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Personality and behavior correlates of social competence in preschool children Garber, V. Jeannie 1978

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PERSONALITY AND BEHAVIOR CORRELATES OF SOCIAL COMPETENCE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.  by  V. J e a n n i e Garber B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF  MASTER  OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f P s y c h o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1978 © V i t a l i a Jeannie Garber, 1 9 7 8  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  DE-6  BP  75-51 1 E  ii  ABSTRACT o  A s t u d y undertaken t o f u r t h e r v a l i d a t e a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e s as a measure of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n p r e s c h o o l g r o u p s , as w e l l as t o personality correlates  find  from Q - s e t d a t a w i t h the c o n s t r u c t - . o f s o c i a l  competence, as determined by s o c i a l r a n k i n g on a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e F i f t y - s i x subjects, t h i r t y - f i v e  data.  boys and twenty-?one g i r l s , w i t h an  age range of from t h r e e y e a r s one month t o s i x y e a r s two months, from t h r e e p r e s c h o o l daycare c e n t r e s were observed f o r f o u r months by two independent o b s e r v e r s .  C o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s  revealed e i g h t strong item c l u s t e r s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d to a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e , and r e a d i l y comparable t o r e s e a r c h i n competence.  These c l u s t e r s  may i n d i c a t e a n a r r o w , age c o n s t r i c t e d measure of competence.  The n o n -  c o r r e l a t e d i t e m s r e v e a l e d e l e v e n c l u s t e r s of b e h a v i o r s i m p o r t a n t  in  p e r s o n a l i t y development, as w e l l as some r e l a t e d t o the b r o a d e r view of s o c i a l competence.  An amalgamation of these c l u s t e r s may be the b a s i s  f o r a good measure of s o c i a l competence.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS  ii iii  LIST OF TABLES  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  vi  INTRODUCTION-  1  METHOD  7  RESULTS  11  DISCUSSION  16  REFERENCES  21  FOOTNOTES  24  TABLES  25  FIGURES  48  iv LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1  The number of Q - s e t i t e m s a s s i g n e d t o each c a t e g o r y  2  A summary of the t o t a l number o f l o o k s g i v e n and  25  received  26  3  C l u s t e r e d Q c o r r e l a t e s of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks  27  4  C l u s t e r e d Q n o n c o r r e l a t e s of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks  34  5  Clusters s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with looking rank,  6  age c o n t r o l l e d C l u s t e r s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o o k i n g r a n k , age c o n t r o l l e d  47  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among c l u s t e r s of items s i g n i f i c a n t l y and n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o o k i n g r a n k , age c o n t r o l l e d  48  7  46  y.  iLIST OF FIGURES Figure 1  Page Diagram of c l u s t e r e d Q - c o r r e l a t e s of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks  2  49  Diagram of c l u s t e r e d Q - n o n c o r r e l a t e s of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks  50  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h t o thank D r . E v e r e t t Waters f o r h i s a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e throughout  the course of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  I would a l s o l i k e t o a c k n o w l -  edge the u s e f u l c r i t i c i s m s of D r . Dale M i l l e r and D r . Lynn A l d e n . S p e c i a l thanks t o the s t a f f and s t u d e n t s a t P e n d r e l l , Beach and B u r r a r d Daycare C e n t r e s , w i t h o u t whom, t h i s work c o u l d not have been accomplished.  P e r s o n a l i t y and B e h a v i o r C o r r e l a t e s  of  S o c i a l Competence i n P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n . T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n t o v a l i d a t e a r e l a t i v e l y new measure f o r s t u d y i n g s o c i a l competence i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as t o f i n d  per-  s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s of s o c i a l l y competent i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s age r a n g e . D e f i n i n g s o c i a l competence has l o n g been a t r i a l t o r e s e a r c h e r s t h i s f i e l d ( W e i n s t e i n 1973,  Anderson & M e s s i c k 1 9 7 4 ) .  in  S o c i a l competence  as a c o n s t r u c t has l o n g been m i s c o n s t r u e d as s i m p l y an a g g l o m e r a t i o n of numerous s o c i a l competencies o r s k i l l s , agility,  such as v e r b a l f l u e n c y ,  p e r s o n a l esteem and a f f e c t , motor s k i l l s ,  d u r i n g the l o n g p r o c e s s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  But i t  etc.,  the  cognitive  t h a t are a c q u i r e d  i s important to  realize  t h a t s o c i a l competence i s not s i m p l y an end g o a l , but r a t h e r an ongoing p r o c e s s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n throughout l i f e l o n g s o c i a l development and i s more t h a n the sum t o t a l of s o c i a l s k i l l s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s . F o r the purposes o f t h i s p a p e r , d e a l i n g w i t h young c h i l d r e n i n p r e school s e t t i n g s , O'Malley's  t h e d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l competence t h a t w i l l be used i s  (1977): "productive  and m u t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g  a c h i l d and p e e r s or a d u l t s .  interactions  Productive interactions  between attain  p e r s o n a l g o a l s of t h e c h i l d , whether i m m e d i a t e l y or i n the l o n g r u n , which a r e a d a p t i v e i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s .  Interactions  be s a t i f y i n g t o the c h i l d when g o a l s a r e a t t a i n e d and t o t h e  will others  i f a c t i o n s i n p u r s u i t of t h e g o a l s a r e r e c e i v e d i n e i t h e r a b e n i g n or p o s i t i v e m a n n e r . "  1.  2. The s t u d y of s o c i a l competence i s i m p o r t a n t f o r many r e a s o n s .  Three  v e r y s a l i e n t ones a r e : a)  t o be f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n any s o c i e t y , everyone must p o s s e s s the complement of i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence.  b)  s o c i a l competence seems t o enhance the p r o b a b i l i t y of academic success.  I n f a c t , i t has been shown t h a t s o c i a l l y incompetent  c h i l d r e n are more l i k e l y to drop out of s c h o o l , be l a b e l l e d as j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s , and t o e x p e r i e n c e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . (Oden & Asher 1 9 7 2 ) .  I t has a l s o been found t h a t s o c i o m e t r i c a l l y  r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n a r e at r i s k f o r and a r e p r e d i c t i v e of social malfunctioning. c)  later  (Gottsman 1 9 7 7 ) .  s t u d y i n g s o c i a l competence h e l p s i n t e g r a t e knowledge of  various  b e h a v i o r s t h a t encompass a l a r g e p a r t o f s o c i a l development, and h e l p s t o u n d e r s t a n d a l a r g e p a r t of the human p e r s o n a l i t y more comprehensively. S o c i a l competence i s r e v e a l e d i n s i t u a t i o n s and c o n t e x t s , w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n i n g w e l l w i t h i n given s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s .  F o r young c h i l d r e n  the e a r l i e s t exposure t o o r g a n i z e d peer s o c i e t y i s t h e p l a y g r o u p or daycare c e n t r e , w h i c h was the s e t t i n g observed i n t h i s  study.  I n s t u d y i n g s o c i a l competence i n young c h i l d r e n , many v a r i e d and methods have been a p p l i e d over the y e a r s .  theories  One common approach equates  s o c i a l competence w i t h s o c i a l s t a t u s or s o c i a l power.  From t h i s  viewpoint  ensued numerous e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s , u s i n g s o c i o m e t r i c measures, but not f i n d i n g many b e h a v i o r c o r r e l a t e s  ( H a r t u p , 1970).  In the p a s t few y e a r s ,  an e t h o l o g i c a l approach has been m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f ,  f o c u s i n g on s o c i a l  3. s t r u c t u r e s of g r o u p s , u s i n g a n a t u r a l i s t i c approach t o s t u d y i n g dominance r e l a t i o n s and h i e r a r c h i e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s groups Smith 1 9 7 7 ) .  