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The Response of orchardgrass-ladino clover to the application of high-rise poultry manure in the Lower… Maynard, Douglas George 1978

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THE RESPONSE OF ORCHARDGRASS-LADINO CLOVER TO THE APPLICATION OF HIGH-RISE POULTRY MANURE IN THE. LOWER FRASER VALLEY by DOUGLAS GEORGE MAYNARD B .Sc , Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Soi l Science) We accept th is thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978. 0 Douglas George Maynard, 1978. In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion o f th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of Soi l Science The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October, 1978 i i ABSTRACT Approximately 86% of the poultry population of B r i t i s h Columbia i s concentrated in the lower Fraser Val ley. Because many of these operations are located on small land areas adjacent to suburban developments, the management of the poultry manure i s a major problem. Landspreading i s s t i l l the most widely practised way of handling poultry manure. The objectives of th i s study were to determine maximum disposal rates and optimum f e r t i l i z e r rates of high-r ise poultry manure on orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover forage. Experimentation with poultry manure rates of 1.25 to 40 tonnes per hectare applied to orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover forage was carr ied out in the Chill iwhack d i s t r i c t of the lower Fraser Valley over a 2-year period. The poultry manure contained 5.1, 2.5 and 2.0% N, P and K respectively in 1975, and 3.5, 1.6 and 1.4% N, P and K respectively in 1976, with coef f i c ient s of var iat ion from 5 to. 40%. The N:P:K ra t i o in the manure indicated that K and P (in some cases) would be l im i t i n g i f the manure was applied to meet the N require-ments of the crop. The recommended rate of poultry manure determined for disposal was 20 t/ha/year on orchardgrass forage. A poultry manure rate of 10 t/ha/year on orchardgrass forage is recommended to e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e the N resource of the manure as a f e r t i l i z e r . A poultry layer operation of 2500 hens would require 3.6 ha of orchardgrass forage to dispose of the poultry manure produced in one year and 7.3 ha of orchardgrass forage to u t i l i z e the manure e f f i c i e n t l y as a f e r t i l i z e r . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS J___ ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES V LIST OF FIGURES vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i I INTRODUCTION 1 II LITERATURE REVIEW 3 A. Poultry Manure Characterization 3 1. Production and Composition 3 2. Forms of Nitrogen 7 3. Nitrogen Mineral izat ion from Poultry Manure 8 4. Phosphorus Mineral izat ion from Poultry Manure 11 5. Potassium A v a i l a b i l i t y in Poultry Manure 12 B. Landspreading of Poultry Manure 12 1. Introduction 12 2. Land Disposal of Poultry Manure 15 a) Introduction 15 b) Soluble Salts 15 c) Nitrate Leaching 17 3. U t i l i z a t i o n of Poultry Manure 19 a) Introduction 19 b) Y ie ld 19 i . Effects of nitrogen 19 i i . Ef fect of botanical composition' 22 i i i . Effect of potassium 23 c) Botanical Composition 23 i . Orchardgrass-clover mixtures 23 i i . Weeds 24 d) Chemical Composition of Forage 25 i . Introduction 25 i i . Total nitrogen in forage 25 i i i . Total phosphorus in forage 26 i v . Total potassium in forage 27 v. Total Ca, Mg and Na in forage 29 v i . N itrate in forage 31 e) Rate Comparisons 33 i v Pacie C. Nitrogen Balance 34 1. N Balance in Grassland and Grass/Clover Swards 34 2. Methods of Determining N Balance 37 III MATERIALS AND METHODS 39 A. S i te Description 39 B. F ie ld Work 41 C. Laboratory Procedures 42 1. Poultry Manure 42 2. Plant Material 43 3. Soi l Samples 44 D. N Balance Determination 44 E. S t a t i s t i c s 45 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 46 A. Manure Composition 46 B. Yield 46 C. Botanical Composition 60 D. Percent Total Kjel.dahl Nitrogen and % Nitrate-N in the Forage 63 E. Percent Phosphorus in the Forage 74 F. Percent Potassium in the Forage 76 G. Percent Ca, Mg and Na in the Forage 81 H. Nitrate-N Levels in the Soi l 84 I. N Balance 88 J . Rate Recommendations 92 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 97 REFERENCES 100 APPENDICES A. P rec ip i ta t ion and Temperature Data 109 B. Analysis of Variance 111 C. Forage Yields by Cut 120 D. Elemental Concentrations in the Forage By Cut 122 E. Chemical Analysis of the Ladino Clover in 1976 130 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Poultry manure or l i t t e r composition from data in the l i t e r a t u r e . 5 II Chemical properties of the Grigg so i l at the experimental s i t e . 40 III Manure composition. 47 IV N supplied by manure treatments in 1975 and 1976. 50 V Botanical composition - second cut, 1975. 61 VI Percent legume -1976. 62 VII Total P and estimated P avai lable from high-r ise poultry manure and the P removed in the forage,.1975. 75 VIII Total P and estimated P ava i lab le from high-r ise poultry manure and the P removed in the forage, 1976. 77 IX K added in the manure, tota l K avai lable to the forage and the K removed in the herbage, 1975. 79 X Residual K from 1975, K added in the manure, tota l K avai lable to the forage and the K removed in the herbage, 1976. 80 XI Mean nitrate-N levels in the s o i l and the ef fect of manure treatment and depth, 1975. 85 XII Mean n i t rate-N levels in the so i l and the ef fect of manure treatment and depth, 1976. 87 XIII N balance sheet, 1975 - N removed By the crop, difference in tota l N of the top 15 cm of s o i l , n i t rate-N in the 0-90 cm depth of s o i l , N added by the manure and the % N accounted for . 89 XIV N balance sheet, 1976 - N removed by the crop, difference in to ta l N of the top 15 cm of s o i l , n i t r a te N in the 0-90 cm depth of s o i l , N added by the manure and the % N accounted fo r . 91 XV Land requirements for the u t i l i z a t i o n and disposal of high-r ise -poultry manure on a pure orchardgrass sward. 95 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure ___L 1. N balance in a grass/clover sward f e r t i l i z e d with poultry manure. 7. 1976 tota l y i e l d as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of app l i cat ion. • 35 2. Mean y ie ld s and tota l y i e l d in 1975 as affected by manure treatment. 49 3. F i r s t cut, 1976 - tota l y i e l d as: :affected by poultry manure treatment and method of app l i cat ion. 53 4. Second cut, 1976 - tota l y i e l d as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of app l i cat ion. 55 5. Third cut, 1976 - tota l yi.eld as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of app l i cat ion. 56 6. Fourth cut, 1976 - tota l y i e l d as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of app l i cat ion. 57 59 8. Percent to ta l kjeldahl N and % n itrate-N in the forage by cut in 1975 as affected by poultry manure treatment. 64 9. F i r s t cut, 1976 - percent TKN and % nitrate-N in the forage as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of app l i cat ion. 67 10. Second cut, 1976 - percent TKN and % n itrate-N in the forage as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of app l i cat ion. 69 11. Third cut, 1976 - percent TKN and % n itrate-N in the forage as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of app l i cat ion. 71 12. Fourth cut, 1976 - percent TKN and % n itrate-N in the forage as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of app l i cat ion. 73 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A very special thank you to Dr. Art Bomke for his advice, support and encouragement throughout the duration of the project. Also for his tolerance and patience when things did not go according to plan. A special thanks to Diane Singleton and Bev Herman for the i r help and encouragement in the lab. The author appreciates the assistance of Dr. G.W. Eaton with the s t a t i s t i c s and Dr. L.E. Lowe for his suggestions. Thanks to the B.C. Agricult'ura.l; Sciences Co-ordinating Committee for th&jf inanc ia l support. Thanks to the technicians Carol, Eva and Audrey for the i r assistance in the laboratory. 1 I. INTRODUCTION Poultry manure management has become a major problem in the lower Fraser Val ley of B r i t i s h Columbia. Confinement poultry houses located on small land areas (usually less than f i ve hectares) combined with the spread of suburban developments into t rad i t i ona l agr icu l tura l areas and the high cost of transporting fresh poultry manure, has led to the s tockp i l ing of the manure. As a re su l t , environmental problems, mainly n i t ra te runoff into surface streams, n i t ra te leaching into the ground-water, odor and insect p ro l i f e ra t i on and the el imination of plant cover have occurred. About 86% of the poultry population of B.C. i s concentrated in the lower Fraser Val ley. In 1975, the poultry population of B.C. was 26,640,000 birds consist ing of 21,000,000 b ro i l e r chickens, 4,100,000 layer hens and pu l l e t s , and 1,500,000 turkeys, geese and ducks (Anon., 1974; Anon., 1976; Anon., 1977). The main egg producing area i s centered in the Matsqui Munic ipal i ty around Abbotsford. High-rise poultry houses with e l e c t r i c fans c i r cu l a t i ng a i r over the fresh droppings under the cages i s one of the most common systems u t i l i z e d by poultry producers in the lower Fraser Val ley. This system i s economical to run with low energy and labor costs. It allows the manure to be dried down to less than 30% moisture and conserves high quantit ies of N, The poultry manure is easy to remove from the house and odor and insect p ro l i f e ra t i on - a major problem when cleaning out poultry houses in populated areas - i s v i r t u a l l y el iminated. Also, transporting the poultry manure is less cost ly when 2 the moisture content is lower. With