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Allied Indian tribes of British Columbia : a study in pressure group behaviour Mitchell, Darcy Anne 1977

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THE  ALLIED A  INDIAN  STUDY  TRIBES  I N PRESSURE  OF B R I T I S H GROUP  COLUMBIA:  BEHAVIOUR  by DARCY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  A  ANNE  MITCHELL  ofBritish  C o l u m b i a , 1973  T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT  OF P O L I T I C A L  SCIENCE  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  August (c)  BRITISH 1977  Darcy Anne M i t c h e l l , 1977  COLUMBIA  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at make  that  it  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  purposes  financial  University  Political of  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  is  August  29.  1977  of  British for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  available  by  gain  shall  Science  Columbia  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  permission.  Department o f The  thesis  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  The zation  and  Columbia tion  and  to  lands  Public  Indian  reasons  this  the  of  1927  settlement  thesis,  In  and  of  the  of  as  the  the  have  British  well  as  Senate  inquire into  to  on  compenColumbia.  several  aboriginal  administration of  addition, I  Archives Canada,  of  British  organiza-  in British drawn  organi-  of  the  i t s claim  I have  early history  Columbia  to  of  the  Tribes  f o r which  aboriginal rights  of  S p e c i a l Committee in  Allied  examine  loss  Provincial  appointed  the  province.  Archives  the  i s to  a  in British  the  of  study  achieve  preparing  i n the  this  explore  dealing with  campaign  the  to  f o r the In  works  of  activities  failed  sation  from  purpose  a  and  the  used  House  claims  Indian  material  Columbia report  rights  and  the  submitted of  of  by  Commons the  Allied  Tribes. The numerous and  attempts  inter-tribal and  for  the  The  Allied  the  province  mit  that  British  Tribes ,wasformed  unsuccessful  small  Dominion  Allied  loss  Imperial of  a u t h o r i t i e s to  attempted  behind  the  to  to  to  provide land  marshall  It  the  failed  following  Indian  press  the  and  in this  Provincial,  resources.  claim  Judicial  bands  compensation  a l l the  aboriginal rights  f o r d e c i s i o n by  Privy Council.  1916,  individual  organizations  aboriginal rights  Tribes  claim  by  in  Indians and  to  Committee  attempt.  of sub-  of  the  Among Tribes'  making.  access  The A l l i e d  Tribes  legal  counsel  situation  which  ultimately  membership  and r e s u l t e d  the aboriginal  agitators. would ing  was,  of  the claim  to aboriginal  with  adjudication sion  rights.  which  by  advisors,  a  o f t h e . .. I n d i a n leaders by  of the Indians.  white  insisted that i t  only  of the validity,  refused  consistently  to jeopardize  by p e r m i t t i n g have  relat-  improvement  The P r o v i n c e  might  gain  dominated  instigated  by government  Columbia  of the claim  i n favour  was  to  decision-  by government  Tribes  and t h e Dominion  British  much  and socio-economic  of recognition  relations  the A l l i e d  of i t s specific grievances  the basis  claim,  of public  non-Indian  campaign  on  this  were  i n addition,  alienated  rights  resources  levels  i n charges  a settlement  to lands,  failure  and i t s i n a b i l i t y  and o t h e r  F i n a l l y , the A l l i e d  accept  denied  base  to the higher  white  that  forthis  weak o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  effective  its  the reasons  a  its  judicial  produced  a  deci-  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT.  i  i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter I  ABORIGINAL RIGHTS I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA: THE C L A I M AND THE CAMPAIGN, 1 8 4 9 - 1 9 1 4  II III  IV V VI  7  THE A L L I E D T R I B E S : THE EARLY YEARS  36  ORGANIZATIONAL C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF THE ALLIED TRIBES  62  THE A L L I E D T R I B E S : THE LATER YEARS  70  THE "GREAT SETTLEMENT" OF 1927  86  CONCLUSIONS  102  BIBLIOGRAPHY  116  Appendix A  CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS I N THE ABORIGINAL RIGHTS CAMPAIGN  121  B  STATEMENT OF THE NISHGA T R I B E  C  A L L I E D INDIAN T R I B E S OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA (MEMBERSHIP) A L L I E D T R I B E S ' P E T I T I O N TO PARLIAMENT (1926)  D  iv  (1913)  124  1  2  8  1  3  0  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I gestions of  this  wish  thesis. Deputy  Environment,  I am g r a t e f u l  Tennant given  f o r h i s many  during  t o Mr. D a v i d  Minister, British  f o r p r o v i d i n g me  information  British  Dr. Paul  and p a t i e n t a s s i s t a n c e  Assistant  much  t o thank  with  the preparation Borthwick,  Columbia  Ministry of  research  m a t e r i a l s and  on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Indian  lands i n  Columbia.  D. A . August University  v  sug-  Mitchell 12 1 9 7 7  of British  Columbia  INTRODUCTION  In in  1913,  the Federal  northwest B r i t i s h  intendent  General  Indian  Columbia  of  Indian  Agent  reported  Affairs  of  t h e Naas  t o the Deputy  in  Agency Super-  Ottawa:  The management o f n e a r l y a l l t h e bands i n t h i s a g e n c y , a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h many o t h e r b a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , h a s become much more d i f f i c u l t o f r e c e n t y e a r s o w i n g t o the g r e a t a g i t a t i o n t h a t has been g o i n g on, a c l a i m b e i n g made t h a t t h e I n d i a n s d o n o t own m e r e l y t h e r e s e r v e s t h a t have been a s s i g n e d , but t h e whole p r o v i n c e . Many o f t h e b a n d s o b j e c t t o c o n t r o l o f t h e i r a f f a i r s b y the government, b e i n g under t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d be t o surrender their alleged rights to land.^ The originated the of  major white  aboriginal i n the  focus  1870's  of  economic  and  and  Indian  settlement,  istration,  rights  by  and  patterns  of  w e r e made o n l y  area  southern  Vancouver  claimed  resources been  given  had  that  n e v e r been  compensation  Beginning to  form  their  about  inter-tribal  Columbia  1900's  arising  had  from  of Federal  land with  use  and  Indian  Island, natives traditional  properly  1900,  Indian  in a  to  of  land Nor  those groups  they  attempted  government  for a  claim to compensation f o r the  loss  aboriginal  rights.  The  of  longest-lived  and  rights.  of their  1  small  had  settlement  and  and  elsewhere i n the  several Indian  largest  admin-  social  groups  extinguished.  organizations to press  advance  occupation.  rights  f o r the abrogation  become  the  disruption of native  treaties  province  the early  the i n s t i t u t i o n  Because of  in British  grievances  the attendant  systems  claim  of  these  2  groups which  was was  thetic  of  over  ten  the  of  lands and  requesting  that  year,  the  a  history  the  Allied  Tribes  Tribes in  that  pursue  land?  proliferated.  Indian  policy  ethic  Survival);  years,  rights  on and  Man,  More  of  Committee  to  the  other  title,  finally  closed.  to  i t fail  and  recogto  of  have  the  the  cultures  development  and  the  formed  disposal  Law); (F. of  books  dealing  specifically,  Columbia  campaign  Land and  Indian the  did  articles  in British  examinations  Cail,  as  claims  the  claim  and  claim?  have  (R.  the  i t s claim  Why  rights  in  no  to  collapsed.  ten  matter  into  regarded  last  i n B.C.  for  established  claim.  Senate  hearings,  the  aboriginal  the  be  of  Protestant  Struggle  of  fought  grievances.  matter  settlement  the  of  or  petition  its  inquire  days  a  a b o r i g i n a l or  rights  of of  the  submitted  sympa-  one  its .  on  aboriginal  subject  lands  the  of  into  by  Tribes  based  Allied  native  opment  had  with  Allied  Committee to  Columbia,  encouraged  the  inquiry  five  Columbia that  and  settlement  appointed  After  British  connected  Tribes  Special  How  did  a  full  the  During with  a  of  churches,  thereafter,  of  achieve  a  them  obtain  Indians  British  recommended  nition  of  Allied  Commons was  of  Shortly  the  the  Tribes  Assisted  most  to  organization.  decided  1916.  years  following  Indian  Protestant  1926,  parliament  House  in  people,  the  In  The  Allied  formed  white  another for  the  the  of  develpart  of  Crown  impact  of  LaViolette,  The  native  the  brother-  3  hoods The  on  the  Allied  T r i b e s has  historical and  northwest  and  not  tical  been  been  (P.  Drucker),  discussed  in a  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l works,  activities  have  coast  of  the  the  Allied  subject  Tribes  of  research  name a  number  but  as  to  the  few.  of  2  these  organization  a  pressure  group  by  students  of  poli-  science. Native  Indian  and  Inuit  groups  have  been  neglected  3 in  the  has  a  study  pressure  sufficient  permit  the  existing Paul  of  body  of  examination  theoretical  Pross's  recent  group  behaviour  theory  of  accumulated  Indian  pressure  frameworks. essay  i n Canada.  An  entitled  which  groups  exception,  "Pressure  Nor  would within  perhaps,  Groups:  is  Adaptive  4 Instruments work  of  Political  i s constructed  istics  pressure  they  attain  access.  those  groups  which  resources  and  tical  i n both  propositions Indian  claim;  c l a i m was  Pross's  to  Inasmuch  policy-making thesis,  higher  likely  as  the  to  Allied  organizational assets  other  contemplate,  the  legal  advanced;  and the  frame-  level  very  to  simply,  factors,  such  as  of  attain  their  is  access,  defeat  content  of  of  Pross  contexts  personalities  public  T r i b e s was  which  the  historical  levels  and  u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g the But  a  superior organizational  the  most  i n which  organizational character-  the  possess  those  organization.  specifically  group's the  are  to  and  access  are  objectives.  deficient  groups  claim  decision-making  not  according  of  which that  Communication";  the  of in  polinotably  Pross's the does the which  leaders;  4  the composition  of the group's membership; and  Federal-Provincial conflicts,  the impact of  must a l l be considered  i n an  attempt to e x p l a i n the f a i l u r e of the A l l i e d T r i b e s t o achieve  a settlement  of i t s c l a i m .  An examination of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and  activities  of the A l l i e d T r i b e s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of p o l i t i c a l science may earliest  c o n t r i b u t e to a b e t t e r understanding of  province-wide o r g a n i z a t i o n of B r i t i s h  Indians d e d i c a t e d claim.  Columbia  to the r e s o l u t i o n of the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s  Such an examination may  which should be explored pressure  the  also identify  some f a c t o r s  i n the a n a l y s i s of n a t i v e  groups i n Canada and Canadian pressure  Indian  groups i n  general. Approach  and  Method  While the A l l i e d T r i b e s was  the best known and  l o n g e s t - l i v e d of the n a t i v e groups committed to r e s o l u t i o n of the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m , e f f o r t s to c r e a t e i n t e r - t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were i n i t i a t e d of the t w e n t i e t h  century.  The  i n the f i r s t  The  c l a i m , and  years  aboriginal r i g h t s claim  dates from about the time of the union of B r i t i s h with Canada.  other  indeed  itself  Columbia  the s t r a t e g i e s of  the  A l l i e d T r i b e s , as w e l l as the response of government, were based on events which occurred the formation  i n the f i f t y years p r i o r  of the A l l i e d T r i b e s .  The  f i r s t chapter  t h i s essay d e s c r i b e s the circumstances of e a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y i n which the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m  to of  5  developed,  the e v o l u t i o n o f t h a t c l a i m , and the major  events  i n the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign between 1870 and 1916. The  account  o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s o f  the A l l i e d T r i b e s , given i n Chapters  two, three and f o u r , i s  based on m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e from a number o f  secondary  sources, from the h o l d i n g s o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and from the c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign g i v e n as evidence before the S p e c i a l Committee of 1927. Chapter  f i v e p r o v i d e s an account  o f the 1927 Commit-  tee h e a r i n g s . In the c o n c l u d i n g chapter are presented  the answers,  some t e n t a t i v e , some more d e f i n i t e , to the q u e s t i o n s which form the theme of t h i s t h e s i s :  How d i d the A l l i e d T r i b e s  pursue i t s c l a i m to r e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n land?  Why d i d i t f a i l t o achieve a settlement o f t h a t claim?  6  Footnotes  Canada, Department 1913-1914, p. 92.  of  Indian  Affairs,  Annual  Report,  2 O t h e r works i n w h i c h the A l l i e d T r i b e s and the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign a r e d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d e : E. Palmer P a t t e r s o n , "Andrew P a u l l and C a n a d i a n I n d i a n R e s u r g e n c e " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 6 2 ) ; G e o r g e M a n u e l and M i c h a e l P o s l u n s , The Fourth World: An Indian Reality ( O n t a r i o : C o l l i e r Macmillan Canada, 1974); George Edgar Shankel, "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m bia" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 4 5 ) . 3 In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to a r e c e n t short study of the o p i n i o n s o f C a n a d i a n s on I n d i a n s and I n d i a n i s s u e s , however, Roger G i b b i n s and J . R i c k P o n t i n g say t h e f o l l o w i n g : . . . the major I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s f o c u s upon the f e d e r a l government, and hence i n r e d r e s s i n g t h e s e g r i e v a n c e s i t i s t h a t g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h m u s t be i n f l u e n c e d . However, the I n d i a n vote i s not n u m e r i c a l l y s t r o n g enough t o a f f e c t t h e outcome o f an e l e c t i o n , e x c e p t i n a v e r y s m a l l number o f i n d i v i d u a l r i d i n g s . T h e i r l a c k of geog r a p h i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n has a l s o r e s u l t e d i n them n o t h a v i n g much r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n P a r l i a m e n t i t s e l f . Indeed, Indians not only l a c k these p o l i t i c a l resources, but they are r e l a t i v e l y l a c k i n g i n other compensating r e s o u r c e s , s u c h as e c o n o m i c power and s o c i a l p r e s t i g e , w h i c h m i g h t be t r a n s f o r m e d into p o l i t i c a l influence. Thus, the p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s which French Canad i a n s have u t i l i z e d are not e f f e c t i v e f o r I n d i a n s . Since they lack s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i t i c a l resources of t h e i r own, I n d i a n s may c h o o s e among t h r e e o p t i o n s : (1) r e l y i n g u p o n the p o l i t i c i a n s to a c t i n the Indians' i n t e r e s t s out of e s s e n t i a l l y h u m a n i t a r i a n m o t i v e s (an u n l i k e l y b u t n o t unprecedented event); (2) b e c o m i n g m o r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n the temperament o f the l a r g e r Canadian e l e c t o r a t e ; (3) a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e a b e t t e r b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n f o r t h e m s e l v e s by e n g a g i n g i n c o n f r o n t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , such as s i t - i n s o r c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s . Roger G i b b i n s and J . R i c k P o n t i n g , " I n d i a n s and Indian I s s u e s : What do C a n a d i a n s T h i n k " (Part I ) , "Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n i n S u p p o r t o f t h e N a t i v e P e o p l e s , " Bulletin, 17 (Decemb e r , 1976), 38-43. 4 Canadian  I n A. P a u l P r o s s , e d . , Pressure Group Behaviour Politics (n.p.: M c G r a w - H i l l Ryerson, 1975).  ^n  7  CHAPTER  ABORIGINAL THE  RIGHTS  IN  C L A I M AND  THE  Allied  Indian  i n 1916,  many  I  BRITISH  CAMPAIGN  COLUMBIA: 1849-1914  Introduction When t h e came  into  already  being  committed  Allied  T r i b e s was  groups  which  ment  to  rights  provide to  efforts opment 1916  the of  land  were of  and  small  had  to  as  attempted  the  aboriginal attempts  Provincial  and  validity  of  of  i n the  Columbia  province  aboriginal  those  individually  to  persuade  f o r the  loss  and  decided  This  made b y  had  chapter claim  organizations to Dominion  of  bands  convince as  native  that  in British  Governments,  The  govern-  aboriginal  examines  individual  were  rights.  of  rights  their  British  coalition  resources  ineffective.  the  a  compensation and  Indians  cause  formed  inter-tribal  the  the  Tribes of  individual the  Columbia  and  the well  devel-  the  first,  leaders as  to  the  of King,  claims.  Part I Why focus  of  Indian  political examine  the  aboriginal  grievances  activity?  three  Columbia: Crown  did  aspects  white  Colony  of  To  and  answer  of  the  settlement Vancouver  rights the this  early  claim  major  in  history  1849;  as  the  incentive to  question,  f o l l o w i n g the Island  emerge  of  one  must  British  c r e a t i o n of the  Indian  the  development  8  of  Indian  policy  Christian  of British In  Columbia  Columbia;  and t h e a c t i v i t i e s  of  missionaries.  Settlement  about  in British  Columbia  1854,  was  sixty  the total  about  white  population  one t h o u s a n d .  thousand."*"  By  The  of  Indian  British  population  1901, however, t h e r e  was  were  178,000  and t h e I n d i a n  popula-  2 non-Indian tion  residents of the province  had d e c l i n e d t o approximately  population, Island in  about  percent  few w h i t e s  The  impact  The  Mainland, Interior  settlement  Vancouver were  hunting  rapidly grounds  as w e l l  when  pursuits.  the coast,  more men  efficient  up  they  Most o f t h e  Interior  of the  on t h e v a r i o u s of their lands  by w h i t e  themselves  and b e t t e r - e q u i p p e d  f o r the mainstay  Only  i n the northern  less  undisturbed.  most  part  of the Indians' Interior  The n a t i v e s  on t h e s i d e l i n e s  were  native  and  the  groups  disturbing  Indians' agricultural  t o compete  and o r i e n t a l  area  areas.  central  into  the Indians  throughout  Province.  traditional  of this  with  o f t h e Lower  forced  white  remaining  traditional  ventured  were  percent  coast,  settlers,  as l i m i t i n g  Indians  Vancouver  the northwest  and g r a z i n g  taken  the white  thirty-five  I s l a n d and t h e souther  possibilities On  and about  to the resources  agricultural  Of  l o c a t e d on  Interior.  i n the northern  according  were  scattered along  of white  limited  native  and c e n t r a l  were  but  varied  percent  and t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  the southern  five  sixty  3 0,000.  fisher-  economy.  left  more  remained  the l i f e  with  of the  or  f o r the  9  aboriginal  rights  With and  the e s t a b l i s h i n g of white  t h e growth  Indians began  campaign.  of resource  gradually  Indians  farmed,  their  traditional  i n t h e new e c o n o m y .  raised  settlements  extraction industries,  abandoned  to participate  farming  stock,  worked  many  p u r s u i t s and  In the I n t e r i o r ,  as a g r i c u l t u r a l day3  labourers,  cowboys,  On t h e c o a s t , stevedores, worked  Indians  miners  exposed  to  ment  at this  of the history  title  characterized Provincial  of native  land  reversionary  interest  The second  ticularly  over  B o t h men  participation many  protest  i n white  Indians  Indian  f o r Indian  resistance  which  grievances.  in British  Columbia,  of abor-  The  develop-  which  acreage,  was o n e o f  was t h e i n f l u e n c e o f m i s s i o n a r i e s ,  Protestant  missionaries  became  Federal-  of reserve  and a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e ,  f o r two  contributed  by a c r i m o n i o u s  the questions  styles.  t h e advance  had i t n o t been Columbia  were  life  accompanied  Columbia.  level,  loggers,  a n d women  and t o European  confederation  disputes  and miners.  a t t e n t i o n on t h e concept  policy  after  navvies  fishermen,  centres,  of British  as a basis  of Indian  these.  t o urban  in British  remained  a focussing  iginal  Through  and l o c a l i z e d  settlement  have  aspects  commercial  t o the E n g l i s h language  white  railroad  and b o a t b u i l d e r s .  and m i g r a t i o n  Sporadic  might  became  i n the canneries.  industry  of  freighters,  on t h e n o r t h  coast.  par-  10  Indian Land  Policy  James term  of  later  office,  of  As  Chief  groups  1850 on  resources further  and  the  reserves  Douglas'  other  sioner  of  Indian  reserves  reduced new  Lands  the  size  reserves  carried  and  whose  granted.  The  about  ten  f o r an  with  between  Trutch in  a  128  despatch  to  the  the  Joseph  allotted but  a  reserve  acres  existence  Colonial  of  Office  by  his  the  Indians.  Chief  Commis-  extensive  settlement. Douglas of  five  and  They created  those  amounted  previto  (as  compared  of  Canada).  parts  aboriginal in  of  successors  that  allotment  i n other  the  providing  fraction  family of  Indian  expense  Trutch,  by  in  treaty.  when  of  however,  obstruct white  Indian  640  policy  united  concluded  with  the  were determined  were  average  and  also denied  not  areas  support a  he  Later,  the  interest  through  treaties  not  of  native  Company,  1864,  reserves  ously  acres  of  out  in  Works,  of  Bay  especially  should  Island,  l o c a t i o n s requested  retirement  officials,  Vancouver  finally a  Island.  could  i n the  brief  extinguishment  number  colony  of  Blanshard's  of  and  existence  Vancouver  he  Governor  Hudsons a  Richard  Columbia  formal the  southern of  the  1854  treaties,  extensive After  of  and  after  British  required  Factor  who  appointed  recognized  which  between  was  mainland  colonies, land  Douglas,  title,  stating  1870:  . . . the t i t l e of the Indians i n the fee of the p u b l i c l a n d s o r any p o r t i o n t h e r e o f has n e v e r been a c k n o w l e d g e d by g o v e r n m e n t , b u t on t h e c o n t r a r y i s d i s t i n c t l y denied..  11  By Douglas' Article  1871, t h e y e a r  Indian  land  policy  13 o f t h e T e r m s  Dominion  should  reserved  f o r Indians,  continue  a policy  Columbia  Government.  obliged when  quently  assume  by Canada.  "liberal"  of  argument  between  reserve  allotments.  similar  t o those  per f a m i l y which  entry  of British  joint  Reserve  attempt thirty were  years  Government  with  In  was  a few were  t h e terms which  while  of  the Province  of the ten acre prior  to the  I n 1876, a  I t laboured f o r While  some  reserves  t r a n s f e r r e d J . t o t h e Dominion  13 o f t h e T e r m s lands,  that  Indians  o f Union. t h e Dominion  o f t h e agreement provided  i n years  the size  f o r t h e use and b e n e f i t o f t h e  Indian  subse-  e s t a b l i s h e d i n an  success.  only  Columbia  confederation.  Commission  reserves  f o r allotments  standard  but limited  dealing with  Commission,  into  was  resulted  i n excess  had been  should  interpretation  over  o f Canada,  question.  by A r t i c l e  with  the proper  pressed  lands  by t h e B r i t i s h  and B r i t i s h  an a c r e  and  Government  disagreement  parts  that the  f o r Indian  the reserve  i n trust  required  ment  Allotment  set aside,  saddled  Columbia  to settle  pursued  lands  The Dominion  reversed.  the Dominion  t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s  i n other  provided  Provincial  about  confederation,  f o r Indians  that  as t h a t  and t h i s  reluctant to part with  allotment  which  Canada  however,  t h e word  as  specified  into  effectively  responsibility  T h e new  of  was  of Union,  13 t o p r o v i d e  disagreed,  entry  had been  as l i b e r a l  by A r t i c l e  requested  o f B.C.'s  was  also  creating the A l l o t -  any l a n d s  removed f o r  12  any  purpose  Province.  from  Because  C a n a d a was u n a b l e lands not  In  elsewhere  complaints  dating  any unused  an I n d i a n lifted  that  interest  later  the Dominion  on t h e grounds  appeal  Indian  to this  the province,  received  considerable  recommendations,  toward  an important  no  mention  the disallowance  groups  and t h e i r  evidence  during  Dufferin  lands.  as  legal  the Indian  I n 187 6,  Lord  Indian  publicity  relating  i t made  supported  of  General  sub-  Act consoli-  disallowance  recognition of aboriginal t i t l e .  policy  that  Although  had h i s t o r i c a l l y  Governor  a  as a b a s i s f o r  those  a Provincial  i n lands.  which  Minister of Justice,  to  Provincial  was  the attention of  especially  the Federal  the following year,  would  o r unneeded  a practice that  of aboriginal rights  disallowed  ordinances  interest,  of aboriginal t i t l e  and g r i e v a n c e s ,  Fournier,  land  counsel  the  reversionary  two i n c i d e n t s o c c u r r e d  the matter  I n 187 5,  to the  i n Canada.  to the issue  reserves.  was  or lease  1 8 7 5 - 1 8 7 6,  t o making  natives  Telesphore  of  to sell  revert  o f p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n and t o d i r e c t i n g  their to  should  of the Province's  the years  contributed  the  reserve  f o r the benefit of the Indians,  uncommon  ject  an I n d i a n  a  claim tour  denounced  H i s speech  and became,  building block  with  the Fournier  i n the natives'  case.  arguing  While  t h e Dominion  about  the existence  Columbia,  the Indians  were  and P r o v i n c i a l of native beginning  Governments  title  were  in British  to protest  the inadequacy  13  of  their  Valley  reserves.  submitted  Superintendent stated,  In July,  a petition  of Indian  1874, I n d i a n s t o D r . I . W.  Affairs  of the Fraser  Powell,  for British  Dominion  Columbia.  They  i n part:  F o r many y e a r s we h a v e b e e n c o m p l a i n i n g o f t h e l a n d l e f t us being too small. We h a v e l a i d o u r c o m p l a i n t s b e f o r e t h e government o f f i c i a l s n e a r e s t us; they sent us t o some o t h e r s ; s o we h a v e h a d n o r e d r e s s u p t o t h e p r e s e n t ; a n d we h a v e f e l t l i k e men t r a m p l e d o n , a n d we a r e c o m m e n c i n g t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e a i m o f t h e w h i t e men i s t o e x t e r m i n a t e u s a s s o o n a s t h e y c a n , a l t h o u g h we have been always q u i e t , o b e d i e n t , k i n d and f r i e n d l y t o the whites. We c o n s i d e r t h a t e i g h t y a c r e s p e r f a m i l y i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y f o r our support and f o r t h e f u t u r e welfare of our children. We d e c l a r e t h a t t w e n t y o r t h i r t y acres per family w i l l not give s a t i s f a c t i o n , but w i l l c r e a t e i l l f e e l i n g s , i r r i t a t i o n among o u r p e o p l e , a n d we c a n n o t s a y w h a t w i l l b e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s . ^ It in  i s probable  the preparation of this  missionaries The and  Indian  the Indians petition,  received  perhaps  assistance  from C a t h o l i c  i n the area. Interior  i n t h e 1870's,  situation, an  that  Indians  they  t h a t many  were  white  were  a l s o becoming  so a g g r i e v e d  settlers  feared  dissatisfied,  by t h e r e s e r v e the outbreak  of  war.  T h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n no war . . . P o w e l l a t t r i b u t e d solely t o t h e l a c k o f u n i t y among t h e I n d i a n s a n d n o t i n a n y way to t h e absence o f s u f f i c i e n t p r o v o c a t i o n . P o w e l l was n o t b e i n g a l a r m i s t ; some w h i t e s e t t l e r s a n d m i s s i o n a r i e s shared h i s views. U n t i l t h e l a n d g r i e v a n c e s were s e t t l e d , no m o n e y g r a n t s o r p r e s e n t s w o u l d h a v e p l a c a t e d t h e Indians. P o w e l l s t a t e d t h a t t h e N i c o l a and Okanagan I n d i a n s , t h e most s e r i o u s l y d i s a f f e c t e d , r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t h i s customary g i f t s , f e a r i n g t h a t by t a k i n g any t h e y m i g h t b e t h o u g h t t o b e w a i v i n g t h e i r c l a i m f o r comp e n s a t i o n f o r t h e i n j u s t i c e t h e y f e l t was b e i n g d o n e t o them. r  14 An although  aspect  o f Dominion I n d i a n  not d i r e c t l y  influenced  connected with  i t , was t h e p o t l a t c h law.  I n d i a n A c t was p a s s e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which, the land  T h i s amendment  i n 1884 and n o t r e p e a l e d  1930's.  I t p r o h i b i t e d p o t l a t c h i n g and w i n t e r  integral  parts of the s o c i a l  Indians,  especially  the Kwakiutl.  legal prosecution  both  of the coast  c u l t u r e , e x p o s e d many  and c o n t r i b u t e d t o I n d i a n  Indians  antipathy As e a r l y a s  n a t i v e groups p e t i t i o n e d f o r r e p e a l o f the r e l e v a n t  section of the Indian Act. for  u n t i l the  The b a n n i n g o f p o t l a t c h i n g  t o w a r d t h e F e d e r a l Government and i t s a g e n t s . 1887,  to the  dancing,  and e c o n o m i c l i f e  seriously disrupted traditional to  question  defence  They s o u g h t l e g a l  i n c o u r t and f o r p o s s i b l e ways o f  t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e law. extremely enforced  difficult until  became b o t h  advice,  both  circumventing  B e c a u s e t h e p o t l a t c h l a w was  t o enforce  several years  and was n o t , i n f a c t ,  after  i t s enactment,  actively  Indians  r e s e n t f u l o f t h e l a w and c o n t e m p t u o u s o f t h e  Government's a b i l i t y  to enforce  i t .  The p o t l a t c h law became 7  a  "major f a c t o r  and of  i n t h e emergence o f a s e n s e o f i n j u s t i c e "  c o n t r i b u t e d to the "experience the Indians  . . . and  i n C a n a d i a n modes o f t r i a l  sophistication  p r o c e d u r e and  g political Paull, of  manipulation."  a young Squamish who  n a t i v e accused  leaders  Some I n d i a n s ,  s u c h a s Andrew  a s s i s t e d i n the l e g a l  of contravention  i n the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s  defence  o f t h e law, l a t e r  campaign.  became  One o f t h e g r o u p s  most a f f e c t e d by t h e p o t l a t c h law, however, t h e S o u t h e r n  15  Kwakiutl,  was  a  all  i t s efforts  and  finding  latecomer were  ways  to  to  the  occupied c a r r y on  campaign,  in  fighting  native  largely the  because  potlatch  law  despite  the  ceremonies  law. By to  settle  ground  their  to  Vowell,  1909,  a  the  efforts  of  Canada  d i f f e r e n c e s over  halt.  reported  The in  Indian  and  reserve  Reserve  British  Columbia  allotments  Commissioner,  had A.  V.  1909:  . . . t h e Honourable the C h i e f Commissioner o f Lands has r e f u s e d t o s a n c t i o n any f u r t h e r a l l o t m e n t s o f l a n d s t o I n d i a n s u n t i l t h e d i s p u t e between t h e D o m i n i o n and p r o v i n c i a l Governments as t o r e v e r s i o n o f t h e r e s e r v e s has been s e t t l e d ; t h e work o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n c a n n o t t h e r e f o r e be p r o c e e d e d w i t h p e n d i n g a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e question. Meanwhile, the country i s being s e t t l e d very r a p i d l y 'and l a n d s a l l o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e a r e b e i n g occup i e d as homesteads e t c . by i n c o m i n g s e t t l e r s and interf e r i n g more o r l e s s w i t h t h e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g g r o u n d s of the Indians.g With in  reserve  the  and  white  advance  allotment  Indians  land  the  of  of the  B.C.  ally,  reserve  the  rights cial  rapidly to  encroachments. which  had  white  arising  need  reserves,  of  from  p r o t e c t what  land  Protest against begun  question  i n the  1870's,  merged as  with a  the  result  claim  to  compensation  f o r the  loss  assisted  natives  in preparing  of  could  issue of of  the  delay conflict, value  of  from of Graduaboriginal  Federal-Provin-  Protestant  the  the  encouraged  the  increased.  on  and  the  inadequacy  aries  land  coast,  of  they  the  Missionaries, especially  northwest  and  inter-governmental  became c o n s c i o u s  w h i c h became p u b l i c i z e d  disputes.  settlement  Indians  aboriginal  missionin  rights  petitions  and  their to  16  sending  delegations  to  the  Provincial, Federal  and  British  Governments.  Missionaries The in  the  stem  involvement  development  from  Shankel  a  desire  has  of  missionaries  of  the  aboriginal  to  foment  in British  rights  political  Columbia  campaign  unrest.  did  Rather,  not as  stated:  With rate exceptions, missionaries are not concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h p o l i t i c a l problems; t h e y a r e , however, v i t a l l y concerned w i t h government p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g the w e l f a r e o f t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom t h e y l i v e a n d serve. Should the government f o l l o w p o l i c i e s t h a t bar the way to a normal m a t e r i a l advancement of the p e o p l e , the m i s s i o n a r i e s may p r o t e s t and a g i t a t e t o t h e e x t e n t o f being considered by t h e g o v e r n m e n t as v e r y u n s e t t l i n g in their influence. The were  Oblates  Interior apart the  first  in  from  natives  order  to  and the  missionaries Jesuits  early  spreading from  their  of  south  under  control  system"  i n s t i t u t e d where  they  of  the  Columbia  coast  principal  European  aims,  communities was  Their  the  in British  C h r i s t i a n message,  worst  the  arrive  reached  1840's. the  the  accomplish  who  to  and  concern,  was  to  protect  "civilization."  established priest.  In  close-knit  "Bishop  Durieu's  possible.  B i s h o p ; i D u r i e u s . s y s t e m , ;was a t h e o c r a t i c kind' of < ' i n d i r e c t rule. W i t h the p r i e s t s a c t i n g as u l t i m a t e authority, and t h r o u g h t h e i r a d v i c e and d i r e c t i o n , I n d i a n authorit i e s were d e s i g n a t e d t o r e g u l a t e s o c i e t y a t the local l e v e l . ^ 1  In well the  as  their  pagan  Indians  to  attempts  beliefs, European  the  to  eradicate  Catholic  social  and  heathen  customs  missionaries political  as  introduced  structures.  