One l a r g e s c a l e s t u d y ,  W h i t e , Kaban, Marmor & S h a p i r o ,  1972)  (Smith 1974, S l u c k i n &  the Harvard P r e s c h o o l P r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d t o d e f i n e  c o n s i d e r e d a d a p t i v e f o r young c h i l d r e n i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s . of s t u d y ,  (B.L.  behaviors This type  combining the p s y c h o m e t r i c approach w i t h an e t h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s  i s one w h i c h seems w e l l w o r t h e m u l a t i n g , a l t h o u g h i n t h i s Harvard  study,  e x t e n s i v e time p e r i o d s were i n v o l v e d i n r e c o r d i n g b e h a v i o r s at home and i n the p r e s c h o o l s . Another approach t o competence as s o c i a l power employs models from p r i m a t e f i e l d r e s e a r c h , w h i c h has emphasized dominance h i e r a r c h i e s baed on aggressive behaviors:  " p e c k i n g o r d e r s " t h a t a l l o w dominants f i r s t  to food, t e r r i t o r y , mates, e t c . competence i s q u e s t i o n a b l e .  But t h e r e l e v a n c e of a g g r e s s i o n to s o c i a l  Nor has i t been found to c o r r e l a t e w i t h  m e t r i c measures, as w e l l as not b e i n g s t a b l e a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t with different  object goals.  access  socio-  situations  That i s , a g i v e n a n i m a l may be dominant and  s u c c e s s f u l a t t h e w a t e r i n g h o l e , but when i t comes time f o r m a t i n g , he may w e l l be much lower i n s t a t u s and have much l e s s a c c e s s to a v a i l a b l e f e m a l e s . However r e l e v a n t t h e p r i m a t e model may be t o humans, t h e dominance model i s a model of a d u l t i n t e r a c t i o n , and i t s r e l e v a n c e t o p l a y group i s An a l t e r n a t i v e (Chance,  1967,  unclear.  m o d e l , and a r e l a t i v e l y new one i n t r o d u c e d by Chance  Chance & J o l l y ,  1970) seems to o f f e r more s c o p e .  s t u d i e s , i t was found t h a t t h e dominant a n i m a l i s sought o u t , b o t h and through v i s u a l r e g a r d by subdominants.  In primate physically  I n so d o i n g , a s u b o r d i n a t e  ani-  mal m a i n t a i n s a p r o p e r d i s t a n c e and p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the dominant  4.  animals i n the group.  I t was  found t h a t i t i s the d i r e c t i o n and  ( D i s t r i b u t i o n ) of a t t e n t i o n t h a t L a r s e n e d i t e d a book d e a l i n g monkeys, apes and  i s of importance.  In 1976,  amount  Chance  s p e c i f i c a l l y with attention structures  human c h i l d r e n .  These papers p r o v i d e abundant  t i o n t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s r e c e i v e more v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n than do and  t h a t these members of s o c i e t y assume "dominant" s o c i a l r o l e s ,  t h a t the a t t e n t i o n would seem t o be Hinde (1974) would d i s p u t e gard may  at the r o o t of s o c i a l  t h i s c l a i m , but whatever the  z a t i o n i n s m a l l groups, r e g a r d l e s s  in  illustraothers, and,  organization.  case, v i s u a l r e -  w e l l p r o v i d e a u s e f u l summary of power, s t a t u s or s o c i a l  Vaughn and  and  of c o n t e x t , ages or even  organi-  species.  Waters (1976) have found t h a t u s i n g Chance's a t t e n t i o n  s t r u c t u r e model to d e r i v e  sociometric  patterns  of groups of n u r s e r y  school  aged c h i l d r e n , the r e s u l t i n g ranks from the a t t e n t i o n d a t a were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o t h e r more t r a d i t i o n a l methods of d e r i v i n g s o c i o m e t r i c  hierarchies  and  that: a)  a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranking picture sociometric  b)  i s very strongly correlated  ratings  (.79  p <C  to  .05)  these ranks are v e r y s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d to t e a c h e r r a t i n g s s o c i a l competence (Defined  as the a b i l i t y  to make us of  of  environ-  mental r e s o u r c e s ) c)  these a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k s , once developed, are time, as are  d)  they  s t a b l e over s i t u a t i o n s , t h a t school  s t a b l e over  i s , one  finds that  i n nursery  i n t e r a c t i o n s i n d o o r s or o u t d o o r s , the v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n  s t r u c t u r e s remain c o n s t a n t .  5. Other f i n d i n g s a r e t h a t these v i s u a l r e g a r d s t r u c t u r e r a n k s are not r e l a t e d w i t h a wide range of b e h a v i o r s such as number of c o n t a c t s , noisy play,  or p h y s i c a l dominance.  Nor a r e t h e y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  r a t i n g s of t h o s e c h i l d r e n w h i c h a r e b e s t l i k e d by t h e t e a c h e r s .  corloud  teacher Visual  a t t e n t i o n r a n k s a r e a l s o one measure t h a t i s not b i a s e d a g a i n s t females (as a r e many measures based on dominance) s i n c e i t  i s not c o r r e l a t e d  s e x , as a r e measures of toughness or a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . noteworthy, society,  s i n c e i t would seem c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e  These r e s u l t s  even a t a somewhat l e s s complex l e v e l of i n t e r a c t i o n s i n p r e -  as a competent p e r s o n , and would be one who i s e m u l a t e d .  males.  are  t o t h i n k t h a t i n human  s c h o o l g r o u p s , t h a t an a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d s h o u l d be p e r c e i v e d by  tively  with  others  Nor i s i t  intui-  o b v i o u s t h a t females s h o u l d c o n s i s t e n t l y seem l e s s competent t h a n R a t h e r , someone whom o t h e r s would l o o k a t , i m i t a t e and t r y t o make  c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h , seems t o i n d i c a t e a p e r s o n whose f u t u r e s o c i a l d e v e l o p ment and acceptance i s l i k e l y to c o n t i n u e i n a competent and s o c i a l l y r e w a r d i n g manner. I n an attempt to more f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d s o c i a l competence i n the p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d , and p r o v i d e a broader range of d e s c r i p t i v e uses  for  a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k i n g , b o t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e d a t a and two p r e s c h o o l v e r s i o n s of the Q - s e t p e r s o n a l i t y d e s c r i p t o r were completed f o r three preschool c l a s s e s .  The a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e measure i s used here  p r o v i d e more v a l i d a t i o n of t h i s i n s t r u m e n t as a means f o r  discovering  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of g r o u p s , a n d , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , f o r d e s c r i b i n g b e h a v i o r c o r r e l a t e s of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k s of p r e s c h o o l aged t h r e e t o s i x y e a r s .  to  the  children  The a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e d a t a i s e a s i l y and r e l a -  6.  t i v e l y q u i c k l y c o l l e c t e d , w i t h minimal disturbance to classroom f u n c t i o n i n g . The o b s e r v e r s remain u n o b t r u s i v e so t h a t c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r s soon f o r g e t t h e i r presence.  T h i s measure i s b o t h e c o n o m i c a l i n manpower time r e q u i r e d ,  ease of c o l l e c t i o n and n e g l i g i b l e d i s r u p t i o n of c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s . The Q - s e t i s an i p s a t i v e procedure f o r p e r s o n a l i t y d e s c r i p t i o n 1961) It  (Block,  p r o v i d e d i n a form s u i t a b l e f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e comparison and a n a l y s i s .  c o n s i s t s of p e r s o n a l i t y d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h a r e arranged by r a t e r s i n an  o r d e r r e f l e c t i n g the s a l i e n c e of t h e s e items i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a p a r t i c u l a r person:  e.g.  i s " c o n f i d e n t " a more  X than i s " a g g r e s s i v e " , or i s " s h y " for understanding t h i s person.  i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e to. d e s c r i b e p e r s o n a more d e c i s i v e t r a i t than " t a l k a t i v e "  Advantages of u s i n g Q-methods i n t h i s  study a r e : a)  c r o s s c l a s s comparisons can be made here w i t h o u t assuming t h a t c l a s s e s are equivalent  b)  i t a l l o w s f o r a v e r y broad d e s c r i p t i v e range o f  personality  variables c)  t h i s method i s e c o n o m i c a l w h i l e p r o v i d i n g broad range of description.  I t has r e c e n t l y been used by Bern (1977) v e r y  s u c c e s s f u l l y i n d e s c r i b i n g c o n t e x t and e n v i r o m e n t s , as w e l l as people. This study, using both a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranking data f o r  finding  p a t t e r n s of peer i n t e r a c t i o n s and s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s , and p r e s c h o o l Q - s o r t methodology w i l l f o c u s on f i n d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s of s o c i a l competence v i a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of c o r r e l a t e s and n o n - c o r r e l a t e s of t h e s e two measures.  7. METHOD.  