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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The pleasure experience of low- and high anhedonic undergraduates Douglas, Kathryn Ann 1978

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THE PLEASURE EXPERIENCE OF LOW- AND HIGH-ANHEDONIC UNDERGRADUATES by KATHRYN ANN DOUGLAS B.A., University.of  W a t e r l o o , 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of P s y c h o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1978  ©  K a t h r y n Ann D o u g l a s , 1978  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis at  it  may  representatives. for  freely  permission  purposes  thesis  partial  the U n i v e r s i t y  make that  in  is  financial  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  British  gain  Columbia  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  C  ^  A  ^  &  ^  S  Columbia,  British  by  for  /97%  shall  the  that  not  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  PSYCHOLOGY •  f  of  for extensive  permission.  Department „of  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  of  this  or  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ii  ABSTRACT  Some e m o t i o n a l and d e s c r i p t i v e a s p e c t s of an imagined p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e were examined f o r l o w - and h i g h - a n h e d o n i c  undergraduates.  S u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o l o w - a n h e d o n i c or h i g h - a n h e d o n i c on the b a s i s of s c o r e s on t h e . P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e (Chapman, Chapman, & Raulin,  1976).  E m o t i o n a l responses were d e r i v e d from s c o r e s on the  D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e ( I z a r d , D o u g h e r t y , Bloxom, & K o t s c h , 1974) and i n c l u d e d a n x i e t y  items.  A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was conducted f o r each of the two s c a l e s used and f a c t o r s c o r e s were computed.  Because males s c o r e d as  significantly  more anhedonic than f e m a l e s , a n a l y s e s were conducted s e p a r a t e l y 49 dependent measures:  r e c a l l of p l e a s a n t s i t u a t i o n s , average  of p l e a s a n t n e s s , f r e q u e n c y of p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s , t i o n r a t i n g s of p l e a s a n t n e s s  for  rating  individual situa-  (maximum of 1 0 ) , f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r 12  emotion f a c t o r s , and f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r 24 anhedonia f a c t o r s . The o v e r a l l T  2  f o r both males and females was h i g h l y  significant,  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t l o w - a n h e d o n i c s of b o t h sexes d i f f e r from h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s i n t h e i r report's " r e g a r d i n g t h e i r e m o t i o n a l and c o n c o m i t a n t s of the p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e . d i f f e r e n c e was n o t , however, The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s  experiential  The p r e c i s e s o u r c e of  the  discernible.  of b o t h the D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e  and the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e a r e d i s c u s s e d .  A l t h o u g h the  structure  of t h e D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e c l e a r l y r e p l i c a t e s the work of I z a r d et a l .  ( 1 9 7 4 ) , t h a t of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f a i l e d to be  consistent.  The weaknesses of the l a t t e r i n s t r u m e n t a r e d i s c u s s e d  w i t h r e f e r e n c e to f a c t o r a n a l y t i c  study.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Abstract  i i  L i s t of T a b l e s  v  L i s t of F i g u r e s  and I l l u s t r a t i o n s  v i i  Acknowledgement  viii  1  Introduction Methodological Considerations T h e o r i e s of Anhedonia P r e v a l e n c e of Anhedonia Refinement o f t h e C o n s t r u c t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Anhedonics S p e c i f i c Hypotheses Study 1:  1 4 7 13 16 23  Comparison of Low- and High-Anhedonics  26  Method Results Discussion Study 2:  Factor  Method Results Study 3:  S t r u c t u r e o f the DES+A  40 41 43  and D i s c u s s i o n  Factor  Method Results  26 29 36  S t r u c t u r e of the P h y s i c a l Anhdeonia  Scale  64 65 68  and D i s c u s s i o n  Summary and G e n e r a l D i s c u s s i o n  93  References  95  Appendices  98  Appendix Appendix  I II  Test M a t e r i a l s C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix Items  98 f o r Males - DES 106  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS c o n t i n u e d  Page Appendix  III  Appendix IV Appendix V Appendix V I Appendix V I I Appendix V I I I Appendix IX Appendix X Appendix X I Appendix X I I Appendix X I I I Appendix XIV Appendix XV Appendix XVI Appendix X V I I Appendix X V I I I Appendix XIV  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c f o r Females DES Items P o o l e d C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x - DES Items C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Males Anhedonia Items C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Females Anhedonia Items Pooled C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x Anhedonia Items F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A Males 12-Factor Solution F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A Females 12-Factor Solution F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i c DES+A P o o l e d 12-Factor Solution Male Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of F a c t o r s Female Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Factors P o o l e d Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Factors F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x Anhedonia S c a l e Males 2 4 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x Anhedonia S c a l e Females 2 4 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x Anhedonia S c a l e Pooled 24-Factor S o l u t i o n Male Sample Anhedonia S c a l e C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Factors Female Sample Anhedonia S c a l e C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of F a c t o r s P o o l e d Sample Anhedonia S c a l e C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Factors  111 116 121 129 137 145 147 149 151 152 153 154 157 160 163 164 165  V  LIST OF TABLES  Page Table 1  Means f o r H i g h - and Low-Anhedonic  Table 2  F a c t o r s D e f i n i n g the P l e a s u r e E x p e r i e n c e  35  Table 3  E i g e n v a l u e s G r e a t e r t h a n 1.0 D e r i v e d from Component A n a l y s i s  44  Table 4  L i k e l i h o o d - R a t i o Test R e s u l t s  49  Table 5  Unweighted L e a s t Squares 1 1 - F a c t o r S o l u t i o n . P e r c e n t a g e of R e s i d u a l s G r e a t e r than 1.0 i n Lower T r i a n g u l a r P o r t i o n of C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c  50  Summary of T e s t R e s u l t s t o Determine Number of F a c t o r s  51  T o t a l Hyperplane Counts of R o t a t i o n s of DES+A 12-Factor Solution  53  F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = . 5 ) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of 5 1 - I t e m D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e + A n x i e t y f o r Males  54  F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = .5) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of 5 1 - I t e m D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e + A n x i e t y f o r Females  55  Table 6 Table 7 Table 8  Table 9  Subjects  30  T a b l e 10  F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = .5) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of 5 1 - I t e m D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e + A n x i e t y f o r P o o l e d Sample  T a b l e 11  Number of Items Having Extreme P r o p o r t i o n a l Splits  67  E i g e n v a l u e s G r e a t e r than 1.0 D e r i v e d from Component A n a l y s i s  69  T a b l e 12 T a b l e 13  L i k e l i h o o d - R a t i o Test R e s u l t s  T a b l e 14  C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e of V a r i a n c e Accounted f o r by V a r y i n g Numbers of F a c t o r s  «  73  74  vi  LIST OF TABLES  continued Page  T a b l e 15  T a b l e 16  T a b l e 17  T a b l e 18  T a b l e 19  P e r c e n t a g e of R e s i d u a l s G r e a t e r than 1.0 f o r Unweighted L e a s t Squares 1 3 - and 2 4 Factor Solutions  76  T o t a l Hyperplane Counts of R o t a t i o n s of P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e 1 3 - and 2 4 - F a c t o r C o l u t i o n s  78  F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = . 5 ) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f o r Male Sample  79  F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = .5) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f o r Female Sample  82  F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s - K a i s e r (c = . 5 ) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f o r P o o l e d Sample  85  vii  LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS  Page Figure 1  Figure 2  Figure 3  Figure 4 Figure 5  Fogire 6  Scree T e s t f o r DES+A Items Based on P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Males  45  Scree T e s t f o r DES+A Items Based on P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Females  46  Scree T e s t f o r DES+A Items Based on P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . P o o l e d Sample.  47  Scree T e s t f o r Anhedonia Items Based on P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Males  70  Scree T e s t f o r Anhedonia Items Based on P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . Females  71  Scree T e s t f o r Anhedonia Items Based on P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . P o o l e d Sample  72  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  It  i s to a number of p e o p l e t h a t I w i s h to e x t e n t my s i n c e r e  thanks f o r a s s i s t a n c e a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s of t h i s p r o j e c t .  Firstly,  I would l i k e to mention my a d v i s o r y committee, D i m i t r i P a p a g e o r g i s , R a l p h H a k s t i a n , and Bob Hare f o r t h e i r t h o u g h t f u l comments and a d v i c e from the i n c e p t i o n to the c o m p l e t i o n of the r e s e a r c h .  S p e c i a l thanks  a r e due to Rod B o r r i e , Dave Cox, J i m S t e i g e r , and J e r r y W i l l i s  for  h a v i n g p e r m i t t e d me to approach s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s , and to F r a n k F l y n n f o r programming a s s i s t a n c e .  I am i n d e b t e d to B e t s y  S p a u l d i n g f o r her h e l p w i t h t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and to N e a l Chan f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the many hours of d a t a c o d i n g .  1  INTRODUCTION  P l e a s u r e , as a d i m e n s i o n of human e x p e r i e n c e , has l o n g been n e g l e c t e d as a t o p i c of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  Notably, i t s converse,  a n h e d o n i a , has h i s t o r i c a l l y been t h e f o c u s of c l i n i c a l a t t e n t i o n a n d , more r e c e n t l y , has a t t r a c t e d the i n t e r e s t of a h a n d f u l of r e s e a r c h e r s . It  i s apparent t h a t the s c a n t a t t e n t i o n awarded t o d e f i c i e n c i e s i n  the p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e has y i e l d e d agreement n e i t h e r i n t h e p r e c i s e meaning of anhedonia as a d e s c r i p t i v e term nor i n t h e b e h a v i o u r a l characteristics associated with i t .  The observed phenomenon has  a c h i e v e d almost s u b l i m i n a l r e c o g n i t i o n among e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s , y e t i t escapes t h e grasp of those who would s u b j e c t i t t o s y s t e m a t i c study.  The p r e s e n t study r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to b e g i n t o  rectify  the d e f i c i e n c i e s of p a s t r e s e a r c h through an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e of b o t h l o w - and h i g h - a n h e d o n i c  subjects.  Methodological Considerations I t i s the f i r s t aim of t h i s r e v i e w to h i g h l i g h t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems w h i c h have i n t e r f e r e d w i t h s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a phenomenon c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e . One s o u r c e of c o n f u s i o n has been t h a t of an a p p r o p r i a t e l a b e l f o r t h e phenomenon.  Most f r e q u e n t l y ,  the l i t e r a t u r e ; however,  t h e term anhedonia has been employed i n  r e c e n t l y some r e s e a r c h e r s  (Kayton & K o h ,  1975; M e e h l , 1964) have become s e n s i t i z e d to t h e i n a c c u r a c i e s  inherent  i n c o n t i n u e d usage of the term anhedonia and propose a d o p t i o n of t h e word " h y p o h e d o n i a " to r e f l e c t more c l o s e l y t h e c l i n i c a l  reality.  The main i s s u e r e v e a l e d by t h e d i s s e n s i o n i n c h o i c e of  terminology  2  i s not s i m p l y a s e m a n t i c one.  Rather, i t i l l u s t r a t e s differences  the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of p l e a s u r e d e f i c i e n c y .  in  On the one h a n d , usage  of anhedonia as a l a b e l s u g g e s t s a d i s c r e t e c a t e g o r y —  an a b s o l u t e  c o n d i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e t o t a l absence of p l e a s u r e .  On the  o t h e r h a n d , hypohedonia r e f l e c t s a c o n t i n u o u s l y d i s t r i b u t e d t r a i t  which  a l l o w s f o r g r a d a t i o n s of degrees of d e f i c i e n c y i n p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e . Because of the c u r r e n t p a u c i t y of e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , b o t h p o s i t i o n s are tenable.  The c h o i c e of an adequate l a b e l must be postponed u n t i l  such time when r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y s u p p o r t s one v i e w .  For t h a t r e a s o n ,  anhedonia w i l l be used t o r e f e r t o the c l i n i c a l phenomenon p r i m a r i l y because i t o c c u r s most f r e q u e n t l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i t i s  doubtful  t h a t s c i e n t i f i c p r e c i s i o n w i l l be g a i n e d by the a d d i t i o n of y e t technical label.  Nevertheless,  i t i s intended that t h i s  another  illustration  h i g h l i g h t a major t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m . The next p o i n t of c o n f u s i o n , c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the f o r m e r , t h a t of an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of a n h e d o n i a .  is  T h i s i s perhaps t h e  most c r i t i c a l d e t e r r e n t to s y s t e m a t i c study as i t a f f e c t s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and c h o i c e of an assessment d e v i c e as w e l l as the hypotheses which are t e s t e d .  A r e v i e w of d e f i n i t i o n s employed i n the  literature  suggested f o u r i m p l i c i t t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s : 1)  An a b s o l u t e r e c e p t i v e d e f i c i e n c y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t o t a l i n a b i l i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e p l e a s u r e ( E n g l i s h , 1934; H i n s i e & C a m p b e l l , 1970; Watson, 1972a, 1972b; Watson & J a c o b s , 1977; Watson, K l e t t , & L o r e i , 1970);  2)  A continuously d i s t r i b u t e d receptive deficiency characterized by a lowered c a p a c i t y to e x p e r i e n c e p l e a s u r e (Chapman, Chapman, & R a u l i n , 1976; Harrow, G r i n k e r , Holzman, & K a y t o n , 1977; Kayton & K o h , 1975; M e e h l , 1 9 6 4 ) ;  3)  An a b s o l u t e e x p r e s s i v e d e f i c i e n c y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f a i l u r e to e x p r e s s p l e a s u r e (Watson, 1977); and f i n a l l y ,  3  4)  One a s p e c t of a g e n e r a l i z e d e m o t i o n a l weakening r e l a t e d to l o s s of c o n n e c t i o n between e m o t i o n , t h o u g h t , and m o t i v a t i o n ( B l e u l e r , 1911/1950; K r a e p e l i n , 1913/1919; Rado, 1969).  T h i s l a s t d e f i n i t i o n r e l a t e s p r i m a r i l y t o o b s e r v a t i o n s of  joylessness  i n s c h i z o p h r e n i c s , and was d e s c r i b e d by K r a e p e l i n (1913/1919) as a l o s s of the r e g u l a t i n g i n f l u e n c e of emotions on a c t i o n .  Loss of  p l e a s u r a b l e emotions was viewed as o n l y one a s p e c t of t h e g e n e r a l i z e d e m o t i o n a l weakening.  S t r a n s k y ( c i t e d i n K r a e p e l i n , 1913/1919)  viewed  the e m o t i o n a l d u l l i n g as l e s s a case of " a n e m o t i o n a l d e v a s t a t i o n , than of an a t a x i a of the f e e l i n g s " , " a l o s s of the unner u n i t y of  the  a c t i v i t i e s of i n t e l l e c t , e m o t i o n , and v o l i t i o n i n themselves and among one a n o t h e r . "  K r a e p e l i n has suggested t h a t t h i s l o s s of  connec-  t i o n might account f o r t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e a f f e c t which i s o f t e n e x h i b i t e d by s c h i z o p h r e n i c s .  Rado (1969) has advanced t h i s n o t i o n of an  i n t e g r a t i v e d e f i c i t , but has emphasized p a r t i c u l a r l y the l o s s of  the  m o t i v a t i n g power of the p o s i t i v e e m o t i o n s . W h i l e the apparent d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e f i n i t i o n may seem exaggerated and may not r e f l e c t p r e c i s e l y the p o s i t i o n of some, t h e s e v i e w s have been grouped f o r the purpose of i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e u n c e r t a i n t y the n a t u r e of the p o s t u l a t e d d e f i c i t .  regarding  P a s t r e s e a r c h has f a i l e d to  p r o v i d e p r e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g the e x a c t type of d e f i c i e n c y used i n t e s t i n g hypotheses i n the study of a n h e d o n i a .  C e r t a i n l y these a p -  proaches c o u l d be s u b j e c t e d to s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h the r e s u l t of i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r e c i s i o n and u t i l i t y of the concept of a n h e d o n i a . Some r e s e a r c h e r s  (Watson, K l e t t , & L o r e i , 1970) have attempted t o d e a l  w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n a l problem and the r e s u l t s of t h e i r e f f o r t s be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r .  will  Where t h e r e i s agreement among r e s e a r c h e r s i s  in  4  the n o t i o n of anhedonia as a c h r o n i c ,  l i f e - l o n g condition,  presumably  of g e n e t i c or n e u r o l o g i c a l o r i g i n , and i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e as a symptom of s c h i z o p h r e n i a  ( M e e h l , 1962; Rado, 1969; S t e i n & W i s s ,  A t h i r d methodological d i f f i c u l t y  i n anhedonia r e s e a r c h  1971).  involves  measurement.  A g a i n , t h i s would appear to r e f l e c t i n p a r t the seeming  heterogeneity  in theoretical positions.  c l i n i c a l judgements  Measurement has c o n s i s t e d of  (Kayton & K o h , 1 9 7 5 ) , i n t e r v i e w s and r a t i n g s  (Harrow, G r i n k e r , Holzman, & K a y t o n , 1 9 7 7 ) , c l i n i c a l r a t i n g s c a l e s (Watson, K l e t t , finally,  & Lorei,  self-report  1970), or c h e c k l i s t s (Meehl, 1964), and  anhedonia s c a l e s (Chapman, Chapman, & R a u l i n ,  1976).  W h i l e these measures may p u r p o r t to be a s s e s s i n g t h e same c o n -  struct,  few i n v e s t i g a t o r s  i n their research.  have employed m u l t i p l e assessment methods  I n g e n e r a l , c l i n i c a l r a t i n g s might be expected  assess p r i m a r i l y expressive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — v a b l e by the c l i n i c i a n . reflect receptive,  Self-report  those d i r e c t l y  to  obser-  s c a l e s , on the o t h e r h a n d , might  e x p e r i e n t i a l components.  Because of the d i v e r s i t y  of assessment methods, comparisons of r e s u l t s a c r o s s s t u d i e s i s  dif-  f i c u l t i f not i m p o s s i b l e to a c h i e v e a t the p r e s e n t t i m e . I n summary, i t would appear t h a t adequate i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a n h e d o n i a depends on i n c r e a s e d p r e c i s i o n of o p e r a t i o n a l  definitions,  i n c r e a s e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the o f t e n i m p l i c i t approach used by the researcher,  and, f i n a l l y ,  improvement and p r e c i s i o n i n i n s t r u m e n t s  measurement, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on improvement of  of  construct  validity. T h e o r i e s of Anhedonia The m a j o r i t y of r e f e r e n c e s to anhedonia have been c o n f i n e d to  the  5  e x a m i n a t i o n of i t s r o l e as a symptom of s c h i z o p h r e n i a , a l t h o u g h i t has been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c s as w e l l 1977). it  Early conceptions  (Kraepelin,  (Harrow e t a l . ,  1913/1919) of anhedonia r e l a t e d  to a g e n e r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n f u n c t i o n i n g which was a r e s u l t  schizophrenia.  recently  of  That i s , i t was viewed as a secondary symptom of a  general disease process. Bleuler  (1911/1950), on the o t h e r h a n d , c o n -  s i d e r e d d i s t u r b a n c e of a f f e c t and i n d i f f e r e n c e to p r e v i o u s l y a c t i v i t i e s to be a fundamental symptom of s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  valued  He m a i n t a i n e d  t h a t t h i s was not n e c e s s a r i l y a p r o d u c t of d e t e r i o r a t i o n , s i n c e i t was p r e s e n t i n m i l d as w e l l as i n s e v e r e forms of s c h i z o p h r e n i a and might even be observed i n l a t e n t s c h i z o p h r e n i c s .  Rado (1969) c o n t i n u e d  this  shift i n emphasis by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t anhedonia d i d not r e p r e s e n t a p r o duct of s c h i z o p h r e n i a , but r a t h e r p l a y e d a c e n t r a l . r o l e i n t h e of the d i s o r d e r .  He h y p o t h e s i z e d a g e n e t i c a l l y  etiology  transmitted defect  w h i c h i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the p o s i t i v e or p l e a s u r a b l e e m o t i o n s , thus a f f e c t i n g , normal human development i n s e x u a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s p h e r e s . would seem, on the b a s i s of R a d o ' s t h e o r y , t h a t w i t h o u t an a b i l i t y experience pleasure, sexual a c t i v i t y  and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i n g  t h e i r r e i n f o r c i n g p o t e n t i a l and s o c i a l l e a r n i n g i s h i n d e r e d .  It to  lose  Meehl  (1962) h a s , i n f a c t , advanced the h y p o t h e s i s of Rado a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s i n a t h e o r y of n e u r o l o g i c a l d y s f u n c t i o n i n s c h i z o p h r e n i a . g e s t e d t h a t anhedonia may r e s u l t i n s o c i a l w i t h d r a w a l , behaviour,  and d e v i a n t l o g i c .  of s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  most to r e f l e c t  inappropriate  Both Meehl and Rado appear to v i e w  anhedonia as a d e f i c i e n c y of l o n g - s t a n d i n g the e t i o l o g y  He has s u g -  d u r a t i o n and c e n t r a l to  These t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w s would seem  the p o s i t i o n of a r e c e p t i v e  deficit.  6  Recent b i o c h e m i c a l s t u d i e s  ( S t e i n & W i s e , 1971; Wise & S t e i n ,  1973) have s u p p o r t e d a p h y s i o l o g i c a l s u b s t r a t e f o r a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t i s h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e of anhedonia and w h i c h i s presumably genet i c a l l y determined.  The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d the s t u d i e s of S t e i n and  Wise was t h a t of p o s t u l a t i n g t h a t s c h i z o p h r e n i a was caused by an endogenous t o x i n w h i c h was h i g h l y a c t i v e , h i g h l y s p e c i f i c ,  continuously  p r o d u c e d , and f o r w h i c h t o l e r a n c e does not d e v e l o p . S i t e of a c t i o n was suggested by p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i m p l i c a t i n g neurons l o c a l i z e d i n the lower b r a i n stem w i t h axons a s c e n d i n g by way of the m e d i a l f o r e b r a i n bundle and s y n a p s i n g i n the hypothalamus, l i m b i c s y s t e m , and f r o n t a l c o r t e x .  S t i m u l a t i o n of such neurons has  been found t o be p o w e r f u l l y r e w a r d i n g and p l e a s u r a b l e i n a v a r i e t y species.  of  L e s i o n i n g of t h e s e same c e l l s , or the i n t r o d u c t i o n of  p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l b l o c k s have a d d i t i o n a l l y been found t o i m p a i r consummatory b e h a v i o u r . noradrenergic  I t was f u r t h e r known t h a t t h e s e neurons were under  control.  Thus, n a t u r e of the t o x i n t o be i s o l a t e d as w e l l as the l o c u s t h e b r a i n has been suggested by p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h .  Anhedonia w o u l d ,  t h e r e f o r e , be the b e h a v i o u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the a c t i o n of toxin.  in  this  S t e i n and Wise (1971) suggest t h a t they have i s o l a t e d t h i s  b i o c h e m i c a l a g e n t , 6 - h y d r o x y d o p a m i n e , w h i c h : i s an a b e r r a n t m e t a b o l i t e of dopmaine.  They found i t t o produce d e g e n e r a t i o n of  noradrenergic  n e r v e t e r m i n a l s t o g e t h e r w i t h a l o n g - l a s t i n g d e p l e t i o n of (the a c t i v a t i n g s u b s t a n c e f o r a reward mechanism).  norepinephrine  I n a s e r i e s of  e x p e r i m e n t s , they found i n j e c t i o n s of 6-hydroxydopamine to produce schizphrenic-like reactions i n rats  (waxy f l e x i b i l i t y ) ,  to d e c r e a s e  7  the amount of s e l f - s t i m u l a t i o n , and to be b l o c k e d by  chlorpromazine.  The a c t i o n of t h i s agent was t h a t of i n d u c i n g permanent  degeneration  of n o r a d r e n e r g i c reward t e r m i n a l s ; c o n t i n u o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l e d to most profound d e s t r u c t i o n .  In a further  s t u d y , Wise and S t e i n (1973)  suggest t h a t they have s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e i r t h e o r y through p o s t - m o r t e m assays of b r a i n specimens of s c h i z o p h r e n i c and normal i n d i v i d u a l s . I n s p i t e of i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ,  the v i e w of S t e i n and Wise has r e -  mained c o n t r o v e r s i a l . P r e v a l e n c e of Anhedonia F u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r the S t e i n and Wise b i o c h e m i c a l t h e o r y would be c o n f i r m a t i o n of the p r e s e n c e of s i g n s of anhedonia u n i v e r s a l l y schizophrenics.  Such a t a s k , however,  i s made d i f f i c u l t and i t s  s u l t s a r e l i k e l y to remain e q u i v o c a l because of the c u r r e n t s u r r o u n d i n g the b o u n d a r i e s of t h e concept of s c h i z o p h r e n i a Gift,  in re-  uncertainty (Strauss &  1977). N o n e t h e l e s s , two s t u d i e s have r e c e n t l y f o c u s e d on t h i s  i s s u e (Chapman, Chapman, & R a u l i n , K a y t o n , 1977). self-report latter.  prevalence  1976; Harrow, G r i n k e r , Holzman, &  Anhedonia was a s s e s s e d d i f f e r e n t l y  i n each s t u d y ,  by  i n the former and by i n t e r v i e w and c l i n i c a l r a t i n g s i n t h e  Even s o , the r e s u l t s were s t r i k i n g l y  I n the f i r s t  study,  similar.  Chapman et a l . a s s e s s e d a group of 121 male  s c h i z o p h r e n i c s w i t h a mean age of 3 1 . 5 y e a r s and 1 2 . 2 mean y e a r s schooling.  The m a j o r i t y of p a t i e n t s were r e c e i v i n g  of  antipsychotic  m e d i c a t i o n , and a l l were r a t e d on premorbid adjustment  (Harris,  T h e i r s c o r e s were compared w i t h those of a normal s a m p l e .  1975).  Results  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the male s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anhedonic  8  t h a n t h e normal sample.  M o r e o v e r , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s c h i z o -  p h r e n i c s c o r e s appeared to f a l l i n t o two c l u s t e r s —  one a p p r o x i m a t i n g  the normal s u b j e c t s and the o t h e r a p p a r e n t l y r e f l e c t i n g a s u b - g r o u p of anhedonic s c h i z o p h r e n i c s .  Chapman e t a l . suggest t h a t ,  within  t h e i r sample, some s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were a n h e d o n i c , but t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y were n o t .  Those few anhedonic s u b j e c t s were found to be most f r e -  q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by poor premorbid a d j u s t m e n t , w h i c h might a long-standing d e f i c i t .  reflect  Chapman e t a l . c o n c l u d e d t h a t anhedonia does  not appear to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l s c h i z o p h r e n i c s but  considered  t h e i r f i n d i n g s t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Wise and S t e i n ' s (1973) p o s t mortem s t u d y .  A l t h o u g h the m a j o r i t y of Wise and S t e i n ' s s u b j e c t s were  found to have a b i o c h e m i c a l d e f i c i t i n the a s s a y s , s e v e r a l f e l l w i t h i n t h e normal r a n g e .  Chapman et a l . suggest t h a t t h e h i g h f r e q u e n c y  of  a b n o r m a l i t y found by Wise and S t e i n might have been a f u n c t i o n of s a m p l i n g b i a s ( i n c l u s i o n of l o n g - t e r m c h r o n i c p a t i e n t s ) . h a n d , an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n might be p l a u s i b l e .  On the o t h e r  While the p r e -  sence of t h e m e t a b o l i t e 6-hydroxydopamine might be u n i v e r s a l i n a l l s c h i z o p h r e n i c s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a c r i t i c a l l e v e l of  degeneration  must be reached b e f o r e the b e h a v i o u r a l s i g n s of anhedonia o c c u r .  This  might suggest t h a t o b s e r v a b l e anhedonia i s most p o s s i b l e w i t h c h r o n i c c a s e s , b u t , n o n e t h e l e s s , t h a t g r a d a t i o n s of anhedonia e x i s t . c o n t i n u o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n of a n h e d o n i a , r e f l e c t i n g degrees of  Such a neural  d e g e n e r a t i o n , might o n l y be r e v e a l e d by a s e n s i t i v e i n s t r u m e n t — p e r h a p s , more s e n s i t i v e t h a n the s c a l e s of Chapman et a l . q u e s t i o n cannot be answered w i t h c u r r e n t  one,  Such a  instruments.  A q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d to the i s s u e of the p r e v a l a n c e of anhedonia i n  9  s c h i z o p h r e n i a i s the e x t e n t to w h i c h a d e f i c i e n c y i n p l e a s u r e i s l i m i t e d to s c h i z o p h r e n i a . by anhedonia as w e l l ?  If  That i s , a r e o t h e r groups  characterized  anhedonia c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d i n  who were c l e a r l y not s c h i z o p h r e n i c ,  capacity  individuals  t h i s evidence together w i t h  that  of Chapman et a l . might suggest t h a t anhedonia was n e i t h e r a n e c e s s a r y nor s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r development of s c h i z o p h r e n i a . Meehl (1975) has r e c e n t l y suggested t h a t the c a p a c i t y to  In  fact,  experience  p l e a s u r e be viewed as a h e r i t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e broad i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  Persons on the low end of t h e  may or may not be s c h i z o p h r e n i c .  distribution  I n f a c t , a p l e a s u r e d e f i c i e n c y may  p r e d i s p o s e an i n d i v i d u a l to a number of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  difficulties,  s c h i z o p h r e n i a b e i n g o n l y one example of w h i c h , p e r h a p s , depends on a p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n of o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s as w e l l .  There-r:  f o r e , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of anhedonia i n n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c p o p u l a t i o n s would appear to be of b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and c l i n i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . The second p r e v a l e n c e study had j u s t t h i s a i m .  Harrow et a l .  (1977) a s s e s s e d anhedonia i n 187 young p s y c h i a t r i c i n p a t i e n t s of whom 128 were s c h i z o p h r e n i c and 59 were n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c .  T h i s study  c l u d e d b o t h males and females i n almost e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n .  in-  The mean  age was 2 2 . 4 3 , c o n s i d e r a b l y younger t h a n the Chapman e t a l . s a m p l e . E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was not r e p o r t e d , but p a t i e n t s were r a t e d a c c o r d i n g to s o c i a l c l a s s .  Predominant c l a s s e s were I,  H o l l i n g s h e a d - R e d l i c h system. cation.  II,  and III.  of  the  Most were r e c e i v i n g a n t i p s y c h o t i c m e d i -  U n l i k e the Chapman et a l . s t u d y ,  p a t i e n t s were not o n l y  rated  on premorbid a d j u s t m e n t , but they were a l s o c l a s s i f i e d i n t o major s u b groups of s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  I n c l u d e d were:  acute, paranoid,  chronic,  10  s c h i z o a f f e c t i v e , and a c u t e - c h r o n i c .  N o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were grouped  i n t o d e p r e s s i v e s , s e v e r e p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s , and v a r i o u s  others.  Harrow e t a l . found a t l e a s t 40% of the p a t i e n t s i n each group to have anhedonic t e n d e n c i e s w i t h the e n t i r e s c h i z o p h r e n i c group d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c group.  A f i n d i n g of  interest  was t h a t of d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n s c h i z o p h r e n i c d i a g n o s t i c g r o u p s . a c u t e and s c h i z o a f f e c t i v e groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y non-schizophrenics.  The  from  On the o t h e r hand, t h e c h r o n i c and p a r a n o i d groups  showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a n h e d o n i a .  Harrow et a l . suggest t h a t  f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t the v i e w t h a t anhedonia i s n e i t h e r u n i v e r s a l s c h i z o p h r e n i a nor u n i q u e to s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  their  in  These a r e r a t h e r r e m a r k a b l e  f i n d i n g s when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e i r assessment d e v i c e was a 7 - p o i n t c l i n i c a l rating scale.  A d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s e s suggested t h a t anhedonic  p a t i e n t s g e n e r a l l y were more s y m p t o m a t i c , more c h r o n i c a l l y i l l , had g r e a t e r premorbid s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t y , more o f t e n were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e a r l y onset of d i s o r d e r , were l a c k i n g i n improvement d u r i n g the  early  p e r i o d s of the c u r r e n t h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , tended t o be u n m a r r i e d ,  lonely,  l e s s a f f e c t i o n a t e toward o t h e r s , had few or no s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e s , and had p o o r e r f u n c t i o n i n g and l e s s c o p i n g c a p a c i t y b e f o r e h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n than nonanhedonic p a t i e n t s . T h i s study would seem not o n l y to r e p l i c a t e t h e f i n d i n g s Chapman et a l . but a l s o to extend beyond i t t h e o r i z e d c o n c o m i t a n t s of a n h e d o n i a .  of  to s u p p o r t some of  the  What seems t o be emphasized i n  t h e s e two s t u d i e s of p r e v a l e n c e i s the c o n s i s t e n t a s s o c i a t i o n between c h r o n i c i t y and poor premorbid adjustment and some i n d i c a t i o n of a n hedonia.  What might have been v a l u a b l e a r e m u l t i p l e i n d i c e s of  .r.  11  anhedonia.  It  i s i m p o s s i b l e to presume t h a t the Chapman e t a l . s c a l e  would have y i e l d e d i d e n t i c a l r e s u l t s w i t h t h e Harrow et a l . sample. Both of the p r e c e d i n g s t u d i e s of p r e v a l e n c e examined p a t i e n t s p r i m a r i l y s u f f e r i n g from moderate to s e v e r e forms of It w i l l ,  however,  be. r e c a l l e d t h a t B l e u l e r  schizophrenia.  (1911/1950) suggested a  d i s t u r b a n c e of p l e a s u r a b l e emotion to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m i l d forms of s c h i z o p h r e n i a and not to be a f u n c t i o n of g e n e r a l  deterioration.  I n o t h e r w o r d s , one might expect anhedonia to be p r e s e n t i n what Meehl (1964) has termed t h e compensated s c h i z o t y p e , w h i c h i n c l u d e s l a t e n t and postpsychotic states.  Only one study has examined such a group  (Kayton  & K o h , 1 9 7 5 ) , i n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t Hoch and P o l a t i n (1949) c o n s i d e r e d anhedonia to be one of the e a r l i e s t s i g n s of t h e p s e u d o neurotic variety 1970).  (a c a t e g o r y of l a t e n t s c h i z o p h r e n i a , H i n s i e & C a m p b e l l ,  The study of Kayton and Koh (1975) f a i l e d to q u a n t i f y  anhedonia  i n t h e i r p s e u d o n e u r o t i c s c h i z o p h r e n i c s a m p l e , who, i n c i d e n t a l l y were hospitalized patients.  Nevertheless,  t h e r e s u l t s of t h e i r  suggested a n h e d o n i a - l i k e q u a l i t i e s i n t h i s group as w e l l . r e s u l t s w i l l be r e p o r t e d  experiment Their  later.  A r e f e r e n c e to anhedonia appeared r e c e n t l y b o r d e r l i n e syndrome ( M i l l e r ,  1975).  i n a case study of  Unfortunately,  the  i t was not s p e c i -  f i e d whether the two i n d i v i d u a l s d e s c r i b e d r e p r e s e n t e d examples of borderline schizophrenia H i n s i e & C a m p b e l l , 1970).  ( a l s o a c a t e g o r y of l a t e n t Further,  schizophrenia,  anhedonia appeared to have been  a s s e s s e d by an u n s p e c i f i e d c l i n i c a l i n s p e c t i o n and was d e s c r i b e d as a complex a f f e c t s t a t e w h i c h f u n c t i o n e d as a defense i n b o t h It  individuals.  i s u n c l e a r what r e l a t i o n t h i s r e p o r t e d anhedonia has to the main  12  body of p r e v i o u s l y  cited literature.  Two a d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e  b o r d e r l i n e syndrome f a i l to agree as to whether or not anhedonia i s a fundamental p a r t of t h e c l i n i c a l p i c t u r e ( G r i n k e r , 1968; Gunderson & S i n g e r ,  Werble, & Drye,  1975).  I n summary, the presence of anhedonia has been noted p r i m a r i l y  in  c h r o n i c s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s as w e l l as l a t e n t and n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c patients.  Anhedonia would appear to be f a r from u n i v e r s a l i n s c h i z o -  p h r e n i a on the b a s i s of c u r r e n t r e p o r t s .  C e r t a i n l y those s t u d i e s c o n -  cerned w i t h l a t e n t s c h i z o p h r e n i c s must be viewed as t e n t a t i v e due t o the l a c k of measurement p r e c i s i o n .  No study r e p o r t e d to d a t e has  a s s e s s e d o u t p a t i e n t p s y c h i a t r i c groups or a wide a r r a y of n o r m a l s . The q u e s t i o n remains one of c o n c l u s i v e l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g the r o l e p l a y e d by anhedonia i n the development of s c h i z o p h r e n i a :  t h a t of  primary  e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r , as a symptom of a p r i m a r y a g e n t , or as a secondary symptom of a p r o g r e s s i v e ,  deteriorating disorder.  suggest t h r e e p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s :  firstly,  Harrow et a l .  (1977)  anhedonia may be a  consequence of c h r o n i c i t y or d e t e r i o r a t i o n , s e c o n d l y , anhedonia may be a c o n d i t i o n of " t r u e " s c h i z o p h r e n i a or dementia p r a e c o x , or anhedonia i s one of the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the c o u r s e of toward c h r o n i c i t y .  thirdly,  schizophrenia  They m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e i r d a t a s u p p o r t t h e  third  e x p l a n a t i o n , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t anhedonia i s not a major e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r , but r a t h e r a form of m o d e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e whereby t h e c o u r s e of psychosis  (acute v s .  chronic)  i s determined by the p r e s e n c e of a n -  hedonia.  C e r t a i n l y t h i s l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of anhedonia c o i n c i d e s  most c l o s e l y w i t h t h e n o t i o n of a c o n t i n u o u s l y d i s t r i b u t e d w h i c h Meehl (1975) has r e f e r r e d to as h e d o n i c c a p a c i t y .  trait  I t may be  13  incorrect  to view anhedonia as a d e f e c t , s i n c e i t may, r a t h e r ,  s e n t a lowered i n n a t e r e c e p t i v e a b i l i t y  to respond to p o s i t i v e  which i s unrelated to biochemical imbalances.  stimuli,  The a s s o c i a t i o n between  anhedonia and s c h i z o p h r e n i a may, i n f a c t , . be c o i n c i d e n t a l . anhedonia may be most h i g h l y r e l a t e d to a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h schizophrenics share w i t h a v a r i e t y  repre-  That i s ,  certain  of o t h e r d i a g n o s t i c g r o u p s .  This  p o s s i b i l i t y has been c o n s i d e r e d o n l y i n the study of Harrow e t a l . (1977).  It  i s apparent t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r b r e a d t h i n the  t i g a t i o n of n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c g r o u p s .  It  i s further  inves-  c r i t i c a l to a s s e s s  n o n - h o s p i t a l i z e d p e r s o n s , s i n c e a l l r e s e a r c h to date has been  narrowly  f o c u s e d on i n - p a t i e n t s a m p l e s . Refinement of the  Construct  W h i l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p r e v a l e n c e of anhedonia remains an i m p o r t a n t a r e a of r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n , f u r t h e r r a i s e d e a r l y i n t h i s review i s . e s s e n t i a l .  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i s s u e s Perhaps the g r e a t e s t  i s f o r a v a l i d o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t . have addressed t h i s i s s u e (Watson & J a c o b s , Lorei,  need  Two s t u d i e s  1977; Watson, K l e t t , &  1970).  The f i r s t  study  (Watson e t a l . , 1970) attempted to develop  an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n as w e l l as a measure of anhedonia  through  f a c t o r - a n a l y s i s of seven s c a l e s a p p e a r i n g to be components of c a l l y defined anhedonia.  both  clini-  The s u b j e c t s of the study were 70 male  s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s whose mean age was 3 8 . 1 y e a r s and mean l e n g t h of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n was almost 8 y e a r s . previously,  R e l a t i v e to the s t u d i e s  cited  t h e s e s u b j e c t s appear to have been not o n l y much o l d e r ,  but a l s o p o t e n t i a l l y more c h r o n i c .  The s c a l e s used to  reflect  14  anhedonia a s s e s s e d the degree of a f f e c t u a l interest  i n the environment, apathy,  low energy l e v e l , motor r e t a r d a t i o n ,  flatness,  w i t h d r a w a l of  l a c k of i n t e r e s t , decreased  lowered d r i v e ,  responsibility,  creased m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e l , and absence of f u n l o v i n g n e s s . m a t r i x of t o t a l s c o r e fact  c o r r e l a t i o n s was f a c t o r  analysed,  de-  Only  the  despite  the  t h a t some s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the study w i t h  no seeming examination of homogeneity of i t e m s 1 , v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . structured  nor r e p o r t s  of  S e v e r a l of the s c a l e s were based on semi-  interviews.  Two f a c t o r s  were r e p o r t e d :  F a c t o r 1 — Apathy v s .  Cheerfulness  which was based p r i m a r i l y on behaviour r a t i n g s made by n u r s e s ;  and  F a c t o r 2 — Apathy vs Energy which was d e r i v e d mostly from p a t i e n t i n t e r v i e w and s e l f - r e p o r t .  Watson et a l .  suggest t h a t anhedonia  b e s t c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a m u l t i v a r i a t e t r a i t , intercorrelated variables.  or as  a set  as  (apathy vs energy) which may r e f l e c t  the o p p o s i t e  z e s t f o r l i f e and energy  t h a t i n t e r v i e w and s e l f - r e p o r t  data more a p t l y r e l a t e  of  cheerfulness  patients.  T h i s study r e p r e s e n t e d A subsequent of .82 a f t e r  to  C e r t a i n l y , they have  i l l u s t r a t e d a major d i f f i c u l t y w i t h b e h a v i o u r a l r a t i n g s i n schizophrenic  of a  T h e i r recommendations would seem  anhedonia than do b e h a v i o u r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s .  1  to the second  of anhedonia, s i n c e the s u p e r f i c i a l c h e e r f u l n e s s  p a t i e n t may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e a f f e c t . to a s s e r t  somewhat  They f u r t h e r suggest t h a t c h o i c e of a  s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n of anhedonia might be b e s t r e s t r i c t e d factor  of  is  a meaningful attempt  to o p e r a t i o n a l l y  define  study (Watson, 1972a) r e p o r t e d t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y one week, and an a l p h a . c o e f f i c i e n t of . 7 6 .  15  anhedonia by the use of a m u l t i - m e t h o d assessment. however, to be a number of s h o r t c o m i n g s .  There a p p e a r ,  The unknown r e l i a b i l i t y  v a l i d i t y of c e r t a i n measures was i n d i c a t e d .  F u r t h e r , c h o i c e of  s c a l e s c o r e s as opposed to i n d i v i d u a l s c a l e i t e m s f o r f a c t o r may have r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r range of d e f i n i t i o n .  Finally,  and total  analysis  assessment of  a c h r o n i c sample r a i s e s the i s s u e of t h e p o s s i b l e c o n f o u n d i n g of a n hedonia w i t h c h r o n i c i t y .  That i s , t h e i r f a c t o r s may be d e f i n i n g a  m i x t u r e of c h r o n i c i t y w i t h t h e concomitant e f f e c t s of l o n g term h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n and a n h e d o n i a . The second d e f i n i t i o n a l study (Watson & J a c o b s , anhedonia to s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g — same d i m e n s i o n .  1977) r e l a t e d  as p o s s i b l y o p p o s i t e p o l e s of  the  Watson and Jacobs c o n s i d e r e d b o t h to be r e f l e c t i o n s  of autonomic a r o u s a l —  s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g as a f u n c t i o n of low a r o u s a l ,  and anhedonia of h i g h a r o u s a l .  Two s u b j e c t samples were i n v o l v e d .  Both were composed p r e d o m i n a n t l y of s c h i z o p h r e n i c i n - p a t i e n t m a l e s . Anhedonia was a s s e s s e d i n a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w , by Zuckerman's (1971) S e n s a t i o n - S e e k i n g s c a l e s . negative;  and s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g The r e s u l t s were  anhedonia and s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g appeared to be u n c o r r e l a t e d .  Watson and Jacobs suggested t h a t " d e s p i t e t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l s i m i l a r i t y , t h e two r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n a l d e f i c i t s . "  They viewed s e n s a -  t i o n - s e e k i n g as the i n v e r s e of " n e u r o t i c i n h i b i t i o n " and anhedonia as a "separate motivational d e f i c i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of p r o c e s s  schizophrenics"  ( s i n c e i t had a moderate but s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s c o r e s on the U l l m a n n - G i o v a n n o n i  (1964) P r o c e s s - R e a c t i v e s c a l e , .46 -  a l s o p a r t i a l l e d out the e f f e c t s of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n from the between anhedonia and s c h i z o p h r e n i a  .44).  They  correlation  (MMPI) and r e p o r t a low J L p  a r t  =  .16.  16  T h i s would suggest s t r o n g e r a s s o c i a t i o n s of anhedonia w i t h poor p r e morbid s t a t u s and c h r o n i c i t y  than w i t h a d i a g n o s i s of s c h i z o p h r e n i a  a g a i n echoing t h e f i n d i n g s of Harrow et a l .  —  (1977).  I n summary, t h e s e two a t t e m p t s to r e f i n e an o p e r a t i o n a l  definition  of anhedonia suggest a s t r o n g component of c h r o n i c i t y and d i s t i n g u i s h i t from a c o n c e p t u a l l y s i m i l a r d i m e n s i o n of s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g . d i f f i c u l t to a s s e s s the v a l i d i t y measures was an i n t e r v i e w . construct v a l i d i t y  and t e s t  It  is  of t h e s e r e s u l t s s i n c e one of the main  The problem i s one of c o n f u s i o n between validity.  The a m b i g u i t y r e m a i n s .  To what e x t e n t does anhedonia  represent  a phenomeon d i s t i n c t from c h r o n i c i t y and the low energy l e v e l w h i c h must almost s u r e l y accompany a l o n g p e r i o d of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n ?  It  would seem to be of c o n s i d e r a b l e c l i n i c a l importance to d e t e c t a n h e d o n i a p r i o r to . c h r o n i c i t y i f  i t i s indeed a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y .  becomes i m p e r a t i v e to s e p a r a t e the two e x p e r i m e n t a l l y .  It  To the e x t e n t  t h a t we examine and b e g i n to f o r m u l a t e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of t h e t i o n i n g of a n h e d o n i c , n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c ,  func-  n o n - c h r o n i c s u b j e c t s , we  improve our p o s i t i o n to s p e c u l a t e on the importance of anhedonia to s c h i z o p h r e n i a a n d , p e r h a p s , o n l y then can we b e g i n to f o r m u l a t e some tentative therapeutic  interventions.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Anhedonics Another method of c o n t r i b u t i n g to the i s s u e of d e f i n i t i o n  is  t h r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s i n f u n c t i o n i n g between l o w - and high-anhedonic non-schizophrenics.  The most a p p r o p r i a t e a r e a of  t i o n i n g to examine would be t h a t of t h e e x p e r i e n c e of p l e a s u r e , (Meehl,1975) anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s a r e , t h e o r e t i c a l l y ,  funcsince  not d e v o i d of  17  pleasure experiences; t h e r e s t of us do. the experience?  they s i m p l y do not get t h e k i c k out of them t h a t  Are there i d e n t i f i a b l e , q u a n t i f i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s  in  I n s p i t e of t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i n c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s  of t h i s i s s u e , t h e r e has been no s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h to d a t e w h i c h has f o c u s e d on .the p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e s of anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s .  In  few s t u d i e s have concerned themselves w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s u r e i n normal i n d i v i d u a l s .  One r e a s o n f o r the p a u c i t y of  plea-  research  i n t h i s a r e a i s the absence of methods to e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l m a n i p u l a t e l e v e l s of a s u b j e c t i v e  fact,  or  experience.  The p r e s e n t study has been u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r to f i r s t l y l e v e l s of anhedonia i n normal u n i v e r s i t y t o . e x a m i n e some a s p e c t s of the s u b j e c t i v e  undergraduates a n d ,  assess secondly,  e x p e r i e n c e of p l e a s u r e .  Only f o u r s t u d i e s comparing d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n . l o w - and h i g h anhedonic s u b j e c t s have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e . h o s p i t a l i z e d s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were used as s u b j e c t s . v a r i a b l e s were:  In a l l cases, The  dependent  r e c a l l of p l e a s a n t , u n p l e a s a n t , and n e u t r a l words  (Kayton & K o h , 1 9 7 5 ) , p e r c e p t i o n of t a c h i s t o s c o p i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d words and p i c t u r e s as b e i n g p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e ,  or n e u t r a l  l e a r n i n g under reward or punishment c o n d i t i o n s finally, physiological reactivity (Watson,1972b).  The f i r s t  (Watson,  (Watson,  1972a), a n d ,  under s t r e s s and r e s t i n g  t h r e e s t u d i e s d e a l t somewhat  1977),  conditions  tangentially  w i t h the p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e and the r e s u l t s w i l l be summarized briefly.  The f o u r t h study y i e l d e d n e g a t i v e  results.  K a y t o n & Koh (1975) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f s u f f e r i n g from a p l e a s u r e d e f i c i t and i f  schizophrenics  were  they w e r e , t h e r e f o r e ,  i n d e t e c t i n g and u s i n g p l e a s a n t f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r memory f o r  poor  words,  18  t h e i r r e c a l l of p l e a s a n t words s h o u l d s u f f e r , and t h e i r r e c a l l o r d e r f o r p l e a s a n t words s h o u l d be...less o r g a n i z e d than those who do use p l e a s a n t n e s s i n t h e i r mnemonic o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Their r e s u l t s  confirmed  the h y p o t h e s e s ; s c h i z o p h r e n i c s showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower r e c a l l of p l e a s a n t words compared to normals who remembered p l e a s a n t words n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n t h a n u n p l e a s a n t w o r d s .  sig-  Both groups tended to  remember u n p l e a s a n t words to an e q u i v a l e n t e x t e n t .  It  is  interesting  t o note t h a t the s u b j e c t s of t h i s study had a mean age of 21 y e a r s ; therefore,  the e f f e c t s of c h r o n i c i t y and l o n g h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n can be  expected to have been m i n i m a l .  Further,  d o m i n a n t l y of t h e p s e u d o n e u r o t i c v a r i e t y . was not a s s e s s e d — anhedonia.  the s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were p r e Unfortunately,  anhedonia  the r e s u l t s themselves were t a k e n as e v i d e n c e of  T h i s i s indeed a -shortcoming of an o t h e r w i s e w e l l - d e s i g n e d  experiment f o r i t seems amply, c l e a r t h a t not a l l of t h e s e s c h i z o p h r e n i c s would have been c o n s i d e r e d to be anhedonic u s i n g c u r r e n t methods of assessment.  I t would have been v a l u a b l e to s e p a r a t e the s c h i z o p h r e n i c  group a c c o r d i n g to h e d o n i c c a p a c i t y .  N o n e t h e l e s s , the r e s u l t s were  i n the expected d i r e c t i o n and i t may be t h a t something as s u b t l e as mnemonic o r g a n i z a t i o n or f r e q u e n c y of r e c a l l may r e f l e c t the s i g n s  of  m i l d anhedonia w h i c h may go u n d e t e c t e d by o t h e r means. I n a s i m i l a r e x a m i n a t i o n of c o g n i t i o n , Watson (1977) a s s e s s e d the degree t o w h i c h h i g h vs low anhedonic s c h i z o p h r e n i c s  (hospitalized,  under 60 y e a r s ) tended to p e r c e i v e ambiguous ( t a c h i s t o s c o p i c a l l y  pre-  sented) words and p i c t u r e s as p l e a s a n t , u n p l e a s a n t , or n e u t r a l . Watson h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s u b j e c t might have an a b normal b i a s toward i n t e r p r e t i n g ambiguous s t i m u l i as n o n - e m o t i o n a l  19  r a t h e r than a f f e c t - l a d e n .  He f u r t h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t such a p e r c e p t u a l  s t y l e would be mediated by an i n c r e a s e i n p e r c e p t u a l t h r e s h o l d emotional s t i m u l i .  H i s r e s u l t s were p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e .  anhedonic s u b j e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o guess words and l e s s l i k e l y to o f f e r p l e a s a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s anhedonic group.  for  Highneutral  than t h e l o w -  There was no d i f f e r e n c e between the groups i n t e n -  dency to choose u n p l e a s a n t words.  W i t h r e g a r d to t h r e s h o l d ,  high-  anhedonics showed g r e a t e r t h r e s h o l d s , f o r n e u t r a l s t i m u l i t h a n l o w anhedonics. Watson concluded t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t e d the n o t i o n of anhedonia as a d e f i c i t s p e c i f i c to p o s i t i v e emotions and t h a t i t f l e c t s a tendency to i n t e r p r e t value.  He f u r t h e r  and Koh (1975).  s t i m u l i as l a c k i n g i n p o s i t i v e  re-  affectual  s t a t e d t h a t h i s r e s u l t s complemented t h o s e of  Actually,  t h e r e were s e v e r a l r a t h e r s t r i k i n g  f e r e n c e s between the s t u d i e s .  First,  Kayton  dif-  Kayton and K o h ' s s u b j e c t s  were  almost 20 y e a r s younger on the average than those of Watson and they i n c l u d e d a m i x t u r e of p s y c h i a t r i c and normal i n d i v i d u a l s . focused e n t i r e l y  on s c h i z o p h r e n i c s .  Watson  S e c o n d l y , a s i d e from such s t r i k i n g  d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Kayton and Koh d i d not a s s e s s anhedonia whereas Watson used a s t a n d a r d i n t e r v i e w f o r t h a t  purpose.  F i n a l l y , precedurally,  their  the s t u d i e s d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n  d e f i n i t i o n of the p l e a s a n t n e s s , u n p l e a s a n t n e s s , or n e u t r a l i t y  of  stimuli.  subject's  Whereas K a y t o n and Koh based such d e f i n i t i o n on the  own r a t i n g of p l e a s a n t n e s s , Watson used t h r e e independent persons determine the a f f e c t i v i t y  of s t i m u l i .  the  to  T h i s would appear to be a s e r i o u s  d e f i c i e n c y of Watson's study f o r one can o n l y i n f e r t h a t t h e s t i m u l i  20  might have been e q u i v a l e n t l y r a t e d by h i s  subjects.  Both of t h e p r e c e d i n g s t u d i e s examined c o g n i t i v e (memory and p e r c e p t i o n ) ,  functions  of anhedonic s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s u s i n g  p l e a s a n t , u n p l e a s a n t , and n e u t r a l s t i m u l i .  The r e s u l t s have suggested  some e x c i t i n g d i r e c t i o n s f o r anhedonic r e s e a r c h ; however,  their  re-  s t r i c t i o n t o s c h i z o p h r e n i c s u b j e c t s r a i s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  the  f i n d i n g s may not be a p p l i c a b l e to anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s  generally.  That i s , t h e r e s u l t s might be another example of s c h i z o p h r e n i c c o g n i t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e p r e s e n c e of a n h e d o n i a .  Because of Watson's  study examined b o t h l o w - and h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s c h i z o p h r e n i c s and found d i f f e r e n c e s between them, i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e r e s u l t s were a f u n c t i o n of a n h e d o n i a .  However, i t has been noted t h a t b o t h Watson's  samples as w e l l as h i s measure of anhedonia may be confounded by the e f f e c t s of c h r o n i c i t y .  It  i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r r e p l i c a -  t i o n of t h e s e r e s u l t s i n y o u n g e r , n o n - s c h i z o p h r e n i c a n h e d o n i c s . The r e s u l t s seem t o suggest t h a t anhedonia i s d e t e c t a b l e a t a c o g n i t i v e l e v e l , a n d , moreover, t h a t anhedonics tend not o n l y t o remember fewer p l e a s a n t s t i m u l i than n o r m a l s , but they they may f a i l p e r c e i v e them as such i n the f i r s t p l a c e .  Strikingly,  appear o v e r r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e u n p l e a s a n t s t i m u l i —  to  they do not  t h a t i s , they do  not appear to have a n e g a t i v e b i a s as might be found i n d e p r e s s i v e s . T h i s would seem then t o be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t anhedonia i s a r e c e p t i v e d e f i c i t o p e r a t i n g p o t e n t i a l l y a t an e x p e r i e n t i a l (or e a r l y  perceptual)  l e v e l as d i s t i n c t from a c o g n i t i v e d i s t o r t i o n or b i a s . The t h i r d study  (Watson, 1972a) was concerned w i t h the  relative  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of punishment and reward on the l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o u r  of  21  300 male h o s p i t a l i z e d s c h i z o p h r e n i c s .  The r e s u l t s were  negative;  anhedonia s c o r e s d i d not i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e v a r i o u s r e i n f o r c e r s reinforcer-modality patterns.  c o m b i n a t i o n s to produce d i f f e r e n t i a l  or  learning  Watson suggested t h a t anhedonia (as d e f i n e d by h i s  structured  i n t e r v i e w ) i s u n r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to reward and punishment of v a r i o u s s o r t s ment) .  He f u r t h e r  ( i n c l u d i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l reward and p u n i s h -  concluded t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s d i d not support M e e h l ' s  t h e o r y but emphasized t h a t , u n l i k e Meehl (who appears to v i e w anhedonia i n terms of the amount of " k i c k " an i n d i v i d u a l i s c a p a b l e of  receiving  from a p l e a s u r a b l e s t i m u l u s ) , he tends to d e f i n e anhedonia as a g e n e r a l m o t i v a t i o n a l s l o w i n g , i n t e l l e c t u a l i n e f f i c i e n c y , h i g h l e v e l of i n h i b i t i o n , or f a i l u r e to l e a r n how to enjoy f u n or As p r e v i o u s l y  challenge.  i n d i c a t e d , t h e samples g e n e r a l l y employed by  Watson have tended toward c h r o n i c i t y as w e l l as b e i n g o l d e r .  It  is  p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e g e n e r a l m o t i v a t i o n a l s l o w i n g t h a t Watson d e s c r i b e d may be m u l t i p l y a f u n c t i o n of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , s c h i z o p h r e n i a , and aging.  Certainly,  anhedonia has been d e t e c t e d i n younger  u s i n g o t h e r methods.  subjects  No one has used Watson's s t r u c t u r e d  interview  i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h another method u s i n g a young sample. As i n h i s p r e v i o u s  s t u d y , Watson a g a i n d e f i n e d s t i m u l i as  r e w a r d i n g or p u n i s h i n g h i m s e l f .  I n operant t e r m i n o l o g y ,  either  a reinforcer  i s d e f i n e d i n accordance w i t h the e f f e c t i t has on a b e h a v i o u r . which i s rewarding  (positive)  i s a r e i n f o r c e r which i n c r e a s e s the  quency of the b e h a v i o u r i t f o l l o w s ; a p u n i s h i n g r e i n f o r c e r ,  But, reinforcers  fre-  on the  o t h e r h a n d , i s one w h i c h d e c r e a s e s the p r o b a b i l i t y of response rence.  That  reoccur-  a r e g e n e r a l l y viewed as i d i o s y n c r a t i c and  it  22  i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e of the r e i n f o r c e r s he used as b e i n g e q u i v a l e n t across subjects.  For example, h e a r i n g " g o o d " from a s t r a n g e r might  not be p e r c e i v e d as r e w a r d i n g even f o r t h e most h e d o n i c of T h i s appeared t o have been the extreme reward i n Watson's reward c o n d i t i o n .  interpersonal  Thus, c h o i c e of r e i n f o r c e r might have p a r t i a l l y  c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s .  A t b e s t , what can be c o n c l u d e d  from h i s r e s u l t s i s t h a t the s c h i z o p h r e n i c s were n o t  differentially  r e s p o n s i v e to t h e rewards and punishments employed i n the At t h i s p o i n t ,  subjects.  study.  i t seems n e c e s s a r y t o i n d i c a t e a d i s t i n c t i o n b e -  tween the c a p a c i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e p l e a s u r e and the a b i l i t y t o be r e inforced.  S i n c e , as p r e v i o u s l y  i l l u s t r a t e d , a r e i n f o r c e r need not be  p l e a s u r a b l e to produce r e s u l t s , i t seems most p a r s i m o n i o u s i n t h e e a r l y study of anhedonia t o r e s t r i c t  the f o c u s t o p l e a s u r e c a p a c i t y .  Cer-  t a i n l y , M e e h l ' s views do tend t o combine r e i n f o r c e m e n t w i t h p l e a s u r e . What i s a l s o c l e a r a t t h i s s t a g e i s t h a t d e t e c t i o n of p l e a s u r e i s possible at a subjective l e v e l .  only  Assuming t h a t anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s  e x p e r i e n c e some form of p l e a s u r e , i t would appear t o be most  fruitful  t o b e g i n by a s k i n g them about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , h o p e f u l l y i n a manner t h a t can be q u a n t i f i e d .  Because b o t h ( B l e u l e r  (1911/1950) and Rado  (1969) have suggested a weakening of e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ,  particularly  of the w e l f a r e or p o s i t i v e e m o t i o n s , i n anhedonic i n d i v i d u a l s , i t  would  appear t o be i n f o r m a t i v e t o compare the e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s t o p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s of b o t h h i g h and low anhedonic s u b j e c t s i n terms of i n t e n s i t y ,  f r e q u e n c y , and p a t t e r n i n g of e m o t i o n s .  P a s t r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d a need f o r the e x a m i n a t i o n of young, n o n - h o s p i t a l i z e d , n o n - p s y c h i a t r i c i n d i v i d u a l s , assuming t h a t anhedonia  23  i s continuously  d i s t r i b u t e d i n the population.  In addition, the  cognitive studies have i l l u s t r a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y that anhedonia might be assessed at an experiential l e v e l . the 66-item  2  Of the existing measures,  Chapman et a l . (1976) Physical Anhedonia scale would seem  to most closely r e f l e c t experiential aspects since many of the items deal r e l a t i v e l y concretely with a variety of reactions to l i f e periences.  ex-  Furthermore, research indicates the importance of including  multiple methods of assessment, as well as refinement of the methods currently i n use.  For that reason, examination of the item structure  of the Chapman et a l . scale would appear to be a worthwhile endeavour  —  p a r t i c u l a r l y since i t encompasses a variety of physical l i f e experiences. A p a r t i t i o n i n g of the items through factor analysis, and the subsequent examination of factor scores between.high- and low-anhedonic normal subjects might i s o l a t e more s p e c i f i c differences between the groups. The e x p l i c i t model of anhedonia.employed i n the current study i s that of a continuously  d i s t r i b u t e d receptive deficiency —  at both a cognitive and experiential l e v e l . a t r a i t non-specific to schizophrenia,  detectable  If anhedonia i s i n fact  i t should be detectable i n a  normal sample, perhaps i n mild form. S p e c i f i c Hypotheses It i s hypothesized that within a normal sample of individuals those scoring high on .the Physical Anhedonia scale (Chapman et a l . ,  2  The f i n a l version of the Physical Anhedonia scale of Chapman et a l . which was reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e contained 40 items. The copy they made available contained 66 items.  24  1976) s h o u l d d i f f e r from low s c o r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r e g a r d to s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of p l e a s u r e .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i f  their  anhedonia  i s d e t e c t a b l e i n m i l d form i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e q u a n t i f i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n t e n s i t y , e m o t i o n a l c o n c o m i t a n t s of p l e a s u r e . f o r m u l a t e d f o r the c u r r e n t 1.  frequency,  The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses  and  were  study.  When i m a g i n i n g t h e i r own p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s ,  high-anhedonics  s h o u l d name fewer e x p e r i e n c e s than l o w - a n h e d o n i c s . 2.  Of the e x p e r i e n c e s they do l i s t , h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s s h o u l d r a t e t h e s e as l e s s i n t e n s e l y p l e a s a n t t h a n l o w - a n h e d o n i c s .  3.  H i g h - a n h e d o n i c s s h o u l d r e p o r t fewer p l e a s a n t t h a n l o w - a n h e d o n i c s on a d a y - t o - d a y  4.  experiences  basis.  R e g a r d i n g e m o t i o n a l c o n c o m i t a n t s of p l e a s u r e , are hypothesized  high-anhedonics  to have lower i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s on p o s i t i v e  emotions t h a n l o w - a n h e d o n i c s . 5.  It  i s hypothesized  t h a t t h e r e a r e no d i f f e r e n c e s between the  groups i n i n t e n s i t y r a t i n g s of other e m o t i o n s . 6.  Of a v a r i e t y  of p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s ,  that high-anhedonics  hypothesized  s h o u l d r a t e these as u n i f o r m l y l e s s e n -  j o y a b l e than do l o w - a n h e d o n i c s . d i f f e r on each c l u s t e r if  it is  That i s , the groups s h o u l d  (or c l u s t e r s )  of pleasuiE e x p e r i e n c e s  anhedonia i s to be c o n s i d e r e d to be a lowered c a p a c i t y  for  p l e a s u r e u n r e l a t e d to s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . The most a c c e s s i b l e group of normal i n d i v i d u a l s psychology  students.  was  undergraduate  They completed the 6 6 - i t e m P h y s i c a l Anhedonia  S c a l e , the D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e ( I z a r d , D o u g h e r t y , Bloxom, &  25  K o t s c h , 1 9 7 4 ) , and answered q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the frequency  and  i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r p l e a s u r e ..experiences. Three s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s were conducted u s i n g d a t a from t h e same subjects. study.  For c o n v e n i e n c e , each a n a l y s i s i s r e p o r t e d as a s e p a r a t e  The o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n . i s a r b i t r a r y  comparison of h i g h - and l o w - a n h e d o n i c s u b j e c t s a n a l y s i s of the D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions I z a r d et a l .  (Study 2 ) , and f i n a l l y ,  and c o n s i s t s of  the  (Study 1 ) , the  factor  Scale + Anxiety  (DES+A) of  the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of  P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e of Chapman et a l .  (Study 3 ) .  the  26  STUDY 1 COMPARISON OF LOW- AND HIGH-ANHEDONICS  Method Subjects.  The s u b j e c t s were 312 undergraduate p s y c h o l o g y  e n r o l l e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y males).  of B r i t i s h Columbia (192 females and 120  The mean age was 20.49 y e a r s  and 20.76 y e a r s  students  (SD 2.824) f o r the female s a m p l e ,  (SD 2.845) f o r the male sample.  s c r e e n i n g was done, however,  No p s y c h i a t r i c  and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the sample i n c l u d e d  a few compensated s c h i z o t y p e s as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o t h e r minor psychiatric  problems.  Instruments. d i x I)  A l l s u b j e c t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d a survey (see Appen-  w h i c h i n c l u d e d (1)  the 6 6 - i t e m P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e of  Chapman, Chapman, and R a u l i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Scale + Anxiety  (2)  t h e D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotions  (DES+A), w h i c h c o n s i s t s of the 3 3 - i t e m D i f f e r e n t i a l  Emotions S c a l e developed by I z a r d ,  Dougherty,  t o g e t h e r w i t h 18 S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y  Bloxom, and K o t s c h (1974)  items ( S p i e l b e r g e r ,  Gorsuch, &  Luchene, 1970) c o n v e r t e d by I z a r d (1972) i n t o DES f o r m a t , and q u e s t i o n s r e f l e c t i n g the p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e .  (3)  These q u e s t i o n s were  expanded from the DES+A p o r t i o n of the survey and w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , s e n t e d on the same pages as DES+A i t e m s .  pre-  S i n c e s u b j e c t s were asked to  imagine p l e a s a n t s i t u a t i o n s w h i l e c o m p l e t i n g the DES+A, i t was c o n s i d e r e d to be u s e f u l to i n q u i r e about the n a t u r e of t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g DES+A s c a l e i t e m s , s u b j e c t s were asked to r e c a l l t h e i r sant s i t u a t i o n s .  plea-  Space was p r o v i d e d f o r t e n s i t u a t i o n s , thus i m p o s i n g  a c e i l i n g on the t o t a l p o s s i b l e number.  The s u b j e c t s were then asked  27  t o r a t e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s u s i n g a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g from 1 - i n t e n s e l y unpleasant to 7 - i n t e n s e l y p l e a s a n t .  F i n a l l y , as an a d d i t i o n a l measure  of a n h e d o n i a , s u b j e c t s were asked to r a t e the f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h they e x p e r i e n c e d p l e a s u r e u s i n g one of seven c a t e g o r i e s r a n g i n g from " a l m o s t every day" t o an extreme of " n e v e r . "  There was v e r y  little  v a r i a b i l i t y i n responses t o t h i s i t e m , and i t was t h e r e f o r e not used i n c l a s s i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o l e v e l s of a n h e d o n i a .  T h i s measure d i d ,  however, have a low but s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e t o t a l anhedonia s c o r e d e r i v e d from Chapman et a l . ' s  (1976) s c a l e , _r = - . 2 8 , p_ = . 0 0 1 .  A f a c e sheet a t the b e g i n n i n g of e a c h . s u r v e y gave a b r i e f  des-  c r i p t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n s t r u c t i o n s , and space f o r t h e s u b j e c t s to i n d i c a t e t h e i r age and s e x .  The o r d e r of s c a l e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n  t h e survey was randomized t o c o n t r o l f o r o r d e r  effects.  Because a major p o r t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h was concerned w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n of the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s of b o t h s c a l e s , each s c a l e i s d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e s e a n a l y s e s  (Studies  2 and 3 ) . Procedure.  A l l s u b j e c t s were approached i n t h e i r c l a s s e s a n d ,  although they were strongly 7  were v o l u n t e e r s .  encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e , a l l s u b j e c t s  P r i o r to d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , s u b j e c t s were i n f o r m e d  t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t o r was c o n d u c t i n g a survey of l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and i t was emphasized t h a t t h e r e were d i f f e r e n t forms f o r males and females as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s f o r the two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  S u b j e c t s were  g i v e n 3 0 - 5 0 minutes of c l a s s time t o complete the s u r v e y , and a l t h o u g h most were completed i n t h i s amount of t i m e , c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s f i n i s h e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a t home and r e t u r n e d them t o the  instructor  28  i n a subsequent c l a s s . for p a r t i c i p a t i o n . survey.  