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Brahms’s piano quintet, op.34, and duo-piano sonata, op.34bis : a critical study Lamberton, Elizabeth Jean 1978

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BRAHMS'S PIANO QUINTET, OP. 34, AND DUO-PIANO SONATA, OP. 34BIS: A CRITICAL STUDY by ELIZABETH JEAN LAMBERTON B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y o f R e g i n a , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f M u s i c ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA c ) E l i z a b e t h J e a n Lamberton, 1978 MASTER OF ARTS i n A p r i l , 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. I Department of Music The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date April 27, 1978 ABSTRACT Brahms's Duo-Piano Sonata and P i a n o Q u i n t e t i n F m i n o r , Opp. 3 4 b i s and 34, a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y t h e second and t h i r d v e r s i o n s o f an a r c h e t y p a l concept w h i c h t h e composer had o r i g i n a l l y e x p r e s s e d as a S t r i n g Q u i n t e t (now l o s t ) . S i g n i f i c a n t e v i d e n c e o f Brahms's c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s t o be found i n t h e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e two t r a n s c r i p t i o n s : t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f Op. 3 4 b i s , t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e same ( c o r r e c t e d by Brahms), and t h e a u t o g r a p h of Op. 34. The f o l l o w i n g o r i g i n a l p r i n t e d s o u r c e s have been a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e s e m a n u s c r i p t s : t h e second i s s u e o f t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f Op. 3 4 b i s ( p u b l i s h e d by J . M e l c h i o r R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n c i r c a J a n u a r y 1 8 7 2 ) , and b o t h t h e E r s t d r u c k and t h e t h i r d i s s u e o f t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f Op. 34 (brought f o r t h by t h e same p u b l i s h e r i n December 1865). T h i s s t u d y u n r a v e l s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t and o f t h e two t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , and examines t h e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s i n o r d e r t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o Brahms's c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . A l l o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n -ent t o t h e . h i s t o r y o f t h e t h r e e works has been r e t r i e v e d f r o m t h e c o r r e s -pondence between Brahms and h i s v a r i o u s f r i e n d s . The c h r o n o l o g y o f r e v i s i o n s made by Brahms and o t h e r s i n t h e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s has been d e t e r m i n e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . To supplement t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s as e v i d e n c e d i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t s , t h i s a u t h o r has p r e s e n t e d t h e r e v i s e d f i r s t movement of Op. 3 4 b i s and of Op. 34 (based upon t h e R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n e d i t i o n s ) . i i The s t u d y o f t h e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s has r e v e a l e d Brahms's c o n s t a n t e f f o r t s t o improve h i s i n i t i a l c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o making r e f i n e m e n t s i n s o n o r i t y and e x p r e s s i o n , he e x e c u t e d some i m p o r t a n t a l t e r -a t i o n s i n themes and accompanimental m a t e r i a l . H i s c o n t i n u a l r e - e v a l u a -t i o n o f t h e s e works was s t i m u l a t e d n o t o n l y by h i s own a r t i s t i c c o n v i c -t i o n s , b u t by e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s s u c h as c r i t i c i s m s s o l i c i t e d f r o m h i s f r i e n d s , v a r y i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l s o n o r i t i e s , and t h e i mpending p e r f o r m a n c e and p u b l i c a t i o n of each work. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF EXAMPLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x PART ONE Cha p t e r I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . THE HISTORY OF OPP. 34 AND 34BIS , 9 1860-June 1862 9 June-December 1862 11 1863 20 1864 25 1865 38 1866-69 40 1870 42 1871-72 44 I I I . AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CREATIVE PROCESS: A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBABLE FOUR STAGES 46 Stage 1: P r e p a r a t i o n 53 Stage 2: I n c u b a t i o n 53 St a g e 3: I l l u m i n a t i o n 54 Stage 4: V e r i f i c a t i o n 55 IV. THE CREATIVE PROCESS, PART I : THE LOST STRING QUINTET 57 P o s t u l a t i o n o f t h e C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s 57 S t y l i s t i c I n f l u e n c e s on t h e G e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t 60 G e n e r a l Comments on t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t 65 I n d i v i d u a l Movements • 68 i v V. THE CREATIVE PROCESS, PART I I : THE SONATA FOR TWO PIANOFORTES 81 Survey o f t h e Stages o f t h e C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . . . 81 Stage 3 d , Phase ,1: T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t f o r P i a n o Duo 83 Stage 3 d , Phase I I : E l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e Working D r a f t 84 Stage 4 D , Phase I : I n s t r u c t i o n s t o C o p y i s t . . . . 105 Stage 4 D , Phase I I : R e v i s i o n o f C o p y i s t ' s M a n u s c r i p t 117 Stage 4 b , Phase I I I : Subsequent R e v i s i o n o f Working D r a f t , P r e c e d i n g T r a n s c r i p t i o n f o r P i a n o Q u i n t e t 120 V I . THE CREATIVE PROCESS, PART I I I : THE PIANO QUINTET . 132 Survey o f t h e Stages o f t h e C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . . . 132 Stage 3 C : T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata f o r P i a n o Q u i n t e t 133 Stage 4 C , Phase I : E l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e A u t o g r a p h M a n u s c r i p t 139 Stage 4 C , Phase I I : C o r r e c t i o n o f G a l l e y P r o o f s and R e v i s i o n o f A u t o g r a p h M a n u s c r i p t 157 V I I . THE CREATIVE PROCESS, PART IV: FURTHER REVISION OF THE SONATA FOR TWO PIANOFORTES 160 F i r s t Movement 161 Second Movement 163 T h i r d Movement 164 F i n a l e 165 V I I I . CONCLUSIONS 168 PART TWO REVISED SCORE OF THE FIRST MOVEMENT OF OP. 34BIS 175 REVISED SCORE OF THE FIRST MOVEMENT OF OP. 34 195 TEXTUAL CRITICISM AND NOTES 216 BIBLIOGRAPHY • 230 APPENDIX 235 ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLES 258 ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN REVISED SCORES AND IN TEXTUAL NOTES 259 v LIST OF TABLES 1. Brahms's A l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e Wor k i n g D r a f t o f Opus 3 4 b i s , Stage 3 b , Phase I I ( F i r s t Movement) 89 2. Brahms's A l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e Working D r a f t o f Opus 3 4 b i s , Stage 3^, Phase I I (Second Movement) 94 3. Brahms's A l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e Working D r a f t o f Opus 3 4 b i s , Stage 3 b , Phase I I ( T h i r d Movement) 98 4. Brahms's A l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e Working D r a f t o f Opus 3 4 b i s , Stage 3 b , Phase I I ( F i n a l e ) 101 5. A l t e r a t i o n s Requested by Brahms i n t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e o f Opus 3 4 b i s , Stage 4 b , Phase I ( F i r s t Movement) . . . . . 108 6. A l t e r a t i o n s Requested by Brahms i n t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e o f Opus 3 4 b i s , Stage 4 b , Phase I (Second Movement) . . . . 109 7. A l t e r a t i o n s Requested by Brahms i n t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e o f Opus 3 4 b i s , Stage 4 b , Phase I ( T h i r d Movement) 112 8. A l t e r a t i o n s Requested by Brahms i n t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e o f Opus 3 4 b i s , Stage 4 b , Phase I ( F i n a l e ) 115 9. Opp. 3 4 b i s and 34: Refinement o f Dynamic A b b r e v i a t i o n s and E x p r e s s i o n Words ( F i r s t Movement) 123 10. Opp. 3 4 b i s and 34: Re f i n e m e n t of Dynamic A b b r e v i a t i o n s and E x p r e s s i o n Words (Second Movement) 126 11. Opp. 3 4 b i s and 34: Refinement o f Dynamic A b b r e v i a t i o n s and E x p r e s s i o n Words ( T h i r d Movement) 140 12. Opp. 3 4 b i s and 34: Re f i n e m e n t o f Dynamic A b b r e v i a t i o n s and E x p r e s s i o n Words ( F i n a l e ) 142 13. Brahms's A l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e A u t o g r a p h o f Opus 34, Stage 4 C , Phase I ( F i r s t Movement) 148 14. Brahms's A l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e A u t o g r a p h of Opus 34, Stage 4 C , Phase I ( F i n a l e ) 155 v i LIST OF EXAMPLES 1. Stemma o f Brahms's Opp. 34 and 3 4 b i s 4 2. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o — A l l e g r o non t r o p p o — P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , measures 467/3-69 i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t 6 3. Johannes Brahms, Opus 34, 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , measures 113-15 o f t h e f i r s t - and s e c o n d -v i o l i n p a r t s i n t h e a u t o g r a p h m a n u s c r i p t 6 4. F r a n z S c h u b e r t , S t r i n g Q u i n t e t i n C m a j o r , D. 956, 4 t h movement ( A l l e g r e t t o — P i u a l l e g r o — P i u p r e s t o ) , measures 417-29 61 5. F r a n z S c h u b e r t , S t r i n g Q u i n t e t i n C m a j o r , D. 956, 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o ma non t r o p p o ) , measures 60-64 . . . . 62 6. F r a n z S c h u b e r t , S t r i n g Q u a r t e t i n D m i n o r , D. 810, 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o ) , measures 61-63 . . . 63 7. F r a n z S c h u b e r t , S t r i n g Q u a r t e t i n D m i n o r , D. 810, 4 t h movement ( P r e s t o ) , measures 88-101 64 8. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , measures 261-65 69 9. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , measures 136-39 70 10. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, 2nd movement (Andante, un poco A d a g i o ) , measures 29-31 73 11. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, S c h e r z o ( A l l e g r o ) , measures 184-88 75 12. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, T r i o ( A l l e g r o ) , measures 210-12 76 13. Johannes Brahms, Op. 3 4 b i s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o — A l l e g r o non t r o p p o — P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , measures 127-29 79 14. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o — A l l e g r o non t r o p p o — P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , measures 374-77 80 v i i 15. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , measure 247 and o r i g i n a l o p e n i n g o f measure 248 i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t 85 16. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g o f measures 196-97 . . . . 87 17. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g o f measures 65-66 i n t h e Secondo 92 18. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 3 r d movement ( A l l e g r o ) o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g o f measures 18/2-21 i n t h e r i g h t -hand p a r t o f t h e Secondo 96 19. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o ; A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ; P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g o f measures 486-89 104 20. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 2nd movement (Andante, un poco A d a g i o ) , measure 1 i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo: o p e n i n g f i g u r e o f t h e M a i n Theme (A) as n o t a t e d by Brahms, and (B) as n o t a t e d by t h e c o p y i s t 110 21. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o ; A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ; P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , r e v i s e d r e a d i n g o f measures 389-92/1 i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo 116 22. Johannes Brahms, Opus 34, f i r s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g o f measure 1-2 i n t h e f i r s t -v i o l i n p a r t 137 23. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o ; A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ; P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , new r e a d i n g f o r measures 467-74 o f t h e Secondo 166 24. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , s k e t c h f o r l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo a t measures 20-21/2 221 25. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , c a n c e l l e d s k e t c h f o r t h e . l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measure- 34/1 221 26. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , measures 45-46 of t h e Secondo 222 27. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , a l t e r a t i o n o f t r i p l e t accompaniment i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measure 51/4 223 v i i i 28. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measure 63 . . 223 29. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b l s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measures 130-33 225 30. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b l s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , s k e t c h f o l l o w i n g measure 262 o f t h e Secondo 226 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The f o l l o w i n g s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e l a t e D o n a l d M. M c C o r k l e . The r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r was s u p e r v i s e d by P r o f e s s o r M c C o r k l e u n t i l h i s u n t i m e l y d e a t h i n e a r l y F e b r u a r y 1978. From h i s p e r s o n a l l i b r a r y P r o f e s s o r M c C o r k l e made a v a i l -a b l e t o t h i s w r i t e r t h e m i c r o f i l m s o f t h e t h r e e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s o f Opp. 34 and 3 4 b i s , t h e p r i n t s and t h e x e r o g r a p h i c copy o f t h e R i e t e r -Biedermann e d i t i o n s o f b o t h w o r k s , t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e of C l a r a Schumann and Johannes Brahms, and t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f Brahms's c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h J o s e p h J o a c h i m . B e f o r e he f e l l i l l i n J a n u a r y , P r o f e s s o r M c C o r k l e had r e a d C h a p t e r Two, t h e e x c e r p t s from l e t t e r s w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e Ap p e n d i x , and t h e f i r s t d r a f t s o f t h e f i r s t , t h i r d , f i f t h , and s e v e n t h c h a p t e r s . No changes o f s u b s t a n c e have s u b s e q u e n t l y been made i n t h e second c h a p t e r . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e o t h e r f o u r c h a p t e r s r e m a i n s b a s i c a l l y t h e same, t h e m a t e r i a l has s i n c e undergone e x t e n s i v e r e v i s i o n . I n m i d - F e b r u a r y P r o f e s s o r J . Evan K r e i d e r assumed t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e t h e s i s . The w r i t e r e x p r e s s e s h e r most s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r K r e i d e r f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e and encouragement, w h i c h made p o s s i b l e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . H i s p a t i e n c e and h i s t h o u g h t -f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f problems have l i g h t e n e d h e r t a s k , and have c o n t r i -b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o t h e w o r t h o f t h e t h e s i s . x The a u t h o r would l i k e t o tha n k t h e o t h e r members o f h e r committee, p a r t i c u l a r l y P r o f e s s o r s W a l l a c e B e r r y and D i m i t r i Conomos, f o r t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s . The a s s i s t a n c e o f Mr. Hans B u r n d o r f e r , who h e l p e d w i t h some of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s , i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. x i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION When Johannes Brahms l e f t h i s n a t i v e Hamburg on h i s f i r s t e x c u r s i o n t o V i e n n a i n September 1862, he c a r r i e d w i t h him t h e m a n u s c r i p t o f a n e w l y - c o m p l e t e d S t r i n g Q u i n t e t i n F m i n o r . From t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l he f o r w a r d e d t h i s work t o t h r e e o f h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d s , i n c l u d i n g t h e famous v i o l i n i s t J o s e p h Joachim.''" The l a t t e r f e l t t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t a -t i o n l a c k e d t h e s o n o r i t y a p p r o p r i a t e t o some o f t h e i d e a s . A f t e r h e a r -i n g t h e work f o r h i m s e l f , Brahms d e c i d e d t o a l t e r i t , and by e a r l y 1864 had t r a n s c r i b e d i t as a Duo-Piano So n a t a . The p r e m i e r e o f t h i s v e r -s i o n , g i v e n by t h e composer and C a r l T a u s i g i n A p r i l 1864, was a f a i l u r e . A t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f h i s f r i e n d Hermann L e v i , Brahms made y e t a n o t h e r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , t h i s t i m e s y n t h e s i z i n g t h e t i m b r e o f t h e p i a n o w i t h t h a t of s t r i n g s i n a P i a n o Q u i n t e t . T h i s f i n a l v e r s i o n was co m p l e t e d ( e x c e p t f o r a few r e v i s i o n s ) by t h e end of October 1864. The o r i g i n a l S t r i n g Q u i n t e t i s now l o s t ; p r o b a b l y i t was d e s t r o y e d 2 by t h e composer. He p r e s e r v e d t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a , r e f u s i n g t o con-s i d e r i t as a v a r i a n t v e r s i o n o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . P u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e ^ C l a r a Schumann had r e c e i v e d t h e f i r s t t h r e e movements a f t e r t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n i n A u g u s t ; t h e f i n a l e was s e n t t o h e r i n December from V i e n n a . The e n t i r e work was f o r w a r d e d t o J o a c h i m a t t h e end of Sep-tember 1862, and t o A l b e r t D i e t r i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g A p r i l . See C h a p t e r I I . 2 A c c o r d i n g t o Max K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, 4 v o l s , i n 8, D r i t t e A u f l a g e ( B e r l i n : Deutsche B r a h m s - G e s e l l s c h a f t m. b. H., 1908-14; r e p r i n t ed., T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1 9 7 6 ) , I I / l : 53. 1 2 • l a t t e r t o o k p l a c e i n December 1 8 6 5 ^ a l t h o u g h t h e Duo-Piano Sonata was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l e a r l y 1872 because o f t h e d e d i c a t e e ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o r e l i n q u i s h t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . ^ S i g n i f i c a n t e v i d e n c e o f t h e l a t e r s t a g e s of Brahms's c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s t o be found i n t h e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e two t r a n s c r i p -t i o n s : t h e a u t o g r a p h o f t h e S o n a t a f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s , ~* a c o r r e c t e d c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t of t h e same, and t h e a u t o g r a p h of t h e Q u i n t e t f o r  P i a n o , Two V i o l i n s , V i o l a and V i o l o n c e l l o . ^ The f i r s t i s o b v i o u s l y a w o r k i n g d r a f t , i n w h i c h Brahms made numerous a l t e r a t i o n s o f n o t e s , d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , r e g i s t e r s a n d e x p r e s s i o n ( p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u -l a t i o n , dynamics, and e x p r e s s i o n w o r d s ) . Many of t h e s e changes were no t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n any o t h e r s o u r c e . The second m a n u s c r i p t , w h i c h ""The work was p u b l i s h e d by t h e S w i s s f i r m o f J . M e l c h i o r R i e t e r -Biedermann, o f W i n t e r t h u r and L e i p z i g . O t t o E r i c h D e u t s c h s p e c i f i e s 7 December as t h e d a t e of p u b l i c a t i o n . See D e u t s c h , "The F i r s t E d i t i o n s of Brahms," The M u s i c Review 1/2 ( 1 9 4 0 ) : 138. 4 A g a i n , t h e p u b l i s h e r was J . M e l c h i o r R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n . See C h a p t e r I I , f n . 114. ~* Johannes Brahms, [ c a p t i o n t i t l e ] " S o n a t e , " M a n u s c r i p t i n t h e Mary F l a g l e r C a r y M u s i c C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e P i e r p o n t Morgan L i b r a r y , New Y o r k , N.Y. ^Johannes Brahms, "Sonata / f u r z w e i K l a v i e r e [ c r o s s e d o u t i n l e a d ] / I h r e r K b n i g l i c h e n H o h e i t d e r F r a u P r i n z e s s i n / Anna von Hessen / gewidmet [ c r o s s e d o u t i n l e a d by Brahms and r e p l a c e d i n l e a d by] z u g e e i g n e t / von / Johannes Brahms / P a r t i t u r [ c r o s s e d o u t i n l e a d ] , " M a n u s c r i p t No. StuUBH acq . 1960 i n t h e S t a a t s — und U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o -t h e k , Hamburg, Germany. ^Johannes Brahms, " Q u i n t e t t / f u r / P i a n o f o r t e / 2 V i o l i n e n , B r a t s c h e i i V i o l o n c e l l o / c o m p o n i r t und / I h r e r k o n i g l i c h e n H o h e i t / d e r F r a u P r i n z e s s i n / Anna von Hessen / gewidmet / von / Johs Brahms. / Op. 34," M a n u s c r i p t No. ML 30 .8b .B7 Op. 34 Case i n t h e L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 3 s e r v e d as t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e f o r t h e composer's o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n , c o n t a i n s n o r m a l e d i t o r i a l c o r r e c t i o n s as w e l l as a few r e v i s i o n s i n e x p r e s s i o n and one change i n r e g i s t e r . The a u t o g r a p h o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , w h i c h was used as a S t i c h v o r l a g e , shows r e v i s i o n s o f n o t e s , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r -i a l , r e g i s t e r s , and e x p r e s s i o n . Some n o t e - c a n c e l l a t i o n s and r e f i n e -9 ments i n e x p r e s s i o n were n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n any o f t h e p r i n t e d s o u r c e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f th e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s t o each o t h e r and t o t h e l o s t S t r i n g Q u i n t e t a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n Example 1. T h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o u n r a v e l t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t and o f t h e two t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , and t o examine t h e e x t a n t manu-s c r i p t s i n o r d e r t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o Brahms's c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . The h i s t o r y o f a l l t h r e e works i s ba s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n c u l l e d f r o m a decade o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between Brahms and s e v e r a l f r i e n d s ; p e r t i n e n t e x t r a c t s from v a r i o u s l e t t e r s a r e t r a n s l a t e d and c o l l e c t e d i n an Ap p e n d i x . The changes made by Brahms i n t h e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e l a t e r t r a n s c r i p -t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h o s e t h a t appear i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . The most s i g n i f i -c a n t r e v i s i o n s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e t e x t , o t h e r s a r e shown i n "A p r i n t of the second issue, i n the c o l l e c t i o n of o r i g i n a l e d i -tions belonging to the l a t e Donald M. McCorkle, was a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s study. Example .1.3 (the only xerographic i l l u s t r a t i o n of Op. 34bis) was made from t h i s p r i n t . 9 Brahms evidently notated these changes i n his autograph when he was checking the galley proofs of the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n . A xerographic copy of a p r i n t of the Erstdruck ( i . e . , the f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n / f i r s t state/ f i r s t i s s u e ) , and a p r i n t of the t h i r d issue, were examined i n the course of t h i s study. The xerographic copy and the p r i n t are i n the c o l l e c t i o n of o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n s belonging to the l a t e Donald M. McCorkle. The copy was made from a p r i n t of the Erstdruck i n the Hamburg Staats- und Un i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k (No. M B/5460). In t h i s t h e s i s , a l l xerographic i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Op. 34 ( i . e . , Examples £<• IZ and llf) were made from the p r i n t of the t h i r d issue. Example 1. Stemma of Brahms's Opp. 34 and 34bis 4 Date c o m p l e t e d by 8 September 1862 completed i n e a r l y 1864 c o m p l e t e d by 27 F e b r u a r y 1864 completed by t h e end o f O c t o b e r 1864 December 1865 Item / S t r i n g Q u i n t e t ' (now l o s t ) I Working d r a f t i o f Op. 3 4 b i s C o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t ( l a t e r S t i c h v o r l a g e ) of Op. 3 4 b i s A u t o g r a p h m a n u s c r i p t ( l a t e r S t i c h v o r l a g e ) of Op. 34 O r i g i n a l e d i t i o n o f Op. 34 f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n of w o r k i n g d r a f t of Op. 3 4 b i s f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n o f w o r k i n g d r a f t o f Op. 3 4 b i s c a . end o f September 1871 f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n o f c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t of Op. 3 4 b i s c a . J a n u a r y 1872 O r i g i n a l e d i t i o n o f Op. 3 4 b i s accompanying t a b l e s . I t has been n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i o n o f numerous changes made by t h e c o p y i s t (when n o t a t i n g t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a ) , and l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d by Brahms i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . One can assume t h a t s u c h a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t were e x e c u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o Brahms's i n s t r u c t i o n s . " * " ^ I t has been i m p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y , t o acknow-l e d g e i n s i g n i f i c a n t m e c h a n i c a l changes made by Brahms i n a l l t h r e e manu-s c r i p t s . These r e v i s i o n s do n o t p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e composer's c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s ( e . g . , measures 467-71 o f t h e f i n a l e o f Op. 34b-is were p a i n s t a k i n g l y r e v i s e d by Brahms b e f o r e t h e c o p y i n g o f t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t ; see Example 2 ) . As i s t h e c a s e i n a l l subsequent i l l u s t r a t i o n s , t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n s w h i c h t h e composer made i n l e a d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by b r o k e n l i n e s ; i n s e r t i o n s e x e c u t e d i n l e a d a r e i n d i c a t e d by p a r e n t h e s e s . Stem d i r e c t i o n s and t h e placement o f marks o f a r t i c u l a t i o n a r e t h e same as i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t . The c o p y i s t made o t h e r s m a l l r e f i n e m e n t s i n t h i s p a s s a g e . " ^ Such m i n u t e changes a l s o appear i n t h e a u t o g r a p h o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , as i n measures 113 and 115 o f t h e f i r s t movement (see Example 3 ) . A f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , Brahms n e v e r a g a i n a v a i l e d h i m s e l f o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r ensemble. The f i r s t v e n t u r e i n t h i s 1 0 S e e C h a p t e r V, pp. \Q5-0l>. "'""''For t h e open o c t a v e s E,-E and F,-F i n measures 467-68 o f t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t , t h e c o p y i s t s u b s t i t u t e d E-c and F-c. He o m i t t e d c - f and f i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo on t h e f i r s t b e a t s o f measures 468 and 470 r e s p e c t i v e l y , and d e l e t e d t h e g' s u s t a i n e d a t measures 469/6-70/1 i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e P r i m o . I n t h e upper l i n e o f t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo, he s u b s t i t u t e d f ' f o r d'' a t measure 471. I n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t , Brahms l a t e r c a n c e l l e d t h e r e a d i n g i n t h e Secondo and w r o t e a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n . See Ch a p t e r V I I , pp. \(t>5-U. 6 Example 2. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o — A l l e g r o non t r o p p o — P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , measures 467/3-69 i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t 13 a tempo J>_] _K ^ 5 pOCO OL. pOcX) ijj: 1* [///c^ b/e] s E poco cresc. Example 3. Johannes Brahms, Opus 34, 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , measures 113-15 o f t h e f i r s t - and s e c o n d - v i o l i n p a r t s i n t h e a u t o g r a p h m a n u s c r i p t ? L^i \? r. T * F 3 ^ l i t t l e - u s e d medium had been S c h u b e r t ' s P i a n o Q u i n t e t i n A major ( 1 8 1 9 ) , t h e famous F o r e l l e n Q u i n t e t . Brahms's f i n e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h i s work had h e l p e d t o s e c u r e h i s f i r s t a p pointment i n 1857, a t t h e p r i n c e l y c o u r t o f Detmold. There can be no q u e s t i o n about h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Schumann's 7 12 s p l e n d i d P i a n o Q u i n t e t i n E f l a t , Op. 44 (1842-43). L i k e Schumann's work, Brahms's P i a n o Q u i n t e t i s s c o r e d f o r p i a n o and t h e u s u a l s t r i n g q u a r t e t , w h i l e S c h u b e r t ' s i n c l u d e d a d o u b l e bass i n s t e a d o f a second v i o l i n . The F-minor S t r i n g Q u i n t e t was n e i t h e r t h e f i r s t work nor t h e l a s t w h i c h Brahms r e c a s t f o r a d i f f e r e n t medium. The Serenade i n D major (1857-58) was o r i g i n a l l y s k e t c h e d f o r e i g h t i n s t r u m e n t s , b u t was f i n a l l y a r r a n g e d f o r o r c h e s t r a and p u b l i s h e d as Op. 11. A more famous example i s t h e P i a n o C o n c e r t o i n D m i n o r , Op. 15, w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1854-59. I t was d r a f t e d as a work f o r two p i a n o s , and Brahms i n t e n d e d t o t u r n i t i n t o a symphony. However, t h e o r c h e s t r a t i o n d i d n o t p r o c e e d t o h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and he f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o combine t h e media o f o r c h e s t r a and p i a n o i n a c o n c e r t o , j u s t as he l a t e r s y n t h e s i z e d two media i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e F-minor P i a n o Q u i n t e t . The V a r i a t i o n s on a Theme o f Haydn were co m p l e t e d i n t h e summer o f 1873 as a work f o r two p i a n o s ; by 13 t h e m i d d l e o f September Brahms had w r i t t e n a v e r s i o n f o r o r c h e s t r a . The .Duo-Piano So n a t a and P i a n o Q u i n t e t c o n s t i t u t e t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h Brahms e v i d e n t l y r e g a r d e d two v e r s i o n s o f a c o m p o s i t i o n as e q u a l s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n a r o s e a t o n l y one o t h e r t i m e i n h i s c a r e e r : he p u b l i s h e d t h e o r c h e s t r a l and duo-piano v e r s i o n s o f t h e Haydn V a r i a -t i o n s as Opp. 56a and 56b r e s p e c t i v e l y . 12 The young Brahms had a r r a n g e d t h e S c h e r z o f o r p i a n o s o l o i n 1854, as a b i r t h d a y p r e s e n t f o r C l a r a Schumann. 13 Brahms was not t h e o n l y m a s t e r who reworked h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s a f t e r t h e i r i n i t i a l c o m p l e t i o n . Bach r e v i s e d t h e J o h a n n e s p a s s i o n a f t e r i t s f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e ( 1 7 2 3 ) . Wagner, a f t e r he had f i n i s h e d t h e s c o r e of P a r s i f a l , made changes i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h e f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f h i s F i f t h Symphony ( 1 9 0 4 ) , M a h l e r a l t e r e d t h e e n t i r e o r c h e s t r a t i o n . See Max G r a f , From Beethoven t o S h o s t a k o v i c h ; The P s y c h o l o g y o f t h e Composing P r o c e s s (n.p.: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1947; r e p r i n t e d., New Y o r k : Greenwood P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 443-47. 8 The S t r i n g Q u i n t e t and t h e two l a t e r t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were c r e a t e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n i n Brahms's l i f e . W i t h h i s f i r s t j o u r n e y t o V i e n n a i n September 1862, he u n c o n s c i o u s l y t o o k t h e f i r s t s t e p i n t r a n s f e r r i n g h i s a b i d i n g p l a c e f r o m Germany t o t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l . The p r o c e s s was a v e r y g r a d u a l one; f o r many y e a r s he was w i t h o u t a permanent home, moving back and f o r t h between V i e n n a , Hamburg, and o t h e r f o r e i g n p a r t s . The e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t , and t h e subsequent c o m p o s i t i o n and r e v i s i o n o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata and of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g v a r i o u s s o j o u r n s i n V i e n n a , Hamburg, and t h e s p a Baden-Baden. D u r i n g t h e s e t r a n s i t i o n a r y y e a r s , Brahms's works e x h i b i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h i s y o u t h f u l s t y l e as w e l l as i n d i c a t i o n s of h i s a p p r o a c h i n g m a t u r i t y . T h i s b l e n d i n g o f s t y l e s i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n h i s P i a n o Q u i n t e t , w h i c h combines much t h a t i s s t r o n g l y r o m a n t i c i n s p i r i t w i t h moments o f q u i e t and i n t r o s p e c t i o n . Perhaps t h e most symphonic 14 o f a l l Brahms's chamber music w o r k s , i t s m a s s i v e s o n o r i t i e s and p a s s i o n a t e , stormy energy b r i n g t o t h e i r h i g h e s t p o i n t t e n d e n c i e s found i n t h e two p r e c e d i n g P i a n o Q u a r t e t s , Opp. 25 and 26 i n G m i n o r and A m ajor r e s p e c t i v e l y . Y e t i t s p e r i o d s of s e r e n i t y p o i n t toward a s t y l e o f g r e a t e r r e p o s e , of " i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , " " ' " ^ t h a t would d i s t i n g u i s h t h e works o f Brahms's m a t u r i t y . 14 A c c o r d i n g t o D a n i e l G r e gory Mason, The Chamber M u s i c o f Brahms (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 933), p. 54. "'"^Karl G e i r i n g e r , Brahms: H i s L i f e and Work, 2nd e d . , w i t h a new a p p e n d i x o f Brahms's l e t t e r s (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 947), p. 203. CHAPTER I I THE HISTORY OF OPP. 34 AND 34BIS Brahms/s h a b i t o f c a r r y i n g i d e a s i n h i s head f o r y e a r s , and o f s a y -i n g n o t h i n g about a new work u n t i l c o n s t a n t r e v i s i o n had made him r e a s o n -a b l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t , makes i t i m p o s s i b l e , i n many i n s t a n c e s , t o know a t what p o i n t a c o m p o s i t i o n was begun. T h i s i s so i n t h e c a s e o f t h e o r i g i n a l S t r i n g Q u i n t e t i n F m i n o r . No m e n t i o n o f i t a p p ears i n any o f t h e p u b l i s h e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e u n t i l 29 August 1862, by w h i c h t i m e t h e f i r s t t h r e e movements had a l r e a d y been c o m p l e t e d . 1860-June 1862 I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t was s t a r t e d sometime between t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1860 and June of 1862, d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e Brahms, h a v i n g r e s i g n e d h i s p o s t a t Detmold a f t e r t h r e e s e a s o n s , was a c t i v e c h i e f l y i n h i s n a t i v e c i t y . These few y e a r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y happy and produc-r t i v e . Brahms e n j o y e d d i r e c t i n g a s m a l l l a d i e s ' c h o i r e v e r s i n c e t h e s p r i n g of 1859,"'" an appointment w h i c h encouraged him t o w r i t e a l o n g s e r i e s o f s m a l l - s c a l e c h o r a l p i e c e s . A t t h e same t i m e , h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a composer was g r o w i n g s t e a d i l y . I n 1860 t h e f i r m o f N. S i m r o c k , o f Bonn (and l a t e r B e r l i n ) , p u b l i s h e d i t s f i r s t e d i t i o n s of h i s m u s i c . From t h e n on, Brahms c o u l d be c e r t a i n of s e e i n g h i s works p r i n t e d by one o f "'"The s i z e of t h e group had soon i n c r e a s e d t o f o r t y , and i t became known as t h e Hamburger F r a u e n c h o r (Hamburg L a d i e s ' C h o i r ) . 9 10 h i s s e v e r a l p u b l i s h e r s , among them t h e Sw i s s f i r m o f J . M e l c h i o r R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n , of W i n t e r t h u r and, from 1862, L e i p z i g . T h i s house i s s u e d s e v e r a l works i n 1861. D u r i n g t h a t y e a r , Brahms c o n t i n u e d t o e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f as a p i a n i s t and c o n d u c t o r . Many of h i s c o n c e r t s were g i v e n j o i n t l y w i t h 2 t h e famous H u n g a r i a n v i o l i n i s t J o s e p h J o a c h i m o r t h e p i a n i s t C l a r a Schumann, who had become h i s two c l o s e s t f r i e n d s , o r w i t h t h e b a r i t o n e 3 J u l i u s S t o c k h a u s e n , t h e g r e a t i n t e r p r e t e r o f S c h u b e r t and Schumann, who was t o i n s p i r e and i n t r o d u c e t o t h e p u b l i c many of Brahms's most b e a u t i -f u l songs. That summer, Brahms t o o k an apartment t h a t was v e r y much t o h i s l i k i n g i n Hamm, a suburb o f Hamburg, where he knew he w o u l d f i n d t h e q u i e t n e c e s s a r y f o r h i s work. Thus, t h e s e Hamburg y e a r s were a p e r i o d o f i n t e n s e a c t i v i t y i n c o n g e n i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . Brahms c r e a t e d t h e f i r s t o f t h e Romanzen aus L. T i e c k ' s "Magelone," Op. 33 ( d e d i c a t e d t o S t o c k h a u s e n ) , and s e v e r a l s o n g s , d u e t s , and canons f o r v o i c e s . I n t h e domain of i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c , he d e v o t e d h i m s e l f t o composing t h r e e l a r g e w o r ks: t h e two P i a n o Q u a r t e t s , 4 Opp. 25 and 26, and t h e V a r i a t i o n s and Fugue on a Theme by H a n d e l , Op. "The two m u s i c i a n s had met when t h e t w e n t y - y e a r - o l d Brahms was t o u r -i n g w i t h t h e H u n g a r i a n v i o l i n s t Eduard Remenyi. As b o y s , J o a c h i m and Remenyi had been f e l l o w s t u d e n t s a t t h e V i e n n e s e C o n s e r v a t o i r e . J o a c h i m had begun h i s c o n c e r t c a r e e r under t h e a e g i s o f M e n d e l s s o h n , and was R o y a l C o n c e r t m a s t e r i n Hannover a t t h e t i m e of h i s m e e t i n g w i t h Brahms, who was two y e a r s h i s j u n i o r . Between J o a c h i m and Brahms t h e r e r a p i d l y grew a deep a t t a c h m e n t , and t h e v i o l i n i s t r e mained one o f Brahms's most i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s f o r most o f h i s l i f e . 3 Brahms and S t o c k h a u s e n had met i n 1856 a t t h e R h i n e M u s i c F e s t i v a l a t D u s s e l d o r f . They soon had become c l o s e f r i e n d s , and gave many co n -c e r t s t o g e t h e r d u r i n g t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s . 4 I n t h e p u b l i s h e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , no m e n t i o n of t h e s e works appears u n t i l 29 J u l y 1861. By t h a t t i m e , s e v e r a l movements of each had been s e n t t o C l a r a . See Johannes Brahms, C l a r a Schumann—Johannes Brahms. B r i e f e aus den J a h r e n 1853-1896, im A u f t r a g e von M a r i e Schumann h r s g . 11 24. He a l s o c ompleted t h e V a r i a t i o n s on a Theme by Schumann, Op. 23, h i s e a r l i e s t e x t a n t p i a n o d u e t . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s b i o g r a p h e r Max K a l b e c k , t h e f i r s t s k e t c h e s of E i n d e u t s c h e s Requiem must have been begun d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . " ' June-December 1862 I n June o f 1862 Brahms l e f t Hamburg t o meet h i s f r i e n d A l b e r t D i e t r i c h , c o u r t m u s i c a l d i r e c t o r a t O l d e n b u r g , a t t h e R h i n e M u s i c F e s t i v a l , g i v e n t h a t y e a r a t Cologne from t h e e i g h t h t o t h e t e n t h of t h e month. Brahms found b o t h t h e music and t h e company o f h i s c o l -l e a g u e s immensely s t i m u l a t i n g . ^ From C o l o g n e , he and D i e t r i c h j o u r -neyed t o Bad M u n s t e r - a m - S t e i n , i n t h e R h e i n p f a l z ( P a l a t i n a t e ) . There t h e y t o o k rooms i n an i n n , c l o s e t o where C l a r a Schumann was s t a y i n g w i t h h e r f a m i l y . I n a l e t t e r t o J o a c h i m , Brahms commented t h a t he c o u l d not t h i n k o f composing, but was e n j o y i n g t h e a i r and freedom. von B e r t h o l d L i t z m a n n , 2 Bde. ( L e i p z i g : B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l , 1 9 27), . . I : 369-374. J o a c h i m had r e c e i v e d a l l f o u r movements o f Op. 25 and a t l e a s t t h e f i r s t movement o f Op. 26 by 2 October 1861. See Johannes Brahms im  B r i e f w e c h s e l m i t J o s e p h J o a c h i m , D r i t t e durchgesehene und v e r m e h r t e A u f l a g e , h r s g . Andreas Moser, Johannes Brahms B r i e f w e c h s e l V ( B e r l i n : D u etsche B r a h m s - G e s e l l s c h a f t m. b. H., 1921; r e p r i n t e d . , T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1974), pp. 308-09. ^See Max K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, 4 v o l s , i n 8, D r i t t e A u f l a g e ( B e r l i n : D eutsche B r a h m s - G e s e l l s c h a f t m. b. H., 1908-14; r e p r i n t e d . , T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1976), 1/2: 445. D i e t r i c h (1829-1908) had s t u d i e d w i t h Schumann a t D i i s s e l d o r f f r o m 1851 u n t i l 1854, d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e he and t h e young Brahms had become f r i e n d s . He s e r v e d as m u n i c i p a l m u s i c d i r e c t o r a t Bonn u n t i l 1861, and t h e n a t O l d e n b u r g , where he worked u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1890. ^See h i s l e t t e r o f 20 June t o J o a c h i m i n t h e Appendix,p. 2 3 °[. 12 However, h i s remark need not be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e a l e t t e r f rom D i e t r i c h t o h i s w i f e r e p o r t s t h a t he and Brahms s p e n t t h e mornings composing w h i l e C l a r a p r a c t i s e d . I n t h e a f t e r n o o n s t h e y p l a y e d m u s i c t o g e t h e r , or made e x c u r s i o n s i n t o t h e b e a u t i f u l c o u n t r y -s i d e . Each day ended w i t h t h e t h r e e of them p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an e v e n i n g o f m u s i c a t C l a r a ' s house. The c o m b i n a t i o n of i d y l l i c s u r r o u n d i n g s , s t i m u l a t i n g c o m p a n i o n s h i p , and d a i l y music-making must s u r e l y have s p a r k e d Brahms's c r e a t i v e powers. C l a r a o b s e r v e d i n a l e t t e r t o J o a c h i m , "Johannes r e g r e t t e d t h a t he had n o t b r o u g h t any r e a l work w i t h him so as n o t t o l o a f a b o u t , w h i c h he 9 cannot s t a n d f o r l o n g . " K a l b e c k b e l i e v e s t h a t Brahms o c c u p i e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e s k e t c h e s f o r , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t i n F m i n o r . " ^ T h i s makes p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e w o r t h y C l a r a ' s remark t h a t she and Brahms had p l a y e d S c h u b e r t ' s g r e a t C-major S t r i n g Q u i n t e t (D. 956) " s e v e r a l times""'""'" d u r i n g Brahms's two-week s t a y . The F-minor S t r i n g Q u i n t e t by Brahms, l i k e t h a t o f S c h u b e r t , was s c o r e d f o r two c e l l o s "As K a l b e c k p o i n t s o u t , Brahms " l o v e d t o b o a s t about h i s a l l e g e d i d l e n e s s " ( l i e b t e es m i t s e i n g e r a n g e l i c h e n F a u l h e i t zu renommieren). See Johannes Brahms, 1/2: 476. On page 477, K a l b e c k q u o t e s D i e t r i c h ' s l e t t e r t o h i s w i f e ( o n l y an e x t r a c t i s g i v e n ) . 9 See C l a r a ' s l e t t e r o f 1 J u l y i n t h e Appendix,p> 2.3°. "^See K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, 1/2: 476, I l / l : 52. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s k e t c h e s f o r t h e F m i n o r S t r i n g Q u i n t e t , K a l b e c k m e n t i o n s t h e s k e t c h e s f o r t h e C minor Symphony, and f o r the A l l e g r o , A d a g i o ( l a t e r c a n c e l l e d ) and S c h e r z o o f t h e E m i n o r C e l l o S o n a t a , Op. 38. No m e n t i o n of t h i s S onata a p p e a r s i n t h e p u b l i s h e d Brahms c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f 1862. S h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s a r r i v a l a t Bad M i n i s t e r he had s e n t C l a r a a p a c k e t of m a n u s c r i p t s w h i c h i n c l u d e d a v e r s i o n o f what was t o become t h e f i r s t movement of t h e C minor Symphony, as w e l l as what he had c o m p l e t e d o f t h e M a g e l o n e n l i e d e r . These works were p l a y e d i n t h e c o u r s e of t h e m u s i -c a l e v e n i n g s a t C l a r a ' s , and many o t h e r works of Brahms were e n j o y e d . See f n . 9. The C minor Symphony, Op. 68, was n o t c o m p l e t e d i n i t s f i n a l f o rm u n t i l September 1876. See C l a r a ' s l e t t e r o f 1 J u l y i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. Z3 ^. 13 I n s t e a d of t h e more u s u a l two v i o l a s , and may w e l l have been begun a t Bad M l i n s t e r i n a b u r s t of e n t h u s i a s m f o r S c h u b e r t ' s m a s t e r p i e c e . On 29 J u n e , D i e t r i c h and Brahms r e l u c t a n t l y l e f t Bad M l i n s t e r and, accompanied by H e i n r i c h von S a h r , an o l d f r i e n d from L e i p z i g , made an impromptu w a l k i n g t o u r of t h e P a l a t i n a t e . Brahms r e t u r n e d t o h i s p l e a s a n t rooms a t Hamm on 10 J u l y , and e v i d e n t l y s e t t o work on t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . He made r a p i d p r o g r e s s , and by l a t e August t h e f i r s t 12 t h r e e movements had been c o m p l e t e d and d i s p a t c h e d t o C l a r a . She 13 acknowledged them i n a l e t t e r d a t e d 29 A u g u s t , e x p l a i n i n g t h a t she c o u l d n o t examine them u n t i l . s h e r e t u r n e d t o L u z e r n , i n a few d a y s ' t i m e , f rom a h a s t i l y - i m p r o v i s e d e x c u r s i o n . On 3 September she e x p r e s s e d t o 14 Brahms h e r d e l i g h t i n t h e t h r e e movements. She had p l a y e d them f o r Theodor K i r c h n e r and S t o c k h a u s e n , b o t h o f whom had been e q u a l l y charmed by them. S i n c e Brahms had not i n s t r u c t e d h e r t o r e t u r n t h e m a n u s c r i p t , she s e i z e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s k t h a t she be a l l o w e d t o keep i t u n t i l t he f o u r t h movement a r r i v e d . Brahms seems t o have c o m p l i e d w i t h t h i s """From B e r t h o l d L i t z m a n n ' s b i o g r a p h y of C l a r a Schumann and t h e Brahms B r i e f w e c h s e l , volumes IV ( w i t h O t t o J u l i u s Grimm, h i s o l d f r i e n d f rom t h e Hannover days of 1854) and V ( w i t h J o a c h i m ) , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t f o r many y e a r s Brahms s e n t a newly c o m p l e t e d movement o r movements f i r s t t o Grimm o r C l a r a , and t h e n t o J o a c h i m , f o r t h e i r comments. See B e r t h o l d L i t z m a n n , C l a r a Schumann; E i n K u n s t l e r l e b e n , 3 Bde. ( L e i p z i g : B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l , 1923-25), and Johannes Brahms, Johannes Brahms im B r i e f w e c h s e l  m i t J . 0. Grimm, h r s g . R i c h a r d B a r t h , Johannes Brahms B r i e f w e c h s e l IV ( B e r l i n : D eutsche B r a h m s - G e s e l l s c h a f t m. b. H., 1908, r e p r i n t ed., T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1974). 13 See A p p e n d i x , p.2>'fO. C o n s i d e r a b l e gaps i n t h e p u b l i s h e d c o r -r e s p o n d e n c e between C l a r a and Brahms a r e due p a r t l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t she d e s t r o y e d many o f Brahms's l e t t e r s i n 1886-87, a f t e r t h e f r i e n d s had a g reed t o r e t u r n each o t h e r ' s l e t t e r s . See M a r i e Schumann's " G e l e i t w o r t " i n Brahms, C l a r a Schumann—Johannes Brahms B r i e f e (no page number i s g i v e n ) . See A p p e n d i x , p. %Lf.0. 14 r e q u e s t . By t h i s t i m e he had f i n a l l y made up h i s mind t o go t o V i e n n a , a venture- t h a t b o t h C l a r a and J o a c h i m had o f t e n recommended. Brahms's a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e c i t y of Haydn, M o z a r t , B e e t h o v e n , and S c h u b e r t , t h e most famous m u s i c a l c e n t r e i n Europe, had been i n c r e a s e d t h a t summer by h i s m e e t i n g w i t h t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d s i n g e r L u i s e Dustmann-Meyer a t t h e R h i n e M u s i c F e s t i v a l . She had been w o r k i n g a t t h e C o u r t Opera House i n V i e n n a , and e x t o l l e d t o Brahms t h e b e a u t i e s of t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l . No doubt h i s d e c i s i o n t o v i s i t t h e c i t y was a l s o o c c a s i o n e d i n p a r t by t h e hope t h a t any s u c c e s s he m ight a c h i e v e t h e r e would enhance h i s p r e s t i g e w i t h h i s c o m p a t r i o t s , and would t h u s i n c r e a s e h i s chances o f b e i n g e l e c t e d l e a d e r of t h e Hamburg Singakademie and t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . By t h e t i m e he s e t out f o r V i e n n a , on 8 September 1862, Brahms had c o m p l e t e d t h e l a s t movement o f t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . He must have c o p i e d t h e f i r s t t h r e e movements e i t h e r i n s c o r e o r i n p a r t s b e f o r e s e n d i n g them t o C l a r a , f o r t h e e n t i r e work was i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n when he w r o t e t o D i e t r i c h a few days b e f o r e h i s d e p a r t u r e : The C-minor Symphony i s not f i n i s h e d , b u t on t h e o t h e r hand [ I have comp l e t e d ] a S t r i n g Q u i n t e t (2 V i o l o n c e l l o s ) i n F M i n o r , """"^Brahms's l e t t e r t o D i e t r i c h i n f o r m i n g h i m t h a t he was t a k i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d S t r i n g Q u i n t e t t o V i e n n a (see f n . 16) must have been w r i t t e n no l a t e r t h a n 7 September. O b v i o u s l y , i t would have been i m p o s s i b l e f o r Brahms t o have s e c u r e d t h e r e t u r n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t f r o m C l a r a between r e c e i v i n g h e r l e t t e r o f t h e t h i r d and w r i t i n g t o D i e t r i c h on t h e s e v e n t h . He must, t h e r e f o r e , have t a k e n a d i f f e r e n t m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e movements a l o n g w i t h t h e f i n i s h e d f o u r t h movement, t o V i e n n a , from whence t h e e n t i r e work was d i s p a t c h e d t o J o a c h i m . Subsequent p u b l i s h e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between Brahms and C l a r a makes no a l l u s i o n t o h e r r e t u r n -i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t . Her s t a t e m e n t i n a l e t t e r o f 18 December 1862 (see A p p e n d i x ) , t h a t she w i s h e s t o t e l l Brahms "how d e l i g h t e d I was a g a i n w i t h y o u r Q u i n t e t " i m p l i e s t h a t t h e m a n u s c r i p t had remained i n h e r p o s s e s s i o n . 15 which I would most gladly send you and have [you] write to me about i t , but nevertheless I'd rather take i t with me.^ Soon a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n Vienna, Brahms encountered some old friends from Hamburg days, and quickly made the acquaintance of many of Vienna's leading musicians. Among the l a t t e r were the v i o l i n i s t Joseph Hellmesberger, d i r e c t o r and professor at the Vienna Conservatoire and leader of the c i t y ' s only resident s t r i n g quartet party, and the virtuoso p i a n i s t C a r l Tausig, L i s z t ' s b r i l l i a n t p u p i l . Joachim, i n the midst of a lengthy sojourn i n England, became acquainted with the String Quintet s l i g h t l y l a t e r than did Clara, but was introduced to i t i n i t s e n t i r e t y . He had informed Brahms that he 18 would return to Hannover at the end of September. Accordingly, Brahms sent the completed work to Hannover l a t e that month, asking Joachim to return i t and t e l l him what he thought of i t as soon as possible. Brahms requested that Joachim, should he f i n d time to have the work played, have i t copied, making corrections with regard to bowing signs, double stops, 19 and whatever else he f e l t necessary. By the time Brahms had sent the manuscript to Hannover, Joachim 20 had decided to remain i n London for another three months. However, 16 See t h i s undated l e t t e r i n the Appendix, p. 2,1+1 • "Die c-moll-Symphonie i s t nicht f e r t i g , dagegen aber ein Streich-Quintett (2 V i o l o n -c e l l i ) i n f-moll, das i c h am l i e b s t e n Dir schickte und mir darliber schreiben l i e s s e , aber i c h w i l l ' s doch l i e b e r mitnehmen." ^ I t was Tausig who i n s p i r e d the w r i t i n g of the Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35, during the winter i n Vienna. 18 See Joachim's l e t t e r of 19 September 1862, i n Brahms B r i e f - wechsel V: 314. 19 See Appendix, p, 2, f/. 20 See his l e t t e r to T. Ave-Lallemant written from London on 27 September, i n Joseph Joachim, Letters from and to Joseph Joachim,selected and trans. Nora Bickley, with a preface by J. A. Fuller-Maitland (New York: Vienna House, 1972), p. 268. 