UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The formative stages of Edouard Vuillard, 1886-1893 Duggan, Deena Clare 1978

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THE FORMATIVE STAGES OF EDOUARD VUILLARD, 1 8 8 6 - 1 8 9 3 by DEENA CLARE DUGGAN B.A.E.D., U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1971 B.A., S e a t t l e P a c i f i c C o l l e g e , 197-4 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUIJILLMENT.OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS m THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF FINE ARTS We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1978 (c) Deena C l a r e Duggan, 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT Edouard V u i l l a r d o f f i c i a l l y j o i n e d the r a d i c a l group o f young p a i n t e r s known as the Nabis i n 1889- However, the mature s t y l e he developed by 1893 seems t o bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the k i n d o f p a i n t i n g they advocated. This paper attempts t o c l a r i f y V u i l l a r d ' s a r t i s t i c debt t o the Nabis through a c l o s e examination o f s e l e c t e d works from h i s formative stages 1 8 8 6 - 1 8 9 3 • Chapter One considers V u i l l a r d ' s student y e a r s , 1 8 8 6 - 1 8 9 0 , showing the conventional nature o f h i s a r t i s t i c t r a i n i n g , and r e v e a l -i n g , by h i s v i s u a l r eference t o Chardin, an e a r l y i n c l i n a t i o n towards a q u i e t a r t o f i n t i m a t e scenes. During t h i s same time, V u i l l a r d e s t a b l i s h e d h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Nabis, which prompted some cau-t i o u s experiments w i t h t h e i r Ideas, v e i l e d by n a t u r a l i s t i c appearances. Chapter Two concerns V u i l l a r d ' s experimental stage o f 1 8 9 0 - 1 8 9 3 -His a r t i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Nabi ideas was b o l d l y evident a t f i r s t , but h i s a t t e n t i o n was soon a t t r a c t e d both by the works o f recent avant-garde p a i n t e r s and by Japanese ukiyo-e p r i n t s , as w e l l . I n h i s formative stages, V u i l l a r d developed formal means t o synthesize the a e s t h e t i c approach he d e r i v e d from the Nabis w i t h h i s preference f o r an a r t o f q u i e t intimacy. By 1 8 9 3 , he had married these i n a d e l i c a t e harmony, and achieved the very d i s t i n c t i v e , p e r s o n a l s t y l e f o r which he i s known. i i TABLE OP CONTENTS LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS , , I v INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I : THE STUDENT YEARS, 1 8 8 6 - 1 8 9 0 6 CHAPTER I I : THE EXPERIMENTAL YEARS, 1 8 9 0 - 1 8 9 3 25 CONCLUSION 50 ILLUSTRATIONS . . 52 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 99 i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fi g u r e 1 . P o r t r a i t o f Madame Michaud, c. 1 8 8 8 . F i g u r e 2 . Lapin de garenne, c. 1 8 8 8 . Figure 3 . Chardin. -fere, Game.Bag, and Gunpowder Box, c. 1 7 2 7 . F i g u r e 4. Pommes et v e r r e de v i n , c. 1 8 8 8 . F i g u r e 5 . Chardin. Pears, Walnut. Glass o f Wine, and K n i f e , c. 1 7 6 0 . Figure 6 . Roussel. S t i l l - l i f e w i t h onions, c. 1 8 9 0 . F i g u r e 7- Bonnard. Le perdreau, 1 8 8 9 . Figure 8 . Chardin. P a r t r i d g e , P i t c h e r , Apple and Orange, c. 1 7 2 6 - 2 8 . F i g u r e 9- V u i l l a r d c o i f f e d'un c a n o t i e r , c. 1 8 8 8 . F i g u r e 1 0 . S e l f - p o r t r a i t i n a M i r r o r , 1 8 8 8 - 9 0 . Figure 1 1 . La v i s i t e , 1 8 9 0 . F i g u r e 1 2 . Le l i s e u r , c. 1 8 9 0 . F i g u r e 1 3 . Manet. Le l i s e u r , l 8 6 l . F i g u r e 14. Denis. Ascent t o Ca l v a r y , 1 8 8 9 . F i g u r e 1 5 . Daumier. Un wagon de t r o i s i e m e c l a s s e , 1 8 6 3 - 6 5 . F i g u r e 1 6 . Un wagon de t r o i s i e m e c l a s s e , c. 1 8 9 1 . Figure 17 . Les debardeurs, c. 1 8 9 0 . Figure 1 8 . Manet. Le por t de Boulogne-sur-Mer..au c l a i r . d e l u n e , 1 8 6 9 . F i g u r e 1 9 . Seurat. La parade, 1 8 8 8 . F i g u r e 2 0 . Denis. A v r i l , 1 8 9 1 . F i g u r e 2 1 . S e l f - p o r t r a i t , c. 1 8 9 1 . F i g u r e 2 2 . .. Van Gogh, S e l f - p o r t r a i t , c. 1 8 8 6 - 8 8 . i v V Figure 23- S e l f - p o r t r a i t , 1 8 9 2 . F i g u r e 24. Redon. P o r t r a i t de Redon par lui-meme, 1867-F i g u r e 25. Denis. Hommage a Cezanne, 1 9 0 0 . F i g u r e 26. L ' e l e g a n t e , c. I 8 9 O . F i g u r e 2 7 . Degas. At the Louvre: Mary Cassatt i n the P a i n t i n g  G a l l e r y , c. 1 8 7 9 - 8 0 . Figure 28. Ouvrieres au c h i f f o n i e r , c. 1 8 9 0 . Figure 2 9 - L ' a t e l i e r de l a c o r s e t i e r e , n.d. Figure 3 0 . Les o r e i l l o n s , c. 1895-Figure 3 1 . Bonnard. Femmes au j a r d i n (one panel o f f o u r ) , 1 8 9 0 - 9 1 . Figure 32. Harunobu. An Evening V i s i t , mid - 1 8 t h century. Figure 33- Le d e s h a b i l l e o v a l e , c. 1 8 9 1 . Figure 3 4 . Kuniyoshi. 0 Kane, A Strong Woman from Omi Pr o v i n c e , c. 1 8 4 3 - 4 7 . F i g u r e 3 5 . Utamaro. Two G i r l s D r e s s i n g t h e i r H a i r , l a t e 1 8 t h century. F i g u r e 3 6 . Shuncho. V i s i t o r s t o the Masaki I n a r i S h r i n e , c. 1 7 7 5 - 9 5 -Figure 37- Au l i t , 1 8 9 1 . Figure 3 8 . Kunisada. Rokusaburo the Carpenter, e a r l y 1 9 t h century. F i g u r e 3 9 . Hokusai. F u j i from the l o n g , s l o p i n g h i l l s i d e o f Inume  i n K a i P r o v i n c e , e a r l y 1 9 t h century. F i g u r e 40. Hokusai. Femme, e a r l y 1 9 t h century. F i g u r e 4 l . P o r t r a i t o f Lugne-Poe, 1 8 9 1 . F i g u r e 42. Kiyomitsu. A Beauty o f Eas t e r n Japan, 1 8 0 8 . F i g u r e 4 3 . The Seamstress, 1 8 9 1 . v i Figure'44. L i t t l e Girls Walking, 1 8 9 1 . Figure 45. Harunobu. Two Girls on the Hagi-no-Tamagawa i n the Moon- lig h t , mid-18th century. Figure 46. Le pretendant, 1893-Figure 4.7. Kiyonaga. A Room at the Komeikan Brothel at Susaki, late l 8 t h century. INTRODUCTION Edouard V u i l l a r d evolved a pers o n a l a r t i s t i c s t y l e by 1 8 9 3 . He was then twenty-six. H i s p a i n t i n g career began i n 1888 w i t h a conventional course of i n s t r u c t i o n , but h i s student years ended ab r u p t l y i n 1 8 9 0 . This was p a r t l y the r e s u l t of h i s a s s o c i a t i o n during the previous year w i t h a r a d i c a l group o f young p a i n t e r s known as the Nabis. F o l l o w i n g t h i s , V u i l l a r d launched h i m s e l f i n t o a b r i e f p e r i o d ( I 8 9 O - 9 2 ) o f v a r i e d a r t i s t i c experimentation from which he synthesized a pers o n a l s t y l e . The coincidence o f V u i l l a r d ' s formative p e r i o d and h i s involvement w i t h the Nabis immediately suggests a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u -ence on the s t y l e he developed. Maurice Denis, V u i l l a r d ' s c l o s e f r i e n d and f i r s t e x p o s i t o r o f the Nabi a e s t h e t i c , was apparently the f i r s t t o acknowledge t h i s i n h i s 1934 a r t i c l e , "L'Epoque du Symbolisme," d e c l a r i n g : I I n'est douteux que V u i l l a r d d o i t beaucoup aux Nabis: l a s e n s a t i o n transposee dans l e p l a n ornamentale, l e c o n t r S l e de l a se n s a t i o n , l a rigoureuse possession de ses moyens. . . . 1 But Denis's a u t h o r i t a t i v e statement, i f not overlooked, was minimized i n subsequent V u i l l a r d l i t e r a t u r e . Claude Roger-Marx i n h i s 1946 monograph s t a t e s : For Edouard V u i l l a r d , w r i t e s Maurice Denis, the c r i s i s brought about by the ideas o f Gauguin was o f b r i e f d u r a t i o n . However, Roger-Marx f a i l e d t o take n o t i c e o f Denis's f o l l o w i n g comment: 1 2 He owes him, however, the s o l i d i t y o f Gauguin's system o f touches on which he b u i l t up the i n t e n s e and d e l i -cate charm of h i s compositions.3 He improperly used Denis's i n i t i a l remark t o d i s m i s s any l a s t i n g e f f e c t s o f V u i l l a r d ' s a r t i s t i c encounter w i t h Nabi i d e a s , and avoided a s t y l i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i s s u e . T h i s f a u l t was only r e c e n t l y brought t o a t t e n t i o n by S t u a r t Preston w i t h h i s f u l l e r c i t a t i o n of Denis's o b s e r v a t i o n i n h i s book, V u i l l a r d ( 1 9 7 ' ) . Preston, however, elaborated no f u r t h e r on the i s s u e . Though he acknowledged from the works themselves the a r t i s t ' s e x p e r i -mentation w i t h Nabi t h e o r i e s during 1 8 9 0 - 9 2 , he d i d no more than mention i t . H i s e n t i r e d i s c u s s i o n was l i m i t e d t o the f o l l o w i n g r e -marks: As a p a r t of V u i l l a r d ' s t o t a l oeuvre, p a i n t i n g s adhering s t r i c t l y t o Nabi theory represent no more than a b r i e f moment i n h i s precocious development. The q u a l i t y and c o n v i c t i o n o f p a i n t i n g s of t h i s p e r i o d c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r a short time V u i l l a r d must have been convinced of these i d e a s . . . . 4 L i k e Preston and Roger-Marx, Andre C h a s t e l , i n h i s book, V u i l l a r d , P e i n t u r e s , 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 3 0 ( 1 9 4 8 ) , considered the a r t i s t ' s i n t e r e s t i n Nabi ideas merely a p a s s i n g fancy. U n l i k e h i s c o l l e a g u e s , however, C h a s t e l attempted t o defend h i s p o s i t i o n : V u i l l a r d f u t l ' u n des Nabis, mais c e t t e i l l u s t r e c h a p e l l e ne vecut pas de 1 'adhesion a une f o i s . - 5 He supported t h i s w i t h reference t o h i s a r t , observing V u i l l a r d ' s d i -vergence from other Nabis i n subject matter, and suggested t h a t V u i l l a r d ' s t a s t e f o r i n t i m a t e e f f e c t s had supplanted a s t r i c t adher-ence t o Nabi t h e o r i e s . This suggestion, though by no means i n c o r r e c t , r e s u l t e d from C h a s t e l ' s focus on subject matter. I n 1 9 5 3 , Jacques Salomon echoed Chastel's judgment i n Aupres 3 de V u i l l a r d . He i n c l u d e d V u i l l a r d among the Nabis only a t a f r i e n d -ship l e v e l , p o i n t i n g out h i s s i l e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and d i s c u s s i o n s . I n a l a t e r book, V u i l l a r d ( 1 9 6 8 ) , an e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e panorama o f the a r t i s t ' s works, Salomon d i d recognize V u i l l a r d ' s v i s u a l experiments w i t h Nabi i d e a s , but l i k e C h a s t e l be-fo r e him, he f a i l e d t o consider the e f f e c t these may have had on V u i l l a r d ' s mature s t y l e . I n 1 9 5 4 , Andrew R i t c h i e p u b l i s h e d Edouard V u i l l a r d , the f i r s t work attempting any s e r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f sources f o r the a r t i s t ' s s t y l e . Again, the works from 1 8 9 0 - 9 2 were discussed i n terms o f h i s encounter w i t h the Nabis, and i n them, R i t c h i e , l i k e C h a s t e l , ob-served V u i l l a r d ' s s e l e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r i d e a s : He took from the s y n t h e t i s t credo only i t s t e c h n i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n on colour and drawing and . . . avoided g the anecdotal, peasant subjects i n s p i r e d by Gauguin. R i t c h i e , l i k e h i s c o l l e a g u e , concluded t h a t V u i l l a r d ' s a r t i s t i c i n t e r -e st i n Nabi ideas was l i m i t e d to t h i s very b r i e f p e r i o d and consequent-l y , d i d not pursue f u r t h e r s t y l i s t i c d i s c u s s i o n . Perhaps the most v a l u a b l e and comprehensive study o f the man and h i s work t o date i s John R u s s e l l ' s book-catalogue, Edouard V u i l l a r d , 1 8 6 8 - 1 9 4 0 , produced f o r the 1971 r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x h i b i t i o n a t the A r t G a l l e r y o f Ontario. L i k e Denis, R u s s e l l openly acknowledged V u i l l a r d ' s a r t i s t i c debt t o the Nabis. I n a d d i t i o n , he defended t h i s p o s i t i o n , w i t h reference t o s p e c i f i c works, a t t r i b u t i n g t h e i r d e c o r a t i v e concerns, emphasis o f the f l a t s u r f a c e , and evocative mode of re n d e r i n g t o Nabi o r i g i n s . While R u s s e l l e s t a b l i s h e d V u i l l a r d ' s p e r s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of Nabi fe a t u r e s throughout the 1 8 9 0 ' s , a t the same time, he was not h e s i t a n t t o admit, i n agreement w i t h C h a s t e l , t h a t V u i l l a r d " d i d not, H 7 i n s h o r t , confine h i m s e l f t o any one set of i d e a s , " and concluded t h a t , "himself no t h e o r i s t , V u i l l a r d none the l e s s absorbed what g Denis had t o give him." Though R u s s e l l ' s work c o r r e c t e d the p r e v a i l i n g d e f i c i e n c y i n the l i t e r a t u r e by i d e n t i f y i n g Nabi c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o V u i l l a r d ' s mature s t y l e , h i s treatment o f the subject i s i n s u f f i c i e n t . H i s a t t e n t i o n was focused on V u i l l a r d ' s d e c o r a t i v e works of 1 8 9 2 - 1 9 1 3 • Consequently, the Nabi question was only considered i n c i d e n t a l l y , and h i s observations were dis p e r s e d through the t e x t i n the course of h i s d i s c u s s i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l works. What seems t o be warranted, t h e r e f o r e , i s a s t y l i s t i c study o f V u i l l a r d ' s formative stages w i t h a c l o s e , systematic examination o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e works which attempts t o i d e n t i f y the p r i n c i p a l sources f o r the s t y l e he developed by 1 8 9 3 , and a p p r o p r i a t e l y s u b s t a n t i a t e i t s suggestions. I t i s the.purpose o f t h i s paper t o undertake t h a t task. FOOTNOTES INTRODUCTION Maurice Denis, "L'Epoque du Symbolisme," Gazette des Beaux- A r t s 11 (March 1 9 3 4 ) , p. 1 7 7 - 8 . 2 Claude Roger-Marx, V u i l l a r d , His L i f e and Work, t r a n s . E. B. D'Auvergne (New York: E d i t i o n s de l a Maison F r a n c a i s e , 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 1 5 . 3 J S t u a r t Preston, V u i l l a r d (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1 9 7 ? ) , p. 24. I b i d . , p. 7 0 . •^Andre C h a s t e l , V u i l l a r d , P e i n t u r e s , 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 3 0 ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s du Ch-Sne, 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 3 Andrew C. R i t c h i e , Edouard V u i l l a r d (New York: Museum o f Modern A r t , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 1 2 . John R u s s e l l , Edouard V u i l l a r d , 1 8 6 8 - 1 9 4 0 (Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 5 3 . I b i d . , p. 2 1 . 5 CHAPTER I THE STUDENT YEARS, 1 8 8 6 - 1 8 9 0 Edouard V u i l l a r d was the son of a s o l d i e r and, as i s o f t e n the case, " i t was the f a m i l y i n t e n t i o n t o have him f o l l o w h i s f a t h e r i n t o the army by p r e p a r i n g him f o r the army c o l l e g e at S t . Cyr.""1" He began h i s p r e p a r a t i o n at the Ecole Rocroy and i n 1 8 7 9 , became a s c h o l a r s h i p - h o l d e r at the f a s h i o n a b l e Lycee Condorcet. Besides p r e p a r i n g him f o r S t . Cyr, the Lycee opened V u i l l a r d t o the a r t s . The c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e d both drawing c l a s s e s and f r e -2 quent v i s i t s t o the museums, g a l l e r i e s , and t h e a t r e s of P a r i s . And here a l s o , i n 1 8 8 4 , V u i l l a r d met three young men w i t h a r t i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s : Maurice Denis, A u r e l i e n Lugne-Poe, and Ker-Xavier Roussel. V u i l l a r d ' s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h these three must be seen as both an opportune and i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n h i s eventual v o c a t i o n , f o r the death of h i s f a t h e r i n the previous year had removed the major s t i m -ulus toward a m i l i t a r y career. His f a t h e r ' s death a l s o caused h i s mother t o set up a d r e s s -making business i n t h e i r P a r i s apartment, f o l l o w i n g i n her own fam-i l y t r a d i t i o n . T h i s a c t i o n t o provide f o r her f a m i l y created a new environment f o r the young Edouard: a scene crowded w i t h b u s i l y work-i n g women and r i c h l y c oloured, patterned f a b r i c s . Claude Roger-Marx has p i c t u r e d , perhaps w i s h f u l l y , "the e f f e c t . . . of these m u l t i -coloured samples, the s i l e n t symphonies, the precursors o f the pots f i l l e d w i t h pigment." The e f f e c t which the new surroundings.Had' on him c l e a r l y surfaced l a t e r i n the v i s u a l appearance of h i s mature s t y l e . 