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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A transportation strategy for regional development Ajayi, Peter Sunday 1978

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A TRANSPORTATION STRATEGY FOR REGIONAL A CASE FOR  DEVELOPMENT:  NIGERIA  by PETER SUNDAY B.E-.'Sv,. U n i v e r s i t y A THESIS SUBMITTED  AJAYI  of Waterloo,  IN PARTIAL  THE REQUIREMENTS  1976  FULFILLMENT OF  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES iUchool  o f Community and R e g i o n a l  We a c c e p t t h i s to  t h e s i s as  conforming  the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH  July  ©  Planning)  COLUMBIA  1978  P e t e r Sunday A j a y i , 1978  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  thesis at  it  thesis  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives.  financial  is  of  British  available  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  by  shall  that  not  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  Community and R e g i o n a l of  British  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  August 1978  Columbia  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  gain  the  of  this  copying  or  that  thesis or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  Planning  for  study.  my D e p a r t m e n t  permission.  Department  Date  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  in p a r t i a l  my  i i ABSTRACT Regional governments The b a s i c is  development  emphasis  National  Development  In  to a c h i e v e  on the r u r a l  sector  " q u a l i t y of  also  There  (Federal  P l a n , 1975 this  live  life  - 80,  of t h i s  improving  citizens  Lagos,  1975, is  The  conditions is  in the r u r a l  a means o f d e v e l o p i n g  the r u r a l  Transportation  is  v i e w e d as  i n any  for economic, s o c i a l of t h i s  study  is  between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n is  a rural  the development  a necessity  what mode o f  demand?  At p r e s e n t  o t h e r modes b e c a u s e transportation  is  and p o l i t i c a l  areas of  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and r u r a l  transport in  of i t s  For a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  roads  likely  settle-  the s o l e  strategy  agent  the  The  - i.e.  this  In  first  relationthat  demand  to s a t i s f y  seem t o be  characteristics.  n o t seen as  of the  If  but  rural  human  development  i s most  Nigeria,  this  areas.  purposes.  demand f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  exists,  the  least  p e o p l e and goods have t o move f r o m one p l a c e t o  objective  ment.  placed  study.  as  there  291).  improvement o f  transportation  ship  p.  - where a m a j o r i t y o f  of t h i s  other,  Th i r d  which are c a p a b l e , at  study  as  usually  t h e main e m p h a s i s  ment as  countries  Republic of N i g e r i a :  and a r e e m p l o y e d .  the focus  of  for a l l  of  included.  in these  o b j e c t i v e , emphasis  a r e many s t r a t e g i e s  theoretically,  - Nigeria  development  s e c t o r o f t h e economy  still  is  countries  of r e g i o n a l  development p r o g r e s s e s "  citizens  c u r r e n t l y a major concern  in the d e v e l o p i n g  t h e improvement o f  order  is  that  dominating this  for rural  t o be s u c c e s s f u l ,  study, developit  has  i i i t o be c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h o t h e r  development  The p r o b l e m o f p r o v i d i n g identified  as  adequate  an i n s t i t u t i o n a l o n e .  work w i t h i n w h i c h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h e n e x a m i n e d and p r o b l e m s l a t e d to r u r a l Especially strative This  structure  lack  is  the  tween d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s  In  view of  of the e x i s t i n g  are this  the e x i s t i n g  in  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  i.e.  it  policies  both  adminipermits  exists and  be-  horizontally i t seems  recommended, w h i c h and m a i n t e n a n c e  in  local  that  of Local  This  w o u l d have  areas.  i.e.  transin  favour  Governments that  t o t a k e more  t o be d e v e l o p e d -  the r u r a l  implies  greater roads  o f o t h e r modes o f  responsibi1ities  construction.  of roads are  of  gives  The m a j o r m o d i f i c a t i o n i s  Governments  good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  maintenance.  t h e same g o v e r n m e n t -  re-  vulnerable.  is  f o r the c o u n t r y .  a l l types  those  is  i n s t i t u t i o n a l problem, a m o d i f i c a t i o n  structure  and S t a t e  and  l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n ,  t h e most  reducing  if  of  of government  For t h i s  of  Federal  especially  is  frame-  in Nigeria  of c o o r d i n a t i o n which  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the development  portation  provided  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  emphasis to the development in  institutional  construction  lack  between d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s  the r u r a l ' r o a d s  The  transportation  in the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the e x i s t i n g  of c o o r d i n a t i o n  and v e r t i c a l l y .  rural  identified,  transportation  apparent  is  strategies.  the  shares  providing  Map 1.  Location Map  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iv  L i s t of Tables  v t i  L i s t of Figures and I l l u s t r a t i o n s  V T 1 1  Acknowledgements I.  INTRODUCTION Regional Transportation Planning D e f i n i t i o n - of the Region:- The Study Area Basic Assumptions of the Study Objects of the Study L i m i t a t i o n and Scope of Study Sources of Data Outl ine of the Study  II.  l x  ...  TRANSPORTATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT Introduction S e l f Reliance Provision of Rural Employment Opportunities F a c i l i t i e s and Services in the Rural Areas The Potential of Transportation f o r Achieving Rural .'Objectives' Marketing of Produce Movement f o r Socio-Cultural Purposes Other Uses of Transportation in the Rural Areas ... Conclusion  III.  1 4 6 7 8 .9 9  11 12 14 17 19 20 22 24 24  TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS AND.POLICIES IN NIGERIA Introduction H i s t o r i c a l Development of Transportation Transportation Development Under Colonial Rule Transportation Development A f t e r Independence Transportation Modes in N i g e r i a : Problems Roads Railways Waterways A i r Transportation  26 30 33 36 40 41 43 49 50  vi Page.  IV.  Dominance of Road Transportation  54  E x i s t i n g I n s t i t u t i o n a l Structure f o r Transportation Coordination Within the Federal M i n i s t r y of Transport Conclusion  57 59 62  A TRANSPORTATION STRATEGY FOR REGIONAL. DEVELOPMENT Introduction The Effects of Lack of Coordination Rural Transportation R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Rural Roads The Transportation Needs of Rural Areas Marketing A g r i c u l t u r a l Produce S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l Transportation Needs Other Needs Financing Rural Transportation Intermodal Resource A l l o c a t i o n s Transport Coordination Transport Coordination with Other Sectors Transport Coordination Between Government Levels Coordination Among Transportation Modes Conclusion  V.  63 64 65 67 72 73 74 75 77 79 80 81 83 85 86  CONCLUSIONS Organization and Coordination National Road Transportation Agency Shared R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Appropriate Technology Research Implications Rural Transport P r i o r i t y  ...  91 92 93 95 98 99  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Journals Governments, Organizations and I n s t i t u t i o n s Theses and Papers  100 103 104 106  vii LIST OF TABLES Page I.  A l l o c a t i o n o f D e v e l o p m e n t Funds i n t h e N a t i o n a l Development P l a n , 1962-68  First  II.  P r o d u c e Tonnage M o v e d t o T r a n s p o r t : 1969-72  of  III.  L e n g t h o f Roads Under, t h e J u r i s d i c t i o n o f Each L e v e l of Government i n N i g e r i a , 1972 (in kilometres)  Parts  by Mode  38 56  68  v n  LIST OF FIGURES AND  ILLUSTRATIONS Page  Figures 1.  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e of the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t , N i g e r i a  2.  Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Developing Country  Network  Federal  in a  61 65  Proposed O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e f o r the Federal M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t , N i g e r i a  ^7  Maps : 1.  L o c a t i on Map  2.  Nigerian  3.  Trans-Saharan  4.  Transportation and R a i l way  5.  iv  Natural  Waterways  Caravan  : Rivers  ^2  Routes  Networks  in N i g e r i a  ^ : Roads 44  Number o f P a s s e n g e r s U s i n g A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a : 1970/71 and 1 9 7 4 / 7 5 . .  Matri ces: 1.  Existing Structure Roads i n N i g e r i a  of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  2.  Shared R e s p o n s i b i l i t y A Proposal  3.  L e v e l s of R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by Governments i n Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N i g e r i a  for  for  Roads i n N i g e r i a :  5 2  i  ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This guidance  study  and e n c o u r a g e m e n t  McLoughlin their I  c o u l d have n o t been c o m p l e t e d w i t h o u t t h e  and P r o f e s s o r  busy s c h e d u l e s  am g r e a t l y  of my S u p e r v i s o r s ,  Dr.  P e t e r M.  Brahm Weisman, who t o o k t i m e  to d i s c u s s  my i d e a s  i n d e b t e d t o them.  from  and s u g g e s t new  My s p e c i a l  gratitude further  goes t o P r o f e s s o r  Brahm Weisman who p l a y e d a m a j o r r o l e  making my s t a y  Canada p o s s i b l e  financial  in  support.  I also  under whose s u p e r v i s i o n is -  study  e x t e n d e d t o t h e o t h e r members i.e.  Professors  valuable I  Craig  suggestions  will  also  like  Davis  Finally, Mrs.  Jones,  and Webster,  My g r a t i t u d e  o f my E x a m i n a t i o n C o m m i t t e e  study,  the  Akolade,  and Mr.  Funke S a l a w u , and M r s .  D.  i n N i g e r i a who  e s p e c i a l l y Mr.  g r a t i t u d e goes t o M r s .  and Mr.  encouragement.  Douglas  started.  t o t h a n k my f r i e n d s  Simeon  a special  moral  in  t h e y made.  Kathryn Coker, Miss  M i s s Lynn and  Mr.  was  his  and M i k e P o u l t o n - f o r  s e n t me some m a t e r i a l s f o r t h i s Kekereekun,  - through  have t o t h a n k Dr.  this  ones.  Michael  Matthew Awoyemi. Barbara  Miss  Tinglin,  Titilayo  Ajayi,,  Pollock for their  support  "Transportation  has  of the p e r v a s i v e other  social land  role  objectives.  gredient  special  every  development.  modities,  It  production, and  accessible.  of m o b i l i t y  Transport  of nearly  into  is  in  in-  aspect  of economic  and  plays  a key r o l e  forest  in  a significant  factor  in the expansion  conduct  of h e a l t h  and e d u c a t i o n  getting  agricultural  and m i n e r a l  industry,  of  facilitating  a necessary  ment o f  exchange  because  is  in marketing  in making It  significance  in  com-  wealth the  of t r a d e ,  develop-  in  p r o g r a m s , and i n  the the  ideas." (Owen, W i l f r e d : S t r a t e g y f o r M o b i l i t y , T r a n s p o r t R e s e a r c h P r o g r a m , The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1964, p. 1.)  1 CHAPTER  I.  INTRODUCTION Regional  Transportation  Planning:  The c o n c e p t o f R e g i o n a l  transportation planning  e x i s t e d f o r some t i m e and has Most r e g i o n a l gional  economic  1975 ; p p .  to the 41-45  d i c a t e d as marketing concern  development t h e o r i e s ,  'outside  & pp.  66-:73).  of produce.  for regional  involve  like,  t r a d e or  loca-  industrial  costs  are  location  has  planning  process  is  n o t been w e l l  in-  and for  probably  f o r the  is  (ed.):  A n o t h e r main f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e  facilities  re-  t h a t the r e g i o n  ( F r i e d m a n n and Alonso  transportation  ways.  F o r e x a m p l e , most  Transportation  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n achieving  world'  in various  theories  as w e l l .  an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n  "the planning  the  that  provision  structured  b a l a n c e and c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n "  for  (DeSalvo:  p.l). F o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t of  transportation infrastructural 1975,  itself  t h e o r i e s , a r e b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  accessible  1973,  and d e v e l o p m e n t  transportation planning  regional tion  planning  manifested  has  p.589).  network  is  r e g i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y of  f o r p e o p l e and goods  requirements It  any  is  ( F r i e d m a n n and A l o n s o  b e l i e v e d t h a t by " m o v i n g  from one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r , g r o w t h in. t h e s e p l a c e s  one o f t h e  transport  and a l o n g  connecting  (ed.):  goods and  facilitates  basic  people  economic  routes".  2 This  developmental  portation sector  role,which  sector,has  among  has  been a s s i g n e d t o t h e  c o n t r i b u t e d to the importance  governments;  all  over  the w o r l d .  The  resource  a l l o c a t i o n t o the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  sector,  to  sectors  is  the  other  importance  country amount is  of the n a t i o n a l  ascribed  such as  the U n i t e d S t a t e s  of the n a t i o n a l  p.588).  sector  the. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n total  national  development 1975,  p.53).  sector  portation  veloping served  by  sector  tively quate  is  some b a s i c  role  inadequate  isolated  There  importance still  transportation lagging (Hoover:  regions  pp.262-263). system  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Nigeria:  most  important  the  national  in the which  de-  are  These of  sectors.,  trans-  .  areas  the  They  due t o l a c k  networks.  of  current  hinder  facilities.  or d e p r e s s e d 1971,  per cent  of the  many a r e a s  the  example,  a l l o c a t i o n to other  problems  from t h e n a t i o n a l  communication  of  (ed.):.  to  For  in the  by f a r t h e s i n g l e ,  are s t i l l  annually,  given  20.0  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - , e s p e c i a l l y  countries.  countries  is  Republic  developed  and A l o n s o  countries.  allocations  of the  a  $200 b i l l i o n  f o r about  (Federal  In  of  significant  (Friedmann  resource  awareness  s i m i l a r . , to the  developed  resource  from c a p i t a l  sector,  developmental  accounted  relative compared  sector.  not more, emphasis  for Nigeria  this  sector  the d e v e l o p i n g  sector  This  judging  Despite  in  capital  plan  if  about  this  an i n d i c a t i o n  of America, a  investment,  Similar,  transportation  are  to the t r a n s p o r t  a l l o c a t e d to the t r a n s p o r t  1975,  economy,  of  trans-  The  are of  rela-  ade-  develop-  3 ment o f t h e s e a r e a s  is  p a r t l y dependent  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . structure  f o r the p r o v i s i o n  In  on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  v i e w of t h i s , t h e  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  w o u l d have t o be  r e o r i e n t e d to f a c i l i t a t e  these  areas.  'depressed' There  is  a call  of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  f o r adequate  process,  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o b l e m s cations  developments  much o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n strengthening governments making  structure is  Federal  be o r g a n i z e d  d i f f e r e n t parts  answer  to t h i s  division  a t t h e s t a t e and l o c a l crosses  these  problems  is is  level. impli-  transSince  boundaries,  r o l e o f t h e s t a t e and  Some k i n d of n a t i o n a l  study.  Ministry  The b a s i c  of T r a n s p o r t  local  decision-  question  and t h e  t o meet t h e needs f o r  is  approached  among t h e s e v e r a l  l a c k of adequate  of the r e g i o n  have  through  levels  of  facilities  identified,and a strategy suggested.  related  an  An  examination the  government.  w h i c h may be r e s p o n s i b l e  transportation  here  transportation  p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y  of powers  improvement  levels.  s t a t e and l o c a l  of t h i s  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m ( s ) the  level  o f t h e c o u n t r y more e f f e c t i v e l y .  question  of the e x i s t i n g  to  r e q u i r e d , a n d the development of such a  a concern  how can t h e  agencies, in  is  is  and t h e  and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f  not s u f f i c i e n t .  structure  easy access  planning  at the f e d e r a l  the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  is  facilities  e s p e c i a l l y at the n a t i o n a l  for e f f e c t i v e planning  portation  present  i n many  for dealing  for parts with  4 Definition  of t h e R e g i o n : -  The S t u d y  The d e f i n i t i o n o f a r e g i o n which focuses  on r e g i o n a l  regions  usually  planning.  can be i d e n t i f i e d d e p e n d i n g some c a s e s ,  is  Area:  Many t y p e s  on t h e p u r p o s e  a r e d e f i n e d i n terms  of B r i t i s h  Nigeria,  is  region,  in Canada,  i n the U n i t e d States  scales  strative  of r e g i o n s .  regions it  the p o i n t  of view of s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g a planning  in  Appalachian  a typical  broad c a t e g o r i e s  the case,  therefore,  The  o r Kwara S t a t e  be s a i d  Columbia  example  exist  region  is  region.  that a region  is  goals.  v i e w e d as  In  units  As an e x a m p l e , many s m a l l e r  form the B r i t i s h  can e a s i l y  regions  of o t h e r s .  of A m e r i c a , is  Even w i t h i n t h e s e  study  t o be s e r v e d .  an e x a m p l e o f t h e f o r m e r w h i l e t h e  of the l a t t e r . ferent  Columbia  of  in a  of p o l i t i c a l  w h i l e economic a c t i v i t i e s form the b a s i s province  necessary  admini-  This  being  defined  In  dif-  this  from  study,  a "geographic  space  organized  f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e s of a p l a n n i n g  political  authority"  a region  drawn  itself,  the n o t i o n  nation.  p.26).  Nigeria  or a g r o u p o f n a t i o n s . of a r e g i o n  is  social  The word  applies  used as a s t u d y  for other developing  economic,  1973,  can be an a r e a w i t h i n a n a t i o n a l  the n a t i o n study,  (Hoyle:  geographic Throughout  this  areas  in t h e i r struggle  another  d e f i n i t i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s  that  space,  a r e a and i n f e r e n c e s  countries  is  suggests  to the r u r a l  and p o l i t i c o - c u l t u r a l  'development'  This  of a may be  for  development.  term which r e q u i r e s study.  In many  a  instances,  5 p u r e l y economic c r i t e r i a is  used as  a measure  see O l a t u n b o s u n : definition  - e.g.  of development  1975,  pp.37-39).  of development  i n terms  development fore, zens  is  dimension  misleading  (Olatunbosun:  t o use  1975,  i t as  p.159).  alone  i m p o r t a n t components.  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  portant  while.• i n c r e a s e does n o t  is  more  p.39). only  an  and w h a t e v e r  a substitute  b e t t e r m e n t of  mean t h a t a n a t i o n  is  of the i n c r e a s e  A summary o f t h i s  is  its  for  For development  of t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n  consideration.  involves  there-  the  citi-  I n c r e a s e d Gross N a t i o n a l  The d i s t r i b u t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n ment and e n j o y m e n t  adequate  1975,  development,  (GNP),  discussion  n o t an  "development  t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l are  is  (Olatunbosun:  of  Product  detailed  o f GNP and p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e ,  i m p o r t a n t economic importance,it  (for This  because  t h a n p e r c a p i t a income g r o w t h " Growth,  Gross N a t i o n a l  Product  developing. to the b e t t e r -  also  an i m -  discussion  is  that  i n GNP may be an i n d i c a t o r o f d e v e l o p m e n t ,  c o n s t i t u t e development  by  it  itself.  The f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l aspirations basic  of the c i t i z e n s or  factors  c o n s t i t u t i n g development.  usually  involve  rather  than j u s t  At p r e s e n t  inhabitants  a significant structural improve  of the r e g i o n  Development  in N i g e r i a , there  is  will  change i n t h e  t h e income o f a few urban e v i d e n c e showing  and w i d e n i n g  rural-urban  income d i f f e r e n t i a l ,  comes u s u a l l y  more t h a n  50 p e r c e n t l o w e r t h a n  are  society  residents.  a substantial  with rural urban  in-  incomes  6 (Olatunbosun:  1975,  p.40).  Furthermore,  t h a t a m a j o r i t y of the people  in N i g e r i a are s t i l l  per  cent of the p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g  the  goal  in  output  of development s h o u l d that  is  then i m p l i e s t h a t r u r a l  Basic  economy  p a r t of the o v e r a l l  Assumptions  of the  One o f t h e b a s i c to  transportation  is  a single  service  majority.  has  assumptions  for  (DeSalvo:  1973,  of t h i s  of governments  the p r o v i s i o n  and a g e n c i e s  port sector.  It  is  will  enhance  also  national  rural  national  development.  It  i n the  Development  that  is  This  an  approaches  transportation analyzed  assumption  the b e l i e f of  is  r e l a t e d and  transportation is  are  de-  responsible facilities,  and a c t i v i t i e s of t h e s e of  transof  b r i n g about  A t t e m p t s w o u l d be made changes  improvement of the e x i s t i n g  govern-  the  assumed t h a t t h e i m p r o v e m e n t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network w i l l  this  though  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  the improvement  is  system.  t h a t even  and a g e n c i e s  e s t a b l i s h whether the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l result  is  p.380).  study  and m a i n t e n a n c e  a p r o p e r b a l a n c e o f t h e powers ments  advantage  s y s t e m w h i c h can be  p e n d e n t on each o t h e r i n an a d e q u a t e  levels  growth  of the i n t e g r a t e d  and management  or a s i n g l e  assumption  6 & 7),  economy.  t h a t each mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  different  pp.  t o be s t i m u l a t e d as  accepted here w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g .  Another  (80  Study:  planning  on a u n i f i e d b a s i s  author  to Olatunbosun,  be t o a c h i e v e a r a p i d  few and t h e r u r a l  fact  rural  e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d to the mutual  o f b o t h t h e urban  integral  i n view of the  in t h i s proposed  conditions  overall study  to  would in  Nigeria.  7 The b a s i c  premise  is  as  needed  economic bring  a basic  growth.  about  Objectives  transportation example. this  stitutional conducted  several sector  coordination  problems o f any  that  this  or  growth  will  country,  will  problems  be i d e n t i f i e d  is  Nigeria  structure,  as i t c o n c e r n s  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  problems  the o b j e c t i v e s  of t h i s  of t h i s study  an  of in-  planning  of t h e e x i s t i n g  objectives  is  the  The u n d e r s t a n d i n g  are the b a s i c  the  one o b j e c t i v e  framework w i t h i n which t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  speaking  regional  can be i d e n t i f i e d i n  developing  of t h e s e  Problems  recommendation erally  transportation  Study:  in N i g e r i a .  