No r e m u n e r a t i o n or c o u r s e c r e d i t was o f f e r e d  Of t h o s e approached, r o u g h l y 60% completed the  Of those who d i d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s u r v e y , some completed  o n l y p o r t i o n s of the s c a l e s .  I t was noted t h a t a few c o n s c i e n t i o u s  s u b j e c t s a d v i s e d the i n v e s t i g a t o r  a f t e r t e s t i n g t h a t they had r e v e r s e d  the order i n w h i c h they responded.  It  o r d e r of t e s t i n g was not c o m p l e t e l y  controlled.  Analyses.  i s , therefore, believed that  the  Two f a c t o r a n a l y s e s were conducted f o r the DES+A (see  Study 2) and f o r the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e (see Study 3 ) .  Following  t h e s e a n a l y s e s , f a c t o r s c o r e s were computed f o r each s u b j e c t .  Subjects  were then d i v i d e d i n t o two groups on t h e b a s i s of a median s p l i t t o t a l anhedonia s c o r e s .  of  T h i s was done s e p a r a t e l y f o r each sex s i n c e  was found t h a t males s c o r e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anhedonic  than  f e m a l e s , F_(l,308)  order  = 1 9 . 7 9 , p_ = . 0 0 0 .  t e s t i n g was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F_(l,308)  The main e f f e c t , f o r  it  of  = 1 . 1 8 , _p_ = . 2 7 7 , nor was the  i n t e r a c t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t , F(l,308) = 0.998, £ =  .319.  The t o t a l anhe-  d o n i a s c o r e medians were 7.97 and 11.98 f o r t h e females and males r e s pectively.  Those s c o r i n g below the median were d e s i g n a t e d as l o w -  anhedonic and those s c o r i n g above the median, were d e s i g n a t e d as h i g h anhedonic. Hotelling's T  2  was used to t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between l o w - and  h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s u b j e c t s of each s e x .  The dependent v a r i a b l e s  were:  t o t a l number of s i t u a t i o n s r e c a l l e d , average r a t i n g of p l e a s a n t n e s s f o r the r e c a l l e d s i t u a t i o n s , frequency of p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s , v i d u a l pleasantness r a t i n g s f o r ten s i t u a t i o n s  (maximum 1 0 ) ,  indi-  factor  s c o r e s on the 12 DES+A emotion f a c t o r s , and f a c t o r s c o r e s on the 24  29  P h y s i c a l Anhedonia f a c t o r s . Of the emotion f a c t o r s , some were d e s i g n a t e d as p o s i t i v e , whereas t h e o t h e r s appeared t o be e i t h e r n e g a t i v e or n e u t r a l . emotions were: Factor 3 —  Factor 2 —  N e g a t i v e of A n x i e t y  I n t e r e s t , and F a c t o r 8 —  t h e female s a m p l e , t h e s e w e r e : Relaxation), Factor 7 —  Enjoyment,  Factor 2 —  (or  These p o s i t i v e  Relaxation),  f o r the males.  For  N e g a t i v e of A n x i e t y  Enjoyment, and F a c t o r 8 —  Interest.  (or Clearly,  t h i s i s o n l y a rough a p p r o x i m a t i o n to the p o s i t i v e or w e l f a r e emotions d i s c u s s e d by Rado ( 1 9 6 9 ) . Results The median s p l i t s r e s u l t e d i n f o u r g r o u p s :  l o w - a n h e d o n i c females  (n = 9 2 ) , h i g h - a n h e d o n i c females (n = 1 0 0 ) , l o w - a n h e d o n i c males (n = 5 5 ) , and h i g h - a n h e d o n i c males (n = 6 5 ) .  The r e s u l t s of t h e T  b o t h sexes were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 4 . 1 4 1 , £ ~ . 0 0 0 0 , and f o r m a l e s , T  2  For f e m a l e s , T  2  2  analysis  for  = 2 9 5 . 6 , F_(49,105) =  = 3 7 0 . 8 , F ( 4 9 , 4 3 ) = 3 . 5 7 6 , £ =* . 0 0 0 0 .  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s employed i n t h i s s t u d y ,  t h e r e appear to he c o n s i s t e n t  f e r e n c e s between l o w - and h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s of b o t h s e x e s .  dif-  I n an attempt  t o i s o l a t e the s o u r c e of t h e d i f f e r e n c e ,  . 9 5 c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s were  c o n s t r u c t e d about the mean d i f f e r e n c e s .  A l l of the c o n f i d e n c e  inter-  v a l s spanned zero i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t was p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s w h i c h was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e . v a t i v e confidence i n t e r v a l s  Less c o n s e r -  ( . 9 0 and .80) were a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d ,  but  t h e s e a l s o f a i l e d to i m p l i c a t e any one or s e t of v a r i a b l e s . I n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e t r e n d s of t h e s e d a t a , t h e group means f o r each v a r i a b l e were i n s p e c t e d and t h e s e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1.  Of  30  Table 1 Means f o r H i g h - and Low-Anhedonic  Males  Subjects  Females  High n=65  Low n=55  High n=100  Low n=92  5.40  6.22  6.60  7.02  Mean r a t i n g  5.37  5.76  5.26  5.91  Frequency  6.34  6.56  6.37  6.68  6.32 6.15 6.07 6.03 6.10 5.42 5.17 4.75 5.62 5.62  6.49 6.29 6.00 6.34 . 6.18 5.96 6.00 6.06 5.93 6.38  6.25 6.24 6.34 6.05 5.82 6.07 5.14 5.50 5.64 5.25  6.36 6.29 6.14 6.08 6.20 6.33 5.89 5.87 6.09 5.96  Variable  Total situations  .  S i t u a t i o n Ratings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  1  UES+A F a c t o r s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  49.2 49.8 48.2 47.8 52.3 50.6 49.7 48.9 52.4 51.3 51.8 49.6  .  48.9 50.3 52.1 50.7 47.3 49.2 48.4 51.3 47.1 48.5 47.9 51.3  49.4 48.1 50.4 48.4 49.2 51.4 48.3 49.7 50.7 49.7 50.6 51.3  continued  48.5 51.5 49.8 50.3 48.8 48.4 51.8 50.4 49.3 51.1 49.4 49.5  31  Table 1 continued  Males Variable  Females  Low n=65  High n=55  Low n=100  High n=92  50.8 51.2 52.2 51.2 47.1 50.5 52.0 51.7 47.0 52.5 50.6 51.1 47.9 51.9 51.5 51.6 51.9 51.9 50.3 51.0 46.9 46.9 54.3 48.5  49.0 48.6 47.4 48.6 53.4 49.4 47.7 48.0 53.6 47.0 49.3 48.8 52.4 47.8 48.3 48.1 47.8 47.7 49.7 48.8 53.7 53.7 44.9 51.7  46.8 52.3 47.4 48.0 48.3 50.8 51.3 51.6 51.2 53.5 53.3 47.6 50.2 53.7 51.4 52.2 53.2 48.4 48.4 49.3 52.3 47.6 48.2 50.0  53.5 47.5 52.9 52.2 51.8 49.1 48.6 48.3 48.7 46.2 46.4 52.6 49.8 46.0 48.5 47 .'6 46.5 51.7 51.7 50.7 47.6 52.6 52.0 50.0  P h y s i c a l Anhedonia F a c t o r s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24  32  the t r e n d s , most were i n the expected d i r e c t i o n .  That i s ,  high-  anhedonics of b o t h sexes r e c a l l e d fewer s i t u a t i o n s , they r a t e d t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s as l e s s p l e a s a n t on t h e a v e r a g e , and they r e p o r t e d a lower frequency of p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e i r l i v e s on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s . W i t h r e g a r d t o e m o t i o n a l c o n c o m i t a n t s of the p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e , o n l y two of the emotion f a c t o r s f o r males and none f o r the females had a d i f f e r e n c e of g r e a t e r than or e q u a l t o o n e - h a l f of a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . ( f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r b o t h s c a l e s were, . s t a n d a r d i z e d t o a mean of 50 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 1 0 ) .  N e i t h e r of the emotion f a c t o r s  f o r the males was a c o - c a l l e d " p o s i t i v e ' e m o t i o n . 1  gest d i f f e r e n c e was on F a c t o r 9 — Enjoyment, and F a c t o r 2 —  R a t h e r , the l a r -  Contempt, f o l l o w e d by F a c t o r 5 —  N e g a t i v e of  Anxiety.  Of some i n t e r e s t was the p r o g r e s s i o n of s i t u a t i o n a l r a t i n g s i n i t i a l to f i n a l r a t i n g .  For b o t h s e x e s , the h i g h - a n h e d o n i c  from  subjects'  r a t i n g s decreased i n p l e a s a n t n e s s w i t h p r o g r e s s i o n , w i t h some f a l l i n g c l o s e to the n e u t r a l r a n g e . anhedonics.  T h i s p a t t e r n d i d not occur w i t h t h e l o w -  T h e i r r a t i n g s seemed to be more c o n s i s t e n t and showed  less v a r i a b i l i t y .  T h i s seeming t r e n d was not a n a l y z e d .  Among the 24 f a c t o r s d e r i v e d from the a n a l y s i s of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e (Experiment  3) 8 f o r the females and 6 f o r the males  had d i f f e r e n c e s e x c e e d i n g o n e - h a l f a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n .  F o r the  females t h e s e were ( i n o r d e r of m a g n i t u d e ) :  Organ  Music —  F a c t o r 10 —  h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s r e p o r t e d l e s s enjoyment r e l a t e d to organ  m u s i c ; F a c t o r 14 —  an u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r composed of the urge t o  f e e l s t a t u e s and the d e s i r e t o s i n g i n t h e shower; F a c t o r 11 —  an  u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r composed of emjoying back massage and s i n g i n g  33  when s a d ; F a c t o r 17 —  an u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r combining parade  sounds w i t h r i d e s i n amusement p a r k s ; F a c t o r 1 —  also uninterpretable,  i n c l u d e d h a v i n g y e t t o meet an a t t r a c t i v e man and d i s l i k e of the e x haustion f o l l o w i n g vigorous a c t i v i t y ;  F a c t o r 18 —  was p r e d o m i n a n t l y  i n f l u e n c e d by a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g the beauty of n a t u r e ; F a c t o r 3 — I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e D i s c o m f o r t ; and F a c t o r 12 —  Sex.  For the m a l e s :  F a c t o r 23 —  was p r i m a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by a t t i t u d e s about b r i s k w a l k s ;  F a c t o r 22 —  Sex; F a c t o r 21 —  l a r g e l y u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e , but r e f l e c t i n g  s e c u r i t y and warmth; F a c t o r 9 — Factor 5 —  Interpersonal T a c t i l e  u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e ; and F a c t o r 10 —  Comfort;  Singing.  These r e s u l t s proved t o be u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f o r the most p a r t due t o the l a c k of s u c c e s s i n the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the scale.  P h y s i c a l Anhedonia  The d i f f e r e n c e s between h i g h - and l o w - a n h e d o n i c s u b j e c t s were  g r e a t e r on t h e s e 24 anhedonia f a c t o r s than on the 12 emotion f a c t o r s , but they were u n e q u a l .  That i s , the means of the h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s were  not u n i f o r m l y d e p r e s s e d a c r o s s f a c t o r s .  T h i s does not support  the  h y p o t h e s i s of u n i f o r m d e p r e s s i o n of s c o r e s a c r o s s c l u s t e r s of p l e a s a n t s i t u a t i o n s f o r the h i g h anhedonic g r o u p s . Because s c o r e s on t h e anhedonia s c a l e had been used as b o t h i n dependent ( t o t a l s c o r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) and dependent (24 f a c t o r  scores)  v a r i a b l e s , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s were r e l a t e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y t o d i f f e r e n c e s between the 24 anhedonia f a c t o r  score  means.  separately  For t h a t r e a s o n , the T  2  a n a l y s i s was conducted a g a i n ,  by s e x , f o r a l l dependent measures e x c l u d i n g t h e 24 f a c t o r Only the male a n a l y s i s was s i g n i f i c a n t , T p_ - . 0 0 6 1 .  For f e m a l e s , T  2  2  scores.  = 8 8 . 0 5 , F_(25,47) = 2 . 3 3 2 ,  = 49.06, F(25,103) = 1.592, £ = . 0 5 4 9 .  In  34  n e i t h e r of t h e s e a n a l y s e s were any of the mean d i f f e r e n c e s  signifi-  cant a t . 0 5 . The r e s u l t s of t h i s second a n a l y s i s would suggest t h e n , t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between l o w - and h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s u b j e c t s b o t h sexes were p r e d o m i n a n t l y , but not e n t i r e l y , f a c t o r s c o r e s of t h e P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e .  a f u n c t i o n of  the of  the  The d i f f e r e n c e s  between  l o w - and h i g h - a n h e d o n i c males remained s i g n i f i c a n t a f t e r the e x c l u s i o n of anhedonia i t e m s .  Moreover,  these d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the females,  w h i l e f a i l i n g to r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e , s t i l l r e p r e s e n t e d a low p r o b a bility  of  occurrence.  I n summary, the second T l e v e l s f o r the i n t e r - g r o u p  2  a n a l y s i s reduced t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  d i f f e r e n c e s , yet a d e f i n i t e trend remains.  One of the purposes of i n c l u d i n g the DES+A i n t h i s study  (aside  from t h e h y p o t h e s i s of reduced l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e emotion i n h i g h anhedonics) was t h a t of o b t a i n i n g a q u a n t i f i a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n of subjective  e x p e r i e n c e of p l e a s u r e .  I z a r d et a l .  the  (1974) have used  s c o r e s on each emotion f a c t o r i n o r d e r to c h a r a c t e r i z e e x p e r i e n c e s c e r t a i n predominant e m o t i o n s .  by  As w i l l be r e c a l l e d , s u b j e c t s were i n -  s t r u c t e d to imagine t h e i r own p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s w h i l e they completed the DES+A.  P r e s u m a b l y , the f a c t o r s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t mean s c o r e s would  most d e f i n e the e x p e r i e n c e ;  those w i t h t h e l o w e s t mean s c o r e s would  be l e a s t d e s c r i p t i v e of the e x p e r i e n c e .  Therefore,  the 2-3 highest  and 2 - 3 l o w e s t mean s c o r e s were examined f o r the h i g h - a n h e d o n i c  and  l o w - a n h e d o n i c m a l e s , as w e l l as f o r the h i g h - a n h e d o n i c f e m a l e s .  These  r e s u l t s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 2. Both male and female l o w - a n h e d o n i c s d e s c r i b e d t h e  experience  35  Table 2 F a c t o r s D e f i n i n g the P l e a s u r e E x p e r i e n c e  Group  Most D e f i n i n g  Least Defining  Males High-Anhedonic  5. 9.  Shyness + A n x i e t y Contempt  4. 3.  Anger Supprise-Interest  Low-Anhedonic  3. 8.  Surprise-Interest Enjoyment + N e g a t i v e of A n x i e t y Absence of Scorn  5. 9.  Shyness + A n x i e t y Contempt  12. Females H i g h Anhedonic  6. 12.  Absence of S u r p r i s e U n r e f l e c t i v e Embarrassment  2. 7. 4.  N e g a t i v e of Enj oyment Shyness  Low-Anhedonic  2. 7. 10.  N e g a t i v e of Enj oyment N e g a t i v e of Distress  6. 1.  Absence of S u r p r i s e Anger-Disgust-Distress  Anxiety Guilt-  Anxiety  36  similarly.  According to the d i r e c t i o n of their ratings, pleasure  i s a state of relaxation, enjoyment, and interest with the absence of negative emotions such as scorn, g u i l t , and d i s t r e s s .  Male and female  high-anhedonics on the other hand, described the experience i n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t terms.  For the males, -the most defining emotions were shy-  ness, anxiety, and contempt.  For them the least defining emotions  were anger, surprise, and interest.  The females defined the experi-  ence most by the absence of surprise and by a type of embarrassment. Least descriptive for them were relaxation, enjoyment, and shyness. Taking the results for both male and female high-anhedonics together, i t would appear that their experience i s most coloured by anxiety. Discussion The results of the foregoing comparative study suggest some d i f ferences i n descriptions of the pleasure experience i n undergraduates scoring i n the upper and lower halves of a d i s t r i b u t i o n of anhedonia scores.  The high-anhedonics produced smaller numbers of pleasant ex-  periences when asked to l i s t those which they imagined while completing the DES+A.  I t i s unclear whether this represented a. lower degree of  r e c a l l or a reduced repertoire from which to select.  Provided that  the high-anhedonics were truly anhedonics, one might expect fewer pleasurable experiences to have been available to memory from to draw for this survey.  which  This would appear to be more plausible than  the alternate explanation of less e f f i c i e n t short-term memory processes i n the high-anhedonics. The trend observed i n high-anhedonics towards progressively reduced ratings of pleasantness with increasing numbers of situations  37  suggests a r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g s e r i a t i o n e f f e c t .  T h i s may r e f l e c t a  t r e n d i n the a s s o c i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s of anhedonics through w h i c h thoughts of d e c r e a s i n g p l e a s a n t n e s s t r i g g e r even l e s s p l e a s a n t  thoughts.  That i s , i t may be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a somewhat n e g a t i v e o r a t  least  n e u t r a l b i a s i n the e v a l u a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e s .  Both K a y t o n and Koh  (1975) and Watson (1977) have noted t h a t p l e a s a n t n e s s may not be used by anhedonics as a d i m e n s i o n f o r p e r c e p t i o n and/or r e c a l l . study,  In  this  the demand was s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the use of a p l e a s a n t n e s s  dimension.  Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  the survey i n i t i a l l y provoked h i g h e r r a t i n g s of p l e a s a n t n e s s , but w i t h i n c r e a s i n g numbers of r a t i n g s ,  t h e h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s r e v e r t e d to a  l e v e l more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e . s e r i a l effect i n ratings experiences)  Finally,  the  (and presumably i n the o r d e r of p r o d u c t i o n  may r e f l e c t an u n d e r l y i n g tendency i n h i g h anhedonics  h a b i t u a t e more q u i c k l y ..to s t i m u l i , p a r t i c u l a r l y notation.  that  of to  those of p l e a s a n t c o n -  For example, t h e remembrance of a p l e a s a n t .experience by  a l o w - a n h e d o n i c s u b j e c t may t r i g g e r an i n c r e a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h memory, p o s s i b l y through an e l a b o r a t i o n of d e t a i l .  the  For the h i g h -  a n h e d o n i c , on t h e o t h e r hand, such a memory may be f l e e t i n g and i n distinct —  p o s s i b l e r e f l e c t i n g the o r i g i n a l experience.  appear from t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s  that further  It  would  study of t h e c o g n i t i o n of  h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s might f u r t h e r u n r a v e l the p r o c e s s e s u n d e r l y i n g e v a l u a t i o n of l i f e  their  experiences.  Scores on emotion f a c t o r s suggested no s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s tween the groups i n the p o s i t i v e emotions as d e f i n e d i n t h i s The o n l y c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s sexes appeared to be i n  be-  study. anxiety,  38  thus s u p p o r t i n g Watson's to anhedonia.  (1972a) c o n t e n t i o n of an i n h i b i t o r y  C o n t r a r y t o Watson et a l . ' s  aspect  (1970) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t low  energy l e v e l s might d e p i c t a n h e d o n i c s , an emotion f a c t o r ,  Fatigue-  L e t h a r g y d e r i v e d from t h e DES+A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ( F a c t o r 10 f o r m a l e s , F a c t o r 11 f o r f e m a l e s ) , f a i l e d to be prominent i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g l o w from h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s .  Thus, i t may be t h a t Watson et a l . ' s  was i n p a r t r e l a t e d t o t h e c h r o n i c i t y of t h e i r  suggestion  subjects.  Of t h e P h y s i c a l Anhedonia f a c t o r s w i t h t h e l a r g e s t  differences  between the g r o u p s , t h e r e appeared t o be a tendency a c r o s s sexes f i n d h e t e r o s e x u a l and t a c t i l e e x p e r i e n c e s most u n p l e a s a n t ; c e r t a i n of the o t h e r f a c t o r s suggested l e s s a r e a f o r  however,  interpretation.  T h i s i s undoubtedly a r e f l e c t i o n of the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h a t analysis.  to  factor  C e r t a i n l y i n h i b i t o r y a n x i e t y might p r o v i d e an e x p l a n a t i o n  f o r the seeming a v e r s i v e n e s s of s e x u a l and o t h e r forms of p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t ; however,  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be more of an a r t i f a c t  related  t o an i n a d e q u a t e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . These r e s u l t s appear t o r a i s e more q u e s t i o n s t h a n they answer. C e r t a i n l y t h e most s t r i k i n g q u e s t i o n i s the e x t e n t to w h i c h t h e h i g h anhedonics i n t h i s study were t r u l y a n h e d o n i c .  Most d e f i n i t i o n s  of  anhedonia r e v e r t t o a lowered c a p a c i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e enjoyment a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h a t f o r m u l a t i o n , the h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s i n t h i s study have d e s c r i b e d themselves as r e c e i v i n g l e s s p l e a s u r e , b o t h i n f r e q u e n c y and i n t e n s i t y t h a n the l o w - a n h e d o n i c s . some e x t e n t ;  But the argument seems c i r c u l a r  to  a d e s c r i p t i o n of reduced p l e a s u r e l e v e l s seems i n s u f f i c i e n t  to invoke anhedonia.  There a r e a l t e r n a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s  w h i c h do not i m p l i c a t e a n h e d o n i a .  For i n s t a n c e , one  tentative  39  explanation may be interference i n pleasure capacity related to either depression and/or i n h i b i t o r y anxiety.  These might represent neurotic  interferences with the capacity to enjoy l i f e and be unrelated to any l i f e l o n g b i o l o g i c a l deficiency.  This p o s s i b i l i t y raises an important  issue i n the assessment of hedonic capacity.  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , we can  conceive of two groups of individuals who might give an external impression of anhedonia.  One group might be characterized by neurotic i n -  h i b i t i o n (or i n t e r f e r r i n g a f f e c t ) , whereas the other group might r e present those with an actual b i o l o g i c a l deficiency i n the absence of i n t e r f e r r i n g processes  (true anhedonics).  make t h e o r e t i c a l l y , but exceedingly tion.  This d i s t i n c t i o n i s easy to  d i f f i c u l t to subject to investiga-  Presumably both groups would report lowered pleasure capacity  and would find fewer l i f e experiences  enjoyable.  In e f f e c t , their  responses to pleasure questions may not d i f f e r , yet the underlying processes which prompt their responses may be quite d i s s i m i l a r .  It  again i s apparent that much work i n the area of pleasure i s required, especially with normal i n d i v i d u a l s . What i s i t about a stimulus which causes i t to be enjoyable? such stimuli?  What are the physiological responses to  How does the evaluation, .of the stimulus by the subject  affect the experience?  Clearly i t i s a complex interplay of b i o l o g i c a l  and psychological needs, intermixed with s o c i e t a l and c u l t u r a l values. But despite the complexity  as well as the research d i f f i c u l t i e s , only  through the confrontation of these questions w i l l the concept of anhedonia become less ambiguous.  40  STUDY 2 FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE DES+A  The DES was o r i g i n a l l y developed through v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s cross-culturally emotion.  It  s t a n d a r d i z e d photographs of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s  is a self-report  I z a r d et a l .  (patterns)  (1974) propose t h a t t h e DES r e l i a b l y  of  divides  p e o p l e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o v a l i d a t e d c a t e g o r i e s of e m o t i o n .  of  i n s t r u m e n t f o r use i n t h e assessment of  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e of emotions or c o m b i n a t i o n s emotions.  of  discrete  These emotion c a t e g o r i e s were d e r i v e d by p r i n -  c i p a l components a n a l y s i s , and s c o r i n g t y p i c a l l y  c o n s i s t s of a s s i g n i n g  a mean r a t i n g as t h e s c o r e f o r each emotion " f a c t o r . "  I t was c o n -  c e i v e d as a " s t a t e " measure and was c o n s i d e r e d to be u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g the e m o t i o n a l components of a v a r i e t y  of l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s .  i n s t r u c t i o n s ask an i n d i v i d u a l to r a t e , on a 5 - p o i n t i n t e n s i t y  The  scale,  t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h each word d e s c r i b e s the way he or she f e e l s when in a specified situation.  S i n c e t h e DES has been shown to be s e n s i -  t i v e to change i n e m o t i o n . e x p e r i e n c e induced by changes i n r e a l as w e l l as i n imagined e m o t i o n - s i t u a t i o n s  ( I z a r d , 1971, 1 9 7 2 ) , i t was c o n -  s i d e r e d to be u s e f u l i n the e v a l u a t i o n of p a s t  (imagined)  pleasant  experiences. A l o n g w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l DES i t e m s , i t was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e i n c l u d e items r e f l e c t i n g a n x i e t y  (as c o n v e r t e d by I z a r d from the  Speilberger S t a t e - T r a i t Anxiety  I n v e n t o r y (STAI)) to p o s s i b l y tap  the h i g h l e v e l of i n h i b i t i o n w h i c h Watson (1972a) has suggested as p o t e n t i a l l y b e i n g one component of a n h e d o n i a .  to  into  41  A l t h o u g h I z a r d et a l . r e p o r t c o n s i s t e n t f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s  for  t h e i r i t e m s , they recommend the use of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r sample.  Both i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and t e s t - r e t e s t  have been examined f o r the DES.  reliability  The average c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a f o r  emotion s c a l e s of the DES was . 8 1 .  The average t e s t - r e t e s t  all  reliability  was . 7 7 . It  s h o u l d be noted t h a t I z a r d e t a l . have a c t u a l l y  conducted  numerous p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s e s r a t h e r t h a n f a c t o r  analyses.  N o n e t h e l e s s , they r e f e r t o t h e i r components as " f a c t o r s . "  Rather  than  computing s c o r e s based on I z a r d et a l ' s p r e v i o u s work, i t was deemed a d v i s a b l e to f o l l o w t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n of c o n d u c t i n g an independent factor analysis.  The common-factor model was employed i n t h e  present  a n a l y s i s s i n c e the emphasis was not on the c l u s t e r i n g of the i t e m s , but i n s t e a d on t h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e i t e m s . The r e s u l t s were examined s e p a r a t e l y by s e x , s i n c e t h e r e appeared to be s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s .  I z a r d e t a l . r e p o r t no e x a m i n a t i o n of  sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a n a l y s e s of t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t .  The r e s u l t s  t h i s study w i l l be compared w i t h those of I z a r d (1972) w h e r e i n  of  the  DES+A was a n a l y s e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l components method and then r o t a t e d by t h e promax o b l i q u e method f o r 297 s u b j e c t s . Method Sample and P r o c e d u r e .  The DES+A (51 i t e m s ) was completed by 116  males and 185 females from the o r i g i n a l sample of 312 s u b j e c t s . t h e s e 301 s u r v e y s ,  Of  14 were m i s s i n g 1 of t h e 51 r e s p o n s e s , 3 were m i s -  s i n g 2 r e s p o n s e s , and 1 was m i s s i n g 4 r e s p o n s e s .  The m i s s i n g responses  were e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e s e 18 i n d i v i d u a l s by i n s e r t i n g the mean of  the  42  items i n accordance w i t h t h e i r sex and o r d e r of t e s t i n g . T  2  Hotelling's  was used to t e s t f o r mean d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e sexes on a l l 51  items.  The r e s u l t i n g T  2  (96.964) was s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 5 1 , 2 4 9 ) = 5 1 . 2 4 9 ,  _p_ — . 0 1 .  M u l t i p l e comparisons of t h e 51 i t e m s were performed by c o n -  structing  . 9 5 c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s about the mean d i f f e r e n c e s .  the c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s c r o s s e d z e r o .  A l l of  Thus, w h i l e the o v e r a l l T_  was s i g n i f i c a n t , none of the comparisons i n d i c a t e d the s o u r c e of difference.  the  The c o v a r i a n c e m a t r i c e s of the males and females were  next t e s t e d f o r e q u a l i t y and were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y F(1326,183340) = 1 . 3 4 , p_ = . 0 0 0 0 .  On the b a s i s of t h e s e r e s u l t s ,  would seem t h a t t h e f a c t o r i a l s t r u c t u r e s p o o l i n g was i n a d v i s a b l e w i t h o u t t u r e s s e p a r a t e l y by  different, it  d i f f e r e d f o r the sexes and  i n i t i a l l y i n s p e c t i n g the f a c t o r  struc-  sex.  A n a l y s i s of D a t a .  P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were com-  puted among the 51 s c a l e items s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e males and females as w e l l as f o r the p o o l e d sample and the p o o l e d sample w i t h sex added as v a r i a b l e 52.  Four s e p a r a t e f a c t o r a n a l y s e s were t h a n c a r r i e d out u s i n g  t h e A l b e r t a G e n e r a l F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program ( H a k s t i a n & Bay, 1972; Second R e v i s i o n , F l y n n ,  1 9 7 7 ) , one f o r t h e m a l e s , one f o r t h e f e m a l e s ,  one f o r the combined s a m p l e , and one f o r the combined sample w i t h sex added as a v a r i a b l e . l e a s t squares  Twelve f a c t o r s were e x t r a c t e d by the  (or minimum r e s i d u a l s ) method.  was d e c i d e d u s i n g f i v e methods: roots greater  than 1 . 0 , (2)  and (5)  (4)  factors  t h e K a i s e r - G u t t m a n r u l e of  t h e Scree t e s t of C a t t e l l ,  lihood-ratio significance test, accounted f o r ,  (1)  The number of  unweighted  the p e r c e n t a g e of  (3)  the  latent like-  variance  the p e r c e n t a g e of r e s i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s  greater  43  than . 1 0 .  The r e s u l t s of t h e s e t e s t s were e q u i v o c a l ; however,  appeared to be some agreement s u g g e s t i n g 12 f a c t o r s .  there  The f a c t o r  m a t r i c e s were r o t a t e d t o s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e u s i n g t h e H a r r i s - K a i s e r and promax methods of o b l i q u e r o t a t i o n .  These s o l u t i o n s were compared and  the b e s t was chosen f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  F i n a l l y , f a c t o r s c o r e s were  computed u s i n g t h e r e g r e s s i o n method of f a c t o r s c o r e e s t i m a t i o n and t h e s e were s t a n d a r d i z e d to a mean of 50 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 10. R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s f o r males and females a r e p r e s e n t e d Appendices I I  and I I I .  in  The combined c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x (Appendix  IV)  f o r the p o o l e d sample was c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a f o r pooling: /SSCPj^ + R , = D"* pooled  1  n  SSCP  2  Iy n^ 7 I j + n^ - 2 /  D  - i s  where SSCP^ e q u a l s the m a t r i x of the sum of squared d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s and c r o s s p r o d u c t s f o r sample 1 and D e q u a l s the d i a g o n a l m a t r i x  in  which each d i a g o n a l element i s the c o r r e s p o n s i n g d i a g o n a l element of /iSSCPi + S S C P \ ( ; x—]. \ l + 2 " J 2  n  n  The combined w i t h sex m a t r i x was c o n s t r u c t e d i n an  2  i d e n t i c a l manner.  Because sex d i d not c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h any of  t h e o t h e r 51 v a r i a b l e s  ( h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n was . 0 1 ) , nor d i d i t  a l o a d i n g g r e a t e r than .30 on any f a c t o r , o n l y the r e s u l t s f o r  have three  groups a r e p r e s e n t e d ( m a l e s , f e m a l e s , and combined). The K a i s e r - G u t t m a n r u l e suggested 12 f a c t o r s f o r b o t h males and f e m a l e s , and 11 f o r t h e combined sample (see T a b l e 3 ) .  The Scree t e s t  ( F i g u r e s 1 , 2 , and 3) suggested 3 f a c t o r s f o r the g r o u p s ;  however,  44  Table 3 E i g e n v a l u e s G r e a t e r t h a n 1.0 D e r i v e d from P r i n c i p a l  Components A n a l y s i s  Factor  Males  Females  Pooled  1  12.430  11.125  11.391  2  5.087  4.544  4.659  3  3.166  3.619  3.228  4  2.864  2.045  2.301  5  2.140  2.021  1.854  6  2.000  1.774  1.701  7  1.672  1.601  1.479  8  1.573  1.459  1.409  9  1.384  1.392  1.259  10  1.230  1.254  1.186  11  1.122  1.112  1.005  12  1.050  1.071  0.975  Figure 1.  Scree t e s t f o r DES+A items based on P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . M a l e s , n = 116.  F i g u r e 2.  Scree t e s t f o r DES+A items based on P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . F e m a l e s , n = 185.  Figure 3.  Scree t e s t f o r DES+A items based on P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Pooled sample, n = 301.  43  H a k s t i a n and M u l l e r (1973) have noted t h a t the Scree tends t o too few f a c t o r s .  suggest  The l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o t e s t f a i l e d to be s i g n i f i c a n t  a t 12 f a c t o r s f o r m a l e s , y e t was s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t 12 f o r the o t h e r two groups  (Table 4 ) .  Twelve components were e x t r a c t e d f o r t h e male group u s i n g the p r i n c i p a l components method. variance.  T h i s accounted f o r 70% of the t o t a l  S i m i l a r p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s were done f o r the o t h e r  groups,  w i t h 12 components a c c o u n t i n g f o r 64.5% and 63.6% of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n the female and combined samples r e s p e c t i v e l y .  S e v e r a l unweighted  l e a s t squares f a c t o r a n a l y s e s were r u n f o r the t h r e e g r o u p s . t i o n s f o r 5 , 7, 9 , and 11 f a c t o r s were examined.  Solu-  The p e r c e n t a g e of  r e s i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s g r e a t e r t h a n . 1 0 were examined f o r each s o l u t i o n . The 11 f a c t o r s o l u t i o n c l e a r l y produced the fewest number of r e s i d u a l s (see T a b l e 5 ) ; however,  the number was c o n s i d e r e d to be too g r e a t  t h e males a t 11 f a c t o r s  (21.4%).  were c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r , groups r e s p e c t i v e l y .  for  The o t h e r two groups had counts w h i c h  12.8% and 6.1% f o r t h e females and combined  A t 12 f a c t o r s the male count was down somewhat  ( 2 0 . 3 % ) , a l t h o u g h t h i s seemed not to be a s t r i k i n g r e d u c t i o n . The r e s u l t s of t e s t s f o r the c o r r e c t number of f a c t o r s a r e summ a r i z e d i n T a b l e 6.  Because 12 f a c t o r s appeared to be the b e s t number  f o r the male s a m p l e , t h i s v a l u e was chosen f o r the o t h e r samples i n o r d e r t h a t r e s u l t s c o u l d be compared.  It  i s noteworthy t h a t  et a l . (1974) have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d t h a t the DES f a c t o r s 10 " e m o t i o n " f a c t o r s and 1 " n o n - e m o t i o n " f a c t o r .  into  With the i n c l u s i o n  of the STAI a n x i e t y i t e m s , 12 f a c t o r s seemed r e a s o n a b l e . s t r i k i n g , however,  Izard  It  is  t h a t the I z a r d (1972) " f a c t o r i n g " of t h e DES+A  r e s u l t e d i n o n l y 9 components.  49  Table 4 L i k e l i h o o d - R a t i o Test R e s u l t s  Males  Females  858.092  936.912  Pooled  11 F a c t o r s X  (769)  2. =  .01419  .00003  12 F a c t o r s X  2  (729)  790.014 .05992  858.837 .00063  936.179 .00000  50  Table 5 Unweighted L e a s t Squares 11 F a c t o r . S o l u t i o n P e r c e n t a g e of R e s i d u a l s G r e a t e r than . 1 0 i n Lower  Triangle  P o r t i o n of C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x  Males Range  #  Females  #  %  Pooled  %  %  .10 < .11  57  4.47  39  3.06  24  1.88  .11 < .12  37  2.90  41  3.21  19  1.49  .12 < .13  37  2.90  25  1.96  12  0.94  .13 < .14  30  2.35  16  1.25  6  0.47  .14 < .15  32  2.51  12  0.94  4  0.31  . 1 5 < .16  15  1.18  8  0.63  3  0.24  .16 < .17  13  1.02  5  0.29  4  0.31  .17 < .18  12  0.94  6  0.47  1  0.078  .18 < .19  11  0.86  5  0.39  1  0.078  . 1 9 < .20  11  0.86  2  0.16  1  0.078  . 2 0 < .21  3  0.24  . 2 1 < .22  2  0.16  1  0.078  -  .22 < .23  6  0.47  . 2 3 < .24  1  0.078  1  .24 < .25  3  0.24  . 2 5 < .26  1  0.078  .26 < .27  1  0.078  1  0.078  0.078  1  0.078  1  0.078  1  0.078  1  0.078  .27 < .28 ..28 < .29 .29 < .30 Total  . -  1 273  0.078 21.4  163  12.8  78  6.1  T o t a l number of c o r r e l a t i o n s i n lower t r i a n g l a r p o r t i o n was 1275.  51  Table 6 Summary of T e s t R e s u l t s to Determine Number of  Test  Factors  Males  Females  Pooled  12  12  11  3  3  3  12  >12  >12  12  12  12  Kaiser-Guttman rule Scree Likelihood-ratio test P e r c e n t of V a r i a n c e 60-70%  52  A f t e r t h e d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g the number of f a c t o r s was made, t h e d a t a f o r the t h r e e groups were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d u s i n g the unweighted l e a s t squares method. manners:  The r e s u l t s were o b l i q u e l y r o t a t e d i n  (1) by a promax s o l u t i o n w i t h k = 4 ,  three  (2) by a H a r r i s - K a i s e r  method w i t h c = 0 , and (3) by a H a r r i s - K a i s e r method w i t h c = . 5 . , T h i s l a s t method of r o t a t i o n y i e l d e d a more o r t h o g o n a l s o l u t i o n . h y p e r p l a n e counts  (number of l o a d i n g s = 0 ± . 