UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A transportation strategy for regional development Ajayi, Peter Sunday 1978

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A TRANSPORTATION STRATEGY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE FOR NIGERIA by PETER SUNDAY AJAYI B.E-.'Sv,. U n i v e r s i t y of W a t e r l o o , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES i U c h o o l o f Community and Reg i ona l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con fo rm ing to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1978 © P e t e r Sunday A j a y i , 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Community and Reg i ona l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date August 1978 i i ABSTRACT Reg i ona l development i s c u r r e n t l y a major concern of governments i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s - N i g e r i a i n c l u d e d . The b a s i c emphasis of r e g i o n a l deve lopment i n t he se c o u n t r i e s i s the improvement o f " q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r a l l c i t i z e n s as development p r o g r e s s e s " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a : Th i r d  N a t i o n a l Development P l a n , 1975 - 80 , Lagos , 1975, p. 291 ) . In o rde r to a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e , emphasis i s u s u a l l y p l a c e d on the r u r a l s e c t o r of the economy - where a m a j o r i t y o f the c i t i z e n s s t i l l l i v e and are employed. The improvement o f t h i s s e c t o r i s a l s o the f ocu s of t h i s s t u d y . There are many s t r a t e g i e s wh ich a re c a p a b l e , a t l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , of imp rov i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the r u r a l a reas but the main emphasis of t h i s s t udy i s the development of r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as a means of d e v e l o p i n g the r u r a l a r e a s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s v iewed as a n e c e s s i t y i n any human s e t t l e -ment as peop le and goods have to move from one p l a c e to the o t h e r , f o r e conomic , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p u rpo se s . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s tudy i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r u r a l development - i . e . t h a t t he r e i s a r u r a l demand f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I f t h i s demand e x i s t s , what mode of t r a n s p o r t i s most l i k e l y to s a t i s f y t h a t demand? At p r e s e n t i n N i g e r i a , roads seem to be d o m i n a t i n g o t h e r modes because o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In t h i s s t u d y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s no t seen as the s o l e agent f o r r u r a l d e v e l o p -ment. For a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t r a t e g y to be s u c c e s s f u l , i t has i i i to be c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h o t h e r development s t r a t e g i e s . The prob lem of p r o v i d i n g adequate r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l one. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l f r ame -work w i t h i n which t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n N i g e r i a i s then examined and problems i d e n t i f i e d , e s p e c i a l l y those r e -l a t e d t o r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n and ma in tenance . E s p e c i a l l y appa ren t i n the d e f i c i e n c i e s o f the e x i s t i n g a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s the l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n wh ich i t p e r m i t s Th i s l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s e x i s t s between d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s of the same government and be -tween d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government - i . e . both h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y . For t h i s l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n , i t seems t h a t the r u r a l ' r o a d s are the most v u l n e r a b l e . In v iew o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o b l e m , a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e i s recommended, which g i ve s g r e a t e r emphasis t o the deve lopment and ma in tenance of l o c a l roads i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the development of o t h e r modes of t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n f o r the c o u n t r y . The major m o d i f i c a t i o n i s i n f a v o u r of r e d u c i n g the e x i s t i n g r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t i e s of L o c a l Governments in road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n . Th i s i m p l i e s t h a t the F e d e r a l and S t a t e Governments wou ld have to t ake more shares i f a l l t ype s o f roads are t o be deve loped - i . e . p r o v i d i n g good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the r u r a l a r e a s . Map 1. Location Map V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Table of Contents iv L i s t of Tables v t i L i s t of Figures and I l l u s t ra t i ons V T 1 1 Acknowledgements l x I. INTRODUCTION Regional Transportation Planning 1 Def in it ion- of the Region:- The Study Area 4 Basic Assumptions of the Study ... 6 Objects of the Study 7 Limitat ion and Scope of Study 8 Sources of Data .9 Outl ine of the Study 9 II. TRANSPORTATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT Introduction 11 Sel f Reliance 12 Provision of Rural Employment Opportunities 14 F a c i l i t i e s and Services in the Rural Areas 17 The Potential of Transportation for Achieving Rural . 'Objectives' 19 Marketing of Produce 20 Movement for Socio-Cultural Purposes 22 Other Uses of Transportation in the Rural Areas ... 24 Conclusion 24 II I. TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS AND.POLICIES IN NIGERIA Introduction 26 H i s to r i ca l Development of Transportation 30 Transportation Development Under Colonial Rule 33 Transportation Development After Independence 36 Transportation Modes in Niger ia: Problems 40 Roads 41 Railways 43 Waterways 49 A i r Transportation 50 v i Page. Dominance of Road Transportation 54 Exist ing Ins t i tut iona l Structure for Transportation 57 Coordination Within the Federal Ministry of Transport 59 Conclusion 62 IV. A TRANSPORTATION STRATEGY FOR REGIONAL. DEVELOPMENT Introduction 63 The Effects of Lack of Coordination 64 Rural Transportation 65 Respons ib i l i ty for Rural Roads 67 The Transportation Needs of Rural Areas 72 Marketing Agr icu l tura l Produce 73 Soc i o -Po l i t i c a l Transportation Needs 74 Other Needs 75 Financing Rural Transportation 77 Intermodal Resource Al locat ions 79 Transport Coordination 80 Transport Coordination with Other Sectors 81 Transport Coordination Between Government Levels 83 Coordination Among Transportation Modes 85 Conclusion 86 V. CONCLUSIONS Organization and Coordination ... 91 National Road Transportation Agency 92 Shared Respons ib i l i ty 93 Appropriate Technology 95 Research Implications 98 Rural Transport P r i o r i t y 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books 100 Journals 103 Governments, Organizations and Inst i tut ions 104 Theses and Papers 106 v i i LIST OF TABLES Page I. A l l o c a t i o n of Development Funds i n the F i r s t N a t i o n a l Development P l a n , 1962-68 38 I I . Produce Tonnage M o v e d t o P a r t s by Mode of T r a n s p o r t : 1969-72 56 I I I . Length of Roads Under, the J u r i s d i c t i o n of Each Leve l of Government i n N i g e r i a , 1972 ( i n k i l o m e t r e s ) 68 v n i F i g u r e s LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS 1. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e o f the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t , N i g e r i a 2. Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Network i n a Deve l op i n g Count ry Page 61 65 Proposed O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e f o r the Fede r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t , N i g e r i a ^7 Maps : 1. L o c a t i on Map iv 2. N i g e r i a n N a t u r a l Waterways : R i v e r s ^2 3. T r an s - Saha ran Caravan Routes ^ 4. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Networks i n N i g e r i a : Roads and R a i l way 44 5. Number o f Pas senger s U s i ng A i r T r a n s -p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a : 1970/71 and 1974/75.. 5 2 M a t r i c e s : 1. E x i s t i n g S t r u c t u r e of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Roads i n N i g e r i a 2. Shared R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Roads i n N i g e r i a : A P r o p o s a l 3. L e v e l s of R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by Governments i n Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Th i s s tudy c o u l d have not been completed w i t h o u t the gu idance and encouragement of my S u p e r v i s o r s , Dr. P e t e r M. McLough l i n and P r o f e s s o r Brahm Weisman, who took t ime from t h e i r busy s chedu l e s to d i s c u s s my i dea s and sugges t new ones. I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d to them. My s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e f u r t h e r goes to P r o f e s s o r Brahm Weisman who p l a y e d a major r o l e i n making my s t a y i n Canada p o s s i b l e - th rough h i s moral and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . I a l s o have to thank Dr. Douglas Webs te r , under whose s u p e r v i s i o n t h i s s tudy was s t a r t e d . My g r a t i t u d e i s extended to the o t h e r members of my Exam ina t i on Committee - i . e . P r o f e s s o r s C r a i g Dav is and Mike P o u l t o n - f o r the v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s they made. I w i l l a l s o l i k e to thank my f r i e n d s i n N i g e r i a who sen t me some m a t e r i a l s f o r t h i s s t u d y , e s p e c i a l l y Mr. M i c h a e l Keke reekun , Mr. Simeon A k o l a d e , and Mr. Matthew Awoyemi. F i n a l l y , a s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e goes to Mrs. Ba rba ra T i n g l i n , Mrs. Ka th ryn Coke r , Miss Funke Sa l awu , Miss T i t i l a y o A j a y i , , Miss Lynn J o n e s , and Mr. and Mrs. D. P o l l o c k f o r t h e i r s uppo r t and encouragement. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n has s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e because o f the p e r v a s i v e r o l e of m o b i l i t y in f a c i l i t a t i n g o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s . T r a n s p o r t i s a n e ce s s a r y i n -g r e d i e n t o f n e a r l y eve ry a spec t o f economic and s o c i a l deve lopment . I t p l a y s a key r o l e i n g e t t i n g l a nd i n t o p r o d u c t i o n , i n m a r k e t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l com-m o d i t i e s , and i n making f o r e s t and m i n e r a l w e a l t h a c c e s s i b l e . I t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the d e v e l o p -ment o f i n d u s t r y , i n the expans i on o f t r a d e , i n the conduct of h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n p rograms, and i n the exchange o f i d e a s . " (Owen, W i l f r e d : S t r a t e g y f o r M o b i l i t y , T r a n s p o r t Research Program, The B rook -ings I n s t i t u t i o n , Wash ing ton , D.C., 1964, p. 1.) 1 CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION Reg i ona l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g : The concept of Reg i ona l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g has e x i s t e d f o r some t ime and has m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n v a r i o u s ways. Most r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and deve lopment t h e o r i e s i n v o l v e r e -g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g as w e l l . For example , most r e g i o n a l economic deve lopment t h e o r i e s , l i k e , t r a d e or l o c a -t i o n t h e o r i e s , are based on the a s sumpt ion t h a t the r e g i o n i s a c c e s s i b l e to the ' o u t s i d e w o r l d ' (Fr iedmann and Alonso ( e d . ) : 1975 ; pp. 41-45 & pp. 66-:73). T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s a re i n -d i c a t e d as an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n and m a r k e t i n g of p roduce . Another main f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the concern f o r r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s p r o b a b l y t h a t " t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p roce s s f o r the p r o v i s i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s has not been w e l l s t r u c t u r e d f o r a c h i e v i n g b a l a n c e and c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " ( DeSa l vo : 1973, p . l ) . For economic deve lopment of any r e g i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network f o r peop le and goods i s one of the b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s (Fr iedmann and A lon so ( e d . ) : 1975, p .589 ) . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t by "moving goods and peop le from one p l a c e to a n o t h e r , t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t a t e s economic growth in. t he se p l a c e s and a l ong c o n n e c t i n g r o u t e s " . 2 Th i s deve lopmenta l r o l e , w h i c h has been a s s i g n e d to the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r , h a s c o n t r i b u t e d to the impo r tance of t h i s s e c t o r among governments ; a l l o ve r the w o r l d . The r e l a t i v e r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n to the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r , compared to o t h e r s e c t o r s of the n a t i o n a l economy, i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the impo r tance a s c r i b e d to the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r . In a deve loped c o u n t r y such as the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the n a t i o n a l i n v e s t m e n t , about $200 b i l l i o n a n n u a l l y , i s a l l o c a t e d to the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r (Fr iedmann and A lon so (ed.):. 1975, p .588 ) . S i m i l a r , i f not more, emphasis i s g i v en to the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . For examp le , the. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r accounted f o r about 20.0 per cent of t o t a l n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n s i n the c u r r e n t deve lopment p l an f o r N i g e r i a ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p . 53 ) . Th i s s e c t o r i s by f a r the s i n g l e , most i m p o r t a n t s e c t o r j u d g i n g from c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n to o t h e r sec to r s . , D e s p i t e t h i s awareness of the impo r t ance o f the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r , some b a s i c problems s t i l l h i n d e r the n a t i o n a l deve lopmenta l r o l e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - , e s p e c i a l l y i n the de-v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . There are s t i l l many a reas wh ich are . s e r v e d by i nadequa te t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . These areas are s i m i l a r . , to the l a g g i n g or dep re s sed r e g i o n s of the deve loped c o u n t r i e s (Hoover : 1971, pp .262 -263 ) . They are r e l a -t i v e l y i s o l a t e d from the n a t i o n a l system due t o l a c k of ade -quate communicat ion and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ne two rk s . The d e v e l o p -3 ment of t he se areas i s p a r t l y dependent on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . In v iew of t h i s , the p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s would have to be r e o r i e n t e d to f a c i l i t a t e easy acce s s to these ' d e p r e s s e d ' a r e a s . There i s a c a l l f o r adequate p l a n n i n g and the improvement of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , e s p e c i a l l y a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l problems a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l have i m p l i -c a t i o n s f o r e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n developments at the s t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l s . S i n c e much of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c r o s s e s s t a t e and l o c a l b o u n d a r i e s , s t r e n g t h e n i n g the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r o l e of the s t a t e and l o c a l governments i s not s u f f i c i e n t . Some k i nd of n a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n -making s t r u c t u r e i s r e q u i r e d , a n d the development o f such a s t r u c t u r e i s a concern of t h i s s t u d y . The b a s i c q u e s t i o n here i s how can the Fede ra l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t and the r e l a t e d a g e n c i e s , be o r g a n i z e d to meet the needs f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the c o u n t r y more e f f e c t i v e l y . An answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n i s approached through an e x a m i n a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the d i v i s i o n of powers among the s e v e r a l l e v e l s of government. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r ob l em( s ) which may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a c k of adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n many p a r t s of the r e g i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d , a n d a s t r a t e g y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t he se problems i s s u g g e s t e d . 4 D e f i n i t i o n of the R e g i o n : - The Study A r e a : The d e f i n i t i o n of a r e g i o n i s u s u a l l y n e c e s s a r y i n a s t u d y which f ocu se s on r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Many types of r e g i o n s can be i d e n t i f i e d depend ing on the purpose to be s e r v e d . In some c a s e s , r e g i o n s are d e f i n e d i n terms of p o l i t i c a l u n i t s w h i l e economic a c t i v i t i e s form the b a s i s of o t h e r s . The p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Co lumbia i n Canada, or Kwara S t a t e i n N i g e r i a , i s an example of the fo rmer w h i l e the A p p a l a c h i a n r e g i o n , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a , i s a t y p i c a l example of the l a t t e r . Even w i t h i n t he se broad c a t e g o r i e s e x i s t d i f -f e r e n t s c a l e s o f r e g i o n s . As an example , many s m a l l e r a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s form the B r i t i s h Columbia r e g i o n . Th i s be i n g the c a s e , i t can e a s i l y be s a i d t h a t a r e g i o n i s d e f i n e d from the p o i n t of v iew of s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g g o a l s . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , a p l a n n i n g r e g i o n i s v iewed as a " g e o g r a p h i c space o r g a n i z e d f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e s of a p l a n n i n g p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y " ( H o y l e : 1973, p . 26 ) . Th i s s ugges t s t h a t a r e g i o n can be an a rea w i t h i n a n a t i o n a l g e o g r a p h i c s p a c e , the n a t i o n i t s e l f , or a group of n a t i o n s . Throughout t h i s s t u d y , the n o t i o n of a r e g i o n a p p l i e s to the r u r a l a reas of a n a t i o n . N i g e r i a i s used as a s tudy a rea and i n f e r e n c e s may be drawn f o r o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r economic , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c o - c u l t u r a l deve lopment . The word ' d e v e l o p m e n t ' i s a no the r term which r e q u i r e s a d e f i n i t i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s s t u d y . In many i n s t a n c e s , 5 p u r e l y economic c r i t e r i a - e . g . Gross N a t i o n a l P r oduc t (GNP), i s used as a measure of development ( f o r d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n see O l a t unbo sun : 1975, p p . 3 7 - 3 9 ) . Th i s i s not an adequate d e f i n i t i o n of development because "deve lopment i n v o l v e s more than per c a p i t a income g r owth " ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1975, p . 39 ) . Growth, i n terms of GNP and per c a p i t a income, i s on l y an i m p o r t a n t economic d imens ion of deve lopment , and whateve r i t s i m p o r t a n c e , i t i s m i s l e a d i n g to use i t as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r development ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1975, p .159 ) . For deve lopment t h e r e -f o r e , the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l b e t t e r m e n t of the c i t i -zens are i m p o r t a n t components. I n c rea sed Gross N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t a l one does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t a n a t i o n i s d e v e l o p i n g . The d i s t r i b u t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of the i n c r e a s e to the b e t t e r -ment and enjoyment of the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n i s a l s o an i m -p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A summary of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t whi le.• i n c r e a s e i n GNP may be an i n d i c a t o r of deve l opment , i t does not c o n s t i t u t e development by i t s e l f . The f u l f i l m e n t o f the economic and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s of the c i t i z e n s or i n h a b i t a n t s of the r e g i o n are b a s i c f a c t o r s c o n s t i t u t i n g deve lopment . Development w i l l u s u a l l y i n v o l v e a s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l change i n the s o c i e t y r a t h e r than j u s t improve the income of a few urban r e s i d e n t s . At p r e s e n t i n N i g e r i a , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e showing a s u b s t a n t i a l and w i d e n i n g r u r a l - u r b a n income d i f f e r e n t i a l , w i t h r u r a l i n -comes u s u a l l y more than 50 per cent l ower than urban incomes 6 ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1975, p . 4 0 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n v iew of the f a c t t h a t a m a j o r i t y of the peop le i n N i g e r i a a re s t i l l r u r a l (80 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to O l a t u n b o s u n , pp. 6 & 7 ) , the goal o f development s h o u l d be to a c h i e v e a r a p i d growth i n ou tpu t t h a t i s e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d to the mutual advantage of both the urban few and the r u r a l m a j o r i t y . Development then i m p l i e s t h a t r u r a l economy has to be s t i m u l a t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the o v e r a l l economy. B a s i c As sumpt ions of the S tudy : One of the b a s i c a s sumpt ions of the i n t e g r a t e d approaches to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and management i s t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a s i n g l e s e r v i c e or a s i n g l e system wh ich can be a n a l y z e d on a u n i f i e d b a s i s (DeSa l vo : 1973, p .380 ) . Th i s a s sumpt ion i s a c c e p t e d here w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g . I t i s the b e l i e f of t h i s au tho r t h a t each mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s r e l a t e d and de-pendent on each o t h e r i n an adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s tem. Another a s sumpt ion of t h i s s tudy i s t h a t even though d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of governments and agenc i e s a re r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n and ma in tenance of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , a p rope r b a l a n c e o f the powers and a c t i v i t i e s of t he se g o v e r n -ments and agenc i e s w i l l enhance the improvement of the t r a n s -p o r t s e c t o r . I t i s a l s o assumed t h a t the improvement of n a t i o n a l r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network w i l l b r i n g about o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l deve lopment . A t tempts would be made i n t h i s s tudy to e s t a b l i s h whether the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes proposed would r e s u l t i n the improvement of the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n N i g e r i a . 7 The b a s i c p remise of these a s sumpt ions i s t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s needed as a b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l economic g rowth . With p r ope r c o o r d i n a t i o n t h i s growth w i l l b r i n g about n a t i o n a l deve lopment . O b j e c t i v e s of the S t udy : There are s e v e r a l problems t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r of any d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y , N i g e r i a i s an example. The a n a l y s i s of these problems i s one o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s t u d y . Problems w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d as i t conce rn s the i n -s t i t u t i o n a l framework w i t h i n which t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s conducted i n N i g e r i a . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e x i s t i n g i n -s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems and s o l u t i o n recommendat ion a re the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s s t u d y . Gen-e r a l l y s peak i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s s tudy can be s t a t e d as fo l1ows : a) To show t h a t r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r r e g i o n a l deve lopment i n N i g e r i a ; b) To a n a l y z e the problems of the e x i s t i n g i n -s t i t u t i o n a l framework f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y ; c) To propose a s t r a t e g y f o r imp rov i n g r u r a l t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , i n v iew of the i d e n t i f i e d p r ob l ems . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e concerns i t s e l f to the t h e o r e t i c a l development framework w i t h i n which a r a t i o n a l e can be found f o r r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n deve lopment . The second and t h i r d 8 o b j e c t i v e i s f o cu sed on a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e o r y t o the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i n N i g e r i a . L i m i t a t i o n and Scope of S tudy : In any deve l opmenta l s t u d y , i t i s a ve r y d i f f i c u l t t a s k to cove r eve ry a s p e c t . In v iew of t h i s , c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s e x i s t s f o r t h i s s t u d y . In a g ene ra l s e n s e , t h i s s tudy i s f o cu sed on r u r a l road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l ar rangement f o r road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a . The r o l e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n development and the p o t e n t i a l f o r such a- role i n N i g e r i a i s e x p l o r e d . A major l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s s tudy i s the amount of data a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . Very l i m i t e d data i s a v a i l a b l e f o r many a spec t s of development i n N i g e r i a when data s ou rce s of the deve loped c o u n t r i e s are used as s t a n d a r d s . The r e l i a b i l i t y of d a t a , even cen su se s , are a lways q u e s t i o n e d as i s b rought out by T h e o p h i l u s Okin be low: The mature s c h o l a r who weaves i n t o h i s r e -s ea r ch a s c a r l e t t h r e a d by n u m e r i c a l symbols and a n a l y s i s to b r i g h t e n h i s s tudy does so w i t h l i t t l e f u s s or i n t e l l e c t u a l o s t e n t a t i o n , and w i t h him none s hou l d q u a r r e l . The r e s u l t s of h i s l a b o r s c l e a r l y demons t ra te the i m -p o r t a n c e of q u a n t i t a t i v e methods. In A f r i c a t h i s s c h o l a r i s hand i capped by l a c k o f s u f -f i c i e n t and r e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y i n West A f r i c a . . . . T h e c o m p a r a t i v e absence of s t a t i s t i c s i s a f a c t o f l i f e i n N i g e r i a , and one must a ccep t i t as a r e g r e t a b l e but u n a v o i d -ab l e r e a l i t y f o r a number o f y ea r s t o come> ( O k i n : 1968, pp . 23 - 24 ) . 9 Th i s s i t u a t i o n i s s t i l l the same today . Most of the d e v e l o p -mental s t a t i s t i c s s t i l l employed i n the c o u n t r y are based on the 1963 n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n cen su s , a l t hough they may be out of d a t e . A more r e c e n t p o p u l a t i o n census i n 1973 had to be c a n c e l l e d f o r a number of r e a s on s . In v iew of a l l t h e s e , a major c o n s t r a i n t e x i s t s as to the amount of data wh ich can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h i s s t u d y . Examples from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o f A f r i c a , e s p e c i a l l y West A f r i c a , may o f t e n be used to i l -l u s t r a t e a number of d i s c u s s i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y . Sources of Da ta : Due to the l i m i t e d s ou rce s a v a i l a b l e f o r data c o l l e c t i o n in t h i s s t u d y , the p r ima ry s ou r ce s have been books and p u b l i -c a t i o n s i n v a r i o u s l i b r a r i e s i n Canada, and some govenment documents, e s p e c i a l l y the c u r r e n t n a t i o n a l deve lopment p l a n f o r N i g e r i a . In a few i n s t a n c e s , i t i s n e ce s s a r y to r e l y on pe r s ona l e x p e r i e n c e s i n the c o u n t r y . Th i s i s however m i n i m i z e d to s i t u a t i o n s where no o t h e r s ou r ce s of v a l i d a t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e e x i s t s f o r t h i s s t u d y . Under normal c i r c u m s t a n c e s , d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t i n N i g e r i a or a f i e l d s u r vey would have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the da t a s o u r c e s . O u t l i n e of the S tudy : In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e the been d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r major o b j e c t i v e s c h a p t e r s . of t h i s s t u d y , i t has The f i r s t c h a p t e r , 1 0 a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n , i s conce rned w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g the impor tance of road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n r e g i o n a l deve lopment . E x p e r i e n c e s from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s p e r t a i n i n g to the d e v e l o p -mental r o l e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are c o n s t a n t l y used f o r i l l u s t r a -t i v e pu rpo se s . The subsequent c h a p t e r dea l s w i t h an a n a l y s i s of the major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems i n the c o u n t r y , w i t h s t r o n g emphasis on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r angement , and lays the g round -work f o r the f o u r t h c h a p t e r . In the f o u r t h c h a p t e r , a s t r a t e g y f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g , to the b e n e f i t of r u r a l deve lopment , i s p r opo sed . In the l a s t c h a p t e r , o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s s tudy a re s t a t e d . CHAPTER II TRANSPORTATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT  I n t r o d u c t i o n The r u r a l s e c t o r i s a ve ry i m p o r t a n t component o f many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . For example , the r e g i o n a l deve lopment p o l i c y s t a t e d i n the N a t i o n a l Development P l an of N i g e r i a gave p r i o r i t y t o r u r a l deve lopment ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a , 1975, p . 291 ) . The concern f o r the r u r a l s e c t o r i s b rought about by the low l e v e l of economic a c t i v i t i e s which i n t u r n a f f e c t s the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l w e l l be ing of the r u r a l peop le ( O l a t u n b o s u n , 1975, p .106 ) . The need to improve the " q u a l i t y of l i f e of a l l c i t i z e n s as development p r o g r e s s e s " i s then a major p r i o r i t y of r e g i o n a l deve lopment i n the de- : v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a , 1975, p . 291 ) . The prob lem of r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t y i s not un ique to the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . In the deve loped c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e are a l s o e v i d e n c e s t h a t the p roce s s of economic deve lopment does n o t , a t any s t a g e , a f f e c t a l l the r e g i o n s of an economy e q u a l l y ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1 975 , p . 1 51 ; : and Fr iedmenn and A l on so (ed.): 1975, pp . 539 - 542 ) . There are l a g g i n g r e g i o n s even i n the deve loped c o u n t r i e s as e v i d e n c e d by the concern of the Canadian g o v e r n -ment f o r the A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s ( T y r c h n i e w i c z and Tar igr i : 1970, p.58) and the A p p a l a c h i a n r e g i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s of -Amer i ca (F r iedmann and A l on so ( e d . ) : 1975, p .590 ) . The l a g g i n g 1 2 r e g i o n s everywhere p r e s e n t ve ry grave problems i n the a t t empt to s t i m u l a t e some economic dynamism i n t he se r e g i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , i t i s shown t h a t " i t i s not even c l e a r whether or not a more a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y would be to encourage the o u t -m i g r a t i o n o f peop le and i n d u s t r y from the r e g i o n , s i n c e the appa ren t magnitude of i n ve s tmen t s needed f a r o u t s t r i p s any r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e s of p r o b a b l e bene f i t s ' , ' (Ty rchn i ewi cz and T a n g r i : ( e d ) : 1970, p .56 ) . Th i s c h a p t e r i s an a t tempt to show t h a t the p romot ion of r e g i o n a l growth by p r o v i d i n g i n c e n t i v e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n s i s a p r e f e r a b l e s t r a t e g y f o r the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . Such a s t r a t e g y i s f a c e d w i t h the prob lem of d e t e r m i n i n g a package of i n ve s tmen t s and p o l i c i e s f o r a s s e s s i n g r e g i o n a l p o t e n t i a l s . In d e v e l o p i n g t h i s s t r a t e g y many c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have to be noted s i n c e the se r e g i o n s a l r e a d y e x i s t w i t h i n a c e r t a i n p a t t e r n o f t r a d e , c u l t u r e , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r angement s . These w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n r e l a t i o n to r e g i o n a l development i n N i g e r i a i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s . In t h i s c h a p t e r however, emphasis i s on the t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework and r e l a t i o n s h i p of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to r e g i o n a l development i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . S e l f R e l i a n c e : The concept of s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s now becoming p o p u l a r i n the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s (West A f r i c a : J a n . 1978, p . 51 ) . The adve r se e f f e c t s of drought i n the Sahe l r e g i o n of A f r i c a has b rought about the concern f o r " s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y i n the p r o -13 d u c t i o n o f m i l l e t , sorghum, m a i z e , wheat , r i c e , s u g a r - c a n e , meat and f i s h " (West A f r i c a : J a n . 1978, p . 51 ) . Th i s shows the need to put p r i o r i t y on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n which i s a l s o a main income sou rce in the r u r a l a reas (01atunbosun : 1 975 , p . 20 ) . There i s then no doubt t h a t the t ime has come f o r the improvment of r u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , a t l e a s t to a l e v e l near the urban l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s . T h e r e f o r e a r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y f o c i i s c a l l e d f o r in many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . In v iew of t h i s , t he improvement of the economic base of the r u r a l a reas i s of paramount i m p o r t a n c e . The development of the r u r a l a reas may not o n l y be de -pendent on the s e l f - r e l i a n c e c o n c e p t . Reg i ona l economic de-ve lopment t h e o r i e s such as the l o c a t i o n and economic base t h e o r i e s show t h a t p r o d u c t i o n f o r the ' o u t s i d e w o r l d 1 i s an i m p o r t a n t e lement f o r deve lopment . ( Fo r d e t a i l s see Hoover : 1975, pp .17 -18 and pp .207 -243 ; a l s o Fr iedmann. and A l on s o ( e d . ) : 1975, pp .332-357. ) For i n s t a n c e , Hoover s t a t e s : One approch to an e x p l a n a t i o n of r e g i o n a l growth i s t h a t of the so c a l l e d "economi c b a s e " . The e s s e n t i a l i d e a i s t h a t some a c t i v i t i e s i n a r e -g ion are p e c u l i a r l y " b a s i c " i n the sense t h a t t h e i r growth l ead s and de te rm ine s the r e g i o n ' s o v e r a l l deve l opment ; w h i l e o t h e r ( 'non b a s i c ' ) a c t i v i t i e s are s i m p l y consequences of the r e g i o n ' s o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t . . . . T h e u sua l economic base t h e o r y i d e n t i f i e s b a s i c a c t i v i t i e s as those which b r i n g i n money from the o u t s i d e w o r l d , g e n e r a l l y by p r o d u c i n g goods or s e r v i c e s f o r e x p o r t " (Hoover : 1975, pp .218 -219 ) . Th i s s t a t emen t i s s uppo r t ed by C h a r l e s T i e b o u t when he wrote 14 t h a t a r e g i o n ' s growth i s c l o s e l y t i e d to the succe s s of i t s e x p o r t s and may t ake p l a c e . e i t h e r as a r e s u l t o f the improved p o s i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g e x p o r t s r e l a t i v e to compet ing areas or as a r e s u l t of the deve lopment o f new e x p o r t s " (F r iedmann and A l on so ( e d . ) : 1975, p .348 ) . r t i s t h e r e f o r e c l e a r , from the above , t h a t p r o d u c t i o n f o r outs i de market as w e l l as p r o d u c t i o n f o r s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r n a l demands are ve ry i m p o r t a n t f o r r e g i o n a l deve lopment . C o n c e n t r a t i o n on any one of them, i . e . s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y or e x p o r t s , s hou ld not be c a r r i e d to an ex t reme. P o l i c i e s s hou ld be s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way t h a t both com-plement each o t h e r f o r the b e n e f i t of r e g i o n a l economy. Th i s be ing the c a s e , the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n to be r a i s e d here i s : How i s i n ve s tmen t in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to enhance r u r a l d e v e l o p -ment? The answer to t h i s i s an o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h a p t e r . a) P r o v i s i o n of Ru ra l Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s : Development p o l i c i e s i n many d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on the urban s e c t o r . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of de-ve l opmen ta l r e s o u r c e s r o u g l y , i f not e n t i r e l y , c o i n c i d e w i t h s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s o f modern urban i sm (O ' Conno r : 1971, p .145 ) . Th i s deve l opmen ta l t r e n d i s c o n t r a r y to the usua l o b j e c t i v e of expand ing p r o d u c t i v e employment and g r e a t e r e q u i t y in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the b e n e f i t s o f growth (Word! Bank: Feb. 1975, p .16 ) . For i n s t a n c e , " o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s c o n s i d e r e d to be i n e i t h e r a b s o l u t e or r e l a t i v e p o v e r t y , more than 80 per cent a re e s t i m a t e d to l i v e in r u r a l 15 a r e a s " (World Bank: Feb. 1975, p . 4 ) . I t would o n l y seem l o g i -c a l t h e r e f o r e t h a t more emphasis be g i ven to the p r o v i s i o n of r u r a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n s t ead emphasis i s g i v e n to heavy i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a l one which can no l o n g e r be r ega rded as the panacea f o r the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . T h e i r d e v e l o p -mental p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be r e o r i e n t e d toward the b e l i e f t h a t " w i t h o u t r u r a l deve lopment t h e r e can be no sound or s u b s t a n t i a l b a s i s f o r a n a t i o n to d e v e l o p " ( Shaver and F i s c h e r , i n Cen to : 1975, p .160 ) . Th i s i s p a r t l y s uppo r t ed by the Wor ld Bank. In o t h e r words , r u r a l development ought to c o n s t i t u t e a major p a r t of the development s t r a t e g i e s of the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i f a l a r g e segment of those i n g r e a t e s t need a re t o b e n e f i t (Wor ld Bank: Feb. 1 975 , p . 16 ) . Labour su rvey s i n A f r i c a show t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l employ-ment i s the p r i n c i p l e o c c u p a t i o n f o r 75 to 85 per cen t of t he r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n ; " w i t h the p a r t i a l e x c e p t i o n o f some r e l a -t i v e l y advanced c o u n t r i e s , and a reas c l o s e to c i t i e s , a lmos t everyone has some c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e " (Wor ld Bank: Feb. 1975, p .21 ) . Data c o n c e r n i n g r u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , though s c a r c e , show t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i s the most i m p o r t a n t s ou r ce of income i n the r u r a l a r e a s . For example , i n N i g e r i a " o v e r 80 per cent of the r u r a l peop le are engaged in a g r i c u l t u r a l and p a s t o r a l a c t i v i t i e s " ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1 975 , p . 5 ) . In v iew o f t h e s e , the q u e s t i o n i s how w i l l the p r o v i s i o n of b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n he lp the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r which employs a 16 m a j o r i t y o f the r u r a l p e o p l e . In the absense of any s p e c i f i c data f o r N i g e r i a , e x p e r i e n c e s from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s w i l l have to be s u f f i c i e n t to show the p o t e n t i a l of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The bes t approach to t h i s problem i s to t ake an example from ano the r West A f r i c a n c o u n t r y which may be assumed to have s i m i l a r e conomic , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s as N i g e r i a . An e x p e r i e n c e from Ghana w i l l be p r o p e r i n t h i s w i s e . B. M. N i c u l e s c u c a r e f u l l y o u t l i n e d how the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads he lp i n c r e a s e the p r o d u c t i o n of food and a g r i c u l t u r a l employment i n Ghana (West A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l and Economic Re sea r ch : 1956, p p . 6 3 - 7 3 ) . In the s t u d y , N i c u l e s c u s t a t e d : There i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , l i t t l e doubt t h a t one o f the main reasons f o r the d i s a p p e a r a n c e of l o c a l , as opposed to o v e r a l l , f ood s ho r t a ge s has been the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n communicat ion f a c i l i t i e s t h r oughou t the c o u n t r y . The v a r i o u s , sometimes f a i r l y l a r g e , b i t s and p i e c e s s t i l l e x i s t i n g i n i s o l a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the war and making up the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t known as the G o l d . C o a s t have today been to a l a r g e e x t e n t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o one s i n g l e exchange a r e a . . . . T h i s i s due i n p a r t to the development o f a f a i r l y good main road system and i n p a r t to the expan s i on in the number of l o r r i e s " ( N i c u l e s c u : 1956, p . 70 ) . The r o l e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n b r i n g i n g more l a n d under c u l t i f i c a t i o n was documented i n t h i s a r t i c l e . The r u r a l a reas i n many c o u n t r i e s s u f f e r from l i m i t e d acces s to n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y p r o d u c t i v e l and f o r a g r i c u l t u r e (Wor ld Bank: Feb. 1975, p . 21 ) . In Ghana, w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of f e e d e r r o a d s , " t h e number of r o a d s i d e v i l l a g e s w i t h i n 50 m i l e s 17 of Acc ra s u p p l y i n g the town w i t h f o o d s t u f f s i n c r e a s e d by about 50 per cen t between 1952 and 1954" (West A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of S o c i a l and Economic R e s e a r c h : 1956, p .72 ) . The number of peop le engaged in a g r i c u l t u r e a l s o i n c r e a s e d w i t h the c o n -s t r u c t i o n of the f e e d e r r o a d s , and more l and was made a c c e s s i b l e . In c o n c l u d i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to s t a t e t h a t s i m i -l a r e x p e r i e n c e s have been documented i n many p a r t s of the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s (Soberman: 1966, d e a l s w i t h a Venezue lan c a s e ; and T r i p a t h i : 1972 dea l s w i t h an I nd i an c a s e ) . Wh i l e the s p e c i f i c s d i f f e r among the se s t u d i e s , and w h i l e many v a r i -ab l e s are i n v o l v e d , i t i s not f a r f e t c h e d to c onc l ude t h a t " t h e t o t a l e f f e c t o f new roads i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s i ndeed p r o f o u n d " ( S t a n l e y , i n E k i s t i e s : J a n . 1972, p .59 ) . b) F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s i n the Ru ra l A r e a s : Though a g r i c u l t u r e p r o v i d e s most of the work and i n -comes in r u r a l a r e a s , n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s a re i m p o r t a n t s upp lementa r y s ou rce s of income f o r r u r a l househo lds (Wor ld Bank: Feb. 1975, p . 22 ) . A few peop le i n the r u r a l a reas a re engaged i n t he se n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s wh ich i n c l u d e t e x t i l e s and c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r y , metal work , p o t t e r y , d y e i n g , c a l a b a s h , and l e a t h e r wo r k i n g ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1975, p . 19 ) . The o b j e c t i v e of expand ing t h i s s e c t o r of the r u r a l economy i s a conce rn of governments, and i t has l e d - to the r u r a l economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n p o l i c i e s of many c o u n t r i e s ( e . g . F e d e r a l Re-p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p . 67 ) . In many cases the d i v e r s i f i -18 c a t i o n s t r a t e g y i n v o l v e s the l o c a t i o n of s m a l l s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the r u r a l a r e a s . However, i n these i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , e n t e r -p r e n e u r s h i p and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s are u s u a l l y n e g l e c t e d ( F r i e d -mann and A l on so ( e d . ) : 1975, p .626 ) . Managers and t e c h n i c i a n s p r e f e r to l i v e i n the major c i t i e s f o r easy acces s to employ-ment, f a c i 1 i t i e s , and s e r v i c e s . These peop le have to be induced to the r u r a l a reas w h i l e the r u r a l l a b o u r f o r c e i s g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y of t r a i n i n g . The p r o v i s i o n of re 1 i a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network f o r the r u r a l a reas and e f f e c t i v e l i n k s between a l l c a t e g o r i e s of s e t t l e m e n t s can a c t as an i n c e n t i v e f o r the 1 o c a t i o n . o f ^ i n -d u s t r i e s and o t h e r ' nece s s i t i e s of l i f e ' by r e d u c i n g t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n c o s t s . Von Thunen and o t h e r s d i d some work i n t h i s f i e l d , showing how t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s a f f e c t s p r o d u c t i o n ( H e c h t , in E k i s t i c s : J u l y 1976, p .44 ) . The h i g h e r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t , the l ower p r o d u c t i o n tends t o become. The impor tance o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n r e g i o n a l development i s c l e a r l y b rought out in the s t a temen t be low: Our t o p i c today concern s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e g i o n a l g r owth . I t i s an im -p o r t a n t s u b j e c t , f o r deve lopments i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n u n d e r l i e a g r ea t dea l of the change t h a t has been o c c u r r i n g i n the p a t t e r n of r e g i o n a l growth i n Canada. A major new h ighway, such as 401 i n O n t a r i o can shape the p a t t e r n of i n d u s t r i a l deve lopment i n the e n t i r e s ou the rn h a l f of a p r o v i n c e . The l o c a -t i o n of major new a i r p o r t s can a f f e c t the growth of the e n t i r e r e g i o n i n wh ich they a re l o c a t e d . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the jumbo j e t s or the c o n s t r u c t i o n of p o r t s t o hand le c o n t a i n e r i z e d s h i p p i n g can have 19 s i m i l a r f a r - r e a c h i n g r e g i o n a l e f f e c t s " ( T y r c h n i e w i c z and Tang r i : 1970 , p.2 ). T h e r e f o r e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can be used to s t i m u l a t e economic a c t i v i t i e s in the low- income a reas of the c o u n t r y . A l s o , good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks i n the r u r a l a reas may he lp a t t r a c t h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s wh ich are p r e s e n t l y l a c k i n g i n many p a r t s of the r u r a l a r e a s . I t has been shown by some au tho r s t h a t good h e a l t h and b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i -t a t e s economic growth and development by c o n t r i b u t i n g to the q u a l i t y and p r o d u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l of the peop le ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1975, p .152) . In o r de r to r a i s e the h e a l t h s t anda rd s of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n N i g e r i a , O la tunbosun recommended the use of mob i l e med i ca l u n i t s ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1975, p .153) . For t h i s recommendat ion to be p r a c t i c a l , roads or some o t h e r mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s needed i n the r u r a l a r e a s . In c o n c l u s i o n t h e r e f o r e , good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network i s needed i n the r u r a l a reas to make f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s more a c c e s s i b l e to the r u r a l p o p u l a c e . The P o t e n t i a l of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r A c h i e v i n g Rura l ' O b j e c t i v e s ' : : The m a r k e t i n g c o s t of p r o d u c t s has a lways been c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of p r o d u c t i o n c o s t ( f o r example see O l a t u n b o s u n : 1975, pp.109-112 and Hech t , i n E k i s t i c s : J u l y 1976, p . 44 ) . In f a c t l o c a t i o n t h e o r y , a c c o r d i n g to Von Thunen sugge s ted t h a t i f b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n b r i n g s the market w i t h i n economic r each of a s u b s i s t e n c e economy, one would expec t the s u b s i s t e n c e 20 economy to change (Hech t : 1976, ' p . 44 ) . I f a r e g i o n i s t o com-pete w i t h o t h e r r e g i o n s i n s u p p l y i n g produce to the ' o u t s i d e w o r l d ' , c ompa ra t i v e advantage of each i s i m p o r t a n t ( K r a f t , e t a l . : 1971, p .12 ) . These a u t h o r s s t a t e d t h a t what de te rm ine s the volume and d i r e c t i o n of a r e g i o n ' s exchange i s " i t s e f f i c i e n c y in m a n u f a c t u r i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g i t s goods a t an advantage over o t h e r r e g i o n s " ( K r a f t , et a l . : 1971, p . 