16 he n e g l e c t e d t o i n f o r m Brahms o f t h i s d e c i s i o n , and t h e r e s u l t i n g m i s -u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e two was worsened by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e manu-s c r i p t and t h e accompanying l e t t e r d i d n o t r e a c h London u n t i l e a r l y November. Brahms, assuming t h a t h i s f r i e n d was b a c k i n Hannover, c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d why J o a c h i m d i d n o t send any word about t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . Becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y annoyed, he w r o t e f o u r l e t t e r s o f r e m i n d e r between t h e m i d d l e of October and e a r l y November, t h e f o u r t h c o n s i s t i n g o f a s i n g l e s e n t e n c e demanding t h e r e t u r n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t . These, t o o , d i d n o t r e a c h London u n t i l November. On 14 October J o a c h i m was i n f o r m e d o f t h e a r r i v a l a t Hannover o f t h e p a r c e l from Brahms. I n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t h e same day t o C l a r a , he e x c i t e d l y s p e c u l a t e d t h a t i t might be t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . As he had been i n E n g l a n d s i n c e e a r l y March, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t he had been t o l d o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n ' s impending c o m p l e t i o n i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by C l a r a o r perhaps D i e t r i c h , w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y has n o t been p u b l i s h e d o r i s n o t 21 e x t a n t . D e s p i t e Joachim's s e n d i n g o f an u r g e n t r e q u e s t t o h i s f r i e n d 22 B e r n h a r d S c h o l z i n Hannover, t h e p a r c e l was n o t i m m e d i a t e l y f o r w a r d e d t o London. 21 I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t Brahms had t o l d h im about t h e work b e f o r e h i s d e p a r t u r e f o r E n g l a n d . I f t h i s had been t h e c a s e , a t l e a s t one movement p r o b a b l y w o u l d have been v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e d by t h a t t i m e , f o r Brahms was not i n t h e h a b i t o f making a new c o m p o s i t i o n known t o h i s f r i e n d s w h i l e i t was s t i l l i n a r e l a t i v e l y u n d e v e loped s t a t e . Even C l a r a was r e s i g n e d t o t h i s ; i n a l e t t e r d a t e d 1 May 1862, she w i s t f u l l y remarked, " I won't a s k a t a l l about what you a r e now w o r k i n g [ o n ] — u n f o r t u n a t e l y I h e a r n o t h i n g about t h i s , o r about y o u r i n n e r l i f e i n g e n e r a l ! " (Was Due j e t z t  a r b e i t e s t , d a r n a c h f r a g e i c h gar n i c h t m e h r — i c h e r f a h r e j a l e i d e r n i c h t s  davon, w i e l i b e r h a p t v o n Deinem i n n e r n Leben!) See Brahms, C l a r a Schu- m a nn—Johannes Brahms B r i e f e , I : 400. I f some p o r t i o n o f t h e Q u i n t e t had, i n f a c t , been completed by t h e t i m e J o a c h i m d e p a r t e d i n M a r c h , Brahms l i k e l y w ould have p l a y e d i t f o r C l a r a d u r i n g h i s v i s i t a t Bad M l i n s t e r ; y e t n e i t h e r she n o r D i e t r i c h m e n t i o n s a n y t h i n g o f t h i s n a t u r e as b e i n g among t h e s e v e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s t h a t were t r i e d . 22 See J o a c h i m ' s l e t t e r w r i t t e n 23 O c t o b e r , i n t h e Appendix,p. tt,*r2». 17 I n h i s f i r s t l e t t e r o f r e m i n d e r , Brahms remarked t h a t he w o u l d l i k e t o t r y t h e Q u i n t e t . Even a t t h i s p o i n t he may have been c o n s i d e r i n g h a v i n g i t p e r f o r m e d a t a c o n c e r t o f h i s own w h i c h , he t o l d J o a c h i m , h i s 23 f r i e n d s i n V i e n n a were u r g i n g him t o g i v e . I n t h e second l e t t e r , 24 w r i t t e n on 31 O c t o b e r , he e a r n e s t l y a s k e d f o r t h e r e t u r n o f t h e Q u i n t e t . A n o t h e r l e t t e r , s e e m i n g l y w r i t t e n on t h e same day, c o m p l a i n e d : "Very soon i t w i l l s c a r c e l y be p o s s i b l e t o ask t h e p e o p l e h e r e f o r a r e h e a r s a l [of t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t ] , s i n c e d a i l y t h e r e i s more t o do f o r t h e c o n c e r t s . " 25 He added t h a t he would w r i t e a g a i n " t h e day a f t e r tomorrow," w h i c h means t h a t t h e f o u r t h and f i n a l demand f o r t h e Q u i n t e t was s e n t on 2 N o v e m b e r . ^ 23 T h i s s u p p o s i t i o n seems t o be c o n f i r m e d by C l a r a ' s l e t t e r o f 10 November ( i b i d . , p . 2 f 4 ) , i n f o r m i n g J o a c h i m t h a t Brahms was p l a n n i n g t o have t h e Q u i n t e t " p l a y e d a t H e l l m e s b e r g e r ' s a t t h e end o f t h i s month." Brahms h i m s e l f , i n a l e t t e r t o J o a c h i m e v i d e n t l y w r i t t e n 9 November, s t a t e d t h a t "a p e r f o r m a n c e a t my c o n c e r t h a s , of c o u r s e , no doubt become i m p o s s i b l e " ( i b i d . , p. Ztyf). The c o n c e r t t o o k p l a c e on 29 November i n th e V e r e i n s a a l of t h e G e s e l l s c h a f t d e r M u s i k f r e u n d e . The program com-p r i s e d t h e P i a n o Q u a r t e t i n A m a j o r , Op. 26 ( w i t h Brahms b e i n g a s s i s t e d by t h r e e members o f t h e H e l l m e s b e r g e r Q u a r t e t ) t h e V a r i a t i o n s and Fugue on a Theme by H a n d e l , Op. 24, Bach's F m a j o r T o c c a t a f o r o r g a n , and Schumann's C major F a n t a s i a , Op. 17. See Brahms's l e t t e r t o J o a c h i m , e v i d e n t l y w r i t t e n i n m i d - O c t o b e r , i b i d . , p. Z^Z. 24 See t h e A p p e n d i x f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s and o t h e r p e r t i n e n t l e t t e r s i n t h e c h r o n o l o g y of t h e Brahms-Joachim c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 25 "Schon i n d e r n a c h s t e n Z e i t w i r d es kaum m b g l i c h s e i n , h i e r v o n den L e u t e n e i n e P r o b e zu v e r l a n g e n , da t a g l i c h mehr f u r d i e K o n z e r t e z u t u n i s t . I c h s c h r e i b e ubermorgen w i e d e r , . . . " (see A p p e n d i x , p . 2 ^ 3 ) . Brahms was p r o b a b l y r e f e r r i n g b o t h t o t h e c o n c e r t a t w h i c h he was t o make h i s f i r s t a p pearance b e f o r e t h e V i e n n e s e p u b l i c , and t o t h e c o n c e r t w h i c h he was p l a n n i n g t o g i v e h i m s e l f (see f o o t n o t e no. 3 7 ) . At t h e f o r m e r , w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d by t h e H e l l m e s b e r g e r Q u a r t e t on 16 November, Brahms' P i a n o Q u a r t e t i n G m i n o r , Op. 25, was p e r f o r m e d , w i t h t h e composer a t t h e p i a n o . H e l l m e s b e r g e r ' s p a r t y a l s o p l a y e d Mendelssohn's S t r i n g Q u a r t e t i n E - f l a t and Beethoven's i n C-sharp m i n o r , Op. 131. 26 See A p p e n d i x , p. 2^3. 18 27 A f t e r d i s p a t c h i n g t h r e e a n x i o u s l e t t e r s t o S c h o l z , J o a c h i m f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t , b u t none of Brahms's l e t t e r s , some-28 t i m e between 1 and 4 November. D e s p i t e h i s e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h i s work " o f [ t h e ] d e e p e s t meaning, f u l l o f manly s t r e n g t h , and l o f t y [ i n ] c o n -s t r u c t i o n , " he had some r e s e r v a t i o n s about t h e demands t h a t i t w o u l d make upon th e p e r f o r m e r s . He e x p r e s s e d t h e c a n d i d o p i n i o n t h a t H e l l m e s b e r g e r and h i s m u s i c i a n s might n o t be a b l e t o do i t j u s t i c e : I w o u l d p r e f e r t h a t I m i g h t p l a y i t f o r y o u f i r s t ; . . . [ H e l l m e s b e r g e r ] l a c k s [ t h e ] b o l d n e s s and s t r e n g t h t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r a l l y o u r works.^9 H i s i n t e n t i o n t o have t h e Q u i n t e t c o p i e d i n London c o u l d n e v e r have been f u l f i l l e d , f o r t h r e e days l a t e r he r e c e i v e d a l l but t h e l a s t o f Brahms's l e t t e r s r e q u e s t i n g t h e r e t u r n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t . I t was g i v e n t o t h e London music d e a l e r C h a p p e l l , who packed i t , i n J o a c h i m ' s p r e s e n c e , f o r m a i l i n g t o V i e n n a . C h a p p e l l n e g l e c t e d , however, t o pay t h e p o s t a g e , and t h e p a r c e l was t h e r e f o r e h e l d a t t h e p o s t - o f f i c e f o r some t i m e , as 30 J o a c h i m a p o l o g e t i c a l l y e x p l a i n e d i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n i n mid-November. I t i s n o t known when Brahms f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t f r o m J o a c h i m , as no l e t t e r a c k n o w l e d g i n g i t s a r r i v a l a p p e a r s t o have been 27 See t h e one d a t e d 23 O c t o b e r , i b i d . , p. The o t h e r two do n o t appear i n J o a c h i m , L e t t e r s . 28 J o a c h i m seems t o c o n t r a d i c t h i m s e l f c o n c e r n i n g t h e d a t e o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t ' s a r r i v a l . I n h i s l e t t e r o f 5 November (see A p p e n d i x , p.2,^3)> he t o l d Brahms t h a t he had r e c e i v e d i t " j u s t y e s t e r d a y " ( E r s t g e s t e r n ) , i n other-words., on 4 November, w h i l e i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n on t h e e i g h t h o f t h e same month ( i b i d . , p . 2 . ^ 3 ) , he s a i d t h a t i t had a r r i v e d e i g h t days ago, t h a t i s , on 1 November. 29 "von t i e f s t e r Bedeutung, v o l l m a n n l i c h e r K r a f t , und schwung-v o l l e r G e s t a l t u n g . . . . F r e i l i c h ware es m i r l i e b e r , i c h k b n n t e es D i r z u e r s t v o r s p i e l e n ; . . . Es f e h l t ihm an K u h n h e i t und K r a f t , d i e f u r D e i n e Sachen durchaus n b t i g s i n d . " I b i d . , p. 2.^3-30 Ibid.,pp.2Jj3,2.f if. 19 p u b l i s h e d . I n deed, a l o n g s i l e n c e may have ensued between t h e a n g r y composer and h i s u n f o r t u n a t e f r i e n d , f o r t h e i r n e x t ( p u b l i s h e d ) commun-i c a t i o n i s a l e t t e r f rom Brahms t h a n k i n g J o a c h i m f o r h i s C h r i s t m a s g r e e t i n g . C l a r a d e l i g h t e d l y responded t o t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e "magnif-31 i c e n t " ( p r a c h t i g ) l a s t movement i n a l e t t e r d a t e d 18 December, and urged t h a t t h e p a r t s be s e n t t o J o a c h i m so t h a t she c o u l d h e a r him p e r f o r m t h e work e a r l y i n J a n u a r y when she was s c h e d u l e d t o be i n 32 Hannover. Knowing how ang r y Brahms had become o v e r t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t had remained out of h i s hands s i n c e i t was f i r s t s e n t t o J o a c h i m , C l a r a perhaps f e a r e d t h a t t h e composer would not c o n s i d e r d i s -p a t c h i n g t h e p a r t s t o Hannover. Thus, a l t h o u g h she c o n c l u d e d h e r l e t t e r by a s k i n g whether t h e s c o r e i n h e r p o s s e s s i o n s h o u l d be s e n t t o J o a c h i m o r D i e t r i c h , she e v i d e n t l y d e c i d e d t h a t she h e r s e l f s h o u l d t a k e i t t o J o a c h i m . The n e x t day she a d v i s e d t h e l a t t e r t h a t she would b r i n g i t 33 w i t h h e r when she came t o Hannover a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J a n u a r y . Brahms, however, had begun t o r e g r e t t h e h a r s h words he had w r i t t e n t o J o a c h i m i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h e Q u i n t e t . H i s warm l e t t e r o f t h a n k s f o r h i s o l d f r i e n d ' s C h r i s t m a s g r e e t i n g was I b x d . 32 I n t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between S i m r o c k and Brahms p u b l i s h e d i n t h e B r i e f e an P. J . Si m r o c k und F r i t z S i m r o c k , no r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Brahms may have i n d i c a t e d t o C l a r a t h a t he was h o p i n g t o have t h e work p u b l i s h e d by t h i s f i r m , f o r she asked i f he had r e c e i v e d an h o n o r a r i u m f r o m them ( see A p p e n d i x , p.Zf-5)- Brahms had met F r i t z S i m r o c k i n t h e summer of 1860, when t h e l a t t e r was j u n i o r p a r t n e r i n t h e w e l l - k n o w n f i r m o f N. S i m r o c k , o f Bonn and B e r l i n . I t p u b l i s h e d i t s f i r s t e d i t i o n s o f Brahms's music t h a t same y e a r , and even-t u a l l y became h i s p r i n c i p a l p u b l i s h e r . The P i a n o Q u a r t e t s , Opp. 25 and 26, were b r o u g h t out by t h i s f i r m i n 1863. 33 See A p p e n d i x , p. 2,^  5, 20 e v i d e n t l y accompanied by t h e p a r t s o f t h i s work, w h i c h he would n o t name bu t r e f e r r e d t o as " t h e t h i n g . . . , w h i c h has g i v e n me so much annoyance 34 and so l i t t l e j o y . " 1863 Thus, i n e a r l y J a n u a r y J o a c h i m r e c e i v e d t h e p a r t s from Brahms as 35 w e l l as t h e s c o r e from C l a r a . I n a l e t t e r w h i c h he w r y l y d e s c r i b e d as 36 "an i c e - b r e a k e r " ( e i n E s i b r e c h e r ) , w r i t t e n a t t h e end of t h e month, he i n f o r m e d Brahms t h a t he and h i s m u s i c i a n s had p l a y e d t h e Q u i n t e t t w i c e and were p l a n n i n g a t h i r d p l a y i n g . He c o n c l u d e d h i s l e t t e r w i t h a p r o m i s e t o soon w r i t e a g a i n , and t o o f f e r f u r t h e r comments on t h e work. As no s u c h l e t t e r had a r r i v e d by 12 F e b r u a r y , Brahms g e n t l y prodded: "Up t o now y o u r i c e - b r e a k e r has u n f o r t u n a t e l y been f o l l o w e d by n o t h i n g , . . . To h e a r s o m e t h i n g about my Q u i n t e t w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , be 37 v e r y dear t o me." I n m i d - F e b r u a r y J o a c h i m became engaged t o t h e c o n t r a l t o A m a l i e W e i s s , b u t Brahms sensed t h a t t h i s happy d i s t r a c t i o n was not t h e o n l y r e a s o n f o r h i s f r i e n d ' s s i l e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e Q u i n t e t . On 3 A p r i l he asked t h a t i t be r e t u r n e d , and t h a t J o a c h i m s i m p l y i n s e r t an 34 "das D i n g . . . , das m i r so v i e l A r g e r und noch so w e n i g Freude gemacht h a t . " I b i d . , p p . 1^5, Ztl>-35 There can be no doubt t h a t b o t h were i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n a t t h e end o f t h e month, f o r a t t h i s t i m e he i n q u i r e d i n a l e t t e r t o Brahms: "May I keep t h e s c o r e and t h e p a r t s ? " (Kann i c h P a r t i t u r und Stimmen noch b e h a l t e n ? ) I b i d . , p. 2 ^ . 3 6 I b i d . , p. %U. 37 "Deinem E i s b r e c h e r i s t l e i d e r b i s j e t z t n i c h t s g e f o l g t , . . . Uber mein Q u i n t e t t ware m i r f r e i l i c h e i n i g e s z u h o r e n s e h r l i e b und w e r t . " I b i d . , p. . 21 "NB" (Nota Bene) i n the score whenever he wished to c a l l ..attention to something. Brahms r e a l i z e d that the v i o l i n i s t , through h i s s i l e n c e concerning the Quintet, had already t a c i t l y inserted the c l e a r e s t NB. It c e r t a i n l y cannot be presented to the p u b l i c , and so i t i s much better for i t to sleep.38 Brahms concluded h i s l e t t e r by remarking that he was going to Hamburg very s h o r t l y . Joachim responded on 7 A p r i l , informing h i s f r i e n d that he and the other members of h i s quartet were going to give soirees i n Hamburg on the twenty-first and twenty-third of the month; he suggested that Brahms j o i n them i n Hamburg and then come to Hannover with them. He was venturing, therefore, to keep the Quintet manuscript, so that he and h i s musicians might play the work for Brahms at Hannover. For the f i r s t time, he suggested that some changes be made: As i t i s , I would not l i k e to produce i t p u b l i c l y — b u t only because I hope you w i l l a l t e r here and there some roughnesses [which seem] too great even to me, and w i l l l i g h t e n the c o l o r i n g now and then.39 This made Brahms a l l the more anxious to begin the necessary r e v i s i o n s , and on 13 A p r i l he repeated h i s request for the manuscript's return, explaining, "[I] am coming, a f t e r a l l , f o r the purpose of hearing [the Quintet] without superfluous roughnesses, i f pos s i b l e . Two days l a t e r , Joachim probably sent both the score and the parts back to Vienna. His reluctance to do so i s evident i n h i s accompanying 38 "Das d e u t l i c h s t e NB. hast Du f r e i l i c h schon stillschweigend hingesetzt. Dem Publikum kann man es wohl night vorfuhren, und so legt es s i c h wohl besser schlafen." Ibid. 39 "So wie es i s t , mochte i c h es nicht b f f e n t l i c h p r o d u z i e r e n — aber nur w e i l i c h hoffe, Du anderst hie und da einige sel b s t mir zu grosse Schroffheiten, und l i c h t e s t h i e r und da das K o l o r i t . " I b i d . , p . 2 f 7 ' 40 "Komme i c h uberhaupt dazu, ohne uberfl i i s s i g e Schrof f h e i t e n , wenn mbglich, horen." Ibid. 22 41 l e t t e r , w h i c h a s s e r t e d t h a t h i s c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n c o u l d be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d o n l y i f Brahms were t o h e a r i t p e r f o r m e d . J o a c h i m was c o n c e r n e d c h i e f l y w i t h t h e Q u i n t e t ' s l a c k of what he d e s c r i b e d as "sound-charm" ( K l a n g r e i z ) . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n was i n p l a c e s t o o t h i n f o r t h e i d e a s , w h i l e sometimes i t remained t o o t h i c k f o r l o n g p a s s a g e s . When he w r o t e t o C l a r a s e v e r a l weeks a f t e r w a r d , he commented f r a n k l y , " i t i s a g r e a t p i t y t h a t t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f t h i s p i e c e , i n 42 s p i t e o f so much t h a t i s r e m a r k a b l e i n i t , s h o u l d be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . " Upon r e c e i v i n g t h e s c o r e and p a r t s o f t h e Q u i n t e t from J o a c h i m , Brahms pe r h a p s a l t e r e d t h e o b j e c t i o n a b l e p l a c e s p o i n t e d out by h i s 43 f r i e n d , and t h e n a r r a n g e d t o have t h e work p e r f o r m e d p r i v a t e l y by H e l l e r , Sigmund B a c h r i c h , t h e composer K a r l Goldmark, L o u i s L a c k e n b a c h e r , 44 and J o s e p h Gansbacher. T h i s p e r f o r m a n c e f a i l e d t o s a t i s f y Brahms, and he d e t e r m i n e d t o h e a r t h e Q u i n t e t p l a y e d by J o a c h i m and h i s m u s i c i a n s , who were more f a m i l i a r w i t h i t . I t was l i k e l y a f t e r t h i s t r i a l p e r -formance i n V i e n n a t h a t Brahms s e n t t h e s c o r e t o O l d e n b u r g f o r D i e t r i c h ' s 41 E v i d e n t l y w r i t t e n on 15 A p r i l . I b i d . , p,2.f7-42 r. See h i s l e t t e r d a t e d 26 May, 1863. Ibid.,p.1^2. 43 K a l b e c k m a i n t a i n s t h a t Brahms had a l t e r e d t h e s e p l a c e s b e f o r e h a v i n g t h e work t r i e d i n V i e n n a ("er d i e von J o a c h i m a n g e d e u t e t e n a n s t b s s i g e n S t e l l e n a b g e a n d e r t oder g e m i l d e r t h a t t e " ) . See Johannes  Brahms, I I / 1 : 53. J o a c h i m , however, made no a l l u s i o n t o s u c h changes h a v i n g been a l r e a d y made when he and h i s m u s i c i a n s p l a y e d t h e Q u i n t e t i n May f o r Brahms. See Joachim's l e t t e r t o C l a r a , d a t e d 26 May 1863, i n t h e Appendix,p.X if 9 • 44 H i s f a t h e r , Johann B a p t i s t Gansbacher (d. 1844), a p u p i l of V o g l e r and A l b r e c h t s b e r g e r , had been a d i s t i n g u i s h e d m u s i c i a n and c h u r c h composer. J o s e f was a d o c t o r of j u r i s p r u d e n c e , but l a t e r r e l i n q u i s h e d t h i s c a r e e r t o become a c e l l i s t and a p r o f e s s o r o f s i n g i n g a t t h e V i e n n a C o n s e r v a t o i r e . Brahms d e d i c a t e d t o him t h e C e l l o Sonata i n E m i n o r , Op. 38. 23 45 p e r u s a l , k e e p i n g t h e p a r t s w i t h him so t h a t he m ight t a k e them t o 46 J o a c h i m on h i s way back t o Hamburg. On 29 A p r i l he i n f o r m e d t h e l a t t e r t h a t he w o u l d l e a v e V i e n n a on F r i d a y (1 May), a s k i n g t h a t he a r r a n g e t o have q u a r t e t - and q u i n t e t - p l a y i n g a t h i s house Sunday m o r n i n g o r a f t e r n o o n . Brahms spent t h r e e days i n Hannover, and J o a c h i m had t h e Q u i n t e t p l a y e d f o r him. Even a t t h e hands of s u c h a r t i s t s , who had c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d and t e s t e d i t , t h e work s t i l l d i d n o t p l e a s e Brahms. A l e t t e r f r o m J o a c h i m t o C l a r a , w r i t t e n a few weeks a f t e r Brahms's v i s i t , i n d i -c a t e s t h a t a d e c i s i o n somehow t o change t h e Q u i n t e t was r e a c h e d a t Hannover: " I was g l a d t h a t J ohannes, on h e a r i n g i t h i m s e l f , w i s h e d t o a l t e r i t . A man o f h i s s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r cannot a c c e p t a n y t h i n g on , „48 h e a r s a y . Brahms a r r i v e d back i n Hamburg on 5 May 1863, and w r o t e t o D i e t r i c h s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e s e v e n t h , a s k i n g him t o r e t u r n t h e s c o r e so t h a t he 49 c o u l d make f u r t h e r a l t e r a t i o n s . D i e t r i c h r e s p o n d e d w i t h an i n v i t a t i o n t o come i m m e d i a t e l y t o O ldenburg f o r a v i s i t ; t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t s c o r e must have been r e t u r n e d t o Brahms sometime d u r i n g t h e happy days t h e f r i e n d s spent t o g e t h e r . A f t e r a r r i v i n g back a t Hamburg, Brahms most 45 See Brahms's l e t t e r t o D i e t r i c h d a t e d f r o m A p r i l 1863 i n t h e Appendix,p, 5,^ 7-46 J oachim's l e t t e r m e n t i o n i n g t h e Hamburg s o i r e e s had n o t r e a c h e d Brahms i n t i m e t o p e r m i t him t o a r r a n g e h i s s c h e d u l e so t h a t he might meet h i s f r i e n d i n Hamburg and t h e n accompany h i m t o Hanover. See Brahms's l e t t e r o f 13 A p r i l , i b i d . , p.2 4>7, 4 7 I b i d . ,p.Z->8. 48 See J o a c h i m ' s l e t t e r o f 26 May, i b i d . A p p a r e n t l y J o a c h i m was unaware t h a t Brahms had a l r e a d y h e a r d t h e Q u i n t e t p e r f o r m e d p r i v a t e l y i n V i e n n a . 49 See h i s l e t t e r t o D i e t r i c h w r i t t e n s h o r t l y a f t e r 7 May, i b i d . 24 l i k e l y made some r e v i s i o n s , t h e n f o r w a r d e d t o D i e t r i c h " t h e p r o m i s e d Q u i n t e t " (das v e r s p r o c h e n e Q u i n t e t t ) . He p a s s e d t h e summer i n o r n e a r h i s n a t i v e c i t y , t r y i n g t o keep t h e peace between h i s f r a i l mother, now s e v e n t y - f o u r , and h i s f i f t y - s e v e n - y e a r - o l d f a t h e r . B e f o r e t h e end o f May, he r e c e i v e d word from V i e n n a t h a t he had been e l e c t e d l e a d e r o f t h e Singakademie ( S i n g i n g Academy), a w e l l -e s t a b l i s h e d c h o r a l s o c i e t y . H i s hopes of o b t a i n i n g t h e c o n d u c t o r s h i p of t h e Hamburg Singakademie and t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a had been b i t t e r l y s h a t t e r e d by S t o c k h a u s e n ' s a p p o i n t m e n t i n t h e f a l l o f 1862. Thus, a f t e r due c o n s i d e r a t i o n , Brahms a c c e p t e d t h e V i e n n e s e o f f e r , and began making p l a n s f o r h i s programs. I n a d d i t i o n , he was o c c u p i e d w i t h 51 t h e c a n t a t a R i n a l d o , on a poem by Goethe. I n m id-August, on h i s way back t o V i e n n a , Brahms v i s i t e d b r i e f l y w i t h C l a r a a t L i c h t e n t a l , a b e a u t i f u l suburb o f t h e famous s p a Baden-Baden, where she had p u r c h a s e d a house t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . F o r t h e n e x t s e v e r a l y e a r s , Brahms g e n e r a l l y spent h i s summer h o l i d a y n e a r C l a r a a t Baden-Baden. He d e l i g h t e d i n t a k i n g l o n g morning w a l k s t h r o u g h t h e wooded h i l l s , and was i n s p i r e d t o b e g i n many o f h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s d u r i n g h i s sometimes l e n g t h y s t a y s . An a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f s t i m u l a t i o n was p r o v i d e d by t h e g r e a t v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e who assembled a t Baden-Baden f r o m e v e r y p a r t o f Europe. I t was h e r e t h a t Brahms was t o meet t h e P r i n c e s s ~^See t h e l e t t e r d a t i n g from l a t e May, i b i d . "^'"He w r o t e about i t t o J o a c h i m i n J u n e , and i t seems t o have been l a r g e l y c o m p l e t e d by t h e end o f September. See Brahms B r i e f w e c h s e l , V I : 12-14, 16. See a l s o C l a r a ' s l e t t e r o f 18 Oc t o b e r i n C l a r a Schumann- Johannes Brahms B r i e f e , I I : 430. The f i n a l c h o r u s was n o t com p l e t e d u n t i l 1868. 25 52 Anna von Hessen, t o whom he would d e d i c a t e b o t h Opp. 34 and 3 4 b i s , as w e l l as Johann S t r a u s s , t h e p i a n i s t A n t o n R u b i n s t e i n , and many o t h e r a r t i s t s . By t h e l a s t week i n A u g u s t , Brahms was back i n V i e n n a , and on 28 September t o o k o f f i c e as c o n d u c t o r of t h e Singakademie. H i s programs were a m b i t i o u s : two Bach c a n t a t a s , a l a r g e number of a c a p p e l l a works of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Beethoven's O p f e r l i e d , Schumann's Requiem  f u r Mignon, and s e v e r a l of Brahms's own a d a p t a t i o n s of f o l k songs f o r f o u r v o i c e s were p e r f o r m e d a t t h e f i r s t two c o n c e r t s , on 15 November and 6 J a n u a r y . 1864 By l a t e F e b r u a r y , Brahms had r e w r i t t e n t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t as a S onata f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s . He i n f o r m e d B r e i t k o p f & H'artel on t h e t w e n t y - s e v e n t h of t h e month t h a t he c o u l d o f f e r them "a grand 'Sonata' f o r 2 p i a n o s , w h i c h I s h o u l d have [ p l a y e d ] t h i s v e r y day, and r e a l l y 53 i n t e n d t o p l a y as soon as p o s s i b l e , w i t h C a r l T a u s i g . " Brahms t o l d C l a r a of t h e new v e r s i o n i n a l e t t e r t h a t a p p a r e n t l y has n o t been pub-l i s h e d . He may have made some o b s c u r e r e f e r e n c e t o what had prompted th e making of t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n , f o r on 10 March C l a r a r e p l i e d : I cannot q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d what y o u have w r i t t e n t o me about y o u r Q u i n t e t . D i d you have i t p e r f o r m e d and was i t a f l o p ? And 52 M a r i e Anna F r i e d e r i k e (b. 1 8 3 6 ) , P r i n c e s s o f P r u s s i a , a n i e c e o f F r i e d r i c h W i l h e l m I I I . I n 1853 she m a r r i e d F r i e d r i c h W i l h e l m Georg A d o l f , L a n d g r a f von Hessen. At h i s d e a t h i n 1884, she became Dowager L a n d g r a f i n . 53 " e i n e g r o s s e 'Sonate' f u r 2 K l a v i e r e , w e l c h e i c h grade h e u t e h a t t e [ s p i e l e n ] s o l l e n und w i r k l i c h e h e s t e n s m i t K a r l T a u s i g z u s p i e l e n b e a b s i c h t i g e . " See Appendix,p, 2.^3. 26 would you f o r t h a t r e a s o n have made a Duo out o f i t ? [ I f t h i s i s so,] i t must no t have p l e a s e d you y o u r s e l f i n i t s o r i g i n a l s t a t e , o r r a t h e r i n [ i t s ] sound?54 There i s no e v i d e n c e o f any p e r f o r m a n c e h a v i n g t a k e n p l a c e a f t e r t h e two p r i v a t e p l a y i n g s i n V i e n n a and Hannover. I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t Brahms, h a v i n g been d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e Q u i n t e t under J o a c h i m ' s l e a d e r s h i p , w ould have a r r a n g e d y e t a n o t h e r p e r f o r m a n c e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t J o a c h i m h i m s e l f was a p p a r e n t l y n o t i n f o r m e d , a t l e a s t i n w r i t i n g , o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n u n t i l A u g ust. On 4 A p r i l Brahms responded t o C l a r a ' s l e t t e r , t e l l i n g h e r t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o p l a y t h e new v e r s i o n i n p u b l i c f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e w i t h T a u s i g on t h e s e v e n t e e n t h , a t an e x t r a Singakademie c o n c e r t d e v o t e d t o Brahms's works. T a u s i g must have been most i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e Duo-P i a n o S o n a t a , f o r he had a p p a r e n t l y been b e g g i n g Brahms t o a l l o w him t o have i t f o r h i s own c o n c e r t s . The program o f 17 A p r i l was w e l l r e c e i v e d as a w h o l e , but t h e S o n a t a f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s r e p o r t e d l y made no i m p r e s s i o n on t h e a u d i e n c e . J u s t as t h e G minor P i a n o Q u a r t e t had been c a l l e d '"an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t t h e laws o f s t y l e ' " a f t e r i t s f i r s t p u b l i c p e r f o r m a n c e on 16 November 1862, so t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a was s u b j e c t e d t o f o o l i s h l y e x a g g e r a t e d c r i t i c i s m . The A l l g e m e i n e m u s i k a l i s c h e Z e i t u n g , n o r m a l l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o Brahms, c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e f i r s t movement was '"expanded beyond [ t h e 54 "Was Du m i r von Deinem Q u i n t e t t s c h r i e b s t , b e f r e i f e i c h n i c h t r e c h t ! Hast Du es a u f f i i h r e n l a s s e n , und i s t es d u r c h g e f a l i e n ? Und deswegen h a t t e s t Du e i n Duo d a r a u s gemacht? Es muss D i r s e l b s t doch i n s e i n e r u r s p r i i n g l i c h e n G e s t a l t oder v i e l m e h r im K l a n g e n i c h t behagt haben?" I b i d . "'"'in a l e t t e r w r i t t e n from Moscow on 17/24 A p r i l , C l a r a e x p r e s s e d h e r s u r p r i s e t h a t Brahms would p e r f o r m w i t h t h i s " k e t t l e - d r u m m e r " ( P a u k e r ) . See Brahms, C l a r a Schumann-Johannes Brahms B r i e f e , I : 450. An e x t r a c t from Brahms's l e t t e r of 4 A p r i l a p p e ars i n t h e Append i x , p. 1 Iff. l i m i t s o f ] p r o p r i e t y , " 1 and t h e second ' " i n d i s t i n c t , e n i g m a t i c d r e a m i n g , ' " w h i l e t h e l a s t two movements "'evoked t h e o p p r e s s e d mood of t h e l e c t u r e -56 room.'" Brahms was u n d e r s t a n d a b l y r e s e n t f u l o f t h e a u d i e n c e ' s r e a c -t i o n ; t h e work's f a i l u r e t o p l e a s e may have l e d him t o d e c i d e t h a t t h e medium o f two p i a n o s r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The Singakademie's s e a s o n came t o an end w i t h t h e a n n u a l f o u n d a t i o n c o n c e r t , p r e s e n t e d on 10 May. Brahms had become d i s h e a r t e n e d w i t h t h e more mundane a s p e c t s o f h i s work as a c o n d u c t o r , and f i n a l l y r e j e c t e d h i s r e - e l e c t i o n . I n June he r e t u r n e d t o Hamburg, where he was s a d l y o b l i g e d t o a r r a n g e h i s p a r e n t s ' i n e v i t a b l e s e p a r a t i o n . A n x i o u s t o d e v o t e f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e Sonata f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s , he i n v i t e d h i s f r i e n d A d o l f S c h u b r i n g " ^ t o spend a few days i n Hamburg, and o f f e r e d t o 58 send t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a , " w i t h w h i c h you can p r e p a r e y o u r s e l f . " S c h u b r i n g e v i d e n t l y was not a b l e t o come, so Brahms d i s p a t c h e d b o t h h i s own m a n u s c r i p t and t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t , w h i c h had been used f o r t h e f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e , t o C l a r a a t Baden-Baden i n J u l y . On 23 June she had r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e work be s e n t t o h e r so t h a t she m ight s t u d y i t and t h u s be f a m i l i a r w i t h i t when Brahms v i s i t e d h e r t h a t summer. She was ^ u " d i e b e i d e n l e t z t e n . . . ' d i e g e d r i i c k t e Stimmung des A u d i t o r i u m s w i e d e r a u f r i c h t e t e n . ' . . . der ' i i b e r d i e geb'uhr ausgadehnte e r s t e S a t z , . . . d i e verschwommene, u n v e r s t a n d l i c h e T r a u m e r e i des z w e i t e n . ' " Quoted by K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, I I / l : 60. See a l s o p. 105. The comment c o n c e r n i n g t h e P i a n o Q u a r t e t i s q u o t e d by P e t e r Latham, Brahms, The M a s t e r M u s i c i a n s S e r i e s , r e v . ed. (London: J . M. Dent, 1975), p. 40. ""^Under t h e c i p h e r DAS ( s t a n d i n g f o r Dr. A d o l f S c h u b r i n g ) , he con-t r i b u t e d a s e r i e s o f i n t e r e s t i n g e s s a y s t o m u s i c a l p e r i o d i c a l s , i n c l u d i n g Schumann's Neue Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r M u s i k . H i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h Brahms began i n 1856. See Brahms, Johannes Brahms im B r i e f w e c h s e l m i t J o s e p h  D i k t o r Widman, E l l e n und F e r d i n a n d D e t t e r , A d o l f S c h u b r i n g , h r s g . Max K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms B r i e f w e c h s e l V I I I ( B e r l i n : D e u t s c h e Brahms-G e s e l l s c h a f t m. b. H., 1915; r e p r i n t ed., T a t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1974). 58 "damit Du D i c h p r a p a r i e r e n k a n n s t . " See l e t t e r e v i d e n t l y w r i t t e n on 19 June i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p, 2 *V- 9' 28 a l s o eager t o t r y i t w i t h t h e c e l e b r a t e d R u s s i a n v i r t u o s o and composer A n t o n R u b i n s t e i n , whom she had met i n Moscow and who had now come t o Baden-Baden. C l a r a s e n t h e r t h a n k s f o r t h e Duo-Piano Sonata on 19 J u l y , a d d i n g t h a t she had worked h a r d w i t h i t f o r two days and had p l a y e d i t w i t h R u b i n s t e i n . She was n o t q u i t e as warm i n h e r p r a i s e f o r t h i s t r a n s c r i p -t i o n as she had been f o r t h e o r i g i n a l S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . The f i r s t movement i n p a r t i c u l a r charmed me, but r e a l l y I l o v e a l l t h e movements, o n l y h e r e and t h e r e I f i n d i n t h e arrangement some-t h i n g o v e r d o n e , and h a r d l y c o m p r e h e n s i b l e f o r t h e l i s t e n e r i f he i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h i t , [and] t h e n i t seems t o me v e r y d i f f i c u l t t e c h n i c a l l y h e r e and t h e r e . E v i d e n t l y Brahms had asked t h a t she keep t h e work f o r o n l y a s h o r t t i m e , and t h e n r e t u r n i t t o him so t h a t he c o u l d send i t t o a p u b l i s h e r . She c a u t i o n e d , don't you want t o w a i t w i t h t h e p r i n t i n g u n t i l we [have] p l a y e d i t a few t i m e s h e r e , where t h i s o r t h a t i n a d d i t i o n w i l l p e r h a p s o c c u r t o you y o u r s e l f . . . . I don't l i k e t o send i t , s i n c e I wanted t o p l a y i t a g a i n w i t h R u b i n s t e i n tomorrow.60 Four days l a t e r , C l a r a r e t u r n e d t h e work. She had been p l a y i n g i t w i t h Hermann Levi,^"'" c o n d u c t o r of t h e o p e r a house a t n e a r b y C a l r s r u h e , ~/J"der e r s t e S a t z n a m e n t l i c h e n t z i i e k t e m i c h , e i g e n t l i c h a b e r l i e b e i c h a l l e S a t z e , nur f i n d e i c h h i e r und da i n d e r B e a r b e i t u n g etwas s c h w i i l s t i g und f u r den Z u h o r e r w o h l kaum v e r s t a n d l i c h , wenn e r es n i c h t genau k e n n t , dann s c h e i n t es m i r h i e r und da s e h r schwer t e c h n i s c h . " See A p p e n d i x , p, 1 5 0 . 60 " W i l l s t Du n i c h t m i t dem D r u c k noch w a r t e n , b i s w i r es h i e r noch e i n i g e Male g e s p i e l t , wo D i r dann v i e l l e i c h t s e l b s t noch d i e s oder j e n e s a u f f & l l t . . . . I c h s c h i c k e es n i c h t g e r n , da i c h es n S c h s t e r Tage noch 'mal m i t R u b i n s t e i n s p i e l e n w o l l t e . " I b i d . ^ L e v i (1839-1900), who had s t u d i e d a t M u n i c h and a t t h e L e i p z i g C o n s e r v a t o r y , had been a g r e a t a d m i r e r o f Schumann's m u s i c , and had q u i c k l y become f a s c i n a t e d by t h a t o f Brahms. I n 1861 he had p a i d h i s r e s p e c t s t o Brahms i n Hamburg. The m a s t e r became r e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h h i s g i f t e d a d m i r e r a f t e r a r r i v i n g a t Baden-Baden i n J u l y of 1864, and t h e f r i e n d s h i p blossomed d u r i n g t h a t summer. For many y e a r s L e v i worked f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of Brahms's c o m p o s i t i o n s . I n 1872 he became m u s i c a l 29 and c o u l d no l o n g e r r e f r a i n from g i v i n g Brahms h e r t r u e i m p r e s s i o n o f i t : A t t h e f i r s t p l a y i n g I got t h e f e e l i n g of an a r r a n g e d work, b u t [ I ] t h o u g h t I was p r e j u d i c e d and s a i d n o t h i n g about i t . L e v i , however, s a i d t h e same t h i n g q u i t e d e c i d e d l y , w i t h o u t my h a v i n g u t t e r e d a word.62 E a r l i e r i n h e r l e t t e r she s u g g e s t e d t r a n s c r i b i n g i t f o r o r c h e s t r a : The work i s so w o n d e r f u l l y o u t s t a n d i n g , i n t e r e s t i n g t h r o u g h o u t . . . . , m a s t e r f u l i n e v e r y r e s p e c t , b u t — i t i s not a s o n a t a , but [ r a t h e r ] a work whose i d e a s you m i g h t — [ i n f a c t , you] m u s t ! — s t r e w , . . . o v e r t h e whole o r c h e s t r a . A m u l t i t u d e o f t h e most b e a u t i f u l i d e a s get l o s t on t h e p i a n o , [ b e i n g ] r e c o g n i z a b l e o n l y t o t h e m u s i c i a n [and] not e n j o y a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . . . . p'lease,, . . . f o l l o w [my a d v i c e ] j u s t t h i s once, [and] r e a r r a n g e t h e work once more.63 L i k e J o a c h i m , C l a r a knew t h a t Brahms c o u l d n o t " a c c e p t a n y t h i n g on h e a r s a y , " and was t h e r e f o r e a n x i o u s t h a t he b r i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t w i t h him when he came t o Baden-Baden. She c o u l d t h e n show him s p e c i f i c p l a c e s t o s u p p o r t h e r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e work s h o u l d be r e c a s t . A t t h e end of t h e t h i r d week i n J u l y , j u s t a few days a f t e r C l a r a had w r i t t e n t h i s l e t t e r , Brahms l e f t Hamburg. He p a i d a b r i e f v i s i t t o J o a c h i m , who had j u s t r e t u r n e d from a l e n g t h y s o j o u r n i n E n g l a n d , and t h e n h u r r i e d t o Baden-Baden, where he s u r p r i s e d C l a r a on t h e t h i r t y -d i r e c t o r of t h e Munich C o u r t Opera; as h i s fame as a Wagner c o n d u c t o r i n c r e a s e d i n t h e m i d - s e v e n t i e s , h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Brahms f o u n d e r e d . He was chosen by Wagner t o conduct t h e f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e s of P a r s i f a l a t B a y r e u t h i n 1882. 62 " I c h h a t t e g l e i c h beim e r s t e n Male S p i e l e n das G'efuhl e i n e s a r r a n g i e r t e n Werkes, g l a u b t e m i c h aber b e fangen und s a g t e es darum n i c h t . L e v i a b e r s p r a c h e s , ohne dass i c h e i n Wort g e s a g t , g l e i c h ganz e n t s c h i e d e n a u s . " See h e r l e t t e r o f 22 J u l y i n t h e Appendix,p.2.SO-63 "Das Werk i s t so w u n d e r v o l l g r o s s a r t i g , durchweg i n t e r r e s s a n t . . . , m e i s t e r h a f t i n j e d e r H i n s i c h t , a b e r — e s i s t k e i n e S o n a t a , s o n d e r n e i n Werk, d e s s e n Gedanken Du . . . l i b e r das ganze O r c h e s t e r a u s s t r e u e n k b n n t e s t — m u s s t e s t ! E i n e Menge d e r sch'onsten Gedanken gehen auf dem K l a v i e r v e r l o r e n , nur e r k e n n b a r f u r den M u s i k e r , f u r das P u b l i k u m u n g e n i e s s b a r . . . . b i t t e , . . . , f o l g e nur d i s e m a l , a r b e i t e das Werk nochmal urn." I b i d . 30 64 f i r s t . D o u b t l e s s he had h a s t e n e d t h e r e t o d i s c u s s h e r s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a t r a n s c r i p t i o n be made of t h e Sonata f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s . He s e t t l e d i n t o an i n n a t L i c h t e n t a l , and began f i n i s h i n g and r e v i s i n g t h e c o m p o s i -t i o n s he had b r o u g h t w i t h him, among them t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . ^ On 10 August C l a r a had t o l e a v e f o r a c o n c e r t t o u r o f S w i t z e r l a n d . She and Brahms had s u r e l y p l a y e d t h e Duo-Piano Sonata b e f o r e h e r d e p a r -t u r e , and i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o h e r on t h e f i f t e e n t h Brahms remarked c r y p t i c a l l y , "my d o u b l e - s o n a t a [Dbppel-Sonate] does n o t a p p e a r , and [ w i l l be] l o s t t o t h e whole w o r l d , i f my w r i t i n g - f i n g e r does n o t have 66 p a t i e n c e . " By t h i s he may have meant t h a t he had n o t y e t d e c i d e d what medium w o u l d be most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e new t r a n s c r i p t i o n , and had become so f r u s t r a t e d t h a t he was r e a d y t o s c r a p t h e i d e a e n t i r e l y . I t was perhaps a t t h i s t i m e t h a t he s e n t one of t h e m a n u s c r i p t s ( p r o b a b l y 67 t h e copy) t o J o a c h i m . He may not have t o l d h i s f r i e n d t h a t he was c o n s i d e r i n g making a n o t h e r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , f o r h i s l e t t e r o f 29 A u g u s t , r e q u e s t i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t ' s immediate r e t u r n , a s ked o n l y t h a t J o a c h i m comment b r i e f l y on t h e work and on t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f h a v i n g i t p r i n t e d . 68 64 A c c o r d i n g t o C l a r a ' s d i a r y . See L i t z m a n n , E i n K u n s t e r l e b e n , I I I : 159n. K a l b e c k g i v e s 30 J u l y as t h e d a t e of Brahms's a r r i v a l a t Baden-Baden. See Johannes Brahms, I I / l : 148. ^ S e e K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, I I / l : 154. ^ " m e i n e Doppel-Sonate s i c h n i c h t b l i c k e n l a s s t , und am Ende d e r Welt v e r l o r e n , wenn meine S c h r e i b f i n g e r k e i n e Geduld haben." See t h e A p p e n d i x , p.% 5 0. ^ A s a y o u t h , Brahms had c o n s i d e r e d J o a c h i m h i s s u p e r i o r as a com-p o s e r . Schumann and L i s z t a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d t h e v i o l i n i s t ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s . See K a r l G e i r i n g e r , Brahms: H i s L i f e and Work, 2nd ed., w i t h a new a p p e n d i x o f Brahms's l e t t e r s (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 ) , p. 32. I n 1855 Brahms had a r r a n g e d t o exchange c o n t r a p u n t a l e x e r c i s e s w i t h J o a c h i m , f o r m u t u a l c r i t i c i s m , h o p i n g i n t h i s way t o s t r e n g t h e n h i s t e c h n i q u e of c o m p o s i t i o n . The exchange t o o k p l a c e e v e r y ' t w o weeks, f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . 68 See Appendix,p, 1 5 I. 31 Of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s l e t t e r was w r i t t e n s h o r t l y a f t e r Brahms had spent a few days i n C a r l s r u h e a t t e n d i n g t h e t h i r d c o n g r e s s o f t h e A l l g e m e i n e d e u t s c h e M u s i k v e r e i n , 22-25 August 1864. He had s t a y e d w i t h L e v i , who had become a c l o s e f r i e n d d u r i n g t h e summer. E v i d e n t l y i t was L e v i h i m s e l f who s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e Sonata f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s be t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e medium of p i a n o q u i n -t e t . T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d n o t o n l y i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o Brahms a f t e r t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t had been c o m p l e t e d , but by t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t w h i c h K a l b e c k q u o t e s : I had a d v i s e d Brahms t o make a [ P i a n o ] Q u i n t e t out of t h e F m i n o r Sonata. He w r o t e t h e s c o r e i n t h e summer of 1865 [ s i c ] i n Baden-Baden and b r o u g h t i t t o me a t C a r l s r u h e . A l t h o u g h t h e y e a r i s o b v i o u s l y i n c o r r e c t , L e v i ' s use o f t h e word "summer" i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s s u g g e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n was p r o b a b l y made b e f o r e September. Indeed, i t c o u l d have been made w h i l e Brahms was i n C a r l s r u h e f o r t h e c o n g r e s s . I n any c a s e , Brahms's l e t t e r o f 29 August t o J o a c h i m i n d i c a t e s t h a t he was a n x i o u s t o p l a y t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a w i t h C l a r a a g a i n when she r e t u r n e d t o Baden-Baden i n e a r l y September. Perhaps he was a l s o p l a n n i n g t o a s k h e r o p i n i o n of L e v i ' s a d v i c e . From L e v i ' s comments, one g a t h e r s t h a t Brahms, h i s powers a t l a s t f i r e d by h i s f r i e n d ' s s u g g e s t i o n , may have t r a n s c r i b e d t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a v e r y q u i c k l y . A p p a r e n t l y he w r o t e t h e p a r t s f o r t h e s t r i n g e d 69 "'Aus d e r f - m o l l Sonate e i n Q u i n t e t t zu machen, h a t t e i c h Brahms g e r a t e n . E r s c h r i e b d i e P a r t i t u r im Sommer 1865 [ s i c ] und b r a c h t e s i e m i r n a c h K a r l s r u h e . ' " K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, I l / l : 59-60. I n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o Brahms a f t e r t h e new P i a n o Q u i n t e t had been t r i e d w i t h C l a r a and F e r d i n a n d D a v i d a t C a r l s r u h e and Mannheim, L e v i a l l u d e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t " I was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the new arrangement" ( i c h m i t  S c h u l d s e i an dem neuen A r r a n g e m e n t ) . See t h i s l e t t e r o f 9 November i n t h e Appendix,pp. 1 5 % } 2 J3 , 32 i n s t r u m e n t s i n s c o r e b u t , eager t o have t h e work p l a y e d as soon as p o s s i b l e , t o o k t i m e t o g i v e o n l y a s u g g e s t i o n of t h e p i a n o p a r t . He t h e n b r o u g h t t h e s c o r e t o C a r l s r u h e . L e v i r e c a l l e d t h a t we d i v i d e d t h e same amongst o u r s e l v e s i n t h r e e p o r t i o n s , and Brahms, [ F e r d i n a n d ] D a v i d and I w r o t e out t h e p a r t s d u r i n g a day and t h e f o l l o w i n g n i g h t . . . , so t h a t t h e p i e c e c o u l d be t r i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g day. (NB. [we c o p i e d t h e p a r t s f o r ] o n l y t h e s t r i n g e d i n s t r u m e n t s — B r a h m s p l a y e d t h e p i a n o p a r t f r o m a p e n c i l s k e t c h w h i c h he made h i m s e l f . ) 7 0 The t r a n s c r i p t i o n p r o b a b l y had n o t been c o m p l e t e d when C l a r a , now back a t Baden-Baden, w r o t e t o J o a c h i m on 15 September, f o r she s u r e l y w ould have m e n t i o n e d t h e new v e r s i o n . T h i s means t h a t t h e t r i a l p e r f o r m a n c e t o w h i c h L e v i a l l u d e d must have o c c u r r e d sometime between 71 t h a t d a t e and Brahms's d e p a r t u r e on 10 O c t o b e r . The composer may have f e l t c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l i e f a t h a v i n g f i n a l l y a c h i e v e d a h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s a r c h e t y p a l c o n c e p t , f o r he r e t u r n e d t o 72 V i e n n a w i t h a l i g h t h e a r t . ' u " ' W i r s c h n i t t e n d i e s e l b e i n d r e i T e i l e a u s e i n a n d e r , und Brahms, D a v i d und i c h s c h r i e b e n wahrend e i n e s Tages und d e r d a r a u f f o l g e n d e n Nacht . . . d i e Stimmen a u s , so dass das S t u c k am f o l g e n d e n Tage p r o b i e r t werden k o n n t e . (NB. nur d i e S t r e i c h i n s t r u m e n t s — d e n K l a v i e r - p a r t s p i e l t e Brahms nach e i n e r B l e i s t i f t s k i z z e , d i e e r s i c h machte.'" Quoted by K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, I I / l : 60 n. F e r d i n a n d D a v i d was c o n c e r t -m a s t er of t h e Gewandhaus O r c h e s t r a i n L e i p z i g f r o m 1836, and l e a d e r of t h e D a v i d Q u a r t e t . He was a c l o s e f r i e n d o f t h e c o n d u c t o r o f t h e o r c h e s t r a , M e n d e l s s o h n , and became one of t h e most i m p o r t a n t t e a c h e r s a t t h e C o n s e r v a t o r y e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e l a t t e r i n 1843. J o a c h i m had been one o f D a v i d ' s p u p i l s . ^ B r a h m s l e f t Baden-Baden on 6 O c t o b e r , b u t , a f t e r two days i n C a r l s r u h e , r e t u r n e d t o r e t r i e v e a t r u n k t h a t had a c c i d e n t a l l y been l e f t b e h i n d . He f i n a l l y d e p a r t e d from Baden-Baden on 10 O c t o b e r . See L i t z m a n n , E i n K u n s t l e r l e b e n , I I I : 164n. 72 I m m e d i a t e l y upon h i s a r r i v a l i n t h e A u s t r i a n c a p i t a l , he w r o t e t o C l a r a : " I was a b l e t o t r a v e l so h a p p i l y , my h e a r t was so f u l l o f l o v e and so f u l l o f j o y , t h a t a l l t h e heavy c l o u d s [ o f my t h o u g h t s ] v a n i s h e d " ( I c h k o n n t e so f r o h r e i s e n , das Herz war so v o l l L i e b e und so v o l l F r e u d e , dass a l l e d i e dumpfen Wolken doch geschwunden). See Brahms, C l a r a  Schumann—Johannes Brahms B r i e f e , I : 464. The l e t t e r i s d a t e d 13 October 1864. The w r i t i n g of the Piano Quintet was not the only project which occupied Brahms during his stay at Baden-Baden. In September he com-posed the f i r s t three movements of the String Sextet i n G major, Op. 73 36. Neither did he discard the Duo-Piano Sonata. Through Clara, he had become acquainted that summer with the Princess Anna von Hessen, hers e l f an accomplished musician. In a l e t t e r written to Levi many years l a t e r , the princess r e c a l l e d that she and Brahms had often made music together at Clara's house, and that he and Clara had played f o r 74 her the Sonata for Two Pianofortes. She must have expressed great enthusiasm for i t , since Brahms evidently t o l d Clara, before leaving on 10 October, that he wanted to dedicate the work to h i s r o y a l f r i e n d . Clara mentioned the matter to the princess a day or so l a t e r , and informed Brahms, i n a l e t t e r dated 15 October, that she had expressed "a t r u l y c h i l d l i k e joy" 7"' at the idea, and had asked whether she would receive the f i r s t copy of the work. According to the princess' l e t t e r to L e v i , Brahms subsequently sent her the manuscript of the Duo-Piano Sonata; t h i s must have been the copyist's manuscript, of which the t i t l e page bears the dedication. 73 According to Kalbeck, Johannes Brahms, II/2: 160. 74 This l e t t e r , written on 23 June 1899, i s quoted by Kalbeck, i b i d . , p. 62n. See also the princess' l e t t e r to Clara, dated 19 August 1864, i n Litzmann, E i n Kunstlerleben, I I I : 160-61. 7 ^ " e i n e wahrhaft kin d l i c h e Freude." See t h i s l e t t e r of 15 October i n the Appendix, p. . Brahms's English biographer Florence May states that the composer asked permission to dedicate the Duo-Piano Sonata to the princess the day a f t e r i t was played for her. See The  L i f e of Johannes Brahms, 2nd ed., rev. by the author ( o r i g i n a l l y pub. 1905), with an Introduction by Ralph H i l l , 2 v o l s . (London: W. Reeves, [1948]), I I : 360-61. However, Clara's l e t t e r of 15 October indicates that the matter was not brought to the princess' a t t e n t i o n u n t i l a f t e r Brahms had l e f t Baden-Baden. 34 Upon h i s r e t u r n t o V i e n n a , Brahms must have s e t about f i n i s h i n g t h e s k e t c h e d p i a n o p a r t o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t and making any r e f i n e m e n t s t h a t he f e l t were n e c e s s a r y i n t h e s t r i n g p a r t s . He had e x p e c t e d t o be a b l e t o send t h e c o m p l e t e d work t o C l a r a a t t h e end o f O c t o b e r , b u t was b o t h e r e d by v a r i o u s i n t e r r u p t i o n s : F o r a c o u p l e o f days I have been s p e n d i n g e v e r y q u i e t hour a t t h e Q u i n t e t i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o send i t t o you. But I am never, a l l o w e d a moment's peace, . . . . . . I am so s o r r y t h a t I cannot p r o d u c e t h e f i n i s h e d Q u i n t e t f o r you t o d a y , but j u s t now I have a b s o l u t e l y no p e a c e . ^ At some p o i n t , C l a r a i n f o r m e d P r i n c e s s Anna t h a t t h e Duo-Piano Sonata had been t u r n e d i n t o a P i a n o Q u i n t e t w h i c h was a l s o d e d i c a t e d t o h e r , and of w h i c h she would r e c e i v e t h e f i r s t copy. A t C l a r a ' s s u g g e s t i o n , t h e p r i n c e s s d e c i d e d t o e x p r e s s h e r a p p r e c i a t i o n by p r e s e n t i n g Brahms w i t h t h e a u t o g r a p h s c o r e of M o z a r t ' s G m i n o r Symphony, K. 550. I t was i n h i s hands by e a r l y D e c e m b e r , ^ and he c o n s i d e r e d i t t h e g r e a t e s t . t r e a s u r e i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f a u t o g r a p h s . C l a r a t a n t a l i z i n g l y h i n t e d a t t h e g i f t i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n e a r l y i n November. I n t h i s same l e t t e r , d a t e d 3 November, C l a r a d e l i g h t e d l y acknow-l e d g e d t h e a r r i v a l o f " t h e m a g n i f i c e n t [ P i a n o ] Q u i n t e t " (das h e r r l i c h e ' u " S e i t e i n p a a r Tagen s i t z e i c h j e d e r u h i g e Stunde, das Q u i n t e t t Euch s c h i c k e n zu kbnnen. Aber man l a s s t es n i e e i n e Stunde werden." See Appendix,p, 151. 77 See C l a r a ' s l e t t e r o f 7 December (begun on 5 December) i n Appen-d i x , p. . Brahms was an a v i d c o l l e c t o r o f a u t o g r a p h s , and a c q u i r e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o M o z a r t ' s m a s t e r p i e c e , m a n u s c r i p t s by Haydn, B e e t h o v e n , C h o p i n , M e n d e l s s o h n , S t r a u s s , and Wagner. See K a r l and I r e n e G e i r i n g e r , "The Brahms L i b r a r y i n t h e ' G e s e l l s c h a f t d e r M u s i k f r e u n d e , ' Wien," M u s i c L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n Notes XXX/1 ( S e p t . 1973): 12, and K a r l G e i r i n g e r , "Brahms as a Reader and C o l l e c t o r , " The M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y XIX/1 ( J a n . 1933): 163. F o r an e n u m e r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f Brahms's e n t i r e l i b r a r y , see K u r t Hofmann, D i e B i b l i o t h e k v o n Johannes Brahms; Bucherund M u s i k a l i e n v e r z e i c h n i s (Hamburg: K a r l D i e t e r Wagner, 1974). Q u i n t e t t ) . She had h u r r i e d t o C a r l s r u h e t o show i t t o L e v i and D a v i d , who had begun c o p y i n g [ i t ] as i f n a i l e d [ t o t h e i r c h a i r s ] , . . . L e v i t e l l s me how w o n d e r f u l l y i t i s s c o r e d . . . . I can s t a y h e r e a few more d a y s , and on Sunday morning we want t o t r y i t a t L e v i ' s . 