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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Allied Indian tribes of British Columbia : a study in pressure group behaviour Mitchell, Darcy Anne 1977

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THE A L L I E D I N D I A N T R I B E S OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA: A STUDY I N P R E S S U R E GROUP B E H A V I O U R by DARCY ANNE M I T C H E L L B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1977 (c) Darcy Anne Mitchell, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e nce The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date August 29. 1977 ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine t h e o r g a n i -z a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t o e x p l o r e t h e r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h t h e o r g a n i z a -t i o n f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e a s e t t l e m e n t o f i t s c l a i m t o compen-s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s , I have drawn on s e v e r a l works d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c ampaign i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n l a n d s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , I have u s e d m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, as w e l l as a r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d by t h e S p e c i a l Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons a p p o i n t e d i n 1927 t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . The A l l i e d T r i b e s , w a s f o r m e d i n 1916, f o l l o w i n g numerous u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s by i n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n bands and s m a l l i n t e r - t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o p r e s s t h e P r o v i n c i a l , D o m i n i o n and I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o p r o v i d e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o l a n d and r e s o u r c e s . The A l l i e d T r i b e s a t t e m p t e d t o m a r s h a l l a l l t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e b e h i n d t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m and t o s u b -m i t t h a t c l a i m f o r d e c i s i o n by t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e B r i t i s h P r i v y C o u n c i l . I t f a i l e d i n t h i s a t t e m p t . Among t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s f a i l u r e were t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ' weak o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s e and i t s i n a b i l i t y t o g a i n e f f e c t i v e a c c e s s t o t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f p u b l i c d e c i s i o n -m a king. The A l l i e d T r i b e s was, i n a d d i t i o n , d o m i n a t e d by i t s w h i t e l e g a l c o u n s e l and o t h e r n o n - I n d i a n a d v i s o r s , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y a l i e n a t e d much o f t h e . .. I n d i a n membership and r e s u l t e d i n c h a r g e s by government l e a d e r s t h a t t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign was i n s t i g a t e d by w h i t e a g i t a t o r s . F i n a l l y , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s i n s i s t e d t h a t i t w o u l d a c c e p t a s e t t l e m e n t o f i t s s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e s r e l a t -i n g t o l a n d s , r e s o u r c e s and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c improvement o n l y on t h e b a s i s o f r e c o g n i t i o n by government o f t h e v a l i d i t y , o f t h e c l a i m t o a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . The P r o v i n c e c o n s i s t e n t l y d e n i e d t h i s c l a i m , and t h e D o m i n i o n r e f u s e d t o j e o p a r d i z e i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by p e r m i t t i n g a j u d i c i a l a d j u d i c a t i o n o f t h e c l a i m w h i c h m i g h t have p r o d u c e d a d e c i -s i o n i n f a v o u r o f t h e I n d i a n s . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT. i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v INTRODUCTION 1 C h a p t e r I ABORIGINAL RIGHTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: THE CLAIM AND THE CAMPAIGN, 1849-1914 7 I I THE ALLIED TRIBES: THE EARLY YEARS 36 I I I ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ALLIED TRIBES 62 IV THE ALLIED TRIBES: THE LATER YEARS 70 V THE "GREAT SETTLEMENT" OF 1927 86 V I CONCLUSIONS 102 BIBLIOGRAPHY 116 Ap p e n d i x A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS IN THE ABORIGINAL RIGHTS CAMPAIGN 121 B STATEMENT OF THE NISHGA TRIBE (1913) 124 C ALLIED INDIAN TRIBES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (MEMBERSHIP) 1 2 8 D ALLIED TRIBES' PETITION TO PARLIAMENT (1926) 1 3 0 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o t h a n k Dr. P a u l T e n n a n t f o r h i s many s u g -g e s t i o n s and p a t i e n t a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I am g r a t e f u l t o Mr. D a v i d B o r t h w i c k , A s s i s t a n t D e p uty M i n i s t e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t , f o r p r o v i d i n g me w i t h r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s and much i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n l a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D. A. M i t c h e l l A u g u s t 12 1977 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a v INTRODUCTION I n 1913, t h e F e d e r a l I n d i a n A g e n t o f t h e Naas A g e n c y i n n o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e p o r t e d t o t h e Deputy S u p e r -i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n O t t a w a : The management o f n e a r l y a l l t h e bands i n t h i s a g e n c y , as i s t h e c a s e w i t h many o t h e r bands i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , has become much more d i f f i c u l t o f r e c e n t y e a r s owing t o t h e g r e a t a g i t a t i o n t h a t has been g o i n g on, a c l a i m b e i n g made t h a t t h e I n d i a n s do n o t own m e r e l y t h e r e s e r v e s t h a t have been a s s i g n e d , b u t t h e whole p r o v i n c e . Many o f t h e bands o b j e c t t o c o n t r o l o f t h e i r a f f a i r s by t h e government, b e i n g u n d e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e government w o u l d be t o s u r r e n d e r t h e i r a l l e g e d r i g h t s t o l a n d . ^ The a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e 1870's and by t h e e a r l y 1900's had become t h e m a j o r f o c u s o f I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e a d v a n c e o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f F e d e r a l I n d i a n admin-i s t r a t i o n , and t h e a t t e n d a n t d i s r u p t i o n o f n a t i v e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s and p a t t e r n s o f l a n d u s e and o c c u p a t i o n . B e c a u s e t r e a t i e s were made o n l y w i t h I n d i a n g r o u p s i n a s m a l l a r e a o f s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , n a t i v e s e l s e w h e r e i n t h e p r o v i n c e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t s t o l a n d and r e s o u r c e s had n e v e r been p r o p e r l y e x t i n g u i s h e d . Nor had t h e y b e en g i v e n c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e a b r o g a t i o n o f t h o s e r i g h t s . B e g i n n i n g a b o u t 1900, s e v e r a l I n d i a n g r o u p s a t t e m p t e d t o f o r m i n t e r - t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o p r e s s g o vernment f o r a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r c l a i m t o c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . The l a r g e s t and l o n g e s t - l i v e d o f t h e s e 1 2 g r o u p s was t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h was f o r m e d i n 1916. A s s i s t e d and e n c o u r a g e d by sympa-t h e t i c w h i t e p e o p l e , most o f them c o n n e c t e d w i t h one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h e s , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s f o u g h t f o r o v e r t e n y e a r s t o o b t a i n a s e t t l e m e n t o f i t s . c l a i m . I n 1926, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s s u b m i t t e d a p e t i t i o n t o p a r l i a m e n t r e q u e s t i n g a f u l l i n q u i r y i n t o i t s g r i e v a n c e s . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , a S p e c i a l Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons was a p p o i n t e d t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A f t e r f i v e d a y s o f h e a r i n g s , t h e Committee d e c i d e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had e s t a b l i s h e d no c l a i m t o t h e l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b a s e d on a b o r i g i n a l o r o t h e r t i t l e , and recommended t h a t t h e m a t t e r be r e g a r d e d as f i n a l l y c l o s e d . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s c o l l a p s e d . How d i d t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s p u r s u e i t s c l a i m t o r e c o g -n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n l a n d ? Why d i d i t f a i l t o a c h i e v e a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h a t c l a i m ? D u r i n g t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s , a r t i c l e s and books d e a l i n g w i t h n a t i v e r i g h t s have p r o l i f e r a t e d . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e h i s t o r y o f I n d i a n p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e d e v e l -opment o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign have f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n e x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e d i s p o s a l o f Crown l a n d s i n B.C. (R. C a i l , Man, Land and the Law); t h e i m p a c t o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t e t h i c on I n d i a n c u l t u r e s (F. L a V i o l e t t e , The Struggle for Survival); and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e b r o t h e r -3 2 hoods on t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t (P. D r u c k e r ) , t o name a few. The A l l i e d T r i b e s has been d i s c u s s e d i n a number o f t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l works, b u t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s as a p r e s s u r e g r o u p have n o t b een t h e s u b j e c t o f r e s e a r c h by s t u d e n t s o f p o l i -t i c a l s c i e n c e . N a t i v e I n d i a n and I n u i t g r o u p s have been n e g l e c t e d 3 i n t h e s t u d y o f p r e s s u r e g r o u p b e h a v i o u r i n Canada. Nor has a s u f f i c i e n t body o f t h e o r y a c c u m u l a t e d w h i c h w o u l d p e r m i t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f I n d i a n p r e s s u r e g r o u p s w i t h i n e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k s . An e x c e p t i o n , p e r h a p s , i s P a u l P r o s s ' s r e c e n t e s s a y e n t i t l e d " P r e s s u r e G r o u p s : A d a p t i v e 4 I n s t r u m e n t s o f P o l i t i c a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n " ; i n w h i c h a f r a m e -work i s c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f p r e s s u r e g r o u p s and t h e p o l i c y - m a k i n g l e v e l t o w h i c h t h e y a t t a i n a c c e s s . P r o s s ' s t h e s i s , v e r y s i m p l y , i s t h a t t h o s e g r o u p s w h i c h p o s s e s s s u p e r i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s and c l a i m a c c e s s t o t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e t h o s e most l i k e l y t o a t t a i n t h e i r p o l i -t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s . Inasmuch as t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was n o t a b l y d e f i c i e n t i n b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s s e t s and a c c e s s , P r o s s ' s p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e d e f e a t o f t h e I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n . B u t o t h e r f a c t o r s , w h i c h P r o s s d o e s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n t e m p l a t e , s u c h as t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e g r o u p ' s c l a i m ; t h e l e g a l and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h t h e c l a i m was a d v a n c e d ; t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f t h e l e a d e r s ; 4 the composition of the group's membership; and the impact of Federal-Provincial c o n f l i c t s , must a l l be considered i n an attempt to explain the f a i l u r e of the A l l i e d Tribes to achieve a settlement of i t s claim. An examination of the organization and a c t i v i t i e s of the A l l i e d Tribes from the perspective of p o l i t i c a l science may contribute to a better understanding of the e a r l i e s t province-wide organization of B r i t i s h Columbia Indians dedicated to the resolution of the aboriginal rights claim. Such an examination may also i d e n t i f y some factors which should be explored i n the analysis of native Indian pressure groups i n Canada and Canadian pressure groups i n general. Approach and Method While the A l l i e d Tribes was the best known and longest-lived of the native groups committed to resolution of the aboriginal rights claim, e f f o r t s to create other i n t e r - t r i b a l organizations were i n i t i a t e d i n the f i r s t years of the twentieth century. The aboriginal rights claim i t s e l f dates from about the time of the union of B r i t i s h Columbia with Canada. The claim, and indeed the strategies of the A l l i e d Tribes, as well as the response of government, were based on events which occurred i n the f i f t y years p r i o r to the formation of the A l l i e d Tribes. The f i r s t chapter of t h i s essay describes the circumstances of early B r i t i s h Columbia history in which the aboriginal rights claim 5 developed, the evolution of that claim, and the major events in the aboriginal rights campaign between 1870 and 1916. The account of the organization and a c t i v i t i e s of the A l l i e d Tribes, given in Chapters two, three and four, i s based on materials available from a number of secondary sources, from the holdings of the Pro v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, and from the considerable information on the aboriginal rights campaign given as evidence before the Special Committee of 1927. Chapter f i v e provides an account of the 1927 Commit-tee hearings. In the concluding chapter are presented the answers, some tentative, some more d e f i n i t e , to the questions which form the theme of thi s thesis: How did the A l l i e d Tribes pursue i t s claim to recognition of aboriginal rights in land? Why did i t f a i l to achieve a settlement of that claim? 6 Footnotes Canada, D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Annual Report, 1913-1914, p. 92. 2 O t h e r works i n w h i c h t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign a r e d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d e : E. P a l m e r P a t t e r s o n , "Andrew P a u l l and C a n a d i a n I n d i a n R e s u r g e n c e " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1962); George Manuel and M i c h a e l P o s l u n s , The Fourth World: An Indian Reality ( O n t a r i o : C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n Canada, 1974); George E d g a r S h a n k e l , "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 4 5 ) . 3 I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a r e c e n t s h o r t s t u d y o f t h e o p i n i o n s o f C a n a d i a n s on I n d i a n s and I n d i a n i s s u e s , however, Roger G i b b i n s and J . R i c k P o n t i n g s a y t h e f o l l o w i n g : . . . t h e m a j o r I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s f o c u s upon t h e f e d e r a l g overnment, and hence i n r e d r e s s i n g t h e s e g r i e v a n c e s i t i s t h a t g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h must be i n f l u e n c e d . However, t h e I n d i a n v o t e i s n o t n u m e r i c a l l y s t r o n g enough t o a f f e c t t h e outcome o f an e l e c t i o n , e x c e p t i n a v e r y s m a l l number o f i n d i v i d u a l r i d i n g s . T h e i r l a c k o f g e o -g r a p h i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n has a l s o r e s u l t e d i n them n o t h a v i n g much r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n P a r l i a m e n t i t s e l f . I n d e e d , I n d i a n s n o t o n l y l a c k t h e s e p o l i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s , b u t t h e y a r e r e l a t i v e l y l a c k i n g i n o t h e r c o m p e n s a t i n g r e s o u r c e s , s u c h as e c o n o m i c power and s o c i a l p r e s t i g e , w h i c h m i g h t be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . T h u s , t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h F r e n c h Cana-d i a n s have u t i l i z e d a r e n o t e f f e c t i v e f o r I n d i a n s . S i n c e t h e y l a c k s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e i r own, I n d i a n s may c h o o s e among t h r e e o p t i o n s : (1) r e l y i n g upon t h e p o l i t i c i a n s t o a c t i n t h e I n d i a n s ' i n t e r e s t s o u t o f e s s e n t i a l l y h u m a n i t a r i a n m o t i v e s (an u n l i k e l y b u t n o t u n p r e c e d e n t e d e v e n t ) ; (2) b ecoming more d e p e n d e n t upon t h e temperament o f t h e l a r g e r C a n a d i a n e l e c t o r a t e ; (3) a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e a b e t t e r b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n f o r t h e m s e l v e s by e n g a g i n g i n c o n f r o n t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , s u c h as s i t - i n s o r c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s . Roger G i b b i n s and J . R i c k P o n t i n g , " I n d i a n s and I n d i a n I s s u e s : What do C a n a d i a n s T h i n k " ( P a r t I ) , " C a n a d i a n A s s o c i -a t i o n i n S u p p o r t o f t h e N a t i v e P e o p l e s , " Bulletin, 17 (Decem-b e r , 1976), 38-43. 4 In A. P a u l P r o s s , e d . , Pressure Group Behaviour ^n Canadian P o l i t i c s (n.p.: M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . 7 CHAPTER I ABORIGINAL RIGHTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: THE CLAIM AND THE CAMPAIGN 1849-1914 Introduction When t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a came i n t o b e i n g i n 1916, many I n d i a n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e were a l r e a d y c o m m i t t e d t o t h e c a u s e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . The A l l i e d T r i b e s was formed as a c o a l i t i o n o f t h o s e n a t i v e g r o u p s w h i c h had a t t e m p t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o p e r s u a d e g o v e r n -ment t o p r o v i d e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o l a n d and r e s o u r c e s and had d e c i d e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s were i n e f f e c t i v e . T h i s c h a p t e r e x a mines t h e d e v e l -opment o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o 1916 and t h e a t t e m p t s made by i n d i v i d u a l bands and t h e f i r s t , s m a l l i n t e r - t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o c o n v i n c e t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l and D o m i n i o n Governments, as w e l l as t h e K i n g , o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r c l a i m s . Part I Why d i d t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m emerge as t h e f o c u s o f I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s and t h e m a j o r i n c e n t i v e t o I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y ? To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , one must examine t h r e e a s p e c t s o f t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t f o l l o w i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Crown C o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d i n 1849; t h e d e v e l o p m e n t 8 o f I n d i a n p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; and t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s . Settlement of British Columbia I n 1854, t h e t o t a l w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was a b o u t one t h o u s a n d . The I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n was a b o u t s i x t y thousand."*" By 1901, however, t h e r e were 178,000 2 n o n - I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a -t i o n had d e c l i n e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0,000. Of t h e w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n , a b o u t s i x t y p e r c e n t were l o c a t e d on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h e Lower M a i n l a n d and a b o u t t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t i n t h e s o u t h e r n and c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r . Most o f t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e p e r c e n t were s c a t t e r e d a l o n g t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t , w i t h b u t few w h i t e s i n t h e n o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r o f t h e P r o v i n c e . The i m p a c t o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t on t h e v a r i o u s n a t i v e g r o u p s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s . The l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l and g r a z i n g l a n d s o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h e s o u t h e r and c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r were r a p i d l y t a k e n up by w h i t e s e t t l e r s , d i s t u r b i n g n a t i v e h u n t i n g g r o u n d s as w e l l as l i m i t i n g t h e I n d i a n s ' p o s s i b i l i t i e s when t h e y t h e m s e l v e s v e n t u r e d i n t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s . On t h e c o a s t , I n d i a n s were f o r c e d t o compete w i t h more e f f i c i e n t and b e t t e r - e q u i p p e d w h i t e and o r i e n t a l f i s h e r -men f o r t h e m a i n s t a y o f t h e I n d i a n s ' t r a d i t i o n a l economy. O n l y i n t h e n o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r were t h e I n d i a n s l e f t more o r l e s s u n d i s t u r b e d . The n a t i v e s o f t h i s a r e a r e m a i n e d f o r t h e most p a r t on t h e s i d e l i n e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e o f t h e 9 a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c a m paign. W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f w h i t e f a r m i n g s e t t l e m e n t s and t h e g r o w t h o f r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s , many I n d i a n s g r a d u a l l y abandoned t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l p u r s u i t s and began t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e new economy. I n t h e I n t e r i o r , I n d i a n s f a r m e d , r a i s e d s t o c k , worked as a g r i c u l t u r a l d a y -3 l a b o u r e r s , cowboys, f r e i g h t e r s , r a i l r o a d n a v v i e s and m i n e r s . On t h e c o a s t , I n d i a n s became c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n , l o g g e r s , s t e v e d o r e s , m i n e r s and b o a t b u i l d e r s . B o t h men and women worked i n t h e c a n n e r i e s . T h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n w h i t e i n d u s t r y and m i g r a t i o n t o u r b a n c e n t r e s , many I n d i a n s were e x p o s e d t o t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e and t o E u r o p e a n l i f e s t y l e s . S p o r a d i c and l o c a l i z e d p r o t e s t a c c o m p a n i e d t h e advance o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n d i a n r e s i s t a n c e m i g h t have r e m a i n e d a t t h i s l e v e l , had i t n o t been f o r two a s p e c t s o f t h e h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o a f o c u s s i n g o f n a t i v e a t t e n t i o n on t h e c o n c e p t o f a b o r -i g i n a l t i t l e a s a b a s i s f o r I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s . The d e v e l o p -ment o f I n d i a n l a n d p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h became c h a r a c t e r i z e d a f t e r c o n f e d e r a t i o n by a c r i m o n i o u s F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l d i s p u t e s o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n s o f r e s e r v e a c r e a g e , r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t and a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , was one o f t h e s e . The s e c o n d was t h e i n f l u e n c e o f m i s s i o n a r i e s , p a r -t i c u l a r l y P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s on t h e n o r t h c o a s t . 10 Indian Land Policy James D o u g l a s , who a f t e r R i c h a r d B l a n s h a r d ' s b r i e f t e r m o f o f f i c e , was a p p o i n t e d G o v e r n o r o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , l a t e r o f m a i n l a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and f i n a l l y o f t h e u n i t e d c o l o n i e s , r e c o g n i z e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n a t i v e i n t e r e s t i n l a n d w h i c h r e q u i r e d f o r m a l e x t i n g u i s h m e n t t h r o u g h t r e a t y . As C h i e f F a c t o r o f t h e Hudsons Bay Company, he c o n c l u d e d between 1850 and 1854 a number o f t r e a t i e s w i t h I n d i a n g r o u p s on s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . L a t e r , when t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e c o l o n y c o u l d n o t s u p p o r t t h e e x p e n s e o f f u r t h e r t r e a t i e s , he c a r r i e d o u t a p o l i c y o f p r o v i d i n g e x t e n s i v e r e s e r v e s i n t h e l o c a t i o n s r e q u e s t e d by t h e I n d i a n s . A f t e r D o u g l a s ' r e t i r e m e n t i n 1864, however, h i s s u c c e s s o r s and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y J o s e p h T r u t c h , C h i e f Commis-s i o n e r o f L a n ds and Works, were d e t e r m i n e d t h a t e x t e n s i v e I n d i a n r e s e r v e s s h o u l d n o t o b s t r u c t w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t . They r e d u c e d t h e s i z e o f r e s e r v e s a l l o t t e d by D o u g l a s and c r e a t e d new r e s e r v e s whose a r e a s were b u t a f r a c t i o n o f t h o s e p r e v i -o u s l y g r a n t e d . The a v e r a g e r e s e r v e a l l o t m e n t amounted t o a b o u t t e n a c r e s f o r an I n d i a n f a m i l y o f f i v e (as compared w i t h between 128 and 640 a c r e s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f C a n a d a ) . T r u t c h a l s o d e n i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , s t a t i n g i n a d e s p a t c h t o t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n 1870: . . . t h e t i t l e o f t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e f e e o f t h e p u b l i c l a n d s o r any p o r t i o n t h e r e o f has n e v e r been a c k n o w l e d g e d by government, b u t on t h e c o n t r a r y i s d i s t i n c t l y d e n i e d . . 11 By 1871, t h e y e a r o f B.C.'s e n t r y i n t o c o n f e d e r a t i o n , D o u g l a s ' I n d i a n l a n d p o l i c y had been e f f e c t i v e l y r e v e r s e d . A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n , w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n s h o u l d assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d i a n s and l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r I n d i a n s , s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n s h o u l d c o n t i n u e a p o l i c y a s l i b e r a l a s t h a t p u r s u e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government. The new P r o v i n c i a l Government was o b l i g e d by A r t i c l e 13 t o p r o v i d e l a n d s f o r I n d i a n r e s e r v e s when r e q u e s t e d by Canada. Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u b s e -q u e n t l y d i s a g r e e d , however, a b o u t t h e p r o p e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e word " l i b e r a l " and t h i s d i s a g r e e m e n t r e s u l t e d i n y e a r s o f argument between t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s o v e r t h e s i z e o f r e s e r v e a l l o t m e n t s . The D o m i n i o n p r e s s e d f o r a l l o t m e n t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada, w h i l e t h e P r o v i n c e was r e l u c t a n t t o p a r t w i t h an a c r e i n e x c e s s o f t h e t e n a c r e a l l o t m e n t p e r f a m i l y w h i c h had been s t a n d a r d p r i o r t o t h e e n t r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o c o n f e d e r a t i o n . I n 1876, a j o i n t R e s e r v e A l l o t m e n t C o m m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n an a t t e m p t t o s e t t l e t h e r e s e r v e q u e s t i o n . I t l a b o u r e d f o r t h i r t y y e a r s w i t h b u t l i m i t e d s u c c e s s . W h i l e some r e s e r v e s were s e t a s i d e , o n l y a few were t r a n s f e r r e d J . t o t h e D o m i n i o n Government i n t r u s t f o r t h e u s e and b e n e f i t o f t h e I n d i a n s as r e q u i r e d by A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n . I n d e a l i n g w i t h I n d i a n l a n d s , t h e D o m i n i o n was a l s o s a d d l e d w i t h t h e t e r m s o f t h e agreement c r e a t i n g t h e A l l o t -ment Comm i s s i o n , w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h a t any l a n d s removed f o r 12 any p u r p o s e f r o m an I n d i a n r e s e r v e s h o u l d r e v e r t t o t h e P r o v i n c e . B e c a u s e o f t h e P r o v i n c e ' s r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t , Canada was u n a b l e t o s e l l o r l e a s e any u n u s e d o r unneeded l a n d s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e I n d i a n s , a p r a c t i c e t h a t was n o t uncommon e l s e w h e r e i n Canada. I n t h e y e a r s 1875-187 6, two i n c i d e n t s o c c u r r e d w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o making t h e m a t t e r o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e a s u b -j e c t o f p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n and t o d i r e c t i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e s t o t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a s a b a s i s f o r t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s and g r i e v a n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o r e s e r v e s . I n 187 5, t h e F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , T e l e s p h o r e F o u r n i e r , d i s a l l o w e d a P r o v i n c i a l A c t c o n s o l i -d a t i n g l a n d o r d i n a n c e s on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t made no m e n t i o n o f an I n d i a n i n t e r e s t i n l a n d s . A l t h o u g h t h e d i s a l l o w a n c e was l i f t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , I n d i a n g r o u p s and t h e i r l e g a l c o u n s e l would l a t e r a p p e a l t o t h i s d i s a l l o w a n c e a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n had h i s t o r i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d t h e I n d i a n c l a i m t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . I n 187 6, d u r i n g a t o u r o f t h e p r o v i n c e , G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l L o r d D u f f e r i n d e n o u n c e d t h e P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y t o w a r d I n d i a n l a n d s . H i s s p e e c h r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c i t y and became, w i t h t h e F o u r n i e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , an i m p o r t a n t b u i l d i n g b l o c k i n t h e n a t i v e s ' c a s e . W h i l e t h e D o m i n i o n and P r o v i n c i a l Governments were a r g u i n g a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f n a t i v e t i t l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e I n d i a n s were b e g i n n i n g t o p r o t e s t t h e i n a d e q u a c y 13 o f t h e i r r e s e r v e s . I n J u l y , 1874, I n d i a n s o f t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y s u b m i t t e d a p e t i t i o n t o Dr. I . W. P o w e l l , D o m i n i o n S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . They s t a t e d , i n p a r t : F o r many y e a r s we have been c o m p l a i n i n g o f t h e l a n d l e f t u s b e i n g t o o s m a l l . We have l a i d o u r c o m p l a i n t s b e f o r e t h e government o f f i c i a l s n e a r e s t u s ; t h e y s e n t us t o some o t h e r s ; so we have had no r e d r e s s up t o t h e p r e s e n t ; and we have f e l t l i k e men t r a m p l e d on, and we a r e commencing t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e aim o f t h e w h i t e men i s t o e x t e r m i n a t e us as soon as t h e y c a n , a l t h o u g h we have been a l w a y s q u i e t , o b e d i e n t , k i n d and f r i e n d l y t o t h e w h i t e s . We c o n s i d e r t h a t e i g h t y a c r e s p e r f a m i l y i s a b s o -l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y f o r o u r s u p p o r t and f o r t h e f u t u r e w e l f a r e o f o u r c h i l d r e n . We d e c l a r e t h a t t w e n t y o r t h i r t y a c r e s p e r f a m i l y w i l l n o t g i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n , b u t w i l l c r e a t e i l l f e e l i n g s , i r r i t a t i o n among o u r p e o p l e , and we c a n n o t say what w i l l be t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s . ^ I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e I n d i a n s r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s p e t i t i o n , p e r h a p s f r o m C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t h e a r e a . The I n t e r i o r I n d i a n s were a l s o b ecoming d i s s a t i s f i e d , and i n t h e 1870's, t h e y were so a g g r i e v e d by t h e r e s e r v e s i t u a t i o n , t h a t many w h i t e s e t t l e r s f e a r e d t h e o u t b r e a k o f an I n d i a n war. T h a t t h e r e had been no war . . . P o w e l l a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o t h e l a c k o f u n i t y among t h e I n d i a n s and n o t i n any way t o t h e a b s e n c e o f s u f f i c i e n t p r o v o c a t i o n . P o w e l l was n o t b e i n g a l a r m i s t ; some w h i t e s e t t l e r s and m i s s i o n a r i e s s h a r e d h i s v i e w s . U n t i l t h e l a n d g r i e v a n c e s were s e t t l e d , no money g r a n t s o r p r e s e n t s w o u l d have p l a c a t e d t h e I n d i a n s . P o w e l l s t a t e d t h a t t h e N i c o l a and Okanagan I n d i a n s , t h e most s e r i o u s l y d i s a f f e c t e d , r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t h i s c u s t o m a r y g i f t s , f e a r i n g t h a t by t a k i n g any t h e y m i g h t be t h o u g h t t o be w a i v i n g t h e i r c l a i m f o r com-p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e i n j u s t i c e t h e y f e l t was b e i n g done t o t h e m . r 14 An aspect of Dominion Indian a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which, although not d i r e c t l y connected w i t h the land q u e s t i o n i n f l u e n c e d i t , was the p o t l a t c h law. T h i s amendment to the Indian A c t was passed i n 1884 and not rep e a l e d u n t i l the 1930's. I t p r o h i b i t e d p o t l a t c h i n g and wint e r dancing, both i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f the s o c i a l and economic l i f e o f the c o a s t Indians, e s p e c i a l l y the Kwakiutl. The banning of p o t l a t c h i n g s e r i o u s l y d i s r u p t e d t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , exposed many Indians to l e g a l p r o s e c u t i o n and c o n t r i b u t e d to Indian a n t i p a t h y toward the F e d e r a l Government and i t s agents. As e a r l y as 1887, n a t i v e groups p e t i t i o n e d f o r r e p e a l of the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n of the Indian A c t . They sought l e g a l a d v i c e , both f o r defence i n c o u r t and f o r p o s s i b l e ways of circumventing the p r o v i s i o n s of the law. Because the p o t l a t c h law was extremely d i f f i c u l t t o enforce and was not, i n f a c t , a c t i v e l y enforced u n t i l s e v e r a l years a f t e r i t s enactment, Indians became both r e s e n t f u l of the law and contemptuous of the Government's a b i l i t y to enf o r c e i t . The p o t l a t c h law became 7 a "major f a c t o r i n the emergence of a sense of i n j u s t i c e " and c o n t r i b u t e d to the "experience . . . and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the Indians i n Canadian modes of t r i a l procedure and g p o l i t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n . " Some Indians, such as Andrew P a u l l , a young Squamish who a s s i s t e d i n the l e g a l defence of n a t i v e accused o f c o n t r a v e n t i o n of the law, l a t e r became l e a d e r s i n the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign. One of the groups most a f f e c t e d by the p o t l a t c h law, however, the Southern 15 K w a k i u t l , was a l a t e c o m e r t o t h e campaign, l a r g e l y b e c a u s e a l l i t s e f f o r t s were o c c u p i e d i n f i g h t i n g t h e p o t l a t c h l a w and f i n d i n g ways t o c a r r y on n a t i v e c e r e m o n i e s d e s p i t e t h e law. By 1909, t h e e f f o r t s o f Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o s e t t l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s o v e r r e s e r v e a l l o t m e n t s had g r o u n d t o a h a l t . The I n d i a n R e s e r v e C o m m i s s i o n e r , A. V. V o w e l l , r e p o r t e d i n 1909: . . . t h e H o n o u r a b l e t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n ds has r e f u s e d t o s a n c t i o n any f u r t h e r a l l o t m e n t s o f l a n d s t o I n d i a n s u n t i l t h e d i s p u t e between t h e D o m i n i o n and p r o v i n c i a l Governments as t o r e v e r s i o n o f t h e r e s e r v e s has b een s e t t l e d ; t h e work o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n c a n n o t t h e r e f o r e be p r o c e e d e d w i t h p e n d i n g a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n . M e a n w h i l e , t h e c o u n t r y i s b e i n g s e t t l e d v e r y r a p i d l y 'and l a n d s a l l o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e a r e b e i n g o c c u -p i e d as homesteads e t c . by i n c o m i n g s e t t l e r s and i n t e r -f e r i n g more o r l e s s w i t h t h e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g g r o u n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s . g W i t h t h e a d v a n c e o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t and t h e d e l a y i n r e s e r v e a l l o t m e n t a r i s i n g f r o m i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t , t h e I n d i a n s o f B.C. r a p i d l y became c o n s c i o u s o f t h e v a l u e o f l a n d and o f t h e need t o p r o t e c t what l a n d t h e y c o u l d f r o m w h i t e e n c r o a c h m e n t s . P r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f r e s e r v e s , w h i c h had begun i n t h e 1870's, i n c r e a s e d . G r a d u -a l l y , t h e r e s e r v e q u e s t i o n merged w i t h t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w h i c h became p u b l i c i z e d a s a r e s u l t o f F e d e r a l - P r o v i n -c i a l d i s p u t e s . M i s s i o n a r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n -a r i e s on t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t , e n c o u r a g e d t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e i r c l a i m t o c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o l a n d and a s s i s t e d t h e n a t i v e s i n p r e p a r i n g p e t i t i o n s and 16 s e n d i n g d e l e g a t i o n s t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l , F e d e r a l and B r i t i s h G overnments. Missionaries The i n v o l v e m e n t o f m i s s i o n a r i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign d i d n o t stem f r o m a d e s i r e t o foment p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t . R a t h e r , as S h a n k e l has s t a t e d : W i t h r a t e e x c e p t i o n s , m i s s i o n a r i e s a r e n o t c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s ; t h e y a r e , however, v i t a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h government p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom t h e y l i v e and s e r v e . S h o u l d t h e government f o l l o w p o l i c i e s t h a t b a r t h e way t o a n o r m a l m a t e r i a l advancement o f t h e p e o p l e , t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s may p r o t e s t and a g i t a t e t o t h e e x t e n t o f b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by t h e government as v e r y u n s e t t l i n g i n t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . The f i r s t m i s s i o n a r i e s t o a r r i v e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were O b l a t e s and J e s u i t s who r e a c h e d t h e s o u t h c o a s t and I n t e r i o r i n t h e e a r l y 1840's. T h e i r p r i n c i p a l c o n c e r n , a p a r t f r o m s p r e a d i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n message, was t o p r o t e c t t h e n a t i v e s f r o m t h e w o r s t o f E u r o p e a n " c i v i l i z a t i o n . " I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r a i m s , t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d c l o s e - k n i t c o m m u n i t i e s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r i e s t . " B i s h o p D u r i e u ' s s y s t e m " was i n s t i t u t e d where p o s s i b l e . B i s h o p ; i D u r i e u 1 s .system, ;was a t h e o c r a t i c k i n d ' o f < ' i n d i r e c t r u l e . W i t h t h e p r i e s t s a c t i n g as u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y , and t h r o u g h t h e i r a d v i c e and d i r e c t i o n , I n d i a n a u t h o r i -t i e s were d e s i g n a t e d t o r e g u l a t e s o c i e t y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . ^ I n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o e r a d i c a t e h e a t h e n c u s t o m s as w e l l as pagan b e l i e f s , t h e C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t r o d u c e d t h e I n d i a n s t o E u r o p e a n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . 