UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Accomplishing the sighted world Michalko, Rod 1977

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ACCOMPLISHING THE SIGHTED WORLD RODNEY LEONARD MICHALKO B.A., Honours, University of Winnipeg, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1977 Rodney Leonard Michalko, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A u g u s t , 1 9 7 7 - i i -ABSTRACT B l i n d n e s s i s commonly and o r d i n a r i l y u n d e r s t o o d t o be an e x c l u s i v e l y p h y s i o l o g i c a l phenomenon. T h a t i s , t h e g e n e s i s o f b l i n d n e s s i s t y p i c a l l y f r a m e d w i t h -i n a p h y s i o l o g i c a l p a r a d i g m . Thus, b l i n d n e s s i s com-m o n l y u n d e r s t o o d t o be c a u s e d by a m a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f s e e i n g . I t i s p r e c i s e l y w i t h i n t h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l p a r a d i g m t h a t r e s e a r c h on b l i n d n e s s , f o r t h e most p a r t , i s f r a m e d . F u r t h e r i t i s commonly and o r d i n a r i l y u n d e r -s t o o d t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s p e r c e i v e t h e w o r l d i n a c c u r -a t e l y . W i t h i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s h e l d t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s must be " t a u g h t " v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e " s i g h t e d w o r l d " i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may l i v e a s "norm-a l l y " as p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h i s world.. 1 Thus, r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f b l i n d n e s s t y p i c a l l y aims a t t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i v e methods and p r o c e d u r e s whereby b l i n d p e r s o n s a r e " t a u g h t " what i t i s t h e y have t o know i n o r d e r t o c o e x i s t w i t h s i g h t e d o t h e r s i n a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . I n s h o r t , t h e n , i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f b l i n d n e s s a r e t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d i n s p e c u l a t i n g a b o u t how i t i s t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s s h o u l d l i v e . - i i i -T h i s s o r t o f s p e c u l a t i o n , however, p r e c l u d e s any-u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how i t i s t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s do l i v e and, t h u s , a v o i d s any u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how b l i n d p e r -s o n s i n t e r a c t w i t h , s i g h t e d o t h e r s i n a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . T h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a t l e a s t some o f t h e ways i n w h i c h b l i n d p e r s o n s u n d e r s t a n d t h e " s i g h t e d w o r l d " and some o f t h e ways i n w h i c h b l i n d p e r s o n s s o c i a l l y i n t e r a c t w i t h i n t h i s " s i g h t e d world'-'. Thus, b l i n d n e s s i s t r e a t e d h e r e n o t m e r e l y as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l phenomenon, b u t r a t h e r a s a . s o c i a l phen-omenon. The method o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s u t i l -i z e d t o d e v e l o p an e t h n o g r a p h y o f b l i n d n e s s i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e some o f t h e ways t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s i n t e r -a c t w i t h s i g h t e d o t h e r s w i t h i n a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . F u r t h e r , e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d and a n a l y z e d i n an a t t e m p t t o show how b l i n d p e r s o n s a c c o m p l i s h t h e " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . B l i n d p e r s o n s a r e i n v o l v e d i n an a c t i v i t y w h i c h , w i t h i n s o c i o l o g i c a l t e r m s , c a n be c a l l e d " p a s s i n g " . C o n v e n t i o n a l l y , " p a s s i n g " i s u n d e r s t o o d as an a c t i v i t y e ngaged i n by s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n s i n an a t t e m p t t o c o n c e a l t h e i r s o c i a l s t i g m a . B l i n d p e r s o n s , however, a r e n o t i n v o l v e d i n " p a s s i n g " o n l y i n an a t t e m p t t o c o n c e a l t h e i r b l i n d n e s s f r o m o t h e r s , i n s t e a d , b l i n d p e r s o n s a r e i n v o l v e d i n " p a s s i n g " i n o r d e r t o - i v -d i s p l a y t h e i r knowledge o f , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , a c c e p t -ance o f , and d e f e r e n c e t o t h e paramount r e a l i t y , name t h e " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . - v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 1. The Problem 1 2. The Data 10 I I . THE CONCEPT OF PASSING 20 1. Goffman's Perspective 20 2. Garfinkel's Perspective 27 I I I . THE GENESIS OF MANAGEMENT DEVICES 36 IV. ACCOMPLISHING THE SIGHTED WORLD 71 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY 105 - v i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h i s w o r k w o u l d n o t have b e e n p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e p a t i e n t g u i d a n c e o f my T h e s i s C o m m i t t e e . To P r o f e s s o r s Roy T u r n e r , D o r o t h y E. S m i t h , a n d K e n n e t h S t o d d a r t , I e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e s t g r a t i t u d e a n d a p p r e c i -a t i o n . P r o f e s s o r Roy T u r n e r , Head o f my C o m m i t t e e , p r o -v i d e d me w i t h many i n v a l u a b l e a n d i n s i g h t f u l comments o n t h e f i r s t two d r a f t s o f t h i s t h e s i s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o The C a n a d a C o u n c i l f o r t h e i r g e n e r o u s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t i n t h e f o r m o f a S p e c i a l M.A. S c h o l a r s h i p . I owe a s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d s t a f f o f The C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e B l i n d . The s t a f f a t t h e M a n i t o b a D i v i s i o n o f t h e C.N.I.B. a n d o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D i v i s i o n o f t h e C.N.I.B. n o t o n l y made t h e i r t i m e a n d w o r k s p a c e s a v a i l a b l e t o me, b u t a l s o p r o v i d e d me w i t h much i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . I h a v e met many b l i n d p e r s o n s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f my r e s e a r c h a n d t o t h e s e f r i e n d s I e x p r e s s my mos t s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e , a p p r e c i a t i o n , a n d t h a n k s . F i n a l l y , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , I am i n d e b t e d t o my w i f e B a r b a r a f o r h e r p a t i e n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . N o t o n l y d i d she t y p e - v i i -the f i r s t two d r a f t s o f t h i s t h e s i s , h u t , she a l s o p r o -v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e e d i t o r i a l a s s i s t a n c e and i n s i g h t f u l comments and c r i t i c i s m s on the t e x t i t s e l f . I t i s t o her I am most g r a t e f u l . - 1 -CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I n the f o l l o w i n g pages I intend, t o p r e s e n t an a n a l y s i s o f the phenomenon of b l i n d n e s s which t r e a t s b l i n d n e s s not m e r e l y as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l phenomenon, but r a t h e r , as a s o c i a l phenomenon. Chapter I i s dev-o t e d t o a f o r m u l a t i o n o f the problem t h a t i s t o be a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s as w e l l as t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the source and type o f d a t a t h a t i s t o be p r e s e n t e d . I n Chapter I I I i n t r o d u c e i n t o t h i s a n a l y s i s the con-c e p t o f " p a s s i n g " . T h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s a b r i e f exp-l i c a t i o n o f b o t h Goffman's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f "pas-s i n g " and G a r f i n k e l * s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f " p a s s i n g " . By p r e s e n t i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a , I i n t e n d , i n C h a p t e r s I I I and IV, t o f u r t h e r a n a l y z e the concept o f " p a s s i n g " w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o b l i n d p e r s o n s l i v i n g i n a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . 1. The Problem Much o f the r e s e a r c h i n the a r e a o f b l i n d n e s s has been and i s concerned w i t h what i t i s t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s s h o u l d know i n o r d e r t o f u n c t i o n as n o r m a l l y as p o s s i b l e i n our s o c i e t y . Not o n l y has t h i s r e s e a r c h been concerned with establishing the kinds of things that b l i n d persons should know, but also, i t has been concerned with the formation of methods whereby b l i n d persons can obtain t h i s knowledge. Thus, t h i s research has, i n part, resulted i n the development of massive r e h a b i l i t a t i v e programs for b l i n d persons. This research, which i s carr i e d on by both lay and professionals, has as i t s basis, the understanding that; ( l ) Blindness i s an exclusively physiological phenomenon, the generation of which i s not to be located within the s o c i a l l y organized practices and a c t i v i t i e s of c e r t a i n profes-sions such as the ophthalmological profes-sion and the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services to 2 b l i n d persons profession. See, f o r example, C a r r o l l ( 1 9 6 1 ) , Chevigny and Braverman ( 1 9 5 0 ) , Cholden ( 1 9 5 8 ) , Finestone (I960), and Lowenfeld ( 1 9 7 1 ) . A further warrant f o r the following characterization i s my experience as a b l i n d person and my experiences with other b l i n d persons. See part 2 of t h i s chapter. 2 A possible exception to t h i s i s the work of Robert A. Scott ( 1 9 6 9 ) . Scott suggests that "Blind men are not born, they are made". (Scott, 1969:121) In his analysis of American agencies "for the blind", •Scott u t i l i z e s a s o c i a l i z a t i o n model to propose that these agencies act to s o c i a l i z e b l i n d persons and hence, to a large degree, are responsible f o r the various (2) B l i n d n e s s i s an u n f o r t u n a t e and t e r r i b l e o c c u r r e n c e . (3) The onset o f b l i n d n e s s causes c e r t a i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and, i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , c e r t a i n p s y c h i a t r i c d i f f i c u l t i e s . F u r t h e r , t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s a re more r e c o g n i z a b l e , and b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h a n by b l i n d p e r s o n s themselves and these p r o f e s s i o n a l s are more c a p a b l e o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a n are b l i n d p e r s o n s t h e m s e l v e s . ( 4 ) B l i n d p e r s o n s must r e c o g n i z e and a c c e p t t h e i r b l i n d n e s s as a p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p and make the b e s t o f i t . (5) B l i n d p e r s o n s must " a d j u s t " t o the w i d e r s i g h t e d s o c i e t y and, f o r most b l i n d p e r s o n s , t h i s r e q u i r e s p r o f e s s i o n a l " h e l p " . (6) The w i d e r s i g h t e d s o c i e t y s h o u l d be edu-c a t e d and made aware o f the f e a t u r e s o f b l i n d n e s s , b l i n d p e r s o n s , t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s and c a p a b i l i t i e s . s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b l i n d p e r s o n s . A s o c i a l i z a t i o n model, however, p r e c l u d e s any u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f "how" b l i n d p e r s o n s l i v e and i n t e r a c t i n a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . (7) B l i n d persons, to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree, depending on whether t h e i r b l i n d -ness i s t o t a l , p a r t i a l , c o n g e n i t a l , or a d v e n t i t i o u s , do not share p e r c e p t i o n s and understandings of the world i n common with s i g h t e d persons. (8) The v i s u a l experiences t h a t b l i n d persons have are i n v a l i d and e s s e n t i a l l y i n c o r r e c t . I t i s t y p i c a l l y understood t h a t an " o b j e c t i v e world" e x i s t s and t h a t to per-c e i v e and understand t h i s world a c c u r a t e l y , "normal s i g h t " i s r e q u i r e d . Given these understandings, the task of these r e s e a r -ches then becomes to decide what i t i s t h a t b l i n d persons should know and how i t i s they are to o b t a i n t h i s knowledge i n order to c o e x i s t with s i g h t e d others w i t h i n a " s i g h t e d world". This s o r t of p o l i c y l e a d s i n v e s t i g a t o r s to spec u l a t e about what i t i s th a t i s best f o r b l i n d persons, what they should know,' how they can come to know what they should know, how they should l i v e , i n other words, how they should conduct themselves i n order to g i v e the appearance of a " n o r m a l l y - w e l l -a d j u s t e d - b l i n d - p e r s o n " . This o v e r r i d i n g concern with e s t a b l i s h i n g how b l i n d persons "should l i v e " has - 5 -i g n o r e d , a l m o s t t o t a l l y , any c o n c e r n f o r d i s c o v e r i n g how M i n d p e r s o n s "do l i v e " , i . e . , how b l i n d p e r s o n s s o c i a l l y i n t e r a c t w i t h i n a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . I n o r d e r t o determine how b l i n d p e r s o n s s h o u l d l i v e , i n v e s t i g a t o r s , be t h e y l a y or p r o f e s s i o n a l , t y p i -c a l l y i n v o k e t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and r e s o c i a l -i z a t i o n . W i t h i n the normative -^ s o c i o l o g i c a l paradigm the bona f i d e member o f s o c i e t y i s viewed as one who has been a d e q u a t e l y s o c i a l i z e d and t h u s c o n d u c t s h i s or h er everyday a f f a i r s i n a c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e and a c c e p t a b l e manner. A fundamental o r i e n t a t i o n o f the n o r m a t i v e paradigm, as W i l s o n s u g g e s t s ( W i l s o n , 1 9 7 0 : 5 9 ) . i s t h a t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s " r u l e governed". Thus, i n o r d e r f o r a s o c i a l o r d e r t o e x i s t , members o f s o c i e t y must come to know, u n d e r s t a n d and a b i d e by the s o c i a l r u l e s o f everyday l i f e . Members a c q u i r e and . i n t e r n a l i z e t h i s knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g v i a the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . That i s , i t i s t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s o f c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s l e a r n i n g t h a t members a c q u i r e and i n t e r n a l i z e the knowledge of, under-s t a n d i n g o f , and adherence to the r u l e s , norms, v a l u e s , JI t a k e the concept " n o r m a t i v e " from my r e a d i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f W i l s o n ' ( 1 9 7 0 : 5 9 - 6 6 ) and C i c o u r e l ( 1 9 7 0 : 4 - 4 5 ) . - 6 - ' mores, and the r e s t o f the n o r m a t i v e f u r n i t u r e of ever y d a y l i f e . The s o c i a l i z a t i o n model presupposes t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s ' i n s o c i e t y c e r t a i n p e r s o n s who can be c h a r a c -t e r i z e d as " e n t i t l e d members" o f s o c i e t y o r " e n t i t l e d members"',of a s p e c i f i c group w i t h i n s o c i e t y . I t i s from these " e n t i t l e d members" t h a t newcomers i n t o a s o c i e t y such as im m i g r a n t s and c h i l d r e n and newcomers i n t o s p e c i f i c groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y such as new members of an o c c u p a t i o n o r new members o f any o t h e r c o l l e c -t i v i t y , l e a r n the r u l e s which g o v e r n e v e r y d a y a f f a i r s . Hence, i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f b l i n d n e s s have been concerned w i t h the d i s c o v e r y and f o r m u l a t i o n o f p r o -cedures whereby c o n g e n l t a l l y b l i n d p e r s o n s may be appropriatelyrsD-Crial-ized^so "ttoit t h e y can assume the r o l e o f " w e l l - a d j u s t e d - b l i n d - p e r s o n " , o r a t l e a s t , assume the r o l e o f " b l i n d p e r s o n " . I n the case o f a d v e n t i -t i o u s l y b l i n d p e r s o n s , these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s seek to d i s c o v e r and f o r m u l a t e p r o c e d u r e s whereby a p e r s o n can move from one s t a t u s t o a n o t h e r , namely, from " s i g h t e d n e s s " t o " b l i n d n e s s " , i n a word, from b e i n g a s i g h t e d p e r s o n to b e i n g a b l i n d p e r s o n . F o l l o w i n g Goffman (1952:462-463) t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s v iew those p e r s o n s who l o s e t h e i r s i g h t a s , i n a sense, d y i n g as a s i g h t e d p e r s o n and b e i n g r e b o r n n e c e s s a r i l y and o n l y as a b l i n d p e r s o n . There a r e , however, c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t emerge when b l i n d n e s s i s viewed from the s o c i a l i z a t i o n model. More f u n d a m e n t a l l y , t h e r e a re c e r t a i n d i f f i -c u l t i e s t h a t emerge w i t h i n the model o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , p e r se. For i n s t a n c e , w i t h i n n o r m a t i v e s o c i o l o g y , the key t o "humanness" i s t o be found i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n model. Thus, as MacKay p o i n t s o u t , "For the s o c i o l -o g i s t , t o be human i s to be s o c i a l i z e d . " , and, "To be s o c i a l i z e d i s t o a c q u i r e r o l e s . " (MacKay, 1 9 7 4 : 1 8 1 ) T h i s view, however, s u g g e s t s t h a t i f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e a t a l l i t i s somehow or o t h e r i n a p p r o p r i a t e or i n a d e q u a t e u n t i l p e r s o n s come t o share norms, r o l e s , v a l u e s , e t c . , i n common w i t h one a n o t h e r . I n the case o f b l i n d n e s s , the s o c i a l i z a t i o n model i s i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h the a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s o f b l i n d p e r s o n s i n eve r y d a y l i f e . There are many i n s t -ances o f b l i n d c h i l d r e n b e i n g b o r n i n our s o c i e t y as w e l l as many i n s t a n c e s o f per s o n s e x p e r i e n c i n g s i g h t l o s s . B l i n d c h i l d r e n a r e t y p i c a l l y b o r n i n t o a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g f a m i l i e s and p e r s o n s l o s e t h e i r s i g h t w i t h i n an a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g s o c i a l c i r c l e o f f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , a c q u a i n t a n c e s and so on. Furt h e r m o r e , b l i n d c h i l d r e n are c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h i n the w o r l d i n t o w h i c h - 8 -t h e y are h o r n . S i m i l a r l y , the p e r s o n who e x p e r i e n c e s s i g h t l o s s a t some p o i n t d u r i n g h i s o r h e r l i f e does not s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e x p e r i e n c e an immediate h a l t t o h i s or h e r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . I n o t h e r words, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n does n o t have t o w a i t f o r the newly b l i n d e d p e r s o n t o be r e s o c i a l i z e d . There i s no doubt t h a t c h i l d r e n who are b o r n b l i n d l e a r n about t h e m s e l v e s , about o t h e r s , and about t h e i r s o c i e t y from s i g h t e d o t h e r s and t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t when p e r s o n s l o s e t h e i r s i g h t a t some p o i n t d u r i n g t h e i r l i f e t h e y undergo c e r t a i n t r a n s i t i o n s and changes from t h e i r p r e v i o u s l y s i g h t e d e x i s t e n c e . But t o couch these d i f f e r e n c e s and changes w i t h i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n 4 . . t e r m i n o l o g y i s t o " g l o s s " the phenomenon o f t r a n s i t i o n from s i g h t e d n e s s t o b l i n d n e s s and the phenomenon o f d i f -f e r e n c e between b l i n d p e r s o n s and s i g h t e d p e r s o n s . I n s h o r t , I am f o l l o w i n g MacKay's f o r m u l a t i o n t h a t " s o c i a l -i z a t i o n i s a g l o s s . . . which p r e c l u d e s the e x p l i c a t i o n o f the phenomenon i t g l o s s e s " (MacKay, 1974:181), t h a t i s , the i n t e r a c t i o n between b l i n d p e r s o n s and s i g h t e d p e r s o n s and the i n t e r a c t i o n between b l i n d p e r s o n s and the s i g h t e d w o r l d . I f o l l o w G a r f i n k e l ' s usage o f the concept " g l o s s " as he uses i t i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the concept " e x p l i c a t e " . ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:33) - 9 -I n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f b l i n d n e s s t h a t i s p r e s -e n t e d h e r e , I w i l l f o l l o w a somewhat d i f f e r e n t s e t o f assumptions from those f o l l o w e d by more c o n v e n t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f b l i n d n e s s . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , I u n d e r s t a n d b l i n d n e s s to be a s o c i a l phenomenon. T h i s i s n o t t o i m p l y t h a t b l i n d n e s s i s n o t a p h y s i o l o g i c a l phenomenon because, o f c o u r s e , a m a l f u n c t i o n i n the phy-s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f s e e i n g i s o b v i o u s l y a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the o r i g i n o f b l i n d n e s s . I am s u g g e s t i n g , how-e v e r , t h a t i n o r d e r f o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y l o c a t a b l e e v e n t s to be d i s c o v e r e d , r e c o g n i z e d , named, t r e a t e d , and o t h e r -w i s e made sense o f , presupposes a s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d w o r l d i n which t h i s d i s c o v e r i n g , r e c o g n i z i n g , naming, t r e a t i n g , e t c . , are p r o d u c t s o f and accomplishments o f s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d p r a c t i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s . ^ S e c o n d l y , I take i t t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s do i n t e r -a c t i n a s i g h t e d w o r l d and do i n t e r a c t w i t h s i g h t e d p e r s o n s . The t o p i c o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h u s , becomes ^For an e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n on the s o c i a l l y o r g -a n i z e d p r a c t i c e s t h a t a c c o m p l i s h the b i o l o g i c a l l y l o c a t a b l e phenomenon o f "death" and " d y i n g " see Sudnow ( 1 9 6 7 ) . I n terms o f death by s u i c i d e b e i n g t r e a t e d as a s o c i a l accomplishment see G a r f i n k e l ( 1 9 6 7 : 1 1-18). F o r a s i m i l a r t r e a t m e n t o f the same s u b j e c t see A t k i n s o n ( 1 9 7 1 : 1 6 5 - 1 9 0 ) . G a r f i n k e l a l s o t r e a t s sexedness, n o r -m a l l y a b i o l o g i c a l phenomenon, as a " c u l t u r a l e v e n t " . ( G a r f i n k e l , 1 9 6 7 : 1 1 6 - 1 8 5 ) the i n t e r a c t i o n between b l i n d p e r s o n s and the s i g h t e d w o r l d and how t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d . I t would be an i m p o s s i b l e t a s k t o examine a l l a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between b l i n d p e r s o n s and the s i g h t e d w o r l d s i n c e I do not u n d e r s t a n d n or am I aware o f a l l o f the ways i n which b l i n d p e r s o n s do i n t -e r a c t w i t h the s i g h t e d w o r l d . Hence, I w i l l r e s t r i c t my i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o an e x a m i n a t i o n and e x p l i c a t i o n o f "the phenomenon o f " p a s s i n g " a s - i t a p p l i e s t o b l i n d p e r s o n s . With r e s p e c t to the phenomenon o f " p a s s i n g " I w i l l make e x t e n s i v e use o f Goffman's n o t i o n o f p a s s i n g (Goffman, 1 9 6 3 : 7 3 - 9 1 ) as w e l l as G a r f i n k e l * s n o t i o n o f p a s s i n g ( G a r f i n k e l , 1 9 6 7 : 1 1 6 - 1 8 5 ) . I t i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o p r e s e n t a r e v i e w o f p a s s i n g as i t i s f o r -m u l a t e d by Goffman and G a r f i n k e l r e s p e c t i v e l y . B e f o r e d o i n g so, however, i t w i l l be i n s t r u c t i v e t o p r e s e n t a b r i e f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the type and s o r t o f d a t a t o be u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 2. The Data I n t h i s s t u d y I c o n s i d e r my own e x p e r i e n c e s as a b l i n d p e r s o n and my e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s as d a t a and w i l l p r e s e n t t h i s d a t a e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y . I n t h i s s e c t i o n I i n t e n d t o b r i e f l y e x p l i c a t e the s o u r c e s - 11 -o f my d a t a and, i n so d o i n g , to c h a r a c t e r i z e why i t i s t h a t I c o n s i d e r my own e x p e r i e n c e s as c o n s t i t u t i n g d a t a . I n an a n a l y t i c a l sense, and o n l y i n an a n a l y t i c a l sense, the s o u r c e s o f the e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a t o be p r e s -ented here can be s p e c i f i e d by a r r a n g i n g them i n t o f o u r d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s . F i r s t , I was employed as a case worker a t the Canadian N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d (C.N.I.B.) from the f a l l o f 1971 t o the l a t e summer o f 1976. From 1971 t o 1974 I was employed as a f u l l - t i m e caseworker and from 1975 t o 1976 as a p a r t - t i m e c a s e w orker, i . e . , o n l y d u r i n g the summers o f those two y e a r s . R e t r o s p e c t i v e l y , I c h a r a c t e r i z e the f i r s t two y e a r s o f my a c t i v i t i e s a t the C.N.I.B. as t y p i c a l "case-work a c t i v i t i e s " . I n o t h e r words, my c o n c e r n s c e n t e r e d around g a i n i n g competence as a C.N.I.B. cas e w o r k e r w i t h i n the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d paradigm o f casework " f o r - t h e -b l i n d " . I o p e r a t e d under the u n e x p l i c a t e d a s sumptions ( s p e c i f i e d i n Chapter I , P a r t l ) t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t a f f p e r s o n n e l a t the C.N.I.B. t y p i c a l l y t o o k f o r g r a n t e d . D i s c o v e r i n g and f o r m u l a t i n g e f f e c t i v e ways o f " h e l p i n g " b l i n d p e r s o n s t o a d j u s t t o t h e i r p l i g h t was n o t o n l y a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f mine but a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f a l l o t h e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p e r s o n n e l . These d i s c o v e r i e s and f o r m u l a t i o n s were, o f c o u r s e , embedded i n an - 12 -unexamined, t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d , and t h u s u n e x p l i c a t e d schema of common-sense i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s about b l i n d n e s s , b l i n d p e r s o n s , and the way t h e y "ought to l i v e " . Of c o u r s e , my i n t e r e s t i n s t u d y i n g "the phenomenon o f b l i n d n e s s s p r i n g s from and i s i n f o r m e d by my own exp-e r i e n c e s as a b l i n d p e r s o n , but a l s o , s p r i n g s from and i s i n f o r m e d by my i n c r e a s i n g awareness t h a t b l i n d n e s s i s a s o c i a l phenomenon, g e n e r a t e d and produced by the s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s and p r a c t i c e s o f i n d i -v i d u a l s w i t h i n a s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d w o r l d . F u r t h e r , I came to u n d e r s t a n d b l i n d p e r s o n s as engaged i n managing and a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e i r e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s ' w i t h i n an e v e r y d a y r e a l i t y as i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d and p r e s e n t e d to them by s i g h t e d o t h e r s . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e d me not o n l y t o c o n s i d e r my " r o l e " as a caseworker a t the C.N.I.B. d i f f e r e n t l y , but a l s o t o c o n s i d e r my own b l i n d n e s s d i f -f e r e n t l y . T h e r e f o r e , the p e r s p e c t i v e from which I viewed my a c t i v i t i e s as a caseworker a t the C.N.I.B. a l t e r e d r a d i c a l l y d u r i n g the summers o f 1975 a n d 1976. I c a r r i e d out my a c t i v i t i e s as a caseworker "as u s u a l " but, a t the same t i m e , I began making d e t a i l e d n o t e s about my own a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as making n o t e s about the a c t i v i t i e s o f o t h e r s . S o c i o l o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e n , I was i n v o l v e d i n g a t h e r i n g d a t a v i a the p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n method. - 13 -A second source for the ethnographic data to be presented here comes from what may be c a l l e d my "research contact" with t h e C.N.I.B. Prior to the l a s t 8 months, with very minor exceptions, my contact with the C.N.I.B. has been r e s t r i c t e d to my employment exp-erience with the Manitoba D i v i s i o n of the C.N.I.B. i n Winnipeg. However, during the l a s t 8 months I have spent several days gathering data at the Vancouver o f f i c e of the C.N.I.B. My contact with the C.N.I.B. i n Vancouver was not i n an employment capacity. Because of my past employment hi s t o r y at the C.N.I.B. I found i t r e l a t i v e l y easy to secure the per-mission of the Director of the Vancouver o f f i c e to conduct research i n that i n s t i t u t i o n . I was given per-mission by the Director to go anywhere I wished within the C.N.I.B. and to speak to whomever I pleased. The Director also instructed his s t a f f that I would be "coming around" and that they were to make work spaces available to me as well as the i r time. I received t h i s s i t u a t i o n as troublesome i n two ways: ( 1 ) some of the s t a f f f e l t compelled to make t h e i r time and work spaces available to me and received my presence as troublesome and i n t e r f e r i n g , and ( 2 ) i n the course of i n t e r a c t i n g with some of the s t a f f members, I - 14 -found i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o r e s t r i c t my p a r t i c i -p a t i o n and n o t e x p r e s s my own t h o u g h t s and o p i n i o n s about whatever was b e i n g t a l k e d about o r about whatever was b e i n g done. Whether o r not I overcame these d i f f i -c u l t i e s i s a q u e s t i o n t o which I f e e l a c a t e g o r i c a l ans-wer i s i m p o s s i b l e . I r e l i e d upon my own methods and p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h s t a f f members and t r e a t e d t h e s e methods and p r o c e d u r e s as p r o b l e m a t i c . . My i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h b l i n d p e r s o n s on a p e r s o n a l b a s i s p r o v i d e s a source f o r my e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a . Many o f my p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s a re b l i n d . From the s e f r i e n d -s h i p s and, from d o i n g what f r i e n d s t y p i c a l l y do t o g e t h e r , I have l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, where I am p r e s e n t l y a graduate s t u d e n t , has a r e s o u r c e whereby p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s a re made a v a i l a b l e t o b l i n d p e r s o n s v i a tape r e c o r d i n g s , l a r g e p r i n t , and b r a i l l e . Because I u t i l i z e t h i s s e r v i c e I have become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h s e v e r a l b l i n d s t u d e n t s and have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h them such as "hanging around the l i b -r a r y " and a t t e n d i n g p a r t i e s . F i n a l l y , and most i m p o r t a n t l y , a n o t h e r source o f the e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s my own " l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e " as a b l i n d p e r s o n . I began - 15 -e x p e r i e n c i n g s i g h t l o s s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 y e a r s o f age. By the time I was 12 y e a r s o l d I had l o s t most o f my v i s i o n . A t p r e s e n t , o p h t h a l m o l o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , I have a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5% of normal v i s i o n . T h i s v i s u a l a c u i t y c o n s t i t u t e s me, i n a s o c i o l e g a l sense, as a b l i n d 6 p e r s o n . I c o n s i d e r my own l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s as my p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f d a t a w h i l e my e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s I c o n s i d e r as a secondary source o f d a t a . I n s h o r t , i n the s t u d y o f the phenomenon•of b l i n d n e s s I u t i l i z e m y s e l f as my own "best i n f o r m a n t " . I n a sense, u s i n g m y s e l f as my own b e s t i n f o r m a n t does not r e p r e s e n t a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from c o n v e n t i o n a l s o c i o l o g i c a l method. I n a l l o f s o c i o l o g i c a l method, be i t p a r t i c i -p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , e x p e r i m e n t a l s m a l l groups, o r , s u r v e y r e s e a r c h , the i n v e s t i g a t o r must c o n s t i t u t e something as I n Canada a p e r s o n i s c o n s i d e r e d b l i n d i f he o r she has a v i s u a l a c u i t y o f l e s s t h a n 20/200 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10fo o f normal v i s i o n ) i n the b e t t e r eye a f t e r c o r r e c t i o n or i f Q h i s or he r v i s u a l f i e l d does not exceed a d i a m e t e r of 20 .'in the b e t t e r eye a f t e r c o r r e c t i o n . To quote, i n p a r t , The B l i n d P e r s o n s A c t o f Canada: A p e r s o n i s c o n s i d e r e d " b l i n d " i f the v i s u a l a c u i t y i n b o t h eyes w i t h p r o p e r r e f r a c t i v e l e n s e s i s 20/200 (6/60) or l e s s w i t h S n e l l e n C h a r t o r e q u i v a l e n t , o r i f the g r e a t e s t d i a -meter o f the f i e l d o f v i s i o n i n b o t h eyes i s l e s s t h a n 20 degrees. - 16 -d a t a , must c o n s t i t u t e s o m e t h i n g as f i n d i n g s , and do e s so by i n v o k i n g h i s o r h e r common-sense knowledge and u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d . T y p i c a l l y , however, t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s do n o t s p e c i f y and e x p l i c a t e t h e i r common-s e n s e knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d w h i c h t h e y i n v o k e t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a s " s o c i a l s c i e n c e " . ( C i c o u r e l , 1964) . C o n s i d e r i n g m y s e l f a s my own b e s t i n f o r m a n t , t h e r e f o r e ^ a c t s t o e x p l i c a t e my common-sense knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w o r l d and makes e x p l i c i t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on my i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F u r t h e r , s i n c e my own b i o g r a p h i c a l s i t u a t i o n a c t s t o , i n p a r t , c o n s t i t u t e t h e phenomenon w h i c h I s e e k t o s t u d y , t h e n , u s i n g m y s e l f as my own b e s t i n f o r m a n t , makes e x p l i c i t how I c o n s t i t u t e t h e phenomenon u n d e r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . "The s o c i o l o g i c a l o b s e r v e r , t h e r e f o r e , " w r i t e s C i c o u r e l , "who f a i l s t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e e l e -ments o f common-sense a c t s i n e v e r y d a y l i f e , i s u s i n g an i m p l i c i t model o f t h e a c t o r w h i c h i s c o n f o u n d e d by t h e f a c t t h a t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s i n t e r a c t , i n unknown ways, w i t h h i s own b i o g r a p h i c a l s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s o c -i a l w o r l d . The v e r y c o n d i t i o n s o f o b t a i n i n g d a t a r e q u i r e t h a t he make u s e o f t y p i c a l m o t i v e s , c u e s , r o l e s , e t c . , and t h e t y p i c a l m e a n i n g s he i m p u t e s t o them, y e t t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s e common-sense c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n a r e n o t i o n s w h i c h t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l o b s e r v e r t a k e s f o r g r a n t e d , t r e a t s a s s e l f - e v i d e n t . But t h e y a r e j u s t t h e n o t i o n s w h i c h t h e s o c i o l o g i s t must a n a l y z e and s t u d y e m p e r i c a l l y i f he d e s i r e s r i g o r o u s measurement." ( C i c o u r e l , 1964:223) - 17 -S i n c e t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r I am i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y i s b l i n d n e s s and s i n c e I am b l i n d , I am n o t o n l y a s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v e r o f t h e phenomenon b u t a l s o a p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e phenomenon. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i v e s i t -u a t i o n goes b e y o n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r r o l e i n p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t i s , I am n o t somehow o r o t h e r an a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d p a r t i -c i p a n t ( a n a r t i f i c i a l b l i n d p e r s o n ) a s w e l l a s , unknown t o t h e s u b j e c t s o f my i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v e r . I am a " r e a l " , " a c t u a l " b l i n d p e r s o n w i t h some s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e o f what i t i s t o be a b l i n d p e r s o n as w e l l a s , a t t h e same t i m e , an o b s e r v e r o f my own exp-e r i e n c e s and t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s . To come t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how b l i n d p e r s o n s r e c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s and r e c e i v e t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e and a c t , i t becomes c r u c i a l t h a t I examine how I r e c e i v e m y s e l f and how I r e c e i v e t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n -ment i n w h i c h I l i v e and a c t . Thus, b e c a u s e o f t h e way I p a r t i c i p a t e i n and o b s e r v e t h e phenomenon I s e e k t o s t u d y t h e s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u s e d b y b l i n d p e r s o n s t o manage t h e i r e v e r y d a y a f f a i r s i n a s i g h t e d w o r l d a r e more a v a i l a b l e t o me. F o r , as S c h u t z w r i t e s , C o r r e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d , t h e p o s t u l a t e o f s u b j e c -t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a s a p p l i e d t o e c o n o m i c s a s w e l l a s t o a l l t h e o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s means m e r e l y t h a t we a l w a y s c a n - and f o r c e r t a i n p u r -p o s e s must - r e f e r t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e - 18 -s u b j e c t s w i t h i n the s o c i a l w o r l d and t h e i r i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n by the a c t o r s i n terms o f systems o f p r o j e c t s , a v a i l a b l e means, m o t i v e s , r e l e v a n c e s , and so on. ( S c h u t z , 1973:35) At t h i s p o i n t , i t w i l l be i n s t r u c t i v e t o show how S c h u t z c h a r a c t e r i z e s the " d i s i n t e r e s t e d o b s e r v e r " . H i s m o t i v e s are n o t i n t e r l o c k e d w i t h those o f the obs e r v e d p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s ; he i s "tuned i n " upon them but n o t t h e y upon him. . . . P r e c i s e l y t h i s f a c t c o n s t i t u t e s the s o - c a l l e d ' " d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s " or detachment o f the obser-v e r . He i s not i n v o l v e d i n the a c t o r ' s hopes and f e a r s whether o r n o t t h e y w i l l u n d e r s t a n d one a n o t h e r and a c h i e v e t h e i r end by the i n t e r -l o c k i n g o f m o t i v e s . Thus h i s system o f r e l e v -ances d i f f e r s from t h a t o f the i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s and p e r m i t s him t o see a t the same time more and l e s s t h a n what i s seen by them. . . . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d them the o b s e r v e r has to'f a v a i l h i m s e l f o f h i s knowledge o f t y p i c a l l y s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n t y p i c a l l y s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s and has t o con-s t r u c t the m o t i v e s o f the a c t o r s from t h a t s e c t o r o f the course o f a c t i o n which i s p a t e n t to h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . The c o n s t r u c t s o f the obs-e r v e r a r e , t h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r e n t ones t h a n those us"ed by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the i n t e r a c t i o n , i f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n the f a c t t h a t the p u r -pose o f the o b s e r v e r i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the i n t e r a c t o r s and t h e r e w i t h the systems o f r e l e v a n c e s a t t a c h e d t o such purposes a re a l s o d i f f e r e n t . . . . The s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v e r o f human i n t e r r e l a t i o n p a t t e r n s , the s o c i a l s c i -e n t i s t , has t o de v e l o p s p e c i f i c methods f o r the b u i l d i n g o f h i s c o n s t r u c t s i n . o r d e r t o a s s u r e t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v e meaning the observ e d a c t s have f o r the a c t o r s . ( S c h u t z , 1973:26-27) U t i l i z i n g m y s e l f as my own b e s t i n f o r m a n t means t h a t I am t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n l i v i n g the l i f e o f a b l i n d p e r s o n . My b l i n d n e s s i s n o t an o b j e c t i v e c a t e g o r y "out t h e r e " , r a t h e r , i t i s a " l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e " , l i v e d - 19 -w i t h i n the r e a l , c o n c r e t e , a c t u a l m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f my own l i f e . How I r e c e i v e m y s e l f and my s o c i a l e n v i r o n -ment, how I manage and account f o r my e v e r y d a y a c t i v -i t i e s , and how o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s do so, i s r o u t i n e l y and t o p i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e . As I mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s s t u d y w i l l i n v e s t i -g ate the phenomenon o f '"passing" i n terms o f i t s a p p l i -c a b i l i t y t o b l i n d p e r s o n s . One o f the ways i n which I , and o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s , manage our a f f a i r s o f e v e r y -day l i f e i s t o "pass". As we s h a l l see i n more d e t a i l l a t e r , . b l i n d p e r s o n s ' p a s s i n g i s an a c t i v i t y whereby t h e i r a c c e p tance o f and d e f e r e n c e t o the " s i g h t e d w o r l d " as the " r e a l - s e n s i b l e - r a t i o n a l - o b j e c t i v e - w o r l d " i s d i s -p l a y e d . Put d i f f e r e n t l y , b l i n d p e r s o n s a c c e p t and t r e a t the " s i g h t e d w o r l d " w i t h d e f e r e n c e as i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d and p r e s e n t e d t o them by s i g h t e d o t h e r s . B e f o r e d e t -a i l i n g b l i n d p e r s o n s ' p a s s i n g by p r e s e n t i n g and a n a l y -z i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the concept o f " p a s s i n g " as i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d by Goffman and G a r f i n k e l r e s p e c t i v e l y . Thus, the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l b r i e f l y c h a r a c t e r i z e what Goffman and G a r f i n k e l i n t e n d by the concept " p a s s i n g " . - 20 -CHAPTER I I THE CONCEPT OF PASSING 1. Goffman's P e r s p e c t i v e To b e g i n w i t h , Goffman d i c h o t o m o u s l y c h a r a c t e r -i z e s t h o s e p e r s o n s who p o s s e s s a s o c i a l s t i g m a , whatever i t might be, as b e i n g e i t h e r " d i s c r e d i t e d " o r " d i s c r e d -i t a b l e " p e r s o n s . (Goffman, 1963:41-42) A c c o r d i n g t o Goffman, those persons whose s o c i a l s t i g m a i s i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v a b l e by o t h e r s , or i s o t h e r w i s e known t o o t h e r s , are d i s c r e d i t e d p e r s o n s . On the o t h e r hand, those p e r -sons whose s o c i a l s t i g m a i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v a b l e by o t h e r s , or o t h e r w i s e known t o o t h e r s , are d i s c r e d i t a b l e p e r s o n s . I t i s t h i s l a t t e r type o f s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n s t h a t may be i n v o l v e d i n p a s s i n g . These pe r s o n s may be i n v o l v e d i n "the management o f u n d i s c l o s e d d i s -c r e d i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about s e l f " . (Goffman, 1963:42) Goffman r e c o g n i z e s s i t u a t i ; o n s i i n w h i c h d i s c r e d -i t e d p e r s o n s p a s s , a l b e i t an i n v o l u n t a r y and p o s s i b l y u n a t t e n d e d a c t i v i t y . The i n i t i a t i o n o f the p a s s i n g a c t i v i t y ( i n i t i a t e d by the o c c a s i o n ) p r o v i d e s an oppor-t u n i t y f o r the d i s c r e d i t e d p e r s o n t o c o n c e a l h i s or her s o c i a l s t i g m a . Thus: There are many cases where i t appears t h a t an - 21 -i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t i g m a w i l l always be a p p a r e n t , but where t h i s p r o v e s t o be n o t q u i t e the c a s e ; f o r on e x a m i n a t i o n one f i n d s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y be i n a p o s i t i o n t o e l e c t t o c o n c e a l c r u c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n about h i m s e l f . . . . J u s t as a b l i n d p e r s o n l e d i n t o a dark cab by a f r i e n d may f i n d f o r a moment t h a t s i g h t has been imputed t o h e r , or a b l i n d man w e a r i n g d a r k g l a s s e s s i t t i n g i n a dark bar may be t a k e n as a s e e i n g p e r s o n by a newcomer. (Goffman, 1963:7^) Thus, f o r Goffman, most s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n s do, a t one time o r a n o t h e r , p a s s . Of c o u r s e , p a s s i n g o c c u r s o n l y on those o c c a s i o n s and i n those s i t u a t i o n s where the p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l s t i g m a i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v a b l e , o r o t h e r w i s e known, t o o t h e r s . A f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Goffman's concept of p a s s i n g i s t h a t some s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d persons l i v e a "double l i f e " . (Goffman, 1963:76-78) T h i s o c c u r s when a p e r s o n w i t h a s o c i a l s t i g m a such as, f o r example, drug use, a t t e m p t s t o c o n c e a l the s t i g m a from one c o l l e c t i v i t y o f p e r s o n s , e.g., the p o l i c e , w h i l e a t the same t i m e , not c o n c e a l i n g h i s s t i g m a from a n o t h e r c o l l e c t i v i t y o f p e r s o n s , e.g., f e l l o w drug u s e r s . Thus, Goffman c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f the s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n l e a d i n g a "double l i f e " . A key f e a t u r e o f Goffman's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f p a s s i n g i s t h a t i t i s c y c l i c a l . That i s , a p e r s o n ' s p a s s i n g moves i n a c y c l i c a l manner from " u n w i t t i n g p a s s i n g " t'O.,'"complete p a s s i n g " . Thus, f o r Goffman, t h i s - 22 -c y c l e : may s t a r t w i t h u n w i t t i n g p a s s i n g t h a t the p a s s e r n ever l e a r n s he i s engaging i n ; move from t h e r e t o u n i n t e n d e d p a s s i n g t h a t the s u r p r i s e d p a s s e r l e a r n s about i n mid-passage; from t h e r e t o pas-s i n g " f o r f u n " , p a s s i n g d u r i n g n o n - r o u t i n e p a r t s o f the s o c i a l round, such as v a c a t i o n s and t r a v e l ; p a s s i n g d u r i n g r o u t i n e d a i l y o c c a s i o n s , such as a t work o r i n s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; f i n a l l y , " d i s a p p e a r a n c e " - complete p a s s i n g over i n a l l a r e a s o f l i f e , the s e c r e t b e i n g known o n l y t o the p a s s e r h i m s e l f : . (Goffman, 1963:79) When p a s s i n g i s r e c e i v e d by a s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r -son as b e i n g a n e c e s s a r y a c t i v i t y t h a t p e r s o n must l e a r n t o p a s s . (Goffman, 1963:80) Goffman, however, does n o t e x p l i c a t e t h i s i m p o r t a n t i s s u e . A c c o r d i n g t o Goffman, p e r s o n s who are a t t e m p t i n g t o keep s e c r e t or t o c o n c e a l a s o c i a l s t i g m a w i l l f i n d t h e m s e l v e s , d u r i n g the course o f eve r y d a y l i f e , i n t h r e e p o s s i b l e p l a c e s . (Goffman, 1963:81) F i r s t , t h e r e a r e " f o r b i d d e n or out - o f - b o u n d s " p l a c e s where the s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n , g i v e n the exposure o f t h e i r s t i g m a , are f o r b i d d e n t o be and where such exposure s i m u l t a n e -o u s l y means e x p u l s i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e a re " c i v i l p l a c e s " . Goffman c h a r a c t e r i z e s " c i v i l p l a c e s " as those p l a c e s where, I f the s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n ' s s t i g m a . i s known, he w i l l be t r e a t e d , a l b e i t c a r e f u l l y and p a i n f u l l y , as a p e r s o n whose presence i n t h a t p l a c e i s a c c e p t a b l e . T h i s o c c u r s even though the e n t i t l e d members o f a " c i v i l p l a c e " are r e l u c t a n t t o a c c e p t the - 23 -s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d , p e r s o n . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a re "back p l a c e s " where the s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n can f r e e l y i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n s p o s s e s s i n g the same s o c i a l s t i g m a w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n c e a l the s t i g m a or w i t h o u t i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i s a t t e n d i n g i t . Goffman goes on t o suggest some o f the problems e x p e r i e n c e d by per s o n s who p a s s . F o r example, i n an attempt t o c o n c e a l a p h y s i c a l impairment by d i s p l a y i n g o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s - a t t r i b u t e s which can be a t t r i b u t e d t o him o r her by o t h e r s i n l i e u o f the p h y s i c a l i mpairment. Thus, " s l o v e n l i n e s s , as when a n e a r - b l i n d p e r s o n , a f f e c t i n g t o see, t r i p s over a s t o o l , or s p i l l s d r i n k down h i s s h i r t " . (Goffman, 1963:84) I t i s t h i s phenomenon whi c h I c o n s i d e r t o be one o f the "keys" t o p a s s i n g . I t i s c r u c i a l t h a t , w h i l e p a s s i n g , a p e r s o n be a b l e t o t u r n h i s o r h e r p a s s i n g a c t i v i t y i n t o "normal" a c t i v i t y . Thus, i f I t r i p on a s t a i r , w h i l e engaged i n p a s s i n g , i t i s c r u c i a l t h a t those who are i n a p o s i t i o n t o observe t a k e my p a s s i n g a c t i v i t y as " s l o p p i n e s s " and n o t , t o use Goffman's term, "near-b l i n d e d n e s s " . Two f u r t h e r problems t h a t p a s s e r s may be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h , a c c o r d i n g t o Goffman, are h a v i n g t h e i r - 24 -7 s o c i a l s t i g m a r e v e a l e d by the n a t u r e o f the s t i g m a i t s e l f and b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d by o t h e r s when t h e i r pas-s i n g , i s "found o u t " . (Goffman, 1963:84-85) F u r t h e r m o r e , Goffman p o i n t s out, (Goffman, 1963:88) s o c i a l l y s t i g m a -t i z e d p ersons must be a l i v e t o and s e n s i t i v e t o c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f s e t t i n g s w h i c h , f o r "normals", are t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d and t o which t h e y a p p a r e n t l y do not a t t e n d . S i n c e s e t t i n g s and o c c a s i o n s o f ev e r y d a y l i f e a r e not s t a b l e f e a t u r e s , the d i s c r e d i t a b l e p e r s o n must c o n s t a n -t l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y s c a n s e t t i n g s i n o r d e r t o e f f e c t v u n d e t e c t e d p a s s i n g . "The p e r s o n w i t h a s e c r e t f a i l i n g , t h e n , " w r i t e s Goffman, "must be a l i v e t o the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n as a scanner o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and i s t h e r e -f o r e l i k e l y t o be a l i e n a t e d from the s i m p l e r w o r l d i n which those around him a p p a r e n t l y d w e l l . What i s t h e i r ground i s h i s f i g u r e . " (Goffman, 1963:88) With r e f e r e n c e t o b l i n d p e r s o n s , Goffman c i t e s Here, Goffman i s r e f e r r i n g t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s o c i a l s t i g m a by o t h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r e c -o g n i t i o n o f c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s i n h e r e n t i n the s o c i a l s t i g m a . F o r example, when a b l i n d p e r s o n ( e s p e c i a l l y one who has p a r t i a l s i g h t ) i s a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n c e a l h i s or h e r b l i n d n e s s by p a s s i n g as a s i g h t e d p e r s o n , i t may be n e c e s s a r y f o r him o r her t o u n o b t r u s i v e l y " f e e l " the s u r f a c e o f a t a b l e f o r an o b j e c t such as an a s h t r a y . To some, t h i s " f e e l i n g " may go u n n o t i c e d o r may not be t a k e n t o be " l o o k i n g f o r an a s h t r a y " . But, t o o t h e r s who may know o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s who are i n v o l v e d i n p a s s i n g , o r , t o o t h e r s who are thems e l v e s b l i n d p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n p a s s i n g , t h i i s ; " f e e l i n g " may be r e c o g n i z a b l e and t a k e n as ev i d e n c e o f b l i n d n e s s . - 25 -the f o l l o w i n g example: I managed t o keep Mary from knowing my eyes were bad t h r o u g h two dozen sodas and t h r e e movies. 