7 8 Thus, C l a r a , L e v i , and D a v i d t r i e d t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e 79 on 6 November 1864, w i t h t h e i r m u t u a l f r i e n d J u l i u s A l l g e y e r as a c a p t i v a t e d l i s t e n e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t no one e l s e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e , f o r b o t h C l a r a and L e v i p o s t p o n e d w r i t i n g about t h e work u n t i l t h e y had p l a y e d i t a g a i n " w i t h b e t t e r f o r c e s , a t l e a s t 80 [ w i t h ] a b e t t e r f i r s t v i o l i n . " T h i s t h e y d i d a t Mannheim t h e f o l l o w i n g Tuesday, where t h e y 81 e n l i s t e d t h e h e l p of an e x c e l l e n t v i o l i s t by t h e name o f K o n i n g . L e t t e r s w r i t t e n t h e n e x t day by L e v i and t h e day a f t e r by C l a r a were f u l l o f p r a i s e f o r t h i s l a t e s t t r a n s c r i p t i o n . L e v i t h o u g h t i t " i n c o m p a r a b l y b e a u t i f u l , " w h i l e C l a r a e x c l a i m e d , "we . . . c e l e b r a t e d h o u rs o f r a p t u r e ! " She found t h e f i r s t t h r e e movements " w o n d e r f u l 7 8 " s i t z e n w i e a n g e n a g e l t beim K o p i e r e n , . . . L e v i e r z a h l t m i r , w i e w u n d e r v o l l es i n s t r u m e n t i e r t s e i . . . . i c h noch e i n i g e Tage h i e r b l e i b e n kann, und am Sonntag morgen w o l l e n w i r es b e i L e v i p r o b i e r e n . " See A p p e n d i x , p. 2 51-79 Brahms had come t o know t h i s c o p p e r p l a t e e n g r a v e r and p h o t o -g r a p h e r when t h e l a t t e r had been a p u p i l of t h e e n g r a v e r K e l l e r a t D u s s e l d o r f i n 1854. The two had renewed t h e i r a c q u a i n t a n c e and become good f r i e n d s d u r i n g t h e months Brahms s p e n t a t Baden-Baden i n 1864. 80 " m i t b e s s e r e n k r a f t e n , w e n i g s t e n s e i n e r b e s s e r e n e r s t e n G e i g e . " See C l a r a ' s l e t t e r o f 10 November i n t h e A p p e n d i x , pp. 2.53, IS>i. 81 I n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n 10 J u l y 1863, C l a r a had d e s c r i b e d K o n i n g as "a f i r s t - c l a s s p l a y e r ( V i o l a ) " (einem v o r t r e f f l i c h e n S p i e l e r  [ V i o l a ] ) . See L i t z m a n n , E i n K u n s t l e r l e b e n , I I I : 142. 36 Q O t h r o u g h o u t (a c o u p l e of q u i t e s m a l l p l a c e s e x c e p t e d ) . " L e v i made a few s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g d e t a i l s o f s c o r i n g and e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e s e movements (see C h a p t e r V I ) , a p o l o g i z i n g t h a t "a r e a l K a p e l l m e i s t e r , as 83 y o u know, cannot e a s i l y l e a v e s o m e t h i n g u n p i c k e d . " I n some i n s t a n c e s , Brahms f o l l o w e d h i s a d v i c e . A l t h o u g h o b v i o u s l y d e l i g h t e d w i t h t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t i n g e n e r a l , b o t h L e v i and C l a r a e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a few a l t e r a t i o n s were r e q u i r e d i n t h e l a s t movement. L e v i f e l t t h e need o f a speedy, b r i l l i a n t . . . c l o s i n g ; what now f o l l o w s [ a f t e r t h e f o r t i s s i m o c h o r d a t measure 403] g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f [ b e i n g ] l a b o r e d , d e l i b e r a t e ; . . . But we have a l r e a d y spoken enough o f t h i s f a c e - t o - f a c e . . . . i f , as I b e l i e v e [ i s t r u e ] i n t h i s c a s e , e v e r y m u s i c i a n o r a f r i e n d s u c h as J o a c h i m s a y s t h e same t h i n g , t h e n don't s p a r e t h e e f f o r t , and change and r e d u c e t h e l a s t 4 p a g e s . ^ C l a r a echoed L e v i ' s c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s movement:' "There a r e j u s t a few 85 p l a c e s where t h e work f a l l s so v e r y d r y l y on one's warm h e a r t ! " D e s p i t e L e v i ' s u r g i n g , Brahms n e v e r r e d u c e d t h e l a s t few p a g es, nor d i d he a l t e r t h e f i n a l e ' s second theme, w h i c h C l a r a c o n s i d e r e d t o """^"iiber a l l e Maassen [ i . e . , Massen] schb'n," ( L e v i , l e t t e r d a t e d 9 November; see A p p e n d i x , p.2.5"2.) " w i r . . . haben Wonnestunden g e f e i e r t ! " ( C l a r a , l e t t e r d a t e d 10 November; see A p p e n d i x , p.25"ty.) "durchweg w u n d e r v o l l ( e i n p a a r ganz k l e i n e S t e l l e n ausgenommen)." ( C l a r a , i b i d . ) 83 " e i n r i c h t i g e r K a p e l l m e i s t e r kann b e k a n n t l i c h n i c h t l e i c h t etwas u n g e r u p f t l a s s e n . " See Appendix,p, % 5 %. 84, 'das B e d i i r f n i s s e i n e s b a l d i g e n b r i l l a n t e n . . . S c h l u s s e s ; was s p c i t e r kommt, macht den E i n d r u c k des G e a r b e i t e t e n , A b s i c h t l i c h e n ; . . . Doch d a r u b e r haben w i r m u n d l i c h schon genug g e s p r o c h e n . . . . wenn a b e r , w i e i c h i n diesem F a l l e g l a u b e , a l l e M u s i k e r oder e i n Freund w i e J o a c h i m d a s s e l b e sagen, so scheue d i e Miihe n i c h t und v e r a n d e r e und r e d u z i e r e d i e 4 l e t z t e n S e i t e n . " See A p p e n d i x , pp. 1 5 1, 1 53. 85 "es s i n d da so e i n i g e S t e l l e n , wo einem d i e A r b e i t gar so t r o c k e n auf das warme Herz f a l l t ! " See Appendix,p. 2. 5 If. 37 86 be t o o s l o w and l a c k i n g i n " r e a l t e n s i o n . " T h i s was t h e theme w i t h 87 w h i c h J o a c h i m had " s t i l l n o t made f r i e n d s " i n t h e two-piano v e r s i o n . He may not have seen t h e P i a n o Quintet, o r even have been i n f o r m e d of i t s e x i s t e n c e , u n t i l he v i s i t e d Brahms a t Baden-Baden i n t h e l a t e 88 summer o r e a r l y f a l l o f 1865. By t h a t t i m e , Brahms had s e n t t h e work t o be engraved. C l a r a had c o n c l u d e d h e r l e t t e r by t e l l i n g Brahms t h a t t h e P i a n o Quintet would be r e t u r n e d by L e v i . The l a t t e r , however, made i t a p r a c t i c e t o copy out w i t h c a r e a new work w h i c h Brahms s e n t t o him on 89 a p p r o v a l , and t o r e t u r n t h i s copy i n s t e a d o f t h e a u t o g r a p h m a n u s c r i p t . Brahms, i n g r a t i t u d e , o f t e n a l l o w e d h i s f r i e n d t o keep t h e a u t o g r a p h . 90 K a l b e c k b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s happened i n t h e c a s e o f t h e P i a n o Quintet. 8 6 " k e i n rechter Zug." Ibid. ,p. 2 5 If. 87 When, at the beginning of September 1864, Joachim returned the Duo-Piano Sonata manuscript that Brahms had sent him, he alluded to "the second theme of the l a s t movment, with which I have s t i l l not made fr i e n d s " (das zweite Motive des l e t z t e n Satzes . . . , mit dem i c h mich  noch immer nicht bef reunde) . Ibid.,p, 2.51. 88 There i s , u n t i l t h i s time, no mention of the Piano Quintet i n the correspondence published i n the Brahms Briefwechsel VI, nor i s there any i n the Bickley c o l l e c t i o n of Joachim's L e t t e r s . 89 Levi l a t e r wrote to Kalbeck: "'Whenever he [Brahms] sends me new works on approval, I copy the same c a r e f u l l y , send him the copies and keep the manuscripts for myself. In t h i s way I have come to possess a whole p i l e of manuscripts.'" (Wenn er mir neue Werke zur Ansicht  schickte, so schrieb i c h dieselben sauberlich ab, schickte ihm die Kopien  und b e h i e l t die Manuskripte fur mich. Auf diese Weise bin i c h i n den  Besitz eines ganzen Stosses von Handschriften gelangt.) Quoted by Kalbeck i n Johannes Brahms, I I / l : 155ny. and by Leopold Schmidt, ed., i n Johannes Brahms im Briefwechsel mit Hermann L e v i , F r i e d r i c k Gernsheim  sowie den Familien Hecht und F e l l i n g e r , Johannes Brahms Briefwechsel VII ( B e r l i n : Deutsche Brahms-Gesellschaft m. b. H., 1910; r e p r i n t ed., Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1974), p. 20n. 90, 'Brahms l e f t the manuscript with L e v i , who took care of the copy-ing [by w r i t i n g i t ] with h i s own hand, and for t h i s was permitted to keep the manuscript" (Brahms Uberliess das Manuskript L e v i , der die Kopiaturen  meist eigenhandig zu desorgen pflegte und dafiir die Manuskripte  zurtlckbehalten diirf te) . See Kalbeck, Johannes Brahms, I I / l : 155. 38 The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t L e v i k e p t t h e a u t o g r a p h f o r a t i m e i s not n e g a t e d by h i s November l e t t e r , i n w h i c h he remarked, make s u r e t h a t I get t h e p r i n t e d [ s c o r e ] as soon as p o s s i b l e . Whenever you have something r e a d y , send i t h e r e t o me; ( i f n o t t o t h e f r i e n d , t h e n t o t h e c o p y i s t ? ) 9 1 However, i t seems t h a t he had r e t u r n e d t h e a u t o g r a p h by t h e f o l l o w i n g F e b r u a r y a t t h e l a t e s t , f o r he i n q u i r e d i n a l e t t e r d a t e d t h e f o u r t h o f 92 t h a t month, "what's h a p p e n i n g w i t h t h e Q u i n t e t ? " C l a r a had asked t h e same q u e s t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e l a s t movement, i n two l e t t e r s w r i t t e n 93 i n December. 1865 I n J a n u a r y Brahms f i n i s h e d t h e W a l t z e s , Op. 39, f o r p i a n o d u e t , w h i c h had been w r i t t e n o v e r a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l y e a r s . On t h e second day of F e b r u a r y he r e c e i v e d a t e l e g r a m from h i s b r o t h e r , summoning h i m t o t h e i r mother's s i d e . By t h e t i m e he r e a c h e d Hamburg, she was dead. Q u i e t l y he r e t u r n e d t o V i e n n a and resumed h i s work on E i n d e u t s c h e s Requiem,.which had remained i n a p r e p a r a t o r y s t a g e d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g 94 f o u r y e a r s . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f May he was on h i s way t o C a r l s r u h e , and by t h e s e v e n t h o f t h e month had a r r i v e d a t Baden-Baden. D u r i n g t h i s u n u s u a l l y l o n g s o j o u r n a t t h e s p a , Brahms d e v o t e d much o f h i s t i m e t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e Requiem. He a l s o c r e a t e d a new 91 " S o r g e , dass i c h r e c h t b a l d d i e g e d r u c k t e n bekomme. Wenn Du etwas f e r t i g h a s t , s c h i c k e es m i r h i e r h e r ; (wenn n i c h t dem F r e u n d e , doch dem C o p i s t e n ? ) " See A p p e n d i x , p. 25"3> 92 "Was macht das Q u i n t e t t . " See A p p e n d i x , p. % 5ty. 93 I b i d . 94 See G e i r i n g e r , Brahms, p. 310. work, t h e T r i o f o r V i o l i n , H o r n , and P i a n o f o r t e i n E - f l a t m a j o r , Op. 40. T h i s was w r i t t e n i n May, a l o n g w i t h t h e l a s t movement o f t h e G major S t r i n g S e x t e t ; t h e f i n a l e o f t h e E mi n o r C e l l o Sonata appeared i n June. I t was perhaps i n J u l y t h a t Brahms t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f i n a l r e v i s i n g o f b o t h t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t and t h e V a r i a t i o n s on a Theme by P a g a n i n i , b o t h o f w h i c h were s e n t t o a p u b l i s h e r on t h e t w e n t y - s e c o n d o f t h a t month. They were d i s p a t c h e d n o t t o B r e i t k o p f & H S r t e l , t o whom Brahms had mentioned t h e V a r i a t i o n s and t h e Sonata f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s as e a r l y as 27 F e b r u a r y 1864, but t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n . I n t h e accom-p a n y i n g l e t t e r , Brahms asked t h a t t h e e n g r a v i n g be h a s t e n e d so t h a t he might r e c e i v e a u s a b l e copy o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t as soon as p o s s i b l e . He was e x p e c t i n g J o a c h i m t o come t o Baden-Baden, and wanted h i s f r i e n d 96 t o h ear i t . However, a copy c o u l d n o t have a r r i v e d i n t i m e f o r Joachim's v i s i t , s i n c e Brahms d i d not r e c e i v e even t h e g a l l e y - p r o o f s 97 u n t i l s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e spa a t t h e end o f O c t o b e r . He q u i t e l i k e l y c o r r e c t e d t h e p r o o f s o f t h e s c o r e o n l y , f o r i n h i s J u l y l e t t e r t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n he admonished: "NB. The [ s t r i n g ] p a r t s 95 A c c o r d i n g t o K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, I I / l : 185, 160, 190. 96 E a r l i e r l e t t e r s t h a t must have been exchanged by Brahms and h i s Swiss p u b l i s h e r c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e works have not been p u b l i s h e d , o r a r e n o t e x t a n t . 97 A c c o r d i n g t o a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by Brahms t o h i s f a t h e r on 21 O c t o b e r , he p l a n n e d t o l e a v e L i c h t e n t a l around t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t h o f t h e month. Quoted by K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, I I / l : 200. The g a l l e y - p r o o f s had j u s t a r r i v e d when Brahms was w r i t i n g a l e t t e r t o Gansbacher, i n w h i c h he remarked t h a t he e x p e c t e d t o be i n C a r l s r u h e i n f o u r t e e n d a y s ' t i m e . S i n c e he gave a c o n c e r t t h e r e w i t h L e v i on 3 November, t h e l e t t e r t o Gansbacher must have been w r i t t e n a few days b e f o r e 20 O c t o b e r . Ibid.,p. 2 5 5. 40 98 must s t i l l be c o r r e c t e d a f t e r t h e s c o r e . " I n t h i s same l e t t e r , Brahms had s u g g e s t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p u b l i s h i n g t h e two-piano v e r s i o n "as [a] 'Sonata f o r 2 P i a n o s ' " ( a l s 'Sonate f u r 2 K l a v i e r e ' ) . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t o me and everyone who [has] p l a y e d o r h e a r d i t , i t h a s , a f t e r a l l , a s p e c i a l a p p e a l i n t h i s f o r m , and might be v e r y w e l l r e c e i v e d as an i n t e r e s t i n g work f o r 2 p i a n o s . I n any c a s e I can g i v e you a 4-hand [ o n e - p i a n o ] arrangement [ o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t ] (but f o r l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n ) . 9 9 U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , he was c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d v e r s i o n of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t have t i m e t o become known b e f o r e t h e arrangement appeared. He may have been i n t e n d i n g t o w r i t e t h i s arrangement h i m s e l f , b u t e v i d e n t l y d i d not f i n d t i m e t o do so. I t was n o t u n t i l s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r t h a n K i r c h n e r was chosen, s e e m i n g l y n o t by Brahms, as t h e a r r a n g e r . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g a s e r i e s o f v e r y s u c c e s s f u l r e c i t a l s i n Mannheim, S w i t z e r l a n d , and C a r l s r u h e , Brahms j o u r n e y e d i n mid-December t o Hamburg, t o meet h i s f a t h e r ' s f i a n c e e . He p a s s e d t h e C h r i s t m a s week a t Detmold and D u s s e l d o r f . 1866-69 A f t e r s p e n d i n g New Y e a r ' s w i t h t h e D i e t r i c h s a t O l d e n b u r g , Brahms a r r i v e d back a t Hamburg on t h e e l e v e n t h of J a n u a r y f o r a l o n g e r v i s i t . He found t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t w a i t i n g f o r him, and s e n t h i s t h a n k s t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n t h e f o l l o w i n g day, a s k i n g t o be 98 "NB. D i e stimmen vom ' Q u i n t e t t ' miissen noch n a c h d e r P a r t i t u r k o r r i g i e r t werden." See Appendix,p.% 55 . 99 "Es i s t m i r und a l i e n , d i e es g e s p i e l t oder g e h o r t , doch e i n m a l b e s o n d e r s l i e b i n d i e s e r G e s t a l t , iind mochte e i n i n t e r e s s a n t e s Werk f u r 2 K l a v i e r e doch w o h l g e r n empfangen werden. E i n 4 h a n d i g e s Arrangement kann i c h Ihnen j e d e n f a l l s ( f U r s p a t e r e Herausgabe j e d o c h ) geben." I b i d . ,p.ZSS. 41 n o t i f i e d i f P r i n c e s s Anna acknowledged t h e r e c e i p t of t h e f i r s t c o p y . ^ ^ No doubt t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p u b l i s h i n g t h e Sona t a f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s was s t i l l i n h i s mind, and he f e l t t h a t a few words f r o m t h e p r i n c e s s would g i v e him t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s k f o r t h e r e t u r n o f t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t w h i c h he had e n t r u s t e d t o h e r i n 1864. The p r i n c e s s , how-e v e r , must have been e x t r e m e l y r e l u c t a n t t o p a r t w i t h i t , f o r Brahms's e f f o r t s t o o b t a i n i t were t o p r o v e f r u i t l e s s u n t i l September o f 1871."^''' The V i e n n e s e p r e m i e r e o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t was t o have been g i v e n by t h e H e l l m e s b e r g e r Q u a r t e t , a s s i s t e d by C l a r a Schumann, a t t h e b e g i n -n i n g o f F e b r u a r y 1866. As e a r l y as Oc t o b e r o f 1864, Brahms had l e t i t be known, t h r o u g h a l e t t e r t o Gansbacher, t h a t t h e work would be a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f e i t h e r H e l l m e s b e r g e r o r t h e v i o l i n i s t F e r d i n a n d Laub, whose q u a r t e t was c h a l l e n g i n g H e l l m e s b e r g e r ' s v i r t u a l monopoly on q u a r t e t -p l a y i n g i n V i e n n a . The P i a n o Q u i n t e t was a c c e p t e d by t h e H e l l m e s b e r g e r group s i m p l y , as i t t u r n e d o u t , t o make i t u n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e Laub Q u a r t e t . F o r months i t was on H e l l m e s b e r g e r ' s program o f Sunday, 4 F e b r u a r y , a l o n g w i t h t h e Horn T r i o . However, on t h e F r i d a y b e f o r e t h e c o n c e r t , H e l l m e s b e r g e r d e c i d e d t h a t t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t would not be 102 p e r f o r m e d . I t d i d n o t r e c e i v e a p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n V i e n n a u n t i l 16 " ^ S e e l e t t e r e v i d e n t l y w r i t t e n on 12 J a n u a r y , i n A p p e n d i x , p. 2 55. "'"^ "'"See h i s l e t t e r s t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n o f 13 November 1868, and 15 October 1870, i n A p p e n d i x , p.256 . The l e t t e r s t o t h e p r i n c e s s h e r -s e l f have n o t , a p p a r e n t l y , been p u b l i s h e d . W i l h e l m A l tmann was i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e y were not i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f h e r f a m i l y ; see h i s a r t i c l e " E n t s t e h u n g s g e s c h i c h t e v on Brahms' op. 34," D i e M u s i k w e l t , M o n a t s h e f t e f u r Oper und K o n z e r t I I / 9 (1 J u n e , 1922): 19n. Altmann remarked t h a t t h e l e t t e r s a p p a r e n t l y were n o t p r e s e r v e d , " a t l e a s t n ot i n t h e f a m i l y a r c h i v e s o f t h e Landg r a v e s o f Hesse, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " ( w e n i g s t e n s n i c h t i n dem F a m i l i e n a r c h i v d e r  L a n d g r a f e n von Hessen nach M i t t e i l u n g d e r V e r w a l t u n g ) . 102 See K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, I I / l : 198-99, 228n., and C l a r a ' s l e t t e r t o Brahms o f 4 F e b r u a r y 1866, i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. 255". See a l s o Brahm's l e t t e r t o Gansbacher, o f f e r i n g t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t t o e i t h e r 42 December 1875, when t h e p i a n i s t J u l i u s E p s t e i n p l a y e d i t w i t h H e l l m e s -b e r g e r s q u a r t e t . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c may, l i k e H e l l m e s b e r g e r , have f a i l e d i n i t i a l l y t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . I n a l e t t e r t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n d a t e d 28 O c t o b e r 1869, Brahms remarked t h a t he had r e c e n t l y p l a y e d i t i n C a r l s r u h e , and added, " i f t h e a u d i e n c e s everywhere were so w e l l - d i s p o s e d 104 toward me and t h e work, I would go on t o u r w i t h i t . " E v i d e n t l y he was n o t accustomed t o f i n d i n g t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t so warmly r e c e i v e d . C l a r a and J o a c h i m , however, were t o meet w i t h b r i l l i a n t s u c c e s s when t h e y p e r f o r m e d i t i n London on 3 A p r i l 1 8 7 6 . ^ ^ 1870 By June of 1870, K i r c h n e r had a p p a r e n t l y been engaged t o make t h e p i a n o - d u e t arrangement of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . The c h o i c e had s e e m i n g l y n o t been made by Brahms, f o r he v e r y p o l i t e l y e x p r e s s e d h i s d i s p l e a s u r e i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n on t h e t w e n t i e t h o f t h a t month: Between o u r s e l v e s : I am not p a r t i c u l a r l y g l a d t h a t he [ K i r c h n e r ] i s a r r a n g i n g my " Q u i n t e t , " s i n c e I have my s p e c i a l f o n d n e s s e s f o r t h e 4-hand p r i n c i p l e — w h i c h h i s a 4 ms [ i . e . , h i s arrangements a 4 mains] do n o t g i v e me. But s i n c e one knows [how] t o v a l u e H e l l m e s b e r g e r o r Laub, on p.255 of t h e A p p e n d i x . 103 W i l l i a m Murdoch s t a t e s t h a t t h e f i r s t p u b l i c p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t t o o k p l a c e i n t h e S a l l e E r a r d , P a r i s , on 24 March 1868. The p i a n i s t was L o u i s e J a p h a , whom Brahms had known d u r i n g h i s boyhood i n Hamburg. See Brahms; w i t h an A n a l y t i c a l Study o f t h e Complete  P i a n o f o r t e Works (London: R i c h & Cowan, 1933), p. 362. C u r i o u s l y , s u c h a p e r f o r m a n c e i s n o t m entioned i n any o t h e r s o u r c e c o n s u l t e d by me. 104,, "Wenn d i e Z u h b r e r a l l e r O r t e n so g i i t i g gegen m i c h und das S t u c k waren, wiirde i c h damit r e i s e n . " See Appendix,p. Z5l>. See t h e l e t t e r w r i t t e n by C l a r a t h e day a f t e r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , i n Brahms, C l a r a Schumann-Johannes Brahms B r i e f e I I . 43 b e i n g a r r a n g e d so c r e d i t a b l y — I would a s k most of a l l t h a t you don't h u r r y him. Maybe t h i s i s enough..l06 Indeed, K i r c h n e r was not h u r r i e d , f o r t h e arrangement was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l f o u r t e e n y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1884. On 15 O c t o b e r , a few months a f t e r Brahms had s e n t t h e l e t t e r f r o m w h i c h t h e above e x t r a c t i s t a k e n , he w r o t e a g a i n t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n , t h i s t i m e c o n c e r n i n g t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . He had r e t u r n e d t o V i e n n a from h i s summer v i s i t a t Baden-Baden, and a l t h o u g h t h e c o p y i s t ' s manu-s c r i p t o f t h i s work was s t i l l n o t i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n , he was o p t i m i s t i c t h a t he would soon have i t . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , he s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e t i t l e s h o u l d be Sonata f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s , whereas he had e a r l i e r r e f e r r e d t o i t as t h e Sonata f o r Two P i a n o s . He f u r t h e r p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e words " a f t e r t h e ' Q u i n t e t ' " appear below t h e t i t l e . The opus number, however, p r e s e n t e d a p r o b l e m and Brahms s i m p l y w r o t e a q u e s t i o n mark i n i t s p l a c e . H e s t r o n g l y a d v i s e d a g a i n s t t h e making o f a f o u r -hand ( o n e - p i a n o ) arrangement, r e m a r k i n g t h a t i t would be " e x t r e m e l y u n c o m f o r t a b l e , u n p l a y a b l e and o b s c u r e . " The work s h o u l d , he s a i d , be p r i n t e d n o t as two s e p a r a t e p a r t s , b u t as a s i n g l e s c o r e . Thus t h e i U U " U n t e r uns: freue i c h mich nicht besonders, dass er mein 'Quintett' arrangiert, da i c h fur den 4 handigen Satz meine besonderen Liebhabereien h a b e — d i e mir seine a 4 ms nicht geben. Da man aber so ehrenvolles Arrangiertwerden doch zu schStzen w e i s s — s o wiirde i c h hbchstens b i t t e n : dass Sie ihn nicht treiben. V i e l l e i c h t genugt das schon." See Appendix,p. Z 5b. "^^Whereas a couple of years l a t e r Brahms was to designate the two equal versions of the Haydn Var i a t i o n s as Op. 56a and Op. 56b, the fact that the Piano Quintet had already been published as simply "Op. 34" made such a s o l u t i o n impossible. He evidently did not wish to c a l l the duo-piano ver s i o n "Op. 34a," as t h i s would imply an i n f e r i o r v e r s i o n of Op. 34; he had, for example, allowed the L i e b e s l i e d e r Waltzes for piano duet (without the vocal parts) to appear as Op. 52a. 44 108 c o m p o s i t i o n w o u l d s t a n d i n i t s e n t i r e t y b e f o r e b o t h p l a y e r s . 1871-72 The n e x t y e a r , d u r i n g h i s u s u a l summer v i s i t a t Baden-Baden, Brahms f i n a l l y succeeded i n o b t a i n i n g t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e Duo-Piano Son a t a f r o m t h e d e d i c a t e e . T r i u m p h a n t l y he w r o t e t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n on 23 September 1871, " I have . . . managed t o be a b l e t o send you our ' Q u i n t e t ' [ i . e . , t h e two-piano v e r s i o n ] , " a d d i n g i n e x a s p e r a t i o n , " I ' l l n e v e r l e a v e a m a n u s c r i p t w i t h p r i n c e s s e s a g a i n ! " He r e i t e r a t e d h i s r e q u e s t t h a t t h e work be p r i n t e d i n s c o r e , and a g a i n emphasized t h e i m p r a c t i c a l i t y o f a p i a n o - d u e t arrangement, " f o r t h i s [work] i s a l w a y s 109 p l a y e d w i t h much p a s s i o n . " N o t h i n g was s a i d c o n c e r n i n g t h e opus number. I n h i s r e s p o n s e , R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n must have s u g g e s t e d two d i f f e r -ent t i t l e s , perhaps i n c l u d i n g opus numbers, f o r t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . Brahms, s t i l l a t Baden-Baden, r e p l i e d : " T i t l e No. 1 u n f o r t u n a t e l y does n o t seem q u i t e r i g h t t o me now, [but we may use] a p p r o x i m a t e l y No. 2.""^^ Thus, t h e r e i s no d e f i n i t e e v i d e n c e i n t h e p u b l i s h e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e as t o whether i t was Brahms o r h i s p u b l i s h e r who s u g g e s t e d t h a t " b i s " be appended t o t h e opus number t h a t had been g i v e n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . T h i s 108 " a u s s e r s t unbequem, u n s p i e l b a r und u n d e u t l i c h . " See A p p e n d i x , p. 254. Brahms p o i n t s out t h a t t h e f o r m a t w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s had been used p r e v i o u s l y , f o r L i s z t ' s arrangement of Beethoven's Symphony no. 9. 109 "habe i c h denn doch [ e s ] d a h i n g e b r a c h t , u n s e r ' Q u i n t e t t ' . . . I c h werde k e i n e M a n u s k r i p t e w i e d e r b e i P r i n z e s s i n n e n l a s s e n ! . . . dagegen i s t d i e s immer m i t v i e l P a s s i o n g e s p i e l t . " See A p p e n d i x , pp. Z5lt 25"7. ^ ^ " T i t e l Nr 1 i s t m i r nun l e i d e r n i c h t r e c h t , u n g e f a h r Nr. 2." See A p p e n d i x , p. 1 5 7 - Brahms d a t e d t h i s l e t t e r " S e p t . , " b u t A l t m a n n , t h e e d i t o r o f t h i s volume i n t h e Brahms B r i e f w e c h s e l , s u g g e s t s t h a t i t was, on t h e c o n t r a r y , w r i t t e n on 5 O c t o b e r . 45 L a t i n a d v e r b , meaning "twice,""'""'""'" a t l e a s t a v o i d e d t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f an i n f e r i o r v e r s i o n , s u c h as w o u l d have been i m p l i c i t i n "Op. 34a." I n s t e a d , i t i m p l i e d a second appearance of a work t h a t had been p u b l i s h e d e a r l i e r . One m i g h t q u e s t i o n whether t h e m a t t e r o f t h e opus number had been d e c i d e d by t h e t i m e t h e g a l l e y - p r o o f s were s e n t t o V i e n n a i n l a t e 112 November, f o r Brahms r e f e r r e d t o " t h e p r o o f s o f Op. 34" i n h i s acknow-ledgement. The month i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e S o n a t a f o r Two P i a n o -f o r t e s appeared cannot be documented on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t h a t has been p u b l i s h e d . Brahms's acknowledgement o f t h e p r o o f s , i n w h i c h he p r o m i s e d t o a t t e n d t o them as soon as p o s s i b l e , was d a t e d 113 "Nov[ember]," b u t was more l i k e l y w r i t t e n on 2 December. Thus, one might assume t h a t he r e t u r n e d them b e f o r e t h e m i d d l e o f December. Brahms was a t t h i s t i m e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h c o n c e r n f o r h i s f a t h e r , who f e l l s e r i o u s l y i l l t h e f o l l o w i n g J a n u a r y and d i e d on 11 F e b r u a r y . I t i s t h e r e f o r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t r e f e r e n c e n e i t h e r t o t h e d i s p a t c h i n g of t h e p r o o f s n o r t o t h e appearance of t h e p r i n t e d e d i t i o n i s t o be found i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f t h i s t r y i n g p e r i o d . However, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t i m e a t w h i c h t h e p r o o f s must have been r e c e i v e d , i t 114 seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e e d i t i o n was b r o u g h t f o r t h i n J a n u a r y o f 1872. "'""'""'"Sometimes used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r m e a s u r e ( s ) i s t o be r e p e a t e d . 112 " d i e K o r r e k t u r von op. 34." See Appendix,p , 2.5" 7• 113 A c c o r d i n g t o A l t m a n n , who i n s e r t s "on t h e c o n t r a r y , 2 Dec." ( v i e l m e h r 2. Dezbr) e n c l o s e d i n b r a c k e t s . 114 K u r t Hofmann s u g g e s t s J a n u a r y as t h e month d u r i n g w h i c h t h e e d i t i o n p r o b a b l y appeared. See D i e E r s t d r u c k e d e r Werke von Johannes  Brahms ( T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1975), p. 73. CHAPTER I I I AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CREATIVE PROCESS: A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBABLE FOUR STAGES The p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g may be vi e w e d as c o n s i s t i n g o f a s e r i e s o f phases o r s t a g e s . The p h y s i o l o g i s t and p h y s i c i s t Hermann von H e l m h o l t z (1821-94) and t h e m a t h e m a t i c i a n J . H e n r i P o i n c a r e (1854-1912), b o t h o f whom p u b l i s h e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r own thought p r o c e s s e s , gave t h e impetus f o r t h i s conception."'" Each s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e answer t o an o r i g i n a l p r o b l e m i n v o l v e d an i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f i n v e s t i -g a t i o n t h a t c o n t i n u e d u n t i l no f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s seemed p o s s i b l e . B o t h s c i e n t i s t s r e c a l l e d t h a t , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f r e s t , "a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n 2 would o c c u r . . . i n an a p p a r e n t l y sudden and u n e x p e c t e d manner." P o i n c a r e o b s e r v e d t h a t a second p e r i o d o f c o n s c i o u s work was r e q u i r e d , 3 consequent t o what he d e s c r i b e d as "sudden i l l u m i n a t i o n " . B o t h he and ""See Hermann v o n H e l m h o l t z , V o r t r a g e und Reden, 5 t h e d . , v o l . 1 ( B r u n s w i c k , Germany: F r i e d r i c h Vieweg und Sohn, 1896), and t h e c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " M a t h e m a t i c a l C r e a t i o n " i n J . H e n r i P o i n c a r e ' s The F o u n d a t i o n s  of S c i e n c e (New Y o r k : S c i e n c e P r e s s , 1913). A good g e n e r a l v i e w o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , from P o i n c a r e t o t h e s i x t i e s , i s g i v e n by W. Edgar V i n a c k e i n The P s y c h o l o g y o f T h i n k i n g , 2nd ed., McGraw-H i l l S e r i e s i n P s y c h o l o g y (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 356-61. 2 V i n a c k e , T h i n k i n g , p. 356. 3 Quoted i n M o r r i s I . S t e i n and S h i r l e y J . H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y and  t h e I n d i v i d u a l ; Summaries o f S e l e c t e d L i t e r a t u r e i n P s y c h o l o g y and P s y -c h i a t r y , A McKin s e y F o u n d a t i o n A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y ( G l e n c o e , I l l i -n o i s : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 56. T h i s e x c e l l e n t book d e v o t e s a c h a p t e r (pp. 13-77) t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , and i n -c l u d e s g e n e r a l books and a r t i c l e s as w e l l as t h o s e t h a t c o n s i d e r t h i s 46 47 H e l m h o l t z emphasized t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u n c o n s c i o u s a c t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n . P o i n c a r e h i m s e l f b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d of c o n s c i o u s l a b o r s e t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s i n m o t i o n ; u n c o n s c i o u s a c t i v i t y t h e n produced an i n s p i r a t i o n , w h i c h was s u b s e q u e n t l y shaped and v e r i f i e d by t h e second p e r i o d o f c o n s c i o u s work. Among l a t e r w r i t e r s , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e agreement t h a t t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s encompasses more t h a n c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t a l o n e . The 4 " n o n - c o n s c i o u s f a c t o r s " have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f e r e n t e x p r e s -s i o n s . The t e r m " u n c o n s c i o u s " i s adopted i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The f a c e t s o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g d e s c r i b e d by H e l m h o l t z and P o i n -c a r e were a n a l y z e d as f o u r d i s t i n c t s t a g e s by Graham W a l l a s . I n The  A r t o f Thought, he l a b e l e d them P r e p a r a t i o n , I n c u b a t i o n , I l l u m i n a t i o n , and V e r i f i c a t i o n , terms s t i l l used t o d a y . W a l l a s b e l i e v e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e , as H e l m h o l t z had s a i d , t h e p r o b l e m i s " i n v e s t i g a t e d . . . i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . " ^ D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d , t h e i n d i v i d u a l does n o t c o n s c i o u s l y t h i n k about t h e p r o b l e m ; he may t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n t o a d i f f e r e n t one, o r may r e l a x from c o n s c i o u s work. W a l l a s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e I l l u m i n a t i o n s t a g e b e g i n s w i t h I n t i m a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d as "a vague i m p r e s s i o n o f m e n t a l 6 a c t i v i t y , " w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d by a f l a s h o f i n s i g h t . F i n a l l y , d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s among a r t i s t s , m a t h e m a t i c i a n s , m u s i c i a n s , p o e t s , and s c i e n t i s t s . A l s o u s e f u l i s t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y (not a n n o t a t e d ) by A l b e r t R o t h e n b e r g and B e t t y G r e e n b e r g , The Index o f S c i e n t i f i c W r i t i n g s on C r e a t i v i t y ; G e n e r a l : 1566-1974 (Hamden, C o n n e c t i c u t : A r c h o n Books, 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 146-61. 4 S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , p. 13. ^ H e l m h o l t z , quoted i n Graham W a l l a s , The A r t o f Thought (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Company, 19 2 6 ) , p. 80. J . Varendonck, quoted i n i b i d . , p. 97. 48 V e r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e , t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s i g h t i s t e s t e d and t h e i d e a s a c h i e v e t h e i r e x a c t form. These ( o r s i m i l a r ) s t a g e s have been i d e n t i f i e d by o t h e r i n v e s t i -g a t o r s , i n c l u d i n g J . M. Montmasson, t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t R. S. Woodworth, J . Rossman, who made a s t u d y of i n v e n t o r s , and J . Hadamard, who examined t h e work o f m a t h e m a t i c i a n s . 7 Woodworth, however, i s n o t c e r t a i n t h a t u n c o n s c i o u s work goes on i n t h e I n c u b a t i o n s t a g e . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l , when a t t a c k i n g t h e p r o b l e m a f r e s h , r e c a l l s f r o m t h e p r e p a r a -t o r y s t a g e o n l y t h e r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e m a t t e r seems c l e a r t o him.^ A l t h o u g h W a l l a s based h i s f o r m u l a t i o n of f o u r s t a g e s on t h e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s d e s c r i b e d by H e l m h o l t z and P o i n c a r e , he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e s t a g e s o c c u r r e d a l s o i n t h e w r i t i n g o f p o e t r y o r m u s i c : "even when s u c c e s s i n t h o u g h t means t h e c r e a t i o n o f som e t h i n g f e l t t o be b e a u t i f u l . . . r a t h e r t h a n t h e s o l u t i o n o f a p r e s c r i b e d p r o b l e m , t h e f o u r s t a g e s 9 . . . can g e n e r a l l y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m each o t h e r . " I n two 7 J . M. Montmasson, I n v e n t i o n and t h e U n c o n s c i o u s (London: Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r , 1 9 3 1 ) ; R. S. Woodworth, P s y c h o l o g y , 3 r d ed. (New Y o r k : Henry H o l t , 1 9 3 4 ) ; J . Rossman, The P s y c h o l o g y o f t h e I n v e n t o r (Washington, D.C: I n v e n t o r s P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1931); J . Hadamard, An Ess a y on t h e P s y c h o l o g y o f I n v e n t i o n i n t h e M a t h e m a t i c a l F i e l d ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1945). The s t u d i e s by Mont-masson, Woodworth, and Hadamard a r e summarized i n S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , pp. 72-74, 45, 54-56. g A n o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i s t , J . F. D a s h i e l l , i s among t h o s e who r e l a t e t h e phenomena o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s n o t t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s b u t t o t h e d a t a of e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y on s u c c e s s f u l r e c a l l . See S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , p. 18. 9 W a l l a s , A r t o f Thought, p. 82. 49 d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i m e n t s , u n d e r t a k e n i n 1935 and 1937,"^ C a t h a r i n e P a t r i c k i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e w r i t i n g o f a poem and t h e p a i n t i n g o f a p i c t u r e under l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t b o t h s t u d i e s p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e f o u r s t a g e s s u g g e s t e d by W a l l a s . P r e p a r - a t i o n was m a n i f e s t e d by f r e q u e n t t h o u g h t changes, showing t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l was r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s i d e a s . I n c u b a t i o n was i n d i c a t e d by t h e "spontaneous r e c u r r e n c e o f a mood o r i d e a , somewhat m o d i f i e d , w h i l e . . . [ t h e i n d i v i d u a l ] was t a l k i n g o f o t h e r things.""'"^ The w r i t i n g o f th e f i r s t l i n e s o f a poem, and t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e shapes i n a p i c t u r e , were e v i d e n c e f o r I l l u m i n a t i o n . I n b o t h s t u d i e s , most of t h e r e v i s i o n o c c u r r e d i n t h e f o u r t h q u a r t e r o f t h e t o t a l t i m e spent i n t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l s e s s i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h e V e r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e . Between t h e y e a r s 1939 and 1942, E. D. H u t c h i n s o n drew on r e p o r t s 12 by a r t i s t s f o r s e v e r a l s t u d i e s o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . He, t o o , c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t c o m p r i s e d f o u r e s s e n t i a l s t a g e s ; t h e s e were t h e same as t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by W a l l a s and l a t e r w r i t e r s . H u t c h i n s o n used s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t terms f o r t h e l a s t t h r e e s t a g e s . The second he named the Stage o f F r u s t r a t i o n , s i n c e t h i s e m o t i o n , " o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 13 . . . r e s t l e s s n e s s , [and] f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y , " r e s u l t s i n t h e C a t h a r i n e P a t r i c k , " C r e a t i v e Thought i n P o e t s , " A r c h i v e s o f  P s y c h o l o g y 26 (1935): 1-74; and " C r e a t i v e Thought i n A r t i s t s , " J o u r n a l  o f P s y c h o l o g y , 4 ( 1 9 3 7 ) : 35-73. B o t h e x p e r i m e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , pp. 62-64, 53-54. "'""''Stein and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , p. 63. 12 E. D. H u t c h i n s o n , " V a r i e t i e s o f I n s i g h t i n Humans," P s y c h i a t r y 2 ( 1 9 3 9 ) : 323-32; "The P e r i o d o f F r u s t r a t i o n , " i b i d . , 3 ( 1 9 4 0 ) : 351-59; "The N a t u r e o f I n s i g h t , " i b i d . , 4 ( 1 9 4 1 ) : 3,-43: "The P e r i o d o f E l a b o r a t i o n , " i b i d . , 5 (1942) : 165-76. See a l s o h i s How t o T h i n k  C r e a t i v e l y (New Y o r k : A b i n g d o n - C o k e s b u r y , 1949). The l a t t e r i s d i s -c u s s e d i n S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , pp. 24-25. 13 H u t c h i n s o n , q u o t e d i n i b i d . , p. 25. 50 t e mporary r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e pr o b l e m . L i k e P a t r i c k , he o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e p r e c e d i n g work i s i n v o l u n t a r i l y r e c a l l e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . He a t t r i b u t e d t h e o n s e t o f t h e t h i r d s t a g e , w h i c h he c a l l e d t h e P e r i o d o r  Moment o f I n s i g h t , t o t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p s y c h i c t e n s i o n by some sudden s t i m u l u s . He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t s e c o n d a r y i n s i g h t s c o u l d o c c u r d u r i n g t h e f i n a l Stage o f V e r i f i c a t i o n , E l a b o r a t i o n , o r E v a l u a t i o n . R e g r e t t a b l y , t h e r e has n o t been much i n t h e way o f c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n b r o u g h t t o b e a r upon t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f m u s i c a l c r e a t i o n . W h i l e t h e r e s u l t s o f what l i t t l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n has been done a r e v a l u -a b l e , t h e y a r e n e i t h e r d e c i s i v e n o r c o m p l e t e . James L. M u r s e l l and o t h e r a u t h o r s who have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i n m u s i c — 14 n o t a b l y Max G r a f and Geza Revesz — h a v e r e l i e d l a r g e l y upon d e t a i l s about t h e l i v e s , w o r k s , and u t t e r a n c e s o f t h e g r e a t composers. I n t h e s e a u t h o r s ' o f t e n e l a b o r a t e r u m i n a t i o n s on t h e a c t o f m u s i c a l c r e a -t i o n , e v i d e n c e f o r t h e f o u r s t a g e s f o r m u l a t e d by W a l l a s can be d i s c e r n e d , as w i l l be seen l a t e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . Some w r i t e r s have o b j e c t e d t o t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t t h e f o u r s t a g e s a r e more o r l e s s d i s c r e t e . W a l l a s h i m s e l f had c a l l e d a t t e n -t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c o n s t a n t l y o v e r l a p as t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p l o r e s d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m s , and one a s p e c t o f a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m may be i n c u -b a t i n g i n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s w h i l e t h e c o n s c i o u s i s p r e p a r i n g o r v e r i f y i n g a n o t h e r . " ^ S i n c e t h e e a r l y f i f t i e s , t h i s i d e a has been t a k e n even 14 Max G r a f , From Beethoven t o S h o s t a k o v i c h ; The P s y c h o l o g y o f t h e Composing P r o c e s s (n.p.: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1947; r e p r i n t ed., New Y o r k : Greenwood P r e s s , 1969); Geza R e v e s z , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e P s y c h o l o g y o f M u s i c , t r a n s . G. I . C. de Courcy (Norman, Oklahoma: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1954). 1 5 W a l l a s , A r t o f Thought, pp. 81-82. 51 further by M. Wertheimer, W. Edgar Vinacke, and J . Eindhoven.^ They prefer to think of preparation, incubation, i l l u m i n a t i o n , and v e r i f i c a -t i o n as "ongoing processes," which "overlap and interweave between the occurrence of the o r i g i n a l stimulus and the formation of the f i n a l product." Since neither preparation nor v e r i f i c a t i o n i s neces s a r i l y completed i n a s i n g l e session of uninterrupted e f f o r t , i t i s l o g i c a l to assume that a ser i e s of i l l u m i n a t i o n s , varying i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , could occur as the i n d i v i d u a l resumed his work again and again. S i m i l a r l y , a kind of preparation may occur at the s t a r t of each session. Incuba-t i o n of some ideas and v e r i f i c a t i o n of others may accompany various sessions; incubation may also take place between any two periods of work. In other words, the a c t i v i t i e s of preparation, incubation, i l l u m i n a t i o n , and v e r i f i c a t i o n operate "to varying degrees throughout „17 the creative process. Nevertheless, on the basis of the experimental evidence gathered by such authors as P a t r i c k , Montmasson, Hutchinson, and Hadamard, i t can be stated that one or another of these four conscious and unconscious a c t i v i t i e s predominates for a time i n the course of creative thinking. The f i r s t stage sees the occurrence or invention of the problem or idea, and i t s i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In a study of twenty-four American poets, R. N. Wilson found that four major sources of s t i m u l i were drawn upon: "the gross natural environment, interpersonal r e l a t i o n s , symbol 16 J. Eindhoven and Vinacke, "Creative Processes i n Pai n t i n g , " Journal of General Psychology 47 (1952): 139-64; M. Wertheimer, Product ive Thinking (New York: Harper & Row, 1959; o r i g i n a l l y published: 1945). Vinacke, who reasserts t h e i r viewpoint i n Thinking, pp. 359-61, also describes the experiment conducted by Eindhoven and himself i n 1952, pp. 357-59. 1 7 V i n a c k e , Thinking, pp. 361, 359, 360. 52 18 systems ( l a n g u a g e ) , and t h e s e l f . " U s i n g as a b a s i s d e t a i l s about t h e l i v e s , w o r k s , and words o f t h e g r e a t composers, t o g e t h e r w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g s , M u r s e l l c o n c l u d e d t h a t " m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , l i k e a l l o t h e r forms o f o r i g i n a l and a u t h e n t i c a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y . . . a p r o d u c t o f l i f e e x p e r i e n c e and o f t h e emotions 19 o f d a i l y l i v i n g . " Thus any of an a l m o s t i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y o f c i r c u m -20 s t a n c e s may o c c a s i o n t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f i r s t i d e a f o r a m u s i c a l work. As t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e p r o b l e m o r i d e a , v a r i o u s con-c e p t s o c c u r t o him, and he t r i e s t o e l a b o r a t e them. One s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t c o n c e r n i n g c r e a t i v e work i n g e n e r a l , and m u s i c a l c r e a t i v e work i n p a r t i c u l a r , s t r e s s e s t h a t s u c h i d e a s w e l l up s p o n t a n e o u s l y f r o m t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . A n o t h e r s c h o o l of thought g i v e s s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , " s u c h as e x p e r i e n c e , s t u d y , t r a d i t i o n , 21 e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , " upon w h i c h t h e i d e a s depend. Sometimes t h e g e n e r a l 22 p l a n of a c o m p o s i t i o n may a r i s e as t h e f i r s t c o n c e p t i o n . F r e q u e n t l y , 18 R. N. W i l s o n , q u o t e d by S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , p. 69. The l a t t e r summarize W i l s o n ' s s t u d y " P o e t i c C r e a t i v i t y , P r o c e s s and P e r s o n a l i t y , " P s y c h i a t r y 17 ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 163-76. 19 James L. M u r s e l l , The P s y c h o l o g y o f M u s i c (New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n , 1 937), p. 264. The e x p e r i m e n t t o w h i c h he s p e c i f i c a l l y a l l u d e s was c o n d u c t e d i n 1934 by J u l i u s B a h l e and i n v o l v e d t h i r t y composers, i n c l u d i n g A r n o l d Schbnberg. I t i s d i s c u s s e d on pp. 260-61; see a l s o pp. 262-64 and 268-69. B a h l e r e p o r t e d h i s f i n d i n g s i n " D i e G e s t a l t U b e r -t r a g u n g im v o k a l e n S c h a f f e n z e i t g e n ' d s s i s c h e r K o m p o n i s t e n , " A r c h i v f u r  d i e gesamte P s y c h o l o g i e 91 ( 1 9 3 4 ) : 444-51. 20 M u r s e l l , P s y c h o l o g y o f M u s i c , p. 274. 21 R e v e s z , I n t r o d u c t i o n , p. 199. He r e f e r s t o t h e s e two d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s " t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l " and " t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l " r e s p e c t i v e l y , and d i s c u s s e s them on pp. 198-205. 22 M u r s e l l , P s y c h o l o g y of M u s i c , p. 275. 53 however, t h e composer has t o e l u c i d a t e h i s i n i t i a l i d e a s by means o f t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r s k e t c h i n g . S i n c e t h e p r o c e s s o f p r e p a r a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d as t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m and t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f 23 i d e a s about i t s s o l u t i o n , p r e d o m i n a t e s d u r i n g t h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f e f f o r t , i t may be termed t h e s t a g e o f P r e p a r a t i o n . G r a f m a i n t a i n e d t h a t f r o m t h e t i m e a m u s i c i a n becomes aware of t h e f i r s t i d e a s f o r a c o m p o s i t i o n , an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g amount o f " c o n s c i o u s 24 t h i n k i n g and c o n s c i o u s f o r m i n g accompanies t h e whole composing p r o c e s s . " However, i n t h e c a s e o f s u c h m a s t e r s as Beethoven and Brahms, M u r s e l l m a i n t a i n s t h a t "once a b e g i n n i n g has been made, a p r o c e s s of g e s t a t i o n 25 o f t e n v e r y p r o l o n g e d and l a r g e l y s u b c o n s c i o u s i s i n i t i a t e d . " As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , H e l m h o l t z and P o i n c a r e b o t h o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e y r e a c h e d a p o i n t i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s where f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s seemed 2 6 i m p o s s i b l e and c o n s c i o u s work on t h e p r o b l e m had t o c e a s e . S i m i l a r l y , P a t r i c k , H u t c h i n s o n , Montmasson, and Hadamard, i n t h e i r s t u d i e s o f p o e t i c , a r t i s t i c , and m a t h e m a t i c a l i n v e n t i o n , d i s c e r n e d a p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l g e n e r a l l y t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o o t h e r m a t t e r s . A l t h o u g h no a c t i v e work was done on t h e p r o b l e m o r i d e a , r e s u l t s of t h e p r e c e d i n g e f f o r t s f e r m e n t e d ; changes and m o d i f i c a t i o n s o c c u r r e d . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e p r o c e s s o f I n c u b a t i o n predominates-.' T h i s s t a g e l e a d s t o "some p r e l i m i n a r y d e c i s i o n s , a k i n d o f 23 See V i n a c k e , T h i n k i n g , p. 361. 24 G r a f , From Beetho v e n , p. 308. 25 M u r s e l l , P s y c h o l o g y o f M u s i c , p. 277. 26 See W a l l a s ' q u o t a t i o n of H e l m h o l t z and P o i n c a r e i n A r t o f  Thought, pp. 80-81. 54 27 i l l u m i n a t i o n , " w h i c h o f t e n o c c u r s s u d d e n l y and s e e m i n g l y w i t h o u t c o n -s c i o u s e f f o r t . Brahms h i m s e l f remarked t h a t i f he approached a m u s i c a l i d e a about w h i c h he had n o t th o u g h t f o r some t i m e , " i t i s s u r e t o have 28 t a k e n shape; I c a n now b e g i n t o r e a l l y work a t i t . " T h i s i s echoed by G r a f ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t " c o m p o s i t i o n . . . i s a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a . . . c o o r d i n a t i o n o f u n c o n s c i o u s f o r m i n g and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , o f i n s p i r a t i o n 29 30 and work." P o i n c a r e , W a l l a s , and some l a t e r w r i t e r s i m p l i e d t h a t o n l y t h e moment o f i n s i g h t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g and accompanying p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v e n t s c o n s t i t u t e d I l l u m i n a t i o n . They c o n -s i d e r e d a l l subsequent c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o e l u c i d a t e t h e i n s i g h t as com-p r i s i n g one o r perhaps two f u r t h e r s t a g e s . However, t o s e v e r a l o t h e r 31 r e s e a r c h e r s I l l u m i n a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d not o n l y by t h e c r y s t a l l i z a -t i o n o f p r e v i o u s i d e a s , b u t by t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e s e f o r m u l a t i o n s . T h i s 27 V i n a c k e , T h i n k i n g , p. 361. 28 From a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h George H e n s c h e l , F e b r u a r y 27, 1876. Quoted i n H e n s c h e l , P e r s o n a l R e c o l l e c t i o n o f Johannes Brahms ( B o s t o n : Gorham P r e s s , 1907), pp. 22-23. 29 G r a f , From Beeth o v e n, p. 377. 30 P o i n c a r e , quoted i n W a l l a s , A r t o f Thought, p. 81; see t h e anno-t a t i o n s f o r Montmasson, I n v e n t i o n , and W i l s o n , " P o e t i c C r e a t i v i t y , " i n S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , pp. 73, 69-70. W i l s o n a l o n e d i s t i n g u i s h e d n o t o n l y t h e f o u r t h s t a g e , w h i c h he c a l l e d E l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e v i s i o n , b u t a f i f t h . I t was " b a r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h e f o u r t h , " and i n v o l v e d "a r e a p p r a i s a l o f what has come b e f o r e . " He named t h i s f i f t h s t a g e The End o f t h e poem and i t s meaning t o t h e p o e t . 