6 7 I n these e a r l y years the circumstances o f h i s l i f e both f r e e d V u i l l a r d from the f a m i l y e x p e c t a t i o n and nudged him i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the a r t s . Soon a f t e r he l e f t the Lycee i n 1886 he decided t o pursue a career i n the a r t s . P a i n t i n g was not a v o c a t i o n t h a t promised f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and i n the choice i t s e l f i s r e v e a l e d V u i l l a r d ' s s t r e n g t h o f mind. His d e c i s i o n was no doubt announced t o h i s mother g e n t l y , w i t h con-s i d e r a b l e reassurance.^ Only one course o f a c t i o n was a v a i l a b l e t o the a s p i r i n g a r t i s t i n nineteenth-century Prance: the o f f i c i a l l y - s a n c t i o n e d t r a i n i n g programme. I t began at the a t e l i e r , o r s t u d i o , o f a recognized mas-t e r of the c r a f t . Here the newcomer was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o drawing. As he progressed, he would move from copying engravings, t o drawing from p l a s t e r casts and f i n a l l y * t o the l i v e model. Only when h i s drawing was judged adequate a t t h i s l a s t l e v e l could he begin p a i n t -5 i n g . But the a t e l i e r was only the preparatory step f o r entry i n t o the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Acceptance a t the Ecole was subject t o the recommendation o f the a t e l i e r masters.. And so, "enrollment i n a p r i v a t e a t e l i e r was thus i n p r a c t i c e a c o n d i t i o n f o r admission t o the E c o l e . " 6 Upon admission, the student's t r a i n i n g continued along the same course. He was expected t o enter the v a r i o u s competitions, c u l -minating i n the famous; " P r i x de Rome", h i s gateway t o g l o r y . A l l these contests were preparatory f o r h i s f u t u r e submission t o the annual o f f i c i a l e x h i b i t i o n , the Salon. I f h i s work was accepted here, h i s name could come t o the a t t e n t i o n o f patrons, b r i n g i n g him s a l e s and commissions'. 8 The a r t i s t had t o e x h i b i t — h i s fame and success de-pended on i t . But f o r the nineteenth-century a r t i s t s i n France there was only one pla c e t o e x h i b i t , o n ly one p l a c e which c o u l d set s e a l upon h i s success: the Salon.7 The system encouraged a t every stage a conformity t o accepted standards o f s t y l e and content. Subjects were predominantly h i s -t o r i c a l o r l i t e r a r y , and were o f t e n a l l e g o r i c a l i n ch a r a c t e r . The p r e s c r i b e d s t y l e can be best d e s c r i b e d as a h i g h l y ' f i n i s h e d ' g n a t u r a l i s m . F i g u r e s were s c u l p t u r a l and p l a c e d i n a w e l l - d e f i n e d space; colours were r e s t r a i n e d t o a q u i e t harmony. Most a t e l i e r s geared t h e i r standards t o t h i s accepted mode and the A t e l i e r M a i l l a r t , t o which V u i l l a r d was l e d i n 1 8 8 6 , was no exception. His e a r l y t r a i n i n g was conventional and he was aimed t o -ward the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and i t s competition f o r e n t r y , the "Concours des Pla c e s " . A f t e r two un s u c c e s s f u l attempts, V u i l l a r d f i n a l l y won admission t o the Ecole i n the autumn o f 1888 and was put under the i n s t r u c t i o n o f Jean-Leon Gerome. From t h i s year dates h i s f i r s t recorded work, a conte drawing o f h i s grandmother, P o r t r a i t de Madame Michaud (Figure 1 ) , which o was submitted t o the Salon and accepted. Here, V u i l l a r d demonstrat-ed c e r t a i n aspects o f the accepted mode, but some independent i n -t e r e s t s are a l s o revealed. He represented the woman n a t u r a l i s t i -c a l l y and yet the drawing was handled i n an u n - ' f i n i s h e d ' way. The f i g u r e i s posed t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n a c e n t r a l t r i a n g l e , but V u i l l a r d countered the r i g i d f r o n t a l i t y and s t r e n g t h o f presence o f such a . pose by her averted glance, by the placement o f her hands, by s e a t i n g her i n a l a r g e c h a i r , and by viewing her from s l i g h t l y above. Tonal c o n t r a s t s focus a t t e n t i o n on the f i g u r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y on her face and hands. The woman's glance i s c a r e f u l l y emphasized by a l i g n i n g 9 i t w i t h the top of the c h a i r ; she seems caught i n r e s t f u l musing. The k i n d l y gentleness and h u m i l i t y Madame Michaud seems t o r a d i a t e i s c a r r i e d along by the s o f t e f f e c t o f the conte crayon i t s e l f i n a manner not u n l i k e contemporary works by Eugene C a r r i d r e . L i k e C a r r i e r e , V u i l l a r d emphasized the expressive q u a l i t i e s o f the med-ium and was c l e a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s u b j e c t i v e content. Such express-iveness was s i m i l a r l y accented by the more r a d i c a l contemporary a r t i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin. Two other aspects o f t h e i r avant-garde approach are a l s o e v i -dent here: an i n t e r e s t i n f l a t n e s s and i n symbols. Some symbolic i n t e n t on V u i l l a r d ' s p a r t i s suggested by two elements behind the o l d woman: the candle, i n d i c a t i n g the p a s s i n g o f time and l i f e , " ^ and the door, sometimes symbolizing the p a s s i n g o f l i f e i n t o the 12 realm beyond. The background area a l s o r e v e a l s V u i l l a r d ' s i n t e r -est i n f l a t n e s s . Rather than three-dimensional space, i t has been compressed i n t o a plane o f f l a t shapes behind the f i g u r e . These three elements a l i g n V u i l l a r d ' s p i c t o r i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the drawing w i t h those o f the contemporary avant-garde p a i n t e r s . At the same time, i t s acceptance at the Salon i n d i c a t e s a r e l a x a t i o n o f 13 t h e i r standards, i n d i c a t i n g a much narrower s e p a r a t i o n between the r a d i c a l and the Academic at t h i s time than i s commonly supposed. When V u i l l a r d entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he was d i s a -14 ppointed by the "coarse, b a r r a c k - l i k e atmosphere." And d e s p i t e the investment o f time i n g a i n i n g admittance, he d i d not stay l o n g . W i t h i n three months, he abandoned i t i n favour o f the Academie J u l i a n , where he was a t t e n d i n g evening c l a s s e s c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h h i s s t u d i e s at the Ec o l e . Here, V u i l l a r d s t u d i e d under W i l l i a m -Ado lphe Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Pleury. D i r e c t e d by Rodolphe 10 J u l i a n , the Academie was f a r from t y p i c a l . J u l i a n ' s s t u d i o , a l s o known as the Academie J u l i a n , p r e -pared students f o r the Ecole des Beaux-Arts as other s t u d i o s d i d , but some a s p i r i n g a r t i s t s found a s u b s t i t u t e f o r o f f i c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n the g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y o f the teaching. Rodolphe J u l i a n was only a mediocre p a i n t e r h i m s e l f , but he was astu t e enough t o have had the i d e a of p r o v i d i n g p o t e n t i a l candidates f o r the Ecole des Beaux-A r t s — and a l s o those who had already t r i e d and been r e j e c t e d — w i t h a p l a c e where they c o u l d work without r e s t r i c t i o n . . . . One o f the main advantages was th a t the s t u d i o was open every day o f the week except Sunday from e i g h t o'clock i n the morning t o n i g h t f a l l , whereas the other s t u d i o s , i n c l u d i n g those i n the Ecole des Beaux-Arts i t s e l f , were c l o s e d i n the afternoon.. Another advantage was t h a t students were accepted a t any age and priz e w i n n e r s who already had places at the Beaux-Arts o f t e n came back again. . . . There was no ob-l i g a t i o n t o enter the monthly competitions o r t o atte n d when the teachers made t h e i r rounds and c o r r e c t e d p u p i l s ' work.-. . . A young man o f independent outlook •:. would d e r i v e more p r o f i t from the advice o f a comrade whose ideas he shared and would be q u i t e ready t o t u r n h i s canvas t o the w a l l when the teacher came along and t h i s k i n d o f impertinence was q u i t e g e n e r a l l y accepted. 15 J u l i a n had p r e v i o u s l y taught a t the a t e l i e r o f Thomas Couture, which had a l s o been an independent workshop. Couture had encour-aged a l e s s ' f i n i s h e d ' , more p a i n t e r l y mode which r e t a i n e d the char-• 16 a c t e r o f the ebauehe, or sketch. Apparently, J u l i a n continued t h i s k i n d o f approach. As a t y p i c a l as the Academie J u l i a n was, I t d i d m a i n t a i n the Beaux-Arts t r a d i t i o n o f copying o l d masters as i t s c h i e f method o f p a i n t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . When the student was judged ready t o begin p a i n t i n g , .the master now s h i f t e d the emphasis from h i s p e r s o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n t o the study o f o l d masters congenial t o the p u p i l ' s i n d i v i d u a l temperament.17 V u i l l a r d ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p a i n t i n g i s e x e m p l i f i e d by two works done about 1 8 8 8 - 8 9 : L a p i n de garenne (Figure 2) and Pommes et v erre de v i n (Figure 4). Both d e r i v e from J.-B.;.S. Chardin 11 ( 1 6 9 9 - 1 7 7 9 ) and. r e v e a l h i s preference f o r a s p e c i f i c k i n d o f r e a l -18 ism : ord i n a r y household scenes and s t i l l - l i f e s which evoke a q u i e t , homey intimacy. H i s drawing of Madame Michaud had already evidenced t h i s i n c l i n a t i o n . Both V u i l l a r d ' s s t u d i e s are f r e e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n Chardin's 19 manner. L a p i n de garenne d e p i c t s a common subject i n Chardin's s t i l l - l i f e s and can be best compared t o Hare, Gamebag, and Gunpowder  Box (Figure 3), a work owned by the Louvre a t the time. Both are a r t f u l l y arranged compositions set i n a shallow space. I n Chardin's p i c t u r e , an i n t e n t i o n a l counterpoint was constructed among the v e r -t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l , and diagonal movements on the p i c t u r e - p l a n e , and the empty, dark background prevents deep r e c e s s i o n i n t o space. A su b t l e balance r e s u l t s . The d i f f u s e d q u a l i t y o f the l i g h t s e t s up a d e l i c a t e i n t e r p l a y o f l i g h t and shadow, s o f t e n i n g the o u t l i n e s , c r e a t i n g a harmonic, and hushed atmosphere f o r the scene. This e f f e c t was achieved by u s i n g v i s i b l e brushstrokes t o s o f t l y blend the ob-j e c t i n t o i t s surroundings. Although V u i l l a r d attempted t o i m i t a t e Chardin, h i s study appears l e s s r e f i n e d i n execu t i o n , very l i k e l y i n d i c a t i n g h i s r e l a -t i v e inexperience at t h i s p o i n t . The l i g h t i n g has a g l a r i n g q u a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y a t the l e f t and bottom, thus weakening the q u i e t harmony. In a d d i t i o n , h i s brushstroke i s broader, and as a r e s u l t , i n some places the edges o f the r a b b i t ' s form look ragged, r a t h e r than s o f t -ened. V u i l l a r d ' s l e s s s e n s i t i v e approach i s f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d i n the composition. The r a b b i t i s viewed from c l o s e r , r e s u l t i n g i n a sense o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n which d e t r a c t s from the i n t i m a t e atmosphere. H i s composition o f the subject i t s e l f a l s o disregards Chardin's-concern N 12 f o r thematic u n i t y : the g l a s s of wine, i n p a r t i c u l a r , seems a b i t Incongruous w i t h the corpse of a w i l d r a b b i t . I n studying the p a i n t i n g s of the masters, Bouguereau taught h i s students, not only t o see t o i t t h a t the same s u b t l e t i e s o f p e r -c e p t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n are presented . . . but t h a t they are a t t a i n e d i n the same way. . . . See not o n l y how the p a i n t e r d i d a c e r t a i n t h i n g but why. So t h a t as you work, you f o l l o w him i n the working out o f h i s p r o -blems, and make i t your problem also. 2'-' V u i l l a r d came c l o s e r t o a c h i e v i n g Bouguereau's i n t e n t i o n s i n what i s perhaps a s l i g h t l y l a t e r study, Pommes et v e r r e de v i n (Figure 4). I n comparison t o a t y p i c a l Chardin f r u i t p i e c e , Pears, Walnut,  Glass of Wine, and K n i f e (Figure 5 ) 3 the V u i l l a r d study here evokes the same sense of i n t i m a c y . Although our viewpoint i s no more d i s t a n t than i n L a p i n , the c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l e f f e c t i s e l i m i n a t e d by a s o f t e r l i g h t i n g and by the more r e s t r a i n e d c o l o u r s . R e i n f o r c i n g t h i s hushed e f f e c t , the s m a l l e r and more d e l i c a t e brushstrokes fuse t o g e t h e r , s o f t e n i n g edges, and merging them i n t o the background. L i k e the Chardin, V u i l l a r d ' s study conveys the same f e e l i n g o f s u b t l e harmony i n the composition as w e l l . To v i s u a l l y u n i f y the p i c t u r e , the s o f t l i g h t flows g e n t l y over the o b j e c t s , r e l a t i n g form t o form, k n i t t i n g them together. The f a b r i c - l i k e u n i t y o f the s u r -face r e s u l t s a l s o from the v i s i b l e brushstrokes s c a t t e r i n g the c o l -ours, producing a harmony of t h e i r c o n t i n u a l echoes. I n keeping w i t h Chardin's concern f o r p i c t o r i a l balance, the b r i g h t e r c o l o u r amassed i n V u i l l a r d ' s apples i s attenuated by the correspondingly d a r k e r , d u l l e r cauldron and background. Even compositional s u b t l e t i e s , such as the d i a g o n a l l y - p l a c e d k n i f e t o counter the h o r i z o n t a l l y arranged f r u i t , are a p p l i e d by V u i l l a r d i n the manner of Chardin. And here, compositional harmony can a l s o be seen r e f l e c t e d on the thematic 13 l e v e l : the apples, k n i f e , and g l a s s o f wine are compatibly grouped, the ensemble completely c r e d i b l e . V u i l l a r d ' s i n t e r e s t i n Chardin i l l u m i n a t e s something o f t h i s master's place i n nineteenth-century French p a i n t i n g . Although Chardin was not a fash i o n a b l e p a i n t e r i n h i s own time, he became the subject o f a r e v i v e d i n t e r e s t during the middle o f the n i n e -teenth century, encouraged, o f course, by the R e a l i s t s emerging at 21 t h a t time. A catalogue o f h i s works was published i n 1846 and s t u d i e s a f t e r h i s works became r a t h e r frequent. A number of pastiaheurs 22 arose, among them, Bonvin and V o l l o n , who saw i n Chardin's s u b j e c t s a prototype f o r a homely counterpart t o Courbet's Realism. The p o p u l a r i t y o f Chardin's work continued t o grow, i n s p i r e d , perhaps, by increased a v a i l a b i l i t y : an e x h i b i t i o n was organized i n i 8 6 0 , and the Louvre r e c e i v e d a number of works from a bequest i n 1 8 6 9 . Two works i n c l u d e d i n the bequest were the s t i l l - l i f e s j u s t d i s c u s s e d ; perhaps more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , these were l a t e r brought t o p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n by Henri de Chennevieres i n the J u l y , 1888 and February, 23 1889 i s s u e s o f the Gazette des Beaux-Arts. T h i s suggests a more p r e c i s e p o s s i b l e date f o r the s t u d i e s by V u i l l a r d . During the l 8 8 0 ' s , the i n t e r e s t i n Chardin s h i f t e d i n emphasis: The r e d i s c o v e r y o f Chardin by c o l l e c t o r s and p a i n t e r s was p a r a l l e l e d among a r t i s t s by a whole post-Chardinesque movement i n s p i r e d i n the main by h i s han d l i n g of p a i n t . 