10)  were than examined  f o r the f a c t o r p a t t e r n m a t r i x produced by each of t h e t h r e e The r e s u l t s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 7.  Clearly,  rotations.  the H a r r i s - K a i s e r  c = . 5 was the b e s t r o t a t i o n , y i e l d i n g the h i g h e s t h y p e r p l a n e f o r a l l samples.  The  count  T h i s r o t a t i o n was s u b s e q u e n t l y used i n t h e computa-  t i o n of f a c t o r s c o r e s . F a c t o r f o r m a t i o n s were based on items h a v i n g r o t a t e d l o a d i n g s above . 3 0 .  The l o a d i n g s from the f a c t o r p a t t e r n m a t r i x a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n T a b l e s 8 , 9 , and 10 f o r the m a l e s , f e m a l e s , and combined s a m p l e s , respectively.  The combined s a m p l e , T a b l e 1 0 , i n d i c a t e s the comparison  between t h i s a n a l y s i s and t h a t of I z a r d ( 1 9 7 2 ) .  The agreements a r e  i n d i c a t e d as a r e t h e l o c a t i o n s of the STAI a n x i e t y i t e m s . f a c t o r p a t t e r n m a t r i c e s and t h e ; t h r e e p h i m a t r i c e s of  (The  three  interfactor  c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendices V I I I t o X I I I . ) Because the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e v a r i e d m o d e r a t e l y a c r o s s s a m p l e s , t h e r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l samples i n i t i a l l y , by an o v e r a l l c o m p a r i s o n .  followed  For ease i n c o m p a r i s o n , f a c t o r names a s s i g n e d  by I z a r d (1972) have been r e t a i n e d where a p p r o p r i a t e .  Table 7 T o t a l Hyperplane Counts of R o t a t i o n s 12-Factor  of DES+A  Solution  Method  Males  Females  Promax  336  357  381  Harris-Kaiser c = 0  338  335  380  Harris-Kaiser c = .5  358  367  407  cl  T o t a l l o a d i n g s = 612  Pooled  54  Table 8 F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s from t h e H a r r i s Kaiser  (c = . 5 ) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of 5 1 - I t e m D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotion S c a l e  Guilt-Distress .73 g u i l t y .73 blameworthy .64 d i s c o u r a g e d .63 sad .60 r e g r e t f u l (STAI) .59 d i s g u s t e d .54 w o r r i e d (STAI) .42 r e p e n t a n t N e g a t i v e of A n x i e t y . 7 8 a t ease (STAI) .66 calm (STAI) .65 r e l a x e d (STAI) .58 c o n t e n t (STAI) .57 s e c u r e (STAI) .57 c o m f o r t a b l e (STAI) .55 r e s t e d (STAI) - . 3 2 - " h i g h s t r u n g " (STAI) Surprise-Interest .70 a s t o n i s h e d .63 s u r p r i s e d .61 amazed .46 a l e r t .37 a t t e n t i v e Anger .78 angry .7 2 mad . 67. enraged .52 upset (STAI) .32 d i s g u s t e d Shyness-Anxiety .76 b a s h f u l .67 shy .57 s h e e p i s h .53 j i t t e r y (STAI) . 4 0 nervous (STAI) .34 contemptuous .30 a n x i o u s (STAI)  a  N = 116.  + A n x i e t y f o r Males  6.  Fear .75 scared .69 f e a r f u l .58 a f r a i d .51 f a t i g u e d  7.  Distress .67 downhearted .63 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e .36 " h i g h s t r u n g " (STAI)  8.  Enjoyment + N e g a t i v e of A n x i e t y .61 happy .58 j o y f u l (STAI) .52 d e l i g h t e d .47 p l e a s a n t (STAI) .37 s e c u r e (STAI) .31 s u r p r i s e d  9.  Contempt .53 contemptuous .43 f e e l i n g of r e v u l s i o n .35 r e p e n t e n t  10.  Lethargy .63 s l e e p y .41 s l u g g i s h -.32 - alert  11.  Tension-Anxiety .77 t e n s e (STAI) .39 nervous (STAI) - . 3 3 - r e s t e d (STAI) .32 j i t t e r y (STAI)  12.  Score .64 s c o r n f u l .47 d i s d a i n f u l .40 c o n f i d e n t (STAI)  No l o a d i n g >.30 c o n c e n t r a t i n g . i : .... o v e r e x c i t e d and r a t t l e d  12 F a c t o r Unweighted L e a s t Squares S o l u t i o n  (STAI)  55  Table 9 F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Kaiser  (c = . 5 ) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of 5 1 - I t e m D i f f e r e n t i a l Emotion S c a l e  1.  2.  3.  the H a r r i s  + A n x i e t y f o r Females  Anger-Disgust-Distress .73 u p s e t .72 mad .72 angry .64 d i s g u s t e d .63 s c o r n f u l .58 enraged .56 sad .51 downhearted .49 d i s c o u r a g e d .40 d i s d a i n f u l .35 w o r r i e d (STAI) .32 f e a r f u l .32 r e g r e t f u l (STAI) .31 a f r a i d .31 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e N e g a t i v e of A n x i e t y .69 s e c u r e (STAI) . 6 2 c o n t e n t (STAI) .59 c o m f o r t a b l e (STAI) .56 calm (STAI) .54 c o n f i d e n t (STAI) .45 r e s t e d (STAI) .42 a t ease (STAI) .42 r e l a x e d (STAI) A n x i e t y + Fear . 6 3 j i t t e r y (STAI) .44 " h i g h s t r u n g " (STAI) .42 s c a r e d .41 f e a r f u l .38 t e n s e (STAI) .35 o v e r e x c i t e d & r a t t l e d .34 a f r a i d .31 s h e e p i s h - . 3 0 - r e s t e d (STAI)  (STAI)  4.  Shyness .81 b a s h f u l . 6 5 shy .34 s h e e p i s h  5.  F a t i g u e d Rage .58 enraged .35 f a t i g u e d  6.  Surprise .80 a s t o n i s h e d .73 amazed .65 s u r p r i s e d  7.  Enj oyment .69 j o y f u l (STAI) .68 happy .63 d e l i g h t e d  8.  Interest .73 c o n c e n t r a t i n g .55 a t t e n t i v e .44 a l e r t  9.  Contempt & A n x i e t y .51 contemptuous .49 d i s d a i n f u l .46 f e e l i n g of r e v u l s i o n .45 a n x i o u s (STAI) .42 o v e r e x c i t e d & r a t t l e d .33 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e  0.  Guilt-Distress .62 g u i l t y .51 blameworthy .44 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e .42 r e g r e t f u l (STAI) continued  (STAI)  Table 9 continued  10.  11.  continued .37 s c a r e d .37 f a t i g u e d .34 downhearted .33 - a l e r t .31 d i s c o u r a g e d .30 a f r a i d Lethargy .41 s l e e p y .33 r e l a x e d (STAI) .31 s l u g g i s h  N = 185.  12.  U n r e f l e c t i v e embarrassment .47 s h e e p i s h - . 3 2 - w o r r i e d (STAI)  No l o a d i n g >.30 repentent pleasant nervous  12 F a c t o r - U n w e i g h t e d L e a s t Squares S o l u t i o n  57  Table F a c t o r Content and Primary Kaiser  10  P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the H a r r i s  (c = .5) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n  Emotion S c a l e  Si  Anger-Disgust (1-5) *.71 angry *.71 enraged *.68 mad *.63 s c o r n f u l .57 upset (STAI) *.49 d i s g u s t e d *.40 d i s d a i n f u l .36 sad N e g a t i v e of A n x i e t y (1-2) .66 calm (STAI) *.64 secure (STAI) *.62 content (STAI) *.59 a t ease (STAI) *.52 c o m f o r t a b l e (STAI) *.48 r e l a x e d (STAI) *.48 r e s t e d (STAI) *.40 c o n f i d e n t (STAI) Fear (1-7) .74 s c a r e d *.60 f e a r f u l *.50 a f r a i d  + Anxiety  6.  Contempt (1-5) *.58 contemptuous *.40 f e e l i n g of r e v u l s i o n *.39 d i s d a i n f u l . , .. .37 anxious (STAI) .34 r e p e n t e n t  Sample  Enjoyment (1-2) *.68 j o y f u l . ( S T A I ) *.60 d e l i g h t e d *.57 happy *.37 p l e a s a n t (STAI)  8.  Interest(I-l) *.63 a t t e n t i v e *.63 c o n c e n t r a t i n g *.56 a l e r t  9.  D i s t r e s s - G u i l t (1-4) *.70 blameworthy *.60 g u i l t y *.59 r e g r e t f u l (STAI) *.58 d i s c o u r a g e d .49 d i s g u s t e d *.48 sad *.46 downhearted .35 f e e l i n g of d i s t a s t e .34 w o r r i e d (STAI) *.33 repentent  10.  Fatigue (I-8)-Lethargy *.51 s l e e p y *.48 s l u g g i s h  11.  A n x i e t y (1-7) *.73 tense (STAI) *.46 nervous (STAI) *.42 j i t t e r y (STAI)  (1-6)  S u r p r i s e (1-3) *.78 a s t o n i s h e d *.65 amazed *.61 s u r p r i s e d  f o r Pooled  Differential  7.  A  (Shame)-Shyness *.71 shy *.71 b a s h f u l *.30 s h e e p i s h  of 51-Item  12.  A l e r t Embarrassment .35 s h e e p i s h .33 f a t i g u e s  No l o a d i n g >.30 " h i g h s t r u n g " (STAI) overexcited & r a t t l e d  (STAI)  N = 301. 12 Factor-Unweighted L e a s t Squares S o l u t i o n Corresponding I z a r d (1972) F a c t o r Number, Items l o a d i n g on I z a r d ' s factor are s t a r r e d .  58  F a c t o r Content f o r Male Sample.  F a c t o r I was  named G u i l t - D i s t r e s s  s i n c e the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g s c o n s i s t e d of s e l f - b l a m a t o r y a d j e c t i v e s , f o l l o w e d by n e g a t i v e and to r e f l e c t  s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n and  e n t i r e l y of STAI items reason,  anxiety  i t was  self-contempt.  of A n x i e t y and  F a c t o r I I I combined two  p l e t e l y w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one  item.  i n accordance w i t h I z a r d ' s data and  items  Factor II consisted  connoting  appears to d e s c r i b e a  named S u r p r i s e - I n t e r e s t  The  F a c t o r IV was  Not  f a c t o r was  named Anger and  f a c t o r was  entitled  o n l y d i d I z a r d ' s Shyness  Shyness+Anxiety and  was  c l e a r l y a f e a r f a c t o r and was  items  seems to combine embar-  l a b e l l e d as such.  Factor  Factor VII  l e s s i n t e r p r e t a b l e y e t seemed to d e s c r i b e a s t a t e of p e r s o n a l  t r e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s and was  seems  items.  rassment or i n t e r p e r s o n a l a n x i e t y w i t h the shyness dimension. VI was  fol-  F a c t o r V f o r the male  l o a d on t h i s f a c t o r , but they were f o l l o w e d by STAI a n x i e t y The  of u n i -  rage loaded most h i g h l y  to r e f l e c t a h i g h degree of n e g a t i v e a f f e c t . sample proved to be of i n t e r e s t .  that  appears to d e s c r i b e a s t a r t l e r e s -  anger and  lowed by the STAI item "upset."  For  of I z a r d ' s f a c t o r s com-  I t was  ponse combined w i t h h i g h a t t e n t i o n a l l e v e l s . t a r y content;  T h i s f a c t o r would seem  r e f l e c t i n g the absence of a n x i e t y .  e n t i t l e d Negative  s t a t e of r e l a x a t i o n .  (STAI) items.  straightforward.  were r e p r e s e n t e d .  anxiety.  Items d e s c r i b i n g enjoyment and  I t was  Factor VIII  p o s i t i v e emotions  e n t i t l e d Enjoyment + N e g a t i v e  of A n x i e t y  due  to the l o a d i n g s of a number of STAI r e l a x a t i o n items.  had  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l l o a d i n g s , the h i g h e s t of which was  I t was  t h e r e f o r e l a b e l l e d Contempt.  F a c t o r X was  dis-  Factor  IX  "contemptuous."  very s i m i l a r  to  I z a r d ' s F a t i g u e f a c t o r , y e t the item " f a t i g u e " d i d not l o a d on i t .  59  Because of t h e c o n t e n t i t seemed t h a t L e t h a r g y b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d t h e low energy l e v e l suggested by the i t e m s .  Factor XI consisted  entirely  of STAI a n x i e t y items and seemed to emphasize s o m a t i c i n d i c a t o r s of anxiety.  I t was l a b e l l e d T e n s i o n + A n x i e t y .  F i n a l l y , Factor  XII  was named Scorn and i t had o n l y t h r e e i t e m s l o a d i n g on i t . Two items d i d not have l o a d i n g s  >.30 on any f a c t o r .  " c o n c e n t r a t i n g " and " o v e r e x c i t e d and r a t t l e d . " item.  These w e r e :  The l a t t e r was a STAI  Of t h e 18 STAI i t e m s , i t i s noteworthy t h a t 12 formed two com-  plete factors  (II  and I X ) .  The former c o n s i s t e d of r e l a x a t i o n items  and t h e l a t t e r of a n x i e t y i t e m s . The r e s u l t s of t h e a n a l y s i s f o r t h e male s a m p l e , w h i l e  interpretable  and i n t e r e s t i n g , must be viewed as l e s s s t a b l e t h a n t h e o t h e r two samples due to t h e s m a l l number of male s u b j e c t s . F a c t o r Content f o r t h e Female Sample.  F a c t o r I was s u b s t a n t i a l l y  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of t h e males t o w a r r a n t a d i f f e r e n t name. were f i v e items o v e r l a p p i n g t h e g r o u p s ; however, l o a d i n g s was d i s c r e p a n t  (males —  There  the t o t a l number of  8 i t e m s , females —  15 i t e m s ) .  While  both f a c t o r s c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d negative d i s t r e s s , the female f a c t o r appeared t o be o t h e r - r a t h e r than s e l f - d i r e c t e d .  As w i t h t h e male  sample, a number of STAI items were r e p r e s e n t e d .  The f a c t o r was e n -  t i t l e d Anger-Disgust-Distress male s a m p l e ) .  (as opposed t o G u i l t - D i s t r e s s i n t h e  F a c t o r I I was v i r t u a l l y  s i s t i n g of STAI r e l a x a t i o n i t e m s . was n o t , however,  consistent.  r e t a i n e d f o r t h e females —  i d e n t i c a l i n both groups,  con-  The o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e items l o a d e d  The l a b e l a s s i g n e d to t h e male group was  N e g a t i v e of A n x i e t y .  females was e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e m a l e s .  Factor III It  f o r the  included anxiety  60  and f e a r i t e m s and was, t h e r e f o r e , named A n x i e t y + F e a r . t i o n i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to the Shyness + A n x i e t y  T h i s combina-  factor for  males i n t h a t i t may r e f l e c t the c o - e x i s t a n c e of p a r t i c u l a r reactions  by  anxiety  t h e f e a r response ( j u s t as shyness was accompanied w i t h  embarrassment and a n x i e t y ) . d i d not i n c l u d e a r o u s a l .  It  i s noteworthy t h a t the male Fear  In f a c t , i t  i n c l u d e d the opposite —  s u g g e s t i n g a s l o w i n g r a t h e r than an a c t i v a t i o n .  F a c t o r IV  Shyness, t h i s time w i t h o u t a n x i e t y i t e m s l o a d i n g on i t . not c l e a r l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e . bine e a s i l y .  the  fatigue,  was-clearly  F a c t o r V was  Only two items l o a d e d and they d i d not com-  I t was t e n t a t i v e l y  named F a t i g u e d Rage.  a complete r e p l i c a t i o n of I z a r d ' s S u r p r i s e f a c t o r . I n t e r e s t as d i d the male sample. and was•named Enjoyment.  factor  It  Factor VII  It  was a l s o  F a c t o r VI d i d not  was include  straightforward  i n c l u d e d fewer items than the male E n j o y -  ment f a c t o r , y e t a l l of the female i t e m s o v e r l a p p e d w i t h the male loadings  ( t o t a l male l o a d i n g s —  6; female —  3).  The  nonoverlapping  items f o r the males were STAI r e l a x a t i o n a d j e c t i v e s and a s m a l l "surprised" loading.  F a c t o r V I I I a g a i n , was a complete r e p l i c a t i o n of  Izard's Interest factor. factor  ( a l s o F a c t o r IX)  F a c t o r IX was s i m i l a r to the male Contempt yet i t a l s o i n c l u d e d STAI a n x i e t y i t e m s .  was t h e r e f o r e named Contempt + A n x i e t y . c o n t e n t to t h e G u i l t - D i s t r e s s first  female f a c t o r .  was fewer  (4),  It  F a c t o r X was more s i m i l a r  in  ( F a c t o r 1) of the males than was the  The number of items o v e r l a p p i n g t h e two samples  however. Whereas the male f a c t o r seemed to  represent  s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n and s e l f - c o n t e m p t , the female f a c t o r appears l e s s s e l f - f o c u s e d and i n t r o d u c e s f e a r .  T h i s may suggest sex d i f f e r e n c e s  t h e e x p e r i e n c e of g u i l t w h i c h may, i n p a r t , be a f u n c t i o n of l o c u s  in of  61  control.  The male g u i l t f a c t o r appears to be congruent w i t h an i n t e r n a l  o r i e n t a t i o n , and t h e female f a c t o r w i t h an e x t e r n a l frame of  reference.  F a c t o r IX appears s i m i l a r f o r b o t h groups w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one of the t h r e e i t e m s . sample.  The name L e t h a r g y has been r e t a i n e d f o r the female  Factor XII  was b a r e l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e .  l o a d i n g s d e f i n e d the f a c t o r ,  Two items w i t h  " s h e e p i s h " and t h e n e g a t i v e of  small  "worried."  T h i s appeared to i n d i c a t e a t y p e of embarrassment w h i c h was not accomp a n i e d by s e l f - c r i t i c a l thoughts and the f a c t o r was e n t i t l e d v e r y tentatively  as " U n r e f l e c t i v e  Embarrassment."  Three items had no l o a d i n g s >.30: "nervous."  "repentent",  " p l e a s a n t " , and  W h i l e the f a c t o r c o n t e n t f o r b o t h males and females d i s -  p l a y e d a h i g h degree of s i m i l a r i t y , t h e r e appear to be some s t r i k i n g q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by the g r e a t e r t o r i a l c o m p l e x i t y of t h e female l o a d i n g s .  fac-  A p a r t from a few d i s s i m i l a r  s m a l l f a c t o r s , t h e predominant d i f f e r e n c e s appear to b e : 1) the g r e a t e r d i s c r e t e n e s s of the male emotion f a c t o r s ; 2) the l e s s e r emphasis on s e l f - p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n the f e m a l e s ; 3) the apparent d i f f e r e n c e i n o r i e n t a t i o n f o r the females w h i c h might be termed o t h e r - d i r e c t e d n e s s  or e x t e r n a l l o c u s of  control;  and 4) the g r e a t e r frequency of f e a r items l o a d i n g on a v a r i e t y f a c t o r s f o r females ( F a c t o r s ( F a c t o r VI)  I,  III,  of  and X) as opposed to one  for males.  W h i l e t h e s e r e s u l t s may s i m p l y r e f l e c t s a m p l i n g e r r o r , i n l i g h t of the number of male s u b j e c t s , trends i n d i c a t i n g s e x - d i f f e r e n c e s  especially  i t i s conceivable that  i n emotional patterning are  certain  represented  62  by t h e s e d a t a .  These t r e n d s may r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t i a l t r a i n i n g of  e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n and e x p e r i e n c e i n males and f e m a l e s . F a c t o r Content f o r the P o o l e d Sample.  B a s i c a l l y , the f a c t o r  s t r u c t u r e f o r the p o o l e d sample p r o v i d e d more d i s c r e t e f a c t o r s less complexity.  with  The sex d i f f e r e n c e s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y were m i n i -  mized i n t h a t c e r t a i n of the t r e n d s were o b s c u r e d .  F a c t o r I,  Anger-  D i s g u s t , seemed to be most i n f l u e n c e d by the female a n a l y s i s . II,  Factor  N e g a t i v e of A n x i e t y , was e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r t o the two p r e v i o u s  structures.  Factor III,  F e a r , seemed t o be most determined by the  male sample and d i d not r e f l e c t t h e f a c t o r i a l c o m p l e x i t y of the f e males.  F a c t o r IV  (Shame)-Shyness was s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d .  S u r p r i s e , was a c l e a r r e p l i c a t i o n of I z a r d et a l . ' s Factor VI, VII,  Factor V,  (1974) work.  Contempt, combined the male and female s t r u c t u r e s .  Factor  Enjoyment, and F a c t o r V I I I , I n t e r e s t , were b o t h unambiguous  t h e i r content. male f a c t o r s .  Factor IX,  in  G u i l t - D i s t r e s s , combined t h e male and f e -  F a c t o r X , F a t i g u e - L e t h a r g y , was s i m i l a r to t h e f a c t o r  d e r i v e d from b o t h male and female s a m p l e s . most r e f l e c t i v e of t h e male a n a l y s i s .  Factor XI, Anxiety,  Factor XII,  A l e r t Embarrassment,  was e s s e n t i a l l y a weak f a c t o r , s i m i l a r t o t h e female f a c t o r t h a t i t was most d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t .  (XII)  Items w i t h no l o a d i n g s  were " h i g h s t r u n g " , and " o v e r e x c i t e d and r a t t l e d . "  seemed  in >.30  Both were STAI  items. E s s e n t i a l l y , the p o o l e d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e p l i c a t e d the work of I z a r d (1972) w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s d e r i v e d more factors.  That of I z a r d produced o n l y 9 components f o r the 51 i t e m s .  He used h i s r e s u l t s to s u p p o r t h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a n x i e t y was m u l t i f a c t o r i a l  63  (an unstable and variable combination of interacting emotions) because i t loaded on a number of factors. anxiety  In the present analysis, however,  (STAI. items) seemed to be rather c l e a r l y and cleanly, distributed  between two  factors (II and XI).  factored his data.  I t i s possible that Izard under-  Nevertheless, i n research where the DES+A i s used  and where scores on reasonably discrete emotion factors are desirable, the results of this study support usage of Izard's analysis, part i c u l a r l y when an i n i t i a l factor analysis i s not f e a s i b l e .  The  only  drawback i n using Izard's data, however, i s i n the lack of r e f l e c t i o n of sex  differences.  In the present analysis, the pooled sample factor structure  was  not used i n the computation of factor scores because the comparative increase i n f a c t o r i a l s i m p l i c i t y seemed not to be desirable i n l i g h t of the obscurity i n sex differences which would r e s u l t . T  2  was  highly s i g n i f i c a n t , there was  base a rationale for combining sexes.  Since the  initial  no compelling reason on which to  64  STUDY 3 FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE PHYSICAL ANDEHONIA SCALE  Chapman, Chapman, and R a u l i n (1976) d i s c u s s the f o r m a t i o n of  two  anhedonia s c a l e s ( p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l ) w h i c h they c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g r a t i o n a l - e m p i r i c a l methods to r e f l e c t a l i f e l o n g d e f e c t i n the a b i l i t y to e x p e r i e n c e p l e a s u r e .  characterological  A l t h o u g h they  reported  h i g h e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s u s i n g the S o c i a l Anhedonia s c a l e , they recommend usage of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e f o r r e s e a r c h concerned w i t h b i o l o g i c a l defects i n pleasure capacity.  S i n c e the p r e s e n t study was  concerned w i t h e x p e r i e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e was c o n s i d e r e d to be most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r assessment of  differences  i n a normal sample. I n s p e c t i o n of t h e i t e m c o n t e n t of t h i s s c a l e s u g g e s t e d ,  however,  t h a t a s i n g l e raw s c o r e might f a i l to p r o v i d e much i n f o r m a t i o n d i n g areas of p l e a s u r e d e f i c i e n c y . and a u d i t o r y  That i s , items range from v i s u a l  e x p e r i e n c e s to a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g p l e a s u r e d e r i v e d  t o u c h i n g , i n g e s t i n g f o o d , and h e t e r o s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . researcher  regar-  (Kraepelin,  from  A t l e a s t one  1913/1919) has suggested t h a t c e r t a i n  experi-  ences such as food r e t a i n a " s p e c i a l power of a t t r a c t i o n " even when o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s have l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e .  It  seemed p o s s i b l e t h a t by  c l u s t e r i n g items i n t o c a t e g o r i e s , each c h a r a c t e r i z e d by one mode of s e n s a t i o n , a more i n f o r m a t i v e a n a l y s i s of p l e a s u r e c a p a c i t y might be pursued.  Therefore,  a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the 6 6 - i t e m s c a l e was p e r -  formed f o r the purpose of p a r t i t i o n i n g t h e s e i t e m s and d e r i v i n g s c o r e s f o r s u b j e c t s based on t h e s e  sub-categories.  factor  65  Method Sample and P r o c e d u r e .  The P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e (66 t r u e -  f a l s e i t e m s ) was completed by 120 m a l e s , and 190 females from t h e o r i g i n a l sample of 312 s u b j e c t s .  Of t h e s e 310 s u r v e y s ,  20 were m i s s i n g  one of the 66 r e s p o n s e s , f o u r were m i s s i n g two, t h r e e were m i s s i n g t h r e e , one was m i s s i n g f o u r , one was m i s s i n g s e v e n , and one was m i s s i n g eight.  The m i s s i n g responses were e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e s e 30 s u b j e c t s  by  i n s e r t i n g the mean of the i t e m i n accordance w i t h t h e i r sex and o r d e r of t e s t i n g .  Hotelling's T  2  was used to t e s t f o r mean d i f f e r e n c e s  tween the sexes on a l l 66 i t e m s .  The r e s u l t i n g T ( 6 6 , 8 6 ) 2  F_(66,243) = 4 . 7 2 1 , _p_ = . 0 0 0 0 , was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  = 357.50,  .95 confidence  i n t e r v a l s were c o n s t r u c t e d about the 66 mean d i f f e r e n c e s . i n t e r v a l s spanned z e r o ,  be-  A l l of  these  thus the s o u r c e of the d i f f e r e n c e was not  d e t e c t a b l e a t the . 0 5 l e v e l of  probability.  As i n d i c a t e d i n Study 1 , t h e males i n t h i s sample s c o r e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anhedonic than the f e m a l e s .  The means and s t a n d a r d  d e v i a t i o n s were 12.08 (SD = 6 . 3 7 ) , and 8 . 9 6 (SD = 5.89) f o r the males and f e m a l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n order to determine t h e e q u i v a l e n c e  t h i s sample to t h e undergraduate sample of Chapman e t a l . means were compared.  (1976)  of the  Because i t appears t h a t Chapman e t a l . used a  51 i t e m P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e , t h e i r means were p r o r a t e d .  The  o r i g i n a l means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were 7 . 0 (SD = 3 . 9 ) , and 5 . 6 (SD = 3 . 5 ) f o r t h e i r males and f e m a l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . means were 9 . 0 6 f o r m a l e s , and 7.25 f o r f e m a l e s .  The  prorated  Thus w h i l e i t  appears  t h a t the tendency f o r males to s c o r e more a n h e d o n i c a l l y was r e p l i c a t e d , b o t h sexes i n the p r e s e n t sample o b t a i n e d h i g h e r s c o r e s .  The sample  66  s i z e s were not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t  (Chapman et a l . males = 125,  females = 2 4 6 ) . A n a l y s e s of D a t a . ; T e t r a c h o r i c  c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r  t h e 66 b i n a r y items of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e . s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and f e m a l e s .  T h i s was done  Both c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s were n o n -  Gramian due to extreme p r o p o r t i o n a l s p l i t s of the d a t a . c o u l d not be f a c t o r a n a l y s e d .  These m a t r i c e s  I n an attempt t o r e t a i n the use of  t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n s , the p r o p o r t i o n a l s p l i t s of items f o r t h e male and female m a t r i c e s were i n s p e c t e d .  both  I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t by  d i s c a r d i n g t h e items h a v i n g extreme s p l i t s t h e m a t r i c e s might be made p o s i t i v e d e f i n i t e and a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s would be p o s s i b l e .  This  proved  not to be a f e a s i b l e method f o r the number of i t e m s t o be d i s c a r d e d r e s u l t e d i n r e d u c i n g the s c a l e by more than o n e - h a l f . extreme p r o p o r t i o n a l s p l i t s i s  The number of  given i n Table 11.  I t was thought t h a t by so r e d u c i n g t h e s c a l e , c o n s i d e r a b l e m a t i o n would be l o s t .  Therefore,  infor-  P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s  were computed f o r the d a t a s e p a r a t e l y by s e x .  A pooled c o r r e l a t i o n  m a t r i x was a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the method d e s c r i b e d i n Study 2. The lower t r i a n g u l a r p o r t i o n s of t h e s e t h r e e m a t r i c e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendices V , V I ,  and  VII.  The A l b e r t a G e n e r a l F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program ( H a k s t i a n & Bay, 1972; Second R e v i s i o n , F l y n n , 1977) was used t o conduct a l l a n a l y s e s . The number of f a c t o r s was d e c i d e d u s i n g f i v e methods: Guttman r u l e of l a t e n t r o o t s g r e a t e r t h a n 1 . 0 , (2) Cattell,  (3)  the K a i s e r -  the Scree t e s t  the l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t ,  tage of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r , and (5)  (1)  (4)  of  the p e r c e n -  the p e r c e n t a g e of r e s i d u a l  67  T a b l e 11 Number of Items Having Extreme P r o p o r t i o n a l S p l i t s  Ratio  Males  Females  5:95  14  18  10:90  14  17  15:85  11  11  20:80  8  8  Total  47  54  68  c o r r e l a t i o n s greater than . 1 0 . The r e s u l t s of these t e s t s were h i g h l y e q u i v o c a l ; t h e r e appeared t o be l i t t l e agreement r e g a r d i n g the c o r r e c t number of f a c t o r s . two most l i k e l y numbers were chosen f o r s o l u t i o n s  The  (13 and 24 f a c t o r s ) .  The s i x f a c t o r m a t r i c e s were r o t a t e d t o s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e u s i n g the H a r r i s - K a i s e r method of o b l i q u e r o t a t i o n .  Two s o l u t i o n s f o r each ma-  t r i x were o b t a i n e d , one b e i n g more o r t h o g o n a l than t h e o t h e r . s o l u t i o n s were then compared and i n t e r p r e t e d .  The  F a c t o r s c o r e s were  then computed f o r use i n Study 1 . R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n A p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s was r u n f o r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n mat r i c e s of t h e m a l e , f e m a l e , and p o o l e d s a m p l e s .  The e i g e n v a l u e s  of  t h e s e m a t r i c e s were examined i n o r d e r to determine the number of  factors.  The K a i s e r - G u t t m a n r u l e suggested 24 f a c t o r s f o r a l l t h r e e groups (seeTable 1 2 ) .  The Scree t e s t  ( F i g u r e s 4 , 5 , and 6 ) , . o n t h e o t h e r  h a n d , suggested between 3 and 5 f a c t o r s f o r the g r o u p s . hood-ratio test  The  likeli-  (see T a b l e 13) suggested s t i l l d i f f e r e n t numbers:  11  f o r the m a l e s , >13 f o r the f e m a l e s , and >13 f o r the p o o l e d sample. The p e r c e n t a g e of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r was d e r i v e d from the r e s u l t s of the component a n a l y s i s . t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 14.  The p e r c e n t a g e s f o r v a r i o u s It  f a c t o r s i s the p e r c e n t a g e a c c e p t a b l e .  s h o u l d be noted t h a t o n l y a t 24 S o l u t i o n s of 3 or 5 suggested  by the Scree t e s t account f o r o n l y 18% and 25% of the v a r i a n c e , pectively.  solu-  res-  Even a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13 f a c t o r s , as the l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o  t e s t r e s u l t s s u g g e s t , t h e p e r c e n t a g e of v a r i a n c e was s l i g h t These f i n d i n g s combined suggested s t r o n g l y  (47%).  t h a t the most u s e f u l a n a l y s i s  T a b l e 12 E i g e n v a l u e s G r e a t e r than 1.0 D e r i v e d from P r i n c i p a l Components A n a l y s i s  Males  Females  Pooled  1  5.95  6.28  5.71  2  3.52  3.22  3.11  3  3.19  2.68  2.33  4  2.81  2.45  2.09  5  2.44  2.34  2.02  6  2.37  2.11  1.91  7  2.26  2.03  1.87  8  2.13  1.92  1.70  9  2.07  1.88  1.66  10  1.87  1.84  1.61  11  1.76  1.82  1.53  12  1.68  1.60  1.52  13  1.61  1.57  1.46  14  1.55  1.54  1.42  15  1.52  1.43  1.39  16  1.48  1.38  1.33  17  1.46  1.34  1.30  18  1.32  1.28  1.24  19  1.31  1.25  1.21  20  1.27  1.20  1.19  21  1.21  1.16  1.15  22  1.15  1.13  1.10  23  1.07  1.08  1.07  24  1.01  1.06  1.05  70  Figure 4.  Scree t e s t f o r Anhedonia items based on P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . M a l e s , n = 120.  Figure 5.  Scree t e s t f o r Anhedonia items based on P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . F e m a l e s , n = 190.  72  11 F i g u r e 6.  13  15  17  19  21  23  25  27  29  31  Scree t e s t f o r Anhedonia items based on P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . P o o l e d s a m p l e , n = 310.  33  35  73  T a b l e 13 L i k e l i h o o d - R a t i o Test R e s u l t s  Males  Females  Pooled  4 Factors X  2  (1887)  £ =  2263.1 .00000  2741.09 .00000  5 Factors (1825)  2 X  £ =  2140.73 .00000  2586.0 .00000  9 Factors X -(1587) 2  £  =  1712.94 .017  10 F a c t o r s X (1530) 2  £ =  1625.93 .049  12 F a c t o r s X (1419) 2  1474.13 .162  1725.2 .000  1619.75 .000  18 F a c t o r s 2 X  (1110)  1158.6 .16  1092.91 .67  T a b l e 14 C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e of V a r i a n c e Accounted f o r by V a r y i n g Numbers of  Factors  Number of Factors  Males %  Females %  Pooled %  3  19  18  17  4  23  22  20  5  27  25  23  6  30  28  26  7  33  31  29  8  36  34  31  .9  39  37  33  10  42  40  35  11  45  43  37  12  47  45  39  13  48  47  41  14  51  49  43  15  53  51  45  16  55  53  47  17  57  55  49  18  59  57  51  19  61  59  53  20  63  61  55  21  65  63  57  22  67  65  59  23  69  67  61  24  70  69  62  75  might be the s o l u t i o n f o r far  24 f a c t o r s ,  too l a r g e f o r i n t e r p r e t i v e  13 and 24 f a c t o r  are summarized i n T a b l e 15. l e s s than 24 appeared  t h i s number seemed to be  purposes.  The percentage of r e s i d u a l examined f o r  albeit  correlations  solutions  g r e a t e r than .10 were  f o r a l l t h r e e groups.  On the b a s i s of  these r e s u l t s ,  to a l s o p r o v i d e a reasonably  The s e a r c h f o r a s m a l l number of f a c t o r s was f e l t since certain indicators  (e.g.,  male d a t a .  C e r t a i n l y , a 24 f a c t o r  c o n s i d e r e d to be o v e r f a c t o r i n g ratio  test is  to be  being analysed,  particular fore, of  of  Because, however, the number of  i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t any s o l u t i o n of  In an e f f o r t  of the male d a t a as w e l l as  the female  probable  and pooled samples.  and pooled d a t a ,  compromise.  results since overfactoring more p r o b l e m a t i c The d a t a f o r  of  There-  as  the most  the male sample was p e r c e i v e d as  unweighted l e a s t squares method.  (1)  over-  was skewed most to the male  of  being  the females and p o o l e d samples.  the t h r e e groups were f a c t o r  t a t e d i n two manners:  results  underfactoring  13 f a c t o r s were s e l e c t e d  than u n d e r f a c t o r i n g  and 24 f a c t o r s ) were o b t a i n e d .  this  to m i n i m i z e the  to m i n i m i z e the  The number s e l e c t e d  subjects  to the number of  sample had a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y of .being u n s t a b l e .  the female  the  the l i k e l i h o o d -  g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o t e s t  factoring of  suggested  s o l u t i o n f o r the male d a t a c o u l d be  i n the male sample was h i g h l y inadequate w i t h r e g a r d variables  important  in overfactoring  to an extreme degree i f  taken s e r i o u s l y .  a number  acceptable s o l u t i o n .  the l i k e l i h o o d - r a t i o t e s t )  t h a t any number g r e a t e r than 11 would r e s u l t  These  Two s o l u t i o n s  analysed  using  f o r each group  the (13  These r e s u l t s were then o b l i q u e l y r o -  by a H a r r i s - K a i s e r method w i t h c = 0,  and  76  T a b l e 15 P e r c e n t a g e of R e s i d u a l s G r e a t e r than .10 f o r Unweighted Squares 1 3 - and 2 4 - F a c t o r  Males Factors: Range  . 10 .11 .12 .13 .14 .15 .16 .17 .18 .19 .20 .21 .22 .23 .24 .26 .29 .30 . 49  < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < <  13  Solutions  3  Females 24  13  Least  Pooled 24  13  24  %  %  %  %  %  %  . 11  4.7  3.9  2.9  1.5  1.5  0.28  .12  4.2  3.2  3.1  0.70  1.2  0.09  .13  3.4  1.7  2.5  0.56  0.84  0.05  .14  3.5  1.3  1.4  0.37  0.33  .15  2.2  0.70  1.2  0.14  0.19  .16  1.9  0.93  0.79  0.05  0.05  .17  1.4  0.60  0.56  0.14  .18  0.98  0.23  0.33  0.05  .19  0.70  0.42  0.23  .20  0.47  0.14  0.19  .21  0.65  0.05  0.09  .22  0.42  0.09  0.05  .23  0.14  .24  0.19  .25  0.09  .27  0.05  .30  0.09  .31  0.05  .50  0.05  T o t a l Number of R e s i d u a l s  542  0.05  0.05  0.09  0.05 0.05  0.05 0.05  287  291  72  95  ^ e s i d u a l s were t a k e n from lower t r i a n g u l a r p o r t i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n matrices. T o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s i n lower t r i a n g l e = 2145.  77  (2) by a H a r r i s - K a i s e r method w i t h c = . 5 .  The h y p e r p l a n e counts  (number of l o a d i n g s i n the range 0±.10) were then examined f o r of the t w e l v e s o l u t i o n s .  each  The r e s u l t s a r e summarized i n . T a b l e 16.  The  H a r r i s - K a i s e r r o t a t i o n s f o r 13 f a c t o r s y i e l d e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h h y p e r p l a n e c o u n t s , an average of 61% f o r b o t h c = 0 and c = . 5 a c r o s s groups.  Whereas the c = 0 s o l u t i o n was b e s t f o r m a l e s , the c = . 5  s o l u t i o n was p r e f e r r e d f o r b o t h t h e female and p o o l e d s a m p l e s .  This  l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y was thought t o b e , i n p a r t , a s h o r t c o m i n g of 13-factor solution.  the  The 2 4 - f a c t o r c = . 5 s o l u t i o n , on the o t h e r hand,  showed c o n s i s t e n t s u p e r i o r i t y a c r o s s g r o u p s , w i t h an average h y p e r p l a n e count of 73%. Because the p e r c e n t a g e of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r ,  the K a i s e r -  Guttman r u l e , and the p e r c e n t a g e of h y p e r p l a n e l o a d i n g s converged a t 24 f a c t o r s , t h i s number was chosen f o r e x a m i n a t i o n of f a c t o r and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  It  s h o u l d be n o t e d , however,  sample s i z e ( n e c e s s i t a t e d by sex d i f f e r e n c e s ) ,  structure  t h a t the reduced  the r e l a t i v e l y  poor  agreement r e g a r d i n g the c o r r e c t number of f a c t o r s , and the use of P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s j when the d a t a were not c o n t i n u o u s , c a s t l i m i t a t i o n s on the s t a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s . t u r e r e s u l t i n g from 2 4 - f a c t o r , c = . 5 s o l u t i o n s f o r each group (Tables 1 7 , 1 8 , and 1 9 ) .  The f a c t o r  struc-  i s presented separately  Some comparisons a r e suggested  but i t i s emphasized t h a t t h e s e can be c o n s i d e r e d as no more than tentative findings.  (The t h r e e f a c t o r p a t t e r n m a t r i c e s and t h e t h r e e  p h i m a t r i c e s of i n t e r - f a c t o r c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendices XIV to  XIX.)  B a s i c a l l y , t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e  78  T a b l e 16 T o t a l Hyperplane Counts of R o t a t i o n s  of P h y s i c a l Anhedonia  S c a l e of 1 3 - and 2 4 - F a c t o r  Solutions  13 F a c t o r s  Method  Males  Females  486  516  Pooled  Harris-Kaiser  c = 0  561  Harris-Kaiser c = .5  477  532 24 F a c t o r s  567  Harris-Kaiser c = 0  1045  1146  1184  1087  1166  1209  Harris-Kaiser c = .5  &  T o t a l number of l o a d i n g s were 8 5 8 , and 1584 f o r solutions, respectively.  1 3 - and 2 4 - f a c t o r  79  T a b l e 17 F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s from the H a r r i s K a i s e r (c = . 5 ) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f o r Male Sample  1.  Natural .73 57 .62 1 .48 27 .34 17 -.34 15  2.  New Foods .82 26 Enjoy t r y i n g new foods -.81 5 L i t t l e d e s i r e t o t r y new foods .33 7 E a t i n g s l o w l y — f a v o u r i t e foods .33 56 F a s c i n a t e d by flames i n f i r e p l a c e  3.  4.  Tactile .70 38 .47 51 .36 39  Phenomena - Sky D o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d why p e o p l e enjoy l o o k i n g a t s t a r s B e l i e f t h a t beauty of s u n s e t s i s o v e r r a t e d Never e x h i l a r a t e d by a thunderstorm B e l i e f that f l y i n g a k i t e i s s i l l y F e e l i n g hungry when s m e l l i n g bakery bread  Gratification F e e l s good to massage muscles when t i r e d or Enjoy h o l d i n g hands w i t h a woman Love h a v i n g back massage  sore  Sunbathing . 8 8 45 D o n ' t c a r e t o sunbathe .78 60 Sunbathing i s n ' t much f u n .32 61 F l o w e r s a r e n ' t t h a t b e a u t i f u l .68 .43 -.67 .51 .32 .30  46 E a s i l y fond of an a t t r a c t i v e woman 47 Soothed and r e f r e s h e d by good soap l a t h e r 14 52 29 16  Enjoy f e e l i n g s t r e n g t h i n o n e ' s muscles Have y e t to meet an a t t r a c t i v e woman Sex i s most i n t e n s e l y e n j o y a b l e t h i n g i n l i f e L i t t l e f u n from p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ( w a l k i n g , swimming, sports)  Organ M u s i c .81 55 Organ music i s d u l l and u n e x c i t i n g -.75 42 T h r i l l e d by organ music continued  80  T a b l e 17 c o n t i n u e d  8. 9.  10.  Bathing .82 21 Rush w i t h b a t h or shower I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e Comfort -.86 21 U n c o m f o r t a b l e when touched by f r i e n d s .44 37 F e e l s good when touched by someone I c a r e about Singing .76 3 -.49 53 .35 18 . 3 3 59  Seldom c a r e to s i n g i n shower When s a d , s i n g i n g makes me h a p p i e r S o f t music i s b o r i n g not r e l a x i n g Seldom want t o s i n g a l o n g w i t h a good song  11.  Food .61 23 Have f a v o u r i t e foods -.46 63 Urge t o f e e l s t a t u e s when I see them .32 58 T a s t e of food i s i m p o r t a n t to me  12.  Walking .61 4 R e l a x i n g e f f e c t of slow w a l k .48 10 Walks - r e l a x i n g and e n j o y a b l e - . 3 6 41 Enjoy p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s w i t h o p p o s i t e sex  13.  Music .67 28 D o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d why o t h e r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n music .66 11 Dancing ( i d e a o f ) seems d u l l  14.  T a c t i l e - Softness . 7 3 54 L i k e p l a y i n g w i t h s o f t . k i t t e n s or puppies .56 64 Enj.oy f e e l of s i l k , v e l v e t , or f u r  15.  Anhedonia .66 44 N o t h i n g much I ' v e ever enjoyed . 5 5 35 Never wanted t o go on r i d e s a t amusement p a r k s .39 58 T a s t e of food i s i m p o r t a n t to me  16. .50 .38 .37 .36  25 53 15 9  Hate e x h a u s t i o n f o l l o w i n g v i g o r o u s a c t i v i t y When s a d , s i n g i n g makes ne h a p p i e r F e e l i n g hungry when s m e l l i n g bakery bread I n d i f f e r e n c e to t a s t e of food  ,60 .41 34  19 S m e l l of d i n n e r has not aroused a p p e t i t e 39 Love h a v i n g back massage 66 No d e s i r e t o w a l k through a p u d d l e b a r e f o o t  17.  ...  continued  T a b l e 17 c o n t i n u e d  .74 .56 .38  40 F i r s t w i n t e r s n o w f a l l l o o k s p r e t t y 7 E a t i n g s l o w l y — f a v o u r i t e food 27 Never e x h i l a r a t e d by thunderstorm  Scenery .77 36 D e l i g h t e d by b e a u t i f u l scenery - . 3 8 43 N o t a p l e a s e d by sound of r u s t l i n g l e a v e s -.31 66 No d e s i r e t o w a l k through a puddle b a r e f o o t .64 .47 -.32  8 Not e x c i t e d by parade sounds 32 D o n ' t c a r e about t e x t u r e of food 6 Enjoy a s t r o n g , warm handshake  21. 67. .32 22.  49 F e e l snug and s e c u r e h e a r i n g r a i n on r o o f 56 F a s c i n a t e d by flames i n f i r e p l a c e  Sex .74 -.50 .50  22 Sex i s okay 65 Lovemaking i s u s u a l l y i n t e n s e l y p l e a s u r a b l e 52 Haveyet to meet an a t t r a c t i v e woman  .63 .48 -.44 .37 .36 .31  50 13 34 56 24 41  B r i s k w a l k f e e l s good Excitement-looking at b r i g h t c i t y l i g h t s P o e t s exaggerate beauty and j o y s of n a t u r e F a s c i n a t e d by f l a m e s i n f i r e p l a c e E x c i t e m e n t l o o k i n g a t v i e w from a h i g h p l a c e Enjoy p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s w i t h the o p p o s i t e sex  24. .51 .37  30 I n d i f f e r e n t t o c o l o u r t h a t t h i n g s a r e p a i n t e d 32 D o n ' t c a r e about t e x t u r e of food  = 110 No l o a d i n g s >.30:  2, 12, 33, 20, 48, 62.  82  T a b l e 18 F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s from the H a r r i s Kaiser  (c = .5) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e P h y s i c a l Anhedonia Scale  .57 .50 .43  .62 -.55 .35 .35 -.30  f o r Female Sample  52 Have y e t t o meet a t t r a c t i v e man 25 Hate e x h a u s t i o n f o l l o w i n g v i g o r o u s a c t i v i t y 16 L i t t l e f u n from p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ( w a l k i n g , swimming, sports) 49 43 15 56 4  F e e l snug and s e c u r e h e a r i n g r a i n on r o o f Not p l e a s e d by sound of r u s t l i n g l e a v e s F e e l i n g hungry when s m e l l i n g bakery bread F a s c i n a t e d by flames i n f i r e p l a c e R e l a x i n g e f f e c t of slow w a l k  Interpersonal T a c t i l e Discomfort .65 31 U n c o m f o r t a b l e when touched by f r i e n d s - . 5 4 38 F e e l s good t o massage m u s c l e s when t i r e d or . 3 2 61 F l o w e r s a r e n ' t t h a t b e a u t i f u l .30 9 I n d i f f e r e n c e to t a s t e of food Walking .96 ..10 Walks - r e l a x i n g and e n j o y a b l e . 5 2 50 B r i s k w a l k f e e l s good -.44 16 L i t t l e f u n from p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s sports) -.34  17 B e l i e f t h a t f l y i n g a k i t e i s  Tactile .62 64 .57 54 -.37 44 Food .50 23 . 4 3 36  sore  ( w a l k i n g , swimming,  silly  - Softness Enjoy f e e l of s i l k , v e l v e t , or f u r L i k e p l a y i n g w i t h s o f t k i t t e n s or p u p p i e s N o t h i n g much I ' v e ever enjoyed Have f a v o u r i t e foods D e l i g h t e d by b e a u t i f u l scenery  New Foods . 8 5 26 Enjoy t r y i n g new foods -.71 5 L i t t l e d e s i r e t o t r y new foods continued  83  T a b l e 18 c o n t i n u e d  8.  Sunbathing .70 45 D o n ' t c a r e t o sunbathe .66 60 Sunbathing i s n ' t much f u n .47 21 Rush w i t h b a t h or shower  9.  Landscape S i g h t s .81 40 F i r s t w i n t e r s n o w f a l l l o o k s p r e t t y .45 36 D e l i g h t e d by b e a u t i f u l scenery -.35 17 B e l i e f t h a t f l y i n g a k i t e i s s i l l y  10.  Organ M u s i c .78 55 Organ music i s d u l l and u n e x c i t i n g -.65 42 T h r i l l e d by organ music  11.  12.  13.  . 66 .44 Sex .64 -.62 ,64 ,61  39 Love h a v i n g back massage 53 When s a d , s i n g i n g makes me h a p p i e r 65 Lovemaking i s u s u a l l y i n t e n s e l y 22 Sex i s okay  pleasurable  19 S m e l l of d i n n e r has not aroused a p p e t i t e 18 S o f t music i s b o r i n g not r e l a x i n g  14. .55 -.51 15.  63 Urge to f e e l s t a t u e s when I see them 3 Seldom c a r e to s i n g i n shower  I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e Comfort .64 37 F e e l s good when touched by someone I c a r e about -.46 61 F l o w e r s a r e n ' t t h a t b e a u t i f u l .35 16 L i t t l e f u n from p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ( w a l k i n g , swimming, sports)  16. .60 .44 .40 .37  59 1 53 61  Seldom want to s i n g a l o n g w i t h a good song B e l i e f t h a t beauty of s u n s e t s i s o v e r r a t e d When s a d , s i n g i n g makes me h a p p i e r Flowers a r e n ' t that b e a u t i f u l  .70 .45  8 Not e x c i t e d by parade sounds 35 Never w a n t i n g to go on r i d e s a t amusement p a r k s  17.  continued  T a b l e 18 c o n t i n u e d  18. .72 .37 -.36 19.  20. 21.  34 30 20  Food .60 58 -.58 32 -.31 9 Indifference .75 75  t o t a s t e of  food  29 Sex i s most i n t e n s e l y e n j o y a b l e t h i n g i n  life  Heterose .67 48 - . 5 2 33 . 4 5 51 .37 46 .31 47 11 -.31  22. .59  2 Having danced a l o n e -  to f e e l body movement  23. .67 .37 .31  13 51 24  .49 -.44  6 12  24.  N = 190.  24 F a c t o r Unweighted L e a s t Squares S o l u t i o n .  No l o a d i n g >.30:  7 , 1 4 , 2 7 , 2 8 , 4 1 , 5 7 , 6 2 , 66  85  T a b l e 19 F a c t o r Content and P r i m a r y P a t t e r n C o e f f i c i e n t s from the H a r r i s Kaiser  (c = .5) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f o r P o o l e d Sample  1.  2.  Walking .80 10 Walks - r e l a x i n g and e n j o y a b l e .45 4 R e l a x i n g e f f e c t of s l o w w a l k .37 50 B r i s k w a l k f e e l s good Sex -.67 .64 .32  22 Sex i s okay 65 Lovemaking i s u s u a l l y i n t e n s e l y p l e a s u r a b l e 29 Sex i s the most i n t e n s e l y e n j o y a b l e t h i n g i n  3.  Heterosexual A c t i v i t y .59 48 F e e l l i k e s t a r i n g a t an a t t r a c t i v e man, woman .45 46 E a s i l y fond of an a t t r a c t i v e man, woman -.35 33 Seldom enjoyed sex .34 47 Soothed and r e f r e s h e d by good soap l a t h e r .32 41 Enjoy p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s w i t h o p p o s i t e sex . 3 2 51 Enjoy h o l d i n g hands w i t h man, woman  4.  New Foods -.84 5 L i t t l e d e s i r e t o t r y new foods .77 26 Enjoy t r y i n g new foods  5.  Sunbathing .77 60 Sunbathing i s n ' t much f u n .73 45 D o n ' t c a r e to sunbathe  6.  Scenery . 6 0 40 F i r s t w i n t e r s n o w f a l l l o o k s p r e t t y .47 36 D e l i g h t e d by b e a u t i f u l scenery .30 38 F e e l s good to massage muscles when t i r e d or s o r e  7.  Organ M u s i c -.74 42 T h r i l l e d by organ music .74 55 Organ music i s d u l l and u n e x c i t i n g  8. .61  24 E x c i t e m e n t l o o k i n g a t v i e w from a h i g h p l a c e continued  86  Table 19 continued  .49 -.42 .40  52 Have yet to meet an a t t r a c t i v e man, woman 15 Feeling hungry when smelling bakery bread 16 L i t t l e fun from physical a c t i v i t i e s (walking, swimming, sports)  -.59 .57  49 Feel snug and secure hearing r a i n on roof 43 Not pleased by sound of r u s t l i n g leaves  10.  11.  12.  13.  14.  15. 16.  Singing .62 3 Seldom caring to sing i n shower -.50 53 When sad, singing makes me happier .47 .46  51 Enjoy holding hands with man, woman 13 Excitement - looking at bright c i t y l i g h t s  .54 .33  17 Belief that f l y i n g a k i t e i s s i l l y 66 No desire to walk through a puddle barefoot  T a c t i l e - Softness .71 64 Enjoy f e e l of s i l k , velvet, or fur .57 54 Like playing with soft kittens or puppies  .53 .69  18 Soft music i s boring not relaxing 8 Not excited by parade sounds  17. .39 .33  31 Uncomfortable when touched by friends 16 L i t t l e fun from physical a c t i v i t i e s (walking, swimming, sports)  18.  T a c t i l e Comfort .67 37 Feels good when touched by someone I care about  19.  Music .63 28 Don't understand why others are interested i n music .45 11 Dancing (idea of) seems d u l l continued  87  T a b l e 19 c o n t i n u e d  .43 .38 .33 .33 -.31  58 38 23 39 57  T a s t e of f o o d i s i m p o r t a n t t o me F e e l s good to massage muscles when t i r e d or s o r e Have f a v o u r i t e foods Love h a v i n g back massage D o n ' t understand why p e o p l e enjoy l o o k i n g a t s t a r s  21. .64 .45 22.  34 P o e t s e x a g g e r a t e beauty and j o y s of n a t u r e 30 I n d i f f e r e n t t o c o l o u r t h a t t h i n g s a r e p a i n t e d  Anhedonia .58 44 N o t h i n g much I ' v e  ever  enjoyed  23. .57 .41  1 B e l i e f t h a t beauty of s u n s e t s i s o v e r r a t e d 59 Seldom want t o s i n g a l o n g w i t h a good song  .55 .34 .33  63 Urge to f e e l s t a t u e s when I see them 2 Having danced a l o n e - to f e e l body movement 12 Impulse to w a l k b a r e f o o t on s o f t , t h i c k c a r p e t  24.  *N = 310 No l o a d i n g >.30:  6 , 7, 9 , 1 4 , 1 9 , 2 0 , 2 1 , 2 5 , 2 7 , 3 2 , 3 5 , 5 6 , 6 1 , 62  88  d i d not produce the h y p o t h e s i z e d  results.  items d e p i c t i n g one mode of s e n s a t i o n . similar activities  t o g e t h e r and  That i s , i t d i d not  Rather, i t tended to  tended to i g n o r e the sensory  combine  cluster features.  perhaps a f u n c t i o n of the f a c t t h a t the 66-item v e r s i o n of  T h i s was  the s c a l e i n c l u d e d some redundancies organ music, sunbathing, the redundant items w i t h items which may  new  (e.g., s e v e r a l items  foods, e t c . ) .  c l u s t e r e d together but  The  r e s u l t was  they f a i l e d  related  such t h a t  to combine  have been r e l a t e d on a s e n s a t i o n l e v e l .  i n s t a n c e s , the f a c t o r s were completely comprised of only t h r e e items.  to  In many  u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e and most were  Thus, the a n a l y s i s appeared not  to  p r o v i d e much u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a s p e c t s of the p l e a s u r e  ex-  perience. F a c t o r Content f o r M a l e s .  F a c t o r I appeared to combine items  l a t e d to p l e a s u r e d e r i v e d from n a t u r a l phenomena i n the sky, s u n s e t s , and Sky.  thunderstorms.  F a c t o r I I was  and was  T h i s f a c t o r was  Foods.  e n t i t l e d N a t u r a l Phenomena foods  F a c t o r I I I combined muscle massage w i t h  h o l d i n g hands w i t h a woman. Gratification.  stars,  c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e s about t r y i n g new  l a b e l l e d New  re-  These were combined under the name T a c t i l e  F a c t o r IV was  c l e a r l y Sunbathing.  F a c t o r V was  com-  p l e t e l y u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e , combining fondness f o r women w i t h a t t i t u d e s about soap l a t h e r . on F a c t o r VI was  sex.  The  The  predominant l o a d i n g strength  subsequent items were r e l a t e d to a t t r a c t i v e  T h i s f a c t o r seemed too ambiguous to be named.  V I I , on the other hand, was Organ. Music.  not named.  the absence of enjoyment r e l a t e d to f e e l i n g  i n one's muscles. women and  T h i s f a c t o r was  completely  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and was  F a c t o r V I I I proved to be a weak f a c t o r w i t h only  Factor entitled one  89  l o a d i n g , but was l a b e l l e d B a t h i n g .  F a c t o r IX a g a i n was weak w i t h o n l y  two l o a d i n g s but b o t h c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d I n t e r p e r s o n a l T a c t i l e Comr f o r t and i t was l a b e l l e d a c c o r d i n g l y .  F a c t o r X r e p r e s e n t e d a combina-  t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h S i n g i n g , and was c o m p a r a t i v e l y easy t o l a b e l . F a c t o r X I was p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e l a t e d t o f o o d ; however, t h e absence of t h e urge t o f e e l s t a t u t e s . the major l o a d i n g was s u c h .  i t also included  I t was l a b e l l e d Food s i n c e  The two l a r g e s t l o a d i n g s on F a c t o r X I I were  r e l a t e d t o w a l k i n g , t h e r e f o r e t h e f a c t o r was e n t i t l e d W a l k i n g .  Factor  X I I I ( M u s i c ) , h a v i n g o n l y two l o a d i n g s , was r e l a t e d t o a l a c k of i n music.  F a c t o r X I V , a g a i n w i t h o n l y two l o a d i n g s , d e s c r i b e d p l e a -  sure r e l a t e d to touching s o f t o b j e c t s . ness.  interest  I t was named T a c t i l e -  Soft-  F a c t o r XV seemed t o most r e l a t e t o a n h e d o n i a , f o r i t s major  l o a d i n g d e s c r i b e d never h a v i n g enjoyed much of a n y t h i n g . Anhedonia.  I t was named  F a c t o r s X V I , X V I I , and X V I I I combined a v a r i e t y  of i t e m s .  The r e s u l t s were not c l e a r l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e and t h e f a c t o r s were untitled.  F a c t o r XIX (Scenery) combined two s i m i l a r i t e m s ;  F a c t o r XX d i d not and was n o t l a b e l l e d .  however,  Of t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r  o n l y F a c t o r X X I I was c o n s i s t e n t i n c o n t e n t .  left  factors,  I t was e n t i t l e d Sex.  The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s of b o t h t h e female and p o o l e d sampled proved t o be e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t .  F o r reasons of p a r s i m o n y , t h e  e n t i r e l a b e l l i n g p r o c e s s w i l l not be d e t a i l e d as i t was f o r t h e male . sample.  Only those f a c t o r s w i t h unambiguous c o n t e n t have been l a b e l l e d .  F a c t o r Content f o r F e m a l e s . c l e a r l y i n t h e female a n a l y s i s . Discomfort (Factor I I I ) ,  C e r t a i n of t h e male f a c t o r s emerged These were:  Interpersonal  Tactile  Walking (Factor I V ) , T a c t i l e - Softness  t o r V ) , Food ( F a c t o r V I ) , New Foods ( F a c t o r V I I ) ,  Sunbathing  (Fac-  (Factor  90  V I I I ) , Organ M u s i c ( F a c t o r X ) , Comfort  (Factor XV),  Sex ( F a c t o r X I I ) ,  and Food ( F a c t o r ( X I X ) .  Interpersonal  Tactile  A major d i f f e r e n c e  t h e female a n a l y s i s was i n the emergence of a f a c t o r d e s c r i b i n g p l e a s u r e from h e t e r o s e x u a l a c t i v i t y .  (XXI)  in  clearly  Nevertheless,  there  were a number of u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r s and of those w h i c h seemed s i m i l a r a c o r s s s e x e s , the i t e m c o n t e n t was d i s s i m i l a r . F a c t o r Content f o r P o o l e d Sample.  The a n a l y s i s f o r the p o o l e d  sample e s s e n t i a l l y e x t r a c t e d the few m e a n i n g f u l f a c t o r s mentioned f o r the males and f e m a l e s .  previously  There were s t i l l a number of u n -  i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r s t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of f a c t o r s h a v i n g o n l y a s i n g l e l o a d i n g (Pooled f a c t o r s , and Males -  1 factor).  5 f a c t o r s , Females - 2  E s s e n t i a l l y the p o o l e d a n a l y s e s p r o -  v i d e d no new i n f o r m a t i o n and s e r v e d o n l y to f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e a l r e a d y ambiguous f i n d i n g s . Basically,  the t h r e e f a c t o r a n a l y s e s y i e l d e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u -  t i o n s w i t h too many f a c t o r s to be of v a l u e .  Nonetheless,  factor  s c o r e s were computed u s i n g the r e g r e s s i o n method and were done s e p a r a t e l y by s e x . C e r t a i n o b s t a c l e s t o an adequate f a c t o r i n g of the P h y s i c a l A n h e d o n i a s c a l e became apparent as a r e s u l t of the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s e s . The most p r o m i n e n t , of c o u r s e , was the use of b i n a r y r e s p o n s e f o r m a t . T h i s a l l o w e d f o r l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y a n d , p e r h a p s , was most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered b o t h i n a n a l y s i s and i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . W h i l e i t would s t i l l appear to be a w o r t h w h i l e endeavour to  categorize  p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s , i t would seem t h a t a d i f f e r e n t response format is essential.  91  Because there were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s both i n 2.  t o t a l anhedonia score and i n the T  a n a l y s i s of the item means, the  separation of subjects r e s u l t e d i n groups which had too few subjects to conduct an adequate analysis, i n l i g h t of the l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s . What does seem apparent from t h i s study of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia s c a l e , however, i s that the v a r i e t y of experiences purporting to r e present a sample of the universe of pleasant p h y s i c a l experiences seems somewhat r e s t r i c t e d .  C e r t a i n l y the 66-item v e r s i o n of t h i s s c a l e ,  while lengthy, provides unnecessary  d u p l i c a t i o n of items.  I t further-  more may u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y heighten scores by the i n c l u s i o n of d u p l i c a t e s . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s and a subsequent p o i n t , i t was noted that f o l l o w i n g one of the t e s t i n g sessions, s e v e r a l subjects approached the invest i g a t o r i n order to discuss t h e i r reactions to one of the items.  They  explained that they thoroughly enjoyed music generally but hated organ music.  As a r e s u l t they had increased t h e i r score by 2 points because  the item appeared twice.  Also noted were.the comments of c e r t a i n sub-,  j e c t s who complained that they often d i d not enjoy walking outside and e s p e c i a l l y smelling flowers f o r they had a l l e r g i e s .  These examples are  reported not f o r anecdotal reasons, but r a t h e r , to i l l u s t r a t e s e v e r a l of a v a r i e t y of influences which were r e l a t e d to subjects obtaining anhedonic scores on items.  Also affected when separate sex forms are  employed are homosexual i n d i v i d u a l s who would i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d answer the heterosexual items i n an anhedonic d i r e c t i o n .  While many  of these influences o n . t o t a l score might be minimal across an e n t i r e sample, i t would seem that at the present stage of anhedonia research, the error exceeds the p r e c i s i o n .  That i s , i t seems r e l a t i v e l y easy  92  to i n c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y an i n d i v i d u a l as high-anhedonic. Where p r e c i s i o n i s required i s i n adequately eliminating the influence of factors which could r e s u l t i n an anhedonic-like  response.  Certain of these influences have already been described i n Study 1 and include depression and neurotic interferences such as anxiety.  Now  emphasized i s the i n a b i l i t y to engage i n an experience for other.than anhedonic reasons.  Properly controlled experiments which consider  the  above issues might provide a better understanding of the state which, unfortunately, remains to be largely t h e o r e t i c a l .  93  SUMMARY AND GENERAL DISCUSSION  Three a s p e c t s of an anhedonia study have been r e p o r t e d .  The  f i r s t study f o c u s e d on d i f f e r e n c e s i n e m o t i o n a l c o n c o m i t a n t s and p l e a s u r e d e s c r i p t i o n s of l o w - and h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s u b j e c t s .  The  final  a n a l y s e s were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m a l e s , y e t f a i l e d to r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e for females.  N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e s were i n t h e  d i r e c t i o n w i t h regard t o :  expected  t o t a l number of s i t u a t i o n s r e p o r t e d ,  average  p l e a s a n t n e s s r a t i n g of s i t u a t i o n s , r e p o r t e d frequency of p l e a s a n t p e r i e n c e s on a d a y - t o - d a y of s i t u a t i o n s .  b a s i s , and i n d i v i d u a l p l e a s a n t n e s s  ex-  ratings  H i g h - a n h e d o n i c s r e p o r t e d fewer and l e s s i n t e n s e s i t u a -  t i o n s than d i d n o w - a n h e d o n i c s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t s u b j e c t s s c o r i n g , h i g h e r on the P h y s i c a l Anhedonic s c a l e behave i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h our e x p e c t a t i o n s of a n h e d o n i c s .  There appeared to be no d i f f e r e n c e s  be-  tween the groups i n p o s i t i v e emotions as d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . was, however,  a d i f f e r e n c e between l o w - and h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s of  sexes i n the emotions most d e f i n i n g the p l e a s u r e e x p e r i e n c e . suggested t h a t the h i g h - a n h e d o n i c s the l o w - a n h e d o n i c s , however,  both It  was  i n t h i s study were more a n x i o u s  s i n c e i t was not p o s s i b l e to  than  specify  types of s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h were l e s s p l e a s a n t , t h e s o u r c e of was u n c l e a r .  There  anxiety  I t was s p e c u l a t e d t h a t a n x i e t y - l a d e n a r e a s may have  been of an i n t e r p e r s o n a l and s e x u a l n a t u r e .  This d i f f i c u l t y  f y i n g s i t u a t i o n s was r e l a t e d to the l a c k of i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y  in speciof  the  P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e f a c t o r s . C e r t a i n r a t h e r c l e a r sex d i f f e r e n c e s emerged on a l l of the meas u r e s employed.  Chapman et a l . ' s o r i g i n a l r e p o r t of males s c o r i n g  94  more a n h e d o n i c a l l y than females was r e p l i c a t e d .  The sex d i f f e r e n c e s  were a l s o apparent i n the second study of the DES+A f a c t o r  structure,  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s s i m i l a r y e t not i d e n t i c a l f o r males and f e m a l e s .  T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s be  c o n s i d e r e d when f a c t o r i n g the DES+A.  Nevertheless,  the o v e r a l l  s i s proved to be a r e a s o n a b l e r e p l i c a t i o n of the work of I z a r d  analy(1972)  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t and c r o s s - v a l i d a t e . C o n t r a r y to I z a r d ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a n x i e t y the m a j o r i t y of STAI items l o a d e d c l e a n l y on two  is multifactorial, factors.  The f i n a l study was concerned w i t h t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e .  T h i s a n a l y s i s f a i l e d to be  the  interpretable  and the d i f f i c u l t y was r e l a t e d to response format and s m a l l sample size.  I n s p i t e of some of the c r i t i c i s m s r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g d e f i c i e n -  c i e s of the P h y s i c a l Anhedonia S c a l e , some of these can be e a s i l y remedied.  I t would appear t h a t as a f i r s t attempt a t c o n s t r u c t i o n  of  an anhedonia s c a l e , t h a t of Chapman et a l . has p r o v i d e d a b e g i n n i n g . It  d o e s , however,  r e q u i r e f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n and v a l i d a t i o n to be  u s e f u l i n anhedonia r e s e a r c h .  95  REFERENCES  B l e u l e r , E.  Dementia praecox or t h e group of s c h i z o p h r e n i a s .  Zinkin, 1950.  trans.)  New Y o r k :  International Universities  (Originally published,  Chapman, L . J . ,  Press,  1911).  Chapman, J . P . , & R a u l i n , M . L .  s o c i a l anhedonia.  (J.  S c a l e s f o r p h y s i c a l and  J o u r n a l of Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y  , 1976, 8 5 ,  374-382. E n g l i s h , H.B. Edition)  A s t u d e n t ' s d i c t i o n a r y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms New Y o r k :  Harper & B r o t h e r s , 1934.  G r i n k e r , R . R . , Werble, B.,  & D r y e , R.  b e h a v i o r a l study of ego f u n c t i o n s . Gunderson, J . G .  & S i n g e r , M.T.  overview.  The b o r d e r l i n e syndrome: New Y o r k :  A  B a s i c B o o k s , 1968.  Defining borderline patients:  American J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r y ,  Hakstian, A.R. & Muller, V . J . problem.  (4th  An  1975, 132, 1 - 1 0 .  Some notes on the number of  factors  M u l t i v a r i a t e B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h , 1973, O c t o b e r , 4 6 1 -  475. H a k s t i a n , A . R . & Bay, K . S .  U s e r ' s manual to accompany t h e A l b e r t a  G e n e r a l F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program ( R I R - 7 2 - 8 ) .  D i v i s i o n of E d u c a -  t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1973. Harris, J.G.  An a b b r e v i a t e d form of the P h i l l i p s R a t i n g S c a l e of  P r e m o r b i d Adjustment i n S c h i z o p h r e n i a . Psychology,  1975, 8 4 , 1 2 9 - 1 3 7 .  Harrow, M . , G r i n k e r , R . R . , and s c h i z o p h r e n i a . 794-797.  J o u r n a l of Abnormal  Holzman, P . S . , & K a y t o n , L.  American J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r y ,  Anhedonia 1977, 134,  96  Hinsie, L.E.  & Campbell, R . J .  New Y o r k :  P s e u d o n e u r o t i c forms of  Psychiatric Quarterly, C.E.  (Fourth  Edition).  O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970.  Hoch, P. & P o l a t i n , P.  Izard,  Psychiatric dictionary  schizophrenia.  1949, 2 3 , 2 4 8 - 2 7 6 .  The f a c e of e m o t i o n .  New Y o r k :  Appelton-Century-Crofts,  1971. Izard,  C.E.  P a t t e r n s of e m o t i o n s .  Izard,  C.E.,  Dougherty, F . E . ,  New Y o r k :  Bloxom, .B.M. , & K o t s c h , W.E.  f e r e n t i a l Emotions S c a l e :  A method of measuring the  e x p e r i e n c e of d i s c r e t e e m o t i o n s . Nashville: K a y t o n , L.  Vanderbilt  & Koh, S.D.  Academic P r e s s , 1972. The  Dif-  subjective  U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , 1974.  University.  Hypohedonia i n s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  Journal  of  Nervous and M e n t a l D i s e a s e , 1975, 1 6 1 , 4 1 2 - 4 2 0 . K r a e p e l i n , E.  Dementia praecox and p a r a p h r e n i a .  Edinburgh:  E.  & S. L i v i n g s t o n e ,  1919.  (B.M. B a r c l a y  (Originally  trans.).  published,  1913). Meehl, P.E. logist, Meehl, P.E.  Schizotaxia,  schizotypy,  schizophrenia.  American Psycho-  1962, 17, 8 2 7 - 8 3 8 . Manual f o r use w i t h C h e c k l i s t of S c h i z o t y p i c  Minneapolis:  P s y c h i a t r y Research U n i t ,  Signs.  U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a  M e d i c a l S c h o o l , 1964. Meehl, P.E.  Hedonic c a p a c i t y :  Menninger C l i n i c , M i l l e r , F.  B u l l e t i n of  the  1975, 3 9 , 2 9 5 - 3 0 7 .  A n g e r , a n h e d o n i a , and the b o r d e r l i n e syndrome.  J o u r n a l of P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , Rado, S.  Some c o n j e c t u r e s .  American  1975, 3 5 , 1 5 7 - 1 6 1 .  A d a p t i o n a l psychodynamics:  M o t i v a t i o n and c o n t r o l .  New  97  York:  S c i e n c e House, 1969.  Speilberger,  CD.,  Gorsuch, R . R . ,  & Luchene, R . E .  I n v e n t o r y T e s t manual f o r Form X .  State T r a i t Anxiety  Palo A l t o :  Consulting  P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , 1970. S t e i n , L.  & Wise, C D .  Possible etiology  of s c h i z o p h r e n i a :  Pro-  g r e s s i v e damage to the n o r a d r e n e r g i c reward system by 6-'hydroxydopamine.  S c i e n c e , 1971, 1 7 1 , 1032-1036.  Strauss, J . S . & G i f t , phrenia.  T.E.  Choosing an approach f o r d i a g n o s i n g  A r c h i v e s of G e n e r a l P s y c h i a t r y ,  Ullman, L . P . & Giovannoni, J . M .  1977, 3 4 , 1248-1253.  The development of a  measure of the p r o c e s s - r e a c t i v e continuum.  schizo-  self-report  J o u r n a l of Nervous  and M e n t a l D i s e a s e , 1964, 138, 3 8 - 4 2 . Watson, C C  R e l a t i o n s h i p s of anhedonia to l e a r n i n g under v a r i o u s  contingencies. Watson, C C  J o u r n a l of Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y ,  1972a, 8 0 , 4 3 - 4 8 .  R e l a t i o n s h i p s of anhedonia to p h y s i o l o g i c a l  and t h r e s h o l d . Watson, C C  Psychological Reports,  reactivity  1972b, 3 1 , 4 3 - 4 6 .  Anhedonia as a f u n c t i o n of n o n - a f f e c t i v e  interpretation  of ambiguous s t i m u l i and t h r e s h o l d f o r a f f e c t i v e and n e u t r a l stimuli. Watson, C C  J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , & J a c o b s , L.  E v i d e n c e f o r a d u a l - f a c t o r concept of  p a t h o l o g i c a l emotional d e f i c i t : J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , Watson, C C ,  Wise, C D .  & S t e i n , L.  Zuckerman, M.  1977, 3 3 , 3 8 5 - 3 8 9 . Toward an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i -  Psychological Reports, Dopamine-g-Hydroxylase  of s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s .  1970, 2 6 , 3 7 1 - 3 7 6 . d e f i c i t s - i n the b r a i n s  S c i e n c e , 1973, 1 8 1 , 3 4 4 - 3 4 7 .  Dimensions of s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g .  and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y ,  psycho-  anhedonia and s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g . .  K l e t t , W . G . , & L o r e i , T.W.  t i o n of a n h e d o n i a .  1977, 3 3 , 5 8 - 6 3 .  1971, 3 6 , 4 5 - 5 2 .  J o u r n a l of  Consulting  98  APPENDIX  I  Test M a t e r i a l s  This survey consists of two questionnaires which are related to l i f e experiences. the beginning. or  Instructions f o r completion of each questionnaire are presented at Read these instructions c a r e f u l l y .  If you have any questions  are unclear about some aspect of t h i s survey, r a i s e your hand.  Before proceeding to f i l l out the survey, please f i l l i n the blanks below: Sex:  Male  Female  (circle)  Age:  Answer the items i n these questionnaires i n the order i n which they occur.  Do not skip any items.  SURVEY OF ATTITUDES AND EXPERIENCES  On the next pages you w i l l f i n d some statements about attitudes and experience.  Please mark each statement as true  or f a l s e to describe your own attitudes and experiences.  We  want you to describe yourself as you have been during most of your adult l i f e .  Please mark every  are not quite sure about the answer.  statement, even i f you  100 1.  True  False.  The beauty of sunsets Is greatly  overrated.  2.  True  False.  I have sometimes danced by myself j u s t to f e e l my body move with the muflc.  3.  True  False.  I have seldom cared to sing i n the shower.  4.  True  False.  After a busy day, a slow walk has often f e l t relaxing.  5.  True  False.  I have had very l i t t l e desire to t r y new kinds of foods.  6.  True  False.  I have often enjoyed receiving a strong, warm handshake.  7.  True  False.  When eating a f a v o r i t e food, I have often t r i e d to eat slowly to make i t l a s t  longer.  8.  True  False.  The sounds of a parade have never excited me.  9.  True  False.  One food tastes as good as another to me.  10.  True  False.  I have often found walks to be relaxing and enjoyable.  11.  True  False.  Dancing, or the idea of i t , has always seemed d u l l to me.  12.  True  False.  On seeing a s o f t , thick carpet, I have sometimes had the impulse to take off my shoes and walk barefoot on i t .  13.  True  False.  The bright l i g h t s of a c i t y are e x c i t i n g to look at.  3 4.  True  False.  I have sometimes enjoyed f e e l i n g the strength i n my muscles.  1^>«  True  False.  16.  True  False.  When I have walked by a bakery, the smell of fresh bread has often made me hungry. I have had very l i t t l e fun from physical a c t i v i t i e s l i k e walking, swimming or sports.  17*  True  False.  I think that f l y i n g a k i t e i s s i l l y .  18.  True  False.  I have usually  19.  True  False.  The smell of dinner cooking has hardly ever aroused  fiur.c' r o f t s ^ s l c borin? rather than relaxing.  my appetite. 20.  True  False.  When I pass by flowers, I have often stopped to smell them.  21-  True  False.  I have usually finished my bath or shower as quickly as possible just to get i t over with.  22*  True  False.  Sex i s okay but not as much fun as most people claim i t i s .  24. 23.  True  False.  very Standing I have e x calways i ton i na g .high had aplace number and oflooking f a v o r i tout e foods. over the view i s  101  25.  True  False.  I have always hated the f e e l i n g of exhaustion that  comes  from vigorous a c t i v i t y . 26.  True  False.  Trying new foods i s something I have always enjoyed.  27.  True  False.  I have never found a thunderstorm e x h i l a r a t i n g .  28.  True  False.  I don't know why some people are so interested i n music.  29.  True  False.  Sex i s the most intensely enjoyable thing i n l i f e .  30.  True  False.  The color that things are painted has seldom mattered to me.  31.  True  False.  I have often f e l t uncomfortable when my friends touch me.  32.  True  False.  I've never cared much about the texture of food.  33.  True  False.  I have seldom enjoyed any kind of sexual experience.  34.  True  False.  Poets always exaggerate the beauty and joys of nature.  35.  True  False.  I never wanted to go on any of the rides at an amusement park.  36.  True  False.  Beautiful scenery has been a great delight to me.  37.  True  False.  38.  True  False.  I t has always made me f e e l good when someone I care about reaches out to touch me. I t has often f e l t good to massage my muscles when they are t i r e d or sore.  39.  True  False. I have always loved having my back massaged.  40.  True  False.  The f i r s t winter snowfall has often looked pretty to me.  41.  True  False.  I greatly enjoy being p h y s i c a l l y close to members of the opposite sex.  42.  True  False.  The sound of organ music has often t h r i l l e d me.  43.  True  False.  The sound of r u s t l i n g leaves has never much pleased me.  44.  True  False.  There just are not many things that I have ever r e a l l y enjoyed doing.  45.  True  False.  I've never cared to sunbathe; i t j u s t makes me hot.  46. 47.  True True  False. False.  48. 49.  True True  False. False.  I have e a s i l y become fond of an a t t r a c t i v e woman. A good soap lather when I'm bathing has sometimes soothed and refreshed me. I have often f e l t l i k e s t a r i n g at an a t t r a c t i v e woman. The sound of the r a i n f a l l i n g on the roof has made me f e e l snug and secure.  50.  True  False.  A b r i s k walk has sometimes made me f e e l good a l l over.  102 51.  True  False.  I enjoy holding hands with a woinan.  52.  True  False.  