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Regional planning institutions and the public decision making process : a reconsideration of the case… Aleksandric, Vladimir 1978

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R E G I O N A L P L A N N I N G I N S T I T U T I O N S A N D_' T H E P U B L I C D E C I S I O N M A K I N G P R O C E S S : A R E C O N S I D E R A T I O N OF T H E C A S E I N NEW S O U T H W A L E S , A U S T R A L I A by VLADIMIR ALEKSANDRIC B.Sc. (Hons.)) University of New South Wales, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in:. THE. FACULTY.OF^ GRADUATE3STUDIES School .of Community and Regional-.'Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY, 1978 (c) Vladimir Aleksandric, 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT Regional p l a n n i n g and i t s a s s o c i a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e has been g i v e n ad hoc c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n New South Wales over the l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . At the F e d e r a l l e v e l moves towards r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of p l a n n i n g have been based on p a r t y p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m s r a t h e r than c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . The States have t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d the mandate f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , however, i t has been c i r c u m s c r i b e d by the r i g i d and d e t a i l e d procedures i n v o l v e d i n s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g . Attempts at i n s t i t u t i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g have o c c u r r e d without adequate r e c o g n i t i o n of the nature of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , nor an adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n of what the r e g i o n a l s c a l e problems e n t a i l . T h i s t h e s i s e v a l u a t e s a r e c e n t l y proposed p l a n n i n g system i n New South Wales i n the l i g h t of a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the concept of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and the r e g i o n a l problems t h a t e x i s t i n New South Wales. I t i s hypothesized t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e through which to achieve an i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s and a r e a l reform, Regional p l a n n i n g i s d e f i n e d as a continuous process at the supra urban/sub s t a t e s c a l e . I t i s p u b l i c p l a n n i n g based on law which i s c a r r i e d out by p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s and i s capable of e f f e c t i n g change i n s o c i e t y ' s m i l i e u . Regional problems are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three broad c a t e g o r i e s : problems of s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y a r i s i n g from an urban/ r u r a l dichotomy; problems of land use c o n f l i c t and r e s o u r c e management; and problems of area and f u n c t i o n . Most of these g e n e r i c problem areas were seen to r e s u l t from the i n a b i l i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s to adequately r e c o n c i l e area w i t h f u n c t i o n . I t was contended t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s the r e c i p r o c a l adjustment of f u n c t i o n and area through a r e a l reform and simultaneous f u n c t i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n . The r e g i o n a l l e v e l i s the l e v e l at which a balance i s found between the ' e f f i c i e n c y ' of f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , and some r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a r e a l p a r t i c u l a r i s m . Based on such an a r t i c u l a t i o n of the cause of r e g i o n a l problems, together with the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the nature of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , s i x p r i n c i p l e s of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g are i d e n -t i f i e d as being e s s e n t i a l f o r i t s success. Regional p l a n n i n g : *should be based upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l needs and the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a r e a l problems *needs t o f u l f i l l n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p o l i c y , needs to be co - o r d i n a t e d w i t h State p o l i c y , and should attempt a degree of c o - o r d i n a t i o n with the p r i v a t e s e c t o r *should f a c i l i t a t e the c o - o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s *must possess a s t a t u t o r y b a s i s on the one hand, and on the oth e r , must remain f l e x i b l e *must e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e the process of r e g i o n a l i s m * r e g i o n s should possess an adequate f i s c a l base upon which an i n s t i t u t i o n can c a r r y out i t s p l a n n i n g mandate. These p r i n c i p l e s are the c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which the proposed r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g scheme i n New South Wales i s assessed. The f o l l o w i n g were the main o b s e r v a t i o n s made: - The r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h a t was envisaged by the proposed scheme was based on a 'top-down' and r i g i d s t a t u t o r y framework, o b v i o u s l y s t i l l i n f l u e n c e d by the r i g i d i t i e s of i v the e x i s t i n g s t a t u t o r y land use p l a n n i n g system. - The proposed i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e was found to be not p o l i t i c a l l y accountable at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , not autonomous i n d e c i s i o n making, lac k e d e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y over r e g i o n a l matters, and l a c k e d community involvement i n the mainstream of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As a r e s u l t i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r need i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p r i o r i t y r e s o l u t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d l i m i t e d . - No i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanism e x i s t s f o r program i n t e g r a t i o n a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . Based on these f i n d i n g s some m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e were p r e s c r i b e d so t h a t i t c o u l d s a t i s f y the proposed c r i t e r i a . The most important were: - the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g should r e s t w i t h an independent r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g body (but r e s p o n s i b l e to the State government) i n each r e g i o n , composed of l o c a l government and r e g i o n a l community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . - r e g i o n a l l e v e l sub-committees should be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the areas of i n d u s t r i a l r e source development, s o c i a l development, and n a t u r a l resource development, so as to r e f l e c t p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e s a t the State departmental and Cabinet l e v e l s . - a r e g i o n a l program committee composed of the r e g i o n a l planner and sub-committee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s should p r o v i d e l i a s o n between a r t i c u l a t e d r e g i o n a l needs and p u b l i c program d e l i v e r y . - an e x t e n s i v e c o n s u l t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e should be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, and p r i v a t e and government agencies. These m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the proposed i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s can be viewed as the p a r t i c u l a r c o n c l u s i o n s to the t h e s i s . Under V conditions comparable to those i n NSW, the six p r i n c i p l e s of regional planning are the generic conclusions and can be considered as es s e n t i a l preconditions for successful regional planning and regional progress. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES.. \ "x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - x i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION: THE CONCEPT AND RATIONALE OF REGIONAL PLANNING 1 The Need f o r a Reassessment 1 Regional Planning's B a s i s i n Regionalism 3 The Concept of Regional P l a n n i n g 6 Regional Planning and R e g i o n a l P o l i c y . 13 Footnotes • 16 I I . BACKGROUND TO CASE STUDY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 18 The F e d e r a l Response . » 18 The State Response 26 The L i m i t a t i o n s of S t a t u t o r y P l a n n i n g 3 0 NSW i n an A u s t r a l i a n Context 32 The Regions of NSW 3 2 NSW i n an Economic Context 36 Footnotes 43 I I I . REGIONAL SCALE PROBLEMS IN NSW: AN INTEGRATING PERSPECTIVE 4 6 Regional Problems and Regional Issues 46 Regional Problems i n NSW 4 8 Urban/Rural Dichotomy . 49 Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s 52 Education 54 H e a l t h and Welfare 55 v i i Land Use C o n f l i c t and Resource Management 57 Resource Management Problems 59 Problems of the Rural/Urban F r i n g e 61 Area and F u n c t i o n . . . , 63 An I n t e g r a t i n g P e r s p e c t i v e 7 0 Footnotes 74 IV. TOWARDS INSTITUTIONAL CRITERIA FOR REGIONAL PLANNING IN NSW 78 S u b s t a n t i a t i o n of the Hypothesis 78 P r i n c i p l e s of Regional P l a n n i n g 87 Footnotes 9 8 V. PROPOSED REGIONAL PLANNING IN NSW: AN ANALYSIS OF APPLICABILITY 100 The New Process i n General 100 The L o c a l Elements 104 The Regional Elements 107 The A p p l i c a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n a l C r i t e r i a 112 Fo o t n o t e s . . . 135 VI. SYNTHESIS AND PRESCRIPTION 137 Needs I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and P r i o r i t y R e s o l u t i o n . . . 139 P o l i c y A r t i c u l a t i o n and C o - o r d i n a t i o n . . , 142 Program I n t e g r a t i o n 146 L e g i s l a t i v e Foundations f o r F l e x i b i l i t y and Funding , 152 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Study 155 Footnotes . • • • • -^ 58 V I I . CONCLUSIONS: TOWARDS A GENERIC CASE FOR REGIONAL PLANNING 16 0 The P a r t i c u l a r Case of NSW . . . . 160 Generic A p p l i c a b i l i t y 161 v i i i BIBLIOGRAPHY 167 APPENDIX I CONSTITUTIONAL DIVISION OF POWERS IN AUSTRALIA 17 4 APPENDIX I I MACHINERY OF GOVERNMENT IN NSW 177 i x LIST OF TABLES I 2.1 - Population of States: Comparative Rates of Growth 37 II 2.2 - Population of States: Density and Urbanization , 38 III 2.3 - Population of States: Proportional Age D i s t r i b u t i o n 30 June 1976 38 IV 2.4 - Personal Income Per Head of Population... 40 V 2.5 - Personal Consumption Expenditure Per Head of Population 41 VI 5.1 - Representative Input In PEC Decision Making Structure 115 VII 6.1 - Patterns of Perceived Regional Salience.. 148 X LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 Regionalism: A Model of Regional Interaction 4 2.1 Location of New South Wales....... 33 2.2 Physiographic Regions of New South Wales 34 2.3 Regions of New South Wales... 35 4.1 F i t t i n g of Functions 84 4.2 F i t t i n g of Areas 84 4.3 Dichotomy Between Area and Function 86 4.4 Interface Between Regional Planning and Public and Private Decision Making 90 4.5 Relationship Between Planning, Policy Co-operation and Program Integration 9 3 5.1 Hierarchy of Plans (Example of Planning for The Coast) 1 0 3 5.2 Levels of Environmental Planning 105 5.3 Types of Environmental Plans 106 5.4 Regional Environmental Plans: Stages of Plan Preparation I l l 6.1 Suggested I n s t i t u t i o n a l Structure for Regional Planning In NSW 141 6.2 Lines of Public Policy Communication Between State and Regional Levels 145 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Dr. H.P. Oberlander and Professor Brahm Wiesman for the useful comments, advice and time that they gave during the preparation of thi s t h e s i s . In addition I would l i k e to thank my fellow students for the many f r u i t f u l discussions around th i s topic, and Diane Hinds for help with the graphics. -1-CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: THE CONCEPT AND RATIONALE OF REGIONAL PLANNING The Need For a Reassessment Regional p l a n n i n g i n A u s t r a l i a i s e v o l v i n g . No long r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t r a d i t i o n e x i s t s , and attempts to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e some form of p l a n n i n g on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s were f i r s t undertaken i n 1944 by the f e d e r a l Labor Government i n coo p e r a t i o n w i t h the States."'" At the F e d e r a l l e v e l moves towards r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of p l a n n i n g have been based on p a r t y p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m s . The r a t i o n a l e behind the es t a b l i s h m e n t of these r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s has tended t o be based on such p o l i t i c a l concerns r a t h e r than c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d p l a n n i n g 2 o b j e c t i v e s . The Stat e s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d the mandate f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , however i t has been c i r c u m s c r i b e d by the r i g i d and d e t a i l e d procedures i n v o l v e d i n s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g . Regional p l a n n i n g has not been g i v e n adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a means of governmental d e c i s i o n making. A comparison between the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s of the l a t e 1940's and those t h a t e x i s t now leads t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t there have been no g r e a t forward s t r i d e s i n the implementa-t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n A u s t r a l i a . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n can be made i n the g e n e r i c case as w e l l . G e n e r a l l y , l i t e r a t u r e on the p r o c e d u r a l aspects of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s has been l a c k i n g i n comparison w i t h t h a t d e a l i n g w i t h more s u b s t a n t i v e aspects of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . 3 Alden and Morgan (197 4) and G i l l i n g w a t e r (197 5) have been - 2 -among the few r e c e n t c o n t r i b u t o r s towards an understanding of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l c ontext of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . I t i s a contented i n t h i s t h e s i s t h a t attempts t o i n s t i t u t e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g such as those b r i e f l y mentioned i n Chapter 2 have o c c u r r e d without adequate knowledge of the nature of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , nor an adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n of what the r e g i o n a l s c a l e problems e n t a i l . The r e s u l t has been the formation of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s which have not been equiped t o d e a l w i t h the needs of s o c i e t y or the c o m p l e x i t i e s of modern government. There i s a need t o re a s s e s s the nature of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n NSW. The focus of t h i s t h e s i s i s on such a reassessment. The p r o p o s a l by the Pla n n i n g and Environment Commission (PEC) f o r a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g system i n New South Wales (NSW) i s c e n t r a l t o t h i s reassessment. I t r e p r e s e n t s the most r e c e n t t h i n k i n g i n NSW on the form of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t t h i s p r o p o s a l be e v a l u a t e d i n the l i g h t of a r e - c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the nature of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n NSW. The hypothesis i s t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e through which to achieve an i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s and a r e a l reform w i t h government i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s hypothesis i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n Chapter 4 and evol v e s out of a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the g e n e r i c concept and r a t i o n a l e of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g (to f o l l o w i n t h i s chapter) and a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n Chapter 3 of what problems r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g should be t a c k l i n g i n NSW. Chapter 4 a l s o develops some i n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i t e r i a and these are subsequently used i n Chapter 5 to - 3 -e v a l u a t e the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e proposed by the PEC. Chapter 6 s y n t h e z i s e s the f i n d i n g s of Chapter 5, and suggests a p r e s c r i p t i v e o u t l i n e f o r a more a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Chapter 7 draws the p a r t i c u l a r and g e n e r i c c o n c l u s i o n s . Before e n t e r i n g i n t o an examination of the case study however, i t i s f i r s t necessary to i n t r o d u c e the g e n e r i c concept of ' r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' , and to e s t a b l i s h i t s r a t i o n a l e . Regional Planning's B a s i s i n Regionalism In order t o understand the nature of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i t i s necessary t o r e l a t e i t t o the much broader concept of r e g i o n a l i s m i n which i t s r o o t s are f i r m l y grounded. Regionalism embodies r e g i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , and, i n modern s o c i e t y , the process of government i s c o n t i n u a l l y i n f l u e n c i n g these i n t e r a c t i o n s through v a r i o u s forms of p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t are p e r c e i v e d as necessary f o r s o l v i n g r e g i o n a l problems. F i g u r e 1.1 r e p r e s e n t s a model which p l a c e s r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n a context of r e g i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . A b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n f o l l o w s , A r e g i o n may be viewed as a ' f a c t ' or 'hypothesis'. As a f a c t a r e g i o n may be an area t h a t d i s p l a y s a homogeniety of p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s . As a hypothesis a r e g i o n may be considered as a means of e x p l a i n i n g the i n c i d e n c e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of c e r t a i n phenomena (eg. a c u l t u r a l r e g i o n or an economic r e g i o n ) . In the model man and the unique bundle of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s he possesses c a l l e d c u l t u r e i n t e r a c t w i t h the e x i s t i n g phenomena of an area through the process of - 4 -CFACT") GvNFOTttESI'S) V A R I A T I O N S , A N D N A N IFfeSTATiOfM S O F E E Q I O N A L IN&TVTUTtONAL O V i V C i e POST I C«=» F E R T A l M I M Q T O A N D P L ^ H I N K S -SOCIAL OP PROBLEMS tM'STVTU-T'OMA^L-H A M A M D W S F l f i U K E l - \ RoaioMAVJSH' . A M O D E L - Of= R E G I O M A L - I N T E R A C T I O N ! r e g i o n a l i s m , g i v i n g r i s e t o a d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i a l p a t t e r n , folkways and economic l i n k a g e s and thereby a c o l l e c t i v e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Regionalism i s i n t h i s sense c o n s i d e r e d as the " i n t e r a c t i o n a l and p r o c e s s u a l a c t i v i t y t h a t i s 5 e s s e n t i a l to b u i l d a s o c i a l l y cohesive u n i t , " separate from other such u n i t s . Such i n t e r a c t i o n s are c o n s i s t e n t l y i n a s t a t e of f l u x and occur w i t h i n the r e g i o n , between r e g i o n s and w i t h i n and between economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l spheres, g i v i n g r i s e t o r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t form of r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n t h a t we are concerned w i t h here i s the r e g i o n a l imbalance. As a r e g i o n a l g e s t a l t emerges due to the process of r e g i o n a l i s m , i t may be accompanied by s e r i o u s socio-economic and c u l t u r a l imbalances. " B a s i c a l l y , an imbalance occurs when the s e t of i n t e r a c t i o n s which shape the r e g i o n d i f f e r so s u b s t a n t i a l l y from other r e g i o n s t h a t (a) the r e g i o n i s handicapped or d e f i c i e n t i n r e l a t i o n to other r e g i o n s or the n a t i o n , or (b) the r e g i o n experiences s i g n i f i c a n t advantages i n r e l a t i o n t o other r e g i o n s or the n a t i o n . " When disadvantageous imbalances occur, they m a n i f e s t themselves as r e g i o n a l problems such as l o s s of economic o p p o r t u n i t y or p o l l u t i o n (the p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n a l problems p e r t a i n i n g to NSW w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter. 3 .) . The next steps i n the model are much more c e n t r a l t o the concerns of t h i s t h e s i s because they d e s c r i b e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s p e c t s . Regional problems can be a r t i c u l a t e d through s o c i e t a l v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and tog e t h e r these w i l l determine how a problem i s p e r c e i v e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l -6-setting. It i s v i t a l to note that the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a problem by an e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i s inherently biased by the nature and organizational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n i t i a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l shape the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s a b i l i t y to accurately r e f l e c t expressed values, and i n turn w i l l a f f e c t the range of perceived solutions. More w i l l be said of i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n l a t e r Chapters, however, at present i t i s intended to emphasize that regional planning i s a p a r t i c u l a r form of intervention that arises when an i n s t i t u t i o n a r t i c u l a t e s a regional problem i n a c e r t a i n way. The nature of any regional intervention w i l l be such that i t s incidence w i l l be on the set of interactions that a region has both within 7 i t s e l f and the nation. Regional planning as a p a r t i c u l a r form of intervention w i l l d i r e c t l y impinge on the process of regionalism. This i s the essence of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between regional planning and regionalism. A misunderstanding of the nature of t h i s l i n k or the interactions upon which intervention must impinge, may r e s u l t i n i l l conceived solutions to a r t i c u l a t e d regional problems. The Concept of Regional Planning We have attempted to place the concept of regional planning into a broader context of regional i n t e r a c t i o n . However, what i s meant by the term 'regional planning' has not as yet been a r t i c u l a t e d . There i s no one accepted d e f i n i t i o n for 'regional planning' so a d e f i n i t i o n needs to be established, as i t i s c r i t i c a l for a r r i v i n g at i n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . The concept of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g has i m p l i c i t l y been i n e x i s t e n c e ever s i n c e the emergence of r e g i o n a l i s m i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s o n l y t i l l w e l l i n t o the 1900's t h a t attempts were being made to d e f i n e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as a p a r t i c u l a r form of a c t i o n , based on a c o n c r e t e p h i l o s o p h y . Probably one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t was Benton MacKaye's p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , a romantic look at p l a n n i n g ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . MacKaye saw r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as being: the e f f o r t to arrange the environment i n such a f a s h i o n t h a t t h i s g o a l (of l i v i n g ) may be e f f e c t i v e l y and e a g e r l y pursued. I t i s the v i s u a l i z i n g w i t h i n a r e g i o n of c o - o r d i n a t e d a c t i o n f o r the purposes of g e n e r a l human l i v i n g . 8 More a k i n to the mainstream of the e a r l y thought i n the U.S. were the concepts of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h a t arose from the r e c o g n i t i o n of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e g i o n a l i s m . An example of t h i s i s taken from a m i l e s t o n e study by the study by the N a t i o n a l Resources Committee concerning r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s i n n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and development: ...the whole meaning of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s to d e v i s e a c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n which w i l l f i t a l a r g e a r e a l u n i t , and t h a t the q u a l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the area not o n l y d i c t a t e i n l a r g e p a r t the f e a t u r e s of the p l a n , but a l s o i t s a r e a l e x t e n t , 9 Regional p l a n n i n g was seen as the major instrument of dynamic r e g i o n a l i s m . " ^ At the same time r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was emerging as a form of p l a n n i n g a c t i o n t h a t appeared to be capable of g r a p p l i n g with a number of s o c i e t y ' s problems. Alden and Morgan have c a t e g o r i z e d the development of the concept of - 8 -r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n the U.K. i n t o b a s i c a l l y t h r e e areas. I t may be u s e f u l to b r i e f l y mention each one i n t u r n . F i r s t l y the problem of emerging depressed areas saw r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g being used as a s o c i a l t o o l t o p r o v i d e men w i t h j o b s , and was l a r g e l y a response by s o c i e t y to safeguard i t s s e c u r i t y and w e l l being from the s o c i a l c o s t of economic g r o w t h . T h i s s o c i a l aspect of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s s t i l l an important concept today. More r e c e n t l y the development of the n o t i o n of n a t i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g and the problem of economic growth i n g e n e r a l has induced the view of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as an i n t e g r a l component of comprehensive n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Secondly the problem of the p h y s i c a l c i t y arose as a r e s u l t of the same se t of f o r c e s t h a t were i n o p e r a t i o n above, the d i f f e r e n c e being t h a t they were o p e r a t i n g i n a c o n s t r a i n e d space. I t was being r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the c o n g e s t i o n problems of some c i t i e s and the unemployment of depressed areas were 12 j u s t d i f f e r e n t s i d e s of the same c o i n . Regional p l a n n i n g i n t h i s context was seen as a process of i n t e r v e n t i o n which was needed to s o l v e the problems of the congested and ever growing m e t r o p o l i s , w h i l e a t the same time s o l v i n g the problems of depressed areas. More r e c e n t l y there has been a r e c o g n i t i o n of the need to develop s t r a t e g i e s to cope wi t h the problems of c i t i e s on an e n l a r g e d s p a t i a l s c a l e ( i e . the concept of the c i t y region) r a t h e r than t r e a t i n g c i t i e s and r e g i o n s as separate e n t i t i e s f o r p l a n n i n g purposes. I n c r e a s i n g l y the demand f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g has been growing out of the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the s p a t i a l e x p l o s i o n i n p a t t e r n s of human behaviour are being i n c r e a s i n g l y expressed on a s c a l e which i s not c o n f i n e d to a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y . The t h i r d area of development of the concept of regional planning was concerned with the d i f f i c u l t i e s of administering a complex society. More s p e c i f i c a l l y t h i s was manifested i n the problems of the e f f i c i e n t delivery of services, health probably being the one of greatest concern. By i t s very nature this problem tended to be met i n the U.K. : by the movement towards re g i o n a l i z a t i o n of administration and decision making, concepts which have roots deep i n Fabian 14 philosophy of regionalism and l o c a l government .problems. The emphasis was on achieving a more meaningful i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework for regional planning. The concept of regional planning has c l e a r l y evolved as a response to tackling society's urgent problems. As a r e s u l t attention has been taken away from the inherent s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i t possesses as a form of public action. It i s contended here that because of t h i s lack of awarness of the s t r u c t u r a l nature of regional planning, and because of the preoccupation with urgent problems rather than process, a weak i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework has developed for regional planning i n most countries, including A u s t r a l i a . It i s therefore necessary to s t a r t reconstructing the concept of regional planning to provide a workable basis upon which to b u i l d the r e s t of t h i s thesis. I t i s useful to s t a r t by breaking down the term 'regional planning' into two components, 'region' and 'planning'. A 'region' can be defined i n both p r e s c r i p t i v e and descriptive terms. I t can be defined 15 as a fact or a hypothesis. There are many conceptions about what a r e g i o n constitutes and these have been adequately 16 d i s c u s s e d elsewhere. A common conception i s t h a t a p l a n n i n g r e g i o n should be one t h a t comprises the t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n which 17 the problems of the community can be t r e a t e d adequately. However i t would be somewhat premature at t h i s stage to adopt a d e f i n i t i o n of a r e g i o n upon the assumption t h a t there are alr e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e 'problems' to be d e a l t w i t h . For pr e s e n t purposes i t would be d e s i r a b l e to view a r e g i o n e s s e n t i a l l y as an area or space. More p r e c i s e l y , a r e g i o n can be viewed as a space t h a t i s l a r g e r than any s i n g l e urban area ( i . e . supra urban space), but s m a l l e r than a n a t i o n . 'Planning' on the other hand may be viewed as a h i g h l y d i s c i p l i n e d and f o r m a l i z e d a c t i v i t y through which s o c i e t y induces 18 change i n i t s e l f . In a more g e n e r a l sense, by p l a n n i n g we mean to take thought to determine an a c t i o n or a s e r i e s of 19 a c t i o n s beforehand. I m p l i c i t i n these statements i s t h a t p l a n n i n g must be a pr o c e s s , undertaken by i n s t i t u t i o n s a c c e s s i b l e to and r e s p o n s i b l e t o the p u b l i c . Having i n t r o d u c e d the n o t i o n of p u b l i c p l a n n i n g , i t may be d e s i r a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h how p u b l i c p l a n n i n g d i f f e r s from any other form of p l a n n i n g . The essence of p u b l i c p l a n n i n g i s s u i t a b l y captured i n the f o l l o w i n g p a r a p h r a s i n g of Dror and F a l u d i : p u b l i c p l a n n i n g i s the formal adoption by governments and t h e i r agencies of a process of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which attempts t o decide on major g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n based on the t r a n s l a t i o n of aims and o b j e c t i v e s i n t o p u b l i c p o l i c i e s and concrete a c t i o n p r o g r a m s . 2 0 When these two components are merged i n t o the concept of -11-' r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' some q u i t e d e f i n i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s begin to emerge. F i r s t l y , r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s a continuous process 21 and i n v o l v e s the i n t e r a c t i o n of i t s own dynamic elements with a c o n s t a n t l y changing p l a n n i n g m i l i e u . T h i s dynamic q u a l i t y d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from other forms of government i n t e r v e n t i o n , 22 such as r e g i o n a l p o l i c y . Secondly, r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g may be d e f i n e d q u i t e simply as a p a r t i c u l a r form of p u b l i c p l a n n i n g . I t i s o n l y one t o o l of the t o t a l p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and other s u b s t i t u t e s can be found among the government's armoury. T h i r d l y i t i s supra urban i n s c a l e and t h e r e f o r e needs to d e a l with a number of e s t a b l i s h e d l o c a l governments which have j u r i s d i c t i o n over s m a l l e r areas. F o u r t h l y i t i s substate i n the power i t deploys, as i t operates i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g (between s t a t e and l o c a l ) . T r a d i t i o n a l l y there have not been very many i n s t i t u t i o n s c r e a t e d a t t h i s i n t e r m i d i a t e l e v e l i n A u s t r a l i a or anywhere e l s e . Regional p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l t y p i c a l l y l a c k s the e x e c u t i v e power and c o n t r o l over a wide range of government f u n c t i o n s because of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , u n l i k e the S t a t e s which possess l e g i s l a t e d powers, and l o c a l government a u t h o r i t i e s which possess d e l e g a t e d powers. I t i s contended by Alden and Morgan t h a t i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as these which g i v e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i t s unique i d e n t i t y and form, and i t i s these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from other forms of p u b l i c a c t i o n . We have tended towards a d e f i n i t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g which s t r e s s e s i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e / o p e r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or i n other words i t s s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . -12-G e r t l e r , speaking of planning i n the Canadian context provides a r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g and comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n of r e g i o n a l planning: Regional planning i s a process based on lav? and undertaken by a form of r e s p o n s i b l e government d i r e c t e d towards i n f l u e n c i n g development, p r i v a t e or p u b l i c , i n a manner th a t r e s u l t s i n the areas where people s e t t l e and e s t a b l i s h r e g i o n a l communities, i n the best environment and soundest use of resources t h a t our c i v i l i z a t i o n i s capable of e f f e c t i n g . 2 3 This statement recognizes t h a t r e g i o n a l planning i s a process, having some s t a t u t o r y b a s i s and undertaken by i n s t i t u t i o n s which possess powers e i t h e r expressly granted, inherent or i m p l i e d , and capable of e f f e c t i n g change. Furthermore i t i s recognized t h a t r e g i o n a l planning i s e s s e n t i a l l y concerned wi t h s o c i a l space and the use of resources i n an e f f i c i e n t and eq u i t a b l e manner. In the A u s t r a l i a n context, the concept of r e g i o n a l planning has been somewhat underdeveloped i n th a t i t has not been adequately considered as a form of p u b l i c a c t i o n , and has been somewhat i l l d e f i n e d . M i l l s f o r i n s t a n c e , i n one of the few a r t i c l e s s p e c i f i c a l l y on r e g i o n a l planning i n A u s t r a l i a , sees t h a t planning at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l : ...requires the making of choices which have opportunity cost i m p l i c a t i o n s i n terms of foregone a l t e r n a t i v e s both w i t h i n and between r e g i o n s . 2 ^ This concept of r e g i o n a l planning i s extremely pragmatic, and i s more or l e s s j u s t a d e s c r i p t i o n of a s p a t i a l cost b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s . I t i s necessary to a r r i v e at a much more o p e r a t i o n a l -13-d e f i n i t i o n of regional planning upon which to b u i l d the rest of t h i s thesis. In summary i t i s implied that the following elements are important to the concept of regional planning: (1) i t i s a continuous process, (2) i t i s supra urban/sub state i n scale, (3) i t i s a formalized a c t i v i t y , (4) as a form of public planning i t i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , (5) i t i s legitimized by law, (6) i t i s capable of e f f e c t i n g change i n a society's milieu. The following d e f i n i t i o n of regional planning capsulizes these components: 2 6 Regional planning as a continuous process at the supra urban/ sub state scale i s formalized public planning based on law, which i s carried out by public i n s t i t u t i o n s , and capable of e f f e c t i n g change i n a society's m i l i e u . It i s considered that t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of regional planning i s somewhat less circumscribing than some of the others, but yet s t i l l meaningful i n an operational context. It may be useful to e s t a b l i s h how t h i s concept d i f f e r s from some other forms of public intervention which may d i r e c t l y impinge on the process of regionalism. Regional policy i s the other main form of public intervention, and i s frequently confused with planning i n the Australian s i t u a t i o n . Regional Planning and Regional Policy There are two senses i n which the term 'regional p o l i c y ' may be used. The most common usage i s often connected with a 'top down' system of government where regional p o l i c y i s imposed from a higher l e v e l . A more specialized usage relates -14-to describing a p a r t i c u l a r component of the planning process. In the f i r s t sense the d i s t i n c t i o n between regional planning and regional p o l i c y i s quite simple. Regional p o l i c y involves the a l l o c a t i o n of resources among regions, whereas regional planning i s concerned with the a l l o c a t i o n of those resources within regions. It i s i m p l i c i t therefore that regional p o l i c y i n t h i s sense must be undertaken by a l e v e l of government that has an e f f e c t i v e command over those resources, and thereby i s able to allocate them. In such a h i e r a c h i a l arrangment, regional planning may be seen as both a p o l i t i c a l and administrative vehicle which guides the t r a n s l a t i o n of 27 national regional p o l i c i e s into l o c a l action programmes. Morgan and Alden make the quite v a l i d point that regional p o l i c y may i n some instances induce regional planning i n a p o l i t i c a l and organizational sense with a view to gaining these resources allocated by regional p o l i c y . This was i n fact the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for some of DURD's regional p o l i c i e s i n A u s t r a l i a , i n that they argued that the p o l i c i e s were conducive to regional planning and public p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, experience outlined i n Chapter 1 has shown that t h i s i s a tenuous basis upon which to i n i t i t a t e regional planning. Regional p o l i c y may also develop as part of the planning process and related decision making that goes on within a region. Once goals and objectives have been i n some way defined, a p o l i c y may be established as a d e f i n i t e course of action to achieve those defined ends. This i s more akin to the idea of a bottom up approach and regional p o l i c y may be seen here as a framework on which the p o l i c y making bodies may -15-hang t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e programs. The need f o r a degree of c o n s i s t e n c y between r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s of n a t i o n a l , s t a t e and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s i s obvious. I t i s easy to envisage the s i t u a t i o n where the i m p o s i t i o n of a n a t i o n a l or s t a t e r e g i o n a l p o l i c y may c o n s t r a i n and c o n f l i c t w ith the o p e r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . I d e a l l y these l e v e l s of p o l i c y should be c o - o r d i n a t e d and t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n Chapter 4. As a background to the case study, the next chapter b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s p a s t attempts by the F e d e r a l and NSW governments to i n s t i t u t e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n NSW. -16-FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 1 "'"Australia, Commonwealth Department of Post-War R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , Regional P l a n n i n g i n A u s t r a l i a (Canberra: 1949) 2 Appendix I b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s the d i v i s i o n of F e d e r a l and Sta t e powers, w h i l e Appendix I I d e s c r i b e s the machinery of government i n NSW. 3 David G i l l m g w a t e r , Regional P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l Change (Saxon House/Lexington Books, 1975); Jeremy Alden and Robert Morgan, Regional P l a n n i n g : A Comprehensive View (Leonard H i l l Books, 1974). J . Friedman and C. Weaver, T e r r i t o r y and  F u n c t i o n : The E v o l u t i o n of the Regional P l a n n i n g D o c t r i n e (Berkley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , September, 1977), p. 15, pro v i d e a comprehensive l i s t of authors who have d e a l t w i t h the p r o c e d u r a l aspects of p l a n n i n g . 4 Most of the ideas i n t h i s s e c t i o n o r i g i n a t e from an unpublished r e s e a r c h paper: V. A l e k s a n d r i c , Marg De Grace and Graham Dragushan, "Regionalism: A Process of Regional I n t e r a c t i o n , " ( T y p e w r i t t e n ) . A more d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n i s found t h e r e i n . 5 B.Y. Card, P e r s p e c t i v e s on Regions and Regionalism ( U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1969), p. 79. ^ A l e k s a n d r i c , DeGrace and Dragushan,"Regionalism," p. 10. 7 i b i d . , p. 14. Benton Mackaye, The New E x p l o r a t i o n : a ph i l o s o p h y of  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1962), p. 153. 9 Uni t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Resources Committee, Regional  F a c t o r s i n N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g and Development (Washington D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1935)., p. 20. "*"°Howard W. Odum and Harry E s t i l l Moore, American  Regionalism (New York: Henry H o l t and Company, 1938), p. 253. Alden and Morgan, Regiona l P l a n n i n g , p. 17. 12 T h i s concept was f o r the f i r s t time i n the U.K. re c o g n i z e d i n the Barlow Report. For a b r i e f summary see i b i d . , p. 25. 13 H.G. We l l s , "A Paper on A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Areas Read Before The F a b i a n S o c i e t y , " i n Area and Power. ed. A r t h u r Maass (Glencoe, 111.: The Free P r e s s , 1959), p. 210. 14 . Peter S e l f , Regionalism. A r e p o r t t o the Fabian S o c i e t y (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1949). 15 L o u i s W i r t h , "The L i m i t a t i o n s of Regionalism," m Regionalism i n America, ed. M e r r i l l Jensen (Madison; U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1951), p. 386. For a comprehensive c a t a l o g u i n g of these concepts see Odum and Moore, American Regionalism, p. 2, 1 7 W i r t h , " L i m i t a t i o n s , " P . 3 85. -17-18 Alden and Morgan, Regional P l a n n i n g , p. 1. 19 . Peter H a l l , quoted i n G i l l i n g w a t e r , Regional Planning and S o c i a l Change, p. 5. 2 ( ^ i b i d . , p. 68 . 21 For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s we may d e f i n e these elements of the p l a n n i n g process i n the f o l l o w i n g simple, but g e n e r a l l y v a l i d f a s h i o n : goals o b j e c t i v e s - p o l i c y s t r a t e g y program implementation e v a l u a t i o n goals . 22 The d i s t i n c t i o n between r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s Chapter. 2 3 L.O. G e r t l e r , Regional P l a n n i n g i n Canada: A Planner's  Testament (Montreal: Harvest House, 1972), p. 16. 24 These two terms have been bandied about q u i t e f r e e l y i n the A u s t r a l i a n c o n t e x t . F.J.B. S t i l w e l l , A u s t r a l i a n Urban and  Regional Development (Sydney: A u s t r a l i a n and'New Zealand Book Company, 1974) claims t h a t the c r i t e r i o n of e f f i c i e n c y i s the most obvious one t o judge the d e s i r a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of urban and r e g i o n a l development. E f f i c i e n c y i s seen p u r e l y as a f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l w e l f a r e and because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g t h i s concept, the e f f i c i e n c y c r i t e r i o n i s used i n the more r e s t r i c t e d sense of i d e n t i f y i n g a l l o c a t i o n s which are w a s t e f u l of r e s o u r c e s . E q u i t y , on the other hand, has t r a d i t i o n a l l y meant the eveness i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of income and wealth, and almost i n v a r i a b l y would be p e r c e i v e d as the e l i m i n a t i o n of i n e q u a l i t y . E q u i t y , although an admirable g o a l , i s somewhat e s o t e r i c i n r e l a t i o n to the concept of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . 25 Greg M i l l s , "Regional P l a n n i n g i n A u s t r a l i a - Aspect and P r o s p e c t , " Royal A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l 10 (January 1972): 14. 2 6 What i s meant by 'process' i n p l a n n i n g has a l r e a d y been d e f i n e d (see f o o t n o t e 21). "Continuous", r a t h e r than being s u p e r f l u o u s , i s intended to denote t h a t the process of p l a n n i n g i s f o r e v e r i n t e r a c t i n g with i t s environmental s e t t i n g . 27 G i l l i n g w a t e r , Regional Planning and S o c i a l Change, p. 8. <?18-CHAPTER II BACKGROUND TO CASE STUDY OF NEW SOUTH WALES Two d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s e x i s t where q u i t e d e f i n i t e impulses occured towards the r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of p l a n n i n g ; the f i r s t i n the immediate post World War II years and the second i n the e a r l y 1970's. A b r i e f documentation of these i s seperated i n t o F e d e r a l and State responses, based on which l e v e l of government appeared to i n i t i a t e the moves towards the r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of p l a n n i n g . The F e d e r a l Response Regional p l a n n i n g i n the immediate post-war e r a (1944 -1949) developed out of the d e s i r e of the n a t i o n t o r e c o n s t r u c t and look towards new h e i g h t s of achievement. I t was e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some re g i o n s had a d i r e c t impact on the development of the economy as a whole,"'" and t h a t the o r d e r l y development of these was seen as a key to both f u t u r e economic p r o s p e r i t y , as w e l l as n a t i o n a l defence. In terms of economic p r o s p e r i t y , unbalanced development between r e g i o n s was viewed as being c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e i n t h a t the o v e r l y prosperous r e g i o n s "sucked away much of the n a t i o n ' s s t r e n g t h " . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t only by s c i e n t i f i c study of reso u r c e s and the c a r e f u l working out of long range development plans was i t p o s s i b l e t o make the bes t use of A u s t r a l i a ' s r e s o u r c e s . In terms of n a t i o n a l defence, r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was viewed as a means of f i l l i n g the empty spaces. The t h r e a t of i n v a s i o n 2 d u r i n g the pre v i o u s war heightened the Commonwealth's awareness -19-of the undeveloped nature of v a s t areas of Northern A u s t r a l i a . The r e g i o n a l i s s u e s of the day c o u l d be summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g statement made by the then Prime M i n i s t e r a t the i n n a u g u r a l Premier's conference on the s u b j e c t : Too many of our people are concentrated i n l i m i t e d areas. We have our economic eggs i n too few baskets.3 At the time r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was envisaged as a s t r a t e g y through which an assessment c o u l d be made of each (sub s t a t e ) r e g i o n ' s resource c a p a b i l i t i e s and t h a t the development of each r e g i o n c o u l d be r e l a t e d f i r s t l y to State and u l t i m a t e l y to n a t i o n a l economic p o l i c y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t was i m p l i c i t i n t h i s s t r a t e g y t h a t i n each r e g i o n the i n t e r e s t , knowledge and experience of the r e s i d e n t s of the r e g i o n would be brought to bear on the r e g i o n ' s problems and t r a n s m i t t e d to the a p p r o p r i a t e government or other body which c o u l d i n i t i a t e steps to t r a n s l a t e plans i n t o a c t i o n , f i t t e d i n w i t h State and 4 Commonwealth economic p o l i c y . I t was at the i n i t i a t i v e of the Commonwealth t h a t a s e r i e s of Commonwealth/State conferences between the Prime M i n i s t e r and the Premiers of a l l S t a t e s were h e l d i n 1944 and 1945, to d i s c u s s the p r o s p e c t s f o r State r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . As an outcome Regional Development Committees (RDC's) were formed i n some S t a t e s . In NSW 2 0 were formed and each committee had twelve members: s i x appointed from l o c a l government, three or f o u r s e n i o r o f f i c e r s of S t a t e Government departments r e s i d e n t i n the r e g i o n and two or three members who were prominent i n commerce or secondary i n d u s t r i e s of the -20-r e g i o n . I t was the f i r s t attempt i n A u s t r a l i a t o r e g i o n a l i z e i n order t o (i) assess the development p o t e n t i a l i n each r e g i o n , ( i i ) encourage c o o p e r a t i o n between F e d e r a l , State and l o c a l governments, ( i i i ) d e c e n t r a l i z e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g down to l o c a l b o d i e s , and (iv) c o - o r d i n a t e the development of each r e g i o n with 5 s t a t e and n a t i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g . I t was f e l t t h a t i f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was to come to g r i p s with l o c a l problems, then i t would be necessary f o r RDC 1s: ...to b r i n g the enthusiasm, knowledge and experience of l o c a l people t o bear on the problems of l o c a l development, t o gi v e the people the o p p o r t u n i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p l a n n i n g of development, and to pr o v i d e a d i r e c t l i n k between governmental and non-governmental p l a n n i n g i n t e r e s t s . 6 With the e l e c t i o n of the L i b e r a l Government to F e d e r a l o f f i c e i n 1949 and the d e f e a t of the Labor Government, RDC's soon l o s t F e d e r a l support and began t o .wither from 7 atrophy. Despite t h i s the RDC's s u r v i v e d u n t i l 1972 i n NSW when they were r e p l a c e d by Regional A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s (RAC's), which were c r e a t e d i n NSW, independantly of the F e d e r a l Government. The second resurgence i n F e d e r a l i n t e r e s t i n r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n 1972 wit h the formation of the Department of Urban and Regional Development (DURD). Among DURD's ten r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were the f o l l o w i n g : - development and implementation of a n a t i o n a l urban and r e g i o n a l development s t r a t e g y - development and mon i t o r i n g of an urban and r e g i o n a l budget program t o c o - o r d i n a t e r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d f o r investment i n -21-urban and r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e s by F e d e r a l departments, State and l o c a l governing bodies. - i n i t i a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of F e d e r a l department a c t i v i t i e s i n urban and r e g i o n a l development and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of advice to M i n i s t e r s - n e g o t i a t i o n with and p r o v i s i o n of advice and a s s i s t a n c e to the S t a t e s , semi-government and l o c a l government a u t h o r i t i e s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and implementation of plans f o r c i t i e s and r e g i o n s . T h i s time the r o l e of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was not e x p l i c i t and r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n was seen as being a technique of improving a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of government departments. I t was g e n e r a l l y thought t h a t i n time such r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n would l e a d t o forms of e f f e c t i v e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g w i t h the s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s u s i n g t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers to develop 9 programs t a i l o r e d t o meet the needs of the r e g i o n . In the words of the Prime M i n i s t e r at the time: " i n t e g r a l w i t h the concept of r e g i o n a l i s m (meaning r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n ) are the concepts of d e v o l u t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r , and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making." The move towards r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n at the F e d e r a l l e v e l d u r i n g the 1970's was a response to a number of f a c t o r s : (1) F i s c a l C o - o r d i n a t i o n : - The movement i n t o the r e g i o n a l arena was p a r t l y s t i m u l a t e d by the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t there was a need to c o - o r d i n a t e r e g i o n a l programs, at both the F e d e r a l and State l e v e l s . E x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n was being g i v e n to the f a c t t h a t s p a t i a l a l l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c investment i s as important as the t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r a l a l l o c a t i o n . The need f o r r e g i o n a l co-ordination of programs was primarily expressed i n the form of an urban and regional budget."'"0 This was an in t e r n a l administrative reform which attempted to provide a s p a t i a l , as d i s t i n c t from sectoral framework for co-ordinating expenditures by federal, state and l o c a l governing bodies. Although c a l l e d a budget, i t was rather an information system, an economists picture of urban and regional development i n Au s t r a l i a . It provided a background for recommendations to the Minister for appropriate allocations for urban and regional development. In thi s regard i t was an attempt by DURD to ac t i v e l y change i t s own character i n order to become more responsive to the processes inherent i n regionalism. At the same time an attempt was made to gain cooperation from other functional i n s t i t u t i o n s at both the State and Federal levels of government. In part t h i s was an attempt to overcome piecemeal one-dimensional solutions to regional problems.1"1" (2) Local P a r t i c i p a t i o n : - It was hoped that by encouraging l o c a l government units to work together on a regional basis, regional organizations would become more accessible to c i t i z e n ' s groups. The Secretary of the Department of Urban and Regional Development summarized th i s i d e a l i n the following way: Regional organizations are seen to be p o t e n t i a l l y capable of providing a useful public forum for expressing regional needs without i n t e r f e r i n g with or l i m i t i n g the functions of any exis t i n g structures. Of p a r t i c u l a r significance i s the poten t i a l a b i l i t y of the regional organizations to provide v i a t h e i r technical and advisory sub-committees d i r e c t access to community groups within the region to present t h e i r points of view and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n decision making which affects the region.-'-2 -23-Of c e n t r a l importance here was the p e r c e i v e d need f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h i s arose from a genuine 'grass r o o t s ' f e e l i n g , or whether i t was j u s t a p a r t of the o v e r a l l p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the p u b l i c , by the Labor Government, and the need they p e r c e i v e d f o r the p u b l i c t o be i n c l u d e d i n the d e c i s i o n making machinery of government. The most s i g n i f i c a n t attempt at the F e d e r a l l e v e l t o respond t o 13 t h i s was v i a the Area Improvement Program. I t was e s t a b l i s h e d to i n v o l v e people and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i d e n t i f y i n g r e g i o n a l problems, working on r e g i o n a l development str a t e g i e s - , and d e v i s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e means of implementation. The programs were p r i m a r i l y designed to remedy d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s i n c e r t a i n areas. As such, i t was probably the most r e s p o n s i v e of the F e d e r a l programs t o r e g i o n a l concerns because the i n i t i a t i v e f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l problems and p r i o r i t i e s was giv e n t o the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . Many of these programs however were very area s p e c i f i c . Most were i n f a c t urban neighbourhood improvement programs, such as land a c q u i s i t i o n f o r community purposes and p r o v i s i o n of community c e n t r e s . I t was a l s o the i n t e n t i o n of these programs t o promote s t r a t e g i c urban and environmental p l a n n i n g , although i t was never; c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d how t h i s was to be achieved. (3) Regional I n e q u a l i t y : - There was a r e c o g n i t i o n of the need to e l i m i n a t e i n e q u a l i t i e s e x i s t i n g between d i f f e r e n t areas i n A u s t r a l i a , and to improve the e f f i c i e n c y i n the a l l o c a t i o n of resources and d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s throughout the n a t i o n . A f a c t o r t h a t was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s was an attempt t o - 2 4 -make l o c a l government more e f f e c t i v e , p r i m a r i l y through a f e d e r a l Grants Commission program. O r i g i n a l l y d e a l i n g only with the State l e v e l , t h i s program was extended to d e a l a l s o w i t h r e g i o n a l groupings of l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The Grants Commission was f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1933 as p a r t of a conscious movement to b r i n g unequal u n i t s toward e q u a l i t y ; 14 to b r i n g the weaker Stat e s up to the standard of the o t h e r s . I t was hoped t h a t these r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s would be encouraged to catalogue d e f i c i e n c i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p u b l i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ) , would be encouraged to formulate a r e g i o n a l development s t r a t e g y f o r major f u n c t i o n s (eg. d r a inage, r e c r e a t i o n and employment), and would be encouraged to a c t as a f o c a l p o i n t to examine the p l a n n i n g 15 i n t e n t i o n s of a l l l e v e l s of government. However i t seems from the evidence a v a i l a b l e , t h a t i t was mainly a funding e x e r c i s e designed to promote f i s c a l e q u a l i z a t i o n between l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , r a t h e r than attempt to f u r t h e r r e g i o n a l c onsciousness. I t was e s s e n t i a l l y a 'back door' approach to r e g i o n a l i s m and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , by c r e a t i n g a sense of i d e n t i t y and s t i m u l a t i n g r e g i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . I t i s of some s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t the F e d e r a l government both i n the immediate post-war p e r i o d , and i n the e a r l y 1970's became h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the push towards some form of r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g purposes. One of the obvious r e s t r i c t i o n s of F e d e r a l government involvement was t h a t i t had a l a c k or j u r i s d i c t i o n over ' r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' . The S t a t e s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l i m i t e d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h a t has o c c u r r e d . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e -25-then, the role of the Federal government as an i n s t i g a t o r of regional thought i s indeed i n t e r e s t i n g , but not impossible to fathom. Both periods coincide with the Labor government being i n Federal O f f i c e ; the Chifley government from 1945-49 and the Whitlam government from 1972-75. Tendencies towards reg i o n a l i z a t i o n during these periods have been d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l ideology. The difference i n outlook in Australia's polarized p o l i t i c a l structure were great. The Labor Party t r a d i t i o n a l l y sees the machinery of government as something that can be used for making necessary changes i n economic and s o c i a l conditions through increasing the influence 16 of the public sector. In addition there was clear evidence that the Labor Party's "New Federalism" philosophies, strongly advocated r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n . For instance Whitlam, before he became Prime Minister i n 1972 a r t i c u l a t e d t h i s envisaged structure of government on a number of occassions: If we were devising anew a structure of representative government for our continent, we would have neither so few State governments nor so many l o c a l government units. We would not have a federal system of overlapping parliaments, and a delegated but supervised system of l o c a l government. We would have a House of Representatives for i n t e r n a t i o n a l matters and national matters, an assembly for the a f f a i r s of each of our dozen largest c i t i e s and a few score regional assemblies for the areas of r u r a l production and resource development outside of these c i t i e s . Vested interests and l e g a l complexities should not discourage or deter us from attempts to modernize and r a t i o n a l i z e our inhereted s t r u c t u r e . ^ On the other hand, the L i b e r a l Party has had a long t r a d i t i o n of conservativism, adhering to a basic 'laizze f a i r e ' -26-philosophy of minimal government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the economic and s o c i a l system. Even as l a t e as the e a r l y 1970's such philosophy pervaded (and s t i l l pervades) t h e i r t h i n k i n g : B r o a d l y , i t i s the view of the Commonwealth Government t h a t economic p l a n n i n g i n the more formal or i n t e g r a t e d sense i s not i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the A u s t r a l i a n economy. The government holds the view t h a t economic growth i s b e s t f o s t e r e d by a predominantly f r e e e n t e r p r i s e environment and thus c o n f i n e s i t s a c t i v i t i e s to p r o v i d i n g the necessary economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and e n s u r i n g t h a t the economy i s as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l balance. The p a t t e r n of growth which emerges from t h i s system i s c o n s i d e r e d to be f a r more acc e p t a b l e to the community than t h a t emerging from a l t e r n a t i v e systems i n v o l v i n g f u r t h e r government d i r e c t i o n and involvement.18 Such t h i n k i n g extended i n t o areas of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and any suggestions of r e o r g a n i z i n g the s t r u c t u r e of government to 19 accomodate r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g were spurned. I t i s contended here t h a t the development of f e d e r a l l y sponsored r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n A u s t r a l i a cannot be d i v o r c e d from the p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s of the F e d e r a l l e v e l . The State Response As was mentioned e a r l i e r the State of NSW has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . In t h i s regard two s i g n i f i c a n t events occured which were to leave t h e i r mark f o r the next four decades. The f i r s t was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of RDC's i n the twenty r e g i o n s of the State i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the F e d e r a l Government i n 1946. The second, and by f a r the most s i g n i f i c a n t event was the p a s s i n g of the L o c a l Government (Town and Country Planning) Amendment Ac t , 20 1932.. T h i s a c t s e t the p a t t e r n of s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g which i s s t i l l p r a c t i c e d i n NSW. I t a u t h o r i z e d the p r e p a r a t i o n of land-use c o n t r o l p l a n n i n g schemes by M u n i c i p a l and S h i r e 21 C o u n c i l s , and i t p r o v i d e d procedures f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n , p r e s c r i p t i o n , v a l u a t i o n and r e v o c a t i o n of town and country p l a n n i n g schemes. 22 P l a n n i n g remained at a l o c a l or County C o u n c i l l e v e l t i l l 1963 w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a B i l l f o r the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the State P l a n n i n g A u t h o r i t y of NSW (SPA). Such a body was p e r c e i v e d as being necessary because i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g and r e g i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n r e q u i r e d c r e a t i v e a c t i o n s at a higher l e v e l than t h a t of l o c a l c o u n c i l s . The State P l a n n i n g A u t h o r i t y occupied a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n p l a n n i n g i n NSW between 1963 and 1974. I t s primary f u n c t i o n was the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of l o c a l land uses wi t h the s t a t e p r o v i s i o n of u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s , t r a n s p o r t 23 f a c i l i t i e s and other requirements. However i t soon became obvious t h a t t h i s a u t h o r i t i e s main concern was w i t h p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and t h a t i s most important f u n c t i o n was the s u p e r v i s i o n of s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g schemes of l o c a l c o u n c i l s . In e f f e c t the SPA d i d not m a t e r i a l l y change the s t a t u t o r y processes by which p l a n n i n g was c a r r i e d out i n NSW, but r a t h e r c e n t r a l i z e d i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ^ ^ During the l a t e I960's another p l a n n i n g t r e n d of s i g n i f i c a n c e became e v i d e n t . T h i s was the attempt t o o f f s e t the dominance of the Sydney M e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n over the r e s t of NSW. C o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was devoted to the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n -28-25 of economic a c t i v i t i e s . This occurred through the Department of Decentralization and Development i n 1966 whose e f f o r t s concentrated on the provision of f i n a n c i a l incentives to decentralizaing industries through 'carrot and s t i c k ' techniques. In 1969 i t was decided that a strategy of selective decentralization would be superior to the f a i l i n g programs of general decentralization, and the establishment of 2 6 'growth centres' was advocated. The 'conventional wisdom' was that such decentralization would stop the ' d r i f t to the c i t i e s ' and aleviate the urban development pressures on the present metropolitan regions. This program to date has been 27 rather less than successful. In 1972, under the provisions of the Regional Organization Act, the RDC's were abolished and seven Regional and two D i s t r i c t Advisory Councils (RAC's) for the non-metropolitan part of the State were established, for the purpose of 'encouraging and stimulating regional development.' These bodies possess monitoring, planning, advisory and par t i c i p a t o r y functions. These PAC's were to have representatives from State government departments, l o c a l governments and c i t i z e n groups, and i n the words of the Minister for Decentralization and Development at the time of t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n : ...the Advisory Councils were being established to provide an e f f e c t i v e medium for the contribution of informed regional advice on matters of planning and development i n the newly constructed regions of the State, and, conversely, to provide for the e f f e c t i v e dissemination of information from the central government agencies.28 T h e i r main f u n c t i o n however i s to p r o v i d e advice t o the M i n i s t e r f o r D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Development, and they may do t h i s i n r e l a t i o n to the encouragement of primary, secondary and t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i a l development; c o - o r d i n a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s of government departments and p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s ; p u b l i c works and s e r v i c e s ; c i v i c improvements, community w e l f a r e p r o j e c t s and measures to 29 improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e . There appear to have been some e a r l y accomplishments of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s , however f o r the most p a r t they have had a f a i r l y low p r o f i l e . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g because f i r s t l y they do not have any s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n s , and t h e i r power i s more 'advisory' than ' r e a l ' . A d d i t i o n a l l y t h e i r f u n c t i o n s sound remarkably s i m i l a r t o those 31 of the RDC's i n 1946, whose i n f l u e n c e over the p r e v i o u s 26 years had been minimal. In November 1974, the State P l a n n i n g A u t h o r i t y was 32 a b o l i s h e d , and the Pl a n n i n g and Environment Commission c r e a t e d i n i t s p l a c e . The PEC i s a m i n i s t e r i a l department headed by a chairman and fo u r other e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r s , and composed of a p l a n n i n g s t a f f . S e c t i o n 20(1) of the New South Wales Pl a n n i n g and Environment Act p r o v i d e d t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n be made o f : a) the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , powers, a u t h o r i t i e s , d u t i e s and f u n c t i o n s confered upon i t , and, b) the law and p r a c t i c e r e l a t i n g t o town and country p l a n n i n g , 33 and land use and environmental p l a n n i n g . A year l a t e r the Planning and Envirnoment Commission submitted t h e i r recommendations f o r a new p l a n n i n g system i n NSW. These recommendations w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the main body of t h i s t h e s i s - 3 0 -The Limitations of Statutory Planning 'Statutory planning' deserves separate consideration because of the imprint i t has had on planning procedure since i t was f i r s t i n s t i t u t e d i n 1932, and the time and resources i t 34 has employed i n l o c a l authorities and the SPA. There are several major li m i t a t i o n s to such planning however, which make i t highly inappropriate for solving planning problems at a regional scale. F i r s t l y , statutory planning had the e f f e c t of imposing a r i g i d and detailed procedure on the preparation of l o c a l planning schemes. Planning being a process and being responsive to a communities changing needs i s not e f f e c t i v e under such r i g i d i t i e s . Experience has shown that on the inception of statutory planning, on average ten years were being taken from the i n i t i a t i o n to the pre s c r i p t i o n of a planning scheme, with a range of between f i v e years and twenty 35 years. In many cases planning schemes were out of date before they were prescribed: . . . i n terms of technique i n that they have not adequately included advances i n planning knowledge; i n terms of facts i n that they have f a i l e d to take account of changes i n population forecasts, s o c i a l and economic trends; i n terms of po l i c y i n that they have not re f l e c t e d changes i n community attitudes and government i n t e n t i o n s . 3 ^ The second major l i m i t a t i o n i s that statutory planning i s strongly oriented towards physical land use planning. It does not contribute to planning for the delivery of services, the enrichment of economic opportuni-t i e s or the sensible management of resources. In addition -31-i t i s a r e s t r i c t i v e form of p l a n n i n g o r i e n t e d towards r e g u l a t i o n s , r e s t r i c t i o n s c o n t r o l s and minimum requirements; a l l i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r i g i d land use zoning. T h i s has l e d to a very negative image of p l a n n i n g i n the mind of communities i n l o c a l government areas, where the p r i n c i p l e should be guidance r a t h e r than r e s t r i c t i o n . I t i s now g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t land use i s i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d t o other p l a n n i n g concerns such as those above and t h a t a s t a t u t o r y p l a n o n l y d e a l s with one aspect of the problems r e l e v a n t to p l a n n i n g . T h i r d l y , under the p r e s e n t s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g system, the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c involvement i n the p l a n n i n g process has been l i m i t e d . More o f t e n than not the p u b l i c ' s r o l e has been delegated to commenting on d r a f t p l a n n i n g schemes r e s u l t i n g i n many o b j e c t i o n s being lodged f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . P u b l i c involvement tends to be ex p o s t f a c t o because the l e g i s l a t i o n does not i n c l u d e any requirements f o r s o l i c i t i n g p u b l i c views d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t o r y stages of the schemes. One f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n t h a t should be mentioned i s t h a t the p r e s e n t system has not attempted to p r o v i d e a framework f o r the c o - o r d i n a t i o n and d e l i v e r y of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and r e l a t i n g t h e i r development to t h a t of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . I t s focus has been too narrow, i t s r a t i o n a l base i s outdated, and i t does not c a t e r f o r the needs of a modern, complex s o c i e t y . The c h a l l a n g e l i e s ahead to r e c o n s t r u c t our i n s t i t u t i o n s and processes to assess and e f f i c i e n t l y d e l i v e r programs a p p r o p r i a t e to community needs. -32-Before commencing the main body of the thesis i t would be useful to conclude t h i s chapter by placing NSW as the case study into a broader Australian context from both a geographical and economic perspective. NSW i n an Australian Context The Regions of NSW. NSW i s situated i n the south-east corner of A u s t r a l i a and comprises 10.4% of the land mass (Figure 2.1). It i s divided into a number of quite d i s t i n c t physiographic regions (Figure 2.2), each one possessing a unique combination of s o i l s , vegetation and climate. Figure 2.3 shows the set of regions that i s i n use at present for the purposes of the RAC 1s. There are at present 11 regions i f the Sydney Metropolitan region i s included. The focus of t h i s paper i s e s s e n t i a l l y the non-metropolitan regions, simply defined as those that possess a predominantly r u r a l base. They may have urban areas within them (usually less than 60,000 population), acting as service centres to the wider r u r a l region. Regions 1-8 i n Figure 2.3 f i t t h i s c r i t e r i a , as would regions 9 & 10 i f they were modified to exclude the Greater Newcastle and Greater Wollongong urban areas. The regions of NSW were delimited using a variety of c r i t e r i a designed to measure both homogeneity and nodality: They included community of i n t e r e s t , pattern of communication, topography including influence of major r i v e r v a l l e y s , d i s t r i b u t i o n of natural resources, pattern of i n d u s t r i a l and commercial development, e x i s t i n g State administrative d i v i s i o n s and d i s t r i c t s and the p o t e n t i a l capacity to sustain F I G U R E 2.-1 l £ ) C A T i O M OF" NSNM |M /KlSSW^^-br\ SoUWCfc.: T H E * ? e G i O K A > - ^ C H | N \ S W A T O R I M T W E . R V M E R I M A urban growth and counter the predominance of urban Sydney.37 I t appears though, t h a t the main d e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s were p a t t e r n s of telephone t r a f f i c ( n o d a l i t y measure) and a concern 3 8 f o r m a i n t a i n i n g r a t i o n a l groupings of l o c a l government areas. NSW i n an Economic Context Problems at the State s c a l e are o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d to be r e f l e c t i o n s of problems at a r e g i o n a l s c a l e , and r e c e n t l y there have been suggestions t h a t the i s s u e s a t these two 39 l e v e l s i n NSW are i n s e p a r a b l e f o r p l a n n i n g purposes. Such a view i s not taken i n t h i s t h e s i s , however i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n between St a t e performance and r e g i o n a l performance. State i n e q u a l i t i e s i n c o n f e d e r a t i o n almost e x c l u s i v e l y 40 have meant d i f f e r e n c e s i n f i s c a l c a p a c i t y of the S t a t e s . G e n e r a l l y speaking such i n e q u a l i t i e s have been l a r g e l y r e f l e c t i o n s of d i f f e r e n c e s i n area, c l i m a t e , topography, n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n and p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y , l e v e l s of income and expenditure, and economic growth. More s p e c i f i c a l l y however, the i n e q u a l i t i e s between Stat e s can be a t t r i b u t e d to two main f a c t o r s ? d i f f e r e n c e s i n demographic s t r u c t u r e and d i f f e r e n c e s i n income. Tables 2.1-2.3 p a i n t a broad sketch of the main demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the S t a t e s . Table 2.1 shows c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between the S t a t e s i n terms of p o p u l a t i o n growth. NSW has the h i g h e s t p o p u l a t i o n but i n r e c e n t years has had one of the lowest growth r a t e s , and the -37-— POPULATION OF STATES: COMPARATIVE RATES OF GROWTH New South Wales Victoria Queens- Soutli land Australia Western A uslraliu Tasmania Six States Increase 1975-76 31 800 23 000 32 300 9 400 22 700 2 400 121 600 Percentage increase 0.65 0.62 1.55 •' 0.75 1.98 0.59 0.90 Natural increase 1975-76 39 200 31 500 19 200 9 400 12 600 3 40U 115 300 As percentage of 1974-75 population 0.80 0.85 0.92 0.75 1.10 0.84 0.85 Net migration 1975-76 (a) 400 (a)8 500 13 100 Zero 10 100 (a) 1 000 6 300 As percentage of 1974-population •75 (6)0.15 (6)0.23 0.64 Zero 0.89 (b) 0.25 0.05 Percentage increase 1974-75 0.97 1.04 2.09 1.29 2.58 1.25 1.31 Percentage increase 1973-74 1.00 1.22 3.21 1.49 2.48 0.86 1.56 Percentage increase 1972—73 1.02 1.31 3.11 1.29 1.72 0.79 1.49 A v e r a g e a n n u a l rates increase, per cent: 1966-71 of 1.66 1.69 1.76 1.40 3.97 1.00 1.82 1961-66 1.58 1.90 1.85 2.42 2.58 1.18 1.85 1954-61 1.95 2.58 2.13 2.87 2.23 1.82 2.25 (a) Migration kiss. (6) Decrease. Note: Based on revised population figures from 1971-72 onwards. SO U R C E ' • C O M H O M S N E A U V H G R A F T S COMMISS ION ( 4 4 " ^ R f e f t s t r r , I T D - 3 8 -l A & L S Z 2-2. — POPULATION OF STATES: DENSITY AND URBANISATION New South Queens- South Western Six Hales Victoria Until Australia Australia Tasmania Stales Density (number of persons per souare kilometre as at 30 June '976) 6.13 16.46 1.23 1.29 0.47 6.01 2.15 Urbanisation (a) as at 30 June 1976 ( p e r c e n t a g e o f population residing in urban and rural areas) — Urban — major 67.9 71.3 48.4 68.9 63.9 32.7 64.5 -- other 20.8 16.5 31.7 16.0 19.7 42.3 21.4 Rural 11.2 12.2 19.8 15.0 16.2 24.9 14.0 Migratory 0.1 CO 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (a) Preliminary figures from IV76 Census. Urban is defined as (i) major urban — population clusters of 100 000 or more persons, and (ii) other urban — population clusters of 1000 lo u 9 W persons. (b) Less than 0.1 per cent. — POPULATION OF STATES: PROPORTIONAL AGE Tr\&&-£ 2 3 DISTRIBUTION 30 JUNE 1976 (a) New Age Last South Queens- South Western Six Birthday Wales Victoria land Australia Australia Tasmania States Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent 0-4 8.72 8.75 9.17 8.16 9.17 8.99 8.79 5-18 24.75 25.96 26.37 26.04 26.80 27.64 25.72 19-64 57.31 56.35 55.04 56.69 56.06 54.68 56.45 65 and over 9.22 8.94 9.42 9.11 7.97 8.69 9.04 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 (a) Preliminary figures. S p u u a c e * C O M M O N VM E A L T H <SR/\l~n& C o r t M i s S i © » - 4 , -*<**». R e F t * ? T , W " 7 d i f f e r e n c e s appear t o a r i s e t o a l a r g e extent from the 41 d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r a t e of growth from net m i g r a t i o n . On the other hand, Table 2.2 shows t h a t i n 1971 NSW was the most urbanized State with 88.7% of i t s p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n urban c e n t r e s , compared t o a s i x s t a t e average of 85.9%. Table 2.3 r e v e a l s t h a t NSW has the lowest p r o p o r t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n i n the s c h o o l age group, and the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n i n the working age group. Tables 2.4 and 2.5 show some p e r s o n a l income and consumption s t a t i s t i c s f o r each of the S t a t e s . In terms of p e r s o n a l income NSW together with V i c t o r i a are w e l l above the other S t a t e s , while the l e v e l of p e r s o n a l consumption expenditure i n d i c a t e s much the same p a t t e r n . Such demographic and income f a c t o r s tend t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the f i s c a l c a p a c i t i e s i n each of the S t a t e s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n demographic s t r u c t u r e and income are l i k e l y t o g i v e r i s e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the need f o r s t a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n c e r t a i n f i e l d s . For i n s t a n c e a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of young people tends t o produce a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r need f o r expenditure on educa t i o n and f o r i n f a n t and c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . A-small p o p u l a t i o n or low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y may i n d i c a t e the need f o r g r e a t e r expenditure per head of p o p u l a t i o n i n order t o p r o v i d e comparable government s e r v i c e s . L i k e w i s e , there can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t i n t e r s t a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l e v e l s of p e r s o n a l income c o n t r i b u t e towards d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i v e State t a x a b l e 42 c a p a c i t y . Without d w e l l i n g too much f u r t h e r on such g e n e r a l i z e d concepts, i t i s c l e a r t h a t NSW i s one of the 'have' as opposed t o the 'have not' Stat e s i n the c o n f e d e r a t i o n . T h i s - 4 0 -1?k$3U~:2--1- — PERSONAL INCOME PER HEAD OF POPULATION New South South Wales Queens- A uslralia Western (a} Victoria land (b) Australia Tasmania A uslralia $ $ $ $ $ S S 1975-76 4 435 4 532 3 955 4 177 4 216 3914 4 329 1974-75 3 866 3 889 3 477 3 666 3 566 3 403 3 756 1973-74 3 190 3 184 2 821 2 984 3 090 2 761 3 093 1972-73 2 645 2 655 2 362 2 327 2 330 ?. 266 2 538 1971-72 2 348 2 358 2 067 2 073 2 144 1 982 2 255 Average 1970-71 to 1974-75 2 849 2 858 2 530 2 588 2 639 2 443 2 750 Average 1965-66 to 1969-70 1 684 1 737 1 474 1 492 1 580 1 429 1 634 Average 1960-61 to 1964-65 1 254 1 302 1 111 1 137 1 057 1 057 1 227 Average 1955-56 to 1959-60 983 1 030 881 928 831 863 961 Comparative Index (Australia = 100) 1975-76 102.4 104.7 91.4 96.5 97.4 90.4 100.0 1974-75 102.9 103.5 92.6 97.6 ' 94.9 90.6 100.0 1973-74 103.1 102.9 91.2 96.5 99.9 89.3 100.0 1972-73 104.2 104.6 93.1 91.7 91.8 89.3 100.0 1971-72 104.1 104.6 91.7 91.9 95.1 87.9 100.0 Average 1970-71 lo 1974-75 103.6 103.9 92.0 94.1 96.0 88.8 100.0 Average 1965-66 to 1969-70 103.1 106.3 90.2 91.3 96.7 87.5 100.0 Average 1960-6! to 1964-65 102.2 106.1 90.5 92.7 86.1 86.1 100.0 Average 1955-56 to 1959-60 102.3 107.2 91.7 96.6 86.5 89.8 100.0 (a) Includes Austral ian Capital Territory. (M Includes Northern Territory. Note: Baited on revised population figures from 1971-72 ojvvards. S O U R C E : COAHONVNEAV^ t fiJWTS C c M K l S S l O N , 'W *2£yor+ , -41-PERSONAL CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE PER HEAD OF POPULATION New South Queens- South Western Wales Victoria land Australia A uslralia Tasmania Australia lo) (b) $ S % $ $ $ $ 1975-76 3133.62 3097.12 2713.36 2842.25 2908.36 2709.69 3000.35 1974-75 2709.67 2650.37 2309.13 2362.45 2431.61 2357.14 2565.95 1973-74 2298.77 2236.51 1979.91 1903.41 2072.50 1956.59 2166.78 1972-73 2002.20 1899.10 1680.76 1678.14 1801.47 1650.24 1868.21 1971-72 1810.62 1740.25 1527.41 1512.22 1666.76 1529.02 1700.84 Average 1970-71 to 1974-75 2104.97 2033.00 1790.53 1782.28 1915.17 1781.02 1982.23 Average 1965-66 to 1969-70 1358.48 1327.91 1160.86 1148.64 1268.21 1148.74 1287.52 Average 1960-61 to 1964-65 1015.95 1013.93 886.55 892.28 909.40 883.11 972.75 Average 1955-56 to 1959-60 821.66 820.01 710.11 746.18 744.40 706.80 788.46 Comparative Index (Australia = 100 j 1975-76 104.4 103.2 90.4 94.7 96.9 90.3 100.0 1974-75 105.6 103.3 90.0 92.1 94.8 91.9 100.0 1973-74 106.1 103.2 91.4 87.8 95.6 90.3 100.0 1972-73 107.2 101.7 90.0 89.8 96.4 88.3 100.0 1971-72 106.5 102.3 89.8 88.9 98.0 89.9 100.0 Average 1970-71 to 1974-75 106.2 102.6 90.3 89.9 96.6 89.8 100.0 Average 1965-66 to 1969-70 105.5 103.1 90.2 89.2 98.5 89.2 100.0 Average 1960-61 to 1964-65 104.4 104.2 91.1 91.7 93.5 90.8 100.0 Average 1955-56 to 1959-60 104.2 104.0 90.1 94.6 94.4 89.6 100.0 (a) Includes Australian Capital Territory, lb) Includes Northern Territory. Note: Based on revised population figures from 1971-72 onwards. S O U P l C E . < j 3 M M O M V \ ) E 5 A l - T > t < ^ R ^ M T S C O M * A I S & l © H , - + * * » R E T O R T , -42-o b s e r v a t i o n i s bourne out by the f a c t t h a t a l l Grants 43 Commission Funds have been concentrated on the fo u r s m a l l e r S t a t e s of Tasmania, South A u s t r a l i a , Western A u s t r a l i a and 44 Queensland while NSW and V i c t o r i a have never b e n e f i t e d from 45 these s p e c i a l funds. Such broad s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s are of course of l i m i t e d use and do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t problems at a r e g i o n a l s c a l e . They c e r t a i n l y do not r e f l e c t o ther c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may be p e r t i n e n t t o r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g such as s o c i o l o g i c a l and environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , however, they do p r o v i d e a b r i e f S tate context upon which to base the r e s t of t h i s t h e s i s . -43-FOOTNOTESt CHAPTER 2 1 A u s t r a l i a , Commonwealth Department of Post-War R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , Regional P l a n n i n g i n A u s t r a l i a (Canberra, 1949), p. 3. 2 The word 'Commonwealth' i s used i n t e r c h a n g e b l y w i t h 'Federal Government' throughout the t h e s i s . 3 A u s t r a l i a , Regional P l a n n i n g , p. 3. ^ i b i d . , p. i x . 5P.N. Troy, "Towards a System of Regional Government," i n F i s c a l F e d e r a l i s m : r e t r o s p e c t and p r o s p e c t , ed. R.L. Mathews, Centre f o r Research on F e d e r a l F i n a n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Research Monograph No. 7 (Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1974), p. 157. A u s t r a l i a , Regional P l a n n i n g , p. 16. 7 For an account of the f o r t u n e s of one such RDC i n the R i v e r i n a of NSW see, P. S p e a r i t t and J . S c h o f i e l d , "The Murrumbidgee Regional Development Committee (1946-1973) and the R i v e r i n a Regional A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l (1973-0," i n The Regional  A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the R i v e r i n a : A Set of Working Papers, eds, J . M. Power and H. Nelson, Canberra S e r i e s In A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s I (Canberra: Canberra C o l l e g e of Advanced E d u c a t i o n , 1976); R.L. W e t t e n h a l l and J.M. Power, " R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a , " i n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Sharing i n a  F e d e r a l System, ed. R.L. Mathews, Centre f o r Research on F e d e r a l F i n a n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Research Monograph No. 8 (Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1975), p. 201. 8 A u s t r a l i a , Department of Urban and Regional Development, F i r s t Annual Report 1972-73 (Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1975), p. i v . 9 J.M. Power and R.L. W e t t e n h a l l , "Regional Government Verses Regional Programs," A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 35"(June 1976): 121. 1 0 T h i s budget was meant to c o - o r d i n a t e the budgets of a l l three l e v e l s of government, 1 1Tom Uren, "The F e d e r a l P r i n c i p l e and N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 34 (March 1975). 12 R.B. Lansdown, "Two Years of Co-operative F e d e r a l i s m -The Urban and Regional E x p e r i e n c e , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 3 4 (March 197 5 ) : 90. 13 A u s t r a l i a , F i r s t Annual Report 1972-73 p. 25. 14 M.I. Logan e t a l . , Urban and Regional A u s t r a l i a : a n a l y s i s  and p o l i c y i s s u e s ( S o r r e t t , 1975), p. 111. A u s t r a l i a , M i n i s t e r f o r Urban and Regional Development, Urban and Regional Development 1975-76, 1975-76 Budget Paper No. 9 (Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1975) "^F.J.B. S t i l w e l l , A u s t r a l i a n Urban and Re g i o n a l Development, (Sydney: A u s t r a l i a n and New Zealand Book Company, 1974), p. 150. -44-17 Quoted i n Power and W e t t e n h a l l , "Regional Development, (Sydney: A u s t r a l i a n and New Zealand Book Company, 1974), p. 150. 18 L i b e r a l P arty Prime M i n i s t e r i n 1970, quoted i n S t i l w e l l , A u s t r a l i a n Urban r p. 148. 19 I f a note of cynacism may be allowed here, the word 'Regional' was dropped, from DURD's t i t l e because of i t s m i l d l y s o c i a l i s t i c overtones and i t s t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Labor Party p h i l o s o p h y . 20 County C o u n c i l s are amalgamations of L o c a l C o u n c i l s f o r the purpose of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n . For i n s t a n c e the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n was administered i n the Sydney r e g i o n by the Cumberland Country C o u n c i l between 1948 and 1963, For more d e t a i l on t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g body see D. Winston, Sydney's Great Experiment (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 19 57). 21 M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s are the governing bodies of urban l o c a l government areas, w h ile S h i r e C o u n c i l s govern r u r a l l o c a l government areas. 22 P.H. Morton, "Planning i n New South Wales," A u s t r a l i a n  P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l 4 (October 1966): 23 0. i b i d . 24 New South . Wales, New South Wales Pl a n n i n g and Environment Commission, Report to the M i n i s t e r f o r P l a n n i n g and Environment (Sydney: November, 1975). 2 5 T r o y , "Towards," p. 165. 2 6 A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 248/1975 f S t u d i e s Commissioned by the Committee of Commonwealth/State O f f i c i a l s on D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . 27 Some e a r l y c r i t i c i s m i s p r o v i d e d by, P.L. Simons and N.G. Lonergan, "The M y t h i c a l Arguments f o r D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , " Royal A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l 11 ( J u l y 1973). 2 8 Quoted i n S p e a r i t t and S c h o f i e l d , "The Murrumbidgee," p. 48. 29 Regional O r g a n i z a t i o n A c t , 1972. 30 See T.N. Cappie-Wood, "Regional Development Viewed from Sydney," P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 3 4 (March 1975) 31 T h i s argument i s suggested i n S p e a r i t t and S c h o f i e l d , "The Murrumbidgee,". 32 I t i s not immediately c l e a r why t h i s a c t i o n was taken. I t appears t h a t the Planning and Environment Act was based on the recommendations of two independent review committees, and t h a t a body was needed to r e l a t e to the p o r t f o l i o of 'Planning and Environment' which was c r e a t e d i n 1973 to c o n s o l i d a t e d i v e r s e environmental c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s . 3 3 New South Wales, Report, p. 9. 34 . i b i d . , An i n d i c a t i o n of the magnitude of human r e s o u r c e s employed on such a c t i v i t i e s i s g i v e n i n Chapter 15 and Appendix 3 of t h i s r e p o r t . -45-35 New South Wales, M i n i s t e r f o r Pl a n n i n g and Environment, Towards a New Pl a n n i n g System f o r New South Wales (Sydney: November, 1974), p. 10. 36., i b i d . 37 A u s t r a l i a , Department of Urban and Regional Development, Regions (Canberra: A.G.P.S., October, 1973). 3 8 Logan e t a l . , Urban and Regional A u s t r a l i a . 39 New South Wales, Report, p. 61 40 A u s t r a l i a , Commonwealth Grants Commission, F o r t y - T h i r d  Report 1976, on S p e c i a l A s s i s t a n c e t o the Sta t e s (Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1976), p. 7. 41 i b i d . , p. 117. i b i d . , p. 9. 43 For a c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n of Grants Commission a c t i v i t i e s , see R.J. May, F i n a n c i n g the Small S t a t e s i n A u s t r a l i a n F e d e r a l i s m (Melbourne: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971). 44 Queensland has on l y been r e c e i v i n g grants s i n c e 1971. 