2 ^ In t h i s r egard, i t was the r a t h e r u n - ' f i n i s h e d ' appearance o f h i s work and h i s d e n i a l o f l o c a l c o lour which p a r t i c u l a r l y aroused a t t e n -25 t i o n and i n t e r e s t . T h i s may suggest why Chardin was f r e q u e n t l y s t u d i e d a t the Academie J u l i a n , a f a c t i n d i c a t e d i n s t u d i e s a f t e r Chardin by 14 V u i l l a r d ' s f e l l o w students, Roussel and P i e r r e Bonnard. I n b o t h Roussel's S t i l l - L i f e w i t h Onions (Figure 6) and Bonnard's Le perdreau (Figure 7), a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of s e n s i t i v i t y t o the master's v i s i o n i s e x h i b i t e d than i n the s t u d i e s by V u i l l a r d . Bonnard, i n p a r t i -c u l a r , manifested some very d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t s . Both works are more p a i n t e r l y : Roussel's study seems r a t h e r nervous and f u s s y , w h i l e Bonnard exaggerated the broken brushwork of the master, making i t broader and more dynamic. I n n e i t h e r case are the q u a l i t i e s o f inttoiacy evoked which seemed t o concern V u i l l a r d . I n f a c t , Bonnard's v e r s i o n i s o l a t e d the s u b j e c t , t o t a l l y e l i m i n a t i n g a l l sense o f p l a c e and mood. The d i f f e r e n c e s not only suggest the more p a i n t e r l y approach encouraged at the Academie J u l i a n , but c e r t a i n 26 ideas developing among a group o f i t s students. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r group i n v o l v e d Bonnard, P a u l S e r u s i e r , Maurice Denis, Paul Ranson, and H e n r i - G a b r i e l I b e l s . I n the p e r m i s s i v e a t -mosphere o f the J u l i a n , t h e i r r a d i c a l a r t i s t i c ideas f l o u r i s h e d . V u i l l a r d ' s sympathy w i t h avant-garde i n t e r e s t s , a l r e a d y evident i n Madame Michaud (Figure 1 ) , suggests h i s n a t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n t o t h i s group, and h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Denis, a former classmate at the Lycee Condorcet, drew him i n t o t h e i r midst. He grew i n c r e a s i n g l y c l o s e t o them, and t h e i r ideas were i n s t r u m e n t a l t o h i s formation as a p a i n t e r , p r o v i d i n g him w i t h some t i m e l y and thought-provoking a l t e r -n a t i v e s t o the o f f i c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s of the E c o l e . The group banded together s h o r t l y a f t e r V u i l l a r d ' s a r r i v a l at the J u l i a n I n the f a l l o f 1888 when t h e i r excitement was aroused by a s m a l l work done on a cigar-box l i d , e n t i t l e d B o i s d'Amour. T h i s work, soon famous as the Talisman, was the r e s u l t o f Paul S e r u s i e r ' s 15 summer study w i t h Gauguin at Pont-Aven. I t p o r t r a y s an a b s t r a c t e d landscape, an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n u s i n g forms and c o l o u r s f r e e d from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l d u t i e s . Gauguin's d i r e c t i v e s were recorded by Denis: 'Comment voyez-vous cet arb r e , a v a i t d i t Gauguin devant un c o i n du B o i s d'Amour: i l est b i e n v e r t ? Mettez done du v e r t , l e p l u s beau v e r t de v o t r e p a l e t t e ; — e t ce t t e ombre, p l u t o t bleue? Ne craignez pas de l a peindre a u s s i bleue que p o s s i b l e . , 2 7 "Into a design resembling . . . cloisonne work, S e r u s i e r l a i d the 28 c o l o r s t h a t Gauguin d i c t a t e d . " I n t h i s was seen the prophecy o f a new k i n d o f p a i n t i n g , and S e r u s i e r , Denis, Bonnard, Ranson, and I b e l s were eager t o be i t s prophets. The l i t t l e group c a l l e d them-selves j u s t t h a t , u s i n g the Hebrew e q u i v a l e n t , "Nabi". The legacy o f Gauguin t o the Nabis was t w o - f o l d : "Le mot d' ordre, l e p r i n c i p e commun est d ' e x a l t e r l a couleur e t de s i m p l i f i e r 29 l a forme." Behind these was the aim t o evoke the s e n s a t i o n o r e f f e c t r e c e i v e d from the su b j e c t / o b j e c t and t o t r a n s l a t e i t i n t o p l a s t i c e q u i v a l e n t s . The c r i t i c , A l b e r t A u r i e r , c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s k i n d of a r t as: 1. I d e i s t i c , because i t s only i d e a l w i l l be t o express the i d e a ; 2. Symbolist, because i t w i l l express t h i s Idea through forms; 3 . S y n t h e t i c , because i t s mode of understanding i s g e n e r a l , and these forms, these si g n s w i l l be i n s c r i b e d i n accordance w i t h t h a t mode; 4. S u b j e c t i v e , because i t w i l l never consider the objec t as an ob j e c t but always as the s i g n o f an i d e a , p e r -c e i v e d by the subject (the a r t i s t ) ; 5. (This i s a consequence from the fo r e g o i n g ) : D e c o r a t i v e , because d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g p r o p e r l y so c a l l e d , as i t was understood by the Egyptians, and very probably the Greeks and the P r i m i t i v e s , was not h i n g i f not the man-i f e s t a t i o n o f an a r t at once s u b j e c t i v e , s y n t h e t i c , s y m b o l i c a l , and i d e i s t i c . 3 0 These b a s i c n o t i o n s i n s p i r e d f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t i o n s by both S e r u s i e r 16 and Denis, each one i n h i s own way expanding, i n t e r p r e t i n g , and e m b e l l i s h i n g them. For the Nabis, Gauguin had l i b e r a t e d p a i n t i n g from what were considered i t s o l d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l I n t e n t i o n s , and S e r u s i e r took t h i s as a newly found freedom t o be symbolic. H i s approach was 31 p h i l o s o p h i c a l . Ancient ideas o f an u n d e r l y i n g u n i v e r s a l harmony p a r t i c u l a r l y f a s c i n a t e d him, as d i d the attempts he saw w i t h i n p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s t o express t h i s i d e a s y m b o l i c a l l y . Although s i m i l a r l y o r i e n t e d toward the m y s t i c a l , Denis con-cerned h i m s e l f i n h i s e a r l y w r i t i n g w i t h p i c t o r i a l elements. I n h i s famous manifesto o f 1890, " D e f i n i t i o n de Neotraditionnisme," he emphasized: Se r a p p e l e r qu'un t a b l e a u — avant d'etre un cheval de b a t a i l l e , une femme nue, ou une quelconque anecdote — est es s e n t i e l l e m e n t une surface plane recouverte de couleurs en un c e r t a i n ordre assemblies.3 2 He sought t o awaken the "de c o r a t i v e " p o t e n t i a l o f p a i n t i n g , c a l l -i n g a r t "the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n o f nature". Consequently, p a i n t i n g was no longer t o analyse and r e p o r t , but t o synt h e s i z e and evoke. At a s t y l i s t i c l e v e l , S e r u s i e r and Denis h e l d the same b a s i c concepts f o r the new a r t . By d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e i r aims from both those o f the Ecole and the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s , they made c l e a r what the Nabi approach was not; by r e t a i n i n g a conceptual nature i n t h e i r a e s t h e t i c , they allowed and encouraged i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Each Nabi i n c o r p o r a t e d the Gauguin d i r e c t i v e s i n t o h i s own a r t i s -t i c i n t e r e s t s . As a r e s u l t , the works o f the Nabis have only a loose f a m i l y resemblance. Instead, the cohesiveness o f the group was f u r n i s h e d by the close f r i e n d s h i p s among i t s members and by a communal s p i r i t . They 17 were bound together from the s t a r t I n a s o r t of semi-secret s o c i e t y w i t h strange phrases and terms i n t h e i r speech, and c r y p t i c s i g n s and symbols o f t e n i n c i d e n t a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g s . Regular-l y , they gathered at a monthly dinner at Paul Ranson's or the 'Temple', as they c a l l e d i t . These occasions, began when the p r e s i d i n g Nabi, r a i s i n g a s t a f f which resem-b l e d a bishop's c r o z i e r , intoned: 'Sounds, c o l o u r s , and words have a m i r a c u l o u s l y expressive power beyond a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and even beyond l i t e r a l meaning o f the words.'34 T h e i r t h e o r i e s and t h e i r enthusiasm at these gatherings made f o r animated d i s c u s s i o n s which were, not confined e x c l u s i v e l y t o the v i s u a l a r t s but ranged over many s u b j e c t s . M u s i c i a n s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , w r i t e r s , and dramatists were o f t e n i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 3 5 I n s p i t e of the excitement generated by the Nabis, V u i l l a r d h e l d h i m s e l f a l o o f from the group at f i r s t , seemingly i n t e n t t o l e a r n h i s c r a f t w i t h i n more acceptable bounds. He r e s i s t e d domina-t i o n by t h e i r ideas j u s t as he had r e b e l l e d from the imposing manner of the E c o l e . However, even though h i s p a i n t i n g was never o v e r t l y m y s t i c a l i n content, V u i l l a r d d i d ponder Nabi ideas o f s t y l e , con-s i d e r i n g t h e i r relevance f o r h i s own work. This hypothesis i s based on a s e l f - p o r t r a i t from about t h i s time, V u i l l a r d c o i f f e d'un c a n o t i e r (Figure 9). I n t h i s work the image of V u i l l a r d leans s l i g h t l y i n t o the c e n t r e , suggesting, i n conjunction w i t h the f i x e d glance and f i r m l y - s e t mouth, a thought-f u l q u e s t i o n i n g w i t h i n . From v i s u a l evidence, the subject i n ques-t i o n i s apparently the straw hat he wears; V u i l l a r d seems t o wonder how the s t y l e s u i t s him. The hat dominates the p a i n t i n g w i t h i t s s i z e , h i g h l i g h t s , and b r i g h t e r c o l o u r , and I t s importance i s ac-18 knowledged i n the t i t l e as w e l l . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the straw hat l i e s i n i t s s o c i a l conno-t a t i o n s . T h i s s t y l e , the " c a n o t i e r " or "boater", was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Prance d u r i n g the l a t e r nineteenth century along w i t h the sport i t accompanied; as such, i t was not a formal adornment, but one s u i t -able f o r s p o r t i n g p u r s u i t s and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . Here, the "boater", worn along w i t h customary dark coat and white c o l l a r i n the newly fas h i o n a b l e mode of i n f o r m a l town wear, i n d i c a t e s V u i l l a r d ' s s t y l e - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , h i s concern f o r an acceptable appear-36 ance. T h e . t i t l e o f the p i c t u r e , as recorded by V u i l l a r d ' s nep-hew, Jacques Salomon, supports t h i s r e a d i n g , not o n l y c i t i n g the " c a n o t i e r " s p e c i f i c a l l y , but r e f e r r i n g t o i t i n terms o f " c o i f f e " , or dressed f a s h i o n a b l y . I n t h i s l i g h t , the p i c t u r e suggests an analogy t o V u i l l a r d ' s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the new p a i n t i n g s t y l e then b e i n g conceived among h i s f r i e n d s , i l l u s t r a t i n g some cautious experiment w i t h t h e i r new ideas on s t y l e . D i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from h i s previous works i s the l o o s e r h a n d l i n g of p a i n t , now b e a r i n g more resemblance t o t h a t i n S e r u s i e r ' s Talisman than to t h a t of Chardin. Another divergence from the Chardin manner appears i n the f l a t n e s s o f h i s r i g h t shoulder. The r e s u l t s o f such musings were apparently p o s i t i v e , f o r i n the w i n t e r o f 1 8 8 9 , V u i l l a r d ' s conversion t o the Nabi persuasion became o f f i c i a l as S e r u s i e r witnessed: "Je t ' e n v i e quand t u me p a r i e s du nouveau f r e r e [footnoted as V u i l l a r d ] que Jahve a d i r i g e v e rs nous." 1 However, h i s s i l e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Nabi a c t i v i t i e s and the comparative r e s t r a i n t i n h i s works prompted A r i s t i d e M a i l l o l , another newcomer t o the group, t o judge t h a t " ' V u i l l a r d i s not one o f 19 us. He does not share the Ideas which have come down t o us from G a u g u i n . " 0 But M a i l l o l ' s judgment i s much too dogmatic. Though V u i l l a r d apparently r e j e c t e d the m y s t i c a l content espoused by S e r u s i e r , he responded favourably t o the Nabi ideas concerning f o r -mal means of expression. M a i l l o l can be excused f o r not r e c o g n i z -i n g t h i s , however, f o r V u i l l a r d ' s a p p l i c a t i o n o f these ideas was cautious and o f t e n v e i l e d , e s p e c i a l l y a t f i r s t , as i n V u i l l a r d  c o i f f e . H i s r e a c t i o n t o the Nabis and t h e i r t h e o r i e s i s perhaps best c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s own words: "'N'ayant r i e n de r e v o l u t i o n -n a i r e , j e ne n i e pas l e s b i e n f a i t s de r e v o l u t i o n s . ' " ^ T his sentiment i s r e f l e c t e d i n S e l f - P o r t r a i t i n a M i r r o r (Figure 10) where V u i l l a r d continued t o c a u t i o u s l y explore the Nabi i d e a o f f l a t n e s s , v e i l i n g h i s study behind a n a t u r a l i s t i c appearance. V u i l l a r d ' s image as the p a i n t e r , garbed i n h i s a r t i s t ' s smock, i s c e n t r a l l y p o s i t i o n e d , suggesting i t s importance. However, i n view of h i s other p o r t r a i t s , i t s comparatively s m a l l s i z e and the vague, e x p r e s s i o n l e s s appearance s i g n i f y otherwise. I n f a c t , the g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o the outer areas s h i f t s the p i c t o r i a l emphasis t o the m i r r o r frame and the wallpaper around i t . W i t h i n the m i r r o r , the s l a n t e d edges make references t o depth, but r e c e s s i o n i s prevented by the strong l i g h t i n g , r e n d e r i n g only f l a t shapes. The bamboo frame, i n f o r c i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f the mirror e d s u r f a c e , both emphasizes and j u s t i f i e s the f l a t n e s s w i t h i n . Surrounding t h i s , the p a t t e r n o f the wallpaper i s , o f course, s i m i -l a r l y f l a t i n both treatment and nature. V i s i b l e along the bottom i s a mysterious, p a i n t - s p l a t t e r e d s t r i p which serves as a reminder, perhaps i n t e n t i o n a l , of Denis's dictum t h a t a p a i n t i n g "est e s s e n t -20 40 i e l l e m e n t une surface plane recouverte de couleurs." The c a u t i o n V u i l l a r d e x h i b i t e d w i t h Nabi ideas at t h i s stage perhaps r e s u l t e d from h i s perseverance towards a conventional k i n d of success which r e q u i r e d b e i n g acceptable by Salon standards. This i s suggested by Maurice Denis's remembrance t h a t , a c e t t e epoque [ i . e . 1 8 8 8 - 9] ' V u i l l a r d r e c h e r c h a i t l e s c o n s e i l s de Rixens, grand me'dailles du Salon, q u ' i l a d m i r a i t , d i s a i t - i l , pour l a p a r f a i t e execution de ses t a b l e a u x . ^ 1 n 42 A f t e r h i s submission t o the Salon o f 1890 was r e j e c t e d , however, he abandoned o f f i c i a l competitions which n a t u r a l l y r e l e a s e d him from the bondage o f conforming t o i t s standards. Claude Roger-Marx ob-served t h a t V u i l l a r d by t h i s time was f i l l e d w i t h a " h o r r o r o f abso-l u t e c e r t a i n t i e s which he had acquired at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts." 44 "He was determined, headstrong, i n r e v o l t a g a i n s t any domination." With t h i s a t t i t u d e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t V u i l l a r d a l s o l e f t the Academie J u l i a n i n 1 8 9 0 , d i s m i s s i n g h i m s e l f completely from the system's a u t h o r i t y , and f o r m a l l y ending h i s career as a student. FOOTNOTES CHAPTER I "'"Andrew C. Ritchie, Edouard Vuillard (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 195*0, p. 8 - 9 . W^. Jaworska cites the uniqueness of the Lycee Condorcet in this respect i n Gauguin and Pont-Aven School, trans. P. Evans (London: Thames and Hudson, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 244. Claude Roger-Marx, Vuillard, His Life and Work, trans. E.B. D'Auvergne (New York: Editions de l a Maison Francaise, 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 1 0 . 4 John Russell, Edouard Vuillard, 1 8 6 8 - 1 9 4 0 (London: Thames and Hudson for the Art Gallery of Ontario, 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 13-5 For further information on the educational process -see: Albert Boime, The Academy and French Painting i n the Nineteenth  Century (London: Phaidon, 1 9 7 1 ) , and Jacques Letheve, Daily Life of  French Artists i n the Nineteenth Century, trans. H.E. Paddon (New York: Praeger, 1 9 7 2 ) . ^Albert Boime, The Academy and French Painting, p. 2 3 . Jacques Letheve, Daily Life of French Arti s t s , p. 1 0 8 . g "Naturalism" i s used here to refer to style, to an art concerned for i l l u s i o n i s t i c appearance. 