r i s i ng costs of N f e r t i l i z e r s and increasing d i f f i c u l t y in obtaining inorganic N, poultry manure from the high-r ise poultry houses could be an eas i l y access ible, economic source of plant nutr ients, pa r t i cu l a r l y N for the lower Fraser Val ley. The objectives of th i s study were: (a) To determine the rates of poultry manure which provide s u f f i c i en t N for optimum y i e l d of orchardgrass-clover and orchardgrass forage; (b) To determine the maximum disposal rates of the poultry manure with minimum n i t ra te leaching losses and no decrease in y i e l d . The maximum disposal rates were studied only as a short-term a l ternat ive to a l l e v i a te a possibly serious po l lut ion problem. U t i l i z i n g the poultry manure e f fec t i ve l y in crop production must be considered as the major long-term object ive. 3 II. LITERATURE REVIEW A. Poultry Manure Characterization 1. Production and Composition Several workers (Yushok and Bear, 1943; White et_ al_., 1944; Papanos and Brown, 1950) have reported a consistent rate of manure produced by laying hens of 63.6 kg of manure per bird per year. This would mean in a layer operation of 10,000 hens that greater than 600,000 kg of manure would be produced annually. The nutrient composition of poultry manure is extremely variable and any general statements on the nutrient status of poultry manure can be misleading. The use of mean percentages for the major nutrients from several unrelated sources of manure produced under d i f fe rent conditions can give fa l se values for the major nutr ients. This can make disposal or f e r t i l i z e r rates subject to large error (Wallingford et_ a]_., 1975). There are many factors which contribute to the v a r i a b i l i t y found in poultry manure. Three of the more important factors are feed rations and the type of poultry house and the manure handling system used (Perkins et_ al_. , 1964; Ostrander, 1975). Feed rations are the source of plant nutrients found in the manure so consequently the composition of the manure is d i r e c t l y related to the feed rat ion. Working with white leghorn hens over a two year period, Yushok and Bear (1943) found that 81% of the N, 88% of the P and 95% of the K in the feed was voided in the manure. Only 19%, 12% and 5% of the N, P and K respectively went into the production of the hen i t s e l f and the eggs. Of the dry matter contained 4 in the feed, 56% i s digested by the hen and the remaining 44% is voided in the manure (White et a]_., 1944). Therefore, in fresh hen droppings, with no l i t t e r , the concentration of N, P and K on a dry weight basis i s actua l ly increased from the i n i t i a l feed consumed by the hen. Ostrander (1975) indicates moisture content and nutr ient content, pa r t i cu l a r l y N, are affected by poultry house type and the handling system used. The high-r ise poultry house is one of the least cost ly systems and most e f f i c i e n t in the use of labor. The house is b u i l t above ground with a concrete f l oo r . Drying of the manure underneath the cages can be enhanced by using e l e c t r i c fans to c i r cu la te a i r over the manure cones formed or by using the s l a t system to increase the surface area of the manure exposed for drying (Ostrander, 1975; Elson and King, 1975). The moisture content should be below 30%, reducing odor and insect germin-ation and making for easier handling. Other dry systems include in-house drying or dehydration. There are also several l i q u i d systems which w i l l a f fect manure composition. Other factors which a f fect poultry manure composition include species of b i r d , b ird density, age and physiological status of the b i r d , kind, amount and depth of l i t t e r ( i f any), cl imate, poultry house condit ions, and age of the manure (Eno, 1962; Moore et_ al_., 1964; Perkins et a l . , 1964; Hileman, 1967; El-Sabben et aT_., 1969). Hileman (1967) and El-Sabben e l a l - (1969) conclude that because of these factors and the interact ion of many of these factors , i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to predict the composition of manure or l i t t e r . An ind icat ion of the general range and the v a r i a b i l i t y of the N, P and K content in poultry manure is shown in Table I. The values are expressed as percent dry matter and range 5 Table I: Poultry manure or l i t t e r composition from data in the l i t e r a t u r e . •__% Dry Weight Description Moisture 'IN P K Source laying hens, fresh manure 77.8 1.05 0.36 laying hens, 1-2 wks. old 66.8 1.41 0.45 laying hens, old l i t t e r 47.2 1.83 0.62 hen manure, 6 mo. accum. 15.8 2.79 1.24 fresh undiluted hen droppings -1.13-1.75 0.36-0.71 fresh droppings, laying hens 20-27 3.5^ • 6.0 1.5^ 2.0 fresh manure 76 6.73 1.98 10 wk. manure 68 3.64 2.64 laying hens, fresh manure _ 3.70 1.66 b ro i l e r l i t t e r (after 1 brood) - 3.37 1.47 b ro i l e r l i t t e r (197 samples) 11.0-68.0 1.10-6.74 1.37-6.25 Average 29.0 4.11 1.45 b ro i l e r manure (82 samples) 24.9 2.27 1.07 hen manure (31 samples) 36.9 2.00 1.91 deep l i t t e r 6-71 0.3-3.5 .04-2. b ro i l e r l i t t e r 9-75 0.4-3.6 .09-1. batter 12-88 0.5-4.5 .13-2. poultry manure, s l a t dried 15.0 4.9 2.-1 poultry manure, deep p i t I (Avg. 0-90 cm) 67.2 3.12 3.49 Yushok and Bear, 1943 0.42 Yushok and Bear, 1943 0.47 Yushok and Bear, 1943 0.63 White et al,.', 1944 1.23 0.31- Papanos and Brown, 1950 0.65 1.35 Tinsley and Nowakowski, 2.1 1959 1.68 Eno, 1962 2.29 Eno, 1962 1.66 Moore et al_., 1964 1.42 Moore et al_.; 1964 1.37-4.80 Hileman, 1967 2.18 1.10 Perkins and Parker, 1971 1.88 Perkins and Parker, 1971 3 0.17-2.1 G.W. Cooke, 1972 7 0.25-2.0 G.W. Cooke, 1972 1 0.17-3.3 G.W. Cooke, 1972 2.3 Elson and King, 1975 2.2 Bomke and Lavkul ich, 1975 Continued . . . . 6 Descri ption % Dry Weight—-Moisture N P Source deep p i t II (Avg. 0-75 cm) Stored, high-r ise poultry manure 1975 22.5 1976 69.1 5.34 3.17 1.5 5.08 2.51 2.02 23.1 3.53 1.60 1.44 Bomke and Lavkul ich, 1975 Maynard, 1978 Maynard, 1978 1 Mean values of the manure used in th i s study. 7 from six to 77.8% moisture; 1.05 to 6.74% N; 0.04 to 6.75% P; and 0.17 to 4.80% K. 2. Forms of Nitrogen The forms of N in fresh manure include a range of 40 to 70% of the to ta l N as ur ic acid and 5 to 10% as ammonia. The remainder of the N i s as complex nitrogenous compounds of varied composition. In accumulated droppings, investigators found ammonia accounted for 42 to 43% of the to ta l N (Papanos and Brown, 1950). In one-month-old droppings, 40 to 45% tota l N was in the ammoniacal form (Eno, 1962). Under warm, moist con-d i t i on s , ur ic acid i s readi ly converted to ammonia. Burnett and Dondero (1969) found extended storage of poultry manure resulted in a rapid decrease in ur ic acid accompanied by ammonia and a l i pha t i c amine production. Ammonia evolution peaked af ter only f i ve days and amine content a f ter 14 days. In both cases, ur ic acid content decreased rapidly over the f i r s t seven days. A var iety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria associated with manure are capable of decomposing ur ic acid contained in f reshly excreted poultry manure. P h i l l i p s et al_. (1978) found that 23 to 24% of the tota l N in stored high-r ise poultry manure was in the ammoniacal form. The manure had been stored for at least one year and had probably composted during th i s time. This accounts for the higher ammonium content than i s generally found in fresh hen manure. Lower ammonium values in the one-year-old manure compared to one-month-old hen manure could be the resu l t of additional composting, tying.up the ammonium N in complex compounds. 8 3. Nitrogen Mineral izat ion from Poultry Manure Manure-N mineral izat ion in the so i l i s s imi la r to N mineral izat ion from so i l organic matter. The environmental factors (pH, temperature, microbial populations, etc.) a l l a f fect N mineral izat ion from manure. Mineral izat ion of manure N i s also influenced by the decomposition status of the manure and the form of the manure N. As mentioned previously, between 40 and 70% of the tota l N in fresh hen manure i s in the form of ur ic acid and i t i s readi ly converted to ammonia. Thus, in fresh hen manure i t would be expected that a large portion of the tota l N i s readi ly mineralized upon contact with the s o i l . Pratt et a]_. (1973) suggested that 90%. of total-.N i s avai lable in the f i r s t year of app l i cat ion , assuming the N i s largely in the form of urea or ur ic ac id. After f i ve years only an addit ional two percent of the tota l N was mineral ized. It should be noted that these values were not f i e ld - te s ted and are assumptions based on the author 's experience with decomposition studies. Turner (1975) suggested that 75% of the tota l N i s avai lable in the f i r s t year and 93% after f i ve years. Again there i s no reference of these values being f i e l d - t e s t ed . The f i r s t year mineral izat ion value of 90% i s based on Ca l i f o rn ia conditions where the so i l temperature seldom is low enough to i n h i b i t microbial decomposition of the manure (Pratt et al_., 1975). Turner 's mineral izat ion rates are applied to the c l imat ic conditions of the Pac i f i c Northwest. Soi l temperatures in the Pac i f i c Northwest often remain between 0 and 10°C through much of the winter. Mineral izat ion w i l l s t i l l proceed at temperatures above 0°C but at a much slower rate. Therefore, Turner (1975) indicates a lower i n i t i a l mineral izat ion rate than the 9 Ca l i fo rn ia workers suggest. Pratt et_ aj_. (1973) and Turner (1975) indicate by the i r decay series that l i t t l e of the remaining portion of the tota l N in the manure becomes ava i lab le. This i s probably based on the assumption that the remaining N is in complex compounds which are very stable to further rapid decom-pos i t ion. Ageing or composting fresh manure a l ter s the N forms usually resu l t ing in decreased minera l izat ion. Part ly decomposed