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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The pleasure experience of low- and high anhedonic undergraduates Douglas, Kathryn Ann 1978

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THE PLEASURE EXPERIENCE OF LOW- AND HIGH-ANHEDONIC UNDERGRADUATES by KATHRYN ANN DOUGLAS B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y . o f Wate r loo , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October , 1978 © Kathryn Ann Doug las , 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . „ f PSYCHOLOGY Department of • The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date C ^ A ^ & ^ S /97% i i ABSTRACT Some emot iona l and d e s c r i p t i v e aspects of an imagined p l e a s u r e exper ience were examined f o r l ow - and h igh -anhedon ic undergraduates . Sub jects were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o low-anhedonic or h igh -anhedon ic on the b a s i s of scores on t h e . P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le (Chapman, Chapman, & R a u l i n , 1976) . Emot iona l responses were d e r i v e d from scores on the D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e ( I z a r d , Dougherty , Bloxom, & K o t s c h , 1974) and i n c l u d e d a n x i e t y i t e m s . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was conducted f o r each of the two s c a l e s used and f a c t o r scores were computed. Because males scored as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anhedonic than females , ana lyses were conducted s e p a r a t e l y f o r 49 dependent measures: r e c a l l of p l e a s a n t s i t u a t i o n s , average r a t i n g of p l e a s a n t n e s s , f requency of p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s , i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a -t i o n r a t i n g s of p leasantness (maximum of 1 0 ) , f a c t o r scores f o r 12 emotion f a c t o r s , and f a c t o r scores f o r 24 anhedonia f a c t o r s . The o v e r a l l T 2 f o r both males and females was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , suggest ing tha t low-anhedonics of both sexes d i f f e r from h i g h - a n h e -donics i n t h e i r report 's " regard ing t h e i r emot iona l and e x p e r i e n t i a l concomitants of the p l e a s u r e exper ience . The p r e c i s e source of the d i f f e r e n c e was n o t , however, d i s c e r n i b l e . The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s of both the D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e and the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le are d i s c u s s e d . A l though the s t r u c t u r e of the D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions Sca le c l e a r l y r e p l i c a t e s the work of I za rd et a l . (1974) , that of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le f a i l e d to be c o n s i s t e n t . The weaknesses of the l a t t e r inst rument are d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s tudy . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of Figures and I l l u s t r a t i o n s v i i Acknowledgement v i i i Introduction 1 Methodological Considerations 1 Theories of Anhedonia 4 Prevalence of Anhedonia 7 Refinement of the Construct 13 Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Anhedonics 16 S p e c i f i c Hypotheses 23 Study 1: Comparison of Low- and High-Anhedonics 26 Method 26 Results 29 Discussion 36 Study 2: Factor Structure of the DES+A 40 Method 41 Results and Discussion 43 Study 3: Factor Structure of the Physical Anhdeonia Scale 64 Method 65 Results and Discussion 68 Summary and General Discussion 93 References 95 Appendices 98 Appendix I Test Materials 98 Appendix II C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix for Males - DES Items 106 i v TABLE OF CONTENTS cont inued Page Appendix I I I Appendix IV Appendix V Appendix VI Appendix V I I Appendix V I I I Appendix IX Appendix X Appendix XI Appendix X I I Appendix X I I I Appendix XIV Appendix XV Appendix XVI Appendix XVI I Appendix XV I I I Appendix XIV C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c f o r Females -DES Items 111 Pooled C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x - DES Items 116 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Males -Anhedonia Items 121 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Females -Anhedonia Items 129 Pooled C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x -Anhedonia Items 137 Fac to r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A Males 12 -Fac to r S o l u t i o n 145 Fac to r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A Females 1 2 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n 147 F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i c DES+A Poo led 1 2 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n 149 Male Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Fac to rs 151 Female Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of F a c t o r s 152 Pooled Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of F a c t o r s 153 F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x Anhedonia Sca le Males 2 4 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n 154 F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x Anhedonia S c a l e Females 2 4 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n 157 F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x Anhedonia S c a l e Pooled 2 4 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n 160 Male Sample Anhedonia S c a l e C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of F a c t o r s 163 Female Sample Anhedonia S c a l e C o r r e l a -t i o n M a t r i x of F a c t o r s 164 Pooled Sample Anhedonia Sca le C o r r e l a -t i o n M a t r i x of F a c t o r s 165 V LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Means f o r H i g h - and Low-Anhedonic Subjects Table 2 F a c t o r s D e f i n i n g the P l e a s u r e Exper ience Table 3 E igenva lues Greater than 1.0 Der i ved from Component A n a l y s i s Table 4 L i k e l i h o o d - R a t i o Test R e s u l t s Table 5 Unweighted Least Squares 1 1 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n . Percentage of R e s i d u a l s Greater than 1.0 i n Lower T r i a n g u l a r P o r t i o n of C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c Table 6 Summary of Test R e s u l t s to Determine Number of F a c t o r s Table 7 T o t a l Hyperplane Counts of R o t a t i o n s of DES+A 1 2 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n Table 8 F a c t o r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of 51- I tem D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions Sca le + A n x i e t y f o r Males Table 9 Fac to r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of 51- I tem D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions Sca le + A n x i e t y f o r Females Table 10 F a c t o r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of 51- I tem D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e + A n x i e t y f o r Pooled Sample Table 11 Number of Items Having Extreme P r o p o r t i o n a l S p l i t s Table 12 E igenva lues Greater than 1.0 Der i ved from Component A n a l y s i s Table 13 L i k e l i h o o d - R a t i o Test R e s u l t s « Page 30 35 44 49 50 51 53 54 55 67 69 73 Table 14 Cumulat ive Percentage of V a r i a n c e Accounted f o r by Va ry ing Numbers of F a c t o r s 74 v i LIST OF TABLES cont inued Page Table 15 Percentage of R e s i d u a l s Greater than 1.0 f o r Unweighted Least Squares 1 3 - and 2 4 -F a c t o r S o l u t i o n s 76 Table 16 T o t a l Hyperplane Counts of R o t a t i o n s of P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le 1 3 - and 2 4 - F a c t o r C o l u t i o n s 78 Table 17 Fac to r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = .5) T ransformat ion of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f o r Male Sample 79 Table 18 Fac to r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le f o r Female Sample 82 Table 19 F a c t o r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le f o r Pooled Sample 85 v i i LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Page F i g u r e 1 Scree Test f o r DES+A Items Based on Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Males 45 F i g u r e 2 Scree Test f o r DES+A Items Based on Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Females 46 F i g u r e 3 Scree Test f o r DES+A Items Based on Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Poo led Sample. 47 F i g u r e 4 Scree Test f o r Anhedonia Items Based on Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Males 70 F i g u r e 5 Scree Test f o r Anhedonia Items Based on Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Females 71 F o g i r e 6 Scree Test f o r Anhedonia Items Based on Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Poo led Sample 72 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I t i s to a number of people that I w i s h to extent my s i n c e r e thanks f o r a s s i s t a n c e a t v a r i o u s stages of t h i s p r o j e c t . F i r s t l y , I would l i k e to mention my a d v i s o r y committee, D i m i t r i Papageorg i s , Ralph H a k s t i a n , and Bob Hare f o r t h e i r t h o u g h t f u l comments and a d v i c e from the i n c e p t i o n to the complet ion of the r e s e a r c h . S p e c i a l thanks are due to Rod B o r r i e , Dave Cox, J im S t e i g e r , and J e r r y W i l l i s f o r hav ing p e r m i t t e d me to approach students i n t h e i r c l a s s e s , and to Frank F l y n n f o r programming a s s i s t a n c e . I am indebted to Betsy Spauld ing f o r her he lp w i t h the data c o l l e c t i o n and to N e a l Chan f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the many hours of data c o d i n g . 1 INTRODUCTION P l e a s u r e , as a d imension of human e x p e r i e n c e , has long been neg -l e c t e d as a t o p i c of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . N o t a b l y , i t s converse , anhedonia , has h i s t o r i c a l l y been the focus of c l i n i c a l a t t e n t i o n and , more r e c e n t l y , has a t t r a c t e d the i n t e r e s t of a h a n d f u l of r e s e a r c h e r s . I t i s apparent tha t the scant a t t e n t i o n awarded to d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the p leasure exper ience has y i e l d e d agreement n e i t h e r i n the p r e c i s e meaning of anhedonia as a d e s c r i p t i v e term nor i n the b e h a v i o u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . The observed phenomenon has ach ieved almost s u b l i m i n a l r e c o g n i t i o n among exper ienced c l i n i c i a n s , yet i t escapes the grasp of those who would sub jec t i t to s y s t e m a t i c s tudy . The present study rep resents an attempt to beg in to r e c t i f y the d e f i c i e n c i e s of past r e s e a r c h through an examinat ion of the p l e a -sure exper ience of both l o w - and h igh -anhedon ic s u b j e c t s . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s I t i s the f i r s t aim of t h i s rev iew to h i g h l i g h t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems which have i n t e r f e r e d w i t h s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a phenomenon c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e . One source of c o n f u s i o n has been tha t of an a p p r o p r i a t e l a b e l f o r the phenomenon. Most f r e q u e n t l y , the term anhedonia has been employed i n the l i t e r a t u r e ; however, r e c e n t l y some r e s e a r c h e r s (Kayton & Koh, 1975; M e e h l , 1964) have become s e n s i t i z e d to the i n a c c u r a c i e s inherent i n cont inued usage of the term anhedonia and propose adopt ion of the word "hypohedonia" to r e f l e c t more c l o s e l y the c l i n i c a l r e a l i t y . The main i s s u e r e v e a l e d by the d i s s e n s i o n i n cho ice of terminology 2 i s not s imply a semantic one. R a t h e r , i t i l l u s t r a t e s d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of p l e a s u r e d e f i c i e n c y . On the one hand, usage of anhedonia as a l a b e l suggests a d i s c r e t e category — an a b s o l u t e c o n d i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the t o t a l absence of p l e a s u r e . On the other hand, hypohedonia r e f l e c t s a c o n t i n u o u s l y d i s t r i b u t e d t r a i t which a l l o w s f o r g radat ions of degrees of d e f i c i e n c y i n p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e . Because of the cu r ren t p a u c i t y of e m p i r i c a l ev idence , both p o s i t i o n s are t e n a b l e . The cho ice of an adequate l a b e l must be postponed u n t i l such t ime when research c l e a r l y supports one v iew. For tha t r e a s o n , anhedonia w i l l be used to r e f e r to the c l i n i c a l phenomenon p r i m a r i l y because i t occurs most f r e q u e n t l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t s c i e n t i f i c p r e c i s i o n w i l l be gained by the a d d i t i o n of ye t another t e c h n i c a l l a b e l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s in tended that t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n h i g h l i g h t a major t h e o r e t i c a l problem. The next p o i n t of c o n f u s i o n , c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the fo rmer , i s that of an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of anhedonia. Th is i s perhaps the most c r i t i c a l d e t e r r e n t to s y s t e m a t i c study as i t a f f e c t s the c o n s t r u c -t i o n and cho ice of an assessment dev ice as w e l l as the hypotheses which are t e s t e d . A rev iew of d e f i n i t i o n s employed i n the l i t e r a t u r e suggested four i m p l i c i t t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s : 1) An a b s o l u t e r e c e p t i v e d e f i c i e n c y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t o t a l i n a b i l i t y to exper ience p l e a s u r e ( E n g l i s h , 1934; H i n s i e & Campbel l , 1970; Watson, 1972a, 1972b; Watson & Jacobs , 1977; Watson, K l e t t , & L o r e i , 1970) ; 2) A c o n t i n u o u s l y d i s t r i b u t e d r e c e p t i v e d e f i c i e n c y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a lowered c a p a c i t y to exper ience p l e a s u r e (Chapman, Chapman, & R a u l i n , 1976; Harrow, G r i n k e r , Holzman, & Kay ton , 1977; Kayton & Koh, 1975; Meeh l , 1964) ; 3) An a b s o l u t e e x p r e s s i v e d e f i c i e n c y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f a i l u r e to express p l e a s u r e (Watson, 1977) ; and f i n a l l y , 3 4) One aspect of a g e n e r a l i z e d emot ional weakening r e l a t e d to l o s s of connect ion between emot ion, thought , and m o t i v a t i o n ( B l e u l e r , 1911/1950; K r a e p e l i n , 1913/1919; Rado, 1969) . Th is l a s t d e f i n i t i o n r e l a t e s p r i m a r i l y to o b s e r v a t i o n s of j o y l e s s n e s s i n s c h i z o p h r e n i c s , and was d e s c r i b e d by K r a e p e l i n (1913/1919) as a l o s s of the r e g u l a t i n g i n f l u e n c e of emotions on a c t i o n . Loss of p l e a s u r a b l e emotions was viewed as on ly one aspect of the g e n e r a l i z e d emot ional weakening. St ransky ( c i t e d i n K r a e p e l i n , 1913/1919) viewed the emot iona l d u l l i n g as l e s s a case of "an emot iona l d e v a s t a t i o n , than of an a t a x i a of the f e e l i n g s " , " a l o s s of the unner u n i t y of the a c t i v i t i e s of i n t e l l e c t , emot ion , and v o l i t i o n i n themselves and among one a n o t h e r . " K r a e p e l i n has suggested tha t t h i s l o s s of connec-t i o n might account f o r the i n a p p r o p r i a t e a f f e c t which i s o f t e n e x h i -b i t e d by s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . Rado (1969) has advanced t h i s n o t i o n of an i n t e g r a t i v e d e f i c i t , but has emphasized p a r t i c u l a r l y the l o s s of the m o t i v a t i n g power of the p o s i t i v e emotions. Whi le the apparent d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e f i n i t i o n may seem exaggerated and may not r e f l e c t p r e c i s e l y the p o s i t i o n of some, these v iews have been grouped f o r the purpose of i l l u s t r a t i n g the u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g the nature of the p o s t u l a t e d d e f i c i t . Pas t r e s e a r c h has f a i l e d to p rov ide p r e c i s i o n regard ing the exact type of d e f i c i e n c y used i n t e s t i n g hypotheses i n the study of anhedonia . C e r t a i n l y these a p -proaches cou ld be sub jec ted to s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h the r e -s u l t of i n c r e a s i n g the p r e c i s i o n and u t i l i t y of the concept of anhedonia . Some r e s e a r c h e r s (Watson, K l e t t , & L o r e i , 1970) have attempted to d e a l w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n a l problem and the r e s u l t s of t h e i r e f f o r t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . Where there i s agreement among r e s e a r c h e r s i s i n 4 the n o t i o n of anhedonia as a c h r o n i c , l i f e - l o n g c o n d i t i o n , presumably of g e n e t i c or n e u r o l o g i c a l o r i g i n , and i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r re levance as a symptom of s c h i z o p h r e n i a (Meehl , 1962; Rado, 1969; S t e i n & W i s s , 1971) . A t h i r d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t y i n anhedonia r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e s measurement. A g a i n , t h i s would appear to r e f l e c t i n p a r t the seeming he te rogene i t y i n t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . Measurement has c o n s i s t e d of c l i n i c a l judgements (Kayton & Koh, 1975) , i n t e r v i e w s and r a t i n g s (Harrow, G r i n k e r , Holzman, & Kay ton , 1977) , c l i n i c a l r a t i n g s c a l e s (Watson, K l e t t , & L o r e i , 1970) , or c h e c k l i s t s (Meehl , 1964) , and f i n a l l y , s e l f - r e p o r t anhedonia s c a l e s (Chapman, Chapman, & R a u l i n , 1976) . Whi le these measures may purpor t to be a s s e s s i n g the same c o n -s t r u c t , few i n v e s t i g a t o r s have employed m u l t i p l e assessment methods i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h . In g e n e r a l , c l i n i c a l r a t i n g s might be expected to assess p r i m a r i l y e x p r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — those d i r e c t l y o b s e r -v a b l e by the c l i n i c i a n . S e l f - r e p o r t s c a l e s , on the other hand, might r e f l e c t r e c e p t i v e , e x p e r i e n t i a l components. Because of the d i v e r s i t y of assessment methods, comparisons of r e s u l t s across s t u d i e s i s d i f -f i c u l t i f not i m p o s s i b l e to ach ieve a t the present t i m e . In summary, i t would appear tha t adequate i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a n -hedonia depends on i n c r e a s e d p r e c i s i o n of o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s , i n c r e a s e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the o f t e n i m p l i c i t approach used by the r e s e a r c h e r , and, f i n a l l y , improvement and p r e c i s i o n i n ins t ruments of measurement, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on improvement of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . Theor ies of Anhedonia The m a j o r i t y of r e f e r e n c e s to anhedonia have been conf ined to the 5 examinat ion of i t s r o l e as a symptom of s c h i z o p h r e n i a , a l though r e c e n t l y i t has been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c s as w e l l (Harrow et a l . , 1977). E a r l y concept ions ( K r a e p e l i n , 1913/1919) of anhedonia r e l a t e d i t to a g e n e r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n f u n c t i o n i n g which was a r e s u l t of s c h i z o p h r e n i a . That i s , i t was viewed as a secondary symptom of a g e n e r a l d i s e a s e p r o c e s s . B l e u l e r (1911/1950), on the other hand, c o n -s i d e r e d d i s t u r b a n c e of a f f e c t and i n d i f f e r e n c e to p r e v i o u s l y va lued a c t i v i t i e s to be a fundamental symptom of s c h i z o p h r e n i a . He mainta ined tha t t h i s was not n e c e s s a r i l y a product of d e t e r i o r a t i o n , s i n c e i t was present i n m i l d as w e l l as i n severe forms of s c h i z o p h r e n i a and might even be observed i n l a t e n t s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . Rado (1969) cont inued t h i s shift i n emphasis by suggest ing tha t anhedonia d i d not represent a p r o -duct of s c h i z o p h r e n i a , but r a t h e r p layed a c e n t r a l . r o l e i n the e t i o l o g y of the d i s o r d e r . He hypothes i zed a g e n e t i c a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d d e f e c t which i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the p o s i t i v e or p l e a s u r a b l e emot ions , thus a f f e c -t i n g , normal human development i n s e x u a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l spheres . I t would seem, on the b a s i s of Rado's theory , that w i thout an a b i l i t y to exper ience p l e a s u r e , s e x u a l a c t i v i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i n g l o s e t h e i r r e i n f o r c i n g p o t e n t i a l and s o c i a l l e a r n i n g i s h i n d e r e d . Meehl (1962) h a s , i n f a c t , advanced the hypothes is of Rado a long these l i n e s i n a theory of n e u r o l o g i c a l d y s f u n c t i o n i n s c h i z o p h r e n i a . He has s u g -gested that anhedonia may r e s u l t i n s o c i a l w i t h d r a w a l , i n a p p r o p r i a t e behav iou r , and dev iant l o g i c . Both Meehl and Rado appear to v iew anhedonia as a d e f i c i e n c y of l o n g - s t a n d i n g d u r a t i o n and c e n t r a l to the e t i o l o g y of s c h i z o p h r e n i a . These t h e o r e t i c a l v iews would seem most to r e f l e c t the p o s i t i o n of a r e c e p t i v e d e f i c i t . 6 Recent b i o c h e m i c a l s t u d i e s ( S t e i n & Wise , 1971; Wise & S t e i n , 1973) have supported a p h y s i o l o g i c a l s u b s t r a t e f o r a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that i s h i g h l y sugges t i ve of anhedonia and which i s presumably gene-t i c a l l y determined. The r a t i o n a l e behind the s t u d i e s of S t e i n and Wise was tha t of p o s t u l a t i n g tha t s c h i z o p h r e n i a was caused by an endogenous t o x i n which was h i g h l y a c t i v e , h i g h l y s p e c i f i c , c o n t i n u o u s l y produced, and f o r which t o l e r a n c e does not deve lop . S i t e of a c t i o n was suggested by p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i m p l i c a t i n g neurons l o c a l i z e d i n the lower b r a i n stem w i t h axons ascending by way of the m e d i a l f o r e b r a i n bundle and synaps ing i n the hypothalamus, l i m b i c system, and f r o n t a l c o r t e x . S t i m u l a t i o n of such neurons has been found to be p o w e r f u l l y rewarding and p l e a s u r a b l e i n a v a r i e t y of s p e c i e s . L e s i o n i n g of these same c e l l s , or the i n t r o d u c t i o n of p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l b l o c k s have a d d i t i o n a l l y been found to i m p a i r consum-matory behav iour . I t was f u r t h e r known that these neurons were under noradrenerg ic c o n t r o l . Thus, nature of the t o x i n to be i s o l a t e d as w e l l as the locus i n the b r a i n has been suggested by p rev ious r e s e a r c h . Anhedonia wou ld , t h e r e f o r e , be the b e h a v i o u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the a c t i o n of t h i s t o x i n . S t e i n and Wise (1971) suggest tha t they have i s o l a t e d t h i s b i o c h e m i c a l agent ,6 -hydroxydopamine, which : i s an aber rant m e t a b o l i t e of dopmaine. They found i t to produce degenerat ion of no radrenerg ic nerve t e r m i n a l s together w i t h a l o n g - l a s t i n g d e p l e t i o n of n o r e p i n e p h r i n e (the a c t i v a t i n g substance f o r a reward mechanism). In a s e r i e s of exper iments , they found i n j e c t i o n s of 6-hydroxydopamine to produce s c h i z p h r e n i c - l i k e r e a c t i o n s i n r a t s (waxy f l e x i b i l i t y ) , to decrease 7 the amount of s e l f - s t i m u l a t i o n , and to be b locked by ch lo rp romaz ine . The a c t i o n of t h i s agent was that of i n d u c i n g permanent degenerat ion of no radrenerg ic reward t e r m i n a l s ; cont inuous a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l e d to most profound d e s t r u c t i o n . In a f u r t h e r s t u d y , Wise and S t e i n (1973) suggest tha t they have s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e i r theory through post -mortem assays of b r a i n specimens of s c h i z o p h r e n i c and normal i n d i v i d u a l s . In s p i t e of i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , the v iew of S t e i n and Wise has r e -mained c o n t r o v e r s i a l . P reva lence of Anhedonia Fur ther support f o r the S t e i n and Wise b i o c h e m i c a l theory would be c o n f i r m a t i o n of the presence of s i g n s of anhedonia u n i v e r s a l l y i n s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . Such a t a s k , however, i s made d i f f i c u l t and i t s r e -s u l t s are l i k e l y to remain e q u i v o c a l because of the c u r r e n t u n c e r t a i n t y sur rounding the boundar ies of the concept of s c h i z o p h r e n i a (St rauss & G i f t , 1977). N o n e t h e l e s s , two s t u d i e s have r e c e n t l y focused on t h i s p reva lence i s s u e (Chapman, Chapman, & R a u l i n , 1976; Harrow, G r i n k e r , Holzman, & Kay ton , 1977). Anhedonia was assessed d i f f e r e n t l y i n each s t u d y , by s e l f - r e p o r t i n the former and by i n t e r v i e w and c l i n i c a l r a t i n g s i n the l a t t e r . Even s o , the r e s u l t s were s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r . In the f i r s t s tudy , Chapman et a l . assessed a group of 121 male s c h i z o p h r e n i c s w i t h a mean age of 31 .5 years and 12.2 mean years of s c h o o l i n g . The m a j o r i t y of p a t i e n t s were r e c e i v i n g a n t i p s y c h o t i c m e d i c a t i o n , and a l l were r a t e d on premorbid adjustment ( H a r r i s , 1975) . T h e i r scores were compared w i t h those of a normal sample. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d tha t the male s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anhedonic 8 than the normal sample. Moreover , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s c h i z o -p h r e n i c scores appeared to f a l l i n t o two c l u s t e r s — one approx imat ing the normal s u b j e c t s and the other apparent l y r e f l e c t i n g a sub-group of anhedonic s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . Chapman et a l . suggest t h a t , w i t h i n t h e i r sample, some s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were anhedonic , but t h a t the m a j o r i t y were n o t . Those few anhedonic s u b j e c t s were found to be most f r e -quent ly c h a r a c t e r i z e d by poor premorbid adjustment , which might r e f l e c t a l o n g - s t a n d i n g d e f i c i t . Chapman et a l . concluded tha t anhedonia does not appear to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l s c h i z o p h r e n i c s but cons idered t h e i r f i n d i n g s to be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Wise and S t e i n ' s (1973) p o s t -mortem s tudy . A l though the m a j o r i t y of Wise and S t e i n ' s s u b j e c t s were found to have a b i o c h e m i c a l d e f i c i t i n the a s s a y s , s e v e r a l f e l l w i t h i n the normal range. Chapman et a l . suggest t h a t the h i g h frequency of abnormal i t y found by Wise and S t e i n might have been a f u n c t i o n of sampl ing b i a s ( i n c l u s i o n of l o n g - t e r m c h r o n i c p a t i e n t s ) . On the other hand, an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n might be p l a u s i b l e . Whi le the p r e -sence of the m e t a b o l i t e 6-hydroxydopamine might be u n i v e r s a l i n a l l s c h i z o p h r e n i c s , i t i s p o s s i b l e tha t a c r i t i c a l l e v e l of degenerat ion must be reached b e f o r e the b e h a v i o u r a l s igns of anhedonia o c c u r . Th is might suggest that observab le anhedonia i s most p o s s i b l e w i t h c h r o n i c c a s e s , b u t , n o n e t h e l e s s , that g r a d a t i o n s of anhedonia e x i s t . Such a cont inuous d i s t r i b u t i o n of anhedonia , r e f l e c t i n g degrees of n e u r a l d e g e n e r a t i o n , might on ly be r e v e a l e d by a s e n s i t i v e inst rument — one, perhaps , more s e n s i t i v e than the s c a l e s of Chapman et a l . Such a q u e s t i o n cannot be answered w i t h cu r ren t i n s t r u m e n t s . A q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d to the i s s u e of the p reva lance of anhedonia i n 9 s c h i z o p h r e n i a i s the extent to which a d e f i c i e n c y i n p l e a s u r e c a p a c i t y i s l i m i t e d to s c h i z o p h r e n i a . That i s , are other groups c h a r a c t e r i z e d by anhedonia as w e l l ? I f anhedonia cou ld be i d e n t i f i e d i n i n d i v i d u a l s who were c l e a r l y not s c h i z o p h r e n i c , t h i s ev idence together w i t h tha t of Chapman et a l . might suggest tha t anhedonia was n e i t h e r a necessary nor s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r development of s c h i z o p h r e n i a . In f a c t , Meehl (1975) has r e c e n t l y suggested that the c a p a c i t y to exper ience p l e a s u r e be viewed as a h e r i t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n which there are broad i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Persons on the low end of the d i s t r i b u t i o n may or may not be s c h i z o p h r e n i c . In f a c t , a p l e a s u r e d e f i c i e n c y may p red ispose an i n d i v i d u a l to a number of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , s c h i z o p h r e n i a be ing on ly one example of w h i c h , perhaps , depends on a p a r t i c u l a r combinat ion of o ther c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s as w e l l . There-r: f o r e , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of anhedonia i n n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c p o p u l a t i o n s would appear to be of both t h e o r e t i c a l and c l i n i c a l impor tance . The second preva lence study had j u s t t h i s a im. Harrow et a l . (1977) assessed anhedonia i n 187 young p s y c h i a t r i c i n p a t i e n t s of whom 128 were s c h i z o p h r e n i c and 59 were n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c . Th is study i n -c luded both males and females i n almost equal p r o p o r t i o n . The mean age was 2 2 . 4 3 , c o n s i d e r a b l y younger than the Chapman et a l . sample. E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was not r e p o r t e d , but p a t i e n t s were r a t e d a c c o r d i n g to s o c i a l c l a s s . Predominant c l a s s e s were I, I I , and I I I . of the H o l l i n g s h e a d - R e d l i c h system. Most were r e c e i v i n g a n t i p s y c h o t i c m e d i -c a t i o n . U n l i k e the Chapman et a l . s t u d y , p a t i e n t s were not on ly r a t e d on premorbid ad justment , but they were a l s o c l a s s i f i e d i n t o major sub -groups of s c h i z o p h r e n i a . Inc luded were: a c u t e , p a r a n o i d , c h r o n i c , 10 s c h i z o a f f e c t i v e , and a c u t e - c h r o n i c . N o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were grouped i n t o d e p r e s s i v e s , severe p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s , and v a r i o u s o t h e r s . Harrow et a l . found a t l e a s t 40% of the p a t i e n t s i n each group to have anhedonic tendenc ies w i t h the e n t i r e s c h i z o p h r e n i c group d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c group. A f i n d i n g of i n t e r e s t was tha t of d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n s c h i z o p h r e n i c d i a g n o s t i c groups. The acute and s c h i z o a f f e c t i v e groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . On the other hand, the c h r o n i c and parano id groups showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anhedonia. Harrow et a l . suggest tha t t h e i r f i n d i n g s support the v iew that anhedonia i s n e i t h e r u n i v e r s a l i n s c h i z o p h r e n i a nor unique to s c h i z o p h r e n i a . These are r a t h e r remarkable f i n d i n g s when one cons ide rs tha t t h e i r assessment dev i ce was a 7 - p o i n t c l i n i c a l r a t i n g s c a l e . A d d i t i o n a l ana lyses suggested tha t anhedonic p a t i e n t s g e n e r a l l y were more symptomatic , more c h r o n i c a l l y i l l , had g rea te r premorbid s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t y , more o f t e n were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e a r l y onset of d i s o r d e r , were l a c k i n g i n improvement d u r i n g the e a r l y pe r iods of the c u r r e n t h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , tended to be unmar r ied , l o n e l y , l e s s a f f e c t i o n a t e toward o t h e r s , had few or no s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e s , and had poorer f u n c t i o n i n g and l e s s coping c a p a c i t y be fo re h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n than nonanhedonic p a t i e n t s . Th is study would seem not only to r e p l i c a t e the f i n d i n g s of Chapman et a l . but a l s o to extend beyond i t to support some of the t h e o r i z e d concomitants of anhedonia. What seems to be emphasized i n these two s t u d i e s of p reva lence i s the c o n s i s t e n t a s s o c i a t i o n between c h r o n i c i t y and poor premorbid adjustment and some i n d i c a t i o n of a n -hedon ia . What might have been v a l u a b l e are m u l t i p l e i n d i c e s of .r . 11 anhedonia. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to presume that the Chapman et a l . s c a l e would have y i e l d e d i d e n t i c a l r e s u l t s w i t h the Harrow et a l . sample. Both of the preced ing s t u d i e s of p reva lence examined p a t i e n t s p r i m a r i l y s u f f e r i n g from moderate to severe forms of s c h i z o p h r e n i a . I t w i l l , however, be. r e c a l l e d tha t B l e u l e r (1911/1950) suggested a d i s t u r b a n c e of p l e a s u r a b l e emotion to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m i l d forms of s c h i z o p h r e n i a and not to be a f u n c t i o n of g e n e r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n . In o ther words, one might expect anhedonia to be present i n what Meehl (1964) has termed the compensated s c h i z o t y p e , which i n c l u d e s l a t e n t and p o s t p s y c h o t i c s t a t e s . Only one study has examined such a group (Kayton & Koh, 1975) , i n s p i t e of the f a c t that Hoch and P o l a t i n (1949) c o n -s i d e r e d anhedonia to be one of the e a r l i e s t s igns of the pseudo-n e u r o t i c v a r i e t y (a category of l a t e n t s c h i z o p h r e n i a , H i n s i e & Campbel l , 1970). The study of Kayton and Koh (1975) f a i l e d to q u a n t i f y anhedonia i n t h e i r pseudoneurot ic s c h i z o p h r e n i c sample, who, i n c i d e n t a l l y were h o s p i t a l i z e d p a t i e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the r e s u l t s of t h e i r experiment suggested a n h e d o n i a - l i k e q u a l i t i e s i n t h i s group as w e l l . T h e i r r e s u l t s w i l l be repor ted l a t e r . A r e f e r e n c e to anhedonia appeared r e c e n t l y i n a case study of the b o r d e r l i n e syndrome ( M i l l e r , 1975) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t was not s p e c i -f i e d whether the two i n d i v i d u a l s d e s c r i b e d represented examples of b o r d e r l i n e s c h i z o p h r e n i a (a l so a category of l a t e n t s c h i z o p h r e n i a , H i n s i e & Campbe l l , 1970) . F u r t h e r , anhedonia appeared to have been assessed by an u n s p e c i f i e d c l i n i c a l i n s p e c t i o n and was d e s c r i b e d as a complex a f f e c t s t a t e which f u n c t i o n e d as a defense i n both i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s u n c l e a r what r e l a t i o n t h i s repor ted anhedonia has to the main 12 body of p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d l i t e r a t u r e . Two a d d i t i o n a l re fe rences to the b o r d e r l i n e syndrome f a i l to agree as to whether or not anhedonia i s a fundamental p a r t of the c l i n i c a l p i c t u r e ( G r i n k e r , Werble , & Drye , 1968; Gunderson & S i n g e r , 1975) . In summary, the presence of anhedonia has been noted p r i m a r i l y i n c h r o n i c s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s as w e l l as l a t e n t and n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s . Anhedonia would appear to be f a r from u n i v e r s a l i n s c h i z o -ph ren ia on the b a s i s of cu r ren t r e p o r t s . C e r t a i n l y those s t u d i e s c o n -cerned w i t h l a t e n t s c h i z o p h r e n i c s must be viewed as t e n t a t i v e due to the l a c k of measurement p r e c i s i o n . No study r e p o r t e d to date has assessed o u t p a t i e n t p s y c h i a t r i c groups or a wide a r ray of normals . The q u e s t i o n remains one of c o n c l u s i v e l y demonstrat ing the r o l e p layed by anhedonia i n the development of s c h i z o p h r e n i a : that of pr imary e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r , as a symptom of a pr imary agent , or as a secondary symptom of a p r o g r e s s i v e , d e t e r i o r a t i n g d i s o r d e r . Harrow et a l . (1977) suggest th ree p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : f i r s t l y , anhedonia may be a consequence of c h r o n i c i t y or d e t e r i o r a t i o n , second l y , anhedonia may be a c o n d i t i o n of " t r u e " s c h i z o p h r e n i a or dementia praecox , or t h i r d l y , anhedonia i s one of the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the course of s c h i z o p h r e n i a toward c h r o n i c i t y . They m a i n t a i n tha t t h e i r data support the t h i r d e x p l a n a t i o n , suggest ing tha t anhedonia i s not a major e t i o l o g i c a l f a c -t o r , but r a t h e r a form of moderat ing v a r i a b l e whereby the course of p s y c h o s i s (acute v s . c h r o n i c ) i s determined by the presence of a n -hedon ia . C e r t a i n l y t h i s l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of anhedonia c o i n c i d e s most c l o s e l y w i t h the n o t i o n of a c o n t i n u o u s l y d i s t r i b u t e d t r a i t which Meehl (1975) has r e f e r r e d to as hedonic c a p a c i t y . I t may be 13 i n c o r r e c t to view anhedonia as a d e f e c t , s i n c e i t may, r a t h e r , r e p r e -sent a lowered i n n a t e r e c e p t i v e a b i l i t y to respond to p o s i t i v e s t i m u l i , wh ich i s u n r e l a t e d to b i o c h e m i c a l imbalances . The a s s o c i a t i o n between anhedonia and s c h i z o p h r e n i a may, i n f a c t , . be c o i n c i d e n t a l . That i s , anhedonia may be most h i g h l y r e l a t e d to a t t r i b u t e s which c e r t a i n s c h i z o p h r e n i c s share w i t h a v a r i e t y of other d i a g n o s t i c groups. Th is p o s s i b i l i t y has been cons idered on ly i n the study of Harrow et a l . (1977). I t i s apparent tha t there i s a need f o r breadth i n the i n v e s -t i g a t i o n of n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c groups. I t i s f u r t h e r c r i t i c a l to assess n o n - h o s p i t a l i z e d pe rsons , s i n c e a l l r e s e a r c h to date has been narrowly focused on i n - p a t i e n t samples. Refinement of the Const ruct Whi le i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p reva lence of anhedonia remains an important area of r e s e a r c h concern , f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i s s u e s r a i s e d e a r l y i n t h i s rev iew i s . e s s e n t i a l . Perhaps the g r e a t e s t need i s f o r a v a l i d o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t . Two s t u d i e s have addressed t h i s i s s u e (Watson & Jacobs , 1977; Watson, K l e t t , & L o r e i , 1970) . The f i r s t study (Watson et a l . , 1970) attempted to develop both an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n as w e l l as a measure of anhedonia through f a c t o r - a n a l y s i s of seven s c a l e s appear ing to be components of c l i n i -c a l l y d e f i n e d anhedonia. The s u b j e c t s of the study were 70 male s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s whose mean age was 38 .1 years and mean l e n g t h of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n was almost 8 y e a r s . R e l a t i v e to the s t u d i e s c i t e d p r e v i o u s l y , these s u b j e c t s appear to have been not on ly much o l d e r , but a l s o p o t e n t i a l l y more c h r o n i c . The s c a l e s used to r e f l e c t 14 anhedonia assessed the degree of a f f e c t u a l f l a tne s s , withdrawal of i n t e r e s t i n the environment, apathy, l ack of i n t e r e s t , lowered d r i v e , low energy l e v e l , motor r e t a r d a t i o n , decreased r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , de-creased mot iva t iona l l e v e l , and absence of funlovingness . Only the matrix of t o t a l score c o r r e l a t i o n s was fac tor analysed, despi te the fact that some scales were constructed s p e c i f i c a l l y for the study wi th no seeming examination of homogeneity of i t e m s 1 , nor reports of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . Several of the scales were based on semi-s tructured interv iews . Two factors were reported : Factor 1 — Apathy v s . Cheerfulness which was based p r i m a r i l y on behaviour ra t ings made by nurses; and Factor 2 — Apathy vs Energy which was derived mostly from pa t ient interview and s e l f - r e p o r t . Watson et a l . suggest that anhedonia i s best conceptual ized as a m u l t i v a r i a t e t r a i t , or as a set of somewhat i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . They further suggest that choice of a s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n of anhedonia might be best r e s t r i c t e d to the second factor (apathy vs energy) which may r e f l e c t zest for l i f e and energy as the opposite of anhedonia, s ince the s u p e r f i c i a l cheerfulness of a pa t ient may be inappropr ia te a f f e c t . The i r recommendations would seem to assert that interview and s e l f - r e p o r t data more apt ly r e l a t e to anhedonia than do behavioural observat ions . C e r t a i n l y , they have i l l u s t r a t e d a major d i f f i c u l t y with behavioural ra t ings of cheerfulness i n schizophrenic pa t i en t s . This study represented a meaningful attempt to o p e r a t i o n a l l y def ine 1 A subsequent study (Watson, 1972a) reported t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of .82 a f te r one week, and an a l p h a . c o e f f i c i e n t of .76. 