31 See t h e a n n o t a t i o n s f o r P a t r i c k , " P o e t s , " idem, " A r t i s t s , " and H u t c h i n s o n , T h i n k C r e a t i v e l y , i n S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , pp. 63-64, 53-54, 25. See a l s o V i n a c k e , T h i n k i n g , p. 361. I n an ex p e r i m e n t on s c i e n t i f i c t h o u g h t , P a t r i c k i n v e s t i g a t e d o n l y t h e f i r s t t h r e e s t a g e s , and a g a i n c o n c l u d e d t h a t I l l u m i n a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p l a n s f o l l o w i n g i n c u b a t i o n . " She d e s c r i b e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t i n " S c i e n t i f i c Thought," J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y 5 ( 1 9 3 8 ) : 55-83. See t h e a n n o t a t i o n i n S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , pp. 74-75. 55 s t a g e i s t h e r e f o r e m a n i f e s t i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e f i r s t l i n e s o f a poem, t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e g e n e r a l shapes i n a p i c t u r e , and t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a d r a f t o f a m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . The p r o c e s s o f V e r i f i c a t i o n t h e n becomes predominant as t h e r e s u l t s of I l l u m i n a t i o n a r e examined c r i t i c a l l y and r e f i n e d . New 32 i n s i g h t s may a l s o o c c u r . A t t h i s s t a g e , a m u s i c a l work i s p o l i s h e d , g i v e n t r i a l p e r f o r m a n c e s , and put f o r w a r d t o f r i e n d s of t h e composer. To use G r a f ' s e x p r e s s i o n , " t h e whole c o m p o s i t i o n work, . . . i s now 33 consummated i n t h e l i g h t o f c o n s c i o u s f o r m i n g . " I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , an a u t o g r a p h o r a c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t i s d e v e l o p e d and r e v i s e d t o s e r v e as t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e ( e n g r a v e r ' s l a y - o u t m a n u s c r i p t ) . E i n d h o v e n , V i n a c k e , and Wertheimer have emphasized t h e f a c t t h a t 34 " t h e r e a r e w i d e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a t t e r n s o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . " I t i s t h e r e f o r e q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n a c r e a t i v e s i t u a t i o n , one o r more o f t h e s t a g e s dominated by p r e p a r a t i o n , i n c u b a t i o n , i l l u m i n a t i o n , o r v e r i f i c a t i o n c o u l d r e c u r , perhaps many t i m e s , as t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e t u r n e d 35 a g a i n and a g a i n t o a work t h a t he had once c o n s i d e r e d f i n i s h e d . T h i s i s t h e c a s e w i t h Brahms's S t r i n g Q u i n t e t i n F m i n o r , w h i c h had been a t 36 t h e V e r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e f o r s e v e r a l months b e f o r e t h e composer tempor-32 See t h e a n n o t a t i o n s f o r H u t c h i n s o n , T h i n k C r e a t i v e l y , and W i l s o n , " P o e t i c C r e a t i v i t y , " i n S t e i n and H e i n z e , C r e a t i v i t y , pp. 25, 70. 33 G r a f , From Beeth o v e n, p. 433. 34 V i n a c k e , T h i n k i n g , p. 359. 35 Bach, Brahms, and B r u c k n e r f r e q u e n t l y r e v i s e d f i n i s h e d c o m p o s i -t i o n s ; M o z a r t M e n d e l s s o h n , and Wagner o c c a s i o n a l l y d i d s o . M a h l e r a l t e r e d t h e e n t i r e o r c h e s t r a t i o n o f h i s Symphony no. 5 a f t e r i t s p r e m i e r e i n 1904. G r a f m e n t i o n s many o f t h e works r e v i s e d by t h e s e m a s t e r s , i n From Beeth o v e n, pp. 442-47. 3 6 Brahms had hoped t o have i t p l a y e d a t h i s c o n c e r t on 29 November 1862. T r i a l p e r f o r m a n c e s o c c u r r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n A p r i l and May. See C h a p t e r II,pp. 11-23. 56 a r i l y abandoned i t . S u b s e q u e n t l y he t r a n s c r i b e d i t f o r p i a n o duo; t h i s v e r s i o n e v o l v e d i n t o a f i n i s h e d work w h i c h Brahms i n t e n d e d t o pub-37 l i s h a few months a f t e r i t s p r e m i e r e . However, b o t h C l a r a Schumann and Hermann L e v i f e l t t h a t i t s h o u l d be r e c a s t , and Brahms, a t L e v i ' s s u g g e s t i o n , t r a n s c r i b e d i t f o r p i a n o and s t r i n g q u a r t e t . T h i s f i n a l v e r s i o n , t o o , was r e f i n e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . A f t e r t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t had been p u b l i s h e d , Brahms r e t u r n e d — p e r h a p s more t h a n o n c e — t o t h e Duo-P i a n o S o n a t a , and made f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s . To c l a r i f y t h e h i s t o r y o f Brahms's a r c h e t y p a l c o n c e p t as i t e v o l v e d t h r o u g h t h r e e media, t h e p e r i o d s o f t i m e dominated by t h e p r o c e s s e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n , i n c u b a t i o n , i l l u m i n a t i o n , and f i n a l l y v e r i f i c a t i o n w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as St a g e s 1, 2, 3, and 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t s h o u l d be under-s t o o d o f t h e s e " s t a g e s " t h a t , w h i l e each i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i n g l e p r e dominant p r o c e s s , i t a l s o embraces t h e o t h e r t h r e e i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . B e f o r e making t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s f o r p i a n o duo and p i a n o q u i n t e t , 38 Brahms p r o b a b l y d i d n o t e x p e r i e n c e a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e , p r e p a r a t o r y s t a g e . However, t h e o t h e r t h r e e s t a g e s , a f t e r o c c u r r i n g i n t h e development o f t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t , r e c u r r e d as t h e Duo-Piano Sonata and t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t e v o l v e d . The f i r s t a ppearance and subsequent r e a p p e a r a n c e s o f t h e s e t h r e e s t a g e s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t : * Stage 2 a , 3 a , 4 a , 2°, 3^, h°, e t c . 37 I b i d . , p. 15. 38 One can assume t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t made i t u n n e c e s s a r y f o r Brahms t o do any p r e l i m i n a r y s k e t c h i n g f o r t h e Duo-Piano Son a t a . B o t h t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t and t h e Duo-Piano Sonata were i n e x i s t e n c e when Brahms t r a n s c r i b e d t h e m a t e r i a l f o r p i a n o q u i n t e t , so t h a t a g a i n i t h a r d l y seems l i k e l y t h a t any s k e t c h i n g was r e q u i r e d . I n each i n s t a n c e , Brahms c o u l d s i m p l y have begun t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e t r a n -s c r i p t i o n i t s e l f . CHAPTER IV THE CREATIVE PROCESS, PART I : THE LOST STRING QUINTET P o s t u l a t i o n o f t h e C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s Brahms was o b v i o u s l y r e l u c t a n t t o r e v e a l a n y t h i n g of t h e p r e p a r -a t o r y s t a g e i n h i s c r e a t i v e process."'" However, he once remarked t h a t an i d e a f o r a new c o m p o s i t i o n was " s i m p l y an i n s p i r a t i o n from above . . . 2 [which] g e r m i n a t e s u n c o n s c i o u s l y and i n s p i t e o f o u r s e l v e s . " Brahms u s u a l l y d e r i v e d t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n f r o m " p r e e x i s t i n g themes, p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and e v e n t s , A l p i n e s c e n e r y , Romantic l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e l i k e . " 3 K a l b e c k s t a t e s t h a t Brahms began t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t i n F minor d u r i n g h i s v i s i t w i t h C l a r a Schumann a t Bad M u n s t e r - a m - S t e i n n e a r t h e """He p e r i o d i c a l l y d e s t r o y e d a c c u m u l a t e d s k e t c h e s , and w o r k i n g d r a f t s , so t h a t a t h i s d e a t h t h e r e r e m a i n e d o n l y t e n s k e t c h e s , some t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , and t h r e e u n p u b l i s h e d , f i n i s h e d works. I n h i s T e s t a - ment , he d e c l a r e d t h a t a l l s u c h r e s i d u a l u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t s s h o u l d be b u r n e d . See Donald M. M c C o r k l e , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h M a r g i t L. M c C o r k l e , " F i v e Fundamental O b s t a c l e s i n Brahms Sourc e R e s e a r c h , " A c t a M u s i c o l o g i c a (48/2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 257. 2 From a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h S i r George H e n s c h e l , F e b r u a r y 27 1876. Quoted i n H e n s c h e l , P e r s o n a l R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Johannes Brahms ( B o s t o n : Gorham P r e s s , 1 907), pp. 22-23. 3 Among th e examples t h a t may be c i t e d a r e t h e V a r i a t i o n s on a  Theme o f Haydn ( i n s p i r e d by a p r e e x i s t i n g theme), N a n i e ( w r i t t e n a f t e r t h e d e a t h of Brahms's f r i e n d Anselm F e u e r b a c h ) , and t h e S c h i c k s a l s l i e d ( i n s p i r e d by a poem o f H b l d e r l i n ) . See P a u l M i e s , "Aus Brahms' W e r k s t a t t ; Vom E n t s t e h e n und Werden d e r Werke b e i Brahms," N. S i m r o c k  J a h r b u c h I , ed. E r i c h H. M u l l e r ( 1 9 2 8 ) : 43-63. 57 58 4 end of June 1862. The s p e c t a c u l a r b e a u t y o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e c ompanionship of C l a r a and D i e t r i c h (two o f h i s d e a r e s t f r i e n d s ) , and t h e d a i l y music-making a t C l a r a ' s house must have p r o v i d e d a h i g h l y s t i m u l a t i n g atmosphere f o r Brahms's i n v e n t i v e powers. I n d e e d , he s p e n t h i s mornings composing, as D i e t r i c h r e p o r t e d i n a l e t t e r t o h i s w i f e . ^ Two works f o r s t r i n g s by F r a n z S c h u b e r t — t h e g r e a t C major Q u i n t e t , D. 956, and t h e D minor Q u a r t e t , D. 810 ("Death and t h e M a i d e n " ) — w e r e among t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s w h i c h Brahms p l a y e d w i t h C l a r a d u r i n g t h i s v i s i t . Brahms's Q u i n t e t , l i k e t h a t o f S c h u b e r t , was s c o r e d f o r two c e l l o s i n s t e a d of t h e more u s u a l c o m b i n a t i o n of two v i o l a s . On 29 J u n e , a f t e r h a v i n g s p e n t two weeks a t Bad M t l n s t e r , Brahms began a w a l k i n g t o u r o f t h e P a l a t i n a t e w i t h D i e t r i c h and a m u t u a l f r i e n d . T h i s may have p r o v i d e d a r e f r e s h i n g r e s p i t e ( S t a g e 2 ) from t h e demanding t a s k o f s k e t c h i n g and e l a b o r a t i n g t h e i d e a s f o r t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . When Brahms r e t u r n e d t o Hamm on 10 J u l y , he e v i d e n t l y t u r n e d h i s a t t e n -t i o n t o t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e e n t i r e work ( S t a g e 3 ) . By l a t e August he had c o m p l e t e d and s e n t t h e f i r s t t h r e e movements t o C l a r a , i n o r d e r t h a t he might r e c e i v e h e r comments on them and b e g i n making t h e f i n a l r e v i -s i o n s (Stage 4 ). The f o u r t h movement was f i n i s h e d by 8 September, when he d e p a r t e d f o r V i e n n a . 4 " t h e Q u i n t e t was begun i n t h e s p r i n g of 1862 a t [Bad] M l i n s t e r am S t e i n " (das Q u i n t e t t wurde im F r u h l i n g 1862 zu M l i n s t e r am S t e i n begonnen). Max K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, 4 v o l s , i n 8, D r i t t e A u f l a g e ( B e r l i n : D eutsche B r a h m s - G e s e l l s c h a f t m. b. H., 1908-14; r e p r i n t e d . , T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1976), I I / l : 52. 5 S e e C h a p t e r I I , f n . 8. I n a l e t t e r t o J o a c h i m , C l a r a remarked t h a t she and Brahms had p l a y e d t h e C-major Q u i n t e t and t h e D-minor Q u a r t e t " s e v e r a l t i m e s " d u r i n g Brahms's s t a y . See t h e Appendix,p . 2 f0> 59 From t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l , Brahms f o r w a r d e d a m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e c o m p l e t e Q u i n t e t t o J o a c h i m l a t e i n September. The composer was a n x i o u s f o r h i s f r i e n d t o make any n e c e s s a r y c o r r e c t i o n s and i m m e d i a t e l y t o r e t u r n t h e m a n u s c r i p t so t h a t i t c o u l d be r e v i s e d b e f o r e i t s p r e m i e r e s c h e d u l e d f o r 29 November 1862 . 7 Brahms, however, c o u l d n o t have begun making t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s u n t i l l a t e November o r e a r l y December, by w h i c h t i m e t h e l o n g - o v e r d u e m a n u s c r i p t s u r e l y would have r e a c h e d V i e n n a . H i s r e v i s i o n o f t h e work was i n t e r r u p t e d a t t h e end of December, when he s e n t t h e p a r t s t o J o a c h i m , who f i n a l l y r e t u r n e d b o t h t h e s c o r e and t h e g p a r t s i n m i d - A p r i l o f t h e n e x t y e a r . Brahms a r r a n g e d t o have t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t p e r f o r m e d p r i v a t e l y i n V i e n n a n e a r t h e end o f A p r i l . S u b s e q u e n t l y , he s e n t t h e s c o r e t o O l d e n b u r g , t o get D i e t r i c h ' s o p i n i o n o f i t . Brahms k e p t t h e p a r t s and, on h i s way back t o Hamburg, s t o p p e d a t Hannover f o r t h r e e days (1-3 May 1863). t o h e a r a p r i v a t e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e Q u i n t e t by J o a c h i m ' s ensemble. F i n a l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t , i n J o a c h i m ' s words, " t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f t h i s p i e c e , . . . [was] u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , " Brahms d e t e r m i n e d t h a t f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s were n e c e s s a r y . S h o r t l y a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n Hamburg on 7 May, he s e n t a l e t t e r t o D i e t r i c h r e q u e s t i n g t h e r e t u r n o f t h e s c o r e "so t h a t I can change some more t h i n g s i n i t , w h i c h u n f o r t u n a t e l y i s v e r y 7 S e e Cha p t e r I I , f n . 23. 8 C l a r a had r e c e i v e d t h e s c o r e o f t h e f o u r t h movement i n mid-December 1862. She had d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s c o r e o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e movements a l r e a d y i n h e r p o s s e s s i o n , s h o u l d be handed o v e r t o J o a c h i m . The c o m p l e t e s c o r e r e a c h e d him by t h e end of J a n u a r y 1863. See C h a p t e r I I , p. ^ 0 , and f n . 35. 9 See h i s l e t t e r o f 26 May 1863 i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. Zlf-d-60 n e c e s s a r y . " " ^ A t D i e t r i c h ' s i n v i t a t i o n he went t o Oldenburg f o r a v i s i t ; t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t m a n u s c r i p t must have been r e t u r n e d a t t h a t t i m e . A f t e r r e t u r n i n g t o Hamburg, Brahms made f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s i n t h e s c o r e , t h e n f o r w a r d e d i t t o D i e t r i c h as he had p r o m i s e d . S t y l i s t i c I n f l u e n c e s on t h e G e r m i n a t i o n o f  t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t K a l b e c k ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e l o s t Q u i n t e t was begun d u r i n g Brahms's s t a y a t Bad M i n i s t e r compels one t o compare t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s work w i t h S c h u b e r t ' s C major Q u i n t e t and D mi n o r Q u a r t e t , b o t h o f w h i c h Brahms had p l a y e d w i t h C l a r a d u r i n g h i s v i s i t . Such a c o m p a r i s o n i s needed i n o r d e r 'to d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t t h e two S c h u b e r t c o m p o s i t i o n s m i g h t have i n f l u e n c e d t h e g e r m i n a t i o n o f Brahms's S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . Of c o u r s e , s t y l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s on t h e l o s t Q u i n t e t can o n l y be p o s t u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e two l a t e r v e r s i o n s ; however, b o t h o f t h e s e t r a n s -c r i p t i o n s u n d o u b t e d l y o f f e r an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be made t o Op. 34 r a t h e r t h a n t o Op. 3 4 b i s . The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Sch e r z o i n Op. 34 b e a r s a s t r i k i n g resem-b l a n c e t o t h e f i n a l e o f S c h u b e r t ' s g r e a t Q u i n t e t : i n b o t h works t h e s t r i n g s i n u n i s o n p l a y t h e a c c e n t e d d i s s o n a n t f l a t t e d s u p e r t o n i c w h i c h a c t s as upper n e i g h b o r t o t h e t o n i c (see Example^.). I n S c h u b e r t ' s f i n a l e , t h e vehement r e p e t i t i o n o f s u p e r t o n i c ( u n a l t e r e d ) r e s o l v i n g t o 1 0 " d a m i t i c h noch etwas d a r i n h e r u m w i r t h s c h a f t e n kann, was l e i d e r s e h r n b t h i g i s t . " See A p p e n d i x , p,2.f 8. " L 1The l e t t e r accompanying t h e c o m p o s i t i o n r e f e r r e d t o i t as " t h e p r o m i s e d Q u i n t e t " (das v e r s p r o c h e n e Q u i n t e t t ) . I b i d . 61 Example 4. Franz Schubert, String Quintet i n C major, D. 956, 4th movement ( A l l e g r e t t o — P i u a l l e g r o — P i u presto) , measures 417-29 tonic i s heard repeatedly before the f i n a l cadence (see Example 1, measures 417-20). An analogous passage i n Brahms's Scherzo (measures 187-91) involves the f l a t t e d supertonic as part of an i n s i s t e n t l y repeated sixteenth-note fi g u r e from the Second Theme. A s i m i l a r i t y as s i g n i f i c a n t as t h i s i n v i t e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n into other sections of these works. The Main Theme of the slow movement i n Op. 34 and the Second Theme of the f i r s t movement i n the C major Quintet (an expressive c e l l o duet, measures 60-79) are p a r t i c u l a r l y a l i k e i n several respects. Brahms's theme, l i k e Schubert's, i s a t r a n q u i l duet; 62 i t o c c u p i e s t h e f i r s t t h i r t y measures o f t h e p i a n o p a r t . The range of t h e l o w e r v o i c e w o u l d have r e q u i r e d a c e l l o i n t h e o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t ; th e upper v o i c e , w i t h a range of g t o d^'', might w e l l have been p l a y e d by t h e o t h e r c e l l o . Example 5. F r a n z S c h u b e r t , S t r i n g Q u i n t e t i n C m a j o r , D. 956, 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o ma non t r o p p o ) , measures 60-64. I n t h e f i r s t two measures o f b o t h themes, t h e duet sways back and f o r t h w i t h i n a v e r y l i m i t e d a m b i t u s , t h e l o w e r v o i c e d o u b l i n g c o n s t a n t l y a t t h e t h i r d . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h i s l i n e i n S c h u b e r t ' s duet becomes more i n d e p e n d e n t , whereas i n Brahms's theme i t g e n e r a l l y c o n t i n u e s t o move a t t h e t h i r d o r s i x t h below t h e melody. The accompaniment t o t h e f i r s t twenty-two measures of Brahms's duet ( u n t i l t h e commencement of t h e c l o s i n g p e r i o d ) , i s a l s o s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f S c h u b e r t ' s theme. I n t h e t r e b l e r e g i s t e r , a p o r t a t o e i g h t h -n o t e f i g u r e i s s o f t l y i n t e r j e c t e d a f t e r t h e f i r s t b e a t of v i r t u a l l y e v e r y measure, w h i l e a p i z z i c a t o n o t e i n t h e t e n o r u s u a l l y g i v e s impetus 63 12 t o t h e f i r s t b e a t . Thus, i t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t , i n t h e l o s t S t r i n g Q u i n t e t , Brahms's theme was p r e s e n t e d i n t h e same manner as S c h u b e r t ' s . To t h e end of measure 22, c e l l o s may have p l a y e d t h e d u e t , v i o l i n s may have p r o v i d e d t h e p o r t a t o accompaniment, and t h e v i o l a may have i n t e r -13 j e c t e d t h e p i z z i c a t o n o t e s . S e v e r a l r e s e m b l a n c e s t o S c h u b e r t ' s D m i n o r Q u a r t e t o c c u r i n two themes o f Op. 34. The op e n i n g o f t h e Second Theme i n t h e f i r s t move-ment o f Brahms's work (measures 34-35) r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f t h e Second Theme i n t h e same movement o f S c h u b e r t ' s ( s ee Example £ ) . The accom-paniment i n b o t h passages b e g i n s s e v e r a l b e a t s b e f o r e t h e e n t r y o f t h e Example 6. F r a n z S c h u b e r t , S t r i n g Q u a r t e t i n D m i n o r , D. 810, 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o ) , measures 61-63 pp. _ _ _ A ^-K-1-!> -a\~ > 3 — 1 *" *• 1 *> . pp^' m rn—m m - —ff- i m J L J V -T 'H f""H —TT -1  r.pi . B a . . . m 4.. y d.. 0' i PP melody and c o n s i s t s o f a p e d a l - p o i n t r e i t e r a t e d q u i e t l y i n t r i p l e t s . The a n t e c e d e n t p h r a s e o f Brahms's theme (measures 34 - 3 8 ) , l i k e t h a t o f S c h u b e r t ' s , b e g i n s p i a n i s s i m o , and may have been p l a y e d as a duet by t h e 12 E.g., i n S c h u b e r t ' s theme, see measures 63 and 75; i n Brahms's, see measure 6, 9-12, and 18. 13 Whereas S c h u b e r t ' s theme i s i m m e d i a t e l y r e p e a t e d an o c t a v e h i g h e r i n t h e v i o l i n s , t h e l e n g t h o f Brahms's f o r b i d s t h i s . However, when t h e duet i s r e c a p i t u l a t e d Brahms c r e a t e s a s i m i l a r e f f e c t . The f i r s t e i g h t measures (75-82) a r e s t a t e d as t h e y appeared a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e move-ment; t h e n , t h e duet i s begun anew, w i t h t h e upper v o i c e t r a n s p o s e d a n o c t a v e h i g h e r and p l a y e d by t h e f i r s t v i o l i n (measures 83-104). 64 v i o l i n s . Each theme s t a r t s w i t h an a n a c r u s i s , l e a d i n g t o a m o t i v e t h a t b e g i n s w i t h an a s c e n d i n g s t e p ; t h e a n a c r u s i s and t h e m o t i v e a r e t h e n r e p e a t e d a t h i r d l o w e r . A l l , o r n e a r l y a l l o f t h i s i s d o u b l e d a t t h e l o w e r t h i r d i n each theme. Schubert makes f r e q u e n t use of t h e o p e n i n g m o t i v e , s e q u e n t i a l l y r e p e a t e d f o r t i s s i m o , i n b o t h t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e E x p o s i t i o n ( e . g . , measures 90-92) and t h e Development. Brahms s t a t e s t h e e n t i r e a n t e c e d e n t p h r a s e f o r t i s s i m o i n t h e Development (measures 149/4-153). Other t h e m a t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e t o be found i n t h e T h i r d Theme o f Brahms's S c h e r z o ( f i r s t p e r i o d , measures 22-29) and i n t h e Second Theme i n t h e f i n a l e o f S c h u b e r t ' s Q u a r t e t ( f i r s t p e r i o d ; see Example 7 ) . Example 7. F r a n z S c h u b e r t , S t r i n g Q u a r t e t i n D m i n o r , D. 810, 4 t h movement ( P r e s t o ) , measures 88-101 Each theme i s a f o r t h r i g h t c h o r d a l p r o g r e s s i o n i n 6/8 t i m e , p e r i o d i c a l l y g i v e n impetus by t r i p l e t a n a c r u s e s . Brahms's theme p r o c e e d s t w i c e as f a s t as S c h u b e r t ' s , w i t h a n o t e t o each b e a t r a t h e r t h a n t o each measure. B o t h b e g i n by a l t e r n a t i n g t h r e e s u s t a i n e d c h o r d s ( e x c l u d i n g t h e o p e n i n g a n a c r u s i s ) w i t h t h r e e i n t r i p l e t rhythm. W h i l e S c h u b e r t c o n s i s t e n t l y emphasized t h e f i r s t b e a t of each measure w i t h a f o r z a n d o , Brahms c a l l e d f o r a c c e n t s o n l y i n t h e consequent p h r a s e , t o c r e a t e s y n c o p a t i o n . The 65 m e l o d i c l i n e i n S c h u b e r t ' s theme g r a d u a l l y ascends f r o m f t o a''; Brahms's melody descends from a'' t o g'. The r a n g e s of t h e s u p p o r t i n g v o i c e s a r e a l s o s i m i l a r . G e n e r a l Comments on t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t C l a r a Schumann g r e e t e d Brahms's o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t w i t h g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m . She f o u n d t h e f i r s t three:movements " b e a u t i f u l , . . . m a g n i f i c e n t , " and t h e f i n a l e " m a g n i f i c e n t , f i n i s h i n g t h e w h o l e , f u l l o f 14 v e r v e . " Of c o u r s e , she had no c h o i c e but t o t r y t h e work a t t h e p i a n o , and i t seems t h a t she n e v e r h e a r d i t p l a y e d by a s t r i n g ensemble."'""' Perhaps f o r t h i s r e a s o n she p r a i s e d t h e Q u i n t e t i n v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s , r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o o f f e r s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m s . When Brahms l a t e r i n f o r m e d h e r t h a t i t had been t r a n s c r i b e d f o r two p i a n o s , she remarked: C o u l d you n o t have a l t e r e d i t e a s i l y and y e t have l e f t i t as a Q u i n t e t , a f t e r a l l t h e r e were o n l y p l a c e s w h i c h d i d not sound good, but [ t h e r e was] much [ t h a t was] q u a r t e t - l i k e ! ^ 14 " [ d a s Q u i n t e t t ] w i r d j a immer s c h o n e r , h e r r l i c h e r " ( [ t h e Q u i n t e t ] grows e v e r more b e a u t i f u l , more m a g n i f i c e n t ) ; " p r a c h t i g , das Ganze b e s c h l i e s s e n d , v o l l e r Schwung." See A p p e n d i x , p.7.1+0. " ^ D u r i n g h e r s t a y a t L u z e r n , she t r i e d t h e f i r s t t h r e e movements on an u p r i g h t p i a n o (see h e r l e t t e r s o f 29 August and 3 September 1862 i n t h e A p p e n d i x , pp.ZyO ,24>/). I n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n f r o m B e r l i n on 18 December, a f t e r t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f i n a l e , she remarked t h a t " p l a y i n g [ t h e Q u i n t e t ] so l a b o r i o u s l y a t t h e p i a n o i s so v e r y u n s a t i s f y i n g " (das  S p i e l e n so muhsam am K l a v i e r genugt so gar w e n i g ; i b i d . , p . 2 V 5 ) - She e x p r e s s e d t h e hope t h a t she c o u l d h e a r J o a c h i m and h i s m u s i c i a n s p l a y i t when she v i s i t e d Hannover a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J a n u a r y . E v i d e n t l y she s e n t h e r s c o r e o f t h e Q u i n t e t t o J o a c h i m , but was u n a b l e t o go t o Hannover. See C h a p t e r I I , p.1 0 , and B e r t h o l d L i t z m a n n , C l a r a Schumann; E i n K u n s t l e r -l e b e n , 3 Bde. ( L e i p z i g : B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l , 1923-25), I I I : 136. 16 " H a t t e s t Du das n i c h t l e i c h t a n d e r n und doch a l s Q u i n t e t t l a s s e n k'dnnen, es waren doch nur S t e l l e n , d i e n i c h t gut k l a n g e n , v i e l e s a b e r w i e d e r so ganz q u a r t e t t m a s s i g ! " See h e r l e t t e r o f 10 March 1864 i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. 1 i f ^ . 66 E v i d e n t l y she had been p l e a s e d w i t h t h e work as a w h o l e , but r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e were a few p r o b l e m a t i c a l p a s s a g e s . No l e t t e r f rom D i e t r i c h c o n c e r n i n g t h e Q u i n t e t a p p ears t o have been p u b l i s h e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t he had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p e r f o r m the work w i t h h i s m u s i c i a n s . H i s o n l y ( p u b l i s h e d ) r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Q u i n t e t a p p e a r s i n E r i r i r i e r u n g e r i an Johannes Brahms, i n w h i c h he remembered i t as a masterwork: t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s [Brahms's] t h i n g s was becoming m a g n i f i c e n t , e v e r more b e a u t i f u l , e v e r more f i n i s h e d , more i n g e n i o u s . I n t h e work . . . [ t h e r e was] a g r e a t f e e l i n g o f s p i r i t and power.17 J o a c h i m , i n h i s f i r s t l e t t e r c o n c e r n i n g t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t , h a i l e d 18 i t as "a p i e c e o f [ t h e ] d e e p e s t meaning, f u l l o f manly s t r e n g t h . " He was aware t h a t i t would make c o n s i d e r a b l e demands upon t h e t e c h n i q u e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s . I would p r e f e r t h a t I might p l a y i t f o r you f i r s t ; b ecause . . . H e l l m e s b e r g e r would not p l a y i t s u i t a b l y f o r you. He l a c k s t h e b o l d n e s s and s t r e n g t h t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r a l l y o u r w orks. I t i s d i f f i c u l t , t h i s Q u i n t e t , and I am a f r a i d t h a t , w i t h o u t e n e r g e t i c p l a y i n g , i t w i l l sound a l i t t l e u n c l e a r . 1 9 J o a c h i m , a v i o l i n i s t who p e r f o r m e d b o t h as a s o l o i s t and as a chamber m u s i c i a n , was more s e n s i t i v e t h a n C l a r a and D i e t r i c h t o p roblems of x ' " e i n M e i s t e r w e r k : P r a c h t i g , immer s c h b n e r , immer v o l l e n d e t e r , g e i s t v o l l e r wurde d i e A u s f l i h r u n g s e i n e r Sachen. I n dem Werk . . . e i n e g r o s s e F i i l l e v on G e i s t und Kbnnen." A l b e r t D i e t r i c h , E r i n n e r g u n g e n  an Johannes Brahms ( L e i p z i g : O t t o Wigand, 1898), p. 46. 18 " e i n S t i i c k v o n t i e f s t e r Bedeutung, v o l l m a n n l i c h e r K r a f t . " See h i s l e t t e r o f 5 November 1862 i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. 1^3, 19 "ware es m i r l i e b e r , i c h k o n n t e es D i r z u e r s t v o r s p i e l e n ; denn . . . H e l l m e s b e r g e r wiirde es D i r n i c h t zu Dank s p i e l e n . Es f e h l t ihm a n ' K i i h n h e i t und K r a f t , d i e f u r D e i n e Sachen durchaus n b t i g s i n d . Es i s t schwer, das Q u i n t e t t , und i c h f i i r c h t e , d a s s es ohne e n e r g i s c h e s S p i e l l e i c h t u n k l a r k l i n g e n w i r d . " I b i d . 67 s o n o r i t y t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e Q u i n t e t . H i s l e t t e r d a t i n g f r o m t h e end o f J a n u a r y makes i t a p p a r e n t t h a t some of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n c e r n e d t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e bass r e g i s t e r : we p l a y e d t h r o u g h y o u r Q u i n t e t f o r t h e second t i m e , and want t o do i t a t h i r d t i m e , f o r P r e l l wants t o p r a c t i c e h i s 2nd bass [ i . e . , c e l l o ] p a r t a t home. A l r e a d y i t was much c l e a r e r , t h e energy b r o k e t h r o u g h w i t h l e s s g r u m b l i n g and g r o w l i n g i n t h e d e p t h s . 2 0 A s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m appears i n h i s l e t t e r o f 7 A p r i l : As i t i s , I w o u l d not l i k e t o p r o d u c e i t [ t h e Q u i n t e t ] p u b l i c l y — b u t o n l y because I hope you w i l l a l t e r h e r e and t h e r e some r o u g h -n e s s e s [ w h i c h seem] t o o g r e a t even t o me, and w i l l l i g h t e n t h e c o l o r i n g h e r e and t h e r e . 2 1 When he f o r w a r d e d t h e Q u i n t e t s c o r e and p a r t s t o Brahms on t h e f i f t e e n t h , he e x p l a i n e d t h a t Sound-charm [ K l a n g r e i z ] , t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e i t w i t h a word, i s what, t o me, i s m i s s i n g from s e r e n e enjoyment [ o f t h e w o r k ] . . . . R i g h t a t t h e second l i n e , f o r example, t h e i n s t r u -m e n t a t i o n seems t o me n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y e n e r g e t i c f o r t h e m i g h t y r h y t h m i c a l moves; i t sounds a l m o s t f a i n t i n g l y weak f o r t h e i d e a s . O f t e n a g a i n , e v e r y t h i n g s t a y s t o o t h i c k f o r u n i n t e r r u p t e d s t r e t c h e s . You y o u r s e l f must h e a r where t h e e a r l a c k s [a sense o f ] r e p o s e . 2 2 N e v e r t h e l e s s , he p r a i s e d t h e " a l m o s t wanton c r e a t i v e power" e v i d e n c e d i n ''""Dein Q u i n t e t t haben w i r . . . zum 2tenmal d u r c h g e s p i e l t , und w o l l e n ' s auch e i n d r i t t e s M a i t u n , f u r das P r e l l s e i n e 2 t e Bassstimme z u Haus e i n i i b e n w i l l . Es war schon v i e l k l a r e r , d i e E n e r g i e b r a c h m i t w e n i g e r M u r r e n und K n u r r e n i n d e r T i e f e d u r c h . " I b i d . , p . Zfb, 21 "So w i e es i s t , mochte i c h es n i c h t b f f e n t l i c h p r o d u z i e r e n — aber n u r w e i l i c h h o f f e , Du a n d e r s t h i e und da e i n i g e s e l b s t m i r z u g r o s s e S c h r o f f h e i t e n , und l i c h t e s t h i e r und da das K o l o r i t . " I b i d . , P.lf7-22 " K l a n g r e i z , urn's annahernd m i t einem Wort z u b e z e i c h n e n , i s t ' s , was m i r d a r a n zum u n g e t r u b t e n Genuss f e h l t . . . . G l e i c h a u f der 2 t e n Z e i l e z. B. i s t m i r d i e I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f u r d i e m a c h t i g e n r h y t h m i s c h e n Ruckungen n i c h t e n e r g i s c h genug; es k l i n g t f a s t ohnmachtig diinn f u r den Gedanken. O f t w i e d e r l i e g t a l l e s u n u n t e r b r o c h e n e S t r e c k e n l a n g z u d i c k . Du musst's eben s e l b s t h b r e n , wo es dem Ohr an Ruhe g e b r i c h t . " I b i d . 68 23 t h e Q u i n t e t , a d d i n g t h a t i t was " f u l l o f s p i r i t t h r o u g h and t h r o u g h . " As he l a t e r o b s e r v e d i n a l e t t e r t o C l a r a , t h e r e was much t h a t was " r e m a r k a b l e " i n t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t , b u t " t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t . . . [was] • c ,,24 u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . I n d i v i d u a l Movements F i r s t Movement S c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t a r e a few passages f o r t h e s t r i n g ensemble a l o n e , o r f o r t h e s t r i n g s w i t h a minimum o f s u p p o r t f r o m t h e p i a n o p a r t . I n some i n s t a n c e s , p i a n o and s t r i n g s p a r t i c i p a t e more e q u a l l y , b u t t h e t e x t u r e does not exceed f i v e v o i c e s . Such passages would have been q u i t e e f f e c t i v e f o r t h e o r i g i n a l ensemble o f f i v e s t r i n g s . I t s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s e v e r a l of t h e s e passages i n t h e o p e n i n g movement were me n t i o n e d by C l a r a when she f i r s t w r o t e t o Brahms about t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t : how h e a r t f e l t [ i s ] t h e second [ p a r t o f t h e ] f i r s t theme, t h e n t h e second [theme] i n C-sharp m i n o r , how w o n d e r f u l l y t h e i n s t r u m e n t s b l e n d i n t h e development o f t h i s and [ i n ] t h e t r a n s i t i o n b a c k t o t h e f i r s t [ i . e . , t o t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n ] , and a t t h e c l o s e t h e dreamy p l a c e . 2 5 "The dreamy p l a c e " must be t h e e x q u i s i t e Poco s o s t e n u t o s e c t i o n (measures 261-79) t h a t b e g i n s t h e Coda. These n i n e t e e n measures c o m p r i s e t h e l o n g e s t passage of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t i n w h i c h v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e 23 " f a s t i i b e r m i i t i g e n G e s t a l t u n g s k r a f t " ; " d u r c h und d u r c h v o l l G e i s t . " I b i d . 24 See h i s l e t t e r o f 26 May 1863, i b i d . , p. 10. 25 "wie i n n i g das z w e i t e e r s t e M o t i v e , dann das z w e i t e i n C i s m o l l , w i e dann d i e D u r c h f u h r u n g d i e s e s und der Ubergang w i e d e r i n s e r s t e , w i e da d i e I n s t r u m e n t e s i c h so wunderbar v e r s c h m e l z e n , und am S c h l u s s d i e t r a u m e r i s c h e S t e l l e . " See h e r l e t t e r o f 3 September 1862, i b i d . , p, 24-0. 69 m a t e r i a l i s p l a y e d by t h e s t r i n g s ( s e e E x a m p l e ? ) . The p i a n o s u s t a i n s , w i t h l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g , t h e t o n i c p e d a l - p o i n t t h a t would have been p l a y e d by t h e second c e l l o (measures 261-70/1). The p a r t s w r i t t e n f o r t h e s t r i n g s a r e p o s s i b l y quoted d i r e c t l y f rom t h e o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t . Example 8. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , measures 261-65 — - — HIni'//> p m -X) i <^*~^^J. ^ y ^ ^ z ; - — ~ ^ _ ^ > ^ JUL cr: Voco sosfemito "The t r a n s i t i o n back t o t h e f i r s t " must r e f e r t o t h e q u i e t announcement of t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme a t measures 160-64/1, a n a l o g o u s t o measures 273-79 i n t h e Poco s o s t e n u t o s e c t i o n . The i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n would have been s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e l a t t e r p a ssage. "The second [ p a r t o f t h e ] f i r s t theme" would be t h e e s p r e s s i v o T r a n s i t i o n t h a t b e g i n s a t measure 23. U n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f measure 29, th e p a r t s f o r t h e v i o l i n s and t h e v i o l a i n Op. 34 p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . P r e s u m a b l y , t h e p i a n o p l a y s what w o u l d have appeared i n t h e two c e l l o p a r t s . C l a r a ' s comment on t h e w o n d e r f u l b l e n d i n g o f i n s t r u m e n t s " i n t h e 70 development" perhaps alludes to the quiet i m i t a t i v e elaboration of the Second Theme at measures 136-44 and 154-59. Brahms added very l i t t l e to the o r i g i n a l f i v e - p a r t texture when he made the two t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . The l i n e that now stands i n the v i o l a part at measures 137-44 perhaps did not appear i n the o r i g i n a l Quintet, f o r i t i s not present i n the Duo-Piano Sonata (see Example °i ) . Example 9. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, 1st movement (Allegro non trooDo). measures 136-39. Naturally, some sections of t h i s movement would have been problem-a t i c a l , as Joachim's l e t t e r s i n d i c a t e . By s t a t i n g that the instrumen-t a t i o n of "the second l i n e , f o r example, . . . seems to me not s u f f i -26 c i e n t l y energetic for the mighty rhythmical moves," the v i o l i n i s t c a l l e d a ttention to the fact that the e s s e n t i a l problem of t h i s movement, and of enti r e Quintet, lay i n the inadequacy of the instrumental ensemble. Five 26 Joachim may have been a l l u d i n g to measures 5-11, where rushing sixteenth-notes are punctuated by emphatic chords. s t r i n g s were i n c a p a b l e o f t h e c r i s p a r t i c u l a t i o n and t h e o r c h e s t r a l s o n o r i t i e s t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l o f t e n seemed t o r e q u i r e . I n t h e f i r s t movement a l o n e , h i s c r i t i c i s m t h a t " t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . . . sounds a l m o s t f a i n t i n g l y weak f o r t h e i d e a s " would have been a p p l i c a b l e n o t o n l y t o t h e passagework and emphatic c h o r d s o f measures 5-11, but t o t h e f o r t i s s i m o p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme i n measures 12-22, t h e a g i t a t e d e l a b o r a t i o n and f o r t i s s i m o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme i n t h e Development (measures 145-53), and t h e stormy Tempo I s e c t i o n w h i c h c o n c l u d e s t h e Coda (measures 283-99). F i g u r a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f measures 5-11 i s p r o m i n e n t i n t h e accompaniment t o t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme (measures 17-21) and t o a v a r i a n t o f t h e T h i r d Theme (measures 6 5 - 7 3 ) , and i s a l m o s t c o n s t a n t i n t h e Tempo I s e c t i o n o f t h e Coda. One can w e l l u n d e r s t a n d J o a c h i m ' s remark t h a t t h e Q u i n t e t was " d i f f i c u l t " and would r e q u i r e " e n e r g e t i c p l a y i n g , " f o r s u c h passagework would have demanded c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e n g t h and t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t y . When Brahms made t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , he p l a c e d n e a r l y a l l o f t h i s f i g u r a t i o n i n t h e p i a n o p a r t , so t h a t i t would be e x e c u t e d w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y c l a r i t y and i n c i s i v e n e s s . Such passagework, when p l a y e d i n a low r e g i s t e r e i t h e r by a c e l l o o r a v i o l a , would have sounded i n d i s t i n c t . J o a c h i m ' s a l l u s i o n t o " g r u m b l i n g and g r o w l i n g i n t h e d e p t h s " may have r e f e r r e d t o t h e bass f i g u r a t i o n a t measure 17-18 and a t t h e second h a l f o f measures 293-94 ( a l l o f w h i c h appears i n t h e p i a n o p a r t i n Op. 3 4 ) . Second Movement W i t h i t s l y r i c a l themes and i t s s i m p l i c i t y o f t e x t u r e , t h i s move-ment would perhaps have been t h e most e f f e c t i v e f o r s t r i n g q u i n t e t . I t d e l i g h t e d C l a r a , who e x c l a i m e d , " i t j o y f u l l y s i n g s and r i n g s from 72 beginning to end! I keep starting i t again and would like never to 27 stop." She referred to this movement as "an Adagio." When Brahms transcribed i t for piano duo he designated i t Andante, undoubtedly because he f e l t that a slightly faster tempo would be required to com-pensate for the decay of tone on the piano. However, before the work-28 ing draft was copied, he added un poco Adagio. He retained this tempo designation in the f i n a l transcription, where much of the thematic mater-i a l remains in the piano. This movement would not have posed any serious problems of technique or sonority in the original version. There is no intricate passagework that might obscure melodic lines or create rumbling effects in the bass. However, i t is probable that the original ensemble could not f u l l y convey 29 the intensity of the climaxes, for in the transcriptions Brahms added octave and/or unison doublings during these passages (see Example Such doublings also appear in the last period of the return of the Main Theme (measures 95-104) and in measures 105-15 and 120-26 of the Coda. The extended preparation for the return of the Main Theme (measures 55-74) would have been particularly well suited to the original ensemble. The expressive leaps of an octave or a ninth obviously require the strings. 27 "wonnig singt und klingt das bis zur letzten Note! Immer fange ich es wieder an und mochte nicht aufhbren." See her letter of 3 Sep-tember 1862 in the Appendix, p, 2 H-0. 28 Many refinements affecting tempo in individual passages were executed in the working draft. See Chapters V, p . ^  5 and VII, p,/£3. 29 E.g., see the conclusion of the Main Theme at measure 27-32, of the Second Theme at measures 45-46, and the climactic measures 50-53 of the sempre poco accelerando episode. 73 Example 10. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, 2nd movement (Andante, un poco A d a g i o ) , measures 29-31 sosten. ciimui, sosf/'tt. dimi At measures 65-72, Brahms seems t o have add.&d~Tiotfiing to~ t h e " o r i g i n a l f o u r - and f i v e - v o i c e t e x t u r e . T h i r d Movement S c h e r z o . N e i t h e r C l a r a n o r J o a c h i m o f f e r e d any s p e c i f i c comments 30 on t h e S c h e r z o . C l a r a s i m p l y remarked, " I l o v e t h e S c h e r z o v e r y much." A f t e r J o a c h i m had t r i e d t h e Q u i n t e t f o r t h e second t i m e w i t h h i s m u s i -c i a n s , he was a b l e t o t e l l Brahms t h a t "much charmed me, p a r t i c u l a r l y 31 t h e v i g o r o u s , s t u r d y S c h e r z o . " Much o f t h e S c h e r z o w o u l d have been w e l l w i t h i n t h e t e c h n i c a l and sonor o u s c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l ensemble. Indeed, t h e i n s t r u -m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p i a n i s s i m o M a i n Theme (measures 1-12) p r o b a b l y r e s e m b l e s 30„, das S c h e r z o l i e b e i c h s e h r . " See A p p e n d i x , p, 2 <f0 ' v i e l e s , n a m e n t l i i e n t z u c k t . " I b i d . , p . 2 f & 31II " v i e l e s , n a m e n t l i c h das m a r k i g gedrungene S c h r e z o , h a t m i r 74 t h e o r i g i n a l v e r y c l o s e l y . The two-measure r e i t e r a t i o n o f C p r e c e d i n g t h e e n t r y o f t h e theme was e v i d e n t l y a b s e nt i n t h e o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t ; Brahms added i t i n p e n c i l t o t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t , o f t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a (see C h a p t e r V, page f L ) . The hushed s t a t e m e n t o f t h e Second Theme a t 32 measures 13-21 may be s c o r e d e x a c t l y as i t was i n t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . The f o r t i s s i m o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s theme (measures 57-66) was perhaps one of t h e passages w h i c h sounded " v i g o r o u s , [and] s t u r d y " t o Jo a c h i m . A l t h o u g h i t g r e a t l y b e n e f i t s from t h e i n c i s i v e n e s s o f t h e p i a n o p a r t i n t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , i t would have seemed s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . The same might be s a i d o f t h e f i r s t p e r i o d (measures 22-29/1) o f t h e T h i r d Theme; however, t h e t e x t u r e o f t h e c a n o n i c second p e r i o d must have been r a t h e r t h i n . W i t h i t s q u i e t S u b j e c t (measures 67-71/1) and s o f t l y - t r e a d i n g c o n t r a p u n t a l l i n e s , most of t h e f u g a t o would have been w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e o r i g i n a l ensemble. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g i n t h e 33 a u t o g r a p h o f Op. 34, one can su g g e s t t h a t t h e S u b j e c t was p r e s e n t e d f i r s t by a c e l l o i n t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . The o r i g i n a l ensemble must have seemed i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e c l i m a c t i c measures 92-99 o f t h e f u g a t o ; Brahms added d o u b l i n g s i n b o t h t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . The s c o r i n g o f t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e movement (measures 144-92), a l m o s t c o n s t a n t l y t u t t i , may have o c c a s i o n e d J o a c h i m ' s c r i t i c i s m t h a t " o f t e n a g a i n , e v e r y t h i n g s t a y s t o o t h i c k f o r u n i n t e r r u p t e d d i s t a n c e s . " 32 The shape o f t h e melody a t measures 18-21 i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m what e v i d e n t l y o c c u r r e d i n t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t ; Brahms had a l t e r e d i t i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . See C h a p t e r 33 The p r e s e n t v i o l a p a r t was o r i g i n a l l y n o t a t e d f o r t h e c e l l o i n measures 67-76/1 and 80-84/1, and f o r t h e second v i o l i n a t measures 76-80/1. 75 O r c h e s t r a t i o n problems were l i k e l y e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e c l i m a c t i c measures 177-89; t h e t e x t u r e o f t h i s passage i n t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t may have been v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t (see Example f1 ) . Example 11. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, S c h e r z o ( A l l e g r o ) , measures 184-88 T r i o . The T r i o , w h i c h C l a r a c o n s i d e r e d "a l i t t l e s h o r t " (etwas 34 s e h r k u r z ) , might have p r o v i d e d a most e f f e c t i v e c o n t r a s t t o t h e s u s -t a i n e d e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e S c h e r z o . N e i t h e r t h e theme ( t o measure 209, r e p e a t e d ) nor t h e c o n t r a s t i n g p e r i o d (measures 225/4-33/1, r e p e a t e d ) exceeds t h e sonorous and t e c h n i c a l c a p a c i t i e s o f a s t r i n g q u i n t e t . Brahms p r e s e r v e d t h e o r i g i n a l f i v e - v o i c e t e x t u r e i n t h e f i r s t s t a t e m e n t o f t h e theme. To t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a s t i n g p e r i o d , he added one l i n e o f o c t a v e d o u b l i n g and a few harmony n o t e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e cadence. As i n t h e T r a n s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t movement, he 34 See t h e A p p e n d i x , pp. Zlf.0 } /. 76 t r a n s c r i b e d t h e o r i g i n a l c e l l o p a r t s f o r t h e p i a n o a t t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e theme (measures 210/4-25/1 and 241/2-58/1). Harmony n o t e s and o c t a v e d o u b l i n g s were added (see Example 12)-Example 12. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, T r i o ( A l l e g r o ) , measures 210-12 I *, 1. ( t , — - r — r — : h r i 0 — s—1 H 1 -SP / , „ r H J_! 1 1 — 1 f • ' 1 * 1 1 f l 1 ^ ? = = l . — 1 — _ l ^ — 1 in':;. . H ^ -* E - ^ C-s—wr ~ 7 1 — — • 1 r a ^. / »fcfc= 1Hu.')vr» .. . . . . . . .ri... P S F — tifnon*'legato - r-rr A F o u r t h Movement As i n t h e c a s e o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e movements, C l a r a o f f e r e d n o t h i n g but p r a i s e f o r t h e f i n a l e : I f i n d t h e l a s t movement m a g n i f i c e n t , f i n i s h i n g t h e wh o l e , f u l l o f v e r v e , t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n q u i t e b e a u t i f u l , t h e 2nd theme such a p l e a s i n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e f i r s t h a n d i n t h e Development a g a i n s u c h [an] i n g e n i o u s meshing o f a l l t h e themes, i n s h o r t , [ i t i s ] even q u i t e m a s t e r l y . 3 5 Her a l l u s i o n t o t h e "meshing o f a l l t h e themes" i n " t h e Development" i s " i c h f i n d e den l e t z t e n S a t z p r a c h t i g , das Ganze b e s c h l i e s s e n d , v o l l e r Schwung, d i e I n t r o d u k t i o n gar schon, das 2. M o t i v a l s Gegensatz des e r s t e n so w o h l t u e n d , und i n der D u r c h a r b e i t u n g w i e d e r so g e i s t v o l l e s I n e i n a n d e r g r e i f en a l l e r M o t i v e , k u r z , eben ganz m e i s t e r l i c h . " I b i d . ,p.2.^ 5, 77 p u z z l i n g . The movement p r o p e r , as i t s t a n d s i n b o t h t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , does n o t have a Development, a l t h o u g h t h e Second Theme i s c a n o n i c a l l y e l a b o r a t e d (measures 125-36) and t h e r e t u r n of t h e M a i n Theme i n c l u d e s a l e n g t h y d e v e l o p m e n t a l e x t e n s i o n of t h e t h i r d p h r a s e (measures 195-236). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t C l a r a was r e f e r r i n g t o t h e g r e a t Coda, w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s o n e - t h i r d o f t h e movement (measures 342-492) and f u n c -t i o n s as a k i n d of t e r m i n a l Development, t r a n s f o r m i n g and j u x t a p o s i n g t h e M a i n and t h e Second Themes. Joachim's o n l y s p e c i f i c comments on t h i s movement c o n c e r n a c o u p l e o f p a s s a ges t h a t were not t o h i s l i k i n g : I am u n s y m p a t h e t i c w i t h o n l y t h e p l a c e i n t h e l a s t movement w i t h t h e Baroque S c h e i n f i f t h s ( [ l o s t a u t o g r a p h ] page 39) and t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t melody; a l s o t h e r e s t l e s s c a n o n i c p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e n e x t page. T h i s s u r e l y cannot p l e a s e y o u ; i t sounds a f f e c t e d ! 3 6 "The i n s i g n i f i c a n t melody" must r e f e r t o t h e Second Theme, w h i c h i s p r e c e d e d by a b r i e f a s c e n t i n f i f t h s and f o u r t h s (measures 92/2-94/1 and 106/2-08/1). W i t h r e g a r d t o Op. 3 4 b i s , J o a c h i m l a t e r remarked t h a t he had " s t i l l n o t made f r i e n d s " w i t h " t h e second theme o f t h e l a s t 37 movement." I t seems t h e r e f o r e t h a t h i s d i s l i k e f o r t h e theme had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h whether o r not i t was s u i t a b l e t o t h e medium o f s t r i n g q u i n t e t . Brahms e v i d e n t l y t hought t h a t i t r e q u i r e d t h e s t r i n g s ' e x p r e s s i v e -" " " " " W i r k l i c h u n s y m p a t h i s c h i s t m i r n u r d i e S t e l l e im l e t z t e n S a t z m i t den b a r o c k e n S c h e i n q u i n t e n ( S e i t e 39) und der n i c h t bedeutenden M e l o d i e ; auch d i e u n r u h i g e k a n o n i s c h e F o r t s e t z u n g auf d e r n a c h s t e n * S e i t e . Das kann D i r auch n i c h t g e f a l i e n ; es k l i n g t gemacht!" I b i d . , p. ^ 7 . 37 "das z w e i t e M o t i v des l e t z t e n S a t z e s , m i t dem i c h m i c h noch immer n i c h t b e f r e u n d e . " Ib i d . , p. 2.5 I, 78 n e s s , f o r he v i r t u a l l y e x c l u d e d t h e p i a n o f r o m t h e i n i t i a l s t a t e m e n t (measures 94-107/1). I n t h e immediate r e p e t i t i o n (measures 108 - 2 4 ) , t h e p i a n o p l a y s what must have been t h e second c e l l o p a r t and t h e c o n -c l u s i o n of t h e second v i o l i n and v i o l a p a r t s . When t h i s theme r e t u r n s (measures 252-82), t h e p i a n o assumes t h e m a t e r i a l f o r m e r l y e n t r u s t e d t o t h e c e l l o and some of t h e i n n e r v o i c e s ; t h e t e x t u r e g e n e r a l l y does not exceed f i v e p a r t s . There a r e a few o t h e r passages i n t h i s movement, as i n t h e f i r s t and t h i r d movements, i n w h i c h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e p i a n o i s m i n i m a l . I n t h e q u i e t i m i t a t i v e passage t h a t opens t h e Pbco s o s t e r i u t o I n t r o d u c t i o n , t h e second c e l l o - p a r t was t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e p i a n o ; Brahms added j u s t a few d o u b l i n g s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c r e s c e n d o a t measures 11-12. S i m i -l a r l y , t h e p i a n o was e x c l u d e d from most o f t h e o p e n i n g f o u r t e e n measures (342-55) o f t h e P r e s t o , non t r o p p o Coda. I n s p i t e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l between p i a n o and s t r i n g s , t h e number of p a r t s a c t i v e i n some passages o f Op. 34 r e m a i n s t h e same, or v e r y n e a r l y t h e same, as i t might have been i n t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . I n Op. 34 Brahms p r o b a b l y t r a n s c r i b e d t h e M a i n Theme i n t a c t u n t i l measures 54-57, where he l a t e r added t h e s u s t a i n e d p e d a l - p o i n t t h a t now s t a n d s i n t h e c e l l o p a r t . D u r i n g t h e immediate r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e theme, t h e t e x -t u r e does n o t exceed f i v e v o i c e s u n t i l t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 71-78. Brahms added s e v e r a l more d o u b l i n g and harmony n o t e s when he t r a n s c r i b e d two o f t h e l a t e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h i s theme (measures 161-83, 321-41) and t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of b o t h themes a t measures 439-66. However, as i n t h e o p e n i n g movement and t h e S c h e r z o , t h e o r i g i n a l ensemble w o u l d have l a c k e d t h e f o r c e , i n c i s i v e n e s s and c o n t r a s t i n t i m b r e s r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e t h e i n t e n d e d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e . v i g o r o u s 79 T r a n s i t i o n (measures 8 1 - 9 2 ) , t h e c a n o n i c e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme, and t h e c o n c l u d i n g t r i p l e t passage (measures 137-58/1). The c a n o n i c e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme sounded " r e s t l e s s " t o J o a c h i m , p r o b a b l y because o f a l l t h e t r i p l e t movement o c c u r r i n g s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y i n upper and l o w e r s t r i n g s . I n t h e o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t , t h e t r i p l e t s i n t h e t e n o r r e g i s t e r p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e d a t measures 128 and 132, as t h e y do i n t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a (see Example 13)~ Example 13. Johannes Brahms, Op. 3 4 b i s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o — A l l e g r o non t r o p p o — P r e s t o j n o n t r o p p o ) , measures 127-29 1£ ^ H i " 1 I K fry f TCTt Mm •d- • The i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r c e s would a l s o have been e v i d e n t i n most of t h e g r e a t Coda. F i v e s t r i n g s c o u l d n o t have approached t h e f u l l n e s s o f harmony and m a s s i v e n e s s o f s o n o r i t y n e c e s s a r y a t measures 362-438 and 478-92. The c e l l o s ' r e l e n t l e s s t r i p l e t movement i n t h e bass a t measures 372-83 may have sounded heavy and ro u g h t o J o a c h i m (see Example iIf.). These t r i p l e t s , l i k e t h o s e a t measures 424-38 and, i n t h e movement p r o p e r , a t measures 149-58 and 307-16, would have been e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t J o a c h i m ' s second c e l l i s t was a n x i o u s t o p r a c t i c e h i s p a r t b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g a t h i r d r e h e a r s a l ! 