stitutional  that  development.  The a n a l y s i s  study.  is  infrastructure for national  national  are  assumptions  With proper  of the  There  of t h e s e  and  is  in-  solution  study.  Gen-  can be s t a t e d  as  fol1ows : a)  To show t h a t r u r a l factor  b)  for  regional  transportation development  To a n a l y z e  the problems  stitutional  framework  is  in  an  important  Nigeria;  of t h e e x i s t i n g  in-  for transportation  in  the  country; c)  To p r o p o s e  a strategy  portation,  in view of the i d e n t i f i e d  The f i r s t development for  regional  for  o b j e c t i v e concerns  framework  w i t h i n which  transportation  improving  rural  trans-  problems.  i t s e l f to the t h e o r e t i c a l a rationale  development.  can be  The s e c o n d  found and  third  8 objective  is  focused  situation  in  Nigeria.  Limitation In  and Scope  for  focused it  is  of  aspect.  this  study.  on r u r a l  study,  In  development  it  view of  is  a very  this,  In a g e n e r a l  existing  difficult  certain  sense,  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e  transportation  to the  Study:  any d e v e l o p m e n t a l  to cover every exists  on a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e o r y  this  limitations study  is  a n d , more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement  in N i g e r i a .  task  for  The r o l e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s u c h a- r o l e i n N i g e r i a  road in is  explored. A m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s available many  for  aspects  analysis. of  Very  development  study  in N i g e r i a  countries  are  o f d a t a , even  censuses,  are always  Okin  t h e amount  l i m i t e d data  the developed  o u t by T h e o p h i l u s  is  u s e d as  is  of  available  when d a t a s o u r c e s  standards. questioned  data for of  The r e l i a b i l i t y as  is  below:  The m a t u r e s c h o l a r who weaves i n t o h i s r e s e a r c h a s c a r l e t t h r e a d by n u m e r i c a l s y m b o l s and a n a l y s i s t o b r i g h t e n h i s s t u d y does so w i t h l i t t l e fuss or i n t e l l e c t u a l o s t e n t a t i o n , and w i t h him none s h o u l d q u a r r e l . The r e s u l t s of h i s l a b o r s c l e a r l y demonstrate the i m p o r t a n c e of q u a n t i t a t i v e methods. In A f r i c a t h i s s c h o l a r i s h a n d i c a p p e d by l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t and r e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y i n West A f r i c a . . . . T h e c o m p a r a t i v e a b s e n c e o f s t a t i s t i c s i s a f a c t o f l i f e i n N i g e r i a , and one must a c c e p t i t as a r e g r e t a b l e b u t u n a v o i d a b l e r e a l i t y f o r a number o f y e a r s t o come> ( O k i n : 1968, pp.23-24).  brought  9 This  situation  mental  is  still  t h e same t o d a y .  statistics  still  employed  t h e 1963  national  of d a t e .  population  A more r e c e n t  c a n c e l l e d f o r a number major  constraint  incorporated of A f r i c a , lustrate Sources  as  this  Nigeria. personal to  sources  the p r i m a r y  on  t h e y may be  v i e w of  had t o  all  out be  these,  a  d a t a w h i c h can  from o t h e r  in this  be  countries  study.  where  exists  in  have  Canada,  it  no o t h e r  for  this  is  sources  study.  Federal  w o u l d have  data  collection  been books and and some  publi-  govenment  development  plan  for  necessary  to r e l y  on  This  however  minimized  of  is  validating  Under normal  Ministry  been  for  national  in the c o u n t r y .  c o n t a c t w i t h the survey  available  the c u r r e n t  a few i n s t a n c e s ,  experiences  or a f i e l d  a r e based  i n 1973  of  develop-  may o f t e n be used t o i l -  sources  libraries  especially  situations  direct  the  Data:  In  experience  In  Examples  of d i s c u s s i o n s  in various  documents,  census  e s p e c i a l l y West A f r i c a ,  study,  cations  although  t o t h e amount  study.  Due t o t h e l i m i t e d in  census,  of r e a s o n s .  into this  a number of  in the c o u n t r y  population  exists  Most o f  the  circumstances,  of T r a n s p o r t  incorporated  in  i n t o the  Nigeria data  sources. O u t l i n e of the In  order  been d i v i d e d  Study: to achieve  into four  the o b j e c t i v e s  major c h a p t e r s .  of t h i s  study,  The f i r s t  it  chapter,  has  10 after  the  introduction, is  importance  of road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Experiences mental tive  concerned with e s t a b l i s h i n g  from o t h e r  r o l e of  purposes.  countries  transportation  work for  pertaining  are  problems  chapter.  the o r g a n i z a t i o n development,  observations  In  deals  and c o n c l u s i o n s  used f o r  In  from t h i s  the l a s t are  analysis with  the  chapter,  planning,  study  illustra-  w i t h an  and l a y s  the f o u r t h  proposed.  develop-  in the c o u n t r y ,  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n is  development.  to the  constantly  on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t ,  f o r the f o u r t h  of r u r a l  regional  The s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r  of t h e m a j o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n emphasis  in  the  a  strong  groundstrategy  to the chapter, stated.  benefit  CHAPTER  II  TRANSPORTATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT Introduction The r u r a l developing policy  1975,  is  countries.  stated  priority  sector  to r u r a l  people  is  social  of  (Federal  The c o n c e r n f o r  life  well  p.106).  c i t i z e n s as  countries  (Federal  countries.  also  evidences  not,  a t any  In  affect all  1 975 , p . 1 5 1 ; :  pp.539-542).  There are  as  the regions  and F r i e d m e n n  and t h e A p p a l a c h i a n  America  regions  e v i d e n c e d by t h e c o n c e r n  ment f o r t h e A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s p.58)  (Friedmann  is  region  and A l o n s o  turn  in the de- : 1975,  p.291).  to  o f an economy and A l o n s o in the  the  there  development  even  the  progresses"  not unique  of e c o n o m i c  lagging  in  rural  the developed c o u n t r i e s ,  (Olatunbosun:  countries  development  disparity  t h a t the process  stage,  brought  The need t o i m p r o v e development  gave  Nigeria,  is  of the  Republic of N i g e r i a ,  The p r o b l e m o f r e g i o n a l developing  sector  being  t h e n a m a j o r p r i o r i t y of r e g i o n a l  veloping  many  Plan of N i g e r i a  of economic a c t i v i t i e s which  1975,  of a l l  of  development  R e p u b l i c of  the r u r a l  and c u l t u r a l  (Olatunbosun,  "quality  Development  development  a b o u t by t h e low l e v e l the  i m p o r t a n t component  For e x a m p l e , t h e r e g i o n a l  in the N a t i o n a l  p.291).  affects  a very  are does equally  (ed.): 1975, developed  of t h e C a n a d i a n  govern-  ( T y r c h n i e w i c z and T a r i g r i : in the U n i t e d States  (ed.):  1975,  p.590).  1970,  of-  The  lagging  12 regions  everywhere  present  very  to s t i m u l a t e some e c o n o m i c instance,  it  is  grave  dynamism  shown t h a t " i t i s  problems  in these  in the attempt  regions.  n o t even c l e a r w h e t h e r  n o t a more a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y w o u l d be t o e n c o u r a g e migration apparent  o f p e o p l e and magnitude  reasonable  estimates  and T a n g r i : This regional  of  (ed):  chapter growth  investments of p r o b a b l e  1970, is  is  investments developing since  later  needed f a r o u t s t r i p s benefits','  f o r the d e v e l o p i n g  and p o l i c i e s f o r a s s e s s i n g this  strategy  (Ty r c h n i ewi cz  countries.  regional  many c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  already  of is  Such a  In  this  framework  development  development  c h a p t e r however,  and r e l a t i o n s h i p in  the d e v e l o p i n g  of  potentials.  have  t o be  of  These w i l l  in N i g e r i a  emphasis  is  In  noted  exist within a certain pattern  be  in  on  the  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  to  countries.  Reliance: The c o n c e p t o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s  the  any  f a c e d w i t h the problem of d e t e r m i n i n g a package  chapters.  regional  the  i n c e n t i v e s w i t h i n the regions  in r e l a t i o n to r e g i o n a l  theoretical  Self  from the r e g i o n , s i n c e  c u l t u r e , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s .  explored  out-  p.56).  by p r o v i d i n g  these regions  trade,  the  or  an a t t e m p t t o show t h a t t h e p r o m o t i o n  a preferable strategy strategy  industry  For  developing  nations  adverse  effects  brought  about  (West A f r i c a :  of d r o u g h t  the concern  now b e c o m i n g Jan.  i n the Sahel for  "self  1978,  region  sufficiency  popular  p.51).  The  of A f r i c a in the  in  has  pro-  13 duction of m i l l e t , meat and f i s h "  sorghum,  (West  maize, wheat, r i c e ,  A f r i c a : Jan.  1978,  sugar-cane,  p.51).  This  shows  need t o p u t p r i o r i t y on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h a main  income s o u r c e  p.20). the  There  is  improvment  the u r b a n policy  in the r u r a l  of  rural  conditions,  is  called for  at l e a s t  Therefore  come  areas  is  o f paramount  The d e v e l o p m e n t  a reorientation  i n many d e v e l o p i n g  theories  theories  of the r u r a l  such  as  near of  countries.  areas  may n o t o n l y  the  Regional  be d e -  economic  t h e l o c a t i o n and e c o n o m i c  show t h a t p r o d u c t i o n  f o r the  'outside  world  is  1975,  p p . 1 7 - 1 8 and p p . 2 0 7 - 2 4 3 ;  F r i e d m a n n . and A l o n s o  1975,  pp.332-357.)  instance,  Hoover  see  1  (For  also  details  de-  base  important element f o r development.  For  In  importance.  p e n d e n t on t h e s e l f - r e l i a n c e c o n c e p t . velopment  for  to a l e v e l  v i e w o f t h i s , t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e e c o n o m i c base o f rural  also  ( 0 1 a t u n b o s u n : 1 975 ,  t h e n no d o u b t t h a t t h e t i m e has  l i v i n g standards.  foci  areas  is  the  an  Hoover: (ed.):  states:  One a p p r o c h t o an e x p l a n a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l g r o w t h i s t h a t of t h e so c a l l e d " e c o n o m i c b a s e " . The e s s e n t i a l i d e a i s t h a t some a c t i v i t i e s i n a r e gion are p e c u l i a r l y " b a s i c " in the sense t h a t t h e i r g r o w t h l e a d s and d e t e r m i n e s t h e r e g i o n ' s o v e r a l l development; w h i l e o t h e r ('non basic') a c t i v i t i e s are s i m p l y consequences of the r e g i o n ' s o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t . . . . T h e u s u a l e c o n o m i c base t h e o r y i d e n t i f i e s b a s i c a c t i v i t i e s as t h o s e w h i c h b r i n g i n money f r o m t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , g e n e r a l l y by p r o d u c i n g goods o r s e r v i c e s f o r e x p o r t " ( H o o v e r : 1975, pp.218-219). This  statement  is  supported  by C h a r l e s  T i e b o u t when he w r o t e  14 that a region's exports  growth  is  closely  and may t a k e p l a c e . e i t h e r as  position  of e x i s t i n g  a result  of the development 1975,  exports  Alonso  (ed.):  above,  that production  for  satisfying  development. sufficiency Policies  rt  the case,  is  demands  are  should  be s t r u c t u r e d  the b e n e f i t of  in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  ment?  The answer  to t h i s  of Rural  Development  This  patterns  p.16).  countries  of  For  instance,  considered  p o v e r t y , more t h a n  or  as  and the  production for  regional  self-  both  com-  economy.  t o be r a i s e d  i n many  This  here  rural  is:  develop-  chapter.  Opportunities: developing  nations  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  contrary  (O'Connor:  to the usual  and g r e a t e r  of growth "of  1971,  t o be i n e i t h e r a b s o l u t e  in or  80 p e r c e n t a r e e s t i m a t e d t o  p.145).  in  Bank:  the p o p u l a t i o n  with  objective  equity  (Word!  is  de-  i f not e n t i r e l y , c o i n c i d e  employment  the b e n e f i t s  as  them, i . e .  t o enhance  urbanism  trend is  productive  distribution  rougly,  areas  important  regional  Employment  sector.  o f modern  developmental  expanding  1975,  resources  as w e l l  an o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s  policies  c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e urban  spatial  is  improved  (Friedmann  i n s u c h a way t h a t  the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n  Provision  the  its  n o t be c a r r i e d t o an e x t r e m e .  investment  velopmental  very  on any one o f  How i s  a)  of  of  t h e r e f o r e c l e a r , from  f o r outs i d e m a r k e t  or e x p o r t s ,  for  a result  o f new e x p o r t s "  Concentration  should  to the success  r e l a t i v e to competing  p.348).  internal  p l e m e n t each o t h e r being  tied  of  the  Feb.  developing relative  live  in  rural  15 areas" cal  (World  Bank:  Feb.  1975,  p.4).  t h e r e f o r e t h a t more e m p h a s i s employment  heavy  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n alone which  the panacea  mental  policies  "without  rural  opportunities.  for a nation  1975,  p.160).  In  other words,  p a r t o f the if  a large  rural  segment  Labour is  rural  everyone Feb.  has  1975,  scarce, income  these,  developthat  substantial in  by t h e W o r l d  Cento:  Bank.  ought to c o n s t i t u t e a major of t h e d e v e l o p i n g  in g r e a t e s t  need a r e t o  countries, benefit  i n A f r i c a show t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l  countries,  for  and a r e a s  some c o n n e c t i o n  the r u r a l  Data  areas.  close  is  rural  t h e most  For example,  people  the q u e s t i o n help  is  important in N i g e r i a in  rela-  Bank: though  source  of  "over  agricultural  1 975 , p . 5 ) .  the p r o v i s i o n  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  the  almost  (World  activities,  a r e engaged  how w i l l  o f some  to c i t i e s ,  with a g r i c u l t u r e "  concerning  employ-  75 t o 85 p e r c e n t o f  a c t i v i t i e s " (Olatunbosun:  transportation  to  regarded  Their  " w i t h the p a r t i a l e x c e p t i o n  p.21).  and p a s t o r a l  of  1 975 , p . 1 6 ) .  80 per c e n t o f t h e r u r a l  of  supported  strategies  show t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e in  be  ( S h a v e r and F i s c h e r ,  the p r i n c i p l e o c c u p a t i o n  advanced  can no l o n g e r  countries.  development  of those  surveys  population;  tively  partly  development  (World Bank: Feb.  ment  is  logi-  given  t h e r e can be no sound o r  to d e v e l o p "  This  is  be r e o r i e n t e d t o w a r d t h e b e l i e f  development  basis  seem  to the p r o v i s i o n  I n s t e a d emphasis  f o r the developing should  would o n l y  be g i v e n  rural  as  It  of  In  view  better  s e c t o r w h i c h employs  a  16 majority  of the  rural  people.  In  data f o r N i g e r i a , e x p e r i e n c e s  the absense of  from o t h e r  to be s u f f i c i e n t t o show t h e p o t e n t i a l The b e s t from a n o t h e r similar  West  of  problem i s  country  specific  will  have  transportation. t o t a k e an  example  w h i c h may be assumed t o  from Ghana w i l l  increase  the p r o d u c t i o n  employment  i n Ghana  (West A f r i c a n  Research:  1956,  of  be p r o p e r  f o o d and  Institute  pp.63-73).  In  have  structures  as  in t h i s  c a r e f u l l y o u t l i n e d how t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  help  Economic  countries  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l  An e x p e r i e n c e  M. N i c u l e s c u  roads  to t h i s  African  economic,  Nigeria. B.  approach  any  wise.  of  agricultural  of S o c i a l  the s t u d y ,  and  Niculescu  stated: T h e r e i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t one o f t h e main r e a s o n s f o r t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f l o c a l , as o p p o s e d t o o v e r a l l , f o o d s h o r t a g e s has been the r a p i d i n c r e a s e in communication f a c i l i t i e s throughout the c o u n t r y . The v a r i o u s , sometimes f a i r l y l a r g e , b i t s and p i e c e s s t i l l e x i s t i n g i n i s o l a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e war and m a k i n g up t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t known as t h e G o l d . C o a s t have t o d a y been t o a l a r g e e x t e n t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o one s i n g l e e x c h a n g e a r e a . . . . T h i s i s due i n p a r t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f a i r l y good main r o a d s y s t e m and i n p a r t t o t h e e x p a n s i o n i n t h e number o f l o r r i e s " ( N i c u l e s c u : 1956, p . 7 0 ) . The r o l e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n cultification areas  was  documented  i n many c o u n t r i e s  resources,  especially  B a n k : Feb.  1975,  feeder roads,  in t h i s  suffer  number  In  land  more  article.  from l i m i t e d  productive  p.21).  "the  in bringing  land  The  access  under  rural to  for agriculture  natural (World  Ghana, w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  of r o a d s i d e  villages  within  50  of miles  17 of A c c r a s u p p l y i n g  t h e town w i t h f o o d s t u f f s  50 p e r c e n t between 1952 of S o c i a l  and E c o n o m i c  and 1954"  Research:  (West A f r i c a n  1956,  p e o p l e engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e a l s o struction In lar  of t h e f e e d e r r o a d s ,  concluding this experiences  case;  and T r i p a t h i : 1972  the s p e c i f i c s  differ  are  involved, it  total  e f f e c t o f new r o a d s  profound" b)  is  i m p o r t a n t to s t a t e  (Stanley,  1966,  deals  is  not  i n many  studies,  in developing  in E k i s t i e s :  supplementary Bank:  Feb.  areas, sources  1975,  engaged i n t h e s e textiles  p.22).  income f o r  industry,  The o b j e c t i v e o f e x p a n d i n g a concern  public  policies  of N i g e r i a :  1975,  of  simi-  the  While vari-  rural  Areas:  households  in the r u r a l  sector  of  In many c a s e s  are  include dyeing,  p.19).  the r u r a l  (e.g.  in-  important  areas  pottery, 1975,  and  (World  economy  l e d - to the r u r a l  of many c o u n t r i e s p.67).  p.59).  of t h e work  metal work,  "the  indeed  a c t i v i t i e s are  (Olatunbosun:  this  is  a c t i v i t i e s which  of g o v e r n m e n t s , and i t has  diversification  most  A few p e o p l e  c a l a b a s h , and l e a t h e r w o r k i n g  that  case).  countries  in the Rural  non-agricultural  and c l o t h i n g  accessible.  and w h i l e many  J a n . 1972,  non-agricultural of  con-  f a r f e t c h e d to conclude t h a t  F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s  in r u r a l  of  deals with a Venezuelan  Though a g r i c u l t u r e p r o v i d e s comes  parts  w i t h an I n d i a n  among t h e s e  ables  The number  and more l a n d was made  section, it  (Soberman:  p.72).  about  Institute  i n c r e a s e d w i t h the  have been documented  developing nations  i n c r e a s e d by  is  economic  Federal  Re-  the d i v e r s i f i -  18 cation  strategy  activities location  involves  in the r u r a l  strategies  preneurship  to  areas.  However,  in the d e v e l o p i n g  and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s  mann and A l o n s o prefer  the l o c a t i o n of small  live  (ed.):  1975,  in the major c i t i e s  ment, f a c i 1 i t i e s , and s e r v i c e s . to the r u r a l opportunity  areas of  areas  settlements dustries tion  showing  of re 1 i a b l e  can a c t as  Von Thunen  July  people  labour  have  force  (Fried-  technicians  f o r easy access  1976,  in  in the statement  between a l l  an i n c e n t i v e of  and o t h e r s costs  p.44).  the lower p r o d u c t i o n  transportation  enter-  neglected  transportation  and e f f e c t i v e l i n k s  how t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  in E k i s t i c s : cost,  w h i l e the r u r a l  industrial  Managers and  These  and o t h e r ' n e c e s s i t i e s  costs.  countries,  industrial  to  employ-  t o be  is  induced  given  an  training.  The p r o v i s i o n rural  in these  are u s u a l l y  p.626).  scale  regional  tends  f o r the life'  network  categories  d i d some work  the  t o become.  development  is  of  transporta-  in t h i s  production  The h i g h e r  the  1 o c a t i o n . of^in-  by r e d u c i n g  affects  for  field,  (Hecht,  transportation  The  importance  c l e a r l y brought  below:  Our t o p i c t o d a y c o n c e r n s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e g i o n a l g r o w t h . I t i s an i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t , f o r developments in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n u n d e r l i e a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e change t h a t has been o c c u r r i n g i n the p a t t e r n of r e g i o n a l growth i n Canada. A m a j o r new h i g h w a y , such as 401 i n O n t a r i o can shape t h e p a t t e r n o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n the e n t i r e s o u t h e r n h a l f of a p r o v i n c e . The l o c a t i o n o f m a j o r new a i r p o r t s can a f f e c t t h e g r o w t h o f the e n t i r e r e g i o n i n which they are l o c a t e d . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e jumbo j e t s o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p o r t s t o h a n d l e c o n t a i n e r i z e d s h i p p i n g can have  of  out  19 similar far-reaching regional and T a n g r i : 1970 , p.2 ). Therefore,  transportation  activities  in the low-income areas  h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l  lacking  i n many p a r t s  economic  quality  growth  p.152).  rural  population  In  of mobile medical  which are  areas.  and d e v e l o p m e n t  order  to r a i s e  in N i g e r i a ,  It  has  units  presently  been  shown  transportation  is  needed i n t h e r u r a l  good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  areas  t o make f a c i l i t i e s  rural  populace.  The m a r k e t i n g c o s t p a r t of p r o d u c t i o n  p p . 1 0 9 - 1 1 2 and H e c h t ,  transportation  of a s u b s i s t e n c e  is  In  the  use  For  this  has  needed i n t h e  always  J u l y 1976,  Rural been  to  p.44).  rural the  'Objectives':: considered  In  suggested that  the market w i t h i n economic  one w o u l d e x p e c t t h e  of  conclusion  more a c c e s s i b l e  t o Von Thunen  brings  economy,  the  o r some o t h e r mode areas.  the  of  ( f o r e x a m p l e see O l a t u n b o s u n :  in E k i s t i c s :  according  p.153).  for Achieving  of p r o d u c t s  cost  recommended  1975,  network  and s e r v i c e s  The P o t e n t i a l o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  theory,  roads  facili-  (Olatunbosun:  the h e a l t h standards  (Olatunbosun:  t o be p r a c t i c a l ,  location  help  by c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  Olatunbosun  recommendation  better  may  and p r o d u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e p e o p l e  therefore,  Also,  t h a t good h e a l t h and b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n  1975,  as  areas  facilities  of the r u r a l  economic  of the c o u n t r y .  