15 anhedonia by the use of a m u l t i - m e t h o d assessment. There appear , however, to be a number of shor tcomings . The unknown r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of c e r t a i n measures was i n d i c a t e d . F u r t h e r , cho ice of t o t a l s c a l e scores as opposed to i n d i v i d u a l s c a l e i tems f o r f a c t o r a n a l y s i s may have r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r range of d e f i n i t i o n . F i n a l l y , assessment of a c h r o n i c sample r a i s e s the i s s u e of the p o s s i b l e confounding of a n -hedonia w i t h c h r o n i c i t y . That i s , t h e i r f a c t o r s may be d e f i n i n g a mix tu re of c h r o n i c i t y w i t h the concomitant e f f e c t s of long term h o s p i -t a l i z a t i o n and anhedonia. The second d e f i n i t i o n a l study (Watson & Jacobs , 1977) r e l a t e d anhedonia to s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g — as p o s s i b l y o p p o s i t e po les of the same d imens ion . Watson and Jacobs cons idered both to be r e f l e c t i o n s of autonomic a r o u s a l — s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g as a f u n c t i o n of low a r o u s a l , and anhedonia of h i g h a r o u s a l . Two s u b j e c t samples were i n v o l v e d . Both were composed predominant ly of s c h i z o p h r e n i c i n - p a t i e n t m a l e s . Anhedonia was assessed i n a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w , and s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g by Zuckerman's (1971) S e n s a t i o n - S e e k i n g s c a l e s . The r e s u l t s were n e g a t i v e ; anhedonia and s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g appeared to be u n c o r r e l a t e d . Watson and Jacobs suggested that " d e s p i t e t h e i r conceptua l s i m i l a r i t y , the two represent d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n a l d e f i c i t s . " They viewed s e n s a -t i o n - s e e k i n g as the i n v e r s e of " n e u r o t i c i n h i b i t i o n " and anhedonia as a " s e p a r a t e m o t i v a t i o n a l d e f i c i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of process s c h i z o p h r e n i c s " ( s ince i t had a moderate but s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h scores on the U l lmann-Giovannoni (1964) P r o c e s s - R e a c t i v e s c a l e , .46 - . 4 4 ) . They a l s o p a r t i a l l e d out the e f f e c t s of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n from the c o r r e l a t i o n between anhedonia and s c h i z o p h r e n i a (MMPI) and r e p o r t a low J L p a r t = . 1 6 . 16 Th is would suggest s t ronger a s s o c i a t i o n s of anhedonia w i t h poor p r e -morbid s t a t u s and c h r o n i c i t y than w i t h a d i a g n o s i s of s c h i z o p h r e n i a — a g a i n echoing the f i n d i n g s of Harrow et a l . (1977). In summary, these two attempts to r e f i n e an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of anhedonia suggest a s t rong component of c h r o n i c i t y and d i s t i n g u i s h i t from a c o n c e p t u a l l y s i m i l a r d imension of s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the v a l i d i t y of these r e s u l t s s i n c e one of the main measures was an i n t e r v i e w . The problem i s one of c o n f u s i o n between c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y and t e s t v a l i d i t y . The ambigui ty remains . To what extent does anhedonia represent a phenomeon d i s t i n c t from c h r o n i c i t y and the low energy l e v e l which must almost s u r e l y accompany a long p e r i o d of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n ? I t would seem to be of c o n s i d e r a b l e c l i n i c a l importance to de tec t a n -hedonia p r i o r to . c h r o n i c i t y i f i t i s indeed a separate e n t i t y . I t becomes i m p e r a t i v e to separa te the two e x p e r i m e n t a l l y . To the extent that we examine and b e g i n to fo rmula te c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of the f u n c -t i o n i n g of anhedonic , n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c , n o n - c h r o n i c s u b j e c t s , we improve our p o s i t i o n to s p e c u l a t e on the importance of anhedonia to s c h i z o p h r e n i a and, perhaps , on ly then can we b e g i n to fo rmula te some t e n t a t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Anhedonics Another method of c o n t r i b u t i n g to the i s s u e of d e f i n i t i o n i s through examinat ion of d i f f e r e n c e s i n f u n c t i o n i n g between low - and h igh -anhedon ic n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . The most a p p r o p r i a t e area of f u n c -t i o n i n g to examine would be tha t of the exper ience of p l e a s u r e , s i n c e (Meehl,1975) anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s a r e , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , not devo id of 17 p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e s ; they s imply do not get the k i c k out of them that the r e s t of us do. Are there i d e n t i f i a b l e , q u a n t i f i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the exper ience? In s p i t e of the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i n comparat ive s t u d i e s of t h i s i s s u e , the re has been no s y s t e m a t i c research to date which has focused on .the p l e a s u r e exper iences of anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s . In f a c t , few s t u d i e s have concerned themselves w i t h the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p l e a -sure i n normal i n d i v i d u a l s . One reason f o r the p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area i s the absence of methods to e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l or manipu late l e v e l s of a s u b j e c t i v e exper ience . The present study has been undertaken i n order to f i r s t l y assess l e v e l s of anhedonia i n normal u n i v e r s i t y undergraduates and, s e c o n d l y , to .examine some aspects of the s u b j e c t i v e exper ience of p l e a s u r e . Only four s t u d i e s comparing d i f f e r e n c e s between. low- and h i g h -anhedonic s u b j e c t s have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e . In a l l c a s e s , h o s p i t a l i z e d s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were used as s u b j e c t s . The dependent v a r i a b l e s were: r e c a l l of p l e a s a n t , u n p l e a s a n t , and n e u t r a l words (Kayton & Koh, 1975) , p e r c e p t i o n of t a c h i s t o s c o p i c a l l y presented words and p i c t u r e s as be ing p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e , or n e u t r a l (Watson, 1977) , l e a r n i n g under reward or punishment c o n d i t i o n s (Watson, 1972a) , and , f i n a l l y , p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i v i t y under s t r e s s and r e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s (Watson,1972b). The f i r s t th ree s t u d i e s d e a l t somewhat t a n g e n t i a l l y w i t h the p l e a s u r e exper ience and the r e s u l t s w i l l be summarized b r i e f l y . The f o u r t h study y i e l d e d n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s . Kayton & Koh (1975) hypothes i zed tha t i f s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were s u f f e r i n g from a p l e a s u r e d e f i c i t and i f they were, t h e r e f o r e , poor i n d e t e c t i n g and u s i n g p l e a s a n t f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r memory f o r words , 18 t h e i r r e c a l l of p l e a s a n t words should s u f f e r , and t h e i r r e c a l l order f o r p l e a s a n t words should be...less o rgan ized than those who do use p leasantness i n t h e i r mnemonic o r g a n i z a t i o n . The i r r e s u l t s conf i rmed the hypotheses ; s c h i z o p h r e n i c s showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower r e c a l l of p l e a s a n t words compared to normals who remembered p l e a s a n t words s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n than unpleasant words. Both groups tended to remember unpleasant words to an e q u i v a l e n t e x t e n t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the s u b j e c t s of t h i s study had a mean age of 21 y e a r s ; t h e r e f o r e , the e f f e c t s of c h r o n i c i t y and long h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n can be expected to have been m i n i m a l . F u r t h e r , the s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were p r e -dominantly of the pseudoneurot ic v a r i e t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , anhedonia was not assessed — the r e s u l t s themselves were taken as ev idence of anhedonia. Th is i s indeed a -shortcoming of an o therw ise w e l l - d e s i g n e d experiment f o r i t seems amply, c l e a r that not a l l of these s c h i z o p h r e n i c s would have been cons idered to be anhedonic u s i n g cu r ren t methods of assessment. I t would have been v a l u a b l e to separate the s c h i z o p h r e n i c group a c c o r d i n g to hedonic c a p a c i t y . N o n e t h e l e s s , the r e s u l t s were i n the expected d i r e c t i o n and i t may be tha t something as s u b t l e as mnemonic o r g a n i z a t i o n or f requency of r e c a l l may r e f l e c t the s i g n s of m i l d anhedonia which may go undetected by other means. In a s i m i l a r examinat ion of c o g n i t i o n , Watson (1977) assessed the degree to which h i g h vs low anhedonic s c h i z o p h r e n i c s ( h o s p i t a l i z e d , under 60 years ) tended to p e r c e i v e ambiguous ( t a c h i s t o s c o p i c a l l y p r e -sented) words and p i c t u r e s as p l e a s a n t , u n p l e a s a n t , or n e u t r a l . Watson hypothes ized tha t a h igh -anhedon ic s u b j e c t might have an a b -normal b i a s toward i n t e r p r e t i n g ambiguous s t i m u l i as non -emot iona l 19 r a t h e r than a f f e c t - l a d e n . He f u r t h e r b e l i e v e d tha t such a p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e would be mediated by an i n c r e a s e i n p e r c e p t u a l t h r e s h o l d f o r emot ional s t i m u l i . H is r e s u l t s were p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e . H i g h -anhedonic s u b j e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y to guess n e u t r a l words and l e s s l i k e l y to o f f e r p l e a s a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s than the low -anhedonic group. There was no d i f f e r e n c e between the groups i n t e n -dency to choose unpleasant words. With regard to t h r e s h o l d , h i g h -anhedonics showed g rea te r th resho lds , f o r n e u t r a l s t i m u l i than low -anhedonics . Watson concluded tha t these f i n d i n g s supported the n o t i o n of anhedonia as a d e f i c i t s p e c i f i c to p o s i t i v e emotions and tha t i t r e -f l e c t s a tendency to i n t e r p r e t s t i m u l i as l a c k i n g i n p o s i t i v e a f f e c t u a l v a l u e . He f u r t h e r s t a t e d that h i s r e s u l t s complemented those of Kayton and Koh (1975). A c t u a l l y , the re were s e v e r a l r a t h e r s t r i k i n g d i f -fe rences between the s t u d i e s . F i r s t , Kayton and Koh's s u b j e c t s were almost 20 years younger on the average than those of Watson and they i n c l u d e d a mix tu re of p s y c h i a t r i c and normal i n d i v i d u a l s . Watson focused e n t i r e l y on s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . Secondly , a s i d e from such s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Kayton and Koh d i d not assess anhedonia whereas Watson used a s tandard i n t e r v i e w f o r tha t purpose. F i n a l l y , p r e c e d u r a l l y , the s t u d i e s d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of the p l e a s a n t n e s s , unp leasantness , or n e u t r a l i t y of the s t i m u l i . Whereas Kayton and Koh based such d e f i n i t i o n on the s u b j e c t ' s own r a t i n g of p l e a s a n t n e s s , Watson used three independent persons to determine the a f f e c t i v i t y of s t i m u l i . Th is would appear to be a s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c y of Watson's study f o r one can on ly i n f e r t h a t the s t i m u l i 20 might have been e q u i v a l e n t l y r a t e d by h i s s u b j e c t s . Both of the p reced ing s t u d i e s examined c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n s (memory and p e r c e p t i o n ) , of anhedonic s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s u s i n g p l e a s a n t , u n p l e a s a n t , and n e u t r a l s t i m u l i . The r e s u l t s have suggested some e x c i t i n g d i r e c t i o n s f o r anhedonic r e s e a r c h ; however, t h e i r r e -s t r i c t i o n to s c h i z o p h r e n i c s u b j e c t s r a i s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y tha t the f i n d i n g s may not be a p p l i c a b l e to anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s g e n e r a l l y . That i s , the r e s u l t s might be another example of s c h i z o p h r e n i c c o g -n i t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e of the presence of anhedonia. Because of Watson's study examined both l o w - and h igh -anhedon ic s c h i z o p h r e n i c s and found d i f f e r e n c e s between them, i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the r e s u l t s were a f u n c t i o n of anhedonia. However, i t has been noted tha t both Watson's samples as w e l l as h i s measure of anhedonia may be confounded by the e f f e c t s of c h r o n i c i t y . I t i s c l e a r tha t there i s a need f o r r e p l i c a -t i o n of these r e s u l t s i n younger, n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c anhedonics . The r e s u l t s seem to suggest tha t anhedonia i s d e t e c t a b l e a t a c o g n i t i v e l e v e l , and , moreover, t h a t anhedonics tend not on ly to remem-ber fewer p l e a s a n t s t i m u l i than normals , but they they may f a i l to p e r c e i v e them as such i n the f i r s t p l a c e . S t r i k i n g l y , they do not appear over respons ive to the unpleasant s t i m u l i — tha t i s , they do not appear to have a negat i ve b i a s as might be found i n d e p r e s s i v e s . Th is would seem then to be an i n d i c a t i o n tha t anhedonia i s a r e c e p t i v e d e f i c i t o p e r a t i n g p o t e n t i a l l y at an e x p e r i e n t i a l (or e a r l y p e r c e p t u a l ) l e v e l as d i s t i n c t from a c o g n i t i v e d i s t o r t i o n or b i a s . The t h i r d study (Watson, 1972a) was concerned w i t h the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of punishment and reward on the l e a r n i n g behaviour of 21 300 male h o s p i t a l i z e d s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . The r e s u l t s were n e g a t i v e ; anhedonia scores d i d not i n t e r a c t w i t h the v a r i o u s r e i n f o r c e r s or r e i n f o r c e r - m o d a l i t y combinat ions to produce d i f f e r e n t i a l l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s . Watson suggested that anhedonia (as d e f i n e d by h i s s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w ) i s u n r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n t i a l respons iveness to reward and punishment of v a r i o u s s o r t s ( i n c l u d i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l reward and p u n i s h -ment) . He f u r t h e r concluded tha t h i s f i n d i n g s d i d not support M e e h l ' s theory but emphasized t h a t , u n l i k e Meehl (who appears to v iew anhedonia i n terms of the amount of " k i c k " an i n d i v i d u a l i s capable of r e c e i v i n g from a p l e a s u r a b l e s t i m u l u s ) , he tends to d e f i n e anhedonia as a g e n e r a l m o t i v a t i o n a l s l o w i n g , i n t e l l e c t u a l i n e f f i c i e n c y , h i g h l e v e l of i n h i b i t i o n , or f a i l u r e to l e a r n how to enjoy fun or c h a l l e n g e . As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , the samples g e n e r a l l y employed by Watson have tended toward c h r o n i c i t y as w e l l as be ing o l d e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the g e n e r a l m o t i v a t i o n a l s lowing that Watson d e s c r i b e d may be m u l t i p l y a f u n c t i o n of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , s c h i z o p h r e n i a , and a g i n g . C e r t a i n l y , anhedonia has been detec ted i n younger s u b j e c t s u s i n g other methods. No one has used Watson's s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i n combinat ion w i t h another method u s i n g a young sample. As i n h i s p rev ious s t u d y , Watson aga in d e f i n e d s t i m u l i as e i t h e r rewarding or p u n i s h i n g h i m s e l f . In operant t e r m i n o l o g y , a r e i n f o r c e r i s d e f i n e d i n accordance w i t h the e f f e c t i t has on a behav iour . That which i s rewarding ( p o s i t i v e ) i s a r e i n f o r c e r which i n c r e a s e s the f r e -quency of the behav iour i t f o l l o w s ; a pun ish ing r e i n f o r c e r , on the other hand, i s one which decreases the p r o b a b i l i t y of response r e o c c u r -rence . Bu t , r e i n f o r c e r s are g e n e r a l l y viewed as i d i o s y n c r a t i c and i t 22 i s d i f f i c u l t to conceive of the r e i n f o r c e r s he used as be ing e q u i v a l e n t across s u b j e c t s . For example, h e a r i n g "good" from a s t ranger might not be p e r c e i v e d as rewarding even f o r the most hedonic of s u b j e c t s . Th is appeared to have been the extreme reward i n Watson's i n t e r p e r s o n a l reward c o n d i t i o n . Thus, cho ice of r e i n f o r c e r might have p a r t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s . A t b e s t , what can be concluded from h i s r e s u l t s i s tha t the s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were not d i f f e r e n t i a l l y respons ive to the rewards and punishments employed i n the s tudy . A t t h i s p o i n t , i t seems necessary to i n d i c a t e a d i s t i n c t i o n b e -tween the c a p a c i t y to exper ience p l e a s u r e and the a b i l i t y to be r e -i n f o r c e d . S i n c e , as p r e v i o u s l y i l l u s t r a t e d , a r e i n f o r c e r need not be p l e a s u r a b l e to produce r e s u l t s , i t seems most pars imonious i n the e a r l y study of anhedonia to r e s t r i c t the focus to p l e a s u r e c a p a c i t y . C e r -t a i n l y , M e e h l ' s views do tend to combine re in fo rcement w i t h p l e a s u r e . What i s a l s o c l e a r at t h i s s tage i s tha t d e t e c t i o n of p l e a s u r e i s on ly p o s s i b l e a t a s u b j e c t i v e l e v e l . Assuming tha t anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s exper ience some form of p l e a s u r e , i t would appear to be most f r u i t f u l to beg in by a s k i n g them about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , h o p e f u l l y i n a manner that can be q u a n t i f i e d . Because both ( B l e u l e r (1911/1950) and Rado (1969) have suggested a weakening of emot iona l e x p e r i e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y of the w e l f a r e or p o s i t i v e emot ions , i n anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s , i t would appear to be i n f o r m a t i v e to compare the emot iona l r e a c t i o n s to p l e a -s u r a b l e exper iences of both h i g h and low anhedonic s u b j e c t s i n terms of i n t e n s i t y , f requency , and p a t t e r n i n g of emot ions. Pas t r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d a need f o r the examinat ion of young, n o n - h o s p i t a l i z e d , n o n - p s y c h i a t r i c i n d i v i d u a l s , assuming tha t anhedonia 23 is continuously distributed in the population. In addition, the cognitive studies have illustrated the possibility that anhedonia might be assessed at an experiential level. Of the existing measures, the 66-item2 Chapman et a l . (1976) Physical Anhedonia scale would seem to most closely reflect experiential aspects since many of the items deal relatively concretely with a variety of reactions to l i f e ex-periences. Furthermore, research indicates the importance of including multiple methods of assessment, as well as refinement of the methods currently in use. For that reason, examination of the item structure of the Chapman et a l . scale would appear to be a worthwhile endeavour — particularly since i t encompasses a variety of physical l i f e experiences. A partitioning of the items through factor analysis, and the subse-quent examination of factor scores between.high- and low-anhedonic normal subjects might isolate more specific differences between the groups. The explicit model of anhedonia.employed in the current study is that of a continuously distributed receptive deficiency — detectable at both a cognitive and experiential level. If anhedonia is in fact a t r a i t non-specific to schizophrenia, i t should be detectable in a normal sample, perhaps in mild form. Specific Hypotheses It is hypothesized that within a normal sample of individuals those scoring high on .the Physical Anhedonia scale (Chapman et a l . , 2 The f i n a l version of the Physical Anhedonia scale of Chapman et a l . which was reported in the literature contained 40 items. The copy they made available contained 66 items. 24 1976) should d i f f e r from low s c o r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h regard to t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e exper ience of p l e a s u r e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i f anhedonia i s d e t e c t a b l e i n m i l d form i t i s hypothes ized tha t there a r e q u a n t i -f i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n t e n s i t y , f requency , and emot iona l concomitants of p l e a s u r e . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were fo rmulated f o r the c u r r e n t s tudy . 1. When imag in ing t h e i r own p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s , h igh -anhedon ics should name fewer exper iences than low -anhedon ics . 2. Of the exper iences they do l i s t , h igh -anhedon ics should r a t e these as l e s s i n t e n s e l y p l e a s a n t than low -anhedon ics . 3 . H igh -anhedonics shou ld r e p o r t fewer p l e a s a n t exper iences than low-anhedonics on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s . 4. Regarding emot ional concomitants of p l e a s u r e , h igh -anhedon ics are hypothes ized to have lower i n t e n s i t y scores on p o s i t i v e emotions than low -anhedon ics . 5 . I t i s hypothes ized that there are no d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups i n i n t e n s i t y r a t i n g s of other emot ions. 6. Of a v a r i e t y of p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s , i t i s hypothes i zed t h a t h igh -anhedon ics should r a t e these as u n i f o r m l y l e s s e n -j o y a b l e than do low -anhedon ics . That i s , the groups should d i f f e r on each c l u s t e r (or c l u s t e r s ) of pleasuiE exper iences i f anhedonia i s to be cons idered to be a lowered c a p a c i t y f o r p l e a s u r e u n r e l a t e d to s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . The most a c c e s s i b l e group of normal i n d i v i d u a l s was undergraduate psychology s t u d e n t s . They completed the 6 6 - i t e m P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e , the D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions Sca le ( I z a r d , Dougherty , Bloxom, & 25 K o t s c h , 1974) , and answered ques t ions r e g a r d i n g the frequency and i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r p l e a s u r e . .experiences. Three separate ana lyses were conducted u s i n g data from the same s u b j e c t s . For convenience , each a n a l y s i s i s repor ted as a separate s tudy . The order of p r e s e n t a t i o n . i s a r b i t r a r y and c o n s i s t s of the comparison of h i g h - and low-anhedonic s u b j e c t s (Study 1 ) , the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions Sca le + A n x i e t y (DES+A) of I z a r d et a l . (Study 2 ) , and f i n a l l y , the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e of Chapman et a l . (Study 3 ) . 26 STUDY 1 COMPARISON OF LOW- AND HIGH-ANHEDONICS Method S u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s were 312 undergraduate psychology s tudents e n r o l l e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (192 females and 120 m a l e s ) . The mean age was 20.49 years (SD 2.824) f o r the female sample, and 20.76 years (SD 2.845) f o r the male sample. No p s y c h i a t r i c s c r e e n i n g was done, however, and i t i s p o s s i b l e that the sample i n c l u d e d a few compensated s c h i z o t y p e s as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h other minor p s y c h i a t r i c problems. Ins t ruments . A l l s u b j e c t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d a survey (see Appen-d i x I) which i n c l u d e d (1) the 6 6 - i t e m P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le of Chapman, Chapman, and R a u l i n (1976) , (2) the D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions Sca le + A n x i e t y (DES+A), which c o n s i s t s of the 3 3 - i t e m D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e developed by I z a r d , Dougherty , Bloxom, and Kotsch (1974) together w i t h 18 S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y i tems ( S p i e l b e r g e r , Gorsuch, & Luchene, 1970) converted by I za rd (1972) i n t o DES fo rmat , and (3) quest ions r e f l e c t i n g the p l e a s u r e exper ience . These ques t ions were expanded from the DES+A p o r t i o n of the survey and were, t h e r e f o r e , p r e -sented on the same pages as DES+A i t e m s . S ince s u b j e c t s were asked to imagine p leasant s i t u a t i o n s w h i l e complet ing the DES+A, i t was c o n -s i d e r e d to be u s e f u l to i n q u i r e about the nature of these s i t u a t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g DES+A s c a l e i t e m s , s u b j e c t s were asked to r e c a l l t h e i r p l e a -sant s i t u a t i o n s . Space was p rov ided f o r ten s i t u a t i o n s , thus imposing a c e i l i n g on the t o t a l p o s s i b l e number. The sub jec ts were then asked 27 to r a t e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s u s i n g a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e rang ing from 1 - i n t e n s e l y unpleasant to 7 - i n t e n s e l y p l e a s a n t . F i n a l l y , as an a d d i t i o n a l measure of anhedonia , s u b j e c t s were asked to r a t e the frequency w i t h which they exper ienced p l e a s u r e u s i n g one of seven c a t e g o r i e s rang ing from "a lmost every day" to an extreme of " n e v e r . " There was very l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y i n responses to t h i s i t e m , and i t was t h e r e f o r e not used i n c l a s s i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o l e v e l s of anhedonia . Th is measure d i d , however, have a low but s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the t o t a l anhedonia score de r i ved from Chapman et a l . ' s (1976) s c a l e , _r = - . 2 8 , p_ = . 0 0 1 . A f a c e sheet at the beg inn ing of each.survey gave a b r i e f d e s -c r i p t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n s t r u c t i o n s , and space f o r the s u b j e c t s to i n d i c a t e t h e i r age and sex . The order of s c a l e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n the survey was randomized to c o n t r o l f o r order e f f e c t s . Because a major p o r t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h was concerned w i t h an examinat ion of the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s of both s c a l e s , each s c a l e i s d i s c u s s e d i n g reate r d e t a i l i n the context of these ana lyses (Stud ies 2 and 3 ) . P rocedure . A l l s u b j e c t s were approached i n t h e i r c l a s s e s and, a l though they 7 were s t r o n g l y encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e , a l l s u b j e c t s were v o l u n t e e r s . P r i o r to data c o l l e c t i o n , s u b j e c t s were informed tha t the i n v e s t i g a t o r was conduct ing a survey of l i f e exper iences and i t was emphasized tha t there were d i f f e r e n t forms f o r males and females as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t o rders f o r the two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Subjects were g i ven 30-50 minutes of c l a s s t ime to complete the survey , and a l though most were completed i n t h i s amount of t i m e , c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s f i n i s h e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s at home and re tu rned them to the i n s t r u c t o r 28 i n a subsequent c l a s s . No remunerat ion or course c r e d i t was o f f e r e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Of those approached, roughly 60% completed the survey . Of those who d i d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the survey , some completed on ly p o r t i o n s of the s c a l e s . I t was noted that a few c o n s c i e n t i o u s s u b j e c t s adv ised the i n v e s t i g a t o r a f t e r t e s t i n g that they had reversed the order i n which they responded. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , b e l i e v e d tha t the order of t e s t i n g was not complete ly c o n t r o l l e d . A n a l y s e s . Two f a c t o r ana lyses were conducted f o r the DES+A (see Study 2) and f o r the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le (see Study 3 ) . F o l l o w i n g these a n a l y s e s , f a c t o r scores were computed f o r each s u b j e c t . Subjects were then d i v i d e d i n t o two groups on the b a s i s of a median s p l i t of t o t a l anhedonia s c o r e s . Th is was done s e p a r a t e l y f o r each sex s i n c e i t was found that males scored as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anhedonic than females , F_(l,308) = 1 9 . 7 9 , p_ = . 0 0 0 . The main e f f e c t , f o r order of t e s t i n g was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F_(l,308) = 1 . 1 8 , _p_ = . 2 7 7 , nor was the i n t e r a c t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( l , 3 0 8 ) = 0 . 9 9 8 , £ = . 3 1 9 . The t o t a l anhe-donia score medians were 7.97 and 11.98 f o r the females and males r e s -p e c t i v e l y . Those s c o r i n g below the median were des ignated as l ow -anhedonic and those s c o r i n g above the median, were des ignated as h i g h -anhedonic . H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 was used to t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between low - and h igh -anhedon ic s u b j e c t s of each sex . The dependent v a r i a b l e s were: t o t a l number of s i t u a t i o n s r e c a l l e d , average r a t i n g of p leasantness f o r the r e c a l l e d s i t u a t i o n s , f requency of p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s , i n d i -v i d u a l p leasantness r a t i n g s f o r ten s i t u a t i o n s (maximum 1 0 ) , f a c t o r scores on the 12 DES+A emotion f a c t o r s , and f a c t o r scores on the 24 29 P h y s i c a l Anhedonia f a c t o r s . Of the emotion f a c t o r s , some were des ignated as p o s i t i v e , whereas the others appeared to be e i t h e r negat i ve or n e u t r a l . These p o s i t i v e emotions were: F a c t o r 2 — Negat ive of A n x i e t y (or R e l a x a t i o n ) , Fac to r 3 — I n t e r e s t , and F a c t o r 8 — Enjoyment, f o r the males . For the female sample, these were: F a c t o r 2 — Negat ive of A n x i e t y (or R e l a x a t i o n ) , Fac to r 7 — Enjoyment, and F a c t o r 8 — I n t e r e s t . C l e a r l y , t h i s i s on ly a rough approx imat ion to the p o s i t i v e or w e l f a r e emotions d i s c u s s e d by Rado (1969). R e s u l t s The median s p l i t s r e s u l t e d i n four groups: low-anhedonic females (n = 9 2 ) , h igh -anhedon ic females (n = 100) , low-anhedonic males (n = 5 5 ) , and h igh -anhedon ic males (n = 6 5 ) . The r e s u l t s of the T 2 a n a l y s i s f o r both sexes were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . For f e m a l e s , T 2 = 2 9 5 . 6 , F_(49,105) = 4 . 1 4 1 , £ ~ .0000, and f o r ma les , T 2 = 3 7 0 . 8 , F (49 ,43) = 3 . 5 7 6 , £ =* .0000. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r the p a r t i c u l a r l i n e a r combinat ion of v a r i a b l e s employed i n t h i s s tudy , there appear to he c o n s i s t e n t d i f -fe rences between lo w - and h igh -anhedon ics of both sexes . In an attempt to i s o l a t e the source of the d i f f e r e n c e , .95 conf idence i n t e r v a l s were c o n s t r u c t e d about the mean d i f f e r e n c e s . A l l of the conf idence i n t e r -v a l s spanned zero i n d i c a t i n g tha t i t was predominant ly the combinat ion of v a r i a b l e s which was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e . Less c o n s e r -v a t i v e conf idence i n t e r v a l s ( .90 and .80) were a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d , but these a l s o f a i l e d to i m p l i c a t e any one or set of v a r i a b l e s . In order to assess the t rends of these d a t a , the group means f o r each v a r i a b l e were i n s p e c t e d and these are presented i n Table 1. Of 30 Table 1 Means f o r H i g h - and Low-Anhedonic Subjects Males Females High Low High Low V a r i a b l e n=65 n=55 n=100 n=92 T o t a l s i t u a t i o n s . 5 .40 6.22 6.60 7.02 Mean r a t i n g 5.37 5.76 5.26 5.91 Frequency 6.34 6.56 6.37 6.68 S i t u a t i o n Rat ings 1 6.32 6.49 6.25 6.36 2 6 .15 6.29 6.24 6.29 3 1 6.07 6.00 6.34 6.14 4 6.03 6.34 . 6 .05 6.08 5 6.10 6.18 5 .82 6.20 6 5 .42 5.96 6.07 6.33 7 5.17 6.00 5.14 5.89 8 4 .75 6.06 5.50 5.87 9 5 .62 5.93 5.64 6.09 10 5.62 6.38 5 .25 5.96 UES+A F a c t o r s 1 49 .2 48.9 49 .4 48 .5 2 49 .8 50 .3 48 .1 51 .5 3 48 .2 . 52 .1 50.4 49 .8 4 47 .8 50.7 48 .4 50 .3 5 52 .3 47 .3 4 9 . 2 48 .8 6 50.6 49 .2 51.4 48 .4 7 49.7 48.4 48 .3 51 .8 8 48.9 51 .3 49.7 50 .4 9 52 .4 47 .1 50.7 49 .3 10 51.3 48 .5 49.7 5 1 . 1 11 51 .8 47.9 50.6 49 .4 12 49.6 51 .3 51 .3 49 .5 cont inued 31 Table 1 cont inued Males Females Low High Low High V a r i a b l e n=65 n=55 n=100 n=92 P h y s i c a l Anhedonia F a c t o r s 1 50 .8 49 .0 46 .8 5 3 . 5 2 51 .2 48 .6 5 2 . 3 47 .5 3 52 .2 47 .4 47 .4 52.9 4 51 .2 48 .6 48 .0 52 .2 5 47 .1 53.4 48 .3 51 .8 6 50 .5 49 .4 50 .8 4 9 . 1 7 52 .0 47.7 51 .3 48 .6 8 51.7 4 8 . 0 51 .6 48 .3 9 47 .0 53.6 51 .2 48.7 10 52 .5 47 .0 5 3 . 5 46 .2 11 50.6 49 .3 5 3 . 3 46.4 12 51.1 48 .8 47 .6 52 .6 13 47.9 52.4 5 0 . 2 49 .8 14 51.9 47 .8 53.7 46 .0 15 51 .5 48 .3 51.4 48 .5 16 51 .6 48 .1 52 .2 47 .'6 17 51.9 47 .8 53 .2 4 6 . 5 18 51 .9 47.7 48 .4 51.7 19 50.3 49.7 48 .4 51.7 20 51 .0 48 .8 49 .3 50.7 21 46.9 53.7 5 2 . 3 47 .6 22 46 .9 53.7 47 .6 52.6 23 54 .3 44.9 48 .2 52 .0 24 48 .5 51.7 5 0 . 