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Personality and value characteristics of volunteers and professionals at three different social service… Merritt, Nancy Gail 1977

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PERSONALITY AND VALUE CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLUNTEERS AND PROFESSIONALS AT THREE DIFFERENT SOCIAL SERVICE AGENCIES by NANCY GAIL MERRITT B.Sc., D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y ,  1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Psychology)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  June 1977  0  Nancy G a i l M e r r i t t , 1977.  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  permission  purposes  for  freely  may  financial  is  of  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  WS6s  ATI  British  by  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  available  permission.  Department  Date  it  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  of my  copying  this  that  study. thesis  Department or  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  i  ABSTRACT  The Personality Research Form-E (Jackson, 1974), the Value Survey (Rokeach, 1967) 1976)  and the Personal Description Questionnaire (Wiggins,  were administered to 79 volunteers  and 32 professionals from  three s o c i a l service agencies., These agencies included Alternatives Drug Abuse Program, a program for the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of ex-drug addicts, the C r i s i s Centre which operated telephone hotlines f o r i n d i v i d u a l s experiencing  emotional d i s t r e s s , and the St. John Ambulance Brigade  which provided  emergency help to physical c r i s i s situations.  These  agencies d i f f e r e d i n terms of their service roles which were described as "emotional n o n c r i s i s " , "emotional c r i s i s " and "physical c r i s i s " , respectively. A comparison of the three volunteer  groups revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t  relationship between agency role and the personality, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s volunteers.  The Alternatives volunteers  values more highly than the St. John group who, t r a d i t i o n a l values as more important.  held self-enhancement i n turn, regarded  The Alternatives group also  scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the dimensions of Autonomy, Sentience, and Understanding and lower on Nurturance and Succorance than the St. John group.  On a l l of the dependent measures the scores of the  C r i s i s Centre or "emotional c r i s i s " group f e l l between those of the other two  groups —  the "emotional n o n c r i s i s " and the "physical c r i s i s "  groups. Comparing a l l volunteers with a l l professionals revealed related to t h e i r respective status l e v e l s .  differences  The differences, wherein  ii  the professionals were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more dominant, extroverted, e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c and achievement-oriented,  were discussed i n  terms of the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y assumed by the two groups. A f i n a l comparison involved determining how closely the volunteers and professionals from the same agency resembled each other.  The  results of t h i s investigation revealed that the volunteers were closer, i n terms of values and personality, to professionals at their own agencies than to volunteers from other agencies.  The implications of  these findings towards the development of e f f e c t i v e selection, placement and evaluation techniques for volunteers at different agencies were discussed.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of F i g u r e s Acknowledgements  Introduction Method Subjects Test M a t e r i a l s Procedure Results D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n . Reference Notes References  xv  LIST OF TABLES  Page Table 1. Table 2.  Personality Realms ( i . e . , Dimensions) Identified by Reddy and Smith (1972)  12  The 22 PRF Dimensions C l a s s i f i e d According to Higher-Order Factors  25  Table 3.  Rokeach's Value Survey - Form D  30  Table 4.  Higher-Order Factors Associated with the Items of Rokeach's Value Survey A Breakdown of Subjects According to Agency and Status  45  A Comparison of the Volunteer Groups on Selected Demographic Variables  46  Mean Educational Levels of the Volunteer Groups  47  Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8.  36  A Breakdown on M a r i t a l Status of the Volunteer Groups  48  Table 9.  Mean Service Lengths of Participant Groups  49  Table 10.  A Comparison of Volunteers and Professionals on Selected Demographic Variables  50  Table 11.  Variable Groupings for Manovas  54  Table 12.  Results of Manovas Performed i n the Comparison of the Volunteer Groups S i g n i f i c a n t Scheffe Tests i n the Comparison of the Volunteer Groups Hotelling T Tests Performed i n the Comparison of the Volunteers and Professionals  Table 13. Table 14.  Table 15. Table 16.  55 56  2  58  S i g n i f i c a n t _t-Tests i n the Comparison of Volunteers and Professionals  59  Results of Manovas Performed i n the Comparison of the Six Groups  60  LIST OF TABLES  (continued)  Page T a b l e 17.  T a b l e 18.  S i g n i f i c a n t S c h e f f e T e s t s i n the Comparison of the S i x Groups  61  R e s u l t s o f Two-Way (Agency x S t a t u s ) Anovas i n the Comparison of the S i x Groups  63  T a b l e 19.  C o r r e l a t i o n s of S i g n i f i c a n t Demographic V a r i a b l e s w i t h S i g n i f i c a n t Dependent V a r i a b l e s f o r the V o l u n t e e r Sample 65  T a b l e 20.  The R e l a t i o n s h i p of M a r i t a l S t a t u s to PRF Autonomy S c a l e Score f o r the V o l u n t e e r Sample  66  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  Page Figure  1.  The Dimensions of L e a r y ' s (1957) I n t e r p e r s o n a l Circumplex and Wiggins' (1976) I n t e r p e r s o n a l Circumplex  40  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o express my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n to t h e members of my t h e s i s committee: and  Dr. J e r r y Wiggins.  Dr. Park Davidson ( A d v i s o r ) , Dr. Lynn A l d e n The s u g g e s t i o n s ,  encouragement each o f them gave me d u r i n g  c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and t h i s p e r i o d were i n v a l u a b l e  each d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a committee member was t r u l y s t i m u l a t i n g , i n c r e a s i n g my i n t e r e s t i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h ,  i n general,  and i n  this topic, i n particular. I am a l s o indebted  t o my l o v i n g husband, David M i c h e l , who has  warmly supported me as I have worked on my t h e s i s d u r i n g two  months o f our m a r r i a g e .  the f i r s t  —  1  INTRODUCTION  The  Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development r e c e n t l y conducted a  study e n t i t l e d Agencies" survey  "Voluntary  ( C a r t e r , 1975).  of 1119  Support f o r Nongovernmental S o c i a l The  f i r s t p a r t of the study  involved a  persons s e l e c t e d randomly from w i t h i n the major economic  r e g i o n s of Canada which were r e p r e s e n t e d population size. agencies,  Service  A survey  proportionately according  of the a t t i t u d e s of 172  social service  w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n of v o l u n t e e r s ,  followed.  R e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t , a t the time of the (1974-5), approximately  to  25% of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n over 14  study years  of age were c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n v o l u n t a r y work i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e realm i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s .  An a d d i t i o n a l 25%  of the n a t i o n a l sample were i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r k i n d s of v o l u n t e e r t i v i t y i n c l u d i n g f i n a n c i a l support of s e l f " (e.g., b l o o d d o n a t i o n s ) , management and  board work.  to nongovernmental a g e n c i e s ,  ac"gifts  c i v i c and p o l i t i c a l endeavours,  Moreover, 27.5%  of these  and  i n d i v i d u a l s not  i n v o l v e d i n a n y t y p e of v o l u n t e e r .behaviour r e p o r t e d t h a t they would become i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e v o l u n t e e r work i f asked.  This  "non-  i n v o l v e d " group i n d i c a t e d t h a t " l a c k of awareness" of need and/or s e r v i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s was  t h e i r primary reason  f o r not b e i n g  F u r t h e r study of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e v o l u n t e e r s r e v e a l e d t h a t segment i n c l u d e d s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n s of both male and volunteers  (44.5% and  55.5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , s i g n i f i c a n t  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by a l l age  groups from 14 y e a r s  this  female  percentage-wise  to r e t i r e m e n t  people r e p r e s e n t i n g a c r o s s s e c t i o n of economic and  involved.  age,  and  e d u c a t i o n a l back-  2  grounds.  Information derived  from the a g e n c i e s showed t h a t the v o l u n -  teers i n d i v i d u a l l y contributed  an average o f 2-5 hours/week i n one o r  more o f a wide range of s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ,  i n most cases composed a  l a r g e r corps than the p a i d s t a f f a t the a g e n c i e s ,  and were  by most a g e n c i e s as i n t e g r a l t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n g . t i o n a l information  was o b t a i n e d  r e p o r t o f which i n c l u d e d  described  A wealth of addi-  as a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e  the conclusion  t h a t the v o l u n t e e r  and p o t e n t i a l -  volunteer  s e c t o r s c o n s t i t u t e d an "untapped p o t e n t i a l " i n Canadian  society.  This report  i n supporting  included  and o r g a n i z i n g  s u g g e s t i o n s f o r governmental involvement  this valuable  human r e s o u r c e  along  with  a commendation t o the government f o r i t s reawakened i n t e r e s t i n " t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c i t i z e n s t o be i n v o l v e d i n s o l v i n g t h e i r own s o c i a l problems a t a v a r i e t y o f l e v e l s . " T h i s d e t a i l e d study by the Canadian government i s one o f many conducted i n N o r t h America w i t h i n the l a s t t e r i z e d by i n c r e a s e d v o l u n t a r y  15 y e a r s ,  a period  charac-  a c t i v i t y on the p a r t o f a widening  segment of s o c i e t y as w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t  volunteers  may be e f f e c t i v e i n a v a r i e t y of d i v e r s e and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . Many o f these s t u d i e s have i n v o l v e d examining the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of volunteers.  A comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p e r s o n a -  l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , values i n t e n t i o n o f some r e s e a r c h e r s  and a t t i t u d e s o f v o l u n t e e r s (cf., Adler  & Graubert, 1975; Hersch,  K u l i k & Scheibe, 1969; Horn, 1973; Knapp & Holzberg, i n the m o t i v a t i o n  of v o l u n t e e r s ,  s o c i a l service provides  has been the  1964).  Interest  r e a l i z i n g t h a t the area o f v o l u n t a r y  an o p p o r t u n i t y  b e h a v i o u r , has c h a r a c t e r i z e d o t h e r  f o r the study of a l t r u i s t i c  studies  ( c f . , Gelineau  & Kantor,  3  1964;  Howarth, 1976; Smith & Nelson, 1975).  e f f e c t i v e s e l e c t i o n and s c r e e n i n g voluntary  Attempts a t d e v i s i n g  procedures f o r v o l u n t e e r s f o r  p o s i t i o n s have m o t i v a t e d o t h e r s t u d i e s  various  i n t h i s area ( c f . ,  Jamison & Johnson, 1975) as have e f f o r t s t o develop s u i t a b l e t r a i n i n g programmes f o r v o l u n t e e r s r e s e a r c h e r s have s t u d i e d  ( c f . , Gray, Nida & C o o n f i e l d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of c e r t a i n  v a r i a b l e s o f v o l u n t e e r s t o degree o f s u c c e s s f u l n e s s tions The  ( c f . , Ansel,  1972; M u l l i n s ,  working c o n d i t i o n s been a s s e s s e d personality  personality posi-  & Tulkin,  1974).  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under d i f f e r e n t  (e.g., d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s u p e r v i s i o n )  (cf., Karlsruher,  Some  i n various  1973; Tapp, S l a i k e u  expression of c e r t a i n personality  1976).  1976).  Investigators  has a l s o  have a s s e s s e d  changes r e s u l t i n g from v o l u n t e e r t r a i n i n g ( c f . , Doyle,  Foreman & Wales, 1977; Sakowitz & Hirschman, 1975) and a l s o changes a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h long-term v o l u n t e e r involvement  Wormith, Kennedy & D a i g l e - Z i n n ,  personality  ( c f . , Andrews,  1977; H o l z b e r g & G e w i r t z , 1963;  H o l z b e r g , Gewirtz & Ebner, 1964). A v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s have been u t i l i z e d  i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  of the p e r s o n a l i t y and v a l u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v o l u n t e e r s . s t u d i e s have used well-known p e r s o n a l i t y  t e s t s comprised of a number  of d i f f e r e n t dimensions such as t h e C a l i f o r n i a P e r s o n a l i t y ( c f . , Hersch e t a l . , 1969) or C a t t e l l ' s 16 P e r s o n a l i t y (cf.,  Smith & Nelson, 1975).  Structured  Some  Inventory  Factor  Scale  t e s t s designed t o measure  o n l y one dimension such as the Marlowe-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e have a l s o been i n c l u d e d G e l i n e a u and Kantor  i n some b a t t e r i e s  (1964), among o t h e r s ,  techniques i n d e s c r i b i n g  ( c f . , Hersch e t a l . , 1969). have u t i l i z e d  the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f v o l u n t e e r s .  projective In assessing  4  the e x t e n t of f a c i l i t a t i v e q u a l i t i e s such as warmth, genuineness, empathy expressed by v o l u n t e e r s working on telephone  crisis  and  lines,  Gray e t a l . , (1976) employed t h e i r Empathic L i s t e n i n g T e s t , a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t completed by the t e s t e e upon h e a r i n g segments of calls.  Other r e s e a r c h e r s of telephone  c r i s i s v o l u n t e e r s have r a t e d c a l l s  by v o l u n t e e r s u s i n g the Truax and Carkhuff ditions  ( c f . , Knickerbocker,  g a t o r s have developed  1972;  t h e i r own  s c a l e s of f a c i l i t a t i v e  Tapp e t a l . , 1974).  M u l l i n s , 1973).  & Gewirtz,  task i n determining  d i s t a n c e s v o l u n t e e r s p e r c e i v e d between themselves and relevant stimulus I t was  behaviour  1963;  F i n a l l y , A d l e r and Graubert  employed a manual f i g u r e - p l a c e m e n t  con-  Some i n v e s t i -  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s of a t t i t u d e s ,  and other p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( c f . , Holzberg e t a l . , 1967;  taped  the  Holzberg  (1975) social  several socially-  items.  the i n t e n t i o n of the p r e s e n t  study to determine which, of  a wide range of v a l u e s and p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s , were r e l a t e d  to  voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t  Stan-  types of s o c i a l s e r v i c e .  d a r d i z e d w r i t t e n t e s t s which i n c l u d e s e v e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y and dimensions were employed.  value  F i v e major s t u d i e s have been performed i n  the p a s t where r e s e a r c h e r s surveyed  a group of p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s  by means of s t r u c t u r e d paper and p e n c i l t e s t s i n a s s o c i a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r factors with volunteer Knapp and Holzberg  activity.  (196 4) s t u d i e d 85 male c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s  v i s i t e d c h r o n i c mental p a t i e n t s on a weekly b a s i s , comparing s c o r e s on the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory Edwards P e r s o n a l P r e f e r e n c e Schedule Study of Values  (AVLS),  (EPPS),  who  their  (MMPI),  Allport-Vernon-Lindzey  S c h o l a s t i c Aptitude Test  (SAT)  and  the Terman  5  Concept Mastery  Test  (TCMT) to those of a group of n o n v o l u n t e e r  stu-  dents s e l e c t e d randomly from the same c l a s s e s from which the v o l u n t e e r s came.  No d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups were found on the MMPI  nor on the TCMT or SAT,  both of which a s s e s s i n t e l l e c t u a l  ability.  On the EPPS the v o l u n t e e r s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on Need I n t r a c e p t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on Need Change.  On  the AVLS v o l u n t e e r s  ranked economic v a l u e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower and r e l i g i o u s and o r i e n t e d v a l u e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than n o n v o l u n t e e r s . concluded  t h a t t h e i r f i n d i n g s r e f u t e d any  socially-  The  authors  t h e o r y of u n s t a b l e or morbid  personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s motivating volunteer p a r t i c i p a t i o n  with  mental p a t i e n t s but r a t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t the v o l u n t e e r s were, ... more i d e a l i s t i c i n temper, more capable of g e n e r o s i t y , l e s s concerned w i t h p e r s o n a l g a i n , and more r e s p o n s i v e to r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s than the nonv o l u n t e e r s , (p. 85) Hersch e t a l . (1969) compared male and with nonvolunteers  female  student v o l u n t e e r s  s i m i l a r w i t h r e s p e c t to s e v e r a l important  v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g age,  expected  religious orientation etc.  year of g r a d u a t i o n , f a m i l y income and  These v o l u n t e e r s worked f u l l - t i m e ,  the course of a summer, w i t h c h r o n i c mental p a t i e n t s . ments i n c l u d e d the C a l i f o r n i a P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y jective  Check L i s t  demographic  Research  (CPI), the  over instruAd-  (ACL), the I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l S c a l e (I-E S c a l e ) ,  the Marlowe- Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e (MC-SDS), the Strong V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t Blank designed to e l i c i t  (SVIB) and  a biographical questionnaire  i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s .  