material tends to be res i s tant to further decomposition as the more readi ly avai lable sources of energy have been removed (Barrow, 1961). The decay series for aged, covered poultry manure suggested for the Pac i f i c Northwest indicated 60% of the tota l N as avai lable in the f i r s t year with 87% avai lable a f te r f i ve years (Turner, 1975). Eno (1962) indicated that 30 to 60% of the tota l N becomes avai lable during the f i r s t s ix weeks of the growing season depending upon the N content and form of N in the manure. In control led incubation studies, P h i l l i p s et aJL (1978) studied the mineral izat ion of N from poultry manure stored for at least one year in a high-r ise poultry house. The manure was incorporated into two acid so i l s of the lower Fraser Valley and incubated at two temperatures, 10 and 20°C. Between 53 and 65% of the tota l N was mineral ized. Twenty-four percent of the tota l N was already in ammonium form, so approximately one quarter to one half of the organic N was released. Temperature, l iming and so i l type had l i t t l e e f fect on the overal l ammonium-N production. Most of the N was mineralized within the f i r s t week of incubation. In stored poultry manure, usually very l i t t l e n i t r i f i c a t i o n occurs unless the accumulating manure is aerated. In both fresh and stored manure 10 there i s l i t t l e or no n i t ra te present. Once poultry manure is applied to the s o i l , n i t r i f i c a t i o n becomes important. Olsen e_t al_. (1970) sug-gested that in the incubation of dairy c a t t l e manure incorporated in an aerobic s o i l , the conversion of ammonium to n i t ra te is at least as rapid as the conversion of organic N to ammonium. In an e a r l i e r study, i t was found that very l i t t l e of the tota l N in poultry manure added to a s o i l had been n i t r i f i e d a f ter one week (Papanos and Brown, 1950). The greatest percentage of tota l N was n i t r i f i e d between the f i r s t and second week with 50% of the tota l N n i t r i f y i n g by the end of four weeks incubation at 28°C. A s im i l a r pattern for n i t r i f i -cation in "warm, moist" s o i l s was suggested by Eno (1962). Nitrate pro-duction is slow during the f i r s t week increasing to a maximum by four weeks. In the mineral izat ion study of stored poultry manure i t was found that n i t r i f i c a t i o n was affected by both temperature and l iming ( Ph i l l i p s et al_., 1978). While mineral izat ion was unchanged by the two temperatures, 10 and 20°C, n i t r i f i c a t i o n was adversely affected by the lower temperature. The authors f e l t that 10°C could have an inh ib i to ry e f fect on n i t r i f i c a t i o n for up to two months. Tyler e_t al_. (1959) reported s imi la r observations while studying the effects of low temperatures in four Ca l i fo rn ia s o i l s and suggested i t could be due to n i t r i f i c a t i o n being retarded by the lower temperatures to a greater extent than ammonification. Floate (1970b), studying the mineral izat ion of N from sheep faeces, found that minera l iza-t ion of N did not show a temperature dependence at 5, 10 or 30°C. Giddens and Rao (1975) found n i t ra te production was greater at lower rates of poultry manure appl icat ion and when applied as one complete treatment rather than as s p l i t appl icat ions. With ca t t l e feedlot manure, 11 a delay in n i t r i f i c a t i o n occurred with increasing manure rates (Mathers and Stewart, 1970). Giddens and Rao (1975) attr ibuted th i s to ammonia i nh ib i t i on of the n i t r i f y i n g organisms, pa r t i cu l a r l y Nitrobacter. 01 sen et aK (1970) found large amounts of n i t r i t e in the surface s o i l four weeks a f te r ca t t l e manure appl icat ion to an aerobic s o i l . They indicated that excessive amounts of ammonia at high levels of manure could i n h i b i t t n e Nitrobacter and permit n i t r i t e accumulation. Gidden and Rao (1975) also found a decrease in n i t ra te production when poultry manure was surface applied rather than incorporated into the s o i l . This i s due more to a loss of N by ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n rather than ammonia i nh ib i t i on of the n i t r i f y i n g bacter ia. 4. Phosphorus Mineral izat ion from Poultry Manure The major portion of P in poultry manure i s in the organic form except for small quantit ies in the urates (Eno, 1962). A v a i l a b i l i t y and mineral izat ion of the organic P i s var iab le. Eno (1962) feels that P a v a i l a b i l i t y i s d i r e c t l y related to the rate of manure decomposition and that P becomes avai lable much slower than N. Working with sheep faeces, Bromfield (1961) s im i l a r l y observed that organic P was not readi ly ava i lable and was slow to mineral ize. Floate (1970a) also using sheep faeces, found that between 3 and 34% of the or ig ina l tota l P in the faeces had been mineralized a f ter 12 weeks at 30°C. These samples had been inoculated with a so i l extract rather than incorporated in a s o i l . Bromfield (1961) used only d i s t i l l e d water to wet the manure samples, so th i s may account for the differences in mineral izat ion and a v a i l a b i l i t y . In incubation studies using stored poultry manure from high-r ise poultry 12 houses, i t was found that between 41 and 44% of added manure P was min-era l ized ( Ph i l l i p s et_ al_., 1978). Since 32% of the manure P was Bray P-j extractable less than 15% of the organic P in the manure was mineral ized. Parker et aj_. (1959), using c i t r a t e soluble P as an index of a v a i l a b i l i t y , found 94.1% of P avai lable in b ro i l e r manure and 88.4% of P avai lable in hen manure. These values are averages determined from a wide range of fresh material co l lected in Georgia. The v a r i a b i l i t y in P mineral izat ion reported here may be due to the age of manure used (fresh versus stored) and the methods involved in incubation and avai lable P determinations. In general, though, P a v a i l -a b i l i t y and mineral izat ion i s less than N and some index of net release other than tota l P i s needed when looking at P from either a disposal or agronomic viewpoint. 5. Potassium A v a i l a b i l i t y in Poultry Manure As in the s o i l , K i s found mainly in the inorganic form in poultry manure, usually in inorganic sa l t s in the excretions from kidneys and in l i v i n g and dead c e l l u l a r material in faeces (Eno, 1962). A l l forms of K sa l t s are readi ly ava i lab le. Parker et_ al_. (1959) found between 86 and 88% of the tota l K is water soluble. B. Landspreading of Poultry Manure 1. Introduction Most animal wastes have been and w i l l continue to be disposed of on 13 land (Stewart, 1968; Loehr, 1972; Wallingford et al_., 1975). In the past, most farms were integrated farms (combined l ivestock and crop production) and were s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t operations. They could spread a l l the i r manure on the i r own land and i n su f f i c i en t manure was a greater problem than oversupply (Mcintosh and Varney, 1973). This was previous to the advent of inexpensive, eas i l y avai lable and easy to handle inorganic f e r t i l i z e r s , pa r t i cu l a r l y N f e r t i l i z e r s (Pratt et_ al_., 1973). By the m i d - f i f t i e s , inexpensive inorganic f e r t i l i z e r s were easy to obtain and manures were considered low value f e r t i l i z e r s and regarded as l i a b i l i t i e s rather than assets (McCalla, 1974). The value per unit of manure was too low to warrant transporting the manure to areas where i t could be used (Turner, 1975). Confined animal production operations were developed during th i s time to meet the demands for increased e f f i c iency and animal production. Between 1941 and 1966 the number of farms in Ontario was d r a s t i c a l l y reduced by 57, 65 and 50% for swine, poultry and dairy c a t t l e , respect ive ly, while the number of animals was increased (number of dairy ca t t l e decreased s l i g h t l y ) (Townshend et a l . , 1969). S im i l a r l y , in the United States there was one half the number of farms in 1969 as in 1940 supplying the i r agr icu l tura l needs (Loehr, 1972). By 1972 nearly 100% of the United States commercial egg production was from confinement poultry houses (Loehr, 1972). Because of t h i s , large amounts of manure have accumulated in small areas with no place to dispose of i t . The problem has been accentuated by the expansion of urban and suburban developments into former agr icu l tura l areas (Zindel and F lega l , 1970). During the 60's and the early 70 's, most researchers considered animal 14 manures waste and only the technological and economical problems of disposal were considered. L i t t l e work was done with regard to the con-servation of the nutrients in manures. Moore e_t aJL (1964) stated that "the greatest loss from manure i s in the N content but since N is one of the cheaper of the f e r t i l i z e r elements i t ' s loss appears of minor impor-tance when weighed against manure handling problems". In recent years, the high cost and short supply of commercial f e r -t i l i z e r s pa r t i cu l a r l y N has stimulated a new interest in manures as a nutr ient source. Furthermore, the increased awareness of the short supply of the f o s s i l fue l s , from which many N f e r t i l i z e r s are derived, has led to a change in at t i tudes. Jackson* e_t al_. (1977) state that " i n view of environmental concern and high costs of f e r t i l i z e r s , the disposal of b ro i l e r l i t t e r i s to be discouraged. However, the u t i l i z a t i on - of l i t t e r at recommended rates for i t s nutr ient value is encouraged". Landspreading i s one of the most widely used systems of manure handling and is possibly the most pract ica l at th i s time with regard to poultry manure. Landspreading of manure (to dispose of i t ) i s "the incorporation of wastes to the land in a control led land management program so that the applied wastes do not contribute to addit ional environmental qua l i ty problems such as contamination of groundwater, po l lut ion caused by excessive runoff, odor or insect germination" (Loehr, 1972). U t i l i z a t i o n of poultry manure as a f e r t i l i z e r involves the landspreading of manure, coupled with crop production to maximize crop y ie lds with the optimum nutr ient supply. It i s the conservation of the nutr ient resources derived from the manure. Normally, N i s the l i m i t i n g factor from e i ther a disposal or u t i l i z a t i o n viewpoint (Jones, 1969). 