0 50 .0 32 the t r e n d s , most were i n the expected d i r e c t i o n . That i s , h i g h -anhedonics of both sexes r e c a l l e d fewer s i t u a t i o n s , they r a t e d these s i t u a t i o n s as l e s s p l e a s a n t on the average, and they repor ted a lower frequency of p l e a s a n t exper iences i n t h e i r l i v e s on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s . With regard to emot iona l concomitants of the p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e , on ly two of the emotion f a c t o r s f o r males and none f o r the females had a d i f f e r e n c e of g reate r than or equa l to o n e - h a l f of a s tandard d e v i a t i o n . ( factor scores f o r both s c a l e s were, . s tandard ized to a mean of 50 and a s tandard d e v i a t i o n of 10) . N e i t h e r of the emotion f a c t o r s f o r the males was a c o - c a l l e d " p o s i t i v e 1 ' emot ion. R a t h e r , the l a r -gest d i f f e r e n c e was on F a c t o r 9 — Contempt, f o l l o w e d by F a c t o r 5 — Enjoyment, and Fac to r 2 — Negat ive of A n x i e t y . Of some i n t e r e s t was the p r o g r e s s i o n of s i t u a t i o n a l r a t i n g s from i n i t i a l to f i n a l r a t i n g . For both sexes , the h igh -anhedon ic s u b j e c t s ' r a t i n g s decreased i n p leasantness w i t h p r o g r e s s i o n , w i t h some f a l l i n g c l o s e to the n e u t r a l range. Th is p a t t e r n d i d not occur w i t h the low -anhedonics . The i r r a t i n g s seemed to be more c o n s i s t e n t and showed l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y . Th is seeming t rend was not a n a l y z e d . Among the 24 f a c t o r s d e r i v e d from the a n a l y s i s of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e (Experiment 3) 8 f o r the females and 6 f o r the males had d i f f e r e n c e s exceeding o n e - h a l f a s tandard d e v i a t i o n . For the females these were ( i n order of magni tude) : Fac to r 10 — Organ Music — h igh -anhedon ics repor ted l e s s enjoyment r e l a t e d to organ mus ic ; F a c t o r 14 — an u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r composed of the urge to f e e l s t a t u e s and the d e s i r e to s i n g i n the shower; F a c t o r 11 — an u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r composed of emjoying back massage and s i n g i n g 33 when s a d ; Fac to r 17 — an u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r combining parade sounds w i t h r i d e s i n amusement p a r k s ; Fac to r 1 — a l s o u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e , i n c l u d e d having yet to meet an a t t r a c t i v e man and d i s l i k e of the ex -h a u s t i o n f o l l o w i n g v igorous a c t i v i t y ; F a c t o r 18 — was predominant ly i n f l u e n c e d by a t t i t u d e s regard ing the beauty of n a t u r e ; Fac to r 3 — I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e D i s c o m f o r t ; and Fac to r 12 — Sex. For the males : Fac to r 23 — was p r i m a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by a t t i t u d e s about b r i s k w a l k s ; Fac to r 22 — Sex; Fac to r 21 — l a r g e l y u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e , but r e f l e c t i n g s e c u r i t y and warmth; Fac to r 9 — I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e Comfort ; Fac to r 5 — u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e ; and Fac to r 10 — S i n g i n g . These r e s u l t s proved to be u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f o r the most p a r t due to the l a c k of success i n the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e . The d i f f e r e n c e s between h i g h - and low-anhedonic s u b j e c t s were g reate r on these 24 anhedonia f a c t o r s than on the 12 emotion f a c t o r s , but they were unequal . That i s , the means of the h igh -anhedon ics were not u n i f o r m l y depressed across f a c t o r s . Th is does not support the hypothes is of un i form depress ion of scores across c l u s t e r s of p l e a s a n t s i t u a t i o n s f o r the h i g h anhedonic groups. Because scores on the anhedonia s c a l e had been used as both i n -dependent ( t o t a l score c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) and dependent (24 f a c t o r scores ) v a r i a b l e s , i t was b e l i e v e d that the s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s were r e l a t e d predominant ly to d i f f e r e n c e s between the 24 anhedonia f a c t o r score means. For tha t r e a s o n , the T 2 a n a l y s i s was conducted a g a i n , s e p a r a t e l y by sex , f o r a l l dependent measures e x c l u d i n g the 24 f a c t o r s c o r e s . Only the male a n a l y s i s was s i g n i f i c a n t , T 2 = 8 8 . 0 5 , F_(25,47) = 2 . 3 3 2 , p_ - .0061. For females , T 2 = 4 9 . 0 6 , F (25,103) = 1 .592 , £ = . 0 5 4 9 . In 34 n e i t h e r of these ana lyses were any of the mean d i f f e r e n c e s s i g n i f i -cant at . 0 5 . The r e s u l t s of t h i s second a n a l y s i s would suggest t h e n , tha t the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between low- and h igh -anhedon ic sub jec ts of both sexes were p redominant l y , but not e n t i r e l y , a f u n c t i o n of the f a c t o r scores of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e . The d i f f e r e n c e s between low - and h igh -anhedon ic males remained s i g n i f i c a n t a f t e r the e x c l u -s i o n of anhedonia i t e m s . Moreover , these d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the females , w h i l e f a i l i n g to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e , s t i l l represented a low p r o b a -b i l i t y of occur rence . In summary, the second T 2 a n a l y s i s reduced the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s f o r the i n t e r - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s , yet a d e f i n i t e t rend remains . One of the purposes of i n c l u d i n g the DES+A i n t h i s study (as ide from the hypothes is of reduced l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e emotion i n h i g h -anhedonics) was that of o b t a i n i n g a q u a n t i f i a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t i v e exper ience of p l e a s u r e . I z a r d et a l . (1974) have used scores on each emotion f a c t o r i n order to c h a r a c t e r i z e exper iences by c e r t a i n predominant emot ions. As w i l l be r e c a l l e d , s u b j e c t s were i n -s t r u c t e d to imagine t h e i r own p l e a s a n t exper iences w h i l e they completed the DES+A. Presumably , the f a c t o r s w i t h the h i g h e s t mean scores would most d e f i n e the e x p e r i e n c e ; those w i t h the lowest mean scores would be l e a s t d e s c r i p t i v e of the exper ience . T h e r e f o r e , the 2 -3 h i g h e s t and 2 -3 lowest mean scores were examined f o r the h igh -anhedon ic and low-anhedonic males , as w e l l as f o r the h igh -anhedon ic females . These r e s u l t s are summarized i n Table 2. Both male and female low-anhedonics d e s c r i b e d the exper ience 35 Table 2 F a c t o r s D e f i n i n g the P l e a s u r e Exper ience Group Most D e f i n i n g Least D e f i n i n g Males High-Anhedonic 5. Shyness + A n x i e t y 4. Anger 9 . Contempt 3 . S u p p r i s e - I n t e r e s t Low-Anhedonic 3 . S u r p r i s e - I n t e r e s t 5 . Shyness + A n x i e t y 8 . Enjoyment + Negat ive 9. Contempt of A n x i e t y 12. Absence of Scorn Females High Anhedonic 6. Absence of S u r p r i s e 2 . Negat ive of A n x i e t y 12. U n r e f l e c t i v e Embar- 7. Enj oyment rassment 4. Shyness Low-Anhedonic 2 . Negat i ve of A n x i e t y 7. Enj oyment 10. Negat i ve of G u i l t -D i s t r e s s 6. Absence of S u r p r i s e 1. A n g e r - D i s g u s t - D i s t r e s s 36 similarly. According to the direction of their ratings, pleasure is a state of relaxation, enjoyment, and interest with the absence of negative emotions such as scorn, guilt, and distress. Male and female high-anhedonics on the other hand, described the experience in entirely different terms. For the males, -the most defining emotions were shy-ness, anxiety, and contempt. For them the least defining emotions were anger, surprise, and interest. The females defined the experi-ence most by the absence of surprise and by a type of embarrassment. Least descriptive for them were relaxation, enjoyment, and shyness. Taking the results for both male and female high-anhedonics together, i t would appear that their experience is most coloured by anxiety. Discussion The results of the foregoing comparative study suggest some dif-ferences in descriptions of the pleasure experience in undergraduates scoring in the upper and lower halves of a distribution of anhedonia scores. The high-anhedonics produced smaller numbers of pleasant ex-periences when asked to l i s t those which they imagined while completing the DES+A. It is unclear whether this represented a. lower degree of recall or a reduced repertoire from which to select. Provided that the high-anhedonics were truly anhedonics, one might expect fewer pleasurable experiences to have been available to memory from which to draw for this survey. This would appear to be more plausible than the alternate explanation of less efficient short-term memory pro-cesses in the high-anhedonics. The trend observed in high-anhedonics towards progressively re-duced ratings of pleasantness with increasing numbers of situations 37 suggests a r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g s e r i a t i o n e f f e c t . Th is may r e f l e c t a t rend i n the a s s o c i a t i o n a l processes of anhedonics through which thoughts of d e c r e a s i n g p leasantness t r i g g e r even l e s s p l e a s a n t thoughts . That i s , i t may be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a somewhat negat i ve or at l e a s t n e u t r a l b i a s i n the e v a l u a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e s . Both Kayton and Koh (1975) and Watson (1977) have noted tha t p leasantness may not be used by anhedonics as a d imension f o r p e r c e p t i o n and/or r e c a l l . In t h i s s t u d y , the demand was s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the use of a p leasantness d imens ion . Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the survey i n i t i a l l y provoked h igher r a t i n g s of p l e a s a n t n e s s , but t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g numbers of r a t i n g s , the h igh -anhedon ics r e v e r t e d to a l e v e l more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e . F i n a l l y , the s e r i a l e f f e c t i n r a t i n g s (and presumably i n the order of p r o d u c t i o n of exper iences) may r e f l e c t an u n d e r l y i n g tendency i n h i g h anhedonics to h a b i t u a t e more q u i c k l y ..to s t i m u l i , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of p l e a s a n t c o n -n o t a t i o n . For example, the remembrance of a p leasant .experience by a low-anhedonic sub jec t may t r i g g e r an i n c r e a s e d involvement w i t h the memory, p o s s i b l y through an e l a b o r a t i o n of d e t a i l . For the h i g h -anhedonic , on the other hand, such a memory may be f l e e t i n g and i n -d i s t i n c t — p o s s i b l e r e f l e c t i n g the o r i g i n a l exper ience . I t would appear from these suggest ions tha t f u r t h e r study of the c o g n i t i o n of h igh -anhedon ics might f u r t h e r u n r a v e l the processes u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . Scores on emotion f a c t o r s suggested no s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e -tween the groups i n the p o s i t i v e emotions as de f ined i n t h i s s tudy . The only c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e across sexes appeared to be i n a n x i e t y , 38 thus s u p p o r t i n g Watson's (1972a) c o n t e n t i o n of an i n h i b i t o r y aspect to anhedonia. Contrary to Watson et a l . ' s (1970) sugges t ion that low energy l e v e l s might d e p i c t anhedonics , an emotion f a c t o r , F a t i g u e -Lethargy d e r i v e d from the DES+A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s (Factor 10 f o r m a l e s , F a c t o r 11 f o r f e m a l e s ) , f a i l e d to be prominent i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g low-from h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s . Thus, i t may be that Watson et a l . ' s sugges t ion was i n p a r t r e l a t e d to the c h r o n i c i t y of t h e i r s u b j e c t s . Of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia f a c t o r s w i t h the l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups, there appeared to be a tendency across sexes to f i n d h e t e r o s e x u a l and t a c t i l e exper iences most u n p l e a s a n t ; however, c e r t a i n of the other f a c t o r s suggested l e s s area f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Th is i s undoubtedly a r e f l e c t i o n of the l i m i t a t i o n s of tha t f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . C e r t a i n l y i n h i b i t o r y a n x i e t y might p rov ide an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the seeming avers i veness of s e x u a l and other forms of p h y s i c a l c o n -t a c t ; however, t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be more of an a r t i f a c t r e l a t e d to an inadequate f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . These r e s u l t s appear to r a i s e more quest ions than they answer. C e r t a i n l y the most s t r i k i n g q u e s t i o n i s the extent to which the h i g h -anhedonics i n t h i s study were t r u l y anhedonic . Most d e f i n i t i o n s of anhedonia r e v e r t to a lowered c a p a c i t y to exper ience enjoyment and, a c c o r d i n g to tha t f o r m u l a t i o n , the h igh -anhedon ics i n t h i s study have d e s c r i b e d themselves as r e c e i v i n g l e s s p l e a s u r e , both i n f requency and i n t e n s i t y than the low -anhedon ics . But the argument seems c i r c u l a r to some e x t e n t ; a d e s c r i p t i o n of reduced p l e a s u r e l e v e l s seems i n s u f f i c i e n t to invoke anhedonia. There are a l t e r n a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r these r e s u l t s which do not i m p l i c a t e anhedonia. For i n s t a n c e , one t e n t a t i v e 39 explanation may be interference in pleasure capacity related to either depression and/or inhibitory anxiety. These might represent neurotic interferences with the capacity to enjoy l i f e and be unrelated to any lifelong biological deficiency. This possibility raises an important issue in the assessment of hedonic capacity. Theoretically, we can conceive of two groups of individuals who might give an external impres-sion of anhedonia. One group might be characterized by neurotic i n -hibition (or interferring affect), whereas the other group might re-present those with an actual biological deficiency in the absence of interferring processes (true anhedonics). This distinction is easy to make theoretically, but exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to subject to investiga-tion. Presumably both groups would report lowered pleasure capacity and would find fewer l i f e experiences enjoyable. In effect, their responses to pleasure questions may not dif f e r , yet the underlying processes which prompt their responses may be quite dissimilar. It again is apparent that much work in the area of pleasure is required, especially with normal individuals. What is i t about a stimulus which causes i t to be enjoyable? What are the physiological responses to such stimuli? How does the evaluation, .of the stimulus by the subject affect the experience? Clearly i t is a complex interplay of biological and psychological needs, intermixed with societal and cultural values. But despite the complexity as well as the research d i f f i c u l t i e s , only through the confrontation of these questions w i l l the concept of anhedonia become less ambiguous. 40 STUDY 2 FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE DES+A The DES was o r i g i n a l l y developed through v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d photographs of f a c i a l express ions of emot ion. I t i s a s e l f - r e p o r t inst rument f o r use i n the assessment of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s exper ience of emotions or combinat ions (pat te rns ) of emotions. I z a r d et a l . (1974) propose tha t the DES r e l i a b l y d i v i d e s p e o p l e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of emot iona l exper iences i n t o v a l i d a t e d d i s c r e t e c a t e g o r i e s of emotion. These emotion c a t e g o r i e s were d e r i v e d by p r i n -c i p a l components a n a l y s i s , and s c o r i n g t y p i c a l l y c o n s i s t s of a s s i g n i n g a mean r a t i n g as the score f o r each emotion " f a c t o r . " I t was c o n -ce ived as a " s t a t e " measure and was cons idered to be u s e f u l i n e v a l u -a t i n g the emot ional components of a v a r i e t y of l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s ask an i n d i v i d u a l to r a t e , on a 5 - p o i n t i n t e n s i t y s c a l e , the extent to which each word d e s c r i b e s the way he or she f e e l s when i n a s p e c i f i e d s i t u a t i o n . S ince the DES has been shown to be s e n s i -t i v e to change i n emot ion .exper ience induced by changes i n r e a l as w e l l as i n imagined e m o t i o n - s i t u a t i o n s ( I z a r d , 1971, 1972) , i t was c o n -s i d e r e d to be u s e f u l i n the e v a l u a t i o n of past ( imagined) p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s . A long w i t h the o r i g i n a l DES i t e m s , i t was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e to i n c l u d e i tems r e f l e c t i n g a n x i e t y (as converted by I z a r d from the S p e i l b e r g e r S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y Inventory (STAI)) to p o s s i b l y tap i n t o the h i g h l e v e l of i n h i b i t i o n which Watson (1972a) has suggested as p o t e n t i a l l y be ing one component of anhedonia. 41 A l though I z a r d et a l . r e p o r t c o n s i s t e n t f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s f o r t h e i r i t e m s , they recommend the use of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s f o r a p a r t i c u -l a r sample. Both i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y have been examined f o r the DES. The average c o e f f i c i e n t a lpha f o r a l l emotion s c a l e s of the DES was . 8 1 . The average t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was . 7 7 . I t shou ld be noted tha t I z a r d et a l . have a c t u a l l y conducted numerous p r i n c i p a l component ana lyses r a t h e r than f a c t o r a n a l y s e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , they r e f e r to t h e i r components as " f a c t o r s . " Rather than computing scores based on I z a r d et a l ' s p rev ious work, i t was deemed a d v i s a b l e to f o l l o w t h e i r sugges t ion of conduct ing an independent f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . The common-factor model was employed i n the present a n a l y s i s s i n c e the emphasis was not on the c l u s t e r i n g of the i t e m s , but i n s t e a d on the u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s represented by the i t e m s . The r e s u l t s were examined s e p a r a t e l y by sex , s i n c e there appeared to be s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s . I z a r d et a l . r e p o r t no examinat ion of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ana lyses of t h e i r i ns t rument . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study w i l l be compared w i t h those of I z a r d (1972) where in the DES+A was analysed by the p r i n c i p a l components method and then r o t a t e d by the promax o b l i q u e method f o r 297 s u b j e c t s . Method Sample and Procedure . The DES+A (51 i tems) was completed by 116 males and 185 females from the o r i g i n a l sample of 312 s u b j e c t s . Of these 301 s u r v e y s , 14 were m i s s i n g 1 of the 51 responses , 3 were m i s -s i n g 2 responses , and 1 was m i s s i n g 4 responses . The m i s s i n g responses were es t imated f o r these 18 i n d i v i d u a l s by i n s e r t i n g the mean of the 42 items i n accordance w i t h t h e i r sex and order of t e s t i n g . H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 was used to t e s t f o r mean d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes on a l l 51 i t e m s . The r e s u l t i n g T 2 (96.964) was s i g n i f i c a n t , F (51,249) = 5 1 . 2 4 9 , _p_ — . 0 1 . M u l t i p l e comparisons of the 51 i tems were performed by c o n -s t r u c t i n g .95 conf idence i n t e r v a l s about the mean d i f f e r e n c e s . A l l of the conf idence i n t e r v a l s c rossed z e r o . Thus, w h i l e the o v e r a l l T_ was s i g n i f i c a n t , none of the comparisons i n d i c a t e d the source of the d i f f e r e n c e . The covar iance m a t r i c e s of the males and females were next t e s t e d f o r e q u a l i t y and were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , F(1326,183340) = 1 . 3 4 , p_ = .0000. On the b a s i s of these r e s u l t s , i t would seem that the f a c t o r i a l s t r u c t u r e s d i f f e r e d f o r the sexes and p o o l i n g was i n a d v i s a b l e w i thout i n i t i a l l y i n s p e c t i n g the f a c t o r s t r u c -tu res s e p a r a t e l y by sex . A n a l y s i s of D a t a . Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were com-puted among the 51 s c a l e items s e p a r a t e l y f o r the males and females as w e l l as f o r the pooled sample and the pooled sample w i t h sex added as v a r i a b l e 52. Four separate f a c t o r ana lyses were than c a r r i e d out u s i n g the A l b e r t a Genera l Fac to r A n a l y s i s Program (Hakst ian & Bay, 1972; Second R e v i s i o n , F l y n n , 1977) , one f o r the m a l e s , one f o r the f e m a l e s , one f o r the combined sample, and one f o r the combined sample w i t h sex added as a v a r i a b l e . Twelve f a c t o r s were e x t r a c t e d by the unweighted l e a s t squares (or minimum r e s i d u a l s ) method. The number of f a c t o r s was dec ided u s i n g f i v e methods: (1) the Ka ise r -Gut tman r u l e of l a t e n t r o o t s g rea te r than 1 . 0 , (2) the Scree t e s t of C a t t e l l , (3) the l i k e -l i h o o d - r a t i o s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t , (4) the percentage of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r , and (5) the percentage of r e s i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r 43 than . 1 0 . The r e s u l t s of these t e s t s were e q u i v o c a l ; however, the re appeared to be some agreement suggest ing 12 f a c t o r s . The f a c t o r m a t r i c e s were r o t a t e d to s imple s t r u c t u r e u s i n g the H a r r i s - K a i s e r and promax methods of o b l i q u e r o t a t i o n . These s o l u t i o n s were compared and the best was chosen f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F i n a l l y , f a c t o r scores were computed u s i n g the r e g r e s s i o n method of f a c t o r s c o r e e s t i m a t i o n and these were s t a n d a r d i z e d to a mean of 50 and a s tandard d e v i a t i o n of 10. R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s f o r males and females are presented i n Appendices I I and I I I . The combined c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x (Appendix IV) f o r the pooled sample was cons t ruc ted u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g formula f o r p o o l i n g : /SSCPj^ + S S C P 2 R n , = D"*1 I 7 I j D - i s pooled y n^ + n^ - 2 / where SSCP^ equals the m a t r i x of the sum of squared d e v i a t i o n scores and c ross products f o r sample 1 and D equals the d i a g o n a l m a t r i x i n which each d i a g o n a l element i s the co r respons ing d i a g o n a l element of /iSSCPi + S S C P 2 \ ( ; x—]. The combined w i t h sex m a t r i x was c o n s t r u c t e d i n an \ n l + n 2 " 2 J i d e n t i c a l manner. Because sex d i d not c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h any of the other 51 v a r i a b l e s (h ighest c o r r e l a t i o n was . 0 1 ) , nor d i d i t have a l o a d i n g g rea te r than .30 on any f a c t o r , on ly the r e s u l t s f o r th ree groups are presented (males, f e m a l e s , and combined). The Ka ise r -Gut tman r u l e suggested 12 f a c t o r s f o r both males and females , and 11 f o r the combined sample (see Table 3 ) . The Scree t e s t (F igures 1 , 2 , and 3) suggested 3 f a c t o r s f o r the groups; however, 44 Table 3 E igenva lues Greater than 1.0 Der ived from P r i n c i p a l Components A n a l y s i s F a c t o r Males Females Pooled 1 12.430 11.125 11.391 2 5.087 4.544 4.659 3 3.166 3.619 3.228 4 2.864 2.045 2.301 5 2.140 2.021 1.854 6 2.000 1.774 1.701 7 1.672 1.601 1.479 8 1.573 1.459 1.409 9 1.384 1.392 1.259 10 1.230 1.254 1.186 11 1.122 1.112 1.005 12 1.050 1.071 0.975 F i g u r e 1 . Scree t e s t f o r DES+A items based on Pearson p r o d u c t -moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . M a l e s , n = 116. F i g u r e 2. Scree t e s t f o r DES+A items based on Pearson p r o d u c t -moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Females, n = 185. F i g u r e 3 . Scree t e s t f o r DES+A items based on Pearson p r o d u c t -moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Pooled sample, n = 301. 43 H a k s t i a n and M u l l e r (1973) have noted tha t the Scree tends to suggest too few f a c t o r s . The l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o t e s t f a i l e d to be s i g n i f i c a n t a t 12 f a c t o r s f o r m a l e s , yet was s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t 12 f o r the other two groups (Table 4 ) . Twelve components were e x t r a c t e d f o r the male group u s i n g the p r i n c i p a l components method. Th is accounted f o r 70% of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e . S i m i l a r p r e l i m i n a r y ana lyses were done f o r the other groups, w i t h 12 components account ing f o r 64.5% and 63.6% of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n the female and combined samples r e s p e c t i v e l y . S e v e r a l unweighted l e a s t squares f a c t o r ana lyses were run f o r the th ree groups. S o l u -t i o n s f o r 5 , 7, 9 , and 11 f a c t o r s were examined. The percentage of r e s i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s g rea te r than .10 were examined f o r each s o l u t i o n . The 11 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n c l e a r l y produced the fewest number of r e s i d u a l s (see Table 5 ) ; however, the number was cons idered to be too great f o r the males at 11 f a c t o r s (21.4%) . The other two groups had counts which were c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r , 12.8% and 6.1% f o r the females and combined groups r e s p e c t i v e l y . At 12 f a c t o r s the male count was down somewhat (20.3%) , a l though t h i s seemed not to be a s t r i k i n g r e d u c t i o n . The r e s u l t s of t e s t s f o r the c o r r e c t number of f a c t o r s are sum-mar ized i n Table 6. Because 12 f a c t o r s appeared to be the best number f o r the male sample, t h i s v a l u e was chosen f o r the other samples i n order that r e s u l t s cou ld be compared. I t i s noteworthy tha t I z a r d et a l . (1974) have c o n s i s t e n t l y repor ted tha t the DES f a c t o r s i n t o 10 "emot ion" f a c t o r s and 1 "non -emot ion" f a c t o r . With the i n c l u s i o n of the STAI a n x i e t y i t e m s , 12 f a c t o r s seemed r e a s o n a b l e . I t i s s t r i k i n g , however, tha t the I z a r d (1972) " f a c t o r i n g " of the DES+A r e s u l t e d i n on ly 9 components. 49 Table 4 L i k e l i h o o d - R a t i o Test R e s u l t s Males Females Pooled 11 F a c t o r s X (769) 2. = 12 F a c t o r s X 2 (729) 858.092 936.912 .01419 .00003 790.014 858.837 .05992 .00063 936.179 .00000 50 Table 5 Unweighted Least Squares 11 Fac to r . S o l u t i o n Percentage of R e s i d u a l s Greater than .10 i n Lower T r i a n g l e P o r t i o n of C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x Males Females Pooled Range # % # % % .10 < .11 57 4.47 39 3.06 24 1.88 .11 < .12 37 2.90 41 3 .21 19 1.49 .12 < .13 37 2.90 25 1.96 12 0.94 .13 < .14 30 2.35 16 1.25 6 0.47 .14 < .15 32 2.51 12 0.94 4 0 .31 .15 < .16 15 1.18 8 0 .63 3 0.24 .16 < .17 13 1.02 5 0.29 4 0 .31 .17 < .18 12 0.94 6 0.47 1 0.078 .18 < .19 11 0.86 5 0.39 1 0.078 .19 < .20 11 0.86 2 0.16 1 0.078 .20 < .21 3 0.24 .21 < .22 2 0.16 1 0.078 -.22 < .23 6 0.47 1 0.078 .23 < .24 1 0 .078 1 0.078 1 0 .078 .24 < .25 3 0.24 1 0.078 1 0.078 .25 < .26 1 0 .078 .26 < .27 1 0.078 1 0.078 .27 < .28 ..28 < .29 . -.29 < .30 1 0.078 T o t a l 273 21.4 163 12.8 78 6 .1 T o t a l number of c o r r e l a t i o n s i n lower t r i a n g l a r p o r t i o n was 1275. 51 Table 6 Summary of Test R e s u l t s to Determine Number of F a c t o r s Test Males Females Pooled Ka ise r -Gut tman r u l e 12 12 11 Scree 3 3 3 L i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o t e s t 12 >12 >12 Percent of V a r i a n c e 60-70% 12 12 12 52 A f t e r the d e c i s i o n regard ing the number of f a c t o r s was made, the data f o r the th ree groups were f a c t o r analyzed u s i n g the unweighted l e a s t squares method. The r e s u l t s were o b l i q u e l y r o t a t e d i n th ree manners: (1) by a promax s o l u t i o n w i t h k = 4 , (2) by a H a r r i s - K a i s e r method w i t h c = 0 , and (3) by a H a r r i s - K a i s e r method w i t h c = . 5 . , Th is l a s t method of r o t a t i o n y i e l d e d a more o r thogona l s o l u t i o n . The hyperplane counts (number of l o a d i n g s = 0 ± . 10) were than examined f o r the f a c t o r p a t t e r n m a t r i x produced by each of the th ree r o t a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s are summarized i n Table 7. C l e a r l y , the H a r r i s - K a i s e r c = . 5 was the best r o t a t i o n , y i e l d i n g the h i g h e s t hyperplane count f o r a l l samples. Th is r o t a t i o n was subsequent ly used i n the computa-t i o n of f a c t o r s c o r e s . F a c t o r fo rmat ions were based on items hav ing r o t a t e d l o a d i n g s above . 3 0 . The l o a d i n g s from the f a c t o r p a t t e r n m a t r i x are presented i n Tables 8 , 9 , and 10 f o r the m a l e s , f e m a l e s , and combined samples , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The combined sample, Table 10, i n d i c a t e s the comparison between t h i s a n a l y s i s and that of I za rd (1972). The agreements are i n d i c a t e d as are the l o c a t i o n s of the STAI a n x i e t y i t e m s . (The th ree f a c t o r p a t t e r n m a t r i c e s and t h e ; t h r e e p h i m a t r i c e s of i n t e r f a c t o r c o r r e l a t i o n s are presented i n Appendices V I I I to X I I I . ) Because the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e v a r i e d moderately across samples , the r e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l samples i n i t i a l l y , f o l l o w e d by an o v e r a l l comparison. For ease i n compar ison, f a c t o r names ass igned by I za rd (1972) have been r e t a i n e d where a p p r o p r i a t e . Table 7 T o t a l Hyperplane Counts of R o t a t i o n s of DES+A 1 2 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n Method Males Females Pooled Promax 336 357 381 H a r r i s - K a i s e r c = 0 338 335 380 H a r r i s - K a i s e r c = . 5 358 367 407 cl T o t a l l o a d i n g s = 612 54 Table 8 F a c t o r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s from the H a r r i s -K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of 51- I tem D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotion Sca le + A n x i e t y f o r Males G u i l t - D i s t r e s s .73 g u i l t y .73 blameworthy .64 d iscouraged .63 sad .60 r e g r e t f u l (STAI) .59 d i s g u s t e d .54 w o r r i e d (STAI) .42 repentant Negat ive of A n x i e t y .78 at ease (STAI) .66 calm (STAI) .65 r e l a x e d (STAI) .58 content (STAI) .57 secure (STAI) .57 comfor tab le (STAI) .55 r e s t e d (STAI) - . 3 2 - " h i g h s t r u n g " (STAI) S u r p r i s e - I n t e r e s t .70 as ton i shed .63 s u r p r i s e d .61 amazed .46 a l e r t .37 a t t e n t i v e Anger .78 angry .7 2 mad . 67. enraged .52 upset (STAI) .32 d i s g u s t e d Shyness -Anx ie ty .76 b a s h f u l .67 shy .57 sheepish .53 j i t t e r y (STAI) .40 nervous (STAI) .34 contemptuous .30 anxious (STAI) 6. Fear .75 scared .69 f e a r f u l .58 a f r a i d .51 f a t i g u e d 7. D i s t r e s s .67 downhearted .63 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e .36 " h i g h s t r u n g " (STAI) 8 . Enjoyment + Negat i ve of A n x i e t y .61 happy .58 j o y f u l (STAI) .52 d e l i g h t e d .47 p l e a s a n t (STAI) .37 secure (STAI) .31 s u r p r i s e d 9 . Contempt .53 contemptuous .43 f e e l i n g of r e v u l s i o n .35 repentent 10. Lethargy .63 s leepy .41 s l u g g i s h - . 3 2 - a l e r t 11. T e n s i o n - A n x i e t y .77 tense (STAI) .39 nervous (STAI) - . 3 3 - r e s t e d (STAI) .32 j i t t e r y (STAI) 12. Score .64 s c o r n f u l .47 d i s d a i n f u l .40 c o n f i d e n t (STAI) No l o a d i n g >.30 c o n c e n t r a t i n g . i : .... o v e r e x c i t e d and r a t t l e d (STAI) a N = 116. 12 Fac to r Unweighted Least Squares S o l u t i o n 55 Table 9 Fac to r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of 51- I tem D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotion Sca le + A n x i e t y f o r Females 1. A n g e r - D i s g u s t - D i s t r e s s .73 upset .72 mad .72 angry .64 d i s g u s t e d .63 s c o r n f u l .58 enraged .56 sad .51 downhearted .49 d iscouraged .40 d i s d a i n f u l .35 w o r r i e d (STAI) .32 f e a r f u l .32 r e g r e t f u l (STAI) .31 a f r a i d .31 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e 2. Negat i ve of A n x i e t y .69 secure (STAI) .62 content (STAI) .59 comfortable (STAI) .56 calm (STAI) .54 c o n f i d e n t (STAI) .45 r e s t e d (STAI) .42 a t ease (STAI) .42 r e l a x e d (STAI) 3 . A n x i e t y + Fear .63 j i t t e r y (STAI) .44 " h i g h s t r u n g " (STAI) .42 scared .41 f e a r f u l .38 tense (STAI) .35 o v e r e x c i t e d & r a t t l e d (STAI) .34 a f r a i d .31 sheep ish - . 3 0 - r e s t e d (STAI) 4. Shyness .81 b a s h f u l .65 shy .34 sheep ish 5. Fa t igued Rage .58 enraged .35 f a t i g u e d 6. S u r p r i s e .80 as ton i shed .73 amazed .65 s u r p r i s e d 7. Enj oyment .69 j o y f u l (STAI) .68 happy .63 d e l i g h t e d 8 . I n t e r e s t .73 c o n c e n t r a t i n g .55 a t t e n t i v e .44 a l e r t 9 . Contempt & A n x i e t y .51 contemptuous .49 d i s d a i n f u l .46 f e e l i n g of r e v u l s i o n .45 anxious (STAI) .42 o v e r e x c i t e d & r a t t l e d (STAI) .33 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e 0 . G u i l t - D i s t r e s s .62 g u i l t y .51 blameworthy .44 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e .42 r e g r e t f u l (STAI) cont inued Table 9 cont inued 10. cont inued .37 scared 12. U n r e f l e c t i v e embarrassment .47 sheep ish - . 3 2 - w o r r i e d (STAI) .37 f a t i g u e d .34 downhearted .33 - a l e r t No l o a d i n g >.30 repentent p l e a s a n t .31 d iscouraged .30 a f r a i d nervous 11. Lethargy .41 s leepy .33 r e l a x e d (STAI) .31 s l u g g i s h N = 185. 12 Factor -Unweighted Leas t Squares S o l u t i o n 57 Table 10 Factor Content and Primary Pattern C o e f f i c i e n t s for the Harris Kaiser (c = .5) Transformation of 51-Item D i f f e r e n t i a l Si Emotion Scale + Anxiety f or Pooled Sample 6. Anger-Disgust (1-5) *.71 angry *.71 enraged *.68 mad *.63 s c o r n f u l .57 upset (STAI) *.49 disgusted *.40 d i s d a i n f u l .36 sad Negative of Anxiety (1-2) .66 calm (STAI) *.64 secure (STAI) *.62 content (STAI) *.59 at ease (STAI) *.52 comfortable (STAI) *.48 relaxed (STAI) *.48 rested (STAI) *.40 confident (STAI) Fear (1-7) A.74 scared *.60 f e a r f u l *.50 a f r a i d (Shame)-Shyness (1-6) *.71 shy *.71 bashful *.30 sheepish Surprise (1-3) *.78 astonished *.65 amazed *.61 surprised Contempt (1-5) *.58 contemptuous *.40 f e e l i n g of re v u l s i o n *.39 d i s d a i n f u l . , .. .37 anxious (STAI) .34 repentent 7. Enjoyment (1-2) *.68 joyful.(STAI) *.60 delighted *.57 happy *.37 pleasant (STAI) 8. I n t e r e s t ( I - l ) *.63 a t t e n t i v e *.63 concentrating *.56 a l e r t 9. D i s t r e s s - G u i l t (1-4) *.70 blameworthy *.60 g u i l t y *.59 r e g r e t f u l (STAI) *.58 discouraged .49 disgusted *.48 sad *.46 downhearted .35 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e .34 worried (STAI) *.33 repentent 10. Fatigue (I-8)-Lethargy *.51 sleepy *.48 sluggish 11. Anxiety (1-7) *.73 tense (STAI) *.46 nervous (STAI) *.42 j i t t e r y (STAI) 12. A l e r t Embarrassment .35 sheepish .33 fatigues No loading >.30 "high strung" (STAI) overexcited & r a t t l e d (STAI) N = 301. 12 Factor-Unweighted Least Squares Solution Corresponding Izard (1972) Factor Number, factor are starred. Items loading on Izard's 58 Factor Content for Male Sample. Factor I was named G u i l t - D i s t r e s s since the highest loadings consisted of self-blamatory adjectives, followed by negative and anxiety (STAI) items. This factor would seem to r e f l e c t self-preoccupation and self-contempt. Factor II consisted e n t i r e l y of STAI items r e f l e c t i n g the absence of anxiety. For that reason, i t was e n t i t l e d Negative of Anxiety and appears to describe a state of r e l a x a t i o n . Factor III combined two of Izard's factors com-pl e t e l y with the exception of one item. I t was named Surprise-Interest i n accordance with Izard's data and appears to describe a s t a r t l e r e s -ponse combined with high a t t e n t i o n a l l e v e l s . Factor IV was of uni-tary content; items connoting anger and rage loaded most highly f o l -lowed by the STAI item "upset." The factor was named Anger and seems to r e f l e c t a high degree of negative a f f e c t . Factor V for the male sample proved to be of i n t e r e s t . Not only did Izard's Shyness items load on t h i s f a c t o r , but they were followed by STAI anxiety items. The factor was e n t i t l e d Shyness+Anxiety and seems to combine embar-rassment or interpersonal anxiety with the shyness dimension. Factor VI was c l e a r l y a fear factor and was l a b e l l e d as such. Factor VII was less i n t e r p r e t a b l e yet seemed to describe a state of personal d i s -tress characterized by negative attitudes and anxiety. Factor VIII was straightforward. Items describing enjoyment and p o s i t i v e emotions were represented. It was e n t i t l e d Enjoyment + Negative of Anxiety due to the loadings of a number of STAI r e l a x a t i o n items. Factor IX had r e l a t i v e l y small loadings, the highest of which was "contemptuous." It was therefore l a b e l l e d Contempt. Factor X was very s i m i l a r to Izard's Fatigue f a c t o r , yet the item " f a t i g u e " did not load on i t . 