in the r u r a l  attract  tates  (Tyrchniewicz  can be used t o s t i m u l a t e  good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e t w o r k s  by some a u t h o r s  effects"  1975, fact if reach  subsistence  20 economy  t o change  (Hecht:  pete w i t h o t h e r r e g i o n s world', 1971,  comparative  p.12).  volume  in supplying  advantage  These  authors  stated  other  (Kraft,  fore  advantage  of p r o v i d i n g  its  to o t h e r  regions,  national  and/or  (Kraft,  enabling  demand  Marketing As  developing  has  of  This  in e f f e c t  growth:  advantage.  There-  development  con-  advantage  a larger  share  relative of  for certain  products  rural  of  the  Produce:  been p o i n t e d o u t , t h e  countries  are  agricultural  improve  conditions  offered  for better agricultural  in t h i s  and l o c a t i o n t h e o r i e s  portation will to market costs,  the  efficiency  region's  i n economic  to secure  international  ( K r a f t , et a l . :  advantage  p.12).  to t h a t  com-  'outside  "its  goods a t an  w i t h an e c o n o m i c it  to  e t a l . : 1971 , p . 1 3 ) .  a)  trade  is  and a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  a region  to the  important  et a l . : 1971,  the r o l e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  sists  is  is  t h a t what d e t e r m i n e s  means t h a t t h e r e a r e two components a production  a region  exchange  and d i s t r i b u t i n g  regions"  If  produce  o f each  and d i r e c t i o n o f a r e g i o n ' s  in m a n u f a c t u r i n g over  1976,' p . 4 4 ) .  have  acting  (Tripathi:  1972,  tion  on t h e  costs  as  p.24).  an  in nature.  effects.  products  view of  improved  Greater  may r e d u c e  interregional  of changes  example  be the trans-  transportation  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  can b e t t e r be shown by t h e f o l l o w i n g  to  access  i n c e n t i v e due t o g r e a t e r  The e f f e c t s  order  should  In  mentioned above,  most  In  incentives,  production.  some p o s i t i v e  for agricultural  thereby  sector,  areas  in  profit  transporta-  activities  from K r a f t  and  21 others : Say t h a t a c o u n t r y c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e r e g i o n s , I, I I , and I I I . With r e s p e c t to a p a r t i c u l a r c o m m o d i t y , oranges-, f o r i n s t a n c e , two of t h e r e g i o n s a r e i n a s i t u a t i o n where t h e y can p r o duce t h i s c o m m o d i t y , t h e t h i r d r e g i o n b e i n g the consumer of o r a n g e s . R e g i o n s I and II can grow o r a n g e s a t A and B, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a t c o s t s o f $10 and $6. C l e a r l y , R e g i o n II ( w h i c h , we m i g h t assume, has t h e same s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o R e g i o n I I I as R e g i o n I) has an a d v a n t a g e i n growing oranges. F o r b o t h r e g i o n s , assume t h a t the t r u c k l i n e s c o n n e c t i n g the producing c e n t e r s t o t h e m a r k e t a r e a r c h a i c , and a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s .  old road new road I l l u s t r a t i v e Example of Comparative Advantage F u r t h e r assume t h a t i t c o s t s $8 t o move o r a n g e s f r o m B to M and $5 f r o m A t o M ( a l t h o u g h i n s t r a i g h t l i n e AB = BM). A l t h o u g h t h e BM l i n e i s more i n e f f i c i e n t t h a n AM, t h i s i n e f f i c i e n c y i s more t h a n overcome, by t h e p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l between A and B ( s o t h a t R e g i o n II w i l l s p e c i a l i z e i n o r a n g e g r o w i n g , s i n c e a t t h e m a r k e t , i t s p r o d u c t s w i l l s e l l a t a l o w e r p r i c e . , 14, as opposed t o 1 5 . f o r p r o d u c t s o f R e g i o n I. I t i s , howe v e r , p o s s i b l e f o r R e g i o n I t o i m p r o v e i t s s y s t e m and  22 t o e s t a b l i s h a more d i r e c t t r u n k l i n e , w h i c h w o u l d , f o r i n s t a n c e , c u t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s by h a l f . In t h a t c a s e , t h e a d v a n t a g e o f R e g i o n II has been d e s t r o y e d and A w i l l now grow o r a n g e s s i n c e a t t h e market i t s p r o d u c t s are cheaper (12.5 V s . 1 4 ) . This is t r u e o n l y i f R e g i o n II does n o t r e t a l i a t e , by a l s o e s t a b l i s h i n g a more d i r e c t l i n e . In t h a t c a s e , R e g i o n II w o u l d r e g a i n i t s a d v a n t a g e (10 V s . 1 2 . 5 ) ( K r a f t , e t a l . : 1971 , pp. 1 3 - 1 4 ) . This  example c l e a r l y shows t h e a d v a n t a g e  in  influencing production.  as  a substitute for  gion).  If  on-site  transportation instance, greater  clusion,  inducing  the  growth  since  In  can be s a i d  t h a t a very  profitable  his  Movement  needs  needed t o a t t e n d f a i r s  While t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  (re-  a critical  of For  cost  In  con-  factor  the e x t e n t to which  as  for  in other  In  an  generating countries, to  a t a p l a c e where he may s e c u r e a ( T r i p a t h i : 1972,  i n any community the r u r a l  are  p.24).  Purposes:  and f e s t i v a l s  linkages  is  will  i m p o r t a n t need o f t h e f a r m e r i s  produce  considerations.  production  e c o n o m i c endowment  for Socio-cultural  Transportation  taken  no amount  be a t an a d v a n t a g e .  determines  produce  price for his  be  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ,  be a b l e t o m a r k e t  is  if on-site  still  it  not  at the s i t e  too h i g h ,  t h e r e f o r e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n becomes  exports.  economic  is  improvement  since B w i l l  should  transportation  i n d u c e more p r o d u c t i o n .  example,  a r e a can c a p i t a l i z e on i t s  b)  cost  improvement w i l l  t h a n $14 a t A,  in r e g i o n a l  it  however  production cost  production  i n t h e above  have no e f f e c t  This  of b e t t e r  areas,  extends  beyond  transportation  ( T r i p a t h i : 1972,  needed t o f a c i l i t a t e  P.26).  the  23 movement  of produce  be f a c i l i t a t e d rural  areas.  to market,  in order  "rural-rural  country"  (Olatunbosun:  migration fact  is  is  relationships  in N i g e r i a ,  migration 1975,  there  exists  p.32).  brought  movement  out by t h e  is  is  The c a u s e pressure  an i m p o r t a n t  statement  ought  within  parts  of t h i s  to  the  evidence  in s e v e r a l  a t t r i b u t e d to population  that r u r a l - r u r a l  Nigeria  t o enhance  For example,  ing t h a t  i n t r a - r u r a l movement  showof  the  type  on l a n d .  of  The  phenomenon  in  below:  Some l a n d l e s s f a r m e r s , who w o u l d s t i l l l i k e t o c o n t i n u e f a r m i n g , move t o o t h e r r u r a l a r e a s where l a n d c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r f a r m i n g on perhaps a s h a r e - c r o p p i n g b a s i s . Movements o f t h i s nature occur across the Niger from the E a s t - C e n t r a l t o t h e Mtd-!Wesfern -Statej: Some f a r m e r s f r o m t h e o v e r - c r o w d e d a r e a s o f U d i and Awka, as w e l l as f r o m I s o k o d i s t r i c t i n t h e N i g e r D e l t a , c r o s s t h e N i g e r a t O n i t s h a and engage p r i m a r i l y i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f yams and Cassava f o r s a l e t o the n e i g h b o u r i n g urban markets o f O n i t s h a and Asaba ( O l a t u n b o s u n : 1 9 7 5 , p . 3 2 ) . While  this  poses, s o c i a l migrants it  is  other  1972,  necessitate  are  back  those  who aim a t a c h i e v i n g  the f a i r s from o t h e r  pp.26-27).  All  these  of  economic  For  employment  a c e r t a i n goal 1975,  and f e s t i v a l s  in the v i l l a g e s ,  villages  detail,  these  w i t h i n the r u r a l  see  a c t i v i t i e s require areas.  instance, and  rural-rural  (Olatunbosun:  (for  pur-  rural-rural  rural  a c t i v i t i e s , many o f t h e  t o t h e i r own v i l l a g e s  people  purely  villages.  due to t h e s e a s o n a l i t y  socio-cultural  portation  for  to r e t u r n to t h e i r o r i g i n a l  Furthermore, many  considerations  shown t h a t  migrants going  may seem a m o v e m e n t  before  p.31). attract  Tripathi:  a form of  trans-  24 c)  O t h e r Uses o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n It  source  of  order  should  in the r u r a l  include to  cultural  been shown t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e  income  therefore In  has  conditions  be made r e a d i l y 1973,  p.216).  brought  to the r u r a l crops  accessible  areas  These r e q u i r e a v e r y  usually  if  countries  (Hoyle:  areas,  will  sector.  many a g r i -  to the p o t e n t i a l o f the to the r u r a l  have  of c u l t i v a t i o n a l s o  t h e i r production  area  population  is  to new  have  to  be varto  improve.  where f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t  1973,  of roads w i l l  of t h e e x t e n s i o n  development  r e l i a b l e form of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y  r e q u i r e d to c a r r y  good n e t w o r k  important  and i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g  be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e f a r m e r s  more d e s i r a b l e  a very  F e r t i l i z e r s and p e s t i c i d e s  and new methods  the developing  Rural  in the r u r a l  and i n f o r m a t i o n as  (Hoyle:  in  areas.  is  Areas:  the improvement of the a g r i c u l t u r a l  improve  inputs  i e t i e s ; - of  in the Rural  p.217).  Extension  innovations  is  officers  to the r u r a l  areas  be r e q u i r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e  the  still are and a duties  workers.  C o n c l u s i on : The r e g i o n a l countries, view. certain  have  impacts  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , in the  been s u r v e y e d  developing  from the t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t  Some e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e s  have  been  of  used t o i l l u s t r a t e  aspects  of t h i s  c h a p t e r , e s p e c i a l l y where o t h e r means  of e s t a b l i s h i n g  a point  is  the  theory  indicates  here r e l a t e s that other  not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  growth  to r e g i o n a l  intra-regional  exports  a c t i v i t i e s are  Basically, but  it  also  necessary  25 for  regional  development.  transportation ment  b)  can  capitalize  its  on  exports  e t a l . : 1971,  for  that  develop-  purposes.  for socio-cu1tural  simply  "Farmers  communities  t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l  p.5).  generaand  which  are  sector  does  from the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f l a n d but  also  facilities  have  t h a t what t h e y  remain  slowly  f o r moving  what  no i n c e n t i v e t o grow  ignorant  and new t e c h n i q u e s ,  travels  can  p.23);  necessary  know from e x p e r i e n c e  1964,  (Kraft,  endowment  movements  inadequate  new i d e a s  economic  an a r e a  it facilitates intra-regional  suffer  duced.  else,  shows  f a c t o r in regional  the e x t e n t to which  t h e r e f o r e be s a i d  from the  lated  an i m p o r t a n t  i t determines  ting  only  t h e o r e t i c a l survey  because a)  It  becomes  This  for  on mud r o a d s  grow  is.already  surpluses  cannot  when  be moved.  of market o p p o r t u n i t i e s information, like or  not  prothey Isoor  of  everything  primitive t r a i l s "  (Owen:  26 CHAPTER  III  TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS AND POLICIES  IN  NIGERIA  Intro duct ion : Over  the  last  f i v e decades  have e x p e r i e n c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t methods  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  p.127).  Rapid  u r b a n i z a t i o n , which in the  teristic  of these  Nigeria,  grew f r o m n e a r l y  This  urbanization  urban are  regions.  areas  usually  overall policy  process  countries  and p r o v i d e  has  assistance  n o t been a b l e within  is  1976,  (01atunbosun:  p.7).  concentracharac-  range  In  short,  The most  the  this an  suggest  support  of a d v i s o r y  assis-  and t e c h n i c a l  these  governments"  countries  t h a t are  noticeable  p.32).  regarding  i n i t i a t i v e s on t h e p a r t o f p.6).  to  of  to take  studies,  f l o w of f i n a n c i a l  of  the  causes of  suggestions  after feasibi6i1ity  in  congestion  of e x p e r t i s e  give  1950 1975,  problems  The main  t o cope w i t h t h e changes  t h e i r boundaries.  1971,  a major  i n s t i t u t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n  stifles  and Tome:  from the  the massive  a w i d e and c o m p r e h e n s i v e  also  and  (O'Connor:  areas,  l e d t o many  a t t r i b u t e d to the " l a c k  t a n c e . . . . Lack o f an a s s u r e d  (Tandom  i n 1970  ( W o r l d Bank: 1 9 7 5 ,  p a t t e r n of  living  a quarter of a m i l l i o n in  v i e w , b u i l d up s y s t e m s ,  a proper  results  urban  - especially  f o r m u l a t i o n , look  i n ways o f  countries  For e x a m p l e , L a g o s , t h e c a p i t a l  one and a h a l f m i l l i o n  developing  change  the d e v e l o p i n g  and c o m m u n i c a t i o n  t i o n of major a c t i v i t i e s  about  or s o ,  taking  changes  have  place have  27 occurred  in the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  instance, creased this  between  by a b o u t  1946 17.5  period, there  capacity,  sector  and 1 9 5 7 , per cent  has  of these  traffic  tonnage  (Ekundare:  by r o a d  1973,  been a c o n s i d e r a b l e  c o m f o r t , and e a s e  countries.  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  in-  p.253).  improvement in the  For  Since in  the  developing  countries. Changes  in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  t h e way p e o p l e organizes allows  its  for  l i v e and has activities.  large-scale  technology  a strong  located  1 966 , p . 3 8 9 ) . has  production  Improvements  People  do n o t  usually  The s e m i - r u r a l  now w i t h i n  the r e a c h  of access  pendence the it  on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  increase necessary  networks enjoy  the  in sub-urban  leisure  centres of  has  1975,  dwellers  of the  because  about  cities. which  of  is  the develop-  greater  t o depend on  downtown.  are  1975,  The  p.364).  i.e.  or  example,,  dwelling  developments  to perform t h e i r d u t i e s ,  for  (Hoover:  district.  brought  residential  facilities  i n most  sub-urban  business  (Hoover:  f o r more urban  in order  transportation,  urban w o r k e r s  ment o f b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  to  (Lansing:  t h e i r work p l a c e s ,  atmosphere  to the c e n t r a l  space  patterns  the c i t y  o f many  transportation  between d i f f e r e n e t p a r t s  in urban  to l i v e near  society  and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , due  in r e s i d e n t i a l  l o c a t e d in or near  p.365).  ease  have  affected  i m p a c t on t h e way  in d i f f e r e n t geographic  l e d t o a change  greatly  Cheap and e f f i c i e n t  the r e l a t i v e ease o f communication components  has  de-  For  example,  has  made  transportation  shop,  work,  or  28 Generally, capacity makes  permits  possible  dependable greater  t h e r e f o r e , an  in  transportation  a more e f f e c t i v e a b r i d g e m e n t  faster,  safer,  s e r v i c e , which  movement  (Tyrchniewicz  increase  cheaper,  and T a n g r i :  make t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  very  parts  as  o f an economy  1970,  per  p.48).  important  distance.  more f l e x i b l e ,  in t u r n a l l o w s  o f goods and p e o p l e  of  and  or e n c o u r a g e s u n i t of These  more  a  time  characteristics  in development  shown by t h e s t a t e m e n t  It  in  all  below:  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l t o a modern economy: t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r r e s t s upon i t . Both g e o g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n based on d i s s i m i l a r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and t h e i n t e r n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and use of machinery c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f mass p r o d u c t i o n r e s t on t r a n s p o r t . Improvements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can have m a j o r i n d i r e c t r e s u l t s . . . . A d e c i s i o n i n t h e 1930s t o i m p r o v e n a v i a g a t i o n on t h e T e n n e s s e e R i v e r helped to r e v o l u t i o n i z e the p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y in G e o r g i a in the 1950s. S i n c e the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n r e s t s on t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n them, This i n t e r e s t takes the form both of a concern w i t h t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t and w i t h p r e v e n t i n g any d i s t o r t i o n of t h e i r use. C o n t r o l of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m o f an a r e a by a p r i v a t e m o n o p o l y , i f u n c h e c k e d , would c a r r y p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o l of the economic l i f e of t h a t a r e a ( T y r c h n i e w i c z and T a n g r i : 1 9 7 0 , p p . 3 8 9 - 3 9 0 ) . From t h e s t a t e m e n t Chapter  II,  economic  one can say  growth  above  and what has  that there  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  is  a strong The  t h e l a n d and p a t t e r n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n living  of the p o p u l a t i o n  affecting  economic  Osayimwese:  1974,  i n any  and s o c i a l p.387).  country  progress  This  is  been d i s c u s s e d link  between  interaction  between  and t h e s t a n d a r d is  a critical  (Filani  n o t t o say  of  factor  and that  in  trans-  p o r t a t i o n alone has  special  mobility  significance  ingredient  development.  production, making  expansion  is  enhanced stimuli  chaper  portation  will has  of t h e p a s t  the conduct  focussed  mention of the magnitude in developing pp.  countries  is  in  p.l).  phenomenon.  w i t h i n which justified  policies  economic, country.  8 1 - 8 2 ; and Tandon and Tome:  the the is  current p l a c e d upon  the t r a n s p o r t  and c o o r d i n a t i o n  1 976 ,  see  World  p.6).  trans-  deficiencies  in view of the  instance  of  p.l).  of the  emphasis  in  the  by t r a c i n g t h e r o l e w h i c h  Special  into  a  1964,  f o r meeting the  development;  and  education  be an i s o l a t e d  o f manpower (for  is  and  (Owen:  and t h e p o t e n t i a l o f  strategies.  emphasis  of h e a l t h  aspirations  a  land and  industry,  et a l . : 1971,  in n a t i o n a l  strategies;  It  on t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and p o l i t i c a l  played  This  commodities,  ideas"  is  i n t e r a c t i o n of a v a r i e t y  (Kraft,  i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework  operates.  of  by t h e  be a p p r o a c h e d  transportation the  is  in g e t t i n g  of  of  of economic  wealth a c c e s s i b l e .  and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l  socio-cultural, task  in  role  Transport  aspect  agricultural  t h e r e f o r e , can n o t  o t h e r economic  in N i g e r i a  every  a key r o l e  in the exchange  Transportation  This  plays  transportation  of the " p e r v a s i v e  in the development  of t r a d e ,  impact  of n e a r l y It  But  other o b j e c t i v e s .  and m i n e r a l  factor  p r o g r a m s , and  This  because  in m a r k e t i n g  forest  significant  Its  t h e key t o p r o g r e s s .  in f a c i l i t a t i n g  necessary social  is  Bank:  sector constant problems 1974,  30 Historical In  a developing  general desire  Development  concern  Nigeria  spective achieve will  Transportation:  country, transport  such as N i g e r i a , planning  t o promote r a p i d e c o n o m i c  Osayimwese: in  for  of  1974, can  best  and t h i s this  p.387).  is  development  (Filani  of  the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s  Consequently,  a  section.  development  will  and  perTo  policies  to the independent  two main t o p i c s  the  transportation  be a r t i c u l a t e d f r o m a h i s t o r i c a l  o b j e c t i v e , the c o l o n i a l  is  in the c o n t e x t of  The d e v e l o p m e n t  be e x a m i n e d and compared  policies.  there  government's  be d e a l t  with  i n th i s sect ion:  The rule  a)  transportation  development  under  b)  transportation  development  after  importance is  well  of  transportation  portrayed  colonial  in N i g e r i a  by t h e f o l l o w i n g  rule;  and  independence. during  colonial  statement:  Improved t r a n s p o r t and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a r e f u n d a mental to a l l o t h e r types of development. There was no doubt t h a t a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t r a n s p o r t d i f f i c u l t i e s were among t h e most i m p o r t a n t and u r g e n t p r o b l e m s f a c i n g N i g e r i a . I t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e B r i t i s h government t o have e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e r e l a t i v e l y new d i s t r i c t w h i c h had been a c q u i r e d . The movements o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s up and down t h e c o u n t r y , and t h e r e g u l a r i t y o f e f f e c t i v e comm u n i c a t i o n s between t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s and t h e r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a t i o n s , were i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o any good g o v e r n m e n t . This could be made p o s s i b l e o n l y w i t h i m p r o v e d and modern s y s t e m s o f t r a n s p o r t and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . As f a r as t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f N i g e r i a was c o n c e r n e d t h e r e was a g r e a t need t o i n t r o d u c e b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t and communication s y s t e m s i n o r d e r t o q u i c k e n t h e pace  31 o f the t r a n s i t i o n f r o m a p r e d o m i n a n t l y subsistance economy t o a modern e x c h a n g e economy.(Ekundare: 1973, p.127). The d e v e l o p m e n t therefore that  a very  country.  an e s s e n t i a l Prior its  important  up t h e c o u n t r y  factor for  the beginning  traders strong in  of  a navigable Benue seen  the e a s i e s t  Firstly, several  river  provided f r o m Map  the r i v e r s .  f o r the  people miles  2; most a r e a s these  trees  (Ekundare:  in  of the c o u n t r y  dense  forest  districts  or  for  depended  the  for  of  is  1973, use  of  on f o o t  In  1973,  fact  river  p.46).  of the c o u n t r y  bush t r a c k s (O'Connor:  of Southern  interior  they could Rivers  reach  Niger As  can  rain  Nigeria,  p.127).  often and  and  were e x t e n s i v e l y  be  from  are,  Due t o t h e s e ,  1971,  and  f a r away  w e r e , and s t i l l  p.47).  explorers,  transportation  of the  are  water-  However,  of the c o u n t r y .  rivers  during  and o t h e r  p.47).  before  largely  transportation  the e a r l y  i n many p a r t s  1973,  footpaths  parts  growth  an e f f e c t i v e  and sand due t o t r o p i c a l  limitations, all  is  commerce, w h i c h  p.46).  routes  t h e main w a t e r w a y s  b l o c k e d by u p r o o t e d thunderstorms  1973,  (Ekundare:  (Ekundare:  Secondly,  is  intervention, rivers  limitations existed  had t o t r a v e l  t o modern  (Ekundare:  and m i s s i o n a r i e s  Nigeria.  system  - the r i v e r s ,  European  provided  in N i g e r i a  of the economic  intervention, Nigeria  waterways  o f goods and p e o p l e  network  growth.  to European  natural  ways s t i l l  aspect  A good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  way o f o p e n i n g  on  of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  other  used In  the f o o t p a t h s  the were  32  Map 2.  