15 2. Land Disposal of Poultry Manure a) Introduction The problems that must be considered when determining land disposal rates are: runoff po l l u t i on , s a l i n i t y , groundwater po l l u t i on , odor, insect germination, metal t o x i c i t i e s and pathogen hazards (Hileman, 1967; McCalla, 1974). Nutrient imbalances and animal health problems are some-times considered in determining land disposal rates but are usually only included when looking at the agronomic value of poultry manure. Soi l n i t ra te and soluble sa l t s are the two s o i l chemical properties which have received the most attention (Wallingford et_ aJL, 1975). For the purposes of th i s review, the discussion on land disposal w i l l be l imi ted to these two problems. b) Soluble Salts Mathers and Stewart (1970) suggest that the disposal rate of manures should not impair y i e l d , since that would eliminate a way of removing N from the s o i l system. It has been suggested that s o i l s a l i n i t y due to excess soluble sa l t s in poultry manure is the main cause of y i e l d reduction. Shortal l and Liebhardt (1975) indicated that there was a good corre lat ion between s o i l s a l i n i t y and tonnes of poultry manure. They suggest that excessive soluble sa l t s are the primary cause of the y i e l d reduction when high rates of poultry manure are applied to s o i l . K i s considered the primary soluble s a l t responsible for s a l i n i t y in heavy appl icat ions of poultry manure (Liebhardt and Sho r ta l l , 1974; Wall ingford et al_., 1975). Liebhardt and Shortal l (1974) found a very s i gn i f i can t corre lat ion between K extractable with water and e l e c t r i c a l conductiv ity of a manured s o i l . 16 Jackson et al_. (1975) applied excessive rates of poultry l i t t e r on established fescue stands. They found depressed y ie lds at 45 t/ha/year, and indicated that the mechanism for y i e l d reduction was probably due to the smothering e f fect on the fescue from the heavy manure appl icat ions. The healthy appearance of the surviving species indicated very l i t t l e evidence of d i rect s a l t damage. Vandepopuliere et_ aj_. (1975), also i n d i -cated that y i e l d reductions of fescue stands occurred at poultry manure rates in excess of 44.8 t/ha/year. They suggested that the reduction was due to the k i l l i n g or stunting of the plant growth but gave no ind icat ion of the mechanism. Hensler et_ al_. (1970) found that excessive rates of dairy c a t t l e manure on unlimed so i l s caused a marked reduction in the y i e l d of the f i r s t crop but an enhancement in y i e l d of the remaining two crops. They f e l t that the y i e l d reduction was due to an ammonium induced Ca deficiency (malfunction of the terminal bud). In e a r l i e r work, Olsen e_t al_. (1970) found 220 ppm and 440 ppm of exchangeable ammonium-N in the surface s o i l within four days a f te r appl icat ion of the two highest rates of dairy c a t t l e manure. Hensler e_t aJL (1970) assumed that these high levels of ammonium were the main cause of the low i n i t i a l y i e l d s . In the fol lowing crops and in the limed s o i l s , l i t t l e or no reduction of crop y i e l d at the same rates of manure was observed. Soluble s a l t s , pa r t i cu l a r l y the K+ ion,.were a major cause of y i e l d reduction in corn and cool season grasses f e r t i l i z e d with poultry manure. The smothering e f fect of heavy rates of poultry manure and ammonium t o x i c i t y may also be important in y i e l d reductions. 17 c) Nitrate Leaching The accumulation and downward movement of n i t ra te in the so i l has been reported as a potential threat to groundwater qua l i ty and animal and human health (Wal 1 ingford et al_., 1975). Excessive n i t ra te ingestion by mammals is undesirable for two reasons: ( i ) possible metabolic con-version to n i t r i t e which can cause methaemoglobinaemia, espec ia l ly in infants and in the presence of high amine diets or amine-derived drugs, and ( i i ) possible hepatoxic action and the formation of a lky l nitrosamines which have carcinogenic properties (Winteringham, 1974). Nitrate i s also a factor in eutrophication of inland water bodies and hence i s a possible threat to certa in aquatic f i s h species (Winteringham, 1974). The World Health Organization (WHO) has established 10 ppm nitrate-N (45 ppm n i t ra te ) as the maximum permissible concentration of n i t r a te in drinking water. Active growing plants act as-a:"s ink" for most nutrients by meta-bo l i z ing them (Kl.ausner e_t a K , 1971). The crop used should produce large amounts of vegetative growth, be to lerant of high f e r t i l i t y l e ve l s , and remove r e l a t i v e l y large amounts of nutrients in the harvested portion (Hensler et al_., 1970). Long season crops such as grasses present less opportunity for n i t ra te leaching than do annual crops such as corn and soyabean (Viets, 1974). In some cases, n i t ra te w i l l leach i f the N applied in the manure i s greater than that used by plants, and at other times no s i gn i f i can t leaching occurs even af ter excess N i s added to a crop. Wall ingford et al_. (1975) suggested that the varied results reported on n i t ra te leaching in s o i l s a f te r manure appl icat ions is due to d i f fe rent leaching volumes and var iat ions 18 in the complicated factors of ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n , n i t r i f i c a t i o n and d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n . Adriano et al_. (1974) indicated that 50% of N from ca t t l e feedlot manure applied to uncropped land can be lo s t through ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n within a few weeks. Lauer et_ al_. (1976) suggested that large quantit ies of ammonia may v o l a t i l i z e from manure in certa in weather condit ions. General evaporative conditions and prec ip i ta t ion appear to be the p r i n -c ip le determinants of ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n under f i e l d condit ions. Therefore, with surface applied manures, a large percentage of the tota l N may be l o s t due to ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n and w i l l not be subject to leaching. In addit ion, the ammonia produced may i n h i b i t the n i t r i t e ox id iz ing bacteria preventing n i t r i f i c a t i o n (Giddens and Rao, 1975). Other conditions a f fect ing n i t r i f i c a t i o n from poultry manure were discussed earl i e r . Den i t r i f i c a t i on could also be responsible for a more s i gn i f i can t portion of n i t ra te losses than leaching from manured so i l s during a growing season. Kimble e_t al_. (1971), using dairy manure, found a decreasing NOg/Cl ra t io at a l l depths from spring to f a l l which suggests that some-thing other than leaching was responsible for the loss of n i t r a t e . They indicate that i t probably was d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n . Ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n , n i t r i f i c a t i o n and d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n are d i f f i c u l t to measure, espec ia l ly when heavy rates of N are added in poultry manure. This makes land disposal rates d i f f i c u l t to predict. Thus, the best way to avoid n i t ra te leaching i s to apply rates of poultry manure that do not provide N in excess of crop use. 19 3. U t i l i z a t i o n of Poultry Manure as a F e r t i l i z e r a) Introduction Y ie ld and qual i ty of forage are the important considerations in the u t i l i z a t i o n of poultry manure as a f e r t i l i z e r . Botanical and chemical composition are two qua l i ty components that may be adversely affected by manure app l i cat ion. Nitrate leaching and s a l i n i t y problems, important in land disposal, should be of l i t t l e concern i f the manure i s applied to optimize forage y i e l d s . b) Y ield The effects of f e r t i l i z e r appl icat ions (manure or inorganic) on the y i e l d of orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover mixtures are complicated by many management factors . Nitrogen rates, time of app l i cat ion , cutt ing frequency, K levels and botanical composition are the major factors involved (Gardner e t a j _ . , 1960). ( i ) Effects of Nitrogen Orchardgrass has a high N requirement and N f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s usually necessary to obtain high forage y ie lds (Singh et_ al_., 1967; George et a l . , 1973). Orchardgrass y ie ld s normally range from 6.5 to 13 t/ha/year in temperate climates of North America (Maas et a K , 1962; Alexander and McCloud, .1962; Schmidt and Tempas, 1965). Several researchers have investigated the optimum N rates for maximum orchardgrass y ie lds under various management and environmental condit ions. Optimum N rates as inorganic f e r t i l i z e r s range from 224 kg N/ha/year to 672 kg N/ha/year (Mortensen et al_., 1964; George et al_., 1973). With the exception of a.few studies, N f e r t i l i z e r rates of between 225 and 340 kg 20 N/ha/year produced optimum orchardgrass y i e l d s . Donohue ert aj^. (1973) indicated that 250 kg N/ha/year should be applied for optimum orchard-grass y ie lds with minimal N losses on a Crosby s i l t loam s o i l . Cl imatic condit ions, inherent s o i l f e r t i l i t y and management practices may ef fect the optimum N rates required. Mortensen et_ al_. (1964) found that increasing the frequency of cuts from three to f i ve increased the elemental N required to produce the same amount of dry matter from 224 kg N/ha/year to 336 kg N/ha/year. Donohue et al_. (1963) found that in drought conditions for one year, N rates up to 336 kg N/ha/year increased y i e l d s . The fol lowing year was cool during the normally hot dry months of July and August and y ie lds increased only up to N rates of 168 kg N/ha/year. Hileman (1967), using b ro i l e r l i t t e r as the N source, found 9 t/ha was the optimum rate of .appl icat ion for maximum fescue production. This rate of manure supplied 394 kg N/ha/year. At 18 t/ha, 790 kg N/ha was supplied to the fescue with no addit ional y i e l d . In Georgia, 9 t/ha of poultry l i t t e r supplying between 180 and 336 kg N/ha was considered optimum to produce 10 »to 12. t/ha of dry fescue forage or nearly 12 t/ha of hay/ha/year (Williams et_ al_.,' 1972). Parker (1966) found that 9 t/ha of poultry manure gave optimum responses on orchardgrass-clover stands. This rate supplied 152 kg N/ha and produced 6.52 t/ha of dry forage. The average forage y i e l d increase per tonne of manure decreased as the rate of manure increased. The average increase per tonne was 317, 232 and 192 kg of forage/ha, respect ively, for 9, 18 and 26.9 tonnes of manure/ha. Vande-populiere et_ aJL (1975) applied poultry manure at rates of 22.5, 44.9, 67.4 and 89.8 t/ha to fescue pasture. This supplied 216, 431, 647 and 862 kg N/ha/year, respect ively. The tota l forage y i e l d for three harvests was 21 14.4 t/ha for the 22.5 tonnes manure/ha and 16.1 tonnes of dry matter/ha for the 44.9 t/ha rate. Parker and Perkins (1971) found that b ro i l e r l i t t e r was only 55 to 65% as e f f i c i e n t as NH^NO^ when the manure was applied to coastal bermuda-grass sod. Vandepopuliere et_ al_. (1975) compared the amount of dry matter produced by manure treated plots to that produced by a chemical f e r t i l i z e r . The chemical f e r t i l i z e r supplied 339 kg N/ha and yielded 16.9 t/ha of dry forage. An equivalent amount of N/ha supplied by manure would y i e l d approximately 15.3 t/ha of dry matter. Thus, the poultry manure N was about 90% as e f f i c i e n t as the chemical f e r t i l i z e r in the production of dry matter. Two-thirds or more of the tota l annual y i e l d of dry matter in cool season grasses i s produced during the cooler weather of May and June in temperate North America (Wedin, 1974). Heavy spring appl icat ions of N and favorable weather conditions at th i s time of year are the main reasons. Parker (1966) found that with medium to high rates of poultry manure (18 and 26.9 t/ha), almost one half of the tota l y i e l d production was obtained in the f i r s t c l i pp ing . This represents less than one-third of the growing season. Burns et al_. (1970) found that appl ications of 50% or more of the tota l N required early in the spring causes an early spring peak in y i e l d followed by a marked reduction in midseason growth. Several researchers (Gardner et al_., 1960; Maas e_t a K , 1962; Alexander and McCloud, 1962; Burns et a l , 1970) have found that d iv id ing the N among frequent appl ications gave greater uniformity of y i e l d over the growing season but no net increase. Since the tota l production of dry matter i s not affected by a s ingle N appl icat ion in the early spring, early applied N i s 22 u t i l i z e d just as e f f i c i e n t l y as l a te r or s p l i t appl icat ions (Burns et a l . , 1970). ( i i ) Effect of Botanical Composition Clover or other legumes mixed with orchardgrass decreases the N requirement for the stand. Tempieton J r . (1975) indicated that forage product iv i ty of perennial cool-season grass-legume mixtures was normally equivalent to that of the same grass receiving 150 to more than 200 kg N/ha/year. In B r i t a i n , a l l -g rass swards require 157 kg N/ha/year to achieve the same herbage y ie lds as un f e r t i l i z ed grass/clover swards (Whitehead, 1970). The y i e l d increase of an orchardgrass-clover mixture, due to an N app l i cat ion , i s influenced by the amount of grass in the mixture. The greater the proportion of grass in a mixed stand, the greater the y i e l d response per unit of N applied (Wolf and Smith, 1964). Whitehead (1970) suggests that the average annual response for an a l l -g rass sward i s 25 kg of dry matter per kg of N and 12 kg of dry matter per kg of N for grass/ clover swards. Increasing the N appl icat ion to a grass-clover mixture, suppresses the clover content and any y i e l d response to high rates of N i s due to an increase in grass growth only (Gardner e_t al_., 1960). N rates up to 101 kg N/ha increased the grass y i e l d in a grass-clover mixture without decreasing the y i e l d of the clover appreciably. Higher N rates decreased the clover y ie lds by the same amount that the grass y ie lds were increased (Maas et a l . , 1962). Grass-clover mixtures are a complicated forage to evaluate, because of the varied proportions of grass and clover found at d i f fe rent rates of 23 N appl ied. ( i i i ) Effect of K The p r inc ip le nut r i t i ona l factor cont ro l l i ng the y i e l d of established herbage is N. I f the forage i s cut often, other nutrients may cause y i e l d reductions. Potassium is the most l i k e l y element other than N to become l im i t i n g (Hemmingway, 1963; Duel l , 1965; Nowakowski, 1970). Dry matter y ie lds of both pure orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover mixtures were increased by the appl icat ion of K f e r t i l i z e r s (Gardner et_ a l . , 1960). The increases were much greater for the mixed stand than orchardgrass alone. Hemmingway (1963) found over three years that N-only applications to established orchardgrass swards gave decreasing y ie lds compared to NK treated swards. The N-only treatment maintained y ie lds at 80 to 100% re l a t i ve to the NK treatments in the f i r s t year. By the th i rd year of continuous cropping, the N-only treatment y ie lds had f a l l en to 60% of the NK treatment y i e l d s . Singh et al_. (1967) noted s im i la r re su l t s . Continuous cropping with orchardgrass gradually depleted the K reserve in the s o i l . This may be very important in poultry manure appl icat ions where the N:K ra t io in the manure can be high (4:1). Reith et_ al_. (1964) indicated that the amount of K supplied to orchardgrass depended on the N used as well as the so i l reserves of K. No y i e l d response from orchard-grass occurred when K content in the herbage exceeded 1.6% K (Hemmingway, 1963). c) Bptan i cal Compos i t i on ( i ) Orchardgrass-Clover Mixtures The advantages and disadvantages of a grass-clover mixture versus a 24 pure stand of grass have been thoroughly investigated (Whitehead, 1970; Baylor, 1974; Jacobs and St r ieker , 1975; Templeton J r . , 1975). The advantages include: higher dry matter y i e l d s , higher protein content and certa in mineral nutrients in the herbage, more even forage production over the growing season, and diminished N requirements for the sward. The major disadvantage i s the more.intense management that i s required to maintain the clover in the stand. N often has an adverse e f fect on the clover content. Alexander and McCloud (1962) found that in the course of the i r study (2 years), applying various rates of N to an orchardgrass-clover sward, the clover content decreased from 17% to v i r t u a l l y n i l (4%). Gardner et aJL (1960) found that under the conditions of the i r experiment, ladino clover was to lerant to N appl icat ions. Frequency of N appl ications had no apparent e f fect on the percentage of clover in an orchardgrass-clover stand (Gardner et a l . , 1960; Maas et al_., 1962). Whitehead (1970) suggested that N applied in l i q u i d manure or s lu r ry appeared to cause less depression of clover than f e r t i l i z e r N. Parker (1966) found s im i l a r results with s o l i d poultry manure. The clover perfor-mance on a 9 tonnes of manure/ha treatment and the highest f e r t i l i z e r rates were about equal, yet the manure treatment contained, on the average, four times as much N/ha/year. At the highest manure rate, 26.9 t/ha, v i r t u a l l y a l l the clover was eliminated by the f i r s t cut of the second year a f te r manure appl icat ion (Parker, 1966). ( i i ) Weeds Weed infestat ion may be an adverse ef fect of poultry manure appl icat ion on agronomic crops. Many poultrymen and farmers, using poultry manure as a 25 f e r t i l i z e r , have expressed be l ie f s that the incidence of weeds increased where manure was spread. In laboratory studies using white leghorn hens, i t was found that the v i a b i l i t y of 25 weed species were destroyed in the i n te s t i na l t r ac t of the hen (Cooper et_ al_., 1960). Faecal matter co l lected showed no evidence of seeds nor was germination of any seed, i f present, found in the faecal matter. This study suggests that any increase in weeds in the botanical composition of a crop, i s the resu l t of weeds entering the manure a f te r i t i s excreted by the hen. d) Chemical Composition of Forage ( i ) Introduction The concentration and balance of nutrients in forage i s of great importance. In pract ice, ruminants are usually fed non-regulated or v a r i -able diets of forages. "Thus the concentrations of nutrients in the forage, as they a f fect voluntary intake of the forage, have a s i gn i f i can t a f fect in the ultimate output of a useful animal product" (Raymond, 1969, according to Wedin, 1974). In add i t ion, the composition of forage can indicate "luxury consumption" of an element which suggetsVthe i n e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of that nutr ient. ( i i ) Total N in Forage Total N content in forage i s c lose ly associated with the amount of N applied (Dotzenko and Henderson, 1964). Extremes in % N in cool-season grass forage range from 1.5% in def ic ient mature grass to 6.0% in a w e l l -f e r t i l i z e d lawn clipped