59 Because of the content i t seemed that Lethargy b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d the low energy l e v e l suggested by the i t e m s . F a c t o r XI c o n s i s t e d e n t i r e l y of STAI a n x i e t y i tems and seemed to emphasize somat ic i n d i c a t o r s of a n x i e t y . I t was l a b e l l e d Tens ion + A n x i e t y . F i n a l l y , F a c t o r X I I was named Scorn and i t had on ly th ree i tems l o a d i n g on i t . Two i tems d i d not have l o a d i n g s >.30 on any f a c t o r . These were: " c o n c e n t r a t i n g " and " o v e r e x c i t e d and r a t t l e d . " The l a t t e r was a STAI i t e m . Of the 18 STAI i t e m s , i t i s noteworthy t h a t 12 formed two com-p l e t e f a c t o r s ( I I and I X ) . The former c o n s i s t e d of r e l a x a t i o n i tems and the l a t t e r of a n x i e t y i t e m s . The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s f o r the male sample, w h i l e i n t e r p r e t a b l e and i n t e r e s t i n g , must be viewed as l e s s s t a b l e than the other two samples due to the s m a l l number of male s u b j e c t s . Fac to r Content f o r the Female Sample. Fac to r I was s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from that of the males to warrant a d i f f e r e n t name. There were f i v e i tems o v e r l a p p i n g the groups ; however, the t o t a l number of l o a d i n g s was d i s c r e p a n t (males — 8 i t e m s , females — 15 i t e m s ) . Whi le both f a c t o r s c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d n e g a t i v e d i s t r e s s , the female f a c t o r appeared to be o t h e r - r a t h e r than s e l f - d i r e c t e d . As w i t h the male sample, a number of STAI items were r e p r e s e n t e d . The f a c t o r was e n -t i t l e d A n g e r - D i s g u s t - D i s t r e s s (as opposed to G u i l t - D i s t r e s s i n the male sample) . F a c t o r I I was v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l i n both groups , c o n -s i s t i n g of STAI r e l a x a t i o n i t e m s . The order i n which the i tems loaded was n o t , however, c o n s i s t e n t . The l a b e l ass igned to the male group was r e t a i n e d f o r the females — Negat ive of A n x i e t y . F a c t o r I I I f o r the females was e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from the males . I t i n c l u d e d a n x i e t y 60 and f e a r i tems and was, t h e r e f o r e , named A n x i e t y + F e a r . Th is combina-t i o n i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to the Shyness + A n x i e t y f a c t o r f o r the males i n t h a t i t may r e f l e c t the c o - e x i s t a n c e of p a r t i c u l a r a n x i e t y r e a c t i o n s by the f e a r response ( j u s t as shyness was accompanied w i t h embarrassment and a n x i e t y ) . I t i s noteworthy that the male Fear f a c t o r d i d not i n c l u d e a r o u s a l . In f a c t , i t i n c l u d e d the o p p o s i t e — f a t i g u e , suggest ing a s lowing r a t h e r than an a c t i v a t i o n . F a c t o r IV w a s - c l e a r l y Shyness, t h i s t ime w i thout a n x i e t y i tems l o a d i n g on i t . F a c t o r V was not c l e a r l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e . Only two i tems loaded and they d i d not com-b i n e e a s i l y . I t was t e n t a t i v e l y named Fat igued Rage. F a c t o r VI was a complete r e p l i c a t i o n of I z a r d ' s S u r p r i s e f a c t o r . I t d i d not i n c l u d e I n t e r e s t as d i d the male sample. F a c t o r V I I was a l s o s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and was•named Enjoyment. I t i n c l u d e d fewer i tems than the male E n j o y -ment f a c t o r , ye t a l l of the female i tems over lapped w i t h the male l o a d i n g s ( t o t a l male l o a d i n g s — 6; female — 3 ) . The nonover lapp ing i tems f o r the males were STAI r e l a x a t i o n a d j e c t i v e s and a s m a l l " s u r p r i s e d " l o a d i n g . Fac to r V I I I a g a i n , was a complete r e p l i c a t i o n of I z a r d ' s I n t e r e s t f a c t o r . F a c t o r IX was s i m i l a r to the male Contempt f a c t o r (a l so F a c t o r IX) yet i t a l s o i n c l u d e d STAI a n x i e t y i t e m s . I t was t h e r e f o r e named Contempt + A n x i e t y . F a c t o r X was more s i m i l a r i n content to the G u i l t - D i s t r e s s (Factor 1) of the males than was the f i r s t female f a c t o r . The number of i tems o v e r l a p p i n g the two samples was fewer ( 4 ) , however. Whereas the male f a c t o r seemed to rep resent s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n and s e l f - c o n t e m p t , the female f a c t o r appears l e s s s e l f - f o c u s e d and i n t r o d u c e s f e a r . Th is may suggest sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the exper ience of g u i l t which may, i n p a r t , be a f u n c t i o n of l ocus of 61 c o n t r o l . The male g u i l t f a c t o r appears to be congruent w i t h an i n t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , and the female f a c t o r w i t h an e x t e r n a l frame of r e f e r e n c e . F a c t o r IX appears s i m i l a r f o r both groups w i t h the except ion of one of the th ree i t e m s . The name Lethargy has been r e t a i n e d f o r the female sample. F a c t o r X I I was b a r e l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e . Two i tems w i t h s m a l l l o a d i n g s d e f i n e d the f a c t o r , " s h e e p i s h " and the n e g a t i v e of " w o r r i e d . " Th is appeared to i n d i c a t e a type of embarrassment which was not accom-panied by s e l f - c r i t i c a l thoughts and the f a c t o r was e n t i t l e d very t e n t a t i v e l y as " U n r e f l e c t i v e Embarrassment." Three i tems had no l o a d i n g s >.30: " r e p e n t e n t " , " p l e a s a n t " , and " n e r v o u s . " Whi le the f a c t o r content f o r both males and females d i s -p layed a h i g h degree of s i m i l a r i t y , there appear to be some s t r i k i n g q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by the g r e a t e r f a c -t o r i a l complex i ty of the female l o a d i n g s . Apar t from a few d i s s i m i l a r s m a l l f a c t o r s , the predominant d i f f e r e n c e s appear to be : 1) the g rea te r d i s c r e t e n e s s of the male emotion f a c t o r s ; 2) the l e s s e r emphasis on s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n the f e m a l e s ; 3) the apparent d i f f e r e n c e i n o r i e n t a t i o n f o r the females which might be termed o t h e r - d i r e c t e d n e s s or e x t e r n a l l ocus of c o n t r o l ; and 4) the g rea te r f requency of f e a r i tems l o a d i n g on a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s f o r females (Factors I, I I I , and X) as opposed to one (Factor VI) f o r ma les . Whi le these r e s u l t s may s imply r e f l e c t sampl ing e r r o r , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t of the number of male s u b j e c t s , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that c e r t a i n t rends i n d i c a t i n g s e x - d i f f e r e n c e s i n emot ional p a t t e r n i n g are represented 62 by these d a t a . These t rends may r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t i a l t r a i n i n g of emot iona l e x p r e s s i o n and exper ience i n males and females . F a c t o r Content f o r the Pooled Sample. B a s i c a l l y , the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r the pooled sample p rov ided more d i s c r e t e f a c t o r s w i t h l e s s c o m p l e x i t y . The sex d i f f e r e n c e s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y were m i n i -mized i n t h a t c e r t a i n of the t rends were obscured . Fac to r I, Anger -D i s g u s t , seemed to be most i n f l u e n c e d by the female a n a l y s i s . F a c t o r I I , Negat ive of A n x i e t y , was e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r to the two p rev ious s t r u c t u r e s . Fac to r I I I , F e a r , seemed to be most determined by the male sample and d i d not r e f l e c t the f a c t o r i a l complex i ty of the f e -males . F a c t o r IV (Shame)-Shyness was s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . F a c t o r V , S u r p r i s e , was a c l e a r r e p l i c a t i o n of I z a r d et a l . ' s (1974) work. F a c t o r V I , Contempt, combined the male and female s t r u c t u r e s . F a c t o r V I I , Enjoyment, and F a c t o r V I I I , I n t e r e s t , were both unambiguous i n t h e i r con ten t . F a c t o r IX , G u i l t - D i s t r e s s , combined the male and f e -male f a c t o r s . F a c t o r X , F a t i g u e - L e t h a r g y , was s i m i l a r to the f a c t o r d e r i v e d from both male and female samples. F a c t o r X I , A n x i e t y , seemed most r e f l e c t i v e of the male a n a l y s i s . Fac to r X I I , A l e r t Embarrassment, was e s s e n t i a l l y a weak f a c t o r , s i m i l a r to the female f a c t o r (XII) i n that i t was most d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t . Items w i t h no l o a d i n g s >.30 were " h i g h s t r u n g " , and " o v e r e x c i t e d and r a t t l e d . " Both were STAI i t e m s . E s s e n t i a l l y , the pooled f a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e p l i c a t e d the work of I z a r d (1972) w i t h the except ion tha t the present a n a l y s i s d e r i v e d more f a c t o r s . That of I z a r d produced on ly 9 components f o r the 51 i t e m s . He used h i s r e s u l t s to support h i s c o n t e n t i o n tha t a n x i e t y was m u l t i f a c t o r i a l 63 (an unstable and variable combination of interacting emotions) because i t loaded on a number of factors. In the present analysis, however, anxiety (STAI. items) seemed to be rather clearly and cleanly, distributed between two factors (II and XI). It is possible that Izard under-factored his data. Nevertheless, in research where the DES+A is used and where scores on reasonably discrete emotion factors are desirable, the results of this study support usage of Izard's analysis, par-ticularly when an i n i t i a l factor analysis is not feasible. The only drawback in using Izard's data, however, is in the lack of reflection of sex differences. In the present analysis, the pooled sample factor structure was not used in the computation of factor scores because the comparative increase in factorial simplicity seemed not to be desirable i n light of the obscurity in sex differences which would result. Since the i n i t i a l T 2 was highly significant, there was no compelling reason on which to base a rationale for combining sexes. 64 STUDY 3 FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE PHYSICAL ANDEHONIA SCALE Chapman, Chapman, and R a u l i n (1976) d i s c u s s the f o r m a t i o n of two anhedonia s c a l e s ( p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l ) which they c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g r a t i o n a l - e m p i r i c a l methods to r e f l e c t a l i f e l o n g c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l d e f e c t i n the a b i l i t y to exper ience p l e a s u r e . A l though they repor ted h igher r e l i a b i l i t i e s u s i n g the S o c i a l Anhedonia s c a l e , they recommend usage of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e f o r r e s e a r c h concerned w i t h b i o l o g i c a l d e f e c t s i n p l e a s u r e c a p a c i t y . S ince the present study was concerned w i t h e x p e r i e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e was cons idered to be most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r assessment of d i f f e r e n c e s i n a normal sample. I n s p e c t i o n of the i tem content of t h i s s c a l e suggested , however, tha t a s i n g l e raw score might f a i l to p rov ide much i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r -d ing areas of p l e a s u r e d e f i c i e n c y . That i s , i tems range from v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y exper iences to a t t i t u d e s regard ing p l e a s u r e d e r i v e d from t o u c h i n g , i n g e s t i n g f o o d , and h e t e r o s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . At l e a s t one researcher ( K r a e p e l i n , 1913/1919) has suggested tha t c e r t a i n e x p e r i -ences such as food r e t a i n a " s p e c i a l power of a t t r a c t i o n " even when other exper iences have l i t t l e importance . I t seemed p o s s i b l e tha t by c l u s t e r i n g i tems i n t o c a t e g o r i e s , each c h a r a c t e r i z e d by one mode of s e n s a t i o n , a more i n f o r m a t i v e a n a l y s i s of p l e a s u r e c a p a c i t y might be pursued. T h e r e f o r e , a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the 6 6 - i t e m s c a l e was p e r -formed f o r the purpose of p a r t i t i o n i n g these i tems and d e r i v i n g f a c t o r scores f o r s u b j e c t s based on these s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . 65 Method Sample and Procedure . The P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e (66 t r u e -f a l s e i tems) was completed by 120 males , and 190 females from the o r i -g i n a l sample of 312 s u b j e c t s . Of these 310 su rveys , 20 were m i s s i n g one of the 66 responses , four were m i s s i n g two, th ree were m i s s i n g t h r e e , one was m i s s i n g f o u r , one was m i s s i n g seven, and one was m i s s i n g e i g h t . The m i s s i n g responses were est imated f o r these 30 s u b j e c t s by i n s e r t i n g the mean of the i tem i n accordance w i t h t h e i r sex and order of t e s t i n g . H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 was used to t e s t f o r mean d i f f e r e n c e s b e -tween the sexes on a l l 66 i t e m s . The r e s u l t i n g T 2 ( 6 6 , 8 6 ) = 3 5 7 . 5 0 , F_(66,243) = 4 . 7 2 1 , _p_ = . 0 0 0 0 , was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . .95 conf idence i n t e r v a l s were c o n s t r u c t e d about the 66 mean d i f f e r e n c e s . A l l of these i n t e r v a l s spanned z e r o , thus the source of the d i f f e r e n c e was not d e t e c t a b l e a t the .05 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y . As i n d i c a t e d i n Study 1 , the males i n t h i s sample scored as s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more anhedonic than the females . The means and s tandard d e v i a t i o n s were 12.08 (SD = 6 . 3 7 ) , and 8 .96 (SD = 5.89) f o r the males and females , r e s p e c t i v e l y . In order to determine the equ iva lence of t h i s sample to the undergraduate sample of Chapman et a l . (1976) the means were compared. Because i t appears tha t Chapman et a l . used a 51 i tem P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e , t h e i r means were p r o r a t e d . The o r i g i n a l means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were 7 .0 (SD = 3 . 9 ) , and 5 .6 (SD = 3.5) f o r t h e i r males and females , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p ro ra ted means were 9.06 f o r m a l e s , and 7.25 f o r females . Thus w h i l e i t appears that the tendency f o r males to score more a n h e d o n i c a l l y was r e p l i c a t e d , both sexes i n the present sample obta ined h igher s c o r e s . The sample 66 s i z e s were not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t (Chapman et a l . males = 125, females = 246) . Ana lyses of D a t a . ; T e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r the 66 b i n a r y i tems of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e . Th is was done s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and females . Both c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s were non-Gramian due to extreme p r o p o r t i o n a l s p l i t s of the d a t a . These m a t r i c e s cou ld not be f a c t o r a n a l y s e d . In an attempt to r e t a i n the use of t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n s , the p r o p o r t i o n a l s p l i t s of i tems f o r both the male and female m a t r i c e s were i n s p e c t e d . I t was b e l i e v e d that by d i s c a r d i n g the i tems hav ing extreme s p l i t s the m a t r i c e s might be made p o s i t i v e d e f i n i t e and a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s would be p o s s i b l e . Th is proved not to be a f e a s i b l e method f o r the number of i tems to be d i s c a r d e d r e s u l t e d i n reduc ing the s c a l e by more than o n e - h a l f . The number of extreme p r o p o r t i o n a l s p l i t s i s g i ven i n Table 11. I t was thought that by so reduc ing the s c a l e , c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r -mat ion would be l o s t . T h e r e f o r e , Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r the data s e p a r a t e l y by sex . A pooled c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the method d e s c r i b e d i n Study 2. The lower t r i a n g u l a r p o r t i o n s of these th ree m a t r i c e s a re i n c l u d e d i n Appendices V, V I , and V I I . The A l b e r t a Genera l F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program (Hakst ian & Bay, 1972; Second R e v i s i o n , F l y n n , 1977) was used to conduct a l l a n a l y s e s . The number of f a c t o r s was dec ided u s i n g f i v e methods: (1) the K a i s e r -Guttman r u l e of l a t e n t r o o t s g r e a t e r than 1 . 0 , (2) the Scree t e s t of C a t t e l l , (3) the l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t , (4) the p e r c e n -tage of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r , and (5) the percentage of r e s i d u a l 67 Table 11 Number of Items Having Extreme P r o p o r t i o n a l S p l i t s R a t i o Males Females 5:95 14 18 10:90 14 17 15:85 11 11 20:80 8 8 T o t a l 47 54 68 c o r r e l a t i o n s g rea te r than . 1 0 . The r e s u l t s of these t e s t s were h i g h l y e q u i v o c a l ; there appeared to be l i t t l e agreement r e g a r d i n g the c o r r e c t number of f a c t o r s . The two most l i k e l y numbers were chosen f o r s o l u t i o n s (13 and 24 f a c t o r s ) . The s i x f a c t o r m a t r i c e s were r o t a t e d to s imple s t r u c t u r e u s i n g the H a r r i s - K a i s e r method of o b l i q u e r o t a t i o n . Two s o l u t i o n s f o r each ma-t r i x were o b t a i n e d , one be ing more o r thogona l than the o t h e r . The s o l u t i o n s were then compared and i n t e r p r e t e d . Fac to r scores were then computed f o r use i n Study 1 . R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n A p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s was run f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n ma-t r i c e s of the male , female , and pooled samples. The e igenva lues of these m a t r i c e s were examined i n order to determine the number of f a c t o r s . The Ka ise r -Gut tman r u l e suggested 24 f a c t o r s f o r a l l th ree groups (seeTable 12) . The Scree t e s t (F igures 4 , 5 , and 6 ) , . o n the other hand, suggested between 3 and 5 f a c t o r s f o r the groups. The l i k e l i -h o o d - r a t i o t e s t (see Table 13) suggested s t i l l d i f f e r e n t numbers: 11 f o r the males , >13 f o r the f e m a l e s , and >13 f o r the pooled sample. The percentage of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r was d e r i v e d from the r e s u l t s of the component a n a l y s i s . The percentages f o r v a r i o u s s o l u -t i o n s are presented i n Table 14. I t should be noted t h a t on ly at 24 f a c t o r s i s the percentage a c c e p t a b l e . S o l u t i o n s of 3 or 5 suggested by the Scree t e s t account f o r on ly 18% and 25% of the v a r i a n c e , r e s -p e c t i v e l y . Even at approx imate ly 13 f a c t o r s , as the l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o t e s t r e s u l t s suggest , the percentage of v a r i a n c e was s l i g h t (47%). These f i n d i n g s combined suggested s t r o n g l y that the most u s e f u l a n a l y s i s Table 12 E igenva lues Greater than 1.0 Der i ved from P r i n c i p a l Components A n a l y s i s Males Females Pooled 1 5 .95 6.28 5.71 2 3 .52 3.22 3 .11 3 3 .19 2.68 2.33 4 2.81 2.45 2.09 5 2.44 2.34 2.02 6 2.37 2.11 1.91 7 2.26 2.03 1.87 8 2.13 1.92 1.70 9 2.07 1.88 1.66 10 1.87 1.84 1.61 11 1.76 1.82 1.53 12 1.68 1.60 1.52 13 1.61 1.57 1.46 14 1.55 1.54 1.42 15 1.52 1.43 1.39 16 1.48 1.38 1.33 17 1.46 1.34 1.30 18 1.32 1.28 1.24 19 1.31 1.25 1.21 20 1.27 1.20 1.19 21 1.21 1.16 1.15 22 1.15 1.13 1.10 23 1.07 1.08 1.07 24 1.01 1.06 1.05 70 F i g u r e 4 . Scree t e s t f o r Anhedonia i tems based on Pearson p r o d u c t -moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . M a l e s , n = 120. F i g u r e 5 . Scree t e s t f o r Anhedonia i tems based on Pearson p r o d u c t -moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Females, n = 190. 72 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 F i g u r e 6. Scree t e s t f o r Anhedonia i tems based on Pearson p r o d u c t -moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Pooled sample, n = 310. 73 Table 13 L i k e l i h o o d - R a t i o Test R e s u l t s Males Females Pooled 4 F a c t o r s X 2 (1887) £ = 2263.1 .00000 2741.09 .00000 5 F a c t o r s  X2 ( 1 8 2 5 ) £ = 2140.73 .00000 2586.0 .00000 9 F a c t o r s X 2 -(1587) £ = 1712.94 .017 10 F a c t o r s X 2 ( 1 5 3 0 ) £ = 1625.93 .049 12 F a c t o r s X 2 ( 1 4 1 9 ) 1474.13 .162 1725.2 .000 1619.75 .000 18 F a c t o r s  X2 ( 1 1 1 0 ) 1158.6 .16 1092.91 .67 Table 14 Cumulat ive Percentage of V a r i a n c e Accounted f o r by Va ry ing Numbers of F a c t o r s Number of Males Females Pooled F a c t o r s % % % 3 19 18 17 4 23 22 20 5 27 25 23 6 30 28 26 7 33 31 29 8 36 34 31 .9 39 37 33 10 42 40 35 11 45 43 37 12 47 45 39 13 48 47 41 14 51 49 43 15 53 51 45 16 55 53 47 17 57 55 49 18 59 57 51 19 61 59 53 20 63 61 55 21 65 63 57 22 67 65 59 23 69 67 61 24 70 69 62 75 might be the s o l u t i o n for 24 f ac to r s , a l b e i t t h i s number seemed to be far too large for i n t e r p r e t i v e purposes. The percentage of r e s i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s greater than .10 were examined for 13 and 24 factor so lut ions for a l l three groups. These are summarized i n Table 15. On the basis of these r e s u l t s , a number le s s than 24 appeared to also provide a reasonably acceptable s o l u t i o n . The search for a smal l number of factors was f e l t to be important s ince c e r t a i n i n d i c a t o r s ( e . g . , the l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o test) suggested that any number greater than 11 would r e s u l t i n over fac tor ing of the male data. C e r t a i n l y , a 24 factor s o l u t i o n for the male data could be considered to be over fac tor ing to an extreme degree i f the l i k e l i h o o d -r a t i o test i s taken s e r i o u s l y . Because, however, the number of subjects i n the male sample was h igh ly inadequate with regard to the number of var i ab le s being analysed, i t was be l i eved that any s o l u t i o n of th i s p a r t i c u l a r sample had a high p r o b a b i l i t y of .being unstable . There-f o r e , greater a t t en t ion was paid to the l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o tes t r e s u l t s of the female and pooled samples. In an e f for t to minimize the over-f ac tor ing of the male data as w e l l as to minimize the underfactor ing of the female and pooled data , 13 factors were se lec ted as the most probable compromise. The number se lected was skewed most to the male r e s u l t s s ince over fac tor ing of the male sample was perceived as being more problematic than underfactor ing of the females and pooled samples. The data for the three groups were factor analysed using the unweighted l ea s t squares method. Two so lut ions for each group (13 and 24 factors ) were obtained. These r e s u l t s were then ob l ique ly r o -tated i n two manners: (1) by a H a r r i s - K a i s e r method with c = 0, and 76 Table 15 Percentage of R e s i d u a l s Greater than .10 f o r Unweighted Leas t Squares 1 3 - and 2 4 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n s 3 F a c t o r s : Range Males 13 % 24 % Females 13 % 24 % Pooled 13 % 24 % . 10 < . 11 4.7 3 .9 2.9 1.5 1.5 0 .28 .11 < .12 4 . 2 3 . 2 3 . 1 0.70 1.2 0 .09 .12 < .13 3 .4 1.7 2 .5 0 .56 0.84 0 .05 .13 < .14 3 . 5 1.3 1.4 0.37 0.33 .14 < .15 2 .2 0 .70 1.2 0.14 0.19 .15 < .16 1.9 0.93 0.79 0.05 0 .05 .16 < .17 1.4 0 .60 0.56 0.14 .17 < .18 0 .98 0 .23 0.33 0.05 .18 < .19 0 .70 0 .42 0.23 0 .05 0 .05 .19 < .20 0.47 0 .14 0.19 .20 < .21 0 .65 0 .05 0.09 0.09 .21 < .22 0 .42 0.09 0 .05 .22 < .23 0 .14 .23 < .24 0.19 0 .05 .24 < .25 0.09 0 .05 0 .05 .26 < .27 0 .05 0 .05 .29 < .30 0.09 .30 < .31 0 .05 . 49 < .50 0 .05 T o t a l Number of R e s i d u a l s 542 287 291 72 95 ^ e s i d u a l s were taken from lower t r i a n g u l a r p o r t i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s . T o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s i n lower t r i a n g l e = 2145. 77 (2) by a H a r r i s - K a i s e r method w i t h c = . 5 . The hyperplane counts (number of l oad ings i n the range 0±.10) were then examined f o r each of the twelve s o l u t i o n s . The r e s u l t s are summarized i n . Table 16. The H a r r i s - K a i s e r r o t a t i o n s f o r 13 f a c t o r s y i e l d e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h hyper -p lane counts , an average of 61% f o r both c = 0 and c = . 5 ac ross groups. Whereas the c = 0 s o l u t i o n was best f o r m a l e s , the c = . 5 s o l u t i o n was p r e f e r r e d f o r both the female and pooled samples. Th is l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y was thought to b e , i n p a r t , a shortcoming of the 1 3 - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . The 2 4 - f a c t o r c = . 5 s o l u t i o n , on the other hand, showed c o n s i s t e n t s u p e r i o r i t y ac ross groups , w i t h an average h y p e r -p lane count of 73%. Because the percentage of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r , the K a i s e r -Guttman r u l e , and the percentage of hyperplane l o a d i n g s converged at 24 f a c t o r s , t h i s number was chosen f o r examinat ion of f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I t should be n o t e d , however, tha t the reduced sample s i z e ( n e c e s s i t a t e d by sex d i f f e r e n c e s ) , the r e l a t i v e l y poor agreement regard ing the c o r r e c t number of f a c t o r s , and the use of Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s j when the data were not c o n t i n u o u s , cas t l i m i t a t i o n s on the s t a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s . The f a c t o r s t r u c -t u r e r e s u l t i n g from 2 4 - f a c t o r , c = . 5 s o l u t i o n s i s presented s e p a r a t e l y f o r each group (Tables 17, 18, and 19) . Some comparisons are suggested but i t i s emphasized tha t these can be cons idered as no more than t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s . (The th ree f a c t o r p a t t e r n m a t r i c e s and the th ree p h i m a t r i c e s of i n t e r - f a c t o r c o r r e l a t i o n s a re presented i n Appendices XIV to X I X . ) B a s i c a l l y , the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e 78 Table 16 T o t a l Hyperplane Counts of R o t a t i o n s of P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le of 1 3 - and 2 4 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n s 13 F a c t o r s Method Males Females Pooled H a r r i s - K a i s e r c = 0 486 516 561 H a r r i s - K a i s e r c = . 5 477 532 567 24 F a c t o r s H a r r i s - K a i s e r c = 0 1045 1146 1184 H a r r i s - K a i s e r c = . 5 1087 1166 1209 & T o t a l number of l o a d i n g s were 858, and 1584 f o r 1 3 - and 2 4 - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 79 Table 17 Fac to r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s from the H a r r i s -K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Sca le f o r Male Sample 1. N a t u r a l Phenomena - Sky .73 57 Don ' t understand why people enjoy l o o k i n g a t s t a r s .62 1 B e l i e f that beauty of sunsets i s o v e r r a t e d .48 27 Never e x h i l a r a t e d by a thunderstorm .34 17 B e l i e f tha t f l y i n g a k i t e i s s i l l y - . 3 4 15 F e e l i n g hungry when s m e l l i n g bakery bread 2. New Foods .82 26 Enjoy t r y i n g new foods - . 8 1 5 L i t t l e d e s i r e to t r y new foods .33 7 E a t i n g s l o w l y — f a v o u r i t e foods .33 56 F a s c i n a t e d by f lames i n f i r e p l a c e 3 . T a c t i l e G r a t i f i c a t i o n .70 38 F e e l s good to massage muscles when t i r e d or sore .47 51 Enjoy h o l d i n g hands w i t h a woman .36 39 Love hav ing back massage 4 . Sunbathing .88 45 Don ' t c a r e to sunbathe .78 60 Sunbathing i s n ' t much fun .32 61 Flowers a r e n ' t tha t b e a u t i f u l .68 46 E a s i l y fond of an a t t r a c t i v e woman .43 47 Soothed and r e f r e s h e d by good soap l a t h e r - . 6 7 14 Enjoy f e e l i n g s t r e n g t h i n one 's muscles .51 52 Have yet to meet an a t t r a c t i v e woman .32 29 Sex i s most i n t e n s e l y en joyab le t h i n g i n l i f e .30 16 L i t t l e fun from p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ( w a l k i n g , swimming, s p o r t s ) Organ Music .81 55 Organ music i s d u l l and u n e x c i t i n g - . 7 5 42 T h r i l l e d by organ music cont inued 80 Table 17 cont inued 8 . Bath ing .82 21 Rush w i t h bath or shower 9 . I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e Comfort - . 8 6 21 Uncomfortable when touched by f r i e n d s .44 37 F e e l s good when touched by someone I ca re about 10. S i n g i n g .76 3 Seldom care to s i n g i n shower - . 4 9 53 When s a d , s i n g i n g makes me happ ier .35 18 So f t music i s b o r i n g not r e l a x i n g .33 59 Seldom want to s i n g a long w i t h a good song 11. Food .61 23 Have f a v o u r i t e foods - . 4 6 63 Urge to f e e l s t a t u e s when I see them .32 58 Taste of food i s important to me 12. Walking .61 4 R e l a x i n g e f f e c t of s low walk .48 10 Walks - r e l a x i n g and en joyab le - . 3 6 41 Enjoy p h y s i c a l c loseness w i t h o p p o s i t e sex 13. Music .67 28 Don ' t understand why o thers are i n t e r e s t e d i n music .66 11 Dancing ( idea o f ) seems d u l l 14. T a c t i l e - Sof tness .73 54 L i k e p l a y i n g w i t h s o f t . k i t t e n s or puppies .56 64 Enj.oy f e e l of s i l k , v e l v e t , or f u r 15. Anhedonia .66 44 Noth ing much I ' ve ever enjoyed .55 35 Never wanted to go on r i d e s a t amusement parks .39 58 Taste of food i s important to me 16. 17. .50 25 Hate exhaust ion f o l l o w i n g v igo rous a c t i v i t y .38 53 When s a d , s i n g i n g makes ne happ ier .37 15 F e e l i n g hungry when s m e l l i n g bakery bread .36 9 I n d i f f e r e n c e to t a s t e of food ,60 19 Smel l of d inner has not aroused a p p e t i t e .41 39 Love hav ing back massage 34 66 No d e s i r e to walk through a puddle b a r e f o o t . . . cont inued Table 17 cont inued .74 40 .56 7 .38 27 F i r s t w i n t e r s n o w f a l l l ooks p r e t t y E a t i n g s l o w l y — f a v o u r i t e food Never e x h i l a r a t e d by thunderstorm Scenery .77 - . 3 8 - . 3 1 .64 .47 - . 3 2 21 . 67. .32 22. Sex .74 - . 5 0 .50 .63 .48 - . 4 4 .37 .36 .31 24. .51 .37 36 D e l i g h t e d by b e a u t i f u l scenery 43 Notapleased by sound of r u s t l i n g leaves 66 No d e s i r e to walk through a puddle ba re foo t 8 Not e x c i t e d by parade sounds 32 Don ' t care about t e x t u r e of food 6 Enjoy a s t r o n g , warm handshake 49 F e e l snug and secure h e a r i n g r a i n on roof 56 F a s c i n a t e d by f lames i n f i r e p l a c e 22 Sex i s okay 65 Lovemaking i s u s u a l l y i n t e n s e l y p l e a s u r a b l e 52 Haveyet to meet an a t t r a c t i v e woman 50 B r i s k walk f e e l s good 13 E x c i t e m e n t - l o o k i n g at b r i g h t c i t y l i g h t s 34 Poets exaggerate beauty and j o y s of nature 56 F a s c i n a t e d by f lames i n f i r e p l a c e 24 Exci tement l o o k i n g at v iew from a h i g h p l a c e 41 Enjoy p h y s i c a l c loseness w i t h the o p p o s i t e sex 30 I n d i f f e r e n t to co lou r that t h i n g s a re p a i n t e d 32 Don ' t ca re about t e x t u r e of food = 110 No l o a d i n g s >.30: 2 , 12, 3 3 , 20, 48 , 62. 82 Table 18 Fac to r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s from the H a r r i s -K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f o r Female Sample .57 52 Have ye t to meet a t t r a c t i v e man .50 25 Hate exhaust ion f o l l o w i n g v igorous a c t i v i t y .43 16 L i t t l e fun from p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ( w a l k i n g , swimming, s p o r t s ) .62 49 F e e l snug and secure h e a r i n g r a i n on roof - . 5 5 43 Not p leased by sound of r u s t l i n g leaves .35 15 F e e l i n g hungry when s m e l l i n g bakery bread .35 56 F a s c i n a t e d by f lames i n f i r e p l a c e - . 3 0 4 R e l a x i n g e f f e c t of s low walk I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e D iscomfor t .65 31 Uncomfortable when touched by f r i e n d s - . 5 4 38 F e e l s good to massage muscles when t i r e d or sore .32 61 Flowers a r e n ' t tha t b e a u t i f u l .30 9 I n d i f f e r e n c e to t a s t e of food Walking .96 ..10 Walks - r e l a x i n g and en joyab le .52 50 B r i s k walk f e e l s good - . 4 4 16 L i t t l e fun from p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ( w a l k i n g , swimming, s p o r t s ) - . 3 4 17 B e l i e f tha t f l y i n g a k i t e i s s i l l y T a c t i l e - Sof tness .62 64 Enjoy f e e l of s i l k , v e l v e t , or f u r .57 54 L i k e p l a y i n g w i t h s o f t k i t t e n s or puppies - . 3 7 44 Noth ing much I ' v e ever enjoyed Food .50 23 Have f a v o u r i t e foods .43 36 D e l i g h t e d by b e a u t i f u l scenery New Foods .85 26 Enjoy t r y i n g new foods - . 7 1 5 L i t t l e d e s i r e to t r y new foods cont inued 83 Table 18 cont inued 8 . Sunbathing .70 45 D o n ' t c a r e to sunbathe .66 60 Sunbathing i s n ' t much fun .47 21 Rush w i t h bath or shower 9 . Landscape S igh ts .81 40 F i r s t w i n t e r s n o w f a l l l o o k s p r e t t y .45 36 D e l i g h t e d by b e a u t i f u l scenery - . 3 5 17 B e l i e f tha t f l y i n g a k i t e i s s i l l y 10. Organ Music .78 55 Organ music i s d u l l and u n e x c i t i n g - . 6 5 42 T h r i l l e d by organ music 11. 13. 14. 16. 17. . 66 39 Love hav ing back massage .44 53 When s a d , s i n g i n g makes me happ ier 12. Sex .64 65 Lovemaking i s u s u a l l y i n t e n s e l y p l e a s u r a b l e - . 6 2 22 Sex i s okay ,64 19 Smel l of d inner has not aroused a p p e t i t e ,61 18 So f t music i s b o r i n g not r e l a x i n g .55 63 Urge to f e e l s t a t u e s when I see them - . 5 1 3 Seldom care to s i n g i n shower 15. I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e Comfort .64 37 F e e l s good when touched by someone I care about - . 4 6 61 F lowers a r e n ' t tha t b e a u t i f u l .35 16 L i t t l e fun from p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ( w a l k i n g , swimming, s p o r t s ) .60 59 Seldom want to s i n g a long w i t h a good song .44 1 B e l i e f that beauty of sunsets i s ove r ra ted .40 53 When s a d , s i n g i n g makes me happier .37 61 F lowers a r e n ' t tha t b e a u t i f u l .70 8 Not e x c i t e d by parade sounds .45 35 Never want ing to go on r i d e s at amusement parks cont inued Table 18 cont inued 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. I n d i f f e r e n c e to t a s t e of food 75 29 Sex i s most i n t e n s e l y en joyab le t h i n g i n l i f e .72 34 .37 30 - . 3 6 20 Food .60 58 - . 5 8 32 - . 3 1 9 .   Heterose .67 48 - . 5 2 33 .45 51 .37 46 .31 47 - . 3 1 11 .59 2 .67 13 .37 51 .31 24 .49 6 - . 4 4 12  Having danced a lone - to f e e l body movement N = 190. 24 Fac to r Unweighted Least Squares S o l u t i o n . No l o a d i n g >.30: 7 , 14, 27 , 28, 4 1 , 57, 62 , 66 85 Table 19 F a c t o r Content and Pr imary P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s from the H a r r i s -K a i s e r (c = .5) T rans fo rmat ion of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f o r Pooled Sample 1. Walking .80 10 Walks - r e l a x i n g and en joyab le .45 4 R e l a x i n g e f f e c t of s low walk .37 50 B r i s k walk f e e l s good 2. Sex - . 6 7 22 Sex i s okay .64 65 Lovemaking i s u s u a l l y i n t e n s e l y p l e a s u r a b l e .32 29 Sex i s the most i n t e n s e l y en joyab le t h i n g i n 3 . Hete rosexua l A c t i v i t y .59 48 F e e l l i k e s t a r i n g a t an a t t r a c t i v e man, woman .45 46 E a s i l y fond of an a t t r a c t i v e man, woman - . 3 5 33 Seldom enjoyed sex .34 47 Soothed and r e f r e s h e d by good soap l a t h e r .32 41 Enjoy p h y s i c a l c loseness w i t h o p p o s i t e sex .32 51 Enjoy h o l d i n g hands w i t h man, woman 4. New Foods - . 8 4 5 L i t t l e d e s i r e to t r y new foods .77 26 Enjoy t r y i n g new foods 5 . Sunbathing .77 60 Sunbathing i s n ' t much fun .73 45 Don ' t care to sunbathe 6. Scenery .60 40 F i r s t w i n t e r s n o w f a l l l ooks p r e t t y .47 36 D e l i g h t e d by b e a u t i f u l scenery .30 38 F e e l s good to massage muscles when t i r e d or sore 7. Organ Music - . 7 4 42 T h r i l l e d by organ music .74 55 Organ music i s d u l l and u n e x c i t i n g 8 . .61 24 Exci tement l o o k i n g a t v iew from a h i g h p l a c e cont inued 86 Table 19 continued .49 52 Have yet to meet an attractive man, woman -.42 15 Feeling hungry when smelling bakery bread .40 16 L i t t l e fun from physical activities (walking, swimming, sports) 10. -.59 49 Feel snug and secure hearing rain on roof .57 43 Not pleased by sound of rustling leaves 11. Singing .62 3 Seldom caring to sing in shower -.50 53 When sad, singing makes me happier 12. 13. .47 51 Enjoy holding hands with man, woman .46 13 Excitement - looking at bright city lights .54 17 Belief that flying a kite is s i l l y .33 66 No desire to walk through a puddle barefoot 14. Tactile - Softness .71 64 Enjoy feel of s i l k , velvet, or fur .57 54 Like playing with soft kittens or puppies 15. 16. .53 18 Soft music is boring not relaxing .69 8 Not excited by parade sounds 17. .39 31 Uncomfortable when touched by friends .33 16 L i t t l e fun from physical activities (walking, swimming, sports) 18. Tactile Comfort .67 37 Feels good when touched by someone I care about 19. Music .63 28 Don't understand why others are interested in music .45 11 Dancing (idea of) seems dull continued 87 Table 19 cont inued .43 58 Taste of food i s important to me .38 38 F e e l s good to massage muscles when t i r e d or sore .33 23 Have f a v o u r i t e foods .33 39 Love hav ing back massage - . 3 1 57 Don ' t understand why people enjoy l o o k i n g a t s t a r s 21 . .64 34 Poets exaggerate beauty and joys of nature .45 30 I n d i f f e r e n t to co lou r that th ings a re p a i n t e d 22. Anhedonia .58 44 Nothing much I ' ve ever enjoyed 23. .57 1 B e l i e f tha t beauty of sunsets i s ove r ra ted .41 59 Seldom want to s i n g a long w i t h a good song 24. .55 63 Urge to f e e l s t a t u e s when I see them .34 2 Having danced a lone - to f e e l body movement .33 12 Impulse to walk bare foot on s o f t , t h i c k carpet *N = 310 No l o a d i n g >.30: 6, 7, 9 , 14, 19, 20, 2 1 , 25 , 27 , 3 2 , 3 5 , 56 , 6 1 , 62 88 did not produce the hypothesized r e s u l t s . That i s , i t did not combine items depicting one mode of sensation. Rather, i t tended to c l u s t e r s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s together and tended to ignore the sensory features. This was perhaps a function of the f a c t that the 66-item ver s i o n of the scale included some redundancies (e.g., several items r e l a t e d to organ music, sunbathing, new foods, e t c . ) . The r e s u l t was such that the redundant items clustered together but they f a i l e d to combine with items which may have been rel a t e d on a sensation l e v e l . In many instances, the factors were completely uninterpretable and most were comprised of only three items. Thus, the analysis appeared not to provide much us e f u l information regarding aspects of the pleasure ex-perience. Factor Content for Males. Factor I appeared to combine items r e -lated to pleasure derived from natural phenomena i n the sky, s t a r s , sunsets, and thunderstorms. This factor was e n t i t l e d Natural Phenomena -Sky. Factor I I was c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to attitudes about t r y i n g new foods and was l a b e l l e d New Foods. Factor III combined muscle massage with holding hands with a woman. These were combined under the name T a c t i l e G r a t i f i c a t i o n . Factor IV was c l e a r l y Sunbathing. Factor V was com-p l e t e l y uninterpretable, combining fondness for women with attitudes about soap lath e r . This factor was not named. The predominant loading on Factor VI was the absence of enjoyment rel a t e d to f e e l i n g strength i n one's muscles. The subsequent items were rel a t e d to a t t r a c t i v e women and sex. This factor seemed too ambiguous to be named. Factor VII, on the other hand, was completely straightforward and was e n t i t l e d Organ. Music. Factor VIII proved to be a weak factor with only one 89 l o a d i n g , but was l a b e l l e d B a t h i n g . F a c t o r IX aga in was weak w i t h only two load ings but both c l e a r l y represented I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e Comr f o r t and i t was l a b e l l e d a c c o r d i n g l y . Fac to r X represented a combina-t i o n of exper iences w i t h S i n g i n g , and was comparat i ve l y easy to l a b e l . Fac to r XI was predominant ly r e l a t e d to f o o d ; however, i t a l s o i n c l u d e d the absence of the urge to f e e l s t a t u t e s . I t was l a b e l l e d Food s i n c e the major l o a d i n g was such . The two l a r g e s t l o a d i n g s on F a c t o r X I I were r e l a t e d to w a l k i n g , t h e r e f o r e the f a c t o r was e n t i t l e d W a l k i n g . F a c t o r X I I I ( Mus ic ) , hav ing on ly two l o a d i n g s , was r e l a t e d to a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n m u s i c . F a c t o r XIV, aga in w i t h only two l o a d i n g s , d e s c r i b e d p l e a -sure r e l a t e d to touch ing s o f t o b j e c t s . I t was named T a c t i l e - S o f t -n e s s . Fac to r XV seemed to most r e l a t e to anhedonia , f o r i t s major l o a d i n g d e s c r i b e d never hav ing enjoyed much of a n y t h i n g . I t was named Anhedonia . F a c t o r s XV I , X V I I , and XVI I I combined a v a r i e t y of i t e m s . The r e s u l t s were not c l e a r l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e and the f a c t o r s were l e f t u n t i t l e d . Fac to r XIX (Scenery) combined two s i m i l a r i t e m s ; however, Fac to r XX d i d not and was not l a b e l l e d . Of the remain ing f o u r f a c t o r s , on ly Fac to r XXI I was c o n s i s t e n t i n con ten t . I t was e n t i t l e d Sex. The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s of both the female and pooled sampled proved to be e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t . For reasons of pars imony, the e n t i r e l a b e l l i n g process w i l l not be d e t a i l e d as i t was f o r the male . sample. Only those f a c t o r s w i t h unambiguous content have been l a b e l l e d . F a c t o r Content f o r Females. C e r t a i n of the male f a c t o r s emerged c l e a r l y i n the female a n a l y s i s . These were: I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e D iscomfor t (Factor I I I ) , Walking (Factor I V ) , T a c t i l e - So f tness (Fac -t o r V ) , Food (Factor V I ) , New Foods (Factor V I I ) , Sunbathing (Factor 90 V I I I ) , Organ Music (Factor X ) , Sex (Factor X I I ) , I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e Comfort (Factor XV ) , and Food (Factor (X IX) . A major d i f f e r e n c e i n the female a n a l y s i s was i n the emergence of a f a c t o r (XXI) c l e a r l y d e s c r i b i n g p l e a s u r e from h e t e r o s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , there were a number of u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r s and of those which seemed s i m i l a r acorss sexes , the i tem content was d i s s i m i l a r . Fac to r Content f o r Pooled Sample. The a n a l y s i s f o r the pooled sample e s s e n t i a l l y e x t r a c t e d the few meaningfu l f a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned f o r the males and females . There were s t i l l a number of u n -i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r s together w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the number of f a c -t o r s hav ing only a s i n g l e l o a d i n g (Pooled - 5 f a c t o r s , Females - 2 f a c t o r s , and Males - 1 f a c t o r ) . E s s e n t i a l l y the pooled ana lyses p r o -v i d e d no new i n f o r m a t i o n and served on ly to f u r t h e r compl i ca te a l r e a d y ambiguous f i n d i n g s . B a s i c a l l y , the th ree f a c t o r ana lyses y i e l d e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u -t i o n s w i t h too many f a c t o r s to be of v a l u e . N o n e t h e l e s s , f a c t o r scores were computed u s i n g the r e g r e s s i o n method and were done s e p a r a t e l y by sex . C e r t a i n o b s t a c l e s to an adequate f a c t o r i n g of the P h y s i c a l A n -hedonia s c a l e became apparent as a r e s u l t of the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s e s . The most prominent , of c o u r s e , was the use of b i n a r y response fo rmat . Th is a l lowed f o r l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y and , perhaps , was most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered both i n a n a l y s i s and i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Whi le i t would s t i l l appear to be a wor thwhi le endeavour to c a t e g o r i z e p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s , i t would seem that a d i f f e r e n t response format i s e s s e n t i a l . 