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Personality and behavior correlates of social competence in preschool children Garber, V. Jeannie 1978

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PERSONALITY AND BEHAVIOR CORRELATES OF SOCIAL COMPETENCE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. by V. Jeannie Garber B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1978 © V i t a l i a Jeannie Garber , 1 9 7 8 In presenting th i s thesis in par t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publ icat ion of th i s thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department The Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date D E - 6 B P 75-51 1 E i i ABSTRACT o A study undertaken to f u r t h e r v a l i d a t e a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e s as a measure of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n p r e s c h o o l groups, as w e l l as to f i n d p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s from Q-set data w i t h the const ruct - . o f s o c i a l competence, as determined by s o c i a l rank ing on a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e d a t a . F i f t y - s i x s u b j e c t s , t h i r t y - f i v e boys and twenty-?one g i r l s , w i t h an age range of from th ree years one month to s i x years two months, from three p r e s c h o o l daycare cent res were observed f o r f o u r months by two independent o b s e r v e r s . C o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d e i g h t s t r o n g i t e m c l u s t e r s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d to a t t e n t i o n s t r u c -t u r e , and r e a d i l y comparable to research i n competence. These c l u s t e r s may i n d i c a t e a narrow, age c o n s t r i c t e d measure of competence. The non -c o r r e l a t e d i tems r e v e a l e d e leven c l u s t e r s of behav io rs important i n p e r s o n a l i t y development, as w e l l as some r e l a t e d to the broader view of s o c i a l competence. An amalgamation of these c l u s t e r s may be the b a s i s f o r a good measure of s o c i a l competence. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES i v LIST OF FIGURES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i INTRODUCTION- 1 METHOD 7 RESULTS 11 DISCUSSION 16 REFERENCES 21 FOOTNOTES 24 TABLES 25 FIGURES 48 i v LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 The number of Q -set i tems ass igned to each category 25 2 A summary of the t o t a l number of l ooks g iven and r e c e i v e d 26 3 C l u s t e r e d Q c o r r e l a t e s of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks 27 4 C l u s t e r e d Q n o n c o r r e l a t e s of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks 34 5 C l u s t e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o o k i n g rank , age c o n t r o l l e d 46 6 C l u s t e r s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o o k i n g rank, age c o n t r o l l e d 47 7 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among c l u s t e r s of i tems s i g n i f i c a n t l y and not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o o k i n g rank , age c o n t r o l l e d 48 y. iLIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 Diagram of c l u s t e r e d Q - c o r r e l a t e s of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks 49 2 Diagram of c l u s t e r e d Q -noncor re la tes of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks 50 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h to thank Dr . E v e r e t t Waters f o r h i s adv ice and a s s i s t a n c e throughout the course of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I would a l s o l i k e to a c k n o w l -edge the u s e f u l c r i t i c i s m s of Dr . Dale M i l l e r and Dr . Lynn A l d e n . S p e c i a l thanks to the s t a f f and s tudents a t P e n d r e l l , Beach and Bur ra rd Daycare C e n t r e s , w i thout whom, t h i s work cou ld not have been accompl i shed . P e r s o n a l i t y and Behavior C o r r e l a t e s of S o c i a l Competence i n P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n . T h i s study was undertaken to v a l i d a t e a r e l a t i v e l y new measure f o r s tudy ing s o c i a l competence i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as to f i n d p e r -s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s of s o c i a l l y competent i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s age range . D e f i n i n g s o c i a l competence has long been a t r i a l to r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s f i e l d (Weinste in 1973, Anderson & Mess ick 1974) . S o c i a l competence as a c o n s t r u c t has long been misconst rued as s imply an agg lomerat ion of the numerous s o c i a l competencies or s k i l l s , such as v e r b a l f l u e n c y , c o g n i t i v e a g i l i t y , p e r s o n a l esteem and a f f e c t , motor s k i l l s , e t c . , that are acqu i red d u r i n g the long process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . But i t i s important to r e a l i z e tha t s o c i a l competence i s not s imply an end g o a l , but r a t h e r an ongoing process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n throughout l i f e long s o c i a l development and i s more than the sum t o t a l of s o c i a l s k i l l s acqu i red through the y e a r s . For the purposes of t h i s paper , d e a l i n g w i t h young c h i l d r e n i n p r e -s c h o o l s e t t i n g s , the d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l competence t h a t w i l l be used i s O ' M a l l e y ' s (1977) : " p r o d u c t i v e and m u t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s between a c h i l d and peers or a d u l t s . P r o d u c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s a t t a i n p e r s o n a l goa ls of the c h i l d , whether immediate ly or i n the long r u n , which are adapt i ve i n c lassroom s e t t i n g s . I n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be s a t i f y i n g to the c h i l d when goa ls are a t t a i n e d and to the o thers i f a c t i o n s i n p u r s u i t of the goa ls are r e c e i v e d i n e i t h e r a benign or p o s i t i v e manner ." 1 . 2 . The study of s o c i a l competence i s important f o r many r e a s o n s . Three very s a l i e n t ones a r e : a) to be f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n any s o c i e t y , everyone must possess the complement of i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence. b) s o c i a l competence seems to enhance the p r o b a b i l i t y of academic s u c c e s s . In f a c t , i t has been shown that s o c i a l l y incompetent c h i l d r e n are more l i k e l y to drop out of s c h o o l , be l a b e l l e d as j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s , and to exper ience emot iona l problems. (Oden & Asher 1972) . I t has a l s o been found t h a t s o c i o m e t r i c a l l y r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n are at r i s k f o r and are p r e d i c t i v e of l a t e r s o c i a l m a l f u n c t i o n i n g . (Gottsman 1977) . c) s tu d y ing s o c i a l competence h e l p s i n t e g r a t e knowledge of v a r i o u s behav io rs tha t encompass a l a r g e p a r t o f s o c i a l development, and h e l p s to understand a l a r g e p a r t of the human p e r s o n a l i t y more comprehens ive ly . S o c i a l competence i s r e v e a l e d i n s i t u a t i o n s and c o n t e x t s , w i t h an i n -d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n i n g w e l l w i t h i n g iven s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . For young c h i l d r e n the e a r l i e s t exposure to o rgan ized peer s o c i e t y i s the playgroup or daycare c e n t r e , which was the s e t t i n g observed i n t h i s s tudy . In s tu d y ing s o c i a l competence i n young c h i l d r e n , many v a r i e d t h e o r i e s and methods have been a p p l i e d over the y e a r s . One common approach equates s o c i a l competence w i t h s o c i a l s t a t u s or s o c i a l power. From t h i s v iewpo in t ensued numerous exper imenta l s t u d i e s , u s i n g s o c i o m e t r i c measures, but not f i n d i n g many behav io r c o r r e l a t e s (Hartup, 1970) . In the past few y e a r s , an e t h o l o g i c a l approach has been m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f , f o c u s i n g on s o c i a l 3. s t r u c t u r e s of groups , u s i n g a n a t u r a l i s t i c approach to s tudy ing dominance