12 ) . Th i s i n e f f e c t means t h a t t h e r e are two components to t h a t r e g i o n ' s g r owth : a p r o d u c t i o n advantage and a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n advan tage . The re -f o r e the r o l e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n economic development c on -s i s t s of p r o v i d i n g a r e g i o n w i t h an economic advantage r e l a t i v e to o t h e r r e g i o n s , e n a b l i n g i t to s ecu re a l a r g e r sha re of the n a t i o n a l and/or i n t e r n a t i o n a l demand f o r c e r t a i n p r o d u c t s ( K r a f t , et a l . : 1971 , p . 13 ) . a) M a r k e t i n g of P r oduce : As has been p o i n t e d o u t , t h e r u r a l a reas of most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s are a g r i c u l t u r a l i n n a t u r e . In o r d e r to improve c o n d i t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t o r , i n c e n t i v e s , s hou l d be o f f e r e d f o r b e t t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . In v iew of the t r ade and l o c a t i o n t h e o r i e s ment ioned above , improved t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n w i l l have some p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s . G r e a t e r a cce s s to market f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r oduc t s may reduce t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , t he reby a c t i n g as an i n c e n t i v e due t o g r e a t e r p r o f i t ( T r i p a t h i : 1972, p .24 ) . The e f f e c t s of changes i n t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n c o s t s on the i n t e r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s can b e t t e r be shown by the f o l l o w i n g example from K r a f t and 21 o t h e r s : Say t h a t a c o u n t r y c o n s i s t s of t h r e e r e g i o n s , I, I I , and I I I . With r e s p e c t to a p a r t i c u l a r commodity, oranges-, f o r i n s t a n c e , two of the r e g i o n s are i n a s i t u a t i o n where they can p r o -duce t h i s commodity, the t h i r d r e g i o n be ing the consumer of o ranges . Reg ions I and II can grow oranges a t A and B, r e s p e c t i v e l y , at c o s t s of $10 and $6. C l e a r l y , Region II ( w h i c h , we might assume, has the same s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to Region I I I as Region I) has an advantage i n g rowing o range s . For both r e g i o n s , assume t h a t the t r u c k l i n e s c o n n e c t i n g the p r oduc i n g c e n t e r s t o the market a re a r c h a i c , and are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h igh t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . old road new road I l l u s t r a t i v e Example of Comparative Advantage F u r t h e r assume t h a t i t c o s t s $8 to move oranges from B to M and $5 from A to M ( a l t h o u g h i n s t r a i g h t l i n e AB = BM). A l t hough the BM l i n e i s more i n e f f i c i e n t than AM, t h i s i n e f f i c i e n c y i s more than overcome, by the p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l between A and B (so t h a t Region II w i l l s p e c i a l i z e i n orange g r o w i n g , s i n c e a t the ma r ke t , i t s p r oduc t s w i l l s e l l a t a lower p r i c e . , 14, as opposed to 1 5 . f o r p r oduc t s of Region I. I t i s , how-e v e r , p o s s i b l e f o r Region I to improve i t s system and 22 to e s t a b l i s h a more d i r e c t t r u n k l i n e , wh ich w o u l d , f o r i n s t a n c e , cut t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s by h a l f . In t h a t c a s e , the advantage of Reg ion I I has been de -s t r o y e d and A w i l l now grow oranges s i n c e at the mar-ket i t s p r o d u c t s a re cheaper (12.5 V s . 1 4 ) . Th i s i s t r u e o n l y i f Region I I does not r e t a l i a t e , by a l s o e s t a b l i s h i n g a more d i r e c t l i n e . In t h a t c a s e , Reg ion II would r e g a i n i t s advantage (10 V s .12 .5 ) ( K r a f t , et a l . : 1971 , pp. 13-14) . Th i s example c l e a r l y shows the advantage of b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n i n f l u e n c i n g p r o d u c t i o n . Th i s however shou ld not be taken as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r i n d u c i n g p r o d u c t i o n c o s t a t the s i t e ( r e -g i o n ) . I f o n - s i t e p r o d u c t i o n c o s t i s too h i g h , no amount of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvement w i l l i nduce more p r o d u c t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , i n the above examp le , i f o n - s i t e p r o d u c t i o n c o s t i s g r e a t e r than $14 a t A, the improvement of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l have no e f f e c t s i n c e B w i l l s t i l l be at an advan tage . In c o n -c l u s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n becomes a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r in r e g i o n a l growth s i n c e i t de te rm ine s the e x t e n t to wh ich an a rea can c a p i t a l i z e on i t s economic endowment f o r g e n e r a t i n g e x p o r t s . In the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , as i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , i t can be s a i d t h a t a ve ry i m p o r t a n t need of the f a rmer i s to be a b l e t o market h i s produce at a p l a c e where he may secu re a p r o f i t a b l e p r i c e f o r h i s produce ( T r i p a t h i : 1972, p . 24 ) . b) Movement f o r S o c i o - c u l t u r a l Pu rpo se s : T r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs i n any community ex tends beyond economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In the r u r a l a r e a s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s needed to a t t e n d f a i r s and f e s t i v a l s ( T r i p a t h i : 1972, P .26 ) . Wh i l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s are needed to f a c i l i t a t e the 23 movement o f produce to ma r ke t , i n t r a - r u r a l movement ought to be f a c i l i t a t e d i n o r d e r to enhance r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the r u r a l a r e a s . For examp le , i n N i g e r i a , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e show-ing t h a t " r u r a l - r u r a l m i g r a t i o n e x i s t s in s e v e r a l p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y " (O l a t unbo sun : 1975, p . 32 ) . The cause of t h i s t ype o f m i g r a t i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d to p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e on l a n d . The f a c t t h a t r u r a l - r u r a l movement i s an i m p o r t a n t phenomenon i n N i g e r i a i s b rought out by the s t a tement be low: Some l a n d l e s s f a r m e r s , who would s t i l l l i k e to c o n t i n u e f a r m i n g , move t o o t h e r r u r a l a rea s where l and c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r f a r m i n g on perhaps a s h a r e - c r o p p i n g b a s i s . Movements o f t h i s n a t u r e o c c u r a c r o s s the N i g e r f rom the E a s t - C e n t r a l to the Mtd-!Wesfern -Statej: Some fa rmer s from the o ve r - c r owded areas of Udi and Awka, as w e l l as f rom I soko d i s t r i c t i n t he N i g e r D e l t a , c r o s s the N i g e r a t O n i t s h a and engage p r i m a r i l y in the c u l t i v a t i o n of yams and Cassava f o r s a l e t o the n e i g h b o u r i n g urban markets of O n i t s h a and Asaba ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1975, p .32 ) . Wh i le t h i s may seem amovement f o r p u r e l y economic pu r -poses , s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e these r u r a l - r u r a l m i g r an t s to r e t u r n to t h e i r o r i g i n a l v i l l a g e s . For i n s t a n c e , i t i s shown t h a t due to the s e a s o n a l i t y o f r u r a l employment and o t h e r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , many o f the r u r a l - r u r a l m i g r an t s are those who aim a t a c h i e v i n g a c e r t a i n goa l b e f o r e go ing back to t h e i r own v i l l a g e s (O l a t unbo sun : 1975, p . 31 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , the f a i r s and f e s t i v a l s in the v i l l a g e s , a t t r a c t many peop le from o t h e r v i l l a g e s ( f o r d e t a i l , see T r i p a t h i : 1972, p p . 2 6 - 2 7 ) . A l l t he se a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e a form of t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n w i t h i n the r u r a l a r e a s . 24 c) Other Uses of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n in the Ru ra l A r e a s : I t has been shown t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i s a ve ry i m p o r t a n t sou rce o f income in the r u r a l a r e a s . Ru ra l development w i l l t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e the improvement of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . In o r de r to improve c o n d i t i o n s in the r u r a l a r e a s , many a g r i -c u l t u r a l i n p u t s and i n f o r m a t i o n as to the p o t e n t i a l o f the a rea s h o u l d be made r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n ( H o y l e : 1973, p .216) . F e r t i l i z e r s and p e s t i c i d e s have to be b rought to the r u r a l a reas and i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g new v a r -i e t i e s ; - of crops and new methods o f c u l t i v a t i o n a l s o have to be a v a i l a b l e t o the fa rmer s i f t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n i s to improve . These r e q u i r e a ve ry r e l i a b l e form o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y in t he d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s where f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t i s s t i l l more d e s i r a b l e ( H o y l e : 1973, p .217 ) . E x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s are u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d to c a r r y i n n o v a t i o n s to the r u r a l a reas and a good network o f roads w i l l be r e q u i r e d to f a c i l i t a t e the d u t i e s of the e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . C o n c l u s i on : The r e g i o n a l impact s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , have been su r veyed from the t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t of v i ew. Some e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e s have been used to i l l u s t r a t e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of t h i s c h a p t e r , e s p e c i a l l y where o t h e r means of e s t a b l i s h i n g a p o i n t i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . B a s i c a l l y , the t h e o r y here r e l a t e s growth to r e g i o n a l e x p o r t s but i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t o t h e r i n t r a - r e g i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are n e c e s s a r y 25 f o r r e g i o n a l deve lopment . Th i s t h e o r e t i c a l s u r vey shows t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n becomes an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment because a) i t de te rm ine s the e x t e n t t o which an a rea can c a p i t a l i z e on i t s economic endowment f o r g e n e r a -t i n g e x p o r t s ( K r a f t , e t a l . : 1971, p . 2 3 ) ; and b) i t f a c i l i t a t e s i n t r a - r e g i o n a l movements which a re n e c e s s a r y f o r s o c i o - c u 1 t u r a l pu rpo se s . I t can t h e r e f o r e be s a i d t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r does not o n l y s u f f e r s i m p l y from the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f l a nd but a l s o from the i nadequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r moving what i s . a l r e a d y p r o -duced. " Fa rmer s have no i n c e n t i v e to grow s u r p l u s e s when they know from e x p e r i e n c e t h a t what they grow cannot be moved. I s o -l a t e d communit ies remain i g n o r a n t of market o p p o r t u n i t i e s or o f new i dea s and new t e c h n i q u e s , f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , t r a v e l s s l o w l y on mud roads or p r i m i t i v e t r a i l s " (Owen: 1964, p . 5 ) . 26 CHAPTER I I I TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS AND POLICIES IN NIGERIA  I n t r o duct i on : Over the l a s t f i v e decades or s o , the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have e x p e r i e n c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t change in ways o f l i v i n g and methods o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communicat ion (O ' Conno r : 1971, p .127) . Rap id u r b a n i z a t i o n , which r e s u l t s from the c o n c e n t r a -t i o n o f major a c t i v i t i e s in the urban a r e a s , i s a major c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c of these r e g i o n s . For examp le , Lagos , the c a p i t a l o f N i g e r i a , grew from n e a r l y a q u a r t e r o f a m i l l i o n i n 1950 to about one and a h a l f m i l l i o n in 1970 (01a tunbosun : 1975, p . 32 ) . Th i s u r b a n i z a t i o n p roce s s has l e d to many problems i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s - e s p e c i a l l y the mass i ve c o n g e s t i o n o f the urban a reas (Wor ld Bank: 1975, p .7 ) . The main causes of t h i s a re u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to the " l a c k o f e x p e r t i s e to t a ke an o v e r a l l v i e w , b u i l d up s y s t ems , g i v e s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , l ook a f t e r f e a s i b i 6 i 1 i t y s t u d i e s , sugges t a p rope r p a t t e r n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n s uppo r t and p r o v i d e a wide and comprehens ive range o f a d v i s o r y a s s i s -tance . . . . Lack o f an a s s u r ed f l o w of f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a l s o s t i f l e s i n i t i a t i v e s on the pa r t o f governments " (Tandom and Tome: 1976, p .6 ) . In s h o r t , these c o u n t r i e s have not been a b l e to cope w i t h the changes t h a t are t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . The most n o t i c e a b l e changes have 27 o c c u r r e d i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r o f these c o u n t r i e s . For i n s t a n c e , between 1946 and 1957, t r a f f i c tonnage by road i n -c r e a s e d by about 17.5 per cent ( Ekundare : 1973, p .253 ) . S i n c e t h i s p e r i o d , t h e r e has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement i n the c a p a c i t y , comfo r t , and ease of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . Changes i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y has g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d the way peop le l i v e and has a s t r o n g impact on the way s o c i e t y o r g a n i z e s i t s a c t i v i t i e s . Cheap and e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l l o w s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , due to the r e l a t i v e ease o f commun icat ion between d i f f e r e n e t p a r t s or components l o c a t e d in d i f f e r e n t geog r aph i c space ( L a n s i n g : 1 966 , p .389 ) . Improvements in urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f o r example,, has l e d to a change i n r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s in most c i t i e s . Peop le do not have to l i v e near t h e i r work p l a c e s , which a re u s u a l l y l o c a t e d i n o r near the c i t y c e n t r e s (Hoover : 1975, p .365) . The s e m i - r u r a l atmosphere o f sub-urban d w e l l i n g i s now w i t h i n the reach of many urban worker s because o f the ease o f a cce s s to the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . The d e v e l o p -ment o f b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has b rought about g r e a t e r de-pendence on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (Hoover : 1975, p .364 ) . For examp le , the i n c r e a s e i n sub -u rban r e s i d e n t i a l deve lopments has made i t n e ce s s a r y f o r more urban d w e l l e r s to depend on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks in o r d e r to pe r f o rm t h e i r d u t i e s , i . e . shop, work, or en joy the l e i s u r e f a c i l i t i e s of the downtown. 28 G e n e r a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , an i n c r e a s e in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c a p a c i t y pe rm i t s a more e f f e c t i v e abr idgement of d i s t a n c e . I t makes p o s s i b l e f a s t e r , s a f e r , c h e a p e r , more f l e x i b l e , and more dependable s e r v i c e , which in t u r n a l l o w s or encourages a g r e a t e r movement o f goods and peop le per u n i t of t ime ( T y r c h n i e w i c z and T a n g r i : 1970, p .48 ) . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s make t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ve ry i m p o r t a n t i n development i n a l l p a r t s of an economy as shown by the s t a temen t be low: T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l to a modern economy: the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r r e s t s upon i t . Both geo-g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n based on d i s s i m i l a r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and the i n t e r n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and use o f mach ine ry c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mass p r o d u c t i o n r e s t on t r a n s p o r t . Improvements in t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n can have major i n d i r e c t r e s u l t s . . . . A d e c i s i o n i n the 1930s t o improve n a v i a g a t i o n on t he Tennessee R i v e r he lped to r e v o l u t i o n i z e the p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y in Geo r g i a in the 1950s. S i n ce the whole o r g a n i z a -t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n r e s t s on t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n them, T h i s i n t e r e s t t ake s the form both of a conce rn w i t h t h e i r deve lopment and w i t h p r e v e n t i n g any d i s t o r -t i o n of t h e i r use. C o n t r o l o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system of an a rea by a p r i v a t e monopoly, i f unchecked , would c a r r y p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o l of the economic l i f e o f t h a t a rea ( T y r c h n i e w i c z and T a n g r i : 1970, pp . 389 - 390 ) . From the s t a tement above and what has been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I , one can say t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g l i n k between economic growth and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The i n t e r a c t i o n between the l a n d and p a t t e r n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g of the p o p u l a t i o n in any c o u n t r y i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g economic and s o c i a l p r og re s s ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .387) . Th i s i s not to say t h a t t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n a l one i s the key to p r o g r e s s . But t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e because o f the " p e r v a s i v e r o l e o f m o b i l i t y in f a c i l i t a t i n g o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s . T r a n s p o r t i s a n e c e s s a r y i n g r e d i e n t of n e a r l y eve r y a s p e c t of economic and s o c i a l deve lopment . I t p l a y s a key r o l e i n g e t t i n g l and i n t o p r o d u c t i o n , in m a r k e t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m o d i t i e s , and i n making f o r e s t and m i n e r a l wea l t h a c c e s s i b l e . I t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the deve lopment o f i n d u s t r y , i n the expan s i on of t r a d e , i n the conduct of h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n programs, and i n the exchange o f i d e a s " (Owen: 1964, p . l ) . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h e r e f o r e , can not be an i s o l a t e d phenomenon. I t s impact i s enhanced by the i n t e r a c t i o n of a v a r i e t y of o t h e r economic s t i m u l i ( K r a f t , e t a l . : 1971, p . l ) . T h i s chaper i s f o c u s s e d on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s in N i g e r i a and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r meet ing the economic , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f the c o u n t r y . Th i s t a s k w i l l be approached by t r a c i n g the r o l e which t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n has p l a yed i n n a t i o n a l deve lopment ; the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the pas t s t r a t e g i e s ; and the p o t e n t i a l o f the c u r r e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . S p e c i a l emphasis i s p l a c e d upon the i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework w i t h i n which the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r o p e r a t e s . Th i s emphasis i s j u s t i f i e d i n v iew of the c o n s t a n t ment ion of the magnitude o f manpower and c o o r d i n a t i o n problems i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ( f o r i n s t a n c e see World Bank: 1974, pp. 81 -82 ; and Tandon and Tome: 1 976 , p . 6 ) . 30 H i s t o r i c a l Development o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : In a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y , such as N i g e r i a , t h e r e i s a gene ra l concern f o r t r a n s p o r t p l a n n i n g i n the c o n t e x t o f the d e s i r e to promote r a p i d economic deve lopment ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .387 ) . The development o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in N i g e r i a can be s t be a r t i c u l a t e d f rom a h i s t o r i c a l p e r -s p e c t i v e and t h i s i s the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s e c t i o n . To a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e , the c o l o n i a l development p o l i c i e s w i l l be examined and compared to the i ndependent g o ve rnmen t ' s p o l i c i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , two main t o p i c s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n : a) t r a n s p o r t a t i o n deve lopment under c o l o n i a l r u l e ; and b) t r a n s p o r t a t i o n deve lopment a f t e r i ndependence . The impor tance of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a d u r i n g c o l o n i a l r u l e i s w e l l p o r t r a y e d by the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : Improved t r a n s p o r t and communicat ions are f u n d a -menta l to a l l o t h e r types of deve lopment . There was no doubt t h a t at the s t a r t of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t r a n s p o r t d i f f i c u l t i e s were among the most i m p o r t a n t and u r gen t problems f a c i n g N i g e r i a . I t was n e c e s s a r y f o r the B r i t i s h government to have e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over the r e l a t i v e l y new d i s t r i c t which had been a c q u i r e d . The movements o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s up and down the c o u n t r y , and the r e g u l a r i t y of e f f e c t i v e com-m u n i c a t i o n s between the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s and the r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a t i o n s , were i n d i s p e n s a b l e to any good government. Th i s c o u l d be made p o s s i b l e o n l y w i t h improved and modern systems of t r a n s p o r t and commun i ca t i on s . As f a r as the economic deve lopment o f N i g e r i a was conce rned t h e r e was a g r e a t need to i n t r o d u c e b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t and communicat ion systems in o r de r to qu i c ken the pace 31 of the t r a n s i t i o n f rom a p r e d o m i n a n t l y s u b s i s t a n c e economy to a modern exchange economy. (Ekundare : 1973, p .127) . The development o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network i n N i g e r i a i s t h e r e f o r e a ve r y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f the economic growth of t h a t c o u n t r y . A good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sys tem i s an e f f e c t i v e way of open ing up the c o u n t r y to modern commerce, which i s an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r f o r g r owth . P r i o r to European i n t e r v e n t i o n , N i g e r i a depended l a r g e l y on i t s n a t u r a l waterways - the r i v e r s , f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of goods and peop le ( Ekundare : 1973, p .46 ) . In f a c t d u r i n g the b e g i n n i n g of European i n t e r v e n t i o n , r i v e r s and o t h e r w a t e r -ways s t i l l p r o v i d e d the e a s i e s t r o u t e s f o r the e a r l y e x p l o r e r s , t r a d e r s and m i s s i o n a r i e s (Ekundare : 1973, p .47 ) . However, s t r o n g l i m i t a t i o n s e x i s t e d f o r the use of r i v e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a . F i r s t l y , peop le i n many p a r t s of the i n t e r i o r had to t r a v e l s e v e r a l m i l e s on f o o t be f o r e they c o u l d r each a n a v i g a b l e r i v e r ( Ekunda re : 1973, p .46 ) . R i v e r s N i g e r and Benue p r o v i d e d the main waterways of the c o u n t r y . As can be seen f rom Map 2; most a rea s of the c o u n t r y a re f a r away from the r i v e r s . S e c o n d l y , t he se r i v e r s were , and s t i l l a r e , o f t e n b l o c k e d by up roo ted t r e e s and sand due to t r o p i c a l r a i n and t hunde r s t o rms (Ekundare : 1973, p .47 ) . Due to t h e s e , and o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s , f o o t p a t h s or bush t r a c k s were e x t e n s i v e l y used i n a l l p a r t s of the c o u n t r y (O ' Conno r : 1971, p .127) . In the dense f o r e s t d i s t r i c t s of Southern N i g e r i a , the f o o t p a t h s were 32 Map 2. N i g e r i a n N a t u r a l Waterways : R i v e r s 33 too narrow f o r an imal haulage and c o n s e q u e n t l y the e a s i e s t and most p r a c t i c a l means o f t r a n s p o r t i n g goods were by head -loading. In the savannah and a r i d a reas of No r t he rn N i g e r i a , however, camels and donkeys were used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r t r a n s -p o r t i n g goods, (Wa l ke r : 1959,p. 88 ) . a) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development Under C o l o n i a l R u l e : By the m i d d l e of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n system of N i g e r i a was s t i l l ve ry l i m i t e d . Most of the c o u n t r y s t i l l l a c k e d c o n t a c t w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d . There were o n l y a few f o r e i g n c o n t a c t s a l ong the coa s t and i n the extreme no r t h where ca ravan t r a d e w i t h Nor th A f r i c a a l r e a d y e x i s t e d (See Map 3 . ) . However, w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of c o l o n i a l government, the i n t r o d u c t i o n and expan s i on of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r ade became the deve lopmenta l o b j e c t i v e of N i g e r i a (O la tunbosun: 1975, p .50 ) . To a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e , the c o l o n i a l g o v e r n -ment l a i d major emphasis on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communicat ion -new r o a d s , r a i l w a y s and p o r t s were b u i l t and a few t e l e p h o n e l i n e s were i n s t a l l e d . The p r o v i s i o n of these f a c i l i t i e s took t ime and i t was not u n t i l the end o f t h a t c e n t u r y t h a t im-provements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n became n o t i c e a b l e . The o n l y e f f e c t i v e means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were s t i l l by n a v i g a t i n g the water s and t r a v e l l i n g by f o o t . The: most a c c e s s i b l e a reas were the c o s t a l a reas and s e t t l e m e n t s a long the r i v e r s N i g e r and Benue. The i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f i n l a n d waterways d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y deve lopment p e r i o d i s a d e q u a t e l y o u t l i n e d by Olufemi 34 Ekundare as f o l l o w s : The i n l a n d waterways were used by the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s i n the cou r se of t h e i r d u t i e s , and a few t r a d e r s a l s o found them u s e f u l in t r a n s p o r t i n g bu l k y e x p o r t p r oduc t s ( e . g . palm p r o d u c t s ) down to the c o a s t , and i n s u p p l y i n g im-p o r t e d goods to the peop le o f the i n t e r i o r . The m i s s i o n a r i e s found the waterways ve ry h e l p f u l in t h e i r t a sk o f s p r e a d i n g the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . From about 1880 a number o f steam l aunches were b e i n g o p e r a t e d ; f o r example , the Royal N i g e r Company o p e r a t e d a numberio.'f steam l aunches on the r i v e r N i g e r , c o n n e c t i n g the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the c o u n t r y w i t h the c o a s t . The number o f canoes p l y i n g the waterways a l s o i n c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t o f g rowing commerc ia l a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y towards the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (Ekundare : 1973, p . 