I have yet to meet a woman that I r e a l l y f e e l attracted to.  53.  True  False.  When I'm feeling a l i t t l e sad, singing has often made me f e e l happier.  54.  True  False.  I l i k e playing with and petting soft l i t t l e kittens or puppies.  55.  True  False.  I have always found organ music d u l l and unexciting.  56.  True  False.  I have been fascinated with the dancing of flames i n a fireplace.  57.  True  False.  I don't understand why people enjoy looking at the stars at night.  58.  True  False.  The taste of food has always been important to me.  59.  True  False.  On hearing a good song I have seldom wanted to sing along with i t .  60.  True  False.  Sunbathing i s n ' t r e a l l y more fun than l y i n g down indoors.  61.  True  False.  Flowers aren't as b e a u t i f u l as many people claim.  62.  True  False.  The warmth of an open fireplace and calmed me.  63.  True  False.  When I have seen a statue I have had the urge to f e e l i t .  64.  True  False.  I have often enjoyed the f e e l of s i l k , v e l v e t , or f u r .  65.  True  False.  I have usually found love-making to be intensely  66.  True  False.  I never have the desire to take my shoes o f f and walk through a puddle barefoot.  hasn't e s p e c i a l l y soothed  pleasurable.  103  Pleasant Events Survey Everyone has, at one time or another, experienced a feeling of pleasure. Each of us has our own idea as to the meaning of pleasure and the feelings that go with i t . Please use the scales below to describe your personal experience — your own feelings — when you feel pleasure. Sometimes thinking back or imagining past situations i s helpful to remember feelings more clearly. Circle the appropriate scale number to indicate the degree to which each word describes your feelings, while you are experiencing pleasure, and just after you have experienced pleasure. 1 very slightly or not at a l l  2 slightly  3 moderately  4 considerably  5 very strongly  1.  comfortable  1 2 3 4 5  17.  enraged  1 2 3 4 5  2.  repentant  1 2 3 4 5  18.  happy  1 2 3 4 5  3.  calm  1 2 3 4 5  19.  scornful  1 2 3 4 5  4.  delighted  1 2 3 4 5  20.  pleasant  1 2 3 4 5  5.  "high strung''  1 2 3 4 5  21.  concentrating  1 2 3 4 5  6.  feeling of distaste  1 2 3 4 5  22.  content  1 2 3 4 5  7.  downhearted  1 2 3 4 5  23.  amazed  1 2 3 4 5  8.  surprised  1 2 3 4 5  24.  fearful  1 2 3 4 5  9.  confident  1 2 3 4 5  25.  at ease  1 2 3 4 5  10.  fatigued  1 2 3 4 5  26.  sluggish  1 2 3 4 5  11.  contemptuous  1 2 3 4 5  27.  relaxed  1 2 3 4 5  12.  sheepish  1 2 3 4 5  28.  angry  1 2 3 4 5  13.  jittery  1 2 3 4 5  29.  sad  1 2 3 4 5  14.  attentive  1 2 3 4 5  30.  guilty  1 2 3 4 5  15.  scared  1 2 3 4 5  31.  anxious  1 2 3 4 5  16.  secure  1 2 3 4 5  32.  bashful  1 2 3 4 5  104  33.  nervous  1 2 3 4 5  43.  alert  1 2 3 4 5  34.  disgusted  1 2 3 4 5  44.  worried  1 2 3 4 5  35.  joyful  1 2 3 4 5  45.  uiad  1 2 3 4 5  36.  f e e l i n g or revulsion 1 2 3 4 5  46.  rested  1 2 3 4 5  37.  overexcited and rattled  1 2 3 4 5  47.  discouraged  1 2 3 4 5  48.  shy  1 2 3 4 5  38.  disdainful  1 2 3 4 5  49.  regretful  1 2 3 4 5  39.  upset  1 2 3 4 5  50.  sleepy  1  40.  blameworthy  1 2 3 4 5  51.  afraid  1 2 3 4 5  41.  tense  1 2 3 4 5  42.  astonished  1 2 3 4 5  23 4 5  Now that you have completed t h i s scale we would l i k e you to l i s t the situations you thought of while you were completing the ratings. Try to r e c a l l as many as you can and l i s t them below. Situations 1.  (  )  2.  (  )  3.  (  )  4.  (  )  5.  (  )  6.  (  )  7.  105  8.  (  )  9.  (  )  10.  (  )  scale:  Mow, rate how pleasant each of your situations was using the following (Put the numbers i n the brackets beside each situation.)  1 2 intensely . moderately unpleasant unpleasant  3 barely unpleasant  4 no reaction  5 barely pleasant  6 moderately pleasant  How often do you experience pleasure i n your l i f e ? (check one): almost every day 3-4 days a week 1-2 days a week l e s s than once a week less than once a month rarely never  7 intensely pleasant  CORRELATION MATRIX FOR HALES - DES ITEMS, APPENDIX I I 1  1.00  2  0.04  3  0.43 0.09  4  0.10 0.14 0.16  5  1  0  6  1.00 1.00 1.00  -0.09 0.01-0.22-0.07  1.00  6  0. 01 0 . 3 4 0. 17 0.01 0.21  1. 00  7  0 . 0 5 0.40 0 . 1 4 0.06 0.26  0.68  8  - 0 . 0 9 0 . 2 9 0.05 0 . 2 5 0 . 1 0  1.00  0.28 0.25  1.00  9  0 . 0 7 - 0 . 06 0.30 0 . 0 9 0. 14 0. 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 0. 21 1. 00  10  0. 13 0. 1 1 0. 18 0.06 0. 13 0. 31 0. 3 3 - 0 . 06 0. 03  1.00  11  0.01  0.31  0.28 0.10  0.05 0.06  0.34 0 . 2 4 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 5  1.00  12  - 0 . 0 9 0 . 3 2 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 1 1 0. 13 0. 18 0 . 16 0. 1 0 - 0 . 09 0.15 0 . 46  13  - 0 . 11 0. 1 5 - 0 . 06 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 5 0. 30 0 . 3 6 0 . 3 5 - 0 . 07 0. 15 0 . 23 0 . 4 5  14  0. 12 0. 13 0 . 13 0. 05 0 . 0 6 0. 10 0 . 1 5 0. 17 0. 23 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 9  1.00  0.00  1 .00 0.04  1.00 15  - 0 . 1 1 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 01 0. 12 0. 27 0. 18 0 . 2 3 0.17 0. 03 0.37 0 . 16 0. 19 0 . 3 6 0.28  16  1.00  0.34 0.10 0 . 5 2 0 . 3 4 - 0 . 1 0 0.22-0.11  17  0.32-0.07  1.00  - 0 . 12 0. 14 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 10 0. 19 0. 27 0. 16 0. 23 0.21  0 . 2 0 - 0 . 0 1 0.30 0 . 3 0 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 2  0.12 0.23 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 5 1 14  2 15  3 16  4 17  5 18  0. 12 0 . 3 7 0 . 2 3  0.20  1.00  0. 16 0. 13 0 . 3 3 - 0 . 10 0 . 4 4 - 0 . 01 21  0.21  0. 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 0. 23 0. 3 4 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 0 0. 20 0. 2 2 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 2 1 - 0 .06  0.06 0. 2 7 - 0 . 09 0 . 5 6 - 0 . 0 1 20  0 . 0 9 0. 30 0. 26 0. 13  1.00  0 . 2 6 - 0 . 0 2 0. 4 9 - 0 . 02 19  0.07-0.09-0.15  1.00  - 0 . 26 0. 25 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 0. 17 0. 47 0 . 3 7 0.21 -0.01  18  0 . 0 9 0 . 0 5 0.09 0 . 1 8 0 . 1 5  0.11  0.15  0.06-0.02-0.10-0.03  1.00  0.24 0 . 2 3 0.14 0 . 1 3 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 4 6 19  7 20  8  9  10  11  12  0.05 13  CORRELATION  22  23  24  25  26  27  MATRIX  FOB  MALES  -  DES  0.23  107  0.45  0.22  0.05  0.15  0.00  1.00  0.35  0.06  0.42  0.38-0.26-0. 19-0.14  0 . 15  0 . 10  0 . 21  0. 09  0.54-0.21  0 . 4 2 - 0 . 17  0.35  0 . 06  1.00  0.02  0.27  0 . 10  0. 14  0.06  0 . 21  0.08  0.46  0 . 16  0.31  0. 22  0. 15  0. 18  0 . 16  0. 22  0. 10  0. 25  0 . 08  -0.13  0.32  0.08  0.07  0.20  0.32  0.32  0.14  0.04  0.37  0.25  0.62  0.01  0. 40  0.05  0. 28  0.05  0 . 25  0 . 01  0 . 19  0.49-0.08  0.45  0. 1 0 - 0 . 2 8 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 5  0 . 17  0.22  0.09-0.15  0.45-0.20  0.23-0.11  0.26  0.02  0.44  0.04-0.08  0.08  0.25  0. 10-0.01  0.06  0. 30  0.27  0. 0 1 - 0 . 2 1  0.39  0.36  0.36  0.40  -0.06  0.23  0.03  0.16-0.13  0.16  0.11  0.01-0.00  0.05  0.17  0.10  1.00  0. 42  0. 08  0.40  0 . 1 0 - 0 . 21  0.03-0.03-0.06  0. 08  0 . 12  0.0 4-0.  0.05-0.14  0.02  ITEMS,  0. 1  0.00  1-0.05-0.07-0.06  0. 12  0 . 11  0 . 16  0.15  0.16  0.18  1.00  1.00 0.04-0.  08-0.24  1.00  08-0.17  0.46-0.03  0.33-0.08  0.27  0.03  0.40  0.03-0.10  0.60  0.17  0.09-0.03  0.07  0.35  0 . 28  0. 03  0. 19  0.24  0 . 08  0.27  1.00 28  - 0 . 16 0.09 -0.0 0  29  30  31  0.26-0.07  0.48  0.70-0.07  0.41-0.13  0.20-0.15  0.16  0.30-0.14  0.10  0.24  1.00  -0.07  0.32  0. 15  0. 04  0.05  0. 42  0. 48  0. 2 8 - 0 . 06  0.04  0 . 12  0.16  0.21  0.05  0.44  0.03  0.42  0.01  0.20-0.04  0.19  0.27-0.09  0.32  0.07  0.45  1. 0 0  0.04  0.48  0 . 16  0. 12  0. 09  0. 45  0.52  0 . 3 5 - 0 . 05  0 . 17  0.29  0. 37  0.31  0. 10  0. 26  0.02  0. 3 6 - 0 . 0 7  0. 29  0.05  0 . 21  0. 06  0. 10  0 . 3 5 - 0 . 09  0.36  0.01  0.44  0.62  0. 39  0.42  0. 2 4 - 0 . 00  0. 19  0.31  0. 38  0. 29  0. 2 4 - 0 . 0 8  0. 2 3 - 0 . 0 3  0. 14  0 . 3 7 - 0 . 13  0.20  0 . 29 0 . 3 9  0 . 27 - 0 . 07 0 . 16 0 . 3 8  -0.09 0.05  32  0.22  1.00  0.33-0.06-0.0  1 0 . 14  0 . 3 2 - 0 . 16  0. 2 2 - 0 . 09  - 0 . 20  0. 24  0. 40  -0.07  0 . 3 3 - 0 . 00 0 . 10 0 . 1 5  0. 27  0 . 00 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 0 8  1 uX  27,'  2 I5> 28X  3 16 ' 29  0 . 18  1.00  0 . 2 6 - •0. 0 5  4 17 30 •  5 18 } 31 '.  0 . 1 6 - •0.0  6 19 '  -7 20 ,  4 -•0.02 0 . 0 2  8 21  9 22. •  0.  0.52  0.49  2 3 o . i s -•0. 0 9 0 . 4 1  10 23-  ii 24  12  • 25,  13 26'  CORRELATION  MATRIX FOR  0.03 0.24 33  MALES - DES ITEMS,  0.34  0.51  0.46  108  1.00  -0. 19 0.34-0. 08-0.02 0. 27 0. 46 0.53 0.36-0. 10 0.21 0.33 0. 42 0.63 0.06 0.31-0. 14 0. 37-0. 12 0. 27-0. 17 0, 18-0. 16 0. 17 0.31-0.39 -0.26 0.34  34  0.35  0.50 0.54 0.59  -0. 10 0. 46 0. 05 0.04  0.08  0. 19 0. 25-0. 01 0.57-0.08 -0. 18 0.50 0.64 35  36  1.00  0. 49 0.57 0. 30-0. 04 0.15 0.30 0.24 0. 49-0. 12 0. 24-0. 13 0. 17 0.38-0. 24  0.09 0.07  0.30  0. 09 0. 41 0. 02 0.34-0. 03 0.21  0.19-0.01  0.11  0.05 0.01  0.02 0.02 0.05  0.22  0.02 0.33 0.04  0.03 0.07  0.23 0.26 0.08-0.04 0.19 0.33 0.13  0.05 0.26-0.07 0.14  0. 02 0.26-0. 12 0. 12 0.36  0.29 0.01  0.02  0. 08-0.00  1.00 0.03  0.07-0.01-0.10-0.02 0 . 2 9 - 0 . 0 3 0.21  0.0 1 0. 14 0. 14 0.37 0. 20 0, 13 0.24 0. 29 0.04 37  0.28  0.60 0. 44 0. 36 0.50 1. 00  0. 16 0. 09 0. 09 0.40 0.07 0. 08 0.05 0. 40 0. 1 1-0.03 0.03-0.04  -0.09 0.13  0.35  1.00  0.25 0.39 0.34-0. 04 0.22 0.19 0. 19 0.42  0. 12 0. 36-0.00 0.24 0. 11 0. 15 0.08 0. 14 0. 03 0.21 0.34-0. 23 0.20 -0.28 0. 19 0. 18 0. 38 0.48 38  -0.04 0.32  0. 31 0.45 0.30 0. 10 0. 23  0. 16 0.07 0. 12 0. 38 0.30 0.36  1.00  0. 22 0. 16 0.47 0. 26 0. 17  0. 11 0. 11-0.00 0.45-0. 04 0. 55 0.07 0. 21-0. 14 0,30 0.14-0. 07  0.12  0.01 0. 37 0.29 0. 33 0. 26 0. 33 0.30 0. 46 0.09 0. 19 0. 17 1. 00 39  40  -0.04 0.27 0.06-0.08 0, 1 1 0. 58 0.46 0. 19-0.04 0. 16 0.22 0. 16 0.33 0.22 0.22-0.03  0.51-0.05 0.31-0.18 0.33-0.15 0.14 0.34-0.14  0.16  -0. 08 0.67 0.36  0.40 0. 31 0. 24 0.39 0.62-0. 07 0.17 0.23 0. 36  1.00  0.07  0.45 0. 05 0.00 0.02  0.09 0.14-0.01 -0.03 0.28 0.47  0. 40 0.44 0.20-0. 19 0.03  0.1 9 0.33  0.36  0. 17-0.08 0. 12-0.07 0. 08-0. 03 0. 11 0.32-0. 19 0.32 0.69 0. 36 0. 42 0.44 0. 56 0. 02 0.25 0.32 0.22  0.38  1.00 41  -0.09 0.30-0. 17 0.02 0. 15 0. 21 0.35 0. 34-0. 10 0. 16 0. 16 0. 20 0.56 0.05 0.22-0.03 0.24-0.11 0.16-0.10 0.20-0.06 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14', 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 40  0.04 0.24-0.22 10 11 12 23 24 25 36 37 38  0.25 13 26 39  CORRELATION  0  EM BIX FOR  -0.17 0.32 0.21 0.41  42  HALES  DES  109  IT EES,  0.40 0, 39 0. 33  0.67 0.42 0. 01 0. 19 0.4G  0.09 0.07  0.13 0.56  -0.04 0.38  0.03  -0. 00 0.17 0.29 0. 17 0.18  0.06  0. 20-0.10 0.0 2 0.17 0.2 2  -0.03 0.27 0.00  0.11 0.07  0.29  0.27 0.33  0. 28  0.06 0.03 0. 04 0.01  0.13  0.20 0.26-0.05-0.13  0.20 0.22 0.22  0.03 0.42  -0.02 0.12  0.16  0.24 0.27 0.05  0.18 0. 24 0. 1 1-0.05 0.22  0.11  0.11  0.22 0. 04 0.22 0.21 0.42  0.41  1.00  -0.14 0.47 0. 10 0.0 1 0.14 0. 38 0.40  0.45 0. 08 0. 3 9 0.00 0. 21 0.02  0. 14 0.43-0.19  0.28  0.27 0.39 0.32  0.44  0.06-0.02 0.05 0. 42 0.27 0.29 0. 08 0. 17 0.32 0.17  0.12  -0. 11 0.46  0.47  0.64 0. 49 0. 44 0.60 0.62-0.07  0.44  0.29  0.24 1.00  -0.17 0.28  0.68 0. 12 0. 56-•0.1 2 0.25-0. 18 0.21 0.29-0.13  -0.03 0.7** 0.48 0.45 0. 24 0.24 0.27 0.59 0.02 0. 16 0.19 0.15  0.14 0.37  0. 3V 0.09 0.46  0. 13 0. 17 0. 12 0.08 0. 16 0. 20  0.26 0.08  0.49  0.47 0.08  0. 18 0. 10 0. 15 0. 02-•0.24 0. 05 0.02 0.07 0.01  0.27-0.02 0.08  0. 18 0. 10 0.02 0.51  0.09 0.21  0.05  0.45 0. 06 0/32 0.03 0.34  -0.04 0.44  0.50  0.71 0. 48 0. 41 0.51 0.74 0.03  0.58 0.48  0.19  0.21 0. 67 0. 46•0.02 1 .00  0.08  1 14 27 40  0.07  0. 17-0. 05 0.31  2 15 28 41  3 16 29 42  4 17 30 43  0.07  0.08-0.01  1.00  0.04 0.50  0.25 0.10  0.57  0.07 0.01-0.01-0.08  0.41-0.00 0.25-•0. 04 0.18' 0.02 0. 37 0. 13 0.03 0.59  -0.03  0.10  1.00  0. 19- 0.09  0. 07- 0.28 0.11  48  0.08  0. 25  0.08 0.02 0.05  0.06 0.27-0.10  47  0.02 0.41 0.22  0.23 0.31  0.11  0.52  46  0.01  0.54 0.22  0. 18 0.39-0.04  45  0.58 0.27-0.00  1.00  0. 16 0. 12 0. 41  44  0.40  1.00  0.33 0. 26 0.09 0. 12 0. 21 0. 20 0. 16 0. 23 0. 25  43  0.11  0.50 0.19-0.02  0.23 0.28 0. 26  0.22  0. 03 0. 12 0. 37-0. 15 0.36 0.34 0.34  0.39  0.53  0.10  0. 31 0.43 0.33-0.06  0.21 0.36 0. 42 0.50  0.08  0.23-•0.13 0.05 0.05 0 6 7 8 20 21 22 19 32 34 35 33  0.31 0. 20 -0. 05 0.37  5 18 31 44  45  46  47  10 23 36  11 24 37  12 25 38  13 26 39  CORRELATION  110  MATRIX FOR MALES - DES ITEMS» #  -0.03 0. 36 0.29 0.40 0.39 0. 73 0.58 0.35 0. 06 0. 15 0.29 0.35 0.33 0.36 0,40 0,22-0.01 0. 44 0. 22 0.07 0.36 1. 00 49  -0.02 0.46 0.07 0.12 0.08 0. 32 0. 44 0. 26-0. 15 0.22 0.40 0.47 0.45 0. 16 0.34-0.07 0.23-0. 15 0.25-•0.03 0.09 0.03 0. 16 0.36--0. 19 0.43 -0.10 0.28 0.45 0.70 0.38 0. 44 0.50 0.55--0. 08 0.31 0.43 0. 30 0.27 0. 65 0. 38 0. 23 0.21 0.590. 28-0.03 0.55 0. 46 1.00  •5.0  0. 18 0. 14 0.23 0.0 3 0.0 2 0,3 2 0.30 0.15 -0. 10 0.38 0.22 0. 12 0.20 -0.01 0. 10 0. 14 0. 19-0. 10 0. 19•0.02 0.09--0. 01 0,08 0.25 0.14 0.47 0.21 0.27 0.35 0.42 0.00 0. 13 0.22 0.25 0. 05 0.28 0.02 0.24 0.24 0. 35 0. 23 0.02-0.05 0.24 0. 19 0.28 0. 34 0.29 0.31 1.00  51  -0.01 0.32 0. 04 0. 10 0. 150. 38 0.34 0. 20-0.00 0. 33 0. 23 0. 29 0.28 0. 19 0. 52-0. 06 0.44 0.030. 39 0.06 0.32 0. 03 0.17 0.65--0. 12 0.28 -0.07 0. 41 0.32 0. 50 0. 430.30 0.38 0. 39-0. 03 0.32 0.41 0.20 0.42 0.36 0.29 0.22 0.19 0.55 0. 48•0.04 0.49 0,37 0.45 0.23 1. 00 1 • 14 : 27 40  2  3  ;i5  16  • 28 29 41 42 v  4 5 17 ,18 30 -31 43 44  6 7 19 . -.20'; 32 33": 46 45  S  21 .34 47  9 .''9 0 • J "~ -  48  10 23. 36 49  11 -.2437 50  12 13 ?5 j, 26 38 :• 39  C O R R E L A T I O N MATRIX FOE F E M A L E S 1  1.00  2  0.04  3  0.33 0.07  4  0.21  5 6  -  DES I T E M S  APPENDIX I I I  111  1.00 1.00  0.02 0.08  1.00  -0.09 0.01-0.28  0.13  0.12 0.24  1.00  0.01-0.07-0.03  1.00  7  -0.03 0.13-0.03  0.02  8  -0.02 0.08-0.07  0.17 0.07 0.04 0.08  9  0.40 0.02 0.26  0.02 0.51  1.00 1.00  0.17-0.06-0.14-0.21 O.05  1.00  10  -0. 10 0.23-0.00-0.01 0. 19 0. 27 0. 23-0. 00-0. 04  11  -0. 12 0.32-0. 00-0.07 0. 14 0. 20 0. 12 0. 07-0. 01 0. 21  12 13 14  0.04 0.22-0. 01 0.04  1.00 1.00  0. 10 0. 15 0. 18 0. 11-0. 16 0. 12 0. 12 1. 00  -0.09 0.07-0.19-0.01 0.32 0.08  0.11 0.05-0.02 0.13 0.17 0.30  1.00  0.37-0. 04 0.09 0.22 0.09 0. 02 0.02 0. 08 0. 34 0. 00-0.03-0. 10 0.1 0 1.00  15  0.02 0. 19 0.05 0.07 0. 16 0.36 0.28 0.22 0.11  16  17  0. 42 0.00  0.34  0.27-0.06  1.00  20  0.06-0.07  0. 13 0. 38 0.38 0.22 0. 04 0.30 0.35 0. 12 0.05  1.00  0.25 0.01 0. 16 0.44 0. 17-0. 07-0.04 0. 18 0.29-0. 10-0.03-0.05-0.08 0.18-0.03  1.00  -0.03 0.27 0.01  0.05 0.07  0.49 0.47 0.09-0. 03 0. 17 0. 36 0. 23 0.09  -0.02 0.29 0.01  0.58-0.06  1. 00  0.17-0.13 0.13 0.29 0.04-0.14-0.17 0.05 0.18-0.03-0.04-0.10-0.05 0.28-0.12  21  0. 18-0.09 0. 01-0.10 0. 02 0. 42-0. 05-0.10  -0.09 0.35 0.01-0.02  0.26-0.05 19  0.39  1.00  -0.01 0.32-0.01 18  0. 03 0. 35 0. 12 0.24  0.14-0.09 0.27-0.17  1.00  0.16-0. 05-0.02 0.01 0. 12-0. 05 0.09 0.06 1 14  2 15  3 16  4 17  5 18  6 19  7 20  8  0. 19 0. 06 0.0 1-0.09 9  10  11  12  0.06 13  CORRELATION MATRIX F O R FEMALES - DES ITEMS  1 1 2  0.46 0.05 0. 07 0. 14 0. 15 0. 01 0. 13 1. 00 22  0.43-0.04 0.29 0.25-0.07-0.16-0.18-0.11 0.37-0.21-0.18-0.06-0.06 0.27-0. 11 0.56-0. 17 0.33-0. 14 0.17 0.06  23  1.00  0. 1.3 0.20-0.05 0. 12 0.09 0.09 0. 1 4 0. 54 0. 18 0. 16 0.21 0. 10 0.22 0.23 0.27 0.03 0,20 0.13 0.13 0.01 0.25-0,05  24  1.00  -0.03 0.22 0.07 0. 03 0. 17 0.24 0.28 0. 05 0. 01 0. 19 0. 17 0. 19 0.28 -0.02 0.55 0.01 0.44-0.06 0.32-0.04 0.04-0.02 0.15  25  1.00  0. 31 0. 05 0.29 0.07-0. 11-0. 04-0.1 9-0.09 0. 35-0.05-0.05-0. 11-0. 13 0. 19-0. 24 0.43 0.01 0. 24-0. 07 0.1 9 0. 20 0. 37-0.01-0.0 8 1.00  26  -0.04 0.21 0.05-0.15 0.11 0.29 0.23 0.07-0.04 0.36 0.24 0.17 0,06 -0.05 0.16 0.02 0.35 0.01 0.35-0.01 0.11-0.14 0.12 0.20 0.14  27  1.00  0.28 0.07 0.41 0.11-0.19-0.00-0.10-0.02 0,23-0.05-0.07-0.00-0.20 0.08-0. 13 0.39-0. 02 0.23-0. 05 0.24 0. 14 0. 29 0.07-0.0 1 0. 39 0.01 1.00  28  -0.02 0. 12 0. 04 0. 03 0. 01 0. 37 0.40 0. 19-0. 02 0. 19 0. 10 0. 11 0.10 0.02 0.37-0.03 0.60-0.02 0.43-0.19 0.11-0.08 0.17 0.42-0.06  0.22  -0.07 1.00 29  0.01 0. 10 0. 07-0.06-0.06 0.39 0.43-0.07-0.23 0. 1 1 0.06 0. 15 0.13 0.02 0.25-0. 05 0.21-0. 12 0. 37-0.23 0. 08-0. 11-0.03 0.27-0.06  0.20  0. 02 0, 47 1. 00 30  0.01 0.23-0.04-0.01 0.09 0.45 0.29 0.03-0.10 0.34 0.17 0.16 0.21 -0.03 0.45-0.02 0.18-0.06 0.24-0.19-0.09-0.06 0.11 0.38-0.20 0.20 -0.13 0.31 0.25  31  1.00  -0.01 0.32-0. 09 0.02 0. 25 0. 32 0.24 0. 17-0.09 0.32 0.32 0. 30 0.35 0.03 0.29-0. 14 0. 22 0.04 0. 23-0.00 0. 14-0. 17 0.32 0.20-0. 09 0.24 -0.09 0.18 0.23 0.33  32  1.00  0.02 0.25-0. 03 0.06 0. 15 0.30 0.18 0. 19-0. 17 0.27 0.23 0.48  0.24  -0.01 0.29-0.03 0.14-0.01 0.21-0.0 9-0.12-0.13 0.11 0.15-0.22  0.20  1 14 27  2 15 28  3 16  4 17  5 18  29  30  31  6 19  7 20  8 21  9 22  10 23  11 24  12 25  13 26  CORRELATION M A T R I X FOR F E M A L E S -0.13 33  - DES I T E M S  1  1  3  0.21 0 . 2 3 0 . 2 5 0.38 1.00  - 0 . 10 0. 1 0 - 0 . 16 0. 0 5 0. 29 0. 2 2 0.21 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 06 0 . 3 1 0. 19 0. 14 0 . 3 3 0. 10 0 . 3 8 - 0 . 18 0 . 2 2 0. 0 8 0. 1 8 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 2 5 0.27 0 . 3 0 - 0 . 16 0.18 - 0 . 2 7 0.26 0 . 1 9 0.30 0.48 0 . 3 5 1 . 0 0  34  0 . 0 1 0.21 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 -0.04  0.41-0.00  0.01 0. 64 0.57 0. 0 7 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 2 5 0. 24 0. 21 0 . 0 9  0.52-0,07  0 . 6 3 - 0 . 2 3 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 15 0.04 0 . 3 5 - 0 . 13 0 . 2 8  - 0 . 11 0. 58 0.45 0.41 0 . 2 5 0 . 3 2 0 . 2 9 1. 00 35  0.29-0.05  0.01 0 . 5 0 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 3 4 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 4  0.21-0.16  0.24-0.02  0.54 0.00 0 . 2 5 0.13 0.24 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 1 0  0 . 2 0 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 7-0.02 36  37  0.19-0.05  1.00  0 . 0 1 0. 2 1 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 4 0. 15 0.30 0.17 0. 0 9 - 0 . 0 3 0. 2 3 0. 28 0. 15 0. 1 3 -0.02  0. 1 5 - 0 . 03 0 . 2 8 - 0 . 1 3  0. 2 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 8  0. 18 0. 1 5 - 0 . 0 0 0. 1 2  -0.06  0. 19 0.12 0. 12 0.38 0. 11 0 . 2 3 0 . 2 7 - 0 . 0 6 1.00  - 0 . 01 0. 1 5 - 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 0 1 0. 40 0. 10 0 . 0 3 0. 15 0. 01 0 . 0 9 0 . 2 3 0. 15 0. 31 0. 1 1 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 12 0. 1 1 0. 13 0. 0 8 0 . 0 1 0. 0 3 - 0 . 0 8 0.24 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 1 3 0.08 0.02 0 . 2 2 0 . 3 9 0 . 2 1 0.41 0.10 0 . 0 3 0 . 2 5 1.00  38  - 0 . 0 2 0. 1 9 0. 0 5 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 1 0. 44 0 . 2 7 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 10 0. 08 0 . 3 2 0. 18 0. 15 -0.05 0.23-0.03  0.29-0.10  0 . 4 9 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 9 0.18 0 . 2 9 - 0 . 1 0  0.26  - 0 . 0 3 0.29 0. 31 0.23 0.28 0. 18 0. 16 0. 4 5 - 0 . 06 0 . 3 3 0 . 2 5 1. 00 39  -0.0 5 0.22  0 . 0 3 -•0.05 0. 08 0. 46 0.58  - 0 . 0 9 0 . 4 2 - 0.09  40  0. 02 - 0 . 2 0  0.28  0. 5 7 -•0. 18 0. 54-•0.31 0.03 - 0 . 2 3 0.08  0.11  0. 29 0.22  0.45-- 0 . 17 0.3 4  -0.08  0.60  0. 55 0. 3 5 0. 2 1 0. 28 0.28  0. 64 - 0 . 18 0.16  0.42  1.00  -0.00  0.23  0 . 0 3 - 0.05  0.05 - 0 . 16 0. 34 0. 13 0.21  0.13  -0.06  0.34  0. 03 0.34-•0. 10 0. 3 4 -•0.22-•0. 03- 0 . 06 0.02  - 0 . 0 4 0.43  0.01  0.41  0.46  0.40  0.52  0.29  0. 0 6 - 0.09  0.10  0. 2 9 0. 2 9 0.26  0.28  0.23  0.10  0.41--0. 07 0.30  0.47 - 0 . 07 0. 20 0 . 0 2  0. 3 2 0.52  0. 16 - 0 . 0 7 0.24  0.23  1.00 41  0.04  0. 1 2 0 . 3 5 - 0. 08 0.20 1 14 27 40  2 15 28  3 16 29  4 17 30  0.0 2 0 . 2 3 -•0.06 0.12 - 0 . 10 0.21 5 18 31  6 19 32  7 20 33  8 21 34  9 22 35  10 23 36  0.14  0.42  0.21-- 0 . 2 5 0.08 11 24 37  12 25 38  13 26 39  CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - DES ITEMS -0. 35 0. 33 0. 19 0.24 0.23 42  0,39 0. 36 0.51  114 0.37-0. 02 0. 19 0. 25 0. 27  1.00  0.08 0.10  0.03  0.09 0.05 0.09 0.03 0.54 0.15 0.08  0.09 0.27  0.01  0.06 0.13  0.01  0.37  0.14-0.07 0.09-0.04  0.15 0.06  0.20  0.64 0.11-0.16  0.02  0. 18-0.02 0. 1 1 0. 22 0. 22 0.28 0. 11 0. 13 0. 12 0. 24 0. 32 0. 10  0.04 0. 28 1. 00 43  0.23-0.10  0.01 0.24  0.43-0. 10 0.12-0.06  0.10-0.22-0.12 0.09 0.33-0.14-0.03-0.15  0.20-0.08 0.23 0.39 0. 12 0. 16-0.01 0. 15-0.09  0.07-0.02-0.06-0.18-0.01-0.16 0.13-0.12  44  0. 14  -0.07 0.20  0. 01 0.03 0. 12 0. 37 0.32 0. 11-0, 12 0.28 0.1 4 0. 15 0.28  0.40  1.00  0.54-0. 11 0. 35-0, 09 0.30-0. 17 0.08-0. 20 0. 14 0. 41-0. 11  -0. 17 0. 51 0.37  0.50 0.37  0.47 0.18-0.10  0.30  0.38 0.43 0.50-0. 18 0. 12 0.21 0. 34  0.54  0.41 0.43 0.13-0.17  0.11  1.00  0.01 0.18-0.01-0.04 0.06 0.01  0.14 0.32 0.18  0.40-•0.09 0.52--0. 11 0. 50-0.17 0. 07 -0. 12 0.11  -0.12 0.63 0.49 0. 24 0.32  46  0.38-0.06 0.0 6-0.09-0.13  -0.22 0.13  0.06  45  0.16  0.40 0.32  0.16- 0, 06 0.46  0.28 0.06  0.44  0.26  0.37--0.03 0.3 8  0.2 2 0. 55-0. 11 0.26 0.12  0.45 0.60  1. 00  0. 12 -0. 18 0. 13 0.10- 0.02 0. 18- 0.02 0.06--0.05-•0.28  0. 10-•0.01 0.33- 0. 02 0. 10 0. 12 0.03 0. 10 0. 25- 0.02 0.41 0. 21 0. 15-0. 03 -0.07 0.04- 0.14  0.05 0.25 0.02  0. 13 0. 1 4-0.01--0.16 0.06 0.03  0.08-•0. 10 0.09 0.1 1 0.05 0. 16 1.00 47  -0.0 2 0.26  0. 07- 0.06 0.03  0. 55 0.50 0.01 -0. 23 0. 29 0. 14 0. 17 0.11  -0. 13 0.38- 0. 10 0. 37 -0. 17 0.37- 0.27-•0. 08 -0. 19 0.02 0. 35 -0. 13 0.28 -0. 12 0. 47 0.49 0.43 0. 24 0. 38 0.26 0.63 -0. 23 0. 15 0. 1 1 0.41 0.68 0. 48 0.41 48  0. 06-0. 29 0.64  0.03 0. 17 0.02 0. 00 0.02  0. 52 0.13  1. 00  0. 40 0.27 0. 13-0. 22 0.29--0.00 0.25 0.12  0, 01 0. 34- 0. 05 0.13--0.05 0. 18-•0.09-•0. 00 -0. 17 0.05 0. 16 -0. 15 0.14 1 14 27.  2 15 28  40  41  3 16 29 42  4 • 17 30 43  5 18 31 44  6 19 32 45  7 20 33 46  8 21 34 47  9 22 35  10 23 36  11 24 37  12 25 38  13 26 39  CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FEMALES - 0 . 0 4 0.27 0.34  DES ITEMS  0.27 0.34 0. 65 0 . 3 5 0. 3 6 - 0 . 10 0. 18 0. 13 0. 18 0. 31  0. 36 0. 26 0. 1 5 - 0 . 2 0 0.44 49  - 0 . 0 2 0.21  0.26 0 . 1 5 0.36  1.00  0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 7 0.07 0 . 4 6 0 . 4 6 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 2 5 0 . 3 0 0 . 1 4 0 . 1 4  0.17  - 0 . 12 0. 4 0 - 0 . 17 0 . 2 9 - 0 . 0 8  0. 3 4 - 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 21 0. 10 0 . 2 7 - 0 , 15 0 . 2 3  - 0 . 0 9 0. 39 0. 44 0. 40 0.31  0. 31 0 . 2 7 0. 5 0 - 0 . 15 0.28 0 . 17 0 . 3 8  0. 50 0.29 0. 1 8 - 0 . 2 3 0.46 50  115  0. 50 0 . 0 3 0. 62 0. 35  1.00  0 . 07 0. 17 0. 1 0 - 0 . 05 0. 06 0. 13 0 . 1 1 0. 15 0 . 01 0. 25 0. 25 0 . 2 3  - 0 . 12 0.21  0.48  0. 10 0. 17 0. 07 0. 1 9 - 0 . 1 4 0. 02 0. 02 0. 16 0. 13 0 . 0 5  0.03 0.30  0. 18 0. 24 0. 23 0. 14 0. 15 0. 28 0. 16 0. 23 0. 04 0. 13 0 . 0 5 0. 18 0 . 2 0 0 . 3 5 0.16 51  0 . 2 0 - 0 . 1 4 0.21 0 . 2 5 0 . 1 6 0.26 0.17 0.18  1.00  0 . 0 5 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 2 0. 14 0. 40 0.31 0. 2 4 - 0 . 09 0.24 0 . 2 3 0.27  0.29  0.10 0 . 6 3 - 0 . 0 0  0.28  - 0 . 11 0 . 4 2 0.31 1.  0.33-0.03  0.32-0.21 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 8 0.28 0 . 4 9 - 0 . 1 4  0.42 0.35 0 . 3 2 0 . 3 9 0 . 4 2 - 0 . 11 0.26 0 . 2 0 0 . 39 0 . 4 8  49 0. 39 0. 3 0 - 0 , 0 9 0.52 0. 57 0 . 0 3 0 . 4 2 0. 32 0. 47 0.31  1 14 27 40  2 15 28 41  3 16 29 42  4 • 17 30 43  5 18 31 44  6  19 32 45  7 20 33 46  8 21 34 47  922 35 48  10 23 36 49  11 24 37 50  1. 00 12 25 38  13 26 39  POOLED C Q E E E L A T I Q N  MATRIX  -  DES I T E M S  1  1.00  2  0.04  3  0.37 0.08  4  0.16 0.08 0.11  1.00  5  -0.09 0.01-0.26  0.05  1.00  1.00  0.06 0.30 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 8  7  0.01 0 . 2 8 0.05 0.04 0 . 1 3 0.61  9 10  -0.05 0.17-0.03  0.20 0 . 0 9  1. 00 1.00  0.15 0.16  1.00  0 . 2 5 - 0 . 02 0 . 2 7 0. 14 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 - O . 1 3  0.11  0.01  116  1.00  6  3  APPENDIX IV  1.00  0. 17 0. 07 0 . 0 2 0. 16 0. 29 0 . 2 8 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 01 1 .00  11  - 0 . 0 5 0 . 2 9 0. 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 0. 10 0. 28 0 . 1 9 0. 1 2 - 0 . 03 0. 26  12  - 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 7 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 1 0. 17 0. 17 0. 10-0. 13 0. 13 0 . 2 9  13  - 0 . 10 0. 1 0 - 0 . 14 0 . 0 0 0. 30 0. 19 0 . 2 2 0. 1 6 - 0 . 04 0. 14 0 . 2 0 0. 36 1 .00  14  1.00 1. 00  0. 26 0 . 0 4 0. 10 0. 15 0. 08 0. 06 0.08 0. 12 0. 29 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 5  0.08  1. 00 15  - 0 . 03 0 . 19 0. 03 0 . 0 9 0.20 0. 26 0 . 2 5 0.20 0. 03 0.36 0. 1 4 0. 22 0 . 3 8 0.18  16  1.00  0.38 0 . 0 5 0.41 0 . 2 5 - 0 . 08  17  0.32-0.04  0.24-0.00  1.00  0.19 0 . 3 9 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 1 9 0 . 2 6 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 7  0.28-0.03  0.18-0.07  0.57-0.03  1.00  0.20 0 , 2 9 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 1 4 0.07 0 . 1 7  0.23-0.02 0.21-0.10 21  1.00  -0.07 0 . 2 0 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 02 0 . 12 0. 36 0.30 0. 15 0. 08 0. 14 0 . 37 0. 23 0 . 14 0.01  20  0.04-0.02-0.00-0.10  1.00  0. 2 6 - 0 . 04 0 . 3 1 - 0 . 0 2 19  0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 3 0.05 0 . 3 2  - 0 . 1 7 0.30 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 02 0. 14 0. 43 0 . 3 7 0. 21 0. 07 0.30 0. 30 0. 12 0. 12 -0.01  18  0.24-0.10  0.35-0.09  0.01-0.03-0.10-0.04  1.00  0.15 0. 08 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 0. 13 0. 10 0. 16 0. 09 0. 16 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 07 0 . 0 6 1 14  2 15 '  3 16  4 17  5 18  6 19  7 20  8  9  10  11  12  13  POOLED C0BBE1ATI0H MATEIX 0.46 0.11 22  0.07  0.39 0. 01 0.34  - CES ITEMS 0.14 0.09 0.11  1  0.08  0.08 0.22  0.00  0.26 0. 25 0.07 24  0. 30-0. 14-0. 17-0.15-0. 01 0.26-0.07-0.12-0.06-0.06  25  0. 13 0.08  1.00  0. 14 0. 1 1 0. 51 0. 17 0. 10 0. 17 0. 10 0.20  0. 19 0. 14 0. 16 0.04 0.25-0. 00  -0.08 0.27 0.07 0.05 0. 18 0. 28 0.30 0. 09 0.02 0.10 0.58 0.01 0.38-0.01  7  1.00  0.25-0.03 0. 55-0. 1 9 0.37-0. 15 0. 25 0. 06 23  1  0.42-0.01  0.30 0.00 0.13-0.01  0.35 0.08-0.17-0.05-0.14-0.07 0.28  1.00 0.28 0. 16 0. 18 0.23 0.16  1.0C  0.07-0.0 1-0.09-0.17  0. 15-0.21 0.44-0.08 0.23-0. 09 0.22 0. 13 0. 40 0.01-0.08 26  0.02 0.23 0.07-0. 08 0.09 0. 29 0.26 -0.06 0. 19 0.03  27  0.34  1. 00  0. 04-0. 12 0. 38 0.31 0. 26  0. 25-0. 06 0. 25 0. 05 0. 07-0. 08 0.09 0.19  0. 12  0.22 1.00  0. 07 0.41 0. 1 1-0. 20 0. 01-0.06-0.03 0. 17 0.02-0.02-0. 04-0.19  0.07-0.14  0.41-0.02  0.27-0.06 0.25 0.10 0.33 0.05-0.05 0.47  0.08  1.00 28  -0. 08 0. 17 0.06 0.00 0.03 0. 43 0.38 0.23 0. 00 0. 19 0. 17 0. 09 0. 17 0.05 0.32-0.04 -0.04  29  0.16 0.36-0.09  0.16  0.40 0.46 0.08-0.15 0.07 0.09 0.17  0.18  1.00  -0.03 0.22  0.11-0.01-0.02  0.08 0.23-0.00 0.04 0.46 30  0.65-0.05 0.42-0.16 0.15-0.11  0.32-0.04 0.40-0.12  0.13-0.G8 0.06  0.27-0.07  0.26  1.00  0.03 0. 34 0.04  0.04  0.09 0.44 0.40 0. 16 -0. 0 8 0. 26 0.23 0.25 0.25  0. 02 0.37- 0. 00 0.26-•0.07 0. 26-0.09 0. 04-0.01 0.11  0.37 -0. 15 0.28  -0.07 0.37 0. 42 1.00 31  -0.05 0.32- 0.08  0.00 0. 20 0. 35 0. 33 0.20 -0. 05 0.26 0.31  0. 34 0.32  0.04 0. 30-0. 15 0. 22-•0.03 0. 23-0.04 0. 18 -0.11 0.25 0.28--0.11 0.22 -0. 14 0. 21 0.25 0. 36 1.00 32  -0.02 0.28- 0.02  0.08 0.15 0.2 9 0.28 0. 22 -0. 13 0.22 0.30 0. 50 0.3 4  -0.00 0.23- 0.05  0. 19-0.03 0. 1 9-0.07- 0. 08-0.07 0. 15 0.16'-0. 17 0.30  1 14 • 27  2 15 28  3 16 29  4 17 30  5 18 31  6 19  7 20  8 21  9 22  10 23  11 24  12 25  13 26  POOLED  CORRELATION  -0,07 0.22 33  MATRIX•-  0.28  0.41  118  1.00 0.26  0.25 0. 25  0.44  0. 08 0, 35-0. 16 0. 28-0.01 0.22-0. 10 0. 20-0. 22 0.23  0.30-0.24  0.25  0.27-0.08  0.38  0.50  0.44  -0.05 0.35 0. 05 0.01  0.04  0. 55 0.57 0. 18-0. 06 0. 19 0.27 0.23 0. 18  0.07 0.33-0.01 -0.15 0.54 35  0.36  ITEMS  -0,13 0.20-0. 13 0.02 0. 28 0. 33 0.35  -0.27 0.29 0.26 34  DES  0. 23 0.02  0.54-0.08  1.00  0.55-0.17 0.09-0.14  0.04  0. 46 0.03  0. 03-0.04 0. 24  0.24-0.06-0.01-0.07-0.08  0.03  0.01  0. 23 0.22-0.05  0.48  0.01 0. 27-0.07-0. 01 0.12 -0.05 0.14-0.00  1.00  0.29 0.06  0.27-0.10  0. 14-0.03  1. 00  0. 26 0.2 1 0.09-0. 03 0. 21 0.30 0.17 0.03 0.02-0.09  -0.03 0. 17 0. 13 0.22 0. 30 0. 12 0.23 0. 27-0. 02  38  0. 14 0.09  0.10 0.21-0.01  0.01  0. 19-0. 17 0. 04 0. 39 0. 16 0. 18 0.21-0. 01 0. 14 0.2 1 0. 16 0.35  0.11  0.27-0.08  0.16  0.12  0.11  0.28  0.42  0.25 0.42 0.18  -0.18 0.12  0.08  -0.03 0.26  0. 10-0.01 0.06  -0.01 0.33  0.03 0,07-0.04 0.05  0.23 0.24-0.15 0.24  0. 30 0. 27 0. 27 0. 25 0.22  0.45  0.C1  0.26  0.34-0.06  -0.08 0.63  0.46  0.15  1.00  0.41 0.29 0.20 0. 06 0. 12 0.40  -0. 04 0.25 0. 04-0.06 0.09 0. 52 0.52 0. 09-0. 13 0.22 0.05  40  0.16  1.00  0. 22 0. 16  0.03 0. 17-0.02 0. 37-0.07 0. 52-0.02 0. 06-0. 11 0.23 0.21-0.08  39  0.24  0.33 0.38  0.20-0. 01-0.04-0.02-0.01 0.00-0.03 0.01  37  0.36-0.18  0.55 0.50 0.35  0. 16-0.06 0.27  36  0.10  0. 18  0.2 1 1.00 0. 17 0.23  0.26  0.54-0. 12 0.43-0.25 0. 16-0.20 0, 10 0. 40-0. 16 0.25 0.37 0.26  0.17 0.15 0.39  1.00  0.03 0. 35 0. 04-0.02 0.01  0. 40 0.45 0. 11-0. 17 0. 19 0. 16 0.26  0.23  0.01  0. 23-0. 15 0. 02-0.05 0.06  0. 25 0. 01 0.26-0.09  -0.04 0.35  0.43  0.26  0.32 0.62-0.13  0.60 0. 32 0. 34 0.32  0. 52-0. 03 0.22  0.37-0. 12 0.31 0.14  0.26  0.45  0.23 -0.08 0.20 0.15 0,22  0.48  1.00 41  0.02  0.18- 0 . 12 0.06  0.23  0. 25 0.31  0.09 0.29- 0 .06 0.22-•0.05 0. 19- 0.08 0. 16 -0. 08 0. 14 0. 23--0. 24 0.17 1 14 27 40  2 15 28  3 16  4 17  5 18  6 19  7 20  8 21  9 22  29  30  31  32  33  34  35  10 23 *36  11 • 24 37 '  12 25 38  13 26 39  CORRELATION  MATRIX  -0. 27 0. 32 0.20 0.32  0.03  0. 19 0.27 0.04  ITEMS  0. 31 0.39  119  0.35 0.57 0.39-0. 01 0. 19 0.31 0. 19 0.39  0.09 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.54 0.17 0.01 0.08  0.09  0.11  0.21  0. 16 0. 17 0.02 0. 15 0. 07 0.62 0. 18-0.10 0.01  0.17 0. 11 0. 16 0. 26 0. 23 0.25 0. 16 0. 17 0.08 0.30 0. 27 0.09  0. 10 0. 24 0.11  DES  1.00  0.03 0.22  0.01  -  1.00  0.07 0.01  0.47 0.03 0.12  0.18 0.08  0.05 0.08 0.18 0.31-0.05-0.03-0.07  0.00 0.12-0.02 0.14 0.40 0.12  0.18 0.11  0.10  0.07-0.11  0.03 0.05 0.04-0.00 0.12-0. 07-0.15 0. 06 0. 26-0.05 0. 12 0.01-0.03 -0.04 0. 12 0.25  1. 00  -0. 10 0.32 0. 04 0.02 0. 13 0. 36 0.35 0. 15-0. 05 0.25 0.1 7 0.27  0.33  0. 1 1 0. 48-0. 08 0.39-0. 08 0.34-0.10 0. 13-0. 1 1 0. 14 0. 42-0. 14 0.29 -0.15 0.48 0.41 0. 45 0.46  0.56  0. 22 0.04  0.42 0.41 0.50 0.55-0.13 0.18 0.27 0.33  0.49  1 .00  -0.07 0. 23 0.02-0. 03 0.06  0.41 0. 34 0. 20-0. 07 0.15  0.32 0. 18 0. 1 1  0.03 0.35-0. 09 0.59-0. 12 0. 53-0. 14 0. 14-0. 14 0. 15 0.33-0.07 -0.08 0.68  0.48  0.33 0.28  0.25 0.24  0.29 0.26  0.16  0.30-0.01  0.44  0.24  0.57-0.05  0.26  0.11 0.46  0.03 0.42  1.00  0.13-0.17  0.12 0.08 0.05 0.18  0.02  0.03-0.03-0.20  0. 14-0. 04 0.36-0.02  0. 17 0. 05 0.09 0. 05 0.30 0.04 0.01 0.39  0.59  0.04  0.43 0. 15 0. 16 0.02-0. 10 0. 03-0. 18 0. 04 0. 20-0.01-0.13 0. 07 0.01 0.07-0.18  0.10 0.07 0.00 0.09  0.01  0.11  0.38  -0.04 0.31-0.04  0.01  0.52 0.50 0.08-0.14  0. 35 0. 39 0.36  0. 11-0.07 0.65  0. 49 0.07  0.00  0.20 0. 05 0. 03 0.05 0.34  0.04  0.28- 0.05  1 14 27 40  2 15 28 41  3 16 29 42  0.26 0.21 0.21  0.40-0. 11 0. 35-0. 14 0. 10-0. 10 0.06  -0.09 0.45 0.49 0.56 0.53 0.44  0.02  1.00  0.21 - 0 . 0 7 4 17 30 43  5 18 31 44 .  6 19 32 :45 -  0.36-0. 13 0.32  0. 68-0. 1 1 0.23 0,20 0.40  7 20 33 46 .  0.61  1. 00  0.34 0. 21-0. 16 0. 25 0. 17 0. 33  0 . 20 - 0 . 1 1  0.15  0.27  0 . 02 - 0 . 08 0 . 14 0.18 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 2 5 8 21 34 47-  9 22 35  10 23 36  11 24 ' 37  12 25 38  13 26 39  POOLED' CORRELATION  MATRIX  - DES ITEMS  120  -0.03 0.31 0. 32 0.32 0.36 0.68 0.44 0. 35-0. 03 0. 17 0. 19 0.26 0.32 0. 36 0.32 0. 18-0. 12 0.44 0. 24 0, 12 0. 36 1. 00 49  -0.02 0.34 0.03 0.02 0.07 0. 38 0.45 0. 13-0. 21 0.26 0.27 0.30 0.29 0. 01 0.37-0. 13 0.26-0. 12 0. 30-0. 13-0. 01-0. 10 0. 12 0.31-0. 17 0.33 -0.09 0.34 0.45 0.53 0.34 0. 37 0.36 0. 52-0. 12 0. 29 0. 27 0. 33 0.38 0. 57 0.33 0.20-0. 03 0.52 0.40 0.00 0. 59 0.40 1.00  50  0. 12 0. 16 0. 16-0. 01 0.05 0. 23 0.21 0. 15-0. 04 0. 31 0.24 0. 18 0. 10 -0.07 0.17 0.12 0.18-0.01  0.19-0.08 0.05 0.01 0.13 0.19 0.08 0.38  0. 19 0.26 0.29 0. 26 0.08 0. 21 0. 18 0. 24 0. 04 0.19 0.04 0.21 0.22 0. 35 0. 19 0.13- 0. 10 0.22 51  0.02 0.26  0.02  0.23 0.21 0. 30 0. 22 0. 24 1.00  0.03 0.15 0. 39 0.33 0. 22-•0. 05 0. 28 0.23 0. 28 0.28  0. 14 0. 58-•0.03 0.38'-0.00 0. 36-•0.08 0.20- 0. 03 0.23 0.57-•0. 13 0.28 - 0 . 10 0.41 0.43 1 14 27 40  0.32  0.35 0.26 2 15 28 41  3 16 29 42  0. 45 0.39 0. 31 0.3 8 0.41- 0. 07 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.45 0.04 0. 53 0. 53 0.00 0. 45 0. 34 0.46 4 17 , 30 43  5 18 31 44  6 19 32'" 45  7 20 33 46  8 21 34 47  9 22 35 48  10 23 36 49  0.27  1.00  11 24 37 50  12 25 38  13 26 39  CORRELATION MATRIX 1  1.00  2  -0.18  FOR  MALES  - ANHEDONIA ITEMS  1.00  3  0.06-0.05  4  0.00 0 . 1 9 - 0 . 0 3  1.00 1.00  5  -0.01  6  - 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 5 0.06  7  - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 05 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 2 1 0. 13  8  9 1 0  ± 1  1 2  121  APPENDIX V  0. 10 0. 0 6 - 0 . 0 3  0.08-0.17 0.07-0.10 -0.05 0.05-0.02-0.10  1. 00 1.00 1.00  0.13-0.26-0.09  1.00  0.10 0 . 1 5 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 0  1.00  - 0 . 29 0. 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 0.42 0 . 0 2 0. 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 04 1 .00 0.27-0.28  0.03-0.08-0.02-0.07-0.09 0.J2-0.06-0.37  1.00  - 0 . 14 0. 1 8 - 0 . 0 5 0. 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 0. 13 0. 1 1-0. 20 0. 02 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 03  1.00  1 3  0. 1 1 0. 0 3 - 0 . 0 1 0. 0 9 - 0 . 13 0. 08  1 4  0.07 0. 13 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 4 0. 16 0 . 0 9 0. 01 0. 07 0. 10 0 . 0 7 0. 04 0 . 2 0  0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 10  0. 12 0. 02 0. 14 1 .00  1.00 1 5  - 0 . 17 0. 2 1 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 16 0 . 0 4 0 . 2 3 0 . 0 5 0. 14 0 . 0 4 0.12  1 6  1.00  -0.04-0.07-0.12 -0.16 0.03  1 7  1.00  0. 07 0.09 0 . 1 5 0. 05 0 . 10 0. 0 0 - 0 . 1 2 0. 04 0. 07 0.01 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 2 1.00  - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 07 0. 0 4 - 0 . 04 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 1-0. 0 7 - 0 . 02 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 12 0 . 0 4 0.03 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 3  20  1.00  - 0 . 0 4 0 . 2 3 - 0 . 14 0. 1 9 - 0 . 1 1 0. 25 0.1 9 - 0 . 17 0. 12 0. 18 0. 01 0. 12 0 . 1 1 0.04 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 8  21  0.07  0. 3 6 - 0 . 10 0. 1 1 - 0 . 09 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 12 0 . 0 2 0. 1 8 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 10 0. 2 2 - 0 . 10 0 . 0 5  -0,03 0.06-0.05-0.03 1 9  0.01  1.00  0.11-0.06-0.06 1 8  0,07 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 4  0 . 0 5 0.07 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 1 1  2  3  14  15  16  4 17  1.00  0.04 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 2  5  6  18  19  7  20  0.05 0.12 0.04 0.09  89 .:. ." ; • /  10  11  12  0.01 13  COSE ELATION MATRIX FOR  MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS  0.09-0.09-0,05 0.11-0.10-0.03 0.01 22  23  24  0.08 0.06  0.11-0.04 0,04  27  0.12 0.17-0.01  2  0.08-0.00-0.07  0. 17-0.09-0.Q3  0.05-0.13  0.02  0.00 0.01  0.02-0.03 0.08-0.12  -0.07-0. 04 0.04  0.09-0.07  0.02 0.04-0. 05 0. 07 1 .00  -0.05 0.04 0.02  0. 15-0. 14 0. 08 0.01  0.22-0.04  0.02 0, 12 1. 00  0. 01 0.08  0.03 0.11-0.07-0.01  0.04 0.06-0.02  0.06-0.04 0.09 0.05  0.10  0.29  1.00  0. 13 0. 00 0. 01-0.09-0. 12 0. 10 0.07 0. 03 0. 13-0. 10 0. 1 1-0. 00 0 .05 0. 02 0.07-0.06  26  2  1.00  0. 08 0.05-0.05  0.22 0,09 0.05-0.03-0.10 25  1  0. 21 0. 06-0. 04-0. Q 3 0. 11-0. .02-0 . 02 0. 13  1.00  0.06-0.19-0.10-0.03-0.68-0.05 0.28-0.05-0.03-0.10 0.08-0.03  0.20  0.03 0.09-0.02-0.03-0.14 0.06  1.00  0.29-0.01  0.18-0.10-0.03 0.11 0.22 0.08  0.12-0.06 0.05-0.18-0.21 0.20-0.08-0.14  -0.21-0.23-0.06 0.18-0.01-0.03-0.07 0.15  0.14-0.17-0.05  0.00 0.08-0.06  0.02-0.08  1.00 28  -0.Q4-0. 12-0.04-0. 17 0. 16 0. 02-0.23-0. 04-0. 04-0.08 0.35-0. 05-0.04 0.05 0.03-0.03-0.07 0.11-0.02 0.13 0.09-0.05 0.04 0.06 -0.06  29  1.00  0.07 0.03 0. 08 0. 10-0. 07-0. 08-0.06 0.05 0. 07-0.08-0.04-0. 18 0. 16 -0.18 0.04 0.10-0.09 0.03 0.12-0.Q9-0.13-0.15 0.08-0,14  30  0.08  1.00  0.08  0.09 0.05-0.04-0.04-0.09-0.14 0.16 0.09-0.10-0.16  -0.06-0.08-0.05  0.16  0.04  1.00  0. 14- 0. 10- 0. 05 0.04 0. 01-0.01  0.1 1- 0.20- 0. 11 0. 06-0.04- 0.12 0.0 3- 0. 02 0.10  0.07 0.12- 0. 05-0.18- 0. 05 0. 07 0.04  0. 1 9-0. 10-0.08 0.06 32  0.09 0.08 0.01  0. 13-0. 17 0. 09-0.07 0.00-0. 10-0.01-0. 04 0. 02-0.09-0. 10-0. 03-0.06 0.02  31  0.20-0,09  0.12- 0.04 -0.Q5  1. 00  0. 19-0. 19 0.27- 0. 13 0. 12- 0. 25-0.05 0. 34' -0.01- 0,25 0.16- 0.21 -0.07 -0.03- 0, 15- 0. 08 0.13  0.0 9- 0. 04-0.17-•0. 09 0. 03 0.01  0.09 0.00 -0,18  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9•  10.  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  '20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  CORRELATION MATRIX FOR 0.11 33  34  MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS  0.03 0.01  1.00  0. 08 0. 13 0.05  0.04-0. 13 0. 12-0. 09-0. 21-0. 07-0. GO-0.07 0. 16 0. 13  0.08  0. 07 0. 03-0.03 0.02 0. 12 0. 16-0.08 0.09 0.07 0.1 1  0.05-0.05  0.00-0.05-0.01-0.02  0.07-0.05  0. 16-0.08 0.08-0.05  0.09-0. .20 0.08-0. 02-0. 02-0.09 0.0 5-0. 03-0.0 3  -0.09-0.02 0.05 0.09-0.10 35  0.18 0.10  0.13  1,00  0. 04-0.01-0.05-0.22 0.03 0.20-0.09-0.03-0.07  -0.08-0.12 0.07-0.06  0.12  0. 09 0. 12-0. 31-0. 14-0.04  1.00  0.11-0.04 0.03 0.04  -0.10-0.08-0.06 0.02-0.01-0.03-0.02  3 6  123  0.15  0.00  -0.12 0.23-0.04 0.09-0.19-0.10-0.10 0.09  1.00  -0.25-0. 04 0.06-0. 12 0.04  0.12  0.03 0.05-0.12  0.08-0.24 0.02-0,14  0. 12 0.19-0. 02-0. 09 0.0 1 0.07 0. 07-0.12  -0. 08-0. 05-0.17 0.10-0. 16 0. 02 0.22-0. 02 0. 08 0.09 0.02 0. 10 0.05 -0. 12 0.05-0. 08-0. 18-0, 17-0. 05 0.08-0. 19 0.09 37  1.00  -0.32 0. 12-0. 12 0. 09-0.0 1 0. 23 0. 09-0. 26-0. 06 0.35-0.29 0. 23-0. 15 -0.09 0.10  0.05-0.13-0.22  0.03 0.21 0.01  0.09-0.07-0.01-0.05-0.01  -0. 26 0.06-0. 18-0.04-0. 37-0. 30 0.09-0. 12 0. 11 0.26 38  0. 06 0. 10-0.07 0. 06 0.04  0. 12 0. 12-0. 02 0. 06 0. 01-0. 08-0. 00 0 .05  0.05-0.05  0.02  0.04  -0.01-0. 14-0.01 39  1 .00  -0.04 0.07  0.01  0.08  0.09 0.09-0.18  0.25 0.13 0.01  0.01-0.09-0.22-0. 18-0.03-0. 23 0.06  0. 04 0.06  0.02  0. 01 0.04  0.03  0.13  1.00  0. 14 0. 08-0.04-0. 14-0. 05 0.05  -0. 10-0.06 0.06-0. 18 0. 1 1-0. 26 0. 0 2-0. 24-0. 10 0.17 0. 15-0. 10-0.02 -0.05-0. 08 0. 15 0. 06 0.07 0. 10-0. 10-0. 09-0. 14-0.09-0.02 0.34 40  0.05-0. 13-0.06 0. 00 0.01 0.08- 0.04 0.41  0.04  0. 18 0.20-0. 08 0. 05 0.04  0.09 0.07 O.02  0.06 0.22  0.19 0. 08 0. 07 0.12 0.18  1 .00 0.1 0  0. 09 0.11  0. 04-0. 15- 0. 13- 0, 14 0. 01-0.08-•0. 16-•0. 04 0. 25 0.06 0.25  0.04  1.00 0.06  0. 10- 0. 14- 0. 12- 0.05  0.05- 0. 05 0.04 0. 10- 0.04 1 14 27  2 15 28  0.04  0.12 0. 12 0. 06- 0.09-•0.08--0.00 0.14  0. 02- 0.05 0. 09- 0. 05 0.25 0.13 0. 01 0.2 0  3 16  4 17  5 18  6 19  7 20  8 21  9 22  10 23  11 24  29  30  31  32  33  34  35  36  37  12 25 38  13 26 39  CORRELATION MATRIX  FOR MALES  -  ANHEDONIA  ITEMS  124  0.09-0.14 0. 13-0. 08-0. 01-0. 