17  While  they  existing  exercised  structures  recognition Christian system the  (i.e.,  influence  t o those  European)  on i s o l a t i o n  settlers  persons  through  however,  Indians  Roman  England  Church Missionary  made  organization  in a  the first  1857.  William  and  from  and with t h e  mainland and By 1910,  converted  to  effort  Duncan,  established  established  public  works,  municipal Dominion Indian  and c l a s s  a village  a native  government.  Protestant  of British  Columbia.  to Port  an i n d u s t r i a l  Christian community—at  t h e rank  by a  a l a y worker,  as e s t a b l i s h i n g s e v e r a l modern  abolished  o f the Church o f  t o the Indians  I n 1862, Duncan  self-supporting  he  communities  had been  Society  significant  to minister  C.M.S. s e n t  well  Durieu's  Catholicism. The  The  most  disintegrated.  areas  most  and behaviour.  t h e lower  I n t e r i o r , t h e system i n those  became  settlement,  south-central most  who  o f the Indian  white  through the  the p r i e s t s granted  in beliefs  o f advancing  of white  t o some d e g r e e  of authority,  and power  depended  spread  control  mission—  Metlakatla.  As  industries i n the village,  system  o f h i s Tsimpsean  c o u n c i l , a committee and o t h e r  At the height  of h i s success,  sought  flock,  i n charge of  police force,  and P r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s  Simpson  features  Duncan's  of a  both  advice  on  administration. In  187 9,  however,  bishopric  and BishOp  control.  As Duncan  the north  Ridley refused  arrived  coast  was c r e a t e d  i n Metlakatla  t o abandon  h i s charges  a  t o assume there  18  followed  a  bitter  struggle  missionary,  i n which  that  and  the  Duncan land  on  "Mission Church the  the  which  Point"  number  of  been  the  took  of  village  having  beneath  Indians  residents  the  Missionary  land  the  between  was  The  built,  village  was  buildings to  prevent  them  the  had  no  two  claimed  rights  acres  t r a n s f e r r e d to  not  lay  Ridley  the  natives,  their  and  sides.  Metlakatla  formally  Society.  Bishop  appalled  of  the  that  even  theirs, demolished  falling  into  to  a  Ridley's  hands. In gave  up  the  Annette  struggle,  Island  Duncan's sparked have  18 8 6 D u n c a n  been  rather,  the  by  northern  Mission  neighbours,  to  their  Chiefs  from  a  protests  Point  the  the  village new  The  for  lands.  and  the  and  their  moved  not,  Alaska  Tsimpsean  With  as  Naas  18 87, River  land,  might  was  followed,  and  their  r e c o g n i t i o n of In  to  rights in  did  move t o the  Metlakatlans  Metlakatla.  controversy  Nishga,  Simpson  of  over  a g i t a t i o n by  traditional  Port  the  build  subside.  extensive  rights  to  Indian  expected,  a majority  abandoned  in Alaska  removal, by  and  Indian  a delegation Valley  of  travelled  13 to the  Victoria,  Provincial  protection the of  native  their  and  demands o f  The the  sent  a  a missionary.  for  tribal  Provincial  protest,  coast.  by  Government  for  Federal  north the  accompanied  a  and  territories. Governments,  joint  commissioners Indian  treaty  They p e t i t i o n e d  groups  In  in  varied  guarantee the  alarmed  commission noted  a  of  their  same by  of year,  the  extent  i n q u i r y to report  according  to  the  that the  19 14 denomination t o which each group adhered. They pinned much o f t h e b l a m e f o r i n c i t i n g I n d i a n p r o t e s t o n M e t h o d i s t missionaries. dispute  One  commissioner  as the beginning  Provincial Shankel  land  of the idea  was v e s t e d  remarks,  was  cited  the Duncan-Ridley that  the t i t l e  i n the Indians.  not altogether  This  to a l l  charge,  true..,  Granted t h a t . . . [ t h ed i s p u t e ] . . . formed extremely fertile soil, i n which t h e idea f l o u r i s h e d as a green b a y t r e e , b u t i t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r t h e D u f f e r i n s p e e c h o f 1876 t h a t t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t openly espoused the cause o f t h e Indians i n respect t o land., r  Although their  protests  traditional providing  of  land  of  lands,  the white  and were  rights claim,  question.  the value  notion  against  the conceptual  aboriginal the  the missionaries  and l e g a l they  underpinnings  from  1870 o n w a r d ,  Governments,  discussion.  The support  sympathizers  became much more i m p o r t a n t  developed—as devised  the claim  f o r advancing By  the Indians'  1904, n i n e t y  percent  initiate  awareness and t h e  of the actions  a matter  of the missionaries  i n l a w was  i n  of the  Indian  as a r e s u l t  in  Indians'  instrumental  discussed,  increased  and P r o v i n c i a l  of the  d i d n o t b y any means  o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s was,  the Federal  the Indians  occupation  undoubtedly  As e a r l i e r  of land  supported  of public  and o t h e r  white  as t h e campaign  established  and s t r a t e g i e s  claim.  of the Indians  of  British  16 Columbia  were  Interior  remained  was d i v i d e d  nominally  among  Christian.  predominantly the Anglican  The s o u t h  Catholic. Church,  coast  The n o r t h  the Methodists,  and coast and  20  to  a  lesser extent,  missionaries enlarged they, the  gave more  reserves  like  the  S a l v a t i o n Army. support  than  for  Protestant  to  such  education,  new  schools,  although  operated  by  religious  strengthen  influence  their  over  On  the  the  r i g h t s campaign  been  subject  the  the were  the  of  the  for  title,  indirectly  Federal This  demands  native  political  the  with  younger  coast,  of  equality  bodies.  bond  inal  to  by  Catholic  Indians'  through  of  the  funded  While  missionaries,  forms  C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s as  the  recognition  a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign  western  to  the  advanced  introduction  of  organization men.  Most  Indian  Government,  permitted  natives  the  and  were  churches  through  their  generation. centres  of  initially  earliest  and  activity those  most  i n the  areas  intense  aborig-  which  had  missionary 17  activity may  be  and  conjectured  aboriginal the of  rights,  Indians' advancing  Indian over  this  pattern that  missionary  while  stemming  material white  welfare,  settlement  administration  the  persisted  to  the  through support  in part  also and  for  years. the  from  derived  the  the  cause  concern  from  extension  churches'  It  the of  exclusive  of  about  threats  Federal  influence  natives.  Part II Part which on the  the  I of  contributed concept  year  of  i n which  this  chapter  outlined  to  gradual  focussing  a  aboriginal rights. the  Allied  Tribes  three of  Indian  Between was  major  1903  factors attention and  formed—activity  1916— in  21  the  aboriginal  years,  the f i r s t  organizations with  rights  port  began  early  t o take  joined  Basil  steps  Capilano,  before  the King.  state their  the  up l a n d s  Indians  went They  They  were  extinguished,  apparently  from  would  tell  that  Some  they  twenty  the Special Joint  the claims  of the Allied  chief,  permitted  complained  that  that  settlers  white  native  of the Indians,  Agents.  and arduous  a belief  and  and were n o t c o n s u l t e d Indian  chiefs,  complaints  an audience  the consent  accomplished  a., l o n g  for justice.  They  journey  years  Committee  their appears  look later,  were and t h a t  i nthe  Although  nothing,  should  soon  particularly the  to lay their  given  grievances.  Crown  into  were  without  t o sup-  i n the Interior  and t h e Squamish  t o England  of Federal  undertake  stemmed  largely  developed  claims.  coast,  Chilihitza,  h a d no v o t e  appointment  to  tribes  their  of the south  had n o t been  petition  to press  and John  Joseph  taking  was  I n 1906, a d e l e g a t i o n o f two I n t e r i o r  David  title  attempts  relations  demands.  a s 1903, I n d i a n  by n a t i v e s  Cowichan.  i n these  these  inter-tribal  i n their  organizations that  i n their  During  to create  the Indians  Direction  the Indians  increased.  w e r e made  to represent  by t h e w h i t e  As  to  attempts  government.  provided  campaign  their willingness t o have  directly  to the  Chilihitza  appointed  to inquire  Tribes:  I am g o i n g t o r e f e r t o t h e t i m e w h e n S p r o a t c a m e a s a messenger from t h e Queen. . . . The I n d i a n s were t o l d by S p r o a t t h a t t h e Queen w o u l d n o t t o u c h t h e i r Indian  22  r i g h t s and t h e i r r i g h t s w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e r i g h t t o k e e p their native t i t l e s . Sproat t o l d a l o t of things to the I n d i a n s o f what the Queen s a i d , b u t I w i l l n o t speak a b o u t t h a t , a s i t w i l l t a k e t o o much t i m e , b u t the I n d i a n s have k e p t i n mind what S p r o a t t o l d them concerni n g the w h i t e man., 0  1o  In formed  1909,  f o r the  the  "Indian  purpose  of  Tribes  stating  of  British  Indian  Columbia"  grievances  and  was seek-  19 ing  a  solution  apparently of  the  a  Interior  the  help  of  the  loose  north  the  of  alliance  coast,  A.  of  began 20  Teit,  to  e t h n o l o g i s t , developed  "Indian  Rights  Columbia,"  had  legal to  hands the  taken  of  the  an  The  of  A.  Friends  and  In  was and  the  and  Indians  same  regular meetings  trapper  year,  and  scout  with  turned  organization called  the  E. 21  group  ually  through Rights  River the  Indians of  was  the  Prior  Indian  1909 and  Tribes  of  Anglican  Toronto  as  to  group's  financial  support  the  the  a  of  together  numerous  Federal  1913,  British  the  formation  sent  Salish,  A s s o c i a t i o n , submitted  at  Friends  i n the and  lawyer  the  i t s defeat  Canada  to ministers  Okanagan  and  until  i t s life,  Between  a  British of  retained  gave moral  in Eastern  of  members  O'Meara,  campaign  during  Governments.  Thompson  Indian  Nishga.  an  orders,  delegations  Shuswap, or  bands  S p e c i a l Committee.  Tribes  and  Provincial  the  formed.  Anglican  associated  petitions  Salish  hold  "Friends  aboriginal rights  Allied  with  the  was  counsel.  the  Coast  o r g a n i z a t i o n composed  congregations,  who  Tribes  Association."  1910, an  Indian  a white  amateur  In  The  i n c l u d i n g the  Indians  J.  issues.  the  either  and Nishga,  individ-  Columbia  number  of  or  23 declarations British  Colonial  to  one  petition,  Secretary  Indian  Tribes  first that the  of  time  the  such  petition,  of  a  the  with  goal  of  taking Privy  of  Canada  and  of  to  Columbia  the  asked  the  Governor  General,  that  claim  the  directly  to  Council.  This  apparently  was  had  in part  of  his  Tribes,  natives'  was  b e e n made.  retained  course  the  1913  and  letters  O'Meara  1909  to  submitted  Allied  the  1909  i n March  by  claim  One the  the  Nishga  the  conjecture  submission  the  of  1909  in  involvement  clung  to  Judicial  may  for  future he  the  and  with  tenaciously Judicial  to  the  Committee  Council.  1909  sent  be  he  the  Members between  British  responsible  entire  and  tion,  Governments  presented  request  for  them  the  the  in April  Privy  O ' M e a r a was  through  and  and  aboriginal title  Committee  of  p e t i t i o n s to  Columbia. In  the  and  Friends several  to  the  delivered  a  of  Indians  pamphlets  Premier  number  the  of  and  for  the  public  produced  public  Prime  distribu-  Minister,  lectures  in  the  22 Vancouver  area.  The impressed McBride native  Government  with  these  of  British  efforts.  r e i t e r a t e d the  In  Province's  Columbia 1909,  was  not,  Premier  long-standing  however,  Richard denial  of  title:  Of c o u r s e i t w o u l d be m a d n e s s t o t h i n k o f c o n c e d i n g t o t h e I n d i a n ' s demands. I t i s too l a t e to d i s c u s s the e q u i t y o f d i s p o s s e s s i n g t h e r e d man in America.^ In  later  years,  neither  he  nor  his  successors  would  depart  24  from  this  position.  Prime explore issue  the  M i n i s t e r L a u r i e r , however,  possibility  through  the  of  courts.  rights  In  the  Attorney  British  Columbia  Justice  to  prepare  questions  British  Columbia  with  The  native  Justice the in  that  and  they  were to  the  be  met  of  to  the  O'Meara)  consent  to  questions by  appears and to  have  dealt of for  consulted  considered  Indians.  When  approval, i f the  of  counsel  been  of  in  Minister  Legal  to  for  reference  affairs  proposed  apparently the  Minister  Court  the  Columbia.  McBride  the  Indian  Supreme  approved  satisfactory  Deputy  Federal  to  the  ten  questions  to  the  relating  a l l were  submitted  1910,  with  for British  (probably  would  refused  and  of  May,  submission  three  Counsel  framing  questions he  title  Indians the  first  to  aboriginal  of  Canada.  inclined  r e s o l v i n g the  General  for  was  the  however,  first  three  24 questions  were  The a  way  and  to  reference of  Cabinet  Federal  Government  force British  early  issue  included.  1911, to  the  the  was  Columbia  Indian  Exchequer  aboriginal title.  Act  into was  Court In  therefore  of  May,  court.  twice  In  amended  Canada 1911,  obliged  to  late to  1910 permit  dealing with a  find  Committee  of  a  the the  reported:  I t i s now p r o p o s e d . . . on t h e p a r t o f y o u r E x c e l l e n c y ' s Government t o i n s t i t u t e p r o c e e d i n g s i n the Exchequer C o u r t o f Canada on b e h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n s a g a i n s t a P r o v i n c i a l g r a n t e e or l i c e n s e e i n t h e hope o f o b t a i n i n g a d e c i s i o n upon t h e q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d as soon as a c a s e a r i s e s i n which the main p o i n t s of d i f f e r e n c e can be properly or conveniently tried.-,-  25  Laurier's take  a  case  Government to  to  court,  on  Government, Dr.  J.  A.  by  J.  matter  and  adopted  McBride.  the  were d e f e a t e d  however,  immediately  S i r Richard  decision  Liberals  of  than  aboriginal  Order-in-Council  McKenna  Borden's  a more  Rather  Royal  before  of  they  could  Conservative  accommodating press  for a  title,  the  May  24,  approach  judicial Federal  1912,  appointed  Commissioner  . . . t o i n v e s t i g a t e c l a i m s p u t f o r t h by and on b e h a l f of t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as t o l a n d s and rights and a l l q u e s t i o n s a t i s s u e between t h e D o m i n i o n and P r o v i n c i a l Governments and t h e I n d i a n s i n r e s p e c t t h e r e t o and t o r e p r e s e n t t h e Government o f Canada i n n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a: s e t t l e m e n t o f such questions.2^ After relations most  in British  important  voking  Indian  sion  of  In  lengthy  a  that  reviewing  a  unrest  a l l lands  Columbia,  was  which  memorandum  reference might,  public  interest"  land  history  issue dividing  courts  to  the  of  the  the were to  i n the  Indian-Government  McKenna the  two  concluded  that  governments  and  Province's  claim  a l i e n a t e d from  McBride,  matter  of  i n McKenna's words and  of  "throw doubt  prorever-  reserves.  acknowledged  aboriginal "injuriously the  the  Indian  McKenna  upon  to  the  title  to  affect  validity  the the  of  province."  As s t a t e d i n o u r c o n v e r s a t i o n s , I a g r e e w i t h you as t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f now r a i s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s and as as t h e p r e s e n t n e g o t i a t i o n s go, i t i s d r o p p e d . ^ Thus  title  Cail  to far  states:  I n t h i s way t w o p o l i t i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e f r i e n d s a c c o m p l i s h t o t h e i r m u t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n two w h a t h a d b e e n d i v i d i n g t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s f o r  could months years.  o p  26 For the  r e m a i n d e r o f h i s r e p o r t , McKenna  to persuade the ary i n t e r e s t . Province the as  P r e m i e r t o abandon B.C.'s c l a i m t o r e v e r s i o n The  Dominion the  Indians  Royal  Commissioner c o n s i d e r e d  w o u l d make t h i s  a few  Indian  more, t h e w o u l d be  establishment  attempted  concession reserves  and  would t r a n s f e r t o  already  s e t a s i d e , as  Federal-Provincial dispute  resolved.  of another  McKenna d i d n o t  reserve  allotment  favour  as  i t w o u l d m e r e l y r e p e a t much o f t h e work done by  however, e a s i l y  h o l d on 1912,  convinced  reversionary t i t l e  the  proposed  two  and  Commission a p p o i n t e d  p a r t i e s had  come t o no  t h a t t h e m a t t e r be  for  time-consuming,  i n 187 6.  to r e l i n q u i s h  to reserve  the  commission,  a n t i c i p a t e d i t would be  not,  costly  well  concerning  he  Reserve Allotment  both  t h a t i f the  the  lands.  By  McBride  was  Province's August,  a g r e e m e n t and  r e f e r r e d t o the  the  McKenna  Secretary  of  29 State  f o r the  provided  f o r i n the  Provincial did  not  Colonies  for decision.  Terms o f U n i o n i n c a s e  disagreements over  relish  the  rights,  Provincial  Premier with  State  lands.  On  FederalPerhaps McBride  t h a t he  had  secured  McKenna t o d r o p t h e  a draft  a  r e f e r e n c e t o the to  1912,  the  large  i s s u e of the  Secretary  drastically  claim to a reversionary i n t e r e s t  September 24,  was  of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l  f o r the C o l o n i e s , McBride agreed  lands.  of  f o r a month a f t e r McKenna p r e s e n t e d  modify the P r o v i n c e ' s Indian  decided  i n persuading  aboriginal  of  reserve  interference  S e c r e t a r y o r p e r h a p s he enough v i c t o r y  Such a c o u r s e  in  McKenna-McBride  27  Agreement was  signed, providing that:  Whereas i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o s e t t l e a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e G o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e D o m i n i o n and t h e P r o v i n c e r e s p e c t i n g I n d i a n l a n d s and I n d i a n a f f a i r s g e n e r a l l y i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; t h e r e f o r e t h e p a r t i e s above named have, s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e D o m i n i o n and t h e P r o v i n c e , a g r e e d upon t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l s as a f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g to Indian a f f a i r s i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. By  t h e t e r m s o f t h e Agreement, f i v e  were a p p o i n t e d ,  two  e a c h by  t h e c h a i r m a n by  the  first  was  use  t h e D o m i n i o n and  acreage  of the  required  exceeded  area of  necessary.  the  Indian Act,  The  P r o v i n c e was  the a d d i t i o n a l  consent  and  The  and  Commission  land included i n reserves  that "reasonably  I n d i a n s , " upon t h e  by  the Province  four commissioners.  empowered t o r e d u c e t h e  where t h e  commissioners  required for  of the  to a l l o t  Indians  the  as  extra lands  where  o b l i g e d to convey to the  Dominion  lands  w i t h f u l l power t o t h e D o m i n i o n t o d e a l w i t h t h e s a i d l a n d s i n s u c h a manner as t h e y may deem b e s t s u i t e d f o r the purposes of the Indians, i n c l u d i n g a r i g h t to s e l l t h e s a i d l a n d s and f u n d o r u s e t h e p r o c e e d s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e I n d i a n s . ^-^ Excess  l a n d s were t o be  sold  by  the Province  p r o c e e d s d i v i d e d e q u a l l y between t h e P r o v i n c e  and  in  agreed  trust  f o r the  Indians.  Thus, the P r o v i n c e  I n d i a n r e s e r v e s were f i n a l l y relinquish  allotted  and  the  confirmed,  i t s claim to a reversionary i n t e r e s t  and  the  Dominion t h a t when i t would  i n Indian  lands. For the p r o v i n c e assessing  three years  the  Royal  hearing testimony  their  needs f o r l a n d .  Commission t r a v e l l e d  from the  I n d i a n bands  In response  to the  through  and Indians'  28 submissions  concerning  responded t h a t they  aboriginal  had  no  title,  the  Commissioners  power t o d e a l w i t h t h e  question;  32 t h e i r mandate was as t h e  Skidegate  reserves  lest  to set aside r e s e r v e s . Haida  their  and  Some b a n d s ,  such  the G i t k ' s a n , r e f u s e d to d i s c u s s  claims concerning  aboriginal  title  be  33 jeopardized. assured  the  The  n a t i v e s t h a t no  reserves without The seeded their not  C o m m i s s i o n e r s on  the  i n some c a s e s  l a n d s w o u l d be  Indians'  activities  of the  Royal  native  nothing  title  Indians  Indians'  diminished.  a chance t o a i r t h e i r  spread  of  Since C o l u m b i a had of  their  of  the  rights advisor  Indian 1887,  As  title,  traditional  Indians,  had  was  however, i t  engendered  by  the  grievances, in fact,  the  Royal  Commis-  have c o n t r i b u t e d t o  unrest. t h e Naas V a l l e y i n n o r t h w e s t  lands. first  c l a i m when he was i n 1909.  suc-  fears that  British  been a h o t b e d o f I n d i a n a g i t a t i o n o v e r O'Meara, c o u n s e l  to the  become i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e t a i n e d as t h e N i s h g a s '  While the Nishga,  issue of a b o r i g i n a l the  have  the Commission  probably  e n c o u r a g e m e n t , were b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y  by  from  Because the Commission h e a r i n g s o f f e r e d  s i o n ' s t o u r o f t h e P r o v i n c e may, the  the  to reduce the a g i t a t i o n  issue.  removed  C o m m i s s i o n may  empowered t o d e a l w i t h a b o r i g i n a l  c o u l d do  occasions  consent.  of a l l a y i n g  r e s e r v e s w o u l d be  numerous  rights,  the  Interior  with  the  Friends  aboriginal legal O'Meara's  e x e r c i s e d by Indians,  loss  the  represented  I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n , were i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r  29 e f f o r t s t o persuade Prime M i n i s t e r Borden t o d e a l w i t h claims.  their  In January 1912, a p e t i t i o n signed by n e a r l y a l l  the l e a d e r s o f t h e I n t e r i o r bands was presented M i n i s t e r a t Kamloops.  t o the Prime  In March of t h a t year, J . A. C l a r k e ,  counsel t o the Indian Rights A s s o c i a t i o n , as w e l l as T e i t and  s e v e r a l Indian A c h i e f s , i n c l u d i n g C h i l i h i t z a , met with  Borden a t Ottawa. Meanwhile, the Nishga had decided, upon O'Meara's 34 recommendation,  t o submit t h e i r c l a i m s i n the form o f a  p e t i t i o n t o the Governor General of Canada and t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s .  I t i s probable  t h a t O'Meara was  the main author o f the Nishga P e t i t i o n , f o r i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t many n a t i v e Indians i n 1913 would have possessed the knowledge o f B r i t i s h law and the f a c i l i t y i n t h e E n g l i s h language which were d i s p l a y e d i n the p e t i t i o n .  The p e t i t i o n  was sent, not only t o l e a d e r s of the F e d e r a l and Imperial Governments, but a l s o t o the Indian Rights A s s o c i a t i o n and the F r i e n d s o f the Indians. The Nishga P e t i t i o n s t a t e d : While we c l a i m the r i g h t t o be compensated f o r those p o r t i o n s of our t e r r i t o r y which we may agree t o s u r r e n der, we c l a i m as even more important the r i g h t t o r e s e r v e other p o r t i o n s permanently f o r our use and b e n e f i t and beyond doubt the p o r t i o n s which we d e s i r e so t o r e s e r v e would i n c l u d e much of the land which has been s o l d by the province. We c l a i m t h a t our a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s have been guaranteed by Proclamation o f King George T h i r d and r e c o g n i z e d by Acts of the Parliament of Great B r i t i a n . ~ r  30  The five  years  Nishgas' later,  claim  was  in  against  1913, the  as  i t would  Province,  be  not  forty-  against  Canada. We a r e i n f o r m e d t h a t i n t h e c o u r s e o f r e c e n t negotiations t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has c o n t e n d e d t h a t under the terms of Union the Dominion of Canada i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making t r e a t i e s w i t h the Indian t r i b e s in settlement of t h e i r claims. . . . We c a n n o t p r e v e n t t h e p r o v i n c e f r o m p e r s i s t i n g i n t h i s a t t e m p t , b u t we can a n d d o r e s p e c t f u l l y d e c l a r e t h a t we i n t e n d t o p e r s i s t i n making our c l a i m s a g a i n s t the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia . 3 D r  O ' M e a r a may the  Colonial  Andrew  Paull  aboriginal had  just  tance  Secretary, (a y o u n g  rights  returned  of  personally  getting  a  for  have  on  delivered  February  S q u a m i s h who  had  campaign s i n c e  1910)  from  and  England,  Privy  Council  17, been  the  1914,  he  to  the  that  the  the  wrote  in  him  emphasizing on  to  active  advising  decision  Petition  he  impor-  Nishga  37 Petxtxon. When t h e  P e t i t i o n was  studied  by  Duncan  Campbell  General  of  Indian  Affairs.  to  the  Superintendent  received  Scott, In  General,  his  i n Ottawa,  Deputy report  Scott  i t  was  Superintendent of  March  11,  1914  stated:  I f i n d i n d i c a t i o n s i n the papers t h a t the Government i s not u n w i l l i n g to submit t h i s c l a i m to the c o u r t s , but the d i f f i c u l t i e s which are inherent i n t h i s c l a i m and w h i c h may have p r e v e n t e d i t s s u b m i s s i o n so f a r have n o t b e e n o v e r c o m e ; t h e two m a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s a p p e a r t o be:1. The r e f u s a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o c o n s e n t t o a s t a t e d c a s e w h i c h w o u l d i n c l u d e any r e f e r e n c e t o the Indian title. 2. U n c e r t a i n t y as t o the e x t e n t o f c o m p e n s a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t be demanded by t h e I n d i a n s i f t h e y w e r e s u c c e s s f u l b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s , and i f t h e Crown f o u n d i t good p o l i c y to e x t i n g u i s h the t i t l e of the Indians.  31  With r e f e r e n c e to the f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y , I would propose t h a t i t be h e l d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s f u l l y " d i s c h a r g e d i t s o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h e n a t i v e s by g r a n t i n g them from the p u b l i c domain of the p r o v i n c e r e s e r v e . l a n d s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , a n d t h a t , i f t h e I n d i a n c l a i m i s found v a l i d by t h e C o u r t o r the P r i v y C o u n c i l and i f i t i s t h o u g h t a d v i s a b l e t o o f f e r anything f u r t h e r i n extinguishment of t i t l e , the Dominion s h o u l d assume t h e b u r d e n and c o m p e n s a t e t h e Indians a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a s t usage i n such arrangements as has b e e n made b y t h e g o o d - w i l l o f t h e C r o w n w i t h t h e aborigines. The D o m i n i o n has i n t e r e s t i n t h e l a n d s o f t h e R a i l w a y B e l t and t o t h i s e x t e n t , w o u l d b e n e f i t by extinguishment of the Indian t i t l e . 3  Scott the  question  the  Exchequer  Judicial his  considered of  Indian  Court  Committee  recommendations  These (June  of of  that  title  the  best  would  be  Canada, the  with  with  a  number  reiterated  21,  recommended  which  way to  right  Privy Council.  c o n d i t i o n s were 1914)  8  of  to  finally  submit of  the  appeal  Scott  conditions,  claim to  hedged  to  the round  however.  in Order-in-Council the  resolve  P.C.  751  reference.  The C o m m i t t e e , on t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e Superintend e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , a d v i s e t h a t t h e c l a i m be r e f e r r e d t o the Exchequer Court o f Canada w i t h r i g h t o f appeal to the P r i v y C o u n c i l under the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i tions: 1. The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h a l l , by t h e i r C h i e f s o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i n a b i n d i n g way, agree, i f t h e C o u r t , o r on a p p e a l , t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , d e c i d e s t h a t they have a t i t l e t o l a n d s of the P r o v i n c e , t o surrender s u c h t i t l e , r e c e i v i n g f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n b e n e f i t s t o be granted f o r extinguishment of t i t l e i n accordance with p a s t u s a g e o f t h e Crown i n s a t i s f y i n g t h e I n d i a n c l a i m to unsurrendered t e r r i t o r i e s , and t o a c c e p t t h e f i n d i n g of t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as a p p r o v e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e D o m i n i o n and t h e P r o v i n c e as a f u l l a l l o t m e n t o f r e s e r v e l a n d s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t a s p a r t o f t h e compensation. 2. That t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by g r a n t i n g t h e s a i d r e s e r v e s a s a p p r o v e d s h a l l be h e l d t o h a v e s a t i s f i e d a l l claims of the Indians a g a i n s t the P r o v i n c e .  32  T h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a l l be p r o v i d e d and t h e c o s t t h e r e o f b o r n e by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e D o m i n i o n of Canada. 3. That the Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l be r e p r e s e n t e d b y c o u n s e l , t h a t t h e I n d i a n s s h a l l be r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l n o m i n a t e d and p a i d by t h e D o m i n i o n . 4. That, i n the event o f the Court of the P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i d i n g t h a t t h e I n d i a n s h a v e no t i t l e i n t h e l a n d s o f the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, the p o l i c y of the D o m i n i o n t o w a r d s t h e I n d i a n s s h a l l be g o v e r n e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . When cated  to  allow  the  ".  .  the  O'Meara  and  reference  . refused  offered  terms  them  to  in  of  the to  take  the  the  Order-in-Council  Nishga,  they  flatly  In  Drucker's  advantage  of  the  history  of  the  land  communi-  refused  proceed.  best  were  to  opinion  they  opportunity  contention  for  their  4 0 day  i n court."  conditions fits  they  would on  the  not  The  placed could be  terms  on  Indians the  receive  i n the  reference from  native  proposed  by  apparently  a  favourable  interest  the  would  to  Dominion  considered so  limit  that  the  bene-  decision, that  agree  to  the 41 Government.  the  i t  reference  Footnotes A Note on  Sources:  The m a t e r i a l i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s d r a w n p r i m a r i l y f r o m W i l s o n D u f f , The Indian History of British Columbia, Volume I, The Impact of the White Man ( V i c t o r i a : D e p a r t m e n t of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1964); George E d g a r Shankel, "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " ; F o r r e s t E . L a V i o l e t t e , The Struggle for Survival (Toronto: Univ e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) ; a n d R o b e r t C a i l , Land, Man and  the  Law: The Disposal  (Vancouver:  of Crown Lands in B r i t i s h Columbia,  University of  British  Columbia  1871-1913  Press,  1974).  S h a n k e l ' s " D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n P o l i c y " was the f i r s t d e t a i l e d s t u d y made o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n G o v e r n m e n t r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and has b e e n a major source f o r subsequent s t u d i e s of the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign i n B r i t i s h Columbia. C a i l ' s study of the d i s p o s a l o f C r o w n l a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was o r i g i n a l l y an M.A. t h e s i s submitted to the Department of H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and i n c l u d e s c o n s i d e r a b l e m a t e r i a l on t h e I n d i a n l a n d q u e s t i o n b e f o r e 1913. I have used L a V i o l e t t e ' s w o r k w i t h c a u t i o n a s o t h e r a u t h o r s h a v e q u e s t i o n e d some o f his i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and conclusions. In P a r t 2 o f t h i s c h a p t e r I have drawn on t h e h o l d ings of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , especially i t s c o l l e c t i o n o f p a m p h l e t s and p e t i t i o n s p r o d u c e d by Indian o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e e a r l y part of the twentieth century. The o f f i c i a l p a p e r s o f P r e m i e r M c B r i d e h a v e a l s o b e e n u s e d , a l t h o u g h much o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n h i s f i l e s has been r e p r o d u c e d elsewhere. The m a j o r s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s u s e d w e r e C a i l and Shankel.  Duff,  p.  43.  2  Trends,  . . . . J . L. R o b i n s o n , " P o p u l a t i o n m B r i t i s h Columbia: D e n s i t i e s , D i s t r i b u t i o n , " Transactions of the Seventh  British  Columbia 3  1909,  pp. 4  Natural  Canada,  Indian  Resources  Department  Conference, of  Quoted i n P a t t e r s o n , R e s u r g e n c e , " p . 18 4. 5  6  Quoted  in Cail,  Ibid.,  p.  205.  Indian  1954,  D,  211.  A f f a i r s , Annual  "Andrew P a u l l  Appendix  p.  Item  3,  and  pp.  Report,  Canadian  300-301.  34 7 g  L a V i o l e t t e , p. I b i d . , p.  97.  76.  9 Department of Indian A f f a i r s ,  Annual Report, 19 09,  p.' 252. "*"°Shankel, p. Patterson, Resurgence," p. 21. 1 1  174. "Andrew P a u l l and Canadian Indian  12 Shankel,  pp.  160-161.  13 I b i d . , p.  165.  14 B r i t i s h Columbia, "Papers R e l a t i n g to the Commiss i o n appointed to Enquire i n t o the S t a t e and C o n d i t i o n s of the Indians of the Northwest Coast of B r i t i s h Columbia," Sessional Papers, 1888, p. 420. S h a n k e l , pp. 189-190. 1 5  1 6  Duff,  p.  87.  17 Shankel,  p. 14 9.  18 Canada, Parliament, Report of the S p e c i a l Committee of the Senate and House of Commons to I n q u i r e i n t o the Claims of the A l l i e d Indian T r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columbia (Ottawa, 1927), p. 142. (Hereafter c i t e d as " J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee). 19 L a V i o l e t t e , pp. 127-128. 