1 used e v e r y t r i c k I had e ver l e a r n e d . I p a i d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o the c o l o u r o f h e r d r e s s each morning, and t h e n I would keep my eyes and e a r s and my s i x t h sense a l e r t f o r any-one t h a t might be Mary. I d i d n ' t take any chances. I f I wasn't sure I would g r e e t whoever i t was w i t h f a m i l i a r i t y . They p r o b a b l y thought I was n u t s , but I d i d n ' t c a r e . I always h e l d h e r hand on the way t o and from the movies a t n i g h t , and she l e d me, w i t h o u t knowing i t , so I d i d n ' t have t o f e e l f o r c u r b s and s t e p s . (Goffman, 1963:88) Summarily, t h e n , Goffman's concept o f p a s s i n g can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way. (1) Only d i s c r e d i t a b l e p e r s o n s are i n v o l v e d i n p a s s i n g . That i s , i f the s o c i a l s t i g m a o f a s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n i s known t o the o t h e r , p a s s i n g i s not an i s s u e , s i m p l y i.t'does-not o c c u r . (2) I n h e r e n t i n p a s s i n g i s a danger w i t h r e s p e c t t o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . When a p e r s o n who S i n c e Goffman s u g g e s t s t h a t a l l s t i g m a t i z e d p e r -sons, whether t h e y are " d i s c r e d i t a b l e " or " d i s c r e d i t e d " , are i n v o l v e d , a t one time or a n o t h e r , i n p a s s i n g , t h i s p o i n t may appear somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t Goffman c h a r a c t e r i z e s " d i s c r e d i t e d " p e r s o n s as p a s s i n g o n l y i n " p r i v a t e p l a c e s " . For exam-p l e , a b l a c k p e r s o n who i s o b v i o u s l y b l a c k and who, f o r whatever r e a s o n , wants t o pass as a w h i t e p e r s o n , w i l l n o t do so i n " p u b l i c p l a c e s " . He or she may, however, pass as a w h i t e p e r s o n d u r i n g such o c c a s i o n s as l e t t e r w r i t i n g , t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , and the l i k e , p r o v i d e d t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s are done i n the " p r i v a c y " o f t h e i r own home. - 26 -i s p a s s i n g i s "found o u t " the r e s u l t i s so c -i a l r u i n , i . e . , a c o l l a p s e i n the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h Goffman does n o t make t h i s e x p l i c i t , presumably, the "found o u t " p e r s o n w i l l have t o p r o v i d e a r e a s o n f o r c o n c e a l i n g h i s s o c i a l s t i g m a from the o t h e r . F u r t h e r , t h i s r e a s o n must be a p p r o p r i a t e and a c c e p t a b l e i n the sense t h a t the o t h e r w i l l v i ew the r e a s o n as a v a l i d and v i a b l e one hence making the p a s s i n g a c t -i v i t y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and s e n s i b l e t o the o t h e r . The a c t i v i t y o f p a s s i n g i s e p i s o d i c . That i s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , p a s s i n g i s bounded by c l o c k t i m e . S o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n s can be seen t o have "passed" i n v a r i o u s s i t -u a t i o n s and o c c a s i o n s . P a s s i n g i s a p r o b l e m a t i c a c t i v i t y f o r those who p a s s . I t i n v o l v e s development and imp-l e m e n t a t i o n o f v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s f o r con-c e a l i n g a s o c i a l s t i g m a . The s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e o f p a s s i n g depends "• upon and i s dete r m i n e d by consequences. F a i l u r e a t p a s s i n g w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y conse-q u e n t i a l , w h i l e , s u c c e s s a t p a s s i n g w i l l be - 27 -n o n - c o n s e q u e n t i a l or u n e v e n t f u l . 2. G a r f i n k e l ' s P e r s p e c t i v e I n h i s work on p a s s i n g ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:116-185), G a r f i n k e l extends and e l a b o r a t e s the concept of p a s s i n g as i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Goffman. G a r f i n k e l ' s work on p a s s i n g i n v o l v e s the s t u d y o f an i n t e r s e x e d p e r s o n (Agnes), who w h i l e p o s s e s s i n g male g e n i t a l i a , p o s s e s s e d the t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , and b e h a v i o u r o f a fe m a l e . Most p e r s o n s i n our s o c i e t y take t h e i r sex s t a t u s , and the sex s t a t u s o f o t h e r s , as b e i n g an " o b v i o u s " and " p l a i n f u l " f a c t . Moreover, a p e r s o n ' s sex i s " o b v i o u s " t o the e x t e n t t h a t t h e r e i s no c h o i c e i n the m a t t e r , i . e . , you are what you a r e , i t i s none o f your d o i n g , you a r e , because o f "chance o f b i r t h " , e i t h e r a male o r a f e m a l e . For Agnes, however, t h i s t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d n e s s , " o b v i o u s n e s s " , " f a c t u a l n e s s " , about one's sex s t a t u s d i d not a p p l y . Agnes n e i t h e r t o o k h e r sex s t a t u s f o r g r a n t e d nor was i t none o f her d o i n g . D e s p i t e h er b i o l o g i c a l i n c o n g r u i t y ( i n c o n g r o u s w i t h h e r t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , and b e h a v i o u r ) Agnes chose and d e c i d e d t o be a femal e . Agnes was, t h e r e f o r e , c o n s t a n t l y , c o n t i n u o u s l y , and c o n s i s t -e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n r e c o g n i z i n g and p r o d u c i n g f e m a l e n e s s , whereas, most o t h e r p e r s o n s i n s o c i e t y see t h i s r e c o g -- 28 -n i t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t e sex s t a t u s as h a v i n g n o t h i n g t o do w i t h them and, moreover, as b e i n g a "normal", " n a t u r a l " , event which does n ot r e q u i r e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n o r c a l c u l a t e d achievement. Agnes, on the o t h e r hand, saw her sex s t a t u s as h a v i n g e v e r y t h i n g t o do w i t h h e r . She d i d n o t take h e r sexedness f o r g r a n t e d . U n l i k e most o t h e r p e r s o n s i n s o c i e t y , Agnes both saw and n o t i c e d t h a t she was r e c o g n i z i n g and p r o d u c i n g f e m a l e n e s s , and saw and n o t i c e d t h a t o t h e r s were r e c o g n i z i n g and p r o -d u c i n g f e m a l e n e s s . Agnes d i d n o t r e j e c t s o c i e t y ' s c l a i m s about p e r -sonss sexedness. For i n s t a n c e , she d i d n o t see h e r own p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n as an i n s t a n c e o f a " t h i r d sex", but r a t h e r , a c c e p t e d the common-sense view t h a t t h e r e were o n l y two sexes - male and fe m a l e . She saw h e r s e l f as a female, but th r o u g h some a c c i d e n t o f b i r t h , she was c u r s e d w i t h male g e n i t a l i a . Thus, "Agnes vehemently i n s i s t e d t h a t she was, and was t o be t r e a t e d as, a n a t -u r a l , normal f e m a l e " . ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:122) Moreover, "one c o u l d n e v e r c o n s i d e r Agnes a r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r a U t o p i a n . . . . C h a l l e n g e s t o the system were f o r Agnes n o t even so much as h o p e l e s s r i s k s . She wanted ' i n ' . The ' c r e d e n t i a l s committee' was a t f a u l t . " ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:177^178) Her t a s k , t h e n , was t o be the n a t u r a l normal female t h a t she knew h e r s e l f t o be. Thus, " d o i n g - 29 -. femaleness" f o r Agnes i n v o l v e d p a s s i n g . In l i g h t of Agnes' s i t u a t i o n , G a r f i n k e l charac-t e r i z e s p a s s i n g as, "the work of a c h i e v i n g and making secure t h e i r r i g h t s to l i v e i n the e l e c t e d sex s t a t u s while p r o v i d i n g f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of d e t e c t i o n and r u i n c a r r i e d out w i t h i n the s o c i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d c o n d i t i o n s i n which t h i s work occurred I s h a l l c a l l 1 p a s s i n g ' . " ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:118) The terms " d e t e c t i o n " and " r u i n " are c r u c i a l terms i n G a r f i n k e l ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . That i s , i f the f a c t t h a t Agnes possessed male g e n i t a l i a was at any time de t e c t e d by others her c l a i m to n a t u r a l , normal femaleness would undoubtedly be d i s c r e d i t e d and her c l a i m would be c o n s i d e r e d i l l e g i t i m a t e . Agnes c o u l d not operate under the t a k e n - f o r -granted assumption t h a t others would take the same pos-Q i t i o n t h a t she d i d were they to exchange p o s i t i o n s . More c o r r e c t l y , i t i s not the case t h a t others would view Agnes' p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y were they to exchange p o s i t i o n s , but r a t h e r , i t i s the case t h a t others would not see changing p o s i t i o n s with Agnes as a p o s s i b i l i t y . That i s , from a member's p o i n t of view, Agnes was a male Schutz c a l l s t h i s common-sense-taken-for-granted phenomenon the " r e c i p r o c i t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s " . (Schutz, 1973:11-13) G a r f i n k e l c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s as "the e x i s -tance of a problematic 'community of understandings' by and about sexed persons t r e a t i n g each other's sex as known i n common and taken f o r granted by them." ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:126) - 30 -who " e l e c t e d " t o "become a femal e . I n o t h e r words, femaleness d i d not j u s t "happen" t o Agnes but was a sex s t a t u s which was chosen and e l e c t e d by Agnes. G i v e n the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d assumptions about sexedness, members would t y p i c a l l y v iew Agnes' e l e c t i o n o f a female sex sta t u s - as " p e r v e r s e " and n o t as something t h a t may "happen" t o them. Thus, p a s s i n g was a c r u c i a l and ne c e s -s a r y a c t i v i t y i n Agnes' d a i l y a f f a i r s . I t was c r u c i a l and n e c e s s a r y because i f h e r s e c r e t was found out, "the d i s c l o s u r e . . . she was c o n v i n c e d and f e a r e d , would r u i n h e r . " ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:136) Thus, G a r f i n k e l r e s t a t e s , what f o r Agnes, c o n s t i -t u t e d p a s s i n g . The work o f a c h i e v i n g and making secure h e r r i g h t s t o l i v e as a normal, n a t u r a l female w h i l e h a v i n g c o n t i n u a l l y t o p r o v i d e f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e t e c t i o n and r u i n c a r r i e d on w i t h i n s o c i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d c o n d i t i o n s I c a l l Agnes' "•passing". ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:137) G a r f i n k e l c h a r a c t e r i z e s some o f Agnes' p a s s i n g w i t h i n a "game model". ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:140-145) He sug g e s t s t h a t some o f h e r p a s s i n g a c t i v i t y can be bounded by the o c c a s i o n , i . e . , can be d e s c r i b e d as e p i -s o d i c . F o r example, the management d e v i c e s t h a t Agnes employed f o r managing c h a n g i n g o r not c h a n g i n g i n t o a b a t h i n g s u i t when she accompanied h e r f r i e n d s t o the beach. Or, the d e v i c e s she employed t o a v e r t h e r room - 31 -mate's (a f e m a l e ) p o t e n t i a l s u s p i c i o n s when she d e t e c t e d a s c a r on Agnes* abdomen caused by an e x p l o r a t o r y l a p a r -otomy. For the most p a r t , however, Agnes' p a s s i n g c o u l d n o t be a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d w i t h i n a game model, i . e . , h e r p a s s i n g was, f o r t h e most p a r t , n o t e p i s o d i c . Most o f Agnes' p a s s i n g i n v o l v e d l e a r n i n g what to do w h i l e she was d o i n g i t . Agnes and h e r i n t e r a c t i o n p a r t n e r s would be d i r e c t e d t o a v a l u a b l e m u t u a l l y u n d e r s t o o d g o a l w h i l e a t the same time a n o t h e r g o a l o f e q u i v a -l e n t v a l u e , t o which the o t h e r p e r s o n c o n t r i b u t e d , remained known t o Agnes a l o n e and was c a r e f u l l y c o n c e a l e d . I n c o n t r a s t t o the e p i s o d i c c h a r a c t e r o f the o c c a s i o n s t h a t were d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , such an o c c a s i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s con-t i n u i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r . F u r t h e r , i t s " r u l e s " are l e a r n e d o n l y o ver the c o u r s e o f the a c t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n , as a f u n c t i o n o f a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and by a c c e p t i n g the r i s k s i n v o l -ved. S e v e r a l p e r s o n s were prominent i n h e r a c c o u n t s w i t h whom she not o n l y a c t e d l i k e a l a d y but l e a r n e d , from them, how t o a c t l i k e a l a d y . ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:146) Thus, G a r f i n k e l c h a r a c t e r i z e s Agnes* p a s s i n g n o t m e r e l y and o n l y as a s t r a t e g y f o r p r o d u c i n g " c o r r e c t " female b e h a v i o u r , t h a t i s , i t wasn't m e r e l y t h e case t h a t Agnes somehow or o t h e r knew what s o r t s o f appearances would be r e c o g n i z e d by o t h e r s as female and, t h u s , p r o -ceeded t o produce th e s e female appearances. Female appearances and s t a n d a r d s were produced by Agnes w h i l e , a t the same t i m e , she was l e a r n i n g what c o n s t i t u t e d t h e s e appearances and s t a n d a r d s . "They had t o be l e a r n e d , " - 32 -w r i t e s G a r f i n k e l , "by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s where she was e x p e c t e d t o know the v e r y t h i n g s t h a t she was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b e i n g t a u g h t . " ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:147) G a r f i n k e l p o i n t s out ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:166) t h a t a l t h o u g h Goffman's s t r a t e g i c a n a l y s i s paradigm i s tem-p o r a r i l y h e l p f u l i n t h a t i t i s u s e f u l f o r the enumeration o f Agnes' management d e v i c e s , s t r a t e g i c a n a l y s i s c l o u d s the v e r y phenomenon w i t h which i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e a l . A c c o r d i n g t o G a r f i n k e l , "these phenomena c o n s i s t o f Agnes i n on-going c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n d i r e c t e d t o the mas-t e r y o f her p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s by the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s as a t e x t u r e o f r e l e v a n c e s . " ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:166) G a r f i n k e l s u g g e s t s ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:166-167) t h a t i n o r d e r f o r Goffman 1s s t r a t e g i c a n a l y s i s paradigm t o a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e the phenomenon o f p a s s i n g " i n n e r t i m e " must n ot be c o n s i d e r e d . I n o t h e r words, Goffman's a n a l y s i s o n l y t r e a t s those o c c a s i o n s which a re e p i s o d i c , "or t u r n the s i t u a t i o n s t h a t h i s scheme ana-l y z e s i n t o e p i s o d i c ones." ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:167) I n s h o r t , t h e n , G a r f i n k e l ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f p a s s i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n s cannot be s a i d t o have "passed" i n c e r t a i n bounded o c c a s i o n s , but r a t h e r , t h a t s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d p e r s o n s a re i n v o l v e d , i n a more c o n t i n u o u s f a s h i o n , i n p a s s i n g , i . e . , t h e y can - 33 -be s a i d t o be " p a s s i n g " . Thus, G a r f i n k e l ' s concept o f p a s s i n g may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way. (1) P a s s i n g i s an a c t i v i t y engaged i n o n l y by pe r s o n s who a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n c e a l c e r -t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . That i s , : some p e r s o n s , such as Agnes, p o s s e s s i n f o r m a t i o n about themselves w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e as d i s c r e d -i t i n g i f t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n becomes known t o o t h e r s . T h e r e f o r e , i f a p e r s o n p o s s e s s e s some d i s c r e d i t i n g f e a t u r e , f o r example a s o c i a l s t i g m a , whatever i t might be, and, i f t h a t s o c i a l s t i g m a i s i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v a b l e , or o t h e r w i s e known t o o t h e r s , t h e n t h a t p e r -son i s not engaged i n p a s s i n g . ( 2 ) D e t e c t i o n o f a pe r s o n ' s p a s s i n g , and hence, of a p e r s o n ' s d i s c r e d i t i n g f e a t u r e or i n f o r -m a t i o n , c a u s e s , a t l e a s t f o r the p a s s e r , s o c i a l r u i n . I f a p e r s o n ' s p a s s i n g i s d e t -e c t e d i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t , i f not impos-s i b l e , f o r t h a t p e r s o n t o p r o v i d e "good r e a -s o n s " f o r d o i n g so. That i s , the t a k e n - f o r -g r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the o t h e r w i l l v i ew one's s i t u a t i o n i n an i d e n t i c a l way, i f t h e y were t o exchange p o s i t i o n s , i s n o t o p e r a t i v e - 3k -f o r a p e r s o n who f i n d s i t n e c e s s a r y t o p a s s . (3) Whether a p e r s o n d i s c o v e r s h i s or h e r p a s s i n g t o be s u c c e s s f u l or n o t , depends upon and i s d e t e r m i n e d by consequences as d i s p l a y e d by o t h e r s . Thus, i f an o c c a s i o n i s u n e v e n t f u l , i . e . , i f o t h e r s r e c e i v e the p a s s e r to be what he or she c l a i m s t o be, t h e n , the p a s s i n g i s viewed by the p a s s e r as S u c c e s s f u l . (4) P a s s i n g c o n s i s t s o f c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n which are d i r e c t e d t o the m a s t e r y o f p r a c t i c a l c i r -cumstances by the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e s e c i r -cumstances as a t e x t u r e o f r e l e v a n c e s . Pas-s i n g , then, i s not a " o n c e - i n - a - c l o c k - t i m e " phenomenon, i n s t e a d , i t i s an on-going c o u r s e o f a c t i o n w h i c h i s n o t bounded by " c l o c k -t i m e . " F u r t h e r , w i t h i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , " s t i g m a " i s an " o c c a s i o n e d " phenomenon. That i s , a p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon i s not con-s i d e r e d t o be a s t i g m a i n and o f i t s e l f , but r a t h e r , i s a s t i g m a o n l y w i t h i n the p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f i t s " o c c a s i o n e d " o c c u r e n c e . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the above c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n w i l l show, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f i t e m 4, t h a t G a r f i n k e l ' s con-c e p t o f p a s s i n g i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t o f Goffman. That i s , f o r both G a r f i n k e l and Goffman, p a s s i n g i s an a c t i v i t y - 35 -( 1 ) w hich i s o n l y engaged i n "by d i s c r e d i t a b l e p e r s o n s w h i c h , (2) i f d e t e c t e d r e s u l t s i n s o c i a l r u i n a t l e a s t f o r the p a s s e r , and (3) the .success or f a i l u r e o f which i s d e t e r m i n e d c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y . The most s a l e i n t d i f f e r -ence between Goffman and G a r f i n k e l 1 s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s i s t h a t , f o r Goffman, p a s s i n g i s an e p i s o d i c phenomenon, whereas, f o r G a r f i n k e l , p a s s i n g i s an on-going c o n t i n u o u s phenomenon. Thus, G a r f i n k e l ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f p a s s i n g may be u n d e r s t o o d as an e x t e n s i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n o f 7 Goffman's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . Having b r i e f l y e x p l i c a t e d the concept o f p a s s i n g from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f Goffman and G a r f i n k e l , I would now l i k e to re-examine t h i s concept i n the l i g h t o f some e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a . Thus, k e e p i n g i n mind Goffman's and G a r f i n k e l ' s n o t i o n s o f p a s s i n g , I t u r n now t o a p r e s e n -t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a . - 36 -CHAPTER I I I THE GENESIS OF MANAGEMENT DEVICES Befor e d i s c u s s i n g some o f my p a s s i n g o c c a s i o n s and management d e v i c e s , i t w i l l be i n s t r u c t i v e t o p r e -s e n t a b r i e f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f my v i s u a l i m pairment. Even though I began e x p e r i e n c i n g s i g h t l o s s a t a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 9 y e a r s o f age, my eye c o n d i t i o n was n o t o p t h a l -m o l o g i c a l l y d i a g n o s e d u n t i l I was 16 y e a r s o l d . At t h a t p o i n t , my eye c o n d i t i o n was d i a g n o s e d as "macular degen-e r a t i o n " . V e ry s i m p l y , the p a r t o f the eye (macular or f o v e a c e n t r a l i s ) which f u n c t i o n s t o c l a r i f y images, so t o speak, had, i n my c a s e , degenerated. T h i s d e g e n e r a t i o n n ot o n l y p r e v e n t s me from s e e i n g c l e a r l y , but a l s o , m i n i m i z e s my d i s t a n c e v i s i o n . O p t h a l m o l o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , my v i s u a l a c u i t y , a t t h i s p o i n t , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5% of n o r m a l . S i n c e approxim-a t e l y 12 y e a r s o l d , my v i s u a l a c u i t y has n o t exceeded 10fo o f n o r m a l . Because my v i s u a l a c u i t y i s o p t h a l m o l -o g i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d as b e i n g l e s s t h a n 10fo of normal, I . • 10 am, m a s o c i o - l e g a l sense, a " b l i n d p e r s o n " . See f o o t n o t e 5-- 37 -What and. how much I can see "becomes a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e m a t t e r t o d e s c r i b e i f viewed o p t h a l m o l o g i c a l l y . That i s , I can see a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5% o f what the "nor-m a l l y s e e i n g " p e r s o n can see. E x p e r i e n t i a l l y , however, what and how much I can see, i s a m a t t e r which i s n o t s s i m p l y d e s c r i b e d . I t i s t r e m e n d o u s l y d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , f o r me t o d e s c r i b e what I can see and how much I can see. What f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , ( t h e ethno-g r a p h i c d ata) i s perhaps the o n l y way f o r me t o d e s c r i b what i t i s I can see and how much I can see. As b o t h Goffman and G a r f i n k e l so l u c i d l y p o i n t o u t , s o c i a l phenomena, i n c l u d i n g b l i n d n e s s , are con-t e x t e d phenomena. That i s , t h e i r meaning, t h e i r sense, t h e i r i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , c a n be d i s c o v e r e d o n l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f everyday l i f e . Thus, how I r e c e i v e my b l i n d n e s s t u r n s on my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f ( l ) my p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , (2) how o t h e r s r e c e i v e my b l i n d n e s s , g i v e n t h a t t h e y know I am b l i n d , o r , how o t h e r s w i l l p o t e n t i a l l y r e c e i v e my b l i n d n e s s i f t h e y were t o " f i n d o u t " t h a t I am b l i n d . I t i s upon thes e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the c h a r a c t e r o f my p a s s i n g i s de t e r m i n e d . For example, a t one p o i n t d u r i n g my l i f e (my t e e n s ) , i t seemed t o me v e r y impor-t a n t t o c o n c e a l or keep s e c r e t my b l i