Subjects The f i f t y - s i x  s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were observed i n t h r e e G o v e r n -  ment m a i n t a i n e d , n o n p r o f i t c e n t r e s a v a i l a b l e to w o r k i n g p a r e n t s . were composed of f o u r t e e n , e l e v e n , and t e n m a l e s , and f i v e , females.  The c l a s s e s  s e v e n , and n i n e  T h e i r average age was f o u r y e a r s t e n months, w i t h an age range of  from t h r e e y e a r s one month, t o s i x y e a r s two months.  The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  s t a t u s and e t h n i c backgrounds of the f a m i l i e s from which t h e s e s u b j e c t s were drawn i s  heterogeneous.  Setting O b s e r v a t i o n s were made i n two t y p e s of s e t t i n g s , i n s i d e the c l a s s rooms and o u t s i d e on the p l a y g r o u n d of each s c h o o l .  During the periods  o b s e r v a t i o n , w h i c h were timed t o c o i n c i d e w i t h f r e e p l a y t i m e , the  of  children  g e n e r a l l y were p l a y i n g o u t s i d e where t h e r e were s i d e w a l k s f o r t r i k e r i d i n g , t r e e s f o r c l i m b i n g , l a r g e sandboxes w i t h c l i m b i n g a p p a r a t u s , as w e l l as a l a r g e c h o i c e of p l a y t h i n g s :  c a r s and t r u c k s , wagons t o r i d e and p u l l ,  etc.  On c o l d and/or r a i n y d a y s , t h e c h i l d r e n remained i n d o o r s w i t h a wide c h o i c e of a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g p a i n t i n g , , : and c l a y work, p u z z l e s and t o y s ,  block  b u i l d i n g , n u r s e r y p e t s , water p l a y , e t c .  At o t h e r t i m e s , the c h i l d r e n had  group s i n g i n g or s t o r y t e l l i n g s e s s i o n s .  The t h r e e s c h o o l s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r  s i n c e the b u i l d i n g s a r e i d e n t i c a l , t h e s t a f f s i m i l a r l y t r a i n e d and the r o u t i n e s a r e common t o a l l t h r e e c e n t r e s .  A l t h o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n s were made  January through A p r i l , the weather was so c o n s i s t e n t l y m i l d t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of o b s e r v a t i o n s were made o u t d o o r s .  As Waters and Vaughn found  8. no d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t e n t i o n o r v i s u a l r e g a r d b e h a v i o r i n d o o r s as opposed o u t d o o r s , a l l o b s e r v a t i o n s were combined  to  and used i n the a n a l y s i s .  A t t e n t i o n Structure:.: O b s e r v a t i o n s of the v i s u a l r e g a r d of peers by each c h i l d was made from January through A p r i l  i n o r d e r t o determine how much v i s u a l  each c h i l d r e c e i v e d from p e e r s , as w e l l as how  attention  much v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n each  c h i l d gave t h e i r p e e r s . A " l o o k " was another c h i l d  d e f i n e d as an o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a c e and eyes  f o r two  seconds or more.  Care was  towards  taken t o ensure t h a t the  l o o k s were a t another i n d i v i d u a l and not a t a t o y or o t h e r o b j e c t h e l d or looked a t by the o t h e r c h i l d .  Any ambiguous cases were not i n c l u d e d i n  the d a t a . Agreement between two independent o b s e r v e r s watching any g i v e n c h i l d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y was  100% so t h a t a f t e r t w e n t y - f i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s , no  further  checks on agreement were undertaken. In p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h  (Waters & Vaughn) i t was  found t h a t one  hundred  rounds of o b s e r v a t i o n s per c h i l d i s a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the children's behaviour.  Each round of o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d of a t e n second  p e r i o d d u r i n g which the c h i l d was the t a r g e t c h i l d l o o k e d at was were observed was  randomnly  observed, and the name of each peer t h a t  recorded.  The o r d e r i n which the c h i l d r e n  determined and no c h i l d was  observed a second  time i n a s e s s i o n b e f o r e a l l the o t h e r c h i l d r e n had f i r s t been observed. I t took a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e weeks p e r c l a s s of d a i l y o b s e r v a t i o n s t o complete one hundred  rounds per c h i l d .  1% - 2 hour  During t h i s  at l e a s t some c h i l d r e n were absent, so t h a t a l l those c h i l d r e n who  time missed  9.  b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n a l l one hundred rounds had t h e i r l o o k i n g s c o r e s p r o r a t e d p r o p o r t i o n a l l y f o r absences.  A l l s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n the study had been  p r e s e n t f o r a t l e a s t f i f t y o f the rounds o f o b s e r v a t i o n . In o r d e r t o determine  whether one hundred o b s e r v a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a  r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e o f each c h i l d ' s l o o k i n g s c o r e , the d a t a from each c l a s s was d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s , and a s p l i t h a l f c o r r e l a t i o n was computed w i t h a Spearman Brown formula f o r a t t e n u a t i o n a p p l i e d . determined  Each c h i l d ' s rank was  by t h e summed t o t a l of l o o k s r e c e i v e d from  peers.  Q-Set Data The  two Q-sets  employed i n the p r e s e n t study were t h e seventy-two item  Wanda Bronson form r e l e v a n t f o r d e s c r i b i n g s o c i a l competence i n young ren.  child-  The B l o c k s ' one hundred p o i n t Q-set i s t h e c h i l d r e n ' s v e r s i o n o f the  broader  California  The  Q-set.  Q-method i s an i p s a t i v e procedure  which p r o v i d e s p e r s o n - c e n t r e d a b l e i n many ways. without  for personality  description,  data i n n u m e r i c a l form, d a t a which a r e a n a l y z -  I n t h i s t e c h n i q u e , t h e r a t e r d e s c r i b e s the s u b j e c t s  r e f e r e n c e t o a normative  comparison group, and r a t e s p e r s o n a l i t y  v a r i a b l e s on a continuum o f s a l i e n c e r e l a t i v e to each s u b j e c t . the Q-items a r e w r i t t e n on s e p a r a t e cards and arranged  and r e a r r a n g e d  p r e s e t c a t a g o r i e s u n t i l an a p p r o p r i a t e o r d e r i n g i s a t t a i n e d . the s o r t i n g i n v o l v e d , t h i s s c a l i n g procedure  Usually, into  Because o f  has been c a l l e d Q-sort  tech-  nique.  A f t e r t h e s o r t i n g , the placement o f each item i s r e c o r d e d on a data  sheet.  The n i n e c a t e g o r i e s of the continuum have by c o n v e n t i o n been  labelled  w i t h column n i n e r e f e r r i n g t o the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c end o f the continuum  10. and one t o t h e l e a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e n d .  I n s e r t T a b l e 1 a p p r o x i m a t e l y here  Two o b s e r v e r s spent a p p r o x i m a t e l y two weeks, o r t e n days f o r hours each day w a t c h i n g each c l a s s .  two  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y the minimum time  r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n a l l the c h i l d r e n s ' names, n o t i c e how t h e c l a s s runs as a whole and f i n a l l y p e r c e i v e each c h i l d i n d i v i d u a l l y and d i s c o v e r how each a c t and i n t e r a c t s w i t h p e e r s . Throughout t h e two week p e r i o d , r e f e r e n c e  was c o n s t a n t l y made t o  the one hundred and s e v e n t y - t w o Q - i t e m s , w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y been t h o r oughly d i s c u s s e d by t h e two r a t e r s t o a r r i v e a t a common consensus as t o the meaning of a l l the i t e m s .  Two o b s e r v e r s performed t h e Q - s o r t s i n d e -  p e n d e n t l y , and w i t h o u t knowledge of t h e a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k s .  Both  Q - s e t s were s o r t e d i n t o t h e n i n e p r e s e t c a t e g o r i e s w i t h t h e c o r r e c t number of i t e m s a s s i g n e d t o each c a t e g o r y p l a c e m e n t . It  i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o keep i n mind throughout the Q - s o r t p r o c e d u r e  t h a t t h e r a t e r i s a s s e s s i n g each i t e m as r e l a t i v e t o the c h i l d , as--a more or l e s s s a l i e n t i t e m i n a g i v e n c h i l d ' s r e p e r t o i r e of p e r s o n a l i t y o p t i o n s and n o t t o s t r a y i n t o perhaps the more e a s i l y a s s e s s e d peer comparison mode of "compared t o X ' s p e e r s , X i s more or l e s s a g g r e s s i v e " , f o r example. It  i s a l s o v e r y n e c e s s a r y f o r r a t e r s t o be on guard a g a i n s t s p e e d i n g up  t h e i r s o r t i n g t o t h e p o i n t where, u s i n g t h e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n of a g i v e n c h i l d , one b e g i n s t o s o r t i n a s t e r e o t y p e d "good c h i l d , bad c h i l d " mode, w h e r e i n a l a r g e number of items are commonly s o r t e d i n t o almost p r e s e t  11. categories.  