20 J . A. T e i t came to B r i t i s h Columbia from S c o t l a n d . As a young man, he became a guide and scout i n the I n t e r i o r and e v e n t u a l l y a student of Indian c u l t u r e s . At one p o i n t , he a s s i s t e d Marius Barbeau i n h i s ethnographic s t u d i e s . 21 A r t h u r O'Meara was born i n P o r t Hope, O n t a r i o i n 1859 and was c a l l e d to the Bar i n 1885. In 1905 he abandoned the p r a c t i c e of law and entered the d i a c o n a t e of the A n g l i c a n Church. He was sent to the Diocese of S e l k i r k ( l a t e r Yukon) i n the same year. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r he became i n t e r e s t e d i n the Indian c l a i m s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s and was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the n a t i v e r i g h t s campaign f o r n e a r l y t h i r t y years. E. Palmer P a t t e r s o n , "Arthur O'Meara, F r i e n d of the Indians," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 58 ( A p r i l , 1926), pp. 91-92.  35 22  Friends British  C o p i e s o f pamphlets and speeches p r e p a r e d by t h e o f the Indians are found i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f Columbia. 23  Quoted  i n LaViolette,  p.  127.  24 1, 1 9 1 0 . Affairs"  P r e m i e r M c B r i d e t o Prime M i n i s t e r L a u r i e r , December O f f i c i a l Papers of Premier Richard McBride, "Indian f i l e , Provincial Archives of British Columbia. 25 J o i n t S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e , p . 52. 26  Ibid.,  p.  8.  27 McBride  McBride  J . A. J . McKenna t o P r e m i e r M c B r i d e , J u l y Papers, "Indian A f f a i r s " file. 28 C a i l , p. 233. 29 J . A. J . M c K e n n a t o P r e m i e r M c B r i d e , J u l y Papers, "Indian A f f a i r s " file. 30 McBride Papers, "Indian A f f a i r s " file. 31 32 33 34  McBride  Papers,  Special  Joint  Drucker,  p.  Patterson,  "Indian A f f a i r s "  Committee,  p.  7,  1912.  7,  1912.  file.  21.  94. " A r t h u r O'Meara,  Friend  of the Indians,"  94, 35 Joint Petition.  Ibid.,  Special p.  Committee,  59.  pp.  See Appendix  58-60. B  for text  of the  37 Patterson,  94,  Joint 38. 39 40 41  Ibid.,  Special  p.  Drucker, Manuel  " A r t h u r O'Meara, Committee,  p.  55, p.  98.  and P o s l u n s ,  p.  83,  Friend 56  of the Indians,"  36  CHAPTER  THE  ALLIED  TRIBES:  II  THE  EARLY  YEARS  Introduction Because ting  aside  Affairs rights  reserve  was  Dominion affairs  lands,  unable  in British  empowered  to  i t s terms  to  to  the  natives'  on  the  claims.  e s t a b l i s h i n g Indian  of  the  in  British  of  a more  reversionary  to  rest,  turb for  the  Columbia secure  that the  quo  r e s o l u t i o n of  would  vastly  bitterly  resented  that  the  the  as  to  Indian  the  their  assisting  was  between  Indian  in effect  agreed  be  Province.  comfort  would  from  the  gains.  the  aboriginal rights  proposal issue  be  by  the  last,  Few  Indians  the  prospect  Many  feared,  u n w i l l i n g to  dis-  in their  claim.  the  at  laid  natives  of  therefore,  were  Many n a t i v e s  appointment  the  free,  lands.  be  the  and  limited,  would  aboriginal rights the  was  lands  had,  reserve  set-  Indian  r e s o l u t i o n of  which  great  Government  the  well  to  to  of a b o r i g i n a l  a l l disputes  seeking  of  on  Federal-Provincial disputes  by  outweigh  opposed  They  the  of  Commission  interest  Dominion  status  of  limited  Commission  governments  reserves  to  issue the  relating  derived  were  Commission  the  While  Royal  tenure  once  with  two  matter The  Royal  settlement  the  to  rather,  deal  Province  i n general,  disagree  a  reference  the  Columbia.  effect  and  of  The  thus  Commission.  Federal  adjudicated  losses  were  Royal  search  Cabinet  under  rigid  37  conditions. The lated  among  adopted iginal the  Nishga  by  the the  rights  claim.  formed  taking  of  the  The  Privy  Growing Support  Interior  met  at  the  to  D.  for  of  Bridge The  the  Scott,  to  Deputy  Government's title  to  October  Canada,  advising  the  the  came of  to  circube  the  abor-  settlement of  British  Petition  to the  number  and  of  and  Columbia  and  was  i t s goal  Judicial  Coast  Committee  support  Interior.''"  In  of  Indian  presumably,to  discover  also  their  the  D.  to  state  reference  of  the  McTavish,  British  an  of  what  had  objections  the matter  of  Court.  Reverend  Indians, issued  Indians of  petition  Superintendent General  Exchequer  P.  f o r the  lengthy  the  Teit,  consult  Committee  Mr.  a  J . A.  to  and  1915,  of  by  Indians  sent representatives  was,  the  Salish  assisted  their  Minister  proposed  Indian Affairs  of  a  Nishga  to  Friends  of  widely  Petition  the  petition  of  for a  d e l e g a t e s drew up  their  cil  claim  to declare  of  the  conditions  Indians, encouraged  become  of  Columbia,  the Nishga  1915,  purpose  In  was  general statement  rights  Their  aboriginal  which  Indian Tribes  Affairs.  the  British  the Nishga  forwarded  C.  1913,  Council.  same m o n t h ,  with  of  a  support  Petition. was  and  native  Spence's  Nishga  as  Allied  February  and  which  claim  the  In  Indians of natives  i n 1916  of  Petition  Dr.  Tucker,  Social  Services  Chairman  explanatory  Columbia  not  Chairman  of  Coun-  the  statement to  accept  the  38  terms of the r e f e r e n c e proposed by the F e d e r a l Government. They advised  that the Indians  should r a t h e r , u n i t e t o  secure  r e f e r e n c e of the Nishga P e t i t i o n to the J u d i c i a l Committee 2  of the P r i v y C o u n c i l . groups f o l l o w e d t h e i r Creation  of the Allied  In June, 1916,  a number of  Indian  advice.  Tribes  At a meeting h e l d i n Vancouver i n the e a r l y summer of 1916,  the Nishga together with t h e i r d e c l a r e d a l l i e s . ,  with Coast S a l i s h and  north coast groups i n r e j e c t i o n of  proposed r e f e r e n c e to the Exchequer Court  and  to  t r i b e s and  the work of the Royal Commission.  represented  joined  The  the  i n opposition bands  at the June meeting were, from the I n t e r i o r :  Okanagan, Lake or Senjextee, L i l l o o e t , Kutenai,  the  Thompson R i v e r at Couteau,  C h i l c o t i n , C a r r i e r , Tahlton; and  from  c o a s t : the Nishga, Tsimpsean, K i t i k s h a i n ( G i t k ' s a n ) , Haida, 3  B e l l a Coola, Cowichan, and Lower F r a s e r or S t a l o . An E x e c u t i v e Committee was of which were B a s i l David a Haida who  was  e s t a b l i s h e d , two  and John C h i l i h i t z a .  members  Peter  Kelly,  connected w i t h the A l l i e d T r i b e s from i t s  f i r s t meeting, may  a l s o have been a member of the  T e i t was  S e c r e t a r y and O'Meara r e s i g n e d h i s honor-  appointed  Executive.  ary appointment to the Nishga to become l e g a l counsel t o the A l l i e d Tribes. The  Executive Committee immediately i s s u e d a s t a t e -  ment which was  sent to the Prime M i n i s t e r of Canada and  S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s .  The  Committee  the  concluded  39  its  statement  by  asserting:  While i t i s b e l i e v e d that a l l of the Indian T r i b e s of t h e P r o v i n c e w i l l p r e s s on t o the J u d i c i a l Committee, r e f u s i n g t o c o n s i d e r a n y s o - c a l l e d s e t t l e m e n t made u p under the McKenna-McBride Agreement, the Committee a l s o f e e l s c e r t a i n that the t r i b e s a l l i e d f o r that purpose w i l l a l w a y s be r e a d y t o c o n s i d e r a n y r e a l l y e q u i t a b l e m e t h o d o f s e t t l e m e n t o u t o f c o u r t w h i c h m i g h t be p r o posed by t h e Governments.^ The  Nishga,  the  Governor  the  Nishga  the  Privy  the  Governor  meanwhile,  General  Petition Council. General  were  seeking  in connection with be  referred  On  September  informed  to  the  17,  their  assistance of  request  Judicial  1916,  O'Meara  the  the  that  Committee Secretary  of to  that:  . . . w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o y o u r l e t t e r o f May 2 0 and your i n t e r v i e w s w i t h me . . . I am c o m m a n d e d b y h i s R o y a l H i g h n e s s t h a t he c o n s i d e r s i t t h e d u t y o f t h e N i s h g a T r i b e of Indians to await the d e c i s i o n of the [Royal] C o m m i s s i o n a f t e r w h i c h i f t h e y do n o t a g r e e t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s s e t f o r t h by t h e Commission, t h e y c a n a p p e a l t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n England where t h e i r case w i l l have e v e r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . O'Meara ".  .  . definite  would  consider  plausible  wanted  passage  of  the  assurances the  this .  Petition  . of  letter  . that the  no  time  Royal  part of  and  the  the  the  be  H.M.  Nishga  and of  Indians'  conveying  Privy  Council  T r i b e . A  i s that  publication  Commission,  to  Nishga  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , , however,  General  of  interpreted  the  hoped  the  more  Governor that  with  the  recommendations  g r i e v a n c e s would  be  assuaged. Although Tribes, their  they  behalf.  the  d i d not Even  Nishga rely after  on  w e r e members that  of  the  Allied  organization to  O ' M e a r a was  retained  by  act  on  the  Allied  40  Tribes,  he  Nishga. and  apparently  The  Nishga  Sedgewick  1918,  they  Privy  Council  by  to  the  as  requested  and  Royal  also  act  their  the  the  of  Commission,  to  as  the  the  in  as  in  of  a  the  Smith,  Fox  of  the  rejected to  In  report  rejected  ought  to  London.  Government  turn,  matter  counsel  firm  forward  1915,  had,  the  act  agents  firm  June,  Nishga  to  retained  stating that,  Order-in-Council  Petition  continued  be  May,  to  the  Canada  had  Nishga the  Report  decided  by  of  the  7 Judicial  Committee  December, Lord  the  were  the  Nishgas'  President  Nishga  of  of  the  Privy  agents Privy  complaining  of  Council.  received  Council.  On  the He  the  16th  decision  of  of  replied that  the i f  the  the  . . . e x e c u t i v e a c t i o n o f Canada or B r i t i s h Columbia . . . s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to the J u d i c i a l Committee t o consider the a c t i o n s of the Dominion or P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s c o u l d o n l y be o r d e r e d on t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s and t h a t he w o u l d a d v i s e s u c h a r e f e r e n c e a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n and in accordance with the advice r e c e i v e d from the Dominion Government. In t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s H i s L o r d s h i p c a n n o t see h i s way t o t a k e any f u r t h e r a c t i o n on t h e P e t i t i o n . g Either or the  they  the  Indians  misunderstood  Allied  Tribes  were  i t , for  stated  that  not  in  a  informed  of  this  letter  p e t i t i o n prepared  i t s case  v/as  pending  in  in  1919,  the  9 Privy  Council.  encouraged  the  In  Palmer  Indians  would,  i n due  course,  rights  in British  to  Patterson's believe  decide  Columbia."*"^  upon  that the  opinion, the issue  O'Meara  Judicial of  Committee  aboriginal  41  The A l l i e d Tribes In Indian  Against  the  the Royal  e a r l y autumn  Affairs  in British  report.  The  Commission  reserves  and  removing  known a s  Provincial the  1916  until  mendations, reserves  the for  was,  that  of  consent  Minister  the  was  where  those  lands  and  the  be  acres  were  to  to  become  Royal  problem  be  Indians  removed  upon  the  as  as  On  December  18,  1918,  Lands,  wrote  to  T.  D.  Arthur  Delay  the  the  in  in  1916.  his  death,  to  view  an  acceptable  of  Indian  land  to  in their  which  Patullo,  about  stipulated  without  "Indian  Meighen,  constit-  concerned  reserves by  on  Several  Agreement  required  to  Columbia.  located  from  recom-  explained  inclined  in British  McKenna-McBride  could  be  Commission  were  the  land.  h i s m i n i s t e r s were more  of  of  less  and  the  no  additions  may  additional grants  reserves  take  Conservatives  Brewster  apparently the  Crown  the  could  as  nor  recommendations  accepted  provided  and  Dominion  the  Government  Government  under  opposed  Oliver of  of  Indian  members  clause no  on  i t s voluminous  87,000  the  Government  Bowser  Government Oliver,  to  Federal  Columbia  recommendations  uencies. the  Commission  latter  implement  Provincial  defeat  John  to  all,  the  Liberal  neither  after  by  reserves  1919,  to  part  Liberal  adding  acres—the  land  British  solution  Royal  submitted  the  the  the  and  Provincial  of  under  the  recommended  47,000  The  part  The  1916,  Columbia  G o v e r n m e n t moved  Committee.  action  of  "cut-offs." Between  of  Commission  the  Act."  Provincial  M i n i s t e r of  the  42  Interior, the  t o a s c e r t a i n whether  proposed  c u t - o f f s would  the consent  i n fact  be  of the Indians  to  required:  I t had been suggested t h a t an understanding was a r r i v e d at b e t w e e n t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s t h a t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d n o t be r e q u i r e d . Before g i v i n g f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h i s j o i n t r e p o r t , I w o u l d l i k e t o know d e f i n i t e l y from you whether o r n o t t h e consent o f t h e Indians i s required i n order t o e f f e c t the reductions recommended by t h e C o m m i s s i o n . ^ Meighen  replied  sions  of the "Indian  added  that  after  that  consent  A c t " would  the acceptance  according  indeed  to the provi-  be r e q u i r e d .  He  of the Report,  . . . i t becomes t h e d u t y o f t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o obtain these surrenders. An i m m e d i a t e e n d e a v o u r w i l l b e made t o o b t a i n t h e m a n d i t i s o u r o p i n i o n t h a t we w i l l m e e t w i t h success.^ The  British  Meighen's  optimism  of  Affairs  Indian  Columbia about  would  Cabinet  the ease be a b l e  apparently  with  which  to obtain  d i d not  share  t h e Department  Indian  consent  to  13 the  cut-offs.  ter  o f Lands,  On F e b r u a r y introduced  Bill  1 8 , 1 9 1 9 , T . D.  Patullo,  Minis-  17 t o empower  . . . the Lieutenant Governor i n Council . . . [to] . do, e x e c u t e , and f u l f i l l every a c t , deed, matter o r t h i n g necessary f o r the carrying out o f the said [McKennaM c B r i d e ] Agreement between t h e Governments o f t h e Dominion and t h e P r o v i n c e a c c o r d i n g t o i t s t r u e i n t e n t , and for g i v i n g e f f e c t t o t h e r e p o r t o f t h e s a i d Commission, e i t h e r i n whole o r i n p a r t , and f o r t h e f u l l and f i n a l adjustment and s e t t l e m e n t o f a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s a i d Governments r e s p e c t i n g Indian lands and I n d i a n affairs in.the Province.^ Section the  Provincial  consent  3 of the B i l l Government  t o the proposed  provided  f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n by  i n the process  cut-offs.  of obtaining  Indian  43  Without l i m i t i n g t h e g e n e r a l powers o f t h i s A c t c o n f e r r e d , t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may, f o r t h e purpose o f adjusting, r e - a d j u s t i n g or confirming the r e d u c t i o n s , c u t - o f f s , and a d d i t i o n s i n r e s p e c t o f Indian r e s e r v e s proposed i n t h e s a i d r e p o r t o f t h e Commission, c a r r y on s u c h f u r t h e r agreements whether w i t h t h e Dominion G o v e r n m e n t o r with the Indians a s may b e f o u n d n e c e s sary f o r a f u l l and f i n a l adjustment o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s a i d G o v e r n m e n t s . ^ (emphasis added) The ment the  Bill  was p a s s e d  Act" received A c t was  forwarded  When Indian  Deputy  3.  assent  reviewed  In a letter  Minister  on March  f o r review  D. C . S c o t t ,  Affairs,  Section  royal  and t h e " I n d i a n  Affairs  Settle-  29, 1919.  I n May,  to the Federal  Government.  Deputy  Superintendent  General  the Act,  he o b j e c t e d  strenuously  o f August  o f J u s t i c e , he  of to  14, 1919, t o t h e F e d e r a l  stated:  I d e s i r e t o p r o t e s t as s t r o n g l y as I can against the passing o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A c t i n i t s present form, enabling the Lieutenant Governor i n Council t o deal d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e I n d i a n s , t h e wards o f t h i s Government, in t h e matter o f t h e r e d u c t i o n s , c u t - o f f s and a d d i t i o n s in respect o f Indian reserves rather than d e a l i n g with t h i s government as h e r e t o f o r e . ^ E. reported  L . Newcombe,  Scott's  British  Columbia.  General  replied,  intended It  was  t h e Deputy  comments  t o t h e Deputy  On O c t o b e r stating  to dispense  with  Minister  that  of Justice,  Attorney  General  21, 1919, t h e D e p u t y Section  of  Attorney  3 o f t h e A c t was n o t  the requirements  f o r Indian  consent.  merely  . . . f o r t h e purpose o f e n a b l i n g o u r Government t o e n t e r i n t o any mutual arrangements which might be f o u n d n e c e s s a r y . . . . I f no f u r t h e r a g r e e m e n t s t o w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s a r e t o be a c o n s e n t i n g p a r t y a r e c o n t e m p l a t e d , S e c t i o n 3 c o u l d be d e l e t e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y . I f a f u r t h e r agreement of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s r e q u i r e d , t h i s department would have to a d v i s e o u r Government t h a t w i t h o u t an enactment  44  c o n t a i n i n g words s i m i l a r to those now would have no power to enter i n t o any  i n S e c t i o n 3, they such an agreement.^,  Faced with the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia Government would not proceed  with implementation  of the  Report of the Royal Commission unless i t could be t h a t consent  assured  of the Indians would be obtained, Meighen  S c o t t began t o c o n s i d e r how  and  they might d e a l with the problem  of p o s s i b l e Indian r e l u c t a n c e to p a r t w i t h the c u t - o f f l a n d s . Meanwhile, O l i v e r , perhaps i n order to gauge the degree of r e s i s t a n c e he c o u l d expect  to the proposed c u t - o f f s , asked  the A l l i e d T r i b e s f o r a statement of i t s o b j e c t i o n s to the Report of the Royal  Commission.  In June, 1919 T r i b e s was  the f i r s t general meeting of the A l l i e d  h e l d at Spence's B r i d g e .  Committee was  A permanent  Executive  e l e c t e d , of which P e t e r K e l l y became Chairman 18  and Andrew P a u l l , Recording  Secretary.  S e v e r a l c h i e f s of  the I n t e r i o r t r i b e s , i n c l u d i n g John C h i l i h i t z a , were members of the Committee. In the course of the meeting, the A l l i e d decided to respond to Premier O l i v e r ' s request ment of c i t s prepare  grievances.  for a state-  K e l l y and T e i t undertook to  the statement which was  adopted at a meeting of the 19  E x e c u t i v e Committee on November 19, was  Tribes  1919.  p u b l i s h e d i n the form of a pamphlet and  The  statement  apparently  given  wide c i r c u l a t i o n — a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the Indians were beginning to c o n s i d e r p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n as a necessary 4. 4.1. • . 2 0 to t h e i r campaign.  adjunct  45  On Premier the In  December  Oliver.  I t first  actual present support  conceded authors 1763;  of their  General,  the  claim.  Committee  First,  settle  Controversy."  i n 1910 t h a t the courts; supposed  t o the Report since Article  toward  a l l matters  the land  relating  would  deal  with  Tribes'  o f Union  and  affairs  d i d not  Provincial  t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s  to Indian  that  Commission:  13 o f t h e T e r m s  the Indians,  S i r contro-  assurances  set out the Allied o f the Royal  of  the Governor  of the Privy Council then  21  had "long ago"  Proclamation  a l l the obligations of the Federal  Governments  what i s  i n the Province, the  the Royal  made  before  The p e t i t i o n  objections  define  cited  Land  Canada  title  t h e Duke o f C o n n a u g h t ' s  Judicial  t o "make c l e a r  to  o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e i n 1875;  be b r o u g h t  the  main  that  of native  L a u r i e r ' s promise  would  was p r e s e n t e d  of the Indian  contention  o f the statement  Wilfrid  undertook  position  the existence  the report  versy  19, t h e s t a t e m e n t  could not  as though i t  had. Second, be  c u t o f f from  to  be added;  inadequate  f o r t h e needs  held  i n trust  felt  that  tribal  reserves  which were  the reserve groups.  reserve  recommended t o  value  lands  than  those  be  utterly  would  o f the Indians.  t h e Commission f o r each  t h e Commission  of f a rgreater  f u r t h e r , t h e added  Third,  of  the lands  Indian lands  recommended  that  band,  the A l l i e d  ought  while  t o be h e l d  the lands  be  Tribes  f o rthe benefit  46 Fourth, off  from  ceeds  the  reserves  going  to  should  the  the  Government  of  the  Province.  The  paid  to  or  held  Part  Report  Canada  the  provision  additional  were for  granted, a  only  30  acres  acres  per  capita  The twenty for  per  of  160  acres  of  the  reserves  statement  per  should  ing  reserve  Tribes be  to  be  Indians'  and  right  with  owned  unable  to  State  to  that  that take  the  Allied  no  the  Rockies 64 0  acres  160  hunting,  fishing  water  be  fish,  to  and  a  standard  foreshores  and on  The  the  Allied  matters  should  Colonies.  restrictions  basis  concerned.  agreement  question  a  conditions  areas  tribes  listed as  The  Governments  f o r the  salt  noted,  recommended  Tribes  a l l resources  reach the  the  Statement  grievances.  i f the  the  statement  had  con-  standard.  the  by  and  in  to  be  land.  "facts  of  to in  rather,  T r i b e s proposed  increasing reserve  that,  of  Commission  pro-  half  lost  amounting  Allied  Indians'  be  a l s o demanded  adjusted,  by  allotments,  Secretary  east  cut  a l l Indians  account  Indians  be  the  other  which  The  to  of  should,  into  reserves  The  the  submitted  section of  capita,  proposed  Tribes  the  the  sale  tribes  reasonable  provision for  of  and  lands.  Royal  c o n d i t i o n s proposed  included  to  a  penultimate  settlement  to  the  capita. as  B.C.  taken  reserve  treaty,  five,  one-half  statement be  lands  with  the  that while  under  family of  of  that  b e n e f i t of  f o r the  should  things,  of  f o r the  in trust  which  other  sold  proceeds  siderations"  among  be  Government  I I I of  of  recommended  be  The and  whether  submitted Allied  water  imposed  relat-  on for  rights the personal  47 or  commercial The  for  purposes.  Allied  T r i b e s requested,  any i n a d e q u a c i e s  final  allocation  or inequities  i n addition,  t h a t might a r i s e  o f l a n d s and f u r t h e r  pensation f o r the surrender  requested  of aboriginal  i t was p r o p o s e d ,  should  s y s t e m s o f e d u c a t i o n and m e d i c a l contained  the f i r s t  t a k e t h e form care.  to lands S u c h compen-  o f adequate  The s t a t e m e n t  r e q u e s t by t h e I n d i a n s  ment o f p a s t and f u t u r e e x p e n d i t u r e s  i n the  g e n e r a l com-  title  w h i c h w o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n r e s e r v e a r e a s . sation,  compensation  also  f o r the reimburse-  i n connection with the  22  Indian  land In  controversy. i t s c o n c l u d i n g p o r t i o n , t h e statement  assured the  Government t h a t t h e v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f t h e p e t i t i o n fully  d i s c u s s e d a t v a r i o u s i n t e r - t r i b a l meetings o f the  p r i n c i p a l member t r i b e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . thus  represented Having  The  statement  t h e " w e l l - s e t t l e d mind o f t h e A l l i e d  s t a t e d what t h e y  Tribes."  c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l  c o n d i t i o n s o f an e q u i t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t , t h e A l l i e d then  had b e e n  Tribes  expressed t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o consider a l t e r n a t i v e s . We have c a r e f u l l y l i m i t e d o u r s t a t e m e n t o f what we t h i n k s h o u l d be c o n d i t i o n s o f s e t t l e m e n t t o t h o s e we t h i n k a r e r e a l l y necessary. We a r e n o t p r e s s i n g t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s o f s e t t l e m e n t upon Government. I f t h e Governments a c c e p t o u r b a s i s and d e s i r e t o e n t e r i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h u s , we w i l l be r e a d y t o meet them a t any t i m e . In t h i s conn e c t i o n , we d e s i r e t o make two t h i n g s c l e a r . F i r s t l y , we a r e w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t any a d j u s t m e n t w h i c h may be made i n a r e a l l y e q u i t a b l e way, b u t we a r e n o t p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t a s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h w i l l be a mere compromise. Secondly, we i n t e n d t o c o n t i n u e p r e s s i n g o u r c a s e i n t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l u n t i l s u c h t i m e a s we s h a l l o b t a i n a judgment o r u n t i l s u c h t i m e a s t h e Governments s h a l l have a r r i v e d a t a basis of settlement with us.,.  48  The response.  Allied  Tribes waited  Finally,  during  Chairman  wrote  to Oliver  and t o P a t u l l o  sions  with  and  pursuant  o f the Friends asking  as requested  to Section  for a  t h e s p r i n g a n d summer  P. D. M c T a v i s h ,  the Indians  s e v e r a l months  o f 1920,  of the Indians,  them  to begin  i n t h e 1919  3 o f t h e B.C.  "Indian  discus-  statement  Affairs  24 Settlement McTavish,  Act."  On O c t o b e r  6,  1924, P a t u l l o  wrote t o  saying:  L e t me s a y t h a t t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n h a s g i v e n u s a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n c e r n , a n d y o u may b e p e r f e c t l y sure t h a t we p r o p o s e t o t r e a t t h e s u b j e c t a s f a r a s t h e Indians are concerned, i n generous f a s h i o n . I have so t o l d t h e I n d i a n Department a t Ottawa and I hope t h a t t h e Indians themselves w i l l r e a l i z e i t . T h e r e i s n o t doubt, however, t h a t i t would o n l y l e a d to confusion f o r us t o hold separate n e g o t i a t i o n s with the I n d i a n s i n a d d i t i o n t o w h i c h i t would be e n t i r e l y c o n t r a r y t o t h e s p i r i t and i n t e n t o f o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e Dominion Government i n t h i s q u e s t i o n . Patullo's by  direct  light  the  discussions with  o f what  Because  resolved  happened  o f these  Report  problem  opinion that nothing  o f the Royal  the  Commission  by t h e Dominion  purposes  1920.  to discuss  the Indians.  The  to the cut-offs  had  been  advised  that f o r  Government.  14, 1919, S c o t t  of earring  accomplished  1919 a n d e a r l y  had no need  with  consent  be  i s understandable.in  i n late  the Province  of obtaining Indian  On N o v e m b e r  the Indians  i n Ottawa  events,  would  Meighen  o u t t h e McKenna-McBride.Agreement,  . . . i t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t P a r l i a m e n t s h o u l d l e g i s l a t e enabling h i s Excellency i n Council to give authority to the Province t o s e l l [ t h e c u t - o f f ] l a n d s when t h e I n d i a n s r e f u s e t o s u r r e n d e r them under t h e c o n d i t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by t h e A g r e e m e n t . o a  49  On a  step  January  further.  9,  He  1920,  stated  Scott in  a  carried his  letter  I am e n c l o s i n g h e r e i n a d r a f t to enable the Governor General i n c a r r y out the-report of the Royal A f f a i r s f o r the Province of B r i t i s  to  recommendations  Meighen,  of the postponed b i l l Council to confirm and C o m m i s s i o n on Indian h Columbia.  S e c t i o n 4 of the McKenna-McBride Agreement . . . appears to contemplate the d i s p o s a l of a l l r e d u c t i o n s recommended w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , and i t m i g h t be t h a t no d i f f i c u l t y w o u l d be e n c o u n t e r e d i n c a r r y i n g o u t this m a t t e r , b u t i t i s j u s t p o s s i b l e t h a t i n some i n s t a n c e s t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t , t h r o u g h some i n f l u e n c e o r p r e j u d i c e , r e f u s e to g i v e the necessary consent. I t h i n k we should p r o v i d e a g a i n s t such a contingency i n our legislation c o n f i r m i n g t h a t a l l r e d u c t i o n s and c u t - o f f s s h o u l d be e f f e c t e d without the consent of the Indians. I do not s e e t h a t any i n j u s t i c e w o u l d be d o n e t o any b a n d by such a provision. T h e s e r e d u c t i o n s o r c u t - o f f s a r e recommended o n l y where t h e I n d i a n s h e l d more l a n d t h a n t h e y r e q u i r e d . When t h e s e c u t - o f f s a r e s o l d , h a l f o f t h e p r o c e e d s w i l l go t o t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e b a n d and w i l l be o f m o r e r e a l b e n e f i t t o t h e m t h a n w o u l d t h e l a n d w h i c h t h e y do not  Meighen 12,  1920  he  Settlement Dominion  the  introduced of  of  respecting said  Indian  and Lands  Province."  delegation  a  Nishga;  of  the  George  David;  Scott's  Bill  Differences  Canada  a  Basil  accepted  and  the and  Allied  Act  the  Province  a  Indian  Bill  was  arrived  Peter  i n Ottawa  on  March  for  of  the  the  Columbia Affairs  in  introduced,  c o n s i s t i n g of  Tsimpsean;  Teit,  Provide  British  Other  a f t e r the  Tribes,  to  and  Government  of  Certain  Shortly  A.  "An  between  Matheson, J.  13,  recommendation  Peter  Kelly;  Calder,  Chief  to  oppose  He  had  the  legislation. O'Meara in  British  Allied  joined  Columbia  Tribes,  to  them  a  develop  including a  few a  days  later.  long-range  financial  plan.  28  strategy He  set  remained for  the  out  the  50  details of  o f h i s proposed  March  As  hisletter,  was  still  the Nishga  the  Royal  the  promises  claim  in a letter  t o the Nishga  4, 1 9 2 0 . In  petiton  strategies  under  t o accept  O'Meara  soon  be d e c i d e d said  the Nishga  expected,  the lawyer, title  their  Council.  t h e recommendations o f i n accordance that  the  by t h e J u d i c i a l  of the aboriginal  that  by t h e P r i v y  o f t h e Duke o f C o n n a u g h t ,  Two r o a d s , settlement  assured  consideration  had r e f u s e d  Commission,  would  O'Meara  were claim  with  Indians'  Committee.  now o p e n  t o the  i n British  Columbia.  One road i s that o f making a settlement o u t o f c o u r t upon your conditions. The o t h e r i s t h e road o f a h e a r i n g o f your P e t i t i o n and settlement based on a judgment o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. Therefore t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s have two ways o f w o r k i n g . They c a n s t i l l press t h e case independently as before. They c a n a l s o work f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h a t t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s w i l l s o o n f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n t h e two r o a d s . This position of affairs should p r e t t y q u i c k l y b r i n g an end t o t h e c o u r s e followed b y t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s i n p l a c i n g o b s t a c l e s i n t h e way o f a reference.2^ The Tribes, fear," 1. and and  "two t h i n g s  which  especially officials according  t o O'Meara,  those  o f the Indian  the Allied  Department,  most  were  A d i s c u s s i o n o f Indian a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e present p o s i t i o n o f t h e Indian case i n t h e Senate t h e H o u s e o f Commons now i n s e s s i o n a t O t t a w a .  2. That the A l l i e d Tribes funds f o r c a r r y i n g forward As had  opposing  t o Item  w i l l continue to provide t h e i r case.^Q  1, t h e d e l e g a t i o n  of the Allied  large  Tribes  s e t o u t f o r Ottawa t o . . . b r i n g about t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e Senate and House o f Commons, i n f o r m t h e p e o p l e o f C a n a d a t h r o u g h t h e l e a d ing newspapers and secure l a r g e funds by advance. . . .  51  I m p o r t a n t a r r a n g e m e n t s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n made i n W i n n i peg, T o r o n t o , Ottawa and M o n t r e a l i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e work o f t h e d e l e g a t i o n . Regarding that  a  Teit, and  careful Mr.  fund-raising,  financial  McTavish,  himself.  plan  Chairman  These  had of  gentlemen  O'Meara been  the  informed prepared  Friends  considere  of  the by  Nishga  James  the  Indians,  that  . . . t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s may r e q u i r e t o c a r r y f o r w a r d t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n t e f f o r t s f o r two m o r e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s c a n b e b r o u g h t t o t e r m s a n d s h a l l furnish a l l f u r t h e r funds needed t o t h e v e r y end. I t i s however, hoped t h a t the independent e f f o r t s o f t h e A l l i e d Tribes may b e s u c c e s s f u l l y f i n i s h e d w i t h i n a s h o r t e r t i m e a n d b y e x p e n d i t u r e s o f a s m a l l e r amount.^2 O'Meara $50,000 w o u l d Tribes was in  to  be  needed  successful  t o be the  anticipated  secured  form  that  as  of  to carry  the  completion.  Of  from  individual  of  advances  against  a  Having  informed  the Nishga  September  efforts that  of  1, the  amount,  1919, Allied  $12,500  Indians i n B r i t i s h final  Columbia  settlement of  the  claim.  the by  Allied white  Tribes  men),  ( w h i c h w e r e made,  O'Meara  organization  i n Ottawa  securing  support of  people  the  of  Canada  The to  empower  joined  the  the  Commons,  found  the  in Council  long  term almost  representatives immediate  the  Indians' fight  Tribes  Governor  the  the  i t seems,  to undertake  f o r the  Allied the  of  Senate against  Bill,  which  of  plans  entirely the  task  and Bill was  of  of  the 13. intended  to  . . . do, e x e c u t e , and f u l f i l e v e r y a c t , d e e d , m a t t e r o r t h i n g n e c e s s a r y . . . f o r t h e f u l l and f i n a l adjustment of a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s a i d Governments r e s p e c t ing I n d i a n l a n d s and I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n the P r o v i n c e . . .  52  objectionable ularly  drew  in i t sentirety.  their  Section  3,  however,  partic-  attack.  