weekly. Normally in t a l l growing cool-season grasses, s l i g h t l y over 3% is considered average (Wedin, 1974). Total N in orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover mixtures have shown 26 var iable response to poultry manure appl icat ions. Parker (1966) found very l i t t l e var iat ion in the N content of orchardgrass-clover swards related to manure treatments. High clover content in the check and low manure plots may have accounted for t h i s . Vandepopuliere et_ aj_. (1975) and Papanos and Brown (1950), using grass stands, indicated that only s l i gh t increases in tota l N content of the forage occurred with increasing manure rates. Papanos and Brown (1950) found that the N content increased from 1.7% in the check plots to 2.2% in the 18 tonnes of poultry manure/ha p lots . Vandepopuliere et a l . (1975) found less than a 0.50% tota l N increase in the fescue t issue between the control and the 89.8 t/ha plot (supplied 862 kg N/ha). In a study using c a t t l e manure on corn, the manure N did not s i g n i f i c an t l y increase the tota l N in the leaves. In one year of the study, tota l N in the leaves decreased with increasing manure rates (Mcintosh and Varney, 1972). The ind icat ion was that manures have only a minimal e f fect on the tota l N content in forage grasses. Maturity of orchardgrass i s another factor which affects tota l N content. Cutting frequency and time of appl icat ion have very l i t t l e e f fect on the protein production of orchardgrass (Mortensen et a_h, 1964). Percent N declines with maturity (Whitehead, 1970). George et_ aK (1973) indicates that lower tota l N values are expected for the f i r s t harvest of orchard-grass than the rest of the cuttings because the f i r s t cut i s usually taken at the heading stage whereas other harvests are taken during the vegetative growth stage. ( i i i ) Total Phosphorus in Forage Total P in forage grasses ranges from 0.14 to 0.50% (Wedin, 1974). 27 Approximately 0.30% is required for the maintenance of grazing animals (Baylor, 1974). The concentration of P in orchardgrass pasture was highest in early spring (0.40%), decreased s l i g h t l y by la te spring, and then remained f a i r l y constant (0.25 to 0.30%) (Reynolds et_ al_., 1971). Several researchers found that %P decreased as the amount of N f e r -t i l i z a t i o n increased (Gardner et_ aJL, 1960; Mortensen et_ al_., 1964; Dotzenko and Henderson, 1964; Reynolds et_ al_., 1971). However, y i e l d and uptake of P by orchardgrass increased (Gardner et_ al_., 1960; Singh et a l . , 1967). With manure appl icat ions, %P response is inconsistent. Mcintosh and Varney (1972) found a small but s i gn i f i can t decrease in %P of corn with increasing N from ca t t l e manure. Papanos and Brown (1950) found that %P remained constant at 0.3% P regardless of manure treatment. In Georgia, the %P in fescue pastures f e r t i l i z e d with poultry l i t t e r increased 50% from 0.36% P with no poultry l i t t e r to 0.49% P where poultry l i t t e r was applied (Jones et al_., 1973). Parker (1966) found that the poultry manure rates of 18 and 26.9 t/ha on orchardgrass-clover supplied P in excess of crop needs. ( iv) Total Potassium in Forage Wedin (1974) indicates that a range of 1 to 4% K i s normal for coo l -season grasses. Concentrations above 1.6 to 1.7% K in orchardgrass represents luxury consumption of K (Hemmingway, 1963). The highest concen-trat ions of K are found in the early spring in orchardgrass, decreasing to a low in the la te spring and increasing again during the summer (Reynolds et al_., 1971). Potassium f e r t i l i z a t i o n , N appl icat ions and Na a l l a f fect the percentage 28 of K in orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover mixtures. Potassium f e r -t i l i z a t i o n increased the K content in both pure stands and mixtures. Percent potassium was increased by K f e r t i l i z a t i o n i r respect ive of N treatment ( G r i f f i t h e_t al_., 1964). Potassium in orchardgrass t issue decreased when N was the only f e r t i l i z e r applied ( G r i f f i t h et_ al_., 1964; Duel l , 1965; Hemmingway, 1963). Hemmingway (1963) found that in N-only treatments, the K content s tead i ly declined with each cut of forage. In the f i r s t year,.:% K declined from 1.50% to 1.38% K. By the end of the three years, the percentage K in the N-only treated orchardgrass had decreased to 0.40% K. G r i f f i t h et_ al_. (1965) suggested that there was a loose inverse re lat ionship between Na and K content. Nitrogen f e r t i l i z a -t ion raised the Na content while percentage K decreased. They indicate i t may be due to an i n s u f f i c i en t supply of K to cope with the increased y ie lds associated with N appl icat ions. Potassium in grass t issue increased due to manure appl icat ions (Vande-popul iere et aJL, 1975; Drysdale and Strachen, 1966; Jones et_ al_., 1973a). Vandepopul iere et al_. (1975) found that % K in fescue t issue increased from 1.86% K in the check to 4.50% K where 89.8 tonnes of poultry manure/ha rate. Drysdale and Strachen (1966) found increasing % K in grass with increasing manure rates. The l i q u i d manure used had a N:K rat io of 1.0:1.7 and therefore supplied K in excess of that required for normal plant growth. If the N:K ra t io was higher (e.g. 4:1 as i t i s in some poultry manure), the manure would not supply s u f f i c i en t K for optimum plant growth when applied at rates to meet the N demand of the crop. When the avai lable so i l K was depleted, % K in the forage decreased s imi la r to the results reported by Hemmingway (1963). 29 (v) Total Ca, Mg and Na in Forage Ranges for Ca and Mg in cool-season grasses ranged from 0.28 to 2.50% and 0.06 to 0.73% respectively (Wedin, 1974). Both % Ca and % Mg in orchardgrass tend to increase in the spring and level of f and remain constant through the rest of the growing season (Todd, 1961; Reynolds et a]_., 1971). The responses of Ca and Mg to f e r t i l i z a t i o n with N and K were incon-s i s tent . Generally, K f e r t i l i z a t i o n tended to depress Ca and Mg concen-t ra t ion in orchardgrass, pa r t i cu l a r l y Mg (Todd, 1961; Gardner et a l . , 1960; Wedin, 1974). The response of Mg content in orchardgrass to N f e r t i l i z a t i o n was var iable from year to year and shows no.consistent pattern (Todd, 1961.). Jones et a l . (1973a) and Vandepopuliere et al_. (1975), reported that s l i gh t increases of Ca and Mg content in t issue occurred with the appl icat ion of poultry manure ( l i t t e r ) on fescue pastures. Jackson et a l . (1975) observed that heavy rates of b ro i l e r l i t t e r resulted in large quantit ies of extractable K in acid s o i l p ro f i l e s while extractable Ca and Mg were depleted. They f e l t th i s may contribute to the potential grass tetany hazard in ca t t l e grazing fescue pastures heavily manured with poultry l i t t e r . Grass tetany is a metabolic disorder of ruminants where intake of Mg is too low (Grunes et_ aj_., 1970; Grunes, 1973). It i s often referred to as "hypomagnesmic" tetany. Spring or f a l l conditions when there i s cool weather or when a period of cool weather i s followed by warmer conditions is usually when the incidence of tetany i s greatest (Grunes et a l . , 1970). Percent Mg, K/Ca Mg ra t i o (meq basis) and excessive % N in 30 the forage have a l l been suggested as indicators of "tetany prone" forage (Grunes et al_., 1970; Grunes, 1973; Jones et_ al_., 1973b). Grass forage with a K/Ca + Mg ra t io (meq basis) exceeding 2.2 is considered "tetany prone". High K/Ca + Mg rat ios usually are more common in the spring and/or f a l l (Grunes, 1973). Bro i le r l i t t e r appears to enhance the K content without increasing the Ca or Mg content, pa r t i cu l a r l y during the spring period when both cows and grass are "tetany prone" (Wilkinson et al_., 1971). However, they found that when the rat io exceeded 3.0 no c l i n i c a l symptoms of grass tetany occurred in the c a t t l e . Mg levels of 0.20% and greater are considered safe levels in forage. Grunes (1973) suggests that i f Mg levels are maintained at high levels (in excess of 0.20%), ruminants should not suf fer from Mg def ic iency even though K and N in the forage may be high. Forages containing excessive N are considered "tetany prone". Jones et aj_. (1973b) found that 3.8% N or more in forage increased the l i ke l i hood of grass tetany. Jones e_t al_. (1973a) and Stuedeman et_ al_v (1975) indicated that fescue pastures f e r t i l i z e d with poultry manure ( l i t t e r ) have a greater tendency for tetany than moderately f e r t i l i z e d forage. Mature cows grazing on these pastures could be susceptible to grass tetany i f there was no other source of Mg in the d ie t . Orchardgrass has a high Na content re la t i ve to other grass species (Loehr, 1960; G r i f f i t h et al_., 1960). Although no normal range is given, Loehr (1960) suggests that 0.16% Na in forage i s the requirement for dairy c a t t l e . Drysdale and Strachen (1966) found that the Na content of ryegrass and white clover was high at the f i r s t cut, decreased during midseason, and increased again by f a l l . 