r e l a t i o n s and h i e r a r c h i e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s groups (Smith 1974, S l u c k i n & Smith 1977) . One l a r g e s c a l e s tudy , the Harvard P r e s c h o o l P r o j e c t ( B . L . Wh i te , Kaban, Marmor & S h a p i r o , 1972) was i n i t i a t e d to d e f i n e behav io rs cons idered adapt i ve f o r young c h i l d r e n i n c lassroom s e t t i n g s . T h i s type of s tudy , combining the psychometr ic approach w i t h an e t h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i s one which seems w e l l worth e m u l a t i n g , a l though i n t h i s Harvard s t u d y , e x t e n s i v e t ime p e r i o d s were i n v o l v e d i n r e c o r d i n g behav io rs at home and i n the p r e s c h o o l s . Another approach to competence as s o c i a l power employs models from pr imate f i e l d r e s e a r c h , which has emphasized dominance h i e r a r c h i e s baed on a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r s : " p e c k i n g o r d e r s " t h a t a l l o w dominants f i r s t access to f o o d , t e r r i t o r y , mates , e t c . But the re levance of a g g r e s s i o n to s o c i a l competence i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Nor has i t been found to c o r r e l a t e w i t h s o c i o -m e t r i c measures, as w e l l as not be ing s t a b l e ac ross d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t ob jec t g o a l s . That i s , a g i ven an imal may be dominant and s u c c e s s f u l at the w a t e r i n g h o l e , but when i t comes t ime f o r m a t i n g , he may w e l l be much lower i n s t a t u s and have much l e s s access to a v a i l a b l e f e m a l e s . However r e l e v a n t the pr imate model may be to humans, the dominance model i s a model of a d u l t i n t e r a c t i o n , and i t s r e l e v a n c e to p l a y group i s u n c l e a r . An a l t e r n a t i v e model , and a r e l a t i v e l y new one in t roduced by Chance (Chance, 1967, Chance & J o l l y , 1970) seems to o f f e r more scope. In pr imate s t u d i e s , i t was found tha t the dominant an imal i s sought o u t , both p h y s i c a l l y and through v i s u a l regard by subdominants. In so d o i n g , a subord inate a n i -mal m a i n t a i n s a proper d i s t a n c e and p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the dominant 4. animals i n the group. I t was found that i t i s the d i r e c t i o n and amount (Distribution) of attention that i s of importance. In 1976, Chance and Larsen edited a book dealing s p e c i f i c a l l y with attention structures i n monkeys, apes and human c h i l d r e n . These papers provide abundant i l l u s t r a -t i o n that some i n d i v i d u a l s receive more v i s u a l attention than do others, and that these members of society assume "dominant" s o c i a l r o l e s , and, that the attention would seem to be at the root of s o c i a l organization. Hinde (1974) would dispute t h i s claim, but whatever the case, v i s u a l r e -gard may well provide a u s e f u l summary of power, status or s o c i a l organi-zation i n small groups, regardless of context, ages or even species. Vaughn and Waters (1976) have found that using Chance's attention structure model to derive sociometric patterns of groups of nursery school aged c h i l d r e n , the r e s u l t i n g ranks from the attention data were correlated with other more t r a d i t i o n a l methods of deriving sociometric h i e r a r c h i e s and that: a) attention structure ranking i s very strongly correlated to p i c t u r e sociometric ratings (.79 p <C .05) b) these ranks are very strongly correlated to teacher ratings of s o c i a l competence (Defined as the a b i l i t y to make us of environ-mental resources) c) these attention structure ranks, once developed, are stable over time, as are they d) stable over s i t u a t i o n s , that i s , one finds that i n nursery school i n t e r a c t i o n s indoors or outdoors, the v i s u a l attention structures remain constant. 5. Other f i n d i n g s are tha t these v i s u a l regard s t r u c t u r e ranks are not c o r -r e l a t e d w i t h a wide range of behav io rs such as number of c o n t a c t s , loud n o i s y p l a y , or p h y s i c a l dominance. Nor are they c o r r e l a t e d w i t h teacher r a t i n g s of those c h i l d r e n which are best l i k e d by the t e a c h e r s . V i s u a l a t t e n t i o n ranks are a l s o one measure tha t i s not b i a s e d a g a i n s t females (as are many measures based on dominance) s i n c e i t i s not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h sex , as are measures of toughness or a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . These r e s u l t s are noteworthy , s i n c e i t would seem c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e to t h i n k t h a t i n human s o c i e t y , even at a somewhat l e s s complex l e v e l of i n t e r a c t i o n s i n p r e -s c h o o l groups , t h a t an aggress i ve c h i l d should be p e r c e i v e d by o thers as a competent p e r s o n , and would be one who i s emulated. Nor i s i t i n t u i -t i v e l y obvious t h a t females should c o n s i s t e n t l y seem l e s s competent than males . R a t h e r , someone whom others would look a t , i m i t a t e and t r y to make c l o s e contact w i t h , seems to i n d i c a t e a person whose f u t u r e s o c i a l d e v e l o p -ment and acceptance i s l i k e l y to cont inue i n a competent and s o c i a l l y rewarding manner. In an attempt to more f u l l y understand s o c i a l competence i n the p r e -s c h o o l age c h i l d , and p rov ide a broader range of d e s c r i p t i v e uses f o r a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k i n g , both a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e data and two p r e -schoo l v e r s i o n s of the Q-set p e r s o n a l i t y d e s c r i p t o r were completed f o r three p r e s c h o o l c l a s s e s . The a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e measure i s used here to p rov ide more v a l i d a t i o n of t h i s inst rument as a means f o r d i s c o v e r i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of groups, and , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , f o r d e s c r i b i n g the behav ior c o r r e l a t e s of a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks of p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n aged th ree to s i x y e a r s . The a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e data i s e a s i l y and r e l a -6. t i v e l y q u i c k l y c o l l e c t e d , w i t h min imal d i s t u r b a n c e to c lassroom f u n c t i o n i n g . The observers remain unobt rus i ve so t h a t c h i l d r e n and teachers soon f o r g e t t h e i r p resence . Th is measure i s both economical i n manpower t ime r e q u i r e d , ease of c o l l e c t i o n and n e g l i g i b l e d i s r u p t i o n of c lassroom r o u t i n e s . The Q-set i s an i p s a t i v e procedure f o r p e r s o n a l i t y d e s c r i p t i o n ( B l o c k , 1961) p rov ided i n a form s u i t a b l e f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e comparison and a n a l y s i s . I t c o n s i s t s of p e r s o n a l i t y d e s c r i p t o r s which are arranged by r a t e r s i n an order r e f l e c t i n g the s a l i e n c e of these i tems i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n : e . g . i s " c o n f i d e n t " a more important a t t r i b u t e to. d e s c r i b e person X than i s " a g g r e s s i v e " , or i s " shy" a more d e c i s i v e t r a i t than " t a l k a t i v e " f o r unders tanding t h i s p e r s o n . Advantages of u s i n g Q-methods i n t h i s study a r e : a) c ross c l a s s comparisons can be made here w i thout assuming tha t c l a s s e s are e q u i v a l e n t b) i t a l l o w s f o r a very broad d e s c r i p t i v e range o f p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s c) t h i s method i s economical w h i l e p r o v i d i n g broad range of d e s c r i p t i o n . I t has r e c e n t l y been used by Bern (1977) very s u c c e s s f u l l y i n d e s c r i b i n g context and env i roments , as w e l l as p e o p l e . T h i s s tudy , u s i n g both a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k i n g data f o r f i n d i n g p a t t e r n s of peer i n t e r a c t i o n s and s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s , and p r e s c h o o l Q - s o r t methodology w i l l focus on f i n d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s of s o c i a l compe-tence v i a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of c o r r e l a t e s and n o n - c o r r e l a t e s of these two measures. 