91 Because there were highly s i g n i f i c a n t sex differences both i n 2. t o t a l anhedonia score and i n the T analysis of the item means, the separation of subjects resulted i n groups which had too few subjects to conduct an adequate analysis, i n l i g h t of the large number of variables. What does seem apparent from this study of the Physical Anhedonia scale, however, i s that the variety of experiences purporting to re-present a sample of the universe of pleasant physical experiences seems somewhat r e s t r i c t e d . Certainly the 66-item version of this scale, while lengthy, provides unnecessary duplication of items. I t further-more may unintentionally heighten scores by the inclusion of duplicates. To i l l u s t r a t e this and a subsequent point, i t was noted that following one of the testing sessions, several subjects approached the inves-tigator i n order to discuss their reactions to one of the items. They explained that they thoroughly enjoyed music generally but hated organ music. As a result they had increased their score by 2 points because the item appeared twice. Also noted were.the comments of certain sub-, jects who complained that they often did not enjoy walking outside and especially smelling flowers for they had a l l e r g i e s . These examples are reported not for anecdotal reasons, but rather, to i l l u s t r a t e several of a variety of influences which were related to subjects obtaining anhedonic scores on items. Also affected when separate sex forms are employed are homosexual individuals who would i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d answer the heterosexual items i n an anhedonic di r e c t i o n . While many of these influences on.total score might be minimal across an entire sample, i t would seem that at the present stage of anhedonia research, the error exceeds the precision. That i s , i t seems r e l a t i v e l y easy 92 to incorrectly classify an individual as high-anhedonic. Where precision is required is in adequately eliminating the influence of factors which could result in an anhedonic-like response. Certain of these influences have already been described in Study 1 and include depression and neurotic interferences such as anxiety. Now emphasized is the inability to engage in an experience for other.than anhedonic reasons. Properly controlled experiments which consider the above issues might provide a better understanding of the state which, unfortunately, remains to be largely theoretical. 93 SUMMARY AND GENERAL DISCUSSION Three aspects of an anhedonia study have been r e p o r t e d . The f i r s t study focused on d i f f e r e n c e s i n emot iona l concomitants and p l e a -sure d e s c r i p t i o n s of l ow - and h igh -anhedon ic s u b j e c t s . The f i n a l analyses were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r ma les , yet f a i l e d to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r females . N o n e t h e l e s s , the mean d i f f e r e n c e s were i n the expected d i r e c t i o n w i t h regard t o : t o t a l number of s i t u a t i o n s r e p o r t e d , average p leasantness r a t i n g of s i t u a t i o n s , r e p o r t e d frequency of p l e a s a n t ex -pe r iences on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s , and i n d i v i d u a l p leasantness r a t i n g s of s i t u a t i o n s . H igh -anhedonics r e p o r t e d fewer and l e s s i n t e n s e s i t u a -t i o n s than d i d now-anhedonics , suggest ing tha t s u b j e c t s s c o r i n g , h igher on the P h y s i c a l Anhedonic s c a l e behave i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h our e x p e c t a t i o n s of anhedonics . There appeared to be no d i f f e r e n c e s b e -tween the groups i n p o s i t i v e emotions as d e f i n e d i n t h i s s tudy . There was, however, a d i f f e r e n c e between low - and h igh -anhedon ics of both sexes i n the emotions most d e f i n i n g the p l e a s u r e exper ience . I t was suggested tha t the h igh -anhedon ics i n t h i s study were more anx ious than the low -anhedon ics , however, s i n c e i t was not p o s s i b l e to s p e c i f y types of s i t u a t i o n s which were l e s s p l e a s a n t , the source of a n x i e t y was u n c l e a r . I t was s p e c u l a t e d tha t a n x i e t y - l a d e n areas may have been of an i n t e r p e r s o n a l and s e x u a l n a t u r e . Th is d i f f i c u l t y i n s p e c i -f y i n g s i t u a t i o n s was r e l a t e d to the l a c k of i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f a c t o r s . C e r t a i n r a t h e r c l e a r sex d i f f e r e n c e s emerged on a l l of the mea-sures employed. Chapman et a l . ' s o r i g i n a l r e p o r t of males s c o r i n g 94 more a n h e d o n i c a l l y than females was r e p l i c a t e d . The sex d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o apparent i n the second study of the DES+A f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e , suggest ing that emot iona l exper ience i s s i m i l a r yet not i d e n t i c a l f o r males and females . Th is f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s that sex d i f f e r e n c e s be cons idered when f a c t o r i n g the DES+A. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the o v e r a l l a n a l y -s i s proved to be a reasonable r e p l i c a t i o n of the work of I za rd (1972) suggest ing that h i s f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t and c r o s s - v a l i d a t e . Cont rary to I z a r d ' s c o n t e n t i o n tha t a n x i e t y i s m u l t i f a c t o r i a l , the m a j o r i t y of STAI items loaded c l e a n l y on two f a c t o r s . The f i n a l study was concerned w i t h the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e . Th is a n a l y s i s f a i l e d to be i n t e r p r e t a b l e and the d i f f i c u l t y was r e l a t e d to response format and s m a l l sample s i z e . In s p i t e of some of the c r i t i c i s m s r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g d e f i c i e n -c i e s of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e , some of these can be e a s i l y remedied. I t would appear tha t as a f i r s t attempt at c o n s t r u c t i o n of an anhedonia s c a l e , tha t of Chapman et a l . has p rov ided a b e g i n n i n g . I t does , however, r e q u i r e f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n and v a l i d a t i o n to be u s e f u l i n anhedonia r e s e a r c h . 95 REFERENCES B l e u l e r , E. Dementia praecox or the group of s c h i z o p h r e n i a s . ( J . Z i n k i n , t r a n s . ) New York : I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1950. 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New York : A p p e l t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1971. I z a r d , C . E . P a t t e r n s of emotions. New York : Academic P r e s s , 1972. I z a r d , C . E . , Dougherty , F . E . , Bloxom, .B.M. , & K o t s c h , W.E. The D i f - f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e : A method of measuring the s u b j e c t i v e  exper ience of d i s c r e t e emotions. Unpubl ished m a n u s c r i p t , 1974. N a s h v i l l e : V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y . Kay ton , L. & Koh, S .D . Hypohedonia i n s c h i z o p h r e n i a . J o u r n a l of  Nervous and Menta l D i s e a s e , 1975, 161, 4 1 2 - 4 2 0 . K r a e p e l i n , E. Dementia praecox and p a r a p h r e n i a . (B.M. B a r c l a y t r a n s . ) . Ed inburgh : E. & S . L i v i n g s t o n e , 1919. ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , 1913) . M e e h l , P . E . S c h i z o t a x i a , s c h i z o t y p y , s c h i z o p h r e n i a . American Psycho - l o g i s t , 1962, 17, 827 -838. Meeh l , P . E . Manual f o r use w i t h C h e c k l i s t of S c h i z o t y p i c S i g n s . M i n n e a p o l i s : P s y c h i a t r y Research U n i t , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota M e d i c a l S c h o o l , 1964. Meeh l , P . E . Hedonic c a p a c i t y : Some c o n j e c t u r e s . B u l l e t i n of the  Menninger C l i n i c , 1975, 39, 295-307. M i l l e r , F. Anger , anhedonia , and the b o r d e r l i n e syndrome. American  J o u r n a l of P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , 1975, 3 5 , 1 5 7 - 1 6 1 . Rado, S. A d a p t i o n a l psychodynamics: M o t i v a t i o n and c o n t r o l . New 97 York : Sc ience House, 1969. S p e i l b e r g e r , C D . , Gorsuch, R . R . , & Luchene, R . E . S t a t e T r a i t A n x i e t y  Inventory Test manual f o r Form X . Pa lo A l t o : C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , 1970. S t e i n , L. & Wise , C D . P o s s i b l e e t i o l o g y of s c h i z o p h r e n i a : P r o -g r e s s i v e damage to the noradrenerg ic reward system by 6- 'hydroxy-dopamine. S c i e n c e , 1971, 171, 1032-1036. S t r a u s s , J . S . & G i f t , T . E . Choosing an approach f o r d iagnos ing s c h i z o -p h r e n i a . A r c h i v e s of Genera l P s y c h i a t r y , 1977, 34 , 1248-1253. U l l m a n , L . P . & G iovannon i , J . M . The development of a s e l f - r e p o r t measure of the p r o c e s s - r e a c t i v e continuum. J o u r n a l of Nervous  and Menta l D i s e a s e , 1964, 138, 3 8 - 4 2 . Watson, C C R e l a t i o n s h i p s of anhedonia to l e a r n i n g under v a r i o u s c o n t i n g e n c i e s . J o u r n a l of Abnormal Psycho logy , 1972a, 8 0 , 4 3 - 4 8 . Watson, C C R e l a t i o n s h i p s of anhedonia to p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i v i t y and t h r e s h o l d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1972b, 3 1 , 4 3 - 4 6 . Watson, C C Anhedonia as a f u n c t i o n of n o n - a f f e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of ambiguous s t i m u l i and t h r e s h o l d f o r a f f e c t i v e and n e u t r a l s t i m u l i . J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l Psycho logy , 1977, 3 3 , 5 8 - 6 3 . Watson, C C & J a c o b s , L. Ev idence f o r a d u a l - f a c t o r concept of psycho -p a t h o l o g i c a l emot iona l d e f i c i t : anhedonia and s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g . . J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l Psycho logy , 1977, 3 3 , 385-389. Watson, C C , K l e t t , W.G . , & L o r e i , T.W. Toward an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i -t i o n of anhedonia. P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1970, 26, 371 -376 . Wise , C D . & S t e i n , L. Dopamine-g-Hydroxylase d e f i c i t s - i n the b r a i n s of s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s . S c i e n c e , 1973, 181, 3 4 4 - 3 4 7 . Zuckerman, M. Dimensions of s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g  and C l i n i c a l Psycho logy , 1971, 36 , 4 5 - 5 2 . 98 APPENDIX I Test M a t e r i a l s This survey consists of two questionnaires which are related to l i f e experiences. Instructions for completion of each questionnaire are presented at the beginning. Read these instructions carefully. If you have any questions or are unclear about some aspect of this survey, raise your hand. Before proceeding to f i l l out the survey, please f i l l in the blanks below: Sex: Male Female (circle) Age: Answer the items in these questionnaires in the order in which they  occur. Do not skip any items. SURVEY OF ATTITUDES AND EXPERIENCES On the next pages you w i l l find some statements about attitudes and experience. Please mark each statement as true or false to describe your own attitudes and experiences. We want you to describe yourself as you have been during most of your adult l i f e . Please mark every statement, even i f you are not quite sure about the answer. 100 1. True False. The beauty of sunsets Is greatly overrated. 2. True False. I have sometimes danced by myself just to feel my body move with the muflc. 3. True False. I have seldom cared to sing in the shower. 4. True False. After a busy day, a slow walk has often f e l t relaxing. 5. True False. I have had very l i t t l e desire to try new kinds of foods. 6. True False. I have often enjoyed receiving a strong, warm handshake. 7. True False. When eating a favorite food, I have often tried to eat slowly to make i t last longer. 8. True False. The sounds of a parade have never excited me. 9. True False. One food tastes as good as another to me. 10. True False. I have often found walks to be relaxing and enjoyable. 11. True False. Dancing, or the idea of i t , has always seemed d u l l to me. 12. True False. On seeing a soft, thick carpet, I have sometimes had the impulse to take off my shoes and walk barefoot on i t . 13. True False. The bright lights of a city are exciting to look at. 3 4. True False. I have sometimes enjoyed feeling the strength in my muscles. 1^>« True False. When I have walked by a bakery, the smell of fresh bread has often made me hungry. 16. True False. I have had very l i t t l e fun from physical a c t i v i t i e s l i k e walking, swimming or sports. 17* True False. I think that flying a kite i s s i l l y . 18. True False. I have usually fiur.c' r o f t s^slc borin? rather than relaxing. 19. True False. The smell of dinner cooking has hardly ever aroused my appetite. 20. True False. When I pass by flowers, I have often stopped to smell them. 21- True False. I have usually finished my bath or shower as quickly as possible just to get i t over with. 22* True False. Sex i s okay but not as much fun as most people claim i t i s . 23. True False. I have always had a number of favorite foods. 4 Standing on a igh place and looking out ver the view i s very xciting. 101 25. True False. I have always hated the feeling of exhaustion that comes from vigorous activity. 26. True False. Trying new foods i s something I have always enjoyed. 27. True False. I have never found a thunderstorm exhilarating. 28. True False. I don't know why some people are so interested in music. 29. True False. Sex i s the most intensely enjoyable thing i n l i f e . 30. True False. The color that things are painted has seldom mattered to me. 31. True False. I have often f e l t uncomfortable when my friends touch me. 32. True False. I've never cared much about the texture of food. 33. True False. I have seldom enjoyed any kind of sexual experience. 34. True False. Poets always exaggerate the beauty and joys of nature. 35. True False. I never wanted to go on any of the rides at an amusement park. 36. True False. Beautiful scenery has been a great delight to me. 37. True False. It has always made me feel good when someone I care about reaches out to touch me. 38. True False. It has often f e l t good to massage my muscles when they are tired or sore. 39. True False. I have always loved having my back massaged. 40. True False. The f i r s t winter snowfall has often looked pretty to me. 41. True False. I greatly enjoy being physically close to members of the opposite sex. 42. True False. The sound of organ music has often t h r i l l e d me. 43. True False. The sound of rustling leaves has never much pleased me. 44. True False. There just are not many things that I have ever really enjoyed doing. 45. True False. I've never cared to sunbathe; i t just makes me hot. 46. True False. I have easily become fond of an attractive woman. 47. True False. A good soap lather when I'm bathing has sometimes soothed and refreshed me. 48. True False. I have often f e l t like staring at an attractive woman. 49. True False. The sound of the rain f a l l i n g on the roof has made me feel snug and secure. 50. True False. A brisk walk has sometimes made me feel good a l l over. 102 51. True False. I enjoy holding hands with a woinan. 52. True False. I have yet to meet a woman that I really feel attracted to. 53. True False. When I'm feeling a l i t t l e sad, singing has often made me feel happier. 54. True False. I like playing with and petting soft l i t t l e kittens or puppies. 55. True False. I have always found organ music dull and unexciting. 56. True False. I have been fascinated with the dancing of flames in a fireplace. 57. True False. I don't understand why people enjoy looking at the stars at night. 58. True False. The taste of food has always been important to me. 59. True False. On hearing a good song I have seldom wanted to sing along with i t . 60. True False. Sunbathing isn't really more fun than lying down indoors. 61. True False. Flowers aren't as beautiful as many people claim. 62. True False. The warmth of an open fireplace hasn't especially soothed and calmed me. 63. True False. When I have seen a statue I have had the urge to f e e l i t . 64. True False. I have often enjoyed the feel of s i l k , velvet, or fur. 65. True False. I have usually found love-making to be intensely pleasurable. 66. True False. I never have the desire to take my shoes off and walk through a puddle barefoot. 103 Pleasant Events Survey Everyone has, at one time or another, experienced a feeling of pleasure. Each of us has our own idea as to the meaning of pleasure and the feelings that go with i t . Please use the scales below to describe your personal experience — your own feelings — when you feel pleasure. Sometimes thinking back or imagining past situations is helpful to remember feelings more clearly. Circle the appropriate scale number to indicate the degree to which each word describes your feelings, while you are experiencing pleasure, and just after you have experienced pleasure. 1 2 3 4 5 very slightly slightly moderately considerably very strongly or not at a l l 1. comfortable 1 2 3 4 5 17. enraged 1 2 3 4 5 2. repentant 1 2 3 4 5 18. happy 1 2 3 4 5 3. calm 1 2 3 4 5 19. scornful 1 2 3 4 5 4. delighted 1 2 3 4 5 20. pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 5. "high strung'' 1 2 3 4 5 21. concentrating 1 2 3 4 5 6. feeling of distaste 1 2 3 4 5 22. content 1 2 3 4 5 7. downhearted 1 2 3 4 5 23. amazed 1 2 3 4 5 8. surprised 1 2 3 4 5 24. fearful 1 2 3 4 5 9. confident 1 2 3 4 5 25. at ease 1 2 3 4 5 10. fatigued 1 2 3 4 5 26. sluggish 1 2 3 4 5 11. contemptuous 1 2 3 4 5 27. relaxed 1 2 3 4 5 12. sheepish 1 2 3 4 5 28. angry 1 2 3 4 5 13. jittery 1 2 3 4 5 29. sad 1 2 3 4 5 14. attentive 1 2 3 4 5 30. guilty 1 2 3 4 5 15. scared 1 2 3 4 5 31. anxious 1 2 3 4 5 16. secure 1 2 3 4 5 32. bashful 1 2 3 4 5 104 33. nervous 1 2 3 4 5 43. alert 1 2 3 4 5 34. disgusted 1 2 3 4 5 44. worried 1 2 3 4 5 35. joyful 1 2 3 4 5 45. uiad 1 2 3 4 5 36. feeling or revulsion 1 2 3 4 5 46. rested 1 2 3 4 5 37. overexcited and 1 2 3 4 5 47. discouraged 1 2 3 4 5 rattled 48. shy 1 2 3 4 5 38. disdainful 1 2 3 4 5 49. regretful 1 2 3 4 5 39. upset 1 2 3 4 5 50. sleepy 1 2 3 4 5 40. blameworthy 1 2 3 4 5 51. afraid 1 2 3 4 5 41. tense 1 2 3 4 5 42. astonished 1 2 3 4 5 Now that you have completed this scale we would like you to l i s t the situations you thought of while you were completing the ratings. Try to r e c a l l as many as you can and l i s t them below. Situations 1. ( ) 2. ( ) 3. ( ) 4. ( ) 5. ( ) 6. ( ) 7. 105 8. ( ) 9. ( ) 10. ( ) Mow, rate how pleasant each of your situations was using the following scale: (Put the numbers in the brackets beside each situation.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 intensely . moderately barely no barely moderately intensely unpleasant unpleasant unpleasant reaction pleasant pleasant pleasant How often do you experience pleasure i n your l i f e ? (check one): almost every day 3-4 days a week 1-2 days a week less than once a week less than once a month rarely never CORRELATION MATRIX FOR HALES - DES ITEMS, APPENDIX I I 1 1 .00 1 0 6 2 0.04 1.00 3 0.43 0.09 1.00 4 0.10 0.14 0.16 1.00 5 - 0 . 09 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 22 - 0 . 07 1.00 6 0. 01 0.34 0. 17 0.01 0.21 1. 00 7 0.05 0.40 0.14 0.06 0.26 0.68 1.00 8 - 0 . 09 0.29 0.05 0.25 0.10 0.28 0.25 1.00 9 0 . 07 - 0 . 06 0.30 0.09 0. 14 0. 06-0.06 0. 21 1. 00 10 0. 13 0. 1 1 0. 18 0.06 0. 13 0. 31 0. 33 -0 . 06 0. 03 1.00 11 0.01 0.28 0.10 0.05 0.06 0.34 0.24 0 .17 -0 .05 0.31 1.00 12 -0 .09 0 . 32 - 0 . 00 - 0 . 1 1 0. 13 0. 18 0. 16 0. 10-0. 09 0.15 0. 46 1.00 13 - 0 . 11 0. 15 -0 . 06 0.02 0.25 0. 30 0.36 0 .35 -0 . 07 0. 15 0. 23 0.45 1 .00 14 0. 12 0. 13 0. 13 0. 05 0.06 0. 10 0.15 0. 17 0. 23 0 .08 -0 .09 0.00 0.04 1.00 15 - 0 . 1 1 0 .21 -0 . 01 0. 12 0. 27 0. 18 0.23 0.17 0. 03 0.37 0. 16 0. 19 0.36 0.28 1.00 16 0.34 0.10 0.52 0 .34 -0 .10 0.09 0.05 0.09 0.18 0.15 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 5 0.22-0.11 1.00 17 - 0 . 26 0. 25 0 .01-0 .01 0. 17 0. 47 0.37 0.21 0.09 0. 30 0. 26 0. 13 0.21 -0.01 0 .32 -0 .07 1.00 18 0. 24-0.01 0. 23 0. 3 4 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 0 0. 20 0. 22 -0 . 0 2 - 0 . 08 -0 .21 -0 .06 0 .26 -0 .02 0. 49-0. 02 1.00 19 - 0 . 12 0. 14 0 . 09 -0 . 10 0. 19 0. 27 0. 16 0. 23 0.21 0. 12 0.37 0.23 0.20 0.06 0. 27-0. 09 0.56-0.01 1.00 20 0.20-0.01 0.30 0 . 3 0 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 2 0.11 0.15 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 0. 16 0. 13 0 .33 -0 . 10 0 .44 -0 . 01 1.00 21 0.12 0.23 0 .13 -0 .03 0.15 0.24 0.23 0.14 0.13 0 . 05 - 0 . 09 - 0 . 04 0.05 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 C O R R E L A T I O N M A T R I X F O B M A L E S - D E S I T E M S , 107 0 . 4 5 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 5 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 3 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 22 0 . 3 5 0 . 0 6 0 . 4 2 0 . 3 8 - 0 . 2 6 - 0 . 1 9 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 15 0 . 10 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 2 1 0 . 0 9 0 . 5 4 - 0 . 2 1 0 . 4 2 - 0 . 1 7 0 . 3 5 0 . 0 6 1 . 0 0 23 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 7 0 . 10 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 2 1 0 . 0 8 0 . 4 6 0 . 1 6 0 . 0 0 0 . 1 2 0 . 11 0 . 1 6 0 . 3 1 0 . 2 2 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 8 0 . 1 6 0 . 2 2 0 . 1 0 0 . 2 5 0 . 0 8 1 . 0 0 24 - 0 . 1 3 0 . 3 2 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 7 0 . 2 0 0 . 3 2 0 . 3 2 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 3 7 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 6 0 . 1 8 0 . 2 5 0 . 6 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 0 0 . 0 5 0 . 2 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 2 5 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 9 1 . 0 0 25 0 . 4 9 - 0 . 0 8 0 . 4 5 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 2 8 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 7 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 2 4 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 5 0 . 4 5 - 0 . 2 0 0 . 2 3 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 2 6 0 . 0 2 0 . 4 4 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 8 1 . 0 0 26 0 . 0 8 0 . 2 5 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 6 0 . 3 0 0 . 2 7 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 2 1 0 . 3 9 0 . 3 6 0 . 3 6 0 . 4 0 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 2 3 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 6 0 . 1 1 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 7 0 . 1 0 1 . 0 0 27 0 . 4 2 0 . 0 8 0 . 4 0 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 2 1 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 8 0 . 1 2 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 7 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 4 6 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 3 3 - 0 . 0 8 0 . 2 7 0 . 0 3 0 . 4 0 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 0 0 . 6 0 0 . 1 7 1 . 0 0 28 - 0 . 1 6 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 7 0 . 4 8 0 . 3 5 0 . 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 9 0 . 2 4 0 . 0 8 0 . 2 7 0 . 0 9 0 . 2 6 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 7 0 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 4 1 - 0 . 1 3 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 6 0 . 3 0 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 29 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 3 2 0 . 1 5 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 4 2 0 . 4 8 0 . 2 8 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 4 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 8 0 . 2 4 0 . 1 6 0 . 2 1 0 . 0 5 0 . 4 4 0 . 0 3 0 . 4 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 1 9 0 . 2 7 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 3 2 0 . 0 7 0 . 4 5 1 . 0 0 30 0 . 0 4 0 . 4 8 0 . 16 0 . 1 2 0 . 0 9 0 . 4 5 0 . 5 2 0 . 3 5 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 7 0 . 2 9 0 . 3 7 0 . 3 1 0 . 1 0 0 . 2 6 0 . 0 2 0 . 3 6 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 2 9 0 . 0 5 0 . 2 1 0 . 0 6 0 . 1 0 0 . 3 5 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 3 6 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 4 0 . 6 2 1 . 0 0 31 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 3 3 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 4 0 . 3 9 0 . 4 2 0 . 2 4 - 0 . 0 0 0 . 1 9 0 . 3 1 0 . 3 8 0 . 2 9 0 . 0 5 0 . 3 2 - 0 . 16 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 2 4 - 0 . 0 8 0 . 2 3 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 4 0 . 3 7 - 0 . 1 3 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 2 0 0 . 2 4 0 . 2 7 0 . 4 0 1 . 0 0 32 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 3 3 - 0 . 00 0 . 10 0 . 1 5 0 . 29 0 . 3 9 0 . 27 - 0 . 07 0 . 16 0 . 3 8 0 . 5 2 0 . 4 9 0 . 00 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 0 8 0 . 2 6 - •0. 0 5 0 . 1 6 - •0.0 4 -•0.02 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 3 o . i s -•0. 09 0 . 4 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 -7 8 9 10 i i 12 13 uX I5> 16 ' 17 18 } 19 ' 20 , 21 2 2 . • 23- 24 • 2 5 , 26' 27,' 28X 29 30 • 31 '. CORRELATION MATRIX FOR MALES - DES ITEMS, 108 0.03 0.24 0.34 0.51 0.46 1.00 33 -0. 19 0.34-0. 08-0.02 0. 27 0. 46 0.53 0.36-0. 10 0.21 0.33 0. 42 0.63 0.06 0.31-0. 14 0. 37-0. 12 0. 27-0. 17 0, 18-0. 16 0. 17 0.31-0.39 0.35 -0.26 0.34 0.35 0.50 0.54 0.59 1.00 34 -0. 10 0. 46 0. 05 0.04 0.08 0. 49 0.57 0. 30-0. 04 0.15 0.30 0.24 0.28 0. 19 0. 25-0. 01 0.57-0.08 0. 49-0. 12 0. 24-0. 13 0. 17 0.38-0. 24 0.22 -0. 18 0.50 0.64 0.60 0. 44 0. 36 0.50 1. 00 35 0. 16 0. 09 0. 09 0.40 0.07 0. 08 0.05 0. 40 0. 1 1-0.03 0.03-0.04 0.02 0.09 0.07 0.30 0. 09 0. 41 0. 02 0.34-0. 03 0.21 0.29 0.01 0. 08-0.00 0.19-0.01 0.11 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.05 1.00 36 0.02 0.33 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.23 0.26 0.08-0.04 0.19 0.33 0.13 0.03 -0.09 0.13 0.05 0.26-0.07 0.14 0.07-0.01-0.10-0.02 0.29-0.03 0.21 0.0 1 0. 14 0. 14 0.37 0. 20 0, 13 0.24 0. 29 0.04 1.00 37 0. 02 0.26-0. 12 0. 12 0.36 0.25 0.39 0.34-0. 04 0.22 0.19 0. 19 0.42 0. 12 0. 36-0.00 0.24 0. 11 0. 15 0.08 0. 14 0. 03 0.21 0.34-0. 23 0.20 -0.28 0. 19 0. 18 0. 38 0.48 0. 31 0.45 0.30 0. 10 0. 23 1.00 38 -0.04 0.32 0. 16 0.07 0. 12 0. 38 0.30 0.36 0. 22 0. 16 0.47 0. 26 0. 17 0. 11 0. 11-0.00 0.45-0. 04 0. 55 0.07 0. 21-0. 14 0,30 0.14-0. 07 0.12 0.01 0. 37 0.29 0. 33 0. 26 0. 33 0.30 0. 46 0.09 0. 19 0. 17 1. 00 39 -0.04 0.27 0.06-0.08 0, 1 1 0. 58 0.46 0. 19-0.04 0. 16 0.22 0. 16 0.33 0.22 0.22-0.03 0.51-0.05 0.31-0.18 0.33-0.15 0.14 0.34-0.14 0.16 -0. 08 0.67 0.36 0.40 0. 31 0. 24 0.39 0.62-0. 07 0.17 0.23 0. 36 1.00 40 0.07 0.45 0. 05 0.00 0.02 0. 40 0.44 0.20-0. 19 0.03 0.1 9 0.33 0.36 0.09 0.14-0.01 0. 17-0.08 0. 12-0.07 0. 08-0. 03 0. 11 0.32-0. 19 0.32 -0.03 0.28 0.47 0.69 0. 36 0. 42 0.44 0. 56 0. 02 0.25 0.32 0.22 0.38 1.00 41 -0.09 0.30-0. 17 0.02 0. 15 0. 21 0.35 0. 34-0. 10 0. 16 0. 16 0. 20 0.56 0.05 0.22-0.03 0.24-0.11 0.16-0.10 0.20-0.06 0.04 0.24-0.22 0.25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14', 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 CORRELATION EM 0 -0.17 0.41 42 -0.04 0.33 -0. 00 0. 17 43 -0.03 0.54 -0.02 0. 16 44 -0.14 0. 18 -0. 11 0.52 45 -0.17 0.06 -0.03 0. 16 46 0. 3V 0. 19-0.47 0. 07-47 0.04 0.09 -0.04 0.58 48 -0.03 0.08 1 14 27 40 BIX FOR HALES 0.32 0.21 0.40 1.00 0.38 0.03 0.09 0. 26 0.09 0. 12 0.17 0.29 0.23 0.18 1.00 0.27 0.00 0.11 0.22 0.11 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.24 0. 12 0. 41 1.00 0.47 0. 10 0.0 1 0.39-0.04 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.64 0.44 0.29 0.24 0.28 0.06-0.02 0.27-0.10 0.68 0.7** 0.48 0.45 0.19 0.15 0.14 0.09 0.46 0. 13 0.09 0.41-0.00 0.08 0. 18 0. 10 0.28 0.11 0.02 0.50 0. 18 0. 10 0.21 0.05 0.45 0.44 0.50 0.71 0.48 0.19 0.21 0.25 0.10 0.07 0. 17-0. 05 0.31 2 3 4 15 16 17 28 29 30 41 42 43 DES IT EES, 0, 39 0. 33 0.67 0.07 0.06 0.13 0. 21 0. 20 0. 16 0.31 0. 25 0.20 0.07 0.29 0.27 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.27 0.05 0.18 0.14 0. 38 0.40 0. 08 0. 3 9 0.00 0. 49 0. 44 0.60 1.00 0.05 0. 42 0.27 0. 12 0. 56-•0.1 2 0. 24 0.24 0.27 0.37 1.00 0. 17 0. 12 0.08 0.25-•0. 04 0.18' 0. 15 0. 02-•0.24 0.07 0.01 1.00 0.02 0.51 0.50 0. 06 0/32 0.03 0. 48 0. 41 0.51 0. 67 0. 46-•0.02 0.10 0. 31 0.43 0.08 0.23-•0.13 5 6 7 18 19 20 31 32 33 44 45 46 0.42 0. 01 0. 19 0.56 0. 20-0.10 0. 23 0. 25 0.58 0.22 0.22 0.02 0.33 0. 28 0.06 0.42 0.13 0.20 0. 24 0. 1 1-0.05 0.22 0. 04 0.22 0. 21 0.02 0. 14 0.62-0.07 0.27 0.29 0. 08 0. 17 0.25-0. 18 0.21 0.59 0.02 0.26 0. 16 0. 20 0.07 0.02 0. 37 0. 13 0. 05 0.27-0.02 0.19-0.02 0.23 0.34 0. 03 0. 12 0.74 0.03 0.34 1 .00 0.33-0.06 0.21 0.05 0.05 0.31 8 0 10 21 22 23 34 35 36 47 109 0.4G 0.11 0.40 0.0 2 0.17 0.2 2 0.27-0.00 0.01 0.41 0.22 0.08 0.03 0. 04 0.01 0.26-0.05-0.13 0.22 0.11 0.11 0.21 0.42 0.41 0.43-0.19 0.28 0.39 0.32 0.44 0.32 0.17 0.12 0.29-0.13 0.10 0.08 0.49 0.57 0.01-0.01-0.08 0.03 0.59 0.07 0.08 0.08-0.01 0.28 0. 26 0.22 0. 37-0. 15 0.36 0.34 0.39 0.53 0.36 0. 42 0.50 0. 20 -0. 05 0.37 11 12 13 24 25 26 37 38 39 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR MALES - DES -0.03 0. 36 0.29 0.40 0.39 0.36 0,40 0,22-0.01 0. 44 49 -0.02 0.46 0.07 0.12 0.08 0. 16 0.34-0.07 0.23-0. 15 -0.10 0.28 0.45 0.70 0.38 0. 65 0. 38 0. 23 0.21 0.59 •5.0 0. 18 0. 14 0.23 0.0 3 0.0 2 -0.01 0. 10 0. 14 0. 19-0. 10 0.21 0.27 0.35 0.42 0.00 0. 35 0. 23 0.02-0.05 0.24 51 -0.01 0.32 0. 04 0. 10 0. 15 0. 19 0. 52-0. 06 0.44 0.03 -0.07 0. 41 0.32 0. 50 0. 43 0.36 0.29 0.22 0.19 0.55 1 2 3 4 5 • 14 ; i 5 16 17 ,18 : 27 • 28v 29 30 -31 40 41 42 43 44 ITEMS » # 110 0. 73 0.58 0.35 0. 06 0. 15 0.29 0.35 0.33 0. 22 0.07 0.36 1. 00 0. 32 0. 44 0. 26 -0. 15 0.22 0.40 0.47 0.45 0.25-•0.03 0.09 0.03 0. 16 0.36--0. 19 0.43 0. 44 0.50 0.55--0. 08 0.31 0.43 0. 30 0.27 0. 28-0.03 0.55 0. 46 1.00 0,3 2 0.30 0.15 -0. 10 0.38 0.22 0. 12 0.20 0. 19-•0.02 0.09--0. 01 0,08 0.25 0.14 0.47 0. 13 0.22 0.25 0. 05 0.28 0.02 0.24 0.24 0. 19 0.28 0. 34 0.29 0.31 1.00 0. 38 0.34 0. 20 -0.00 0. 33 0. 23 0. 29 0.28 0. 39 0.06 0.32 0. 03 0.17 0.65--0. 12 0.28 0.30 0.38 0. 39-0. 03 0.32 0.41 0.20 0.42 0. 48-•0.04 0.49 0,37 0.45 0.23 1. 00 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 19 . -.20'; 21 .''9 0 • J "~ - 23. -.24- ?5 j, 26 32 33": .34 36 37 38 :• 39 45 46 47 48 49 50 CORRELATION MATRIX FOE FEMALES - DES ITEMS APPENDIX I I I 111 1 1.00 2 0.04 1.00 3 0.33 0.07 1.00 4 0.21 0.02 0.08 1.00 5 -0.09 0.01-0.28 0.13 1.00 6 0.12 0.24 0.01-0.07-0.03 1.00 7 -0.03 0.13-0.03 0.02 0.02 0.51 1.00 8 -0.02 0.08-0.07 0.17 0.07 0.04 0.08 1.00 9 0.40 0.02 0.26 0.17-0.06-0.14-0.21 O.05 1.00 10 -0. 10 0.23-0.00-0.01 0. 19 0. 27 0. 23-0. 00-0. 04 1.00 11 -0. 12 0.32-0. 00-0.07 0. 14 0. 20 0. 12 0. 07-0. 01 0. 21 1.00 12 0.04 0.22-0. 01 0.04 0. 10 0. 15 0. 18 0. 11-0. 16 0. 12 0. 12 1. 00 13 -0.09 0.07-0.19-0.01 0.32 0.08 0.11 0.05-0.02 0.13 0.17 0.30 1.00 14 0.37-0. 04 0.09 0.22 0.09 0. 02 0.02 0. 08 0. 34 0. 00-0.03-0. 10 0.1 0 1.00 15 0.02 0. 19 0.05 0.07 0. 16 0.36 0.28 0.22 0. 03 0. 35 0. 12 0.24 0.39 0.11 1.00 16 0. 42 0.00 0.34 0. 18-0.09 0. 01-0.10 0. 02 0. 42-0. 05-0.10 0.06-0.07 0.27-0.06 1.00 17 -0.09 0.35 0.01-0.02 0. 13 0. 38 0.38 0.22 0. 04 0.30 0.35 0. 12 0.05 -0.01 0.32-0.01 1.00 18 0.25 0.01 0. 16 0.44 0. 17-0. 07-0.04 0. 18 0.29-0. 10-0.03-0.05-0.08 0.26-0.05 0.18-0.03 1.00 19 -0.03 0.27 0.01 0.05 0.07 0.49 0.47 0.09-0. 03 0. 17 0. 36 0. 23 0.09 -0.02 0.29 0.01 0.58-0.06 1. 00 20 0.17-0.13 0.13 0.29 0.04-0.14-0.17 0.05 0.18-0.03-0.04-0.10-0.05 0.28-0.12 0.14-0.09 0.27-0.17 1.00 21 0.16-0. 05-0.02 0.01 0. 12-0. 05 0.09 0.06 0. 19 0. 06 0.0 1-0.09 0.06 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 CORRELATION MATRIX F O R FEMALES - DES ITEMS 1 1 2 0.46 0.05 0. 07 0. 14 0. 15 0. 01 0. 13 1. 00 22 0.43-0.04 0.29 0.25-0.07-0.16-0.18-0.11 0.37-0.21-0.18-0.06-0.06 0.27-0. 11 0.56-0. 17 0.33-0. 14 0.17 0.06 1.00 23 0. 1.3 0.20-0.05 0. 12 0.09 0.09 0. 1 4 0. 54 0. 18 0. 16 0.21 0. 10 0.22 0.23 0.27 0.03 0,20 0.13 0.13 0.01 0.25-0,05 1.00 24 -0.03 0.22 0.07 0. 03 0. 17 0.24 0.28 0. 05 0. 01 0. 19 0. 17 0. 19 0.28 -0.02 0.55 0.01 0.44-0.06 0.32-0.04 0.04-0.02 0.15 1.00 25 0. 31 0. 05 0.29 0.07-0. 11-0. 04-0.1 9-0.09 0. 35-0.05-0.05-0. 11-0. 13 0. 19-0. 24 0.43 0.01 0. 24-0. 07 0.1 9 0. 20 0. 37-0.01-0.0 8 1.00 26 -0.04 0.21 0.05-0.15 0.11 0.29 0.23 0.07-0.04 0.36 0.24 0.17 0,06 -0.05 0.16 0.02 0.35 0.01 0.35-0.01 0.11-0.14 0.12 0.20 0.14 1.00 27 0.28 0.07 0.41 0.11-0.19-0.00-0.10-0.02 0,23-0.05-0.07-0.00-0.20 0.08-0. 13 0.39-0. 02 0.23-0. 05 0.24 0. 14 0. 29 0.07-0.0 1 0. 39 0.01 1.00 28 -0.02 0. 12 0. 04 0. 03 0. 01 0. 37 0.40 0. 19-0. 02 0. 19 0. 10 0. 11 0.10 0.02 0.37-0.03 0.60-0.02 0.43-0.19 0.11-0.08 0.17 0.42-0.06 0.22 -0.07 1.00 29 0.01 0. 10 0. 07-0.06-0.06 0.39 0.43-0.07-0.23 0. 1 1 0.06 0. 15 0.13 0.02 0.25-0. 05 0.21-0. 12 0. 37-0.23 0. 08-0. 11-0.03 0.27-0.06 0.20 0. 02 0, 47 1. 00 30 0.01 0.23-0.04-0.01 0.09 0.45 0.29 0.03-0.10 0.34 0.17 0.16 0.21 -0.03 0.45-0.02 0.18-0.06 0.24-0.19-0.09-0.06 0.11 0.38-0.20 0.20 -0.13 0.31 0.25 1.00 31 -0.01 0.32-0. 09 0.02 0. 25 0. 32 0.24 0. 17-0.09 0.32 0.32 0. 30 0.35 0.03 0.29-0. 14 0. 22 0.04 0. 23-0.00 0. 14-0. 17 0.32 0.20-0. 09 0.24 -0.09 0.18 0.23 0.33 1.00 32 0.02 0.25-0. 03 0.06 0. 15 0.30 0.18 0. 19-0. 17 0.27 0.23 0.48 0.24 -0.01 0.29-0.03 0.14-0.01 0.21-0.0 9-0.12-0.13 0.11 0.15-0.22 0.20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - DES ITEMS 1 1 3 -0.13 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.38 1.00 33 -0. 10 0. 10-0. 16 0. 05 0. 29 0. 22 0.21 0.21-0. 06 0.31 0. 19 0. 14 0.33 0. 10 0.38-0. 18 0.22 0. 08 0. 18-0.05 0.22-0. 25 0.27 0.30-0. 16 0.18 -0.27 0.26 0.19 0.30 0.48 0.35 1.00 34 0.01 0.21 0.05-0.02 0.01 0. 64 0.57 0. 07-0. 07 0.25 0. 24 0. 21 0.09 -0.04 0.41-0.00 0.52-0,07 0.63-0.23-0. 04-0. 15 0.04 0.35-0. 13 0.28 -0. 11 0. 58 0.45 0.41 0.25 0.32 0.29 1. 00 35 0.29-0.05 0.01 0.50-0.00-0.03-0.13 0.13 0.34-0.08-0.05-0.09-0.14 0.21-0.16 0.24-0.02 0.54 0.00 0.25 0.13 0.24 0.17-0.10 0.19-0.05 0.20-0.01-0.17-0.07-0.03-0.01-0.0 7-0.02 1.00 36 0.01 0. 21-0. 13-0.04 0. 15 0.30 0.17 0. 09-0. 03 0. 23 0. 28 0. 15 0. 13 -0.02 0. 15-0. 03 0.28-0.13 0. 20 0.01 0.03-0.08 0. 18 0. 15-0.00 0. 12 -0.06 0. 19 0.12 0. 12 0.38 0. 11 0.23 0.27-0. 06 1.00 37 -0. 01 0. 15-0. 20-0.01 0. 40 0. 10 0.03 0. 15 0. 01 0.09 0.23 0. 15 0. 31 0. 1 1 0.22-0. 12 0. 1 1 0. 13 0. 08 0.01 0. 03-0. 08 0.24 0.17-0.10 0.12 -0.13 0.08 0.02 0.22 0.39 0.21 0.41 0.10 0.03 0.25 1.00 38 -0.02 0. 19 0. 05-0.09 0.01 0. 44 0.27 0.07-0. 10 0. 08 0.32 0. 18 0. 15 -0.05 0.23-0.03 0.29-0.10 0.49-0.11-0.07-0.09 0.18 0.29-0.10 0.26 -0.03 0.29 0. 31 0.23 0.28 0. 18 0. 16 0. 45-0. 06 0.33 0.25 1. 00 39 -0.0 5 0.22 0.03-•0.05 0. 08 0. 46 0.58 0. 02 -0.20 0.28 0.11 0. 29 0.22 -0.09 0.42- 0.09 0. 57-•0. 18 0. 54-•0.31 0.03 -0. 23 0.08 0.45--0. 17 0.3 4 -0.08 0.60 0. 55 0. 35 0. 21 0. 28 0.28 0. 64 -0. 18 0.16 0.10 0.42 1.00 40 -0.00 0.23 0.03- 0.05 0.01 0.41 0.46 0.05 -0. 16 0. 34 0. 13 0.21 0.13 -0.06 0.34 0. 03 0.34-•0. 10 0. 34-•0.22-•0. 03 -0. 06 0.02 0.41--0. 07 0.30 -0.04 0.43 0.40 0.52 0.29 0.28 0.23 0.47 -0. 07 0. 20 0.02 0. 32 0.52 1.00 41 0.04 0. 06- 0.09 0.10 0. 29 0. 29 0.26 0. 16 -0. 0 7 0.24 0.14 0.23 0.42 0. 12 0.35- 0. 08 0.20 0.0 2 0.23-•0.06 0.12 -0. 10 0.21 0.21--0.25 0.08 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - DES ITEMS 114 -0. 35 0. 33 0. 19 0.24 0,39 0. 36 0.51 0.37-0. 02 0. 19 0. 25 0. 27 0.37 0.23 1.00 42 0.08 0.10 0.03 0.09 0.05 0.09 0.03 0.54 0.15 0.08 0.15 0.06 0.20 0.09 0.27 0.01 0.06 0.13 0.14-0.07 0.09-0.04 0.64 0.11-0.16 0.02 0.01 0. 18-0.02 0. 1 1 0. 22 0. 22 0.28 0. 11 0. 13 0. 12 0. 24 0. 32 0. 10 0.04 0. 28 1. 00 43 0.23-0.10 0.01 0.24 0.10-0.22-0.12 0.09 0.33-0.14-0.03-0.15 0.16 0.43-0. 10 0.12-0.06 0.20-0.08 0.23 0.39 0. 12 0. 16-0.01 0. 15-0.09 0.07-0.02-0.06-0.18-0.01-0.16 0.13-0.12 0.38-0.06 0.0 6-0.09-0.13 -0.22 0.13 0. 14 1.00 44 -0.07 0.20 0. 01 0.03 0. 12 0. 37 0.32 0. 11-0, 12 0.28 0.1 4 0. 15 0.28 0.06 0.54-0. 11 0. 35-0, 09 0.30-0. 17 0.08-0. 20 0. 14 0. 41-0. 11 0.30 -0. 17 0. 51 0.37 0.50 0.37 0.38 0.43 0.50-0. 18 0. 12 0.21 0. 34 0.54 0.40 0.47 0.18-0.10 1.00 45 0.01 0.18-0.01-0.04 0.06 0.41 0.43 0.13-0.17 0.14 0.32 0.18 0.11 46 47 48 0.01 0.40-•0.09 0.52--0. 11 0. 50-0.17 0. 07 -0. 12 0.11 0.37--0.03 0.3 8 -0.12 0.63 0.49 0. 24 0.32 0.26 0.2 2 0. 55 -0. 11 0.26 0.12 0.45 0.60 0.40 0.32 0.16- 0, 06 0.46 1. 00 0.28 0.06 0.44 0. 12 -0. 18 0. 13 0.10- 0.02 0. 18-0.02 0.06--0.05-•0.28 0. 10-•0.01 0.33- 0. 02 0. 10 0. 12 0.03 0. 10 0. 25- 0.02 0.05 0.25 0.02 0.41 0. 21 0. 15-0. 03 -0.07 0.04- 0.14 0. 13 0. 1 4-0.01--0.16 0.06 0.03 0.08-•0. 10 0.09 0.1 1 0.05 0. 16 1.00 -0.0 2 0.26 0. 07- 0.06 0.03 0. 55 0.50 0.01 -0. 23 0. 29 0. 14 0. 17 0.11 -0. 13 0.38- 0. 10 0. 37 -0. 17 0.37- 0.27-•0. 08 -0. 19 0.02 0. 35 -0. 13 0.28 -0. 12 0. 47 0.49 0.43 0. 24 0. 38 0.26 0.63 -0. 23 0. 15 0. 1 1 0.41 0.68 0. 48 0.41 0. 06-0. 29 0.64 0. 52 0.13 1. 00 0.03 0. 