71 ) . By the end o f the second World War, the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system of N i g e r i a had s u b s t a n t i a l l y changed due to c o l o n i a l government i n ve s tmen t i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r . For example , in 1945, "a Ten Year P l an f o r Development and We l -f a r e of N i g e r i a was drawn, e s t i m a t e d to c o s t i n a l l £55 ,000,000." •£10 ,500,000, or 19.1 per c en t of the t o t a l , was t o be spent on road and wate r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (Wa l ke r : 1959, p . 96 ) . B e f o r e t h i s p l a n , o n l y a few roads e x i s t e d , e s p e c i a l l y around Lagos , but the most v i s i b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n deve lopment of t h a t p e r i o d was the c o m p l e t i o n of the r a i l w a y l i n e from Kano to Lagos in 1914 (01a tunbosun : 1975, p .50 ) . Th i s became an i n c e n t i v e f o r i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce - e s p e c i a l l y g r o u n d n u t s , c o t t o n and cocoa - t he major cash c r o p s . The d i s c o v e r y of c o a l a t Enugu i n 1909 encouraged the government to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of an e a s t e r n r a i l w a y l i n e and Map 3. T r an s - Saha ran Caravan Routes by 1932 work on the e a s t e r n r a i l l i n e was comp le ted f rom P o r t H a r c o u r t to Kaduna (Ekundare : 1973, p .135 ) . From Map 4, i t i s easy to see t h a t the r a i l w a y s y s tem, and the roads to some e x t e n t , were b u i l t t o f a c i l i t a t e e x p o r t s . For i n s t a n c e , the most i m p o r t a n t roads a re those c o n n e c t i n g r e s o u r c e r e g i o n s to the p o r t c i t i e s . Th i s network would f a v o u r i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e more than domes t i c t r a d e . There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the c o l o n i a l government, which might have c o n s t i t u t e d an impo r t an t s ou rce o f i n i t i a t i v e and a dynamic e lement i n p romot ing r u r a l development i n N i g e r i a , r e s t r i c t e d i t s r o l e m a i n l y to the deve lopment of a g r i c u l t u r a l and m i n e r a l e x p o r t s . T h i s s t r a t e g y en su re s adequate and cheap s upp l y of raw m a t e r i a l s to i n d u s t r i e s i n the l a r g e urban c e n t r e s , and o v e r s e a s . There a re some e v i d e n c e s t o show t h a t the c o l o n i a l p o l i c y was " c l e a r l y b i a s e d towards the p romot i on o f e x p o r t s r a t h e r than i nd i genou s m a n u f a c t u r i n g , and the r e -s u l t i n g d e c l i n e of t r a d i t i o n a l i n d u s t r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r e - c o l o n i a l a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y was r e p l a c e d by the e xpan s i on of and r e l i a n c e on impor ted m a n u f a c t u r e s " ( B i r n b e r g and R e s n i c k : 1973, p .576 ) . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y of t h i s e ra a l s o r e f l e c t e d the need f o r f o r e i g n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s . b) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Development A f t e r Independence: Few w i l l d i s a g r e e t h a t i n c r e a s e d n a t i o n a l growth i s one o v e r - r i d i n g goa l of deve lopment p l a n n i n g . In the f i r s t 37 n a t i o n a l p l an f o r N i g e r i a , the f i r s t o b j e c t i v e s t a t e d f o r p l an p r e p a r a t i o n was " t o su rpa s s the pas t growth r a t e of the economy of 3.9 per cent per y ea r compound to a c h i e v e a r a t e of 4 per cent per annum and i f p o s s i b l e to i n c r e a s e t h i s r a t e " ( F e d e r a -t i o n of N i g e r i a : 1962, p .23 ) . The problem i s to d e c i d e what c o n s t i t u t e s n a t i o n a l g rowth . C e r t a i n l y , i t i s a ma t t e r f o r debate t o s t a t e what f a c t o r s c o n s t i t u t e n a t i o n a l growth and what t h e i r r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g a r e . Many v a r i a b l e s are c a p a b l e of be ing i n c l u d e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n of n a t i o n a l growth and among these are u n i t y , e q u i t y and p r o s p e r i t y . As was ment ioned i n Chapter I, Gross N a t i o n a l P r oduc t (GNP) i s o f t e n used as a q u a n t i t a t i v e measure o f n a t i o n a l g r owth . The p o p u l a r b e l i e f i s t h a t the h i g h e r the GNP, the b e t t e r the c o u n t r y . The f i r s t r e a l n a t i o n a l deve lopment p l an f o r N i g e r i a , which i n c o r p o r a t e d a l l government programs, was p u b l i s h e d i n 1962, two yea r s a f t e r independence ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1975, p . 60 ) . The document was c a l l e d " N a t i o n a l Development P l a n , 1962 -68 . " The main goa l s of the p l an were to r a i s e the r a t e of economic growth and to i n c r e a s e the s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g of the peop le ( F e d e r a t i o n of N i g e r i a : 1962, p .23 ) . To a c h i e v e the se g o a l s , the s t r a t e g y was t o m a i n t a i n an average growth r a t e of 4 per cent of the Gross Domest ic P roduc t (GDP). The p l an aimed at i n v e s t i n g 15 per cent o f the GDP a n n u a l l y i n the d i r e c t l y p r o d u c t i v e s e c t o r s of the economy. These d i r e c t l y p r o d u c t i v e s e c t o r s , which were to absorb about 70 per cent of t o t a l e s t i -mated e x p e n d i t u r e ofrW\ 353.6 m i l l i o n (about $2030.4 m i l l i o n ) , were t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and commun i ca t i on , e l e c t r i c i t y , p r ima r y p r o d u c t i o n , and i n d u s t r y . Tab le I below i s a summary of governmenta l a l l o c a t i o n s to d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s of the economy d u r i n g the f i r s t n a t i o n a l deve lopment p l an p e r i o d . TABLE I ALLOCATION OF DEVELOPMENT FUNDS IN THE FIRST  NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN, 1962-68. Sectors Amount (=N= mil 1 ion) Percentage ; of Total Transportation and Communication 348.1. 25.8 E l e c t r i c i t y 205.7 15.1 Primary Production 181.4 13.4 Trade and Industry 179.3 13.3 Health 141.8 10.5 Education 139.6 10.3 Administration 103.1 7.6 Water Supply 54.6 4.0 TOTAL: . 1,353.6 100.0 Source: Federation of Niger ia: National Development Plan, 1962-68, Federal Min ist ry of Economic Develop-ment, Lagos, 1962, p.41. In the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r , the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e of the 1962-68 P l a n , a n d o t h e r subsequent p lans ,was to expand and upgrade the t r a n s p o r t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . For i n s t a n c e , i n the e a r l y 1970s, the F e d e r a l Government s t a t e d t h a t " N i g e r i a ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s have been s t a t e d s i n c e the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , i n g ene ra l terms as aimed a t c o - o r d i n a t e d d e v e l o p -ment, economic e f f i c i e n c y and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , the s uppo r t of n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s l i k e the open ing up and b i n d i n g t o g e t h e r of t h i s v a s t n a t i o n " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a : 1973, p .26 ) . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n programs of N i g e r i a were aimed at meet ing the demands of the economy "through•moda1 c o - o r d i n a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i n ve s tmen t d e c i s i o n s " ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, pp .388 -389 ) . The o b j e c t i v e s f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r i n d i c a t e t h a t the government i s s t i l l mo s t l y conce rned w i t h economic e f f i c i e n c y . Th i s i s s i m i l a r to the g u i d i n g f o r c e t h a t d i c t a t e d i n ve s tmen t i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r d u r i n g c o l o n i a l a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n . In f a c t , t h e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f i r s t p l an made i t e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f c o l o n i a l deve lopment p o l i c y i n N i g e r i a . The s ea r ch f o r economic e f f i c i e n c y was as s t r o n g as ever, w i t h a r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t of s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s . The f i r s t p l an was b a s i c a l l y e x p o r t - o r i e n t e d s i n c e most of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks to be c o n s t r u c t e d were s e l e c t e d because of t h e i r economic r o l e - i . e . the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n of e x p o r t m a t e r i a l s to o ve r sea s m a r k e t s . In t h i s p r o c e s s , the r u r a l a reas are s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y n e g l e c t e d i n n a t i o n a l deve lopment . The s t a tement below t e s t i f i e s to the r u r a l n e g l e c t t h a t have been go ing on in the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s : 40 I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r r u r a l deve lopment t h a t the o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n p u t and ou tpu t p r i c e s w i t h i n a g r i c u l t u r e , and the terms of t r a d e between a g r i c u l t u r e and o t h e r s e c t o r s of the economy, s h o u l d be such as to s t i m u l a t e growth in the r u r a l a r e a s . The Bank ' s a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t a l l too o f t e n government p o l i c i e s d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t deve lopment , p a r t i c u l a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , i n the r u r a l a r e a s . They a re de s i gned to p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e to m a n u f a c t u r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s , or to r a i s e government r e venue s . As s u c h , they tend to r a i s e the c o s t of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n p u t s r e l a -t i v e to ou tpu t p r i c e s , making i n n o v a t i o n un-r ewa rd i n g and h i g h l y r i s k y f o r the f a r m e r " (Wor ld Bank: 1975, p p . 2 9 - 3 0 ) . I t can then be s a i d t h a t the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development o b j e c -t i v e s a f t e r independence were not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f rom what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l e r a . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Modes i n N i g e r i a : Prob lems In r e c e n t y e a r s , the methods of t r a n s p o r t i n g peop le and goods from one p l a c e to a n o t h e r , the w o r l d o v e r , a re so v a r i e d as are the reasons f o r movement. The methods range i n t e c h -no l ogy f rom h e a d - l o a d , and an ima l h a u l a g e / p e d e s t r i a n movement to s u p e r s o n i c j e t a i r c r a f t and space c r a f t s . In the N i g e r i a n c a s e , f o u r major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d -r o a d s , r a i l w a y s , waterways, and a i r . P i p e l i n e s are s t i l l r e l a -t i v e l y undeve loped i n N i g e r i a . 41 a) Roads: The need to gene ra te enough t r a f f i c f o r the newly c o n s t r u c t e d r a i l w a y s t r i g g e r e d the concern f o r road t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a ( Ekundare : 1973, p .142 ) . The c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f f e e d e r roads was v iewed as a s t r a t e g y f o r i n c r e a s i n g both passenger and cargo t r a f f i c f o r the r a i l w a y s . P r o g r e s s in road deve lopment , t h e r e f o r e , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y the g r adua l c o n s t r u c t i o n of r a i l l i n e s . I t i s documented t h a t "between 1900 and 1915, road t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e s were e s t a b l i s h e d by the N i g e r i a n r a i l w a y . . . . " ( Ekundare : 1973, p .142 ) . By 1951, a t o t a l road network of over 27,000 m i l e s had been c o n s t r u c t e d . Out of t he se o n l y 1,114 m i l e s were paved (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .88 ) . Th i s Wor ld Bank p u b l i c a t i o n a l s o r e p o r t e d the r a p i d p r o g r e s s made i n road c o n s t r u c t i o n . By 1970, the roads i n N i g e r i a "amounted to about 55,000 m i l e s , of which about 10,000 m i l e s were p a v e d . " The pe r cen t age of roads paved had i n c r e a s e d from 4.1 per cen t i n 1951 to 18.1 per cent i n 1970. The r a p i d i n c rement in motor v e h i c l e owner sh ip i s ano the r f a c t o r wh ich brought about the marked deve lopment of road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in N i g e r i a (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .88 ) . There were o n l y a few ca r s i n N i g e r i a j u s t a f t e r 1910 but by 1969 i t was documented t h a t the c o u n t r y , w i t h i t s p o p u l a t i o n of more than 60 m i l l i o n p e o p l e , had a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100,000 p r i v a t e and commerc ia l v e h i c l e s (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .88 ) . Th i s t r e n d i n v e h i c l e owner sh ip b rought heavy demand f o r more and b e t t e r 42 r o a d s . One b a s i c problem f a c e d by roads i n N i g e r i a i s m a i n -t enance . The h i s t o r y of road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y shows t h a t ma intenance i s v e r y poor (Wa l ke r : 1959, pp . 100 - 102 ) . Pot ho l e s are common f e a t u r e s on many roads - both t r unk and l o c a l - and road s i g n s are not a v a i l a b l e i n many segments (Wa l ke r : 1959, p .100) . F i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s and i nadequa te s upp l y of q u a l i f i e d manpower c o n s t r a i n e d the amount of roads t h a t can be m a i n t a i n e d , or even c o n s t r u c t e d . D e s p i t e t he se d i f f i c u l t i e s , road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s s t i l l the most i m p o r t a n t component o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sys tem - both i n terms of t r a f -f i c and i n v e s t m e n t . I t a c coun ted f o r about 77 per cen t of f r e i g h t t o n - m i l e a g e and roads were a l l o c a t e d about 69 per c en t of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c a p i t a l i n ve s tmen t d u r i n g the second n a t i o n a l development p l a n p e r i o d o f 1970-1974 (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .188 ) . In N i g e r i a , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g and im-p l e m e n t i n g road t r a n s p o r t p o l i c i e s f a l l s to the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of Works and Hous ing a t the F e d e r a l l e v e l (Wor ld Bank: 1 974, p.89).. W i t h i n each s t a t e o f the f e d e r a t i o n d i f -f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g and implemen-t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s . The problems i n h e r e n t i n t h i s approach i s c l e a r l y brought out by the World Bank as f o l l o w s : N i g e r i a ' s twe l ve s t a t e s a l s o have m i n i s t r i e s c o n -ce rned w i t h road ma in tenance ( i n c l u d i n g the ma in tenance of f e d e r a l h ighways on an agency b a s i s ) and w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of some secondary r o a d s . 43 There i s no f o rma l body to c o o r d i n a t e s t a t e / f e d e r a l p l a n n i n g and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f e d e r a l and s t a t e highway a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s are not c l e a r (Wor ld Bank: 1 974, p .90 ) . Th i s shows t h a t the prob lem of c o o r d i n a t i o n i s a s e r i o u s one i n road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Th i s w i l l be f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d upon l a t e r on i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The b a s i c concept f o r road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development i n N i g e r i a was t o c o n s t r u c t a g r i d system c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e c o u n t r y . T h i s concept i n c l u d e d s i x t r unk roads r unn i n g from west to e a s t and f o u r t r unk roads r unn i ng from south to n o r t h . Map 4 shows the e x i s t i n g network of t r unk roads i n the c o u n t r y . P a r t s of the o r i g i n a l g r i d p a t t e r n proposed f o r N i g e r i a a re s t i l l v a gue l y n o t i c e a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y on the n o r t h - s o u t h a x i s . A c r i t i c a l l ook a t the map shows t h a t p r i o r i t y has been g i v en to the n o r t h - s o u t h t r unk roads r a t h e r than the e a s t - w e s t roads - t h e r e b y f a c i l i t a t i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of e x p o r t m i n e r a l s and a g r i c u l t u r a l goods from the no r th to the s o u t h . More road networks e x i s t i n the s ou the rn p a r t c o n n e c t i n g p o r t c i t i e s or i n l a n d c i t i e s to p o r t s . The map t h e r e f o r e c o n f i r m s an e a r l i e r a s s e r t i o n . "A major c o o r d i n a t i o n problem i s the c a r r i a g e of bu lk e x p o r t produce from the a g r i c u l t u r a l Nor th to the s o u t h e r n p o r t s " (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .90 ) . b) Ra i1 ways: The r a i l w a y system of N i g e r i a i s owned by the F e d e r a l 44 — — Major Trunk Roads H — R a i l w a y s Map 4. Transportation Networks in Nigeria : Roads and Railway 45 government and i s ope r a ted as a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d e n t e r p r i s e by the N i g e r i a n Ra i lway C o r p o r a t i o n . The government, however , r e t a i n s g ene ra l powers of c o n t r o l over i t s p o l i c i e s and r a t e s . Work on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l system s t a r t e d a t the t u r n of t h i s c e n t u r y from Lagos to the n o r t h . The system was o p e r a -t e d as a government department u n t i l 1955 when i t became a commerc ia l concern ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .212 ) . The e x i s t i n g r a i l w a y network c o n s i s t s of two main l i n e s . One runs f rom Lagos to Kano spann ing a d i s t a n c e of 700 m i l e s (1126.3 k i l o m e t e r s ) and the o t h e r r unn i n g from P o r t H a r c o u r t to M a i d u g u r i spans 897 m i l e s (1443 k i l o m e t e r s ) (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .192 ) . There are c o n n e c t i o n s at Kaduna and Kafanchan l i n k i n g the se two main l i n e s . There are a l s o a few branch l i n e s as can be seen from Map 4. The r a i l w a y s p l a yed a more major r o l e , than r o a d s , i n e a r l i e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of e x p o r t goods i n N i g e r i a . T h i s may be as a r e s u l t of t he r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l o f road t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n when the e s s e n t i a l r a i l w a y networks have been com-p l e t e d . The d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h road c o n s t r u c t i o n at t h a t e a r l y p e r i o d i s documented as f o l l o w s : Road b u i l d i n g in 1914 was i n t e r r u p t e d by war and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r by the d i v e r s i o n of e f f o r t t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l w a y from P o r t H a r c o u r t to Kaduna . . . The b u i 1 d i n g of b r i d g e s c a p a b l e o f c a r r y i n g heavy we i gh t s i s an e x p e n s i v e business.-. Much t e c h n i c a l s k i l l i s needed. The d r i v i n g of p i l e s or the s i n k i n g of c a i s s o n s to reach a s o l i d f o o t i n g r e q u i r e s heavy p l a n t and l i f t i n g g e a r , 46 none o f wh ich i s e a s i l y t r a n s p o r t a b l e . Be s i de s the e n g i n e e r i n g problems caused by the d i f f e r e n c e i n the volume o f water between wet and dry s ea s on s , and by the depth to which f o u n d a t i o n s may have to be sunk in~swamp and s and , t h e r e i s i n N i g e r i a the f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y of g e t t i n g p l a n t s , m a t e r i a l s and s t r u c t u r a l members to the s i t e . Wood, cement and p l a n t , i n the e a r l y day s , a l l had to be head -loaded through d i f f i c u l t . a n d o f t e n d i s t u r b e d c o u n t r y " (Wa l ke r : 1959, p p . 8 8 - 9 0 ) . The r a i l w a y s then s e r ved the c o l o n i a l o b j e c t i v e s more than roads, as i t i s more advantageous f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g heavy and bu l k y commodi t ie s over l ong d i s t a n c e s . The r a i l w a y p l a yed w e l l i t s p a r t i n moving goods to ove r sea s markets and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f impo r t s to the i n t e r i o r . The new e x t e n s i o n to the l i n e s , i . e . f rom Jos t o M a i d u g u r i , which was comp le ted in 1965 by the f e d e r a l govenment was to s e r ve the same o b j e c t i v e . The r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s of the f e d e r a l government can h a r d l y be e xpec ted to d i f f e r f rom those of c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n because of the ve ry n a t u r e of r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he r a i l w a y system in N i g e r i a are o u t l i n e d be low: The r a i l w a y s se rve the two major p o r t s , Lagos and P o r t H a r c o u r t , and t h e r e are r a i l heads at Kaura Namodav 'Nguru, Jos , and M a i d u g u r i , and l i n e s of l e s s e r impor tance to Baro and Idogo. The system p r o v i d e s t r a n s p o r t l i n k s between p r o d u c t i v e and w e l 1 - p o p u l a t e d p a r t s of the c o u n t r y w i t h t r a f f i c o r i g i n and d e s t i n a -t i o n a reas w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d . Th i s p r o v i d e s oppo r -t u n i t y f o r l o n g - h a u l bu lk t r a f f i c i n both d i r e c t i o n s , a k i n d of t r a f f i c in which r a i l w a y s have an i n h e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e advantage over o t h e r modes of t r a n s p o r t . A x l e l o ad i s l i m i t e d by s e v e r a l s t r e t c h e s of l i g h t -we ight r a i l , and o p e r a t i n g speeds a re r e s t r i c t e d by e x t e n s i v e d i s t a n c e s of cu r ved t r a c k as w e l l as s t eep grades in p a r t s of the s y s tem" ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .212) . 