45 . . T h i s i s not e n t i r e l y t r u e , as Grants Commission payments were made i n NSW to l o c a l government a u t h o r i t i e s d u r i n g the years t h a t the Grants Commission was d e a l i n g with r e g i o n a l groupings. - 4 6 -CHAPTER I I I REGIONAL SCALE PROBLEMS IN NEW SOUTH WALES: AN INTEGRATING PERSPECTIVE Regional Problems and Regional Issues In beginning to focus on r e g i o n a l s c a l e problems i n NSW there are s e v e r a l p o i n t s which should be mentioned at the o u t s e t . F i r s t l y , a d i s t i n c t i o n should be made between a ' r e g i o n a l problem' and a ' r e g i o n a l i s s u e ' . As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 1, a r e g i o n a l problem i s manifested by some form of disadvantageous imbalance. Such imbalances stem from the f a c t t h a t impediments i n the i n t e r a c t i v e process which i s an in h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r e g i o n a l i s m are causing the r e g i o n to be d e f i c i e n t i n some way i n r e l a t i o n to oth e r r e g i o n s or the n a t i o n . As a r e s u l t the r e g i o n a l problems may take many forms and cover a wide spectrum ranging from i n t a n g i b l e s such as p s y c h o l o g i c a l a l i e n a t i o n , s o c i a l d i s o r d e r and a n x i e t y , t o very concrete problems such as unemployment, o u t - m i g r a t i o n , low per c a p i t a incomes and l o s s of economic o p p o r t u n i t y , o r , to s p e c i f i c a l l y environmental problems such as p o l l u t i o n , l a n d use c o n f l i c t s and an i n a b i l i t y to manage sca r c e r e s o u r c e s . A r e g i o n a l problem, by nature, i s unique to a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n , although i t may be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r to those of other r e g i o n s . A r e g i o n a l i s s u e on the other hand i s a much broader concept and d e a l s w i t h g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of problems without n e c e s s a r i l y g i v i n g i n s i g h t i n t o what the exact nature of the i i problems are. For i n s t a n c e i s s u e s may concern the q u a l i t y of l i f e , such as the s p a t i a l a l l o c a t i o n of job o p p o r t u n i t i e s , or the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , such as the d e v o l u t i o n of d e c i s i o n making. Regional i s s u e s t h e r e f o r e must n e c e s s a r i l y d e r i v e from r e g i o n a l problems, otherwise they may be r a t h e r tenuous. More i m p o r t a n t l y , r e g i o n a l i s s u e s are the forms i n which i n s t i t u t i o n s a r t i c u l a t e r e g i o n a l problems. The second p o i n t t h a t should be made at t h i s stage i s t h a t a t p r e s e n t there i s a p a u c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n about the exact nature of the r e g i o n a l problems i n NSW. A p e r u s a l of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t there has not been very much c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to r e g i o n a l problems, hence the s p e c i f i c g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s t h a t the p l a n n i n g process should take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A r e c e n t government r e p o r t t i t l e d " I n d i c a t o r s of Community Well Being" concluded t h a t t h i s was b a s i c a l l y because of f o u r f a c t o r s ; l a c k of adequate s o c i a l theory, p o o r l y d e f i n e d p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , inadequacies of A u s t r a l i a n s o c i a l s t a t i s t i c s , and the e x c e s s i v e secrecy of A u s t r a l i a n b u r e a u c r a c i e s . 1 T h i s p a u c i t y of data has r e s t r i c t e d a proper f o r m u l a t i o n of goals and o b j e c t i v e s s i n c e p l a n n i n g must be based on a proper understanding of the nature of the problems. The model suggested i n F i g u r e 1.1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t there are two ways t h a t problems may be a r t i c u l a t e d . They may be a r t i c u l a t e d on the one hand by s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l through the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , i n t e r e s t groups e t c . , or on the o t h e r hand by government i n s t i t u t i o n s . P r i o r t o the 1970's there was very l i t t l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of r e g i o n a l problems, More r e c e n t l y however some a r t i c u l a t i o n has oc c u r r e d i n p a r t i c u l a r s e c t o r s of government, and i n q u i r i e s have been conducted 2 3 e i t h e r on a f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s , or i n a broad problem area. For i n s t a n c e s i n c e 1973 i n q u i r i e s i n t o s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , n a t i o n a l e s t a t e , poverty and government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have been conducted a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , w h i l e an i n q u i r y i n t o l o c a l government areas and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been conducted i n NSW. These however, have been piecemeal and not n e c e s s a r i l y r e g i o n a l i n f o c u s . Of s i g n i f i c a n c e however, i s the f a c t t h a t they have been i n the forms of i n q u i r i e s , which, by t h e i r nature are based to a c e r t a i n extent on s o c i e t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of problems r e l a t i n g to the s u b j e c t under i n q u i r y , v i a the process of p u b l i c hearings and submissions. In the absence of such a r t i c u l a t i o n i n the p a s t , and the p a u c i t y of the data mentioned, such i n q u i r i e s are of extreme s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r anyone wi t h i n t e r e s t s i n p l a n n i n g . However, such 'ad hoc' i n q u i r i e s h a r d l y l e a d t o a comprehensive p i c t u r e of the elements t h a t go towards c i c u m s c r i b i n g s o c i a l w e l l being. Nor i s a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h i s nature t r u l y s e n s i t i v e to the needs of any p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n , which, by d e f i n i t i o n , are unique. Moreover, recommendations t h a t a r i s e out of such proceedings are aggregated to State or N a t i o n a l l e v e l s , and are e i t h e r i n the form of p o l i c y i s s u e s or necessary a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reforms. I t i s with these c o n s t r a i n t s i n mind t h a t we begin to pursue the r e g i o n a l s c a l e problems i n NSW. Regional Problems i n NSW Problems of p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have been r e a d i l y a r t i c u l a t e d on a s t a t e wide b a s i s , however, the -49-r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n t o many o f t h e m l i e s a t a r e g i o n a l s c a l e i s o n l y r e c e n t l y b e c o m i n g m o r e w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d . T h e r e f o r e , a c o n c i s e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p r o b l e m s i n NSW d o e s n o t e x i s t . I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n t o c o n c i s e l y s u m m a r i z e w h a t i s s e e n a s b e i n g t h e m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o b l e m s i n NSW, t o h i g h l i g h t t h e i r r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , a n d t o p r o v i d e a n i n t e g r a t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e f r o m w h i c h t h e r e s t o f t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l p r o c e d e . The r e g i o n a l p r o b l e m s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f i s s u e s : (1) t h e u r b a n / r u r a l d i c h o t o m y , (2) l a n d u s e c o n f l i c t a n d r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t , a n d (3) a r e a a n d f u n c t i o n . U r b a n / R u r a l D i c h o t o m y T h i s i s a v e r y g e n e r a l b u t u s e f u l c a t e g o r y w h i c h i s u s e d t o e x p l a i n t h e g r o w i n g d i s p a r i t i e s i n t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e b e t w e e n u r b a n a n d r u r a l a r e a s . P u t s u c c i n c t l y , t h e m a j o r c i t i e s o f A u s t r a l i a a r e t a k i n g u p a n e v e r g r e a t e r s h a r e o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s r e s o u r c e s , t h e r e b y a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n r u r a l a r e a s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e c a u s i n g d i s e c o n o m i e s t o o c c u r a t t h e p o i n t s o f r e s o u r c e c o n s u m p t i o n . A n i m b a l a n c e h a s b e e n p e r c e i v e d b e t w e e n c o u n t r y a n d c i t y . The OECD r e c e n t l y r e f l e c t e d t h i s when i t s u m m a r i z e d v/hat was m e a n t b y t h e n o t i o n o f ' r e g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e ' i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n c o n t e x t : The p r o b l e m o f r e g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e i s s e e n n o t s o m u c h a s t h a t o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s - i n c o m e s , e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s o r u n e m p l o y m e n t - b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f A u s t r a l i a , t h o u g h t h e s e e x i s t , a s t h a t o f a g r o w i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e c i t i e s . The g r o w t h o f c i t i e s i s i n p a r t a n i n d i c a t i o n o f c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s o v e r r u r a l a n d t h i n l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s , a d v a n t a g e s i n e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s - 5 0 -and s o c i a l services and amenities. In part, however, i t brings certain disadvantages notably i n urban sprawl, congestion, community and environmental d i s a b i l i t i e s . It also produces i t s counterpart i n r u r a l areas, comparative lack of d i v e r s i t y of employment and a weak basis for the support of the population and i t s s o c i a l needs. 4 This s i t u a t i o n i s also the case i n NSW. A key regional issue that has been ar t i c u l a t e d by government i n s t i t u t i o n s such as DURD and the NSW Department of Decentralization and Development i n various ways, i s that of achieving a better balance i n population and settlement by reducing the r e l a t i v e concentration i n large c i t i e s and fostering growth of alternative urban centres which can exercise a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t oh the surrounding region. Within t h i s issue there are disguised numerous problems which are of significance to regional planning, although they are more often that not glossed over by i n s t i t u t i o n a l r h e t o r i c such as 'decentralization' or 'regional development'. These problems b a s i c a l l y e x i s t i n two areas, the non-metropolitan region and the c i t y region. When speaking of an urban/rural dichotomy, the dichotomy i s usually i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y perceived as being between those urban centres i n non-metropolitan regions, and the metropolitan regions themselves. However, since regional planning i s concerned with planning within a region, another d i s t i n c t i o n may be of importance. This i s the dichotomy that exists between urban centres i n r u r a l regions and t h e i r surrounding farm communities. This d i s t i n c t i o n may indeed have 5 s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c y implications i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l sense. -51-Such an approach i s not inconsistent with our view of regionalism as being the interactions that occur both within the region (eg. farm areas and urban centres), and between regions (rural urban centres and metropolitan areas). For conceptual c l a r i t y i t i s of importance to note that non-metropolitan regions can be considered as composed of urban areas and r u r a l areas. Urban concentrations w i l l act as service centres to t h e i r region, and, as a r e s u l t , many of the problems of non-metropolitan regions are focussed on such centres of a c t i v i t y (especially when viewed i n the l i g h t of marked increases i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y due to transportation improvements over the l a s t two decades). The Essence of the Urban/Rural Dichotomy i n Non-Metropolitan  Regions The ultimate goal of equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of economic welfare has been well accepted i n Western society, and s i m i l a r l y i n NSW. It i s recognized that the well being and s a t i s f a c t i o n of people r e f l e c t s a wide range of economic and non-^economic factors. This i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n non-metropolitan regions because indicators of s o c i a l well being are very often biased towards what can be r e a d i l y measured such as economic factors. Much of the appeal of such regions 7 i s intangible, such as a more relaxed 'country l i f e s t y l e ' . A r i s i n g out of t h i s goal are the concerns for an equitable l i f e s t y l e r e s u l t i n g from the provision of adequate opportunities for services such as health, welfare and education, as well as the provision of employment opportunities. Because of the -52-economies of scale involved i n the provision of such services, i t has invariably been the case that they need be located i n urban concentrations. However, constraints do e x i s t , causing an inadequate provision of such services to the above areas. This w i l l be discussed further i n the integrating perspective. Given that i t i s an i m p l i c i t goal o f regional planning to improve the economic well-being of a regional population, i t i s now appropriate to discuss some p a r t i c u l a r aspects of well-being that are of importance i n non-metropolitan regions, so as to more prec i s e l y e s t a b l i s h the regional problems i n NSW. Three aspects are discussed: (1) employment opportunities, (2) education, and (3) health and welfare. Employment Opportunities:- One factor governing the s o c i a l well being of society i s the adequate provision of employment opportunities. It i s t h i s factor more than any other that regulates the growth and decline of non-^metropolitan regions. Many factors contribute to the dynamics of employment i n non-metropolitan regions, and these are i n turn i n t r i c a t e l y related to city-system interdependencies and the l o c a t i o n a l decision making behaviour of government bodies and private enterprise. Although, i n NSW, there do not e x i s t any 'depressed 1 or 'distressed' areas i n the B r i t i s h or North American sense, there do e x i s t interregional differences i n unemployment. Most unemployment problems i n the non-metropolitan regions r e s u l t from s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the r u r a l economic base, which are i n turn dampened or magnified by good economic conditions. This combined with inadequate services and f a c i l i t i e s has - 5 3 -r e s u l t e d i n a g r a d u a l ' d r i f t t o the c i t i e s ' - i n c r e a s i n g problems of o v e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n without seemingly r e d u c i n g the problems of the non-metropolitan r e g i o n s . For s c h o o l l e a v e r s , l a c k of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and p r o v i s i o n s f o r t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n are among the major 9 reasons f o r the exodus from country d i s t r i c t s . " In some areas i t appears t h a t anything up to 75% of s c h o o l l e a v e r s e v e n t u a l l y leave the country r e g i o n s . Such undermining of the p o t e n t i a l employment base i s o b v i o u s l y d e t r i m e n t a l to the c o n t i n u i n g growth and p r o s p e r i t y of country r e g i o n s . F a c t o r s r e l a t e d to the r u r a l base of many country r e g i o n s , such as s e a s o n a l i t y of work and f l u c t u a t i o n s i n farm incomes, c o n t r i b u t e to r e g i o n a l unemployment. Because of NSWs p h y s i c a l resource endowments, many re g i o n s possess s o i l and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s which allow o n l y very l i m i t e d d i v e r s i f i c a t i -on of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . So the s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s where c e r t a i n r e g i o n s are almost wholly dependent on one s e c t o r of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y (eg. d a i r y i n g on the South Coast, f r u i t and v i n e i n the R i v e r i n a , wheat i n the C e n t r a l West, sheep and g r a z i n g i n the Far West), and are t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t to the whims of the market. T r a d i t i o n a l l y s e c t o r a l problems have been the domain of n a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , however they have obvious i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r o l e of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n such areas, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between such n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and p l a n n i n g , must e v e n t u a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d . E d u c a t i o n : - Access to adequate e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s y e t another important aspect of s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g . Two broad j u s t i f i c a t i o n s are advanced f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of e d u c a t i o n to s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n non-metropolitan r e g i o n s . F i r s t l y , the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of those i n the r u r a l s e c t o r i s l i k e l y to be i n c r e a s i n g l y a f a c t o r i n the e f f i c i e n c y and economic w e l l being of those engaged i n and connected w i t h r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s . Secondly, i t should be the r i g h t of every c h i l d t o have access to a l e v e l of o p p o r t u n i t y which p r o v i d e s a reasonable b a s i s f o r h i s own development and enable him to take advantage of o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n other areas. A r e p o r t commissioned i n the e a r l y 1970's by a j o i n t Commonwealth/State study on d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n concluded: The major.problem i s the p r o v i s i o n of t e r t i a r y e d ucation the p r o v i s i o n of t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n to country r e s i d e n t s , without b r i n g i n g them i n t o the c i t i e s , appears to be the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g those p r o v i d i n g f o r the s t a b i l i t y and growth of country towns.-'-0 A r e c e n t working group r e p o r t on R u r a l P o l i c y t o the Prime M i n i s t e r found t h a t many c h i l d r e n i n r u r a l r e g i o n s are a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e p r i v e d of some aspects of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y at the primary and secondary l e v e l s . T h i s may be f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l reasons embracing g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s towards educ a t i o n i n r u r a l r e g i o n s , or more l i k e l y a r i s i n g from f a c t o r s such as l a c k of l o c a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s u t i l i z i n g a completed secondary e d u c a t i o n , h i g h teacher turnover or l a c k of v a r i e t y i n courses o f f e r r e d a t secondary and t e r t i a r y l e v e l s . These o b s e r v a t i o n s of course are mainly g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h a t r e l a t e t o problems t h a t e x i s t i n p a r t i c u l a r areas. For i n s t a n c e the Karmel Committee J" u on schools has concluded t h a t the standard of primary and secondary e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i n f e r i o r to t h a t o f f e r r e d c i t y c h i l d r e n . In the l a r g e r and more prosperous country towns i t may be s u p e r i o r to t h a t o f f e r r e d t o many c i t y c h i l d r e n a t the primary and secondary l e v e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those c h i l d r e n s i t u a t e d i n low income or c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d i n n e r c i t y areas. However, there i s no doubt t h a t a problem e x i s t s and has been reco g n i z e d ; Given the r o l e seen f o r e d u c a t i o n i n promoting e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y , government e f f o r t has been d i r e c t e d to programs aimed a t removing i n e q u a l i t i e s , improving a c c e s s i b i l i t y , widening the range of o p p o r t u n i t y and r a i s i n g the standards both of e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and the content of the e d u c a t i o n a l programs being o f f e r r e d . The needs and problems of r u r a l areas a r e , f o r the most p a r t , seen as p a r t of those g e n e r a l programs.12 Health and Welfare:- Another important f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s o c i a l w e l l being concerns the p r o v i s i o n of h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s complicate the d e l i v e r y of h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n non-metropolitan r e g i o n s . These i n c l u d e the g r e a t d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d and the absence of towns of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o p r o v i d e the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e to support modern medical f a c i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , c o n s i d e r a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s t a f f i n g problems e x i s t i n country areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s i t u a t i o n of r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n medical p r a c t i c e and the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of knowledge and f a c i l i t i e s t h a t t h a t i m p l i e s . A r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the f e d e r a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s 13 Commission r e c o g n i z e d the r e g i o n a l nature of t h i s problem and -56-suggested t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of comprehensive h e a l t h s e r v i c e s should go a long way towards eas i n g some of the burdens of r e s i d e n t s of r u r a l r e g i o n s . S i m i l a r problems e x i s t i n the p r o v i s i o n of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . P e r s o n a l hardships may be s u f f e r e d i n r u r a l r e g i o n s f o r a number of reasons: (1) The l a r g e and o f t e n u n p r e d i c t a b l e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n farm incomes, (2) High share of workforce self-employed i n s m a l l l i m i t e d s e c u r i t y b u s i n e s s e s , (3) Seasonal nature of h i r e d farm la b o u r , and g r a d u a l displacement by mechanization. These f a c t o r s are most o b v i o u s l y manifested by depressed p e r s o n a l incomes which are o f t e n below minimum l e v e l of reasonable l i v i n g . A Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o Poverty r e c e n t l y determined t h a t of the a d u l t income u n i t s i n r u r a l 14 l o c a t i o n s , 14.4% were very poor (below poverty l i n e ) and a f u r t h e r 10.8% were r a t h e r poor as opposed to the c a p i t a l c i t y f i g u r e s of 8.5% and 6.7% r e s p e c t i v e l y . Although those f i g u r e s r e l a t e to A u s t r a l i a as a whole, they a l s o r e f l e c t the s i t u a t i o n i n NSW. Because of the g r e a t e r h a r d s h i p s s u f f e r e d i n country areas of NSW, g r e a t e r demands per c a p i t a are p l a c e d on s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . The s p e c i a l i s t s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s such as r e t i r e m e n t or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , have been g r a d u a l l y l a c k i n g i n many r u r a l urban c e n t r e s . T h i s problem has a l s o been p i c k e d up i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l sense and i t has been p e r c e i v e d as a r e g i o n a l problem. The S o c i a l Welfare - 5 7 -Commission, a f e d e r a l body, i s i n the process of c r e a t i n g Regional C o u n c i l s f o r S o c i a l Development as a p a r t of a p l a n f o r the development of i n t e g r a t e d p a t t e r n s of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a t 15 the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . I t i s envisaged t h a t such an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e a mechanism to a s s i s t people i n the r e g i o n to i d e n t i f y t h e i r unique r e g i o n a l needs and ways i n which these might be met. T h i s i n t u r n r e f l e c t s the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t there i s a need f o r government i n s t i t u t i o n s to ensure t h a t the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d r e f l e c t the p r i o r i t i e s of the people i n each r e g i o n . E d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are not the o n l y ones t h a t are of a r e g i o n a l concern. In some r e g i o n s , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e r v i c e s such as water; sewrage and power; roads; a i r , rail and road t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e s ; telephone and p o s t a l s e r v i c e s ; and r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n , are e i t h e r not a v a i l a b l e , o t are not up to the standards of other m e t r o p o l i t a n and non-metropolitan r e g i o n s . The aim of the p o l i c y i s g e n e r a l l y t h a t d i s p a r i t i e s between urban and non-metropolitan r e g i o n s should be reduced. The problems of d i s p a r i t i e s between urban and non-metropolitan r e g i o n s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y a l s o pervade the p r o v i s i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . Land Use C o n f l i c t and Resource Management The problems which were mentioned above have been g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d and a r t i c u l a t e d by v a r i o u s government i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v a r i o u s ways, at v a r i o u s times. Another g e n e r a l category of problems t h a t are very o f t e n manifested at a r e g i o n -a l s c a l e are those which can be b r o a d l y c a t e g o r i z e d as problems -58-of land use c o n f l i c t , or problems of resource management. Recent t h i n k i n g over land use c o n f l i c t s has been based on the assumption t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c p l a n n i n g w i l l depend on the amount of land the government possesses as 16 opposed to the amount h e l d i n p r i v a t e . Evidence from Sweden and the Netherlands suggests t h a t p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s are much e a s i e r t o a d m i n i s t e r when those t h a t are a d m i n i s t e r i n g them 17 have e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over the l a n d . T h i s i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance on the r u r a l / u r b a n f r i n g e s of towns and c i t i e s , where some of the c o n f l i c t s are more acute. In NSW, one t h i r d of a l l land (a t o t a l of 80.2m hectares) i s e i t h e r a l i e n a t e d or i n the 18 process of a l i e n a t i o n . Out of the t o t a l 6.4m h e c t a r e s f o r which Crown Land i s r e s e r v e d , 52% i s State f o r e s t or timber r e s e r v e areas, 16.3% i s State or N a t i o n a l Park, 3.5% i s nature r e s e r v e and 28.2% other types of r e s e r v e s . What then i s the nature of the c o n f l i c t s i n NSW? There i s evidence to suggest t h a t t h i s vacant Crown land has been s u b j e c t to c o m p e t i t i o n between a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , and 19 to a l e s s e r extent mining. C o n f l i c t t h a t e x i s t s occurs i n two areas: competing uses i n high r a i n f a l l areas of NSW, and land use c o n f l i c t s on the u r b a n / r u r a l f r i n g e s . In the d r y e r r e g i o n s of the S t a t e , west of the Great D i v i d i n g Range f on the s l o p e s and p l a i n s , c o n f l i c t s between major re s o u r c e uses are minimal. F a c t o r s such as c l i m a t e and s o i l p r e c l u d e competing uses such as f o r e s t r y , and mining i s g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e d out i n the s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d areas i n the Far West of the S t a t e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t many of the i n l a n d r e g i o n s of NSW developed a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r produce producing c a p a c i t i e s , thereby precluding the population from overburdening the land, or other problems associated with denser population settlement. In these areas, the problems are more those of environmental land management. They re l a t e to the determination of what the best land management practices on r u r a l holdings should be, i n order to minimize resource depletion. Resource Management Problems:- Because much of the population i s concentrated i n the coastal and tableland areas, i t i s inevitable that the greatest c o n f l i c t s would occur i n t h i s part of NSW. Competition exists among resource uses, but also from the fact that the bulk of the population spend t h e i r l e i s u r e time i n the coastal areas. It i s expected that c o n f l i c t s between forestry, recreation and agriculture w i l l take on s i g n i f i c a n t proportions i n the near future. The Australian Forestry Council, an organization responsible for the planning and co-ordination of Australian forestry, has adopted a p o l i c y of making A u s t r a l i a s e l f s u f f i c i e n t i n softwood products by the year 2000. To meet t h i s i t i s expected that the share of productive forest area under softwood plantations would increase from 1% to 3% (an expansion of 1.07m hectares i n a l l ) . NSW, with i t s tableland areas i d e a l for such undertakings, would undoubtedly absorb a f a i r share of t h i s increase. This i s l i k e l y to have implications i n the future for preservation of areas as National or State Parks, forest related passive recreation, as well as water management procedures. Evidence already exists of c o n f l i c t s occurring between preservation for national parks, and public and private - 6 0 -20 plantations of exotic pines. I t i s also inevitable that diverse pressures for recreation space i n the coastal zone are l i k e l y to increase tremendously over the next decade or so as society's demand for .recreation a c t i v i t i e s increases. Such a concentration of a c t i v i t y i s l i k e l y to have adverse effects on some of the ecological balance found along the coastal zone. Sim i l a r l y problems of access are beginning to develop around some of the coastal lakes and estuaries, which e f f e c t i v e l y are denying society as a whole the ri g h t to use 21 them. Although t h i s problem has not yet reached the dimensions i t has i n North America (most NSW beaches are readily accessible), i t does not n u l l i f y the concern for adequate coastal zone management, and t h i s i s esp e c i a l l y so since the coastline i s one of Australia's resources most treasured by i t s population. The problem i s one of a regional scale - the demand for space no longer i s confined within the boundaries of urban areas, and problems t r a d i t i o n a l l y concentrated i n the c i t y are beginning to be f e l t i n non-metropolitan regions. Environmental controversies also emerge at a regional scale. A recent example emerged on the South Coast of NSW i n the c o n f l i c t between clearcutting practices of the woodchip 22 industry, and sound environmental p r i n c i p l e s . The Working Group on Rural Policy i n A u s t r a l i a has concluded that: There i s also an undoubted need to develop more ef f e c t i v e controls on the u t i l i z a t i o n of our forests and forest land resources to ensure that guidelines r e f l e c t i n g sensible comprimises between the economic needs of society and the very proper concerns of the environmentalist are fol l o w e d . 2 3 In a d d i t i o n , competing demands on n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s would tend t o i n d i c a t e the n e c e s s i t y f o r m u l t i - o b j e c t i v e s o l u t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n can be made of f o r e s t r y roads f o r p a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n access - an i d e a which has not been ex p l o r e d t o any s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t example of the u t i l i z a t i o n of l o g g i n g roads f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use - a concept which has t i l l r e c e n t l y been shunned i n NSW. Problems of the Rural/Urban F r i n g e : - A c l a s s i c example of land use c o n f l i c t s i s t h a t which r e s u l t s on the r u r a l / u r b a n f r i n g e - the d i r e c t c o n f l i c t of urban development and a g r i c u l t u r a l use. Th i s c o n f l i c t i s not unique to NSW or A u s t r a l i a . The problem manifests i t s e l f i n many ways, the most common i n NSW being the a l i e n a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land needed to supply urban c e n t r e s ; land s p e c u l a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h c o s t of land f o r urban user s ; a s c a t t e r e d p a t t e r n of urban and non-urban uses and backlogs of needed urban p u b l i c works such as roads, sewrage works and s c h o o l s . A r e c e n t view has a t t r i b u t e d such c o n f l i c t s to the f a i l u r e of the land market and p l a n n i n g system t o ensure the e f f i c i e n t and economic c o n v e r s i o n of r u r a l land t o urban 24 uses. Other views have r e l a t e d the problems of u r b a n / r u r a l c o n f l i c t even more fundamentally to the system of land tenures, and see the a c q u i s i t i o n of development r i g h t s as a 25 p r e r e q u i s i t e t o a c h i e v i n g comprehensive land use reform. The i s s u e s i n v o l v e d are o b v i o u s l y very complex, and works w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t have not been able to r e s o l v e them adequately, or even c l a i m a comprehensive understanding. - 6 2 -The interface between larger urban areas and r u r a l areas i s of p a r t i c u l a r significance along the coastal regions. Two aspects should be mentioned which characterize the c o n f l i c t s experienced i n these areas. The f i r s t i s that the a c t i v i t i e s of the farmer and the urban dweller are most intensely focussed i n the coastal regions. The encroachment of the a c t i v i t i e s of the urban dweller on a g r i c u l t u r a l land has come to a head through the development of hobby farms or r u r a l retreats. It i s generally f e l t that such developments lead to 'urban related nuisances,' causing physical damage, 2 6 p o l l u t i o n and destruction, to areas which are of importance to supplying urban centres with r u r a l produce. The recent report on r u r a l p o l i c y has a r t i c u l a t e d the problem i n the following manner: At times however, the use of land for hobby farming imposes additional costs of neighbouring farmers or on the community. The magnitude of these extra costs may be s i g n i f i c a n t - such as pressures for additional roads and other services and added c a l l s on extention services - urban hobby farms are small and sub-division consequently results i n a very substantial increase i n population density There i s a good case for hobby farms to be required to pay f u l l costs of any additional public investment such as road construction which may be associated with land s u b d i v i s i o n . 2 ^ The second major aspect i s related to the f i r s t and that i s the encroachment of urban related uses on prime a g r i c u l t u r a l land. Prime a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s not unlimited, and the majority i s located on the f e r t i l e s o i l s of the coastal p l a i n s . Apart from the d i r e c t loss of a g r i c u l t u r a l land to urban uses there are also the problems of loss of a g r i c u l t u r a l land t o urban uses there are a l s o the problems of l o s s of land through environmental damage (such as s o i l e r o s i o n ) . There has been a tendancy of plan n e r s i n the p a s t to regard r e g i o n a l m e t r o p o l i t a n h i n t e r l a n d s as a r e s e r v o i r t o serve urban expansion. I t i s g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t more r a t i o n a l urban development w i l l tend to minimize t h i s type of encroachment, and thereby c o n t r i b u t e t o the more e f f e c t i v e use 2 8 of n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . Area and F u n c t i o n The t h i r d major area of problems which m a n i f e s t themselves on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e are those of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s themselves. Much of the r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a has focussed i t s a t t e n t i o n on r e g i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n and 29 r e g i o n a l government. " I t i s suspected t h a t much of t h i s r e a p p r a i s a l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was p a r t l y s t i m u l a t e d by the r e g i o n a l b i a s e s of many of the Labor Government's programs i n the f i e l d s of Urban and Regional Development d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1972-75, and the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t some form of r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n could be the answer t o s o l v i n g many of the problems of the l o c a l government s e c t o r . At the same time v a r i o u s governments were f o l l o w i n g i n the f o o t s t e p s of the Royal 3 0 Commission on L o c a l Government i n England i n a s s e s s i n g the inadequacies of presen t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the p o t e n t i a l of r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . At the F e d e r a l l e v e l a Royal Commission on A u s t r a l i a n Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d the main problem: -64-There appears to be a growing d i s j u n c t i o n between the c i t i z e n and g r a s s - r o o t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s on the one hand and governmental agencies on the other -the 'we' and 'they' syndrome. The problem i s l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e as more power i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n c e n t r a l and sub c e n t r a l governments.31 In NSW a review of l o c a l government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was undertaken i n 1973 because i t was f e l t t h a t l o c a l government i s becoming a l e s s and l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the governmental system. In many people's minds l o c a l government has a 'kerbs and 32 g u t t e r i n g ' image. The main problem, as a r t i c u l a t e d by the Committee of I n q u i r y i n t o L o c a l Government i n NSW was t h a t p r e s -ent l o c a l government areas were not the most a p p r o p r i a t e to 3 3 " s e c u r i n g proper, economical and e f f i c i e n t l o c a l government." The p u b l i c demand f o r s e r v i c e s i n NSW i s such t h a t l o c a l government has been too weak to p r o v i d e them. In s h o r t , l o c a l government s u f f e r s from the e x i s t a n c e of too many small uneconomic areas, r e s u l t i n g i n fragmentation of a u t h o r i t y , unecessary d u p l i c a t i o n ' O f a s s e t s , the under-u t i l i z a t i o n of p l a n t , equipment of human re s o u r c e s , and the i n a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e the v a r i e d kinds of e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d by l o c a l c o u n c i l s i n the modern w o r l d . 3 4 S i m i l a r l y S t i l w e l l sees the problem as being b a s i c a l l y the same and he a r t i c u l a t e s i t as the i n a b i l i t y of l o c a l government i n p e r i p h e r a l areas to r e v e r s e the c e n t r a l i z i n g 35 process because of t h e i r l a c k of resources." 3 6 In terms of F e s l e r ' s c l a s s i c a n a l y s i s , these are the problems of area and f u n c t i o n - the need f o r a r e c i p r o c a l adjustment of area and f u n c t i o n has been p e r c e i v e d . For conceptual c l a r i t y these two terms need d e f i n i t i o n . Area i s a k i n to our e a r l i e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a r e g i o n as a h y p o t h e s i s , a r e s u l t of the o p e r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l i s m ; i t i s the o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n ' s ambit as he moves about i n h i s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , and the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic areas d i c t a t e d by the l o c a t i o n and the movement of phenomena wit h which s o c i a l a c t i o n 37 i s concerned. By f u n c t i o n i s meant a l l the a c t i v i t i e s with which modern a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s charged, such as the d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s and the p r o t e c t i o n of the environment. A mismatching of f u n c t i o n and area by any l e v e l of government w i l l r e s u l t i n 3 8 imbalances on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e . I t i s of importance to note t h a t the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of a u t h o r i t y between the n a t i o n and the s t a t e s and t h e i r l o c a l governments i s a problem a l l of 39 the one p i e c e . However i t i s a l s o of importance t h a t h o r i z o n t a l problems are c o i n c i d e n t a l to v e r t i c a l ones, and because they d e a l w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a u t h o r i t y between governmental areas, they pose a d i f f e r e n t s o r t of problem. I t i s being r e c o g n i z e d i n A u s t r a l i a t h a t the problems w i t h which governments today must cope i n a f u n c t i o n a l sense, are i n c r e a s i n g l y h o r i z o n t a l i n t h a t they cut across d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s , w h i l e , at the same time, the machinery of government i s s t i l l o r g anized v e r t i c a l l y i n a system of'departments w i t h 40 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s l i m i t e d to one s e c t o r . In an a r e a l sense the boundaries of p a r t i c u l a r governments seldom c o i n c i d e with or wholly embrace the n a t u r a l areas d e f i n e d by the problems 41 w i t h which s o c i e t y must d e a l . F e s l e r c o n s i d e r s three ways i n which the problem of area and f u n c t i o n may be r e s o l v e d . (1) The f i r s t way i s to c o n s i d e r each f u n c t i o n s e p e r a t e l y , - 6 6 -i d e n t i f y the areas be s t adapted to t h a t f u n c t i o n , and make the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas f o r the f u n c t i o n t o conform. (2) The second way i s to s t a r t with an emphasis on an i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p of f u n c t i o n s and the need f o r c o - o r d i n a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of those f u n c t i o n s , i d e n t i f y the bes t m u l t i -f a c t o r areas f o r a composite of f u n c t i o n s , s a c r i f i c i n g p e r f e c t adjustment of area to the i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s , but t r y i n g to reduce the degree of s a c r i f i c e as much as p o s s i b l e . (3) The t h i r d way i s to accept the presen t a r e a l framework and to r e a d j u s t f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the e x i s t i n g governmental areas. T h i s i n v o l v e s the development of more e f f e c t i v e h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l r e l a t i o n s among e x i s t i n g governmental areas so as to m i t i g a t e the d e f i c i e n c i e s of these areas. E s s e n t i a l l y the problem of area and f u n c t i o n can be r e s o l v e d then by e i t h e r a d j u s t i n g area to f u n c t i o n , or f u n c t i o n t o 42 area. In r e a l i t y of course the s i t u a t i o n i s not as c l e a r c u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s F e s l e r ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of t h i s c l a s s i c problem i s i n t r o d u c e d a t t h i s p o i n t because i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r e x p l a i n i n g the problems experienced i n NSW. T r a d i t i o n a l l y r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of government i n s t i t u t i o n s i n NSW has le a d t o the formation of s i n g l e purpose 43 r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , an i n s t i t u t i o n a l response t h a t S e l f 44 terms 'ad hoc r e g i o n a l i s m ' . As such they r e p r e s e n t an adjustment of area to s u i t the f u n c t i o n s i n c e they are s t a t u t o r y bodies e s t a b l i s h e d t o p l a n , manage and d e l i v e r a s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e and to operate w i t h i n a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n -67-r e g i o n . Water and e l e c t r i c i t y are two prominant examples of s e r v i c e s organized along these l i n e s . In a d d i t i o n there has been a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of f i e l d o f f i c e s t h a t has a r i s e n out of the concern t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s with f u n c t i o n s such as a g r i c u l t u r e , i r r i g a t i o n , e ducation and highways need l a r g e r u n i t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n than the e s t a b l i s h e d l o c a l government system c o u l d p r o v i d e . The r e s u l t has been an even f u r t h e r c r y s t a l i z a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e of government. In t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of the above i n s t i t u t i o n s , Power and Wettenhall observe t h a t , . . . they f o l l o w e d the f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , s p e c i a l i z i n g a c c o r d i n g t o s e r v i c e of f u n c t i o n i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , spreading the apparatus from the c a p i t a l s outwards, c r e a t i n g a v e r i t a b l e chaos of o v e r l a p p i n g and c o n f l i c t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas, and c o n t r i b u t i n g l i t t l e towards the cause of a t r u l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d r e g i o n a l i s m . 4 5 The Committee of I n q u i r y on the N a t i o n a l E s t a t e concluded: One of our s t r o n g e s t impressions i s of an i n c r e d i b l e complexity and o v e r l a p p i n g of a u t h o r i t i e s , boards, commissions, c o u n c i l s , government departments e t c . , a l l of whom have an i n t e r e s t i n and whose a c t i v i t i e s have, or may have, an e f f e c t upon land-use p l a n n i n g and hence upon the N a t i o n a l E s t a t e . 4 6 The c i t e an example of an area of V i c t o r i a where f o u r t y p u b l i c bodies are i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g and management. I t i s safe to assume t h a t the same g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n holds i n NSW. Thus we are faced w i t h three d i s t i n c t types of governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas: the g e n e r a l or comprehensive governmental area such as l o c a l government and the S t a t e , the s p e c i a l purpose government area such as the County C o u n c i l s and the f i e l d s e r v i c e areas such as highways d i s t r i c t s ; a l l -68-possessing d i f f e r i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n functional and areal terms. The problems are compounded by the fact that riot only do they lack horizontal integration, but also v e r t i c a l integration, as the d i f f e r e n t areas are characterized by d i f f e r i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n the hiearchy of government. The problems of l o c a l government i n NSW are more akin to those r e s u l t i n g from an attempt to i n t e r r e l a t e a number of functions into a multi-factor area. However the mismatch of area and function at the l o c a l government l e v e l i s great. There has been a tendancy of l o c a l councils to lose functions, or not to develop adequately the a c t i v i t i e s open to them under 47 e x i s t i n g state l e g i s l a t i o n . For instance i n recent years l o c a l government i n the Sydney region has l o s t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for regional planning. Even more pervasive i s the Committee of Inquiry's i m p l i c i t recognition that the adjustment of areas i s one of the most v i t a l changes necessary to a t t a i n a degree of functional integration. The problem i s perceived i n the following terms: too many meaningless boundaries too much unnecessary fragmentation i n situations where there are common problems of planning and development and where far closer co-operation and integration are needed to deal with these problems.48 If we delve further into Fesler's analysis we can i d e n t i f y some further problems of l o c a l government which indicate a mismatch of area and function. Fesler i d e n t i f i e s four important factors that bear on the r e c i p r o c a l adjustment of governmental function and governmental area. The f i r s t one -69-i s the need f o r a d j u s t i n g governmental areas to the n a t u r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of phenomena wit h which government must d e a l . I t i s a w e l l known f a c t t h a t l o c a l government areas i n NSW 49 are not based on any p r i n c i p l e s of r e g i o n a l i s m and t h a t the problems of the p l a n n i n g and development of modern s o c i e t y transcend a r c h a i c and meaningless boundaries, which evolved out of the s ettlement p a t t e r n s of the 1800's and have remained s u b s t a n t i a l l y unchanged s i n c e . The committee has p e r c e i v e d the need to e s t a b l i s h a v i a b l e b a s i c a r e a l unit.