9 The date, medium, and figural subject of this work suggest i t as a possible submission to the "Concours des Places". "^Albert Boime i n The Academy and French Painting, p. 1 7 , terms Carriere a "juste milieu" a r t i s t , defining this as one who employed both Academic and independent features and, i n so doing, "gratified the public taste for modernism combined with tradition-alism by modifying the disquieting features of Impressionism and rejecting the polished technique of the academic painters." Madame. Michaud exemplifies a similar approach. "'""'"James Hall, Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols i n Art (London: John Murray, 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 57 and 2 9 1 . 12 Gerd Helnz-Mohr, Lexikon des Symbols (Dusseldorf: Eugen Diederichs Verlag, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 2 9 2 - 3 . 1^This i s evident from Andre Michel's review, "Salon de 1 8 8 8 , " Gazette des Beaux-Arts 3 7 , 2 m e periode ( 1 June 1 8 8 8 ) , pp. 441-54; 3 8 , 2me periode ( 1 July 1 8 8 8 ) , pp. 2 1 - 3 1 ; and 3 8 , 2™e periode ( 1 August 1 8 8 8 ) , pp. 1 3 7 - 5 3 , and from Henry Houssaye's Le Salon de  1888 (Paris: Boussod, Valadon and Co., 1 8 8 8 ) . 14 Claude Roger-Marx, Vuillard, His Life and Work, p. 1 1 . Jacques Letheve, Daily Life of French A r t i s t s , pp. 2 6 - 2 7 . 21 22 "^For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on Couture'-'s a t e l i e r and h i s approach, see A l b e r t Boime, The Academy and French P a i n t i n g , pp. 65-78. 17 A l b e r t Boime, The Academy and French P a i n t i n g , p. 42. 18 "Realism" i s used here t o r e f e r t o the content o f a r t : the o r d i n a r y f i g u r e s and events drawn from the l o c a l , contemporary world. One i s reminded here o f Edouard Manet's s i m i l a r study o f Chardin, Nature Morte, Lapin. I n Edouard Manet, 1832-1883 (Chicago: A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago, 1966), p. 115, Anne C o f f i n Hanson claims t h a t the work synthesizes three p a i n t i n g s on the same theme by Chardin; V u i l l a r d ' s L a p i n de garenne i s perhaps a f r e e i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n i n the same sense. o n D. B. Parkhurst, The P a i n t e r i n O i l (Boston, 1903), p. 115, as c i t e d by A l b e r t Boime, The Academy and French P a i n t i n g , p. 125. 21 For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of Chardin's p l a c e i n nineteenth-century French p a i n t i n g , see: John W. McCoubrey, "The R e v i v a l o f Chardin i n French S t i l l - L i f e P a i n t i n g , " A r t B u l l e t i n 46 (March 1964), pp. 39-53-22 J . P. C r e s p e l l e i n Les M a i t r e s de l a B e l l e Epoque ( P a r i s : Hachette, .1966), p. 87, comments t h a t Bonvin " S 1 e t a i t consacre a 1' evocation du decor de l a v i e des humbles, sur l e s c o n s e i l s de Courbet. . . . Comme l u i , V o l l o n descendait a l a f o i s de Chardin e t de Courbet." ^ % e n r i de Chennevi^res, "Chardin au Musee du Louvre, donation Lacaze," Gazette des Beaux-Arts 38, 2 m e periode (1 J u l y 1888). pp. 54-61; 1, 3^ periode (1 February 1889), pp. 121-30. 24 P i e r r e Rosenberg, Chardin, t r a n s . H. H a r r i s o n (Geneva: A . S k i r a , 1963), p. 88. 25 ^ S i g n i f i c a n t l y , these are the f e a t u r e s p a r t i c u l a r l y brought t o a t t e n t i o n by Edmond and J u l e s de Goncourt i n French X V I I I Century P a i n t e r s , t r a n s . R. I r o n s i d e , (London: Phaidon, 1948), f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1873 and known t o have been read among the a r t i s t s of the time. Van Gogh s p e c i f i c a l l y comments i n refe r e n c e t o Chardin (The Complete L e t t e r s o f Vincent Van Gogh, V o l . I I (Green-wich, Conn.: New York Graphic S o c i e t y , n.d.), p. 431): " I am more convinced than ever t h a t the t r u e p a i n t e r s d i d not f i n i s h t h e i r t h i n g s i n the way which i s used only too o f t e n , namely 23 correct when one scrutinizes i t closely. The best pictures, and, from a technical point of view the most complete, seen from near by, are but patches of color side by side, and only make an effect at a certain distance." 26 The more radical appearance of Bonnard's study l i k e l y results from i t s comparably later date of 1889-?7 Maurice Denis, Theories, 1890-1910, 3rd ed. (Paris: Bibliothdque de l'Occident, 1913), p. 162. 28 Agne*s Humbert, Les Nabis et Leur Epoque (Geneva: Editions Pierre C a i l l e r , 1954), quoted i n Forrest Selvig, "Les Nabis: Prophets of the Vanguard," Art News 6 l (December 1962), p. 64. 29 Maurice Denis, "L'Epoque du Symbolisme," Gazette des  Beaux-Arts 11 (March 1934), 169. 30 ,. G.-A. Aurier, "Le Symbolisme en Peinture," Mercure de  France"2 (March 1891), p. 162-3, quoted and translated i n W. Jaworska, Gauguin and the Pont-Aven School, p. 328. 31 Serusier's ideas were developed i n his book, ABC de l a  Peinture; his particular approach derived from his involvement with Theosophy, a popular movement i n Paris at that time, related Nabi Jan Verkade i n Yesterdays of an Artist-Monk, trans. J.L. Stoddard (London: Burns Oates and Washbourne, 1930), p. 77-3 2Maurice Denis, Theories, 1890-1910, p. 1 3 3 I b i d . , p. 12. 34 F. Selvig, "Les Nabis: Prophets of the Vanguard," p. 65. Selvig neglected to give the original source of this quotation. 3 5 I b i d . 3 6 F o r further information on the "boater" and the accepted styles of the time, see: Francois Boucher, Histoire du Costume en  Occident de 1'Antique a. Nos Jours (Paris: Flammarion, 1965), P« 402; Alison Gernsheim, Fashion and Reality (London: Faber and Faber, 1963), p. 23; and Herbert Norris and Oswald Curtis, Costume and  Fashion, Vol. VI: The Nineteenth Century (London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1933), P. 106. 24 ^ P a u l S e r u s i e r , ABC de l a P e i n t u r e , 3rd ed. ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e F l o u r y , 1950), p. 40. John R u s s e l l , Edouard V u i l l a r d , p. 52. R u s s e l l n e g l e c t e d to c i t e h i s source f o r M a i l l o l ' s comment. •^Royal S c o t t i s h Academy, Bo n n a r d - V u i l l a r d (Edinburgh: A r t s C o u n c i l o f Great B r i t a i n , 1948), p . T ^ M a u r i c e Denis, Theories, 1890-1910, p. 1. ^ " 4 ) e n i s made t h i s statement t o V u i l l a r d ' s nephew, Jacques Salomon, who recorded i t i n h i s book, V u i l l a r d ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a l l i m a r d , 1968), p. 40. 42 V u i l l a r d ' s submission o f 1890 went t o the Salon o f the "Societe n a t i o n a l e des beaux-arts"; Jacques Letheve noted ( i n The  D a i l y L i f e o f French A r t i s t s , p. 112), th a t by t h i s time "the great annual Salon had s p l i t i n t o s e v e r a l p a r a l l e l ones. A r i v a l " Societe n a t i o n a l e des beaux-arts" was formed i n 1884 as a r e s u l t o f a s p l i t w i t h i n the "Societe des a r t i s t e s f r a n c a i s " i t s e l f : a s p l i t which owed more t o p e r s o n a l i t i e s than t o p r i n c i p l e s . " Claude Roger-Marx, V u i l l a r d , H i s L i f e and Work, p. 16. 44 I b i d . , p. 15. CHAPTER I I THE EXPERIMENTAL YEARS, 1890-1893 I n 1890 V u i l l a r d s et asi d e h i s cautious approach t o the s t y l i s -t i c developments i n the works of h i s c o l l e a g u e s , and undertook a s e r i e s o f b o l d l y experimental works. He acknowledged: " I was hunting i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . I h a r d l y knew what I was aiming a t . " 1 According t o P i e r r e Veber and Maurice de Coppet, "what f i r e d h i s enthusiasm . . . was the meetings o f the l i t t l e group who c a l l e d themselves the Nabis. . . . " To them V u i l l a r d n a t u r a l l y turned f o r a r t i s t i c d i r e c t i o n . He soon j o i n e d Denis, Bonnard, and Lugne-Poe i n a shared s t u d i o , and here was both l i b e r a t e d from the o l d con-s t r a i n t s and encouraged t o explore t h e i r a r t i s t i c ideas f r e e l y and more f u l l y . L a v i s i t e (Figure 11), which V u i l l a r d p a i n t e d i n 1890, r e v e a l s h i s more venturesome a p p l i c a t i o n o f Nabi ideas a t t h i s time. Respect f o r the f l a t surface o f the canvas i s c l e a r l y expressed, the f i g u r e s and background compressed i n t o a s i n g l e , middle-ground plane,. Overlapping makes a token reference t o depth., but i n countered by a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n ( o r , "deformation", i n Denis's terms) o f o b j e c t s which renders them f l a t , as urged by Gauguin. As a r e s u l t , the f i g u r e s take on a s i l h o u e t t e q u a l i t y . There i s no attempt at p o r -t r a i t u r e , the f i g u r e s appearing v i r t u a l l y faceless.. N e i t h e r i s there an o b j e c t i v e l y d e s c r i p t i v e view o f the i n t e r i o r surroundings. I n -stead, V u i l l a r d presented the general i d e a o f a v i s i t , expressed 25-26. s u g g e s t i v e l y through forms, gestures, and composition. The v i s i t o r i s c l e a r l y the f i g u r e on the r i g h t , separated s p a t i a l l y from the others and s t i l l dressed i n hat and coat, w h i l e the two f i g u r e s on the l e f t apparently belong t o the home environment. I n t h i s , the i d e i s t i c , s u b j e c t i v e approach o f the Nabis was a p p l i e d : the i n t e n t i o n was t o express the i d e a through forms, inaking the o b j e c t s i n s e p a r a b l e from the i d e a . Despite the i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h i s work o f a f u l l e r response to the Nabis, V u i l l a r d continued t o r e s i s t a r t i s t i c domination, s t i l l c l e a v i n g t o elements rooted i n h i s past. B u i l d i n g from a preference f o r o r d i n a r y household scenes, he expanded from the p o r t r a i t and s t i l l - l i f e t o an i n t e r i o r scene o f d a l l y l i f e . A sense of immediacy i s maintained, conveyed both by viewpoint and gesture, and c a r r i e d along by the warm harmony of c o l o u r s , brightened i n the Nabi manner. For a short time d u r i n g 1890 V u i l l a r d v i r t u a l l y abandoned h i m s e l f t o the Nabi s t y l e . He commented t o Denis t h a t : There was a moment when ev e r y t h i n g turned t o ashes.... One t h i n g a f t e r another was e l i m i n a t e d u n t i l the group of formulated ideas i n which I s t i l l b e l i e v e d was r e -duced t o i t s b a s i c elements. . . . The area I n which I was q u i t e c e r t a i n o f anything got s m a l l e r and s m a l l e r ; a l l I could do was the simplest p o s s i b l e k i n d o f work. L u c k i l y I had good f r i e n d s . They helped me t o b e l i e v e t h a t simple accords of c o l o u r and form could be mean-i n g f u l i n themselves.3 A r t i s t i c a l l y , V u i l l a r d found h i m s e l f disheartened, b e w i l d e r -ed, and l o n e l y . I n such a s t a t e , he was s u s c e p t i b l e , ready t o s u r -render h i s a r t , a l b e i t b r i e f l y , t o the Nabi s t y l e . Le l i s e u r (Figure 12) i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s phase. The work i s experimental i n nature, a f a c t i n d i c a t e d by i t s s m a l l s i z e and cardboard ground. The subject i s viewed i n an i n t i m a t e close-up, w i t h the eyes averted, 27 a p o r t r a y a l not u n l i k e t h a t o f Madame Mlchaud (Figure 1). However, the t i t l e shows th a t the i n t e n t i o n here i s not p o r t r a i t u r e . The anonymity o f the subject both calms the scene and f r e e s the f i g u r e t o be t r e a t e d as shape, r e c a l l i n g the approach o f Edouard Manet. The subject i t s e l f has precedents i n works by Manet and the Impress-i o n i s t s (e.g. Manet's L i s e u r o f 1861 (Figure 13), or Renoir's P o r t r a i t of Claude Monet o f 1872), but V u i l l a r d attempted t o t r e a t i t s u g g e s t i v e l y as he had La v i s i t e . I n t h i s , he was u n s u c c e s s f u l . There i s a d i s c o r d between subject and mode: the q u i e t mood n a t u r a l t o r e a d i n g i s shattered by the b r i g h t , b o l d c o l o u r . I n a d d i t i o n t o e x a l t i n g the c o l o u r , V u i l l a r d s i m p l i f i e d the forms, g a i n i n g a f l a t t e n e d , cloisonne appearance w i t h the i n t r o d u c -t i o n o f o u t l i n i n g . The work i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y reminiscent o f Denis's Ascent t o Calvary (Figure 14) of 1889. Both works e x h i b i t the Nabi approach t o form and c o l o u r which emphasizes the f l a t s u r f a c e : the ab s t r a c t e d , unmodelled shapes o f f i g u r e and ground fuse i n t o one plane, pressed f l a t l y a g ainst the p i c t u r e p l a n e : Although Le l i s e u r i n d i c a t e s an experimental abandonment t o the Nabi mode, other works by V u i l l a r d from 1890-91 suggest t h a t t h i s was s h o r t - l i v e d , h i s eye q u i c k l y wandering elsewhere f o r a d d i t i o n a l i d e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y an appropriate subject matter. One source o f apparent i n t e r e s t t o V u i l l a r d i n t h i s regard was Honore Daumier (1808-79). H i s Un wagon de t r o i s i e m e c l a s s e (1863-65) (Figure 15) seems t o be the source f o r V u i l l a r d ? s p a i n t i n g o f the same t i t l e (Figure 16). V u i l l a r d ' s use of Daumier as a source a t t h i s time was not an i s o l a t e d case. Eugenia Herbert, i n The A r t i s t and S o c i a l  Reform, s t a t e d t h a t there was a f r e s h wave o f s o c i a l consciousness 28 which spread through the Paris art world i n the late l880's and early ii 1890's. She claims that, t h i s tendency had I t s roots i n the preceding period. Daumier had done some paintings-In the l a t e l850's and the l860's of the l i f e of the lower classes which implied a c r i t i c a l contrast to the elegant pastimes of the upper classes. . . S This growing s o c i a l consciousness revived interest i n Daumier's work at t h i s time, evidenced by two large exhibitions at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts ( i n 1888 and 1889), and by the f i r s t monograph publication by Arsene Alexandre i n 1889. V u i l l a r d may have been f a m i l i a r with Daumier's a r t , and s p e c i f i c a l l y with Troisieme classe, from these sources. However., his personal acquaintance with Alexandre, and with Roger Marx, an important Daumier c o l l e c t o r , coincidentally began i n 1891, the same year to which his version of Troisieme classe i s usually dated. V u i l l a r d ' s version also seems to have derived I t s viewpoint and earthy colouring from the Daumier, and perhaps such d e t a i l s as the woman's face, which i s reminiscent of Daumier's central figure, and the man-in-proflie, who appears behind her at the l e f t . Both versions portray an iso l a t e d family group: for Daumier, i t was an opportunity f o r d i r e c t s o c i a l commentary, while f o r V u i l l a r d , i t was an idea to be evoked i n the Nabi way. In the Daumier, the back-ground acts as a f o i l for the close-knit family, whereas i n the V u i l l a r d , i t i s empty and compartmentalized, suggesting separation. The raised crutches further emphasize t h i s impression by severing the main figures from each other as w e l l . Emptying the background enab-led V u i l l a r d at the same time to abstract i t into f l a t shapes, compressing figure and ground to maintain the f l a t surface urged by 29... 