For the purposes of a d j u s t i n g , r e a d j u s t i n g or confirming the r e d u c t i o n s o r c u t - o f f s from r e s e r v e s i n accordance w i t h the recommendations o f the Royal Commission, t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may o r d e r s u c h r e d u c t i o n s o r c u t - o f f s  t o b e e f f e c t e d without surrenders of the same by the notwithstanding any provisions of the Indian Act to the  Indians contrary,  a n d may c a r r y o n s u c h f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s a n d e n t e r i n t o such f u r t h e r agreements w i t h the Government o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s may b e f o u n d n e c e s s a r y f o r a f u l l and f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the s a i d G o v e r n m e n t s . ^ (emphasis added) On in  March  t h e House,  among  22,  Calder,  t h e Members  of Injustice  In  statement  rights of  Canada  and  legislation "A  Toward  they  of the Indians  a document  the Indians  Columbia  the "crowning  injustice  of Injustice"  responsibilities  circulated  entitled  of the by  that of  the  Half-  Columbia." aboriginal  proposed  all."  neglect  as t r u s t e e o f t h e I n d i a n s  "A  Governments  the  concluded  o f t h e F e d e r a l Government's  introduced  of B r i t i s h  of British  and d e c l a r e d  was  David  the denial  Half-Century  denunciation  and  deplored  the Province,  was  the B i l l  Matheson, K e l l y  of Parliament  Century this  ten days a f t e r  with  a  bitter  of i t s  of British  Colum-  bia. We s h o u l d b e i n a p o s i t i o n t o a p p e a l c o n f i d e n t l y t o t h e Government o f Canada f o r c o m p l e t e j u s t i c e and t h e p r o t e c t i o n of our rights. I t would appear, however, t h a t we s h a l l h a v e t o a b a n d o n a l l h o p e o f s u c c e s s f u l l y d o i n g this. I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t Canada i s under an o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o t e c t u s , a l s o t h e Government o f Canada c a l l s i t s e l f the guardian of the Indians. We ' f i n d o u r s e l v e s f o r c e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h i s i s a m e r e name. We now s e e m o r e c l e a r l y t h a n e v e r t h a t t h e r e a l p o s i t i o n o f the Government o f Canada i s n o t t h a t o f a g u a r d i a n p r o t e c t i n g o u r r i g h t s , b u t t h a t o f an i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y owing  53 g r e a t t r a c t s o f l a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and c o n t r o l l i n g t h e v a s t f i s h e r i e s o f t h a t C o a s t , and b e c a u s e o f t h o s e i n t e r e s t s s e e k i n g t o t a k e away o u r r i g h t s . We have a p p e a l e d a g a i n and a g a i n f o r many y e a r s f o r j u s t i c e t o t h e Government o f Canada. T h a t a p p e a l has been i n v a i n . We now a p p e a l t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada and t h e p e o p l e o f Canada. We c a n n o t b e l i e v e t h a t Canada h a v i n g made so much s a c r i f i c e on b e h a l f o f s m a l l and weak p e o p l e s , and h a v i n g f o u g h t i n o r d e r t o d e l i v e r them f r o m o p p r e s s i o n , w i l l now c r u s h u n d e r f o o t o u r p e o p l e who are b o t h weak and v o i c e l e s s . ^ The Century and in  b i t t e r n e s s and  of I n j u s t i c e "  statements Ottawa.  abandoned t h e i r Ministers  the A l l i e d  Indians, efforts  to reach  support  at large.  grievances,  they  to t h e i r  i t s sojourn  settlement  Governments and  the  with  and Canadian  t h a t by s t i m u l a t i n g  c o u l d embarrass  the  claims.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the A l l i e d  from the o u t s e t , l i t t l e presence  amicable  Provincial  Half-  w i t h o'Meara's p l a n ,  They hoped, a p p a r e n t l y ,  Government i n t o r e s p o n d i n g  The  an  i n "A  subsequent p e t i t o n s  o f Members o f P a r l i a m e n t  p u b l i c debate of t h e i r  The  reflected  Tribes during  i n accordance  o f t h e F e d e r a l and  sought the people  c h a r a c t e r i z e d the  made by  The  frustration  Tribes received,  sympathy f r o m Government Members.  o f O'Meara, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  M e i g h e n ' s comments summed up  aroused  the o p i n i o n s of the  their i r e . Conservative  Members. Mr. O'Meara has u n d o u b t e d l y made h i m s e l f t h e p a r e n t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e among t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columb i a , and I do n o t f e e l v e r y s y m p a t h e t i c a t a l l t o w a r d h i s w h o l e m i s s i o n and h i s c o n d u c t . _ c  3  The  D  I n d i a n d e l e g a t i o n managed t o s e c u r e  from the L i b e r a l  Opposition,  some  support  l e d by M a c k e n z i e K i n g , who  were  54 particularly  concerned about the  would p e r m i t the consent of insisted Allied  the  on  removal of  Indians.  reading  lands  One  i n the  T r i b e s which asked  clause  of  the  from r e s e r v e s  Member o f  the  the  Bill  which  without  the  Opposition  House a p e t i t i o n that  Bill  be  p r e p a r e d by r e f e r r e d to  the a  36 S p e c i a l Committee f o r f u l l  consideration.  sidered,  representations  however, t h a t  a g i t a t o r s d i d not of parliamentary The its  merit  would be  Allied  beginning.  censure of the  Indian  that  i n the  course  a discussion  House o f  organization  and  of  Commons  What r e s u l t e d , r a t h e r ,  was  e s p e c i a l l y of  i t s s t r a t e g i e s aimed a t  I n d i a n s w r o t e t o M e i g h e n on  attempting  t o p e r s u a d e him  z a t i o n and  of  the  regular  arousing  support. The  Calder,  Tribes  stimulated  O'Meara, c h i e f a r c h i t e c t o f public  a l o t of  " i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the 37  the  were doomed f r o m t h e public  of  con-  procedure."  hopes o f  grievances  the  Meighen  of  O'Meara s t r u e 1  the  Minister  on  April  13,  0"Meara c o n s t i t u t e d t h e ment o f  the It  members o f  Indian  the  land  sel  the  asset.  final  legal  their  organi-  advisor  only.  met  with  a t w h i c h t i m e t h e y were t o l d  that  c h i e f o b s t a c l e i n t h e way 38  delegation  t h a n an  as  of  occasions  O'Meara f i n a l l y  of  settle-  controversy.  must have been a p p a r e n t by  liability until  legitimacy  capacity  M a t h e s o n , K e l l y , D a v i d and  several  this  time to the  t h a t O'Meara r e p r e s e n t e d He  was,  more o f  however, r e t a i n e d  denouement i n 1927.  Indian  Perhaps the  as  a  coun-  Allied  55  T r i b e s was s u f f i c i e n t l y  convinced of the animosity o f govern-  ment t h a t  s n i p e s a t O'Meara t o be m e r e l y  another  it:considered  a t t a c k on its::..cause.;  I t may be, a s w e l l ,  O'Meara made h i m s e l f so c e n t r a l of the a b o r i g i n a l and  If received  the a c t i v i t i e s  little  the a t t e n t i o n On A p r i l  t o t h e p l a n n i n g and e x e c u t i o n  r i g h t s campaign t h a t w i t h o u t  s i n g l e minded e n e r g y ,  that  his persistent  i t w o u l d have  collapsed.  of the A l l i e d  T r i b e s a t Ottawa  sympathy f r o m  t h e Government, t h e y d i d a t t r a c t  and s u p p o r t o f o t h e r I n d i a n g r o u p s i n Canada.  14, I n d i a n s c l a i m i n g t o r e p r e s e n t "most o f t h e 39  principal Provincial  tribes  o f Canada"  met t o condemn t h e F e d e r a l and  Governments' d e n i a l o f I n d i a n t i t l e  and l a n d  r i g h t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t o . . . e x p r e s s o u r unanimous sympathy w i t h . . . [ t h e B.C. I n d i a n s ] . . . and we d e c l a r e o u r e a r n e s t s u p p o r t for their c a s e . ^ On May 4, a s e c o n d  meeting  took p l a c e , t h i s  time  between t h e B.C. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e S i x N a t i o n s Band.  At this  conference  the p o s s i b i l i t y  o f a Canada-  wide o r g a n i z a t i o n o f I n d i a n s was c o n s i d e r e d , f o r . . . a l l t h e t r i b e s r e a l i z e t h a t t h e d a y h a s come when t h e y must l o o k a f t e r t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s and u n i t e f o r mutual p r o t e c t i o n . ^ I t was many y e a r s b e f o r e s u c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n was formed, b u t t h e c o n f e r e n c e activities  of the A l l i e d  i n Ottawa i n d i c a t e s  T r i b e s were a f f e c t i n g  that the the p o l i t i c a l  c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f I n d i a n s beyond t h e b o r d e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  56 Bill  13 r e c e i v e d f i r s t  reading  April  13, a t w h i c h t i m e t h e A l l i e d  paign  into  by  t h e Upper House.  the Delegation  was c i r c u l a t e d that  i n t h e S e n a t e on  Tribes carried  On A p r i l  of the A l l i e d  20, "Notes  Tribes of B r i t i s h  among t h e s e n a t o r s .  This  statement  i t s camprepared Columbia" complained  t h e McKenna-McBride Agreement . . . while d e a l i n g e x c l u s i v e l y with the matter o f lands t o be r e s e r v e d , by s t i p u l a t i n g t h a t t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f i t s p r o v i s i o n s s h a l l be a f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, attempts t o sweep away a l l g e n e r a l r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n t r i b e s . ^ Not  attempt  o n l y was t h e p r o p o s e d B i l l ,  to legislate  native rights  s u c h a c t i o n was b e i n g  taken  needs o f t h e I n d i a n s .  regard  its  an  f o r t h e w i s h e s and  C o l u m b i a Government, f o r a  c h a n g e , a p p e a r e d t o be more s y m p a t h e t i c than  the Indians,  out of existence, but  without  The B r i t i s h  said  to the Indians'  claims  t h e Government o f Canada, f o r had i t n o t c o n t e m p l a t e d i n 1919 A c t e n t e r i n g upon d i r e c t  Indians  to effect As  ceived  a  settlement?  i n t h e House o f Commons, t h e A l l i e d  some s u p p o r t  from t h e L i b e r a l s  s e v e r a l days o f debate, referred  negotiations with the  i t was a g r e e d  Tribes r e -  i n the Senate. that B i l l  After  13 s h o u l d  t o t h e S e n a t e Committee o n B a n k i n g and Commerce t o  a l l o w t h e I n d i a n d e l e g a t i o n t o make i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Committee  be  i n i t s r e p o r t o f J u n e 28, 1920, recommended  The  that:  I n v i e w o f t h e a c t i o n t a k e n by t h e Government a s i n d i c a t e d by B i l l 13 t o s e t t l e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Government o f Canada and t h e Government o f 3 r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s p e c t i n g I n d i a n l a n d s and I n d i a n a f f a i r s g e n e r a l l y i n t h e s a i d P r o v i n c e , t h e committee i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t any a l l e g e d d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e I n d i a n s  57  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s c a n b e s t be a d j u s t e d b y p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e l e g i s l a t i o n now before Parliament. The C o m m i t t e e beg t o s u g g e s t , h o w e v e r , t h a t b e f o r e e x e r c i s i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y g r a n t e d by C l a u s e 3 o f t h e B i l l , a n e n d e a v o u r b e made t o s e c u r e a s u r r e n d e r under the p r o v i s i o n s of the Indian Act of the proposed reductions or c u t - o f f s . The c o m m i t t e e recommend t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n d e a l ing w i t h s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be g i v e n e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e a r s u c h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a s may b e made b y t h e said Indian tribes.„ 43 0  While of  Commons  views a  gation  of  the  wrote 44  the  Matheson,  the  the  their  Allied  Ottawa  i n the  the  course  Journal  23,  of  and  Teit  Bill  13.  If  would  deprive  the  their  aboriginal  a  the  David  setting  press land  the  Indians  any  15  was  the  Tribes  issued  May  5,  Ottawa  passed,  compensation  to  and  i t s objections  to  were  making i t s  April  On  House  response  Allied  statement  again  Bill  of  out  In  on  question.  wrote  i n the  T r i b e s was  newspapers.  Ottawa  editor  April  history  protesting  taking  I n d i a n - o r g a n i z a t i o n , the  to  On  were  Senate,  through  13.  lining  the  published  critical  Bill  and  known  letter  matters  deleto  out-  Calder, Journal  they  stated, i t  f o r the  loss  of  rights.  We w a n t a s u f f i c i e n c y o f a d d i t i o n a l l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r us; our h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s a d j u s t e d ; improved e d u c a t i o n and m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n — i n s h o r t , j u s t an e q u i t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t s a t i s f y i n g our a c t u a l needs. So f a r t h e Dominion Government has a l t o g e t h e r i g n o r e d our statements.. 45 Bill  13  representatives three They  and had  a  half  received royal of  the  months  succeeded  Allied and,  assent  July  T r i b e s , by no  in attracting  doubt, the  1,  1920.  that  date,  much money  support  of  a  The  in  had  spent  Ottawa.  number  of  58 L i b e r a l Members o f P a r l i a m e n t and unable  to p r e v a i l  t h e I n d i a n s and  little  public  engaged  but  t h e s e were  a g a i n s t t h e Government's d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o  secure the passage of B i l l of  Senators,  their  support  in battling  13.  a d v i s o r s , the A l l i e d  for their  Bill  Contrary to the e x p e c t a t i o n s  13,  cause.  While  moreover, they  Tribes received they  were  received  another  blow, f o r i n l a t e M a r c h t h e S e c r e t a r y t o t h e G o v e r n o r advised  General  O'Meara  . . . The G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l t a k e s no a c t i o n [on t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n ] n o r d o e s he d e s i r e t o t a k e any a c t i o n , e x c e p t upon t h e a d v i c e o f h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a d v i s o r s . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s I must ask you t o c o n s i d e r t h i s l e t t e r as f i n a l . . ,  46  O'Meara d i d n o t , o f c o u r s e , a c c e p t t h i s final, to  but  extend  the r e f u s a l  letter  as  o f t h e King:'\s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Canada  h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the matter  of the Nishga  Petition  must have b e e n d i s c o u r a g i n g t o t h e I n d i a n s , i f n o t t o O'Meara himself. Still,  a l t h o u g h t h e Governments o f Canada and  P r o v i n c e were now the Report actually  Columbia  empowered t o implement by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l  of the Royal  implemented.  T r i b e s had  lost  the  Commission, the Report The  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the  a major b a t t l e ,  t o c o n s i d e r how  was  but  not  Allied  they returned to  t h e y m i g h t go on  t o win  yet  the  British war.  59  Footnotes F i l e e n t i t l e d "Claims o f t h e A l l i e d Indian Tribes a t Ottawa (1920)," P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. (Hereafter c i t e d as "Claims".) 2^ . Claims. n  3 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, 4 I b i d . , p. 31.  p. 175.  5 Ibid., 6  Ibid.  7  Ibid.  p . 83.  g I b i d . , p p . 63-64. Concerning t h e use o f t h e terms " P r i v y C o u n c i l " and " J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l " ; the Nishga submitted t h e i r P e t i t i o n t o H i s Majesty's P r i v y C o u n c i l i n hopes t h a t t h e C o u n c i l would i n t e r v e n e i n t h e r e g u l a r course o f j u d i c i a l procedure and permit t h e Indians t o h a v e t h e i r c a s e h e a r d d i r e c t l y b e f o r e t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. When t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l r e f u s e d t o t a k e s u c h a c t i o n e x c e p t upon t h e recommendation o f t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , the Indians t h e r e a f t e r sought t h e permission o f the Government o f C a n a d a t o b y p a s s C a n a d i a n c o u r t s . During the course o f t h e s e e f f o r t s , r e f e r e n c e s made t o t h e " P r i v y C o u n c i l " b y Indians and government o f f i c i a l s a l i k e g e n e r a l l y r e f e r t o the J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l a s t h e c o u r t o f f i n a l a p p e a l f o r Canada. O c c a s i o n a l l y , however, O'Meara o r one o f t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s r e f e r t o t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l was s t i l l c o n s i d e r i n g a r e f e r ence o f t h e case t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. Where t h e " P r i v y C o u n c i l " i s m e n t i o n e d i n q u o t a t i o n s , i t s meaning must be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o n t e x t . 9 J o i n t S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e , p . 32. Patterson, " A r t h u r O'Meara, F r i e n d o f t h e I n d i a n s , " p . 95, 1 0  Canada. File Series A r c h i v e s o f Canada. 1 : L  Public  1 2  RG  RG  10, Volume  3820,  Ottawa,  10, V o l . 3820.  13 W. E . D i t c h b u r n , Chief Inspector f o r Indian Agencies, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o D. C. S c o t t , D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a , N o v e m b e r 1, 1 9 1 9 .  60 I have j u s t had an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Hon. Mr. P a t u l l o , P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s . . . . As I r e p o r t e d t o y o u some t i m e ago t h e B.C. Government seems t o s h y o f f t h a t p a r t o f t h e Agreement o f 1912 w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c u t - o f f s i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t a p p e a r s n e c e s s a r y t o have t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s b e f o r e t h e l a n d c a n be s o l d . . . . [ P a t u l l o ] and o t h e r members o f t h e C a b i n e t a p p e a r t o be o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e A g r e e m e n t was much t o o o n e - s i d e d and would l i k e some d e f i n i t e a s s u r a n c e t h a t i f i o t h e P r o vince c a r r i e s out that part of the report r e f e r r i n g to a l l o t m e n t s o f l a n d f o r new r e s e r v e s , t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n ment w o u l d s e e t h a t t h e C u t - o f f s a r e made. R.G. 10, V o l .  3820.  14 British  Columbia,  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, B i l l  British  Columbia, B i l l  17,  1919. 15 17.  16 Canada, F i l e s e r i e s , RG. O t t a w a , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. 17  R G : , 13, V o l .  13, Volume 236, F i l e 1116.  236, F i l e 1186.  18 D r u c k e r , p . 96. 19 Joint  S p e c i a l Committee, p . 38.  20 LaViolette,  p . 134.  21 Joint 2 2  S p e c i a l Committee, p . 31.  Ibid.,  pp. 32-37.  23 Ibid.,  p . 38.  24 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s , F i l e 02607 6, #2, V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s 'of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2 5  File  026076,  #2.  2 6  RG  10, V o l .  3820.  2 7  RG  10, V o l .  3820.  2 8  File  026076,  #1.  2 9  File  026076,  #1  3 0  File  026076,  #1.  61  3  1  F i l e  026076,  #1.  3  2  F i l e  026076,  #1.  3 3  Canada,  House  o f Commons,  Bill  13,  1920.  34 Claims. 3 5  Canada  House  3  6  Ibid.,  pp.  3 7  Ibid.,  p.  o f Commons D e b a t e s , M a r c h  26,  1920,  793. 793-794. 794.  38„, . Claims. 39  Claims.  40 Claims. 41 Claims. 42 4 3  June  28,  Claims.  Canada, 1920  Senate,  Committee  on  Banking  and  Commerce,  44 Claims. Claims. 46  1920,  . L i e u t . H. Joint Special  G. H e n d e r s o n t o A . C o m m i t t e e , p . 64.  E. O'Meara,  March  17,  62  CHAPTER  ORGANIZATIONAL  III  CHARACTERISTICS  OF  THE  ALLIED  TRIBES  of  the  Allied  Tribes  Introduction The of  Bill  13  recruit  failure spurred  members  the  f o r the  activities.  While  dissuade  Federal  menting main  the the  to  Leaders and  and  two  Kelly,  cated  Judicial  1920,  most an  land  Provincial  prominent  renewed  the  of  raise  that  Royal of  the  the  passage  effort funds  they  to  for i t s  might  Governments  submission  Kelly native  since  from  still imple-  Commission,  their  the  aboriginal  Privy  Council.  Vancouver  he  concentrated  politically  law on  active at  assisted  Indians  law.  the most  charged  matter of  his  school  of  of  band with  had  had  title  and  been  Hugh  level  had  St.  offences  Ouentin  had,  under  aboriginal rights,  considerable  spent  four  the  for  in edu-  years  Cayley  where  was  well, potlatch  however,  energies,  been  Paull as  as  T r i b e s . ^"  involved had  Indians. and  emerged  Allied  Andrew P a u l l  pertaining to the  Paull  f i g u r e s i n the minister,  offices  law  Andrew  1910.  Catholic mission  the  and  Methodist  controversy  in  directed  of  Committee  Peter  ordained  in a  To  considered  block  Followers  By  the  Indians  recommendations  the  to  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  o b j e c t i v e became t h e  claim  the  l e a d e r s h i p on  to  Paull  i n the  Indian  63 land  controversy,  he  saw  . . . an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r fame and s e r v i c e on a b r o a d e r stage. I n h i s p e r f o r m a n c e , he was c l e a r l y s e t t i n g hims e l f a p a r t f r o m o t h e r I n d i a n s o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n and community. 2  Of the A l l i e d left  the  the  two  most i n f l u e n t i a l w h i t e s a s s o c i a t e d  T r i b e s , J . A.  stage  Teit  died  clear for Arthur  a p p o i n t m e n t as  legal  counsel  i n the  with  e a r l y 1920's  O'Meara.  and  O'Meara, whose  to the A l l i e d  T r i b e s was  recon-  3 firmed  i n January,  1920,  was  an o l d man.  became, i f p o s s i b l e , more r i g i d  in his  I n h i s o l d age,  he  opinions.  He c o n t i n u e d t o c o u n s e l a g a i n s t a n y t h i n g done w i t h o u t h i s a d v i c e and p r e s e n c e . He had become l o c k e d i n a c e r t a i n p o s t u r e and he had come t o t h i n k t h a t n o t o n l y h i s v i e w s were c o r r e c t , b u t t h a t he h i m s e l f was indispensable. [He] . . . r e m a i n e d f i r m i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t a d e c i s i o n on t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n by t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l would set the precedent f o r i m p a r t i a l s e t t l e m e n t s . He i n s i s t e d t h a t d i s i n t e r e s t e d j u r i s t s c o u l d be f o u n d i n E n g l a n d and he i m p l i e d t h a t he w o u l d be on f a m i l i a r g r o u n d t h e r e . His almost f a n a t i c a l single-mindedness . . . prevented him f r o m a c c e p t i n g what was a c l e a r r e f u s a l . ^ It  i s a matter f o r s p e c u l a t i o n whether the  t i o n m i g h t have f o l l o w e d not in  a different  b e e n u n d e r O'Meara's i n f l u e n c e . other  circumstances,  o f t h e many s p e c i f i c  have t u r n e d  grievances  were what r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e intended  to achieve.  But  O'Meara's i n f l u e n c e , t h e accept  t h a t the  tinued  to the  Committee.  to  i t s leadership  Allied  seeking  Tribes  Executive  argued,  i n p a r t because  was of  Committee r e f u s e d a dead  for a hearing  letter  before  might,  satisfaction  aboriginal rights claim  at l e a s t  to plead  The  had  w h i c h , i t c o u l d be  N i s h g a P e t i t i o n was  end  path  organiza-  to  and  the  con-  Judicial  64  By  1920,  Allied  Tribes.  o f two  Coast  w i t h the  of  the  This  of  taking  a white their  1  but  lawyer, a l l of  P a u l l and  earlier  d i r e c t e d , f o r the  most p a r t ,  a l s o extended t o bands i n the  obsessed  Committee,  organization  occur u n t i l  years of  K e l l y mounted a v i g o r o u s  hands  them  Judicial  s p l i t d i d not  i n the  the  c o n t r o l i n the  case to the  This  m i d - 1 9 2 0 s , however, and  w h i c h was  of  r e s u l t e d i n the withdrawal from the  Interior chiefs.  Tribes,  O'Meara d o m i n a t e d  concentration  I n d i a n s and  idea  eventually  K e l l y , P a u l l and  the  Allied  membership  to the  the  coastal  drive groups,  Interior.  P a u l and K e l l y r e s o l v e d t o e n l i s t t h e c o a s t a l g r o u p s i n the A l l i e d T r i b e s ' cause. They v i s i t e d p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y v i l l a g e . . . f r o m A i y a n s h t o K i s p i o x t o Musqueam, p r e a c h i n g t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s as t h e I n d i a n s ' o n l y hope.^ Paull, initially  i n a d d i t i o n , t r a v e l l e d through the  to enlarge  t h e membership o f  the  Allied  Interior, Tribes  and  g later  to r a i s e funds f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s . Paull  and  K e l l y were n o t  N o o t k a , N o r t h e r n A t h a b a s c a n s and little  i n t e r e s t i n the  cated,  politically  difficulty  land  minded  to a geographically  Indian  population.  away f r o m t h e ate with the as  t h e y had  the  scattered 1922,  Kwakiutl  mission  often  i t s doctrine  M o r e o v e r , by  Tribes  The  leadership  organization. Allied  many o f  issue.  i n communicating  unity"  universally successful.  and  had  of  considerable  "strength  done i n .the p a s t  acknowledged t h e i r  and  w o u l d do  i n the  to  through  diverse  N i s h g a had  While they continued and  evinced  school-edu-  culturally  the  The  drifted cooper-  backing, future,  65 they p r e f e r r e d  to fight  In J a n u a r y ,  their  battles  1922, f o r t y - f i v e  alone. delegates  from  twenty-  7 four  Indian  Kelly  groups gathered  of the A l l i e d Tribes  i n North Vancouver. told  Chairman  the delegates  . . . t h i s i s n o t an A l l i e d T r i b e s m e e t i n g , b u t a g e n e r a l m e e t i n g o f a l l B.C. I n d i a n s and f o r t h e a s s e m b l y t o express t h e i r views.g It Interior or  appears that  by t h e d a t e o f t h e m e e t i n g , t h e  I n d i a n s were b e c o m i n g d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r  lack of i t , i n the A l l i e d T r i b e s .  days o f d i s c u s s i o n s ,  the delegates  However, a f t e r  passed  role,  three  the following  resolution: Whereas i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e two f a c t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a t t h i s m e e t i n g , namely t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and t h e I n d e p e n d e n t P a r t y , t o b r i n g t h e s e p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r , be i t r e s o l v e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columb i a f o r m an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f I n d i a n s . . . and a d o p t f o r i t s p o l i c y the Statement o f the A l l i e d Indian T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s a i d o r g a n i z a t i o n t o have a s t a n d i n g e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e t o c o n t a i n I n d i a n s and o t h e r s deemed a c c e p t a b l y by Interiors.g The 1927  hearings that,  Allied British cult  witnesses f o r the A l l i e d Tribes  Tribes  represented  nominally  a l l of the tribes of  t o d e t e r m i n e , however, by what a u t h o r i t y  Federal  Indian  spoke f o r t h e i r  administration  the Province.  at the  o f t h e 1922 a l l i a n c e , t h e  C o l u m b i a a n d most o f them i n d i v i d u a l l y .  t o t h e 1922 m e e t i n g  of  as a r e s u l t  claimed  groups.  the  delegates  By t h e 1920's  extended t o n e a r l y  The t r a d i t i o n a l  It is diffi-  a l l areas  structures of authority  had  f o r t h e most p a r t  b r o k e n down and n a t i v e  not  y e t s u f f i c i e n t powers and e x p e r i e n c e  c o u n c i l s had  t o manage t h e  66  affairs have  o f t h e band.  "Chief"  probably  before  no l o n g e r  to  commit  A.  D. M c l n t y r e ,  Tribes many but  names, b u t t h e s e  carried  an e n t i r e  group  a lawyer  of the delegates  enough weight t o support  who  themselves,"*"^ Drucker  Allied never  an a l l i a n c e Tribes.  really  this  well  have  been  d i d not r e a l l y  con-  by spokesmen  f o rthe  some o f t h e I n t e r i o r  themselves  meeting,  may  nobody  they  with simply  the A l l i e d agreed  tribes  Tribes;  t o work  f o r t h e common goal."''"''' In  alliance, mining  In h i s opinion,  particular  together  the meeting  that  represented  this  Chief  the Indian  a t t h e 1927 h e a r i n g s  as represented  affiliated  a  titles  Tribes.  to represent  a n d t o some e x t e n t  believes that  indeed,  hereditary  the A l l i e d  claimed  stated  did,  t o enable  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e 1922 m e e t i n g  stitute  an  their  of the Interior,  true.  "at  Many  a d d i t i o n t o u n c e r t a i n t y as t o t h e nature one i s f a c e d  as w e l l  with  the d i f f i c u l t y  which  group  o r groups  affidavit  filed  a t t h e 1927 h e a r i n g s ,  meeting  are identified  Tribe,"  o r "Lower  the delegates  as r e p r e s e n t i n g ,  of the of deter-  represented.  delegates  In  to the  f o r example,  Fraser V a l l e y T r i b e s , " or simply  "Saanich  "Merritt  12 Nicola  Valley."  represented apparently always  group  seem t o h a v e linguistic  know,  represent  Some  of the "tribes" been,  divisions  t h e r e f o r e , whether  a village  o f perhaps  o f two t h o u s a n d .  i n fact,  a l l e g e d t o have bands.  Some  or sub-divisions. a delegate twenty  people  I n 1927 t h e p r o b l e m  or a  were  One  purported  been  cannot  to  language  o f whom t h e  67 Allied  Tribes really  d i d speak f o r came t o t h e  most i n a u s p i c i o u s moment, a s w i l l It  appears t h a t even a f t e r  selecting delegates T r i b e s was  T h e r e was  especially  ranking chiefs  discovered  shown i n a l a t e r  1922  no  initially  among t h e  as d e l e g a t e s .  [however] t h a t f a c i l i t y  a  southern The  chapter.  f o r m a l method  to attend the meetings of the  established.  s t a t e s Drucker, elect  be  surface at a  of  Allied  tendency, Kwakiutl,  Indians  "...  i n E n g l i s h and  to soon  an  under-  13 s t a n d i n g o f w h i t e law  and  c u l t u r e were  Thus t h e p r e f e r e n c e p r o b a b l y Indians  who  w o u l d be more l i k e l y  tions.  The  delegates  officers  and  Throughout the the A l l i e d  villages  qualifica-  to recount  T r i b e s remained  the  the  events  answer  then of  the  questions.  local  level  e s s e n t i a l l y unorganized,  structured in a highly  liaison  membership.  Victoria,  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n the  E x e c u t i v e Committee was fashion."'"  younger  such  Committee and  t o e x p l a i n p r o b l e m s and life  to  to possess  m e e t i n g s i n V a n c o u v e r and  returned to t h e i r conference  turned  a p p e a r t o have been p r i m a r i l y  between t h e E x e c u t i v e  They a t t e n d e d  necessary."  of  while  the  formal  4  Fund-raising F u n d - r a i s i n g was Some money was  c o n t r i b u t e d by  the F r i e n d s o f the Executive  Indians,  Committee was  membership.  a c o n s t a n t worry t o the l e a d e r s h i p . sympathetic but  whites,  such  f o r t h e most p a r t ,  t h r o w n back on  the  resources  as  the of  T h e r e a p p a r e n t l y were no membership f e e s ,  the annual  68  levy or other periodic  regular  from t h e proceeds o f a f i n a l  p r a c t i c e of asking  perhaps i n s t i l l e d might  t o attend  with a plea finance fees,  meetings  (although  as c i r c u l a r f o r money.  information  promptly  and l i b e r a l l y  more d i l a t o r y . remind  assist  the Executive  Some g r o u p s ,  the delegates  some-  a n n o u n c i n g meet-  letters,  often  concluded  attorney's  expenses o f the o r g a n i -  t h e N i s h g a Land  Committee r e c e i v e d  Committee. no  such as t h e Southern K w a k i u t l , to requests  The l e a d e r s h i p  them o f t h e i r  they  t o enable  Committee, p a y  c o v e r t h e day t o day o p e r a t i n g  salary.  that  The f u n d s c o l l e c t e d were u s e d t o  t r a v e l by t h e E x e c u t i v e  appears that  level  own way) and n o t i c e s  z a t i o n and i n some c a s e s , It  "donations"  t h e i r money b a c k w i t h i n t e r e s t .  t i m e s had t o p a y t h e i r as w e l l  than  some hope i n t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s  some day r e c e i v e  delegates  settlement.  f o r "advances" r a t h e r  C o l l e c t i o n s were t a k e n up a t t h e v i l l a g e  ings  from  d r i v e s t o s e c u r e a d v a n c e s w h i c h , i t was hoped,  w o u l d be r e p a i d The  f u n d - r a i s i n g mechanisms, a p a r t  regular responded  f o r funds, but others  was f r e q u e n t l y  were  obliged to  duty t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  I n t h e I n t e r i o r , P a u l l u n d e r t o o k most o f t h e f u n d raising  and o r g a n i z i n g .  George Manuel  recalls,  . . . w h e r e v e r he [ P a u l l ] went, t h e b l a n k e t and t h e h a t were p a s s e d t o keep Andy t r a v e l l i n g and w o r k i n g . Often i n h i s l a t e r t r i p s t o Ottawa, we w o u l d r a i s e enough money j u s t t o g e t him t o O t t a w a . A week o r so l a t e r , we w o u l d g e t a w i r e f r o m him. I t was t i m e t o c h i p i n a g a i n and h e l p h i m g e t b a c k home.,.  69  Footnotes A few o t h e r c o a s t I n d i a n s , s u c h as B i l l y A s s u o f t h e C a p e Mudge b a n d , w e r e a l s o a c t i v e i n t h e E x e c u t i v e o f the A l l i e d T r i b e s , b u t P a u l l and K e l l y appear t o have been the motor f o r c e f o r most o f t h e l i f e o f t h e organization. S e v e r a l o f t h e m i n o r f i g u r e s d i d , however, assume p r o m i n e n c e in the leadership o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h Columb i a w h i c h was f o r m e d i n 193 0. 2 gence,"  Patterson, p. 105. 3  Joint  "Andrew P a u l l  Special  and  Committee,  p.  Canadian Indian  Resur-  47.  4 pp.  Patterson, "Arthur 95-97. 5 D r u c k e r , p . 95. ^Manuel  and  Posluns,  O'Meara,  p.  Friend  of the  Indians,"  84.  7 See  Appendix C  for list  of  delegates.  g Joint 9  Ibid.  1  0  Special  Ibid.,  p.  Committee,  p.  17 6.  138.  "'"'''Drucker, p .  97.  12 13  Joint  Speical  Drucker,  p.  Committee,  pp.  175-176.  16.  Ibid. Ibid. " ^ M a n u e l a n d P o s l u n s , p. 85. These l a t e r t r i p s may r e f e r to Paull's a c t i v i t i e s i n the North American Indian Brotherhood, founded a f t e r the f a l l of the A l l i e d Tribes.  