Nigerian Natural  Waterways : R i v e r s  33 too narrow f o r animal and most p r a c t i c a l  haulage  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  means o f t r a n s p o r t i n g  t h e s a v a n n a h and a r i d a r e a s  the  goods were by  loading.  In  however,  c a m e l s and d o n k e y s were used e x t e n s i v e l y  p o r t i n g goods, ( W a l k e r : a)  of N o r t h e r n  Development  system of N i g e r i a  country  still  T h e r e were o n l y the  was  Under  Colonial  (See  a few f o r e i g n  government,  Map 3 . ) . the  trans-  still  very  contacts  However,  Rule: the  limited.  lacked c o n t a c t with the o u t s i d e  e x t r e m e n o r t h where c a r a v a n  existed  Nigeria,  for  By t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  the  head-  1959,p. 88).  Transportation  portation  easiest  along  Most  the coast  with the beginning of  of  world. and  trade with North A f r i c a  i n t r o d u c t i o n and e x p a n s i o n  of  in  already  colonial  international  trade  became t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e o f N i g e r i a  1975,  p.50).  To a c h i e v e t h i s  trans-  (Olatunbosun:  o b j e c t i v e , the c o l o n i a l  govern-  ment l a i d m a j o r e m p h a s i s on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n new r o a d s , lines  i t was  provements effective  the  early  not  were b u i l t  The p r o v i s i o n  until  and a few t e l e p h o n e  of these  in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  became n o t i c e a b l e .  means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were s t i l l  areas  The i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f is  The  along  took  im-  only  by n a v i g a t i n g  The: most a c c e s s i b l e  and s e t t l e m e n t s  development p e r i o d  facilities  t h e end o f t h a t c e n t u r y t h a t  and t r a v e l l i n g by f o o t .  costal  Benue.  and p o r t s  were i n s t a l l e d .  t i m e and  waters  railways  -  the r i v e r s  i n l a n d waterways  areas  Niger  during  the were  and  this  a d e q u a t e l y o u t l i n e d by Olufemi  34 Ekundare  as  follows:  The i n l a n d w a t e r w a y s were used by t h e B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s in the course of t h e i r d u t i e s , and a few t r a d e r s a l s o f o u n d them u s e f u l i n t r a n s p o r t i n g b u l k y e x p o r t p r o d u c t s ( e . g . palm p r o d u c t s ) down t o the c o a s t , and i n s u p p l y i n g i m p o r t e d goods t o t h e p e o p l e o f t h e i n t e r i o r . The m i s s i o n a r i e s found the waterways very h e l p f u l in t h e i r task of spreading the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . From a b o u t 1880 a number o f steam l a u n c h e s were b e i n g o p e r a t e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , t h e R o y a l N i g e r Company o p e r a t e d a numberio.'f steam l a u n c h e s on the r i v e r N i g e r , c o n n e c t i n g the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n of the c o u n t r y with the c o a s t . The number o f c a n o e s p l y i n g t h e w a t e r w a y s a l s o i n c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t o f g r o w i n g c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o w a r d s t h e end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (Ekundare: 1973, p . 7 1 ) . By t h e end o f system  of N i g e r i a  government example,  the second  had s u b s t a n t i a l l y  investment  in  1945,  W o r l d War,  the  changed  in the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  " a Ten Y e a r  Plan  for  was  drawn, e s t i m a t e d to c o s t  •£10 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 , o r  19.1  per c e n t of the t o t a l ,  this  plan, only  a few r o a d s  (Walker:  t h e most v i s i b l e  was  the c o m p l e t i o n of the r a i l w a y  for  1914  (01atunbosun:  increased  groundnuts, discovery to  transportation  1975,  production  p.50).  investigate  the  sector.  For and  Wel-  i n a l l £ 5 5 ,000,000." was  1959,  t o be s p e n t  p.96).  development  line  This  possibility  1909  of  Lagos,  that  period  Lagos  became an  incentive  produce  especially  - t h e major cash  a t Enugu i n  on  Before  f r o m Kano t o  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  c o t t o n and c o c o a  of coal  colonial  e x i s t e d , e s p e c i a l l y around  but  in  due t o  Development  f a r e of N i g e r i a  r o a d and w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  transportation  encouraged  o f an e a s t e r n  -  crops. the  The  government  railway  line  and  Map 3.  Trans-Saharan  Caravan  Routes  by 1932  work on t h e e a s t e r n r a i l  Harcourt is  t o Kaduna  (Ekundare:  l i n e was c o m p l e t e d f r o m  1973,  e a s y t o see t h a t t h e r a i l w a y  system,  e x t e n t , were b u i l t t o f a c i l i t a t e most  i m p o r t a n t roads  the port c i t i e s .  are those  This  might  is  have  a dynamic  little  restricted  its  the c o l o n i a l  This  rural  p o l i c y was  to  strategy  reflected b)  agrarian  industries  regions  to  which  initiative in  and  Nigeria,  a d e q u a t e and  in the l a r g e  " c l e a r l y biased towards indigenous  cheap  urban  t o show t h a t the  promotion  m a n u f a c t u r i n g , and t h e associated  with  rethe  s o c i e t y was r e p l a c e d by t h e e x p a n s i o n  of  (Birnberg  and  Resnick:  The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y o f t h i s  era  also  t h e need f o r f o r e i g n Transportation Few w i l l  one o v e r - r i d i n g  of  ensures  d e c l i n e of t r a d i t i o n a l i n d u s t r y  p.576).  the  international  development  and r e l i a n c e on i m p o r t e d m a n u f a c t u r e s " 1973,  resource  T h e r e a r e some e v i d e n c e s  r a t h e r than  pre-colonial  instance,  r o l e m a i n l y to the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l  c e n t r e s , and o v e r s e a s .  sulting  connecting  For  t o some  t h a t the c o l o n i a l government,  in promoting  o f raw m a t e r i a l s  of exports  exports.  it  trade.  doubt  and m i n e r a l e x p o r t s . supply  and t h e r o a d s  c o n s t i t u t e d an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e element  From Map 4 ,  network would f a v o u r  t r a d e more t h a n d o m e s t i c There  p.135).  Port  Development  disagree  goal  transportation  that  After  increased  of development  links.  Independence: national  planning.  In  growth  the  first  is  37 national  plan f o r N i g e r i a ,  preparation of 3.9  was  "to surpass  p e r c e n t per y e a r  c e n t p e r annum and tion  of N i g e r i a :  constitutes  the f i r s t  if  national  the past  compound  possible  1962,  p.23).  among in  included  these  Chapter  are I,  quantitative is  measure  that the higher  two y e a r s  real  document  after was  growth  per c e n t o f at  national  government  of t h e  productive sectors,  (GNP)  growth.  programs,  to d e c i d e  is  Development  p l a n were t o r a i s e the standard 1962,  of  p.23).  Domestic  o f t h e economy.  w h i c h were t o a b s o r b  about  mentioned  belief  Nigeria,  1975, Plan,  in  (GDP).  The  1962-68."  of  growth  which  1962,  p.60).  the r a t e of  These  and  country.  15 per c e n t o f t h e GDP a n n u a l l y  sectors  capable  growth  To a c h i e v e  Product  and  o f t e n used as a  living  an a v e r a g e  are  published  (Olatunbosun:  for  growth  As was  is  what  a matter  plan for  was  economy  (Federa-  The p o p u l a r  development  to maintain  the Gross  investing  it  t h e GNP, t h e b e t t e r t h e  independence  was  is  rate"  Many v a r i a b l e s  Product  of n a t i o n a l  of N i g e r i a :  the s t r a t e g y  this  e q u i t y and p r o s p e r i t y .  and t o i n c r e a s e  (Federation  are.  called "National  The main g o a l s  increase  i n the d e f i n i t i o n of n a t i o n a l  unity,  incorporated a l l  to  the  plan  a r a t e o f 4 per  constitute national  Gross N a t i o n a l  The f i r s t  r a t e of  to achieve  Certainly,  d e b a t e t o s t a t e what f a c t o r s  of being  growth  The p r o b l e m  growth.  what t h e i r r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g  objective stated for  the  economic people  these  goals,  r a t e of 4 The p l a n  in the  directly  aimed  directly productive  70 per c e n t o f t o t a l  esti-  mated e x p e n d i t u r e ofrW\ 353.6 m i l l i o n  (about  $2030.4 m i l l i o n ) ,  were t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e l e c t r i c i t y , production,  and i n d u s t r y .  governmental  allocations  during  the f i r s t  national  Table  I below i s  a summary  to d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s development  plan  primary  of the  of economy  period.  TABLE I  ALLOCATION OF DEVELOPMENT FUNDS IN THE FIRST NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN, 1962-68.  Sectors  Amount (=N= mil 1 ion)  Percentage of Total  Transportation and Communication  348.1.  25.8  Electricity  205.7  15.1  Primary Production  181.4  13.4  Trade and Industry  179.3  13.3  Health  141.8  10.5  Education  139.6  10.3  Administration  103.1  7.6  54.6  4.0  1,353.6  100.0  Water Supply TOTAL: .  Source:  ;  Federation of N i g e r i a : National Development P l a n , 1962-68, Federal M i n i s t r y of Economic Development, Lagos, 1962, p.41. In  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r ,  1962-68 P l a n , a n d o t h e r subsequent  the b a s i c plans,was  o b j e c t i v e of t o expand  and  the  upgrade early  the t r a n s p o r t  1970s, the  transportation 1960's,  national of  Federal  this  terms  like  nation"  The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h e demands o f rational  have as  been  For  t h e economy  that  "Nigeria's  stated  since  the  early  develop-  up and b i n d i n g  Republic  of  (Filani  of  together  Nigeria:  1973,  were aimed a t  p.26).  meeting  "through•moda1 c o - o r d i n a t i o n  decisions"  the  i m p l i c a t i o n , the support  the opening  (Federal  in  stated  programs o f N i g e r i a  investment  instance,  aimed a t c o - o r d i n a t e d  e f f i c i e n c y a n d , by  interests vast  Government  objectives  in general  ment, e c o n o m i c  infrastructure.  and O s a y i m w e s e :  and 1974,  pp.388-389). The o b j e c t i v e s  for  t h a t the government efficiency.  This  is  is  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n still  mostly  similar  in the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  stration.  In  basic  sector  a continuation  policy  in N i g e r i a .  The s e a r c h  strong  as  tions.  ever, w i t h a r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t  The f i r s t  p l a n was  most o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n selected portation  because  basically networks  of t h e i r economic  of e x p o r t m a t e r i a l s  process,  the r u r a l  areas  national  development.  of  e f f i c i e n c y was  social  considerasince  t o be c o n s t r u c t e d  were  -  plan  development  export-oriented  role  i.e.  the  transIn  r e l a t i v e l y neglected  The s t a t e m e n t  admini-  of the f i r s t  to overseas markets.  are s t i l l  dictated  colonial  of c o l o n i a l  f o r economic  economic  force that  during  characteristics  made i t e s s e n t i a l l y  indicate  concerned with  to the g u i d i n g  investment  fact,the  sector  below t e s t i f i e s  to  this in the  as  40 rural  neglect  t h a t have  been g o i n g  on i n t h e  developing  countries: It i s important f o r r u r a l development t h a t the o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n p u t and o u t p u t p r i c e s w i t h i n a g r i c u l t u r e , and t h e t e r m s o f t r a d e between a g r i c u l t u r e and o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e economy, s h o u l d be such as t o s t i m u l a t e growth in the r u r a l a r e a s . The B a n k ' s a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t a l l too o f t e n government p o l i c i e s d i s c r i m i n a t e against development, p a r t i c u l a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , i n the r u r a l a r e a s . They a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o m a n u f a c t u r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s , or t o r a i s e government r e v e n u e s . As s u c h , t h e y t e n d to r a i s e the cost of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n p u t s r e l a t i v e to o u t p u t p r i c e s , making i n n o v a t i o n unr e w a r d i n g and h i g h l y r i s k y f o r t h e f a r m e r " ( W o r l d Bank: 1 9 7 5 , pp.29-30). It  can t h e n be s a i d  tives  after  t h a t the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development  i n d e p e n d e n c e were n o t  what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g  the c o l o n i a l  Transportation  in N i g e r i a :  In  Modes  recent years,  t h e methods  goods f r o m one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r , as  are the reasons  nology  f r o m h e a d - l o a d , and a n i m a l  to s u p e r s o n i c case,  f o r movement.  substantially  from  Problems of t r a n s p o r t i n g the w o r l d o v e r , The methods  people a r e so  range  haulage/pedestrian crafts.  f o u r m a j o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes w i l l  roads,  r a i l w a y s , w a t e r w a y s , and a i r .  tively  undeveloped  Nigeria.  different  era.  j e t a i r c r a f t and s p a c e  in  objec-  In  the  in  varied tech-  movement Nigerian  be c o n s i d e r e d  Pipelines  and  are s t i l l  rela-  41 a)  Roads: The need t o g e n e r a t e  enough t r a f f i c  f o r the  constructed railways  t r i g g e r e d the concern f o r road  portation  (Ekundare:  tion  in N i g e r i a  of f e e d e r roads  was  1973,  v i e w e d as  b o t h p a s s e n g e r and c a r g o  traffic  p.142).  a strategy  The for  therefore, followed closely  c o n s t r u c t i o n of r a i l  lines.  1900  and 1 9 1 5 ,  the N i g e r i a n a total  It  road t r a n s p o r t  railway...."  Out o f t h e s e o n l y p.88).  This  1,114  is  miles  services  miles  gradual  "between  1973,  p.142). had been  By  by 1951,  constructed. 1974,  W o r l d Bank p u b l i c a t i o n a l s o  reported the  rapid  to about  were p a v e d . " per c e n t  transportation  By 1 9 7 0 ,  i n 1951  increment  t o 18.1  per c e n t  about  and c o m m e r c i a l  (World  in N i g e r i a  in  Bank: 1974, just after  1970.  p.88).  1910  its  (World Bank:  brought  heavy  1974,  10,000  increased  is  There  but by  population  p.88).  another  road  p e o p l e , had a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 0 , 0 0 0  vehicles  in v e h i c l e ownership  in  t h e marked d e v e l o p m e n t o f  documented t h a t the c o u n t r y , w i t h  more t h a n 60 m i l l i o n  paved had  i n motor v e h i c l e o w n e r s h i p  in N i g e r i a  were o n l y a few c a r s  the roads  55,000 m i l e s , of which about  The p e r c e n t a g e o f r o a d s  f a c t o r which brought  was  the  (World Bank:  The r a p i d  it  Progress  were paved  "amounted  f r o m 4.1  increasing  were e s t a b l i s h e d  27,000 m i l e s  p r o g r e s s made i n r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n . Nigeria  construc-  documented t h a t  (Ekundare:  road network of over  trans-  f o r the r a i l w a y s .  in road development,  newly  This  demand f o r more and  1969 of private trend better  42 roads.  One b a s i c  tenance.  p r o b l e m f a c e d by r o a d s  The h i s t o r y  of  shows t h a t m a i n t e n a n c e Pot h o l e s local  (Walker: supply  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  is  very  a r e common f e a t u r e s  - and r o a d s i g n s 1959,  p.100).  in N i g e r i a  poor  are not a v a i l a b l e Financial  o f q u a l i f i e d manpower  i n the  (Walker:  on many r o a d s  component fic  of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and i n v e s t m e n t .  freight of  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  It  i n many  1974,  development  t h e most  - both  these  important  in terms  of  77 per c e n t  were a l l o c a t e d a b o u t investment  roads  Despite  during  p l a n p e r i o d of 1970-1974  traf-  of  69 p e r the  (World  N i g e r i a , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g  plementing road t r a n s p o r t Ministry  1 974,  p.89)..  is  to the  a t the F e d e r a l  cent  second  Bank:  and  im-  Federal  level  (World  W i t h i n each s t a t e o f t h e f e d e r a t i o n  are r e s p o n s i b l e  transportation  approach  policies falls  o f Works and H o u s i n g  ferent ministries ting  inadequate  p.188). In  Bank:  still  system  public transportation capital  national  is  and  segments  t h e amount o f  accounted f o r about  t o n - m i l e a g e and r o a d s  pp.100-102).  - both trunk  t h a t can be m a i n t a i n e d , o r even c o n s t r u c t e d . difficulties,  main-  country  1959,  l i m i t a t i o n s and  constrained  is  policies.  c l e a r l y brought  out  f o r d e v e l o p i n g and  The p r o b l e m s  inherent  by t h e W o r l d Bank  as  dif-  implemenin  this  follows:  N i g e r i a ' s t w e l v e s t a t e s a l s o have m i n i s t r i e s c o n cerned w i t h road maintenance ( i n c l u d i n g the m a i n t e n a n c e o f f e d e r a l h i g h w a y s on an a g e n c y b a s i s ) and w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f some s e c o n d a r y r o a d s .  43 There i s no f o r m a l body t o c o o r d i n a t e s t a t e / f e d e r a l p l a n n i n g and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f e d e r a l and s t a t e highway a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s a r e n o t c l e a r (World Bank: 1 974, p . 9 0 ) . This one  shows t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f  in road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  upon  later  on i n t h i s  The b a s i c Nigeria  was  country.  concept  and f o u r  of the o r i g i n a l  still  vaguely  A critical  thereby  look  trunk  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  cities  or  carriage  of  of  pattern  bulk  roads  serious  elaborated  ports.  roads  proposed  ports"  produce (World  to  north.  in the  country. are  than  of e x p o r t  connecting  roads  minerals More port  The map t h e r e f o r e  1974,  given  the e a s t - w e s t  to the south.  part  axis.  been  problem  confirms is  from the a g r i c u l t u r a l  Bank:  from  for Nigeria  "A m a j o r c o o r d i n a t i o n  export  running  p r i o r i t y has  in  entire  on t h e n o r t h - s o u t h  rather  in the southern  the  from south  trunk  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  to  roads  running  goods f r o m t h e n o r t h  assertion.  to the southern b)  trunk  exist  a  development  covering  trunk  a t t h e map shows t h a t  inland c i t i e s  an e a r l i e r  roads  network  grid  facilitating  road networks  system  noticeable, especially  to the n o r t h - s o u t h -  a grid  included six  Map 4 shows t h e e x i s t i n g Parts  be f u r t h e r  f o r road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  to c o n s t r u c t  west to e a s t  will  is  chapter.  concept  This  This  coordination  the  North  p.90).  Ra i1 ways: The r a i l w a y  system  of  Nigeria  is  owned by t h e  Federal  44  — — H  Map 4.  M a j o r Trunk Roads  —Railways  Transportation Networks in Nigeria : Roads and Railway  45 government  and  is  o p e r a t e d as  by t h e N i g e r i a n  Railway  retains  powers  general  Corporation. of c o n t r o l  Work on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  this  t e d as  century  commercial  concern  The e x i s t i n g  (Federal  railway  until  Republic  network  to Maiduguri 1974,  p.192).  linking lines  these  as  There  two main  can be seen  The r a i l w a y s earlier be as  portation  lines.  is  was  of  a t Kaduna also  turn  opera-  i t became a 1975,  700  from P o r t  p.212).  miles Harcourt  (World and a few  One  Bank:  Kafanchan branch  4. role,  goods  than r o a d s ,  in N i g e r i a .  o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l  period  rates.  o f two main l i n e s .  There are  of e x p o r t  The d i f f i c u l t i e s  at t h a t e a r l y  when  of N i g e r i a :  p l a y e d a more m a j o r  when t h e e s s e n t i a l  and  s t a r t e d at the  kilometers)  connections  f r o m Map  transportation  a result  pleted.  are  1955  running  (1443  however,  The s y s t e m  a distance  and t h e o t h e r  s p a n s 897 m i l e s  policies  system  consists  r u n s f r o m Lagos t o Kano s p a n n i n g (1126.3 k i l o m e t e r s )  its  to the n o r t h .  department  enterprise  The g o v e r n m e n t ,  over  of the r a i l  f r o m Lagos  a government  a self-contained  in  This  may  of  road  trans-  r a i l w a y networks  have  been  associated  documented  as  with road  com-  construction  follows:  Road b u i l d i n g i n 1914 was i n t e r r u p t e d by war and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r by t h e d i v e r s i o n o f e f f o r t t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l w a y from P o r t H a r c o u r t t o K a d u n a . . . The b u i 1 d i n g of b r i d g e s c a p a b l e o f c a r r y i n g heavy w e i g h t s i s an e x p e n s i v e business.-. Much t e c h n i c a l s k i l l i s n e e d e d . The d r i v i n g o f p i l e s or t h e s i n k i n g o f c a i s s o n s t o r e a c h a s o l i d f o o t i n g r e q u i r e s heavy p l a n t and l i f t i n g g e a r ,  46 none o f w h i c h i s e a s i l y t r a n s p o r t a b l e . Besides t h e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e volume o f w a t e r between wet and d r y s e a s o n s , and by t h e d e p t h t o w h i c h f o u n d a t i o n s may have t o be sunk in~swamp and s a n d , t h e r e i s i n N i g e r i a t h e f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y of g e t t i n g p l a n t s , m a t e r i a l s and s t r u c t u r a l members t o t h e s i t e . Wood, cement and p l a n t , i n t h e e a r l y d a y s , a l l had t o be h e a d loaded t h r o u g h d i f f i c u l t . a n d o f t e n d i s t u r b e d c o u n t r y " ( W a l k e r : 1959, pp.88-90). The r a i l w a y s r o a d s , as bulky well  it  then served is  more a d v a n t a g e o u s  commodities its  part  in  1965  over  of i.e.  for  distances.  to the  from Jos  government  can h a r d l y  colonial  in N i g e r i a  interior.  was  and  played  and  the  The new  extension  w h i c h was  completed  to serve  t h e same  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s of the f e d e r a l be e x p e c t e d t o d i f f e r  administration  transportation.  markets  than  heavy  The r a i l w a y  to Maiduguri,  by t h e f e d e r a l govenment The r a i l  transporting  goods t o o v e r s e a s  imports  objective.  system  long  i n moving  transportation to the l i n e s ,  t h e c o l o n i a l o b j e c t i v e s more  because  The b a s i c  of the very  from those  of  nature of  rail  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  are o u t l i n e d  railway  below:  The r a i l w a y s s e r v e t h e two m a j o r p o r t s , Lagos and P o r t H a r c o u r t , and t h e r e a r e r a i l heads a t Kaura N a m o d a v ' N g u r u , J o s , and M a i d u g u r i , and l i n e s o f l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e t o Baro and I d o g o . The s y s t e m p r o v i d e s t r a n s p o r t l i n k s between p r o d u c t i v e and w e l 1 - p o p u l a t e d p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y w i t h t r a f f i c o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n areas w i d e l y separated. This provides opport u n i t y f o r l o n g - h a u l bulk t r a f f i c i n both d i r e c t i o n s , a k i n d o f t r a f f i c i n w h i c h r a i l w a y s have an i n h e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e a d v a n t a g e o v e r o t h e r modes o f t r a n s p o r t . A x l e l o a d i s l i m i t e d by s e v e r a l s t r e t c h e s of l i g h t w e i g h t r a i l , and o p e r a t i n g s p e e d s a r e r e s t r i c t e d by e x t e n s i v e d i s t a n c e s o f c u r v e d t r a c k as w e l l as s t e e p grades in p a r t s of the system" ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : 1975, p.212).  