^° The second f a c t o r r e l e v a n t to s o l v i n g the f u n c t i o n -area problem i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y a l s o s e t s the l i m i t s to the optimum s i z e of governmental areas. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the p r e s e n t l o c a l government areas are not the most a p p r o p r i a t e to secure proper 51 economical and e f f i c i e n t l o c a l government. The t h i r d f a c t o r i s the adequacy of the f i s c a l r e s ources of the area. T h i s i s one of the c l a s s i c problems of l o c a l governments caused by an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of r a t i n g bases. T h i s causes a checkerboard p a t t e r n of f u n c t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y between l o c a l government areas i n t h a t the absence of an adequate r a t i n g base p r e c l u d e s or l i m i t s the p r o v i s i o n of c e r t a i n community s e r v i c e s , or the s u p p o r t i n g of minimal standards of governmental performance. There has been a tendency i n the p a s t to r e l y h e a v i l y on g r a nts from other l e v e l s of government to a i d i n the p r o v i s i o n of c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s , such as roads, e d u c a t i o n and p u b l i c works i n g e n e r a l . The f o u r t h f a c t o r i s popular c o n t r o l , As F e s l e r p o i n t s out t h i s f a c t o r d e f i e s o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n , however i t i s c l e a r t h a t the channels must be simple and c l e a r and t h a t people's i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l must be e s s e n t i a l . T h i s i s s u e i s q u i t e v i t a l i n any debate about l o c a l government i n NSW. I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t s m a l l areas p r o v i d e the g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l government, and the r i g h t of l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s and groups to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l o c a l 54 government i s fundamental t o a democratic s o c i e i t y , ' At present however, l o c a l government i s becoming an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n e f f e c t i v e arm of government f o r many of the reasons d i s c u s s e d above. The democratic r i g h t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l government i s of l i t t l e v a l u e i f there i s no r e a l government i n , . , . . 55 which t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The case i s c l e a r . Whether c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n to the whole spectrum of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or onl y the problem of l o c a l government, there e x i s t s a mismatch of area and f u n c t i o n i n NSW. An I n t e g r a t i n g P e r s p e c t i v e To date much of the a r t i c u l a t i o n of problems by i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i e t a l groups has occu r r e d along uni<-f u n c t i o n a l or u n i - s e c t o r a l l i n e s . As such problems i n the achievement of c e r t a i n minimum standards of s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y i n non-metropolitan r e g i o n s - a problem of a r e g i o n a l s c a l e - have been a r t i c u l a t e d by and l a r g e independently of the o v e r a l l problem of l o c a l government areas - another problem of a r e g i o n a l s c a l e . Both, however, r e s u l t from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l problem of the mismatch of area and f u n c t i o n . The i n a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e the s e r v i c e s needed to ma i n t a i n an adequate standard of economic -71-w e l f a r e , i s o b v i o u s l y caused by some impediment i n the i n t e r a c t i v e process as was mentioned e a r l i e r . The nature of t h i s impediment can be c o n s i d e r e d to be i n s t i t u t i o n a l , i n t h a t the departments r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e l i v e r y of these s e r v i c e s to the r e g i o n s of NSW are not a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y o rganized on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s and t h e r e f o r e are s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d i n coping w i t h and m o n i t o r i n g the a r t i c u l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l r e g i o n a l needs by the people l i v i n g t h e r e . The d e l i v e r y of h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s f o r i n s t a n c e , have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y planned on a s t a t e or n a t i o n a l l e v e l , by s i n g l e purpose i n s t i t u t i o n s a u n i t of area u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the performance of the f u n c t i o n . A r e c e n t r e p o r t has s t a t e d : I t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t s e r v i c e s planned on t h i s b a s i s w i l l not meet the p a r t i c u l a r needs of d i s p a r a t e communities and a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n to p l a n n i n g c l o s e r to the l e v e l at which s e r v i c e s are to be provided.56 The evidence to support such c o n c l u s i o n s i s b e g i n n i n g to accumulate. The F e d e r a l i s m p o l i c y of the F r a s e r L i b e r a l Government re c o g n i z e s the need f o r a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of A u s t r a l i a ' s forms and i n s t i t u t i o n s of government and a t t i t u d e s of mind to achieve c o - o p e r a t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n t a t t e n t i o n i n areas such as e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , s o c i a l w e l f a r e , housing and urban develop-57 ment. The r e c e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p i l o t schemes f o r the 5 8 A u s t r a l i a n A s s i s t a n c e P l a n have a r t i c u l a t e d s i m i l a r concerns, but w i t h the e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n of the a r e a l element of a ' r e g i o n ' : The aims of the A u s t r a l i a n A s s i s t a n c e P l a n i s to a s s i s t i n the development, at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l w i t h i n a n a t i o n a l l y c o - o r d i n a t e d framework of i n t e g r a t e d p a t t e r n s of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , complementary to income support schemes and the w e l f a r e r e l a t e d aspects of h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , housing, employment, m i g r a t i o n and other s o c i a l p o l i c i e s . 5 9 An i n q u i r y by the H o s p i t a l s and Health S e r v i c e s Commission i n 1974 recommended t h a t h o s p i t a l s should be more i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p l a n n i n g of h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n g e n e r a l , and suggest a poss-i b l e r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system to achieve a r a t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n of resources to h o s p i t a l s . ^ The evidence suggests t h a t the problems are of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l nature, and t h a t t h e i r s o l u t i o n seems t o l i e at a r e g i o n a l s c a l e . T h i s a n a l y s i s can be extended i f we c o n s i d e r ' r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' as a broad ' f u n c t i o n ' . In a : p r e v i o u s chapter we e s t a b l i s h e d what i s meant by r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l sense. We do not i n t e n d to d e f i n e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n a more s u b s t a n t i v e sense except to say t h a t i t must o b v i o u s l y be concerned with the f u n c t i o n s such as those o u t l i n e d i n t h i s chapter, and must be of r e l e v a n c e to the problems experienced i n NSW. The main t h r u s t s i n the f i e l d s of h o s p i t a l and s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g r e c e n t l y have been towards a r e a l adjustment. The s o l u t i o n s have been seen i n terms of F e s l e r ' s f i r s t method, and the problem of f u n c t i o n a l fragmentation s t i l l e x i s t s . However, the concept of f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y accepted i n an area of p l a n n i n g t h a t does not concern i t s e l f w i t h any s i n g l e f u n c t i o n - r esource management and l a n d use c o n f l i c t i n g e n e r a l . In t h i s area we have many examples of seperate bodies p u r s u i n g t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s with l i t t l e regard f o r the o b j e c t i v e s of others or the s i d e - e f f e c t s of t h e i r own a c t i o n s . The s o l u t i o n s seem to l i e i n the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the techniques of resource management with the v a l u e s of s o c i e t y v i a the c r e a t i o n of 61 a p p r o p r i a t e government machinery. The r e a l i s s u e as seen by Sinden i s whether A u s t r a l i a or NSW f o r t h a t matter can develop i n s t i t u t i o n s to promote economic growth and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c o n t r o l the s i d e - e f f e c t s i n a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e 6 2 manner. In s h o r t , even when c o n s i d e r i n g the broader problems of resource management, the problem i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l one. We tend to agree with. Sinden's t h e s i s t h a t the inadequacies of human o r g a n i z a t i o n can o f t e n be the r e a l b a r r i e r to economic development and the improvements i n the q u a l i t y of l i f e . T h i s view i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d by Emanuel i n the f o l l o w i n g statement: Regional problems are not always the r e s u l t of u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l or economic causes, but can r e f l e c t d e f i c i e n c i e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the c o r r e c t i o n of which may be ^ an e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r r e g i o n a l p r o g r e s s . The r e a l i s s u e p e r t a i n i n g t o NSW i s , t h e r e f o r e , g i v e n the concept of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and g i v e n t h a t many of the r e g i o n a l problems i n NSW i n v o l v e the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of area f u n c t i o n , what are the c r i t e r i a which a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n would be expected to possess i n order to operate e f f e c t i v e l y ? T h i s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n the next chapter. -74-FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 3 ^ A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 64/1977 , I n d i c a t o r s of Community Well Being, p. 2. 2 See f o r example: A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 218/  1974. H o s p i t a l s i n A u s t r a l i a ; i b i d , , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No.  55/1973, Schools i n A u s t r a l i a . 3 See f o r example: New South Wales, Report of the Committee  of I n q u i r y Into L o c a l Government Areas and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n  New South Wales (Sydney: New South Wales Government P r i n t e r , 1974) ; A u s t a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 195/ 1974, N a t i o n a l E s t a t e Report of the Committee of I n q u i r y . 4 OECD, R e a p p r a i s a l of R e g i o n a l P o l i c i e s i n OECD C o u n t r i e s ( P a r i s : 1974) 50ne such p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n i s mentioned i n ; A u s t r a l i a , R u r a l P o l i c y i n A u s t r a l i a . Report t o the Prime M i n i s t e r by a Working Group (Canberra: May, 1974), p. 2 26. However, the problems of r u r a l areas have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been d e a l t with i n terms of p o l i c y responses at the n a t i o n a l or s t a t e l e v e l s , w h ile urban c e n t r e s have tended to be more the domain of urban p l a n n i n g . ^For i n s t a n c e see M.I. Logan e t a l . , Urban and Regional  A u s t r a l i a ; a n a l y s i s and p o l i c y i s s u e s ( S o r r e t t , 1975), p. 97 and A u s t r a l i a , Regional P o l i c y , p. 213. 7 A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 248/1975, S t u d i e s Commissioned by the Committee of Commonwealth/State O f f i c i a l s on D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , p. 412. g A l l a n R, Pred, "Growth Trans m i s s i o n W i t h i n the A u s t r a l i a n System of C i t i e s : General Observations and Study Recommendations," i n The A u s t r a l i a n System of C i t i e s : Need f o r Research, C i t i e s Commission, O c c a s s i o n a l Paper No. 3 (Canberra: A.G.P.S., J u l y 1975) , has advocated t h a t concern should be g i v e n to study of growth t r a n s m i s s i o n w i t h i n the A u s t r a l i a n system of c i t i e s . 9 A u s t r a l i a , S t u d i e s on D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , p. 412. i b i d . "'""'"Australia, Schools i n A u s t r a l i a , was the r e p o r t prepared by the Karmel Committee. 12 A u s t r a l i a , R u r a l P o l i c y , p. 224. 13 A u s t r a l i a , H o s p i t a l s m A u s t r a l i a , 14 R u r a l l o c a t i o n s were d e f i n e d as urban areas of 25,000 or l e s s (excluding f a r m e r s ) , 15 . . A u s t r a l i a , A u s t r a l i a n Government S o c i a l Welfare Commission, The Regional C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l Development: a Developmental Approach (Queanbeyan: November, 1975). " ^ A u s t r a l i a , Department of Urban and Regional Development, Urban Land: Problems and P o l i c i e s (Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1973), pp. 25-30. -75-i b i d . The l e a s e h o l d system of land i n Canberra, and i t s c o n t r o l by a p u b l i c p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y has seemed t o have been much more s u c c e s s f u l i n c o n t r o l l i n g development than i n other r e g i o n s of A u s t r a l i a which possess f r e e h o l d systems. 18 1971 f i g u r e s o b t a i n e d from the Commonwealth Year Book. 19 A u s t r a l i a , R u r a l P o l i c y , p. 247. 2 0 A.J. Watt, "The P o l i c y Process i n the R e s o l u t i o n of Land-Use C o n f l i c t s , on the Boyd P l a t e a u , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l of P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 35 (September 1976), reviews the r e c e n t Boyd P l a t e a u c o n t r o v e r s y , and p r o v i d e s an example of the type of c o n f l i c t s expected i n the f u t u r e . 21 A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 291/1975, C o a s t a l Land, p. 3. 22 A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 79/1977. Woodchips and the Environment, p. 6. 23 A u s t r a l i a , R u r a l P o l i c y , p. 260. 24 R.W. Archer, "The Theory and P r a c t i c e of L a r g e - s c a l e Land Development," Royal A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l 15 (May 1977): 68. 25 A u s t r a l i a , Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o Land Tenures (Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1974), p. i x . 2 6 A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 91/1975, R u r a l R e t r e a t s : An Urban Paper, by C l a i r e Wagner, p. 24. 27 A u s t r a l i a , R u r a l P o l i c y , p. 255. 28 T, I b i d . 29 For i n s t a n c e see: K. W i l t s h i r e , "Regional c o o r d i n a t i o n i n Queensland," A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 35 (June 1976); C P . H a r r i s , "Regional and L o c a l Government P o l i c i e s i n A u s t r a l i a , " 35 (June 1976); J.M. Power and R.L. W e t t e n h a l l , "Regional Government verses Regional Programs," A u s t r a l i a n  J o u r n a l of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 35 (June 1976); J . M. Power and H. Nelson, eds.. The Regional A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the R i v e r i n a : A  Set of Working Papers, Canberra S e r i e s i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s I. (Canberra: Canberra C o l l e g e of Advanced E d u c a t i o n , 1976). 30 Great B r i t a i n , Royal Commission on L o c a l Government i n  England 1966-69. Cmnd. 4040, (HMSO1969) . 31 A u s t r a l i a , Royal Commission on A u s t r a l i a n Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , R e g i o n a l i z i n g Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , D i s c u s s i o n Paper No. 1 (Canberra: Government P r i n t e r , May, 1975). 32 New South Wales, Report of the Committee, p. 27. 33 i b i d . , p. 31. 34 i b i d . , p. 33. 3 5 F.J.B. S t i l w e l l , A u s t r a l i a n Urban and Regional Development (Sydney: A u s t r a l i a n and New Zealand Book Company 197 4). -76-3 6 J.W. F e s l e r , Area and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Birmingham: U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama Pr e s s , 1949). 37 i b x d . , p. 15. 3 8 The r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n behind t h i s i s t h a t by d e f i n i t i o n an area i s l i k e l y t o be supra urban i n s c a l e , s i n c e the i n t e r a c t i o n s of r e g i o n a l i s m a r e . 39 F e s l e r , Area and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p, 9, and W i l t s h i r e , "Regional c o o r d i n a t i o n , " p. 145 a l s o express s i m i l a r views. 40 T. Uren, "Challenge to Change 1973: Opening Address," Roval A u s t r a l i a n Planning I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l 12 (January 1974): 6. 41 F e s l e r , Area and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 11. 42 i b i d . , p. 17 43 H a r r i s , "Regional and L o c a l , " p. 102. 44 P. S e l f , Regionalism. A Report to the Fabian S o c i e t y . (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1949). 45 Power and W e t t e n h a l l , "Regional Government," p. 119. 46 A u s t r a l i a , N a t i o n a l E s t a t e , p. 102. 47 New South Wales, Report of the Committee, p. 33. i b i d . 49 T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s gleaned from P a r t I : Development of L o c a l Government i n New South Wales, i b i d . i b i d . , p. 32. 51 i b i d . , p. 31. 52 L o c a l governments o b t a i n much of t h e i r f i n a n c e from a s s e s s i n g r a t e s on improved and unimproved p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . 5 3 The importance of t h i s f a c t o r was s t r e s s e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d the Labor Government was i n F e d e r a l o f f i c e . The Grants Commission pr o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s i n order to a l l o w them t o f u n c t i o n "at a standard not a p p r e c i a b l y below the standards of the l o c a l governing bodies i n other r e g i o n s . " The grants were meant to compliment the g e n e r a l revnue normally r a i s e d by c o u n c i l s by long e s t a b l i s h e d means such as r a t e s and charges f o r s e r v i c e s , and a s s i s t a n c e normally p r o v i d e d by State Governments. For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see, A u s t r a l i a , M i n i s t e r f o r Urban and Regional Development, Urban and Regional Development 1975-76. 1975-76 Budget Paper No. 9 (Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1975). 54 New South Wales, Report of the Committee, p. 27. 55 i b i d . , p. 27. 56 A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 96/1976, A u s t r a l i a n A s s i s t a n c e P l a n , p. 51. -77-57 A u s t r a l i a , Parliamentary Paper No. 45/1977, Proposals for Change i n the Administration and Delivery of Programs and Services, p. 41. 5 8 The Australian Assistance Plan i s administered by the Social Welfare Commission. 5Q " A u s t r a l i a , Australian Assistance Plan, p. 15. 6 0 A u s t r a l i a , Hospitals i n A u s t r a l i a , p. 122. 61 J.A. Sinden, Ed., The Natural Resources of A u s t r a l i a (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1972), p. 3. i b i d . , p. 7. 6 3 Aaron Emanuel, "A Report on the New C i t i e s Programme and Urban and Regional Development Policy i n A u s t r a l i a , " i n Urban and Regional Development oversea's Experts Reports  1973.. C i t i e s Commission, Occassional Paper No. 1 (Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1974), p. 74. CHAPTER IV TOWARDS INSTITUTIONAL CRITERIA FOR REGIONAL PLANNING IN NSW Substantiation of the Hypothesis The previous chapter indicated that problems of a regional scale do e x i s t i n NSW. It has been argued that many of the substantive problems such as achieving an equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of health and welfare services or the protection of the environment can be related to the generic problem of reconciling function with area. In th i s chapter i t i s intended to examine what contribution regional planning can make towards solving some of these problems, and what c r i t e r i a are necessary to achieve t h i s . Regional planning i s a means of rec o n c i l i n g the problem of area and function. This important point has not been adequately appreciated. The problem of area and function has tended to be treated exclusively within the domain of public administration,"'" even though i t i s central to the concept of 2 regional planning. The focus i n NSW recently has been on questions of re g i o n a l i z a t i o n of administration rather than regional planning. These f i e l d s are i n t e r r e l a t e d , and one cannot be considered without the other. F i r s t l y , some time w i l l be taken to explain how regional planning relates to. area and function. Fesler considers two elements that are necessary 3 for the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of area and function. The f i r s t i s basic s t r u c t u r a l reform and the second i s perfection of c o - o p e r a t i v e techniques. S t r u c t u r a l reform i n v o l v e s the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of governmental areas towards some d e f i n e d end. T h i s i m p l i e s a c e r t a i n degree of i n t e r a r e a l c o - o p e r a t i o n a t the extreme of which l i e s the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of l o c a l government boundaries with those, of other j u r i s d i c t i o n s . P e r f e c t i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e techniques on the other hand i m p l i e s a c e r t a i n amount of f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , and f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n may occur at both h i g h e r orders or lower orders of government. Both i n t e r a r e a l c o - o p e r a t i o n and f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n may be achieved a t a l l l e v e l s of government. As mentioned i n the l a s t chapter there are three p o s s i b l e combinations o f s t r u c t u r a l reform and c o - o p e r a t i v e techniques. These concepts borrowed from the f i e l d of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are extremely u s e f u l f o r an understanding of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o area and f u n c t i o n . A l l three can c o n s t i t u t e some form of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g although some f i t our d e f i n i t i o n b e t t e r than o t h e r s . The e a s i e s t method of r a t i o n a l i z i n g area and f u n c t i o n i s t h a t of a r r a n g i n g areas t o t h a t they b e s t s u i t p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s . T h i s preserves the v e r t i c a l arrangement of f u n c t i o n a l departments and i t dispenses w i t h i n t e r f u n c t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . Such forms of s i n g l e f u n c t i o n p l a n n i n g are perhaps most e f f i c i e n t 4 from an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o i n t of view. Proposals f o r such s o l u t i o n s have r e c e n t l y emerged i n NSW.^ The problems of t h i s approach are obvious. F i r s t l y , t h i s does not l e a d to an i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s on an a r e a l b a s i s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y may have improved., but the e q u i t y of the c o - o r d i n a t i o n and r a t i o n a l d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s - 8 0 -to the i n d i v i d u a l has not improved to any s i g n i f i c a n t degree. A haphazard p a t t e r n of o v e r l a p p i n g areas and c o n f l i c t i n g g o als and o b j e c t i v e s s t i l l o c c u r s . Secondly, the adjustment of government areas to s i n g l e f u n c t i o n s i s of l i t t l e value i f there does not e x i s t a mechanism through which r e g i o n a l needs are assessed and a p p r o p r i a t e areas f o r the d e l i v e r y of s i n g l e purpose f u n c t i o n s are determined. In many cases i n NSW t h i s mechanism i s a t prese n t o c c u r r i n g through f i e l d o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , however, t h i s i s somewhat l i m i t e d because a good d e a l of t h e i r time i s taken up wit h d a i l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e chores and correspondance wi t h s u p e r i o r s . ^ Another approach i s t h a t of attempting an i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s and r e t a i n i n g the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e of governmental areas. In the presen t r i g i d s t r u c t u r e of government i n NSW t h i s p r o p o s a l has some m e r i t . General f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n can be achieved at two l e v e l s i n the pre s e n t s t r u c t u r e . In the upper echelons of government f u n c t i o n s may be grouped i n t o a number of c l u s t e r s by a top g e n e r a l i s t . U l t i m a t e l y i t i s a Cabinet m i n i s t e r who i s the top g e n e r a l i s t and may have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a number of f u n c t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , the M i n i s t e r f o r P u b l i c Works i n NSW has under h i s wing the State Dockyard, two Water Boards, the M e t r o p o l i t a n Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board, the Water Cons e r v a t i o n and I r r i g a t i o n Commission and the Maritime 7 S e r v i c e s Board. In most cases the common denominator among these f u n c t i o n s i s t h a t they a l l r e p o r t t o the same m i n i s t e r . Under these circumstances the m i n i s t e r does not employ any e x p l i c i t powers of c o - o r d i n a t i o n or i n t e g r a t i o n , r a t h e r he merely monitors these f u n c t i o n s . Such groupings of f u n c t i o n s under a top g e n e r a l i s t does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y assure c o - o r d i n a t i o n among them, and i n most cases f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s p r e s e r v e d . ^ The other l e v e l at which f u n c t i o n s can be i n t e g r a t e d i s a t the l e v e l at which they are a d m i n i s t e r e d . As F e s l e r sees i t : Area p r o v i d e s the other g r e a t f o u n d a t i o n f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of governmental f u n c t i o n s . Area p r o v i d e s the common denominator f o r the f u n c t i o n s of the n a t i o n , the s t a t e , the country, or the town. Each of these governmental areas has a government t h a t p o t e n t i a l l y can weave a l l i t s f u n c t i o n s together so t h a t they make a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n f o r the area i n which they o p e r a t e . 9 However, as seen i n the l a s t chapter, f u n c t i o n s such as a g r i c u l t u r e , i r r i g a t i o n , f o r e s t r y , e l e c t r i c i t y , e d u c a t i o n , and t r a n s p o r t and communications g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e l a r g e r u n i t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n than the p r e s e n t l o c a l government system can p r o v i d e . 1 0 L o c a l governments possess mandates f o r o n l y a very few of these f u n c t i o n s , 1 1 and i t seems f o r the most p a r t t h a t major f u n c t i o n s such as these are a d m i n i s t e r e d 12 independently of l o c a l government concerns. Although F e s l e r i s c o r r e c t i n o b s e r v i n g t h a t area p r o v i d e s a common denominator i n the p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e of governmental j u r i s d i c t i o n i n NSW, l o c a l government areas do not have the p o t e n t i a l to weave together these v i t a l f u n c t i o n s , because, q u i t e simply, they do not possess j u r i s d i c t i o n over them. There i s no machinery f o r continuous F e d e r a l - S t a t e - L o c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s i n any 13 g i v e n area. - 8 2 -F u r t h e r , G i l l i n g w a t e r has p o i n t e d out t h a t once an attempt i s made towards h o r i z o n t a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s to a t t a i n a degree of e q u i t y , one has to s a c r i f i c e b u r e a u c r a t i c e f f i c i e n c y . The much a r t i c u l a t e d need t o a t t a i n 14 e f f i c i e n c y and e q u i t y i n the d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s i s f o r the most p a r t s e l f d e f e a t i n g . The most e f f i c i e n t way of c a r r y i n g out f u n c t i o n s i s through a v e r t i c a l h i e r a r c h y ; the most e q u i t a b l e way i s through h o r i z o n t a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . G i l l i n g w a t e r c a p s u a l i z e s the problem i n the f o l l o w i n g way: On the one hand departments and agencies attempt to d i s c h a r g e t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s as e f f i c i e n t l y as p o s s i b l e , whereas on the other there i s a need f o r those t o be c o - o r d i n a t e d . In t h i s k i n d of a s i t u a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y and c o - o r d i n a t i o n cannot be maximized. Rather i t i s a problem of the l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y l i m i t i n g the degree of c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and the l e v e l of c o - o r d i n a t i o n l i m i t i n g the degree of e f f i c i e n c y . The r e c i p r o c a l adjustment of f u n c t i o n and area r e q u i r e s the c r i t e r i a of e q u i t y to be met at the expense of e f f i c i e n c y . Regional p l a n n i n g has been d e f i n e d as a form of p u b l i c p l a n n i n g c a r r i e d out by government i n s t i t u t i o n s of the supra urban/sub s t a t e s c a l e . T h i s i s an area l a r g e r than any s i n g l e l o c a l government area but s m a l l e r t h a t a S t a t e . I t has a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t r e g i o n a l problems may a r i s e because of the l a c k of f u n c t i o n a l and a r e a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n government i n s t i t u t i o n s , so the est a b l i s h m e n t of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h some form of a r e a l reform and some degree of f u n c t i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n . I t i s the major hypothesis of t h i s paper t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e through which to - 8 3 -achieve f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and a r e a l reform. As such i t i s argued t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g looks towards a r e c i p r o c a l adjustment of f u n c t i o n and area. To e x p l a i n t h i s f u r t h e r , c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . I f we c o n s i d e r area and f u n c t i o n as being seperable then the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may be made. In order t o cope wi t h the i n c r e a s i n g demands on government i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t has been common f o r government departments to s p e c i a l i z e f u n c t i o n a l l y a t hig h e r l e v e l s of government and to g e n e r a l i z e f u n c t i o n a l l y a t lower l e v e l s . So what has emerged have been s m a l l , h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d u n i t s w i t h i n departments p l a n n i n g f o r the needs of NSW i n g e n e r a l , backed up by r e g i o n a l f i e l d o f f i c e s t a f f , who, by t h e i r ' j a c k - o f - a l l - t r a d e s ' natures are g e n e r a l i s t s . ^ The t r e n d i n government i n NSW appear to have been one of f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a t higher l e v e l s of government p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f u n c t i o n a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n at l o w e r o l e v e l s of government p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In F i g u r e 4.1 the f i t t i n g t o gether of f u n c t i o n s A,B,C e t c . i n t o a comprehensive d e l i v e r y package occurs i m p e r f e c t l y i n the domain of lower order l e v e l s of government p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . On the other hand, i f area i s c o n s i d e r e d s e p e r a t e l y as i n F i g u r e 4.2 then i t . c o u l d be s a i d t h a t the o p p o s i t e was t r u e . Area i t s e l f i s a b a s i s f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and the e x i s t e n c e of d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d C o u n c i l s i n l o c a l government areas a t e s t s to t h i s . Each l o c a l area w i l l d i f f e r i n i t s o r i e n t a t i o n towards p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e s which i n t u r n r e f l e c t s the d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l and economic a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t they possess. -84-F%&u«E-41 T T l T i M & C*F F U N C T I O N S AREA, A B> - 8 5 -The p r o b l e m i n t h i s c a s e w o u l d b e t h e f i t t i n g o f s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e a n d n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s i n t o m u c h b r o a d e r s t a t e o f n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . The t r e n d e v i d e n t h e r e i s o n e o f a r e a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a t l o w e r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t p l a n n i n g a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d a r e a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n h i g h e r o r d e r s . The c h a r g e o f p a r o c h i a l i s m o f many l o w e r o r d e r g o v e r n m e n t s a r i s e s o u t o f t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e s e s p e c i a l i s t s t o l o s e s i g h t o f t h e p o l i c i e s s e t i n h i g h e r o r d e r s o f g o v e r n m e n t . H e r e i n l i e s t h e d i c h o t o m y b e t w e e n a r e a a n d f u n c t i o n . F u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e e n c l a v e s o f h i g h e r g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s w h e r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f d e c i s i o n s a r e made i n s p e c i a l i z e d u n i t s a n d t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t a r e t o b e g a i n e d f r o m s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e f u n c t i o n s a r e i m p l e m e n t e d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e m a c h i n e r y o f g o v e r n m e n t i s s o o r g a n i z e d t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a r e a l p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n s a b o u t c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s b e c o -me o f a v e r y g e n e r l i z e d n a t u r e a t t h e l e v e l s a t w h i c h t h e d e c i s i o n s a r e b e i n g m a d e . T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d i f we c o m b i n e t h e d i a g r a m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a r e a a n d f u n c t i o n i n t o t h e s h a p e s e e n i n F i g u r e 4 . 3 . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f a r e a a n d f u n c t i o n c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d b y e i t h e r a r e a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o r f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a l o n e . The d o m i n a t i o n o f e i t h e r t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r a r e a l p r i n c i p l e s w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e f a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e t h e e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e d e l i v e r y o f s e r v i c e s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e m u s t b e a r e c i p r o c a l a d j u s t m e n t o f b o t h f u n c t i o n a n d a r e a ; t h e r e m u s t b e a p a r t i a l a b a n d o n i n g o f t h e e f f i c i e n c y o r f u n c t i o n a l -86-MlPEtE C R C t R , LOViER ORDER, <50\JEF?K1HH»HT P L A N N U H Q F U h j O r i O N I A U . F u i S C T i O M A L -Q E N E R A U Z A T I O N F I G U R E * 3 : . P I G H O T O M V jgtxsAiEjEKi / « E A A N D F U M < C T I O M s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w h ile at the same time some r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a r e a l p a r t i c u l a r i s m . What the above diagram suggests i s t h a t there i s a l e v e l (represented by a plare) between higher order and lower order government p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n where some of these f u n c t i o n a l and a r e a l p r i n c i p l e s may be p a r t l y r e c o n c i l e d . T h i s l e v e l may be termed the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . At t h i s l e v e l the process of i n t e r f u n c t i o n a l and i n t e r a r e a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n would be f a c i l i t a t e d by r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . P r i n c i p l e s of Regional P l a n n i n g Having e s t a b l i s h e d the major hypothesis i t i s now necessary t o i d e n t i f y what p r i n c i p l e s r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must possess i n such a s i t u a t i o n f o r i t to be e f f e c t i v e . The foundations f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must be based on the nature of the problems experienced i n NSW as w e l l as r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' s p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s . The f o l l o w i n g are con s i d e r e d the most fundamental: 1) One of the common themes throughout the p r e v i o u s t h r e e chapters has been t h a t of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l needs and a r t i c u l a t i o n of r e g i o n a l problems. I t i s contended here t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g should i n v o l v e the promotion of r e g i o n a l i n i t i a t i v e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the problems r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n , and u l t i m a t e l y i n f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n s . During the days of the F e d e r a l Department of Urban and Regional Development a view o f t e n advocated was t h a t r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were seen t o be p o t e n t i a l l y capable of p r o v i d i n g a u s e f u l p u b l i c form f o r ex p r e s s i n g r e g i o n a l needs without i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h or l i m i t i n g 18 the f u n c t i o n s of any e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s , T h i s view has a l s o - 8 8 -been advocated by G e r t l e r w r i t i n g i n the Canadian c o n t e x t : . . . a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements t h a t make p o s s i b l e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the people of the r e g i o n , through adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n a l l phases of p l a n n i n g . I 9 F i g u r e 4.3 suggests the need f o r f i t t i n g a r e a l p e r c u l i a r i t i e s i n t o a broader r e g i o n a l context by the f o r m u l a t i o n of shared r e g i o n a l goals and o b j e c t i v e s . F e s l e r p r e s e n t s a st r o n g case i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: ...the humanistic view s t a r t s w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n as a p o i n t from which to g a i n sound p e r s p e c t i v e . I t i s on him t h a t a l l governmental a c t i v i t i e s c o n v erge. 2^ The p o i n t of convergence of the myriad of government a c t i v i t i e s i s the i n d i v i d u a l , and i t i s a t t h i s p o i n t of convergence t h a t they must make sense. They cannot make sense u n l e s s some form of f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n occurs r a t i o n a l l y based on r e g i o n a l needs. Regional p l a n n i n g cannot operate adequately un l e s s a mechanism e x i s t s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g r e g i o n a l needs and a r t i c u l a t i n g a r e a l problems. 2) Another very important p r i n c i p l e concerns the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s a r t i c u l a t e d a t the s t a t e or n a t i o n a l l e v e l , and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . The important d i s t i n c t i o n s between r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g were d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , and the need f o r c o n s i s t e n c y was foreshadowed. At t h i s p o i n t i t i s necessary to emphasize t h a t such c o n s i s t e n c y i s necessary f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g to succeed. One of G e r t l e r ' s c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s t h a t there needs t o e x i s t a State p o l i c y which i s aimed a t - 8 9 -c o - o r d i n a t i n g r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n the l i g h t of State wide requirements. T h i s i s o f t e n a vexed q u e s t i o n because t h i s i s a d i r e c t i n t e r f a c e between r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and p o l i t i c s . K u k l i n s k i r e c o g n i z e s t h a t one of the b a s i c weaknesses of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s i t s d e c i d e d l y low l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i o n 21 with r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s . I t seems t h a t there must a l s o be an i n c r e a s e d v e r t i c a l p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n between those of r e g i o n a l , s t a t e and n a t i o n a l s c a l e s . G i l l i n g w a t e r c o n c e p t u a l i z e s p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y making as being o v e r l a p p i n g subsets of the process of d e c i s i o n 22 making. His a n a l y s i s i s m o d i f i e d here t o e x p l a i n the type of p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n t h a t i s envisaged by t h i s p r i n c i p l e . F i g u r e 4.4 shows r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as o c c u r r i n g a t the i n t e r f a c e of p u b l i c p o l i c y making and p r i v a t e p o l i c y making. F i g u r e 4.4 c o l l a p s e s a l l l e v e l s of d e c i s i o n making i n t o one plane thereby e l i m i n a t i n g i t s t r u e v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The elements of the c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g process are shovP, and, i t i s c l e a r t h a t p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n must occur at the p o i n t of o v e r l a p between pl a n n i n g and p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p o l i c y making. At t h i s p o i n t p o l i c i e s t h a t are formulated w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g process must be c o - o r d i n a t e d with those of other s t a t e and r e g i o n a l p u b l i c bodies which possess d e c i s i o n making powers a f f e c t i n g the r e g i o n . At the same time r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s should attempt t o f u l f i l l any n a t i o n a l p o l i c y t h a t may have r e g i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y some account should be taken of p r i v a t e p o l i c y making i n a r e g i o n , because of the dynamic r o l e played by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n determining the growth o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t p r e v a i l . The p o l i c i e s used i n the - 9 0 -p l a n n i n g process t h e r e f o r e take i n t o account r e g i o n a l goals and o b j e c t i v e s as w e l l as other p u b l i c , and to some extent p r i v a t e p o l i c i e s . The flow of p o l i c y i n f o r m a t i o n between the p l a n n i n g process and the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p o l i c y subsets should n e c e s s a r i l y be a two-way flow. S i m i l a r l y as suggested e a r l i e r by G e r t l e r i t i s expected t h a t some d i r e c t account w i l l be taken of r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s when d e c i s i o n making occurs i n the other subsets. I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o v e r s i m p l i f i e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g the fundamental p r i n c i p l e t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g needs to f u l f i l l n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p o l i c y , needs t o be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h s t a t e r e g i o n a l p o l i c y , and should attempt a degree of c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . 3) The model i n F i g u r e 4.3 a l s o suggests t h a t t h e r e needs t o be a mechanism which ensures the c o - o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s . Two f a c t o r s are i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r i n c i p l e : the need to c o - o r d i n a t e p o l i c i e s a t the State l e v e l and the need to i n t e g r a t e programs a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The d i s t i n c t i o n s between these two l e v e l s of f u n c t i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n are q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . D i s t i n c t i o n s between p o l i c i e s and programs are rarel-y made i n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , p o l i c y f o r the most p a r t being synonymous wi t h 23 programs. T h i s i s c l e a r l y not the case. P o l i c i e s are o f t e n made i n the upper echelons of government wi t h very o f t e n l i t t l e i n p u t from lower l e v e l s . Programs on the other hand are t a n g i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of p o l i c y . They m a n i f e s t themselves and i n t e r a c t with each other not at the broad s t a t e or n a t i o n a l l e v e l , but r a t h e r a t the p o i n t of d e l i v e r y . I t has been p o s t u l a t e d t h a t because of the n e c e s s i t y f o r a r e c i p r o c a l adjustment of area and f u n c t i o n , the most a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l at which f u n c t i o n a l program i n t e g r a t i o n should occur i s the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , because i t i s a t t h i s l e v e l t h a t the d e l i v e r y 24 of s e r v i c e s begins to take on a meaningful p e r s p e c t i v e . These d i s t i n c t i o n s can simply be rep r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4 . 