0 5 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 03-0. 12-0.07-0. 08 0. 33 0. 12 -0.06 1.00 42  - 0 . 15 0. 12-0. 08 0. 12-0. 18 0. 09 0. 1 1-0. 13 0. 08 0. 12-0.03 0.09 0.05 0. 15 0. 09-0.05-0. 18-0.23-0, 09 0.35 0. 12 0.04-0.01 0. 16 0. 06 0. 24 -0.02 0.10-0.10-0.11 0.06 0.02 0.10-0.09-0.07 0.06 0.02-0.08-0.09 -0.08-0.01 1.00  43  0.32-0. 09 0.06-0. 17 0. 10-0. 2 7 - 0 . 14 0. 17 0. 0.5-0.24 0. 19-0.05-0. 05 -0.06-0.00-0.09 0. 35 0. 18-0. 05-0.31 0. 14 0. 06 0.04-0. 14 0.06 0.01 0. 30-0. 10-0. 06 0. 1 1 0.29 0. 13 0.06 0.09-0.07-0.24-0. 2 3-0.01-0. 12 -0.14 0.15-0.16  44  1.00  -0.06-0. 10 0. 28-0. 24-0.04 0. 10 0.08 0. 02 0. 25- 0.01-0.07 0. 07-0.05 -0.05 0. 05-0.04 0.09 0.04-0. 02-0.0 2 0. 02 0. 3 0 0.06-0. 13 0. 09 0.09 -0.09-0.05 0.01 0.27 0.01-0. 04-0.08 0.03 0. 23 0.07 0.08-0.06-0.01 -0.09 0.07-0.12 0.16 1.00  45  0. 12-0. 10 O. 07 0. 13 0.05 0. 02 0.0 1-0. 06-0. 10 0.07-0.00-0.06 0.01 -0.06 0.08 0.08-0.03 0.13-0.04-0.02 0.17 0.06-0.01-0.2 5-0.03 0.01 -0.07-0.08-0.02 0.23 0.10-0.08 0.06 0.24 0.00-0.07-0.03 0.02-0.23 -0.01-0.07 0.06 0.04 0.07 1.00  46  0.00 0.01-0.03-0.02-0.03-0.05 0.05-0.01 0.10-0.08-0.08 0.21-0.03 -0.04-0.08 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 1 3 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.07 0.04-0.03 -0. 06-0.04 0. 10-0. 14 0.09-0. 08 0.04 0. 06 0.01-0. 12 0.01-0.03 0.06 0.00 0.15 0.07-0.06 0.03-0.25 1.00  47  -0.07 0.08-0. 12 0. 05 0. 02 0. 16 0.21 0. 02-0. 07 0. 0 2 - 0 . 0 5 0. 15-0.02 0.09 0. 02-0.05-0. 10-0.22-0. 18 0.09-0. 03-0.01 0. 16 0. 17 0. 02 0.04 -0. 15-0. 02 0.04-0. 03-0. 11 0. 0 3 - 0 . 17 0.06-0.,09 0. 19 0..19 0. 19 0.22 0. 16 0.27 0. 09-0, 14-0.03-0. 01 0.21 1. 00  48  0.05 0. 03-0.06-0. 10 0. 11-0. 07-0,03 0. 17 0. 05-0.08 0.06-0.02-0.01 -0.07-0.04-0.21 0.09 0.07 0.02-0.04 0.08-0.08-0.05 0.05 0.09-0.14 1 14 27 40  2  15 28 41  3 16 29 42  4 17 30 43  5 18 31 44  6 19 32 45  7 20 33 46  8 21 34 47  9 22 35  10 23 36  11 24' 37  12 25 38  13 26 39  CORRELATION MATRIX F O R MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS  0. 08 0.04  0 . 0 1 - 0 . 13 0. 0 4 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 7 0. 08 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 6  -0.05 0.09-0.16 49  125  0.13 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 2 0.21  0.07  1.00  - 0 . 12 0. 1 1 - 0 . 13 0. 0 3 - 0 . 07 0. 06 0.2 4 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 03 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 0 9 0.27 0 , 12 -0.03 0.20-0.02-0.04-0.09  0.06 0 . 3 1 - 0 . 0 5  - 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 1 - 0 , 1 0 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 2 0 0 . 0 3 0.08  0.10 0.03-0.01-0.04 0.09 0.07  0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 2 8 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 0.0 3 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 5 50  -0.21  0.14-0.12  0.22-0.09  0.04 0.17 0 , 0 7 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 3  0.24 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 6 0.04  -0.20-0.04-0.09-0.14-0.18-0.08 0.21 0 . 0 6 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 2 7 - 0 . 0 6 51  0.09-0.08  0.04  0.07-0.01-0.15  1.00  0.10 0 . 4 2 - 0 . 1 7 0.21  0.26  0.33 0.00 0 . 0 4 0.00 0.22-0.15  0.07  0.04-0.32-0.13-0.03  0.13  0.06-0.02 0.05-0.10  0.19  0.25 0.15 1.00  0.04 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 2 8 - 0 . 02 0 . 0 4 0. 04 0. 0 4 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 05  0.16  0. 1 2 - 0 . 0 3 0. 0 3 - 0 . 2 0 0, 06 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 2 5 - 0 . 06  0.30  0.06-0.22  0.23  0.04  0.08-0.01 0.09 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 3 8 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 6  0.32  - 0 . 0 4 0.32 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 1-0. 1 4 - 0 . 05 0 . 1 7 0. 1 3 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 7 1. 00 52  - 0 . 08 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 14 0. 00 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 02 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 01 0. 1 8 - 0 . 1 5 0 . 0 4 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 0 7 -0.22-0.09 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 3  0.06-0.02  -0.03 0.09 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 1  0.01  0.08-0.02 53  0.22-0.05 0.02 0.03 0.02  0.17-0.12  0.09 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 2  0.12  0 . 2 3 - 0 . 1 9 - 0 . 09 0. 02 0 . 0 7 0. 1 0 - 0 . 05 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 7 0. 06 1 .00  0.05 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 4 2  0 . 0 6 - 0 . 3 1 0.01  0 . 0 7 0. 1 2 - 0 . 0 8  0. 1 0 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 10 0 . 18 0. 1 2 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 0 0 . 19 0 . 2 7  0.03-0.02  0.08-0.04  0.05 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 7 0.02  0.17  0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 24 0. 1 2 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 02 0 . 0 4 0. 13 0. 1 0 - 0 . 09  - 0 . 05 0. 24 0.11  0. 0 2 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 10 0 . 0 2 0. 01 0. 19 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 8  0.12  0.01  0.05-0.16  0.04-0.02  1.00 54  -0.01  0.03-0.00  0.21  0.07 0.02-0.01 0.07-0.18  0 . 0 5 - 0 . 08 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 10 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 21 0. 1 7 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 05 0.01 -0.07 0.08-0.06-0.09  0.02-0.03 0.12-0.17-0.07-0.02  0.31  0.10  0.03  0.18-0.02  0.14  0.11  0.07 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 , 0 7 - 0 . 1 4 0.17 0.17 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 1  0.22  1.00  1 14 27 40  2 15 28 4.1  3 16 29  4 17 30  5 18 31  6 19 32  7 20 33  8 21 34  9 22 35  42  43  44  45  • 46  47  48  10 23 36 49  11 24 37 50  0.05-0.08 12 25 38 51  13 26 39 52  CORRELATION  55  MATRIX  FOR MALES  ANHEDONIA  0.14-0.10 0.04-0.14-0.06  0.01-0.Q6  0.11  0.22-0.08-0.20  0.29 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 7  0.20  0.01-0.08  0.00 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 2  0.02  0.08 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 7 0.02 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 0.12  0.08  0.08 0.12-0.66 - 0 . 0 4 0.02  126  ITEMS  0.08-0.17  -0.02-0.04  56  -  0.04 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 6  0.04 0.02  0.08-0.12-0.15-0.06-0.12  1.00  0.0 1 0. 1 0 - 0 . 13 0. 1 3 - 0 . 29 0. 11 0. 1 8 - 0 . 16-0. 09 0. 18 0 . 0 3 0. 26  0.24  0. 19 0. 15 0. 0 8 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 1  0.23  0. 04 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 06 0. 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 13 0.Q6  - 0 . 11 0. 0 9 - 0 . 10 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 23 0. 0 3 - 0 . 04 0 . 1 5 0. 0 5 - 0 . 0 3 0.09 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 9 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 2 8 0 . 0 9 0.02 57  0.03-0.13  1.00  0 . 3 8 - 0 . 12 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 17 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 13 0. 0 6 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 2 3 0. 1 5 - 0 . 05 0 . 0 9 0.05-0.22-0.03  0.34-0.06-0.02-0.06-0.06  0.23-0.03-0.04  0 . 0 6 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 5 0.13 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 2 6 - 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 2 3  0.04 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 8  0. 22 0. 1 4 - 0 . 08 0 . 0 8 0. 10-0. 04-0. 1 0 - 0 . 29 0. 0 3 - 0 . 0 6  0 . 0 7 - 0 . 17 0. 1 6 - 0 . 03 58  0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 0.20 0 . 2 5  -0.04-0.01-0.15  0.12  0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 9 0.06  0.01  1.00  0.12-0.17-0.07  0.02-0.01-O.04-0.04  0 . 0 9 0.04  0.11  - 0 . 10 0. 22 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 8 0. 03 0 . 0 9 0. 1 2 - 0 . 19 0.27 0 . 0 5 0. 14 0 . 17 0.04-0.08 - 0 . 0 8 0.11  0. 1 6 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 10 0. 10 0. 1 2 - 0 . 21 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 0.20-0.04-0.22  0.10-0.02-0.12 59  0 . 0 3 - 0.22  0.  0.03-0.22  0. 11 0 . 0 4  0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 2 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 5 0.08  0.12  1.00  2 9 - 0 . 0 3 - •0.04- 0. 19 0 . 0 0 0. 26 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 1 - 0. 0 7 - 0 . 0 2  0. 0 1 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 7 0. 2 4 - 0 . 1 6 0.04 - 0 . 1 1 - 0.03 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 3 - 0. 07 0 . 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 - •0.09 0. 2 1 - 0.0 1 0 . 0 5 0. 19 0 . 0 0 ' - 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 4 - 0. 10- 0, 16- 0 . 0 4 0. 2 0 - 0. 09 0 . 1 0 -•0. 12 0. 09 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 1 7  0.p7  0.04  - 0 . 13- 0. 04 0 . 2 6 - 0.15 0 . 0 7 - 0. 10 1.00 60  0 . 2 7 - 0. 2 0 -•0.06- 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 4 - 0. 10- 0.13 0. 07 - 0 . 0 8 - 0. 12 0. 1 3 -• 0 . 09 0 . 0 3 0. 00 0.07 0. 1 1 0. 16-•0. 0 2 - 0. 0 3 - 0 . 2 0 0.05 - 0 . 0 0 - 0.04 - 0 . 2 2 0. 01 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 4 - 0. 0 7 -•0.00 0. 30 0. 23 0. 03 0 . 0 9 0. 20 0. 12- 0. 11 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 2 9 9 2 1 11 12 10 13 4 5 6 7 8 3 J_  .14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27 40  28 41  29 42  30 43  31 44  32 45  33 46  34 47  35 48  36 49  37 50  38 51  39 52  53  54  55  56  57  58  59  C O R R E L A T I O N M A T R I X FOR MALES -0.15 0.10-0.04 0.00-0.20 61  -  ANHEDONIA  ITEMS  0. 22 0. 1 1 0. 65-0. 12-0.07-0. 04-0.07-0.1 9-0.08-0.12  0.01-0.10  0.22  0.05-0.06  1.00  0.39-0. 15 0.05-0. 05 0. 1 1-0. 16-0. 18 0. 23-0. 08-0.29 0.00-0.08-0.06  0.01  0. 12-0. 07 0. 05 0.08  0.24-0,15-0.11  0.17-0.03-0.2 5-0.12-0.00-0.04-0.22-0.07-0.00 0.05 0. 10-0. 10 0.26  -0. 15-0.01-0. 14 0. 28 0.01  0. 04-0.22-0.24 0. 10 0. 13  0. 28-0.05-0. 07 0. 08-0.2 5-0.12  0.07-0.12  -0. 10-0.20 0.12-0. 16 0. 22-0. 03 0.10 0. 35 1..00 62  -0.08 0.04  0. 18 0.01 0. 12-0. 01 0. 12 0. 09-0. 08-0.05-0.09-0. 17-0. 19  -0,10-0.08-0.06 0.02 0.09 0.05-0. 06 0.02  63  0.26-0.2 4-0.03-0.10-0.17-0,15-0.06-0.14  0.01-0. 13 0. 11-0. 10 0. 15 0. 05 0.09 0.11-0. 01-0.1 4  -0.04-0.12-0.23-0.01-0.0 9 0.15-0.2 8-0.09  0.08-0.03-0.13-0.08-0.03  -0. 18-0. 14 0.09-0. 11-0.06-0. 04 0.1 1 0.04  0.,Q4  -0.06 0.39-0. 18 0, 09-0.30 0. 22 0.26-0.,23 0.02 0.04  0.02  0.01-0. 20-0.06-0.06 0.32 0.03  1.00 0.05-0. 08 0.35  0.20  0. 03-0.19 0.03-0.04  0.28  - 0 . J 1-0. 12 0.06-0. 10-0. 14-0. 26 0. 10-0. 10-0. 05 0,02 0.20  64  0.06  0, 10 0. 15-0, 15-0.02 0. 09 0.09 0. 06-0.02 0. 14 0. 1 4 0. 12 0.15  0,30  0.13-0.11  0.04  0. 11-0.08 0. 00 0.01  0.26-0.02  0.00-0.13-0.00-0.06-0.11  0.02 0.00 0.04  0.07-0.10  1.00  0. 25 0.08-0. 15 0. 13 0. 1 1-0. 27 0.^9  -0.09-0.11-0.03 0.00 0.03-0.16 0.05-0.12  0.17-0.06  0.J6 0.04  0.06  0.22  0.08  0.11  0.13 0.05 0.11  0.1.3  0.09 0.01-0.11-0.08  0. 15 0. 13-0.03 0.08-0. 13 0.31 0. 13 0.04  0.05 0, 03 0, 10 0. 21 0,01 -0.07-0.04  0.04-0.02  1.00  0. 02 0.05 0. 08 0. 05 0.04-0. 1 1-0. 18-0.01  0.07 0.02-0.12-0.05-0.37  -0.04-0. 17 0. 09-0. 13 0.04  0.24  0.06 0.11  0. 19 0. 38-0. 15 0. 07 0.00-0. 03-0.25-0.21-0.27-0.23 0.20 65  0. 02-0.01  0.12  0.05-0.02-0.06  0. 1 1-0.2 3-0, 16-0. 17-0.06-0.0 7 0. 40 0. 29  0. 12 0. 25-0..08-0.05-0.09-0. 12 0. 10-0. 02 0. 12-0. 14 0.21 0. 17-0. 18 -0.05 0. 11 0.08-0.11-0. 17 0. 04 0.09-0.15 66  0.21-0.13 1 2 14 15 27 28 40 41 54 53  0.02-0,06 '3 4 16 17 30 29 42 43 56 55  0.08-0.10-0.15 6 7 5 13 20 19 32 33 31 46 45 44 59 57 58  0.18 8 21 34 47 :60  0. 08 0.08-0.1 1-0. 04 0.06-0.16 10 9 22 23 36 35 48 49 62 61  1.00  0.16-0.21-0.04 11 12 13 26 25 24 39 37 38 52 51 50 63 64  CORRELATION  MATRIX FOR  MALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS  i  0.05-0.17 0.04  0.27 0.16  0.09-0.14 0.09 0.01-0.06  0.27-0.01  0.04  0.05 0.01  0.14  0.08  Z  a  0,08-0.03-0.07  0.15 0.00-0.18-0.18-0.12-0.11  -0. 14 0. 08-0. 13 0. 25 0. 05-0. 07 0.03-0. 15 0. 17-0. 15-0. 19 0. 01 -0.04-0.04 0.15-0.14 0.08 1.00  0.08  0.05 0.03-0.02  0.06-0.21  0.03  0.04-0.06  CORRELATION MATRIX FOR 1 2 3  FEMALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS, APPENDIX VI  1.00 -  -0.03  1.00  -0.00-0.14  1.00  4  0.00 0. 13-0. 09 1. 00  5  0.00-0.04-0.09  0.01  1.00  6  -0.14 0.09-0.24-0.02-0.06  7  -0.19 0.05-0.01  3 9  129  0.01-0.06  0.06-0.17-0.03-0.05 -0.04-0. 13 0.01  1.00 0.09  1.00  0.09-0.11-0.04  1.00  0. 08 0. 06-0. 07 0.01 0.09  10  0. 05 0.08  11  0.07-0. 17 0. 02 0.02  1. 00  0.09 0. 34-0. 23-0. 03-0.04-0.05 0. 03  1.00  0.04-0. 17-0.03 0. 12 0. 14-0. 11 1 .00  12  -0.14 0.22-0.11  0.16 0.04-0.05  0.03-0.02-0.05-0.07 0.07  1.00  13  -0. 16 0. 14 0. 01 0.09-0.03  14  -0.00 0. 17-0.08 0. 08-0. 10 0. 09 0.05-0. 02 0. 03 0.20-0.26-0. 00 0. 14  0. 10-0.08-0. 14 0. 05 0.04-0.23 0. 20  1.00  1.00 15  -0.04 0. 16 0.05-0.00-0.08 0.10  16  -0.04-0.05-0.04-0.02 0.08-0.01-0.01-0.07-0.02-0.36-0.0 3 0.05  0.04  0.06-0.07 0.13  19  0.13  0.09-0.05-0.04  0. 00-0.04 0.03-0. 02 0.05 0. 10-0. 03-0. 10-0. 0 4-0. 10-0.03  0.05-0.03  0.07  1.00  -0.03 0. 04-0.08 0.05-0. 03-0. 07-0.07-0. 05-0. 02 0.02-0. 02  0.01  0.24  0. 11-0. 09 0.07-0.08  0.03 0.22-0.02-0.00-0.10 21  0.13-0.04-0.33-0.0 5-0.08-0.01  1.00  -0.05 0.03-0.02 0.21 20  0.07 0.0 9-0. 18-0.09 0. 12-0. 12 0. 19 0. 17 1.00  0.05-0.04 0.05 0.01-0.00-0.04  0.00  2 15  3 16  4 17  5  18  0.03-0.15  1.00  0.05  1 14  0.05  1.00  0.03-0.08-0.07  -0.12-0.04 18  0.00  1.00  -0. 16-0.28 17  0. 03 0. 1 9-0. 11-0. 24 0. 07-0.1 9 0. 14  6 19  7 20  0.03-0.06-0.01 8  9  10  0.01-0.09-0.11 11  12  13  CORRELATION  MATRIX FOR FEMALES  -0.07 0.09 0.06 22  0.05 0.15-0.06 -0.07 0.06  24  0.06 0.16-0.04  0.02  26  27  1.00  0.03  0.07 0. 1 1-0. 05-0. 15 0. 12 1. 00 0.04 0.07-0.05-0.05-0.10-0.13-0.04 0.04 0.05-0.09 0.02 0.16 0.08-0.04  -0. 12-0.04-0. 12 0.16 0.01  0. 18 0.02-0. 16 0.04  0.09-0.06-0.11-0.04 0.05 0.03 0.04 25  130  0. 12-0. 13 0. 01 0.08 0.09-0. 06 0.05 0. 03 0. 18 0.02 0.20-0. 03-0. 14 -0. 12-0. 06 0.22  23  - ANHEDONIA ITEMS,  0.10 0.01  0.19  0.12  0. 18-0.06 0. 06  0.22  1.00  0.16  0.05-0.13 0.12 0.05-0.06 0.04-0.04 0.03 0.14 0.07  1.00 0.27-0.04-0.05  -0. 18-0. 18 0. 17-0.09 0.08  0. 12-0.06 0. 06 0. 21-0. 00-0. 1 0 1. 00  -0.06 0.18-0.02 0.10-0.64  0.10-0.04-0.03-0.10 0.13-0.06 0.17  0.20  0.07 0.06-0.13-0.02 0.03  0.05 0.09-0.00-0.11 0.04 0.11-0.09  1.00  0.09-0.05-0.08 0.02  0.06-0.04  -0. 12-0. 14 0. 10 0. 05 0.02  0.00 0.08-0.01-0.03 0.03  0.00-0.06  0. 07-0.13-0.04 0. 06-0.0 2-0. 18 0. 16-0. 10  1.00 28  0. 10-0. 03 0. 01-0.01 0.06  0.01  0.01-0. 08-0.03 0. 03 0.1 4-0.05-0.06  -0.12-0. 10 0.20 0. 11 0. 13-0. 02-0.25 0. 04 0. 18 0.03 0.04 0. 24-0.01 0.15  29  1.00  0. 15-0, 06 0.09- 0.09-•0.0 3-0.01 0.03- 0.01-0.00- 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 -0.04- 0. 15 0.01- 0.01 0.0 2- 0. 05 0.06- 0.03--0.17- 0.02 0.03 0. 05 -0.00 -0. 11 0.08  30  1.00  0. 13 0.10- 0. 00-0.11  0.00- 0.09-•0.09 0. 11-0.04- 0.07 0. 19 0. 01-0.16  -0.10- 0. 04-0. 04 0.04-•0.05- 0.03- 0.22- 0.02 0. 00 0.05 -0.21 0.05 -0.01 0.03 0. 10 0.04  31  1.00  0.04-•0.03- 0.03- 0.06 0.05- 0. 15 0.01 0.11  0.23- 0.01  0.09--0. 19 -0. 16  -0.06- 0. 18 0. 16 0.05-•0.00 0. 12-0. 13 0. 00 0. 15- 0.08 -0.03 0.20 -0.03 0.15 0.23 0.08  32  0. 18 1.00  0.25- 0. 10-0. 04-0.00 0.10- 0. 21-•0.1 1 0. 20 0. 19- 0.04 -0.06 -0.09 -0.17 -0.03- 0,01- 0.04  1 14 27  2 15 28  3 16 29  0.01  0.03  4 17 30  5 18 31  0. 15 0.01  6 19  7 20  0. 12 0. 06-0. 13 -0.0 8 0. 06-0.21  8 21  9 22  10 23  11 24  12 25  13 26  CORRELATION  MATRIX FOR  FEMALES  0.03-0.05 0.03 33  131  - ANHEDONIA ITEMS,  0.09 0.11  1.00  -0.02-0.23 0.12-0.07 0.17-0.12  0.04  0.12  0.24-0.01  0.27-0.09-0.05  -0.07-0. 12 0. 06-0.02 0. 00-0.04-0. 18-0. 09 0. 29-0.08 0.03 0.00-0.06-0.07 34  0. 12 0. 25 0. 12  0. 16-0.21  1.00  0. 26 0.00-0. 06-0.06-0.02-0.04-0.03-0.04 0. 07-0. 15 0. 15-0. 10-0.18 -0.04-0.09-0.04 0. 02 0.04-0. 03-0.2 5-0. 05 0. 12-0.04-0. 16 0. 07  0.03  0.04 0.20-0. 01 0. 35 0. 12-0. 02-0.05 1. 00 35  36  -0. 08-0. 03 0.05-0. 03 0.09-0.09 0. 13 0. 31 0. 06 0.06 0.03 0.00-0.05  0.00  0.09-0.05  0.07 0.09-0. 03 0.10-0. 03 1. 00  0.05  0.02-0. 03-0.07 O.05  0.03-0.07-0.0 9  0.08-0.11-0.0 6-0. 06-0.14  -0.07 0.08-0. 14 0. 12 0.06  0. 10-0.04 0.02  0. 03-0.04 0.04 0. 21  0.04  -0.06-0.05 0.03-0.08-0.10  0.02 0.12-0.10  0.02  0.06  0.24  0.06-0.01  -0.03 0.03-0.10-0.07-0.01-0.14-0.01-0.05-0.03 1.00 37  0.06 0.13-0.04-0.04-0.10 0.00 0.06-0.09-0.12 0.26  0.16  -0. 06 0.04 38  0.03-0.06-0.08-0.22 0.08  0.17  0.10  0.08-0.15-0.05-0.06-0.22  0.16  0.05 0. 06-0.06-0. 20-0. 1 5 0. 07 0. 07 0.09  -0.09 0.21-0.12 0.12  0.17 0.04-0.01-0.03-0.15 0.19-0.12-0.11 0.13-0.08-0.18 0.24  0.29  0.06  1.00  0.05 0. 03-0.24 0.08-0.01  0. 1 1 0.0 7-0. 08-0. 10-0.01-0.06 0.23  0.06  0.27 0.13-0.03-0.08  0.05 0.13-0.01-0.19 0.05-0,00-0.13  0.09  0.02  -0.00-0. 10 0.06-0.1 9-0.08-0. 12-0. 18 0. 03-0. 14 0.06 40  1.00  0. 1 0-0.04 0. 21 0.07-0. 20-0. 31-0.06-0. 14 0. 21 0. 17  -0.07-0.07-0.03-0.09-0.34-0.25-0.24 0.09-0.03 39  0.09-0.22  0.23 0. 22 1 .00  -0.29-0.03-0. 10-0.03 0.02  0. 14 0. 14-0. 15 0. 01-0.01 0.01-0. 02-0.02  -0.04-0.02 0.01-0.31  0.01-0.04-0.20 0.03-0.02-0.02  0.04  0.01-0.14  0.02  0.02 0.03-0.24  0.03  0.02 0.02  0.03-0.03  0.37-0.02 0.24  0.16  1.00 0.09 0.14- 0.11- 0.01- 0.04  0. 04 0.00- 0.05 -0. 06" 0.02 -0.22 -0. 02 0.04  0,08 1  0.02 i-  3  4  5  0. 06 0.10 0.02 -0.29 0.07 r 0 10 7 8 9- '  14 27 40  15 28  16  17 30  18 31  0.08  29  0.02- 0.01  19 32  20 33  21 34  22 35  23 36  0.1 1 -0. 13 0.07 11  12  J.  24 37  25 38  26 39j  J  C O R R E L A T I O N M A T R I X FOR F E M A L E S  -  ANHEDONIA I T E M S ,  132  -0.07 0.01 0. 17-0. 02-0. 05-0. 01-0.21-0. 16-0. 16-0.04 0.05 0. 01 0.15 -0.04 42  1.00  -0.09 0.05-0. 15 0. 13 0. 12 0. 14 0. 13-0. 19 0. 1 1 0. 12-0.07 0. 16 0.21 0.07-0.05-0. 06-0.07-0.03 0. 01 0. 15 0. 02-0.04 0.09 0. 15-0. 01-0.06 -0. 19-0.08-0. 11-0. 13-0. 09-0. 12 0.08-0. 07 0. 07 0. 18 0. 15 0. 16 0 . 1.3 0.07 0.06  43  1.00  0.35 0.00-0.02  0.04  0.04-0.08 0.01-0.04  -0.04-0.09 0.09 0.02 0.04-0.03-0.05 0.07  44  0.G7-0.05  0.17-0.13-0.16  0.13 0.07 0.04  0.26 0.12 0.19 0.07 0.20-0.03  0.02 0.03-0.15  1.00  -0.06-0. 15 0.07  0.05-0.16-0.32  0.06 0.07  0.13-0.17 0.02-0.08  0.01-0. 01-0. 02 0.09-0.01-0.04 0.05 0.06-0.06-0. 15  0.01-0.03  0.11-0.06 0.05-0.03-0.09 0.04  0.16-0.05-0.02 0.04  0.00  0.02-0.04  0.13-0.06 0.03-0.08 0.10-0.08-0.01-0.06-0.04-0.16-0.06  0.02-0.06-0. 02-0.08 1. 00 45  0.09 0.03 0.00  0.04  0.03 0.03-0.00 0.08-0.07-0.00 0.16-0.02-0.29  -0.06-0.03-0.06-0. 10 0. 14-0. 04-0.2 2 0. 26 0. 24 0.01 0.01 0.12 0.05 0.16 0.12 0.04  46  0.03-0.09-0.07 0.05 0.08  1.00  0.09-0.02-0.31-0.03 0.01  0.05 0.01  0.06  0.17 0.09 0.08  0.02-0.05-0.14  0.05-0.05  -0.02 0, 10 0.09-0.06 0 . 11 0. 09-0.1 6 0. 04-0. 14 0.01  0.10 0. 04 0.26  0,04-0.10-0.01  0. 15-0. 04 0.05-0.01  0.02  0.11  0.08-0.12-0.09-0.02  0.10-0.01-0.01  0.02  0.06 0.06  0.06  0. 17-0.01  0.03-0.08-0.00  -0,04 0.30-0.01 47  0.08 0.16-0.08  0.04  1.00 0. 14-0.05 0.06-0.07-0.1 1 0. 11 0.01  0.01 0. 13 0. 05 0. 01-0.01-0. 13 0.1 7-0. 02-0. 14 0.01-0.09-0. 13 0.02 -0.06-0.05-0.02 0.02-0.02-0.07-0.13 0.04 0.21 0.12 0.04  0.15 0.10-0.12-0.10 0.07  0.06  0.11  0.08 0.26  0.07  1.00  0.09 0.04- 0.01- 0.03- 0. 11 0.14- 0. 03-0.02- 0.00 -0.23 0. 16 0.03  0. 12 0.21 1 2 14 15 27 28 40 41  0. 06-0.03 0.01- 0. 10 0.10 0. 02 -0. 08 0.06 -0.05 -0. 07 0.04 12 10 11 4 5 6 8 9 13 7 22 26 18 20 21 23 24 25 16 17 19 32 30 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 29 31 42 45 46 47 43 44  CORRELATION MATRIX FOR  FEMALES - ANHEDONIA ITEMS,  133  - 0 . 11 0 . 0 7 0. 0 7 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 3 0 0. 0 1 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 0 . 19 0 . 19 0. 13 - 0 . 0 3 0.22-0.01 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 4 0.34 0.28 49  1.00  - 0 . 2 3 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 9 0. 20 0. 1 2 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 13 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 1 7 0. 12 0 . 2 0 0.07 0.23 0. 0 6 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 7 0. 04 0 . 1 5 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 09 0 . 1 8 -0.20-0.13-0.02-0.16-0.08-0.04-0.04-0.17-0.03  50  0.00 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 1  - 0 . 0 3 0. 10 0. 1 5 - 0 . 3 9 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 01 0 . 0 5 0. 01 0. 09  1.00  -0,02 0.12-0.04  0.48-0.16 0.17  0.19  0.04 0 . 1 8 - 0 . 2 7  0.30  0.13-0.12-0.05-0.05-0.02-0.08  0.28 0 . 1 9 - 0 . 2 4 - 0 . 1 1  0.06-0.17 0.17-0.08-0.08  - 0 . 19 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 1 4 0. 01 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 5 0.32 0. 13 - 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 8 0, 1 8 - 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 12 0.1 1 0. 16 0. 34 0. 12 51  0.15  -0.08 0.14-0,10 0.04-0.03 0.15 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 6 0.23 0.08-0.08  0.07 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 5 0.17  0 . 0 0 - 0 . 1 9  0.20  1.00  0.04-0.43 0.14  0.35  0.03 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 2 2  0.20  - 0 . 10 0 . 0 5 0, 1 2 - 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 3 9 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 2 8 0. 17 0. 1 1 - 0 . 0 2 0.30 0. 1 4 - 0 . 1 1-0. 0 7 - 0 . 14 0. 16 0. 18 0. 29 0. 14 0.26 52  - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 0 0.04  0.05-0.06  -0.22-0.17 0.16-0.09-0.00-0.04-0.24 0 . 0 6 0. 1 3 - 0 . 0 5 0. 04 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 6 0.03-0.26 53  1.00  0.02 0 . 1 3 0 . 0 8 0 . 2 5 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 9 0.31  0.08 0 . 0 4  0.29-0.15  0.24 0.06 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 1-0.21 0. 0 1 - 0 , 2 0  0.08 0.00 0 . 0 3 0. 2 4 - 0 . 1 7 - 0 , 0 1 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 26  - 0 . 0 5 0. 0 4 - 0 . 2 6  0. 14 0.01  0.07  1.00  0. 13 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 4 0. 19 0 . 1 3  0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 10 0 . 0 5 0. 03 0. 0 2 - 0 . 08 0. 16 0 . 2 5 - 0 . 0 6  0.06  0. 0 3 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 1 1-0. 1 3 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 4 - 0 , 1 0 - 0 . 11 0. 12 0 . 0 8 0 . 19  0.31  - 0 . 0 4 0.13 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 2 0 - 0 . 0 3  0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 2 0.11 0 . 0 1  0.13-0.12  1.00 0 . 0 8 0. 0 8 - 0 . 0 5 - 0. 1 1-0. 15 0. 14 0 . 1 3 - 0. 12- 0. 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 -•0.13 0.01 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 7 - 0.08 0. 08 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 6 - 0. 0 5 - 0. 1 8 - 0.07 0 . 0 6 - 0, 16 0 . 1 8 - 0 . 0 9 0.05 0.08  0 . 0 0 -•0. 04 0. 0 3 -•0.16- 0. 1 1 - 0. 08 0 , 0 3 0 . 1 0 0.03 0 . 1 4  - 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 4 - 0. 03 0.0 9-•0.21-•0. 07 0.23 0 . 2 3 0. 12 0.0 8 0. 12 0.21 - 0 . 2 5 0. 11 1.00 1 14 27 40 53  2 15 28 41 54  3 16 29 42  4 17 30 43  5 18 31 44  6 .19 32 45  7 20 33 46  8 21 34 47  922 35 48  10 23 36 49  11 24 37 50  12 . 25 33 51  13 26 39 52  CORRELATION 55  MATRIX FOB FEMALES  0.22-0.09  0. 1 1 - 0 . 01 0.08  0.08  0.05 0.21  0. 22 0. 22 0. 09 0.01  0.04  0.02  0.23  0. 18-0, 0 6 - 0 . 2 0 0. 04 0.08  0.23 0.05  0.08  0.01-0.21-0.16  0.07-0.09-0.06  0.11-0.12-0.02  0.04  0.06 0,05 0. 03 0.0 9-0. 04-0. 05-0.05 0.02-0.04  0.08-0.31-0.03-0.08-0.17-0.08 0.01-0.05  -0.02 0.16  0.15-0.24-0.02-0.20  0. 14-0. 10  0.17  0.34 0.09 0.30  0.04  0. 04 0.0 4-0.03-0. 01 0.01-0. 01 0.02  0.02  0.15 0.18  0.14  0.04  1.00  -0.02 0. 03-0.06 0.03-0.02  -0.04-0.01-0.OU-0.02-0.03-0.02-0.03-0.02-0.02  0.02-0.03  0.01 0.02  0.03  0.04-0.07-0.02-0,02-0.03 0.04  0.04  0.02-0.04  0.06  0. 18-0.06 0.01-0. 17 0.05 0. 10-0.01-0. 26 0.20 0.05 0. 16 0.0 1  - 0 . 0 5 0. 04 0.01  0.02  0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02  0.02  0.03  0.01  0.02 0.04-0.13  0.12  0.06-0.07-0.21  0.06  0.09-0.14  0.07 0.04-0.13  0. 12-0.00  -0. 03-0.01 0.22  0.Q1  0.02  0.04-0.01  0.04-0.03-0.07-0.10-0.05-O.04-0.06-0.09-0.04 0. 13-0. 03 0.01 0. 12 0. 11-0. 13-0. 0 8 0.12-0.06  0. 19 0.08  0.04  0.06  1 ' 14 27 40 53  0. 04 0.04 2 15 28 41 54  3 .16 29 42 55  0.09  1.00  0.21-0. 07 0.05 0. 15 0. 14-0.18 0.26 0. 02-0. 16  -0, 16-0. 11 0.05 0. 05 0.08-0.04-0.21 0.07  0. 19-0. 10-0.04 0.07 0.02  0. 09-0.04 0. 05-0.09-0.15-0.06-0.04-0.01  -0.23-0.03 0.04-0.16-0.02-0.01 -0.03 0.06  0.34-0.12  1.00  -0.02 0. 07 0.03 0.0 1-0.00-0. 09 0.00 0.02  0.27  0.06-0. 19-0. 35-0.27 0. 07-0. 00-0.05 0.28 0. 18 0.21  0.25-0.03 0.04  0.25 0.01  0.02-0.03  1.00  -0.02 0. 15 0.07-0.02-0. 13 0. 03 0.08 0. 07 0. 17 0. 04 0.29  60  0.1 1  0.16  0. 04 0.02-0.01-0.02-0.02-0, 01 0.04-0. 03-0.03 0.02  59  0.01-0.08  1.00  -0.13 0.04  0.04  58  4  0.00-0.1 0 0.01-0.05  0. 10 0. 06-0.08  0.14-0.18  3  -0.21 0. 15-0.03-0.07-0.07 0. 28 0. 17-0. 10 0. 04-0. 05-0. 18 0. 06 0. 15 0. 18 0.21  57  1  0.08-0.13-0.01-0.14-0.10 0.29-0.10-0.08  -0.13 0.01-0.50  56  - ANHEDONIA ITEMS,  0.24  0.08-0.03 0.20-0. 16  0. 18 0. 19 0. 11 0.30 0. 01 0.04  0.07-0.2 1-0.23-0. 13  4 17 30 43 56  5 18 31 44 57  6 19 32 45 58  7 20 33 46 59  0.30  8 21 34 47  9 22 35 48  10 23 36 49  11 24 37 50  12 25 .38 51  13 26 39 52  C O R R E L A T I O N M A T R I X FOR F E M A L E S 0.03-0. 16-0. 06 0.06  -  ANHEDONIA I T E M S ,  0.03 0. 53-0. 0 7-0. 07-0. 15-0,08-0.26-0.27  -0.13-0.09 0.07-0.16-0.03-0.05 61  0.24-0.03  0.07 0.18-0.08-0.04 0.01  0.06  0.13-0.0 2-0.00 0.14 0.23-0.05  0.04  0,32  1.00  0.08-0.01-0.05-0. 07 0.09 0.01  -0.12 0.04-0.02-0.04  135  0. 18 0.03 0. 14-0.05-0.06 0.18  0.07-0.05  0.03  0.04 0.04  0.08  0.03-0.27-0.31-0.01  0.01-0.02 0.07-0.04 0. 12 0.02 0. 06 0. 07-0.03 0,05-0. 06 0.03  -0. 17 0. 05-0. 02-0.09-0.01 0. 04 0. 19 0. 14 1. 00 62  0.07-0.08-0. 03 0.09 0.04-0.03-0.03 0. 05 0. 14 0.04 -0. 13-0. 07 0. 17-0. 05 0. 10-0. 02 0.03 0.03 0. 14-0. 10 0.07 0.0 1 0.04 0.01  0.04  0.05  .63  0.01  -0.17-0.04 0.08 0.07  0.05-0.06  0.07-0.15 0.15-0.01 0.10-0.13-0.08  0.07 0.00-0.00 0.09 0. 14  0.06-0.04  0.17  1.00  0.04-0.10-0.05-0.04-0.03-0.04  0.02-0.07-0.07-0.09 0.04  0. 12-0. 1 1-0.01-0. 10 0. 15 0. 07 0.08  -0.04-0.05-0.01 0. 1 9 0.07  0.09 0.09  0.12 0.14  0. 14 0.18 0. 07-0.07  0. 06 0.0 2-0. 05-0. 11-0.09  1.00  0.06 0.20-0.14 0.09-0.10  0.18 0.06-0.15 0.04-0.04-0.0 9 0.01  0.10  0.03  0.16  0.03 0.05 0.05  0.02 0.08 0.01-0.03-0.05-0.06 0.01  0.09  0.06  0.04  O.05  0.07 0.0 1-0.03-0.01-0.04  0.23  -0.02 0.23 0.08 65  0.02  0. 17-0.22 0.04-0. 15 0. 14-0.02-0. 09 0. 02 0.09-0. 15 0. 11 0. 1 1  0.23 0.04  64  0. 01 0. 05 0.04-0,06 0. 10  0.06  0.0 1-0.06-0. 06 0. 04-0. G 9-0. 04 0.01  0.05-0.05-0.08-0.01  0.03 0.06-0,05-0.06-0.01  0. 1 1 0. 07  0.06 0.08  0. 10 0. 07-0. 25 0. 02 0.21  0. 24 0. 12 0.06  0.35-0. 10 0. 25 0. 02 0. 17-0.02 0.01  -0.06 0. 14-0. 11-0.07-0. 10 0.06-0.01  0. 04 0.04  0.07  0.02  0. 13 0. 10 0.01 0.1 9 1 .00  0.04-0. 19 0.06-0.28 0. 08  0.10  0.29 0.01-0. 13-0. 08 0. 03 0. 05 0. 13-0. 13-0.51-0. 10-0.00-0.21 0. 16 0.00-0.10  0.20-0.01-0.16  0.04-0.30-0.12-0.04-0.02 0.16  0.11  0.24  -0.03 0.27-0.00-0.02-0.05-0. 13 0. 12 0. 02 0. 12 0. 14 0.19 0. 25-0.31 0.09 0. 28 0. 04 0.05 0.03 66  0.09-0.08 9 1 14 15 27 28 40 41 54 53  0. 20-0. 1 1-0. 16-0. 19 0.02  0. 16-0.00 0.07-0.05-0.07 6 5 3 4 7 16 18 20 17 19 32 33 29 30 31 46 42 43 ^ 55 56 57 58 59  0.21  0.16  1 .00  0. 14 0. 15-0.02 0.08-0. 18-0.03 8 9 10 11 12 13 24 26 2.1 22 25 23 36 38 39 34 ' 35 37 52 51 50 49 48 47 60 61 62 63 64 65  COfi.RELAT.ION M A T R I X FOR F E M A L E S -0. 15-0. 18 0. 12 0.16 0.13 0.15-0.07  0.18  ANHEDONIA I T E M S ,  3  6  0.00  0. 03-0.12 0. 08 0. 21 0.05-0.03  0.14  0.00 0.05 0.10  0.06-0. 11-0. 10 0, 14 0.03  0.16  0. 15-0.08  0.03-0.04-0.00-0.24  0. 10-0. 13 0. 06-0. 08-0.14-0.16-0.07  -0.18-0.09 0.16-0.12-0.06-0.06 1.00  1  0.00  0.17 0.08  0.08-0.19  0.28  0.02-0.20  POOLED  1 2  CORRELATION  MATRIX  -  ANHEDONIA  ITEMS  APPENDIX V I I  1.00 -0.10 1.00  3  0.02-0.10 1.00  4  0.00 0.15-0.07 1.00  5  -0.00 0.04-0.02-0.01 1.00  6  -0.13 0.10-0.17 0.01-0.00 1.00  7  -0.13 0.05-0.03 0.01-0.13 0.11 1.00  & 9 10 11  137  0.06-0.17 0.02-0.07 0.11-0.18-0.07 1.00 -0.04-0.03-0.00-0.00 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.04 1.00 - 0 . 11 0. 14 0.04 0.37-0. G9 0. 08-0.02-0. 10-0.01 1.00 0.15-0.23 0.03-0.02 0.01-0.12-0.06  0.12 0.04-0.25  I.00  12  -0.14 0.20-0.08 0.09 0.02  0.05 0.07-0. 12-0. 01 0.05 0.01 1.00  13  -0.04 0.08-0.00 0.09-0.09 0.09-0.03-0.11-0.03 0.09-0.10 0.17 1 .00  14  0.02 0.14-0.05 0.05-0.07 0.10 0.06-0.01 0. 04 0.14-0.15 0.01 0.15 1.00  15  -0.08 0.17 0.02  0.01-0.11 0.02 0.13-0.13-0.12 0.13-0.10 0.13 0.02  0.11 1.00 16  -0.04-0.06-0.07 0.01 0. 07-0. 01-0.09-0 .09-0.03-0.14-0 .0 3 0.03 0.06 -0.15-0.17 1.00  17  0.19-0.04 0.01-0.08 0.12-0.08-0.01 0.16-0.07-0.19 0.10-0.09 0.03 -0.03-0.05 0.03 1.00  IB  0.06 0.02  0.07 0.01 0.0 7-0.01-0.04 0. 07 0.02-0.04 0.01-0.09-0.0 2  0.G7 0.05-0.04 0.01 19  1.00  -0.02-0.02-0.07 0.05-0.04-0.Q2-0.09-0. 05-0. 02 -0.03 0.02-0.01 0.09 0.12  20  0.03-0.02-0.04-0.06  1.00  -0.01 0.17-0.11 0.12-0.10 0.15 0.14-0.17 0.02  0.15-0.05 0.15 0.14  0.03 0.19-0.02-0.04-0.11-0.00 1.00 21  0.05 0.01  1 14  2 15  0.09-0.02-0.00-0.01 0.02-0.03-0.01 0.05 0.02-0.01-0.06  3 16  4  17  5 IS  6  19  7 20  8  9  10  11  12  13  POOLED CORRELATION MATRIX - ANHEDONIA  138  ITEMS  -0.02 0.04 0.02 0.08 0.05-0-03 0.01 1.00 22  0. 11-0.05 0.04 0.04 0.07 0. 00 0 . 0 9 0.01 0.14 0.01 0.10 0.07-0.10 -0.08-0.03 0.13 0.10 0.03-0.04-0.09 0.12 1.00  23  0.05 0.01-0.03 0.02 0.04-0.02-0.04-0.02-0.12 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.11 -0.06 0.03 0.03 0.07-0.08 0.02 0.10 0.03-0.01  24  1.00  -0.09 0.00-0.05 0.15-0.07 0. 14 0.02-0.08 0 . 0 6 0.11-0.05 0.07 0.25 0. 12-0.00-0.04-0.03-0.03 0. 03 0.07 0 . 0 3 0.00 0.11 1.00  25  0 . 08- 0 . 0 7 0 . 07- 0 . 00- 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 1 0 . 03 0. 14- 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 0- 0 -0.12-0.10 0.07 0 . 0 6 0.07 0.06-0.05 0.08 0.13-0.01 0.00 1.00  26  -0.01-0.01-0.06 0.05-0.66 0.03 0.11-0.04-0.06 0.00 0.01 0 . 0 6 0.20  0 . 0 5 0 . 07- 0 . 08- 0 . 02- 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 5 0.14- 0. 04- 0 . 0 8 0 . 07 0.16-0 . 01 27  0.15-0. C3-0. 02-0. 01 0. 05-0. 08-0.0 7 0. 12-0. 03-0.07 0.07-0.07-0.05 -0.13-0.17 0.05 0.10 0.01 0.04-0.10 0.02 0. 04 0.02-0.13 0.11-0.09 1.00  28  0.04-0.07-0.01-0.07 O . i l 0.01-0.10-0.06-0.03-0.03 0.24-0.05-0.05 -0.07-0.05 0.10 0.01 0.12-0.02-0.07 0.06 0. 10 0.04 0.05 0.22-0.05 0.08 1.00  29  0.11-0.01 0.08-0.Ol-Q.05-0.04-0.02 0.02 0.03-0.06 0.00-0.07 0 . 0 9 -0.08-0.08 0.05-0.05 0.02 0.02-0.01-0. 07-0. 16 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.04 -C. 04-0.02 1.00  30  0.13-0.05 0.04-0.09 0.00-0.09-0.04 0.03-0. 01-0.08 0.03-0.02-0.11 -0.05 0.01 0.03 0.05-0.04-0.03-0.15-0.07 0. 06 0.07-0.15-0.05 0.02 -0.01 0.01-0.01 1.00  31  0.08-0.07-0.04-0.02 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 17-0.0 5 0. 08 0. 09-0.07 0.06-0.09-0.03 -0.03-0.11 0 . 1 6 0.06 0 . 0 6 0.05-0.16-0.02 0.12-0.02 0.04 0.09-0.04 0.16 0.07-0.00 0.11 1.00  32  0.22-0.15 0.10-0.06 0.11-0.23-0.08 0.27 0.08-0.16 0.05-0.16-0.11 -0.03-0.06-0.06 0.08 0.06 0.07-0.09 0.03 0.04-0.06 O.Oi 0.03-0.19 1 14  2 3.5  3 16  4 17  5 18  27  28  29  30  31  6 19  7 20  8 21  9' 22  10 23  11 24  12 25  13 26  POOLED  33  CORRELATION  MATRIX  0.09-0.04  0.04-0.03-0.01-0.01  0.11-0.01  0. 1 4  0.02  0.02  0.01-0.03-0.10-0.02  0.26-0.08  0.05  0.00-0.06-0.05  0.05  0.17  0 . 02- 0.11  0 . 09-0.05-0.10  0.05  0.05  - 0 .08 - 0 .0 7  36  -0.14  0.07  0.00  0.03  0 . 0 1 - 0 . 04-Q. 2 3 - 0 . 01  0.06  0.26  0.01-0.03-0.05  0 .0 6 - 0 .0 4  0.01  0.02-0.05  0.01  0.10- 0 .0 1  0 .0 3 - 0 . 03  0 .0 5  0.01-0.03-0.04  0. 0 9  0.09  0.06-0.03-0.14-0.03-0.14 1.00  0.03  0.02  0.00-0.03-0.01  0.05  0. 1 1  0.08  0.02-0.13  0.02  0.17-0.06  0.04 0.03  - 0 . 11  0.13-0.07  0.08-0.17-0.09  0.04-0.10-0.15-0.11  0.14  0.05-0.07  0.00-0.22-0.25-0.05-0.04  -0.04  0. 1 6 - 0 . 1 0  0.09-0.01  0.10  0.04-0.00  0.17  0.02-0.09  0.02  0.04-0.14  0.18  0.07  -0.02-0.09  0.07  0.00-0.12  0. 1 8  0.07  0.06-0.05  0 . 0 3 - 0. 0 1  0.05 0.04  0.24-0.26  0.09  0.18  0.04  0.14-0.05-0.12 0.03-0.11  0.21-0.03 0.08  0.11  0.12  0.17  0.01-0.11  0.09  0.16  0.17  0.01-0.03-0.02-0.09  0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 17  0.06  1.00  0.09-0.12-0.14-0.02-0.11  0.06  0.13-0.05  1.00  0.09  0.09-0. 07-0. 02-0. C3-0.16-0.02-0.14-0.00  -0.06-0.10-0.06-0.01 0.02- 0.03  0.00  0.17  0. 0 3 - 0. 0 1 - 0 . 1 0  0.05-0.06-0.06-0.0 3-0.14  -0.14  -0.05-0.09-0.02-0. 04-0.23-0.23-0.22  40  0. 0 5  0 . 0 2 - 0 . 13  0.10  39  0. 1 8  1.00  0.04-0.09-0.13-0.09-0.09  0.13  0.13-0.09  0.04-0.24-0.03-0.01  0.03  0. 1 2  0.02  0. 1 0  0.08-0.04-0.06  0.02-0.05  0.02  1.00  -0.06  0.13  38  0. C 5  0 .0 4 - 0 . 1 2  -G.06-0.05-0.07  37  1.00  0 . 0 1 - 0 .0 5  -0.01-0.03-0.05 0.02  0.10  139  0.01-0.C7  0 .2 1 - 0 .0 5  0.14  ITEMS  0.02  -0.05-0.06  35  ANHEDONIA  0.06-0.01  -0.03-0.07  34  -  1.00 0.09  0.05  0.06-0.12  0.06  0.12  0.26  1.00 0.06  0.01  0.15  0.17-0.09  0.04  0.03  0.04  0.15  0.05  0.01  0 . 1 1 -• 0 . 0 2  0. 0 4  0.07  0.11  0.06  0.06  0.26  0.0 4  0.21  0.07  0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 8 - • 0 . 0 9 - - 0 . 0 5 - - 0 . 0 3 -•0.11-- 0 . 0 2  1.00  41  0.08  0. 1 1 - 0 . 1 2 - 0. 0 4 - 0 . 0 4  0.08  0 . 01  1 14 27 40  2 15 28  0.07  3 16 29  0.05- 0.02  4 17 30  5 18 31  0.04  0.04  0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 2 - • 0 . 0 2 -- 0 . 1 6 - - 0 . 0 1  0.07  0.05  0.05  0.03-- 0 . 2 4  0. 1 1  6 ' 19 32  7 20 33  8 •21 34  9 22 •35  0.11  ib 23 36  0 . 1 1 --0. 0 9  11 24 37  12 25 38  13 26 39  POOLED  CORRELATION  MATRIX  -  ANHEDONIA  ITEMS  1  4  0  -0.03-0.03 0.15-0.04-0.03-0.02-0.17-0. 10-0. 14-0.05 0.01 0.09 0.14 -G.C4 i.OC 42  -0.11 0.09-0.12 0.13-0.02 0.12 0.12-0.16 0. 10 0.12-0.05 0.12 0.14 0.09-0.00-0.05-0. 12-0.12-0.03 0.24 0.06-0.01 0.05 0.15 0.02 0.07 -0.13-0.01-0.10-0.12-0.02-0.06 0.09-0.08 0.01 0.12 0.09 0.08 0.05 -0.03 0.04 1.00  43  0.32-0. 05 0.02-0.06 0.08-0.18-0.07 0.07 0.06-0.17 0.13-0.09-0.16 -0.04-0.05-0.00 0.22 0.12-0.04-0.19 0. 10 0. 12-0.04-0.15 0.10-0.07 0.19-0.02-0.01 0. 17 0.21 0. 16 0.06 0.14-0.05-0.11-0.10 0.01-0.09 -0.09 0.06-0.15 1.00  44  -0.06-0.12 0.15-0.08-0.02 0.03 0.08 0.00 0.09 0.02 0.01 0.01-0.10 -0.01-0.00 0.05 0.01 0.05-0.02-0.06 0.03 0.20-0.01-0.07 0.06 0.04 -0.02-0.04 0.08 0.10 0.02-0.06 0.04-0.02 0. G9-0.G0 0.02-0.12-0.04 -0.05-0.02-0.06 0.04 1.00  45  0. 10-0.03 0.03 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.02-0.08 0.04 0.0 9-0.04-0. 15 -0.06 0.01-0.00-0.06 0.13-0.04-0.13 0.23 0.18 0.00-0.09 0.09-0.00 -0.02 0.C4 0.02 0.19 0.U-0.C2 0.07 0.20-0.05 0.01-0.0 8-0.05-0.09 0.00-0.08-0.02 0.04 0.08  46  1.00  0.06-0.01-0.21-0.02-0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 G. 05-0.06-0.12 0.12-0.04 0.03 0.09 0.08-0.02-0.01-0.03 0.01 0.02-0.04-0.00 0.09 0.01-0.02  -0 . 0 3 0 . 04 0 . 09- 0. 09 0.10 0 . 02- 0.10 0 . 05 - 0 . 09- 0.0 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 02 -C.01 0.26 0.02-0. 01-0. 05-0.09 1.00 47  -0.02 0.11-0.08 0.05 0.01 0.08 0.17-0.01-0.01-0.02-0.08 0. 13-0.01 0.04 0.08 0.00-0.05-0.12-0. 15 0.13-0.03-0.09 0.08 0.04-0.06 0.03 -0.09-0.03 0.01-0.01-0.06-0.02-0.14 0.05-=0.01 0.15 0.14 0.23 0.12 0.16 0.16 0.12-0.03-0.07-0.06 0.12 1.00  48  0.04 0.06 0.01-0.03 0.02-0. 09 0.08 0.03 0.00-0.03-0.13 0.08 0.01 0.08 0.16-0.02 0.01 0.03-0.07 0.05 0.03-0.08 0.03-0.01-0.03-0.01 .1 14 27 40  2 15 28 41  16 29 42  4 17 30 43  5 18 31 44  6 19 32 45  7 20 33 46  8 21 34 47  9 22 35  10 23 36  11 24 37  12 25 38  13 26 39  141  POOLED CORRELATION MATRIX - ANHEDONIA ITEMS  -0.06 0.06 0.05-0.09-0.03-0.05-0.25-0.02 0.01 0.03 0.13 0.17 0.08 -0.03 0.20-0.05 0.08-0.04-0.06 0.30 0.20 49  1.00  -0.18 0.07-0.06-0.05-0.08 0.13 0.18-0.06-0. 08 0.12-0.13 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.21 0.02-0.07-0.08 0.05 0.23 0.01-0.02-0.03 0.04-0.07 0.11 -G. 15-0.06-0.06-0.12-0.05-G. 13-0.01-0. 03 0.03 0.04 0.10-0.01 0.03 0.02 0.06 0. 14-0.33-0.01-0.01 0.04-0.01 0.04 1.00  50  -0-10 0.13-0.08 0.17-0.10 0.10-0.00-0.04 0.02 0.44-0.17 0.19 0.23  0.18 0.17- 0 . 08- 0. 14 0 . 01-0 . 0 7 0.2 5- 0 . 04- 0. 0 3 0 . 0 2 0 . 20-0. 2 -0.19 0.00-0.C7-0.09-0. 13-0.10-0.06-0.18-0.02 0.01 0.28 0.14 0.16 0.14 0.07 0.19-0.22-0.08-0.03 0.05 0.10 0.17 0.16 51  1.00  -0.05 0.G9-0.C9 0.01-0. 11 0.09 0.08-0.02-0. 02-0.00-0.32 0.06 0.27 0.21 0.05-0.05-0.03 0.06-0. 10 0.10-0.02-0.18 0.01 0.22-0.17 -0.07-0.03 0.09-0.07-0.10-0.07-0.28-0.07-0. 17-0.05 0.15 0.21 -0.02 0.31 0.12-0. rC-G. 09-0. 11 0.16 0.16 0.22 0,05 0.21  52  0.22 0.14  1.00  -0.05 0.02 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.02-0.01 0.01 0.15-0.03 0.16 0.08 0.01 -0.22-0.15 0.15-0.11-0.04-0.04-0.11 0. 06 0.28 0.03 0.03 0.19-0.08 0.03 0.12 0.01-0.00 0.03-0.04 0.17 0.11-0.02 0.03-0.0 7-0.00-0.10 0.05-0.20 0.14-0.08-0.02 0.16-0.09 0. 04-0. C9 0.02-0.10-0.17 1.00  53  -0.01 0. 11-0.33 0.11-0.15 0.08 0.05-0.06-0.02 0.06-0.06 0.09 0.15 0.08 0.04-0.05 0.05-0.10-0.01 0.10 0.06-0.07 0.07 0.18 0.05 0.16 0.03-0.06-0.04-0. 12-0.08-0.14-0.04-0.09-0.07 0.08 0.1 1 0.15 0.15 -0,04 0.16 0.06-0.01-0.16-0.06 0.07-0.04 0.07 0.10-0,03 0.12-0.07 1.00  54  0.04 0.05-0.03-0.04-0.16 0.17 0.10-0.05-0.03 0.01-0.16 0.03-0.03 0.05 0.02-0,01-0.02 0.06-0.07 0.17-0.03-0. 13-0.03 0.19-0. 04 0. 11 -0.08 0.07 0.01-0.04-0.01 0.00-0.05-0.14-0.C7 0.00 0.14 0.01  0.14  0.07 0.18 0.01-0.03-0.15-0.10 0.20 0.20 0.11 0.04 0.05 0.15-0.18 0.17 1.00 1 14 27 40 53  2 15 28 41  3 16 29 42  4 17 30 43  5 18 31 44  6 19 32 45  7 20 33 46  8 21 34 47  9" 22 35 48  10 23 36 49  11 24 37 50  12 25 38 51  13 26 39 52  POOLED  55  CORRELATION  MATRIX  -  ANHEDONIA  ITEMS  142  0.16-0.13 0.11-0.12 0.01-0.14-0.08 0.26-0.09-0.14 0.10-0.09-0.12 0.07-0.03 0.09 0.18 0.14-0.06-0.20 0.00 0. 03 0.00-0.02-0.01-0.02 0.02 0.10 0.17 0.11 0.08 0. 03-0.02 0. 06 0. 07-0.02 0.03-0.01-0.01 0.02 0.04-0.57 0.13 0.09 0.02 0.10-0.08 0. 10-0. 12-0 .08-0.01-0 .1 0 0.00 0.02 1.00  56  -0. 10 0.12-0.08 0.03-0.20 0. 19 0.18-0.13-0.03 0.09-0.06 0,18 0.20 0.17 0.18 0.06-0.02 0.02 0.03 0.16-0.04 0.02-0.03 0.08 0.01 0. 17 -0.11 0.07-0.01-0.12-0.04-0.16-0.07-0. 17 0. 02-0.04 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.09-0.21-0.03-0.15 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.26 0.19 0.18-0.04 0.17 0.11-0.03  57  1.00  0.20-0.07 0.01-0.08 0.02-0.03-0.07 0.03-0.03-0.16 0.09-0.03 0.06 0.04-0.10-0.02 0.23-0.04-0.01-0.03-0.04 0.04 0.03-0.05 0.03 0.02 0.09-0.02-0.04 0.03 0.07 0.09-0.04 0.09 0.04 0. 04-0.1 7-0. 06-0 . 10 0.04 0.04-0.12 0.15 0.07-0.05 0.06 0.07 0.03-0.05-0.19 0.02-0.04 0.05-0.10 0.08-0.02 1.00  58  0.02 0 . G 7 - 0 . l l 0.06-0.17-0.01 0.06-0.01-0.13 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.06 -0.02 0.11-0.04-0.07-0.07-0.10 0.08 0.10-0.15 0.17 0.04 0.00 0.22 -0.01-0.02 0.09-0.02-0. 11-0.21-0.11 0.10-0.10-0.02 0.11 0.15 0.13 -0.06 0. 12 0. 13-0.03-0. 17 0.05 0.03 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.15 0.23-0.01 0.11 0.11-0.07 0.03-0.14 1.00  59  0.16-0.11 0.19-0.02-0.00-0. 10-0.04 0. 07-0. 01-0.03-0.02-0.08-0.03 -0.02-0.03 0.09-0.03 0.10 0.08-0.07 0.09 0.03-0.08-0.02 0.07-0.05 -0.00 0.01 0.13-0.00-0.04 0.06-0.00 0. 12 Q. 03-0.02-0.04-0.03 0.04 -0.09-0.01-0.08 0.07 0.13 0. 01 0.01-0.03-0.03-0.08-0.12-0.00 0.01 -0.18-0.04 0.14-0.15 0.04-0.06 1.00  60  0.08-0.06 0 . 0 0 0.02 0.13-0. G8-0. 02 0.11 0.04-0.15 0.2 0-0.03-0.07 -0.12-0.05 0.08 0.10 0.04-0.04-0.20 0.21 0.16 0.03-0.11 0.13-0.07 0.06-0.01 0.02 0.23 0.20 0.07 0.23 0. 