47 The within  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  cline. tons  i m p o r t a n t r o l e w h i c h t h i s mode had o r i g i n a l l y  i n 1963/64 t o 1.5  passenger  traffic  partial  reason  for this  Many f a c t o r s  miles  time  wasted  is  passing  crossing  at o p p o s i t e  them t o r e a c h speed  sibility  coordination as  is  are  period, miles  p.192).  single  if  line,  slowness  tracks  two t r a i n s  not o n l y  1.067  in  each  deal  of  crossing  start  the time i t takes  does  in-  with  A great  in w a i t i n g f o r  used,  until  reason  very  each  very e a s i l y ,  thereby causing  (Ekundare:  its  This  is  posMany  secondhand delays  and  1973).  f o r t h e d e c l i n e can be a s s o c i a t e d  problems.  of  problems.  r e c e n t l y , were  and  travelling  depend on  and t r a c k  has  transporta-  are provided  trains.  out,and  of  A slow-  t o move f a s t e r  for this  Loops  d e l a y e d by e n g i n e  to passengers  Another  1974,  t o o t h e r modes  and p a s s i n g  destination  and t h e y breakdown discomfort  same  on t h e speed o f t h e o t h e r t r a i n and t h e  of being  of the engines  gauge.  of a r a i l  its  but a l s o  lines  For example,  ends  Bank:  The d e s i r e  patrons  in s o r t i n g  trains.  (World  are r e s p o n s i b l e  (3 f e e t 6 i n c h e s ) for  this  ton-miles  d e c l i n e can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e  the f a c t t h a t a l l  station  During  de-  million  d e c l i n e d f r o m 526 m i l l i o n p a s s e n g e r  p r o b a b l y m o t i v a t e d many  cluding  i n 1970/71 and  t o 692 m i l l i o n .  ness of the r a i l w a y t r a f f i c .  tion.  now on t h e  d e c l i n e d f r o m 2.5  m i l l i o n tons  302 m i l l i o n p a s s e n g e r  metre  of N i g e r i a , is  F o r e x a m p l e , goods t r a f f i c  d e c l i n e d f r o m 1,462  to  system  played,  recognized  e v i d e n t from the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t :  with  by t h e  government  "The  government  48 attributes  the r a i l w a y ' s  equipment,and  d e c l i n e to defects  management,  r a t e p o l i c i e s , and t o c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m  transportation"  (World Bank:  be e l a b o r a t e d upon  1974,  l a t e r in t h i s  decline  in railway t r a f f i c  federal  government  has  to h e a v i l y  associated with t h i s  p.192).  study.  made  aspect  However,  i t necessary  subsidize  decline is  This  the for  t h e mode.  amply b r o u g h t  road  steady the  The  o u t as  will  problems  follows:  NRC ( N i g e r i a n R a i l w a y C o r p o r a t i o n ) o p e r a t e s under c o n d i t i o n s o f heavy t r a f f i c demand, l o n g h a u l , e a s y t e r r a i n and s p a r e t r a c k c a p a c i t y w h i c h , g i v e n r e a s o n a b l e e f f i c i e n c y , s h o u l d r e s u l t i n e c o n o m i c and p r o f i t able operation,;. But NRC i s o p e r a t i n g i n e f f i c i e n t l y , and i s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d e f i c i t . These d e f i c i t s a r e g r o w i n g and t r a f f i c demands a r e n o t b e i n g met. The government i s a n x i o u s to get the r a i l w a y s r u n n i n g e f f i c i e n t l y , so t h a t t h e y may meet t h e i r e c o n o m i c s h a r e o f t o t a l t r a n s p o r t demand and a l s o ease b e i n g a b u r d e n on p u b l i c f u n d s ( W o r l d Bank: 1974, p . 8 8 ) .  ' !';  In  in  conclusion  therefore, unreliable service  and  scheduling  c o u p l e d w i t h l a c k o f a d e q u a t e c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r modes are r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the d e c l i n e  the r a i l  system w i l l  Nigeria,  at  show t h a t  rail  transporting tances  transportation  is  and n o n - s p o i 1 a b l e  The N i g e r i a n  of t r a f f i c  Transport  substances  railways  will  in  economics  ports.  over  always  p r o p o r t i o n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f  to the southern  However,  c h e a p e r and more e f f i c i e n t f o r  and some a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p o r t s  the c o u n t r y  traffic.  c o n t i n u e t o have i'.ts s h a r e  in the near f u t u r e .  bulky  on l a n d .  significant ores  least  in r a i l  dis-  enjoy a  bulky  from the n o r t h e r n This  long  mineral part  r o l e may even  be  of  49 played to economic p r o f i t a b i l i t y efficient  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system  c)  and  more e f f e c t i v e  and  investments.  Waterways: Intra-nationa1  Nigeria  given  water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  due t o t h e amount o f a v a i l a b l e  development  of the  i n l a n d waterways  is  limited  i n l a n d waterways.  d i d not  i n v o l v e any  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c a n a l s , but r a t h e r , t h e main c o n c e r n was improve 1973,  navigation  p.128).  kilometres)  For  on t h e m a j o r r i v e r s i n s t a n c e , out  of n a v i g a b l e  under  Department  k i l o m e t r e s ) were  " i n s p e c t e d and i m p r o v e d f o r  -  1 973,p.254).  the Niger  and t h e Benue  There (see  common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t rivers rapids,  have s w i f t  1958,  Map 2 ) .  I n l a n d waterways portation  systems  is  These  rivers  on t h e s e a s o n s  mented by t h e W o r l d Bank as  This  role  the  (1703.9  in  some  The two and  of the  in the  diminishing  Nigeria  have  impeded by r o c k s  now p l a y a d i m i n i s h i n g  to  navigation"  r e q u i r e d t o keep t h e d e l t a  in N i g e r i a .  of  miles  influence navigation.  c u r r e n t s , a course  dredging  1,059  major  (6,757.8  a r e two m a j o r r i v e r s  a v a r i a b l e depth depending  and c o n s t a n t  only  The  (Ekundare:  the c o n t r o l  I n l a n d Waterways  (Ekundare:  in  by d r e d g i n g  of the 4,200 m i l e s  waterways  in  role  follows:  The c o a s t a l l a g o o n s and d e l t a c r e e k s a r e n a v i g a b l e f r o m Dahomey (now B e n i n ) t o Opobo, E a s t of Port H a r c o u r t . The N i g e r and Benue R i v e r s a r e n a v i g a b l e f o r b a r g e s a l l . t h e y e a r r o u n d as  year,  navigable. transis  docu-  50 f a r as t h e c o n f l u e n c e , and s e a s o n a l l y u p s t r e a m . H o w e v e r , r i v e r t r a f f i c w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r more than 300,000 tons of e x p o r t s a n n u a l l y in the e a r l y 1960s i s now n e g l i g i b l e , i n s p i t e o f i n v e s t m e n t s i n l o c k s and n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s under t h e l a s t P l a n ....The present s i t u a t i o n c a l l s f o r a f r e s h app r i a s a l of the p l a c e of r i v e r t r a n s p o r t in the economy. In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y to r e s t o r e n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s ; s e c o n d l y , the s h i p p i n g s e r v i c e w o u l d have t o be r e n e w e d ; and t h i r d l y , t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s t h a t have been made t o t h e r a p i d s s e c t i o n between J e b b a and K a i n j i o n t h e N i g e r do n o t seem t o have been a d e q u a t e . If these d i f f i c u l t i e s can be r e s o l v e d , t h e r e s h o u l d s t i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l s c o p e f o r w a t e r t r a n s p o r t " ( W o r l d B a n k : 1974, p . 1 9 5 ) . That the clear  importance of  (O'Connor:  Air  transportation  in  Nigeria  the  set  up an A i r  the c o u n t r y  air  (Ekundare:  were c o n s t r u c t e d  one o f t h e n e w e s t 1935  Services  services,  Development  but  p.149).  i t was n o t  of a i r  services  study  is  rural  be p l a c e d on d o m e s t i c  i n t e r n a t i o n a l ; ones.  air  movement government  air  services  A few a l l  season  until  beginning  has  i n t e r n a t i o n a l and d o m e s t i c  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s will  is  Committee to  regular  the  a t t e n t i o n was  e s p e c i a l l y f o r m i l i t a r y uses.  war, the p r o v i s i o n  phasis  1973,  form of  that the c o l o n i a l  W o r l d War t h a t more s e r i o u s  demand f o r b o t h the  is  i t was n o t u n t i l  o f t h e Second to  declining  Transportation  i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g  airports  is  p.135).  Air  Nigeria,  in  1971,  d)  in  look  river transportation  Since  paid  after  increased  with  flights.  Since  d e v e l o p m e n t , more emservices  rather  than  51 The number  of  people  Nigeria  is  portion  o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , as  domestic  growing  using  air  but t h e y  services  of the p o p u l a t i o n  as  air  still  evidenced  within  f o r m an i n s i g n i f i c a n t  can  in N i g e r i a  transportation  be seen is  f r o m Map 5.  used by a s m a l l  by t h e f o l l o w i n g  proThe  segment  statement:  Domestic a i r s e r v i c e s are s t i l l not w e l l d e v e l o p e d , g i v e n t h e s i z e and p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y . There i s s u b s t a n t i a l u n s a t i s f i e d demand f o r d o m e s t i c p a s senger s e r v i c e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f government among t w e l v e s t a t e s and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s e v e r a l i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s s u g g e s t t h a t demand may r i s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y in the f u t u r e . Most d o m e s t i c p a s s e n g e r t r a f f i c i s g e n e r a t e d by g o v e r n m e n t and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s , since there is l i t t l e tourism. Poor m a i l and t e l e p h o n e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and t i m e c o n s u m i n g r o a d t r a n s p o r t r e s u l t in c o n s i d e r a b l e demand f o r a i r t r a v e l ( W o r l d B a n k : 1974, p . 1 9 5 ) . Map 5 c l e a r l y shows t h a t Lagos  to P o r t H a r c o u r t  international Harcourt these, with  trade  and B e n i n  t h e demand  increases  time-saving  are  in the o i l  production  sectors.  mode w i l l  by a i r , a b o u t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in  of the N i g e r i a n  Ka rib i s  in  i t takes  Ekisties:  came i n t o  In to  view  of  The  popular  1 hour  Port  escalate  to  by c a r and  July  under  a major  growth. it  Kano,  airport.  likely  make  12 h o u r s  Nigeria is  Airways which  is  and e c o n o m i c  For e x a m p l e ,  (Iyahen,  Lagos t o  b e l t of N i g e r i a .  for a i r transportation  f r o m Lagos t o Kaduna  Air  are  c e n t r e w i t h an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  in o i l  by t r a i n  routes  and Lagos t o B e n i n .  c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s  many e c o n o m i c  20 h o u r s  the b u s i e s t  in travel  about  1976). the j u r i s d i c t i o n  being  i n 1959.  It  is  52  10,000 passenger miles 10,000 passenger  Map 5.  miles  1970/ 71 1974/ 7 5  Number of Passengers Using A i r Transportation in Nigeria : 1970/71 and 1974/75.  53 f a c e d w i t h many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s the  f e d e r a l government's  tions to  are  "inefficient,  the changing  Bank: air  1974,  needs  p.90).  rural  development  convenient mental  few  but  linkages  r o l e of a i r  The c o s t  has  of a i r  Nigerians  however,  not d e c r e a s e  services  i t has  1975,  significant  is  beyond  also  of N i g e r i a :  1975,  the government's  and The  t h e r e a c h of a l l  p.218).  t h e demand f o r a i r  p.218).  role  limited  more so t h e r u r a l  The r e s u l t  by  in most  developcost.  but a  inhabitants This  fact  will,  transportation,  objective is  of the c o u n t r y  (World  problems,  provided the f a s t e s t  is  corpora-  economy"  centres.  by  responsibe  from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  to d i f f e r e n t parts  of N i g e r i a : this  since  Nigerian  n o t p l a y e d any  at present,  Republic  expecially  of the growing  transportation  (Federal  evidenced  u n d e r - c a p i t a l i z e d and n o t  between many u r b a n  travel  is  concern t h a t the s t a t u t o r y  Apart  transportation  as  to extend  (Federal  of a survey  air  Republic confirms  statement: A r e c e n t s u r v e y o f u s e r s and p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t even i n c r e a s e d f a r e s w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y hold t h i s growth. Seventy-five perc e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d s t i l l f l y even i f t h e f a r e was d o u b l e d . I f i t i s t r i p l e d , 54 p e r cent would s t i l l f l y . In t h e same s u r v e y , 77 p e r cent of the r e s p o n d e n t s would s h i f t from the a u t o m o b i l e to a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i f a i r s e r v i c e e x i s t e d between t h e i r o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s . E i g h t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t c i t e d t i m e - s a v i n g s as t h e reason t h e y f l y ( I y a h e n , in E k i s t i c s : J u l y 1976, p . 3 5 ) .  It  will  be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know t h e c o m p o s i t i o n  of t h e s e  re-  54 spondents  but such  possibility slight. of  t h a t the r u r a l  Anyway,  t h e amount  government. million -  both  1975,  information  air  (approximately and  viewpoint  being  t h e 1 975-80  domestic  not a v a i l a b l e .  transportation  o f money  In  is  is is  incorporated bound  voted to t h i s plan  international  is  is  in  mode by t h e  view  federal  o f #= 51  t o be s p e n t  (Federal  the  very  t o expand  period, a total  $800 m i l l i o n )  However,  Republic  on  aviation  of  Nigeria:  p.219).  Dominance  of  Road  Few w i l l over-riding planning plans.  disagree  goal  forms (For  see  a r e most  of  Uganda  Federal  significant  till  growth  courses). 1962  was  Republic r o l e of  p l a y e d by waterways  the  1975,  transport  For example, the given  one  development  of N i g e r i a : the  the r o l e (since  is  Transportation  p a r t of the n a t i o n a l  countries,  by t h e i r n a t u r a l  national  planning.  the developmental  i n many A f r i c a n  development  increased  of development  an i n t e g r a l  In  ways and r o a d s limited  that  instance,  pp.199-228.) sector,  Transportation:  railare economic  following  rationale: I t has been shown above t h a t U g a n d a , as i t i s t o d a y , i s the r e s u l t of the c r e a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s which l i n k e d i t w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d . B e f o r e t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e Uganda R a i l w a y t h e economy was l i m i t e d t o t h e use o f l o c a l supplies f o r a l l purposes. The r a i l l i n k e n a b l e d i t t o buy goods and s e r v i c e s f r o m t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d i n e x change f o r c o t t o n and c o f f e e . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n b r o u g h t a b o u t by t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h l i n k i n g t h e l o c a l m a r k e t i n Uganda w i t h a v a r i e t y o f w o r l d m a r k e t s f o r e x p o r t s  55 and This  is  imports similar  ways as  (Hawkins:  1962,  to the e a r l y  importance  the major development  agent  For  strained  a period of t i m e , to give  To d e m o n s t r a t e  this,  in  ascribed  the development  1926  cars  Railway 1  Later, be done was this has  1  if  it  to prevent  p o l i c y was  the growth  p e r i o d , the r o l e of roads been on t h e  crease  increase  as  changed  so  (Walker:  that  1959,  in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  shown i n T a b l e  in road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  is  railways.  should  of road t r a n s p o r t  c l e a r and c o m p e l l i n g u r g e n c y "  con-  had f i r s t  c o n t r i b u t e d to the development  the government  was  begun  t r o u b l esome', Government: had  a f f i r m e d t h e i r v i e w t h a t cheap r o a d t r a n s p o r t with favour  rail-  sector  of roads  p r i o r i t y to  when " t h e  t o f i n d t h e c o m p e t i t i o n o f motor  to the  in the t r a n s p o r t  of N i g e r i a . for  instance,  pp.23-24).  II.  be  of  'viewed  Nigeria."  nothing unless  "would  there  p.139). in  Since  Nigeria  The r a p i d  c l e a r l y shown i n t h e  in-  statement  below: Over t h e y e a r s t h e r o a d has been g a i n i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h e r a i l w a y b o t h i n p a s s e n g e r and f r e i g h t c a r ried. In 1953 t h e r a i l w a y c a r r i e d 4 2 . 5 p e r c e n t o f f r e i g h t and 8.2 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s and t h e r o a d t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m c a r r i e d 52 p e r c e n t o f f r e i g h t and 92 p e r c e n t o f p a s s e n g e r s . By 1960 r o a d s h a r e s had i n c r e a s e d t o 62 p e r c e n t o f f r e i g h t and 96 percent of passengers. I t i s e s t i m a t e d . t h a t i n 1972, 74 p e r c e n t o f f r e i g h t and 97 p e r c e n t o f p a s s e n g e r s were c a r r i e d by r o a d ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a : 1975, p . 3 5 4 ) .  TABLE  II  PRODUCE TONNAGE MOVED TO PORTS.. BY MODE OF TRANSPORT : 1969-72  1969  MODE Tons  Percent oi Total  Tons  1972  1971  1970 Percent of Total  Tons  Percent of Total  Tons  Percent of Total  Rail  573,398  42.4  393,329  32.2  290,912  26.4  174,549  16.5  Road  774,078  57.2  813,292  66.3  786,732  71.5  851,775  80.6  4,720  0.4  20,613  1.7  22,404  2.1  30,408  2.9  1,352,196  100.0  1 ,227,234  100.0  1 ,100,048  100.0  1,056,732  100.0  Water  TOTAL:  Source:  Federal Republic of N i g e r i a : Third National Development Plan: 1975-80, Federal M i n i s t r y of Economic Development, Lagos, 1975, p.360.  57  tion It  In  view of  is  now t h e most  serves  used.  Government's  69 per c e n t (in  vestment (World 1975, of  figures,  of  (in  roads  It  is  on t h e  Existing  Institutional  Management  has  i d e n t i f i e d is and t h i s  is  plan for  the c o u n t r y .  capacity  even  the t r a i n i n g  for  of  widely  also  sector.  reflect  For  and a b o u t  example,  73  per  t h e pub 1 i c . c a p i t a l  Republic  this  in-  transport  of  importance  that  1975,  Nigeria:  and  study  dominance lays  more  mentioned  Bank: 1 9 7 4 , p.201).  "There  of the  as  one o f  development p.87;  One o f  inadequate  recognized  personnels.  Transportation:  the e f f i c i e n t  t h a t of  p.201).  for  always  and  supply  lack  Policies  that  of t r a i n e d  :  development of  executive trans-  (Federal  Republic  were f o r m u l a t e d t o  However,  trans-  Federal  t h e r e l a t i v e l y modest  1970-74 p e r i o d "  the  of  the f a c t o r s  in the c u r r e n t  was a s e r i o u s  implementing  programme 1975,  are  (World  of N i g e r i a :  of N i g e r i a :  the  Structure  limiting  in N i g e r i a  sector  of  in N i g e r i a  problems  Republic  port  more  sector.  mode.  important reasons  personnel  is  were a l l o c a t e d t o r o a d  in view of  emphasis  been  period)  transporta-'  the t r a n s p o r t it  period)  p . 1 8 8 ; and F e d e r a l  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  portation  in the t r a n s p o r t  in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  p.200).  c l e a r t h a t road  fund a l l o c a t i o n s  the 1970-74 p l a n  1974,  is  p e o p l e and  development  the 1975-80 p l a n  Bank:  it  i m p o r t a n t element of  the m a j o r i t y of the  t h e dominance  cent  these  t h e government  enhance  has  not  58 recognized structure  the c o n t r i b u t i o n  to the d e f i c i e n c i e s  of the problems  mentioned  buted to p u b l i c  corporations  personnels This  (Federal  ..area w i l l In  transportation diction.  Republic  public  except  Authority)  Nigerian  are  set  exist  implications  the  Federal local  strange  between  the  Ministry  Ministry railways,  modes  Nigeria  Railway  aviation,  public  of Transport  responsible and  for  o f Work.  is The  f o r matters inland  that  which  corporations. arrangement responsiand  the s t a t e  roads  of  section,  departments  the e x i s t i n g  In  and  Transport  of the  Ministry  ports  t o manage  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Departments  is  Ports  be shown i n t h i s  of  juris-  the f o r m u l a t i o n  the government  anomalies  of  ministerial  government  for  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of T r a n s p o r t  attri-  qualified  all  guidelines.  will  division  respective  civil  under  (e.g.  the a c t i v i t i e s  Federal  most  section.  o f Works and H o u s i n g .  governments  within their  within  the o b v i o u s  rather  bilities  for  of  control  are  in the governments  exist  One o f  this  up by t h e f e d e r a l  It  as  p l a n were  C i v i 1 A v i a t i o n , and N i g e r i a n  basic  is  under  corporations  policies.  problems  lack  sector  o f N i g e r i a : ' 1 975 , pp.201 - 2 0 2 ) .  corporations  transportation  have  and t h e i r  t h e modes w i t h i n p o l i c y  ministries  institutional  in the t r a n s p o r t  roads which  These p u b l i c  Corporation,  present  in the development  be e x p l o r e d  Nigeria,  operate  of the  the  and  entirely Federal concerning  waterways.  Federal  roads,  Federal  Ministry  although  however,  a r e e n t i r e l y i n t h e domain o f  o f Works and Housing.,  movement  by r o a d s  is  It  predominant  is  strange  Ministry  of Transport  is  not r e s p o n s i b l e  Federal  Ministry  of T r a n s p o r t  is  "responsible  cing  and c o o r d i n a t i o n and e x e r c i s e s  budgetary  (except  ministries  its  for  for  the i t . The  transport  powers  by  influen  a l l o c a t i o n s to the d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t  road t r a n s p o r t )  ( W o r l d Bank:  that  in N i g e r i a ,  Federal  planning  the  1975,  and by making  pp.89-90).  are r e s p o n s i b l e  In  cooperation  operation,  seems e l u s i v e  regulations  s i t u a t i o n where  f o r the t r a n s p o r t  would e x p e c t s t r o n g however,  this  appropriate  modes  sector,  between t h e t w o . in the N i g e r i a n  two  one  This  co-  situation:  . . . t h e F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f Works i s a s o - c a l l e d s e r v i c e m i n i s t r y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , p e r f o r m s c i v i l and b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e T r a n s p o r t M i n istry. T h e r e f o r e , f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e two m i n i s t r i e s i s v e r y e s s e n t i a l . Such c o o p e r a t i o n has been r a t h e r i n a d e q u a t e as e v i d e n c e d by c o m p l a i n t s by t h e T r a n s p o r t M i n i s t r y o v e r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and r e p a i r o f a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s ( F i l a n i and O s a y i m w e s e : 1974, p . 