17 W h i l e t h e y e x e r c i s e d c o n t r o l t o some d e g r e e t h r o u g h t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f a u t h o r i t y , t h e p r i e s t s g r a n t e d most r e c o g n i t i o n and power t o t h o s e p e r s o n s who became most C h r i s t i a n ( i . e . , E u r o p e a n ) i n b e l i e f s and b e h a v i o u r . D u r i e u ' s s y s t e m depended on i s o l a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s f r o m t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a d v a n c i n g w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t , and w i t h t h e s p r e a d o f w h i t e s e t t l e r s t h r o u g h t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d and s o u t h - c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r , t h e s y s t e m d i s i n t e g r a t e d . By 1910, however, most I n d i a n s i n t h o s e a r e a s had been c o n v e r t e d t o Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . The C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d made t h e f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t by a P r o t e s t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n t o m i n i s t e r t o t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The C.M.S. s e n t W i l l i a m Duncan, a l a y w o r k e r , t o P o r t Simpson i n 1857. I n 1862, Duncan e s t a b l i s h e d an i n d u s t r i a l m i s s i o n — a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t y — a t M e t l a k a t l a . As w e l l a s e s t a b l i s h i n g s e v e r a l modern i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e v i l l a g e , he a b o l i s h e d t h e r a n k and c l a s s s y s t e m o f h i s T s i m p s e a n f l o c k , and e s t a b l i s h e d a v i l l a g e c o u n c i l , a c o m m i t t e e i n c h a r g e o f p u b l i c works, a n a t i v e p o l i c e f o r c e , and o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f a m u n i c i p a l g o v ernment. A t t h e h e i g h t o f h i s s u c c e s s , b o t h D o m i n i o n and P r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s s o u g h t Duncan's a d v i c e on I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n 187 9, however, t h e n o r t h c o a s t was c r e a t e d a b i s h o p r i c and B i s h O p R i d l e y a r r i v e d i n M e t l a k a t l a t o assume c o n t r o l . As Duncan r e f u s e d t o abandon h i s c h a r g e s t h e r e 18 f o l l o w e d a b i t t e r s t r u g g l e between t h e B i s h o p and t h e l a y m i s s i o n a r y , i n w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s t o o k s i d e s . R i d l e y c l a i m e d t h a t Duncan and t h e r e s i d e n t s o f M e t l a k a t l a had no r i g h t s t o t h e l a n d on w h i c h t h e v i l l a g e was b u i l t , t h e two a c r e s o f " M i s s i o n P o i n t " h a v i n g b e en f o r m a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y . The n a t i v e s , a p p a l l e d t h a t e v e n t h e l a n d b e n e a t h t h e i r v i l l a g e was n o t t h e i r s , d e m o l i s h e d a number o f b u i l d i n g s t o p r e v e n t them f a l l i n g i n t o R i d l e y ' s hands. I n 18 8 6 Duncan and a m a j o r i t y o f t h e M e t l a k a t l a n s gave up t h e s t r u g g l e , abandoned t h e v i l l a g e and moved t o A n n e t t e I s l a n d i n A l a s k a t o b u i l d a new M e t l a k a t l a . W i t h Duncan's r e m o v a l , I n d i a n p r o t e s t s o v e r t h e i r r i g h t s i n l a n d , s p a r k e d by t h e M i s s i o n P o i n t c o n t r o v e r s y d i d n o t , a s m i g h t have been e x p e c t e d , s u b s i d e . The move t o A l a s k a was f o l l o w e d , r a t h e r , by e x t e n s i v e a g i t a t i o n by t h e T s i m p s e a n and t h e i r n o r t h e r n n e i g h b o u r s , t h e N i s h g a , f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f I n d i a n r i g h t s t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s . I n 18 87, a d e l e g a t i o n o f C h i e f s f r o m P o r t Simpson and t h e Naas R i v e r V a l l e y t r a v e l l e d 13 t o V i c t o r i a , a c c o m p a n i e d by a m i s s i o n a r y . They p e t i t i o n e d t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r a t r e a t y and a g u a r a n t e e o f p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e i r t r i b a l t e r r i t o r i e s . I n t h e same y e a r , t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments, a l a r m e d by t h e e x t e n t o f n a t i v e p r o t e s t , s e n t a j o i n t c o m m i s s i o n o f i n q u i r y t o t h e n o r t h c o a s t . The c o m m i s s i o n e r s n o t e d i n t h e i r r e p o r t t h a t t h e demands o f t h e I n d i a n g r o u p s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 19 14 d e n o m i n a t i o n t o w h i c h e a c h g r o u p a d h e r e d . They p i n n e d much o f t h e blame f o r i n c i t i n g I n d i a n p r o t e s t on M e t h o d i s t m i s s i o n a r i e s . One c o m m i s s i o n e r c i t e d t h e D u n c a n - R i d l e y d i s p u t e a s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i d e a t h a t t h e t i t l e t o a l l P r o v i n c i a l l a n d was v e s t e d i n t h e I n d i a n s . T h i s c h a r g e , S h a n k e l r e m a r k s , was n o t a l t o g e t h e r true.., G r a n t e d t h a t . . . [ t h e d i s p u t e ] . . . formed e x t r e m e l y f e r t i l e s o i l , i n w h i c h t h e i d e a f l o u r i s h e d a s a g r e e n bay t r e e , b u t i t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r t h e D u f f e r i n s p e e c h o f 1876 t h a t t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t o p e n l y e s p o u s e d t h e c a u s e o f t h e I n d i a n s i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d . , r A l t h o u g h t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s s u p p o r t e d t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e i r p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t t h e w h i t e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s ' t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s , and were u n d o u b t e d l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o v i d i n g t h e c o n c e p t u a l and l e g a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m , t h e y d i d n o t by any means i n i t i a t e t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n . As e a r l i e r d i s c u s s e d , I n d i a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e v a l u e o f l a n d i n c r e a s e d f r o m 1870 onward, and t h e n o t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s was, as a r e s u l t o f t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l G overnments, a m a t t e r o f p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n . The s u p p o r t o f t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s and o t h e r w h i t e s y m p a t h i z e r s became much more i m p o r t a n t a s t h e campaign d e v e l o p e d — a s t h e c l a i m i n law was e s t a b l i s h e d and s t r a t e g i e s d e v i s e d f o r a d v a n c i n g t h e I n d i a n s ' c l a i m . By 1904, n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h 16 C o l u m b i a were n o m i n a l l y C h r i s t i a n . The s o u t h c o a s t and I n t e r i o r r e m a i n e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y C a t h o l i c . The n o r t h c o a s t was d i v i d e d among t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , t h e M e t h o d i s t s , and 20 t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e S a l v a t i o n Army. W h i l e C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s gave more s u p p o r t t o t h e I n d i a n s ' demands f o r e n l a r g e d r e s e r v e s t h a n f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f n a t i v e t i t l e , t h e y , l i k e t h e P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s , i n d i r e c t l y a d v a n c e d t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f w e s t e r n e d u c a t i o n , new f o r m s o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u c h C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s as t h e e q u a l i t y o f men. Most I n d i a n s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h f u n d e d by t h e F e d e r a l Government, were o p e r a t e d by r e l i g i o u s b o d i e s . T h i s p e r m i t t e d t h e c h u r c h e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r bond w i t h t h e n a t i v e s t h r o u g h t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n . On t h e c o a s t , t h e c e n t r e s o f a c t i v i t y i n t h e a b o r i g -i n a l r i g h t s campaign were i n i t i a l l y t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h had been s u b j e c t t o t h e e a r l i e s t and most i n t e n s e m i s s i o n a r y 17 a c t i v i t y and t h i s p a t t e r n p e r s i s t e d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s . I t may be c o n j e c t u r e d t h a t m i s s i o n a r y s u p p o r t f o r t h e c a u s e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , w h i l e stemming i n p a r t f r o m c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e I n d i a n s ' m a t e r i a l w e l f a r e , a l s o d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t h r e a t s o f a d v a n c i n g w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t and t h e e x t e n s i o n o f F e d e r a l I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o t h e c h u r c h e s ' e x c l u s i v e i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e n a t i v e s . Part II P a r t I o f t h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e d t h r e e m a j o r f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o a g r a d u a l f o c u s s i n g o f I n d i a n a t t e n t i o n on t h e c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . Between 1903 and 1 9 1 6 — t h e y e a r i n w h i c h t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was f o r m e d — a c t i v i t y i n 21 t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign i n c r e a s e d . D u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s , t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t s were made t o c r e a t e i n t e r - t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h government. D i r e c t i o n i n t h e s e a t t e m p t s was l a r g e l y p r o v i d e d by t h e w h i t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t d e v e l o p e d t o s u p -p o r t t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e i r demands. As e a r l y a s 1903, I n d i a n t r i b e s i n t h e I n t e r i o r began t o t a k e s t e p s t o p r e s s t h e i r c l a i m s . They were soon j o i n e d by n a t i v e s o f t h e s o u t h c o a s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e Co w i c h a n . I n 1906, a d e l e g a t i o n o f two I n t e r i o r c h i e f s , B a s i l D a v i d and J o h n C h i l i h i t z a , and t h e Squamish c h i e f , J o s e p h C a p i l a n o , went t o E n g l a n d t o l a y t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s b e f o r e t h e K i n g . They were g i v e n an a u d i e n c e and p e r m i t t e d t o s t a t e t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s . They c o m p l a i n e d t h a t n a t i v e t i t l e had n o t been e x t i n g u i s h e d , t h a t w h i t e s e t t l e r s were t a k i n g up l a n d s w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s , and t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had no v o t e and were n o t c o n s u l t e d i n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f F e d e r a l I n d i a n A g e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e i r p e t i t i o n a p p a r e n t l y a c c o m p l i s h e d n o t h i n g , t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o u n d e r t a k e a., l o n g and a r d u o u s j o u r n e y a p p e a r s t o have stemmed f r o m a b e l i e f t h a t t h e y s h o u l d l o o k d i r e c t l y t o t h e Crown f o r j u s t i c e . Some t w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r , C h i l i h i t z a w o u l d t e l l t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee a p p o i n t e d t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s : I am g o i n g t o r e f e r t o t h e t i m e when S p r o a t came as a me s s e n g e r f r o m t h e Queen. . . . The I n d i a n s were t o l d by S p r o a t t h a t t h e Queen wo u l d n o t t o u c h t h e i r I n d i a n 22 r i g h t s and t h e i r r i g h t s w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e r i g h t t o keep t h e i r n a t i v e t i t l e s . S p r o a t t o l d a l o t o f t h i n g s t o t h e I n d i a n s o f what t h e Queen s a i d , b u t I w i l l n o t speak a b o u t t h a t , as i t w i l l t a k e t o o much t i m e , b u t t h e I n d i a n s have k e p t i n mind what S p r o a t t o l d them c o n c e r n -i n g t h e w h i t e man., 0 1 o I n 1909, t h e " I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " was f o r m e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s t a t i n g I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s and s e e k -19 i n g a s o l u t i o n o f t h e i s s u e s . The I n d i a n T r i b e s was a p p a r e n t l y a l o o s e a l l i a n c e o f C o a s t S a l i s h bands and I n d i a n s o f t h e n o r t h c o a s t , i n c l u d i n g t h e N i s h g a . I n t h e same y e a r , t h e I n t e r i o r I n d i a n s began t o h o l d r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s and w i t h 20 t h e h e l p o f J . A. T e i t , a w h i t e t r a p p e r and s c o u t t u r n e d amateur e t h n o l o g i s t , d e v e l o p e d an o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d t h e " I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n . " I n 1910, t h e " F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " an o r g a n i z a t i o n composed o f members o f A n g l i c a n c o n g r e g a t i o n s , was f o r m e d . A. E. O'Meara, a T o r o n t o l a w y e r 21 who had t a k e n A n g l i c a n o r d e r s , was r e t a i n e d as t h e g r o u p ' s l e g a l c o u n s e l . The F r i e n d s gave m o r a l and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign u n t i l i t s d e f e a t a t t h e hands o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee. P r i o r t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and d u r i n g i t s l i f e , t h e F r i e n d s t o g e t h e r w i t h an a s s o c i a t e d g r o u p i n E a s t e r n Canada s e n t numerous p e t i t i o n s and d e l e g a t i o n s t o m i n i s t e r s i n t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l G overnments. Between 1909 and 1913, t h e N i s h g a , Shuswap, Thompson R i v e r Okanagan and S a l i s h , e i t h e r i n d i v i d -u a l l y o r t h r o u g h t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o r t h e I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n , s u b m i t t e d a number o f 23 d e c l a r a t i o n s and p e t i t i o n s t o t h e Governments o f Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n one p e t i t i o n , p r e s e n t e d i n M a r c h 1909 t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and i n A p r i l 1909 t o t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l , t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s k e d t h a t t h e c l a i m t o a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e be s u b m i t t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . T h i s was a p p a r e n t l y t h e f i r s t t i m e s u c h a r e q u e s t had b e en made. One may c o n j e c t u r e t h a t O'Meara was r e s p o n s i b l e i n p a r t f o r t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n , f o r he was r e t a i n e d by t h e N i s h g a i n 1909 and t h r o u g h t h e e n t i r e c o u r s e o f h i s f u t u r e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h them and w i t h t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , he c l u n g t e n a c i o u s l y t o t h e g o a l o f t a k i n g t h e n a t i v e s ' c l a i m t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . Members o f t h e F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s p r o d u c e d between 1909 and 1913 s e v e r a l p a m p h l e t s f o r p u b l i c d i s t r i b u -t i o n , s e n t l e t t e r s t o t h e P r e m i e r and t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r , and O'Meara d e l i v e r e d a number o f p u b l i c l e c t u r e s i n t h e 22 V a n c o u v e r a r e a . The Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was n o t , however, i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e s e e f f o r t s . I n 1909, P r e m i e r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e r e i t e r a t e d t h e P r o v i n c e ' s l o n g - s t a n d i n g d e n i a l o f n a t i v e t i t l e : Of c o u r s e i t w o u l d be madness t o t h i n k o f c o n c e d i n g t o t h e I n d i a n ' s demands. I t i s t o o l a t e t o d i s c u s s t h e e q u i t y o f d i s p o s s e s s i n g t h e r e d man i n A m e r i c a . ^ I n l a t e r y e a r s , n e i t h e r he n o r h i s s u c c e s s o r s w o u l d d e p a r t 24 f r o m t h i s p o s i t i o n . P r i m e M i n i s t e r L a u r i e r , however, was i n c l i n e d t o e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e s o l v i n g t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s s u e t h r o u g h t h e c o u r t s . I n May, 1910, t h e D e puty A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a met w i t h t h e F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e t o p r e p a r e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada. The f i r s t t h r e e o f t h e t e n q u e s t i o n s p r o p o s e d d e a l t w i t h n a t i v e t i t l e and a l l were a p p r o v e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e a n d C o u n s e l f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L e g a l c o u n s e l f o r t h e I n d i a n s ( p r o b a b l y O'Meara) a p p e a r s t o have been c o n s u l t e d i n t h e f r a m i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n s and a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d be s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e I n d i a n s . When t h e q u e s t i o n s were s u b m i t t e d t o M c B r i d e f o r a p p r o v a l , however, he r e f u s e d t o c o n s e n t t o t h e r e f e r e n c e i f t h e f i r s t t h r e e 24 q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d . The F e d e r a l Government was t h e r e f o r e o b l i g e d t o f i n d a way t o f o r c e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o c o u r t . I n l a t e 1910 and e a r l y 1911, t h e I n d i a n A c t was t w i c e amended t o p e r m i t a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t o f Canada d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . I n May, 1911, a Committee o f t h e C a b i n e t r e p o r t e d : I t i s now p r o p o s e d . . . on t h e p a r t o f y o u r E x c e l l e n c y ' s Government t o i n s t i t u t e p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t o f Canada on b e h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n s a g a i n s t a P r o v i n c i a l g r a n t e e o r l i c e n s e e i n t h e hope o f o b t a i n i n g a d e c i s i o n upon t h e q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d as soon as a c a s e a r i s e s i n w h i c h t h e m a i n p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n c e c a n be p r o p e r l y o r c o n v e n i e n t l y t r i e d . - , -25 L a u r i e r ' s L i b e r a l s were d e f e a t e d b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d t a k e a c a s e t o c o u r t , however, and B o r d e n ' s C o n s e r v a t i v e Government i m m e d i a t e l y a d o p t e d a more accommodating a p p r o a c h t o S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e . R a t h e r t h a n p r e s s f o r a j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n on t h e m a t t e r o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , t h e F e d e r a l Government, by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l o f May 24, 1912, a p p o i n t e d Dr. J . A. J . McKenna R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n e r . . . t o i n v e s t i g a t e c l a i m s p u t f o r t h by and on b e h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as t o l a n d s and r i g h t s and a l l q u e s t i o n s a t i s s u e between t h e D o m i n i o n and P r o v i n c i a l Governments and t h e I n d i a n s i n r e s p e c t t h e r e t o and t o r e p r e s e n t t h e Government o f Canada i n n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a: s e t t l e m e n t o f s u c h q u e s t i o n s . 2 ^ A f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f I n d i a n - G o v e r n m e n t r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , McKenna c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t i s s u e d i v i d i n g t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s and p r o -v o k i n g I n d i a n u n r e s t was t h e P r o v i n c e ' s c l a i m t o t h e r e v e r -s i o n o f a l l l a n d s w h i c h were a l i e n a t e d f r o m I n d i a n r e s e r v e s . I n a l e n g t h y memorandum t o M c B r i d e , McKenna a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t a r e f e r e n c e o f t h e m a t t e r o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o t h e c o u r t s m i g h t , i n McKenna's words " i n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " and "throw d o u b t upon t h e v a l i d i t y o f t i t l e t o l a n d i n t h e p r o v i n c e . " As s t a t e d i n o u r c o n v e r s a t i o n s , I a g r e e w i t h you as t o t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f now r a i s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s and as f a r as t h e p r e s e n t n e g o t i a t i o n s go, i t i s d r o p p e d . ^ Thus C a i l s t a t e s : I n t h i s way two p o l i t i c a l l y c o m p a t i b l e f r i e n d s c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h t o t h e i r m u t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n two months what had b een d i v i d i n g t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s f o r y e a r s . o p 26 For the remainder of h i s r e p o r t , McKenna attempted to persuade the Premier to abandon B.C.'s c l a i m to r e v e r s i o n -ary i n t e r e s t . The Royal Commissioner c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i f the Province would make t h i s c o n c e s s i o n and would t r a n s f e r to the Dominion the Indian r e s e r v e s a l r e a d y set a s i d e , as w e l l as a few more, the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l d i s p u t e concerning Indians would be r e s o l v e d . McKenna d i d not favour the establishment of another r e s e r v e a l l o t m e n t commission, f o r he a n t i c i p a t e d i t would be both c o s t l y and time-consuming, as i t would merely repeat much of the work done by the Reserve A l l o t m e n t Commission appointed i n 187 6. McBride was not, however, e a s i l y convinced to r e l i n q u i s h the P r o v i n c e ' s h o l d on r e v e r s i o n a r y t i t l e t o r e s e r v e lands. By August, 1912, the two p a r t i e s had come to no agreement and McKenna proposed t h a t the matter be r e f e r r e d to the S e c r e t a r y of 29 S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s f o r d e c i s i o n . Such a course was p r o v i d e d f o r i n the Terms of Union i n case of F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l disagreements over r e s e r v e l a n d s . Perhaps McBride d i d not r e l i s h the i n t e r f e r e n c e of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y or perhaps he decided t h a t he had secured a l a r g e enough v i c t o r y i n persuading McKenna t o drop the i s s u e of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , f o r a month a f t e r McKenna presented the P r o v i n c i a l Premier with a d r a f t r e f e r e n c e to the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s , McBride agreed t o d r a s t i c a l l y modify the P r o v i n c e ' s c l a i m to a r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t i n Indian lands. On September 24, 1912, the McKenna-McBride 27 Agreement was signed, p r o v i d i n g t h a t : Whereas i t i s d e s i r a b l e to s e t t l e a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between the Governments of the Dominion and the P r o v i n c e r e s p e c t -i n g I n d i a n lands and Indian a f f a i r s g e n e r a l l y i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia; t h e r e f o r e the p a r t i e s above named have, s u b j e c t to the approval of the government of the Dominion and the P r o v i n c e , agreed upon the f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l s as a f i n a l adjustment of a l l matters r e l a t i n g to Indian a f f a i r s i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. By the terms of the Agreement, f i v e commissioners were appointed, two each by the Dominion and the P r o v i n c e and the chairman by the f i r s t f o u r commissioners. The Commission was empowered to reduce the area of land i n c l u d e d i n r e s e r v e s where the acreage exceeded t h a t "reasonably r e q u i r e d f o r the use of the Indians," upon the consent of the Indians as r e q u i r e d by the Indian Act, and to a l l o t e x t r a lands where necessary. The P r o v i n c e was o b l i g e d to convey to the Dominion the a d d i t i o n a l lands with f u l l power t o the Dominion t o d e a l w i t h the s a i d lands i n such a manner as they may deem best s u i t e d f o r the purposes of the Indians, i n c l u d i n g a r i g h t to s e l l the s a i d lands and fund or use the proceeds f o r the b e n e f i t of the Indians. ^ -^  Excess lands were to be s o l d by the P r o v i n c e and the proceeds d i v i d e d e q u a l l y between the P r o v i n c e and the Dominion i n t r u s t f o r the Indians. Thus, the P r o v i n c e agreed t h a t when Indian r e s e r v e s were f i n a l l y a l l o t t e d and confirmed, i t would r e l i n q u i s h i t s c l a i m to a r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t i n Indian lands. For t h r e e years the Royal Commission t r a v e l l e d through the p r o v i n c e h e a r i n g testimony from the Indian bands and a s s e s s i n g t h e i r needs f o r l a n d . In response to the Indians' 28 submissions concerning a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , the Commissioners responded t h a t they had no power to d e a l w i t h the q u e s t i o n ; 32 t h e i r mandate was to set a s i d e r e s e r v e s . Some bands, such as the Skidegate Haida and the G i t k ' s a n , r e f u s e d to d i s c u s s r e s e r v e s l e s t t h e i r c l a i m s concerning a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e be 33 j e o p a r d i z e d . The Commissioners on numerous oc c a s i o n s assured the n a t i v e s t h a t no lands would be removed from r e s e r v e s without the Indians' consent. The a c t i v i t i e s of the Royal Commission may have suc-seeded i n some cases of a l l a y i n g the Indians' f e a r s t h a t t h e i r r e s e r v e s would be d i m i n i s h e d . As the Commission was not empowered to d e a l w i t h a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , however, i t c o u l d do nothing to reduce the a g i t a t i o n engendered by the n a t i v e t i t l e i s s u e . Because the Commission hearings o f f e r e d Indians a chance to a i r t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s , the Royal Commis-s i o n ' s t o u r of the P r o v i n c e may, i n f a c t , have c o n t r i b u t e d to the spread of Indian u n r e s t . Since 1887, the Naas V a l l e y i n northwest B r i t i s h Columbia had been a hotbed of Indian a g i t a t i o n over the l o s s of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l lands. O'Meara, counsel to the F r i e n d s of the Indians, had f i r s t become i n v o l v e d i n the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m when he was r e t a i n e d as the Nishgas' l e g a l a d v i s o r i n 1909. While the Nishga, probably w i t h O'Meara's encouragement, were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y e x e r c i s e d by the i s s u e of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , the I n t e r i o r Indians, represented by the Indian Rights A s s o c i a t i o n , were i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r 29 e f f o r t s to persuade Prime Minister Borden to deal with t h e i r claims. In January 1912, a p e t i t i o n signed by nearly a l l the leaders of the Int e r i o r bands was presented to the Prime Minister at Kamloops. In March of that year, J. A. Clarke, counsel to the Indian Rights Association, as well as Tei t and several Indian A chiefs, including C h i l i h i t z a , met with Borden at Ottawa. Meanwhile, the Nishga had decided, upon O'Meara's 34 recommendation, to submit t h e i r claims in the form of a p e t i t i o n to the Governor General of Canada and the Secretary of State for the Colonies. I t i s probable that O'Meara was the main author of the Nishga P e t i t i o n , for i t i s un l i k e l y that many native Indians in 1913 would have possessed the knowledge of B r i t i s h law and the f a c i l i t y in the English language which were displayed i n the p e t i t i o n . The p e t i t i o n was sent, not only to leaders of the Federal and Imperial Governments, but also to the Indian Rights Association and the Friends of the Indians. The Nishga P e t i t i o n stated: While we claim the r i g h t to be compensated for those portions of our t e r r i t o r y which we may agree to surren-der, we claim as even more important the r i g h t to reserve other portions permanently for our use and benefit and beyond doubt the portions which we desire so to reserve would include much of the land which has been sold by the province. We claim that our aboriginal r i g h t s have been guaranteed by Proclamation of King George Third and recognized by Acts of the Parliament of Great B r i t i a n . ~ r 30 The N i s h g a s ' c l a i m i n 1913, as i t w o u l d be f o r t y -f i v e y e a r s l a t e r , was a g a i n s t t h e P r o v i n c e , n o t a g a i n s t Canada. We a r e i n f o r m e d t h a t i n t h e c o u r s e o f r e c e n t n e g o t i a t i o n s t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has c o n t e n d e d t h a t u n d e r t h e t e r m s o f U n i o n t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m aking t r e a t i e s w i t h t h e I n d i a n t r i b e s i n s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r c l a i m s . . . . We c a n n o t p r e v e n t t h e p r o v i n c e f r o m p e r s i s t i n g i n t h i s a t t e m p t , b u t we c a n and do r e s p e c t f u l l y d e c l a r e t h a t we i n t e n d t o p e r s i s t i n m a k i n g o u r c l a i m s a g a i n s t t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . r 3 D O'Meara may p e r s o n a l l y have d e l i v e r e d t h e P e t i t i o n t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , f o r on F e b r u a r y 17, 1914, he w r o t e t o Andrew P a u l l (a young S q u a m i s h who had been a c t i v e i n t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign s i n c e 1910) a d v i s i n g him t h a t he had j u s t r e t u r n e d f r o m E n g l a n d , and e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i m p o r -t a n c e o f g e t t i n g a P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n on t h e N i s h g a 37 P e t x t x o n . When t h e P e t i t i o n was r e c e i v e d i n O t tawa, i t was s t u d i e d by Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t , D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . I n h i s r e p o r t o f M a r c h 11, 1914 t o t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l , S c o t t s t a t e d : I f i n d i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h e p a p e r s t h a t t h e Government i s n o t u n w i l l i n g t o s u b m i t t h i s c l a i m t o t h e c o u r t s , b u t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h a r e i n h e r e n t i n t h i s c l a i m and w h i c h may have p r e v e n t e d i t s s u b m i s s i o n so f a r have n o t b e e n overcome; t h e two main d i f f i c u l t i e s a p p e a r t o b e : -1. The r e f u s a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o c o n s e n t t o a s t a t e d c a s e w h i c h w o u l d i n c l u d e any r e f e r e n c e t o t h e I n d i a n t i t l e . 2. U n c e r t a i n t y as t o t h e e x t e n t o f c o m p e n s a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t be demanded by t h e I n d i a n s i f t h e y were s u c c e s s f u l b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s , and i f t h e Crown f o u n d i t good p o l i c y t o e x t i n g u i s h t h e t i t l e o f t h e I n d i a n s . 31 W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y , I w o u l d p r o p o s e t h a t i t be h e l d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has f u l l y " d i s -c h a r g e d i t s o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h e n a t i v e s by g r a n t i n g them f r o m t h e p u b l i c domain o f t h e p r o v i n c e r e s e r v e . l a n d s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , and t h a t , i f t h e I n d i a n c l a i m i s f o u n d v a l i d by t h e C o u r t o r t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l and i f i t i s t h o u g h t a d v i s a b l e t o o f f e r a n y t h i n g f u r t h e r i n e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f t i t l e , t h e D o m i n i o n s h o u l d assume t h e b u r d e n and compensate t h e I n d i a n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a s t u s a g e i n s u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s as has been made by t h e g o o d - w i l l o f t h e Crown w i t h t h e a b o r -i g i n e s . The D o m i n i o n has i n t e r e s t i n t h e l a n d s o f t h e R a i l w a y B e l t and t o t h i s e x t e n t , w o u l d b e n e f i t by e x t i n -g u i s h m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n t i t l e . 3 8 S c o t t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e b e s t way t o f i n a l l y r e s o l v e t h e q u e s t i o n o f I n d i a n t i t l e w ould be t o s u b m i t t h e c l a i m t o t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t o f Canada, w i t h r i g h t o f a p p e a l t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . S c o t t hedged r o u n d h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h a number o f c o n d i t i o n s , however. T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were r e i t e r a t e d i n O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l P.C. 751 (June 21, 1914) w h i c h recommended t h e r e f e r e n c e . The Committee, on t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n -d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , a d v i s e t h a t t h e c l a i m be r e f e r r e d t o t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t o f Canada w i t h r i g h t o f a p p e a l t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i -t i o n s : 1. The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h a l l , by t h e i r C h i e f s o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i n a b i n d i n g way, a g r e e , i f t h e C o u r t , o r on a p p e a l , t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , d e c i d e s t h a t t h e y have a t i t l e t o l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , t o s u r r e n d e r s u c h t i t l e , r e c e i v i n g f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n b e n e f i t s t o be g r a n t e d f o r e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f t i t l e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p a s t u s a g e o f t h e Crown i n s a t i s f y i n g t h e I n d i a n c l a i m t o u n s u r r e n d e r e d t e r r i t o r i e s , and t o a c c e p t t h e f i n d i n g o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as a p p r o v e d by t h e Governments o f t h e D o m i n i o n and t h e P r o v i n c e as a f u l l a l l o t m e n t o f r e s e r v e l a n d s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t as p a r t o f t h e compen-s a t i o n . 2. T h a t t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by g r a n t i n g t h e s a i d r e s e r v e s a s a p p r o v e d s h a l l be h e l d t o have s a t i s f i e d a l l c l a i m s o f t h e I n d i a n s a g a i n s t t h e P r o v i n c e . 32 T h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a l l be p r o v i d e d and t h e c o s t t h e r e o f b o r n e by t h e Government o f t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada. 3. T h a t t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h a l l be r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l , t h a t t h e I n d i a n s s h a l l be r e p r e -s e n t e d by c o u n s e l n o m i n a t e d and p a i d by t h e D o m i n i o n . 4. T h a t , i n t h e e v e n t o f t h e C o u r t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i d i n g t h a t t h e I n d i a n s have no t i t l e i n t h e l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e p o l i c y o f t h e D o m i n i o n t o w a r d s t h e I n d i a n s s h a l l be g o v e r n e d by c o n -s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . When t h e t e r m s o f t h e O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l were communi-c a t e d t o O'Meara and t h e N i s h g a , t h e y f l a t l y r e f u s e d t o a l l o w t h e r e f e r e n c e t o p r o c e e d . I n D r u c k e r ' s o p i n i o n t h e y ". . . r e f u s e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e b e s t o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d them i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e l a n d c o n t e n t i o n f o r t h e i r 4 0 day i n c o u r t . " The I n d i a n s a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s p l a c e d on t h e r e f e r e n c e w o u l d so l i m i t t h e b e n e-f i t s t h e y c o u l d r e c e i v e f r o m a f a v o u r a b l e d e c i s i o n , t h a t i t would n o t be i n t h e n a t i v e i n t e r e s t t o a g r e e t o t h e r e f e r e n c e 41 on t h e t e r m s p r o p o s e d by t h e D o m i n i o n Government. Footnotes A Note on Sources: The m a t e r i a l i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s drawn p r i m a r i l y f r o m W i l s o n D u f f , The Indian History of British Columbia, Volume I, The Impact of the White Man ( V i c t o r i a : D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1964); George E d g a r S h a n k e l , "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " ; F o r r e s t E. L a V i o l e t t e , The Struggle for Survival ( T o r o n t o : U n i -v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1973); and R o b e r t C a i l , Land, Man and the Law: The Disposal of Crown Lands in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1913 ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) . S h a n k e l ' s "Development o f I n d i a n P o l i c y " was t h e f i r s t d e t a i l e d s t u d y made o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n -Government r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and has been a m a j o r s o u r c e f o r s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c ampaign i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C a i l ' s s t u d y o f t h e d i s p o s a l o f Crown l a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was o r i g i n a l l y an M.A. t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and i n c l u d e s c o n s i d e r a b l e m a t e r i a l on t h e I n d i a n l a n d q u e s t i o n b e f o r e 1913. I have u s e d L a V i o l e t t e ' s work w i t h c a u t i o n as o t h e r a u t h o r s have q u e s t i o n e d some o f h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s . I n P a r t 2 o f t h i s c h a p t e r I have drawn on t h e h o l d -i n g s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y i t s c o l l e c t i o n o f p a m p h l e t s and p e t i t i o n s p r o d u c e d by I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . The o f f i c i a l p a p e r s o f P r e m i e r M c B r i d e have a l s o b e en u s e d , a l t h o u g h much o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n h i s f i l e s h as b e e n r e p r o d u c e d e l s e w h e r e . The m a j o r s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s u s e d were C a i l and S h a n k e l . D u f f , p. 43. 