80 Example 14. Johannes Brahms, Op. 34, f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o — A l l e g r o non t r o p p o — P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , measures 374-77 CHAPTER V THE CREATIVE PROCESS, PART I I : THE SONATA FOR TWO PIANOFORTES Survey o f t h e Stages o f t h e C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s Brahms's r e t u r n i n g t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t m a n u s c r i p t t o A l b e r t D i e t r i c h i n May 1863*'" perhaps marked t h e b e g i n n i n g of a temporary r e n u n -c i a t i o n o f t h e work ( S t a g e 2^) . D i s t r a c t e d by h i s p a r e n t s ' d i f f i c u l -t i e s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e composer c o u l d s p a r e much t i m e f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Q u i n t e t . F u r t h e r m o r e , by t h e end of t h e month he had been o f f e r e d t h e c o n d u c t o r s h i p o f t h e Wiener Singakademie. A f t e r f i n a l l y d e c i d i n g t o a c c e p t t h e p o s i t i o n , he began p l a n n i n g programs f o r t h e f o r t h c o m i n g s e a s o n i n V i e n n a , u n d e r s t a n d a b l y s e e k i n g t h e a d v i c e o f 2 D i e t r i c h . The f a c t t h a t Brahms became o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e new c o m p o s i -3 t i o n , R i n a l d o , w h i c h was w e l l s t a r t e d by e a r l y J u n e , may i n d i c a t e t h a t he ceased work on t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . P e r h a p s Brahms d i d n o t r e t u r n t o t h e Q u i n t e t u n t i l t h e c a n t a t a was l a r g e l y f i n i s h e d a t t h e end o f September 1863. Sometime w i t h i n t h e n e x t few months he d r a f t e d t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n f o r p i a n o duo (S t a g e 3 ^ ) . "*"See C h a p t e r I I , p. 2.^ , and Brahms's l e t t e r t o D i e t r i c h , d a t i n g f r o m l a t e May, on p. o f t h e App e n d i x . 2 See Brahms's l e t t e r i n A l b e r t D i e t r i c h , E r i n n e r u n g e n an Johannes  Brahms ( L e i p z i g : O t t o Wigand, 1898), pp. 51-52. 3 See C h a p t e r I I , f n . 51. 81 82 By 27 F e b r u a r y 1864, when t h e new v e r s i o n i s f i r s t m e n tioned i n t h e pub-4 - b l i s h e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , t h e V e r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e (4 ) was w e l l begun. The w o r k i n g d r a f t had been r e v i s e d and c o p i e d ; as w i l l be e x p l a i n e d b e l o w , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t Brahms i n s t r u c t e d t h e c o p y i s t t o i n c o r p o r a t e s p e c i f i c r e v i s i o n s n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e a u t o g r a p h m a n u s c r i p t . B o t h t h e l a t t e r and t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t were p r o b a b l y a t Brahms's d i s p o s a l b e f o r e t h e t w e n t y - s e v e n t h , f o r he had p l a n n e d t o t r y t h e work w i t h C a r l T a u s i g t h a t day. The f a i l u r e o f t h e p r e m i e r e o f t h e Sonata f o r Two P i a n o f o r t e s , g i v e n by Brahms and T a u s i g i n V i e n n a on 17 A p r i l 1864,^ may have caused t h e composer t o f e e l t h a t f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s were n e c e s s a r y . He must have been o c c u p i e d w i t h s u c h a l t e r a t i o n s s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o Hamburg i n June , f o r he i n v i t e d h i s f r i e n d A d o l f S c h u b r i n g t o spend a few days' h o l i d a y w i t h him, i n f o r m i n g S c h u b r i n g t h a t t h e y would be p l a y i n g t h e Duo-Piano Sonata. By t h e m i d d l e o f J u l y , Brahms must have com p l e t e d w h a t e v e r changes he w i s h e d t o make, f o r he d i s p a t c h e d b o t h t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t and t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t t o C l a r a a t Baden-Baden, e v i d e n t l y i n f o r m i n g h e r t h a t he i n t e n d e d soon t o send t h e work t o a 7 8 p u b l i s h e r . C l a r a ' s l e t t e r o f 22 J u l y , u r g i n g t h a t t h i s v e r s i o n be t r a n s c r i b e d f o r o r c h e s t r a , s e e m i n g l y p u t a s t o p t o t h e s e p l a n s , and Brahms h a s t e n e d t o Baden-Baden. He and C l a r a s u r e l y would have p l a y e d 4 See Brahms's l e t t e r t o B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. 2.^ 8-5 S e e C h a p t e r I I , p. 26, See Brahms's l e t t e r t o S c h u b r i n g , d a t e d 19 June 1864, i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. Ity^. 7 R e f e r t o C h a p t e r I I , p. 2 7-g See A p p e n d i x , p .2 ,50-83 and d i s c u s s e d t h e Duo-Piano Sonata between h i s a r r i v a l on 31 J u l y and h e r d e p a r t u r e f o r a c o n c e r t t o u r on 10 August. The work perhaps u n d e r -went f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n a t t h i s t i m e . Many of t h e changes t h a t appear i n t h e two m a n u s c r i p t s of t h e Duo-P i a n o Sonata p r o b a b l y a r o s e f r o m v a r y i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s and 9 s o n o r i t i e s . Brahms p o s s i b l y t r i e d t h e work on more t h a n one p i a n o b e f o r e s e n d i n g h i s a u t o g r a p h t o t h e c o p y i s t . A f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e copy he e v i d e n t l y p l a y e d t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a on s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s , p a r t n e r e d by T a u s i g i n V i e n n a , by C l a r a i n Baden-Baden, and perhaps by o t h e r s . The i n v i t a t i o n w h i c h Brahms s e n t from Hamburg t o S c h u b r i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e composer had a c c e s s t o a t l e a s t two i n s t r u -ments w h i l e i n h i s n a t i v e c i t y . By t h e end o f October 1864, a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o V i e n n a from Baden-Baden, Brahms had r e c e i v e d "a b e a u t i f u l grand p i a n o " ^ f r o m t h e f i r m of S t r e i c h e r . The d i f f e r e n t s o n o r i t i e s o f t h e new i n s t r u m e n t perhaps gave r i s e t o many of t h e a l t e r a t i o n s e x e c u t e d i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t a u t o g r a p h , and t o some o f t h e changes s u b s e q u e n t l y made i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a (see C h a p t e r s V I and V I I ) . Stage 3^, Phase I : T r a n s c r i p t i o n of t h e  S t r i n g Q u i n t e t f o r P i a n o Duo That Brahms c o n s i d e r e d c r i t i c a l l y t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t , even as he t r a n s c r i b e d i t , i s a t t e s t e d by numerous i n s t a n c e s of 9 F o r example, h i s c a n c e l l a t i o n o f some o c t a v e d o u b l i n g s i n t h e bass l i n e a t measures 123-33 o f t h e f i r s t movement was perhaps o c c a s i o n e d by an i n s t r u m e n t t h a t had a v e r y s o n o r o u s b a s s r e g i s t e r . See p./22.. " ^ " e i n e n schonen F l i i g e l . " See t h e l e t t e r w r i t t e n by Brahms t o C l a r a a t t h e end o f t h e month, i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. 25/-84 r e d r e s s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o u r movements o f t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t . Harmony n o t e s o r o c t a v e d o u b l i n g s were c a n c e l l e d f r e q u e n t l y by h i s d e l i b e r a t e s m e a r i n g o f t h e i n k w i t h h i s f i n g e r . I n t h e f i r s t movement, s u c h changes made i n t h e m i d s t of w r i t i n g sometimes i n v o l v e d more t h a n t h e a l t e r a t i o n of i s o l a t e d c h o r d s . I n two i n s t a n c e s , t h e p h r a s i n g o f an e n t i r e passage was a f f e c t e d . Among t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h e a l t e r -a t i o n made i n t h e m i d s t of t h e i m i t a t i v e d i a l o g u e t h a t blossoms f r o m t h e C l o s i n g Theme. At measure 248, Brahms co m p l e t e d t h e f i r s t b e a t i n a l l but t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t of t h e Secondo, t h e n c a n c e l l e d what he had w r i t t e n and began t h e measure a f r e s h . The e x c i s e d m a t e r i a l (Example /5) i n d i -c a t e s t h a t he perhaps i n t e n d e d t o e x t e n d t h e s e q u e n t i a l d e s c e n t , but i m m e d i a t e l y changed h i s mind. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t he d e c i d e d a t t h i s p o i n t t o omit m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t i n t h e o r i g i n a l S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . Stage Phase I I : E l a b o r a t i o n of t h e Working D r a f t B e f o r e s e n d i n g t h e d r a f t t o t h e c o p y i s t , Brahms made numerous a l t e r a t i o n s i n n o t e s as w e l l as i n e x p r e s s i o n ( p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a -t i o n , d y namics, and e x p r e s s i o n w o r d s ) . W i t h a few s i g n i f i c a n t e x c e p -t i o n s i n t h e f i r s t movement and t h e S c h e r z o , r e v i s i o n s o f n o t e s i n a l l 11 The e i g h t h - n o t e f i g u r e s moving a c r o s s t h e b a r l i n e a t measures 84-85 of t h e C l o s i n g Theme were o r i g i n a l l y c o n n e c t e d by one l o n g s l u r . Brahms i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o n s i d e r e d , i t , c a n c e l l e d i t i n i n k , and r e p l a c e d i t w i t h t h r e e - n o t e s l u r s . He n e v e r used i t a g a i n , e i t h e r i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s p a s s a g e , o r i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n . A s i m i l a r s i t u -a t i o n o c c u r s a t measure 155 i n t h e Development, where t h e two t r i p l e t i n t e r j e c t i o n s i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo were o r i g i n a l l y g i v e n t h r e e - n o t e s l u r s . Brahms changed h i s mind b e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g t h e p a t t e r n i n t h e n e x t b a r , and r e p l a c e d b o t h t h r e e - n o t e s l u r s w i t h a two-n o t e s l u r f o l l o w e d by a s t a c c a t o d o t . He u s e d t h i s a r t i c u l a t i o n i n t h e t r i p l e t s o f t h e f o u r s u c c e e d i n g measures. 85 Example 15. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , measure 247 and o r i g i n a l o p e n i n g of measure 248 i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t * 11 -i-f o u r movements were c o n c e r n e d w i t h p e r f e c t i n g d e t a i l s o f t e x t u r e and b a l a n c e . O c c a s i o n a l l y a passage was made l e s s d i f f i c u l t t e c h n i c a l l y by t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of m a t e r i a l between t h e two hands o f one p i a n o p a r t I n t h e o u t e r movements and t h e S c h e r z o , Brahms sometimes i n d i c a t e d t h a t P r imo and Secondo s h o u l d exchange p a r t s , so t h a t t h e s h a r e o f t h e Secondo i n t h e t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l would be more n e a r l y e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e P r i m o . Brahms's r e l a t i v e l y few r e v i s i o n s and i n s e r t i o n s o f dynamic mark-i n g s and e x p r e s s i o n words u s u a l l y s e r v e d t o i n t e n s i f y t h e e f f e c t ( s ) 12 12 E.g., i n t h e f i r s t movement a t measures 256-59 t h e l o w e s t v o i c e i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t . Each f i n t h e o r i g i n a l r i g h t - h a n d l i n e was r e p l a c e d by F. 13 See T a b l e 1, measures 4-21, 63-74, 225-26; T a b l e 3, measures 1-13; and T a b l e 4, measures 42-49, 490-92. 86 c l e a r l y i n h e r e n t i n a g i v e n p a s s a g e . T h i s i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e e x p r e s s i o n words added a t v a r i o u s p l a c e s w i t h i n t h e second movement. The f i r s t movement and t h e l a s t two show s c a r c e l y any a l t e r a t i o n o r i n s e r t i o n of dynamics and e x p r e s s i o n words. I n a l l but t h e S c h e r z o , Brahms made some mi n o r r e v i s i o n s i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n . Such d e t a i l e d r e f i n e m e n t s w h i c h r e s u l t i n a more e f f e c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e , do n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r t h e sound o f t h e m a t e r i a l . Thus Brahms, a t t h i s t i m e , was m a i n l y engaged i n s o l v i n g r e l a -t i v e l y m i n o r problems o f s o n o r i t y t h a t had a r i s e n i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n , and i n g i v i n g more d e t a i l e d d i r e c t i o n s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e . R e v i s i o n s i n a l l f o u r movements were e x e c u t e d i n b o t h i n k and l e a d . N otes were a l t e r e d and c a n c e l l e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e f i r s t movement t h a n i n any of t h e o t h e r s ; t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n of t h i s movement seems t o have posed t h e most d i f f i c u l t i e s . F i r s t Movement The r e v i s i o n of t h i s movement was e v i d e n t l y begun w e l l b e f o r e Brahms had f i n i s h e d d r a f t i n g i t , f o r s e v e r a l changes made w i t h i n t h e f i r s t t w o - t h i r d s of t h e E x p o s i t i o n appear as t h e o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n . The most n o t i c e a b l e of t h e s e changes c o n c e r n s t h e t r i p l e t accompaniment of b r o k e n o c t a v e s i n t h e low b a s s l i n e a t measures 51-55 (see T e x t u a l N o t e s , page 222). Brahms d e c i d e d t o c l a r i f y t h e l a s t t h r e e measures by t r a n s p o s i n g t h e f i r s t and l a s t n o t e s o f some o f 14 t h e t r i p l e t s up an o c t a v e t o a l e s s r e s o n a n t r e g i s t e r . I n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n , t h i s new p a t t e r n c o n s t i t u t e s t h e o r i g i n a l n o t a t i o n a t 14 When c o r r e c t i n g t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t , he made t h e same a l t e r a t i o n s i n measures 51-52 and i n t h e second t r i p l e t o f measure 53. 87 t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 213-17. At measures 57-58 o f t h e P r i m o , Brahms d i v i d e d t h e passagework between t h e two hands t o s i m p l i f y e x e c u t i o n ; t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 219-20 adopt t h i s new r e a d i n g . I n o n l y one i n s t a n c e , t h e t h e m a t i c t e x t u r e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d . These changes c o n c e r n e d t e s s i t u r a and d o u b l i n g r a t h e r t h a n a f f e c t i n g t h e shape o f t h e theme i t s e l f . The passage i n q u e s t i o n i s the' o p e n i n g of t h e Second Theme and i t s c o u n t e r m e l o d y i n t h e R e c a p i t u -l a t i o n a t measures 196-97. The o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g s i m p l y r e p r o d u c e d measures 34-35, t r a n s p o s e d v i r t u a l l y i n t a c t t o F - s h a r p m i n o r , as shown i n Example 16. Brahms added a new d i m e n s i o n t o t h i s o p e n i n g by r a i s i n g Example 16. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g o f measures 196-97 a t E y y y pp i t E PP 4t 1 — • 15, Brahms f o r g o t t o make t h e same change i n measures 61-62 and t h e r e f o r e used t h e o l d d i s t r i b u t i o n when he w r o t e t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 223-24 o f t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n . L a t e r , w h i l e c o r r e c t i n g t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t , he made t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r a t i o n s i n measures 61-62 and 223-24, and added them t o h i s a u t o g r a p h . 88 t h e t e s s i t u r a o f b o t h t h e theme and t h e c o u n t e r m e l o d y . The f o r m e r was t r a n s p o s e d up an o c t a v e ; t o g i v e a b r i g h t e r sound g r e a t e r s u b s t a n c e , Brahms added d o u b l i n g a t t h e l o w e r o c t a v e . The e i g h t h - o r s i x t e e n t h -n o t e p i c k - u p s were c l a r i f i e d by t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f t h e upper o r l o w e r t h i r d i n one o r b o t h p a r t s o f t h e Secondo. The c o u n t e r m e l o d y was r e -w r i t t e n w i t h u p p e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g , and w i t h t h e c# t r a n s p o s e d up an o c t a v e . Most of. t h e o t h e r changes made i n t h i s movement c o n s i s t o f t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f p e d a l - p o i n t s , harmony n o t e s , o r d o u b l i n g n o t e s t o t h i n and l e n d g r e a t e r f o c u s t o t h e t e x t u r e o r t o c r e a t e a b e t t e r b a l a n c e between t r e b l e and b a s s . Many such r e v i s i o n s c o n c e r n t h e development and r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme (see T a b l e 1, measures 139-41, 143-45, 151, 201-02, 205-06, and 207-08). The t e x t u r e was t h i n n e d i n t h e T r a n s i t i o n and a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme i n t h e Recap-i t u l a t i o n (see T a b l e 1, measures 29-30 and 174-75). A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f d o u b l i n g was removed from some s i x t e e n t h - n o t e passagework accompanying t h e T h i r d Theme (measures 65-68 and 229-30). The o r i g i n a l 16 r e a d i n g o f measures 65-66 i s shown i n Example 17. I n two i n s t a n c e s , Brahms d e c i d e d t h a t a low b a s s p e d a l - p o i n t was perhaps t o o heavy f o r t h e m a t e r i a l i t s u p p o r t e d . A t t h e end o f t h e Development, C was o r i g i n a l l y r e i t e r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t measures 155-61; "^The d o u b l i n g i n measures 67-68 (Primo) was t h e same as i n measures 65-66. I n t h e an a l o g o u s measures 229-30 of t h e Secondo t h e r e was no d o u b l i n g o f t h e . l e f t - h a n d p a r t on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f each measure; o t h e r w i s e , t h e d o u b l i n g was t h e same as i n measures 65-68. Brahms c a n c e l l e d t h e d o u b l i n g o f t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t i n measures 65-68, l e a v i n g (perhaps a c c i d e n t a l l y ) o n l y t h e r i g h t - h a n d d o u b l i n g i n measures 66 and 68. I n measures 229-30, a l l o f t h e d o u b l i n g was c a n c e l l e d . A f t e r t h e making o f t h e copy, Brahms c a n c e l l e d t h e r i g h t - h a n d d o u b l i n g l i n e i n b o t h measures 66 and 68 o f h i s a u t o g r a p h , b u t o n l y i n measure 66 o f t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . TABLE 1 BRAHMS'S ALTERATIONS IN THE WORKING DRAFT OF OP. 34BIS, STAGE 3 , PHASE I I (FIRST MOVEMENT) ! P h r a s . & - Dynamic Notes A r t i e . M a r k i n g s * * I n s t r u - De-M e a s u r e ( s ) ment ( s ) T r n . D b l . Hrm. D s t . S i r . T i e C r e s c . C r e s c . Remark 4/4-22; 63-74/1; 225-26 I & I I X -I & I I exchange p a r t s t o e q u a l -i z e t h e m a t i c i n t e r e s t 29/3, 4; 30/3, 4 I/R Open t h i r d s g l > l - b ' M and f#'-a' were o r i g i n a l l y r e i t e r -a t e d i n t r i p l e t - e i g h t h rhythm *51-55 I I / L 8' *57-58 I X *65-68; I I 229-30 71-72 I I and/or I + + Nuance added t o f i n a l measures of C l o s i n g Theme 73/2-4 I & I I 76-77/1; 80-81/1; 238-39/1; i ; I I + S i x t e e n t h and e i g h t h n o t e s c o n n e c t e d by two-note s l u r s 242-43/1 139/3-41/1; 143/3-45/1 I I / L P e d a l - p o i n t ( r e i t e r a t e d i n h a l f n o t e s ) c a n c e l l e d TABLE 1 — C o n t i n u e d Notes P h r a s . & A r t i e . Dynamic M a r k i n g s * * M e a s u r e ( s ) I n s t r u -ment (s) T r n . D b l . Hrm. D s t . S i r . T i e C r e s c . De-C r e s c . Remark 141/4 I/R e S l u r extended t o f i r s t b e a t of measure 142 151/2, 4 *155/3-61 I/R I I / L 8' Lower t h i r d s ( c " ' and a b " ) d e l e t e d from s i x t e e n t h - n o t e p i c k - u p s 174/3; 175/3 I I T e x t u r e o f accompaniment t h i n n e d by d e l e t i o n o f d^' 1 and A^ 201-02 I/L +8, P e d a l - p o i n t (f# and g r e i t e r -a t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n h a l f n o t e s ) c a n c e l l e d ; b a ss l i n e d o u b l e d a t l o w e r o c t a v e 205-06 I/L +8, A l t e r a t i o n s as i n measures 201-202 ( p e d a l - p o i n t c o n s i s t e d of g and a#) 207-08 I Each c h o r d t h i n n e d by c a n c e l -l a t i o n o f one n o t e *196-97 I/R & I I 8' +8, *253-56 I + *253-62 I & I I + 256-60/1 I I X See f n . 12 TABLE 1 — C o n t i n u e d N o t e s P h r a s . & A r t i e . Dynamic M a r k i n g s * * M e a s u r e ( s ) I n s t r u -ment (s) T r n . D b l . Hrm. D s t . S i r . T i e Zresc. De-C r e s c . Remark *256-62 I I / L 265/3-66 I I / L + Open o c t a v e F,-F, o r i g i n a l l y s u s t a i n e d i n t h e s e measures, i s r e p l a c e d by r e i t e r a t e d open f i f t h 269 I I / L T i e s from o c t a v e i n p r e c e d i n g measure a r e c a n c e l l e d *281/4-82 I I / L +8, 297/1 I I / R 8, f 1 ' and f 1 (which o r i g i n a l l y c o n c l u d e d f i r s t b e a t ) c a n -c e l l e d and n o t a t e d an o c t a v e l o w e r *The o n l y r e f i n e m e n t i n e x p r e s s i o n words i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e t e x t 92 Example 17. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g , of measures 65-66 i n t h e Secondo ^ ff Brahms l a t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t s h o u l d y i e l d t o c i n t h e second h a l f o f each measure. The t o n i c p e d a l - p o i n t a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e R e c a p i t -u l a t i o n (measures 256-62) i n i t i a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f t h e open Octave F,-F. I t was s t r u c k and s u s t a i n e d i n t h e two l e f t - h a n d p a r t s i n a l t e r n a t i o n on t h e second and f o u r t h b e a t s of each measure. Brahms r e v i s e d t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo more t h a n once, and most o f h i s a l t e r a -t i o n s a r e q u i t e ambiguous. He d i d , however, c a n c e l s e v e r a l o f t h e low F's. On two o c c a s i o n s Brahms f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y t o s t r e n g t h e n a passage by i n s e r t i n g a b r i e f d o u b l i n g o r h a r m o n i z i n g l i n e i n t h e b a s s . I n measures 253-56, t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e i m i t a t i v e d i a l o g u e t h a t c o n c l u d e s t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n , he r e i n f o r c e d t h e Primo by a d d i n g a b a ss l i n e i m i t a t i n g t h a t o f t h e Secondo. L o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g was added a t measure 282, e m p h a s i z i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a s c e n t toward t h e c l i m a c t i c 93 Tempo I s e c t i o n o f t h e Coda."'"7 The a d d i t i o n o f l e g a t o ed e s p r e s s i v o t o t h e e t h e r e a l p i a n i s s i m o passage b e g i n n i n g a t measure 273 of t h e Coda c o n s t i t u t e s t h e o n l y r e f i n e -ment of e x p r e s s i o n words. Brahms o c c a s i o n a l l y augmented t h e movement's 18 s p a r s e s u p p l y o f dynamic s i g n s . The i n s e r t i o n o f such s i g n s i s of s i g -n i f i c a n c e o n l y i n t h e i m i t a t i v e d i a l o g u e t h a t c o n c l u d e s t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n (measures 253-62). W i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e c r e s c e n d o a t measures 254-55 and t h e f o r t e o f measures 256-60, Brahms added more l o c a l 19 d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s t o complement t h e shape o f t h e m e l o d i c l i n e s . A p a r t from t h e i n s e r t i o n o f two-note s l u r s i n t h e C l o s i n g Theme a t measures 76-77 and 80-81 ( r e c a p i t u l a t e d a t measures 238-39 and 242-43), p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n i n t h i s movement were v i r t u a l l y u n t o u ched. Second Movement No t r u l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes were made i n t h e n o t e s , p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n , and dynamics of t h i s movement. At cadences i n t h e M a i n Theme and i n t h e un poco a c c e l e r a n d o e p i s o d e , a few harmony and/or d o u b l -i n g n o t e s were c a n c e l l e d t o t h i n t h e t e x t u r e (see T a b l e 2, measures 22, 31, 54-55, and 104). Octave d o u b l i n g was added i n o n l y one i n s t a n c e t o r e i n f o r c e b r i e f l y t h e Secondo's c o u n t e r m e l o d y a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Coda A few s m a l l changes, a l l o c c u r r i n g i n t h e Coda, were n e c e s s a r y t o compensate f o r t h e decay o f tone on t h e p i a n o (see T a b l e 1, measures 265-66 and 269) and t o a v o i d t h e immediate r e s t r i k i n g o f a n o t e i n t h e m i d s t o f r a p i d passagework ( s e e T a b l e 1, measure 2 9 7 ) . 18 A few c r e s c e n d o and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s were added t o c o l o r t h e f i n a l measures o f t h e T h i r d Theme (71-73) and t h e c o u n t e r m e l o d y t o t h e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme (measures 198-99). 19 Decrescendo s i g n s were i n s e r t e d i n measures 253-60 o f t h e Primo. I n t h e Secondo, t h e y were added t o measures 253-58, b u t o n l y t h e s i g n s i n measures 253-56 appear i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . The s i g n s i n measures 257-58 were e i t h e r added a f t e r t h e making o f t h e copy, o r were o v e r l o o k e d by t h e c o p y i s t . TABLE 2 BRAHMS'S ALTERATIONS IN THE WORKING DRAFT OF OPUS 34BIS, STAGE 3 , PHASE I I (SECOND MOVEMENT) I n s t r u - Notes P h r a s . Dynamic M a r k i n g s * * M e a s u r e ( s ) ment (s) D b l . Hrm. S i r . C r e s c . A c c e n t Remark 22/4 I I / L E i g h t h n o t e (b^) a t b e g i n n i n g of f o u r t h b e at c a n -c e l l e d ; g made i n t o d o t t e d q u a r t e r n o t e 31 I I / R -8-r- D o u b l i n g n o t e s c a n c e l l e d t o c l a r i f y t e x t u r e i n t r e b l e r e g i s t e r 49/4-50/1 I I / L - 8 7 - D o u b l i n g i n extreme bass r e g i s t e r d e l e t e d 54/2-55/1 I / L * T - Notes c a n c e l l e d t o t h i n t e x t u r e 104/2 I / L - 8T- D o u b l i n g o f melody c a n c e l l e d 105-06/1 I I +8' + 8 , A s c e n t r e i n f o r c e d by d o u b l i n g of b a s s l i n e ( a t t h e upper o c t a v e ) and of t r e b l e l i n e ( a t t h e l o w e r o c t a v e ) 107 I/R - e S l u r extended t o c o n c l u d e on t h i r d b e a t 115/1; 116/1 I/R + C l i m a x s t r e n g t h e n e d 116/2,3 I + C l i m a x s t r e n g t h e n e d 120/1,2 I I / R 1 s S l u r o r i g i n a l l y began on t h e a n a c r u s i s o f t h e p r e -c e d i n g measure * * E x p r e s s i o n words a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t e x t 95 (see T a b l e 2, measures 105-06). The r e t u r n o f t h e c l o s i n g p e r i o d o f t h e M a i n Theme, b e g i n n i n g a t measure 118 i n t h e Coda, was r a i s e d t o mezzo f o r t e f rom p i a n o and p i a n i s s i m o i n t h e Primo and Secondo r e s p e c -t i v e l y . Brahms d i d , however, add e x p r e s s i o n words w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e tempo of t h e movement i t s e l f and w h i c h h e i g h t e n e d t h e e f f e c t o f s p e c i f i c p a s -sage s . The pace o f t h e movement was made s l i g h t l y s l o w e r by t h e a d d i -t i o n o f un poco A d a g i o t o t h e o r i g i n a l Andante. Sempre was added t o th e un poco a c c e l e r a n d o of t h e e p i s o d e t h a t b e g i n s a t measure 47, e n s u r i n g a c o n s t a n t i n c r e a s e i n momentum u n t i l t h e poco r i t e n u t o o f measure 53. The d e s c e n t toward t h e r e t u r n o f t h e M a i n Theme was made more g r a d u a l by t h e i n s e r t i o n o f poco r i t a r d a n d o i n measure 74; f o r th e b e g i n n i n g of t h e theme a t measure 75 Brahms added tempo p r i m o . A t measure 111, where t h e v a r i e d r e t u r n o f t h e Second Theme r e a c h e s f o r t e , Brahms added poco s t r i n g e n d o t o i m p a r t a sense o f u r g e n c y ; a f t e r t h e c l i m a x a t measure 115, he i n s e r t e d poco r i t a r d a n d o t o d i s p e l t h i s 20 a g i t a t i o n . T h i r d Movement S c h e r z o . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f some of t h e t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l i n t h e S c h e r z o was s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d , j u s t a s , i n t h e f i r s t movement, th e o p e n i n g o f t h e Second Theme i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n had undergone c o n -s i d e r a b l e r e v i s i o n . As i n t h e f i r s t movement, passages o f t h e S c h e r z o were s u b j e c t e d t o changes e i t h e r i n d o u b l i n g o r r e g i s t e r . Notes were sometimes c a n c e l l e d t o c l a r i f y t h e t e x t u r e , a l t h o u g h t h i s was done l e s s 20 A c c e n t s and a c r e s c e n d o s i g n were added i n measures 115-16 t o make t h i s m a t e r i a l even more e x p r e s s i v e . 96 f r e q u e n t l y t h a n i n t h e o p e n i n g movement. The b e g i n n i n g of t h e Scherzo was made more e f f e c t i v e by t h e a d d i -t i o n o f t h e p r e f a t o r y two measures i n w h i c h t h e t o n i c p e d a l - p o i n t i s r e i t e r a t e d a l o n e , q u i e t l y m a r k i n g t i m e . By e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e m e t r i c a l p u l s e i n t h i s way t h e s y n c o p a t i o n of t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e M a i n Theme i s made more emphatic. To i n t e n s i f y t h e o p e n i n g a s c e n t of t h e theme, Brahms added a r e p e t i t i o n of each n o t e on t h e b e a t i n t h e bass o f t h e j 21 Secondo. E q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e a r e t h e r e v i s i o n s made i n t h e l a s t f o u r measures o f t h e i n i t i a l appearance of t h e Second Theme. The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n , w i t h e v e r y new n o t e o c c u r r i n g on t h e b e a t , i s shown i n Example 18. Example 18. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 3rd movement ( A l l e g r o ) o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g of measures 18/2-21 i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t of t h e Secondo ^7 1 M i — »- p— • 1 Y p • — i / b h *~ 7 f— /— PP Brahms i m p a r t e d a p i q u a n t s y n c o p a t i o n by h a v i n g each s i x t e e n t h - n o t e a n t i c i p a t e t h e p i t c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e i g h t h . The o r i g i n a l form of t h i s melody was r e t a i n e d f o r t h e f o r t i s s i m o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t h a t appear l a t e r i n t h e movement. S e v e r a l o f t h e r e m a i n i n g changes c o n c e r n a d j u s t m e n t s i n s o n o r i t y . To c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t h e f o r t e o c t a v e s a s c e n d i n g i n t h e t r e b l e a t measures 126-27 and 130-31, t h e i m i t a t i o n i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t was t r a n s p o s e d 21 The i n s e r t i o n of t h i s l i n e r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l ; o r i g i n a l l y t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e two p i a n o s were e x a c t l y t h e same as t h e y a r e a t t h e r e t u r n of t h e theme, measures 47-56. 97 down an o c t a v e t o a more r e s o n a n t r e g i s t e r . S i m i l a r l y , i n measures 93-98 of t h e f u g a t o , Brahms added u p p e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g t o t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e S u b j e c t i n t h e Secondo, w i t h t h e e f f e c t t h a t i t i s not o v e r -powered by t h e h i g h t r e b l e o c t a v e s o f t h e c o u n t e r p o i n t i n t h e P r i m o . The a p p o g g i a t u r a a t t h e movement's c o n c l u s i o n (measure 192) was empha-s i z e d by u n i s o n i n a d d i t i o n t o o c t a v e d o u b l i n g . As i n t h e f i r s t movement, harmony and/or d o u b l i n g n o t e s were some-t i m e s c a n c e l l e d i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h e t e x t u r e o r make a bass l i n e sound l e s s ponderous. Such a l t e r a t i o n s o c c u r r e d a t t h e a s c e n t i n measures 144-45, i n t h e low b a ss accompaniment a t measures 185-89 of t h e P r i m o , and i n t h e m i d s t of t h e f o r t i s s i m o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and s u p e r -i m p o s i t i o n of t h e M a i n Theme and t h e Second Theme a t measures 180 and 184 (see T a b l e 3 ) . Brahms added dynamic symbols and a b b r e v i a t i o n s t o i n t e n s i f y t h e l a t t e r passage (see T a b l e 3, measure 178-80 and 182-84 f o r t h e o n l y dynamics i n s e r t e d i n t h e movement a t t h i s s t a g e ) . P h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n were not a l t e r e d . Brahms d i d , however, add s e n z a P e d a l t o t h e two p i a n i s s i m o appearances of t h e M a i n Theme, and c o l P e d a l t o t h e f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e T h i r d Theme ( b e g i n n i n g a t measure 2 2 ) . T r i o . The r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e theme, b e g i n n i n g a t measure 209 was s o f t e n e d from f o r t e t o mezzo f o r t e . I n t h e r e t u r n o f t h e theme a f t e r t h e c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n , a more l e g a t o p h r a s i n g was adopted (see T a b l e 3, measures 216 and 244). No o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r e f i n e m e n t s were made. F i n a l e P r o b a b l y Brahms t e m p o r a r i l y abandoned t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h i s movement i n o r d e r t o r e v i s e what he had t r a n s c r i b e d , f o r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e TABLE 3 BRAHMS'S ALTERATIONS IN THE WORKING DRAFT OF OPUS 34BIS, STAGE 3 , PHASE I I (THIRD MOVEMENT) I n s t r u - N otes P h r a s . Dynamic M a r k i n g s * * M e a s u r e ( s ) ment (s) M e l . T r n . D b l . Hrm. D s t . S i r . C r e s c . A c c e n t Remark 1-13/1 I & I I X I and I I exchange p a r t s * l - 2 I *3-4 I I / L +8, *18/2-20 X * 9 3 - 9 8 / l +8' *126-27; 130-31 j I I / L 8, 144 ! I I - 8 - T e x t u r e t h i n n e d 145 I/L - & r T e x t u r e t h i n n e d by d e l e t i o n o f d o u b l i n g l i n e i n t h e bass r e g i s t e r 178-80/1; 182-84/1 I + s f S u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f M a i n Theme and Second Theme i n t e n s i f i e d 180/1; 184/1 I I / R -8-1- F i r s t s i x t e e n t h - n o t e ( c ' ) r e p l a c e d by a r e s t , t o c l a r i f y t e x t u r e CO TABLE 3 — C o n t i n u e d I n s t r u - N otes P h r a s . Dynamic M a r k i n g s * * M e a s u r e ( s ) ment (s) M e l . T r n . D b l . Hrm. Ds t . S i r . C r e s c . A c c e n t Remark 185-89 I/L -8-*- c d e l e t e d so t h a t b a ss l i n e sounds l e s s ponderous -*192 I/L +1 216 I I / R e S l u r i n theme ex t e n d e d t o f i r s t beat o f measure 217 244/4 I/R e S l u r i n theme extended t o f i r s t beat o f measure 245 **The o n l y r e f i n e m e n t i n dynamic a b b r e v i a t i o n s i s shown i n T a b l e 11, measure 209. 100 r e c a p i t u l a t o r y s e c t i o n he d i s t r i b u t e d m a t e r i a l i n a way t h a t had been i n d i c a t e d by r e v i s i o n s made i n l e a d i n t h e e x p o s i t o r y s e c t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 4, measures 42-49). As i n t h e f i r s t movement, most o f Brahms's a l t e r a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d problems of t e x t u r e and b a l a n c e , and t h e r e f o r e c o n s i s t e d of t h e c a n c e l -22 l a t i o n o f o c t a v e o r u n i s o n d o u b l i n g s and harmony n o t e s . Most of t h e composer's a t t e n t i o n was d e v o t e d t o a s t r o n g l y s y n c o p a t e d c o n c l u d i n g p assage (measures 137-60, r e c a p i t u l a t e d a t measures 295-318), and t o t h e Coda. I n t h e f o r m e r , he c a n c e l l e d some l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g i n t h e t r e b l e (see T a b l e 4, measures 141-45). An accompaniment of t r i p l e t o c t a v e s low i n t h e b a s s was r e d u c e d t o s i n g l e n o t e s (see T a b l e 4, measures 149-51, 153-56, 307-09, and 311-14). The o r i g i n a l o c t a v e s , when combined w i t h t h e o t h e r l e f t - h a n d l i n e ( w hich d o u b l e d t h e o c t a v e s ' upper o r l o w e r n o t e s a t t h e u n i s o n ) , would have p r o v i d e d t o o p o w e r f u l an accompaniment f o r t h e t r e b l e c h o r d s . Such an accompaniment o c c u r r e d f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e Coda, and Brahms alw a y s c a n c e l l e d d o u b l i n g s i n one o r b o t h l e f t - h a n d p a r t s (see T a b l e 4, 23 measures 389-90), 423-31, and 431-35). He a l l o w e d h e a v i e r t r i p l e t s t o s t a n d o n l y i n t h e c l i m a c t i c measures 435-38, c a n c e l l i n g one d o u b l i n g l i n e 22 Brahms made a p e d a l - p o i n t l e s s p r o m i n e n t i n one i n s t a n c e : he added t i e s t o t h e c i n t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e o f t h e Secondo a t measures 448-61, so t h a t i t w o u l d be s t r u c k i n e v e r y second measure r a t h e r t h a n i n e v e r y measure. 23 The d e s c e n t i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measures 389-91 was o r i g i n a l l y e n t i r e l y i n o c t a v e s . I n t h e f o r t i s s i m o p assage t h a t b e g i n s a t measure 423, t h e l i n e t h a t now s t a n d s i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo was t o be d o u b l e d a t t h e l o w e r o c t a v e ad l i b i t u m . A t t h e end o f measure 431, d o u b l i n g was t o c o n t i n u e a t t h e upper o c t a v e ad  l i b i t u m , and l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g of t h e p r e s e n t l i n e i n t h e Primo was t o b e g i n , a l s o ad l i b i t u m . B o t h d o u b l i n g s were t o c o n t i n u e u n t i l t h e m i d d l e of measure 435, where t h e two l e f t - h a n d p a r t s began t o p l a y i n t h i r d s , d o u b l i n g each o t h e r a t t h e o c t a v e . TABLE 4 BRAHMS'S ALTERATIONS IN THE WORKING DRAFT OF OPUS 34BIS STAGE 3 b , PHASE I I (FINALE) I n s t r u - Notes P h r a s . and A r t i e . Dynamic M a r k i n g s M e a s u r e ( s ) ment (s) Me 1. T r n . D b l . Hrm. ,,Dst, S i r . T i e D e c r e s c . Remark 41-49/1 •I & I I X I and I I exchange p a r t s t o e q u a l -i z e t h e m a t i c i n t e r e s t 107; 265 I I ; I 8, Second and t h i r d n o t e s i n t h e a s c e n d i n g l i n e a r e t r a n s p o s e d t o a l o w e r r e g i s t e r 120/2-21 I I / R See f n . 24 141/2-45/1 I I / R -8-r T e x t u r e c l a r i f i e d a t a n a c r u s i s and f i r s t beat of each measure 149-51, 153-56; 307-09; 311-14 I I / L ; I/L - 8 r T r i p l e t accompaniment made l e s s ponderous 149/1; 307/1 I/R; * I I / R Melody c o n c l u d e s on t o n i c ( r a t h e r t h a n mediant) t o c r e a t e a more emphatic cadence *341 e 367/4-68/1 I/L 8, -I Bass o c t a v e s t r a n s p o s e d t o a l o w e r r e g i s t e r t o s t r e n g t h e n cadence TABLE 4 ~ C o n t i n u e d I n s t r u - N otes P h r a s . and A r t i e . Dynamic M a r k i n g s M e a s u r e ( s ) n e n t ( s ) M e l . T r n . D b l . Hrm. Ds t . S i r . T i e D e s c r e s c . Remark 388-89; 390 I I / L - 8 j - T r i p l e t accompaniment made l e s s ponderous *403/4-19 I/L & I I X 423/5-31/4 I I / L T r i p l e t accompaniment made l e s s ponderous by c a n c e l l a t i o n o f ad l i b i t u m d o u b l i n g 431/5-35/3 I / L ; I I / L * r --8-1-As above 435/5-38/3 I I / L * i - T r i p l e t accompaniment t h i n n e d by c a n c e l l a t i o n o f upper l i n e i n I I / L (which d o u b l e d t h a t o f I/L) 438/4-39/1 I & I I + 448-61 I I / L + See f n . 22 *451/4-55/4 I/R X *486-87, 489 I/R & I I / R 8, 490/5-92 I & I I X 1 I & I I exchange p a r t s 103 i n s t e a d o f two (see T a b l e 4). Perhaps t h e g r e a t e s t t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e e n t i r e movement was posed by t h e t r i p l e t o c t a v e s i n t h e Secondo a t measures 403-19. O r i g i n a l l y t h e y were t o be p l a y e d ad l i b i t u m by t h e r i g h t hand a l o n e ; Brahms i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l e f t hand, s u s t a i n i n g t h e bass o c t a v e s now fou n d i n t h e P r i m o , m ight t a k e t h e l o w e r n o t e s o f t h e r i g h t - h a n d o c t a v e s w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . The l e f t - h a n d o f t h e Primo d o u b l e d t h e r i g h t - h a n d c h o r d s i n d i f f e r e n t i n v e r s i o n s . To f r e e t h e l e f t hand of t h e Secondo so t h a t i t might p l a y a l l t h e l o w e r n o t e s o f t h e t r i p l e t o c t a v e s , Brahms i n d i c a t e d t h e t r a n s f e r r a l o f i t s s u s t a i n e d b a s s t o t h e P r i m o , where i t r e p l a c e d t h e l e f t - h a n d c h o r d s . I n t h i s movement, as i n t h e f i r s t , m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l underwent s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n i n o n l y one i n s t a n c e ; t h e changes a g a i n con-c e r n e d t e s s i t u r a and d o u b l i n g . The passage i n q u e s t i o n o c c u r s n e a r t h e end of t h e Coda. I n i t i a l l y t h e h i g h t e s s i t u r a o f t h e m e l o d i c l i n e i n measures 483-85 was m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e Primo and Secondo a t measures 486-89 (see Example l i ) . P erhaps t o enhance t h e e f f e c t o f t h e f i n a l c h o r d s , Brahms t r a n s p o s e d t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo down an o c t a v e a t measures 486-87 and 489, s l i g h t l y t h i n n i n g t h e t e x t u r e a t t h e same t i m e by c a n c e l l i n g l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g (and some harmony n o t e s ) i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Pr i m o and/or Secondo. M i n o r changes i n m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l may be o b s e r v e d e a r l i e r i n t h e movement (see T a b l e 4, measures 107, 265, 149, and 307). Grace n o t e s were added t o t h e e s p r e s s i v o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo a t measures 451-55. E x p r e s s i o n words were n e i t h e r a l t e r e d n o r i n s e r t e d . The o n l y 104 Example 19. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b l s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o ; A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ; P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g o f measures 486-89 105 s i g n i f i c a n t change i n dynamics was t h e a d d i t i o n o f d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s i n measures 438-39; as a r e s u l t , t h e p i a n o d o l c e a t t h e end o f measure 439 was no l o n g e r a s u b i t o p i a n o e f f e c t . L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o p h r a s i n g . A s m a l l change was made 24 w i t h i n t h e Second Theme a t measure 120-21. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n o c c u r r e d a t measure 341, w h i c h i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d e s t h e Coda. To i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Coda s h o u l d f o l l o w a t t a c c a , w i t h o u t a b r e a k , Brahms l e n g t h e n e d t h e s l u r s t h a t o r i g i n a l l y c o n c l u d e d a t t h e end of t h i s measure. Stage 4 , Phase I : I n s t r u c t i o n s  t o C o p y i s t There e x i s t i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata numerous d e v i a t i o n s from t h e a u t o g r a p h ( w o r k i n g d r a f t ) w h i c h remained u n c h a l l e n g e d by Brahms, even i n t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s . Many o f t h e changes made by t h e c o p y i s t a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t ; t h o s e w h i c h c o n t r a d i c t t h e a u t o g r a p h s o f b o t h t h e Duo-Piano Sonata and t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t can 25 be c o n s i d e r e d as c o p y i s t ' s e r r o r s . O ther d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e a u t o -g r a p h o f t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a , however, a r e i n agreement w i t h t h a t o f th e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t Brahms i n s t r u c t e d t h e c o p y i s t 24 Measures 120-21 o r i g i n a l l y were g i v e n t h e same s l u r as t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 102-03. Brahms l a t e r l e n g t h e n e d i t , t h e n c a n c e l l e d i t e n t i r e l y t o emphasize t h e f i r s t n o t e o f t h e d e s c e n d i n g l i n e (a '') by s e p a r a t i n g i t f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g n o t e s . 25 Fo r example, a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e T r a n s i t i o n i n t h e f i r s t move-ment, t h e c o p y i s t began t h e l o w e r v o i c e i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo one measure l a t e , o v e r l o o k i n g t h e h a l f n o t e s a^' and g' a t measure 23 o f t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t . However, he c o p i e d t h e a n a l o g o u s n o t e s ( a ^ 1 and b ^ 1 ) i n measure 25. Brahms n o t a t e d t h i s l i n e f o r t h e second v i o l i n i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t (see measures 23-26). 106 t o make t h e s e changes, and t h e n s u b s e q u e n t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d them h i m s e l f when he w r o t e t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n f o r p i a n o q u i n t e t . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t some o f t h e a l t e r a t i o n s made by t h e c o p y i s t — s u c h as t h e o m i s s i o n of l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g from s e v e r a l measures of a bass l i n e — a r e o f such s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t i t seems h i g h l y i m p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e y were t h e r e s u l t of human e r r o r . Many o f t h e s e i m p o r t a n t changes were l a t e r i n c l u d e d by t h e composer i n t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . T h e r e f o r e i t seems l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t Brahms gave t h e c o p y i s t s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a l t e r a t i o n s , e i t h e r v e r b a l l y o r as a l i s t o f e r r a t a . Such i n s t r u c t i o n s may be r e g a r d e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e f i r s t phase i n t h e V e r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e , f o r t h e y c o n c e r n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e Duo-Piano Sonata f o r p e r f o r m a n c e and e v e n t u a l p u b l i c a t i o n . F i r s t Movement The c o p y i s t o m i t t e d o r i n s e r t e d l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g , presumably a c c o r d i n g t o Brahms's i n s t r u c t i o n s , i n t h e f i r s t f o u r measures of t h e T r a n s i t i o n and i n measures 105-07/1 o f t h e Development. The l e f t - h a n d b a s s l i n e o f t h e Secondo was a f f e c t e d i n b o t h p a s s a g e s . I n t h e f o r m e r , t h e d o u b l i n g i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t was n o t c o p i e d ; Brahms h i m s e l f o m i t t e d i t i n t h e a u t o g r a p h o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . The r e v e r s e o c c u r s i n t h e passage c i t e d i n t h e Development: t h e c o p y i s t added l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g , w h i c h Brahms had used s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s b a s s l i n e 26 a t measure 102. 26 I n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t t h e c e l l o b e g i n s t h i s l i n e , n a t u r a l l y w i t h o u t l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g . When i t i s t a k e n o v e r by t h e p i a n o , i t c o n t i n u e s i n s i n g l e n o t e s . 107 Most l i k e l y Brahms gave t h e c o p y i s t i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e manner o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measures 257-62, where some of t h e r e v i s i o n s i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t a r e q u i t e u n i n t e l l i g -i b l e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t he r e q u e s t e d t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f a c h o r d a t measure 22 (see T a b l e 5 ) , f o r he n o t a t e d t h e t r a n s p o s e d v e r s i o n i n t h e a u t o g r a p h of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . A few r e l a t i v e l y m inor i n s e r t i o n s of dynamics and/or e x p r e s s i o n words were made a t measure 31-32, 155, 213, and 227 ( s e e T a b l e s 9 and 5 ) . Most o f them seem t o have been added s i m p l y f o r c l a r i t y , and a l l o f them a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e a u t o g r a p h o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . The c o p y i s t added a c c e n t s e m p h a s i z i n g a l i n e i n an i m i t a t i v e p assage (see T a b l e 5, measures 129-31). F i n g e r i n g was s u p p l i e d i n measure 157 (see T a b l e 5 ) . Second Movement As i n t h e f i r s t movement, t h e c o p y i s t i n one i n s t a n c e added l o w e r -o c t a v e d o u b l i n g t h a t was a l l o w e d t o s t a n d i n b o t h t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e and t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s , a l t h o u g h i t was n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t (see T a b l e 6, measures 109-10/1). However, o f g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e change made by t h e c o p y i s t i n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e s y n c o p a t e d f i g u r e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e M a i n Theme and r e a p p e a r s l a t e r i n t h e movement. Brahms had t i e d common n o t e s whenever t h e y o c c u r r e d i n t h i s 27 f i g u r e ; t h e c o p y i s t always n o t a t e d a s l u r i n s t e a d o f a t i e (see Example • I n each i n s t a n c e t h e composer a l l o w e d t h i s change t o s t a n d , b o t h i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t and i n t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s . I f 27 The f i g u r e i n c l u d e s common n o t e s when i t a p p e a r s on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g measures: 1, 2, 5-7, and 13 of t h e M a i n Theme ( r e c a p i t u l a t e d a t measures 75, 76, 79-81, and 9 5 ) , and 69-71 i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e r e t u r n of t h e M a i n Theme. TABLE 5 ALTERATIONS REQUESTED BY BRAHMS IN THE STICHVORLAGE OF OPUS 34BIS, STAGE 4 , PHASE I (FIRST MOVEMENT) Instru- Notes** Dynamic Markings*** Measure(s) ment (s) Trn. Dbl. Hrm. Cresc. Accent Remark 22/3 I/L 8, Bass chord (C-G-c) transposed to a lower r e g i s t e r to strengthen cadence 23-26/1 II/L * r - Texture c l a r i f i e d by omission of doubling i n extreme bass r e g i s t e r 31/4-32 I + Conclusion of Trans i t i o n strengthened *105/2-07/l II/L +8, 129/3, 130/3, 131/3 I/R + Ascent i n treble r e g i s t e r emphasized *257-62 II/L **Copyist added f i n g e r i n g at measure 157/2 i n I/L. **Dynamic abbreviations and expression words inserted by copyist are shown i n Table 9 (see measures 155, 213, and 227). o C o TABLE 6 ALTERATIONS REQUESTED BY BRAHMS IN THE STICHVORLAGE OF OPUS 34BIS, STAGE 4 , PHASE I (SECOND MOVEMENT) Instru- Notes Phras. Dynamic Markings** Measure(s) ment (s) Dbl. Sir. Cresc. Decresc. Accent Remark 13/1, 14/1 15/1 II/R + Nuance added to syncopated figure which characterizes Main Theme 22/4-23/1 II/R + + Nuance added to beginning of closing period in Main Theme *32 I & II X *35/2-36/2; 43/2-44/2 II/L; I/R + 109-10/1 I/R +8, Ascent in treble strengthened to counter-balance ascending bass line 111-13 II/R s Copyist began second slur in each measure on second eighth-note instead of f i r s t , to produce a less legato rendition of this countermelody **Expression words changed and inserted by copyist are shown in Table 10, measures 25, 27, 105, and 115. o >J3 110 Example 20. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 2nd movement (Andante, un poco A d a g i o ) , measure 1 i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo: o p e n i n g f i g u r e of t h e M a i n Theme (A) as n o t a t e d by Brahms, and (B) as n o t a t e d by t h e c o p y i s t A ft i t was e r r o n e o u s , i t e v i d e n t l y d i d not meet w i t h h i s d i s a p p r o v a l , 28 a l t h o u g h he d i d n o t adopt i t i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . However, t h e c o p y i s t ' s changes i n p h r a s i n g a t measure 111-13 were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t a u t o g r a p h (see T a b l e 6 ) . S e v e r a l of t h e c o p y i s t ' s a l t e r a t i o n s and i n s e r t i o n s o f e x p r e s s i o n 29 words were u t i l i z e d by Brahms when he made t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e c o p y i s t , s e e i n g t h e s l u r f o r t h e upper n o t e s i n each appearance of t h i s f i g u r e , d i d n o t l o o k c l o s e l y a t t h e t i e and assumed t h a t i t was a s l u r f o r t h e l o w e r n o t e s . Of c o u r s e , one m i g ht a l s o c o n j e c t u r e t h a t Brahms r e q u e s t e d t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a s l u r f o r t h e t i e i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , t h e n changed h i s mind when he w r o t e t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , n o t a t i n g t i e s as he had done i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t of t h e Duo-Piano Sonata. I n e i t h e r c a s e , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e use of s l u r s i n s t e a d of t i e s i n t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e escaped h i s a t t e n t i o n . F o r example, i n measure 75, where t h e r e t u r n o f t h e M a i n Theme b e g i n s , he made s e v e r a l r e v i s i o n s i n dynamics i m m e d i a t e l y above and below t h i s f i g u r e , and would s u r e l y have n o t i c e d t h a t a s l u r appeared i n p l a c e of a t i e . However, he l e f t t h e s l u r u ntouched. 