7. METHOD. Sub jects The f i f t y - s i x s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were observed i n th ree Govern -ment m a i n t a i n e d , n o n p r o f i t cent res a v a i l a b l e to working p a r e n t s . The c l a s s e s were composed of f o u r t e e n , e l e v e n , and ten m a l e s , and f i v e , seven , and n ine females . T h e i r average age was four years ten months, w i t h an age range of from th ree years one month, to s i x years two months. The soc io -economic s t a t u s and e t h n i c backgrounds of the f a m i l i e s from which these s u b j e c t s were drawn i s heterogeneous. S e t t i n g Observat ions were made i n two types of s e t t i n g s , i n s i d e the c l a s s -rooms and o u t s i d e on the p layground of each s c h o o l . Dur ing the p e r i o d s of o b s e r v a t i o n , which were t imed to c o i n c i d e w i t h f r e e p l a y t i m e , the c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y were p l a y i n g o u t s i d e where there were s idewalks f o r t r i k e r i d i n g , t r e e s f o r c l i m b i n g , l a r g e sandboxes w i t h c l i m b i n g appara tus , as w e l l as a l a r g e cho ice of p l a y t h i n g s : ca rs and t r u c k s , wagons to r i d e and p u l l , e t c . On c o l d and/or r a i n y days , the c h i l d r e n remained indoors w i t h a wide cho ice of a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g paint ing, , : and c l a y work, p u z z l e s and t o y s , b l o c k b u i l d i n g , nursery p e t s , water p l a y , e t c . At other t i m e s , the c h i l d r e n had group s i n g i n g or s t o r y t e l l i n g s e s s i o n s . The th ree schoo ls are very s i m i l a r s i n c e the b u i l d i n g s are i d e n t i c a l , the s t a f f s i m i l a r l y t r a i n e d and the r o u t i n e s are common to a l l th ree c e n t r e s . A l though o b s e r v a t i o n s were made January through A p r i l , the weather was so c o n s i s t e n t l y m i l d tha t the vas t m a j o r i t y of o b s e r v a t i o n s were made outdoors . As Waters and Vaughn found 8. no difference i n attention or v i s u a l regard behavior indoors as opposed to outdoors, a l l observations were combined and used i n the a n a l y s i s . Attention Structure:.: Observations of the v i s u a l regard of peers by each c h i l d was made from January through A p r i l i n order to determine how much v i s u a l attention each c h i l d received from peers, as well as how much v i s u a l attention each c h i l d gave t h e i r peers. A "look" was defined as an o r i e n t a t i o n of the face and eyes towards another c h i l d f o r two seconds or more. Care was taken to ensure that the looks were at another i n d i v i d u a l and not at a toy or other object held or looked at by the other c h i l d . Any ambiguous cases were not included i n the data. Agreement between two independent observers watching any given c h i l d simultaneously was 100% so that a f t e r twenty-five observations, no further checks on agreement were undertaken. In previous research (Waters & Vaughn) i t was found that one hundred rounds of observations per c h i l d i s adequately representative of the children's behaviour. Each round of observations consisted of a ten second period during which the c h i l d was observed, and the name of each peer that the target c h i l d looked at was recorded. The order i n which the c h i l d r e n were observed was randomnly determined and no c h i l d was observed a second time i n a session before a l l the other c h i l d r e n had f i r s t been observed. It took approximately three weeks per cl a s s of d a i l y 1% - 2 hour observations to complete one hundred rounds per c h i l d . During t h i s time at least some ch i l d r e n were absent, so that a l l those ch i l d r e n who missed 9 . being included i n a l l one hundred rounds had t h e i r looking scores prorated propo r t i o n a l l y f o r absences. A l l subjects included i n the study had been present f o r at le a s t f i f t y of the rounds of observation. In order to determine whether one hundred observations provided a r e l i a b l e estimate of each c h i l d ' s looking score, the data from each class was divided into two parts, and a s p l i t h a l f c o r r e l a t i o n was computed with a Spearman Brown formula for attenuation applied. Each c h i l d ' s rank was determined by the summed t o t a l of looks received from peers. Q-Set Data The two Q-sets employed i n the present study were the seventy-two item Wanda Bronson form relevant f o r describing s o c i a l competence i n young c h i l d -ren. The Blocks' one hundred point Q-set i s the children's version of the broader C a l i f o r n i a Q-set. The Q-method i s an i p s a t i v e procedure for personality d e s c r i p t i o n , which provides person-centred data i n numerical form, data which are analyz-able i n many ways. In t h i s technique, the rater describes the subjects without reference to a normative comparison group, and rates personality variables on a continuum of salience r e l a t i v e to each subject. Usually, the Q-items are written on separate cards and arranged and rearranged into preset catagories u n t i l an appropriate ordering i s attained. Because of the s o r t i n g involved, t h i s s c a l i n g procedure has been c a l l e d Q-sort tech-nique. A f t e r the so r t i n g , the placement of each item i s recorded on a data sheet. The nine categories of the continuum have by convention been l a b e l l e d with column nine r e f e r r i n g to the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c end of the continuum 10. and one to the l e a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c end. I n s e r t Table 1 approx imate ly here Two observers spent approx imate ly two weeks, or ten days f o r two hours each day watch ing each c l a s s . Th is i s p robably the minimum time r e q u i r e d to l e a r n a l l the c h i l d r e n s ' names, n o t i c e how the c l a s s runs as a whole and f i n a l l y p e r c e i v e each c h i l d i n d i v i d u a l l y and d i s c o v e r how each a c t and i n t e r a c t s w i t h p e e r s . Throughout the two week p e r i o d , r e f e r e n c e was c o n s t a n t l y made to the one hundred and seventy - two Q - i t e m s , which had p r e v i o u s l y been t h o r -oughly d i s c u s s e d by the two r a t e r s to a r r i v e at a common consensus as to the meaning of a l l the i t e m s . Two observers performed the Q - s o r t s i n d e -pendent l y , and w i thout knowledge of the a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k s . Both Q -se ts were s o r t e d i n t o the n i n e p rese t c a t e g o r i e s w i t h the c o r r e c t number of i tems ass igned to each category p lacement . I t i s very important to keep i n mind throughout the Q -so r t procedure that the r a t e r i s a s s e s s i n g each i tem as r e l a t i v e to the c h i l d , as- -a more or l e s s s a l i e n t i tem i n a g i ven c h i l d ' s r e p e r t o i r e of p e r s o n a l i t y o p t i o n s and not to s t r a y i n t o perhaps the more e a s i l y assessed peer comparison mode of "compared to X ' s p e e r s , X i s more or l e s s a g g r e s s i v e " , f o r example. I t i s a l s o very necessary f o r r a t e r s to be on guard a g a i n s t speeding up t h e i r s o r t i n g to the p o i n t where, u s i n g the o v e r a l l impress ion of a g iven c h i l d , one begins to s o r t i n a s te reotyped "good c h i l d , bad c h i l d " mode, wherein a l a r g e number of i tems are commonly s o r t e d i n t o almost p r e s e t 11. c a t e g o r i e s . One must s t a r t each c h i l d f r e s h , thoroughly s h u f f l i n g the i tem decks and c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e category f o r each i tem f o r each c h i l d . R e l i a b i l i t y C o r r e l a t i o n s between s p l i t h a l v e s of i n d i v i d u a l ranks from the l o o k -i n g data was computed and the Spearman Brown fo rmula f o r t e s t l e n g t h was a p p l i e d to es t imate the r e l i a b i l i t y . The r a n k i n g of each c h i l d on the b a s i s of the t o t a l number of l ooks r e c e i v e d from both h a l v e s of the data was c a l -c u l a t e d and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i n each c l a s s , and the average r e l i a b i l i t y of c l a s s ranks was found to be .93 ^ ' . The r e l i a b i l i t y of each i tem on the two Q -se ts (one hundred and seventy - two i tems) was e s t a b l i s h e d by c o r r e l a t i n g the i tem placement of the independent r a t e r s on each i tem across the c h i l d r e n i n a l l th ree c l a s s e s . The importance of the above two r e l i a b i l i t y es t imates l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t they l i m i t the maximum c o r r e l a t i o n p o s s i b l e f o r any g i ven i tem w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s rank . The upper l i m i t of a c o r r e l a t i o n between an i tem and l o o k i n g rank i s c a l c u l a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: RESULTS. Hays (1973) . See l a s t column i n Tables 3 and 4 . 