The  findings revealed  t h a t a l t h o u g h some d i f f e r e n c e s between v o l u n t e e r s and  nonvolunteers  were p r e s e n t f o r both male and female  volunteer-non-  s u b j e c t s , other  6  v o l u n t e e r d i f f e r e n c e s were t r u e f o r o n l y one  sex.  For example, on  the CPI, male v o l u n t e e r s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on s c a l e s of S o c i a b i l i t y and on the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e . volunteers.  Only  S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e and  than c o n t r o l males  significantly  These d i f f e r e n c e s d i d not e x i s t f o r female  female v o l u n t e e r s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  s c a l e s of I n t e l l e c t u a l E f f i c i e n c y , P s y c h o l o g i c a l - M i n d e d n e s s Both male and  female v o l u n t e e r s were h i g h e r on these  Achievement v i a Independence, F l e x i b i l i t y , Control.  On  higher  on  and  Tolerance.  dimensions:  Good Impression  and  the ACL male v o l u n t e e r s surpassed n o n v o l u n t e e r s  Self-  on  Abasement w h i l e female v o l u n t e e r s s c o r e d h i g h e r than female c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s on S e l f - C o n t r o l and Achievement and and  Succorance.  lower  on H e t e r o s e x u a l i t y  No d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n v o l u n t e e r s and  were found on the I-E S c a l e nor on the MC-SDS. of both male and  nonvolunteers  Vocational interests  female v o l u n t e e r s r e v e a l e d a g r e a t e r p r o p e n s i t y t o -  wards c a r e e r s i n the independent p r o f e s s i o n s , i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e and i n areas r e l y i n g upon l i t e r a l or a r t i s t i c  skills.  V o l u n t e e r s were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y less interested i n careers i n business, entrepreneurial and n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l a r e a s . t e e r s were found  On  to be more i n t e r e s t e d i n mental h e a l t h f i e l d s and  be more l i k e l y to be m a j o r i n g nonvolunteers.  the b i o g r a p h i c a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e v o l u n -  i n psychology  and  related fields  extracurricular activities.  and  than  In a d d i t i o n , v o l u n t e e r s were more l i k e l y to have been  i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r types of v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t y i n c l u d i n g  authors  to  concluded  college-related  At the end of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n  t h a t t h e i r v o l u n t e e r group tended  to be,  "...  c o n t r o l l e d , o r i e n t e d toward independent achievement, and  to people and human problems."  the mature  sensitive  7  Horn (1973) compared t h r e e matched groups of persons who w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r involvement  differed  i n voluntary s o c i a l service.  The  groups i n c l u d e d a "high r i s k " group comprised of v o l u n t e e r s who w i t h persons e x p e r i e n c i n g e m o t i o n a l  dealt  or s i t u a t i o n a l s t r e s s , a "low  group d e f i n e d as i n c l u d i n g v o l u n t e e r s working w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s were e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , and utilized  a nonvolunteer  the Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e  c o n t r o l group.  risk"  who  Horn  (TSCS) as a measure of  g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the Fundamental I n t e r p e r s o n a l Relations Orientation-Behavior q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed  (FIRO-B), and h i s own  concept  to e l i c i t v a l u e and m o t i v a t i o n a l  domain  responses.  Horn d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the t h r e e groups c o u l d not be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms of s e l f - c o n c e p t or p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Other  r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t the v o l u n t e e r s d i s p l a y e d l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y conflict  i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s than n o n v o l u n t e e r s  and  and  t h a t they  ex-  p r e s s e d a g r e a t e r a f f i n i t y f o r c l o s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and community-centered v a l u e s more h i g h l y . d i f f e r e d from the "low  The  "high r i s k "  held  volunteers  r i s k " v o l u n t e e r s i n p o s s e s s i n g more s e l f - a c t u -  a l i z i n g v a l u e s and a g r e a t e r degree of p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e g r a t i o n . Smith and Nelson  (1975) compared B i g B r o t h e r v o l u n t e e r s w i t h  v o l u n t e e r s on C a t t e l l ' s  16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r S c a l e  (16 PF)  non-  i n attemp-  t i n g to i d e n t i f y p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e l p i n g behaviour.  In comparing the l a r g e groups (n e x p e r i m e n t a l  n c o n t r o l = 699)  the v o l u n t e e r s were found  to s c o r e  =571  and  significantly  h i g h e r on the Outgoing, Happy-Go-Lucky,. Venturesome and  Superego d i -  mensions and  lower on the s c a l e s l a b e l l e d  Shrewd, L i b e r a l and  Self-  Sufficient.  F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d d i v i d i n g the s u b j e c t s by  age  8  into groups composed of people older than or equal to 41 years of age, or under 40 years of age. The investigators subsequently  discovered  that superego strength, venturesomeness and shrewdness were related to volunteering for subjects i n the "41 or older" age group only, and that l i b e r a l i s m and volunteering were correlated only for those persons i n the "under 41" age range.  I t was also discovered that f o r subjects  under 41 years of age, the volunteers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y less imaginative.  Smith and Nelson have l e f t their readers with a description of  volunteers as, ... outgoing, warm hearted, ... easygoing ... happygo-lucky ... enthusiastic ... s o c i a l l y bold ... uninhibited ... spontaneous ... unsophisticated (and) natural ... (tending to) look for s o c i a l contacts and f i n d them rewarding ... group-dependent ... a c t i v e l y seeking s o c i a l approval and the admiration of other people ... conservative, respecting of established ideas and ... disinterested i n rigorous a n a l y t i c a l thought. (pp. 308-309) Howarth (1976) studied 374 female volunteers representing a wide variety of organizations i n the province of Alberta and compared them to norms for both female students and female adults which he had a l ready established for his multidimensional personality scale.  Signifi-  cant differences between the volunteer group and one or both of the normative groups were found on 4 of the 10 scales.  Volunteers  scored  higher on the Superego scale, the Persistence scale and the Trustversus-Suspicion scale than either normative group.  In addition, they  displayed less anxiety than the student normative group.  Howarth  cautioned his readers that the volunteer group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f ferent on some demographic variables from either control group.  The  mean age of the volunteers group was 37 years whereas those of the  9  normative adult and students groups were 27 years and 21.5 years, respectively.  Furthermore, i t should also be noted that the student control  group would l i k e l y have possessed  greater homogeneity than either of  the other two groups as a r e s u l t of their common vocation ( a l l were students), similar educational l e v e l , and r e l a t i v e l y confined age range. The volunteer group, on the other hand, included subjects from 21 to 60 years of age.  Howarth extended h i s s t a t i s t i c a l analysis by dividing  the volunteers into four groups according to age and then more comparisons.  performing  Howarth found that among volunteer groups the  Anxiety dimension decreased and the Superego and Trust-versus Suspicion dimensions increased with age.  Nevertheless, the differences between  the student control group and a volunteer group aged 21-30  years were  i n the same d i r e c t i o n s as previously found when the whole volunteer group was  considered. On the basis of his findings Howarth described  the volunteer as, ... one who has a well-developed s o c i a l conscience and concern for the welfare of others, who i s r e l a t i v e l y low i n anxiety (neurosis) manifestations ... who i s trusting and persistent. (p. 857). The i n d i v i d u a l design c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f i v e studies described can be evaluated favourably.  Four of the studies have included widely-  researched test instruments and the f i f t h study (Howarth, u t i l i z e d a r e l a t i v e l y new. 10-dimensional the researcher himself.  1976)  personality test developed  by  Some of the studies were fortunate i n securing  very large groups (e.g., Howarth, 1976 used 370 volunteers and Smith & Nelson, 1975,  had 571 volunteers i n their experimental group),  maximizing the p r o b a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g the experimental  thereby  and  10  c o n t r o l groups on the s c a l e s employed. three studies  (Hersch e t a l . , 1969;  The group s i z e s of the o t h e r  Horn, 1973;  1964), though s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r ,  Knapp & H o l z b e r g ,  were a l s o of s u f f i c i e n t magnitudes  to a l l o w r e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s to be employed i n t h e i r analyses.  In Horn's (1973) study the c o n t r o l and two  experimental  groups were matched on a l l important demographic v a r i a b l e s . b o t h Hersch e t a l . (1969) and Knapp & H o l z b e r g s i m i l a r i t y between v o l u n t e e r and nonvolunteer v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d  Similarly,  (1964) i n v e s t i g a t e d groups w i t h r e s p e c t  p o t e n t i a l l y be confounding, but both found  the to  no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups on these v a r i a b l e s .  Smith and Nelson  (1975) d i d not r e p o r t  a  comparison  on demographic v a r i a b l e s between t h e i r v o l u n t e e r group and c o n t r o l the l a t t e r which c o n s i s t e d Virginia.  group.,  of a p r o b a b i l i t y sample of male r e s i d e n t s  F i n a l l y , Howarth (1976) had  large differences  of  i n h i s group  sizes. There was  a l i m i t a t i o n i n the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure used i n each  of these s t u d i e s  i n that  m u l t i v a r i a t e procedure  the a u t h o r s n e g l e c t e d to take advantage of a  f o r c o n t r o l l i n g experiment-wise  the event o f a l a r g e number of dependent v a r i a b l e s . studies,  s e p a r a t e fr- t e s t s were performed  error rate i n  In each of these  f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e  r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h p r o b a b i l i t i e s of a l p h a e r r o r s c o n t a m i n a t i n g t h e i r results.  For example, i n Knapp and H o l z b e r g ' s  (1964) study which i n -  c l u d e d 35 dependent v a r i a b l e s , the p r o b a b i l i t y o f having made an a l p h a e r r o r i n the a n a l y s i s was .70.  .83.  of t h r e e a l p h a e r r o r s was  studies,  t h e r e was  The p r o b a b i l i t y o f two .58,  and so on.  alpha e r r o r s  In each of these  a p r o b a b i l i t y of a t least .40 t h a t one or more  was  11  variable  i d e n t i f i e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y  r e s u l t of a s t a t i s t i c a l riate and  sequence  Sligo  of  statistical  ( 1 9 7 1 ) was  a relatively  error.  followed.  d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n g r o u p s was  I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a more a n a l y s i s w h i c h was  the  approp-  recommended by Hummel  This procedure, e f f e c t i v e i n maintaining  low experiment-wise e r r o r r a t e w i t h o u t b e i n g e x t r e m e l y  c o n s e r v a t i v e , w i l l be f u r t h e r  e l a b o r a t e d i n the R e s u l t s s e c t i o n of  this  paper. Reddy and  Smith  ( 1 9 7 2 ) , h a v i n g r e v i e w e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e on  measurement o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ,  have i d e n t i f i e d  " n i n e commonly  found realms or c l u s t e r s of r e l a t e d k i n d s of p e r s o n a l i t y The of  dimensions may  traits."  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s a r e f o u n d i n T a b l e 1. the f i v e  the  The  results  s t u d i e s p r e s e n t e d a b o v e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f i n an e f f o r t  be r e l a t e d  to i d e n t i f y personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t o b e i n g i n v o l v e d as a s o c i a l  these  which  service volunteer i n  general. Reddy and S m i t h ' s  f i r s t dimension, measuring  sociability, affiliation,  s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e response  versus introversion, d i s t r u s t , frequently referred  "extraversion,  i n t e r p e r s o n a l c y n i c i s m , e t c . " i s one  to i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of volunteers.  s u b j e c t s both Howarth  (1976)  tendencies, etc.  and H e r s c h e t a l . (1969)  With  female  f o u n d no  dif-  f e r e n c e between v o l u n t e e r s and n o n v o l u n t e e r s on S o c i a b i l i t y .  Conflic-  t i n g r e s u l t s f o r male s u b j e c t s have been d i s c o v e r e d , however.  Al-  though  S m i t h and N e l s o n  (1975)  f o u n d m a l e v o l u n t e e r s t o be m o r e O u t -  g o i n g t h a n n o n v o l u n t e e r s , Knapp a n d H o l z b e r g ( 1 9 6 4 ) on A f f i l i a t i o n  and H e r s c h e t a l . (1969)  f o u n d no  difference  found male v o l u n t e e r s t o s c o r e  s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e male c o n t r o l group  on  Sociability.  12  Table 1 P e r s o n a l i t y Realms ( i . e . , Dimensions) I d e n t i f i e d Reddy and  by  Smith (1972)  1.  Extraversion, s o c i a b i l i t y , friendliness, a f f i l i a t i o n , motivation, s o c i a l c o n f i d e n c e , s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e response t e n d e n c i e s , e t c . v e r s u s i n t r o v e r s i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l cynicism, d i s t r u s t e t c .  2.  E g o - s t r e n g t h , adjustment, s a t i s f a c t i o n , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , optimism, p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e , impulse c o n t r o l , e t c . v e r s u s a n x i e t y neurot i c i s m , pessimism, e m o t i o n a l i t y , e t c .  3.  A s s e r t i v e n e s s , a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , dominance, p e r s o n a l autonomy, e t c . v e r s u s submissiveness, shyness, dependence, c o n f o r m i t y , a c q u i e s cence, e t c .  4.  Achievement m o t i v a t i o n , e f f i c a c y , competence, c r e a t i v i t y , depend a b i l i t y , perseverance, e t c . v e r s u s f a t a l i s m , a l i e n a t i o n , powerl e s s n e s s , apathy, e t c .  5.  F l e x i b i l i t y , a d a p t a b i l i t y , r e a d i n e s s to change, e t c . v e r s u s a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , need f o r c o n s i s t e n c y , compulsiveness.  rigidity,  6.  Empathy and r e l a t i o n a l c l o s e n e s s v e r s u s l a c k of empathy and personal exclusion.  inter-  7.  M o r a l i t y and super-ego s t r e n g t h v e r s u s l a c k of i n t e r p e r s o n a l and group o r i e n t a t i o n and concern.  8.  High energy l e v e l s , a c t i v i t y and a c t i v a t i o n r a t e s v e r s u s low l e v e l s and a c t i v i t y and a c t i v a t i o n r a t e s .  energy  9.  P l a n n i n g and f u t u r e time p e r s p e c t i v e v e r s u s l a c k of emphasis p l a n n i n g and p r e s e n t o r i e n t a t i o n .  on  Note.  From " P e r s o n a l i t y and c a p a c i t y determinants of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z e d v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n " by R.D. Reddy and D.H. Smith. In D.H. Smith, R.D. Reddy & Baldwin ( E d s . ) , V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n Research. L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: L e x i n g t o n Books, 1972, p. 279.  13  Furthermore,  u s i n g both male and female s u b j e c t s Horn (1973) found  v o l u n t e e r s t o have a g r e a t e r " a f f i n i t y f o r c l o s e Thus, on the b a s i s of these s t u d i e s i t appeared  relationships". t h a t female v o l u n -  t e e r s were about as e q u a l l y s o c i a b l e as t h e i r n o n v o l u n t e e r c o u n t e r p a r t s and t h a t no c o n c l u s i v e statements c o n c e r n i n g male v o l u n t e e r s c o u l d be made. Concerning the t h i r d dimension of " a s s e r t i v e n e s s , dominance, p e r s o n a l autonomy e t c . v e r s u s s u b m i s s i v e n e s s , dependence, c o n f o r m i t y , e t c . " , Smith and Nelson  (1975) have d e s c r i b e d male v o l u n t e e r s as  having a low need f o r autonomy "or independence  and, i n s t e a d , t e n d i n g  towards c o n s e r v a t i s m and dependence upon o t h e r s f o r s o c i a l a p p r o v a l . In c o n t r a s t , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s found no d i f f e r e n c e between male v o l u n t e e r s and n o n v o l u n t e e r s on Autonomy (Knapp and H o l z b e r g , 1964) o r Dominance (Hersch e t a l . , Nelson, 1975).  1969; Knapp and H o l z b e r g , 1964; Smith and  Hersch e t a l . (1969) d i d f i n d t h a t male v o l u n t e e r s  s c o r e d h i g h e r on Abasement; Knapp and H o l z b e r g  (1964), however, found  no d i f f e r e n c e on t h i s dimension between male v o l u n t e e r s and nonvolunteers.  