e in 1974 a n d 1975 l i c e n c e s r e f l e c t s t h e c o n v e r s i o n f r o m l i c e n c i n g t h e c a r to licencing the driver. y  60-  20-  1963 Source-. B.C.  Motor  1965  Vehicles Branch  I  1967  YEAR  —I  1969  1971  1973  1975  10 management (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972).  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t improved  range management c o u l d i n c r e a s e the d e e r p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t the c a t t l e c a p a c i t y (Anderson  and S c h e r z i n g e r . 1975).  reducing  This could  s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e the r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e o f the r a n g e l a n d .  However  a t p r e s e n t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a n c h e r and r e c r e a t i o n i s t r e m a i n s one o f c o n f l i c t .  In c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s c a t t l e and campers mix a t the  l a k e s h o r e , r a n c h e r s c o m p l a i n o f v a n d a l i s m and r u s t l i n g , r e c r e a t i o n i s t s c o m p l a i n o f b l o c k e d a c c e s s i n t o and a c r o s s crown l a n d , as w e l l as f l u c t u a t i n g w a t e r l e v e l s i n l a k e s used both f o r r e c r e a t i o n and Indian  irrigation.  Reserves In the main the l o c a t i o n o f n a t i v e r e s e r v e s a r e not c o i n c i d e n t  w i t h the m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n zones.  However i n two c a s e s , t h a t o f a c c e s s t o  H a r p e r Lake (L.73) and a c c e s s a l o n g the Skuhun Creek r o a d , r e s e r v e s have been c i t e d as l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s t o r e c r e a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y . Conclusion Thus the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t and q u a l i t y d e c l i n e i s both p r e s e n t , and l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e .  C o n f l i c t , as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the  i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e a r e a , and q u a l i t y d e c l i n e as t h e s e n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a t t r a c t g r e a t e r numbers o f t r a n s i e n t s and r e s i d e n t s t o l i v e and r e c r e a t e i n the a r e a . s p e c i f i c d e t a i l i n g o f both c o n f l i c t s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r .  The  deterioration  S u f f i c e to say a t the p r e s e n t , , t h a t  the most v i s i b l e problems a r e t h o s e r e l a t e d to g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n  11 pressures  and c a s e o f a c c e s s .  Environmental Overload,  The p r o b l e m s a r e t h o s e o f V a n d a l i s m ,  the e f f e c t s o f the I n t e r n a l Combustion e n g i n e ,  Permanent Camper R e s i d e n c e and a n t i - s o c i a l Camper B e h a v i o u r , O v e r f i s h i n g and c o n f l i c t between the P u b l i c and P r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n sectors'.  In  a d d i t i o n t h e r e e x i s t problems o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l management and i n t e r agency c o o p e r a t i o n S e c t i o n 1:3  (or lack of i t ) .  Creation of a P o l i c y Plan  In view o f r a d i c a l use and r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n p r e s s u r e s  upon the  r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m , t h i s t h e s i s has, as i t s p r i m a r y aim, the d e f i n i t i o n , the c r e a t i o n , the e v a l u a t i o n and e v e n t u a l  choice of a preferred p o l i c y  p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s i n the Thompson A policy p l a n ^  Plateau.  i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s e v e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t  a r e t o g o v e r n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n .  A p l a n would  c o n f i n e i t s a t t e n t i o n t o s p e c i f i c s , such as the l o c a t i o n o f r o a d s ,  trails,  c a m p s i t e s , b o a t l a u n c h i n g ramps and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . would a l s o i n d i c a t e the p r o b a b l e  c o s t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , o p e r a t i o n , main-  t e n a n c e and management a r r a n g e m e n t s . much b r o a d e r r a n g e o f m a t t e r s ,  It  The p o l i c y p l a n however c o v e r s a  s p e c i f y i n g how a g i v e n r e c r e a t i o n a r e a i s  to f i t s p a t i a l l y i n t o the t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m , what r o l e i t would p l a y i n the t o t a l a c t i v i t y a v a i l a b i l i t y s y s t e m , the k i n d s o f t o be p r o v i d e d , such f a c i l i t i e s .  the a p p r o x i m a t e s i z e and p r o b a b l e  general  l o c a t i o n of  I t would a l s o e s t a b l i s h the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s t h a t were  to g o v e r n the c r e a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f the s y s t e m . final appropriate  facilities  The c h o i c e o f the  p o l i c y p l a n would depend upon the s e l e c t i o n o f the  12 p r e f e r r e d p l a n from amongst a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . p o l i c y p l a n would be t h a t p l a n w h i c h  came c l o s e s t t o s a t i s f y i n g a v a r i e t y  of s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d stages o f the p o l i c y plan preparation  The p r e f e r r e d  during the preliminary  process.  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p o l i c y p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n  and s e l e c t i o n  p r o c e s s i s seen t o be a n e c e s s a r y a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e more normal a d h o c i s m e x p e r i e n c e d i n p u b l i c p o l i c y making.  To d a t e p o l i c y making p r o c e s -  ses have a p p a r e n t l y f a i l e d t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m s g e n e r a t e d i n a r a p i d l y growing and c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y .  The e x i s t i n g p o l i c y p l a n making p r o c e s s e s  t e n d t o r e s u l t i n outcomes t h a t may n o t match p u b l i c a s p i r a t i o n s ;  policy  d e v e l o p m e n t t e n d s t o be r e a c t i v e r a t h e r than a n t i c i p a t o r y , and f r e q u e n t l y i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y i s s u e s f a i l t o be a d e q u a t e l y examined ( F o x and Dunn. 1976). S e c t i o n 1.4:  Thesis  Outline  The r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s t h e s i s , c h a p t e r s 2 t h r o u g h 8, i s c o n c e r n e d with the development o f a p o l i c y plan a p p l i c a b l e t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e S t u d y A r e a and w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i v e t o e x i s t i n g and a n t i c i p a t e d problems.  A p o l i c y p l a n t h a t r e c o g n i s e s no i d e a l end s t a t e ,  but which aims a t s p e c i f i c s h o r t term g o a l s .  In w h i c h s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e  can be o b s e r v e d , and s u c c e s s e n c o u r a g e d by p e r i o d i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s to ensure that trends, a t a regional  intended  l e v e l , always remain p o s i t i v e .  C h a p t e r 2 p r o v i d e s a more d e t a i l e d , t h e o r e t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o p o s e d p o l i c y p l a n c o n c e p t . ^ C h a p t e r 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e use l e v e l s , t r e n d l i n e s and p o t e n t i a l s f o r r e c r e a t i o n  i n the Study Area, while  13 c h a p t e r 4 i s a c r i t i q u e o f e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n management systems and the s p e c i f i c problems  t h a t seem t o have a r i s e n under t h e s e systems.  Chapter  5 presents three p o t e n t i a l p o l i c y plans f o r f u t u r e development concepts i n t h e a r e a , a l l o f which would demand a r e g i o n a l management a p p r o a c h such as i s d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r 6, and a l l o f which would be e v a l u a t e d i n l i g h t o f the s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r 2. F i n a l l y , c h a p t e r 7 p r e s e n t s the  p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n  to t h e Study A r e a . S e c t i o n 1.5:  Field  Study  D u r i n g J u l y and August o f 1976 a t o t a l o f t h r e e weeks was  spent  t r a v e l l i n g and o b s e r v i n g the Study A r e a , which c o v e r s more than 10,000 s q u a r e m i l e s , as p a r t o f a B r i t i s h Columbia 1976A).  P a r k s Branch s t u d y (B.C.  Parks.  The p r i m a r y aim o f t h a t s t u d y was t o e s t a b l i s h how the p r e s s u r e s  and problems o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r had a f f e c t e d , and might i n the f u t u r e a f f e c t the r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t  o f the Study A r e a .  Actual  f i e l d s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e d on the o b s e r v a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r and problems a t 53 l a k e s .  D e t a i l s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s e l a k e s , and an example  of the t y p e o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d a t each, can be found i n a p p e n d i c e s 4 and 5. I t was f e l t t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n , though m e r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e , was a v a l i d t e c h n i q u e i n view o f t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e t a s k and the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e f o r f i e l d study.  However, i t was a l s o r e c o g n i s e d t h a t o b s e r -  v a t i o n a l o n e i s n e v e r enough.  What p e o p l e seem,to an o b s e r v e r , t o be  d o i n g and a c h i e v i n g may n o t be what t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as d o i n g and a c h i e v i n g ( C a t t o n . 1975).  T h u s , i n o r d e r t o go beyond the s i m p l e  14 o b s e r v a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and p r o b l e m s , a s e r i e s o f was  interviews  h e l d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e c r e a t i o n managers, p r i v a t e  s e c t o r r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n i n t e r e s t s and government o f f i c i a l s r e c r e a t i o n a l management i n t e r e s t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . i n d i v i d u a l s i s g i v e n ' i n a p p e n d i x 6. d a t a used i n the t h e s i s was S e c t i o n 1.6:  Thesis  provided  The b u l k o f the raw by t h e s e  with  A l i s t of  these  statistical  interviewees.  Constraints  I t s h o u l d a t t h i s s t a g e be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the t h e s i s i s s u b j e c t to two m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t s , o r i n f l u e n c e s .  F i r s t l y , c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d upon  the f i e l d study by the d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g  to  cover  10,000 s q u a r e m i l e s and o v e r 50 l a k e s w i t h any k i n d o f d e t a i l i n under t h r e e weeks. seasonal  T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c o n s t r a i n t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m the l i m i t e d  c o v e r a g e o f an a r e a t h a t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y an a l l s e a s o n r e c r e a -  tional location. d i t i o n s was  No p e r s o n a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s p r i n g , f a l l or winter  con-  possible.  S e c o n d l y , c o n s t r a i n t s imposed upon the t h e s i s as a whole ,by the personal  v a l u e s t a n c e , b i a s e s and a s s u m p t i o n s o f the a u t h o r .  These v a l u e s ,  b i a s e s and a s s u m p t i o n s are d e t a i l e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n because i t i s f e l t t h a t i f a Planner a r r i v e s at a personally considered  'best' s o l u t i o n , as i n  c h a p t e r 7, t h a t P l a n n e r s h o u l d a d m i t to h i s p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e framework. The framework c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g components: 1.  The P l a n n e r s h o u l d be an a d a p t i v i s e r , e m p h a s i s i n g e x p e r i m e n -  t a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n and i n c r e m e n t a l ism i n w h i c h c r e a t i v i t y i s a t l e a s t as important  as judgement.  15 2.  The P l a n n e r s h o u l d be a f a c i l i t a t o r who i s c a p a b l e o f  c r e a t i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h i n g s t o happen, h e - s h o u l d be an a c t o r r a t h e r than a r e a c t o r , an a c t o r w i t h one eye on t h e f u t u r e . 3.  The P l a n n e r s h o u l d i n v o l v e h i m s e l f i n an a c t i v e management  r o l e both as a m e d i a t o r between c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and as manager o f a b a r g a i n i n g market. 4.  The P l a n n e r c a n n o t p r o v i d e any s i n g l e c o r r e c t answers t o  e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e i s s u e s because o f the u n c e r t a i n t i e s and t h e v a l u e judgements  i n v o l v e d (Fox and Dunn 1976).  The P l a n n e r must t h e r e f o r e c o n -  c e n t r a t e on the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f v a l i d e v a l u a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t o f the u n c e r t a i n t i e s involved. 5.  W i t h o u t m a n a g e r i a l c o n t r o l s t h e freedom and s p o n t a n e i t y o f  t h e w i l d l a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i l l i n e v i t a b l y e v a p o r a t e under growing pressures.  use  The i s s u e i s n o t whether management i s r e q u i r e d , but what  form t h a t management s h o u l d t a k e ( S t a n k e y  1972).  FOOTNOTES ^ I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by I.K. Fox, D i r e c t o r , t h e Westwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , U.B.C. V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  16 CHAPTER TWO. DEVELOPMENT OF A POLICY PLAN S e c t i o n 2.1: The P o l i c y P l a n C o n c e p t . Few p e o p l e l i k e p r o b l e m s . Hence t h e n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y i n p r o b l e m s o l v i n g i s t o p i c k t h e f i r s t s o l u t i o n t h a t comes to mind and r u n w i t h i t . The d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s a p p r o a c h i s t h a t one may r u n e i t h e r o f f a c l i f f , o r i n t o a worse p r o b l e m t h a n one s t a r t e d w i t h . A b e t t e r s t r a t e g y i n s o l v i n g problems i s t o s e l e c t t h e most a t t r a c t i v e p a t h ( o r p a t h s ) from many i d e a s and c o n c e p t s . (Adams. 1974. p. x i ) James Adams s u c c i n c t l y summarises t h e e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f t h e p o l i c y p l a n c o n c e p t as a p r o b l e m s o l v i n g d e v i c e and p l a n n i n g involving  mechanism,  , the development o f several a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s , from  w h i c h a s i n g l e p r e f e r r e d P o l i c y P l a n i s chosen a f t e r a l l have been rigorously  evaluated.  The c o n c e p t r e p r e s e n t s the c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n  a general  approach t o planning,  o f b r o a d p r i n c i p l e s and main f e a t u r e s .  emphasising This  a p p r o a c h c a n , as a c o n s e q u e n c e , be both r e a d i l y u n d e r s t o o d by t h e p u b l i c and p o l i c y making o f f i c i a l s , as w e l l as be a p p l i e d on a r e g i o n a l  basis.  The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s and e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y p l a n c o u l d then be u t i l i s e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c r e a t i o n o f m a s t e r p l a n s t h a t would be s i t e s p e c i f i c and r e a d i l y a d a p t a b l e t o changes i n exogenous f a c t o r s and v a r i a t i o n s i n l o c a l  conditions.  The use o f t h e term " P o l i c y P l a n " i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s t o t h e idea o f developing  a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e , o r s t a n c e s , each o f  which r e s p o n d s i n a p a r t i c u l a r way t o g e n e r a l and demands.  regional conditions,  problems  F o r example, i n W i l l i a m Morton and I r v i n g Fox's s t u d y o f t h e  17 the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r B a s i n , t h r e e a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d e v a l u a t e d , P o l i c y P l a n "A" "B" - I n t e g r a t e d  - Continuation  and  of Past P r a c t i c e , P o l i c y  Plan  R e s o u r c e Management and P o l i c y P l a n "C" - E s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f a P r o v i n c i a l Park (Morton and Fox.  1975).  Each o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e  p o l i c y p l a n s would have emerged from a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , i n v o l v i n g  cer-  t a i n s p e c i f i c e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that are d e t a i l e d in s e c t i o n F u r t h e r m o r e each p o l i c y p l a n ( o r a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e ) , would c o n s i s t a package, or mix,  of p o l i c y objectives  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of which are described  2.2. of  and Implementary Mechanisms, the i n s e c t i o n 2.3.  F i n a l l y the  p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n would be s e l e c t e d by a c h o i c e p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g consideration  o f each p o s s i b l e p o l i c y p l a n and hence i t s component p o l i c y  Bbjectives  and i m p e l e m e n t a r y mechanisms i n l i g h t o f s e v e r a l  evaluation  w h i c h a r e l i s t e d i n s e c t i o n 2.4.  criteria  The r o l e o f the p o l i c y  c o n c e p t i n a l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d section  the  for plan  in  2.5.  S e c t i o n 2.2:  E s s e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the C r e a t i v e  Process.  The e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e t a i l e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , comprehens i v i t y and i t e r a t i o n , would p r i m a r i l y be a p p l i c a b l e t o the  creative  p r o c e s s out o f w h i c h a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s ( a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e s ) emerge. However i t s h o u l d be emphasised t h a t the impact o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would be f e l t t h r o u g h o u t the p r o c e s s . i m p l y the c o n t i n u a t i o n  The c o n s i d e r a t i o n  o f both would  o f an h o l i s t i c and dynamic mind s e t t h r o u g h , i n t o ,  and a l s o beyond, the d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s ,  implementary  mechanisms, c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n  process i t s e l f .  and the e v a l u a t i o n  18 F o r example, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l component o f ' i t e r a t i o n ' would be e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n an o p e r a t i o n a l phase t h a t p r o v i d e d f o r the o n - g o i n g e v a l u a t i o n o f c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s and t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f f u t u r e p o t e n tials. Comprehensivity C o m p r e h e n s i v i t y s h o u l d i m p l y t h e need f o r r e c o g n i s i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h o s e sub-systems a c t i v e sub-systems  embraced by t h e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t , the o t h e r  and s e c t o r s w i t h i n t h e Study A r e a and t h o s e  systems  t h a t e x t e n d beyond, o r which a r e l o c a t e d o u t s i d e and s e p a r a t e d from, t h e region of concern.  Comprehensivity t h e r e f o r e i n v o l v e s the r e c o g n i t i o n  of an e c o s y s t e m i c approach t o p l a n n i n g and a l l which t h a t i m p l i e s i n terms o f an h o l i s t i c mind s e t and systems t h i n k i n g . In a d d i t i o n , c o m p r e h e n s i v i t y s u g g e s t s the need f o r an o v e r v i e w o f t h e r e g i o n . b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d which i s as d e t a i l e d as p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s i n e v i t a b l y imposed by t i m e and r e s o u r c e l i m i t a t i o n s . p a r t i c u l a r case  the overview  In t h i s  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the f i e l d s t u d y , r e l a t e d  d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a number o f i n t e r v i e w s . of t h e r e s o u r c e s , both n a t u r a l and  I t attempts a f u l l  coverage  i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l , w i t h i n the Study  A r e a and t h e demands, both e x p r e s s e d and l a t e n t , f o r p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s and levels of recreational a c t i v i t y .  I t a l s o c o v e r s an a n a l y s i s o f c o n f l i c t s ,  both e x i s t i n g and p o s s i b l e , as w e l l as t h e problems and c o n s t r a i n t s r e l a t i n g to the r e c r e a t i o n a l experience.  Furthermore the overview should  i n c l u d e a s t u d y o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f each p o r t i o n o f the Study A r e a t o p r o v i d e t h o s e s e r v i c e s , i n d i c a t e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g demand, t o  19 be i n s h o r t s u p p l y , o r even a b s e n t .  P o t e n t i a l s t h a t would i n e v i t a b l y be  i n c l u e n c e d by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o n f l i c t s and c o n s t r a i n t s . Iteration The term i t s e l f s u g g e s t s the need f o r a s t e p - w i s e approach  which  r e c o g n i s e s t h a t a b s o l u t e g o a l s do n o t emerge a t t h e s t a r t , but e v o l v e t h r o u g h and d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e  i t e r a t i o n i n v o l v e s two b a s i c s u b c a t e g o r i e s , mutual a d j u s t m e n t experimentation.  and  The f o r m e r i m p l i e s t h a t no p o l i c y p l a n can a r r i v e a t  f r u i t i o n w i t h o u t some form o f r e g i o n wide agreement about i t s m a j o r elements.  The c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s s h o u l d be s t r u c t u r e d so as t o e n s u r e  communication and c o o p e r a t i o n between i n v o l v e d a g e n c i e s .  Without e f f e c -  t i v e i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n , both the c r e a t i o n and the a c t i v e management o f any p o l i c y p l a n w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i n d e r e d .  Conflict  reduc-  t i o n s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h o s e g u l f s t h a t may e x i s t between the r e c r e a t i o n a l and n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l s e c t o r s , t h o s e between d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l groups as w e l l as t h o s e p r e s e n t i n i n t e r - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Furthermore  the p o l i c y p l a n c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s and i t s e v e n t a u l  o p e r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e the g e n e r a t i o n o f both p u b l i c and agency f e e d b a c k  i n order to a l l o w a comprehensive i n p u t to the c r e a t i o n ,  s e l e c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s , as w e l l as p e r c e i v e d changes i n v a l u e s , demands and p o t e n t i a l s . These elements a r e c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l because i t would seem t h a t p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s embracing  i n t e r - r e l a t e d sub systems f r e q u e n t l y  proceed simultaneaously, y e t s e p a r a t e l y .  The p o l i c y p l a n p r o c e s s  should  20  a l l o w f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s system, o r o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n program, a l l o w i n g f o r s e p a r a t e a g e n c i e s and s e c t o r s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h , and a d j u s t t o , each o t h e r s e f f o r t s and p r i o r i t i e s .  This i s  e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n view o f the d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and b e h a v i o u r a l r u l e s h e l d by d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s , a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . There i s a need f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t , t h r o u g h compromise, o f what a r e r e c o g n i s e d by s o c i e t y as a whole, t o be l e g i t i m a t e d e c i s i o n s , p r o c e s s e s and  end  products. The second s u b c a t e g o r y w i t h i n the c o n c e p t o f i t e r a t i o n i s t h a t o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ; an e s s e n t i a l element  i f the p o l i c y p l a n p r o c e s s i s seen  as a c o n t i n u u m i n which elements a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y a d j u s t e d i n the l i g h t o f new knowledge (Fox and Dunn. 1976).  The c o n c e p t o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  has  an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f both p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and implementary  mechanisms i n t h e l i g h t o f v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s and v a r y i n g  local conditions.  I t h a v i n g a l r e a d y been acknowledged t h a t t h e r e i s no  one c o r r e c t answer t o a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l  problem, n e i t h e r a r e t h e r e  any v a l u e s nor p e r c e p t u a l frameworks h e l d u n i v e r s a l l y t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y ( a l t h o u g h ' t h e r e may be 'Higher V a l u e s ' / E t h i c s a c c e p t e d as g e n e r a l r u l e s o f behaviour).  Each e x p e r i m e n t a l  s i t u a t i o n would be i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e  f e e d b a c k , a l l o w i n g f o r the e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t s and a p p r o a c h e s ,  e i t h e r a t t h e g e n e r a l ( p o l i c y p l a n ) , o r the s p e c i f i c  (master p l a n ) l e v e l s .  S h o u l d the r e s u l t s o f any p r o c e s s emerge c o u n t e r -  i n t u i t i v e l y , the e x p e r i m e n t a l and a d j u s t m e n t .  approach a l l o w s f o r o n - g o i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n  T h i s r e f l e c t s the P r a g m a t i c P r i n c i p l e ( B r o s s 1953)  which  s u g g e s t s t h a t n o t h i n g s h o u l d be implemented as a permenancy and t h a t change  21 s h o u l d always be p o s s i b l e and f e a s i b l e . Experimentation  a l s o i m p l i e s t h e need f o r a c r e a t i v e and  i n n o v a t i v e p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h , an a p p r o a c h w h i c h i s a c t i v e r a t h e r reactive.  than  The p l a n n e r s h o u l d p r e p a r e f o r , and e x p e r i m e n t w i t h , t h e  f u t u r e , b e c a u s e i t i s t h e r e t h a t he w i l l spend t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e (Ewald. 1968). S e c t i o n 2.3: Policy  Main F e a t u r e s o f t h e P o l i c y P l a n .  Objectives I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e term ' p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e ' s h o u l d r e f e r t o  t h o s e f e a t u r e s which t h e p l a n n e r  ( h a v i n g s p e c i f i e d t h e need f o r comprehen'-  s i v i t y and i t e r a t i o n ) , w i s h e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o each p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y plan, (or a t t i t u d i n a l stance).  A 'package' o f s e p a r a t e p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s  would r e s u l t h o p e f u l l y , i n a s p e c i f i c end s t a t e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e chosen a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e w h i c h b e s t r e s p o n d s t o t h e p o t e n t i a l c o n s t r a i n t s and demands ( b o t h e x p r e s s e d  and l a t e n t ) , as w e l l t h e commonly h e l d  values  present w i t h i n the i n t r a - a n d e x t r a - r e g i o n a l systems. F o r example, P o l i c y P l a n B - I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e Management, which i s p r o p o s e d as one o f t h r e e p o l i c y p l a n s i n t h e C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r B a s i n S t u d y (Morton and Fox. 1975), i s made up o f s i x c o n s t i t u e n t p o l i c y objectives. 1.  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f r o a d s , t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s t h a t would be d e s i g n e d t o m i n i m i s e erosion.  2.  The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s u f f i c i e n t w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t t o a s s u r e maintenance o f healthy populations o f w i l d l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y ungulates.  22  3.  The p r o v i s i o n o f b u f f e r s t r i p s a l o n g s t r e a m s , and a s t r e a m r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program t o p r e s e r v e and improve t h e fisheries habitat.  4.  The r e s t r i c t i o n o f t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g so as t o m a i n t a i n t h e visual q u a l i t y o f the landscape f o r the benefit o f recreation users.  5.  The s u p p l y o f s u f f i c i e n t t r a i l s , camp s i t e s and o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s t o meet r e c r e a t i o n demands.  6.  The a p p r o v a l o f s e c o n d home development o n l y a t t h o s e locations that are physically suitable. (Morton and Fox. 1975'p. f x -  Implementary Mechanisms These mechanisms a r e t h o s e i n s t r u m e n t s by which t h e p l a n n e r p u r s u e s chosen p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s .  F o r example, i n t h e c a s e i l l u s t r a t e d  above, t h e o b j e c t i v e i m p l i e d by t h e a p p r o v a l o n l y o f t h o s e s e c o n d home d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t were l o c a t e d on p h y s i c a l l y s u i t a b l e s i t e s would p o s s i b l be imposed by t h e c r e a t i o n o f z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s .  I t would be t h e s e  r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t were t h e i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanism.  In a n o t h e r example,  the i m p o s i t i o n o f m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t on u s e r s would be a p o l i c y 6 b j e c t i v e , which m i g h t be implemented by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f e e s c h e d u l e and a t r a n s i t i o n program f r o m f r e e a c c e s s t o f e e payment.  I t i s these l a t t e r  e l e m e n t s , t h e f e e s c h e d u l e and t r a n s i t i o n program t h a t a r e t h e implement a r y mechanisims. A c r u c i a l component o f such mechanisms i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s i n v o l v i n g both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s to a d m i n i s t e r t h e s u c c e s s f u l a c h i e v e m e n t o f p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . a g e n c i e s w i l l be i n v o l v e d both i n t h e d i r e c t p r o v i s i o n  Public  of recreation  23 s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as i n t h e inducement o f d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r from t h e u s e r s o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , and from t h e d e v e l o p e r s and managers o f p r i v a t e facilities.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y such b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l has emphasised t h e  p r o m u l g a t i o n and e n f o r c e m e n t o f r e g u l a t i o n s and o r d e r s (Morton and Fox. 1975).  T h e r e i s however a p e r c e i v e d need t o go beyond t h i s .  Implementary  mechanisms s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f both c o e r c i v e e n f o r c e m e n t andn o n - c o e r c i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n . T h e r e i s a need f o r d i s i n c e n t i v e s t h a t would p r e v e n t unwanted a c t i v i t i e s , b u t a t t h e same time t h e r e s h o u l d be p o s i t i v e i n c e n t i v e s t o e n c o u r a g e wanted b e h a v i o u r .  I t i s not necessary that the  d i s i n c e n t i v e o r p o s i t i v e i n c e n t i v e s h o u l d r e l a t e t o wanted o r unwanted b e h a v i o u r a t t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n on which t h e y a r e imposed. the  unwanted  F o r example,  b e h a v i o u r o f sewage dumping a t a p a r t i c u l a r l a k e , may be  p r e v e n t e d by a s i t e s p e c i f i c t h r e a t o f punishment s h o u l d such a c t i v i t y be d i s c o v e r e d . A t t h e same time d i r e c t i o n s t o t h e n e a r e s t sewage dumping c e n t r e and t h e p r o m i s e o f 'backwoods brownie p o i n t s ' , s h o u l d t h e dumping c e n t r e be u s e d , would be non s i t e s p e c i f i c p o s i t i v e i n c e n t i v e s t o wanted behaviour.  The l a t t e r may be a more e f f e c t i v e method o f c o n t r o l i n  l i g h t o f t h e known t e n d e n c y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e a c t more p o s i t i v e l y t o the  p r o m i s e o f reward t h a n t o t h e t h r e a t o f s a c r i f i c e ( D e u t s c h . 1970). A g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms s h o u l d c o n s i d e r 2 1  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p p l y i n g a B e h a v i o u r M o d i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x , ' p r o b l e m o f b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l i n r e c r e a t i o n management.  to the  F o r example:  24 POSITIVE INCENTIVE  NEGATIVE INCENTIVE  WANTED BEHAVIOUR e.g. sewage drop at Treatment Centre  + REINFORCE Increase p o s i t i v e invent i v e toward wanted behaviour. e.g.: Cash Reward f o r Sewage Drop a t T r e a t m e n t Centre.  - WEAKEN Reduce n e g a t i v e i n c e n t i v e t o wanted b e h a v i o u r .  UNWANTED BEHAVIOUR e.g.: sewage d i s posal i n r e c r e a tional lake  - WEAKEN Reduce p o s i t i v e i n c e n t i v e to unwanted b e h a v i o u r e.g. r e q u i r e f i t t i n g o f a l l campers w i t h s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y f o r sewage  + REINFORCE Increase negative incent i v e t o unwanted b e h a v i o u r . e.g.: i n c r e a s e f i n e s f o r illegal disposal  e.g.: e n s u r e t h a t e x i s tence o f Treatment Centre i s common knowledge and directions to i t are visible  S e c t i o n 2.4: C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e and i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanism 'packages' emerge i n r e s p o n s e t o r e g i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , v a l u e s and c o n s t r a i n t s , as t h e main f e a t u r e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s .  I t i s essential that  these  s e v e r a l 'packages' undergo a r i g o r o u s e v a l u a t i o n b e f o r e a p a r t i c u l a r p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e i s f i n a l l y chosen.  I t would seem n e c e s s a r y  therefore,  t o e s t a b l i s h , and then a p p l y , c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n t o each o f the a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y plans.  C o m p l i a n c e by a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y p l a n w i t h  t h e s e c r i t e r i a would imply t h e e s s e n t i a l s u i t a b i l i t y ( a c c o r d i n g t o one s e t o f v a l u e s ) o f t h a t package o f o b j e c t i v e s and i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms t o the a c h i e v e m e n t o f d e s i r e d ends. suggested  F o r t h e sake o f c o n v e n i e n c e t h e  C r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n a r e d i v i d e d below i n t o those  that  apply p r i m a r i l y to the p o l i c y Objective element w i t h i n the p o l i c y plan,  25 and t h o s e t h a t a p p l y p r i m a r i l y t o the implementary  mechanisms.  Policy Objectives Conservation Ethic The p o l i c y p l a n s h o u l d n o t t h r e a t e n the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t any way t h a t m i g h t t r i g g e r i r r e v e r s i b l e change.  I t s h o u l d be s t r u c t u r e d  so as t o r e c o g n i s e the need f o r a " C o n s e r v a t i o n E t h i c ' (Morton and 1975).  in  Fox.  The a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s e t h i c would e n s u r e t h a t t h e l o n g term  p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the r e g i o n ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s was n o t i m p a i r e d , nor the d i v e r s i t y of species reduced.  I t would a l s o emphasise the need f o r l e a v i n g  open o p t i o n s f o r a c t i o n i n the f u t u r e . S o c i a l Well  Being  The p o l i c y p l a n s h o u l d r e c o g n i s e t h e i m p o r t a n c e  o f the  maximisation  o f n e t r e t u r n s t o the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e members o f s o c i e t y as a whole (Morton and Fox. 1975); and the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s would c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t t h a t each p o l i c y had on t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f income i n the r e g i o n .  It should  a l s o acknowledge the need f o r a d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . Much o f c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s i m p l y c l o s e s  environmental  a l t e r n a t i v e s and narrows the b r e a d t h o f p e o p l e ' s a v a i l a b l e l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; t h e l a c k o f d i v e r s i t y l e a d s t o an e n f o r c e d c o n f o r m i t y and a l e v e l l i n g o f l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a lower common d e n o m i n a t o r ( D i t t o n . 1971).  Furthermore,  there i s a g r e a t tendency to provide i n c r e a s i n g  q u a n t i t i e s o f what has a l r e a d y been p r o v i d e d i n the p a s t ( K r u t i l l a and K n e t s c h . 1971).  Any d e v e l o p m e n t under the p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n s h o u l d  26 t h e r e f o r e s a t i s f y a f u l l range o f both e x p r e s s e d and l a t e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l demands.  