1. See Footnote ' 1 and Table 2 . I t i s important to r e a l i z e tha t i f an i tem was assessed r e l i a b l y , i t may or may not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a c h i l d ' s l o o k i n g s t r u c t u r e rank . But i f r e l i a b i l i t y on a g i ven i tem i s low, whatever c o r r e l a t i o n there might b e , would be s e r i o u s l y a t t e n u a t e d , and t h e r e f o r e the data should be looked at i n t h i s l i g h t . The i tem placements of the two observers was averaged and the mean i tem placement was used i n the a n a l y s i s r e p o r t e d be low. Q-Sort C o r r e l a t e s of A t t e n t i o n S t r u c t u r e The c o r r e l a t i o n of each o f the one hundred and seventy - two Q- i tems w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s r a n k i n g on the v i s u a l regard data was done to d i s c o v e r those p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s which are most r e l a t e d to aspects of s o c i a l competence tha t are i n d i c a t e d by c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l s tand ing in . a g iven c l a s s . In a d d i t i o n , i tems and v i s u a l regard ranks were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h both c h i l d r e n ' s age and sex . Sex was found not to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on these c o r r e l a t i o n s , but age was c o r r e l a t e d .55 (p ^ .001) w i t h look rank and the c o r r e l a t i o n between age and a g iven Q - i tem ranged from .59 to . 0 0 4 . T h e r e f o r e , p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , c o n t r o l l e d f o r age, were c a l c u l a t e d b e -tween each i tem and v i s u a l regard r a n k s , both f o r each c l a s s s e p a r a t e l y as w e l l as f o r c l a s s e s p o o l e d . The c r i t e r i o n f o r i tems to be c a t e g o r i z e d as c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n data ranks was t h a t , f o r c l a s s e s combined, w i t h age p a r t i a l l e d o u t , a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of p ^ .01 was a t t a i n e d , as w e l l as hav ing a t l e a s t two of the th ree c l a s s e s reach the same l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h tha t i t e m . 13. At t o t a l of s i x t y - o n e Q- i tems (35% of the 172 i t e m s ) , t h i r t y Bronson i tems and 31 B lock i tems were found to reach c r i t e r i o n , and were l a b e l l e d as c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y above chance w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s r a n k s . These were ass igned to group one, and the remain ing one hundred and e leven i tems were r e l e g a t e d to group two, c o n s i s t i n g of the u n c o r r e l a t e d Q - i t e m s . C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s The c l u s t e r i n g method used here produces n o n o v e r l a p p i n g , h i e r a r c h i -c a l l y nested c l u s t e r s . C l u s t e r s are b u i l t from i n d i v i d u a l p a i r s of s i m i l a r i t e m s . These p a i r s of i tems are b u i l t up i n t o c l u s t e r s one p a i r at a t i m e , each c y c l e merges a new p a i r of s i m i l a r i t e m s , and each t ime the l e v e l of s i m i l a r i t y drops somewhat, s i n c e the f i r s t p a i r i n g takes the h i g h e s t p o s s -i b l e i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d i t e m s . The technique used h e r e , c a l l e d the Simple method, u t i l i z e s the weighted p a i r group a r i t h m e t i c averages , grouping i tems i n t o g i ven c l u s t e r s by u t i l i z i n g those i tems tha t have the s h o r t e s t d i s -tance between t h e i r means and the means of a g iven c l u s t e r (Wood, 1974) . C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s of S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t e s . The i tems i n group one, are the convergent Q - i t e m s , those tha t are s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e rank d a t a . These i t e m s ' c o n s t i t u t e the f i n a l p o o l of s i g n i f i c a n t l y u s e f u l i tems of the B l o c k and Bronson Q l i s t s , and were ass igned to t h i s group on the b a s i s of r e p l i c a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l -a t i o n at p < . 0 1 i n at l e a s t two of the three c l a s s e s s t u d i e d , u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h age p a r t i a l l e d o u t . The i tems were combined over a l l th ree c l a s s e s , i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and c l u s t e r analyzed to d e s c r i b e dimensions of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e rank . 14. Nine c l u s t e r s r e s u l t e d , and f i v e i tems remained unass igned , as presented i n Table 3 , a long w i t h zero order c o r r e l a t i o n , p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h look r a n k s , age p a r t i a l l e d w i t h i n each c l a s s and across the c l a s s e s com-b i n e d . The upper l i m i t imposed by r e l i a b i l i t y i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n column f i v e . See f i g u r e 1 f o r schematic diagram of c l u s t e r s . I n s e r t Table 3 , F i g u r e 1 here C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s of N o n s i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t e s . The i tems i n group two are d i s c r i m i n a n t Q - i t e m s , those tha t are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e rank d a t a . These i tems c o n s t i t u t e the remaining p o o l of n o n s i g n i f i c a n t but nonethe less u s e f u l Q- i tems of the B l o c k and Bronson Q l i s t s , and were ass igned to t h i s group on the b a s i s of a f a i l u r e to r e p l i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s of p ^ . 0 1 i n at l e a s t two of the th ree c l a s s e s s t u d i e d , u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h age p a r t i a l l e d o u t . These items were combined over a l l th ree c l a s s e s , i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and c l u s t e r analyzed to d e s c r i b e dimensions of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t DO NOT c o r r e l a t e w i t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k s . Ten c l u s t e r s r e s u l t e d , seven -teen i tems remained unassigned as presented i n Table 4 , a long w i t h zero order c o r r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h look r a n k s , age p a r t i a l l e d o u t , w i t h i n each c l a s s and across the c l a s s e s combined. The upper l i m i t imposed by r e l i a b i l i t y i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n column f i v e . See F i g u r e 2 f o r schematic diagram of c l u s t e r s . I n s e r t Table 4 , F i g u r e 2 here 15. , C o r r e l a t i o n s among c l u s t e r s . C l u s t e r scores were computed by summing a l l the i tem scores w i t h i n a g i ven c l u s t e r . The i n d i v i d u a l c l u s t e r s were then c o r r e l a t e d both w i t h i n and between c l u s t e r s obta ined from group one, i tems s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o o k rank and group two, those c l u s t e r s d e r i v e d from n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d i t e m s . The r e s u l t s are presented i n Tables 5 , 6 and 7. I n s e r t Tables 5 , 6 and 7 here The c l u s t e r s of i tems s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h look rank are p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d throughout , as should be expected from method of i tem s e l e c t i o n . In Table 6 , the c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n th ree of the c l u s t e r s t h a t c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s o c i a l i z a i t o n : m a n a g e a b i l i t y , aggress iveness and c o n s i d e r -a t i o n , are q u i t e h i g h . These c l u s t e r s are c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the c l u s t e r l a b e l l e d o v e r - r e a c t i v e , suggest ing that t h i s may r e f l e c t pr imary s o c i a l i z a -t i o n i n f l u e n c e s . The remain ing c l u s t e r s , w i t h the except ion of seek ing a d u l t company, appear to r e f l e c t c a t e g o r i e s o f c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s , w i t h l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s o c i a l i z a t i o n c l u s t e r s . In Table 7 , l o o k i n g down the columns of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , one sees that predominant good mood, unusual b e h a v i o r s , and s k i l l f u l / l i k e d by a d u l t s are s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d to the group one c l u s t e r s , d e s p i t e t h e i r low c o r -r e l a t i o n s w i t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e rank . 