2 . . . . J . L. R o b i n s o n , " P o p u l a t i o n m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : T r e n d s , D e n s i t i e s , D i s t r i b u t i o n , " Transactions of the Seventh British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, 1954, p. 211. 3 Canada, D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Annual Report, 1909, pp. 4 Q u o t e d i n P a t t e r s o n , "Andrew P a u l l and C a n a d i a n I n d i a n R e s u r g e n c e , " p. 18 4. 5 Q u o t e d i n C a i l , A p p e n d i x D, Item 3, pp. 300-301. 6 I b i d . , p. 205. 34 7 LaViolette, p. 97. g Ibid., p. 76. 9 Department of Indian A f f a i r s , Annual Report, 19 09, p.' 252. "*"°Shankel, p. 174. 1 1 P a t t e r s o n , "Andrew Paull and Canadian Indian Resurgence," p. 21. 12 Shankel, pp. 160-161. 13 Ibid., p. 165. 14 B r i t i s h Columbia, "Papers Relating to the Commis-sion appointed to Enquire into the State and Conditions of the Indians of the Northwest Coast of B r i t i s h Columbia," Sessional Papers, 1888, p. 420. 1 5Shankel, pp. 189-190. 1 6 D u f f , p. 87. 17 Shankel, p. 14 9. 18 Canada, Parliament, Report of the Special Committee of the Senate and House of Commons to Inquire into the Claims of the A l l i e d Indian Tribes of B r i t i s h Columbia (Ottawa, 1927), p. 142. (Hereafter c i t e d as "Joint Special Committee). 19 LaViolette, pp. 127-128. 20 J. A. T e i t came to B r i t i s h Columbia from Scotland. As a young man, he became a guide and scout i n the Interior and eventually a student of Indian cultures. At one point, he assisted Marius Barbeau in his ethnographic studies. 21 Arthur O'Meara was born i n Port Hope, Ontario i n 1859 and was c a l l e d to the Bar in 1885. In 1905 he abandoned the practice of law and entered the diaconate of the Anglican Church. He was sent to the Diocese of Selkirk (later Yukon) in the same year. Shortly thereafter he became interested i n the Indian claims for recognition of aboriginal ri g h t s and was a c t i v e l y involved in the native rights campaign for nearly t h i r t y years. E. Palmer Patterson, "Arthur O'Meara, Friend of the Indians," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 58 ( A p r i l , 1926), pp. 91-92. 35 22 C o p i e s o f p a m p h l e t s and s p e e c h e s p r e p a r e d by t h e F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s a r e f o u n d i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 23 Q u o t e d i n L a V i o l e t t e , p. 127. 24 P r e m i e r M c B r i d e t o P r i m e M i n i s t e r L a u r i e r , December 1, 1910. O f f i c i a l P a p e r s o f P r e m i e r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , " I n d i a n A f f a i r s " f i l e , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 25 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 52. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 8. 27 J . A. J . McKenna t o P r e m i e r M c B r i d e , J u l y 7, 1912. M c B r i d e P a p e r s , " I n d i a n A f f a i r s " f i l e . 2 8 C a i l , p. 233. 29 J . A. J . McKenna t o P r e m i e r M c B r i d e , J u l y 7, 1912. M c B r i d e P a p e r s , " I n d i a n A f f a i r s " f i l e . 30 M c B r i d e P a p e r s , " I n d i a n A f f a i r s " f i l e . 31 M c B r i d e P a p e r s , " I n d i a n A f f a i r s " f i l e . 32 S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee, p. 21. 33 D r u c k e r , p. 94. 34 94, P e t i t i o n . 37 94, P a t t e r s o n , " A r t h u r O'Meara, F r i e n d o f t h e I n d i a n s , " 35 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, pp. 58-60. I b i d . , p. 59. See A p p e n d i x B f o r t e x t o f t h e P a t t e r s o n , " A r t h u r O'Meara, F r i e n d o f t h e I n d i a n s , " 38. I b i d . , p. 55, J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 56 39 40 D r u c k e r , p. 98. 41 M a n u e l and P o s l u n s , p. 83, 36 CHAPTER I I THE ALLIED TRIBES: THE EARLY YEARS Introduction B e c a u s e i t s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e were l i m i t e d t o s e t -t i n g a s i d e r e s e r v e l a n d s , t h e R o y a l C ommission on I n d i a n A f f a i r s was u n a b l e t o d e a l w i t h t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W h i l e t h e C o m m i s s i o n was empowered t o e f f e c t a s e t t l e m e n t o f a l l d i s p u t e s between t h e D o m i n i o n and t h e P r o v i n c e r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n l a n d s and I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n g e n e r a l , t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s had, i n e f f e c t a g r e e d t o d i s a g r e e on t h e m a t t e r o f s e e k i n g r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e s ' c l a i m s . The R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n was l i m i t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o e s t a b l i s h i n g I n d i a n r e s e r v e s w h i c h w o u l d be f r e e , a t l a s t , o f t h e r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t o f t h e P r o v i n c e . Few I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d e r i v e d g r e a t c o m f o r t f r o m t h e p r o s p e c t o f a more s e c u r e t e n u r e t o t h e i r r e s e r v e l a n d s . Many f e a r e d , r a t h e r , t h a t once t h e F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l d i s p u t e s were l a i d t o r e s t , t h e D o m i n i o n Government would be u n w i l l i n g t o d i s -t u r b t h e s t a t u s quo by a s s i s t i n g t h e n a t i v e s i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m . The l o s s e s w o u l d v a s t l y o u t w e i g h t h e g a i n s . Many n a t i v e s were t h u s b i t t e r l y o p p o s e d t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . They r e s e n t e d as w e l l t h e p r o p o s a l by t h e F e d e r a l C a b i n e t t h a t t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s s u e be a d j u d i c a t e d u n d e r r i g i d 37 c o n d i t i o n s . The N i s h g a P e t i t i o n o f 1913, w h i c h was w i d e l y c i r c u -l a t e d among t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , came t o be a d o p t e d by t h e n a t i v e s as a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t o f t h e a b o r -i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m and o f c o n d i t i o n s f o r a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e c l a i m . The A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was f o r m e d i n 1916 t o s u p p o r t t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n and i t s g o a l o f t a k i n g t h e n a t i v e r i g h t s c l a i m t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . Growing Support for the Nishga Petition I n F e b r u a r y 1915, a number o f C o a s t S a l i s h I n d i a n s and I n t e r i o r I n d i a n s , e n c o u r a g e d and a s s i s t e d by J . A. T e i t , met a t S p e n c e ' s B r i d g e t o d e c l a r e t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n . The d e l e g a t e s drew up a l e n g t h y p e t i t i o n w h i c h was f o r w a r d e d t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r . ' ' " I n t h e same month, t h e N i s h g a s e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o c o n s u l t w i t h D. C. S c o t t , D e puty S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . T h e i r p u r p o s e was, p r e s u m a b l y , t o d i s c o v e r what had become o f t h e i r p e t i t i o n and a l s o t o s t a t e t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e Government's p r o p o s e d r e f e r e n c e o f t h e m a t t e r o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t . I n O c t o b e r 1915, t h e R e v e r e n d Dr. T u c k e r , C h a i r m a n o f t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s Committee o f t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Coun-c i l o f Canada, and Mr. P. D. M c T a v i s h , C h a i r m a n o f t h e F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s , i s s u e d an e x p l a n a t o r y s t a t e m e n t a d v i s i n g t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n o t t o a c c e p t t h e 38 terms of the reference proposed by the Federal Government. They advised that the Indians should rather, unite to secure reference of the Nishga P e t i t i o n to the J u d i c i a l Committee 2 of the Privy Council. In June, 1916, a number of Indian groups followed t h e i r advice. Creation of the Allied Tribes At a meeting held i n Vancouver i n the early summer of 1916, the Nishga together with t h e i r declared allies., joined with Coast Sal i s h and north coast groups i n r e j e c t i o n of the proposed reference to the Exchequer Court and i n opposition to the work of the Royal Commission. The t r i b e s and bands represented at the June meeting were, from the I n t e r i o r : the Okanagan, Lake or Senjextee, Thompson River at Couteau, L i l l o o e t , Kutenai, C h i l c o t i n , Carrier, Tahlton; and from coast: the Nishga, Tsimpsean, Kitikshain (Gitk'san), Haida, 3 B e l l a Coola, Cowichan, and Lower Fraser or Stalo. An Executive Committee was established, two members of which were B a s i l David and John C h i l i h i t z a . Peter Kelly, a Haida who was connected with the A l l i e d Tribes from i t s f i r s t meeting, may also have been a member of the Executive. T e i t was appointed Secretary and O'Meara resigned his honor-ary appointment to the Nishga to become leg a l counsel to the A l l i e d Tribes. The Executive Committee immediately issued a state-ment which was sent to the Prime Minister of Canada and the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The Committee concluded 39 i t s s t a t e m e n t by a s s e r t i n g : W h i l e i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e w i l l p r e s s on t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee, r e f u s i n g t o c o n s i d e r any s o - c a l l e d s e t t l e m e n t made up u n d e r t h e McKenna-McBride Agreement, t h e Committee a l s o f e e l s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e t r i b e s a l l i e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e w i l l a l w a y s be r e a d y t o c o n s i d e r any r e a l l y e q u i t a b l e method o f s e t t l e m e n t o u t o f c o u r t w h i c h m i g h t be p r o -p o s e d by t h e G overnments.^ The N i s h g a , m e a n w h i l e , were s e e k i n g t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e i r r e q u e s t t h a t t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n be r e f e r r e d t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . On September 17, 1916, t h e S e c r e t a r y t o t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l i n f o r m e d O'Meara t h a t : . . . w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o y o u r l e t t e r o f May 2 0 and y o u r i n t e r v i e w s w i t h me . . . I am commanded by h i s R o y a l H i g h n e s s t h a t he c o n s i d e r s i t t h e d u t y o f t h e N i s h g a T r i b e o f I n d i a n s t o a w a i t t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e [ R o y a l ] C o m m i s s i o n a f t e r w h i c h i f t h e y do n o t a g r e e t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s s e t f o r t h by t h e Commission, t h e y c a n a p p e a l t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l i n E n g l a n d where t h e i r c a s e w i l l have e v e r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . O'Meara i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s l e t t e r t o be c o n v e y i n g ". . . d e f i n i t e a s s u r a n c e s . . . t h a t H.M. P r i v y C o u n c i l w o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e P e t i t i o n o f t h e N i s h g a T r i b e . A more p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , , however, i s t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l wanted no p a r t o f t h e N i s h g a and hoped t h a t w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e and t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , t h e I n d i a n s ' g r i e v a n c e s w o u l d be a s s u a g e d . A l t h o u g h t h e N i s h g a were members o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , t h e y d i d n o t r e l y on t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a c t on t h e i r b e h a l f . E v e n a f t e r O'Meara was r e t a i n e d by t h e A l l i e d 40 T r i b e s , he a p p a r e n t l y c o n t i n u e d t o a c t as c o u n s e l t o t h e N i s h g a . The N i s h g a a l s o r e t a i n e d t h e f i r m o f S m i t h , Fox and S e d g e w i c k t o a c t a s t h e i r a g e n t s i n London. I n May, 1918, t h e y r e q u e s t e d t h e f i r m t o f o r w a r d a r e p o r t t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l s t a t i n g t h a t , as t h e Government o f Canada had by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l o f J u n e , 1915, r e j e c t e d t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n and t h e N i s h g a had, i n t u r n , r e j e c t e d t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , t h e m a t t e r o u g h t t o be d e c i d e d by t h e 7 J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . On t h e 1 6 t h o f December, t h e N i s h g a s ' a g e n t s r e c e i v e d t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e L o r d P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . He r e p l i e d t h a t i f t h e N i s h g a were c o m p l a i n i n g o f t h e . . . e x e c u t i v e a c t i o n o f Canada o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee t o c o n s i d e r t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e D o m i n i o n o r P r o v i n c i a l Governments c o u l d o n l y be o r d e r e d on t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s and t h a t he w o u l d a d v i s e s u c h a r e f e r e n c e a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n and i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e a d v i c e r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n Government. In t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s H i s L o r d s h i p c a n n o t see h i s way t o t a k e any f u r t h e r a c t i o n on t h e P e t i t i o n . g E i t h e r t h e I n d i a n s were n o t i n f o r m e d o f t h i s l e t t e r o r t h e y m i s u n d e r s t o o d i t , f o r i n a p e t i t i o n p r e p a r e d i n 1919, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s s t a t e d t h a t i t s c a s e v/as p e n d i n g i n t h e 9 P r i v y C o u n c i l . I n P a l m e r P a t t e r s o n ' s o p i n i o n , O'Meara e n c o u r a g e d t h e I n d i a n s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e J u d i c i a l Committee w o u l d , i n due c o u r s e , d e c i d e upon t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia."*"^ 41 The A l l i e d Tribes Against the Royal Commission I n t h e e a r l y autumn o f 1916, t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u b m i t t e d i t s v o l u m i n o u s r e p o r t . The C ommission recommended a d d i n g 87,000 a c r e s t o r e s e r v e s and r e m o v i n g 47,000 a c r e s — t h e l a t t e r were t o become known as " c u t - o f f s . " Between 1916 and 1919, n e i t h e r t h e D o m i n i o n n o r t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government moved t o implement t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e Committee. The F e d e r a l Government c o u l d t a k e no a c t i o n u n t i l t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government a c c e p t e d t h e recom-m e n d a t i o n s , f o r t h e l a n d t o be p r o v i d e d as a d d i t i o n s t o r e s e r v e s was, a f t e r a l l , P r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d . D e l a y on t h e p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government may be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by t h e d e f e a t o f Bowser and t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n 1916. The L i b e r a l Government u n d e r B r e w s t e r and upon h i s d e a t h , u n d e r J o h n O l i v e r , was a p p a r e n t l y l e s s i n c l i n e d t o v i e w t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n as an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n t o t h e I n d i a n p r o b l e m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S e v e r a l L i b e r a l members o p p o s e d a d d i t i o n a l g r a n t s o f l a n d t o I n d i a n r e s e r v e s where t h o s e r e s e r v e s were l o c a t e d i n t h e i r c o n s t i t -u e n c i e s . O l i v e r and h i s m i n i s t e r s were more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e c l a u s e o f t h e McKenna-McBride Agreement w h i c h s t i p u l a t e d t h a t no l a n d s c o u l d be removed f r o m r e s e r v e s w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s a s r e q u i r e d by t h e " I n d i a n A c t . " On December 18, 1918, T. D. P a t u l l o , P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , w r o t e t o A r t h u r M e i g h e n , M i n i s t e r o f t h e 42 I n t e r i o r , t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s t o t h e p r o p o s e d c u t - o f f s would i n f a c t be r e q u i r e d : I t had been s u g g e s t e d t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g was a r r i v e d a t between t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s t h a t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d n o t be r e q u i r e d . B e f o r e g i v i n g f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h i s j o i n t r e p o r t , I wo u l d l i k e t o know d e f i n i t e l y f r o m y o u w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o e f f e c t t h e r e d u c t i o n s recommended by t h e C o m m i s s i o n . ^ Meighen r e p l i e d t h a t c o n s e n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o v i -s i o n s o f t h e " I n d i a n A c t " w o u l d i n d e e d be r e q u i r e d . He added t h a t a f t e r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e R e p o r t , . . . i t becomes t h e d u t y o f t h e Dep a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t o o b t a i n t h e s e s u r r e n d e r s . An i m m e d i a t e e n d e a v -o u r w i l l be made t o o b t a i n them and i t i s o u r o p i n i o n t h a t we w i l l meet w i t h s u c c e s s . ^ The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C a b i n e t a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t s h a r e M e i g h e n ' s o p t i m i s m a b o u t t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e Dep a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s would be a b l e t o o b t a i n I n d i a n c o n s e n t t o 13 t h e c u t - o f f s . On F e b r u a r y 18, 1919, T. D. P a t u l l o , M i n i s -t e r o f L a n d s , i n t r o d u c e d B i l l 17 t o empower . . . t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . . . [to] . do, e x e c u t e , and f u l f i l l e v e r y a c t , d e e d , m a t t e r o r t h i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e s a i d [McKenna-M c B r i d e ] Agreement between t h e Governments o f t h e Domin-i o n a nd t h e P r o v i n c e a c c o r d i n g t o i t s t r u e i n t e n t , and f o r g i v i n g e f f e c t t o t h e r e p o r t o f t h e s a i d C o m m i s s i o n , e i t h e r i n whole o r i n p a r t , and f o r t h e f u l l and f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t and s e t t l e m e n t o f a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s a i d Governments r e s p e c t i n g I n d i a n l a n d s and I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n . t h e P r o v i n c e . ^ S e c t i o n 3 o f t h e B i l l p r o v i d e d f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government i n t h e p r o c e s s o f o b t a i n i n g I n d i a n c o n s e n t t o t h e p r o p o s e d c u t - o f f s . 43 W i t h o u t l i m i t i n g t h e g e n e r a l powers o f t h i s A c t c o n f e r -r e d , t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may, f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a d j u s t i n g , r e - a d j u s t i n g o r c o n f i r m i n g t h e r e d u c t i o n s , c u t - o f f s , and a d d i t i o n s i n r e s p e c t o f I n d i a n r e s e r v e s p r o p o s e d i n t h e s a i d r e p o r t o f t h e Co m m i s s i o n , c a r r y on s u c h f u r t h e r a g r e e m e n t s w h e t h e r w i t h t h e Domin-i o n Government o r with the Indians as may be f o u n d n e c e s -s a r y f o r a f u l l and f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s a i d G o v e r n m e n t s . ^ (emphasis added) The B i l l was p a s s e d and t h e " I n d i a n A f f a i r s S e t t l e -ment A c t " r e c e i v e d r o y a l a s s e n t on M a r c h 29, 1919. I n May, t h e A c t was f o r w a r d e d f o r r e v i e w t o t h e F e d e r a l Government. When D. C. S c o t t , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , r e v i e w e d t h e A c t , he o b j e c t e d s t r e n u o u s l y t o S e c t i o n 3. I n a l e t t e r o f A u g u s t 14, 1919, t o t h e F e d e r a l D e p u ty M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , he s t a t e d : I d e s i r e t o p r o t e s t a s s t r o n g l y a s I c a n a g a i n s t t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c t i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m , e n a b l i n g t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l t o d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e I n d i a n s , t h e wards o f t h i s Government, i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e r e d u c t i o n s , c u t - o f f s and a d d i t i o n s i n r e s p e c t o f I n d i a n r e s e r v e s r a t h e r t h a n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s government a s h e r e t o f o r e . ^ E. L. Newcombe, t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , r e p o r t e d S c o t t ' s comments t o t h e Deputy A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . On O c t o b e r 21, 1919, t h e D e p u t y A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l r e p l i e d , s t a t i n g t h a t S e c t i o n 3 o f t h e A c t was n o t i n t e n d e d t o d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r I n d i a n c o n s e n t . I t was m e r e l y . . . f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e n a b l i n g o u r Government t o e n t e r i n t o any m u t u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h m i g h t be f o u n d n e c e s -s a r y . . . . I f no f u r t h e r a g r e e m e n t s t o w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s a r e t o be a c o n s e n t i n g p a r t y a r e c o n t e m p l a t e d , S e c t i o n 3 c o u l d be d e l e t e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y . I f a f u r t h e r agreement o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s r e q u i r e d , t h i s d e p a r t m e n t w o u l d have t o a d v i s e o u r Government t h a t w i t h o u t an e n a c t m e n t 44 containing words similar to those now in Section 3, they would have no power to enter into any such an agreement.^, Faced with the p o s s i b i l i t y that the B r i t i s h Columbia Government would not proceed with implementation of the Report of the Royal Commission unless i t could be assured that consent of the Indians would be obtained, Meighen and Scott began to consider how they might deal with the problem of possible Indian reluctance to part with the cut-off lands. Meanwhile, Oliver, perhaps in order to gauge the degree of resistance he could expect to the proposed cut-offs, asked the A l l i e d Tribes for a statement of i t s objections to the Report of the Royal Commission. In June, 1919 the f i r s t general meeting of the A l l i e d Tribes was held at Spence's Bridge. A permanent Executive Committee was elected, of which Peter Kelly became Chairman 18 and Andrew Pa u l l , Recording Secretary. Several chiefs of the I n t e r i o r t r i b e s , including John C h i l i h i t z a , were members of the Committee. In the course of the meeting, the A l l i e d Tribes decided to respond to Premier Oliver's request for a state-ment of cits- grievances. Kelly and T e i t undertook to prepare the statement which was adopted at a meeting of the 19 Executive Committee on November 19, 1919. The statement was published i n the form of a pamphlet and apparently given wide c i r c u l a t i o n — a n i n d i c a t i o n that the Indians were begin-ning to consider public information as a necessary adjunct 4. 4.1. • . 2 0 to t h e i r campaign. 45 On December 19, t h e s t a t e m e n t was p r e s e n t e d t o P r e m i e r O l i v e r . I t f i r s t u n d e r t o o k t o "make c l e a r what i s 21 t h e a c t u a l p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n Land C o n t r o v e r s y . " I n s u p p o r t o f t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Canada had " l o n g ago" c o n c e d e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f n a t i v e t i t l e i n t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e s t a t e m e n t c i t e d t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763; t h e r e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e i n 1875; S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r ' s p r o m i s e made i n 1910 t h a t t h e l a n d c o n t r o -v e r s y w o u l d be b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s ; t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l , t h e Duke o f C o n n a u g h t ' s s u p p o s e d a s s u r a n c e s t h a t t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l would d e a l w i t h t h e c l a i m . The p e t i t i o n t h e n s e t o u t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ' m a i n o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n : F i r s t , s i n c e A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n d i d n o t d e f i n e a l l t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l G overnments t o w a r d t h e I n d i a n s , t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s c o u l d n o t s e t t l e a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s a s t h o u g h i t had. S e c o n d , t h e l a n d s w h i c h t h e Commission recommended t o be c u t o f f f r o m r e s e r v e s were o f f a r g r e a t e r v a l u e t h a n t h o s e t o be added; f u r t h e r , t h e added r e s e r v e l a n d s w o u l d be u t t e r l y i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e needs o f t h e I n d i a n s . T h i r d , t h e Commission recommended t h a t t h e l a n d s be h e l d i n t r u s t f o r e a c h I n d i a n band, w h i l e t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s f e l t t h a t t h e r e s e r v e l a n d s o u g h t t o be h e l d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t r i b a l g r o u p s . 46 F o u r t h , t h e R e p o r t recommended t h a t l a n d s t o be c u t o f f f r o m r e s e r v e s s h o u l d be s o l d w i t h o n e - h a l f o f t h e p r o -c e e d s g o i n g t o t h e Government o f B.C. and t h e o t h e r h a l f t o t h e Government o f Canada f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f a l l I n d i a n s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . The p r o c e e d s o f t h e s a l e s h o u l d , r a t h e r , be p a i d t o o r h e l d i n t r u s t f o r t h e t r i b e s w h i c h l o s t l a n d . P a r t I I I o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s u b m i t t e d " f a c t s and c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s " w h i c h s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l r e s e r v e l a n d s . The s t a t e m e n t n o t e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t w h i l e I n d i a n s e a s t o f t h e R o c k i e s were g r a n t e d , u n d e r t r e a t y , r e s e r v e s a m o u n t i n g t o 64 0 a c r e s f o r a f a m i l y o f f i v e , t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n had recommended o n l y 30 a c r e s p e r c a p i t a . The A l l i e d T r i b e s p r o p o s e d 160 a c r e s p e r c a p i t a as a r e a s o n a b l e s t a n d a r d . The p e n u l t i m a t e s e c t i o n o f t h e S t a t e m e n t l i s t e d t w e n t y c o n d i t i o n s p r o p o s e d by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s as a b a s i s f o r s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s ' g r i e v a n c e s . The c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n f o r i n c r e a s i n g r e s e r v e a r e a s t o a s t a n d a r d o f 160 a c r e s p e r c a p i t a , w i t h a l l r e s o u r c e s and f o r e s h o r e s o f t h e r e s e r v e s t o be owned by t h e t r i b e s c o n c e r n e d . The s t a t e m e n t p r o p o s e d t h a t , i f t h e Governments and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s s h o u l d be u n a b l e t o r e a c h a greement on m a t t e r s r e l a t -i n g t o r e s e r v e a l l o t m e n t s , t h e q u e s t i o n s h o u l d be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s . The A l l i e d T r i b e s a l s o demanded t h a t h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and w a t e r r i g h t s be a d j u s t e d , and t h a t no r e s t r i c t i o n s be imposed on t h e I n d i a n s ' r i g h t t o t a k e s a l t w a t e r f i s h , w h e t h e r f o r p e r s o n a l 47 or commercial purposes. The A l l i e d T r i b e s requested, i n a d d i t i o n , compensation f o r any inadequacies or i n e q u i t i e s t h a t might a r i s e i n the f i n a l a l l o c a t i o n of lands and f u r t h e r requested g e n e r a l com-pe n s a t i o n f o r the surrender of a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e to lands which would not be i n c l u d e d i n r e s e r v e areas. Such compen-s a t i o n , i t was proposed, should take the form o f adequate systems of educa t i o n and medical c a r e . The statement a l s o c o n tained the f i r s t request by the Indians f o r the reimburse-ment o f past and f u t u r e expenditures i n connec t i o n w i t h the 22 Indian land c o n t r o v e r s y . In i t s c o n c l u d i n g p o r t i o n , the statement assured the Government t h a t the v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f the p e t i t i o n had been f u l l y d i s c u s s e d at v a r i o u s i n t e r - t r i b a l meetings of the p r i n c i p a l member t r i b e s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The statement thus represented the " w e l l - s e t t l e d mind of the A l l i e d T r i b e s . " Having s t a t e d what they c o n s i d e r e d to be e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f an e q u i t a b l e settlement, the A l l i e d T r i b e s then expressed t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s . We have c a r e f u l l y l i m i t e d our statement of what we t h i n k should be c o n d i t i o n s o f settlement t o those we t h i n k are r e a l l y necessary. We are not p r e s s i n g these c o n d i t i o n s of settlement upon Government. I f the Governments accept our b a s i s and d e s i r e to enter i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h us, we w i l l be ready to meet them at any time. In t h i s con-n e c t i o n , we d e s i r e t o make two t h i n g s c l e a r . F i r s t l y , we are w i l l i n g t o accept any adjustment which may be made i n a r e a l l y e q u i t a b l e way, but we are not prepared t o accept a settlement which w i l l be a mere compromise. Secondly, we i n t e n d to continue p r e s s i n g our case i n the P r i v y C o u n c i l u n t i l such time as we s h a l l o b t a i n a judgment or u n t i l such time as the Governments s h a l l have a r r i v e d at a b a s i s of settlement w i t h us.,. 48 The A l l i e d T r i b e s w a i t e d s e v e r a l months f o r a r e s p o n s e . F i n a l l y , d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g and summer o f 1920, P. D. M c T a v i s h , C h a i r m a n o f t h e F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s , w r o t e t o O l i v e r and t o P a t u l l o a s k i n g them t o b e g i n d i s c u s -s i o n s w i t h t h e I n d i a n s as r e q u e s t e d i n t h e 1919 s t a t e m e n t and p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 3 o f t h e B.C. " I n d i a n A f f a i r s 24 S e t t l e m e n t A c t . " On O c t o b e r 6, 1924, P a t u l l o w r o t e t o M c T a v i s h , s a y i n g : L e t me s a y t h a t t h e whole q u e s t i o n has g i v e n us a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n c e r n , and you may be p e r f e c t l y s u r e t h a t we p r o p o s e t o t r e a t t h e s u b j e c t as f a r as t h e I n d i a n s a r e c o n c e r n e d , i n g e n e r o u s f a s h i o n . I have so t o l d t h e I n d i a n D e p a r t m e n t a t Ottawa and I hope t h a t t h e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s w i l l r e a l i z e i t . T h e r e i s n o t d o u b t , however, t h a t i t wo u l d o n l y l e a d t o c o n f u s i o n f o r u s t o h o l d s e p a r a t e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e I n d i a n s i n a d d i t i o n t o w h i c h i t wo u l d be e n t i r e l y c o n t r a r y t o t h e s p i r i t and i n t e n t o f o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e D o m i n i o n Government i n t h i s q u e s t i o n . P a t u l l o ' s o p i n i o n t h a t n o t h i n g w o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d by d i r e c t d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e I n d i a n s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . i n l i g h t o f what happened i n Ottawa i n l a t e 1919 and e a r l y 1920. B e c a u s e o f t h e s e e v e n t s , t h e P r o v i n c e had no need t o d i s c u s s t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n w i t h t h e I n d i a n s . The p r o b l e m o f o b t a i n i n g I n d i a n c o n s e n t t o t h e c u t - o f f s had been r e s o l v e d by t h e D o m i n i o n Government. On November 14, 1919, S c o t t a d v i s e d M e i g h e n t h a t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f e a r r i n g o u t t h e McKenna-McBride.Agreement, . . . i t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t P a r l i a m e n t s h o u l d l e g i s l a t e e n a b l i n g h i s E x c e l l e n c y i n C o u n c i l t o g i v e a u t h o r i t y t o t h e P r o v i n c e t o s e l l [ t h e c u t - o f f ] l a n d s when t h e I n d i a n s r e f u s e t o s u r r e n d e r them u n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by t h e A g r e e m e n t . o a 49 On J a n u a r y 9, 1920, S c o t t c a r r i e d h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a s t e p f u r t h e r . He s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r t o M e i g h e n , I am e n c l o s i n g h e r e i n a d r a f t o f t h e p o s t p o n e d b i l l t o e n a b l e t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l i n C o u n c i l t o c o n f i r m and c a r r y o u t t h e - r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S e c t i o n 4 o f t h e McKenna-McBride Agreement . . . a p p e a r s t o c o n t e m p l a t e t h e d i s p o s a l o f a l l r e d u c t i o n s recommended w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , and i t m i g h t be t h a t no d i f f i c u l t y w o u l d be e n c o u n t e r e d i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s m a t t e r , b u t i t i s j u s t p o s s i b l e t h a t i n some i n s t a n c e s t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t , t h r o u g h some i n f l u e n c e o r p r e j u d i c e , r e f u s e t o g i v e t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n s e n t . I t h i n k we s h o u l d p r o v i d e a g a i n s t s u c h a c o n t i n g e n c y i n o u r l e g i s l a t i o n c o n f i r m i n g t h a t a l l r e d u c t i o n s and c u t - o f f s s h o u l d be e f f e c t e d w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s . I do n o t s e e t h a t any i n j u s t i c e w o u l d be done t o any band by s u c h a p r o v i s i o n . T h e s e r e d u c t i o n s o r c u t - o f f s a r e recommended o n l y where t h e I n d i a n s h e l d more l a n d t h a n t h e y r e q u i r e d . When t h e s e c u t - o f f s a r e s o l d , h a l f o f t h e p r o c e e d s w i l l go t o t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e band and w i l l be o f more r e a l b e n e f i t t o them t h a n w o u l d t h e l a n d w h i c h t h e y do n o t M e i g h e n a c c e p t e d S c o t t ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n and on M a r c h 12, 1920 he i n t r o d u c e d B i l l 13, "An A c t t o P r o v i d e f o r t h e S e t t l e m e n t o f D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Government o f t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada and t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s p e c t i n g I n d i a n L a n ds and C e r t a i n O t h e r I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n t h e s a i d P r o v i n c e . " S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e B i l l was i n t r o d u c e d , a d e l e g a t i o n o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , c o n s i s t i n g o f P e t e r C a l d e r , a N i s h g a ; George M a t h e s o n , a T s i m p s e a n ; P e t e r K e l l y ; C h i e f B a s i l D a v i d ; and J . A. T e i t , a r r i v e d i n O t tawa t o o p p o s e t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . O'Meara j o i n e d them a few d a y s l a t e r . He had r e m a i n e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o d e v e l o p a l o n g - r a n g e s t r a t e g y f o r t h e 2 8 A l l i e d T r i b e s , i n c l u d i n g a f i n a n c i a l p l a n . He s e t o u t t h e 50 d e t a i l s o f h i s p r o p o s e d s t r a t e g i e s i n a l e t t e r t o t h e N i s h g a o f M a r c h 4, 1920. In h i s l e t t e r , O'Meara a s s u r e d t h e N i s h g a t h a t t h e i r p e t i t o n was s t i l l u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . As t h e N i s h g a had r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , O'Meara e x p e c t e d , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o m i s e s o f t h e Duke o f Connaught, t h a t t h e I n d i a n s ' c l a i m would soon be d e c i d e d by t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. Two r o a d s , s a i d t h e l a w y e r , were now open t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e c l a i m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . One r o a d i s t h a t o f ma k i n g a s e t t l e m e n t o u t o f c o u r t upon y o u r c o n d i t i o n s . The o t h e r i s t h e r o a d o f a h e a r i n g o f y o u r P e t i t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t b a s e d on a judgment o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. T h e r e f o r e t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s have two ways o f w o r k i n g . They c a n s t i l l p r e s s t h e c a s e i n d e p e n -d e n t l y a s b e f o r e . They c a n a l s o work f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h a t t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s w i l l soon f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o c h o o s e between t h e two r o a d s . T h i s p o s i t i o n o f a f f a i r s s h o u l d p r e t t y q u i c k l y b r i n g an end t o t h e c o u r s e f o l l o w e d by t h e two Governments i n p l a c i n g o b s t a c l e s i n t h e way o f a r e f e r e n c e . 