No d i f f e r e n c e between female v o l u n t e e r s and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s  was found on Dominance (Hersch e t a l . , 1976).  (Howarth,  Hersch e t a l . (1969) d i d f i n d t h a t female v o l u n t e e r s were  r e l a t i v e l y more Independent group.  1969) n o r on Ascendence  and lower on Succorance  than a c o n t r o l  Thus, w i t h r e s p e c t to t h i s dimension, no c o n c l u s i v e statements  c o n c e r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e v o l u n t e e r s can be made. A l t h o u g h none o f these s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d a d i r e c t measure o f empathy, i n summarizing  t h e i r r e s u l t s many o f these r e s e a r c h e r s have  r e f e r r e d t o Reddy and Smith's  s i x t h dimension —  "empathy and r e l a -  14  t i o n a l closeness versus  l a c k of empathy and i n t e r p e r s o n a l e x c l u s i o n " .  Hersch e t a l . (1969) d e s c r i b e d t h e i r v o l u n t e e r  group as " s e n s i t i v e t o  people and human problems" and Knapp and H o l z b e r g  (1964) r e f e r r e d to  "impulses o f human g e n e r o s i t y and a l t r u i s m " i n v o l u n t e e r s .  In a d d i -  t i o n , as a l r e a d y mentioned, Horn (1973) has d e s c r i b e d v o l u n t e e r s as possessing  a "greater a f f i n i t y  f o r close interpersonal relationships".  These d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e c o n s i s t e n t i n s u g g e s t i n g  t h a t t h i s may be a  dimension on which v o l u n t e e r s and n o n v o l u n t e e r s  are s i g n i f i c a n t l y  different.  The other r e s e a r c h e r s , Howarth (1976) and Smith and Nelson  (1975), n e g l e c t e d  to discuss t h i s f a c t o r i n t h e i r reports.  A r e l a t e d dimension which appears seventh i n Reddy and Smith's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s t h a t o f " m o r a l i t y and super-ego versus  strength  l a c k o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l and group o r i e n t a t i o n and concern".  f a c t o r has been d i s c u s s e d i n a l l o f these  studies.  In d i s c u s s i n g h i s  r e s u l t s Howarth (1976) d e s c r i b e d the v o l u n t e e r as p o s s e s s i n g developed s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e ,  This  a "well-  and concern f o r the w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s " .  Howarth found h i s female v o l u n t e e r s  scored  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the  Super-ego dimension, d e s c r i b e d as an i n d i c a t o r o f " c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s " , than n o n v o l u n t e e r s .  With male s u b j e c t s , Smith and Nelson (1975) ob-  t a i n e d i d e n t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r both v o l u n t e e r cipants  41 y e a r s and o l d e r .  v o l u n t e e r s and nonvolunteers  and n o n v o l u n t e e r  In the two s t u d i e s i n which v a l u e s o f were compared  (Knapp and H o l z b e r g ,  Horn, 1973) v o l u n t e e r s were found t o h o l d h i g h e r centered values.  Knapp and Holzberg  ranked economic v a l u e s  parti-  s o c i a l and community-  (1964) a l s o found t h a t  volunteers  s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower and r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s  n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than n o n v o l u n t e e r s .  1964;  The " s o c i a l - m i n d e d n e s s "  sigof  15  volunteers i s further supported by Hersch et a l : 's (1969) discovery that male and female volunteers more frequently participated i n other types of extracurricular voluntary a c t i v i t i e s (e.g., p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n campus organizations and clubs, etc.) than members of the control group.  Furthermore, the career interests of volunteers compared to  nonvolunteers positions.  r e f l e c t e d a greater interest i n various s o c i a l service  This i s one dimension which seems to have been described  s i m i l a r l y by a l l of these researchers. The second dimension of "ego-strength, adjustment, optimism, positive self-image, etc. versus anxiety, neuroticism, pessimism, emotionality, etc." i s one which has been included throughout the l i t e r a t u r e on the personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of volunteers.  Howarth  (1976) has discussed the prevalence of Maslow-type assumptions i n the l i t e r a t u r e where volunteers have often been described as "mature, evolved, s e l f - f u l f i l l e d , i n d i v i d u a l " persons.  For both his 'low r i s k '  and'high r i s k ' volunteers Horn (1973) found s i g n i f i c a n t l y "less conf l i c t and v a r i a b i l i t y i n their personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " than the nonvolunteers.  In addition the 'high r i s k ' group displayed greater  personality integration and more s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g values than the other two groups.  Unlike Horn (1973), Smith and Nelson  (1975) found  no differences on the dimensions of Ego Strength or F r u s t r a t i o n between volunteers and nonvolunteers.  Nevertheless, Smith and  Nelson  have made the suggestion that individuals become involved i n voluntary s o c i a l service i n an e f f o r t to " f u l f i l l  ... esteem and  self-actualizing  needs (the highest levels of Marlow's need hierarchy)", thus i n f e r r i n g that volunteers are operating at a r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l of s e l f -  16  actualization.  Both Knapp and H o l z b e r g (1964) and Horn (1973) d e s c r i b e d  v o l u n t e e r s as b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e i n comparison w i t h n o n v o l u n t e e r s . Hersch e t a l . (1969), a d d i t i o n a l l y , d e s c r i b e d v o l u n t e e r s as "mature" as compared to n o n v o l u n t e e r s .  A l t h o u g h Howarth (1976') found v o l u n -  t e e r s to s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on A n x i e t y , Smith and N e l s o n  (1975)  found no d i f f e r e n c e s between v o l u n t e e r s and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s on the Apprehensive dimension.  Hersch e t a l . (1969) found v o l u n t e e r s to s c o r e  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on S e l f - C o n t r o l than the c o n t r o l group.  Smith  and Nelson  finding  was  (1975) found no d i f f e r e n c e i n S e l f - C o n c e p t —  r e p l i c a t e d i n Horn's (1973) study.  this  Hersch e t a l . (1969), on the  c o n t r a r y , found t h e i r v o l u n t e e r s to be r e l a t i v e l y low i n S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e when compared w i t h n o n v o l u n t e e r s . are more a c t u a l i z e d  Thus the p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t v o l u n t e e r s  and secure i n d i v i d u a l s has not been h e l d up i n  a l l of these s t u d i e s , a l t h o u g h many f i n d i n g s have suggested a tendency in this  direction.  Reddy and Smith's  f i f t h dimension o f " f l e x i b i l i t y ,  adaptability,  e t c . v e r s u s r i g i d i t y , a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , need f o r c o n s i s t e n c y , compuls i v e n e s s " has not been examined too t h o r o u g h l y i n the f i v e under d i s c u s s i o n .  studies  Hersch e t a l . (1969) i n c l u d e d a F l e x i b i l i t y  scale  i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and found t h a t both male and female v o l u n t e e r s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s on t h i s These  dimension.  r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o found t h a t female v o l u n t e e r s surpassed non-  v o l u n t e e r s on a T o l e r a n c e dimension.  Smith and Nelson  (1975) found  male v o l u n t e e r s to be more Happy-Go-Lucky than n o n v o l u n t e e r s , s u g g e s t i n g l e s s need f o r r i g i d i t y , a l t h o u g h he a l s o found v o l u n t e e r s to be nificantly less Liberal,  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t they were l e s s  sig-  'ready to  17  change' than n o n v o l u n t e e r s . Reddy and Smith's  f o u r t h dimension i s t h a t of "achievement  moti-  v a t i o n , competence, c r e a t i v i t y , p e r s e v e r a n c e , e t c . v e r s u s a l i e n a t i o n , powerlessness, apathy, e t c . "  A l t h o u g h Knapp and H o l z b e r g  (1964) w i t h  male s u b j e c t s found no d i f f e r e n c e on Achievement, Hersch e t a l . (1969) found t h a t both male and female v o l u n t e e r s s c o r e d h i g h e r on an A c h i e v e ment v i a Independence dimension.  Hersch e t a l d e s c r i b e d v o l u n t e e r s  as having a g r e a t e r need f o r c r e a t i v e achievement.  These r e s e a r c h e r s  a l s o found t h a t female but not male v o l u n t e e r s demonstrated I n t e l l e c t u a l E f f i c i e n c y that control subjects.  greater  Howarth (1976), i n  a d d i t i o n , found t h a t female s u b j e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on P e r s i s t e n c e than the normative groups t o which they were compared. c o n t r a s t to Hersch e t a l . ' s (1969) f i n d i n g s a r e those of Smith Nelson  (1975) who  In  and  observed t h a t male v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s under 41 y e a r s  of age were l e s s i m a g i n a t i v e than n o n v o l u n t e e r s o f the same age. Smith and Nelson  (1975) proceeded  t o d e s c r i b e v o l u n t e e r s as  " s i m p l e " and " u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d " i n d i v i d u a l s .  relatively  Such c o n f l i c t i n g  results  c e r t a i n l y suggest t h a t d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e v o l u n t e e r s possess v e r y d i v e r g e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h i s a r e a . The f i n a l two dimensions  i n c l u d e d by Reddy and Smith i n t h e i r  framework have h a r d l y been mentioned  i n these s t u d i e s .  One  dimension,  " p l a n n i n g and f u t u r e time p e r s p e c t i v e v e r s u s l a c k of emphasis on p l a n n i n g and p r e s e n t o r i e n t a t i o n " has not been r e f e r r e d to a t The o t h e r dimension,  all.  " h i g h energy l e v e l , a c t i v i t y and a c t i v a t i o n  rates  v e r s u s low energy l e v e l , a c t i v i t y and a c t i v a t i o n r a t e s " has been cons i d e r e d o n l y i n the study of Howarth.  A l t h o u g h he d i d not compare h i s  18  groups on t h i s v a r i a b l e , he r a i s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t v o l u n t e e r s a r e people who  possess  "a h i g h g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y d r i v e " and  therefore  f i n d v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e r e i n f o r c i n g because i t expands energy,  decreasing  this drive. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s w i t h r e s p e c t to d e s c r i b i n g v o l u n t e e r s o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h i s group of s t u d i e s . obvious  c o n t r i b u t i n g source  to the d i s c r e p a n c y  i n the f i n d i n g s was  d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r s o n a l demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among the v o l u n t e e r groups employed.  One the  different  Some s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d o n l y male or female  v o l u n t e e r s ; o t h e r s s t u d i e d both male and  female v o l u n t e e r s .  Members  of the v o l u n t e e r groups were f a r more homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t to important  v a r i a b l e s of age  s t u d i e s than i n o t h e r s .  and  the  e d u c a t i o n a l background e t c . i n some  For example, Knapp and H o l z b e r g  (1964) s t u d i e d  c o l l e g e students whereas the v o l u n t e e r s i n Howarth's (1976) study i n age  from 21 to 60 y e a r s .  The  c o n t r o l groups employed i n each of  f i v e s t u d i e s were a l s o v e r y d i f f e r e n t from one except  i n one  case  ranged  (Howarth, 1976)  another;  the  nevertheless,  they appear to have been w e l l - s e l e c t e d  i n terms of t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s to match t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v o l u n t e e r groups on important  demographic v a r i a b l e s .  Thus the c o n t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s  among the c o n t r o l groups toward the o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s u l t s would have been minimal. d i f f e r e n c e s may In d i f f e r e n t  A more p o w e r f u l  source c o n t r i b u t i n g to  have been the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the instruments  instruments  these  employed.  a p a r t i c u l a r dimension (e.g., S o c i a b i l i t y )  may  have been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ways; such d i f f e r e n c e s would l i k e l y i n c r e a s e where r e s u l t s on seemingly synonymous dimensions (e.g., S o c i a b i l i t y , Outgoing, E x t r o v e r s i o n , A f f i l i a t i o n ) were compared.  19  In a d d i t i o n , the power of one  test i n assessing  may  the power w i t h which another t e s t  not  have been e q u a l l e d  discriminate  by  a particular trait  the presence or absence of t h a t t r a i t .  p a r t of the v a r i a b i l i t y  Finally, a  i n r e s u l t s between these s t u d i e s was  a t t r i b u t a b l e to the d i f f e r e n c e s between the v o l u n t e e r  in.  large  likely  groups r e l a t e d  to the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of work they o r i g i n a l l y v o l u n t e e r e d remained i n v o l v e d  could  for  and  Horn (1973) r e f e r r e d to such d i f f e r e n c e s :  ...there may be p r e r e q u i s i t e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s d e c i s i o n to v o l u n t e e r or not and which i n f l u e n c e the v o l u n t e e r i n h i s c h o i c e of assignment/, (p. 1726) In the p r e s e n t study both the v o l u n t e e r from three  d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s were s t u d i e d  of p e r s o n a l i t y and  value c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  and  p r o f e s s i o n a l workers  i n terms of a wide range The  agencies represented i n  t h i s study i n c l u d e d A l t e r n a t i v e s Drug Abuse Program, Vancouver a r e a C r i s i s C e n t r e s and  Vancouver a r e a S t . John Ambulance B r i g a d e s .  these a g e n c i e s were a l l i n v o l v e d t h e i r work v a r i e d g r e a t l y .  i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e r o l e s the n a t u r e of  Alternatives volunteers  over r e l a t i v e l y l o n g time p e r i o d s to r e i n t e g r a t e  Centre v o l u n t e e r s  worked on telephone hot  volunteers  l i n e s , counseling  i n an "emotional c r i s i s " r o l e .  provided  energency help  Finally,  in physical c r i s i s  were thus l a b e l l e d as " p h y s i c a l c r i s i s " workers. of each agency were i n v o l v e d by t h e i r v o l u n t e e r s ,  The  were t h e r e f o r e  The  companions  were t r y i n g  These v o l u n t e e r s  "emotional n o n c r i s i s " r o l e .  c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r e m o t i o n a l problems, and being involved  s e r v e d as  to ex-drug a d d i c t s who  i n t o s o c i e t y ' s mainstream.  l a b e l l e d as working i n an  Although  were thus Crisis callers  described the  as  St. John  situations  and  professionals  i n a c t i v i t i e s s i m i l a r to those performed  o f t e n at a more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,  organizational  20  or i n s t r u c t i o n a l The  level.  t h r e e v o l u n t e e r groups were compared on an a r r a y of p e r s o n a l i t y  v a r i a b l e s f o r the purpose o f i d e n t i f y i n g d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g among volunteers involved i n d i f f e r e n t kinds of s o c i a l s e r v i c e .  In the  p a s t v o l u n t e e r groups have been s t u d i e d i n comparison w i t h  nonvolunteer.;  c o n t r o l groups i n attempts to d i s c o v e r d i f f e r e n c e s between those who v o l u n t e e r f o r s e r v i c e and those who don't.  Many o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a s s i g n e d t o v o l u n t e e r s i n some s t u d i e s have been r e f u t e d when o t h e r studies obtained c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s .  The p r e s e n t  study, where  t h r e e d i f f e r e n t v o l u n t e e r groups were compared on the same  instruments  under s i m i l a r t e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , enables one t o i d e n t i f y which  charac-  t e r i s t i c s v a r y w i t h v o l u n t e e r r o l e and a r e thus more d e s c r i p t i v e o f some types o f v o l u n t e e r s than of o t h e r s .  A knowledge o f the k i n d s o f  d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g between v a r i o u s v o l u n t e e r groups and a demonstrat i o n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r instruments  could e f f e c t i v e l y discriminate d i f -  f e r e n t groups c o u l d h e l p determine the d i r e c t i o n of f u r t h e r attempts to develop  e f f e c t i v e v o l u n t e e r placement procedures  procedures  based upon the completion  by s u g g e s t i n g  of r e l a t i v e l y short, s t r a i g h t -  forward and e a s i l y a d m i n i s t e r e d p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s .  Some o f the l a r g e r  Canadian c i t i e s , Vancouver i n c l u d e d , have v o l u n t e e r bureaus whose f u n c t i o n i t i s t o p r o c e s s a p p l i c a n t s f o r v o l u n t e e r p o s i t i o n s and then a s s i g n them t o a g e n c i e s .  The development o f an e f f e c t i v e and o b j e c -  t i v e means f o r making d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g v o l u n t e e r placement may prove u s e f u l t o such a g e n c i e s .  F i n a l l y , r e s u l t s showing  important  p e r s o n a l i t y and v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s between d i f f e r e n t v o l u n t e e r groups c o u l d p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n t o those i n t e r e s t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e  21  relationships between various personality t r a i t s and success as a volunteer i n different kinds of service. The study included a comparison of a l l volunteers with a l l professionals.  