T h i s would imply t h e need f o r g e n u i n e v a r i e t y , w i t h  undisturbed  ' w i l d l a n d a t one end o f t h e spectrum  relatively  and p e r h a p s 'hardened'  c a m p s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t e n s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f use a t t h e o t h e r . Rather than t h e g r a d u a l c o n v e r s i o n t o v a r i o u s s o r t s o f (Lucas 1970).  semi-wilderness  S o c i a l w e l l b e i n g would, i n a d d i t i o n , i m p l y t h e need f o r a  p o l i c y p l a n t h a t a c h i e v e d some measure o f mutual c o o p e r a t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n between r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and o t h e r n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l s e c t o r s . Equitable Treatment The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s and c o s t s i m p l i e d by t h e P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d n o t damage l o c a l , n o r n o n - l o c a l i n t e r e s t s , t o t h e benefit o f the other.  Nor s h o u l d one a c t i v i t y s e c t o r , e x t r a c t i v e o r non-  e x t r a c t i v e , r e c e i v e b e n e f i t s t h a t i m p l y any unnecessary.,, disadvantage  to another a c t i v i t y sector.  or avoidable  Evaluation of equitable  treatment  would i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f who a c t u a l l y i n c u r s t h e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f each p o l i c y p l a n . Implementary Mechanisms Control Effectiveness The mechanisms imposed s h o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c , and s h o u l d n o t , c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e l y , e n c o u r a g e v a n d a l i s m by d e s i g n (Weinmayr. 1973).  T h i s need f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  o f d e v e l o p i n g mechanisms t h a t c o v e r a r a n g e o f e n f o r c e m e n t  processes,  i n c l u d i n g both C o e r c i v e , o r punishment o r t e n t e d t e c h n i q u e s , as w e l l as d o n - c o e r c i v e , o r m a n i p u l a t i v e and p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t methods.  It  27 s h o u l d however be noted t h a t what was once c o n s i d e r e d u n a c c e p t a b l e , f o r example, the r a t i o n i n g o f w i l d l a n d use, may now and i n t h e f u t u r e , become more f u l l y a c c e p t a b l e (Lucy Fox. 1975). c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l i f t h e y appear t o  Mechanisms s h o u l d o n l y be  e n s u r e a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y between  p o l i c y o u t p u t and p o l i c y outcome, and i f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s e n c o u r a g e the r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s t o a c t i n a manner c o n d u c i v e t o the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f the p o l i c y p l a n . Cost E f f e c t i v e n e s s No mechanism t h a t i s l i k e l y t o impose a s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l burden on the r e s o u r c e s o f p a r t i c u l a r management a g e n c i e s , t o the d e t r i m e n t o f t h e i r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d .  This critericim  would a p p l y both t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the manpower demands and the c a p i t a l requirements  f o r implementing  a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y plan.  Efficacy in achieving Distributional Objectives The implementary  mechanisms c o n s i d e r e d s h o u l d n o t  any e x i s t i n g , o r l a t e n t u s e r groups  disadvantage  ( u n l e s s t h a t group a c t s i n an a n t i -  s o c i a l , o r a n t i - e n v i r o n m e n t a l manner).  The mechanism s h o u l d thus e x h i b i t  s a l u t a r y - ; d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f e c t s and an e q u i t a b l e s p r e a d o f c o s t s and benefits.  However i t i s noted t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n o f u s e r f e e s does n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y an unequal  t r e a t m e n t o f the poor.  The broad s c a l e r e -  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income s h o u l d take p l a c e a t a h i g h e r l e v e l , such as t h r o u g h income t a x , r a t h e r than a t r e c r e a t i o n a r e a e n t r y p o i n t s . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r would i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f whether o r n o t  28 the i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms o f each p o l i c y p l a n had t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o a l t e r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i m p l i e d i n t h e p l a n . S e c t i o n 2.5: The Role o f t h e P o l i c y P l a n i n a Lake based R e c r e a t i o n a l Environment The o v e r a l l goal i n any r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m o r i e n t e d t o o n - l a k e , o r s h o r e - l i n e a c t i v i t y , s h o u l d be t o g a i n c o o p e r a t i o n P r o v i n c i a l , Regional  and L o c a l l e v e l a g e n c i e s  between  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and implemen-  t i n g a common s t r a t e g y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n system. To o r g a n i s e f o r t h i s goal i t would be n e c e s s a r y  to apply t h e  p r e c e p t s o f p o l i c y p l a n d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t were o u t l i n e d i n t h e e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , and a d a p t them t o t h e s p e c i f i c needs o f l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y i t would be a d v i s a b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h e v a r i e t y o f uses made o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , and t h e v a r i o u s uses t h a t a r e l i a b l e t o be d e v e l o p e d  i n the future.  In o t h e r words, t h e  e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l uses t h a t a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e r e l e v a n t p u b l i c groups and w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n c h a p t e r 3. Secondly,  t h e planner should i n d i c a t e the consequences o f the  c u r r e n t l e v e l s and t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n terms o f both s o c i e t a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  impact.  These c o n s e q u e n c e s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d  both  f o r p r e s e n t a c t i v i t y l e v e l s and f o r l i k e l y f u t u r e l e v e l s , assuming t h e continuation of current trends.  The c o n s e q u e n c e s o f c u r r e n t a c t i v i t y  t y p e s and l e v e l s a r e d e t a i l e d i n s e c t i o n 4.3. T h i r d l y , a s s u m p t i o n s s h o u l d be made a b o u t t h e use o f broad  29 g u i d e l i n e s r e g a r d i n g use l e v e l s , a c t i v i t y d i s p o s a l o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n , activity priorities.  and  T h e s e would then be i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i s e d i n t h e  development of separate p o l i c y plans prepared I t has been s u g g e s t e d  for evaluation.  that these g u i d e l i n e s should  include  d e t a i l e d c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y l e v e l and a c t i v i t y z o n i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Both concepts  however c o n t a i n s e r i o u s p i t f a l l s .  b e h a v i o u r a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  Despite a vast accumulation  of  d a t a , t o g e t h e r w i t h s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s based  around t h i s d a t a , t h e r e r e m a i n s an a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l f a i l u r e t o i n c o r p o r a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o an o p e r a t i o n a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r m u l a f o r i n l a n d l a k e s ( L o f t u s . 1973).  I t i s not on t h i s p o i n t however t h a t the  author  declines to introduce carrying capacity considerations into p o l i c y plan d e v e l o p m e n t , because the p l a n n e r c a n n o t i g n o r e the f a c t t h a t o v e r c r o w d i n g s t i l l e x i s t s , w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grow, and i n some way must have s p e c i f i c l i m i t s p l a c e d upon i t . However, c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y s o c i o l o g i c a l ( r a t h e r than e n v i r o n m e n t a l )  c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , v a r i e s with  e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e c r e a t i o n a l demands o f the r e c r e a t o r and the o f the r e l e v a n t management agency. S e r v i c e l o c a t e s 8-10 3 campsites concerning  f a m i l y campsites  For example, the U.S. p e r a c r e , the U.S.  the  perceptions  National  Parks  Forest Service,  per acre, with n e i t h e r c a p a c i t y a c t u a l l y r e l a t e d to research v i s i t o r s a t i s f a c t i o n s , but r a t h e r to c o s t and  e f f i c i e n c y c r i t e r i o n (Bury. 1976).  I n s t e a d o f imposing  operational general  carrying  c a p a c i t y c r i t e r i a , i t would be b e t t e r to s e a r c h f o r the most l i m i t i n g o r s e n s i t i v e f a c t o r a t a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e , the one t h a t p r o d u c e s most d i f f i c u l t i e s o r the most s e r i o u s l o n g term c o n s e q u e n c e s , and r e l a t e the c r i t e r i a t o t h a t f a c t o r (Bury. 1976).  Thus o p t i m i s a t i o n would be u n i q u e a t each  30  s i t e , w i t h each one c a p a b l e o f b e i n g 'hardened' o r l e f t u n d e v e l o p e d as desired.  The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , and t o a c e r t a i n  e x t e n t , a c t i v i t y z o n i n g , t h e r e f o r e does n o t b e l o n g i n p o l i c y p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n , but a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l o f m a s t e r p l a n n i n g w i t h i n t h e ' g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s s e t by t h e p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y p l a n . F o u r t h l y , i n view o f the e s t a b l i s h e d g u i d e l i n e s , t h e  planner  would then c r e a t e a s e r i e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s , f o r example: 1. 2. 3.  A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f p r e s e n t use t y p e s , a c t i v i t y l e v e l s and management i n s t i t u t i o n s . A p o l i c y encouraging „ dispersion.  i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y , d e v e l o p m e n t and  A p o l i c y w i t h an emphasis on the p r o v i s i o n o f a d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t s and a c t i v i t y t y p e s .  Each o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s ( o r a t t i t u d i n a l s t a n c e s ) would c o n t a i n a number o f P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s and a l s o a s s o c i a t e d implement a r y mechanisms d e s i g n e d policy objectives.  t o e n s u r e the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the  The i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms i n v o l v e both  i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , and t h e mechanisms used by the  the appropriate  institutions: 1.  I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangements: a p p r o p r i a t e l e g a l c o n t r o l s , management systems and f i n a n c i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s .  2.  C o n t r o l Mechanisms: a p p r o p r i a t e p o l / i c i n g a c t i v i t y by a g e n c i e s o r p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s groups, r a t i o n i n g / r e g i s t r a t i o n systems and i n c e n t i v e s , both c o e r c i v e and noncoercive. 1  F i n a l l y , the l a k e - o r i e n t e d p o l i c y p l a n s , and t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t o b j e c t i v e s and mechanisms, would be s u b j e c t t o e v a l u a t i o n and  choice  a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n , i n o r d e r to j u d g e the r e l a t i v e s u i t a b i l i t y ( a c c o r d i n g t o one s e t o f v a l u e s ) o f a l t e r n a t i v e g o a l s , o r  combination  of goals, to which a given t r a c t of r e c r e a t i o n a l land could  be d e d i c a t e d .  32  FOOTNOTES ' B e h a v i o u r M o d i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x d e v e l o p e d from i d e a s g e n e r a t e d a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Dr. Susan B u t t - F i n n . A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , D e p a r t ment o f P s y c h o l o g y , U.B.C.  33 CHAPTER THREE:  RECREATION DEMANDS AND  POTENTIALS  No d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s has been made o f the e x a c t t r e n d s i n use l e v e l o r a c t i v i t y types i n the S t u d y A r e a r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t , and consequently  p r o j e c t i o n s o f f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n uses and use l e v e l s a r e  not l i k e l y t o be w h o l l y a c c u r a t e .  I t has however been assumed t h a t  demands f o r e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n types w i l l c o n t i n u e , and t h a t t h e y w i l l probably  continue  population 1961  increase in "Kamloops-Lillooet",  trends  for  namely 352 per c e n t between  and 2000 (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972), and t h a t f o r the Thompson-  N i c o l a Regional 1973)  t o r i s e a t l e a s t as f a s t as the e s t i m a t e d  D i s t r i c t o f 302 per c e n t between 1961  (see a p p e n d i x 1).  and 1966  (G.V.R.D.  The v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  demands, and the f a c i l i t i e s t h a t w i l l be a f f e c t e d by the  and  increasing  demand a r e g i v e n d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t i n the s e c t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w . S e c t i o n 3.1:  A n a l y s i s o f Study Area Recreational  Existing Recreation  Use and P a s t T r e n d s  Facilities  A summary o f the a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and use l e v e l s w i t h i n the S t u d y A r e a d u r i n g the summer o f 1975  (B.C. P a r k s .  Facility  Use  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s and Recreation Areas  Number 8  1976A).  (1975)  212,000 camper n i g h t s - u s e f i g u r e not w h o l l y a c c u r a t e as "camper n i g h t s " a r e n o t a f u n c t i o n o f v e h i c l e numbers, not i n d i v i d u a l r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , "camper n i g h t s " c a l c u l a t e d s u b t o t a l was c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g v e h i c l e a t t e n dance by f o u r . (B.C. P a r k s Data 1975) (see map 3.1) (see a p p e n d i x 9)  33a PROVINCIAL PARK FACILITIES. Map 3.1  N  -TO  \  { 1  .<f.  r f  DM  cK  - N  4  'A  (  5" \  MAP 3.1 PROVINCIAL PARK FACILITIES  ^  ^  ®  ^  O  ^ \^.^  Class A Park C  |  a  s  a  A  P  a  r  k  •  U  Recreation Area [ - ] Ecological Reserve  3  » °  n ,  y  ( Lands Branch)  ,> ( see appendix 8 f o r ) f a c i l i t y names ) <f 1  7  Source: B.C. Parks Branch  34 Use  Number  Faci1ity  (1975)  B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Recreation Developments  87  95,000 p e r s o n s ; t h i s use f i g u r e s h o u l d be viewed w i t h some c i r c u m s p e c t i o n , as i t i s based on i n t e r m i t t e n t v i s u a l e s t i m a t e s , r a t h e r than r e g u l a r m e c h a n i c a l c o u n t i n g . The use f i g u r e i s p r o bably a conservative estimate. (B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Data 1975) (see map 3.2) (see a p p e n d i x 4 ) .  Commercial Faci1ities  31  Use l e v e l s n o t o b t a i n a b l e , 3.3) (see a p p e n d i x 10)  Recreation  Highway Department Rest Stops  7  map  Use l e v e l s n o t o b t a i n a b l e , (see map 3.4) . The map does n o t i n c l u d e the numerous " d r i v e - o f f l o c a t i o n s t h a t a r e w i t h o u t f a c i l i t i e s . The Rest Stops t h a t a r e marked, a l t h o u g h i n t e n d e d o r i g i n a l l y f o r t e m p o r a r y d a y t i m e use, a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y under p r e s s u r e from o v e r - n i g h t campers. Use l e v e l s n o t o b t a i n a b l e . These f o u r areas are without formal maintenance or management, y e t t h e y a r e under p r e s s u r e s a t l e a s t as g r e a t as t h o s e a t t h e majority of Forest Service Recreation Developments, (see map 3.11) (see a p p e n d i x 11).  "Unincorporated" R e c r e a t i o n Areas  Current Recreational  (see  Activities  A l l but seven o f the one hundred and t h i r t y - e i g h t (138) noted above a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y l a k e s o r i e n t e d .  areas  The r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t  w i t h i n the s t u d y a r e a emphasises beach and w a t e r use, though i n a l e s s cosmopolitan  sense than t h a t i m p l i e d by beach r e c r e a t i o n on the Okanagan  and Shuswap Lakes.  The m a j o r i t y o f the f a c i l i t i e s , e v e n the commercial  r e s o r t s , l a y an heavy emphasis on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s p a c e f o r camper/ r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s , r a t h e r than on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s , The r e s u l t i n g a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s have tended t h e r e f o r e to l i m i t the S t u d y  34a B.C. FOREST SERVICE DEVELOPMENTS. Map 3.2  it  r  • i  \  MAP »  3.2 B.C. Forest Service Developments  Source: B.C. Forest Service  35" Area t o a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t r e c r e a t i o n s e a s o n , t h a t p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g and s p o r t f i s h i n g a r e f e a s i b l e . In some a r e a s t h e h u n t i n g season p r o v i d e s an e x t e n s i o n t o the season o f a p r i v a t e commercial  facilities.  few.of.the  In a d d i t i o n , e f f o r t s a r e b e i n g made t o  f u r t h e r y e a r - r o u n d a c t i v i t y w i t h the d e v e l o p m e n t o f : 1. 2. 3.  D o w n h i l l S k i i n g a t Le Jeune Lodge (see map 3.3 and appendix 10). C r o s s C o u n t r y S k i i n g a t Le Jeune Lodge and C o r b e t t Lake ( C o u n t r y Inn (see map 3.3 and appendix 10). W i n t e r f i s h i n g f o r E a s t e r n Brook T r o u t a t Trapp ( L . 6 8 ) , B l a c k (1.67) and McGlashan (L.66) Lakes t o the s o u t h e a s t o f Kamloops, and Edna Lake s o u t h o f M e r r i t t (see map 3.5).  Sport Fishing In 1971 Columbia,  t h e r e were .388 m i l l i o n f i s h e r m e n r e s i d e n t i n B r i t i s h  o r 18.3 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ( S i n c l a i r . 1972).  However, i n the K a m l o o p s - L i l l o o e t r e g i o n , the p e r c e n t a g e , a t 26.51 cent,was t h e h i g h e s t o f any i n l a n d r e g i o n ( t h i r d b e h i n d Powell S u n s h i n e C o a s t a t 37.0 per c e n t and Campbell c e n t ) ( S i n c l a i r 1972).  Furthermore,  per  River/  R i v e r / N a n a i m o w i t h 29.31  per  d u r i n g the 1969-70 s e a s o n , 24.31  per  c e n t o f the t o t a l f i s h i n g e f f o r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia  was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n  the Kamloops r e g i o n ; 70.4 p e r c e n t o f t h i s e f f o r t (measured i n a n g l e r d a y s ) b e i n g a t t r i b u t a b l e to n o n - l o c a l a n g l e r s (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972). Not o n l y a r e f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e s on the Study Area h i g h i n a b s o l u t e terms, but t h e y a r e a l s o r i s i n g at..rates s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n e x c e s s o f the r a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e as a whole.  Between 1963  1975 r e s i d e n t a n g l e r l i c e n c e p u r c h a s e s o u t o f Kamloops, M e r r i t t and P r i n c e t o n r o s e by 110 per c e n t .  Over the whole o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  and  35a  36 p u r c h a s e s r o s e by o n l y 72 p e r c e n t (see d i a g r a m 4.1).  This d i f f e r e n t i a l  i s even more n o t i c e a b l e i n terms o f a l l t y p e s o f n o n - r e s i d e n t l i c e n c e purchases.  W i t h i n the Study A r e a , p u r c h a s e s r o s e by 180 p e r c e n t ,  w h i l e p r o v i n c e w i d e r i s e was l i m i t e d t o 21 p e r c e n t ( s e e d i a g r a m  4.2).  The Study A r e a i s f o r t u n a t e i n t h a t i t c o n t a i n s what i s one o f the most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f rainbow t r o u t spawn i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Pennask Lake (L.27) p r o v i d e s the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch s t o c k i n g p r o g ram w i t h between  2% and 4 m i l l i o n rainbow t r o u t eggs each y e a r .  Many  o f t h e s e eggs p r o v i d e f o r the s t o c k i n g program i n t h e Study A r e a , which i n 1976 r e q u i r e d 743,000 f i s h .  A l l but f o u r o f the s e v e n t y t h r e e  'priority  l a k e s i n t h e Study A r e a ( s e e map 3.5) have been s t o c k e d a t l e a s t once w i t h rainbow t r o u t i n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s .  The e x c e p t i o n s b e i n g t h o s e l a k e s  now  b e i n g s t o c k e d w i t h e a s t e r n brook t r o u t f o r w i n t e r i c e f i s h i n g . The f i s h a r e d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e l a k e s on the b a s i s o f a P r i o t i t y R a t i n g (see map 3.6).  The a c t u a l number o f f i s h p l a c e d i n a l a k e and  t h a t l a k e ' s p r i o r i t y r a t i n g a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e n t .  However, the  r a t i n g , from 1 down t o 15 does i n d i c a t e l a k e use l e v e l s i n terms o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y , r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y , s t o c k i n g q u a n t i t y and the p r e s e n c e , n o t , o f a commercial  recreation facility.  Priority ratings, therefore, in  c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a c t u a l a r e a use l e v e l s , do p r o v i d e a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n o f the m a j o r f i s h i n g l a k e s w i t h i n t h e Study A r e a .  I t should  however be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , t o d a t e , the main d r i v e o f the s t o c k i n g program has been towards demand r e s p o n s e .  Many l a k e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e  most a c c e s s i b l e t o the m o t o r i s e d r e c r e a t i o n t s t , have been s t o c k e d s i m p l y t o keep :pace w i t h use l e v e l s , and have now become 'Put and Take' l a k e s .  36a HIGHWAYS DEPARTMENT REST STOPS. Map J>A  ( see appendix 10 f o r f a c i l i t y names )  37 Although  s t u d i e s ( S m i t h , H a l s e y , S t r i n g e r and Sparrow. 1969)  t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to c r e a t e an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  have i n d i c a t e d  related stocking  formula,  i t would seem t h a t s t o c k i n g p o l i c y s t i l l r e l a t e s i n the main t o human p r e s s u r e r a t h e r than t h e l a k e ' s n a t u r a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . Participation Data on use l e v e l s a t the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n have o n l y become a v a i l a b l e s i n c e 1971, when the program was inaugurated.  Developments formally  T h u s , no l o n g term c o m p a r i s o n i s p o s s i b l e w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n  l e v e l s a t P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s , nor w i t h use l e v e l s a t Commercial R e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , f o r w h i c h no use f i g u r e s were o b t a i n a b l e d u r i n g study period.  the  F u r t h e r m o r e the f i g u r e s t h a t were p r o v i d e d by the F o r e s t  S e r v i c e as e s t i m a t e s o f use a t t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s were s i m p l y that-estimates.  Use l e v e l s a r e c a l c u l a t e d on a w e e k l y , o r f o r t - n i g h t l y ,  b a s i s by t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e m a i n t e n a n c e p e r s o n n e l , who  r e l a t e estimated  use to the q u a n t i t y o f garbage c o l l e c t e d and v i s i b l e e v i d e n c e o f e n v i r o n mental i m p a c t .  However, r e c o g n i s i n g t h e s e f a l i b i l i t i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to  say t h a t use l e v e l s f o r t h e summer months o f 1975 r e a c h e d a l i t t l e 200,000 camper n i g h t s " a t t h e 8 P r o v i n c i a l Park F a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n  over the  Study A r e a and a l i t t l e under 100,000 camper n i g h t s a t the 87 B.C. 3 1 S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments '  (B.C. • Parks.*! 1975A).  I t i s p o s s i b l e to s u r m i s e from the B.C. diagrams 3.7 and 3.8)  Forest  P a r k s B r a n c h f i g u r e s (see  t h a t s i n c e 1969 P r o v i n c i a l Park a t t e n d a n c e  within  t h e S t u d y A r e a has i n c r e a s e d a t a s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r r a t e than i n as a whole.  T h i s would a l s o be the c a s e f o r the F o r e s t S e r v i c e  B.C.  Recreation  37a FISH AND WILDLIFE ,STOCKING PRIORITY. Map 3-5  o ft ©  o  1  MAP 3.5 F I S H & W I L D L I F E \ STOCKING PRIORTY Priority 1 Q O  Priority  2  Priority  3  Source: B.C. F i s h And W i l d l i f e Branch  »  i  )  38 Development use l e v e l s ; i f i t i s assumed t h a t an h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development u s e r s a r e l o c a l V i s i t o r s from the Lower M a i n l a n d and Vancouver  fishermen. I s l a n d , whose  primary v a c a t i o n d e s t i n a t i o n i s f u r t h e r i n l a n d , form the l a r g e s t proport i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the a r e a ' s t r a n s i e n t r e c r e a t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks system w i t h the Study A r e a a p p e a r s t o be u t i l i s e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e s e non-locals.  Residents o f the f o u r lower Mainland Regional  Districts  o c c u p i e d , d u r i n g 1975, an a v e r a g e 56 per c e n t o f a l l camper s i t e s  (B.C.  P a r k s . 1975A), and n o n - r e s i d e n t s ( f r o m the r e s t o f Canada and the U.S.A.) a c c o u n t e d f o r c l o s e t o 24 p e r c e n t o f a l l o c c u p i e d s i t e s (B.C. 1975B).  Parks.  O n l y about 7.6 p e r c e n t o f camper n i g h t s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g  1975  i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s a t O t t e r Lake ( L . 3 4 ) , A l l i s o n Lake ( L . 4 0 ) , Bromley Rock and Monck Park ( t h e o n l y P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the Study A r e a a t which campers were, i n 1975, c h a r g e d a n i g h t l y f e e o f $2) (see map 3.1), were due t o use by r e s i d e n t s o f t h e Thompson-Nicola Okanagan-Similkameen R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s (B.C. P a r k s . 1975A).  and  It is likely  t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s accommodate the t r a n s i e n t m a r k e t , n o t o n l y because t h e y t e n d to be more a c c e s s i b l e and c o n v e n i e n t , but a l s o because the n o n - l o c a l m i g h t p r e f e r the known q u a l i t y / q u a n t i t y o f the P a r k s f a c i l i t y t o the unknown commercial  camping ground o r the more p r i m i t i v e  F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development.  L o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o however c o n -  s t i t u t e between 20 and 25 per c e n t o f d a y - u s e r s a t Lac Le Jeune  (L.48)  P r o v i n c i a l Park (B.C. P a r k s . 1973A), i n which day use i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e d a l m o s t 40 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l  attendance.  The l a r g e number o f p r i v a t e c a m p s i t e s i n t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n s e c t i o n o f the Okanagan a r e a a r e v i r t u a l l y empty on many n i g h t s , w h i l e the  Bromley  38a FISH AND WILDLIFE STOCKING LOCATIONS. Map 3»6  39 Rock and Stemwinder campgrounds a r e more than 100 per c e n t f u l l P a r k s . 1973B) (see map  3.1).  T h i s phenomenon was a l s o noted  the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d a t Monte Lake.  (B.C.  during  The P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t y  was  more than f u l l t o c a p a c i t y , w h i l e B l u e M o u n t a i n Park and Nex-Door Camps i t e s i n immediate p r o x i m i t y to the government d e v e l o p m e n t were, t o a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , empty, The B.C.  (see map  3.1 and  3.3).  F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments (see map  3.2),  as a r e s u l t o f l o c a l knowledge and an h i g h e r s e n s i t i v i t y amongst l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o crowding w i t h i n t h e i r 'own  area!, a r e u t i l i s e d to a much  h i g h e r d e g r e e by r e s i d e n t s o f the S t u d y A r e a ( a l t h o u g h residence  1  by n o n - l o c a l s was  i n e v i d e n c e on B.C.  'permanent  Forest Service  R e c r e a t i o n Developments a t Tunkua Lake ( L . 1 3 ) , Roche Lake (L44) Kentucky Lake ( L . 0 6 ) ) .  In t h e Okanagan-Simi1kameen R e g i o n a l  and  District  l o c a l r e s i d e n t s c o n s t i t u t e a l m o s t 40 p e r c e n t o f Crown Land Users P a r k s . 1973B). Kamloops-Selkirk  In the Logan Lake a r e a (see map  (B.C.  1.1), t h i s f i g u r e ( f o r  l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ) i n c r e a s e s t o 43 per c e n t , around  M e r r i t t i t i s up to 52 per c e n t (B.C. P a r k s . 1973A).  I t i s assumed t h a t  'Crown Land Use' can be c l o s e l y equated w i t h F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development use, because the b u l k o f Crown Land r e c r e a t i o n a l use i n the summer i s o r i e n t e d t o the l a k e a s s o c i a t e d F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments.  In the f a l l h u n t i n g tends n o t t o be so n a r r o w l y  Maps 3.9 and 3.10  confined.  g i v e a v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f use l e v e l s a t  t h o s e a r e a s managed by t h e Parks Branch and t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e w h i c h a r e under the g r e a t e s t r e c r e a t i o n use p r e s s u r e s . than 100 i n d i v i d u a l s i n 1975  is featured.  Each a r e a usedc. by more  I t s h o u l d however be emphasised  39a Diagram 3.7  P R O V I N C I A L IN  C A M P E R  P A R K N I G H T S  A T T E N D A N C E P E R  A N N U M  C A M P E R NIGHTS ATTENDANCE  A  / / A  //  \  \4  /  // MO N CK L E JEUNE  5000 A  /  ALLISON BROMLEY :» M O N T E LK OTTER LK" YEAR  1963  Source>  1965  B.C. Provincial Parks Branch  1967  —  1969  1971  1  1973  1  1975  40 a g a i n t h a t t h e B.C.  Forest S e r v i c e f i g u r e s are of questionable  and a r e p r o b a b l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e s .  accuracy  In s e v e r a l c a s e s t h e use l e v e l  e l l i p s e does not c o v e r one, but s e v e r a l l a k e s ; f o r example, D a v i s Boss ( L . 0 9 ) / T h a l a l a k e s , o r the Lundbom/Marquart (L.05) l a k e s which t o g e t h e r c r e a t e s i n g l e r e c r e a t i o n a l l o c a l e s . an ' u n i n c o r p o r a t e d '  (L.10)/  groupings,  Stump Lake ( L . 4 3 ) .  r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , w i t h o u t any f o r m a l management, i s  i n c l u d e d on the F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development use l e v e l map 3.10).  I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h i s l a k e has a  (map  p r o b a b l e annual minimum use  l e v e l o f between 5,000 and 10,000 i n d i v i d u a l s ; an e s t i m a t e based on c o m p a r i s o n w i t h p e r c e i v e d l e v e l s o f use a t the o t h e r F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a s f o r w h i c h o f f i c i a l , though n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a c c u r a t e , e s t i m a t e s were available. S e c t i o n 3.2:  A n a l y s i s of Study Area Recreation P o t e n t i a l s  The Canada Land I n v e n t o r y o f R e c r e a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y i n the S t u d y A r e a s u g g e s t s t h a t the a r e a has o n l y m o d e r a t e p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c reation.  T h e r e a r e no C l a s s 1 o r 2 a r e a s c l a s s i f i e d , a n d o n l y 20 o f the  a r e a ' s l a k e s a r e f r o n t e d by a r e a s w a r r a n t i n g a C l a s s 3 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (moderately However,  h i g h ) , w i t h some 30 i n the C l a s s 4 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( h i g h ) . i n a d d i t i o n t o l a k e s a l r e a d y i n c l u d e d i n the F i s h and W i l d l i f e  s t o c k i n g program, t h e r e a r e 33 l a k e s c l a s s i f i e d as ' P o t e n t i a l F i s h e r i e s ' (see f o o t n o t e 3.1).  P r e s u m a b l y t h e r e f o r e the S t u d y A r e a d e m o n s t r a t e s  some c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r e x p a n s i o n Furthermore,  as a s p o r t f i s h i n g r e g i o n .  the Thompson P l a t e a u i s w i t h i n easy d r i v i n g d i s t a n c e o f the  p r o v i n c e ' s main p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , i t i s open t o camper v e h i c l e t r a f f i c , and would a p p e a r t o be well s u i t e d to  b o a t i n g and  fishing,  40a  Diagram 3.8 PROVINCIAL PARK ATTENDANCE DAY VISITS PER ANNUM DAY VISITOR 60000  50000  ATTENDANCE N o t e . T h e s e figures d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a t r u e picture as recording techniques a n d survey p e r i o d s v a r y f r o m p a r k t o p a r k a n d year to year.  40000H  300O0-]  20000 LE  JEUNE  /  BROMLEY SAVONA MONCK MONTE ALLISON  10000  /  < /  /  A  /  \  /  /  ._^:...\-  V  •  \ '.... v  > ^  YEAR 1963  1065  1997  1969  1971  — 1  1973  PROVINCIAL PARK ATTENDANCE DAY VISITS & CAMPER NIGHTS (PERCENT CHANGE FROM 1963 BASE) X CHANGE 150-J  Total B . C . A t t e n d a n c e Total A t t e n d a n c e for P e n n a s k , A l l i s o n , B r o m l e y Otter L k , L e J e u n e , M o n c k , M o n t e & S a v o n a 100  50  1963 S o u r c e . B . C . Parks Branch  1967  1969  1973  41 t o g e t h e r w i t h beach use. i n some o f t h e l o w e r , s h a l l o w e r l a k e s .  I t would  a l s o a p p e a r t o be m o d e r a t e l y r e s i l i e n t t o t h e i m p a c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e . I t has been f o u n d t h a t i n most U.S. and C a n a d i a n P a r k s some f o r m o f w a t e r body p r o v e d t o be t h e most c r i t i c a l s i n g l e f a c t o r used o r e n j o y e d by 70-80 p e r c e n t o f park v i s i t o r s ( M a t t y a s o r s k y . 1968). f i n d i n g has been v e r i f i e d f o r w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i n C a l i f o r n i a 1975).  This  (McKillop.  By 1980 Stream and Lake Use may w e l l be .the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e  a t t r a c t i o n t o many p a r t s o f t h e S t u d y A r e a (B.C. P a r k s 1973A).  At the  same t i m e t h e i n c r e a s i n g development o f o f f - s e a s o n a t t r a c t i o n s , h u n t i n g , s t e e l h e a d f i s h i n g , i c e - f i s h i n g , snow-mobiling.and s k i i n g , both d o w n - h i l l and c r o s s - c o u n t r y , a r e a d d i n g t o t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e S t u d y A r e a as a major r e c r e a t i o n a l f o c u s (B.C.I.D.,T. and C. 1972).  Undoubtedly tourism  i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a major i n c e n t i v e t o economic growth. These p o t e n t i a l s a r e f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by o n g o i n g programs d e v e l o p e d under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , t h a t have been d e s i g n e d t o upgrade t h e f i s h e r i e s e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n the Study A r e a .  In r e c o g n i t i o n o f g r o w i n g use p r e s s u r e s on t h o s e l a k e s  open t o t h e m o t o r i s e d r e c r e a t i o n i s t , t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n Kamloops has i n i t i a t e d a program o f l a k e s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and a e r a t i o n , which i n 1976 was i n o p e r a t i o n a t seven l a k e s w i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a . The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program i n v o l v e s t h e i n i t i a l removal o f a l l f i s h i n the' d e s i g n a t e d l a k e ( u s i n g f i s h s p e c i f i c p o i s o n ) , i t s e v e n t u a l r e - s t o c k i n g and, i f n e c e s s a r y , t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f a e r a t i o n equipment.  According to  John C a r t w r i g h t , F i s h e r i e s B i o l o g i s t w i t h t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h i n Kamloops, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t h e most s u c c e s s f u l program t h a t t h e Branch  PROVINCIAL PARK Map 3.9  41a  USE.  S o u r c e : B.C.  Parks  Branch  42 has.  A e r a t i o n i s s t i l l v e r y much i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  stage.  t e c h n i c a l l y v i a b l e , and works v e r y w e l l i n c e r t a i n l a k e s .  It is  However, i n  the p a s t a e r a t i o n has depended upon d i e s e l o r e l e c t r i c c o m p r e s s o r s , a r e e x p e n s i v e i n both c a p i t a l and m a i n t e n a n c e terms ( a l t h o u g h compressors Lake).  which  such  a r e i n use a t t h e C o r b e t t Lake C o u n t r y Inn t o a e r a t e C o r b e t t  F i s h and W i l d l i f e a r e now e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h wind d r i v e n compres-  s o r s and p o n d m i l l s . A t t h e same time F i s h and W i l d l i f e have e s t a b l i s h e d t h r e e programs t h a t a r e i n t e n d e d t o c r e a t e a w i d e r range o f f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and an higher q u a l i t y o f sport f i s h i n g . 1. ' Q u a l i t y A n g l i n g L a k e s ' : Area.  These programs a r e : o f w h i c h t h e r e a r e two i n t h e Study  B l u e Lake, s i t u a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y  t o t h e n o r t h - e a s t o f P e t e r Hope  Lake ( L . 0 1 ) , and I s l a n d Lake t o t h e s o u t h west o f t h e Lornex Mine i n t h e Highland V a l l e y .  On t h e s e l a k e s F i s h and W i l d l i f e have imposed r e g u l a t i o n s  r e s t r i c t i n g t h e f i s h e r m a n t o s i n g l e , n o n - o r g a n i c a l l y b a i t e d , hook use and two f i s h c a t c h l i m i t .  