47 The i m p o r t a n t r o l e which t h i s mode had o r i g i n a l l y p l a y e d , w i t h i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system o f N i g e r i a , i s now on the de -c l i n e . For example , goods t r a f f i c d e c l i n e d from 2.5 m i l l i o n tons in 1963/64 to 1.5 m i l l i o n tons i n 1970/71 and t o n - m i l e s d e c l i n e d from 1,462 to 692 m i l l i o n . Dur ing t h i s same p e r i o d , passenger t r a f f i c d e c l i n e d from 526 m i l l i o n pas senger m i l e s to 302 m i l l i o n passenger m i l e s (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .192 ) . A p a r t i a l reason f o r t h i s d e c l i n e can be a t t r i b u t e d to the s l o w -ness of the r a i l w a y t r a f f i c . The d e s i r e to move f a s t e r has p r o b a b l y m o t i v a t e d many pa t ron s to o t h e r modes of t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n . Many f a c t o r s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s s lowness i n -c l u d i n g the f a c t t h a t a l l l i n e s are s i n g l e t r a c k s w i t h 1.067 metre (3 f e e t 6 i n c h e s ) gauge. Loops a re p r o v i d e d i n each s t a t i o n f o r c r o s s i n g and p a s s i n g t r a i n s . A g r e a t dea l of t ime i s wasted i n s o r t i n g ou t , and i n w a i t i n g f o r c r o s s i n g and p a s s i n g t r a i n s . For example , i f two t r a i n s s t a r t t r a v e l l i n g at o p p o s i t e ends of a r a i l l i n e , the t ime i t t ake s each of them to r each i t s d e s t i n a t i o n does not o n l y depend on i t s speed but a l s o on the speed of the o t h e r t r a i n and the pos -s i b i l i t y of be ing de l a yed by eng ine and t r a c k p rob lems . Many o f the eng ines u sed , u n t i l ve ry r e c e n t l y , were secondhand and they breakdown ve r y e a s i l y , t h e r e b y c a u s i n g d e l a y s and d i s c o m f o r t to pas sengers (Ekundare : 1973) . Ano the r reason f o r the d e c l i n e can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o o r d i n a t i o n p rob lems . Th i s i s r e c o g n i z e d by the government as i s e v i d e n t from the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : "The government 48 a t t r i b u t e s the r a i l w a y ' s d e c l i n e to d e f e c t s in management, equ ipment ,and r a t e p o l i c i e s , and to c o m p e t i t i o n from road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .192 ) . Th i s a s p e c t w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon l a t e r in t h i s s t u d y . However, the s t eady d e c l i n e i n r a i l w a y t r a f f i c has made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r the f e d e r a l government to h e a v i l y s u b s i d i z e the mode. The problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s d e c l i n e i s amply brought out as f o l l o w s : NRC ( N i g e r i a n Ra i lway C o r p o r a t i o n ) o p e r a t e s under c o n d i t i o n s of heavy t r a f f i c demand, l ong h a u l , easy t e r r a i n and spa re t r a c k c a p a c i t y w h i c h , g i v en r e a s o n -a b l e e f f i c i e n c y , s h o u l d r e s u l t in economic and p r o f i t -' !'; able operation,;. But NRC i s o p e r a t i n g i n e f f i c i e n t l y , and i s c o n s i s t e n t l y in d e f i c i t . These d e f i c i t s a re g rowing and t r a f f i c demands are not be i ng met. The government i s anx i ou s to get the r a i l w a y s r u n n i n g e f f i c i e n t l y , so t h a t they may meet t h e i r economic share of t o t a l t r a n s p o r t demand and a l s o ease be i n g a burden on p u b l i c funds (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p . 88 ) . In c o n c l u s i o n t h e r e f o r e , u n r e l i a b l e s e r v i c e and s c h e d u l i n g c o u p l e d w i t h l a c k o f adequate c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r modes are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e c l i n e i n r a i l t r a f f i c . However, the r a i l system w i l l c o n t i n u e to have i'.ts sha re of t r a f f i c i n N i g e r i a , a t l e a s t i n the near f u t u r e . T r a n s p o r t economics show t h a t r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s cheaper and more e f f i c i e n t f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g b u l k y and n o n - s p o i 1 a b l e s ub s t ance s over l ong d i s -t ances on l a n d . The N i g e r i a n r a i l w a y s w i l l a lways en j o y a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f bu l k y m i n e r a l o re s and some a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p o r t s f rom the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the c o u n t r y to the s ou the rn p o r t s . Th i s r o l e may even be 49 p l a yed to economic p r o f i t a b i l i t y g i v en more e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system and i n v e s t m e n t s . c) Waterways: I n t r a - n a t i o n a 1 wa te r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s l i m i t e d i n N i g e r i a due to the amount o f a v a i l a b l e i n l a n d wate rways . The development of the i n l a n d waterways d i d not i n v o l v e any major c o n s t r u c t i o n of c a n a l s , but r a t h e r , the main conce rn was t o improve n a v i g a t i o n on the major r i v e r s by d r e d g i n g (Ekundare : 1973, p .128) . For i n s t a n c e , out of the 4,200 m i l e s ( 6 ,757 .8 k i l o m e t r e s ) of n a v i g a b l e waterways under the c o n t r o l of the I n l and Waterways Department i n 1958, o n l y 1,059 m i l e s (1703.9 k i l o m e t r e s ) were " i n s p e c t e d and improved f o r n a v i g a t i o n " ( Ekundare : 1 973 ,p . 254 ) . There are two major r i v e r s i n N i g e r i a - the N i g e r and the Benue (see Map 2 ) . These r i v e r s have some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e n a v i g a t i o n . The two r i v e r s have s w i f t c u r r e n t s , a cou r se impeded by r o c k s and r a p i d s , a v a r i a b l e depth depending on the seasons of the y e a r , and c o n s t a n t d r edg i n g i s r e q u i r e d to keep the d e l t a n a v i g a b l e . I n l a nd waterways now p l a y a d i m i n i s h i n g r o l e i n the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n systems i n N i g e r i a . T h i s d i m i n i s h i n g r o l e i s d ocu -mented by the World Bank as f o l l o w s : The c o a s t a l lagoons and d e l t a c r eek s are n a v i -gab le from Dahomey (now Ben in ) to Opobo, Eas t of P o r t H a r c o u r t . The N i g e r and Benue R i v e r s a re n a v i g a b l e f o r barges a l l . t h e y ea r round as 50 f a r as the c o n f l u e n c e , and s e a s o n a l l y ups t ream. However, r i v e r t r a f f i c wh ich a c coun ted f o r more than 300,000 tons of e x p o r t s a n n u a l l y i n the e a r l y 1960s i s now n e g l i g i b l e , in s p i t e o f i n ve s tmen t s i n l o c k s and n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s under the l a s t P l an . . . . T h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n c a l l s f o r a f r e s h ap -p r i a s a l o f the p l a c e of r i v e r t r a n s p o r t i n the economy. In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t would be n e c e s s a r y to r e s t o r e n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s ; s e c o n d l y , the s h i p p i n g s e r v i c e would have to be renewed; and t h i r d l y , the improvements t h a t have been made to the r a p i d s s e c t i o n between Jebba and K a i n j i o n the N i g e r do not seem to have been adequa te . I f t he se d i f f i c u l t i e s can be r e s o l v e d , t h e r e s h o u l d s t i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l scope f o r water t r a n s p o r t " (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .195 ) . That the impor tance o f r i v e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s d e c l i n i n g i s c l e a r (O ' Conno r : 1971, p .135 ) . d) A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s one o f the newest form of movement in N i g e r i a , i t was not u n t i l 1935 t h a t the c o l o n i a l government in N i g e r i a s e t up an A i r S e r v i c e s Development Committee to l ook i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g r e g u l a r a i r s e r v i c e s i n the c o u n t r y (Ekundare : 1973, p .149 ) . A few a l l season a i r p o r t s were c o n s t r u c t e d but i t was not u n t i l the b e g i n n i n g o f the Second World War t h a t more s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n was pa i d to a i r s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r m i l i t a r y u se s . S i n c e a f t e r the war , the p r o v i s i o n of a i r s e r v i c e s has i n c r e a s e d w i t h demand f o r both i n t e r n a t i o n a l and domes t i c f l i g h t s . S i n c e the o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s tudy i s r u r a l deve lopment , more em-pha s i s w i l l be p l a c e d on domes t i c a i r s e r v i c e s r a t h e r than i n t e r n a t i o n a l ; ones. 51 The number o f peop le u s i n g a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h i n N i g e r i a i s g rowing but they s t i l l form an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p r o -p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n , as can be seen f rom Map 5. The domes t i c a i r s e r v i c e s i n N i g e r i a i s used by a sma l l segment of the p o p u l a t i o n as e v i denced by the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : Domest ic a i r s e r v i c e s are s t i l l not w e l l d e v e l o p e d , g i ven the s i z e and p o p u l a t i o n of the c o u n t r y . There i s s u b s t a n t i a l u n s a t i s f i e d demand f o r domes t i c pas -senger s e r v i c e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f government among twe l ve s t a t e s and the e x i s t e n c e of s e v e r a l i n -d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s sugges t t h a t demand may r i s e s i g n i f i -c a n t l y i n the f u t u r e . Most domes t i c pas senger t r a f f i c i s g ene ra ted by government and bu s i ne s s a c t i v i t i e s , s i n c e t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o u r i s m . Poor ma i l and t e l e p h o n e communicat ions and t ime consuming road t r a n s p o r t r e s u l t in c o n s i d e r a b l e demand f o r a i r t r a v e l (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .195) . Map 5 c l e a r l y shows t h a t the b u s i e s t r o u t e s a re Lagos to Kano, Lagos to P o r t H a r c o u r t and Lagos to B e n i n . Ka rib i s a major i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e c e n t r e w i t h an i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t . P o r t H a r c o u r t and Ben in are i n the o i l b e l t of N i g e r i a . In v iew of t h e s e , the demand f o r a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o e s c a l a t e w i t h i n c r e a s e s in o i l p r o d u c t i o n and economic g r owth . The t i m e - s a v i n g c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s mode w i l l make i t p o p u l a r i n many economic s e c t o r s . For example , i t t ake s 1 hour t o t r a v e l f rom Lagos to Kaduna by a i r , about 12 hours by ca r and about 20 hours by t r a i n ( I y a h e n , in E k i s t i e s : J u l y 1976) . A i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of t he N i g e r i a n A i rway s in N i g e r i a which came i s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t o be i ng i n 1959. I t i s 52 10,000 passenger miles 1970/ 71 10,000 passenger miles 1974/ 75 Map 5. Number of Passengers Using A i r Transportation in Nigeria : 1970/71 and 1974/75. 53 f a c e d w i t h many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems as i s e v i d e n c e d by the f e d e r a l g ove rnment ' s conce rn t h a t the s t a t u t o r y c o r p o r a -t i o n s are " i n e f f i c i e n t , u n d e r - c a p i t a l i z e d and not r e s p o n s i b e to the chang ing needs of the growing N i g e r i a n economy" (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p . 90 ) . Apa r t f rom the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r ob l ems , a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has not p l a yed any s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n r u r a l deve lopment but i t has p r o v i d e d the f a s t e s t and most c o n v e n i e n t l i n k a g e s between many urban c e n t r e s . The d e v e l o p -mental r o l e o f a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a l s o l i m i t e d by c o s t . The c o s t of a i r t r a v e l i s beyond the reach of a l l but a few N i g e r i a n s a t p r e s e n t , more so the r u r a l i n h a b i t a n t s ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .218 ) . Th i s f a c t w i l l , however, not dec rea se the demand f o r a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e x p e c i a l l y s i n c e the gove rnment ' s o b j e c t i v e i s to ex tend a i r s e r v i c e s to d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the c o u n t r y ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .218) . The r e s u l t o f a s u r vey c o n f i r m s t h i s s t a t e m e n t : A r e c e n t su rvey of u se r s and p o t e n t i a l u se r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t even i n c r e a s e d f a r e s would not n e c e s s a r i l y ho l d t h i s g r owth . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r -cent o f the r e sponden t s would s t i l l f l y even i f the f a r e was d o u b l e d . I f i t i s t r i p l e d , 54 p e r -cent would s t i l l f l y . In the same s u r v e y , 77 p e r -cent of the r e sponden t s would s h i f t from the a u t o m o b i l e to a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i f a i r s e r v i c e e x i s t e d between t h e i r o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s . E i g h t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t c i t e d t i m e - s a v i n g s as the reason t hey f l y ( I y a h e n , i n E k i s t i c s : J u l y 1976, p .35 ) . I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to know the c o m p o s i t i o n of t he se r e -54 spondents but such i n f o r m a t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e . However, the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the r u r a l v i e w p o i n t i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i s ve r y s l i g h t . Anyway, a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s bound to expand i n v iew of the amount of money be ing vo ted to t h i s mode by the f e d e r a l government. In the 1 975-80 p lan p e r i o d , a t o t a l o f #= 51 m i l l i o n ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y $800 m i l l i o n ) i s to be spent on a v i a t i o n - both domes t i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .219 ) . Dominance o f Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : Few w i l l d i s a g r e e t h a t i n c r e a s e d n a t i o n a l growth i s one o v e r - r i d i n g goal o f deve lopment p l a n n i n g . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the n a t i o n a l deve lopment p l a n s . (For i n s t a n c e , see F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, pp .199 -228 . ) In the deve l opmenta l r o l e o f the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r , i n many A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , the r o l e p l a yed by r a i l -ways and roads are most s i g n i f i c a n t ( s i n c e waterways are l i m i t e d by t h e i r n a t u r a l c o u r s e s ) . For example , the economic development o f Uganda t i l l 1962 was g i v en the f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n a l e : I t has been shown above t h a t Uganda, as i t i s t o d a y , i s the r e s u l t o f the c r e a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s which l i n k e d i t w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d . B e f o r e the b u i l d i n g of the Uganda Ra i lway the economy was l i m i t e d to the use o f l o c a l s u p p l i e s f o r a l l pu rpo se s . The r a i l l i n k enab led i t to buy goods and s e r v i c e s f rom the o u t s i d e w o r l d i n e x -change f o r c o t t o n and c o f f e e . In o t h e r word s , the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n brought about by t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s was a c h i e v e d th rough l i n k i n g the l o c a l market i n Uganda w i t h a v a r i e t y of w o r l d market s f o r e x p o r t s and impo r t s (Hawkins : 1962, p p . 2 3 - 2 4 ) . 55 Th i s i s s i m i l a r to the e a r l y impor tance a s c r i b e d to the r a i l -ways as the major deve lopment agent i n the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r of N i g e r i a . For i n s t a n c e , the deve lopment of roads was c o n -s t r a i n e d f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , t o g i v e p r i o r i t y to r a i l w a y s . To demons t ra te t h i s , i n 1926 when " t h e Ra i lway had f i r s t begun to f i n d the c o m p e t i t i o n o f motor c a r s 1 t r o u b l esome', Government: had a f f i r m e d t h e i r v iew t h a t cheap road t r a n s p o r t s hou ld be ' v i e w e d w i t h f a v o u r 1 i f i t c o n t r i b u t e d to the deve lopment of N i g e r i a . " L a t e r , the government p o l i c y was changed so t h a t n o t h i n g "wou ld be done to p reven t the growth of road t r a n s p o r t u n l e s s t h e r e was c l e a r and c o m p e l l i n g u r gency " (Wa l ke r : 1959, p .139 ) . S i n c e t h i s p e r i o d , the r o l e of roads i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in N i g e r i a has been on the i n c r e a s e as shown in Tab le I I . The r a p i d i n -c r ea se i n road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s c l e a r l y shown in the s t a temen t be low: Over the y e a r s the road has been g a i n i n g r e l a t i v e to the r a i l w a y both i n pas senger and f r e i g h t c a r -r i e d . In 1953 the r a i l w a y c a r r i e d 42.5 p e r c e n t of f r e i g h t and 8.2 p e r c e n t of the pas senger s and the road t r a n s p o r t system c a r r i e d 52 p e r c e n t of f r e i g h t and 92 p e r c e n t of pa s s enge r s . By 1960 road shares had i n c r e a s e d to 62 p e r c e n t of f r e i g h t and 96 p e r c e n t of p a s s enge r s . I t i s e s t i m a t e d . t h a t i n 1972, 74 p e r c e n t of f r e i g h t and 97 p e r c e n t of pas senger s were c a r r i e d by road ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .354) . TABLE II PRODUCE TONNAGE MOVED TO PORTS.. BY MODE OF TRANSPORT : 1969-72 MODE 1969 1970 1971 1972 Tons Percent oi Total Tons Percent of Total Tons Percent of Total Tons Percent of Total Rail 573,398 42.4 393,329 32.2 290,912 26.4 174,549 16.5 Road 774,078 57.2 813,292 66.3 786,732 71.5 851,775 80.6 Water 4,720 0.4 20,613 1.7 22,404 2.1 30,408 2.9 TOTAL: 1,352,196 100.0 1 ,227,234 100.0 1 ,100,048 100.0 1,056,732 100.0 Source: Federal Republic of N iger ia: Third National Development Plan: 1975-80, Federal Min i s t ry of Economic Development, Lagos, 1975, p.360. 57 In v iew o f these f i g u r e s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t road t r a n s p o r t a - ' t i o n i s now the most i m p o r t a n t e lement of the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r . I t s e r ve s the m a j o r i t y of the peop le and i t i s more w i d e l y u sed. Government ' s development fund a l l o c a t i o n s a l s o r e f l e c t the dominance o f roads i n the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r . For examp le , 69 per cent ( i n the 1970-74 p l an p e r i o d ) and about 73 per cent ( i n the 1975-80 p l an p e r i o d ) of the pub 1 i c . c a p i t a l i n -vestment i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were a l l o c a t e d to road t r a n s p o r t (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p.188; and F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .200) . I t i s in v iew of the impor tance and dominance of road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a t h a t t h i s s tudy l a y s more emphasis on the mode. E x i s t i n g I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : Management problems are a lways ment ioned as one of the i m p o r t a n t reasons l i m i t i n g the e f f i c i e n t deve lopment of t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p.87; and F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .201 ) . One of the f a c t o r s t h a t has been i d e n t i f i e d i s t h a t of i n adequa te s upp l y of t r a i n e d : pe r sonne l and t h i s i s r e c o g n i z e d i n the c u r r e n t deve lopment p l an f o r the c o u n t r y . " The re was a s e r i o u s l a c k of e x e c u t i v e c a p a c i t y even f o r imp lement i ng the r e l a t i v e l y modest t r a n s -p o r t s e c t o r programme of the 1970-74 p e r i o d " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .201 ) . P o l i c i e s were f o r m u l a t e d to enhance the t r a i n i n g of p e r s o n n e l s . However, the government has not 58 r e c o g n i z e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the p r e s e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e to the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r as most of the problems ment ioned i n the deve lopment p l a n were a t t r i -buted to p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n s and t h e i r l a c k o f q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l s ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : ' 1 975 , pp.201 - 2 0 2 ) . Th i s ..area w i l l be e x p l o r e d under t h i s s e c t i o n . In N i g e r i a , p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n s c o n t r o l a l l modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n excep t roads which a re under m i n i s t e r i a l j u r i s -d i c t i o n . These p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n s ( e . g . N i g e r i a Ra i lway C o r p o r a t i o n , N i g e r i a n C i v i 1 A v i a t i o n , and N i g e r i a n P o r t s A u t h o r i t y ) a re s e t up by the f e d e r a l government to manage and o p e r a t e the modes w i t h i n p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s . T r a n s p o r t m i n i s t r i e s e x i s t in the governments f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s . I t w i l l be shown i n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h a t b a s i c problems e x i s t w i t h i n the government depar tments which have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of the p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n s . One o f the obv i ou s anoma l ie s of the e x i s t i n g a r rangement i s the r a t h e r s t r a n g e d i v i s i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s between the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t and the Fede r a l M i n i s t r y of Works and Hou s i n g . In the s t a t e and l o c a l governments the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r roads i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e Departments of Work. The F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r ma t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g r a i l w a y s , c i v i l a v i a t i o n , p o r t s and i n l a n d waterways . F e d e r a l r o a d s , however, are e n t i r e l y i n the domain of the Fede r a l M i n i s t r y of Works and Housing., I t i s s t r ange t h a t a l t h o u g h movement by roads i s p redominant i n N i g e r i a , the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t i s not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t . The F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t i s " r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a n s p o r t p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n and e x e r c i s e s i t s powers by i n f l u e n c i n g budgeta ry a l l o c a t i o n s t o the d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t modes ( excep t road t r a n s p o r t ) and by making a p p r o p r i a t e r e g u l a t i o n s (Wor ld Bank: 1975, p p . 8 9 - 9 0 ) . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n where two m i n i s t r i e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r , one would e xpec t s t r o n g c o o p e r a t i o n between the two. Th i s c o -o p e r a t i o n , however, seems e l u s i v e i n the N i g e r i a n s i t u a t i o n : . . . t h e Fede r a l M i n i s t r y of Works i s a s o - c a l l e d s e r v i c e m i n i s t r y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , pe r fo rms c i v i l and b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r the T r a n s p o r t M i n -i s t r y . T h e r e f o r e , f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n between the two m i n i s t r i e s i s v e r y e s s e n t i a l . Such c o o p e r a -t i o n has been r a t h e r i n adequa te as e v i d e n c e d by c o m p l a i n t s by the T r a n s p o r t M i n i s t r y over the ma intenance and r e p a i r of a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .400 ) . C o o r d i n a t i o n W i t h i n the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t : Ano the r s ou rce o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems i n t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n p l a n n i n g i s the l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n which e x i s t s w i t h i n the m i n i s t r i e s ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .401 ) . There a re o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n a d e q u a c i e s w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s -p o r t wh ich have to change i f a more e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes i s r e q u i r e d . At the 60 p r e s e n t t i m e , the f u n c t i o n a l s e c t i o n of the Fede r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t i s o r g a n i z e d on a modal b a s i s - i . e . each mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e xcep t r o a d s , has i t s own department as shown in F i g u r e 1. The p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e enhances the s e g r e g a t i o n o f the t h r e e depar tments - each l i v i n g and o p e r a t i n g i n a d i f -f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r l d and knowledge o f p o l i c i e s f rom o t h e r depar tments i s v i r t u a l l y absent ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .400 ) . In such a case s t r a t e g y p ropo sa l i n the R a i l -ways department i s u s u a l l y not communicated to the P o r t s and Waterways depa r tment . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s i s a p p a r e n t . For one, most o f the r a i l w a y f r e i g h t t r a f f i c are f o r o v e r -seas markets and has to be hand led a t the p o r t s by the de -par tment of P o r t s and Waterways. T h e r e f o r e a s t r a t e g y which would i n c r e a s e such t r a f f i c f o r the r a i l w a y s would a l s o i n -c r e a s e t r a f f i c i n the p o r t s . But i f the P o r t s A u t h o r i t y i s un-aware of such a s t r a t e g y , i t can h a r d l y be e xpec ted to ade -q u a t e l y hand le the r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e d demand on i t s f a c i l i t i e s . The s t r u c t u r e d e s c r i b e d above i s by no means adequa te . Of c o u r s e , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e department i s u s u a l l y s a d d l e d w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n , but i t h a r d l y has the t e c h n o l o g i c a l and t e c h n i c a l know-how to comprehend modal i n t e r a c t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , the l a c k of t e c h n i c a l pe r s onne l i s b rought out i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : The F e d e r a l and S t a t e M i n i s t r i e s of Works gen-e r a l l y de te rm ine the road programme and i t i s known t h a t up t i l l 1971 t h e r e was no s i n g l e ADMINISTRATION Rail ways Ports ;& Waterways Airways • ,.• -Pr ic ing Investment Control Pr ic ing Investment Control Pr ic ing Investment Control FIGURE 1 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT, NIGERIA. CTl 62 economi s t among the p r o j e c t p i a n n e r s . . . . T h e F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a l s o has a s ho r t a ge o f t r a n p o r t e c o n o m i s t s . In f a c t , as of now the au tho r s do not know o f any t r a n s p o r t e x p e r t s i n e i t h e r the Fede r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t or i t s r e c e n t l y c r e a t e d arm - the T r a n s p o r t P l a n n i n g U n i t (TPU) ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .400 ) . I n t e r - s e c t o r a l c o o r d i n a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s i s c a r r i e d out by the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of Economic Deve lopment , which has a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i v i s i o n and the M i n i s t r y of F i nance i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r budge ta r y a l l o c a t i o n s (Word Bank: 1974, p .90 ) . These m i n i s t r i e s are not conce rned w i t h i n t e r m o d a l c o o r d i n a t i o n per se ,and t h i s i s the emphasis of t h i s s e c t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n : In t h i s c h a p t e r , the deve lopment of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks in N i g e r i a has been o u t l i n e d . S p e c i a l emphasis has been g i v en to roads because o f the predominant r o l e which roads p l a y i n moving the m a j o r i t y of the p e o p l e . The major prob lem f a c i n g the deve lopment of t h i s mode i s i d e n t i f i e d as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l one. The e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , w i t h i n which roads are p r o v i d e d i n the c o u n t r y , a l l o w s the p e r p e t u a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g problems - i . e . the l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n which e x i s t s . In the next chapter, , a s t r a t e g y or s t r a t e g i e s w i l l be deve l oped which w i l l enhance b e t t e r c o -o r d i n a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s to the b e n e f i t of a m a j o r i t y of the p e o p l e . 63 CHAPTER IV A TRANSPORTATION STRATEGY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT  I n t r o d u c t i o n A t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t r a t e g y i s here d e f i n e d as an approach which i s adopted by a government f o r p l a n n i n g , o p e r a t i n g , a n d m a i n t a i n i n g i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sy s tem. For an adequate p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to deve lop a s t r a t e g y which w i l l gu ide such a p r o c e s s . The s t r a t e g y approach i s ve ry i m p o r t a n t in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g because o f the n a t u r e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o l e s or o b j e c t i v e s in deve lopment . For i n s t a n c e , i n ve s tmen t s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a re known f o r t h e i r i n d i v i s i -b i l i t i e s and l ump ine s s (Mahayn i : 1977, p .354 ) . D e s p i t e t he se c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n ve s tmen t in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r deve lopment . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n has s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e because o f the p e r v a s i v e r o l e of m o b i l i t y in f a c i l i t a t i n g o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a nece s s a r y i n g r e d i e n t of n e a r l y eve r y a s p e c t o f economic and s o c i a l deve lopment . I t p l a y s a key r o l e in g e t t i n g l and i n t o p r o d u c t i o n , i n mar-k e t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m o d i t i e s , and in making f o r e s t and m i n e r a l w e a l t h a c c e s s i b l e . I t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r in the development o f i n d u s t r y , in the expans i on of t r a d e , i n the conduct of h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n programs, and in the exchange o f i deas (Owen: 1964, p . l ) . 64 The main o b j e c t i v e o f a t r a n p o r t a t i o n p l a n , as an e x t e n -s i o n o f a deve l opmenta l s t r a t e g y , i s " t o m i n i m i z e the prob lem of s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s by means of e conomica l and f e a s i b l e t r a n s p o r t per fo rmance c o n s t r a i n e d by a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s o f s a f e t y and c o n v e n i e n c e " (Mahayn i : 1977, p .357) . P o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a re coup l ed w i t h the above in d e v e l o p i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks i n N i g e r i a . In the T h i r d N a t i o n a l Development P l an f o r N i g e r i a , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s are s t a t e d as the " c o o r d i n a t e d deve lopment , economic e f -f i c i e n c y and , by i m p l i c a t i o n , the s uppo r t of n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s l i k e the open ing up and b i n d i n g t o g e t h e r o f the n a t i o n " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1 975 , p.. 199) . In t h i s c h a p t e r , a s t r a t e g y of r u r a l road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n deve lopment w i l l be f o c u s s e d upon. The E f f e c t s of Lack of C o o r d i n a t i o n : The l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n which e x i s t s i n the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r has been d i s c u s s e d in Chapte r I I I . The o b j e c t i v e here i s to demons t ra te the e f f e c t s of t h i s problem on t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n developments i n N i g e r i a . One i m p o r t a n t outcome o f the l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n i s the r a p i d development of i n t r a -and i n t e r - u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks , and the r e l a t i v e ne -g l e c t of r u r a l f a r m - t o - m a r k e t r o a d s . Th i s has l e d to a d i chotomy of u r b a n - r u r a l economies as shown in the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : 65 Th i s u r b a n - r u r a l d i chotomy was r e f l e c t e d in an u r b a n - r u r a l t r a n s p o r t d i cho tomy. The f an - shape t r a n s p o r t networks i n most t h i r d - w o r l d c o u n t r i e s c e n t e r around major c i t i e s w i t h l i n k s c o n n e c t i n g them. Ru ra l t r a n s p o r t i s s t i l l p r i m i t i v e and dependent to a l a r g e e x t e n t on human and an imal powers. The move toward s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and i n c o r p o r a t i o n of r u r a l economies i n t o the n a t i o n a l economy r e q u i r e s , t h e r e f o r e , a change i n t r a n s -p o r t - p l a n n i n g r a t i o n a l e , and improvement of i n t e r n a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y has become one of the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s in p l a n n i n g f o r deve lopment . (Mahayn i : 1977, p .354) . Th i s d i chotomy in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n N i g e r i a , where the c i t i e s a re s e r ved w i t h many roads and the r u r a l a reas r a r e l y have one road to boast o f . C o n c e p t u a l l y , the road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network of most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g N i g e r i a , i s shown in F i g u r e 2. A h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n t r y w i t h a s e a p o r t has been taken as an example. F i g u r e : 2 Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Network in a D e v e l o p i n g  Co un t r y . Ru ra l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : Good r o a d s , modern s a n i t a t i o n , e l e c t r i c i t y , p i p e - b o r n e wate r ' s u p p l y , e d u c a t i o n and med i ca l f a c i l i t i e s were a lmos t as 66 f o r e i g n to the r u r a l a reas a t the end of c o l o n i a l r u l e as they were a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (01atunbosun : 1975, p p . 4 9 - 5 9 ) . The bu lk of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d went to the c i t i e s where the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l i v e d . Even t o d a y , a f t e r about e i g h t e e n y e a r s of i ndependence , the s i t u a t i o n i s not much b e t t e r f o r the r u r a l p o p u l a c e . Th i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so in the p r o v i s i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o v i s i o n has been h i g h l y skewed towards i n t r a -urban networks ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1 974 , p.203.,. Th i s v iew i s s uppo r t ed by O 'Connor : 1971, pp .145 -146 ) . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of economic a c t i v i t i e s i n the urban a reas has made t h i s s t r a t e g y a r e a s o n a b l e one. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s s t r a t e g y f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n deve lopment i s be s t i l l u s t r a -ted i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : Wh i l e some o f the new p o r t s , r a i l w a y s , and roads have a s s i s t e d the sp read of commerc ia l a c t i v i t y to new a r e a s , most of the t r a n s p o r t i n ve s tmen t t h a t has taken p l a c e has tended to c o n s o l i d a t e w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s . . . . A c i r c u l a r p roces s i s at work whereby the c o l o n i a l t r a n s p o r t network has g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of economic deve lopment , and t h i s i n t u r n de te rm ine s where most of the demand f o r improved t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s a r i s e s (O ' Conno r : 1971 , p .156) . The urban c e n t r e s are u s u a l l y seen as the o n l y e lement s of deve lopment but t h i s i s r a r e l y so i n a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y . For i n s t a n c e , i n N i g e r i a , Mabogunje ob se rved t h a t " t h e wo r sen -ing of s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s i n N i g e r i a ' s r u r a l a rea s 67 at a t ime when a l l i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t the economy i s g rowing a t an unprecedented r a t e i s a l s o a measure of the f a i l u r e of our urban c e n t r e s to a d e q u a t e l y ' s e r v e ' the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n " (Mabogurije: 1974, p .89 ) . To improve the r u r a l s i t u a t i o n t h e r e -f o r e , i n c r e a s e d r u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y th rough the c r e a t i o n of a c o n s t a n t l y expand ing market f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r oduc t s and easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the market s h o u l d be s t i m u l a t e d ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1973, p .34 ) . Good f a r m - t o - m a r k e t roads are u r g e n t l y needed i n the r u r a l a reas as t he se a re s t i l l i n -adequate i n the r u r a l a r e a s . The l a c k of r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i s r e c o g n i z e d by the f e d e r a l government when i t s t a t e d t h a t " t h e S t a t e s w i l l pay g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of r u r a l b r i d g e s and c u l v e r t s as the l a c k of these f a c i l i t i e s s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e s a s e r i o u s impediment to movement i n the r u r a l a r e a s " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1973, p .28 ) . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Rura l Roads: "Up to the p r e s e n t , pe r fo rmance and c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h i n the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r have not been s a t i s f a c t o r y in many c a s e s , not o n l y because of m i s i n v e s t m e n t s but a l s o because of i n -adequate u t i l i z a t i o n of human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s , d i r e c t l y a r i s i n g from poor management and c o n t r o l " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .199 ) . In o r de r to r e s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m , p o l i c i e s s hou l d be aimed a t management r e f o r m s , i n f u s i o n of b e t t e r t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l , r e f o r m of e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and 68 the c r e a t i o n of new ones where n e c e s s a r y . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l prob lem i s a ve ry i m p o r t a n t one,as the s u i t a b i l i t y of the o t h e r s depends on s u i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l f ramework. P rope r a u t h o r i t i e s are needed f o r e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and i m p ! e m e n t a t i o n . A l l roads 1 i n N i g e r i a a re c l a s s i f i e d under t h r e e head ings - Trunk ' A ' , Trunk ' B ' , and L o c a l Roads. The f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment t ake s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l the Trunk ' A ' r o a d s . These are roads which span l ong d i s t a n c e s . They connect major p a r t s of the c o u n t r y and a l s o form the main produce r o u t e s . The d i f f e r e n t S t a t e govenments ( p r e s e n t l y -19 i n number) p r o v i d e f o r Trunk ' B ' roads w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b o u n d a r i e s . F i n a l l y , the l o c a l governments are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n s t r u c -t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g roads i n t h e i r a rea o f j u r i s d i c t i o n -i . e . r u r a l r o a d s . The l e n g t h s of roads under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of each l e v e l o f government i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Tab le I I I be low. TABLE III LENGTH OF ROADS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF EACH  LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA,, 1972 (IN KILOMETRES),, Government Paved Unpaved Total Percentage of Total Federal 6,477 4,130 10,607 11.1 State 8,832 12,336 21,168 22.2 Local 2,890 60,800 63,690 66.7 Tota l : 18,199 77,266 95,465 100.0 Source: F i l a n i , M.0. and Osayimwese, Iz: "The Organization of Transport Planning in N i ge r i a " , The Nigerian  Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol.16, No. 3, Ibadan, November 1974, p.395. 69 An a n a l y s i s o f the t a b l e above , based on road l e n g t h s , shows the unba lanced na t u r e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a . Of c o u r s e , the magni tude of r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y a l s o depends on s t a n d a r d of the roads under each j u r i s d i c t i o n . The f e d e r a l and s t a t e roads are m o s t l y dua l c a r r i a g e ways c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g more t r a f f i c than the l o c a l roads ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1973, p .28 ) . However, an a n a l y s i s based on the t a b l e above shows t h a t the l o c a l governments are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r more than 66 per cent of a l l roads in N i g e r i a . The t a b l e a l s o demons t ra te s the amount of r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t he se l e v e l s of government. The f e d e r a l government has the a b i l i t y to pave about 61 per cent of a l l roads under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n , whi1e the l o c a l governments c o u l d o n l y pave 4.5 per cent of a l l t h e i r r o a d s . Th i s f a c t , c oup l ed w i t h t he l e n g t h s of roads under each governments g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t he road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the l o c a l governments . T h e s e , i n e f f e c t , m e a n s t h a t " t h e agency which i s l e a s t a b l e to c o n s t r u c t and m a i n t a i n roads i n terms of funds and p e r s o n n e l , have the g r e a t e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .395 ) . The p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , as shown above , i s a s e c t o r a l one - w i t h each government be i ng r e s p o n s i b l e s o l e l y f o r the roads under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . Th i s i s i l l u s t r a -t ed i n M a t r i x 1. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s not shared e q u i t a b l y among the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s and j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a lmos t t o t a l l y 70 ab sen t . Where j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s p r e s e n t , work i s done on agency b a s i s . For example , the r o l e o f the s t a t e govenments in road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s summarized as f o l l o w s : " N i g e r i a ' s t w e l v e s t a t e s a l s o have m i n i s t r i e s concerned w i t h road ma i n -tenance ( i n c l u d i n g the ma in tenance of f e d e r a l h ighways on an agency b a s i s ) and w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of some seconda ry r o a d s " (Wor ld Bank: 1974, p .90 ) . MATRIX: 1 EXISTING STRUCTURE OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR ROADS IN NIGERIA v . R e s p o n s i b l e >v Govt . Type ^ S . of Roads F e d e r a l S t a t e L o c a l Trunk ' A ' Trunk ' B ' L o ca l * * * In t h i s s t r u c t u r e , each government f e e l s o b l i g a t o r y to m a i n t a i n o n l y c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of road - f o r i n s t a n c e , the f e d e r a l government does not conce rn i t s e l f w i t h l o c a l roads and l o c a l governments do not t a ke any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f e d e r a l or s t a t e r o a d s . The l o c a l roads a re t h e r e f o r e s o l e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o c a l governments . 71 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r road c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n -tenance c o n t i n u e s to r e s i d e w i t h the v a r i o u s Government M i n i s t r i e s of Works. Roads which a re a F e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are termed Trunk ' A ' r o a d s , w h i l e S t a t e roads a re i n d i c a t e d as Trunk ' B ' r o a d s . The fo rmer were e s s e n t i a l l y N o r t h - S o u t h r o u t e s l i n k i n g the main s e a p o r t s w i t h t h e i r u p - c o u n t r y h i n t e r l a n d and Eas t -Wes t r o u t e s c o n n e c t i n g major urban c e n t r e s , f o rm ing t o g e t h e r the main n a t i o n a l g r i d . A c o n s i d e r -a b l e l e n g t h (16,000 k i l o m e t r e s ) of Trunk ' B ' roads has however r e c e n t l y become p a r t of F e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by t a k e - o v e r . S t a t e and Loca l Governments between them are now r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r about 67,000 k i l o m e t r e s of Trunk ' B ' roads and L o c a l roads which s e r ve m a i n l y as f e e d e r or f a r m - t o - m a r k e t r o a d s " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1974, p .203 ) . Th i s l a c k of j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y among governments f o r road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " t h e g e n e r a l l y poor s t a n d a r d of road c o n s t r u c t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l , the sub-s t a n d a r d ma intenance of most roads and o c c a s i o n a l i n s t a n c e s of exces s ma in tenancy c a p a c i t y " ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .395 ) . J o i n t res p o n s i b i 1 i t i e s f o r a l l roads can he l p i n c o -o r d i n a t i n g the p r o v i s i o n of road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a . A p r o p o s a l f o r making t h i s p o s s i b l e i s shown i n M a t r i x 2. I f t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s a d o p t e d , a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s w i l l be enhanced by making f e d e r a l and s t a t e r e -sources ( i n terms of funds and q u a l i f i e d man-power) a v a i l a b l e f o r r u r a l road c o n s t r u c t i o n and ma i n tenance . T h i s s t r u c t u r e can a l s o enhance the c o o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c i e s at the f e d e r a l l e v e l . I n t e g r a t e d road development can then be p o s s i b l e -i . e . the deve lopment o f r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can then be c o n -72 MATRIX: 2 SHARED RESPONSIBILITY FOR ROADS IN NIGERIA : A PROPOSAL >vResponsi bl e >v Govt . Type \ o f Roads >v F e d e r a l S t a t e L o c a l Trunk ' A ' Trunk ' B ' L o c a l * * * * * * s i d e r e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s tem. The T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Needs of Ru ra l A r e a s : That r ura V t r a n s p o r t a t i on . i s not ', adequate ' ; in N i ger. i a : ha s been ment ioned i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . A l s o one of the problems f a c i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r i s a t t r i b u t e d to " t h e poor c o n d i t i o n o f f e e d e r roads and o t h e r t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s i n the r u r a l a r e a s " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .65 ) . The improvement of f a r m - t o - m a r k e t or f e e d e r roads i s then an i m p o r t a n t segment i n n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g - e s p e c i a l l y i n v iew of the f a c t t h a t " t h e a g r i -c u l t u r a l s e c t o r in N i g e r i a s t i l l a c coun t s f o r more than 50 per c en t of the Gross Domest ic P r o d u c t , a n d p r o v i d e s employment f o r about 70 per cent of N i g e r i a ' s wo rk i ng p o p u l a t i o n " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1973, p .9 ) . In o r d e r t o f o r m u l a t e a v i a b l e s t r a t e g y f o r r u r a l t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n deve lopment , knowledge about the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs of r u r a l a reas and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a re e s s e n t i a l . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h i s knowledge i s the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s e c t i o n . I t s hou l d be made c l e a r t h a t the d i s c u s s i o n here i s not e x h a u s t i v e , by any means. The demand f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s so u n i v e r s a l t h a t i t would make redundant any e x h a u s t i v e enumera t i on of the v a r i o u s purposes f o r which i t i s needed. In the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s , however, an a t tempt has been made to p o i n t out some o f the i m p o r t a n t r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs . M a r k e t i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l Produce : Easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y to market i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n r u r a l deve lopment . C e r t a i n l y , the f i r s t and f o remos t need of the fa rmer anywhere i s to be a b l e to market h i s produce a t a p l a c e where he may secu re a r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e f o r i t - be i t v e g e t a b l e o r an ima l p r o d u c t s , o r raw m a t e r i a l s f o r i n d u s t r y . Good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network i s n e ce s s a r y to make a s i z e a b l e market a rea a v a i l a b l e t o the f a r m e r s . Food d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l be encouraged i f good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e x i s t s . The impor tance o f good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i s a d e q u a t e l y brought out by Owen: 74 Poor t r a n s p o r t i s a major f a c t o r i n w o r l d hunger . The h i gh c o s t of moving farm p r o d u c t s and the l o ng d e l a y s and consequent damage and l o s s to p e r i s h a b l e s have been power fu l d e t e r r e n t s to i n -c r e a s i n g food supp l i e s . Produce r o t s on the ground because t r a n s p o r t i s not a v a i l a b l e . . . . The a g r i -c u l t u r a l s e c t o r does not s u f f e r s i m p l y f rom the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of l a n d , or f rom the f a i l u r e to move what i s p r oduced . Farmers have no i n c e n t i v e t o grow s u r p l u s e s when t hey know from e x p e r i e n c e t h a t what they grow cannot be moved. I s o l a t e d communi-t i e s remain i g n o r a n t of market o p p o r t u n i t i e s or o f new idea s and new t e c h n i q u e s , f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , t r a v e l s s l o w l y on mud roads and p r i m i t i v e t r a i l s (Owen: 1964, p . 5 ) . Apa r t f rom the impacts of poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on a g r i -c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , i t a l s o impact s the l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s (Owen: 1964, p . l ) . I n d u s t r i e s c o n t i n u e to l o c a t e i n urban a reas because o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d - good t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n l i n k s i n c l u s i v e . Poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can hamper the a c t i v i t i e s of an i n d u s t r y because the f a c t o r y depends on c o n -t i n u i n g s u p p l i e s o f f u e l , raw m a t e r i a l s , spare p a r t s , and a r e l i a b l e means of m a r k e t i n g what i s manu fac tu red (Owen: 1964, p . 