One must s t a r t each c h i l d f r e s h , t h o r o u g h l y s h u f f l i n g  the  i t e m decks and c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r y f o r each i t e m f o r each c h i l d . RESULTS. Reliability C o r r e l a t i o n s between s p l i t h a l v e s of i n d i v i d u a l r a n k s from the l o o k i n g d a t a was computed and the Spearman Brown f o r m u l a f o r t e s t l e n g t h was a p p l i e d to e s t i m a t e the r e l i a b i l i t y .  The r a n k i n g of each c h i l d on the b a s i s  of the t o t a l number of l o o k s r e c e i v e d from b o t h h a l v e s of the d a t a was c a l c u l a t e d and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i n each c l a s s , and t h e average r e l i a b i l i t y c l a s s r a n k s was found to be  of  .93 ^'  . The r e l i a b i l i t y of each i t e m on the two Q - s e t s (one hundred and s e v e n t y - t w o i t e m s ) was e s t a b l i s h e d by c o r r e l a t i n g the i t e m placement of the independent r a t e r s on each i t e m a c r o s s t h e c h i l d r e n i n a l l t h r e e c l a s s e s . The importance of the above two r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s l i e s i n the  fact  t h a t they l i m i t t h e maximum c o r r e l a t i o n p o s s i b l e f o r any g i v e n i t e m w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s rank.  The upper l i m i t of a c o r r e l a t i o n between an i t e m and  l o o k i n g r a n k i s c a l c u l a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner:  Hays  1.  (1973).  See l a s t column i n T a b l e s 3 and 4 .  See F o o t n o t e '  1 and T a b l e 2 .  It  i s important to r e a l i z e that i f  an i t e m was a s s e s s e d r e l i a b l y ,  may or may not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a c h i l d ' s l o o k i n g rank.  But i f r e l i a b i l i t y on a g i v e n i t e m i s l o w , whatever  it  structure  correlation  t h e r e might b e , would be s e r i o u s l y a t t e n u a t e d , and t h e r e f o r e the d a t a s h o u l d be l o o k e d a t i n t h i s  light.  The i t e m placements of the two o b s e r v e r s was averaged and the mean i t e m placement was used i n t h e a n a l y s i s r e p o r t e d b e l o w . Q - S o r t C o r r e l a t e s of A t t e n t i o n  Structure  The c o r r e l a t i o n o f each o f t h e one hundred and s e v e n t y - t w o w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s r a n k i n g on the v i s u a l r e g a r d d a t a was done t o  Q-items  discover  those p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e most r e l a t e d t o a s p e c t s of  social  competence t h a t a r e i n d i c a t e d by c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l s t a n d i n g i n . a g i v e n class. I n a d d i t i o n , items and v i s u a l r e g a r d r a n k s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b o t h c h i l d r e n ' s age and s e x .  Sex was found not to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t  t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s , but age was c o r r e l a t e d  .55  (p ^ .001) w i t h l o o k rank  and the c o r r e l a t i o n between age and a g i v e n Q - i t e m ranged from Therefore,  partial correlations,  .59 t o . 0 0 4 .  c o n t r o l l e d f o r a g e , were c a l c u l a t e d b e -  tween each i t e m and v i s u a l r e g a r d r a n k s , b o t h f o r each c l a s s as w e l l as f o r c l a s s e s p o o l e d .  on  separately  The c r i t e r i o n f o r items t o be  categorized  as c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n d a t a ranks was t h a t , f o r c l a s s e s combined, w i t h age p a r t i a l l e d o u t , a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of  p ^ . 0 1 was  a t t a i n e d , as w e l l as h a v i n g a t l e a s t two of the t h r e e c l a s s e s r e a c h t h e same l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h a t  item.  13. A t t o t a l of s i x t y - o n e  Q-items  (35% of the 172 i t e m s ) , t h i r t y  Bronson  items and 31 B l o c k items were found to r e a c h c r i t e r i o n , and were l a b e l l e d as c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y above chance w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s r a n k s .  These  were a s s i g n e d t o group one, and the r e m a i n i n g one hundred and e l e v e n items were r e l e g a t e d t o group two, c o n s i s t i n g of t h e u n c o r r e l a t e d Cluster  Q-items.  Analysis  The c l u s t e r i n g method used here produces n o n o v e r l a p p i n g , c a l l y nested c l u s t e r s . items.  hierarchi-  C l u s t e r s a r e b u i l t from i n d i v i d u a l p a i r s of s i m i l a r  These p a i r s of i t e m s a r e b u i l t up i n t o c l u s t e r s one p a i r at a t i m e ,  each c y c l e merges a new p a i r of s i m i l a r i t e m s , and each t i m e the l e v e l s i m i l a r i t y drops somewhat, s i n c e the f i r s t p a i r i n g t a k e s the h i g h e s t i b l e intercorrelated items.  of  poss-  The t e c h n i q u e used h e r e , c a l l e d the Simple  method, u t i l i z e s the weighted p a i r group a r i t h m e t i c a v e r a g e s , g r o u p i n g items i n t o g i v e n c l u s t e r s by u t i l i z i n g those items t h a t have the s h o r t e s t tance between t h e i r means and the means of a g i v e n c l u s t e r C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s of S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t e s . a r e the convergent  dis-  (Wood,  1974).  The i t e m s i n group one,  Q - i t e m s , those t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d  a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e rank d a t a .  with  These i t e m s ' c o n s t i t u t e the f i n a l p o o l of  s i g n i f i c a n t l y u s e f u l i t e m s of t h e B l o c k and Bronson Q l i s t s , and were a s s i g n e d t o t h i s group on t h e b a s i s of r e p l i c a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t a t i o n at p < . 0 1  correl-  i n at l e a s t two of the t h r e e c l a s s e s s t u d i e d , u s i n g  c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h age p a r t i a l l e d o u t .  The i t e m s were combined over a l l  t h r e e c l a s s e s , i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and c l u s t e r a n a l y z e d to d e s c r i b e dimensions of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e  rank.  14. Nine c l u s t e r s r e s u l t e d , and f i v e items remained u n a s s i g n e d , as p r e s e n t e d i n Table 3 , along w i t h zero order c o r r e l a t i o n , p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n  with  l o o k r a n k s , age p a r t i a l l e d w i t h i n each c l a s s and a c r o s s the c l a s s e s combined. five.  The upper l i m i t imposed by r e l i a b i l i t y i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n column See f i g u r e  1 f o r s c h e m a t i c diagram of  clusters.  I n s e r t T a b l e 3 , F i g u r e 1 here  C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s of N o n s i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t e s .  The items i n group  two a r e d i s c r i m i n a n t Q - i t e m s , those t h a t a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e rank d a t a .  correlated  These items c o n s t i t u t e the r e m a i n i n g  p o o l of n o n s i g n i f i c a n t but n o n e t h e l e s s u s e f u l Q - i t e m s of t h e B l o c k and Bronson Q l i s t s , and were a s s i g n e d t o t h i s group on the b a s i s of a f a i l u r e to r e p l i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s of p ^ . 0 1 i n a t l e a s t two of t h r e e c l a s s e s s t u d i e d , u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h age p a r t i a l l e d o u t .  the These  items were combined over a l l t h r e e c l a s s e s , i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and c l u s t e r a n a l y z e d to d e s c r i b e dimensions of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t DO NOT correlate with attention structure ranks.  Ten c l u s t e r s r e s u l t e d ,  t e e n i t e m s remained u n a s s i g n e d as p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4 , a l o n g w i t h order c o r r e l a t i o n s ,  sevenzero  p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h l o o k r a n k s , age p a r t i a l l e d  o u t , w i t h i n each c l a s s and a c r o s s the c l a s s e s combined. imposed by r e l i a b i l i t y i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n column f i v e . f o r s c h e m a t i c diagram of  clusters.  I n s e r t Table 4, Figure 2  here  The upper  limit  See F i g u r e 2  15. , C o r r e l a t i o n s among c l u s t e r s .  C l u s t e r s c o r e s were computed by summing  a l l the i t e m s c o r e s w i t h i n a g i v e n c l u s t e r .  The i n d i v i d u a l c l u s t e r s were  then c o r r e l a t e d b o t h w i t h i n and between c l u s t e r s o b t a i n e d from group one, items s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o o k rank and group two, those c l u s t e r s d e r i v e d from n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d i t e m s .  The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n T a b l e s 5 , 6 and 7 .  