The i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e s e c o n t r o l s , and p o s s i b l y a l s o  a motor ban, s h o u l d p r e v e n t o v e r - f i s h i n g and a l l o w t h e growth o f 'Trophy  1  sized fish. 2. " F l y F i s h i n g Only L a k e s ' : o f w h i c h t h e r e a r e now t h r e e i n t h e Study A r e a , P e t e r Hope ( L . 0 1 ) , Salmon (L.22) and Pennask (L.27) l a k e s . R e g u l a t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e imposed upon t h e ' Q u a l i t y A n g l i n g  Lakes',  but t h e c a t c h l i m i t remains a t e i g h t p e r day. 3.  W i n t e r I c e F i s h i n g d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h t h e s t o c k i n g o f Mc  G l a s h a n ( L . 6 6 ) , B l a c k ( L . 6 7 ) , T r a p p (L.68.) and Edna (L.72) l a k e s ( s e e map 3.5) w i t h E a s t e r n Brook T r o u t .  FOREST SERVICE RECREATION DEVELOPMENT USE. Map 3.10  42a  M A P 3 J 0 F 0 R E S T SERVICE RECREATION DEVELOPMENT USE  S o u r c e : B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e  43 In a d d i t i o n John C a r t w r i g h t m e n t i o n e d t h a t F i s h ~ a n d W i l d l i f e were aware o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r ' H i k e - i n O n l y ' l a k e s and were s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g B l a c k w e l l Lake (L.64) f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y .  Through  t h e use o f such programs S p o r t F i s h i n g remains t h e major r e c r e a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n i n the Study A r e a .  I f i t i s t o c o n t i n u e as s u c h , the q u a l i t y  and d i v e r s i t y o f t h e f i s h i n g r e s o u r c e s h o u l d be both improved and extended.  I t s h o u l d a l s o be c u s h i o n e d a g a i n s t growing use p r e s s u r e s .  T h e r e does however remain a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i n t h a t t h e s e programs a r e only optional.  T h e i r c r e a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r e n o t p a r t o f o f f i c i a l  F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch p o l i c y but depend on t h e whim and i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e r e g i o n a l o f f i c e r s , and as a r e s u l t t h e r e m a y be i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  between  different regions. I t would a p p e a r t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o the p o t e n t i a l f o r  improvement,  the Study A r e a a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s a p o t e n t i a l f o r d e c l i n e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  Between 1966 and 1980 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f  ' K a m l o o p s - L i l l o o e t ' was e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e a t a r o u n d 6.3 p e r c e n t p e r annum (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1972), t h a t f o r t h e Thompson-Nicola R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , between 1966 and 1981, a t around 8.1 p e r c e n t p e r annum (G.V.R.D. 1973).  However t h e s e e s t i m a t e s do o v e r s t a t e the p o s i t i o n .  i n c r e a s e f o r the Thompson-Nicola  The r a t e o f  Regional D i s t r i c t d e c l i n e d d u r i n g the  s e v e n t i e s , between 1971 and 1976 i t s p o p u l a t i o n r o s e f r o m 75,754 t o 90,294, a t an a v e r a g e o f 3.6 p e r c e n t p e r annum. 1976).  (Statistics  Canada  The p o p u l a t i o n o f Kamloops, a f t e r a d j u s t m e n t f o r m u n i c i p a l  boundary changes r o s e from 46,765 t o 57,241, a t an a v e r a g e o f 3.6 p e r c e n t p e r annum, w h i l e t h a t o f Okanagan-Similkameen  Regional D i s t r i c t  43a 'UNINCORPORATED' 'RECREATION AREAS. Map 3.11  MAP See  appendix  ll  for f a c i l i t y n a m e )  3.11  "fa Unincorporated' Recreation Areas  44 between 1971 Canada).  and 1976,  a l s o r o s e by 3.6 p e r c e n t p e r annum ( S t a t i s t i c s  However the p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole i n c r e a s e d  from 2.184  m i l l i o n t o 2.406 m i l l i o n d u r i n g the same p e r i o d , an i n c r e a s e  o f 9 p e r c e n t o r 1.8 p e r c e n t per annum.  It i s evident therefore that  p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s i n t h e S t u d y A r e a , d e s p i t e d e c l i n e i n growth e x p e c t a t i o n s , s t i l l o u t s t r i p t h o s e f o r the P r o v i n c e ,  (see a p p e n d i x 1)  In view o f t h e s e growth p r e s s u r e s , as w e l l as the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t i n g growth from the non r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n s e c t o r , i t would n o t seem u n l i k e l y t h a t the h i s t o r i c d e c l i n e e v i d e n c e i n r e c o r d s 3  2  o f s p o r t f i s h i n g q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e w i l l c o n t i n u e ' in t h e f u t u r e .  Increased a c c e s s i b i l i t y to lakes, f u r t h e r o v e r s t o c k i n g ,  f o o d k i l l from o u t b o a r d motor g e n e r a t e d o i l f i l m and h a b i t a t d i s t u r b a n c e ( Y o n s e f f . 1974)  a r e a l l l i k e l y to cause a q u a l i t a t i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  I n e v i t a b l y p r e s s u r e s o f t h e s p o r t f i s h i n g e n v i r o n m e n t have c o n t r i b u t e d to what many e x p e r t f l y f i s h e r m e n , r e s i d e n t w i t h i n the S t u d y Area  and  i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g t h e f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d , c l a i m t o be a marked d e c l i n e in f i s h i n g q u a l i t y a t a l l but t h e most i s o l a t e d l a k e s .  D e c l i n e not o n l y  in f i s h i n g q u a l i t y , but a l s o i n the ambient q u a l i t y o f the t o t a l r e c r e a tional experience.  This d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s apparently not r e a l l y s i g -  n i f i c a n t i n terms o f 'meat p r o d u c t i o n and so i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y o b v i o u s to the i n t e r m i t t e n t o r t r a n s i e n t f i s h e r m a n .  I t i s however e v i d e n t t o the  ' t r o p h y ' f i s h e r m a n who would be c o n c e r n e d w i t h q u a l i t y r a t h e r than quantity. H u n t i n g w i t h i n the S t u d y A r e a has a l s o undergone a q u a n t i t a t i v e decline.  The b i g game s t o c k s have f a l l e n , as has the h a r v e s t , t h e number  45 of g u i d e s and t h e number o f n o n - r e s i d e n t h u n t e r s (B.C. I.P.A. 1976).  The  l a s t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s however may be t h e r e s u l t e q u a l l y o f F i s h and W i l d l i f e l i c e n c i n g p o l i c y , and o f h u n t i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n . Other elements of the r e c r e a t i o n a l environment are a l s o i n danger o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  D u r i n g t h e summer months most f a c i l i t i e s  o p e r a t e a t c a p a c i t y , y e t i t may be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y heavy use w i l l be made  o f beach f a c i l i t i e s a t P a u l L a k e , L a c Le Jeune (L.48)  and N i c o l a Lake (L.04) i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y o f Kamloops P a r k s 1973A).  (.B.C  I n c r e a s e d encroachment by a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s '; '  may make many l a k e s , t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y l i t t l e u s e d , open t o a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f a growing p u b l i c and f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e t h e e x p r e s s e d demand f o r S t r e a m and Lake Use (B.C. P a r k s . 1973A).  C o t t a g i n g has y e t t o have a  s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t upon t h e S t u d y A r e a , y e t i t i s now an o b j e c t o f cont r o v e r s y a t Lac Le Jeune ( L . 4 8 ) , Stump Lake ( L . 4 3 ) , G l i m p s e Lake (1.02) and o t h e r s .  C o t t a g i n g , u n l e s s c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d and regulated',-;is.  l i a b l e t o have an i n c r e a s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t i n t h e f u t u r e . Thus t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t s and a d e c l i n e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i s e v e r on t h e r i s e . T h e r e i s e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e s on t h e r e s o u r c e base f r o m i n d u s t r i a l , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n demands w i l l c o n t i n u e t o  grow  (B.C.I.P.A. 1976); i t may soon become n e c e s s a r y t o implement s t r o n g c o n t r o l s i f d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s n o t t o c o n t i n u e (B.C.I.D., T. and C. 1971). S e c t i o n 3.3:  The T r a g e d y o f t h e Commons  Adam S m i t h ' s ' i n v i s i b l e hand' does n o t e x i s t t o ' l e a d t h e i n d i v i d u a l  46iintending to promote o n l y h i s own interest'.  Individual  e n t i r e society,-yet  decisions  good, to i n f a c t promote the are not the b e s t d e c i s i o n s  i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l  not i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s ,  public's  for  the  e n v i r o n m e n t i t i s more o f t e n  both o f the r e c r e a t i o n i s t and the  recreation  e n t r e p r e n e u r (both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ) , t h a t c o l o u r r e c r e a t i o n a l and d e c i s i o n making.  As a r e s u l t , o v e r c r o w d e d r e c r e a t i o n  than  activity  environments,  o f w h i c h the S t u d y A r e a i s an example, are prone to d e m o n s t r a t i n g , w i t h v i v i d c l a r i t y , the T r a g e d y o f the Commons as d e s c r i b e d  in Garrett  Hardin's  i n f l u e n t i a l e s s a y ( H a r d i n . 1968). Under c o n d i t i o n s  o f s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y , the r a t i o n a l herdsman ( r e c -  r e a t i o n i s t ) s e e k s to maximise h i s p e r s o n a l g a i n . received  The p o s i t i v e  utility  by the a d d i t i o n o f j u s t one animal ( m o t o r c y c l e , b o a t , camper,  e t c . ) goes d i r e c t l y to the herdsman ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t ) .  However, i n c o n -  d i t i o n s o f o v e r c r o w d i n g the n e g a t i v e u t i l i t y c a u s e d by a l l the herdsmen ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ) a d d i n g e x t r a a n i m a l s ( m o t o r c y c l e s , b o a t s , campers,  etc.)  l e a d s to o v e r g r a z i n g ( o v e r - f i s h i n g ,  and  w i l l be s p r e a d apparent  -crowding, -woodcutting, e t c . ) ,  e q u a l l y between a l l the herdsmen ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ) .  i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i v e u t i l i t y g a i n seems, a t l e a s t i n the  The initial  s t a g e s , to o u t w e i g h the n e g a t i v e u t i l i t y which w i l l be a v e r a g e d out amongst a l l the herdsmen ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ) .  Hence each man  s y s t e m t h a t compels him to i n c r e a s e  his herd ( r e c r e a t i o n a l  without l i m i t .  The  i n d i v i d u a l may  b e n e f i t t h r o u g h some p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s t a r t i n g to s u f f e r .  i s locked into a consumption)  c o n t i n u e to a c h i e v e a m a r g i n a l g a i n even though s o c i e t y , as a w h o l e ,  The p u r s u i t o f i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m w i l l  i n e v i t a b l y to community r u i n .  lead  The s i t u a t i o n i s d o u b l y c o m p l i c a t e d because  47  the herdsman ( r e c r e a t i o n i s t ) w i l l t e n d n o t t o back o u t o f t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g commons ( r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t ) , b e c a u s e he r e a l i s e s t h a t h i s e x i t w i l l i n f a c t b e n e f i t t h o s e who r e m a i n , as t h e q u a l i t a t i v e d e c l i n e would be t e m p o r a r i l y  h a l t e d by h i s d e p a r t u r e .  I t i s o f c o u r s e r e a l i s e d t h a t e v e r y new e n c l o s u r e  o f "the  commons ( i m p o s i t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l c o n t r o l s ) may i n v o l v e t h e i n f r i n g e ment o f somebody's p e r s o n a l  l i b e r t y , b u t a t t h e same t i m e , as Hegel  put i t , 'freedom i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f n e c e s s i t y ' .  The i n d e p e n d e n t  working o f the conscience,  conscience,  whether i t i s a p e r s o n a l  t i c u l a r agency o r s e c t o r c o n s c i e n c e ,  i s n o t enough.  a par-  The a c h i e v e m e n t  o f t h e f u l l p o t e n t i a l o f a g i v e n e n v i r o n m e n t must i n v o l v e c o n t r o l s , t a t i o n s and i n t e r - g r o u p  cooperation.  limi-  48  FOOTNOTES 3 1 ' I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n Kamloops. 3 2 ' I n f o r m a t i o n on h i s t o r i c d e c l i n e o f B.C. Most f i s h i n g q u a l i t y was g a t h e r e d d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C h r i s Houston, g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Animal Resource E c o l o g y , U.B.C.  49 CHAPTER FOUR: CURRENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND PROBLEMS I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o p r o v i d e a rough s k e t c h o f t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e two most i n f l u e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n ' " management a g e n c i e s i n t h e Study A r e a , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Parks b r a n c h and F o r e s t S e r v i c e .  The  F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d here as i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e i r management a p p r o a c h was d e s c r i b e d f u l l y i n c h a p t e r 3.  T h e s e two s k e t c h e s  w i l l be f o l l o w e d by f i v e s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a c t u a l p l a n s o r p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s t h a t have been p r o d u c e d o r d i s c u s s e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o a r e a s w i t h i n o r c l o s e t o t h e Thompson P l a t e a u . A c r i t i q u e , based upon c h a p t e r 3's C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n , w i l l be made o f a l l seven management o r p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s i n s e c t i o n 4.2, and t h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e m a j o r problems  found  t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e Study A r e a d u r i n g t h e f i e l d t r i p p e r i o d (B.C. P a r k s . 1976A). S e c t i o n 4:1 C u r r e n t Management A p p r o a c h e s . B.C. P a r k s Branch. The P a r k s Branch h a s , as w i t h v i r t u a l l y e v e r y o t h e r n o n - e x t r a c t i v e r e s o u r c e management agency, t h e p r o b l e m o f m u l t i p l e p r i o r i t i e s . . . . Parks Branch i s g i v e n a u t h o r i t y o v e r Crown r i g h t s i n Parks A r e a s , N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s w i t h i n Park A r e a s , W i l d l i f e and h a b i t a t s i n p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s ; p r e s e r v a t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t and u s e ; r e g u l a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s u s i n g o r e x p l o i t i n g t h e park. (B.C. P a r k s A c t . S e c t i o n 2. S t a t u t e s o f B.C. 1973)  Revised  50 I t i s the c o n t r a d i c t i o n expressed  by the need f o r both  v a t i o n and use t h a t c r e a t e s t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s .  preser-  Should  outdoor  r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s be ' p r e s e r v e d , and hence i m p l i c i t l y r e q u i r e a t l e a s t 1  some c u r t a i l m e n t o f use, o r be d e v e l o p e d  to c a t e r t o r i s i n g demands and  t h e r e b y i n e v i t a b l y undergo some e n v i r o n m e n t a l  deterioration?  Which i s  more v a l u a b l e , the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f c u r r e n t demand, o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o p t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . The P r o v i n c i a l Parks Branch r e c o g n i s e s the need f o r  environmental  p r e s e r v a t i o n , i n t h a t i t i s the aim o f the Parks B r a n c h t o e n s u r e  that  a t l e a s t one u n d i s t u r b e d , o r n e a r u n d i s t u r b e d , example o f each o f the p r o v i n c e ' s ' N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Themes' i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a P r o v i n c i a l Park o f C l a s s A s t a n d a r d o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t (B.C. P a r k s . 1973A).  Now  that  most o f the 'Themes' a r e i n c l u d e d and t h e Parks B r a n c h ' s ' e x p l o r a t o r y ' , a c q u i s i t i v e growth phase i s s l o w i n g down, c o n s e r v a t i o n needs may t a k i n g a back s e a t to r e c r e a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s .  start  P o l i c i e s may i n c r e a s i n g l y  emphasise the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c demands ( w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g the n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s o f park a r e a s f o r the employment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s )  (B.C. Rec. and Con.  1975).  To meet t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h e Parks B r a n c h p r e d i c t p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l n e e d s , e v a l u a t e the p o t e n t i a l park a r e a s , recommend the a c q u i s i t i o n a r e a s f o r park use, and d e v e l o p park management both p u b l i c demands and park c a p a b i l i t i e s .  must examine and c a p a b i l i t i e s of of appropriate plans to s a t i s f y  (B.C. Rec. and Con. 1975.  p.  67) 4 1  The p a r k s s y s t e m i s d i v i d e d between t h r e e main park W i t h i n the p a r k s system a t w h i c h annual a t t e n d a n c e  types.  p a s s e d the 10 m i l l i o n  51 mark i n 1974: 1.  C l a s s A.  Parks - t h e backbone o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s  System e m p h a s i s i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o u t s t a n d i n g historical  areas o f p r o v i n c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n , C l a s s A Parks e n j o y t h e  natural, scenic or  Intended p r i m a r i l y f o r  highest degree o f environ-  mental p r o t e c t i o n and a l l o t h e r r e s o u r c e uses a r e p r o h i b i t e d w i t h i n their  boundaries. 2.  C l a s s B. Parks - i n t e n d e d t o p r o t e c t n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s and  a t t r a c t i o n s w i t h a p r i m a r y emphasis on r e c r e a t i o n .  However, o t h e r  r e s o u r c e uses a r e p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n t h e park b o u n d a r i e s ,  i f , i n the  judgement o f t h e M i n i s t e r , t h e y do n o t damage r e c r e a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . The C l a s s B s t a t u s i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g phased o u t and i s now seen p r i m a r i l y as an h o l d i n g d e v i c e p r i o r t o r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o C l a s s A. 3.  C l a s s C. Parks - t h e s e a r e g e n e r a l l y s m a l l parks i n t e n d e d f o r  use by l o c a l communities and a r e g r a d u a l l y b e i n g t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e Regional  Districts:  T h i s s t a t u s group may a l s o i n c l u d e i n t e n s i v e  r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , as i n t h e c a s e o f t h e S i l v e r S t a r S k i A r e a , n e a r Vernon. T h e s e t h r e e s t a t u s groups may a l l be d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f sub-categories.  F o r example, c a t e g o r y 1 i n d i c a t e s an emphasis on t h e  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r atmosphere, environment o r ecosystem. Category  3 i n d i c a t e s an emphasis on o f f e r i n g enjoyment, c o n v e n i e n c e and  c o m f o r t t o t h e t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c and c a t e g o r y 5 o f f e r s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o participate in a specific recreational activity.  The s y s t e m i s broken  52 down on a p r o v i n c e wide b a s i s as f o l l o w s : Type Class A Class B Class C Recreation Areas Wilderness Conservancy  Number 248 6 66 18  Acerage 5.198m 3.321m .027m .561m .325m 9.432m ( D o o l i n g . 1975B)  In t h e S t u d y A r e a , s i x o f t h e e i g h t P r o v i n c i a l Park f a c i l i t i e s are C l a s s A c a m p s i t e s ( s e e map 3.1) c a t e r i n g l a r g e l y t o t h e t r a n s i e n t . Of t h e two r e m a i n i n g ,  one, Savona, i s a C l a s s A day u s e o n l y  and one, Pennask Lake, i s a R e c r e a t i o n A r e a . any way c o n s i d e r e d  facility,  The c a m p s i t e s a r e n o t i n  t o be d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t s , and t h e r e f o r e f a l l  very  c l o s e t o t h e commercial camping f a c i l i t i e s i n terms o f m a r k e t c a t c h m e n t group.  T h i s poses problems s i n c e i t i s t h e d e c l a r e d aim o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l  Parks Branch t o r e f r a i n from c o m p e t i t i o n  when a p r i v a t e f a c i l i t y c o u l d  not r e a l i s t i c a l l y compete w i t h a government f a c i l i t y : . . . t h e Branch s h o u l d c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y r e t a i n a p r i m i t i v e atmosphere i n i t s c a m p s i t e s p r o v i d i n g o n l y t h e b a s i c f a c i l i t i e s and r e s i s t i n g t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o o v e r d e v e l o p s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e park . . . i f t h i s p o l i c y i s f o l l o w e d , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w i l l e x i s t between .the t y p e o f c a m p s i t e p r o v i d e d by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and t h a t p r o v i d e d by t h e Branch . . . i n t h i s way t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c h o i c e s open t o t h e p u b l i c w i l l be maximised. (B.C.  Parks. 1973A)  53 B.C.  Forest Service The F o r e s t S e r v i c e t a k e s the p o s i t i o n t h a t f o r e s t s s h o u l d  be  managed t o p r o v i d e the f u l l range o f goods and s e r v i c e s d e s i r e d from them. Under t h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f '''Integrated Use' the S e r v i c e i s i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g f r o m the l a n d b a s e , b e n e f i t s in a d d i t i o n to timber.  I t i s a l s o aware o f the need t o i n t e g r a t e the  v a r i o u s p o t e n t i a l uses so t h a t t h e y i n t e r f e r e w i t h each o t h e r as  little  as p o s s i b l e , w i t h due r e g a r d t o t h e i r v a r i o u s o r d e r s o f i m p o r t a n c e t o the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n d i f f e r e n t management a r e a s .  Thus the F o r e s t  S e r v i c e o f f i c i a l l y a t t e m p t s t o complement, r a t h e r than compete w i t h  the  aims and p r i o r i t i e s o f o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n management a g e n c i e s . F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments a r e i n t e n d e d t o be i n f o r mal and low key, w i t h an emphasis on d i s p e r s e d use and t h e minimal d i s turbance of natural systems.  The b u l k o f c u r r e n t e x p a n s i o n  work i s  l a r g e l y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s w h i c h a l r e a d y e x h i b i t some use impact and which f r e q u e n t l y have p r e v i o u s l y been r e s e r v e d under an  Order-in-  C o u n c i l f o r the use, r e c r e a t i o n and enjoyment o f the g e n e r a l  public.  W h i l e e m p h a s i s i n g ' s m a l l - s c a l e ' a t i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , the o v e r a l l b i a s i s towards e x p a n s i o n  and d i s p e r s i o n .  Harry M a r s h a l l ,  the  F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n O f f i c e r i n V i c t o r i a s u p p o r t s the c a s e f o r a c o n t r o l l e d d i s p e r s i o n a l o n g 32,000 m i l e s o f the p r o v i n c e ' s l o g g i n g r o a d s and more than 3000 m i l e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l y s u i t a b l e open t r a i l s ; f u r t h e r , he s u g g e s t s  that:  54 We would n o t be d i l i g e n t as r e s o u r c e managers i f we f a i l e d t o a c c e p t t h e c h a l l e n g e o f o p e n i n g up t h i s tremendous a s s e t . (B.C.'s 220 m i l l i o n a c r e s and 4.5 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f l a k e s ) f o r the use and enjoyment o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . ( M a r s h a l l . 1975. p. 4-1) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , i n the Study Area, the F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e o r i e n t e d towards t h e Stream and Lake Use c l u s t e r o f a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e m a i n s t r e a m s y s t e m , and r e c e i v e e x t e n s i v e , r a t h e r than i n t e n s i v e use (B.C. P a r k s . 1973B).  In 1974  t h e r e were 830 d e v e l o p e d r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s managed by t h e B.C.F.S.,  which  were u t i l i s e d by a b o u t 672,000 v i s i t o r s ( M a r s h a l l . 1975). I n d i v i d u a l P l a n n i n g Approaches Roche Lake Land Use P l a n (Kamloops.  1976)  T h i s p l a n was p r e p a r e d by t h e Kamloops F l y - F i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h r e e m a j o r t h r e a t s t o t h e Roche Lake (L.44) a r e a : 1. 2. 3.  E x c e s s i v e t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g - 45 p e r c e n t o f l a n d base. D e t e r i o r a t i n g water q u a l i t y . P o t e n t i a l f o r t e m p o r a r y o r permanent l a n d a l i e n a t i o n .  In r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and economic  commitments  i n t h e Roche Lake a r e a , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t e n main p r o p o s a l s f o r ming t h e b a s i s o f a c o o r d i n a t e d l a n d use p l a n i n t e n d e d t o i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e l a n d use. 1.  The t e n p r o p o s a l s were, ( i n a condensed f o r m ) : A l l government a g e n c i e s must r e c o g n i s e and c o n f o r m t o a s i n g l e l a n d use p l a n . T h i s p l a n s h o u l d be c o o r d i n a t e d and e n f o r c e d by t h e E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t .  2.  No a d d i t i o n a l l a n d a l i e n a t i o n ( e i t h e r temporary o r p e r manent) s h o u l d o c c u r i n the v i c i n i t y o f the l a k e .  3.  L o g g i n g s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d u n t i l t h e a r e a s , w h i c h a r e a t p r e s e n t c l e a r c u t , have a good s t a n d o f advanced regeneration.  4.  No a d d i t i o n a l w a t e r l i c e n c e s s h o u l d be g r a n t e d i n the area ( f l u c t u a t i n g water l e v e l s adding to w i n t e r k i l l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n ) .  5.  P r i v a t e l a n d s i n the a r e a s h o u l d be zoned t o p r e v e n t residential subdivision.  6.  A m i n e r a l r e s e r v e s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d o v e r t h e c o r e area.  7.  A r e s t - r o t a t i o n system o f g r a z i n g s h o u l d be implemented i n t h e a r e a and the number o f c a t t l e s h o u l d n o t be increased.  8.  The f i s h e r i e s h a b i t a t s h o u l d be improved l a k e s s u r r o u n d i n g Roche Lake.  9.  Small r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e . T h i s a r e a s h o u l d n o t be s e t a s i d e as a P r o v i n c i a l Park.  10.  L i m i t a t i o n s must be p l a c e d on the use o f o u t b o a r d motors on the l a k e s w i t h i n the Study A r e a .  i n the s m a l l  (Kamloops. B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e Moratorium  1975)  Study (B.C. P a r k s . 1975B)  T h i s s t u d y was p r e p a r e d by t h e Parks Branch f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o the Thompson-Okanagan Resource Management Committee, a group c o m p r i s e d o f the s e n i o r o f f i c e r from each o f the e l e v e n p r o v i n c i a l government a g e n c i e s a c t i v e i n the r e g i o n : Extractive Lands Branch Water Resources Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e Parks Branch F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch  Resources  5-6 P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch Health Services Highways Department Municipal A f f a i r s  Settlement S e r v i c i n g  The mandate o f the committees i s somewhat u n c l e a r , and between the f i v e a c t i v e committees operational processes.  i n the province  there are four d i s t i n c t  However t h e committees do have as t h e i r one  common aim t h a t o f a c t i n g as a v e h i c l e f o r i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n . In r e s p o n s e t o p u b l i c demand t h e Thompson-Okanagan Committee p l a c e d a M o r a t o r i u m  Resource  Management  on d e v e l o p m e n t i n the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e  P l a t e a u between December 1924 and December 1925. various agencies developed statements  D u r i n g t h i s time  r e g a r d i n g the f u t u r e o f the P l a t e a u .  The B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e Study o u t l i n e s the p o l i c y d e v e l o p e d  by  Parks Branch f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a m u l t i p l e r e s o u r c e use s t u d y and i n t e g r a t e d management p l a n f o r t h e B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e a r e a .  An h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d ,  l a k e s t u d d e d p l a t e a u w i t h s i m i l a r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o , but l y i n g t o the n o r t h o f , the t h e s i s Study A r e a .  In a d d i t i o n , Parks Branch  estab-  l i s h e d s u b s i d i a r y o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t i n g t o the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y , the s t u d y o f t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s on o t h e r e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and a l s o the p r o d u c t i o n o f a management p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t i n the a r e a . The c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d i n t h e Study were t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s o f the a r e a h e l d i n t e r e s t , but n o t o f t h e t y p e nor s c a l e w h i c h e i t h e r warranted, Parks i n v o l v e m e n t .  o r c o u l d w i t h s t a n d i n t e n s e d e v e l o p m e n t and P r o v i n c i a l The Study recommended t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l s be  p l a c e d on a c c e s s and t i m b e r c u t t i n g w i t h i n 10 c h a i n s o f a l l l a k e s ,  streams  and meadows i n the a r e a .  The S t u d y a l s o s u g g e s t e d  t h a t the p l a n would  be b e s t implemented by r e t a i n i n g the a r e a w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m a n a g e r i a l  g r a s p o f the p r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t S e r v i c e .  mended t h a t s p e c i f i c O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l and enjoyment o f the p u b l i c ) s t a t u s  I t a l s o recom-  r e s e r v e ( f o r t h e use, r e c r e a t i o n be imposed on the t h r e e l a r g e r  p r e s e r v a t i o n e n t i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the S t u d y (Bare Lake, S k o a t l e P o i n t and P o r c u p i n e  R i d g e ) , a n d t h a t l i m i t a t i o n s on l o g g i n g , mine c l a i m s ,  w a t e r l i c e n c e s and A.T.V. use be imposed on p a r t s o f the These recommendations were a c c e p t e d O c t o b e r 1976,  Orders-in-Council  plateau.  virtually in-toto.  During  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t management o f the  a r e a would be i n c o r p o r a t e d under the F o r e s t S e r v i c e F o l i o System, and t h a t i n a d d i t i o n , a m o r a t o r i u m would be p l a c e d on m i n e r a l c l a i m s t a k i n g , t h e g r a n t i n g o f w a t e r l i c e n c e s and some l o g g i n g i n the a r e a . Ridge was p r o t e c t e d by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l  Porcupine  f r o m any a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e  o r snowmobile use. Pennask Lake a r e a C o o r d i n a t e d  Land Use  Based upon the C o o r d i n a t e d and S c h e r z i n g e r .  1975)  developed  Plan  Land Use p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  (Anderson  f o r Range Management, and used w i t h  some s u c c e s s i n the E a s t K o o t e n a y s , t h i s ' P l a n " i s not y e t a p l a n , but r e p r e s e n t s a p o t e n t i a l a p p r o a c h to a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g problem. A u g u s t 13th 1976 J e a n Le Douc o f the B.C.  On  Forest Service o f f i c e in  Kamloops c h a i r e d a m e e t i n g i n M e r r i t t t h a t p r o p o s e d the use o f t h i s a p p r o a c h f o r use i n the a r e a around Pennask (L.27) and Hatheume (L.26) lakes. The p r o c e s s depends upon i n p u t f r o m , and the o n g o i n g  involvement  58 o f , a l l the r e s o u r c e management a g e n c i e s and s e c t o r s h a v i n g i n t e r e s t s i n the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a ; t o g e t h e r w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r c e i v e d needs, p l a n s , p o s s i b l e a r e a s o f c o n t e n t i o n and o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s f o r the n e x t 10-15 y e a r s .  As each r e s o u r c e manager, from  both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , l a y s o u t h i s p o s i t i o n and o b j e c t i v e p r i o r i t i e s , i t i s assumed t o be p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s e n c o u r a g i n g mutual a d j u s t m e n t and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . o u t p u t from t h i s p r o c e s s then becomes an O p e r a t i o n a l Approach management i n the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a .  The  to resource  A l t h o u g h the p r o c e s s b e a r s some  s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e Resource F o l i o system, the l a t t e r remains e s s e n t i a l l y an i n v e n t o r y p r o c e s s , w h i l e the C o o r d i n a t e d Land  Use  approach i n v o l v e s eventual o p e r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n . Once a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f p r i o r i t i e s have been a c c e p t e d , f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s , c h a n g i n g emphases and new c o n f l i c t s a r e s u b j e c t t o annual e v a l u a t i o n , r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n by the o r i g i n a l l y i n v o l v e d p a r t i e s , o r Task F o r c e .  Members o f the Task F o r c e would be i n d i v i d u a l  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h o s e a g e n c i e s and s e c t o r s a c t i v e l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a a t the l o c a l Lake f r o n t P l a n n i n g G u i d e l i n e s (Karlsen.  level.  f o r the C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l  District  1971)  P r e p a r e d by E r i k K a r l s e n , now a c t i n g a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r o f t h e Resource P l a n n i n g U n i t w i t h i n the E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t , f o r the C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and a c c e p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e June 1971.  Although a p p l i e d  t o an a r e a some d i s t a n c e t o the n o r t h - n o r t h west o f t h e Study A r e a , t h e s e  59 G u i d e l i n e s were i n t e n d e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n to a l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n a l environment s i m i l a r to that considered i n t h i s t h e s i s .  The Lake f r o n t  P l a n n i n g G u i d e l i n e s were based upon an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Chimney Lake and the p r o b l e m s o b s e r v e d  i n i t s e n v i r o n s ; among them, the l o s s o f  scenic values, a d e t e r i o r a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l environment, s e r v i c i n g problems and c o m p e t i n g l a n d and r e s o u r c e uses.  The aim o f the G u i d e -  l i n e s was to e n s u r e the d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a k e f r o n t a g e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s i n such a way t h a t the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , on w h i c h r e c r e a t i o n a l q u a l i t y depends, would be m a i n t a i n e d  and the p u b l i c would c o n t i n u e to  have a c c e s s t o a range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . i n c l u d e ( t h i s i s n o t an e x h a u s t i v e  The  Guidelines  listing):  1.  The p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t each l a k e be viewed w i t h the p r o s p e c t o f z o n i n g , p a r t i a l l y o r w h o l l y , f o r a s p e c i f i c use.  2.  The emphasis on d e v e l o p m e n t a t l a k e s a l r e a d y under some use.  3.  The i m p o s i t i o n o f a l i m i t on l a k e f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t a t one 'use u n i t ' f o r e v e r y 2% a c r e s o f w a t e r s u r f a c e . On s m a l l e r l a k e s t h i s l i m i t i s reduced t o one 'use u n i t ' f o r e v e r y 5 acres.  4.  The recommendation t h a t a 30 per c e n t minimum o f the l a k e s h o r e ( e x t e n d i n g back 10 c h a i n s from the H.W.M.) r e m a i n s i n r u r a l , o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n use.  5.  The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a l a n d use c o n t r a c t be r e q u i r e d f o r a l l i n d u s t r i a l , commercial and o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s c o v e r i n g more than 4 a c r e s and coming c l o s e r than 10 c h a i n s to the w a t e r s edge. (Karlsen.  1971)  The Shuswap Lakes R e c r e a t i o n a l System. (B.C. P a r k s . 1976B) T h i s S t u d y had n o t r e a c h e d f i n a l a p p r o v a l s t a g e a t t h e time t h e t h e s i s was w r i t t e n , c o n s e q u e n t l y what i s r e a d here s h o u l d be o n l y as an i n d i c a t i o n o f Parks Branch t h i n k i n g , r a t h e r than  understood official  60 policy.  