17 0.02 0. 00 0.02 0. 40 0.27 0. 13 -0. 22 0.29--0.00 0.25 0.12 0, 01 0. 34- 0. 05 0.13--0.05 0. 18-•0.09-•0. 00 -0. 17 0.05 0. 16 -0. 15 0.14 1 2 3 4 • 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - DES ITEMS 115 - 0 .04 0.27 0.34 0.27 0.34 0. 65 0.35 0. 36 -0 . 10 0. 18 0. 13 0. 18 0. 31 0. 36 0. 26 0. 15-0.20 0.44 0.26 0.15 0.36 1.00 49 - 0 . 02 0.21 0 .01 -0 .07 0.07 0.46 0.46 0 .04 -0 .25 0.30 0.14 0.14 0.17 - 0 . 12 0. 40 -0 . 17 0 .29 -0 .08 0. 3 4 - 0 . 22 - 0 . 09-0. 21 0. 10 0 . 27 -0 , 15 0.23 - 0 . 09 0. 39 0. 44 0. 40 0.31 0. 31 0.27 0. 50-0. 15 0.28 0 . 17 0.38 0.48 0. 50 0.29 0. 18-0.23 0.46 0. 50 0.03 0. 62 0. 35 1.00 50 0 . 07 0. 17 0. 1 0 - 0 . 05 0. 06 0. 13 0. 1 1 0. 15 0. 01 0. 25 0. 25 0.23 0.03 - 0 . 12 0.21 0. 10 0. 17 0. 07 0. 19-0.14 0. 02 0. 02 0. 16 0. 13 0.05 0.30 0. 18 0. 24 0. 23 0. 14 0. 15 0. 28 0. 16 0. 23 0. 04 0. 13 0.05 0. 18 0.20 0.35 0.16 0 .20 -0 .14 0.21 0.25 0.16 0.26 0.17 0.18 1.00 51 0.05 0 . 20 - 0 . 01 - 0 . 02 0. 14 0. 40 0.31 0. 24-0. 09 0.24 0.23 0.27 0.29 0.10 0 .63 -0 .00 0 .33 -0 .03 0.32-0.21 0 .10 -0 .08 0.28 0 .49 -0 .14 0.28 - 0 . 11 0.42 0.31 0.42 0.35 0.32 0.39 0 .42 -0 . 11 0.26 0.20 0. 39 0.48 1 . 49 0. 39 0. 30 -0,09 0.52 0. 57 0.03 0.42 0. 32 0. 47 0.31 1. 00 1 2 3 4 • 5 6 7 8 9- 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 POOLED CQEEELATIQN MATRIX - DES ITEMS APPENDIX IV 116 1 1.00 2 0.04 1.00 3 0.37 0.08 1.00 4 0.16 0.08 0.11 1.00 5 - 0 .09 0 .01 -0 .26 0.05 1.00 6 0.06 0.30 0 .09 -0 .02 0.08 1. 00 7 0.01 0.28 0.05 0.04 0.13 0.61 1.00 3 - 0 .05 0 .17 -0 .03 0.20 0.09 0.15 0.16 1.00 9 0 .25 -0 . 02 0.27 0. 14 0 .02 -0 .03 -O .13 0.11 1.00 10 0.01 0. 17 0. 07 0.02 0. 16 0. 29 0 . 28 - 0 . 03 -0 . 01 1 .00 11 - 0 . 05 0.29 0. 04-0.01 0. 10 0. 28 0.19 0. 12-0. 03 0. 26 1.00 12 -0 .02 0 . 27 -0 . 01-0.03 0. 1 1 0. 17 0. 17 0. 10-0. 13 0. 13 0.29 1. 00 13 - 0 . 10 0. 10-0. 14 0.00 0. 30 0. 19 0.22 0. 16-0. 04 0. 14 0.20 0. 36 1 .00 14 0. 26 0.04 0. 10 0. 15 0. 08 0. 06 0.08 0. 12 0. 29 0 . 04 - 0 . 06 - 0 . 05 0.08 1. 00 15 - 0 . 03 0. 19 0. 03 0.09 0.20 0. 26 0.25 0.20 0. 03 0.36 0. 1 4 0. 22 0.38 0.18 1.00 16 0.38 0.05 0.41 0 .24 -0 .10 0 .05 -0 .03 0.05 0.32 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 1 0 0 .25 -0 . 08 1.00 17 - 0 . 17 0.30 0 .01 -0 . 02 0. 14 0. 43 0.37 0. 21 0. 07 0.30 0. 30 0. 12 0. 12 -0.01 0 .32 -0 .04 1.00 18 0 .24 -0 .00 0.19 0.39 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 7 0.19 0 . 2 6 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 5 -0 .12 -0 .07 0. 26-0. 04 0 .31 -0 .02 1.00 19 -0.07 0.20 0 . 05 -0 . 02 0. 12 0. 36 0.30 0. 15 0. 08 0. 14 0. 37 0. 23 0. 14 0.01 0 .28 -0 .03 0 .57 -0 .03 1.00 20 0 .18 -0 .07 0.20 0,29 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 1 4 0.07 0.17 0 . 01 - 0 . 03 - 0 . 10 - 0 . 04 0 .23 -0 .02 0 .21 -0 .10 0 .35 -0 .09 1.00 21 0.15 0. 08 0 . 04 -0 . 0 1 0. 13 0. 10 0. 16 0. 09 0. 16 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 07 0.06 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ' 16 17 18 19 20 POOLED C0BBE1ATI0H MATEIX - CES ITEMS 1 1 7 0.46 0.11 0.07 0.14 0.09 0.11 0.08 1.00 22 0.39 0. 01 0.34 0. 30-0. 14-0. 17-0.15-0. 01 0.26-0.07-0.12-0.06-0.06 0.25-0.03 0. 55-0. 1 9 0.37-0. 15 0. 25 0. 06 1.00 23 0.08 0.22 0.00 0. 13 0.08 0. 14 0. 11 0. 51 0. 17 0. 10 0. 17 0. 10 0.20 0.26 0. 25 0.07 0. 19 0. 14 0. 16 0.04 0.25-0. 00 1.00 24 -0.08 0.27 0.07 0.05 0. 18 0. 28 0.30 0. 09 0.02 0.28 0. 16 0. 18 0.23 0.10 0.58 0.01 0.42-0.01 0.30 0.00 0.13-0.01 0.16 1.0C 25 0.38-0.01 0.35 0.08-0.17-0.05-0.14-0.07 0.28 0.07-0.0 1-0.09-0.17 0. 15-0.21 0.44-0.08 0.23-0. 09 0.22 0. 13 0. 40 0.01-0.08 1. 00 26 0.02 0.23 0.07-0. 08 0.09 0. 29 0.26 0. 04-0. 12 0. 38 0.31 0. 26 0.22 -0.06 0. 19 0.03 0. 25-0. 06 0. 25 0. 05 0. 07-0. 08 0.09 0.19 0. 12 1.00 27 0.34 0. 07 0.41 0. 1 1-0. 20 0. 01-0.06-0.03 0. 17 0.02-0.02-0. 04-0.19 0.07-0.14 0.41-0.02 0.27-0.06 0.25 0.10 0.33 0.05-0.05 0.47 0.08 1.00 28 -0. 08 0. 17 0.06 0.00 0.03 0. 43 0.38 0.23 0. 00 0. 19 0. 17 0. 09 0. 17 0.05 0.32-0.04 0.65-0.05 0.42-0.16 0.15-0.11 0.16 0.36-0.09 0.16 -0.04 1.00 29 -0.03 0.22 0.11-0.01-0.02 0.40 0.46 0.08-0.15 0.07 0.09 0.17 0.18 0.08 0.23-0.00 0.32-0.04 0.40-0.12 0.13-0.G8 0.06 0.27-0.07 0.26 0.04 0.46 1.00 30 0.03 0. 34 0.04 0.04 0.09 0.44 0.40 0. 16 -0. 0 8 0. 26 0.23 0.25 0.25 0. 02 0.37- 0. 00 0.26-•0.07 0. 26-0.09 0. 04 -0.01 0.11 0.37 -0. 15 0.28 -0.07 0.37 0. 42 1.00 31 -0.05 0.32- 0.08 0.00 0. 20 0. 35 0. 33 0.20 -0. 05 0.26 0.31 0. 34 0.32 0.04 0. 30-0. 15 0. 22-•0.03 0. 23-0.04 0. 18 -0.11 0.25 0.28--0.11 0.22 -0. 14 0. 21 0.25 0. 36 1.00 32 -0.02 0.28- 0.02 0.08 0.15 0.2 9 0.28 0. 22 -0. 13 0.22 0.30 0. 50 0.3 4 -0.00 0.23- 0.05 0. 19-0.03 0. 1 9-0.07- 0. 08 -0.07 0. 15 0.16' -0. 17 0.30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 • 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 POOLED CORRELATION MATRIX•- DES ITEMS 118 -0,07 0.22 0.28 0.36 0.41 1.00 33 -0,13 0.20-0. 13 0.02 0. 28 0. 33 0.35 0.27-0.08 0.26 0.25 0. 25 0.44 0. 08 0, 35-0. 16 0. 28-0.01 0.22-0. 10 0. 20-0. 22 0.23 0.30-0.24 0.25 -0.27 0.29 0.26 0.38 0.50 0.44 1.00 34 -0.05 0.35 0. 05 0.01 0.04 0. 55 0.57 0. 18-0. 06 0. 19 0.27 0.23 0. 18 0.07 0.33-0.01 0.54-0.08 0.55-0.17 0.09-0.14 0.10 0.36-0.18 0.24 -0.15 0.54 0.55 0.50 0.35 0.33 0.38 1.00 35 0. 23 0.02 0.04 0. 46 0.03 0. 03-0.04 0. 24 0.24-0.06-0.01-0.07-0.08 0. 16-0.06 0.27 0.03 0.48 0.01 0.29 0.06 0. 23 0.22-0.05 0. 14-0.03 0.20-0. 01-0.04-0.02-0.01 0.00-0.03 0.01 1. 00 36 0.01 0. 27-0.07-0. 01 0.12 0. 26 0.2 1 0.09-0. 03 0. 21 0.30 0. 14 0.09 -0.05 0.14-0.00 0.27-0.10 0.17 0.03 0.02-0.09 0.10 0.21-0.01 0.16 -0.03 0. 17 0. 13 0.22 0. 30 0. 12 0.23 0. 27-0. 02 1.00 37 0.01 0. 19-0. 17 0. 04 0. 39 0. 16 0. 18 0.21-0. 01 0. 14 0.2 1 0. 16 0.35 0.11 0.27-0.08 0.16 0.12 0.11 0.03 0,07-0.04 0.23 0.24-0.15 0.15 -0.18 0.12 0.08 0.28 0.42 0.25 0.42 0.18 0.05 0.24 1.00 38 -0.03 0.26 0. 10-0.01 0.06 0.41 0.29 0.20 0. 06 0. 12 0.40 0. 22 0. 16 0.03 0. 17-0.02 0. 37-0.07 0. 52-0.02 0. 06-0. 11 0.23 0.21-0.08 0. 18 -0.01 0.33 0. 30 0. 27 0. 27 0. 25 0.22 0.45 0.C1 0.26 0.2 1 1.00 39 -0. 04 0.25 0. 04-0.06 0.09 0. 52 0.52 0. 09-0. 13 0.22 0. 17 0.23 0.26 0.05 0.34-0.06 0.54-0. 12 0.43-0.25 0. 16-0.20 0, 10 0. 40-0. 16 0.25 -0.08 0.63 0.46 0.37 0.26 0.26 0.32 0.62-0.13 0.17 0.15 0.39 1.00 40 0.03 0. 35 0. 04-0.02 0.01 0. 40 0.45 0. 11-0. 17 0. 19 0. 16 0.26 0.23 0.01 0. 25 0. 01 0.26-0.09 0. 23-0. 15 0. 02-0.05 0.06 0.37-0. 12 0.31 -0.04 0.35 0.43 0.60 0. 32 0. 34 0.32 0. 52-0. 03 0.22 0.14 0.26 0.45 1.00 41 0.02 0.18- 0 . 12 0.06 0.23 0. 25 0.31 0.23 -0.08 0.20 0.15 0,22 0.48 0.09 0.29- 0 .06 0.22-•0.05 0. 19-0.08 0. 16 -0. 08 0. 14 0. 23--0. 24 0.17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 • 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 *36 37 ' 38 39 40 C O R R E L A T I O N MATRIX - DES I T E M S 119 -0. 27 0. 32 0.20 0. 31 0.39 0.35 0.57 0.39-0. 01 0. 19 0.31 0. 19 0.39 0.32 1.00 0.03 0.22 0.03 0.09 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.54 0.17 0.01 0.09 0.11 0.21 0. 19 0.27 0.04 0.08 0. 16 0. 17 0.02 0. 15 0. 07 0.62 0. 18-0.10 0.01 0.01 0.17 0. 11 0. 16 0. 26 0. 23 0.25 0. 16 0. 17 0.08 0.30 0. 27 0.09 0. 10 0. 24 1.00 0.11 0.07 0.01 0.18 0.08 0.05 0.08 0.18 0.31-0.05-0.03-0.07 0.10 0.47 0.03 0.12 0.00 0.12-0.02 0.14 0.40 0.12 0.18 0.11 0.07-0.11 0.03 0.05 0.04-0.00 0.12-0. 07-0.15 0. 06 0. 26-0.05 0. 12 0.01-0.03 -0.04 0. 12 0.25 1. 00 -0. 10 0.32 0. 04 0.02 0. 13 0. 36 0.35 0. 15-0. 05 0.25 0.1 7 0.27 0.33 0. 1 1 0. 48-0. 08 0.39-0. 08 0.34-0.10 0. 13-0. 1 1 0. 14 0. 42-0. 14 0.29 -0.15 0.48 0.41 0.56 0.42 0.41 0.50 0.55-0.13 0.18 0.27 0.33 0.49 0. 45 0.46 0. 22 0.04 1 .00 -0.07 0. 23 0.02-0. 03 0.06 0.41 0. 34 0. 20-0. 07 0.15 0.32 0. 18 0. 1 1 0.03 0.35-0. 09 0.59-0. 12 0. 53-0. 14 0. 14-0. 14 0. 15 0.33-0.07 0.24 -0.08 0.68 0.48 0.33 0.28 0.25 0.24 0.57-0.05 0.26 0.11 0.46 0.59 0.29 0.26 0.16 0.03 0.42 1.00 0.30-0.01 0.44 0.13-0.17 0.12 0.08 0.05 0.18 0.02 0.03-0.03-0.20 0. 14-0. 04 0.36-0.02 0. 17 0. 05 0.09 0. 05 0.30 0.04 0.01 0.39 0.04 0.43 0. 15 0. 16 0.02-0. 10 0. 03-0. 18 0. 04 0. 20-0.01-0.13 0. 07 0.01 0.07-0.18 0.10 0.07 0.00 0.09 1.00 0.01 0.38 0.11 0.01 0.02 0.52 0.50 0.08-0.14 0.26 0.21 0.21 0.15 -0.04 0.31-0.04 0.40-0. 11 0. 35-0. 14 0. 10-0. 10 0.06 0.36-0. 13 0.32 -0.09 0.45 0.49 0.56 0. 35 0. 39 0.36 0. 68-0. 1 1 0.23 0,20 0.40 0.61 0.53 0.44 0. 11-0.07 0.65 0. 49 0.07 1. 00 0.00 0.20 0. 05 0. 03 0.05 0.34 0.34 0. 21-0. 16 0. 25 0. 17 0. 33 0.27 0 . 0 4 0 . 2 8 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 20 - 0.11 0 . 02 - 0 . 08 0 . 14 0.18 - 0.11 0 . 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ' 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 . :45 - 46 . 47-POOLED' CORRELATION MATRIX - DES ITEMS 120 -0.03 0.31 0. 32 0.32 0.36 0.68 0.44 0. 35-0. 03 0. 17 0. 19 0.26 0.32 0. 36 0.32 0. 18-0. 12 0.44 0. 24 0, 12 0. 36 1. 00 49 -0.02 0.34 0.03 0.02 0.07 0. 38 0.45 0. 13-0. 21 0.26 0.27 0.30 0.29 0. 01 0.37-0. 13 0.26-0. 12 0. 30-0. 13-0. 01-0. 10 0. 12 0.31-0. 17 0.33 -0.09 0.34 0.45 0.53 0.34 0. 37 0.36 0. 52-0. 12 0. 29 0. 27 0. 33 0.38 0. 57 0.33 0.20-0. 03 0.52 0.40 0.00 0. 59 0.40 1.00 50 0. 12 0. 16 0. 16-0. 01 0.05 0. 23 0.21 0. 15-0. 04 0. 31 0.24 0. 18 0. 10 -0.07 0.17 0.12 0.18-0.01 0.19-0.08 0.05 0.01 0.13 0.19 0.08 0.38 0. 19 0.26 0.29 0. 26 0.08 0. 21 0. 18 0. 24 0. 04 0.19 0.04 0.21 0.22 0. 35 0. 19 0.13- 0. 10 0.22 0.23 0.21 0. 30 0. 22 0. 24 1.00 51 0.02 0.26 0.02 0.03 0.15 0. 39 0.33 0. 22-•0. 05 0. 28 0.23 0. 28 0.28 0. 14 0. 58-•0.03 0.38' -0.00 0. 36-•0.08 0.20- 0. 03 0.23 0.57-•0. 13 0.28 - 0 . 10 0.41 0.32 0. 45 0.39 0. 31 0.3 8 0.41- 0. 07 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.45 0.43 0.35 0.26 0.04 0. 53 0. 53 0.00 0. 45 0. 34 0.46 0.27 1.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 , 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32'" 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS APPENDIX V 121 1 1.00 2 - 0 .18 1.00 3 0 .06 -0 .05 1.00 4 0.00 0 .19 -0 .03 1.00 5 -0.01 0. 10 0. 06-0.03 1. 00 6 - 0 .10 0 .11 -0 .07 0.05 0.06 1.00 7 - 0 . 05 0 . 06 -0 . 05 0 .00-0.21 0. 13 1.00 8 0 . 08 -0 .17 0 .07 -0 .10 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 26 - 0 . 09 1.00 9 - 0 . 05 0 . 05 -0 . 02 -0 . 10 0.10 0.15 0 .03 -0 .00 1.00 1 0 - 0 . 29 0. 18-0.01 0.42 0.02 0. 18 -0 .01 -0 . 14-0. 04 1 .00 ± 1 0 .27 -0 .28 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 9 0 . J 2 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 3 7 1.00 1 2 - 0 . 14 0. 18-0.05 0. 02-0.0 1 0. 13 0. 1 1-0. 20 0. 02 0 .12 -0 . 03 1.00 1 3 0. 1 1 0. 03-0.01 0. 09 -0 . 13 0. 08 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 10 0. 12 0. 02 0. 14 1 .00 1 4 0.07 0. 13 0 . 02 -0 . 04 -0 .04 0. 16 0.09 0. 01 0. 07 0. 10 0.07 0. 04 0.20 1.00 1 5 - 0 . 17 0. 21 -0 .05 0 . 04 - 0 . 16-0.02 0 .04 -0 . 16 0.04 0.23 0.05 0. 14 0.04 0.12 1.00 1 6 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 2 0,07 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 06 -0 .04 0.01 0.07 -0 .16 0.03 1.00 1 7 0. 36-0. 10 0. 11 -0 . 09 0 . 14 - 0 . 12 0.02 0. 18-0. 09 -0 . 10 0. 22 -0 . 10 0.05 0 . 11 -0 .06 -0 .06 1.00 1 8 0. 07 0.09 0.15 0. 05 0. 10 0. 00 -0 . 1 2 0. 04 0. 07 0.01 0 . 05 - 0 . 08-0.02 - 0 , 03 0 . 06 - 0 . 05 - 0 . 03 1.00 1 9 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 10-0. 07 0. 04 -0 . 04 0.06-0.1 1-0. 07-0. 02 0 .03 -0 . 0 2 - 0 . 12 0.04 0.03 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 3 1.00 20 -0 .04 0 . 23 -0 . 14 0. 19-0. 1 1 0. 25 0.1 9-0. 17 0. 12 0. 18 0. 01 0. 12 0. 1 1 0.04 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 8 1.00 21 0.05 0.07 0 .15 -0 .07 -0 .01 0.04 0 .05-0.12 0.05 0.12 0.04 0.09 0.01 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8- 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 .:. ." ; • / COSE ELATION MATRIX FOR MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 1 2 2 0.09-0.09-0,05 0.11-0.10-0.03 0.01 1.00 22 0.08 0.06 0.11-0.04 0,04 0.12 0.17-0.01 0.08-0.00-0.07 0.22-0.04 0. 08 0.05-0.05 0. 17-0.09-0.Q3 0.02 0, 12 1. 00 2 3 0.05-0.13 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.02-0.03 0.08-0.12 0.04 0.06-0.02 0.10 -0.07-0. 04 0.04 0.09-0.07 0.02 0.04-0. 05 0. 07 1 .00 24 -0.05 0.04 0.02 0. 15-0. 14 0. 08 0.01 0. 01 0.08 0.06-0.04 0.09 0.29 0.22 0,09 0.05-0.03-0.10 0.03 0.11-0.07-0.01 0.05 1.00 25 0. 13 0. 00 0. 01-0.09-0. 12 0. 10 0.07 0. 03 0. 13-0. 10 0. 1 1-0. 00 0 .05 0. 02 0.07-0.06 0. 21 0. 06-0. 04-0. Q 3 0. 11-0. .02-0 . 02 0. 13 1.00 26 0.06-0.19-0.10-0.03-0.68-0.05 0.28-0.05-0.03-0.10 0.08-0.03 0.20 0.03 0.09-0.02-0.03-0.14 0.06 0.18-0.10-0.03 0.11 0.22 0.08 1.00 27 0.29-0.01 0.12-0.06 0.05-0.18-0.21 0.20-0.08-0.14 0.14-0.17-0.05 -0.21-0.23-0.06 0.18-0.01-0.03-0.07 0.15 0.00 0.08-0.06 0.02-0.08 1.00 28 -0.Q4-0. 12-0.04-0. 17 0. 16 0. 02-0.23-0. 04-0. 04-0.08 0.35-0. 05-0.04 0.05 0.03-0.03-0.07 0.11-0.02 0.13 0.09-0.05 0.04 0.06 0.20-0,09 -0.06 1.00 29 0.07 0.03 0. 08 0. 10-0. 07-0. 08-0.06 0.05 0. 07-0.08-0.04-0. 18 0. 16 -0.18 0.04 0.10-0.09 0.03 0.12-0.Q9-0.13-0.15 0.09 0.08 0.01 0.08 0.08-0,14 1.00 30 0. 13-0. 17 0. 09-0.07 0.00-0. 10-0.01-0. 04 0. 02-0.09-0. 10-0. 03-0.06 0.02 0.08 0.09 0.05-0.04-0.04-0.09-0.14 0.16 0.09-0.10-0.16 0.04 -0.06-0.08-0.05 1.00 3 1 0. 14-0. 10-0. 05 0.04 0.1 1-0.20-0. 11 0. 06 -0.04- 0.12 0.0 3-0. 02 0.10 0. 01-0.01 0.16 0.07 0.12- 0. 05-0.18- 0. 05 0. 07 0.04 0.12- 0.04 -0.Q5 0. 1 9-0. 10-0.08 0.06 1. 00 32 0. 19-0. 19 0.27- 0. 13 0. 12-0. 25-0.05 0. 34' -0.01- 0,25 0.16- 0.21 -0.07 -0.03- 0, 15-0. 08 0.13 0.0 9-0. 04-0.17-•0. 09 0. 03 0.01 0.09 0.00 -0,18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 • 10. 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 '20 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 25 2 6 2 7 2 8 29 3 0 3 1 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 123 0.11 0.03 0.01 0.18 0.10 1.00 33 0. 08 0. 13 0.05 0.04-0. 13 0. 12-0. 09-0. 21-0. 07-0. GO-0.07 0. 16 0. 13 0.08 0.05-0.05 0. 07 0. 03-0.03 0.02 0. 12 0. 16-0.08 0.09 0.07 0.1 1 0.00-0.05-0.01-0.02 0.07-0.05 1,00 34 0. 16-0.08 0.08-0.05 0.09-0. .20 0.08-0. 02-0. 02-0.09 0.0 5-0. 03-0.0 3 -0.09-0.02 0.05 0. 04-0.01-0.05-0.22 0.03 0. 09 0. 12-0. 31-0. 14-0.04 0.09-0.10 0.13 0.20-0.09-0.03-0.07 1.00 35 -0.08-0.12 0.07-0.06 0.12 0.11-0.04 0.03 0.04 0.12 0.03 0.05-0.12 -0.10-0.08-0.06 0.02-0.01-0.03-0.02 0.15 0.00 0.08-0.24 0.02-0,14 -0.12 0.23-0.04 0.09-0.19-0.10-0.10 0.09 1.00 3 6 -0.25-0. 04 0.06-0. 12 0.04 0. 12 0.19-0. 02-0. 09 0.0 1 0.07 0. 07-0.12 -0. 08-0. 05-0.17 0.10-0. 16 0. 02 0.22-0. 02 0. 08 0.09 0.02 0. 10 0.05 -0. 12 0.05-0. 08-0. 18-0, 17-0. 05 0.08-0. 19 0.09 1.00 37 -0.32 0. 12-0. 12 0. 09-0.0 1 0. 23 0. 09-0. 26-0. 06 0.35-0.29 0. 23-0. 15 -0.09 0.10 0.05-0.13-0.22 0.03 0.21 0.01 0.09-0.07-0.01-0.05-0.01 -0. 26 0.06-0. 18-0.04-0. 37-0. 30 0.09-0. 12 0. 11 0.26 1 .00 38 0. 06 0. 10-0.07 0. 06 0.04 0. 12 0. 12-0. 02 0. 06 0. 01-0. 08-0. 00 0 .05 0.05-0.05 0.04 0.01 0.08 0.02 0.09 0.09-0.18 0.25 0.13 0.01 0.13 -0.01-0. 14-0.01 0.01-0.09-0.22-0. 18-0.03-0. 23 0.06 0.03 1.00 39 -0.04 0.07 0. 04 0.06 0.02 0. 01 0.04 0. 14 0. 08-0.04-0. 14-0. 05 0.05 -0. 10-0.06 0.06-0. 18 0. 1 1-0. 26 0. 0 2-0. 24-0. 10 0.17 0. 15-0. 10-0.02 -0.05-0. 08 0. 15 0. 06 0.07 0. 10-0. 10-0. 09-0. 14-0.09-0.02 0.34 1 .00 40 0.05-0. 13-0.06 0. 00 0.01 0. 18 0.20-0. 08 0. 05 0.04 0.06 0.22 0.1 0 0.08- 0.04 0.04 0.09 0.07 O.02 0.19 0. 08 0. 07 0.12 0.18 0. 09 0.11 0.41 0. 04-0. 15- 0. 13-0, 14 0. 01-0.08-•0. 16-•0. 04 0. 25 0.06 0.25 0.04 1.00 0.06 0. 10-0. 14-0. 12-0.05 0.04 0.12 0. 12 0. 06- 0.09-•0.08--0.00 0.14 0.05- 0. 05 0.04 0. 10-0.04 0. 02-0.05 0. 09- 0. 05 0.25 0.13 0. 01 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 124 0.09-0.14 0. 13-0. 08-0. 01-0. 05-0.05-0. 03-0. 12-0.07-0. 08 0. 33 0. 12 -0.06 1.00 42 -0. 15 0. 12-0. 08 0. 12-0. 18 0. 09 0. 1 1-0. 13 0. 08 0. 12-0.03 0.09 0.05 0. 15 0. 09-0.05-0. 18-0.23-0, 09 0.35 0. 12 0.04-0.01 0. 16 0. 06 0. 24 -0.02 0.10-0.10-0.11 0.06 0.02 0.10-0.09-0.07 0.06 0.02-0.08-0.09 -0.08-0.01 1.00 43 0.32-0. 09 0.06-0. 17 0. 10-0. 27-0. 14 0. 17 0. 0.5-0.24 0. 19-0.05-0. 05 -0.06-0.00-0.09 0. 35 0. 18-0. 05-0.31 0. 14 0. 06 0.04-0. 14 0.06 0.01 0. 30-0. 10-0. 06 0. 1 1 0.29 0. 13 0.06 0.09-0.07-0.24-0. 2 3-0.01-0. 12 -0.14 0.15-0.16 1.00 44 -0.06-0. 10 0. 28-0. 24-0.04 0. 10 0.08 0. 02 0. 25- 0.01-0.07 0. 07-0.05 -0.05 0. 05-0.04 0.09 0.04-0. 02-0.0 2 0. 02 0. 3 0 0.06-0. 13 0. 09 0.09 -0.09-0.05 0.01 0.27 0.01-0. 04-0.08 0.03 0. 23 0.07 0.08-0.06-0.01 -0.09 0.07-0.12 0.16 1.00 45 0. 12-0. 10 O. 07 0. 13 0.05 0. 02 0.0 1-0. 06-0. 10 0.07-0.00-0.06 0.01 -0.06 0.08 0.08-0.03 0.13-0.04-0.02 0.17 0.06-0.01-0.2 5-0.03 0.01 -0.07-0.08-0.02 0.23 0.10-0.08 0.06 0.24 0.00-0.07-0.03 0.02-0.23 -0.01-0.07 0.06 0.04 0.07 1.00 46 0.00 0.01-0.03-0.02-0.03-0.05 0.05-0.01 0.10-0.08-0.08 0.21-0.03 -0.04-0.08 0.07-0.15-0.11-0.20-0.13 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.07 0.04-0.03 -0. 06-0.04 0. 10-0. 14 0.09-0. 08 0.04 0. 06 0.01-0. 12 0.01-0.03 0.06 0.00 0.15 0.07-0.06 0.03-0.25 1.00 47 -0.07 0.08-0. 12 0. 05 0. 02 0. 16 0.21 0. 02-0. 07 0. 02-0.05 0. 15-0.02 0.09 0. 02-0.05-0. 10-0.22-0. 18 0.09-0. 03-0.01 0. 16 0. 17 0. 02 0.04 -0. 15-0. 02 0.04-0. 03-0. 11 0. 03-0. 17 0.06-0.,09 0. 19 0..19 0. 19 0.22 0. 16 0.27 0. 09-0, 14-0.03-0. 01 0.21 1. 00 48 0.05 0. 03-0.06-0. 10 0. 11-0. 07-0,03 0. 17 0. 05-0.08 0.06-0.02-0.01 -0.07-0.04-0.21 0.09 0.07 0.02-0.04 0.08-0.08-0.05 0.05 0.09-0.14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24' 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 CORRELATION MATRIX F O R MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 125 0. 08 0.04 0 .01 -0 . 13 0. 04 -0 . 09 -0 .08 -0 .07 0. 08 0.09 0.06 0 .09 -0 .08 -0 .05 0 .09-0 .16 0.13 0 .06 -0 .12 0.21 0.07 1.00 49 - 0 . 12 0. 11-0. 13 0. 03 -0 . 07 0. 06 0.2 4 -0 . 08-0. 03 0 .21 -0 .09 0.27 0, 12 - 0 . 03 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 9 0.06 0 .31 -0 .05 0.10 0 . 03 -0 . 01 -0 . 04 0.04 - 0 . 09 0 . 0 1 - 0 , 1 0 - 0 . 0 8-0 . 0 2 - 0 . 2 0 0.03 0.08 0.09 0.07 0 . 07 - 0 . 01 - 0 . 15 0.03-0.01 0 .13 -0 .28 0.01-0.01 0.0 3 -0 .03 -0 .05 1.00 50 -0 .21 0 .14 -0 .12 0.22-0.09 0.24 0 .05 -0 .06 0.10 0 .42 -0 .17 0.21 0.26 0.04 0.17 0 , 07 - 0 . 15 - 0 . 03 0.04 0.33 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.22-0.15 0.07 - 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 1 8 - 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 3 2 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 3 0.25 0.15 0.13 0.21 0.06 0 . 21 - 0 . 27 - 0 . 06 0 .06 -0 .02 0 .05 -0 .10 0.19 1.00 51 0.04 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 08 -0 . 28-0. 02 0.04 0. 04 0. 0 4 - 0 . 06 - 0 . 15-0. 05 0.16 0. 12-0.03 0. 03-0.20 0, 06 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 12-0.04 0 .25 -0 . 06 0.30 0.06-0.22 0.04 0.08-0.01 0.09 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 3 8 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 6 0.32 0.23 - 0 .04 0.32 0 .09-0 . 1 1-0. 14-0. 05 0.17 0. 13-0. 04-0.1 1 0. 1 7 1. 00 52 - 0 . 08 0 . 07 - 0 . 14 0. 00 0 . 07 - 0 . 02 0 .05 -0 . 01 0. 18-0.15 0.04 0. 14-0.07 -0.22-0.09 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 0 .06 -0 .02 0.22-0.05 0.02 0.03 0 .02 -0 .03 0.09 0 . 10 - 0 . 06 - 0 . 05 - 0 . 01 0.01 0 .17 -0 .12 0.09 0 .11 -0 .02 0.12 0 .08 -0 .02 0 . 2 3 - 0 . 19-0. 09 0. 02 0.07 0. 10-0. 05 0 . 08 - 0 . 07 0. 06 1 .00 53 0.05 0 .17-0 .42 0.06-0.31 0.01 0 .08-0.04 0.05 0 . 13 -0 .07 0.02 0.17 0.07 0. 12-0.08 0. 10-0. 10-0. 10 0. 18 0. 12-0. 07 -0 .05 0.10 0. 19 0.27 0 .03 -0 .02 0 .06 -0 . 13-0. 03 -0 . 24 0. 12 - 0 . 09 - 0 . 02 0.04 0. 13 0. 10 -0 . 09 - 0 . 05 0. 24 0.11 0. 02 -0 . 10-0. 10 0.02 0. 01 0. 19 0 .08 -0 .08 0.12 0.01 1.00 54 -0.01 0 .03 -0 .00 0 .05 -0 .16 0.21 0.07 0.02-0.01 0 .07 -0 .18 0 . 04 - 0 . 02 0 .05 -0 . 08 0 .07 -0 . 10 0 . 05 -0 . 21 0. 17-0. 01 -0 . 05 0.01 0.31 0.10 0.03 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 08 - 0 . 06 - 0 . 09 0 . 02 - 0 . 03 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 2 0 .18 -0 .02 0.14 0.11 0.07 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 , 0 7 - 0 . 1 4 0.17 0.17 0 .11 -0 .00 -0 .01 0 .05 -0 .08 0.22 1.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 4.1 42 43 44 45 • 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 126 55 0 .08 -0 .17 0 .14 -0 .10 0 . 04 - 0 . 14 - 0 . 06 0 . 22 - 0 . 08 - 0 . 20 0.20 0 .01 -0 .08 0.01-0.Q6 0.11 0.29 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 7 0.00 0 .06 -0 .02 0.02 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 4 0.08 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 7 0.02 0.09 0 .05-0.01 0.12 0.08 0.08 0 .12-0 .66 0.04 0 .16 -0 .06 0.04 0.02 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 2 -0 .04 0.02 1.00 56 0.0 1 0. 10-0. 13 0. 13-0. 29 0. 11 0. 18-0. 16-0. 09 0. 18 0.03 0. 26 0.24 0. 19 0. 15 0. 08 -0 .07 -0 .01 0. 04 0 . 22 -0 . 06 0. 13-0.01 0. 13 0.Q6 0.23 - 0 . 11 0. 09 -0 . 10 0 . 01 -0 . 04 -0 .22 0 .05 -0 . 23 0. 03 -0 . 04 0.15 0. 05-0.03 0.09 0.05 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 9 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 4 0 .02-0.01 0.20 0.25 0 .03 -0 .13 0.28 0.09 0.02 1.00 57 0 .38 -0 . 12 0 .05 -0 . 17 0 .04 -0 . 08 -0 . 13 0. 06 -0 . 04 -0 .23 0. 15-0. 05 0.09 0 . 05 - 0 . 22 - 0 . 03 0 . 3 4 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 0.12 0 .04 -0 .09 0.06 0.01 0 . 23 -0 .03 -0 .04 0.06 0.12 0 . 15-0 . 05 0.13 0.08 0 .05 -0 .2 6 -0 .14 -0 .2 3 0.04 0 .05-0.18 0. 22 0. 14 -0 . 08 0.08 0. 10-0. 04-0. 10-0. 29 0. 03-0.06 0 .07 -0 . 17 0. 16-0. 03 1.00 58 -0.04-0.01-0 . 15 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 17 - 0 . 07 0 . 02 -0 . 01 -O .04 -0 .04 0.09 0.04 0.11 - 0 . 10 0. 22 0 .06 -0 . 16-0.08 0. 03 0.09 0. 12-0. 19 0.27 0.05 0. 14 0. 17 0 .04 -0 .08 0. 1 6 - 0 . 08 - 0 . 05 - 0 . 10 0. 10 0. 12-0. 21 0 .01 -0 .03 0. 11 0.04 - 0 . 08 0.11 0 . 20 - 0 . 04 - 0 . 22 0 .08 -0 .02 0 .13 -0 .08 0.07 0.05 0.08 0.12 0 . 10 -0 .02 -0 .12 0 .03 -0 .22 1.00 59 0 . 0 3 - 0.22 0 . 29-0 . 03 - •0.04- 0. 19 0.00 0. 26 0 .03 - 0.03 0 . 0 1 - 0. 07-0.02 0. 0 1 -0 .07 - 0 .06 - 0.07 0.07 0. 24- 0.16 0.04 - 0 . 11- 0.03 0.04 0 .00 - 0.04 0 . 03 - 0. 07 0 .24 - 0 .01 - •0.09 0. 21 -0.0 1 0.05 0. 19 0.00' - 0 . 1 4 - 0 .10 - 0.03 - 0 . 1 4 - 0. 10- 0, 16- 0.04 0. 20 - 0. 09 0.10-•0. 12 0. 09 0.00 - 0 . 17 0.p7 0.04 - 0 . 13- 0. 04 0 .26 - 0.15 0 . 07 - 0. 10 1.00 60 0 .27 - 0. 20-•0.06- 0.05 0 .04 - 0. 10- 0.13 0. 07 - 0 . 08- 0. 12 0. 13-• 0 . 09 0.03 0. 00 0.07 0. 1 1 0. 16-•0. 02 - 0. 03- 0.20 0.05 - 0 . 0 0 - 0.04 - 0 . 22 0. 01 0.06 0 .04 - 0. 07-•0.00 0. 30 0. 23 0. 03 0.09 0. 20 0. 12- 0. 11 - 0 . 1 5 - 0.22- 0.29 1 J_ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 .14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS -0.15 0.10-0.04 0. 22 0. 1 1 0. 65-0. 12-0.07-0. 04-0.07-0.1 9-0.08-0.12 0.00-0.20 0.01-0.10 0.22 0.05-0.06 1.00 61 0.39-0. 15 0.05-0. 05 0. 1 1-0. 16-0. 18 0. 23-0. 08-0.29 0.24-0,15-0.11 0.00-0.08-0.06 0.01 0.17-0.03-0.2 5-0.12-0.00-0.04-0.22-0.07-0.00 0. 12-0. 07 0. 05 0.08 0.05 0. 10-0. 10 0.26 0. 04-0.22-0.24 0. 10 0. 13 -0. 15-0.01-0. 14 0. 28 0.01 0. 28-0.05-0. 07 0. 08-0.2 5-0.12 0.07-0.12 -0. 10-0.20 0.12-0. 16 0. 22-0. 03 0.10 0. 35 1..00 62 -0.08 0.04 0. 18 0.01 0. 12-0. 01 0. 12 0. 09-0. 08-0.05-0.09-0. 17-0. 19 -0,10-0.08-0.06 0.02 0.09 0.26-0.2 4-0.03-0.10-0.17-0,15-0.06-0.14 0.05-0. 06 0.02 0.01-0. 13 0. 11-0. 10 0. 15 0. 05 0.09 0.11-0. 01-0.1 4 -0.04-0.12-0.23-0.01-0.0 9 0.15-0.2 8-0.09 0.08-0.03-0.13-0.08-0.03 -0. 18-0. 14 0.09-0. 11-0.06-0. 04 0.1 1 0.04 0.,Q4 1.00 63 -0.06 0.39-0. 18 0, 09-0.30 0. 22 0.26-0.,23 0.02 0.05-0. 08 0.35 0.20 0.04 0.02 0.01-0. 20-0.06-0.06 0.32 0.03 0. 03-0.19 0.03-0.04 0.28 -0.J 1-0. 12 0.06-0. 10-0. 14-0. 26 0. 10-0. 10-0. 05 0,02 0.20 0. 02-0.01 0.06 0, 10 0. 15-0, 15-0.02 0. 09 0.09 0. 06-0.02 0. 14 0. 1 4 0. 12 0.15 0,30 0.13-0.11 0.26-0.02 0.00-0.13-0.00-0.06-0.11 1.00 64 0.04 0. 11-0.08 0. 00 0.01 0. 25 0.08-0. 15 0. 13 0. 1 1-0. 27 0.^9 0.24 -0.09-0.11-0.03 0.00 0.03-0.16 0.17-0.06 0.J6 0.04 0.06 0.11 0.06 0.02 0.00 0.07-0.10 0.05-0.12 0.09 0.01-0.11-0.08 0.22 0.08 0.11 0.04 0. 15 0. 13-0.03 0.08-0. 13 0.31 0. 13 0.04 0.13 0.05 0.11 0.1.3 0. 19 0. 38-0. 15 0. 07 0.00-0. 03-0.25-0.21-0.27-0.23 0.20 1.00 65 0.05 0, 03 0, 10 0. 21 0,01 0. 02 0.05 0. 08 0. 05 0.04-0. 1 1-0. 18-0.01 -0.07-0.04 0.04-0.02 0.07 0.02-0.12-0.05-0.37 0.12 0.05-0.02-0.06 -0.04-0. 17 0. 09-0. 13 0.04 0. 1 1-0.2 3-0, 16-0. 17-0.06-0.0 7 0. 40 0. 29 0. 12 0. 25-0..08-0.05-0.09-0. 12 0. 10-0. 02 0. 12-0. 14 0.21 0. 17-0. 18 -0.05 0. 11 0.08-0.11-0. 17 0. 04 0.09-0.15 0. 08 0.08-0.1 1-0. 04 1.00 66 0.21-0.13 0.02-0,06 0.08-0.10-0.15 0.18 0.06-0.16 0.16-0.21-0.04 1 2 '3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 13 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 :60 61 62 63 64 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS i Z a 0.05-0.17 0.04 0.27 0.16 0.09-0.14 0.09 0.01-0.06 0,08-0.03-0.07 0.27-0.01 0.14 0.04 0.08 0.05 0.01 0.15 0.00-0.18-0.18-0.12-0.11 -0. 14 0. 08-0. 13 0. 25 0. 05-0. 07 0.03-0. 15 0. 17-0. 15-0. 19 0. 01 0.03 -0.04-0.04 0.15-0.14 0.08 0.08 0.05 0.03-0.02 0.06-0.21 0.04-0.06 1.00 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS, APPENDIX VI 129 1 1.00 2 - -0.03 1.00 3 -0.00-0.14 1.00 4 0.00 0. 13-0. 09 1. 00 5 0.00-0.04-0.09 0.01 1.00 6 -0.14 0.09-0.24-0.02-0.06 1.00 7 -0.19 0.05-0.01 0.01-0.06 0.09 1.00 3 0.06-0.17-0.03-0.05 0.09-0.11-0.04 1.00 9 -0.04-0. 13 0.01 0. 08 0. 06-0. 07 0.01 0.09 1. 00 10 0. 05 0.08 0.09 0. 34-0. 23-0. 03-0.04-0.05 0. 03 1.00 11 0.07-0. 17 0. 02 0.02 0.04-0. 17-0.03 0. 12 0. 14-0. 11 1 .00 12 -0.14 0.22-0.11 0.16 0.04-0.05 0.03-0.02-0.05-0.07 0.07 1.00 13 -0. 16 0. 14 0. 01 0.09-0.03 0. 10-0.08-0. 14 0. 05 0.04-0.23 0. 20 1.00 14 -0.00 0. 17-0.08 0. 08-0. 10 0. 09 0.05-0. 02 0. 03 0.20-0.26-0. 00 0. 14 1.00 15 -0.04 0. 16 0.05-0.00-0.08 0. 03 0. 1 9-0. 11-0. 24 0. 07-0.1 9 0. 14 0.00 0.10 1.00 16 -0.04-0.05-0.04-0.02 0.08-0.01-0.01-0.07-0.02-0.36-0.0 3 0.05 0.05 -0. 16-0.28 1.00 17 0.04 0.03-0.08-0.07 0.09-0.05-0.04 0.13-0.04-0.33-0.0 5-0.08-0.01 -0.12-0.04 0.13 1.00 18 0.06-0.07 0. 00-0.04 0.03-0. 02 0.05 0. 10-0. 03-0. 10-0. 0 4-0. 10-0.03 0.13 0.05-0.03 0.07 1.00 19 -0.03 0. 04-0.08 0.05-0. 03-0. 07-0.07-0. 05-0. 02 0.02-0. 02 0.03-0.15 -0.05 0.03-0.02 0.21 0.24 1.00 20 0.01 0. 11-0. 09 0.07-0.08 0.07 0.0 9-0. 18-0.09 0. 12-0. 12 0. 19 0. 17 0.03 0.22-0.02-0.00-0.10 0.05 1.00 21 0.05-0.04 0.05 0.01-0.00-0.04 0.00 0.03-0.06-0.01 0.01-0.09-0.11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS, 130 -0.07 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.16-0.04 0.02 1.00 22 0. 12-0. 13 0. 01 0.08 0.09-0. 06 0.05 0. 03 0. 18 0.02 0.20-0. 03-0. 14 -0. 12-0. 06 0.22 0.07 0. 1 1-0. 05-0. 15 0. 12 1. 00 23 0.05 0.15-0.06 0.04 0.07-0.05-0.05-0.10-0.13-0.04 0.04 0.19 0.12 -0.07 0.06 0.03 0.05-0.09 0.02 0.16 0.08-0.04 1.00 24 -0. 12-0.04-0. 12 0.16 0.01 0. 18 0.02-0. 16 0.04 0. 18-0.06 0. 06 0.22 0.09-0.06-0.11-0.04 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.10 0.01 0.16 1.00 25 0.05-0.13 0.12 0.05-0.06 0.04-0.04 0.03 0.14 0.07 0.27-0.04-0.05 -0. 18-0. 18 0. 17-0.09 0.08 0. 12-0.06 0. 06 0. 21-0. 00-0. 1 0 1. 00 26 -0.06 0.18-0.02 0.10-0.64 0.10-0.04-0.03-0.10 0.13-0.06 0.17 0.20 0.07 0.06-0.13-0.02 0.03 0.05 0.09-0.00-0.11 0.04 0.11-0.09 1.00 27 0.09-0.05-0.08 0.02 0.06-0.04 0.00 0.08-0.01-0.03 0.03 0.00-0.06 -0. 12-0. 14 0. 10 0. 05 0.02 0. 07-0.13-0.04 0. 06-0.0 2-0. 18 0. 16-0. 10 1.00 28 0. 10-0. 03 0. 01-0.01 0.06 0.01 0.01-0. 08-0.03 0. 03 0.1 4-0.05-0.06 -0.12-0. 10 0.20 0. 11 0. 13-0. 02-0.25 0. 04 0. 18 0.03 0.04 0. 24-0.01 0.15 1.00 29 0. 15-0, 06 0.09- 0.09-•0.0 3-0.01 0.03- 0.01-0.00- 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 -0.04- 0. 15 0.01-0.01 0.0 2-0. 05 0.06- 0.03--0.17- 0.02 0.03 0. 05 -0.00 -0. 11 0.08 1.00 30 0. 13 0.10- 0. 00-0.11 0.00-0.09-•0.09 0. 11 -0.04-0.07 0. 19 0. 01 -0.16 -0.10- 0. 04-0. 04 0.04-•0.05-0.03- 0.22- 0.02 0. 00 0.05 -0.21 0.05 -0.01 0.03 0. 10 0.04 1.00 31 0.04-•0.03-0.03- 0.06 0.05- 0. 15 0.01 0.11 0.23- 0.01 0.09--0. 19 -0. 16 -0.06- 0. 18 0. 16 0.05-•0.00 0. 12-0. 13 0. 00 0. 15- 0.08 -0.03 0.20 -0.03 0.15 0.23 0.08 0. 18 1.00 32 0.25- 0. 10-0. 04-0.00 0.10- 0. 21-•0.1 1 0. 20 0. 19-0.04 -0.06 -0.09 -0.17 -0.03- 0,01- 0.04 0.01 0.03 0. 15 0.01 0. 12 0. 06-0. 13 -0.0 8 0. 06 -0.21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS, 131 0.03-0.05 0.03 0.09 0.11 1.00 33 -0.02-0.23 0.12-0.07 0.17-0.12 0.04 0.12 0.24-0.01 0.27-0.09-0.05 -0.07-0. 12 0. 06-0.02 0. 00-0.04-0. 18-0. 09 0. 29-0.08 0.03 0. 16-0.21 0.00-0.06-0.07 0. 12 0. 25 0. 12 1.00 34 0. 26 0.00-0. 06-0.06-0.02-0.04-0.03-0.04 0. 07-0. 15 0. 15-0. 10-0.18 -0.04-0.09-0.04 0. 02 0.04-0. 03-0.2 5-0. 05 0. 12-0.04-0. 16 0. 07 0.03 0.04 0.20-0. 01 0. 35 0. 12-0. 02-0.05 1. 00 35 -0. 08-0. 03 0.05-0. 03 0.09-0.09 0. 13 0. 31 0. 06 0.06 0.03-0.07-0.0 9 0.03 0.00-0.05 0.00 0.02-0. 03-0.07 O.05 0.08-0.11-0.0 6-0. 06-0.14 0.09-0.05 0.05 0.07 0.09-0. 03 0.10-0. 03 1. 00 36 -0.07 0.08-0. 14 0. 12 0.06 0. 10-0.04 0.02 0. 03-0.04 0.04 0. 21 0.04 -0.06-0.05 0.03-0.08-0.10 0.02 0.12-0.10 0.02 0.24 0.06-0.01 0.06 -0.03 0.03-0.10-0.07-0.01-0.14-0.01-0.05-0.03 1.00 37 0.06 0.13-0.04-0.04-0.10 0.00 0.06-0.09-0.12 0.09-0.22 0.17 0.10 0.26 0.16 0.03-0.06-0.08-0.22 0.08 0.08-0.15-0.05-0.06-0.22 0.16 -0. 06 0.04 0.05 0. 06-0.06-0. 20-0. 1 5 0. 07 0. 07 0.09 1.00 38 -0.09 0.21-0.12 0. 1 0-0.04 0. 21 0.07-0. 20-0. 31-0.06-0. 14 0. 21 0. 17 0.12 0.17 0.04-0.01-0.03-0.15 0.19-0.12-0.11 0.13-0.08-0.18 0.06 -0.07-0.07-0.03-0.09-0.34-0.25-0.24 0.09-0.03 0.24 0.29 1.00 39 0.05 0. 03-0.24 0.08-0.01 0. 1 1 0.0 7-0. 08-0. 10-0.01-0.06 0.23 0.06 0.27 0.13-0.03-0.08 0.02 0.05 0.13-0.01-0.19 0.05-0,00-0.13 0.09 -0.00-0. 10 0.06-0.1 9-0.08-0. 12-0. 18 0. 03-0. 14 0.06 0.23 0. 22 1 .00 40 -0.29-0.03-0. 10-0.03 0.02 0. 14 0. 14-0. 15 0. 01-0.01 0.01-0. 02-0.02 -0.04-0.02 0.01-0.31 0.02 0.01-0.04-0.20 0.03-0.02-0.02 0.03-0.03 0.04 0.01-0.14 0.02 0.03-0.24 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.37-0.02 0.24 0.16 1.00 0.09 0.14- 0.11- 0.01-0.04 0. 04 0.00- 0.05 -0. 06" 0.02 -0.22 -0. 02 0.04 0,08 0.02 0.08 0.02- 0.01 0. 06 0.10 0.02 -0.29 0.07 0.1 1 -0. 13 0.07 1 i- 3 4 5 r 0 7 8 9- ' 10 11 12 J . J 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39j 40 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - ANHEDONIA I T E M S , 132 -0.07 0.01 0. 17-0. 02-0. 05-0. 01-0.21-0. 16-0. 16-0.04 0.05 0. 01 0.15 -0.04 1.00 42 -0.09 0.05-0. 15 0. 13 0. 12 0. 14 0. 13-0. 19 0. 1 1 0. 12-0.07 0. 16 0.21 0.07-0.05-0. 06-0.07-0.03 0. 01 0. 15 0. 02-0.04 0.09 0. 15-0. 01-0.06 -0. 19-0.08-0. 11-0. 13-0. 09-0. 12 0.08-0. 07 0. 07 0. 18 0. 15 0. 16 0 . 1.3 0.07 0.06 1.00 43 0.35 0.00-0.02 0.04 0.04-0.08 0.01-0.04 0.G7-0.05 0.05-0.16-0.32 -0.04-0.09 0.09 0.02 0.04-0.03-0.05 0.07 0.17-0.13-0.16 0.13-0.17 0.13 0.07 0.04 0.26 0.12 0.19 0.07 0.20-0.03 0.06 0.07 0.02-0.08 0.02 0.03-0.15 1.00 44 -0.06-0. 15 0.07 0.01-0. 01-0. 02 0.09-0.01-0.04 0.05 0.06-0.06-0. 15 0.01-0.03 0.11-0.06 0.05-0.03-0.09 0.04 0.16-0.05-0.02 0.04 0.00 0.02-0.04 0.13-0.06 0.03-0.08 0.10-0.08-0.01-0.06-0.04-0.16-0.06 0.02-0.06-0. 02-0.08 1. 00 45 0.09 0.03 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.03-0.00 0.08-0.07-0.00 0.16-0.02-0.29 -0.06-0.03-0.06-0. 10 0. 14-0. 04-0.2 2 0. 26 0. 24 0.01 0.04 0. 17-0.01 0.01 0.12 0.05 0.16 0.12 0.04 0.08 0.16-0.08 0.08-0.12-0.09-0.02 0.03-0.09-0.07 0.05 0.08 1.00 46 0.09-0.02-0.31-0.03 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.02-0.05-0.14 0.05-0.05 0.06 0.17 0.09 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.03-0.08-0.00 0.10-0.01-0.01 -0.02 0, 10 0.09-0.06 0 . 11 0. 09-0.1 6 0. 04-0. 14 0.01 0.10 0. 04 0.26 -0,04 0.30-0.01 0,04-0.10-0.01 1.00 47 0.02 0. 15-0. 04 0.05-0.01 0.02 0. 14-0.05 0.06-0.07-0.1 1 0. 11 0.01 0.01 0. 13 0. 05 0. 01-0.01-0. 13 0.1 7-0. 02-0. 14 0.01-0.09-0. 13 0.02 -0.06-0.05-0.02 0.02-0.02-0.07-0.13 0.04 0.06 0.11 0.08 0.26 0.07 0.21 0.12 0.15 0.10-0.12-0.10 0.07 1.00 0.04 0.09 0.04- 0.01- 0.03- 0. 11 0.14- 0. 03 -0.02- 0.00 -0.23 0. 16 0.03 0. 12 0.21 0. 06-0.03 0.01-0. 10 0.10 0. 02 -0. 08 0.06 -0.05 -0. 07 0.04 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS, 133 - 0 . 11 0.07 0. 0 7 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 3 0 0. 01 - 0 . 02 -0 . 00 0. 19 0. 19 0. 13 - 0 . 03 0.22-0.01 0 . 07 - 0 . 08 - 0 . 04 0.34 0.28 1.00 49 - 0 . 23 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 1-0.09 0. 20 0. 12 -0 . 05-0. 13 0 .00 -0 .17 0. 12 0.20 0.07 0.23 0. 06 -0 . 1 1-0.07 0. 04 0. 1 5 0 .05 -0 . 09-0.08 0 . 09 -0 . 09 0.18 - 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 3 0.00 0 .13-0 .01 0.15 - 0 . 03 0. 10 0. 1 5 - 0 . 39 - 0 . 02 - 0 . 01 0.05 0. 01 0. 09 1.00 50 - 0 , 0 2 0 .12 -0 .04 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 8 0 .48 -0 .16 0.17 0.19 0.28 0 .19 -0 .24 -0 .11 0 . 06 -0 .17 0 . 17 - 0 . 08 - 0 . 08 0.04 0 .18 -0 .27 0.30 - 0 . 19 0 . 05 -0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 13-0. 1 4 0. 01 0.09 0.05 0.32 0. 13 0.20 - 0 . 0 2 0.08 0, 18-0. 1 4 - 0 . 09 - 0 . 12 0.1 1 0. 16 0. 34 0. 12 1.00 51 - 0 .08 0 .14 -0 ,10 0 .04 -0 .03 0.15 0 . 10 - 0 . 04 - 0 . 06 0 .04 -0 .43 0.14 0.35 0.23 0 .08 -0 .08 0.07 0 .07 -0 .15 0.17 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 1 9 0.03 0 .22 -0 .22 0.20 - 0 . 10 0.05 0, 12-0. 16-0. 16-0. 17 -0 .39 -0 . 11-0. 09-0.06 0.28 0. 17 0. 1 1 - 0 . 02 0.30 0. 14-0. 1 1-0. 07 -0 . 14 0. 16 0. 18 0. 29 0. 14 0.26 1.00 52 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 0.15 0.10 0.04 0 .05-0 .06 0.02 0.13 0.08 0 .25 0.03 0.07 - 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 1 7 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 2 4 0.09 0.31 0.08 0.04 0 . 29 - 0 . 15 0.06 0. 13-0.05 0. 04 0 .09 -0 .06 0.24 0.06 0 .03 -0 .0 1-0.21 0. 01 -0 ,20 0 .03 -0 .26 0.08 0.00 0 .03 0. 24-0.1 7 -0 ,01 -0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 13-0. 26 1.00 53 - 0 .05 0. 04-0.26 0. 14 0.01 0. 13 0 . 03 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 09 - 0 . 03 - 0 . 04 0. 19 0.13 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 10 0.05 0. 03 0. 02-0. 08 0. 16 0 .25-0 .06 0.06 0. 0 3 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 14-0. 1 1-0. 13 -0 . 0 4 - 0 . 14 - 0 , 10-0. 11 0. 12 0.08 0. 19 0.31 - 0 . 04 0.13 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 0 3 0 .11-0 .09 0.02 0.11 0.01 0 .13 -0 .12 1.00 0.08 0. 08 -0 .05 - 0. 1 1-0. 15 0. 14 0 . 13 - 0. 12-0. 06- 0.06-•0.13 0.01 -0 .04 0.05 0 . 0 7 - 0.08 0. 08 0.07 0.03 0 .16 - 0. 05- 0. 18- 0.07 0 .06 - 0, 16 0.18 - 0 . 09 0.05 0.08 0 .00 -•0. 04 0. 03-•0.16- 0. 11- 0. 08 0,03 0.10 0.03 0.14 - 0 . 0 2 0 .24- 0. 03 0.0 9-•0.21-•0. 07 0.23 0.23 0. 12 0.0 8 0. 12 0.21 - 0 . 25 0. 11 1.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9- 10 11 12 . 13 14 15 16 17 18 .19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 33 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 CORRELATION MATRIX FOB FEMALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS, 1 3 4 55 0.22-0.09 0.08-0.13-0.01-0.14-0.10 0.29-0.10-0.08 0.01-0.21-0.16 0. 1 1 - 0 . 01 0.08 0.08 0. 18-0, 06 -0.20 0. 04 0.08 0.00-0.1 0 0.01-0.05 0.05 0.21 0.23 0. 22 0. 22 0. 09 0.01 0. 10 0. 06-0.08 0.07-0.09-0.06 -0.13 0.01-0.50 0.23 0.05 0.08 0.14-0.18 0.11-0.12-0.02 0.01-0.08 0.04 0.02 1.00 56 -0.21 0. 15-0.03-0.07-0.07 0. 28 0. 17-0. 10 0. 04-0. 05-0. 18 0. 06 0. 15 0. 18 0.21 0.04 0.06 0,05 0. 03 0.0 9-0. 04-0. 05-0.05 0.02-0.04 0.1 1 -0.13 0.04 0.08-0.31-0.03-0.08-0.17-0.08 0.01-0.05 0.04 0.16 0.17 -0.02 0.16 0.15-0.24-0.02-0.20 0.15 0.18 0.14 0.34 0.09 0.30 0.04 0.04 0. 14-0. 10 1.00 57 -0.02 0. 03-0.06 0.03-0.02 0. 04 0.0 4-0.03-0. 01 0.01-0. 01 0.02 0.02 0. 04 0.02-0.01-0.02-0.02-0, 01 0.04-0. 03-0.03 0.02 0.02-0.03 0.03 -0.04-0.01-0.OU-0.02-0.03-0.02-0.03-0.02-0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.04-0.07-0.02-0,02-0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02-0.03 0.04 0.02-0.04 0.02 1.00 58 0.06 0. 18-0.06 0.01-0. 17 0.05 0. 10-0.01-0. 26 0.20 0.05 0. 16 0.0 1 0.02 0.04-0.13 0.06-0.07-0.21 0.06 0.09-0.14 0.07 0.04-0.13 0.27 - 0.05 0. 04 0.01 0.06-0. 19-0. 35-0.27 0. 07-0. 00-0.05 0.28 0. 18 0.21 -0.02 0. 15 0.07-0.02-0. 13 0. 03 0.08 0. 07 0. 17 0. 04 0.29 0.34-0.12 0.12 0.25-0.03 0.04 0.02 1.00 59 0.25 0.01 0. 12-0.00 0.04-0.03-0.07-0.10-0.05-O.04-0.06-0.09-0.04 -0. 03-0.01 0.22 0.Q1 0. 13-0. 03 0.01 0. 12 0. 11-0. 13-0. 0 8 0.12-0.06 -0.02 0. 07 0.03 0.0 1-0.00-0. 09 0.00 0. 19-0. 10-0.04 0.07 0.02 0.09 0.02 0.04-0.01 0. 19 0.08 0. 09-0.04 0. 05-0.09-0.15-0.06-0.04-0.01 -0.23-0.03 0.04-0.16-0.02-0.01 1.00 60 -0.03 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.21-0. 07 0.05 0. 15 0. 14-0.18 0.26 0. 02-0. 16 -0, 16-0. 11 0.05 0. 05 0.08-0.04-0.21 0.30 0.24 0.08-0.03 0.20-0. 16 0.07 0. 04 0.04 0. 18 0. 19 0. 11 0.30 0. 01 0.04 0.07-0.2 1-0.23-0. 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ' 14 15 .16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 .38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - ANHEDONIA I T E M S , 135 0.03-0. 16-0. 06 0.06 0.03 0. 53-0. 0 7-0. 07-0. 15-0,08-0.26-0.27 0,32 -0.13-0.09 0.07-0.16-0.03-0.05 0.06 1.00 61 0.24-0.03 0.08-0.01-0.05-0. 07 0.09 0.01 0. 18 0.03 0. 14-0.05-0.06 -0.12 0.04-0.02-0.04 0.13-0.0 2-0.00 0.14 0.18 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.07 0.18-0.08-0.04 0.23-0.05 0.04 0.07-0.05 0.03-0.27-0.31-0.01 0.01 0.01-0.02 0.07-0.04 0. 12 0.02 0. 06 0. 07-0.03 0,05-0. 06 0.03 -0. 17 0. 05-0. 02-0.09-0.01 0. 04 0. 19 0. 14 1. 00 62 0.07-0.08-0. 03 0.09 0.04-0.03-0.03 0. 05 0. 14 0.04 0. 1 1 0. 07 0.06 -0. 13-0. 07 0. 17-0. 05 0. 10-0. 02 0.03 0. 01 0. 05 0.04-0,06 0. 10 0.02 0.03 0. 14-0. 10 0.07 0.0 1 0.04 0.0 1-0.06-0. 06 0. 04-0. G 9-0. 04 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.05 0.05-0.05-0.08-0.01 0.07 0.00-0.00 0.06-0.04 0.17 0.03 0.06-0,05-0.06-0.01 0.05-0.06 0.09 0. 14 1.00 .63 0.01 0. 17-0.22 0.04-0. 15 0. 14-0.02-0. 09 0. 02 0.09-0. 15 0. 11 0. 1 1 0.23 0.04 0.07-0.15 0.15-0.01 0.04-0.10-0.05-0.04-0.03-0.04 0.12 -0.17-0.04 0.10-0.13-0.08 0.02-0.07-0.07-0.09 0.04 0.09 0.09 0.14 0.08 0.07 0. 12-0. 1 1-0.01-0. 10 0. 15 0. 07 0.08 0. 14 0.18 0. 07-0.07 -0.04-0.05-0.01 0. 1 9 0.07 0. 06 0.0 2-0. 05-0. 11-0.09 1.00 64 0.06 0.20-0.14 0.09-0.10 0.18 0.06-0.15 0.04-0.04-0.0 9 0.01 0.10 0.03 0.16 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.02 0.08 0.01-0.03-0.05-0.06 0.01 0.09 0.06 0.04 O.05 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.0 1-0.03-0.01-0.04 0.07 0.02 0.23 -0.02 0.23 0. 10 0. 07-0. 25 0. 02 0.21 0. 24 0. 12 0.06 0. 13 0. 10 0.01 0.08 0.35-0. 10 0. 25 0. 02 0. 17-0.02 0.01 0. 04 0.04 0.1 9 1 .00 65 -0.06 0. 14-0. 11-0.07-0. 10 0.06-0.01 0.04-0. 19 0.06-0.28 0. 08 0.10 0.29 0.01-0. 13-0. 08 0. 03 0. 05 0. 13-0. 13-0.51-0. 10-0.00-0.21 0. 16 0.00-0.10 0.20-0.01-0.16 0.04-0.30-0.12-0.04-0.02 0.16 0.11 0.24 -0.03 0.27-0.00-0.02-0.05-0. 13 0. 12 0. 02 0. 12 0. 14 0.19 0. 25-0.31 0.09 0. 28 0. 04 0.05 0.03 0. 20-0. 1 1-0. 16-0. 19 0.02 0.21 0.16 1 .00 66 0.09-0.08 0. 16-0.00 0.07-0.05-0.07 0. 14 0. 15-0.02 0.08-0. 18-0.03 1 9 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2.1 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 ' 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 ^ 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 COfi.RELAT.ION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - ANHEDONIA I T E M S , 1 3 6 -0. 15-0. 18 0. 12 0.16 0.00 0. 03-0.12 0. 08 0. 21 0.05-0.03 0. 15-0.08 0.13 0.15-0.07 0.18 0.14 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.16 0.03-0.04-0.00-0.24 0.06-0. 11-0. 10 0, 14 0.03 0. 10-0. 13 0. 06-0. 08-0.14-0.16-0.07 0.28 -0.18-0.09 0.16-0.12-0.06-0.06 0.00 0.17 0.08 0.08-0.19 0.02-0.20 1.00 P O O L E D C O R R E L A T I O N M A T R I X - A N H E D O N I A I T E M S APPENDIX V I I 137 1 1.00 2 -0.10 1.00 3 0.02-0.10 1.00 4 0.00 0.15-0.07 1.00 5 -0.00 0.04-0.02-0.01 1.00 6 -0.13 0.10-0.17 0.01-0.00 1.00 7 -0.13 0.05-0.03 0.01-0.13 0.11 1.00 & 0.06-0.17 0.02-0.07 0.11-0.18-0.07 1.00 9 -0.04-0.03-0.00-0.00 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.04 1.00 10 -0. 11 0. 14 0.04 0.37-0. G9 0. 08-0.02-0. 10-0.01 1.00 11 0.15-0.23 0.03-0.02 0.01-0.12-0.06 0.12 0.04-0.25 I .00 12 -0.14 0.20-0.08 0.09 0.02 0.05 0.07-0. 12-0. 01 0.05 0.01 1.00 13 -0.04 0.08-0.00 0.09-0.09 0.09-0.03-0.11-0.03 0.09-0.10 0.17 1 .00 14 0.02 0.14-0.05 0.05-0.07 0.10 0.06-0.01 0. 04 0.14-0.15 0.01 0.15 1.00 15 -0.08 0.17 0.02 0.01-0.11 0.02 0.13-0.13-0.12 0.13-0.10 0.13 0.02 0.11 1.00 16 -0.04-0.06-0.07 0.01 0. 07-0. 01-0.09-0 .09-0.03-0.14-0 .0 3 0.03 0.06 -0.15-0.17 1.00 17 0.19-0.04 0.01-0.08 0.12-0.08-0.01 0.16-0.07-0.19 0.10-0.09 0.03 -0.03-0.05 0.03 1.00 IB 0.06 0.02 0.07 0.01 0.0 7-0.01-0.04 0. 07 0.02-0.04 0.01-0.09-0.0 2 0.G7 0.05-0.04 0.01 1.00 19 -0.02-0.02-0.07 0.05-0.04-0.Q2-0.09-0. 05-0. 02 0.03-0.02-0.04-0.06 -0.03 0.02-0.01 0.09 0.12 1.00 20 -0.01 0.17-0.11 0.12-0.10 0.15 0.14-0.17 0.02 0.15-0.05 0.15 0.14 0.03 0.19-0.02-0.04-0.11-0.00 1.00 21 0.05 0.01 0.09-0.02-0.00-0.01 0.02-0.03-0.01 0.05 0.02-0.01-0.06 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 IS 19 20 POOLED CORRELATION MATRIX - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 138 -0.02 0.04 0.02 0.08 0.05-0-03 0.01 1.00 22 0. 