2 ^ The "two t h i n g s w h i c h t h o s e o p p o s i n g t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , e s p e c i a l l y o f f i c i a l s o f t h e I n d i a n D e p a r t m e n t , most f e a r , " a c c o r d i n g t o O'Meara, were 1. A d i s c u s s i o n o f I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n c a s e i n t h e S e n a t e and t h e House o f Commons now i n s e s s i o n a t Otta w a . 2. T h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e l a r g e f u n d s f o r c a r r y i n g f o r w a r d t h e i r c a s e . ^ Q As t o Item 1, t h e d e l e g a t i o n o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s had s e t o u t f o r Ottawa t o . . . b r i n g a b o u t t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons, i n f o r m t h e p e o p l e o f Canada t h r o u g h t h e l e a d -i n g n e w s p a p e r s and s e c u r e l a r g e f u n d s by a d v a n c e . . . . 51 I m p o r t a n t a r r a n g e m e n t s have a l r e a d y been made i n W i n n i -peg, T o r o n t o , Ottawa and M o n t r e a l i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e work o f t h e d e l e g a t i o n . R e g a r d i n g f u n d - r a i s i n g , O'Meara i n f o r m e d t h e N i s h g a t h a t a c a r e f u l f i n a n c i a l p l a n had been p r e p a r e d by James T e i t , Mr. M c T a v i s h , C h a i r m a n o f t h e F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s , and h i m s e l f . T h e s e g e n t l e m e n c o n s i d e r e t h a t . . . t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s may r e q u i r e t o c a r r y f o r w a r d t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n t e f f o r t s f o r two more y e a r s b e f o r e t h e two Governments c a n be b r o u g h t t o t e r m s and s h a l l f u r n i s h a l l f u r t h e r f u n d s needed t o t h e v e r y end. I t i s however, hoped t h a t t h e i n d e p e n d e n t e f f o r t s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s may be s u c c e s s f u l l y f i n i s h e d w i t h i n a s h o r t e r t i m e and by e x p e n d i t u r e s o f a s m a l l e r amount.^2 O'Meara a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a s o f September 1, 1919, $50,000 wou l d be needed t o c a r r y t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s t o s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n . Of t h a t amount, $12,500 was t o be s e c u r e d f r o m i n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e f o r m o f a d v a n c e s a g a i n s t a f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e c l a i m . H a v i n g i n f o r m e d t h e N i s h g a o f t h e l o n g t e r m p l a n s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s (which were made, i t seems, a l m o s t e n t i r e l y by w h i t e men), O'Meara j o i n e d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Ottawa t o u n d e r t a k e t h e i m m e d i a t e t a s k o f s e c u r i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e Commons, t h e S e n a t e and t h e p e o p l e o f Canada f o r t h e I n d i a n s ' f i g h t a g a i n s t B i l l 13. The A l l i e d T r i b e s f o u n d t h e B i l l , w h i c h was i n t e n d e d t o empower t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l t o . . . do, e x e c u t e , and f u l f i l e v e r y a c t , d e e d , m a t t e r o r t h i n g n e c e s s a r y . . . f o r t h e f u l l and f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s a i d Governments r e s p e c t -i n g I n d i a n l a n d s and I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . . . 52 o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n i t s e n t i r e t y . S e c t i o n 3, however, p a r t i c -u l a r l y drew t h e i r a t t a c k . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f a d j u s t i n g , r e a d j u s t i n g o r c o n f i r m i n g t h e r e d u c t i o n s o r c u t - o f f s f r o m r e s e r v e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may o r d e r s u c h r e d u c t i o n s o r c u t - o f f s t o be e f f e c t e d without surrenders of the same by the Indians notwithstanding any provisions of the Indian Act to the contrary, and may c a r r y on s u c h f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s and e n t e r i n t o s u c h f u r t h e r a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e Government o f t h e P r o -v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as may be f o u n d n e c e s s a r y f o r a f u l l and f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s a i d G o v e r n m e n t s . ^ (emphasis added) On M a r c h 22, t e n d a y s a f t e r t h e B i l l was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House, C a l d e r , M a t h e s o n , K e l l y and D a v i d c i r c u l a t e d among t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t a document e n t i t l e d "A H a l f -C e n t u r y o f I n j u s t i c e Toward t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " In t h i s s t a t e m e n t t h e y d e p l o r e d t h e d e n i a l o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by t h e Governments o f Canada and t h e P r o v i n c e , and d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d l e g i s l a t i o n was t h e " c r o w n i n g i n j u s t i c e o f a l l . " "A H a l f - C e n t u r y o f I n j u s t i c e " c o n c l u d e d w i t h a b i t t e r d e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l Government's n e g l e c t o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as t r u s t e e o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . We s h o u l d be i n a p o s i t i o n t o a p p e a l c o n f i d e n t l y t o t h e Government o f Canada f o r c o m p l e t e j u s t i c e and t h e p r o -t e c t i o n o f o u r r i g h t s . I t would a p p e a r , however, t h a t we s h a l l have t o abandon a l l hope o f s u c c e s s f u l l y d o i n g t h i s . I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t Canada i s u n d e r an o b l i g a -t i o n t o p r o t e c t u s , a l s o t h e Government o f Canada c a l l s i t s e l f t h e g u a r d i a n o f t h e I n d i a n s . We ' f i n d o u r s e l v e s f o r c e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h i s i s a mere name. We now s e e more c l e a r l y t h a n e v e r t h a t t h e r e a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e Government o f Canada i s n o t t h a t o f a g u a r d i a n p r o -t e c t i n g o u r r i g h t s , b u t t h a t o f an i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y owing 53 g r e a t t r a c t s of land i n B r i t i s h Columbia and c o n t r o l l i n g the v a s t f i s h e r i e s of t h a t Coast, and because of those i n t e r e s t s seeking to take away our r i g h t s . We have appealed again and again f o r many years f o r j u s t i c e t o the Government of Canada. That appeal has been i n v a i n . We now appeal t o the Parliament of Canada and the people of Canada. We cannot b e l i e v e t h a t Canada having made so much s a c r i f i c e on b e h a l f of s m a l l and weak peoples, and having fought i n order t o d e l i v e r them from o p p r e s s i o n , w i l l now crush under f o o t our people who are both weak and v o i c e l e s s . ^ The b i t t e r n e s s and f r u s t r a t i o n r e f l e c t e d i n "A H a l f -Century of I n j u s t i c e " c h a r a c t e r i z e d the subsequent p e t i t o n s and statements made by the A l l i e d T r i b e s d u r i n g i t s sojourn i n Ottawa. The Indians, i n accordance w i t h o'Meara's p l a n , abandoned t h e i r e f f o r t s to reach an amicable settlement w i t h M i n i s t e r s of the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments and sought the support of Members of Parliament and the Canadian people a t l a r g e . They hoped, a p p a r e n t l y , t h a t by s t i m u l a t i n g p u b l i c debate of t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s , they c o u l d embarrass the Government i n t o responding to t h e i r c l a i m s . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the A l l i e d T r i b e s r e c e i v e d , from the o u t s e t , l i t t l e sympathy from Government Members. The presence of O'Meara, i n p a r t i c u l a r , aroused t h e i r i r e . Meighen's comments summed up the o p i n i o n s of the C o n s e r v a t i v e Members. Mr. O'Meara has undoubtedly made h i m s e l f the parent of c o n s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e among the Indians of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , and I do not f e e l v ery sympathetic a t a l l toward h i s whole m i s s i o n and h i s conduct._ c 3 D The Indian d e l e g a t i o n managed to secure some support from the L i b e r a l O p p o s i t i o n , l e d by Mackenzie King, who were 54 p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned about the c l a u s e of the B i l l which would permit the removal of lands from r e s e r v e s without the consent of the Indians. One Member of the O p p o s i t i o n i n s i s t e d on r e a d i n g i n the House a p e t i t i o n prepared by the A l l i e d T r i b e s which asked t h a t the B i l l be r e f e r r e d to a 3 6 S p e c i a l Committee f o r f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Meighen con-s i d e r e d , however, t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a l o t of a g i t a t o r s d i d not m e r i t " i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the r e g u l a r course 37 of p a r l i a m e n t a r y procedure." The hopes of the A l l i e d T r i b e s t h a t a d i s c u s s i o n of i t s g r i e vances would be s t i m u l a t e d i n the House of Commons were doomed from the beginning. What r e s u l t e d , r a t h e r , was p u b l i c censure of the Indian o r g a n i z a t i o n and e s p e c i a l l y of O'Meara, c h i e f a r c h i t e c t of i t s s t r a t e g i e s aimed at a r o u s i n g p u b l i c support. The Indians wrote to Meighen on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s attempting to persuade him of the l e g i t i m a c y of t h e i r o r g a n i -z a t i o n and of O'Meara 1s t r u e c a p a c i t y as l e g a l a d v i s o r o n l y . C a l d e r , Matheson, K e l l y , David and O'Meara f i n a l l y met w i t h the M i n i s t e r on A p r i l 13, at which time they were t o l d t h a t 0"Meara c o n s t i t u t e d the c h i e f o b s t a c l e i n the way of s e t t l e -3 8 ment of the Indian land c o n t r o v e r s y . I t must have been apparent by t h i s time to the Indian members of the d e l e g a t i o n t h a t O'Meara represented more of a l i a b i l i t y than an a s s e t . He was, however, r e t a i n e d as coun-s e l u n t i l the f i n a l denouement i n 1927. Perhaps the A l l i e d 55 T r i b e s was s u f f i c i e n t l y convinced of the anim o s i t y of govern-ment t h a t i t : c o n s i d e r e d snipes at O'Meara to be merely another a t t a c k on its::..cause.; I t may be, as w e l l , t h a t O'Meara made h i m s e l f so c e n t r a l to the plann i n g and e x e c u t i o n of the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s campaign t h a t without h i s p e r s i s t e n t and s i n g l e minded energy, i t would have c o l l a p s e d . I f the a c t i v i t i e s of the A l l i e d T r i b e s a t Ottawa r e c e i v e d l i t t l e sympathy from the Government, they d i d a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n and support o f other Indian groups i n Canada. On A p r i l 14, Indians c l a i m i n g to r e p r e s e n t "most of the 39 p r i n c i p a l t r i b e s o f Canada" met to condemn the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments' d e n i a l of Indian t i t l e and land r i g h t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and to . . . express our unanimous sympathy wi t h . . . [the B.C. Indians] . . . and we d e c l a r e our earnest support f o r t h e i r c a s e . ^ On May 4, a second meeting took p l a c e , t h i s time between the B.C. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and the Indians o f the S i x Nations Band. At t h i s conference the p o s s i b i l i t y of a Canada-wide o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Indians was c o n s i d e r e d , f o r . . . a l l the t r i b e s r e a l i z e t h a t the day has come when they must look a f t e r t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s and u n i t e f o r mutual p r o t e c t i o n . ^ I t was many years before such an o r g a n i z a t i o n was formed, but the conference i n Ottawa i n d i c a t e s t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s of the A l l i e d T r i b e s were a f f e c t i n g the p o l i t i c a l c onsciousness of Indians beyond the borders of B r i t i s h Columbia. 56 B i l l 13 r e c e i v e d f i r s t r e a d i n g i n the Senate on A p r i l 13, a t which time the A l l i e d T r i b e s c a r r i e d i t s cam-paign i n t o the Upper House. On A p r i l 20, "Notes prepared by the D e l e g a t i o n of the A l l i e d T r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columbia" was c i r c u l a t e d among the senators. T h i s statement complained t h a t the McKenna-McBride Agreement . . . while d e a l i n g e x c l u s i v e l y with the matter of lands to be r e s e r v e d , by s t i p u l a t i n g t h a t the c a r r y i n g out of i t s p r o v i s i o n s s h a l l be a f i n a l adjustment of a l l Indian a f f a i r s i n the Provinc e of B r i t i s h Columbia, attempts to sweep away a l l g e n e r a l r i g h t s o f the Indian t r i b e s . ^ Not o n l y was the proposed B i l l , s a i d the Indians, an attempt t o l e g i s l a t e n a t i v e r i g h t s out of e x i s t e n c e , but such a c t i o n was being taken without regard f o r the wishes and needs of the Indians. The B r i t i s h Columbia Government, f o r a change, appeared to be more sympathetic to the In d i a n s ' c l a i m s than the Government of Canada, f o r had i t not contemplated i n i t s 1919 Act e n t e r i n g upon d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the Indians to e f f e c t a settlement? As i n the House of Commons, the A l l i e d T r i b e s r e -c e i v e d some support from the L i b e r a l s i n the Senate. A f t e r s e v e r a l days of debate, i t was agreed t h a t B i l l 13 should be r e f e r r e d t o the Senate Committee on Banking and Commerce to all o w the Indian d e l e g a t i o n t o make i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The Committee i n i t s r e p o r t o f June 28, 1920, recommended t h a t : In view of the a c t i o n taken by the Government as i n d i c a t e d by B i l l 13 to s e t t l e the d i f f e r e n c e s between the Government of Canada and the Government of 3 r i t i s h Columbia r e s p e c t i n g Indian lands and Indian a f f a i r s g e n e r a l l y i n the s a i d P r o v i n c e , the committee i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t any a l l e g e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the Indians 57 o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e two Governments c a n b e s t be a d j u s t e d by p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e l e g i s l a t i o n now b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t . The Committee beg t o s u g g e s t , however, t h a t b e f o r e e x e r c i s i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y g r a n t e d by C l a u s e 3 o f t h e B i l l , an e n d e a v o u r be made t o s e c u r e a s u r r e n d e r u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t o f t h e p r o p o s e d r e d u c t i o n s o r c u t - o f f s . The c o m m i t t e e recommend t h a t t h e Government i n d e a l -i n g w i t h s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be g i v e n e v e r y o p p o r -t u n i t y t o h e a r s u c h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s as may be made by t h e s a i d I n d i a n t r i b e s . „ 0 43 W h i l e m a t t e r s were t a k i n g t h e i r c o u r s e i n t h e House o f Commons and t h e S e n a t e , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was m aking i t s v i e w s known t h r o u g h t h e Ottawa n e w s p a p e r s . I n r e s p o n s e t o a l e t t e r p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Ottawa J o u r n a l on A p r i l 15 and c r i t i c a l o f t h e I n d i a n - o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s d e l e -g a t i o n w r o t e t o t h e e d i t o r s e t t i n g o u t i t s o b j e c t i o n s t o 44 B i l l 13. On A p r i l 23, a p r e s s s t a t e m e n t was i s s u e d o u t -l i n i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n . On May 5, C a l d e r , M a t h e s o n , D a v i d and T e i t w r o t e a g a i n t o t h e Ottawa J o u r n a l p r o t e s t i n g B i l l 13. I f t h e B i l l were p a s s e d , t h e y s t a t e d , i t w o u l d d e p r i v e t h e I n d i a n s o f any c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s s o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . We want a s u f f i c i e n c y o f a d d i t i o n a l l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r u s ; o u r h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s a d j u s t e d ; i m p r o v e d e d u c a t i o n and m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n — i n s h o r t , j u s t an e q u i -t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t s a t i s f y i n g o u r a c t u a l n e e d s . So f a r t h e D o m i n i o n Government has a l t o g e t h e r i g n o r e d o u r s t a t e m e n t s . . 45 B i l l 13 r e c e i v e d r o y a l a s s e n t J u l y 1, 1920. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , by t h a t d a t e , had s p e n t t h r e e and a h a l f months and, no d o u b t , much money i n O t t a w a . They had s u c c e e d e d i n a t t r a c t i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f a number o f 58 L i b e r a l Members of Parliament and Senators, but these were unable to p r e v a i l a g a i n s t the Government's d e t e r m i n a t i o n to secure the passage of B i l l 13. Contrary to the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the Indians and t h e i r a d v i s o r s , the A l l i e d T r i b e s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e p u b l i c support f o r t h e i r cause. While they were engaged i n b a t t l i n g B i l l 13, moreover, they r e c e i v e d another blow, f o r i n l a t e March the S e c r e t a r y to the Governor General advised O'Meara . . . The Governor General takes no a c t i o n [on the Nishga P e t i t i o n ] nor does he d e s i r e t o take any a c t i o n , except upon the advice of h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a d v i s o r s . Under these circumstances I must ask you to c o n s i d e r t h i s l e t t e r as f i n a l . . , 46 O'Meara d i d not, of course, accept t h i s l e t t e r as f i n a l , but the r e f u s a l o f the King:'\s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Canada to extend h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the matter of the Nishga P e t i t i o n must have been d i s c o u r a g i n g to the Indians, i f not to O'Meara h i m s e l f . S t i l l , although the Governments of Canada and the Prov i n c e were now empowered to implement by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l the Report of the Royal Commission, the Report was not y e t a c t u a l l y implemented. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the A l l i e d T r i b e s had l o s t a major b a t t l e , but they r e t u r n e d to B r i t i s h Columbia to c o n s i d e r how they might go on to win the war. 59 Footnotes F i l e e n t i t l e d " C l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s a t Ottawa ( 1 9 2 0 ) , " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as " C l a i m s " . ) 2^ n . C l a i m s . 3 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 175. 4 I b i d . , p. 31. 5 I b i d . , p. 83. 6 I b i d . 7 I b i d . g I b i d . , pp. 63-64. C o n c e r n i n g t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m s " P r i v y C o u n c i l " and " J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l " ; t h e N i s h g a s u b m i t t e d t h e i r P e t i t i o n t o H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l i n hopes t h a t t h e C o u n c i l w o u l d i n t e r v e n e i n t h e r e g u l a r c o u r s e o f j u d i c i a l p r o c e d u r e and p e r m i t t h e I n d i a n s t o have t h e i r c a s e h e a r d d i r e c t l y b e f o r e t h e J u d i c i a l Commit-t e e . When t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l r e f u s e d t o t a k e s u c h a c t i o n e x c e p t upon t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , t h e I n d i a n s t h e r e a f t e r s o u g h t t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e G o v e r n -ment o f Canada t o b y p a s s C a n a d i a n c o u r t s . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e e f f o r t s , r e f e r e n c e s made t o t h e " P r i v y C o u n c i l " by I n d i a n s and government o f f i c i a l s a l i k e g e n e r a l l y r e f e r t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l a s t h e c o u r t o f f i n a l a p p e a l f o r Canada. O c c a s i o n a l l y , however, O'Meara o r one o f t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s r e f e r t o t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l was s t i l l c o n s i d e r i n g a r e f e r -e n c e o f t h e c a s e t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. Where t h e " P r i v y C o u n c i l " i s m e n t i o n e d i n q u o t a t i o n s , i t s meaning must be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o n t e x t . 9 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 32. p. 95, 1 0 P a t t e r s o n , " A r t h u r O'Meara, F r i e n d o f t h e I n d i a n s , " 1 : L C a n a d a . F i l e S e r i e s RG 10, Volume 3820, Ottawa, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. 1 2 R G 10, V o l . 3820. 13 W. E. D i t c h b u r n , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r f o r I n d i a n A g e n c i e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o D. C. S c o t t , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O ttawa, November 1, 1919. 60 I have j u s t had an i n t e r v i e w with Hon. Mr. P a t u l l o , P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r of Lands. . . . As I r e p o r t e d to you some time ago the B.C. Government seems t o shy o f f t h a t p a r t of the Agreement of 1912 wit h regard t o the c u t - o f f s i n view of the f a c t t h a t i t appears necessary t o have the consent of the Indians before the land can be s o l d . . . . [ P a t u l l o ] and other members of the Cabinet appear to be of the o p i n i o n t h a t the Agreement was much too one-sided and would l i k e some d e f i n i t e assurance t h a t ifiothe Pro-v i n c e c a r r i e s out t h a t p a r t of the r e p o r t r e f e r r i n g to al l o t m e n t s o f land f o r new r e s e r v e s , the Dominion Govern-ment would see t h a t the C u t - o f f s are made. R.G. 10, V o l . 3820. 14 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, B i l l 17, 1919. 15 B r i t i s h Columbia, B i l l 17. 16 Canada, F i l e s e r i e s , RG. 13, Volume 236, F i l e 1116. Ottawa, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. 1 7RG: , 13, V o l . 236, F i l e 1186. 18 Drucker, p. 96. 19 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 38. 20 L a V i o l e t t e , p. 134. 21 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 31. 2 2 I b i d . , pp. 32-37. 23 I b i d . , p. 38. 24 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands, F i l e 02607 6, #2, V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s 'of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2 5 F i l e 026076, #2. 2 6RG 10, V o l . 3820. 2 7RG 10, V o l . 3820. 2 8 F i l e 026076, #1. 2 9 F i l e 026076, #1 3 0 F i l e 026076, #1. 61 3 1 F i l e 026076, #1. 3 2 F i l e 026076, #1. 793. 3 3 C a n a d a , House o f Commons, B i l l 13, 1920. 34 C l a i m s . 3 5 C a n a d a House o f Commons D e b a t e s , M a r c h 26, 1920, 3 6 I b i d . , pp. 793-794. 3 7 I b i d . , p. 794. 38„, . C l a i m s . 39 C l a i m s . 4 0 C l a i m s . 41 C l a i m s . 42 C l a i m s . 4 3 C a n a d a , S e n a t e , Committee on B a n k i n g and Commerce, June 28, 1920 44 C l a i m s . C l a i m s . 46 . L i e u t . H. G. H e n d e r s o n t o A. E. O'Meara, M a r c h 17, 1920, J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 64. 62 CHAPTER I I I ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ALLIED TRIBES Introduction The f a i l u r e o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s t o b l o c k t h e p a s s a g e o f B i l l 13 s p u r r e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p on t o renewed e f f o r t t o r e c r u i t members f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r a i s e f u n d s f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s . W h i l e I n d i a n s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y m i g h t s t i l l d i s s u a d e t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments f r o m i m p l e -m e n t i n g t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , t h e i r m a i n o b j e c t i v e became t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e c l a i m t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . Leaders and Followers By 1920, P e t e r K e l l y and Andrew P a u l l had emerged as t h e two most p r o m i n e n t n a t i v e f i g u r e s i n t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . ^ " K e l l y , an o r d a i n e d M e t h o d i s t m i n i s t e r , had b e en i n v o l v e d i n t h e l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y s i n c e 1910. Andrew P a u l l had b e en edu-c a t e d i n a C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n s c h o o l and had s p e n t f o u r y e a r s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r law o f f i c e s o f Hugh S t . O u e n t i n C a y l e y where he c o n c e n t r a t e d on law p e r t a i n i n g t o I n d i a n s . P a u l l was p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e a t t h e band l e v e l and had, as w e l l , a s s i s t e d I n d i a n s c h a r g e d w i t h o f f e n c e s u n d e r t h e p o t l a t c h law. To t h e m a t t e r o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , however, P a u l l d i r e c t e d most o f h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e e n e r g i e s , f o r i n t h e I n d i a n 63 land c o n t r o v e r s y , he saw . . . an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r fame and s e r v i c e on a broader stage. In h i s performance, he was c l e a r l y s e t t i n g him-s e l f apart from other Indians of h i s g e n e r a t i o n and community. 2 Of the two most i n f l u e n t i a l whites a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the A l l i e d T r i b e s , J . A. T e i t d i e d i n the e a r l y 1920's and l e f t the stage c l e a r f o r A r t h u r O'Meara. O'Meara, whose appointment as l e g a l counsel to the A l l i e d T r i b e s was recon-3 firmed i n January, 1920, was an o l d man. In h i s o l d age, he became, i f p o s s i b l e , more r i g i d i n h i s o p i n i o n s . He continued t o counsel a g a i n s t anything done without h i s advice and presence. He had become loc k e d i n a c e r t a i n posture and he had come to t h i n k t h a t not o n l y h i s views were c o r r e c t , but t h a t he h i m s e l f was i n d i s p e n s a b l e . [He] . . . remained f i r m i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t a d e c i -s i o n on the Nishga P e t i t i o n by the P r i v y C o u n c i l would se t the precedent f o r i m p a r t i a l s e t t l e m e n t s . He i n s i s t e d t h a t d i s i n t e r e s t e d j u r i s t s c o u l d be found i n England and he i m p l i e d t h a t he would be on f a m i l i a r ground t h e r e . His almost f a n a t i c a l single-mindedness . . . prevented him from a c c e p t i n g what was a c l e a r r e f u s a l . ^ I t i s a matter f o r s p e c u l a t i o n whether the o r g a n i z a -t i o n might have f o l l o w e d a d i f f e r e n t path had i t s l e a d e r s h i p not been under O'Meara's i n f l u e n c e . The A l l i e d T r i b e s might, i n other circumstances, have turned to seeking s a t i s f a c t i o n of the many s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e s which, i t c o u l d be argued, were what r e s o l u t i o n of the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m was intended t o achieve. But at l e a s t i n p a r t because of O'Meara's i n f l u e n c e , the E x e c u t i v e Committee r e f u s e d to accept t h a t the Nishga P e t i t i o n was a dead l e t t e r and con-t i n u e d to the end to plead f o r a h e a r i n g before the J u d i c i a l Committee. 64 By 1920, K e l l y , P a u l l and O'Meara dominated the A l l i e d T r i b e s . T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c o n t r o l i n the hands of two Coast Indians and a white lawyer, a l l of them obsessed w i t h the i d e a of t a k i n g t h e i r case to the J u d i c i a l Committee, e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the withdrawal from the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the I n t e r i o r c h i e f s . T h i s s p l i t d i d not occur u n t i l the mid-1920 1s, however, and i n the e a r l i e r years of the A l l i e d T r i b e s , P a u l l and K e l l y mounted a v i g o r o u s membership d r i v e which was d i r e c t e d , f o r the most p a r t , to the c o a s t a l groups, but a l s o extended to bands i n the I n t e r i o r . Paul and K e l l y r e s o l v e d to e n l i s t the c o a s t a l groups i n the A l l i e d T r i b e s ' cause. They v i s i t e d p r a c t i c a l l y every v i l l a g e . . . from Aiyansh to K i s p i o x to Musqueam, preaching the d o c t r i n e of the A l l i e d T r i b e s as the Indians' o n l y hope.^ P a u l l , i n a d d i t i o n , t r a v e l l e d through the I n t e r i o r , i n i t i a l l y t o e n l a r g e the membership of the A l l i e d T r i b e s and g l a t e r t o r a i s e funds f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s . P a u l l and K e l l y were not u n i v e r s a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . The Nootka, Northern Athabascans and many of the Kwakiutl evinced l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the l a n d i s s u e . The m i s s i o n school-edu-cated, p o l i t i c a l l y minded l e a d e r s h i p o f t e n had c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n communicating i t s d o c t r i n e of " s t r e n g t h through u n i t y " to a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s c a t t e r e d and c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e Indian p o p u l a t i o n . Moreover, by 1922, the Nishga had d r i f t e d away from the o r g a n i z a t i o n . While they continued t o cooper-ate w i t h the A l l i e d T r i b e s and acknowledged t h e i r backing, as they had done i n .the past and would do i n the f u t u r e , 65 they p r e f e r r e d to f i g h t t h e i r b a t t l e s alone. In January, 1922, f o r t y - f i v e d e l e g a t e s from twenty-7 fo u r Indian groups gathered i n North Vancouver. Chairman K e l l y of the A l l i e d T r i b e s t o l d the de l e g a t e s . . . t h i s i s not an A l l i e d T r i b e s meeting, but a g e n e r a l meeting of a l l B.C. Indians and f o r the assembly to express t h e i r views.g I t appears t h a t by the date of the meeting, the I n t e r i o r Indians were becoming d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r r o l e , or l a c k of i t , i n the A l l i e d T r i b e s . However, a f t e r t h r e e days of d i s c u s s i o n s , the de l e g a t e s passed the f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n : Whereas i t i s apparent t h a t t h e r e are two f a c t i o n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n at t h i s meeting, namely the A l l i e d T r i b e s and the Independent Pa r t y , t o b r i n g these p a r t i e s t o -gether, be i t r e s o l v e d t h a t the Indians of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a form an o r g a n i z a t i o n of Indians . . . and adopt f o r i t s p o l i c y the Statement of the A l l i e d I ndian T r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, s a i d o r g a n i z a t i o n to have a standing e x e c u t i v e committee to c o n t a i n Indians and ot h e r s deemed a c c e p t a b l y by I n t e r i o r s . g The witnesses f o r the A l l i e d T r i b e s claimed at the 1927 hearings t h a t , as a r e s u l t o f the 1922 a l l i a n c e , the A l l i e d T r i b e s represented nominally a l l of the t r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columbia and most of them i n d i v i d u a l l y . I t i s d i f f i -c u l t to determine, however, by what a u t h o r i t y the deleg a t e s to the 1922 meeting spoke f o r t h e i r groups. By the 1920's F e d e r a l Indian a d m i n i s t r a t i o n extended t o n e a r l y a l l areas of the P r o v i n c e . The t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s of a u t h o r i t y had f o r the most p a r t broken down and n a t i v e c o u n c i l s had not y e t s u f f i c i e n t powers and experience to manage the 66 a f f a i r s o f t h e band. Many o f t h e d e l e g a t e s d i d , i n d e e d , have " C h i e f " b e f o r e t h e i r names, b u t t h e s e h e r e d i t a r y t i t l e s p r o b a b l y no l o n g e r c a r r i e d enough w e i g h t t o e n a b l e a C h i e f t o commit an e n t i r e g r o u p t o s u p p o r t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . A. D. M c l n t y r e , a l a w y e r who c l a i m e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f t h e I n t e r i o r , s t a t e d a t t h e 1927 h e a r i n g s t h a t many r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e 1922 m e e t i n g r e p r e s e n t e d nobody b u t themselves,"*"^ and t o some e x t e n t t h i s may w e l l have been t r u e . D r u c k e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e m e e t i n g d i d n o t r e a l l y c o n -s t i t u t e an a l l i a n c e as r e p r e s e n t e d by spokesmen f o r t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . I n h i s o p i n i o n , some o f t h e I n t e r i o r t r i b e s n e v e r r e a l l y a f f i l i a t e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ; " a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m e e t i n g , t h e y s i m p l y a g r e e d t o work t o g e t h e r f o r t h e common goal."''"''' I n a d d i t i o n t o u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a l l i a n c e , one i s f a c e d as w e l l w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d e t e r -m i n i n g w h i c h g r o u p o r g r o u p s t h e d e l e g a t e s r e p r e s e n t e d . I n an a f f i d a v i t f i l e d a t t h e 1927 h e a r i n g s , d e l e g a t e s t o t h e m e e t i n g a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s r e p r e s e n t i n g , f o r example, " S a a n i c h T r i b e , " o r "Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y T r i b e s , " o r s i m p l y " M e r r i t t 12 N i c o l a V a l l e y . " Some o f t h e " t r i b e s " a l l e g e d t o have been r e p r e s e n t e d seem t o have been, i n f a c t , b a n d s . Some were a p p a r e n t l y l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n s o r s u b - d i v i s i o n s . One c a n n o t a l w a y s know, t h e r e f o r e , w h e t h e r a d e l e g a t e p u r p o r t e d t o r e p r e s e n t a v i l l a g e o f p e r h a p s t w e n t y p e o p l e o r a l a n g u a g e g r o u p o f two t h o u s a n d . I n 1927 t h e p r o b l e m o f whom t h e 67 A l l i e d T r i b e s r e a l l y d i d speak f o r came to the s u r f a c e a t a most i n a u s p i c i o u s moment, as w i l l be shown i n a l a t e r chapter. I t appears t h a t even a f t e r 1922 no formal method of s e l e c t i n g d e l e g a t e s to attend the meetings of the A l l i e d T r i b e s was e s t a b l i s h e d . There was i n i t i a l l y a tendency, s t a t e s Drucker, e s p e c i a l l y among the southern Kwakiutl, to e l e c t r a n k i n g c h i e f s as d e l e g a t e s . The Indians " . . . soon d i s c o v e r e d [however] t h a t f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h and an under-13 s t a n d i n g of white law and c u l t u r e were necessary." Thus the p r e f e r e n c e probably turned to younger Indians who would be more l i k e l y t o possess such q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s . The d e l e g a t e s appear to have been p r i m a r i l y l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s between the E x e c u t i v e Committee and the membership. They attended meetings i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , then r e t u r n e d to t h e i r v i l l a g e s t o recount the events of the conference and to e x p l a i n problems and answer q u e s t i o n s . Throughout the l i f e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n the l o c a l l e v e l of the A l l i e d T r i b e s remained e s s e n t i a l l y unorganized, w h i l e the E x e c u t i v e Committee was s t r u c t u r e d i n a h i g h l y formal fashion."'" 4 Fund-raising F u n d - r a i s i n g was a constant worry to the l e a d e r s h i p . Some money was c o n t r i b u t e d by sympathetic whites, such as the F r i e n d s of the Indians, but f o r the most p a r t , the E x e c u t i v e Committee was thrown back on the r e s o u r c e s of the membership. There a p p a r e n t l y were no membership f e e s , annual 68 l e v y o r oth e r r e g u l a r f u n d - r a i s i n g mechanisms, apar t from p e r i o d i c d r i v e s to secure advances which, i t was hoped, would be r e p a i d from the proceeds of a f i n a l s e ttlement. The p r a c t i c e of ask i n g f o r "advances" r a t h e r than "donations" perhaps i n s t i l l e d some hope i n the c o n t r i b u t o r s t h a t they might some day r e c e i v e t h e i r money back with i n t e r e s t . C o l l e c t i o n s were taken up at the v i l l a g e l e v e l t o enable d e l e g a t e s t o attend meetings (although the d e l e g a t e s some-times had t o pay t h e i r own way) and n o t i c e s announcing meet-ings as w e l l as c i r c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n l e t t e r s , o f t e n concluded with a p l e a f o r money. The funds c o l l e c t e d were used t o f i n a n c e t r a v e l by the Ex e c u t i v e Committee, pay a t t o r n e y ' s f e e s , cover the day to day o p e r a t i n g expenses of the o r g a n i -z a t i o n and i n some cases, a s s i s t the Nishga Land Committee. I t appears t h a t the Ex e c u t i v e Committee r e c e i v e d no r e g u l a r s a l a r y . Some groups, such as the Southern Kwakiutl, responded promptly and l i b e r a l l y to requests f o r funds, but others were more d i l a t o r y . The l e a d e r s h i p was f r e q u e n t l y o b l i g e d to remind them of t h e i r duty t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n . In the I n t e r i o r , P a u l l undertook most of the fund-r a i s i n g and o r g a n i z i n g . George Manuel r e c a l l s , . . . wherever he [Paul l ] went, the blanket and the hat were passed t o keep Andy t r a v e l l i n g and working. Often i n h i s l a t e r t r i p s t o Ottawa, we would r a i s e enough money j u s t to get him to Ottawa. A week or so l a t e r , we would get a wire from him. I t was time t o c h i p i n again and help him get back home.,. 69 Footnotes A few o t h e r c o a s t I n d i a n s , s u c h as B i l l y A s s u o f t h e Cape Mudge band, were a l s o a c t i v e i n t h e E x e c u t i v e o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , b u t P a u l l and K e l l y a p p e a r t o have been t h e motor f o r c e f o r most o f t h e l i f e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . S e v e r a l o f t h e m i n o r f i g u r e s d i d , however, assume p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a w h i c h was f o r m e d i n 193 0. 2 P a t t e r s o n , "Andrew P a u l l and C a n a d i a n I n d i a n R e s u r -g e n c e , " p. 105. 3 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 47. 4 P a t t e r s o n , " A r t h u r O'Meara, F r i e n d o f t h e I n d i a n s , " pp. 95-97. 5 D r u c k e r , p. 95. ^Manuel and P o s l u n s , p. 84. 7 See A p p e n d i x C f o r l i s t o f d e l e g a t e s . g J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 17 6. 9 I b i d . 1 0 I b i d . , p. 138. "'"'''Drucker, p. 97. 12 J o i n t S p e i c a l Committee, pp. 175-176. 13 D r u c k e r , p. 16. I b i d . I b i d . "^Manuel and P o s l u n s , p. 85. T h e s e l a t e r t r i p s may r e f e r t o P a u l l ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , f o u n d e d a f t e r t h e f a l l o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . 70 CHAPTER IV THE ALLIED TRIBES: THE LATER YEARS Introduction I n l a t e 1920, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ' p r o s p e c t s o f e i t h e r b l o c k i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o r r e a c h i n g t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l l o o k e d b l e a k . F o r one t h i n g , most F e d e r a l p o l i t i -c i a n s and o f f i c i a l s had been a n y t h i n g b u t s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e I n d i a n s ' o b j e c t i o n s t o B i l l 13. A f t e r t h e p a s s a g e o f F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n r e m o v i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r I n d i a n c o n s e n t t o t h e c u t - o f f s , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government t o o k no s t e p s t o c o n s u l t w i t h t h e I n d i a n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e R e p o r t . N e i t h e r d i d i t r e t r e a t f r o m i t s c o n s i s t e n t d e n i a l o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . From 1911 onwards, t h e I n d i a n s had f a i l e d t o c o n v i n c e any i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n i n p u b l i c o f f i c e t h a t t h e y had a sub-s t a n t i a l l e g a l c a s e . As government o f f i c i a l s c o n t r o l l e d t h e I n d i a n s ' a c c e s s t o a c o u r t o f law, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s a p p e a r e d t o have r e a c h e d a dead end."*" N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e a p p a r e n t l y h o p e l e s s o u t l o o k , however, t h e I n d i a n s s t r u g g l e d on. Last Stand Against the Report of the Royal Commission When M a c k e n z i e K i n g came t o o f f i c e a s P r i m e M i n i s t e r i n 1921, t h e p r o s p e c t s o f r e a c h i n g a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e l a n d 71 c l a i m a p p e a r e d , p e r h a p s , a l i t t l e b r i g h t e r . K i n g had e x p r e s s e d sympathy f o r t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s i n 1920, and he was s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d t o r e q u e s t h i s M i n i s t e r o f t h e 2 I n t e r i o r t o l o o k i n t o t h e m a t t e r o f t h e i r c l a i m s . On May 31, 1922, O'Meara s u b m i t t e d a document e n t i t l e d "Memorandum f o r t h e Government o f Canada" t o t h e P r i m e M i n i s -t e r . I t r e i t e r a t e d t h e c l a i m s made by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s i n t h e 1919 s t a t e m e n t , and p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e Government o f Canada, t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s e n t e r upon d i s c u s s i o n s l e a d i n g t o a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i s s u e . O'Meara s u g g e s t e d t h a t Canada, as a t o k e n o f good f a i t h , p r o v i d e f u n d s t o t h e I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o e n a b l e i t t o c o n t i n u e i t s e f f o r t s t o w a r d a s e t t l e m e n t . The Memorandum a l s o a s k e d t h a t t h e 1920 " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n L a n d s S e t t l e m e n t A c t " be r e p e a l e d o r ". . . a t l e a s t amended so t h a t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s s h a l l be 3 s a f e g u a r d e d . " Two months a f t e r t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e Memorandum C h a r l e s S t e w a r t , M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r , met w i t h t h e 4 E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s a t V a n c o u v e r . S t e w a r t r e t u r n e d i n J u l y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t o a r r a n g e a m e e t i n g between t h e Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a -5 A f f a i r s , t h e E x e c u t i v e o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and O'Meara. I n h i s l a t e r comments on S t e w a r t ' s v i s i t , O'Meara s t a t e d t h a t : 72 On t h e 2 1 s t day o f J u l y , 1923 a t V a n c o u v e r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r a d d r e s s e d t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e meet-i n g o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e v e r h e l d and s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e Government o f Canada gave a s s u r a n c e t h a t Canada w o u l d h e l p t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n o b t a i n i n g judgment o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i d i n g t h e I n d i a n Land C o n t r o v e r s y . ^ A c c o r d i n g t o S c o t t ' s t e s t i m o n y g i v e n a t t h e 1927 h e a r i n g s , t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r hoped i n 1923 t h a t . . . i t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e t o s e t t l e t h e c l a i m f o r a b o r -i g i n a l t i t l e o u t o f c o u r t , i f t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d f i x upon r e a s o n a b l e c o m p e n s a t i o n w h i c h t h e D o m i n i o n Government m i g h t s u p p l y w i t h o u t i n v o l v i n g t h e Government o f t h e P r o v i n c e . ^ I t seems u n l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t S t e w a r t w o u l d have o f f e r e d t o a s s i s t t h e I n d i a n s t o r e a c h t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. F i v e d a y s a f t e r t h e J u l y m e e t i n g , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C a b i n e t p a s s e d O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l P.C. 911 recommending t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l t h a t . . . t h e r e d u c t i o n s , c u t - o f f s and a d d i t i o n s i n r e s p e c t o f I n d i a n r e s e r v e s p r o p o s e d i n t h e . . . r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . . . be a p p r o v e d and c o n f i r m e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g f u l l and f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t and s e t t l e m e n t o f a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p e c t t h e r e t o between t h e G o v e r n -ments o f t h e D o m i n i o n and t h e P r o v i n c e . On J u l y 27, S c o t t w r o t e t o P r e m i e r O l i v e r r e q u e s t i n g t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t t e n d t h e f o r t h c o m i n g m e e t i n g w i t h t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . O l i v e r d i s c u s s e d t h e r e q u e s t w i t h h i s C a b i n e t and on J u l y 31 d i r e c t e d h i s s e c r e t a r y t o i n f o r m W. E. D i t c h b u r n , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t 73 . . . t h e q u e s t i o n o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e P r o v i n c e a t t e n d i n g any c o n f e r e n c e h e l d between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Government o f Canada and t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was c o n s i d e r e d by t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l t h i s m o r n i n g , and i t was t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e c o u n c i l t h a t whereas t h e c h a r g e o f t h e I n d i a n s and t h e t r u s t e e s h i p and management o f t h e l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r u s e i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n Government, t h e r e f o r e any c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e I n d i a n s s h o u l d be s o l e l y w i t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h a t Government.g S c o t t met w i t h t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and O'Meara a t V i c t o r i a on A u g u s t 7, 1923. A f t e r some r a t h e r a i m l e s s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee b r o u g h t o u t i t s p e t i t i o n o f 1919. T h i s , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a r e q u e s t f o r m o n e t a r y c o m p e n s a t i o n , t h e y s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s t a t e m e n t o f e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r a s e t t l e m e n t . On O c t o b e r 29, 1923, S c o t t s u b m i t t e d a r e p o r t t o h i s M i n i s t e r , o u t l i n i n g t h e m a i n e l e m e n t s o f t h e s t a t e m e n t t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s comments. W i t h r e g a r d t o f i s h i n g r i g h t s , S c o t t s t a t e d he was . . . i n sympathy w i t h t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e I n d i a n s t o t a k e f i s h f o r f o o d and [ t h o u g h t ] t h e y s h o u l d s u f f e r . . . [no] . . . d i s a b i l i t y w h a t e v e r i n t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e f i s h e r i e s . g A f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h t h e C h i e f I n s p e c t o r f o r F i s h -e r i e s , S c o t t was a b l e t o i n f o r m t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee t h a t I n d i a n s w o u l d t h e r e a f t e r be a b l e t o o b t a i n s a l mon and h e r r i n g s e i n i n g l i c e n s e s i n t h e i r own names, i n t h e same manner as w h i t e men. The D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s had f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t e d t h e C h i e f I n s p e c t o r t o g i v e " s y m p a t h e t i c a t t e n t i o n " t o any r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made by I n d i a n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h f i s h e r i e s . T h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t a c h i e v e m e n t s , S c o t t f e l t , were e v i d e n c e o f t h e s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e o f government o f f i c i a l s t o I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s . S c o t t n o t e d w i t h o u t comment t h e I n d i a n s ' r e q u e s t s f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f h u n t i n g r i g h t s , f o r t h e u s e o f t i m b e r o u t s i d e r e s e r v e s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , f o r more n a t i v e c o n t r o l o f I n d i a n t r u s t f u n d s , and f o r i mprovements i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . He t h e n q u o t e d a l e n g t h y e x t r a c t f r o m Rev. K e l l y ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g m o n e t a r y c o m p e n s a t i o n . K e l l y a r g u e d t h a t as a t r e a t y o u g h t t o have been c o n c l u d e d many y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , t h e I n d i a n s s h o u l d be p a i d t h e a n n u i t i e s w h i c h w o u l d have a c c r u e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s . He a s k e d t h a t an amount e q u a l t o p e r h a p s t w e n t y y e a r s o f l o s t a n n u i t i e s be p a i d so t h a t . . . p e o p l e who a r e now l i v i n g and who w i l l n o t be i n a p o s i t i o n t o p r o f i t by any o f t h e f u t u r e b e n e f i t s t h a t we have c l a i m e d would r e c e i v e d i r e c t b e n e f i t f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t i s now b e i n g b r o u g h t we hope t o a p o s i t i o n where we a r e i n s i g h t o f a s e t t l e m e n t . S c o t t c a l c u l a t e d t h a t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e t h e n c u r -r e n t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n t h e payments i n l i e u o f a n n u i t i e s w o u l d amount t o $ 2 , 7 4 7 , 4 0 0 - - i n S c o t t ' s e y e s , an a p p a l l i n g sum. The E x e c u t i v e Committee a l s o r e q u e s t e d $100,000 as r e i m b u r s e m e n t o f c o s t s i n c u r r e d i n p u r s u i n g a l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t . A f t e r r e c i t i n g t h e t e r m s o f s e t t l e m e n t p r o p o s e d by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s — t e r m s w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s c o n s i d e r e d j u s t and r e a s o n a b l e — S c o t t d e s c r i b e d t h e I n d i a n s ' demands as 75 " e x a c t i n g and extravagant." Moreover, he s t a t e d , expendi-t u r e s of l a r g e amounts of money on the B r i t i s h Columbia Indians would i n c u r the envy of n a t i v e s elsewhere i n the country. At the c o n c l u s i o n of the meeting, the matter of the implementation of the Report of the Royal Commission was r a i s e d . The Indians once again v o i c e d v i g o r o u s o b j e c t i o n s and informed S c o t t t h a t i f a s a t i s f a c t o r y s ettlement c o u l d be achieved i n no other way, the A l l i e d T r i b e s would "press on to the J u d i c i a l Committee of the P r i v y C o u n c i l . " S c o t t summed up h i s r e p o r t by recommending t h a t , d e s p i t e the o b j e c t i o n s of the Indians, the Report ought to be implemented. The Indians would thus be p r o v i d e d w i t h adequate r e s e r v e lands f r e e from the r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t of the Pr o v i n c e and the r e s e r v e q u e s t i o n would f i n a l l y be disposed o f . P r i o r t o the August meeting, S c o t t s t a t e d , he had expected t h a t the Indians would be s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e i r c l a i m s to a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e had been met by expenditures made on t h e i r b e h a l f . However, S c o t t s t a t e d , " . . . such i s not the case and I have t o submit the f a c t s f o r your c o n s i d e r -,,12 a t i o n . Another year elapsed before the Dominion Cabinet passed an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l to implement the recommendations 13 of the Royal Commission. In the meantime the A l l i e d T r i b e s continued t o p r o t e s t the recommendations. 76 By autumn o f 1923, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n d e s p e r a t e f i n a n c i a l s t r a i t s . K e l l y ' s s t a t e m e n t s made d u r i n g t h e A u g u s t m e e t i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was i n d e b t , and a c i r c u l a r l e t t e r t o t h e t r i b e s i n September c o n t a i n e d a r e q u e s t f o r money, s t a t i n g t h a t t h e f u n d s w h i c h had b e e n 14 c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r were a l l s p e n t . On F e b r u a r y 29, 1924, O'Meara p r e p a r e d a memorandum w h i c h he s e n t t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e . K e l l y s t a t e d i n a l a t e r p e t i t i o n , t h a t i n t h i s memorandum . . . t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o p p o s e d t h e p a s s i n g o f O r d e r - i n -C o u n c i l o f t h e Government o f Canada a d o p t i n g t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , upon t h e g r o u n d , among o t h e r g r o u n d s , t h a t no m a t t e r w h a t e v e r r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a v i n g b een f u l l y a d j u s t e d , and i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s s u c h as f o r e s h o r e r i g h t s , f i s h i n g r i g h t s and w a t e r r i g h t s n o t h a v i n g b een t o any e x t e n t a d j u s t e d , t h e p r o f e s s e d p u r p o s e o f t h e Agreement and t h e [1920] A c t had n o t been a c c o m p l i s h e d . The D e puty M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e r e p l i e d t o O'Meara's memorandum t h e day i t was p r e s e n t e d . I n K e l l y ' s v i e w , h i s r e p l y c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e 1920 A c t was i n t e n d e d . . . n o t f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t an a c t u a l a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s , b u t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f b r i n g i n g a b o u t a l e g i s l a t i v e a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l s u c h m a t t e r s and t h u s e f f e c t i n g f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t u n d e r t h e laws o f Canada w i t h o u t t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o r c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D e s p i t e t h e o b j e c t i o n s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , P.C.. 1265 was p a s s e d on J u l y 19, 1924, c o n f i r m i n g t h e a d d i t i o n s and r e d u c t i o n s t o r e s e r v e l a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a recom-mended by t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . The A l l i e d T r i b e s had s p e n t e i g h t y e a r s and more t h a n $100,000 i n a f r u i t l e s s e n d e a v o u r t o b l o c k i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l 77 C o m m i s s i o n . The Road to the Judicial Committee The one r e m a i n i n g avenue w h i c h t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s c o u l d s e e open t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f i t s c l a i m s w a s „ t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . On J a n u a r y 25, 1925, t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee p a s s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u -t i o n : I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s have p a s s e d O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l c o n f i r m i n g t h e r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s , we t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a a r e more t h a n e v e r d e t e r m i n e d t o t a k e s u c h a c t i o n as may be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may r e c e i v e j u s t i c e and a r e f u r t h e r m o r e d e t e r m i n e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r i g h t s c l a i m e d by them by a j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l . ^ As t h e y had done i n 192 0, t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee d e c i d e d t o a p p e a l t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x e c u -t i v e arm o f government. P e r h a p s t h e y e x p e c t e d more f a v o u r -i a b l e t r e a t m e n t f r o m t h e L i b e r a l s t h a n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s , as i n t h e p a s t L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s had b een g e n e r a l l y more s y m p a t h e t i c . One o f t h e members o f t h e L i b e r a l Government, S t e w a r t , t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r , was a t h i s w i t s ' end a s t o how t o d e a l w i t h t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y . On J u n e 26, 1925, i n t h e House o f Commons, M e i g h e n r e q u e s t e d t h e M i n i s t e r t o o u t l i n e t h e c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y . I s t h e government s t a n d i n g i n t h e way o f t h e s u b m i s -s i o n o f t h e m a t t e r t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l ? What I u n d e r -s t a n d i s t h i s — a n d I know i t has b een t h e c a s e f o r some t i m e — t h a t t h e I n d i a n s and t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g them have 78 been anxious to o b t a i n the d e c i s i o n of the P r i v y C o u n c i l . I do not see any reason why they should not have t h a t d e c i s i o n . Why i s i t t h a t they have not been a b l e to get i t ? Stewart r e p l i e d : Regarding the c o n t r o v e r s y over the a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , I have been t r y i n g f o r the past three years to f i n d out j u s t what the Indians mean by t h i s . Do they l a y c l a i m to a l l lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n view of the f a c t t h a t i n n i n e t y per cent o f the cases no t r e a t y had been signed between the t r i b e s and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Crown? A f t e r a g r e a t d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n , I found t h a t they d i d not l a y c l a i m t o the land i n i t s e n t i r e t y , but they do say t h a t before an adjustment can take p l a c e , they should have c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d and u n s p e c i f i e d p r o v i s i o n s made f o r them by the government of Canada. T h i s i s a l l so vague and d i f f i c u l t of understanding t h a t i t i s ve r y hard t o a r r i v e a t any concre t e d e f i n i t i o n of what t h e i r c l a i m s are. . . . My Hon. f r i e n d says, why not send i t to the P r i v y C o u n c i l ? Mr. Meighen: Why do you not l e t them take i t ? Mr. Stewart: They want the government of Canada to pay t h e i r expenses.^ Stewart continued: I must confess t h a t I do not see very much hope. . . . One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s we have to meet i s the vagueness of t h e i r demands. I defy anyone to get them down t o a concre t e b a s i s as, f o r example, so much f o r educati o n , so much f o r r e l i e f and so f o r t h . That i s one grea t d i f f i c u l t y and i t looks hopeless t o me. I b e l i e v e the P r i v y C o u n c i l would on l y come to one d e c i s i o n . They are q u i t e l i k e l y to f o l l o w precedent and say to the Indians, "You are e n t i t l e d t o the same c o n s i d e r a t i o n as has been given t o the other t r i b e s throughout Canada." That the government i s prepared t o g i v e them, and f o r the l i f e of me I do not know what t o recommend. I t seems to be an unending d i f f i c u l t y and I do not see t h a t the government would be warranted i n paying expenses of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Indians t o go over and argue the case before the P r i v y C o u n c i l u n l e s s we have something very c o n c r e t e presented t o us. 79 Mr. M e i g h e n : Then y o u w o u l d be q u i t e w i l l i n g t h a t t h e y s h o u l d g e t a f i a t and l e t them go o v e r ? Mr. S t e w a r t : 19 Oh y e s , i f t h e y wanted t o . A g r e e i n g t o l e t t h e I n d i a n s go t o t h e J u d i c i a l Com-m i t t e e , b u t r e f u s i n g t o p r o v i d e them w i t h f u n d s , was a r a t h e r empty c o n c e s s i o n . The c o s t o f i n s t i t u t i n g s u c h a c a s e w o u l d have been enormous. N o n e t h e l e s s , K e l l y p o u n c e d on S t e w a r t ' s s t a t e m e n t , l a t e r s a y i n g t h a t . . . t h e M i n i s t e r on b e h a l f o f t h e Government o f Canada . . . r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s a r e e n t i t l e d t o o b t a i n f r o m H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y and a g r e e d t h a t t h e Government w o u l d g i v e a u t h o r i t a t i v e s a n c t i o n f o r so d o i n g . 2 Q H a v i n g r e c e i v e d what t h e y t h o u g h t was government a p p r o v a l o f t h e i r g o a l o f t a k i n g t h e n a t i v e r i g h t s c a s e t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s t h e n s e t o u t t o s e c u r e government a s s i s t a n c e i n b r i n g i n g t h e c a s e t o c o u r t . On December 15, 1925, a g e n e r a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n t o s u b m i t a p e t i t i o n t o P a r l i a m e n t . The 21 p e t i t i o n , w h i c h was drawn up by K e l l y , r e c i t e d t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n and r e a f f i r m e d t h e 1919 s t a t e m e n t a s a d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ' c o n d i t i o n s f o r an e q u i t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t . The p e t i t i o n a l s o c a l l e d P a r l i a m e n t ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s u p p o s e d w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r t o a l l o w t h e I n d i a n s t o p r o c e e d t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. The p e t i t i o n c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l r e q u e s t s , t h e t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t b e i n g : 80 2. That steps be taken f o r d e f i n i n g and s e t t l i n g be-tween the A l l i e d Indian T r i b e s and the Dominion of Canada a l l i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g t o be decided between the Indian T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia on the one hand and the Government of Canada on the oth e r hand. 3. That immediate steps be taken f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the independent proceedings of the A l l i e d T r i b e s and e n a b l -i n g them by s e c u r i n g r e f e r e n c e of the p e t i t i o n now i n His Majesty's P r i v y C o u n c i l and such other independent j u d i c i a l a c t i o n as s h a l l be found necessary t o secure judgment of the J u d i c i a l Committee of H i s Majesty's P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i d i n g a l l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . 4. That t h i s p e t i t i o n and a l l r e l a t e d matters be r e f e r -red t o a S p e c i a l Committee f o r f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ^ The p e t i t i o n was given to W. G. McQuarrie, the Member o f Parliament f o r New Westminster, who presented i t 23 i n the House on June 9, 1926, The s e s s i o n ended a few days l a t e r , however, and the A l l i e d T r i b e s r e c e i v e d no response to t h e i r p e t i t i o n . A f t e r w a i t i n g i n v a i n f o r s e v e r a l months, the Execu-t i v e Committee i n s t r u c t e d O'Meara i n November, 1926, to w r i t e to the M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r i n v i t i n g h i s r e p l y t o 24 any or a l l of the cl a i m s submitted. The M i n i s t e r d i d not acknowledge the l e t t e r . On February 9, 19 27, H. H. Stevens, the Member f o r Vancouver Centre, questioned Prime M i n i s t e r Mackenzie King about the matter o f the cl a i m s of the A l l i e d T r i b e s . While I have not much sympathy w i t h some of the views e n t e r t a i n e d by those who are a g i t a t i n g the q u e s t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s I do t h i n k i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o s a t i s f y and q u i e t the Indians i n regard t o i t . I am anxious to co-operate i n g i v i n g them every o p p o r t u n i t y t o have the q u e s t i o n s e t t l e d but I do not t h i n k any headway w i l l be made i f i t i s allowed t o d r i f t any longer. . . . I would ask the Prime M i n i s t e r i f the government would c o n s i d e r 81 t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a s m a l l s e l e c t c o m m i t t e e t o h e a r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e I n d i a n s and g i v e t h e q u e s t i o n s t u d y i n o r d e r t o s e e i f we c a n n o t b r i n g i t t o a c o n c l u -s i o n . „ c 2b The P r i m e M i n i s t e r d e c l i n e d t o r e s p o n d t o Mr. S t e v e n s s u g g e s t i o n , b u t p r o p o s e d t h a t he d i r e c t h i s r e m a r k s t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r . S t e v e n s d i d so on F e b r u a r y 11. S t e w a r t r e p l i e d t h a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s t h a t t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n be t a k e n t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee . . . has n o t been g r a n t e d , a l t h o u g h i t i s r e c e i v i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n . We have a c o m m i t t e e o f t h e government a c t i n g i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e w o r k i n g on t h e s i t u a t i o n and e n d e a v o u r i n g t o r e a c h a d e c i s i o n a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t i t w o u l d be o f u s e t o sub-m i t t h e m a t t e r f o r j u d i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h t h e p r i v i -l e g e o f c a r r y i n g t h e wh o l e q u e s t i o n t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . W i t h r e g a r d t o S t e v e n s ' s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a c o m m i t t e e o f P a r l i a m e n t be a p p o i n t e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n , S t e w a r t r e p l i e d : I f a c o m m i t t e e o f p a r l i a m e n t would be h e l p f u l w i t h o u t g o i n g t o t h e e x p e n s e o f b r i n g i n g two o r t h r e e h u n d r e d w i t n e s s e s f r o m B.C., I w o u l d be i n c l i n e d t o a s k f o r t h a t a s s i s t a n c e , b u t t h e r e has been so much i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l r e a d y , so much e v i d e n c e t a k e n , t h a t I am i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k we had b e t t e r have a t r y a t a s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m by t h e p r e s e n t c o m m i t t e e and see i f we c a n n o t g e t t o g e t h e r . 2 y On F e b r u a r y 24, 1927, O'Meara p r e p a r e d y e t a n o t h e r memorandum, t h i s t i m e f o r t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e . I n "The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n Land C o n t r o v e r s y : I n t r o d u c t o r y N o t e s f o r t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada," O'Meara c l a i m e d t h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . . . a r e e n t i t l e d a c c o r d i n g t o B r i t i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d and f o u n d e d upon t h e p r o -v i s i o n s o f t h e Magna C a r t a , t o s e c u r e t h a t t h e i r P e t i t i o n s h a l l be r e f e r r e d t o a S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e . 0 Q 82 Two weeks l a t e r , on M a r c h 8, t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r i n t r o d u c e d a m o t i o n T h a t a s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e o f t h i s House . . . be a p p o i n t e d t o meet w i t h a s i m i l a r s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e o f t h e s e n a t e , i f s u c h a c o m m i t t e e be a p p o i n t e d , t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s s e t . f o r t h i n t h e i r p e t i t i o n s u b m i t t e d t o p a r l i a m e n t i n J u n e 1 9 2 6 . ^ The m o t i o n was a g r e e d t o . The Committee was t o b e g i n i t s i n q u i r y on M a r c h 22. I t i s n o t c l e a r why S t e w a r t d e c i d e d t o have t h e c l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s r e f e r r e d t o a S p e c i a l Committee. J u d g i n g by h i s r e m a r k s o f J u n e , 1925, he was c a s t i n g a b o u t f o r any s o l u t i o n t o t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y . P r e s u m a b l y t h e government committee had been u n a b l e t o p r o d u c e a s o l u -t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m and S t e w a r t was n o t p e r s o n a l l y i n f a v o u r o f a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee, a l t h o u g h he c o n -c e d e d t h a t s u c h a r e f e r e n c e was one p o s s i b l e r o u t e t o r e s o -l u t i o n . P e r h a p s , by C l a u s e 2 o f t h e p r a y e r f o r r e l i e f i n t h e i r 1926 p e t i t i o n , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s had u n w i t t i n g l y p r o v i d e d t h e government w i t h a c o n v e n i e n t way o f r e s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m s i n a manner s u g g e s t e d by t h e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s : T h a t s t e p s be t a k e n f o r d e f i n i n g and s e t t l i n g between t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s and t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada a l l i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g t o be d e c i d e d between t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e one hand and t h e Government o f Canada on t h e o t h e r hand. The A l l i e d T r i b e s d i d n o t s p e c i f y what " s t e p s " i t • d e s i r e d t o be t a k e n . I t was" t o r e g r e t t h i s c l a u s e , f o r t h e J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee w o u l d l a t e r a p p e a l t o i t i n 83 j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n to s e t t l e the Indian land c o n t r o -v e r s y once and f o r a l l , without r e f e r e n c e to any c o u r t of law. 84 Footnotes ^ " L a V i o l e t t e , p. 138. 2 I b i d . , p. 139. 3 F i l e 026076, #3. 4 J u l y 24, 1922, J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 14. O'Meara was n o t a t t h i s m e e t i n g . In a memorandum p r e s e n t e d t o t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r on A p r i l 23, 1923, P. D. M c T a v i s h o f t h e F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e J u l y m e e t i n g . . . was n o t c a l l e d by a u t h o r i t y o f t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . The m e e t i n g was a r r a n g e d and c a l l e d by a u t h o r i t y o f t h e I n d i a n D e p a r t m e n t . The I n d i a n s a t t e n d -i n g were a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f c h i e f s t o g e t h e r w i t h some members o f t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . The I n d i a n s who a t t e n d e d a c t e d w i t h o u t a d v i c e o f t h e G e n e r a l C o u n s e l o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e and w i t h o u t any i n d e p e n d e n t a d v i c e . ( F i l e 026076, #3). ^ J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 14. 6 I b i d . , P- 83. 7 I b i d . , P- 14. 8 I b i d . , P- 61. 9 I b i d . , P- 67. " ^ I b i d . , p. 69. "'""'"Ibid. , p. 71. I b i d . 13 The f o u r y e a r l a p s e o f t i m e between p a s s a g e o f t h e I n d i a n L a n ds S e t t l e m e n t A c t and t h e D o m i n i o n O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l r e s u l t e d i n p a r t f r o m t h e s t u d y o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n ' s R e p o r t u n d e r t a k e n by W. E. D i t c h b u r n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e D o m i n i o n Government, and M a j o r J . W. C l a r k , t h e P r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . D i t c h b u r n and C l a r k r e - e x a m i n e d t h e Commis-s i o n ' s f i n d i n g s and made s e v e r a l r e v i s i o n s . 14 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 24 2. 15 " P e t i t i o n t o P a r l i a m e n t , J u n e 1926," i b i d . , p. x x i . I b i d . 85 1 7 I b i d . 18 D e b a t e s o f t h e House o f Commons, J u n e 26, 1925, pp. 4993-4994. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 4994. 20 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. x x i . 2 1 I b i d . , p. 82. 22 I b i d . , p. x x i . T e x t o f t h e P e t i t i o n i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x D. 23 D e b a t e s o f t h e House o f Commons, J u n e 9, 1926, p. 4301. 24 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 87. 25 D e b a t e s o f t h e House o f Commons, F e b r u a r y 9, 1927, p. 174. 2 6 D e b a t e s o f t h e House o f Commons, F e b r u a r y 11, 1927, pp. 210-211. 27 I b i d . , p. 211. 2 8 J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 84. p. 985, 29 D e b a t e s o f t h e House o f Commons, M a r c h 8, 1927, 86 CHAPTER V THE "GREAT SETTLEMENT" OF 1927 A " S p e c i a l Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons m e e t i n g i n J o i n t S e s s i o n t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e C l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " c o n v e n e d on M a r c h 22, 1927 and h e l d s i t t i n g s on M a r c h 31, 31, and A p r i l 4, 5, and 6. The Committee c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r t e e n members, w i t h S e n a t o r H e w i t t B o s t o c k as C h a i r m a n . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e h e a r i n g s , e i g h t w i t n e s s e s were examined as w e l l as A. E. O'Meara and A. W. Beament, C o u n s e l f o r t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , and A. D. M c l n t y r e , C o u n s e l f o r t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f t h e I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S t e w a r t , t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r , had i n v i t e d P r e m i e r O l i v e r t o send a r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e t o t h e h e a r i n g s , b u t O l i v e r had declined."*" On t h e f i r s t day o f t h e h e a r i n g s , M a r c h 30, D. C. S c o t t , D e p uty S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O'Meara, Andrew P a u l l and P e t e r K e l l y were p r e s e n t . The w i t n e s s e s f o r t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s were n o t h e a r d , however, u n t i l t h e end o f t h e d a y ' s s e s s i o n , as t h e Hon. Mr. S t e v e n s s u g g e s t e d t h a t Dr. S c o t t d e s c r i b e t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y t o g i v e t h e c o m m i t t e e a " g r a s p o f t h e g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n . " T h i s r e q u e s t o b v i o u s l y came as no s u r p r i s e t o S c o t t , f o r he had a r r i v e d armed w i t h a " R e p o r t on t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Land S i t u a t i o n . " He p r o c e e d e d t o 87 r e a d h i s R e p o r t , f o r t w e n t y p a g e s o f e v i d e n c e . I n t h i s " s u c c i n c t " memorandum, S c o t t p r o p o s e d t o " p r e s e n t t h e f a c t s as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e and make s u c h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s as 2 a p p e a r t o be a p p r o p r i a t e . " I n t h e s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h o f h i s r e p o r t , S c o t t acknow-l e d g e d t h a t "no c e s s i o n o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e c l a i m e d by t h e I n d i a n s o v e r t h e l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Colum-3 b i a has e v e r b een s o u g h t o r o b t a i n e d . " The e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t were t h o s e l a n d s c o v e r e d by D o u g l a s ' t r e a t i e s and t h e n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r o f t h e P r o v i n c e w h i c h was•'. i n c l u d e d i n T r e a t y 8. T h i s acknowledgement must have been g r a t i f y i n g t o t h e I n d i a n s , a s i t a p p e a r e d t o c o n s t i t u t e an a c c e p t a n c e t h a t u n e x t i n g u i s h e d t i t l e e x i s t e d . T h i s may have been t h e i n t e n t o f S c o t t ' s s t a t e m e n t , b u t i t p r o v e d t o be o f l i t t l e b e n e f i t t o t h e I n d i a n s a s t h e Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l p r o c e e d e d t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r o f e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f and c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r n a t i v e t i t l e . I n S c o t t ' s o p i n i o n , t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and o t h e r p r o v i n c e s was t h e a b s e n c e o f t r e a t y — a n d t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mark o f a t r e a t y was payment 4 o f a n n u i t y . G r a n t e d t h a t t h e B.C. I n d i a n s had r e c e i v e d no a n n u i t i e s , b u t . . . i n a l l o t h e r r e s p e c t s l i k e e x p e n d i t u r e s a r i s i n g f r o m s i m i l a r m o t i v e s w i l l be f o u n d i n a l l t h e p r o v i n c e s . T h e r e has been no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . As t h e i r needs became a p p a r e n t t h e y have been s a t i s f i e d and t h e D o m i n i o n Government has g r a n t e d t h i s D e p a r t m e n t f u n d s t o d e v e l o p a p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i c y ($10,800,37 s i n c e c o n f e d e r a t i o n ) . I t i s c l e a r 88 t h a t g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by t h e D o m i n i o n has b een c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e same c a r e , g o v e r n e d by t h e same p r i n c i p l e s a s t h e g e n e r a l t r u s t , and t h a t t h e n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n has n o t p r e j u d i c i a l l y a f f e c t e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s e I n d i a n s . -S c o t t o b v i o u s l y o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d t h e m e aning and e f f e c t o f a t r e a t y . O t h e r t h i n g s t h a n a n n u i t i e s were p r o -v i d e d by t h e s e a g r e e m e n t s , n o t a b l y r e s e r v e l a n d s . S c o t t a l s o o m i t t e d t o d i s c u s s t h e r e a s o n f o r c o n c l u d i n g a t r e a t y — b e n e -f i t s were p r o v i d e d t o t h e I n d i a n s i n e x c h a n g e f o r t h e e x t i n -g u i s h m e n t o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . S c o t t ' s i n t e n t i s c l e a r . He was t r y i n g t o m i n i m i z e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e I n d i a n s had s u f f e r e d a s a r e s u l t o f l a c k o f a t r e a t y . The l a t t e r i s s u e was e s s e n t i a l l y i n c i d e n t a l t o t h e I n d i a n s ' c l a i m s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , b u t t h e m a t t e r no d o u b t loomed l a r g e t o t h o s e e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e compen-s a t i o n . S c o t t went on t o d e s c r i b e t h e more r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f G o v e r n m e n t - I n d i a n r e l a t i o n s i n B.C., e m p h a s i z i n g t h e D o m i n i o n Government's w i l l i n g n e s s i n 1923 t o seek " r e a s o n a b l e compen-s a t i o n w h i c h t h e D o m i n i o n Government m i g h t s u p p l y w i t h o u t i n v o l v i n g t h e Government o f t h e P r o v i n c e . " H a v i n g l e f t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t u n r e a s o n a b l y h i g h n a t i v e demands had t e r m i n -a t e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t - I n d i a n d i s c u s s i o n s , S c o t t p r o c e e d e d t o r e a d some " g e n e r a l r e m a r k s . " ^ I n t h e s e c o n c l u d i n g comments, t h e D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n -d e n t G e n e r a l r e p e a t e d h i s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had 89 s u f f e r e d no d i s a b i l i t y as a r e s u l t o f n o n - e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . I n h i s v i e w , any c o m p e n s a t i o n t h a t t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t be e n t i t l e d t o had b e en g r a n t e d . . . by t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e s e r v e s and by t h e e x t e n s i o n t o t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f t h e p o l i c y w h i c h o b t a i n s i n t h e o t h e r P r o v i n c e s o f t h e D o m i n i o n . j He went on t o s u g g e s t t h e u n p l e a s a n t and e v e n d i s -a s t r o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s w h i c h m i g h t f o l l o w an I n d i a n v i c t o r y i n c o u r t : F i r s t , t h e r e would be a c l o u d on a l l t h e l a n d t i t l e s i s s u e d by t h e P r o v i n c e ; S e c o n d , t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n m i g h t be p u t i n q u e s t i o n o r i n v a l i d a t e d , t h u s j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e b e n e f i t s t h e I n d i a n s r e c e i v e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e R e p o r t . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t w h i c h had c a u s e d McKenna t o a g r e e t h a t t h e F e d e r a - P r o v i n c i a l d i s p u t e r e s p e c t i n g a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e be d r o p p e d , S c o t t s t a t e d , s t i l l o b t a i n e d . I n s h o r t , t h e q u e s t i o n o f n a t i v e t i t l e was a s mcuh a m a t t e r o f p u b l i c p o l i c y as o f I n d i a n p o l i c y . S e r i o u s t h o u g h t o u g h t t o be g i v e n t o t h e e f f e c t s o f a p o s s i b l e I n d i a n w i n i n c o u r t on f u t u r e F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s , so r e c e n t l y i m p r o v e d by i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . T u r n i n g a g a i n t o t h e I n d i a n s ' demands f o r compensa-t i o n , S c o t t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e v a l u e o f l a n d s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f a s s e s s i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was 90 n o t i n c r e a s e d a s a r e s u l t o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t and i m p r o v e -ments. On t h e b a s i s o f D o u g l a s ' payments t o t h e I n d i a n s o f s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , t h e " s u r r e n d e r v a l u e " o f t h e u n e x t i n g u i s h e d t i t l e amounted t o $251,097, o r a b o u t $1.00 p e r s q u a r e m i l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s amount, a l l t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d r e c e i v e u n d e r t r e a t y w o u l d be t h e o r d i n a r y a n n u i t y o f $5.00 p e r c a p i t a — a p i t t a n c e compared t o t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s w h i c h t h e D o m i n i o n had a l r e a d y made a l t h o u g h n o t r e q u i r e d t o by t r e a t y . I n c o n c l u d i n g , S c o t t e m p h a s i z e d t h e many b e n e f i t s w h i c h had a c c r u e d t o t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e as a r e s u l t o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t and Government b e n e v o l e n c e : t h e y were now an Q " e d u c a t e d and p r o g r e s s i v e " r a t h e r t h a n a " p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e . " I n v i e w o f t h e f o r e g o i n g , Dr. S c o t t f e l t t h a t any c l a i m s t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t have had had been f u l l y c o m pensated by o r d i n a r y Government e x p e n d i t u r e s . T h e i r r e q u e s t t o go t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee s h o u l d be r e f u s e d . I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w i n g S c o t t ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t s i n c e t h e P r o v i n c e owned t h e l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s c l a i m e d by t h e I n d i a n s , i f t h e n a t i v e s went t o c o u r t , B.C. w o u l d be t h e d e f e n d a n t . As t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government had r e f u s e d t o g i v e any more l a n d s t h a n t h o s e p r o v i d e d u n d e r t h e t e r m s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t , and f u r t h e r , had r e f u s e d t o a t t e n d t h e h e a r i n g s o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee, i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e Hon. Mr. B e l c o u r t , t h e work o f t h e Committee was f i n i s h e d : 91 We c a n n o t s u g g e s t a n y t h i n g t o o u r p a r l i a m e n t t h a t c o u l d be a t a l l e f f e c t i v e . I f we were t o d e c i d e on t h i s q u e s t i o n i n law, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d r e f u s e t o a c c e p t o u r j u r i s d i c t i o n . I f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t a k e s t h e g r o u n d t h a t t h e y have an agreement and t h a t i s t h e end o f i t , I do n o t s e e what p u r p o s e t h i s c o m m i t t e e c a n s e r v e by h e a r i n g a l l t h e s e p e o p l e . I t seems t o me t h a t we a r e up a g a i n s t an i n s u p e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y . . . . On t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , I s a y i t i s u t t e r l y h o p e l e s s f o r us t o p r o c e e d . ^ The Hon. Mr. S t e w a r t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e d i s p u t e was n o t between t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s , b u t betv/een t h e I n d i a n s and government. E v e n i f Mr. B e l c o u r t were r i g h t , i t w o u l d be bad f o r m t o c l o s e t h e h e a r i n g s a f t e r l i s t e n i n g o n l y t o Dr. S c o t t . As t h e h e a r i n g s c o n t i n u e d , t h e I n d i a n s were p l a c e d i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f r e b u t t i n g S c o t t ' s s t a t e m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n p r e s e n t i n g e v i d e n c e and argument i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i r own p o s i t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f A. W. Beament, an a s s o c i a t e o f O'Meara's, t h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s had r e q u e s t e d a h e a r i n g t o " s a t i s f y t h e co m m i t t e e t h a t . . . t h e r e a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l e g a l q u e s t i o n s a t i s s u e between t h e I n d i a n s and th e two governments,""'"^ t h e Committee u n d e r t o o k t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s . The Hon. R. B. B e n n e t t made i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t he, a t l e a s t , i n t e n d e d t h e m a t t e r t o go no f u r t h e r t h a n t h e Committee: P a r a g r a p h 2 [of t h e 1926 P e t i t i o n ' s p r a y e r f o r r e l i e f ] i s t h e i m p o r t a n t one; t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n f o r d e f i n i n g and s e t t l i n g between t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and t h e D o m i n i o n . T h a t i s a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and we w i l l s e t t l e t h e m a t t e r h e r e . ^ The Committee's i n s i s t e n c e on h a v i n g t h e " f a c t s " p u t t h e I n d i a n s a t a g r e a t d i s a d v a n t a g e , f o r t h e y had come 92 p r e p a r e d t o p r e s e n t a rguments i n law and o p i n i o n s o f p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s a s t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f r e f e r r i n g t h e c a s e t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. The Committee wanted h a r d f a c t s w h i c h p r o v e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and demon-s t r a t e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t o f non-r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h a t t i t l e . O'Meara was t o p r e s e n t t h e main c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a r g u -ment, and t h i s c h o i c e o f a spokesman b a d l y p r e j u d i c e d t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ' p o s i t i o n . P u b l i c o f f i c i a l s ' o p i n i o n s o f O'Meara had n o t changed f o r t h e b e t t e r s i n c e 1920. Two members, B e l c o u r t and S t e v e n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s l i k e d him, b u t O'Meara's wordy, r e p e t i t i o u s and pompous manner soon e x a s p e r a t e d t h e e n t i r e Committee. O'Meara i n s i s t e d on r e a d -i n g l o n g documents t h a t c o u l d have been f i l e d i n t h e r e c o r d and annoyed t h e Committee by q u o t i n g e x t r a c t s f r o m l e g a l o p i n i o n s , o f t e n o u t o f c o n t e x t and u s u a l l y w i t h o u t c i t i n g t h e s o u r c e s . A f t e r p r o m i s i n g t o s t a t e h i s p o s i t i o n i n f i v e m i n u t e s , he d r a g g e d i t o u t t o f i f t y . By t h e t i m e he had c o n c l u d e d h i s f i r s t argument, t h e Committee was f r u s t r a t e d , i f n o t i n f u r i a t e d . Hon. Mr. Green: Mr. C h a i r m a n , I t h i n k we have h e a r d enough o f t h i s p i f f l e . . . . I t h i n k we have h e a r d a l l we want t o h e a r f r o m Mr. O'Meara. Hon. Mr. Murphy: The f i v e m i n u t e s have been expanded i n t o f i f t y . Hon. Mr. Stevens: . . . I f t h e C h a i r m a n w i l l p e r m i t i t he w i l l go on f o r two weeks w i t h t h i s k i n d o f r u b b i s h . 93 The Chairman: I f you have f i n i s h e d t h a t s t a t e m e n t , Mr. O'Meara, we want t h e document handed i n t o t h e C l e r k o f t h e Committee. Mr. O'Meara: I am now r e a d y t o p r e s e n t t h e P e t i t i o n . Hon. Mr. Stevens: We do n o t need t h e P e t i t i o n . We have been p l e a d i n g w i t h you t o g i v e us s o m e t h i n g i n s u p p o r t o f t h a t P e t i t i o n and y o u have up t o t h i s moment p e r s i s -t e n t l y r e f u s e d . Mr. O'Meara: No, p a r d o n me. I have been e n d e a v o u r i n g t o r e a c h t h a t p o i n t . Hon. Mr. Stevens: You have n o t e v e n r e a c h e d a b e g i n n i n g . I t h i n k t h i s i s an e x h i b i t i o n o f what t h e I n d i a n t r i b e s have been o b l i g e d t o p u t up w i t h . Hon. Mr. Green: I t i s what t h e y have had t o p u t up w i t h . Hon. Mr. Stevens: Y e s , i t i s what t h e y have had t o p u t up w i t h , and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y have been d e l u d e d and d e c e i v e d by t h i s man f o r n i n e t e e n y e a r s t o my knowledge i s p l a i n . I remember t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g i n V a n c o u v e r . I p r e s i d e d o v e r i t as a c t i n g Mayor, and I t o o k t h e s t a n d t h e n t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e was i n i m i c a l t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e I n d i a n s . I have been i n t o u c h w i t h him e v e r s i n c e , and t h i s i s an e x h i b i t i o n o f what t h e s e t r i b e s have been up a g a i n s t f o r n i n e t e e n y e a r s . Hon. Mr. Murphy: And now he wants t o do t o t h e Committee what he has been d o i n g t o t h e I n d i a n s . Hon. Mr. Stevens: I t h i n k i t i s an o u t r a g e m y s e l f , j u s t an o u t r a g e . ^ As i f t h e h o s t i l i t y p r o v o k e d by O'Meara were n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y damaging t o t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ' c a s e , on t h e t h i r d day o f h e a r i n g s , Mr. A. D. M c l n t y r e a p p e a r e d and i n f o r m e d t h e Committee t h a t he, n o t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , r e p r e -s e n t e d t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D e s p i t e P e t e r K e l l y ' s o b j e c t i o n s t h a t any spokesman f o r I n d i a n s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s had no b u s i n e s s a t t h e h e a r i n g s , t h e Committee p e r m i t t e d Mr. M c l n t y r e and 94 h i s w i t n e s s e s t o sp e a k . M c l n t y r e s t a t e d t h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was an o r g a n -i z a t i o n o f c o a s t I n d i a n s and t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m a t t e r s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e com m i t t e e by t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d n o t 13 c o n c e r n t h e I n t e r i o r I n d i a n s a t a l l . The I n d i a n s o f t h e I n t e r i o r , he s t a t e d , had no i n t e r e s t i n most o f t h e s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e 1919 p e t i t i o n , and f u r t h e r were n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . What t h e y wanted was s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e t o t h e i r r e s e r v e l a n d s . M c l n t y r e t h e n i n t r o d u c e d C h i e f s J o h n C h i l i h i t z a and B a s i l D a v i d , who were, i n 1927, v e r y o l d men. Whereas t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s s o u g h t more e d u c a t i o n , i m p r o v e d m e d i c a l c a r e and p r o v i s i o n s t o g i v e them more c o n t r o l o v e r I n d i a n f u n d s and t h e c o n d u c t o f l i f e on t h e r e s e r v e s — a l l b e n e f i t s i n t e n d e d t o h e l p m o d e r n i z e t h e I n d i a n s — C h i l i h i t z a s t a t e d t h a t . . . a l l t h e I n d i a n s want i s t o be j u s t I n d i a n s , and n o t t o be t a k e n a s w h i t e p e o p l e and made t o l i v e l i k e w h i t e p e o p l e . They want t o be t h e way t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s u s e d t o be, j u s t p l a i n I n d i a n s . ^ The m a i n i n t e r e s t s o f t h e I n t e r i o r I n d i a n s , s a i d C h i l i h i t z a , were more w a t e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n and t h e r i g h t t o hunt and f i s h u n m o l e s t e d . When P e t e r K e l l y was c a l l e d , he t r i e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e damage c a u s e d by t h e I n t e r i o r I n d i a n s and t h e i r l a w y e r s . . . . t h e r e a r e two g r o u p s o f t h i n g s w h i c h must be c o n -s i d e r e d : one i s t h e I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s and i t was t o overcome one ph a s e o f t h e I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s t h a t t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n was a p p o i n t e d i n t h e y e a r 1913. B u t 95 t h a t C o m m i s s i o n l o o k e d i n t o j u s t one t h i n g , o n l y one p h a s e o f I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s and t h a t was t o p r o v i d e I n d i a n s w i t h a d e q u a t e l a n d s . . . . Now t h e o t h e r s i d e i s t h i s : a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h a t i s a f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e . T h a t i s t o s a y , t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were n o t t r e a t e d as I n d i a n t r i b e s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h i s D o m i n i o n , n o t b e c a u s e i t was n o t known a t a l l , b u t a f t e r some e n d e a v o u r on t h e p a r t o f t h e C o l o n i a l G o v e r n -ment i n t h e e a r l y d a y s when g o v e r n m e n t s s t r o v e t o d e a l w i t h t h i s g r e a t f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e , and I r e f e r f r a n k l y t o t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e o f t h e I n d i a n s . ^ A l t h o u g h K e l l y was p e r m i t t e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h h i s e v i d e n c e , M c l n t y r e ' s t e s t i m o n y must have i n f l u e n c e d t h e Committee. The A l l i e d T r i b e s , a f t e r M c l n t y r e ' s a p p e a r a n c e , c o u l d no l o n g e r m a i n t a i n t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t ..it r e p r e s e n t e d a l l t h e t r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , n o r c o u l d i t : c l a i m t o s t a t e t h e demands o f a l l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s . I n h i s t e s t i m o n y , K e l l y a t t e m p t e d t o f o c u s t h e C o mmittee's a t t e n t i o n on t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , b u t t h e members were more i n t e r e s t e d i n s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e s . The Committee p o i n t e d o u t t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l sums had b e e n s p e n t on e d u c a t i o n — o n e o f K e l l y ' s m a i n c o n c e r n s — and i n o t h e r a r e a s s u c h as m e d i c a l c a r e . K e l l y c o u n t e r e d t h a t t h e s t a t e was, a f t e r a l l , o b l i g e d t o p r o v i d e s u c h s e r v i c e s t o a l l C a n a d i a n s , n o t o n l y I n d i a n s . I n t h e m i d s t o f a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o p e r s i z e o f t h e b u d g e t o f t h e I n d i a n D e p a r t m e n t , t h e Hon. Mr. S t e v e n s a s k e d K e l l y : S uppose t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d . Suppose r e c o g n i t i o n was r e f u s e d , what p o s i t i o n do you t a k e t h e n ? Kelly: Then t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t we w o u l d have t o t a k e w o u l d be t h i s : t h a t we a r e s i m p l y d e p e n d e n t p e o p l e . Then 96 we wo u l d have t o a c c e p t f r o m y o u , j u s t a s an a c t o f g r a c e , w h a t e v e r you saw f i t t o g i v e u s . Now t h a t i s p u t t i n g i t i n p l a i n l a n g u a g e . The I n d i a n s have no v o i c e i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h i s c o u n t r y . They have n o t a s o l i -t a r y way o f b r i n g i n g a n y t h i n g b e f o r e t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f t h i s c o u n t r y e x c e p t as we have done l a s t y e a r by P e t i -t i o n and i t i s a m i g h t y h a r d t h i n g . I f we p r e s s f o r t h a t , we a r e c a l l e d a g i t a t o r s , s i m p l y a g i t a t o r s , t r o u b l e makers, when we t r y t o g e t what we c o n s i d e r t o be o u r r i g h t s . I t i s a m i g h t y h a r d t h i n g and as I have s a i d i t has t a k e n us between f o r t y and f i f t y y e a r s t o g e t where we a r e t o d a y . And p e r h a p s i f we a r e t u r n e d down now, i f t h i s Committee s e e s f i t t o t u r n down what we a r e p r e s s i n g f o r , i t m i g h t be a n o t h e r c e n t u r y b e f o r e a new g e n e r a t i o n w i l l r i s e up and b e g i n t o p r e s s t h i s c l a i m . I f t h i s q u e s t i o n i s n o t s e t t l e d , i n a p r o p e r way on a sound b a s i s , i t w i l l n o t be s e t t l e d p r o p e r l y . Now t h a t i s t h e p o i n t t h a t we want t o s t r e s s . I n t h i s s t a t e m e n t , K e l l y e x p r e s s e d what was p e r h a p s t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e I n d i a n s ' c l a i m s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r -i g i n a l t i t l e . Whether t h e I n d i a n s had been d e p r i v e d o f l a n d o r a n n u i t i e s was r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t compared t o t h e f a c t t h a t w i t h o u t r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , a l l t h e I n d i a n s had r e c e i v e d and wo u l d r e c e i v e would be g i v e n t o them as c h a r i t y . E n t i t l e d by r i g h t t o n o t h i n g , t h e y w o u l d f o r e v e r depend on t h e b e n e v o l e n c e o f government. K e l l y ' s b l e a k p r e d i c t i o n o f a f u t u r e o f p e r p e t u a l c h a r i t y made l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n on t h e members o f t h e Commit-t e e . The h e a r i n g s c a r r i e d on. O'Meara r o s e a g a i n t o v e x t h e members w i t h odd b i t s o f documents, o p i n i o n s o f p a s t P r i m e M i n i s t e r s and d u b i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f judgments and l e g a l o p i n i o n s . On A p r i l 4, 5, and 6, t h e I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r B.C. and t h e D i r e c t o r o f F i s h e r i e s a p p e a r e d . S p e c i f i c a n swers t o s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s were d i s c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h , t h e members a p p a r e n t l y r e l i e v e d t o be a b l e t o d i s c u s s mat-t e r s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e vague c o n c e p t s o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . The members were n o t much i m p r e s s e d w i t h O ' M e a r a 1 s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l argument; t h e y were t i r e d o f d i s -c u s s i n g t h e o b v i o u s i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s p r o c e e d i n g d i r e c t l y t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. They wanted c o n c r e t e p r o p o s a l s t o w a r d t h e s o l u t i o n o f c o n c r e t e p r o b l e m s . F i n a l l y , on t h e l a s t day, K e l l y a t t e m p t e d t o a r g u e o n c e a g a i n t h a t t h e m a t t e r o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e g overnment had t r e a t e d I n d i a n s g e n e r o u s l y was n o t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n . I t was t h e m a t t e r o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t h a t was a t i s s u e . Then t h e Hon. Mr. B a r n a r d d r o p p e d a b o m b s h e l l : [Mr. K e l l y ] , y o u know what e s t o p p e l i s i n law? Kelly: I must c o n f e s s I do n o t . Barnard: I f two men a c t as i f a c o n t r a c t were i n exis-^ t e n c e , a c t m u t u a l l y upon i t , t h e y c a n n o t a f t e r w a r d s deny t h a t i t d i d e x i s t . Kelly: P r o v i d e d a b a r g a i n has b e e n s t r u c k . Barnard: No. Stevens: T h a t i s a p r i n c i p l e o f law w h i c h i s v e r y i m p o r -t a n t w h i c h Mr. B a r n a r d has s u g g e s t e d . I n d e p e n d e n t o f w r i t t e n law i n law c o u r t s , where two men who may be w h o l l y i g n o r a n t o f t h e law by m u t u a l c o n s e n t go on a c e r t a i n l i n e , s h a r e m u t u a l b e n e f i t s and so on, t h a t becomes i n t h e e y e s o f a c o u r t o f law o r has t h e e f f e c t o f a c o n t r a c t . Bay: T h a t i s , y o u c a n n o t t a k e t h e b e n e f i t s o f a n o t h e r man's a c t i o n s and deny t h a t p a r t y has a p a r t i n t h e c o n -t r a c t . Y o u r a c t i o n e s t o p s you f r o m r a i s i n g t h a t o b j e c -t i o n . ^ The Committee was n o t a c o u r t o f law. The p e t i t i o n e r s had no o p p o r t u n i t y t o a r g u e w h e t h e r t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e s t o p p e l 98 a p p l i e d , w h e t h e r t h e " c o n t r a c t " e n t e r e d i n t o was one o f b e n e f i t s i n e x c h a n g e f o r a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . B u t as f a r a s t h e Committee was c o n c e r n e d , t h a t was t h e end o f i t . The I n d i a n s had a l r e a d y t r a d e d t h e i r c l a i m t o a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e f o r Government l a r g e s s e , and i t was t o o l a t e t o r e n e g o t i a t e t h e t e r m s o f t h e a greement. The h e a r i n g s c o n c l u d e d on A p r i l 6, 1927. F i v e d a y s l a t e r t h e Committee s u b m i t t e d i t s f i n a l r e p o r t t o P a r l i a m e n t . The r e p o r t d i s c u s s e d t h e s p e c i f i c c l a i m s o f t h e 1919 p e t i t i o n and made some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , f o r example, t h a t " s p e c i a l e f f o r t s s h o u l d be a t a l l t i m e s made--and i t i s as much i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e w h i t e c i t i z e n s as o f t h e I n d i a n s — t o 18 d i m i n i s h t h e i n c i d e n c e o f t u b e r c u l o s i s . " W i t h r e s p e c t t o h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g , t h e Committee c o n s i d e r e d t h a t "an e x t r e m e l y s y m p a t h e t i c and l i b e r a l v i e w o f t h e I n d i a n s i t u -a t i o n s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e r e g u l a t i o n s and t h e i r e n f o r c e m e n t as a g a i n s t I n d i a n s . The a m e l i o r a t i o n o f l o c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s must be worked o u t w i t h l o c a l o f f i c e r s , and we a r e c o n v i n c e d o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l e n i e n c y i n t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e 19 r e g u l a t i o n s . " The Committee d i d n o t recommend t h a t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s be c h a n g e d . I n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e I n d i a n s ' c l a i m f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , t h e Committee s t a t e d : . . . t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was f i r s t r e p r e s e n t e d as a l e g a l c l a i m a g a i n s t t h e Crown a b o u t f i f t e e n y e a r s ago. The c l a i m t h e n began t o t a k e f o r m as one w h i c h s h o u l d be s a t i s f i e d by a t r e a t y o r a greement w i t h t h e I n d i a n s i n w h i c h c o n d i t i o n s and t e r m s p u t f o r w a r d by them o r on 99 t h e i r b e h a l f must be c o n s i d e r e d and a g r e e d upon b e f o r e a c e s s i o n o f t h e a l l e g e d t i t l e w o u l d be g r a n t e d . T r a d i -t i o n f o r m s so l a r g e a p a r t o f t h e I n d i a n m e n t a l i t y t h a t i f i n p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n d a y s t h e I n d i a n s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y had an a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o t h e l a n d s o f t h e P r o -v i n c e , t h e r e would have b e e n t r i b a l r e c o r d s o f s u c h b e i n g t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m f a t h e r t o s o n , e i t h e r by word o f mouth o r i n some o t h e r c u s t o m a r y way. B u t n o t h i n g o f t h e k i n d was shown t o e x i s t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e e v i d e n c e o f Mr. K e l l y goes t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e I n d i a n s were c o n s e n t -i n g p a r t i e s t o t h e w h o l e p o l i c y o f t h e government b o t h as t o r e s e r v e s and o t h e r b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e y a c c e p t e d f o r y e a r s w i t h o u t demur. . . . The f a c t was a d m i t t e d t h a t i t was n o t u n t i l f i f t e e n - y e a r s ago t h a t a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was f i r s t p u t f o r w a r d as a f o r m a l l e g a l c l a i m by t h o s e who have e v e r s i n c e made i t a bone o f c o n t e n t i o n and by some a s o u r c e o f l i v e l i h o o d as w e l l ^ g The Committee d i d n o t s p a r e O'Meara and o t h e r w h i t e f r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s : The Committee n o t e w i t h r e g r e t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a g i t a t i o n n o t o n l y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b u t w i t h I n d i a n s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e D o m i n i o n w h i c h a g i t a t i o n may be c a l l e d m i s -c h i e v o u s , by w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s a r e d e c e i v e d and l e d t o e x p e c t b e n e f i t s f r o m c l a i m s more o r l e s s f i c t i t i o u s . S u c h a g i t a t i o n , o f t e n c a r r i e d on by d e s i g n i n g w h i t e men i s t o be d e p l o r e d and s h o u l d be d i s c o u n t e n a n c e d , as t h e Government o f t h e c o u n t r y i s a t a l l t i m e s r e a d y t o p r o -t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e I n d i a n s and t o r e d r e s s r e a l g r i e v a n c e s where s u c h a r e shown t o e x i s t . 2 ^ Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e Committee came t o t h e unanimous d e c i s i o n t h a t " . . . t h e P e t i t i o n e r s have n o t e s t a b l i s h e d any c l a i m t o t h e l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b a s e d on a b o r i g i n a l o r o t h e r t i t l e and . . . t h e m a t t e r s h o u l d now be r e g a r d e d as 22 f i n a l l y c l o s e d . " The Committee, d o u b t l e s s i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f S c o t t ' s t e s t i m o n y t h a t t h e o n l y b e n e f i t o f w h i c h t h e B.C. I n d i a n s were d e p r i v e d was a n n u i t i e s , recommended t h a t a sum o f $100,00 0 be expended a n n u a l l y i n l i e u o f a n n u i t i e s . T h i s amount e q u a l l e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y $5.00 p e r head b a s e d on t h e 100 t h e n c u r r e n t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . I w o u l d n o t i n c r e a s e i f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , b u t t h e n i t was n o t u n t i l t h e 1930's t h a t i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e I n d i a n s , c o n t r a r y t o p r e v i o u s i n d i c a t i o n s , were n o t d y i n g o u t . I n c o n c l u d i n g , y o u r Committee w o u l d recommend t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d a t s h o u l d be made known as c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e t o t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by d i r e c -t i o n o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may become aware o f t h e f i n a l i t y o f f i n d i n g s and a d v i s e d t h a t no f u n d s s h o u l d be c o n t r i b u t e d by them t o c o n t i n u e f u r t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a c l a i m w h i c h has now b e en d i s a l l o w e d . ^ The p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t f u n d - r a i s i n g was h a r d l y news. On M a r c h 31, t h e f i r s t day o f Committee h e a r i n g s , P a r l i a m e n t had p a s s e d an amendment t o t h e I n d i a n A c t p r o h i b i t i n g a l l f u n d - r a i s i n g f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a d v a n c i n g I n d i a n c l a i m s . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee, t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o l l a p s e d . Footnotes J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee, p. 2 I b i d . , P- 3. 3 I b i d . 4 I b i d . , P. 10. 5 I b i d . 6 I b i d . , P- 14. 7 I b i d . 8 I b i d . , P- 18. 9 I b i d . , pp. 22-23. I b i d . » P- 28 . I b i d . , P- 77. I b i d . , P- 92. I b i d . , P- 139. 1 4 T , . , I b i d . i P- 142. 15,,. , I b i d . / P. 147. I b i d . > P. 160. I b i d . / PP . 224-225. 18.. I b i d . / P- x v i i . 1 9 _.., I b i d . r P. X V . I b i d . / P- v i i i . I b i d . ' PP . v i i i - i x . 22 I b i d . f P- x i . 23 I b i d . , P- x v i i i . 102 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS The p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s have d e s c r i b e d t h e o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n p u r s u e d i t s c l a i m t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s and c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e a b r o g a t i o n o f t h o s e a l l e g e d r i g h t s . The A l l i e d T r i b e s f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f i t s c l a i m ; t h e blow d e l i v e r e d i t by t h e J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee i n 1927 c r u s h e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Why d i d t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s f a i l ? The A l l i e d T r i b e s was h i n d e r e d f r o m t h e o u t s e t by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m . A l t h o u g h t h e c l a i m r e f l e c t e d t h e g e n u i n e c o n c e r n o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t t h e i r l a n d s and l i f e s t y l e s had b e en t a k e n f r o m them w i t h o u t payment o f c o m p e n s a t i o n by t h e Crown, i t s f o r m u -l a t i o n as a c l a i m i n law was t h e work o f w h i t e men who s y m p a t h i z e d w i t h t h e I n d i a n s ' g r i e v a n c e s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s e v e r f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e n o t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . T h e i r l a w y e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s seems as w e l l t o have been questionable."*" The I n d i a n s ' p e r s i s t e n c e i n s e e k i n g a j u d i c i a l d e c i -s i o n on t h e i s s u e stemmed, i t seems, a l m o s t e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r w h i t e a d v i s o r s , e s p e c i a l l y O'Meara, 103 who was o b s e s s e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f t a k i n g t h e c a s e t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . O'Meara's a p p o i n t -ment as g e n e r a l c o u n s e l t o t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was u n f o r t u n a t e . He was p r o b a b l y n o t as s e l f - s e r v i n g and u n s c r u p u l o u s as some members o f t h e D o m i n i o n and P r o v i n c i a l Governments t h o u g h t him t o be. However, he u n d o u b t e d l y d e r i v e d g r e a t s a t i s f a c -t i o n f r o m d i r e c t i n g t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and he was f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h e p r o s p e c t o f t a k i n g t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m t o t h e h i g h e s t c o u r t i n t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e . He was, i n a d d i t i o n , pompous and o v e r b e a r i n g , and t h e s e q u a l i -t i e s e a r n e d him no f r i e n d s among t h o s e whom he a t t e m p t e d t o c o n v i n c e o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ' c l a i m s . Had O'Meara n o t been b e n t on t a k i n g t h e c a s e t o t h e J u d i c i a l C ommittee, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s m i g h t have s u c c e e d e d , by more c o n c i l i a t o r y methods t h a n t h r e a t e n i n g c o u r t a c t i o n , i n o b t a i n i n g some c o n c e s s i o n s t o i t s c o m p l a i n t s . As i t was, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , u n d e r O'Meara's p r o m p t i n g , a d v a n c e d c l a i m s w h i c h , a t l e a s t i n t h e ^ e y e s o f p o l i t i c i a n s o f t h e day, were e x t r a v a g a n t and g r o u n d l e s s . P e r h a p s t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s m i g h t n e v e r have been m o b i l i z e d w i t h o u t O'Meara's i n v o l v e m e n t , y e t h i s d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e v e n t e d i t f r o m a c h i e v -i n g t h e d e s i r e d improvements i n s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c a r e a s w h i c h i n l a r g e p a r t u n d e r l a y t h e c l a i m . What O'Meara and h i s I n d i a n c l i e n t s n e v e r r e a l i z e d was t h a t t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m was a p o l i t i c a l , n o t a l e g a l , i s s u e . The o n l y o c c a s i o n upon w h i c h t h e D o m i n i o n 104 C a b i n e t t o o k c o n c r e t e s t e p s t o b r i n g t h e m a t t e r t o c o u r t i n t h e f a c e o f B.C.'s o p p o s i t i o n , was i n 1911 when L a u r i e r ' s g overnment amended t h e I n d i a n A c t t o p e r m i t t h e i s s u e t o be r e f e r r e d t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada, w i t h o r w i t h o u t P r o v i n c i a l c o n c u r r e n c e . A t t h a t t i m e , D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t s t o s e t t l e t h e m a t t e r o f r e s e r v e a l l o t m e n t s had b r o k e n down e n t i r e l y , and L a u r i e r was r e a d y t o t a k e d r a s t i c a c t i o n t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e . When B o r d e n r e p l a c e d L a u r i e r as P r i m e M i n i s t e r and e s t a b l i s h e d more a m i c a b l e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P r e m i e r M c B r i d e , t h e q u e s t i o n o f t a k i n g t h e c a s e t o c o u r t was d r o p p e d . W i t h t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e McKenna-McBride Agreement and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a C o m m i s s i o n t o f i n a l l y s e t t l e D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l d i s p u t e s ( w h i c h no l o n g e r i n c l u d e d a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e ) , no D o m i n i o n Government t h e r e a f t e r s u p p o r t e d t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o r e a c h t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. I n t h e 1914 p r o p o s e d r e f e r e n c e t o t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t , t h e P r o v i n c e was a b s o l v e d o f a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e c o m p e n s a t i o n o v e r and above t h e l a n d s t o be g i v e n u n d e r t h e McKenna-McBride Agreement, an a b s o l u t i o n w h i c h would have e f f e c t i v e l y p r e v e n t e d t h e I n d i a n s f r o m g a i n i n g any s i g n i f i c a n t p r i v i l e g e s i n t h e a r e a s o f l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s . S t e w a r t ' s h a l f - h e a r t e d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e n d i n g t h e c l a i m t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee c a n h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d s u p p o r t . Had t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r e s e r v i n g s a t i s f a c -t o r y r e l a t i o n s between Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , r a t h e r 105 t h a n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e c u r i n g a j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n w h i c h m i g h t have s e v e r e l y damaged t h e s e r e l a t i o n s , d i c t a t e d t h e outcome o f t h e I n d i a n s ' • e f f o r t s t o s e c u r e s u c h a d e c i s i o n , i t s members m i g h t have s a v e d t h e m s e l v e s a good d e a l o f t i m e , money and d i s a p p o i n t e m e n t . The s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s b e t r a y e d b o t h p o l i t i c a l n a i v e t e and a l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l , f i n a n c i a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . The p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was, i n any e v e n t , s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d by t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s on I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . They l a c k e d b o t h t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l v o t e and c o u l d n o t r u n f o r e l e c -t i o n ; t h e y were n o t p a r t o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l community. T h i s e x c l u s i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c n a t u r e o f F e d e r a l I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t e d t o a f e e l i n g on t h e p a r t b o t h o f many I n d i a n s and o f most o f w h i t e s o c i e t y , t h a t I n d i a n a c t i o n t o s o l v e t h e i r p r o b l e m s by p o l i t i c a l . . 2 means was n o t q u i t e l e g i t i m a t e . T h i n g s were done f o r I n d i a n s ; t h e y were n o t e x p e c t e d t o do t h i n g s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Even when t h e y d i d f o r m an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o p r e s s t h e i r demands, t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n was d o m i n a t e d by w h i t e sympa-t h i z e r s . The I n d i a n s d i d n o t e s c a p e p a t e r n a l i s m e v e n w i t h i n t h e i r own p r e s s u r e g r o u p . The i n v o l v e m e n t o f w h i t e s i n t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s r e s u l t e d , n o t o n l y i n o b j e c t i v e s and s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h u l t i -m a t e l y a l i e n a t e d much o f t h e I n d i a n membership, b u t a l s o i n t h e a n t i p a t h y o f p o l i t i c i a n s and government o f f i c i a l s . 