70  CHAPTER I V  THE  ALLIED  TRIBES:  THE L A T E R  YEARS  Introduction In blocking  late  the implementation  Commission Council cians  1920, t h e A l l i e d  or reaching  looked  bleak.  the Judicial  objections to B i l l legislation  consent  to the cut-offs,  steps  implementation its  any  person  stantial  legal  case.  Indians'  access  appeared  t o have  Federal  politi-  f o r Indian  Government  i n connection  Neither  took  did i tretreat  the Indians  As government  reached  had f a i l e d  office  that  outlook,  they  to  from title. convince  had a  o f f i c i a l s controlled  o f law, t h e A l l i e d  a dead  no  with the  of the existence of aboriginal  i n public  to the  the passage o f  the requirement  the Indians  to a court  hopeless  After  either  of the Privy  but sympathetic  the Provincial  1911 o n w a r d s ,  influential  apparently  13.  o f the Report.  consistent denial From  anything  removing  to consult with  most  of  o f the Royal  Committee  F o r one t h i n g ,  Federal  prospects  o f the Report  and o f f i c i a l s had been  Indians'  Tribes'  end."*"  however,  subthe  Tribes  Notwithstanding the Indians  the  struggled  on.  Last Stand Against  the Report of the Royal Commission  When M a c k e n z i e in  1921, t h e p r o s p e c t s  King  came  to office  of reaching  a  as Prime M i n i s t e r  settlement  of the land  71  claim  appeared,  expressed still  perhaps,  sympathy  for  sufficiently  a  little  brighter.  the  Allied  Tribes  interested  to  King  in  request  had  1920,  his  and  he  was  Minister  of  the  2 Interior  to On  look May  "Memorandum ter. the  It 1919  Canada, Tribes  to The  for  Government  Government upon  title  good  Memorandum Lands  of  issue.  continue also  the  a  the  that  the  to  and  a  to  the  that  Act"  rights  the  be  of  1920  the  or  Allied  Allied  a  ".  Tribes  of  Canada,  Indian  in  of  settlement that  Minis-  Tribes  the  the as  a  organization  settlement.  "British  repealed  entitled  Prime  Government  suggested  funds  the  Allied  Columbia  leading  document  to  i t s e f f o r t s toward  asked  Settlement  that  made b y  O'Meara  provide  claims.  Canada"  British  discussions  faith,  i t to  so  and  their  submitted  of  proposed  enable  amended  the  of  O'Meara  statement,  enter  Indian  1922,  matter  claims  the  of  31,  the  r e i t e r a t e d the  aboriginal token  into  Columbia  .  . a t  least  shall  be  3 safeguarded." Two Charles  months  Stewart,  Executive  returned  meeting  between  Affairs, In  his  that:  Minister  Committee  Stewart  the  later  a f t e r the  of  the  of  the  in July  comments  of on  the  the  of  Tribes  following  Superintendent  the  the  I n t e r i o r , met  Allied  of  Deputy  Executive  submission  Allied  Stewart's  at  with  the 4  Vancouver.  year  to  General  Tribes  visit,  Memorandum  and  arrange of  India5  O'Meara.  O'Meara  a  stated  72  On t h e 2 1 s t d a y o f J u l y , 1923 at Vancouver, the M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r addressed t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e meeting of the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia ever h e l d and s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e Government o f Canada gave assurance t h a t Canada would h e l p the I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n o b t a i n i n g judgment of the J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i d i n g the I n d i a n Land Controversy.^ According hearings,  the  to  Scott's  M i n i s t e r of  testimony  given  at  the  Interior  hoped  in  1923  the  1927 that  . . . i t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e t o s e t t l e t h e c l a i m f o r a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e out o f c o u r t , i f the I n d i a n s would f i x upon r e a s o n a b l e compensation which the Dominion Government might supply without i n v o l v i n g the Government of the Province.^ It have  seems u n l i k e l y ,  o f f e r e d to  assist  the  therefore,  that  Indians  reach  to  Stewart the  would  Judicial  Committee. Five Cabinet  days  passed  Lieutenant  after  the  J u l y meeting,  Order-in-Council  Governor  in Council  P.C.  911  the  British  recommending  Columbia to  the  that  . . . t h e r e d u c t i o n s , c u t - o f f s and a d d i t i o n s i n r e s p e c t of Indian r e s e r v e s proposed i n the . . . r e p o r t of the Royal Commission . . . be a p p r o v e d and c o n f i r m e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g f u l l and f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t and s e t t l e m e n t o f a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p e c t t h e r e t o between the Governments o f t h e D o m i n i o n and t h e Province. On that  a  27,  provincial  meeting Oliver  July  with  the  discussed  directed Inspector  his of  Scott  wrote  to  Premier  representative attend Executive the  request  secretary Indian  Committee  to  with  inform  Affairs  of  his W.  Oliver  the the  forthcoming Allied  Cabinet  E.  for British  requesting  and  Ditchburn, Columbia  Tribes. on  July  Chief that  31  73  . . . the question of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Province a t t e n d i n g any c o n f e r e n c e h e l d between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Government o f Canada and t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l t h i s m o r n i n g , a n d i t was t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e c o u n c i l t h a t whereas t h e c h a r g e o f t h e I n d i a n s and the t r u s t e e s h i p and management o f t h e l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r u s e i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n Government, t h e r e f o r e any c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e I n d i a n s s h o u l d be s o l e l y w i t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h a t Government.g Scott Tribes  and  met  with  O'Meara  of  1919.  the  essential  Minister, together  the  October outlining  with  29,  of  of out  request  to  be  the  1923.  Report  a  of  a  Allied  After  the  Royal  i t s petition for  monetary  statement  of  settlement. Scott  main  submitted  elements  h i s comments.  s t a t e d he  7,  brought  considered  1923,  the  the  addition  still  Committee  August  Committee  conditions for a  On  Scott  Executive  they  on  d i s c u s s i o n of  This, with  compensation,  Executive  at V i c t o r i a  some r a t h e r a i m l e s s Commission,  the  With  of  regard  a  the to  report to  his  statement fishing  rights,  was  . . . i n sympathy w i t h t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e I n d i a n s t o t a k e f i s h f o r f o o d and [thought] they should suffer . . . [no] . . . d i s a b i l i t y w h a t e v e r i n t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of the fisheries.g After eries,  consulting with  S c o t t was  Indians  would  seining  licenses  white the  men.  Chief  able  to  inform  thereafter  The  representations  be  in their  to  made b y  able  own  Department  Inspector  the  give  of  Chief  the to  names,  Executive obtain i n the  Fisheries  "sympathetic  Indians  Inspector  had  for  Fish-  Committee  salmon  and  herring  same m a n n e r further  attention"  in connection  with  that  as  instructed to  any  fisheries.  These the  significant  sympathetic  grievances. requests  achievements,  attitude  Scott noted  outside  reserves  native  control  of  in  education He  then  argued  without  that  as  a  treaty  which  would  asked  that  have  be  a  the  to  for  Indian  the  purposes,  and  of  Indians'  rights,  funds,  lengthy  concerning  p r e v i o u s l y , the  annuities  trust  evidence  for  use  for  of  more  improvements  system.  years  an  comment  hunting  were  officials  for traditional  Indian  quoted  representations  felt,  government  for confirmation of  timber  the  of  Scott  amount paid  Indians  to  to  Rev.  Kelly's  compensation.  have  should  during  equal  so  monetary  ought  accrued  e x t r a c t from  the  been be  Kelly  concluded  paid  the  many  annuities  intervening years.  perhaps  twenty  years  of  He lost  that  . . . p e o p l e who a r e now l i v i n g a n d who w i l l n o t b e i n a p o s i t i o n t o p r o f i t by any o f t h e f u t u r e b e n e f i t s t h a t we h a v e c l a i m e d w o u l d r e c e i v e d i r e c t b e n e f i t f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t i s now b e i n g b r o u g h t we h o p e t o a p o s i t i o n w h e r e we a r e i n s i g h t o f a s e t t l e m e n t . Scott rent  Indian  calculated  population  would  amount  sum.  The  to  of  the  on  Committee  costs  the  payments  $2,747,400--in  Executive  reimbursement  that  basis of in  Scott's also  lieu  the  of  eyes,  incurred i n pursuing  appalling  $100,000 a  cur-  annuities  an  requested  then  land  as  claims  settlement. After  reciting  the  Allied  and  reasonable—Scott  the  Tribes—terms  terms  which  described  of  the the  settlement Indians  proposed  considered  Indians'  demands  by  just as  75 "exacting  and e x t r a v a g a n t . "  M o r e o v e r , he s t a t e d ,  t u r e s o f l a r g e amounts o f money on t h e B r i t i s h I n d i a n s would  expendi-  Columbia  i n c u r t h e envy o f n a t i v e s e l s e w h e r e  i n the  country. At the c o n c l u s i o n o f the meeting, t h e matter implementation raised. and  o f t h e Report  C o m m i s s i o n was  The I n d i a n s o n c e a g a i n v o i c e d v i g o r o u s o b j e c t i o n s  informed  Scott that i fa satisfactory  be  achieved  on  to the J u d i c i a l  i n no o t h e r way, t h e  Scott despite be  o f the Royal  Allied  settlement could T r i b e s would  summed up h i s r e p o r t by recommending t h a t ,  the o b j e c t i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n s , t h e Report  implemented.  expected  ought t o  The I n d i a n s w o u l d t h u s be p r o v i d e d from  Prior  f i n a l l y be  t o t h e A u g u s t m e e t i n g , S c o t t s t a t e d , he  t h a t t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d be s a t i s f i e d  claims to aboriginal  with  the reversionary interest  o f t h e P r o v i n c e and t h e r e s e r v e q u e s t i o n would disposed of.  "press  Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . "  adequate r e s e r v e lands f r e e  had  of the  title  that  their  had been met by e x p e n d i t u r e s  on t h e i r  behalf.  However, S c o t t s t a t e d , " . . . s u c h  the case  a n d I have t o s u b m i t  the f a c t s  f o r your  made  i s not  consider-  ,,12 ation. Another year passed  e l a p s e d b e f o r e t h e Dominion  Cabinet  an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l t o implement t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 13  of the Royal continued  Commission.  I n t h e meantime t h e A l l i e d  t o p r o t e s t t h e recommendations.  Tribes  76  By financial meeting  autumn straits.  indicated  circular request  o f 1923, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  letter  Kelly's that  statements  the A l l i e d  to the tribes  f o r money,  stating  made  Tribes  the funds  i n desperate  d u r i n g the August  was  i n September  that  was  i n debt,  and a  contained a which  had been  14 collected  during the year  On F e b r u a r y which a  he s e n t  later  were  29, 1924, O'Meara p r e p a r e d  to the Minister  petition,  a l l spent.  that  of Justice.  i n this  a  Kelly  memorandum stated i n  memorandum  . . . t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s opposed t h e p a s s i n g o f O r d e r - i n C o u n c i l o f t h e Government o f Canada a d o p t i n g t h e Report o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , u p o n t h e g r o u n d , among o t h e r g r o u n d s , t h a t no m a t t e r w h a t e v e r r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia having been f u l l y a d j u s t e d , and i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s s u c h a s f o r e s h o r e r i g h t s , fishing r i g h t s and water r i g h t s n o t having been t o any e x t e n t a d j u s t e d , t h e p r o f e s s e d purpose o f t h e Agreement and t h e [1920] A c t h a d n o t b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d . The memorandum reply  Deputy  Minister  of Justice  t h e d a y i t was p r e s e n t e d .  clearly  indicated  that  replied  t o O'Meara's  In K e l l y ' s  t h e 1920 A c t was  view, h i s  intended  . . . n o t f o r b r i n g i n g about an a c t u a l adjustment o f a l l matters r e l a t i n g t o Indian a f f a i r s , but f o r the purpose of b r i n g i n g about a l e g i s l a t i v e adjustment o f a l l such matters and thus e f f e c t i n g f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t under t h e laws o f Canada w i t h o u t t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o r c o n s e n t o f t h e Indian Tribes of B r i t i s h Columbia. Despite 1265 and  was p a s s e d  on J u l y  eight  by t h e Royal years  block  a n d more  Commission. than  implementation  of the A l l i e d  Tribes,  P.C..  19, 1924, c o n f i r m i n g t h e a d d i t i o n s  reductions t o reserve lands  mended  to  the objections  in British The A l l i e d  $100,000  Columbia Tribes  i n a fruitless  o f t h e recommendations  recomhad  spent  endeavour  of the Royal  77  Commission.  The Road to the Judicial The could  see  Judicial 1925,  one  open  remaining to  the  Committee  the  Committee  of  Executive  avenue which  settlement the  of  the  i t s claims  Privy Council.  Committee  Allied  passed  the  On  Tribes  was„to  January  following  the 25,  resolu-  tion: I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e passed O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l confirming the r e p o r t of the R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n I n d i a n A f f a i r s , we t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f the A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columb i a a r e more t h a n e v e r d e t e r m i n e d t o t a k e such a c t i o n as may be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may r e c e i v e j u s t i c e and a r e furthermore determined t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r i g h t s c l a i m e d by them by a j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n of His Majesty's P r i v y C o u n c i l . ^  decided tive  arm  As  they  to  appeal  of  had  done  to  the  government.  in  192 0,  the  legislative  Executive rather  Committee  than  Perhaps  they  expected  Liberals  than  the  the  more  execufavour-  i able in  treatment  the  past  from  Liberal  the  governments  had  been  Conservatives,  as  g e n e r a l l y more  sympathetic. One the  of  the  M i n i s t e r of  to  deal  in  the  outline  with House the  the of  the  members  of  the  Liberal  Interior,  was  at  Indian  land  current  position  his wits'  controversy.  Commons, M e i g h e n of  requested the  Government,  On the  end June  as  Stewart, to  26,  Minister  how 1925, to  controversy.  I s t h e g o v e r n m e n t s t a n d i n g i n t h e way o f t h e s u b m i s s i o n of the matter to the P r i v y C o u n c i l ? What I u n d e r s t a n d i s t h i s — a n d I k n o w i t h a s b e e n t h e c a s e f o r some t i m e — t h a t t h e I n d i a n s and t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g them have  78 been a n x i o u s t o o b t a i n t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . I do n o t s e e any r e a s o n why t h e y s h o u l d n o t have t h a t decision. Why i s i t t h a t t h e y have n o t b e e n a b l e t o g e t it? Stewart  replied:  Regarding the c o n t r o v e r s y over the a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , I have b e e n t r y i n g f o r t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s t o f i n d o u t j u s t what t h e I n d i a n s mean by t h i s . Do t h e y l a y c l a i m to a l l lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n view o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s no t r e a t y had b e e n s i g n e d between t h e t r i b e s a n d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Crown? A f t e r a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c u s s i o n , I found t h a t they d i d not l a y c l a i m t o t h e land i n i t s e n t i r e t y , but t h e y do s a y t h a t b e f o r e an a d j u s t m e n t c a n t a k e p l a c e , t h e y s h o u l d have c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d and u n s p e c i f i e d p r o v i s i o n s made f o r them by t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f Canada. This i s a l l so v a g u e a n d d i f f i c u l t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i t i s v e r y h a r d t o a r r i v e a t any c o n c r e t e d e f i n i t i o n o f what t h e i r c l a i m s a r e . . . . My Hon. f r i e n d s a y s , why n o t send i t to t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l ? Mr.  Meighen: Why do y o u n o t l e t them  Mr.  take i t ?  Stewart: They want  Stewart  t h e government o f Canada t o p a y t h e i r e x p e n s e s . ^  continued:  I must c o n f e s s t h a t I do n o t s e e v e r y much hope. . . . One o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s we have t o meet i s t h e v a g u e n e s s o f t h e i r demands. I d e f y anyone t o g e t them down t o a c o n c r e t e b a s i s a s , f o r example, so much f o r e d u c a t i o n , so much f o r r e l i e f and so f o r t h . T h a t i s one g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y and i t l o o k s h o p e l e s s t o me. I believe t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l w o u l d o n l y come t o one d e c i s i o n . They a r e q u i t e l i k e l y t o f o l l o w p r e c e d e n t and s a y t o t h e I n d i a n s , "You a r e e n t i t l e d t o t h e same c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s has b e e n g i v e n t o t h e o t h e r t r i b e s t h r o u g h o u t Canada." T h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s p r e p a r e d t o g i v e them, and f o r t h e l i f e o f me I do n o t know what t o recommend. I t seems t o be an u n e n d i n g d i f f i c u l t y and I do n o t s e e t h a t t h e government w o u l d be w a r r a n t e d i n p a y i n g e x p e n s e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e I n d i a n s t o go o v e r and a r g u e t h e c a s e b e f o r e t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l u n l e s s we have s o m e t h i n g very concrete presented t o us.  79  Mr.  Meighen: Then fiat  Mr.  y o u w o u l d be and l e t them  quite willing go o v e r ?  that  they  should  get  a  Stewart: 19 Oh  yes, i f they Agreeing  mittee, empty have  wanted  to l e t the Indians  but refusing  concession. been  to provide  The  enormous.  statement,  to.  later  cost  them  to the J u d i c i a l  with  funds,  of instituting  Nonetheless,  saying  go  Kelly  such  was  Com-  a  rather  a case  pounced  on  would  Stewart's  that  . . . t h e M i n i s t e r on b e h a l f o f t h e Government o f Canada . . . recognized that the A l l i e d Tribes are e n t i t l e d to obtain from H i s Majesty's P r i v y Council d e c i s i o n of the Indian land controversy and agreed t h a t t h e Government would g i v e a u t h o r i t a t i v e s a n c t i o n f o r so doing.2Q Having approval the  On  goal  what  15,  assistance  1925,  w h i c h was  the land  question  declaration  drawn and  The  petition  up  also  to  allow  important  being:  several  rights  to  to  court.  of the A l l i e d  Tribes  to Parliament.  recited  conditions  the  f o r an  The  history  statement  Parliament's  as  a  equitable attention  of the I n t e r i o r  to the J u d i c i a l requests,  case  set out to  the case  t h e 1919  called  government  then  of the Minister  to proceed  contained  Kelly,  Tribes'  the supposed w i l l i n g n e s s  petition  meeting  reaffirmed  to  the Indians  Tribes  a petition 21 by  was  the native  in bringing  a general  of the A l l i e d  settlement.  thought  the A l l i e d  a r e s o l u t i o n t o submit  petition,  The  they  of taking  Committee,  government  December  passed  of  of their  Judicial  secure  received  Committee.  the three  most  80 2. T h a t s t e p s be t a k e n f o r d e f i n i n g and s e t t l i n g b e tween t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s and t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada a l l i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g t o be d e c i d e d between t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e one hand and t h e Government o f Canada on t h e o t h e r hand. 3. T h a t i m m e d i a t e s t e p s be t a k e n f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and e n a b l i n g them by s e c u r i n g r e f e r e n c e o f t h e p e t i t i o n now i n H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l and s u c h o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t j u d i c i a l a c t i o n a s s h a l l be f o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o s e c u r e judgment o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s Privy Council deciding a l l issues involved. 4. red  T h a t t h i s p e t i t i o n and a l l r e l a t e d m a t t e r s be r e f e r t o a S p e c i a l Committee f o r f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ^ The  p e t i t i o n was g i v e n  Member o f P a r l i a m e n t  t o W. G. M c Q u a r r i e , t h e  f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r , who p r e s e n t e d i t 23  in  t h e House on J u n e  days l a t e r ,  9, 1926,  The s e s s i o n ended a few  however, and t h e A l l i e d  response t o t h e i r  T r i b e s r e c e i v e d no  petition.  After waiting  i n vain  f o r s e v e r a l months, t h e E x e c u -  t i v e Committee i n s t r u c t e d O'Meara i n November, 1926, t o write any  to the M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r i n v i t i n g 24  or a l l of the claims  submitted.  h i s reply to  The M i n i s t e r d i d n o t  acknowledge t h e l e t t e r . On F e b r u a r y Vancouver Centre,  9, 19 27,  questioned  H. H. S t e v e n s ,  t h e Member f o r  Prime M i n i s t e r Mackenzie  King  about t h e matter o f the c l a i m s o f the A l l i e d T r i b e s . W h i l e I have n o t much sympathy w i t h some o f t h e v i e w s e n t e r t a i n e d by t h o s e who a r e a g i t a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s I do t h i n k i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o s a t i s f y and q u i e t t h e I n d i a n s i n r e g a r d t o i t . I am a n x i o u s t o c o o p e r a t e i n g i v i n g them e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y t o have t h e q u e s t i o n s e t t l e d b u t I do n o t t h i n k any headway w i l l be made i f i t i s a l l o w e d t o d r i f t any l o n g e r . . . . I w o u l d ask t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r i f t h e government w o u l d c o n s i d e r  81  the appointment o f a s m a l l s e l e c t committee t o hear t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e I n d i a n s and g i v e t h e q u e s t i o n s t u d y i n o r d e r t o s e e i f we c a n n o t b r i n g i t t o a c o n c l u sion. „ 2b c  The suggestion, Minister Stewart the  Prime  but proposed  that  of the Interior. replied  land  M i n i s t e r d e c l i n e d t o respond  that  question  he d i r e c t  Stevens  the request  be t a k e n  t o Mr.  h i s remarks  Stevens  to the  d i d so on F e b r u a r y  of the A l l i e d  to the Judicial  11.  Tribes  that  Committee  . . . has n o t been granted, although i t i s r e c e i v i n g consideration. We h a v e a c o m m i t t e e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a c t i n g i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e working on t h e s i t u a t i o n and endeavouring to reach a d e c i s i o n a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t i t w o u l d be o f u s e t o submit the matter f o r j u d i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n with the p r i v i lege o f c a r r y i n g t h e whole q u e s t i o n t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . With of  regard  Parliament  t o Stevens'  be a p p o i n t e d  suggestion  to consider  that  a  committee  the question,  Stewart  replied: I f a committee o f p a r l i a m e n t would be h e l p f u l without g o i n g t o t h e e x p e n s e o f b r i n g i n g two o r t h r e e h u n d r e d w i t n e s s e s f r o m B.C., I w o u l d b e i n c l i n e d t o a s k f o r t h a t a s s i s t a n c e , b u t t h e r e h a s b e e n s o much i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l r e a d y , s o m u c h e v i d e n c e t a k e n , t h a t I am i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k we h a d b e t t e r h a v e a t r y a t a s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m b y t h e p r e s e n t c o m m i t t e e a n d s e e i f we cannot get together.2y On F e b r u a r y memorandum, British for  this  Columbia  time  yet  f o r the Minister of Justice.  Indian  the Parliament  Allied  24, 1 9 2 7 , O ' M e a r a p r e p a r e d  Land  Controversy:  o f Canada,"  another I n "The  Introductory  O'Meara c l a i m e d  Notes  that the  Tribes  . . . are entitled according to British constitutional p r i n c i p l e s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d and founded upon t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Magna C a r t a , t o s e c u r e t h a t t h e i r Petition s h a l l be r e f e r r e d t o a S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e . 0 Q  82  Two Interior  weeks  later,  introduced a  on  March  8,  the  Minister  of  the  motion  T h a t a s p e c i a l committee o f t h i s House . . . be a p p o i n t e d t o meet w i t h a s i m i l a r s p e c i a l committee o f t h e s e n a t e , i f s u c h a c o m m i t t e e be a p p o i n t e d , t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e claims of the A l l i e d Indian T r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columbia as s e t . f o r t h i n t h e i r p e t i t i o n submitted t o p a r l i a m e n t i n June 1 9 2 6 . ^ The begin  motion  i t s inquiry It  claims  of by  for  any  solution  the  government the  to  of  reference to that  their  a  Perhaps,  1926  provided the  such  the  June,  Indian had  land  been  Judicial  Clause the  was  with  a  to  a  he  have  Special was  unable not  to  to  one  Committee.  casting  although  prayer  T r i b e s had convenient by  about  Presumably  produce  possible  the  the  a  personally in  Committee,  suggested  to  controversy.  was  2 of  Allied  i n a manner  Committee  decided  1925,  Stewart  government  problems  Stewart  r e f e r e n c e was  petition,  the  of  and  by  The  Tribes referred  the  problem  to.  22.  why  committee  to  lution.  clear  h i s remarks  tion  ceded  agreed  March  Allied  Judging  a  on  i s not the  was  the  route  solufavour  he  con-  to  reso-  for relief  in  unwittingly way  of  Indians  resolving themselves:  T h a t s t e p s be t a k e n f o r d e f i n i n g and s e t t l i n g b e t w e e n t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s and t h e Dominion o f Canada a l l i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g t o be d e c i d e d b e t w e e n t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e one hand and t h e Government o f Canada on t h e o t h e r hand. The desired the  to  Joint  Allied be  T r i b e s d i d not  taken.  Special  It  Committee  was"  to  would  specify  what  "steps"  regret  this  clause, for  later  appeal  to  i t in  i t •  83  justifying  their  v e r s y o n c e and law.  d e c i s i o n to s e t t l e  the  Indian  for a l l , without reference  land  t o any  contro-  court  of  84  Footnotes ^"LaViolette, 2  Ibid.,  3  File  p.  p.  138.  139.  026076,  #3.  4 J u l y 24, 1 9 2 2 , J o i n t S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e , p. 14. O ' M e a r a was n o t a t t h i s m e e t i n g . I n a memorandum p r e s e n t e d t o t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r on A p r i l 23, 1923, P. D. M c T a v i s h of the F r i e n d s of the Indians claimed that the J u l y meeting . . . was n o t c a l l e d b y a u t h o r i t y o f t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e Allied Tribes. T h e m e e t i n g was a r r a n g e d a n d c a l l e d by a u t h o r i t y o f the I n d i a n Department. The I n d i a n s a t t e n d i n g w e r e a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f c h i e f s t o g e t h e r w i t h some m e m b e r s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e A l l i e d Tribes. T h e I n d i a n s who attended acted without advice o f t h e G e n e r a l C o u n s e l o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e and without any i n d e p e n d e n t advice. ( F i l e 026076, #3). ^Joint  Special  6  Ibid.,  P-  83.  7  Ibid.,  P-  14.  8  Ibid.,  P-  61.  P-  67.  9  Ibid.,  " ^ I b i d . , p.  69.  "'""'"Ibid. , p .  71.  Committee,  p.  14.  Ibid. 13 The f o u r y e a r l a p s e o f t i m e between p a s s a g e o f t h e I n d i a n Lands S e t t l e m e n t A c t and t h e D o m i n i o n O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l r e s u l t e d i n p a r t from the study of the Royal Commission's R e p o r t u n d e r t a k e n b y W. E . D i t c h b u r n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t , a n d M a j o r J . W. C l a r k , t h e P r o v i n c i a l representative. D i t c h b u r n and C l a r k r e - e x a m i n e d t h e Commiss i o n ' s f i n d i n g s a n d made s e v e r a l r e v i s i o n s . 14 J o i n t S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e , p . 24 2. 15  "Petition Ibid.  to  Parliament,  June  1926,"  ibid.,  p.  xxi.  85  1  7  Ibid.  18 pp.  Debates 4993-4994. 1  9  Ibid.,  o f t h e House p.  o f Commons,  June  26, 1925,  4994.  20 Joint 2  1  Special  Ibid.,  Committee, p.  x x i .  p. 82.  22 Appendix p. 4301.  I b i d . , p. x x i . Text D. 23 Debates o f t h e House 24  Joint  25  Special  o f Commons,  i s given i n  June  9, 1 9 2 6 ,  Committee, p. 87. o f Commons,  February  9, 1 9 2 7 ,  D e b a t e s o f t h e H o u s e o f Commons, 210-211. 27 I b i d . , p. 211. 28 J o i n t S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e , p . 84. 29 D e b a t e s o f t h e H o u s e o f Commons, p . 985,  February  11, 1927,  p.  174.  Debates  of the Petition  o f t h e House  26 pp.  March  8, 1 9 2 7 ,  86  CHAPTER  THE  A  of  the  Allied 22,  1927  4,  and  6.  with  the  A.  E.  and The  Senator  of  in Joint  Indian  March 5,  O'Meara and  the  Interior  the  Interior,  tative  to  the  On Scott,  O'Meara,  British  first  Paull  witnesses  f o r the  until  end  suggested land  Dr.  controversy  general  the  to  situation."  surprise on  that  to  Scott,  British  but  the  and  had  the  This f o r he  had  Land  March  a  of of  represen-  30,  D.  the  Hon.  history a  Situation."  of  "grasp  armed He  C.  Affairs,  heard,  obviously  arrived  Tribes  Minister  send  Indian  not  the  as  Allied  were p r e s e n t .  committee  request  course  well  Indian  to  April  members,  as  the  on  declined."*"  of  s e s s i o n , as  describe  give  the  hearings,  Kelly  and  the  f o r the  Oliver  T r i b e s were  Scott  During  Stewart,  General  Peter  day's  Columbia  for  Claims  convened  31,  examined  of  the  fourteen  Counsel  Oliver  of  Allied the  were  Premier  House  31,  Chairman.  Columbia.  day  March  Counsel  Superintendent  of  on  Beament,  invited  hearings,  Andrew  the  as  and  Columbia"  consisted of  Mclntyre,  had  the  Deputy  W.  1927  inquire into  British  sittings  Bostock  A.  OF  Senate  to  eight witnesses  D.  of  the  Session  Committee  and  A.  of  T r i b e s of  held  Hewitt  hearings,  Tribes,  "GREAT S E T T L E M E N T "  " S p e c i a l Committee  Commons m e e t i n g  V  however, Mr.  Stevens  the of  came a s with  The  a  Indian  the no "Report  proceeded  to  87  read  h i s Report,  f o r twenty  pages  "succinct"  memorandum,  as  a s p o s s i b l e a n d make  clearly  of evidence.  S c o t t proposed such  In  to "present  this  the facts  recommendations  as  2 appear  t o be a p p r o p r i a t e . " In  ledged  t h e second  that  Indians  bia  has ever  and  over  the lands  been  statement  sought  were  the northeast  in  Treaty  to  the Indians,  that  8.  This  benefit  acknowledgement must  t o d i s c u s s the matter  In British  f o rnative  Colum-  to  treaties  have  T h i s may  been an  gratifying acceptance  have  been t h e  t o be o f  Superintendent  of extinguishment  little General  o f and  title.  and o t h e r  provinces  the distinguishing  4 of a n n u i t y . Granted annuities, but  by  w h i c h was•'. i n c l u d e d  Scott's opinion, the essential  Columbia  treaty—and  by Douglas'  but i t proved  as t h e Deputy  claimed  of British  to constitute  existed.  statement,  to the Indians  compensation  covered  acknow-  The e x c e p t i o n s  of the Province  as i t appeared  of Scott's  proceeded  lands  title  title  of the Province 3  or obtained."  those  corner  unextinguished  intent  of h i s report, Scott  "no c e s s i o n o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l  the  this  paragraph  that  difference  between  was t h e a b s e n c e o f  mark o f a t r e a t y  t h e B.C. I n d i a n s  was  payment  h a d r e c e i v e d no  . . . i n a l l other respects l i k e expenditures arising from s i m i l a r m o t i v e s w i l l be found i n a l l t h e p r o v i n c e s . T h e r e h a s b e e n no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. As t h e i r n e e d s became a p p a r e n t they have been s a t i s f i e d and t h e Dominion Government has granted t h i s Department funds t o develop a p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i c y ($10,800,37 s i n c e c o n f e d e r a t i o n ) . I t i s clear  88  t h a t g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by t h e D o m i n i o n h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e same c a r e , g o v e r n e d b y t h e same p r i n c i p l e s a s t h e g e n e r a l t r u s t , and t h a t the n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n has n o t p r e j u d i c i a l l y a f f e c t e d the i n t e r e s t s of these Indians.Scott effect vided  of by  omitted fits  a  to  were  provided of  the  Indians  The  latter  to  the  had  and  title. the  a  reserve  on  of  Scott  f o r the  also  extin-  i s clear.  He  extinguishment  lack of  incidental title,  expected  pro-  treaty—bene-  question  of  aboriginal those  a  intent  the  result  and  lands.  i n exchange  Scott's  essentially  large to  meaning  a n n u i t i e s were  significance  s u f f e r e d as  loomed  the  for concluding  concentrate  i s s u e was  than  notably  Indians  f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of  doubt  things  reason  aboriginal  title  the  no  Other  to minimize  aboriginal  over-simplified  agreements,  discuss  trying  claims  treaty.  these  guishment was  obviously  to  to  of a  whether  treaty.  the  but  of  Indians'  the  matter  provide  compen-  sation. Scott  went  Government-Indian  on  to  describe  relations  i n B.C.,  Government's w i l l i n g n e s s i n sation  which  involving  the  impression ated  the  read  some  Dominion  Government  that  of  General  the  unreasonably  "general these  1923  to  more  seek  native  history the  "reasonable  Province."  