The problems t h a t i t o u t l i n e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e  p r e s e n t e d i n t h e o t h e r examples o u t l i n e d above; t h e y i n c l u d e : 1.  C o n f l i c t between r e c r e a t i o n a l and o t h e r uses o f t h e l a k e s .  2.  C o n f l i c t between v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s .  3.  The dominance o f c e r t a i n t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y as d i c t a t e d by the economic market p l a c e i n which private enterprise operates.  4.  The v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on who i s d o i n g what and why.  5.  I n c r e a s e d o v e r c r o w d i n g f r o m t h e growth o f Kamloops, t h e l o c a l a r e a and t o u r i s t o v e r - s p i l l from t h e Okanagan.  6.  The r e d u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y range as d e v e l o p ment p r e s s u r e makes a l l p a r t s o f t h e l a k e a c c e s s i b l e by road. (B.C. P a r k s . 1976)  C u r r e n t l y the Parks Branch h a n d l e s t h r e e major a r e a s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the Shuswap Lakes System; f i r s t l y , i n t e n s i v e use r o a d a c c e s s a r e a s (Camping and Day U s e ) ; s e c o n d l y , a w a t e r way park s y s t e m ; and t h i r d l y , preservation areas.  In r e s p o n s e t o t h e problems l i s t e d  above,  Parks Branch sees a need t o d e v e l o p a number o f P r i m a r y and S e c o n d a r y objectives. The P r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f the P a r k s Branch i n t h e Shuswap Study Region s h o u l d be t o e s t a b l i s h a system o f p a r k s which c o m p l i ment t h e major p r o v i n c e wide s y s t e m by d e v e l o p i n g a v a r i e t y o f p a r k s which r e f l e c t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the Study R e g i o n and the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e r e c r e a t i n g p u b l i c . (B.C. P a r k s . 1976B.p. 14) The s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t i v e i n c l u d e s f o u r e l e m e n t s , the development  61 o f Water A c c e s s A r e a s and I n t e n s i v e Use Road A c c e s s A r e a s ; the d e l i n e a t i o n o f P r e s e r v a t i o n A r e a s and the p r o v i s i o n o f a d i v e r s e range o f recreational opportunities.  Each o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s i s backed up by an  o u t l i n e p l a n f o r the a c h i e v e m e n t o f aims. The s t u d y a l s o m e n t i o n s a f u r t h e r s t a g e i n w h i c h canoe r o u t e  access  s i t e s and p o t e n t i a l p r o p e r t y p u r c h a s e s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d , a w i n t e r r e a t i o n p l a n p r o d u c e d and a c o n c e p t u a l River prepared.  rec-  p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o n g the.Adams  These o b j e c t i v e s make i t a p p e a r as i f the Parks B r a n c h  i n t e n d s t o take s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a r e a ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l  content.  However, the study does d e c l a r e the B r a n c h ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need f o r a coordinated  a p p r o a c h i n v o l v i n g i t s e l f , the R e g i o n a l  B r a n c h , Highways Department and the P r i v a t e S e c t o r .  D i s t r i c t , Lands I t i s foreseen  i n f u t u r e an i n t e g r a t e d r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g body w i l l be r e q u i r e d o v e r s e e the p l a n n i n g and management o f t h i s e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e  that to  system.  Implementary Mechanisms: An O v e r v i e w The need f o r i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms i s r e c o g n i s e d p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s view i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  i n a l l the  However v i r t u a l l y a l l the  mechanisms s u g g e s t e d depend a l m o s t e n t i r e l y on c o e r c i v e o r p o l i c e power techniques  for their successful operation.  An o u t b o a r d motor ban  and  speed l i m i t s recommended by the Kamloops F l y - f i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n ,  the  a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e ban (now i n the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e  f o r m a l i s e d by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l ) s t u d y , vandal  suggested  c o n t r o l a t Pennask, Z o n i n g and  l a n d use c o n t r a c t s o r Chimney Lake and the sewage d i s p o s a l  controls  demanded on the Shuswap Lakes w i l l a l l r e q u i r e p o l i c e e n f o r c e m e n t . r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s , the P a r k s B r a n c h , d u r i n g 1974,  employed 37  In  62 p a t r o l m e n , 8 g a t e k e e p e r s as w e l l as 25 back c o u n t r y R a n g e r s , o v e r and above t h e i r s t a n d a r d Ranger complement (B.C.  Rec. and Con.  1975).  Fish  and  W i l d l i f e i n the same y e a r added a second C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r t o each o f the a r e a s t a t i o n s a t M e r r i t t , C l i n t o n and Salmon Arm,  w h i l e i n the  Okanagan a r e a t h e y i n i t i a t e d n i g h t p a t r o l s ( i n c l u d i n g a i r - g r o u n d and i n c r e a s e d I t was  their special  c o e r c i v e mechanism. Study i t was  patrols.  o n l y on r a r e o c c a s i o n s i n the f i v e i n d i v i d u a l  a p p r o a c h e s t h a t t h e r e was  planning  any s u g g e s t i o n o f u s i n g some f o r m o f non-  For example, i n the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e M o r a t o r i u m  s u g g e s t e d t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t a r o u n d , and a c c e s s t o , B o n a p a r t e  Lake be e n c o u r a g e d .  Thereby providing  an a l t e r n a t i v e to o r a n o n - c o e r c i v e  p r o t e c t i o n d e v i c e f o r , the r e s t o f the T r a n q u i l l e S e c t i o n 4.2:  checks)  Plateau.  C r i t i q u e o f C u r r e n t Management Systems  The emphasis i n t h i s s e c t i o n , . w i l l l i e not so much on the  policy  c r e a t i o n p r o c e s s e s ( o r ' e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' as o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r 2 ) , but on t h e c r i t i c i s m o f main f e a t u r e s , o r t h o s e e l e m e n t s t h a t can seen to f a l l under the h e a d i n g o f e i t h e r p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e  be  or implementary  mechanism Pol i c y  Objectives  Conservation Ethic. A l l o f the p l a n n i n g  a p p r o a c h e s o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 4.1  were i n i t i a t e d  i n r e s p o n s e to the r e c o g n i t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s ; d e t e r i o r a t i n g w a t e r q u a l i t y i n Roche Lake ( L . 4 4 ) , the p e r c e i v e d  potential f o r over f i s h i n g  63  a t Pennask Lake ( L . 2 7 ) , the i n c r e a s i n g a l l - t e r r a i n damage on Ridge i n the B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e P l a t e a u . to solve these problems.  A l l , i n some way,  Porcupine attempt  The Parks Branch emphasises p r e s e r v a t i o n , the  m a i n t e n a n c e o f ' h i k e - i n ' o n l y s t a t u s on many o f t h e s m a l l e r l a k e s on t h e T r a n q u i l l e P l a t e a u and c o n t r o l s on sewage e f f l u e n t e n t e r i n g the Shuswap Lakes.  The F o r e s t S e r v i c e e n c o u r a g e s ' I n t e g r a t e d Use' and  p r o f i l e campsites  i n t e n d e d to a v o i d e n v i r o n m e n t a l  disturbance.  low  The  Kamloops F l y - f i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n recommend an o u t - b o a r d . m o t o r ban on some o f the s m a l l e r l a k e s around Roche Lake ( L . 4 4 ) . i m p r e s s i o n i s one o f a h t h r o p o c e n t r i c i t y ; and f a c i l i t a t i o n o f man's w i l d l a n d use.  However the o v e r - a l l  emphasising  the enhancement  The m a i n t e n a n c e o f the i n t e g r i t y  o f a l a k e ' s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t t a k e s on o n l y a s e c o n d a r y r o l e . Although  t h e r e may be some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s a p p r o a c h i n an  a r e a so c l o s e to the p r o v i n c e ' s main p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , i t d i d c a u s e the a u t h o r some s u r p r i s e when a F o r e s t S e r v i c e Ranger a t t h e Pennask ;  Lake C o o r d i n a t e d  Land Use Meeting s t a t e d t h a t :  T h e r e i s a need to m a i n t a i n y i e l d s o u t o f t h e P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t s , so we w i l l n o t back away from p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s . . . don't n e c e s s a r i l y b e l i e v e i n m a i n t a i n i n g the t e n - c h a i n r u l e . . . t h e Government has c o n t r a c t e d t o a l l o w t i m b e r companies s p e c i f i c o u t p u t . ... i f , to m a i n t a i n t h i s o u t p u t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o g r i g h t to the l a k e s h o r e s t h e y w i l l be a l l o w e d to do so . . . i f we a r e g o i n g to i n t e n s i f y use o f the f o r e s t s we s h o u l d put o u r e f f o r t s i n t o the b e s t q u a l i t y l a n d s . . . t h e s e a r e t h e l a k e s h o r e s and the v a l l e y bottoms . . . we c a n ' t a f f o r d to l o o s e s t a n d s from blow down and bark b e e t l e even i f the t i m b e r i s i n v a l l e y bottoms and l a k e s h o r e s . Lake e n v i r o n m e n t p r e s e r v a t i o n , nor i n d e e d spawning bed and game range p r o t e c t i o n , do not seem here to have been major p r i o r i t i e s .  64 S o c i a l Well  Being  I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t as the S t u d y Area i s s i m p l y one  portion  o f the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t i t s h o u l d m e r e l y form an homogeneous u n i t w i t h i n an h e t e r o g e n o u s whole.  However the a r e a i s  c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s , and i s i n c l o s e to the p r o v i n c e ' s m a j o r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s .  proximity  Many o f the r e s i d e n t s o f  t h e s e c e n t r e s w i l l be u n a b l e t o t r a v e l the l e n g t h o f the p r o v i n c e i n o r d e r to e x p e r i e n c e  i t s n a t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l v a r i e t y .  It is felt  t h e r e f o r e t h a t the S t u d y A r e a , t o g e t h e r w i t h e v e r y o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l environment, should provide a v a r i e t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e f l e c t i n g the a r e a ' s n a t u r a l p o t e n t i a l s and s a t i s f y i n g a r a n g e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l demands. U n f o r t u n a t e l y much o f the p l a n n i n g p o l i c y w i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a seems t o be f a l l i n g i n t o the t r a p o f p r o v i d i n g 'minimum'standards w h i c h soon become the norm and c a t e r m e r e l y t o homogeneous demands.  The  F o r e s t S e r v i c e e n c o u r a g e s t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f low p r o f i l e r u s t i c  campsites,  Parks Branch a t t e m p t s to c r e a t e 'a p r i m i t i v e a t m o s p h e r e  1  and both compete  w i t h t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , w h i c h as a c o n s e q u e n c e may d e c l i n e i n q u a l i t y t o an e q u a l l y ' p r i m i t i v e ' l e v e l , j e o p a r d i s i n g incomes w i t h i n the commercial recreation sector.  Both F o r e s t S e r v i c e and F i s h and W i l d l i f e r e s p o n d to  p u b l i c p r e s s u r e s f o r r o a d s i n t o , and c a m p s i t e s lakes.  Management and d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e d u r e s  at, previously inaccessible have c o n v e n i e n t l y been t i e d  to t h e w i s h e s o f m a j o r i t y i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a wide number o f u s e r g r o u p s ( D i t t o n . 1971), r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s have c a t e r e d to the a v e r a g e when the a v e r a g e camper does n o t e x i s t ( S h a f e r . 1971).  65 This homogenisation  has been happening even though i t i s r e c o g -  n i s e d by the Parks Branch t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f v a r i e t y i n f a c i l i t i e s and the range o f p o t e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them (B.C. 1976B).  Parks.  With a g r e a t e r r e s i d e n t and t o u r i s t p o p u l a t i o n , demands w i l l  grow f o r a l t e r n a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o g i v e v a r i e t y t o the system.  Unless  new p o l i c i e s p r o v i d e f o r a d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s e p o l i c i e s w i l l have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on S o c i a l Well  Being.  The p u r s u i t o f S o c i a l Well B e i n g s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e the r e d u c t i o n o f i n t e r - s e c t o r a l and -agency c o n f l i c t s , as w e l l as the encouragement o f f e e d b a c k from the p u b l i c . To d a t e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g has n o t r e a l l y s u c c e e d e d i n d o i n g e i t h e r . However, w i t h c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e and p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l t h i s i s g r a u a l l y i m p r o v i n g .  The  Parks Branch r e c o g n i s e s t h a t i t s h o u l d : maintain l i a i s o n with other agencies involved with p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Parks System i s d e v e l o p e d as a complementarypant of overall p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e . (B.C. Rec. and Con. 1975. p. 67) The R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committees have as t h e i r o n l y commonly a g r e e d upon aim ( t h e i r mandate remains  i l l - d e f i n e d , f o r reasons  o f f l e x i b i l i t y r a t h e r than n e g l i g e n c e ) i s t h a t o f e n c o u r a g i n g i n t e r  agency  c o o p e r a t i o n and c o i n c i d e n c e o f o b j e c t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n , S o c i a l Well B e i n g would p r o b a b l y b e n e f i t from the a d d i t i o n o f c r e a t i v e o p t i o n s t o the r e c r e a t i o n system.  Y e t , t h e F i s h and  W i l d l i f e Branch have n o t y e t i n c o r p o r a t e d the p r o v i s i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f s p o r t f i s h i n g environments  (Fly Fish Only/Quality Angling/Ice Fishing etc.)  66 i n t o t h e i r o f f i c i a l p o l i c y . The F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c o g n i s e s the v a l u e o f bedding down and r e - s e e d i n g f o r e s t roads no l o n g e r used f o r l o g g i n g , however t h e y have y e t t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n i n t o l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t s ; and Parks Branch has a t e n d e n c y t o b u i l d c a m p s i t e s e x h i b i t i n g a d e p r e s s i n g r e g u l a r i t y o f d e s i g n and l a y o u t . Equitable  Treatment  S o c i e t y has c o n v i n c e d i t s e l f t h a t equal o p p o r t u n i t y means the same o p p o r t u n i t y , and thus has c o n c e n t r a t e d on the p r o v i s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s as t h e s i m p l e s t , c l e a r e s t and most d e c i s i v e way o f demons t r a t i n g a commitment t o e q u a l i t y .  Nowhere has t h i s been more e v i d e n t  than i n the p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( B u r t o n . 1976). However, ' e q u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t '  i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g s h o u l d n o t be under-  s t o o d as meaning equal and f r e e a c c e s s , f r e e c a m p s i t e s o r f r e e d o m from c o n t r o l , but s h o u l d be taken t o mean t h a t no one be s e r i o u s l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d ( w i t h i n the l i m i t s d i c t a t e d by a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the c o n s e r v a t i o n E t h i c ) by any p a r t i c u l a r P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e .  In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s r e l a t e s t o  the need t o p r e v e n t b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g ; t o the t r a n s i e n t t o u r i s t w h i c h p l a c e l o c a l p a t t e r n s o f ownership  and r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n j e o p a r d y ;  and  a l s o t o l o c a l income g e n e r a t i o n and i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n . In s u p p o r t o f t h i s aim the Parks Branch compensates f a i r l y f o r a l l l a n d s a b s o r b e d by park d e v e l o p m e n t and i n the Shuswap Lakes Study  specifi-  c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t the day use needs o f both l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and v i s i t o r s s h o u l d be r e c o g n i s e d and a d e q u a t e l y s e r v i c e d (B.C. P a r k s . 1976B). r i g h t s o f commercial  f i s h i n g camps were acknowledged i n t h e  The  Bonaparte-  67 T r a n q u i l l e Moratorium  Study (B.C. P a r k s . 1975B) and a r e n o t j e o p a r d i s e d  by F i s h and W i l d l i f e s t o c k i n g p o l i c y .  However, c o m p l a i n t s o f u n f a i r  c o m p e t i t i o n were heard from the o p e r a t o r s o f s e v e r a l commercial because o f a d e m o n s t r a t e d  tendency,  resorts  by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e , t o e s t a b l i s h  f r e e c a m p s i t e s w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f f e e c h a r g i n g commercial sites.  camp-  T h i s a c t i o n , r a t h e r than i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y  s i m p l y remove i t by p u t t i n g the commercial  may  business out of commission.  Implementary Mechanisms Control E f f e c t i v e n e s s For a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r o l mechanism t o be e f f e c t i v e i t must f i r s t l y be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h o s e whom i t i s t o c o n t r o l .  In t h a t the i m p l e -  mentary mechanisms f o r b e h a v i o u r c o n t r o l a r e c u r r e n t l y a t a minimal  level  i t i s hard t o d e t e r m i n e whether they a r e ' a c c e p t a b l e ' o r n o t , o r i n d e e d whether 'minimal management' w i l l i t s e l f l o n g remain a c c e p t a b l e .  The  fact  t h a t no one i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d  complained  o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n heavy handedness may be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the e x i s t i n g c o n t r o l mechanisms a r e c o n s i d e r e d ' a c c e p t a b l e ' .  However, the  v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f the problems d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.3 would s u g g e s t t h a t the mechanisms a r e i n e f f e c t i v e and hence  unacceptable.  The Shuswap Lakes P l a n c a l l s f o r c o n t r o l s on p r i v a t e r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l use (B.C. P a r k s . 1975B), as do the C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l  District  G u i d e l i n e s ( K a r l s e n . 1971), and, i n as much as both Shuswap Lake and Chimney Lake a r e m o d e r a t e l y effective.  ' u r b a n i s e d ' t h e s e c o n t r o l s a r e l i k e l y t o be  Any abuses would be h i g h l y v i s i b l e .  However, i n the o t h e r  68  a r e a s i t would seem u n l i k e l y t h a t the recommendations on the r e s t r i c t i o n o f a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e use, the i m p o s i t i o n o f speed and horsepower l i m i t s on p a r t i c u l a r l a k e s and the removal o f r o a d s from a l o n g l a k e s h o r e s would be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e . The B.C. A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e A c t has no r e a l t e e t h . I t has no mandate to c o n t r o l m o t o r c y c l e  use, and so w i l l c o n t i n u e to be  i n e f f e c t i v e u n t i l i t i s made more s p e c i f i c as to v e h i c l e type and to management a u t h o r i t y .  Any motor b o a t i n g c o n t r o l s r e q u i r e F e d e r a l  but t o d a t e t h i s has proven v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n .  support,  Finally,  v a n d a l s have been known t o s t e a l l o g g i n g equipment and punch a t r a i l through  the 10 c h a i n b a r r i e r to p r o t e c t e d l a k e s .  The e x i s t e n c e o f c o n -  t r o l s does not g u a r a n t e e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s . T h i s d i c h o t o m y between e x i s t e n c e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s can even be found i n the l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d parks i n the f i r s t p l a c e . F e d e r a l Law and i n the S t a t u t e s o f A l b e r t a and O n t a r i o the t i v e Parks A c t s i n c l u d e ' P e r p e t u i t y  1  In  respec-  c l a u s e s ; f o r example:  . . . and the N a t i o n a l P a r k s s h a l l be m a i n t a i n e d and made use o f so as t o l e a v e them u n i m p a i r e d f o r t h e enjoyment o f f u t u r e generations. S e c t i o n 4 N a t i o n a l Parks A c t (Canada. T h e r e i s no such c l a u s e i n t h e B.C. t h e r e were, the l a c k o f ' S t a n d i n g '  Parks Act.  However, even i f  i n C a n a d i a n Law e f f e c t i v e l y removes  the r i g h t o f the p r i v a t e c i t i z e n t o c h a l l e n g e any a b r o g a t i o n o f  'perpetuity , 1  o r any o t h e r law r e l a t i n g t o r e c r e a t i o n o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f the ment.  1970)  The l a c k o f ' S t a n d i n g ' means t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h o u t  environ'special  i n t e r e s t s o r damages' may not make a l e g a l c a s e a g a i n s t any p r o j e c t h a v i n g ' s i g n i f i c a n t environmental  impact' ( O n t a r i o . 1973).  The case o f L a r r y  Green vs. Queen i n t h e O n t a r i o Supreme C o u r t d e m o n s t r a t e d both  that  69  ' p e r p e t u i t y ' , even when w r i t t e n i n t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A c t , was m e r e l y an i d e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t , n o t a s t a t u t o r y t r u s t , and t h a t t h e p r i v a t e c i t i z e n without 'Standing'  was l i a b l e t o f i n d h i m s e l f  landed  w i t h t h e f u l l c o s t o f a c a s e t h a t he had i n i t i a t e d as a p u b l i c s e r v i c e (Ontario.  1973).  U n t i l p r i v a t e c h a l l e n g e becomes a d m i s s a b l e under  C a n a d i a n Law, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e s  a r e t r e a t e d as p r o p e r t y  e n t i t l e d t o be m a i n t a i n e d and p r o t e c t e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f i t s owners (the p u b l i c ) , the province's  r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l remain under  t h r e a t and a l l l e g a l c o n t r o l mechanisms w i l l e s s e n t i a l l y be l e s s than fully effective. For i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms t o be e f f e c t i v e t h e a g e n c i e s  respon-  s i b l e f o r them must a l s o be e f f e c t i v e , a n d , i n as much a s i n s t i t u t i o n a l power t o c o n t r o l b e h a v i o u r r e s t s upon t h e p u b l i c i m p a c t o f t h e i r o f f i c e r s , t h e s e o f f i c e r s must be e f f e c t i v e . Conservation  Y e t t h e s e o f f i c e r s , Park Wardens,  O f f i c e r s , F o r e s t S e r v i c e Rangers and M a i n t e n a n c e  Personnel  have been i n v e s t e d w i t h l i m i t e d powers a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o a l i m i t e d s p h e r e . T h e r e i s no a l l o w a n c e f o r c r o s s a g e n c y p o l i c i n g .  The F o r e s t Ranger has  no a u t h o r i t y t o i n s p e c t f i s h i n g c r e e l s , t h e Park Warden has no i n f l u e n c e o u t s i d e p a r k b o u n d a r i e s and a l l must hand o v e r ' p o l i c e ' m a t t e r s t o t h e R.C.M.P. (B.C. Parks.  1972).  Furthermore, these o f f i c e r s , concerned as  they a r e w i t h r e c r e a t i o n , f i n d i t hard t o a p p r o a c h campers on an authoritarian basis (Hadikin.  1973).  I t seems t h a t they w i l l always  be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y d e p e n d e n t upon b l u f f , p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e s and p e e r group p r e s s u r e s  f o r behaviour c o n t r o l .  The f i n a l e l e m e n t t o be c o n s i d e r e d  as p a r t o f t h e C o n t r o l  effectiveness c r i t e r i a f o r evaluation i s that of variety.  Current  70 p r a c t i c e depends a l m o s t e n t i r e l y upon c o e r c i v e mechanisms f o r c o n t r o l , mechanisms t h a t have n o t always proven e f f e c t i v e . In o n l y l i m i t e d c a s e s was the p o t e n t i a l o f n o n - c o e r c i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n  r a i s e d i n the  v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.1.  One example was  a s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e Roche Lake Land Use P l a n (Kamloops. 1976)  that a  sewage dumping p o i n t be p r o v i d e d o u t s i d e the a r e a (presumably  where  the sewage c o u l d be t r e a t e d ) .  T h i s would be seen as a  i n c e n t i v e n o t to dump camper w a s t e s i n Roche Lake.  non-coercive  Such i m p l e m e n t a r y  mechanisms a t p r e s e n t r e c e i v e s c a n t a t t e n t i o n , y e t t h i s i s an o p t i o n t h a t has much p r o m i s e f o r the f u t u r e . Cost E f f e c t i v e n e s s . I t was a p p a r e n t from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h agency o f f i c i a l s t h a t undermanning was a r e a l p r o b l e m .  Y e t , i n the f u t u r e , government a g e n c i e s  l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e even g r e a t e r numbers o f s t a f f , w h i c h , i f p r e s e n t c o n t i n u e a r e n o t l i k e l y t o be p r o v i d e d .  are trends  None o f the p l a n s d e s c r i b e d i n  s e c t i o n 4.1 make s p e c i f i c demands f o r e x t r a manpower, and c o u l d  conse-  q u e n t l y be c o n s i d e r e d c o s t e f f e c t i v e from a manpower c o s t p o i n t o f view. However the p l a n n i n g demands made, p a t r o l l i n g o f P o r c u p i n e R i d g e on the T r a n q u i l l e P l a t e a u f o r i l l i c i t a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e u s e r s , sewage dumping away from Roche Lake (L.44) and so on i m p l y i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i n g f o r both s a l a r i e s and c a p i t a l .  U n l e s s t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d dependence on  ' p e r s o n a l ' i n i t i a t i v e s , c i t i z e n s p a t r o l s and e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , a l l the  71 p l a n s c o u l d run i n t o f u n d i n g  difficulties.  Efficacy in achieving desired d i s t r i b u t i o n a l objectives. As w i t h the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms s h o u l d a l s o e n c o u r a g e e g a l i t a r i a n d i s t r i b u t i o n a l ends.  None o f the few  imple-  mentary mechanisms d i s c u s s e d o r i m p l i e d i n s e c t i o n 41 r e a l l y a d d r e s s t h i s i s s u e nor do they r e a l l y have the c a p a b i l i t y o f a l t e r i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i m p l i e d by the p l a n o b j e c t i v e s .  Yet i t s h o u l d  be  g u a r a n t e e d t h a t p o l i c e a c t i o n does not d i s a d v a n t a g e the l o c a l r e s i d e n t and t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s do not a d v a n t a g e the t r a n s i e n t (advance b o o k i n g e t c ) . chapter  T h i s i s s u e w i l l be a d d r e s s e d more f u l l y i n  5.  S e c t i o n 4.3:  Problems o f the S t u d y A r e a R e c r e a t i o n a l  Environment.  T h i s s e c t i o n a t t e m p t s to s y n t h e s i s e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t e (use l e v e l s , stocking f i g u r e s etc.) with personal s t u d y p e r i o d (B.C.  Parks.  1976A).  impressions  a b s o r b e d d u r i n g the f i e l d  The p r o b l e m s d e s c r i b e d r e l a t e s p e c i f i -  c a l l y to the S t u d y A r e a ; they a r e , i n summary: 1.  2.  Access:  freedom o f a c c e s s h a v i n g e x t e n d e d the range o f problems a r i s i n g f r o m The i n t e r n a l c o m b u s t i o n e n g i n e Vandalism Environmental overload Permanent r e s i d e n c e Over f i s h i n g Public/Private sector c o n f l i c t C o n t r o l : problems o f b e h a v i o u r c o n t r o l h a v i n g been compounded byLack o f a c c e s s l i m i t a t i o n Lack o f b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l s  72 3.  Data:  p a u c i t y o f d a t a making any a n a l y t i c a l t a s k l e s s r i g o r o u s and p o s s i b l y l e s s v a l i d . Use'data Environmental C a p a b i l i t y Cottaging  Access I t would n o t be u n r e a s o n a b l e t o s u r m i s e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f problems a p p a r e n t i n t h e Study A r e a a r e t h e r e s u l t o f improved a c c e s s . F r e q u e n t l y t h e ease o f a c c e s s was blamed f o r t h e d e c l i n e o f f i s h i n g q u a l i t y , t h e i n v i t a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f l a n d use c o n f l i c t s .  To quote a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h R a l p h  Shaw, e x - P r e s i d e n t .of t h e Kamloops F i s h and Game C l u b : . . . t h e major t r a g e d y l i e s , n o t i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s o r F o r e s t S e r v i c e Developments t h e m s e l v e s , but i n t h e f a c t t h a t such d e v e l o p m e n t s , a l l i e d t o f o r e s t r y r e l a t e d r o a d improvements, t e n d t o p l a c e i n d i v i d u a l s , who have no sense o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e t h i c , i n t h e bush where t h i s l a c k o f awareness c a n c a u s e i r r e p a r a b l e damage. Today's w i l d l a n d u s e r s have no knowledge o f what t h e i r m o t o r b i k e s , a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s and o u t b o a r d motors a r e d o i n g t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e p s y c h s o f o t h e r w i l d l a n d users. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , improved a c c e s s has a p p a r e n t l y c r e a t e d p r o b lems i n s i x main a r e a s : The I n t e r n a l Combustion  Engine  Parks a r e n o t so much o v e r crowded w i t h , p e o p l e as t h e y a r e w i t h c a r s , camper v e h i c l e s , t r a i l e r s and t h e b o a t s t h a t p e o p l e b r i n g w i t h them ( D o e l l and T w a r d z i k . 1973).  The improvement  o f r o a d q u a l i t y t o many  l a k e s has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r owners o f l a r g e power b o a t s t o haul t h e i r  73 c r a f t i n t o l a k e s t o t a l l y i n c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g the p r e s s u r e s on them by such boat use.  Heinz Lange o f the M e r r i t t Rod and  placed Gun  Club s t a t e d t h a t Boot Lake, i n the v i c i n i t y o f Pennask Lake (L. 2 7 ) , had r e c e n t l y been opened t o f i s h e r m e n u s i n g a c c e s s a l o n g an hydro transmission line.  He c l a i m s t o have seen t h i s l a k e , o f l e s s than  a c r e s , s u p p o r t i n g more t h a t 20 boats a t one time.  50  One hundred b o a t s ,  the m a j o r i t y u s i n g gas m o t o r s , were counted on Roche Lake (L44) d u r i n g a F i s h i n g Derby i n e a r l y A u g u s t 1976.' The l a k e has a s u r f a c e a r e a o f 384 a c r e s and, a c c o r d i n g t o s t a n d a r d s recommending 10 a c r e s o f w a t e r per boat ( J a a k s o n . 1972), was o v e r two and a h a l f times more crowded than m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d  reasonable.  F i s h e r m e n i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d p o i n t e d to o i l s p i l l a g e from o u t board motors as a m a j o r c a u s e o f f i s h f e e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n . Although motorised f i s h i n g i s a l e g i t i m a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , d i s t u r bance caused by p r o p e l l e r s can c a u s e s e r i o u s damage a l o n g s h o r e l i n e s and i n r e e d beds, the most c r i t i c a l p o r t i o n s o f t h e a q u a t i c e n v i r o n m e n t ( Y o u s e f f . 1974). A l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e use, i n c l u d i n g m o t o r c y c l i n g and s n o w - m o b i l i n g , i s a l s o widespread  i n the S t u d y A r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y around Stump ( L . 4 3 ) ,  Kentucky (L.06) and Tunkwa (L.13) l a k e s . s o i l c o v e r i s e v i d e n t and c l o s e l y resembles  Damage t o v e g e t a t i o n the 'Zones o f  and  Disturbance'  d e s c r i b e d by B u r y , Wendling and McCool i n t h e i r p a p e r on o f f - r o a d recreation vehicles:  74 The zone o f d i s t u r b e d s o i l on t h e t r a i l s i s t y p i c a l l y a b o u t t e n f e e t wide. In some l o c a l i s e d a r e a s as much as two f e e t o f s o i l has been e r o d e d away; a g e n e r a l a v e r a g e i s e s t i m a t e d t o be f o u r i n c h e s . Ruts a r e t y p i c a l l y s i x t o e i g h t e e n i n c h e s deep. The s o i l l o s t e q u a l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 250 tons f o r each m a j o r t r a c k up a s t e e p h i l l . (Bury, W e n d l i n g and McCooT. 1976. p. 49) The i n c r e a s i n g : use l e v e l s o f t h e s e machines r e f l e c t s a g r o w i n g t e n d e n c y among r e c r e a t i o n i s t s t o pack g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r i n t o t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l time s l o t s .  expenditures  T h e r e i s a s t e a d y d r i f t towards  c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e a c t i v i t i e s (Grey and P e l l e g r i n o . 1973).  The p r o b l e m  t h e r e f o r e becomes n o t so much t h e a c t i v i t y , b u t t h e s c a l e and c o n t e n t o f the a c t i v i t y .  A l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e use l e a d s t o an ' a c c e l e r a t e d  harves-  t i n g ' o f w i l d l i f e (Bury, Wendling and M c C o o l . 1976), snowmobiles c r e a t e i c e pack on l o g g i n g r o a d s and compress snow c o v e r so t h a t s e e d l i n g s a r e d e s t r o y e d and s m a l l mammal runs c r u s h e d . i n c r e a s i n g l y creates behavioral problems.  Furthermore the problem Snow-mobilers c o n f l i c t w i t h  c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i e r s , and m o t o r c y c l i s t s c o n f l i c t w i t h For example, one campground  non-motorcyclists.  s t u d y found t h a t most campers:  . . . p e r c e i v e m o t o r c y c l i s t s t o be s e l f c e n t e r e d , a n t i - s o c i a l , i n c o n s i d e r a t e o f t h e r i g h t s o f o t h e r s and u n i n t e l l e c t u a l . By c o m p a r i s o n , t h e r i d e r p e r c e i v e d h i m s e l f as s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d and c o n s i d e r a t e o f t h e f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s ; however he r a t e d h i m s e l f l o w e r i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l d i m e n s i o n . ( B a d a r a c c o 1976. p. 32) Vandal ism One o f t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e Rangers a t t e n d i n g t h e Pennask Lake Coordinated'  Land Use m e e t i n g i n M e r r i t d u r i n g A u g u s t 1976, s t a t e d t h a t  75  he r a r e l y went i n t o the woods w i t h o u t  s e e i n g some e v i d e n c e o f  vandalism,  and t h a t he r a r e l y t a l k e d to r a n c h e r s who d i d n o t p o i n t out wounded c a t t l e , o r a cow w i t h o u t a c a l f .  The Crown Z e l l e r b a c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t  the same m e e t i n g c o m p l a i n e d o f damaged l o g g i n g equipment and a d d i t i o n o f s u g a r or s a l t t o machine gas t a n k s .  the  Owners o f commercial  r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s m e n t i o n e d the need f o r c o n s t a n t v i g i l a n c e t o protect t h e i r property.  A l l of t h i s vandalism  i s r e l a t e d to the e a s e o f  a c c e s s made p o s s i b l e by a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s and the c l o s e network o f logging  roads.  Environmental  Overload  Although,  d u r i n g t h e f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d , no r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y  was found to be degraded t o the l e v e l a t which danger t o human h e a l t h m i g h t o c c u r , i t was a p p a r e n t p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n was  t h a t i n many c a s e s permanent b i o l o g i c a l o r i n f a c t imminent.  The d e s t r u c t i o n o f s o i l  c o v e r and damage to the a q u a t i c e n v i r o n m e n t have a l r e a d y been  covered,  and to t h i s s h o u l d be added m e n t i o n o f s e r i o u s f o r e s h o r e d e t e r i o r a t i o n noted a r o u n d the m a j o r i t y o f boat l a u n c h i n g ramps.  T r e e and b r a n c h  c u t t i n g (from both f a l l e n and s t a n d i n g ) t i m b e r s were e v i d e n t a t both Parks Branch and F o r e s t S e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s .  B e a r s , a t t r a c t e d by p o o r l y  b u r i e d o r c a r e l e s s l y d i s c a r d e d f i s h e n t r a i l s were s t a t e d t o be a p r o b l e m at Missezula  ( L . 4 2 ) , K e n t u c k y ( L . 0 6 ) , D u f f y (L.51) and Roche (L.44) l a k e s .  Garbage and sewage d i s p o s a l d i r e c t l y i n t o the l a k e s and a l s o o n t o d r y l a n d , t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n e v i t a b l e a e s t h e t i c i m p a c t , was n o t e d a t the majority of locations v i s i t e d .  Actual e u t r o p h i c a t i o n of the lakes  i n t h e S t u d y A r e a d i d n o t a p p e a r t o have r e a c h e d n o t i c e a b l e l e v e l s , though dense a l g a e growth was o b s e r v e d a t Salmon (L.22) and C h a i n L.35) l a k e s . However i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Beach Use R e c r e a t i o n may d e c l i n e i f , as i s p o s s i b l e , a w i d e s p r e a d d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f w a t e r q u a l i t y s h o u l d o c c u r i n t h e f u t u r e (B.C. P a r k s . 1973B). I t would seem i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e s e problems w i l l i n c r e a s e i f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t e n c o u r a g e s use beyond t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a b i l i t y of the s p e c i f i c area.  