A comparison of volunteer and professional workers i n  s o c i a l service areas has not previously been reported.  Such a com-  parison would be informative i n describing differences i n personality of different status workers.  In recent years, the advantages and  disadvantages of training volunteers to serve as paraprofessionals and of assigning volunteers to new roles often involving increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , have been repeatedly discussed.  Personality and value  differences i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study could add valuable information to this discussion." Another important comparison performed as part of this study involved comparing the personality and value c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of volunteers with the professionals from their own agencies as well as with the volunteers from other agencies to determine the extent to which the volunteers and professionals at any agency were similar.  Such i n -  formation could prove valuable i n the development of screening tests for volunteers as well as i n planning future studies on volunteer effectiveness.  Perhaps the r e s u l t s of this study would indicate that  an investigation of the relationship between success i n the volunteer r o l e and congruence with the agency's professionals i n terms of personality and values would be worthwhile.  Finding that the volunteers  were homogeneous as a group and not similar to their respective professional counterparts could be an important factor i n planning areas of service for volunteers within these agencies.  new  Finally, i f  22  the volunteers  and professionals within agencies were found to be  similar with respect to various personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i t would be advisable to investigate t h i s relationship more thoroughly.  It  would be important to know whether the volunteers were attracted to p a r t i c u l a r agencies because they shared s i m i l a r i t i e s i n personality and values with the professionals there or whether their values and personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were influenced as a r e s u l t of the volunteer experience i t s e l f or as a r e s u l t of an ongoing association with the professionals at that agency. It was  decided that the most valuable information would be  ob-  tained i f the subjects i n t h i s study were compared i n terms of a wide range of important personality variables, t h e i r respective value orientations and their interpersonal behaviour orientations.  The  three  instruments employed i n t h i s study were selected as a r e s u l t of their superior t h e o r e t i c a l and substantial q u a l i t i e s i n comparison with other tests i n the area. t a i l later.)  (These q u a l i t i e s w i l l be described i n greater  de-  Other advantages of the tests u t i l i z e d were that they were  objective, straightforward and r e l a t i v e l y easy to complete.  The  battery  included Jackson's (1974) Personality Research Form-E (PRF) which measures a wide range of well-established and interpretable personality dimensions.  Rokeach's (1967) Value Survey (VS) which requires the systema-  t i c ordering of two sets of values found to be most prominent i n North American culture, was  also used.  Both the PRF  and VS have been  u t i l i z e d i n numerous studies and normative data on several  populations  i s available for each of these tests (cf., Ahmed, Fry & Jackson, where the PRF was  employed and Feather, 1970,  where the VS was  1972,  utilized).  23  F i n a l l y , as a measure o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l behaviour a r e l a t i v e l y i n s t r u m e n t , the P e r s o n a l  D e s c r i p t i o n Questionnaire  by Wiggins (1976) was employed. T h i s  new  (PDQ) developed  instrument c o n t a i n s  a number o f  t h e o r e t i c a l l y meaningful dimensions which a r e b i p o l a r and can be f a c t o r e d t o form a two-dimensional c i r c u m p l e x which p o s s e s s e s empirical  superior  qualities.  In terms o f i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , the PRF i s the product o f a unique approach t o t e s t development.  Jackson  (1974) has d e s c r i b e d  i t s con-  struction: The e x p e c t a t i o n which guided t h i s program of t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n was t h a t by a c a r e f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n modern p r i n c i p l e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y and o f t e s t theory, more r i g o r o u s and more v a l i d assessment of important p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d be attained. (p. 4) In c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e PRF Jackson combined elements o f t h r e e  distinct,  f o r m e r l y m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e approaches t o t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n : t i o n a l , e m p i r i c a l and f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c a l approaches.  He employed a  c a r e f u l l y planned " s e q u e n t i a l approach" which p e r m i t t e d to the i s s u e s o f s u b s t a n t i v e generalizability, reliability  validity,  by r e d u c i n g  construct v a l i d i t y ,  He e l i m i n a t e d  the i n f l u e n c e o f s t y l i s t i c  an e q u a l number o f p o s i t i v e l y - a n d  elements such as bipolar  freedom from am-  moderate endorsement f r e q u e n c i e s .  the PRF J a c k s o n a l s o i n c l u d e d  scales  negatively-keyed  itmes which were, i n t u r n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c l a r i t y , b i g u i t y and p o s s e s s i n g  homogeneity,  extraneous s o u r c e s  s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and a c q u i e s c e n c e and by d e v e l o p i n g which c o n t a i n e d  him t o a t t e n d  and e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of a number o f  s c a l e s throughout t h e i r development. of v a r i a n c e  the r a -  As p a r t o f  two v a l i d i t y s c a l e s to i d e n t i f y  instances  24  of pseudorandom responding d e s i r a b l e response s e t .  and responding  according  to a s o c i a l l y  A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the e l a b o r a t e and  commendable approach u t i l i z e d by Jackson i s a v a i l a b l e i n Jackson (1970) or i n the P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form Manual (Jackson,  1974).  J a c k s o n d e r i v e d h i s i n d i v i d u a l PRF s c a l e s on the b a s i s of Murray' (1938) taxonomy of p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s which Jackson has d e s c r i b e d as, "... c o v e r i n g b r o a d l y ,  i f n o t e x h a u s t i v e l y , t h e spectrum of p e r -  s o n a l i t y needs, s t a t e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s  Jackson s e l e c t e d  v a r i a b l e s which he judged as most important of human behaviour.  tions  The r e s u l t a n t 22 dimensions c o u l d , based on the ( c f . , Jackson, 1974; J a c k s o n &  1968; S i e s s & Jackson, 1970) as w e l l as t h e o r e t i c a l  (Jackson,  considera  1974), be combined i n t o 7 h i g h e r - o r d e r f a c t o r s .  (Jackson has c a u t i o n e d  t h a t these groupings a r e not,  s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s but a r e based p a r t l y upon c o n c e p t u a l The  types  e x c l u s i v e dimensions f o r which both p o l e s  r e s u l t s of f a c t o r a n a l y t i c studies Guthrie,  i n r e p r e s e n t i n g many  He combined, r e v i s e d and r e d e f i n e d these v a r i a b l e  to o b t a i n a s e t o f m u t u a l l y c o u l d be d e f i n e d .  those  strictly  speaking  considerations.)  22 dimensions a r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o these h i g h e r - o r d e r  factors i n  T a b l e 2. Jackson  (1974) has s t a t e d t h a t the m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d  system  proposed by Campbell and F i s k e (1959) has been employed i n v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s on the PRF.  I n a study  r a t e d s u b j e c t s u s i n g a 9-point  d e s c r i b e d by Jackson  (p. 24), judges  s c a l e on a d j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b i n g v a r i o u s  p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n c l u d e d i n the PRF.  In a d d i t i o n , the subjects  r a t e d themselves on the T r a i t R a t i n g Form ( d e v i s e d by J a c k s o n f o r t h i s purpose) which c o n t a i n e d  a list  o f a d j e c t i v e s which they were to  25  Table The  22 PRF  2  Dimensions C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g  to Higher-Order  Factors  Factors  Dimensions  versus  Harmavoidance Order  1.  Measures of Impulse E x p r e s s i o n and C o n t r o l  Impulsivity Change  2.  Measures of O r i e n t a t i o n toward Work and P l a y  Achievement Endurance  versus  Play  3.  Measures of O r i e n t a t i o n toward D i r e c t i o n from Other People  Succorance  versus  Autonomy  4.  Measures of I n t e l l e c t u a l and A e s t h e t i c O r i e n t a t i o n s  Understanding v e r s u s  Measures of Degree of Ascendancy  Dominance  Measures of Degree and Q u a l i t y of I n t e r p e r s o n a l Orientation  Affiliation versus Nurturance Exhibition S o c i a l Recognition  Measures of T e s t - t a k i n g A t t i t u d e s and V a l i d i t y  Desirability Infrequency  Cognitive  7.  Note:  versus  Sentience  Abasement  Aggression Defendence  From P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form Manual by D.N. Jackson. Goshen, New York: Research P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , Inc., p. 5.  Structure  26  d e s i g n a t e as b e i n g d e s c r i p t i v e or n o n d e s c r i p t i v e of themselves. Finally, two  the s u b j e c t s completed  the PRF.  T h i s study was performed on  d i f f e r e n t samples and over both samples the c o r r e l a t i o n between  the judges behaviour r a t i n g s and the PRF s c a l e s c o r e s was .47, and between t h e s e l f - r a t i n g s and PRF s c a l e s c o r e s was .55.  These r e s u l t s  were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those found by Jackson and G u t h r i e (1968) who used a s i m i l a r procedure w i t h another student sample and by Kuszsyn (1968) who compared 10 PRF s c a l e s c o r e s w i t h behaviour r a t i n g s by s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . concluded  completed  On the b a s i s of these r e s u l t s Jackson has  that,  C o n s i d e r i n g the many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e f i n i n g s u i t a b l e c r i t e r i a , these v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s appear t o be encouraging indeed .... These v a l u e s ... exceed those t y p i c a l l y r e p o r t e d f o r p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s by a c o m f o r t a b l e margin and a t t e s t t o the v a l u e o f the s t r a t e g y o f s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n employed i n the PRF. (p. 24) A l t h o u g h these r e s u l t s appear  s t r i k i n g , Wiggins  (1972) has p o i n t e d  out t h a t t h e r e may have been a " s e r i o u s shortcoming" i n the method by which they were o b t a i n e d .  Jackson f a i l e d  to r e p o r t  intercorrelations  among the t r a i t s measured by a l l t h r e e methods and a l s o the c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l f - and p e e r - r a t i n g s , as r e q u i r e d i n Campbell and F i s k e ' s m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d procedure.  Without  method v a r i a n c e c o u l d n o t be f u l l y accounted s u l t s must be i n t e r p r e t e d  this information  f o r and thus these r e -  cautiously.  In t h i s study Form E of the PRF was used.  Several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of t h i s form made i t p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s study.  Unlike  e a r l i e r forms, Form E was designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use w i t h a wide v a r i e t y o f p o p u l a t i o n s and c a r e was taken t o compose items t h a t would  27  be understood r e a d i l y by persons of average i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Form E  i n c l u d e d 22 - 16 item s c a l e s so i t measured more dimensions A or B (which c o n s i s t e d of 16 - 20 item s c a l e s ) and was w i t h r e s p e c t to time than Form AA or BB s c a l e s ).  than Form  less  costly  ( c o n s i s t i n g of 22 - 20 i t e m  In c o n s t r u c t i n g the PRF-E the g o a l of enhancing s c a l e p r o -  p e r t i e s of convergent and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t i e s , found i n e a r l i e r forms, was the p o o l of items produced  set.  even beyond those  Items f o r PRF-E were s e l e c t e d  i n the s e q u e n t i a l s t r a t e g y d e s c r i b e d  In s e l e c t i n g items f o r Form E a "minimum redundancy" i n N e i l l and Jackson  (1976) was  utilized.  approach  from earlier.  outlined  T h i s approach i n c l u d e d both  s t a t i s t i c a l and r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n d e t e r m i n i n g which  items  should become a p a r t of a p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e whose s c a l e s were designed to p o s s e s s , ... o p t i m a l r e l i a b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r l e n g t h , minimal mutual redundancy ... and items combining content s a t u r a t i o n , freedom from i r r e l e v a n t v a r i a n c e , l a c k of ambiguity, r e a d a b i l i t y and c o n c i s e n e s s , (p. 40) Evidence t h a t t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was l e n g t h was  decreased was  r e t a i n e d even though  d i s c o v e r e d by Jackson  Over 2000 m i l i t a r y e n l i s t e d p e r s o n n e l completed t h i s sample, which was t e s t was  (1974, pp.  scale  40-41).  the PRF-E and f o r  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t on which  the  s t a n d a r d i z e d , l e s s than 2% of the items were c o r r e l a t e d more  h i g h l y w i t h i n a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e s than w i t h t h e i r own. of PRF-E by N e s s e l r o a d e and Balko bore a c l o s e resemblance  A factor  (1974) reviewed e i g h t f a c t o r s  analysis which  to those i d e n t i f i e d by S i e s s and Jackson  u s i n g an e a r l i e r form of the PRF.  Other sources of v a l i d a t i o n f o r  the PRF-E i n c l u d e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between i t s s c a l e s and  (1976)  28  t h e o r e t i c a l l y - r e l a t e d s c a l e s from o t h e r t e s t s .  For example, s u b s t a n t i a l  c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between PRF-E dimensions and r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t s on t h e Jackson V o c a t i o n a l s c a l e s and s c a l e s i n c l u d e d between PRF-E s c o r e s l o g i c a l Inventory  (BIPI),  tances o f t h e s u b j e c t s . of  I n t e r e s t Survey, between PRF-E  on the B e n t l e r  and scores  Psychological  from t h e B e n t l e r  Inventory, and  I n t e r a c t i v e Psycho-  t h e l a t t e r t e s t b e i n g completed by a c q u a i n For example, i n the l a s t study c o r r e l a t i o n s  .67, .52 and .43 were o b t a i n e d between BIPI E x t r a v e r s i o n  E x h i b i t i o n s c a l e s , BIPI O r d e r l i n e s s  (1974, p. 44) has r e p o r t e d  vestigate  and PRF-E  and PRF-E Order s c a l e s , and BIPI  I n t e l l i g e n c e and PRF-E Understanding s c a l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Jackson  career  Finally,  a study r e c e n t l y performed to i n -  the e f f e c t s of d i s s i m u l a t i o n on s c a l e s c o r e s .  R e s u l t s of  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggested t h a t the PRF-E was n o t s u s c e p t i b l e t o faking.  T h i s f a c t was o f importance i n t h e p r e s e n t study where v o l u n -  t e e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups may have c o n s c i o u s l y attempted to c r e a t e  favourable  or inadvertently  i m p r e s s i o n s r e l a t e d to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  roles. Rokeach (1973) has i d e n t i f i e d v a l u e s as t h e fundamental and s t a b l e elements which i n f l u e n c e a l l types o f i n t e r - and i n t r a p e r s o n a l He  has d e f i n e d  behaviour.  a value as,  ... an e n d u r i n g b e l i e f t h a t a s p e c i f i c mode of conduct or e n d - s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e i s p e r s o n a l l y o r s o c i a l l y p r e f e r a b l e t o an o p p o s i t e o r converse mode o f conduct or e n d - s t a t e o f e x i s t e n c e . (p. 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Rokeach, v a l u e s a r e to be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from a t t i t u d e s and  i n t e r e s t s which he d e s c r i b e d  as b e i n g more s p e c i f i c a l l y  towards and/or focused upon one o b j e c t  o r event.  directed  V a l u e s , on t h e  29  other hand, are transcendental i n nature, guiding attitudes, actions, comparisons and judgements across s p e c i f i c objects and situations; they are oriented toward more ultimate goals rather than immediate goals.  Values also d i f f e r from t r a i t s which Rokeach conceptualizes  as unchangeable, and from s o c i a l norms which are described as more s p e c i f i c to situations.  Rather, a value i s a type of b e l i e f and l i k e  other b e l i e f s , has a f f e c t i v e , behavioural and cognitive components. According to Rokeach, values are r e l a t i v e l y enduring but can change gradually over time.  They are formulated over the course of  one's l i f e t i m e , being influenced by s o c i e t a l , c u l t u r a l and personal variables.  In turn, values permeate a l l forms and expressions of  behaviour.  Values are organized into r e l a t i v e l y stable value systems,  described as h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangements of values along a continuum of r e l a t i v e importance.  Rokeach maintains that there are two types  of values and thus two separate value systems —  one based upon  terminal values, defined as "idealized end-states" (e.g., A Sense of Accomplishment, A World at Peace), and one based on instrumental values which are actually "idealized modes of conduct" Tender-Hearted).  (e.g., Ambitious,  Table 3 l i s t s the values Rokeach has included i n  his terminal value category along with those he has assigned to the instrumental value category. Rokeach has pointed out that these values can be c l a s s i f i e d i n alternate ways.  Values can be either intrapersonal (e.g., Inner  Harmony, Self Control) or interpersonal (e.g., Honest, A World at Peace) i n nature.  Some can be described as 'adjustment-oriented'  (e.g., Obedient, Helpful), others as 'achievement-oriented'  (e.g.,  30  Table 3 Rokeach's Value Survey - Form D  Terminal  Values  A Comfortable L i f e (a prosperous l i f e ) An E x c i t i n g L i f e (a s t i m u l a t i n g , a c t i v e l i f e ) A Sense o f Accomplishment (lasting contribution) A World a t Peace ( f r e e o f war and c o n f l i c t ) A World o f Beauty (beauty o f n a t u r e and the a r t s ) Equality (brotherhood, e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y ) Family S e c u r i t y ( t a k i n g c a r e o f l o v e d ones) Freedom (independence, f r e e c h o i c e ) Happiness (contentedness) Inner Harmony (freedom from i n n e r c o n f l i c t ) Mature Love ( s e x u a l and s p i r i t u a l i n t i m a c y ) National Security ( p r o t e c t i o n from a t t a c k ) Pleasure (an e n j o y a b l e l e i s u r e l y l i f e ) Salvation (saved, e t e r n a l l i f e ) Self-Respect (self-esteem) S o c i a l Recognition (respect, admiration) True F r i e n d s h i p ( c l o s e companionship) Wisdom (a mature u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i f e )  Note:  Instrumental  Values  Ambitious (hard-working, a s p i r i n g ) Broadminded (open-minded) Capable (competent, e f f e c t i v e ) Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful) Clean (neat, t i d y ) Courageous ( s t a n d i n g up f o r your b e l i e f s ) Forgiving ( w i l l i n g t o pardon o t h e r s ) Helpful (working f o r the w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s ) Honest (sincere, truthful) Imaginative (daring, c r e a t i v e ) Independent (self-reliant, self-sufficient) Intellectual (intelligent, reflective) Logical (consistent, rational) Loving ( a f f e c t i o n a t e , tender) Obedient (dutiful, respectful) Polite ( c o u r t e o u s , well-mannered) Responsible (dependable, r e l i a b l e ) Self-Controlled (restrained, self-disciplined)  From Value Survey by M. Rokeach. H a l g r e n T e s t s , 1967.  Sunnyvale,  California:  31  A Sense of Accomplishment, Wisdom), some as (e.g., Inner Harmony) and Self-Respect).  still  'self-actualizing'  o t h e r s as 'ego-defensive'  values  values  (e.g.,  Rokeach has d i s c u s s e d the advantage of d e s c r i b i n g  v a l u e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r a d j u s t i v e , e g o - d e f e n s i v e  or  self-actualizing  components, To the e x t e n t t h a t a person's v a l u e system r e f l e c t s a d i f f e r e n t i a l preoccupation with values that are a d j u s t i v e , e g o - d e f e n s i v e and s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g , we may say he i s o p e r a t i n g a t lower or h i g h e r l e v e l s . (p. 17) Rokeach, i n h i s Value  Survey, has attempted to develop  an  instru-  ment capable of p r o v i d i n g v a l i d i n f o r m a t i o n on the i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e systems possessed  by persons  of a wide range of ages, e d u c a t i o n a l  backgrounds and r a c i a l o r i g i n s , e t c .  His t e s t i s a c t u a l l y a structured  p r o j e c t i v e t e s t i n which the s u b j e c t i s asked values, i n i t i a l l y presented  separate l i s t s ,  one  to h i m s e l f .  The Value  the  p o r t a n t v a l u e s would be l e f t  Rokeach imposed a c e i l i n g  graduate  out.  a p o o l of v a l u e s o b t a i n e d from many sources  by  those e l i c i t e d  American c i t y of L a n s i n g .  initially  including  v a l u e system, the v a l u e s of a group of 30  s t u d e n t s , and  of  18 v a l u e s were i n c l u d e d some im-  Rokeach d e r i v e d the items f o r the t e r m i n a l v a l u e l i s t  l i t e r a t u r e , h i s own  other  b e l i e v i n g t h a t more than t h a t number would make  the t a s k burdensome y e t i f l e s s than  accumulating  their  Survey i n c l u d e s  c o n t a i n i n g 18 t e r m i n a l v a l u e s and  c o n s i s t i n g of 18 i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s . 18 items on each l i s t ,  of  i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , a c c o r d i n g to  i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i v e importances two  to r e o r d e r a l i s t  the  psychology  from 100 a d u l t r e s i d e n t s i n the  T h i s l a r g e p o o l was  condensed by e x c l u d i n g  v a l u e s c o n c e p t u a l l y or e m p i r i c a l l y synonymous w i t h o t h e r v a l u e s ,  those  32  e v a l u a t e d as "too s p e c i f i c " and e n d - s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e .  those which d i d not a c t u a l l y denote  In d e v e l o p i n g h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e  Rokeach began w i t h Anderson's (1968) l i s t  of 555 p e r s o n a l i t y  words which had p r e v i o u s l y been d e r i v e d from A l l p o r t and (1936) l i s t  of 18,000 t r a i t names.  and r e v i s i o n procedure minal values.  He  subsequently  trait  Odbert's  f o l l o w e d an  s i m i l a r to t h a t employed w i t h h i s l i s t  Rokeach has  list  s t a t e d t h a t both of h i s 18-item  editing  of  ter-  lists  " r e a s o n a b l y comprehensive", i n c l u d i n g the most important v a l u e s  are found  not o n l y i n North American c u l t u r e but i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s as w e l l . The Form E.  two  forms of the Value Survey p o p u l a r today a r e Form D and  They a r e c o n c e p t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l i n t a s k a l t h o u g h the p r o -  cedure by which the o r d e r i n g t a s k i s performed  differs.  t h e . s u b j e c t w r i t e s a number b e s i d e each i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e its  r e l a t i v e importance  w i t h i n h i s own  framework.  With Form E indicating  On Form D v a l u e s  are p r i n t e d on i n d i v i d u a l gummed l a b e l s which a r e r e o r d e r e d by each l a b e l i n one of 18 numbered p o s i t i o n s which a r e arranged cally  on one  s i d e of the page.  The  placing verti-  t e s t e e i s f r e e to r e a r r a n g e  these  l a b e l s u n t i l he b e l i e v e s t h a t they are t r u l y d e s c r i p t i v e of h i s p e r s o n a l v a l u e system. more i n t e r e s t i n g . participant  Form D,  as compared t o Form E, i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y  In a d d i t i o n , w i t h t h i s form i t i s e a s i e r f o r the  to see the o r d e r i n which he has p l a c e d the items.  Studies  by Rokeach (1973, p. 34) have r e v e a l e d t h a t t h i s form has the h i g h e s t completion r a t e and a l s o the h i g h e s t r e l i a b i l i t y over time of form.  I t was  any  as a r e s u l t of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t Form D was  as the instrument  to be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the p r e s e n t  T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y has been observed  chosen  study.  to v a r y as a f u n c t i o n  33  of  o t h e r f a c t o r s i n a d d i t i o n to t e s t form.  reliability  As would be  decreases g r a d u a l l y as the i n t e r - t e s t  expected,  i n t e r v a l increases.  Studies with c o l l e g e students revealed a terminal value s c a l e r e liability  of .78 and an i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t y  of  over a 3-week p e r i o d .  I n c r e a s i n g the t e s t - r e t e s t span to 14-16  resulted i n  i n these r e l i a b i l i t i e s  decreases  l e v e l s of .69 and  .61,  respectively.  s u b j e c t s i n c l u d i n g sex, age,  months  to the s t i l l r e s p e c t a b l e  Other p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  l i b e r a l i s m and  intellectual ability  been shown to have s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the r e l i a b i l i t y instrument  (Rokeach, 1973,  reliability  pp.  34-36).  of the Value Survey  For example, v a l u e s i n i t i a l l y  Other  have of  f a c t o r s which a f f e c t  are p r o p e r t i e s of the s c a l e s  ranked  .72  this the  themselves.  among e i t h e r the most or l e a s t  impor-  t a n t a r e l e s s l i k e l y to change over time than those f i r s t a s s i g n e d to more moderate p o s i t i o n s .  In a d d i t i o n , i n s t r u m e n t a l s c a l e  reliability  has been shown to have a s m a l l y e t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t e r m i n a l scale r e l i a b i l i t y ,  a l t h o u g h t e r m i n a l v a l u e s as a whole a r e more s t a b l e  than i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s . items v a r y .  Over a 3-7  found to range from and  .51  Finally,  of  individual  week i n t e r v a l t e r m i n a l v a l u e r e l i a b i l i t i e s  were  (A Sense of Accomplishment) to .88 ( S a l v a t i o n )  instrumental value r e l i a b i l i t i e s  (Ambitious).  the r e l i a b i l i t i e s  from  .45  ( R e s p o n s i b l e ) to  .70  R e f e r r i n g to these Value S c a l e item r e l i a b i l i t i e s  have been found by o t h e r s i n a d d i t i o n to h i m s e l f , Rokeach has ...they a r e on the whole r a t h e r r e s p e c t a b l e i n s i z e , c o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t t h a t they were a l l o b t a i n e d w i t h s i n g l e - i t e m t e s t s t h a t a r e one word o r a t most one phrase l o n g . L i k e r t s c a l e s f o r each of the 36 v a l u e s composed o f , say, 10 items each would p r o b a b l y be no more r e l i a b l e than the p r e s e n t s i n g l e - i t e m s c a l e s , (p.  39)  which  said,  34  Rokeach has pointed out that the rank-ordering of values i s i p sative i n nature —  the placement of the 18th value i s predetermined  by the position assigned to the other 17 items.  However, this need  not l i m i t the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures employed i n analyzing the data for, according to Rokeach, ... with 18 values, the extent to which this independence assumption i s violated i s r e l a t i v e l y small, the average i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n being only -.06 .... This amount of i p s a t i v i t y can be tolerated. (p. 43) Nevertheless, i n the present study when Hotelling T  2  analyses were per-  formed on each of the two value scales, only 17 of the 18 values i n each scale  was  included.  The excluded value for each scale was  the one shown to possess the least v a r i a b i l i t y across groups. Correlations between pairs of values contained i n the Value were found for a sample of over 1400 adult Americans (Rokeach, p. 43).  The correlations ranged from -.32  Survey  1973,  (A Comfortable Life-and-  Wisdom) to .35 (A Comfortable Life-and-Pleasure) for terminal values, and from -.32  (Clean-and-Logical) to .29 (Obedient-and-Polite) for  instrumental value p a i r s . from ipsative data.  These findings would be expected by chance  The low degree of c o r r e l a t i o n among variables can  be attributed partly to the fact that i n choosing these items an attempt  to select independent  and non-overlapping values was made.  Although no such e f f o r t was made between i n d i v i d u a l instrumental and terminal values i t was also found that not one c o r r e l a t i o n between items of d i f f e r e n t scales exceeded .31 (found for Mature Love-andLoving) and most of these inter-scale correlations were nonsignificant. The average inter-scale c o r r e l a t i o n was  .01.. Rokeach has concluded  35  on the b a s i s of these f i n d i n g s t h a t , ... the 36 v a l u e s of the Value Survey are f o r the most p a r t n e g l i g i b l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one another i n the a d u l t American p o p u l a t i o n , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t 306 of the 630 c o r r e l a t i o n s are not a l t o g e t h e r independent of one another because they a r e i p s a t i v e i n n a t u r e . (p. 43) A d d i t i o n a l support  f o r t h i s statement  came when Rokeach d i v i d e d the  t o t a l sample i n t o s u b j e c t s based on age, peated  re-  the c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , a g a i n f i n d i n g t h a t the r a n k i n g of  any one v a l u e was value.  sex and r a c e , e t c . and  e s s e n t i a l l y independent of the r a n k i n g of any  T h i s v e r y low degree of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n would suggest  other that  these v a l u e s c o u l d n ' t be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o a s m a l l e r number of h i g h e r order f a c t o r s .  However, seven b i p o l a r f a c t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d  through  the procedure  of varimax r o t a t i o n .  account  f o r o n l y 41% of the v a r i a n c e a r e shown i n T a b l e  Other s t a t i s t i c a l amined. of  p r o p e r t i e s of the Value  K e l l y , Silverman and  t h i s instrument  d e s i r a b l e manner. Survey was  The  f a c t o r s , which t o g e t h e r 4.  Survey have been  Cochrane (1972) s t u d i e d the  to b i a s r e s u l t i n g from responding  in a  ex-  susceptibility socially  T h e i r i n t e r e s t i n g study r e v e a l e d t h a t the  v i r t u a l l y immune to t h i s ..type of c o n t a m i n a t i o n .  Value Cochrane  and Rokeach (1970) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of the o r d e r i n which the i n d i v i d u a l items were i n i t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d assignment.  Initially  strumental values  they found  (i.e.,  alphabetical l i s t i n g  ( a l p h a b e t i c a l l y ) upon v a l u e  a s i g n i f i c a n t order e f f e c t f o r i n -  v a l u e s which came near the b e g i n n i n g of  tended  to be ranked  v a l u e s ) , but not f o r t e r m i n a l v a l u e s .  as more important  Further probing into  than  the other  this  i s s u e r e v e a l e d , however, t h a t those v a l u e s which were near the top of the a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g of the i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s were i n f a c t  of  36  Table 4 Higher-Order  F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Items of Rokeach's Value  Factors  Survey  R e l a t e d Items  Immediate v e r s u s Delayed G r a t i f i c a t i o n  A Comfortable L i f e Pleasure Clean An E x c i t i n g L i f e  versus  Wisdom Inner Harmony Logical Self-Controlled  Competence v e r s u s Religious Morality  Logical Imaginative Intellectual Independent  versus  Forgiving Salvation Helpful Clean  Obedient Polite Self-Controlled Honest  versus  Broadminded Capable  S o c i a l versus Personal Orientation  A World a t Peace National Security Equality Freedom .  versus  True F r i e n d s h i p Self-Respect  S o c i a l versus Family S e c u r i t y  A World of Beauty Equality Helpful Imaginative  versus  Family S e c u r i t y Ambitious Responsible Capable  Respect  Social Recognition Self-Respect  versus  Mature Love Loving  Polite  versus  Courageous Independent  Self-Constriction Self-Expansion  versus  v e r s u s Love  Inner v e r s u s Directed  Outer  Each item a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f a c t o r has a c o r r e l a t i o n of a t l e a s t .30 w i t h t h a t f a c t o r . Note:  From The Nature of Human Values by M. Rokeach. The Free P r e s s , 1973.  New York:  37  greater  importance t o some groups than v a l u e s which came l a t e r i n the  alphabetical ordering.  When t h e main e f f e c t o f r e l a t i v e importance o f  i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s was c o n t r o l l e d f o r , no o t h e r o r d e r e f f e c t remained. S i n c e i t s development the Value Survey has been used Differences ideology,  between groups d e f i n e d  by age, s o c i a l o r i g i n , p o l i t i c a l  r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n and socioeconomic s t a t u s , e t c . have  been examined.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s of many d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y  (e.g., n e u r o t i c i s m , studied.  extensively.  factors  dogmatism, e t c . ) t o v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n have been  Value c o r r e l a t e s o f v a r i o u s  attitudes  (e.g., o r i e n t a t i o n toward  the poor, a t t i t u d e s toward communism), and o f d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r s  (e.g.,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c i v i l r i g h t s movements, involvement i n a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e s t y l e s , e t c . ) have a l s o been i n v e s t i g a t e d . studied  Some r e s e a r c h e r s have  changes i n v a l u e s which accompany changes i n b e h a v i o u r and  a t t i t u d e s over time or as a r e s u l t o f c e r t a i n e x p e r i e n c e s posure t o i n f o r m a t i o n  of p o s s i b l e  contradictions  within  (e.g., ex-  one's b e l i e f  system) (Rokeach, 1973, pp. 57-319). The and  combined f a c t s t h a t  changes as d e s c r i b e d  the Value Survey i s s e n s i t i v e t o d i f f e r e n c e s  above and t h a t  i t has been shown t o p o s s e s s  s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l i a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t e s t to i t s u s e f u l n e s s as an  instrument f o r measuring v a l u e s .  Furthermore, a study by Homant  i n which he measured the semantic meaning o f each o f the v a l u e s Osgood's semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l t e c h n i q u e and then c o r r e l a t e d  (1969)  using  these  i n d i c e s w i t h the rank o r d e r i n g s o b t a i n e d on the Value Survey, has r e vealed the  that  t h i s r e l a t i v e l y simple r a n k i n g procedure y i e l d s e s s e n t i a l l y  same i n f o r m a t i o n  f e r e n t i a l technique.  as o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e more complex semantic Rokeach has p o i n t e d  out, i n a d d i t i o n ,  that  difthese  38  f i n d i n g s imply t h a t the Value Survey items measure the same k i n d of meaning as t h a t i n v o l v e d i n the more c o m p l i c a t e d e v a l u a t i v e t a s k dev e l o p e d by Osgood.  