high  recent  emphasizing  Government might  Government-Indian  In dent  the  the  supply  discussions, Scott  Dominion compen-  without  Having  demands  of  left  had  the  termin-  proceeded  to  remarks."^  concluding  repeated  comments,  his opinion  that  the the  Deputy  Superinten-  Indians  had  89  suffered  no  aboriginal Indians  disability rights.  might  be  as  In  a  result  h i s view,  entitled  to  of  any  had  non-extinguishment compensation  been  that  of  the  granted  . . . by t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e s e r v e s and by t h e extension to the I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia o f the p o l i c y which o b t a i n s i n the other P r o v i n c e s of the Dominion.j He astrous  went  on  to  suggest  the  consequences  which  might  First,  would  be  unpleasant follow  an  and  even  Indian  dis-  victory  in  court:  issued  by  the  there  thus  the  Commission  recommendations  might  j e o p a r d i z i n g the  result  of  the  The caused  be  put  McKenna  to  agree  that  aboriginal title  obtained.  In  thought win  ought  in court  recently Royal  short,  of  the  land  Report  titles  of  the  or i n v a l i d a t e d ,  Indians  the  public the  be  received  public policy  to  be  on  given  future  improved  by  to  interest  as  dropped,  as  the  which  Federa-Provincial  question  of  a  Scott  dispute  stated,  of  native  title  of  Indian  policy.  effects  of  a  had  was  of  the  as Serious  possible  Federal-Provincial relations,  implementation  s t i l l  Report  of  Indian  so the  Commission. Turning  tion,  a l l the  Report.  considerations of  a matter  on  in question  b e n e f i t s the  respecting  mcuh  cloud  Province;  Second, Royal  a  Scott  purposes  of  again  pointed  to  out  assessing  the that  Indians' the  value  compensation  for  demands of  for  lands  compensa-  for  the  aboriginal title  was  90  not  increased  ments.  On  southern  the basis  Vancouver  unextinguished per  square  would  as a r e s u l t  receive  by  settlement  payments  amounted  under  the Dominion  pittance  value"  t o $251,097,  t r e a t y would  to the  although  of  of the $1.00  a l l the  be t h e o r d i n a r y  made  improve-  o r about  amount,  compared  had a l r e a d y  and  t o the Indians  the "surrender  In addition to this  $5.00 p e r c a p i t a — a which  of Douglas'  Island,  title  mile.  of white  Indians  annuity  of  expenditures not required to  treaty. In  which  concluding,  had accrued  settlement  Scott  emphasized  to the native  and Government  people  t h e many  benefits  as a r e s u l t  benevolence:  they  were  of white  now a n Q  "educated In  view  and p r o g r e s s i v e "  of the foregoing,  Indians  might  Government Committee  should  court,  B.C. w o u l d  provided and  the  work  people."  any c l a i m s t h e by  ordinary  t o go t o t h e J u d i c i a l  Scott's  the Province  to give  o f the Royal  i n the opinion  o f t h e Committee  was  owned  the lands  and  went t o  As t h e P r o v i n c i a l  any more  t o attend  presentation, i t  i f the natives  be t h e d e f e n d a n t .  t h e terms  Committee,  that  compensated  request  by t h e I n d i a n s ,  f u r t h e r , had r e f u s e d  Special  felt  fully  following  since  had r e f u s e d  under  a "primitive  refused.  out that  claimed  Government  Their  the discussion  pointed  resources  had had been  be  than  Dr. S c o t t  expenditures.  In was  have  rather  lands  than  Commission's  the hearings  report,  of the  o f t h e Hon. Mr.  finished:  those  Belcourt,  91  We c a n n o t s u g g e s t a n y t h i n g t o o u r p a r l i a m e n t t h a t c o u l d be a t a l l e f f e c t i v e . I f we w e r e t o d e c i d e o n t h i s q u e s t i o n i n law, B r i t i s h Columbia would r e f u s e t o accept our j u r i s d i c t i o n . I f B r i t i s h Columbia takes t h e ground t h a t they have an agreement and t h a t i s t h e end o f i t , I do n o t s e e what p u r p o s e t h i s c o m m i t t e e c a n s e r v e b y hearing a l l these people. I t s e e m s t o me t h a t we a r e up a g a i n s t a n i n s u p e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y . . . . On t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l u t t e r l y hopeless f o r us t o proceed.^  is  The  Hon. Mr. S t e w a r t  was  n o t between  and  government.  be  bad form  Dr.  out that  t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s , Even  to close the hearings  the dispute  b u t betv/een  i f Mr. B e l c o u r t were after  I say i t  the Indians  right,  listening  i t would only to  Scott. As  in  pointed  title,  the hearings  the position  evidence  position.  Despite  and argument  o f O'Meara's,  a  to "satisfy legal  questions  t w o governments,""'"^  the  substantive clear  further  than  i n support  the A l l i e d  t h e committee  the  quite  that  issues.  were  statements  that  an  requested  . . . there are the Indians  undertook  intended  than  own  Beament,  T h e H o n . R. B. B e n n e t t  t h a t he, a t l e a s t ,  rather  T r i b e s had  a t i s s u e between  t h e Committee  placed  of their  t h e p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f A . W.  associate  substantial  the Indians  of rebutting Scott's  presenting  hearing  continued,  to  and  determine  made i t  the matter  t o go no  t h e Committee:  Paragraph 2 [ o f t h e 1926 P e t i t i o n ' s p r a y e r f o r r e l i e f ] i s t h e i m p o r t a n t one; t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n f o r d e f i n i n g and s e t t l i n g between t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and t h e D o m i n i o n . T h a t i s a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d we w i l l s e t t l e the matter here.^ The the  Indians  Committee's at a great  insistence  on having  disadvantage,  f o r they  the "facts" put h a d come  92  prepared  to present  officials the  Committee.  proved  strated  that  recognition  and  Allied  members, but  of that  long  and  annoyed  the  not  position.  wordy,  Public  he  hard and  demonof  non-  Stevens,  repetitious  that  and  Committee. could by  have  promising  and  argument,  1920.  been  disliked  him,  to state  on  legal  without  citing  his position By  the time  t h e Committee  read-  i n the record  e x t r a c t s from  usually  soon  insisted  filed  of Two  pompous manner  O'Meara  quoting  opinions  since  particularly  argu-  prejudiced the  officials'  dragged i t out to f i f t y .  his first  to  facts  constitutional  badly  f o r the better  the Committee  After  as  t h e main  spokesman  often out of context  concluded if  of a  the entire  sources.  minutes,  suffered  to present  choice  documents  opinions,  had  public  title.  not changed  O'Meara's  ing  wanted  a result  B e l c o u r t and  exasperated  Committee  of  the case  the Indians  this  had  of referring  title  Tribes'  O'Meara  The  opinions  the existence of aboriginal  O ' M e a r a was ment,  i n law and  as t o the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  Judicial  which  arguments  was  he  in  five  had  frustrated,  infuriated.  Hon. Mr. Green: M r . C h a i r m a n , I t h i n k we h a v e of t h i s p i f f l e . . . . I t h i n k we h a v e h e a r d t o h e a r f r o m Mr. O'Meara.  heard enough a l l we w a n t  Hon. Mr. Murphy: T h e f i v e m i n u t e s h a v e b e e n e x p a n d e d  into  fifty.  Hon. Mr. Stevens: will  go  on  . . . I f the Chairman w i l l  f o r two  weeks w i t h  this  kind  of  p e r m i t i t he rubbish.  93  The Chairman: I f y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d t h a t s t a t e m e n t , Mr. O ' M e a r a , we w a n t t h e d o c u m e n t h a n d e d i n t o t h e C l e r k o f the Committee.  Mr. O'Meara: I am now  ready  to present  the  Petition.  Hon. Mr. Stevens: We d o n o t n e e d t h e P e t i t i o n . We h a v e been p l e a d i n g w i t h you t o g i v e us s o m e t h i n g i n s u p p o r t o f t h a t P e t i t i o n a n d y o u h a v e up t o t h i s moment p e r s i s tently refused. Mr. O'Meara: No, reach  p a r d o n me. point.  that  I have  been  endeavouring  to  Hon. Mr. Stevens: Y o u h a v e n o t e v e n r e a c h e d a b e g i n n i n g . I t h i n k t h i s i s an e x h i b i t i o n o f what t h e I n d i a n t r i b e s have b e e n o b l i g e d t o p u t up w i t h . Hon. Mr. Green:  I t i s what  they  have  had  t o p u t up  with.  Hon. Mr. Stevens: Y e s , i t i s what t h e y h a v e had t o p u t up w i t h , and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y have been d e l u d e d and d e c e i v e d b y t h i s man f o r n i n e t e e n y e a r s t o my knowledge is plain. I remember t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g i n V a n c o u v e r . I p r e s i d e d o v e r i t as a c t i n g Mayor, and I took t h e s t a n d t h e n t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e was i n i m i c a l t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the Indians. I have been i n t o u c h w i t h him ever since, and t h i s i s an e x h i b i t i o n o f what t h e s e t r i b e s have been up a g a i n s t f o r n i n e t e e n y e a r s .  Hon. Mr. Murphy: A n d now what  he  has  been  Hon. Mr. Stevens:  doing I think  he w a n t s t o do t o t h e to the Indians. i t i s an  outrage  provoked  by  Committee  myself,  just  an  outrage.^ As  i f the h o s t i l i t y  sufficiently third  day  informed sented  damaging  of hearings, the Committee  the Indians  Despite  Peter  Indians  not  at  to the A l l i e d Mr.  A.  D.  t h a t he,  any  permitted  Mr.  the  and  Tribes,  repre-  Columbia.  spokesman  T r i b e s had  not  on  appeared  of B r i t i s h  objections that  t h e Committee  case,  not the A l l i e d  included i n the A l l i e d  the hearings,  Tribes'  Mclntyre  of the Interior  Kelly's  O'Meara were  no  for  business  Mclntyre  and  94  his  witnesses  t o speak.  Mclntyre  stated  that  ization  of coast  Indians  brought  before  the A l l i e d  and that  t h e committee  T r i b e s was a n  the majority  by t h a t  organ-  of the matters  organization d i d not 13  concern  the Interior  Interior,  he s t a t e d ,  grievances not  contained  concerned  they  wanted  with  was  Mclntyre Basil  David,  Allied  Indians  h a d no i n t e r e s t  the question  security then  sought  and  the conduct  them more  of life  of the specific  o l d men. improved  control  over  on t h e r e s e r v e s — a l l  modernize  title.  reserve  C h i e f s John  education,  of the  and f u r t h e r were  to their  i n 1927, v e r y  more  provisions to give  t o help  i n most  of aboriginal  o f tenure  introduced  and  intended  The Indians  i n t h e 1919 p e t i t i o n ,  who w e r e ,  Tribes  at all.  What lands.  Chilihitza  and  Whereas t h e medical  care  Indian  funds  benefits  the I n d i a n s — C h i l i h i t z a  stated  that . . . a l l t h e I n d i a n s want i s t o be j u s t I n d i a n s , and n o t t o b e t a k e n a s w h i t e p e o p l e a n d made t o l i v e like white people. T h e y w a n t t o b e t h e way t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s used t o be, j u s t p l a i n Indians.^ The Chilihitza, hunt  main  interests  were more w a t e r  and f i s h  forirrigation  Indians,  said  and t h e r i g h t  to  unmolested.  When P e t e r the  of the Interior  damage c a u s e d  Kelly  was c a l l e d ,  by t h e I n t e r i o r  he t r i e d  Indians  t o minimize  and t h e i r  lawyers.  . . . t h e r e a r e two g r o u p s o f t h i n g s w h i c h m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d : o n e i s t h e I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s a n d i t was t o overcome one phase o f t h e I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s t h a t t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n was a p p o i n t e d i n t h e y e a r 1 9 1 3 . B u t  95  t h a t C o m m i s s i o n l o o k e d i n t o j u s t one t h i n g , o n l y one p h a s e o f I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s a n d t h a t was to provide I n d i a n s w i t h a d e q u a t e l a n d s . . . . Now the other s i d e i s t h i s : at the bottom of t h a t i s a fundamental i s s u e . That i s t o say, the I n d i a n s of B r i t i s h Columbia were not t r e a t e d as I n d i a n t r i b e s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h i s D o m i n i o n , n o t b e c a u s e i t was n o t k n o w n a t a l l , b u t a f t e r some e n d e a v o u r o n t h e p a r t o f t h e C o l o n i a l G o v e r n ment i n t h e e a r l y d a y s when g o v e r n m e n t s s t r o v e t o d e a l w i t h t h i s g r e a t f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e , and I r e f e r frankly to the a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e o f the Indians.^ Although evidence,  Mclntyre's  Committee. could all  no  the  state  The  tribes  his  Committee's but  and  in other  spent  to In  budget  asked  on  areas  Kelly the  as  after  of  midst the  of  Indian  a  that  nor  attempted  of  medical all, not  to  in  :  claim  to  the aboriginal  specific  substantial main  sums  concerns—  Kelly  obliged to  countered  provide  such  Indians.  d i s c u s s i o n of Department,  i t  focus  that  Kelly's  only  represented  issue of  care.  the  Indians.  interested out  his  appearance,  ..it  could  Columbia  pointed  with  influenced  fundamental  education—one such  continue  Mclntyre's  position  a l l British  a l l Canadians, the  to have  Columbia,  Committee  s t a t e was,  services  must  members w e r e more  The  been  the  British  testimony,  the  had  the  the  a t t e n t i o n on  grievances.  that  of  permitted  Tribes, after  maintain  demands o f  In  was  testimony  Allied  longer  the  title,  Kelly  the  the  proper  Hon.  Mr.  size  of  Stevens  Kelly:  Suppose the recognition Kelly: would  a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i s not recognized. Suppose was r e f u s e d , w h a t p o s i t i o n d o y o u t a k e t h e n ?  T h e n t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t we w o u l d h a v e b e t h i s : t h a t we a r e s i m p l y d e p e n d e n t  to take people.  Then  96  we w o u l d h a v e t o a c c e p t f r o m y o u , j u s t a s a n a c t o f g r a c e , w h a t e v e r y o u s a w f i t t o g i v e u s . Now t h a t i s p u t t i n g i t i n p l a i n language. The I n d i a n s have no v o i c e in the a f f a i r s o f this country. They have n o t a solit a r y way o f b r i n g i n g a n y t h i n g b e f o r e t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f t h i s c o u n t r y e x c e p t a s we h a v e d o n e l a s t y e a r b y P e t i t i o n and i t i s a mighty hard t h i n g . I f we p r e s s f o r t h a t , we a r e c a l l e d a g i t a t o r s , s i m p l y a g i t a t o r s , t r o u b l e m a k e r s , w h e n we t r y t o g e t w h a t we c o n s i d e r t o b e o u r rights. I t i s a mighty hard t h i n g and as I have s a i d i t has taken us between f o r t y and f i f t y y e a r s t o g e t w h e r e we a r e t o d a y . A n d p e r h a p s i f we a r e t u r n e d d o w n now, i f t h i s C o m m i t t e e s e e s f i t t o t u r n d o w n w h a t we a r e p r e s s i n g f o r , i t m i g h t b e a n o t h e r c e n t u r y b e f o r e a new g e n e r a t i o n w i l l r i s e up a n d b e g i n t o p r e s s t h i s c l a i m . I f t h i s q u e s t i o n i s n o t s e t t l e d , i n a p r o p e r way o n a sound b a s i s , i t w i l l n o t be s e t t l e d p r o p e r l y . Now t h a t i s t h e p o i n t t h a t we w a n t t o s t r e s s . In the  essence  iginal or  this  statement,  of the Indians'  title.  Whether  a n n u i t i e s was  that had  without  depend  Entitled  the  made  bleak  little  The h e a r i n g s members w i t h  r e c e i v e would  title,  be g i v e n they  abor-  of land  to the fact  a l l the Indians t o them would  as  forever  impression carried  on.  of a future of perpetual  o n t h e members o f t h e CommitO'Meara  o f documents,  rose  again  opinions  interpretations  t o vex  of past  o f judgments and  opinions. On A p r i l  B.C.  perhaps  o f government.  prediction  odd b i t s  was  deprived  compared  to nothing,  Prime M i n i s t e r s and dubious legal  had been  unimportant  by r i g h t  what  f o r recognition of  recognition of aboriginal  Kelly's  tee.  the Indians  on t h e benevolence  charity  expressed  claims  relatively  r e c e i v e d and would  charity.  Kelly  4,  5, a n d 6, t h e I n d i a n  and t h e D i r e c t o r o f F i s h e r i e s  answers  to specific  problems  were  Commissioner f o r  appeared. discussed  Specific a t some  length,  the ters  members of  apparently  administration  aboriginal O'Meara s  The  the  proceeding  obvious  proposals  Finally,  on  that  matter  Indians the Hon.  rather  the  than  members w e r e  the  of  of  the  toward  last  generously  matter  to  the  day,  or  was  the  not  aboriginal  Barnard  dropped  [Mr.  Kelly],  you  title a  mat-  concepts  of  impressed  they  were  tired  the  Allied  They  wanted  concrete  problems.  to  once  argue  government  had  fundamental  question.  that  at  issue.  is  in  was  dis-  Tribes  Committee.  the  of  with  again  treated It  Then  was the  bombshell:  know w h a t  I must c o n f e s s  discuss  much  attempted  not  to  vague  s o l u t i o n of  Kelly  whether  Mr.  Kelly:  Judicial  able  not  i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  directly  concrete  the  be  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l argument;  1  cussing  title.  r e l i e v e d to  estoppel  I do  law?  not.  Barnard: I f two men a c t a s i f a c o n t r a c t w e r e i n e x i s - ^ t e n c e , a c t m u t u a l l y upon i t , t h e y cannot a f t e r w a r d s deny that i t did exist. Kelly:  Barnard:  Provided  a  bargain  has  been  struck.  No.  Stevens: T h a t i s a p r i n c i p l e o f l a w w h i c h i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t w h i c h Mr. B a r n a r d has s u g g e s t e d . Independent of w r i t t e n l a w i n l a w c o u r t s , w h e r e two men who may be w h o l l y i g n o r a n t o f t h e l a w b y m u t u a l c o n s e n t go o n a c e r t a i n l i n e , s h a r e m u t u a l b e n e f i t s and so on, that becomes i n t h e e y e s o f a c o u r t o f law o r has t h e e f f e c t of a contract. Bay: T h a t i s , you cannot take the b e n e f i t s of a n o t h e r man's a c t i o n s and d e n y t h a t p a r t y h a s a p a r t i n t h e c o n tract. Your a c t i o n e s t o p s you from r a i s i n g t h a t objection . ^ The had  no  Committee  opportunity  to  was  not  argue  a  court  whether  of  the  law.  The  petitioners  p r i n c i p l e of  estoppel  98  applied,  whether  benefits  i n exchange  the  Committee  Indians  had  was  Government  the  terms  of  The the  report  and  made  efforts the  for  largesse,  the  that  their  and  was  the  claim  i t was  concluded submitted  discussed  the  on  too  But end  to  one as  of  of  far  i t .  to  as The  aboriginal  late  be  at  the  April  specific  title  renegotiate  1927.  report  claims  for  a l l times white  6,  i t s final  some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ,  i n t e r e s t of  i n t o was  agreement.  hearings  should  entered  aboriginal title.  traded  Committee  The  "contract"  concerned,  already  for  later  the  of  example,  made--and  citizens  as  Five to  the  Parliament.  1919  that  the  petition  "special  i t i s as  of  days  much  in  Indians—to  18 diminish hunting  the and  extremely ation  incidence fishing,  Indians.  must  worked  of  the  The  out  importance  liberal  view  amelioration local  leniency  of  and of  local  the  and  respect  that  the  their  officers, in  With  considered  regulations  with of  tuberculosis." Committee  and  influence  against be  the  sympathetic  should  of  to  "an  Indian  situ-  enforcement  as  difficulties we  are  enforcement  convinced  of  the  19 regulations." regulations In of  the  be the  The  Committee  did  not  recommend  that  the  changed. matter  of  the  Indians'  aboriginal title,  the  Committee  claim  for  recognition  stated:  . . . t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was f i r s t represented as a l e g a l c l a i m a g a i n s t t h e Crown a b o u t f i f t e e n y e a r s ago. The c l a i m t h e n b e g a n t o t a k e f o r m a s one w h i c h should be s a t i s f i e d by a t r e a t y o r a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e Indians i n w h i c h c o n d i t i o n s and t e r m s p u t f o r w a r d by them o r on  99  t h e i r b e h a l f m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d and a g r e e d u p o n b e f o r e a c e s s i o n o f t h e a l l e g e d t i t l e w o u l d be g r a n t e d . Tradit i o n f o r m s so l a r g e a p a r t o f t h e I n d i a n m e n t a l i t y t h a t i f i n p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n days the Indians considered t h a t t h e y had an a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o t h e l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e r e would have been t r i b a l r e c o r d s of such b e i n g t r a n s m i t t e d from f a t h e r t o son, e i t h e r by word o f mouth or i n some o t h e r c u s t o m a r y way. But n o t h i n g o f the k i n d was shown t o e x i s t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e e v i d e n c e o f Mr. K e l l y g o e s t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e I n d i a n s w e r e c o n s e n t ing p a r t i e s t o the whole p o l i c y of the government both as t o r e s e r v e s and o t h e r b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e y accepted f o r y e a r s w i t h o u t d e m u r . . . . T h e f a c t was admitted t h a t i t was n o t u n t i l f i f t e e n - y e a r s a g o t h a t a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was f i r s t p u t f o r w a r d as a f o r m a l l e g a l c l a i m by t h o s e who h a v e e v e r s i n c e made i t a b o n e o f c o n t e n t i o n a n d b y some a s o u r c e o f l i v e l i h o o d a s w e l l ^ g The friends  of  Committee the  did  not  spare  O'Meara  and  other  white  Indians:  The C o m m i t t e e n o t e w i t h r e g r e t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a g i t a t i o n not only i n B r i t i s h Columbia but with Indians i n other p a r t s o f t h e D o m i n i o n w h i c h a g i t a t i o n may b e c a l l e d m i s c h i e v o u s , by w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s a r e d e c e i v e d and l e d t o e x p e c t b e n e f i t s from c l a i m s more o r l e s s fictitious. Such a g i t a t i o n , o f t e n c a r r i e d on by d e s i g n i n g w h i t e men i s t o be d e p l o r e d a n d s h o u l d be d i s c o u n t e n a n c e d , as t h e Government o f the c o u n t r y i s a t a l l times ready t o p r o t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e I n d i a n s and t o r e d r e s s r e a l g r i e v a n c e s w h e r e s u c h a r e shown t o e x i s t . ^ 2  Not  surprisingly,  decision  that  claim  to  the  other  title  " . . . lands  and  .  the of  .  the  Committee  Petitioners  British  . the  have  Columbia  matter  came  to  not  based  should  now  the  unanimous  established on  be  aboriginal regarded  as  22 finally  closed." The  testimony were  Committee,  that  deprived  $100,00 0 be amount  the was  only  benefit  i n r e c o g n i t i o n of of  which  a n n u i t i e s , recommended  expended  equalled  doubtless  annually  approximately  in lieu  of  $5.00 p e r  the that  B.C. a  Scott's Indians  sum  of  annuities. head  based  on  This the  any or  100  then  current  population that  Indian  population.  increased,  i t became  indications,  but  apparent  were  not  then  that  dying  I would i t was  the  not  not  Indians,  increase  until  the  contrary  i f  the  1930's to  previous  out.  I n c o n c l u d i n g , y o u r C o m m i t t e e w o u l d recommend t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d a t s h o u l d b e made k n o w n a s completely as p o s s i b l e t o t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by d i r e c t i o n of the Superintendent General of Indian A f f a i r s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may become aware o f t h e f i n a l i t y o f f i n d i n g s a n d a d v i s e d t h a t no f u n d s s h o u l d be c o n t r i b u t e d by them t o c o n t i n u e f u r t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a c l a i m w h i c h h a s now been d i s a l l o w e d . ^ The On had  March  prohibition against  31,  passed  an  fund-raising  the  Allied  day  amendment for  Shortly the  first  the after  Indian  of  to  the  Tribes  Committee  the  purpose  f u n d - r a i s i n g was  of  Indian  Act  advancing  d e c i s i o n of of  hearings,  British  the  hardly  news.  Parliament  prohibiting a l l Indian Special  Columbia  claims. Committee,  collapsed.  Footnotes Joint 2  Ibid.,  3  Ibid.  4  Special  Ibid.,  P-  3.  P.  10.  P-  14.  18.  5  Ibid.  6  Ibid.,  7  Ibid.  8  Ibid.,  P-  9  Ibid.,  pp.  Committee,  22-23. 28 .  Ibid. »  P-  Ibid. ,  P- 7 7 .  Ibid. ,  P- 9 2 .  Ibid. ,  P- 1 3 9 .  14 ,., Ibid. i  P-  15,,. , Ibid. /  P. 1 4 7 .  Ibid. >  P. 1 6 0 .  Ibid. /  PP .  T  142.  224-225.  18.. Ibid. /  P- x v i i .  19_.., Ibid. r  P.  22 23  X V .  Ibid. /  P- v i i i .  Ibid. '  PP .  Ibid. f  P-  Ibid. ,  P- x v i i i .  viii-ix. xi.  p.  102  CHAPTER  VI  CONCLUSIONS  The tional  preceding  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  in  which  of  aboriginal  those  the  satisfaction  Why  the  claim  of  Allied  Tribes  that  them w i t h o u t as  a  claim  sympathized the  Indians  principles  well  sion the  with  to  on  in the  have  hindered  concern  and  was  the  the  manner  recognition abrogation  failed  to  of  achieve  i t by  the  organization.  Indians'  the  from  of  the  lifestyles  the  themselves  the  by  work  of  notion  fully of  Indians  by the  of  British  been  taken  from  Crown,  i t s  formu-  white  grievances.  ever  Although  had the  outset  It  men  is unlikely  understood  aboriginal  who  the  legal  rights.  aboriginal  rights  in  a  seems  as  questionable."*"  The  Indians'  the  issue of  the  rights claim.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  been  influence  crushed  compensation  law  underlying  lawyer's  was  lands of  Tribes  to  organiza-  fail?  genuine  payment  and  i t s claim for  the  blow d e l i v e r e d  1927  aboriginal  their  Tribes  the  in  The  the  Allied  Allied  i t s claim;  Tribes  of  described  pursued  The  Committee  have  compensation  Allied  Columbia  Their  rights.  r e f l e c t e d the  lation  and  the  nature  that  rights  Special  did  the  organization  alleged  Joint  chapters  persistence  stemmed, their  i t seems,  white  seeking almost  advisors,  judicial  entirely  especially  deci-  from  O'Meara,  103  who  was  obsessed  Judicial ment He  as  was  him  was  of  the  be.  from  claim  in  ties  earned  O'Meara  of not  Committee,  obtaining  validity  methods  Tribes,  and  domination  ing  the  desired large What  legal,  among  the  issue.  the  Tribes  and  only  his  the  and  to  he  qualito  the  the  more  in  i t  was,  day,  Tribes  claims were might  involvement,  prevented and  by  advanced  Allied  Had  Judicial  As  of  He  attempted  action,  O'Meara's  i t from  economic  yet  achievareas  claim.  claim  occasion  and  Empire.  succeeded,  prompting,  Indian  rights  satisfac-  these  the  court  social  the  thought  aboriginal  British  politicians  in  some  Tribes' claims.  case  Perhaps  as  Tribes  i t s complaints.  of  appoint-  unfortunate.  great  whom he  have  organization  aboriginal The  the  without  underlay  O'Meara  the  Allied  O'Meara's  improvements part  was  Allied  those  the  unscrupulous  taking  in  might  to  the^eyes  the  the  threatening  groundless.  of  Tribes  overbearing,  taking  been m o b i l i z e d  to  O'Meara's  derived  of  court  and  than  case  P r o v i n c i a l Governments  of  under  in  Allied  prospect  on  the  Council.  e f f o r t s of  friends  Allied  taking  undoubtedly  pompous  the  least  have  that  and  highest  no  his  was  the  some c o n c e s s i o n s  at  in  he  bent  of  s e l f - s e r v i n g and  the  the  been  extravagant  which  to  him  the  Allied  never  Privy  as  with  to  conciliatory  which,  the  Dominion  addition,  convince  idea  d i r e c t i n g the  was,  the  not  However,  fascinated  rights  of  the  counsel  probably  to  tion  Committee general  members  with  clients was  a  upon which  never  realized  political, the  not  Dominion  a  104  Cabinet the  took  face  of  government referred  concrete  steps  to  the  the  Indian  Supreme  Provincial  concurrence.  efforts  settle  broken  down  action  to  as  Prime  with  the  taking the  an  case  to  to  court  lands  of  the  Tribes tory  reserve  L a u r i e r was  dropped.  or  to  settle  t h e r e a f t e r supported  to  Judicial the  to  be  Committee.  Exchequer to  given  and  gaining  provide  any  hardly  realized  relations  of  that  the  have  sending be  between  relations  the  and  privileges  the  support. of  and  above  Agreement, the  i n the  areas  acceptance Judicial  Had  preserving  British  absolved  over  half-hearted  importance  Canada  was  prevented  to  attempts  proposed  Province  claim  a  disputes  in their  1914  effectively  of  of  Dominion  McKenna-McBride  the  of  signing  no  compensation  considered  the  the  the  Stewart's  Laurier  establishment  Indians  significant  drastic  question  title),  In  Court,  under  resources.  can  the  had  take  Dominion-Provincial  aboriginal  be  without  replaced  With  the  in  issue to  allotments  ready  McBride,  and  court  Dominion-Provincial  When B o r d e n  was  included  possibility  Committee  of  Agreement  finally  longer  from  of  time,  with  the  a b s o l u t i o n which would  Indians  Canada,  the  Premier  the  lands  permit  Conservative  a l l responsibility  the  to  to  when L a u r i e r ' s  amicable  Government  of  i n 1911  that  issue.  matter  e s t a b l i s h e d more  no  reference  of  the  M i n i s t e r and  the  reach  At  and  the  Act  Court  matter  entirely,  resolve  Commission  to  the  McKenna-McBride  (which  bring  B . C . ' s o p p o s i t i o n , was amended  to  to  the  Allied  satisfac-  Columbia,  rather  105  than  the importance  might  have  outcome its  severely  damaged  and  might  political  have  naivete  resources.  was,  restrictions  on I n d i a n  Federal they  that  i n any event, political  and P r o v i n c i a l vote  Indian both  o f many  action  they they that  Indians  to solve  their  pressure  resulted, mately  not only  both  community.  nature of  to a feeling of white  problems  by  on  society,  political  2 Things  were  t o do t h i n g s  an o r g a n i z a t i o n was d o m i n a t e d  d i d not escape  done f o r f o r themselves.  to press  their  by w h i t e  paternalism  sympaeven  within  group.  involvement  of whites  i n objectives  a l i e n a t e d much  antipathy  .  organization  The I n d i a n s  The  their  and  lacked  political  and o f most  were n o t e x p e c t e d d i d form  both  not run f o r elec-  contributed  legitimate.  thizers. own  time,  by t h e  They  the paternalistic  administration,  m e a n s was n o t q u i t e  demands,  of  of the  limited  and c o u l d  with  when  deal  betrayed  activity.  together  .  the  severely  exclusion,  Indian  Even  a good  The p o t e n t i a l impact  of the Canadian  Indians;  a decision,  of technical, financial  not part  part  such  Tribes  were  Federal the  t o secure  themselves  and a l a c k  organization  This  saved  which  relations, dictated the  strategies of the A l l i e d  organizational  tion;  these  decision  disappointement.  The  the  a judicial  o f the Indians'• e f f o r t s  members  money  of securing  i n the A l l i e d  and s t r a t e g i e s which  of the Indian  of politicians  Tribes  membership,  and government  ulti-  but also i n  officials.  106 These  latter  expressing ities and  trouble  was  view,  that  grievances.  Tribes  makers,  and p o s s i b l y  Meighen's  to believe  legitimate  of the A l l i e d  tance  as  refused  were  In t h e i r  the Indians  were  eyes,  the activ-  i n s t i g a t e d by w h i t e  out to bolster to line  the Indians  their  their  pockets  were  own  sense  agitators of  as w e l l .  a s much v i c t i m s  impor-  In o f O'Meara  t h e government. The  authors  o f t h e Hawthorn  Report  have  stated:  In t h e absence o f t h e f r a n c h i s e , government r e s p o n s e t o I n d i a n needs r e f l e c t e d g e n e r o s i t y and e l i t e c o n c e r n rather than response t o p o l i t i c a l pressures. The h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d o f government treatment o f t h e Indian p o p u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s p r o v i d e s an i n a d e q u a t e impetus f o r t h e development o f comprehensive programs o f s o c i a l a m e l i o r a t i o n and economic development.^ Certainly, ing  position.  the A l l i e d  I t s members  petition  after petition,  and  play  fair  ment,  threats could ment  of legal  action  always  without  public  threatened.  the Judicial  Committee  perhaps,  considerable  appeal—the  opponents  Indians  never  insistence agreeing  i n an i m p a r t i a l  reached  that  they  to settle  the Judicial would  o f law.  they govern-  of  finally  had,  finally  face  But the and  their than  that  Council  would  Committee,  Parlia-  o f those  The p r o s p e c t  other  justice  Their  by t h e f a c t  n o t compromise  i t on any b a s i s  of  at large.  Indians  submitting  Members o f  of the Privy  court  bargain-  supplicants,  the permission  reaching  their  i n a weak  t o t h e sense  were weakened  whom t h e y  was  o f government,  the Canadian  not get to court officials  were  appealing  of Ministers  and f i n a l l y ,  Tribes  their  claim  by  recognition  of  107  aboriginal  rights  faction  a  of  few  That establish the  principle  Allied  and  that  of  the  virtually  their  of  British  the  Allied  of  to  ensured rights  t h a t none or  granted, areas.  other  the  the  Indians  and  resources  culties  to  faced  and  rights  of  1920,  up  to  Province  has  Province  could  that  seems by  their  highly unlikely,  the By  however,  Dominion  have  continued . snipes the  Allied  the except  Government accepted  i t  that  would  needs of  in  hunting ever  T r i b e s may  have  be  these  convinced  by  f o r more  land  the  d i f f i -  in obtaining the  tree.  virtually  timber,  been  at  and  particular  i n view  Government  rather,  Columbia  jurisdiction  ever  r e c o g n i t i o n of  day,  i n assuming  for lands,  sole  The  this  the  Governments  Government  Government,  i t s demands  of  in fact,  in British  correct  one  relationships  Dominion.  barking  is  I t engaged,  not  with  students  c o n f r o n t i n g the  has  probably by  Such  the  effective,  relations  among  Provincial  never,  satis-  be  bureaucracy  After  Provincial  give  concessions.  Government,  the  to  resource-related privileges,  f o r the That  and  i t to  gained  i n i g n o r i n g the  the  accepted  Canada.  aboriginal  be  of  about  T r i b e s was  was  satisfactory  establish.  