I n s e r t T a b l e s 5 , 6 and 7  here  The c l u s t e r s of i t e m s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o o k rank a r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d throughout,  as s h o u l d be expected from method of  item s e l e c t i o n . I n T a b l e 6 , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h r e e of the c l u s t e r s clearly reflect socializaiton: a t i o n , are q u i t e h i g h . labelled  over-reactive,  tion influences.  that  m a n a g e a b i l i t y , a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and c o n s i d e r -  These c l u s t e r s a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the c l u s t e r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s may r e f l e c t p r i m a r y  socializa-  The r e m a i n i n g c l u s t e r s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of s e e k i n g  a d u l t company, appear t o r e f l e c t c a t e g o r i e s o f c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s ,  with  l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s o c i a l i z a t i o n c l u s t e r s . In T a b l e 7 , l o o k i n g down the columns of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , one sees t h a t predominant good mood, u n u s u a l b e h a v i o r s , and s k i l l f u l / l i k e d by a d u l t s a r e s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d t o the group one c l u s t e r s , d e s p i t e t h e i r low c o r relations with attention structure  rank.  16. DISCUSSION. The r e s u l t s from t h i s study have p r o v i d e d some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o a i d a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i s t r i b u t i o n v i s u a l r e g a r d and s o c i a l competence i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .  of  U s i n g the two  Q - s e t s of i t e m s made i t p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a broader p i c t u r e of the  cor-  r e l a t e s of l o o k i n g r a n k , and a l s o to e l a b o r a t e t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s o f s o c i a l competence. The c l u s t e r s from group one, u s i n g items w h i c h were s t r o n g l y  correl-  a t e d w i t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k s , and r e p l i c a t e d i n at l e a s t two c l a s s e s , make one v i s u a l i z e a c h i l d who i s sought out and admired by p e e r s , who i s not shy and not a f r a i d to suggest a c t i v i t i e s , and one who i s s u r e t o domi n a t e o t h e r s i n thos a c t i v i t i e s .  T h i s c h i l d i s q u i c k and l i v e l y ,  confi-  dent of h e r / h i s a b i l i t i e s , and q u i c k t o t r y and c a p t u r e t h e c e n t r e everyone's  attention.  child is typically  Almost always surrounded by p e e r s , t h i s  i n the r o l e of l e a d e r and p a r t i c i p a n t ,  o c c u p i e d i n r e a c h i n g g o a l s (s)he  of  competent  persistently  seeks to a t t a i n , not always  resisting  t h e t e m p t a t i o n to speak h e r / h i s m i n d , use some p h y s i c a l f o r c e or  stretch  l i m i t s to a t t a i n d e s i r e d e n d s . Some of the items and c l u s t e r would seem to countermand concepts competence l o n g h e l d t o be v a l i d .  T h i s may be i n f l u e n c e d by the  t h a t competence i s a s t a b l e a t t r i b u t e , out the l i f e s p a n .  of  belief  one w h i c h changes v e r y l i t t l e  through-  B u t , i t appears t h a t f o r each a g e , d i f f e r e n t  behaviors  c o n s t i t u t e competence, and at each l e v e l of g r o w t h , new t y p e s of  interper-  s o n a l s k i l l s a r e needed t o a l l o w an i n d i v i d u a l to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y  and  17. successfully in society. In Kohn and Rossman (1972a)  one group of b e h a v i o r s t h a t were assumed  t o be i n d i c a t i v e of low competent f u n c t i o n i n g were c a l l e d b o s s y , domineering.  Yet group o n e ' s c l u s t e r 2 :  Engages O t h e r s ,  hostile,  i s comprised of  i t e m s p r i m a r i l y of t h i s s o r t , w h i c h happen t o be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i a l competence. Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i s from t h e W a t e r s , Wippman and S r o u f e (1977) p a p e r , where a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of c h i l d r e n who at f i f t e e n months were a s s e s s e d as s e c u r e l y or a n x i o u s l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r mothers were  re-  s t u d i e d at t h r e e and a h a l f y e a r s of a g e , and Bronson Q - s o r t d a t a was c o l l e c t e d on each c h i l d .  Twelve i t e m s were p r e s e l e c t e d as e s p e c i a l l y c h a r a c -  t e r i s t i c of peer competence.  Ten of t h e s e items f a l l i n t o t h e f i r s t  four  c l u s t e r s o f group o n e , and t h e s e c u r e l y a t t a c h e d c h i l d r e n were r a t e d more h i g h l y on a l l items i n d i c a t i v e of competence than were t h e a n x i o u s l y  at-  tached c h i l d r e n , and t h i s at a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y .  This  would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e measures a t d i f f e r e n t ages must n e c e s s a r i l y be d i f f e r e n t t o f i n d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n competence, the c o n s t r u c t ; i s s t a b l e over time w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s , even as the b e h a v i o r a l and p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s change. R e s e a r c h by Crowne & M a r l o w e , and C r a n d a l l , r e p o r t e d by W e i n s t e i n (1973) r e v e a l s t h a t c h i l d r e n who seem t o have a h i g h need f o r a p p r o v a l tend t o be those w i t h the l o w e s t s o c i o m e t r i c r a t i n g s , who a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y j e c t e d by p e e r s .  re-  The low s o c i a l competence boys c o m p r i s i n g t h i s group were  found t o be s u g g e s t i b l e , c o n v e n t i o n a l , i n h i b i t e d and c o n t r o l l e d . l y sought r e c o g n i t i o n and a v o i d e d achievement a c t i v i t i e s .  They r a r e -  The g i r l s i n t h i s  18.  group were l e s s domineering i n both p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and v e r b a l and tended t o a v o i d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n .  These r e s u l t s a r e v e r y  a l i g n e d t o those items i n group one w h i c h have s t r o n g n e g a t i v e  behavior,  closely correlations  t o a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k s - t h i s s t u d y ' s measure of s o c i a l competence. The c l u s t e r s d e r i v e d from group txro, u s i n g items not  significantly  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o o k rank d a t a , added t o the n i n e c l u s t e r s from group one seem t o be q u i t e comparable to many of t h e t w e n t y - n i n e competence l i s t e d i n Anderson & M e s s i c k ( 1 9 7 4 ) .  components of  social  In group two, t h e r e appear  t o be a l o t of items f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n of competence, i n c l u d e d i n such as m a n a g e a b i l i t y , c o n s i d e r a t e n e s s , a g g r e s s i v e n e s s ,  clusters  as w e l l as mention  b e i n g made of s o c i a l s k i l l s such as b e i n g w i l l i n g and a b l e to seek a d u l t company ( c l u s t e r 3).  9) and be s k i l l f u l and w e l l l i k e d i n the p r o c e s s  M i n g l e d among c l u s t e r 8 (Autonomous)  and c l u s t e r 9 ( A d u l t  s e e k i n g ) a r e items r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n of  (cluster  contact  dependency.  A l t h o u g h items i n group two a r e n ' t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d t o a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e d a t a or s o c i o m e t r i c r a t i n g s by c h i l d r e n , i t may w e l l be t h a t t h e s e items dp_ have some b e a r i n g on s o c i a l competence, but not when r a t e d by c h i l d r e n .  The i t e m s r e l a t e d t o the a t t e n t i o n r a n k s a r e those  personality  and b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t the c h i l d r e n a r e o b v i o u s l y aware of when c h o o s i n g among t h e i r p e e r s f o r f r i e n d s , l e a d e r s and p e o p l e to e m u l a t e . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s  among c l u s t e r s f u r t h e r  i s a v e r y s t r o n g and perhaps u n i t a r y  construct.  a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e measure i s a somewhat n a r r o w , s o c i a l competence.  suggest t h a t group one  T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t  the  age c o n s t r i c t e d v i e w of  The c l u s t e r s from group two, when i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d ,  re-  v e a l a s t r o n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n component, as w e l l as p o c k e t s of competencies  19. that are probably important in the broader view of competence. When the two groups of clusters are intercorrelated, the clusters: predominant good mood, unusual behaviors, and skillful/liked by adults, are seen to be quite strongly related to a l l the clusters from group one. It is this that makes one begin to think that these items should be i n cluded as important variables of social competence.  