106 T h e s e l a t t e r r e f u s e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e I n d i a n s were e x p r e s s i n g l e g i t i m a t e g r i e v a n c e s . I n t h e i r e y e s , t h e a c t i v -i t i e s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s were i n s t i g a t e d by w h i t e a g i t a t o r s and t r o u b l e makers, o u t t o b o l s t e r t h e i r own s e n s e o f i m p o r -t a n c e and p o s s i b l y t o l i n e t h e i r p o c k e t s as w e l l . I n M e i g h e n ' s v i e w , t h e I n d i a n s were as much v i c t i m s o f O'Meara as was t h e government. The a u t h o r s o f t h e Hawthorn R e p o r t have s t a t e d : I n t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f r a n c h i s e , g o v ernment r e s p o n s e t o I n d i a n needs r e f l e c t e d g e n e r o s i t y and e l i t e c o n c e r n r a t h e r t h a n r e s p o n s e t o p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s . The h i s -t o r i c a l r e c o r d o f government t r e a t m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s p r o v i d e s an i n a d e q u a t e i m p e t u s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e programs o f s o c i a l a m e l i o r a t i o n and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . ^ C e r t a i n l y , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was i n a weak b a r g a i n -i n g p o s i t i o n . I t s members were a l w a y s s u p p l i c a n t s , s u b m i t t i n g p e t i t i o n a f t e r p e t i t i o n , a p p e a l i n g t o t h e s e n s e o f j u s t i c e and f a i r p l a y o f M i n i s t e r s o f government, Members o f P a r l i a -ment, and f i n a l l y , t h e C a n a d i a n p u b l i c a t l a r g e . T h e i r t h r e a t s o f l e g a l a c t i o n were weakened by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t g e t t o c o u r t w i t h o u t t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h o s e g o v e r n -ment o f f i c i a l s whom t h e y t h r e a t e n e d . The p r o s p e c t o f f i n a l l y r e a c h i n g t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l had, p e r h a p s , c o n s i d e r a b l e a p p e a l — t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d f i n a l l y f a c e t h e i r o p p o n e n t s i n an i m p a r t i a l c o u r t o f law. B u t t h e I n d i a n s n e v e r r e a c h e d t h e J u d i c i a l Committee, and t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t compromise t h e i r c l a i m by a g r e e i n g t o s e t t l e i t on any b a s i s o t h e r t h a n r e c o g n i t i o n o f 107 a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s p r e v e n t e d them even f r o m g a i n i n g s a t i s -f a c t i o n o f a few o f t h e i r s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e s . T h a t p r e s s u r e g r o u p s must, i n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e , e s t a b l i s h l o n g - t e r m , m u t u a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e C a b i n e t and s e n i o r members o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y i s one p r i n c i p l e t h a t i s u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d among s t u d e n t s o f p r e s s u r e g r o u p b e h a v i o u r i n Canada. Such r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was u n a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h . I t engaged, r a t h e r , i n a l t e r n a t e l y p l e a d i n g w i t h and c o n f r o n t i n g t h e Governments o f t h e P r o v i n c e and o f Canada. A f t e r 1920, i n f a c t , t h e I n d i a n s v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government e x c e p t i n t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t i t t o t h e D o m i n i o n . The Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n e v e r , and has n o t t o t h i s day, a c c e p t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was p r o b a b l y c o r r e c t i n a s s u m i n g t h a t n o t h i n g was t o be g a i n e d by b a r k i n g up t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t r e e . B u t i n i g n o r i n g t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government, i t v i r t u a l l y e n s u r e d t h a t none o f i t s demands f o r l a n d s , t i m b e r , h u n t i n g r i g h t s o r o t h e r r e s o u r c e - r e l a t e d p r i v i l e g e s , w o u l d e v e r be g r a n t e d , f o r t h e P r o v i n c e has s o l e j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e s e a r e a s . T h a t t h e P r o v i n c e c o u l d e v e r have been c o n v i n c e d by t h e I n d i a n s t o g i v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r needs f o r more l a n d and r e s o u r c e s seems h i g h l y u n l i k e l y , i n v i e w o f t h e d i f f i -c u l t i e s f a c e d by t h e D o m i n i o n Government i n o b t a i n i n g any s u c h c o n c e s s i o n s . By c o n t i n u e d . s n i p e s a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government, however, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s may have i n t e n s i f i e d 108 t h e r e c a l c i t r a n c e o f t h a t Government i n any m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n s and I n d i a n l a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The A l l i e d T r i b e s was s e v e r e l y d e f i c i e n t i n o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l a s s e t s . F o r one t h i n g , t h e p o o l o f p o t e n t i a l members f r o m w h i c h t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s c o u l d r e c r u i t was v e r y l i m i t e d . T h e r e were p e r h a p s 30,000 I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e 1920's. Many o f t h e s e were a t t r a c t e d by t h e p r o s p e c t o f a s e e m i n g l y m a g i c s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r v a r i o u s s o c i a l and ec o n o m i c i l l s , b u t as t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s cam-p a i g n d r a g g e d on and few c o n c r e t e b e n e f i t s were s e c u r e d , t h e membership o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s d w i n d l e d . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s e was a l w a y s weak; money was a l w a y s s h o r t . The l i f e and p u r p o s e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was c o n c e n t r a t e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y i n t h e s m a l l k n o t o f d e d i c a t e d l e a d e r s and t h e i r w h i t e s u p -p o r t e r s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d f r o m p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , r a i s i n g f u n d s , t r a v e l l i n g t o Ottawa and V i c t o r i a , m e e t i n g w i t h government m i n i s t e r s , were n o t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e membership a t l a r g e . As t h e s e b e n e f i t s were a l m o s t a l l t h e r e was t o be d e r i v e d f r o m a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a f t e r t h e f i r s t few y e a r s , t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e members o f t h e o r g a n i z a -t i o n b e g a n t o wane. What i s s u r p r i s i n g i s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a -t i o n managed t o s u r v i v e a s l o n g as i t d i d . The a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m c a u g h t t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The d r a m a t i c r e s u r g e n c e o f t h e n a t i v e r i g h t s cam-p a i g n i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s i s e v i d e n c e o f I n d i a n commitment 109 t o a c a u s e w h i c h , a l t h o u g h i t l a y dormant f o r many y e a r s , n e v e r q u i t e d i e d . Had t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s p o s s e s s e d t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h have been made a v a i l a b l e by t h e F e d e r a l Government t o c o n t e m p o r a r y I n d i a n p r e s s u r e g r o u p s , and had i t p o s s e s s e d t h e knowledge o f w h i t e law and s o c i e t y , a s w e l l a s t h e p o l i t i c a l e x p e r t i s e w h i c h B.C. I n d i a n s have g a i n e d i n t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , t h e outcome o f t h e a b o r i g -i n a l r i g h t s campaign i n t h e 1920's m i g h t have been d i f f e r e n t . The c o n t i n u i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y I n d i a n p r e s s u r e g r o u p s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o a c h i e v e i n t e r n a l s o l i d a r i t y and s t a b i l i t y s u g g e s t , however, t h a t i t m i g h t have been much t h e same. A p a r t f r o m o r g a n i z a t i o n a l weakness and a s i n g l e -m inded commitment t o an i m p r a c t i c a b l e way o f r e s o l v i n g t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s , t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was a l s o s a d d l e d by t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d I n d i a n s and n a t i v e r i g h t s h e l d by many members o f government and t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e as a whole. The o p i n i o n s o f p o l i t i c i a n s p r o b a b l y e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s . E x c e p t f o r t h o s e s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d t o s u p p o r t t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e i r demands, few C a n a d i a n s had t a k e n up I n d i a n s as a s o c i a l c a u s e . E s p e c i a l l y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e s s e n -t i a l l y a p i o n e e r community, t h e p r o b l e m s o f s u b d u i n g t h e l a n d , i m p r o v i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and b u i l d i n g an economy, must have seemed more i m p o r t a n t t h a n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f a g r o u p w h i c h had l o s t o u t i n t h e r a c e f o r a s c e n d e n c y . I n 110 t h e w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e I n d i a n s had been s h o u l d e r e d a s i d e and t h e p r o s p e c t o f g i v i n g them b a c k l a r g e amounts o f t h e l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s w h i c h had j u s t b e en t a k e n f r o m them c o u l d n o t have been a p o p u l a r i d e a . The A l l i e d T r i b e s was d i s a p p o i n t e d i n i t s s e a r c h f o r p u b l i c s u p p o r t b e c a u s e t h e p u b l i c s u p p o r t was s i m p l y n o t t h e r e . Had C a n a d i a n s been a s k e d , most w o u l d p r o b a b l y have a g r e e d w i t h P r e m i e r M c B r i d e : " I t i s t o o l a t e t o d i s c u s s t h e e q u i t y o f d i s p o s s e s s i n g t h e r e d man i n A m e r i c a . " T h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s f a i l e d i s i n c o n t e s t i b l e . What m i g h t be a s k e d however i s , Ought i t t o have f a i l e d ? Was i t j u s t l y d e a l t w i t h by t h e Governments o f Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ? S h o u l d t h e I n d i a n s have been c o m p e n s a t e d f o r t h e l o s s o f t h e c o n t r o l t h e y once had o v e r t h e l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ? The q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e Crown i s l e g a l l y o r m o r a l l y o b l i g e d t o compensate a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s f o r t h e l o s s o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s has n o t y e t been answered by t h e c o u r t s . The F e d e r a l Government has r e c o g n i z e d c l a i m s d e r i v i n g f r o m u n e x t i n g u i s h e d n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s . The G o v e r n -ment o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d e n i e s s u c h c l a i m s . What i s t h e answer? One m i g h t r e p l y t h a t Canada, h a v i n g assumed o b l i g a -t i o n s u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h America.uAct and c o n f i r m e d them u n d e r t h e Terms o f U n i o n w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , has a d u t y I l l t o do t h e b e s t i t c a n by i t s I n d i a n c h a r g e s . T h a t t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d p o l i c y - m a k e r s and I n d i a n p o l i c y u n t i l r e c e n t l y (and w h i c h s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n some d e g r e e ) s e r v e d t h e I n d i a n s b a d l y c a n be a r g u e d , and s u c h an argument has c o n s i d e r a b l e m e r i t . In my o p i n i o n , t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m stemmed f r o m two s o u r c e s — o n e o f them b e i n g t h e a c t u a l s o c i a l and economic d i s r u p t i o n i n I n d i a n l i f e c a u s e d by t h e w h i t e o c c u -p a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e c o n s e q u e n t need t o e s t a b -l i s h a l t e r n a t e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s . The s e c o n d was t h e d e s i r e o f I n d i a n s t o e s c a p e t h e r o l e o f c h a r i t y c a s e s , a r o l e imposed by t h e F e d e r a l Government i n i t s p o l i c i e s and methods o f I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The f i r s t c o m p l a i n t i s a l l t h a t government o f f i c i a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s seem t o have u n d e r s t o o d . They were w i l l i n g t o t r y t o s o l v e p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s , i f t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h o s e p r o b l e m s l e g i t i m a t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own l i g h t s , and i f t h e y c o u l d d e a l w i t h them i n t h e manner t h e y c h o s e . The s e c o n d a s p e c t o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m — t h e I n d i a n s ' q u e s t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f r i g h t s w h i c h p r e c e d e d t h e coming o f t h e w h i t e man and t h e d i g n i t y t h a t w o u l d f l o w f r o m s u c h r e c o g n i t i o n — t h e Government seemed u n a b l e t o comprehend. F e d e r a l I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p e r h a p s gave t o o l i t t l e t o t h e I n d i a n s , and what i t d i d p r o v i d e i t gave as h a n d o u t s f r o m a s u p p o s e d l y b e n e v o l e n t g u a r d i a n . What i t t o o k f r o m t h e I n d i a n s was t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e i r s e n s e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n 112 i n the Canadian community, t h e i r s e l f - r e s p e c t . Would r e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s have r e t u r n e d to the Indians those t h i n g s , both m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l , which had been taken from them? R e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s would perhaps have strengthened the Indians' sense of d i g n i t y and s e l f - w o r t h , and c o n t r i b u t e d as w e l l to improved r e l a t i o n s between the Indians and government. The a c t u a l m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s which the Indians might have r e c e i v e d by such r e c o g n i t i o n would have depended upon what the Dominion Government saw f i t to g i v e them. Had the Dominion o f f e r e d i n c r e a s e d lands and access t o r e s o u r c e s , b e t t e r medical care and edu c a t i o n ( o f f e r s which would have depended l a r g e l y on the concurrence o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government), the Indians' s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n might have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved. Government l e a d e r s were o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d by the vagueness of Indian demands; t h i s vagueness a p p a r e n t l y stemmed from the Indians' own u n c e r t a i n t y as to what they wanted. The Indians were caught between two w o r l d s — t h e world o f t h e i r a n c e s t o r s b e f o r e the coming of the white man and the s o c i e t y and economy which had been imposed upon them with the white occ u p a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. The demands which the A l l i e d T r i b e s made r e f l e c t e d t h i s ambivalence. They wanted hunting r i g h t s ; they a l s o wanted improved educa-t i o n . They sought timber f o r t r a d i t i o n a l purposes; they a l s o sought the b e n e f i t s o f the white man's medical s c i e n c e . 113 Government r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w o u l d , I t h i n k , have done l i t t l e t o r e s o l v e t h e t e n s i o n between t h e o l d w o r l d and t h e new. L i f e f o r t h e I n d i a n s was i r r e v o c a b l y c h a nged w i t h t h e coming o f t h e w h i t e man and t o t h e s e c h a n g e s t h e I n d i a n s had, i n some way, t o a d j u s t . T h e r e i s no o n c e -f o r - a l l s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f a d j u s t i n g t o a new l i f e . T h e s e p r o b l e m s c a n be r e s o l v e d p e r h a p s o n l y t h r o u g h t h e p a s -sage o f t i m e . I t s h o u l d be r e m a r k e d h e r e t h a t t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r m e d t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h e f a l l o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , has n o t , f o r most o f i t s l i f e , p u r s u e d t h e c l a i m t o a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . I t has s o u g h t r a t h e r , i m p r o v e d e d u c a t i o n f o r I n d i a n s , b e t t e r h e a l t h c a r e , t h e f r a n c h i s e , i m p r o v e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r I n d i a n s i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . I n t h e s e e f f o r t s , t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d hoped, p e r h a p s t o a c c u m u l a t e t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , t h e knowledge o f w h i t e s o c i e t y and p o l i t i c s , and t h e e c o n o m i c s t a t u s w h i c h w o u l d p e r m i t i t s members t o meet t h e n o n - I n d i a n s o c i e t y on i t s own t e r m s and e n a b l e them t o d i s a b u s e Government o f i t s c o n c e p t i o n o f I n d i a n s as wards i n c a p a b l e o f managing t h e i r own l i v e s . 114 Footnotes O'Meara made a t l e a s t two q u e s t i o n a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . One o f t h e s e was h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 17 63 e x t e n d e d t o t h e l a n d s i n c l u d e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In t h e 1920's t h i s c o n t e n t i o n had n o t b e en t e s t e d i n t h e c o u r t s , b u t a number o f r e c e n t d e c i s i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e 17 63 P r o c l a m a t i o n d o e s n o t a p p l y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e c a u s e t h e a r e a i n q u e s t i o n was t e r r a i n c o g n i t a i n 17 63. E ven i f O'Meara had been a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x i s -t e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , f l o w i n g f r o m r e c o g n i t i o n u n d e r t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n o r o t h e r w i s e , h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e Crown i s o b l i g e d t o p r o v i d e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f s u c h r i g h t s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . P r i o r t o C a l d e r {Colder v . The Attorney General of British Columbia, S.C.C. 19 7 3 ) , t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r a s u i t a g a i n s t t h e Crown f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n c o u l d s u c c e e d was u n t o u c h e d by a u t h o r i t y i n Canada ( K e n n e t h L y s y k , "The I n d i a n T i t l e i n Canada: An A p p r a i s a l i n t h e L i g h t o f C a l d e r , " Canadian Bar Review, 21 [ 1 9 7 3 ] , A l l ) . I n a l e a d i n g c a s e i n O ' M e a r a 1 s day, however, S t . C a t h e r i n e s M i l l i n g Case (1889) 14 A.C. 46, L o r d Watson a t p. 25 d e f i n e d a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e as ". . . a p e r s o n a l and u s u f r u c t u a r y i n t e r e s t d e p e n d e n t on t h e good w i l l o f t h e s o v e r e i g n . " The c o u r t s o f common law c o u n t r i e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y h e l d t h a t t h e power o f a s o v e r e i g n government t o e x t i n g u i s h , by s u c h means as i t s e e s f i t , a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o l a n d , i s q u e s t i o n a b l e ( L y s y k , p. 4 7 5 ) . Whether t h e Crown must p r o v i d e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r e x t i n g u i s h m e n t i s s t i l l u n d e c i d e d , b u t i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t O'Meara c o u l d have c o n v i n c e d t h e J u d i c i a l Committee t h a t s u c h c o m p e n s a t i o n was r e q u i r e d . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e l e g a l as a g a i n s t t h e p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s s u e , J . A . J . McKenna's com-ments made i n t h e Canadian Magazine (1920) a r e i n s t r u c t i v e : A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i s n o t a c l a i m e n f o r c i b l e a t law. The n a t u r a l law o f n a t i o n s o u t o f w h i c h i t a r i s e s has no c o u r t f o r i t s e n f o r c e m e n t . The law l o r d s i n t h e judgment a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o [ N o r t h w e s t A n g l e T r e a t y c a s e ] m i g h t have gone f u r t h e r by way o f d e f i n i n g t h e b e a r i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n upon p u b l i c m o r a l i t y . B u t q u e s t i o n s o f t h a t n a t u r e a r e e n t i r e l y f o r g o v e r n m e n t s , however p o o r t h e y be a t r e s o l v i n g them. I n d i a n t i t l e b e l o n g s t o t h e domain o f p u b l i c p o l i c y , 115 u n i m p i n g e d upon by o u r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law ( J . A . J . McKenna, " I n d i a n T i t l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " Canadian Magazine, 50 [1920] , 471) . 2 Hawthorn, e d . , p. 255. 3 I b i d . 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY PUBLISHED MATERIAL A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Statement for the Government of British Columbia. V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: Cowan and Bookhouse, P r i n t e r s , 1919. Almond, G a b r i e l . " I n t e r e s t G r o u p s and t h e P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s . " In Comparative Polities: Notes and Readings. E d i t e d by R. C. M a c r i d i s and B. E . Brown. Homewood, 111.: D o r s e y P r e s s , 1968. A n d e r s o n , J . E. " P r e s s u r e G r o u p s and C a n a d i a n B u r e a u c r a c y . " I n Public Administration in Canada: Selected Readings. E d i t e d by W. D. K. K e r n a g h a n and A. M. W i l l m s . T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1970. Begg, A l e x a n d e r . History of British Columbia from its Earliest Discovery to the Present Time. T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1894. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Bill 17. >''(1919) V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1919. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y . Journals. 1919. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S t a t u t e s . Indian Lands Settlement Act, 1919. c h . 32. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Sessional Papers, 1888. " P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n A p p o i n t e d t o I n q u i r e i n t o t h e S t a t e and C o n d i t i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e N o r t h - W e s t C o a s t . " C a i l , R o b e r t E. Land, Man and the Law: The Disposal of Crown Lands in British Columbia, 1871-1913. V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1974. Canada. Debates of the House of Commons. 1920-1927. Canada. Debates of the Senate. 1920. Canada. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . Annual Reports. 1906-1927. Canada. Bill 13 (1920). O t t a w a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1920. 117 Canada. P a r l i a m e n t . Report of the Special Committee of the Senate and House of Commons to Inquire into the Claims of the Allied Indian Tribes of British Columbia. O t t a w a : 1927. C a s t l e s , F r a n c i s G. Pressure Groups and Political Culture. London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1967. Cummings, P e t e r A. and M i c k e n b e r g , N e i l H. , e d s . Native Rights in Canada. I n d i a n E s k i m o A s s o c i a t i o n i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h G e n e r a l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1972. D r u c k e r , P h i l i p . The Native Brotherhoods: Modern Intertribal Organi-zations of the Northwest Coast. W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y , 1958. D u f f , W i l s o n . The Indian History of British Columbia. V o l . 1: The Impact of the White Man. V i c t o r i a : B.C. De p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1964. Edelman, M u r r a y . The Symbolic Uses of Politics. U r b a n a , 111.: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1974. Engelmann, F. C. and S c h w a r t z , M. C. Political Parties -and the Canadian Social Structure. S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1967. F i s h e r , R o b i n . " J o s e p h T r u t c h and I n d i a n L a n d P o l i c y . " I n Historical Essays on British Columbia. E d i t e d by J . F r i e s e n and H. K. R a l s t o n . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1976. F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The British Columbia Land Question from a Canadian Point of View; an Appeal to the People of Canada recommended by the Indian Affairs Committee of the Social Services Council of Canada. W i t n e s s P r e s s , 1914. G i b b i n s , Roger and P o n t i n g , J . R i c k . " I n d i a n s and I n d i a n I s s u e s : What do C a n a d i a n s T h i n k ? " ( P a r t 1 ) . C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n i n S u p p o r t o f t h e N a t i v e P e o p l e Bulletin, 17 (December 1976):38-43. Hawthorn, H. B. , ed. A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada, Part I. O t t a w a : I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , 1966. I n d i a n C l a i m s C o m m i s s i o n . Indian Claims in Canada: An Introductory Essay and Selected List of Library Holdings. O t t a w a : I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 197 5. Key, V. 0. , J r . Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups. New Y o r k : Thomas Y. C r o w e l l , 1964. 118 L a V i o l e t t e , F o r r e s t E. The Struggle for Survival. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1973. L y s y k , K e n n e t h . "The I n d i a n T i t l e i n Canada: An A p p r a i s a l i n t h e L i g h t o f C a l d e r . " Canadian Bar Review, L I (1973) : 450-480. M a n u e l , George and P o s l u n s , M i c h a e l . The Fourth World: An Indian Reality. Don M i l l s , O nt.: C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n Canada, 1974. McKenna, J . A. J . " I n d i a n T i t l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " Canadian Magazine, 50 (1920) : 471-474 . P a t t e r s o n , E. P a l m e r . " A r t h u r O'Meara, F r i e n d o f t h e I n d i a n s . " Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 58 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 7 ) . P r e s t h u s , R o b e r t . Elite Accommodation in Canadian Politics. T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1973. P r o s s , A. P a u l , ed. Pressure Group Behaviour in Canadian Politics. T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1975. R o b i n s o n , J . L. " P o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : T r e n d s , D e n s i t i e s , D i s t r i b u t i o n . " Transactions of the Seventh British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, 1954. S a n d e r s , D o u g l a s . "The N i s h g a C a s e . " B.C. Studies, 19 (Autumn 1973) . Truman, D a v i d B. The Governmental Process. New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1953. U s h e r , J e a n . William Duncan of Metlakatla: A Victorian Missionary in British Columbia. O t t a w a : N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada, 1974. Van Loon, R. J . and W h i t t i n g t o n , M. S. The Canadian Political System: Environment, Structure and Process. T o r o n t o : McGraw-H i l l , 1971. Wooton, Graham. Interest-Groups. Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 197 0. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Kopas, L e s l i e C l i f f o r d . " P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972. ( T h i s r e f e r e n c e was f o u n d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e 119 p r e s e n t t h e s i s . " P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t s u r v e y s I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e p r e - c o n t a c t p e r i o d t o t h e e a r l y 1970's. The A l l i e d T r i b e s i s d i s c u s s e d i n a r a t h e r b r i e f c h a p t e r . Kopas c o n c l u d e s t h a t I n d i a n e f f o r t s t o f o r m an e f f e c t i v e p r o v i n c e - w i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n have been t h w a r t e d by i n t e r - g r o u p c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s . O n l y s t r o n g l y p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t s t o t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n as a w h o l e [ s u c h as t h e F e d e r a l I n d i a n p o l i c y p a p e r o f 1969] have r e s u l t e d i n any s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e o f I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l u n i t y . ) O ttawa, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . F i l e S e r i e s R.G. 10, Volume 3820. . D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e . F i l e S e r i e s R.G. 13, Volume 236, F i l e 1186. P a t t e r s o n , E. P a l m e r . "Andrew P a u l l and C a n a d i a n I n d i a n R e s u r g e n c e . " Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1962. S h a n k e l , G e o r g e E d g a r . "The Development o f I n d i a n P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1945. V i c t o r i a , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s . F i l e 026076, #'s 1, 2, and 3. . "The I n d i a n Land S i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; a L e c t u r e d e l i v e r e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t A b e r d e e n S c h o o l on P a r i l 22, 1910 by t h e R e v e r e n d A. E. O'Meara." . I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " P e t i t i o n t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e R o b e r t B o r d e n . " M a r c h , 1912. . I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n . " P e t i t i o n t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e R o b e r t Borden..and Members o f t h e D o m i n i o n C a b i n e t . " J a n u a r y , 1912. . F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " B r i t i s h S u b j e c t s S e e k i n g B r i t i s h J u s t i c e . " ( 1 9 1 3 ? ) . 120 F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . "The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Land Q u e s t i o n : an h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h and an answer t o c r i t i c i s m s p r e p a r e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s . " J a n u a r y , . 1 9 1 6 . F i l e e n t i t l e d " C l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s a t "Ottawa ( 1 9 2 0 ) . " O f f i c i a l P a p e r s o f .Premier R i c h a r d M c B r i d e . ' " I n d i a n A f f a i r s " F i l e . 121 APPENDIX A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS IN THE ABORIGINAL RIGHTS CAMPAIGN 184 9 Crown C o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d c r e a t e d . 1850-1854 F o u r t e e n t r e a t i e s s i g n e d between G o v e r n o r James D o u g l a s and I n d i a n bands o f s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . 1858 Crown C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c r e a t e d . 1862 F o u n d i n g o f M e t l a k a t l a by W i l l i a m Duncan. 1866 Crown C o l o n i e s u n i t e d t o f o r m C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1871 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t e r s c o n f e d e r a t i o n . 1874 P e t i t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y t o Dr. P o w e l l . 1875 F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e d i s a l l o w s B.C. c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f l a n d o r d i n a n c e s on g r o u n d s o f no m e n t i o n o f I n d i a n i n t e r e s t i n l a n d . 187 6 J o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e s e r v e A l l o t m e n t C o m m i s s i o n a p p o i n t e d . 1887 T s i m p s e a n and N i s h g a C h i e f s p e t i t i o n P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r a t r e a t y . J o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c a u s e s o f u n r e s t among t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . 1903-1906 I n d i a n s o f t h e I n t e r i o r and s o u t h c o a s t b e g i n t o p r e s s c l a i m s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , 1906 C h i e f s D a v i d , C h i l i h i t z a and C a p i l a n o p e t i t i o n t h e K i n g f o r s e t t l e m e n t o f I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s . 1909 I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r m e d . I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n f o r m e d . I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p e t i t i o n S e c r e -t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s and G o v e r n o r 122 G e n e r a l o f Canada a s k i n g t h a t t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m be s u b m i t t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e J u d i -c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . 1910 F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s f o r med; O'Meara a p p o i n t e d g e n e r a l c o u n s e l . 1911 I n d i a n A c t amended t o p e r m i t r e f e r e n c e o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada. 1912 McKenn-McBride Agreement s i g n e d . 1913 N i s h g a P e t i t i o n s u b m i t t e d t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and t h e Government o f Canada. 1913-1916 R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s d e t e r m i n e s I n d i a n s ' l a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s . 1914 D o m i n i o n C a b i n e t recommends t h a t l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y be r e f e r r e d t o t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t ; I n d i a n s r e f u s e t o a c c e p t r e f e r e n c e . 1915 I n d i a n s o f t h e I n t e r i o r meet t o s u p p o r t t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n . 1916 A l l i e d T r i b e s f o r m e d a t N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s u b m i t s i t s R e p o r t . 1919 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " I n d i a n L a n d s S e t t l e m e n t A c t " p a s s e d . F i r s t g e n e r a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . A l l i e d T r i b e s s u b m i t s t a t e m e n t o f g r i e v a n c e s t o P r e m i e r O l i v e r . 1920 A l l i e d T r i b e s f i g h t B i l l 13 a t O t t a w a . D o m i n i o n " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n L a n d s S e t t l e -ment A c t " p a s s e d . 1920-1922 P a u l l , K e l l y and O'Meara now d o m i n a t e A l l i e d T r i b e s . 1922 A s s e m b l y o f B.C. I n d i a n s r e s o l v e t o p u r s u e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . 1923 B.C. O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l p a s s e d t o implement recom-m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . 123 S c o t t meets w i t h E x e c u t i v e Committee o f A l l i e d T r i b e s a t V i c t o r i a ; recommends t h a t Canada implement r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l Commis-s i o n . 1924 D o m i n i o n O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l t o implement r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . 1925 I n d i a n s renew r e s o l v e t o r e a c h t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. 1926 A l l i e d T r i b e s p e t i t i o n t o P a r l i a m e n t . 1927 J o i n t S p e c i a l C ommission o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons a p p o i n t e d t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ; d e c i d e a g a i n s t a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . A l l i e d T r i b e s c o l l a p s e s . 124 APPENDIX B STATEMENT OF THE NISHGA NATION OR TRIBE OF INDIANS (January 1913) From time immemorial the Nishga N a t i o n or T r i b e of Indians possessed, occupied and used the t e r r i t o r y g e n e r a l l y known as the V a l l e y of the Naas R i v e r , the boundaries of which are w e l l d e f i n e d . The c l a i m s which we make i n r e s p e c t of t h i s t e r r i t o r y are c l e a r and simple. We l a y c l a i m to the r i g h t s of men. We c l a i m to be a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s country and to have r i g h t s as such. We c l a i m t h a t our a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s have been guaranteed by Proclamation of King George T h i r d and r e c o g n i z e d by A c t s of the Parliament of Great B r i t a i n . We c l a i m t h a t h o l d i n g under the words of t h a t P r o c l a m a t i o n a t r i b a l ownership of the t e r r i t o r y , we should be d e a l t w i t h i n accordance w i t h i t s p r o v i s i o n , and t h a t no p a r t of our lands should be .taken from us or i n any way d i s p o s e d of u n t i l the same has been purchased by the Crown. By reason of our a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s above, s t a t e d , we c l a i m t r i b a l ownership of a l l f i s h e r i e s and other n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s p e r t a i n i n g to the t e r r i t o r y above mentioned. For more than t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , being convinced t h a t the r e c o g n i t i o n of our a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s would be of very great m a t e r i a l advantage to us and would open the way f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l advance of our people we have i n common w i t h other t r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, a c t i v e l y pressed our c l a i m s upon the Governments concerned. In r e c e n t years, being more than ever convinced of the advan-tages to be d e r i v e d from such r e c o g n i t i o n and f e a r i n g t h a t without such the advance of settlement would endanger our whole f u t u r e , we have pressed these c l a i m s with g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d earnestness. Some of the advantages to be d e r i v e d from e s t a b l i s h -i n g our a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r e : -1. That i t w i l l p l a c e us i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e s e r v e f o r our own use and b e n e f i t such p o r t i o n s of our t e r r i t o r y as are r e q u i r e d f o r the f u t u r e w e l l - b e i n g of our people. 2. That i t w i l l enable us to a much g r e a t e r extent and i n a f r e e and independent manner to make use of the f i s h e r i e s and other n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s p e r t a i n i n g to our t e r r i t o r y . 125 3. T h a t i t w i l l open t h e way f o r b r i n g i n g t o an end as r a p i d l y a s p o s s i b l e t h e s y s t e m o f R e s e r v e s and s u b s t i t u t i n g a s y s t e m o f i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p . 4. T h a t i t w i l l open t h e way f o r p u t t i n g an end t o a l l u n c e r t a i n t y and u n r e s t , b r i n g i n g a b o u t a permanent and s a t i s f a c t o r y s e t t l e m e n t between t h e w h i t e p e o p l e and o u r -s e l v e s , and t h u s r e m o v i n g t h e d a n g e r o f s e r i o u s t r o u b l e w h i c h now u n d o u b t e d l y e x i s t s . 