with  ignored  Columbia  existence  nothing  of  complaints  the  such  and  to  gaining  i n order  i n Canada.  unable  from  grievances.  must,  mutually  pleading  Province  in  groups  behaviour  even  specific  i s universally  group  alternately  them  s e n i o r members  T r i b e s was  Indians  their  pressure  in  But  of  long-term,  Cabinet  pressure  prevented  any  Provincial intensified  108  the to  recalcitrance of that Indians  and I n d i a n  The zational members  Allied  assets. from  limited.  lands  Tribes  was  perhaps  i n t h e 1920's.  Many  prospect  o f a seemingly  magic  paign  and economic dragged  membership base  was  purpose in  ills,  always  Tribes  of the organization  was  concentrated  of dedicated  porters.  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l  planning,  organizing,  available  meeting  with  almost  a l l there  with  the Allied  was  Tribes,  few y e a r s , began  tion  managed t o s u r v i v e  rights  Columbia. paign  t o wane.  claim  caught  organizational The l i f e  almost  t o be d e r i v e d  from  as i t d i d .  the imagination resurgence  few y e a r s  were n o t benefits  after the  of the the  organizaorganiza-  The a b o r i g i n a l  of the Indians of the native  i s evidence  from  association  i s surprising i s that  as long  sup-  t o Ottawa  ministers, As t h e s e  and  entirely  white  i t i s not surprising that  What  The d r a m a t i c  i n the last  The  and t h e i r  at large.  cam-  secured, the  t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e members  tion  rights  travelling  government  by t h e  various  t o be d e r i v e d  funds,  very  were  short.  leaders  benefits  raising  t o t h e membership  were  first  dwindled. always  Victoria,  attracted  but as the a b o r i g i n a l benefits  was  in British  solution to their  was  knot  recruit  were  weak; money  the small  and  could  of these  on and few c o n c r e t e  of the A l l i e d  of potential  30,000 I n d i a n s  Columbia  social  deficient i n organi-  the pool  Tribes  relating  Columbia.  severely  the A l l i e d  were  i n any m a t t e r s  in British  F o r one t h i n g ,  which  There  Government  o f Indian  of  British  rights  cam-  commitment  109  to  a cause  never  Federal  as  although  quite died.  financial  and  which,  Had t h e A l l i e d  resources  Government  gained inal The  rights  campaign  in British  stability  the  same. Apart  minded their also  commitment  saddled  people  as a whole.  Indians  tially land, have  of their  demands,  cause.  a pioneer improving  seemed more  group  The o p i n i o n s  organizations which  i n their  which  been  i tmight  have  Especially  community,  the problems  had l o s t  than  was  probably Except f o r  t o support the up  Columbia, o f subduing  dealing with  out i n the race  Tribes  and t h e Canadian  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and b u i l d i n g important  single-  had taken  i n British  much  and n a t i v e  constituents.  few C a n a d i a n s  been  resolving  of politicians  developed  pressure  solidarity  and a  Indians  have  different.  Indian  internal  b y many m e m b e r s o f g o v e r n m e n t  the opinions  a social  toward  society,  of the aborig-  have  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l weakness  by t h e a t t i t u d e s  groups,  B.C. I n d i a n s  t h e outcome  that  by t h e  law and  the leadership of the A l l i e d  held  small  o f white  o f contemporary  however,  the  pressure  t o a n i m p r a c t i c a b l e way o f  rights  expressed  Indian  to achieve  years,  available  i n t h e 1920's m i g h t  suggest,  from  made  e x p e r t i s e which  Columbia  grievances,  those  been  t h e knowledge  continuing difficulties  f o r many  Tribes possessed  t o contemporary  as the p o l i t i c a l  and  a  have  i n the intervening years,  groups  as  which  had i t possessed well  i t l a y dormant  Indians essenthe  a n economy,  must  t h e problems o f  f o r ascendency.  In  110  the  white  been  settlement  shouldered  large  amounts  taken  from  Allied  Had  of  could  because  Premier  n o t have  the public asked,  McBride:  What Was  might  i tjustly  British for  the loss  most  loss  ment  The  not there. have  agreed  to discuss the equity  i s incontestible.  Ought  the Indians  o f whether  traditional  i t t o have  once  have  failed?  o f Canada been  had over  Columbia  t h e Crown  aboriginal  lands  and  compensated the lands  native  denies  i s legally  and  answered  has r e c o g n i z e d interests.  such  or  inhabitants f o rthe  has n o t y e t been  Government  unextinguished  of British  been  Columbia?  The F e d e r a l  from  had j u s t  America."  i s ,  o b l i g e d t o compensate  courts.  back  for public  probably  failed  they  had  them  idea.  simply  by t h e Governments  of the control  of their  deriving  in  however  Should  question  was  would  Tribes  with  of British  The morally  dealt  Columbia?  resources  the  be a s k e d  a popular  " I ti s too late  the A l l i e d  which  i n i t ssearch  support  d i s p o s s e s s i n g t h e r e d man  That  been  the Indians  of giving  and r e s o u r c e s  disappointed  been  Columbia,  and t h e p r o s p e c t  of the lands  them  Canadians  with  aside  T r i b e s was  support  of British  claims.  The What  by  claims Governi s the  answer? One m i g h t tions  under  under  t h e Terms  reply  the B r i t i s h o f Union  that North with  Canada,  having  America.uAct British  assumed  obliga-  and c o n f i r m e d  Columbia,  has a  them duty  Ill  to  do  the  best  i t can  by  paternalistic  attitude  Indian  until  policy  some d e g r e e ) such  an  In from  two  pation lish the a  my  of  British  desire  of  that  They  problems,  i f they  according  to their  The  such  the  Indians,  own  the  was  claim  actual by  in  and  role  need  occuestab-  second  was  cases,  in i t s policies  seem  solve  problems i f they  and  complaint i s  politicians  and  and  to  charity  first  to t r y to  social  The  of  stemmed  the white  systems.  to  have  particular  legitimate could  and  aboriginal  of  the  Government  rights  dignity seemed  perhaps  deal  guardian.  independence,  What their  rights  which that  with  as  too  to  flow  little  of  from  the from  comprehend.  handouts  i t took sense  claim—the  preceded  would  unable  gave  i t d i d p r o v i d e i t gave  benevolent their  the  The  and  for recognition  what  argued,  consequent  the  the  Indian administration and  be  and  chose.  aspect of  man  persists  rights  Government  lights,  they  the white  supposedly Indians  Federal  the  policy-makers  s t i l l  caused  economic  officials  recognition—the  Federal  and  and  considered those  second  quest  of  being  were w i l l i n g  i n t h e manner  coming  them  Columbia  government  Indians'  of  aboriginal  Indian administration.  understood.  them  the  That  merit.  i n Indian l i f e  social  by  which  Indians badly can  Indians t o escape  imposed  methods all  of  (and  considerable  opinion,  alternate  role  has  disruption  characterized  recently  sources—one  economic  which  served the  argument  i t s Indian charges.  to  the  from  a  the  participation  112 i n t h e C a n a d i a n community, Would  their  self-respect.  recognition of aboriginal  to the Indians those things, which had been t a k e n  both m a t e r i a l  f r o m them?  and s e l f - w o r t h ,  r e l a t i o n s between material  and s p i r i t u a l ,  the Indians'  and c o n t r i b u t e d  as w e l l  t h e I n d i a n s and g o v e r n m e n t .  sense o f  t o improved The a c t u a l  b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t have r e c e i v e d by  s u c h r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d have d e p e n d e d upon what Government increased  saw f i t  t o g i v e them.  t h e Dominion  Had t h e D o m i n i o n  l a n d s and a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s ,  and e d u c a t i o n  offered  better medical  ( o f f e r s w h i c h w o u l d have depended  the concurrence o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l social  returned  Recognition of aboriginal  r i g h t s w o u l d p e r h a p s have s t r e n g t h e n e d dignity  r i g h t s have  care  l a r g e l y on  Government), t h e I n d i a n s '  a n d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n m i g h t have been  significantly  improved. Government  l e a d e r s were o f t e n  frustrated  by t h e  v a g u e n e s s o f I n d i a n demands; t h i s v a g u e n e s s a p p a r e n t l y stemmed f r o m t h e I n d i a n s ' own u n c e r t a i n t y wanted.  The I n d i a n s were  world o f t h e i r  c a u g h t between  which t h e A l l i e d  also  two w o r l d s — t h e  and economy w h i c h h a d been imposed upon  with the white occupation of B r i t i s h  tion.  they  a n c e s t o r s b e f o r e t h e c o m i n g o f t h e w h i t e man  and t h e s o c i e t y  They wanted  a s t o what  Columbia.  T r i b e s made r e f l e c t e d  hunting r i g h t s ;  They s o u g h t t i m b e r  this  t h e y a l s o wanted  fortraditional  them  The demands  ambivalence. improved educa-  purposes;  s o u g h t t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e w h i t e man's m e d i c a l  they science.  113  Government I  think,  old  have  world  changed the  These sage  with  of aboriginal  to resolve  Life  t h e coming  o f time.  of the white  fall  of British  of the A l l i e d the claim  improved  perhaps  be remarked  Columbia, Tribes,  f o r Indians,  better  opportunities  industry.  In these  efforts,  white  would its  t o accumulate society  permit  own  terms  conception own  lives.  i t s members and enable  of Indians  them  as wards  once-  the pasNative  years  after  of i t s l i f e ,  I t has sought health  care,  expertise,  the non-Indian  incapable  rather,  the  i n the  Brotherhood  to disabuse  life.  the  and t h e economic  t o meet  changes  t o a new  that  three  the Native  and p o l i t i c s ,  irrevocably  through  f o r Indians  the technical  between t h e  i s no  has n o t , f o r most title.  education  There  here  to aboriginal  would,  and t o these  only  formed  improved  of  man  was  of adjusting  franchise,  perhaps  the tension  to adjust.  c a n be r e s o l v e d I t should  rights  f o r the Indians  s o l u t i o n t o the problems  problems  pursued  little  h a d , i n some way,  Brotherhood the  done  a n d t h e new.  Indians  for-all  recognition  fishing hoped,  t h e knowledge status society  Government o f managing  of  which on i t s  their  114  Footnotes O ' M e a r a made a t l e a s t two q u e s t i o n a b l e conclusions about the l e g a l status of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . One o f these was h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 17 63 e x t e n d e d t o the lands included i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In t h e 1920's t h i s c o n t e n t i o n had n o t b e e n t e s t e d i n t h e c o u r t s , b u t a number o f r e c e n t d e c i s i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e 17 63 P r o c l a m a t i o n does not apply i n B r i t i s h Columbia because the area i n q u e s t i o n was t e r r a i n c o g n i t a i n 17 6 3 . Even i f O'Meara had been a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s tence of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , flowing from r e c o g n i t i o n under t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n o r o t h e r w i s e , h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e Crown i s o b l i g e d to provide compensation f o r the extinguishment of such r i g h t s i s questionable.  Prior to Calder  {Colder v . The Attorney  General of  British  Columbia, S . C . C . 1 9 7 3 ) , t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r a s u i t a g a i n s t t h e Crown f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n c o u l d s u c c e e d was u n t o u c h e d by a u t h o r i t y i n C a n a d a ( K e n n e t h L y s y k , "The I n d i a n T i t l e i n C a n a d a : An A p p r a i s a l i n t h e L i g h t o f Calder," Canadian Bar Review, 21 [ 1 9 7 3 ] , A l l ) . In a l e a d i n g c a s e i n O ' M e a r a s day, however, S t . C a t h e r i n e s M i l l i n g C a s e ( 1 8 8 9 ) 14 A . C . 46, L o r d W a t s o n a t p . 25 d e f i n e d a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e a s ". . . a p e r s o n a l and u s u f r u c t u a r y i n t e r e s t d e p e n d e n t on t h e g o o d w i l l o f t h e sovereign." T h e c o u r t s o f common l a w c o u n t r i e s h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y h e l d t h a t t h e power o f a s o v e r e i g n government t o e x t i n g u i s h , by s u c h means as i t s e e s f i t , a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o l a n d , i s questionable (Lysyk, p. 475). Whether t h e Crown must p r o v i d e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r extinguishment i s s t i l l u n d e c i d e d , b u t i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t O'Meara c o u l d have c o n v i n c e d t h e J u d i c i a l Committee t h a t s u c h c o m p e n s a t i o n was required. In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e l e g a l as a g a i n s t t h e political n a t u r e o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s s u e , J . A . J . M c K e n n a ' s comm e n t s made i n t h e Canadian Magazine ( 1 9 2 0 ) a r e i n s t r u c t i v e : 1  A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i s n o t a c l a i m e n f o r c i b l e a t law. The n a t u r a l law o f n a t i o n s o u t o f w h i c h i t a r i s e s has no court f o r i t s enforcement. The law l o r d s i n t h e j u d g m e n t a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d to [Northwest Angle T r e a t y case] might h a v e g o n e f u r t h e r b y way of d e f i n i n g the bearing of the q u e s t i o n upon p u b l i c m o r a l i t y . But q u e s t i o n s o f t h a t n a t u r e a r e e n t i r e l y f o r governments, however poor they be a t r e s o l v i n g them. Indian  title  belongs  to  the  domain  of  public  policy,  115  u n i m p i n g e d upon by o u r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law ( J . A . J . McKenna, " I n d i a n T i t l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " Canadian Magazine, 50 [ 1 9 2 0 ] , 471) . 2  3  Hawthorn,  Ibid.  ed.,  p.  255.  116  BIBLIOGRAPHY  PUBLISHED MATERIAL Allied  Indian  Tribes  of  Columbia. Statement for the V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: Cowan Printers, 1919.  Government of British and  Almond,  Bookhouse,  British  Columbia.  Gabriel. " I n t e r e s t Groups and t h e P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s . " In Comparative Polities: Notes and Readings. E d i t e d b y R. C. M a c r i d i s a n d B. E . B r o w n . Homewood, 1 1 1 . : Dorsey Press, 1968.  Anderson,  In  J . E.  " P r e s s u r e Groups  Public  Administration  and  E d i t e d b y W. D. K. K e r n a g h a n T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1970. Begg,  Alexander.  Discovery  Canadian  in Canada: Selected and  A.  M.  Bureaucracy."  Readings. Willms.  History of British Columbia from its Earliest to the Present Time. T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B r i g g s ,  1894. British  Columbia. 1919.  Bill  British  Columbia.  Legislative  British  Columbia. ch. 32.  Statutes.  British  Columbia. Sessional Papers, 1888. " P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o the Commission A p p o i n t e d t o I n q u i r e i n t o the S t a t e and C o n d i t i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e North-West Coast."  Cail,  Robert  E.  in British sity  of  17. >''(1919) V i c t o r i a : Assembly.  King's  Journals.  British  Columbia  Press,  1974.  Canada.  Debates of the Senate. Department 1927.  Bill  13  1919.  Land, Man and the Law: The Disposal of Crown Lands Columbia, 1871-1913. V a n c o u v e r , B . C . : U n i v e r -  Debates of the House of Commons. 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 2 7 .  Canada.  1919.  Indian Lands Settlement Act,  Canada.  Canada.  Printer,  of  Indian  (1920).  1920. Affairs.  Ottawa:  Annual Reports.  King's  Printer,  1906-  1920.  117  Canada.  Parliament. Report of the Special Committee of the Senate and House of Commons to Inquire into the Claims of the Allied Indian Tribes of British Columbia. O t t a w a : 1 9 2 7 . F r a n c i s G. Pressure Groups and Political R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1967.  Castles,  Cummings,  P e t e r A. a n d M i c k e n b e r g ,  in Canada. with  Drucker,  H. , e d s . Native  The Native Brotherhoods: Modern Intertribal of the Northwest Coast. W a s h i n g t o n , D . C :  Philip.  of  London:  Rights  I n d i a n Eskimo A s s o c i a t i o n i n a s s o c i a t i o n G e n e r a l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1972.  zations  Duff,  Neil  Culture.  American  Ethnology,  OrganiBureau  1958.  The Indian History of British Columbia. V o l . 1: The Impact of the White Man. V i c t o r i a : B . C . D e p a r t m e n t  Wilson. of  Edelman,  Recreation  and C o n s e r v a t i o n ,  1964.  Murray. The Symbolic Uses of Politics. U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1974.  Engelmann,  F . C. a n d S c h w a r t z ,  Canadian Social  Structure.  Urbana,  111.:  M. C. Political Parties -and the Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l ,  1967. Fisher,  Robin.  Historical a n d H. 1976. Friends  "Joseph  and Indian  Land P o l i c y . " In Essays on British Columbia. E d i t e d b y J . F r i e s e n K. R a l s t o n . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t ,  o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The British Columbia Land Question from a Canadian Point of View; an Appeal to the People of Canada recommended by the Indian Affairs Committee of the Social Services Council of Canada. W i t n e s s P r e s s , 1 9 1 4 .  Gibbins,  Roger and P o n t i n g , J . R i c k . "Indians and I n d i a n I s s u e s : What do C a n a d i a n s T h i n k ? " (Part 1). Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n i n Support o f the Native People Bulletin, 17 ( D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 6 ) : 3 8 - 4 3 .  Hawthorn,  H.  B. , e d . A Ottawa:  Part I. Indian  Trutch  Claims  Indian  Commission.  Essay and Selected Information  Y.  List  Canada,  K e y , V . 0. , J r . Politics, Thomas  Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada, Branch,  1966.  Indian Claims in Canada: An Introductory of Library Holdings. Ottawa: 197 5.  Parties  Crowell,  Affairs  and Pressure  1964.  Groups.  New Y o r k :  118  L a V i o l e t t e , F o r r e s t E. The Struggle for Survival. University of Toronto Press, 1973. Lysyk,  Manuel,  Toronto:  Kenneth. "The I n d i a n T i t l e i n C a n a d a : An A p p r a i s a l in the L i g h t of Calder." Canadian Bar Review, L I ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 450-480.  George  and  Reality.  Posluns, Michael.  Don  Mills,  Ont.:  The Fourth  World: An  Collier-Macmillan  Indian  Canada,  1974. McKenna,  J.  A.  J.  "Indian 50  Canadian Magazine, Patterson,  E.  Pacific  Palmer.  "Arthur  O'Meara,  Northwest Quarterly,  Presthus, Robert. Macmillan, Pross,  Title in British (1920) : 471-474 .  Elite  58  Columbia."  Friend  (April  of  the  Indians."  1967).  Accommodation in Canadian Politics.  Toronto:  1973.  A. P a u l , e d . Pressure Toronto: McGraw-Hill  Group Behaviour in Canadian Ryerson,  Politics.  1975.  R o b i n s o n , J . L. "Population i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Trends, D e n s i t i e s , D i s t r i b u t i o n . " Transactions of the Seventh  British  Columbia Natural Resources Conference,  Sanders,  Douglas. 1973) .  Truman,  D a v i d B. The Knopf, 1953.  Usher, Jean. British  "The  Nishga  Case."  1954.  B.C. Studies,  Governmental Process.  New  York:  19  (Autumn  Alfred  A.  William Duncan of Metlakatla: A Victorian Missionary in Columbia. O t t a w a : N a t i o n a l M u s e u m s o f C a n a d a ,  1974. Van  Loon,  R.  J.  and  Whittington,  System: Environment, Structure Hill, Wooton,  S. The Canadian Political and Process. T o r o n t o : M c G r a w -  M.  1971.  Graham. Interest-Groups. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 197 0.  Englewood  Cliffs,  N.J.:  UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Kopas,  Leslie Clifford. " P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n of the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia." M.A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972. ( T h i s r e f e r e n c e was found a f t e r completion of the  119  present thesis. " P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n of the Indians of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " was submitted to the Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I t surveys Indian p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia from the p r e - c o n t a c t p e r i o d to the e a r l y 1970's. The A l l i e d T r i b e s i s d i s c u s s e d in a rather brief chapter. Kopas concludes that I n d i a n e f f o r t s t o f o r m an e f f e c t i v e province-wide o r g a n i z a t i o n have b e e n t h w a r t e d by inter-group c u l t u r a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s . Only strongly perceived threats to the Indian population as a whole [such as t h e F e d e r a l I n d i a n p o l i c y paper o f 1969] have r e s u l t e d i n any s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e o f Indian p o l i t i c a l unity.) Ottawa,  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. Affairs. F i l e S e r i e s R.G.  Department of Indian 10, V o l u m e 3 8 2 0 .  . Department of V o l u m e 236, F i l e  File  Justice. 1186.  Series  R.G.  13,  P a t t e r s o n , E. Palmer. "Andrew P a u l l and C a n a d i a n I n d i a n Resurgence." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1962. Shankel,  George Edgar. "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1945.  V i c t o r i a , B.C. Provincial Archives. Department F i l e 0 2 6 0 7 6 , #'s 1, 2, a n d 3.  of  Lands.  . "The I n d i a n Land S i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia; a Lecture d e l i v e r e d under the auspices of the A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t A b e r d e e n S c h o o l o n P a r i l 22, 1910 by t h e R e v e r e n d A. E . O ' M e a r a . " . Indian "Petition 1912.  Rights to the  A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. Honourable Robert Borden." March,  . Indian Rights Association. "Petition to H o n o u r a b l e R o b e r t Borden..and Members o f t h e Cabinet." January, 1912. . Friends of the Indians " B r i t i s h Subjects Seeking  the Dominion  of B r i t i s h Columbia. British Justice." (1913?).  120  Friends of the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. "The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L a n d Q u e s t i o n : an h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h and an answer t o c r i t i c i s m s p r e p a r e d by representatives of the Friends of the Indians." January,.1916. File entitled "Ottawa ( 1 9 2 0 ) . "  "Claims of  the A l l i e d  O f f i c i a l P a p e r s o f .Premier '"Indian A f f a i r s " File.  Richard  Tribes  McBride.  at  121  APPENDIX  CHRONOLOGY OF ABORIGINAL  Colony  A  EVENTS  RIGHTS  of  IN  THE  CAMPAIGN  184 9  Crown  1850-1854  Fourteen t r e a t i e s signed D o u g l a s and I n d i a n bands Island.  1858  Crown  1862  Founding  1866  Crown C o l o n i e s Columbia.  1871  British  1874  P e t i t i o n of the Dr. Powell.  1875  F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e d i s a l l o w s B.C. c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f l a n d o r d i n a n c e s on g r o u n d s no m e n t i o n o f I n d i a n i n t e r e s t i n l a n d .  Colony of  Vancouver  of  British  Metlakatla united  Columbia  Island  between G o v e r n o r James of southern Vancouver  Columbia by  to  enters Indians  created.  William form  created. Duncan.  Colony  of  British  confederation. of  the  Fraser  187 6  J o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Reserve Commission appointed.  1887  T s i m p s e a n and N i s h g a C h i e f s Government f o r a t r e a t y .  Valley  to  of  Allotment  petition  J o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Commission i n t o t h e c a u s e s o f u n r e s t among t h e the northwest coast.  Provincial  to inquire Indians of  1903-1906  I n d i a n s o f t h e I n t e r i o r and s o u t h c o a s t b e g i n t o press claims for r e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l rights,  1906  C h i e f s D a v i d , C h i l i h i t z a and C a p i l a n o petition the King f o r settlement of Indian grievances.  1909  Indian  Tribes  of  Indian  Rights  Association  Indian Tribes tary of State  British  Columbia  formed.  formed.  of B r i t i s h Columbia p e t i t i o n Secref o r t h e C o l o n i e s and Governor  122  G e n e r a l o f Canada a s k i n g t h a t the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m be s u b m i t t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l . 1910  F r i e n d s of the Indians general counsel.  1911  Indian Act aboriginal Canada.  1912  McKenn-McBride  1913  Nishga P e t i t i o n submitted to C o l o n i a l and t h e Government o f Canada.  1913-1916  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s Indians' land requirements.  1914  D o m i n i o n C a b i n e t recommends t h a t l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y be r e f e r r e d t o t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t ; I n d i a n s refuse to accept reference.  1915  Indians of the I n t e r i o r Nishga Petition.  1916  Allied Royal  1919  First  Agreement  Commission  Allied  appointed  Columbia  signed.  meet  at North  "Indian  Lands  Tribes fight  of  the  13  Dominion " B r i t i s h Columbia ment A c t " p a s s e d . O'Meara  support  the  Settlement  Allied  at  of  Act"  Tribes.  grievances  to  Ottawa.  Indian  now  determines  Report.  statement  Bill  Secretary  Vancouver.  i t s  general meeting  and  to  submits  A l l i e d T r i b e s submit Premier Oliver. 1920  O'Meara  amended t o p e r m i t r e f e r e n c e o f t h e r i g h t s c l a i m t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f  T r i b e s formed  British passed.  formed;  Lands  dominate  Settle-  1920-1922  Paull, Kelly Tribes.  1922  A s s e m b l y o f B.C. Indians o b j e c t i v e s of the A l l i e d  1923  B.C. O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l passed t o implement mendations o f the Royal Commission.  resolve to Tribes.  Allied  pursue  recom-  123  S c o t t meets w i t h E x e c u t i v e Committee o f A l l i e d T r i b e s a t V i c t o r i a ; recommends t h a t Canada i m p l e m e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l Commission. 1924  Dominion O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l t o recommendations o f the Royal  1925  I n d i a n s renew Committee.  1926  Allied  1927  J o i n t S p e c i a l Commission o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons a p p o i n t e d t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c l a i m s of the A l l i e d T r i b e s ; d e c i d e a g a i n s t a b o r i g i n a l title. Allied  resolve to reach  Tribes petition  Tribes  implement Commission.  to  collapses.  the  Judicial  Parliament.  124  APPENDIX B STATEMENT OF TRIBE OF  THE  INDIANS  NISHGA NATION (January  OR  1913)  From t i m e immemorial t h e N i s h g a N a t i o n o r T r i b e o f I n d i a n s p o s s e s s e d , o c c u p i e d and u s e d t h e t e r r i t o r y g e n e r a l l y known as t h e V a l l e y o f t h e Naas R i v e r , t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f which are w e l l d e f i n e d . The c l a i m s w h i c h we make i n r e s p e c t o f t h i s t e r r i t o r y a r e c l e a r and s i m p l e . We l a y c l a i m t o t h e r i g h t s o f men. We c l a i m t o be a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h i s c o u n t r y and t o have r i g h t s a s s u c h . We c l a i m t h a t o u r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s have been g u a r a n t e e d by P r o c l a m a t i o n o f K i n g G e o r g e T h i r d and r e c o g n i z e d by A c t s o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f G r e a t B r i t a i n . We c l a i m t h a t h o l d i n g u n d e r t h e words o f t h a t P r o c l a m a t i o n a t r i b a l o w n e r s h i p o f t h e t e r r i t o r y , we s h o u l d be d e a l t w i t h i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s p r o v i s i o n , and t h a t no p a r t o f o u r l a n d s s h o u l d be .taken f r o m us o r i n any way d i s p o s e d o f u n t i l t h e same has been p u r c h a s e d by t h e Crown. By r e a s o n o f o u r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s above, s t a t e d , we c l a i m t r i b a l o w n e r s h i p o f a l l f i s h e r i e s and o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e t e r r i t o r y above m e n t i o n e d . F o r more t h a n t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , b e i n g c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f o u r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s would be o f v e r y g r e a t m a t e r i a l a d v a n t a g e t o us and w o u l d open t h e way f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l a d v a n c e o f o u r p e o p l e we have i n common w i t h o t h e r t r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a c t i v e l y p r e s s e d o u r c l a i m s upon t h e G o v e r n m e n t s c o n c e r n e d . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , b e i n g more t h a n e v e r c o n v i n c e d o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s t o be d e r i v e d f r o m s u c h r e c o g n i t i o n and f e a r i n g t h a t w i t h o u t such t h e advance o f s e t t l e m e n t would endanger our whole f u t u r e , we have p r e s s e d t h e s e c l a i m s w i t h g r e a t l y increased earnestness.  i n g our  Some o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s t o be d e r i v e d f r o m aboriginal rights are:-  establish-  1. T h a t i t w i l l p l a c e us i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e s e r v e f o r o u r own u s e and b e n e f i t s u c h p o r t i o n s o f o u r t e r r i t o r y a s are r e q u i r e d f o r the f u t u r e w e l l - b e i n g of our people. 2. T h a t i t w i l l e n a b l e u s t o a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t and i n a f r e e and i n d e p e n d e n t manner t o make u s e o f t h e f i s h e r i e s and o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s p e r t a i n i n g t o o u r t e r r i t o r y .  125  3. T h a t i t w i l l o p e n t h e way f o r b r i n g i n g t o a n e n d a s r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e t h e system o f Reserves and s u b s t i t u t i n g a system o f i n d i v i d u a l ownership. 4. T h a t i t w i l l o p e n t h e way f o r p u t t i n g a n e n d t o a l l u n c e r t a i n t y and u n r e s t , b r i n g i n g about a permanent and s a t i s f a c t o r y settlement between t h e white p e o p l e and o u r s e l v e s , and thus removing t h e danger o f s e r i o u s t r o u b l e which now u n d o u b t e d l y e x i s t s . 5. T h a t i t w i l l o p e n t h e way f o r o u r t a k i n g our'place as n o t o n l y l o y a l B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , b u t a l s o C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s , a s f o r m a n y y e a r s we h a v e d e s i r e d t o d o . In t h u s s e e k i n g t o r e a l i z e what i s h i g h e s t and b e s t f o r o u r p e o p l e , we h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d a v e r y s e r i o u s difficulty i n t h e a t t i t u d e w h i c h h a s been assumed by t h e Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia. That Government has n e g l e c t e d and r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e o u r c l a i m , a n d f o r many y e a r s h a s b e e n s e l l i n g over o u r heads l a r g e t r a c t s o f o u r lands. We c l a i m t h a t every such t r a n s a c t i o n entered i n respect o f any p a r t o f these l a n d s under t h e assumed a u t h o r i t y o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Land A c t has been e n t e r e d i n t o i n v i o l a t i o n o f t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n above mentioned. These t r a n s a c t i o n s have been entered into notwithstanding our p r o t e s t s , o r a l and w r i t t e n , presented t o t h e Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, s u r v e y o r s employed by t h a t Government and i n t e n d i n g purchasers. The r e q u e s t o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a made t h r o u g h t h e i r P r o v i n c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t t h e m a t t e r o f I n d i a n t i t l e be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s Majesty's P r i v y C o u n c i l , having been before t h e I m p e r i a l Government and t h e Canadian Government f o r t h r e e y e a r s , and grave c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from the r e f u s a l of B r i t i s h Columbia t o consent t o a r e f e r e n c e , having been e n c o u n t e r e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h a t r e q u e s t , we r e s o l v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y and d i r e c t l y t o p l a c e a p e t i t i o n before H i s Majesty's Privy Council.  fullest British  I n f o l l o w i n g t h a t c o u r s e we d e s i r e t o a c t t o t h e p o s s i b l e e x t e n t i n harmony b o t h w i t h o t h e r t r i b e s o f Columbia and w i t h t h e Government o f Canada.  We a r e i n f o r m e d t h a t M r . J . A . J . M c K e n n a s e n t o u t b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a h a s made a r e p o r t i n w h i c h h e does n o t mention t h e claims which t h e Indians o f t h e Province h a v e b e e n m a k i n g f o r s o many y e a r s , a n d a s s i g n s a s t h e c a u s e of a l l the trouble, the reversionary claim o f t h e Province. W h a t e v e r o t h e r t h i n g s Mr. McKenna f o u n d o u t d u r i n g h i s s t a y , we a r e s u r e t h a t h e d i d n o t f i n d o u t o u r m i n d o r t h e r e a l cause o f t h e t r o u b l e .  