Rokeach has d e s c r i b e d an a d d i t i o n a l source of  support f o r the c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y  f o r the Value Survey.  He  compared  Value Survey Forms A and B, b o t h of which c o n t a i n o n l y 12 v a l u e s . forms are i d e n t i c a l except t h a t Form B i n c l u d e s a d e f i n i t i v e b e s i d e each v a l u e .  He found t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t i e s  d i n g v a l u e s i n both forms were e q u i v a l e n t —  the i n c l u s i o n of an  f o r each item d i d not enhance the  of  1973,  (Rokeach,  p. 50).  phrase  of the c o r r e s p o n -  e x p l a n a t o r y statement the t e s t  The  reliability  T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t  the  semantic meanings of the i n d i v i d u a l items are indeed the same f o r d i f f e r e n t people.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Rokeach has noted t h a t i t i s the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning, which must be i n f e r r e d by the way  i n which p a r -  t i c u l a r v a l u e s a r e r e l a t e d to o t h e r v a l u e s i n a person's v a l u e  system,  r a t h e r than the semantic meaning o f v a l u e s which i s of primary  impor-  tance i n s t u d y i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e system.  Studying  completed  forms o f the Value Survey g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the p s y c h o l o g i c a l meanings of the i n d i v i d u a l items to those Wiggin's  tested.  (Note 1) P e r s o n a l D e s c r i p t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PDQ)  p r e s e n t s the f i r s t development i n h i s attempt comprised  re-  to c r e a t e a taxonomy  o f s t r u c t u r a l models which c a t e g o r i z e s the l e x i c o n of words  used to d e s c r i b e p e o p l e .  The PDQ  was  developed  to d e a l w i t h those  words r e l a t e d to "the realm o f t h i n g s t h a t people do to each o t h e r i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchanges based on l o v e and s t a t u s " . c e p t u a l i z e d by Wiggins  i n c l u d e d those of temperament  Other realms  ...  con-  (e.g., dominance,  k i n d n e s s ) , c h a r a c t e r (e.g., honesty, m o r a l i t y ) , m a t e r i a l t r a i t s  (e.g.,  39  m a t e r i a l i s m , p h i l a n t r o p i s m ) , a t t i t u d e s (e.g., p r e j u d i c e , and  s o c i a l r o l e s (e.g., motherly, Wiggins has  "any  spiritualism),  clownish).  adopted G u i l f o r d ' s (1959) d e f i n i t i o n of a t r a i t  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e , r e l a t i v e l y enduring  d i f f e r s from o t h e r s " . began w i t h Goldberg's  way  i n which one  as  individual  In i n v e s t i g a t i n g the domain of t r a i t s , Wiggins (1974) taxonomy of 1710  "normative o p e r a t i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " which were, i n f a c t , t r a i t d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s . Goldberg's l i s t  was  d e r i v e d from a l a r g e r taxonomy of 3584 terms com-  p i l e d by Norman (1967) who  had,  i n turn, u t i l i z e d  " s t a b l e b i o p h y s i c a l t r a i t s " compiled each step i n the p r o c e s s g o a l of d e v e l o p i n g redundant and  by A l l p o r t and  by which t h i s l o n g e r l i s t  Odbert was  (1936). At  reduced,  the  a taxonomy which remained comprehensive but was  i n c l u d e d r e l e v a n t items was  Wiggin's i n i t i a l  a d j e c t i v e s to one  already conceptualized.  He  non-  followed.  step i n h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s  each of Goldberg's 1710 he had  the taxonomy of 4504  was  of s i x a p r i o r i  to a s s i g n  categories  d e f i n e d the i n t e r p e r s o n a l realm  c o n s i s t i n g of a d j e c t i v e s which c o u l d each be d e s c r i b e d  as  as,  ... a judgement t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l may be more or l e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as performing a c l a s s of a c t i o n s t h a t have r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r - c u t , n o n - t r i v i a l s o c i a l consequences. The  a d j e c t i v e s which were thereby  assigned  gory were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g Leary's  to the i n t e r p e r s o n a l c a t e -  to the dimensions i n c l u d e d i n  (1957) c i r c u m p l i c i a l model of i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r  F i g u r e 1).  On  the b a s i s of both t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and  r e s e a r c h Wiggins decided on i n t e r p e r s o n a l t r a i t s .  upon a c i r c u m p l i c i a l model f o r h i s Leary's  system was  (see past  research  chosen m a i n l y because i t  Dominant  Arrogant Calculating  Cold  Quarrelsome  NARCICISM  SUCCESS  EXPLOITATION  Ambitious  GENEROSITY  PUNISHMENT  TENDERNESS  LOVE  HOSTILITY  Aloof  REBELLION  Introverted  TRUST  MASOCHISM  — "  CONFORMITY  Gregarious  Agreeable  COLLABORATION  DISTRUST  Lazy  Extraverted  Warm  Ingenious  Unassuming  WEAKNESS Submissive  F i g u r e 1.  The Dimensions o f L e a r y ' s (1957) I n t e r p e r s o n a l Circumplex ( i n upper case) and Wiggin's (1976) I n t e r p e r s o n a l Circumplex ( i n lower c a s e ) .  41  was  more t h o r o u g h l y d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e than any o t h e r system  of i t s k i n d .  S p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s of L e a r y ' s dimensions  t o r s ) a r e found i n the I n t e r p e r s o n a l Check L i s t 1955)  which was  16 dimensions  based  on t h i s system.  (i.e.,  vec-  ( L a f o r g e & Suczek,  Leary's circumplex includes  t h a t can be combined to form 8 b i p o l a r dimensions.  This  b i p o l a r i t y has been q u e s t i o n e d , however, both i n s u b s t a n t i a l grounds (some of the dimensions  a r e not i n t u i t i v e l y b i p o l a r ) and e m p i r i c a l  grounds (they have not been shown e m p i r i c a l l y to be b i p o l a r ) . t h i s shortcoming  and other e m p i r i c a l weaknesses which have been r e v e a l e d ,  Wiggins s t a t e d t h a t the advantages of employing  a developed  s t a r t i n g r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a outweighed the disadvantages i n u s i n g a n o n p e r f e c t model. was  Despite  Rather  model when inherent  than " s t a r t i n g from s c r a t c h " he  a b l e to p l a n h i s s t r a t e g y upon c o n s i d e r i n g the s t r e n g t h s and weak-  nesses of a c u r r e n t model. The procedure Wiggins employed i n d e v e l o p i n g a c i r c u m p l e x w i t h p r o p e r t i e s of thorough traits,  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the realm of i n t e r p e r s o n a l  s a t i s f a c t o r y g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of each dimension,  soundness and o p t i m a l e m p i r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was which i n v o l v e d both r a t i o n a l and  an e l a b o r a t e  e m p i r i c a l techniques.  by Goldberg where u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s r a t e d themselves a d j e c t i v e s u s i n g a 9-point L i k e r t s c a l e , was  theoretical one  Data o b t a i n e d on a l l 1710  employed by Wiggins i n  t e s t i n g h i s model as he c o n t i n u e d to r e v i s e i t .  Throughout t h i s  c e s s both the d i r e c t i o n and n a t u r e of refinement was m o d i f y i n g weaknesses i n the model which appeared  determined  proby  at d i f f e r e n t points  in i t s creation. The  dimensions  of Wiggins'  c i r c u m p l e x a r e a l s o shown i n F i g u r e 1.  42  H i s circumplex  c o n t a i n s 16 dimensions which can be reduced  a d j a c e n t dimensions to o b t a i n 8 dimensions or v e c t o r s . observed  t h a t a l t h o u g h Leary's  by  combining  It i s readily  system p r o v i d e d a framework f o r b e g i n n i n g  t h i s r e s e a r c h , Wiggins' c i r c u m p l e x  is significantly different  Leary's.  Wiggins' dimensions a r e both t h e o r e t i c a l l y and  bipolar.  F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of both Goldberg's  from  empirically  sample and a  student  sample t e s t e d by Wiggins has confirmed Wiggins' c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the circumplex The  s t r u c t u r e of t h i s model i s "both c l e a r and  r e s u l t a n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the PDQ,  well-balanced."  i n c l u d e s 128 a d j e c t i v e s  which combine to d e s c r i b e 16 dimensions (8 items/dimension) or 8 dimensions  (16 items/dimension).  a 9-point  s c a l e , how  The  s u b j e c t i s r e q u i r e d to i n d i c a t e ,  using  w e l l each of these a d j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f .  In o r d e r to d e r i v e the c i r c u m p l i c i a l p a t t e r n i n g f o r an i n d i v i d u a l or group, s c o r e s f o r each dimension  are found  and  these dimensions a r e  p l o t t e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r l o a d i n g s on the two main f a c t o r s by means of f a c t o r  identified  analysis.  In a d d i t i o n to the two (Goldberg's  samples which have a l r e a d y been mentioned  U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon sample and Wiggins' U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia sample),  the PDQ  has been a d m i n i s t e r e d  to o t h e r  Canadian groups as w e l l as to an A u s t r a l i a n student sample. c o r r e l a t i n g s c o r e s on the PDQ  of t h i s study should be important  PDQ  by the PDQ  has been u t i l i z e d  A  study  s c a l e s w i t h s c o r e s on r e l a t e d s c a l e s  from o t h e r i n v e n t o r i e s has r e c e n t l y been performed  possessed  then  (Note 2).  i n a s s e s s i n g the c o n c u r r e n t  Findings validity  i n r e l a t i o n to other i n v e n t o r i e s .  Finally,  i n a r e c e n t study by Wiggins and  Holzmuller  the  (Note 3) where the i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  43  androgyny  (as d e f i n e d by Bem,  1974)  were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  I n t h i s study  v a r i o u s groups o f b o t h sexes r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f androgyny were compared i n terms of t h e i r PDQ.scores.  The PDQ  proved e f f e c t i v e  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g these groups on many dimensions, and q u i t e e l a b o r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p o s s e s s e d by the i n d i v i d u a l groups i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l sample were o b t a i n e d . data a v a i l a b l e f o r the PDQ was  Even though . normative  l i m i t e d , b o t h i t s t h e o r e t i c a l and  em-  p i r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t i t has been shown to be s e n s i t i v e to d i f f e r e n c e s among groups d e f i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t to v a r i o u s independent v a r i a b l e s suggested t h a t i t would be s u i t a b l e to use i n the p r e s e n t study where a comparison o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s between groups was of importance.  44  METHOD  Subjects A t o t a l of 111 t e e r s and  s u b j e c t s were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study —  agency and  A breakdown of the t o t a l number of s u b j e c t s  s t a t u s appears i n T a b l e p u b l i c i z e d and  5.  At each of these a g e n c i e s  t h a t between 20-50% of the v o l u n t e e r s  and  f e s s i o n a l s from each agency were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n was of t h i s data r e v e a l e d  t h a t the t h r e e v o l u n t e e r  They were not  6,  It i s  Analysis  groups d i f f e r e d and  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n terms of with respect  to sex  age, (male  Tables  9 d e s c r i b e the demographic d i f f e r e n c e s among v o l u n t e e r  groups i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . t o t a l group of v o l u n t e e r s  A s i m i l a r comparison was and  of dependent c h i l d r e n , sex, d e t a i l s of t h i s  made between the  the t o t a l group of p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  d i f f e r e n c e between these groups were found f o r age,  Test  sig-  length  female s u b e j c t s were combined i n groups i n t h i s s t u d y ) . 7, 8 and  pro-  study.  c o l l e c t e d from a l l s u b j e c t s .  number of dependent c h i l d r e n or composition and  the  70-90% of the  n i f i c a n t l y on the v a r i a b l e s of m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n of s e r v i c e .  by  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of each agency encouraged  i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o l u n t e e r workers to take p a r t i n i t . estimated  volun-  32 p r o f e s s i o n a l s from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s  i n g r e a t e r Vancouver.  study was  79  or m a r i t a l s t a t u s .  education,  Table  No number  10 shows the  comparison.  Materials A b a t t e r y of t h r e e t e s t s was  administered  to each s u b j e c t .  These  45  Table 5 A Breakdown o f S u b j e c t s A c c o r d i n g to Agency and S t a t u s  Agency  3  Alternatives  C r i s i s Center  S t . John Ambulance  Total  Volunteer  26  18  35  79  Professional  10  10  12  32  36  28  47  111  Status  Total  '  A l t h o u g h j>s were s o l i c i t e d from two C r i s i s C e n t e r s (Vancouver C r i s i s Center and Richmond C r i s i s Center) and from two S t . John Ambulance B r i g a d e s (Vancouver and New Westminster g r o u p s ) , the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s of the two branches were e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h i n a g e n c i e s . On the assumption t h a t workers i n s i s t e r branches of the same a g e n c i e s were p e r f o r m i n g t h e same j o b s under s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s , no a n a l y s i s of d i f f e r e n c e s between workers a t d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s o f t h e same a g e n c i e s were performed.  46  Table 6 A Comparison of the Volunteer  Statistical Test  Variable  Age  Groups on Selected Demographic Variables  Homogeneity of Groups f o r that Variable  Significance Level  Extended Median Test  -  Anova  yes  <.01**  Anova  yes  >.05  Education  >.05  No. of Dependent Children Sex  Chi Square  -  >.05  Marital Status  Chi Square  -  <.05*  p_ < .05 p < .01  47  Table  7  Mean E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s o f t h e V o l u n t e e r  Agency  Educational Level Attained  Alternatives Crisis  Groups  Center  volunteers volunteers  S t . John Ambulance  volunteers  Two  years  post-secondary  Two  years  post-secondary  High School  completed  48  Table 8 Breakdown on M a r i t a l S t a t u s f o r the V o l u n t e e r  Marital  Groups  Agency  Status Alternatives  Crisis  Centre  St. John Ambulance  Single  58%  21%  49%  Married  31%  54%  47%  Separated  8%  11%  2%  Divorced  3%  14%  2%  49  Table 9 Mean S e r v i c e Lengths o f P a r t i c i p a n t Groups  Agency Status  Volunteer Professional  S t . John Ambulance  Mean S e r v i c e Length  Alternatives  C r i s i s Center  0-0.5 y e a r s  1.0-1.5 y e a r s  8.5-9.0 y e a r s  4.0-4.5 y e a r s  0.5-1.0. years  1.0-1.5 y e a r s  5.0-5.5 y e a r s  2.5-3.0 y e a r s  50  Table A Comparison of V o l u n t e e r s  10 and P r o f e s s i o n a l s on  S e l e c t e d Demographic  Variable  Age  Statistical Test  Variables  Homegeneity of Groups f o r that V a r i a b l e  Median T e s t  Significance Level  >  .05 .05  Education  Anova  yes  >  No. of Dependent Children  Anova  yes  > .05  Sex  C h i Square  >  .05  M a r i t a l Status  C h i Square  >  .05  51  tests included t h r e e t e s t s was  the PRF-E, the randomized  VS  and  across  the PDQ.  The  o r d e r of  these  subjects.  Procedure I t was pective  i n t e n d e d to t e s t a l l v o l u n t e e r s i n groups a t t h e i r  agencies.  However, an  i n s u f f i c i e n t number of  o b t a i n e d when t h i s s t i p u l a t i o n was to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the complete the b a t t e r y  i n t h e i r own  i n groups a t the a g e n c i e s . o r d e r g i v e n and  from d i s t r a c t i o n . t h i s study, 19%  subjects had  homes.  S u b j e c t s who  same s e t of i n s t r u c t i o n s They were r e q u i r e d  a l l a t one  In the end,  time, i n a q u i e t  44%  as  any  part  the  those  tested tests  p l a c e t h a t was  The  of the  agency was  test battery  finished.  in  from the C r i s i s Centers and The  C r i s i s Centre performed the  St. John p r o f e s s i o n a l s  A l l subjects involved  free  participated  tests  were t e s t e d  i n t h i s study were asked not w i t h anyone e l s e u n t i l  14%  professional at  desks, at times when they were a b l e to comply w i t h the  cedural instructions. group.  and  to  performed these  from St. John Ambulance completed t h e i r t e s t s a t home.  t h e i r own  been unable  to complete the  of a l l v o l u n t e e r s who  from A l t e r n a t i v e s ,  s t a f f at A l t e r n a t i v e s  was  group t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n were l a t e r a l l o w e d  t e s t s a t home were g i v e n the  i n the  made, so those who  res-  to  t e s t i n g at  pro-  in a discuss their  52  RESULTS  Three q u e s t i o n s were asked i n t h i s study: 1.  What a r e the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between v o l u n t e e r s a t the d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s ;  2.  What a r e the g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between v o l u n t e e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l workers a t these a g e n c i e s ; and  3.  Are v o l u n t e e r s more s i m i l a r to p r o f e s s i o n a l s a t t h e i r  own  a g e n c i e s than to o t h e r v o l u n t e e r s ?  In o r d e r to c o n t r o l an extremely h i g h experiment-wise e r r o r  rate  which would e x i s t i f i n d i v i d u a l anovas or t^-tests were performed f o r each of the 66 dependent v a r i a b l e s , dependent v a r i a b l e s were grouped so t h a t a much s m a l l e r number of manova or H o t e l l i n g T completed.  