11-0.05 0.04 0.04 0.07 0. 00 0 . 0 9 0.01 0.14 0.01 0.10 0.07-0.10 -0.08-0.03 0.13 0.10 0.03-0.04-0.09 0.12 1.00 23 0.05 0.01-0.03 0.02 0.04-0.02-0.04-0.02-0.12 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.11 -0.06 0.03 0.03 0.07-0.08 0.02 0.10 0.03-0.01 1.00 24 -0.09 0.00-0.05 0.15-0.07 0. 14 0.02-0.08 0 . 0 6 0.11-0.05 0.07 0.25 0. 12-0.00-0.04-0.03-0.03 0. 03 0.07 0 . 03 0.00 0.11 1.00 25 0 . 08- 0 . 0 7 0 . 07- 0 . 00- 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 1 0 . 03 0. 14- 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 0- 0 . 02- 0. 00 -0.12-0.10 0.07 0 . 0 6 0.07 0.06-0.05 0.08 0.13-0.01 0.00 1.00 26 -0.01-0.01-0.06 0.05-0.66 0.03 0.11-0.04-0.06 0.00 0.01 0 . 0 6 0.20 0 . 0 5 0 . 07- 0 . 08- 0 . 02- 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 5 0.14- 0. 04- 0 . 0 8 0 . 07 0.16-0 . 01 1 .00 27 0.15-0. C3-0. 02-0. 01 0. 05-0. 08-0.0 7 0. 12-0. 03-0.07 0.07-0.07-0.05 -0.13-0.17 0.05 0.10 0.01 0.04-0.10 0.02 0. 04 0.02-0.13 0.11-0.09 1.00 28 0.04-0.07-0.01-0.07 O . i l 0.01-0.10-0.06-0.03-0.03 0.24-0.05-0.05 -0.07-0.05 0.10 0.01 0.12-0.02-0.07 0.06 0. 10 0.04 0.05 0.22-0.05 0.08 1.00 29 0.11-0.01 0.08-0.Ol-Q.05-0.04-0.02 0.02 0.03-0.06 0.00-0.07 0 . 0 9 -0.08-0.08 0.05-0.05 0.02 0.02-0.01-0. 07-0. 16 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.04 -C. 04-0.02 1.00 30 0.13-0.05 0.04-0.09 0.00-0.09-0.04 0.03-0. 01-0.08 0.03-0.02-0.11 -0.05 0.01 0.03 0.05-0.04-0.03-0.15-0.07 0. 06 0.07-0.15-0.05 0.02 -0.01 0.01-0.01 1.00 31 0.08-0.07-0.04-0.02 0 . 0 8-0. 17-0.0 5 0. 08 0. 09-0.07 0.06-0.09-0.03 -0.03-0.11 0 . 16 0.06 0 .06 0.05-0.16-0.02 0.12-0.02 0.04 0.09-0.04 0.16 0.07-0.00 0.11 1.00 32 0.22-0.15 0.10-0.06 0.11-0.23-0.08 0.27 0.08-0.16 0.05-0.16-0.11 -0.03-0.06-0.06 0.08 0.06 0.07-0.09 0.03 0.04-0.06 O.Oi 0.03-0.19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9' 10 11 12 13 14 3.5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 P O O L E D C O R R E L A T I O N M A T R I X - A N H E D O N I A I T E M S 139 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 0 . 1 4 0 . 1 0 1 . 0 0 33 0 . 0 1 - 0 . C 7 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 0. 1 4 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 6 - 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 7 0. C5 1 . 0 0 34 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 2 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 0 0.03 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 4 - Q . 2 3 - 0 . 0 1 0. 1 0 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 2 4 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 6 0 . 2 6 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 5 1 . 0 0 35 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 5 0. 1 8 0. 0 5 0. 0 9 0. 0 3 - 0. 0 1 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 36 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 5 0. 1 1 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 5 - G . 0 6 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 3 0 . 0 2 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 4 0 . 1 7 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 13 0 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 37 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 5 0. 1 2 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 2 4 - 0 . 2 6 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 2 5 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 9 0 . 1 8 1 . 0 0 38 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 7 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 7 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 2 3 - 0 . 2 3 - 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 6 0 . 1 7 1 . 0 0 39 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 8 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 1 2 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 7 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 2 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . C 3 - 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 0 0 0 . 1 2 0 . 2 6 1 . 0 0 40 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 4 0 . 1 5 0 . 0 6 41 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 - 0. 0 1 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 1 0. 1 1 -•0. 0 2 0. 04 0 . 0 7 0 . 1 1 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 6 0. 1 8 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 8 - • 0 . 0 9 -- 0 . 0 5 --0.0 3-•0.11-- 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 6 0.0 4 0 . 2 1 0 . 0 7 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 8 0. 1 1 - 0 . 1 2 - 0. 0 4 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0. 0 0 - 0 . 0 2 - •0.02-- 0 . 1 6 -- 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 8 0 . 01 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 3 -- 0 . 2 4 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 1 -- 0 . 0 9 0. 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ib 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 ' 19 20 •21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 •35 36 37 38 39 40 P O O L E D C O R R E L A T I O N M A T R I X - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 1 4 0 -0.03-0.03 0.15-0.04-0.03-0.02-0.17-0. 10-0. 14-0.05 0.01 0.09 0.14 -G.C4 i.OC 42 -0.11 0.09-0.12 0.13-0.02 0.12 0.12-0.16 0. 10 0.12-0.05 0.12 0.14 0.09-0.00-0.05-0. 12-0.12-0.03 0.24 0.06-0.01 0.05 0.15 0.02 0.07 -0.13-0.01-0.10-0.12-0.02-0.06 0.09-0.08 0.01 0.12 0.09 0.08 0.05 -0.03 0.04 1.00 43 0.32-0. 05 0.02-0.06 0.08-0.18-0.07 0.07 0.06-0.17 0.13-0.09-0.16 -0.04-0.05-0.00 0.22 0.12-0.04-0.19 0. 10 0. 12-0.04-0.15 0.10-0.07 0.19-0.02-0.01 0. 17 0.21 0. 16 0.06 0.14-0.05-0.11-0.10 0.01-0.09 -0.09 0.06-0.15 1.00 44 -0.06-0.12 0.15-0.08-0.02 0.03 0.08 0.00 0.09 0.02 0.01 0.01-0.10 -0.01-0.00 0.05 0.01 0.05-0.02-0.06 0.03 0.20-0.01-0.07 0.06 0.04 -0.02-0.04 0.08 0.10 0.02-0.06 0.04-0.02 0. G9-0.G0 0.02-0.12-0.04 -0.05-0.02-0.06 0.04 1.00 45 0. 10-0.03 0.03 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.02-0.08 0.04 0.0 9-0.04-0. 15 -0.06 0.01-0.00-0.06 0.13-0.04-0.13 0.23 0.18 0.00-0.09 0.09-0.00 -0.02 0.C4 0.02 0.19 0.U-0.C2 0.07 0.20-0.05 0.01-0.0 8-0.05-0.09 0.00-0.08-0.02 0.04 0.08 1.00 46 0.06-0.01-0.21-0.02-0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 G. 05-0.06-0.12 0.12-0.04 0.03 0.09 0.08-0.02-0.01-0.03 0.01 0.02-0.04-0.00 0.09 0.01-0.02 -0 . 0 3 0 . 04 0 . 09- 0. 09 0.10 0 . 02- 0.10 0 . 05 - 0 . 09- 0.0 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 02 0 . 20 -C.01 0.26 0.02-0. 01-0. 05-0.09 1.00 47 -0.02 0.11-0.08 0.05 0.01 0.08 0.17-0.01-0.01-0.02-0.08 0. 13-0.01 0.04 0.08 0.00-0.05-0.12-0. 15 0.13-0.03-0.09 0.08 0.04-0.06 0.03 -0.09-0.03 0.01-0.01-0.06-0.02-0.14 0.05-=0.01 0.15 0.14 0.23 0.12 0.16 0.16 0.12-0.03-0.07-0.06 0.12 1.00 48 0.04 0.06 0.01-0.03 0.02-0. 09 0.08 0.03 0.00-0.03-0.13 0.08 0.01 0.08 0.16-0.02 0.01 0.03-0.07 0.05 0.03-0.08 0.03-0.01-0.03-0.01 .1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 POOLED CORRELATION MATRIX - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 141 -0.06 0.06 0.05-0.09-0.03-0.05-0.25-0.02 0.01 0.03 0.13 0.17 0.08 -0.03 0.20-0.05 0.08-0.04-0.06 0.30 0.20 1.00 49 -0.18 0.07-0.06-0.05-0.08 0.13 0.18-0.06-0. 08 0.12-0.13 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.21 0.02-0.07-0.08 0.05 0.23 0.01-0.02-0.03 0.04-0.07 0.11 -G. 15-0.06-0.06-0.12-0.05-G. 13-0.01-0. 03 0.03 0.04 0.10-0.01 0.03 0.02 0.06 0. 14-0.33-0.01-0.01 0.04-0.01 0.04 1.00 50 -0-10 0.13-0.08 0.17-0.10 0.10-0.00-0.04 0.02 0.44-0.17 0.19 0.23 0.18 0.17- 0 . 08- 0. 14 0 . 01-0 . 0 7 0.2 5- 0 . 04- 0. 0 3 0 . 0 2 0 . 20-0. 2 1 0.18 -0.19 0.00-0.C7-0.09-0. 13-0.10-0.06-0.18-0.02 0.01 0.28 0.14 0.16 0.14 0.07 0.19-0.22-0.08-0.03 0.05 0.10 0.17 0.16 1.00 51 -0.05 0.G9-0.C9 0.01-0. 11 0.09 0.08-0.02-0. 02-0.00-0.32 0.06 0.27 0.21 0.05-0.05-0.03 0.06-0. 10 0.10-0.02-0.18 0.01 0.22-0.17 0.22 -0.07-0.03 0.09-0.07-0.10-0.07-0.28-0.07-0. 17-0.05 0.15 0.21 0.14 -0.02 0.31 0.12-0. rC-G. 09-0. 11 0.16 0.16 0.22 0,05 0.21 1.00 52 -0.05 0.02 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.02-0.01 0.01 0.15-0.03 0.16 0.08 0.01 -0.22-0.15 0.15-0.11-0.04-0.04-0.11 0. 06 0.28 0.03 0.03 0.19-0.08 0.03 0.12 0.01-0.00 0.03-0.04 0.17 0.11-0.02 0.03-0.0 7-0.00-0.10 0.05-0.20 0.14-0.08-0.02 0.16-0.09 0. 04-0. C9 0.02-0.10-0.17 1.00 53 -0.01 0. 11-0.33 0.11-0.15 0.08 0.05-0.06-0.02 0.06-0.06 0.09 0.15 0.08 0.04-0.05 0.05-0.10-0.01 0.10 0.06-0.07 0.07 0.18 0.05 0.16 0.03-0.06-0.04-0. 12-0.08-0.14-0.04-0.09-0.07 0.08 0.1 1 0.15 0.15 -0,04 0.16 0.06-0.01-0.16-0.06 0.07-0.04 0.07 0.10-0,03 0.12-0.07 1.00 54 0.04 0.05-0.03-0.04-0.16 0.17 0.10-0.05-0.03 0.01-0.16 0.03-0.03 0.05 0.02-0,01-0.02 0.06-0.07 0.17-0.03-0. 13-0.03 0.19-0. 04 0. 11 -0.08 0.07 0.01-0.04-0.01 0.00-0.05-0.14-0.C7 0.00 0.14 0.01 0.14 0.07 0.18 0.01-0.03-0.15-0.10 0.20 0.20 0.11 0.04 0.05 0.15-0.18 0.17 1.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9" 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 53 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 P O O L E D C O R R E L A T I O N MATR IX - A N H E D O N I A I T E M S 142 55 0.16-0.13 0.11-0.12 0.01-0.14-0.08 0.26-0.09-0.14 0.10-0.09-0.12 0.07-0.03 0.09 0.18 0.14-0.06-0.20 0.00 0. 03 0.00-0.02-0.01-0.02 0.02 0.10 0.17 0.11 0.08 0. 03-0.02 0. 06 0. 07-0.02 0.03-0.01-0.01 0.02 0.04-0.57 0.13 0.09 0.02 0.10-0.08 0. 10-0. 12-0 .08-0.01-0 .1 0 0.00 0.02 1.00 56 -0. 10 0.12-0.08 0.03-0.20 0. 19 0.18-0.13-0.03 0.09-0.06 0,18 0.20 0.17 0.18 0.06-0.02 0.02 0.03 0.16-0.04 0.02-0.03 0.08 0.01 0. 17 -0.11 0.07-0.01-0.12-0.04-0.16-0.07-0. 17 0. 02-0.04 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.09-0.21-0.03-0.15 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.26 0.19 0.18-0.04 0.17 0.11-0.03 1.00 57 0.20-0.07 0.01-0.08 0.02-0.03-0.07 0.03-0.03-0.16 0.09-0.03 0.06 0.04-0.10-0.02 0.23-0.04-0.01-0.03-0.04 0.04 0.03-0.05 0.03 0.02 0.09-0.02-0.04 0.03 0.07 0.09-0.04 0.09 0.04 0. 04-0.1 7-0. 06-0 . 10 0.04 0.04-0.12 0.15 0.07-0.05 0.06 0.07 0.03-0.05-0.19 0.02-0.04 0.05-0.10 0.08-0.02 1.00 58 0.02 0.G7-0.ll 0.06-0.17-0.01 0.06-0.01-0.13 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.06 -0.02 0.11-0.04-0.07-0.07-0.10 0.08 0.10-0.15 0.17 0.04 0.00 0.22 -0.01-0.02 0.09-0.02-0. 11-0.21-0.11 0.10-0.10-0.02 0.11 0.15 0.13 -0.06 0. 12 0. 13-0.03-0. 17 0.05 0.03 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.15 0.23-0.01 0.11 0.11-0.07 0.03-0.14 1.00 59 0.16-0.11 0.19-0.02-0.00-0. 10-0.04 0. 07-0. 01-0.03-0.02-0.08-0.03 -0.02-0.03 0.09-0.03 0.10 0.08-0.07 0.09 0.03-0.08-0.02 0.07-0.05 -0.00 0.01 0.13-0.00-0.04 0.06-0.00 0. 12 Q. 03-0.02-0.04-0.03 0.04 -0.09-0.01-0.08 0.07 0.13 0. 01 0.01-0.03-0.03-0.08-0.12-0.00 0.01 -0.18-0.04 0.14-0.15 0.04-0.06 1.00 60 0.08-0.06 0 . 0 0 0.02 0.13-0. G8-0. 02 0.11 0.04-0.15 0.2 0-0.03-0.07 -0.12-0.05 0.08 0.10 0.04-0.04-0.20 0.21 0.16 0.03-0.11 0.13-0.07 0.06-0.01 0.02 0.23 0.20 0.07 0.23 0. 10 0.07-0.01-0.18-0.22-0.18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9- 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2.4 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 . 51 52 53 54 55 . 56 57 .58 59 POOLED CORRELATION MATRIX - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 143 - 0 . C8 -0 .09 -0 .05 0.14 0.06 0 . 5 7-0 .09-0 . 0 7 - 0 . 12 -0 .08 -0 .2 2-Q . 21 0 .17 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 05 - 0 . 13 0 . 11 - 0 . 00 0.01 1.00 61 0 .30 -0 .10 0 .06 -0 . 03 0 . 05 - 0 . 12 - 0 . 07 0.14 0 .01 -0 .19 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 5 0.00 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 2 0.03 0.09 0 .03 -0 .00 0.04 0.11 0 .04 -0 .03 0.20 0. 00 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 25-0.08 0.05 - 0 . 1 2 0 .00-0.08 0 .21 -0 .01 0 .20 -0 .01 -0 .02 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 1 0 0 .06 -0 .14 0 .17 -0 .01 0.13 0.24 1.00 62 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 01 0.07 0.05 0 .09 -0 .02 0.05 0. 07 0. 0 1 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 7 0 .05 -0 .00 0.09 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 02 - 0 . 07 0.04 0 .03 -0 .03 0 . 04 -0 .07 0 .08 -0 .04 0 . 07 - 0 . 00 0.07 0 . 03 - 0 . 03 - 0 . 05 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 9 0 .01 -0 .07 0 .04 -0 .13 -0 .02 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 5 0.07 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 02 - 0 . 09 - 0 . 05 - 0 . 01 0.04 0.06 0 .07 1.00 63 - 0 . 0 2 0 .26 -0 .20 0 .06-0 .21 0. 17 0 .09 -0 . 15 0. 02 0 .07 -0 .12 0.21 0.15 0.18 0.03 0 .05 -0 .17 0 .05 -0 .02 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 -0 .04 0.18 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 7 0.03 0.14 0.07 0.09 0.06 0.07 0 . 13 -0 . 12-0. 02-0.03 0.13 0.06 0.05 0.14 0.16 0.08 0.01 0.10 0 .02 -0 .05 0.21 0.02 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 0 1.00 64 0.05 0 . 14 - 0 . 10 0 .04 -0 .03 0.21 0 .07 -0 .15 0.10 0 .06 -0 .19 0 .13 0.19 - 0 . 0 2 0 .02 -0 .00 0.02 0 . 04 - 0 .C7 0 .13-0 .03 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.07 0.03 0.01 0 .06 -0 .04 0 . 06 - 0 . 05 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 0.16 0.05 0.15 0.03 0.16 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 0 .24 0. 17 0.07 0.10 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.15 0 .36-0.12 0.13 0.00 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 1 8 - 0 . 1 4 0.18 1.00 65 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 6 0.05 0.01 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 10 0 .05 -0 .21 -0 .01 0.06 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . C 8 - 0 . 0 5 0.C4 0.04 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 11 - 0 . 48 - 0 . 03 0 .01 -0 .16 0.09 - 0 .01 -0 .11 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 04 - 0 . 09 0 .06 -0 .2 8 - 0 . 12 - 0 . 07 - 0 . 03 0.08 0.18 0.25 0.04 0 . 2 6 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 2 0.11 0. 00 0. 12 0.05 0.18 0 .23 -0 .28 0.04 0.21 0 . 05 -0 . 01 -0 . 05 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 6 0.04 0.13 0.06 1.00 . 14 - 0.10 0 . 1 1 - 0.02 0 .07 - 0 . 07 - 0.10 0. 16 0. 11- 0.09 0. 1 2--0 .19--0.03 1 2 3 ' 4 5 6 7, 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 ' 62 63 64 65 POOLED CORRELATION MATRIX - ANHEDONIA ITEMS 144 -G.C9-0.18 0.09 0.21 0.08 0.05-0.13 0.09 0. 15 0.00 0.02 0.08-0.08 0.18 0.08 0.02 0.11 0.11 0.03 0.04 0. 12 0. 10-0.07-0.10-0.05-0.19 -0.06-0.06-0.11 0. 19 0.04 0.03-0.07-0.04-0.01-0.14-0.17-0.04 0.19 -0.12-0.07 0.15-0.13 0.03 0.00 0.02 0. 11 0.02 0.07-0.20 0.03-0.15 1 .00 APPENDIX V I I F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A Males 12 -Factor S o l u t i o n c- 1 c-R- 1 R— 2 R- 3_ TP 4 R- 5 R- 6 R- 7 R— 8 R- 9 R- 10 R- 11 R- 12 R— 13 R- 14 R— 15 R- 16 R- 17 R- 18 R- 19 R- 20 R- 21 R- 22 R- 23 R- 24 R- 25 R- 26 R- 2 7 R- 28 R- 29 R- 30 R- 31 R- 32 R- 33 R- 34 R- 35 R— 36 R- 3 7 R- 38 R- 39 R- 40 R- 41 R- 42 (1.031045 -0.033147 0.05357C 0.606B16 0.135535 0. 574 736 0.142609 -0.106292 0.526532 0.075167 -0.197674 0.079837 0.0 406 8 9 -0.011026 -0.206648 G.032 792 0.492786 -0.157039 0.063243 0.096184 0. 112274 C.C946C1 -0.018498 0.047578 -0.044271 0.367842 -0 .023374 -0. 194145 0.170444 0.248343 -0.029051 -0.036687 -0.005386 0.011569 0. 179729 0.010742 0 .077654 -0.038408 -0.091850 0.674253 0.226216 -0.006621 0.745773 -0.029276 -0.189893 -0. 167690 -0. IB1274 0.529319 -0.036880 -0.036376 0.012285 -0.076558 -0.013120 0. 167455 -0.052681 0.019903 0.263442 0.043714 0.298784 0. 124814 -0.046555 0.606988 -0.030619 0.703496 -0.253976 0.082960 0.732058 -0.097803 _D.vQ9_a3.QO_ 0.017910 0. 116050 0.007344 -0.055374 -0.156041 0.406932 0.670244 -6.027386 0. 149328 -0.115679 0. 167547 -0.100515 0.472653 -0.002321 0.461778 0.853210 0.728897 0.203129 -0.039356 0.014409 0. 062324 -0.082074 -0.025259 0.056402 -0,.078113 0.041559 -0.241705 0.838590 0.065141 0.041019 0.029570 0.077590 -0.C05686 -0.160748 0.442243 0.898713 0.4120"2 0. 312834 -0.074456 -0.080228 0. 109399 -0.056097 0.058461 -0.075136 0.006596 -0. 124843 -0.108253 0.074749 -0.02034S 0.088736 0.356379 0.767391 0.223428 0.392294 "0.039381 -0.107233 -0.0339 15 -0.055381 -0.004235 0 .0760 34 0.182196 0.033408 0.364333 -0.129242 -0.048395 -0.330732 -0.034093 0.009395 0.199050 0.295758 0.158488 0.358602 -6.0679 94 -0.168575 0. 114172 0.464364 0.129605 0.100491 6.62 89 97 0.478496 0.037530 -0.061477 0.094836 -0.073344 6.1416 14 0.025032 0.3894C5 -0.071579 -0.051728 0. 142028 0.170180 0.679845 0.065527 -0.007099 -0.658148 -0 .086660 0.069990 -0.038630 0.020092 0.083303 C. 190210 0.009452 -0.051871 -0.087583 -0.049849 0.019228 0.016120 0.0C8845 0.056168 -0.060140 -0.C24240 6.009023 0.038457 -0.088502 -0. 118763 -0. 102851 -0. 175703 0.039223 -0.090176 -0.171418 -0.0043C4 0.375829 -0.036737 0.389928 0.055884 -0.051907 0.013470 -0.022111 -0.179977 0.044543 0.038160 _0...0i<til__ -0.174167 -0.006698 -0.116033 6.015082 0.029411 J__Z3S9jB9_ 0.010658 0.092674 -0.046558 -0.112137 0.116598 -0.021194 0.116429 -0.769311 0.038200 0.052192 0.235179 -0.117139 0.181085 -0.014 544 -0.026496 -0.0S8661 0.012862 -0.036031 -6.0.0699 0.024914 -0. 108191 0.192528 0.328917 0.006664 -0.070500 -0.114026 -0.031180 0.180231 0.095760 -0.093047 -0.067379 0.113345 0.021389 0.020610 -0.023934 0.077645 C. 090294 -0.061651 0.067210 0. 139607 0.8460C9 0. 171273 0.092953 -0.009243 -0.062974 0.385515 0.090343 0.103088 0.194643 0.007241 0.456591 -0.053494 0.008843 -0.054032 0.075319 -0.078033 -0.045577 0.019539 C.039792 0.055499 6.069 230 0.727674 -C.069974 -0.037964 -0.129554 0.000637 -6.0 766 38 0.224581 0.035105 0.367537 0.449488 -0.056845 -6.672816 0.038e50 0.066760 -0.036544• -0.162744 0.079510 0.062428 -0.007015 -0.865006 0.114205 -0.074854 -0.047 396 0.081487 0.044785 0.005111 __________ 0. 132159 -0.120879 -0. 047010 -0.097367 0.055164 -0. 026368 0.173 998 0.003281 C.067033 0.089782 -0.096170 -0. 109247 0.105406 0.520969 -0.029140 6.608928 0.062818 _0.A39.213 -C. 062275 0. 148906 0.774777 -0.077719 0.213613 -0.046994 0.201394 0.108624 0. 100535 0.083250 0. 215251 -0. 189246 0. 136936 -0.144727 0.210784 -0.099745 -0.051423 0.032093 -0.038282 -0.166603 0.068 231 -0.0 54224 0.0E3716 -0.060962 U l R- 43 R- 44 R- 45 R- 46 R— 4 7 R- 46 R- 49 R— 50 R- 51 0.048483 0.459736 0.804989 ~ 0.2 44 6 75 0.678045 0.129907 0.085854 -0.010101 -0.025623 0.440683 -0.007402 -0.012576 0.229422 0.243266 0.0 754 20 -C. 346-SB1 -0.015275 -0.061986 058926 153933 054266. I 53499 107990 600033 -0.013614 -0.056116 0. 195115 -0.00 2 3 16 0.014338 -0.110977 -0.047129 0 .040450 -0.011623 -0.065173 0.108206 -0.022626 0. 108767 -0.057106 -0.00 5 818 0.019065 -G.019071 -0.032922 0.510520 0.076034 C.389870 -0.104672 0. 140182 0.108110 -0.000115• -0.034216 0.351125 -0.072581 0.124345 -0.084246 0 .040349 0. 130812 -0.018750 -0.052716 -0.126498 -0.206006 0.071 757 0 .067066 -0.061476 0.438683 C.030519 0.077748 6.054758 -0.117061 0.07 -0.086741 -0.083254 0.017794 C- 9 C- 10 C - 1 1 C- 12 R- 1 0 . 1 73109 0.016263 - 0 . 1 5 9 8 6 8 0.057969 R- 2 - 0 . 1 9 2 3 3 9 - 0 . 24C851 0 . 0 5 4 2 60 0.111174 R— 3 -0 .011683 - 0 . 0 3 2 6 7 0 0. 1 16065 -0 .074451 R- 4 - 0 . 0 5 6 2 P . 9 -0 .008831 -0 .033012 0.059895 R- 5 -0 .047415 - 0 . C 5 9 8 S 8 0.119939 0.085450 R— 6 0.010408 -0 .269281 -0 .3/5513 -0.066170 R- 7 - 0 . 0 6 2 6 0 2 -0 .096013 -0.203586 0.106665 R— 8 - 0 . 1 3 5 4 72 0.C1S964 0. 114178 0.076887 R— 9 - 0 .267376 -0 .100369 -0 .110458 -0 .154316 R- 10 - 0 . 2 0 8 6 6 6 - 0 . 6 2 0 8 0 9 0.023422 -0.095632 R- 11 -0 .235936 0.038959 0. 100529 -0.009643 R- 1? - 0 .007688 0 . 133517 0.135729 0 .751336 R- 13 0.00365e 0.021917 -0 .026336 0.318898 R- 14 0.012582 -0 .025456 -0 .264415 . -0.C42112 R- 15 - 0 .112423 - 0 . 4 1 5 3 6 5 -0 .C38503 0.025010 R- 16 - 0 . 0 4 5 2 6 2 - 0 . CZE503 -0 .013529 0 .206145 R— 17 -0 .772757 - 0 . 152362 0.032142 0.011743 R- 18 0 . 0 4 7 7 1 1 -0.C32709 0 . 167352 -0.071666 R- 19 - 0 . 3 8 3 2 4 4 0 . 146617 -0 .121577 0. 1543 4 8 R- 20 -0 .043291 - 0 . 0 5 7 2 3 5 -0 .022372 -0 .038899 R- 21 -0 .066465 0 . 012334 0.036225 -0.081544 R- 22 0.154350 0.068095 0.033907 0. 130107 R- 23 - 0 . 0 5 7 7 7 3 - 0 . 114673 0.O0SO68 0.050569 R- 2<V - 0 . 222127 -0 .241582 0.118118 0.063577 . . R- 25 -0 .052279 - 0 . 0 2 9 0 3 6 0.173492 -0 .059548 I R _ 26 - 0 . 2 0 8 0 5 1 - 0 . 1 8 8 3 6 2 0.236695 0.018372 R- 27 0.056075 - 0 . 0 4 7 3 9 7 0.244620 0.093012 R- 28 -0 .271347 0 . 064887• 0.108843 -0.C94257 R- 29 0.197591 0 .177321 0.081762 0 .092676 R- 30 0 .082947 - 0 .590738 - 0 . 1 2 4 5 3 6 -0.125030 31 0.128712 - 0 .184577 0.028992 0.094121 r R - 32 0.017300 0.C19458 0.082309 0.386611 R- 33 0 . 0 1 7 0 3 0 ' - 0 . 188456 0 .018330 -0.139157 R- 34 - 0 . 2 2 S 4 2 H -0 .034681 -0 .232943 -0 .054327 R- 35 - 0 . 056210 0.068451 - 0 . 0 3 0 7 2 0 -6.055583 R— 36 0.002194- -0 .063554 -0 .073777 0.C23198 R- 37 0 . 134228 - 0 . 0 2 5 0 2 6 0.033141 -0.033755 R- 38 0 . 1 1 5 4 9 4 0 . 253855 -0 .040005 -0 .011273 R- 39 -0 .204873 0.037424 0 . 028421 0. 157175 R- 40 0 .039968 - 0 .375188 0.086003 • 0.076131 R— 41 0 . 0 5 0 7 1 5 0 . 0 9 9 3 0 3 -C .12C9 76 6. 012628 R- 42 0 . 1 3 9 7 3 1 0 . 148087 0 . 0 5 9 2 1 3 -0 .093676 R- 43 - 0 . 0 5 3 2 2 5 0 . 321243 -0 .080694 -0.075934 R- 44 -0 .0231 1 8 - 0 . 2 3 4 b 4 6 0.C64007 -0 .221435 R- 45 - 0 . 0 9 5 1 2 6 0 . 262481 0 . 176658 0 .000609 R- 46 0.062392 0 . 131894 q.121777 -0 .122723 R- 47 0 . 0 4 5 2 1 0 - 0 . 141103 -0 .008546 - 0 . 153795 R- 48 0.14 7 8 0 7 - 0 . 2 0 0 4 6 4 -0.029i)30 0 . 111028 R— 49 0 . 2 1 5 5 2 4 - 0 . 1 65389 0 .004062 - C . 1 30828 R— 50 0 . 0 0 4 2 1 6 - 0 . 0 4 1629 0 . 4 1 2 5 6 9 0 . 124349 R- 51 0.072484 - 0 . 1 5 0 8 6 6 0.128767 0.068226 APPENDIX IX F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A Females 12 -Factor S o l u t i o n R-R-1 2 C- 1 -0.022989 0.008343 C- 2 0.585897 0.105950 C- 3 -0.038996 0.001056 C- 4 0.073861 0.0920 14 C- 5 -0.120976 0.253733 C- 6 -0.02 3104 -0.053584 C- 7 0.12824* -0.026228 C- 8 0.174890 -0.105797 R-R-R-3 4 5 0.C68300 0.057974 • -0.069566 0.562485 0.094564 -0.238147 -0.148280 0.081736 0.437194 6.080412 0.073323 o.ooooeo 6.032103 0.006758 0.059778 -0.00 0426 -0.050368 0.116613 -C.070776 0.629771 0.233103 -0.0t2246 -0.016706 0.088459 R-R-R-6 7 8 0.306605 0.507765 0.057481 0.091425 -0. 154532 -0.125959 -0.241343 -0.146125 -0.010219 0.149122 0.0245 16 0.082867 0.048776 -0.006777 0.089 139 0.024701 -0.017249 -0.64 7719 -0.016010 0.036162 0.166326 0. 034100 0.173138 -0.005335 R— R-R-9 10 11 -0.120431 -0.121483 0.091385 0.538296 -0.101727 -0.023514 0.086633 0.015395 0.053344 -0.133159 0. 199539 0.004951 0.255206 0.353467 0.227952 -0.117181 0.028673 -0.041829 0.103911 -0.038974 -C.05O958 0.110283 0.117366 -0.093325 R-R-R-12 13 14 0.106906 -0.007795 -0.02 7688 0.088911 -0.014316 0.297363 0.307653 0.630159 0. 107882 0.336325 0 . 0 5 0 9 e 6 0.045949 0.010143 -0.060739 -0.004782 -0.029212 -0.033578 -0.045565 -0.040720 -0.117049 0.098345 -0. 148020 0. 104226 0.551577 R-R— R-15 16 1 7 0.171841 -0.029599 0.576294 0.115609 0.686943 -0.0 ZAB.6 2 0.417111 0.031665 0.009838 C.C79130 0.002000 -0.107765 0.151294 0.065506 0.579802 -0.236577 0.020849 -0.048211 -0.110595 0.068844 0.043280 -0.014211 0.024 865 0.0 37182 < ' — R-R-R-18 19 20 -0.069711 0.625789 -0.220744 0 .099294 ' 0.033218 0.107169 0.019449 -0.059524 -C.020686 -0.023111 -0.009604 0.0 14 3 46 -0.043249 0.214787 0.077612 -0.048784 -0.024868 0.071112 0.683184 C.C49 905 0.269855 0.042062 -0. 068294 0. 191516 0.728688 -0. 040436 0.216418 ) R-R-R-21 22 23 0.081704 -0.076356 -0.069882 -0.003030 0.621095 0.003124 0 .019574 0.153727 0.0405 12 -0.044754 -0.147893 -0.062167 0.031094 -0.136525 0.088494 -0.056515 0.100578 -0.729803 -0.035040 0.196873 0.013438 < > — R-R-R— 24 25 26 0.324519 -0.073109 0.178541 0.117107 0.424976 -0.041228 0.409653 -0.125001 -0.014179 -0. 141044 -0.126293 0.033527 0.172C97 0.079414 0.219920 -0.030754 0.179022 0.070381 -0.04OU4 0.062423 -C.029268 -0.053392 0.195830 0.083 432 0.079110 0.043201 0.160487 R— R-R-27 28 29 -0.068935 0.719151 0.560627 0.423349 -0.004679 -0.007013 -0.267852 0.056208 -0.037321 -0.056997 0.008361 0.110226 -0 .006897 0.088249 -0.265107 -0.064092 -0.115271 0.119410 0. C68005 0.048 896 -0.106335 R-R— R-30 31 32 0.010325 -0.064848 0.072324 0.041162 -0. 123525 0.018215 0.188546 0.174969 0.134106 0.016279 0.225199 0.813096 0.063637 0.003690 0.052695 -0.002233 -0.056698 -0.046678 0.022269 0.041592 0.058258 -0.113370 0.170595 -0.149052 6.236860 -0.075372 0.037565 R-R-R-33 34 35 0.043040 ' 0.644090 0.010952 -0. 240620 0.061584-0.110679 0.299011 -0.078394 -0.126367 0.255095 0. 136265 -0.034518 0.040510 0.123154 0.005186 -0.092864 0.038910 -0.103401 0.079224 0.048407 0.687229 R-R-R-36 37 38 0.043376 -0.111141 0.402780 -0.C28134--0. 107924 0. 109911 0.016209 0 .348796 0.031541 -0.014144 0.018946 -0.074724 0.050009 -0.05866C -0.162701 -0.027692 -0.044724 -0.120570 -0.046787 0.131845 -.0.088474 0.057110 0.016098 -0. 159519. R-R-R-39 40 41 0.730433 0.289318 0.267941 -0.059695 0.019481 -0.066216 0. 127337 0.060640 0.375688 0.043930 0.024279 0.275818 0.051424 0.014951 -0.084129 0.027481 0.038722 -0.054306 -0.087871 0.007 089 0.075762 0.018517 -0.045246 0. 1C7947 R-R-R-42 43 44 0.034802 0.087889 0.34 75 70 0.071154 0. 106249 -0.C04902 0.051318 0.152869 0.256041 0.070000 -0.079140 0.242583 -0.135295 -0.060789 0.034916 -0.800040 -0.06e777 -0.007921 0.004809 0.188994 -0.068023 -0.058163 0.439 741 0. 032126 R-R-R-45 46 47 0.719863 0.22 642 7 0.490541 -0.024169 0.450151 -0.000226 0.076049 -0.301617 -0.008312 -0.010BP5 0. 142463 C.200612 -0.065550 -0.082431 -0.052C44 -0.026996 -0.040154 0.092358 -0.041399 0.019430 -0.C74292 0.024591 0.032189 -0.114676 R-R-R— 48 49 50 0.077976 0.319752 0.139132 -0.017659 -0. 106149 0. 102252 -0.083141 -0.024482 0.04 1447 0 .6 549CC 0.061504 0.129550 -0.031005 -0.163035 0.021287 -0.038875 -0.032064 -0.132147 -0.034885 -0.006668 0.023692 0.072019 -0. 064807 -0.120119 . R- 51 0.303034 0.081240 0.33R341 0.008822 -0.058321 -0.223994 -0.086840 0.007953 148 in co c -u y m CD m o in rn o n o M o o o APPENDIX X F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A Pooled Sample 12 -Factor S o l u t i o n R-R-l 2 C - 1 - 0 . 1 4 0 9 7 C - 0 . 0 1 4 4 7 1 C - 2 0.525148 0 . 0 7 9 2 2 7 C - 3 - 0 . 0 5 8 4 5 9 0 . 0 52.9 21 C - 4 - 0 . 0 0 3 6 7 3 0 . 0 1 6 9 8 8 C - 5 - 0 . 0 1 8 9 8 4 0.119320 C - 6 0 .019668 0 .344611 C- 7 0.082117 -0 .001637 C- 8 - 0 . 144979 - 0 . 0 0 5 3 9 8 R-R-R-3 4 5 0 . 0 6 9 2 3 8 - 0 . 0 2 377 8 0 . 0 0 2 7 0 5 0 . 6 5 5 6 4 5 0 . 0 9 1 8 8 2 - 0 . 2 6 9 1 5 9 0.067315-0 . 0 6 4 7 3 9 0 . 137524 0.086101 0.054892 - 0 . 0 0 9 2 3 2 -O.005C38 0.024412 - 0 . 0 9 8 C 4 3 0.00 5077 -0 .041916 0. 143467 -0.057411 0.604028 0 . 192051 0.045954 0.055548 - 0 . 1 4 5 9 1 0 R-R-R-6 7 8 0.283Be6 0.197706 0 .121998 - 0 . 0 0 0 7 1 1 - 0 . 108371 - 0 . 0 3 2 4 4 4 - 0 . 0 5 0 2 5 9 - 0 . 0 5 7 1 2 9 - 0 . 0 2 9 6 6 6 0 . 133214 0. 127111 0.069683 - 0 . 0 4 1 5 16 - 0 . 0 5 5 5 9 3 0.614495 0 .2090 79 0.079676 0.00 8 4 5 6 0.021466 0.038718 0.206671 -0 .139491 - 0 . 2 0 9 6 1 0 0.016245 R-R-R-9 10 11 0 .115013 - 0 . 0 2 5 1 6 8 0. 163448 0 . 3 9 6 5 5 4 0 .074437 0 .018427 0 . 0 5 8 4 5 8 0 . 2 9 4 4 7 5 - 0 . 0 2 2 3 3 0 - 0 . 0 9 9 3 0 6 0 . 127274 0.062689 0 .112159 - 0 . 1 0 8 6 0 3 0.007CC8 0.126114 0.204171 0.579025 0.090933 -0 .018335 -0 .014980 - 0 . l t l 726 0.030942 0 .086133 R-R-R-12 13 14 0 .009748 - 0 . 0 0 1 5 1 1 - 0 . 0 2 2 9 2 8 0.010851 - 0 . 108172 0.190313 0 . 0 8 0 5 5 8 0 . 1 6 1 2 7 0 0 . 139052 0 . 3 0 0 9 0 1 0. 1 3 3 2 9 3 0.0597e8 - 0 . 0 3 4 0 1 5 0.018526 0 .025642 0.232239 0.038436 - 0 . 0 5 7 3 9 0 - 6 . 0 28683 0.007508 0 . 182246 -0 .050491 0 . 273295 0.09 3914 - 0 . 0 7 0 3 4 4 -0 .019259 0.091445 0.018131 0.193174 C.C89581 0.571076 C.019436 0.373007 0 . 0 53669 - 0 .101895 - 0 . 6 3 0 6 2 0 - 0 . C 2 4 9 9 3 - 0 . 0 1 1 6 6 8 0. 042506 - 0 .043831 - 0 . 023464 - 0 . 068751 R-R-R-R— R-R-15 16 17 18 IS 20 0 .082458 0.010619 0.710801 - 0 . 0 0 6 9 2 3 ' 0 . 6 3 2 6 6 1 . - 0 . 1 4 0 0 5 2 - 0 . 0 5 7 5 9 6 0 . 6 4 3 4 2 9 - 0 . 0 8 2 4 1 5 0 .197900 - 0 . 0 3 2 5 5 6 0 . 166793 0 . 7 3 7 4 5 4 - 0 . 0 3 1 5 1 2 0 .159569 0 . 0 14541 0 . 0 6 0 4 4 5 0 . 0 9 3 7 0 5 6.0 85159 - 0 . 0 6 1 4 6 4 -0 .025664 - 0 . 0 0 9 1 6 8 - 0 . 0 0 4 5 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 7 3 2 3 0.085110 - 0 . 0 2 3 1 9 1 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 5 5 6.071875 - 0 . 0 0 3 4 9 3 - 0 . 0 5 4 3 5 7 < R-R-R-21 22 23 0 .099914 - 0 . 145379 0 .013189 0 . 0 7 7 1 9 9 -0 . 6 1 6 1 7 5 - 0 . 0 0 4 1 8 2 0 .029618 0 . 1 0 5 7 8 5 0 . 0 9 1 9 0 1 - 0 . 0 6 8 7 1 1 - 0 . 0 7 4 5 0 7 0.024794 0.062170 - 0 . 0 2 8 6 4 9 0 .652269 - 0 . 0 4 6 7 5 2 - 0 . 0 9 0 1 5 5 0.143112 - 0 . 0 9 4 9 2 7 C.219261 0.029400 - 0 . 6 2 7 6 1 3 0.019765 - 0 . 166490 < > — R-R— R-24 25 26 0 . 1 6 0 1 4 3 - 0 . 0 3 2 4 5 1 0 .043262 - 0 . 0 0 7 8 4 7 0 . 5 8 6 0 2 6 0 .045397 0 . 5 9 4 1 9 5 - 0 . 0 6 4 7 5 2 0.073442 - 0 . 0 8 0 4 6 5 - 0 . 0 4 4 9 9 3 0.089055 - 0 . 0 1 9 4 3 1 - 0 . 0 7 4 0 3 2 - 0 . 0 7 8 0 3 4 0.061338 0.077091 0.181688 0.045664 0.005695 -0 .028630 - 0 . 043410 - 0 . 097623 0 .008966 R-R-R-27 28 29 - 0 . 0 1 7 9 3 4 0 . 7 1 5 4 1 7 , 0 . 3 6 2 6 7 7 : 0. 481270 0 .026034 - 0 . 0 3 4 3 1 4 - 0 . 0 4 8 4 3 2 0 .103741 - 0 . 0 2 1 8 7 4 0.033984 0.045171 0.100913 0.045653 0.112501 - 0 . 0 2 2 7 4 0 - 0 . 0 1 3 4 0 0 - 0 . 1 8 1 7 0 0 - 0 . 1 3 7 9 4 9 0.096239 - 0 . 0 1 5 8 9 4 -0 .002751 - 0 . 0 3 8 3 5 6 0. 022236 - 0 . 169 543 R-R-R-30 31 32 0 . 0 0 0 4 7 6 - 0 . 0 5 2 6 7 4 0 . 0 3 1 5 7 2 0 .023747 - 0 . 0 9 1 0 8 9 ' - 0 . 0 1 2 1 8 0 0 . 1 9 5 8 4 9 0 . 0 8 6 8 6 4 - 0 . 0 0 5 5 1 2 0 . 0 1 8 8 6 0 0 . 2 0 4 0 0 5 0.708571 0.017326 0.070367 0 . 0 4 3 e 3 9 0 . 0 9 8 4 9 9 0.365818 0.107663 0.035465 -0 .021215 0.067321 0.043265 - 0 - 1 5 1 9 5 0 0 . 088 6 9 7 R-R— R-33 34 35 0 . 0 3 6 2 3 9 • 0 . 4 9 3 4 3 7 0 . 0 5 7 1 3 5 - 0 . 174661 - 0 . 0 0 6 7 3 7 0 .027133 0.056218 - 0 . 0 4 6 8 5 8 - 0 . 1 6 5 2 0 6 0.229036 0.022195 - 0 .024601 0.098576 - 0 . 0 3 8 3 2 8 0.148625 0.108271 0.139347 - 0 . 0 0 2 1 3 8 0.008871 0.032578 0.682 057 - 0 . 137696 - 0 . 0 4 1 7 0 3 -0 . 052 9 74 R-R-R-3 6 37 38 0 . 0 2 5 6 H 4 - 0 . 1 1 6 0 3 7 0 . 4 0 0 2 5 5 - 0 . 0 0 6 3 8 6 - 0 . 1 4 2 7 8 1 0 . 0 5 8 2 7 6 0 . 0 4 5 6 3 2 0 . 1 3 6 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 6 9 0 9 4 - 0 . 0 8 5 5 7 9 • 0.011639 0.046450 0 . 0 2 1 £ 6 4 0.097853 0.136524 0.395722 0.292155 0.394355 - 0 . 0 0 1 8 3 2 0.143036 - 0 . 0 5 1 0 4 e 0. 066737 - 0 . 0 5 1 7 2 9 0 .002940 R-R-R-3 9 40 41 0 . 5 6 8 6 1 9 0 . 0 1 7 8 1 2 0 . 1 3 7 7 1 8 - 0 . 0 0 9 7 5 7 0.010471 0 .019654 0 . 0 7 3 4 1 9 0 . 0 6 9 2 6 0 - 0 . 0 4 6 3 9 4 0 . 046881 - 0 .002485 0 . 0 3 4 6 4 4 - 0 . 0 6 1 8 6 8 0 . 008184 0 .068092 - 0 .084088 - 0 . 0 1 8 4 8 2 - 0 . 0 4 4 3 6 9 -0 .113072 -0 .007499 - 0 . 0 1 8 7 5 4 - 0 . 0 6 0 3 6 3 0.031385 - 0 . 0 0 6 2 2 3 R-R-R-42 4 3 4 4 - 0 . 0 1 8 7 4 4 - 0 . 0 0 6 1 6 8 0 . 2 0 7 7 5 3 0 . 0 5 7 8 8 7 0 . 0 3 7 9 7 4 0 . 0 6 5 0 9 9 0 . 0 9 3 1 8 7 - 0 . 0 3 4 5 3 2 0 . 2 8 4 7 5 3 0.022981 - 0 . 0 5 7 7 9 6 0 .166942 0.782864 0.109796 0.021711 0 .056000 0.02094C 0.001580 - 0 . 0 2 4 6 3 7 0.122727 -0 .1C3 4 10 - 0 . 0 5 3 2 8 3 - 0 . 5 6 5 4 3 5 - 0 . 0 0 6 7 3 7 - 0 . 0 1 8 7 9 9 - 0 . 0 3 6 6 4 8 0. 068678 R-R-R-4 5 4 6 47 rr.63'T8>.o 0 . 1 2 7 4 0 4 0 . 2 5 8 1 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 9 4 5 5 " 0 . 4 7 7 8 5 9 0 . 1 2 9 7 9 2 0 . 1 2 4 187 - 0 . 0 5 2 9 5 1 0 . 0 3 6 1 3 6 6.004157 0 . 1 5 0 6 5 5 0 . 0 5 3 5 9 7 0 . 0 5 1 9 9 5 0 . 0 9 7 5 7 7 - 0 . 0 4 3 8 6 7 0.070255 - 0 . 1 0 9 6 7 0 0.071462 - 0 .063303 0.051376 - 0 . 0 9 5 8 6 4 R— R-R— 4 8 4 9 5 0 0 . 0 7 0 7 1 7 0 . 0 1 0 6 7 3 0 . 1 1 5 4 5 5 0 . 0 2 2 7 3 7 - 0 . 0 5 4 1 3 4 0 . 1 8 2 5 6 C 0 . 0 4 2 5 0 9 0 . 1 5 7 8 9 2 0 . 0 0 9 5 8 3 0 . 7 1 4 523 0 . 0 7 6 3 20 - 0 . 0 3 2 8 3 8 0 . 0 7 3 2 7 0 0 . 045691 0.159584 - 0 . 0 4 4 3 1 6 0.141605 - 0 .032779 -0 .025250 - 0 . 0 4 7 7 2 6 - C . 040030 0.032535 0.039195 0. 142622 R- 5 1 0 . 1 7 S 3 4 ? 0 . 0 0 3 6 2 7 6". 5 0 2 3 9 3 0 . 0 2 8 4 2 2 0.091765 0.054286 - 0 . 0 2 5 6 5 3 - 0 . 0 4 7 4 9 0 C- 9 C- 10 C- 11 C- 12 R- 1 -0.103058 -0.041068 0.021705 -0.004273 R- 2 -0. 335426 0.02606e -0.038382 -0.016018 R- 3 -0.044839 0.C51095 -0.134092 -0.061620 R- 4 -0.03 165C 0.114047 0.033023 -0.017426 R- 5 0. 15431 1 -0.138086 0.283879 0.027337 R- 6 -0.3 5 000 0 -0.076148 -0.031710 -0.2181E2 R- 7 -0.462169 -0. 091507 0.001110 -0. 1934e7 R- 8 -0.015900 -0.C20065 0.072627 -0.017291 R- 9 0.236594 0. 17607 7 0.069211 -0. 046257 R- 10 0.03 8 59? -0.280936 • o.i .)»'•:!in -0.334558 R- 11 0.05080C -0. 135975 0.007652 0.076 141 R- 12 -0.075347 -0.119674 0.070777 0.3478C6 R- 13 -0.006120 -0. 140122 0.4224 13 0.262121 R- 14 0.018264 0. 108024 0.011848 0.037753 R— 15 -0.049976 0.009959 0 .046264 -0.002920 R- 16 0.00C69C -0.03 5497 0.062036 0.043466 R- 17 0.094757 -0.05492C 0.015416 -0.177709 R- 18 0.066078 -0.000069 0.034534 -0.000099 R- 19 0.012978 -0.010239 -0.073007 0.169172 R— 20 0.123496 -0.01 1548 -0.046114 -C.010601 R- 21 0.043921 -0.104829 0.083004 -0.075573 R- 22 -0.042075 0.C94715 0.077617 0.162164 R- 23 0.072006 -0.087075 -0.015127 -0.032431 R- 24 -0.160698 -0.024287 0.001194 -0.021324 R- 25 0.165932 -0. 192 525 -0.082234 -0.049605 R- 26 -0.12 I 52 e -0.477927 0.038711 0.016736 R- 27 0.020302 -0. 253003 ...-0,2 80 603. -0.016832 R- 28 -0.09066 1 -0.039435 0. 106242 -G.101468 R- 29 -0.482184 -0. 137205 -0.124750 0.141356 R- 30 -0.596329 -0.015542 0.082130 0.006149 ? R- 31 -0.13 3710 0.025325 0. 1867 17 -0.030775 R- 32 -0.112101 -0.025385 0. 124518 0. 130071 R- 33 -0.11675C -0.C64392 0.450441 -0.103269 R- 34 -0.493318 0. 127616 0.075514 -0.C22402 R- 35 -0.01703t -0.061333 -0.038026 -0.007166 R- 36 -0.147514 -0.068911 0.065829 -0.111794 R- 37 -0.030963 0.00 7999 0.2 963 59 0.023002 R- 38 -0. 114264 0. 07021 1 -0.045721 0.103273 R- 39 -0.261314 -0.C49363 0. 14.5878 -0.039353 R- 40 -0.698293 -0.153480 0.043136 O.054S77 R- 41 -0.16607 3 -0.006761 0.728469 -0.002719 R- 42 -0.06 38 70 0.083220 0.064072 0.087421 R- 43 -0.017154 0.121864 0.030014 0.026434 R- 44 -0.337833 0.096798 0.2 3 89 27 -0.022845 R- 45 -0.100751 -0.026247 -0.046308 0.0653C7 R- 46 -0.072049 -0.096702 -0.264426 -0.044600 R- 47 -0.535561 0.079669 0.175443 -0. 131 148 R- 48 -0.134715 -0.0314P9 0.057098 -0.079789 R- 49 -0. EC.3594 -0.C46900 0.005'il6 0.058870 R- 50 -0.176923 -0.510429 0.084749 -0.012058 R- 51 -0.222555 -0.073025 0,062 690 0.040369 APPENDIX XI Male Sample DES+A Correlation Matrix of Factors 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1.00 - . 8 0 .17 .35 .38 - . 2 5 - . 2 2 - . 0 7 .32 - . 5 5 .23 .09 1.00 - . 1 2 - . 0 5 - . 1 0 - . 0 7 .29 .18 - . 1 5 .12 .01 - . 1 7 1.00 .28 .05 - . 3 4 .13 .04 - . 1 3 - . 1 4 .03 - . 3 1 1.00 .17 - . 2 5 .04 .04 .19 - . 2 8 .11 - . 2 5 1.00 - . 2 0 .06 .16 .35 - . 3 9 .10 .21 1.00 - . 1 7 - . 0 9 .05 .21 - . 0 4 .06 1.00 .38 - . 1 5 .12 - . 1 9 - . 0 6 1.00 - . 0 3 - . 0 1 .00 - . 0 3 1.00 - . 3 5 .04 .20 1.00 - . 2 5 1.00 - . 2 6 - . 0 6 1.00 APPENDIX X I I Female Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Fac to rs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 1.00 2 - . 0 2 1.00 3 .12 - . 1 3 1.00 4 .21 - . 0 7 .18 1.00 5 .15 - . 0 0 .07 - . 0 0 1.00 6 - . 0 8 - . 0 2 - . 1 6 - . 1 0 - . 0 6 1.00 7 - . 0 9 .21 .02 - . 0 1 .03 - . 1 1 1.00 8 - . 0 1 .12 .11 - . 0 4 .03 - . 0 9 .18 1.00 9 .24 - . 0 7 .19 .17 .17 - . 1 6 - . 0 0 .03 1.00 10 - . 4 1 .03 - . 1 8 - . 2 9 - . 1 0 .05 .12 .07 - . 2 0 1.00 11 . 0 8 .12 - . 0 3 .08 .12 - . 0 4 - . 0 3 - . 0 1 .09 - . 0 8 1.00 12 - . 0 5 .01 - . 0 6 .00 .00 .06 - . 0 1 - . 0 9 .01 .07 .02 1.00 N 3 APPENDIX X I I I Poo led Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Fac to rs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1.00 - . 0 3 1.00 .23 - . 0 2 1.00 .15 - . 0 3 .14 1.00 .10 .03 .12 . 1 1 1.00 .22 - . 0 5 .19 .19 .13 1.00 - . 0 6 .24 - . 0 0 - . 0 3 .16 .01 1.00 - . 0 7 - . 1 2 - . 1 1 .03 - . 1 6 - . 0 3 - . 1 4 1.00 - . 3 7 .01 - . 2 4 - . 3 0 - . 0 6 - . 2 2 .08 .02 1.00 - . 1 2 - . 1 0 - . 1 1 - . 1 7 .01 - . 2 0 .04 - . 0 5 .16 1.00 .10 - . 2 1 .26 .24 .12 .19 .02 - . 1 5 - . 2 3 - . 0 5 1.00 - . 1 1 - . 0 2 - . 0 2 .06 .01 .00 .00 .05 .05 .08 .03 C - 1 C - 2 C - 3 L - 4 C - 5 C- 6 C - 7 C - 8 R— 1 - 0 . 5 8 8 3 9 2 0 .082736 0 .095684 - 0 . 114255 0 . 0 1 6 4 1 - 0 . 0 1 2 9 6 . 0 .095825 0 .076305 R- 2 0 .054909 0 .035494 - 0 . 3 0 7 0 3 0 0 .104530 -0.01429-1 0. 13167. 0 .106174 - 0 . 2 9 6 0 6 6 R- 3 - 0 . 0 2 9 6 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 1 3 8 0 0 .013177 0 .026114 0 . 0 7 <.12o - 0 . 0 0 2 0 9 3 0 .047854 — 0 . Oft 73 1? R- 4 - 0 . 0 4 6 4 6 7 - 0 . 0 1 1 2 1 4 - 0 . 0 3 4 3 0 5 - 0 . 0 4 6 1 3 1 - 0 . 0 3 0 3 0 j - 0 . 0 3 5 9 6 . 0 .564389 0 .042232 R- 5 - 0 . 0 4 5 5 2 5 0 .050986 - 0 . 8 3 5 2 6 8 - 0 . 0 5 3 6 3 1 0 . 0 3 3 8 7 J 0. 06129t - 0 . 0 1 2 2 1 7 0.030021 R- 6 - 0 . 0 4 7 0 6 6 0 .049168 - 0 . 1 3 7 1 5 8 - 0 . 0 9 0 1 2 3 - 0 . 0 8 7 7 2 . 0 . I0827o - 0 . 0 6 5 2 6 9 0 . 125954 R- 7 0 . 0 7 8 6 8 0 - 0 . 0 2 0 2 1 6 0 . 2 1 5 8 5 0 0. 019330 - 0 . 0 6 6 8 9 . 0. 0082 Id -0 .181918 0 .313720 R- 8 - 0 . 021950 0 . 0 3 1 E 2 5 - 0 . 0 6 8 9 8 2 - 0 . 0 4 2 7 2 5 0 . 1 0 6 7 8 . 0 . 0 2 8 4 6 * ' - 0 . 0 2 3 4 0 0 - 0 . 121251 fi- 9 0 . 0 6 4 8 9 7 0 .064726 - 0 . 0 6 C 9 5 0 0 .06426 1 - 0 . 1 2 6 6 0 . 0 .567512 - 0 . 0 8 3 0 1 4 0 .095016 R- 10 0 . 167950 0 .008209 - 0 . 0 9 7 2 1 0 0 .010312 - 0 . 0 8 1 6 2 / - 0 . 0 6 2 9 3 . 0 .597211 - 0 . 0 2 9 0 4 5 R— 11 - 0 . 1 7 8 0 6 0 - 0 . 0 8 3 3 0 2 0 .079101 - 0 . 0 2 5 3 6 7 0 .084017 - 0 . 0 1 0 9 5 1 - 0 . 1 6 1 0 1 9 0 .094910 R- 12 0 .071811 0 .034259 - 0 . 0 5 8 5 2 7 0 .C04797 0 .096824 - 0 . 0 7 5 6 8 J 0 .010104 0 .101333 R- 13 - 0 . 2 3 3 5 2 1 - 0 . 0 0 7 5 7 8 0 . 1 0 4 3 7 0 - 0 . 0 7 6 7 7 5 0 .027657 0 . 0 6 9 4 6 / 0.142 709 - 0 . 0 4 6 1 8 4 R— 14 - 0 . 0 7 0 3 3 5 0 .032402 - 0 . 0 2 9 7 1 8 0 .020900 -0 .054612 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 4 J - 0 . 0 0 9 5 9 3 0 . 063688 R— 15 0 . 3 8 7 3 9 4 - 0 . 1 1 8 7 5 4 0 . 1 C 7 5 6 6 - 0 . 0 7 4 7 8 4 0 . 0 2 7 2 4 J 0 . 13790i 0 .192006 —0 .0044f>? R- 16 0 .043212 - 0 . 0 4 0 4 8 1 - 0 . 0 2 3 9 7 5 - 0 . 1 0 7 0 5 1 0 . 2 0 7 3 5 . 0 .077307 0 .088570 <I...V/ — £ . 0. 043677 R— 17 - 0 . 3 7 9 3 2 5 - 0 . 2 0 6 6 4 7 - 0 . 0 6 3 9 5 0 0 .043976 0 . 2 4 3 7 2 . 0 .036757 0 .062887 0 .144314 R- 18 0 . 0 7 6 4 2 0 0 .200222 - 0 . 1 2 1 7 7 7 - 0 . 0 8 0 3 3 2 0 .145984 0 .13059- 0 .057343 - 0 . 0 0 8 9 3 9 R- 19 - 0 . 0 0 7 8 7 7 0 .031665 0 .021791 0 .037126 -0 .005422 0 .031032 - 0 . 0 0 1 5 2 6 0 .010186 R— 20 - 0 . 0 8 4 0 4 9 0 .036164 0 . 0 9 0 2 6 5 0 .051017 - 0 . 2 0 4 4 3 V 0 . 0 9 3 7 1 - 0 .154845 0 .024818 R— 21 0. 037097 0 . 054276 - 0 . 0 1 9 9 0 3 - 0 . 0 8 1 5 2 2 - 0 . 0 6 2 0 9 2 0 . 02940* 0 .018576 —0.0132 12 R- 22 - 0 . 105396 - 0 . 0 3 0 5 0 9 - 0 . 0 4 8 9 3 6 0 .011598 - 0 . 0 4 4 5 7 o 6 . 07564- - 0 . 0 2 0 8 2 7 0 .060561 R- 23 - 0 . 0 6 1 1 7 9 0 .137060 0 . 0 1 6 5 8 0 0 .034846 - 0 . 0 2 4 5 7 a - 0 . 0 6 3 1 8 - 0 .044058 0 .007396 R- 24 0 .046881 0 .0057S6 0 .120087 0 .112156 0 .075103 0 .087092 0 . 116 38 6 0 . 05 81 72 R- 25 - 0 . 0 3 1 2 9 5 - 0 . 1 0 0 6 0 5 0 . 1 0 4 5 3 6 - 0 . 0 2 4 7 7 7 - 0 . 0 2 0 8 3 4 0 . 18033.1 - 0 .014964 0 . 120423 R— 26 - 0 . 0 5 1 5 8 7 0 .067041 0 . 7 8 6 3 1 7 - 0 . 0 5 0 9 8 7 - 0 . 0 3 1 5 5 J 0 .046172 -0 .104430 0 .054115 R- 27 - 0 . 2 7 9 3 6 6 0 .070407 - 0 . 0 3 3 2 7 2 0 .110681 - 0 . 0 5 3 3 4 3 - 0 . 1 2 0 6 5 1 - 0 . 0 4 4 9 0 4 — 0- 5 I Qft T\ R- 28 0 . 1 1 4 0 6 3 - 0 . 0 2 4 1 0 1 - 0 . 1 1 9 9 1 3 0 .051314 - 0 . 0 6 7 9 0 . - 0 . 0 3 0 1 0 _ - 0 . 1 1 6 6 7 9 0 .001340 ft-29 - 0 . 1 0 3 7 7 5 - 0 . 1 3 9 8 7 8 0 . 0 8 2 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 3 7 8 3 1 0 .155991 0 .361419 0 .145562 - 0 . 2 0 4 4 1 0 L fi_ M 0 . 0 4 4 2 0 4 0 .076547 0 . 1 1 5 9 9 4 - 0 . 1 6 2 4 8 9 0 .026431 0 . 0 3 1 4 3 * - 0 . 0 5 1 6 8 7 - 0 . 0 1 5 9 9 5 J R- 31 R- 32 - R - 33„ R- 34 R— 35 R- 36 R- 37 R- 38 R- 39 R- 40 R- 41 R- 42 R- 43 R- 44 R- 45 R- 46 R- 47 R- 48 R— 49 R- 50 R- 51 R- 52 ft- 53 R- 54 R- 55 R- 56 R— 57 R- 58 R- 59 R- 60 R- 61 R- 62 R- 63 R- 64 R- 65 R— 66 - 0 . 0 2 7 5 1 7 - 0 . 1 2 4 5 9 0 - 0 . 0 1 4 5 2 1 - 0 . 0 7 0 1 9 6 - 0 . 0 2 3 1 5 8 Q.0Q5534 0 . 3 0 1 3 7 7 0 . 0 0 8 0 1 3 . 0 , . 099975 0 .006297 - 0 . 1 3 4 0 9 3 - 0 . 1 3 0 7 7 9 0 . 0 2 3 4 32 - 0 . 1 2 9 6 9 1 - 0 . 0 2 9 6 0 8 - 0 . 1 0 1 5 6 0 - 0 . 0 6 4 8 4 5 0 .137051 - 0 . 0 5 2 6 7 9 - 0 . 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C 9 4 9 3 8 - 0 , 1 4 9 576. 0 .093608 0 .069962 0 .07?90 3 - 0 . 0 0 9 7 1 . 0 .139399 ... 0... .0.2335-- 0 . U 0 4 1 J 0 . 0 1 8 2 6 / n .172273 -0 .067383 - 0 . 1 4 9 4 2 -0 . 06955-0 . 12646-0 .067492 0. 20159-. 0 .021296 -0 .106415 -0 .05032 7 -0 .010096 0 .118918 -0 .066159 -0 .028903 0 .061822 -0 .102314 . -0 .052267 - 0 . 