31 As mentioned above, there i s a rough inverse re lat ionship between Na and K content in orchardgrass. Butler (1963), according to G r i f f i t h et_al_. (1965), indicated that the low herbage Na was not always accompanied by a high K content. (vi) Nitrate in Forage As far as i s known, n i t rate accumulation i s not injur ious to the plant, but high levels of n i t ra te in forage are toxic to ruminants (Wright and Davison, 1964). Ingested n i t ra te i s reduced to n i t r i t e in the rumen and is readi ly absorbed through the gastro intest ina l t ract into the blood stream. Once in the blood, n i t r i t e reacts with the oxyhemoglobin ox id iz ing 2+ 3+ Fe to Fe to form methemoglobin. When th i s occurs the oxyhemoglobin loses i t s a b i l i t y to transport and release 0^ to the body and death can occur by asphyxiation (Williams et al_., 1972; Wright and Davison, 1964). Various levels of n i t ra te have been indicated as potent ia l l y tox ic to ruminants. Murphy and Smith (1967) suggest that 0.07% (700 ppm) n itrate-N and above may be tox ic to l ivestock i f that forage is the only feed con-sumed. Ryan et a_l_. (1972) set 0.15% n itrate-N as the safe l e v e l . Williams et al_. (1972) indicate that ruminants may suffer from acute or chronic n i t rate t o x i c i t y . Nitrate levels in excess of 0.2% nitrate-N can cause acute t o x i c i t y usually resu l t ing in death. Chronic t o x i c i t y is associated with levels below 0.2% nitrate-N but greater than 0.07% n i t rate-N. Wright and Davison (1964) f e l t that n i t ra te concentrations between 0.34 and 0.45% nitrate-N were potent ia l l y tox i c . Nitrate accumulates in pasture plants when the s o i l supplies n i t ra te faster than i t can be assimilated into protein by the plant. Factors that af fect th i s are: excess N f e r t i l i z a t i o n , drought, cloudiness (shading), 32 herbicides, s o i l nutrient imbalances, plant part, and kind and age of the plant (Wright and Davison, 1964; Williams et al_., 1972). Excessive N, s o i l imbalances and kind and age of the plant are the main factors considered here. Deficiencies of K, P and S may i n h i b i t protein synthesis in the plant and promote n i t ra te accumulation. This i s un l ike ly to occur in pastures heavily f e r t i l i z e d with poultry manure or l i t t e r (Williams ejt al_.,' 1972). Excessive N f e r t i l i z a t i o n has been associated with increased n i t ra te concentrations (Dotzenko and Henderson, 1964; George e_t al_., 1973; Murphy and Smith, 1967; Crawford et al_. , 1961). F e r t i l i z e r rates of 448 and 672 kg N/ha produced maximum n i t ra te levels in excess of 0.40% n itrate-N (Reynolds et aj_., 1971). George et aJL (1973) found 0.63% n itrate-N in orchardgrass f e r t i l i z e d with 1344 kg N/ha. They suggest that the r i s k of n i t ra te t o x i c i t y (using 0.15% n itrate-N as the potent ia l l y tox ic leve l ) may ex i s t during the spring and midsummer with orchardgrass when top-dressed with at least 84 kg N/ha/cut. Summer annuals, certa in weeds and cool-season grasses are l i s t e d as n i t ra te accumulators (Wright and Davison, 1964). With the grasses, the age of the plant can be c r i t i c a l . Reid et/al_. (1966) reported lower n i t rate levels in July regrowth than in May regrowth. Reynolds et a l . • (1971) found that n i t ra te concentrations were not as high in the second half of the growing season as in the f i r s t ha l f . George et aj_. (1973) found that n i t ra te levels were s i g n i f i c an t l y lower for orchardgrass harvested during periods of rapid growth and high y i e l d . Concentrations reached a maximum during the July and August cutt ing dates when temperature and moisture stress reduced the y i e l d s . Wilkinson et al_. (1971),.,using poultry l i t t e r on fescue pastures, found n i t ra te levels below 0.20% n i t rate-N 33 unt i l August when concentrations of 0.33% n itrate-N were observed unt i l November. Lund et_ al_. (1975), working with c a t t l e manure, reported that the organic N content in coastal bermudagrass increased unt i l i t was about 2.5% at which point n i t ra te accumulation proceeded very rap id ly . The above ranges of n i t ra te concentrations are considered as " po ten t i a l l y " toxic to ruminants. Health and type of ruminant and the percentage of the " po ten t i a l l y " tox ic forage consumed in the animals d iet are some of the conditions which a f fect the forage's t o x i c i t y to the ruminant. Wilkinson e_t al_. (1971) found n i t ra te levels of 0.33% from August to November in manured fescue pastures, yet reported no c l i n i c a l signs of n i t ra te t o x i c i t y in the ca t t l e grazing i t . Gorden et_ al_. (1962), according to George et al_. (1973), suggested that economic considerations should be a greater concern than n i t ra te t o x i c i t y in sett ing upper l im i t s to N f e r t i l i z a t i o n for orchardgrass. Optimum y ie ld s usually occurred at concentrations equal to or less than 0.15% nitrate-N (George et_ al_., '1973). Drought conditions and N app l i ca -tions a f te r each harvest are possible exceptions. e) Rate Comparisons Some rates of poultry manure appl icat ion in re la t ion to certa in aspects of y i e l d and botanical composition have been mentioned. N appears to be the best constituent on which to base appl icat ion rates of poultry manure. Generally, higher rates of poultry manure are applied to s o i l when disposal rather than e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n is the object ive. The land requirements for e f f i c i e n t use of poultry manure on corn i s twice as much as for the maximum appl icat ion of N which w i l l not reduce y ie lds or cause water 34 po l lut ion (Jones, 1969). Ten thousand laying hens in one year w i l l produce approximately 5670 kg N and w i l l require 40.5 ha for crop u t i l i z -ation and only 20.2 ha for po l lut ion control (Jones, 1969). The same land requirements are necessary for 100,000 bro i lers over 10 weeks, excreting 7030 kg N. Hileman (1965) suggested that 18 t of poultry manure/ha/year i s the maximum disposal rate and 9 t/ha/year i s the optimum rate for crop u t i l i z -at ion. Parker (1966) found that 9 t .of poultry manure/ha/year gave the biggest y i e l d increase of orchardgrass-clover forage per tonne of manure appl ied. Increases in y i e l d s t i l l occurred at 18 and 26.9 t/ha/year rates but the N was not used as e f f i c i e n t l y . Perkins and Parker (1971) indicated that 6.7 to 9 t/ha/year of poultry manure maintained an adequate supply of the most important elements for crop growth. Nine t/ha of-poultry l i t t e r on fescue pastures has been suggested as the rate which supplies adequate nutrients and minimizes grass tetany and n i t ra te t o x i c i t y (Williams et al_., 1972). C. Nitrogen Balance 1. N Balance in Grassland and Grass/Glover Swards The N balance of a grass/clover sward adapted from Whitehead (1970) is shown in Figure 1. Manure additions and symbiotic f i xa t i on of N by clover ( i f present) are the major N additions to the system. N f i xa t i on by non-symbiotic bacteria and additions to the so i l by r a i n f a l l , e t c . , are of minor importance, espec ia l ly i f large amounts of manure N are appl ied. 35 N0 3 IN SOIL ATMOSPHERIC N N REMOVED IN CUT 'HERBAGE N IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER POULTRY MANURE N LOSS BY NH3 VOLATILIZATION FIXED NH 4 BY CLAY MINERALS Figure 1. N balance in a Grass/Clover Sward F e r t i l i z e d with Poultry Manure. A: N f i xa t i on by symbiotic Rhizobium; B: N f i xa t i on by free l i v i n g bacter ia; C: Ammonification; D: N i t r i f i c a t i o n ; E: Dent r i f i ca t i on ; F: Additions of N from the atmosphere. Modified from Whitehead, 1970. 36 In s o i l s def ic ient in N and where low rates of N are appl ied, these l a t t e r additions may be important (A l l i s on , 1966). A l l i s on (1955) indicated that accurate values for f e r t i l i z e r (manure) additions can be determined but legume f i xa t i on values are a problem. Whitehead (1970) feels that estimates of symbiotic N f i xa t i on in grass,-legume mixes can be made. He suggests up to 252 kg N/ha/year can be f ixed by clover in a clover/grass sward. Of t h i s , 101 kg N/ha/year can be trans-ferred to the grass. The transfer of N i s usually by the decomposition of clover roots and nodule t i s sue. There is some evidence of the l i v i n g roots exuding organic compounds containing N (Whitehead, 1972). L i t t l e transfer takes place in the establishment year of a grass/clover sward presumably because the clover is using a l l the N f ixed and there i s very l i t t l e root decomposition (Whitehead, 1970). The losses from the system (Figure 1) include crop removal, leaching, d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n , ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n and ammonium immobilization by certain clay minerals. Under normal f i e l d condit ions, crop removal, leaching and d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n are the major losses. Ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n can be s i gn i f i can t when manure i s the source of N, pa r t i cu l a r l y i f i t i s surface applied and not incorporated (A l l i s on , 1955; Adriano et al_., 1974; Lauer et al_., 1976). Although most mechanisms for losses are known, quantitat ive data re la t ing to each type of loss are inadequate (A l l i s on , 1955). N recovery by the crop under average f i e l d conditions often is no greater than 50 to 60% of the applied N even i f immobilization of N in the so i l i s taken into account (A l l i s on , 1966). Wedin (1974) found that 69, 83 and 84% of the N applied to orchardgrass was recovered when applied at 37 rates of 269, 90 and 180 kg N/ha/year, respect ively. 