But, due to the fact  of age partialled correlations, these items were not strongly enough related to attention structures to be significant in this study.  Perhaps,  these same items, used on an older subject population, w i l l be found to be strongly related to social rankings and other peer estimates of social competence.  Many of the items i n group two would intuitively be included  in an adult l i s t of hypothetical competence items, but not, seemingly, on a preschool child's.  It is possible that, although an adult observer  and a child observer actually see the same behaviors and actions i n a given person, for the child, only certain of the many aspects of social competence are actually noticed and deemed important.  For nursery school  children, unusual behaviors may to a certain extent be overlooked, i f the same child is willing and eager to engage and participate in suggested activities.  Such a child might be more highly rated sociometrically  and given more visual attention by peers than a child who i s rather shy and withdrawn.  An adult observer, on the other hand, often would see the  situation i n the opposite manner, worrying more about seriously deviant behaviors that may develop into f u l l blown malaise, and simply brush off a case of shyness as rather t r i v i a l to competent functioning.  20. I t would be e x p e c t e d t h a t as i n c r e a s i n g l y o l d e r s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n s a r e used i n s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , the a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks would be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a g r a d u a l l y expanding group of items now i n c l u d e d i n group two, w h i c h appear t o be r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l competence judged from an a d u l t p o i n t of v i e w . Use of the a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e measure has been e c o n o m i c a l and e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g a f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s o c i a l competence and i t s p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s , and has p r o v i d e d some c l u e s as t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n how c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s view t h i s c o n s t r u c t .  This  i s a s t e p towards the e v e n t u a l g o a l of a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l competence and the development of v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t s f o r measurement.  its  21. REFERENCES  Andersen, S. & Messick, S. S o c i a l competence i n young c h i l d r e n . Developmental P s y c h o l o g y , 1974, 1 0 , 2 8 2 - 2 9 3 . Baumrind, D. & B l a c k , A . E. Socialization practices associated with dimensions of competence i n p r e s c h o o l boys and g i r l s . Child Development, 1967, 3 8 , 2 9 1 - 3 2 7 . Baumrind, D. 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A s o c i a l competence s c a l e symptom c h e c k l i s t f o r the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d . Developmental P s y c h o l o g y , , , 1 9 7 2 ( a ) , 6, 4.30-444. Kohn, M. & Rossman, B. L. R e l a t i o n s h i p of p r e s c h o o l s o c i a l e m o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g t o l a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement. Developmental P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 2 ( b ) , 6, 4 4 5 - 4 5 2 . Northway, M. L. The s o c i o m e t r y of s o c i e t y : some f a c t s and f a n c i e s . C h i l d development: selected readings. Brockman, L . , W i t e l e y , J . , Zubeck, J . ( E d s ) . New Y o r k : M c L e l l a n d & S t u a r t L t d . 1973. Oden, S . & A s h e r , S . . R . f r i e n d s h i p making.  Coaching c h i l d r e n i n s o c i a l s k i l l s f o r C h i l d Development, 1977, ^ 8 , 4 9 5 - 5 0 6 .  O ' M a l l e y , J . M. Research p e r s p e c t i v e on s o c i a l competence.; Palmer Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 23, 1 , 2 9 - 4 4 .  Merrill-  Raph, J . B . , Thomas, A . , C h e s s , S . , & K o r n , S . J . The i n f l u e n c e of n u r s e r y s c h o o l on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1968, _34, 1 4 4 - 1 5 2 . S l u c k i n , A . A. & S m i t h , P. K. Two approaches t o the concept of dominance i n preschool c h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development, 1977, 4 8 , 9 1 7 - 9 2 3 .  23. Smith, P. K. Ethological methods. New perspectives i n c h i l d development. Foss, B. (Ed). Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 1974. Vaughn, B.E. & Waters, E. Social organization among preschool peers: dominance, attention and sociometric correlates. U.B.C: unpublished manuscript. Vaughn, B. E. & Waters, E. Differences i n the play behaviors of dominant and subordinate preschool children. U.B.C: unpublished manuscript. Waters, E. , Wip.pman, J . , & Sroufe, L. A. Attachment, p o s i t i v e affect and competence i n the peer group: two studies i n construct v a l i d a t i o n . Unpublished manuscript, 1977. Weinstein, E. A. The development of interpersonal competence. book of s o c i a l i z a t i o n theory and research. Goslin, D. A. Chicago: Rand McNally Publishers Co., 1969.  Hand(Ed).  Wood, J . J . . A computer program f o r h i e r a r c h i c a l c l u s t e r analysis. Newsletter of Computer Archaelogy, 1974, 9_, 4, 1-15.  24. FOOTNOTES.  1.  Not o n l y were c l a s s ranks v e r y r e l i a b l e and s t a b l e a c r o s s t h e s p l i t h a l v e s o f d a t a , b u t a c l o s e look a t the numbers o f l o o k s g i v e n and r e c e i v e d r e v e a l s an i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t .  In each c l a s s  (two w i t h  nine-  teen c h i l d r e n , one w i t h e i g h t e e n c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d ) t h e r e seemed t o be a c u t - o f f p o i n t a t the n i n t h top r a n k i n g c h i l d .  I n v a r i a b l y , the  e i g h t top r a n k i n g c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d more l o o k s than they gave, whereas the bottom t e n o r e l e v e n c h i l d r e n always l o o k e d a t t h e i r more dominant peers more o f t e n than they r e c e i v e d l o o k s themselves.  This  s u b s t a n t i a t e s the b a s i s on which a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e theory i s based: t h a t the subdominant members i n a group w i l l l o o k towards and v i s u a l l y r e l a t e t o the more dominant p e e r s .  See T a b l e 2 f o r d a t a .  25,  TABLE 1 Number of Q - S e t Items A s s i g n e d t o Each  Form  Category.  Least S a l i e n t  Neutral  1  4  2  3  5  Most S a l i e n t  6  7  8  9  72 p o i n t Bronson  3  6  8  12  14  12  8  6  3  5  8  12  16  18  16  12  8  5  100 p o i n t Block  26.  TABLE 2 Summary of T o t a l Number of Looks Given and R e c e i v e d  Class- 1  Class  Looks  Looks  2  Class  3  Looks  Recieved  Given  Received  Given  Received  Given  292  182  196  105  276  193  238  163  166  126  275  164  228  183  158  118  238  184  213  198  135  95  216  149  201  138  132  93  201  168  199  181  119  98  176  143  193  157  122  112  149  129  171  150  109  84  144  131  150  178  101  102  146  158  146  164  99  139  140  151  143  158  98  143  139  125  143  148 •  84  75  136  123  135  146  83  128  134  150  135  178  65  64  128  174  113  153  57  101  103  218  113  148  49  76  92  137  105  195  47  75  87  173  102  129  46  133  72  107  68  140  72  139  TABLE 3 Clustered Q Items  C o r r e l a t e s of r  Attention Structure r  o  Hanks r  • age  Classes 1  C l u s t e r 1.  • age  Classes  r  maxii  Combined  \ (o<item) (c  3  Socially Skilled.  1.  +  Is admired & sought out by other c h i l d r e n .  (CQ5)  .70**  .53  .57  .67  .62**  .87  2.  +  Other c h i l d r e n seek h e r / h i s  (Q23)  .67**  .59  .54  .70  .61**  .87  3.  +  Peer  (021)  .78**  .59  .82  .65  .69**  .91  4.  -  Spectator i n s o c i a l  (Q10)  -.80**  -.64  -.72  -.76  5.  +  Gets a l o n g w e l l with other c h i l d r e n .  (CQ4)  .50**  .41  .46  6.  -  Lacks a b i l i t y to get along with  (09)  -.42**  -.45  -.30  -.21  -.34*  .88  7.  -  Is e a s i l y v i c t i m i z e d by  (CQ100)  -.43**  -. 09  -.53  -.38  -.36*  .86  8.  +  Is r e s o u r c e f u l i n i n i t i a t i n g  9.  +  Suggests  10.  +  Is v e r b a l l y f l u e n t .  11.  -  P r e f e r s nonverbal mode of  12.  -  Has  company.  leader. activities.  others.  other c h i l d r e n . activities.  activities.  communication.  transient interpersonal relationships.  . 33  -.74**  .40**  .84 .90  (CO36)  .54**  .26  .71  .17  .42**  .83  (047)  .62**  .13  .78  .50  . 44**  .84  (CQ69)  . 49**  .06  .53  .36  .31*  .86  11  -.62  -.31  -.34  .77  -.38  -.48  -.35*  .67  (CQ1)  -.50**  -.  (C010)  -.39*  -.21  TABLE  3  C l u s t e r e d Q C o r r e l a t e s of A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e Ranks Items  r  r  o  r  • age  Classes  Maximum  .age  C l a s s e s Combined  \ \  1 C l u s t e r 2.  1. 2. 3.  -  Engages  5. 6.  -  3  ("=* item) (ex ran  Others.  H e s i t a t e s t o engage.  (Q15)  -.72**  -.64  -.71  -.74  -.69**  .85  H e s i t a n t w i t h other c h i l d r e n .  (Q13)  -.57**  -.51  -.78  -.75  -.66**  .85  (CQ98)  -.54**  -.55  -.60  -.64  -.56**  .85  under s t r e s s .  (CQ45)  -.54**  -.43  -.57  -.69  -.52**  .82  Typically i n role of l i s t e n e r .  (Q60)  -.66**  -.53  -.66  -.57  -.58**  .87  give in..  (CQ44)  -.53**  -.50  -.52  -.70  -.61**  .84  (Q31)  -.56**  -.55  -.54  -.62  -.56**  .76  (C093)  .62**  .32  .54  .58  .47**  .88  .59**  .63  .26  .63  .49**  .86  -.45**  -.43  -.24  -.55  -.40**  .77  Is shy tx reserved; makes s o c i a l contacts  4.  2  slowly.  Tends t o withdraw o r disengage s e l f  When i n c o n f l i c t with o t h e r s , tends  to  7.  -  Backs away from anger.  8.  +  Behaves i n a dominating manner w i t h  9.  +  T r i e s t o be the centre of a t t e n t i o n .  (CQ21)  10.  -  Tends to keep thoughts & f e e l i n g s to s e l f .  (CQ8)  others.  TABLE  3  C l u s t e r e d O C o r r e l a t e s of A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e R ,cs an  Items r  o .age  .age Classes C l u s t e r 3.  Active,  Energetic.  1.  +  L i k e s t o compete; t e s t s s e l f a g a i n s t  2.  +  L i k e s to compete.  3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  + + + + +  High energy l e v e l . Has a r a p i d p e r s o n a l tempo. Is v i t a l ,  l i v e l y , energetic.  P h y s i c a l l y courageous. Is p h y s i c a l l y c a u t i o u s . Withdraws from excitement o r commotion. Attracts attention.  others.  (CQ37)  .Al**  (Q40)  .50**  (028) (C063) (CQ28) (Q51) (CQ52) (Q57) (Q24)  Classes  maximum  Combined  1  2  3  .15  .41  .49  . 36**  .85  .31  .41  .46  .43**  .79  .49  .06  .52  .35*  .87  .50  .19  .31  .38*  .89  .50  .30  .49  .45**  .88  .45  .25  .25  .36*  .73  -.32  -.26  -.38  -.37*  .81  -.34  -.51  -.71  -.55**  .84  .35  .08  .49  .35*  .81  .33* .45** .42** .33* -.43** -.61** .39*  item) (<=* rank) N(<*i  TABLE  3  C l u s t e r e d Q C o r r e l a t e s of A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e Items  Ranks • age  • age  Classes  Classes  Combined (<=•<. item) (c<ran  N(<*i  2 C l u s t e r 4.  Confident  v s . Anxious.  1.  -  Is f e a r f u l and anxious.  (CQ23)  -.38*  -.31  -.46  -.20  -.32*  .88  2.  -  Vaguely apprehensive.  (Q30)  -.41**  -.50  -.42  -.21  -.38*  .90  3.  +  Is  (CQ82)  .57**  .36  .66  .59  .54**  .87  4.  +  Confident  ability.  (QIC)  .58**  .53  .57  .52  .54**  .87  5.  +  Is s e l f - r e l i a n t ,  confident.  (CQ88)  .45**  .43  .48  .46  .44**  .89  6.  -  Tends to be i n d e c i s i v e & V a c i l l a t i n g .  (CQ53)  -.46**  -.37  -.36  -.39  -.39*  .87  7.  _  Is i n h i b i t e d  (C035)  -.50**  -.52  -.40  -.40  -.47**  .85  8.  -  S o c i a l l y withdrawn.  (050)  -.49**  -.33  -.39  -.34  -.33*  .84  9.  _  L i k e s t o be alone; enjoys s o l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s . ( C 0 8 6 )  -.39*  -.56  -.21  -.61  -.39*  .85  self-assertive. of own  & constricted.  TABLE  3  C l u s t e r e d 0 C o r r e l a t e s o f A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e Ranks I tens  r r  r  o o  • age  . ageClasses  Classes  maximum  Combined C * item) (=* rank) 0  C l u s t e r 5. 1.  -  Direct & Persistent.  Doesn't persevere  when n o n - s o c i a l  goals  are b l o c k e d .  (Q8)  -.46**  .42  -.56  -.45  -.49**  .81  2.  +  I s p e r s i s t e n t ; doesn't give up e a s i l y .  (C';41)  .20  .13  .43  .32  .34*  .75  3.  -  I n d i r e c t i n asking f o r h e l p .  (Q61)  -.34*  .11  -.47  -.52  -.38*  .70  4.  -  I n d i r e c t i n d e a l i n g with peers.  (Q2)  -.46**  .36  -.48  -.45  -.47**  .60  5.  +  F o r c e f u l l y goes a f t e r v.liat she/he wants.  (Q5)  .48**  .41  .49  .50  .50**  .83  6.  -  Suggestible.  (QH)  .31  -.43  -.51  -.44**  .75  -.33*  TABLE 3 Clustered Q Correlates of Attention Structure Ranks r  r  r  Items  Classes Combined  Classes  Cluster 6.  maximum  r  .age  .age  o  1  2  1  \ J ( o t item) (.<*• rank)  3  Purposive.  1.  +  Self directed.  (Q18)  .43**  .37  .61  .06  .31*  .86  2.  -  Characteristically unoccupied.  (Q14)  -.45**  -.24  -.51  -.23  -.31*  .90  3.  -  Samples a c t i v i t y aimlessly, lacks goals.  (Q59)  -.42**  -.55  -.28  -.27  -.35*  .81  4.  +  Engages i n a wide variety of a c t i v i t i e s .  (Q37)  .53**  .49  .48  .30  (CQ70)  -.56**  -.55  -.29  -.42  -.36*  .86  (CQ19)  .36*  .36  .46  .12  .34*  .76  5  . - Daydreams, tends to get lost i n reverie.  Cluster 7.  Open  .43**  .77  and Straightforward.  1.  +  Is open and straightforward.  2.  +  Expresses negative feelings directly 6 openly..(CQ18)  .29  .23  .49  .40  .37*  .66  3.  +  Expresses negative feelings directly & openly,• (QI)  .28  .37  .42  .38  .38*  .65  TABLE 3 Clustered Q Correlates of Attention Structure Ranks r  Items  r  o  • age  -age  Classes Combined  Classes  Cluster 8. 1.  2.  -  +  -  -  2  e< Item) («* rank)  Reflective vs. Impetuous.  before acting.  (CQ99)  -.47**  -.43  -.16  -.68  -.40**  .82  Impetuous.  (Q33)  .37*  .44  .37  .51  .44**  .79  Guilty.  Has a readiness to f e e l guilty, tends to blame s e l f .  2.  1  Is refelctive; thinks and deliberates  Cluster 9. 1.  maximum  (CQ72)  -.27  -.33  .29  -.16  .31*  .77  (CQ77)  -.21  .46  -.38  -.04  -.33*  .77  Appears to f e e l unworthy, thinks of self as bad. *- p < .01  **- p < .001  TABLE  4  Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks Items  r  r  o  r  .age  • age  Classes  Cluster 1.  maximum  r  Classes Combined  1  2  fe<item) («Trank)  3  Manageable.  1.  Is obedient and compliant.  (CQ62)  -.24  .07  -.27  -.55  -.31  .90  2.  Obedient.  (Q32)  -.21  -.02  -.19  -.47  -.29  .90  3.  Tests limits set by adults.  (Q68)  .30  .10  .18  .51  .32  .90  4.  Doesn't question adult direction.  (Q36)  -.32  -.03  -.16 .  -.48  -.32  .85  5.  Polite.  (Q71)  -.28  -.16  -.26  -.47  .33  .85  6.  Supports or incites misbehavior i n (Q22)  .18  .00  .12  .48  .24  .85  teacher.  (Q43)  .25  .22  .01  .51  .25  .89  8.  Thoughtless of other children's possessions.  (Q72)  .14  .11  .17  .47  .21  .74  9.  Is attentive and able to concentrate.  (CQ66)  .02  .10  .23  .40  .06  .88  other children. 7.  Gets other children i n trouble with  TABLE  4  Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r  Items  r  o  -age  Classes  maximum  .age Classes Combined  [^itern) (»<.rank)  Cluster 1.  Manageable,  cont'd  10.  Is restless and fidgety.  (CQ34)  .03  .12  .25  -.48  .06  .86  11.  Is helpful and cooperative.  (CQ6)  .03  .05  .11  .26  .07  .87  12.  Concerned about adult disapproval.  (Q41)  .32  .16  .37  .06  .26  .75  13.  Evades adult guidance.  (Q27)  .19  .08  .20  .41  .30  .71  14.  Is eager to please.  (CQ14)  -.18  .20  .22  .57  .29  .76  15.  Can be trusted, is dependable.  (CQ76)  -.05  .02  .14  -.43  -.17  .85  16.  Trustworthy.  (052)  .06  .11  .13  .26  .10  .82  17.  Requires a great deal of supervision.  (Q39)  .00  .04  .03  .41  .21  .87  TABLE Clustered Q Noncorrelates Items  r  4  of A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e Ranks r  o  r  • age  Classes 1 C l u s t e r 2.  1.  Classes 2  maximum  r  • age  Combined  ~ —  r  \| (o* item) (<=*. rank)  3  Unusual Behaviors.  Has b o d i l y symptoms as a f u n c t i o n o f t e n s i o n and c o n f l i c t .  (CQ50)  -.31  -.28  -.43  -.25  -.28  .84  (CQ49)  -.30  -.19  -.44  -.11  -.25  .88  (CQ38)  -.18  -.14  -.30  -.04  .10  .83  (Q34)  -.35  -.36  -.25  -.14  -.20  .88  (Q19)  -.33  -.25  -.42  -.11  -.25  .92  under s t r e s s .  (CQ39)  -.35  -.28  -.41  -.31  -.28  .71  7.  E m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s are i n a p p r o p r i a t e .  (CQ91)  -.16  -.13  -.35  -.11  -.17  8.  .86  Is v i s i b l y deviant  (CQ27)  -.23  -.13  -.51  -.06  -.26  .87  2.  Shows s p e c i f i c behavioral  mannerisms o r  rituals.  3.  Has unusual thought  4.  Unaware, turned  5.  D i s o r i e n t e d i n p h y s i c a l environment.  6.  Tends t o become r i g i d l y r e p e t i t i v e immobilized  processes.  o f f , "spaced o u t " .  from peers.  or  TABLE  4  Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r  Items  r .age  o  maximum  .age Classes Combined  Classes  (c<item) ( =<rank) Cluster 2. 9.  Unusual Behaviors,  cont'd  Becomes anxious when environment i s -.40  .13  .40  .16  .30  .85  (Q38)  .42  .29  .53:  .08  .27  .80  (Q69)  .41  .02  .62  .22  .18  .88  does.  (CQ74)  .23  .52  .24  .01  .23  .73  13.  Becomes involved in whatever (s)he does.  (Q12)  .32  .16  .37  .06  .26  .75  14.  Has an active fantasy l i f e .  (CQ97)  -.07  .17  .14  .15  .19  .36  15.  Responds to humour.  (CQ73)  .00  .13  .30  .29  .10  .70  unpredictable or poorly structured.  (CQ60)  10.  Communicates verbal messages clearly.  11.  Understands standard school procedures.  12.  Becomes strongly involved i n what (s)he  TABLE C l u s t e r e d Q Noncorrelates Items  r  4  o f A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e Ranks r .age  o  r  r  • age  Classes  C l a s s e s Combined ^ ^ C ^ I t e m ) (£<rank)  3  C l u s t e r 3.  maximum  Skillful.  1.  Is a g i l e and w e l l  2.  Well coordinated  3.  Is competent,  4.  Appears t o have high i n t e l l e c t u a l  5.  coordinated.  (CQ51)  .16  .23  .23  .01  .17  .85  (Q3)  .26  .17  .29  .24  .23  .84  (CQ89)  .27  .25  .35  .02  .22  .87  (CQ68)  .21  .31  .26  .11  .20  .83  Is p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , good l o o k i n g .  (CQ92)  .09  .29  .16  .07  .14  .82  6.  Is an i n t e r e s t i n g , a r r e s t i n g c h i l d .  (CQ42)  .16  .26  .14  .01  .22  .85  7.  Tends t o arouse l i k i n g i n a d u l t s .  (CQ30)  -.08  .26  .12  -.29  .09  .86  and a g i l e .  skillful. capacity.  TABLE  4  Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks Items  r  r  o  r  . age  .age  Classes 1  maximum  2  Classes Combined  *\  (o* item) (  3 Cluster 3.  Skillful,  cont'd  8.  Stretches to meet demands for excellence.  (Q53)  .25  .28  .51  .16  .21  .65  9.  Sets goals which stretch her/his a b i l i t i e s .  (Q42)  .17  .29  .33  .14  .14  .77  .32  .54  .24  .19  .42  10.  Has high standards of performance for self.  11.  Is physically active.  12.  Is  (CQ47)  .23  (CQ26)  .32  .31  .12  .32  .26  .77  new experiences.  (CQ40)  .09  .28  .28  .23  .12  .78  13.  Uncurious about the new.  (Ql7)  -.15  .33  .29  .06  .03  .63  14.  Likes to learn new cognitive s k i l l s .  (Q6)  .04  .32  .02  .39  .04  .46  curious and exploring; eager for  rank)  TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r  Items  r o  r • age  1  Classes  Classes  3  'maximum • age  Combined  ^^  («* item. ) (°<  2 Cluster 4.  Predominantly good mood.  1.  Is cheerful.  (CQ75)  .18  .36  .07  -.21  .18  .89  2.  Is warm and responsive.  (CQ3)  .23  .37  .18  .24  .19  .86  3.  Is calm and relaxed;  (CQ64)  -.12  .21  -.10  -.36  -.12  .84  4.  Content, cheerful attitude.  (Q56)  .06  .30  •  .24  .09  .89  5.  Friendly attitude to staff.  (058)  .01  .32  .02  .05  .07  .68  6.  Tends to be proud of own accomplishments.  (CQ16)  .08  .42  -.06  .13  .13  .50  7.  Has rapid shifts i n mood; emotionally l a b i l e . (CQ54)  .12  .09  .38  .27  .27  .80  8.  Tends to be suspicious & mistrusts others.  (CQ79)  -.14  -.17  .04  .08  -.10  .79  9.  Expressive of positive emotions.  (Q29)  .19  .34  .08  .03  .17  .78  Tends to brood, ruminate or worry.  (CQ24)  -.37  -.53  -.18  -.24  -.32  .86  10.  easy-going.  1 2  o  TABLE  4  Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks I  t  e  m  s  r  o  r  .age  Classes Combined  Classes 1 Cluster 5.  maximum  • age  2  N  (*»<-item) (shrank)  Overreactivity.  1.  Overreacts to frustration; easily i r r i t a t e d .  (CQ95)  -.02  -.46  .08  .50  .04  .80  2.  Easily upset.  (Q26)  -.06  -.48  .07  .52  .02  .86  3.  Cries easily.  (CQ33)  -.06  -.22  .02  .44  .11  .81  4.  Reverts to immature behavior under stress.  (CQ12)  -.21  -.36  .00  .50  .00  .85  5.  Tends to be sulky or whiny.  (CQ94)  .02  -.44  .00  .43  .05  .84  6.  Is jealous and envious of others.  (CQ56)  -.05  -.37  -.01  .21  .04  .79  7.  Tends to dramatize or exaggerate mishaps.  (CQ57)  .01  -.54  -.08  .43  .01  .71  8.  Is stubborn.  (CQ90)  .01  -.34  .10  .53  .21  .78  9.  Is easily offended, sensitive to criticism.  (CQ78)  -.19  -.48  .01  .28  -.11  .76  TABLE  4  Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks Items r  o°  r  .age  Classes  Cluster 6.  • age Classes Combined  Considerate, Empathic.  maximum  N  (<*-item)(<*rank)  1.  Helpful to peers.  (Q35)  .15  .06  .30  2.  .27  .08  Sympathetic towards peer's distress.  .84  (Q7)  .01  -.04  .14  3.  .46  .05  Sows a recognition of other's feelings;  .72  (CQ31)  .03  .05  .03  .40  .04  .78  (CQ2)  .02  .04  -.05  .37  .08  .81  (Q55)  .01  .14  .00  .33  .03  .70  empthic.  4.  Is considerate of other children.  5.  Considerate.  6.  Tends to give, lend, share.  (CQ32)  -.11  .17  .27  .48  7.  .24  Unwilling to share possessions.  .60  (Q63)  -.09  8.  -.30  .06  .42  .03  Shows concern for moral issues:  .52  (CQ15)  .31  .22  .15  .23  .06  .76  (CQ29)  .13  .09  .10  .32  -.06  .85  e.g. fairness, reciprocity. Is protective of others.  TABLE Clustered Q Noncorrelates r  Items  4  of A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e Ranks r • age 1  maximum  .age  0  C l a s s e s Combined £><item) (=* rank)  Classes 2  C l u s t e r 7.  Aggressive.  1.  Insulting.  (Q70)  .28  -.05  .31  .42  .26  .86  2.  Feisty.  (Q48)  .34  .05  .25  .63  .34  .83  3.  Is  (CQ85)  .34  -.03  .31  .46  .27  .80  4.  B u l l i e s other c h i l d r e n .  (Q54)  .43  .01  .35  .49  .29  .87  5.  T r i e s t o manipulate others by i n g r a t i a t i o n .  (CQ22)  .18  -.15  -.20  .41  .09  .62  6.  T r i e s t o take advantage of o t h e r s .  (CQ20)  .17  -.01  -.08  .47  .14  .76  7.  Attempts t o t r a n s f e r blame t o o t h e r s .  (CQll)  .20  -.36  .10  .64  .22  .79  8.  Blame  (Q65)  -.08  -.34  .10  -.07  -.20  .65  aggressive.  avoidant.  TABLE  4  C l u s t e r e d Q N o n c o r r e l a t e s of A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e Ranks r  Items  r  o  -age  .age  Classes.-  maximum  C l a s s e s Combined («*• item) («*• rank)  C l u s t e r 8.  Autonomous vs. Dependent.  1.  Seeks to be independent and autonomous.  (CQ83)  .40  .26  .60  .19  .29  .81  2.  Looks to a d u l t s f o r help and d i r e c t i o n .  (CQ71)  -.34  .07  .55  .09  .19  .75  3.  Seeks reassurance  from o t h e r s about s e l f worth(CQ48)  -.42  .31  .48  .11  .24  .55  4.  Tends t o i m i t a t e & take over  -.25  .18  .37  .02  .16  .66  o f those  C l u s t e r 9.  characteristics  (s)he admires.  (CQ87)  Contact Seeking w i t h A d u l t s .  1.  Seeks c o n t a c t with a d u l t s .  (Q46)  .07  .21  .45  .11  .05  .85  2.  Forms attachments to t e a c h e r s .  (Q25)  -.07  .05  .32  .18  .09  .73  3.  A c t i v e l y enjoys being teacher's h e l p e r .  (Q44)  .29  .27  .12  .05  .17  .69  TABLE  4  Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r  Items  r  o  .age  maximum  .age Classes Combined  Classes  (o<-item) («*rank)  Cluster 10.  Creative, Original.  1.  Creative and original with materials.  (Q64)  .14  .39  .16  .15  .25  .54  2.  Ordinary, unoriginal i n verbal behavior.  (Q66)  -.08  -.34  .10  .07  -.20  .65  3.  Is creative i n perception, thought .13  .15  .23  .09  .14  .67  work or play.  * - p <.01  (CQ96)  ** - p ^ .001  TABLE 5 C l u s t e r s S i g n i f i c a n t l y C o r r e l a t e d W i t h L o o k i n g Rank: Age C o n t r o l l e d  1  2  3  (N= 56)  4  5  6  1.  Socially  Skilled  2.  C o n f i d e n t vs Anxious  .82  3.  Purposive  .81  .81  4.  Feels  -.75  ,-:73  -».68  5.  D i r e c t and P e r s i s t e n t  .68  .81  .74  -.51  6.  A c t i v e and E n e r g e t i c  .81  .72  .59  -.47  ,64  7.  Does not h e s i t a t e to engage  .60  .75  .52  -.36  .74  .69  8.  I m p u l s i v e vs R e f l e c t i v e  .25  .45  .23  -.12  .45  .63  9.  Open and S t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  .37  .51  .38  -.34  .52  .35  Look rank  .62  .50  .42  -.35  .53  .45  Guilty  TABLE 6 C l u s t e r s Not S i g n i f i c a n t l y C o r r e l a t e d w i t h L o o k i n g Rank Age C o n t r o l l e d  1 1.  Manageable  2.  Aggressive  3.  Considerate  4.  Over-reactive  5.  2  3  (N = 56)  4  3  6  7  8  9  -.83 .79  -.76  -.66  .67  -.68  Predominant good mood  .51  -.45  .52  -.68  6.  Seeks a d u l t company  .30  -.19  .31  -.06  7.  Unusual b e h a v i o r  -.32  .10  -.31  .32  8.  S k i l l f u l / l i k e d by a d u l t s  .15  -.12  .17  -.43  .53  .04  -.75  9.  Creative  .02  -.03  .03  -.25  .24  .12  -.27  .58  -.12  .13  -.10  -.14  -.08 -.40  -.26  .47  .17  .26  .27  -.05  .06  .11 - . 0 2  -.28  .22  .23  10.  Autonomous Look rank  10  .32 -.62 -.12  .29  TABLE 7  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among C l u s t e r s of Items S i g n i f i c a n t l y and Not S i g n i f i c a n t l y  C o r r e l a t e d w i t h Looking Rank:  Age C o n t r o l l e d  a  >  rH  ^2  CEJ CU 60  rt pi OS  1  s  •H CO CO 0)  u 60  60 <J  4-1  rt CU  cu  >  •H 4-> U  rt  13  cu  C  cu  •H CO  o o  u u  o>  (N= 56)  M O  •H >  u a rt x) c o •H O 0 S3 o QJ- O  U  PL,  O  O  rt .£  4J rH 3 XI  CO  cu co  X) CU ^> •H  cu m  <3 QJ  .JO  «£  o o  rt  3 CO -3  B  3 "4-1 CO i H 4J iH i—I •H-3 ^ XI  co <!  cu >  •H 4J  rt  or O  10 3  o  §  c o  4J 3  <3  114  -.06  i26 -.32  .56  .09  ,78  .71  .48  ..31  -.04  .16  .13 -.22  .59  .13  ,79  .74  .36  .28  .22  -.13  .36 -.42  .54  .06  ,76  .74  .31  .45  Feels guilty  -.21  .18  -.33  .37  -.69  .05  .77  -.69  -.37  .21  5.  D i r e c t and P e r s i s t e n  -.22  .31  .05  .01  .20  .12  ,62  .58  .29  .39  6.  A c t i v e and e n e r g e t i c  -.33  .31  -.16 -.16  .27  .18  ,43  .75  .46  .47  7.  Does n o t h e s i t a t e t o engage-.47  .57  -.22  .12  .19  .09  ,33  .38  .31  .26  8.  Impulsive vs r e f l e c t i v e  -.69  .63  -.52  .39  -.07  .13  ,01  .19  .20  .12  9.  Open and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  -.25  .24  -.05  .19  .14  .21  .24 ft  .18  .08  .23  1.  Socially  skilled  2.  C o n f i d e n t vs anxious  3.  Purposive  4.  ft  *  CO  FIGURE  1  Diagram o f C l u s t e r e d Q - C o r r e l a t e s  o f A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e Ranks  ,„1_ .2 ,28  .3  33 .37 ,48  .51  ,65  .6_ .74  .7 .8  79  '.9_ •1.0  Socially Skilled  Confident vs Anxious  Purposive  Guilty  Direct Active•& & Energetic Persistent  Engages Others  Reflective vs Impulsive  Open and Straightforward  FIGURE I  2,  Diagram of C l u s t e r e d Q N o n c o r r e l a t e s of A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e ' Ranks  15 .20  .22  .24 .34 ,37  4 .48  5  .52  6 7  Manageable  Aggressive  Considerate  O v e r - Predom- Seeks Unusual S k i l l f u l Reactive inant Adult Behaviors Good Mood C o n t a c t s  Creative  Autonomous  Ln O  

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