4 0 0 ) . C o o r d i n a t i o n W i t h i n the F e d e r a l Another tion the  source  planning ministries  is  Ministry  of  Transport:  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems  in  transporta-  the l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n which e x i s t s  ( F i l a n i and O s a y i m w e s e :  are o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  inadequacies  p o r t w h i c h have t o change  if  1974,  p.401).  w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y  within There  of  Trans-  a more e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes i s  required.  At  the  60 present  t i m e , the f u n c t i o n a l  of T r a n s p o r t  is  transportation, in  Figure  1.  organized  on a modal  except roads,  The p r e s e n t  of the t h r e e departments ferent  section  has  of the F e d e r a l basis  its  s t r u c t u r e enhances  departments  is  1974,  p.400).  such a c a s e  Waterways  is  v i r t u a l l y absent  usually  department.  of  strategy  partment of would  and has Ports  increase  crease  traffic  aware o f quately  handle  and W a t e r w a y s .  such t r a f f i c  f o r the r a i l w a y s  in the p o r t s .  But  if  the r e s u l t a n t  increased is  and t e c h n i c a l instance,  in the f o l l o w i n g  dewhich  would a l s o  in-  Authority  its  is  usually  t o comprehend  the l a c k of t e c h n i c a l statement:  The F e d e r a l and S t a t e M i n i s t r i e s o f Works g e n e r a l l y d e t e r m i n e t h e r o a d programme and i t i s known t h a t up t i l l 1971 t h e r e was no s i n g l e  has  un-  facilities. Of  saddled  i t hardly  is  ade-  by no means a d e q u a t e .  know-how  is  by t h e  demand on  and  over-  be e x p e c t e d t o  c o o r d i n a t i o n , but  For  out  are f o r  the Ports  i t can h a r d l y  interactions. brought  Rail-  apparent.  Therefore a strategy  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e department  technological  is  t o be h a n d l e d a t t h e p o r t s  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  Osayimwese:  in the  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s  The s t r u c t u r e d e s c r i b e d above course,  from  not communicated to the P o r t s  The  such a s t r a t e g y ,  shown  in a d i f -  policies  proposal  of  segregation  ( F i l a n i and  For o n e , most o f t h e r a i l w a y f r e i g h t t r a f f i c seas markets  the  - each l i v i n g and o p e r a t i n g  other  ways d e p a r t m e n t  - i . e . each mode  own d e p a r t m e n t as  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r l d and k n o w l e d g e  In  Ministry  with  the  modal personnel  ADMINISTRATION  Rail ways  Ports & Waterways  Airways  ;  •  Pricing  ,.•  Investment  Control  Pricing  Investment  Control  Pricing  Investment  Control  FIGURE 1  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT, NIGERIA.  CTl  62 e c o n o m i s t among t h e p r o j e c t p i a n n e r s . . . . T h e F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a l s o has a s h o r t a g e of t r a n p o r t economists. In f a c t , as o f now t h e a u t h o r s do n o t know o f any t r a n s p o r t e x p e r t s i n e i t h e r t h e F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t or i t s r e c e n t l y c r e a t e d arm - t h e T r a n s p o r t P l a n n i n g U n i t (TPU) ( F i l a n i and O s a y i m w e s e : 1974, p . 4 0 0 ) . Inter-sectoral  coordination  is  by t h e F e d e r a l  c a r r i e d out  which is  has  a transportation  responsible  p.90).  These  coordination  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Ministry  division  f o r budgetary  of  with other  Economic  (Word  are not concerned w i t h  per se,and  this  the emphasis  of  Bank:  ministries  is  Development,  and t h e M i n i s t r y  allocations  sectors  Finance  1974,  intermodal  of  this  section.  Conclusion: In  this  networks  c h a p t e r , the development  in N i g e r i a  has  been g i v e n  to roads  roads  i n moving  play  problem f a c i n g an  been o u t l i n e d .  because  the development  which roads  are  provided  of  coordination  which e x i s t s .  strategies  will  ordination  of  the e x i s t i n g  be d e v e l o p e d  transportation  of the  the  transportation  Special  predominant  people.  of t h i s  The e x i s t i n g  perpetuation  majority  of  the  emphasis role  the m a j o r i t y of the p e o p l e .  i n s t i t u t i o n a l one.  within  of  is  in the c o u n t r y , -  the next  which w i l l policies  i.e.  which  The  major  i d e n t i f i e d as  administrative  problems In  mode  has  structure,  allows  the l a c k  the of  chapter,, a s t r a t e g y enhance  to the  better  co-  b e n e f i t of a  or  63 CHAPTER  IV  A TRANSPORTATION STRATEGY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Introduction A transportation which  is  its  process,  is  it  transportation necessary  such a p r o c e s s . transportation  planning  in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  d e f i n e d as  planning,  system.  because  of  is  very  For  of  of the p e r v a s i v e  other o b j e c t i v e s .  has  plays  keting  a key r o l e  r o l e of m o b i l i t y in  facilitating  Transportation  conduct of  in g e t t i n g  ideas  industry,  It  is  a necessary  land  1964,  is  into  p.l).  ingredient  development.  p r o d u c t i o n , in  in making  forest  of  p r o g r a m s , and  t r a d e , in in the  mar-  and  a significant factor  in the expansion  o f h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n (Owen:  necessary  significance  wealth a c c e s s i b l e .  development of  these  special  a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m o d i t i e s , and  mineral  in  indivisi-  Despite is  guide  investments  their  p.354).  o f n e a r l y e v e r y a s p e c t o f e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l It  planning  transportation  instance,  in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Transportation  operating,and  important  the n a t u r e  1977,  approach  which w i l l  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a r e known f o r (Mahayni:  an  F o r an a d e q u a t e  to develop a s t r a t e g y  investment  development.  because  for  in development.  and l u m p i n e s s  characteristics, for  here  The s t r a t e g y a p p r o a c h  or o b j e c t i v e s  bilities  is  a d o p t e d by a g o v e r n m e n t  maintaining  roles  strategy  in  the  the  exchange  64 The main o b j e c t i v e o f a t r a n p o r t a t i o n sion of  of a developmental  spatial  separation  of  economical  and f e a s i b l e  acceptable  levels  p.357).  National are  like  the  and,  Plan  of  chapter,  a strategy  of  be f o c u s s e d of  here  has  is  glect  statement:  of  coupled w i t h the  above  in N i g e r i a .  together  In  economic  of n a t i o n a l of  1 975 ,  the  the  Third  objectives efobjectives  nation"  p.. 1 9 9 ) .  which e x i s t s  in Chapter  the e f f e c t s  is  In  this  development  One  in the  farm-to-market  transport  The o b j e c t i v e p r o b l e m on  trans-  i m p o r t a n t outcome  the r a p i d development  transportation  urban-rural  III.  of t h i s  in N i g e r i a .  coordination  of r u r a l  dichotomy  1977,  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  coordination  developments  inter-urban  by  Coordination:  been d i s c u s s e d  the l a c k of and  rural  of  (Mahayni:  development,  Nigeria:  of  to demonstrate  portation  problem  upon.  Lack  The l a c k o f  exten-  constrained  for Nigeria, transportation  up and b i n d i n g  Republic  sector  are  networks  "coordinated  (Federal  The E f f e c t s  performance  by i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e s u p p o r t  the opening  will  " t o minimize the  and c o n v e n i e n c e "  transportation  s t a t e d as  ficiency  transport  considerations  Development  is  an  d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s by means  of s a f e t y  Political  in d e v e l o p i n g  strategy,  p l a n , as  of  intra-  n e t w o r k s , and t h e r e l a t i v e roads.  economies  as  This  has  of  ne-  l e d to a  shown i n the  following  65 T h i s u r b a n - r u r a l d i c h o t o m y was r e f l e c t e d i n an urban-rural t r a n s p o r t dichotomy. The f a n - s h a p e t r a n s p o r t n e t w o r k s i n most t h i r d - w o r l d c o u n t r i e s c e n t e r around major c i t i e s w i t h l i n k s c o n n e c t i n g them. R u r a l t r a n s p o r t i s s t i l l p r i m i t i v e and d e p e n d e n t t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on human and a n i m a l powers. The move t o w a r d s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and i n c o r p o r a t i o n of r u r a l economies i n t o the n a t i o n a l economy r e q u i r e s , t h e r e f o r e , a change i n t r a n s p o r t - p l a n n i n g r a t i o n a l e , and improvement o f i n t e r n a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y has become one o f t h e c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s in p l a n n i n g f o r development. (Mahayni: 1977, p . 3 5 4 ) . This Nigeria, rural  dichotomy where  areas  in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  the c i t i e s are served  rarely  country  Nigeria,  Rural  is  w i t h many r o a d s  network  o f most  shown i n F i g u r e  with a seaport  Figure: 2  clearly visible  have one r o a d t o b o a s t  the road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n including  is  has  2.  been t a k e n as  Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Co un t r y .  of.  and  in the  Conceptually,  developing  countries,  A hypothetical an  Network  example.  in a  Developing  Transportation: Good r o a d s ,  water' supply,  modern  education  sanitation, electricity, and m e d i c a l  facilities  pipe-borne  were a l m o s t  as  66 foreign  to the r u r a l  areas  were a t t h e b e g i n n i n g 1975,  pp.49-59).  a t t h e end o f  colonial  of that a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  The b u l k  of  the s o c i a l  r u l e as  (01atunbosun:  services  provided  went t o t h e c i t i e s where t h e B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s Even  today,  situation  after  is  especially  about  eighteen years  so  in the p r o v i s i o n provision  urban  (Federal  networks view  is  supported  concentration made t h i s this ted  populace.  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  been h i g h l y  for  a reasonable  1971,  one.  transportation  in the f o l l o w i n g  This  skewed t o w a r d s  R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a : by O ' C o n n o r :  the  The  intra-  1 974 , p.203.,.  pp.145-146).  The  areas  implications  development  is  facilities.  of economic a c t i v i t i e s i n the urban  strategy  strategy  has  lived.  independence,  n o t much b e t t e r f o r t h e r u r a l  Transportation  This  of  they  is  best  has of  illustra-  statement:  W h i l e some o f t h e new p o r t s , r a i l w a y s , and r o a d s have a s s i s t e d t h e s p r e a d o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y t o new a r e a s , most o f t h e t r a n s p o r t i n v e s t m e n t t h a t has t a k e n p l a c e has t e n d e d t o consolidate well-established patterns .... A c i r c u l a r p r o c e s s i s a t work whereby t h e c o l o n i a l t r a n s p o r t n e t w o r k has g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h i s i n t u r n d e t e r m i n e s where most of t h e demand f o r improved t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s a r i s e s (O'Connor: 1971 , p . 1 5 6 ) . The urban development For  but t h i s  instance,  ing of  centres  social  is  are u s u a l l y r a r e l y so  seen as  in a developing  i n N i g e r i a , Mabogunje and e c o n o m i c  the only elements  observed  conditions  that  in N i g e r i a ' s  of  country. "the  worsen-  rural  areas  67 at  a t i m e when a l l  at  an u n p r e c e d e n t e d  our  urban  centres  (Mabogurije: fore,  constantly  are  of  adequate  needed  construction  1973,  1973,  should p.34).  areas.  of r u r a l  will  the r u r a l  growing  situation  the  as  products  these  of r u r a l  federal  and  constitutes  a serious  (Federal  roads  are s t i l l  when  it  the  the l a c k  of  impediment  Republic  in-  transportation  a t t e n t i o n to as  easy  (Federal  government  and c u l v e r t s  there-  c r e a t i o n of a  Good f a r m - t o - m a r k e t areas  of  population"  be s t i m u l a t e d  pay g r e a t e r  areas"  is  the f a i l u r e  the r u r a l  The l a c k  by t h e  bridges  still  in the r u r a l  'serve'  of  for agricultural  i n the r u r a l  States  facilities  movement  market  recognized  "the  a measure  To i m p r o v e  to the market  is  stated that  also  t h a t t h e economy  p r o d u c t i v i t y through  in the r u r a l  facilities  these  rural  Nigeria:  urgently  is  p.89).  expanding  accessibility Republic  rate  are  to a d e q u a t e l y  1974,  increased  indications  of  to  Nigeria:  p.28).  Responsibility  for  Rural  Roads:  "Up t o t h e p r e s e n t , the t r a n s p o r t  sector  have  not o n l y  because  adequate  u t i l i z a t i o n of  arising  not  policies  1975,  should  trained  and c o - o r d i n a t i o n  been s a t i s f a c t o r y  of m i s i n v e s t m e n t s  but a l s o  human and m a t e r i a l  f r o m poor management  of N i g e r i a :  better  performance  p.199).  In  and c o n t r o l " order  be aimed a t management personnel,  i n many  because  of  resources, (Federal  to r e s o l v e reforms,  r e f o r m of e x i s t i n g  within  this  cases, in-  directly  Republic problem,  infusion  institutions  of and  68 the  c r e a t i o n o f new ones  problem i s others  a very  depends  authorities  where n e c e s s a r y .  i m p o r t a n t one,as  on s u i t a b l e  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the s u i t a b i l i t y of  i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework.  the Proper  a r e needed f o r e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and  imp!ementation. All - Trunk  roads 'A',  ment t a k e s are roads  1  i n N i g e r i a a r e c l a s s i f i e d under  Trunk  'B',  and L o c a l  w h i c h span  long  distances.  S t a t e govenments  f o r Trunk  'B'  the l o c a l  ( p r e s e n t l y -19 i n number)  governments  and m a i n t a i n i n g r o a d s  i.e.  rural  o f each l e v e l  roads.  provide  for  construc-  of government  is  of roads  under the j u r i s d i c t i o n  i l l u s t r a t e d by T a b l e  III  III  LENGTH OF ROADS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF EACH LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA,, 1972 (IN KILOMETRES),, Unpaved  Total  Percentage of Total  Federal  6,477  4,130  10,607  11.1  State  8,832  12,336  21,168  22.2  Local  2,890  60,800  63,690  66.7  Total:  18,199  77,266  95,465  100.0  Source:  The  in t h e i r area of j u r i s d i c t i o n -  The l e n g t h s  Paved  parts  boundaries.  are r e s p o n s i b l e  TABLE  Government  These  They c o n n e c t m a j o r  within their respective  ting  roads.  'A'  govern-  f o r m t h e main p r o d u c e r o u t e s .  different  roads  headings  The f e d e r a l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l the Trunk  o f t h e c o u n t r y and a l s o  Finally,  Roads.  three  F i l a n i , M.0. and Osayimwese, Iz: "The Organization of Transport Planning in N i g e r i a " , The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol.16, No. 3, Ibadan, November 1974, p.395.  below.  69 An a n a l y s i s  of the t a b l e above,  b a s e d on r o a d  lengths,  shows t h e u n b a l a n c e d n a t u r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r transportation sponsibility  also  jurisdiction. carriage roads  in N i g e r i a . depends  Of c o u r s e , on  s t a t e roads  R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a :  1973,  an a n a l y s i s  based on t h e t a b l e above  governments  are r e s p o n s i b l e  in N i g e r i a .  of r e s o u r c e s federal of a l l  roads  a v a i l a b l e to these  could only  under  than the  p.28).  levels  the  of g o v e r n m e n t .  the a b i l i t y  its  j u r i s d i c t i o n , whi1e the l o c a l  t o pave a b o u t  per cent of a l l  coupled with the lengths  local  of roads  The  61 per  t h e i r roads.  all  amount  has  pave 4.5  local  However,  shows t h a t t h e  demonstrates  each  dual  f o r more t h a n 66 per c e n t o f  The t a b l e a l s o  government  re-  under  are mostly  ways c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g more t r a f f i c  (Federal  roads  the magnitude of  s t a n d a r d of the roads  The f e d e r a l and  road  cent  governments  This  fact,  u n d e r each g o v e r n m e n t s  gives  an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the  local  governments.  These,in  effect,means that  which i s  l e a s t a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t and m a i n t a i n r o a d s  of f u n d s  and p e r s o n n e l , have  (Filani  and O s a y i m w e s e :  The p r e s e n t is  the g r e a t e s t  1974,  ted  in Matrix  1.  the  different levels  under  its  being  jurisdiction.  Responsibility and j o i n t  terms  responsibility"  s t r u c t u r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , as  f o r the roads  in  agency  p.395).  a s e c t o r a l one - w i t h each g o v e r n m e n t  solely  "the  of  is  not shared  shown  above,  responsible This  is  illustra-  e q u i t a b l y among  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is  almost  totally  70 absent. agency  Where j o i n t basis.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is  For example, the r o l e of the s t a t e  in road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n is twelve  states  tenance  p r e s e n t , work  also  s u m m a r i z e d as  have m i n i s t r i e s  follows:  is  basis)  roads"  ( W o r l d Bank:  "Nigeria's  concerned w i t h road main-  and w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f 1974,  on  govenments  ( i n c l u d i n g the maintenance of f e d e r a l highways  agency  done  some  on an  secondary  p.90).  MATRIX: 1 EXISTING STRUCTURE OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR ROADS IN NIGERIA  v . Responsibl e Govt.  >v  Type ^ S . of  Roads  Federal  Trunk  'A'  Trunk  'B'  State  Local  * * *  Local  In  this  s t r u c t u r e , each g o v e r n m e n t  maintain only c e r t a i n categories t h e f e d e r a l government and l o c a l federal  or  governments  does  of road - f o r concern  itself  obligatory  The  local  local  roads  governments.  to  instance, with local  do n o t t a k e any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  state roads.  t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  not  feels  roads  for  are t h e r e f o r e  solely  71 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n tenance c o n t i n u e s to r e s i d e w i t h the v a r i o u s Government M i n i s t r i e s of W o r k s . Roads w h i c h a r e a F e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e t e r m e d Trunk ' A ' r o a d s , w h i l e S t a t e r o a d s a r e i n d i c a t e d as Trunk ' B ' r o a d s . The f o r m e r were e s s e n t i a l l y N o r t h - S o u t h r o u t e s l i n k i n g t h e main s e a p o r t s w i t h t h e i r u p - c o u n t r y h i n t e r l a n d and E a s t - W e s t r o u t e s c o n n e c t i n g major urban c e n t r e s , f o r m i n g t o g e t h e r t h e main n a t i o n a l g r i d . A considera b l e l e n g t h ( 1 6 , 0 0 0 k i l o m e t r e s ) o f Trunk 'B' r o a d s has however r e c e n t l y become p a r t o f F e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by t a k e - o v e r . S t a t e and L o c a l Governments between them a r e now r e s p o n s i b l e f o r about 67,000 k i l o m e t r e s of Trunk ' B ' r o a d s and L o c a l r o a d s w h i c h s e r v e m a i n l y as f e e d e r or f a r m - t o - m a r k e t roads" (Federal R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a : 1974, p . 2 0 3 ) . This  lack  of j o i n t  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n poor  standard  standard  is  of road  maintenance  of excess  maintenancy  p.395).  responsibility  partly responsible construction  o f most  for  can a l s o level. i.e.  and o c c a s i o n a l  roads  will (in  is  this  of funds  construction  enhance  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n possible  help  in  shown i n M a t r i x  of  and  and m a i n t e n a n c e . of  rural  policies can t h e n  transportation  sub-  1974, in  co-  Nigeria. 2.  available state  and q u a l i f i e d man-power)  road development  the development  is  by making f e d e r a l  the c o o r d i n a t i o n  Integrated  can  a d o p t e d , a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of  be e n h a n c e d  terms  road  of  the  instances  for a l l  structure  rural  roads  level,  J o i n t res p o n s i b i 1 i t i e s  f o r making  sources  at the l o c a l  for  generally  and O s a y i m w e s e :  A proposal  resources  "the  (Filani  the p r o v i s i o n  this  for  governments  capacity"  ordinating  If  among  This  re-  available structure  at the  federal  be p o s s i b l e  -  can t h e n  con-  be  72 MATRIX: 2 SHARED RESPONSIBILITY FOR ROADS IN NIGERIA : A PROPOSAL  > v R e s p o n s i bl e >v  Govt.  Type  \  of  Roads  >v  Federal  State  Trunk  'A'  *  Trunk  'B'  *  *  *  *  Local s i d e r e d as  an i n t e g r a l  Local  *  part of the n a t i o n a l  transportation  system. The T r a n s p o r t a t i o n That  "the  Rural  Areas:  r ura V t r a n s p o r t a t i on . i s  been m e n t i o n e d problems  Needs o f  i n the  facing  poor  previous  not', a d e q u a t e ' ; i n N i ger. i a ha s :  section.  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  sector  Also is  one o f  a t t r i b u t e d to  c o n d i t i o n o f f e e d e r r o a d s and o t h e r  facilities  in the r u r a l  1975,  p.65).  roads  is  The  t h e n an  improvement  (Federal of  - especially  cultural  sector  in n a t i o n a l  in view of the f a c t t h a t  in N i g e r i a  still  the Gross Domestic  transport  Republic  farm-to-market  i m p o r t a n t segment  planning  per c e n t o f  areas"  accounts Product,and  the  of or  Nigeria: feeder  development "the  agri-  f o r more t h a n provides  50  employment  for  about  (Federal In  70 p e r c e n t o f N i g e r i a ' s Republic  order  portation needs o f  of N i g e r i a :  rural  areas  The a c q u i s i t i o n It  of  knowledge  trans-  transportation  is  The demand f o r  i t w o u l d make r e d u n d a n t  however,  some o f t h e  is  transportation any  purposes f o r which  the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s , out  the  rural  here  of the v a r i o u s  made t o p o i n t  about  for  be made c l e a r t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n  that  In  strategy  this  is  enumeration  p.9).  the o b j e c t i v e of  by any means.  universal  population"  and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e e s s e n t i a l .  this  should  knowledge  not e x h a u s t i v e , so  1973,  to formulate a v i a b l e  development,  section.  working  exhaustive  it  is  needed.  an a t t e m p t has  important r u r a l  been  transportation  needs. Marketing  Agricultural  Produce :  Easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o m a r k e t rural  development.  t h e f a r m e r anywhere p l a c e where vegetable  Good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  is  t o be a b l e  a reasonable  products, network  if  adequately  by  brought  out  Owen:  it  for  t o make a  in  need  produce  price for  necessary  good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network  his  o r raw m a t e r i a l s  is  o f good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and f o r e m o s t  to market  market area a v a i l a b l e to the f a r m e r s . be e n c o u r a g e d  an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r  C e r t a i n l y , the f i r s t  he may s e c u r e  or animal  is  at a  - be  in a g r i c u l t u r a l  The  it  industry. sizeable  Food d i s t r i b u t i o n exists.  