5 . Two types o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n are e v i d e n t ; v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l . V e r t i c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n r e f e r s to the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g process and the s t a t e p o l i c y making p r o c e s s . T h i s has a l r e a d y been d e a l t w i t h i n the p r e v i o u s p r i n c i p l e . L i t t l e has been s a i d however about the importance of h o r i z o n t a l p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n . As repr e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.5 Cabinet i s the supreme p o l i c y making body i n the pr e s e n t governmental s t r u c t u r e . I t both feeds and i s f e d i n f o r m a t i o n from the much broader departmental p o l i c y making s t r u c t u r e . Imperative here i s the need to e s t a b l i s h c l e a r channels of communication between those m i n i s t e r s as e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , and s e n i o r department b u r e a c r a t s , who are appointed. I t i s w i t h i n t h i s broad departmental s t r u c t u r e t h a t the p r i n c i p a l p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n among s t a t e bodies should occur. As suggested e a r l i e r p o l i c i e s of f u n c t i o n a l departments need to be based on a common s e t of go a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , which, i n aggregate, should be based on those a r t i c u l a t e d by the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The process however i s two-way; r e g i o n a l needs t r a n s l a t e d i n t o g o als and o b j e c t i v e s need t o be put i n t o s t a t e or n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s , and i n t u r n these contexts need to take these r e g i o n a l needs i n t o account. As the f i r s t s u b - c r i t e r i o n p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n must occur between State -94-bodies A,B,C, and so on. I t has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d t h a t the o p t i m a l l e v e l f o r , the i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l programs i s the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . 1 2 Programs A and A f o r i n s t a n c e r e p r e s e n t programs administered by State agency A. These programs may be e x p l i c i t l y r e g i o n a l or may be of a supra urban dimension, but n e v e r t h e l e s s p o s s e s s i n g some r e g i o n a l components. I t i s suggested here t h a t r e g i o n a l program i n t e g r a t i o n i s based on a commonality of goals and o b j e c t i v e s which are a l s o p a r t of the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Program i n t e g r a t i o n must be c a r r i e d out f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o succeed. The a b i l i t y to c o - o r d i n a t e and i n t e g r a t e f u n c t i o n s i s thus the t h i r d e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . 4) Regional p l a n n i n g must possess a s t a t u t o r y b a s i s . T h i s , however, does not mean t h a t i t should be " s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g " i n the negative and r e s t r i c t i v e sense t h a t has been attached to 25 the phrase i n NSW. Rather t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i m p l i e s t h a t a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n should possess some mandatory f u n c t i o n s as opposed to p u r e l y " a d v i s o r y " ones. I f an e f f e c t i v e r e g i o n a l p l a n i s to be c r e a t e d then i t i s necessary to possess the powers necessary to implement such a p l a n . Without mandatory d u t i e s there i s a danger of any r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h e r i n g from atrophy. Another r e l a t e d concern i s t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s a continuous process and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e should allow f o r a c e r t a i n amount of f l e x i b i l i t y to accomodate t h i s p r o c e s s . T h i s i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which i s common not j u s t to r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , but to p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l . Much of the c r i t i c i s m -95-t h a t was l e v e l l e d at s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g e a r l i e r i s based on i t s i n h e r e n t i n f l e x i b i l i t y . I t should s u f f i c e t o say a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t an e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s t h a t e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n should be g i v e n to i t s f l e x i b l e nature, and t h a t such f l e x i b i l i t y needs to be b u i l t i n -to r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' s s t a t u t o r y b a s i s . Although we do not i n t e n d to d i s c u s s the problems of d e f i n i n g boundaries of r e g i o n s i n any g r e a t d e t a i l , t here are two f u r t h e r important p r e c o n d i t i o n s which must be met b e f o r e s u c c e s s f u l p l a n n i n g c o u l d be undertaken i n any p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n : 5) The f i f t h concern a r i s e s d i r e c t l y out of the o p e r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l i s m . For e f f e c t i v e r e g i o n a l a g g r e g a t i o n of a r e a l p a r t i c u l a r i s i m s to take p l a c e , r e g i o n s must c o i n c i d e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e to the n a t u r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of phenomena wit h which governments must d e a l . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so i n NSW, where r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s have e x i s t e d f o r some 2 6 time. What i s perhaps of g r e a t e s t importance i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the c e n t r e of the r e g i o n where i n t r a r e g i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s are u s u a l l y focussed. P e r i p h e r a l areas of the regions tend to be shared with o t h e r s , however t h i s i s by no means an e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r t o the o p e r a t i o n of a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . 6) The s i x t h concern i s t h a t of the f i s c a l r e s o u r c e s of a r e g i o n to undertake a p l a n n i n g mandate. The q u e s t i o n of f i s c a l r esources w i l l depend a g r e a t d e a l on the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements t h a t c o u l d be pursued, as w e l l as on the extent of a r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s powers of program d e l i v e r y . - 9 6 -I t seems c l e a r however t h a t the degree of success t h a t can be expected from a m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n whose main mandate may be to r e s o l v e competing p r i o r i t i e s , w i l l depend to a g r e a t extent on i t s a b i l i t y t o remain independent of funding by any other l e v e l of government. Funds not r a i s e d i n a independent f a s h i o n tend t o have ' s t r i n g s a t t a c h e d 1 , which i n t u r n tend to c a s t d i s p e r s i o n s on the t r u e i m p a r t i a l i t y of the o p e r a t i o n s of the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I f the p r i n c i p l e of independence i s to be maintained then the r e g i o n must be of a s u f f i c i e n t s i z e to be able to a t t a i n a strong f i s c a l base. T h i s may i n c e r t a i n circumstances c o n f l i c t w i t h boundaries d e f i n e d through the p r i n c i p l e s of r e g i o n a l i s m , e s p e c i a l l y i n circumstances of widespread r e g i o n a l poverty or a low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . I f the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s to operate programs, then i t seems e s s e n t i a l t h a t i t w i l l need the a b i l i t y to r a i s e revenues. In t h i s chapter we have e s t a b l i s h e d the major hypothesis t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e through which to achieve the r e c i p r o c a l adjustment of f u n c t i o n and area. R e c i p r o c a l adjustment was c o n s i d e r e d as being s u p e r i o r to e i t h e r s t r u c t u r a l reform of f u n c t i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n . Six v i t a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g were i d e n t i f i e d f o r NSW: 1. - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g should be based upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l needs and the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a r e a l problems 2. - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g needs to f u l f i l l n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p o l i c y , needs to be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h s t a t e p o l i c y , and should attem-attempt a degree of c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r 3 . - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g should f a c i l i t a t e the c o - o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s . 4. - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must possess a s t a t u t o r y b a s i s on the one hand, and on the other, must remain f l e x i b l e 5 . - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e the process of r e g i o n a l i s m 6. - r e g i o n s should possess an adequate f i s c a l base upon which an i n s t i t u t i o n can c a r r y out i t s p l a n n i n g mandate. I t i s contended t h a t these p r i n c i p l e s are the c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g schemes i n NSW need t o be assessed. Under comperable circumstances these c r i t e r i a may have a wider a p p l i c a b i l i t y than to only the case i n NSW. Because r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e s s , the c r i t e r i a become i n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . The next chapter examines a proposed r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g system f o r NSW i n the l i g h t of these c r i t e r i a . -98-FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 4 "'"For i n s t a n c e , New South Wales, Report of the Committee of  I n q u i r y Into L o c a l Government Areas and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n New  South Wales (Sydney: New South Wales Government P r i n t e r , 197 4) r e c e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t e d the problems of l o c a l government areas and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n NSW, however, p l a n n i n g concerns were f o r the most p a r t i g n o r e d . See a l s o , J.M. Power and R.L. W e t t e n h a l l , "Regional Government Verses Regional Programs," A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 35 (June 1976). 2 T h i s has o n l y very r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d e x p l i c i t a t t e n t i o n i n p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . For example see J . Friedman and C. Weaver, T e r r i t o r y and F u n c t i o n : The E v o l u t i o n of the R e g i o n a l Planning  D o c t r i n e (Berkley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , September, 1977). 3 J.W. F e s l e r , TArea and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Birmingham: Un i v e r -s i t y of Alabama Pr e s s , 1949), p. 120. 4 /Administration i t s e l f can be c o n s i d e r e d a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n . L o c a l governments f o r i n s t a n c e p r o v i d e a form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , however they do not possess a v e r t i c a l h i e r a r c h y as do other f u n c t i o n s , so the f o l l o w i n g problems do not apply to such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . The problem of l o c a l government has been d e a l t with elsewhere. 5 For i n s t a n c e see, A u s t r a l i a , Parliament of the Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers No. 218/1974. H o s p i t a l s i n A u s t r a l i a , prepared by the H o s p i t a l s and Health S e r v i c e s Commission. ^J.M. Power and H. Nelson, eds., The Regional A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the R i v e r i n a , Canberra S e r i e s i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s I (Canberra: Canberra C o l l e g e of Advanced E d u c a t i o n , 1976). 7 See Appendix I I g F e s l e r , Area and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 121. i b i d . ^Power and W e t t e n h a l l , "Regional Government," p. 119. "''"''New South Wales, Report i n t o L o c a l Government, p. 27. 12 J T h i s appears to be the s i t u a t i o n i n the R i v e r i n a . L o c a l government does not seem to l i a s e w i t h the major s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y departments i n t h i s r e g i o n . 13 " F e s l e r , Area and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 125. " ^ E f f i c i e n c y and e q u i t y are used here i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sense. E f f i c i e n c y i s the m i n i m i z a t i o n of the time taken t o reach a d e c i s i o n or process an a p p l i c a t i o n . E q u i t y i s the maximization of i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f u s i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i o n . 15 D. G i l l i n g w a t e r , Regional P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l Change (Westmead: Saxon House, 1975; Lexington: Lexington Books, 1975) F e s l e r , d e s c r i b e s t h i s i n a g e n e r a l way on page 122, while Power and Nelson p r o v i d e evidence of t h i s i n t h e i r case s t u d i e s -99-i n the R i v e r i n a . 17 F e s l e r , Area and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 123. 18 R.B. Lansdown, "Two Years of Co-operative F e d e r a l i s m - The Urban and Regional E x p e r i e n c e , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 34 (March 1975). 19 L.O. G e r t l e r , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n Canada; A Planner's  Testament (Montreal: Harvest House, 1972), p. 46. 20 F e s l e r , Area and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 10. 21 A.R. K u k l i n s k i , C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and  Development (Mysore: I n s t i t u t e of Development S t u d i e s , 1971), p. 7. 22 G i l l i n g w a t e r , Regional P l a n n i n g , p. 9. 23 Both of these f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d as necessary p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e g i o n a l progress by A. Emanuel, "A Report on the New C i t i e s Programme and Urban and Regional Development P o l i c y i n A u s t r a l i a , " i n Urban and R e g i o n a l Development  Overseas Expert's Reports 1973. C i t i e s Commission, O c c a s s i o n a l Paper No. 1 (Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1974), p. 74. 24 Two f a c t o r s tend to make the i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l programs e a s i e r at t h i s l e v e l . F i r s t l y , r e g i o n a l needs i n r e l a t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s w i l l be aggregated to a l e v e l t h a t w i l l be u s e f u l t o the d e c i s i o n makers a t h i g h e r l e v e l s of government. The c o l l e c t i v e needs of about t e n r e g i o n s f o r i n s t a n c e , are much e a s i e r to s y n t h e s i z e i n the upper echelons of government than the i n d i v i d u a l needs of 223 l o c a l government areas. T h i s would make the h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s much e a s i e r as i t would i d e n t i f y a c e r t a i n commonality of o b e j c t i v e s towards which each f u n c t i o n would need to s t r i v e . The second f a c t o r would be t h a t v e r t i c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n would improve i n t h a t much more s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s c o u l d be o f f e r e d at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , and t h i s l e v e l would not s u f f e r as g r e a t l y from f u n c t i o n a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n at lower l e v e l s . 25 T h i s i s a l s o i m p l i e d i n New South Wales, New South Wales Planning and Environment Commission, Report t o the M i n i s t e r  f o r P l a n n i n g and Environment (Sydney: November, 1975), p. 36. 2 6 T.N. Cappie-Wood, "Regional Development Viewed From Sydney" P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 34 (March 1975): 77. -100-CHAPTER V PROPOSED REGIONAL PLANNING IN NSW: AN ANALYSIS OF APPLICABILITY The New Process i n General In November 197 5 the review of planning i n NSW that was required by Section 20(1) of the New South Wales Planning and Environment Commission Act, 1974, was completed by the PEC. The report was the t h i r d such report prepared, the previous two being discussion papers designed to e l i c i t public response and c r i t i c a l comment.1 As such there does e x i s t among the three reports a certain amount of evolution of ideas, however, since these three reports span only a period of a year, the learning process r e s u l t i n g from feedback from the discussion papers i s probably marginal. After consideration was given to the e x i s t i n g statutory planning system a set of major government objectives were arrived at, upon which the development of the new planning system i n NSW was to proceed. These were: a) to provide for p r a c t i c a l , economic and environmentally s a t i s f a c t o r y land use throughout the State, b) to provide a system which i s e a s i l y understood and expeditious i n i t s procedures, c) to seperate as far as possible Statewide, regional and l o c a l issues, d) to encourage the p o s i t i v e guiding rather than the r e s t r i c t i v e aspect of planning, to achieve p r a c t i c a l , economic and highly desirable land use, -101-e) to enable b e t t e r r e c o g n i t i o n of the s o c i a l , economic and environmental o b j e c t i v e s t o be achieved, f) to p r o v i d e f o r e x t e n s i v e d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y on l o c a l p l a n n i n g , 2 g) to f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c involvement. These o b j e c t i v e s r e f l e c t e d three main t h r u s t s of change t h a t were to be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the p l a n n i n g system. The f i r s t was the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p r e s e n t s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g had a very narrow range of concern and t h a t any new p l a n n i n g system should attempt t o i n c o r p o r a t e and s y n t h e s i z e the many d i v e r s e s o c i a l , economic and environmental f a c t o r s r e l e v a n t to each p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The second t h r u s t emerged from the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the new p l a n n i n g system should allow the community's needs and a s p i r a t i o n s t o be r e f l e c t e d i n p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s and i n a l l stages i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The t h i r d t h r u s t was aimed a t re d u c i n g the involvement of the St a t e p l a n n i n g body (the PEC) i n l o c a l p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t r e s u l t e d from the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g body should not become i n v o l v e d with l o c a l d e t a i l s , as t h i s had proven c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e under the pr e s e n t system. T h i s t h r u s t was probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t one i n terms of i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n because i t envisaged an in t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l of p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the State 3 and l o c a l l e v e l s . The composition and f u n c t i o n s of t h i s new l e v e l of p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s reviewed i n t h i s chapter. One of the s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s of the new system i s the somewhat l e s s than c l e a r nature of the p r o p o s a l s f o r p l a n n i n g at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . Some of the e v o l u t i o n a r y trends i n the -102-r e p o r t m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e v i d e n c e h e r e . The f i r s t t w o r e p o r t s b y t h e PEC make i t c l e a r t h a t t h r e e l e v e l s o f p l a n n i n g w o u l d b e i n v o l v e d i n t h e new s y s t e m , a s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e p r e s e n t t w o t i e r S t a t e - l o c a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s t h r e e t i e r s y s t e m i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 5.1 i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e o f a h i e r a r c h y o f p l a n s f o r a c o a s t a l r e g i o n . H o w e v e r b y t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i t h a d b e e n c o n c l u d e d t h a t : i t i s no l o n g e r p r a c t i c a l t o r e g a r d , e v e n t h e o r e t i c a l l y , S t a t e a n d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a s t w o s e p e r a t e p r o c e s s e s . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , a n d a s p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r b y F e s l e r , i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , t h e p a r t s c a n n o t be d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e w h o l e . The r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r t h i s made b y t h e PEC w a s , t h a t i n t h e p a s t , w h a t p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s h a v e e x i s t e d o u t s i d e t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s h a v e b e e n p o l i c i e s e n u n c i a t e d b y d i v e r s e S t a t e d e p a r t m e n t s . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t S t a t e p o l i c i e s w e r e s o i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o r e g i o n a l p l a n s t h a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was n o t a p p r o p r i a t e e v e n t h o u g h v e r y l i t t l e e x p l i c i t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was u n d e r t a k e n b y S t a t e d e p a r t m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . The s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m w a s t e m p e r e d b y t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e p a s t , a n d n o t b y a r e a l i z a t i o n o f w h a t t h e c r u x o f t h e p r o b l e m w a s : t h e n e e d t o a c h i e v e f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n a n d a r e a l r e f o r m . A s a r e s u l t t h e f i n a l r e p o r t a d v o c a t e d t w o l e v e l s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n s : t h e l o c a l l e v e l , i n v o l v i n g t h e l o c a l d e t a i l e d a n d l o c a l s t r u c t u r e p l a n s ; a n d t h e S t a t e a n d r e g i o n a l l e v e l , i n v o l v i n g S t a t e s t r a t e g i e s a n d -103-"FteliKE 5-1 - Wlo^taGHY OF-FVArss. CE>«AMPUE: O « - P L A N M W M G - F O R ~fHei STATE Divide State into environmental zones (e.g. coastal, urban, taNelancfe, etc) State map ) Definition of policy (to preserve the natural coastal environment, to aJlow for recreation use etc) Establish master programme including : - economic development (location of industries, transport, tourist facilities, - public access design - circulation systems - recreation - land use planning - conservation objectives - cultural or historical elements % - restoration of environment c REGIONAL Subdivide natural environments, e.g. beaches, peninsulas, spits, bars, dunes, estuaries, swamps, lakes, water caves, flood plains D C Coastal map (broad rather than cadastral) Survey and assessment of resources and natural environment D C ) Definition of policies and guidelines, e.g. criteria for sand removal, restriction of building on flood plains Environmental Plans ^ LOCAL ^ Definition of land use zones, e.g. rural, residential, foreshore protection 3 C Definition of policies and guidelines for land usee : - o-jricullure (uses and practices) - oyster farming, fishing - forest monaoemont - comrrvMcial development - special developments, e.g. marinas - rniniwi - odvortising structures - residential dovolopnAiit - utility sorvievs - parks, foreshore protection - wuste disposal - historical 3<toa - lacreation site u Local Zoning plan (cadastral) Local Plan report (including objectives, regulations and guidelines) S o u r c e i r r o p o s a l s f o r a New Env i ronmenta l P l a n n i n g System -104-r e g i o n a l plans and p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s . T h i s h i e r a r c h y i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 5.2, and the d i f f e r e n t types of plans are shown i n F i g u r e 5 . 3 . A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the l o c a l l e v e l w i l l precede more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s of the r e g i o n a l and State l e v e l s . The L o c a l Elements The l o c a l d e t a i l e d p l a n i s intended to i l l u s t r a t e the way i n which the p a r t s of the l o c a l area may be developed i n d e t a i l w i t h i n the framework s e t down i n the l o c a l s t r u c t u r e p l a n . I t s primary f u n c t i o n i s to guide and c o n t r o l development and to imbue the p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s adopted by the l o c a l c o u n c i l 5 with a c o n s i s t e n c y . The main area i n which i t d i f f e r s from the p r e s e n t scheme i s t h a t i t g i v e s the l o c a l C o u n c i l t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r e p a r i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g the p l a n at t h i s l e v e l . L i k e the p r e s e n t system however, the major instrument by which i t was to achieve i t s o b j e c t i v e s was zoning. The l o c a l s t r u c t u r e p l a n p r o v i d e s the b a s i c s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e of a sub-region or town. I t i s a statement showing f o r an urban area only the major elements, such as the l o c a t i o n of the town c e n t r e , the major i n d u s t r i a l c ore, the d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l areas and l a r g e shopping c e n t r e s . ^ I t i s once again very much p h y s i c a l l y o r i e n t e d , i s prepared by the l o c a l C o u n c i l , and i s s u b j e c t to c e r t i f i c a t i o n procedures by the PEC. The s t a t e d purpose of such plans are t o : a) g i v e a guide to the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic development of the area; SOURCE : PtHSRT TO THt KrllSTER <=OR r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e p l a n (covers the region Into which local structure f plon fits.and Includes elements such as expressways, railways etc. major conservation areas.) l o c a l s t r u c t u r e p l o n (defines the major elements In the area.) l o c a l d e t a i l e d p l a n s •••Hlil i - ^ T J B (prepared Independently as required for areas fl.B.C.D s E.) TYPES O F G f l V I R O n m e n T f l L PLfiflS /»*V* D P L A N N I N G -107-b) d e f i n e aspects of the environment t o be p r o t e c t e d and the p e r m i s s i b l e uses t o which land c o u l d be put; c) p r o v i d e a means of r e q u i r i n g governmental agencies t o co - o r d i n a t e t h e i r proposed a c t i o n s and thereby f u l f i l l the o b j e c t i v e s of the l o c a l c o u n c i l and of r e g i o n a l p l a n s ; d) p r o v i d e the l o c a l c o u n c i l w i t h a management t o o l f o r f u t u r e p l a n n i n g and a framework f o r i t s l o c a l d e t a i l e d , 7 p l a n s . Once again the s t r u c t u r e p l a n would show the p r e c i s e zonings r e l a t e d t o i d e n t i f i a b l e land areas and i s t h e r e f o r e s i m i l a r t o g the i n t e r i m development orders a l r e a d y i n use i n NSW. The Regional Elements The PEC e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r p l a n n i n g to be c a r r i e d out a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l : The r e g i o n a l l e v e l i s most s u i t e d t o environmental p l a n n i n g as New South Wales i s too l a r g e f o r the s e n s i t i v e surveys and assessments needed. L o c a l government areas are too smal l and t h e r e f o r e r a r e l y correspond w i t h concepts of environmental systems. The d e f i n i t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g however i s f a i r l y c r i t i c a l because, as s t a t e d i n Chapter 1, there are many d e f i n i t i o n s of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and the d e f i n i t i o n adopted w i l l determine i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . Regional p l a n n i n g or r e g i o n a l environmental planning"*" 0 has been e f i n e d by the PEC as: -108-...the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f , and the conscious management and development o f , n a t u r a l and man-made res o u r c e s of a r e g i o n , and the development of i t s i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e , so as to achieve e q u i t y , (improved) economic o p p o r t u n i t y , (greater) e f f i c i e n c y , and (an improved) q u a l i t y of l i f e . ( I t i s concerned) with the proper balance between development needs f o r the presen t g e n e r a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l and man-made as s e t s of (the) environment f o r the b e n e f i t of f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . H T h i s d e f i n i t i o n v a r i e s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the one we developed e a r l i e r as i t i s more s u b s t a n t i v e than p r o c e d u r a l , i n t r o d u c i n g the broad goals of e q u i t y , o p p o r t u n i t y , e f f i c i e n c y and q u a l i t y of l i f e , and vague n o t i o n s of d e a l i n g with n a t u r a l and man made r e s o u r c e s . P l a n n i n g i s seen as being g o a l o r i e n t e d and p r o c e d u r a l l y endowed with the techniques of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , management and development. The PEC has been w e l l aware of the n e c e s s i t y t o broaden i t s p r e v i o u s l y i m p l i e d narrow n o t i o n s of p l a n n i n g , and th a t the p h y s i c a l aspects of p l a n n i n g should not be t r e a t e d 12 s e p e r a t e l y from the s o c i a l , economic and environmental. However i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n must be t r e a t e d with some s c e p t i c i s m at t h i s stage, e s p e c i a l l y i n the l i g h t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to more d e t a i l e d goals and o b j e c t i v e s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h a t are s t a t e d i n the F i n a l Report. In summary these are: a) guidance on p o p u l a t i o n and economic a c t i v i t y f o r growth and change, and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the St a t e ; b) development and/or c o n s e r v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land and other n a t u r a l and man-made resources by r e s e r v a t i o n , zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l ; c) development and p r o t e c t i o n of the e s s e n t i a l elements of the -109-State and r e g i o n a l communications and u t i l i t i e s network; d) zoning of land f o r St a t e and r e g i o n a l p u b l i c and community purposes such as educa t i o n h e a l t h , roads, r a i l w a y s and open space; e) programming the p r o v i s i o n of r e g i o n a l community f a c i l i t i e s ( h o s p i t a l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , etc.) and f o r the c o - o r d i n a t i o n 13 of Government p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n a f f e c t i n g them, b) and d) appear t o d e s c r i b e some of the p r o c e d u r a l elements of the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g scheme, which, once again are p e r c e i v e d i n terms of p h y s i c a l land use p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l . a ) , c) and e) imply t h a t there has been at l e a s t some cu r s o r y r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t c o - o r d i n a t i o n may be a pre-eminent f u n c t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . On the whole however, these goals and o b j e c t i v e s do not f u l l y r e f l e c t the PEC's c l a i m of a broadenend view of p l a n n i n g . A b r i e f look at the a c t u a l p l a n making process w i l l f u r t h e r c l a r i f y what the scheme i n v o l v e d . Regional plans would comprise environmental p l a n n i n g p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s , p o l i c y advice and r e g i o n a l or s u b - r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e p l a n s . I t i s obvious t h a t such p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s and advice would s t i l l be concerned w i t h p h y s i c a l land use p l a n n i n g : Such d i r e c t i o n s would be mandatory documents t h a t the l o c a l c o u n c i l s would have to f o l l o w before approving any development a p p l i c a t i o n . These d i r e c t i o n s should be accompanied p r o g r e s s i v e l y by p o l i c y advice p u b l i s h e d by the Commission f o r each r e g i o n . T h i s advice should be taken i n t o account by the l o c a l c o u n c i l s i n the r e g i o n concerned be f o r e they e x e r c i s e t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers on l o c a l p l ans and development a p p l i c a t i o n s . 1 4 -110-C l e a r l y , q u i t e a r i g i d , s t a t u t o r y framework was envisaged, o b v i o u s l y s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the r i g i d i t i e s of the present s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g system. F i g u r e 5.4 shows the procedure t h a t would be i n v o l v e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n s . F u r t h e r comment w i l l be pr o v i d e d when the i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n , but, at present the f o l l o w i n g should be noted. I n t e r i m p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s by the PEC would p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and would p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t e x i s t i n g State p o l i c i e s t h a t are al r e a d y i n f o r c e through l o c a l p l a n n i n g schemes and o r d e r s . Two obvious problems can be a s c e r t a i n e d here. F i r s t l y , because of the h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d nature of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of many v i t a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y those r e l a t i n g t o s e r v i c e s , (eg. h e a l t h , h o s p i t a l s , w e l f a r e , e d u c a t i o n , etc.) not many p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s e x i s t or have e x i s t e d i n the past a t the l o c a l l e v e l . The system has tended t o be one of c e n t r a l agency approvals f o r l o c a l matters. D e c i s i o n making i n many f u n c t i o n s has not been devolved t o lower l e v e l s , and t h i s has h a r d l y been conducive t o l o c a l p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s . Secondly, what r e g i o n -a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s do e x i s t , are f o r the most p a r t unco-ordinated and u n i n t e g r a t e d , and do not appear to operate towards c l e a r l y d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e s . Moreover, they are not n e c e s s a r i l y s p a t i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d e i t h e r . A r r i v i n g a t some i n t e r i m p o l i c y f o r each r e g i o n under these circumstances would indeed be d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e . The remainder of the plan-making process i s one i n v o l v i n g s o l i c i t i n g p u b l i c views, e x h i b i t i o n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of - I l l --112-o b j e c t i v e s from p u b l i c agencies and p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s and o b t a i n i n g necessary approvals from the PEC and i t s M i n i s t e r - a l l remarkably s i m i l a r t o the p r e s e n t procedure f o r the 15 p r e p a r a t i o n and p r e s c r i p t i o n of p l a n n i n g schemes. The f a c t t h a t the end product of the p l a n n i n g process was something t h a t c o u l d be permanantly e x h i b i t e d , tends to i n d i c a t e t h a t land use p l a n n i n g was very much i n the back of the PEC's minds. The broadened view of the nature of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o u l d be more a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning to the PEC: land use p l a n n i n g c o g nizant of economic, s o c i a l and environmental i m p l i c a t i o n s . Economic, s o c i a l and environmental matters were 16 regarded as being the s u b j e c t of a survey, r a t h e r than f a c t o r s which had to be planned f o r , and a n t i c i p a t e d . The A p p l i c a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n a l C r i t e r i a The g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g system has been d e s c r i b e d above, some ge n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s have been o f f e r e d about the nature of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as envisaged by the PEC, and now the p r o p o s a l s w i l l be examined i n more d e t a i l i n the l i g h t of the c r i t e r i a developed i n Chapter 4. 1) r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g should be based upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l needs and a r t i c u l a t i o n of r e g i o n a l problems. I t i s contended here t h a t a mechanism must e x i s t f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such needs and problems and without such a mechanism, r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g does not operate e f f e c t i v e l y or at a l l . I t i s reasonable to expect as i t f o l l o w s from our model of r e g i o n a l i s m t h a t r e g i o n a l needs would f i r s t have to be a r t i c u l a t e d by the 17 community at l a r g e . T h i s i s l o g i c a l i f one accepts the -113-premise t h a t a l l government a c t i v i t i e s focus on the i n d i v i d u a l , and t h a t a c o l l e c t i v e r e g i o n a l consciousness i s made up from the sum of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s . T h i s aspect becomes even more c r i t i c a l g i v e n the p a u c i t y of knowledge t h a t e x i s t s i n NSW on r e g i o n a l needs and problems. The groups t h a t have t r a d i t i o n -a l l y had most access to such knowledge; the community at l a r g e , the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , and State and F e d e r a l f i e l d o f f i c e s t a f f , have not been i n a p o s i t i o n to a r t i c u l a t e these needs i n p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g terms. The community u s u a l l y has very r e s t r i c t e d channels through which to a r t i c u l a t e needs. Often, the o n l y recourse i s through e l e c t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to l o c a l government, who, because of t h e i r mandates are only able to d e a l with l i m i t e d aspects of community needs. The f i e l d o f f i c e s t a f f of f u n c t i o n a l departments may i n some cases have adequate knowledge of r e g i o n a l needs, however, they are a l s o r e s t r i c t e d by clouded channels of communication and l a c k of mechanisms to t r a n s l a t e these needs i n t o p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g terms. Unworkable pas t s c e n a r i o s such as these i n d i c a t e t h a t a 'bottom-up' approach to the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of r e g i o n a l needs i s e s s e n t i a l . I n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d to t h i s mechanism i s the nature of the i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t i s g i v e n the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g mandate. For i n s t a n c e the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n may employ an a d v i s o r y s t r u c t u r e (where advice i s s o l i c i t e d from sub-committees 18 or i n t e r e s t groups) or a c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e (where p o l i c i e s and plans are prepared i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h such groups). Each s t r u c t u r e has d i f f e r i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n s a b i l i t y to a r t i c u l a t e r e g i o n a l needs and problems. In a d d i t i o n i n absence of a t r u l y r e g i o n a l l e v e l of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , an -114^ i n s t i t u t i o n s a b i l i t y to a r t i c u l a t e w i l l vary w i t h the l e v e l a t which the r e g i o n a l plans are being prepared; f o r i n s t a n c e whether they are being prepared by a group of l o c a l government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a more c e n t r a l i z e d l e v e l of government. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the PEC has not recommended the c r e a t i o n of a new l e v e l of government at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l t o which the f u n c t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g would be d e l e g a t e d . Instead a r a t h e r 'top-down' s t r u c t u r e i s envisaged, and i s d e s c r i b e d i n the F i n a l Report i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: Regional o f f i c e s of the Commission would prepare and update the r e g i o n a l element i n the environmental p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s , advice and p l a n s . They would be a s s i s t e d by t h e i r government s e c t o r r e g i o n a l p o l i c y committee. There would be formal c o n s u l t a t i o n i n each r e g i o n with a l l State departments, w i t h ah a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a d v i s o r y committee, a l l l o c a l c o u n c i l s , and the g e n e r a l community about the o b j e c t i v e s , as w e l l as the content of such p l a n s . The M i n i s t e r would have the power to approve the r e g i o n a l environmental p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s , advice and p l a n s . They would have t o conform w i t h the S t a t e ^ p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s f o r environmental p l a n n i n g . The emphasis i s on f i t t i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t o S tate p o l i c i e s and d i r e c t i v e s , which are to be prepared i n advance of any s i g n i f i c a n t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Regional needs are to be inputed i n t o the process a t two l e v e l s . The f i r s t l e v e l i s where r e g i o n a l plans are formulated i n the process used by the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s of the PEC, and the second l e v e l i s i n the higher echelons where "c o - o r d i n a t e d State p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s " f o r environmental p l a n n i n g are c a r r i e d out. In order to help e x p l a i n the s t r u c t u r e r e l a t e d t o the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n t h a t i s envisaged, Table 5.1 has been compiled -115-Table 5.1 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Input i n PEC D e c i s i o n Making S t r u c t u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n REGIONAL PLANNING a d v i =;nry groups g . s . r . p . c . C o u n c i l s R.A.C. R.P.C. (2) Community cn rt Ui rt CD o o H 3 O 3 H i c fD CO H- CO rt H-<^ 0 £U I—1 STATE POLICIES g . s . p. c . sub n.r. s . cl. i . r . d . i . c . C > ci a C • p . r . c . Key: g . s . r . p . c . - government s e c t o r r e g i o n a l p o l i c y committee R.A.C. - r e g i o n a l a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l ( c o n s t i t u -ted under R e g i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n A c t , 1972) R.P.C. - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g committee ( c o n s t i t u t e d under S t a t e P l a n n i n g A u t h o r i t y A c t , 1963; Hunter and I l l a w a r r a r e g i o n s only) g.s.p.c. - government s e c t o r p o l i c y committee n.r. - n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s group sub-committee s.d. - s o c i a l development group sub-committee i . r . - i n d u s t r i a l r e s o u r c e s group sub-committee d . i . c . - development i n d u s t r y committee c.a.c. - c o n s e r v a t i o n a d v i s o r y committee p . r . c . - p l a n n i n g review committee - d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ^ S, - i n d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n -116-from the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n the F i n a l Report and elsewhere. I t i s a matrix which d e s c r i b e s the areas i n which State a u t h o r i t i e s , l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , the community and p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s have i n p u t i n t o the a d v i s o r y or d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e employed by the PEC. T h i s i s done f o r both the r e g i o n a l and State l e v e l , and g i v e s a p r e l i m i n a r y i n d i c a t i o n of the types of i n p u t envisaged by the PEC. The PEC has e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r "community p a r t i c i p a t i o n " i n the new p l a n n i n g system: The Commission b e l i e v e s g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s should be g i v e n t o the g e n e r a l community to i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s on environmental p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s . . . T h i s can bes t be done...by g i v i n g r e a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the formal procedures f o r environmental p l a n n i n g , complemented by the continuous m o n i t o r i n g of the views of a l l groups i n the community ...The i n d i v i d u a l who l i v e s i n an area i s q u i t e l i k e l y to have a v a l u a b l e o p i n i o n about the needs and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of t h a t area, hence the n e c e s s i t y f o r harness i n g such o p i n i o n s d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of l o c a l p l a n s , and f o r seeking the views of those concerned, when r e g i o n a l plans are being prepared f o r a s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t y . The community p r o v i d e s i n p u t d i r e c t l y through two ad v i s o r y bodies; the presen t Regional A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s on which they are re p r e s e n t e d , and through a p r o v i s i o n f o r s o l i c i t i n g suggestions d i r e c t l y from the p u b l i c . A t h i r d , l e s s d i r e c t channel e x i s t s through the l o c a l c o u n c i l s a l s o a c t i n g as a d v i s o r y b o d i e s . A c l o s e r examination of the nature of t h i s i n p u t i s needed to make a p r e l i m i n a r y assessment of i t s worth. F i r s t l y , i t i s obvious from F i g u r e 5,4 t h a t the 'community' w i l l not be i n v o l v e d i n the main stream of the p l a n making process (represented by the dark s q u a r e s ) . A f t e r the -117-f o r m u l a t i o n of interm p o l i c i e s , the p u b l i c w i l l be ' i n v i t e d ' t o p r o v i d e "suggestions i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of any r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s or s t r a t e g i e s " . There are two aspects of p u b l i c involvement t h a t are contained i n the PEC's p r o p o s a l s ; p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and 21 p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The techniques t h a t the PEC proposes f o r a c h i e v i n g community involvement are b i a s e d towards p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n procedures and tend t o c o n c e n t r a t e on techniques to reduce the p u b l i c ' s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h understanding plans 22 and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . They i n c l u d e f o r example, p l a n n i n g s t a f f a v a i l a b i l i t y , n e w s l e t t e r s , p u b l i c meetings, d i s p l a y s , mobile e x h i b i t i o n s and so on. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s seen as i m p l y i n g 23 the i n f l u e n c i n g of d e c i s i o n making. In the PEC scheme ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l i s a t t a i n e d through the canvassing of p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n response to the r e s u l t s of the p l a n n i n g process c a r r i e d out by the r e g i o n a l and State o f f i c e s of the PEC. P u b l i c involvement i s e s s e n t i a l l y equated w i t h the p u b l i c comment and i n such a s i t u a t i o n c o n s u l t a t i o n i s almost absent. The n e c e s s i t y f o r p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and involvement as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the p l a n n i n g process i s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s t h e s i s as being of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance, e s p e c i a l l y i n the l i g h t of the PEC not being d i r e c t l y accountable to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , as are f o r i n s t a n c e l o c a l C o u n c i l s . However i n the l i g h t of the problems t h a t were d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3, and the i n t e n t i o n of the c r i t e r i a developed i n Chapter 4, p u b l i c involvement of t h i s nature cannot g i v e a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the problems and needs of a r e g i o n . S e v e r a l reasons e x i s t f o r -118-t h i s . F i r s t l y , plans which can be exhibited stress land use aspects and say nothing about the provision of services or other factors (even though some space may Be allocated to them on the plan). Responses to land use plans w i l l be e n t i r e l y conditioned by the physical r e a l i t y of those plans and therefore w i l l be responses to the concepts contained within them. Secondly, responses are l i k e l y to be non-representative of the community fe e l i n g because a large majority of responses w i l l come from other people either adversely affected by the proposed scheme or those who have a l o t at stake i n i t s implementation. It i s necessary therefore to broaden the d e f i n i t i o n of community 'parti c i p a t i o n ' i n the l i g h t of the r e a l i t i e s facing planning i n New South Wales. A mechanism should be created where public involvement i s part of the mainstream of the planning process. In the f i r s t instance such a mechanism should f a c i l i t a t e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of generic regional problems and needs. Within t h i s process the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of goals and objectives w i l l begin to emerge as a basis upon which a planning process i s b u i l t , and towards which the regional planning function must aspire. This most fundamental point i s lacking i n the present proposal, and should be the basis of a new planning system. In contrast the f i r s t step as recommended by the Commission i s the following ed i c t : "A regional environment-a l investigation and analysis s h a l l be carried out by the 24 Commission." As the f i r s t step of the regional planning process t h i s statement rings somewhat hollow. Community input i s also provided through the intended . 2 5 involvement of the Regional Advisory Council. At present, -119-t h i s body seems the most a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n through which t r u l y r e g i o n a l needs and a s p i r a t i o n s may be a r t i c u l a t e d . However, as noted i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter these o r g a n i z a t i o n s appear to be f a i r l y low p r o f i l e at p r e s e n t . In a d d i t i o n t h e i r r o l e would need to be r a t i o n a l i z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the PEC and the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i n g e n e r a l . In the p r o p o s a l as represented i n F i g u r e 5.4, i t i s envisaged t h a t t h e i r i n p u t w i l l be much along the same l i n e s as t h a t of the community, except t h a t t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n would h o p e f u l l y r e f l e c t a more r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Some of the problems of l o c a l government involvement at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s . Most of these impinge on the a b i l i t y of l o c a l government to a t t a i n a t r u l y r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e even though i t i s commonly argued t h a t l o c a l government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are a l r e a d y " f u l l y aware of p u b l i c sentiment and wishes." I t i s contended here t h a t the p o l i t i c o - i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l o c a l government pr e c l u d e any one of them having a r e g i o n a l outlook. F i r s t l y , the C o u n c i l s are composed of aldermen who are i n the m a j o r i t y l o c a l businessmen or p r o f e s s i o n a l people with 27 s t r i c t p a r o c h i a l i n t e r e s t s . Secondly the f u n c t i o n s performed by l o c a l governments are so l i m i t e d i n NSW t h a t many community needs may f a l l o u t s i d e of these f u n c t i o n s and hence o u t s i d e of the j u r i s d i c t i o n of l o c a l governments. L o c a l governments cannot be expected to a r t i c u l a t e those needs under these circumstances. 2) r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g needs to f u l f i l l n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p o l i c y , needs to be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h s t a t e p o l i c y , and should attempt  a degree of c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . One of the -120-s t r o n g e s t p o i n t s t o be made f o r the proposed p l a n n i n g scheme i s i t s e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of i n t e g r a t i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g with State p o l i c i e s . I t has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d t h a t the PEC takes the view t h a t State p o l i c y making and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g are a l l one i n the same p r o c e s s , and t h e r e f o r e g r e a t emphasis i s p l a c e d on t h i s i n the scheme. I n i t i a l l y p l a n n i n g i s going to be based on the i n t e r i m p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s prepared by the PEC, these r e f l e c t e x i s t i n g State p o l i c i e s . B u i l t i n t o the mainstream of the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g process i s the Government Sector Regional P o l i c y Committee, through which the c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s of State agencies w i l l take p l a c e . The success of t h i s attempt w i l l hinge on three f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , S t ate p o l i c i e s t h a t can be i n t e r p r e t e d on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l must e x i s t . The assumption t h a t S t a t e p o l i c i e s e x i s t a t presen t i n a l l f u n c t i o n a l areas i s d o u b t f u l . P o l i c i e s need to be capable of l o c a l / r e g i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and need t o be e x p l i c i t . S tate p o l i c i e s t h a t are not c l e a r and unambiguous w i l l o f t e n l e a d to g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s when attempting to p l a n at lower l e v e l s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so when the powers of d e c i s i o n making and implementation are i s o l a t e d from the i n s t i t u t i o n p r e p a r i n g the r e g i o n a l p l a n . Secondly, the l i n e s of communication between those a r t i c u l a t i n g p o l i c y at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , and those making p o l i c y a t the State l e v e l , should be c l e a r . Much w i l l depend on the l e v e l of pe r s o n n e l t h a t s t a f f the government s e c t o r r e g i o n a l p o l i c y committee. They should be d e c e n t r a l i z e d enough to be able t o understand r e g i o n a l concerns, but c e n t r a l i z e d enough t o be able to -121-accurately disseminate State p o l i c i e s . Thirdly, i t i s important that the s p e c i f i c objectives for regional planning aspire to the goals upon which the State p o l i c i e s are based. This w i l l depend upon the mechanisms for a r t i c u l a t i n g regional needs (discussed previously) and the mechanisms for achieving functional co-ordination and integration. The PEC proposal has the poten t i a l to meet t h i s c r i t e r i o n , however, once the system i s operationalized i t s success at the State l e v e l w i l l depend very much on the above mentioned factors. National p o l i c i e s on the other hand pose a d i f f e r e n t set of problems, as region s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s are not widely employed by the Federal government, however sector s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s such as t a r i f f s and income support schemes for instance do have quite s i g n i f i c a n t regional impacts, often accompanied by far reaching implications for regional planning. Non-metropolitan regions of NSW are p a r t i c u l a r l y susceptible to such Federal government a c t i v i t y as most have either a r u r a l or a mining base. Prior to the Labor Government elec t i o n i n 1972 not much attention had been given to t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k , because, i n terms of p o l i t i c a l administration, t h i s l i n k did not exis t i n the federal structure of government. Likewise the i n s t i t u t i o n a l implications of accomodating Federal p o l i c i e s i n a regional planning scheme have not been considered by the PEC. They do however concede that i t i s es s e n t i a l that Federal p o l i c i e s and advice are fed into the planning process i f planning i s to be e f f e c t i v e . A continuing mechanism through which th i s could be achieved i s not sp e c i f i e d , however, and ad hoc bodies for special purposes such as growth centres are ci t e d - 1 2 2 -2 8 as examples of pr e v i o u s p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n . However, there s t i l l remains the f e a r t h a t d i r e c t involvement by the F e d e r a l government i n l o c a l and r e g i o n a l i s s u e s must le a d i n e v i t a b l y t o 29 an o v e r l a p p i n g and m i s d i r e c t i o n of r e s o u r c e s . P r i v a t e s e c t o r p l a n n i n g has not been g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the PEC F i n a l Report. There i s a p r o v i s i o n f o r a development i n d u s t r y committee at the State l e v e l , however i t s f u n c t i o n s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not s p e c i f i e d . I t i s expected t h a t i t would c o n s i s t of some r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Department of D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Development, and would oversee g e n e r a l State development s t r a t e g i e s . Of even more fundamental importa-nce would be the need t o p r o v i d e a mechanism a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l through which p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d be achieved. Many NSW r e g i o n s are s u b j e c t t o the whims of s i n g l e s e c t o r i n d u s t r i e s and some r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s would be mutually b e n e f i c i a l i n the long run. The p r i v a t e s e c t o r would b e n e f i t from, and c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o , any improvement i n the standard of economic w e l f a r e i n a g i v e n r e g i o n , brought about, f o r i n s t a n c e , by r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g of s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n . In a d d i t i o n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r has a v i t a l r o l e to p l a y i n the p r o v i s i o n of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g cannot hope to e f f e c t i v e l y t a c k l e t h i s problem without t h e i r involvement. In r e a l i t y however t h i s i s e a s i e r s a i d than done, and, f o r the most p a r t , the p r o p o s a l s have 30 shyed away from such important q u e s t i o n s . 3) r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g should f a c i l i t a t e the c o - o r d i n a t i o n and  i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s . Two l e v e l s can be assessed here; the -123-attempt t o c o - o r d i n a t e p o l i c i e s a t the State l e v e l and the attempt to i n t e g r a t e programs at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The PEC i s p o t e n t i a l l y i n an e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s c r i t e r i o n because i t s s t r u c t u r e allows i t to p l a y a c o - o r d i n a t i n g r o l e at both State and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s . The need f o r 31 c o - o r d i n a t i o n has been s t r e s s e d by the p u b l i c i n the past s i n c e i t i s upon them t h a t the myriad of government a c t i v i t i e s converge. The PEC has p e r c e i v e d the need f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n and has r e a l i z e d i t s p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h a t area: As the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g body f o r New South Wales, the Commission has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g the p o l i c i e s of State Government Departments and i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s concerned w i t h environmental p l a n n i n g and resource management i n the St a t e and r e g i o n a l context; c o - o r d i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to environmental p l a n n i n g by other governmental departments a t the State and Regional l e v e l ; and i n t e g r a t i n g land use p l a n n i n g with p r e s e n t and p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n s 3 2 and p o l i c i e s on t r a n s p o r t and other p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . The proposed techniques of c o - o r d i n a t i o n are probably the best documented mechanisms of the whole scheme. There are two procedures which allow the PEC to e x e r c i s e i t s c o - o r d i n a t i n g r o l e . These are concurrence and c o n s u l t a t i o n . Concurrence i s a 'top-down' technique and i n the past has been concerned wi t h approvals by State government agencies over areas of s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g importance, such as p r o p e r t i e s f r o n t i n g main 3 3 roads f o r i n s t a n c e . ' As a technique f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n at the State l e v e l t h i s procedure i s very weak. Concurrence does not le a d to c o - o r d i n a t i o n , as i t s t i l l maintains the s t a t u s quo i n terms of independent f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . I t has been the n e c e s s i t y f o r concurrence under the system of s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g -124-t h a t has hamstrung the PEC' s predecessor through having to pay-a t t e n t i o n to e x c e s s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l . In the pr e s e n t p r o p o s a l i t i s expected to devolve these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to lower l e v e l s . The second technique, t h a t of c o n s u l t a t i o n i s expected to be the main one to achieve c o - o r d i n a t i o n a t the State l e v e l i n the PEC scheme. The main v e h i c l e through which t h i s i s expected t o be achieved i s the Government Sector P o l i c y Committee whose main f u n c t i o n i s envisaged as the " c o - o r d i n a t i o n of departmental, s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y and l o c a l government p o l i c i e s and programs to ensure maximum support f o r plans and o b j e c t i v e s . " The remaining f u n c t i o n s of t h i s Committee would 34 be a d v i s o r y . The f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r e i s proposed: Departmental members of the Committee d e s i r a b l y should be departmental heads or deputy heads. They should be drawn from f o u r or f i v e groups of departments c o - o r d i n a t e d by the new Cabinet Sub-Committee s t r u c t u r e , together w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of l o c a l government. Membership from the four groups should be as f o l l o w s : POLICIES AND PRIORITIES GROUP" The Treasury NATURAL RESOURCES GROUP State P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Commission Department of L o c a l Government Valuer-General Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Department of D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Development INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES GROUP M e t r o p o l i t a n Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board proposed Water Resources Commission P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t Commission State Roads A u t h o r i t y Department of Mines SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Department of Education Housing Commission Health Commission LOCAL GOVERNMENT L o c a l Government A s s o c i a t i o n S h i r e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n -M e t r o p o l i t a n Sydney (2 s i t t i n g members of l o c a l c o u n c i l s ) " -125-In a d d i t i o n i t i s envisaged t h a t sub-committees should be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the three c r i t i c a l areas of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , s o c i a l development and i n d u s t r i a l r e s o u r c e s . The main purpose of these i s t o : a) r e c e i v e and comment upon p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s presented by the PEC, and, b) advise the P o l i c y Committee about the plans and pr o p o s a l s of the a u t h o r i t i e s r e presented t h a t have r e l e v a n c e t o pl a n n i n g and environmental matters, c) advise the P o l i c y Committee as to the requirements of the a u t h o r i t i e s r e presented f o r f u t u r e p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , advice and procedures. The expanded membership of the three groups should be as f o l l o w s : NATURAL RESOURCES GROUP SUB-COMMITTEE State P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Commission M e t r o p o l i t a n Waste D i s p o s a l A u t h o r i t y Sydney Cove Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y Department of Tourism Department of L o c a l Government F o r e s t r y Commission N a t i o n a l Parks and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e V a l u e r - G e n e r a l 1 s Department C e n t r a l Mapping A u t h o r i t y Lands Department Western Lands Commission Department of A g r i c u l t u r e S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e Department of D e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n and Development SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT GROUP SUB-COMMITTEE Department of T e c h n i c a l Education Department of Educati o n Higher Education A u t h o r i t y Housing Commission Health Commission Department of Youth, E t h n i c and Community A f f a i r s The L i b r a r y of New South Wales The A u s t r a l i a n Museum The A r t G a l l e r y of New South Wales Department of C u l t u r e , Sport and R e c r e a t i o n -126-INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES GROUP SUB-COMMITTEE Public Works Department proposed Water Resources Commission Metropolitan Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board Ports Authority Public Transport Commission Department of Motor Transport State Roads Authority Mines Department E l e c t r i c i t y Commission E l e c t r i c i t y Authority36 Its obvious from the above s t r u c t u r a l arrangements that the co-ordination of p o l i c i e s must i n i t i a l l y take place at the sub-committee l e v e l . However, t h i s does not appear to be the function of these sub-committees as they are p r i n c i p a l l y intended to advise rather than to co-ordinate. No mechanism exists for co-ordination within each of the sub-committees, 37 nor between the sub-committees.' Functional s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s maintained under such circumstances as planning and policy making s t i l l occurs within the confines of a functional department. Nor does a mechanism e x i s t for the co-ordination of the sub-committee p o l i c i e s with the planning p o l i c i e s of the PEC i t s e l f . There should e x i s t a mutual consideration or a two way flow between the po l i c y objectives of the PEC and those of the sub-committees. Over a period of time i f the planning process was operating c o r r e c t l y these policy objectives would tend to approximate each other. Under the present proposals, PEC planning p o l i c y proposals would be determined ex post of departmental plans and p o l i c i e s rather than through a mutual consideration. The task of co-ordination i s held by the f u l l Policy Committee. They are however advised by the sub-committee which, as we have already established, w i l l not be able to provide -127-advice that i s by any means co-ordinated. It i s hard to imagine how the heads of a few of the major departments w i l l be able to provide co-ordination: among p o l i c i e s of over 3 0 bodies, most unrelated to t h e i r own f i e l d s of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s described here are c l e a r l y inappropriate towards achieving co-ordination at the State p o l i c y l e v e l . Integration of programs at the regional l e v e l cannot be r e a l i z e d unless p o l i c i e s are reasonably co-ordinated at the State l e v e l . The PEC proposal c a l l s for the establishment of government sector regional p o l i c y committees " i n those regions where planning work j u s t i f i e s the need." It i s expected that these committees employ the same sub-committee structure as envisaged at the State l e v e l of the PEC. Assuming adequate co-ordination i s attained at the State l e v e l then the i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanism must allow the following conditions to be met for successful functional integration to occur. F i r s t l y as recognized i n the Report i t s e l f i t i s necessary that the representatives of such regional committees should have the delegated power to advise the Regional Policy Committee and the Commission on a l l relevant aspects of the 3 8 policy of t h e i r respective departments i n that region. In the bureaucratized public service t h i s w i l l largely depend on the s e n i o r i t y of the o f f i c i a l s that represent t h e i r respective departments. A balance must be struck between a senior o f f i c i a l s knowledge of his department's p o l i c i e s , and the o f f i c i a l ' s knowledge of his region. Experience elsewhere has shown that without t h i s balance less than desirable r e s u l t s -128-39 are achieved. ' Secondly, there needs to be a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v o l u t i o n of d e c i s i o n making power t o r e g i o n a l o f f i c i a l s so t h a t time i s not taken up by unproductive v e r t i c a l paper s h u f f l i n g between l e v e l s of a u t h o r i t y i n departments, and so t h a t f u n c t i o n a l departments can become more r e s p o n s i v e to the i n d i v i d u a l needs w i t h i n each r e g i o n . Nothing i s s a i d about the need f o r program i n t e g r a t i o n at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n the proposed system. I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r t h a t to achieve f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n at t h i s l e v e l , not only must there by p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n , but a l s o program i n t e g r a t i o n . No mechanism f o r program i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The Regional P o l i c y Committee i s envisaged as being a medium through which i n f o r m a t i o n on p o l i c i e s i s disseminated to the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . I t can only be assumed t h a t i t i s expected t h a t programs are soundly based on p o l i c i e s . T h i s cannot always be assumed to be the case. As mentioned e a r l i e r the Government Sector P o l i c y Committee has the task of " c o - o r d i n a t i n g departmental, s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y and l o c a l government p o l i c i e s and programs." I t seems t h a t the task of program c o - o r d i n a t i o n f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s somewhat misplaced i f i t i s to be attempted at the State l e v e l . Programs administered by government departments and s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s w i l l s t i l l be of a g e n e r a l i z e d a r e a l a p p l i c a t i o n . On the other hand the Government Sector P o l i c y Committee hopes t o c o - o r d i n a t e these w i t h l o c a l government programs which are by nature a r e a l l y s p e c i a l i z e d . The b a s i c dichotomy e x p l a i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s -129-chapter s t i l l remains under t h i s arrangement. I t i s the r o l e of the Regional P o l i c y Committee to e f f e c t some form of program i n t e g r a t i o n i f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g process i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l . T h i s would imply a d e v o l u t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r program implementation to r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of government departments and s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s . T h i s i s s u e i s sidestepped i n the new p r o p o s a l s . Once t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s i n p l a c e i t w i l l be necessary to achieve an i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s . I t i s our hypothesis t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s the mechanism through which f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n can be achieved, so i t f o l l o w s t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n f a l l s s q u a r e l y upon those who have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n s , at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . In the PEC p r o p o s a l i t i s the commission s t a f f and a s s o c i a t e d committee s t r u c t u r e t h a t w i l l have the u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . I n t e g r a t i o n must occur f i r s t l y through the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Regional needs and a s p i r a t i o n s are a r t i c u l a t e d i n the p l a n n i n g process i n t o goals and o b j e c t i v e s and these must r e l a t e t o every f u n c t i o n concerned w i t h p l a n n i n g . Common goals and o b j e c t i v e s are planning's g r e a t i n t e g r a t i n g mechanism. For i n s t a n c e a complimentary d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l can only be achieved i f common o b j e c t i v e s f o r such s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y are p e r c e i v e d , by each f u n c t i o n a l department. However, i n r e a l i t y , a commonality of goals and o b j e c t i v e s does not f o r c e compliance by f u n c t i o n a l departments. T h i s can only be achieved through ^statutory p r o v i s i o n . -130-4) r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must possess a s t a t u t o r y b a s i s on the one  hand, and on the o t h e r , must remain f l e x i b l e . The importance of a s t a t u t o r y b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g has been r e c o g i z e d i n the F i n a l Report: I t i s proposed t h a t i n the f u t u r e , environmental s t r a t e g i e s and plans at the State and r e g i o n a l l e v e l should r e c e i v e formal endorsement by the M i n i s t e r . Thereby a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l of c o - o r d i n a t i o n would be ensured, and a l l State a u t h o r i t i e s would be r e q u i r e d t o comply w i t h the adopted environmental plans.40 F i r s t l y , t h i s p r o t e c t s the c i t i z e n a g a i n s t a r b i t r a r y changes being made to r e g i o n a l p l a n s , and secondly, i t ensures an amount of c e r t a i n t y f o r forward p l a n n i n g of State and P r i v a t e bodies a l i k e . However the s t a t u t o r y b a s i s a l s o needs to possess a degree of f l e x i b i l i t y i n a number of ways. F i r s t l y i t needs to be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s not an end i n i t s e l f , r a t h e r a means to an end. The f o r m u l a t i o n of a r e g i o n a l p l a n does not need to be compulsory f o r a l l r e g i o n s , and a d i f f e r e n t end r e s u l t may emerge out of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Regional i n t e r v e n t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y need to be i n the form of a r e g i o n a l p l a n , and the circumstances i n each r e g i o n w i l l d i c t a t e what form the p l a n n i n g output takes. A l t e r n a t i v e forms of r e g i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n may take the form of s e c t o r p o l i c i e s (such as s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s f o r mining) or other forms of p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s . In the m a j o r i t y of r e g i o n s i t i s expected t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n s w i l l be r e q u i r e d , though. Whatever the f i n a l r e s u l t of the p l a n n i n g process i t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n on an a r e a l b a s i s i s s t i l l the major requirement. The l e g i s l a t i o n should take t h i s i n t o account, but -131-i n the p r e s e n t PEC p r o p o s a l , only p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e g i o n a l plans are made. The f l e x i b l e nature of p l a n n i n g should be a l s o b u i l t i n t o the a d v i s o r y / c o n s u l t a n c y p r o c e s s . For i n s t a n c e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d by the PEC t h a t each government s e c t o r r e g i o n a l p o l i c y committee does not need to have a f i x e d membership i n every r e g i o n . Membership should be v a r i e d as circumstances 41 d i c t a t e . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s not necessary to employ a l l the a d v i s o r y bodies l i s t e d i n the e a r l i e r T a b l e , under a l l circumstances. I t i s indeed expected t h a t w i t h the e n a b l i n g of the new p l a n n i n g system t h a t some r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n w i l l occur i n the a d v i s o r y bodies t h a t have been e s t a b l i s h e d under prese n t d i v e r s e l e g i s l a t i o n . Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t t o be made f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i s i n the PEC 1s p l a n making process i t s e l f . The p o i n t of view taken by the PEC here i s t h a t plans are e s s e n t i a l f o r the c o n t r o l of development. The F i n a l Report concentrates on p l a n making, and the PEC's e a r l i e r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t p l a n n i n g i s c y c l i c , and i s a s e t of d e c i s i o n s i n need of 42 frequent r e v i s i o n tends to be somewhat clouded over i n the f i n a l s e t of p r o p o s a l s . The proposed scheme i s h i g h l y o r i e n t e d towards a s t a t u t o r y procedure of a n a l y s i s , p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n , e x h i b i t i o n , amendments and f i n a l a doption. The o n l y f l e x i b i l i t y appears to be i n a l l o w i n g f o r ammendments to a p l a n based on p u b l i c , departmental and m i n i s t e r i a l a d v i c e . No arrangements have been made i n the proposed scheme f o r ongoing a d v i c e , implementation, m o n i t o r i n g or the f r e q u e n t r e v i s i o n t h a t i s needed i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . -132-5) r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e the process of  r e g i o n a l i s m . Regionalism, as a r a t i o n a l e behind r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g has not been e x p l i c i t l y c o n s i d e r e d or even i m p l i e d i n the p r o p o s a l . The r e c o g n i t i o n of r e g i o n a l i s m i n o p e r a t i o n would c e r t a i n l y b e n e f i t the understanding of the r o l e of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as a form of r e g i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n of r e g i o n a l problems. I t i s not p o s s i b l e to determine i n t h i s study whether the e x i s t i n g r e g i o n s are the most r a t i o n a l i n terms of r e g i o n a l i s m . One would suspect however t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l r e g i o n s such as R i v e r i n a and New England would adhere to the p r i n c i p l e of r e g i o n a l i s m more f u l l y than some of the o t h e r s . The problems of boundary d e l i n e a t i o n have not been c o n s i d e r e d by the PEC, because of i t s i n t e n t i o n to u t i l i z e the boundaries employed f o r the Regional A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s as shown i n Figure.2.3. The PEC's apparent l a c k of concern w i t h boundary d e l i n e a t i o n tends to r e f l e c t t h e i r l a c k of concern f o r the p r i n c i p l e t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must be based on r e g i o n a l i s m . I t i s suspected t h a t the p r e s e n t system of r e g i o n s i s based on some r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of l o c a l government boundaries r a t h e r than c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of areas s h a r i n g common needs and i n t e r e s t s . I t i s not intended to overemphasize the importance of boundary d e l i n e a t i o n t o the o p e r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Rather, boundaries are necessary f o r reasons of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t i d i n e s s . However, a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n w i l l undoutedly be c o n c e n t r a t e d on a c t i v i t i e s i n the c e n t r e of a r e g i o n and the n e c e s s i t y f o r p r e c i s e l y d e l i n e a t e d boundaries i s somewhat -133-problematical. At t h i s stage i t should s u f f i c e to say that the concept of regionalism should be taken into consideration i n any proposed change of e x i s t i n g boundaries. 6) region should possess an adequate f i s c a l base upon which an  i n s t i t u t i o n can carry out the planning. The p r i n c i p l e of maintaining a degree of independence i s c r i t i c a l . An i n s t i t u t i o n whose planning i s hamstrung by the organization that i s providing i t s funding cannot perform objectively or e f f e c t i v e l y . Ideally, each regional planning i n s t i t u t i o n should be capable of financing i t s operations from i t s own sources derived from an adequate f i s c a l base. The issues that are involved i n financing and the provision of f i s c a l bases are not faced by the PEC i n i t s proposal. This i s p a r t l y due to the fact that the PEC believes that regional planning i s inseperable from State strategies and should not be considered independently from the State i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l sense. The p r i n c i p l e of independence i s not a very v a l i d one from the point of view of the PEC. Because of th i s the PEC believes that a l l administration costs should be funded ultimately by the State. PEC 1s seeming lack of facing the issues i s also probably partly due to the vexed and controversial nature of the issues themselves. A regional organization with the authority to tax implies a form of government - a question that has been c a r e f u l l y avoided i n the p r e v a i l i n g status quo p o l i t i c a l climate. The PEC considers the State government and l o c a l councils as the only two indispensible elements i n the proposed new system. Any organization inserted between these -134-l e v e l s i s recommended to have no e x e c u t i v e r o l e and no power to 43 d i r e c t p l a n n i n g . The i s s u e of the a u t h o r i t y to tax i s redundant under these circumstances. The need f o r the a u t h o r i t y to tax i s a l s o determined by the extent of the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s powers of program d e l i v e r y . The PEC envisages no such powers - the i s s u e i s d o u b l e - b a r r e l e d ; l o c a l governments do not wish to l o s e powers, and the c e n t r a l i z e d State departments and i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s are r e l u c t a n t to devolve t h e i r s . The i s s u e of the a u t h o r i t y to tax i s once again minimized. The a u t h o r i t y t o tax i t s e l f has s i g n i f i c a n t p r a c t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e the addage 'no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n - no t a x a t i o n ' a p t l y summarizes one of these. In r e a l i t y however, even w i t h adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , d i r e c t t a x a t i o n i s not l i k e l y t o be very a c c e p t a b l e to the community. •The problem of independently funding r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s t i l l remains, even i f only to cover a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s . In two areas t h a t possess Regional P l a n n i n g Committees at p r e s e n t , a r a t e of l / 2 4 t h of a cent i n the d o l l a r on the unimproved value of a l l r a t e a b l e land i s assessed upon l o c a l c o u n c i l s w i t h a matching c o n t r i b u t i o n from the State government. T h i s system i s proposed to be r e t a i n e d u n t i l the State can take over funding arrangements. Under such an arrangement i t i s extremely l i k e l y t h a t t h i s p r i n c i p l e w i l l be v i o l a t e d , r e s t r i c t i n g a r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s freedom of a c t i o n . -135-FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 5 ''"New South Wales, M i n i s t e r f o r P l a n n i n g and Environment, Towards a New Planning System f o r New South Wales (Sydney: November, 1974); idem, Proposals f o r a New Environmental  Planning System f o r New South Wales (Sydney: June, 1975); New South Wales, New South Wales Pl a n n i n g and Environment Commission, Report to the M i n i s t e r f o r P l a n n i n g and Environment (Sydney: November, 197 5). 2 New South Wales, Report, p. 41. 3 New South Wales, Towards. p. 22. 4 New South Wales, Report. p. 61. 5 i b i d . , p. 46 i b i d . 7 i b i d . , p. 51 i b i d . , p. 52. An i n t e r i m development order has the e f f e c t of p r o v i d i n g temporary p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l i n the p e r i o d before a p l a n n i n g scheme i s p r e s c r i b e d . 9 New South Wales, P r o p o s a l s . p. 11. The PEC sees ' r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' and 'environmental p l a n n i n g ' as being one i n the same t h i n g , however, probably f o r reasons of p o l i t i c s , 'environmental p l a n n i n g ' i s commonly used throughout the r e p o r t . In the r e p o r t 'environment' i s used i n a wider sense to i n c l u d e s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s . We w i l l use the more g e n e r i c term ' r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' here. "^New South Wales, Report, p. 47. 12 New South Wales, P r o p o s a l s . p. 36. 13 New South Wales, Report. p. 47. 14 i b i d . , p. 62. 15 For a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r e s e n t procedure, see New South Wales, Towards. p. 7. 16 New South Wales, Report, p. 58. 17 'Community a t l a r g e ' i s a g e n e r a l term used t o d e s c r i b e any r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a community which do not have o f f i c i a l p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s , such as would f o r i n s t a n c e an alderman, or a member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. The term t h e r e f o r e covers both the i n d i v i d u a l and v a r i o u s lobby groups, r e p r e s e n t i n g c o l l e c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s . 18 J.D. Stewart, Management-Local-Environment-Urban- Government: A Few Words Considered (Birmingham: U n i v e r s i t y of Birmingham, March, 1973), p. 8. 19 New South Wales, Report, p. 49. 20., ., n i i b i d . , p. 91 -136-21 New South Wales, P r o p o s a l s , p. 9. 22 i b i d . , p. 10. 23 i b i d . , p. 9. 24 New South Wales, Report, p. 64. 25 T h i s i s presumably the same o r g a n i z a t i o n as the C.F.R.P.A. seen i n F i g u r e 5.4. T h i s p o i n t i s not very c l e a r i n the f i n a l r e p o r t . 2 6 New South Wales, P r o p o s a l s , p. 39. 27 Stewart possesses a s i m i l a r view on the e l i t i s t nature of c o u n c i l s . 2 8 New South Wales, Report, p. 89. 29 " i b i d . 3 0 The New South Wales Department of D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Development has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g of i n d u s t r i a l development s i n c e 1966. They have mainly employed ' c a r r o t and s t i c k ' i n c e n t i v e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 31 New South wales, Report. p. 79. 32 i b i d . 33 For i n s t a n c e , the d e c i s i o n s of Regional D i s t r i c t Boards i n B r i t i s h Columbia are s u b j e c t to the concurrence of p r o v i n c i a l agencies i n a number of main areas: land l e a s i n g , s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l , a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , e t c . 3 4 New South Wales, Report, p. 84. 35 i b i d . , pp. 84-85. i b i d . , pp. 85-86. 37 More weight i s gi v e n t o t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i f i t i s cons i d e r e d t h a t the p r o p o s a l c a l l s f o r these sub-committees meeting once a year! 3 8 New South Wales, Report, p. 86. 3 Q In B r i t i s h Columbia f o r i n s t a n c e i t i s common f o r o f f i c i a l s of Departments such as M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t o t r a v e l from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n without having the b e n e f i t of an i n t i m a t e knowledge of t h e i r r e g i o n s , nor adequate p o l i c i e s t o guide r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . 40 New South wales, Report. p. 80. 41 i b i d . , p. 86. 42 New South Wales, Towards, p. 16. 43 "New South Wales, Report, p. 83. -137-CHAPTER VI SYNTHESIS AND PRESCRIPTION The a n a l y s i s of the p r e v i o u s chapter has i d e n t i f i e d the main i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the proposed p l a n n i n g system i n the l i g h t of the s i x c r i t e r i a t h a t were developed. In t h i s chapter the f i n d i n g s of the p r e v i o u s chapter are s y n t h e s i z e d , and, based on the major weaknesses of the PEC p r o p o s a l , a p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r NSW i s proposed. The importance of these c r i t e r i a t o the success of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g are v i t a l , and any overview based on these w i l l be u s e f u l f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n . The s i x c r i t e r i a can be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: the f i r s t t h ree having d i r e c t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s adopted, and the l a s t t h r e e having s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the substance of the p l a n n i n g c a r r i e d out by these i n s t i t u t i o n s . In attempting to c o n s t r u c t a v i a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g these s i x c r i t e r i a become the o b j e c t i v e s t h a t the s t r u c t u r e must a s p i r e towards. The o b j e c t i v e s are p r o c e d u r a l i n nature but are a l s o based on the s u b s t a n t i v e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g problems t h a t were d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3. The extent to which s u b s t a n t i v e p l a n n i n g problems were taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the PEC i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine because such i n f o r m a t i o n was not documented. 1 I t i s suspected t h a t the proposed system was based l a r g e l y on the p e r c e i v e d f a i l i n g s of the c u r r e n t system and a need f o r i t s reform. T h i s -138-c o n c l u s i o n may be gained from the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s a r t i c u l a t e d f o r the new system i n the pr e v i o u s chapter, were, f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, a p o i n t by p o i n t p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r the major d e f i c i e n c i e s of the pr e s e n t s t a t u t o r y system. I t seems c l e a r t h a t the PEC p r o p o s a l s have been b u i l t upon the deep ro o t e d foundations of the c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g system, and the r e l e v a n c e of t h i s system t o contemporary r e g i o n a l problems has not been questioned. The o b j e c t i v e s a r t i c u l a t e d i n the pr e v i o u s chapter r e f l e c t an attempt t o reform a system of ' s t a t u t o r y l a n d use pl a n n i n g ' t h a t has been i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e 1932. Strong elements of the pe r m i s s i v e l o c a l and s t a t e land use p l a n n i n g system pervade the pr o p o s a l s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . I t i s qu e s t i o n a b l e whether there i s much j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n imposing a m o d i f i e d s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g system a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . I t was mentioned i n Chapter 3 t h a t there has been s t r -ong evidence over r e c e n t years to suggest t h a t r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g i s the most a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l f o r the d e l i v e r y of many i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s . These are i n the human resou r c e s (education, h e a l t h , welfare) as w e l l as the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s e c t o r . R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has a l r e a d y occured f o r many of these f u n c t i o n s and the advantages of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g of s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , e i t h e r c o - o r d i n a t e d with other f u n c t i o n s or independently, are becoming more obvious to 2 r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . T h i s t r e n d appears t o be the beginning of an attempt to r e c o n c i l e area and f u n c t i o n . I t has developed independently of the s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g process which has concerned i t s e l f s o l e l y with c o n t r o l l i n g land use. I f the -139-hypothesis t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e f o r a c h i e v i n g f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and a r e a l reform holds t r u e , then t h i s emerging t r e n d i s extremely r e l e v a n t to any f u t u r e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n NSW. The o b j e c t i v e s s e t out i n Chapter 5 and subsequent p r o p o s a l s , do not r e f l e c t a r e a l awareness of t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d . Regional p l a n n i n g as proposed by the PEC i s c o n s t r a i n e d by the p r e v i o u s t r a d i t i o n of p h y s i c a l s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g . In p r e s c r i b i n g an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r NSW, t h r e e major areas were examined; those of needs i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p r i o r i t y r e s o l u t i o n , p o l i c y a r t i c u l a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and program i n t e g r a t i o n . Major d e f i c i e n c i e s were p e r c e i v e d i n each of these areas as they r e l a t e d to PEC's proposed i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . Needs I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and P r i o r i t y R e s o l u t i o n One of the b i g g e s t f a i l i n g s of the proposed system i s t h a t i t doesn't possess what co u l d be d e s c r i b e d as a t r u e r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s imposed from 'the top' ( i e . the S t a t e l e v e l ) , i t i s not p o l i t i c a l l y accountable a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , i t i s not independent i n d e c i s i o n making, nor does i t have any e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y about matters concerning the r e g i o n . T h i s i s a weak b a s i s upon which to c a r r y out e f f e c t i v e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Instead of the u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g being d e l e g a t e d down to the o f f i c e r s of a State agency, as envisaged i n the PEC p r o p o s a l , i t should r i g h t l y r e s t with some form of p l a n n i n g body i n each r e g i o n which i s more capable -140-of p r o v i d i n g a t r u e r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Such a Regiona l Planning Body should be independent of any other State or r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s so t h a t d e c i s i o n s can be made about r e g i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s , and t h a t competing o b j e c t i v e s have a chance of being e f f e c t i v e l y r e s o l v e d . However, the Regional Planning Body needs t o be r e s p o n s i b l e to the Pla n n i n g and Environment Commission, who p r o v i d e the s t a t e context i n t o which i n d i v i d u a l r e g i o n a l plans must f i t . I t i s the M i n i s t e r f o r P lanning and Environment who has the u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y f o r the approval of r e g i o n a l p l a n s . A d d i t i o n a l l y a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g body should be h e l d accountable t o the p u b l i c . Such a body must come about as a r e s u l t of a 'bottom-up' approach to r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g because i t s s t r u c t u r e needs t o possess a c l e a r a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e r e g i o n a l needs and problems. T h i s body i n the suggested o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n F i g u r e 6.1, i s c a l l e d the Regional P l a n n i n g Board. S e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e methods of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n may be p o s s i b l e on these Regional P l a n n i n g Boards, and one has been s e l e c t e d as s u i t e d to the NSW s i t u a t i o n . I t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i t would be mandatory f o r l o c a l government o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o be rep r e s e n t e d on any such Board. They are the form of government most r e s p o n s i v e t o community needs w i t h i n d e f i n e d areas, and they would i n t r o d u c e a r e a l p a r t i c u l a r i s m i n t o the r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . They aire a l s o accountable t o the p u b l i c through l o c a l e l e c t i o n s . However, a r e a l p a r t i c u l a r i s m s do not always r e f l e c t r e g i o n a l viewpoints and i n d i v i d u a l l o c a l government r e p r e s e n t a t --142-i v e s tend to be p a r o c h i a l . The p o s i t i o n taken here i s t h a t some form of d i r e c t community r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l , along with r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from l o c a l government. I t i s 3 suggested t h a t a t l e a s t one community a d v i s o r y panel be e s t a b l i s h e d with an e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e h o l d i n g a j o i n t p o s i t i o n on a community a d v i s o r y panel and the Regional P l a n n i n g Board. The community a d v i s o r y panel's main f u n c t i o n ought to be the a r t i c u l a t i o n of needs and problems and the f o r m u l a t i o n of r e g i o n a l goals and o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s i s an e s s e n t i a l departure from the p r o p o s a l s d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter which appeared t o be l a c k i n g i n s u f f i c i e n t channels f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of l o c a l government and r e g i o n a l community needs.