2  t e s t s were  The procedure recommended by Hummel and S l i g o  f o l l o w e d so t h a t an o v e r a l l manova or H o t e l l i n g T  2  (1971) was  .test was  performed,  f o l l o w e d by anovas or t - t e s t s on i n d i v i d u a l items i f the o v e r a l l proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t . T^  test  (For the comparison of two groups H o t e l l i n g  and _ t - t e s t s were used; when t h r e e or more groups were compared,  manovas and anovas were used.)  Furthermore, f o r v a r i a b l e s which  y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t anovas, i n d i v i d u a l comparisons between p a i r s of a l l groups i n v o l v e d f o l l o w e d .  Due  to the l a r g e number of  v a r i a b l e s the S c h e f f e t e s t was  used f o r p a i r e d  dependent  comparisons.  The 22 PRF dimensions and the 36 Value S c a l e items were d i v i d e d i n t o groups composed of a s m a l l e r number of f a c t o r s , f o r some comparisons.  These v a r i a b l e groups, which have been l a b e l l e d as PRF  #1,  53  PRF. #2,  PRF  #3,  VS1  #1,  VS1  #2,  VS2  #1  a n d VS2  #2,  a r e shown i n T a b l e  11T e s t s of homogeneity  were performed a t a l l l e v e l s of the a n a l y s e s .  Where g r o u p s w e r e f o u n d n o t t o be homogeneous t h e s t a t i s t i c a l of  t h e v a r i a b l e ( s ) i n v o l v e d was  terminated.  For example,  analysis  i f on a p a r -  t i c u l a r manova t h e g r o u p s w e r e n o t h o m o g e n e o u s , e v e n a s e e m i n g l y h i g h significant  l e v e l would  a n d K o t e l l i n g T_  h a v e t o be i g n o r e d .  Anovas,  manovas, _ t - t e s t s  a n a l y s e s c o u l d o n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d where t h e c o m p a r i -  s o n g r o u p s w e r e homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e v a r i a b l e s u n d e r deration.  F o r some c o m p a r i s o n s a n a t t e m p t t o w a r d s m a k i n g  the  groups  h o m o g e n e o u s , b y d e c r e a s i n g t h e age r a n g e o f s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d , made.  The  consi-  was  r e s u l t s of such e f f o r t s have been p r e s e n t e d .  T a b l e 12 p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l manovas p e r f o r m e d p a r i n g the t h r e e groups of v o l u n t e e r s .  Anovas on i n d i v i d u a l  i n comdimensions  i n c l u d e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t manovas w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y c o m p l e t e d .  Table  i n c l u d e s t h e f i n d i n g s o f p a i r e d c o m p a r i s o n t e s t s p e r f o r m e d on  variables  for it  w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t anovas were found. i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e most extreme  were b e t w e e n t h e A l t e r n a t i v e s and of  S t . John v o l u n t e e r groups. the C r i s i s  s c o r e s were i n between those of the A l t e r n a t i v e s  the S t . John v o l u n t e e r s .  On  results  d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s  the dimensions f o r which anovas were s i g n i f i c a n t  group's and  Upon e x a m i n i n g t h e s e  13  t h e PRF,  On many Center  volunteers  the A l t e r n a t i v e s  volunteers  s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e S t . J o h n v o l u n t e e r s on Autonomy, S e n t i e n c e and U n d e r s t a n d i n g .  Mean s c a l e d  scores of the S t . John  v o l u n t e e r s s u r p a s s e d t h o s e o f t h e A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n t e e r s on t h e d i mensions  o f S u c c o r a n c e and N u r t u r a n c e .  The  C r i s i s Center volunteers  54  T a b l e 11 V a r i a b l e Groupings f o r Manovas  PRF #1 Achievement Change Cognitive Structure .Endurance Harmavoidance Impulsivity Order Play  VS1 #1 A Comfortable Life An E x c i t i n g Life Happiness Inner Harmony Pleasure Salvation Social Recognition Wisdom  PRF #3  PRF #2 Abasement Autonomy Dominance Sentience Succorance Understanding  Affiliation Aggression Defendence Exhibition Nurturance Social Recognition Infrequency Social Desirability  VS2 #1  VS1 #2  Clean Courageous Forgiving Helpful Imaginative Independent Intellectual Logical Loving  A Sense of Accomplishment A World a t Peace A World o f Beauty Equality Family S e c u r i t y Freedom National Security Self-Respect True F r i e n d s h i p  PDQ - 8 Dominant Arrogant Cold Aloof Lazy Unassuming Warm Gregarious  -  Ambitious Calculating Quarrelsome Introverted Submissive Ingenious Agreeable Introverted  VS2 #2 Ambitious Broadminded Capable Cheerful Honest Obedient Polite Responsible Self-Controlled  55  T a b l e 12 Results  o f Manovas Performed i n the Comparison o f the V o l u n t e e r Groups  Manova  Homogeneity of- Groups  PRF #1  no  PRF #2  yes  <.01**  PRF #3  yes  <.01**  VS1 #1  yes  .01**  VS1 #2  yes  <.01**  VS2 #1  yes  .05*  VS2 #1 (17-50 y r s )  yes  VS2 #2  no  VS2 #2 (17-50 y r s )  yes  <.05*  PDQ - 8  yes  >.05  £ < .05  ** < £  - .01  Significance Level  >.05  -  56  T a b l e 13 S i g n i f i c a n t S c h e f f e T e s t s i n the Comparison of  the V o l u n t e e r Groups  Manova  Variable  Anova Significance Level  PRF #2  Autonomy Sentience Succorance Understanding  <.01** <.01** <.05* .01**  A l t . > St. A l t . > St. St. John > A l t . > St.  PRF #3  Nurturance  <.01**  C.C. & S t . John >  VS1  #1  Inner Harmony  VS1  #2  Family S e c u r i t y  <.01**  C.C. & S t . John >  Clean Helpful Imaginative Independent Intellectual  <.05* <.05* <.01** <.01** <.05*  St. John > St. John > A l t . > St. A l t . > St. A l t . > St.  VS2 #1  a  .01**  Results of Scheffe Tests  John John Alt. John-  A l t . > St. John  3  Alt. Alt. John John John  i . e . , The A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n t e e r s v a l u e d Inner Harmony more h i g h l y than d i d the S t . John v o l u n t e e r s . £ < .05  57  a l s o were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the Nurturance pared to the A l t e r n a t i v e s On the Value Survey,  dimension when com-  group. the A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n t e e r s ranked  Inner  Harmony and b e i n g I m a g i n a t i v e , Independent and I n t e l l e c t u a l as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more important  than the S t . John v o l u n t e e r s d i d .  The  St. John v o l u n t e e r s ranked C l e a n and H e l p f u l as more important  than  d i d the A l t e r n a t i v e v o l u n t e e r s .  Both the C r i s i s Center and S t . John  v o l u n t e e r s v a l u e d F a m i l y S e c u r i t y h i g h l y i n comparison ternatives volunteers. variables  w i t h the A l -  F i n a l l y , when a manova i n c l u d i n g the VS2 #2  was performed  on a r e s t r i c t e d group o f s u b j e c t s , those  17 t o 50 y e a r s o f age, no d i f f e r e n c e was found between groups f o r any of these v a r i a b l e s . T a b l e 14 r e v e a l s the r e s u l t s o f H o t e l l i n g T_ comparing  t e s t s performed i n  v o l u n t e e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l workers and T a b l e 15 shows the  f i n d i n g s o f _ t - t e s t s performed H o t e l l i n g T_  comparisons  on the v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the two  which were s i g n i f i c a n t .  The f i n d i n g s  indi-  c a t e d t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the PRF dimensions  o f Achievement, Dominance and E x h i b i t i o n and the PDQ  dimen-  s i o n s o f Dominant-Ambitious and G r e g a r i o u s - E x t r a v e r t e d than d i d the volunteers."  V o l u n t e e r s , on the o t h e r hand, surpassed  on the Lazy-Submissive Two d i f f e r e n t  professionals  s c a l e of the PDQ.  s t a t i s t i c a l procedures were employed i n d e t e r m i n i n g  how c l o s e l y the v o l u n t e e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s from the same agency resembled all  each o t h e r .  F i r s t l y , manovas were performed  i n comparing  s i x groupsj ( i . e . , a v o l u n t e e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l group from  agency).  each  T a b l e 16 d e s c r i b e s the r e s u l t s o f these manovas and T a b l e 17  58  Table Hotelllng T  2  14  T e s t s Performed i n the Comparison  of V o l u n t e e r s and P r o f e s s i o n a l s  Homogeneity of Groups  H o t e l l i n g T" Test  .01**  PRF (22 dimensions) VS1  (17 i t e m s )  3  VS2  (17 i t e m s )  3  >.05 >.05 <.05*  PDQ - 8  a  Significance Level  F o r H o t e l l i n g T T e s t s on both VS1 and VS2 o n l y 17 of the 18 v a l u e s were i n c l u d e d . The i t e m excluded, on each s c a l e , was the one on which the two groups were l e a s t d i f f e r e n t . 2  * Z < -05 £  < .01  59  T a b l e 15 S i g n i f i c a n t _t-Tests i n the Comparison of Volunteers  H o t e l l i n g T^ Test  PRF (22 dimensions)  PDQ - 8  £•='.01  Significance Level  Variable  Achievement Dominance Exhibition Dominant-Ambitious La zy-Submis s i v e Gregarious-Extraverted  The p r o f e s s i o n a l s scored p_ < .05  and P r o f e s s i o n a l s  higher  Results  <.05* <.05* .01**  pros > v o l s pros > v o l s pros > v o l s  .01** .01** .01**  pros > v o l s v o l s > pros pros > v o l s  than the v o l u n t e e r s  on Achievement.  60  T a b l e 16 Results  o f Manovas Performed i n the Comparison of t h e S i x Groups  Homogeneity o f Groups  Manova  Significance Level  PRF #1  no  —  PRF #1 (17-50 y e a r s )  no  -  PRF #1 (17-55 y e a r s )  no  -  PRF #2  yes  <.01*  PRF #3  yes  <.01*  PRF #3 (17-50 y e a r s )  no  -  PRF #3 (17-55 y e a r s )  no  -  VS1 #1  no  -  VS1 #1 (17-55 y e a r s )  no  -  VS1 #2  no  -  VS1 #2 (17-55 y e a r s )  yes  >.05  VS2 #1  yes  >.05  VS2 #1 (17-57 y e a r s )  yes  >.05  VS2 #2  yes  <.01*  VS2 #2 (17-57 y e a r s )  yes  <.01*  PDQ - 8  no  -  PDQ - 8(17-55 y e a r s )  no  -  * _p_ < .01  Table 17 S i g n i f i c a n t Scheffe Tests i n the Comparison of the Six Groups  Manova  PRF  #2  VS1  #2  VS2  #2  Variable  (17-50 yrs)  Anova Significance Level  Results of Scheffe  Tests  Abasement Autonomy Sentience  <.01* <.01* -.01*  St. John vols & pros > A l t . pros A l t . vols > St. John vols A l t . vols > St. John vols  Family Security  <.01*  C.C.  Polite  <.01*  St. John vols > A l t . vols & pros  i . e . , The C r i s i s Center and St. John volunteers valued Family Security more highly than did the Alternatives volunteers, when only those persons 17-50 years of age were compared. £ <  .01  Si  & St. John vols > A l t . vols  62  the anovas and i n d i v i d u a l comparison tests which followed s i g n i f i c a n t manovas.  Upon viewing Table 17, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain whether  the differences between groups are mainly related to the variables of status l e v e l or agency a f f i l i a t i o n .  However, i t can be observed that  of the 11 s i g n i f i c a n t anovas, 10 involve d i s t i n c t differences between one or more St. John groups and one or more Alternatives groups. may  It  be that the v a r i a b i l i t y among a l l six groups i s primarily accounted  for by differences between these two Another way  agencies.  of determining whether a subject's personality t r a i t s  and values were represented more accurately by the agency or the  status  group to which he belonged involved performing two-way anovas on variables f o r which the o v e r a l l manovas were s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 18 shows the r e s u l t s when 3x2  (agency x status) anovas were completed.  This table shows that there was three variables —  a s i g n i f i c a n t status e f f e c t for only  Dominance, Exhibition and Nurturance —  s i g n i f i c a n t agency e f f e c t existed for nine variables —  while a  Abasement,  Autonomy, Sentience, Succorance, Understanding, Nurturance, S o c i a l Recognition, Ambitious and Responsible. these variables — there was  In addition, for three of  Abasement, S o c i a l Recognition and Self-Controlled  a s i g n i f i c a n t agency x status i n t e r a c t i o n .  Upon analyzing  t h i s data i t became apparent that although a participant's personality and value c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a function of both his status and  the  agency to which he belonged, his c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s more closely resembled those of his agency than those related to his status l e v e l . A c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis was of the three volunteer groups.  also completed i n the comparison  For each of the two demographic  —  T a b l e 18 R e s u l t s of.Two-Way (Agency x S t a t u s ) Anovas i n the Comparison o f the S i x Groups  Manova  Variable  Homogeneity  PRF #2  Abasement Autonomy Dominance Sentience Succorance Understanding  yes Y Y yes yes yes  Affiliation Aggression Defendence Exhibition Nurturance S o c i a l Recognition Infrequency Social Desirability  yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes  Ambitious Broadminded Capable Cheerful Honest Obedient Polite Responsible Self-Controlled  yes yes yes yes yes no no yes yes  PRF #3  VS2 #2  * p_ < .05  **£ < . 01  e s  e s  Significant Status Level  no no <. 05* no no no no no <. 05* .05* no no no no no no no no  ' no no  Significant Agency E f f e c t  <.01** <.01** no .01** .01** <.05*  Significant Status x Agency E f f e c t  .01** no no no no no  no no  no no  no <.01** .05* no no  no no <.05* no no  .01** no no no no  <.05* no  no no no no no  no <.05*  64  variables on which these groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( i . e . education and marital status), correlations with each of the dependent variables were computed.  Table 19 presents the r e s u l t s of this analysis which  revealed that the PRF dimension  of Autonomy was s i g n i f i c a n t l y cor-  related with marital status and also that the dimensions of Autonomy, Sentience and Understanding were correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with education.  Table 20 provides more detailed information concerning the  relationship between marital status and Autonomy.  65  T a b l e 19 Correlations  of S i g n i f i c a n t Demographic V a r i a b l e s  S i g n i f i c a n t Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Dependent V a r i a b l e  f o r the V o l u n t e e r  Correlation with M a r i t a l Status  with  Sample  Correlation with Education  PRF  Autonomy Nurturance Sentience Succorance Understanding  .40* .06 .17 .26 .21  .32* -.18 .41* -.10 .43*  VS1  Family S e c u r i t y Inner Harmony  .25 .14  .08 -.12  VS2  Clean Helpful Imaginative Independent Intellectual  .19 .15 . 15 .06 .11  .06 .02 -.08 .02 .02  £ < .05  Table 20 The Relationship of Marital Status to PRF Autonomy Scale Score for the Volunteer Sample  M a r i t a l Status  Mean Autonomy Score  Married (n=29)  6.0  Single  9.1  (n=39)  Separated  (n=3)  Divorced (n=3)  10.0 9.0  67  DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION  The intent of this study was to examine the personality charact e r i s t i c s and values of d i f f e r e n t kinds of volunteer and professional workers involved i n s o c i a l service areas.  Because this investigation  was concerned with comparing and describing these groups as they existed, c o n t r o l l i n g for various demographic factors such as age by matching subjects across groups or by l i m i t i n g the study to persons f a l l i n g within a confined age range would have veen a n t i t h e t i c a l to this study.  Nevertheless, the importance of comparing these groups  ad hoc with respect to important nonexperimental  variables i s obvious  i f one i s to suggest that differences found can be attributed with confidence to the differences i n agency or status between groups under comparison. No differences were found when the volunteers and professionals were compared on the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s measured.  The three  volunteer groups did, however, d i f f e r with respect to some demographic factors.  The St. John Ambulance volunteers had received s i g n i f i c a n t l y  less formal education than the other two volunteer groups.  In addition,  31% of the Alternatives volunteers were married whereas 47% of the St. John Ambulance volunteers and 54% of the C r i s i s Centre volunteers were married.  A c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis revealed that education was p o s i -  t i v e l y correlated with the PRF scales of Autonomy, Sentience and Understanding, while marital status was correlated only with the Autonomy scale.  Further analysis of the relationship between m a r i t a l  status and Autonomy revealed that married as opposed to single, separated  68  or d i v o r c e d  persons s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on  When the  this scale.  t h r e e v o l u n t e e r groups were compared d i f f e r e n c e s were  found on b o t h the PRF  and  the V a l u e Survey.  The  f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the A l t e r n a t i v e s and  significant dif-  St. John Ambulance  groups w i t h the mean s c o r e s f o r the C r i s i s Center v o l u n t e e r group l y i n g between more extreme v a l u e s found f o r the other two most cases. f i c a n t l y on  The  A l t e r n a t i v e s and  St. John v o l u n t e e r s d i f f e r e d s i g n i -  twelve e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s whereas the C r i s i s  group d i f f e r e d from the A l t e r n a t i v e s did  not  d i f f e r a t a l l from the  t h a t the  described  ("emotional n o n c r i s i s " workers) and  characteristics.  On  and  variables  as " e m o t i o n a l  the  Alternatives  St. John group  support the c o n t e n t i o n  personality of a s i g n i f i c a n t  St. John v o l u n t e e r s who  o r i e n t a t i o n toward self-enhancement on the p a r t of the  by  differences  an emphasis upon more t r a d i t i o n a l and St. John group. i n any  This  Security  This difference  v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n suggests a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r e l a t e d to an  the  Inner  I n t e l l e c t u a l more  ranked F a m i l y  b e i n g C l e a n arid H e l p f u l as more important.  v a l u e s by  the  volunteers.  b e i n g I m a g i n a t i v e , Independent and  v o l u n t e e r s and  ("physical  s e r v i c e . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an agency and  v a l u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s  h i g h l y than d i d the  and  crisis"  the Value Survey the A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n t e e r s v a l u e d  Harmony and  Centre  These r e s u l t s suggest  to v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n and  Such f i n d i n g s  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the personality  two  i n f a c t , a p p r o x i m a t e l y midway between the  c r i s i s " workers) w i t h r e s p e c t  and  group on only  St. John group.  