29 The few a d d i t i o n s made by t h e c o p y i s t b u t not i n c o r p o r a t e d by Brahms i n t h e a u t o g r a p h o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t s h o u l d be acknowledged. Sempre m o l t o d o l c e and d o l c e appear i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t a t measures 1 and 17 of t h e accompaniment t o t h e M a i n Theme; i f Brahms had r e q u e s t e d t h e i r i n s e r t i o n , he d i d n o t c o n s i d e r them n e c e s s a r y i n t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , where t h i s m a t e r i a l i s p l a y e d by v i o l i n and v i o l a . The a tempo i n s e r t e d by t h e c o p y i s t a t measure 1 1 8 — a f t e r t h e r i t e n u t o begun a t measure 1 1 6 — w a s a l s o o m i t t e d f r o m t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . I n t h a t m a n u s c r i p t , Brahms drew a l i n e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r i t e n u t o was t o c o n t i n u e u n t i l t h e end of measure 117. I n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t of t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a he had s i m p l y w r i t t e n poco r i t e n u t o above measure 115, w i t h o u t i n d i c a t i n g how l o n g t h i s e f f e c t was t o l a s t . I l l Most s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h e a d d i t i o n of poco a c c e l e r a n d o a t measure 25 of t h e M a i n Theme, f o l l o w e d by a tempo when t h e c a d e n t i a l r e s o l v e s a t measure 27. Two changes c o n c e r n t h e v a r i e d r e t u r n of t h e Second Theme i n t h e Coda (see T a b l e 10, measure 105 and 115/1). The c o p y i s t a l s o made a few r e f i n e m e n t s i n dynamics, a l l o f w h i c h were i n c o r p o r a t e d by Brahms i n t h e a u t o g r a p h of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . Crescendo and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s were i n s e r t e d t o add nuance i n t h e M a i n Theme (see T a b l e 6, measures 13-15 and 22-23). The diminuendo a f t e r t h e c l i m a x of t h i s theme was begun one measure e a r l i e r t h a n i t i s i n t h e a u t o g r a p h , a t measure 32 i n s t e a d o f 33. A c c e n t s were i n s e r t e d a t measures 35-36 and 43-44 t o emphasize t h e o p e n i n g of t h e Second Theme and i t s r e p e t i t i o n . T h i r d Movement S c h e r z o . As i n t h e two p r e c e d i n g movements, t h e c o p y i s t added some o c t a v e d o u b l i n g t h a t remained u n c a n c e l l e d even i n t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s ( a t t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e S u b j e c t i n t h e f u g a t o ) . Brahms had begun d o u b l i n g t h e S u b j e c t a t t h e upper o c t a v e i n t h e second measure o f t h i s e x t e n s i o n , whereas t h e c o p y i s t s t a r t e d t h e d o u b l i n g i n t h e f i r s t measure 30 (see T a b l e 7, measures 92-93). Brahms p o s s i b l y r e q u e s t e d t h e c o p y i s t ' s use of a q u a r t e r n o t e f o l -lowed by an e i g h t h - n o t e r e s t on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f measures 125-41, r e p l a c i n g t h e d o t t e d q u a r t e r n o t e s found i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t . I n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , q u a r t e r n o t e s and e i g h t h - n o t e r e s t s appear i n a l l but t h e 31 f i r s t few measures of t h i s p assage. 30 I n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t t h i s l i n e i s t a k e n by t h e v i o l i n s i n u n i s o n f r o m measure 92 u n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f measure 98. 31 They o c c u r i n measures 130-43. TABLE 7 ALTERATIONS REQUESTED BY BRAHMS IN THE STICHVORLAGE OF OPUS 34BIS, STAGE 4 , PHASE I (THIRD MOVEMENT) I n s t r u - Notes A r t i e . M e a s u r e ( s ) ment (s) D b l . Hrm. S t c . Remark** 92-93/1 I I / R +8, C o p y i s t began d o u b l i n g o f t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e S u b j e c t one measure e a r l i e r t h a n Brahms had i n d i c a t e d i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t *125-41 I X 211 I X C o p y i s t o m i t t e d s t a c c a t o d o t s f o r t r i p l e t accompaniment, and non l e g a t o **Dynamic a b b r e v i a t i o n s and e x p r e s s i o n w o r d s changed and i n s e r t e d by c o p y i s t a r e shown i n T a b l e 11, measures 71, 88, 144, 194, and 235. With" a s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n , t h e few dynamics and e x p r e s s i o n words i n s e r t e d by t h e c o p y i s t i n t h e f u g a t o (see T a b l e 11, measures 71 and 88) were u t i l i z e d by Brahms i n t h e a u t o g r a p h o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . These i n s e r t i o n s s e r v e t o subdue c o n t r a p u n t a l l i n e s h e a r d w i t h t h e S u b j e c t . The P i a n o Q u i n t e t a l s o adopted t h e dynamics added by t h e c o p y i s t a t measure 144; whereas t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata c a l l s f o r an u n i n t e r r u p t e d c r e s c e n d o from p i a n o a t measure 142 t o f o r t i s s i m o a t measure 145, t h e c o p y i s t i n s e r t e d p i a n o c r e s c e n d o a t measure 144. T r i o . The v e r y few changes made by t h e c o p y i s t i n t h e T r i o c o n -s t i t u t e r e f i n e m e n t s o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n s of dynamics and a r t i c u l a t i o n . A l l o f t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s were l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e a u t o g r a p h o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . The r e i t e r a t e d p e d a l - p o i n t s t h a t accompany t h e f i r s t s t a t e m e n t o f t h e theme were d e s i g n a t e d by t h e c o p y i s t mezzo f o r t e i n s t e a d of poco f o r t e , and one of t h e c o u n t e r m e l o d i e s i n t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n was r e d u c e d from f o r t e t o mezzo f o r t e (see T a b l e 11, measures 194' and 235). .The o n l y r e f i n e m e n t i n a r t i c u l a t i o n was t h e c o p y i s t ' s use o f non l e g a t o f o r t h e f l o w i n g accompanimental m a t e r i a l t h a t b e g i n s i n t h e Primo a t measure 211; i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t , Brahms had added s t a c c a t o d o t s i n l e a d . F i n a l e I n t h i s movement a l o n e , t h e c o p y i s t made s i g n i f i c a n t changes and a d d i t i o n s i n b o t h n o t e s and e x p r e s s i o n words. As i n t h e o t h e r move-ments, he e x e c u t e d v e r y few r e f i n e m e n t s i n dynamics. The most impor-t a n t a d d i t i o n s o f e x p r e s s i o n words o c c u r i n t h e movement p r o p e r ; 32 Namely t h e p i a n o added by t h e c o p y i s t i n measure 96 o f t h e Pri m o . 114 changes i n n o t e s a r e found o n l y i n t h e P r e s t o , non t r o p p o Coda. I n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t Brahms i n c o r p o r a t e d a l l o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n words added by t h e c o p y i s t , as w e l l as n e a r l y a l l a l t e r a t i o n s i n n o t e s . A p a r t 33 fr o m i n s e r t i n g a s i n g l e a c c e n t , t h e c o p y i s t e x e c u t e d o n l y two s m a l l a l t e r a t i o n s i n dynamics. B o t h of t h e s e changes, a p p e a r i n g i n t h e Coda, were i n c l u d e d by Brahms i n t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Most o f t h e changes i n n o t e s o c c u r i n t h e f i r s t few measures of t h e f i n a l a tempo s e c t i o n (measures 4 6 7 f f ) o f t h e Coda. The t e x t u r e of t h e t h r e e o p e n i n g measures was made much l e s s h e a v y — p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e bass r e g i s t e r — b y t h e o m i s s i o n of some n o t e s and by t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n of harmony n o t e s f o r l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g (see T a b l e 8 ) . The m e l o d i c l i n e i n t h e Secondo was s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d ( s e e T a b l e 8, measures 470-71/1). Changes i n n o t e s a r e t o be found e l s e w h e r e i n t h e Coda; a l l have t o do w i t h o c t a v e d o u b l i n g . The c o p y i s t o m i t t e d some l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g f r o m t h e q u i e t s e q u e n t i a l a s c e n t and d e s c e n t o f a m o t i v e f r o m t h e Second Theme (see T a b l e 8, measures 4 4 9 f f and 4 5 7 f f ) . To s t r e n g t h e n t h e dominant i n t h e f i n a l cadence o f t h e movement, he d o u b l e d i t a t t h e l o w e r o c t a v e (measure 491). A l l o f t h e changes mentioned above were i n c o r p o r a t e d by Brahms i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , e x c e p t t h e o m i s s i o n of l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g a t 34 measures 4 4 9 f f and 4 5 7 f f . J u s t as he must have done f o r measures 257-62 of t h e f i r s t movement, t h e composer p r o b a b l y i n s t r u c t e d t h e 33 E m p h a s i z i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e Second Theme i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measure 266. E i t h e r Brahms or R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n , when c o r r e c t i n g t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t , i n s e r t e d s u c h an a c c e n t a t t h e a n a l o g o u s measure 108, i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e P r i m o . 34 From t h e m i d d l e of measure 445 t o t h e end of measure 463 t h e melody i s p l a y e d i n o c t a v e s by t h e f i r s t v i o l i n and v i o l a . TABLE 8 ALTERATIONS REQUESTED BY BRAHMS IN THE STICHVORLAGE OF OPUS 34BIS, STAGE 4 b , PHASE I (FINALE) I n s t r u - N o t e s Dynamic M a r k i n g s * * M e a s u r e ( s ) ment (s) M e l . T r n . D b l . Hrm. A c c e n t Remark 266/2 I I / L + See f n . 33 *389/4-91 I I / L 8, +8, 449, 451, 453, 455, 457-63: f i r s t b e a t I/R -8-r S y n c o p a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n melody emphasized 467/4, 468/1 I / L -8T + L L Open o c t a v e s E, -E' and F,-F r e p l a c e d by open s i x t h and f i f t h i n l e s s r e s o n a n t r e g i s t e r 469/6-70/1; 470/1 I/R; I I / L T e x t u r e t h i n n e d 470/3-71/1 I I / R X d^ 1 ' r e p l a c e d by f ' 1 , t o d u p l i c a t e m e l o d i c l i n e o f measures 468-69 a t t h e upper o c t a v e *491/1 I I / L +8, **Dynamics and e x p r e s s i o n words changed and i n s e r t e d by c o p y i s t a r e shown i n T a b l e 12, measures 93, 192, 403, 420, 445, 464, and 467. 116 c o p y i s t i n t h e manner o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e Secondo's l e f t - h a n d p a r t a t measures 390-91. O r i g i n a l l y measures 388-91 of t h i s p a r t had been e n t i r e l y i n o c t a v e s . Brahms c l e a r l y c a n c e l l e d t h e o c t a v e d o u b l i n g as f a r as t h e m i d d l e o f measure 389, but t h e l e a d r e v i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e passage a r e ambiguous. As shown i n Example 2.1 , t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n s w h i c h Brahms made i n p e n c i l a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by b r o k e n l i n e s , and h i s i n s e r t i o n s a r e e n c l o s e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s . The r e a d i n g n o t a t e d by t h e c o p y i s t i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t w h i c h Brahms w r o t e i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . Example 21. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o ; A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ; P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , r e v i s e d r e a d i n g o f measures 389-92/1 i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo The c o p y i s t ' s a d d i t i o n o f un p o c h e t t i n o p i u animato t o t h e Second 35 Theme (measures 9 3 f f ) i s as s i g n i f i c a n t as t h e changes i n n o t e s made by him i n t h e Coda. A n o t h e r i n s e r t i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n words o c c u r s i n t h e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e M a i n Theme, where he added sempre d o l c e i n b o t h p i a n o s f o r t h e e x q u i s i t e d i a l o g u e t h a t b e g i n s i n t h e t h i r d p h r a s e (measures 1 9 2 f f ) . Two i n s e r t i o n s o f e x p r e s s i o n words appear i n t h e Coda; b o t h o f them c o n c e r n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme (see T a b l e 12, 35 The e x p r e s s i o n p r o b a b l y s h o u l d have been r e p e a t e d f o r t h e r e c a p -i t u l a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l a t measures 2 5 1 f f . I n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t i t app e a r s i n i n k a t measure 93, and i n l e a d a t measure 251. 117 measures 445 and 464). The c o p y i s t a l s o r a i s e d t h e dynamic l e v e l t o 3 6 f o r t i s s i m o a t measures 403-19 and 420-23. P o s s i b l y t h i s was because t h e t r i p l e t o c t a v e s w h i c h dominate t h i s p assage had been d i v i d e d between two hands (see page 10J ) , and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d be p l a y e d much more f o r c e -f u l l y . Stage 4^, Phase I I : R e v i s i o n  of C o p y i s t ' s M a n u s c r i p t A p a r t from c o r r e c t i n g some o f t h e c o p y i s t ' s e r r o r s ( s e e T e x t u a l C r i t i c i s m , page 118) , Brahms was m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h making r e f i n e m e n t s i n e x p r e s s i o n ( i . e . , p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n , dynamics, and e x p r e s s i o n w o r d s ) . He e x e c u t e d v e r y few changes i n n o t e s ; none was made i n t h e second movement, and a s i n g l e n o t e was c a n c e l l e d i n t h e f i n a l e . A few n o t e s i n t h e f u g a t o o f t h e S c h e r z o were t r a n s p o s e d up an o c t a v e t o c r e a t e a more e f f e c t i v e c l i m a x . I n f o u r measures of t h e f i r s t movement he c o n t i n u e d t o t h i n t h e bass r e g i s t e r and c l a r i f y t e x t u r e , as he had done i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t . F i r s t Movement Brahms made more r e v i s i o n s i n t h i s movement t h a n i n any o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e , as was t h e c a s e i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t some a l t e r a t i o n s begun w i t h i n t h i s movement i n t h e l a t t e r m a n u s c r i p t were c a r r i e d f u r t h e r by Brahms i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . The composer had c l a r i f i e d t h e t r i p l e t accompaniment o f b r o k e n o c t a v e s from t h e end o f 3 6 The c o p y i s t i n s e r t e d f o r t i s s i m o i n b o t h p i a n o s a t t h e m i d d l e o f measure 403, where t h e o c t a v e s b e g i n . F o r t h e emphatic c h o r d s t h a t c l i m a x t h e passage (measures 4 2 0 f f ) he n o t a t e d f o r t i s s i m o r a t h e r t h a n t h e f o r t e t h a t appears i n t h e a u t o g r a p h . 118 measure 53 t h r o u g h measure 55 i n h i s a u t o g r a p h (see pages 2 2 2 ) ; when r e v i s i n g t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t , he made t h e a n a l o g o u s changes i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e passage (measures 51-53). S i m i l a r l y , t h e t h i n n i n g o f the- t e x t u r e i n some passagework accompanying t h e T h i r d Theme (see page 22) w a s c o n t i n u e d by Brahms's c a n c e l l a t i o n o f t h e d o u b l i n g n o t e s i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measure 66. A few changes i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d . Brahms r e p l a c e d w i t h wedges t h e s t a c c a t o d o t s t h a t had been c o p i e d f r o m 37 t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t f o r t h e emphatic c h o r d s i n t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme a r e a . He changed h i s mind about t h e two-note s l u r s w h i c h he had added i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t a t t h e C l o s i n g Theme (see page 13), and c a n c e l l e d them i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . Perhaps a t t h e same t i m e , he added s t a c c a t o d o t s t o t h e o c t a v e s t h a t accompany t h i s m a t e r i a l . Brahms made a s i n g l e a l t e r a t i o n i n e x p r e s s i o n words: a t t h e f o r t e c l i m a x o f t h e C l o s i n g Theme (measures 86 and 248) he c a n c e l l e d t h e e s p r e s s i v o t h a t had been c o p i e d from t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t . Dynamics were 38 s c a r c e l y a l t e r e d . Second Movement The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h i s movement was t h e a d d i t i o n o f 37 Measures 5-11, Primo and/or Secondo; 20-22/1, r i g h t - h a n d o f t h e Secondo. 38 Perhaps no dynamic s i g n s were p r e s e n t i n measures 214-16 o f t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t when i t was s e n t t o t h e c o p y i s t , f o r t h e l a t t e r d i d n o t n o t a t e s i g n s f o r e i t h e r p i a n o i n t h e s e measures. When r e v i s i n g t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t , Brahms i n s e r t e d l o n g c r e s c e n d o and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s f o r b o t h p i a n o s . He a l l o w e d t h e s e t o s t a n d even i n t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s , a l t h o u g h a t some p o i n t he had added i n h i s w o r k i n g d r a f t s h o r t c r e s c e n d o and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s s u c h as appear i n t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 52-54. The s h o r t e r s i g n s were used a l s o i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , a t b o t h p a s s a g e s . 119 s t a c c a t o d o t s and s l u r s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f measure 50, t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t r i p l e t - o c t a v e accompaniment t o t h e f o r t e e p i s o d e s h o u l d be p l a y e d p o r t a t o . Brahms i n s e r t e d a few d ynamics, a l l o f them r e l a t i v e l y 39 u n i m p o r t a n t . At t h e c l i m a c t i c measures 116-17 o f t h e Coda, he i n d i -c a t e d t h a t t h e c r e s c e n d o and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s i n t h e P rimo were t o a p p l y o n l y t o t h e melody. T h i r d Movement As i n e a r l i e r phases (see T a b l e 3, measures 93-98, and T a b l e 7, measures 92-93) , Brahms was c o n c e r n e d w i t h s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e e x t e n s i o n of t h e S u b j e c t i n t h e f u g a t o . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t s h o u l d be b r i e f l y 40 t r a n s p o s e d up an o c t a v e a t t h e c l i m a c t i c measures 98-99, so as t o be h e a r d more c l e a r l y a m i d s t t h e h i g h t r e b l e c o u n t e r p o i n t o f t h e P r i m o . Brahms's o t h e r r e v i s i o n s a p p l y t o p h r a s i n g . There i s an i n t e r e s t -i n g d i s a g r e e m e n t between t h e . s l u r s found i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t f o r t h e f o r t e r e m i n i s c e n c e o f t h e M a i n Theme, and t h o s e w h i c h Brahms s u p p l i e d f o r t h i s 41 m a t e r i a l i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t and i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . 39 A t t h e r e t u r n of t h e M a i n Theme ,in t h e Secondo a t measure 75, he added p i a n i s s i m o t o t h e accompaniment i r i t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t . I n t h e Coda, a t measure 108, he s o f t e n e d t h e accompanimental m a t e r i a l i n t h e Primo by i n s e r t i n g p i a n o . 40 S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e second h a l f of measure 98 and t h e f i r s t two s i x t e e n t h - n o t e s i n measure 99. 41 The c o p y i s t d i d n o t n o t a t e s l u r s f o r t h i s m a t e r i a l a t measures 38-41 and 42-45 ( i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e P r i m o ) , o r a t measures 139-42 ( i n t h e Secondo); perhaps none was p r e s e n t i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t when i t was c o p i e d . However, he n o t a t e d s l u r s f o r t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 125-28, 129-32, and 1 3 5 f f . The f i r s t two s l u r s a g r e e w i t h t h o s e p r e s e n t i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t , b u t t h e l a s t i s s l i g h t l y s h o r t e r t h a n t h e one i n t h e d r a f t , c o n c l u d i n g i n measure 137 i n s t e a d o f measure 138/1. Brahms e v i d e n t l y p r e f e r r e d t h i s s h o r t e r s l u r , f o r he i n s e r t e d i t i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t a t measures 38-41, 42-45, and 139-42 ( a l t h o u g h t h e l o n g e r s l u r a p p e ars f o r t h e s e p a s s a ges i n t h e d r a f t ) . The s h o r t e r s l u r was used c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . 120 I n t h e T r i o , t h e composer made two m i n u t e r e f i n e m e n t s i n a r t i c u l a -A A • 4 2 t i o n and dynamics. F i n a l e A t one p o i n t i n t h e r e c a p i t u l a t o r y p a r t o f t h e movement, Brahms c a n c e l l e d two n o t e s i n t h e Primo t o a l l o w t h e i m i t a t i v e e n t r y o f t h e 43 Secondo t o be h e a r d more c l e a r l y . A p a r t f r o m t h i s , he r e v i s e d o n l y p h r a s i n g and dynamics. A l l o f h i s changes i n p h r a s i n g a r e q u i t e m i n o r , 44 and c o n c e r n m a t e r i a l t h a t accompanies t h e Second Theme. Perhaps t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t r e v i s i o n s o c c u r a t measures 471-76, where Brahms added c r e s c e n d o and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s i n b o t h p i a n o p a r t s t o c r e a t e nuance w i t h i n t h e poco a poco c r e s c e n d o begun a t measure 468. Stage 4^, Phase I I I : Subsequent R e v i s i o n of W o r k i n g D r a f t , P r e c e d i n g T r a n s c r i p t i o n f o r P i a n o Q u i n t e t A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s of t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a shows t h a t many r e f i n e m e n t s e x e c u t e d i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t were n e v e r added t o t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . However, some o f t h e s e changes and 42 The t i e c o n n e c t i n g t h e two a s i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo a t measures 203-04 was c a n c e l l e d . A d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n was added i n t h e l a s t few measures of t h e movement, a f t e r t h e p i a n i s s i m o a t measure 258. 43 T h i s o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e i m i t a t i v e d i a l o g u e t h a t d e v e l o p s from t h e M a i n Theme. At measures 201-02, f was c a n c e l l e d from t h e t r i a d s i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t of t h e P r i m o . 44 A s l u r f o r t h e c o u n t e r m e l o d y i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo was added a t measures 102-06, and i n s e r t e d b u t s u b s e q u e n t l y c a n c e l l e d a t t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 261-64 ( i n t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e o f t h e Secondo). A s l u r was added i n t h e theme i t s e l f a t measures 111-12/1, ( l e f t - h a n d p a r t of t h e P r i m o ) and i n an accompanimental l i n e a t measures 114-15 ( r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e P r i m o ) ; t h e absence o f t h e s e two s l u r s f r o m t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t was s u r e l y a s i m p l e o v e r s i g h t on Brahms's p a r t . 121 i n s e r t i o n s appear as t h e o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g i n t h e a u t o g r a p h of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . I t seems t h e r e f o r e t h a t Brahms, a f t e r r e v i s i n g t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a , made f u r t h e r a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Most of Brahms's r e v i s i o n s a f f e c t p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n ; i n d i c a t i o n s f o r p e d a l l i n g were added o c c a s i o n a l l y . V e r y few r e f i n e -45 ments i n dynamics were made. Brahms c o n t i n u e d t o c o n c e r n h i m s e l f w i t h t h i n n i n g t h e t e x t u r e by c a n c e l l i n g o c t a v e d o u b l i n g s . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t s u c h d e l e t i o n s i n one passage of t h e Secondo i n t h e f i r s t movement were made b e f o r e Brahms w r o t e t h e p i a n o p a r t i n t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n (see b e l o w ) . ^ F i r s t Movement As i n many of t h e e a r l y r e v i s i o n s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n made a t t h i s t i m e i n v o l v e s t h e low b a s s r e g i s t e r . By c a n c e l l i n g much " A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t w i t h t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t makes i t a p p a r e n t t h a t Brahms s u p p l i e d few dynamic a b b r e v i a t i o n s and symbols i n t h e d r a f t b e f o r e s e n d i n g i t t o t h e c o p y i s t . A f t e r t h e l a t t e r r e t u r n e d t h e d r a f t , t h e composer i n s e r t e d more dynamic symbols and a b b r e v i a t i o n s i n each movement, t o g i v e c l e a r e r i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e . These i n s e r t i o n s cannot p r o p e r l y be c o n s i d e r e d as a l t e r -a t i o n s ; t h e y a r e s i m p l y d u p l i c a t i o n s . F o r example, i n e x p o s i t o r y s e c t i o n s Brahms added dynamic a b b r e v i a t i o n s and symbols w h i c h o r i g i n -a l l y had been n o t a t e d o n l y i n r e c a p i t u l a t o r y s e c t i o n s , and v i c e v e r s a . S i m i l a r l y , dynamic marks w h i c h i n i t i a l l y had a ppeared f o r o n l y one p i a n o were i n s e r t e d by t h e composer i n t h e o t h e r p i a n o p a r t (e,g. f, t o t h e accompanimental m a t e r i a l i n t h e Primo a t measures 4 7 f f , Brahms added p i a n o , w h i c h was a l r e a d y p r e s e n t f o r t h e theme i n t h e Secondo). Such i n s e r t i o n s a r e n o t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e t e x t o f t h i s c h a p t e r , but a r e d i s -t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e r e v i s e d s c o r e by t h e s y m b o l f . 46 However, t h e few o c t a v e d o u b l i n g s w h i c h were c a n c e l l e d i n t h e S c h e r z o and t h e f i n a l e of t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t were n e c e s s a r i l y e l i m i n a t e d when Brahms t r a n s c r i b e d t h e m a t e r i a l i n q u e s t i o n f o r s t r i n g e d i n s t r u -ments. T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r c a n c e l l a t i o n s i n t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a c o u l d have been made e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e w r i t i n g of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . 122 of t h e o r i g i n a l o c t a v e d o u b l i n g , Brahms re d u c e d t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e bass l i n e i n t h e i m i t a t i v e development o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme (see T e x t u a l N o t e s , measures 122-133). He subdued i t f u r t h e r by c h a n g i n g t h e 47 dynamic l e v e l from p i a n o t o p i a n i s s i m o . Some a l t e r a t i o n s and r e f i n e m e n t s i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n were a l s o e x e c u t e d . A t t h e o p e n i n g announcement of t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme Brahms s h o r t e n e d t h e s l u r i r i t h e second measure, b e g i n n i n g i t on t h e 48 f i r s t e i g h t h - n o t e . Of i n t e r e s t a r e t h e t h r e e s t a c c a t o d o t s w h i c h were added t o t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measure 186, i n t h e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e T r a n s i t i o n . They perhaps i n d i c a t e t h a t Brahms was t o y i n g w i t h t h e i d e a of u t i l i z i n g them f o r t h i s e n t i r e b a s s l i n e , as he l a t e r d i d i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t ' (measures 184-89 of t h e l a t t e r ) . P e d a l l i n g was added t o smooth out t h e r e i t e r a t e d t r i p l e t s t h a t accompany t h e second and t h i r d p h r a s e s o f t h e Second Theme (measures 39-40, 43-44, 201, and 205). Brahms added dynamics and e x p r e s s i o n words t o s o f t e n f u r t h e r t h e s i x t e e n t h - n o t e passagework a t measures 6 5 f f and 2 2 7 f f (see T a b l e 9 ) , 49 w h i c h he had c l a r i f i e d e a r l i e r by t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f d o u b l i n g n o t e s . 47 A l t e r a t i o n s made i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measures 298-300 c o u l d have been e x e c u t e d b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e making o f t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . To f a c i l i t a t e a more f o r c e f u l r e n d e r i n g o f t h e a c c e n t e d o c t a v e s , Brahms added a r p e g g i o s i g n s and h a l f n o t e s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l o w e r n o t e o f each o c t a v e s h o u l d be s t r u c k s l i g h t l y ahead o f t h e upp e r , and s u s t a i n e d (see r e v i s e d s c o r e ) . I n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , t h e e i g h t h - n o t e l i n e i s p l a y e d by t h e c e l l o and v i o l a i n u n i s o n . 48 T h i s s h o r t e r s l u r was o r i g i n a l l y n o t a t e d , and s u b s e q u e n t l y l e n g t h e n e d , i n b o t h t h e f i r s t and second measures o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . See C h a p t e r V I . 49 At measure 227, p i a n o d o l c e e l e g g i e r o a p p ears i n p e n c i l . However, e , - l e g g i e r o may have been a l a t e a d d i t i o n , f o r i t was i n c l u d e d n e i t h e r i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t n o r i n t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata. TABLE 9 OPP. 34BIS AND 34: REFINEMENT OF DYNAMIC ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPRESSION WORDS (FIRST MOVEMENT) Duo-Piano S o n a t a I n s t r u -ment ( s ) R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t P i a n o Q u i n t e t R e v i s e d A u t o -graph ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * Duo-Piano S o n a t a S u b s e q u e n t l y (Revised Work-i n g D r a f t S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e I I / L ; I/L I I I I I I I I I I I I ; I I I I I & I I I I I p s o t t o v o c e e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . p s o t t o v o c e e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . sempre p e s p r e s s . t t pp d o l c e e l e g g . t t V~ PP c r e s c . marcato [ P i ] p s o t t o v oce e s p r e s s . [ V a ] e s p r e s s . [ P i ] e s p r e s s . [Va] e s p r e s s . [ V n I ] p d o l c e e l e g g . e s p r e s s . [C] pp d o l c e [ P i ] c r e s c . [ t u t t i ] sempre p [ P i ] e s p r e s s . [C] t t t t tt tt e s p r e s s . l e g . espress-. e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . TABLE 9 — C o n t i n u e d Duo-Piano Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano Sonata Mea-s u r e r s ) * * -I n s t r u -ment ( s ) R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-. i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d A u t o -graph ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e 201 I PP PP pp s o t t o v o c e p e s p r e s s . s o t t o v oce [Va] tt § 205 I s o t t o voce e s p r e s s . [Vn I ] 213 I I e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . [ P i ] espres-s-. l e g . 219; 223 T e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . t t § J_ e s p r e s s . [Va; C] 227 I — — p d o l c e p d o l c e [Vn I I , Va] p d o l c e e l e g g . — 227 I I — P e s p r e s s . p e s p r e s s . d o l c e [ P i ] tt § 231 I f f f e s p r e s s . tt i e s p r e s s . [Vn I , Va, c] f e s p r e s s . 252 I I — — — "r'vat C] — — 253 I & I I e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . t e s p r e s s . [ P i ] e s p r e s s . [Vn I , Va, C] t e s p r e s s . TABLE 9 — C o n t i n u e d Mea-s u r e (s) ** Duo-Piano Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano Sonata I n s t r u -ment ( s ) R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d A u t o -graph ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e 263 I p d o l c e p d o l c e ' f p— pp d o l c e t § [Vn I ] 273 I & I I l e g . e l e g . e t — t § e s p r e s s e s p r e s s . **Measures a r e numbered a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Duo-Piano Sonata. Measures 83 and 245 of the l a t t e r a r e d e l e t e d i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . ***The i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t ( s ) t o w h i c h t h e r e a d i n g a p p l i e s appears i n sq u a r e b r a c k e t s , t R e a d i n g same as c o l . 3. §Reading same as c o l . 4. t t R e a d i n g same as c o l . 5. TABLE 10 OPP. 34BIS AND 34: REFINEMENT OF DYNAMIC ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPRESSION WORDS (SECOND MOVEMENT) Duo-Piano Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano S o n a t a Mea-s u r e ( s ) * * I n s t r u -ment (s ) R e v i s e d Work-i n g n D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d A u t o -graph ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e 23 I I e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . t e s p r e s s . [ P i ] f e s p r e s s . 25 I p poco a c c e l e r . poco a c c e l e r . [Vn I , VA, c] 25 I I — poco a c c e l e r . — poco a c c e l e r . [ P i ] — § 27 I & I I — a tempo — a tempo [ T u t t i ] — § 29 poco s t r i n g . [Vn I , Vn I I , C, P i ] 31-32 i::& I I — d i m i n . — s o s t e n . d i m i n . [ T u t t i ] § 36 I I & I — — — — p i u animato, poco a poco — 47 I & I I un poco a c c e l e r . : sempre sempre poco a c c e l e r . t sempre poco a c c e l e r . [ T u t t i ] un poco a c c e l -e r . : sempre § TABLE 1 0 — C o n t i n u e d Duo-Piano Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano Sonata Mea-s u r e ^ ) I n s t r u -ment (s ) R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e i S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d A u t o -graph ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e • 55 I & I I a tempo a tempo t Tempo I [ T u t t i ] a tempo poco a poco p i i l s o s t e n . § 75 I I / L PP p e s p r e s s . s o t t o v oce p e s p r e s s . s o t t o v o c e [ P i ] § 103-04 I & I I un p o c h e t t i n o r i t a r d . : ? [ T u t t i ] — 105 I poco f c r e s c . e s p r e s s . poco c r e s c . f e s p r e s s . c r e s c . [Vn I , Va, C] t § 105 I I poco f m o l t o e s p r e s s . c r e s c . poco m o l t o e s p r e s s . c r e s c . t poco f m o l t o e s p r e s s . c r e s c . [ P i ] t § 108 I — P — p [Vn I ] — § 115 I f sempre poco f f sempre f e s p r e s s . t f sempre f [Vn I , C] t § 116 I & I I poco r i t a r d . un poco r i t a r d . t un poco r i t e n . [Vn I , C, P i ] poco r i t a r d . s o s t e n . § TABLE 1 0 — C o n t i n u e d Mea-s u r e ( s ) ' Duo-Piano Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano Son a t a I n s t r u -ment (s) i R e v i s e d Work-i n g a D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g - D r a f t R e v i s e d A u t o -graph ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t i S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e 118 I p— e s p r e s s . mf mf e s p r e s s . t mf e s p r e s s . [C] t mf e s p r e s s . **The i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t ( s ) t o w h i c h t h e r e a d i n g a p p l i e s appears i n square b r a c k e t s . t R e a d i n g same as c o l . 3. §Reading same as c o l . 4. t t R e a d i n g same as c o l . 5. OO A few dynamics were i n s e r t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e movement. 129 Second Movement N o t e s , p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n r emained u n a l t e r e d . However, Brahms d u p l i c a t e d some s l u r s and a r p e g g i o s i g n s t o p r o v i d e more c o m p l e t e 51 i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e . H i s few i n s e r t i o n s of dynamic symbols , 52 a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i r d Movement The c a n c e l l a t i o n of a few o c t a v e d o u b l i n g s i n t h e bass and t h e t r e b l e c o u l d have o c c u r r e d e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e 53 P i a n o Q u i n t e t . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e f i n e m e n t t h a t p r e d a t e d t h e Crescendo and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s were i n s e r t e d n e a r t h e end of t h e e x t e n s i o n of the T h i r d Theme, i n t h e r i g h t hand o f t h e Secondo a t measures 72-73. I n t h e Development, Brahms p r e p a r e d f o r t h e f o r t i s s i m o e n t r y of t h e Second Theme by a d d i n g c r e s c e n d o a t t h e end o f measure 149, and c r e s c e n d o s i g n s i n measure 150. The d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s added i n t h e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme on t h e f i r s t and t h i r d b e a t s of measures 201-02 and 205 c r e a t e nuances s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e a n a l -ogous measures 39-40 and 43 o f t h e E x p o s i t i o n . They might w e l l have been added a f t e r t h e making of t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n ; i n t h e l a t t e r , Brahms chose t o use i n t h e r e c a p i t u l a t o r y s t a t e m e n t t h e same c r e s c e n d o and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s as he had used i n t h e e x p o s i t o r y s t a t e m e n t o f t h i s m a t e r i a l . "'"'"E.g., a r p e g g i o s i g n s were i n s e r t e d a t measure 16 f o r t h e t h i r d c h o r d i n t h e Primo ( a l r e a d y p r e s e n t f o r t h e a n a l o g o u s c h o r d i n t h e r i g h t -hand p a r t of t h e Secondo a t measure 9 8 ) , and f o r t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t of t h e Secondo a t t h e l a s t two c h o r d s of measure 90 (compare w i t h measure 9 0 ) . S i m i l a r l y , he s u p p l i e d s l u r s f o r b o t h p a r t s o f t h e Secondo a t measures 105-06/2, and f o r t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo a t measures 108-09/2 ( t h e s e s l u r s a r e a n a l o g o u s t o t h e one a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d l i n e o f t h e Primo a t measures 108-09/1). 52 S p e c i f i c a l l y , he added d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s f o r t h e s y n c o p a t e d f i g u r e a t t h e o p e n i n g o f measures 1 and 2 i n t h e M a i n Theme, and d e c r e s -cendo s i g n s t o c r e a t e nuance w i t h i n t h e l o w e r v o i c e d u r i n g t h e r e t u r n of t h i s duet ( a t measure 103 of t h e P r i m o , on t h e s i x t e e n t h - n o t e s of t h e f i r s t two b e a t s ) . 53 I n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t of t h e Secondo, Brahms c a n c e l l e d t h e G, on t h e f i r s t b e a t of measures 41 and 45. He d e l e t e d t h e u p p e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g o f t h e c' w h i c h i s r e i t e r a t e d on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f measure 176 130 f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n was t h e a d d i t i o n of s i g n s o r a b b r e v i a t i o n s t o i n d i -c a t e a c c e n t u a t i o n . Brahms i n s e r t e d a c c e n t s i g n s n e a r t h e c l i m a x o f t h e 54 f u g a t o , i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t of t h e Secondo. To emphasize t h e s u p e r t o n i c a p p o g g i a t u r a t h a t c o n c l u d e s t h e movement, he added f o r z a r i d o (measure 1 9 2 ) . P h r a s i n g was not a l t e r e d i n t h e S c h e r z o ; a v e r y m i n o r r e f i n e m e n t i n a r t i c u l a t i o n a p p e ars i n t h e f o r t e r e m i n i s c e n c e of t h e M a i n Theme. 5 5 56 I n t h e T r i o , dynamics remained v i r t u a l l y u n a l t e r e d ; n o t e s and e x p r e s s i o n words were l e f t i n t a c t . However, as i n t h e f i r s t movement, Brahms made a few r e v i s i o n s i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n . To c r e a t e a more l e g a t o r e s t a t e m e n t of t h e theme, he i n s e r t e d s l u r s a t measures 221-22 and 223-24 (Secondo). S t a c c a t o d o t s were added t o t h e t r i p l e t i n t h e b a s s a t measure 233 ( P r i m o ) , p r o v i d i n g a s l i g h t impetus f o r t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a s t i n g m o t i v e . F i n a l e C a n c e l l a t i o n s t o t h i n o r t o c l a r i f y t h e t e x t u r e appear i n a few p a s s a g e s . H o w e v e r , l i k e t h o s e i n t h e S c h e r z o , t h e y c o u l d have been i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo. I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o say w hether Brahms s u b s t i t u t e d a^ f o r c' i n t h e l e f t hand of t h e Secondo (measure 106/1) b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e making of t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . 54 F o r t h e second and t h i r d n o t e s of measure 94, and f o r t h e q u a r t e r n o t e s i n measures 97 and 99. ~^To i n d i c a t e a sudden r e l e a s e o f t h e t i e d o c t a v e w h i c h c o n c l u d e s t h i s r e m i n i s c e n c e , Brahms added a s t a c c a t o dot (measures 41, 45, 128, 132, 138, and 142). 5 6 A c r e s c e n d o s i g n was added i n b o t h p i a n o p a r t s a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a s t i n g m o t i v e (measures 233-34). 57 L o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g s were d e l e t e d f r o m t r i p l e t - o c t a v e passages i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t of t h e P rimo a t measures 384-85, and a t measures 365-67 i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo ( c ' ' 1 1 was d e l e t e d t h r o u g h -out t h e l a t t e r p a s s a g e ) . I n measure 489, t h e f o u r - n o t e c h o r d s i n t h e 131 made a f t e r t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . The a d d i t i o n o f f i n g e r i n g a t measures 141-43 i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a l s o c o u l d have 58 o c c u r r e d e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e making o f t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . A few r e f i n e m e n t s i n dynamics, p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n c e r t a i n l y p r e c e d e d t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . The most s i g n i f i c a n t change i n dynamics o c c u r s a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e a tempo s e c t i o n (measure 4 6 7 ) . I n s t e a d o f a l l o w i n g i t t o b e g i n a t t h e p i a n i s s i m o dynamic l e v e l e s t a b -59 l i s h e d i n measure 463, Brahms i n s e r t e d p i a n o . The o n l y n o t e w o r t h y a l t e r a t i o n s i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n a r e t h e a d d i t i o n o f s t a c c a t o d o t s t o a p e d a l - p o i n t r e i t e r a t e d i n s i x t e e n t h - n o t e s below t h e M a i n Theme (measures 53 - 5 7 ) , and t h e i n s e r t i o n o f a s l u r f o r a c o u n t e r m e l o d y h e a r d above t h e Second Theme (measures 108-12 and t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 266-68). r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo were r e d u c e d t o g'' and t h e open s i x t h a ^ ' - f ' r e s p e c t i v e l y . 58 I n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , t h i s m a t e r i a l i s p l a y e d by t h e v i o l i n s : 59 A few o t h e r a d d i t i o n s s h o u l d be me n t i o n e d . The c h r o m a t i c melody t h a t b u r s t s out f o r t e i n measure 13 of t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n was subdued t o p i a n o i n measures 15-16. A t t h e end o f measure 16, Brahms added a c r e s c e n d o s i g n f o l l o w e d by f o r t e on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f t h e n e x t measure. The c l o s i n g passage o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n was i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f c r e s c e n d o ( i n b o t h p i a n o s ) a t measure 32. A few v e r y m i n o r i n s e r t i o n s and c a n c e l l a t i o n s were made a t measures 123 ( d e c r e s -cendo s i g n i n t h e Primo c a n c e l l e d ) , 145 ( c r e s c e n d o s i g n i n s e r t e d on t h e l a s t b e a t o f t h i s measure i n t h e P r i m o ) , 224 ( d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s added on t h e f i r s t b e a t i n b o t h p i a n o p a r t s ) , and 479 ( c r e s c e n d o s i g n i n s e r t e d b e n e a t h t h e Pr i m o s y s t e m ) . CHAPTER V I THE CREATIVE PROCESS, PART I I I : THE PIANO QUINTET Survey o f t h e S t a g e s o f t h e C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s i Brahms's e f f o r t s t o d e c i d e upon a more a p p r o p r i a t e medium f o r t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata p r o v e d f r u i t l e s s . On 15 August 1864 he c o m p l a i n e d i n a l e t t e r t o C l a r a t h a t "my d o u b l e - s o n a t a [ D o p p e l - S o n a t e ] does n o t a p p e a r , and [ w i l l be] l o s t t o t h e whole w o r l d , i f my w r i t i n g -f i n g e r does n o t have patience.""'" T h i s l e t t e r , w r i t t e n d u r i n g h i s s o j o u r n a t Baden-Baden, s u g g e s t s t h a t he was c o n s i d e r i n g r e n o u n c i n g t h e c 2 work e n t i r e l y ( S t a g e 2 ). I t was p r o b a b l y d u r i n g Brahms's s t a y a t C a r l s r u h e , l a t e i n August 1864, t h a t Hermann L e v i a d v i s e d him t o t r a n s c r i b e t h e Duo-Piano Sonata 3 f o r p i a n o q u i n t e t . Brahms's l e t t e r o f 29 August t o J o a c h i m , r e q u e s t i n g 4 t h e immediate r e t u r n o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata m a n u s c r i p t , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e composer was a n x i o u s t o c o n s i d e r t h i s work f u r t h e r , p r e sumably b e c a u s e o f L e v i ' s s u g g e s t i o n . ^"See C h a p t e r I I , f n . 66. 2 Perhaps a t t h i s p o i n t he s e n t one of t h e two m a n u s c r i p t s of t h e Duo-Piano Sonata ( p r o b a b l y t h e copy) t o J o a c h i m , and t e m p o r a r i l y t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o some o f t h e o t h e r works w h i c h he had b r o u g h t w i t h him t o t h e spa. See Max K a l b e c k , Johannes Brahms, 4 v o l s , i n 8, D r i t t e A u f l a g e ( B e r l i n : D e u t s c h e B r a h m s - G e s e l l s c h a f t m. b. H., 1908-14; r e p r i n t ed., T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1 9 7 6 ) , I I / l : 54. 3 4 See C h a p t e r I I , p. 31- I n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. 2 5 I. 132 133 B e f o r e l e a v i n g Baden-Baden f o r V i e n n a i n e a r l y O c t o b e r , Brahms d r a f t e d t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t ( S t a g e 3 ) . The p a r t s f o r t h e s t r i n g s were w r i t t e n i n s c o r e , and t h e p i a n o p a r t was s k e t c h e d i n p e n c i l ; t h i s v e r s i o n i s now l o s t . " ' Perhaps he made some r e f i n e m e n t s i n t h e s t r i n g p a r t s b e f o r e a s k i n g L e v i and D a v i d t o t r y t h e work w i t h him. The p i a n o p a r t was co m p l e t e d a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o V i e n n a . By t h e end o f O c t o b e r , t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e (4 ) had begun: Brahms had w r i t t e n and r e v i s e d a f u l l s c o r e , and had s e n t i t t o C l a r a . A f t e r p l a y i n g i t f i r s t w i t h D a v i d and t h e n w i t h b o t h D a v i d and t h e v i o l i s t K o n i n g , C l a r a and L e v i s e n t l e t t e r s t o Brahms e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r d e l i g h t i n t h i s new t r a n s c r i p -t i o n . By F e b r u a r y 1865 a t t h e l a t e s t , 7 L e v i had r e t u r n e d t h e a u t o g r a p h s c o r e t o Brahms; t h e l a t t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t some of t h e changes s u g g e s t e d by h i s young f r i e n d . Brahms perhaps made f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t s b e f o r e s e n d i n g t h e a u t o g r a p h s c o r e t o t h e e n g r a v e r near t h e g end of J u l y . As w i l l be e x p l a i n e d b e l o w , t h e composer a p p a r e n t l y made o t h e r a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h i s a u t o g r a p h when he l a t e r checked i t w i t h t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s . c Stage 3 : T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata  f o r P i a n o Q u i n t e t N o t h i n g i n t h e p u b l i s h e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t Brahms had 5 S e e Cha p t e r I I , p.3X. C l a r a acknowledged t h e a r r i v a l of t h e s c o r e i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n a t C a r l s r u h e on 3 November 1864. See A p p e n d i x , p. 2 51, 7 S e e C h a p t e r I I , p. 3 %, g See Brahms's l e t t e r o f 22 J u l y t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n i n t h e A p p e n d i x , pp. 2 5^-255. 134 b o t h t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t and t h e Duo-Piano Sonata a t hand when he made th e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . I n d e e d , t h e urgency o f a r e q u e s t s e n t t o J o a c h i m f o r t h e r e t u r n o f t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t of t h e Duo-Piano Sonata s u g g e s t s t h a t he d i d n o t have a s u i t a b l e s c o r e from w h i c h t o 9 make t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n . However, he s u r e l y would have been reminded of t h e o r i g i n a l Q u i n t e t as he r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M a t e r i a l I n h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata f o r t h e medium o f p i a n o q u i n t e t , t h e l o w e s t v o i c e ( which would have been p l a y e d by t h e second c e l l o i n t h e o r i g i n a l S t r i n g Q u i n t e t ) was e n t r u s t e d t o t h e p i a n o p a r t . Brahms t h u s t o o k advantage of t h e r e s o n a n c e o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t ' s b a s s r e g i s t e r . H i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e n p r o v i d e d t h e s t r i n g q u a r t e t and t h e p i a n o each w i t h m a t e r i a l f o r m e r l y found i n b o t h t h e Primo and t h e Secondo p a r t s . Such passages might c o m p r i s e as few as two measures, o r as many as eighteen."*"^ More f r e q u e n t l y , however, e i t h e r t h e Primo p a r t o r t h e Secondo was r e t a i n e d f o r the p i a n o i n t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , w i t h t h e o t h e r p i a n o p a r t t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e s t r i n g q u a r t e t . A g a i n , s u c h an arrangement might c o m p r i s e o n l y a few measures, o r more t h a n 11 twenty. A few p a s s a g e s , d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I V , seemed so n a t u r a l l y 9 The w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a , w h i c h had undergone so much r e v i s i o n , would have been most d i f f i c u l t t o u t i l i z e as t h e o n l y s o u r c e f o r t h e new t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Brahms e v i d e n t l y used b o t h t h e d r a f t and t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t ; a l t e r a t i o n s p r e s e n t i n each were i n c o r -p o r a t e d by him i n t h e a u t o g r a p h of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . See C h a p t e r V, PP-105 -OIP i-nd [lo-1L ^ S e e measures 63-64 o f t h e f i r s t movement, and measures 109-126 of t h e second. 11 E.g., t h e Primo was r e t a i n e d i n t a c t f o r t h e p i a n o p a r t i n mea-s u r e s 41-65/1 o f t h e f i n a l e , and i n measures 1-17/1 o f t h e f i r s t move-ment. The Secondo was u t i l i z e d f o r t h e p i a n o p a r t i n n e a r l y t h e e n t i r e Tempo I s e c t i o n of t h e f i r s t movement (measures 285-97). The a d o p t i o n s u i t e d t o t h e t i m b r e of s t r i n g s t h a t a l l o r n e a r l y a l l o f b o t h p i a n o p a r t s was t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e s t r i n g q u a r t e t ( t h e r e b y perhaps r e f l e c t -i n g t h e o r i g i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l i n t h e l o s t S t r i n g Q u i n t e t ) . Changes i n Notes The most s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s i n m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n t h e l e n g t h e n i n g o f two i m i t a t i v e p a s s a g e s . The s e q u e n t i a l d i a l o g u e t h a t d e v e l o p s f r o m t h e C l o s i n g Theme i n t h e f i r s t movement (measures 8 2 f f , 12 r e c a p i t u l a t e d a t 2 4 3 f f ) was e v i d e n t l y e x t e n d e d by s e v e r a l measures. A t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Poco s o s t e n u t o i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e f i n a l e , Brahms n o t a t e d t h e second e n t r y i n t h e c e l l o p a r t one measure l a t e r t h a n i t o c c u r s i n t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a , t h u s d e l a y i n g a l s o t h e i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s i n t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n , s e c o n d - v i o l i n , and v i o l a p a r t s . The i m i t a t i v e passage c o n s e q u e n t l y c o m p r i s e d t h i r t e e n measures i n s t e a d o f t w e l v e ; t h e e n t i r e movement was t h u s made one measure l o n g e r . I n two i n s t a n c e s , Brahms r e s t o r e d m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l t o t h e r e g i s t e r i n w h i c h i t had o r i g i n a l l y been w r i t t e n i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-P i a n o S o n a t a . At t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e S u b j e c t i n t h e f u g a t o o f t h e S c h e r z o , he i g n o r e d t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n s i g n t h a t he had i n s e r t e d i n t h e d r a f t a t measures 98/2-99/1, and d i d n o t add u p p e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g u n t i l o f s u c h l a r g e s e c t i o n s from t h e Primo o r t h e Secondo can be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h , f o r example, measures 57-73 i n t h e f i r s t movement. I n t h e p i a n o p a r t , Brahms r e t a i n e d t h e Primo i n t a c t a t measures 57-62, t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e s f rom b o t h t h e Primo and Secondo a t measures 63-64, t h e Secondo a t measures 65-66, and t h e Primo a t measures 67-73. 