10 0.07-0.01-0.18-0.22-0.18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 21 22 17 19 20 25 26 23 2.4 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 33 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 . 51 52 43 53 55 . 56 57 .58 59 54  POOLED CORRELATION MATRIX -  ANHEDONIA ITEMS  143  - 0 . C 8 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 5 7-0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 .2 2-Q . 21 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 0.01 61  62  1.00  0 . 3 0 - 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 03 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 9  0.20-0.12-0.09  - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 1 5 0.00 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 2  0.03  0 . 0 9 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 4 0 . 1 1 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 2 0 0. 0 0 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 2 5 - 0 . 0 8  0.05  -0.12 0.00-0.08 0.21-0.01 0.20-0.01-0.02  0.06-0.16-0.06-0.00-0.04  - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 1 0.13 0.24  1.00  - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 7 0.05 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 5 0. 07 0. 0 1 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 0.09 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 1 0.04 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 0.07  0.02-0.07  0.03-0.03-0.05  -0.03-0.02-0.09 0.01-0.07 0.04-0.13-0.02 0.03-0.02-0.06-0.05 -0.09-0.05 0.02-0.09-0.05-0.01 63  0 . 0 4 0.06 0 . 0 7  1.00  - 0 . 0 2 0 . 2 6 - 0 . 2 0 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 2 1 0 . 17 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 15 0. 02 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 2 0.21  0.15  0.18 0.03 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 7 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 4  0.18  - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 0 7 0.03 0.14 0.07  0.09  0.06 0.07 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 4 0 . 1 6 0 . 0 8  0.01  0 . 1 0 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 5 0.21 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 8 - 0 . 1 0 64  0.07  1.00  0.05 0 . 1 4 - 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 3 0.21 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 5 0.10 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 9 0 . 1 3  0.19  - 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 0.02 0 . 0 4 - 0 . C 7 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 6 0.01 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 3 0.01 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 1 6 0 . 0 5  0.15  0 . 0 3 0 . 1 6 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 0 . 2 4 0. 17 0 . 0 7 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 7 0.15 0.36-0.12 65  0.13 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 1 8 - 0 . 1 4 0 . 1 8  1.00  - 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 6 0.05 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 10 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 0 1  0.06  0 . 2 2 - 0 . 0 0 - 0 . C 8 - 0 . 0 5 0.C4 0.04 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 4 8 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 6  0.09  - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 6 - 0 . 0 4 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 2 8 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 3 0.08 0.18  0.25  0 . 0 4 0 . 2 6 - 0 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 - 0 . 0 6 - 0 . 1 2 0.11 0. 00 0. 12 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 8 0.04 0.21  0.23-0.28  0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 1 3 - 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 6 0.04 0.13 0.06  1.00  . 1 4 - 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 0 7 - 0 . 1 0 0. 16 0. 1 1 - 0 . 0 9 0 . 1 2- 0 . 1 9 --0.03 1 14 27 40 53  2 15 28 41 54  3 16 29 42 55  '4 17 30 43 56  5 18 31 44 57  6 19 32 45 58  7, 20 33 46 59  8 21 34 47 60  9 22 35 48 61  10 23 36 49 ' 62  11 24 37 50 63  12 25 38 51 64  13 26 39 52 65  POOLED  CORRELATION  MATRIX  -  ANHEDONIA  ITEMS  144  -G.C9-0.18 0.09 0.21 0.08 0.05-0.13 0.09 0. 15 0.00 0.02  0.08-0.08  0.18 0.08 0.02 0.11 0.11 0.03 0.04 0. 12 0. 10-0.07-0.10-0.05-0.19 -0.06-0.06-0.11 0. 19 0.04 0.03-0.07-0.04-0.01-0.14-0.17-0.04 -0.12-0.07 0.15-0.13 0.03 0.00 0.02 0. 11 0.02 0.07-0.20 1 .00  0.19  0.03-0.15  APPENDIX  VII  F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A Males 1 2 - F a c t o r RR— RTP RRRR— RRRRR— RR— RRR-  RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR— RR-  RRRRRRRRR— R-  RR— R-  1 2 3_  4  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 46 49 50 51  c-  1 (1.031045 -0.033147 0.05357C 0.142609 -0.106292 0.526532 0.745773 -0.029276 -0.189893 -0.036880 -0.036376 0.012285 -0.052681 0.019903 0.263442 -0.046555 0.606988 -0.030619 0.703496 -0.253976 0.082960 -0.055374 -0.156041 0.406932 -0.115679 0. 167547 -0.100515 0.853210 0.728897 0.203129 -0.082074 -0.025259 0.056402 0.838590 0.065141 0.041019 -0.160748 0.442243 0.898713 0.4120"2 0. 312834 -0.074456 0.048483 0.459736 0.804989 ~ 0.2 44 6 75 0.678045 0.129907 0.510520 0.076034 C.389870  0.606B16 0.135535 0. 574 736 0.075167 -0.197674 0.079837 -0. 167690 -0. IB1274 0.529319 -0.076558 -0.013120 0. 167455 0.043714 0.298784 0. 124814 0.732058 -0.097803 _D.vQ9_a3.QO_ 0.017910 0. 116050 0.007344 0.670244 -6.027386 0. 149328 0.472653 -0.002321 0.461778 -0.039356 0.014409 0. 062324 -0,.078113 0.041559 -0.241705 0.029570 0.077590 -0.C05686 -0.080228 0. 109399 -0.056097 0.058461 -0.075136 0.006596 0.085854 -0.010101 -0.025623 0.440683 -0.007402 -0.012576 -0.104672 0. 140182 0.108110  c0.0 406 8 9 -0.011026 -0.206648 G.032 792  0.492786 -0.157039 -0. 124843 -0.108253 0.074749 -0.02034S 0.088736 0.356379 0.767391 0.223428 0.392294 "0.039381 -0.107233 -0.0339 15 -0.055381 -0.004235 0 .0760 34 0.182196 0.033408 0.364333 -0.129242 -0.048395 -0.330732 -0.034093 0.009395 0.199050 0.295758 0.158488 0.358602 -6.0679 94 -0.168575 0. 114172 0.464364 0.129605 0.100491 6.62 89 97 0.478496 0.037530 0.229422 0.243266 0.0 754 20 -C. 346-SB1 -0.015275 -0.061986 -0.000115• -0.034216 0.351125  0.063243 0.096184 0. 112274 C.C946C1 -0.018498 0.047578 -0.061477 0.094836 -0.073344 6.1416 14 0.025032 0.3894C5 0.019228 0.016120 0.0C8845 0.056168 -0.060140 -0.C24240 6.009023 0.038457 -0.088502 -0. 118763 -0. 102851 -0. 175703 -0.0S8661 0.012862 -0.036031 -6.0.0699 0.024914 -0. 108191 0. 139607 0.8460C9 0. 171273 0.092953 -0.009243 -0.062974 -0.037964 -0.129554 0.000637 -6.0 766 38 0.224581 0.035105 058926 153933 054266. I 53499 107990 600033 -0.072581 0.124345 -0.084246  -0.044271 0.367842 -0 .023374 -0. 194145 0.170444 0.248343 -0.071579 -0.051728 0. 142028 0.170180 0.679845 0.065527 0.039223 -0.090176 -0.171418 -0.0043C4 0.375829 -0.036737 0.389928 0.055884 -0.051907 -0.112137 0.116598 -0.021194 0.192528 0.328917 0.006664 -0.070500 -0.114026 -0.031180 0.385515 0.090343 0.103088 0.194643 0.007241 0.456591 0.367537 0.449488 -0.056845 -6.672816 0.038e50 0.066760 -0.013614 -0.056116 0. 195115 -0.00 2 3 16 0.014338 -0.110977 0 .040349 0. 130812 -0.018750  Solution -0.029051 -0.036687 -0.005386 0.011569 0. 179729 0.010742 -0.007099 -0.658148 -0 .086660 0.069990 -0.038630 0.020092 0.013470 -0.022111 -0.179977 0.044543 0.038160 _0...0i<til__ 0.010658 0.092674 -0.046558 0.116429 -0.769311 0.038200 0.180231 0.095760 -0.093047 -0.067379 0.113345 0.021389 -0.053494 0.008843 -0.054032 0.075319 -0.078033 -0.045577 -0.036544• -0.162744 0.079510 0.062428 -0.007015 -0.865006 -0.047129 0 .040450 -0.011623 -0.065173 0.108206 -0.022626 -0.052716 -0.126498 -0.206006  0 .077654 -0.038408 -0.091850 0.674253 0.226216 -0.006621 0.083303 C. 190210 0.009452 -0.051871 -0.087583 -0.049849 -0.174167 -0.006698 -0.116033 6.015082 0.029411 J__Z3S9jB9_ 0.052192 0.235179 -0.117139 0.181085 -0.014 544 -0.026496 0.020610 -0.023934 0.077645 C. 090294 -0.061651 0.067210 0.019539 C.039792 0.055499 6.069 230 0.727674 -C.069974 0.114205 -0.074854 -0.047 396 0.081487 0.044785 0.005111 0. 108767 -0.057106 -0.00 5 818 0.019065 -G.019071 -0.032922 0.071 757 0 .067066 -0.061476  __________  0. 132159 -0.120879 -0. 047010 -0.097367 0.055164 -0. 026368 0.173 998 0.003281 C.067033 0.089782 -0.096170 -0. 109247 0.105406 0.520969 -0.029140 6.608928 0.062818 _0.A39.213  -C. 062275 0. 148906 0.774777 -0.077719 0.213613 -0.046994 0.201394 0.108624 0. 100535 0.083250 0. 215251 -0. 189246 0. 136936 -0.144727 0.210784 -0.099745 -0.051423 0.032093 -0.038282 -0.166603 0.068 231 -0.0 54224 0.0E3716 -0.060962 0.438683 C.030519 0.077748 6.054758 -0.117061 0.07 -0.086741 -0.083254 0.017794  Ul  I  .  r  .  RRR— RRR— RR— R— RRRRRRRR— RRRRRRRRR _  RRRRR  -  RRRR— RRRRR— RRRRRRRR— R— R-  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1? 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2<V 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51  C9 0.173109 -0.192339 -0.011683 -0.0562P.9  -0.047415 0.010408 -0.062602 - 0 . 1 3 5 4 72 -0.267376 -0.208666 -0.235936 -0.007688 0.00365e 0.012582 -0.112423 -0.045262 -0.772757 0 . 0 4 7 7 1 1  -0.383244 -0.043291 -0.066465 0.154350 -0.057773 -0.222127 -0.052279 -0.208051 0.056075 -0.271347 0.197591 0 .082947 0.128712 0.017300 0.017030' -0.22S42H -0.056210 0.0021940 . 134228 0 .  1 1 5494  -0.204873 0.039968 0.050715 0 .  1 3 9 7 3 1  -0.053225 -0 .0231 1 8 -0.095126 0.062392 0.045210 0.14 7 8 0 7 0.215524 0  . 0 0 4 2 1 6  0.072484  C - 10 0.016263 - 0 . 24C851 -0.032670 -0.008831 -0.C598S8 -0.269281 -0.096013 0.C1S964 -0.100369 -0.620809 0.038959 0 . 133517 0.021917 -0.025456 -0.415365 - 0 . CZE503 - 0 . 152362 -0.C32709 0 . 146617 -0.057235 0.012334 0.068095 - 0 . 114673 -0.241582 -0.029036 -0.188362 -0.047397 0.064887• 0.177321 -0.590738 -0.184577 0.C19458 - 0 . 188456 -0.034681 0.068451 -0.063554 -0.025026 0.253855 0.037424 -0.375188 0.09930 3 0 . 148087 0.321243 -0.234b46 0.262481 0 . 131894 - 0 . 141103 - 0 . 2 0 0 4 6 4  - 0 . 1 65389 - 0 . 0 4 1629 -0.150866  C- 1 1 -0.159868 0 . 0 5 4 2 60 0 . 1 16065 -0.033012 0.119939 -0.3/5513 -0.203586 0. 114178 -0.110458 0.023422 0. 100529 0.135729 -0.026336 -0.264415 -0.C38503 -0.013529 0.032142 0 . 167352 -0.121577 -0.022372 0.036225 0.033907 0.O0SO68 0.118118 0.173492 0.236695 0.244620 0.108843 0.081762 -0.124536 0.028992 0.082309 0.018330 -0.232943 -0.030720 -0.073777 0.033141 -0.040005 0.028421 0.086003 • - C . 1 2 C 9 76 0.059213 -0.080694 0.C64007 0.176658 q.121777 -0.008546 -0.029i)30 0.004062 0.412569 0.128767  C - 12 0.057969 0.111174 -0.074451 0.059895 0.085450 -0.066170 0.106665 0.076887 -0.154316 -0.095632 -0.009643 0.751336 0.318898 . -0.C42112 0.025010 0.206145 0.011743 -0.071666 0. 1543 4 8 -0.038899 -0.081544 0. 130107 0.050569 0.063577 -0.059548 0.018372 0.093012 -0.C94257 0.092676 -0.125030 0.094121 0.386611 -0.139157 -0.054327 -6.055583 0.C23198 -0.033755 -0.011273 0. 157175 0.076131 6. 012628 -0.093676 -0.075934 -0.221435 0.000609 -0.122723 - 0 . 153795 0 . 111028 - C . 1 30828 0 . 124349 0.068226  APPENDIX IX F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A Females 1 2 - F a c t o r  ' —  RRRRRRRRR— RRRRRRR— RRRRRRR-  >—  RRR— R— RRRR— RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR— R-  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51  C1 -0.022989 0.008343 0.C68300 0.057974 • -0.069566 0.306605 0.507765 0.057481 -0.120431 -0.121483 0.091385 0.106906 -0.007795 -0.02 7688 0.171841 -0.029599 0.576294 -0.069711 0.625789 -0.220744 0.081704 -0.076356 -0.069882 0.324519 -0.073109 0.178541 -0.068935 0.719151 0.560627 0.010325 -0.064848 0.072324 0.043040 ' 0.644090 0.010952 0.043376 -0.111141 0.402780 0.730433 0.289318 0.267941 0.034802 0.087889 0.34 75 70 0.719863 0.22 642 7 0.490541 0.077976 0.319752 0.139132 0.303034  C- 2 0.585897 0.105950 0.562485 0.094564 -0.238147 0.091425 -0. 154532 -0.125959 0.538296 -0.101727 -0.023514 0.088911 -0.014316 0.297363 0.115609 0.686943 -0.0 ZAB.6 2 0 .099294 ' 0.033218 0.107169 -0.003030 0.621095 0.003124 0.117107 0.424976 -0.041228 0.423349 -0.004679 -0.007013 0.041162 -0. 123525 0.018215 -0. 240620 0.0615840.110679 -0.C28134-0. 107924 0. 109911 -0.059695 0.019481 -0.066216 0.071154 0. 106249 -0.C04902 -0.024169 0.450151 -0.000226 -0.017659 -0. 106149 0. 102252 0.081240  C- 3 -0.038996 0.001056 -0.148280 0.081736 0.437194 -0.241343 -0.146125 -0.010219 0.086633 0.015395 0.053344 0.307653 0.630159 0. 107882 0.417111 0.031665 0.009838 0.019449 -0.059524 -C.020686 0 .019574 0.153727 0.0405 12 0.409653 -0.125001 -0.014179 -0.267852 0.056208 -0.037321 0.188546 0.174969 0.134106 0.299011 -0.078394 -0.126367 0.016209 0 .348796 0.031541 0. 127337 0.060640 0.375688 0.051318 0.152869 0.256041 0.076049 -0.301617 -0.008312 -0.083141 -0.024482 0.04 1447 0.33R341  C- 4 0.073861 0.0920 14 6.080412 0.073323  o.ooooeo  0.149122 0.0245 16 0.082867 -0.133159 0. 199539 0.004951 0.336325 0.0509e6  0.045949 C.C79130 0.002000 -0.107765 -0.023111 -0.009604 0.0 14 3 46 -0.044754 -0.147893 -0.062167 -0. 141044 -0.126293 0.033527 -0.056997 0.008361 0.110226 0.016279 0.225199 0.813096 0.255095 0. 136265 -0.034518 -0.014144 0.018946 -0.074724 0.043930 0.024279 0.275818 0.070000 -0.079140 0.242583 -0.010BP5 0. 142463 C.200612 0 . 6 549CC 0.061504 0.129550 0.008822  C- 5 -0.120976 0.253733 6.032103 0.006758 0.059778 0.048776 -0.006777 0.089 139 0.255206 0.353467 0.227952 0.010143 -0.060739 -0.004782 0.151294 0.065506 0.579802 -0.043249 0.214787 0.077612 0.031094 -0.136525 0.088494 0.172C97 0.079414 0.219920 -0 .006897 0.088249 -0.265107 0.063637 0.003690 0.052695 0.040510 0.123154 0.005186 0.050009 -0.05866C -0.162701 0.051424 0.014951 -0.084129 -0.135295 -0.060789 0.034916 -0.065550 -0.082431 -0.052C44 -0.031005 -0.163035 0.021287 -0.058321  Solution C- 6 -0.02 3104 -0.053584 -0.00 0426 -0.050368 0.116613 0.024701 -0.017249 -0.64 7719 -0.117181 0.028673 -0.041829 -0.029212 -0.033578 -0.045565 -0.236577 0.020849 -0.048211 -0.048784 -0.024868 0.071112 -0.056515 0.100578 -0.729803 -0.030754 0.179022 0.070381 -0.064092 -0.115271 0.119410 -0.002233 -0.056698 -0.046678 -0.092864 0.038910 -0.103401 -0.027692 -0.044724 -0.120570 0.027481 0.038722 -0.054306 -0.800040 -0.06e777 -0.007921 -0.026996 -0.040154 0.092358 -0.038875 -0.032064 -0.132147 -0.223994  C- 7 0.12824* -0.026228 -C.070776 0.629771 0.233103 -0.016010 0.036162 0.166326 0.103911 -0.038974 -C.05O958 -0.040720 -0.117049 0.098345 -0.110595 0.068844 0.043280 0.683184 C.C49 905 0.269855 -0.035040 0.196873 0.013438 -0.04OU4 0.062423 -C.029268 0. C68005 0.048 896 -0.106335 0.022269 0.041592 0.058258 0.079224 0.048407 0.687229 -0.046787 0.131845 -.0.088474 -0.087871 0.007 089 0.075762 0.004809 0.188994 -0.068023 -0.041399 0.019430 -0.C74292 -0.034885 -0.006668 0.023692 -0.086840  C- 8 0.174890 -0.105797 -0.0t2246 -0.016706 0.088459 0. 034100 0.173138 -0.005335 0.110283 0.117366 -0.093325 -0. 148020 0. 104226 0.551577 -0.014211 0.024 865 0.0 37182 0.042062 -0. 068294 0. 191516 0.728688 -0. 040436 0.216418 -0.053392 0.195830 0.083 432 0.079110 0.043201 0.160487 -0.113370 0.170595 -0.149052 6.236860 -0.075372 0.037565 0.057110 0.016098 -0. 159519. 0.018517 -0.045246 0. 1C7947 -0.058163 0.439 741 0. 032126 0.024591 0.032189 -0.114676 0.072019 -0. 064807 -0.120119 . 0.007953  <  )  <  148  in co c -u y m CD m o in rn o n o M o o o  APPENDIX X F a c t o r P a t t e r n M a t r i x DES+A P o o l e d Sample 1 2 - F a c t o r  > —  RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR— RRRRRRR— RRRRRRRRR— RRRRRRRRRRRRRR— RR— R-  l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18  IS  20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51  C-  C1 -0.14097C -0.014471 0.06923 8 - 0 . 0 2 377 8 0.002705  2  0.525148  0.283Be6 0.197706 0.121998 0.115013 -0.025168 0. 163448 0.009748 -0.001511 -0.022928 0.082458 0.010619 0.710801 -0.006923' 0.632661 .-0.140052 0.099914 - 0 . 145379 0.013189 0.160143 -0.032451 0.043262 -0.017934 0.715417, 0.362677 0.000476 -0.052674 0.031572 0.036239 • 0 .493437 0.057135 0.0256H4 -0.11603 7 0.400255 0.568619 0.017812 0.137718 -0.018744 -0.006168 0.207753 rr.63'T8>.o :  0 . 12 7 4 0 4 0.258123 0.07071 7 0.010673 0.115455 0. 1 7S34?  0.079227 0.655645 0.091882 -0.269159 -0.000711 - 0 . 108371 -0.032444 0.396554 0.074437 0.018427 0.010851 - 0 . 108172 0.190313 -0.057596 0.643429 -0.082415 0.197900 -0.032556 0 . 166793 0.0771990.616175 -0.004182 -0.007847 0.586026 0.045397 0 . 481270 0.026034 -0.034314 0.023747 -0.091089' -0.012180 - 0 . 174661 -0.006737 0.027133 -0.006386 - 0 . 142781 0.058276 -0.009757 0.010471 0.019654 0.057887 0.037974 0.065099 -0.029455 " 0 . 4 7 7859 0.129792 0.022737 -0.054134 0.18256C 0.003627  C3 -0.058459 0 . 0 5 2 . 9 21 0.0673150.064739 0 . 137524 -0.050259 -0.057129 -0.029666 0.058458 0.294475 -0 .022330 0.080558 0.161270 0 . 139052 0.737454 -0.031512 0.159569 0 . 0 14541 0.060445 0.093705 0.029618 0.105785 0.091901 0.594195 -0.064752 0.073442 -0.048432 0.103741 -0.021874 0.195849 0.086864 -0.005512 0.056218 -0.046858 -0.165206 0.045632 0.136038 -0.069094 0.073419 0.069260 -0.046394 0.093187 -0.034532 0.284753 0 . 1 2 4 187 -0.052951 0.036136 0.042509 0.157892 0.009583 6". 5 0 2 3 9 3  C5 -0.018984 0.119320  C4 -0.003673 0.016988 0.086101 0.054892 -0.009232 0 . 133214 0. 127111 0.069683 - 0 . 0 9 9 306 0 . 127274 0.062689 0.300901 0. 1 3 3 2 9 3 0.0597e8  0.024412 -0.098C43 -0.0415 16 -0.055593 0.614495 0.112159 -0.108603 0.007CC8 -0.034015 0.018526 0.025642  6 . 0 85159 -0.061464 -0.025664 -0.009168 -0.004523 -0.007323 -0.068711 -0.074507 0.024794 -0.080465 -0.044993 0.089055 0.033984 0.045171 0.100913 0.018860 0.204005  0.085110 -0.023191 -0.002055 6.071875 -0.003493 -0.054357 0.062170 -0.028649 0.652269 -0.019431 -0.074032 -0.078034 0.045653 0.112501 -0.022740 0.017326 0.070367  -O.005C38  0.708571  0.043e39  0.229036 0.022195 -0.024601 -0.085579 • 0.011639 0.046450 0.046881 -0.002485 0.034644 0.022981 -0.057796 0.166942 6.004157 0. 150655 0.053597 0 . 7 1 4 523 0 . 0 7 6 3 20 -0.032838 0.028422  0.098576 -0.038328 0.148625 0 .021£64 0.097853 0.136524 -0.061868 0.008184 0 .068092 0.782864 0.109796 0.021711 0.051995 0.097577 -0.043867 0.073270 0.045691 0.159584 0.091765  Solution  C6 0 .019668 0.344611 0 . 0 0 5077 -0 .041916 0 . 143467 0 . 2 0 9 0 79 0.079676 0.00 8 4 5 6 0.126114 0.204171 0.579025 0.232239 0.038436 -0.057390 - 6 . 0 28683 0.007508 0 . 182246 -0.050491 0.273295 0 . 0 9 3914 -0.046752 -0.090155 0.143112 0.061338 0.077091 0.181688 -0.013400 -0.181700 -0.137949 0.098499 0.365818 0.107663 0.108271 0.139347 -0.002138 0.395722 0.292155 0.394355 - 0 .084088 -0.018482 -0.044369 0 .056000 0.02094C 0.001580 0.070255 -0.109670 0.071462 -0.044316 0.141605 -0.032779 0.054286  C-  7 0.082117 -0.001637 -0.057411 0.604028 0 . 192051 0.021466 0.038718 0.206671 0.090933 -0.018335 -0.014980 -0.070344 -0.019259 0.091445 0.018131 0.193174 C.C89581 0.571076 C.019436 0.373007 -0.094927 C.219261 0.029400 0.045664 0.005695 -0.028630 0.096239 -0.015894 -0.002751 0.035465 -0.021215 0.067321 0.008871 0.032578 0.682 057 -0.001832 0.143036 -0.05104e -0.113072 -0.007499 -0.018754 -0.024637 0.122727 - 0 . 1 C 3 4 10 - 0 .063303 0.051376 -0.095864 -0.025250 -0.047726 - C . 040030 -0.025653  C-  8  - 0 . 144979 -0.005398 0.045954 0.055548 -0.145910 -0.139491 -0.209610 0.016245 - 0 . l t l 726 0.030942 0.086133 0 . 0 53669 -0.101895 -0.630620 -0.C24993 -0.011668 0 . 042506 -0.043831 -0.023464 -0.068751 -0.627613 0.019765 - 0 . 166490 -0.043410 - 0 . 097623 0.008966 -0.038356 0. 022236 - 0 . 169 543 0.043265 -0-151950 0 . 088 6 9 7 - 0 . 137696 -0.041703 - 0 . 052 9 74 0. 0 6 6 7 3 7 -0.051729 0.002940 -0.060363 0.031385 -0.006223 -0.053283 -0.565435 -0.006737 -0.018799 -0.036648 0. 0 6 8 6 7 8 0.032535 0.039195 0 . 142622 -0.047490  <  <  ?  RRRRRRRRRRRRRRR— RRRRR— RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR-  1 2  3  4 5 6 7  8 9  10 11  12 13 14  15 16 17 18 19 20 21  22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32  33  34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51  C- 9 -0.103058 -0. 335426 -0.044839 -0.03 165C 0. 15431 1 -0.3 5 000 0 -0.462169 -0.015900 0.236594 0.03 8 59? 0.05080C -0.075347 -0.006120 0.018264 -0.049976 0.00C69C 0.094757 0.066078 0.012978 0.123496 0.043921 -0.042075 0.072006 -0.160698 0.165932 -0.12 I 52 e 0.020302 -0.09066 1 -0.482184 -0.596329 -0.13 3710 -0.112101 -0.11675C -0.493318 -0.01703 t -0.147514 -0.030963 -0. 114264 -0.261314 -0.698293 -0.16607 3 -0.06 38 70 -0.017154 -0.337833 -0.100751 -0.072049 -0.535561 -0.134715 -0. EC.3594 -0.176923 -0.222555  C- 10 -0.041068 0.02606e 0.C51095 0.114047 -0.138086 -0.076148 -0. 091507 -0.C20065 0. 17607 7 -0.280936 • -0. 135975 -0.119674 -0. 140122 0. 108024 0.009959 -0.03 5497 -0.05492C -0.000069 -0.010239 -0.01 1548 -0.104829 0.C94715 -0.087075 -0.024287 -0. 192 525 -0.477927 -0. 253003 -0.039435 -0. 137205 -0.015542 0.025325 -0.025385 -0.C64392 0. 127616 -0.061333 -0.068911 0.00 7999 0. 07021 1 -0.C49363 -0.153480 -0.006761 0.083220 0.121864 0.096798 -0.026247 -0.096702 0.079669 -0.0314P9 -0.C46900 -0.510429 -0.073025  C- 11 0.021705 -0.038382 -0.134092 0.033023 0.283879 -0.031710 0.001110 0.072627 0.069211  o.i .)»'•:!in  0.007652 0.070777 0.4224 13 0.011848 0 .046264 0.062036 0.015416 0.034534 -0.073007 -0.046114 0.083004 0.077617 -0.015127 0.001194 -0.082234 0.038711  ...-0,2 80 603. 0. 106242 -0.124750 0.082130 0. 1867 17 0. 124518 0.450441 0.075514 -0.038026 0.065829 0.2 963 59 -0.045721 0. 14.5878 0.043136 0.728469 0.064072 0.030014 0.2 3 8 9 27 -0.046308 -0.264426 0.175443 0.057098 0.005'il6 0.084749 0,062 690  C- 12 -0.004273 -0.016018 -0.061620 -0.017426 0.027337 -0.2181E2  -0. 1934e7  -0.017291 -0. 046257 -0.334558 0.076 141 0.3478C6 0.262121 0.037753  -0.002920  0.043466 -0.177709 -0.000099 0.169172 -C.010601 -0.075573 0.162164 -0.032431 -0.021324 -0.049605 0.016736 -0.016832 -G.101468 0.141356 0.006149 -0.030775 0. 130071 -0.103269 -0.C22402 -0.007166 -0.111794 0.023002 0.103273 -0.039353 O.054S77 -0.002719 0.087421 0.026434 -0.022845 0.0653C7 -0.044600 -0. 131 148 -0.079789 0.058870 -0.012058 0.040369  APPENDIX XI Male Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of  Factors  10  11  1  1.00  2  -.80  1.00  3  .17  -.12  1.00  4  .35  -.05  .28  1.00  5  .38  -.10  .05  .17  1.00  6  -.25  -.07  -.34  -.25  -.20  1.00  7  -.22  .29  .13  .04  .06  -.17  1.00  8  -.07  .18  .04  .04  .16  -.09  .38  1.00  9  .32  -.15  -.13  .19  .35  .05  -.15  -.03  1.00  10  -.55  .12  -.14  -.28  -.39  .21  .12  -.01  -.35  1.00  11  .23  .01  .03  .11  .10  -.04  -.19  .00  .04  -.25  1.00  12  .09  -.31  -.25  .21  .06  -.06  -.03  .20  -.26  -.06  -.17  12  1.00  APPENDIX  XII  Female Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of F a c t o r s  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  1  1.00  2  -.02  1.00  3  .12  -.13  1.00  4  .21  -.07  .18  1.00  5  .15  -.00  .07  -.00  1.00  6  -.08  -.02  -.16  -.10  -.06  1.00  7  -.09  .21  .02  -.01  .03  -.11  1.00  8  -.01  .12  .11  -.04  .03  -.09  .18  1.00  9  .24  -.07  .19  .17  .17  -.16  -.00  .03  1.00  10  -.41  .03  -.18  -.29  -.10  .05  .12  .07  -.20  1.00  11  .08  .12  -.03  .08  .12  -.04  -.03  -.01  .09  -.08  1.00  12  -.05  .01  -.06  .00  .00  .06  -.01  -.09  .01  .07  .02  12  1.00 N3  APPENDIX X I I I P o o l e d Sample DES+A C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of F a c t o r s 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  1.00 -.03  1.00  .23  -.02  1.00  .15  -.03  .14  1.00  .10  .03  .12  .11  1.00  .22  -.05  .19  .19  .13  1.00  -.06  .24  -.00  -.03  .16  .01  1.00  -.07  -.12  -.11  .03  -.16  -.03  -.14  1.00  -.37  .01  -.24  -.30  -.06  -.22  .08  .02  1.00  -.12  -.10  -.11  -.17  .01  -.20  .04  -.05  .16  1.00  .10  -.21  .26  .24  .12  .19  .02  -.15  -.23  -.05  1.00  -.11  -.02  -.02  .06  .01  .00  .00  .05  .05  .08  .03  1  R— RRR-  RRRR-  2  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  fiRR— RRR— R— RR— RRR— R— RRRRR— RR-  L  22  23 24 25 26 27 28 29  ft-M fi_  R- 31 R- 32 - R - 33„ R- 34 R— 35 R- 36 R- 37 R- 38 R- 39 R- 40 R- 41 R- 42 R- 43 R- 44 R- 45 R- 46 R- 47 R- 48 R— 49 R- 50 R- 51 R- 52 ft- 53 R- 54 R- 55 R- 56 R— 57 R- 58 R- 59 R- 60 R- 61 R- 62 R- 63 R- 64 R- 65 R— 66  C1 -0.588392 0.054909 -0.029601 -0.046467 -0.045525 -0.047066 0.078680 - 0 . 021950 0.064897 0 . 167950 -0.178060 0.071811 -0.233521 -0.070335 0.387394 0.043212 -0.379325 0.076420 -0.007877 -0.084049 0. 037097 - 0 . 105396 -0.061179 0.046881 -0.031295 -0.051587 -0.279366 0.114063 -0.103775 0.044204 -0.027517 -0.124590 -0.014521 -0.070196 -0.023158 Q.0Q5534 0.301377 0.008013 . 0 , . 099975 -0.142135 -0.052014 0.067113 -0.122754 0.065872 0.073536 -0.043134 0.004268 0.009707 0.111639 0 . 131711 -0.037979 0.031762 -0.1C8980 0.116831 -0.019281 -0.007801 -0.686579 0 . 2532 59 -0.011109 -0.129715 -0.274795 0.154665 -0.146188 -0.130866 0.032251 - 0 . 074577  C2 0.082736 0.035494 -0.011380 -0.011214 0.050986 0.049168 -0.020216 0.031E25 0.064726 0.008209 -0.083302 0.034259 -0.007578 0.032402 -0.118754 -0.040481 -0.206647 0.200222 0.031665 0.036164 0 . 054276 -0.030509 0.137060 0.0057S6 -0.100605 0.067041 0.070407 -0.024101 -0.139878 0.076547 0.006297 -0.134093 -0.130779 0 . 0 2 3 4 32 -0.129691 -0.029608 0.018585 0.7677C5 0.356848 0 . 0 9 5545 0.147361 -0.063218 0.005581 0.021527 0.108125 -0.067187 0.040060 0.095828 -0.047644 0.091419 0.386011 0.096629 0.037584 -0.029276 0.014067 0.037663 -0,075332 -0.047159 0.063659 -0.182453 0.326751 -0.028271 0.054209 0.017238 0.213623 -0_. 13 7260__  C3 0.095684 -0.307030 0.013177 -0.034305 -0.835268 -0.137158 0.215850 -0.068982 -0.06C950 -0.097210 0.079101 -0.058527 0.104370 -0.029718 0.1C7566 -0.023975 -0.063950 -0.121777 0.021791 0.090265 -0.019903 -0.048936 0.016580 0.120087 0.104536 0.786317 -0.033272 -0.119913 0.082014 0.115994 -0.101560 -0.064845 0.137051 -0.052679 -0.C72389 -0.015884 0.009794 -0.024105 0.005574 -0.012911 0.017527 0.137600 0.006659 0.134940 _-0.030841 -0.018390 -0.121677 -0.136057 -0.009939 -0.007551 0.255335  -6.081783  0.287705 0.112179 0 .060049 0.237046 -0.034852 6.170805 0.152263 0.021189 0.006930 -0.154031 0.195305 -0.052840 -0.031566 .-0.058090  L4 - 0 . 114255 0.104530 0.026114 -0.046131 -0.053631 -0.090123 0 . 019330 -0.042725 0.06426 1 0.010312 -0.025367 0.C04797 -0.076775 0.020900 -0.074784 -0.107051 0.043976 -0.080332 0.037126 0.051017 -0.081522 0.011598 0.034846 0.112156 -0.024777 -0.050987 0.110681 0.051314 -0.037831 -0.162489 -0.139401 0.035287 -0.C65.901 -0.107771 -0.050270 0.007638 0. 057417 0.179820 0.038992 - 0 . 113047 -0.038387 -0.041595 - 0 . 116488 -0.862921 0. 116134 -0.090351 -0.001022 0.040577 -0.080043 -0.011796 0.033844 0.016517 0.017524 0.001458 0.065850 0,003314  -6.107154  0.046953 -0.787736 -0.314827 -0.C94938 - 0 , 1 4 9 576. 0.093608 0.069962 0.07?90 3  C5 0.01641-0.01429-1 0 . 0 7 <.12o -0.03030j 0.03387J -0.08772. -0.06689. 0.10678. -0.12660. -0.08162/ 0.084017 0.096824 0.027657 -0.054612 0.02724J 0.20735. 0.24372. 0.145984 -0.005422 -0.20443V -0.062092 -0.04457o -0.02457a 0.075103 -0.020834 -0.03155J -0.053343 -0.06790. 0.155991 0.026431 -0.06292'. -0.135024 0.001833 0.00332V 0.062054 -0.005584 0.095521 0.097499 .0.0/6449 0.077132 0.12184. -0.723990.05850a 0.12233-0.05380 2 -0.01681J -0.020931 0.113902 -0.060313 -0.126693 -0 . 0 8 4 2 3 J  -6.09400-  0.041309 0.062594 0.864404 0.135909 0.049921 0.082030.166673 0.016161 -0.00971. 0.139399 ... 0... .0.2335-0.U041J 0.01826/ n.172273  C6 0.01296. 0. 1 3 1 6 7 . -0.002093 -0.03596. 0. 06129t 0 . I0827o 0. 0082 Id 0.02846* 0 .567512 -0.06293. -0.010951 -0.07568J 0.06946/ -0.00304J 0. 13790i 0.077307 0.036757 0.130590.031032 0.093710. 02940* 6.07564-0.063180.087092 0 . 18033.1 0.046172 -0.120651 -0.03010_ 0.361419 0.03143* -0.049423 - 0 . 0 0 8 2 1J -0.06537-0.002191 0.03595. -0.173386 - 0 . 180384 0.034650 0 . 1129 1.1. 0.019960.156312 0.069089 0.068570 0. 3 8 9 4 U -0.02947. 0.048811 - 0 . 111209 0.015004 - 0 . 0 5 6 2 34 0.067750 -0.014362 0.2 957 7 . 0.08068? -0.095197 -0.02204/ -0.12279J -0.05409* 0.015841 0.13110V - 0 . 014571 -0.067383 -0.149420. 069550 . 126460.067492 0. 20159-.  C7 0 .095825 0.106174 0.047854 0.564389 -0.012217 -0.065269 -0.181918 ' -0.023400 -0.083014 0.597211 -0.161019 0.010104 0 . 1 4 2 709 -0.009593 0.192006 0.088570 0.062887 0.057343 -0.001526 0.154845 0.018576 -0.020827 0.044058 0 . 116 38 6 -0 .014964 -0.104430 -0.044904 -0.116679 0.145562 -0.051687 -0.023908 -0.105147 0.105582 0.01148 8 0.054339 -0.125502 0.130826 0.003806 0.045276 0.029937 -0.280991 0.048513 -0.120469 -0.180471 .0.105955 -0 .063312 -0.124842 -0.035429 0.083390 0.237848 -0.143367 -6.031915 0.199196 0.080927 -0.052050 0 . 101766 -0.116481 0 . 0 6 0 8 79 0.177667 -0.062149 0.021296 -0.106415 -0.05032 7 -0.010096 0.118918 -0.066159  C8 0.076305 -0.296066 — 0 . Oft 73 1? 0.042232 0.030021 0 . 125954 0.313720 - 0 . 121251 0.095016 -0.029045 0.094910 0.101333 -0.046184 0 . 063688 —0 .0044f>?  <I...V/  0 .. 104443361747 0 -0.008939 0.010186 0.024818 —0.0132 12 0.060561 0.007396 0 . 05 81 72 0 . 120423 0.054115 — 0- 5 I Qft T\ 0.001340 -0.204410 -0.015995 -0.028903 0.061822 -0.102314. -0.052267 -0.033166 0-18U53 0.048465 0.142706 -0.022084 0 . 7 2 6481 -0.187924 -0.038572 -0.097317 -0.060266 0 . 069604 6 . 0 4 1 0 57 0.101604 -0.074922 0.006955 0.103891 -0.144357 0.079261 -0.163710 0.037643 0.050949 -0.016762 -0.030759 -0.077263 -0.101342 -0.055055 -0.087754 0 . 0 2 0 8 18 -0.109843 - 0 . 0 2 6 2 79 0.188275 -O.140435  fa  o  rt O ii fu  ,-fD i-i  —£.  0 fu rt i-S  <•!_ rt>  '"-»o P H-  J  fu 00  n  fu  ro f? 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C51204 0. 167072 -0.088466 0.0ie455 ' -0.174393 0.024275 0.103838 0.112149 -0.030869 ' -0.146358 -0.C47901 0. 122616 0.084813 0.135149 0.017559 0.104194 -0.114386 0.108482 -0.112531 0.144934 0.098408 -0.025745 0.052443 -0.118254 -0.102931 -0.6703 5J -6.069534 0.023378 0.033858 0.004906 - 0 . 097677 -0.001542 - -0.034904 -0.000217 0.008969 -0.003308 -0.040531 -0.01794 7 -0.216864 -0.088936' 0.080265 0.014155 -0.146660 -0.139322 0.009226 0.279253 -0.084468 -0.068941 0.097311 0.260831 -0.077302 -0.071782 0.024850 -0.059844 -0. 014901  C - 19 0.092425 -0.116589 -0.024067 -0.079925 0.025912 0.034100 -C. 140232 -0.076341 0.012425 0.012815 0.454394 0.0001 18 -0.001842 -0.031491 -0.058656 -0.002891 -0.004627 0.079727 -0.012396 -0.004023 0.050984 -0.031969 0.045823 0.036040 0.240585 0. 002005 0.0.2X_5J 0.635771 U. 0.4461 -0.035592 0.029570 -0.107767 -0.022511 0.026986 0.147106 0.021287 0.024564 -0.154853 -0.138531 0.044463 -0.058711 0.053522 -0.037536 -0.067488 -0.0063 07 0.036541 -0.063946 0.055044 -0.054459 0.083017 -0. 105152 0.058676 -0.040118 0.018320 0.089409 0. 103502 0.025550 0.086490 -0. 075671 0.006413 0.074019 ' -0.052554 -0.008183 -0. 022837 -0.036163 0.070760  - 21 C- 22 C- 20 0.017091 -0. 114088 , 109215 0.026494-0 ,118382 -0.016191 0. 072530 0.002085 -0.084676 -0, 0.080723 ,078973 -0.053497 0.023772 0.026117 6i 001797 0.075965 -0.036941 0, 127196 0.030810 0.013790 0 099304 0.027480 -0, 047319 -0.057491 0.154877 0,,139977 0.049152 0. 066003 0. 078966 -0.013061 0.207412 -0. 014224 -0.013619 0.152259 0, 018899 -0.025(96 C. 092172 -0. 017092 -0.060e70 0.059619 0 ,076156 0.115002 0.017406 -0 .023777 -0.195117 -0.087283 0 ,052696 0.041806 -0.018998 -6 .0012 54 0.001 7 30 -0.034919 0.009168 o .010476 0.033001 -0 ,02 3494 C.110796 .003712 -0.102587 -0.183709 -0.152685 .032457 0.066392 0.028124 .10 53 75 0.058253 0.C73291 0, 064718 -0.332175-0.129697 -0, 035648 0.040546 -0.150672 0. 08 3895 0.018606 0.047159 0, 051249 -0.086293 -0.092546 -0. 012422 0.042456 0.020247 -0. 053141 0.0 464 29 0-062853 0.1 032 80 174050 •1.446C53 021535 -0.006684 060263 0.008951 0.063585 0.031523 0.196725 -0 ,236185 3. 063500 0.037337 0 ,030159 0.637098 -0 ,017200 -0.069673 0.0604U 0. U4631 187086 -0.134799 016291 -0.013741 0.029962 031403 0.034464 0.046314 011057 0.381323 -0.007594 080331 -0.329344, -0.013108 003783 0.U13156 -0.054467 ,059536 0.034860 -0.022635 ,044080 -0.070410 0.012136 ,035617 -0.035828 -0.005260 ,585784 0.055615 0.120939 ,006655 -0.059222 0.030927 ,074287 0.012382 0. 10 2 82 2 -0.041254 -0 ,071757 -0.054602 -0 .020175 -0.034921 -0.009863 0 ,009246 -0.022940 -0.014300 -0. 063317 -0.115985 0.000963 -0. 052893 -0.009494 0.088276 -0. 076293 0.079258 -6.154626 0.104478 -6,066840 -0. 125814 0.016975 -o, 154866 0.030514 0.024464 0. 080517 -0.088555 0 .034708 0.017653 0.044444 0 ,069816 0. 3084418 0.038257 -0 ,114574 6.435761 -0.033744 0 .134129 0. 014755 0.018883 0 ,014912 0.0402e6 0.010C89 -0 .032513 •0.010793 O.C77090 0.022723 -0.205648 0.182861 -0.028553 0.014824 0.C25292 0.076116 0.044264 0.079496'-0.030737-0.008091 •0.0 15849 0.122256 0.006893  23 573914 -0.129395 0.061535 0.038946 -0.02 5 540 -0.064528 ' -0.093246 0.023769 -0.C77802 -0.037086 0.046254 -0.062431 0.018129 0.036513 -0.076228 0.0B3950 0.066533 0.045007 0.044752 C . l 20 160 0.095209 0.093089 0.025834 -0.018076 0.032949 -0.012793 0.001780 -0.005240 0.156211 -0.059466 -0.080843 0.215376 -0.008729 0. 144014 -6.68184-" -0.018702 0.001953 -0.011888 C.170752 -0.032732 0.068 335 0.038787 0.067 504 0.007678 0.043893 0.119637  -6.025 679  -0.035734 -0.034 766 -0.015476 -0.011018 -0.069688 -C.039233 0.047028 0. 102830 -0.103 993 0.165038 -0.022077 0.414770 -0-047409 C.229787 -0.016444 0.112494 -0.012935 -0.003235 -0.061 776  C- 24 0.034034 0.337755 -0.U 70 9 7 9 C.060017 -0.031300 -0.030629 0.0 34 541 -0. 106482 0.099553 -0.037282 6.OB4804 0. 333906 0.212632 0. 165351 0.128615 0.027771 -0. 039751 0.023 589 -0 . 054 9 4 5 C. 110670 -0.057 178 0.020660 -0. C 73 504 -0.116454 0.064119 0. 0C3780 -0.116532 -0.099898 0. 117 491 -0.008 78 2 -0. 031 397 -0.013298 0.144573 -0.043291 -0.032922 0.010604 0.093970 0.081727 0.011282 0. 0 18 894 -0.017622 0. 070152 0.068605 -0. 039 1 32 -0.057885 0.061960 0.052314 0.098735 0.080 604 0.116232 -0.087557 0.150250 0. 0 56 631 -0.174358 0.C47601 0.185645 0.056260 -0.010588 -0.076727 0. 110681 -0. 116215 -0.073097 0.554824 0.147865 6. 041 732 -0. 118764  APPENDIX * V 11 Male Sample - Anhedonia Scale Correlation Matrix of Factors  1 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  1.00  2  .01  1.00  3  -.02  .02  1.00  4  .07  .01  -.03  1.00  5  -.10  .04  -.03  .01  1.00  6  -.01  .07  .03  .03  -.00  1.00  7  .16  -.01  -.01  -.01  -.06  -.04  1.00  8  .06  .06  -.01  .02  .02  -.05  -.02  1.00  9  -.01  -.01  -.01  -.00  .06  .03  -.02  .02  10  .14  .09  .01  .04  -.03  -.02  .07  .10  -.05  1.00  11  -.03  .08  .06  .01  .02  .03  -.01  .05  -.05  -.00  1.00  12  -.05  -.05  .02  .07  .06  .01  -.09  .00  -.04  .04  -.01  1.00  13  -.06  -.12  -.02  -.00  -.01  -.02  -.03  .03  -.01  -.06  -.01  .01  1.00  14  .01  .04  .02  .12  -.03  .07  .05  .02  -.07  .02  .03  .02  -.06  1.00  15  -.01  .04  .03  .06  .00  .08  -.01  -.03  -.05  -.02  .02  -.04  -.03  .10  1.00  16  -.03  .12  .09  .04  -.09  .03  .04  -.03  -.08  -.05  .04  -.05  -.02  .05  .03  17  -.00  .08  .00  .01  -.06  .00  -.02  .04  -.06  .01  .04  .03  -.01  .11  .09  .05  1.00  18  .09  .04  .04  .12  -.05  -.01  .12  .11  -.05  . .07  .01  .02  .00  .11  .01  .03  .03  1.00  19  .05  .05  .02  .01  .03  -.00  .00  .01  .02  -.02  -.03  -.13  -.02  -.02  .02  -.01  .04  -.00  1.00  20  .02  .16  .02  .04  .06  -.02  .06  -.05  -.00  -.02  .01  .00  .01  -.03  -.00  .10  -.05  -.01  .04  1.00  21  -.13  .02  -.04  .04  .09  .01  -.13  -.04  .15  .12  .05  -.00  .03  -.09  -.02  .00  -.04  -.07  .03  .13  22  -.14  .02  -.06  -.12  .08  .01  -.02  -.10  .03  .17  -.01  -.02  .02  -.05  -.07  -.03  -.01  -.03  -.04  .02  .06  1.00  23  .06  .01  .11  .03  -.09  .02  .15  .09  -.11  .13  .02  .03  -.05  .03  .04  .05  .10  -.02  -.10  -.19  -.09  1.00  24  .02  -.02  -.09  -.01  .01  -.00  -.04  -.05  .01  -.00  -.00  -.02  .01  -.03  -.02  .04 0 -.04  -.02  -.13  .01  .01  .03  -.04  -.07  1.00  1.00  1.00 ON  1.00  Co  APPENDIX XVIII Female Sample Anhedonia Scale Correlation Matrix of Factors  1  2  3  4  5  6  1  1.00  2  -. 10  1.00  3  .13  -.09  4  . 10  -.01  .03  1.00  5  .06  .01  -.03  -.00  1.00  6  .02  -.07  -.06  .03  -.02  .09  -.03  -. 12  -.05  .01  -.00  -.00  -.02  7  -.05  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  1.00  18  19  20  21  22  1.00  23  1.00  1.00 1.00  6  -. 10  .04  -.07  .05  1.00  9  .04  .01  -.05  .00  .01  -.00  -.01  .02  1.00  10  -.00  .10  -.08  -.06  -.04  .06  -.00  .06  .11  11  -.11  .05  -.09  -.04  -.09  .07  .03  .02  .03  1.00 .06  12  .19  -.02  .09  .02  .07  -.01  -.08  -.12  .06  .04  1.00 -.09  13  .00  .01  -.01  .02  .04  .05  -.03  1.00 .01  1.00  -.09  .02  .03  .01  .04  .05  .20  -.09  -.06  1.00  -.02  .00  -.00  .09  .03  -.04  .07  -.07  .06  1.0  -.01  .02  .07  .00  .04  .03  .07  .06  -.06  .01  .03  1.00 -.02  .07  .07  .04  .02  .08  .10  -.04  -.01  .05  .00  1.00 -.04  .01  .05  -.06  -.03  .02  -.02  .08  .07  -.06  .03  -.04  .01  -.09  -.00  -.03  .04  .00  .04  .02  .07  -.02  -.04  -.03  .03  -.01  -.00  .00  1.00  -.02  -.02  .11  -.10  -.03  .11  .13  -.06  .05  .07  .12  -.04  -.06  -.08  -.01  .04  .01  -.04  -.09  -.02  -.03  -.00  .03  -.02  1.00 -.07  -.01  .02  -.01  -.09  -.07  -.08  -.03  -.10  .08  .02  -.09  .01  1.00  -.01  -.05  -.09  -.03  .01  -.00  -.02  -.00  .04  14 15 16  -.03 -.07 -.04  -.02 .05 .01 .12  24  -.05 -.01 -.12 -.04  -.03 -.02 -.01  .01  17  -.01  .05  -.07  -.01  -.01  18  -.04  .15  -.04  -.01  .02  19  .02  -.05  .09  .03  .04  20  .01  0.95  -.02  .00  .01  21  -.14  .08  -.07  -.04  22  .04  -.07  .13  .02  23  .03  -.11  .05  .08  -.00  -.04  -.05  -.07  -.00  -.12  24  .01  -.01  .01  -.04  .01  .08  .00  -.03  -.01  -.00  -.20 .08  -.08 .08 .03 -.03  -.00 -.12 -.00 .05 -.05  .06 .02 .01 .09 -.02  -.01 -.06 .02  .12 -.03  -.01  .03  .07  -.03  1.00  1.00  ON  •p-  APPENDIX  X/X  Pooled Sample Anhedonia Scale Correlation Matrix of Factors  1  2  1  1.00  2  -.00  1.00  3  -.03  .14  4  3  5  6  .04  .01  1.00  5  -.03  -.14  -.07  -.02  6  -.01  .02  7  -.12  .05  .06  .03  -.01  .02  .05  .03  .01  .07  -.05  -.04  9  .07  .11  .09  .07  -.06  -.02  12 13 14  .00 .08 .07 -.01  .03  .05  .04  .03  1.00  .13  .09  -.09  -.05  -.04  .12  .06  -.08  -.08  .07  .01  .02  -.03  -.04  -.10  .04  .03  -.12  .02  .00  1.00  -.03  -.13  -.05  .06  .02  .07  .10  .04  .12  -.06  .12  .01  1.00  .02  .03  .02  .03  .03  .06  -.01  -.01  -.06  .05  .04  .09  .00  .01  .10  .07  -.05  -.03  .07  .00  1.00  .01  .02  .03  .03  -.01  -.06  1.00  .01  19  -.03  -.15  -.05  24  .09  .03 -.03  19  20  21  22  23  24  1.00  .07  18  -.07  18  1.00  .03  -.  -.09  -.02  .02  -.05  -.06  17  -.01  -.15  -.07  16  .04  17  23  -.07  -.05  .03  -.02  1.00  -.. 0 9 -.. 0 2  -.09  .03  22  .00  -.08  16  -.07  .10  .08  -.01  15  1. . 0 0  .00  -.09  .04  14  1.00 -.06  -.03  -.05  21  13  -.04  15  -.06  12  .09  .04  20  11  1.00  .08  11  10  9  1.00  .00  -.03  8  -.11  ti  1.00  4  .02  10  7  -.  10  13 .00  -.03 .09 .05  .06  -.05  -.09  -.05 -.00  -.00  .08  .08  -.00  .06  -.01  -.09 -.02 .02 .02 .06  -.00  .10  .04 .06  .03  -.00  .06  .04  .07  .10  -.02  -.08  .00  .05  .07  .12  - .06 - .01  -.09  - .01 - .16 .01  -  .03 .03  -.00  .04  -.07  1.00  -.08  .13  .00  -.05  -.11  .08  .00  .07  -.10  1.00  -.11  .04  .02  -.07  -.05  .01  .00  .04  -.04  .06  1.00  -.01  .05  .08  -.12  -.05  .02  .05  .08  -.08  .07  -.00  1.00  -.04  .12  .07  -.02  .01  .04  -.01  .02  -.02  .02  -.01  -.03  1.00  -.04  -.04  .07  -.01  .00  .01  .00  -.00  -.04  -.01  .09  .01  .03  -.00  -.05  .01  .05  .04  .01  .09  .00  1.00  -.06  -.05  -.05  .04  -.05  .00 .05  .18 -.16  -.12  .12  .09  -.12  -.01  .05 -.10  .00 -.07 .02  .14 -.07  1.00  1.00  

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