16. DISCUSSION. The r e s u l t s from t h i s study have p rov ided some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n to a i d a b e t t e r understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i s t r i b u t i o n of v i s u a l regard and s o c i a l competence i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Us ing the two Q -sets of i tems made i t p o s s i b l e to develop a broader p i c t u r e of the c o r -r e l a t e s of l o o k i n g rank , and a l s o to e l a b o r a t e the p e r s o n a l i t y and behav-i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s of s o c i a l competence. The c l u s t e r s from group one, u s i n g i tems which were s t r o n g l y c o r r e l -ated w i t h a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a n k s , and r e p l i c a t e d i n at l e a s t two c l a s s e s , make one v i s u a l i z e a c h i l d who i s sought out and admired by p e e r s , who i s not shy and not a f r a i d to suggest a c t i v i t i e s , and one who i s sure to dom-i n a t e o thers i n thos a c t i v i t i e s . Th is c h i l d i s qu ick and l i v e l y , c o n f i -dent of h e r / h i s a b i l i t i e s , and q u i c k to t r y and capture the cen t re of everyone 's a t t e n t i o n . Almost always surrounded by p e e r s , t h i s competent c h i l d i s t y p i c a l l y i n the r o l e of l e a d e r and p a r t i c i p a n t , p e r s i s t e n t l y occupied i n r e a c h i n g goa ls (s)he seeks to a t t a i n , not always r e s i s t i n g the temptat ion to speak h e r / h i s mind , use some p h y s i c a l f o r c e or s t r e t c h l i m i t s to a t t a i n d e s i r e d ends. Some of the i tems and c l u s t e r would seem to countermand concepts of competence long h e l d to be v a l i d . Th is may be i n f l u e n c e d by the b e l i e f that competence i s a s t a b l e a t t r i b u t e , one which changes very l i t t l e th rough -out the l i f e span. B u t , i t appears tha t f o r each age, d i f f e r e n t behav io rs c o n s t i t u t e competence, and at each l e v e l of growth, new types of i n t e r p e r -s o n a l s k i l l s are needed to a l l o w an i n d i v i d u a l to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y and 17. s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s o c i e t y . In Kohn and Rossman (1972a) one group of behav io rs tha t were assumed to be i n d i c a t i v e of low competent f u n c t i o n i n g were c a l l e d bossy , h o s t i l e , domineer ing . Yet group one 's c l u s t e r 2 : Engages Others , i s comprised of i tems p r i m a r i l y of t h i s s o r t , which happen to be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i a l competence. Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i s from the Waters , Wippman and Sroufe (1977) paper , where a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of c h i l d r e n who at f i f t e e n months were assessed as s e c u r e l y or a n x i o u s l y a t tached to t h e i r mothers were r e -s t u d i e d at th ree and a h a l f years of age, and Bronson Q -sor t data was c o l -l e c t e d on each c h i l d . Twelve i tems were p r e s e l e c t e d as e s p e c i a l l y c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c of peer competence. Ten of these i tems f a l l i n t o the f i r s t four c l u s t e r s of group one, and the s e c u r e l y a t tached c h i l d r e n were r a t e d more h i g h l y on a l l i tems i n d i c a t i v e of competence than were the a n x i o u s l y a t -tached c h i l d r e n , and t h i s at a very s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y . Th is would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t , a l though the measures a t d i f f e r e n t ages must n e c e s s a r i l y be d i f f e r e n t to f i n d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n competence, the c o n s t r u c t ; i s s t a b l e over t ime w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s , even as the b e h a v i o r a l and p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s change. Research by Crowne & Marlowe, and C r a n d a l l , repor ted by We ins te in (1973) r e v e a l s tha t c h i l d r e n who seem to have a h i g h need f o r approva l tend to be those w i t h the lowest s o c i o m e t r i c r a t i n g s , who are subsequent ly r e -j e c t e d by p e e r s . The low s o c i a l competence boys compr is ing t h i s group were found to be s u g g e s t i b l e , c o n v e n t i o n a l , i n h i b i t e d and c o n t r o l l e d . They r a r e -l y sought r e c o g n i t i o n and avoided achievement a c t i v i t i e s . The g i r l s i n t h i s 18. group were l e s s domineering i n both p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and v e r b a l b e h a v i o r , and tended to avo id s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . These r e s u l t s are very c l o s e l y a l i g n e d to those i tems i n group one which have s t rong n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s to a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks - t h i s s t u d y ' s measure of s o c i a l competence. The c l u s t e r s de r i ved from group txro, u s i n g i tems not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h look rank d a t a , added to the n i n e c l u s t e r s from group one seem to be q u i t e comparable to many of the twenty -n ine components of s o c i a l competence l i s t e d i n Anderson & Mess ick (1974) . In group two, there appear to be a l o t of i tems f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n of competence, i n c l u d e d i n c l u s t e r s such as m a n a g e a b i l i t y , c o n s i d e r a t e n e s s , a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , as w e l l as mention be ing made of s o c i a l s k i l l s such as b e i n g w i l l i n g and a b l e to seek a d u l t company ( c l u s t e r 9) and be s k i l l f u l and w e l l l i k e d i n the process ( c l u s t e r 3 ) . M ing led among c l u s t e r 8 (Autonomous) and c l u s t e r 9 (Adul t contact seeking) are i tems r e l e v a n t to the q u e s t i o n of dependency. A l though i tems i n group two a r e n ' t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d to a t t e n -t i o n s t r u c t u r e data or s o c i o m e t r i c r a t i n g s by c h i l d r e n , i t may w e l l be tha t these i tems dp_ have some b e a r i n g on s o c i a l competence, but not when r a t e d by c h i l d r e n . The i tems r e l a t e d t o the a t t e n t i o n ranks are those p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s tha t the c h i l d r e n are o b v i o u s l y aware of when choosing among t h e i r peers f o r f r i e n d s , l e a d e r s and people to emulate . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among c l u s t e r s f u r t h e r suggest tha t group one i s a very s t rong and perhaps u n i t a r y c o n s t r u c t . Th is may i n d i c a t e tha t the a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e measure i s a somewhat narrow, age c o n s t r i c t e d v iew of s o c i a l competence. The c l u s t e r s from group two, when i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d , r e -v e a l a s t r o n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n component, as w e l l as pockets of competencies 1 9 . that are probably important in the broader view of competence. When the two groups of clusters are intercorrelated, the clusters: predominant good mood, unusual behaviors, and skillful/liked by adults, are seen to be quite strongly related to a l l the clusters from group one. It is this that makes one begin to think that these items should be in-cluded as important variables of social competence. But, due to the fact of age partialled correlations, these items were not strongly enough re-lated to attention structures to be significant in this study. Perhaps, these same items, used on an older subject population, will be found to be strongly related to social rankings and other peer estimates of social competence. Many of the items in group two would intuitively be included in an adult l i s t of hypothetical competence items, but not, seemingly, on a preschool child's. It is possible that, although an adult observer and a child observer actually see the same behaviors and actions in a given person, for the child, only certain of the many aspects of social competence are actually noticed and deemed important. For nursery school children, unusual behaviors may to a certain extent be overlooked, i f the same child is willing and eager to engage and participate in suggested activities. Such a child might be more highly rated sociometrically and given more visual attention by peers than a child who is rather shy and withdrawn. An adult observer, on the other hand, often would see the situation in the opposite manner, worrying more about seriously deviant behaviors that may develop into f u l l blown malaise, and simply brush off a case of shyness as rather trivial to competent functioning. 20. I t would be expected tha t as i n c r e a s i n g l y o l d e r s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n s are used i n s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , the a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e ranks would be c o r -r e l a t e d w i t h a g r a d u a l l y expanding group of i tems now i n c l u d e d i n group two, which appear to be r e l a t e d to s o c i a l competence judged from an a d u l t p o i n t of v iew . Use of the a t t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e measure has been economical and e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g a f u r t h e r unders tanding of s o c i a l competence and i t s p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s , and has p rov ided some c l u e s as to d i f f e r e n c e s i n how c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s v iew t h i s c o n s t r u c t . Th is i s a s tep towards the eventua l g o a l of a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l competence and the development of v a l i d ins t ruments f o r i t s measurement. 2 1 . 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E t h o l o g y , the b i o l o g y of b e h a v i o r . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Wins ton , I n c . 1975. F reud , A . Dann, S . An experiment i n group upbringing;. ' , ' I n f l u e n c e s on  human development. Bronfenbrenner , U. & Mahoney, M. A . (Eds) . I l l i n o i s : Dryden P r e s s , 1975. 22. Garmezy, N. C h i l d r e n at r i s k : the search f o r the antecedents of s c h i z o p h r e n i a . P a r t 2 : ongoing research program, i s s u e s and i n t e r v e n t i o n . S c h i z o p h r e n i a B u l l e t i n ^ No. 9 , Summer 1974. Gottsman, J . M. Toward a d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n i n chi ldren. C h i l d Development, 1977, 48, 5 1 3 - 5 1 7 . Har tup , W. W. Peer i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . C a r m i c h a e l ' s  manual of c h i l d psychology . Mussen, P. (Ed) . New York : W i l e y , 1970. Hays, W. L. S t a t i s t i c s f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . New York : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , Winston I n c . 1973. H inde , R. A. B i o l o g i c a l bases of human s o c i a l b e h a v i o r ^ New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1974. Kohn, M. & Rossman, B. L. A s o c i a l competence s c a l e symptom check-l i s t f o r the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d . Developmental Psychology , , , 1972(a) , 6, 4.30-444. Kohn, M. & Rossman, B. L. R e l a t i o n s h i p of p r e s c h o o l s o c i a l emot iona l f u n c t i o n i n g to l a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement. Developmental  Psycho logy , 1972(b) , 6, 445 -452 . Northway, M. L. The soc iometry of s o c i e t y : some f a c t s and f a n c i e s . C h i l d development: s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s . Brockman, L . , W i t e l e y , J . , Zubeck, J . (Eds) . New York : M c L e l l a n d & S t u a r t L t d . 1973. Oden, S . & A s h e r , S . . R . Coaching c h i l d r e n i n s o c i a l s k i l l s f o r f r i e n d s h i p making. C h i l d Development, 1977, ^ 8 , 495-506. O ' M a l l e y , J . M. Research p e r s p e c t i v e on s o c i a l competence. ; M e r r i l l - Palmer Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 23, 1 , 2 9 - 4 4 . Raph, J . B . , Thomas, A . , Chess, S . , & K o r n , S . J . The i n f l u e n c e of nursery s c h o o l on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . American J o u r n a l of  O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1968, _34, 144-152. S l u c k i n , A . A. & S m i t h , P. K. Two approaches to the concept of dom-inance i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development, 1977, 48 , 9 1 7 - 9 2 3 . 23. Smith, P. K. Ethological methods. New perspectives in child develop- ment. Foss, B. (Ed). Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 1974. Vaughn, B.E. & Waters, E. Social organization among preschool peers: dominance, attention and sociometric correlates. U.B.C: unpublished manuscript. Vaughn, B. E. & Waters, E. Differences in the play behaviors of dominant and subordinate preschool children. U.B.C: unpublished manuscript. Waters, E. , Wip.pman, J. , & Sroufe, L. A. Attachment, positive affect and competence in the peer group: two studies in construct validation. Unpublished manuscript, 1977. Weinstein, E. A. The development of interpersonal competence. Hand- book of socialization theory and research. Goslin, D. A. (Ed). Chicago: Rand McNally Publishers Co., 1969. Wood, J. J.. A computer program for hierarchical cluster analysis. Newsletter of Computer Archaelogy, 1974, 9_, 4, 1-15. 24. FOOTNOTES. 1. Not only were class ranks very r e l i a b l e and stable across the s p l i t halves of data, but a close look at the numbers of looks given and received reveals an i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t . In each class (two with nine-teen children, one with eighteen children enrolled) there seemed to be a cut-off point at the ninth top ranking c h i l d . Invariably, the eight top ranking c h i l d r e n received more looks than they gave, where-as the bottom ten or eleven children always looked at t h e i r more dominant peers more often than they received looks themselves. This substantiates the basis on which attention structure theory i s based: that the subdominant members i n a group w i l l look towards and v i s u a l l y r e l a t e to the more dominant peers. See Table 2 for data. 2 5 , TABLE 1 Number of Q-Set Items Ass igned to Each Category . Form Least S a l i e n t N e u t r a l Most S a l i e n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 72 p o i n t Bronson 3 6 8 12 14 12 8 6 3 100 p o i n t B l o c k 5 8 12 16 18 16 12 8 5 26. TABLE 2 Summary of T o t a l Number of Looks Given and Received Class- 1 C l a s s 2 C l a s s 3 Looks Looks Looks Recieved Given Received Given Received Given 292 182 196 105 276 193 238 163 166 126 275 164 228 183 158 118 238 184 213 198 135 95 216 149 201 138 132 93 201 168 199 181 119 98 176 143 193 157 122 112 149 129 171 150 109 84 144 131 150 178 101 102 146 158 146 164 99 139 140 151 143 158 98 143 139 125 143 148 • 84 75 136 123 135 146 83 128 134 150 135 178 65 64 128 174 113 153 57 101 103 218 113 148 49 76 92 137 105 195 47 75 87 173 102 129 46 133 72 107 68 140 72 139 TABLE 3 Clustered Q Correlates of Attention Structure Hanks Items r o r • age r • age rmaxii Classes Classes Combined 1 3 \ (o<item) (c Cluster 1. S o c i a l l y S k i l l e d . 1 . + Is admired & sought out by other children. ( C Q 5 ) .70** . 5 3 . 5 7 .67 .62** .87 2 . + Other children seek her/his company. (Q23) .67** . 5 9 . 5 4 .70 .61** .87 3. + Peer leader. ( 0 2 1 ) .78** . 5 9 .82 .65 .69** .91 4 . - Spectator i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . ( Q 1 0 ) -.80** -.64 -.72 -.76 - . 7 4 * * .84 5 . + Gets along well with other children. ( C Q 4 ) .50** .41 .46 . 