12 The p a s t e - o v e r upon w h i c h Brahms w r o t e t h e p r e s e n t measures 83-87 does n o t c o v e r t h e l a s t t h r e e measures o f t h e o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g ( t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f measures 85-87). The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h i s d i a l o g u e i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e l y o b s c u r e d by a p a s t e - o v e r ; t h e p r e s e n t measures 245-50 r e q u i r e d o n l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h i s p a s t e -o v e r . See f n . 28. t h e m i d d l e of measure 98. I n measures 486-87 and 489 of t h e f i n a l e , t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e P r i m o was t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e v i o l i n s and e l e v a t e d t o t h e h i g h t r e b l e r e g i s t e r i n w h i c h i t had o r i g i n a l l y appeared. Some changes were made i n t h e a tempo s e c t i o n o f t h e Coda i n t h e f i n a l e . The s y n c o p a t e d a g i t a t o d e s c e n t i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo a t measures 477/6-81/3 w a s . t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e s t r i n g s , w h i c h p l a y i t on t h e b e a t ; t h e r e b y c o n t r a s t i n g i t w i t h t h e s y n c o p a t e d c h o r d s n o t a t e d f o r t h e r i g h t - h a n d l i n e i n t h e p i a n o p a r t . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h i s d e s c e n t ( i n t h e b a s s ) and t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e bass 13 l i n e , u n t i l t h e f i n a l cadence, were a l s o t r a n s c r i b e d on t h e b e a t . L o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g was g e n e r a l l y o m i t t e d f r o m m e l o d i c and 14 accompanimental v o i c e s t r a n s c r i b e d f o r s t r i n g s , u n l e s s , o f c o u r s e , Brahms w i s h e d t o c r e a t e a p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r c e f u l e f f e c t . He o c c a s i o n -a l l y f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o omit o r t o change accompanimental m a t e r i a l when i t was adapted t o t h e s t r i n g e n s e m b l e . ^ I n t h e S c h e r z o (measures 3-4) he d e l e t e d t h e i m i t a t i o n o f t h e a s c e n t o f t h e M a i n Theme i n t h e b a s s . T h i s l i n e was an a d d i t i o n i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata (see C h a p t e r V, page *\ lo ) ; Brahms had p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d i t t o 13 See measures 481/6-89/6 o f t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e s i n t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a . 14 E.g., l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g t h a t adds s u b s t a n c e t o a m e l o d i c l i n e i n t h e h i g h t r e b l e r e g i s t e r o f t h e p i a n o was u n n e c e s s a r y when t h i s l i n e was t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e v i o l i n . See measures 96-99 of t h e f i r s t movement. 15 F o r example, a t measures 51-54 o f t h e f i r s t movement, t h e u n d u l a t i n g t r i p l e t s and d u p l e t s i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t of t h e Secondo were o m i t t e d i n f a v o r o f movement i n q u a r t e r and h a l f n o t e s i n t h e v i o l i n p a r t s . The b r o k e n - o c t a v e accompaniment t o t h e e l a b o r a t i o n of t h e Second Theme a t measures.' 138-45 o f t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a was r e p l a c e d , i n t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , by more s u i t a b l e f i g u r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g n o t e s a tone o r a s e m i t o n e a p a r t . 137 compensate f o r t h e decay of t o n e on t h e p i a n o . The composer c o n t i n u e d t o t h i n t h e t e x t u r e i n measures 149-58 and 467-72 o f t h e f i n a l e . I n t h e form e r p a s s a g e , t h e accompaniment t o t h e s y n c o p a t e d melody was made l e s s ponderous by t h e o m i s s i o n of t h e sup-16 p o r t i n g t r e b l e c h o r d s . At measures 467-72, d o u b l i n g s and harmony n o t e s were d e l e t e d from t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e b a s s r e g i s t e r as w e l l as from t h e i m i t a t i v e l i n e t h a t b e g i n s a t measure 468 i n t h e t r e b l e . Changes i n E x p r e s s i o n I t s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n , d y n amics, and e x p r e s s i o n words, l i k e t h e n o t e s t h e m s e l v e s , underwent r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e change i n t h e p r o c e s s of t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The few s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n a l l o c c u r i n t h e f i r s t movement. I n t h e o p e n i n g announcement o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme, t h e s h o r t e r s l u r w h i c h Brahms had e a r l i e r a dopted i n measure 2 o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata (see C h a p t e r V, page 122) was used i n b o t h t h e f i r s t and t h e second measures, as shown i n Example 22. At t h e e x t e n s i o n o f Example 22. Johannes Brahms, Opus 34, f i r s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g of measures..1-2 i n t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n p a r t The s u r g i n g t r i p l e t s i n t h e bass had e a r l i e r been made l i g h t e r by t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f o c t a v e d o u b l i n g . See C h a p t e r V, p. 100. 138 t h e T h i r d Theme, Brahms a g a i n u t i l i z e d s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p h r a s i n g f r o m t h a t w h i c h appears i n t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . To emphasize t h e subdued s y n c o p a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n t h e t r e b l e c o u n t e r m e l o d y ( t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e f i r s t v i o l i n ) , he began s l u r s on t h e second b e a t s i n s t e a d o f t h e f i r s t . " * " 7 The o n l y r e f i n e m e n t i n a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n c e r n e d t h e accompaniment t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme: t h e s t a c c a t o o c t a v e s i n t h e b a s s were made more emphatic by t h e a d d i t i o n o f marcato (measures 2 0 f f , r e c a p i t u l a t e d a t 1 8 1 f f ) . A d d i t i o n a l changes were made i n dynamics and e x p r e s s i o n words. I n t h e f i r s t movement, Brahms gave more e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e c a n o n i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme (measures 1 2 2 f f ) , and s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d t h e dynamic l e v e l o f p a r t of t h e Second Theme (measures 3 9 f f , 4 3 f f , r e c a p i t u l a t e d a t 2 0 0 f f and 2 0 4 f f ; 18 see T a b l e 9 ) . Dynamics were not changed i n the second movement; however, as he had done e a r l i e r (see C h a p t e r V, page ^5)> Brahms added e x p r e s s i o n words w h i c h would h e i g h t e n t h e e f f e c t s i n h e r e n t i n a g i v e n 19 passage. 20 A few dynamic m a r k i n g s were added i n t h e S c h e r z o . Brahms ^ 7 I n measures 69, 70, 71, and 73. He d i d t h e same t h i n g i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n a t t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 231, 233, and 234. 18 Measure numbers i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e f e r t o t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . The r e a d e r i s a d v i s e d t h a t t h e measure numbers i n T a b l e 9 r e f e r t o t h e Duo-Piano Sonata. 19 I n t h e c l o s i n g p e r i o d o f t h e M a i n Theme he i n s e r t e d poco  s t r i n g e n d o (measure 2 9 ) ; s o s t e n u t o was added t o b r o a d e n t h e c l i m a x t h a t f o l l o w s (measure 3 1 ) . 20 Brahms i n c o r p o r a t e d c r e s c e n d o and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s i n t h e c o u n t e r m e l o d y i n t h e p i a n o p a r t a t measures 5-6. A l s o i n t h e p i a n o p a r t , a c r e s c e n d o s i g n was added a t measure 156 t o emphasize t h e a p p r o a c h t o t h e f i n a l f o r t i s s i m o s e c t i o n . Crescendo s i g n s were i n s e r t e d f o r t he a s c e n t s i n t h e s t r i n g ensemble a t measure 168 and 173-74. 139 i n s e r t e d t h e word "sempre" f o r t h e p i a n i s s i m o M a i n Theme, i t s i m i t a t i v e c o u n t e r m e l o d y , and a s t a c c a t o c o n t r a p u n t a l l i n e i n t h e f u g a t o (see T a b l e 21 11, measures 3, 5, and 7 1 ) , i n o t h e r p a s s a ges he chose t o d e l e t e t h i s word (See T a b l e 11, measures 67 and 176). E x p r e s s i o n words were n o t a l t e r e d i n t h e T r i o , b u t Brahms d i d make some changes i n dynamics t o 22 c r e a t e a more e f f e c t i v e b a l a n c e between p i a n o and s t r i n g s . Dynamics and e x p r e s s i o n words i n t h e f i n a l e a r e , u n t i l t h e Coda, 23 v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e w h i c h appear i n t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . A l l o f t h e r e f i n e m e n t s i n t h e Coda a f f e c t t h e p i a n o p a r t . Brahms added c r e s c e n d o and d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s t o emphasize t h e c o u n t e r m e l o d y a t measures 399-402. To p r o v i d e more e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e p e r -formance of t h e extended l u l l a t measures 439-66, he added o r a l t e r e d 24 e x p r e s s i o n words (see T a b l e 12, measures 439 and 4 6 4 ) . Stage 4 , Phase I : E l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e  A u t o g r a p h M a n u s c r i p t A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e f u l l s c o r e o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , Brahms 21 A n o t h e r m i n u t e a l t e r a t i o n i n e x p r e s s i o n words a f f e c t e d a c o n t r a -p u n t a l l i n e i n t h e p i a n o p a r t (see T a b l e 11, measure 7 6 ) . 22 He s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e theme, d e s i g n a t i n g i t f o r t e r a t h e r t h a n mezzo f o r t e (measures 2 1 0 f f i n t h e upper t h r e e s t r i n g p a r t s ) . The accompaniment, i n t h e p i a n o and t h e c e l l o p a r t s , t o t h e s t a t e m e n t of t h e c o n t r a s t i n g m o t i v e i n t h e v i o l i n p a r t s was s o f t e n e d from f o r t e t o mezzo f o r t e (measures 226-33/1). 23 The o n l y n o t e w o r t h y r e f i n e m e n t p r e c e d i n g t h e Coda i s t h e a d d i -t i o n o f e s p r e s s i v o t o t h e c h r o m a t i c f o r t e melody o f measures 1 3 f f , t r a n s c r i b e d f o r f i r s t v i o l i n and c e l l o . One can a l s o o b s e r v e t h a t , a t t h e r e t u r n o f t h e Second Theme i n measures 2 5 2 f f ( t r a n s c r i b e d f o r f i r s t v i o l i n ) , Brahms n o t a t e d dynamic symbols i n measures 252-53 but d i d n o t b o t h e r t o r e p e a t them i n subsequent measures. 24 T r a n q u i l l o was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r e s p r e s s i v o a t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e Second Theme, and was added t o t h e v a r i a n t o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme. TABLE 11 OPP. 34BIS AND 34: REFINEMENT OF DYNAMIC ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPRESSION WORDS (THIRD MOVEMENT) Duo- P i a n o Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano Sonata Mea-s u r e d ) . I n s t r u -ment (s) R e v i s e d Work-i n g ^ D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d A u t o -graph ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e 3 I & I I PP PP f sempre pp [Vn I , Va] t § 5 I/R — — sempre pp [ P i ] — — 71 I/L — PP — pp sempre [Va] — § 76 I sempre p sempre p t P [Vn I ] t 76 I I sempre p sempre p t sempre m o l t o P [ P i ] t § •88 I — pp sempre — pp sempre [ P i ] — § 144 I & I I — p, c r e s c . — p, c r e s c . [ T u t t i ] — 176 I I f f sempre f f sempre t f f [Vn I , Vn I I , Va, C] t § 194 I I poco f mf t mf [C] t § 209 I I •£— mf mf t f [c] t TABLE 1 1 — C o n t i n u e d Mea-s u r e r s ) Duo-Piano Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano So n a t a I n s t r u -ment (s) R e v i s e d Work-i h g a D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g a D r a f t R e v i s e d A u t o -graph ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e 235 I — mf — mf [Vn I ] — § *The i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t ( s ) t o w h i c h t h e r e a d i n g a p p l i e s appears i n square b r a c k e t s , f R e a d i n g same as c o l . 3. §Reading same as c o l . 4. TABLE 12 OPP. 34BIS AND 34: REFINEMENT OF DYNAMIC ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPRESSION WORDS (FINALE) Duo-Piano Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano Sonata S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d A u t o - S u b s e q u e n t l y S u b s e q u e n t l y Mea- I n s t r u - R e v i s e d Work- R e v i s e d R e v i s e d Work- graph ( S t i c h - R e v i s e d Work- R e v i s e d s u r e ( s ) ment (s) i n g D r a f t S t i c h v o r l a g e i n g D r a f t v o r l a g e ) * * * i n g D r a f t S t i c h v o r l a g e 13 I f f t f e s p r e s s . [Vn I , C] t 65 I & I I — — — p e s p r e s s . [Vn I , C] — — 93 I & I I un p o c h e t -t i n o p i u animato un p o c h e t -t i n o p i u animato [ T u t t i ] § 94 I p l e g . ed e s p r e s s . p l e g . ed e s p r e s s . t p leg.—ed-e s p r e s s . t § 96 I I / L — — P p leg.—ed-e s p r e s s . tt — 108 I/L — — e s p r e s s . p e s p r e s s . [C] tt — 159-60 I & I I — — poco s o s t e n . poco r i t e n . [ T u t t i ] tt — 161 I & I I — — — Tempo I [ T u t t i ] — — TABLE 1 2 ~ C o n t i r i u e d Mea-surers) • Duo- P i a n o Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano Sonata I n s t r u -ment (s) R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d A u t o -- g r a p h ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e 192-93 I & I I — sempre d o l c e sempre d o l c e § [ T u t t i ] 252 I I p e s p r e s s . p e s p r e s s . t p e s p r e s s . t § l e g . l e g . l e g . 256 I/R — — — e s p r e s s . l e g . — — 266 I I e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . t e s p r e s s . [C] t § P [Vn I ] 270 I I l e g a t o , p l e g a t o , p t P» *eg-- f § 270 I/R — — e s p r e s s . e s p r e s s . [ V n I ] tt § 317-20 I & I I — — — poco r i t e n . — — [ T u t t i ] 321 I & I I — — — Tempo I — — [ T u t t i ] 321 I & I I PP l e g . PP l e g . t p ieg-. t r a n - t § q u i l l o [Vn I , Va, P i ; l a t e r C] 403 I & I I — f f — f f [ T u t t i ] — § 420 I f f f t f f [ P i ] t § TABLE 1 2 — C o n t i n u e d Duo-Piano Sonata P i a n o Q u i n t e t Duo-Piano So n a t a Mea-sure.(s)' I n s t r u -ment (s) R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d Work-i n g D r a f t R e v i s e d A u t o -graph ( S t i c h -v o r l a g e ) * * * S u b s e q u e n t l y Revised Work-i n g D r a f t S u b s e q u e n t l y R e v i s e d S t i c h v o r l a g e 439 I I p d o l c e e s p r e s s . p d o l c e e s p r e s s . f p d o l c e t r a n -q u i l l o [ P i ] p d o l c e e s p r e s s . § 445 I p e s p r e s s . p d o l c e e s p r e s s . t p d o l c e e s p r e s s . [Vn I , Va] p d o l c e [Vn I I ] t § 445 I I — — p d o l c e p d o l c e t r a n -q u i l l o [ P i ] tt — 464 I & I I poco r i t a r d . poco a poco r i t a r d . t poco a poco r i t e n . [Vn I , Va, C, P i ] t § 467 I — — P P [ p i ] tt — ***The i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t ( s ) t o w h i c h t h e r e a d i n g a p p l i e s appears i n square b r a c k e t s . t R e a d i n g same as c o l . 3. §Reading same as c o l . 4. t t R e a d i n g same as c o l . 5. 145 changed h i s mind about s e v e r a l of t h e a l t e r a t i o n s made i n t h e c o u r s e o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n . He used " p a s t e - o v e r s " t o o b s c u r e t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t he had added i n t h e s e q u e n t i a l d i a l o g u e f o l l o w i n g t h e C l o s i n g Theme o f t h e f i r s t movement. I n t h e f i n a l e , he c a n c e l l e d t h e e x t r a measure o c c u r r i n g i n t h e i m i t a t i v e o p e n i n g , and t r a n s p o s e d measures 486-87 and 489 o f t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n p a r t down an o c t a v e . Many of t h e o t h e r n o t e - a l t e r a t i o n s c o n s i s t of t h e a d d i t i o n (and, i n one i n s t a n c e , c a n c e l l a t i o n ) of d o u b l i n g s a t t h e u n i s o n o r o c t a v e . I n t h e f i r s t two movements, some t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l t r a n s c r i b e d f o r one s t r i n g e d i n s t r u m e n t was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e i n s e r t i o n o f a d o u b l i n g l i n e i n a n o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t . I m p o r t a n t changes i n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n were made i n t h e f u g a t o o f t h e S c h e r z o , and, a t L e v i ' s s u g g e s t i o n , i n t h e Second Theme o f t h e s l o w movement (see below, pages/5/ and/53). I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e l e t t e r i n w h i c h Brahms a l l u d e d t o h i s new S t r e i c h e r g rand p i a n o was w r i t t e n when he was " s p e n d i n g e v e r y q u i e t 25 h o u r " on t h e Q u i n t e t (see C h a p t e r V, page $ 3 ) . The d i f f e r e n t s o n o r -i t i e s o f t h i s more p o w e r f u l i n s t r u m e n t might have n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e 26 f r e q u e n t t h i n n i n g of t h e bass m a t e r i a l i n t h e p i a n o p a r t , and t h e " " " " s i t z e i c h j e d e r u h i g e Stunde." See h i s l e t t e r d a t i n g f r o m t h e end o f October 1864 i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. Z5f-2 6 The a l t e r a t i o n and c a n c e l l a t i o n of low bass n o t e s i n t h e o u t e r movements and i n t h e s l o w movement s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e bass r e g i s t e r o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t was p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s o n a n t . I n h i s l e t t e r , Brahms remarked t h a t S t r e i c h e r had g i v e n him t h e p i a n o because "he w i s h e d t o a c q u a i n t me i n t h i s way w i t h new advancements" ( E r h a t m i r eben neue  E r r u n g e n s c h a f t e n dadurch m i t t e i l e n w o l l e n ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o l e a r n t h a t t h e f i r m of S t r e i c h e r , l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d i n V i e n n a , had begun " t o a l t e r i t s d e s i g n s r a d i c a l l y i n t h e A m e r i c a n d i r e c t i o n " soon a f t e r t h e e x h i b i t i o n of S t e i n w a y p i a n o s a t t h e London f a i r o f 1862. Eduard H a n s l i c k , w e l l - k n o w n music c r i t i c and one o f t h e f i r s t champions o f Brahms, had a t t e n d e d t h e e x h i b i t i o n and had s u b s e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e S t e i n w a y i n s t r u m e n t s i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Wiener M u s i k z e i t u n g . P o s s i b l y i t was t h i s a r t i c l e t h a t h e l p e d t o 146 o c c a s i o n a l a d d i t i o n o f d o u b l i n g t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l i n t h e s t r i n g ensemble. The few s i g n i f i c a n t r e f i n e m e n t s i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n a l l o c c u r i n t h e f i r s t movement. Dynamics remained v i r t u a l l y u n a l t e r e d and a g a i n , t h e o n l y n o t e w o r t h y r e v i s i o n i s t o be found i n t h e f i r s t movement. A l l o f t h e changes i n : e x p r e s s i o n words c o n s i s t s i m p l y o f t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f e s p r e s s i v o . Brahms's f r e q u e n t d e l e t i o n o f t h i s word i n t h e t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l o f t h e o u t e r movements was p r o b a b l y o c c a s i o n e d by a comment w h i c h L e v i had made: J u s t once, count how many e s p r e s s i v o ' s appear i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e f i r s t movement; t o me i t seems a l m o s t l i k e a v o t e o f n o n - c o n f i d e n c e a g a i n s t t h e p e r f o r m e r s . 2 7 I n one i n s t a n c e (see b e l o w , second movement) Brahms added e x p r e s -s i o n words, but e v i d e n t l y c o u l d not d e c i d e whether o r n o t t h e e f f e c t was a p p r o p r i a t e , and w r o t e a q u e s t i o n mark a f t e r t h e l a s t word. S i m i l a r l y , he had second t h o u g h t s about some o f t h e changes t h a t he had made i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e f u g a t o , and about t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n of 28 d o u b l i n g s i n measures 184-91 of t h e S c h e r z o . i n f l u e n c e t h e f i r m o f S t r e i c h e r t o a l t e r t h e d e s i g n o f i t s p i a n o s . See A r t h u r L o e s s e r , Men, Women and P i a n o s (London: V i c t o r G o l l a n c z , 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 512. I n t h e grand p i a n o e x h i b i t e d by S t e i n w a y and Sons o f New Y o r k i n 1855, t h e o n e - p i e c e c a s t - i r o n frame had been g i v e n what i s e s s e n t i a l l y i t s p r e s e n t form. S t e i n w a y had p e r f e c t e d t h e i r s y s t e m of c r o s s -s t r i n g i n g by 1859. Brahms's S t r e i c h e r , w h i c h p r o b a b l y f o l l o w e d t h i s A m e r i c a n example i n some r e s p e c t s , would have been more p o w e r f u l t h a n t h e i n s t r u m e n t s t o w h i c h t h e composer had become accustomed. 27 " Z a h l e e i n m a l , w i e v i e l e s p r e s s i v o ' s im e r s t e n T h e i l e des e r s t e n S a t z e s vorkommen; es e r s c h e i n t m i r f a s t w i e e i n M i s s t r a u e n s v o t u m gegen d i e A u s f u h r e n d e n . " See h i s l e t t e r o f 9 November 1864 i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. 153. 28 I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he had t h e s e doubts when he was c h e c k i n g t h e a u t o g r a p h w i t h t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s . I n any c a s e , h i s i d e a s f o r f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s i n t h e s e passages were n e v e r c a r r i e d o u t . 147 F i r s t Movement Brahms e x c i s e d t h e m a t e r i a l w h i c h he had i n i t i a l l y added t o t h e 29 i m i t a t i v e d i a l o g u e t h a t b l o s s o m s from t h e C l o s i n g Theme. The v e r s i o n t h a t now s t a n d s i n b o t h E x p o s i t i o n and R e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s , i n f a c t , one measure s h o r t e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h appears i n t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a : measures 83 and 245 of t h e l a t t e r a r e o m i t t e d . A p a r t f r o m t h e d e l e t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l , Brahms's r e l a t i v e l y few s i g n i f i c a n t r e v i s i o n s i n n o t e s c o n c e r n d e t a i l s o f s o n o r i t y and b a l a n c e . The a l t e r a t i o n s e x e c u t e d i n t h e b a s s l i n e o f t h e p i a n o p a r t may have been o c c a s i o n e d by Brahms's p l a y i n g o f t h e work on t h e S t r e i c h e r p i a n o . I n two i n s t a n c e s where t h e dynamic l e v e l i s f o r t i s s i m o Brahms t r a n s p o s e d a bass o c t a v e i n t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e down an o c t a v e , t o a c h i e v e a more 30 p o w e r f u l e f f e c t (see T a b l e 13, measures 22/3 and 149/4). C o n v e r s e l y , t h e bass m a t e r i a l t h a t o c c u r s i n t h e l e f t — h a n d l i n e i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p i a n o T h i r d Theme was t r a n s p o s e d up an o c t a v e t o a l e s s r e s o n a n t r e g i s t e r , and some l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g was d e l e t e d (see T a b l e 13, measures 59-60 and 6 3 - 6 5 / 1 ) . 3 1 29 The m a t e r i a l t h a t o r i g i n a l l y appeared between t h e p r e s e n t measures 82 and 88 i n t h e E x p o s i t i o n and between measures 244 and 251 i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s p a r t i a l l y o r t o t a l l y o b s c u r e d by a p a s t e - o v e r . I n t h e E x p o s i t i o n t h e l a s t t h r e e measures o f t h e o r i g i n a l d i a l o g u e e x t e n d beyond t h e p a s t - o v e r and a r e c a n c e l l e d i n l e a d . These measures a r e t h e e q u i v -a l e n t o f t h e p r e s e n t measures 85-87; t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l between p i a n o and s t r i n g s f o r t h e f i r s t f i v e b e a t s o f t h e c a n c e l l e d r e a d -i n g i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h a t w h i c h appears i n t h e p r e s e n t measures 85-86/1. 30 T h i s o c c u r s a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme (measures 22/3, r e c a p i t u l a t e d a t measure 1 8 3 / 3 ) , and a t measure 149/4, i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e t h e f o r t i s s i m o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme. 31 These changes were n o t made i n t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 220-221 and 224-26/1 o f t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n , p r o b a b l y because t h e m a t e r i a l had been n o t a t e d a f o u r t h h i g h e r ( i . e . , i n t h e t o n i c k e y ) , i n a l e s s s o n o r o u s r e g i s t e r . TABLE 13 BRAHMS'S ALTERATIONS IN THE AUTOGRAPH OF OPUS 34, STAGE 4°, PHASE I (FIRST MOVEMENT) I n s t r u - N o t e s P h r a s . & A r t i e . Dynamic M a r k i n g s * * M e a s u r e ( s ) n e n t ( s ) M e l . T r n . D b l . Hrm... S i r . " S t c . C r e s c . D e c r e s c . Remark * l - 2 Vn I , C, P i X 22/3, 183/3 149/4 P i / L 8, Bass o c t a v e l o w e r e d t o s t r e n g t h e n cadence 56 Va No d e c r e a s e i n dynamic l e v e l a t c o n c l u s i o n o f Second Theme 59-60 P i / L 8' Bass l i n e r a i s e d t o a l e s s r e s o n a n t r e g i s t e r 63-65/1 P i / L 8' - 8 r Bass p r o g r e s s i o n t h i n n e d and r a i s e d t o a l e s s r e s o n a n t r e g i s t e r 66 Vn I I d S l u r w h i c h began i n p r e c e d i n g measure o r i g i n a l l y c o n t i n u e d t o t h e end of t h i s measure * 8 3 f f , 2 4 5 f f T u t t i 90-95 Vn I , Vn I I , Va, C A r t i c u l a t i o n changed t o match l e g a t o o f s e q u e n t i a l a s c e n t i n p i a n o p a r t ? TABLE 1 3 — C o n t i n u e d M e a s u r e ( s ) I n s t r u -ment (s) Notes M e l . T r n . D b l Hrm. P h r a s . & A r t i e . S i r . S t c . Dynamic M a r k i n g s * * C r e s c . D e c r e s c Remark 159/4-61 226/2-4 229 230-35/1 273 279/4 290/1-2, 291/1-2 Vn I I P i / L Vn I Va P i Vn I I +1 +8, " 8 T Announcement of P r i n c i p a l Theme s t r e n g t h e n e d Bass l i n e t h i n n e d O r i g i n a l l y , new s l u r began on a " E l a b o r a t i o n o f T h i r d Theme s t r e n g t h e n e d S l u r o r i g i n a l l y began on f i r s t b e a t i n t h i s r e m i n i s c e n c e o f P r i n c i p a l Theme Crescendo c a n c e l l e d ; r e -w r i t t e n two b e a t s l a t e r T e x t u r e of passagework t h i n n e d * * R e f i n e m e n t s i n dynamic a b b r e v i a t i o n s and e x p r e s s i o n words a r e shown i n T a b l e 9, measures 20, 182, 39, 57, 63, 123, 201, 205, 219, 223, 231, 252. 150 The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes made i n t h e s t r i n g p a r t s c o n c e r n d o u b l i n g l i n e s . The announcement o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme a t t h e end of th e Development, and t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e T h i r d Theme, were s t r e n g t h -ened by t h e a d d i t i o n o f d o u b l i n g a t t h e u n i s o n and o c t a v e r e s p e c t i v e l y (see T a b l e 13, measures 159-61 and 230-34). I n o r d e r t o t h i n t h e t e x -t u r e o f r a p i d passagework i n t h e Coda, Brahms c a n c e l l e d l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g (see T a b l e 13, measures 290-91). L e v i ' s a l l u s i o n t o t h e f r e q u e n t i n c l u s i o n o f e s p r e s s i v o i n t h e f i r s t movement (see page ///£) p r o b a b l y prompted Brahms t o d e l e t e t h i s word from p a r t s o f t h e Second and T h i r d Themes (measures 200, 204, 57, 63, 218, 222, and 230), and o f t h e i m i t a t i v e d i a l o g u e t h a t d e v e l o p s f r o m t h e C l o s i n g Theme (measure 251; see T a b l e 9 ) . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t change i n dynamics o c c u r s a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Poco s b s t e r i u t o s e c t i o n (measure 2 6 1 ) , i n w h i c h Brahms s o f t e n e d t h e melody i n t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n p a r t f r o m p i a n o t o p i a n i s s i m o . M i n u t e r e f i n e m e n t s i n dynamics were e x e c u t e d a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Second Theme and a t t h e a s c e n t toward t h e f i n a l Tempo I s e c t i o n (see T a b l e 13, measure 56 and 2 7 9 ). S e v e r a l a l t e r a t i o n s were made i n p h r a s i n g . The most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e r n s , once a g a i n , t h e o p e n i n g announcement of t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme. I n t h e f i r s t two measures, Brahms r e v i s e d t h e p h r a s i n g t o a g r e e w i t h t h a t w h i c h he had o r i g i n a l l y n o t a t e d i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-P i a n o S o n a t a . The b e g i n n i n g o f t h e v a r i e d s t a t e m e n t o f t h i s theme i n t h e c e l l o p a r t a t measure 273 underwent a v e r y minor change i n p h r a s i n g (see T a b l e 1 3 ) , as d i d t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e T h i r d Theme i n b o t h t h e E x p o s i t i o n and t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n (see T a b l e 13, measures 66 and 2 2 9 ). The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a r t i c u l a t i o n was t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f s t a c c a t o d o t s i n t h e s t r i n g p a r t s a t t h e end of t h e E x p o s i t i o n (measures 151 90-95, i n c l u d i n g b o t h t h e p r i m a and t h e seconda v o l t a ) . Second Movement The most s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h i s movement c o n c e r n t h e i n s t r u -m e n t a t i o n of t h e s t a t e m e n t and r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e Second Theme (measures 3 4 / 3 f f ) . L e v i had remarked t h a t t h i s theme, w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e c e l l o , was v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s i n s t r u m e n t , and 32 had wondered i f t h e v i o l a would be more s u i t a b l e . Brahms a c c o r d i n g l y c a n c e l l e d t h e c e l l o l i n e t o t h e end o f measure 42, and t r a n s f e r r e d t h e theme t o t h e v i o l a ; t h e l a t t e r had o r i g i n a l l y d o u b l e d t h e c e l l o a t t h e u n i s o n i n measures 36-40. The p r e s e n t c e l l o l i n e (measures 35-42) was 33; added on a b l a n k s t a v e below t h e system. The r e p e t i t i o n o f t h i s theme (measures 4 2 / 3 f f ) was o r i g i n a l l y c o n t i n u e d i n t h e v i o l a and c e l l o p a r t s a l o n e a t measures 44-46; Brahms s t r e n g t h e n e d b o t h v o i c e s by d o u b l i n g them i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d l i n e o f t h e p i a n o p a r t . Brahms's o t h e r r e v i s i o n s i n t h e p i a n o p a r t c o n c e r n low b a ss n o t e s i n t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e . The r e i t e r a t e d p e d a l - p o i n t i n measures 50/2-53/1 of t h e poco a c c e l e r a n d o e p i s o d e was t h i n n e d by t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n of 34 o c t a v e d o u b l i n g . The o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g of t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e a t measures 36/3-38/1 o f t h e Second Theme i s c o m p l e t e l y o b l i t e r a t e d by 35 c a n c e l l a t i o n s i n i n k and l e a d . 32 See h i s l e t t e r o f 9 November 1864 i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p . 2, 5 3 , 33 The o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g o f t h e s e c o n d - v i o l i n and v i o l a l i n e s i n measures 33-34 i s o b s c u r e d by c a n c e l l a t i o n s i n i n k and l e a d . 34 O r i g i n a l l y , Brahms had d u p l i c a t e d t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e o f t h e Secondo, where t h e open o c t a v e B,-B i s r e p e a t e d i n s y n c o p a t i o n . 35 When Brahms t r a n s f e r r e d t h e theme from t h e c e l l o t o t h e v i o l a , he perhaps d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s l e f t - h a n d l i n e was t o o p r o m i n e n t , and r e p l a c e d i t w i t h t h e s i n g l e r e i t e r a t e d b. 152 As he had done e a r l i e r ( s e e fn-. 18, and C h a p t e r V, page q 5 ) , Brahms c o n s i d e r e d making an a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e tempo o f a p a s s a g e . I n t h e r e t u r n of t h e M a i n Theme, he t h o u g h t o f s l i g h t l y s l o w i n g t h e c o n c l u d i n g measures 103-04, where he i n s e r t e d un p o c h e t t i n b r i t a r d a n d o : ? . 36 Dynamics, p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n remained v i r t u a l l y u n a l t e r e d . I n one i n s t a n c e Brahms i n s e r t e d p i z z i c a t o ; t h e i n i t i a l absence of t h i s 37 word had p r o b a b l y been a s i m p l e o v e r s i g h t on h i s p a r t . A v e r y minor 38 a l t e r a t i o n i n p h r a s i n g o c c u r s a t t h e end of measure 34. T h i r d Movement 39 S c h e r z o . Brahms's n o t e - r e v i s i o n s c o n c e r n t h e t h i n n i n g of t h e t e x t u r e i n t h e s t r i n g p a r t s a t t h e c l i m a c t i c measures 184-191. I n t h e c e l l o l i n e he c a n c e l l e d t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h n o t e s i n t h e s i x t e e n t h - n o t e m o t i v e r e i t e r a t e d a t measures 184-89; t h e a n a l o g o u s d e l e t i o n was made i n th e f i r s t - and s e c o n d - v i o l i n l i n e s a t measures 190-91. M a r g i n a l n o t a -t i o n s , added a t t h e end o f t h e system i n w h i c h t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s a p p e a r , i n d i c a t e t h a t Brahms had second t h o u g h t s about t h i s p assage. B e s i d e t h e c e l l o l i n e he w r o t e "NB" and t h e rhythm J J f J . He n o t a t e d J _J. J . __ "} r ' a f t e r t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n l i n e . As i n t h e second movement, t h e r e o c c u r some s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n 3 6 The o n l y change was t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f f o r t e i n t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n p a r t a t measure 11. Perhaps i t i s t h e same dynamic t h a t i s o b l i t e r a t e d a t t h e a n a l o g o u s measure 15. 37 He added i t t o t h e v i o l a l i n e a t measure 11/3; t h i s word had been w r i t t e n i n i n k a t t h e a n a l o g o u s measure 15/3. 38 I n t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n p a r t , Brahms s h o r t e n e d t h e s l u r ( w h i c h o r i g -i n a l l y c o n c l u d e d on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f measure 3 5 ) . 39 A p a r t from t h e c o r r e c t i n g o f an o b v i o u s e r r o r i n t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e a t measure 115. 153 i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . A l l a r e t o be found i n t h e f i r s t s e v e n t e e n measures (67-84/1) of t h e f u g a t o . The S u b j e c t (measures 67-71/1), C o u n t e r s u b j e c t (measures 71-76/1), and t h e s t a c c a t o c o n t r a p u n t a l l i n e (measures 80-84/1) were a l l t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e c e l l o p a r t t o t h a t of t h e v i o l a . I n a d d i t i o n , Brahms s h i f t e d t o t h e v i o l a p a r t t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l l i n e t h a t he had o r i g i n a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d f o r t h e second v i o l i n a t measures 76-80/1; t h i s was done p r o b a b l y t o c o n t r a s t t h i s l i n e w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e S u b j e c t i n t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n p a r t . L a t e r , Brahms wondered whether t h i s c o u n t e r p o i n t might make an even more e f f e c t i v e c o n t r a s t i f i t were p l a y e d by t h e c e l l o . E x p r e s s i o n words, p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n remained u n a l t e r e d . There i s one s m a l l change i n d ynamics, a f f e c t i n g a c o n t r a p u n t a l l i n e i n 41 measures 76-80/1 of t h e f u g a t o . T r i o . The o n l y change i n n o t e s c o n c e r n s t h e o c t a v e i n t h e r i g h t -hand l i n e o f t h e p i a n o p a r t a t measure 225/4; Brahms t r a n s p o s e d i t up an o c t a v e so t h a t i t d o u b l e s t h e o p e n i n g of t h e c o n t r a s t i n g m o t i v e i n t h e v i o l i n p a r t s . Dynamics, e x p r e s s i o n words, and a r t i c u l a t i o n were n o t r e v i s e d . A s m a l l a l t e r a t i o n i n p h r a s i n g a p p ears a t measure 245, i n t h e r e t u r n o f 42 t h e theme. 40 I n l e a d , he n o t a t e d i n t h e c e l l o p a r t t h e f i r s t few n o t e s , and added "V. C." b e n e a t h measure 76. He w r o t e "NB" and "NB?" b e s i d e t h e c e l l o p a r t , i n t h e m a r g i n . 41 The l i n e t h a t was o r i g i n a l l y n o t a t e d i n t h e s e c o n d - v i o l i n p a r t had been d e s i g n a t e d sempre p i a n o . Brahms d i d n o t r e t a i n t h a t dynamic m a r k i n g when he t r a n s f e r r e d t h e l i n e t o t h e v i o l a p a r t ; t h e p i a n i s s i m o  sempre o f measure 71 was a l l o w e d t o s t a n d . 42 I n t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n p a r t , t h e s l u r t h a t b e g i n s a t t h e f i r s t e i g h t h - n o t e had o r i g i n a l l y c o n c l u d e d ( p r o b a b l y e r r o n e o u s l y ) w i t h t h e l a s t e i g h t h - n o t e ; a n o t h e r s l u r had begun on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f t h e n e x t measure. Brahms c o n n e c t e d t h e two s l u r s i n l e a d . 154 F i n a l e The most s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n n o t e s a r e t h e e x c i s i o n o f t h e measure w h i c h Brahms had added t o t h e o p e n i n g i m i t a t i v e passage (see page/35)» and t h e l o w e r i n g o f t h e t e s s i t u r a o f t h e v i o l i n p a r t s i n 43 measures 486-89 of t h e Coda. A t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f t h e v i o l i n p a r t s o c c u r s i n a n o t h e r c l i m a c t i c passage (see T a b l e 14, measures 363-64). There a r e a few o t h e r changes i n n o t e s , a l l o f them c o n c e r n i n g t h e t h i n n i n g o f m a t e r i a l i n t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e o f t h e p i a n o p a r t . A t t h e c a n o n i c e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme, Brahms c a n c e l l e d harmony n o t e s (see T a b l e 14, measures 127 and 131). Some u p p e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g was d e l e t e d i n t h e s y n c o p a t e d c l o s i n g passage (see T a b l e 14, measures 145-4 8 ) . E x p r e s s i o n words were added o r c a n c e l l e d i n many i n s t a n c e s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t change was t h e i n s e r t i o n o f poco r i t e n u t o a t t h e end o f t h e t r i p l e t c o n c l u d i n g passage (measures 159-60, r e p e a t e d a t 317-20), f o l l o w e d by Tempo I f o r t h e r e t u r n o f t h e M a i n Theme (measures 1 6 1 f f and 3 2 1 f f ) . P erhaps because o f t h e remark made by L e v i , Brahms d e l e t e d e s p r e s s i v o a t one p l a c e i n t h e M a i n Theme, a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n t h e Second Theme, and a t t h e p i a n o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f b o t h themes ( see T a b l e 12, measures 65, 108, 266, 270, and 445). He c a n c e l l e d l e g a t o a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Second Theme, a n d - r e p l a c e d i t w i t h t r a n q u i l l o a t t h e p i a n i s s i m o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e M a i n Theme ( s e e T a b l e 12, measures 94, 44 96, 252, 256, and 321). 43 As he had done when he r e v i s e d t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-P i a n o S o n a t a , Brahms t r a n s p o s e d t h e m e l o d i c l i n e ( i n t h e f i r s t - v i o l i n p a r t ) down one o c t a v e . The s e c o n d - v i o l i n p a r t was a l s o a l t e r e d ; see T a b l e 14, measures 486-87 and 489. 44 Brahms s u p p l i e d un p o c h e t t i n o p i u animato f o r t h e r e t u r n o f t h e Second Theme a t measures 2 5 1 f f . TABLE 14 BRAHMS'S ALTERATIONS IN THE AUTOGRAPH OF OPUS 34, STAGE 4°, PHASE I (FINALE) I n s t r u - N o t e s P h r a s . & A r t i e . Dynamic M a r k i n g s M e a s u r e ( s ) ment (s ) M e l . T r n . Dbl. Hrm. S l u r 1 T i e C r e s c .1Decresc . Accent : Remark * 5 f f T u t t i I m i t a t i v e d i a l o g u e r e -s t o r e d t o same l e n g t h as t h a t w h i c h appears i n Duo-P i a n o Sonata 27/3-4 Vns I & I I + C o n s t a n t c r e s c e n d o toward c l i m a x a t measure 29 103-04/1 Va S l i g h t impetus g i v e n t o commencement o f sequen-t i a l d e s c e n t i n Vn I ? 127, 131/1 P i / L Bass m a t e r i a l t h i n n e d 145/2-46/1, 147/2-48/1 P i / L -8-1- T r i p l e t accompaniment i n bass r e g i s t e r made l e s s ponderous 363/5-64/3 Vns I & I I 8' H i g h t e s s i t u r a m a i n t a i n e d i n c l i m a c t i c passage 366/4-68/1 P i • e S l u r s ( which o r i g i n a l l y c o n c l u d e d a t f i r s t c h o r d i n measure 367) a r e extended t o c l i m a x TABLE 1 4 — C o n t i n u e d I n s t r u - N otes 1 P h r a s . & | A r t i e . Dynamic M a r k i n g s M e a s u r e ( s ) ment (s) M e l . T r n . D b l . Hrm. S l u r T i e C r e s c . D e c r e s c . A c c e n t Remark 423 Vn I Opening o f a t r a n s f o r m -a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme i s made l e s s e m p h a tic 486-87 Vn I I X Harmony n o t e s r e p l a c e l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g o f f i r s t - v i o l i n p a r t 486-89; 489 Vn I ; Vn I I 8, T e s s i t u r a l o w e r e d , p e r -haps t o enhance t h e e f f e c t o f t h e f i n a l c hords **Changes i n e x p r e s s i o n words a r e shown i n T a b l e 12, measures 65, 94, 96, 108, 159-60, 161, 252, 256, 266, 270, 317-20, 321, and 445. ON 157 Brahms made a few m i n u t e r e f i n e m e n t s i n dynamics (see T a b l e 14, measures 27 and 423). P h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n r emained v i r t u a l l y u n a l t e r e d (see T a b l e 14, measures 366 and 1 0 3 ) . Stage 4 , Phase I I : C o r r e c t i o n o f G a l l e y P r o o f s  and R e v i s i o n o f A u t o g r a p h M a n u s c r i p t A l t h o u g h t h e a u t o g r a p h m a n u s c r i p t s e r v e d as t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e , i t i n c l u d e s r e f i n e m e n t s w h i c h do n o t appear i n t h e E r s t d r u c k o r i n l a t e r 45 i s s u e s . Some of t h e s e changes were i n s e r t e d by Brahms i n t h e w o r k i n g 46 d r a f t of t h e Duo-Piano Sonata. The p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t a u t o g r a p h but not i n t h e p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t Brahms added them i n t h e a u t o g r a p h a f t e r i t had been engraved. However, t h i s m a n u s c r i p t became t h e p r o p e r t y of t h e p u b l i s h e r a f t e r i t had s e r v e d as t h e S t i c h v o r l a g e , and would n o r m a l l y have been r e t u r n e d t o t h e composer o n l y f o r t h e c h e c k i n g o f t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s . One m u s t . c o n c l u d e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e changes i n q u e s t i o n o c c u r r e d t o Brahms when he was comparing t h e p r o o f s w i t h t h e a u t o g r a p h . Knowing t h a t he was p e r m i t t e d o n l y t o c o r r e c t t h e e n g r a v e r ' s e r r o r s i n t h e p r o o f s , he i n s e r t e d t h e d e s i r e d a l t e r a t i o n s i n h i s a u t o g r a p h . F i r s t Movement Brahms added t o t h e E x p o s i t i o n some dynamic m a r k i n g s w h i c h o r i g i n -a l l y had been n o t a t e d o n l y i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n , and v i c e v e r s a , j u s t as 45 The r e f i n e m e n t s i n q u e s t i o n a r e not p r e s e n t i n t h e t h i r d ( l a s t ) i s s u e , and t h e r e f o r e must no t have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e second. 46 E.g., t h e s t a c c a t o d o t s t h a t i n d i c a t e p o r t a t o e x e c u t i o n i n t h e t h i r d measure o f t h e M a i n Theme o f t h e second movement, and t h e two-note s l u r s a t measure 38 o f t h e same movement. 158 he had done e a r l i e r i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t of t h e Duo-Piano Sonata (see C h a p t e r V, f n . 4 3 ) . A few r e f i n e m e n t s i n dynamics were made i n t h e 47 l o w e r t h r e e s t r i n g p a r t s : m e l o d i c l i n e s were a f f e c t e d i n two i n s t a n c e s , and t h e e n t r i e s o f t h e v i o l a and t h e second v i o l i n a t measures 268 and 48 269 i n t h e Coda were emphasized s l i g h t l y . Second Movement Brahms co n c e r n e d h i m s e l f e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h s m a l l r e v i s i o n s i n a r t i c u l a t i o n . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t a few n o t e s i n each o f t h e two themes were t o be p l a y e d p o r t a t o r a t h e r t h a n l e g a t o , and added two s l u r s i n 49 t h e t r i p l e t c o u n t e r m e l o d y t o t h e Second Theme. The o n l y o t h e r s i g n i f -i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n i s t o be found i n t h e p i a n o p a r t a t measure 124, where Brahms changed t h e s t a c c a t o of t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e t o p o r t a t o . " ^ T h i r d Movement S c h e r z o . I n t h i s movement, t o o , t h e changes made by Brahms c o n c e r n d e t a i l s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , a l l o f w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e passages w h i c h e l a b o r -a t e t h e o p e n i n g a s c e n t of t h e M a i n Theme (measures 38-45 and 125-43). 47 I n t h e v i o l a p a r t a t measure 56, Brahms added a c r e s c e n d o s i g n f o r t h e f i r s t two b e a t s , and a d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n f o r t h e l a s t two. A t measure 185 i n t h e c e l l o p a r t , he i n s e r t e d a c r e s c e n d o s i g n f o r t h e f i r s t two b e a t s . 48 F o r t h e f i r s t f o u r n o t e s o f t h e e n t r y i n t h e v i o l a p a r t , Brahms i n s e r t e d a c r e s c e n d o s i g n f o l l o w e d by a d e c r e s c e n d o . The dynamic l e v e l o f t h e s e c o n d - v i o l i n e n t r y was r a i s e d from p i a n i s s i m o t o p i a n o . 49 Brahms i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l a s t two n o t e s i n t h e t h i r d measure o f t h e M a i n Theme ( r e p e a t e d a t measures.77 and 8 5 ) , and t h e l a s t two n o t e s i n measure 40 of t h e Second Theme, s h o u l d be p l a y e d p o r t a t o . Two-note s l u r s were i n s e r t e d a t measure 38 i n t h e s e c o n d - v i o l i n p a r t , f o r t h e second and t h i r d t r i p l e t s . ~*^Also i n t h e p i a n o p a r t , Brahms added s t a c c a t o d o t s t o emphasize t h e f i r s t c h o r d i n t h e c l i m a c t i c measures 94 and 98. 159 The accompaniment i n t h e p i a n o p a r t was emphasized by t h e a d d i t i o n of s t a c c a t o d o t s f o r t h e n o t e s on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f e ach measure. Brahms i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e n o t e s w h i c h c o n c l u d e t h e a s c e n d i n g l i n e s i n t h e v i o l a and c e l l o p a r t s a t measures 134-41 s h o u l d be p l a y e d p o r t a t o r a t h e r t h a n l e g a t o . No r e v i s i o n s were made i n t h e T r i o . F i n a l e I n t h e f i n a l e , Brahms added dynamic m a r k i n g s f o r c l a r i t y (as he had done i n t h e f i r s t movement), gave f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o a r t i c u l a -t i o n , and o c c a s i o n a l l y c a n c e l l e d l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g n o t e s i n t h e p i a n o p a r t i n t h e l e f t - h a n d l i n e a t t h e c a n o n i c e l a b o r a t i o n of t h e Second 52 Theme, and i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d l i n e a t measures 141-42 o f t h e t r i p l e t 53 c o n c l u d i n g p assage. The o n l y r e f i n e m e n t i n a r t i c u l a t i o n was t h e a d d i t i o n of s t a c c a t o d o t s t o t h e upper s t r i n g p a r t s a t t h e f o r z a t o c h o r d i n measure 29. I . e . , t h e q u a r t e r n o t e s i n measures 135, 137, 139, and 141. I n t h e f u g a t o , Brahms s u p p l i e d s t a c c a t o d o t s f o r t h e e i g h t h n o t e s i n t h e v i o l a p a r t a t measures 76-79, and f o r each n o t e i n t h e c e l l o p a r t a t measures 85 and 87. 52 h e and f were c a n c e l l e d on t h e f i r s t b e a t of measures 126 and 130 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 53 A t t h e end o f each measure, c'' was d e l e t e d from t h e open o c t a v e c ' ' - c ' 1 1 . CHAPTER V I I THE CREATIVE PROCESS, PART IV: FURTHER REVISION OF THE SONATA FOR TWO PIANOFORTES I n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t of t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a t h e r e appear many r e f i n e m e n t s t h a t would a l s o have been a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , but were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n n e i t h e r t h e a u t o g r a p h n o r t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s o f t h a t work. However, some changes made by Brahms i n t h e a u t o g r a p h o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t were added by him t o t h e Duo-Piano Sonata e i t h e r i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o r t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . T h e r e f o r e i t seems t h a t , a f t e r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , t h e composer made f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t s i n t h e Duo-Piano Sonata,"*" (Stage 4^) . As i n a l m o s t a l l of t h e e a r l i e r p h a s e s , Brahms was m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p e r f e c t i n g d e t a i l s o f t e x t u r e and b a l a n c e i n t h e o u t e r movements and t h e S c h e r z o , and w i t h i n s e r t i n g o r r e v i s i n g e x p r e s s i o n words a f f e c t i n g ""He d i d n o t b o t h e r t o add t h e s e r e f i n e m e n t s t o h i s Handexemplar of e i t h e r t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t o r t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . I n t h e f o r m e r , he d i d n o t h i n g more t h a n c o r r e c t two m i s t a k e s w h i c h he h i m s e l f had made i n t h e a u t o g r a p h (and had n o t n o t i c e d i n t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s ) . S e v e r a l e n g r a v e r ' s e r r o r s remained u n o b s e r v e d . S i m i l a r l y , i n h i s Handexemplar o f t h e Duo-P i a n o Sonata he s i m p l y i n s e r t e d one m i s s i n g a c c i d e n t a l and c o r r e c t e d a n o t h e r . A g a i n , o t h e r e n g r a v e r ' s e r r o r s p a s s e d u n n o t i c e d . I t has been o b s e r v e d t h a t "Brahms was h a p h a z a r d i n m a r k i n g i n a l l needed r e v i -s i o n s i n t h e Handexemplare, . . . he a l s o f r e q u e n t l y made l a t e r r e f i n e -ments i n h i s m u s i c a l t e x t s and p l a c e d t h e v a r i a n t s i n one o r a n o t h e r a u t o g r a p h , w i t h o u t t a k i n g t h e t i m e t o add them a l s o t o h i s Handexemplare." See D o n a l d M. M c C o r k l e , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h M a r g i t L. M c C o r k l e , " F i v e Fundamental O b s t a c l e s i n Brahms Source R e s e a r c h , " A c t a M u s i c o l o g i c a 48 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 262. 160 161 tempo i n t h e second movement. He a l t e r e d t h e shape of some accompani-m e n t a l o r m e l o d i c l i n e s i n t h e o u t e r movements and t h e S c h e r z o , as he had done i n Phase I I o f Stage 3^ and Phase I o f Stage 4^. I n one i n s t a n c e , a change was made i n harmony (see b e l o w , f i r s t movement). P h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n w h i c h Brahms had c o n t i n u e d t o r e f i n e even d u r i n g t h e l a s t phase o f Stage 4 b , r e c e i v e d f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a l l f o u r movements. Dynamic s i g n s and a b b r e v i a t i o n s , w h i c h had been g i v e n l e s s and l e s s a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g Stage h°, underwent s c a r c e l y any r e v i s i o n . N e a r l y a l l of t h e changes were made i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t , b e c a u s e i t a l o n e remained i n Brahms's p o s s e s s i o n a f t e r he s e n t t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t t o P r i n c e s s Anna i n l a t e O c t o b e r 1864. The p r i n c e s s r e t u r n e d 2 t h a t m a n u s c r i p t t o him i n September 1871; however, he was a n x i o u s t o p r o -ceed w i t h p u b l i c a t i o n as soon as p o s s i b l e , and o n l y t o o k t i m e t o o c c a s i o n -a l l y c a n c e l t h e word " e s p r e s s i v o " i n t h e f i r s t two movements b e f o r e f o r w a r d i n g i t t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n . The p u b l i s h e r would have r e t u r n e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t t o Brahms o n l y b r i e f l y f o r t h e c o r r e c t i n g o f t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s . F i r s t Movement A c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t e x t u r e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n (1) t h e f o r - t i s s i m o s t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme, i n w h i c h Brahms d e l e t e d harmony n o t e s from t h e f i r s t b e a t o f s e v e r a l measures, and (2) i n a b r i e f p assage 3 of t h e Coda i n w h i c h t h e l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g was c a n c e l l e d . A s i n g l e 2 See h i s l e t t e r of 23 September 1871 i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. 2 5 L. 3 The c a n c e l l a t i o n s i n t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme a f f e c t measures 12-13, t h e a n a l o g o u s 174-75, and measures 16-17. I n t h e Coda, d e l e t i o n s appear i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d o f t h e Secondo a t measures 295-296. See T e x t u a l N o t e s . 