7 the Nabis. V u i l l a r d ' s Troisieme c l a s s e continued h i s experimentation w i t h Nabi means of expression, but r e v e a l s by i t s reference t o Daumier t h a t he d i d not confine h i m s e l f s o l e l y t o t h e i r ideas on the content'of a r t . H i s choice of Daumier at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time sug-gests h i s i n t e r e s t i n a s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t a r t . However, i n view of the experimental character of V u i l l a r d ' s work a t t h i s stage, Troisidme c l a s s e should be seen as a f l i r t a t i o n w i t h such i s s u e s , a t e n t a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the m y s t i c a l content p r e f e r r e d by most of g h i s Nabi f r i e n d s . H i s sense of s o c i a l consciousness i s again expressed i n Les debardeurs (Figure 17). The dock workers are p i c t u r e d against the c o l o u r f u l backdrop o f evening, here perhaps a d e l i b e r a t e attempt at s o c i a l commentary since i t c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r l o n g hours of work. The r e s u l t i s a s t a r k c o n t r a s t of the o f f e n s i v e and the beau-o t i f u l . V u i l l a r d ' s scene seems t o have a counterpart i n Edouard Manet's Le p o r t de Boulogne-sur-Mer au c l a i r de lune (Figure 18) o f 1869j a work i n the possession of the G a l e r i e Durand-Ruel a f t e r 1872. V u i l l a r d ' s t i g h t grouping o f f i g u r e s may have been suggested by the c e n t r a l group i n Manet's work. But Manet's broader, more removed viewpoint renders a general scene o f modern l i f e , w h i l e V u i l l a r d focused on one c l a s s — the workers. The anonymity and s i l h o u e t t i n g of these f i g u r e s add t o the s o c i a l commentary of Les debardeurs by evoking an impression o f s e p a r a t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s , not u n l i k e the l a s t work, Troisieme c l a s s e . This approach t o the f i g u r e a l s o resembles t h a t i n the l a t e r work o f Georges Seurat. H i s La parade o f 1888 (Figure 19) prompts 30 the f e e l i n g o f s e p a r a t i o n i n the same way, and c a r r i e d i t f u r t h e r by a l l o w i n g a p h y s i c a l and emotional d i s t a n c e between the f i g u r e s . Each seems Immobile, f r o z e n i n t o p o s i t i o n by the work's co m p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . The f i g u r a l arrangement o f Les debardeurs I s s i m i l a r l y f i x e d w i t h i n i t s banded composition, and a comparable sense o f de-tachment e x i s t s between the c e n t r a l group and the two s o l i t a r y f i g -ures f l a n k i n g i t . Both V u i l l a r d and Seurat complemented the l o n e l i n e s s evoked by the f i g u r e s w i t h a h o r i z o n t a l emphasis i n format and l i n e , thereby suggesting a compatible f e e l i n g o f s t a t i c calm. Seurat harnessed other p i c t o r i a l elements t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s mood: warm c o l o u r s were balanced w i t h the c o o l , and dark tones, w i t h the l i g h t . As W i l l i a m Homer observed, i n La Parade Seurat s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p r a c t i c e d , f o r the f i r s t time i n a major work, a r a t i o n a l i z e d method o f u n i t i n g c o l o r , l i n e , and value i n expressing a s i n g l e s t a t e o f f e e l i n g — i n t h i s case, calmness. But V u i l l a r d only f o l l o w e d Seurat's example i n p a r t . Though there seems t o be a corresponding balance o f tones i n Les debardeurs, the warm c o l o u r i n g Seurat a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a i e t y predominates, d i s r u p t i n g a p e a c e f u l harmony. Even more d i s q u i e t i n g t o the scene are the b o l d l y a p p l i e d dots which a c t i v a t e the whole s u r f a c e , completely overwhelming any atmosphere o f calm repose. At a f i r s t glance, the work appears t o d i s r e g a r d Seurat's ideas on the expressive f u n c t i o n o f l i n e , tone, and c o l o u r , but V u i l l a r d may have d e l i b e r a t e l y misrepresented h i s theory t o add an i n t e l l e c t u a l i r o n y t o h i s p i c t u r e o f the w o r k e r s . 1 1 The b o l d l y d o t t e d surface of Les debardeurs can a l s o be read as a s u b t l e comment i n i t s e l f . I t apparently i m i t a t e s Seurat's " p o i n t -i l l i s t " s t y l e , but does so w i t h l i t t l e r espect f o r the a r t i s t ' s 31 o p t i c a l t h e o r i e s ; the crudeness o f i t s appearance was perhaps con-s c i o u s l y intended t o embody q u a l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an upper c l a s s view o f workers. At the same time, V u i l l a r d ' s exaggerated v e r s i o n o f Seurat's technique s e i z e d upon i t s i n h e r e n t l y d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t . This aspect o f " p o i n t i l l i s m " was g r a d u a l l y developed i n the works of the Neo-Impressionists as w e l l , but t h e i r p r o g r e s s i o n towards i t began 13 only a f t e r 1893. Decorative p a i n t i n g was a n t i c i p a t e d by the Nabis as a v i s u a l consequence o f t h e i r t h e o r i e s and began t o be c o n s c i o u s l y sought a t t h i s time by members of the group such as V u i l l a r d ' s s t u d i o -mate, Maurice Denis. H i s A v r i l o f 1891 (Figure 20) a l s o made use o f the " p o i n t i l l i s t " s t y l e i n a d e c o r a t i v e f a s h i o n . But, u n l i k e V u i l l a r d , Denis v a r i e d the dots i n s c a l e , exaggerating them a t the lower r i g h t t o i n d i v i d -u a l l y represent f l o w e r s and d i m i n i s h i n g them i n s i z e , d e n s i t y , and c l a r i t y t o suggest a r e c e s s i o n i n space. Despite t h i s i n d i c a t i o n o f depth, h i s treatment o f the dots e x h i b i t e d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t o r e n -der a u n i f i e d , evenly patterned s u r f a c e , both f l a t and d e c o r a t i v e i n i t s e f f e c t . V u i l l a r d continued t o pursue a d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g along w i t h h i s Nabi f r i e n d s , and once more r e s o r t e d t o dots t o render t h i s e f f e c t i n S e l f - P o r t r a i t (c. 1891) (Figure 21). Again he a p p l i e d them w i t h no re g a r d f o r " p o i n t i l l i s t " t h e o r i e s , u s i n g them merely as s u r -face embellishment. Though s u p e r f i c i a l l y reminiscent o f Seurat, V u i l l a r d ' s S e l f - P o r t r a i t seems more indebted t o the ideas and work o f Vincent van Gogh, a f a c t r e v e a l e d by a comparison o f t h i s work w i t h the o l d e r a r t i s t ' s S e l f - P o r t r a i t o f 1886-88 (Figure 22). A r e l a t i o n s h i p between the 32 ; two works i s suggested by a s i m i l a r i t y i n the pose and i t s c o n f r o n t -i n g glance, i n the close-up view and scant surrounding space, and i n the very p e c u l i a r placement o f the dots about the head. Van Gogh adapted the " p o i n t i l l i s t " technique f o r h i s own pur-poses, aiming, t o p a i n t men and women w i t h t h a t something which the ha l o used t o symbolize. . . .-^ . S u r e l y t h a t i s r e a l p a i n t i n g : t o t h i n k o f one t h i n g and t o l e t the surroundings belong t o i t and f o l l o w from i t . 1 ^ T h i s was v i s u a l l y expressed by van Gogh's p e c u l i a r placement o f the dots as i f they emanate from the head. V u i l l a r d a p p l i e d t h i s t r e a t -ment, d i s p e r s i n g the b r i g h t l y - c o l o u r e d dots both t o i n t e g r a t e f i g u r e and ground i n t o a s i n g l e , d e c o r a t i v e s u r f a c e , and t o set a l i v e l y mood. V u i l l a r d ' s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the happy, de c o r a t i v e q u a l i t y o f s u r -face design again masks a comment based on h i s source. The g a i e t y evoked by S e l f - P o r t r a i t when viewed i n r e l a t i o n t o the van Gogh por-t r a i t and considered i n the l i g h t o f the o l d e r a r t i s t ' s t r a g i c death the previous year suggest, again, a d e l i b e r a t e i r o n y . Van Gogh's death made him a very contemporary example o f the l o n e l y , unappreci-ated a r t i s t s t r u g g l i n g w i t h h i s a r t . V u i l l a r d ' s reference t o him, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the form of a s e l f - p o r t r a i t , seems i n t e n t i o n a l l y metaphorical. Implied i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h a t image, a s u b t l e and v e i l e d e xpression o f "the moment when e v e r y t h i n g turned t o ashes""^ i n h i s own l i f e . This a l l u s i o n l i k e l y r e s u l t e d from the a t t e n t i o n given van Gogh a f t e r h i s death. A r e t r o s p e c t i v e ex-h i b i t i o n o f h i s works was h e l d a t the Salon des Independants i n March, 17 1891j and V u i l l a r d would undoubtedly have attended. A r e v i s i o n o f the S e l f - P o r t r a i t i n 1892 (Figure 23) again seems 33 t o p i c t u r e V u i l l a r d as the l o n e l y , s t r u g g l i n g a r t i s t . I t s method o f expression i s no longer v e i l e d and c e r e b r a l , however. Here, the poi n t i s conveyed d i r e c t l y through p i c t o r i a l elements such as co l o u r and l i g h t i n g . Dramatic h i g h l i g h t s wrest only a r e s p r e s e n t a t i v e por-t i o n o f the f i g u r e out o f the darkness and i n t o view; the remainder i s engulfed by the deep shadows. There i s warmth i n the v i s i b l e p o r t i o n o f the face but the b l a c k o f the shadows overpowers i t . The dramatic l i g h t i n g and the dominant use o f b l a c k i n the work set a sombre tone, v i v i d l y suggesting h i s "moment of ashes". This work bears a s t r i k i n g resemblance t o Od i l o n Redon's P o r t r a i t de Redon par lui-m£me o f 1867 (Figure .24) where the face a l s o emerges from the depths o f a shadowed ground. Redon was notably i n f l u e n t i a l t o the Nabis: 'Qu'y a v a i t - i l , demandait Denis, au fond des t h e o r i e s de S e r u s i e r , r e f l e t des idees de Gauguin e t de Bernard, e t j ' a j oute d'Odilon Redon?' 1 8 His a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the younger a r t i s t s predated V u i l l a r d ' s S e l f - P o r t r a i t o f 1892, f o r R o s e l i n e Bacou r e p o r t e d t h a t "Redon s ' i n t e r e s s a i t a toutes l e u r s t e n t a t i v e s ; i l ne manquait pas une des e x p o s i t i o n s chez 19 Le Bare de B o u t t e v i l l e . . . . ," the f i r s t o f which was i n l891v H i s i n s t r u c t i v e r o l e i n the Nabi c i r c l e was l a t e r v i s u a l l y recorded i n Denis's Hommage a Cezanne of 1900 (Figure 25). T h i s work p i c t u r e s the Nabis and a few cl o s e f r i e n d s gathered around a s t i l l - l i f e by Cezanne. Redon's presence a t the l e f t , more o f a focus than the p a i n t -i n g , i n d i c a t e s h i s I n f l u e n t i a l r o l e , making the work a homage t o Redon as w e l l . Denis c l a r i f i e d h i s i n c l u s i o n o f Redon by saying t h a t , l e s u j e t de Redon est p l u s s u b j e c t i f , l e s u j e t de Cezanne p l u s o b j e c t i f , mais tous deux s'expriment au moyen d'une methode q u i a pour but de cr e e r un objet concret, a l a f o i s esthetique e t r e p r e s e n t a t i f d'une s e n s i b i l i t e . ^ 0 34 I n a s i m i l a r way, V u i l l a r d ' s S e l f - P o r t r a i t v i s u a l l y combines both the s u b j e c t i v e expressiveness o f Redon i n i t s sombre mood and the o b j e c t i -f i e d Image o f Cezanne i n I t s Nabi approach t o form and c o l o u r . V u i l l a r d continued t o look at the work o f o l d e r contemporary a r t i s t s i n the p e r i o d but the s e r i o u s , i n t e l l e c t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , the i r o n i c p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l commentary, and the dark mood disappeared. S e l f - P o r t r a i t was apparently the l a s t work of t h i s solemn phase. A l i g h t e r , b r i g h t e r outlook seems f i r s t evident i n V u i l l a r d ' s L'elegante (Figure 26), p a i n t e d about 1891. P i c t u r e d here i s an elegant woman, her g r a c e f u l p r o p o r t i o n s accentuated by the low view-p o i n t and v e r t i c a l emphasis o f the composition. She i s caught i n a s i g n i f i c a n t pose, apparently l e a v i n g t o attend an i n f o r m a l s o c i a l 21 gathering. She remains anonymous, being viewed o b j e c t i v e l y from behind, and thereby becomes u n i v e r s a l i n c h a r a c t e r , an embodiment of beauty, as the t i t l e suggests. L'elegante seems t o a f f i r m the Nabi p r i n c i p l e t h a t p a i n t i n g should be b e a u t i f u l and d e c o r a t i v e i n purpose. The former s e r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s , s o c i a l commentary, and darker mood o f V u i l l a r d ' s work are here r e j e c t e d . L' elegante a l s o r e v e a l s V u i l l a r d ' s a t t r a c t i o n t o the work o f Edgar Degas. The source f o r t h i s work appears t o have been Degas's p r i n t , At the Louvre: Mary Cassatt i n the P a i n t i n g G a l l e r y (1879-80) (Figure 27). At a glance the two works r e l a t e t o each other by t h e i r long, narrow format and s i m i l a r , c a s u a l l y - p l a c e d , standing female f i g u r e . They are f u r t h e r l i n k e d by a corresponding d e t a i l : i t i s an open book i n Mary C a s s a t t , a clutc h e d purse i n L'elegante. Degas's v e r s i o n , w i t h the f i g u r e behind the doorway, evokes the momentary, the c a u g h t - i n - a c t i o n , w h i l e V u i l l a r d ' s , by p l a c i n g her i n f r o n t of the doorway, i s more s t a t i c , suggesting a pause i n the a c t i o n . Both 35 a r t i s t s present the f i g u r e as a s i l h o u e t t e d form, a fe a t u r e common t o Nabi p a i n t i n g of the p e r i o d , and v i s i b l e i n works l i k e Denis's Ascent t o Calvary (Figure 14). Besides i t s formal s i m i l a r i t i e s t o Mary C a s s a t t , V u i l l a r d ' s L'elegante i n c o r p o r a t e d some o f the dec o r a t i v e aspects o f Degas's work. These p e r t a i n l e s s t o s u p e r f i c i a l embellishments than t o i t s subject and composition: a woman i s n a t u r a l l y d e c o r a t i v e i n form and adornment, and Degas's p a r t i t i o n e d background i s a correspondingly d e c o r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , embellished w i t h surface p a t t e r n s , such as the herringbone f l o o r and marbled column. V u i l l a r d employed these ideas c a u t i o u s l y , f o l l o w i n g Degas i n subject and compositional technique, but c o n f i n i n g h i m s e l f t o h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s t o main-t a i n the f i g u r e ' s motionless character. H i s counterpart t o surface p a t t e r n i n g i s t i m i d l y rendered i n a r e c t a n g l e t o the l e f t o f the f i g u r e ' s upper body. The e f f e c t produced i n L'elegante i s n a t u r a l l y l e s s e l a b o r a t e , r e s u l t i n g from the t e n t a t i v e q u a l i t y o f V u i l l a r d ' s experiment; however, h i s i n t e r e s t i n these d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e s i s acknowledged. V u i l l a r d developed t h i s i n t e r e s t , a l l o w i n g the de c o r a t i v e elements f r e e r expression i n other works l i k e Ouvrieres au c h i f f o n i e r (Figure 28), L ' a t e l i e r de l a c o r s e t i e r e (Figure 29), and Les o r e i l i o n s (Figure 30). The decorative c h a r a c t e r o f L'elegante was f u r t h e r prompted by V u i l l a r d ' s r e t u r n t o a l i g h t e r , b r i g h t e r c o l o u r i n g . T h i s , as w e l l as the subject type, perhaps d e r i v e from contemporary works by h i s s t u d i o -p i mate, Bonnard, such as Femmes au j a r d i n o f 1890-91 (Figure 31). Again", .Vuillard's:. treatment was-.cautious by comparison. H i s r e s t r a i n t d i d add t o L'elegante a s u i t a b l e a i r o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , however. 