3 3 .40** .90 6. - Lacks a b i l i t y to get along with others. ( 0 9 ) -.42** - . 4 5 -.30 - . 2 1 - . 3 4 * .88 7 . - Is e a s i l y victimized by other children. ( C Q 1 0 0 ) - . 4 3 * * -. 09 - . 5 3 -.38 -.36* .86 8. + Is resourceful i n i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . (CO36) . 5 4 * * .26 .71 .17 .42** .83 9. + Suggests a c t i v i t i e s . ( 0 4 7 ) .62** .13 .78 .50 . 4 4 * * .84 10. + Is verbally fluent. (CQ69) . 4 9 * * .06 . 5 3 .36 .31* .86 1 1 . - Prefers nonverbal mode of communication. ( C Q 1 ) -.50** - . 11 -.62 -.31 - . 3 4 . 7 7 1 2 . - Has transient interpersonal relationships. ( C 0 1 0 ) -.39* - . 2 1 -.38 -.48 - . 3 5 * .67 TABLE 3 Clustered Q Correlates of Attention Structure Ranks Items r o r • age Classes Classes r .age Combined \ Maximum 1 2 3 \ ("=* item) (ex ran Cluster 2. Engages Others. 1. - Hesitates to engage. (Q15) -.72** -.64 -.71 -.74 -.69** .85 2. - Hesitant with other children. (Q13) -.57** -.51 -.78 -.75 -.66** .85 3. - Is shy tx reserved; makes s o c i a l contacts slowly. (CQ98) -.54** -.55 -.60 -.64 -.56** .85 4. - Tends to withdraw or disengage s e l f under stress. (CQ45) -.54** -.43 -.57 -.69 -.52** .82 5. - T y p i c a l l y i n role of l i s t e n e r . (Q60) -.66** -.53 -.66 -.57 -.58** .87 6. - When i n c o n f l i c t with others, tends to give in.. (CQ44) -.53** -.50 -.52 -.70 -.61** .84 7. - Backs away from anger. (Q31) -.56** -.55 -.54 -.62 -.56** .76 8. + Behaves i n a dominating manner with others. (C093) .62** .32 .54 .58 .47** .88 9. + Tries to be the centre of attention. (CQ21) .59** .63 .26 .63 .49** .86 10. - Tends to keep thoughts & feelings to s e l f . (CQ8) -.45** -.43 -.24 -.55 -.40** .77 Items TABLE 3 Clustered O Correlates of Attention Structure Ran,cs r o .age Classes Cluster 3. Active, Energetic. 1. + Likes to compete; tests s e l f against others. (CQ37) . A l * * 2. + Likes to compete. (Q40) .50** 3. + High energy l e v e l . (028) .33* 4. + Has a rapid personal tempo. (C063) .45** 5. + Is v i t a l , l i v e l y , energetic. (CQ28) .42** 6. + P h y s i c a l l y courageous. (Q51) .33* 7. - Is p h y s i c a l l y cautious. (CQ52) -.43** 8. - Withdraws from excitement or commotion. (Q57) -.61** 9. + Attracts attention. (Q24) .39* .age Classes Combined maximum 1 2 3 .15 .41 .49 . 36** .31 .41 .46 .43** .49 .06 .52 .35* .50 .19 .31 .38* .50 .30 .49 .45** .45 .25 .25 .36* -.32 -.26 -.38 -.37* -.34 -.51 -.71 -.55** .35 .08 .49 .35* N(<*i item) (<=* rank) .85 .79 .87 .89 .88 .73 .81 .84 .81 TABLE 3 Items Clustered Q Correlates of Attention Structure Ranks • age Classes 2 • age Classes Combined N(<*i (<=•<. item) (c<ran Cluster 4. Confident vs. Anxious. 1. - Is f e a r f u l and anxious. (CQ23) -.38* -.31 -.46 -.20 -.32* .88 2. - Vaguely apprehensive. (Q30) -.41** -.50 -.42 -.21 -.38* .90 3. + Is s e l f - a s s e r t i v e . (CQ82) .57** .36 .66 .59 .54** .87 4. + Confident of own a b i l i t y . (QIC) .58** .53 .57 .52 .54** .87 5. + Is s e l f - r e l i a n t , confident. (CQ88) .45** .43 .48 .46 .44** .89 6. - Tends to be indecisive & V a c i l l a t i n g . (CQ53) -.46** -.37 -.36 -.39 -.39* .87 7. _ Is i n h i b i t e d & constricted. (C035) -.50** -.52 -.40 -.40 -.47** .85 8. - S o c i a l l y withdrawn. (050) -.49** -.33 -.39 -.34 -.33* .84 9. _ Likes to be alone; enjoys s o l i t a r y activities.(C086) -.39* -.56 -.21 -.61 -.39* .85 I tens r o Cluster 5. Direct & Persistent. 1. - Doesn't persevere when non-social goals are blocked. (Q8) -.46** 2. + Is persistent; doesn't give up e a s i l y . (C';41) .20 3. - Indirect i n asking for help. (Q61) -.34* 4. - Indirect i n dealing with peers. (Q2) -.46** 5. + Fo r c e f u l l y goes after v.liat she/he wants. (Q5) .48** 6. - Suggestible. (QH) -.33* TABLE 3 Clustered 0 Correlates of Attention Structure Ranks r o . age-Classes .42 .13 .11 .36 .41 .31 -.56 .43 -.47 -.48 .49 -.43 -.45 .32 -.52 -.45 .50 -.51 • age Classes Combined maximum C0* item) (=* rank) -.49** .34* -.38* -.47** .50** -.44** .81 .75 .70 .60 .83 .75 TABLE 3 Clustered Q Correlates of Attention Structure Ranks Items r o r .age r .age rmaximum Classes Classes Combined 1 1 2 3 \ J ( o t item) (.<*• rank) Cluster 6. Purposive. 1. + Self directed. (Q18) .43** .37 .61 .06 .31* .86 2. - Characteristically unoccupied. (Q14) -.45** -.24 -.51 -.23 -.31* .90 3. - Samples activity aimlessly, lacks goals. (Q59) -.42** -.55 -.28 -.27 -.35* .81 4. + Engages in a wide variety of activities. (Q37) .53** .49 .48 .30 .43** .77 5 . - Daydreams, tends to get lost in reverie. (CQ70) -.56** -.55 -.29 -.42 -.36* .86 Cluster 7. Open and Straightforward. 1. + Is open and straightforward. (CQ19) .36* .36 .46 .12 .34* .76 2. + Expresses negative feelings directly 6 openly. .(CQ18) .29 .23 .49 .40 .37* .66 3. + Expresses negative feelings directly & openly, • (QI) .28 .37 .42 .38 .38* .65 Items TABLE 3 Clustered Q Correlates of Attention Structure Ranks r r o -age Classes 1 2 • age Classes Combined maximum e< Item) («* rank) Cluster 8. Reflective vs. Impetuous. 1. - Is refelctive; thinks and deliberates before acting. 2. + Impetuous. (CQ99) -.47** (Q33) .37* -.43 .44 -.16 .37 -.68 .51 -.40** .44** .82 .79 Cluster 9. Guilty. 1. - Has a readiness to feel guilty, tends to blame self. (CQ72) -.27 2. - Appears to feel unworthy, thinks of self as bad. (CQ77) -.21 -.33 .46 .29 -.16 -.38 -.04 .31* -.33* .77 .77 *- p < .01 **- p < .001 TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks Items r o r .age r • age rmaximum Classes Classes Combined 1 2 3 fe<item) («Trank) Cluster 1. Manageable. 1. Is obedient and compliant. (CQ62) -.24 .07 -.27 -.55 -.31 .90 2. Obedient. (Q32) -.21 -.02 -.19 -.47 -.29 .90 3. Tests limits set by adults. (Q68) .30 .10 .18 .51 .32 .90 4. Doesn't question adult direction. (Q36) -.32 -.03 -.16 . -.48 -.32 .85 5. Polite. (Q71) -.28 -.16 -.26 -.47 .33 .85 6. Supports or incites misbehavior in other children. (Q22) .18 .00 .12 .48 .24 .85 7. Gets other children in trouble with teacher. (Q43) .25 .22 .01 .51 .25 .89 8. Thoughtless of other children's possessions. (Q72) .14 .11 .17 .47 .21 .74 9. Is attentive and able to concentrate. (CQ66) .02 .10 .23 .40 .06 .88 Items TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r r o -age Classes .age Classes Combined maximum [^itern) (»<.rank) Cluster 1. Manageable, cont'd 10. Is restless and fidgety. 11. Is helpful and cooperative. 12. Concerned about adult disapproval. 13. Evades adult guidance. 14. Is eager to please. 15. Can be trusted, is dependable. 16. Trustworthy. 17. Requires a great deal of supervision. (CQ34) (CQ6) (Q41) (Q27) (CQ14) (CQ76) (052) (Q39) .03 .03 .32 .19 -.18 -.05 .06 .00 .12 .05 .16 .08 .20 .02 .11 .04 .25 .11 .37 .20 .22 .14 .13 .03 -.48 .26 .06 .41 .57 -.43 .26 .41 .06 .07 .26 .30 .29 -.17 .10 .21 .86 .87 .75 .71 .76 .85 .82 .87 TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks Items r o r • age r • age rmaximum Classes Classes Combined r ~ — 1 2 3 \| (o* item) (<=*. rank) Cluster 2. Unusual Behaviors. 1. Has bodily symptoms as a function of tension and c o n f l i c t . (CQ50) -.31 -.28 -.43 -.25 -.28 .84 2. Shows s p e c i f i c mannerisms or behavioral r i t u a l s . (CQ49) -.30 -.19 -.44 -.11 -.25 .88 3. Has unusual thought processes. (CQ38) -.18 -.14 -.30 -.04 .10 .83 4. Unaware, turned o f f , "spaced out". (Q34) -.35 -.36 -.25 -.14 -.20 .88 5. Disoriented i n physical environment. (Q19) -.33 -.25 -.42 -.11 -.25 .92 6. Tends to become r i g i d l y r e p e t i t i v e or immobilized under stress. (CQ39) -.35 -.28 -.41 -.31 -.28 .71 7. Emotional reactions are inappropriate. (CQ91) -.16 -.13 -.35 -.11 -.17 .86 8. Is v i s i b l y deviant from peers. (CQ27) -.23 -.13 -.51 -.06 -.26 .87 Items TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r r o .age Classes Cluster 2. Unusual Behaviors, cont'd .age Classes Combined maximum (c<item) ( =<rank) 9. Becomes anxious when environment is unpredictable or poorly structured. (CQ60) -.40 10. Communicates verbal messages clearly. (Q38) .42 11. Understands standard school procedures. (Q69) .41 12. Becomes strongly involved in what (s)he does. (CQ74) .23 13. Becomes involved in whatever (s)he does. (Q12) .32 14. Has an active fantasy l i f e . (CQ97) -.07 15. Responds to humour. (CQ73) .00 .13 .29 .02 .52 .16 .17 .13 .40 .53: .62 .24 .37 .14 .30 .16 .08 .22 .01 .06 .15 .29 .30 .27 .18 .23 .26 .19 .10 .85 .80 .88 .73 .75 .36 .70 Items TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r r o .age Classes Cluster 3. S k i l l f u l . 