162 harmony n o t e was removed f r o m t h e Second Theme (s e e T e x t u a l N o t e s , measure 3 5 ) . I n two i n s t a n c e s , Brahms made r e i t e r a t e d p e d a l - p o i n t s l e s s p r o m i n e n t by e i t h e r c a n c e l l i n g o c t a v e d o u b l i n g o r t r a n s p o s i n g 4 m a t e r i a l up an o c t a v e . Brahms made a s i n g l e a l t e r a t i o n i n harmony: t h e f o r t i s s i m o c h o r d w h i c h opens t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme was changed from a dominant s e v e n t h t o a s i m p l e dominant (see T e x t u a l N o t e s , measure 1 1 ) . The shape o f t h e s i x t e e n t h - n o t e passagework i n measure 291 of t h e Coda (see T e x t u a l N o t e s ) was s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d . V e r y m i n o r r e v i s i o n s were made i n an accompanimental v o i c e w i t h i n t h e T r a n s i t i o n (see T e x t u a l N o t e s , measure 3 0 ) . One o f two n o t e w o r t h y changes i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n was t h e a d o p t i o n o f two-note s l u r s and s t a c c a t o d o t s , such as had been used i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , f o r t h e t r i p l e t accompaniment a t measures 151-54. Brahms s l i g h t l y s o f t e n e d t h e end of t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n by i n s e r t i n g a t i e f o r e v e r y two e's common t o t h e open s i x t h s and f i f t h s t h a t a l t e r -n a t e i n t h e r i g h t hand o f t h e Secondo. ~* E x p r e s s i o n words were not a l t e r e d i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t , a l t h o u g h i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t , as mentioned above, Brahms sometimes c a n -c e l l e d t h e word " e s p r e s s i v o " w h i c h he had used so f r e q u e n t l y i n t h i s movement. As he had done i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , he d e l e t e d i t a t t h e 4 At t h e end o f t h e Development, t h e dominant p e d a l - p o i n t w h i c h Brahms had e a r l i e r changed f r o m a c o n s t a n t r e p e t i t i o n o f C i n t o an a l t e r n a t i o n o f C and c ( r e f e r t o T a b l e 1, measures 155-61) underwent f u r t h e r t r a n s p o s i t i o n . The p e d a l - p o i n t r e i t e r a t e d i n o c t a v e s a t measures 63-64 o f t h e T h i r d Theme was re d u c e d t o s i n g l e n o t e s . See T e x t u a l N o t e s . ^Such t i e s appear i n t h e a u t o g r a p h o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t a t t h e anal o g o u s measures 258-60. 163 o p e n i n g o f t h e T h i r d Theme (measure 5 7 ) , a t measure 231 i n t h e r e t u r n o f t h i s theme, and a t t h e i m i t a t i v e d i a l o g u e t h a t d e v e l o p s from t h e C l o s i n g Theme (measure 253). He c a n c e l l e d i t o r r e p l a c e d i t w i t h l e g a t o i n t h e Second Theme, and i n t h e T r a n s i t i o n (see T a b l e 9, measures 51, 213, 69, and 1 8 5 ) . Second Movement Brahms's i n s e r t i o n s of e x p r e s s i o n words a f f e c t i n g tempo c a l l t o mind t h e a d d i t i o n s made d u r i n g Phase I I o f Stage 3^. The composer s l i g h t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e tempo a f t e r t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Second Theme, and made t h e a c c e l e r a n d o o f t h e f o r t e e p i s o d e more pronounced (see T a b l e 10, measures 36 and 4 7 ) . The p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e r e t u r n o f t h e M a i n Theme was broadened by t h e a d d i t i o n o f poco a poco p i u s o s t e n u t o a t measure 55. A s m a l l r e f i n e m e n t appears a t t h e c l i m a x o f t h e Coda (see T a b l e 10, measure 1 1 6 ) . I n t h i s movement, as i n t h e f i r s t , Brahms o c c a s i o n a l l y c a n c e l l e d t h e word " e s p r e s s i v o " i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t w i t h o u t b o t h e r i n g t o c a n c e l i t i n h i s w o r k i n g d r a f t . He removed them f r o m t h e c l o s i n g p e r i o d o f t h e M a i n Theme (measure 23 and t h e a n a l o g o u s measure 1 1 8 ) , and f r o m t h e e p i s o d e (measure 4 9 ) . N e i t h e r n o t e s n o r dynamics were a l t e r e d . The o n l y r e f i n e m e n t i n p h r a s i n g was t h e a d d i t i o n o f s l u r s t o p r o d u c e a more l e g a t o r e n d i t i o n o f t h e Second Theme. Brahms i n s e r t e d a s l u r t o span t h e l a s t two n o t e s o f measure 36 and t h e f i r s t t r i p l e t o f measure 37; a n o t h e r s l u r was added i n t h e an a l o g o u s p o s i t i o n a t measure 37-38. Two-note s l u r s , l i k e t h o s e a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n measures 39-40, were i n s e r t e d i n t h e second t r i p l e t o f measure 37 and i n t h e l a s t two t r i p l e t s o f measure 38. 164 T h i r d Movement S c h e r z o . Brahms a g a i n t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c l i m a c t i c measures of t h e f u g a t o . I n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t , he made t h e h i g h t r e b l e c o u n t e r p o i n t l e s s p o w e r f u l a t measures 97-99/1 by removing l o w e r - o c t a v e i n t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s , t h a t i t s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be t r a n s p o s e d up an g o c t a v e u n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f measure 100. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e f i n e m e n t s i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n were t h e a d d i t i o n o f p e d a l e a t measure 53 f o r t h e a s c e n t t o t h e f i r s t f o r t i s - simo t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme, and t h e i n s e r t i o n o f s l u r s f o r 9 t h e c o u n t e r m e l o d y a t measures 1 5 0 f f . Dynamics and e x p r e s s i o n words remained u n a l t e r e d . T r i o . Brahms's v e r y few r e v i s i o n s c o n c e r n p h r a s i n g and dynamics. A t t h e r e t u r n o f t h e theme (measure 242) he c a n c e l l e d t h e o r i g i n a l f o r t e  p i a n o , i n d i c a t i n g i n s t e a d t h a t t h e theme s h o u l d b e g i n f o r t e t h e n d e c r e a s e t o p i a n o a t t h e end o f measure 243. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n i n p h r a s i n g i s t h e i n s e r t i o n o f s l u r s a t measures 209/4-210/1 o f t h e P r i m o . c o n n e c t i n g t h e two ch o r d s w h i c h i n i t i a t e t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e theme. " i n b o t h h i s w o r k i n g d r a f t and t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t , he had c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n s h o u l d c e a s e a f t e r t h e f i r s t two s i x t e e n t h - n o t e s i n measure 99. 9 Brahms added s i x s l u r s , s p a n n i n g measures 150, 151, 152, and t h e i d e n t i c a l measures 154, 155, and 156. " ^ S l u r s were a l s o added t o c o n n e c t t h e l a s t o c t a v e i n measure 241 t o t h e f i r s t i n measure 242, i n t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo. d o u b l i n g . He i n c r e a s e d t h e prominence of t h e S u b j e c t by i n d i c a t i n g , 8 165 F i n a l e Brahms's c o n c e r n f o r t h i n n i n g and c l a r i f y i n g t e x t u r e prompted t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f o c t a v e d o u b l i n g s o r harmony n o t e s a t v a r i o u s p l a c e s i n t h i s movement. G e n e r a l l y , he d e v o t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o p a s sages w h i c h had undergone r e v i s i o n a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e ( s ) . He d e l e t e d l o w e r -o c t a v e d o u b l i n g deep i n t h e bass a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e c a n o n i c e l a b -o r a t i o n o f t h e Second Theme (measures 133-137/1). Near t h e c l i m a x o f t h e s y n c o p a t e d c l o s i n g passage t h a t f o l l o w s , he'made t h e t r e b l e c h o r d s l e s s heavy by removing harmony n o t e s o r l o w e r - o c t a v e doubling;"'""'" d u r i n g Stage 3^, Phase I I , he had c a n c e l l e d o c t a v e d o u b l i n g i n b o t h t r e b l e and bass e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s p assage (see T a b l e 4, measures 1 4 1 f f and 1 4 9 f f ) . Octave d o u b l i n g i n t h e bass had a l s o been c a n c e l l e d a t measures 423/5-438/3 o f t h e Coda; Brahms now c l a r i f i e d t h e harmonies i n t h e subsequent J -i . 1 2 measures by removing p e d a l - p o i n t s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t r e v i s i o n s i n t h i s movement a r e embodied i n a new r e a d i n g f o r t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e f i n a l a tempo i n t h e Secondo. T h i s m a t e r i a l had been p r o b l e m a t i c a l a t e a r l i e r s t a g e s . To t h i n t h e t e x t u r e , Brahms had r e v i s e d t h e f i r s t f i v e measures (467-471) o f b o t h p i a n o p a r t s s e v e r a l t i m e s b e f o r e s e n d i n g t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t t o t h e c o p y i s t , g i v i n g h i m i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r changes (see C h a p t e r I , pages "^The c a n c e l l a t i o n s o c c u r i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e P r i m o . Open o c t a v e s r e m a i n i n measures 149-51 and 153-54, and open s i x t h s i n measures 152-53/1. I n t h e r e c a p i t u l a t o r y s e c t i o n a t t h e a n a l o g o u s measures 307-13 o f t h e Secondo, Brahms had made such d e l e t i o n s b e f o r e s e n d i n g t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t t o t h e c o p y i s t . P erhaps he s i m p l y f o r g o t a t t h a t t i m e t o make t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n s i n measures 149-54. 12 He d e l e t e d t h e g' and g p e d a l - p o i n t s i n t h e two hands o f t h e Secondo a t measures 439-/4-445/1. He a l s o c a n c e l l e d t h e c i n measure 445 of t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t , and t h e C s u s t a i n e d i n measures 446-47 o f t h e same. 166 F i n a l l y , Brahms c a n c e l l e d t h e r e a d i n g f o r t h e Secondo i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t , and w r o t e a new v e r s i o n on t h e v e r s o of t h e same l e a f , a f t e r t h e 13 c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e movement. The b a s s l i n e , p a r e d down t o one o r two v o i c e s , i s s i m i l a r t o t h e one w h i c h Brahms had n o t a t e d f o r t h e p i a n o i n t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The t i e d n o t e s t h a t had appeared i n t h e r i g h t hand a t measures 469/6-470/1 and 471/6-472/1 a r e o m i t t e d , so t h a t t h e t r e b l e m a t e r i a l i n t h e P rimo can be h e a r d more c l e a r l y . Example 23. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , f i n a l e (Poco s o s t e n u t o ; A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ; P r e s t o non t r o p p o ) , new r e a d i n g f o r measures 467-474 of t h e Secondo The o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g appears on t h e r e c t o o f t h e l a s t ( t w e n t y -e i g h t h ) f o l i o . Brahms c a n c e l l e d t h e Secondo f rom t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e a tempo u n t i l t h e end o f t h e r e c t o (measures 467-474 i n c l u s i v e ) . Beneath measure 467 he w r o t e V.S. ( v o l t i s u b i t o , t u r n q u i c k l y ) , and drew an arrow e x t e n d i n g b e n e a t h t h e c a n c e l l e d measures t o t h e end o f t h e r e c t o . Thus, t h e p i a n i s t p l a y i n g t h e Secondo p a r t was t o t u r n t h e f o l i o j u s t b e f o r e measure 467, r e v e a l i n g measures 467-74 r e w r i t t e n on t h e v e r s o . Measures 472-74 a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g . Brahms d i d n o t make any s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n p h r a s i n g and a r t i c -u l a t i o n . However, he i n d i c a t e d a more pronounced s t a c c a t o f o r t h e c h o r d s and o c t a v e s i n t h e c l i m a c t i c measures 476-90 o f t h e Coda by 14 c h a n g i n g t h e o r i g i n a l s t a c c a t o d o t s i n t o wedges. M i n u t e r e f i n e m e n t s i n dynamics were made a t measure 22 of t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , and a t measure 214 i n the r e t u r n o f t h e M a i n Theme. E x p r e s s i o n words were n o t a l t e r e d . 14 Wedges appear f o r the' two l e f t - h a n d p a r t s i n measures 476-81, and f o r t h e two r i g h t - h a n d p a r t s a t measures 482-90/1. "'"^ The d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n f o r t h e melody i n t h e Primo was c a n c e l l e d a t measure 22. At measure 214, Brahms added d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n s t o b o t h hands i n t h e Primo t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e p i a n i s s i m o o f measures 2 1 5 f f . CHAPTER V I I I CONCLUSIONS Brahms c l e a r l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e " p e r f e c t i n g " of a work t o be an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . One ought n e v e r t o f o r g e t t h a t by a c t u a l l y p e r f e c t i n g one p i e c e one g a i n s and l e a r n s more t h a n by commencing o r h a l f - f i n i s h i n g a dozen. L e t i t r e s t , l e t i t r e s t , and keep g o i n g back t o i t and w o r k i n g i t o v e r and o v e r a g a i n , u n t i l i t i s c o m p l e t e d as a f i n i s h e d work of a r t , u n t i l t h e r e i s n o t a n o t e t o o much o r t o o l i t t l e , n o t a b a r you c o u l d improve upon. Whether i t i s b e a u t i f u l a l s o , i s an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r , but p e r f e c t i t must be. You s e e , . . . I never c o o l down o v e r a work, once begun, u n t i l i t i s p e r f e c t e d , u n a s s a i l a b l e . 1 Brahms had i n d e e d t u r n e d t i m e and a g a i n t o t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e o r i g i n a l S t r i n g Q u i n t e t , t r a n s c r i b i n g i t as a Duo-Piano S o n a t a , r e t r a n s c r i b i n g i t as a P i a n o Q u i n t e t , and c o n t i n u a l l y r e v i s i n g i t u n t i l he succeeded i n c r e a t i n g n o t j u s t one, b u t two works w h i c h were e m i n e n t l y s a t i s f y i n g b o t h t o h i m s e l f and t o h i s c l o s e f r i e n d s . D u r i n g each phase o f t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f r e v i s i o n d i s c e r n i b l e i n t h e t h r e e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s , Brahms s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d f o r a l t e r a t i o n n o t e s , p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n , dynamics and e x p r e s s i o n words; a t no t i m e d i d he c o n c e n t r a t e s o l e l y on j u s t one of t h e s e e l e -ments. The numerous r e v i s i o n s p r e s e r v e d i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t s were prompted by f o u r f a c t o r s : (1) c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s s o l i c i t e d f r o m From a c o n v e r s a t i o n x j i t h S i r George H e n s c h e l , 13 J u l y 1876. Quoted i n H e n s c h e l , P e r s o n a l R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Johannes Brahms ( B o s t o n : Gorham P r e s s , 1 9 0 7 ) , p. 39. 168 169 h i s t r u s t e d f r i e n d s , (2) v a r y i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l s o n o r i t i e s , (3) an i n t e n s e d e s i r e t h a t each work be e x p r e s s i v e l y r e n d e r e d i n i t s i n i t i a l p e r f o r m a n c e , and (4) t h e impending p u b l i c a t i o n o f each work and t h e need t o p e r f e c t i t b e f o r e e x p o s i n g i t i n f i n a l f orm t o t h o r o u g h p u b l i c r e v i e w and c r i t i c i s m . A d v i c e s o l i c i t e d f rom h i s f r i e n d s was o f t e n of paramount i m p o r t a n c e i n s t i m u l a t i n g Brahms t o make r e v i s i o n s . The i n f l u e n c e of J o s e p h J o a c h i m seems t o have been l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Brahms's d e c i s i o n t o t r a n s c r i b e t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . Hermann L e v i s u g g e s t e d t h e medium o f p i a n o q u i n t e t f o r t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , and s u b s e q u e n t l y a d v i s e d t h e making of s e v e r a l changes i n t h i s v e r s i o n . On L e v i ' s recommendation, Brahms a l t e r e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l i n t h e Second Theme o f t h e second movement, and l e s s e n e d t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e word " e s p r e s s i v o " i n t h e o u t e r movements. L a t e r , he l i k e w i s e c a n c e l l e d some o c c u r r e n c e s of t h i s word i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t of t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . U n l i k e J o a c h i m and L e v i , C l a r a Schumann s i m p l y o f f e r e d encouragement by p r a i s -i n g t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t and t h e two t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s , r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e s e n t s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m s . The p u b l i s h e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e shows, however, t h a t i t was she who f i r s t a d v i s e d Brahms t o r e c a s t t h e Duo-Piano Sonata. A l t h o u g h he d i d n o t t r a n s c r i b e i t f o r o r c h e s t r a as she s u g g e s t e d , he e v i d e n t l y t o o k t o h e a r t h e r recommenda-2 t i o n t h a t a new v e r s i o n be w r i t t e n . V a r y i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s and s o n o r i t i e s may have g i v e n r i s e t o many o f t h e changes made i n t h e e x t a n t a u t o g r a p h s o f t h e Duo-2 However, Brahms by no means a c c e p t e d e v e r y s u g g e s t i o n made by h i s f r i e n d s . He d i d not s h o r t e n t h e Coda o f t h e f i n a l e by r e d u c i n g t h e l a s t n i n e t y measures, as L e v i had u rged him t o do. Nor d i d he a l t e r t h e Second Theme of t h i s movement, as C l a r a had s u g g e s t e d . See L e v i ' s and C l a r a ' s l e t t e r s of 9 and 10 November 1864 i n t h e A p p e n d i x , Pp. 252 -54-. P i a n o S o n a t a and P i a n o Q u i n t e t . Brahms's u t i l i z a t i o n o f a more power-f u l p i a n o , t h e S t r e i c h e r , may have caused t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n and t r a n s p o s -i t i o n o f bass n o t e s i n t h e p i a n o p a r t o f t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The subsequent d e l e t i o n o f a few p e d a l - p o i n t s , d o u b l i n g n o t e s , and harmony n o t e s i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata may a l s o be a t t r i b -u t a b l e t o h i s p l a y i n g o f t h i s work on t h e S t r e i c h e r . S i m i l a r l y , many o f t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n s and changes i n r e g i s t e r w h i c h Brahms had e a r l i e r made i n t h i s d r a f t might have a r i s e n f r o m t h e v a r y i n g s o n o r i t i e s o f d i f f e r e n t p i a n o s u t i l i z e d by him i n V i e n n a , Hamburg, and Baden-Baden. The composer's seeming p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h making r e f i n e m e n t s i n e x p r e s s i o n perhaps i n d i c a t e s an i n t e n s e c o n c e r n t h a t t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a and t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t be p e r f o r m e d as e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . I n d e ed, h i s c o u n t l e s s a l t e r a t i o n s and i n s e r t i o n s o f p h r a s i n g s , a r t i c u l a -t i o n s , dynamics, and e x p r e s s i o n words p r o v i d e more d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e , b u t do n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r t h e sound o f t h e m a t e r i a l . P erhaps Brahms's a n x i e t y t h a t b o t h works be e x p r e s s i v e l y r e n d e r e d was p a r t i a l l y due t o t h e c r i t i c i s m t h a t had been l e v e l l e d a t t h e o r i g i n a l S t r i n g Q u i n t e t . The s u p p l y o f e x p r e s s i o n words i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t i s even more generous t h a n i n t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a , p r o b a b l y because t h e p r e m i e r e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e l a t t e r had been a f a i l u r e . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f b o t h works t o t h e p u b l i c i n v o l v e d n o t o n l y p e r f o r m a n c e , but p u b l i c a t i o n . T h i s , t o o , may have prompted Brahms's r e p e a t e d r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f each c o m p o s i t i o n . He o c c a s i o n a l l y changed h i s mind about r e v i s i o n s he had made i n t h e n o t e s o f t h e Duo-Piano 171 3 4 S o n a t a , and e x c i s e d t h e m a t e r i a l he had added i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . I n b o t h w o r k s , he gave f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o some changes he had made i n p h r a s i n g and i n e x p r e s s i o n w o r d s . S e v e r a l passages o f t h e Duo-P i a n o Sonata underwent r e p e a t e d r e v i s i o n , as d i d some i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . 7 I n t h e l a t t e r v e r s i o n , Brahms g e n e r a l l y d e v o t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o a d j u s t i n g t h e b a l a n c e between t h e p i a n o and t h e s t r i n g s i n passages t h a t had n o t been a l t e r e d i n t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . "He had d i f f i c u l t y o n l y w i t h two bass p e d a l - p o i n t s i n t h e f i r s t movement, a t measures 155-61 and 258-62. See C h a p t e r V, p. 88 , and C h a p t e r V I I , f n . 4. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t h i s r e p e a t e d r e v i s i o n o f t h e s e p e d a l - p o i n t s was caused by h i s p l a y i n g o f t h e work on v a r i o u s p i a n o s ; see p.?3. 4 At t h e s e q u e n t i a l d i a l o g u e t h a t d e v e l o p s from t h e C l o s i n g Theme i n t h e f i r s t movement, and a t t h e i m i t a t i v e o p e n i n g o f t h e f i n a l e . See C h a p t e r V I , pp. ji/.-] dtld I5<+. "'E.g., t h e poco r i t a r d a n d o t h a t Brahms added i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano So n a t a was l a t e r changed t o poco s o s t e n u t o (measure 116 of t h e s l o w movement). Brahms v e r y r a r e l y c a n c e l l e d changes t h a t he made i n p h r a s i n g , e x c e p t i n some o f t h e t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l of t h e f i r s t movement. I n t h e C l o s i n g Theme a t measures 76, 238, and 242, he added two-note s l u r s b e f o r e s e n d i n g t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t t o t h e c o p y i s t ; he c a n c e l l e d t h e s e s l u r s i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . The o p e n i n g announcement o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme of t h i s movement underwent numerous changes i n p h r a s i n g . A f t e r t h e c o p y i n g of t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a , Brahms s h o r t e n e d t h e s l u r i n t h e second measure; when he made t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , he i n i t i a l l y adopted t h i s s h o r t e r s l u r i n b o t h t h e f i r s t and t h e second measures. However, b e f o r e s e n d i n g t h e a u t o g r a p h t o t h e e n g r a v e r , he r e v e r t e d t o t h e p h r a s i n g t h a t he had o r i g i n a l l y n o t a t e d i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t of t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . See C h a p t e r s V and V I . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e t e s s i t u r a o f t h e S u b j e c t i n t h e c l i m a c t i c measures 93-100/1 i n t h e f u g a t o o f t h e S c h e r z o (see C h a p t e r V and V I I ) ; t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e a tempo s e c t i o n i n t h e Coda o f t h e f i n a l e (measures 467-71; see C h a p t e r s V and V I I ) : and t h e r e g i s t e r o f t h e r i g h t - h a n d l i n e o f t h e Primo i n measures 486-87 and 489 of t h e f i n a l e (see C h a p t e r V ) . Brahms - c o n t i n u e d t o a l t e r measures 486-89 i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t (see C h a p t e r V I ) . 7 A c c o m p a n i m e r i t a l v o i c e s i n measures 33-34 and 36-38 o f t h e second movement; d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l i n measures 76-80 of t h e f u g a t o o f t h e S c h e r z o , and t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f n o t e s t o t h i n t h e t e x t u r e i n measures 184-91 of t h e same movement. See C h a p t e r V I . 172 A f t e r u n d e r t a k i n g t h e t a s k o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n , Brahms made major a l t e r a t i o n s and r e v i s i o n s , and f i n a l l y d e v o t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e t o t h e p o l i s h i n g o f d e t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g e x p r e s s i o n . The appearance o f t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata s u g g e s t s t h a t he t r a n s c r i b e d t h e S t r i n g Q u i n t e t q u i c k l y ( w i t h v e r y few changes) and t h e n r e t u r n e d r e p e a t e d l y t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n t o make numerous r e v i s i o n s i n p i t c h , g e x p r e s s i o n , and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r changes were e v i d e n t l y communicated by Brahms t o t h e c o p y i s t ; t h e composer s u b s e q u e n t l y made a l t e r a t i o n s b o t h i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t and i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t . L e v i ' s comments i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a , i n t u r n , was h u r r i e d l y t r a n s c r i b e d f o r p i a n o q u i n t e t : Brahms w r o t e t h e s t r i n g p a r t s i n s c o r e , b u t made o n l y a s k e t c h o f t h e p i a n o p a r t (now l o s t ) . The S t r i n g Q u i n t e t p r o b a b l y a f f e c t e d t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . Even i f t h e composer d i d not have t h e s c o r e o f t h e o r i g i n a l work a t hand when he made t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , he s u r e l y would have remembered t h e Q u i n t e t , and would have been reminded o f i t as he r e c o n -9 s i d e r e d t h e two m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e Duo-Piano S o n a t a . A f t e r Brahms had w r i t t e n t h e f u l l s c o r e o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , he made numerous changes i n n o t e s and e x p r e s s i o n , and a l t e r e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l g N a t u r a l l y , Brahms d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t r a n s c r i b e an e n t i r e move-ment b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t o make t h e d e s i r e d r e v i s i o n s . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t some a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e E x p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t movement were exe-c u t e d b e f o r e Brahms t r a n s c r i b e d t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n . See C h a p t e r V,p,$b. 9 I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t b o t h m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h i s work were u t i l i z e d i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . See Ch a p t e r V,pp,[OS-oh dTld. 120-21. 173 amongst t h e s t r i n g s i n a few p a s s a g e s . L a t e r , when he was c h e c k i n g t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s o f t h i s work, he n o t a t e d i d e a s f o r f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s i n h i s a u t o g r a p h . Even a f t e r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t , Brahms c o n t i n u e d t o r e v i s e t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata ( t h e o n l y m a n u s c r i p t of e i t h e r t r a n s c r i p t i o n t h a t remained i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n ) . When t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e Duo-Piano Sonata was r e t u r n e d t o him i n September 1871, he made some a l t e r a t i o n s i n e x p r e s s i o n words, t h e n s e n t t h i s s c o r e t o t h e e n g r a v e r (see Example 1 ) . I n b o t h t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , most of t h e changes i n c o n t e n t c o n s i s t o f t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f d o u b l i n g and harmony n o t e s , t h e d e l e t i o n o f p e d a l -p o i n t s , and t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f accompanimental o r m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l up or down an o c t a v e . G e n e r a l l y , t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s s e r v e d t o t h i n t h e t e x t u r e , o r t o s o l v e r e l a t i v e l y m inor problems o f s o n o r i t y and b a l a n c e t h a t had a r i s e n when each t r a n s c r i p t i o n was made."^ Themes underwent r e v i s i o n o n l y d u r i n g t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f t h e Duo-b 11 P i a n o Sonata ( S t a g e 3 , Phase I I ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n harmon-i e s were a l l o w e d t o s t a n d . " ^ As Brahms r e t u r n e d a g a i n and a g a i n t o t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o r "*"^ See Stage 3^ and Phase I of Stage 4^ i n C h a p t e r V; Stage 3° and t h e f i r s t phase of Stage 4 C i n C h a p t e r V I . ''"''"Significant a l t e r a t i o n s were made a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Second Theme i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t movement, a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e S c h e r z o , and i n t h e Second Theme o f t h e l a t t e r (see C h a p t e r V ) . 12 The o n l y i m p o r t a n t changes i n harmonies would have o c c u r r e d i n t h e s e q u e n t i a l d i a l o g u e t h a t f o l l o w s t h e C l o s i n g Theme i n t h e f i r s t move-ment. When Brahms made t h e f i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n , he ex t e n d e d t h i s d i a l o g u e by a few measures. However, b e f o r e s e n d i n g t h e a u t o g r a p h t o t h e e n g r a v e r , he o b s c u r e d t h e added m a t e r i a l w i t h p a s t e - o v e r s i n t h e E x p o s i t i o n and R e c a p i t u l a t i o n . See C h a p t e r V I I . 174 c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t o f Op. 3 4 b i s , and t h e n t o t h e a u t o g r a p h o f Op. 34, he made fewer and l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n n o t e s , a l t h o u g h he c o n -t i n u e d t o r e f i n e p h r a s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n , and e x p r e s s i o n words. Dynamics underwent s c a r c e l y any change a f t e r t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t a u t o g r a p h . When Brahms was c o r r e c t i n g t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s o f t h i s work, v e r y few r e v i s i o n s i n e i t h e r n o t e s o r e x p r e s s i o n o c c u r r e d t o him. However, when he s u b s e q u e n t l y r e t u r n e d t o t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f the Duo-Piano S o n a t a , he e x p e r i e n c e d new i n s i g h t s t h a t l e d t o many 13 r e f i n e m e n t s , some o f w h i c h appear i n passages h i t h e r t o u n a l t e r e d . P erhaps t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t change was t h e n o t a t i o n o f a s l i g h t l y d i f -f e r e n t r e a d i n g f o r a few measures i n t h e Coda of t h e f i n a l e , s i m i l a r t o 14 t h e v e r s i o n w h i c h had appeared i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t . Brahms l a t e r c a n c e l l e d some e x p r e s s i o n words i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e Duo-P i a n o S o n a t a , as he had done i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t a u t o g r a p h (see page IM). The t h r e e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s o f Opp. 34 and 3 4 b i s t h u s r e v e a l Brahms's c o n s t a n t e f f o r t s t o improve h i s i n i t i a l c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e s . T h i s s t r i v i n g f o r p e r f e c t i o n was t h e r e s u l t o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and h i s a r t i s t i c c o n v i c t i o n s combined. A l t h o u g h most o f t h e changes made d u r -i n g t h e many months o f i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t c o n c e r n e d r e f i n e m e n t s i n s o n o r i t y and e x p r e s s i o n , t h e s e changes, c o u p l e d w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n t a l t e r a t i o n s i n themes and accompanimental m a t e r i a l , r e s u l t e d i n t h e s k i l l f u l l y p o l i s h e d c o m p o s i t i o n s w h i c h even now s t a n d as m a g n i f i c e n t t e s t i m o n y t o Brahms's c r e a t i v e g e n i u s . 13 E.g., a t t h e o p e n i n g of t h e f o r t i s s i m o s t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r i n c i -p a l Theme i n t h e f i r s t movement (measures 11-13, r e c a p i t u l a t e d a t measures 173-75). See Ch a p t e r V I I . 14 See C h a p t e r V I I , p. 175 SON A T E. Such ilviu Quintett.Oji.a*. Allegro non troppo. Johauiifs Brahm>. Op.:il.iiis Pianoforte I. Pianoforte II. S78 178 180 184 185 187 188 B78 f 190 6 J X 191 6 78 193 195 196 200 201 202 203 204 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 TEXTUAL CRITICISM The f i r s t movement of b o t h Opp. 34 and 3 4 b i s has been chosen f o r r e v i s i o n because i t underwent t h e most a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e t h r e e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s . I t . t h e r e f o r e b e s t e x e m p l i f i e s t h e v a r i o u s k i n d s o f changes made by Brahms i n n o t e s and e x p r e s s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f t h e s o u r c e s (and t h e i r acronyms) w h i c h a r e u t i l i z e d i n t h e r e v i s e d s c o r e s . F o r Op. 3 4 b i s : SA A u t o g r a p h m a n u s c r i p t s i g n e d . C a p t i o n t i t l e by Brahms: "Sonate. Johs Brahms." 28 l e a v e s (56 pp. m u s i c ) , 25.7 x 32.9 cm. New Y o r k , N.Y., Mary F l a g l e r Cary M u s i c C o l l e c t i o n i n :the P i e r p o n t Morgan L i b r a r y ; f o r m e r owner: F r a u M i c h a e l B a l l i n g , D a r m s t a d t , Germany. Working D r a f t . SC C o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . T i t l e page: "Sonate / f u r z w e i K l a v i e r e [ c r o s s e d out i n l e a d ] / I h r e r K S n i g l i c h e n H o h e i t der F r a u P r i n z e s s i n / Anna von Hessen / gewidmet [ c r o s s e d out i n l e a d by Brahms and r e p l a c e d by] z u g e e i g n e t / von / Johannes Brahms. / P a r t i t u r [ c r o s s e d out i n l e a d ] / [Bottom l e f t : ] Nach dem Q u i n -t e t t op. X [!] / [At t o p i n hand o f R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n : ] E i l t  s e h r . [ e t c ] . " 40 l e a v e s ( c o v e r p., 78 pp. o f mus., 1 b l a n k ) , 24.6 x 33.5 cm. Hamburg, S t a a t s - und U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k (No. StuUBH acq. 1960). Used by R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n as e n g r a v e r ' s l a y o u t ( S t i c h v o r l a g e ) f o r t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n . S2 R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n e d i t i o n , second i s s u e . T i t l e page: "Sonate / f u r / z w e i P i a n o f o r t e / von / Johannes Brahms. / Op. 34, b i s . / Eigenthum des V e r l e g e r s f u r a l l e L a n d e r . / L i e p z i g , J . R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n . / Ent<? S t a t . H a l l . / P r . 9 M. n e t t o / [ P I . no.] 678." Vancouver, B.C., i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e l a t e Donald M. M c C o r k l e . F o r Op. 34: PQA A u t o g r a p h m a n u s c r i p t s i g n e d . T i t l e page by Brahms: " Q u i n t e t t / f u r / P i a n o f o r t e / 2 V i o l i n e n , B r a t s c h e l i V i o l o n c e l l o / c o m p o n i r t und / I h r e r k b n i g l i c h e n H o h e i t / d e r F r a u P r i n z e s s i n Anna von Hessen / gewidmet / v o n / J o h s Brahms. / Op. 34. / 217 [Around t i t l e page i n hand o f R i e t er—Biedermann:] E i l t s e h r [ e t c . ] " 38 l e a v e s ( T i t l e p., 70 pp. m u s i c , 4 b l a n k pp. a t e n d ) , 24.7 x 33 cm., w r a p p e r s , 25.5 x 33 cm. Wa s h i n g t o n , D.C, L i b r a r y o f Congress (No. ML 30 .8b .B7 Op. 34 C a s e ) . Used by R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n as e n g r a v e r ' s l a y o u t ( S t i c h v o r l a g e ) f o r t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n . PQ1 R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n e d i t i o n , E r s t d r u c k . Cover page [ T i t l e page m i s s i n g [ ; " Q u i n t e t t / von / J o h . Brahms / Op. 34 / [ P I . no.] 435." Hamburg, S t a a t s - und U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k (No. M B/5460). PQ3 R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n e d i t i o n , t h i r d i s s u e . T i t l e page: " Q u i n t e t t / f u r / P i a n o f o r t e , / z w e i V i o l i n e n , V i o l a / und / V i o l o n c e l l / c o m p o n i r t / von / J o h s . Brahms. / Op. 34 / P a r t i t u r u. Stimmen. / P r . 15 M. n e t t o . / Fur P i a n o f o r t e zu v i e r Handen b e a r b e i t e t v o n Theodor K i r c h n e r / P r . 10 M. n e t t o . / Eigenthum des v e r l e g e r s f i i r a l l e L a n d e r . / L e i p z i g , J . R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n . / 1319 / [ P I . no.] 435. / [Bottom:] F i i r P i a n o f o r t e z u v i e r Handen, V i o l i n e und V i o l o n c e l l e i n g e r i c h t e t v on / F r i e d r . Hermann. / P r . 12 M. n e t t o . / 1044. / L i t h . A n s t . v. C. G. Rbder L e i p z i g . " V a n c o u v e r , B.C., i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e l a t e Donald M. M c C o r k l e . I n h i s Handexemplar ( a u t h o r ' s copy) o f each work,"'" Brahms made n e i t h e r changes n o r c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e f i r s t movement. Numerous a l t e r a t i o n s i n n o t e s and e x p r e s s i o n were made by t h e com-p o s e r i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t o f Op. 3 4 b i s a f t e r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Op. 34 (see C h a p t e r V I I ) . Those w h i c h appear i n t h e f i r s t movement have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e r e v i s e d s c o r e w h i c h f o l l o w s , and a r e acknowledged i n t h e T e x t u a l N o t e s . Some r e f i n e m e n t s i n e x p r e s s i o n seemed e q u a l l y s u i t a b l e t o t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t ; t h e y have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d as e d i t o r i a l emendations i n t h e r e v i s e d s c o r e , and a r e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e T e x t u a l N o t e s . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o r e v i s e t h e m u s i c a l t e x t o f t h e f i r s t movement Bo t h Handexemplare ( i n t h e G e s e l l s c h a f t d e r M u s i k f r e u n d e , V i e n n a ) were examined by t h e l a t e D onald M. M c C o r k l e . Brahms's o n l y changes i n t h e copy o f Op. 3 4 b i s c o n s i s t o f two s m a l l c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e f i n a l e . Two minor c o r r e c t i o n s were made i n t h e copy o f Op. 34 ( b o t h o c c u r i n t h e f i n a l e ) . 218 2 of Op. 34 as i t appears i n t h e E r s t d r u c k ; t h e t h i r d i s s u e has t h e r e f o r e been u t i l i z e d . T h i s i s s u e i s v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h e E r s t d r u c k ; i t d i f f e r s f r o m t h e l a t t e r o n l y i n a few m i n u t e d e t a i l s of e x p r e s s i o n . The E r s t d r u c k i t s e l f c o n t a i n s v e r y few f l a w s . I n t h e f i r s t movement, t h e r e a r e o n l y two s m a l l e r r o r s ( b o t h c o n c e r n s l u r s ; see measures 79 and 2 3 4 ) . However, n e i t h e r t h e E r s t d r u c k n o r t h e second and t h i r d i s s u e s i n c l u d e t h e r e f i n e m e n t s n o t a t e d by Brahms i n h i s a u t o g r a p h when he was c h e c k i n g t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s (see C h a p t e r V I ) . H i s a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e f i r s t move-ment c o n c e r n dynamic m a r k i n g s . The second i s s u e o f t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f Op. 3 4 b i s c o n t a i n s many s i g n i f i c a n t e r r o r s w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t . A l t h o u g h 3 b o t h Brahms and R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n made c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t , i t seems t h a t n e i t h e r o f them compared i t c a r e f u l l y w i t h t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t . The c o p y i s t had o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d a n o t e i n an i n n e r v o i c e o r i n 4 a c h o r d ; because t h e absence o f such a n o t e was n o t i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s , n e i t h e r Brahms no r R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n n o t i c e d t h e o m i s s i o n . However, when a n o t e was m i s t a k e n l y a b s e nt f r o m a melody l i n e , o r when i t s absence l e f t a measure r h y t h m i c a l l y i n c o m p l e t e o r even e n t i r e l y b l a n k , t h e 2 The x e r o g r a p h i c copy o f t h e E r s t d r u c k a v a i l a b l e f o r e x a m i n a t i o n d i d n o t y i e l d a x e r o x copy s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . 3 M i s s i n g r e s t s were s u p p l i e d ; a l l of them appear t o have been w r i t t e n by Brahms. B o t h t h e composer and R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n added a c c i -d e n t a l s ( o f t e n s i m p l y f o r c l a r i t y ) and made a few n o t e - c o r r e c t i o n s . 4 E.g., t h e l o w e r v o i c e i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e P rimo a t measure 23 i n t h e f i r s t movement. ^ F i r s t movement, measure 32: g " m i s s i n g on t h e f o u r t h b e a t i n t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e P r i m o ; f i n a l e , measures 92: d m i s s i n g f r o m th e l e f t - h a n d p a r t of t h e Secondo; f i n a l e , measure 31: and s l u r m i s s i n g from t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t of t h e Secondo. 219 o m i s s i o n was e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d , and was c o r r e c t e d . S i m i l a r l y , t h e o b v i o u s absence o f a s l u r was a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y d e t e c t e d , b u t t h e e x i s t i n g s l u r s were n o t always examined c a r e f u l l y . T h i s i n i t i a l l y becomes a p p a r e n t i n t h e o p e n i n g measures of t h e P r i n c i p a l Theme i n t h e f i r s t movement: Brahms s u p p l i e d t h e s l u r m i s s i n g f r o m measure 15, b u t f a i l e d t o n o t i c e t h a t t h e s l u r s i n measures 12-13 had been c o p i e d i n c o r r e c t l y . The composer e v i d e n t l y was more c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e f i n i n g e x p r e s s i o n t h a n w i t h c h e c k i n g t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e c o p y i s t ' s work. B e f o r e s e n d i n g t h i s m a n u s c r i p t t o P r i n c e s s Anna sometime a f t e r m i d -October 1864, Brahms d i d n o t b o t h e r t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e many r e v i s i o n s he had s u b s e q u e n t l y made i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t (see Ch a p t e r V ) . When t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t was f i n a l l y r e t u r n e d t o him i n September 1871, he was a n x i o u s n o t t o d e l a y p u b l i c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , he f o r w a r d e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n w i t h o u t t a k i n g t i m e t o add t h e l a t e r e v i s i o n s e x e c u t e d i n t h e w o r k i n g d r a f t (see Chap t e r V I I ) . The g a l l e y p r o o f s o f Op. 3 4 b i s a r r i v e d e a r l y i n December 1871; Brahms p r o m i s e d t o a t t e n d t o them "as soon as p o s s i b l e . " He must have c o r r e c t e d them from t h e c o p y i s t ' s m a n u s c r i p t , f o r t h e e r r o r s w h i c h had pa s s e d u n n o t i c e d i n t h e l a t t e r remained u n r e c t i f i e d . " b a l d m b g l i c h s t . " See Brahms's l e t t e r t o R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n i n t h e A p p e n d i x , p. 25"7. The composer d a t e d t h i s l e t t e r "Nov. 71," b u t W i l h e l m A l t m a n n , t h e e d i t o r o f t h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n t h e Brahms B r i e f - w e c h s e l , s u g g e s t s t h a t i t was w r i t t e n on 2 December. 220 TEXTUAL NOTES F i r s t Movement, Op. 3 4 b i s 5, 6, 8-10, 11, 12, 20-22, 135, 182-84, I I and/or I : S t a c c a t o d o t s changed t o wedges by Brahms when r e v i s i n g SC. 8/2 & 4, 9/2 & 4, I I : O r i g i n a l l y no dynamics i n SA. C o p y i s t added f_ i n 8/2 and 9/4 (see SA a t 5/2). L a t e r Brahms added -fz_ t o 8/2 & 4 and 9/2 & 4 i n SA; sf^ i n s e r t e d i n g a l l e y p r o o f s . 9/2, I I / R : SA i n c l u d e s d " - f l a t (not seen i d e n t i c a l m. 171 of R e c a p . ) . O m i t t e d from 9/2 on Brahms's i n s t r u c t i o n s t o c o p y i s t ? 11/4, I & I I : O r i g i n a l l y a V? i n SA and SC. L a t e r Brahms c a n c e l l e d B - f l a t ' s i n SA, r e p l a c i n g a l l but one ( i n I/L) w i t h a G o r an E - n a t u r a l . 12/1, 13/1, I , & 174/1, 175/1, I I : A - f l a t ' s c a n c e l l e d . 12/1, 13/1, I I / L : A - f l a t ' s c a n c e l l e d ; r e p l a c e d by F's. 12/2-3, 13/2-3, 14/2-3, I I / R , & 174/2-3, 175/2-3, 176/2-3, I : Copy-i s t ' s e r r o r r e c t i f i e d by l e n g t h e n i n g o f each s l u r t o a g r e e w i t h SA and PQA. C o p y i s t ' s e r r o n e o u s a c c e n t s i g n d e l e t e d from 12/3, II/K. 16/1, 17/1, I I / L : B - f l a t c a n c e l l e d . 19-21/1, I : C o p y i s t ' s e r r o r r e c t i f i e d by l e n g t h e n i n g of each s l u r t o a g r e e w i t h SA. 19/4, I/R: A r t i c u l a t i o n s i g n s o c c u r i n SA a t t h e i d e n t i c a l m. 181 i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n . 20/1, I I / L : C o p y i s t ' s e r r o n e o u s a c c e n t s i g n d e l e t e d . 20, I I / L : M a r c a t o f o r t h e i d e n t i c a l m a t e r i a l i n PQA. 20/2-21/2: S k e t c h i n l e a d a p p ears on b l a n k s t a v e below s y s t e m f o r l e f t - h a n d p a r t of P rimo (see Example 2 4 ) . S k e t c h t h a t i s n o t a t e d b e n e a t h t h e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l a t m. 182-83 l a c k s t h e b' (which would r e q u i r e a d o u b l e - f l a t s i g n ) i n t h e second f i g u r e , but o t h e r w i s e i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e s k e t c h shown i n Example 24. 22/3, I / L : SA has C-G-c. PQA o r g i n a l l y had C-c, w h i c h Brahms l a t e r t r a n s p o s e d down an o c t a v e . 23/1 & 3, I/R: C o p y i s t o m i t t e d a ' - f l a t and g' on f i r s t and t h i r d b e a t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . B o t h p r e s e n t i n SA and PQA. 23-32/2, I / L , and 23-26/1, I I / R : C o p y i s t ' s e r r o r r e c t i f i e d by l e n g t h e n -i n g of s l u r s t o agree w i t h SA and PQA. 221 Example 24. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b l s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , s k e t c h f o r l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Primo a t measures 20-21/2 23-26/1, I I / L : Each n o t e i s d o u b l e d a t t h e l o w e r o c t a v e i n SA. D o u b l i n g p r o b a b l y o m i t t e d on Brahms's i n s t r u c t i o n s t o c o p y i s t . See C h a p t e r V. 25/3-4, I & I I : C o p y i s t e r r o n e o u s l y added a d e c r e s c e n d o s i g n i n I . The same s i g n was added t o t h e accompaniment ( I I ) i n t h e g a l l e y p r o o f s . N e i t h e r s i g n i s p r e s e n t i n e i t h e r SA o r PQA. 30/2-4, I I / R : SA o r i g i n a l l y had a - f l a t t o b e g i n t h e t r i p l e t on t h e second b e a t , and a - f l a t as t h e l o w e s t n o t e o f t h e t r i a d r e i t e r a t e d on t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h b e a t s . 31/3, 32/3, I/R: SA has a ' - f l a t i n b o t h i n s t a n c e s . O m i t t e d from SC on Brahms's i n s t r u c t i o n s ? 33/1, I l / R : SC has s t a c c a t o d o t , e r r o n e o u s l y added by c o p y i s t . Not p r e s e n t h e r e o r i n R e c a p i t u l a t i o n , i n e i t h e r SA o r PQA. 34/1, I I / L : S k e t c h , w r i t t e n and c a n c e l l e d i n l e a d , appears i n SA on t h e b l a n k s t a v e below t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t (see Example 2 5 ) . Example 25. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , c a n c e l l e d s k e t c h f o r t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measure 34/1 53 222 3 5 / a n a c r u s i s , I : a'' c a n c e l l e d i n SA. L e f t - h a n d p a r t i n t h i s measure n o t w r i t t e n o u t ; i t i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n " i n 8 va." 37/2, I I / R : I n SC c o p y i s t e r r o n e o u s l y c o n t i n u e d s l u r u nbroken u n t i l 38/4. However, i n b o t h SA and PQA (see Va l i n e ) a new s l u r i s begun on m. 37/4. The s l u r s i n t h e ana l o g o u s m. 199 o f t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n were c o r r e c t l y c o p i e d i n SC. 38/4, I : d''-sharp and b'- s h a r p r e s t o r e d t o I/R, and t o I / L , w h i c h s t i l l p l a y s " i n 8va." C o p y i s t m i s t o o k t h e h a l f n o t e on t h e second b e a t f o r a d o t t e d h a l f n o t e ; e v i d e n t l y he d i d not o b s e r v e t h e two e i g h t h - n o t e s t h a t complete t h i s i n n e r v o i c e on t h e 4 t h b e a t . He c o p i e d t h e analogous m. 199 i n t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n c o r r e c t l y . 45, I I : D i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g n o t a t e d i n l e a d ( i n d i c a t e d by p a r e n t h e s e s i n Example 2 6 ) . Example 26. Johannes Brahms, Gpus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , measures 45-46 o f t h e Secondo h ' * ~-r— zx— • ...r L-U—v. -6 c —t * y — -f--e * i » ) D fj c —1 c -* •7 ; Perhaps Brahms n e v e r made up h i s mind t h a t he p r e f e r r e d t h i s new v e r s i o n , f o r the o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g remained u n c a n c e l l e d . 47/4, I/R: c' - s h a r p c a n c e l l e d . 49/4, I : I n SA, t h i s s l u r b e g i n s on t h e 1 s t b e a t of t h e n e x t measure i n t he r i g h t hand ( t h e l e f t - h a n d p a r t i s n o t w r i t t e n o u t , but p l a y s •'col [ I/.R]"). Brahms may have i n s t r u c t e d t h e c o p y i s t t o b e g i n t h e s l u r i n b o t h p a r t s on t h e a n a c r u s i s , f o r t h i s i s what appears i n SA a t t h e analogous m. 211 o f t h e R e c a p i t u l a t i o n , and i n b o t h E x p o s i t i o n and R e c a p i t u l a t i o n i n PQA. 51/4-55, I I / L : Accompaniment c l a r i f i e d by t r a n s p o s i t i o n of n o t e s i n ev e r y o t h e r t r i p l e t . O r i g i n a l p a t t e r n and new r e a d i n g a r e shown s i d e by s i d e i n Example 27. A l t e r a t i o n s were made i n m. 53/4-55 of SA, t h e n i n m. 51/4-53/2 of SC. 223 Example 27. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) , a l t e r a t i o n o f t r i p l e t accompaniment i n t h e l e f t -hand p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measure 51/4 51, I l / L : S l u r s i n SA and PQA a r e r e s t o r e d . C o p y i s t e r r o n e o u s l y w r o t e a s i n g l e s l u r s p a n n i n g t h e e n t i r e measure. 53/2, I / L : S l u r r e s t o r e d t o b e g i n on 2nd b e a t , as i n SA and PQA. C o p y i s t e r r o n e o u s l y l e n g t h e n e d i t , s t a r t i n g i t on the 1 s t b e a t . 54-55, I I / R : S l u r s r e s t o r e d t o l e n g t h found i n SA. C o p y i s t e r r o n e o u s l y l e n g t h e n e d t h e f i r s t s l u r , e x t e n d i n g i t t o t h e f i r s t b e a t o f m. 55. He t h e r e f o r e began t h e n e x t s l u r on t h e second b e a t i n s t e a d of t h e f i r s t . 59/1, I / L : S l u r r e s t o r e d t o l e n g t h found i n SA. C o p y i s t e r r o n e o u s l y began i t one b e a t l a t e . 63, I I / L : A f t e r SA had been c o p i e d , Brahms gave f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o t h e r e i t e r a t e d o c t a v e s and made c a n c e l l a t i o n s t o produce an a l t e r -n a t i o n o f c- s h a r p and c ' - s h a r p (see Example 2 8 ) . Example 28. Johannes Brahms, Opus 3 4 b i s , 1 s t movement ( A l l e g r o non t r o p p o ) l e f t - h a n d p a r t o f t h e Secondo a t measure 63 l f- -» \ * \ +\ / / h -• i 4 PI 4 7 » 1 / The c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e s e o c t a v e s i n m. 64 was l e f t u n t o u c h e d , and no a l t e r a t i o n s were made i n t h e ana l o g o u s m. 225-26 o f t h e Recap-i t u l a t i o n . The r e a d i n g t h a t appears i n SC and S2 has t h e r e f o r e been a l l o w e d t o s t a n d . 68/3-4, I/R: The n o t e s d o u b l i n g t h e t o p l i n e o f t h e r i g h t hand a t t h e low e r t h i r d and s i x t h were l e f t u n c a n c e l l e d — p e r h a p s a c c i d e n t a l l y — i n SC, but were c a n c e l l e d i n l e a d i n SA. See C h a p t e r V, p. S8. 224 76-77/1, 80-81/1, 238-39/1, 242-43/1, I I / L o r I / L : S t a c c a t o d o t s f o r bass o c t a v e s absent i n SA but p r e s e n t i n SC. Those i n m. 238-39 and 242-43 a r e i n l e a d ; t h o s e i n m. 76-77 and 80-81 seem t o be i n i n k . Brahms may have i n s t r u c t e d t h e c o p y i s t t o add them. 78/2, I/R: S l u r e x t e n d e d t o agree w i t h SA and PQA. 79/3, I/R: I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h SA and PQA, a new s l u r i s begun on t h e t h i r d b e a t . C o p y i s t e r r o n e o u s l y w r o t e an u n b r o k e n s l u r . 93/2-96/2 of p r i m a v o l t a , 93/2-94/2 of seconda v d l t a , I I : S t a c c a t o d o t s added by c o p y i s t . Brahms p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e y be p r e s e n t , s i n c e he h i m s e l f had w r i t t e n them a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of t h i s p a s s a g e , i n m. 91-92 and 95-96 o f SA. 105/2-07/1, I I / L : SA does not have l o w e r - o c t a v e d o u b l i n g n o t e s . Brahms may have i n s t r u c t e d c o p y i s t t o add s u c h d o u b l i n g , s i n c e he h i m s e l f had w r i t t e n i t f o r t h e a n a l o g o u s m a t e r i a l a t m. 102/2-103/1 and 104/2-05/1. 121/1, I/R: SA has g ' ' - f l a t i n s t e a d of d " - f l a t . Brahms used d " - f l a t i n PQA. 121-22/3, I I / L : SA has a s l u r s p a n n i n g t h e o c t a v e s i n m. 121 a l o n e . The c o p y i s t c o n t i n u e d t h i s s l u r u n t i l t h e t h i r d b e a t of m. 122; t h i s was perhaps done a c c o r d i n g t o Brahms's i n s t r u c t i o n , f o r t h e l a t t e r used t h i s l o n g s l u r i n PQA. 122, I / L : f appears i n SA as a whole n o t e ; t h e c o p y i s t n o t a t e d i t as a h a l f n o t e . I n SC, e i t h e r Brahms o r R i e t e r - B i e d e r m a n n added a second h a l f n o t e but f o r g o t t o i n s e r t