The Chimney Lake S t u d y ( K a r l s e n .  1971)  s u g g e s t s t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f l a r g e r l a k e s be l i m i t e d t o a r a t i o o f one p a r k i n g space f o r day use o r o v e r n i g h t camping t o e v e r y 2% a c r e s o f w a t e r o r 5 a c r e s i n s m a l l e r l a k e s .  C l e a r l y 165 r e c r e a t i o n  ' u n i t s ' a r o u n d Tunkwa Lake ( L . 1 3 ) ( 4 8 6 a c r e s ) and L e i g h t o n Lake (L.14) (205 a c r e s ) r e c o r d e d on S a t u r d a y A u g u s t 1 s t , o r t h e r e p o r t e d 150-200 campers t h a t a r r i v e o v e r l o n g weekends a t Roche Lake (L.44) (384 a c r e s ) , r e p r e s e n t use l e v e l e d g i n g v e r y c l o s e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l o v e r l o a d . Permanent R e s i d e n c e The a b s e n c e o f ' s t a y l i m i t s ' has r e s u l t e d i n a s e r i o u s abuse o f use p r i v i l e g e s a t both F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments and 'Uninc o r p o r a t e d ' R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s ( a t which t h e r e i s no o f f i c i a l management).  recreation  I n d i v i d u a l s and groups move i n as 'permanent r e s i d e n t s ' ,  both f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e summer s e a s o n and f o r t h e whole y e a r .  By  v i r t u e o f improved a c c e s s q u a l i t y i t i s f a i r l y s i m p l e f o r a l a r g e camper o r t r a i l e r t o g a i n e n t r y t o - a r e c r e a t i o n a r e a and be l e f t t h e r e f o r t h e whole o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n s e a s o n .  A t Q u i l t a n t o n Lake (L.12) two  77 permanently entrenched  campers d i s p l a y i n g 'For S a l e ' s i g n s were seen on  a Lands Branch U.R.E.P. r e s e r v e .  A t Roche Lake (L.44) an A i r s t r e a m  t r a i l e r w i t h U.S. l i c e n c e p l a t e s had r e p o r t e d l y been i n r e s i d e n c e f o r the t h r e e months p r e c e e d i n g  the f i e l d study p e r i o d .  The owner o f t h i s  t r a i l e r had n o t o n l y been i n r e s i d e n c e f b r t h e d u r a t i o n , b u t had a l s o b u i l t h i m s e l f a s u b s t a n t i a l f i s h smoking s h a c k .  A t both Tunkwa (L.13)  and K e n t u c k y (L.06) l a k e s , t r a i l e r s were seen w i t h s e v e r a l weeks wood s u p p l y p i l e d a l o n g s i d e , waste w a t e r d i s p o s a l p i p e s l a i d down and t e l e v i s i o n a e r i a l s attached to trees.  I t was ajlso r e p o r t e d by one o f  the owners o f t h e Tunkwa Lake F i s h i n g Camp, Mrs. Doreen Summers, t h a t a f a m i l y who own a camper p e r m a n e n t l y l o c a t e d a t t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development by L e i g h t o n Lake (L.14) a c t u a l l y a d v e r t i s e i t i n the V a n c o u v e r Sun, f o r w e e k l y r e n t a l . The Roche Lake Land Use P l a n r e c o g n i s e s t h i s p r o b l e m and recommends t h a t a 14 day l i m i t be p l a c e d on a l l s t a y s a t F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments (Kamloops .1976).  The F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s a p p a r e n t l y  i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g l i m i t s , and t h e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be used t o e n f o r c e  type o f  them.  Overfishing T h i s s u b j e c t has a l r e a d y been l a b o u r e d i n c h a p t e r 3 and w i l l t h e r e f o r e n o t be c o v e r e d h e r e i n d e t a i l .  However, i t c a n n o t be o v e r -  emphasised t h a t v i r t u a l l y e v e r y e x p e r t f l y f i s h e r m a n  interviewed during >  the f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d f e l t t h a t t h e r e had been a marked d e t e r i o r a t i o n , o v e r t h e l a s t two d e c a d e s , i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e b e t t e r f i s h a v a i l a b l e  77a Diagram  ANNUAL  RESIDENT  ( PERCENT  k.l  ANGLER  CHANGE  LICENCE  FROM  1963  PURCHASES BASE)  ZCHANGE  B . C . Total Total of Kamloops,  Merritt & Princeton  /  /  /  9  /  /  y~— 1963  YEAR "I 1965  1 1967  1 1969  1 1971  1 1973  1 1975  N o t e ; F i g u r e for 1 9 6 3 represents purchases during calendar year. A l l s u b s e q u e n t f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t p u r c h a s e s b e t w e e n A p r i l 1st o f t h e y e a r i n d i c a t e d a n d M a r c h 3 1 s t of t h e y e a r f o l l o w i n g .  Source" B. C  Fish & Wildlife Branch  78 from t h e S t u d y A r e a l a k e s .  The d e t e r i o r a t i o n has a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y been  due t o t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e s  on t h e a r e a as i n d i c a t e d  by t h e r a t e o f f i s h i n g l i c e n c e p u r c h a s e growth ( s e e d i a g r a m s 4.1 and 4 . 2 ) . The g e n e r a l  f e e l i n g i n t h e a r e a , e x p r e s s e d most c o n c i s e l y by  J a c k Shaw, a u t h o r , f i s h e r m a n , and a t t h a t t i m e , manager o f t h e f i s h i n g s e c t i o n o f B u r f i e l d s S p o r t Shop i n Kamloops, was t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d a need to e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l a k e ' s c a p a c i t y t o r e p r o d u c e and t h e number o f f i s h e r m e n a l l o w e d t o use i t . I t was f e l t t h a t i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h very, s p e c i f i c c a p a c i t y o r ' o u t p u t ' s t a n d a r d s f o r l a k e s i n t h e a r e a , based on l a k e s i z e and f o o d p r o d u c t i v i t y , and t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  s h o u l d be used t o s u g g e s t t h e c o r r e c t  size o f recreational f a c i l i t y provided imposed on i n d i v i d u a l  and thus i n f l u e n c e t h e p r e s s u r e s  lakes.  Public/Private Sector C o n f l i c t I f i t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t r o l e s o f any r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m i s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a v a r i e t y and r a n g e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunity,  then i t must a l s o be a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e r e i s an  for p r i v a t e development i n the l e i s u r e f i e l d . ment o r g a n i s a t i o n  importantsrole  T h e r e i s no way t h a t a g o v e r n -  could d u p l i c a t e the superb q u a l i t y o f c u i s i n e a v a i l a b l e  a t P e t e r McVey's C o r b e t t Lake C o u n t r y I n n , t h e l u x u r y o f T i m T u l l i s ' s Hatheume Lake Lodge, o r t h e back c o u n t r y charm o f Q i c j ^ M c M a s t e r ' s S u r r e y Lake F i s h i n g Camp.  Y e t , t h e r e i s a danger t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d e v e l o p -  ment and e x p e n d i t u r e s ,  and a b r o a d e n i n g o f f a c i l i t y s t a n d a r d s i n both  the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s , t h e r e w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be an i n t e r s e c t o r a T c l a s h , t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f which a r e a l r e a d y i n e v i d e n c e .  I t was  78a Diagram k.2 ANNUAL NON RESIDENT ANGLER LICENCE PURCHASES (PERCENT CHANGE FROM 1963 BASE)  1 2 0  J  y. CHANGE B . C . Total T o t a l of K a m l o o p s , M e r r i t t & P r i n c e t o n  / *  10O-|  / /  /  /  /"  80-I  / / / / /  60-|  /  i  !' i•  s  f \ /' * / *  40-I  /  \\  \ 20  i  i I  I  / /  1 /  • 20-1  •  \  ,  ,  V''  1  1  ,  YEAR  1963  1965  1967  1969  1971  1973  1975  ¥  ,  N o t e : F i g u r e for 1 9 6 3 r e p r e s e n t s p u r c h a s e s d u r i n g t h e c a l e n d a r y e a r . A l l s u b s e q u e n t figures r e p r e s e n t p u r c h a s e s b e t w e e n A p r i l 1st o f t h e y e a r i n d i c a t e d a n d M a r c h 31st of t h e year f o l l o w i n g .  Source:  B . C . Fish & Wildlife Branch  79 t h e c o n s t a n t c o m p l a i n t o f commercial  r e s o r t managers and owners w i t h i n  t h e Study A r e a t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n from t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r was making a tough b u s i n e s s h a r d e r .  I t was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a c c e s s improvement i n t o ,  and f r e e c a m p s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t a t , l a k e s t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y t h e assumed p r e s e r v e o f a p a r t i c u l a r r e s o r t was making i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e commercial  o p e r a t i o n t o p r o v i d e camping f a c i l i t i e s as  a n y t h i n g o t h e r than a l o s s l e a d e r . tended t o encourage  The same a c c e s s improvement a l s o  o v e r - f i s h i n g and t h e s u b s e q u e n t  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e on which t h e commercial  d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the  o p e r a t i o n was  dependent.  The c o n f l i c t problem was m a i n l y seen t o be o f c o n c e r n a t the lower end o f t h e commercial  f a c i l i t y q u a l i t y spectrum,  Chataway Lakes  F i s h i n g Camp and B o l e a n Lakes F i s h i n g Camps, f o r example.  These being  the a r e a s p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n t r o d u c e d by t h e  govern-  ment a g e n c i e s . I t was made c l e a r i n s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s t h a t i f the Study  Area  was t o c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e a f u l l y d i v e r s e range o f r e c r e a t i o n opport u n i t i e s , t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r s h o u l d be encouraged  t o c o n c e n t r a t e on  p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s and f a c i l i t y s t y l e s , t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r ( s t r e n g t h e n e d perhaps by some government s u b s i d y ) on d i f f e r e n t f a c i l i t y t y p e s and a r e a s o u t s i d e the scope o f t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r . l i n e s s h o u l d be drawn between t h e  I t was f e l t t h a t c l e a r  two.  Control To undermanage r e a l i i t y i s not t o keep i t f r e e .  I t i s simply to  l e t some f o r c e r a t h e r than r e a s o n shape r e a l i t y (B.C. L e i s u r e . 1973). i s a p p a r e n t from the p r o b l e m s o u t l i n e d above t h a t i n k e e p i n g t h e Study  It  80  A r e a ' f r e e ' from management c o n t r o l s i t i s i n d a n g e r o f d e t e r i o r a t i n g as a r e c r e a t i o n a l environment.  C o n t r o l s t h a t m i g h t f a c i l i t a t e more e f f i c i e n t  management and hence a b e t t e r r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t were s u g g e s t e d several occasions during the f i e l d study  on  period.  Road A c c e s s One o f the major c o n c e r n s  expressed  by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e r s  i n the S t u d y A r e a was t h a t o f p u b l i c a c c e s s . have t o b u i l d r o a d s i n o r d e r to l o g .  Logging  companies o f  These r o a d s a r e a t p r e s e n t  open once l o g g i n g i s c o m p l e t e , o f t e n because o f p r e s s u r e s f r o m and f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s .  course  left hunting  However c e r t a i n F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e r s e x p r e s s e d  a d e s i r e to 'put the r o a d s t o b e d . 1  Precedents  have been s e t f o r removing  c u l v e r t s , e f f e c t i v e l y b l o c k i n g f o r e s t r o a d s ; and i t was t h o u g h t t h a t a l l l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t s s h o u l d have w r i t t e n i n t o them, a c l a u s e demanding the r i p p i n g o u t and r e - s e e d i n g o f both r o a d s and l a n d i n g s .  Representatives  f r o m both Crown Z e l l e r b a c h and Gorman B r o t h e r s a t the Pennask Lake Coordinated  Land Use m e e t i n g s u p p o r t e d  t h i s view, s e e i n g i t as an e f f e c -  t i v e way o f r e d u c i n g v a n d a l i s m and e v n i r o n m e n t a l  abuse.  A t t h e moment t h e o n l y a c c e s s l i m i t a t i o n t o o l i n use i s t h a t o f ignorance.  R e c r e a t i o n i s t s u s i n g the more remote a r e a s tend to be l o c a l  r e s i d e n t s , and hence r e l y on l o c a l knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n The l a c k o f s i g n p o s t i n g on the m a j o r i t y o f u n s u r f a c e d s e r i o u s d e t e r r e n t t o the t r a n s i e n t .  flows.  roads remains a  However, i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e  for  s i g n p o s t i n g was r e p o r t e d and d i r e c t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( f i s h i n g maps e t c . ) i s now more w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e .  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a s t e p p e d up  signposting  81 and map p r o d u c t i o n program w i l l t a k e p l a c e ( M a r s h a l l . 1975).  Unless  t h i s i s i n someway b a l a n c e d by r o a d removal and a c c e s s m a n i p u l a t i o n , the problems o b s e r v e d a t many o f t h e l a k e s i n t h e S t u d y A r e a w i l l be d i s p e r s e d e v e n t u a l l y t o a l l t h o s e l a k e s t h a t a r e now p r o t e c t e d by t h e i r remoteness.  The m a n i p u l a t i o n o f a c c e s s need n o t be seen as a l o c k i n g  away o f r e s o u r c e s which ought t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c , b u t i n c e r t a i n c a s e s t h e o n l y way t h a t an u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e and v u l n e r a b l e ecosystems  may be p r e s e r v e d .  Behavioural Control I t was r e p e a t e d l y s u g g e s t e d d u r i n g t h e f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d a need f o r s t r o n g e r law e n f o r c e m e n t p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n management a g e n c i e s .  c a p a c i t y from t h e  W i t h o u t t h e s e c o n t r o l s , van-  d a l i s m , f l o u t i n g o f t h e B.C. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t and abuse o f c a t c h l i m i t would remain w i d e s p r e a d .  Although l o c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n M e r r i t t  have a r r a n g e d f o r d a i l y p a t r o l s and e d u c a t i o n a l programs d u r i n g both t h e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g s e a s o n s , and even w i t h t h e p r e s e n c e o f some p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s who c l a i m t o have t a k e n wrong d o e r s t o t h e R.C.M.P., t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g was t h a t e x i s t i n g b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l s were i n a d e q u a t e . Data An o n g o i n g problem i n t h i s , and i n f a c t v i r t u a l l y e v e r y , r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t was t h e p a u c i t y o f a v a i l a b l e a c c u r a t e u s e d a t a .  The Parks  Branch d a t a on parks use i s c o m p i l e d from d i f f e r e n t c o l l e c t i o n mechanisms, i n d i f f e r e n t y e a r s and a t d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . Some o f t h e use d a t a i s  82  d e r i v e d from mechanical  c o u n t i n g machines r e c o r d i n g v e h i c l e  and, some o f the d a t a i s d e r i v e d from 'manual' head c o u n t s i n d i v i d u a l campers.  attendance recording  F o r e s t S e r v i c e d a t a on c a m p s i t e use i s a c c u m u l a t e d  not by any c o u n t i n g d e v i c e , but f r o m v i s u a l e s t i m a t e s taken o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t s t o the c a m p s i t e s  during  by F o r e s t S e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l .  At  some o f the s m a l l e r d e v e l o p m e n t s , use l e v e l s a r e e s t i m a t e d s o l e l y a c c o r d i n g to the a c c u m u l a t i o n gathered  of garbage.  The i n a c c u r a c y o f the d a t a  by t h e s e means i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by the e s t i m a t e s g i v e n by a  F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e r o f camper use a t t h r e e s m a l l l a k e s i n the S t u d y Area.  Chain  ( L . 3 5 ) , L i n k (L.36) and O s p r e y (L.37) l a k e s , w h i c h have a  combined c a p a c i t y f o r a b o u t twenty campers a t any one time.  The  officer  e s t i m a t e d t h a t use o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e d e v e l o p m e n t s a t t h e s e  lakes  exceeded 9000 i n d i v i d u a l s p e r y e a r , o r a b o u t t e n times more than  use  l e v e l e s t i m a t e s a t o t h e r l a k e s w i t h a s i m i l a r c a p a c i t y and use.  apparent  No i n f o r m a t i o n on use a t the commercial d e v e l o p m e n t s , the  'unincorporated'  r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s nor t h e highway r e s t s t o p was a v a i l a b l e .  In a d d i t i o n t o the p a u c i t y o f use d a t a , t h e r e were weaknesses i n d a t a r e l a t i n g t o l a n d use r e l i a b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n . T h e r e i s o n l y l i m i t e d c o i n c i d e n c e between Canada Land I n v e n t o r y s u i t a b i l i t y and a c t u a l r e c r e a t i o n a l use.  indicated recreational  P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch d a t a  c o l l e c t e d i n Kamloops f o r the S t u d y A r e a l a k e s had n o t , i n 1976 the l e v e l o f r e f i n e m e n t  reached  at which i t could i n d i c a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y ,  o r c o n d i t i o n d e t e r i o r a t i o n t r e n d s l i k e l y to cause a d e c l i n e i n r e c r e a tional suitability.  F u r t h e r m o r e i t became e v i d e n t t h a t v e r y  little  l i t e r a t u r e o r d a t a e x i s t s p e r t a i n i n g t o the growth o f c o t t a g i n g , and i t s  83  a l l i e d p r o b l e m s , i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t s e l f .  Yet t h i s i s a growing  p r o b l e m t h a t i s l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l mechanisms i n the  future. Without t h i s data i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to develop a  r e a l l y a c c u r a t e image o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use and problems i n t h e Study A r e a , o r p r o j e c t l i k e l y changes i n t h e f u t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e even t h e p o p u l a t i o n growth e s t i m a t e s have a l r e a d y p r o v e n t o be o f q u e s t i o n a b l e accuracy.  A t b e s t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o admit t o the e x i s t e n c e o f a  p r o b l e m w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o a c c u r a t e l y q u a n t i f y t h e e x t e n t o f the problem or e x t r a p o l a t e i t s f u t u r e r a m i f i c a t i o n s ,  FOOTNOTES  " I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from Dr. P . J . D o o l i n g , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r . Department o f F o s t e r y , U.B.C. V a n c o u v e r .  /  85  CHAPTER FIVE. S e c t i o n 5.1:  THREE ALTERNATIVE POLICY PLANS  Introduction  I t was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t h a t f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s would be described in t h i s chapter.  The f i r s t , a 'Do N o t h i n g  1  a p p r o a c h , was  have d e s c r i b e d a p l a n n i n g s c e n a r i o i n w h i c h the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s have c o n t i n u e d t o p u r s u e t h e i r s e p a r a t e o b j e c t i v e s and approaches.  to  would  operational  T h i s s c e n a r i o c o u l d s t i l l o c c u r i n a t i g h t e n i n g economy i f  i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n were not e f f e c t i v e l y enhanced by c u r r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanisms ( E . L . U . C , R e g i o n a l Committees e t c . ) .  R e s o u r c e Management  F i s h and W i l d l i f e m i g h t c o n t i n u e m a r g i n a l  increases to  i t s s t o c k i n g program as p u b l i c p r e s s u r e d i c t a t e d ; the F o r e s t S e r v i c e m i g h t s t a b i l i s e i t s R e c r e a t i o n Development program and P a r k s Branch m i g h t slow d e v e l o p m e n t because o f l o c a l agency a t t i t u d e s toward what has been d e s c r i b e d as 'empire b u i l d i n g ' . However, i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t though the 'Do N o t h i n g i s a very r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y , i t s environmental  scenario  and s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s  would be so d r a s t i c t h a t i t c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as a alternative.  1  I t would l e a d i n e v i t a b l y t o a d e c l i n e i n  reasonable environmental  q u a l i t y and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y as the S t u d y A r e a became i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e s s u r e d by more p o s t - b i c e n t e n n i a l t o u r i s t s f r o m the U.S.A., by  increased  f l o w s f r o m the l o w e r m a i n l a n d up the p r o p o s e d C o q u i h a l l a Highway and continued  l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n growth.  d e c l i n e , campsites  F i s h i n g q u a l i t y would  by  probably  d e t e r i o r a t e and an homogeneously p o o r r e c r e a t i o n c h a r -  a c t e r be imposed t h r o u g h o u t the S t u d y A r e a .  86 Having r e j e c t e d t h i s non-planning approach there remained three reasonable  a l t e r n a t i v e s as p o t e n t i a l p o l i c y p l a n s f o r f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n  d e v e l o p m e n t i n the Study A r e a .  One,  based on a p o s t u l a t e d  government  s c e n a r i o , the s e c o n d , r e l a t e d to the i d e a s o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y v o c a l segment o f the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g f r a t e r n i t y and the t h i r d , p e r d o m i n a n t l y the p r o d u c t o f i d e a s d e v e l o p e d by the a u t h o r d u r i n g and s i n c e the study p e r i o d . 1.  field  The t h r e e , i n o r d e r o f a p p e a r a n c e , a r e :  High P r o f i l e Development/Low o r L i m i t e d B e h a v i o u r a l  the Department o f Economic Development s c e n a r i o e m p h a s i s i n g  Control  -  tourism  d e v e l o p m e n t i n the S t u d y A r e a urban s e t t l e m e n t s , w i t h l i t t l e o r no c o n t r o l on the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h o s e r e c r e a t i o n i s t s who s p i l l o v e r from the urban c o r e a r e a s 2.  (B.C.I.P.A.  Medium P r o f i l e D e v e l o p m e n t / S i g n i f i c a n t  happen t o  1976) Behavioural  Control  -  an a p p r o a c h t h a t would e n c o u r a g e r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t on a d i s p e r s e d b a s i s , a l l i e d to a major i n c r e a s e i n c o e r c i v e behaviour c o n t r o l . 3.  Mixed Development A p p r o a c h / D i v e r s e B e h a v i o u r a l  a p o l i c y plan a l t e r n a t i v e that concentrates v a r i e t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l and b e h a v i o u r a l  A l l three are "described  -  on the p r o v i s i o n o f a  potentials.  I t attaches  i m p o r t a n c e to the c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e and s t r o n g l y c o e r c i v e demanded i n a l t e r n a t i v e s one and  Influences  less  techniques  two. i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , and i n e a c h  c a s e the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms w i l l be to the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 2.3.  The  subjected preferred  a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h e n f u r t h e r j u s t i f i e d i n s e c t i o n 7.1, and a p p l i e d to the Study Area i n s e c t i o n  7.2.  87 S e c t i o n 5.2:  P o l i c y P l a n One:  High P r o f i l e Development/Low o r  Limited Behavioural  Control  T h i s p o l i c y p l a n i s based upon the model f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  develop-  ment p r o p o s e d i n 'The C e n t r a l R e p o r t 76' (B.C.I.P.A.1976), the most r e c e n t o f the p r o v i n c e ' s economic d e v e l o p m e n t summary r e p o r t s .  This report  p o s t u l a t e s a p a r t i c u l a r development format f o r r e c r e a t i o n development i n a r e g i o n c o v e r i n g most o f t h e S t u d y A r e a .  The main emphasis o f t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h l i e s on the economic d e v e l o p m e n t o f the r e g i o n by t h e r a p i d improvement o f t o u r i s m f a c i l i t i e s .  I t i s however o n l y a p o s t u l a t e d  a p p r o a c h and so s h o u l d not be seen as an o f f i c i a l v e r s i o n o f government p o l i c y , nor s h o u l d i t be e x p e c t e d P o l i c y P l a n s Two and T h r e e .  to be d e s c r i b e d i n as much d e t a i l as  The C e n t r a l R e p o r t 76 (B.C.I.P.A.  1976)  s i m p l y d i d not commit a g r e a t deal o f e n e r g y o r d e t a i l to i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of recreation. Policy Objectives In t h a t s e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t w h i c h d e t a i l s the p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s , the ' P r o f i l e Two'  a p p r o a c h recommends the  encouragement o f r e c r e a t i o n 'Core' a r e a s .  In the S t u d y A r e a s  'Cores' a r e Kamloops and M e r r i t t , and would p r e s u m a b l y i n c l u d e  these Princeton  ( o u t s i d e the ' C e n t r a l R e p o r t ' s t u d y a r e a ) i f such a P o l i c y P l a n were adopted.  The r e p o r t sees the need, f i r s t l y , f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  s i g n i f i c a n t t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s i n t h e s e urban 'Core' a r e a s , each e v e n t u a l l y h a v i n g a f u l l complement o f t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . Secondly,  f o r the implementation  o f government i n i t i a t i v e s aimed a t  88  d i v e r s i f y i n g and s t a b i l i s i n g t h e economies o f t h e s e c o n d a r y communities and r u r a l a r e a s . The r e p o r t assumes t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l  government  would p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l and m a n a g e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t o u r i s t  accommodation  and s e r v i c e s o p e r a t o r s , and would a l s o h e l p l o c a l and r e g i o n a l g r o u p s d e v e l o p and promote f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t would a t t r a c t and hold v i s i t o r s during a year long r e c r e a t i o n a l season. T h i s a t t e m p t a t m a x i m i s i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n r e l a t e d economic growth of the a r e a e m p h a s i s e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n o r s e m i - u r b a n f a c i l i t i e s . I t would a l s o i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e a c o n c e r t e d r o a d b u i l d i n g program, from the C o q u i h a l l a highway down t o an u p g r a d i n g o f t h e s e c o n d a r y r o a d network ( s e e map 5.1).  These r o a d d e v e l o p m e n t s would open up more o f t h e  S t u d y A r e a t o r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and would p r e s u m a b l y be accompanied by a g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l Highways Department i n r e c r e a t i o n a l development.  More Highway R e s t S t o p s would be r e q u i r e d , b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s  a t t h e s e R e s t S t o p s and p e r h a p s even t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s p a c e f o r o v e r n i g h t campers, b e c a u s e i n c r e a s i n g l y t h e R e s t S t o p s a r e b e i n g used u n o f f i c i a l l y for over night stays. T h i s a c c e s s improvement would add impetus t o t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Development program, e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r d i s p e r s i v e a p p r o a c h and p r o b a b l y demanding a s t e p p e d up s i g n p o s t i n g a l o n g t h e u p g r a d e d r o a d system.  The p o l i c y p l a n would a l s o a c t t o s t i m u l a t e t h e P a r k s Branch i n t o  e x p a n d i n g t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s t o cope w i t h t h e i n f l u x o f t o u r i s t t r a f f i c a t t r a c t e d by t h e urban ' C o r e s ' . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s f o r p o l i c y p l a n One, i n accordance with the e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n , r e v e a l s the  ROAD ACCESS.  Map 5.1  M A P 5.1 R O A D '—.  ACCESS  Paved Roads Loose  Surface  Rough R o a d s •  • ©©Proposed route of Coquihalla Highway  88a  89  f o l l o w i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses: Conservation  Ethic  A l t h o u g h P o l i c y P l a n One e n c o u r a g e s urban o r i e n t e d d e v e l o p m e n t , i t would i n e v i t a b l y a t t r a c t s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f v i s i t o r s t o f o r c e an o v e r s p i l l i n t o an a l r e a d y crowded n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t f o r w h i c h no a d d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n i s a d v o c a t e d . S o c i a l Well  Being  In one s e n s e the p o l i c y p l a n adds to the d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunity  i n t h a t i t would p r o v i d e a whole new r a n g e o f urban a t t r a c t i o n s .  However the a r e a i s now a t t r a c t i v e t o the t o u r i s t and the l o c a l r e s i d e n t , not because o f i t s urban a m e n i t i e s ,  but b e c a u s e o f i t s s p o r t s - f i s h i n g .  Urban a t t r a c t i o n s a r e a l m o s t i r r e l e v a n t .  In the l o n g term s p i l l - o v e r  from the 'Core' a r e a s w i l l l i k e l y c a u s e an h o m o g e n i s a t i o n o f non-urban recreation  opportunities.  The p l a n v i s u a l i s e s the government t a k i n g on a more preneuring'  'entre-  r o l e , w i t h permanent a g e n c i e s much more a c t i v e i n a n t i c i p a t i n g  and g u i d i n g t h e demand f o r , and s u p p l y of, s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . a l s o appears to c a l l f o r g r e a t e r development, supported  It  by government  f u n d i n g and a d v i c e , w i t h i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , e s p e c i a l l y o f t h o s e accommodations and s e r v i c e s t h a t would l e n g t h e n  the r e c r e a t i o n s e a s o n .  I t would seem t h a t the p u r s u i t o f both t h e s e a i m s , government i n v o l v e m e n t i n r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t and an upgraded p r i v a t e s e c t o r , could r e s u l t in a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n .  At the same t i m e , any  increased  i n t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t m i g h t p r e c i p i t a t e c o n f l i c t between the r e c r e a t i o n  90  and the n o n - r e c r e a t i o n  sectors.  A fore-taste of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n f l i c t  i s seen i n the p r o t e s t s d i r e c t e d a t I r o n M o u n t a i n R e s o r t , an h o t e l / c o n d o m i n i u m / c o n f e r e n c e c e n t r e p r o p o s e d f o r l o c a t i o n on r a n g e l a n d M e r r i t t (Kamloops S e n t i n e l . 12.8.76). r e s o r t would p r o b a b l y i n the a r e a . Well  being.  near  The a c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s  i n s t i g a t e the a c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n o f r a n c h i n g  T h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t does not s t r e n g t h e n  interests  social  However, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t P o l i c y P l a n One p r o b a b l y  has  the h i g h e s t b e n e f i c i a l impact o f the t h r e e , i n terms o f l o c a l income generation. Equitable Treatment The i l o l i c y p l a n would p r o v i d e f o r the t o u r i s t , and f o r the f i n a n c i n g o f l o c a l l y owned r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s .  However, t h i s does not  g u a r a n t e e t h a t i n the l o n g term l o c a l use p a t t e r n s would n o t be s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by the t o u r i s t o r i e n t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s , the p r o b a b l e  increase in  c o t t a g i n g and the c o n s e q u e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n s .  It is  p o s s i b l e t h a t the n e t s o c i a l c o s t s o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t to l o c a l r e s i d e n t s may  e x c e e d n e t t o t a l b e n e f i t s i n c l u d i n g s h o r t term l o c a l  income g e n e r a t i o n .  C o s t s may  the monetary b e n e f i t s may  be f e l t by a l l l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , whereas  be l i m i t e d s o l e l y t o t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s who  are  already involved in servicing t o u r i s t s . Implementary Mechanisms A l t h o u g h i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms o t h e r than an emphasis on g o v e r n ment f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , are not c o v e r e d assumed t h a t , o t h e r than the n o n - c o e r c i v e  i n the C e n t r a l R e p o r t , i t can  be  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the 'Core' a r e a s  91 ( c o n t r o l l i n g use i n r u r a l a r e a s by e m p h a s i s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n urban a r e a s ) , the main i m p l e m e n t a r y emphasis w i l l be t h r o u g h e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanisms and on c o e r c i v e c o n t r o l s . Control  Effectiveness As t h e p o l i c y p l a n s t a n d s i n t h e r e p o r t , i t c o n t a i n s no demand  f o r o v e r t c o e r c i o n and c o u l d thus be c o n s i d e r e d  ' a c c e p t a b l e ' by a m a j o r i t y  o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . However w h e t h e r t h i s l a c k o f c o n t r o l w o u l d , i n t h e l o n g term, p r o v e ' a c c e p t a b l e ' , depends on how e f f e c t i v e e x i s t i n g c o n t r o l s were a t h a n d l i n g f u t u r e p r e s s u r e s .  W i t h o u t i n c r e a s e d r e s o u r c e s i t would  seem u n l i k e l y t h a t the government a g e n c i e s would be a b l e to h a n d l e the o v e r s p i l l f r o m t h e 'Core' a r e a s .  E x i s t i n g c o n t r o l s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  mechanisms t h e r e f o r e m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d  ' a c c e p t a b l e ' , but c e r t a i n l y not  effective. Cost E f f e c t i v e n e s s Nowhere i n the r e p o r t i s m e n t i o n made o f l i k e l y s o u r c e s f o r f i n a n c i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanisms t h a t would be n e c e s s a r y i n c r e a s e d government i n v o l v e m e n t costs of t h i s involvement  i m p l i e d i n the r e p o r t .  to arrange  the  Nor w h e t h e r the  would o u t w e i g h the b e n e f i t s g a i n e d f r o m i t .  U n t i l more f i n a n c i a l d e t a i l i s a v a i l a b l e i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o make a s p e c i f i c judgement on t h i s m a t t e r .  However i t would not be u n r e a s o n a b l e  t o assume t h a t the i n c r e a s e d demand f o r , and d i s p e r s i o n o f , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s m i g h t p l a c e s e r i o u s , and hence c o s t i n e f f e c t i v e , p r e s s u r e s a l r e a d y s t r a i n e d manpower, u n l e s s l o c a l coopted  ' f r e e ' o r g a n i s a t i o n s can  i n t o the c o n t r o l s - m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s  on  be  ( p a t r o l s , c r e e l checks, e t c . ) .  92 Efficacy in achieving desired distributional objectives The ' C e n t r a l R e p o r t  '76' has as one o f i t s p r i m a r y a i m s , the  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t y i n t o the s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s and rural areas.  P o l i c y P l a n One m i g h t t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d t o have t h e  p o t e n t i a l f o r r e d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g from r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m .  However, i t would seem more l i k e l y t h a t the  i n j e c t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l government f i n a n c i n g i n t o the p r i v a t e s e c t o r as a d e v e l o p m e n t mechanism would e n c o u r a g e t h e 'have's', p o s s i b l y t o the d e t r i m e n t o f the 'have-nots'.  In as much as the o t h e r  implementary  mechanisms assumed i n P o l i c y P l a n One would be no d i f f e r e n t from  those  c u r r e n t l y i n use, the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f e c t s would be no b e t t e r , nor any worse than a t p r e s e n t .  N e i t h e r would the c a p a b i l i t y t o a l t e r the  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s be changed. S e c t i o n 5.3:  P o l i c y P l a n Two.  Medium P r o f i l e  Development/Significant  Behavioural Control. Policy Objectives P o l i c y P l a n Two would e n c o u r a g e a lower p r o f i l e approach r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t than t h a t p r o p o s e d  i n P o l i c y P l a n One,  concen-  t r a t i n g l a r g e l y on t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and teristics.  to  charac-  However, i t would n o t i g n o r e the f a c t s p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n  1.2; t h a t the Study Area i s s u b j e c t t o m a j o r . p o p u l a t i o n and extraction pressures.  resource  P o l i c y P l a n Two would t h e r e f o r e have as i t s prime  p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e , the e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a b s o r p t i o n o f l i k e l y f u t u r e i n c r e a s e d i n t o u r i s t and l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n needs.  This absorption  93 would be p l a n n e d  i n such a way as t o m i n i m i s e c o n t a c t between r e c r e a t i o n i s t s  and o t h e r r e s o u r c e u s e r s .  I t i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t i s f i r m l y based upon  the o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d both i n t h e Roche Lake Land Use P l a n (Kamloops. 1976)  and t h e B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e  M o r a t o r i u m S t u d y (B.C. P a r k s .  