n d n e s s from o t h e r s I t was my u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i f o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y my - 38 -s i g h t e d p e e r s , were t o d i s c o v e r my b l i n d n e s s , I would no l o n g e r he a c c e p t e d as one o f the group and would be f o r c e d out o f my t h e n c u r r e n t c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s . I t was my u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e n , t h a t i f my b l i n d n e s s was d e t e c t e d my c l a i m t o b e i n g "one o f t h e gang", now r e d e f i n e d as b e i n g "one o f the gang who was n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d " would be seen as f a l s e and i l l e g i t i m a t e , and f u r t h e r m o r e , would r e s u l t i n extreme embarrassment and s o c i a l psycho-l o g i c a l r u i n . Thus, s i n c e my " p r e v a i l i n g system o f i n t e r e s t s " ( S c h u t z , 1973:?6) was t o make se c u r e my c l a i m s t o b e i n g a " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d p e r s o n " and s i n c e t h i s c l a i m dep-ended upon my p o r t r a y i n g m y s e l f as a " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d p e r s o n " , I u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o pass as a " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d p e r s o n " . I u n d e r s t o o d my-s e l f t o be, t o use Goffman's t e r m i n o l o g y , a " d i s c r e d -i t a b l e " p e r s o n and, t o use G a r f i n k e l ' s t e r m i n o l o g y , employed p a s s i n g as a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n i n o r d e r t o p r e -v e n t my b l i n d n e s s from b e i n g d e t e c t e d . My c l a i m t o normal s i g h t e d n e s s r e q u i r e d c o n s t a n t and c o n s i s t e n t v i g i l a n c e . I t was n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o r e c o g n i z e s i g h t e d n e s s , t o produce s i g h t e d n e s s , and more-ov e r , t o r e c o g n i z e , -.and t o ensure, t h a t o t h e r s r e c o g -n i z e d my p r o d u c t i o n s f o r what t h e y were, namely, s i g h t -edness. Furthermore, i t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t my produc-- 39 -"tions o f s i g h t e d n e s s be r e c o g n i z e d as such "at a : 11 g l a n c e " . That i s , I had to ensure t h a t , a t a g l a n c e , my b e h a v i o u r c o u l d and would be r e c o g n i z e d as normal and n a t u r a l , i . e . , t h a t I would be r e c o g n i z e d and t a k e n f o r a normal, n a t u r a l , s i g h t e d p e r s o n . I n s h o r t , I had t o make i t c l e a r and p l a i n f u l t h a t , a t a g l a n c e , i t c o u l d be "seen", and t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , t h a t I was o b v i -o u s l y and i n f a c t a " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d p e r s o n " . How I passe d and the k i n d s o f management d e v i c e s I employed t o make my appearances i n t e l l i g i b l e as s i g h t -edness, can be e x e m p l i f i e d c o n s i d e r i n g my h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o u r . F r e q u e n t l y , d u r i n g E n g l i s h c l a s s , our t e a c h e r would r e a d a l o u d the v a r i o u s n o v e l s , p l a y s and poems we were s t u d y i n g . She r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s n o t o n l y t o l i s t e n t o what she was r e a d i n g , but a l s o , t o f o l l o w a l o n g , v i s u a l l y , the m a t e r i a l t h a t she was r e a d i n g . Thus, s t u d e n t s would s i t a t t h e i r desks and r e a d s i l e n t l y the m a t e r i a l s t h a t the teacher.was r e a d i n g a l o u d . My t a s k , t h e n , became t o d i s c o v e r how t h i s was done. Some u n o b t r u s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s soon made the "how" o f t h i s t a s k a v a i l a b l e t o me. My o b s e r v a t i o n s r e v e a l e d Sudnow d i s c u s s e s " g l a n c e s " and o t h e r t y p e s o f " l o o k i n g " as t h e y r e l a t e , i n a t e m p o r a l sense, t o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . (Sudnow, 1972:259-279) - k o -to me t h a t t h e r e was more t h a n one way t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k . F o r i n s t a n c e , I c o u l d c l a i m t h a t I had f o r -g o t t e n , l o s t , o r o t h e r w i s e d i d not have, the r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s w i t h me. I n such cases the t e a c h e r would m e r e l y suggest t h a t I move my desk n e x t t o a n o t h e r s t u -d e n t ' s and f o l l o w a l o n g i n h i s o r h e r hook. T h i s was a v e r y c o m p a t i b l e s o l u t i o n s i n c e the o t h e r s t u d e n t d i d most of the "work". I t was n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o f i n d the s t a r t i n g page or t o t u r n pages. I n o t h e r words, i t min-i m i z e d my a c t i v i t y , and hence, m i n i m i z e d the chance o f someone d e t e c t i n g my b l i n d n e s s . That i s , t h e r e was no chance o f me s t a r t i n g on the wrong page, o r , " r e a d i n g " the wrong page, o r , t u r n i n g the page a t the wrong t i m e . T h i s s o r t o f " g e t t i n g - t h e - o t h e r - p e r s o n - t o - d o - t h e -work" i s a d e v i c e I use f r e q u e n t l y and i n many s i t u a t i o n s . F o r example, a handshake i a a v e r y "smooth" w e l l co-o r d i n a t e d s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . P e r s o n s seem t o be a b l e t o c a r r y o f f a handshake w i t h v e r y l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y and, i f d i f f i c u l t y does o c c u r , i t i s i m m e d i a t e l y and e f f e c t -i v e l y remedied. Presumably, the handshake i s a s o c i a l event which i s e f f e c t e d by a v e r y w e l l hand-eye co-o r d i n a t e d a c t i v i t y w hich e n a b l e s b o t h p e r s o n s t o e f f e c t a "smooth" handshake. I n o r d e r t o c a r r y o f f t h i s k i n d o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , I , once a g a i n , g e t the o t h e r p e r s o n t o "do the work". I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e r e a re s i t u a t i o n s - 41 -where a handshake i s , t y p i c a l l y , a c c e p t a b l e and e x p e c t -a b l e . For example, handshakes o c c u r when p e r s o n s are i n t r o d u c e d t o one a n o t h e r , g r e e t one a n o t h e r , e t c . When I d i s c o v e r m y s e l f t o be i n such s i t u a t i o n s I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a handshake i s not o n l y a c c e p t a b l e but e x p e c t a b l e . I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s s o c i a l a c t i v i t y "smoothly" I t y p i c a l l y put out my hand b e f o r e the o t h e r p u t s out h i s o r h e r s . D o ing so, " g e t s " the o t h e r t o a c c o m p l i s h the hand-eye c o - o r d i n a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o m p l i s h a "smooth" handshake. Of c o u r s e , t h i s t u r n s on my b e i n g a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e the a p p r o p r i a t e moment t o put out my hand. To r e t u r n t o the c l a s s r o o m . T h i s " g e t t i n g - t h e -o t h e r - p e r s o n - t o - d o - t h e - w o r k " was a s o l u t i o n t h a t was, however, not " f o o l p r o o f " . I t l a c k e d c o n s i s t e n c y over t i m e . The c l a i m "not h a v i n g my book w i t h me" was not a c l a i m t h a t c o u l d be used c o n s i s t e n t l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y , s i n c e , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s would e i t h e r have t h e i r books w i t h them, o r , i f t h i s was not the cas e , would get a book f o r n e x t t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s t a c t i c c o u l d be used o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y . I t h e n had t o make use o f an a l t e r n a t i v e method f o r d o i n g " r e a d i n g - a l o n g - i n -your-book". T h i s method r e q u i r e d t h a t I s i t a t my desk i n a " s l o u c h i n g " p o s i t i o n t h a t I came t o r e c o g n i z e as " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d male c l a s s member's r e a d i n g p o s i t i o n " . - 42 -Through i n c o n s p i c u o u s l o o k i n g and h e a r i n g I c o u l d t h e n t e l l when pages were "being t u r n e d and c o u l d r e a c t a c c o r d -i n g l y . T h i s method, however, r e q u i r e d some p r i o r p r e p -a r a t i o n . S i n c e I c o u l d n o t "see" the page numbers i n the "book, i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o f i n d a way t o "begin r e a d i n g on the same page everyone e l s e d i d . The method I d e v i s e d t o d e a l w i t h t h i s problem was t o use some d i f -f e r e n t type o f p a g i n a t i o n . I made markings l a r g e enough f o r me t o r e c o g n i z e , and f o r me t o r e c o g n i z e as page numbers, a t e v e r y t e n t h page. So, f o r example, i f we were t o b e g i n r e a d i n g on page 52, I would m e r e l y f i n d the m a r k i n g which i n d i c a t e d page 5°» count two pages, and a r r i v e a t the p r o p e r p l a c e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o men-t i o n t h a t t h i s " s p e c i a l p a g i n a t i o n " was r e c o g n i z a b l e as p a g i n a t i o n o n l y t o me. I t was, i n a sense, a "code" which I c o u l d r e c o g n i z e as page numbers, but which was r e c o g n i z a b l e t o o t h e r s , who chanced t o see i t , as m e r e l y " d o o d l i n g " . Another example o f my p a s s i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m had t o do w i t h my a c t i v i t i e s i n geometry c l a s s and my a c t -i v i t i e s r e l e v a n t t o geometry c l a s s . Our geometry t e a c h e r would a d m i n i s t e r w e e k l y home q u i z z e s . These q u i z z e s c o n s i s t e d o f a number o f - geometry problems w h i c h were t o be done a t home t h a t e v e n i n g and brought back t o - 4 3 -c l a s s t h e n e x t d a y . D u r i n g g e o m e t r y c l a s s , t h e t e a c h e r t y p i c a l l y a s k e d t w o o r t h r e e s t u d e n t s t o s t a n d , r e a d o u t a l o u d a s p e c i f i c g e o m e t r y t h e o r e m , p u t d o w n t h e h o o k f r o m w h i c h t h e t h e o r e m w a s r e a d , a n d p r o c e e d t o t h e c h a l k b o a r d w h e r e t h e s t u d e n t w a s t o e x p l a i n t h e t h e o r e m " b y u s e o f h i s o r h e r o w n e x a m p l e s . T h i s " t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e " p o s e d , f o r m e , t w o i m m e d i a t e a n d o v e r r i d i n g p r o b l e m s : ( 1 ) b e i n g c h o s e n t o s t a n d a n d r e a d t h e t h e o r e m a l o u d , a n d (2) s i n c e , i f t h i s h a p p e n e d , i t w o u l d p o s e a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o m y p a s s i n g , h o w t o d i s c o v e r t h e " t y p e " o f s t u d e n t t h e t e a c h e r c h o s e f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e . A f t e r s p e a k i n g c a s u a l l y t o s t u d e n t s w h o h a d b e e n c h o s e n , I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e y t y p i c a l l y d i d p o o r l y i n t h e i r q u i z z e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d m e w i t h a r e s o u r c e f o r a s o l u t i o n t o m y p r o b l e m . I b e g a n s p e n d i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e a n d e n e r g y s t u d y i n g g e o m e t r y . T h i s s t u d y w a s , o f c o u r s e , d o n e a t h o m e w h e r e v a r i o u s s t u d y a i d s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o m e i n t h e f o r m o f " v i s u a l a i d s " . A n d , a s I m e n t i o n e d , t h e q u i z z e s w e r e d o n e a t h o m e , s i n c e t h e g e o m e t r y p r o b l e m s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n o r d e r t o t e s t o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g e o m e t r i c p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r t h a n m e m o r y , s o t h a t u s i n g t h e g e o m e t r y t e x t w a s n o t n e c e s -s a r i l y b e n e f i c i a l . I s c o r e d e x t r e m e l y w e l l i n a l l o f t h e g e o m e t r y q u i z z e s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , r e d u c e d t h e c h a n c e s o f - 1+1+ -b e i n g asked t o r e a d geometry.theorems a l o u d . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , I used a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e t o ensure t h a t I would n ot be asked t o r e a d a l o u d . That i s , I produced "good s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r " . I s a t e r e c t i n my s e a t i n c l a s s , " l o o k e d " toward the t e a c h e r a t a l l t i m e s , s m i l e d , nodded my head i n an a t t e n t i v e manner, and asked p l e n t y o f q u e s t i o n s . . O b t a i n i n g e x c e l l e n t grades i n the geometry q u i z z e s and d o i n g "good s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r " m i n i m i z e d my chances o f b e i n g asked t o r e a d a l o u d . A f t e r a l l , i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o ask an e x c e l -l e n t and i n t e r e s t e d s t u d e n t t o s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s e x c e l -l e n c e and i n t e r e s t . My p a s s i n g , t h e n , was an at t e m p t t o keep s e c r e t some i n f o r m a t i o n (my b l i n d n e s s ) the d i s c l o s u r e o f which I was c o n v i n c e d would r e s u l t i n s o c i a l r u i n . F u r t h e r , i t s h o u l d a l r e a d y be e v i d e n t t h a t the p e r c e i v e d t r a g i c r e s u l t o f d e t e c t i o n made my p a s s i n g , i n a sense, a n a l o -gous t o the s o r t o f p a s s i n g which might be done i n "espionage" work. I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s " e s p i o n a g e " c h a r a c t e r o f p a s s i n g t h a t appears i n Goffman's a n a l y s i s . F u r t h e r , G a r f i n k e l f i n d s Agnes' p a s s i n g , " e n t i r e l y com-p a r a b l e t o p a s s i n g found i n p o l i t i c a l undergrounds, s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , r e f u g e e s from p o l i t i c a l p e r s e c u t i o n , or Negroes who become w h i t e s . " ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:136) Even though, w i t h i n my h i g h s c h o o l s e t t i n g , I - 45 -had developed some e f f e c t i v e management d e v i c e s and, t h u s , was a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y pass as a " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d p e r s o n " , I found the h i g h s c h o o l s e t t i n g a v e r y d i f f i c u l t s e t t i n g i n which t o p a s s . For example, k e e p i n g my "blindness " s e c r e t " r e q u i r e d h a v i n g t o i n f o r m c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p e r s o n s about i t . An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s a p p a r e n t l y p a r a d o x i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e w i l l s e r v e as a c l a r i f i c a t i o n . F u r t h e r , some d a t a w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the complex c h a r a c t e r o f my p a s s i n g . One such c i r c u m s t a n c e was the w r i t i n g o f examin-a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n s . The f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n p o l i c y , i n the h i g h s c h o o l I a t t e n d e d , was t o a r r a n g e hundreds of desks i n the gymnasium where a l l o f the s t u d e n t s i n the h i g h s c h o o l would w r i t e t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n s . I n my c a s e , the gymnasium was a f a r from p e r f e c t environment i n which t o w r i t e e x a m i n a t i o n s , i . e . , t h e r e were no windows, the l i g h t i n g was poor, e t c . C h r i s t m a s e x a m i n a t i o n s were a l s o managed i n the same manner. Thus, i f I had d e c i d e d t o w r i t e the exam-i n a t i o n s i n the u s u a l way, my b l i n d n e s s would have u n d o u b t l y been d e t e c t e d , s i n c e , the t e a c h e r s who graded the e x a m i n a t i o n s would have c e r t a i n l y n o t i c e d a number of i n c o n g r u i t i e s i n my e x a m i n a t i o n answers w i t h r e s p e c t t o the e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i t became n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o t e l l my t e a c h e r s about my b l i n d n e s s . - 46 -I t y p i c a l l y d i d t h i s " t e l l i n g " s h o r t l y b e f o r e examin-a t i o n t i m e . Thus, I would i n f o r m my t e a c h e r s about my b l i n d n e s s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e months i n t o the s c h o o l y e a r . S p e c i a l arrangements were t h e n made f o r me so t h a t I c o u l d w r i t e t h e s e e x a m i n a t i o n s . When I was asked by t e a c h e r s (an i n e v i t a b l e q u e s t i o n ) why I had not t o l d them about my b l i n d n e s s e a r l i e r , I r e p l i e d t h a t I was " s e l f - c o n s c i o u s " about the f a c t t h a t I was " d i f f e r e n t " . I a l s o t o l d t he t e a c h e r s t h a t I would be e x t r e m e l y embarrassed i f my f e l l o w s t u -d e n t s were t o " f i n d o u t " about my b l i n d n e s s and asked my t e a c h e r s i f t h e y would keep t h i s f a c t s e c r e t . I n e v e r y i n s t a n c e , the t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t t h e y " u n d e r s t o o d " my dilemma and would p r o t e c t my s e c r e t . I n t h i s sense, i t becomes c l e a r how a n o t h e r f e a t u r e o f my p a s s i n g was t o r e v e a l my b l i n d n e s s t o those p e r s o n s who I "knew" would u l t i m a t e l y and ev e n t -u a l l y d e t e c t i t . F u r t h e r , my s t r a t e g y i n i n f o r m i n g t h e s e p e r s o n s about my b l i n d n e s s was not p r i m a r i l y em-p l o y e d so t h a t I c o u l d more e f f e c t i v e l y p e r f o r m a t a s k , f o r example, w r i t i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s ( a l t h o u g h t h i s c e r -t a i n l y was a c o n s i d e r a t i o n ) , but r a t h e r , i t was employed t o m i n i m i z e the r i s k o f a l a r g e number o f pe r s o n s d e t e c -t i n g my b l i n d n e s s . F o r example, i f a t e a c h e r d e t e c t e d my b l i n d n e s s w i t h o u t me h a v i n g i n f o r m e d him or he r , the - 4 7 -f a c t t h a t i t was d e t e c t e d may have been brought up by the t e a c h e r i n a s i t u a t i o n where s e v e r a l o f my f e l l o w s t u -d e n t s were p r e s e n t , namely, i n the c l a s s r o o m . Moreover, the terms w i t h i n w h i c h I a c c o m p l i s h e d my " t e l l i n g " t u r n e d on my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a t e a c h e r ' s schema of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . For example, the u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f t e a c h e r ' s schema o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w hich was o p e r a t i v e f o r me was t h a t t e a c h e r s are concerned about not o n l y the academic development o f s t u d e n t s , but a r e a l s o concerned w i t h s t u d e n t s ' s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l dev-elopment as w e l l as t h e i r s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems. Thus, I a c c o m p l i s h e d my " t e l l i n g " w i t h i n a paradigm o f " a d o l e s c e n t s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s " and " a d o l e s c e n t embar-rassment" and n o t , f o r example, w i t h i n a paradigm o f " i t ' s none o f anyone e l s e ' s b u s i n e s s " . Even though, f o r the most p a r t , the t e a c h e r s responded t o my " t e l l i n g " i n an " u n d e r s t a n d i n g " and " s y m p a t h e t i c " way, t h e r e was one o t h e r t y p i c a l and con-s i s t e n t r e s p o n s e . I was t y p i c a l l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y t o l d t h a t I would e v e n t u a l l y have t o " a c c e p t " and "face the f a c t " o f my h a n d i c a p . Presumably, from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f the t e a c h e r s , my p a s s i n g was a s o r t o f "non-a c c e p t a n c e " , or more c o r r e c t l y , a " l a c k o f a d j u s t m e n t " t o my h a n d i c a p . I found t h i s s o r t o f " r e a s o n i n g " t o be p r e v a l e n t - 1+8 -d u r i n g my e x p e r i e n c e s as a caseworker a t the C . N . I . B . As a caseworker a l a r g e p a r t o f my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was as a c o u n s e l l o r t o b l i n d s t u d e n t s i n the s c h o o l system. C o n s e q u e n t l y , I spent a g r e a t d e a l o f time i n co n v e r -s a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s , guidance c o u n s e l l o r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and Department o f E d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l s . I o f t e n found, i n g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degree, t h a t a l l o f the s t u d e n t s I "worked w i t h " were i n v o l v e d i n p a s s i n g . F u r t h e r , I found t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s who were most e f f e c t i v e i n p a s s i n g were a l s o those s t u d e n t s who s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s c o n s i d e r e d "most a d j u s t e d " . A g a i n , t h i s "adjustment" was a m a t t e r o f degree. That i s , the s t u d e n t s who were most e f f e c t i v e a t p a s s i n g were n e v e r "seen" by s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s as " t o t a l l y a d j u s t e d " , but r a t h e r as the "most w e l l a d j u s t e d " b l i n d s t u d e n t s . The s c h o o l o f f i c i a l ' s p o s i t i o n seemed t o amount t o the f o l l o w i n g : ' " T h i s s t u -dent i s p r e t t y w e l l a d j u s t e d , and now, i f we can o n l y g e t him or h e r t o 'accept' h i s or h e r handicap'^" For example, one o f the s t u d e n t s I "worked w i t h " was a 12 y e a r o l d boy who was c o n s i d e r e d by h i s t e a c h e r s as " w e l l a d j u s t e d " . A c c o r d i n g t o my o b s e r v a t i o n s , he was a l s o one o f the b e s t p a s s e r s on my case l o a d . The o n l y c o m p l a i n t t h a t the t e a c h e r s had about him was t h a t he was, i n some s i t u a t i o n s , u n w i l l i n g t o ask f o r " h e l p " . H i s t e a c h e r e x e m p l i f i e d t h i s " u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o ask f o r - 49 -" h e l p " , and t h u s t h i s " l a c k o f a c c e p t a n c e " o f h i s h a n d i -cap, by r e l a t i n g an i n c i d e n c e o f h i s b e h a v i o u r . T h i s i n s t a n c e h a d t o do w i t h t h i s 12 y e a r o l d ' s ( B i l l y ' s ) a t t e m p t t o f i n d t h e b a t h r o o m i n t h e s c h o o l . The t e a c h e r o b s e r v e d him s t a n d i n g o u t s i d e b o t h t h e b o y ' s and g i r l ' s b a t h r o o m d o o r s ( w h i c h were i n v e r y c l o s e p r o x i m i t y ) . A f t e r B i l l y s t o o d t h e r e f o r a b o u t 5 o r 10 m i n u t e s , e x p l a i n e d t h e t e a c h e r , he f i n a l l y e n t e r e d t h e p r o p e r , i . e . , t h e b o y ' s b a t h r o o m . S i n c e I am i n v o l v e d i n a s i m i l a r t y p e o f b e h a v i o u r , I was f a i r l y c e r t a i n o f B i l l y ' s i n t e n t i o n . A f t e r s p e a k i n g w i t h him a b o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n , my a s s u m p t i o n was s u b s t a n t i a t e d . B i l l y was a b l e t o " s e e " and t h u s t o i d e n t i f y t h e two d o o r s a s b e i n g b a t h r o o m d o o r s . He a l s o "knew" t h a t one o f t h e d o o r s was t h e d o o r t o t h e g i r l ' s b a t h r o o m w h i l e t h e o t h e r d o o r was t h e d o o r t o t h e b o y ' s b a t h r o o m . However, he was n o t a b l e ( a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r ) t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e two d o o r s and, t h e r e -f o r e , d i d n o t "know" w h i c h d o o r was t h e a p p r o p r i a t e one f o r him t o e n t e r . B i l l y a l s o "knew" what " b o y s " and " g i r l s " " l o o k e d " l i k e , i . e . , he knew what b o y s d i d i n o r d e r t o p o r t r a y " b o y n e s s " and he knew what g i r l s d i d i n o r d e r t o p o r t r a y " g i r l n e s s " . S t a n d i n g o u t s i d e t h e b a t h r o o m d o o r s f o r a few m i n u t e s e n a b l e d B i l l y t o d e t -e r m i n e who was g o i n g i n and who was c o m i n g o u t o f w h i c h - 5 0 -d o o r s . I n o t h e r words, a f t e r a few minutes of o b s e r -v a t i o n , B i l l y was a b l e t o t e l l t h a t boys were e n t e r i n g and e x i t i n g from one o f the doors, w h i l e g i r l s were e n t e r i n g and e x i t i n g from the o t h e r door. B i l l y t h e n "knew" which o f the doors was the a p p r o p r i a t e door f o r him t o e n t e r . B i l l y ' s t e a c h e r , i n a sense, knew what B i l l y was d o i n g , but f o r m u l a t e d , u n d e r s t o o d , and o t h e r w i s e made sense of B i l l y ' s b e h a v i o u r , by " s e e i n g i t " as an u n w i l -l i n g n e s s , on B i l l y ' s p a r t , t o ask f o r h e l p , and conseq-u e n t l y , a l a c k o f t o t a l a c c e p t a n c e o f h i s h a n d i c a p . How-ev e r , the c r u c i a l p o i n t i s not t h a t B i l l y was u n w i l l i n g t o ask f o r h e l p or t h a t B i l l y was n o t a c c e p t i n g h i s h a n d i c a p , but r a t h e r , t h a t B i l l y was " f i n d i n g " the b a t h -room. B i l l y ' s t e a c h e r , on the o t h e r hand, thought t h a t i f B i l l y would ask f o r someone " i n the know" t o p o i n t out the r i g h t door t o him, t h i s " a s k i n g " would be an i n d i c a t i o n , a s i g n , a document o f , B i l l y ' s a c c e p tance o f h i s h a n d i c a p . B i l l y ' s b e h a v i o u r , however, was not an i n s t a n c e o f acceptance or l a c k o f a c c e p t a n c e , b u t , was an i n s t a n c e o f B i l l y , u s i n g c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s , f i n d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e bathroom. B i l l y was p a s s i n g . B i l l y was a c c o m p l i s h i n g " f i n d i n g t h e c o r r e c t bathroom door". The d a t a I have p r e s e n t e d so f a r suggests- t h a t - 51 -. (1) "blind, p e r s o n s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w i t h some s i g h t ) pass i n o r d e r t o c o n c e a l a s o c i a