3 6 Both L'elegante and Femme au j a r d i n are v i s u a l l y s i m i l a r t o Degas's Mary Cassatt i n t h e i r s u b j e c t , format, and de c o r a t i v e q u a l i t y which suggests t h a t V u i l l a r d and Bonnard may have seen t h i s work on one o f t h e i r frequent v i s i t s t o the G a l e r i e Durand-Ruel, which had e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s t o Degas's work a f t e r 1 8 6 6 . The i n t e r e s t provoked by these v i s i t s was i n d i c a t e d by Thadee Natanson's observance t h a t o f t e n , " i l s [ V u i l l a r d and Bonnard] p a r l e n t des musees et des t o i l e s A y 22 de l e u r s aines que l ' o n peut v o i r a l a G a l e r i e Durand-Ruel. . . ." V u i l l a r d ' s v i s u a l r eference t o Degas i n L'elegante presaged h i s a t t r a c t i o n t o Japanese p r i n t s . C o l t a Ives has c a l l e d Mary 23 Cassatt "the most d e l i b e r a t e l y Japanese o f Degas's p r i n t s . " Ives a t t r i b u t e d i t s l o n g , narrow format, which V u i l l a r d adopted i n L' elegante, t o the Japanese hashiva-e p r i n t , so designed t o be hung 24 on a p i l l a r . Degas's focus on the c a s u a l l y - p l a c e d female f i g u r e , l i k e V u i l l a r d ' s , a l s o corresponds w i t h Japanese p r i n t s i n theme; the elegant woman was a p a r t i c u l a r l y favoured type, e s p e c i a l l y i n the work 25 of Utamaro. I n a d d i t i o n , Degas's placement o f the f i g u r e i n a door-way was p r e f i g u r e d i n such Japanese p r i n t s as Harunobu's An Evening  V i s i t (Figure 3 2 ) . Here a l s o i s found the same k i n d o f de c o r a t i v e e f f e c t achieved i n Mary Cassatt and pruden t l y attempted i n L'elegante by the p a r t i t i o n e d background embellished w i t h surface p a t t e r n s and supported by the correspondingly d e c o r a t i v e nature o f the woman i n her form and adornment. The a r t i s t i c f e a t u r e s a t t r a c t i n g V u i l l a r d t o Mary Cassatt were p r e c i s e l y those Degas drew i n t u r n from Japanese p r i n t s ; V u i l l a r d l i k e l y r e a l i z e d t h i s , f o r Degas's i n t e r e s t i n , and conscious a p p l i -c a t i o n o f , Japanese e f f e c t s had been brought t o p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n as 2 6 e a r l y as 1 8 7 0 . I n t h i s l i g h t , V u i l l a r d ' s experimentation w i t h 37 Japanese features i n L'elegante should perhaps be seen as another example o f h i s c a u t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h a r t i s t i c ideas outside the French t r a d i t i o n . The f a c t o f V u i l l a r d ' s eventual a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the Nabis and t h e i r a e s t h e t i c d i r e c t l y encouraged him t o take an i n t e r e s t i n Japanese ukiyo-e p r i n t s . Members o f the Nabis had been d i r e c t e d towards t h i s source s i n c e t h e i r e a r l i e s t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Gauguin during 1888 when both he and, the whole group at Pont-Aven looked upon the Japanese p r i n t as an example and an a u t h o r i t y . They were a l l c a p t i v a t e d by the expressive boldness o f the s t y l i z a t i o n s , the p u r i t y o f l i n e and the powerful and dynamic o u t l i n e o f the shapes. . . . The Nabis upheld t h i s reverence f o r Japanese models, a f a c t confirmed by Maurice Denis's " D e f i n i t i o n de Neo-traditionnisme" o f 1890 which 28 c a l l e d f o r "1 'arabesque pure, a u s s i peu trompe l ' o e i l que p o s s i b l e " and c i t e d the Japanese kakemono as an example t o f o l l o w . At a s t y l i s t i c l e v e l , by f o l l o w i n g Gauguin's i n i t i a l d i r e c t i v e 29 " d ' e x a l t e r l a couleur et de s i m p l i f i e r l a forme," e a r l y Nabi p a i n t -ings such as Denis's Ascent t o Calvary (Figure 14) u n w i t t i n g l y embodied two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f Japanese p r i n t s . However, not u n t i l Bonnard's works o f 1890-91 i s a d i r e c t l i n k d i s c e r n i b l e . His Femmes au j a r d i n (Figure 31), p a i n t e d p r i o r t o the Salon o f 1891, i s apparently the f i r s t Nabi p i c t u r e t o r e s u l t from the i n f l u e n c e o f Japanese p r i n t s . Bonnard's source o f I n s p i r a t i o n i s unmistakable i n ' view o f the work's intended f u n c t i o n as a w a l l screen, a s t r u c t u r e i n -digenous t o the O r i e n t . S t y l i s t i c a l l y , Femmes i s s p e c i f i c a l l y l i n k e d t o Japanese p r i n t s by i t s expressive s i l h o u e t t e , i t s g e n t l y c u r v i n g b l a c k o u t l i n e , and i t s emphasis o f f l a t l y rendered surface p a t t e r n s . Bonnard's c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h V u i l l a r d d u r i n g I89O-91 38 may have provided the necessary impetus f o r prompting V u i l l a r d ' s a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t i n Japanese p r i n t s . H i s f i r s t J a p anese-inspired p i c t u r e appears t o be Le d e s h a b i l l e ovale (Figure 33), p a i n t e d about 31 1891. In i t s format. Ovale i s not u n l i k e the c i r c u l a r one o f t e n used i n ukiyo-e p o r t r a i t p r i n t s l i k e Kuniyoshi's 0 Kane, A Strong  Woman from Omi Province (Figure 34). In s u b j e c t , i t d e p i c t s an int i m a t e view o f an a l l u r i n g young woman: she i s c l o s e l y viewed and c a r e f u l l y posed so the focus f a l l s on the nape o f her neck, a f e a -t u r e seen by the Japanese as an i n d i c a t i o n o f beauty, and wid e l y represented i n p r i n t s such as Utamaro's Two G i r l s D r e s s i n g t h e i r H a i r (Figure 35). V u i l l a r d ' s attempt t o combine i n one view the nape o f her neck and her d e c o l l e t a g e , i t s counterpart i n Western eyes, de-monstrates h i s concern here f o r an expression o f beauty. The i d e a of beauty conveyed i s complemented i n h i s execution by i t s c onscious-ly-composed curves and s o f t c o l o u r i n g , a treatment t y p i c a l l y found i n Japanese p r i n t s . Ovale's empty, y e l l o w background may have a l s o derived from ukiyo-e p r i n t s , being perhaps a conscious attempt a t i m i t a t i n g the y e l l o w paper f r e q u e n t l y used, as I n Utamaro's Two  G i r l s , f o r example. Some elements i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Ovale are even more c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a l l y Japanese. F i r s t , the f i g u r e ' s h a i r was arranged on top of her head i n the Japanese mariner, r e v e a l i n g two prominent peaks o f nape h a i r , a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e i n p r i n t s l i k e Utamaro's Two G i r l s . And behind the f i g u r e , t o the r i g h t , i s a s t r i p e d , p i l l o w - l i k e shape, s i m i l a r t o the Japanese obi (a wide sash worn over the kimono) i n i t s form, f a b r i c , and p o s i t i o n i n g . Above t h i s , the b l a c k , c h a i r b a c k - l i k e s t r u c t u r e adds a complementary surface p a t t e r n , not u n l i k e the de-c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e found i n Degas's Mary C a s s a t t , and at the same time, 39 reminiscent o f the l a r g e , cropped characters seen i n p r i n t s l i k e Shuncho's V i s i t o r s t o the Masaki I n a r i Shrine (Figure 36). Ovale c l e a r l y demonstrates V u i l l a r d ' s c l o s e study o f ukiyo^e p r i n t s , and a l s o marks h i s r e t u r n t o an i n t i m a t e subject matter. Though t h i s p a r t i c u l a r preference was evident i n h i s e a r l i e s t work, i t s presence i n Japanese p r i n t s seems t o have s t i m u l a t e d h i s l a t e n t i n t e r e s t . 3 1 A debt t o Japanese sources continues t o be evident i n the in t i m a t e scenes more f i r m l y dated t o 1891. One o f these, Au L i t (Figure 37), p o r t r a y s a r e c l i n i n g woman w i t h eyes c l o s e d and knees up, r e s t i n g i n bed. I t i s a q u i e t , i n t i m a t e scene not u n l i k e Le de- s h a b i l l e o v a l e , and l i k e t h a t work, i t a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s some un-mistakably Japanese f e a t u r e s . Though no v i s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s seem to e x i s t w i t h s p e c i f i c p r i n t s , an obvious i n d i c a t i o n o f i t s debt occurs i n the woman's O r i e n t a l - l i k e complexion. Behind h e r , the empty, grey background r e c a l l s the mica-dust grounds o f Japanese p r i n t s l i k e Kunisada's Rokusaburo the Carpenter (Figure 38). And f o l l o w i n g the Japanese manner, V u i l l a r d a gain c o n s c i o u s l y arranged and o u t l i n e d the forms t o accent the gentle curves as he had i n Ovale, here a c h i e v -i n g the f l o w i n g q u a l i t y more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f landscape p r i n t s such as Hokusai's F u j i from the lo n g s l o p i n g h i l l s i d e o f Inume i n K a i Pro- v i n c e (Figure 39). This movement was c a r e f u l l y counterbalanced by the angular f o l d s and t h e i r wedge-like shadows; V u i l l a r d ' s treatment of these elements i s v i s u a l l y reminiscent o f Japanese i n k brush t e c h -nique seen, f o r example, i n Hokusai's Femme (Figure 40), a work c o i n -c i d e n t a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n Le Japon A r t i s t i q u e i n A p r i l , 1891. Com-plementing these l i n e a r surface movements i s an u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f h o r i z o n t a l bands, a compositional approach not u n l i k e h i s e a r l i e r 40 work, Les debardeurs (Figure 17). Au L i t ' s h o r i z o n t a l a x i s induces a s p a t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the bands, but V u i l l a r d seems t o have de-l i b e r a t e l y thwarted t h i s r eading w i t h c o n t r a d i c t i o n . For example, the bottom band i s l o g i c a l l y understood as the rece d i n g f l o o r p lane, an assumption confounded by the s t i f f n e s s o f the o v e r l a p p i n g sheet. Depth p e r c e p t i o n o f the two upper bands i s s i m i l a r l y confused. I n i t s p o s i t i o n d i r e c t l y above the f i g u r e , the lower o f these two bands seems t o be s p a t i a l l y c l o s e r , an e f f e c t v i s u a l l y supported by the accents o f V u i l l a r d ' s s ignature on the top l e f t and the b o l d "T" on the r i g h t . At the same time, t h i s "T" form, enigmatic by i t s e l f , suggests a bedside c r u c i f i x , thereby presuming the overlap o f the upper band. These apparent c o n f l i c t s can perhaps be seen as a de-l i b e r a t e s i m u l a t i o n o f the t y p i c a l Western confusion i n v i e w i n g an O r i e n t a l d e p i c t i o n o f space, u l t i m a t e l y f o r c i n g the viewer's recog-n i t i o n o f the f l a t surface i n harmony w i t h Nabi d o c t r i n e . R e i n f o r c i n g the r e s u l t are the Inconsistency o f the l i g h t source, the unmodelled a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o l o u r , and the f l a t t e n i n g e f f e c t o f the signa t u r e and "T" form. T h i s l a s t element, i n i t s v i s u a l f u n c t i o n , i s again not u n l i k e the enlarged Japanese characters i n p r i n t s l i k e Shuncho's V i s i t o r s t o the Masaki I n a r i Shrine (Figure 36). L i k e these char-a c t e r s , the "T" a l s o has meaning beyond I t s e l f : as a severed c r u c i -32 f i x , i t i s both i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l l y C h r i s t i a n symbolism and allows N a b i - i n s p i r e d m y s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s by i t s precedented appearance i n Gauguin's Yellow C h r i s t (1889) and Ranson's C h r i s t and 33 Buddha (c. I890). U r s u l a P e r u c c h i - P e t r i suggested the "T" was perhaps i n t e n t i o n a l l y ambiguous, l e a v i n g the viewer t o h i s own ex-34 p l a n a t i o n . Regardless o f Au L i t ' s p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Nabis on a 41 m y s t i c a l l e v e l , i t s p i c t o r i a l debt t o them i s c l e a r l y demonstrated by the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f forms i n t o f l a t l y coloured, o u t l i n e d shapes. However, the s o f t , r e s t r a i n e d c o l o u r r e v e a l s an obvious divergence from the Nabi a e s t h e t i c . This should be seen as a d e l i b e r a t e r e v e r -s i o n on V u i l l a r d ' s p a r t , f o l l o w i n g h i s r e t u r n t o an Intimate sub-j e c t matter; the q u i e t tones o f h i s e a r l i e s t works appear t o be pur-p o s e f u l l y r e i n s t a t e d t o evoke a s u i t a b l y hushed mood f o r the scene. V u i l l a r d ' s concern f o r an i n t i m a t e expression was r e a f f i r m e d i n h i s P o r t r a i t o f Lugne-Poe (Figure 4 l ) o f 1891. Lugne i s c l o s e l y viewed, seated a t a t a b l e w i t h head and eyes d i r e c t e d t o what i s apparently a piece o f paper h i s f i n g e r s t i g h t l y p r e s s. He appears i n t e n s e l y absorbed by the task-at-hand. The work's s p e c i f i c t i t l e seems t o c o n t r a d i c t V u i l l a r d ' s vague, unrecognizable r e n d e r i n g , yet i t s suggestive c h a r a c t e r , coupled w i t h the warm, q u i e t harmony o f c o l o u r s , evokes a f e e l i n g o f emotional intimacy b e f i t t i n g a p i c t u r e of the a r t i s t ' s c l o s e f r i e n d . Though Lugne shows V u i l l a r d ' s f r i e n d i n an i n t i m a t e view, i t i s c l e a r l y not p o r t r a i t u r e , i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense. The f i g u r e ' s i d e n t i t y i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n l y by the t i t l e . The g e n e r a l i z e d nature o f the image i s reminiscent o f p o r t r a y -a l s i n Japanese p r i n t s ; V u i l l a r d ' s s e n s i t i v e view o f the subject and tender colour harmonies s p e c i f i c a l l y r e c a l l those favoured by Harunobu. The Japanese i n s p i r a t i o n o f Lugne i s again apparent as i t was i n Au L i t by the empty, grey background and by the rhythmi-c a l l y arranged curves o f the f i g u r e and i t s o u t l i n e . T h i s l a s t e l e -ment r e v e a l s another i d e a perhaps prompted by Japanese p r i n t s . I t s d i s t i n c t i v e warm brown c o l o u r , not u n l i k e the r e d d i s h c o l o u r used i n Kiyomitsu's A Beauty o f Eastern Japan (Figure 42), i s t h a t o f the wood ground beneath. V u i l l a r d has allowed i t t o show through and per -42 form the f u n c t i o n o f an o u t l i n e . At the same time, he b r i n g s the p a i n t i n g ' s f l a t s u rface t o a t t e n t i o n . This treatment corresponds w i t h the O r i e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f i n v o l v i n g the surface w i t h i n the p i c -t u r e by i n v e s t i n g i t w i t h a p o s i t i v e a r t i s t i c f u n c t i o n . V u i l l a r d a l s o transformed h i s signature t o a J a p a n e s e - l i k e s i g n a t u r e . This mode o f signature was not unique t o V u i l l a r d , but as P h i l i p Cate noted, i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o nineteenth-century French a r t d e r i v e d from a Japanese i n s p i r a t i o n , beginning w i t h Whis-t l e r ' s " b u t t e r f l y " i n the l860's 3 5; V u i l l a r d ' s adoption of the mono-gram i n 1891 f o l l o w e d the d i r e c t example set by h i s f r i e n d s , Denis and Bonnard, i n 1889 and 1890 r e s p e c t i v e l y . V u i l l a r d ' s i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the monogram-in-cartouche i n Lugne, l i k e h i s exposure o f the wood ground, puts a c o m p o s i t i o n a l emphasis on the f l a t s u r f a c e ; t h i s together w i t h the work's s u b j e c t i v e char-a c t e r shows a coincidence between the Nabi a e s t h e t i c and the manner 37 of Japanese p r i n t s . During 1891-93> V u i l l a r d apparently t r i e d t o i n t e g r a t e the i n t i m a t e subject matter he p r e f e r r e d w i t h the a r t i s -t i c approach o f the Nabis, f i n d i n g the p i c t o r i a l means t o do so p r e -f i g u r e d i n Japanese p r i n t s . V u i l l a r d ' s Seamstress (Figure 43) of 1891 was once again v i s u -a l l y d e r i v e d from Japanese p r i n t s , and c l e a r l y attempted t o combine Nabi concepts w i t h the hushed subject matter he favoured. The ambi-ance created by the c o l o u r i n g c a r r i e s the mood o f the s u b j e c t , a seated woman q u i e t l y absorbed i n her sewing, a theme commonly found both i n the French t r a d i t i o n (not s u r p r i s i n g l y , i n p a i n t i n g s by Chardin) and i n ukiyo-e p r i n t s . V u i l l a r d ' s g e n e r a l i z e d r e n d e r i n g evoked the subject i n the Nabi manner, removing the burden o f objec-t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and f r e e i n g him, l i k e them, t o emphasize the 43 p i c t u r e ' s f l a t , d e c o r a t i v e q u a l i t y . As i n Lugne, the plane surface was again brought t o a t t e n t i o n by V u i l l a r d ' s use o f the monogram-in-cartouche, here juxtaposed against the e q u a l l y i n t e n s e c o l o u r of the f l o o r band, enhancing i t s f l a t t e n i n g e f f e c t . I n a s i m i l a r way, V u i l l a r d p l a c e d d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s together, c r e a t i n g a v i s u a l syn-thesis o f f i g u r e and ground, and accenting i t s f l a t t e n e d surface by a d e l i b e r a t e exposure o f the wood panel beneath. More obvious, however, i s the d e c o r a t i v e value of the p a t t e r n s , a f e a t u r e p r e v i o u s -l y demonstrated i n Les debardeurs (Figure 17). A r t i s t i c precedents f o r V u i l l a r d ' s p a t t e r n i n g o f the surface e x i s t e d i n ukiyo-e p r i n t s which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y emphasized p a t t e r n s i n both costume and s e t t i n g ; a t the same time, the d e c o r a t i v e l y p a t t e r n e d surface sug-gests a d i r e c t connection w i t h contemporary works by Bonnard such as Femmes au j a r d l n (Figure 31)• Though V u i l l a r d ' s use o f surface p a t t e r n i n g i n Seamstress sup-ported h i s v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n of Nabi concepts, the work i s perhaps unsuccessful: the s c a l e of the p a t t e r n s i s too b o l d , d i s t u r b i n g the q u i e t , i n t i m a t e e f f e c t he seems t o have sought. V u i l l a r d more s u c c e s s f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d an Intimate subject w i t h Nabi a r t i s t i c ideas and Japanese-like f e a t u r e s i n L i t t l e G i r l s Walking (Figure 44), another work d a t i n g from 1891. Here, two young g i r l s are shown s t r o l l i n g together along a wooded path. The p i c t u r e r e -c a l l s Harunobu's Two G i r l s (Figure 45) i n s u b j e c t , pose, and s e n t i -ment. A sense of intimacy i s conveyed i n both works through pose, the touching gestures and averted gazes o f the f i g u r e s , and through the subdued c o l o u r i n g and c l o s e harmony of tones; t o these was added an arrangement o f background shapes which create a c l o i s t e r e d f e e l -i n g . V u i l l a r d upheld the q u i e t tenderness of L i t t l e G