of  will  importance  production  is  74 Poor t r a n s p o r t i s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n w o r l d h u n g e r . The h i g h c o s t of moving f a r m p r o d u c t s and t h e l o n g d e l a y s and c o n s e q u e n t damage and l o s s t o p e r i s h a b l e s have been p o w e r f u l d e t e r r e n t s t o i n c r e a s i n g food suppl i e s . P r o d u c e r o t s on t h e g r o u n d b e c a u s e t r a n s p o r t i s n o t a v a i l a b l e . . . . The a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r does n o t s u f f e r s i m p l y f r o m t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f l a n d , o r f r o m t h e f a i l u r e t o move what i s p r o d u c e d . F a r m e r s have no i n c e n t i v e t o grow s u r p l u s e s when t h e y know f r o m e x p e r i e n c e t h a t what t h e y grow c a n n o t be moved. I s o l a t e d communit i e s r e m a i n i g n o r a n t o f m a r k e t o p p o r t u n i t i e s or o f new i d e a s and new t e c h n i q u e s , f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , t r a v e l s s l o w l y on mud r o a d s and p r i m i t i v e t r a i l s (Owen: 1 9 6 4 , p . 5 ) . Apart cultural (Owen: areas tion  1964,  p.l).  because links  tinuing  of  poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on  impacts  Industries  inclusive.  Poor  o f an i n d u s t r y of f u e l ,  transportation  o f f e r e d - good  transportation  because  t h e f a c t o r y depends  demonstrated  is  the  in the f o l l o w i n g  agriindustries urban  transporta-  can hamper  raw m a t e r i a l s , s p a r e  means o f m a r k e t i n g what  Owen a l s o  the l o c a t i o n of  continue to l o c a t e in  of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  supplies  reliable  impacts  production, i t also  activities  p.3).  from the  the on  con-  p a r t s , and a  manufactured  (Owen:  1964,  i n f l a t i o n a r y e f f e c t s of  poor  example:  In A f g h a n i s t a n , h a l f o f a l l t r a d e s t i l l moves on t h e b a c k s o f men, c a m e l s , and d o n k e y s . Poor t r a n s p o r t has i n c r e a s e d t h e p r i c e o f goods t o as much as f i v e t i m e s t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o s t (Owen: 1964, p . 3 ) . Socio-Political  Transportation  Transportation  Needs:  difficulties,  in the r u r a l  areas,  have  their  75 social  and p o l i t i c a l  p o r t a t i o n makes The " o p e n i n g  as  well  the task  as  economic  of n a t i o n a l  up and b i n d i n g  development  in N i g e r i a  p.199).  good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  If  can e a s i l y  Another  network  of  and  information  tension  hardly  officers  and  (see  a r e made d i f f i c u l t  o f many v i l l a g e s  inputs  l i k e f e r t i l i z e r s .usually  after  There  would  workers,and freely Other  and  politicians  with lack  areas  is  Owen:  1964,  about  areas. because  the slow p.5;  very  increase  other  (Owen:  1964,  p.5).  agents  movement also im-  The w o r k s  ex-  of the  of  inaccessiAgricultural  l a t e in the  rural  arrived  Improved  m o b i l i t y and t h e f a r m e r s ,  innovation  good  agricultural  their jurisdiction. arrive  of  trans-  extension  w o u l d be a b l e t o  interact  easily.  Needs: Apart  urban  season  of  1975,  a r e many c a s e s where f e r t i l i z e r s have  the growing  portation  under  one  other.  innovations  r e a c h many r u r a l  one.  sector  of N i g e r i a :  a v a i l a b l e , the  in the r u r a l  bility  areas.  in the t r a n s p o r t  to the  innovations  Information  provements  part  trans-  o f t h e n a t i o n " was  Republic is  Poor  a difficult  p r o b l e m t h a t can be a s s o c i a t e d  transportation  above).  (Federal  move f r o m one  unity  together  the i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e s mentioned  impacts.  from the above-mentioned  transportation  village  movements  needs,  inter-village  t h e r e a r e a number  w h i c h a r e no l e s s  of  significant.  or  rural-  intraP.  C.  Tripathi,  76 w h i l e w r i t i n g about  Rajasthan  following  observations  the r u r a l  areas  about  District  in  India,  made  the  which are r e l e v a n t to s i t u a t i o n s  o f many d e v e l o p i n g  countries.  i n t r a - v i 1 1 age t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e e d s ,  While  in  writing  he s t a t e d :  ...women c a r r y i n g meals f o r t h e male members a t t h e f i e l d s or t h e c a r t - l o a d s o r t h e h e a d - l o a d s of h a r v e s t e d crops being c a r r i e d from the farms to the t h r a s h i n g f l o o r s which are g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d near t h e d w e l l i n g houses o r t h e v i l l a g e p o t t e r c a r t i n g t h e s o i l f r o m somewhere i n t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h e v i l l a g e t o t h e s p o t where he makes e a r t h e n w a r e s o r t h e f a r m e r c a r t i n g t h e manure f r o m dung heaps a r o u n d ' • A b a d i ' t o h i s n e a r b y f i e l d s a r e a l l a common s i g h t in the r u r a l a r e a s ( T r i p a t h i : 1972, p . 3 6 ) . This  shows t h a t good i n t e r n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n o r  network  is  important for r u r a l  the e x i s t i n g In  rural  economy  conclusion,  is  development t o be  the growth  these  - especially  if  enhanced.  process  of the r u r a l  can be r e t a r d e d by l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r to t r a v e l through  transportation  areas  public o f f i c i a l s  areas.  Poor t r a n s p o r t can be a m a j o r o b s t a c l e t o m a i n taining internal security. It also l i m i t s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. In a w o r l d where one o u t o f e v e r y t h r e e p o e p l e i s i n a d e q u a t e l y f e d , t h e a b i l i t y of modern t r a n s p o r t t o make a v i l a b l e more f o o d i s p e r h a p s i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n (Owen: 1 9 6 4 , pp.7-8). Transportation gredient tative  development  for rural  link  is  t h e r e f o r e an i m p o r t a n t  development.  among many s e c t o r s ,  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , as influences  ina  facili-  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  77 the socio-economic affects  and p o l i t i c a l  the c o u n t r y ' s  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  development  (Mahayni:  thereby  1977,  pp.351-  352). Financing  Rural  Transportation:  Throughout  this  chapter, great  on t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f r u r a l requires tive.  a substantial  This  resources  brings  should  investment  the question  tive for  lower p r i o r i t y . sectorial  investment  There  is  tunity tive is  This  investments are never  'opportunity  cost  a common p r o b l e m i n  Osayimwese:  1974,  been  arises  cost'  is  scarce  of r u r a l  sector  has  1966,  investment.  In  proposal  t o be e f f e c -  t o s e l e c t among  the c o s t  required.  t o be  alterna-  p.28). oppor-  up a l t e r n a -  transportation  coordination  road  "funds  The  of g i v i n g  intermodal a l l o c a t i o n s .  transportation  is  from the f a c t t h a t  in every  placed  This  o f w h e t h e r any  so w h i c h  necessity  o f an i n v e s t m e n t  for  it  unlimited" (Lansing:  uses o f t h e r e s o u r c e s  implications  if  be d e v o t e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e and i f given  has  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  capital  about  emphasis  This  (Filani  p.390).  The r e l e v a n t i n t e r m o d a l a l l o c a t i o n p r o b l e m i n N i g e r i a i s g i v e n , f o r e x a m p l e , a sum o f # 1 0 m i l l i o n f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t s e c t o r , i n what p r o p o r t i o n s h o u l d t h i s amount be d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e modes f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i m p r o v e m e n t s and/or e x t e n s i o n s of the e x i s t i n g network? In e f f e c t , t h e c h o i c e p r o b l e m o f i n t e r e s t s h o u l d be t h a t a t t h e m a r g i n . The r e q u i r e d p r o p o r t i o n may be d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p a r i s o n s o f e c o n o m i c  this  also and  has  78 r a t e s of r e t u r n . The h i g h e r t h e e c o n o m i c r a t e o f r e t u r n on t h e r e s o u r c e s t o be used up i n a modal p r o j e c t , t h e more f a v o u r a b l e i s t h e a l l o c a t i o n to t h a t mode....Such a c a l c u l a t i o n p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t s o c i a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s a r e c o r r e c t l y measured o r measured w i t h t h e same p e r c e n t a g e e r r o r m a r g i n ( F i l a n i and O s a y i m w e s e : 1974, p . 3 9 0 ) . 1  In  the  compare  provision  the c o s t s  building  and b e n e f i t s  and i m p r o v i n g \ i  party  of r o a d s ,  cluding  are enjoyed those  business.  of  of  by  one  of o p e r a t o r s  The f i n a l  quicker,  users  -  in-  and/or  outlay  might  of the s a v i n g s are  assessment of  easier  The  in  direct,and  the worth of a  the value  to  traders  and more c o m f o r t a b l e  passages"  1 959 , . p . 1 2 4 ) .  allocaions  improving  The c o s t s  purposes  a given  i n c l u d e an " e s t i m a t e o f  Equity matters modal  private  of the r e t u r n of  only.  also  and t r a v e l l e r s  to  the r o a d s .  and v e h i c l e m a i n t e n a n c e , but t h e s e  road should  difficult  borne  the automobile  who use t h e r o a d f o r  immediate g a i n s  (Walker:  usually  administering  by o t h e r s ,  Some i d e a s  fuel  is  investment.  the road are  be formed f r o m the a c c o u n t s time,  of  it  :  - the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y  benefits  however,  further  complicates  in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  the q u a l i t y  of l i f e  for a l l  The n a t i o n a l  an i m p o r t a n t  1975,  A c h o i c e w o u l d t h e n have  a m a j o r i t y of the  people.  (Federal  Republic  inter-  objective  c i t i z e n s makes  considerations p.291).  one  the problem of  of  of  equity Nigeria:  t o be made w h i c h  affects  79 If a i r t r a n s p o r t i s developed in N i g e r i a , i t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be a v a i l a b l e t o no more t h a n 10 p e r cent of the t r a v e l l i n g p o p u l a t i o n f o r a long t i m e . Whereas r o a d t r a n s p o r t i s t h e most p r e d o m i n a n t means o f t r a n s p o r t a v a i l a b l e t o most c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e i n t h e c o u n t r y and t h i s p r e d o m i n a n c e w i l l c o n t i n u e f o r some t i m e . E q u i t y m a t t e r s a r i s e when t a x - p a y e r ' s money i s used t o s u b s i d i z e a i r t r a n s port f o r a small group. I f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f 14 a i r p o r t s embodied i n t h e NACO R e p o r t i s v i e w e d as s u g g e s t e d i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h , i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y t h e p r o p o s a l on e q u i t y g r o u n d s ( F i l a n i and O s a y i m w e s e : 1974, p . 3 9 0 ) . Equity ment o f  considerations rural  in N i g e r i a would encourage  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r o v e r a l l  the  develop-  national  develop-  ment . Intermodal In  Resource  view of problems  government the  Allocations:  should  o u t l i n e d in t h i s  roads.  ment P l a n o f 1 9 7 5 - 8 0 , t o t a l l y All  international of N i g e r i a : the  rural  tion.  highways.  areas  of t r u n k  (For  as much as  investment  is  of Develop-  transporta-  were p l a c e d on d e v e l o p i n g roads  i n s t a n c e , see  pp.199-228).  The s i g n i f i c a n c e  portation ment :  and a n e t w o r k  1975,  Nigerian  The T h i r d N a t i o n a l  neglected rural  a v a i l a b l e resources  transportation  the  pay more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i m p r o v e m e n t  f a r m - t o - m a r k e t or r u r a l  tion.  study,  This  of the p r e s e n t out  including  Federal  strategy  an i n v e s t m e n t  brought  -  cannot  in r u r a l  imbalance  urban some  Republic help  transportain  in the f o l l o w i n g  transstate-  80 The u r b a n - r u r a l a l l o c a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t e x p e n d i t u r e i s a m a t t e r o f income d i s t r i b u t i o n and e q u i t y . In N i g e r i a a b o u t t w e n t y per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e in urban areas ( d e f i n e d as p l a c e s w i t h 2 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e and a b o v e ) , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g e i g h t y p e r c e n t l i v e in the rural countryside. A l r e a d y , income d i s t r i b u t i o n i s skewed i n f a v o u r o f u r b a n a r e a s ( t h i s does n o t i m p l y t h a t i n t r a - u r b a n d i s t r i b u t i o n i s normal). A l r e a d y t h e r e seems t o have been a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t d e v e l o p m e n t on i n t r a and i n t e r - c i t y l i n k a g e s and a r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t of r u r a l t r a n s p o r t . Reinforcing this pattern of t r a n s p o r t development i s l i k e l y to aggravate t h e g r o w i n g income i n e q u a l i t y between r u r a l h o u s e h o l d s and u r b a n d w e l l e r s ( F i l a n i and O s a y i m w e s e : 1974, p . 3 9 2 ) . A logical rural  conclusion  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  road t r a n s p o r t  d i r e c t e d to r u r a l  licensing  fees  major sources Since more so  other  of  for  t o phase  in favour  of r u r a l  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development. and f o r e i g n  can n o t rural  assistance rural  are  on  roads  their The also  be d e v e l o p e d a t t h e same t i m e  area  included in N i g e r i a ,  developments.  Target  the  transportation.  areas  can be  p r i o r i t y a t t e n t i o n based on n e e d , p o p u l a t i o n  national  Transport  more e m p h a s i s  can be done by r e a d j u s t i n g  income f o r d e v e l o p i n g  roads  is  t o be b u i l t can be r e d u c e d and  of v e h i c l e s  in the l a r g e  necessary fied  all  This  these  a l l o c a t i o n of resources  The number o f a i r p o r t s funds  from a l l  -  it will identiand  objectives.  Coordination:  The b a s i c  aim o f c o o r d i n a t i o n  is  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  be  81 understanding  of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  sectors  o f an economy  economy  is  tion, they  totally  f o r example,  -  is  fairly  dependent it  on o t h e r  (Owen:  1964,  the v a r i o u s  sectors  -  or  stitutions  political.  i.e.  To a c h i e v e  planning  have  been c r i t i c i z e d  pose o f t h i s  study,  three  fied for transportation coordination  and c o o r d i n a t i o n  planning:  i n f l u e n c e the type of  coordination  of  1964,  p.355).  coordination  For  p.74).  be  with  other  transportation  the  sectors  can  identi-  strategies  the fact  problems  t o be a d o p t e d f o r  f a c t then c a l l s  pur-  government;  is  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  This  the  will  of  too  Sectors:  t h e m a j o r ones  strategies  in-  modes.  transportation  a f f e c t the nature  (Owen:  1977,  a  for  s l o w and  can be i d e n t i f i e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g  made o u t s i d e  social,  even t h o u g h such  w i t h Other  One o f  and  is. e s s e n t i a l  between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s  need f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  solution  balanced  type of development,  of c o o r d i n a t i o n  Coordination  Many p r o b l e m s  significantly  (Mahayni: types  For a  bureaucratic,  between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Transport  that decisions  this  an  as  to c o o r d i n a t e  structure  as  sectors  be t h e y e c o n o m i c ,  and d e v e l o p m e n t ,  detached from the problems  a)  p.74).  of  Transporta-  economic  be n e c e s s a r y  centralized decision-making  sectors;  sectors.  it will  coordination,  and  of other  the d i f f e r e n t  No one s e c t o r  development,  integrate cultural  of a system.  independent  i n t u r n depend on  national  i.e.  of a l l  for  and p o l i c i e s  their the with  82  those  of o t h e r  sectors  as  p o i n t e d out  by W i l f r e d Owen when  he w r o t e : T r a n s p o r t needs a r e c r e a t e d by what t a k e s p l a c e o u t s i d e t h e t r a n s p o r t f i e l d , and ways t o meet t h e s e needs may a l s o be f o u n d i n o t h e r s e c t o r s . The s e l e c t i o n o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s , t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s , t h e p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r a g e o f p e r i s h a b l e s , t h e g e n e r a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f p o w e r , and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s - a l l t h e s e and many o t h e r a s p e c t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t have a v i t a l r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e and l e v e l o f t r a n s p o r t i n v e s t m e n t . To look at the t r a n s p o r t system alone i s to approach t h e p r o b l e m . w i t h b l i n d e r s (Owen: 1 9 6 4 , p . 7 4 ) . Coordination for  between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g  other sectors  bilities nations rather  among  is  made d i f f i c u l t  government  of the w o r l d . than  countries,  ministries  Planning  comprehensively. highway  planners  of Trade  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  is  F o r example  is  on what  planned to happen"  basis  Nigeria  but  of s c a r c e  its  of the M i n i s t r y work  national  of N i g e r i a :  1975,  has  not  resources p.199).  in  many  developing  of the  develop-  Agriculture  The c u s t o m a r y  approach needs  o f what may happen r a t h e r  The c o o r d i n a t i o n between d i f f e r e n t responsibility  responsi-  to " e s t i m a t e t r a n s p o r t  on t h e  being  of  planning  sectorally  in the  of the M i n i s t r y  of o t h e r s e c t o r s is  c a r r i e d out  and I n d u s t r y .  planners  of  and a g e n c i e s  u s u a l l y are unaware  ment p o l i c i e s o r s t r a t e g i e s or the M i n i s t r y  by d i v i s i o n  and  (Mahayni: sectors  of Economic  been a d e q u a t e still  occurs  Responsibility  is  1977,  p.355).  currently  Development as  the in  misinvestment  (Federal for  than  Republic  intersectoral  83 coordination and C o u n t r y able -  can be a d e q u a t e l y h a n d l e d Planning,  i f adequate  i n c l u d i n g manpower  Transportation  resources  a r e made  for transportation f a c i l i t i e s  countries  This  where c a p i t a l  is  very  of the p e o p l e .  demonstrated  An e x a m p l e o f  in the a g r i c u l t u r a l  a technique for  preserving  sector.  perishable  As  technology  available  pressure  develops  through important  transportation can  be  The d e v e l o p m e n t  of  agricultural  associated  and i s  reduces  such s u b s t i t u t i o n  can s t r e t c h t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n reduce the t r a f f i c  avail-  and s k i l l e d man-  power a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e most o f the needs  products  facilities  w i t h peak f l o w  i f adequate  intersectoral coordination  and  seasons.  a p p l i e d , more t e c h n i q u e s  f o r m i n i m i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of t h e p e o p l e  Town  capital.  of o t h e r m e t h o d s .  i n the d e v e l o p i n g  of  coordination with other sectors  t h e p o t e n t i a l needs the s u b s t i t u t i o n  and  by a M i n i s t r y  will  be  needs is  practised. b)  Transportation  Coordination  Between Government  Transportation  regulations,  in d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s  government,  vary  in requirements  apt to c r e a t e confusion  since  for  is  continuity.  A road  roads  is  or group of governments  This  facility  of  variation  are c o n n e c t e d t o one  a continuous  t o d e s t i n a t i o n , so f a r as a u s e r government,  and s c o p e .  Levels:  linking  is  another origin  c o n c e r n e d - no m a t t e r w h i c h make p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g  the  84 construction,  o p e r a t i o n , a n d maintenance o f the d i f f e r e n t  segments o f t h e r o a d . provision  in N i g e r i a  geographic  points  The c o n f u s i o n w h i c h e x i s t s is  'A').  two-lane, gravel  but not d e s i g n a t e d  Different regulations  r o a d , a n d as  a r e s u l t , i t is  t a r r e d road which suddenly  r o a d w i t h o u t any w a r n i n g  of a r o a d .  38).  portation,  confusion i.e. rail,  jurisdiction centralized  the  turns  into a one-lane,  signs. the s i t u a i t o n mentioned  governments  becomes  a  local  manage d i f f e r e n t  The r e s u l t o f t h e l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n  of t r a n s i t i o n This  road  t o be t r a v e l l i n g on a  shown by t h e number.uf m o t o r a c c i d e n t s w h i c h o c c u r a t points  a  each p a r t o f  can be seen when a s t a t e r o a d s u d d e n l y  r o a d o r t w o , or m o r e , l o c a l ments  two  a federal  govern  n o t uncommon  Even w i t h i n s t a t e b o u n d a r i e s , above  linking  road  under d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s - e . g .  r o a d l i n k i n g two s t a t e s (Trunk  m a n i f e s t e d in roads  in  (Iyahen: is  in  of n a t i o n a l  bodies.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is  If  37-  trans-  t h e s e are under  t h e same s t r a t e g y  adopted f o r r o a d s ,  more b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e c o u n t r y as  pp.  i n o t h e r modes o f  a i r or w a t e r , s i n c e  is  these  E k i s t i c s , J u l y 1976,  not apparent  seg-  a whole -  of  it will  i . e . the  the  be  provision  of roads  i n N i g e r i a o u g h t t o be u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a  national  r o a d agency whose m a j o r r o l e s h o u l d be c o o r d i n a t i o n  of d i f f e r e n t r o a d s .  Capital resource  a l l o c a t i o n to t h i s  agency  may be p a r t l y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c u r r e n t r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sidies  t o t h e s t a t e and l o c a l  government.  governments  from the f e d e r a l  sub-  85 c)  either  Coordination  Among T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Coordination  among  a substitution  the s e r v i c e s  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes  of s e r v i c e s  o f f e r e d by a n o t h e r  p o r t a t i o n m a r k e t among  Modes:  supplied  by one mode  or a d i v i s i o n  a v a i l a b l e modes.  of the  and t h e n r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e e v a l u a t e d . case  in developing  by i t s e l f  -  i.e.  in  countries  This  usually  where each mode i s  to other  parts  of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  system.  o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between  Ministry  of T r a n s p o r t  a classic adopted  Another is  to avoid  tion  Map 4).  III  countries  is  axes,  is  and t h e C o l o m b i a n  happened is  is  been  needed between modes competi-  transportation,  f o l l o w the r a i l  case  the  detail).  and u n n e c e s s a r y  s i m i l a r t o what has  being The  w h i c h has  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f r o a d  the n o r t h - s o u t h  This  for  why c o o r d i n a t i o n  d u p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s  between modes.  