1954B),  o b j e c t i v e s t h a t c o u l d be a d o p t e d and t u i l i s e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . As t h e emphasis i n P o l i c y P l a n Two i s on i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanism, t h e r e w i l l be no s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n t o t h e p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s ; o t h e r than t o emphasise t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s would be compatible  w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a c o n s e r v a t i o n e t h i c , s o c i a l w e l l b e i n g and  equitable  treatment.  Implementary Mechanisms In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n and s o c i a l w e l l b e i n g , P o l i c y P l a n Two would be d e p e n d e n t p r i m a r i l y upon t h e use o f c o e r c i v e b e h a v i o u r a l  controls.  The i n s t i t u t i o n  o f such c o n t r o l s f o r r e c r e a t i o n - m a n a g e m e n t has r e c e i v e d s t r o n g s u p p o r t i n recreation planning l i t e r a t u r e : The q u a l i t y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s under i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e f r o m both i n d u s t r y and t o u r i s m . . . w i l l need t o implement strong controls i f d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s not to continue. (B.C.I.T. and C. 1971:  p. 13)  . . . p e o p l e have t o be g u i d e d , i n s t r u c t e d , c o e r c e d and somehow made t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a s p e c i f i c park ( o r o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t ) was d e s i g n e d f o r a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e as s e t f o r t h by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f o r no o t h e r p u r p o s e . ( D o e l l and T w a r d z i k . 1972. p. 251)  94 ... by 1980: p r o h i b i t i o n o f use o f cans and g l a s s i n w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n areas; ... by 1985: r e c r e a t i o n i s t s w i l l be a c c e p t i n g r e s t r i c t i v e management p r o c e d u r e s and the a l t e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use; . . . by 1990: r e c r e a t i o n a l boat s i z e r e s t r i c t e d on a l l p u b l i c w a t e r b o d i e s ; . . . by 2000: a l l m o t o r i s e d v e h i c l e s e x c l u d e d f r o m h u n t i n g a r e a s d u r i n g the hunting season. ( S h a f e r , M o e l l e r and G e t t y . The c o e r c i v e a p p r o a c h has now been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d .  1974) Michigan  S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y h a v i n g r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d a Park and R e c r e a t i o n  Law  E n f o r c e m e n t I n s t i t u t e , and t h e R.C.M.P. f e a t u r e d as g u e s t s p e a k e r s 5 1 '  at a  recent wildland recreation conference.  '  F u r t h e r m o r e , when such c o n -  t r o l s , g e n e r a l l y r e l a t i n g to r a t i o n i n g o r t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f u s e r s , have been implemented, t h e y have been r e c e i v e d w i t h r e m a r k a b l y l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n from the p u b l i c .  The U.S.  Forest Service  has c o n d u c t e d some s t u d i e s on  whether r e c r e a t i o n a l managers f e l t t h a t t h e y were a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l behaviour (Oregon 1968).  through  the i m p o s i t i o n o f r u l e s and  regulations  Most managers f e l t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s t s would r e s i s t and  r e s e n t any such l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e i r f r e e d o m s . Service questioned  Y e t when t h e U.S.  the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s t h e m s e l v e s , o u t d o o r u s e r s were f a r  more ready t o a c c e p t new and expanded r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s than expected  Forest  by the managers (Oregon 1968).  was  R a t i o n i n g systems i n t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y met w i t h g r e a t e r s u c c e s s and a c c e p t a n c e managers o r i g i n a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d (Lucy Fox. 1976).  than  Hendee and Lucas  arrived at a similar conclusion: . . . s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t most w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s f a v o u r , o r a t l e a s t do not o b j e c t t o , the c o n c e p t o f mandatory p e r m i t s , r e g i s t r a t i o n or r e l a t e d c o n t r o l s . (Hendee and Lucas. 1973.  p.  207)  95 Thus i t would seem t h a t t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f P o l i c y P l a n Two i n the S t u d y A r e a , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t r i c t c a p a c i t y l e v e l s a t each r e c r e a t i o n l o c a l e and t h e i r i m p o s i t i o n , u s i n g r a t i o n i n g , o r r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m s , m i g h t have a s i g n i f i c a n t chance o f s u c c e s s .  To check  t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s , t h e i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms a r e e v a l u a t e d according to the e s t a b l i s h e d C r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n : Control  Effectiveness I t has a l r e a d y been d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r a t i o n i n g mechanisms  were more r e a d i l y a c c e p t a b l e t h a n m i g h t be e x p e c t e d .  Their acceptability  m i g h t be s t i l l f u r t h e r upgraded i f t h e p u b l i c were e d u c a t e d t o t h i n k o f such r a t i o n i n g m e r e l y as an e x t e n s i o n o f c o n t r o l s a l r e a d y imposed h u n t e r s and f i s h e r m e n .  upon  However, a r e c e n t s t u d y ( L u c y Fox. 1976) d i d  i n d i c a t e t h a t amongst b a c k - p a c k e r s i n Manning Park, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 53 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e q u e s t i o n e d i n f a c t r e a c t e d n e g a t i v e l y t o t h e i d e a o f rationing.  F u r t h e r m o r e , the B.C. P a r k s Branch now r e c e i v e s a g r e a t e r  p r o p o r t i o n o f c o m p l a i n t s r e l a t e d to e x c e s s i v e c o n t r o l s , g a t e h o u s e r e g i s t r a t i o n , c a m p s i t e a s s i g n m e n t and h i g h p r o f i l e p r e s e n c e o f warden p a t r o l s , than 1976).  complaints r e l a t e d to vandalism o r campsite d i s t u r b a n c e s (Jordan. In h e a v i l y used r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s b e h a v i o u r a l v i o l a t i o n s  w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e t o o c c u r when park r u l e s i n t e r f e r e w i t h what r e c r e a t i o n i s t s r e g a r d as t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o have a good time ( H a d i k i n . 1973).  When r u l e s i n t e n d e d t o r e g u l a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  man and the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e more s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f camping, h o s t i l i t y toward t h e r e s p o n s i b l e management i s a l 1 t o o commonplace. The s u c c e s s o f t h e U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e g i s t r a t i o n / r a t i o n i n g  96 s y s t e m has been l i m i t e d t o s p e c i f i c , l i m i t e d a c c e s s , w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s i n which use i s g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t o b a c k p a c k i n g (Washington and O r e g o n ) , canoeing  . (Boundary Waters Canoe A r e a ) (Hendee and L u c a s . 1972) o r  M o u n t a i n e e r i n g (Mt. M c K i n l e y N a t i o n a l P a r k ) ( H a r r i s o n . 1975).  Whether  such c o n t r o l s would be e f f e c t i v e i n a r e g i o n such as the Study A r e a i n which ease o f a c c e s s i s a p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( s e e map 5.1) i s a d i f f e r e n t matter.  W i t h o u t a l i m i t on e n t r y p o i n t s t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y no  way t h a t r a t i o n i n g o r r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s c o u l d be implemented  with  real e f f i c i e n c y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e c o n t r o l s a r e p u n i t i v e , r a t h e r than r e w a r d i n g , and d e s p i t e t h e d e m o n s t r a t e d s u c c e s s e s o f r a t i o n i n g systems i n t h e  U.S.,  i t i s n o t g u a r a n t e e d , w i t h o u t g r e a t e r - c o n t r o l on a c c e s s , t h a t t h e t e c h h i u q e s would be d i r e c t l y t r a n s f e r a b l e t o t h e S t u d y A r e a . r e c r e a t i o n a l p u b l i c u s i n g t h e s t u d y a r e a m i g h t be  The l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d significantly less  r e s p o n s i v e t o o v e r t c o e r c i o n ( w i t h o u t some p r o m i s e o f r e w a r d ) , t h a n t h e more h i g h l y e d u c a t e d , s o p h i s t i c a t e d and p r o b a b l y more e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e b a c k - p a c k e r s who use w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s .  Socio-economic  class  b e i n g one o f t h e prime i n f l u e n c e s on r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and m o t i v a t i o n ( C a t t o n . 1969). The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s t r o n g l y c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s o f b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l w i l l depend upon a r a d i c a l u p g r a d i n g o f t h e p o l i c e powers o f t h e agency f i e l d o p e r a t i v e s . Or a t l e a s t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e a v a i l a b l e number o f u n i f o r m e d f i e l d o p e r a t i v e s , v i s i b i l i t y v e r y o f t e n b e i n g an e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l on i t s own.  I f t h e e x i s t i n g c o n t r o l s on sewage and  garbage dumping, c a t c h l i m i t s , l o n g term r e s i d e n c e , a n t i - s o c i a l  behaviour  97  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  damaging r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e t o be  Park Wardens, F o r e s t S e r v i c e Rangers and M a i n t e n a n c e Men, F i s h and W i l d l i f e C o n s e r v a t i o n range o f powers.  enforced,  as w e l l as  O f f i c e r s must be p e r m i t t e d a  broader  Powers, w h i c h a c c o r d i n g to s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s , the  o f f i c e r s see as b e i n g n e c e s s a r y and w h i c h t h e y would be w i l l i n g t o a d o p t . Cross agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p o l i c e , r a t h e r than c i t i z e n ' s powers o f a r r e s t and more o b v i o u s  s u p p o r t f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t s , would a l l be  i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s i n the b r o a d e n i n g  o f a power base.  None o f t h e s e  powers a r e a v a i l a b l e t o the o p e r a t i v e s under e x i s t i n g agency e n a b l i n g acts.  Thus, b e f o r e t h e s e powers were a v a i l a b l e , and so b e f o r e P o l i c y  P l a n Two c o u l d be implemented, the B.C. and t h e B.C.  F o r e s t A c t , the B.C.  Parks A c t  F i s h and W i l d l i f e A c t would have to undergo m a j o r c h a n g e s .  The i n s t i t u t i o n o f r a t i o n i n g , r e g i s t r a t i o n and r e g i o n wide 'police' a c t i v i t y , although  p e r h a p s n e c e s s a r y , would r e q u i r e a m a s s i v e  increase in operational financing. v e h i c l e demands, p r o l o n g e d  I n c r e a s e d manpower, i n c r e a s e d  c o u r t a c t i v i t y and p r o b a b l y  increased capital  c o s t s ( r e g i s t r a t i o n s t a t i o n s , c h e c k p o i n t s e t c . ) , would a l l impose s t r a i n s on e x i s t i n g b u d g e t s .  However, w i t h o u t s t a i s f y i n g t h e s e n e e d s , the more  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e , and F i s h and W i l d l i f e p e r s o n n e l m i g h t be hampered by the a d d i t i o n o f new I t has been s u g g e s t e d  Tasks.  t h a t t h e s e e x t r a c o s t s c o u l d be met  c h a r g i n g f o r e n t r y t o the v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l l o c a l e s .  Charging  use would, i n a d d i t i o n , s u p p o r t an e q u i t y p r i n c i p l e (he who p a y s ) , i t m i g h t e n c o u r a g e more r e s p o n s i b l e b e h a v i o u r  by for  benefits,  (people are perhaps  more c a r e f u l w i t h s o m e t h i n g t h a t has a d o l l a r v a l u e a t t a c h e d t o i t ) , and  98 i t would e x e r t an i n v o l u n t a r y r a t i o n i n g e f f e c t .  However t h e  administra-  t i v e c o s t s o f c o l l e c t i n g such payments a r e v e r y h i g h , f u n d i n g would tend t o go t o t h o s e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t r e v e n u e f l o w back ( n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h o s e most i n n e e d ) , payments m i g h t i n d u c e e x c e s s  commer-  c i a l i s a t i o n and s o c i a l e x t e r n a l i t i e s ( p r e j u d i c e the p o o r ) , and c o u l d a l s o n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t t h e a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n any 5  rec-  2  r e a t i o n a l environment. ' However the most p e r t i n e n t argument a g a i n s t c h a r g i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n use i s t h a t a l t h o u g h e n t r a n c e f e e s have been used i n t h e U n i t e d s i n c e 1956,  o n l y a b o u t 10 per c e n t o f c o s t s a t f e e c h a r g i n g  States  recreation  l o c a t i o n s a r e c o v e r e d by r e v e n u e s d e r i v e d ; and o n l y 5 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l U.S.  National Parks S e r v i c e expenditures  a r e c o v e r e d by r e v e n u e s  from e n t r y f e e s . Efficacy in achieving desired d i s t r i b u t i o n a l objectives. The emphasis on c o e r c i v e mechanisms a d v o c a t e d  under P o l i c y P l a n  Two would expose the p l a n to the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c e r t a i n u s e r groups would be i n e q u i t a b l y t r e a t e d by ' p o l i c e ' a c t i o n o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l systems i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e p l a n .  However, t h e r e i s a l s o t h e d i s t i n c t  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t w i t h e f f e c t i v e c o e r c i o n the r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t would be b e t t e r e q u i p p e d t o s a t i s f y a l l u s e r s , w i t h e a c h group c o n t r o l l e d so t h a t i t s a c t i o n s would not d i s a d v a n t a g e  any o t h e r g r o u p ; and e x i s t i n g  c o s t and b e n e f i t s were more e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d .  99 S e c t i o n 5.4:  P o l i c y Plan Three.  Mixed Development A p p r o a c h / D i v e r s e  Behavioural Influences Behan, i n h i s p r o v o c a t i v e a r t i c l e " P o l i c e S t a t e W i l d e r n e s s " , r e j e c t s the type of c o e r c i v e a u t h o r i t a r i a n approach taken i n P o l i c y P l a n Two.  He s e n s e s 'a r u s t i c 1984-Big B r o t h e r B e a r i s w a t c h i n g us  s t e r n l y , i n which t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t r i s k s the l o s s o f a n o n y m i t y , 1  freedom and an unwelcome c o n t r o l by management a g e n c i e s (Behan. 1974). T h i s p o i n t o f view has some v a l i d i t y ( a l t h o u g h Behan does have a t e n d e n c y toward o v e r s t a t e m e n t ) , but a t t h e same t i m e t h e r e i s a need f o r s o m e t h i n g r a t h e r more e f f e c t i v e than Behan's 'Spontaneous R a t i o n i n g ' (when a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e becomes s u f f i c i e n t l y d e g r a d e d p e o p l e w i l l leave i t ? ) .  T h e r e i s a need t o d e v e l o p a w i l d e r n e s s management  t e c h n o l o g y t h a t can u n o b t r u s i v e l y c o n t r o l o r r e - d i s t r i b u t e t h e i m p a c t o f use w i t h i n a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s .  I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e number o f  u s e r s , but t h e i r i m p a c t on the w i l d l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t must be c o n t r o l l e d , and t h o s e uses c a u s i n g t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t which s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d o r r e d i s t r i b u t e d (Hendee. 1974). d e v i s e ways o f  The c h a l l e n g e i s t o  m a i n t a i n i n g d i v e r s i t y and q u a l i t y i n o u r r e c r e a t i o n a l  programs, on s m a l l budgets t h a t c o n t i n u e t o s h r i n k (Downing. 1975). In o t h e r words, i t becomes n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e some c o n t r o l o v e r accommodation, c o m p e t i t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a f l e x i b l e r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m w h i c h , by r e a s o n o f f i n a n c i a l and manpower l i m i t a t i o n s , would remain r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f l e g i t i m i s e d a u t h o r i t y . P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e , a t t h e same t i m e , r e c o g n i s e s t h a t W i l d l a n d s c a n n o t be managed f o r e v e r y o n e :  100 The c o s t . o f t a k i n g e v e r y o n e ' s p r e f e r e n c e s i n t o a c c o u n t m i g h t be p a r a l y s i s . . . worse, i t may r e s u l t i n grand o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e g o n e , o r i n i n e v i t a b l e damage to the e n v i r o n m e n t . ( W i l d a v s k y . 1967. p. 1127) I t a l s o r e l i e s on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r o l i s as much a p a r t o f t h e d e s i g n i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n t h e p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s as i t i s a p a r t o f t h e a c t u a l i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms.  N i n e t y p e r c e n t o f what  i s commonly l a b e l l e d v a n d a l i s m can be p r e v e n t e d t h r o u g h d e s i g n (Weinmayr. 1973).  P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e a t t e m p t s t o a c h i e v e i t s d e s i r e d p o l i c y outcome  t h r o u g h a f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d and d i v e r s e program o f p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and implementary  mechanisms.  Policy Objectives The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e would be t h e p r o v i s i o n of a range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l  opportunities:  M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones These zones would be e s t a b l i s h e d n e a r t h e major highways.  They  would be h e a v i l y p u b l i c i s e d and s i g n p o s t e d t o a t t r a c t t h e t r a n s i e n t , as w e l l as t h e c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n equipment u s e r f r o m amongst t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . The zones would be 'hardened' c o n s i d e r a b l y i n o r d e r t o w i t h s t a n d h i g h use p r e s s u r e s , and i n many r e s p e c t s would r e s e m b l e Douglas's 'Central' campsite: . . . m i g h t be l i t t l e more than a few s t e p s f r o m c i t y l i v i n g . . . f o r m a l l a y o u t , though a l l o w s f o r 'group camping' . . . f l u s h t o i l e t s , h o t showers, e l e c t r i c a l and w a t e r hook-ups . . . a g e n e r a l  101 s t o r e and l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s . M a j o r s i t e m o d i f i c a t i o n s . v e g e t a t i o n h a r d e n i n g , p a v i n g , b a r r i e r s , e t c . Must be n e a r a major r e c r e a t i o n a t t r a c t i o n . ( D o u g l a s . 1975. p. 136) A l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e use m i g h t be r e s t r i c t e d t o such z o n e s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e c r e a t i o n management s h o u l d a v o i d b e i n g c o - o p t e d by the v e r y t h i n g t h a t i t was o r i g i n a l l y meant to c o n t r o l and end up by p r o m o t i n g an a c t i v i t y t h a t i n f a c t needs r e s t r i c t i n g (Dunn. 1970).  Any such M a j o r  A t t r a c t i o n Zone would be l o c a t e d on a ' l a r g e ' l a k e , where speed b o a t i n g , water s k i i n g and 'meat' o r 'put and t a k e ' f i s h i n g were the norms.  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e  accepted  M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones  and P o l i c y  P l a n One's 'Cores' i s t h a t t h e f o r m e r would be based i n the r u r a l e n v i r o n ment t h a t i s the S t u d y A r e a ' s main use a r e a . Zone  The  Major  Attraction  a t t r a c t s the r e c r e a t i o n i s t t o an a r e a i n which he can s a t i s f y h i s  r e c r e a t i o n needs, and i n which h i s i m p a c t may be l e s s e n e d t h r o u g h d e s i g n . R a t h e r than t o an urban 'Core' t h a t m e r e l y p r o v i d e s t e m p o r a r y a p p e a l b e f o r e the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s p i l l s o u t i n t o an i l l - p r e p a r e d w i l d l a n d environment. Mid-Range A t t r a c t i o n Zones These zones would bear a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e x i s t i n g F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s t r i c t i o n A r e a s and the more p r i m i t i v e f i s h i n g camps. In such zones development would be k e p t 'low p r o f i l e ' and  'rustic',  though i t s h o u l d be emphasised t h a t f r e e F o r e s t S e r v i c e 'low p r o f i l e ' s h o u l d n o t be e n c o u r a g e d t o compete w i t h commercial ' r u s t i c ' .  Stocking  102 by F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f camping s i t e s , would n o t e x c e e d t h e c a p a c i t y o f each s p e c i f i c l a k e ( t o be d e t e r m i n e d a t t h e Master Planning Stage).  Small o u t b o a r d motors would be a l l o w e d , b u t  permanent r e s i d e n c e and garbage/sewage  disposal rigorously controlled.  The management agency, o r commercial o r g a n i s a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such a r e a s s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e camper t o pack o u t t h e i r own wastes ( t o c e n t r a l l y located disposal centres).  The Mid-Range A t t r a c t i o n Zone b e a r s  some s i m i l a r i t y t o D o u g l a s ' s ' F o r e s t ' camping a r e a , e m p h a s i s i n g a b l e n d i n g w i t h t h e n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , a s c a t t e r i n g o f camp s i t e s , c o n v e n i e n c e , p r i v a c y and some s i t e p r o t e c t i o n (camper p a r k i n g s p o t c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d by t a b l e l o c a t i o n o r l o g b a r r i e r s ) ( D o u g l a s . 1975). Minor A t t r a c t i o n  Zones  The most e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e a r e a s would be d e s i g n a t e d as M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones.  Such zones would be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by l i m i t e d  a c c e s s , e i t h e r on f o o t a l o n g h i k e - i n t r a i l s , o r by f o u r wheel  drive  v e h i c l e s a l o n g o l d l o g g i n g r o a d s k e p t i n a d e l i b e r a t e l y poor c o n d i t i o n . Around such zones t h e 1 0 - c h a i n r u l e would be s t r i c t l y a d h e r e d t o and t h e emphasis would be on h i g h q u a l i t y 'Trophy' f i s h i n g .  Lakes i n t h e  M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones would be c a r e f u l l y s t o c k e d t o e n s u r e l a r g e r f i s h p r o d u c t i o n , c a t c h l i m i t s m i g h t be s e t a t two f i s h p e r day and f i s h e r m e n c o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d t o u s i n g s i n g l e a r t i f i c i a l f l i e s .  Gas powered b o a t s  would be banned, and t h e o v e r a l l f i s h i n g a p p r o a c h e n c o u r a g e d i n t h e s e zones would be a d o p t e d as o f f i c i a l F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch p o l i c y . In terms o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n t h i s p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h can be j u d g e d as f o l l o w s :  103 Conservation  Ethic  By c o n c e n t r a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y a t 'hardened' l o c a t i o n s c a p a b l e o f b e a r i n g heavy u s e , and by p r o v i d i n g a c o n t i n u u m o f r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s r i g h t down t o l i m i t e d a c c e s s M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones, t h e p o l i c y p l a n s a t i s f i e s t h e two m a j o r e l e m e n t s o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n e t h i c . The p r o t e c t i o n o f t h o s e a r e a s l e a s t c a p a b l e o f c a r r y i n g on heavy r e c r e a t i o n a l l o a d a l l o w s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a d i v e r s i t y o f s p e c i e s and l e a v e s a v a r i e t y o f o p t i o n s open f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n . S o c i a l Well  Being  By p r o v i d i n g a d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t h i s s y s t e m i s c a p a b l e o f s a t i s f y i n g both t r a n s i e n t s and l o c a l s , as w e l l as t h e v a r i e t y o f demands and v a l u e s w i t h i n t h o s e two g r o u p s .  U s e s , and l e v e l s  o f u s e , a r e s e p a r a t e d so t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t may c h o o s e t h e a t t r a c t i o n zone most s u i t e d t o h i s n e e d s , and i n w h i c h he can p u r s u e t h o s e needs w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g o t h e r s whose i n c l i n a t i o n s and demands a r e d i f f e r e n t from h i s own. F u r t h e r m o r e , P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e i s a b s o l u t e l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e u t i l i s a t i o n o f creative options.  I t demands t h a t t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e  make a p o s i t i v e move i n u t i l i s i n g o l d l o g g i n g r o a d s i n a c r e a t i v e f a s h i o n , i t i n s i s t s t h a t F i s h and W i l d l i f e i n c o r p o r a t e a v a r i e t y o f f i s h i n g o p t i o n s i n t o t h e i r o f f i c i a l p o l i c y and i t i m p l i e s t h a t t h e Parks B r a n c h , which would p r o b a b l y h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones, would have t o d e v e l o p s i t e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s o f g r e a t e r v a r i e t y than t h o s e c u r r e n t l y i n vogue.  However t h e p o l i c y p l a n  104 would n o t have as s i g n i f i c a n t an i m p a c t on r e g i o n a l income g e n e r a t i o n  as  p o l i c y p l a n One, p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e t h e m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l and o p e r a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would remain w i t h t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r . Equitable Treatment The p r o v i s i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s a l l o w s for  t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f both t r a n s i e n t and l o c a l needs.  benefitted to the exclusion or inconvenience  Neither i s  o f the other.  Recreational  needs a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g t h e t h r e a t o f l o n g term n e t s o c i a l costs.  L o c a l use p a t t e r n s w i t h i n , and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e g r i t y o f ,  the S t u d y A r e a remain on t h e whole  undisturbed.  A Comparison An i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l t o t h i s s y s t e m i s now o p e r a t i o n a l i n Wales under t h e Glamorgan H e r i t a g e C o a s t Programme (Glamorgan. 1975). T h i s programme, implemented on t h e South Wales c o a s t l i n e between B a r r y and P o r t h c a w l ,  d i v i d e s t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s between  S i t e s and Remote Zones.  Recreational  The f o r m e r p r o v i d e a range o f a n c i l l a r y f a c i l i -  t i e s f o r t h e encouragement o f i n f o r m a l c o a s t a l r e a c t i o n .  At these  s i t e s t h e e f f e c t s o f use can be m o n i t o r e d and h a r d e n i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l site effected.  In t h e Remote Zones p r i o r i t y ( b e h i n d t h e c l i f f l i n e ) i s  g i v e n o v e r t o a g r i c u l t u r e and t o e c o l o g i c a l c o n s e r v a t i o n ;  vehicular  a c c e s s i s r e s t r a i n e d and p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s l i m i t e d t o c l e a r l y d e f i n e d routes.  The Remote Zones c o n t a i n a few s m a l l r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s c a t e r i n g  t o a v e r y l i m i t e d number o f p e d e s t r i a n s .  A c c e s s t o t h e Remote Zones  105 from the R e c r e a t i o n a l S i t e s i s n o t encouraged T h i s comparison  i n any way  (signposts, etc.).  i s r e l e v a n t t o the B r i t i s h Columbian  experience,  s i n c e , j u s t as l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n i s t h i s p r o v i n c e ' s m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , so the c o a s t l i n e o f B r i t a i n i s t h a t c o u n t r y ' s m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n a l play  ground.  Implementary Mechanisms The mechanisms recommended f o r P o l i c y P l a n . T h r e e r e c o g n i s e  that  w h i l e come c o e r c i o n may be n e c e s s a r y , p e o p l e a r e i n f a c t more i n t e r e s t e d i n rewards than i n s a c r i f i c e s .  C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s a need f o r both  p o s i t i v e (reward p r o m i s i n g ) and n e g a t i v e (punishment ( D e u t s c h . 1970).  threat) incentives  Thus t h e r e ought t o be an emphasis on b a l a n c i n g c o e r c i v e  and n o n - c o e r c i v e mechanisms, r e i n f o r c i n g one w i t h the o t h e r . mentioned  i n s e c t i o n 2.1, t h i s b a l a n c e can be e x p r e s s e d by  modification matrices  As  was  behaviour  . ( a s shown o v e r ) ; one m a t r i x b e i n g a p p l i c a b l e t o  each s i t u a t i o n o r l o c a t i o n , and each m a t r i x i n v o l v i n g elements from both the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and the implementary  mechanisms.  106 M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zone  Non C o e r c i v e : Positive Incentive  Coercive: Negative Incentive  Wanted B e h a v i o u r heavy use by t r a n s i e n t s and A.T.V. owners  + Reinforce: Attendance by the p r o v i s i o n o f a f u l l range o f f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t y environments -  - Reduce: appeal o f M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones demanding r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a l l back c o u n t r y u s e r s  Unwanted Behaviour! l i m i t e d use  -Reduce: remove design c o n s t r a i n t s of 'group camping'  + R e i n f o r c e : banning o f A l l - T e r r a i n v e h i c l e use i n a l l o t h e r zones i n r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n system  Non C o e r c i v e : Positive Incentive  Coercive: Negative Incentive  + Reinforce: p u b l i c i t y and s i g n p o s t i n g emphasis on M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones  - Reduce: a l l o w a b l e f i s h i n g c a t c h l i m i t s on M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Lakes  - Reduce: Removal o f s i g n p o s t i n g and encouraged d e t e r i o r a t i o n along access r o u t e s to M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Lakes  + R e i n f o r c e : ban on a l l o u t b o a r d motors a t a l l M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Lakes  M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zone  Wanted B e h a v i o u r l i m i t e d use  heavy use  The m a t r i c e s make i t c l e a r t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e and r e a s o n a b l e d i v i d e the Implementary Mechanisms a c c o r d i n g l y .  to  107  C o e r c i v e Mechanisms In r e s p o n s e t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f h o s t i l i t i e s g e n e r a t e d by o v e r t 'police  1  c o n t r o l s , t h e s e c o e r c i v e mechanisms would remain f a i r l y low-key  and would be more h e a v i l y dependent on r e i n f o r c e m e n t from t h e n o n - f c o e r c i v e mechanisms than on d i r e c t p o l i c e a c t i o n .  F i n e s f o r i l l e g a l and a n t i -  s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r would however be i n c r e a s e d and t h o s e i n c r e a s e s f u l l y advertised.  The c o u r t s s h o u l d , i n a d d i t i o n , be encouraged  t o be l e s s  l e n i e n t w i t h r e c r e a t i o n o f f e n d e r s than t h e y have been i n t h e p a s t .  An  e x t e n s i o n o f c r o s s - a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and powers would a l l o w f o r an i n c r e a s e o f c o e r c i v e c o n t r o l w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n t manpower i n c r e a s e s .  A  b r o a d e n i n g o f t h e B.C. A l l - T e r r a i n V e h i c l e A c t and t h e encouragement o f f e d e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s on o u t b o a r d motor use s h o u l d a l s o be p u r s u e d , i n o r d e r t o a l l o w f o r more e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . Non-Coercive  Mechanisms  The p r o v i s i o n o f 'hardened', h i g h p r o f i l e , i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n zones would a c t as a 'reward' f o r wanted b e h a v i o u r , t h a t o f r e d u c i n g back c o u n t r y u s e ; as would t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i a l i c e - f i s h i n g l a k e s f o r w i n t e r snow-mobiles.  D e s i g n , combined w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f M a j o r  A t t r a c t i o n Zones, would a c t as a s t r u c t u r a l f i x c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e manipulaiton of behavioural opportunity.  I n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r would be  m o d i f i e d , r a t h e r than c o e r c e d , by t h e a l t e r a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s . T h i s a l t e r a t i o n would i n c l u d e t h e removal  o f e x i s t i n g roads i n o r d e r t o  l i m i t a c c e s s t o t h e M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones'.  Temporary roads s h o u l d be  108 c l o s e d t o v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c and p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t e r o s i o n when l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s were c o m p l e t e .  Once seeded w i t h g r a s s e s o r legumes the r o a d s  c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o boundary l i n e c l e a r i n g s and f i r e b r e a k s t o form an h i k i n g t r a i l network l i n k e d t o , and between, the l i m i t e d a c c e s s lakes.  These mechanisms m i g h t be f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d  by the agency  encouragement o f l o c a l p a t r o l s , p o s s i b l y under the a u s p i c e s o f the l o c a l Rod and Gun C l u b s , o r F l y F i s h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n s .  T h e s e o r g a n i s a t i o n s would  depend upon ' b l u f f o r f r i e n d l y p e r s u a s i o n r a t h e r than E d u c a t i o n a l programs would a l s o be d e v e l o p e d ,  e i t h e r , as i n M e r r i t t , under  the a u s p i c e s o f the Rod and Gun C l u b , o r t h r o u g h tration network.  coercion.  the 'voluntary' r e g i s -  o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s i n t e n t on l e a v i n g the m a j o r road T h i s r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s would i n c l u d e the d i s s e m i n a t i o n  environmental  education  of  material.  As w i t h t h e p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s , t h e s e mechanisms a r e e v a l u a t e d  in  a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n : Control  Effectiveness In t h a t the i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms a r e e i t h e r m o d e r a t e l y c o e r c i v e ,  or non-coercive,  and hence a c t i n g a t s u b c o n s c i o u s  l e v e l s , P o l i c y Plan  T h r e e u t i l i s e s mechanisms t h a t would, on t h e w h o l e , be ' a c c e p t a b l e ' . road removal program does however pose a p r o b l e m .  The  The l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ,  l o n g used t o v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s t o p a r t i c u l a r l a k e s may  become f a i r l y  v o c a l i n o p p o s i t i o n to any p l a n s r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r a c c e s s t o t h o s e  lakes.  However, i f management a g e n c i e s baulk a t t h i s p r o s p e c t o f c o n f l i c t t h e r e s t i l l remain s e v e r a l l a k e g r o u p i n g s  i n the a r e a w h i c h as y e t remain  109 ' i n a c c e s s i b l e , t h i s s t a t u s s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d . 1  The m a i n t e n a n c e  o f the  S t a t u s Quo i s always more a c c e p t a b l e than change. The mutual  r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f c o e r c i v e and n o n - c o e r c i v e c o n t r o l s  would seem t o o f f e r a g r e a t e r chance o f c o n t r o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h a n s o l e r e l i a n c e on a s i n g l e t e c h n i q u e . However the use o f n o n - c o e r c i v e  techniques  does l a y the p o l i c y p l a n open t o the weaknesses o f a ' C o g n i t i v e F i x n o t e d by H e b e r l e i n .  Many p e o p l e do n o t a s s o c i a t e t h e i r own  1  behaviour  w i t h p a r t i c u l a r problems, t h e y may be l i m i t e d by r o l e s o r m o t i v a t i o n s , o r t h e y may o p e r a t e under 'bounded r a t i o n a l i t y ' and w i l l be c o n s t r a i n e d by s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ( H e b e r l e i n . 1973).  It is possible  t h a t t h e more v o l u n t a r y n a t u r e o f t h e n o n - c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s , r a t h e r than t h e ' S t r u c t u r a l ' p r e s s u r e s i n h e r e n t i n c o e r c i o n , may r e n d e r them i n e f f e c t i v e under the a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s o u t l i n e d by Heberlein. I t s h o u l d n o t however be f o r g o t t e n t h a t t h e e s s e n c e o f P o l i c y P l a n t T h r e e i s t h a t i t c o u l d use n o n - c o e r c i v e mechanisms, backed up by and r e i n f o r c e d w i t h c o e r c i v e mechanisms where n e c e s s a r y .  