i r l s , a l l e v i a t -44 i n g the d i s q u i e t i n g e f f e c t sensed i n Seamstress w i t h a s l i g h t r e -finement i n p a t t e r n s c a l e . H i s a b s t r a c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the background f o l i a g e apparent-l y d e r i v e d from the s i m i l a r approach evidenced i n p r i n t s l i k e Harunobu's Two G i r l s and a p p l i e d by h i s f r i e n d , Bonnard, i n Femmes au j a r d i n (Figure 31); at the same time, the p a t t e r n created i n the bush at the r i g h t i s reminiscent of tavashikomi, a mottled p a i n t technique appearing i n works by Sotatsu and K o r i n . Regardless o f i t s spec-i f i c source o f i n s p i r a t i o n , V u i l l a r d ' s p a t t e r n e d treatment of n a t u r a l forms i n L i t t l e G i r l s seems more a r b i t r a r y than i n Seamstress where a l l p a t t e r n s are e x p l a i n e d by the choice o f s u b j e c t . Thus L i t t l e  G i r l s Walking marks V u i l l a r d ' s adoption of the p a t t e r n e d s u r f a c e as a compositional p r i n c i p l e . I t could support both the Nabi a e s t h e t i c and the i n t i m a t e mood he apparently sought t o express. During the next two y e a r s , he p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e f i n e d h i s use o f t h i s s t y l i s t i c t e c h -nique. The outcome can be seen i n Le pretendant (Figure 46), a work d a t i n g from 1893- Two women are shown, b u s i l y working amidst a c l u t t e r o f t e x t i l e s , w h i l e a man leans i n t o the p i c t u r e a r r e s t i n g the a t t e n t i o n o f the one a t the l e f t . I t I s an i n t i m a t e c o n f r o n t a t i o n : the man and woman h o l d each other's glance, d i s t r a c t e d from the busyness of the scene, and suspended i n a moment of mutual c o n c e n t r a t i o n . The 39 man appears t o be Roussel. T h i s , the work's f a b r i c - f i l l e d s e t t i n g , and date o f 1893 suggest a v i s u a l document o f Roussel's marriage t o V u i l l a r d ' s s i s t e r , Marie. However, i t s g e n e r a l i z e d t i t l e and suggestive p r e s e n t a t i o n main-t a i n e d the Nabi approach, expressing the meaning through the pose and glances of the man and woman, the s u b t l e a l t e r a t i o n o f the p a t t e r n i n g between them, and the i n t i m a t e mood evoked by the q u i e t , almost mono-45 tone c o l o u r i n g and warm underglow of the cardboard ground. V u i l l a r d ' s exposure o f the ground again f u n c t i o n s i n harmony w i t h the Nabi a e s t h e t i c as i t d i d i n Seamstress (Figure 43) t o i d e n t i f y the p a i n t -ing's f l a t surface and u n i f y the whole through i t s c o n t i n u a l echoes. V u i l l a r d t r e a t e d c o l o u r i n the same way. It was d e l i b e r a t e l y faded t o achieve an opaque q u a l i t y , enhancing the p i c t u r e ' s n a t u r a l f l a t -ness, and s c a t t e r e d over the surface I n t i n y touches t o create a f a b r i c - l i k e u n i t y . Beneath the surface embellishments o f the p a i n t i n g l i e s an e q u a l l y patterned s t r u c t u r e o f h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l p a r -t i t i o n s ; t h i s f e a t u r e was p r e v i o u s l y noted i n L'elegante (Figure 26), and u l t i m a t e l y a s c r i b e d t o the example o f Japanese p r i n t s l i k e Kiyonaga's A Room at the Komeikan B r o t h e l at Su s a k i (Figure 47). This p r i n t , l i k e Le pretendant, d e p i c t s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f two f i g u r e s , and t h i s , along w i t h t h e i r s i m i l a r poses and placement, suggests a v i s u a l debt on V u i l l a r d ' s p a r t ; the c o n f i g u r a t i o n , however, i s not an uncommon type i n Japanese p r i n t s , making i t s s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t i o n t o Kiyonaga's Room at the Komeikan B r o t h e l d i f f i c u l t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f a c t o f the l i k e n e s s shows th a t V u i l l a r d ' s a r t i s t i c debt t o Japan-ese p r i n t s continued through 1893-T h e i r v i s u a l example presented V u i l l a r d w i t h forms and t e c h -niques capable o f express i n g both h i s p e r s o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n towards q u i e t , i n t i m a t e scenes and the formal ideas and d e c o r a t i v e purpose he d e r i v e d from the Nabis. During l891-933 V u i l l a r d r e f i n e d the means he adopted from Japanese p r i n t s , developing them i n t o the d e l i c a t e and dec o r a t i v e mode v i s i b l e i n Le pretendant. A s t y l e was formed, a d i s t i n c t i v e , p e r s o n a l language which s u i t a b l y expressed and b e a u t i f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d h i s a r t i s t i c concerns. FOOTNOTES CHAPTER I I """Claude Roger-Marx, V u i l l a r d , H i s L i f e and Work, t r a n s . E. B. D'Auvergne (New York: E d i t i o n s de l a Maison F r a n c a i s e , 1946), p. 49. P i e r r e Veber, "My F r i e n d V u i l l a r d " i n R u s s e l l , Edouard V u i l l a r d , p. 99-100. Edouard V u i l l a r d , " L e t t e r t o Maurice Denis (1898)," quoted i n R u s s e l l , Edouard V u i l l a r d , p. 64. For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s s u b j e c t , see Eugenia Herbert, The A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961). 5 Eugenia Herbert, The A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p. l 8 l . ^Daumier's Troisieme Classe e x i s t s i n two almost i d e n t i c a l p a i n t -ed v e r s i o n s , both o f which were e x h i b i t e d a t Durand-Ruel's i n 1888, and one o f which was e x h i b i t e d a t the " E x p o s i t i o n Centennale" i n 1889. 7 The ochre patch a t the l e f t o f the woman's shoulder i s enigma-t i c from a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l viewpoint, an element perhaps c o n t r i v e d t o emphasize the f l a t n e s s of the su r f a c e , not u n l i k e the mysterious s t r i p i n S e l f - p o r t r a i t i n a M i r r o r (Figure 10). S o c i a l i n t e r e s t s were evident among other members o f the Nabi group: Lugne-Poe was a known su b s c r i b e r t o the l e a d i n g a n a r c h i s t j o u r -n a l , Le R e v o l t e , w h i l e I b e l s began c o n t r i b u t i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o the a n a r c h i s t weekly, Pere Pe i n a r d , by 1893- Roussel attempted s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m i n h i s N o l i me Tangere (Touch Me Not) o f 1894, where he t r a n s l a t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e l i g i o u s theme i n t o a s o c i a l one, a t r e a t -ment not uncommon d u r i n g t h a t time (see: Marcel P r o u s t , Swarm's Way, tr a n s . Scott M o n c r i e f f (New York: The Modern L i b r a r y , 1956), p. 4l4). The same k i n d o f c a l c u l a t e d c o n t r a s t was po r t r a y e d e a r l i e r i n Seurat's drawing, F a c t o r i e s by Moonlight (1882-3), and may have i n -s p i r e d V u i l l a r d ' s i d e a f o r Les debardeurs. " ^ W i l l a i m I . Homer, Seurat and the Science o f P a i n t i n g , (Cambridge, Mass.: the M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964), p. 220. 'The use of i r o n y was not uncommon du r i n g t h i s time. I n f a c t , 46 4 7 an I r o n i c a l t r e n d can be seen .from .Manet through..Seurat, p a r t i c u l a r l y I n regard t o p i c t u r e s of the lower class.. S p e c i f i c , i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s were observed by Bradford R. C o l l i n s i n "Manet's 'Rue Mosnier decked  w i t h Flags and the Flaneur Concept," B u r l i n g t o n 117 (November 1975)> pp. 709-14, and Ian Thom i n "Georges Seurat: Une Balgnade a A s n i e r e s , " (M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978). 12 A u r i e r recognized the d e c o r a t i v e I n t e n t i o n s inherent i n the Nabi a e s t h e t i c as c i t e d i n Chapter 1, p. 10, and Denis confirmed t h i s i n h i s Theories, p. 165, saying ". . .nous t i r i o n s c e t t e sage maxime que t o u t t a b l e a u a pour but de de*corer, d o i t e t r e ornamentale." The term " d e c o r a t i v e " as they used i t and as used i n t h i s paper simply means "intended t o be b e a u t i f u l , t o ornament". "'"^rancoise Cachin discusses Signac's s t y l i s t i c p r o g r e s s i o n t o -ward the dec o r a t i v e i n P a u l Signac, t r a n s . M. B u l l o c k (Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic S o c i e t y , 1971), pp. 75-9- She c i t e s 1893 as the year when both he and Henri-Edmond Cross r e a l i z e d a need t o r e -o r i e n t t h e i r approach i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . 14 I r v i n g Stone, ed., Dear Theo: The Autobiography o f Vincent van  Gogh (Garden C i t y , N. Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1937), P- 454. 1^Stone, Dear Theo, p. 450. "^Edouard V u i l l a r d , " L e t t e r t o Maurice Denis (1898)," i n R u s s e l l , V u i l l a r d , p. 64. 17 The f a c t t h a t h i s f r i e n d , Bonnard, e x h i b i t e d some works at t h a t p a r t i c u l a r Salon would have encouraged h i s attendance. 18 R o s e l i n e Bacou, O d i l o n Redon (Geneva: P. C a i l l e r , 1956), p. 187-8. 19 Bacou, Redon, p. 189. Denis, Theories, p. 245. ^^The l i g h t t o n a l character along w i t h the woman's i n f o r m a l dress suggest an afternoon gathering,- making c l e a r her d i s t i n c t i o n from the working c l a s s . Thadee Natanson, Le Bonnard.que j e propose, 1867-1947 (Geneva: P. C a i l l e r , 195D, p. 27. 23 C o l t a F e l l e r I v e s , The Great Wave (New York: M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , 1974), p. 37. 48 24 I b i d . 25 Utamaro was e s p e c i a l l y f a m i l i a r t o P a r i s i a n s , a f a c t evidenced by the comparatively l a r g e number of p r i n t s (86) i n c l u d e d i n the 1890 e x h i b i t i o n a t the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and by the monograph p u b l i s h e d by Edmond de Goncourt i n 1891. 26 G a b r i e l P. Weisberg i n Japonisme: Japanese I n f l u e n c e on French  A r t , 1854-1910 (Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of A r t , w i t h the Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y and The Walters A r t G a l l e r y , 1975), P- 47, c i t e s P h i l i p p e Burty's review o f Degas's Madame Camus, p u b l i s h e d i n Le Rappel, I87O, as the f i r s t r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s . 27 George B o u d a i l l e , Gauguin, t r a n s . A. J a f f a (London: Thames and Hudson, 1964), p. 83. 2 8Denls, T o r i e s , p. 7. 29 Denis, "L'Epoque du Symbolisme," Gazette des Beaux-Arts 11 (March 1934), p. 169. Charles Chasse, The Nabis and T h e i r P e r i o d , t r a n s , M. Bullock-(New York: Praeger, 1969), p. 67. 3 1 V u i l l a r d began t o date h i s works d u r i n g 1891; t h i s p a i n t i n g , however, i s not dated, suggesting, along w i t h i t s Japanese elements,' a date during the e a r l y p a r t o f t h a t year. 32 I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r form, the cross a l s o has a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h Egypt, being the s i g n attached t o Hebrew doorposts a t the Exodus, and l a t e r , the a t t r i b u t e o f S t . Anthony, f a t h e r o f C h r i s t i a n monasticism. For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as a c r o s s , see: E. S. Whittlesey, Symbols and Legends I n Western A r t (New York: Charles S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1972), pp. 73 and 327, and J . E. C l r l o t , A D i c t i o n a r y  o f Symbols, 2nd e t . , t r a n s . J . Sage (New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y Inc., 1971), PP- 16-8, and 69. 33 ^George Mauner discussed t h i s aspect i n "The Nature o f Nabi Symbolism," A r t J o u r n a l 23 (Winter 1963-4), pp. 102-3. 34 U r s u l a P e r u c c h i - P e t r i , Der Nabis und Japan (Munich: P r e s t e l V e r l a g , 1976),. p. 102. 35 P h i l l i p Cate, "Japanese Influence on French P r i n t s , 1883-1910," i n Weisberg e t a l . , Japonisme, p. 67, note 50. This d i s c u s s i o n b r i n g s t o mind the well-known monogram of Toulouse-Lautrec, which, however, only appeared a f t e r 1892. 49 This conjunction i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n view of the vogue o f the Japanese i n P a r i s d u r i n g the time the Nabis were formed, together w i t h Gauguin's i n f l u e n c e both by t h i s t a s t e and on t h e i r formation. Louis Gonse's a r t i c l e c e l e b r a t i n g the work o f K o r i n c o i n c i d e n -t a l l y appeared i n Le Japon A r t i s t i q u e 23 (March 1890), pp. 133-43-I t w i l l be remembered th a t a f t e r the death o f h i s f a t h e r , V u i l l a r d ' s mother e s t a b l i s h e d a dressmaking business i n t h e i r P a r i s apartment. CONCLUSION This s c r u t i n y o f V u i l l a r d ' s formative stages r e v e a l s two p r e v a i l i n g concerns I n the e v o l u t i o n o f h i s p e r s o n a l s t y l e . The e a r l i e s t t o surface was h i s preference f o r an a r t of q u i e t , i n t i m a t e scenes. T h i s was apparently a n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n , as evident from h i s e a r l i e s t recorded work, P o r t r a i t o f Madame Michaud (Figure 1). During 1888-89, t h i s was d i r e c t l y s t i m u l a t e d by the young a r t i s t ' s v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n t o the work o f Chardin; V u i l l a r d attempted t o emulate the master's homey subjects and q u i e t c o l o u r s i n works l i k e L a p i n de garenne (Figure 2) and Pommes et v e r r e de v i n (Figure 4). At t h i s p o i n t i n h i s career, V u i l l a r d was exposed t o the a r t i s t i c ideas o f the Nabis. At f i r s t , these were s u b t l y manifested i n h i s work, c a u t i o u s l y v e i l e d by n a t u r a l i s t i c appearances as i n S e l f - p o r t r a i t i n a M i r r o r (Figure 10). However, V u i l l a r d soon put aside h i s i n h i b i t i o n s and embarked upon a s e r i e s o f b o l d Nabi e x p e r i -ments during 1890-91, e x e m p l i f i e d by works l i k e Le l i s e u r (Figure 12). During t h i s stage, he a l s o considered the work o f contemporary avant-garde p a i n t e r s l i k e Seurat, van Gogh, and Degas, apparently seeking w i t h i n each, techniques t o e m b e l l i s h the Nabi manner. Though V u i l l a r d ' s v i s u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f Nabi t h e o r i e s mellowed i n appearance a f t e r 1891, h i s f l a t , d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g and evocative approach continued through-out the 1890's. What t h i s shows i s . h i s adoption o f an e s s e n t i a l l y Nabi means o f expression. During 1891, V u i l l a r d r e - i n t r o d u c e d i n t i m a t e subject matter and 50 51 q u i e t c o l o u r i n g , as shown by Au l i t (Figure 37) and P o r t r a i t o f  Lugne-Poe (Figure 4 l ) . Over the next two years, he attempted t o i n t e -grate these; ^ with the Nabi approach he embraced. At t h i s stage, V u i l l a r d ' s a t t e n t i o n was a t t r a c t e d by Japanese ukiyo-e p r i n t s , which provided v i s u a l examples o f i n t i m a t e scenes evoked i n a Nabi-".:'. l i k e f a s h i o n . These apparently i n s p i r e d the growing suggestiveness i n V u i l l a r d ' s work, and prompted h i s adoption o f a patterned s u r f a c e . This l a s t f e a t u r e , f i r s t - a p p l i e d i n works l i k e Seamstress (Figure 43), n a t u r a l l y embellished the dec o r a t i v e character he pursued i n h i s a r t . By 1893, V u i l l a r d , d e v e l o p e d t h i s technique beyond i t s ob-vious eye-pleasing f u n c t i o n , e n l i s t i n g i t f o r expressive purposes i n works l i k e Le pretendant (Figure 46), t o capture the homey essence of i n t e r i o r scenes. At t h i s p o i n t , V u i l l a r d had synthesized subject and mode i n t o a d e l i c a t e harmony, and created a s t y l e o f i n t i m a t e a r t uniquely h i s own. 52 Figure 1. P o r t r a i t o f Madame Michaud, c. 1888, conte crayon on paper, 42 x 36 cm., P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . 53 F i g u r e 2. L a p i n de garenne, c. 1888, o i l on canvas, 4l x 32 cm., P a r i s : Claude Roger-Marx c o l l e c t i o n . 54 Figure 3. Chardin. Hare, Game Bag, and Gunpowder Box, c. 1727, o i l on canvas, 82 x 65 cm., P a r i s : Musee du Louvre. Figure 4. Pommes et v e r r e de v i n , c. 1888, o i l on canvas, 20 x 39 cm., P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . 56 Figure 5. Chardin. Pears, Walnut, Glass o f Wine, and K n i f e , c. 1760, o i l on canvas, 33 x 41 cm., P a r i s : Musee du Louvre. 57 Figure 6. Roussel. S t i l l - l i f e w i t h Onions, c. 1890, o i l on wood pan e l , 17 x 27-5 cm., P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . 58 Figure 8. Chardin. Partridge, Pitcher, Apple and Orange, c. 1726-28, o i l on canvas, 52 x 43 cm., private collection. 1 * Figure 9. V u i l l a r d coiffe" d'un c a n o t i e r , c. 1888, o i l on canvas 35 x 31 cm., P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . 61 F i g u r e 10. S e l f - p o r t r a i t i n a M i r r o r , 1888-90, o i l on canvas, 45 x 52 cm., Los Angeles: Lew Wasserman c o l l e c t i o n . 62 Figure 11. La v i s i t e , 1890, o i l on canvas, 18.5 x 23 cm., Paris: private c o l l e c t i o n . 63 64 F igure 13. Manet. Le l i s e u r , l86l, o i l on canvas, 98 x 80 cm., S t . L o u i s : C i t y A r t Museum. 65 Figure lH. Denis. Ascent to Calvary, 1889, o i l on canvas, 4 l x 32.5 cm., St. Germain-en-Laye: private c o l l e c t i o n . 66 Figure 15. Daumier. Un wagon de t r o i s i e m e c l a s s e , 1863-65, o i l on canvas, 65.5 x 90 cm., New York: M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t . 67 Figure 16. Un wagon de troisieme classe, c. 1891, o i l on cardboard, 48.75 x 60 cm., New York: Sam Salz c o l l e c t i o n . 68 Figure 17. Les debardeurs, c. 1890, o i l on canvas, 47 x 64 cm., New York: Arthur Altschul c o l l e c t i o n . Figure 1 8 . Manet. Le po r t de Boulogne-sur-Mer au c l a i r de lune, 1 8 6 9 , o i l on canvas, 82 x 101 cm., P a r i s : Musee du Jeu de Paume. 70 71 Figure 20. Denis. A v r i l , 1891, o i l on canvas, P a r i s ; E.. Druet c o l l e c t i o n . 72 Figure 21. S e l f - p o r t r a i t , c. 1891, o i l on cardboard, 28 x 36 cm., P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . 73 Figure 22. Van Gogh. S e l f - p o r t r a i t , c. 1886-88, o i l on canvas, 4l x 30.5 cm., Laren: V. W. van Gogh c o l l e c t i o n . 74 Figure 23. Self-portrait, 1892, o i l on cardboard, 28 x 36 cm., Los Angeles: Sidney Brody collection. 75 Figure 24. Redon. P o r t r a i t de Redon par lui-me*me, 1867, o i l on canvas, 35 x 25 cm., P a r i s : A r i Redon c o l l e c t i o n . 76 Figure 25. Denis. Hommage a Cezanne, 1900, o i l on canvas, 160 x 240 cm., P a r i s : Musee N a t i o n a l d'Art Moderne. 77 78 Figure 21. Degas. At the Louvre: Mary Cassatt i n the Painting Gallery, c. 1879-80, etching, aquatint, drypoint and crayon e l e c t -rique, 29-3 x 12.4 cm., Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art. 79 Figure 28. Ouvrieres au c h i f f o n i e r , c. 1890, o i l on canvas, 48 x 36 cm., Paris: private c o l l e c t i o n . 80 F i g u r e 29. L * a t e l i e r de l a c o r s e t i d r e , n.d., o i l on wood p a n e l , 35 x 27 cm., P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . . 8i Figure 30. Les o r e i l l o n s , c. 1895, o i l on canvas, 48 x 36 cm., P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . 82 Figure 31. Bonnard. Femme au j a r d i n (one panel of four), 1890-91, o i l on canvas, 160 x 48 cm., private c o l l e c t i o n . 83 Figure 32. Harunobu. An Evening V i s i t , mid-l8th century, c o l o u r woodblock p r i n t , 27 x 21 cm., P h i l a d e l p h i a : P h i l a d e l p h i a Museum of A r t . 84 Figure 33- Le dgshabille ovale, c. 1891, o i l on cardboard, 25 x 35 cm., Paris: private c o l l e c t i o n . 85 Figure 34. Kuniyoshl. 0 Kane, A Strong Woman from Omi Province, c. 1843-47, colour woodblock p r i n t , S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass. Bidwell c o l l e c t i o n . 86 Figure 35- Utamaro. Two G i r l s Dressing t h e i r H a i r , l a t e 1 8 t h century, c o l o u r woodblock p r i n t , 3 8 . 8 x 2 6 . 4 cm., p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . 87 Figure 36. Shuncho. V i s i t o r s to the Masaki I n a r i Shrine, c. 1821 colour woodblock p r i n t , Tokyo: Tokyo National Museum. 88 Figure 37- Au l i t , 1891, o i l on canvas, 74 x 92 cm., National d'Art Moderne. Paris: Musee 89 Figure 38. Kunisada. Rokusaburo the Carpenter, early 19th century, colour woodlock p r i n t , 38.8 x 26.4 cm. 90 F i g u r e 39. Hokusai. F u j i from the long, s l o p i n g h i l l s i d e o f Inume  i n K a i P r o v i n c e , e a r l y 19th century, 25 x 37 cm., P a r i s : H enri Vever c o l l e c t i o n . 91 Figure 40. Hokusai. Femme, e a r l y 19th century, brushed i n k on paper, as p u b l i s h e d i n Le Japon A r t i s t i q u e , V o l . I l l , no. 36 ( A p r i l 1891), H a t e BIF. 92 Figure 41. P o r t r a i t o f Lugne-Poe, 1891, o i l on wood p a n e l , 21.8 x 25.6 cm., P i t t s f o r d , N.Y.: F l e t c h e r S t e e l e c o l l e c t i o n . 93 Figure 42. Kiyomitsu. A Beauty of Eastern Japan, 1808, colour wood-block p r i n t , 37-5 x 25.8 cm. 94 F i g u r e 43. Seamstress, 1891, o i l on board, 25 Mus£e N a t i o n a l d'Art Moderne. x 22 cm., P a r i s : 95 F i g u r e 44. L i t t l e G i r l s Walking, 1891, O i l on canvas, 80 x 64 cm., New York: Walter Ross c o l l e c t i o n . 96 F i g u r e 45. Harunobu. Two G i r l s on the Hagi-no-Tamagawa i n the Moon- l i g h t , mid-l8th century, coloured woodblock p r i n t . 97 Figure 46. Le pretendant, 1893, o i l on cardboard, 44 x 51 cm., Northampton, Mass.: Smith College c o l l e c t i o n . 98 F i g u r e 47. Kiyonaga. A Room at the Komeikan b r o t h e l at S u s a k i , l a t e 18th century, colour woodblock p r i n t , 38 x 24.5 P a r i s : Henri Vever c o l l e c t i o n . SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY VUILLARD: MAJOR WORKS Chastel, Andre. Vuillard, 1 8 6 8 - 1 9 4 0 . Paris: Librairie Floury, 1 9 4 6 . . Vuillard, Pelntures,.1890-193Q. Paris: Les Editions du Chene, 1 9 4 8 . Preston, Stuart. Vuillard. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1 9 7 ? . Ritchie, Andrew C. Edouard Vuillard. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1 9 5 4 . Roger-Marx, Claude. Vuillard, His Life and Work. Translated by E. B. D'Auvergne. New York: Editions de l a Maison Francaise, 1 9 4 6 . . Vuillard. Paris: Arts et Metiers Graphiques, 1 9 4 8 . . Vuillard, Interiors. Translated by D. Imber. Lausanne: International Art Books, n. d. Russell, John. Edouard Vuillard, 1 8 6 8 - 1 9 4 0 . Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1971-Salomon, Jacques. Aupres de Vuillard. Paris: La Palme, 1953-. Vuillard Admire. Paris: La Bibliotheque des Arts, 1 9 6 1 . . Vuillard. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1 9 6 8 . VUILLARD: MINOR WORKS Amaya, Mario. "Vuillard's Housebroken Muse." Art In America 59 (September 1 9 7 1 ) : 1 0 2 - 1 0 5 . B a r i l l i , Renato. "Bonnard, Vuillard e l a Poetica degli Intern!." Arte Moderna 2 (1967): 1 2 1 - 1 5 2 . Bazln, Germain. "Vuillard." L'Amour de l'Art 4 (April 1 9 3 3 ) : 9 0 - 9 3 -Chastel, Andre. "Vuillard et Mallarme." La Nef 26 (January 1 9 4 7 ) : 1 3 - 2 5 -99 100 "Vuillard." Art News Annual 23 (1954); 26-58. Coolus, Remain. "Edouard Vuillard." Mer cure de France 249 (January 1934): 63-80. Dorival, Bernard. "Vuillard." Revue des Beaux-Arts de France 1 (October-November 1942): 3-8. Dugdale, James. "Vuillard the Decorator. The Fir s t Phase: the l890's." Apollo 81 (February 1965): 94-101. . "Vuillard the Decorator. The Last Phase: The Third Claude Anet Panel and the Public Commissions." Apollo 86 (October 1967): 272-277.. . Edouard Vuillard. The Masters Series, no. 97- London: Knowledge Publications, 1967. Duthuit, G. "Vuillard and the Poets of Decadence." Art News 53 (March 1954): 28-31. George, Waldemar. "Vuillard et l'Age Heureux." L'Art Vivant 221 (May 1938): 26-36. Goldwater, Robert. "Symbolist Art and Theatre; Vuillard, Bonnard, Maurice Denis." Magazine of Art 39 (December 1946): 366-370. Huisman, Philippe. "Misia, Muse de Vuillard." Connaissance des Arts 133 (March 1963): 58-65. Kozloff, Max. "Four Short Essays on Vuillard." Artforum 10 (December 1971): 64-71. Lecl^re, Tristan. "Edouard Vuillard." Art et Decoration 37 (October 1920): 97-106. Mauner, George L. "Vuillard's Mother and Sister Paintings and the Symbolist Theatre." Artscanada 28 (December 1971): 124-126. Mellot, Denise, ed. "Vuillard dans ses Lettres." Arts 160 (2 A p r i l 1948): 8. Mellquist, Jerome. "The Badge of Identity." Apollo 75 (July 1961): 16-19. Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Exposition Edouard Vuillard. May - July 1938. Paris: Musee des Arts Decoratifs, 1938. Natanson, Thadee. "Sur Edouard Vuillard d'apres Trois Lettres et Deux Portraits." Arts et Metiers Graphiques 65 (15 November 1938): 38-40. Orangerie des Tuileries. Edouard Vuillard, K.-X. Roussel. Foreword by Claude Roger-^Iarx^ 28 May - 16 September 1968.. Paris; Orangerie des Tuileries, 1968. 101 Roger-Marx, Claude. "Les Premiers Epoques de V u i l l a r d . " A r t et  I n d u s t r i e 2 (February 1946): 67-70. . "Edouard V u i l l a r d , 1868-1940." Gazette des Beaux A r t s 29 (June 1946): 263-277-Royal S c o t t i s h Academy. Bo n n a r d - V u i l l a r d. 17 August - 18 September 1948. Edinburgh: A r t s C o u n c i l o f Great B r i t a i n , 1948. R u s s e l l , John. " V u i l l a r d : Melancholy Mastered." A r t News 70 (Sep-tember 1971): 48-50. . " V u i l l a r d , o r the D i s c r e e t Charm o f the Bo u r g e o i s i e . " A r t News 72 (March 1973): 24-25-R u s s o l i , Franco. Edouard V u i l l a r d . I M a e s t r i d e l Colore S e r i e s , no. 170. M i l a n : F r a t e l l i F a b b r i , 1966. THE NABIS A u r i e r , G.-A. "Le Symbolisme en P e i n t u r e . " Mercure de France 2 (march 1891): 162-163. Chasse, Charles. "Les Nabis e t l e Groupe Bonnard-Vuillard-Roussel." L'Amour de l ' A r t 4 ( A p r i l 1933): 81-82. . The Nabis and T h e i r P e r i o d . T r a n s l a t e d by M. B u l l o c k . New York: Praeger, 1969. Denis, Maurice. Theories, 1890-1910- 3rd ed. P a r i s : B i b l i o t h e q u e de 1 'Occident, 1913-. "L'Epoque du Symbolisme." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 11 (March 1934): 165-179-. J o u r n a l (1884--1943). 3 v o l s . P a r i s : La Colombe, 1957-Humbert, Agnes. "Le Groupe des Nabis." Art-Documents31 (13 A p r i l 1953): 8-9. . "Le Groupe des Nabis." Art-Documents 34 (15 J u l y 1953): 15-_. "Le Groups des Nabis." Art-Documents 37 (1 October 1953): 1. . Les Nabis,et l e u r Epoque: 1888-1900. Geneva: E d i t i o n s P i e r r e C a l l l e r , 1954. Jaworska, W. .'Gauguin and the Pont-Aven School. T r a n s l a t e d by P. Evans. London: Thames and Hudson, 1972. Lugne-Poe, A u r e l i e n . La Parade. V o l . 1: Le Sot du Tremplin.. 2nd ed. 102 P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e G a l l i m a r d , 1930. Mauner, George L. "The Nature o f Nabi Symbolisme." A r t J o u r n a l 23 (Winter 1963^1964): 102-103-M e l l e r i o , Andre. Le Mouvement I d e a l i s t e en P e i n t u r e . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s F l o u r y , 1896. Musee Nationale d'Art Moderne. Bonnard, V u i l l a r d , et l e s Nabis. Foreword by Jean Cassou. 8 June - 2 October 1955. P a r i s : E d i t i o n s des Musees Nationaux, 1955. Natanson, Thadee. Le Bonnard Que Je Propose. Geneva: P i e r r e C a i l l e r , 1951. Nattier-Natanson, Evelyn. Les Amities de l a Revue Blanche e t Quelques  Autres. Vincennes: Les E d i t i o n s du Donjon, 1959-P e r u c c h i - P e t r i , U r s u l a . Die Nabis und Japan. Munich: P r e s t e l V e r l a g , 1976. S e l v i g , F. "Les Nabis: Prophets o f the Vanguard." A r t News 61 (Decem-ber 1962): 34-37 and 64-66. S e r t , M i s i a . Two or Three Muses. T r a n s l a t e d by Moura Budberg. London: Museum Press, 1953-S e r u s i e r , P a u l . ABC de l a Pe i n t u r e . 3rd ed. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e F l o u r y , 1950. Verkade, Dom W i l l i b r o r d . Yesterdays o f an Artist-Monk. T r a n s l a t e d by J . L. Stoddard. London: Burns Oates and Washbourne, 1930. Yale U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y . Neo-Impressionists and Nabis i n the C o l l e c t i o n o f A r t h u r G. A l t s c h u l . 20 January - 14 March 1965. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965-RELATED ARTS Andersen, Wayne. Gauguin's Paradise L o s t . New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1971. Bacou, R o s e l i n e . O d i l o n Redon. Geneva: P i e r r e C a i l l e r , 1956. Becker, George, and P h i l i p s , E d i t h , Eds. T r a n s l a t e d by G. Becker and E. P h i l i p s . P a r i s and the A r t s , I85I-I896: From the Goncourt  J o u r n a l . I t h a c a , N. Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. B i n g , S. Le Japon A r t i s t i q u e . 3 v o l s . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e C entrale des Beaux-Arts, 1889-1890. Boime, A l b e r t . The Academy and French P a i n t i n g i n the Nineteenth  Century. London: Phaidon, 1971-103 B o u d a i l l e , Georges. Gauguin. T r a n s l a t e d by A. J a f f a . London: Thames and Hudson, 196T! Cabanne, P i e r r e . Edgar Degas. T r a n s l a t e d by M. L. Landa. P a r i s : E d i t i o n s P i e r r e T i s n e , 1958. Cachin, Francoise. P a u l Signac. T r a n s l a t e d by M. B u l l o c k . Green-wich, Conn.: New York Graphic S o c i e t y , 1971. Chennevieres, Henri de. "Chardin au Musee du Louvre, Donation Lacaze." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 38, 2 M E periode ( J u l y 1888): 54-61. . "Chardin au Musee du Louvre, Donation Lacaze." Gazette des Beauz-Arts 1, 3 M E periode (February 1889): 121-130. C o l l i n s , B r adford R. "Manet's Rue Mosnier decked w i t h Flags and the Flaneur Concept." B u r l i n g t o n 117 (November 1975): 709-714. C r e s p e l l e , J.P. Les M a i t r e s de l a B e l l e Epoque. P a r i s : Hachette, 1966. Ecole Nationale Superleure des Beaux-Arts. E x p o s i t i o n de l a Gravure  Japonaise a 1'Ecole N a t i o n a l e des Beaux-Arts. 25 A p r i l - 22 May 1890. P a r i s : Ecole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts, 1890. F o c i l l o n , H e n r i . "L'Estampe Japonaise et l a P e i n t u r e en Occident dans l a Seconde M o i t i e du XIX® S i e c l e . " Actes du Congres d ' H i s t o i r e  de l ' A r t 1 (26 September - 5 October 1921): 367-376. Gauss, C. E. The A e s t h e t i c Theories o f French A r t i s t s , 1855 t o the  Present"! B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins Press, 1949. Gogh, Vincent van. The Complete L e t t e r s o f Vincent van Gogh. 3 v o l s . Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic S o c i e t y , n. d. Gonse, L o u i s . L'Art Japonais. 2 v o l s . P a r i s : A. Quantin, 1883. Hahn, E t h e l . "The Influ e n c e o f the A r t o f the Far East on Nineteenth Century on French P a i n t e r s . " M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1928. Hanson, Anne C o f f i n . Edouard Manet, 1832-1883. Chicago: A r t I n s t i t u t e o f Chicago, 1966. Herbert, Eugenia W. The A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform. New Haven, Conn.: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. Homer, W i l l i a m I . Seurat and the Science o f P a i n t i n g . Cambridge, Mass.: The M. I . T. Press, 1964. Houssaye, Henry. Le Salon de 1888. P a r i s : Boussod, Valadon, and Co., 1888. 104 Ivesj Colta Feller. The Great Wave: The Influence of Japanese Wood- cuts on French Prints. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974. Letheve, Jacques. Daily Life of French Artists i n the Nineteenth Century. Translated by H. E. Paddon. New York: Praeger, 1972. Loevgren, Sven. The Genesis of Modernism. Rev. ed. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1971. McCoubrey, John W. "The Revival! .of Chardin i n French S t i l l - L i f e Pain-ting." Art Bulletin 46 (March 1964): 39-53-Meltzoff, Stanley. "Nineteenth Century Revivals." M. A. thesis, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, 1941. Michel, Andre. "Salon de 1888." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 37, 2 m e periode (June 1888): 441-454. . "Salon de 1888." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 38, 2 m e periode (July 1888): 21-31. . "Salon de 1888." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 38, 2^ periode (August 1888): 137-153-Rookmaaker, H. R. Synthetist Art Theories, Genesis and Nature of the  Ideas on Art of Gauguin and His Circle. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger, 1959-Rosenberg, Pierre. Chardin. Translated by H. Harrison. Geneva: A. Skira, 1963-Roskill, Mark. Van Gogh, Gauguin and the Impressionist Circle. Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1970. Stone, Irving, ed. Dear Theo: The Autobiography of Vincent van Gogh. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1937-y e Thirion, Y. "Le Japonisme en France dans l a seconde moitie du XIX siecle." Cahiers de 1'Association Internationale des etudes  francaises 13 (1961): 117-130. Thorn, Ian. "Georges Seurat: Une Baignade a Asnieres." M.;A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977. Vincent, H. P. Daumier and His World. Evanston: Northwestern Univer-sity Press, 1968. Welsberg, Gabriel P.; Cate, P. D.; Needham, G.; Eidelberg, M.; and Johnston, W. R. Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art, 1854-1910. Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1975-Wildenstein, Georges. Chardin. Rev. ed. Translated by S. Gilbert. Oxford: Bruno Cassirer, 1969. 

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