1. Is a g i l e and well coordinated. (CQ51) .16 .23 .23 2. Well coordinated and a g i l e . (Q3) .26 .17 .29 3. Is competent, s k i l l f u l . (CQ89) .27 .25 .35 4. Appears to have high i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity. (CQ68) .21 .31 .26 5 . Is p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , good looking. (CQ92) .09 .29 .16 6. Is an i n t e r e s t i n g , arresting c h i l d . (CQ42) .16 .26 .14 7. Tends to arouse l i k i n g i n adults. (CQ30) -.08 .26 .12 r r • age maximum Classes Combined 3 ^^C^Item) (£<rank) .01 .17 .85 .24 .23 .84 .02 .22 .87 .11 .20 .83 .07 .14 .82 .01 .22 .85 -.29 .09 .86 Items TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r r o . age Classes 1 2 Cluster 3. Sk i l l f u l , cont'd 8. Stretches to meet demands for excellence. (Q53) .25 9. Sets goals which stretch her/his abilities. (Q42) .17 10. Has high standards of performance for self. (CQ47) .23 11. Is physically active. (CQ26) .32 12. Is curious and exploring; eager for new experiences. (CQ40) .09 13. Uncurious about the new. (Ql7) -.15 14. Likes to learn new cognitive s k i l l s . (Q6) .04 .28 .29 .32 .31 .28 .33 .32 .51 .33 .54 .12 .28 .29 .02 r .age Classes Combined 3 .16 .21 .65 .14 .14 .77 .24 .19 .42 .32 .26 .77 .23 .12 .78 .06 .03 .63 .39 .04 .46 maximum *\ (o* item) ( rank) TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks Items r o 1 r • age Classes 2 Classes 3 r • age Combined ^ 'maximum ^ («* item. ) (°< Cluster 4. Predominantly good mood. 1. Is cheerful. (CQ75) .18 .36 .07 -.21 .18 .89 2. Is warm and responsive. (CQ3) .23 .37 .18 .24 .19 .86 3. Is calm and relaxed; easy-going. (CQ64) -.12 .21 -.10 -.36 -.12 .84 4. Content, cheerful attitude. (Q56) .06 .30 • 1 2 .24 .09 .89 5. Friendly attitude to staff. (058) .01 .32 .02 .05 .07 .68 6. Tends to be proud of own accomplishments. (CQ16) .08 .42 -.06 .13 .13 .50 7. Has rapid shifts in mood; emotionally labile. (CQ54) .12 .09 .38 .27 .27 .80 8. Tends to be suspicious & mistrusts others. (CQ79) -.14 -.17 .04 .08 -.10 .79 9. Expressive of positive emotions. (Q29) .19 .34 .08 .03 .17 .78 10. Tends to brood, ruminate or worry. (CQ24) -.37 -.53 -.18 -.24 -.32 .86 o TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks I t e m s ro r.age Classes 1 2 Cluster 5. Overreactivity. 1. Overreacts to frustration; easily irritated. (CQ95) -.02 -.46 .08 2. Easily upset. (Q26) -.06 -.48 .07 3. Cries easily. (CQ33) -.06 -.22 .02 4. Reverts to immature behavior under stress. (CQ12) -.21 -.36 .00 5. Tends to be sulky or whiny. (CQ94) .02 -.44 .00 6. Is jealous and envious of others. (CQ56) -.05 -.37 -.01 7. Tends to dramatize or exaggerate mishaps. (CQ57) .01 -.54 -.08 8. Is stubborn. (CQ90) .01 -.34 .10 9. Is easily offended, sensitive to criticism. (CQ78) -.19 -.48 .01 • age Classes Combined maximum N (*»<-item) (shrank) .50 .04 .80 .52 .02 .86 .44 .11 .81 .50 .00 .85 .43 .05 .84 .21 .04 .79 .43 .01 .71 .53 .21 .78 .28 -.11 .76 Items TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks ro r ° .age Classes Cluster 6. Considerate, Empathic. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Helpful to peers. Sympathetic towards peer's distress. Sows a recognition of other's feelings; empthic. Is considerate of other children. Considerate. Tends to give, lend, share. Unwilling to share possessions. Shows concern for moral issues: e.g. fairness, reciprocity. Is protective of others. (Q35) (Q7) (CQ31) (CQ2) (Q55) (CQ32) (Q63) (CQ15) (CQ29) .15 .01 .03 .02 .01 -.11 -.09 .31 .13 .06 -.04 .05 .04 .14 .17 -.30 .22 .09 .30 .14 .03 -.05 .00 .27 .06 .15 .10 • age Classes Combined maximum N (<*-item)(<*rank) .27 .46 .08 .05 .84 .72 .40 .37 .33 .48 .42 .04 .08 .03 .24 .03 .78 .81 .70 .60 .52 .23 .32 .06 -.06 .76 .85 TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks Items r 0 1 r • age Classes 2 Cluster 7. Aggressive. 1. Insulting. (Q70) .28 -.05 .31 2. Feis t y . (Q48) .34 .05 .25 3. Is aggressive. (CQ85) .34 -.03 .31 4. B u l l i e s other children. (Q54) .43 .01 .35 5. Tries to manipulate others by i n g r a t i a t i o n . (CQ22) .18 -.15 -.20 6. Tries to take advantage of others. (CQ20) .17 -.01 -.08 7. Attempts to transfer blame to others. (CQll) .20 -.36 .10 8. Blame avoidant. (Q65) -.08 -.34 .10 .age Classes Combined maximum £><item) (=* rank) .42 .26 .86 .63 .34 .83 .46 .27 .80 .49 .29 .87 .41 .09 .62 .47 .14 .76 .64 .22 .79 -.07 -.20 .65 Items TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r r o -age Classes.-.age Classes Combined maximum («*• item) («*• rank) Cluster 8. Autonomous vs. Dependent. 1. Seeks to be independent and autonomous. (CQ83) .40 2. Looks to adults for help and d i r e c t i o n . (CQ71) -.34 3. Seeks reassurance from others about s e l f worth(CQ48) -.42 4. Tends to imitate & take over c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those (s)he admires. (CQ87) -.25 .26 .07 .31 .18 .60 .55 .48 .37 .19 .09 .11 .02 .29 .19 .24 .16 .81 .75 .55 .66 Cluster 9. Contact Seeking with Adults. 1. Seeks contact with adults. (Q46) .07 2. Forms attachments to teachers. (Q25) -.07 3. A c t i v e l y enjoys being teacher's helper. (Q44) .29 .21 .05 .27 .45 .32 .12 .11 .18 .05 .05 .09 .17 .85 .73 .69 Items TABLE 4 Clustered Q Noncorrelates of Attention Structure Ranks r r o .age Classes .age Classes Combined maximum (o<-item) («*rank) Cluster 10. Creative, Original. 1. Creative and original with materials. (Q64) .14 2. Ordinary, unoriginal in verbal behavior. (Q66) -.08 3. Is creative in perception, thought work or play. (CQ96) .13 .39 -.34 .15 .16 .10 .23 .15 .07 .09 .25 -.20 .14 .54 .65 .67 * - p <.01 ** - p ^  .001 TABLE 5 C l u s t e r s S i g n i f i c a n t l y C o r r e l a t e d With Look ing Rank: Age C o n t r o l l e d (N= 56) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. S o c i a l l y S k i l l e d 2 . Conf ident vs Anxious .82 3 . Purpos i ve . 8 1 .81 4. F e e l s G u i l t y - . 7 5 , - : 7 3 -».68 5 . D i r e c t and P e r s i s t e n t .68 .81 .74 - . 5 1 6 . A c t i v e and E n e r g e t i c . 8 1 .72 .59 - . 4 7 ,64 7. Does not h e s i t a t e to engage .60 .75 .52 - . 3 6 .74 .69 8 . Impuls ive vs R e f l e c t i v e .25 .45 .23 - . 1 2 .45 .63 9 . Open and S t r a i g h t f o r w a r d .37 .51 .38 - . 3 4 .52 .35 Look rank .62 .50 .42 - . 3 5 .53 .45 TABLE 6 C l u s t e r s Not S i g n i f i c a n t l y C o r r e l a t e d w i t h Looking Rank Age C o n t r o l l e d (N = 56) 1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 1. Manageable 2 . Aggress i ve - . 8 3 3 . Cons iderate .79 - . 7 6 4 . O v e r - r e a c t i v e - . 6 6 .67 - . 6 8 5 . Predominant good mood . 5 1 - . 4 5 .52 - . 6 8 6. Seeks adu l t company .30 - . 1 9 .31 - . 0 6 .32 7. Unusual behav io r - . 3 2 .10 - . 3 1 .32 - . 6 2 - . 1 2 8. S k i l l f u l / l i k e d by a d u l t s .15 - . 1 2 .17 - . 4 3 .53 .04 - . 7 5 9 . C r e a t i v e .02 - . 0 3 .03 - . 2 5 .24 .12 - . 2 7 .58 10. Autonomous - . 1 2 .13 - . 1 0 - . 1 4 - . 0 8 - . 4 0 - . 2 6 .47 .17 Look rank .26 .27 - . 0 5 .06 .11 - . 0 2 - . 2 8 .22 .23 .29 TABLE 7 Intercorrelations Among Clusters of Items S i g n i f i c a n t l y and Not S i g n i f i c a n t l y Correlated with Looking Rank: Age Controlled (N= 56) cu a > u 4J 4-1 •H a rH rH > rt 4-> rt x) 3 ^2 •H U c o XI CEJ CO CU rt •H O <3 CU CO 13 cu 0 S3 60 0) •H u o CO « rt u CO u pi 60 C cu QJ- O QJ £ OS1 60 o > U O cu o s <J o o PL, O co o M O •H > rt .£ cu m rt 3 CO - 3 B .JO X) CU ^> •H 3 "4-1 CO iH 4J iH i—I • H - 3 ^ XI co <! cu > •H 4J rt or O 10 3 o § c o 4J 3 <3 1. S o c i a l l y s k i l l e d 114 -.06 i26 -.32 2. Confident vs anxious -.04 .16 .13 -.22 3. Purposive .22 -.13 .36 -.42 4. Feels g u i l t y -.21 .18 -.33 .37 5. Direct and Persisten -.22 .31 .05 .01 6. Active and energetic -.33 .31 -.16 -.16 7. Does not hesitate to engage-.47 .57 -.22 .12 8. Impulsive vs r e f l e c t i v e -.69 .63 -.52 .39 9. Open and straightforward -.25 .24 -.05 .19 .56 .59 .54 -.69 .20 .27 .19 -.07 .14 ft .09 .13 .06 .05 .12 .18 .09 .13 .21 ,78 ,79 ,76 .77 ,62 ,43 ,33 ,01 .24 ft .71 .74 .74 -.69 .58 .75 .38 .19 .18 * .48 .36 .31 -.37 .29 .46 .31 .20 .08 ..31 .28 .45 .21 .39 .47 .26 .12 .23 CO FIGURE 1 Diagram of Clustered Q-Correlates of Attention Structure Ranks ,„1_ .2 .3 .6_ .7 .8 '.9_ •1.0 .74 79 .37 ,48 ,28 .51 ,65 33 S o c i a l l y Confident Purposive Guilty Direct Active•& Engages R e f l e c t i v e Open and S k i l l e d vs & Energetic Others vs Straightforward Anxious Persistent Impulsive FIGURE 2, I Diagram of C lus te red Q Noncor re la tes of A t t e n t i o n S t ruc tu re ' Ranks 4 5 6 7 .48 .52 .34 .24 ,37 .20 15 .22 Manageable Aggress ive Cons iderate Over- Predom- Seeks Unusual S k i l l f u l C r e a t i v e Autonomous React i ve i n a n t A d u l t Behav iors Good Mood Contacts Ln O 

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