5. T h a t i t w i l l open t h e way f o r o u r t a k i n g o u r ' p l a c e as n o t o n l y l o y a l B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , b u t a l s o C a n a d i a n c i t i -z e n s , a s f o r many y e a r s we have d e s i r e d t o do. In t h u s s e e k i n g t o r e a l i z e what i s h i g h e s t and b e s t f o r o u r p e o p l e , we have e n c o u n t e r e d a v e r y s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e a t t i t u d e w h i c h has been assumed by t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h a t Government has n e g l e c t e d and r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e o u r c l a i m , and f o r many y e a r s has b e e n s e l l i n g o v e r o u r heads l a r g e t r a c t s o f o u r l a n d s . We c l a i m t h a t e v e r y s u c h t r a n s a c t i o n e n t e r e d i n r e s p e c t o f any p a r t o f t h e s e l a n d s u n d e r t h e assumed a u t h o r i t y o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Land A c t has been e n t e r e d i n t o i n v i o l a t i o n o f t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n above m e n t i o n e d . T h e s e t r a n s a c t i o n s have been e n t e r e d i n t o n o t w i t h -s t a n d i n g o u r p r o t e s t s , o r a l and w r i t t e n , p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s u r v e y o r s employed by t h a t Government and i n t e n d i n g p u r c h a s e r s . The r e q u e s t o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a made t h r o u g h t h e i r P r o v i n c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t t h e m a t t e r o f I n d i a n t i t l e be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l , h a v i n g b een b e f o r e t h e I m p e r i a l Government and t h e C a n a d i a n Government f o r t h r e e y e a r s , and g r a v e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e r e f u s a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o c o n s e n t t o a r e f e r e n c e , h a v i n g b een e n c o u n t e r e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h a t r e q u e s t , we r e s o l v e i n d e p e n -d e n t l y and d i r e c t l y t o p l a c e a p e t i t i o n b e f o r e H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l . I n f o l l o w i n g t h a t c o u r s e we d e s i r e t o a c t t o t h e f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e e x t e n t i n harmony b o t h w i t h o t h e r t r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and w i t h t h e Government o f Canada. We a r e i n f o r m e d t h a t Mr. J . A. J . McKenna s e n t o u t by t h e Government o f Canada has made a r e p o r t i n w h i c h he does n o t m e n t i o n t h e c l a i m s w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e have been m a k i n g f o r so many y e a r s , and a s s i g n s a s t h e c a u s e o f a l l t h e t r o u b l e , t h e r e v e r s i o n a r y c l a i m o f t h e P r o v i n c e . W hatever o t h e r t h i n g s Mr. McKenna f o u n d o u t d u r i n g h i s s t a y , we a r e s u r e t h a t he d i d n o t f i n d o u t o u r mind o r t h e r e a l c a u s e o f t h e t r o u b l e . 126 We a r e a l s o i n f o r m e d o f t h e a greement r e l a t i n g t o t h e s o - c a l l e d r e s e r v e s w h i c h was e n t e r e d i n t o by Mr. McKenna and P r e m i e r M c B r i d e . We a r e g l a d f r o m i t s p r o v i s i o n s t o know t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e has e x p r e s s e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o abandon t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e r e v e r s i o n a r y c l a i m w h i c h h a s b e en made. We c a n n o t , however, r e g a r d t h a t a greement as f o r m i n g a p o s -s i b l e b a s i s f o r s e t t l i n g t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n . We c a n n o t c o n -c e d e t h a t t h e two Governments have power by t h e agreement i n q u e s t i o n o r any o t h e r agreement t o d i s p o s e o f t h e s o - c a l l e d r e s e r v e s o r any o t h e r l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , u n t i l t h e t e r r i t o r y o f e a c h n a t i o n o r t r i b e has been p u r c h a s e d by t h e Crown as r e q u i r e d by t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n o f K i n g George T h i r d . We a r e a l s o i n f o r m e d t h a t i n t h e d o u r s e o f r e c e n t n e g o t i a t i o n s , t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has c o n -t e n d e d t h a t u n d e r t h e t e r m s o f U n i o n t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a k i n g t r e a t i e s w i t h t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s i n s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r c l a i m s . T h i s a t t e m p t t o s h i f t r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y t o Canada and by d o i n g so r e n d e r i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r us t o e s t a b l i s h o u r r i g h t s , seems t o us u t t e r l y u n f a i r and u n j u s t i f i a b l e . We c a n n o t p r e v e n t t h e P r o v i n c e f r o m p e r s i s t -i n g i n t h i s a t t e m p t , b u t we c a n and do r e s p e c t f u l l y d e c l a r e t h a t we i n t e n d t o p e r s i s t i n m a k i n g o u r c l a i m a g a i n s t t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g among o t h e r r e a s o n s : -1. We a r e a d v i s e d t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n a l l l a n d s embraced w i t h i n o u r t e r r i t o r y became t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e P r o v i n c e s u b j e c t t o any i n t e r e s t o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e p r o v i n c e t h e r e i n . 2. We have f o r a l o n g t i m e known t h a t i n 1875 t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e o f Canada r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e e n t i t l e d t o an i n t e r e s t i n t h e l a n d s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . 3. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e r e p o r t t h e n made and t h e p o s i t i o n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h a t r e p o r t c o n s i s t e n t l y t a k e n by e v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Canada f r o m t h e t i m e o f L o r d D u f f e r i n ' s s p e e c h e s u n t i l t h e s p r i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t y e a r , and i n d e f i -a n ce o f o u r f r e q u e n t p r o t e s t s , t h e P r o v i n c e has s o l d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e b e s t l a n d s o f o u r t e r r i t o r y and has by means o f s u c h w r o n g f u l s a l e s r e c e i v e d l a r g e amounts o f money. 4. W h i l e we c l a i m t h e r i g h t t o be c o mpensated f o r t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f o u r t e r r i t o r y w h i c h we may a g r e e t o s u r r e n d e r , we c l a i m as e v e n more i m p o r t a n t t h e r i g h t t o r e s e r v e o t h e r p o r -t i o n s p e r m a n e n t l y f o r o u r own u s e and b e n e f i t and beyond d o u b t t h e p o r t i o n s w h i c h we w o u l d d e s i r e so t o r e s e r v e w o u l d i n c l u d e much o f t h e l a n d w h i c h has b e e n s o l d by t h e P r o v i n c e . 127 We a r e n o t o p p o s e d t o t h e coming o f t h e w h i t e p e o p l e i n t o o u r t e r r i t o r y p r o v i d e d t h i s be c a r r i e d o u t j u s t l y and i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e B r i t i s h p r i n c i p l e s embodied i n t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n . I f , t h e r e f o r e , as we e x p e c t , t h e a b o r -i g i n a l r i g h t s w h i c h we c l a i m s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e d e c i s i o n o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l , we wo u l d be p r e p a r e d t o t a k e a m o d e r a t e and r e a s o n a b l e p o s i t i o n . I n t h a t e v e n t , w h i l e c l a i m i n g t h e r i g h t t o d e c i d e f o r o u r s e l v e s t h e t e r m s upon w h i c h we would d e a l w i t h o u r t e r r i t o r y , we wo u l d be w i l l i n g t h a t a l l m a t t e r s o u t s t a n d i n g between t h e p r o v i n c e and o u r s e l v e s s h o u l d be a d j u s t e d by some e q u i t a b l e method t o be a g r e e d upon w h i c h s h o u l d i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s upon any Comm i s s i o n w h i c h t h e n m i g h t be a p p o i n t e d . The above s t a t e m e n t was u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d a t a m e e t i n g o f t h e N i s h g a N a t i o r o r T r i b e o f I n d i a n s h e l d a t K i n c o l i t h on t h e 22nd day o f J a n u a r y , 1913, and i t was r e s o l v e d t h a t a c o p y o f t h e same be p l a c e d i n t h e hands o f e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : -The S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s , t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f Canada, t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , Mr. J . M. C l a r k e , C o u n s e l f o r t h e I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e " F r i e n d s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " W. J . LINCOLN C h a i r m a n o f M e e t i n g . 128 APPENDIX C ALLIED INDIAN TRIBES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA We r e p r e s e n t n o m i n a l l y a l l t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h o s e I n d i a n s coming u n d e r T r e a t y No. 8, and t h e Songhees and t h e Sooke I n d i a n s on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . A t t h e c o n f e r e n c e i n J u n e , 1916, t h e f o l l o w i n g t r i b e s were a l l i e d , The I n t e r i o r : - The Okanagan, L a k e o r S e n j e x t e e , Thompson R i v e r a t C o u r t e a u , Shuswap, L i l l o o e t , K u t e n a i , C h i l c o t i n , C a r r i e r , T a h l t o n , Kasha; and on The C o a s t and N o r t h : - The N i s h g a , T s i m p s h i a n t r i b e s , K i t i k s h i a n , H a i d a , B e l l a C o o l a , C o w i c h a n and Lower F r a s e r o r S t a l o . A l a r g e r a l l i a n c e was f o r m e d i n t h e y e a r 1922 when t h e f o l l o w i n g t r i b e s were r e p r e s e n t e d : -"The R e v e r e n d C h a i r m a n i n f o r m e d t h e m e e t i n g t h a t t h i s was n o t an a l l i e d t r i b e m e e t i n g b u t a g e n e r a l m e e t i n g o f a l l B.C. I n d i a n s , and f o r t h e a s s e m b l y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r v i e w s . T h o s e p r e s e n t were a s f o l l o w s : - Rev. P. R. K e l l y , r e p r e s e n t i n g H a i d a T r i b e ; C h a r l i e S a y l a y k u l t i n , r e p r e s e n t i n g Musqueam; C h i e f P a u l W h i t e , r e p r e s e n t i n g Nanaimo; C h i e f B i l l y Y aklum, r e p r e s e n t i n g Nanaimo; Sam S m i t h , r e p r e s e n t i n g Nanaimo; C h i e f C h a r l i e , r e p r e s e n t i n g Nanaimo; C h i e f G e o r g e , r e p r e s e n t -i n g C o wichan; C h i e f D a v i d , r e p r e s e n t i n g S a a n i c h T r i b e ; Tommy P a u l , r e p r e s e n t i n g S a a n i c h T r i b e ; C h r i s P a u l , r e p r e s e n t i n g S a a n i c h T r i b e ; C h i e f B i l l y A s s e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g Cape Mudge T r i b e ; James H o w e l l , r e p r e s e n t i n g Cape Mudge T r i b e ; J o h n y D i c k , r e p r e s e n t i n g Cape Mudge T r i b e ; Chas. N o w e l l , r e p r e s e n t -i n g A l b e r t Bay T r i b e ; J o h n y D r a b l e , r e p r e s e n t i n g A l b e r t Bay T r i b e ; H a r r y M o u n t a i n , r e p r e s e n t i n g F o r t R u p e r t / T r i b e ; C h i e f S m i t h , r e p r e s e n t i n g F o r t R u p e r t T r i b e ; Bob H a r r i s , r e p r e s e n t -i n g F o r t R u p e r t T r i b e ; J i m Humchet, r e p r e s e n t i n g Kingcome I n l e t ; H a r r y J o h n s o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g Kingcome I n l e t ; A l b e r t K i n g , r e p r e s e n t i n g B e l l a C o o l a ; Rueben S c h o o n e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g B e l l a C o o l a ; C h i e f H a r r y S t e w a r t , r e p r e s e n t i n g Lower F r a s e r T r i b e s ; G e o r g e M a t h e s o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g Lower F r a s e r T r i b e s ; C h i e f H a r r y J o e , r e p r e s e n t i n g Lower F r a s e r T r i b e s ; D e n n i s 129 P e t e r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g Lower F r a s e r T r i b e s ; C h i e f S t e p h e n R e t a s k e t , r e p r e s e n t i n g L i l l o o e t T r i b e s ; J o h n y A n t o i n e , r e p r e s e n t i n g L i l l o o e t T r i b e s ; C h i e f H a r r y P e t e r s , r e p r e s e n t -i n g F o r t D o u g l a s T r i b e s ; C h i e f J . A. S t a g e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g Pemberton T r i b e s ; P a u l D i c k , r e p r e s e n t i n g Pemberton T r i b e s ; W i l l i e P a s c a l , r e p r e s e n t i n g Pemberton T r i b e s ; A l e c k L e o n a r d , r e p r e s e n t i n g Kamloops T r i b e s ; J o h n y Galocuum, r e p r e s e n t i n g C a m p b e l l R i v e r T r i b e s ; C h i e f B a z i l D a v i d , r e p r e s e n t i n g S i m i l k a m i e n T r i b e s ; Wm. T u r p a s k i t t , r e p r e s e n t i n g S i m i l k a m i e n T r i b e s ; N a r c i s s e B a t i s t e , r e p r e s e n t i n g Nakamip T r i b e s ; C h i e f M i c h a e l J a c k , r e p r e s e n t i n g P e n t i c t o n T r i b e s ; Jimmy A n t o i n e , r e p r e s e n t i n g Okanagon T r i b e s ; F r a n c o i s e Guguere, r e p r e s e n t i n g Okanagon T r i b e s ; J o s e p h G e o r g e , r e p r e s e n t i n g F a i r v i e w T r i b e s ; C h i e f J o h n y C h i l l i k i t z a , r e p r e s e n t i n g N i c o l a V a l l e y T r i b e s ; C h i e f J o n o h , r e p r e s e n t i n g M e r r i t N i c o l a V a l l e y ; Ambrose R e i d , r e p r e s e n t i n g T s i m p t i a n T r i b e s ; Andrew P a u l l , r e p r e s e n t i n g S quamish T r i b e s ; C h i e f G e o r g e , r e p r e s e n t i n g S quamish T r i b e s ; C h i e f Moses J o s e p h , r e p r e s e n t i n g S quamish T r i b e s . A t t h e above m e n t i o n e d m e e t i n g , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s o -l u t i o n was p a s s e d : "Whereas i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e two f a c t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a t t h e m e e t i n g , namely t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and i n d e p e n d e n t p a r t y . To t r y and b r i n g t h e s e two p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r , t h e r e f o r e , be i t r e s o l v e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s o f B.C. j o i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f I n d i a n s t o f i g h t B i l l s 13 and 14 and a d o p t f o r i t s p o l i c y t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B.C. f o r t h e Government o f B.C., s a i d o r g a n i z a t i o n t o have s t a n d i n g e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e w h i c h w i l l c o n s i s t o f I n d i a n s and o t h e r s deemed a c c e p t a b l e by I n t e r i o r s . " S i n c e t h e above m e e t i n g a l l I n d i a n s on t h e c o a s t o f t h e m a i n l a n d and on t h e e a s t and west c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d have j o i n e d t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . C e r t i f i e d C o r r e c t , ANDREW PAULL, S e c r e t a r y . 130 APPENDIX D PETITION TO PARLIAMENT, JUNE 1926 The P e t i t i o n o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a humbly showeth a s f o l l o w s : 1. T h i s P e t i t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d on b e h a l f o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by P e t e r R. K e l l y , C h a i r m a n d u l y a u t h o r i z e d by r e s o l u t i o n u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d by t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f A l l i e d T r i b e s on 1 9 t h December, 1925. 2. When B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n S e c t i o n 109 o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t was made a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l p u b l i c l a n d s w i t h c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c e x c e p t i o n s . By v i r t u e o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s S e c t i o n i t was e n a c t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c l a n d s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h o u l d b e l o n g t o t h e new P r o v i n c e . By v i r t u e o f t h e a p p l i -c a t i o n o f t h e same S e c t i o n as e x p l a i n e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e i n J a n u a r y , 1875, a l l t e r r i t o r i a l l a n d r i g h t s c l a i m e d by t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e were p r e s e r v e d and i t was e n a c t e d t h a t s u c h r i g h t s s h o u l d be an " i n t e r e s t " i n t h e p u b l i c l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . The I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c l a i m a c t u a l b e n e f i c i a l o w n e r s h i p o f t h e i r t e r r i -t o r i e s , b u t do n o t c l a i m a b s o l u t e o w n e r s h i p i n t h e s e n s e o f o w n e r s h i p e x c l u d i n g t h e t i t l e o f t h e Crown. I t i s r e c o g n i z e d by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s t h a t t h e r e i s i n r e s p e c t o f a l l t h e p u b l i c l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e an u n d e r l y i n g t i t l e o f t h e Crown, w h i c h t i t l e a t l e a s t f o r t h e p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s i t i s n o t t h o u g h t n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e . 3. I n o r d e r t o make c l e a r what i s meant by an " i n t e r e s t " t h e P e t i t i o n e r s q u o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g words o f L o r d Watson t o be f o u n d i n t h e I n d i a n C l a i m s C a s e — L . R . 1897 A.C. a t page 210: "An i n t e r e s t o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e P r o v i n c e i n t h e same a p p e a r s t o d e n o t e some r i g h t o r i n t e r e s t i n a t h i r d p a r t y i n d e p e n d e n t o f or' c a p a b l e o f b e i n g v i n d i c a t e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e b e n e f i c i a l i n t e r e s t o f t h e o l d P r o v i n c e . " 4. The p o s i t i o n t a k e n by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was p l a c e d b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t by means o f P e t i t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o t h e House o f Commons on 2 3 r d M a r c h , 1920 and r e a d i n t h e House o f Commons and r e c o r d e d on 2 6 t h M a r c h , 1920 ( H a n s a r d , p. 825) and P e t i t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S e n a t e on 9 t h J u n e , 1920, t o a l l c o n t e n t s o f w h i c h two P e t i t i o n s t h e P e t i t i o n e r s beg l e a v e t o r e f e r . 131 5. I n t h e month o f A u g u s t , 1910, S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r , h a v i n g been a d v i s e d by t h e De p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e t h a t t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y s h o u l d be j u d i c i a l l y d e c i d e d , met t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t P r i n c e R u p e r t and s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f Canada s a i d — " I t h i n k t h e o n l y way t o s e t t l e t h i s q u e s t i o n t h a t y o u have a g i t a t e d f o r y e a r s i s by a d e c i s i o n o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee, and I w i l l t a k e s t e p s t o h e l p y o u . " 6. By agr e e m e n t w h i c h was e n t e r e d i n t o by t h e l a t e Mr. J . A. J . McKenna S p e c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r on b e h a l f o f t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada and t h e l a t e P r e m i e r S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e on b e h a l f o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e month o f September, 1912, and b e f o r e t h e end o f t h a t y e a r a d o p t e d by b o t h Governments, i t was s t i p u l a t e d t h a t by means o f a J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n t o be a p p o i n t e d , l a n d s s h o u l d be added t o I n d i a n R e s e r v e s and l a n d s s h o u l d be c u t ! o f f f r o m I n d i a n r e s e r v e s . By t h a t a g r e e m e n t i t was p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e c a r r y -i n g o u t o f i t s s t i p u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be a " f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t o f a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " 7. On t h e 3 0 t h day o f J u n e , 1916, t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a p p o i n t e d i n p u r s u a n c e o f t h e agreement above m e n t i o n e d i s s u e d R e p o r t w h i c h was p l a c e d i n t h e hands o f b o t h G o v e r n -ments. 8. I n t h e month o f September, 1916, t h e Duke o f Con-n a u g h t , a c t i n g a s H i s M a j e s t y ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Canada and i n r e s p o n s e t o a l e t t e r w h i c h had been a d d r e s s e d t o him on b e h a l f o f t h e N i s h g a T r i b e s and t h e I n t e r i o r T r i b e s , gave a s s u r a n c e s communicated by H i s S e c r e t a r y t o t h e G e n e r a l C o u n s e l o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : -" H i s R o y a l H i g h n e s s has i n t e r v i e w e d t h e H o n o u r a b l e Dr. Roche w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o y o u r l e t t e r o f t h e 2 9 t h May and y o u r i n t e r v i e w w i t h me and I am commanded by H i s R o y a l H i g h n e s s t o s t a t e t h a t he c o n s i d e r s i t i s t h e d u t y o f t h e N i s h g a T r i b e o f I n d i a n s t o a w a i t t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e Comm i s s i o n , a f t e r w h i c h , i f t h e y do n o t a g r e e t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s s e t f o r t h by t h a t Commis-s i o n , t h e y c a n a p p e a l t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l i n E n g l a n d where t h e i r c a s e w i l l have e v e r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . As t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n s w i l l be d u l y c o n s i d e r e d by t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l i n t h e e v e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s b e i n g d i s -s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n , H i s R o y a l H i g h n e s s i s n o t p r e p a r e d t o i n t e r f e r e i n t h e m a t t e r a t p r e s e n t and he hopes t h a t y o u w i l l a d v i s e t h e I n d i a n s t o a w a i t t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e Co m m i s s i o n . " 132 9. The A l l i e d T r i b e s have a l w a y s been and s t i l l a r e u n w i l l i n g t o be bound by t h e agreement above m e n t i o n e d and have a l w a y s been and s t i l l a r e u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t a s f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t t h e f i n d i n g s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . 10. I n t h e y e a r 1920 t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada e n a c t e d t h e law known as B i l l 13 b e i n g C h a p t e r 51 o f t h e S t a t u t e s o f t h a t y e a r a u t h o r i z i n g t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n C o u n c i l t o c a r r y o u t t h e a greement above m e n t i o n e d by a d o p t i n g t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . From t h e p r e a m b l e and thei e n a c t i n g words t h e p r o f e s s e d p u r p o s e o f t h e B i l l a p p e a r e d t o be t h a t o f e f f e c t i n g s e t t l e m e n t by a c t u a l l y a d j u s t i n g a l l m a t t e r s . 11. I n c o u r s e o f d e b a t e r e g a r d i n g B i l l 13 h e l d i n t h e S e n a t e o f 2nd J u n e , 1920, S i r James Lougheed, l e a d e r o f t h e t h e n Government i n t h e S e n a t e , a n s w e r i n g r e m a r k s o f S e n a t o r B o s t o c k by w h i c h was e x p r e s s e d t h e f e a r t h a t i f t h e B i l l s h o u l d become law t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t " e n t i r e l y be p u t o u t o f C o u r t and be u n a b l e t o p r o c e e d on any q u e s t i o n o f t i t l e , " g ave t h e f o l l o w i n g a s s u r a n c e (Debates o f S e n a t e — 1 9 2 0 , p. 475 c o l . 2 ) : -" I m i g h t s a y f u r t h e r , h o n o u r a b l e g e n t l e m e n , t h a t we do n o t p r o p o s e t o e x c l u d e t h e c l a i m s o f I n d i a n s . I t w i l l be m a n i f e s t t o e v e r y h o n o u r a b l e g e n t l e m a n t h a t i f t h e I n d i a n s have c l a i m - a n t e r i o r t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n o r a n t e r -i o r t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e two Crown C o l o n i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e y c o u l d be a d j u s t e d o r s e t t l e d by t h e I m p e r i a l A u t h o r i t i e s . T h o s e c l a i m s a r e s t i l l v a l i d . I f t h e c l a i m be a v a l i d one w h i c h i s b e i n g a d v a n c e d by t h i s g e n t l e m a n and t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h him as t o t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e i n g e n t i t l e d t o t h e w h o l e o f t h e l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h i s Government c a n n o t d i s t u r b t h a t c l a i m . T h a t c l a i m c a n s t i l l be a s s e r t e d i n t h e f u t u r e . " 12. Upon o c c a s i o n o f i n t e r v i e w had w i t h t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f a l l i e d T r i b e s a t V a n c o u v e r on 2 7 t h J u l y , 1923, t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n t e r i o r s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e Government o f Canada c o n c e d e d t h a t t h e a l l i e d T r i b e s a r e e n t i t l e d t o s e c u r e j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y and gave a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada w o u l d h e l p them i n s e c u r i n g s u c h d e c i s i o n . 13. By O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l p a s s e d i n t h e month o f A u g u s t , 1923, t h e Government o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a d o p t e d t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . 133 14. By Memorandum w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Government o f Canada on 2 9 t h F e b r u a r y , 1924, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o p p o s e d t h e p a s s i n g o f O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l o f t h e Government o f Canada a d o p t i n g t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n upon t h e g r o u n d , among o t h e r g r o u n d s , t h a t no m a t t e r w h a t e v e r r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a v i n g been f u l l y a d j u s t e d and i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s s u c h as f o r e s h o r e r i g h t s , f i s h i n g r i g h t s and w a t e r r i g h t s n o t h a v i n g been t o any e x t e n t a d j u s t e d , t h e p r o f e s s e d p u r p o s e o f t h e Agreement and t h e A c t had n o t been a c c o m p l i s h e d . 15. By O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l p a s s e d 1 9 t h J u l y , 1924, t h e Government o f Canada, a c t i n g u n d e r C h a p t e r 51 o f t h e S t a t u t e s o f t h e y e a r 1920 and upon r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r a d o p t e d t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . 16. From t h e Memorandum i s s u e d by t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e on 2 9 t h F e b r u a r y , a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h had been s u b m i t t e d by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s t o t h e Government o f Canada, t h e O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l p a s s e d on 1 9 t h J u l y , 1924, and t h e Memorandum i s s u e d by t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s on 9 t h A u g u s t , 1924, i t c l e a r l y a p p e a r s as i s sub-m i t t e d t h a t b o t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e and t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e g a r d t h e S t a t u t e C h a p t e r 51 o f t h e y e a r 1920 as i n t e n d e d , n o t f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t an a c t u a l a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s , b u t f o r t h e p u r -p o s e o f b r i n g i n g a b o u t a l e g i s l a t i v e a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l s u c h m a t t e r s and t h u s e f f e c t i n g f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t u n d e r t h e la w s o f Canada w i t h o u t t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o r c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 17. The A l l i e d T r i b e s s u b m i t t h a t , so f a r as S e c t i o n 2 b e i n g t h e main e n a c t m e n t o f C h a p t e r 51 may be i n t e r p r e t e d a s b e i n g i n t e n d e d f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e p u r p o s e above men-t i o n e d and t h u s b r i n g i n g t o an end a l l a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m e d by t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h a t e n a c t m e n t i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t . 18. On t h e 1 5 t h J a n u a r y , 1925, t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s o -l u t i o n : " I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two Governments have p a s s e d O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l c o n f i r m i n g t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s , we t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e more t h a n e v e r d e t e r m i n e d t o t a k e s u c h a c t i o n a s may be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may r e c e i v e j u s t i c e and a r e f u r t h e r m o r e d e t e r -mined t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r i g h t s c l a i m e d by them by a j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l . " 134 19. I n t h e c o u r s e o f d e b a t e had i n t h e House o f Commons on t h e 2 6 t h o f J u n e , 1925 t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n t e r i o r s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e Government o f Canada i n answer t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h had been made on b e h a l f o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s a r e e n t i t l e d t o o b t a i n f r o m H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y and a g r e e d t h a t t h e Government w o u l d g i v e a u t h o r i t a t i v e s a n c t i o n f o r so d o i n g . 20. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e mark t h e n made by t h e M i n i s t e r t h a t t h e Government w o u l d n o t be j u s t i f i e d i n p r o v i d i n g f u n d s u n l e s s " s o m e t h i n g v e r y c o n c r e t e " s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s s u b m i t t h a t t h e y have a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d " s o m e t h i n g v e r y c o n c r e t e " n amely t h e i r own c o n d i t i o n s p r o -p o s e d f o r e q u i t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t by t h e i r S t a t e m e n t p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n r e s p o n s e t o r e q u e s t o f t h a t Government i n t h e month o f December 1919., and s u b -s e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Government o f Canada. 21. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e g e n e r a l s u b j e c t o f t h e f u n d s w h i c h as t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s c l a i m t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada i s u n d e r t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s have p l a c e d i n t h e hands o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t - G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s t h e f o l l o w i n g M e m o r i a l : THE A L L I E D INDIAN TRIBES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TO THE SUPERINTENDENT GENERAL OF INDIAN AFFAIRS By t h i s M e m o r i a l o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t i s r e s p e c t f u l l y s u b m i t t e d as f o l l o w s : The A l l i e d T r i b e s s u b m i t t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n i s u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g a l l f u n d s a l r e a d y expended and a l l f u n d s r e q u i r i n g h e r e a f t e r t o be e x p ended by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r i g h t s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , and i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The A l l i e d T r i b e s so s u b m i t upon g r o u n d s b r i e f l y s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : -1. W e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p r e c e d e n t r e l a t i n g t o j u d i c i a l p r o c e e d i n g s i n t e n d e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r i g h t s o f I n d i a n t r i b e s and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t o f t h e Oka c a s e , w h i c h was c a r r i e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l by t h e I n d i a n s i n t e r e s t e d and o f w h i c h t h e t o t a l c o s t was p r o v i d e d by t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada. 2. The f a c t t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada b e i n g by v i r t u e o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a n A c t and t h e "Terms o f U n i o n " 135 t r u s t e e f o r t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and u n d e r a l l o b l i g a t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m s u c h t r u s t e e s h i p has by e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e compact w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a above m e n t i o n e d r e n d e r e d i t s e l f i n c o m p e t e n t f o r t a k i n g e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a s i s c l e a r l y shown by t h e O p i n i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e i s s u e d i n t h e month o f December 1913, and more-o v e r has p u t i t s e l f i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a p a r t y i n t h e c a s e u p h o l d i n g t h e c o n t e n t i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and by t h e a c t s so s t a t e d has p l a c e d upon t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s t h e a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o c e e d i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y f o r e s t a b -l i s h i n g t h e i r r i g h t s . 3. The p r i n c i p l e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f a l l a b o r i g i n a l l a n d s and o t h e r r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w h i c h has a l r e a d y b e en c o n c e d e d by t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada, and o f w h i c h as t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s s u b m i t t h e f i r s t i t e m c o n s i s t s o f t h e f u l l e x p e n d i t u r e r e q u i r e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g s u c h r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s and b r i n g i n g a b o u t an a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l m a t t e r s now r e q u i r i n g t o be a d j u s t e d . 4. The a s s u r a n c e s w h i c h on b e h a l f o f t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada have f r o m t i m e t o t i m e been g i v e n t o t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t o f S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r and t h o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r . 5. The l a n d s and f u n d s h e l d by t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada i n t r u s t f o r t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and b e i n g t h e f u l l b e n e f i c i a l p r o p e r t y o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s now f o r m a l l y demand f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada payment o f t h e sum o f one h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s b e i n g t h e t o t a l amount o f s u c h e x p e n d i t u r e s a l r e a d y i n c u r r e d , and f u r t h e r demand f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada t h a t f u l l p r o v i s i o n be made f o r p a y i n g a l l a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s w h i c h h e r e a f t e r s h a l l be r e q u i r e d f o r s u c h e x p e n d i t u r e s as s h a l l be a g r e e d upon between t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada, o r i f n e c e s s a r y s h a l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l . D a t e d a t t h e C i t y o f Ottawa t h e J u n e , 1926 C h a i r m a n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f A l l i e d T r i b e s To H o n o u r a b l e CHARLES STEWART, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , O t t a w a . 136 22. The Government o f Canada h a v i n g d e f i n i t e l y a g r e e d as i s above shown t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada w i l l f a c i l i -t a t e s e c u r i n g f r o m t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n l a n d s c o n t r o v e r s y , t h e G e n e r a l C o u n s e l o f A l l i e d T r i b e s e n t e r e d upon d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e r e g a r d i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r method by w h i c h t h e s e c u r i n g o f s u c h d e c i s i o n w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d , and o f f e r e d t o s u g g e s t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e common g r o u n d w h i c h m i g h t be r e a c h e d by t h e G o v e r n -ment o f Canada and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c a r r y i n g f o r w a r d o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t j u d i c i a l p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . 23. I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s P e t i t i o n t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada as t h e Supreme Body r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada, t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s d e c l a r e t h a t , w h i l e i t i s n e c e s -s a r y f o r them t o demand what t h e y c o n s i d e r t o be t h e i r r i g h t s f r o m b o t h t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada and e v e n t o c o n t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f an A c t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada, t h e y d e s i r e and i n t e n d t o a c t t o w a r d a l l M i n i s t e r s o f t h e Crown, a l l Members o f b o t h Houses o f P a r l i a m e n t and a l l o t h e r s c o n c e r n e d i n a t h o r o u g h l y r e a s o n -a b l e and c o n c i l i a t o r y way and t h a t t h e i r one c e n t r a l o b j e c -t i v e i s , by s e c u r i n g j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n o f a l l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , t o open t h e way f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t an e q u i t a b l e and m o d e r a t e s e t t l e m e n t s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e Governments as w e l l a s t o t h e m s e l v e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e P e t i t i o n e r s humbly p r a y : -1. T h a t by amendment o f C h a p t e r 51 o f t h e S t a t u t e s o f t h e y e a r 1920 o r o t h e r w i s e t h e a s s u r a n c e s e t o u t i n p a r a g r a p h 11 o f t h i s P e t i t i o n be made e f f e c t i v e and t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a be s a f e -g u a r d e d . 2. T h a t s t e p s be t a k e n f o r d e f i n i n g and s e t t l i n g between t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s and t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada a l l i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g t o be d e c i d e d between t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e one hand and t h e Government o f Canada on t h e o t h e r hand. 3. T h a t i m m e d i a t e s t e p s be t a k e n f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and e n a b l i n g them by s e c u r i n g r e f e r e n c e o f t h e P e t i t i o n now i n H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l and s u c h o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t j u d i c i a l a c t i o n a s s h a l l be f o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o s e c u r e judgment o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i d i n g a l l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . 137 4. T h a t t h i s P e t i t i o n and a l l r e l a t e d m a t t e r s be r e f e r -r e d t o a S p e c i a l Committee f o r f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . D a t e d a t t h e C i t y o f Ottawa, t h e 1 0 t h day o f J u n e , 1926. P e t e r R. K e l l y , C h a i r m a n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f A l l i e d T r i b e s . 

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