l s t i g m a w h i c h t h e y r e -c e i v e as d i s c r e d i t i n g , and (2) t h i s p a s s i n g , as G a r f i n k e l s u g g e s t s ( 1 9 6 ? : 1 6 6 ) , i n v o l v e s c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n d i r e c t e d toward the m a s t e r y o f p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s "by the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s as t e x t u r e s o f r e l -e vances. Moreover, t h i s p a s s i n g i s not an i s o l a t e d , " o n c e - i n - a - c l o c k - t i m e " a c t i v i t y , b u t , i s an a c t i v i t y r e l e v a n t t o , and m o t i v a t e d by, a " p r e v a i l i n g system o f i n t e r e s t s " . F u r t h e r , by example, I p o i n t e d out how one o f my p r e v a i l i n g systems o f i n t e r e s t s was t o l e g i t i m i z e my c l a i m as a " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d member o f s o c i e t y " , p a r -t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n my teenage peer group. The s o r t o f complex p l a n n i n g and b e h a v i o u r t h a t i s i n v o l v e d i n such p a s s i n g can be f u r t h e r u n d e r s t o o d i n the l i g h t o f the f o l l o w i n g d a t a . I n the p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhood i n which I grew up, (Winnipeg's n o r t h end), i t was customary, and a l m o s t compulsory, t h a t when a male t u r n e d 16 y e a r s o l d , he would o b t a i n a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . One o f the ways i n which an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d f o r m u l a t e h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f as b e i n g " s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d " was t o make a l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m t o b e i n g a b l e t o d r i v e a c a r . T h i s c l a i m was l e g i t i m i z e d , o f c o u r s e , by o b t a i n i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . - 52 -( O b t a i n i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e was not n e a r l y as c r u c i a l f o r f e m ales as i t was f o r males.) A / s i x t e e n y e a r o l d d i d n o t o n l y see h i m s e l f as o l d enough t o d r i v e , b u t , he was seen by o t h e r s as o l d enough t o d r i v e . E v e r y s i x t e e n y e a r o l d boy e x p e c t e d t h a t o t h e r s i x t e e n y e a r o l d boys would p o s s e s s a d r i v e r ' l i c e n c e and e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y e x p e c t e d i t o f him. T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n d i d not o n l y e x i s t among s i x t e e n y e a r o l d s , b u t , many a d u l t s i n the community e x p e c t e d t h i s and "saw s i x t e e n y e a r o l d boys as p o s s e s s i n g d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e s . Because o f my b l i n d n e s s , however, t h i s e x p e c t -a t i o n was i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o f u l f i l l . On the o t h e r hand, t o e x p l a i n why i t was t h a t I d i d n o t have a d r i v e r l i c e n c e , by i n f o r m i n g my peer group t h a t I was b l i n d , would have r e v e a l e d t h i s h i t h e r t o unknown f a c t and thus p r e s e n t e d me w i t h a whole h o s t o f new d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h which I d i d not want t o d e a l . I t was, t h u s , n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o b r i n g o t h e r r e s o u r c e s and c o n t e x t s t o bear i n o r d e r t o remedy t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . I u t i l i z e d the c o n t e x t o f the community, i n which I l i v e d , i n o r d e r t o remedy the i n d e x i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of "my not h a v i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e " . The community i n which I l i v e d , as I have a l r e a d y mentioned, was W i n n i -peg's n o r t h end. S o c i o l g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , the n o r t h end was, and s t i l l i s , a l o w e r c l a s s community c o m p r i s e d - 53 -o f , f o r the most p a r t , a p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d "by m u l t i - e t h n i c group membership and a f f i l i a t i o n . Many o f the teenaged males o f the community were i n v o l v e d i n q u a s i - d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s and, t o a l e s s e r degree, so were the teenaged f e m a l e s . I c h a r a c t e r i z e q u a s i -d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s as i n c l u d i n g consumption o f a l c o h o l , f i g h t i n g , d r i v i n g c a r s i n exce s s o f the speed l i m i t s , and the l i k e . I r e c e i v e d the n o r t h end as a community where the "guys were tough" and where i n v o l v e m e n t i n such q u a s i -d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s was n o t o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e , but a c c e p t a b l e , and, t o some degree, e x p e c t a b l e . I a l s o assumed and e x p e c t e d t h a t my c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s r e c e i v e d the n o r t h end i n a s i m i l a r , i f not i d e n t i c a l , way. I t was t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e n , which I brought t o bear i n o r d e r t o remedy the p e r c e i v e d d i f -f i c u l t y o f not h a v i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . I t was n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o d e v e l o p a "r e a s o n " , w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t , f o r n o t h a v i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . The " r e a s o n " which I f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o have, was not a "reason" i n the " t h a t - i t - m a k e s - s e n s e " o r i e n -t a t i o n , because, a f t e r a l l , the f a c t t h a t I d i d n ' t have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e because the amount o f v i s i o n t h a t I had d i d n o t p e r m i t me t o d r i v e was, i t s e l f , a s e n s i b l e r e a s o n . The " r e a s o n " had t o be r e c e i v e d by o t h e r s sen-- 5^ -s i b l y , r e a s o n a b l e , and r a t i o n a l l y , i n as much as I was p r e s e n t i n g m y s e l f i n d a i l y l i f e as a " n o r m a l l y s e e i n g p e r s o n " . T h e r e f o r e , my " r e a s o n " had t o o r i e n t t o the " f a c t " t h a t a " n o r m a l l y s e e i n g p e r s o n " d i d not have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e and not t o the " f a c t " t h a t a b l i n d p e r s o n d i d not have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . G i v e n t h a t I had imposed t h i s c o n t e x t on my s i t -u a t i o n , how I a c c o u n t e d f o r t h i s f a c t , t h a t I d i d n o t have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e , was t o b r i n g t o bear one o f the q u a s i - d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s , namely, "drunk d r i v i n g " . Thus, my " r e a s o n " f o r not h a v i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e was t h a t w h i l e d r i v i n g under age I was apprehended by the p o l i c e , d i s c o v e r e d t o have been d r i n k i n g , and, t h e r e f o r e , my r i g h t t o take a d r i v e r ' s t e s t was o f f i c i a l l y and l e g -a l l y p o stponed u n t i l my s e v e n t e e n t h b i r t h d a y . T h i s " r e a s o n " was not o n l y s e n s i b l e and r e a s o n a b l e t o my p e e r s , b u t a l s o , p r o v i d e d me w i t h one y e a r ' s " g r a c e " , i . e . , I d i d not have t o c r e a t e a n o t h e r " r e a s o n " f o r not h a v i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e f o r a t l e a s t one more- y e a r . A l t h o u g h , f o r a t l e a s t one y e a r , I d i d n o t have to e s t a b l i s h or f o r m u l a t e o t h e r " r e a s o n s " f o r n o t h a v i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and f o r m u l a t i o n o f my " r e a s o n " was n o t a " o n c e - f o r - a l l " a c t i v i t y . My f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s had t o "see" me i n a c o n s i s -t e n t and c o n t i n u a l manner as n o t h a v i n g a d r i v e r ' s - 55 -l i c e n c e "because" I was apprehended by the p o l i c e f o r "drunk d r i v i n g " . Not o n l y d i d t h e y have t o "see" me i n t h i s manner, but a l s o , t h e y had t o " r e p o r t " me i n t h i s manner. I n o t h e r words, " t a l k " was a c r u c i a l a c t i v i t y and was o r i e n t e d t o by me i n o r d e r to s u b s t a n t i a t e and l e g i t i m a t e the f a c t t h a t I was a " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d p e r -son" who, because o f b e i n g apprehended by the p o l i c e f o r drunk d r i v i n g , was not " l e g a l l y " c a p a b l e or a b l e t o o b t a i n a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o p r o v i d e documents and e v i d e n c e s o f t h i s f a c t t o o t h e r s , so t h a t , d u r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s a t p a r t i e s and o t h e r i n f o r m a l g a t h e r i n g s , any " t a l k " about me and my d r i v i n g would o r i e n t t o my " r e a s o n " f o r n o t h a v i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . T a l k , t h e n , became as much a con-s t i t u e n t f e a t u r e o f my "not h a v i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e " as was my conduct and a c t i v i t i e s . Moreover, i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o i n i t i a t e t a l k about d r i v e r ' s l i c -ences i n o r d e r t o c o n s t i t u t e my " r e a s o n " f o r n o t h a v i n g one as l e g i t i m a t e and s e n s i b l e . The f o l l o w i n g example o f such t a l k w i l l s e r v e to i l l u s t r a t e and e x p l i c a t e t h i s p o i n t . W i t h i n my p a r -t i c u l a r c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s , p a r t i e s were a f r e q u e n t e v e n t . These p a r t i e s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d s e v e r a l days of p r e p a r a t i o n . P a r t i e s were u s u a l l y h e l d t o c e l e b r a t e a " s p e c i a l " event such as C h r i s t m a s , New - 56 -Year's and events such as b i r t h d a y s . The p l a n n i n g c o n s i s t e d o f e s t a b l i s h i n g the p l a c e f o r the p a r t y , i . e . , the i s s u e was t h a t the p a r t y would be h e l d a t the r e s i -dence o f the p e r s o n whose p a r e n t s would be out o f town or o t h e r w i s e not a v a i l a b l e f o r the weekend,. S e v e r a l days of p r e p a r a t i o n were a l s o n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a l c o h o l . Because most o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s were n o t b i d enough t o o b t a i n a l c o h o l , the i l l e g a l purchase of a l c o h o l t o o k some p r e p a r a t i o n . P e o p l e u s u a l l y a r r i v e d a t the p a r t i e s i n c a r s . T h i s p r e s e n t e d no d i f f i c u l t y f o r me s i n c e everyone knew I c o u l d not d r i v e because I d i d not have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . Thus, i t was r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r me t o a r r a n g e f o r one o f my f r i e n d s t o p i c k b o t h me and my date up i n h i s c a r . F r e q u e n t l y , however, my date was not aware of my d r i v i n g s t a t u s . A n e e x p l a n a t i o n , however, was not n e c e s s a r y i n t h a t d o u b l e - d a t i n g was a f r e q u e n t and com-mon p r a c t i c e and t h u s r e q u i r e d no e x p l a n a t i o n i n terms o f why I was not d r i v i n g . I f , however, I was t o c o n t i n u e t o date t h i s g i r l , she would have t o be i n f o r m e d about my d r i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . Moreover, i n o r d e r t o keep my c l a i m t o b e i n g a " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d p e r s o n " l e g i t i m a t e , she would have t o be i n f o r -med w i t h i n the p r o p e r c o n t e x t , i . e . , she would have t o be i n f o r m e d about my drunk d r i v i n g . - 57 -I t would have been easy f o r me t o t e l l h e r . T h i s " t e l l i n g " , however, would have had to have been done i n a v e r y d e l i b e r a t e manner so as not t o r a i s e s u s p i c i o n . I n o t h e r words, I would have had t o have c o n s t r u c t e d the o c c a s i o n o f " t e l l i n g " where the " t e l l i n g " was a p p r o p r i -a t e and c onnected t o the o c c a s i o n . That i s , i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e s u s p i c i o n the " t e l l i n g " would have t o be done d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n where d r i v i n g , o r more s p e c i f i -c a l l y drunk d r i v i n g , was b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . "A t e c h n i q u e I o f t e n u t i l i z e d was t o " g e t " someone e l s e t o t e l l my d a t e . Thus, a t a p a r t y , and i n the p r e s -ence o f my d a t e , I would ask someone f o r the l o a n o f h i s c a r . I would g i v e a p e r f e c t l y v a l i d r e a s o n f o r w a n t i n g t o use the c a r , such as, to p i c k up more a l c o h o l , o r , t o p i c k up a f r i e n d who s h o u l d be a t the p a r t y , e t c . I would always be s u r e t o ask t h i s f a v o u r o f one o f the " i n guys", i . e . , a p o p u l a r p e r s o n who was admired and r e s p e c t e d by o t h e r s . F u r t h e r , I would always make sure t h a t t h i s " i n - g u y " was the type o f p e r s o n who would want to m i n i m i z e h i s p o s s i b l e c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the p o l i c e and, t h e r e b y , ensure t h a t he would o b j e c t , v because o f my a l l e g e d d r i v i n g r e c o r d , t o me u s i n g h i s c a r . I n t h i s way, I would i n i t i a t e a d i a l o g u e between the p e r s o n w i t h the c a r and m y s e l f . The p e r s o n w i t h the c a r would o b j e c t and r e f u s e - 58 -me the l o a n o f h i s c a r . I n t u r n , I would p e r s i s t w i t h my r e q u e s t , k e e p i n g the d i a l o g u e i n a j o k i n g manner, u n t i l he would g i v e me the " r e a s o n " f o r not l o a n i n g me h i s c a r . The " r e a s o n " , o f c o u r s e , as I would " g e t " him t o say, was t h a t he d i d not want t o r i s k s u s p e n s i o n o f h i s own d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e "because o f my c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the p o l i c e . I n t h i s way, he would, i n a sense, " t e l l " my date about why i t was t h a t I d i d not have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . I had t o m a n i p u l a t e and m o n i t o r t h e whole c o n v e r s a t i o n . I would have t o be p e r s i s t e n t o n l y up t o a p o i n t . I f I p e r s i s t e d too f a r i n my r e q u e s t , t h e r e was a chance t h a t he would have g i v e n i n t o my r e -quest and s u b m i t t e d t o l e t t i n g me use h i s c a r . There- . f o r e , i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o be i n t o t a l c o n t r o l not o n l y o f my own t a l k but o f h i s t a l k as w e l l . Again,, t h i s c o u l d o n l y have been c a r r i e d o f f i f my p a s s i n g was c o n s t a n t , c o n s i s t e n t , and c o n t i n u o u s . Another and v e r y i m p o r t a n t c o n s t i t u e n t f e a t u r e o f my p a s s i n g was my b i o g r a p h y . I t was n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o d e v e l o p a b i o g r a p h y whereby such c l a i m s t o not d r i v i n g would be s e n s i b l e and r e a s o n a b l e . Thus, I t o o k d e l i b e r a t e c a r e and c a u t i o n t o be . " n o t i c e d " as one o f the "tough guys". I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l the s p o r t s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d as "tough" and which I c o u l d handle g i v e n my b l i n d n e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , I - 59 -p a r t i c i p a t e d , i n t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f a l c o h o l and i n a l l t h e a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s p a r -t i c i p a t i o n , .to some d e g r e e , r e q u i r e d i n t e n s i v e and ex-t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n . D u r i n g o u r " d r i n k i n g e p i s o d e s " I d e l i b e r a t e l y o b s e r v e d v a r i o u s d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s and b e h a v i o u r . The i n t e n t i o n o f my o b s e r v a t i o n was t o be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e and t o p r o d u c e l e g i t i m a t e d r i n k i n g •behaviour. I l e a r n e d t o r e c o g n i z e and p r o d u c e s u c h d r i n k i n g a c t i v i t y a s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e way t o s i t o r s t a n d , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e way t o h o l d t h e d r i n k , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e way t o d r i n k , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e way t o " t a l k d r i n k i n g " , 1 2 and so on. Thus, i n t h e s e ways, and m many o t h e r ways, I was a b l e t o d e v e l o p and s u s t a i n a b i o g r a p h y w h i c h w o u l d be c o n d u c i v e t o my " r e a s o n " f o r n o t d r i v i n g . My p a s s i n g , t h e n , i n v o l v e d t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f my p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s as t e x t u r e s o f r e l e v a n c e s by e m p l o y i n g c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e c o n t r o l and m a s t e r y o f t h e s e p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , I was engage d i n p a s s i n g i n o r d e r t o c o n c e a l my b l i n d n e s s . T h i s c o n c e a l m e n t , I was c o n v i n c e d , T h i s s o r t o f o b s e r v i n g and l e a r n i n g how t o "do d r i n k i n g " w h i l e " d o i n g ' * ' d r i n k i n g " was n o t an a c t i v i t y w h i c h o n l y I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n . E v e r y o n e e l s e i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e " d r i n k i n g e p i s o d e s " w o u l d have t o be a b l e t o p r o -duce a p p r o p r i a t e d r i n k i n g a c t i v i t y . Thus, a l l o f us l e a r n e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r "how" t o d r i n k . - 60 -was undoubltely necessary for me to sustain and maintain s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s with my peer group. And, I was equally convinced, that detection would r e s u l t i n the r u i n and collapse of these same s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . This sort of reasoning seems amenable given the common-sense understandings of "the adolescent years". That i s , one of the common-sense notions i n our society i s that perceived differences, be they s o c i a l , physical, or psychological represent, for adolescents, a source of anxiety. Framed within t h i s common-sense understanding, then, my passing can be viewed as a reasonable and sen-si b l e a c t i v i t y . Even though, at the present time, I am not i n v o l -ved i n such complicated and covert practices, I s t i l l pass. I take i t that i f I am oriented to by others as a b l i n d person, t h i s orientation w i l l s t r u c t u r a l l y elim-inate me from many, what may be c a l l e d , "sighted a c t i v i -13 t i e s " . Thus, i f my conduct and a c t i v i t i e s are oriented to by others as the conduct and a c t i v i t i e s of a "blind person", t h i s orientation would l i m i t my p o s s i b i l i t i e s T O  13 -'In his discussion of the " v i s i b l y handicapped" Davis (1964:120-137) addresses the issue of i n t e r a c t i o n between the " v i s i b l y handicapped" and "normals". A l -though he does not specify i t within these terms, Davis none.theless points out that perceivable physical handi-caps s t r u c t u r a l l y l i m i t persons from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n various "non-handicapped" a c t i v i t i e s . (Davis, 1964:125) - 61 -f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , o r i e n t i n g t o me a s a b l i n d p e r s o n may, f o r o t h e r s , r e -s u l t i n a r e l u c t a n c e t o o r i e n t t o me a s a c o - p a r t i c i p a n t . G i v e n t h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h e f o l l o w i n g k i n d s o f q u e s -t i o n s may o c c u r t o o t h e r s : S h o u l d I a s k h i m t o come j o g g i n g w i t h me? Can he s e e w e l l e n o u g h t o do t h i s ? I f he r e a l l y d o e s n ' t s e e w e l l e nough t o do i t , w i l l a s k i n g h i m t o come j o g g i n g w i t h me o n l y e m b a r r a s s h i m f u r t h e r ? A n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h i s o p e r a t i v e f o r me i s t h e s e n s e o t h e r s w i l l make o f my c o n d u c t g i v e n t h a t t h e y o r i e n t t o me a s a b l i n d p e r s o n . F o r e x a m p l e , a f t e r t e l l i n g one o f my u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s a b o u t my b l i n d -n e s s a nd w h i l e l e a v i n g h i s o f f i c e , I " s t u m b l e d " o n a c h a i r . He i m m e d i a t e l y g o t up f r o m h i s c h a i r , moved t h e c h a i r I h a d s t u m b l e d on, w h i l e , a t t h e same t i m e , a p o l o -g i z i n g t o me f o r h a v i n g l e f t t h e c h a i r t h e r e . I t a k e i t t h a t t h i s u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r r e m e d i e d t h e i n d e x i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f my " . s t u m b l i n g i n c i d e n t " n o t a s a "stumb-l i n g i n c i d e n t , b u t r a t h e r , a s a document o f a n d a s e v i -1 4 e n c e o f t h e f a c t t h a t I was b l i n d . A s i m i l a r k i n d o f a n a l y s i s c a n be f o u n d i n W e i d e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f how s t a f f p e r s o n n e l , i n a h a l f -way h o u s e f o r d r u g u s e r s , r e m e d i e d t h e i n d e x i c a l p r o -p e r t i e s o f c e r t a i n c o n d u c t a n d o b j e c t s a s p r o v i d i n g d o c u m e n t s a n d e v i d e n c e s o f d r u g . u s e among t h e h a l f - w a y h o u s e r e s i d e n t s . ( W e i d e r , 1974:101-111) - 62 -1 T h i s p r e v e n t i o n of others o r i e n t i n g ^ to me as a blind, person i s , a t l e a s t , one of the m o t i v a t i o n s f o r my present p a s s i n g . Much of my p a s s i n g i s concerned, with e s t a b l i s h i n g my appearances as appearances of a "nor-m a l l y sighted, person". Thus, i t i s my concern to recog-n i z e and to produce sightedness and to have my produc-t i o n s r e c o g n i z e d by others as si g h t e d n e s s . For i n s t a n c e , much of my p a s s i n g i s done i n such p u b l i c s e t t i n g s as l a r g e p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , p u b l i c t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , walking down the s t r e e t , and the l i k e . What i s c r u c i a l w i t h i n these s e t t i n g s i s t h a t I make my a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to others as s e n s i b l e and reas o n a b l e . That i s , l i k e everyone e l s e , I do a s o r t of "work" to make my a c t i v i t i e s , a t a glance, a v a i l a b l e to others as s e n s i b l e and rea s o n a b l e . U n l i k e everyone e l s e , however, I am, f o r the most p a r t , conscious of my "work" and conscious of the "methods" and "procedures" t h a t I u t i l i z e to d i s p l a y s e n s i b i l i t y and reasonableness. One such g e n e r a l method i s to p o r t r a y myself to others as a "competent-normally-sighted-person", or, at l e a s t , to d i s p l a y the f a c t t h a t I am a bona f i d e member of s o c i e t y . Jl am not sugges t i n g t h a t there are not occas-s i o n s i n which others do o r i e n t to me as a b l i n d person. C e r t a i n l y , t h i s i s so.; I use the term o n l y to suggest t h a t i n much of my i n t e r a c t i o n I do not r e c e i v e others as o r i e n t i n g to me as a b l i n d person. - 63 -S i g h t e d n e s s can be a c h i e v e d and produced i n v a r i -ous ways i n p u b l i c s e t t i n g s . T h i s can be e x e m p l i f i e d i n the way I manage the c r o s s i n g of t r a f f i c l i g h t con-t r o l l e d i n t e r s e c t i o n s . I n most i n s t a n c e s , I am not a b l e t o "see" the t r a f f i c l i g h t , and hence, determine whether or n o t i t i s i n my f a v o u r , and t h e r e f o r e , whether or not i t i s appro-p r i a t e and s a f e t o c r o s s the s t r e e t . Thus, I use a com-b i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s o t h e r p r o c e d u r e s i n o r d e r t o "see" whether or n o t i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e and s a f e f o r me t o c r o s s the s t r e e t . F o r i n s t a n c e , I l i s t e n t o and watch t r a f f i c f l o w s . A f t e r s e v e r a l m i n u tes or s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s o f o b s e r -v a t i o n s I am a b l e t o "see" the o r d e r i n which the t r a f -f i c l i g h t s o p e r a t e . That i s , t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n e n a b l e s me t o determine the o r d e r i n which the d i r e c t i o n o f t r a f f i c i s a l l o w e d t o f l o w , whether or not l e f t hand l a n e s are a l l o w e d t o t u r n , whether or not r i g h t hand l a n e s are a l l o w e d t o t u r n , and so on. F u r t h e r , I observe the p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t e l l s me when the p e d e s t r i a n s "see" t h a t i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e and s a f e t o c r o s s the s t r e e t . I n most i n s t a n c e s , I t a k e i t t h a t whether the l i g h t i s i n the p e d e s t r i a n ' s f a v o u r or n o t , the p e d e s t r i a n w i l l n o t c r o s s u n l e s s i t i s s a f e . At any r a t e , my s i m u l t a n e o u s - 64 -o b s e r v a t i o n o f t r a f f i c and. p e d e s t r i a n f l o w s e n a b l e s me to determine when i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e and s a f e f o r me t o c r o s s the s t r e e t . There a r e , however, i n s t a n c e s where t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e t r a f f i c a t a t r a f f i c l i g h t c o n t r o l l e d i n t e r s e c -t i o n and where p e d e s t r i a n s are not c r o s s i n g a t the p l a c e t h a t I w i s h t o c r o s s . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s a n o t h e r k i n d o f "work" i s n e c e s s a r y . F o r example, I may f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o s t a n d on the c o r n e r f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f time i n o r d e r t o det-ermine whether o r not I s h o u l d c r o s s the s t r e e t . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e and e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t I w i l l be s t a n d -i n g on the c o r n e r w h i l e the' t r a f f i c l i g h t i s i n d e e d i n my f a v o u r . T h e r e f o r e , I do "work" which I take I t w i l l ensure t h a t o t h e r s w i l l remedy the i n d e x i c a l i t y o f my s t a n d i n g on the c o r n e r , evemthough the l i g h t i s i n my fav o u r , i n an a p p r o p r i a t e way. One method i s t o do "daydreaming". That i s , even though I am i n t e n s e l y o b s e r v i n g the s i t u a t i o n , I do "work" which I r e c o g n i z e and assume t h a t o t h e r s r e c o g n i z e as "daydreaming". Then, when I am sure t h a t i t i s s a f e and a p p r o p r i a t e t o c r o s s the s t r e e t , I do what I t a k e t o be "snapping out o f daydreaming" and assume t h a t o t h e r s r e c -o g n i z e my b e h a v i o u r as "snapping out o f daydreaming". I n o t h e r words, I was s t a n d i n g t h e r e daydreaming, and f i n a l -- 65 -l y r e a l i z e d that the l i g h t was i n my favour. Another method which I employ, and i n c i d e n t a l l y prefer, i s to do "waiting" - I lean against the t r a f f i c l i g h t pole, which i s t y p i c a l l y situated on the corner, and do "waiting" while at the same time intensely observ-ing the si t u a t i o n . As soon as I determine that i t i s safe and appropriate to cross the street, I can glance at my wristwatch and cross, i . e . , I can do "well-I've-waited-long-enough-its-time-to-go". I do a sim i l a r kind of "work" when I walk down s t a i r s i n public places. I am always able to t e l l i f there are s t a i r s , i . e . , that s t a i r s are approaching. What I am often unable to determine, however, i s where, precisely, the s t a i r s begin. I do not have th i s d i f f i c u l t y with s t a i r s that go up, but, I am often pre-sented with t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n the case of s t a i r s going down. I also do not have t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i f the down s t a i r s have a colour contrast or i f a r t i f i c i a l or natur-a l l i g h t i n g ( i n the case of outside down s t a i r s ) creates a shadow on each of the s t a i r s which allows me to det-ermine where, precisely, the s t a i r s begin. "Going down s t a i r s " i s an a c t i v i t y which i s similar to crossing streets at t r a f f i c l i g h t controlled intersections or going through doors. That i s , i t i s an a c t i v i t y , which while being done, i s "supposed" to be unproblematic. - 66 -P e o p l e do n o t t y p i c a l l y have problems a c c o m p l i s h i n g such a c t i v i t i e s . Moreover, these a c t i v i t i e s are not what Turner c a l l s "core a c t i v i t i e s " . ( T u r n e r , 1972:370&453) That i s , p e r s o n s do not e n t e r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s i n o r d e r l 6 t o walk up and down s t a i r s . I n s t e a d , p e r s o n s walk up and down s t a i r s i n o r d e r t o "get somewhere". Thus, "d o i n g s t a i r s " i s t y p i c a l l y an u n p r o b l e m a t i c and t a k e n -f o r - g r a n t e d a c t i v i t y . What t h e n becomes p r o b l e m a t i c f o r me, i s t o g i v e my "doing s t a i r s " an u n p r o b l e m a t i c and t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d appearance. I n o t h e r words, i n some i n s t a n c e s , g o i n g down s t a i r s i s f o r me a p r o b l e m a t i c a c t i v i t y which i s n o t t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . T h e r e f o r e , I u t i l i z e v a r i o u s methods whereby my g o i n g down the s t a i r s c an be r e c e i v e d by o t h e r s as an u n p r o b l e m a t i c t a k e n - f o r -g r a n t e d a c t i v i t y . What I t y p i c a l l y do i s something t h a t I can c a l l " r e m i n d i n g work". I approach the down s t a i r c a s e t o a p o i n t t h a t I can r e c o g n i z e as b e i n g a few i n c h e s from where the downward d i r e c t i o n o f the s t a i r s a c t u a l l y b e g i n s . I t h e n s t o p and t h e n by, f o r example, "snapping my f i n g e r s " , " l o o k i n g a t my w r i s t w a t c h " , and so on, I can g i v e the appearance o f h a v i n g f o r g o t t e n something or I n t h i s c a s e , I have imputed what Schutz (1973= 69-72) c a l l s " i n - o r d e r t o m o t i v e s " t o members as a way to r e c e i v e members' a c t i v i t i e s as s e n s i b l e and r e a s o n -a b l e . - 67 -o f j u s t h a v i n g reminded m y s e l f o f something. Wh i l e I am stopped and am d o i n g my " r e m i n d i n g work" I t h e n unob-t r u s i v e l y s l i d e my f o o t a l o n g the f l o o r u n t i l i t r e a c h e s the f i r s t down s t a i r . A t t h a t p o i n t , I do an o t h e r k i n d o f "work". I do "Oh w e l l t h a t ' s a l l r i g h t " work. That i s , I do a s o r t o f work t h a t I assume o t h e r s r e c o g n i z e as "even though I have reminded m y s e l f o f something, i t doesn't m a t t e r and t h e r e f o r e I w i l l p r o c e e d down the s t a i r s " . A n o ther method t h a t I use t o "do s t a i r s " , and i n c i d e n t a l l y p r e f e r , i s t o do a n o t h e r k i n d o f "work" which I r e c o g n i z e and assume o t h e r s r e c o g n i z e as "I b e t t e r check i t o u t " . F o r example, w h i l e w a l k i n g on the u n i v e r s i t y campus, I t y p i c a l l y c a r r y books or a b r i e f -case or some o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e u n i v e r s i t y m a t e r i a l s . When I a r r i v e a t some down s t a i r s , I s t o p and "check out my m a t e r i a l s " . I n o t h e r words, I s t o p and examine my books i n o r d e r t o make sure ( t o g i v e the appearance o f ) t h a t I have the c o r r e c t m a t e r i a l s b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g . From t h i s p o i n t the method i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the " r e -mi n d i n g work" method. A l l o f the work t h a t I do i n managing p u b l i c s e t t i n g s would, o f c o u r s e , be u n n e c e s s a r y i f I would s i m p l y c a r r y a w h i t e cane. A w h i t e cane would immedi-a t e l y make my b l i n d n e s s known t o o t h e r s . I c o u l d t h e n - 68 -o v e r t l y observe t r a f f i c l i g h t s and o v e r t l y f i n d t he b e g i n n i n g o f a down s t a i r c a s e and t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s would be r e n d e r e d s e n s i b l e and r e a s o n a b l e by o t h e r s because o f the pr e s e n c e o f the w h i t e cane. C a r r y i n g a w h i t e cane, however, would r e q u i r e me t o pass and t o do j u s t as much "work" as I do by n o t c a r r y i n g a w h i t e cane. That i s , I would t h e n have t o pass as a " b l i n d p e r s o n " . F o r example, I have no d i f f i c u l t y w a l k i n g down the s t r e e t s a f e l y and a p p r o p r i a t e l y . I f , however, I c a r r i e d a w h i t e cane, "normal w a l k i n g down the s t r e e t " would appear i n c o n g r u o u s . I would t h e n have t o do "work" i n o r d e r t o pass as a " b l i n d p e r s o n " , whatever t h a t might " l o o k l i k e " . I n sum, the d a t a I have p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r can be e f f e c t i v e l y framed w i t h i n the model o f p a s s i n g s p e c i f i e d by Goffman and f u r t h e r extended and e l a b o r a t e d by G a r f i n k e l . Thus, my d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , as p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , can, w i t h i n Goffman's and G a r f i n k e l ' s model, be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p a s s i n g . My p a s s i n g can, t h e r e f o r e , be summarily c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way. ( l ) Because I r e c e i v e my b l i n d n e s s as a s o c i a l s t i g m a and because I r e c e i v e i t as p o t e n -t i a l l y d i s c r e d i t i n g , I engage i n p a s s i n g i n - 6 9 -o r d e r t o c o n c e a l i t from o t h e r s . F u r t h e r , because I r e c e i v e my b l i n d n e s s as not b e i n g i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v a b l e by o t h e r s , I c o n s i d e r m y s e l f t o be, i n Goffman's terms, a " d i s c r e d -i t a b l e " p e r s o n . The d e t e c t i o n o f my b l i n d n e s s by o t h e r s , I am c o n v i n c e d , w i l l r e s u l t i n c e r t a i n k i n d s o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l r u i n . T h i s " r u i n " , as I u n d e r s t o o d i t i n my t e e n y e a r s , meant t h a t I would be e l i m i n a t e d from most, i f not a l l , p eer group a c t i v i t y . P r e s e n t l y , I u n d e r s t a n d " r u i n " t o mean t h a t my i n t e r -a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s w i l l be s t r u c t u r a l l y l i m i t i n g . Whether or not I t a k e my p a s s i n g t o be suc-c e s s f u l , i n any o c c a s i o n o f i t s p r o d u c t i o n , depends upon the p e r c e i v e d consequences o f my p a s s i n g . That i s , i f I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t o t h e r s do not a t t r i b u t e the motive of b l i n d -ness t o my a c t i v i t i e s or t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an o c c a s i o n where I am p r e s e n t , t h e n I r e c e i v e my p a s s i n g t o be s u c c e s s f u l . My p a s s i n g c o n s i s t s o f c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n which are d i r e c t e d t o the m a s t e r y o f p r a c -t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s by the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f - 70 -these c i r c u m s t a n c e s as a t e x t u r e of r e l e -v ances. I cannot pass i f I o n l y r e c e i v e my d a i l y l i f e as b e i n g a s e r i e s o f : " c l o c k - t i m e " bounded o c c a s i o n s which I must "get t h r o u g h " and manage. I s t r u c t u r e my b i o g r a p h y , my p r o s p e c t s , and my m o t i v e s o f any p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n over a co u r s e o f a c t i o n , and, t h i s s t r u c t u r i n g , a t the same time,-is a f u n c t i o n o f the a c t i o n i t s e l f . Thus, I a t t e n d v e r y c l o s e l y t o what G a r f i n k e l c a l l s " i n n e r t i m e " , i . e . , the " i n n e r t i m e " o f remembrance, a n t i -c i p a t i o n , and e x p e c t a n c y . There a r e , however, o t h e r s o r t s o f a c t i v i t i e s w hich I , and o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s , engage i n i n our d a i l y l i v e s w h ich, t o say the l e a s t , r e n d e r p r o b l e m a t i c the concept o f p a s s i n g . I t i s t o th e s e a c t i v i t i e s and t o the i s s u e s t h a t t h e y r a i s e t h a t I now t u r n . - 71 -CHAPTER I V ACCOMPLISHING THE SIGHTED WORLD The theme o f the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r was p a s s i n g c o n s i d e r e d as an a c t i v e d e v i c e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r o l . That i s , p a s s i n g i s an a c t i v i t y I engage i n i n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t , s u s t a i n , m a i n t a i n , and manage a p p r o p r i a t e , a c c e p t a b l e , and e x p e c t a b l e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . I n t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l p r e s e n t some d a t a , the a n a l y s i s o f which w i l l r e n d e r the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s somewhat c o n f u s i n g and ambiguous. T h i s c o n f u s i o n and a m b i g u i t y , as w i l l be shown, emerges from the d i s c o v e r y t h a t d i s c r e d i t e d p e r s o n s a r e , i n a sense, i n v o l v e d i n 17 p a s s i n g . I n o t h e r words, I am i n v o l v e d m i n t e r -a c t i o n and e n c o u n t e r s w i t h o t h e r s where t h e s e o t h e r s are aware o f my b l i n d n e s s . F u r t h e r , o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s , i n c l u d i n g t o t a l l y b l i n d p e r s o n s , a re i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r -a c t i o n and e n c o u n t e r s w i t h o t h e r s i n s i t u a t i o n s and Even tho.ugh-,; i n h i s model o f p a s s i n g , Goffman s u g g e s t s t h a t d i s c r e d i t e d p e r s o n s a r e , a t some time o r a n o t h e r , i n v o l v e d i n p a s s i n g , t h i s p a s s i n g i s not done i n " p u b l i c p l a c e s " . (Goffman, 1963:74) Thus, d i s -c r e d i t e d p e r s o n s pass i n such s i t u a t i o n s as " l e t t e r w r i t i n g " , " t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s " , and the l i k e . - 72 -o c c a s i o n s where t h e i r "blindness i s i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v -a b l e . C o n f u s i o n and a m b i g u i t y a r i s e s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o the concept o f p a s s i n g , i n those i n t e r a c t i o n a l o c c a s i o n s where a p e r s o n ' s b l i n d n e s s i s i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v a b l e , or o t h e r w i s e known, t o those w i t h whom he o r she i n t e r -a c t s . That i s , i n those i n t e r a c t i o n a l o c c a s i o n s , des-p i t e the immediate p e r c e i v a b i l i t y ; - ore knowledge o f t h e i r b l i n d n e s s by o t h e r s , b l i n d p e r s o n s s t i l l engage i n pas-s i n g . I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d , however, t h a t t h i s p a s s i n g i s n o t an at t e m p t , on the p a r t o f b l i n d p e r s o n s , t o con-c e a l t h e i r b l i n d n e s s . For example, b e f o r e I a r r i v e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I i n f o r m e d my p o t e n t i a l p r o f e s s o r s t h a t I was a b l i n d p e r s o n . Upon my a r r i v a l a t U.B.C., I spoke a t g r e a t l e n g t h w i t h my p r o f e s s o r s about my b l i n d -n e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e I i n t e n d e d t o do r e s e a r c h i n the a r e a o f b l i n d n e s s . F u r t h e r , upon my a r r i v a l , I i n f o r m e d many o f the graduate s t u d e n t s about my b l i n d -ness . G i v e n t h a t s e v e r a l o f the p e r s o n s w i t h whom I i n t e r a c t "know" t h a t I am, i n a s o c i o - l e g a l sense, a b l i n d p e r s o n , I would now l i k e t o re-examine, on the b a s i s o f new d a t a , my p a s s i n g o c c a s i o n s and management - 7 3 -d e v i c e s . Since I am not able to see w e l l enough to be able to r e c o g n i z e persons i n terms of knowing what t h e i r f a c e s l o o k l i k e , i t i s necessary f o r me to use other evidences f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g r e c o g n i t i o n . The evidences I t y p i c a l l y use are as f o l l o w s : (1) a person's p e r c e i v e d h e i g h t and weight - I use these i n d i c e s to formulate a person's g e n e r a l appearance, ( 2 ) a person's t y p i c a l body po s t u r e s - I come to a t t r i b u t e a unique appearance to i n d i v i d u a l s based on the way they t y p i c a l l y stand, s i t , walk, as w e l l as the g e s t u r e s they t y p i c a l l y use d u r i n g f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n , ( 3 ) a person's t y p i c a l s t y l e of dress - I a r r i v e at an understanding of what a person t y p i c a l l y wears, i . e . , i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s s p e c i f i c c l o t h i n g , and i n other i n s t a n c e s , a g e n e r a l s t y l e of c l o t h i n g , (4) a person's " d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s " - f o r example, beards, g l a s s e s , c o l o u r of h a i r ( l i g h t or dark), l e n g t h of h a i r ( s h o r t or l o n g ) , t y p i c a l h a i r s t y l e , and so on. (5) a person's voice.-simply, what the person - 7 4 -"sounds l i k e " ( t he most c o n s i s t e n t and a c c u r a t e o f a l l o f my "person i d e n t i f y i n g " c r i t e r i a ) . S i n c e i t t a k e s some time b e f o r e I can s u c c e s -f u l l y determine these " i d e n t i f y i n g p o i n t s " about p e r s o n s I have r e c e n t l y met, I am not a b l e t o make p o s i t i v e r e c -o g n i t i o n ' o f p e r s o n s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y the f i r s t month o r two o f c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . I n o t h e r words, i t t a k e s me t h a t l o n g t o come t o "see" and "know" a p e r s o n ' s v o i c e , s t y l e o f d r e s s , s t y l e o f w a l k i n g , e t c . T h e r e f o r e , I u s u a l l y t r y t o ensure t h a t I w i l l r e c e i v e as many p i e c e s o f e v i d e n c e about the i d e n t i t y o f a p e r s o n as i s p o s s i b l e . F o r example, when I walk p a s t a p e r s o n i n the h a l l w a y o f the S o c i o - L i n g u i s t i c s Lab a t U.B.C., and t h a t p e r s o n g r e e t s me w i t h a "Good morning" or " h e l l o " , and i f on those bases o f appearance and v o i c e , I am n o t a b l e t o make p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , I w i l l n o t t y p i c a l l y r e t u r n t h e i r g r e e t i n g w i t h a "Good morning" or a " h e l l o " . I n s t e a d , I w i l l r e t u r n t h e i r g r e e t i n g i n a manner so as t o maximize the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h a t p e r s o n s p e a k i n g a g a i n and t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g me w i t h more e v i d e n c e f o r making i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I w i l l t y p i c a l l y use the r e t u r n - g r e e t i n g " H e l l o , how are you?", or s i m p l y , "How are you?" I n most i n s t a n c e s , t h i s r e t u r n -- 75 -g r e e t i n g (which i s a l s o a q u e s t i o n ) seems t o e l i c i t a n o t h e r p i e c e o f t a l k (an answer t o the q u e s t i o n ) . Thus, the p e r s o n w i l l r e p l y w i t h something l i k e , " f i n e , how are you?". T h i s " c h e c k i n g p r o c e d u r e " , which t y p i c a l l y e l i c i t s more t a l k from the p e r s o n , e n a b l e s me t o make a more p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . A f t e r a month or two o f "being around a s e t t i n g " I am a b l e t o more p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f y t h o s e p e r s o n s w i t h i n the s e t t i n g . I n o t h e r words, I w i l l have come t o make immediate and p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on the b a s i s o f the c r i t e r i a I s p e c i f i e d e a r l i e r . I a l s o d e v e l o p e x p e c t a t i o n s about what persons a re e n t i t l e d t o be i n a s p e c i f i c s e t -t i n g . That i s , I come t o "know" who i s most l i k e l y t o be i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g . Moreover, I a l s o know t h a t the p e r s o n s who are most l i k e l y t o be i n t h a t s e t t i n g are per s o n s who are connected, j u s t as I am, w i t h t h a t s e t t i n g . T h e r e f o r e , I am e n t i t l e d t o know t h a t p e r s o n , and more t h a n l i k e l y , have been i n t r o d u c e d t o t h a t p e r s o n . One o f the ways I r e c e i v e the people i n t h a t s e t t i n g i s t h a t "I'know them and t h e y know me". Thus, when I meet a p e r s o n i n t h a t s e t t i n g I take i t t h a t t h e y are e n t i t l e d t o g r e e t me and I am e n t i t l e d and e x p e c t e d t o g r e e t them. Of c o u r s e , I tak e the converse t o be t r u e as w e l l . One o f the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the S o c i -- 76 -o l o g y Department i s a l o n g h a l l w a y w i t h o f f i c e s and o t h e r rooms on e i t h e r s i d e o f i t . There have "been many o c c a s -i o n s where I have "begun w a l k i n g down the h a l l w a y from one end and have seen a n o t h e r p e r s o n w a l k i n g toward me from the o t h e r end o f the h a l l w a y . The d i s t a n c e "between us p r e v e n t s me from making an immediate p o s i t i v e i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n o f t h a t p e r s o n . Yet, as I have mentioned, I r e c e i v e any p e r s o n i n t h a t h a l l w a y , f o r the most p a r t , as a p e r s o n who I am e n t i t l e d t o know. Thus, n ot o n l y am I e n t i t l e d t o g r e e t t h a t p e r s o n and t o e x p e c t a r e t u r n - g r e e t i n g , hut t h a t I w i l l g r e e t t h a t p e r s o n i s an e x p e c t a b l e o c c u r r e n c e . I n o t h e r words, i f I walked by t h a t p e r s o n w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g (by g r e e t i n g ) the f a c t t h a t I am e n t i t l e d t o know t h a t p e r s o n and t h a t t h a t p e r s o n i s e n t i t l e d t o know me, the outcome would be some s o r t o f an u n d e s i r e a b l e e v e n t . For example, t h e o t h e r p e r s o n w i l l have t o come t o u n d e r s t a n d why I d i d n o t g r e e t him or h e r . F u r t h e r -more, a n o n - g r e e t i n g when a g r e e t i n g i s an e x p e c t a b l e o c c u r r e n c e , i s t y p i c a l l y t r e a t e d by p e r s o n s as a "snub". That i s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t my n o n - g r e e t i n g would be t r e a t e d as an unwarranted snub. I , t h e r e f o r e , f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o m i n i m i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f my a c t i o n b e i n g r e c e i v e d by o t h e r s as a "snub". There i s an o b v i o u s s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem, - 77 -namely, f o r me t o do the g r e e t i n g f i r s t and t h u s t o p r o -v i d e an i n t e r a c t i o n a l o c c a s i o n where the o t h e r i s en-t i t l e d and e x p e c t e d t o do a r e t u r n - g r e e t i n g . Even though, on the s u r f a c e , t h i s seems l i k e a p l a u s i b l e s o l -u t i o n , i t does have c e r t a i n r i s k s . For example, a l t h o u g h the p e r s o n a t the o t h e r end o f the h a l l w a y i s r e c e i v e d by me as an e n t i t l e d mem-ber o f t h a t s e t t i n g , i v e . , a p r o f e s s o r , or a graduate s t u d e n t , or a c l e r i c a l s t a f f member, an a c q u a i n t a n c e o f mine, the p o s s i b i l i t y s t i l l e x i s t s t h a t t h a t p e r s o n may be a " s t r a n g e r " t o the s e t t i n g . The p e r s o n a t the o t h e r end o f the h a l l w a y may be an undergraduate s t u d e n t coming t o meet w i t h a p r o f e s s o r , o r , a maintenance p e r -son, o r the l i k e , i n wh i c h case, a g r e e t i n g would n o t be i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s i s not t o suggest t h a t i f I d i d g r e e t t h i s p e r s o n the i n t e r a c t i o n a l o c c a s -i o n would c o l l a p s e , b u t , the p e r s o n , g i v e n t h a t we were not a c q u a i n t e d , would have to i n some way or a n o t h e r remedy the i n d e x i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f my g r e e t i n g . Thus, I may be c o n s i d e r e d , by t h a t p e r s o n , as a c h e e r f u l p e r -son, some k i n d o f n u t , e t c . Thus, t o m i n i m i z e such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , e s p e c i -a l l y the l a t t e r t y p e , I t y p i c a l l y u t i l i z e , i n such s i t -u a t i o n s , what I c o n s i d e r t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e non-v e r b a l g r e e t i n g . I make use o f the " s m i l e " . I take i t - 78 -t h a t a s m i l e can f u n c t i o n i n s e v e r a l ways. I understand, t h a t i t can "be used as a g r e e t i n g "between two a c q u a i n t e d p e r s o n s as t h e y pass i n a h a l l w a y . F u r t h e r , I know t h a t a s m i l e i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f f r i e n d l i n e s s , g i v e n the f e a t u r e s of the s e t t i n g . That i s , i t i s i n t e r a c t i o n -a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s t r a n g e r s t o exchange s m i l e s w h i l e w a l k i n g "by one a n o t h e r i n an o t h e r w i s e u n p o p u l a t e d h a l l -way. The s m i l e i s , a t l e a s t f o r my p u r p o s e s , more i n t e r -a c t i o n a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e and l e s s i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y r i s k y t h a n a v e r b a l g r e e t i n g . The " s m i l e " i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n f a c i l i t -a t i n g p a s s i n g and i n the d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f my i n t e r -a c t i o n a l competence. F o r example, whenever I l e a v e o r r e t u r n t o my r e s i d e n c e I pass by my n e i g h b o u r ' s k i t c h e n window. ("I;consider my n e i g h b o u r s as f r i e n d s o f mine and t h e y are aware o f my b l i n d n e s s . ) V ery f r e q u e n t l y , my n e i g h b o u r i s i n the k i t c h e n and can see who i s p a s s i n g by the window. I know t h i s f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s , f o r example, my n e i g h b o u r has o f t e n c a l l e d out a g r e e t i n g t o me from the window as I pass by. I n c o l d e r weather, however, the window i s n o t open and my n e i g h b o u r w i l l do a g r e e t i n g t o p a s s e r s b y , w i t h whom she i s a c q u a i n t e d , by waving. I know t h i s because when my w i f e and I walk by our n e i g h b o u r ' s window, my w i f e w i l l wave t o our n e i g h -bour on those o c c a s i o n s when our n e i g h b o u r i s l o o k i n g - 79 -o u t t h e window. However, when I am w a l k i n g b y t h e w i n -dow a l o n e , I am n o t a b l e t o t e l l w h e t h e r or; n o t our n e i g h b o u r i s l o o k i n g o u t . T h e r e f o r e , I do n o t know w h e t h e r o r n o t a g r e e t i n g o r a r e t u r n - g r e e t i n g ( a wave) i s a p p r o p r i a t e . I t i s i n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s t h a t I u t i l i z e t h e " s m i l e " . E v e r y t i m e I w a l k by t h e window, I " l o o k " t o -ward t h e window and " s m i l e " . A g a i n , t h e s m i l e i s i n t e r -a c t i o n a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e and s u f f i c i e n t t o do a g r e e t i n g o r r e t u r n - g r e e t i n g . A wave, on t h e o t h e r hand, a l t h o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e i f o u r n e i g h b o u r i s l o o k i n g o u t t h e window, i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e