0 3 3 1 6 6 0 - 1 8 U 5 3 0 .048465 0 . 1 4 2 7 0 6 -0 .022084 0 .72 6481 -0 .187924 -0 .038572 -0 .097317 -0 .060266 0 . 069604 6 .0410 57 0 .101604 -0 .074922 0 .006955 0 .103891 - 0 . 1 4 4 3 5 7 0 .079261 -0 .163710 0 .037643 0 .050949 -0 .016762 - 0 . 0 3 0 7 5 9 -0 .077263 -0 .101342 -0 .055055 -0 .087754 0 .0208 18 -0 .109843 -0 .0262 79 0 .188275 - O . 1 4 0 4 3 5 fa o rt O i i fu ,-fD i-i 0 fu rt i-S <•!_ rt> '"-»o P H -fu 00 n fu ro f? M fD cn N> J> I >xj fO O rt O i-i - ty. o o i -u. -C-R- 1 C- 9 0.037232 C- 10 -0.012317 C- 11 -0.028589 C- 12 0.024174 C- 13 0.127544 C- 14 0.104613 C- 15 -0.029675 C- 16 0.102709 R-R-H-2 3 4 -0.003901 0.755187 0.00300 7 0.103224 0.008626 0.0027 54 -0.155682 0.035297 -0.020997 0.172748 0.061986 -0.047268 -0.19569* -0.04227* -0.07530o -0.111401 0.0263 92 0.00454/ -0 .073378 -0.045021 -0.034880 0.240060 -0.048665 0.125101 -R-R-R-5 6 7 -0.0205e5 0.057039 0.051905 -0.039197 0.238600 0.069379 0.069296 0.026454 -0.053172 -0.011537 0.005969 0.148073 0.04178*; 0.01982/ -0.337490 -0.009781 0.28520o 0.043992 -0.035691 -0.078190 -0.097110 -0.035777 -0.071169 -0.002680 -R-R-R— B 9 10 -0.028368 -0.054 967 -0.046627 -0.002706 0.020986 0.0B2251 0.029568 -0.118387 0.101962 0. 118142 0.014837 -0.038873 0.018934 -0.024201 -0.18229d -0. 02797/ 0. 0U43J 0.06743/ -0.011899 0.022836 -0.019374 -0.016147 -0.084743 -0.203245 R-R-R — 11 12 13 0.030689 0.036635 0.058771 0.021457 -0.005407 -0.055971 0.054444 -O.0C899O 0.154847 0.074729 0.029533 -0. 090159 0.56223-f 0.032372 0.06067o -0.239023 -0.075731 0. 104018 -0.018348 0.390 54 7 0.085852 0.098536 0.080614 0.177747 R-R-R-14 15 16 0.005089 -0.042732 -0.144454 0.021855 -0.029673 -0.149291 -0.06 7627 0.122438 0.075214 0.015229 0.164527 -0.423137 0.042361 0.080745 0.025701 -0.039323 -0.2525BJ 0. 023523 -0.030216 0.009983 0.050295 0.029077 0.110818 0.061170 R-R— R-17 18 19 -0.075174 0.211472 -0.020945 -0.023097 -0.122832 0.037600 0.178957 -0.206194 0.017536 0.157960 0.111008 0.023183 -0.11118* 0.206634 -0.02901/ -0. 03528/ 0.158153 -0.105904 -0.267108 -0.086677 -0.091149 0.0662 76 0.059671 0.046079 R-R-R— 20 21 22 -0.082347 0.089518 0. 102567 0.133316 0.0379 73 0.010464 0.042200 -0.011361 0.002012 0.019839 0.052873 -0.021129 0.145925 0.042252 -0.098024 0.0504 3o -0.039004 0.02337/ -0.213393 0.061425 Q.OQ7557. -0.050719 -0. 058033 0.009736 J o R-R-R-23 24 25 0. C69968 0.029758 0.003679 -0.040858 -0.121127 -0.052769 0.645200 0.113661 0.065065 -0.035606 0.012185 0.359876 0.066952 0 .069563 0.17143/ 0. 01925-. 0.172505 0.113860 -0.022734 0.055780 -0.024522 -0.075381 0.315834 0.059825 R-R -R-26 27 28 -0.075491 0.058078 - 0 . 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R-R-R— 44 45 46 0.239370 0.101875 -0.036836 -0.026865 -0.013638 -0.038944 0.155346 -0.051764 0.011392 0.082211 -0.042274 0.027639 -0.1613U 0.00357o -0.091180 0.01570-. 0.02530* 0.14403/ 0.015537 -0.140985 0.691218 -0 . 46 92 6 0 0.020167 -0.025932 R-H-R-47 48 49 -0.082565 -0.169079 -0.073338 0.218728 -0.002288 -0.089181 0.329166 -0.053722 0.074224 0.108524 0.416407 0.019738 -0.113670 0.021491 -0.00282a 0.073342 0.108035 -0. 007164 0.190264 0.170466 0.037644 0.105347 -0.073067 -0.094305 « a • < : ^ R-R-R— 50 51 52 0.025074 , -0.008671 - 0 . 163817 0.406996 0.049799 -0.009259 0.016060 -0.058649 -0.111107 -0.286505 -0. 103045 -0.058015 -0.01661/ -0.17318/ 0.11233^ -0.054254 0.081600 -0.056053 0.143469 0.139229 0.04603 7 0. 148609 0.279422 0.281785 5 -u z u 9 R-R-R-53 54 55 -0.530474 0.003098 0.034626 -0.046675 -0.057157 0.02SC97 -0.047704 -0.059315 0.011996 0.307021 0.095085 -0.035143 -0.038680 0.046881 0.05448/ 0. 1068 6*. 0.630594 -0.059753 -0.056369 0.048846 0.037406 -0.032969 -0.000938 -0.0322 05 h-' z - R— R— R— 56 57 58 -0. 125719 -0.046183 -0.051553 0.016622 -0.048086 0.05eC21 -0.034370 0.055529 0.351661 -0.056971 0.049563 0.066315 0.12465/ -0.06319/ 0.153539 0.059510 -0. 106924 -0.089262 -0.015888 0.076373 0.042331 -0.036309 -0.130814 0.366400 Ln Ln «-R-R-59 60 61 0.316886 -0. 130056 0.050019 -0.097560 -0.103824 0.139724 -0. 120451 0.044S74 -0.1587SC 0.156461 -0.032715 0.084.732 -0.011488 -0.037260 0.166101 -0.132702 -0.092880 -0.2358 7J 0.221249 0.002 794 0.150459 -0.221340 -0.075457 -0.050135 R-R— R-62 63 64 0. 127625 -0.082629 -0.046285 0.143485 0.137755 0.035110 -0.197582 -0.303741 0.101322 0. 128275 0.031037 0.040945 -0. 19013*: -0.084501 -0.075521 -0. 00447/ 0.02750/ 0.65086/ -0.284475 0.089243 0.143209 0.088944 0.086815 0.0662 54 R-R-65 66 0.087155 -0.075451 -0.007859 0.016599 0.062656 -0.004866 0.031096 -0.085919 -0.229511 0.08068/ 0.00437* 0.17309o 0.062967 -0.092403 0.027520 0.144829 ft- 1 R- 2 C- 17 0.020425 0.270059 C- 18 -0.182684 0.053677 C- 19 -0.024598 0.010562 C- 20 0.001619 C.007293 C- 2 1 0.08411;. -0.31777^ C- 22 0.21977J -0.04076* C- 23 -0.026900 0.181464 »- 3 R- 4 R— 5 0.060179 0.061649 -0.005143.. -0.008704 -0.024174 -0 .00 0464 a - 6 R- 7 R- 8 -0.063714 0. 167069 0.061336 0.182731 -0.214936 0.054458 -0.116122 0.03C888 0.018237 0.007217 -0.060143 0.041629 -0.066055 0.121870 -0.059558. 0.018321 0. 030838 0.024437 0.009964 -0 .024402 0.05561.U.. -0.2 8 583a 0.097543 0.66432o -0.006671 -0.051703 -0. 027943 -0.081643 -0.04170* -0.005905 -0.079313 0.056521 -0.041963 0.072458 0.438951 0.048139 R- 9 R- 10 R- 11 0.003509 -0.077522 0. 067924.. 0.038362 0.102602 -0.013816 > R- 12 0.093156 0.079164 R- 13 -0.134179 0.121635 R-_ 14 __^Q,_Q.14i9J2 -0,006850 ft- 15 0.058521 -0.026326 R- 16 0.003681 0.041712 R— 17 _ 0.048098 ._ 0.034549 -0.037765 -0.078377 -0 .051358 -0.056069 0.031378 -0.070405 -0.036864 -0.062655 0.0 57635 -0.334453 0.039950 -0.051785 0.02426* -0.04369u 0 .089292. -0.21367J -0.10486a -0.00058* 0.0497 52 0.016191 0.0748 54 -0.00068a -0.018928 0.006179 -0.049068 0.073494 0.075763 0.274853 0.255138 0.021798 R- 18 R- 19 R- 20 R— 21 ft- 22 R— 23 R- 24 R- 25 R- 26 R- 27 R- 28 R- 29 R- 30 R- 31 R- 32 R- 33 R- 34 R- 35 R— 36 R- 37 R- 38 R- 39 R- 40 R- 41 R- 42 R- 43 R- 44 ft- 45 R- 46 R- 47 R- 48 R- 49 R- 50 R- 51 R- 52 R- 53 R- 54 R- 55 R- 56 R- 57 R- 58 R- 59 R- 60 R- 61 R— 62 R— 63 R- 64 R-. 65. 0.208870 -0.044807 -0.182764 -0.042890 -0.667202 0.181763 -0.028297 0.025964 0.19 8476 0.148650 0.053678 0.000138 -0.105916 0.026968 -0.179443 0.085726 0.041629 -0. 066319 -0.13517:; 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C 2 5 7 C E 0 . 0 7 C 2 2 8 - 0 . 0 3 4 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 4 1 251 0 . 5 9 5 0 3 6 0 . 0 9 6 C 5 4 - C . C 2 5 2 1 5 1 J R- 3 - 0 . 0 8 1 0 1 O - 0 . C 6 3 4 8 3 - 0 . 0 5 4 3 6 1 0 . 1 2 1 3 7 4 0 . C 1 9 3 E C - 0 . 0 1 3 6 3 5 0 . 0 9 5 4 2 6 - 0 . 1 7 1 2 2 4 R- 4 - 0 . 0 1 2 4 7 1 - 0 . 1 4 2 1 3 9 - 0 . 0 3 5 5 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 6 9 6 C -0 . 0 53 5 14 0 . 1 4 0 6 4 4 C . 1 0 5 5 2 9 - 0 . C 6 8 8 9 5 R- 5 0 . 0 6 3 4 2 4 C . C 1 S 5 9 0 0 . 0 0 1 5 1 4 - C . G 3 0 2 65 - 0 . 0 0 3 8 8 0 - 0 . 0 0 7 5 2 7 C . 0 8 3 4 6 7 - 0 . 0 6 0 7 6 0 R- 6 - 0 . 0 4 2 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 0 8 1 5 5 C . 1 0 0 3 0 4 C.C2C662 QV046S'6S 0 . 0 2 1 4 2 4 ' 6 . 0 6 3 4 9 9 0 . 4 8 9 4 9 7 R- 7 0 . 0 0 4 2 4 2 - 0 . 16722e 0 . 1 6 8 2 4 9 0 . 1 0 7 9 5 1 - 0 . 1 3 0 5 0 8 C . 0 9 6 2 0 8 - 0 . 1 1 7 1 4 9 -0. 0 18 7 5 2 R- 8 0 . 6 9 9 7 0 6 - 0 . C 0 6 7 8 7 - C . 0 6 0 6 3 4 - 0 . C 5 7 2 6 8 - 0 . 0 1 1 2 3 0 - 0 . 1 4 7 7 8 2 - 0 . 0 1 9 3 5 7 - 0 . 0 4 5 7 8 2 R- 0 . 1 2 6 7 7 1 0 . 0 8 2 8 2 5 - 0 . 3 1 5 6 4 4 0 . 0 8 6 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 6 4 C 5 4 -C.1 0 C 4 4 1 C . 2 5 0 1 2 5 - 0 . 0 6 1 7 4 5 R- 10 0 . 0 0 8 9 9 4 - 0 . 1 5 2 2 6 9 0 . 0 5 8 2 0 2 - 0 . 0 2 7 5 9 9 C . 0 1 2 2 2 6 0 . 0 5 6 4 0 1 - 0 . 0 6 1 7 5 6 0 . 061421 R- 11 0 . 0 6 3 3 5 5 0 . 1 4 5 5 6 8 0 . 1 8 8 9 6 6 0 . 1 8 0 6 S 3 0 . 3 0 9 1 3 3 - 0 . 1 6 1 6 3 1 - 0 . 2 1 5 3 8 2 - C . 2 4 4 6 6 7 R- 12 - 0 . 0 1 5 5 9 2 - 0 . 0 5 1 2 0 1 0 . 0 6 9 2 4 2 0 . 0 5 9 2 5 4 - O . C 6 2 2 C 2 6. 15 36 58 0 . 0 8 3 2 3 8 - C . 4 4 2 1 9 4 R- 13 -0.052324 - 0 . C 6 9 7 3 3 - 0 . 0 0 7 9 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 8 7 5 8 . 0 . 0 6 5 7 0 1 0 . 0 3 0 1 7 0 0 . 6 7 5 4 3 4 - 0 . C 3 9 3 4 9 P- 1 4 0 . 0 2 9 5 2 1 0 . 0 2 3 4 8 6 - 0 . 1 0 9 3 4 8 0 . 0 2 6 9 7 C - 0 . 0 1 8 2 8 1 0 . 1 2 1 4 3 5 0 . 2 6 7 3 5 4 0 . 0 2 8 2 3 9 > 15 - C . 0 7 7 6 S 9 - 0 . C 7 6 1 7 8 - c . o s n 74 - 0 . 0 6 4 1 4 3 - 0 . 1 29 1 13 C . 2 6 4 6 2 1 - C . 1 8 1 4 9 0 - C . C 5 6 3 7 5 o R- 1 6 - 0 . 1 1 1 4 3 3 - 0 . 2 7 8 2 3 7 0 . 0 8 4 9 7 8 - 0 . 1 3 2 1 C 3 - 0 . 1 2 C 7 5 9 - 0 . 0 6 5 8 7 0 - 0 . 0 0 1 8 7 0 - 0 . 0 6 7 3 3 5 R- 17 0 . 1 6 5 9 3 7 - 0 . 0 0 4 6 1 8 0. 1 4 6 1 16 -C. 0 2 7 6 5 2 - 0 . C 2 0 1 6 3 C . C 7 E 2 7 8 0 . C 0 1 5 4 6 O . C 8 6 6 5 7 R- 18 0 . 0 7 3 0 7 9 0 . 0 2 0 2 4 3 0 . 0 3 4 4 5 3 0 . 0 1 3 2 1 9 - 0 . 0 3 6 9 2 9 - 0 . 1 5 1 9 6 ! G . 1 8 0 5 1 8 - C . C 7 1 0 2 2 P- 1 9 - 0 . 0 5 4 4 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 6 6 5 7 - 0 . 1 8 5 2 6 4 - 0 . C 2 6 6 5 6 0 . 0 6 4 2 3 2 0 . 1 0 8 5 5 1 - 0 . 2 1 0 9 2 8 0 . 0 0 4 0 9 8 S> R" 20 - 0 . 0 0 2 3 4 7 - 0 . 3 5 3 6 0 5 - 0 . 0 9 1 5 8 5 0 . 1 C 8 4 6 1 - 0 . 0 8 3 3 7 2 0 . 0 6 0 5 2 0 - 0 . C 8 8 5 7 4 - 0 . 0 2 8 3 2 7 r, r R- 21 0 . 0 3 2 3 5 5 - 0 . 1 2 9 6 9 0 - 0 . 0 0 4 6 6 5 - C . C 7 9 9 1 0 - 0 . 1 4 0 8 2 3 - 0 . 0 7 4 4 4 8 - C . C 4 7 4 4 7 0 . 0 5 9 1 1 4 \ R- 22 0 . 0 1 6 5 8 6 - 0 . 0 2 7 7 4 1 0 . 0 1 6 4 2 6 - 0 . G 8 9 7 6 C 0 . 0 3 3 7 2 1 - 0 . 0 5 4 6 2 6 - 0 . 0 1 9 6 8 7 0 . 0 0 1 3 8 0 R- 23 - 0 . 0 7 9 2 9 2 - 0 . C 2 4 5 1 2 0 . 0 7 7 8 2 2 0 . 0 2 9 4 7 6 - 0 . 0 3 4 0 IC 0 . 0 9 0 6 7 8 0 . C 7 2 6 3 5 - 0 . 0 E 6 3 8 5 R- 2 4 - 0 . 2 2 5 1 9 2 - 0 . 1 0 7 8 0 7 0 . 0 8 0 3 0 9 0 . 0 7 4 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 1 3 8 5 4 - 0 . 2 4 2 8 8 6 C . 3 0 9 8 8 8 0 . 1 7 6 1 C 8 R- 25 - 0 . 0 5 1 4 6 0 0 . 0 0 7 3 2 6 - 0 . 0 6 6 4 9 4 0 . 0 8 4 2 2 5 0 . C 3 7 1C6 - 0 . C 3 2 9 0 8 - G . 0 8 1 5 2 1 0 . 0 2 1 4 1 6 R- 2 6 0 . 0 0 1 1 0 6 0 . 0 5 0 4 2 9 0 . 1 2 4 3 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 9 9 7 4 - 0 . 0 0 0 5 4 3 0 . 0 2 7 1 7 E C . 1 3 2 6 9 5 - C . 064783 R- 27 0 . 1 1 9 3 9 6 - 0 . 0 2 6 8 2 4 0 . 1 0 4 7 4 2 - C . 1 9 8 1 6 5 0 . 0 3 4 3 2 7 0 . 1 5 6 8 3 9 - 0 . 0 5 1 7 3 7 0 . 0 2 2 0 2 3 R- 28 - 0 . 1 1 7 6 3 7 0 . 1 9 7 4 4 3 0 . 2 7 6 7 4 1 0 . 0 1 0 5 4 4 - 0 . 1 8 7 4 C 4 - 0 . 0 7 C 7 2 1 C . 0 2 4 4 6 6 0 . 0 1 2 4 8 1 R- 29 - 0 . 0 0 5 7 0 7 -O.G3e92C 0 . 0 2 9 1 0 5 0 . 7 4 7 3 5 0 - 0 . 0 5 0 8 8 8 - 0 . 0 3 6 4 5 5 0 . 0 1 3 2 3 1 - C . C 1 3 1 7 6 R- 30 0 . 0 3 1 4 9 3 0 . 2 7 5 6 0 9 0 . 0 3 0 3 7 C - G . 0 3 5 8 ( 2 C . l 8 0 5 3 8 0 . 0 9 5 1 3 5 - 0 . 1 3 0 5 8 6 - 0 . 142574 R- 31 0 . 0 7 0 3 5 0 C . 0 9 8 3 6 8 - 0 . 0 5 9 6 0 7 0 . 0 5 8 6 9 1 0 . 0 2 2 2 3 8 0 . 0 7 5 5 3 1 - C . 0 3 9 1 6 8 C . 0 1 3 9 9 2 R- 32 0 . 0 4 3 8 7 7 - 0 . 0 0 7 0 9 1 - 0 . 5 8 2 9 9 4 -G.C 4 8 5 5 6 - 0 . 0 4 3 1 2 0 - 0 . 0 7 3 2 8 4 - C . 1 1 8 5 2 6 - 0 . G 5 9 2 6 5 R— 33 0 . 0 1 0 5 8 5 - 0 . 0 5 9 2 4 3 - 0 . 1 1 5 7 5 1 0 . G 6 3 2 7 2 0 . 5 2 5 0 23 - 0 . 1 1 9 9 9 3 0 . 0 4 5 3 0 9 - 0 . 136 390 R- 34 - 0 . 0 3 9 8 9 7 0 . 7 2 0 0 5 2 C . 0 1 2 3 1 2 0 . 0 1 3 3 7 5 - 0 . 0 8 5 6 C 4 0 . 0 2 0 1 1 3 - C . C 7 9 5 3 7 C . C 3 1 7 4 1 R- 35 0 . 4 5 0 3 2 0 - 0 . C 4 9 9 0 2 0 . 0 7 8 1 5 1 C . G 5 6 7 6 2 ' 0 . 0 6 4 8 4 0 0 . 0 7 3 2 4 2 - 0 . 0 4 5 8 2 0 - 0 . 0 C 3 9 2 1 R- 3 6 0 . 0 9 8 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 5 7 6 5 2 - 0 . 0 5 7 0 5 9 - C . 0 1 0 6 C 5 0 . 0 0 5 4 3 2 - 0 . 0 3 2 5 1 6 C . G 0 9 6 4 5 0 . 0 C 2 9 2 0 R- 3 7 0 . C 5 3 8 1 5 0 . 0 9 1 7 8 4 0 . 1 1 1 9 5 5 0 . 0 2 3 8 1 5 - 0 . 0 7 6 5 1 5 0 . 0 0 8 8 3 8 C . 0 6 0 9 5 7 - C . 0 7 2 4 3 0 R- 3 8 0 . 0 1 4 8 0 4 0 . 0 6 8 1 2 0 0 . O 7 8 4 C 0 0 . G 3 7 G 6 1 - C . 1 3 5 6 4 7 0 . 1 3 4 6 0 8 0 . 0 2 1 2 2 9 0 . 0 7 2 7 9 4 R- 3 S - 0 . 0 1 0 7 5 3 0 . 0 2 5 7 2 7 0 . 0 7 3 9 1 1 C . 0 3 9 8 C 2 - 0 . 0 2 3 5 2 5 - 0 . 0 3 2 1 9 3 - 0 . 0 C 2 8 1 4 - 0 . 0 6 1 7 7 2 R- 4 0 - 0 . 0 3 7 5 0 0 0 . C 2 4 0 6 2 0 . 0 7 9 7 0 4 - 0 . 0 7 1 6 C 6 0 . 0 1 1 8 9 5 - 0 . 0 2 2 5 7 7 - 0 . C 5 7 4 1 1 C . C E 2 3 3 6 R- 4 1 - 0 . 1 3 0 0 7 1 - 0 . 1 3 4 5 3 3 0 . 0 4 7 3 1 9 0 . C 4 5 7 2 C - 0 . 2 6 6 7 C 4 - 0 . 0 4 9 6 7 7 - 0 . 0 0 6 0 7 9 0 . 0 7 1 7 3 5 R- 4 2 0 . 0 1 7 4 1 2 0 . C 1 5 1 8 3 0 . 0 3 6 8 7 5 0 . 0 52 9 28 0 . 0 2 9 7 4 8 - 0 . 0 7 0 6 9 8 C . 1 0 9 1 0 2 C . 0 1 5 0 6 6 • < R- 4 3 - 0 . 0 6 8 1 6 8 0 . C 2 6 1 2 7 - 0 . 1 4 2 4 7 7 C . G C 0 1 8 G - 0 . 0 6 6 0 4 6 - 0 . 0 1 8 3 0 6 - 0 . 1 8 9 5 7 7 C . 0 1 4 0 3 6 R- 4 4 - 0 . 0 2 7 3 0 3 -0. 1 5 9 5 2 0 0 . 0 3 9 3 6 1 0 . 1 4 3 8 2 3 0 . 0 2 7 6 7 C - 0 . 0 3 5 4 9 6 - 0 . 1 0 7 7 7 6 - 0 . 0 1 2 9 4 9 < u R- 4 5 - 0 . 0 4 6 1 1 1 0 . 1 5 6 6 4 5 C. 0 1 0 8 6 0 0 . 0 3 5 0 5 8 -0 . 0 0 7 7 5 4 0 . 0 2 1 7 4 4 - C . 1 1 5 9 0 6 C . C 6 5 5 2 4 z R- 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 0 4 5 1 0 . C 2 3 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 6 4 9 5 0 0 . C 5 1 5 5 8 - 0 . 3 6 8 6 5 5 -0.120706 - 0 . 1 4 3 8 4 7 0 . 0 3 9 6 1 0 s R- 4 7 0 . 1 2 5 3 0 9 -0.C09356 - 0 . 0 2 8 7 0 2 C . 0 3 O 2 C 2 - 0 . 3 1 3 4 C 6 0 . 1 1 2 1 2 5 - 0 . 0 1 6 2 4 0 - 0 . 0 6 3 5 5 4 _ . _ . R_ 4 8 - 0 . 0 2 9 8 7 5 0 . C 2 8 7 6 6 -0. 0 4 0 5 3 9 0 . 0 3 2 4 3 0 - 0 . 6 7 1 2 4 7 - 0 . 0 0 0 1 2 2 - 0 . 0 2 8 2 3 7 - 0 . 2 5 8 3 0 4 R- 4 9 - 0 . 0 1 7 0 7 4 - 0 . 1 0 3 9 9 4 - 0 . 0 5 4 3 2 3 - C . C 4 9 5 S 5 - 0 . C 4 8 5 C 7 - 0 . 0 6 6 5 6 0 0 . 0 C 8 9 5 0 0 . C 4 8 9 3 O R- 50 0 . 0 8 0 6 6 9 0 . 1 1 2 9 6 1 0 . 1 6 0 4 3 3 - 0 . 0 5 1 9 4 1 - 0 . 1 5 6 7 3 C - 0 . 0 8 C 8 4 3 0 . 1 7 1 8 1 6 - 0 . 2 5 2 0 3 6 j R- 5 1 0 . 0 1 5 4 3 1 - 0 . C 5 2 5 2 5 0 . 2 0 2 3 7 9 G . 0 4 7 7 1 6 - 0 . 4 5 0 3 C 3 0 . 0 0 3 4 4 1 C . 3 6 5 3 7 1 C . 1 2 C 3 5 4 i R- 52 0 . 0 3 3 4 8 2 0 . 0 9 0 3 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 2 6 2 3 C . 0 1 5 4 6 8 0 . C 8 5 C 0 1 0 . 0 3 8 6 8 7 C . 1 2 0 9 5 5 0 . 0 1 3 6 4 0 1 *~ R- 5 3 - 0 . 1 5 7 C 0 0 - C . C 5 2 6 7 C 0 . 0 0 8 8 6 6 - 0 . 1 7 6 7 3 9 0 . 0 0 8 7 2 5 - 0 . 1 1 3 5 5 6 0 . C 9 6 6 7 7 0 . 0 6 3 5 3 8 R- 5 4 - 0 . 0 9 7 4 6 2 - 0 . 1 1 3 6 1 6 0 . 0 9 8 5 5 5 0 . 0 5 4 5 6 5 - 0 . C 7 5 1 5 5 - 0 . 1 3 2 4 0 2 - C . 0 6 3 5 5 1 0 . 0 5 0 0 6 8 l- R- 5 5 0 . 1 3 7 3 1 7 0 . C 4 6 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 7 7 4 3 0 . 1 4 3 2 4 4 - 0 . 0 4 6 4 12 - 0 . 0 7 5 0 4 2 C . 0 5 4 6 1 6 0 . 0 2 5 9 4 5 ] R- 56 0 . 0 5 2 9 5 3 - 0 . C 3 4 6 6 4 0 . 0 1 4 6 8 4 0 . 1 5 5 5 6 0 - 0 . 2 6 6 2 6 8 0 . 1 6 9 3 6 7 C . G 9 0 6 1 1 0 . 2 0 8 0 5 3 ! R- 5 7 - 0 . 0 4 4 7 1 P - 0 . C 2 5 6 2 9 0 . 0 0 5 3 5 5 - 0 . 0 2 4 7 26 - 0 . C 1 8 5 1 1 0 . C 2 9 9 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 6 4 7 7 - 0 . 0 0 5 8 0 7 R- s e 0 . C 7 9 6 0 7 C . 0 4 2 8 5 4 0.602189 - 0 . 0 2 4 8 24 -0 . C 8 9 2 C 3 - 0 . 0 1 3 2 5 0 - 0 . 0 7 8 6 4 5 - 0 . 0 4 3 7 8 1 j _ R- 5 9 - 0 . 1 2 7 1 6 6 0 . 0 0 5 4 8 7 C . C 5 9 9 4 3 C . G C 6 C 3 7 0 . 0 4 5 7 7 1 0 . 0 1 7 8 2 8 0 . 0 3 5 1 6 6 0 . 0 4 3 4 5 7 R- 6 0 0 . 1 0 3 2 2 6 - 0 . 0 5 0 8 3 7 - 0 . 0 1 2 6 5 8 0 . 0 5 4 1 2 6 0 . 1 7 5 5 7 0 0 . 1 4 8 8 0 6 0.033 7 7 1 ' -0. 125 3 8 7 •' - R- 6 1 - 0 . 0 0 2 6 7 5 - 0 . C 1 9 2 1 2 C 1 2 9 7 8 7 - 0 . 1 0 8 6 1 0 - 0 . 1 29 5 66 - 0 . 0 5 2 0 1 9 0 . 0 5 6 7 7 4 - 0 . C61 0 2 4 j _ R- 62 0 . 0 5 2 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 7 2 2 6 9 0 . 0 4 4 2 5 6 - 0 . 1 8 4 2 E C - 0 . 0 3 7 7 3 7 - 0 . 2 0 5 0 2 5 0 . 0 6 7 0 3 7 - 0 . 2 C 3 2 7 0 I R- 6 3 - 0 . 0 1 7 0 5 5 - 0 . 0 1 1 3 1 7 - 0 . 0 9 4 4 9 0 0 . 1 1 6 7 4 1 0 . 0 1 1 7 5 5 0 . 1 C 5 0 7 0 C. 0 8 4 9 6 4 - C . 0 1 C 2 5 6 R- 6 4 - A . 0 2 1 2 4 2 - C . C 2 0 9 9 5 0 . 0 0 7 8 6 8 0 . C 1 8 9 4 6 0 . 0 1 7 8 5 1 0 . 1 9 3 9 6 4 0 .0314 1 7 C.C 6 6 C 5 3 R- 6 5 0 . 0 4 2 8 6 9 - 0 . 0 6 0 8 6 1 0 . 0 1 9 4 9 7 0 . 0 4 9 1 6 7 - 0 . 0 3 2 3 7 3 0 . 0 1 3 5 7 ! 0 . 0 5 0 8 5 7 - 0 . 0 4 3 2 4 8 R- 6 6 0 . 2 6 6 6 4 4 0 . C 5 4 4 0 5 - - 0 . 0 1 7 7 2 6 - 0 . 0 5 4 6 75 - 0 . 0 3 6 3 5 6 0.012e89 C . 0 9 1 1 3 4 0. 172 7 4 4 _, R-R-1 2 C- 1 0.043456 0.140657 C- 2 -0.C42712 0.046971 C- 3 -0.018779 0. 101495 C- 4 0.029203 -0.093871 C- 5 0.038415 0.039262 C- t 0.042936 0.078270 C- 7 0.029027 -0.037472 C- 8 -0. 0 61 198 -0.043020 R-R-R-3 4 5 0.001325 0.447269 -0.019394 -0.037820 -0.C45CC6 0.009879 -0.032571 -0.003532 0.017389 0.011698 0. 005669 -C.837e47 -0.001699 0.042194 0.054952 0.074769 -0.031411 -0.075476 C.100502 -0.038476 -C.040968 0.033987 0.039318 -0.018013 R-R— R-6 7 8 -0.002065 -0.130385 -0.022635 0. 029268 -0. 135202 0.038061 -0.117267 0.136440 0.050241 -0.0 48 831 0.131129 -0.013600 0.060 193 0.049734 0.033C71 -0.2C8670 -0.134621 0.013635 -C. 079767 -0.101093 0.112878 -0.002210 0.011465 -0 . 044 9 0 7 R-R-R-9 10 11 0.015137 0.804234 -0.157819 -0.C95001 0.004387 -0.087889 0.045564 -0.025197 -0.174456 -6.0 328 89 0.009642 0.066240 -0.0901C5 0.002443 0.028119 0.006013 0.051824 -0.085050 -0. 184 742 -0.007309 0.005291 C. 147783 0.020247 -0.023422 R-R-R-12 13 14 0.015541 0.077364 0.037738 -0. 118909 0.053311 0.072949 0.078418 -0.126542 -0.034388 -0.033417 0.034676 -0.018014 -0.007373 -0.082519 -0.041126 -0.121962 0.054754 0.019198 -0.013242 -0.026527 -0.005453 0. 004 513 0.127528 0. 187932 R-R -• 1=-15 16 17 0.026210 -0.119610 -0.104883 -0. 138857 -0.060031 -0.C46106 0. 191975 0.026992 -0.C08403 0.019697 -0.059327 -0.041293 0.023430 0.014851 0.001819 0.083336 -0.001036 -0.043447 0.044 893 0.102220 0.C73081 C. 0 30 623 -0.085788 -0.036328 o R R-R-R— 18 19 20 0.006261-0. 11 861 0 0.096124-0.015926 0. 153213 0.C32276 0.00 6458 -0.020405 0.021406 -0.047544 0.081026 0.047503 0.0646*1 -0.084485 -0.087554 0.006066 -0.041389 -0.169457 0.088609 -0.062 769 -0.205631 -0.011586 0.039168 -0.048973 ' " -\ R-R-> ^ 21 22 23 0.015550 0.051156-0.093852 -0. 119095 -0.671143 0.063667 0.113133 -0.022568 0. 041055 -0.021017 -0.001481 -0. 043166 0.293751 0.064986 0.037202 0.125826 -0.060269 -0.175653 -0.085171 0.002875 -0.002123 0.061 068 0.009175 0.060639 R R-R-R-24 25 26 0.117644 0.021811 0.003104 -0.048197 -0.077946 0.049454 0.014185 0.001687 -0.011496 0.051040 0.093536 0.774642 -0.017930 0.065292 0.015682 -0.071071 -0.002244 -0.087353 -0.013046 -0.034777 -0.024927 0. 610793 0. 036959 0.019045 -0.270 644 0. 020381 0.136952 y -R-R-R-27 28 29 0.065945 -C.024355 -0.000216 -0. OT4210 -0.031091 0.324971 -0.028086 0.104875 0.054333 -0.019962 -0.065881 0. 011939 -0.047493 -0.004925 0. 015139 0.157125 -0.021507 0.148021 0.026021 0.018849 0.123160 R-R— R-30 31 32 -0.071579 -0.013025--0.093256 0.046930 -0.082157 0.068474 -0. 107221 0.026165 -0.005251 0.053419 -0. 007783 -C.089731 0.145908 0.094012 -0.025678 -0.000813 0.118807 -0.016338 0.048622 0.015262 -0.083482 0.003482 0.0 33 541 0. 158963 R-R-R-33 34 35 -0.068752 -0.025867 0.055436 -0. 250027 -0. 117191 -0.016225 -0.349788 0.064180 -0.015284 -0.039869 -0.002742 -0.119725 0.090814 0.019305 0.010209 0.084927 0.099023 0.024396 -0.031 525 0.012195 0.000335 0. 157158 -0.086887 -0. 126913 R-R-R-36 37 38 0.003987 0.060730 -0.015762 0.003551 -0.018210 0.029806 0.026596 0.048681 0.074347 -0.003211 0.010554 -0.047972 0.048323 -0.043304 -0.119789 -0.473449 -0.051021 -0.304416 -0.043052 0.021037 0.033247 0. 016764 -0.046324 -0. 081 010 R — R-R-39 40 41 -0.021401 0.001742 -0.033472 0. 118352 -0.039564 0.299154 0.017 333 -0.041846 0.325432 -0.077000 0. 020392 C.035041 -0.128561 -0.026985 0 .045641 -0.085625 -0.604300 0.047591 0.011519 0.061805 -0.044718 0.0C5188 0 . 0 73 1 68 0.085149 R-P-R-42 43 44 -0.009050 -0.071093 -0.028831 • -0.013912 -0.079351 -0.046379 -0.018473 0.098897 0.002978 -C. 012220 0.025935 0.057647 0.019687 0.035626 0.043747 0.009765 0.092003 -0.024886 -C.740891 -0.004592 0.008523 0. 128 758 -0.107665 -0.025112 R-R-R-45 46 47 0.101393 -0.046994--C.C26991 -0.059340 0.009928 -0.019570 -0.038651 0.452033 C.344228 7 6 . 6 i 2 i 6i -0.063080 -0.014777 0.732312 -0.062566 0.008618 -0.056953 0.062229 -0.295436 0.019989 C.049822 -0.092104 -0.010926 0.131787 -0. 000087 R-R-R-48 49 50 0.008021 -0.034P94 0.372536 -0.008623 -0.047782-0.005216 0.538536 0.025453 0.047887 -0.027728 0.0320t0 0.072878 -0.033932 0.C27809 -0.075931 0.011782 0.051876 -0.135183 0.062146 -0.059514 -0.098314 -0.035711 -0.027187 0. C29401 R-R-R-51 52 53 -0.072347 0.04 7480 0.058479 0.116796 -0.274400 -0.040215 0.317371 -0.038661 -0. 003862 0. 117638 -0.032719 C. 093790 -0.023957 0.063790 0.013360 0.067202 -0.039054 0.114009 -0.083004 -0.074816 0.091814 0.151 851 0.066313 0. 105 405 R — R-R-54 55 56 -0.095155 -0.076305 -0.035162 0. 102955 0.022442 -0. 092843 0.081506 0.047895 0.070764 0.104820 0.003115 0.133636 0.020871 0.020194 -0.090674 -0.063981 -0.C18619 0.015860 -0.13 5517 0.137178 0.059762 0.057407 0.739240 0.030608 0.081451 -0.094104 0.039655 0.107919 0. 128970 -0.007434 -0. 121883 -0. 006318 0.071 508 -R-P-R-57 58 59 -0.042546 0.020650 -0.0 2 694 6 -0.027161 0. 110713 -0.017141 0.115562 0.087194 0.043957 0.011769 0.186495 -0.012685 "~ 0. 022736 0.1 16830 -0.011430 • .' R " R-R — 60 61 62 -0.067616 -0.043443 0.023850 0.001832 -0.111795 0.047888 -0.072774 0. 127406 0.046939 -0.049018 0.042893 0.001346 0.775517 0.196897 0.061382 O.C337 15 -0.067933 -0.0225e6 0.026486 0.038797 -0.072318 -6.037124 0.028236 -0.04 7182 0.013885 -0.017012 0.007856 -C.024883 -0.067879 0.015341 -0.016815 -0.224921 ... -0,107 504 -0.0 32 554 -0.062 464 -0. 039058 R — R-R — 63 64 65 -0.006278 0.066998 0.013076' 0.109249 -0.007826 0.637849 0.003299 0. 040682 0.031647 0.151425 -0.021914 0.021099 P.— 6 6 0.029326 -0.089838 . 0.006481 0.004548 -C.C14.17 0.073186 0.028117 0. 023911 ~1 fu ° ; o H ! T J ' fo r t r t CD r j 3 g fu ra-t i H-X > tr CD f -o _ hi m H- w fu a o C/3 H O ><! fu h- 1 X CD < H h_ O O I—1 CD (-W fu B Xi M CD N3 1 1 fu o r t O i-i ty. O M e r t . t—' H- - o> O O P C - 9 C - 1 0 C - 11 C - 12 C - 13 C - 14 C - 15 C " 16 R- 1 0 . 0 9 9 2 4 ° 0 . 1 6 6 7 6 9 - 0 . 0 1 6 8 9 9 0 .028737 - 0 . 1 5 5 4 5 9 -6.131580 - 6 . O i l 521 0. 0 11 397 R— 2 0 . 0 2 4 8 5 0 0 . 0 3 0 6 6 8 - 0 . 0 2 2 5 5 4 0.020747 - 0 . 0 5 4 7 9 6 -0 .037546 0.061765 - 0 . 151243 R- 3 - 0 . 0 0 5 2 7 5 0.03 7642 0 .621275 0.024738 - 0 . 0 2 3 6 4 5 - 0 . 0 2 4 4 0 5 0.000832 -0 .022095 R- 4 - 0 . 0 8 5 7 8 8 0.C65286 - 0 . 0 7 9 6 1 7 - 0 . 0 0 7 2 2 0 0.036312 0.042626 0.018778 - 0 . 023305 R- 5 - 0 . 0 1 3 9 8 9 0 .013790 - 0 . 0 2 1 2 1 5 0 .062523 -0 .069591 0.043999 0.023527 0 .041499 R- 6 - 0 . 0 3 7 7 7 5 - 0 . 1 1 6 8 4 2 - 0 . 1 6 7 9 3 2 0 .155236 0.052765 - 0 . 2 4 6 9 9 7 0.141755 -0 .118096 R-R-L R-7 8 9 0 .066665 - 0 . 0 5 1 7 6 6 - 0 . 1 1 2 2 1 1 - 0 . 1 1 7 3 3 6 - 0 . 0 3 0 8 9 8 0 . 1 6 2046 0 .003176 - 0 . 0 3 2 1 4 0 - 0 . 0 0 3 4 0 7 - 0 . 0 7 6 4 2 7 - C . 0 0 0 9 4 8 -0 .040763 0.012641 - 0 . 0 7 9 5 4 4 0 .066456 - 0 . 1 1 3 0 9 3 0.062643 - 0 . 0 8 2 1 7 6 0.082260 0.023196 0.C84703 0.07013 2 0.688 861 0. 183 243 o > 51" R-R-10 11 12 0 .093465 0 .046324 0 .031513 - 0 . C 6 2 5 3 4 0.108814 - 0 . 116845 0.041706 0.004266 - 0 . 0 0 2 1 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 8 6 2 6 - 0 . 1 4 1 8 9 9 G.000586 0.042646 -0 .015e22 0.032924 - 0 . 0 5 2 6 2 8 0 . 121519 -0 .005201 -0 .021564 -0 .C74892 - C . 1 0 9 2 5 4 0.002 032 0.155105 - 0 . 0 2 6 5 5 5 R -R-13 14 15 - 0 . 0 7 7 9 5 0 0.298576 0.42 42 5.4 - 0 . 1 6 2 5 3 2 0.064036 - 0 . 2 1 2 2 0 1 0.084334 -0 .127461 0. 129851 0 . 461080 0 . 2 2 0 7 2 7 - 0 . 1 6 2 5 2 7 - 0 . 1 4 9 9 4 9 . 0 .001037 - 0 . 0 2 4 4 4 7 - 0 . 0 4 4 2 3 9 0.047644 0.026863 -0 .055378 0.167570 0.097299 - 0 . 060 4 9 7 C. 078511 - 0 . 133 405 ) > R-~~ R-R-16 17 18 - 0 . 3 9 6 4 5 5 0 .071892 0 .044375 - 0 . 0 9 3 5 1 9 0 . 00 8314 0 . 0 3 9 2 6 0 - 0 . 0 5 0 2 2 0 -0 .053283 0 .059034 0.073629 0 .035875 0.025198 - 0 . 0 1 6 5 4 6 - 0 . 5 3 6 1 7 6 - 0 . 0 1 2 9 9 8 0.048684 - 0 . 0 1 0 9 1 0 - 0 . 0 4 4 3 3 7 -0 .011582 - 0 . 0 1 1 5 9 0 0.530393 - 0 . 1 8 1 9 1 0 0. 059084 0.005766 " -0 .132 626 - 0 . 062 372 - 0 . 026 6 83 R-R-R-14 20 21 - 0 . 0 6 9 2 2 2 0 .132647 0 .001376 - 0 . 1 7 7 9 9 0 - C . 1 9 6 0 1 7 0 .001068 - 0 . 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 .035144 0 .025179 - 0 . 2 8 9 0 4 5 -0.031 346 - 0 . 0 5 3 5 4 9 - 0 . 2 2 2 3 6 5 - 0 . 0 8 4 6 0 8 - 0 . 1 5 5 3 1 4 0.174495 - 0 . 1 0 2 7 2 4 0.018657 0 . 221735 - 0 . 0 9 5 9 9 0 0.046453 R-R-R-22 23 24 -0 .074882 - 0 . 0 0 4 4 5 6 -0 .014463 - 0 . 0 0 6 1 5 6 - 0 . C 4 9 8 9 1 0 .008849 - 0 . 0 2 0 7 2 0 - 0 . 010963 - 0 . 0 7 5 5 7 4 - 0 . 0 0 5 3 8 5 0.009630 0.164332 - 0 . 0 8 2 6 5 9 - 0 . 1 8 2 8 7 4 - 0 . 0 1 2 7 1 7 - 0 . 0 3 0 3 4 8 0.040981 -0 .020342 C.100277 - 0 .181385 - 0 . 0 2 0 9 4 7 0.045443 - 0 . 0 E 1 9 3 8 - 0 . 0 5 1 0 2 7 R-P -R-25 26 27 - 0 . 2 1 4 9 9 2 0.018342 - 0 . 1 4 1 4 2 8 0 .C77908 - 0 . 0 4 5 4 6 7 0 . 1 4 8 6 0 0 0 .003322-- 0 . 046977 - 0 . 1 1 8 8 6 5 -0 .187688 0.119285 0.004588 - 0 . 0 9 0 7 7 1 - 0 . 0 3 6 9 3 7 - 0 . 1 2 9 9 9 0 - 0 . 1 0 9 0 5 5 0.014270 - 0 . 0 6 3 1 5 4 0.082646 -0 .019380 -0 .012852 - 0 . 009 291 0.003226 0.047202 R-P -R-28 29 30 - 0 . 0 7 1 4 8 4 - 0 . 2 2 0 7 9 9 0 .094292 - 0 . 0 3 0 9 4 0 - 0 . 0 2 3 1 0 9 0.086645 - 0 . 0 0 6 1 9 6 0.125981 0 .095515 0.020726 - 0 . 0 2 7 9 1 9 - 0 . 0 3 8 4 7 8 - 0 . 0 1 4 4 0 7 0.064938 - 0 . 1 1 8 1 5 3 - 0 . 0 2 5 4 6 3 - 0 . 0 7 0 6 5 7 - 0 . 0 1 9 8 6 9 0. 108678 -0 .043064 -0 .060342 - 0 . 095455 0.019853 - 0 . 0 1 3 3 7 8 R-R-R-31 32 33 - 0 . 0 1 6 9 2 8 0.075043 0 .010237 0.108751 0 .050747 0 .076005 - 0 . 0 6 8 6 1 6 0.151284 0 .062027 - 0 . 0 3 0 6 1 9 - 0 . 189709 - 0 . 0 7 9 541 -0 .029311 - 0 . 0 9 7 1 5 2 0 .010303 - 0 . 0 8 5 5 8 0 - 0 . 0 0 8 6 8 7 - 0 . 113513 0.018315 0.037736 -0.066701 0. 026926 0.205 886 0.069755 R— R— R-34 35 36 - 0 . 0 8 8 5 0 7 0 .048919 - 0 . 0 6 6 2 7 3 - 0 . 0 0 6 6 4 2 - 0 . 101276 0. 008 80 8 - 0 . 0 6 4 9 1 9 0 .042285 - 0 . 0 6 1 2 9 4 - 0 . 010719 - 0 . 0 1 7 0 1 6 - 0 . 1 1 6 3 9 2 0 .046310 - 0 . 0 6 7 4 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 6 9 3 2 0.016131 0.013154 0.095383 -0 .005472 -0 .069443 -0 .171 790 - 0 . 0 3 3 991 0.262776 0.042711 < a R-R-R-37 38 39 0 .036765 -0 .048043 0 .073148 0 .003329 0 .121900 - 0 . 0 1 1 3 4 2 - 0 . 0 3 8 7 9 5 - 0 .088521 - 0 . 1 9 9 6 6 0 0.021931 0.175727 0.030390 0 .025996 - 0 . 0 5 4 5 3 4 0 .241885 -0 .060043 0.047936 - 0 . 1 1 3 8 6 3 - 0 . 1 0 4 7 3 4 0.135095 0.126456 - 0 . 0 3 4 7 8 9 -0 .130 341 0. 074 9 7 6 5 U z u "3 R-R-R-40 41 42 0 .007045 - 0 . 0 1 2 6 7 6 - 0 . 0 1 1 3 9 8 - 0 . 0 1 3 2 6 5 - 0 . 0 1 3 8 5 4 - 0 . C 2 9 5 4 1 0.016952 -0 .107841 - 0 . 0 6 1 0 0 9 C.000579 0.057046 0.0564C9 0 .016960 - 0 . 1 2 3 5 6 5 0 .019042 - 0 . 0 6 0 2 7 8 - 0 . 0 8 2 4 0 8 0.016795 0 . 0 9 1 8 4 5 ' - 0 . 0 0 6 8 6 6 ' - 0 .047093 - 0 . 0 2 6 6 4 0 -0 .060 866 0.041545 5 R-R-R-43 44 45 0 .119978 0.014925 - 0 . 0 1 2 9 7 0 0 .568057 0 .014803 - 0 . 0 1 6 6 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 9 4 4 2 0 .118697 - 0 . 0 1 0 0 7 8 - 0 . 094295 - 0 . 0 4 7 9 1 7 - 0 . 0 2 3 3 5 8 - 0 . 2 3 8 9 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 9 1 4 3 0.098110 -0 .030932 0.061040 0.002701 0.084120 0.029553 C.129236 - 0 . 0 3 3 2 2 6 - 0 . 0 0 1 3 3 6 - 0 . 0 4 5 1 1 7 R-R-R-46 47 48 -0 .003622 - 0 . 0 2 4 2 4 8 0.056702 - 0 . 0 6 4 0 2 2 0.C5832C 0 .046057 - 0 . 2 2 0 5 2 0 0.091099 0.068235 - 0 . 1 1 8 3 7 6 0.052575 0.031 140 0 .132029 0 .065779 - 0 . 0 1 7 1 2 7 - 0 . 1 6 4 7 8 8 - 0 * 1 7 5 5 3 4 0.016329 -0.051231 - 0 . 1 5 1 0 2 6 0.017128 0 . 038 1 03 0. 038097 0.052529 R-P -R-49 50 51 0.048251 0 . 2 1 4 1 2 7 - 0 . 0 0 8 7 4 6 - 0 . 5 9 0 5 7 9 -~0. I l l 860 - 0 . 0 2 4 6 0 7 - 0 . 0 2 6 8 4 7 0 .121753 - 0 . 0 3 1 6 2 0 - 0 . 0 1 6 3 6 4 0.252679 0.468947 - 0 . 0 4 5 1 5 6 0.112794 - 0 . 032009 - 0 . 0 3 8 8 4 8 0.033875 0.011671 -0 .001014 0.093087 0.091830 0.032114 0. 161 937 - 0 . 0 1 0 9 9 3 R-R-R-52 53 54 - 0 . 4 9 1 892 0 .052258 0 .100545 - 0 . 0 1 4 2 4 5 0 .009859 - 0 . 0 0 7 1 6 3 0.080491 - 0 . 502130 - 0 . 0 0 4 1 5 1 -0 .035391 0.004933 - 0 . 0 4 0 8 5 5 0.068285 -0 .118853 0.069239 - 0 . 0 1 1 5 3 e - 0 .095939 -0 .567921 0.001079 -0 .118943 0.018105 0.061 344 - 0 . 0 2 5 2 2 9 -0 .028 847 — • . » R-R-R-"55" 56 57 0 .005149-0.086044-0.083170 0 . 0 4 4 4 2 7 - 0 . 295579 0 .041629 -0 .013182 - 0 . 0 7 2 7 9 5 - 0 . 0 7 5 4 9 9 0.008689 0.139045 0.194418 - 0 . 0 8 4 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 6 2 7 4 7 - 0 . 1 8 5 8 9 9 0 .049628 -0 .087648 0.023270 0.046591 0.117541 -0 .249909 0. 167 007 - 0 . 044 1 61 -0 .040014 P -R-58 59 60 - 0 . 0 3 1 5 8 7 - 0 . 1 4 2 2 8 0 - 0 . 0 4 5 4 7 3 - 0 . 0 0 7 0 7 7 - 0 . 0 1 7 7 4 2 0 .030897 - 0 . 0 2 8 5 7 6 0 .146159 0 .001454 0.048193 - 0 . 0 4 4 6 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 5 2 2 6 0 . 0 1 7 2 6 2 0.071126 - 0 . 068101 - 0 . 0 2 5 5 6 2 0.1393 60 0.031588 -0 .058331 0.076672 -0 .078904 0. 048432 - 0 . 0 2 6 309 0 . 0 75 5 2 8 0. 061 733 0.046 663 -0 .027692 ^ R -R-R-61 62 63 0 . 1 3 2 3 0 1 - 0 .192141 - 0 . 0 6 6 2 7 7 0 . 131058 - 0 . 0 1 8 5 2 9 - 0 . 0 6 0 5 4 1 - 0 . 0 0 2 8 4 5 0 .072803 - 0 . 1 3 9 3 8 5 0.179450 - 0 . 0 8 0 3 2 7 0.052219 0.203056 - 0 . 0 3 5 C 04 0 .152e70 0.130175 0 .127437 - 0 . 0 1 4 4 5 3 0.086952 0.161016 0.074261 R-R-R-64 65 66 - 0 . 0 9 1 4 9 2 0 .075648 - 0 . 2 6 6 3 2 6 - 0 . 0 4 1 0 2 9 0 . 0 3 5 5 5 2 0.145341 - 0 . 0 2 9 3 6 2 - 0 . 0 2 4 8 4 9 0 .084167 C.030633 0.039513 0 .064759 - 0 . 0 8 1 8 7 7 0.025223 - 0 . 3 2 7 6 7 1 -0 .711628 -0 .058155 - 0 . 0 5 1 7 7 5 0.023655 „ 0.128206 0.094612 -- 0 . 0 2 4 1 7 6 0.084565 0. 131693 r - 17 C- 18 C- 19 R- 1 -0.016693 0.062390 0.092425 > n- 2 0.105783 -0.031036 -0.116589 R- 3 0.136437 0.C39564 -0.024067 R— 4 0.004621 0.071976 -0.079925 -R- 5 -0.067528 0.016266 0.025912 R- 6 0.183039 -0.036637 0.034100 7 0.168617 -0.004110 -C. 140232 f R- 8 -0.030071 0.058567 -0.076341 R- 9 -0.010762 0.086547 0.012425 P- 10 0.044873-- -0.137491 0.012815 R- 11 0.023855 0.241995 0.454394 R- 12 -0.078615- -0. C51204 0.0001 18 R- 13 -0.044387 0. 167072 -0.001842 R- 14 0.111714 -0.088466 -0.031491 R- 15 0,05 2123 0.0ie455 ' -0.058656 R- 16 ,' -6.3335 83 ' -0.174393 -0.002891 R— 17 ^'J.fj2 2344 0.024275 -0.004627 R- 18 -0.002151 0.103838 0.079727 R- 19 -0.091442 0.112149 -0.012396 R- 20 0.029446 -0.030869 ' -0.004023 R- 21 0.131345 -0.146358 0.050984 R- 22 -0.107936 -0.C47901 -0.031969 R- 23 -0.C73538- 0. 122616 0.045823 R- 24 -0.051642 0.084813 0.036040 R- 25 0.089936 0.135149 0.240585 R- 26 -0.057879 0.017559 0. 002005 R- 27 -0.052742 0.104194 0.0.2X_5J R- 28 -0.055613 -0.114386 0.635771 R- 29 0.047110 0.108482 U. 0.4461 R- 30 -0.175936 -0.112531 -0.035592 R- 31 -0.392016 0.144934 0.029570 R- 32 = _V167490 0.098408 -0.107767 R- 33 -0 . 106949 -0.025745 -0.022511 R- 34 0.145348 0.052443 0.026986 R- 35 0.148026 -0.118254 0.147106 R- 36 0.109203 -0.102931 0.021287 R- 37 0.077133 -0.6703 5J 0.024564 R- 38 0.167617 -6.069534 -0.154853 R- 39 -0.077332 0.023378 -0.138531 R- 40 -0.018363 0.033858 0.044463 R- 41 -0.090559 0.004906 -0.058711 R- 42 0.016736 - 0 . 097677 0.053522 R- 43 -0.095021 -0.001542 - -0.037536 R- 44 -0.050235 - -0.034904 -0.067488 R- 45 -0.000089 -0.000217 -0.0063 07 R- 46 -0.172298 0.008969 0.036541 R- 47 0.063916 -0.003308 -0.063946 R- 48 0.015457 -0.040531 0.055044 R- 49 0.006824 -0.01794 7 -0.054459 R- 50 -0.247212 -0.216864 0.083017 P- 51 0.039696 -0.088936' -0. 105152 R- 52 0.057475 0.080265 0.058676 R- 53 0.180992 0.014155 -0.040118 R— 54 -0.002926 -0.146660 0.018320 R- 55 -0.010570 -0.139322 0.089409 R- 56 0.004851 ' 0.009226 0. 103502 R- 57 0.052694 0.279253 0.025550 R- 58 0.089560 -0.084468 0.086490 R- 59 0.094522- -0.068941 -0. 075671 R- 60 -0.092792 0.097311 0.006413 61 -0.05802e ' 0.260831 0.074019 ' r R- 62 0.061374 -0.077302 -0.052554 R- 63 0.024975 -0.071782 -0.008183 R- 64 -0.063604 0.024850 -0. 022837 R- 65 -0.030675 -0.059844 -0.036163 R- 66 0.028758 -0. 014901 0.070760 C- 20 0.017091 - 21 , 109215 C--0. 22 114088 23 573914 C- 24 0.034034 0.026494-0.002085 0.080723 0.023772 0.075965 0.030810 0.027480 0.154877 0. 066003 0.207412 0.152259 C. 092172 -0.016191 -0.084676 -0 .053497 0.026117 -0.036941 0.013790 -0.057491 0.049152 -0.013061 -0.013619 -0.025(96 -0.060e70 0.115002 -0.195117 0.041806 0.001 7 30 0.009168 C.110796 0.059619 0.017406 -0.087283 -0.018998 -0.034919 0.033001 -0.102587 0.066392 0.058253 -0.332175-0.040546 0.018606 -0.086293 0.042456 0.0 464 29 0.1 032 80 -0.006684 0.063585 0.196725 0.037337 -0.069673 0. U4631 -0.013741 0.034464 0.381323 -0.329344, 0.U13156 -0.183709 -0.152685 0.028124 0.C73291 -0.129697 -0.150672 0.034860 -0.070410 -0.035828 0.055615 -0.059222 0.012382 -0.041254 -0.034921 -0.022940 -0.115985 -0.009494 0.079258 0.104478 0.016975 0.024464 0.017653 0. 3084418 6.435761 0. 014755 0.0402e6 •0.010793 0.047159 -0.092546 0.020247 0-062853 •1.446C53 0.008951 0.031523 3. 063500 0.637098 0.0604U -0.134799 0.029962 0.046314 -0.007594 -0.013108 -0.054467 -0.022635 0.012136 -0.005260 0.120939 0.030927 0. 10 2 82 2 -0.054602 -0.009863 -0.014300 0.000963 0.088276 -6.154626 -0. 125814 0.030514 -0.088555 0.044444 0.038257 -0.033744 0.018883 0.010C89 -0 0. -0, 6i 0, 0 ,118382 072530 ,078973 001797 127196 099304 -0, 0, 0. -0. 0, -0. 047319 ,139977 078966 014224 018899 017092 0 -0 0 -6 o -0 ,076156 .023777 ,052696 .0012 54 .010476 ,02 3494 .003712 .032457 .10 53 75 0, -0, 0. 064718 035648 08 3895 0, -0. -0. 051249 012422 053141 174050 021535 060263 -0 0 -0 ,236185 ,030159 ,017200 187086 016291 031403 011057 080331 003783 -0 -0 0 ,059536 ,044080 ,035617 ,585784 ,006655 ,074287 ,071757 .020175 ,009246 -0. -0. -0. -6, -o, 0. 063317 052893 076293 066840 154866 080517 0 0 -0 0 0 -0 .034708 ,069816 ,114574 .134129 ,014912 .032513 -0.129395 0.061535 0.038946 -0.02 5 540 -0.064528 ' -0.093246 0.023769 -0.C77802 -0.037086 0.046254 -0.062431 0.018129 0.036513 -0.076228 0.0B3950 0.066533 0.045007 0.044752 C . l 20 160 0.095209 0.093089 0.025834 -0.018076 0.032949 -0.012793 0.001780 -0.005240 0.156211 -0.059466 -0.080843 0.215376 -0.008729 0. 144014 -6.68184-" -0.018702 0.001953 -0.011888 C.170752 -0.032732 0.068 335 0.038787 0.067 504 0.007678 0.043893 0.119637 -6.025 679 -0.035734 -0.034 766 -0.015476 -0.011018 -0.069688 -C.039233 0.047028 0. 102830 -0.103 993 0.165038 -0.022077 0.414770 -0-047409 C.229787 0.337755 -0.U 70 9 7 9 C.060017 -0.031300 -0.030629 0.0 34 541 -0. 106482 0.099553 -0.037282 6.OB4804 0. 333906 0.212632 0. 165351 0.128615 0.027771 -0. 039751 0.023 589 -0 . 054 9 4 5 C. 110670 -0.057 178 0.020660 -0. C 73 504 -0.116454 0.064119 0. 0C3780 -0.116532 -0.099898 0. 117 491 -0.008 78 2 -0. 031 397 -0.013298 0.144573 -0.043291 -0.032922 0.010604 0.093970 0.081727 0.011282 0. 0 18 894 -0.017622 0. 070152 0.068605 -0. 039 1 32 -0.057885 0.061960 0.052314 0.098735 0.080 604 0.116232 -0.087557 0.150250 0. 0 56 631 -0.174358 0.C47601 0.185645 0.056260 -0.010588 -0.076727 0. 110681 -0. 116215 O.C77090 0.022723 -0.205648 -0.016444 -0.073097 0.182861 -0.028553 0.014824 0.112494 0.554824 0.C25292 0.076116 0.044264 -0.012935 0.147865 0 . 0 7 9 4 9 6 ' - 0 . 0 3 0 7 3 7 - 0 . 0 0 8 0 9 1 -0.003235 6. 041 732 •0.0 15849 0.122256 0.006893 -0.061 776 -0. 118764 APPENDIX * V 11 Male Sample - Anhedonia Scale Correlation Matrix of Factors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 1.00 2 .01 1.00 3 -.02 .02 1.00 4 .07 .01 -.03 1.00 5 -.10 .04 -.03 .01 1.00 6 -.01 .07 .03 .03 -.00 1.00 7 .16 -.01 -.01 -.01 -.06 -.04 1.00 8 .06 .06 -.01 .02 .02 -.05 -.02 1.00 9 -.01 -.01 -.01 -.00 .06 .03 -.02 .02 1.00 10 .14 .09 .01 .04 -.03 -.02 .07 .10 -.05 1.00 11 -.03 .08 .06 .01 .02 .03 -.01 .05 -.05 -.00 1.00 12 -.05 -.05 .02 .07 .06 .01 -.09 .00 -.04 .04 -.01 1.00 13 -.06 -.12 -.02 -.00 -.01 -.02 -.03 .03 -.01 -.06 -.01 .01 1.00 14 .01 .04 .02 .12 -.03 .07 .05 .02 -.07 .02 .03 .02 -.06 1.00 15 -.01 .04 .03 .06 .00 .08 -.01 -.03 -.05 -.02 .02 -.04 -.03 .10 1.00 16 -.03 .12 .09 .04 -.09 .03 .04 -.03 -.08 -.05 .04 -.05 -.02 .05 .03 1.00 17 -.00 .08 .00 .01 -.06 .00 -.02 .04 -.06 .01 .04 .03 -.01 .11 .09 .05 1.00 18 .09 .04 .04 .12 -.05 -.01 .12 .11 -.05 . .07 .01 .02 .00 .11 .01 .03 .03 1.00 19 .05 .05 .02 .01 .03 -.00 .00 .01 .02 -.02 -.03 -.13 -.02 -.02 .02 -.01 .04 -.00 1.00 20 .02 .16 .02 .04 .06 -.02 .06 -.05 -.00 -.02 .01 .00 .01 -.03 -.00 .10 -.05 -.01 .04 1.00 21 -.13 .02 -.04 .04 .09 .01 -.13 -.04 .15 .12 .05 -.00 .03 -.09 -.02 .00 -.04 -.07 .03 .13 22 -.14 .02 -.06 -.12 .08 .01 -.02 -.10 .03 .17 -.01 -.02 .02 -.05 -.07 -.03 -.01 -.03 -.04 .02 23 .06 .01 .11 .03 -.09 .02 .15 .09 -.11 .13 .02 .03 -.05 .03 .04 .04 0 .05 .10 -.02 -.10 24 .02 -.02 -.09 -.01 .01 -.00 -.04 -.05 .01 -.00 -.00 -.02 .01 -.03 -.02 -.04 -.02 -.13 .01 .01 21 22 23 24 1.00 .06 -.19 .03 1.00 -.09 -.04 1.00 -.07 1.00 ON C o APPENDIX XVIII Female Sample Anhedonia Scale Correlation Matrix of Factors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 1.00 2 -. 10 1.00 3 .13 -.09 1.00 4 . 10 -.01 .03 1.00 5 .06 .01 -.03 -.00 1.00 6 .02 -.07 -.06 .03 -.02 1.00 7 -.05 .09 -.03 -. 12 -.05 .01 1.00 6 -. 10 .04 -.07 -.00 -.00 -.02 .05 1.00 9 .04 .01 -.05 .00 .01 -.00 -.01 .02 1.00 10 -.00 .10 -.08 -.06 -.04 .06 -.00 .06 .11 1.00 11 -.11 .05 -.09 -.04 -.09 .07 .03 .02 .03 .06 1.00 12 .19 -.02 .09 .02 .07 -.01 -.08 -.12 .06 .04 -.09 1.00 13 .00 -.02 -.05 -.03 .01 .01 -.01 .02 .04 .05 -.03 .01 1.00 14 -.03 .05 -.01 -.02 -.09 .02 .03 .01 .04 .05 .20 -.09 -.06 1.00 15 -.07 .01 -.12 -.01 -.02 .00 -.00 .09 .03 -.04 .07 -.07 .06 1.0 16 -.04 .12 -.04 -.01 .02 .07 .00 .04 .03 .07 .06 -.06 .01 .03 17 -.01 .05 -.07 -.01 -.01 .07 .07 .04 .02 .08 .10 -.04 -.01 .05 18 -.04 .15 -.04 -.01 .02 .01 -.00 .06 -.01 .12 .05 -.06 -.03 .02 19 .02 -.05 .09 .03 .04 -.08 -.12 .02 -.06 -.03 -.06 .03 -.04 .01 20 .01 0.95 -.02 .00 .01 .08 -.00 .01 .02 .04 .02 .07 -.02 -.04 21 -.14 .08 -.07 -.04 -.20 .03 .05 .09 -.02 -.02 .11 -.10 -.03 .11 22 .04 -.07 .13 .02 .08 -.03 -.05 -.02 -.06 -.08 -.01 .04 .01 -.04 23 .03 -.11 .05 .08 -.00 -.04 -.05 -.07 -.00 -.12 -.01 .02 -.01 -.09 24 .01 -.01 .01 -.04 .01 .08 .00 -.03 -.01 -.00 -.01 .03 .07 -.03 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1.00 -.02 .00 -.02 -.09 -.03 .13 -.09 -.07 -.01 1.00 -.04 .08 -.00 .03 -.06 -.02 -.08 -.05 1.00 .07 -.03 -.01 .05 -.03 -.03 -.09 1.00 .04 -.00 .07 -.00 -.10 -.03 .00 .00 .12 .03 .08 .01 1.00 -.04 -.02 .02 -.00 1.00 -.07 -.09 -.02 1.00 .01 -.00 1.00 .04 1.00 ON •p-APPENDIX X/X Pooled Sample Anhedonia Scale Correlation Matrix of Factors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t i 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 1 . 0 0 2 - . 0 0 1 . 0 0 3 - . 0 3 . 1 4 1 . 0 0 4 . 0 2 . 0 4 . 0 1 1 . 0 0 5 - . 0 3 - . 1 4 - . 0 7 - . 0 2 1 . 0 0 6 - . 0 1 . 0 2 - . 0 3 . 0 0 . 0 6 1 . 0 0 7 - . 1 2 . 0 5 . 0 3 - . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0 5 1 . 0 0 8 . 0 8 . 0 3 . 0 1 . 0 7 - . 0 5 - . 0 4 - . 0 6 1. . 0 0 9 . 0 7 . 1 1 . 0 9 . 0 7 - . 0 6 - . 0 2 . 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 10 - . 1 1 - . 0 4 - . 0 3 - . 0 9 . 0 8 . 0 9 . 1 0 -. .09 - . 0 7 1 . 0 0 11 . 0 0 - . 0 8 - . 0 9 - . 0 5 . 0 3 . 0 5 . 0 4 -. .02 - . 0 2 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 12 . 0 8 . 1 2 . 1 3 . 0 9 - . 0 9 - . 0 5 - . 0 4 . 1 2 . 0 6 - . 0 8 - . 0 8 1 . 0 0 13 . 0 7 . 0 7 . 0 1 . 0 2 - . 0 3 - . 0 4 - . 1 0 . 0 4 . 0 3 - . 1 2 . 0 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 14 - . 0 1 - . 0 3 - . 1 3 - . 0 5 . 0 6 . 0 2 . 0 7 . 1 0 - . 0 0 . 0 4 . 1 2 - . 0 6 . 0 1 1 . 0 0 15 . 0 4 . 0 4 . 0 4 - . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0 3 . 0 7 . 0 2 . 0 3 . 0 2 . 0 3 . 0 3 . 0 6 - . 0 1 1 . 0 0 16 - . 0 5 - . 0 1 - . 0 1 - . 0 6 . 0 5 . 0 4 . 0 9 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 1 0 . 0 7 - . 0 5 - . 0 3 . 0 7 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 17 . 0 3 . 0 3 . 0 1 . 0 6 - . 0 5 - . 0 9 - . 0 5 - . 0 6 . 0 4 - . 0 7 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0 3 . 0 3 - . 0 1 - . 0 6 1 . 0 0 18 - . 1 5 - . 0 5 - . 10 - . 0 0 . 0 8 . 0 8 - . 0 0 - . 0 1 - . 0 8 . 1 3 . 0 0 - . 0 5 - . 1 1 . 0 8 . 0 0 . 0 7 - . 1 0 1 . 0 0 19 - . 0 3 - . 1 5 - . 0 5 - . 0 0 . 0 6 - . 0 1 . 0 5 . 0 0 - . 1 1 . 0 4 . 0 2 - . 0 7 - . 0 5 . 0 1 . 0 0 . 0 4 - . 0 4 . 0 6 1 . 0 0 20 - . 0 6 - . 0 7 - . 13 - . 0 9 - . 0 0 . 1 0 . 0 4 - . 0 1 - . 0 1 . 0 5 . 0 8 - . 1 2 - . 0 5 . 0 2 . 0 5 . 0 8 - . 0 8 . 0 7 - . 0 0 1 .00 21 - . 0 7 - . 0 6 . 0 0 - . 0 2 . 1 2 . 0 7 . 0 6 - . 1 6 - . 0 4 . 1 2 . 0 7 - . 0 2 . 0 1 . 0 4 - . 0 1 . 0 2 - . 0 2 . 0 2 - . 0 1 - . 0 3 22 - . 0 2 - . 0 9 - . 0 3 . 0 2 . 0 3 - . 0 0 . 0 6 . 0 1 - . 0 4 - . 0 4 . 0 7 - . 0 1 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 - . 0 0 . 0 0 - . 0 4 - . 0 1 .09 23 - . 0 7 . 0 3 . 0 9 . 0 2 . 0 4 . 0 7 . 1 0 - . 0 3 . 0 0 . 1 8 . 0 3 - . 0 0 - . 0 5 . 0 1 . 0 5 . 0 5 - . 0 7 . 1 4 . 0 4 .01 24 . 0 9 - . 0 3 . 0 5 . 0 6 - . 0 2 - . 0 8 - . 0 9 . 0 3 . 0 5 - . 1 6 - . 1 2 . 1 2 . 0 9 - . 1 2 - . 0 1 - . 1 0 . 0 2 - . 0 7 - . 0 6 - . 0 5 21 22 23 24 1 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 0 9 - . 0 5 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 4 1 . 0 0 - . 0 5 1 . 0 0 

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