^ P o l i c y A r t i c u l a t i o n and C o - o r d i n a t i o n The second major concern of the suggested s t r u c t u r e i n F i g u r e 6.1 i s with p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n , with and by other l e v e l s of government, as w e l l as the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . At p r e s e n t the PEC i s the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g body f o r NSW with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c o - o r d i n a t i n g the p o l i c i e s of State Government departments i n the State and r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t s . I t i s suggested here t h a t the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s should be independent of other l e v e l s of government but r e s p o n s i b l e to an o v e r a l l c o - o r d i n a t i n g body, such as the PEC. T h i s c o - o r d i n a t i n g body would possess to powers f o r determining p o l i c i e s and p r i o r i t i e s as w e l l as the powers to a l l o c a t e f i s c a l r e s o u r c e s i n accordance with such p o l i c i e s and p r i o r i t i e s . At p r e s e n t the PEC i s not such a body, but does appear to have an -143-important r o l e t o p l a y i n the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c i e s of major s t a t e agencies, and i n shaping some of t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s . The a l l o c a t i o n of f i s c a l r e s o u r c e s i s not of immediate concern at p r e s e n t because i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e r e g i o n a l governing bodies would not possess the power of program d e l i v e r y , r a t h e r of p l a n n i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . Funds f o r the d e l i v e r y of programs would be a l l o c a t e d through t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e department channels, i n a much more c o - o r d i n a t e d f a s h i o n , as a r e s u l t of the PEC mandate f o r p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n . One of the s t r o n g e s t aspects of the PEC p r o p o s a l s i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the s t a t e and r e g i o n a l l e v e l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e the p r e s e n t p r o p o s a l envisages the Government Sector P o l i c y Committee and a s s o c i a t e d sub-committees would be m i r r o r e d i n some r e g i o n s by the Government Sector Regional P o l i c y Committee. Such a s t r u c t u r e , i f made mandatory f o r a l l r e g i o n s would e s t a b l i s h a c r i t i c a l channel of v e r t i c a l communication. At p r e s e n t , although the PEC p r o p o s a l s c o n t a i n the p o t e n t i a l f o r t h i s type of arrangement, they do not a r t i c u l a t e t h i s p o t e n t i a l very w e l l , and, i n f a c t , t h e y do not seem committed to t h i s s t r u c t u r e i n 5 a l l r e g i o n s , j u s t i n those were need i s j u s t i f i e d . In our suggested s t r u c t u r e the government s e c t o r r e g i o n a l p o l i c y committee as proposed by the PEC i s g i v e n an expanded mandate of program i n t e g r a t i o n r a t h e r than s o l e l y p o l i c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n . In F i g u r e 6.1 i t i s re p r e s e n t e d as the Regional Program Committee (the composition of which i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) . T h i s R e g i o n a l Program Committee s h a l l have a d v i s o r y sub-committ-ees which m i r r o r those a d v i s i n g the PEC Government Sec t o r P o l i c y -144-Committee. Such an arrangement i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 6.2, which shows the envisaged l i n e s of public p o l i c y communication between state and regional l e v e l s . Direct communication between the sub-committees i n the c r i t i c a l areas of i n d u s t r i a l development, s o c i a l development and natural resources development would have the advantage of enhancing the dissemination of State l e v e l sub-committee p o l i c i e s to the regional l e v e l and vice versa. A d d i t i o n a l l y , t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s of communication through the v e r t i c a l hierarchies of l i n e departments would be reinforced because of the need to c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e p o l i c i e s at the State l e v e l . In accordance with the t h i r d c r i t e r i a , there must be a degree of p o l i c y co-ordination at the State l e v e l so that program integration at the regional l e v e l may have a chance of succeeding. If programs are an accurate r e f l e c t i o n of p o l i c i e s at higher levels then the need for concurrence i s minimized and more time may be spent on the integration of functions and planning at the regional l e v e l . As i t stands i n the present proposal i t would be necessary to rework the terms of reference of the sub-committee of the PEC. These sub-committees should be considered more i n a co-ordinative r o l e than an advisory r o l e i n which they are perceived i n the PEC proposal. Under such an arrangement functional s p e c i a l i z a t i o n would s t i l l remain, but more account would be taken of the common goals and objectives of each of the broad sub-committee areas. Because these sub-committees r e f l e c t the structure of the sub-committees of Cabinet, the po t e n t i a l for quite a strong v e r t i c a l and horizontal p o l i c y co-ordination exists i n the area of natural -145-J3ETVMEEIM S T A I t - A M P ra^VDMAl_ l E M E L S P E C . S E C T O R p * > u C v f I ' S u B r - f c m v - r T E e S O C I A L . iDEVELCipTAENTT ^ M B - C O M M^TTEE Lsu&- ODHrtl-rrEE l M D O S T « \ A U P E V E- L O F M t M T S u S - C C M K n T E E R E G I O N A L , S U B - C O M M I T T E E : S U B - G D r t M i T T E E COHM.VTTE3S -146-r e s o u r c e s , s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . P r o g r a m I n t e g r a t i o n U n d e r t h e p r o p o s e d PEC s y s t e m , n o m e c h a n i s m f o r p r o g r a m i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l . R a t h e r , a s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , a g o v e r n m e n t s e c t o r r e g i o n a l p o l i c y c o m m i t t e e i s e n v i s a g e d , w h i c h , i t i s a s s u m e d , w o u l d a t t e m p t t o m i r r o r a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l p r o c e s s e s o c c u r i n g a t t h e S t a t e l e v e l . H o w e v e r , i t i s t h e p r o g r a m s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m t h e p o l i c i e s t h a t a r e o f m o r e i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s t h a n t h e p o l i c i e s t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e v i t a l t h a t t h e r e b e a R e g i o n a l P r o g r a m C o m m i t t e e w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n o f e n s u r i n g i n t e g r a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s o f b o t h g o v e r n m e n t a n d n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s , t o w a r d s common g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e e m p l o y e d t o a c h i e v e p r o g r a m i n t e g r a t i o n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s u c c e s s o f a n y r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k o f s u c h c o n c e r n s i n t h e PEC p r o p o s a l m u s t s e v e r e l y l i m i t w h a t c a n b e a c h i e v e d b y r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h e p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s s u g g e s t e d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a R e g i o n a l P r o g r a m C o m m i t t e e h a v i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g t h e t h r e e r e g i o n a l s u b - c o m m i t t e e a r e a s o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , a s w e l l a s t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . T h e s e t h r e e r e g i o n a l s u b - c o m m i t t e e s w o u l d r e f l e c t t h o s e e n v i s a g e d b y t h e PEC a t t h e S t a t e l e v e l , a s w e l l a s t h e C a b i n e t c o m m i t t e e s . T h e y r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s t h a t w e r e i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r 3 . F o r e m o s t among t h e s u b s t a n t i v e -147-r e g i o n a l problems t h a t need to be t a c k l e d i n NSW are those b r o a d l y d e s c r i b e d as problems of d e l i v e r y of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and the problems of management of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The t h i r d r e g i o n a l sub-committee area of i n d u s t r i a l r e s o u r c e development i s one t h a t i s more o r i e n t e d towards the d i r e c t i o n of f u t u r e growth. The g o a l of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r y has been a major government committment i n NSW s i n c e 1966, but has to date mainly been o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d through s p e c i a l purpose bodies (eg. B a t h u r s t - Orange Development Corporation) r a t h e r than being the s u b j e c t of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . A committment t o d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s to country areas has been one of the few p o l i c i e s c o n s i s t e n t l y a r t i c u l a t e d by the NSW government over the l a s t decade. I t i s f e l t t h a t i s i s r e l e v a n t enough t o j u s t i f y being i n c l u d e d i n any r e g i o n a l sub-committee s t r u c t u r e . A g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r f l e x i b i l i t y e x i s t s i n the make-up of these r e g i o n a l program sub-committees. They should be manageable i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i n g and g a t h e r i n g b o d i e s . As such they should not be very l a r g e , but r a t h e r should c o n t a i n 7 the high p r i o r i t y government agencies t h a t have s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r e s t s i n each r e g i o n . In some circumstances a p a r t i c u l a r agency, such as the Health Commission f o r i n s t a n c e may f i n d i t necessary t o be represented i n every r e g i o n . On the other hand an agency such as the Mines Department or the Western Lands Commission may onl y be u s e f u l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Western r e g i -ons of the S t a t e . Table 6,1 shows some of the p a t t e r n s of p e r c e i v e d r e g i o n a l s a l i e n c e between major s t a t e agencies r e p r e s e n t e d i n the R i v e r i n a r e g i o n . These are admitt e d l y f o r -148-PATTERNS OF PERCEIVED REGIONAL SALIENCE Education Technical Education Health Hospitals Child Welfare & Social Welfare Housing Public Works Agriculture OM -a d a _) Water Conservation Z & Irrigation S Soil Conservation Forestry Mines Main Roads Railways Grain Elevators Electricity Police Petty Sessions Motor Transport Valuer General Civil Defence Education * A A A A A A Technical Education * * A A A A Health * * A A Hospitals * A Child Welfare &. Social Welfare * A A A A A Housing * A A A A Public Works * * A A Agriculture * * * A A A A A A A Lands * A A A A A A Water Conservation & Irrigation A * A A A A Soil Conservation A A A A A A A Forestry A A * A A Mines A A A A Main Roads A Railways A A Grain Elevators * A Electricity A A Police A Petty Sessions Motor Transport A Valuer General _ A * A A, Civil Defence f S O U R C E •• R & G l O N A C A t ^ l i f \ 1 3 T K A I O K IIM T t ^ « ? R ^ e R i ' t A . the purposes of the RAC 1s whose f u n c t i o n s are o r i e n t e d towards r e g i o n a l development, r a t h e r than r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , however, i t i s c l e a r t h a t w i t h i n departments at l e a s t , there i s a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t some State agencies are of g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e to the development of the R i v e r i n a r e g i o n than o t h e r s , The f u n c t i o n s of the r e g i o n a l sub-committees would be t o : a) comment on p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s presented by the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, b) i n t e g r a t e programs of the agencies r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , c) p r o v i d e advice t o the Regional Program Committee on such c o - o r d i n a t e d programs and as to f u t u r e requirements of the agencies. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of such r e g i o n a l sub-committees would have the de l e g a t e d power to advise the Regional Program Committee on a l l r e l e v a n t aspects of p o l i c y and program d e l i v e r y i n t h a t r e g i o n . I t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e autonomy be g i v e n t o r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of Government departments. The Region a l Program Committee under t h i s arrangement would c o n s i s t of i n t e r n a l l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of each of the r e g i o n a l sub-committee areas, as w e l l as the r e g i o n a l planner of the o r g a n i z a t i o n (or those persons u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ) , who would a l s o be the c h a i r p e r s o n . The Regional Program Committee would p r o v i d e the l i a s o n between the r e g i o n a l needs a r t i c u l a t e d i n the p l a n n i n g process and the programs which -150-are to be undertaken i n each r e g i o n . Advice on r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g matters would be ma n d a t o r i l y sought from each of the sub-committees, and i n r e t u r n a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e would be pro v i d e d upon which the sub-committee members c o u l d p l a n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e programs. The f u n c t i o n s of the Regional Program Committee would be: a) c o - o r d i n a t e and i n t e g r a t e each of the r e g i o n a l sub-committee areas t o ensure maximum support f o r the r e g i o n a l plans and o b j e c t i v e s , b) p r o v i d e advice to the Regional P l a n n i n g Board on r e l e v a n t p o l i c i e s i n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , c) p r o v i d e a forum f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r p o l i c i e s and programs, d) r e p o r t on any other masters t h a t may be r e f e r r e d to i t by the Regional P l a n n i n g Board. F i g u r e 6.1 a l s o r e f l e c t s a p o t e n t i a l f o r advice t o be sought from other o r g a n i z a t i o n s which may not be re p r e s e n t e d on the r e g i o n a l sub-committees. These may be: (i) f e d e r a l agencies which possess powers of program d e l i v e r y or forms of r e g i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . The Re g i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l Development i s a prime example. T h i s i s a p i l o t p r o j e c t funded by the f e d e r a l S o c i a l Welfare Commission, and one of i t s f u n c t i o n s i s to d e v i s e plans f o r community w e l f a r e s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n to meet the needs of the r e g i o n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h A u s t r a l i a n , S t a t e and local-government and non-government g agencies. E v e n t u a l l y i t would be hoped t h a t such a s t r u c t u r e would be r a t i o n a l i z e d , w i t h the need i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s of the Regional C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l Development being channeled through the p l a n n i n g orocess and the i n t e g r a t i v e aspects of the d e l i v e r y of community s e r v i c e s being d e a l t w i t h through the S o c i a l Development Sub-Committee. ( i i ) p r i v a t e agencies which p r o v i d e a m u l t i t u d e of w e l f a r e and community s e r v i c e s . q ( i i i ) the p r i v a t e s e c t o r ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of commerce and i n d u s t r y which i s c r i t i c a l t o the continued development of some of the more populated r e g i o n s of NSW. Such p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n should have a d i r e c t involvement w i t h the assessment of r e g i o n a l needs and o p p o r t u n i t i e s formulated i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . For i n s t a n c e , i t has been c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d by the Department of D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Development over the l a s t decade t h a t the success of a growth ce n t r e s t r a t e g y w i l l depend p r i m a r i l y on the r e l a t i v e success t h a t department has i n a t t r a c t i n g secondary i n d u s t r y . The success of a t t r a c t i n g the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e i f they are i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y i n a s s e s s i n g the needs and o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to them. I t i s suggested t h a t the d e v i c e s used t o i n c o r p o r a t e the concerns of these three types of bodies should be c o n s u l t a t i v e , r a t h e r than merely i n v o l v i n g the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n to the Regional Program Committee. P r o v i s i o n f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of such c o n s u l t a t i o n should be mandatory, but seeking such c o n s u l t a t i o n i s o p t i o n a l so as to remain f l e x i b l e , and w i l l depend on the nature of the p l a n n i n g concerns. P r o v i s -i o n should a l s o be made f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h each of the r e g i o n a l sub-committees, as circumstances d i c t a t e . -152-One more element needs to be d i s c u s s e d so as to complete the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r e s c r i b e d r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s i n v o l v e s determining the r o l e of l o c a l government i n r e l a t i o n t o the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s argued f o r the sake of expediency t h a t the r o l e of l o c a l government does not need to be changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t envisaged i n the PEC p r o p o s a l . At p r e s e n t i t i s not envisaged t h a t the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n should have the powers of program d e l i v e r y , so the f u r t h e r l o s s of l o c a l government power i s not at i s s u e . L o c a l government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would remain l a r g e l y w i t h i n the context of l o c a l d e t a i l e d land use and s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g , as w e l l as the d e l i v e r y of some b a s i c l o c a l s e r v i c e s . Such p l a n n i n g and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n would need to be i n accordance w i t h the g u i d e l i n e s f o r such a c t i v i t i e s s e t out by the Regional P l a n n i n g Board. Re p r e s e n t a t i o n by l o c a l governments on t h i s p l a n n i n g board has a l r e a d y been proposed here, however a seperate d e v i c e needs to be c r e a t e d where there i s a t e c h n i c a l and p o l i c y exchange between those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and those f o r d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g a t l o c a l government l e v e l s . L e g i s l a t i v e Foundations f o r F l e x i b i l i t y and Funding Next, a t t e n t i o n should be turned to the important foundations on which such an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ought t o be based. These foundations are p a r t l y r e f l e c t e d i n the l a s t t hree c r i t e r i a . To a r r i v e at a s y n t h e s i s of these i n r e l a t i o n t o the PEC p r o p o s a l i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t because these c r i t e r i a are not d i s c u s s e d . i n any g r e a t d e t a i l , i f a t a l l . T h i s -153-may i n i t s e l f r e f l e c t the weaknesses i n the base t h a t the PEC p r o p o s a l i s b u i l t upon. One very important concern i s t h a t the p a s t r i g i d i t i e s of ' s t a t u t o r y p l a n n i n g ' be overcome. By l e g i s l a t i n g v a r i o u s f l e x i b i l i t i e s i n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g would become more r e l e v a n t t o the p e r c u l i a r i t i e s and needs of i n d i v i d u a l r e g i o n s . Unless such f l e x i b i l i t y i s g i v e n a s t a t u t o r y b a s i s the r i g i d i t i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e the p r e s e n t p l a n n i n g system w i l l tend t o remain f i r m l y entrenched. F l e x i b i l i t y must e x i s t i n the type of c o n s u l t a n c y / a d v i s o r y s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s employed i n each r e g i o n . Channels of communication between the r e g i o n a l sub-committees and other a d v i s o r y groups need not be f o r m a l i z e d and w i l l vary between r e g i o n s . S i m i l a r l y i f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r any p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n i s to be mandatory, then a review of the p l a n should occur as o f t e n as i s p e r c e i v e d necessary f o r the needs of each r e g i o n . Nor should i t be necessary to f o l l o w the r i g i d steps r e q u i r i n g e x h i b i t i o n of p l a n s , and so f o r t h , t h a t i s a legacy of ' s t a t u t o r y land use p l a n n i n g , ' and which i s r e q u i r e d i n the PEC p r o p o s a l s . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s more f l e x i b i l i t y than the procedure p r e s c r i b e d by s t a t u t e i n p h y s i c a l l o c a l area p l a n n i n g , and r e q u i r e s broad d i s c r e t i o n i n approaching the s o l u t i o n s t o r e g i o n a l problems. The q u e s t i o n of funding i s a l s o v i t a l . The p r i n c i p l e of independence i s d i s r e g a r d e d by the PEC so the p r e s c r i p t i v e suggestions must be r a i s e d here. The Regional P l a n n i n g Board as proposed i n t h i s chapter does not have the powers of program d e l i v e r y , so funding w i l l only be r e q u i r e d to support the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e needed to c a r r y out the f u n c t i o n of -154-r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Funding schemes can vary from t o t a l r e l i a n c e on o u t s i d e agency support to complete autonomy, through the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r a i s i n g i t s own revenues. I f complete autonomy i n the source of funds i s d e s i r e d then q u e s t i o n s of the s i z e and p o p u l a t i o n of r e g i o n s become of importance. T h i s may to a c e r t a i n extent be the a n t i t h e s i s of r e g i o n s based on r e g i o n a l i s m , so complete autonomy may not be c o n s i d e r e d very d e s i r a b l e e s p e c i a l l y i n areas where a r e a d i l y d e f i n a b l e r e g i o n a l community possesses an economic disadvantage compared to other r e g i o n s . In such a case a r e g i o n may have t o be widened t o p r o v i d e an adequate f i s c a l base by s a c r i f i c i n g the r e g i o n a l community of i n t e r e s t . Any number of funding arrangements c o u l d be pursued. T h i s author tends to b e l i e v e t h a t the most p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n f o r NSW i s a p o s i t i o n between complete autonomy and complete dependence. Complete autonomy may have the danger of l e a v i n g a r e g i o n without an adequate f i s c a l r e s o u r c e base w i t h which t o c a r r y out r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Complete dependence may hamper the independent o p e r a t i o n s of the Regional P l a n n i n g Boards. A funding arrangement between these two extremes would have the advantage of r e q u i r i n g State funding f o r a f u n c t i o n t h a t they have the u l t i m a t e mandate f o r , w h i l e a t the same time keeping community i n t e r e s t i n the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n v i t a l , through them having to make d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n s . A d i r e c t tax should be l e v i e d on each p r o p e r t y owner i n every l o c a l government area, based on say, the improved c a p i t a l v alue of t h e i r p r o p e r t y f o r r a t i n g purposes. Such a tax c o u l d be e a s i l y a dministered through the system of l o c a l taxes -155-t h a t i s a l r e a d y i n o p e r a t i o n , and cou l d be c o l l e c t e d by the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n from the v a r i o u s l o c a l governments.^ To ease the tax burden t h a t t h i s may c r e a t e i t i s proposed t h a t there a l s o be a d o l l a r f o r d o l l a r matching grant from both State and F e d e r a l bodies. The St a t e government has the u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and has i n d i c a t e d w i l l i n g n e s s i n the past t o f i n a n c e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The F e d e r a l government has r e c e n t l y i n d i c a t e d i t s i n t e r e s t i n f i n a n c i n g v a r i o u s development proposals'on a r e g i o n a l basis,"'""'' and s i n c e scope e x i s t s f o r F e d e r a l government p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a c o n s u l t a t i v e b a s i s , i t would not be unreasonable t o expect some form of a s s i s t a n c e . Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Study Each p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e funding arrangement has d i f f -e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the independence of the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as f o r que s t i o n s of f i s c a l f e d e r a l i s m . A proper examination of the complex i s s u e s t h a t a r i s e i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , even though i t i s c o n s i d e r e d of v i t a l importance to i t . S i m i l a r l y there are many i s s u e s which a r i s e from these p r o p o s a l s t h a t have not been touched upon or have been mentioned only b r i e f l y . Among these a re: N a t i o n a l i t y of presen t r e g i o n a l boundaries i n the l i g h t of f i n a n c i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s and r e g i o n a l community of i n t e r e s t . *the i s s u e of mandatory as opposed t o v o l u n t a r y membership f o r l o c a l government areas on Regional P l a n n i n g Board. * i s s u e s of p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and v o t i n g s t r u c t u r e s on -156-R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Boards. *balance between urban and r u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on Regional P l a n n i n g Boards. *whether r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s should operate s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y programs. Although of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance, to j u s t l y t r e a t each of these i n t u r n would tend to draw a t t e n t i o n away from the s i x c r i t e r i a t h a t have been used i n the a n a l y s i s , and the c e n t r a l r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s t h e s i s . Any more d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l s than t h a t which i s o f f e r e d here would need to c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r the i m p l i c a t i o n s of each of these i s s u e s and many o t h e r s . These i s s u e s and t h e i r complex i m p l i c a t i o n s should a l s o be the s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r study. A l l i n v o l v e the f e d e r a l , s t a t e , and l o c a l governments t o v a r y i n g degrees so no one l e v e l of government can be e x c l u s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the f u r t h e r study of these matters. However, s i n c e i t i s the NSW government t h a t holds the mandate f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i t i s f e l t t h a t they should p l a y a c e n t r a l r o l e . Because a commission of i n q u i r y i s capable of undertaking e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n t o d i v e r s e views t h a t are l i k e l y to be expressed on these i s s u e s , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s i s the most a p p r o p r i a t e form of f u r t h e r study. The commission of i n q u i r y should be appointed by the State government t o : (i) s o l i c i t the views of f e d e r a l , s t a t e and l o c a l governments wit h regards to the i s s u e s under i n q u i r y ( i i ) hear submissions and r e q u e s t i n g independent s t u d i e s to be undertaken on aspects r e l e v a n t t o the i n q u i r y ( i i i ) make a r e p o r t and recommendations on the i s s u e s under i n q u i r y . 157--158-FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 6 "*"A g e n e r a l l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n i s a p e r v a s i v e aspect t h a t a l l p l a n n i n g must face i n NSW. 2 J . Power and H. Nelson, The Regional A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the  R i v e r i n a : A S e t of Working Papers. Canberra S e r i e s i n A d m i n i s t r -a t i v e S t u d i e s I (Canberra: Canberra C o l l e g e of Advanced Education, 1976). 3 I f the r e g i o n i s very l a r g e , or i f f o r some reason sub-r e g i o n s are c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e , then more than one such community a d v i s o r y panel should be e s t a b l i s h e d , each one having a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the Regional P l a n n i n g Board. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on these a d v i s o r y panels would be e l e c t e d by the r e g i o n a l community. 4 Some r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of p r e s e n t RAC 1s would need to occur under these circumstances. RAC's should be s p l i t i n t o two: those p a r t s d e a l i n g with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l community needs, and those d e a l i n g w i t h s a l i e n c e between government agencies. They c o u l d then be amalgamated i n t o a wider r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . 5 New South Wales, New South Wales Pl a n n i n g and Environment Commission, Report to the M i n i s t e r f o r P l a n n i n g and Environment (Sydney: November, 1975), p. 86. What i s meant by 'need j u s t i f i c a t i o n 1 i s not e x p l a i n e d i n the r e p o r t . T h i s has o c c u r r e d with the formation of the Department of D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Development. 7 For i n s t a n c e the S o c i a l Development Sub-Committee co u l d c o n t a i n the Department of E d u c a t i o n , Housing Commission, He a l t h Commission and the Department of C u l t u r e , Sport and R e c r e a t i o n , g A u s t r a l i a , A u s t r a l i a n Government S o c i a l Welfare Commission, The Regional C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l Development: A Developmental  Approach (Queanbeyan: November, 1975). Other major f a c t o r s i n c l u d e : - to g i v e people of the r e g i o n a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y to take p a r t i n p l a n n i n g , d e v e l o p i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r own community s e r v i c e s . - to advise the A u s t r a l i a n Government on the Development of i t s own departments s e r v i c e s i n the r e g i o n , and on the a l l o c a t i o n of grants and s u b s i d i e s to bodies w i t h i n the r e g i o n . - to help people i n the r e g i o n i d e n t i f y t h e i r needs and the way i n which these might be met, to e v a l u a t e and monitor these, and t o r e p o r t on them to the A u s t r a l i a n , State and l o c a l governments. 9 Such a c o n s u l t a t i v e d e v i c e c o u l d be c a r r i e d out through a p r i v a t e s e c t o r committee composed of a balance of l a r g e and s m a l l b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s i n the community, or i t may be done on a l e s s f o r m a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . -159-A l t e r n a t i v e l y t h i s c o u l d be a per c a p i t a tax. "'"^Regional o r g a n i z a t i o n s of l o c a l governments were f i n a n c e d by the Grants Commission between 1973-76. C u r r e n t l y the f e d e r a l S o c i a l Welfare Commission i s a d m i n i s t e r i n g the A u s t r a l i a n A s s i s t a n c e P l a n through Regional C o u n c i l s f o r S o c i a l Development. -160-CHAPTER VI I CONCLUSIONS: TOWARDS A GENERIC CASE FOR REGIONAL PLANNING The s u b s t a n t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s to t h i s t h e s i s are t w o f o l d : the p a r t i c u l a r , r e l a t i n g t o the case of NSW, and the g e n e r i c . Each w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n t u r n . The P a r t i c u l a r Case of NSW Regional p l a n n i n g i n NSW i s s t i l l i n i t s e a r l y developmental years - a somewhat u n c e r t a i n cause i t seems, s e a r c h i n g f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . Over r e c e n t years however a groundswell has developed i n favour of r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the purposes of p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s , such t e n d e n c i e s being mainly a r t i c u l a t e d i n the f i e l d of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r a t h e r than i n p l a n n i n g . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g to c o n t r i b u t e to the mainstream of t h i s s w e l l i s s t i l l a p o s s i b i l i t y and i t i s f e l t now i s the time f o r an emphatic case f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g to be made. The evidence p o i n t s i n one d i r e c t i o n - the r e g i o n w i l l be the form of o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s i n the f u t u r e . Regional p l a n n i n g c o u l d l e a d the way i n t h i s r e g a r d . The PEC p r o p o s a l i n NSW i s c o n s t r a i n e d both by a l a c k of a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t r a d i t i o n from which pas t experience c o u l d be drawn, and by a r a t h e r l i m i t e d ' s t a t u t o r y land use p l a n n i n g ' s t r u c t u r e upon which the p r o p o s a l i s b u i l t . PEC 1s p r o p o s a l f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e to c a r r y out r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g does not seem a p p r o p r i a t e towards s o l v i n g the problems of area and -161-f u n c t i o n t h a t w e r e a r t i c u l a t e d i n C h a p t e r 3 . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s e e m s t o b e r a t h e r i l l d e f i n e d a n d i t h a s b e e n c o n t e n d e d h e r e t h a t i t h a s n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p a s t a s a m e a n s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . I n t h e t h e s i s s i x c r i t e r i a w e r e d e v e l o p e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t h e PEC p r o p o s a l s a n d t o p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t a n t b a s i s f o r some i n i t i a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . I n r e l a t i o n t o m o s t o f t h e c r i t e r i a t h e PEC p r o p o s a l s d i d n o t s e e m t o f o r m a r e l e v a n t s t r u c t u r e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . B a s e d o n t h e p e r c e i v e d f a i l i n g s o f t h e PEC p r o p o s a l i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e c r i t e r i a , a n a t t e m p t w a s made t o o u t l i n e t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s t h a t w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c r i t e r i a t o b e s a t i s f i e d . The p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s s u g g e s t e d c a n b e v i e w e d a s o n e o f t h e s u b s t a n t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s . I t h a s b e e n b a s e d o n a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f w h a t t h e n a t u r e o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s , w h a t p r o b l e m s r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g n e e d s t o f a c e , a n d w h a t s e e m t o b e t h e i m m e d i a t e r e a l i s t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e c a n b e b a s e d u p o n , g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f p r e s e n t g o v e r n m e n t s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e n j o y m e n t o f m u c h f u n c t i o n a l a u t o n o m y b y g o v e r n m e n t b o d i e s . G e n e r i c A p p l i c a b i l i t y The f o c u s o f t h e t h e s i s t h u s f a r h a s b e e n o n a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r c a s e o f NSW. I t i s c l e a r h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d i n e x a m i n i n g t h e NSW c a s e c a n b e a p p l i e d e l s e w h e r e . U n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e s i x p r i n c i p l e s o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h a t w e r e e n u n c i a t e d i n -162-C h a p t e r 4 s e e m e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e s , a n d c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d o f g e n e r a l g e n e r i c v a l u e . The d e f i n i t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a d v a n c e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s c a n b e e q u a l l y w e l l a p p l i e d t o a n y c o m p a r a b l e c o u n t r y w h e r e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s a p o t e n t i a l o r a c t u a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r . H o w e v e r t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a r e a l s o b a s e d o n t h e s u b s t a n t i v e p r o b l e m s t h a t a p p e a r t o r e q u i r e s o l u t i o n s o f a r e g i o n a l s c a l e i n NSW. T h e g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s t h e r e f o r e r e s t s o n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r e g i o n a l p r o b l e m s e x p e r i e n c e d i n NSW a r e o f a g e n e r i c n a t u r e . I t c o u l d s a f e l y b e s a i d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s o f s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y a r i s i n g f r o m t h e u r b a n / r u r a l d i c h o t o m y t h a t w e r e e x p o u n d e d i n C h a p t e r 3 a r e a f u n c t i o n o f r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n a n d a r e t h e p r o b l e m s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h o u t m u c h o f t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d . I m b a l a n c e s b e t w e e n c i t y a n d c o u n t r y a r e a s a r e u n i v e r s a l : i m b a l a n c e s i n e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s , d e l i v e r y o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a m e n i t i e s a r e n o t u n i q u e t o n o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s o f NSW, a n d o c c u r a n y w h e r e w h e r e a c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a u c r a c y i s n o t r e a d i l y r e s p o n s i v e t o r e g i o n a l n e e d s a n d w h e r e t h e r e i s a g r a d u a l d r i f t o f e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d h e n c e p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e c i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y t h e p r o b l e m s o f l a n d u s e c o n f l i c t a n d t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f r e s o u r c e s a r e a l s o b r o a d l y a p p l i c a b l e t o m o s t c o u n t r i e s . The c o n f l i c t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e v e r i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f s p a c e i n h i s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s a n d h i s d e s i r e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a r e common p r o b l e m s . P r o b l e m s o f r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t w i l l o c c u r a n y w h e r e w h e r e o n e u s e w i l l -163-a f f e c t the resource p o t e n t i a l of other uses, these i n t u r n having i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the q u a l i t y of l i f e . Resource c o n f l i c t s seem to be an i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n a l l advanced s o c i e t i e s . The t h i r d major problem category i s t h a t of area and f u n c t i o n . T h i s i s much more of a problem t h a t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s i n v o l v i n g governmental j u r i s d i c t i o n s . I t s g e n e r i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n w i l l depend to a c e r t a i n extent on the governmental and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l country. The problems a r t i c u l a t e d i n Chapter 3 r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the three t i e r system of government and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a f f e c t i n g the e q u i t a b l e d e l i v e r y of governmental f u n c t i o n s to the i n d i v i d u a l , based on the s e p a r a t i o n of powers o u t l i n e d i n Appendix 1. However, even i n c o u n t r i e s where the government possesses a u n i t a r y r a t h e r than f e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e , the problems of area and f u n c t i o n may s t i l l be p e r v a s i v e . For i n s t a n c e evidence has shown t h a t the problems of l o c a l government areas (such as l a c k of a p p r o p r i a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n ) t h a t were a r t i c u l a t e d i n Chapter 3 are common to most c o u n t r i e s p o s s e s s i n g s i m i l a r l o c a l government systems, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of B r i t a i n , Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . However, the extent to which problems r e s u l t from a chaos of o v e r l a p p i n g s i n g l e purpose a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas such as i n the case of NSW, i s unknown. E f f o r t s towards c o - o r d i n a t i o n of d i v e r s e p o l i c i e s and programs have occured however, a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l i n B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s through 'super-departments' such as the Department of Environment (UK) and the Department of Housing and Urban Development(US). No such i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s e x i s t s i n A u s t r a l i a at any l e v e l of -164-a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . R egional p l a n n i n g , as a form of p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h r e g i o n a l problems, i s i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h some degree of f u n c t i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n and areal reform. T h i s g e n e r i c case f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g holds i f r e g i o n a l problems can be viewed from a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t many of them r e s u l t from a l a c k of f u n c t i o n a l and a r e a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n government i n s t i t u t i o n s . The extent t o which the a r e a / f u n c t i o n dichotomy i s a p p l i c a b l e i n the g e n e r i c case w i l l determine the extent to which the s i x p r i n c i p l e s w i l l have g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n , and c o u l d be co n s i d e r e d of g e n e r a l g e n e r i c v a l u e . Each of these p r i n c i p l e s has i t s own p a r t i c u l a r s e t of c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i t imposes on a g e n e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . An i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e must be capable of i d e n t i f y i n g r e g i o n a l needs and a r t i c u l a t i n g a r e a l problems and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements must be such t h a t the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n i s adequately r e p r e s e n t e d i n a l l stages of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Furthermore, where r e g i o n a l p lans need t o be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p o l i c i e s of a high e r order of government, c l e a r channels of communication must e x i s t between those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r e p a r a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l p l a n and those d e c i d i n g p o l i c y a t the high e r l e v e l s . A c l e a r v e r t i c a l l i n e of communication f o r each f u n c t i o n w i t h i n l i n e departments and f o r o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s i s an a d d i t i o n a l requirement f o r a g e n e r i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , as i s a conscious e f f o r t t o c o - o r d i n a t e with the d e c i s i o n making of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . -165-H o r i z o n t a l communication channels must a l s o be i n e x i s t e n c e t o f a c i l i t a t e c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c i e s a t the higher l e v e l s and i n t e g r a t i o n of programs at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . As a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a mechanism must e x i s t i n higher echelons of government which i s able to develop c o - o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s between r e l e v a n t agencies based on an aggregate s e t of common g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . A s i m i l a r mechanism must be mi r r o r e d a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l where i t would be necessary f o r r e l e v a n t agencies to i n c o r p o r a t e t h e i r programs i n t o the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The exact nature of these mechanisms and channels of communication cannot be a r t i c u l a t e d more p r e c i s e l y without the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l context t o which r e f e r e n c e can be made. They w i l l a l s o be tempered t o a c e r t a i n extent by e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e , as has been the p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t has been suggested i n NSW. T h i s however does not d e t r a c t from the g e n e r a l u s e f u l l n e s s of the s i x p r i n c i p l e s as being the g e n e r i c o b j e c t i v e s towards which i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must a s p i r e . Emanuel has suggested t h a t r e g i o n a l problems can sometimes r e f l e c t b a r r i e r s t o i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r r e g i o n s , caused by the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of government bo d i e s . Such d e f i c i e n c i e s have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the t h e s i s and have been a r t i c u l a t e d as being the mismatch of area and f u n c t i o n , a concept f i r s t proposed by F e s l e r i n h i s t r e a t i s e on governmental areas and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and more r e c e n t l y by Maass ( a r e a l and c a p i t a l d i v i s i o n of powers), Stewart (place and f u n c t i o n ) and Friedman and Weaver -166-( t e r r i t o r y and f u n c t i o n ) . The view has been taken t h a t i t i s the c o r r e c t i o n of these d e f i c i e n c i e s which may be an e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r r e g i o n a l p r o g r e s s . I t has been hypothesized i n t h i s t h e s i s t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e through which to achieve f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and a r e a l reform w i t h i n government i n s t i t u t i o n s . Such a r o l e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g has not been e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and only r e c e n t l y have there been suggestions by Friedman and Weaver t h a t the e v o l u t i o n of the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g d o c t r i n e i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o the need f o r a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of t e r r i t o r y w ith f u n c t i o n . The p r i n c i p l e s t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter 4 can be co n s i d e r e d as o b j e c t i v e s towards which r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s must a s p i r e as a p r e c o n d i t i o n t o r e g i o n a l p r o g r e s s . Outside of the r e c e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s by Morgan and Alden and G i l l i n g w a t e r , not much thought has p r e v i o u s l y been g i v e n i n the g e n e r i c l i t e r a t u r e to p o s s i b l e s t r u c t u r e s f o r r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of p u b l i c d e c i s i o n making, or the c r i t e r i a towards which they should a s p i r e i n order to be r e l e v a n t i n d e a l i n g w i t h modern problems and needs. I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s t h e s i s has been a u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s d i r e c t i o n . -167-BIBLIOGRAPHY Government P u b l i c a t i o n s  A u s t r a l i a A u s t r a l i a . A u s t r a l i a n Government S o c i a l Welfare Commission. The Regional C o u n c i l f o r Social'Development: a  Developmental Approach. Queanbeyan: November, 197 5. A u s t r a l i a . Commonwealth Department of Post-War R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Regional P l a n n i n g i n A u s t r a l i a . Canberra: 1949. A u s t r a l i a . Commonwealth Grants Commission. F o r t y - t h i r d Report, 1976. on S p e c i a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r S t a t e s . Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n Government P u b l i s h i n g S e r v i c e , 1976. . F o r t y - f o u r t h Report, 1977. S p e c i a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r S t a t e s . Caberra: A u s t r a l i a Government P u b l i s h i n g S e r v i c e , 1977. A u s t r a l i a . C i t i e s Commission. The A u s t r a l i a n System of C i t i e s :  Need f o r Research. O c c a s s i o n a l Paper No. 3. J u l y , 1975. Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1975. A u s t r a l i a . C i t i e s Commission. Urban and Regional Development  Overseas Expert's Reports, 1973. O c c a s s i o n a l Paper No. 1. Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1974. A u s t r a l i a . Department of the S p e c i a l M i n i s t e r of S t a t e . Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o Land Tenures. F i r s t Report November, 1973. Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1974. A u s t r a l i a . Department of Urban and Regional Development. F i r s t  Annual Report 1972-73. Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1973. A u s t r a l i a . Department of Urban and Regional Development. Regions. October, 1973. Canberra: A.G.P,S., 1973. A u s t r a l i a . Department of Urban and Regional Development. Urban  Land:Problems and P o l i c i e s . Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1974. A u s t r a l i a . M i n i s t e r f o r Urban and Regional Development. Urban  and Region a l Development 1975-76. 1975-76 Budget Paper No. 9. Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1975. A u s t r a l i a . P a r l i a m e n t . Royal Commission on A u s t r a l i a n Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . R e g i o n a l i z i n g Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n Paper No. 1. Canberra: Government P r i n t e r , May, 1975. -168-A u s t r a l i a . P a r l i a m e n t . R u r a l P o l i c y i n A u s t r a l i a . Report t o the Prime M i n i s t e r by a Working Group, May 197 4. A u s t r a l i a . P arliament of the Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 55/1973. Schools i n A u s t r a l i a . Report by the I n t e r i m Committee f o r the A u s t r a l i a n Schools Commission. May, 1973. . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 195/1974. N a t i o n a l E s t a t e Report of the Committee of I n q u i r y . . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 218/1974. H o s p i t a l s i n A u s t r a l i a . Prepared by the H o s p i t a l s and Health S e r v i c e s Commission. . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 91/1975. R u r a l R e t r e a t s : An Urban Paper by C l a i r e Wagner. . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 248/1975. S t u d i e s Commissio-ned by the Committee of Commonwealth/State O f f i c i a l s on D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 291/1975. C o a s t a l Land. A u s t r a l i a n A d v i s o r y Committee on the Environment. Report No. 5. J u l y , 1975. . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 96/1976. A u s t r a l i a n A s s i s t a -nce P l a n . Report of the S o c i a l Welfare Commission. February, 1976. . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 45/1977. P r e p o s a l s f o r Cha-nge i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and D e l i v e r y of Program and S e r v i c e s . Task Force on C o - o r d i n a t i o n i n Welfare and Health. F i n a l Report. December, 1976, . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 64/1977. I n d i c a t o r s of Community Well Being. A r e p o r t to the Department of S o c i a l S e c u r i t y . September, 1976, . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Paper No. 79/1977. Woodchips and the Environment. Report from the Senate Standing Committee on Science and the Environment. New South Wales New South Wales. M i n i s t e r f o r P l a n n i n g and Environment. Proposals  f o r a New Environmental P l a n n i n g Syst-pm f n r W P M Smith Wales. June, 197 5. New South Wales. M i n i s t e r f o r P l a n n i n g and Environment. Towards  a New P l a n n i n g System f o r New South Wales. Sydney: November, 1974. -169-New South Wales. New South Wales Pl a n n i n g and Environment Commission. Report to the M i n i s t e r f o r P l a n n i n g and  Environment. Syndey: November, 197 5. New South Wales. Report of the Committee of I n q u i r y - I n t o L o c a l  Government Areas and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n New South Wales. Sydney: New South Wales Government P r i n t e r , 1974, F o r e i g n Great B r i t i a n , P arliament. Royal Commission on L o c a l Government i n England 1966-69. Cmnd. 4040 HMSO, 1969. United S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Resources Committee. Regional F a c t o r s i n N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g and Development. Washington, D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1935 Books Alden, Jeremy., and Morgan, Robert. Regional P l a n n i n g : A  Comprehensive View. Leonard H i l l Books, 1974. Card, B.Y. P e r s p e c t i v e s on Regions and Regionalism. U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1969. F e s l e r , James W. Area and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Birmingham: U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama Pr e s s , 1949. Friedmann, J . , and Weaver, C. T e r r i t o r y and F u n c t i o n : The E v o l u t i o n of the Regional P l a n n i n g D o c t r i n e . B e r k l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , September, 1977. G e r t l e r , L.O. Regional P l a n n i n g i n Canada: A Planner's  Testament. Montreal: Harvest House, 1972, G i l l i n g w a t e r , David. Regional P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l Change. Saxon House/Lexington Books, 1975. Hufschmidt, Maynard M., ed. Regional P l a n n i n g : Challenge and  P r o s p e c t s . New York: Praeger, 1969. Jensen, M e r r i l l . , ed. Regionalism i n America. Madison: The U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1951. K u k l i n s k i , A.R. C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Regional P l a n n i n g and Development. Mysore: I n s t i t u t e of Development S e r i e s , 1971. Lane, P.H. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to A u s t r a l i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Law. Sydney: The Law Book Company L t d . , 1967. Logan, M.I., e t a l . Urban and Regional A u s t r a l i a : a n a l y s i s and  p o l i c y i s s u e s . S o r r e t t , 1975. -170-Maass, A r t h u r . , Ed. Area and Power: A Theory of L o c a l Government. Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The Free P r e s s , 1959. Mackaye, Benton. The New E x p o r a t i o n : a phi l o s o p h y of r e g i o n a l  p l a n n i n g , Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1962. Mathews R.L., ed. F i s c a l F e d e r a l i s m : r e t r o s p e c t and p r o s p e c t . Research Mongraph No. 7. Centre f o r Research on F e d e r a l F i n a n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. . R e s p o n s i b l i t v Sharing i n a F e d e r a l System. Research Monograph No. 8 Centre f o r Research on F e d e r a l F i n a n c i a l R e l a t i o n s . Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. May, R.J. F i n a n c i n g the Small S t a t e s i n A u s t r a l i a n F e d e r a l i s m . Melbourne: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. Odum, Howard W., and Moore, Harry E s t i l l . American Regionalism. New York: Henry H o l t and Company, 193 8. O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic Co-operation and Development. R e - a p p r a i s a l of Regional P o l i c i e s i n OECD C o u n t r i e s . P a r i s : 1974. Power, J.M., and Nelson, H., eds. The Regional A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n  the R i v e r i n a : A Set of Working Papers, Canberra S e r i e s i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s I. Canberra: Canberra C o l l e g e of Advanced Ed u c a t i o n , 1976. S e l f , P e t e r . Regionalism. A Report t o the Fabian S o c i e t y . London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1949. Sinden, J.A., ed. The N a t u r a l Resources of A u s t r a l i a . Anzaas, Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1972, S t i l w e l l , F.J.B. A u s t r a l i a n Urban and Regional Development. Sydney: A u s t r a l i a n and New Zealand Book Company, 1974. Winston, D. Sydney's Great Experiment. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1957. A r t i c l e s - P u b l i s h e d Archer, R.W. "The Theory and P r a c t i c e of Large-Scale Land Development." Royal A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e  J o u r n a l 15 (May 1977): 67-72. Barton, S i r C h a r l e s . "Regional Development i n Queensland." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 34 (March 1975): 73-76, Cappie-Wood, T.N. "Regional Development Viewed from Sydney." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 34 (March 1975): 77-86. -171-Day, P.D. "The Regional Mirage-and problems t h a t won't go away." Royal A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l 15 (May 1977): 38-42. Emanuel, Aaron. "A Report on the New C i t i e s Programme and Urban and Regional Development P o l i c y i n A u s t r a l i a . " i n Urban  and Regional Development Overseas Expert's,Reports 1973, C i t i e s Commission. O c c a s s i o n a l Paper No. 1. Canberra: A.G.P.S., 1974. Friedmann, John. "The Concept of A P l a n n i n g Region." Land  Economics 32 (February 1956): 1-13. H a r r i s , C P . "Commentary on L o c a l and Regional Government." i n F i s c a l F e d e r a l i s m : r e t r o s p e c t and p r o s p e c t . E d i t e d by R, L. Mathews. Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. . "Regional and L o c a l Government P o l i c i e s i n A u s t r a l i a . " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 35 (June 1976): 101-113. , " C o - o r d i n a t i o n of Economic and S o c i a l P o l i c i e s i n a F e d e r a t i o n . " i n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Sharing i n a F e d e r a l  System. E d i t e d by R.L. Mathews. Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Management A s s o c i a t i o n . Regionalism and  M u n i c i p a l Management, (proceedings) Keeble, L.B. "The A u s t r a l i a n Planner's Dilema," S t . L u c i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Queensland P r e s s , 1971. (Monograph). Lansdown, R.B. "Two Years of Co-operative Federalism--The Urban and Regional Experience." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 34 (March 1975): 88-94. M i l l s , Greg. "Regional P l a n n i n g i n A u s t r a l i a - A s p e c t and P r o s p e c t . " Roval A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l 10 (January 1972): 14-17. Moore, Barry. "Machinery of Government Changes i n New South Wales." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 34 (March 1975): 13-21. Morton, P.H. "Planning i n New South Wales," A u s t r a l i a n P lanning  I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l 4 (October 1966)L 229-232, Paterson, John. "The Changing Nature of P l a n n i n g : From P h i l o s o p h e r King to M u n i c i p a l Dog Catcher." Paper presented to the Royal A u s t r a l i a n P lanning I n s t i t u t e , 14th Biannual Congress, A d e l a i d e , 1976. -172-Pred, A l l a n R. "Growth Tr a n s m i s s i o n W i t h i n the A u s t r a l i a n System of C i t i e s : General Observations and Study Recommendations." i n The A u s t r a l i a n System of C i t i e s :  Need f o r Research. C i t i e s Commission, O c c a s s i o n a l Paper No. 3, Canberra: A.G.P.S., (J u l y 1975). Power, J.M., and W e t t e n h a l l , R.L. "Regional Government Verses Region a l Programs." A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l of P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 35 (June 1976): 114-129. Simons, P.L., and Lonergan, N.G. "The M y t h i c a l Arguments f o r D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . " Royal A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u e  J o u r n a l 11 ( J u l y 1973): 85-90. S p e a r r i t t , P., and S c h o f i e l d , J . "The Murrumbidgee Regiona l Development Committee (1946-1973) and the R i v e r i n a Regional A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l (1973- ) . " i n The Regional  A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the R i v e r i n a : A Set of Working Papers. E d i t e d by J.M. Power and H. Nelson. Canberra: Canberra C o l l e g e of Advanced Ed u c a t i o n , 1976, Stewart, J.D. Management-Local-Environment-Urban-Government:  A Few Words Considered. Birmingham: U n i v e r s i t y of Birmingham, March 1973. Troy, Pat N. "Towards a System of Regional Government. "In F i s c a l F e d e r a l i s m : Retrospect and p r o s p e c t . E d i t e d by R.L. Mathews. Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. Uren, Tom. "The F e d e r a l P r i n c i p l e and N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g . " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 34 (March 1975): 98-106. Uren, Tom. "Challenge to Change 1973: Opening Address." Royal A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l 12 (January 1974): 5-7. Watt, A.J. "The P o l i c y Process i n the R e s o l u t i o n of Land-Use C o n f l i c t s on the Boyd P l a t e a u . " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l  of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 35 (September 1976). Wells, H.G. "A Paper on A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Areas Read Before The Fabian S o c i e t y . " i n Area and Power. E d i t e d by A r t h u r Maass. Glencoe, 111.: The Free P r e s s , 1959. W e t t e n h a l l , R.L., and Power, J.M. " R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a . " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Sharing  i n a F e d e r a l System. E d i t e d by R.L. Mathews. Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. W i l t s h i r e , Kenneth. "Regional C o - o r d i n a t i o n i n Queensland." A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 3 5 (June 1976). W i l t s h i r e , Kenneth W. "The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of French N a t i o n a l Economic P l a n n i n g : Lessons f o r A u s t r a l i a . " P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 33 (1974): 253-273. Wirth, L o u i s . "The L i m i t a t i o n s of Regionalism." i n Regionalism  i n America, pp. 381-393. E d i t e d by M e r r i l l Jensen. Madison: The U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1951. Y l v i s a k e r , P a u l . "Some C r i t e r i a f o r a 'Proper' A r e a l D i v i s i o n of Governmental Powers." Area and Power. E d i t e d by A r t h u r Maass. Glencoe, 111.: The Free P r e s s , 1959, A r t i c l e s - Unpublished A l e k s a n d r i c , V.; De Grace Marg; and Dragushan Graham, "Regionalism: A Process of Regional I n t e r a c t i o n . " December, 1977. (Typ e w r i t t e n ) . -174-APPF.NDTX T CONSTITUTIONAL DIVISION OF POWERS IN AUSTRALIA The d i v i s i o n of p a r l i a m e n t a r y powers i n A u s t r a l i a can b e s t be e x p l a i n e d by s t a t i n g t h a t the Commonwealth has only s p e c i a l powers, while the State Parliaments have more ge n e r a l powers over the A u s t r a l i a n c i t i z e n . S e c t i o n 51 of the Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t se t s out the matters over which the Commonwealth has the power t o make laws. Unless the Commonwealth C o n s t i t u t i o n has made a power an e x c l u s i v e Commonwealth power or u n l e s s i t has taken away a power from the S t a t e s , the Stat e s are to continue t o have a l l the powers they a l r e a d y had bef o r e F e d e r a t i o n , The F e d e r a l Parliament has two houses: The Senate or the "upper house" which was intended t o r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s of the i n d i v i d u a l S t a t e s , and the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or the "lower house" r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r e s t s of the people of the Commonwealth. Both Houses are d i r e c t l y e l e c t e d by the people, but f o r the Senate the s i x Stat e s vote as seperate e l e c t o r a t e s . I t i s necessary to look to the S t a t e s ' C o n s t i t u t i o n s to see what powers they have. The New South Wales C o n s t i t u t i o n Act simply says t h a t the New South wales Par l i a m e n t s h a l l : "have power t o make laws f o r the peace, w e l f a r e and good government of New South Wales i n a l l cases whatsoever"-s u b j e c t to the P r o v i s i o n s of the Commonwealth C o n s t i t u t i o n . Thus the New South Wales Parliament can make laws on such -175-g e n e r a l matters as r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , p u b l i c h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and so on. The New South Wales Parliament i s a b i c a m e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e c o n s i s t i n g of a nominated L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and an e l e c t e d L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Primary Source: P.H. Lane, An I n t r o d u c t i o n To A u s t r a l i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Law, Sydney: The Law Book Company L t d . , 1967. -17 6-. f a r t v . p o w e r s o f T H E p a r l i a m e n t . Legislative powers of the Parliament Inserted by No. */. 1946. S.7. Altered by No. 55.1967. s.2. PartV Powers of the Parliament 51. T h e Parliament shall, subject to this Constitution, have power* to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the Commonweal th with respect t o : — (i.) T rade and commerce with other countries, and among the States: (ii.) Taxat ion; but so as not to discriminate between States or parts of States: (iii.) Bounties on the production or export of goods, but so that such bounties shall be uniform throughout the Commonwealth: (iv.) Borrowing money on the public credit of the Commonwea l th : (v.) Postal, telegraphic, telephonic, and other like services: (vi.) T h e naval and mil itary defence of,the Commonwea l th and o f the several States. and the control o f the forces to execute and maintain the laws o f the C o m m o n -wealth: (vii.) Lighthouses, lightships, beacons and buoys: (viii.) Astronomical and meteorological observations: (ix.) Quarantine: (x.) Fisheries in Austral ian waters beyond territorial limits: (xi.) Census and statistics: (xii.) Currency, coinage, and legal tender. (xiii.) Banking, other than State banking; also State banking extending beyond the limits of the State concerned, the incorporation of banks, and the issue of paper money: (xiv.) Insurance, other than State insurance; also State insurance extending beyond the limits of the State concerned: (xv.) . Weights and measures: -(xvi.) Bills of exchange and promissory notes: ' • (xvii.) Bankruptcy and insolvency: ,. (xviii.) Copyrights, patents of inventions and designs, and trade marks: (xix.) Natural ization and aliens: (xx.) Foreign corporations, and trading or financial corporations formed within the limits of the Commonwea l th : (xxi.) Marr iage: (xxii.) Divorce and matr imonia l causes; and in relation thereto, parental rights, and the custody and guardianship of infants: (xxiii.) Invalid and old-age pensions: (xxiiiA.) T h e provision of maternity allowances, widows' pensions, child endowment, uneniployment. pharmaceutical, sickness and hospital benefits, medical and dental services (but not so as to authorize any form of civil conscription), benefits lo students and family allowances: (xxiv.) T h e service and execution throughout the Commonwea l th o f the civil and cr imina l process and the judgments of the courts of the States: h. (xxv.) . T h e recognition throughout the Commonweal th o f the laws, the public Act s and records, and the judicial proceedings of the States: (xxvi.) T h e people of any race, oilier t-h*a the aboriginal w « e w a*vy for whom it"is deemed necessary to make special laws: (xxvii.) Immigration and emigration: (xxviii.) T h e influx of criminals: (xxix.) External affairs: _ (xxx.) T h e relations of the Commonweal th with the islands of the Pacific: (xxxi.) T h e acquisition of property on just terms from any State or person for any purpose in respect of which the Parliament has power to make laws: (xxxii.) T h e control of railways with respect to transport for the naval and mil itary pur-poses of the Commonweal th : (x'xxiii.) The acquisition, with the consent of a State, o f any railways of the State on terms arranged between the Commonweal th and the State: (xxxiv.) Rai lway construction and extension in any State with the consent of that State: (xxxv.) Conci l iat ion and arbitration for the prevention and settlement of industrial disputes extending beyond the limits o fany one Stale: (xxxvi.) Matters in respect of which this Constitution makes provision until the Parliament otherwise provides: (xxxvii.) Matters referred* to the Parliament or the Commonwea l th by the Parliament or Parliaments of any Stale or Stales, but so that ihe law shall extend only to States by whose Parliaments the matter is referred, or which afterwards adopt the law: (xxxviii.) The exercise within the Commonwealth, ;it the request or with the concurrence of the Parliaments of all the States directly concerned, of any power which can at the establishment of this Constitution be exercised only by the Parliament of the United K ingdom or by the l-'cderal Counci l o f Australasia: (xxxix.) Matters incidental to the execution o f a n y power vested by this Constitution inThc"' Parliament or in cither House thereof, or in the Government of the C o m m o n -wealth, or in the Federal Judicature, or in any department or officer of the C o m -monwealth. -177-APPENDIX II MACHINERY OF GOVERNMENT IN NSW T h i s appendix g i v e s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r e s e n t machinery of government i n NSW, i n order to p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l context a g a i n s t which the proposed p l a n n i n g system may be viewed. I t i s b a s i c a l l y a summary of m a t e r i a l contained i n two a r t i c l e s by Barry Moore, these being "The Machinery of Government i n NSW" i n The Regional A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the R i v e r i n a , John Power and Helen Nelson (eds.), 1976, and "Machinery of Government Changes i n NSW", P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , June, 1975. F i g u r e A summarizes the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e i n a d a r t b o a r d arrangement. The Cabinet i s i n the c e n t r e with each M i n i s t e r l o o k i n g outwards and e x c e r c i s i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n over a segment of the board. Each component of the machinery of government may be l o c a t e d i n one of these segments, i t s d i s t a n c e from the c e n t r e being d i c t a t e d by the extent of Cabinet c o n t r o l over i t s a c t i v i t i e s . The components of New South Wales Government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o twenty "segments" r e p r e s e n t i n g the M i n i s t e r i a l p o r t f o l i o s of Cabinet, and c r o s s - c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g f o u r " r i n g s " . : 1) m i n i s t e r i a l departments - t h i s i s a c l a s s i c department of government wi t h a form of o r g a n i z a t i o n c e n t r e d upon the needs of a M i n i s t e r . I t may be a s m a l l p o l i c y s e c r e t a r i a t w i t h o p e r a t i n g f u n c t i o n s g i v e n to sub-departments or to i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s , or i t may be a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o p e r a t i o n s as w e l l as p o l i c y . 2) sub-departments - i s not as c l o s e l y l i n k e d to a M i n i s t e r as - 1 7 8 -i s t h e c a s e w i t h a M i n i s t e r i a l d e p a r t m e n t . The p e r m a n e n t h e a d i s o f t e n a n o f f i c i a l w i t h s t a t u t o r y p o w e r s i n h i s own r i g h t o r i s t h e h e a d o f a b o d y w i t h c o r p o r a t e s t a t u s . 3) s e m i - a u t o n o m o u s d e p a r t m e n t - f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f b u d g e t a r y c o n t r o l i t i s r e g a r d e d a s a n o r d i n a r y d e p a r t m e n t , b u t t h e p e r m a n e n t h e a d r e p o r t s d i r e c t l y t o a M i n i s t e r , b u t e n j o y s a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f o p e r a t i o n a l f r e e d o m . 4) g o v e r n m e n t i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y - l i k e t h e P l a n n i n g a n d E n v i r o n m e n t C o m m i s s i o n some o f t h e s e a r e r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e b u s i n e s s u n d e r t a k i n g s . The g o v e r n i n g b o d y o f e a c h i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y r e p o r t s t o a M i n i s t e r , b u t i n p r a c t i c e i t t e n d s t o o p e r a t e w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m C a b i n e t . A l i s t o f NSW g o v e r n m e n t b o d i e s a n d t h e i r m a j o r f u n c t i o n s i s a l s o p r o v i d e d a s a g u i d e t o i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d i a g r a m . T h e C a b i n e t A new C a b i n e t s t r u c t u r e was a d o p t e d i n J a n u a r y 1 9 7 5 . A s s h o w n i n F i g u r e B , t h e new s t r u c t u r e o f C a b i n e t p r o v i d e s f o r f i v e s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s , i n o r d e r t o h a n d l e m a t t e r s w h i c h h a d p r e v i o u s l y g o n e t o a f u l l C a b i n e t m e e t i n g f o r d i s c u s s i o n a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e P l a n n i n g a n d E n v i r o n m e n t C o m m i s s i o n w a s r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o m m i t t e e w h i c h c o v e r e d t h e p o l i c y f i e l d o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s g e n e r a l l y a n d l a n d u s e i n p a r t i c u l a r . The P o l i c i e s a n d P r i o r i t i e s C o m m i t t e e i n c l u d e s t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e f o u r o t h e r s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s a n d b r i n g s a n o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t p r o p o s a l s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e C a b i n e t . The f o u r s t a n d i n g -179-committees on p o l i c y f i e l d s r e f e r most of t h e i r recommendations d i r e c t t o Cabinet, but matters i n v o l v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c y o r p r i o r i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are r e f e r r e d f i r s t t o the P o l i c i e s and P r i o r i t i e s Committee. -180-FfcGliKE. A THE-*:DARTB<V«<JE> " MODE_L O F ff^SVsJ G O V E R N M E N T -181-L i s t of N.S.W. Government Bodies, 1975 Reference Number (see Figure ft) 1 Premier and Treasurer (2 portfolios) T i t l e Premier's Department Auditor-General's Department Public Service Board Treasury Department Major Functions - Provision of administrative services to Cabinet. - Relationships with other States, the Commonwealth Government, and the United Kingdom. - Representation of the N.S.W. Government in London, New York and Tokyo. - Organization of State func-tions and celebrations. - Entertainment of d i s t i n -guished overseas v i s i t o r s . - Provision of motor transport for Ministers and v i s i t i n g V.I.P's. - Administrative services to the Crown Employees Appeal Board and Promotions Appeals Board. - Public relations and commun-ications services for the State Government. - Auditing of Government finance. - Maintenance of Personnel standards and general efficiency in Government departments. - Recruitment of public service, staff. - Supervision of Government finance. - Preparation of public accounts and the State budget. -182-Premier and Treasurer (2 portfolios) contd. Reference Number (see Figure ft) T i t l e Major Functions 4 Treasury Department - Regulation and taxation of (contd.) bookmakers. - Collection and custody of unclaimed moneys. - Co-ordination of Revenue agencies. - Licensing and taxation of poker machines. Deputy Premier and Minister for Local Government and  Tourism (3 portfolios) Department of Local Government Metropolitan Waste Disposal Authority Sydney Cove Redevel-opment Authority Department of Tourism Supervision of Local Government. Legal service to Local Government bodies. Technical advice to Local Government bodies. To co-ordinate waste disposal functions of local Councils in Sydney Metropolitan area. Redevelopment of Sydney Cove. Promotion of the Tourist Industry. Management of tourist resorts and a Government Travel Agency. Attorney-General and Minister for Justice (2 portfolios) Department of the Attorney-General and of Justice - Establishment of Courts. - Appointment of Judges and Magistrates. - Regulation of qualifications of registered Public Accountants. -183-Attorney-General and Minister for Justice (2 portfolios) contd. Reference Number (see Figure A) T i t l e Department of the Attorney-General and of Justice contd. 10 11 12 13 14 Corporate Affairs Commission Crown Solicitor's Office Sheriff's Office Public Trust Office Magistrates Courts Administration Major Functions - Revision of legal statutes and legal procedures. - Regulation and control of the liquor trade. - Appointment of Justices of the Peace. - Legal Aid schemes. - Regulation and control of companies - Provision of legal advice and legal services to the Government. - Provision of services to the Judiciary. - Provision of trustee services to the public. - Operation of Courts of Petty Sessions. Minister for Planning and Environment and Vice President  of the Executive Council (2 portfolios) 15 16 N.S.W. Planning and Environment Commission State Pollution Control Commission Protection of the environ-ment . Provision of urban and country planning services. Co-ordination of anti-pollution a c t i v i t i e s . Minister for Public Works and Ports (2 portfolios) 17 Department of Public Works - Design, construction and maintenance of Government buildings. - Engineering services to Government departments and undertakings. - Maintenance of telephone . services for the N.S.W. Public Service. - The testing of building materials for industry and for the public. - Manufacture and sale of bricks. - 1 8 4 -Mlnister for Public Works and Ports (2 portfolios) contd. Reference Number (see Figure ft) T i t l e Major Functions 18 19 State Dockyard Broken H i l l Water Board 20 Hunter Di s t r i c t Water Board 21 Metropolitan Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board 22 *Water Conservation and Irrigation Commission The management of a dock-yard undertaking. Construction, maintenance and control of water supply, sewerage and drainage system for Broken H i l l . Construction, maintenance and control of water supply, sewerage and drainage system for Newcastle area. Construction, maintenance ; and control of water, sewer-age and drainage system for Sydney area. Development of water resources. Operations of water supply undertakings i n various country centres. Conservation and appropria-tion of water resources. * There i s a proposal to convert this government instrumentality into a sub-department, under the t i t l e of Department of Water Resources. 23 0*Maritime Services Board - Co-ordination of Port and navigation services. Minister for Education (1 portfolio) 24 25 26 Ministry of Education Department of Technical and Further Education Department of Education - Promoting the co-ordination of educational services. - Providing an administrative service to certain Boards and Authorities. - Administering the Adult Migrant Education Service and the N.S.W. State Conservatorium of Music. - Provision of vocational and further education. - Education of children. - Training of school teachers. - Education of adults. -185-Reference Number (see Figure ft) T i t l e Major Functions Minister for Labour, Industry and Consumer Affairs and  Minister for Federal Affairs (3 portfolios) 27 28 Department of Labour and Industry and Ministry of Consumer Affairs Worker's Compensat-ion Commission Division of Federal Affairs (organised as part of the Premier's Department) - Promotion of safety, health and welfare of employees i n industry. - Regulation of working conditions in factories. - Provision of vocational guidance services. - Regulation of explosives and inflammable liquids. - Protection of consumer interests. - Regulation of weights and measures. - Regulation of industrial relations and apprentice-ship. -Co-ordination of workers' compensation insurance. Minister for Agriculture (1 portfolio) 29 Department of - Promotion of efficiency and Agriculture well being of primary industries. - Provision of extension, research, regulatory and Agricultural education • services. - Administration of plant and animal quarantine. - Maintenance and development of Royal Botanic Gardens, Domain and Centennial Park. - Administration of State Marketing Bureau and of provisions of Marketing of Primary Products Act con-cerning constitution of marketing boards and of . producer representatives. - Administrative support for Pastures Protection Boards.. ** There, are plans to rename this body the Ports of N.S.W. -186-Mlnlster for Agriculture (1 portfolio) contd. Reference Number (see Figure fl) 29 T i t l e Department of Agriculture contd. 30 31 32 33 Meat Industry Authority of N.S.W. Dairy Industry Authority Grain Elevators Board of N.S.W. Metropolitan Meat Industry Board 34 Sydney Farm Produce Markets Authority Major Functions - Registration or licensing of veterinary surgeons, farm produce agents, margarine manufacturers, dairy produce factories, potato growers, nurserymen, apiaries, veter-inary medicines and pesticides. - The licensing of establish-ments for the slaughtering of stock and the fixing of standards of design of such establishments. Regulation and control of the supply and distribution of milk for human consumption and for manufacture into milk products. Bulk storage, transport and shipment of wheat and other grains. The operation and management of the Homebush Abattoirs, the meat h a l l and the Flemington Saleyards. The control of slaughtering and public saleyards i n the County of Cumberland. The licensing of Abattoirs outside the County of Cumber-land, which slaughter for supply of meat to the County of Cumberland. Provision of public markets for the marketing of f r u i t and vegetables i n Sydney metropolitan area. - 1 8 7 -Minister for Transport and Highways (2 portfolios) Reference number (see Figure ft) 35 T i t l e Ministry of Trans-port and Highways 36 Department of Motor Transport 37 Public Transport Commission 38 Department of Main Roads Major Functions Administrative services to transport authorities. Administration of fare concession schemes. The encouragement of road safety. Registration of motor vehicles and licensing of drivers. Collection of motor vehicle taxation and compulsory third party insurance premiums. Administration of t r a f f i c laws and provision of t r a f f i c f a c i l i t i e s . Regulation of commercial and private passenger -carrying vehicles. Licensing of second-hand motor dealers and tow-truck operators. Licensing of private passen-ger ferries on Sydney Harbour and commercial intrastate a i r c r a f t . Administration and operation of government-owned railway, bus and ferry services. Construction and maintenance of main roads, motorways and tollways. Administration of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Control of weights and loads on vehicles on main roads. -188-Minlster for Police and Services (2 portfolios) Reference Number (see Figure ft) T i t l e Major Functions 39 Corrective Services Department - Management of prisons. - Rehabilitation of prisoners. 40 Police Department - Protection of l i f e and property. - Preservation of law and order. - Prevention of crime. - Detection and bringing to justice of criminals. - Control of firearms. 41 Department of Services - Regulation of gaming and betting. - Regulation of charities. - Control of obscene and indecent publications. - Licensing of speedways. - Regulation of the production, distribution and exhibition of movie films. - Licensing of theatres and public halls. - Management of a government information service. - Provision of computer services to State Government departments. - Regulation of real estate,' stock and station and business agents, and auctioneers. - Registration of births, deaths and marriages. - Operation of let t e r delivery services for Government departments. - Operation of the Government motor garage. - Co-ordination of stores t cleaning and printing services. - Regulation of hawkers, second-hand dealers, private enquiry agents, etc. - Licensing of riding schools, livery stables, kennels and animal boarding establish-ments. -189-Minister for Police and Services (2 portfolios) contd. Reference number (see Figure ft) 42 * 43 T i t l e Government Printing Office Government Stores Department 44 Board of Fire Commissioners Major Functions Printing and publishing services to Government. Provision of supplies and services for government departments, schools, hospitals and government subsidised organizations. Cleaning of schools and government offices. Servicing of office and electronic equipment for government departments. Manufacturing uniforms and household linen for govern-ment departments, hospitals and other instrumentalities. Preventing and extinguishing f i r e s i n settled areas. Minister for Mines and Energy (2 portfolios) 45 Department of Mines 46 E l e c t r i c i t y Authority 47 E l e c t r i c i t y Commission - Regulation and development of mining industries. - Promoting the safety and welfare of miners. - Registration of mining t i t l e s . - Assessment, conservation and u t i l i z a t i o n of mineral resources. - Promotion, co-ordination and development of e l e c t r i c i t y supply authorities. - Maintenance of safety standards in the e l e c t r i c a l industry. - Generation and supply of . e l e c t r i c i t y to Local Government authorities for r e t a i l distribution. - Generation and supply of e l e c t r i c i t y for government railways. - Operation of state coal mines. -190-Reference number (see Figure ft) T i t l e Major Functions M i n i s t e r f o r D e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n and Development (1 p o r t f o l i o ) 48 49 Department of Decen-t r a l i s a t i o n and Development Bathurst-Orange Development Corporation - Promotion of i n d u s t r i a l expansion. - D e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n of ind u s t r y . - Assistance to country i n d u s t r i e s . - Development of Bathurst-Orange as a growth centre. M i n i s t e r f o r Housing and Co-operative S o c i e t i e s (2 p o r t f o l i o s ) 50 M i n i s t r y of Housing and Co-operative S o c i e t i e s 51 52 53 B u i l d e r s ' L i c e nsing Board Housing Commission Registry of Co-operative S o c i e t i e s - Co-ordination and oversight of housing and co-operative s e r v i c e s . - R e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l of rents. - I n v e s t i g a t i o n of s t r a t a t i t l e disputes. - Regulation of b u i l d i n g industry. - Regulation of b u i l d i n g industry. - Construction and management of p u b l i c housing. - Real Estate s e r v i c e s to government departments. - Regulation and development of co-operative s o c i e t i e s , permanent b u i l d i n g s o c i e t i e s and indemnities. Mini s t e r f o r Health (1 p o r t f o l i o ) 54 Health Commission - Promotion of p u b l i c h e a l t h . - Management of c h i l d h e a l t h centres. - Maintenance of pure food standards. - Regulation of p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l s . v - Medico-legal:, advice to p o l i c e and to coroners. - Regulation and c o n t r o l of p u b l i c h o s p i t a l s . - P r o v i s i o n of ambulance s e r v i c e s . -191-Reference number (see Figure fi) Ti t l e Major Functions Minister for Revenue and Assistant Treasurer (2 portfolios) 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Government Insurance of N.S.W. Land Tax Office Stamp Duties Office State Lotteries Office State Superannuation Board N.S.W. Superannuation Office Rural Assistance Board Rural Bank of N.S.W. Totalizator Agency Board - Provision of insurance services to the Government and to the public. - Collection of Land Tax. - Collection of stamp duties, death duties and pay r o l l tax. - Management of State Lotteries - Operation of a superannuation scheme for State public servants. - Co-ordination of policies in relation to superannuation funds for employees of State and Local Government authorities and mine workers. - Financial support for primary producers. - Provision of banking services to the Government and to the public. - Provision of f a c i l i t i e s for off-course betting. (The Minister also receives administrative support from the Treasury - see No. 4 above). Minister for Youth, Ethnic and Community Affairs (1 portfolio) 64 Department of Youth, Ethnic and Community Affairs - Provision for the welfare of children. - Provision of social welfare and services that supplement. Commonwealth benefits. - Promoting the welfare of aborigines, other ethnic groups, and immigrants. - Promoting youth services, community services and State immigration. -192-Minister for Youth, Ethnic and Community Affairs (1 portfolio) contd. Reference number (see Figure ft 65 T i t l e State Emergency Services Major Functions The organisation of c i v i l defence against external aggression or natural disaster. Preventing and extinguishing bush f i r e s . Minister for Culture, Sport and Recreation (1 portfolio) 66 67 68 69 Department of Culture, Sport and Recreation Australian Museum State Library of N.S.W. Sydney Opera House Trust - Encouragement of cultural a c t i v i t i e s . - Promotion of physical fitness through sport and recreation. - Regulation and control of greyhound racing. - Management of a public museum. - Management of General Refer-ence Library, Mitchell Library, Dixon Library and McPherson Library. - Management of the Opera House complex. Minister for Lands and Forests (2 portfolios) 70 Department of Lands 71 72 Central Mapping Authority National Parks and Wildlife Service - Regulation of the sale, occupation and management of Crown Lands (Eastern and Central Divisions). - Provision of land for community and social needs. - Control and management of Lord Howe Island a f f a i r s . - Registration of Crown Land t i t l e s . - Co-ordination of mapping services. - Control and management of national parks and hi s t o r i c a l sites. - Protection of native plants and w i l d l i f e . -193-M i n i s t e r f o r Lands and F o r e s t s (2 p o r t f o l i o s ) contd. Reference number (see F i g u r e ft) T i t l e Major Functions 73 R e g i s t r a r - G e n e r a l ' s O f f i c e 74 Valuer-General's Department 75 Western Lands Commissioner 76 F i s h Marketing A u t h o r i t y 77 F o r e s t r y Commission - I n v e s t i g a t i o n and r e g i s t r a -t i o n of d e a l i n g s a f f e c t i n g t i t l e to la n d under the p r o v i s i o n s of the Real P r o p e r t y Act and S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t . - I n v e s t i g a t i o n and r e g i s t r a t i o n of la n d s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s . - R e g i s t r a t i o n of instruments a f f e c t i n g Old System l a n d , Acts of P a r l i a m e n t , l i e n s on crops and wool, stock mortgages, b i l l s of s a l e and other miscellaneous matters. - P r o c e s s i n g of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the conversion of Old System l a n d to Torrens T i t l e . - Making o f f i c i a l searches i n lan d t i t l e s matters and making searches on behalf of other departments and i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s . - V a l u a t i o n of r e a l p r o p e r t y f o r S t a t e Government and L o c a l Government purposes. - R e g u l a t i o n of s a l e , occupation and management of Crown Lands (Western D i v i s i o n ) . - R e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l of f i s h marketing. - D e d i c a t i o n , c o n t r o l , management and p r o t e c t i o n of S t a t e f o r e s t s . -194-MACHINERY OF GOVERNMENT C A B I N E T S T R U C T U R E SOURCE.; * A A C H l M C B ^ OF G O U E R N M C N T C«M-*C.eJS IM . 

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