i f t h e r e i s no one a t t h e window. I n o t h e r words, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r o t h e r p e r s o n s on t h e s t r e e t t o " s e e " me w a v i n g a t no one. A s m i l e , however, e v e n i f t h e r e i s no one t h e r e t o s m i l e a t , may n o t be n o t i c e d by o t h e r p e r s o n s and, i f n o t i c e d , c a n be i n t e r -p r e t e d i n s e v e r a l ways, f o r example, "He t h o u g h t o f s o m e t h i n g f u n n y " , and so on. I n a s e n s e , t h e n , I am engaged i n p a s s i n g e v e n i n t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s where my b l i n d n e s s i s known t o o t h e r s . I n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , my p a s s i n g i s n o t so much an a t t e m p t t o c o n c e a l s o m e t h i n g , namely, my b l i n d n e s s , b u t r a t h e r , i s more a n a t t e m p t t o " d i s p l a y " s o m e t h i n g , namely, my knowledge, u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e paramount r e a l i t y - t h e " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . I n o r d e r - 80 -f o r me, or any o t h e r "blind, p e r s o n , t o a c h i e v e t h i s " d i s p l a y " i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o r i e n t t o " s i g h t e d n e s s " . The d a t a p r e s e n t e d here shows t h a t and how I 18 "see" and " r e p o r t " , i n o t h e r words, acc o u n t f o r my a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the commonly-understood-t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d w o r l d . T h i s w o r l d has, as one o f i t s seen hut u n n o t i c e d background u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and as one of i t s t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d c o n s t i t u e n t f e a t u r e s , the phenomenon o f " s i g h t e d n e s s " . " S i g h t e d n e s s " , however, i s not a f e a t u r e o f the eve r y d a y w o r l d which i s o r i e n t e d t o by most p e r s o n s . Sudnow s u g g e s t s t h a t : Not o n l y i s i t the case t h a t p e r s o n s seem a b l e t o " f o r m u l a t e " f e a t u r e s o f a n o t h e r ' s appearance, of a scene, g e s t u r e , e t c . , "at a g l a n c e " - as the s u c c e s s f u l o c c u r r e n c e o f a wide v a r i e t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l sequences a t t e s t s - but f o r many i n t e r a c t i o n a l sequences t h e r e seems t o e x i s t a re q u i r e m e n t f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h "no more t h a n a g l a n c e " , and, i n many s i t u a t i o n s , w i t h no more t h a n a s i n g l e g l a n c e . (Sudnow, 1972: 259-260) At the c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s paper, and i n the form o f a recommended s t u d y p o l i c y , Sudnow goes on t o say t h a t : I t w o u l d seem t h a t a fundamental s e t o f t a s k s c o n f r o n t s s t u d e n t s o f n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r -I f o l l o w G a r f i n k e l ' s usage o f the concept "account" ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967:1-3^) a n d H i l 1 a n d C r i t t e n -den, eds., 1968:9). - 81 -namely, the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the ways i n t e r -a c t i o n a l environments e s t a b l i s h a c t i v i t y r e l e -v a n c i e s and how, i n t u r n , the r e l e v a n t c o l l e c -t i o n s o f a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t y f o r m u l a t i o n s i n some s e t t i n g c o n s t r a i n b o t h the k i n d s o f appear-ance p r o d u c t i o n work t h a t go on and the k i n d s o f m o n i t o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s t h a t are employed i n t h a t s e t t i n g . (Sudnow, 1972:279) The f a c t t h a t p e r s o n s are a b l e t o "at a g l a n c e " c a t e g o r i z e , on e v e r y o c c a s i o n o f t h e i r o b s e r v e d and d i s p l a y e d o c c u r r e n c e , the s t a t u s o f c o n t e x t e d scenes and e v e n t s , t u r n s on the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d and seen but un-n o t i c e d background u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s i g h t . I n o t h e r words, t o g l a n c e or t o be g l a n c e d a t , or o t h e r w i s e t o l o o k or be l o o k e d a t , one must assume t h a t he o r she "sees" what and how o t h e r s "see" and assume t h a t o t h e r s assume t h i s o f him o r h e r . The f a c t t h a t p e o p l e do "see", i . e . , have " s i g h t " , i s a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d c o n s t i t u e n t f e a t u r e o f the e v e r y d a y w o r l d which i s not e x p l i c i t l y o r i e n t e d t o by most p e r s o n s . On the o t h e r hand, I , and o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s , do not take " s i g h t e d n e s s " f o r g r a n t e d . Even though I "see" and " r e p o r t " the same w o r l d t h a t o t h e r s "see" and " r e p -o r t " , namely, the " s i g h t e d w o r l d " , i n o r d e r t o "see" and " r e p o r t " a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " I must and do o r i e n t t o " s i g h t e d n e s s " . T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f my a t t e n d i n g t o " s i g h t e d n e s s " as r e c o g n i z a b l e on-going c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n , - 8 2 -the p r o d u c t i o n s o f which are e nsured and r e c o g n i z a b l e c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y . I do not r e c e i v e the phenomenon o f s i g h t as an o b v i o u s , f a c t u a l , t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d p h y s i o l -o g i c a l phenomenon, but r a t h e r , as a " c u l t u r a l e v e n t " r e c o g n i z a b l e and produced o n l y t h r o u g h a c t u a l w i t n e s s e d d i s p l a y s o f common t a l k and c o n d u c t . On many o c c a s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , my p a s s i n g i s not so much an a t tempt t o c o n c e a l my b l i n d n e s s , but r a t h e r , i s a "method" whereby I "see" and " r e p o r t " a commonly-u n d e r s t o o d - t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d w o r l d and a "method" where-by I make t h i s " s e e i n g " and " r e p o r t i n g " " v i s i b l e " t o o t h e r s . For example, I have o f t e n a t t e n d e d s p o r t s e v e n t s , such as i c e hockey games, w i t h f r i e n d s who are p e r f e c t l y aware t h a t I am a b l i n d p e r s o n . They are aware, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t I am u n a b l e t o "see" arid d i s t i n g u i s h one p l a y e r from a n o t h e r . They are a l s o aware t h a t I am not a b l e t o "see" the puck d u r i n g the course o f the game. F u r t h e r , I am not a b l e t o "see" whether the puck i s b e i n g p a s s e d from one p l a y e r t o a n o t h e r or shot toward the n e t i n an attempt t o s c o r e . There a r e , however, c e r t a i n o c c u r r e n c e s t h a t I u n d e r s t a n d and t a k e as documents and e v i d e n c e s o f a g o a l ibeing s c o r e d . For example, when a g o a l i s s c o r e d t h e r e i s a l o u d sound which i s c r e a t e d when the puck h i t s the - 83 -m e t a l b a r s o f the g o a l n e t . I n and o f i t s e l f , however, t h i s sound i s not e v i d e n c e enough t h a t a g o a l has been s c o r e d , because the puck may have h i t the o u t s i d e o f the m e t a l p o s t s o f the n e t and not a c t u a l l y have gone i n t o the n e t . I f , on the o t h e r hand, t h i s sound i s immedi-a t e l y f o l l o w e d by a tremendous cheer from the s p e c t a t o r s I know t h a t a g o a l has been s c o r e d and I can r e a c t i n the a c c e p t a b l e and e x p e c t a b l e manner i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r I have " r e c o g n i z e d " the documents o f a g o a l . I t may, i n f a c t , be t h a t many o f the o t h e r spec-t a t o r s do not a c t u a l l y "see" the puck go i n t o the net but use the same s o r t s o f o c c u r r e n c e s t h a t I do i n o r d e r t o "see" a g o a l b e i n g s c o r e d . Whether or not t h i s i s the c a s e , the c r u c i a l p o i n t i s t h a t the " n o r m a l l y s i g h t e d s p e c t a t o r s " a r e a b l e t o " r e p o r t " t h a t e i t h e r t h e y d i d , or a t l e a s t , c o u l d have "seen" the puck e n t e r the n e t , whereas, I am a b l e t o r e p o r t t h a t the puck d i d go i n t o the n e t due t o my o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the o c c u r r e n c e s o f c e r -t a i n documents and e v i d e n c e s . The r e s t o f the s p e c t a t o r s ' c l a i m s t o "have seen" or t o "have been a b l e t o see" the g o a l b e i n g s c o r e d i s a c l a i m which i s n o t d i f f e r e n t from my c l a i m . That i s , my p a s s i n g i n f o r m s my f r i e n d s t h a t " i f I had 'normal v i s i o n ' I too would have been a b l e t o 'see' the puck e n t e r the n e t " . Thus, I d i s p l a y my u n d e r s t a n d i n g , knowledge, and - 8k -a c c e p t a n c e o f the paramount r e a l i t y , the " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . I n t h i s sense, my p a s s i n g i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f -f e r e n t from the s o r t o f p a s s i n g engaged i n by Agnes. That i s , when my p a s s i n g i s "found o u t " or when I i n f o r m o t h e r s t h a t I am engaged i n p a s s i n g and i n f o r m them o f some o f my p a s s i n g t e c h n i q u e s and management d e v i c e s , t h e y t y p i c a l l y take my p a s s i n g a c t i v i t y as b e i n g r e a s o n -a b l e and s e n s i b l e . I n b t h e r words, i n some i n s t a n c e s , I can and do assume t h a t o t h e r s would "view" my p o s i t i o n i n , f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , an i d e n t i c a l way, were 19 we t o exchange p o s i t i o n s . F o r Agnes, however, the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n o f the " r e c i p r o c i t y o f p e r -s p e c t i v e s " was not o p e r a t i v e . Members t y p i c a l l y v i e w b l i n d n e s s as a m i s f o r t u n -a t e "happening". F u r t h e r , t h e y view b l i n d n e s s as a "Happening" which c o u l d "happen" t o them. Thus, members can and do s p e c u l a t e on what t h e y would do " i f t h e y went b l i n d " , o r , i f t h e y were i n my p o s i t i o n . For Agnes, how-ev e r , t h i s was not the c a s e . Members t y p i c a l l y v i e w sex-edness d i c h o t o m o u s l y , t h a t i s , a p e r s o n i s e i t h e r a male or a f e m a l e . F u r t h e r members "happen" t o be e i t h e r male or fem a l e , i . e . , t h e y are "born" e i t h e r male or The t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n of the " r e c i -p r o s i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s " was not r e c e i v e d by me as o p e r a t i v e a t a l l t i m e s . F o r example, I d i d not r e c e i v e t h i s a s s u m p t i o n as o p e r a t i v e d u r i n g my t e e n y e a r s . - 85 -f e m a l e . T h e r e f o r e , members can s p e c u l a t e on how t h e i r l i v e s would he d i f f e r e n t i f t h e y were "born" the o p p o s i t e sex. However, t o have been "born" male and, a t some l a t t e r p o i n t , t o assume the p o s i t i o n o f fe m a l e , i s not t y p i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d by members as a n a t u r a l , normal "happening", but r a t h e r , as an " e l e c t i o n " . Thus, members do n ot t y p i c a l l y s p e c u l a t e on what i t would be l i k e t o choose t o be the o p p o s i t e sex, t h a t i s , members do not s p e c u l a t i v e l y change p o s i t i o n s w i t h Agnes. My p a s s i n g , on the o t h e r hand, i s o f t e n r e c e i v e d by o t h e r s as an attempt on my p a r t t o " a c c e p t " my h a n d i -cap. T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f my p a s s i n g by o t h e r s i s e v i -dent i n the "method" I employ t o a c h i e v e f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n . D u r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , I attempt t o " l o o k " d i r e c t l y i n t o the eyes o f the p e r s o n w i t h whom I am s p e a k i n g . T h i s p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t y f o r me, s i n c e , I have a spot w i t h i n my v i s u a l f i e l d which i s c o m p l e t e l y " b l a c k e d o u t " , i n o t h e r words, I have no v i s i o n i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , I must " l o o k around" t h i s a r e a o r " f o c u s - " t h i s c / ' a r e a out o f the way" i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o "see". Thus, i n o r d e r t o a c t u a l l y "see" an i n -d i v i d u a l ' s f a c e , i t w i l l appear as though I am " l o o k i n g p a s t " the i n d i v i d u a l because I am a c t u a l l y " l o o k i n g around" t h i s b l a c k e d out a r e a . I f , however, I f o c u s t h i s - 86 -b l a c k e d out a r e a d i r e c t l y on t o the pe r s o n ' s f a c e , i t * •' w i l l appear as though I am l o o k i n g i n t o the eyes, or a t l e a s t i n t o the f a c e , o f the p e r s o n w i t h whom I am con-v e r s i n g . I n o t h e r words, when a p e r s o n ' s f a c e does not appear w i t h i n my v i s u a l f i e l d , I can be f a i r l y con-f i d e n t t h a t i t appears as though I am " l o o k i n g " a t the p e r s o n w i t h whom I am i n t e r a c t i n g . P u t more s u c c i n c t l y , I "know" t h a t I am " l o o k i n g " a t a pe r s o n ' s f a c e when I do n o t "see" t h a t p e r s o n ' s f a c e . T h i s a c t i v i t y i s t y p i c a l l y r e c e i v e d by o t h e r s ( o t h e r s who are aware o f i t ) as a r e a s o n a b l e and s e n s i b l e t h i n g t o do. I t i s a d i s p l a y o f my knowledge, under-s t a n d i n g , and acceptance o f a commonly u n d e r s t o o d method f o r c o n d u c t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n i n a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . " L o o k i n g toward the v o i c e o f the p e r s o n t o whom one i s s p e a k i n g " i s an a c t i v i t y w hich b l i n d p e r s o n s t y p i -c a l l y engage i n and attempt t o ma s t e r . I n f a c t , i t i s a method which i s t a u g h t t o b l i n d p e r s o n s by r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t a f f a t the C.N.I.B. B l i n d p e r s o n s t y p i c a l l y d e r i v e a g r e a t d e a l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n from b e i n g a b l e t o c a r r y t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n p r o c e d u r e o f f . F o r example, a t o t a l l y b l i n d woman t o l d me t h a t , w h i l e she was engaged i n a m u l t i r . p a r t y c o n v er-s a t i o n , she " l o o k e d " toward the v o i c e o f one o f the p e r -sons and asked t h a t p e r s o n a q u e s t i o n . The p e r s o n t h e n - 87 -answered her q u e s t i o n . To her s a t i s f a c t i o n , however, the p e r s o n d i d not p r e f a c e the answer w i t h a "Were you s p e a k i n g t o me". I n o t h e r words, much t o h e r s a t i s f a c -t i o n , and d e l i g h t , she had c a r r i e d o f f and s u c c e s s f u l l y a c h i e v e d " d o i n g normal t a l k i n g " . T h i s d i s p l a y o f knowledge, u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and acceptance o f the paramount r e a l i t y , the " s i g h t e d w o r l d " , i s a c h i e v e d "by b l i n d p e r s o n s i n many ways. F or i n s t a n c e , b l i n d p e r s o n s , even c o n g e n i t a l l y t o t a l l y b l i n d p e r s o n s , do n o t t y p i c a l l y a c t , e s p e c i a l l y i n p u b l i c p l a c e s , as though t h e y " r e c e i v e " t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the w o r l d as " r e a l i t y " . I n o t h e r words, t h e y o r i e n t t o the w o r l d as a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " and do not o r i e n t t o the w o r l d as a " b l i n d w o r l d " . For example, b l i n d p ersons use f a c i l i t i e s such as window shades i n t h e i r homes t o p r e v e n t o t h e r s from " l o o k i n g " i n . They do n o t t y p i c a l l y p e r f o r m s o c i a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s , n or do t h e y m a n i p u l a t e c e r t a i n a r e a s o f t h e i r body when t h e y are i n p u b l i c p l a c e s . B l i n d p e r s o n s t y p i c a l l y wear c l o t h i n g , even on those days where warmth and p r o t e c t i o n from the elements i s n o t a c o n c e r n , i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t o t h e r s from " s e e i n g " c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d a r e a s o f t h e i r body. I n a p h y s i o l o g i c a l sense a t l e a s t , t h e n , b l i n d - 8 8 -persons " p e r c e i v e " and "see" a world which i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f s i g h t e d persons. Yet, to b l i n d persons the world i s not dichotomously organized, i . e . , there i s not an o b j e c t i v e , r a t i o n a l , and s e n s i b l e world f o r s i g h t e d persons and a d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e , r a t i o n a l , and sen-s i b l e world f o r b l i n d persons. S i g h t e d persons, through t h e i r a c c o u n t i n g p r a c t i c e s , come to "see" and to " r e p o r t " the world as s e n s i b l e , as r a t i o n a l , and as o b j e c t i v e . There i s no doubt t h a t , i n a sense, b l i n d persons "see" and " r e c e i v e " the world d i f f e r e n t l y from s i g h t e d persons. However, b l i n d persons t y p i c a l l y " r e c e i v e " t h e i r percep-t i o n s o f the world as an i n v a l i d and wrong p e r c e p t i o n of the " s i g h t e d world". Thus, b l i n d persons p a s s i n g i s not so much an a c t i v i t y whereby t h e i r b l i n d n e s s i s concealed or kept s e c r e t , although t h i s c e r t a i n l y does occur, but r a t h e r , t h e i r p a s s i n g i s an a c t i v i t y whereby t h e i r know-ledge, understanding, acceptance, and deference to the " s i g h t e d w o r l d " as the " r e a l - s e n s i b l e - r a t i o n a l - o b j e c t i v e -world" i s d i s p l a y e d . Put d i f f e r e n t l y , b l i n d persons accept and t r e a t the " s i g h t e d world" with deference- as i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d and presented to them by " s i g h t e d persons". That b l i n d persons do d i s p l a y t h e i r knowledge of, understanding of, acceptance of, and deference to the " s i g h t e d world" i s f u r t h e r l o c a t a b l e i n everyday occur-- 89 -rences. o f t a l k . For example, I have a l r e a d y mentioned t h a t many b l i n d p e r s o n s , i n c l u d i n g t o t a l l y b l i n d p e r -sons, w i l l " l o o k " toward the v o i c e o f the p e r s o n w i t h whom t h e y are s p e a k i n g . On many o c c a s i o n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n between b l i n d and s i g h t e d p e r s o n s , b l i n d persons, make use o f words which I s h a l l c a l l " s i g h t e d words". For i n s t a n c e , b l i n d p e r s o n s use such words as " l o o k " and "see". F u r t h e r , t h e y w i l l a l s o use such p h r a s e s as " I haven't seen you f o r a l o n g t i m e " , "See you l a t e r " , " I was w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n l a s t n i g h t " , " I ' v e been l o o k i n g f o r you f o r a week", and so on. B l i n d p e r s o n s t y p i c a l l y make use o f " s i g h t e d words" t o t a l k about and r e p o r t on scenes, a c t i v i t i e s , and ev e n t s o f everyday l i f e . F o r example, d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n , i n which I was a p a r t i c i p a n t , a c o n g e n i t a l l y t o t a l l y b l i n d a d u l t d e s c r i b e d a c a r a c c i d -ent t h a t he was " w i t n e s s " t o . S e v e r a l s i g h t e d p e r s o n s were a l s o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s same c o n v e r s a t i o n . The b l i n d p e r s o n n ot o n l y c l a i m e d t o have "been w i t n e s s " t o the c a r a c c i d e n t , but a l s o , d e s c r i b e d the c a r a c c i d e n t i n v i v i d v i s u a l d e t a i l . He d e s c r i b e d the i n t e r s e c t i o n a t which the a c c i d e n t t o o k p l a c e , d e s c r i b e d the angl e from which the c a r s were a p p r o a c h i n g , d e s c r i b e d the angle a t which the c a r s c o l l i d e d , d e s c r i b e d where b o t h c a r s ended up a f t e r the c o l l i s i o n , d e s c r i b e d the e x t e n t - 90 -damage done to each car, and where on the c a r , the damage was done, and so on. Not o n l y was the "blind person d i s p l a y i n g h i s knowledge of, understanding of, acceptance of, and def-erence to the " s i g h t e d world" "by u s i n g " s i g h t e d words", but a l s o , the car a c c i d e n t c o u l d o n l y be d e s c r i b e d w i t h -i n the understanding of a " s i g h t e d world". That i s , f o r t h a t b l i n d person to have d e s c r i b e d the car a c c i d e n t as he " a c t u a l l y " experienced i t would have meant the u t i l i -z a t i o n of a " r e p o r t i n g " mode which was not a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r to him or to h i s c o - c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s . In order to r e p o r t the car a c c i d e n t as he "experienced i t " would i n v o l v e the u t i l i z a t i o n of some s o r t of " p r e s i g h t e d " mode of not o n l y " r e p o r t i n g " but "seeing". In other words, by employing h i s other senses, t a l k i n g to those p r e s e n t d u r i n g the car a c c i d e n t , l i s t e n i n g to the com-ments of those who were present d u r i n g the c a r a c c i d e n t , and so on, t h i s b l i n d person "saw" and " r e p o r t e d " a c a r a c c i d e n t as i t o c c u r r e d w i t h i n a commonly-understood-t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d - s i g h t e d - w o r l d . Thus, f o r b l i n d persons, p a s s i n g i s a way not o n l y to d i s p l a y knowledge of, understanding of, accept-ance of, and deference to the'"sighted world", but, pas-s i n g i s a l s o a t l e a s t one of the ways whereby b l i n d p er-sons "see" and " r e p o r t " a s e n s i b l e , reasonable, world. - 91 -Even though the use o f " s i g h t e d words" i s c o n s i d -e r e d by many p e o p l e , b o t h "blind and s i g h t e d , as a more "normal" way f o r b l i n d p e r s o n s t o i n t e r a c t , t h e r e are some o c c a s i o n s where the use o f such words produces an i n t e r e s t i n g phenomenon. T h i s i s most c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e d i n i n t e r a c t i o n o c c a s i o n s where a s i g h t e d p e r s o n , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , e n c o u n t e r s a t o t a l l y b l i n d p e r s o n . I have obser v e d numerous o c c a s i o n s l i k e t h i s and have had o c c a s -i o n s l i k e t h i s d e s c r i b e d t o me by b o t h b l i n d and s i g h t e d p e r s o n s . D u r i n g such e n c o u n t e r s s i g h t e d p ersons t y p i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d i s c o m f o r t . At l e a s t one source o f t h i s d i s -c o m f o r t r e v o l v e s around the use o f " s i g h t e d words". S i g h t e d p e r s o n s t y p i c a l l y f i n d i t odd t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s would use such words as "see", " l o o k " , and would say such t h i n g s as " I saw your b r o t h e r y e s t e r d a y " , or See you l a t e r " . F u r t h e r , s i g h t e d p e r s o n s t y p i c a l l y f e e l awkward and u n c o m f o r t a b l e when t h e y t h e m s e l v e s , d u r i n g the c ourse o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h b l i n d p e r s o n s , use such words. F r e q u e n t l y , s i g h t e d p ersons make a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o a v o i d u s i n g such words or when such a v o i d a n c e does not come o f f t h e y t y p i c a l l y a p o l o g i z e t o the b l i n d p e r s o n . I t seems t h a t d u r i n g such i n t e r a c t i o n words and p h r a s e s such as " l o o k " , "see", "from my p o i n t o f view", "from my p e r s p e c t i v e " , and so on, l o s e t h e i r c o n t e x t u a l meaning. For example, t o say "do you see my p o i n t " d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n where one p e r s o n i s a t t e m p t -i n g t o e x p r e s s an i d e a o r thought t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n , "see" has v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f s i g h t . Y e t , d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between a b l i n d p e r s o n and a s i g h t e d p e r s o n , e s p e c i a l l y where the s i g h t e d p e r s o n e n c o u n t e r s a b l i n d p e r s o n f o r the f i r s t t i m e , the word "see", r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s c o n t e x t u a l back-ground, seems t o take on an e x c l u s i v e l y p h y s i o l o g i c a l meaning. I n o t h e r words, the c o n t e x t i s s t r i p p e d away and the word "see", t h e n , becomes a r e f e r e n c e t o the f a c t t h a t the b l i n d p e r s o n cannot, i n a p h y s i o l o g i c a l sense, "see". Such a p r o c e s s i s even more d r a m a t i c a l l y e x p l i -c a t e d when such an u t t e r a n c e as "see you l a t e r " i s spoken. These f e e l i n g s o f d i s c o m f o r t and awkwardness dur-i n g i n t e r a c t i o n , where " s i g h t e d words" are used, are by no means r e s t r i c t e d t o s i g h t e d p e r s o n s . B l i n d p e r s o n s , e s p e c i a l l y newly b l i n d e d p e r s o n s , a l s o e x p e r i e n c e such f e e l i n g s . Many p e r s o n s , who have e x p e r i e n c e d t o t a l s i g h t l o s s d u r i n g a d u l t h o o d , have t o l d me t h a t t h e y have e x p e r -i e n c e d extreme d i f f i c u l t y i n u s i n g " s i g h t e d words". Thus, newly b l i n d e d p e r s o n s a l s o t y p i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c e such words as "see" i n t h e i r p h y s i o l o g i c a l sense. F u r -t h e r , newly b l i n d e d p e r s o n s " p e r c e i v e " t h e m s e l v e s as no l o n g e r a member of the c o l l e c t i v i t y " s i g h t e d p e r s o n s " , - 93 -and. t h e r e f o r e , no l o n g e r e n t i t l e d t o u s e " s i g h t e d w ords". T h i s phenomenon does n o t t y p i c a l l y o c c u r i n t h e c a s e o f " s e a s o n e d " b l i n d p e r s o n s . I n f a c t , b l i n d p e r -s o n s , who have b e e n b l i n