especially  ping  reason  Chapter  are  o f Works and H o u s i n g  example of the u n r e l a t e d approach  in N i g e r i a , ( s e e  considered  not  division  and t h e M i n i s t r y  not  Projects  e v a l u a t e d on t h e i r own m e r i t s , t h e i r c o n s e q u e n c e s related  these,  t o be i d e n t i f i e d  is  i s o l a t i o n from the o t h e r s .  for  trans-  To do any o f  t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f each t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode has  the  involves  lines  i n many  (see develo-  an i n t e r e s t i n g  D e s p i t e t h e s e enormous i n v e s t m e n t s i n t r a n s p o r t , t h e r e a r e g l a r i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s and c o n f u s i o n i n the operations today. R a i l r o a d s , h i g h w a y s , and i n l a n d w a t e r w a y s d u p l i c a t e one a n o t h e r and compete f o r t r a f f i c ; y e t a l l are being improved s i m u l t a neously. A new A t l a n t i c p o r t i s b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d ,  example:  86 w h i l e two o t h e r n e a r b y p o r t s h a n d l e i n s u f f i c i e n t cargo. C e r t a i n r e g i o n a l demands f o r t r a n s p o r t a r e now met w i t h s u r p l u s c a p a c i t y , w h i l e o t h e r s s u f f e r f r o m s h o r t a g e s of s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f s e r v i c e . I t now a p p e a r s t h a t i n one decade C o l o m b i a has moved f r o m a p o s i t i o n o f t o o l i t t l e e m p h a s i s on t r a n s p o r t to too m u c h . . . . ( W e i s s k o f f , in H a e f e l e ( e d . ) : 1969, p.123). In  order to deal with the l a c k of  which e x i s t s  i n the N i g e r i a n  structure  structure  is  based  mode.  is  hoped t h a t each d e p a r t m e n t w i l l  the n e c e s s a r y  w o u l d enhance  it  jurisdiction  give  and  is  control.  necessary  For t h i s  that roads  of the M i n i s t r y  of  of  attention  to  environmental This  structure  and t h e v a r i o u s  can be l o o k e d a t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  pricing,and  The new  r a t h e r than types  p o l i c y recommendations.  better project planning  transportation  effective,  on e c o n o m i c f u n c t i o n s  its  a re-  for that ministry.  economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l  consideration for  investment,  proposed  coordination  of T r a n s p o r t ,  organized  It  is  Ministry  intermodal  modes  in terms  proposal  be b r o u g h t  of  of  t o be  under  the  Transport.  Conclusion: In  this  c h a p t e r , e f f o r t s have been made t o p o i n t o u t  need f o r r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Transportation facilitative settlements tions.  plays  a central role  strategy  in  in every country.  Nigeria. As a  f a c t o r , i t a f f e c t s t h e s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e i r s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d  Rural  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can t h u s  political  be u s e d , among  the  of  institua host  of  Admin i s t r a t i o n Transportation  Ports & Waterways  J  Investmen t  Pricing  Highways  Planning  RaiIways  Airways  Highways  R a i l ways  Highways  Ports & Waterways  FIGURE  Control  Airways  3  PROPOSED ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR  THE  FEDERAL MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT, NIGERIA.  Ports S Waterways  Ra i1 ways  A i rways  88 other  variables,  at the n a t i o n a l  ment  in the  rural  tion  is  key t o r u r a l  the  with other  areas.  factors  reasons f o r  encouraging  have  been t o u c h e d  ting  transportation of market  is  adequate  upon.  centres.  so as  to  settlements  and t h u s  networks  to l o c a l  that  it  coordination.  The f i r s t  is  transporta-  t h e need f o r  increase  The s e c o n d  is  t h e need t o  communication the u r b a n - r u r a l  roads  emphasis is  important  Two m a j o r  of r u r a l is  develop-  transporta-  to  A r e o r i e n t a t i o n from the customary portation  that  so as  improve reduce  furthering  n o t t o say  the development  investments  investments  for  development,but  given  tion  bility  This  level  among  the  accessiallocate  different  transport on p r i m a r y  suggested  alloca-  in t h i s  dichotomy. transchapter.  89 CHAPTER  V  CONCLUSIONS In  this  of r u r a l Since  study,  transportation  of development,  the success efforts  or  is  1964,  development  standard  bettering  effort"  its  is  1967,  its  p.ix).  is  -  "its  of o t h e r  There  is  other  development  in almost  life  in t h i s  study  very  and a l s o  central  often that  i n any  "in  economic  is is  not an  t h a t the development  isolated  enhanced  by t h e  (Kraft,  t h e r e f o r e a need t o c o o r d i n a t e agents  and t h i s  aspect  of in  in  i n t e r a c t i o n of a can n o t  et a l . : 1971, transportation has  is  progress  phenomenon  s t i m u l i whose m a g n i t u d e  certainty"  all  development  development.  key t o r e g i o n a l  the  begins  especially . for rural  the o n l y  "World  that bettering  country  in  transportation  of the study  is  every  development  The e m p h a s i s  impact  predicted with great  Nigeria.  who s t a t e d t h a t t h e  system",  system  Transportation  development variety  in  importance  can be a key f a c t o r  demonstrated  Kamarck  early  in  importance of  not the s u g g e s t i o n here  transportation  Nigeria.  been  transport  therefore j u s t i f i e d , It  The  in a developing  the t r a n s p o r t  (Adler:  has  by Andrew  living  involved  the e n t i r e n a t i o n a l  p.vii).  learned very  of  countries  transportation  countries  supported  Bank Group  rural  been p l a c e d on t h e  in r e g i o n a l  f a i l u r e of  (Owen:  in developing  with  has  a c c e s s i b i l i t y and m o b i l i t y a r e  aspect  and  emphasis  been  be  p.l). with  discussed  in the s t u d y . the nature of  This  coordination  is  very  important because  of  transportation:  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n plays a many-faceted r o l e in the p u r s u i t of development o b j e c t i v e s . Its funct i o n as a f a c t o r i n p u t r e q u i r e m e n t i s o b v i o u s i t e n a b l e s goods and p a s s e n g e r s t o be t r a n s f e r r e d between and w i t h i n p r o d u c t i o n and consumpt i o n c e n t e r s " (Fromm: 1 9 6 5 , p . 5 ) . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n been d i s c u s s e d , strategies stance: pulses  are r e c o g n i z e d  i t has  " i t is generated  reach the areas fairly based  problems  by t h e g o v e r n m e n t  a d o p t e d have n o t  in the f a s t f a r away.  growing  In  nuclei"  While  the f e d e r a l government  objective  links  of s o l v i n g  not o n l y  areas  1 974,  p p . 2 0 2 - 2 0 8 ) , even t h o u g h is  Federal  and  1970,  t h e m , i t made no c a p i t a l (see  imdo  extend  their  p.218).  and has  the to  Nigeria:  a b o u t *l= 4356 m i l l i o n  t o be s p e n t  a  urban-  allocations  R e p u b l i c of :  of  not  between one com-  knows t h e p r o b l e m s  road development  m a t e l y $6534 m i l l i o n )  i m p r o v e and  R e p u b l i c of N i g e r i a :  rural  country.  will  but between t h e r u r a l  urban  in-  cities  d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e b e n e f i t s  and c o m m u n i c a t i o n  (Federal  For  t h a t development industrial  has  the  o r d e r , t h e r e f o r e , to ensure  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , Government  m u n i t y and a n o t h e r ,  but  been a d e q u a t e .  generally recognized  even g e o g r a p h i c  transport  the  o f N i g e r i a , most o f w h i c h  (approxi-  on r o a d d e v e l o p m e n t s  in  91 Organization  and  Implicit study,  is  and t h e  suggested r e o r i e n t a t i o n s ,  of a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  at the f e d e r a l , s t a t e  proach.  is  in contrast  Transportation  continuous in  monitoring  Chapter  IV,  of c o o r d i n a t i o n : government  view of  these,  policy  Transport.  the b e n e f i t  levels;  should  be g i v e n  with other  action  of  the  process  The  suggested  project factor  the whole  apwith  nation.  to t h r e e  sectors;  and c o o r d i n a t i o n  kinds  coordination  among modes.  federal  As  In  government  of a l l  transportation  formulation,  to the F e d e r a l  Ministry  of  would f a c i l i t a t e  decision  regarding  Such a t r a n s f e r  investment  levels.  of  this  organizational  be a c o o r d i n a t e d  attention  the f i r s t  local  in  planning  to the fragmented  should  for  be t h e t r a n s f e r  regarding  and  coordination  between  should  the  the adoption  of a c t i o n  noted  in a l l  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the necessary  linkages line  Coordination:  allocations  between  responsibilities,  modes.  A r e l a t e d e r r o r in a l l o c a t i o n of investment a c r o s s iimodes *is f a i 1 ure to e x p l o i t t h e .• p o t e n t i a l advantage of c o o r d i n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t modes. T h i s e r r o r i s most e a s i l y made when t h e r e i s an a t m o s p h e r e o f h o s t i l i t y b e tween modes, say between r a i l and t r u c k s , o r r a i l and w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a g e n c i e s . It is poss i b l e t o use t r u c k s t o h a n d l e p i c k u p and d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e f o r r a i l . . . . ( L a n s i n g : 1966, p . 1 5 8 ) . In  order  to f a c i l i t a t e  'hostility' existing gested  in  intermodal  coordination  among modes i n N i g e r i a ,  structure Chapter  of IV  the (see  Federal Figure  a reorganization  Ministry 3).  and t o  reduce of  of T r a n s p o r t  the is  sug-  92 National  Road T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Although  Agency:  transportation  p o l i c i e s , i n many c a s e s ,  f o r m u l a t e d at the c e n t r e , plan or continue  t o be l o c a l .  portation plan  needs  as  cessful  formulation  projected at a l l  implementation  policies  Plan  policy  is  dependent  and g u i d e l i n e s  1977,  between  all  the country.  A central  body  needed  governmental  activities.  the c r e a t i o n of  Nigeria.  This  t i o n Agency rail,  air  a federal  The  road development the  intermodal  formulations, tion  of  road  propriate particular  This  will  corporation  coordination  levels  For a  paramount  federal and  study  Road  in  Transporta-  modes  in is  implementation.  are t h e r e b y  virtually body  for  in.Nigeria.  intersectoral  will  still  be  responsible  coordinations  and  policy  needed t o c o o r d i n a t e  the  implementa-  transportation  strategies  in  t o what o p e r a t e s  policy  problems  government  t h e NRTA i s  co-  road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f such c e n t r a l is  suc-  such  in t h i s  - each o f t h e s e for  and  of government  made  be s i m i l a r  and w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  eliminated.  for  trans-  therefore,  body may be c a l l e d t h e N a t i o n a l  Inter-governmental  for  body  on  to c o o r d i n a t e is  will  transportation  p.364).  levels  A suggestion  a central  (NRTA).  p l a c e d under  While  is  dependent  program  necessary  for  is  is  governmental  and e f f e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  ordination  implementation  on n a t i o n a l  (Mahayni:  are  policies  and t o recommend  f o r road development.  a t t e n t i o n to r u r a l  ap-  The NRTA w i l l  road development  - thereby  pay re-  93 ducing  the e x i s t i n g  urban-rural  transportation  NRTA w i l l  n o t be under any  one l e v e l  situation  with the e x i s t i n g  federal  tional  resources  mental  levels  sponsibility  will  Chapter  but n o t a u t h o r i t y , t h a t ernment w i l l  of government, corporations,  IV).  The m a g n i t u d e  t o mean t h a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s  have no say  implementation.  in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , because  to decision-making.  Shared  and  of  should  gov-  contri-  not  be would  of t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y valuable  t o t h e NRTA f o r  Responsibility:  f o r more  intensive  res p o n s i b i 1 i t y , proposed  federal  a l l o c a t i o n to r u r a l  government  has  the h i g h e s t  the country,  emphasis  to  level  of government  proposals  is  i n terms  types  - e s p e c i a l l y through  road development.  of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s .  construction If  of p r e s t i g i o u s  and a i r p o r t s , some r e s o u r c e s  re-  The f e d e r a l  a b i l i t y to f i n a n c e road  p l a c e d on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  (highways)  earlier,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a l l  o f r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e source  re-  approval.  The c o n c e p t o f s h a r e d calls  govern-  A l l g o v e r n m e n t a 1 l e v e l s w o u l d now  to submit road development  coordination  the  influence,  c o n t r i b u t i o n s , but r a t h e r t h a t t h e y c o n t r i b u t e  inputs  roads  This  is  The  opera-  p a r t l y depend on t h e amount o f r e s o u r c e s  construed  in  of  can be e x e r c i s e d by any  road p o l i c y  have  its  concept of shared  buted f o r  small  as  be c o n t r i b u t e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t  based on t h e p r o p o s e d (see  dichotomy.  less trunk  can be d i v e r t e d  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e much needed f e e d e r o r  farm-to-market  94 roads.  The a d o p t i o n o f t h i s  suggestion  gration  of the r u r a l  to the n a t i o n a l  integration social  has  economy  not o n l y a p u r e l y economic  and p o l i t i c a l  dimensions  of g o a l s  inherent  p.362).  With adequate  settlements  will  The s h a r e  in every  "Highway  Survey  dimension  development  plan  (Mahayni:  (KAMPSAX) o f Copenhagen 1967:  Trunk  of  1977, rural  development. by  Kampmann  in t h e i r  Road S t u d y "  will  the m a t r i x  report be  shown b e l o w  3  LEVELS OF R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S BY GOVERNMENTS ROAD TRANSPORTATION IN  \ t  also  Nigeria. MATRIX  S  but  r e f l e c t e d in the m u l t i p l i c i t y  The r e p o r t s u g g e s t e d in  inte-  Economic  i n t e g r a t i o n , the l o n g - n e g l e c t e d  in N i g e r i a  here.  a possibility  A/S  the  economy.  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y m a t r i x proposed  and S a x i l d  as  enhance  be a b l e t o e n j o y t h e b e n e f i t s  Kierulff  appropriate  will  IN  NIGERIA  Responsibility ' Federal  State  Local  Federal  90  10  -  State .•  50  50  -  Local  33.3  33.3  Roads Designated as  Source:  33.4  F i l a n i , M.O. and Osayimwese, Iz: "The Organization of transport Planning in N i g e r i a " , The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, V o l . 16, No.3, 1974-.  95 The m a t r i x above redistributes  t o t a l l y reverses  responsibilities  each g o v e r n m e n t ' s Appropriate  to a l e v e l  technology  for  here concerns  d i f f e r e n t purposes.  not w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n , per s e , There  is  to the d e v e l o p i n g  countries  resources  social  and even  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  barrier"  (Owen:  be c o n s t r u c t e d and  if  traffic  been s u g g e s t e d  technology  t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r country  t h e i r search  should  available  capital  1975,  be g u i d e d  within their national  intensive from  improvement the t i m e roads  can  increases.  A  authors,  help  appropriate (for  to  coupled  to  transportation  e x a m p l e , see  Owen:  pp.150-151).  for appropriate transportation  the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s the problems  by v a r i o u s  in choosing  and O l a t u n b o s u n :  demand  is  capital,  Or l o w e r o r d e r  countries  In  is  needed t o overcome  the d e v e l o p i n g  pp.87-89;  Highly  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  have  1964,  of  of  t o be c o n -  d e s i r e d , t o b r e a k away  p.86).  i m p r o v e d as  here  according  philosophy  few g u i d e l i n e s  for  that  in terms  factors.  process  1964,  -  political  and t o r e d u c e t i m e and r e s o u r c e s space  The e m p h a s i s  of technology  i n the c o u n t r y  slow e v o l u t i o n a r y  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  and t h e y can c h o o s e  h i g h w a y s can be c o n s t r u c t e d , "the  with  ability.  but t h e t y p e o f r o a d s  now a r a n g e  q u a l i f i e d manpower, with  and  Technology:  road standards  available  structure  commensurate  f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  Appropriate  structed.  the e x i s t i n g  by t h e v e r y  boundaries.,  level, nature  Most o f  of  these  nations highly  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s c a r c e u n s k i l l e d labour  tensive rural  technology  areas  ties  will  The a d o p t i o n  may n o t be i n t h e i r b e s t  of t h e s e  a transportation  force.  c a p i t a l resources  countries  system which  and  of a c a p i t a l interests.  The  require p r i o r i t y attention is  compatible with rural  activi-  d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e s u c c e s s o f  network  which  is  conducive  t o t h e most e f f i c i e n t use o f  existing  resource  endowment  in the r u r a l  i t more c o n v e n i e n t ,  adopt advanced areas  standards  standards  -  i.e.  areas  will  sector.  high  the r u r a l  areas  call  roads  r a t h e r than  The a d o p t i o n  1972,  pp.37-43). In  local  rural  roads,  viously  rural  and l i g h t  in the r u r a l  road development,  e x i s t e d , to a s t a n d a r d  areas  of  the  scarce  areas  are The  characteristics  rainfall  accessible  should  airports  a l l year  order  existing  o f new ones where non they cannot  be f o c u s s e d round.  It  upon  -  of  (Tripathi:  improvement o f  whereby  the  such  technologies.  traffic  two h i g h w a y s , o r  and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  away by heavy  but  f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f many l o w e r  one or  the  urban  be a w a s t e o f n a t i o n a l  The a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s  widely dispersed,  The  capacity roads,  n o t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h most m o d e r n , a d v a n c e d short,  transportation  and even p r o f i t a b l e , t o  may n o t be a b l e t o c o p e .  for rural  resources.  to develop a p p r o p r i a t e  diversifi-  Nigeria  may f i n d  needs  rural  cation,  rural  and  be more a p p r o p r i a t e .  For r u r a l  areas  in-  be  pre-  washed  i . e . make  can s a f e l y  be  the  said  97 t h a t a t h r e e - or f o u r - l a n e rural  population  a n d , as  develop such f o r r u r a l scarce lane  national  highway has  and p r o p e r  more a p p r o p r i a t e t o l o c a l  Roads s h o u l d of the t r a f f i c  be d e s i g n e d  roads  that serve  mammy-wagons.  These  of N i g e r i a  the r u r a l  serve  b o t h p e o p l e and g o o d s . in excess  hour)  m a i n l y due t o o v e r l o a d i n g .  fore,  35 m i l e s  the v e h i c l e s  these,  rural  roads  p e r hour  (56  should  wasting  signs,  two-  is  characteristics  purpose  In  vehicles  In  of  and  transporting rarely attain a  80 k i l o m e t r e s  f a c t the average  s l o w and h e a v y .  In  per  speed  k i l o m e t r e s per h o u r ) .  be d e s i g n e d  type  Nigeria,  lorries  vehicles (i.e.  of  i n f l u e n c e the  development.  per hour  are u s u a l l y  to the  should  Most o f t h e s e  speed  more l i k e  safey  the  to  A o n e - or  populace are  the dual  o f 50 m i l e s  to  T h e r e f o r e , the types  t o be c o n s t r u c t e d f o r r u r a l  the v e h i c l e s  amount  of  conditions.  according  t o be c a r r i e d .  which p l y the l o c a l of roads  would o n l y  especially capital.  r o a d , w i t h good s u r f a c i n g  definitely  r a r e l y the d e s i r e  been p o i n t e d o u t a b o v e ,  linkages  resources,  is  is  There-  view  of  to handle  this  type  of  lowering  government's  t r a f f i c. Financially, rural  road e x p e n d i t u r e  to b u i l d r o a d s help.  This  intensive. use o f  a good s t r a t e g y  local  is  to encourage  under c o n s t a n t  will  call  for  governmental  for a technology  Appropriate technology materials will  the r u r a l  have  communities  supervision  which  which w i l l  is  not  and  capital  facilitate  t o be e n c o u r a g e d .  The  the govern-  98 ment may a g r e e see  to provide  t h a t the roads  Research  Nigeria.  is  needed  research  an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r Research  of t r a n s p o r t  the l e s s  i n t o many a s p e c t s In  the t r a n s p o r t  infrastructure  developed regions.  but on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  is  (Prest:  improving  rural  Secondly,  1969,  p.34).  will  The c r i t e r i a  t o be used i n  developed.  These  have  transportation  is  using  resources  national  means o f t r a n s p o r t  the advantageous  o f moving  remote a r e a s  Research should  to  more  be  in  most needed and t h i s  labour  are very  areas  have  hindering  (O'Connor:  development"  inadequate  has  implications "As  communications  1971,  t o be  i d e n t i f y i n g areas  p.149).  other  be  are  Once  where  for  with  the b e n e f i t s of road b u i l d i n g w i l l of  limited,  priority attention.  to the best advantage.  greatest where p r o b l e m s  of  emphasized.  resources  help  feas-  established  identifying target will  goods  i n t o the e f f e c t s  t o be i d e n t i f i e d f o r  criteria  development  sector,  The l o w e r c o s t  developmental  target areas  of  I  countries,  the g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y of  transportation since  of  in Chapter  not always  may a t t r a c t more p e o p l e f r o m remote a r e a s centres"  aspects  i n many d e v e l o p i n g  and p e o p l e may make " t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f ible,  also  standard.  i n many d e v e l o p m e n t a l  help data g e n e r a t i o n .  provision to  to a d e s i r a b l e  The l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c s w h i c h was n o t e d  including Nigeria. will  built  and c u l v e r t s , a n d  Implications:  Research  makes  are  the b r i d g e s  clearly  these  99 target  areas  strategy Rural  been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e b e s t  f o r each w i l l  Transport This  of  have  study  t o be d e v e l o p e d .  Priority: has  transportation  e m p h a s i s on u r b a n of a r u r a l  have  p o i n t e d o u t t h e need f o r a r e o r i e n t a t i o n  planning  rationale  sectors,  network  of n a t i o n a l has  in N i g e r i a .  and i n t e r - u r b a n n e t w o r k s of roads.  pay more a t t e n t i o n t o r u r a l process  transportation  It  reduced  current in  favour  now t i m e f o r N i g e r i a  transportation  development.  been n e g l e c t e d  is  is  The  development  Transportation,  in the r u r a l  like  to  in  the  other  areas.  The most d o m i n a n t and common f e a t u r e s o f d e v e l o p i n g economies, i n c l u d i n g N i g e r i a , are r u r a l p o v e r t y , unemployment and i n e q u a l i t y . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e h a n d i c a p s a t t h e base h o l d s t h e key t o any meani n g f u l programme o f d e v e l o p m e n t t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l justice. 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