3 ) . Owen a l s o demons t ra ted the i n f l a t i o n a r y e f f e c t s of poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g example : In A f g h a n i s t a n , h a l f of a l l t r a d e s t i l l moves on the backs of men, c a m e l s , and donkeys . Poor t r a n s p o r t has i n c r e a s e d the p r i c e of goods to as much as f i v e t imes t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o s t (Owen: 1964, p . 3 ) . S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Needs: T r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n the r u r a l a r e a s , have t h e i r 75 s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as economic i m p a c t s . Poor t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n makes the t a s k o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y a d i f f i c u l t one. The " o p e n i n g up and b i n d i n g t o g e t h e r o f the n a t i o n " was one o f the i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e s ment ioned i n the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r deve lopment i n N i g e r i a ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a : 1975, p .199 ) . I f good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e , the p o l i t i c i a n s can e a s i l y move from one p a r t to the o t h e r . Ano the r prob lem t h a t can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a c k of good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network i n the r u r a l a rea s i s the s low movement of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n s (see Owen: 1964, p .5 ; a l s o above ) . I n f o r m a t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n s about a g r i c u l t u r a l im -provements h a r d l y reach many r u r a l a r e a s . The works of e x -t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s are made d i f f i c u l t because of the i n a c c e s s i -b i l i t y o f many v i l l a g e s under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l i n p u t s l i k e f e r t i l i z e r s . u s u a l l y a r r i v e ve ry l a t e i n the r u r a l a r e a s . There a re many cases where f e r t i l i z e r s have a r r i v e d a f t e r the g rowing season (Owen: 1964, p . 5 ) . Improved t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n would i n c r e a s e m o b i l i t y and the f a r m e r s , e x t e n s i o n wo rke r s , and o t h e r i n n o v a t i o n agents would be a b l e to i n t e r a c t f r e e l y and e a s i l y . Other Needs: Apa r t from the above -ment i oned i n t e r - v i l l a g e or r u r a l -urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs , t h e r e a re a number of i n t r a -v i l l a g e movements which are no l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t . P. C. T r i p a t h i , 76 w h i l e w r i t i n g about R a j a s t h a n D i s t r i c t in I n d i a , made the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s which a re r e l e v a n t to s i t u a t i o n s i n the r u r a l a reas of many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . Wh i le w r i t i n g about i n t r a - v i 1 1 age t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs , he s t a t e d : ...women c a r r y i n g meals f o r the male members at the f i e l d s or the c a r t - l o a d s or the h e a d - l o a d s of h a r v e s t e d c rops be ing c a r r i e d from the farms to the t h r a s h i n g f l o o r s which a re g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d near the d w e l l i n g houses or the v i l l a g e p o t t e r c a r t i n g the s o i l f rom somewhere i n the o u t s k i r t s of the v i l l a g e to the spo t where he makes ea r thenware s or the f a rmer c a r t i n g the manure f rom dung heaps around '•Abadi ' to h i s nearby f i e l d s a re a l l a common s i g h t in the r u r a l a rea s ( T r i p a t h i : 1972, p .36 ) . Th i s shows t h a t good i n t e r n a l communicat ion or t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network i s i m p o r t a n t f o r r u r a l deve lopment - e s p e c i a l l y i f the e x i s t i n g r u r a l economy i s to be enhanced. In c o n c l u s i o n , the growth p roce s s of the r u r a l a rea s can be r e t a r d e d by l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s to t r a v e l th rough t he se a r e a s . Poor t r a n s p o r t can be a major o b s t a c l e to m a i n -t a i n i n g i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y . I t a l s o l i m i t s t he e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. In a w o r l d where one out of e ve r y t h r e e poep le i s i n a d e q u a t e l y f e d , the a b i l i t y of modern t r a n s p o r t to make a v i l a b l e more food i s perhaps i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n (Owen: 1964, p p . 7 - 8 ) . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n development i s t h e r e f o r e an i m p o r t a n t i n -g r e d i e n t f o r r u r a l deve lopment . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , as a f a c i l i -t a t i v e l i n k among many s e c t o r s , i n f l u e n c e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of 77 the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e r e b y a f f e c t s the c o u n t r y ' s deve lopment (Mahayn i : 1977, pp . 351 -352) . F i n a n c i n g Ru ra l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : Throughout t h i s c h a p t e r , g r e a t emphasis has been p l a c e d on the improvement o f r u r a l road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T h i s p r o p o s a l r e q u i r e s a s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l i n ve s tmen t i f i t i s to be e f f e c -t i v e . Th i s b r i n g s about the q u e s t i o n of whether any s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be devoted to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of r u r a l road c o n s t r u c t i o n and ma intenance and i f so which s e c t o r has to be g i ven l ower p r i o r i t y . Th i s n e c e s s i t y to s e l e c t among a l t e r n a -t i v e s e c t o r i a l i n ve s tmen t s a r i s e s f rom the f a c t t h a t " f u n d s f o r i n ve s tmen t are never u n l i m i t e d " ( L a n s i n g : 1966, p . 28 ) . There i s ' o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t ' i n e ve r y i n v e s t m e n t . The oppo r -t u n i t y c o s t o f an i n ve s tmen t i s the c o s t of g i v i n g up a l t e r n a -t i v e uses of the r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d . In t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h i s i s a common prob lem in i n t e r m o d a l a l l o c a t i o n s . Th i s a l s o has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o o r d i n a t i o n ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .390) . The r e l e v a n t i n t e r m o d a l a l l o c a t i o n problem in N i g e r i a i s g i v e n , f o r example , a sum of # 1 0 m i l l i o n f o r the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r , i n what p r o -p o r t i o n s h o u l d t h i s amount be d i s t r i b u t e d among the modes f o r the purpose of improvements and/or e x t e n s i o n s of the e x i s t i n g network? In e f f e c t , the c h o i c e problem of i n t e r e s t s hou ld be t h a t a t the m a r g i n . The r e q u i r e d p r o p o r t i o n may be de te rm ined by compar i sons of economic 78 r a t e s of r e t u r n . The h i g h e r the economic r a t e o f r e t u r n on the r e s o u r c e s to be used up i n a modal p r o j e c t , the more f a v o u r a b l e i s the a l 1 l o c a t i o n to t h a t mode . . . . Such a c a l c u l a t i o n p r e -supposes t h a t s o c i a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s a re c o r -r e c t l y measured or measured w i t h the same p e r -centage e r r o r marg in ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .390) . In the p r o v i s i o n of r o a d s , however, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to compare the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f i n v e s t m e n t . The c o s t s of b u i l d i n g and i m p r o v i n g the road a re u s u a l l y borne by one \ : i p a r t y - the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y a d m i n i s t e r i n g the r o a d s . The b e n e f i t s a re en joyed by o t h e r s , t he a u t o m o b i l e u ser s - i n -c l u d i n g tho se who use the road f o r p r i v a t e purposes and/or b u s i n e s s . Some ideas of the r e t u r n of a g i v e n o u t l a y might be formed from the a ccoun t s of o p e r a t o r s of the s a v i n g s i n t i m e , f u e l and v e h i c l e ma intenance, but t he se a re d i r e c t , a n d immediate ga i n s o n l y . The f i n a l as sessment of the worth of a road s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e an " e s t i m a t e o f the v a l u e to t r a d e r s and t r a v e l l e r s of q u i c k e r , e a s i e r and more c o m f o r t a b l e passages " (Wa l ke r : 1 959 , .p .124 ) . E q u i t y m a t t e r s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e s the problem of i n t e r -modal a l l o c a i o n s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e of imp rov i n g the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r a l l c i t i z e n s makes e q u i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s an i m p o r t a n t one ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a : 1975, p .291) . A c h o i c e would then have to be made which a f f e c t s a m a j o r i t y of t he p e o p l e . 79 I f a i r t r a n s p o r t i s deve l oped i n N i g e r i a , i t w i l l c o n t i n u e to be a v a i l a b l e to no more than 10 per c en t o f the t r a v e l l i n g p o p u l a t i o n f o r a l ong t i m e . Whereas road t r a n s p o r t i s the most predominant means of t r a n s p o r t a v a i l a b l e to most c l a s s e s o f peop le i n the c o u n t r y and t h i s predominance w i l l c o n t i n u e f o r some t i m e . E q u i t y m a t t e r s a r i s e when t a x - p a y e r ' s money i s used to s u b s i d i z e a i r t r a n s -po r t f o r a sma l l g roup. I f the deve lopment of 14 a i r p o r t s embodied i n t he NACO Report i s v iewed as sugges ted i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y the p r opo sa l on e q u i t y grounds ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .390) . E q u i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a would encourage the d e v e l o p -ment of r u r a l road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment . I n te rmoda l Resource A l l o c a t i o n s : In v iew o f problems o u t l i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , the N i g e r i a n government s hou ld pay more a t t e n t i o n to the improvement o f the f a r m - t o - m a r k e t or r u r a l r o a d s . The T h i r d N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p -ment P l an o f 1975-80, t o t a l l y n e g l e c t e d r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n . A l l a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s were p l a c e d on d e v e l o p i n g urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and a network of t r unk roads - i n c l u d i n g some i n t e r n a t i o n a l h ighways . ( Fo r i n s t a n c e , see F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a : 1975, pp .199 -228 ) . Th i s s t r a t e g y cannot h e l p the r u r a l a rea s as much as an i n ve s tmen t i n r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p r e s e n t imba lance i n t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n i n v e s t m e n t i s b rought out i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e -ment : 80 The u r b a n - r u r a l a l l o c a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t e x -p e n d i t u r e i s a m a t t e r o f income d i s t r i b u t i o n and e q u i t y . In N i g e r i a about twenty per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e in urban a reas ( d e f i n e d as p l a c e s w i t h 20,000 peop le and a b o v e ) , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g e i g h t y p e r c e n t l i v e i n the r u r a l c o u n t r y s i d e . A l r e a d y , income d i s t r i b u -t i o n i s skewed i n f a v o u r o f urban a rea s ( t h i s does not imp l y t h a t i n t r a - u r b a n d i s t r i b u t i o n i s n o r m a l ) . A l r e a d y t h e r e seems to have been a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t deve lopment on i n t r a -and i n t e r - c i t y l i n k a g e s and a r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t of r u r a l t r a n s p o r t . R e i n f o r c i n g t h i s p a t t e r n of t r a n s p o r t deve lopment i s l i k e l y to a gg r a va te the g rowing income i n e q u a l i t y between r u r a l house -ho ld s and urban d w e l l e r s ( F i l a n i and Osayimwese: 1974, p .392) . A l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n from a l l t he se i s more emphasis on r u r a l road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Th i s can be done by r e a d j u s t i n g the road t r a n s p o r t a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s i n f a v o u r of r u r a l roads The number of a i r p o r t s to be b u i l t can be reduced and t h e i r funds d i r e c t e d to r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n deve lopment . The l i c e n s i n g f ee s of v e h i c l e s and f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e a re a l s o major s ou r ce s of income f o r d e v e l o p i n g r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . S i n c e a l l roads can not be deve loped at the same t ime -more so i n the l a r g e r u r a l a rea i n c l u d e d i n N i g e r i a , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to phase deve l opment s . Ta rge t a reas can be i d e n t i -f i e d f o r p r i o r i t y a t t e n t i o n based on need, p o p u l a t i o n and o t h e r n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . T r a n s p o r t C o o r d i n a t i o n : The b a s i c aim of c o o r d i n a t i o n i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and 81 u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a l l the d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s of an economy - i . e . of a s y s tem. No one s e c t o r o f an economy i s t o t a l l y i ndependent o f o t h e r s e c t o r s . T r a n s p o r t a -t i o n , f o r example , i s dependent on o t h e r economic s e c t o r s as t hey i n t u r n depend on i t (Owen: 1964, p . 74 ) . For a b a l a n c e d n a t i o n a l deve lopment , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to c o o r d i n a t e and i n t e g r a t e the v a r i o u s s e c t o r s - i . e . be t hey economic , s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l or p o l i t i c a l . To a c h i e v e t h i s t ype o f deve l opment , a f a i r l y c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s t r u c t u r e i s . e s s e n t i a l f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and deve lopment , even though such i n -s t i t u t i o n s have been c r i t i c i z e d as b u r e a u c r a t i c , s low and too detached f rom the problems (Mahayn i : 1977, p .355 ) . For the pu r -pose of t h i s s t u d y , t h r e e types of c o o r d i n a t i o n w i l l be i d e n t i -f i e d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g : c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s ; c o o r d i n a t i o n between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government; and c o o r d i n a t i o n between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes. a) T r a n s p o r t C o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h Other S e c t o r s : Many problems can be i d e n t i f i e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the need f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . One o f the major ones i s the f a c t t h a t d e c i s i o n s made o u t s i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r s can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the n a t u r e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n prob lems and i n f l u e n c e the type o f s t r a t e g i e s to be adopted f o r t h e i r s o l u t i o n (Owen: 1964, p .74 ) . T h i s f a c t then c a l l s f o r the c o o r d i n a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and p o l i c i e s w i t h 82 those of o t h e r s e c t o r s as p o i n t e d out by W i l f r e d Owen when he w r o t e : T r a n s p o r t needs are c r e a t e d by what t ake s p l a c e o u t s i d e the t r a n s p o r t f i e l d , and ways to meet the se needs may a l s o be found i n o t h e r s e c t o r s . The s e l e c t i o n of economic a c t i v i t i e s , the l o c a -t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s , the p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r a g e of p e r i s h a b l e s , the g e n e r a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f power, and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of communica-t i o n s - a l l t he se and many o t h e r a s p e c t s of de -ve lopment have a v i t a l r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the n a t u r e and l e v e l o f t r a n s p o r t i n v e s t m e n t . To l ook a t the t r a n s p o r t system a lone i s to approach the p r o b l e m . w i t h b l i n d e r s (Owen: 1964, p .74 ) . C o o r d i n a t i o n between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and p l a n n i n g f o r o t h e r s e c t o r s i s made d i f f i c u l t by d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s among government m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s i n many n a t i o n s of the w o r l d . P l a n n i n g i s c a r r i e d out s e c t o r a l l y r a t h e r than c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y . For example i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , highway p l a n n e r s u s u a l l y are unaware o f the d e v e l o p -ment p o l i c i e s or s t r a t e g i e s of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e or the M i n i s t r y o f Trade and I n d u s t r y . The customary approach of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n e r s i s to " e s t i m a t e t r a n s p o r t needs of o t h e r s e c t o r s on the b a s i s of what may happen r a t h e r than on what i s be ing p lanned to happen" (Mahayn i : 1977, p .355 ) . The c o o r d i n a t i o n between d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s i s c u r r e n t l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the M i n i s t r y o f Economic Development i n N i g e r i a but i t s work has not been adequate as m i s i n v e s t m e n t of s c a r c e n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s s t i l l o c cu r s ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p .199 ) . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e r s e c t o r a l 83 c o o r d i n a t i o n can be a d e q u a t e l y hand led by a M i n i s t r y of Town and Count ry P l a n n i n g , i f adequate r e s o u r c e s a re made a v a i l -a b l e - i n c l u d i n g manpower and c a p i t a l . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s reduces the p o t e n t i a l needs f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s th rough the s u b s t i t u t i o n of o t h e r methods. Th i s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s where c a p i t a l and s k i l l e d man-power a re not a v a i l a b l e to p r o v i d e most o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs of the p e o p l e . An example of such s u b s t i t u t i o n can be demons t ra ted i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . The development o f a t e c h n i q u e f o r p r e s e r v i n g p e r i s h a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r oduc t s can s t r e t c h the c a p a b i l i t i e s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and reduce the t r a f f i c p r e s s u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h peak f l o w sea sons . As t e c h n o l o g y deve lop s and i s a p p l i e d , more t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r m i n i m i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs of the peop le i f adequate i n t e r s e c t o r a l c o o r d i n a t i o n i s p r a c t i s e d . b) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C o o r d i n a t i o n Between Government L e v e l s : T r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , i n d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government, va r y i n r e q u i r e m e n t s and s cope . Th i s v a r i a t i o n i s apt t o c r e a t e c o n f u s i o n s i n c e roads are connec ted to one ano the r f o r c o n t i n u i t y . A road i s a c o n t i n u o u s f a c i l i t y l i n k i n g o r i g i n t o d e s t i n a t i o n , so f a r as a user i s concerned - no m a t t e r wh ich government, o r group o f governments make p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g the 84 c o n s t r u c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n , a n d ma intenance o f the d i f f e r e n t segments of the r o a d . The c o n f u s i o n which e x i s t s i n road p r o v i s i o n i n N i g e r i a i s m a n i f e s t e d i n roads l i n k i n g two geog r aph i c p o i n t s under d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s - e . g . a road l i n k i n g two s t a t e s but not d e s i g n a t e d a f e d e r a l road (Trunk ' A ' ) . D i f f e r e n t r e g u l a t i o n s govern each p a r t of the r oad ,and as a r e s u l t , i t i s not uncommon to be t r a v e l l i n g on a t w o - l a n e , t a r r e d road which sudden l y t u r n s i n t o a o n e - l a n e , g r a v e l road w i t h o u t any warn ing s i g n s . Even w i t h i n s t a t e b o u n d a r i e s , the s i t u a i t o n ment ioned above can be seen when a s t a t e road s udden l y becomes a l o c a l road or two, or more, l o c a l governments manage d i f f e r e n t s e g -ments of a r o a d . The r e s u l t o f t he l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n i s shown by the number.uf motor a c c i d e n t s which occu r a t t he se p o i n t s of t r a n s i t i o n ( I y ahen : in E k i s t i c s , J u l y 1976, pp. 37-38 ) . Th i s c o n f u s i o n i s not appa ren t i n o t h e r modes of t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , i . e . r a i l , a i r or w a t e r , s i n c e the se are under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of n a t i o n a l b o d i e s . I f the same s t r a t e g y of c e n t r a l i z e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s adopted f o r r o a d s , i t w i l l be more b e n e f i c i a l t o the c o u n t r y as a whole - i . e . the p r o v i s i o n of roads i n N i g e r i a ought to be under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of a n a t i o n a l road agency whose major r o l e s h o u l d be c o o r d i n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t r o a d s . C a p i t a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n to t h i s agency may be p a r t l y d e r i v e d from the c u r r e n t road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sub-s i d i e s t o the s t a t e and l o c a l governments f rom the f e d e r a l government. c) C o o r d i n a t i o n Among T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Modes: 85 C o o r d i n a t i o n among t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes i n v o l v e s e i t h e r a s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s s u p p l i e d by one mode f o r the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by ano the r or a d i v i s i o n o f the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n market among a v a i l a b l e modes. To do any of t h e s e , the per fo rmance o f each t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode has to be i d e n t i f i e d and then r e l a t i v e impor tance e v a l u a t e d . Th i s i s u s u a l l y not the case i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s where each mode i s c o n s i d e r e d by i t s e l f - i . e . i n i s o l a t i o n from the o t h e r s . P r o j e c t s are e v a l u a t e d on t h e i r own m e r i t s , t h e i r consequences not be ing r e l a t e d to o t he r p a r t s of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s tem. The d i v i s i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t and the M i n i s t r y of Works and Hous ing i s a c l a s s i c example o f the u n r e l a t e d approach which has been adopted i n N i g e r i a , ( s e e Chapter I I I f o r d e t a i l ) . Ano the r reason why c o o r d i n a t i o n i s needed between modes i s to a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s and unneces sa r y c o m p e t i -t i o n between modes. The deve lopment o f road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the n o r t h - s o u t h a x e s , f o l l o w the r a i l l i n e s (see Map 4). Th i s i s s i m i l a r t o what has happened i n many d e v e l o -p i ng c o u n t r i e s and the Colombian case i s an i n t e r e s t i n g example: D e s p i t e t he se enormous i n ve s tmen t s i n t r a n s p o r t , t h e r e a re g l a r i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s and c o n f u s i o n i n the o p e r a t i o n s t oday . R a i l r o a d s , h i ghway s , and i n l a n d waterways d u p l i c a t e one ano the r and compete f o r t r a f f i c ; y e t a l l a re be ing improved s i m u l t a -n e o u s l y . A new A t l a n t i c p o r t i s be ing c o n s t r u c t e d , 86 w h i l e two o t h e r nearby p o r t s hand le i n s u f f i c i e n t c a r g o . C e r t a i n r e g i o n a l demands f o r t r a n s p o r t are now met w i t h s u r p l u s c a p a c i t y , w h i l e o t h e r s s u f f e r from sho r t age s of s p e c i f i c t ype s of s e r v i c e . I t now appear s t h a t i n one decade Co lombia has moved from a p o s i t i o n of too l i t t l e emphas is on t r a n s p o r t t o too m u c h . . . . ( W e i s s k o f f , i n H a e f e l e ( e d . ) : 1969, p .123) . In o r d e r to dea l w i t h the l a c k o f i n t e r m o d a l c o o r d i n a t i o n which e x i s t s i n the N i g e r i a n M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t , a r e -o r g a n i z e d s t r u c t u r e i s p roposed f o r t h a t m i n i s t r y . The new s t r u c t u r e i s based on economic f u n c t i o n s r a t h e r than t ype s of mode. I t i s hoped t h a t each depar tment w i l l g i v e a t t e n t i o n to the n e c e s s a r y economic , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r i t s p o l i c y recommendat ions . T h i s s t r u c t u r e would enhance b e t t e r p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g and the v a r i o u s modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can be l o oked a t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n terms of i n v e s t m e n t , p r i c i n g , a n d c o n t r o l . For t h i s p r opo sa l t o be e f f e c t i v e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t roads be b rought under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t . C o n c l u s i o n : In t h i s c h a p t e r , e f f o r t s have been made to p o i n t out the need f o r r e o r i e n t a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t r a t e g y i n N i g e r i a . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a y s a c e n t r a l r o l e i n e ve r y c o u n t r y . As a f a c i l i t a t i v e f a c t o r , i t a f f e c t s the s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e t t l e m e n t s and t h e i r s o c i a l , economic ,and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u -t i o n s . Ru ra l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can thus be u sed , among a hos t of Admin i s t r a t i o n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g P r i c i n g Highways Investmen t Ra i Iways P o r t s & Waterways Highways A i rway s J C o n t r o l R a i l ways P o r t s & Waterways Highways A i rways Ra i1 ways P o r t s S Waterways A i rways FIGURE 3 PROPOSED ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT, NIGERIA. 88 o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l f o r f u r t h e r i n g d e v e l o p -ment i n the r u r a l a r e a s . Th i s i s not t o say t h a t t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n i s the key to r u r a l deve l opment ,bu t t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s g i ven adequate c o o r d i n a t i o n . Two major reasons f o r encou rag i ng the development of r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n have been touched upon. The f i r s t i s the need f o r a l l o c a -t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n ve s tmen t s so as to i n c r e a s e the a c c e s s i -b i l i t y of market c e n t r e s . The second i s the need to a l l o c a t e i n ve s tmen t s so as t o improve communicat ion among d i f f e r e n t s e t t l e m e n t s and thus reduce the u r b a n - r u r a l t r a n s p o r t d i cho tomy . A r e o r i e n t a t i o n f rom the customary emphasis on p r i m a r y t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n networks t o l o c a l roads i s sugges ted i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 89 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS In t h i s s t u d y , emphasis has been p l a c e d on the impo r tance o f r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in r e g i o n a l development i n N i g e r i a . S i n ce a c c e s s i b i l i t y and m o b i l i t y are i n v o l v e d in a lmos t e ve r y a s p e c t of deve lopment , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can be a key f a c t o r i n the s ucce s s or f a i l u r e of the e n t i r e n a t i o n a l deve lopment e f f o r t s (Owen: 1964, p . v i i ) . The impor tance o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s has been demons t ra ted i n t h i s s tudy and i s s uppo r t ed by Andrew Kamarck who s t a t e d t h a t the "Wo r l d Bank Group l e a r n e d ve ry e a r l y in i t s l i f e t h a t b e t t e r i n g the s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g i n a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y ve r y o f t e n beg ins w i t h b e t t e r i n g i t s t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m " , and a l s o t h a t " i n a l l c o u n t r i e s the t r a n s p o r t system i s c e n t r a l i n any deve lopment e f f o r t " ( A d l e r : 1967, p . i x ) . The emphasis of the s tudy i s t h e r e f o r e j u s t i f i e d , e s p e c i a l l y . f o r r u r a l deve lopment . I t i s not the s u g g e s t i o n here t h a t the deve lopment of r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s the o n l y key to r e g i o n a l p r o g r e s s in N i g e r i a . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s not an i s o l a t e d phenomenon i n development - " i t s impact i s enhanced by the i n t e r a c t i o n of a v a r i e t y of o t h e r economic s t i m u l i whose magnitude can not be p r e d i c t e d w i t h g r e a t c e r t a i n t y " ( K r a f t , e t a l . : 1971, p . l ) . There i s t h e r e f o r e a need to c o o r d i n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r deve lopment agents and t h i s a s p e c t has been d i s c u s s e d i n the s t u d y . Th i s c o o r d i n a t i o n i s ve r y i m p o r t a n t because o f the na tu re o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n : T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a y s a m a n y - f a c e t e d r o l e i n the p u r s u i t of deve lopment o b j e c t i v e s . I t s f u n c -t i o n as a f a c t o r i n p u t r e q u i r e m e n t i s obv iou s -i t enab l e s goods and pas senger s to be t r a n s -f e r r e d between and w i t h i n p r o d u c t i o n and consump-t i o n c e n t e r s " (Fromm: 1965, p . 5 ) . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems of N i g e r i a , most o f which has been d i s c u s s e d , are r e c o g n i z e d by the government but the s t r a t e g i e s i t has adopted have not been adequa te . For i n -s t a n c e : " i t i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t deve lopment im -pu l s e s g ene r a t ed i n the f a s t g rowing i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s do not reach the areas f a r away. In o r d e r , t h e r e f o r e , to ensure a f a i r l y even geog r aph i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of the b e n e f i t s o f u r ban -based i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , Government w i l l improve and ex tend t r a n s p o r t and communicat ion l i n k s not o n l y between one com-mun i ty and a n o t h e r , but between the r u r a l a reas and t h e i r urban n u c l e i " ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1970, p .218 ) . Wh i le the f e d e r a l government knows the problems and has the o b j e c t i v e of s o l v i n g them, i t made no c a p i t a l a l l o c a t i o n s to r u r a l road development (see F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1 974, pp . 202 - 208 ) , even though about *l=:4356 m i l l i o n ( a p p r o x i -ma te l y $6534 m i l l i o n ) i s t o be spent on road deve lopments i n the c o u n t r y . 91 O r g a n i z a t i o n and C o o r d i n a t i o n : I m p l i c i t in a l l the sugges ted r e o r i e n t a t i o n s , i n t h i s s t u d y , i s the a d o p t i o n of a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g p roce s s and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the n e c e s s a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k a g e s a t the f e d e r a l , s t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l s . The sugges ted l i n e of a c t i o n i s i n c o n t r a s t to the f ragmented p r o j e c t ap -p r o a c h . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s hou ld be a c o o r d i n a t e d f a c t o r w i t h c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g f o r the b e n e f i t of the whole n a t i o n . As noted i n Chapter IV, a t t e n t i o n s hou ld be g i v e n to t h r e e k i n d s of c o o r d i n a t i o n : c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s ; c o o r d i n a t i o n between government l e v e l s ; and c o o r d i n a t i o n among modes. In v iew of t h e s e , the f i r s t a c t i o n of the f e d e r a l government s hou ld be the t r a n s f e r o f a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , r e g a r d i n g p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , to the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t . Such a t r a n s f e r would f a c i l i t a t e d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g i n ve s tmen t a l l o c a t i o n s between modes. A r e l a t e d e r r o r i n a l l o c a t i o n of i n ve s tmen t a c r o s s iimodes *is f a i 1 ure to e x p l o i t the .• p o t e n t i a l advantage of c o o r d i n a t i o n of d i f -f e r e n t modes. Th i s e r r o r i s most e a s i l y made when t h e r e i s an atmosphere o f h o s t i l i t y be -tween modes, say between r a i l and t r u c k s , or r a i l and water t r a n s p o r t a g e n c i e s . I t i s pos -s i b l e to use t r u c k s to hand le p i c k u p and d e l i -v e r y s e r v i c e f o r r a i l . . . . ( L a n s i n g : 1966, p .158 ) . In o r de r to f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r m o d a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and to reduce ' h o s t i l i t y ' among modes i n N i g e r i a , a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e of the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t i s s u g -ge s ted i n Chapter IV (see F i g u r e 3 ) . N a t i o n a l Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Agency: 92 A l t hough t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s , i n many c a s e s , are f o r m u l a t e d a t the c e n t r e , p l an or p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e to be l o c a l . P l an f o r m u l a t i o n i s dependent on t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n needs as p r o j e c t e d a t a l l governmenta l l e v e l s and p l an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s dependent on n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s and g u i d e l i n e s (Mahayn i : 1977, p .364 ) . For a s u c -c e s s f u l and e f f e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n program t h e r e f o r e , c o -o r d i n a t i o n i s n e ce s s a r y between a l l l e v e l s of government i n the c o u n t r y . A c e n t r a l body i s needed to c o o r d i n a t e such governmenta l a c t i v i t i e s . A s u g g e s t i o n i s made i n t h i s s tudy f o r the c r e a t i o n of a c e n t r a l body f o r road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a . Th i s body may be c a l l e d the N a t i o n a l Road T r a n s p o r t a -t i o n Agency (NRTA). T h i s w i l l be s i m i l a r to what o p e r a t e s i n r a i l , a i r and water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - each of these modes i s p l a c e d under a f e d e r a l c o r p o r a t i o n f o r p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l c o o r d i n a t i o n problems are t h e r e b y v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f such c e n t r a l body f o r road deve lopment i s paramount i n . N i g e r i a . Wh i le the f e d e r a l government w i l l s t i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r m o d a l and i n t e r s e c t o r a l c o o r d i n a t i o n s and p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n s , the NRTA i s needed to c o o r d i n a t e the imp lemen ta -t i o n o f road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s and to recommend ap-p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r road deve lopment . The NRTA w i l l pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to r u r a l road development - t h e r e b y r e -93 duc ing the e x i s t i n g u r b a n - r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i cho tomy . The NRTA w i l l not be under any one l e v e l o f government, as i s the s i t u a t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g f e d e r a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , i t s o p e r a -t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l be c o n t r i b u t e d by the d i f f e r e n t g o v e r n -mental l e v e l s based on the proposed concept of shared r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y (see Chapte r I V ) . The magni tude o f i n f l u e n c e , but not a u t h o r i t y , t h a t can be e x e r c i s e d by any l e v e l o f gov-ernment w i l l p a r t l y depend on the amount of r e s o u r c e s c o n t r i -buted f o r road p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Th i s shou ld not be c o n s t r u e d to mean t h a t the l ower l e v e l s of government would have no say in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , because of t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y sma l l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , but r a t h e r t h a t they c o n t r i b u t e v a l u a b l e i n p u t s t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A l l governmenta1 l e v e l s would now have to submit road development p r o p o s a l s to the NRTA f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n and a p p r o v a l . Shared R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : The concept o f shared res p o n s i b i 1 i t y , proposed e a r l i e r , c a l l s f o r more i n t e n s i v e f e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l t ype s of road c o n s t r u c t i o n and ma intenance - e s p e c i a l l y th rough r e -source a l l o c a t i o n to r u r a l road deve lopment . The f e d e r a l government has the h i g h e s t a b i l i t y to f i n a n c e road c o n s t r u c t i o n in t he c o u n t r y , i n terms of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . I f l e s s emphasis i s p l a c e d on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r e s t i g i o u s t r unk roads (h ighways ) and a i r p o r t s , some r e s o u r c e s can be d i v e r t e d to the development of the much needed f e e d e r or f a r m - t o - m a r k e t 94 r o a d s . The a d o p t i o n o f t h i s s u g g e s t i o n w i l l enhance the i n t e -g r a t i o n of the r u r a l economy to the n a t i o n a l economy. Economic i n t e g r a t i o n has not o n l y a p u r e l y economic d imens ion but a l s o s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d imens i on s r e f l e c t e d i n the m u l t i p l i c i t y of g oa l s i n h e r e n t in e ve r y development p l an (Mahayn i : 1977, p .362 ) . With adequate i n t e g r a t i o n , the l o n g - n e g l e c t e d r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s w i l l be a b l e to en joy the b e n e f i t s of deve lopment . The share o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y m a t r i x proposed by Kampmann K i e r u l f f and S a x i l d A/S (KAMPSAX) o f Copenhagen i n t h e i r r e p o r t "Highway Survey i n N i g e r i a 1967: Trunk Road S tudy " w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e he r e . The r e p o r t sugges ted the m a t r i x shown below as a p o s s i b i l i t y i n N i g e r i a . MATRIX 3 LEVELS OF RESPONSIBILITIES BY GOVERNMENTS IN ROAD TRANSPORTATION IN NIGERIA S \ t Responsib i l i ty ' Roads Designated as Federal State Local Federal 90 10 -State .• 50 50 -Local 33.3 33.3 33.4 Source: F i l a n i , M.O. and Osayimwese, Iz: "The Organization of transport Planning in N i ge r i a " , The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol. 16, No.3, 1974-. 95 The m a t r i x above t o t a l l y r e v e r s e s the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e and r e d i s t r i b u t e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to a l e v e l commensurate w i t h each gove rnment ' s f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l a b i l i t y . A p p r o p r i a t e Techno l ogy : A p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y here concern s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f road s t anda rd s f o r d i f f e r e n t pu rpo se s . The emphasis here i s not w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n , per s e , but the t ype of roads to be c o n -s t r u c t e d . There i s now a range o f t e c h n o l o g y t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e to the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s and they can choose a c c o r d i n g to a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n the c o u n t r y - i n terms of c a p i t a l , q u a l i f i e d manpower, and even p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y c o u p l e d w i t h s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . H i g h l y c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e highways can be c o n s t r u c t e d , i f d e s i r e d , to break away from " t h e s low e v o l u t i o n a r y p roce s s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvement and to reduce t ime and r e s o u r c e s needed to overcome the t i m e -space b a r r i e r " (Owen: 1964, p .86 ) . Or lower o r d e r roads can be c o n s t r u c t e d and improved as t r a f f i c demand i n c r e a s e s . A few g u i d e l i n e s have been sugges ted by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s , to he l p the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s in c hoo s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y ( f o r examp le , see Owen: 1964, pp . 87 - 89 ; and O l a t unbo sun : 1975, pp .150 -151 ) . In t h e i r s e a r c h f o r a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l e v e l , the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s shou ld be gu ided by the ve ry n a t u r e of the problems w i t h i n t h e i r n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . , Most of t he se n a t i o n s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s c a r c e c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s and h i g h l y u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r f o r c e . The a d o p t i o n o f a c a p i t a l i n -t e n s i v e t e c h n o l o g y may not be i n t h e i r be s t i n t e r e s t s . The r u r a l a reas of t he se c o u n t r i e s r e q u i r e p r i o r i t y a t t e n t i o n and a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system which i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r u r a l a c t i v i -t i e s w i l l be more a p p r o p r i a t e . For r u r a l deve lopment and the succe s s of r u r a l d i v e r s i f i -c a t i o n , N i g e r i a needs to deve l op a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network which i s c onduc i v e to the most e f f i c i e n t use of the e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e endowment in the r u r a l s e c t o r . The urban a reas may f i n d i t more c o n v e n i e n t , and even p r o f i t a b l e , to adopt advanced s t anda rd s - i . e . h igh c a p a c i t y r o a d s , but the r u r a l a reas may not be ab l e to cope. The a d o p t i o n of such s t anda rd s f o r r u r a l a reas w i l l be a waste o f n a t i o n a l s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . The a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s in the r u r a l a reas a re not c o m p a t i b l e w i t h most modern, advanced t e c h n o l o g i e s . The s h o r t , w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d , and l i g h t t r a f f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r u r a l a rea s c a l l f o r the deve lopment o f many l ower o r d e r roads r a t h e r than one or two h i ghway s , o r a i r p o r t s ( T r i p a t h i : 1972, p p . 3 7 - 4 3 ) . In r u r a l road deve lopment , the improvement o f e x i s t i n g l o c a l r o a d s , and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new ones where non p r e -v i o u s l y e x i s t e d , to a s t a n d a r d whereby they cannot be washed away by heavy r a i n f a l l s h o u l d be f o c u s s e d upon - i . e . make the r u r a l a reas a c c e s s i b l e a l l y ea r r ound . I t can s a f e l y be s a i d 97 t h a t a t h r e e - or f o u r - l a n e highway i s r a r e l y the d e s i r e o f the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and , as has been p o i n t e d out above, to deve lop such f o r r u r a l l i n k a g e s would o n l y amount to w a s t i n g s c a r c e n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y c a p i t a l . A one - or two-l ane r o a d , w i t h good s u r f a c i n g and p roper s a f e y s i g n s , i s d e f i n i t e l y more a p p r o p r i a t e to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Roads s hou ld be des i gned a c c o r d i n g to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t r a f f i c to be c a r r i e d . T h e r e f o r e , the t ype s of v e h i c l e s which p l y the l o c a l roads of N i g e r i a s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e the type of roads to be c o n s t r u c t e d f o r r u r a l deve lopment . In N i g e r i a , the v e h i c l e s t h a t se rve the r u r a l popu lace are l o r r i e s and mammy-wagons. These se r ve the dual purpose of t r a n s p o r t i n g both peop le and goods. Most of these v e h i c l e s r a r e l y a t t a i n a speed in exces s o f 50 m i l e s per hour ( i . e . 80 k i l o m e t r e s per hour) m a i n l y due to o v e r l o a d i n g . In f a c t the average speed i s more l i k e 35 m i l e s per hour (56 k i l o m e t r e s per h o u r ) . T h e r e -f o r e , the v e h i c l e s a re u s u a l l y s low and heavy. In v iew of t h e s e , r u r a l roads s h o u l d be de s i gned to hand le t h i s t ype o f t r a f f i c. F i n a n c i a l l y , a good s t r a t e g y f o r l o w e r i n g gove rnment ' s r u r a l road e x p e n d i t u r e i s to encourage the r u r a l commun i t ie s to b u i l d roads under c o n s t a n t governmenta l s u p e r v i s i o n and h e l p . Th i s w i l l c a l l f o r a t e c h n o l o g y which i s not c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e . A p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the use of l o c a l m a t e r i a l s w i l l have to be encou raged . The g o v e r n -98 ment may agree to p r o v i d e the b r i d g e s and c u l v e r t s , a n d a l s o see t h a t the roads are b u i l t to a d e s i r a b l e s t a n d a r d . Research I m p l i c a t i o n s : Research i s needed in many deve lopmenta l a s p e c t s of N i g e r i a . The l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c s which was noted in Chapter I makes r e s e a r c h an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g N i g e r i a . Research i n t o many a spec t s of deve lopment w i l l h e l p data g e n e r a t i o n . In the t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r , the p r o v i s i o n o f t r a n s p o r t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s not a lways advantageous to the l e s s deve loped r e g i o n s . The lower c o s t o f moving goods and peop le may make " t h e deve lopment of remote areas more f e a s -i b l e , but on the o t h e r hand, the g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y o f l a b o u r may a t t r a c t more peop le from remote a reas to e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r e s " ( P r e s t : 1969, p . 34 ) . Research i n t o the e f f e c t s of imp rov i n g r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s hou l d be emphas i zed . S e c o n d l y , s i n c e deve l opmenta l r e s o u r c e s are ve r y l i m i t e d , t a r g e t a rea s w i l l have to be i d e n t i f i e d f o r p r i o r i t y a t t e n t i o n . The c r i t e r i a to be used in i d e n t i f y i n g t a r g e t a reas have to be d e v e l o p e d . These c r i t e r i a w i l l he lp in i d e n t i f y i n g a rea s where t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s most needed and t h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r u s i n g n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s to the bes t advan tage . "As w i t h o t h e r means o f t r a n s p o r t the b e n e f i t s of road b u i l d i n g w i l l be greatest where problems of i n adequa te communicat ions a re c l e a r l y h i n d e r i n g deve lopment " (O ' Conno r : 1971, p .149 ) . Once the se 99 t a r g e t a reas have been e s t a b l i s h e d , the bes t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t r a t e g y f o r each w i l l have to be d e v e l o p e d . Rura l T r a n s p o r t P r i o r i t y : Th i s s tudy has p o i n t e d out the need f o r a r e o r i e n t a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g r a t i o n a l e i n N i g e r i a . The c u r r e n t emphasis on urban and i n t e r - u r b a n networks i s reduced i n f a v o u r of a r u r a l network of r o a d s . I t i s now t ime f o r N i g e r i a to pay more a t t e n t i o n to r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n deve lopment i n the p roce s s of n a t i o n a l deve lopment . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , l i k e o t h e r s e c t o r s , has been n e g l e c t e d i n the r u r a l a r e a s . The most dominant and common f e a t u r e s of d e v e l o p i n g economie s , i n c l u d i n g N i g e r i a , a re r u r a l p o v e r t y , un -employment and i n e q u a l i t y . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t he se hand icaps at the base ho l d s the key to any mean-i n g f u l programme o f deve lopment to a c h i e v e s o c i a l j u s t i c e . The g r e a t e s t and most s e r i o u s gap between p r e c e p t and p r a c t i c e i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s has been i n the a reas of r u r a l deve lopment . P o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c i s h a r d l y matched by economic per fo rmance i n the r u r a l s e c t o r " (O l a t unbo sun : 1975, p .160 ) . . More emphasis s hou ld t h e r e f o r e be p l a c e d on r u r a l deve lopment i n N i g e r i a . I t then f o l l o w s t h a t r u r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e v e l o p -ment shou ld be a p r i o r i t y in v iew of the r o l e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n deve lopment . 1 00 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: A d l e r , Hans A . : S e c t o r and P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , World Bank S t a f f O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r s , No. 4, The Johns Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1967. Ahmed, Ye su f , e t a l . : Road Inves tment Programming f o r D e v e l o p -i ng C o u n t r i e s : An I ndones i an Example, The T r a n s -p o r t a t i o n C e n t e r , No r t hwe s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y , E v a s t o n , 1 976. Awolowo, Obafemi : The S t r a t e g y and T a c t i c s of the P e o p l e ' s  R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a , MacMil1 an and Co. ( N i g e r i a ) L t d . , London , 1 970. 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