Furthermore,  n o n - c o e r c i v e t e c h n i q u e s have been h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n c e r t a i n c a s e s . ' P a c k - i t - o u t ' garbage programs have met w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f s u c c e s s i n the P a c i f i c N o r t h West U.S.A. (Du Lac and G r e y e r ) , v o l u n t a r y s e l f r e g i s t r a t i o n and t h e a l m o s t w h o l l y s e l f r e g u l a t e d f i s h c a t c h l i m i t s a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t n o n - c o e r c i o n can be s u c c e s s f u l . R e c r e a t i o n s t s a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y i r r e s p o n s i b l e , t h e y j u s t need t o be e n c o u r a g e d , s u b t l y . P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e does a l l o w f o r a v e r y c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f agency c o n t r o l powers t h r o u g h the use o f v o l u n t e e r p a t r o l s and c r o s s -  no  agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o l i c i n g where n e c e s s a r y .  The  implementary  mechanisms demanded t h e r e f o r e would a p p e a r to impose a s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d s t r a i n on e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s ,  they  could,  as a c o n s e q u e n c e be c o n s i d e r e d c o n t r o l e f f e c t i v e . Cost E f f e c t i v e n e s s P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e would r e q u i r e a s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l i n p u t t o e s t a b l i s h and  'harden' the M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones.  p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s c a p i t a l would not be made a v a i l a b l e .  It i s quite However t h o s e  a r e a s , w h i c h a r e a t p r e s e n t most h e a v i l y u s e d , c o u l d be upgraded w i t h o n l y moderate e x p e n d i t u r e s  t o g i v e them a semblance o f a M a j o r  A t t r a c t i o n Zone, s u f f i c i e n t t o a c t as a d e t e r r e n t t o back c o u n t r y dispersion.  The r e m a i n i n g  low manpower and i n v e s t m e n t  e l e m e n t s o f the p r o p o s e d s y s t e m would have demands.  The scheme c o u l d f e a s i b l y be  made o p e r a t i o n a l under e x i s t i n g b u d g e t a r y l e v e l s and c o n s t r a i n t s . Efficacy in achieving desired d i s t r i b u t i o n a l objectives The mix o f mechanisms p r o p o s e d under P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e p r o v i d e f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t pol i c e a c t i o n and c o e r c i o n , h a v i n g  been  de-emphasised w i l l not t h r e a t e n the e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e c r e a tional opportunity.  F u r t h e r m o r e the mix has t h e p o t e n t i a l c a p a b i l i t y o f  b e n e f i c i a l l y c h a n g i n g the c u r r e n t i n e q u i t i e s i n r e c r e a t i o n a l c o s t and benefit distribution.  Ill  S e c t i o n 5.5: C h a p t e r Summary C h a p t e r 5 p r e s e n t s t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e P o l i c y P l a n s , each o f w h i c h c o u l d p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n management i n t h e Study A r e a .  A l t h o u g h i t i s r e a l i s e d t h a t e v e n t u a l l y management  p h i l o s o p h i e s c o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e elements from a l l t h r e e , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h r e e s e p a r a t e P o l i c y P l a n s expose t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e t h r e e most l i k e l y , and d i s t i n c t management a p p r o a c h e s .  The p r e f e r r e d  a l t e r n a t i v e , P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e (Mixed Development A p p r o a c h / D i v e r s e B e h a v i o u r a l I n f l u e n c e s ) i s chosen because o f i t s p e r c e i v e d c o i n c i d e n c e with the C r i t e r i a f o r Evaluation. A r e a i n C h a p t e r 7.  I t w i l l be a p p l i e d t o t h e S t u d y  112 FOOTNOTES  1977.  5 1 ' A C o n f e r e n c e on W i l d l a n d R e c r e a t i o n . S e s s i o n 26 'Vandalism and Law Enforcement  O f f i c e r s o f the R.C.M.P.  >  B a n f f Feb. 28-Mar. 3, i n Wildland Areas'.  I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e : Dr. P. D o o l i n g , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , Department o f F o r e s t r y , U.B.C. V a n c o u v e r . B e h a v i o u r M o d i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x d e v e l o p e d from i d e a s g e n e r a t e d a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Dr. Susan B u t t - F i n n , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , Department o f P s y c h o l o g y , U.B.C.  113 CHAPTER SIX. A REGIONAL S e c t i o n 6.1:  APPROACH  The C o n c e p t o f R e g i o n a l i s m .  P o l i c y P l a n s One, Two and T h r e e a l l depend u l t i m a t e l y on a regional approach f o r t h e i r implementation.  A regional approach  1  t h a t i n v o l v e s h i s t o r i c and s p a t i a l r e g i o n a l i t y , w i t h each l a k e p l a n n e d as one p a r t o f t h e r e g i o n a l l a k e s y s t e m , and a l s o as p a r t o f an e x t r a r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n and r e s o u r c e complex.  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s a p p r o a c h  demands agency r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n a l whole,and t h o r o u g h i n t r a r e g i o n a l agency c o o p e r a t i o n  and mutual a d j u s t m e n t .  W i t h o u t an  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework c a p a b l e o f r e s p o n d i n g t o r e g i o n a l needs, w h i c h i s a l s o c o n s c i o u s o f t h e e c o s y s t e m i c n a t u r e o f the p u b l i c l e i s u r e s y s t e m , t h e management o f t h a t s y s t e m w i l l relatively inert.  I t w i l l l i k e l y remain i n t e r n a l l y f a c t u r e d  f r a g m e n t e d (B.C. L e i s u r e . Unfortunately  remain and  1973).  t h i s i s j u s t the s i t u a t i o n that e x i s t s a t present.  The l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e and r e l e v a n t g u i d e l i n e s mean t h a t d e c i s i o n s a t f i e l d l e v e l t e n d t o remain p a r o c h i a l and agency  biased:  The c r i t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n which w i l l be made h e r e and i s l i b e r a l l y r e - i t e r a t e d throughout t h i s report i s the appaling lack of communication between a g e n c i e s a t a l l l e v e l s (D. 50) . . . Much o f t h e l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and t h e a b s e n c e o f any s i n g l e p l a n n i n g body stems, n o t from any m a l e v o l e n t d e s i r e t o r e j e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but rather represents the f a c t that a f r a g mented s t r u c t u r e r e c e i v e s f r a g m e n t e d i n p u t . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e e x i s t s a c i r c u l a r i t y whereby need c a n n o t be m o n i t o r e d because government i s n o t s t r u c t u r e d t o r e c o g n i s e i t (B.C. L e i s u r e . 1973. p. 53)  114 T h i s l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and communication a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e range o f b e h a v i o u r and a c t i o n e x i s t i n g between a g e n c i e s ,  variations  t h a t stem p r i m a r i l y from d i f f e r i n g v a l u e frameworks w i t h i n each o f t h e d i f f e r e n t agencies.  Each agency w i l l have s e p a r a t e goal  orientations:  F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h : To p r o t e c t , p r e s e r v e and enhance f i s h and w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d h a b i t a t s f o r t h e b e n e f i c i a l use and enjoyment o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e P r o v i n c e . F o r e s t S e r v i c e : To manage f o r e s t and r e l a t e d r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e P r o c i n c e . P a r k s B r a n c h : To p r o t e c t , p r e s e r v e and a d m i n i s t e r a v a r i e t y o f n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l , a e s t h e t i c , and educational value.  :  (Morton and Fox. 1975. pp. XX-11 and 12) Each agency w i l l a l s o s u b s c r i b e t o d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and p e r ceptions.  F o r example, t h e P a r k s B r a n c h S t u d y w h i c h p r o v i d e d much o f  the b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s , t h e "Thompson P l a t e a u Recreation  S t u d y " (B.C. P a r k s .  1976A), was w r i t t e n i n f u l l awareness o f  the assumed p r i o r i t i e s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s o f t h e o t h e r r e s o u r c e agencies  a c t i v e i n the area.  Regional  management  I t was c a l c u l a t e d n o t t o o f f e n d , and a f t e r  v e r y c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y and r e v i s i o n by t h e P a r k s P l a n n i n g both V i c t o r i a and Kamloops, became p u b ! i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e .  hierarchies in The r e p o r t has  L  now been withdrawn f r o m c i r c u l a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n because i t was s e e n , by George S t i n g e r ,  Regional  D i r e c t o r o f t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e  Branch i n Kamloops, t o be a d e l i b e r a t e and unprovoked a t t a c k on F i s h and W i l d l i f e management p o l i c y . A n o t h e r example o f t h i s a t t i t u d i n a l gap, o r c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e  115 o c c u r e d d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e Pennask Lake C o o r d i n a t e d Plan p r e l i m i n a r y meeting.  Land Use  D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Parks B r a n c h h o l d s  management r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e o n l y p u b l i c a c c e s s p o i n t t o t h e l a k e , t h e Pennask Lake R e c r e a t i o n A r e a , Parks B r a n c h was n o t i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d the m e e t i n g .  I t was o n l y by c h a n c e t h a t t h e m e e t i n g was brought t o t h e  a t t e n t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Parks B r a n c h o f f i c e i n Kamloops, and i n v i t a t i o n s a r r a n g e d a t t h e l a s t moment.  T h e s e gaps and d i f f e r e n c e s a r e  e n c o u r a g e d f u r t h e r by t h e v a r i e t y and q u a l i t y o f r e s e a r c h and management r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s , and by t h e i r d i f f e r e n t bargaining strengths. Yet, without adequately defined goals a t a regional l e v e l , a n d w e l l d e f i n e d c h a n n e l s f o r i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o p e r a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n , none o f t h e t h r e e proposed  a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s has any chance o f s u c c e s s .  T h e r e r e m a i n s a v i t a l need f o r an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on and mutual a d j u s t m e n t  comprehensivity  i n v o l v i n g an e x p l i c i t - r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between t h e s p a t i a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c s u b - s y s t e m s embraced by t h e r e g i o n a l planning e f f o r t .  Thus, a change i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s may be more  i m p o r t a n t than changes i n r e g i o n a l p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s o r f i e l d i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms.  For i t i s only with changing  arrangements t h a t inter-agency cooperation/communication  level  institutional can be i m p r o v e d ,  and c o n f l i c t s r e s o l v e d . Only w i t h r e g i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n can c r o s s agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p o l i c i n g powers be e f f e c t e d , agreement r e a c h e d on r e g i o n wide c a p a c i t y l e v e l p o l i c i e s , a c c e s s management and r o t a t i o n p o l i c i e s d e v e l o p e d , inter-agency experimentation  conducted,  d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and r e s e a r c h  116 b e n e f i t from c r o s s - f e r t i l i s a t i o n , and r e g i o n a l p o l i c y p l a n p h a s i n g be implemented.  Furthermore,  i t i s o n l y w i t h some form o f i n t e r - a g e n c y  r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n management system t h a t e x i s t i n g i n t e r - a g e n c y r i v a l r i e s and p a r a n o i a m i g h t be eased.  A t t h e same t i m e , t h i s  approach  m i g h t a l l o w f o r a more c o n s i s t e n t , and h o p e f u l l y c o n f l i c t r e d u c i n g , p o l i c y approach  toward t h e commercial  r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r and t h e o t h e r  resource users. S e c t i o n 6.2:  R e g i o n a l Management Format.  Under s e c t i o n 92 o f t h e B r i t i s h North A m e r i c a n A c t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing Canada's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s has been d e l e g a t e d t o p r o v i n c i a l governments.  T h e r e f o r e t h e i n i t i a t i v e f o r t h e management o f t h e t h r e e  a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p l a n s must come a t a p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n a l l e v e l .  The  q u e s t i o n however remains as t o t h e c h o i c e o f r e g i o n a l management approach.  In t h i s s e c t i o n f o u r s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t management  approaches  a r e d e s c r i b e d and e v a l u a t e d ; t h e p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e i s a p p l i e d t o t h e Study Area i n c h a p t e r 7. 1  S e p a r a t e B u r e a u c r a t i s e d Agency.  2  R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee.  3  Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e .  4  Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e w i t h s m a l l S e c r e t a r i a t .  S e p a r a t e B u r e a u c r a t i s e d Agency Such an i n d e p e n d e n t  agency would be w h o l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e  c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y , problems s o l u t i o n and  117 and p o t e n t i a l s development.  I t would be i n c o n s t a n t communication  e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s , and a l s o w i t h the commercial  with  recreation interests.  The s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y , powers and o f f i c e r s o f t h i s agency would add a s i g n i f i c a n t measure o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o i t s management a p p r o a c h ; e s p e c i a l l y i f p a r t o f i t s mandate i n c l u d e d a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 'encouraging' other agencies n e g l i g e n t i n t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l responsibilities. S u p p o r t t o t h i s c o n c e p t i s g i v e n by Parks Branch i n the Shuswap Lakes Study.  T h i s s t u d y r e c o g n i s e s , t h a t i n the f u t u r e , an i n t e g r a t e d  r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g body w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o o v e r s e e the p l a n n i n g and management o f t h e e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e Shuswap Lakes r e c r e a t i o n system (B.C. P a r k s . 1976B).  I t would be t h e t a s k o f such a body t o r e v i e w a l l  p r o p o s e d a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o any o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n , i n i t i a t e a c t i v i t y when a government agency f a i l e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e , s e t p r i o r i t i e s and time s c h e d u l e s f o r any p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and be responsible  f o r p l a n amendment.  I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s approach would  be h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e i f the agency were p r o v i d e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s to g e n e r a t e i t s own d a t a , r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s and p o l i c i e s f o r t h e f u t u r e ; and i f i t had s u f f i c i e n t power ( f r o m both c o e r c i v e and nonc o e r c i v e mechanisms) t o i n d u c e the n e c e s s a r y c o o p e r a t i o n between i t s e l f and t h e o t h e r a g e n c i e s and s e c t o r s c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n . However, the c r e a t i o n o f a s i n g l e , s e p a r a t e agency would a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y c r e a t e as many communications problems as i t s o l v e d .  and c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d  E x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were  t h r e a t e n e d would j e a l o u s l y guard t h e i r s t a t u s and would p r o b a b l y  118 s i m p l y t h r o t t l e t h e new agency by h o l d i n g back i n f o r m a t i o n and r e f u s i n g t o c o o p e r a t e . The new agency would i n e v i t a b l y d e v e l o p i t s own p e r c e p t i o n s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and as a c o n s e q u e n c e , i t s own s p o t s and b o t t l e n e c k s .  blind  I t would a l s o demand a m a j o r i n p u t o f t r a i n e d  t e c h n i c a l manpower and h a r d c a s h , as w e l l as s i g n i f i c a n t b u r e a u c r a t i c changes a t p r o v i n c i a l government l e v e l i n V i c t o r i a . R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management Committee One way o f a v o i d i n g t h e problems r a i s e d by t h e s e p a r a t e b u r e a u c r a t i s e d a g e n c y would be t o u t i l i s e e x s i t i n g management s y s t e m s , manpower and r e s o u r c e s .  In t h e Roche Lake Land Use P l a n i t was recommended t h a t :  A c o o r d i n a t i n g and e n f o r c i n g agency i s r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l government a g e n c i e s a r e w o r k i n g toward a s i n g l e l a n d management c o n c e p t . (Kamloops. 1976. p. 23) The Roche Lake P l a n recommends t h a t t h e E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t be a p p o i n t e d as a c o o r d i n a t i n g and e n f o r c i n g agency.  However, i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether t h e S e c r e t a r i a t ' s mandate  o r i n c l i n a t i o n s would p e r m i t i t t o f u l f i l l t h i s r o l e ; i t c o u l d a s s i s t i n p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s b u t c o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o a p p l y a c o n t i n u o u s and i n t e n s i v e f o c u s on t h e whole l e i s u r e f i e l d (B.C. L e i s u r e . 1973).  As an  a l t e r n a t i v e , E.L.U.C. would p r o b a b l y e n c o u r a g e t h e R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management Committee t o h a n d l e t h e l e a d e r s h i p and c o o r d i n a t i o n r o l e . The b a s i c f o r m a t and f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e committees has a l r e a d y been c o v e r e d , s u f f i c e t o say t h a t t h e i r p r i m a r y aim i s t h e p e r i o d i c exchange  119 of information i n order to prevent interagency resource c o n f l i c t s a t a regional  level. However t h i s a p p r o a c h does have p r o b l e m s o f i t s own.  The i n t e r e s t  o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s , by t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e i r make up, c o v e r a wide spectrum from e x t r a c t i v e r e s o u r c e s , t h r o u g h n o n - e x t r a c t i v e r e s o u r c e s t o s e t t l e m e n t s e r v i c i n g . R e c r e a t i o n , as s u c h , would n o t n e c e s s a r i l y receive a high p r i o r i t y .  When i t d i d , t h e p r i o r i t y r a t i n g would  p r o b a b l y l a s t f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d and r e f e r o n l y t o one p a r t i c u l a r problem o r a r e a , as was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e B o n a p a r t e - T r a n q u i l l e M o r a t o r i u m (B.C. P a r k s . 1975B).  Furthermore,  Study  s i n c e t h e committee members a r e always  the s e n i o r o f f i c e r o f each p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c y , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r some o f t h e o l d r i v a l r i e s t o c o n t i n u e ; and i n some c a s e s f o r t h e l a c k o f a s p e c i f i c mandate o r s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s t o be used as an excuse f o r inaction. '  The l i k e l i h o o d o f c o n t i n u e d b i a s e s and b a r g a i n m a n i p u l a t i o n  r e m a i n s , and c o u l d l i k e l y be f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d i f , as i s recommended i n the P e a r s e Commission R e p o r t , t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e and t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch were j o i n e d t o g e t h e r under a s i n g l e m i n i s t e r and t h e s o 6  c a l l e d Department o f F o r e s t and W i l d l i f e R e s o u r c e s  2  ( P e a r s e . 1976).  Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e The v i r t u e o f m u l t i p l e agency i n v o l v e m e n t  i n both p l a n n i n g and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s t h a t a b r o a d e r range o f i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s t e n d t o be c o n s i d e r e d than i f o n l y a s i n g l e agency h o l d s f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (Morton and Fox. 1975). immeasurably i f t h e m u l t i - a g e n c y  These b e n e f i t s a r e r e i n f o r c e d  t a s k f o r c e r e s t r i c t s i t s i n t e r e s t t o one  120 f i e l d , i n t h i s c a s e r e c r e a t i o n ; and i f t h a t t a s k f o r c e c o n s i s t s o f younger o f f i c e r s .  The c o o p e r a t i v e i n s t i n c t i s s e e m i n g l y h i g h e r amongst  the u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e e d u c a t e d a g e n c y o f f i c i a l s , t h a n amongst t h e Ft  old guard ' f i e l d - r a i s e d ' senior o f f i c e r s .  1  Thus, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t  Permanent R e g i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e , c o m p r i s e d o f y o u n g e r o f f i c e r s from t h o s e a g e n c i e s w i t h r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s and i n c l u d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e commercial r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r , h a v i n g f u l l agency powers but w i t h o u t i n d e p e n d e n t b u r e a u c r a t i c s t a t u s , would go someway toward o v e r c o m i n g t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e f i r s t two a l t e r n a t i v e s . The l o c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e Task F o r c e , and t h e emphasis on l o c a l c o n t a c t s , would s t r e n g t h e n i t s knowledge base.  The m i n i m a l  changes demanded o f e x i s t i n g b u r e a u c r a c i e s , e i t h e r a t r e g i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , and t h e a b s e n c e o f a d d i t i o n a l manpower needs (Task F o r c e members e f f e c t i v e l y ' m o o n l i g h t i n g ' f r o m o n g o i n g a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) , s u g g e s t t h a t t h e scheme would be s i m p l e and cheap t o e s t a b l i s h .  The  freedom o f f e r e d by a g r a n t o f f u l l agency powers would e n c o u r a g e i n n o v a t i o n and would a l l o w s u f f i c i e n t i n f l u e n c e t o e n f o r c e common p o l i c i e s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s .  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f agency r e s o u r c e s would  add t o t h e a v a i l a b l e r e c r e a t i o n d a t a base and a n a l y t i c a l competence, as w e l l as a l l o w f o r a systems t h i n k i n g a p p r o a c h t o t h e r e g i o n a l  recreation  environment. T h i s m u l t i p l e agency a p p r o a c h has been p r o p o s e d i n t h e S t u d y A r e a f o r use i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a C o o r d i n a t e d Land Use P l a n f o r t h e Pennask Lake A r e a ( L . 2 7 ) , and a l t h o u g h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l a n would be a p p l i c a b l e o n l y on a  l i m i t e d s p a t i a l b a s i s , and does n o t r e s t r i c t  itself  121 to r e c r e a t i o n , i t does p r o v i d e a model f r o m w h i c h a Permanent Task F o r c e c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d .  Recreation  However, i t a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e  f u n d a m e n t a l f l a w o f the scheme.  The C o o r d i n a t e d  one  Land Use P l a n demands a  l o n g term view, and a c o n s t a n t update on c h a n g i n g p r i o r i t i e s and  pressures.  Y e t , e s s e n t i a l l y no one person  i s r e s p o n s i b l e , on a l o n g term b a s i s , f o r  any c o n t i n u i t y i n the scheme.  Every one, o r r a t h e r e a c h agency  t a t i v e , i s deemed e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e .  With e v e r y o n e r e s p o n s i b l e ,  e v e n t u a l l y no one w i l l be, as each agency o r s e c t o r assumes t h a t s i b i l i t y l i e s elsewhere.  represen-  respon-  With no one r e s p o n s i b l e n o t h i n g w i l l e v e r g e t  done. Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e w i t h Small S e c r e t a r i a t I t c o u l d e a s i l y be assumed t h a t t h e c o s t l y t a s k o f d e v e l o p i n g  and  i m p l e m e n t i n g a r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n P o l i c y P l a n c o u l d be made p r o h i b i t i v e l y expensive  by the a d d i t i o n a l demand f o r a permanent i n d e p e n d e n t c h a i r m a n  supported  by a s m a l l s e c r e t a r i a t .  Y e t , t h i s demand  i s the o n l y way  that  the m a j o r f l a w o f a Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e c o u l d be r e c t i f i e d . A permanent c h a i r m a n would be s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Task F o r c e p o l i c y . He w o u l d , i n a d d i t i o n , p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i t y t o the P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  while  c o o r d i n a t i n g a c h a n g e a b l e committee o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h o s e agencies with recreation i n t e r e s t s ,  the commercial r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r and  the Rod and Gun C l u b s / F l y F i s h i n g A s s o i c a t i o n s .  Permanent  chairmanship  would a v o i d the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t o f a r e v o l v i n g l e a d e r s h i p , and  the  s m a l l s e c r e t a r i a t would a l l o w f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s and p o t e n t i a l s beyond the scope o f i n t e r e s t o f the l i n e  agencies.  122 The c o s t s o f t h i s scheme would n o t be n e a r l y as h i g h as f o r t h e s e p a r a t e B u r e a u c r a t i s e d Agency and i t would e n s u r e an h i g h p r o f i l e conc e n t r a t i o n on t h e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r .  Furthermore,  i f t h e chairman and  s e c r e t a r i a t were e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t i t would n o t i n v o l v e complex a l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l bureaucracy.  I t would n o t seem u n r e a s o n a b l e  to postulate the estab-  l i s m e n t o f such r e c r e a t i o n s e c r e t a r i a t s i n each o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s m a j o r t o u r i s t play grounds.^"^  -  123 FOOTNOTE ' I n f o r m a t i o n on Resource Management Committees o b t a i n e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , from Bruce Heayn, g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t , School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C. D  1  6 2 ' P e a r s e Commission: the g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( o f the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h ) , from the r e g u l a t i o n o f h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g i n t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , i n v o l v e s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s a r e d e p e n d e n t upon the n a t u r a l h a b i t a t , which i s i n t u r n t h e r e f o r e d e p e n d e n t on F o r e s t S e r v i c e p o l i c y i n use and d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n s (p. 342). Now t h a t t h e r e i s a n e u t r a l agency (E.L.U.C.) t h a t has assumed a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r broad p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g - " t h e r e i s a very strong case i n f a v o u r o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r the e x p e r t i s e i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n t h a t has been d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , and t h e f o r e s t management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e " . I t i s f e l t t h a t the c o n t i n u e d s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s e b o d i e s i s an impediment t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y sound r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t (p. 345) ( P e a r s e . 1976). 6 3 ' I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e Chairman might a l s o combine r o l e s as t h e P a r k s Branch R e g i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r ; t h e R e g i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r b e i n g a new Parks Branch s e r v i c e t o be i n a u g u r a t e d d u r i n g 1977 and 1978.  124 CHAPTER SEVEN. CONCLUSION S e c t i o n 7.1:  Preferred Policy Plan  I n e v i t a b l y the c h o i c e o f a 'preferred' p o l i c y plan w i l l  depend  h e a v i l y on t h e v a l u e judgements and b i a s e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r group a c t u a l l y doing the choosing.  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e t h e s u b j e c t i v e  judgements made i n the c h o i c e p r o c e s s r e l a t e back t o t h e a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l v a l u e s t a n c e , b i a s e s and a s s u m p t i o n s , which were l i s t e d i n c h a p t e r 1. S u b j e c t t o t h i s c o n s t r a i n t i t would seem e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e p o l i c y p l a n chosen from amongst t h e t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e s i s t h a t which a p p e a r s t o have the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r managing the S t u d y A r e a r e c r e a t i o n a l s y s t e m i n t h e f a c e o f g r o w i n g p r e s s u r e s from t h e p o p u l a t i o n growth, i n c r e a s i n g l e i s u r e demands and e x p a n d i n g r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n .  In  a d d i t i o n , the p o l i c y p l a n chosen must c a t e r t o t h o s e p r e s s u r e s w i t h an awareness o f t h e f r a g i l i t y o f the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t and the need f o r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n i n t o t h e f u t u r e ; i t must a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e some p o s i t i v e l i k e l i h o o d o f management ' s u c c e s s ' and p u b l i c  'acceptability'.  O n l y P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e would a p p e a r t o f u l f i l l a l l t h e s e demands. The emphasis on mutual r e i n f o r c e m e n t between d i v e r s e p o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s and mixed i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms would seem t o p r o m i s e an h i g h e r chance of management ' s u c c e s s ' than e i t h e r P o l i c y P l a n One o r Two.  The a d a p t a t i o n  o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s t o a c o n t i n u u m o f n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s would a p p e a r t o make i t the most e c o l o g i c a l l y r a t i o n a l o f t h e t h r e e . As was i m p l i e d i n c h a p t e r 6, t h e f i n a l c h o i c e o f P o l i c y P l a n would a l s o depend upon i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y t o an o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l management  125 a p p r o a c h f o r both p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms. Although  a l l t h r e e c o u l d be managed on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , i f a d e q u a t e  r e g i o n a l management mechanisms and i n s t i t u t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s f e l t t h a t P o l i c y P l a n One would be d e p e n d e n t upon management by a s e p a r a t e B u r e a u c r a t i s e d Agency.  O n l y a s e p a r a t e a g e n c y would have  s u f f i c i e n t i n d e p e n d e n t i d e n t i t y and powers t o h a n d l e t h e m a j o r f i n a n c i a l and i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l demands o f t h a t P l a n .  P o l i c y Plan  e m p h a s i s i n g , as i t does i m p l e m e n t a r y mechanisms w h i c h c o u l d c o n t i n u e be handled  by t h e s e p a r a t e a g e n c i e s , m i g h t be a d e q u a t e l y  Two, to  s e r v i c e d under  a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g R e s o u r c e Management Committee p r o c e s s . However, P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e would r e q u i r e an i n n o v a t i v e management and implementation  a p p r o a c h r e q u i r i n g the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l a g e n c i e s ,  management o r o w n e r s h i p b o d i e s , and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s i n v o l v e d i n , o r h a v i n g c o n f l i c t s w i t h , the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the S t u d y Area. I t i s f e l t t h a t o n l y a Permanent R e c r e a t i o n T a s k F o r c e would be a b l e to h a n d l e the r e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e , and r e c o g n i s i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y problems o f the s t a n d a r d Task F o r c e  format,  o n l y a Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e w i t h a permanent c h a i r m a n and a small s e c r e t a r i a t . S e c t i o n 7.2:  A p p l i c a t i o n o f P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e t o the S t u d y A r e a  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e and an  appropriate  r e g i o n a l a p p r o a c h to r e c r e a t i o n management w i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a demands f i r s t l y , an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down i n  126 c h a p t e r s 5 and 6, and s e c o n d l y , t h e p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f  those  principles. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework The i n i t i a l p r i o r i t y would be f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e manned by a f u l l time c h a i r m a n and a s m a l l secretariat.  Members o f i t s o p e r a t i o n a l committee would be  those  o f f i c e r s o f the a p p r o p r i a t e government a g e n c i e s and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t groups (commercial r e s o r t s o p e r a t o r s and s p o r t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s ) whose m a j o r c o n c e r n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , was r e c r e a t i o n .  The  Task F o r c e committee members would be employed f u l l time a t a v a r i e t y o f communities w i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a .  I t would t h e r e f o r e seem a d v i s a b l e  t h a t the s e c r e t a r i a t have a permanent o f f i c e b a s e , but t h a t the r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s o c c u r i n d i f f e r e n t communities on a c i r c u i t b a s i s . L  B e f o r e the Task F o r c e a c t u a l l y moved toward p h y s i c a l l y a l t e r i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t i t would need to c r e a t e a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n by r e c t i f y i n g two v i t a l weaknesses e v i d e n t i n the e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n system.  F i r s t l y , the l a c k o f a c c u r a t e , r e l i a b l e and r e a d i l y  a v a i l a b l e d a t a , and s e c o n d l y , the l a c k o f c r o s s - a g e n c y and p e r c e i v e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  p o l i c i n g powers  A l l i n i t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  e n e r g i e s s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward t h e s e two p r o b l e m s .  political  Once s a t i s f a c t o r y  d a t a s t a r t e d t o become a v a i l a b l e and the p o l i c y powers o f f i e l d o p e r a t i v e s were f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , then t h e Task F o r c e s h o u l d t u r n i t s a t t e n t i o n to the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n management suggested, i n t h i s t h e s i s .  As t h e Task F o r c e  127 moves i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l stage, f u r t h e r d a t a needs and p o l i c i n g p r i o r i t i e s may emerge i n an i t e r a t i v e p r o c e s s . d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s may and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  then s u g g e s t d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s ,  c o u l d be bought i n t o p l a y t o e s t a b l i s h the most  a p p r o p r i a t e changes t o be s e l e c t e d f r o m amongst Physical  Feedback f r o m the added  a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s .  Manifestation Once the base r e q u i r e m e n t s  inter-agency cooperation  o u t l i n e d above and t h e more g e n e r a l  i m p l i c i t i n t h e Permanent R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e  c o n c e p t were a c h i e v e d , t h e S t u d y A r e a c o u l d be s u b d i v i d e d t o p r o v i d e  the  range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s demanded i n P o l i c y P l a n T h r e e . M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones T h e s e would be e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h o s e e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s t h a t r e q u i r e immediate c o n t r o l s on use l e v e l s and p o s i t i v e p r o t e c t i v e measures i n o r d e r to p r e v e n t any f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n both  lakeshore  and a q u a t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s , as w e l l as i n the s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f campsites.  They would a l s o i n c l u d e the more h e a v i l y used P r o v i n c i a l Park  areas.  T h u s , the f o l l o w i n g l a k e s , o r l a k e g r o u p i n g s , would be  assigned  'Major A t t r a c t i o n Zone  1  s t a t u s (see map  7.1).  