126  We a r e a l s o i n f o r m e d o f t h e a g r e e m e n t r e l a t i n g t o t h e s o - c a l l e d r e s e r v e s w h i c h was entered i n t o by Mr. McKenna and P r e m i e r M c B r i d e . We a r e g l a d f r o m i t s p r o v i s i o n s t o know t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e h a s e x p r e s s e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o a b a n d o n t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e r e v e r s i o n a r y c l a i m w h i c h h a s b e e n made. We c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , r e g a r d t h a t a g r e e m e n t a s f o r m i n g a p o s s i b l e b a s i s f o r s e t t l i n g the land question. We c a n n o t c o n c e d e t h a t t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s h a v e p o w e r b y t h e a g r e e m e n t i n q u e s t i o n o r any o t h e r a g r e e m e n t t o d i s p o s e o f t h e s o - c a l l e d r e s e r v e s o r any o t h e r l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , u n t i l the t e r r i t o r y o f e a c h n a t i o n o r t r i b e has b e e n p u r c h a s e d by the Crown as r e q u i r e d by t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n o f K i n g G e o r g e T h i r d . We a r e a l s o i n f o r m e d t h a t i n t h e d o u r s e o f recent n e g o t i a t i o n s , t h e Government of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has contended t h a t under the terms of Union the Dominion of Canada i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making t r e a t i e s w i t h the Indian T r i b e s i n settlement of their claims. This attempt to s h i f t responsib i l i t y t o C a n a d a and by d o i n g so r e n d e r i t m o r e d i f f i c u l t for us t o e s t a b l i s h o u r r i g h t s , seems t o us u t t e r l y u n f a i r and unjustifiable. We c a n n o t p r e v e n t t h e P r o v i n c e from p e r s i s t i n g i n t h i s a t t e m p t , b u t we c a n a n d d o r e s p e c t f u l l y d e c l a r e t h a t we i n t e n d t o p e r s i s t i n m a k i n g o u r c l a i m a g a i n s t the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g among o t h e r reasons:1. We a r e a d v i s e d t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f l a n d s embraced w i t h i n our t e r r i t o r y became the Province s u b j e c t t o any i n t e r e s t o t h e r province therein.  Confederation the property than that of  2. We h a v e f o r a l o n g t i m e k n o w n t h a t i n Department o f J u s t i c e of Canada r e p o r t e d t h a t T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e e n t i t l e d t o an the lands of the province.  a l l of the  1875 the the Indian interest in  3. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e r e p o r t t h e n made a n d t h e p o s i t i o n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h a t r e p o r t c o n s i s t e n t l y t a k e n by every r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Canada from the time of Lord Dufferin's s p e e c h e s u n t i l t h e s p r i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t y e a r , and i n d e f i ance o f our frequent p r o t e s t s , the P r o v i n c e has s o l d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e b e s t l a n d s o f o u r t e r r i t o r y and has by means o f s u c h w r o n g f u l s a l e s r e c e i v e d l a r g e amounts o f money. 4. W h i l e we c l a i m t h e r i g h t t o b e c o m p e n s a t e d f o r t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f o u r t e r r i t o r y w h i c h we may agree to surrender, we c l a i m as even more i m p o r t a n t t h e r i g h t t o r e s e r v e o t h e r port i o n s p e r m a n e n t l y f o r o u r own u s e and b e n e f i t and beyond d o u b t t h e p o r t i o n s w h i c h we w o u l d d e s i r e s o t o r e s e r v e w o u l d i n c l u d e much o f t h e l a n d w h i c h has b e e n s o l d by t h e Province.  127  We a r e n o t o p p o s e d t o t h e c o m i n g o f t h e w h i t e people i n t o o u r t e r r i t o r y p r o v i d e d t h i s be c a r r i e d o u t j u s t l y and i n accordance w i t h t h e B r i t i s h p r i n c i p l e s embodied i n t h e Royal Proclamation. I f , t h e r e f o r e , a s we e x p e c t , t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w h i c h we c l a i m s h o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e d e c i s i o n o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l , we w o u l d b e p r e p a r e d to take a moderate and reasonable p o s i t i o n . In that event, while c l a i m i n g t h e r i g h t t o decide f o r o u r s e l v e s t h e terms u p o n w h i c h we w o u l d d e a l w i t h o u r t e r r i t o r y , we w o u l d b e w i l l i n g t h a t a l l m a t t e r s o u t s t a n d i n g between t h e p r o v i n c e and o u r s e l v e s s h o u l d b e a d j u s t e d b y some e q u i t a b l e m e t h o d t o b e agreed upon which s h o u l d i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s upon any Commission w h i c h t h e n m i g h t be a p p o i n t e d . T h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t was u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d a t a meeting of the Nishga Natior or T r i b e o f Indians held at K i n c o l i t h o n t h e 22nd d a y o f J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 3 , a n d i t was r e s o l v e d t h a t a c o p y o f t h e same b e p l a c e d i n t h e h a n d s o f each o f the f o l l o w i n g : The S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s , t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f Canada, t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , M r . J . M. C l a r k e , C o u n s e l f o r t h e I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and t h e Chairman o f the "Friends o f the Indians o f B r i t i s h Columbia."  W.  J . LINCOLN Chairman  of  Meeting.  128  APPENDIX  ALLIED  INDIAN  TRIBES  We r e p r e s e n t n o m i n a l l y Columbia with the exception of T r e a t y No. 8, a n d t h e S o n g h e e s Vancouver Island.  were  At the allied,  conference  OF  C  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  a l l the Indians of B r i t i s h those Indians coming under and t h e Sooke I n d i a n s on  i n June,  1916,  the  following  tribes  The I n t e r i o r : The O k a n a g a n , L a k e o r S e n j e x t e e , Thompson R i v e r a t C o u r t e a u , Shuswap, L i l l o o e t , Kutenai, C h i l c o t i n , C a r r i e r , T a h l t o n , Kasha; and on The Kitikshian, Stalo.  the  C o a s t and N o r t h : The N i s h g a , T s i m p s h i a n t r i b e s , H a i d a , B e l l a C o o l a , C o w i c h a n and Lower F r a s e r o r  A l a r g e r a l l i a n c e was formed i n the f o l l o w i n g t r i b e s were represented:-  year  1922  when  "The Reverend Chairman informed the meeting t h a t t h i s was n o t an a l l i e d t r i b e m e e t i n g b u t a g e n e r a l m e e t i n g o f a l l B.C. I n d i a n s , and f o r t h e a s s e m b l y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r views. Those p r e s e n t were as f o l l o w s : Rev. P. R. Kelly, representing Haida Tribe; C h a r l i e S a y l a y k u l t i n , representing Musqueam; C h i e f P a u l W h i t e , r e p r e s e n t i n g N a n a i m o ; C h i e f Billy Y a k l u m , r e p r e s e n t i n g N a n a i m o ; Sam S m i t h , r e p r e s e n t i n g Nanaimo; C h i e f C h a r l i e , r e p r e s e n t i n g Nanaimo; C h i e f George, representi n g C o w i c h a n ; C h i e f D a v i d , r e p r e s e n t i n g S a a n i c h T r i b e ; Tommy Paul, representing Saanich Tribe; Chris Paul, representing S a a n i c h T r i b e ; C h i e f B i l l y A s s e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g C a p e Mudge T r i b e ; J a m e s H o w e l l , r e p r e s e n t i n g C a p e Mudge T r i b e ; J o h n y D i c k , r e p r e s e n t i n g C a p e Mudge T r i b e ; C h a s . N o w e l l , representi n g A l b e r t Bay T r i b e ; J o h n y D r a b l e , r e p r e s e n t i n g A l b e r t Bay Tribe; Harry Mountain, representing F o r t Rupert/Tribe; Chief S m i t h , r e p r e s e n t i n g F o r t R u p e r t T r i b e ; Bob H a r r i s , representi n g F o r t R u p e r t T r i b e ; J i m Humchet, r e p r e s e n t i n g Kingcome I n l e t ; H a r r y Johnson, r e p r e s e n t i n g Kingcome I n l e t ; A l b e r t K i n g , r e p r e s e n t i n g B e l l a C o o l a ; Rueben S c h o o n e r , representing B e l l a C o o l a ; C h i e f H a r r y S t e w a r t , r e p r e s e n t i n g Lower F r a s e r T r i b e s ; George Matheson, r e p r e s e n t i n g Lower F r a s e r T r i b e s ; C h i e f H a r r y Joe, r e p r e s e n t i n g Lower F r a s e r T r i b e s ; D e n n i s  129  P e t e r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g Lower F r a s e r T r i b e s ; C h i e f S t e p h e n Retasket, r e p r e s e n t i n g L i l l o o e t T r i b e s ; Johny Antoine, representing L i l l o o e t Tribes; Chief Harry Peters, representi n g F o r t D o u g l a s T r i b e s ; C h i e f J . A. S t a g e r , representing Pemberton T r i b e s ; Paul Dick, r e p r e s e n t i n g Pemberton T r i b e s ; W i l l i e P a s c a l , r e p r e s e n t i n g Pemberton T r i b e s ; A l e c k Leonard, r e p r e s e n t i n g Kamloops T r i b e s ; Johny Galocuum, r e p r e s e n t i n g Campbell River T r i b e s ; Chief B a z i l David, representing S i m i l k a m i e n T r i b e s ; Wm. Turpaskitt, representing Similkamien T r i b e s ; N a r c i s s e B a t i s t e , r e p r e s e n t i n g Nakamip T r i b e s ; C h i e f M i c h a e l J a c k , r e p r e s e n t i n g P e n t i c t o n T r i b e s ; Jimmy Antoine, r e p r e s e n t i n g Okanagon T r i b e s ; F r a n c o i s e Guguere, representing Okanagon T r i b e s ; J o s e p h George, r e p r e s e n t i n g F a i r v i e w T r i b e s ; Chief Johny C h i l l i k i t z a , r e p r e s e n t i n g N i c o l a V a l l e y T r i b e s ; C h i e f J o n o h , r e p r e s e n t i n g M e r r i t N i c o l a V a l l e y ; Ambrose R e i d , r e p r e s e n t i n g T s i m p t i a n T r i b e s ; Andrew P a u l l , representing Squamish T r i b e s ; C h i e f George, r e p r e s e n t i n g Squamish T r i b e s ; C h i e f Moses J o s e p h , r e p r e s e n t i n g Squamish T r i b e s .  lution  At was  the above mentioned passed:  meeting,  the  following  reso-  "Whereas i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e two factions of o r g a n i z a t i o n at the meeting, namely the A l l i e d T r i b e s and independent party. T o t r y a n d b r i n g t h e s e two p a r t i e s together, t h e r e f o r e , be i t r e s o l v e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s o f B.C. join an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f I n d i a n s t o f i g h t B i l l s 13 a n d 14 a n d adopt f o r i t s p o l i c y the statement of the A l l i e d Indian T r i b e s of B.C. f o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B.C., s a i d o r g a n i z a t i o n t o have standing e x e c u t i v e committee which w i l l c o n s i s t of Indians and o t h e r s deemed a c c e p t a b l e by Interiors." S i n c e the above meeting a l l Indians t h e m a i n l a n d and on t h e e a s t and w e s t c o a s t I s l a n d have j o i n e d t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . Certified  on of  the coast Vancouver  Correct,  ANDREW P A U L L , Secretary.  of  130  APPENDIX  PETITION  Columbia  TO  The P e t i t i o n o f humbly showeth  D  PARLIAMENT,  JUNE  the A l l i e d Indian as f o l l o w s :  1926  T r i b e s of  British  1. T h i s P e t i t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d on b e h a l f o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b y P e t e r R. K e l l y , C h a i r m a n d u l y a u t h o r i z e d by r e s o l u t i o n u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d by the E x e c u t i v e Committee o f A l l i e d T r i b e s on 1 9 t h December, 1925. 2. When B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n S e c t i o n 109 o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t was made a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l p u b l i c lands with certain s p e c i f i c exceptions. By virtue o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s S e c t i o n i t was e n a c t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c lands belonging t o the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d b e l o n g t o t h e new P r o v i n c e . By v i r t u e o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e same S e c t i o n a s e x p l a i n e d b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e i n January, 1875, a l l t e r r i t o r i a l land rights claimed by t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e were p r e s e r v e d and i t was e n a c t e d t h a t s u c h r i g h t s s h o u l d b e a n " i n t e r e s t " i n t h e p u b l i c lands of the Province. The I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia c l a i m a c t u a l b e n e f i c i a l ownership of t h e i r territ o r i e s , b u t do n o t c l a i m a b s o l u t e o w n e r s h i p i n t h e s e n s e o f o w n e r s h i p e x c l u d i n g t h e t i t l e o f t h e Crown. I t i s recognized by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s t h a t t h e r e i s i n r e s p e c t o f a l l t h e p u b l i c l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e an u n d e r l y i n g t i t l e o f t h e Crown, which t i t l e at l e a s t f o r the present purposes i t i s not thought necessary to d e f i n e . 3. I n o r d e r t o make c l e a r w h a t i s m e a n t b y an "interest" the P e t i t i o n e r s quote the f o l l o w i n g words o f L o r d Watson t o b e f o u n d i n t h e I n d i a n C l a i m s C a s e — L . R . 1897 A . C . a t page 210: "An i n t e r e s t o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e P r o v i n c e i n t h e same a p p e a r s t o d e n o t e some r i g h t o r i n t e r e s t i n a t h i r d p a r t y i n d e p e n d e n t o f or' c a p a b l e o f b e i n g v i n d i c a t e d i n competition with the b e n e f i c i a l i n t e r e s t of the o l d Province." 4. T h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n b y t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was placed b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t by means o f P e t i t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o t h e H o u s e o f Commons o n 2 3 r d M a r c h , 1920 and r e a d i n t h e House o f Commons a n d r e c o r d e d o n 2 6 t h M a r c h , 1920 (Hansard, p. 825) and P e t i t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S e n a t e on 9 t h J u n e , 1920, to a l l c o n t e n t s o f w h i c h two P e t i t i o n s t h e P e t i t i o n e r s beg leave to refer.  131  5. I n t h e month o f A u g u s t , 1910, S i r W i l f r i d Laurier, h a v i n g been a d v i s e d by t h e Department o f J u s t i c e t h a t t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y s h o u l d be j u d i c i a l l y d e c i d e d , met the Indian T r i b e s o f Northern B r i t i s h Columbia a t P r i n c e Rupert and speaking on b e h a l f o f Canada s a i d — " I t h i n k t h e o n l y way t o s e t t l e t h i s q u e s t i o n t h a t y o u h a v e a g i t a t e d f o r y e a r s i s by a d e c i s i o n o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee, and I w i l l take steps to help you." 6. B y a g r e e m e n t w h i c h was e n t e r e d i n t o b y t h e l a t e Mr. J . A. J . McKenna S p e c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r o n b e h a l f o f t h e Dominion o f Canada and t h e l a t e Premier S i r R i c h a r d McBride on b e h a l f o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e month o f S e p t e m b e r , 1912, and b e f o r e t h e end o f t h a t y e a r adopted by b o t h G o v e r n m e n t s , i t was s t i p u l a t e d t h a t b y means o f a J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n t o be a p p o i n t e d , l a n d s s h o u l d be added t o I n d i a n R e s e r v e s and l a n d s s h o u l d be c u t ! o f f f r o m I n d i a n reserves. B y t h a t a g r e e m e n t i t was p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f i t s s t i p u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be a " f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t o f a l l matters r e l a t i n g to Indian a f f a i r s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia." 7. On t h e 3 0 t h d a y o f J u n e , 1 9 1 6 , t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a appointed i n pursuance o f t h e agreement above mentioned i s s u e d R e p o r t w h i c h was p l a c e d i n t h e h a n d s o f b o t h G o v e r n ments. 8. I n t h e m o n t h o f S e p t e m b e r , 1916, t h e Duke o f C o n naught, a c t i n g as H i s M a j e s t y ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Canada and i n response t o a l e t t e r which had been addressed t o him on b e h a l f o f t h e Nishga T r i b e s and t h e I n t e r i o r T r i b e s , gave a s s u r a n c e s communicated by H i s S e c r e t a r y t o t h e G e n e r a l Counsel o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s i n the f o l l o w i n g words:"His Royal Highness has i n t e r v i e w e d t h e Honourable Dr. Roche w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o y o u r l e t t e r o f t h e 29th May a n d y o u r i n t e r v i e w w i t h me a n d I am commanded b y H i s R o y a l H i g h n e s s t o s t a t e t h a t he c o n s i d e r s i t i s the duty of the Nishga T r i b e o f Indians t o await the d e c i s i o n o f t h e Commission, a f t e r w h i c h , i f t h e y do n o t a g r e e t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s s e t f o r t h b y t h a t Commission, they can appeal t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n England where t h e i r case w i l l have e v e r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . As t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n s w i l l be d u l y c o n s i d e r e d by t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l i n the event of the Indians being d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e Commission, H i s Royal Highness i s not prepared t o i n t e r f e r e i n the m a t t e r a t p r e s e n t a n d he h o p e s t h a t y o u w i l l a d v i s e the Indians t o await t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e Commission."  132  9. The A l l i e d T r i b e s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n and s t i l l are u n w i l l i n g t o be b o u n d by t h e a g r e e m e n t a b o v e m e n t i o n e d and have a l w a y s b e e n and s t i l l a r e u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t as final settlement the f i n d i n g s contained i n the Report of the Royal Commission. 10. I n t h e y e a r 1920 t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f C a n a d a e n a c t e d t h e l a w k n o w n a s B i l l 13 b e i n g C h a p t e r 51 o f t h e S t a t u t e s o f that year a u t h o r i z i n g the Governor-General i n Council to c a r r y o u t t h e a g r e e m e n t a b o v e m e n t i o n e d by a d o p t i n g the Report of the Royal Commission. F r o m t h e p r e a m b l e a n d thei e n a c t i n g words the p r o f e s s e d purpose of the B i l l appeared t o be t h a t o f e f f e c t i n g s e t t l e m e n t by a c t u a l l y a d j u s t i n g a l l matters. 11. I n c o u r s e o f d e b a t e r e g a r d i n g B i l l 13 h e l d i n t h e S e n a t e o f 2nd J u n e , 1920, S i r James Lougheed, l e a d e r o f t h e then Government i n the Senate, answering remarks o f Senator B o s t o c k b y w h i c h was e x p r e s s e d t h e f e a r t h a t i f t h e Bill s h o u l d become l a w t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t " e n t i r e l y be p u t o u t o f C o u r t and be u n a b l e t o p r o c e e d on any q u e s t i o n o f title," gave the f o l l o w i n g assurance (Debates o f S e n a t e — 1 9 2 0 , p. 475 c o l . 2 ) : " I m i g h t s a y f u r t h e r , h o n o u r a b l e g e n t l e m e n , t h a t we do not propose to exclude the claims of Indians. It will be m a n i f e s t t o e v e r y h o n o u r a b l e g e n t l e m a n t h a t i f t h e I n d i a n s have c l a i m - a n t e r i o r t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n or a n t e r i o r t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e two C r o w n C o l o n i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e y c o u l d be a d j u s t e d o r s e t t l e d by t h e I m p e r i a l A u t h o r i t i e s . Those c l a i m s are still valid. I f t h e c l a i m be a v a l i d one w h i c h i s b e i n g a d v a n c e d by t h i s g e n t l e m a n and t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h him as t o the I n d i a n T r i b e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a being e n t i t l e d to the whole of the lands of B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s Government cannot d i s t u r b t h a t c l a i m . T h a t c l a i m c a n s t i l l be a s s e r t e d i n t h e f u t u r e . " 12. Upon o c c a s i o n o f i n t e r v i e w had w i t h t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f a l l i e d T r i b e s a t V a n c o u v e r on 27th J u l y , 1923, t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n t e r i o r s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e Government of Canada conceded t h a t the a l l i e d T r i b e s a r e e n t i t l e d t o secure j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n of the Indian land controversy and gave a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada w o u l d h e l p them in s e c u r i n g such d e c i s i o n . 13. By O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l p a s s e d i n t h e m o n t h o f A u g u s t , 1923, the Government o f the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia adopted the Report of the Royal Commission.  133  14. By Memorandum w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f Canada on 2 9 t h F e b r u a r y , 1924, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s opposed the p a s s i n g o f O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l o f t h e Government o f Canada a d o p t i n g t h e Report o f t h e R o y a l Commission upon t h e ground, among o t h e r g r o u n d s , t h a t n o m a t t e r w h a t e v e r r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia having been f u l l y a d j u s t e d and i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s s u c h a s f o r e s h o r e r i g h t s , f i s h i n g r i g h t s and water r i g h t s n o t h a v i n g been t o any e x t e n t a d j u s t e d , t h e p r o f e s s e d purpose o f t h e Agreement and t h e A c t had n o t been accomplished. 15. By O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l p a s s e d 1 9 t h J u l y , 1924, t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a , a c t i n g u n d e r C h a p t e r 51 o f t h e S t a t u t e s o f t h e y e a r 1920 a n d upon r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f the I n t e r i o r adopted t h e Report o f t h e Royal Commission. 16. F r o m t h e Memorandum i s s u e d b y t h e D e p u t y M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e on 29th F e b r u a r y , answering q u e s t i o n s which had been submitted by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s t o t h e Government o f Canada, t h e O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l p a s s e d on 1 9 t h J u l y , 1924, and t h e Memorandum i s s u e d b y t h e D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s on 9 t h A u g u s t , 1924, i t c l e a r l y a p p e a r s as i s subm i t t e d t h a t both t h e Department o f J u s t i c e and t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e g a r d t h e S t a t u t e C h a p t e r 51 o f t h e y e a r 1920 a s i n t e n d e d , n o t f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t a n a c t u a l adjustment of a l l matters r e l a t i n g t o Indian a f f a i r s , but f o r the purpose o f b r i n g i n g about a l e g i s l a t i v e adjustment o f a l l such m a t t e r s and thus e f f e c t i n g f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t under t h e laws of Canada w i t h o u t Tribes of British  the concurrence Columbia.  or consent  of the Indian  17. The A l l i e d T r i b e s submit t h a t , so f a r as S e c t i o n 2 b e i n g t h e m a i n e n a c t m e n t o f C h a p t e r 51 may b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s b e i n g i n t e n d e d f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e p u r p o s e a b o v e ment i o n e d and thus b r i n g i n g t o an end a l l a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m e d by t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, that enactment i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h North America A c t . 18. On t h e 1 5 t h J a n u a r y , 1 9 2 5 , t h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e of the A l l i e d T r i b e s unanimously adopted the f o l l o w i n g r e s o lution : " I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two G o v e r n m e n t s h a v e passed O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l confirming the Report o f the R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n I n d i a n A f f a i r s , we t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r e m o r e t h a n e v e r d e t e r m i n e d t o t a k e s u c h a c t i o n a s may b e necessary i n order that the Indian Tribes of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may r e c e i v e j u s t i c e a n d a r e f u r t h e r m o r e d e t e r mined t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r i g h t s c l a i m e d by them by a j u d i c i a l decision of His Majesty's Privy Council."  134  19. I n t h e c o u r s e o f d e b a t e h a d i n t h e H o u s e o f Commons o n t h e 2 6 t h o f J u n e , 1925 the M i n i s t e r of I n t e r i o r speaking on b e h a l f o f t h e Government o f Canada i n answer t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h h a d b e e n made o n b e h a l f o f t h e Allied Tribes recognized t h a t the A l l i e d T r i b e s are e n t i t l e d to obtain from His Majesty's P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n of the Indian land controversy and a g r e e d t h a t t h e Government w o u l d g i v e a u t h o r i t a t i v e s a n c t i o n f o r so d o i n g . 20. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e m a r k t h e n made b y t h e M i n i s t e r t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d n o t be j u s t i f i e d i n p r o v i d i n g funds unless "something very concrete" s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d , the A l l i e d T r i b e s submit t h a t they have a l r e a d y presented " s o m e t h i n g v e r y c o n c r e t e " n a m e l y t h e i r own conditions proposed f o r equitable settlement by t h e i r S t a t e m e n t p r e s e n t e d to the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia i n r e s p o n s e to request o f t h a t Government i n t h e month o f December 1919., and subs e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d t o the Government of Canada. 21. With regard to the general subject of the funds w h i c h as the A l l i e d T r i b e s c l a i m t h e Dominion of Canada i s under the o b l i g a t i o n of p r o v i d i n g , the A l l i e d T r i b e s have p l a c e d i n the hands of the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t - G e n e r a l of Indian A f f a i r s the f o l l o w i n g Memorial: THE A L L I E D I N D I A N T R I B E S OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A TO THE S U P E R I N T E N D E N T G E N E R A L OF I N D I A N A F F A I R S  Columbia  By t h i s M e m o r i a l o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f British i t i s r e s p e c t f u l l y s u b m i t t e d as follows:  The A l l i e d T r i b e s s u b m i t t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n i s u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g a l l f u n d s a l r e a d y e x p e n d e d and a l l f u n d s r e q u i r i n g h e r e a f t e r t o be e x p e n d e d by t h e A l l i e d Tribes i n d e a l i n g w i t h the Indian land controversy in establishing t h e r i g h t s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , and i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t f i n a l adjustment of a l l matters r e l a t i n g to Indian a f f a i r s in British Columbia.  stated  The A l l i e d T r i b e s as follows:-  so  submit  upon  grounds  briefly  1. Well established precedent r e l a t i n g to judicial proceedings intended f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the r i g h t s of Indian t r i b e s and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t o f t h e Oka case, which was c a r r i e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o the J u d i c i a l Committee of His M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l by t h e I n d i a n s i n t e r e s t e d and of w h i c h t h e t o t a l c o s t was p r o v i d e d by t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada.  of  2. the  The f a c t t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n o f B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a n A c t and  C a n a d a b e i n g by v i r t u e t h e "Terms o f U n i o n "  135  t r u s t e e f o r t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia and under a l l o b l i g a t i o n s a r i s i n g from such t r u s t e e s h i p has by e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e compact w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia above mentioned rendered i t s e l f incompetent f o r taking e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n establishing the r i g h t s of the Indian Tribes o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a s i s c l e a r l y shown b y t h e O p i n i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e i s s u e d i n t h e month o f December 1913, a n d moreover has put i t s e l f i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a party i n the case upholding the contentions o f the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and b y t h e a c t s so s t a t e d h a s p l a c e d upon t h e I n d i a n Tribes the absolute n e c e s s i t y o f proceeding independently f o r establishing their rights. 3. The p r i n c i p l e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f a l l a b o r i g i n a l l a n d s and o t h e r r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o rwhich has already been conceded by t h e Dominion o f Canada, and o f which as t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s submit t h e f i r s t item c o n s i s t s o f t h e f u l l expenditure required f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g such r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s and b r i n g i n g about an adjustment o f a l l m a t t e r s now r e q u i r i n g t o b e a d j u s t e d . 4. The a s s u r a n c e s which on b e h a l f o f t h e Dominion o f Canada have from time t o time been g i v e n t o t h e I n d i a n Tribes of B r i t i s h Columbia and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t o f S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r and those o f t h e present M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r . 5. The l a n d s and f u n d s h e l d by t h e Dominion o f Canada i n t r u s t f o r t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and b e i n g t h e f u l l b e n e f i c i a l property of the A l l i e d Tribes. Therefore t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s now f o r m a l l y d e m a n d f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n o f C a n a d a p a y m e n t o f t h e sum o f o n e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s b e i n g t h e t o t a l amount o f s u c h e x p e n d i t u r e s a l r e a d y i n c u r r e d , a n d f u r t h e r demand f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n o f C a n a d a t h a t f u l l p r o v i s i o n b e made f o r p a y i n g a l l a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s w h i c h h e r e a f t e r s h a l l be r e q u i r e d f o r s u c h e x p e n d i t u r e s as s h a l l be a g r e e d upon between t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and t h e Dominion o f Canada, o r i f n e c e s s a r y s h a l l be d e t e r m i n e d by the J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l . Dated  at the City  o f Ottawa  Chairman  To  the  June,  1926  of the Executive Committee of A l l i e d Tribes  H o n o u r a b l e C H A R L E S STEWART, Superintendent General of Indian Ottawa.  Affairs,  136  22. The Government o f Canada h a v i n g d e f i n i t e l y agreed a s i s a b o v e shown t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n o f C a n a d a w i l l facilit a t e s e c u r i n g from t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s Privy Council d e c i s i o n o f the Indian lands controversy, the G e n e r a l C o u n s e l o f A l l i e d T r i b e s e n t e r e d upon d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e r e g a r d i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r method by w h i c h t h e s e c u r i n g o f s u c h d e c i s i o n w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d , and o f f e r e d t o s u g g e s t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e common g r o u n d w h i c h m i g h t b e r e a c h e d b y t h e G o v e r n ment o f Canada a n d t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s i n c o n n e c t i o n with the c a r r y i n g forward o f the independent j u d i c i a l proceedings o f the A l l i e d T r i b e s . 23. In presenting t h i s P e t i t i o n t o the Parliament o f Canada a s t h e Supreme Body r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s d e c l a r e t h a t , w h i l e i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r them t o demand what t h e y c o n s i d e r t o b e t h e i r r i g h t s from both t h e Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e Dominion of Canada and even t o c o n t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f an A c t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada, they d e s i r e and i n t e n d t o a c t toward a l l M i n i s t e r s o f t h e Crown, a l l Members o f b o t h H o u s e s o f Parliament and a l lothers concerned i n a thoroughly reasona b l e a n d c o n c i l i a t o r y way a n d t h a t t h e i r o n e c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e i s , by s e c u r i n g j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n o f a l l i s s u e s involved, t o o p e n t h e way f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t a n e q u i t a b l e a n d m o d e r a t e settlement s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e Governments as w e l l as t o themselves. Therefore  t h e P e t i t i o n e r s humbly  pray:-  1. T h a t b y a m e n d m e n t o f C h a p t e r 51 o f t h e S t a t u t e s o f t h e y e a r 1920 o r o t h e r w i s e t h e a s s u r a n c e s e t o u t i n p a r a g r a p h 11 o f t h i s P e t i t i o n b e made e f f e c t i v e a n d t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia be s a f e guarded . 2. T h a t steps be t a k e n f o rd e f i n i n g and s e t t l i n g between the A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s and t h e Dominion o f Canada a l l i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g t o be d e c i d e d b e t w e e n t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia on t h e one hand and t h e Government o f Canada on t h e o t h e r hand. 3. T h a t immediate s t e p s be t a k e n f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e independent proceedings o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and enabling t h e m b y s e c u r i n g r e f e r e n c e o f t h e P e t i t i o n now i n H i s Majesty's P r i v y C o u n c i l and such other independent judicial a c t i o n a s s h a l l be f o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o s e c u r e judgment o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l deciding a l l issues involved.  137  red  4. to  a  That t h i s P e t i t i o n S p e c i a l Committee  Dated  at  the  City  of  and a l l r e l a t e d m a t t e r s be for full consideration.  Ottawa,  the  10th  day  of  June,  refer-  1926.  P e t e r R. Kelly, Chairman of the E x e c u t i v e Committee o f A l l i e d Tribes.  

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