C r i s i s Centre v o l u n t e e r s ,  workers a r e , group  groups, i n  in  idealistic  Alternatives  more  external  d i f f e r e n c e cannot be accounted f o r  demographic f a c t o r between groups —  these  69  values  a r e n o t r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the v a r i a b l e s o f e d u c a t i o n and  marital status.  Therefore,  t h i s d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n values  can be con-  s i d e r e d as a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between the v o l u n t e e r s at each of these a g e n c i e s .  T h i s type of i n f o r m a t i o n  i n the development o f s c r e e n i n g and  c o u l d be u t i l i z e d  procedures f o r each o f these  p o s s i b l y i n studies of volunteer  agencies,  e f f e c t i v e n e s s as w e l l .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o examine the v a l u e s i n l i g h t of t h e i r volunteer  working  o f the A l t e r n a t i v e s group  r o l e whereby they a r e r e q u i r e d  to e s t a b l i s h  m e a n i n g f u l h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t s , ex-drug a d d i c t s . In the l a s t decade t h e use of drugs has been d e s c r i b e d developing  creativity,  s e l f - d i s c o v e r y and self-enhancement, and o f  d i s c o v e r i n g meaning independent o f t h a t d e r i v e d success.  These v a l u e s ,  users i n general  popularized  through m a t e r i a l  by the h i p p i e c u l t u r e and drug  i n t h e l a t e 60's and e a r l y 70's a r e h i g h l y s i m i l a r  to .those i d e n t i f i e d by the A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n t e e r s . t h a t the A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n t e e r s ,  This  suggests  as a group, i d e n t i f y w i t h the v a l u e s  which presumably c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i r The  as a means o f  clientele.  S t . John Ambulance B r i g a d e has been i n e x i s t e n c e  f o r many  years and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system and reward system have r e t a i n e d the s t r u c t u r e which c h a r a c t e r i z e d ception.  t h i s agency s h o r t l y a f t e r i t s i n -  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t these v o l u n t e e r s  w i t h those from A l t e r n a t i v e s ) a r e c o n s e r v a t i v e t i v e l y h i g h v a l u i n g o f the c o n s t r u c t placed  upon being  of being  ( i n comparison  i n nature.  rela-  H e l p f u l and low importance  I m a g i n a t i v e , Independent and I n t e l l e c t u a l a r e con-  gruent w i t h the p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t the S t . John v o l u n t e e r s greater  Their  derive a  sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n from p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e which has  70  v i s i b l e consequences  to a r e l a t i v e l y high number of people under the  s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n of superior personnel than would the Alternatives volunteers.  Compared to that of guiding an i n d i v i d u a l toward greater  involvement i n the mainstream of society, the tasks which the St. John volunteers are required to perform are r e l a t i v e l y well-defined and straightforward.  To work e f f e c t i v e l y the St. John volunteers must  r e l y on a thorough knowledge of the range of treatments for various physical i n j u r i e s and emergencies whereas the Alternatives volunteer must try to understand the deeper psychological needs of his c l i e n t and c r e a t i v e l y plan to meet these needs. As previously stated, the St. John volunteer group was  less  educated than the Alternatives volunteer group and included a higher percentage of married individuals.  Considering that the PRF  dimension  of Autonomy was p o s i t i v e l y correlated with education and was found to be higher for nonmarried individuals i t was not surprising that the Alternatives volunteers scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the St. John volunteers on t h i s dimension.  Similarly, the finding that the  Alternatives group surpassed the St. John group on the dimensions of Sentience and Understanding which were both correlated p o s i t i v e l y with l e v e l of education, was not unexpected.  However, although the r e l a t i v e  effects of these demographic variables as well as the experimental variable  of agency upon these differences cannot be assessed, both  these differences on demographic and dependent variables provide valuable information i n comparing  these two groups.  Furthermore,  differences found on Autonomy and Understanding concur with value differences found between these groups where the Alternatives volunteers  71  v a l u e d b e i n g Independent and being I n t e l l e c t u a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y more h i g h l y than d i d the S t . John v o l u n t e e r s . on S e n t i e n c e would be expected  score  of the A l t e r n a t i v e s group which seemed  to h o l d v a l u e s r e l a t e d to self-enhancement highly.  In a d d i t i o n , a h i g h e r  and s e l f - a w a r e n e s s more  S e n s i t i v i t y toward one's sensuous c o n t a c t w i t h the environment  would appear t o be a component o f s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . The A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n t e e r group was found t o v a l u e Family S e c u r i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than d i d the C r i s i s Center o r S t . John v o l u n t e e r groups. more important  Although  Family S e c u r i t y would be expected  t o be  t o m a r r i e d people, and A l t e r n a t i v e s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  s m a l l e r percentage  component of m a r r i e d persons,  f o r the v a r i a b l e o f F a m i l y S e c u r i t y cannot  the d i f f e r e n c e  be f u l l y accounted  found  for in  t h i s way, because the c o r r e l a t i o n of m a r i t a l s t a t u s and Family S e c u r i t y was not s i g n i f i c a n t  (see T a b l e 19).  Family S e c u r i t y i s congruent  T h e i r r e l a t i v e l y low v a l u i n g of  w i t h the h i g h v a l u i n g o f b e i n g Independent,  h i g h s c o r e on Autonomy, and low s c o r e on Succorance  found f o r the  A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n t e e r s i n comparison w i t h the S t . John v o l u n t e e r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n t e e r s because o f t h e i r low Nurturance  s c o r e v a l u e h i g h l y the independence o f t h e i r  clientele.  T h i s f i n d i n g i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g because the A l t e r n a t i v e s r o l e of b e f r i e n d i n g another  i n d i v i d u a l r e q u i r e s a more l e n g t h y involvement  on  an e m o t i o n a l l e v e l than does e i t h e r o f the other two v o l u n t e e r groups under  study. Because the n a t u r e of t h e i r involvement  w i t h c l i e n t s was so d i f -  f e r e n t f o r v o l u n t e e r s from each of the r e p r e s e n t e d a g e n c i e s , i t was expected  t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , as measured  72  u s i n g Wiggins' I n t e r p e r s o n a l it  appears t h a t these t h r e e  Circumplex, would be  found.  However,  groups are a c t u a l l y q u i t e s i m i l a r i n  terms of t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , f o r the manova which i n cluded  the e i g h t PDQ  dimensions was  of a l l i n t e r p e r s o n a l type PRF  not  significant.  In a d d i t i o n ,  dimensions f o r which i n d i v i d u a l anovas  were performed i n comparing these t h r e e v o l u n t e e r  groups, o n l y  two  of the n i n e were s i g n i f i c a n t .  These groups d i f f e r e d i n terms of  Nurturance and  not  Succorance, but  on the dimensions of Abasement,  A f f i l i a t i o n , A g g r e s s i o n , Defendence, Dominance or S o c i a l The  s i m i l a r i t y of some of the l a t e r PRF  PDQ  (e.g., Dominant-Ambitious, E x t r a v e r t e d - G r e g a r i o u s  Unassuming, e t c . ) not  Recognition.  dimensions to those from and  the  Ingenious-  suggests t h a t the absence of s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i s  a f u n c t i o n of the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a b i l i t y of the PDQ,  but  rather  a t t e s t s to the f a c t t h a t these t h r e e groups are indeed s i m i l a r i n terms of i n t e r p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I t should and  be noted t h a t the response r a t e s of both  p r o f e s s i o n a l s v a r i e d across  agencies.  This v a r i a b i l i t y  t i c i p a t i o n , which ranged from 20-50% f o r the v o l u n t e e r s f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l s from any controlled.  agency, c o u l d not be  and  i n par70-90%  experimentally  Thus the groups were composed of s e l f - s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s  those v o l u n t e e r s  and  p r o f e s s i o n a l s who  p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s study i t has  In a n a l y z i n g  their  t h i s assumption c o u l d not be  Another d i f f e r e n c e among the groups was  and  inter-  been assumed t h a t the  t i c i p a n t s from each agency a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d Unfortunately,  —  agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s  study upon t h e i r agency's recommendation.  groups.  volunteers  par-  respective  tested empirically.  r e l a t e d to the d i f f e r e n c e i n  73  l e n g t h of s e r v i c e of both p r o f e s s i o n a l s and v o l u n t e e r s a c r o s s a g e n c i e s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s l a r g e l y due to the f a c t t h a t these a g e n c i e s have been o p e r a t i n g f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s of time. the A l t e r n a t i v e s program  At the time of the study,  had been o p e r a t i n g f o r l e s s than a y e a r ,  whereas the S t . John Ambulance B r i g a d e had e x i s t e d f o r many y e a r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a requirement of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study was  that  the s u b j e c t had worked w i t h the agency f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e months. A l t h o u g h the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y and v a l u e changes may  result  as a f u n c t i o n of l e n g t h of s e r v i c e cannot be r e f u t e d , t h i s p o i n t not too r e l e v a n t t o the p ^ s s e n t study where the emphasis  was  was  upon des-  c r i b i n g the v a r i o u s v o l u n t e e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups as they then existed. The comparison of v o l u n t e e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e v e a l e d these groups d i f f e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t to o n l y a few PRF and PDQ  that dimensions.  P r o f e s s i o n a l s were found to s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the PRF dimensions of Achievement,  Dominance and E x h i b i t i o n .  p r o f e s s i o n a l s o b t a i n e d h i g h e r s c o r e s on the PDQ Dominant-Ambitious  Similarily,  dimensions  the  labelled  and G r e g a r i o u s - E x t r o v e r t e d and a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  s c o r e on the Lazy-Submissive dimension of the PDQ.  In Wiggins'  lower  Inter-  p e r s o n a l Circumplex the Lazy-Submissive dimension l i e s d i r e c t l y a c r o s s : from the Dominant-Ambitious dimensions emphasize  dimension and d i f f e r e n c e s on both these  the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of these two  on a dimension comprised o f two b i p o l a r f a c t o r s , and Ambitious-Lazy.  status  groups  Dominant-Submissive  In a d d i t i o n , the f a c t t h a t the dimensions found  to be s i g n i f i c a n t on each of these t e s t s a r e h i g h l y s i m i l a r s u p p o r t s c o n c l u s i o n s based upon t h i s v o l u n t e e r - p r o f e s s i o n a l  comparison.  74  The  r e s u l t a n t d e s c r i p t i o n of  the p r o f e s s i o n a l i s that of  ment-oriented, hard-working, dominant, e x t r o v e r t e d in  comparison w i t h  the v o l u n t e e r .  studied  the p r o f e s s i o n a l s are  ship of  their volunteers  t i v e l y high  involved  as p a r t of  the  the  their  l e v e l s of E x t r o v e r s i o n  are not  g r o u p , who  duties.  The  and  suggest that  tested at  the v o l u n t e e r s  their respective  f e s s i o n a l s may  be  may  The  due,  professionals ambitious  the  to the  For  cir-  example,  one  t h e m s e l v e s as  that  the  less extroverted etc.  pro-  had  they  Data a v a i l a b l e f o r  suggest t h a t r e s u l t s based upon t h a t i n s t r u m e n t are e s s e n t i a l l y  unaffected  by  t h e PRF  two  on  such f a c t o r s . occasions,  own  homes, r e v e a l e d  .80  ( B e n t l e r , 1964).  reliability  A s t u d y where c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s  o n c e i n c l a s s and  a mean r e l i a b i l i t y ( F o r m AA  s t u d y ; however, J a c k s o n ,  there  role,  counterparts  i n part,  employment, o r  been t e s t e d i n l e s s f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e PRF  rela-  h a v e a p p e a r e d more a m b i t i o u s i f  l o c a t i o n s of  have d e s c r i b e d  a  remunerated f o r t h e i r work a t  observed d i f f e r e n c e s could  leader-  to t h e i r  Exhibition.  cumstances under which these t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d . could  agencies  Therefore,  unlike their professional  s p e c i a l l y educated nor  agency.  the  three  a g r o u p a l s o a p p e a r t o be m o r e a c h i e v e m e n t - o r i e n t e d and  than the v o l u n t e e r  or  exhibitionistic  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , or  l e v e l o f D o m i n a n c e w o u l d seem a p p r o p r i a t e  as m i g h t h i g h e r as  In each of  and  achieve-  of e a r l i e r  1964,  rather p.  f o r m s was  retained  subjects  to represent  1974,. p.  44),  used i n  confirmed that  i n F o r m E.) i s not  so any  in  their  content scales  t h a n F o r m E was  i s e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e PRF  r o l e - p l a y i n g (Jackson,  t h e n a week l a t e r  f o r t h e PRF  40-41, has  completed  of  that  the  test  In a d d i t i o n ,  s u s c e p t i b l e to e f f o r t on  faking  the p a r t  t h e i r agency o r group f a v o u r a b l y  of  need not  be  75  of concern. available.  Unfortunately,  reliability  data on the PDQ  i s not  Because the f i n d i n g s on t h i s instrument support  supported by  s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s on the PRF,  yet  and  are  however, i t can be assumed  t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s found i n the v o l u n t e e r - p r o f e s s i o n a l comparison are  valid. In a s s e s s i n g  the degree of s i m i l a r i t y between v o l u n t e e r s  f e s s i o n a l s a t the same agency i n comparison w i t h same s t a t u s groups a c r o s s a g e n c i e s ,  and  analyses  of v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e s .  the s i m i l a r i t y between  s i x groups —  the t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l groups.  i n s i g n i f i c a n t manovas were then s u b j e c t e d way  pro-  manovas i n c l u d i n g combinations of  dependent v a r i a b l e s were performed a c r o s s volunteer  and  The  the  three  Those v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d  to both one-way and one-way procedure  two-  revealed  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the s i x groups on f i v e dependent measures and  further revealed  t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s were a l l a f u n c t i o n of a  d i f f e r e n c e i n agency r a t h e r than s t a t u s . d i f f e r e n c e s i n v o l v e d o n l y one more St. John group, w h i l e t e e r group v e r s u s  Four of these  significant  or more A l t e r n a t i v e s group v e r s u s  one  or  the f i f t h i n v o l v e d the A l t e r n a t i v e s v o l u n -  the C r i s i s Centre and  St. John v o l u n t e e r  of v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d  groups.  The  two-way a n a l y s e s  s i g n i f i c a n t agency e f f e c t s  for  nine v a r i a b l e s , s i g n i f i c a n t status e f f e c t s f o r three v a r i a b l e s  a s i g n i f i c a n t agency x s t a t u s i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h r e e v a r i a b l e s .  and  Be-  cause o n l y t h r e e of the e i g h t manovas performed a c r o s s groups were s i g n i f i c a n t , o n l y a l i m i t e d percentage of the t o t a l a r r a y of dependent v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the the s i x groups.  study were i n d i v i d u a l l y s t u d i e d i n comparing  Therefore,  i t would not be m e a n i n g f u l to d i s c u s s  the  k i n d s of v a r i a b l e s which most e f f e c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the workers  76  at d i f f e r e n t agencies.  Nevertheless, the finding  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s i m i l a r agencies persons  than  to the professionals at their respective  t o o t h e r k i n d s o f v o l u n t e e r s c o u l d be o f i m p o r t a n c e  interested  i n d e v e l o p i n g more e f f e c t i v e a d v e r t i s i n g ,  s e l e c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s that a necessary be  t h a t v o l u n t e e r s were  to determine  first  f o rvolunteers.  step i n f o l l o w i n g t h i s  whether t h i s  similarity  to  screening,  I t i s obvious  l i n e of research would  i n v a l u e s and p e r s o n a l i t y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x i s t s a t the time a t which t h e v o l u n t e e r a p p l i e s to an agency, whether i t i s p r e s e n t  i n v o l u n t e e r s who a c t u a l l y b e g i n t o  work a t an agency o r whether i t e v o l v e s over volunteer experience  a t t h a t agency.  time, as a r e s u l t of  77  REFERENCE NOTES  1.  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