Monck P a r k / N i c o l a L a k e - p r o v i n c i a l park and commercial f a c i l i t i e s Lac Le J e u n e / W a l l o p e r / S l a k e / M c C o n n e l l Lakes - d i t t o O t t e r L a k e - P r o v i n c i a l p a r k and commercial f a c i l i t i e s Roche L a k e - f o r e s t s e r v i c e and commercial f a c i l i t y T u n k w a / L e i g h t o n L a k e s - f o r e s t s e r v i c e and commercial f a c i l i t y Kentucky/Alleyn/Bluey Lakes-forest service Stump L a k e - ' u n i n c o r p o r a t e d ' r e c r e a t i o n a r e a  '  127a  POLICY PLAN THREE. APPLICATION TO STUDY AREA  ' Map 7.1  Major Attraction Zones Mid-range Attraction Zones Minor Attraction Zones .__ —» Proposed Coquihalla Route  128 The l a k e s w i t h c u r r e n t f o r e s t s e r v i c e i n t e r e s t s a r e t h o s e w i t h t h e h i g h e s t use o f a l l t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Developments  i n the  Study A r e a , and were t h o s e l a k e s t h a t o f f i c e r s o f t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e a c t u a l l y p i n p o i n t e d as problem a r e a s , o r as t h e y p u t i t , 'Grey A r e a s ' . L o c a l e s i n which i t was f e l t t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c i e s were a p p a r e n t l y no l o n g e r c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g c u r r e n t use pressures.  I t would seem n e c e s s a r y i n t h e s e Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones  e i t h e r t o e n c o u r a g e P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n v o l v e m e n t , o r d e v e l o p a whole new l e v e l and i n t e n s i t y o f F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n management. Commission  The  Pearse  Report quotes:  A l t h o u g h t h e Parks Branch i s m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h Crown F o r e s t Land, t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n between i t s a c t i v i t i e s and t i m b e r e x t r a c t i o n . F o r t h e t i m e b e i n g a t l e a s t , I see no c o m p e l l i n g need t o merge i t w i t h t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e . ( P e a r s e . 1976. p.  344)  T h e r e may i n f a c t be c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n s t o merge c e r t a i n F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n developments  i n t o the P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s system.  All  t h o s e p o t e n t i a l Major A t t r a c t i o n Zones t h a t do not have P r o v i n c i a l  Park  management show e v i d e n c e o f o v e r c r o w d i n g , s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r break down, i r r e s p o n s i b l e sewage d i s p o s a l , o i l s p i l l a g e , permanent r e s i d e n c e and o v e r f i s h i n g .  I t would seem l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w i l l , i n the  n e a r f u t u r e , r e q u i r e management and a c t i v i t y c o n t r o l s a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n t e n s i t y than a r e now i n f o r c e . A l l M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones would be p r o v i d e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t ' h a r d e n i n g ' and f a c i l i t i e s t o s e r v e both as d e s t i n a t i o n use camping, w e l l as day use r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s f o r t h e Study A r e a ' s main urban  as  1 agglomerations. Mid-Range A t t r a c t i o n s Zones These would be a r e a s a l r e a d y under p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n use,  but  w h i c h , w i t h due r e g a r d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u i t a b i l i t y , c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , and f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s s h o u l d  be  e s t a b l i s h e d as v i a b l e a l t e r n a t e a t t r a c t i o n s t o the M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones.  The Mid-Range A t t r a c t i o n Zones would p r o b a b l y  by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and would c o r r e s p o n d ,  be used p r i m a r i l y  i n terms o f l o c a t i o n and  f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n , to the b u l k o f e x i s t i n g F o r e s t S e r v i c e Developments.  Recreation  The main a d d i t i o n s would be i n t h o s e a r e a s  currently  w i t h o u t m a j o r use o r management, but w h i c h , i n the f u t u r e , m i g h t r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r use. u p g r a d i n g would be c o n c e n t r a t e d  S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h o s e a r e a s i n need o f a l o n g the p r o p o s e d C o q u i h a l l a Highway  route, p o s s i b l y a l s o along i t s l o g i c a l extension  l i n e t h r o u g h Douglas  Lake C o u n t r y , and a t Q u i l t a n t o n Lake (L.12) ( c u r r e n t l y  'unincorporated'  t h i s l a k e c o u l d be managed as a r e c r e a t i o n l o c a t i o n by one o f the Highland  V a l l e y mining companies). These p o t e n t i a l zones a r e , i n the main, a c c e s s i b l e to the  bulk of motorised  recreationists.  T h e i r p r o g r e s s i v e development f o r a  h i g h e r l e v e l of use, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l a k e , or l a k e - z o n e ,  environmental  and s o c i a l c a p a c i t y l i m i t a t i o n s , would a l l o w f o r a b e t t e r c o n t r o l o f t h spread of r e c r e a t i o n a l pressures a l l o w i n g rampant and b r o a d s c a l e  t h r o u g h o u t the S t u d y A r e a d i s p e r s i o n ) (see map  7.1).  (without  130 M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zone M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones would i n c l u d e t h o s e a r e a s t h a t c o u l d  be  d e s i g n a t e d f o r s p e c i f i c uses and s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s , e n f o r c e d by a mix o f c o e r c i v e and n o n - c o e r c i v e  techniques.  These  zones would be i n t e n d e d t o e n r i c h t h e d i v e r s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e Thompson P l a t e a u .  The program o f c o e r c i v e and non-  c o e r c i v e r e g u l a t i o n s m i g h t i n v o l v e a ban on gas m o t o r s , a r e d u c t i o n o f c a t c h l i m i t s and a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f a c c e s s . The a r e a s a s s i g n e d M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zone s t a t u s a r e l a k e s , o r l a k e g r o u p i n g s , w h i c h have e i t h e r been s u g g e s t e d  those by S t u d y  A r e a a g e n c i e s as s u i t a b l e ' l i m i t e d a c c e s s ' l a k e s , o r w h i c h a r e  now  managed a d e q u a t e l y  basis,  by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r on a ' l i m i t e d a c c e s s '  o r which were f e l t by the a u t h o r t o have p o t e n t i a l as ' l i m i t e d a c c e s s ' lakes.  F o r example, B l a c k w e l l Lake (L.64) was s u g g e s t e d  by the F i s h  and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h i n Kamloops as b e i n g s u i t a b l e f o r c a t e g o r i s a t i o n w i t h i n an ' h i k e - i n o n l y ' s t a t u s .  S u r r e y Lake (L.28) and Tepee Lakes  (L.38) a r e both c u r r e n t l y managed by commercial f i s h i n g camps who tain  main-  t h e i r a c c e s s r o a d s i n d e l i b e r a t e l y poor c o n d i t i o n i n o r d e r t o  l i m i t access.  Such o r g a n i s a t i o n s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o  maintain  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s quo, a l t h o u g h on such ' p r i v a t e ' l a k e s i t m i g h t be more d i f f i c u l t t o demand motor bans o r c a t c h l i m i t  reductions.  The d e v e l o p m e n t , o r r a t h e r d e s i g n a t i o n , o f t h e s e M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones would e n s u r e t h a t a l l r e c r e a t i o n l o c a t i o n s i n t h e S t u d y A r e a were n o t r e d u c e d  i n s t a n d a r d and q u a l i t y t o a 'lower common  131 denominator'.  I t would e n s u r e t h a t t h e q u a l i t y and v a r i e t y o f a  m a j o r l e i s u r e e n v i r o n m e n t was m a i n t a i n e d and p r e s e r v e d d e s p i t e m o u n t i n g use p r e s s u r e s . Conclusion The l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e zone d e s i g n a t i o n s i s i l l u s t r a t e d on map 7.1.  However, t h e d e t a i l s o f ' h a r d e n i n g ' a t t h e M a j o r A t t r a c t i o n  Zones, t h e r o a d s t h a t s h o u l d be removed t o e n s u r e l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o the M i n o r A t t r a c t i o n Zones, t h e s p e c i f i c s o f f i s h s t o c k i n g f o r m u l a e and l e v e l s , o r o f t h e Task F o r c e ' s p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e not included.  These d e t a i l s b e l o n g a t t h e master p l a n n i n g s t a g e ( t o be  done by t h e s e c r e t a r i a t w i t h t h e f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n and h e l p o f t h e committee members), and would be l e f t u n t i l more a c c u r a t e and l a k e s p e c i f i c s t u d y was c o m p l e t e . A f i n a l c a u t i o n a r y note r e m a i n s .  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can only  e v e r be a p p l i e d w i t h t h e knowledge t h a t d a t a on p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w i l l always be i n c o m p l e t e , and t h a t a l l e s t i m a t e s c a n o n l y be based on a s s u m p t i o n s  made about human b e h a v i o u r and t h e f u t u r e , assum-  p t i o n s t h a t have about as much chance o f b e i n g wrong, as o f b e i n g r i g h t . F l e x i b i l i t y t o change, t o r e c o g n i s e m i s t a k e s and a c t on them, must always remain t h e e s s e n t i a l element i n any p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  131a  SYSTEM Map 7.2  LAKE  17A|0MlKlrt I  r  3 POUdft-AS  J  ' J?CKt>OH"  s  BOOT/ JALUEfN ?60 &UIE7  > .  I  3 4  OTP**  •vs. ^ ^ L r. 27 P&HM^bK  62 t i L A N P "^61 PASAD&E.  T  -  r "  •  25 CAMEO Ast  132  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Adams, James L. Better Ideas.! (1974);.  'Conceptual Blockbusting. A W.H. F r e e m a n a n d Company, S a n  Guide to Francisco.  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Weiskopf, A l l y n and  Donald Bacon,  ' V a n d a l i s m by Pelegrino.  Design. (1973).  C. 'A G u i d e t o R e c r e a t i o n Inc. Boston. (1975).  A  and  Critique.'  Leisure.'  Wildavsky, Aaron. ' A e s t h e t i c Power o r t h e T r i u m p h o f t h e S e n s i t i v e Few o v e r t h e V u l g a r M a s s . A Political Analysis o f t h e New Economics.' Daedalus. V o l . 9 6 . No.4. p.1127. (1967) . W i l s o n , G e o r g e T. ' L a k e Z o n i n g f o r R e c r e a t i o n - How to Improve R e c r e a t i o n a l Use o f L a k e s T h r o u g h R e g u l a t i o n and Control.' M a n a g e m e n t A i d s B u l l e t i n . No. 44. National R e c r e a t i o n and P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n . Washington, D.C. W o r f , W.A. 'The O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n C h a l l e n g e a n d T r e n d s t h e Use o f F o r e s t s , W i l d l a n d s and N o n - U r b a n P l a c e s . ' From: D o o l i n g , P.J. (Ed.) (1975). Y o u s s e f , Y.A. ing A c t i v i t y . ' (1974).  'Assessing N.E.R.C,  in  A f f e c t s on Water Q u a l i t y by B o a t U.S.E.P.A., C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o .  142 Appendix I From:  Population Trends  T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a . R e g i o n a l Economic S t u d y . Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, T r a d e and Commerce, V i c t o r i a . B.C. Kamloops-Lillooet  1961 1966 1980 1990 2000 From:  66,300 base 81,200+22% 150,000 + 126% 222,000 + 235% 300,000 + 352%  From:  94,000 base 1 0 5 , 0 0 0 + 12% 175,000 + 86% 230,000 + 145% 290,000 + 209%  B r i t i s h Columbia 1.629m 1.873m 2.895m 3.387m 4.810m  base +15% + 78% + 136% + 195%  G.V.R.D. P o p u l a t i o n F o r e c a s t . G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. ( J a n u a r y 1973). G r e a t e r Vancouver  1961 1966 1981 1991 1996 2001  Okanagan  (1972),  790,540 base 892,853+13% 1,321,814+ 67% 1,629,226 + 106% 1 ,928,087 + 144%  Lower M a i n l a n d 896,193 base 1,005,369+ 12% 1 , 4 9 1 , 0 0 0 + 66% 1,807,689 + 102% 1,957,306 + 118%  Thompson-Nicola 44,876 base 58,303 + 30% 117,444 + 1 6 2 % 159,911 + 256% 180,594 + 302%  P o p u l a t i o n : P r e l i m i n a r y C o u n t s . 1976 Censum o f Canada. Census D i v i s i o n s . Census S u b d i v i s i o n s . S t a t i s t i c s Canada Ottawa (1976. *1971  1976  57,241 46,765 Kamloops 5,289 5,581 Merritt 2,607 3,092 Princeton 40,877 50,111 Kelowna 13,964 17,162 Vernon 2.185m 2.406m B r i t i s h Columbia 1.028m 1.057m Greater Vancouver T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 75,752 90,294 Okanagan-Similkameen R e g i o n a l 50,673 District 42,752 50,177 69,121 C e n t r a l Okanagan R e g i o n a l D i s t . 34,039 45,794 N o r t h Okanagan R e g i o n a l D i s t DewdneyAllouette Regional Dist. 40,096 50,867 F r a s e r Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t . 46,119 50,349 85,692 C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y Reg. D i s t . 58,063 30,641 34,801 Columbia-Shuswap Reg. D i s t * Based upon 1976 l i m i t s and i n c l u d i n g boundary changes  143 Mineral  Appendix 2 Ore  shipped or Treated.  Bethlehem Craigmont Lornex  M i l l i o n Tons.  A v e r a g e Annual Beahlehem Craigmont  7.460  21.756  25.587  1971  1975 89.6 91.6 167.9 349.1  1965 1.788 1.314  1967 3.948 1.934  1969 5.387 1.810  1971 5.626 1.834  2.835  3.092  5.882  7.197  108.3  1965 32.1 55.7  133.1  87.8  1963 24.8  Craigmont Lornex  6.339 1.430 13.987  1975 6.346 1.796 16.445  1963 1.047 1.738  Copper C o n c e n t r a t e S h i p p e d . Bethlehem  Production  Thousand Tons.  Mine Emoloyment. 1965 1963 187 135 467 512  Lornex 648  1975  663  62.4 106.6  1969 57.7 71.7  86.1 75.4  1973 115.0 65.1 154.4  169.0  129.4  161.5  334.5  1967  Mine and M i l l Workers Only. 1973 1971 1969 1967 341 329 328 249 294 450 389 357 464  1975 348 425 613  606  717  770  1099  1386  740  849  928  1434  1569  I n c l u d i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Workers  M i n e r a l Resources ( s e e map 1 .3). D e p o s i t s under P r o d u c t i o n or production preparation. 1. A f t o n : ore r e s e r v e s 34m t o n s . C o n s t r u c t i o n began March 1976. Eventual m i l l c a p a c i t y o f 25,000 t o n s b l i s t e r c o p p e r per y e a r . 2. Bethlehem: o r e r e s e r v e s 500m tons 3. A l w i n : p r o d u c t i o n c e a s e d . 4. V a l l e y Copper: o r e r e s e r v e s 800m t o n s . No p r o d u c t i o n p l a n s t o d a t e 5. Lornex: o r e r e s e r v e s 419m t o n s . P i l o t p l a n t o n l y 6. Highmont: o r e r e s e r v e s 145m t o n s . F e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y c o m p l e t e , no production plans to date. 7. Craigmont: o r e r e s e r v e 7m t o n s ( c o p p e r c o n t e n t 1.83%) F o o t n o t e 2. M e t a l l i c Copper r e s e r v e s e s t i m a t e c a l c u l a t e d from t o t a l r e s e r v e s g i v e n 2553 m i l l i o n t o n s (3) and a v e r a g e c o p p e r c o n t e n t , 0.45%. S o u r c e : C a n a d i a n Mines Handbook 1967^1977. Compiled by t h e N o r t h e r n M i n e r . N o r t h e r n M i n e r P r e s s L t d . T o r o n t o . ( J u l y 1976).  Footnote  1:  144  Timber P r o d u c t i o n  Appendix 3  T o t a l Annual Timber P r o d u c t i o n , i n CUNITS, f o r 1) B o t a n i e , Kamloops, N i c h o l a , S i m i l k a m e e n , B a r t o n H i l l s and Salmon Arm P.S.Y.U.'s and 2) T . F . L . ' s #16 and #32 A l l being wholly o r p a r t i a l l y within the study area. 1963  1965  1967  1969  1971  1973  1975  542,007  432,600  289,900  415,600  466,880  779,600  497,400  Source:  B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e V i c t o r i a , B.C.  145 Appendix 4 Note:  a) b) c) d)  e) f)  Lake S p e c i f i c  Information  S t o c k i n g f i g u r e s f o r 1976 ( e x c e p t where i n d i c a t e d ) . Use f i g u r e s f o r 1975. (mid-week) r e f e r s t o f i e l d s t u d y p e r i o d s between 8th and 3 1 s t J u l y , (weekend) r e f e r s t o f i e l d s t u d y on S a t u r d a y 1 s t A u g u s t ; (weekend) b o a t c o u n t d u r i n g a e r i a l r e c o n a i s a n c e o f s t u d y a r e a Sunday 2nd A u g u s t . On t h e s e days a F i s h i n g Derby was i n p r o g r e s s on Tunkwa Lake (L.13), Salmon Lake ( L . 2 2 ) , Roche Lake (1.44) and Stump Lake (L. 43). a l l l a k e s i n c l u d e d below were v i s i t e d i n the c o u r s e o f f i e l d work. r e f e r e n c e number r e l a t e d t o l o c a t i o n number on f o l d o u t map  1.  P e t e r Hope Lake: S t o c k i n g 25000 rainbow ( F l y F i s h i n g O n l y ) . Forest S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 2000, 4 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 2 c a r top b o a t l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 8 u n i t s (mid-week); 7 b o a t s (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r P e t e r Hope F i s h i n g Camp and s u b d i v i s i o n . P o t e n t i a l s A r e a a l t e r n a t i v e t o Roche Lake  2.  G l i m p s e Lake: S t o c k i n g 25000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p ment u s e r s 1000, 2 t o i l e t s , 3 t a b l e s , 1 c a r top b o a t l a u n c h ; s i t e use 0 u n i t s (mid-week); 17 b o a t s (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r G l i m p s e Lake Lodge and s u b d i v i s i o n .  3.  D o u g l a s Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . One camping a r e a m a i n t a i n e d by Douglas Lake C a t t l e Company; s i t e use 3 u n i t s (mid-week).  4.  N i c o l a Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e s . Monck P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 70900, 61 c a m p s i t e s , 27 p i c n i c s i t e s . P r i v a t e S e c t o r N i c o l a Bay R e s o r t , Kokanee Beach R e s o r t , Q u i l c h e n a H o t e l , and s u b d i v i s i o n .  5.  Lundbom/Marquart L a k e s : S t o c k i n g 8000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 8000, 5 t o i l e t s , 1 t a b l e , 1 t r a i l e r b o a t l a u n c h ; s i t e use 20 u n i t s (mid-week); 15 b o a t s (weekend). P o t e n t i a l A r e a - a t t r a c t i v e environment, proximity to M e r r i t t .  6.  K e n t u c k y / A l e y n / B l u e y L a k e s : S t o c k i n g 50000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 17300, 14 t o i l e t s , 37 t a b l e s , 8 t r a i l e r b o a t l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 60 u n i t s (mid-week); 45 b o a t s (weekend). Problems A r e a .  7.  Kane L a k e s : S t o c k i n g 15000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 900, 1 t o i l e t , 1 t a b l e , 1 c a r t o p b o a t l a u n c h , s i t e use 0 u n i t s (mid-week). P o t e n t i a l s A r e a - a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h good road a c c e s s .  8.  Harmon Lake: S t o c k i n g 15000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p ment u s e r s 5400, 3 t o i l e t s , 1 t a b l e , 3 c a r top b o a t l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 9 u n i t s (mid-week). P o t e n t i a l s A r e a - a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h good road a c c e s s .  9.  Boss Lake No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 1000, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r b o a t l a u n c h ; s i t e use 6 u n i t s (mid-week).  146 10.  Davis users unit with  Lake: Mo S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t 1500, 4 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 1 (mid-week); 6 boats (weekend). P o t e n t i a l s A r e a - a l t e r n a t i v e good road a c c e s s .  11.  B a r n e s / W i l l a r d L a k e s : S t o c k i n g 15000 r a i n b o w i n B a r n e s . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 6000, 8 t o i l e t s 0 t a b l e s , 8 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 5 u n i t s (mid-week); 16 boats (weekend).  12.  Q u i l t a n t o n Lake: No S t o c k i n g . " U n i n c o r p o r a t e d " r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , 2 t o i l e t s ; s i t e use 15 u n i t s (mid-week). I n d i a n R e s e r v e on e a s t s i d e of lake.  13.  Tunkwa Lake: S t o c k i n g 55000 r a i n b o w ( a l s o spawn c o l l e c t i o n ) . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 3000, 4 t o i l e t s 0 t a b l e s , 4 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 20 u n i t s (mid-week) 98 u n i t s (weekend); 115 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Tunkwa Lake F i s h i n g Camp; s i t e use 41 u n i t s (weekend). S u b d i v i s i o n . P r o b l e m A r e a .  14.  L e i g h t o n Lake: S t o c k i n g 15000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 3000, 2 t o i l e t s , 6 t a b l e s , 2 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 32 u n i t s (weekend); 8 boats (weekend). P r o b l e m A r e a .  15.  P a s k a / F a c e L a k e s : No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 800, 3 t o i l e t s , 3 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r b o a t l a u n c h ; s i t e use 6 u n i t s (mid-week); 10 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r M i l e High Lodge, 30 r e n t a l boats on t h e two l a k e s .  16.  Chum Lake:  17.  S k i m i k i n Lake: No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 400, 1 t o i l e t , 3 t a b l e s , c a r top boat l a u n c h o n l y ; s i t e use s c h o o l p a r t y o f 30 (mid-week). T r e e k i l l from w a t e r l e v e l f l u c t u a t i o n .  18.  Wallensteen Lake: No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e u s e r s 200, 1 t o i l e t , 0 t a b l e s , c a r top b o a t l a u n c h o n l y , s i t e use 1 u n i t . Poor road a c c e s s .  19.  P i l l a r - Lake: S t o c k i n g 10000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 950, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h , s i t e use 3 u n i t s (mid-week); 16 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r P i l l a r Lake R e s o r t . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s .  20.  Chapperon Lake: public access.  21.  Rush Lake: access.  22.  Salmon Lake: No S t o c k i n g ( F l y F i s h i n g O n l y ) . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Salmon Lake F i s h i n g camp; s i t e use 12 u n i t s (mid-week 32 boats (weekend), camp has 30 r e n t a l b o a t s . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s launch charge.  No S t o c k i n g .  No F o r e s t S e r v i c e  No S t o c k i n g .  No S t o c k i n g .  Area.  No F o r e s t S e r v i c e A r e a .  No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a .  Limited  Limited public  147 23.  B o l e a n / A r t h u r / S p a Lakes: S t o c k i n g A r t h u r o n l y 4000 r a i n b o w (1972). F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 1000, 3 t o i l e t s , 3 t a b l e s , 2 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 0 u n i t s ; 20 boats on B b l e a n (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r B o l e a n Lake F i s h i n g Camp 30 c a m p s i t e s 18 c a b i n s , 40 r e n t a l boats on t h e t h r e e l a k e s . L i m i t e d p u b l i c access - launch charge.  24.  P i n a u s Lake: S t o c k i n g 30,000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 940 ( i n c l u d e s L i t t l e P i n a u s and Square L a k e s ) , 4 t o i l e t s , 4 t a b l e s , 2 c a r top b o a t l a u n c h e s ; 8 b o a t s (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r P i a n u s Lake R e s o r t 35 c a m p s i t e s , 15 c a b i n s , 45 r e n t a l b o a t s on f o u r l a k e s . S u b d i v i s i o n . L i m i t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s .  25.  Cameo Lake: No S t o c k i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 750, 1 t o i l e t , 1 t a b l e , 1 c a r t o p b o a t l a u n c h ; s i t e use 1 u n i t (mid-week).  26.  Hatheume Lake: S t o c k i n g 30000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 800, 1 t o i l e t , 2 t a b l e s , 1 c a r t o p boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 2 u n i t s (mid-week); 24 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Hatheume Lake Lodge 6 c a m p s i t e s , 6 c a b i n s , c o n t r o l s a c c e s s t o l a k e s i n a r e a o t h e r than Hatheume.  27.  Pennask Lake: No S t o c k i n g (spawn c o l l e c t i o n . F l y F i s h i n g O n l y ) . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . Pennask Lake P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n Area u s e r s 8460, 6 t o i l e t s , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 23 u n i t s (mid-week) 12 b o a t s (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Pennask Lake F i s h i n g C l u b . Poor road access.  28.  S u r r e y / S u s s e x L a k e s ; No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . P r i v a t e s e c t o r S u r r e y Lake F i s h i n g Camp, 8 camp, 8 c a b i n s , 21 r e n t a l b o a t s on t h r e e l a k e s ; use, 3 b o a t s (weekend). Poor r o a d a c c e s s , 4-wheel drive only.  29.  Frogmore Lakes: O c c a s i o n a l S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . 2 " U n i n c o r p o r a t e d " camping a r e a s . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Frogmore Lake H u n t i n g and F i s h i n g Camp. Boats 8 (weekend). Poor r o a d a c c e s s .  30.  Chataway L a k e : No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r d a t a f o r 5 areas i n v i c i n i t y , 1 t o i l e t o n l y , c a r top boat launch only. P r i v a t e s e c t o r Chataway Lake Lodge, 20 c a m p s i t e s , 10 c a b i n s on two l a k e s , 6 r e n t a l boats - l a u n c h c h a r g e . P o t e n t i a l s Area - i n t e r e s t i n g l a k e complex.  32.  Lodgwick Lake: S t o c k i n g 8000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e Development 4300, 3 t o i l e t s , 1 t a b l e , 2 c a r t o p b o a t l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 4 u n i t s (mid-week). P o t e n t i a l s Area - i n t e r e s t i n g l a k e Complex.  33.  Frembd Lake: by r a i l r o a d .  No S t o c k i n g .  No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a .  Access l i m i t e d  148 34.  O t t e r Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . O t t e r Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 21484, 20 c a m p s i t e s , 4 p i c n i c s i t e s . P r o v i n c i a l Parks day use beach a t Tulameen. P r i v a t e s e c t o r subdivision.  35.  C h a i n Lake: S t o c k i n g 20000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 4000*, 2 t o i l e t s , 3 t a b l e s , 2 c a r top l a u n c h e s ; s i t e use 5 u n i t s (mid-week). P r i v a t e s e c t o r s u b d i v i s i o n . L i m i t e d public access.  36.  L i n k Lake: S t o c k i n g 6000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 3000*, 1 t o i l e t , 1 t a b l e , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h a c r o s s r a i l r o a d ; s i t e use 0 u n i t s (mid-week). P r i v a t e s e c t o r subdivision.  37.  O s p r e y Lake: S t o c k i n g 3000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 4000*, 1 t o i l e t , 1 t a b l e , 1 c a r top boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 1 u n i t (mid-week). P r i v a t e s e c t o r s u b d i v i s i o n . *Note: t h e s e use f i g u r e s a r e d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n s o f e s t i m a t e s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d by the a u t h o r , on the b a s i s o f p e r c e i v e d use and a v a i l a b l e s p a c e , t o be o u t r a g e a u s l y e x t r a v a g a n t .  38.  Tepee L a k e s : S t o c k i n g 10000 r a i n b o w i n Sunday l a k e o n l y . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Tepee Lakes F i s h i n g Camp, 8 c a b i n s , 6 r e n t a l boats on 3 l a k e s . 20 boats (weekend). Poor road a c c e s s , 4-wheel d r i v e o n l y .  39.  Dry Lake: S t o c k i n g 5000 r a i n b o w . s e c t o r Dry Lake R e s o r t .  40.  A l l i s o n Lake: S t o c k i n g 15000 r a i n b o w . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a A l l i s o n Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 15248, 22 c a m p s i t e s , 14 p i c n i c s i t e s . P r i v a t e s e c t o r Skye B l u e Lodge and s u b d i v i s i o n .  41.  C o r b e t t / C o u r t n e y L a k e s : S t o c k i n g ( C o r b e t t ) 8000, and ( C o u r t n e y ) 20000 r a i n b o w ( L a k e a e r a t i o n programmes i n b o t h . ) No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . Highway Department r e s t - a r e a under v e r y heavy use f o r s p r i n g g i s h i n g . P r i v a t e s e c t o r C o r b e t t Lake C o u n t r y Inn, s u p e r b c u i s i n e , 7 c a b i n s , 8 r e n t a l b o a t s ; 6 b o a t s (weekend). P o t e n t i a l s A r e a - a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h good r o a d a c c e s s , p r o x i m i t y t o Kamloops.  42.  M i s s e z u l a Lake: S t o c k i n g 20000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t no u s e r d a t a , 1 t o i l e t , 4 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 5 u n i t s (mid-week); 8 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r s u b d i v i s i o n l i m i t s a c c e s s a t s o u t h end o f l a k e .  43.  Stump Lake: S t o c k i n g 50000 r a i n b o w . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e s i t e . " U n i n c o r p o r a t e d " r e c r e a t i o n a r e a ; s i t e use 25 u n i t s (mid-week) i n c l u d e s use a t U.R.E.P. a r e a , p u b l i c a c c e s s t h r o u g h s u b d i c i s i o n and h i g h e a y d r i v e - o f f ) 80 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r s u b d i v i s i o n . Problems a r e a .  No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a .  Private  LEAF 149 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING.  150 44.  Roche Lake: S t o c k i n g 45000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 1100, 6 t o i l e t s , 9 t a b l e s , 1 t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h 3 c a r t o p boat l a u n c h e s ; s i t e s u e 36 u n i t s (mid-week); 100 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Roche Lake F i s h i n g Camp, s u p e r b c u i s i n e c a b i n s , c a m p s i t e s , t r a i l e r boat l a u n c h , r e n t a l boats and s t o r e . Problems A r e a .  45.  Monte Lake: S t o c k i n g 25000 r a i n b o w . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . Monte Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 8004, 7 c a m p s i t e s , 3 p i c n i c s i t e s ; s i t e use 8 u n i t s (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r B l u e M o u n t a i n Park and NexDoor C a m p s i t e s ; s i t e use 3 u n i t s (weekend).  46.  Mamit Lake: No S t o c k i n g . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e a . "Unincorporated" r e c r e a t i o n a r e a ; s i t e use (on o l d highway c u r v e s ) 4 u n i t s (weekend).  47.  Walloper Service car top Private  48.  L a c Le Jeune: S t o c k i n g 30000 r a i n b o w . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . L a c Le Jeune P r o v i n c i a l Park u s e r s 46536, 144 c a m p s i t e s , 27 p i c n i c s i t e s 15 boats (weekend). P r i v a t e s e c t o r Le Jeune Lodge and s k i a r e a , s u b d i v i s i o n .  49.  S t a k e Lake: S t o c k i n g 12000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 550, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r t o p boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 15 u n i t s (weekend). P o t e n t i a l s A r e a - p r o x i m i t y t o Kamloops, o v e r f l o w from L a c Le Jeune.  50.  M c C o n n e l l Lake: S t o c k i n g 15000 r a i n b o w . F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 500, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r t o p boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 9 u n i t s (weekend). P o t e n t i a l s A r e a - p r o x i m i t y t o Kamloops, o v e r f l o w from L a c Le Jeune.  51.  J a c k o Lake: S t o c k i n g 30000 r a i n b o w . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e s i t e . M a i n t a i n e d by Kamloops F i s h and Game C l u b , 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r t o p b o a t l a u n c h ; s i t e use 3 c a r s (weekend); 8 boats (weekend).  53.  D u f f y Lake: S t o c k i n g 10000 rainbow. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 250, 1 t o i l e t , 0 t a b l e s , 1 c a r t o p boat l a u n c h ; s i t e use 1 u n i t (weekday); 10 c a r s (weekend).  68.  T r a p p Lake: S t o c k i n g 60000 e a s t e r n brook t r o u t . No F o r e s t S e r v i c e s i t e . Limited p u b l i c access. P o t e n t i a l s Area - f o r winter i c e f i s h i n g , p r o x i m i t y t o Kamloops.  Lake: S t o c k i n g 12000 r a i n b o w (Lake A e r a t i o n ) . Forest r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t u s e r s 150, 2 t o i l e t s , 0 t a b l e s , 1 boat l a u n c h ; s i t e u s e 8 u n i t s (weekend); 8 boats (weekend). s e c t o r W a l l o p e r Lake F i s h i n g Camp.  151 Appendix Site Visit  5  S i t e V i s i t Data C o l l e c t i o n Example Lundbom and M a r q u a r t Lakes (L.05)  9 J u l y 76.  Lundbom: West end - 6 u n i t s , 1 t e n t , 1 t o i l e t - t r e m b l i n g aspen g r o v e . F o u r s m a l l a l u n i n u m b o a t s w i t h o u t b o a r d s . Two l a r g e 14-16 f e e t 65hp. 'open-runner b o a t s ' . Smooth g r a v e l beach, b o a t l a u n c h ramps, good g r o s s c o v e r a g e and shade, f o u r garbage c a n s . N o r t h s i d e - open meadow, 5 u n i t s , 1 t e n t , 2 t o i l e t s , 4 b o a t s E a s t end - open t r e e c o v e r a g e , 10 u n i t s , 6 sluminum b o a t s w i t h o u t b o a r d s . A l l a r e a s e v i d e n c e much p a s t use. watering. Marquart: Fisheries rehabilitation project.  Site v i s i t  S i g n s d f c a t t l e a t e a s t end, s t o c k  No e v i d e n c e o f camper u n i t s .  Q u i l t a n t o n Lake (L.12)  20 J u l y 76  No a p p a r e n t s e r v i c i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Permanent r e s i d e n c e . S e v e r a l rough l a u n c h i n g s i t e s down t o l a k e t h r o u g h bush. C o n s t a n t heavy equipment n o i s e from mine. 4 b o a t s on l a k e . 7 u n i t s a t s i t e c l o s e s t t o highway. Very heavy use a l o n g whole w e s t e r n s h o r e l i n e . N o r t h s i d e c a b i n development I n d i a n r e s e r v e a t e a s t end. S e v e r a l abandoned c a r s on s i t e . Random t r a i l l a y o u t . 2 Pan Abode t o i l e t s . T r e e l i m b c u t t i n g . Garbage h i g h l y v i s i b l e  152 Appendix 6  Interviewees  H e i n z Lange, Rod and Gun C l u b , M e r r i t t . Lake Lodge.  Tim T u l l i s , owner,  Hatheume  N e i l Wooliams, manager, D o u g l a s Lake C a t t l e Company,  Merritt.  Bob C h r i s t i e , Gorman B r o t h e r s , Bud Ward, F i s h and W i l d l i f e  Merritt.  J e a n Le Douc, F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Kamloops.  F i s h and W i l d l i f e , Kamloops. Kamloops.  John C a r t w r i g h t ,  J a c k Shaw, B u r f i e l d s S p o r t s Goods,  Sandy S a n d i f o r d , p r e s i d e n t , I n t e r i o r R e s o r t Owners A s s o c i a t i o n .  D i c k McMaster, p a r t n e r , S u r r e y Lake F i s h i n g Camp. Kamloops Rod and Gun C l u b .  Russ Hughes, F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Kamloops.  Mr. P a l i p o s k y , Highway Department, Kamloops. R e s o u r c e E c o l o g y R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , U.B.C. Tunkwa Lake F i s h i n g Camp.  F i s h i n g Camp.  D.W.  C h r i s H o u s t o n , Animail  Doreen Summers, p a r t n e r ,  Mr. M a c d o n a l d , B o l e a n Lake F i s h i n g Camp.  P e t e r McVey, owner C o r b e t t Lake C o u n t r y Inn. Salmon Lake F i s h i n g Camp.  R a l f Shaw, e x - p r e s i d e n t  Debra S m i t h , p a r t n e r ,  M e s s r s . Cohen and C a l d w e l l , owners, Roche Lake  Roddy, owner, Chataway L a k e s R e s o r t .  Also partners  i n M i l e H i g h Lodge and P i n a u s Lake R e s o r t , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f Crown Z e l l e r b a c h , Weyerhauser and Pennask Lake Company.  153 A p p e n d i x 8.  P r o v i n c i a l Park F a c i l i t i e s  R e f e r s t o map 3.1 1. 2.  4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Savona. (Mass A. Day Use O n l y . 12 p i c n i c s i t e s . 4 a c r e s . ^ L a c Le Jeune Park. C l a s s A. No w a t e r u n t i l summer 1977. 94 c a m p s i t e s . 24 p i c n i c s i t e s . 138 a c r e s . Monte Lake Park. C l a s s A. No w a t e r . 7 c a m p s i t e s . 3 p i c n i c s i t e s . 19 a c r e s Monck Park. C l a s s A. 61 c a m p s i t e s . 27 p i c n i c s i t e s 216 a c r e s . A l l i s o n Lake Park C l a s s A. 22 c a m p s i t e s . 14 p i c n i c s i t e s . 57 a c r e s . ^ O t t e r Lake Park. C l a s s A. 20 c a m p s i t e s . 4 p i c n i c s i t e s . 57 a c r e s . B r o m l e y Rock P a r k . C l a s s A. 17 c a m p s i t e s . 12 p i c n i c s i t e s . 367 a c r e s Pennask Lake R e c r e a t i o n A r e a .  9.  Soap Lake E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e ( A d m i n i s t e r e d by Lands B r a n c h )  3.  Source:  B.C. Oarks B r a n c h .  Appendix 9  Commercial R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s  R e f e r s t o map 3.3. 1. Kamloops - 38 m o t e l s 2. M e r r i t t - 6 m o t e l s 3. P r i n c e t o n - l e m o t e l s 4. 5.  Tunkwa Lake F i s h i n g Camp D o m i n i c Lake F i s h i n g Camp  6. 7. 8.  M i l e High Lodge W a l l o p e r Lake F i s h i n g Camp  9.  Le Jeune R e s o r t K n u t s f o r d T e n t & T r a i l e r Park  17. 18. 19. 20.  G l i m p s e Lake Lodge P e t e r Hope F i s h i n g Camp Frogmore F i s h i n g and H u n t i n g Camp  21. 22.  Chataway Lake Lodges N i c o l a Bay R e s o r t  23. 24.  Kokanee Beach R e s o r t Quilchena Hotel C o r b e t t Lake C o u n t r y Inn  25.  S u r r e y Lake F i s h i n g Camp  Skye B l u e Lodge Tepee Lakes F i s h i n g Camp  10. 11.  Roche Lake F i s h i n g Camp  12.  Nex-Door C a m p s i t e  26. 27. 28.  13.  P i l l a r Lake R e s o r t  29.  14.  B o l e a n Lake F i s h i n g Camp  Hatheume Lake Lodge  15.  P i n a u s r Lake R e s o r t  30. 31.  16.  Salmon Lake F i s h i n g Camp'  32.  Dry Lake R e s o r t  B l u e M o u n t a i n Park  Source:  P a r a d i s e Lake R e s o r t Pennask Lake F i s h i n g C l u b Kam-Ver-Lando M o t e l  B r i t i s h Columbia T o u r i s t D i r e c t o r y 1976 B.C. Dept. o f T r a v e l I n s u t t r y (1976). B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Kamloops  15 4 Appendix 10. R e f e r s t o map 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Highways Department 3.4  Savona View P o i n t Kamloops Lake Look Out R e s t A r e a Monte Creek R e s t A r e a N i c o l a Lake T a b l e Stop N i c o l a Lake R e s t A r e a C o u r t n e y Lake R e s t A r e a G u l l i f o r d Lake T a b l e S i t e .  Source:  B.C. Highways Department  Appendix 11 R e f e r s t o may 1. 2. 3. 4.  R e s t Stoas.  Kamloops.  'Unincorporated'Recreation Areas 3.11  Stump Lake Mamit Lake Q u i l t a n t o n Lake N i c o l a Lake - West S i d e  

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