d f o r some t i m e , " s e e " d i s c o m -f o r t on t h e p a r t o f s i g h t e d p e r s o n s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o " s i g h t e d word u s a g e " , as humourous, a l a c k o f u n d e r -s t a n d i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e s i g h t e d p e r s o n , o r an i n -s t a n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e s i g h t e d p e r -s o n . T h a t i s , i t f r e q u e n t l y happens t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s " s e e " t h e m s e l v e s as e n t i t l e d members o f s i g h t e d s o c i e t y and r e c e i v e s u c h d i s c o m f o r t , on t h e p a r t o f s i g h t e d p e r s o n s , as an i n s t a n c e o f , o r more c o r r e c t l y , a d o c u -ment o f t h e s i g h t e d s o c i e t y ' s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t them as l e g i t i m a t e , bona f i d e members o f t h e s i g h t e d c o l l e c t i v i t y . The p e r c e i v e d d i s c o m f o r t s u r r o u n d i n g t h e u s e o f " s i g h t e d w ords" d u r i n g i n i t i a l e n c o u n t e r s between b l i n d p e r s o n s and s i g h t e d p e r s o n s i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t r e s t r i c -t e d t o t o t a l l y b l i n d p e r s o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , I have n o t -i c e d t h i s d i s c o m f o r t i n some o f my e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e r e a r e , f o r example, i n s t a n c e s where I f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o p r o s p e c t i v e l y i n s t r u c t c e r t a i n p e r s o n s t h a t I am a " l e g a l l y b l i n d p e r s o n " . These i n s t a n c e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e e v e n t u a l d i s c o v e r y o f my b l i n d n e s s b y t h o s e p e r s o n s , o r , where I f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h o s e - 94 -p e r s o n s t o know about my b l i n d n e s s f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s . For example, I i n f o r m e d my p r o f e s s o r s about the f a c t I am b l i n d . I n f o r m i n g p r o f e s s o r s about my b l i n d n e s s has, f o r me, d i s t i n c t advantages. That i s , I can t h e n make s p e c i a l arrangements f o r the w r i t i n g o f t e s t s and exam-i n a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e a l l o f my r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s have t o be put onto t a p e d r e c o r d i n g s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r me t o know, i n p l e n t y o f t i m e , what the s p e c i f i c c o u r s e r e a d i n g l i s t s a r e . By i n f o r m i n g the p r o f e s s o r s o f my b l i n d n e s s I can more e x p e d i e n t l y r e s o l v e such i s s u e s . I n some i n s t a n c e s , I i n f o r m my p r o f e s s o r s about my b l i n d n e s s b e f o r e an a c t u a l f a c e - t o - f a c e m e e t i n g t a k e s p l a c e . That i s , I i n f o r m them by l e t t e r or by t e l e p h o n e and t y p i c a l l y , a t the same t i m e , I arrange t o meet them p r i v a t e l y . I t y p i c a l l y r e c e i v e t h e s e i n i t i a l m eetings as b e i n g , a t l e a s t t o some degree, awkward and uncomfor-t a b l e . The p r o f e s s o r s a re never sure how much I can "see". When d i r e c t i n g me i n t o t h e i r homes or o f f i c e s , t h e y ask "Can you manage", o r , "Are you a l r i g h t " , e t c . T h i s s o r t o f c a u t i o n on the p a r t o f the p r o f e s s o r u s u a l l y d i s s i p a t e s s h o r t l y a f t e r our i n i t i a l m e e t i n g . As I have a l r e a d i n g mentioned, a n o t h e r f e a t u r e o f t h i s i n i t i a l m e e t i n g i s the awkwardness s u r r o u n d i n g the use o f " s i g h t e d words". P r o f e s s o r s , e s p e c i a l l y s o c i a l s c i e n t -i s t s , t y p i c a l l y "handle" t h i s awkwardness i n a v e r y - 95 -i n t e r e s t i n g manner. P a r t o f what i s d i s c u s s e d i n our i n i t i a l m e e t i n g i s t h a t I have made " b l i n d n e s s " a t o p i c o f my s t u d y . T h i s , presumably, p r o v i d e s the p r o f e s s o r and I w i t h a r e s o u r c e f o r remedying the i n d e x i c a l p a r -t i c u l a r s o f " s i g h t e d t a l k " . Both the p r o f e s s o r and I t y p i c a l l y couch the d i s c o m f o r t o f " s i g h t e d t a l k " w i t h i n some s o r t o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e p e r s p e c t i v e . That i s , when such a phrase as "From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e " , o r , "From t h i s p o i n t o f view", "appears" d u r i n g our c o n v e r s a t i o n , we bot h comment on how " f a s c i n a t i n g " and " i n t e r e s t i n g " i t i s t h a t such p h r a s e s can be used by b l i n d p e r s o n s and how such p h r a s e s can be the source o f d i s c o m f o r t i n s i g h t e d - b l i n d p e r s o n i n t e r a c t i o n . D e s p i t e the d i s c o m f o r t and awkwardness o f " s i g h t e d t a l k " i t seems t o be n e c e s s a r y and e x p e c t a b l e t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s w i l l do " s i g h t e d t a l k " . And, even though as I have shown, " s i g h t e d t a l k " i s a t l e a s t one source o f d i s -c o m f o r t i n s i g h t e d - b l i n d p e r s o n i n t e r a c t i o n , i t ' s d e l i b -e r a t e a v o i d a n c e does n ot a l l e v i a t e t h i s d i s c o m f o r t . Moreover, t h i s a v oidance o p e r a t e s as a f u r t h e r source o f d i s c o m f o r t . For example, f o r a b l i n d p e r s o n t o say "I..heard t e l e v i s i o n l a s t n i g h t " r a t h e r t h a n " I watched t e l e v i s i o n l a s t n i g h t " does n ot p r o v i d e f o r a common u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t e l e v i s i o n , i . e . , a common u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h r e s p e c t - 96 -t o a b l i n d p e r s o n and a s i g h t e d p e r s o n commonly under-s t a n d i n g what "watching t e l e v i s i o n " e n t a i l s . Thus, f o r a b l i n d p e r s o n t o say " I he a r d t e l e v i s i o n l a s t n i g h t " i s t o i m p l y , a t l e a s t t o some degree, or a t l e a s t t o p r o v i d e f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the b l i n d p e r s o n i s n o t aware t h a t a t e l e v i s i o n p o s s e s s e s a p i c t u r e which i s v i s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o most p e r s o n s . The l e g i t i m a c y o f " s i g h t e d t a l k " i s e v i d e n t i n o t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n a l o c c a s i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , when a b l i n d p e r s o n wants t o examine an o b j e c t t h a t i s immedi-a t e l y a v a i l a b l e t o a s i g h t e d p e r s o n , the b l i n d p e r s o n w i l l n o t t y p i c a l l y say " L e t me f e e l t h a t " , but r a t h e r , w i l l say "Let me see t h a t " . I t i s c l e a r , i n t h i s i n -s t a n c e , t o b o t h i n t e r a c t a n t s t h a t the b l i n d p e r s o n w i l l n o t p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y "see" the o b j e c t , but t h a t the b l i n d p e r s o n w i l l "see" the o b j e c t v i a the p h y s i o l o g i c a l sense o f " t o u c h " . F u r t h e r , by u s i n g the word "see", the b l i n d p e r s o n p r o v i d e s f o r h i s o r h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t the o b j e c t i s a v a i l a b l e f o r e x a m i n a t i o n by s i g h t . I n s h o r t , " s i g h t e d t a l k " , on the p a r t o f a b l i n d p e r s o n , p r o v i d e s f o r and d i s p l a y s h i s or h e r knowledge o f , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , acceptance o f , and d e f e r e n c e t o the paramount r e a l i t y , namely, the " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . " S i g h t e d n e s s " t h e n , i s a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d -c o n s t i t u e n t f e a t u r e o f eve r y d a y l i f e t h a t i s o r i e n t e d t o - 97 -and. produced, by b l i n d p e r s o n s . T h i s p r o d u c t i o n , o f c o u r s e , t u r n s on the b l i n d p e r s o n ' s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t e v e r y d a y t a l k and conduct i s e v e r y d a y " s i g h t e d " t a l k and conduct. B l i n d p e r s o n s a l s o make use o f v a r i o u s o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f t a l k w h i l e engaged i n f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r -a c t i o n w i t h s i g h t e d o t h e r s . These f e a t u r e s c o n s i s t o f g e s t u r e s ; a n d o t h e r n o n - v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r . .1 have a l r e a d y mentioned how b l i n d p e r s o n s " l o o k " toward the v o i c e o f the p e r s o n t o whom t h e y a re s p e a k i n g . I have observed on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s b l i n d p e r s o n s making use o f v a r i o u s o t h e r g e s t u r e s w h i l e engaged i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h s i g h t e d o t h e r s . For example, w h i l e u s i n g t a l k t o f o r m u l a t e an i d e a or con c e p t , b l i n d p e r s o n s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y use a p p r o p r i a t e g e s t u r e s . Thus, when a b l i n d p e r s o n sug-g e s t s t h a t i t i s " r e a l l y c o l d o u t s i d e " he or she w i l l o f t e n c r o s s h i s or her arms, h o l d them i n t i g h t l y t o -ward t h e i r body, and t r e m b l e s l i g h t l y . T h i s s e r v e s t o g i v e s i g h t e d o t h e r s a v i s u a l d i s p l a y o f c o l d n e s s and i t a l s o d i s p l a y s t h a t the b l i n d p e r s o n i s aware t h a t h i s or her appearances are v i s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o s i g h t e d o t h e r s . Another o c c a s i o n on which I obser v e d b l i n d p e r -sons u s i n g g e s t u r e s , as a f e a t u r e o f t a l k , t o do " s i g h t -edness", was when a t o t a l l y b l i n d p e r s o n a d d r e s s e d an audience o f s i g h t e d p e r s o n s . D u r i n g h e r speech, t h i s - 98 -t o t a l l y b l i n d woman, d i d n o t "appear" t o " l o o k " i n one d i r e c t i o n . I n s t e a d , she moved h e r head s l o w l y from s i d e t o s i d e . She al s o . ' h e l d h er head " f o c u s e d " i n one d i r e c -t i o n f o r a few seconds and t h e n moved i t t o " r e f o c u s " i t i n a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n . These head motions c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t the. course o f h e r speech. I t was ob v i o u s t o me, and presumably o b v i o u s t o o t h e r s i n the a u d i e n c e , t h a t she was d o i n g what i t would be e x p e c t e d t h a t anyone would do d u r i n g the o c c a s i o n o f d e l i v e r i n g a speech. She was aware t h a t she was i n f r o n t o f an audience and t h a t t h a t a u d i e n c e was " l o o k i n g " a t h e r . She was a l s o aware t h a t p u b l i c s p e a k e r s do n o t t y p i c a l l y " l o o k " a t one p e r s o n i n the audience when t h e y d e l i v e r t h e i r speech, but r a t h e r , t h e y s h i f t t h e i r gaze and, hence, t h e i r head and eyes i n v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s so as t o g i v e the "appearance" o f a d d r e s s i n g the e n t i r e a u d i e n c e . I n o t h e r words, t h i s b l i n d woman was " l o o k i n g " a t everyone i n the audience while, d e l i v e r i n g h e r speech. I n s h o r t , she was b r i n g i n g t o bear h e r r e c o g n i t i o n and subsequent p r o d u c t i o n o f " s i g h t e d n e s s " i n o r d e r t o do " d e l i v e r i n g a speech". I n sum, i t i s not the p o i n t t h a t I , or any o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n , " p e r c e i v e s " h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f as l i v i n g i n a w o r l d which i s d i f f e r e n t from the w o r l d i n which s i g h t e d p e r s o n s l i v e . I t i s the p o i n t t h a t I , and a l l - 99 -o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s , l i v e w i t h i n a w o r l d which we "per-c e i v e " and " r e c e i v e " as " s i g h t e d " . To d i s p l a y t h i s a c c e p t ance o f the paramount r e a l i t y , i . e . , the " s i g h t e d w o r l d " , I , and a l l o t h e r b l i n d p e r s o n s , i n v a r y i n g degr r e e s , must r e c o g n i z e and produce " s i g h t e d n e s s " and must attempt t o make t h i s p r o d u c t i o n r e c o g n i z a b l e t o o t h e r s as " s i g h t e d n e s s " . The degree t o which t h i s l a t t e r r e c -o g n i t i o n i s a c h i e v e d , I would argue, w i l l determine t o what degree a b l i n d p e r s o n ' s c l a i m s t o bona f i d e mem-b e r s h i p i n s o c i e t y w i l l be l e g i t i m a t e l y r e c e i v e d by o t h e r s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r I have p r e s e n t e d some d a t a which i s m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t from the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . The d a t a I p r e s e n t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r suggested t h a t , f o r some o f the t i m e , b l i n d p e r -sons are i n v o l v e d i n p a s s i n g i n o r d e r t o c o n c e a l t h e i r b l i n d n e s s from o t h e r s . F u r t h e r , the concept o f p a s s i n g , as f o r m u l a t e d by Goffman and G a r f i n k e l , p r o v i d e d an e f -f e c t i v e c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s w i t h i n which t o frame t h i s phenomenon. However, the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r does not appear t o be e f f e c t i v e l y framed w i t h i n the p a s s i n g c o n c e p t . The apparent d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the phenom-enon o f p a s s i n g and the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f o l l o w s . - 1 0 0 -(1) D e s p i t e a pe r s o n ' s b l i n d n e s s b e i n g •immedi-a t e l y p e r c e i v a b l e by o t h e r s , or o t h e r w i s e known by o t h e r s , b l i n d p e r s o n s s t i l l engage i n an a c t i v i t y w h i c h , i n some sense, can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p a s s i n g . (2) A c c o r d i n g to b o t h Goffman and G a r f i n k e l , i f a p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l s t i g m a i s i m m e d i a t e l y p e r -c e i v a b l e , or o t h e r w i s e known t o o t h e r s , t h e y are n ot engaged i n p a s s i n g . That i s , pas-s i n g i s an a c t i v i t y engaged i n by tho s e p e r -sons who are a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n c e a l i n f o r -m a t i o n , which t h e y r e c e i v e as d i s c r e d i t i n g , from o t h e r s . (3) A c c o r d i n g to Goffman and G a r f i n k e l , i f a pe r s o n ' s p a s s i n g a c t i v i t y i s "found o u t " s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e x p o s i n g t h a t p e r s o n ' s d i s -c r e d i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , the r e s u l t i s " s o c i a l r u i n " . (4) When b l i n d p e r s o n s engage i n a sense, i n p a s s i n g , even though t h e i r b l i n d n e s s i s im-m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v a b l e , or o t h e r w i s e known t o o t h e r s , " s o c i a l r u i n " i s n o t a consequence. These d i s c r e p a n c i e s or i n c o n g r u i t i e s between the concept o f p a s s i n g and the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r r a i s e some s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the concept - 101 -o f p a s s i n g . F i r s t , g i v e n the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i s p a s s i n g s t i l l an a p p r o p r i a t e concept w i t h i n which t h i s d a t a can he framed? I n o t h e r words, can the a c t i v i t y o f "blind p e r s o n s , as p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , be c o n s i d e r e d as p a s s i n g ? S e c o n d l y , i s p a s s i n g a method whereby b l i n d p e r s o n s a c h i e v e a commonly u n d e r s t o o d , t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d , r e a s o n a b l e , s e n s i b l e w o r l d as i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d and p r e s e n t e d t o them by s i g h t e d p e r s o n s ? And f i n a l l y , i s p a s s i n g an a c t i v i t y engaged i n b o t h ^ b l i n d and s i g h t e d p e r s o n s as a method t o f o r m u l a t e t h e i r " e x p e r i e n c e s " w i t h i n a framework of a commonly-understood-t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d - w o r l d ? I s the concept p a s s i n g , as i s the concept s o c i a l i z a t i o n , a " g l o s s " f o r the ways a l l p e r s o n s , be t h e y b l i n d o r s i g h t e d , s o c i a l l y i n t e r a c t and the methods whereby such s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s accom-p l i s h e d ? What i s r e q u i r e d , t h e n , i s a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f the concept " p a s s i n g " w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s c o n s t i t u e n t f e a t u r e s as t h e y are d i s p l a y e d by members, be t h e y b l i n d or s i g h t e d . What i s c l e a r , however, i s t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s o r i e n t t o " s i g h t e d n e s s " , i . e . , t o " s i g h t e d p e r s o n s " as " c u l t u r a l e v e n t s " . S i g h t e d p e r s o n s t y p i c a l l y t a k e s i g h t -edness f o r g r a n t e d as a commonly u n d e r s t o o d , seen but u n n o t i c e d background e x p e c t a n c y o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . B l i n d p e r s o n s , on the o t h e r hand, "see and n o t i c e " s i g h t e d n e s s , - 102 -seek t o r e c o g n i z e i t s p r o d u c t i o n and seek t o produce s i g h t e d n e s s as a commonly u n d e r s t o o d t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d " f a c t " o f everyday l i f e . F u r t h e r , b l i n d p e r s o n s employ methods and p r o c e d u r e s whereby t h e y d i s p l a y t h e i r know-led g e o f , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , acceptance o f , and d e f e r e n c e t o the paramount r e a l i t y , namely, the " s i g h t e d w o r l d " , as i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d and p r e s e n t e d t o them by s i g h t e d • p e r s o n s . - ic-3 -CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The f o r e g o i n g i s an attempt t o t r e a t a p h y s i o l o -g i c a l l y l o c a t a b l e e v ent, namely, b l i n d n e s s , as a s o c i a l phenomenon. I n d o i n g so, I have a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o show t h a t " s i g h t e d n e s s " , a l s o a p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y l o c a t a b l e e v e n t , i s o r i e n t e d t o by b l i n d p e r s o n s as a " c u l t u r a l e v e n t " . I n Chapter I I at t e m p t e d t o demonstrate t h a t the s o c i a l i z a t i o n model, a model c o n v e n t i o n a l l y used t o frame s t u d i e s o f b l i n d n e s s , i s n e i t h e r a t h e o r e t i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e model nor i s i t a model w i t h i n w h i c h the " a c t u a l e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f b l i n d p e r s o n s i s a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d . I n s t e a d , the s o c i a l i z a t i o n model " g l o s s e s " the v e r y phenomenon t h a t i t seeks t o e x p l i c a t e , namely, "how" b l i n d p e r s o n s i n t e r a c t i n a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " . I n Chapter I I I I p r e s e n t e d some d a t a which I att e m p t e d t o frame w i t h i n the concept o f " p a s s i n g " as i t i s f o r m u l a t e d by Goffman and extended and e l a b o r a t e d by G a r f i n k e l . Even though some o f b l i n d p e r s o n s ' everyday a c t i v i t i e s can be e f f e c t i v e l y framed w i t h i n t h i s "pas-s i n g " c o n c e p t , d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter I V r a i s e d some - 104 -s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the concept o f "pas-s i n g " . These q u e s t i o n s s p r i n g from the ap p a r e n t d i s -c r e p a n c i e s and i n c o n g r u i t i e s between the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter I V and the concept o f " p a s s i n g " . C l e a r l y , however, b l i n d p e r s o n s do employ methods and p r o c e d u r e s whereby t h e y d i s p l a y t h e i r knowledge o f , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , ac c e p t a n c e o f , and d e f e r e n c e t o a " s i g h t e d w o r l d " which i s c o n s t i t u t e d and p r e s e n t e d t o them by s i g h t e d o t h e r s . I have a t t e m p t e d , i n the f o r e -g o i n g , t o e x p l i c a t e some o f these methods and p r o c e d u r e s . I n sum, t h e n , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f b l i n d n e s s s u g g e s t s t h a t members, be t h e y b l i n d or s i g h t e d , produce v i a t h e i r p r a c t i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s a l o n e the a c c o u n t a b l e n o r m a l i t y o f " s i g h t e d p e r s o n " and do so o n l y i n a c t u a l o c c a s i o n s t h r o u g h a c t u a l w i t n e s s e d d i s p l a y s o f common t a l k and conduct-. - 105 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A t k i n s o n , J . M a x w e l l . " S o c i e t a l R e a c t i o n s t o S u i c i d e : The Role o f Co r o n e r s ' D e f i n i t i o n s . " Images Of  Deviance, ed. S t a n l e y Cohen. M i d d l e s e x , England: P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1971 . B r a l e y , Dr. A. E. "The Problem o f D e f i n i t i o n o f B l i n d -n e s s . " Research B u l l e t i n o f the American F o u n d a t i o n  For The B l i n d . 3 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 1 1 9 - 1 2 2 . C a r r o l l , Thomas J . B l i n d n e s s : What I t I s , What I t Does, and How t o L i v e w i t h I t . L i t t l e , Brown, I 9 6 I . Chevigny, H e c t o r . My Eyes Have A C o l d Nose. New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946. and Braverman, S y d e l l . The Adjustment o f The B l i n d . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950. Cholden, L o u i s S. A P s y c h i a t r i s t Works w i t h B l i n d n e s s . New York: American F o u n d a t i o n f o r the B l i n d , 1958. C i c o u r e l , Aaron V. Method and Measurement i n S o c i o l o g y . New York: The Free P r e s s , 1964. " B a s i c and Normative R u l e s i n the N e g o t i a t i o n o f S t a t u s and R o l e . " Recent S o c i o l o g y  No. 2, ed. Hans P e t e r D r e i t z e l . New York: The Mac-M i l l a n Company, 1970. D a v i s , F r e d . "Deviance D i s a v o w a l : The Management o f S t r a i n e d I n t e r a c t i o n by the V i s i b l y Handicapped." The Other S i d e , P e r s p e c t i v e s on Deviance, ed. Howard S. Becker. New York: The Free P r e s s , 1-96%'. F i n e s t o n e , Samuel, ed. S o c i a l Casework and B l i n d n e s s . New York: American F o u n d a t i o n f o r the B l i n d , i 9 6 0 . F u k u r a i , S h i r o . How Can I Make What I Cannot See?,' t r a n s . M a r g a r e t Haas and Fusako K o b a y a s h i . New York: Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Company, 1974. G a r f i n k e l , H a r o l d . S t u d i e s i n Ethnomethodblogy. E n g l e -wood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1967. - 106 -Goffman, E r v i n g . "On C o o l i n g t h e Mark Out, Some A s p e c t s o f A d a p t a t i o n t o F a i l u r e . " P s y c h i a t r y ; J o u r n a l f o r  t h e S t u d y o f I n t e r p e r s o n a l " P r o c e s s e s , 15 ( 1 9 5 2 ) , 451-463. S t i g m a , N o t e s on t h e Management o f S p o i l e d I d e n t i t y . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1963. H i l l , R i c h a r d J . and K a t h l e e n S t o n e s C r i t t e n d e n , e d s . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Purdue Symposium on Ethnomethodrr  o l o g y . P u r d u e : Purdue R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n , 1968. J o s e p h s o n , E r i c . The S o c i a l L i f e o f B l i n d P e o p l e . New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n F o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e B l i n d , I 9 6 8 . L o w e n f e l d , B e r t h o l d . Our B l i n d C h i l d r e n : G r o w i n g and L e a r n i n g W i t h Them. S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s D. Thomas, 1'971. L u k o f f , I r v i n g . "A S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r a i s a l o f B l i n d n e s s . " S o c i a l Casework and B l i n d n e s s , e d . Samuel F i n e s t o n e . New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n F o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e B l i n d , i 9 6 0 . Mackay, R o b e r t W. " C o n c e p t i o n s o f C h i l d r e n and M o d e l s o f S o c i a l i z a t i o n . " E t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y , e d . Roy T u r n e r . M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1974. S c h u t z , A l f r e d . C o l l e c t e d P a p e r s I', The P r o b l e m o f S o c i a l R e a l i t y . The Hague, N e t h e r l a n d s : M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1973. " C o l l e c t e d P a p e r s I I , S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l Theory.' The Hague, N e t h e r l a n d s : M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1971 • S c o t t , R o b e r t A. The M a k i n g o f B l i n d Men. New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1969. Sudnow, D a v i d . P a s s i n g On; The S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f  D y i n g . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1967. " " ' ' " T e m p o r a l P a r a m e t e r s o f I n t e r p e r s o n a l O b s e r v a t i o n . " S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n , e d . D a v i d Sudnow. New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1972. T u r n e r , Roy. "Some F o r m a l P r o p e r t i e s o f T h e r a p y T a l k . " S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l " I n t e r a c t i o n , e d . D a v i d Sudnow. New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1972. - 107 -Wieder, D. Lawrence. Language and Social Reality, The  Case of T e l l i n g the Convict Code. The Hague, • Netherlands: Mouton & Co. N.V., 1974. Wilson, Thomas P. 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