2. Methods of Determining N Balance 15 N tracer techniques and the more common nontracer difference method are the two major techniques used in determining N balances in the f i e l d (A l l i s on , 1966). The difference method considers only the N recovered in the crop or series of crops subtracting the values for the control from the treated p lots . Soi l gains may be included. Although not exactly comparable, the simpler difference method often y ie lds results that agree favourably to the tracer method except when there is excessive b io log ica l or chemical t ie-up of N in the s o i l (A l l i s on , 1966). The difference method is actua l ly preferred when pract ica l appl icat ions not requir ing extreme accuracy are needed. Tests have shown that N recoveries in crops plus s o i l i s rare ly greater than 95% of the applied N and values of 70 to 95% are more common. It is not unusual for recovery values to be as low as 50 to 60% (A l l i s on , 1955; A l l i s o n , 1966). Values of 5 to 25% N not recovered are so common they represent real s o i l losses and not experimental error (A l l i s on , 1966). These losses are most l i k e l y to occur from leaching and d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n , although ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n may be s i gn i f i can t in certa in circumstances. Olsen e_t al_. (1970) determined the percent manure N recovered from an uncropped s o i l by subtracting the sum of n i t r a t e , n i t r i t e , ammonium, and organic N in the check from the sum of these values in the treated s o i l s . Mathers and Stewart (1974) determined % N recovered from ca t t l e feedlot manure applied to corn. The N recovered included the increase of the manured plots over the check in tota l N removed by the crop, n i t r a te 38 accumulation in the p r o f i l e , and tota l N changes in the surface 30 cm of the s o i l . At the lower manure rates (22 and 44 t/ha), the N added was accounted for but at the higher rates large amounts of N could not be accounted. Mathers and Stewart (1974) suggest that considerable losses of N occurred probably by ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n and d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n from the heavily manured p lots . Variations in manure composition and increased ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n make N balance sheets of manure N under f i e l d conditions even more d i f f i -cu l t than under normal f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s (Mathers and Stewart, 1974). 39 III MATERIALS AND METHODS A. S ite Description The study s i t e was established in Apr i l 1975, in the D i s t r i c t Municipal ity of Chilliwhack on a gray gleysol of the Grigg series ( s i l t y clay loam). Grigg s o i l was derived from floodplain^.deposits of the Fraser River with good inherent f e r t i l i t y (Comar et al_., 1962). Some chemical properties of the s o i l at the experimental s i t e pr ior to the i n i t i a l manure appl icat ion are given in Table II. In general, Grigg s o i l i s poorly drained, but the experimental s i t e was adjacent to a drainage ditch on a s l i g h t l y raised portion of the f i e l d which improved the drainage. In December of both years, the water table rose to within 90 cm of the surface but during the growing season the water table was well below th i s depth. The climate of the area i s inshore maritime (Comar e_t al.., 1962). During the growing season (May to September), crop growth i s often r e s t r i c -ted due to a moisture d e f i c i t . During the two years of the study, precip-i t a t i on data from the Chi l l iwack Gibson Road Climatological Station show that in one half of the growing season months of May through September (1975 and 1976), r a i n f a l l was less than 50 mm per month. A l l but one of these months (July 1976) occurred in 1975. In 1975, only August had more than 50 mm of r a i n f a l l . Mean temperatures over the period of May to Septem-ber were approximately the same - 15.7°C and 15.0°C for 1975 and 1976, respect ively. P rec ip i ta t ion and temperature data in deta i l are presented in Appendix Table A l . Table II: Chemical properties of the Grigg s o i l at the experimental s i t e . Depth cm pH in CaCl 2 Avai lable P ppm Total N CEC K Ca --meq/100 g— Mg 0-15 4.74 87.5 0.219 26.61 0.45 10.98 8.35 15-30 4.78 67.0 0.182 24.66 0.37 10.51 9.21 30-45 4.83 10.5 0.078 20.11 0.08 9.49 14.59 45-60 4.82 7.2 0.054 19.07 0.05 8.98 19.14 60-75 4.84 8.4 0.040 16.94 0.05 7.95 18.98 75-90 4.85 9.8 0.031 14.06 0.05 6.60 17.19 1. Average of the four blocks; 20 cores/block 41 B. F ie ld Work Plots measuring 3.05 m by 6.10 m were established on Apr i l 15, 1975 in a randomized complete block design with four blocks. Each rep l i ca t i on contained poultry manure treatments of 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha, a f e r t i l i z e r plot and a control p lot . The manure rates were based on the manure as i t came from the bag not on a dry weight basis. The poultry manure was applied..before seeding and incorporated into the so i l by raking. Seeding of the plots with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and Ladino (white) clover (Tr i fol ium repens) mixture was done within three days of manure app l i cat ion. Problems with the percent clover in the f e r t i l i z e r plots and an i n su f f i c i en t amount of N applied in 1976 made any comparisons between the manure rates and the f e r t i l i z e r treatment i n va l i d . Therefore, the results of the f e r t i l i z e r treatment have been omitted from the discussion. In 1976 (Apri l 5), the manure plots were halved in width from 3.05 m to 1.525 m. The length remained at 6.10 m. On one hal f of the s p l i t plots a s ingle appl icat ion of poultry manure was surface applied onto the established forage stand at the same rate as in 1975. On the other half of the plots the appl icat ion rate was the same, but was divided into three equal appl icat ions, once in the spring (Apri l 5) and once a f te r the f i r s t two harvests. In 1976 the manure was surface applied to the established sward. In 1975, forage y ie lds were obtained on July 2 and August 21. In 1976 there were four cutt ing dates - May 18, June 18, July 27 and September 9. The same harvest technique was applied to a l l cuts in both years. An 87 cm swath was cut lengthwise down the middle of each plot and the sample 42 was removed and weighed immediately. A weighed subsample was taken for determination of dry matter y i e l d and chemical analys is. The rest of the plot was then cut and the forage removed. Following both growing seasons, s o i l samples were taken with an Oakfield probe to a depth of 90 cm (November 25, 1975 and December 15, 1976). Ten cores per sample were taken when the sampling depth was 15 cm (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm) and f i ve cores per sample when the sampling depth was 30 cm (30-60 cm and 60-90 cm). Soil samples were s im i l a r l y co l lected pr ior to the manure appl icat ion in 1976 to check for residual n i t r a te s . C. Laboratory Procedures 1. Poultry Manure Poultry manure was obtained from an egg producer near Aldergrove. The hens were housed in a high-r ise poultry house with a concrete f l oo r . The poultry droppings f a l l to the f l oo r where they are p a r t i a l l y dried by e l e c t r i c fans c i r cu l a t i n g a i r over the p i l e s . Approximately once a year the manure was removed from the house, ground by hammer-mill and bagged for sale to home gardeners. The manure was dry enough to handle and spread, eas i l y with l i t t l e or no odor problem. A subsample from each bag of manure used was taken in the f i e l d before appl icat ion and was frozen immediately upon return to the lab. The sample was kept frozen un t i l the analysis was to be done, then i t was thawed and analyzed wet. Moisture content was determined by drying a thawed sample for 24 hours at 80°C in a forced a i r oven. A l l values recorded were on a 43 dry weight basis. A modified dry ashing procedure for organic materials was used for the extraction of P, K, Ca, Mg and Na (Jackson,.1956; Isaac and Jones, 1972; Walsh and Beaton, 1973). The samples were ashed one hour at 300°C and at least seven hours at 450 to 480°C. Following the ashing, the elements were extracted with 3 ml of IN HNO^ followed by 5 ml of 2N HCI. Potassium, Ca, Mg and Na concentrations were determined with the Perkin-Elmer 330 atomic absorption unit. Phosphorus was determined co lour imetr ica l l y using the Molybdenum Blue Method (Fisk and Subbarow, 1925, according to Chapman and Prat t , 1961). Total N was extracted by acid digestion at 420°C and determined co lour imetr ica l l y by a Technicon Autoanalyzer II (Technicon,.1975). Total N did not include n i t r a te s . 2. Plant Material Plant samples were brought in from the f i e l d in paper bags and dried at 70°C in a forced a i r oven for 24; hours. The plant material was ground in a sta in less steel Wiley m i l l to pass a 2 mm sieve and stored in p l a s t i c containers. In 1975 the clover and orchardgrass were analyzed together and a separate sample was taken for the determination of the percent clover (second cut only). In 1976, when there was clover present, the grass and clover components were hand separated pr ior to drying and chemical analys i s . The percentage of each component was then determined on a dry weight basis and each component was analyzed separately. The elements analyzed and procedures used for the plant material were ident ica l to those used for the poultry manure, except that n i t ra te content was determined on the plant samples. Nitrate was extracted in a 10:1 water to plant sample r a t i o , shaken for 30 minutes and f i l t e r e d . N i t rate was 44 determined using the Cadmium reduction method with a Technicon Auto-analyzer II (Technicon, 1972). 3. Soi l Samples The so i l samples were brought from the f i e l d in paper bags and immediately dried at 55°C in a forced a i r oven for 24 hours. The samples were ground in a Hewitt s o i l grinder to pass a 2 mm sieve and stored in a i r t i g h t p l a s t i c containers. Nitrate and ammonium were extracted according to Bremner and Keeney (1963) using 2N KC1 at a 10:1, KC1 to dry weight of s o i l r a t i o . Nitrate was determined co lo r imet r i ca l l y using the same procedure as for the plant samples. Ammonium was determined co lo r imet r i ca l l y by the same procedure as for tota l N determinations of the poultry manure and plant mater ia l . Total s o i l N was determined s im i l a r l y to the tota l N determinations of the poultry manure and plant mater ia l . D. N Balance Determination The % N recovered for the manured plots was determined by the difference method according to A l l i s on (1966) and Mathers and Stewart (1974). It was calculated as fol lows: % N accounted for = N, removed by grass and clover N for the plus n itrate-N in 0-90 cm plus same compon-tota l N 0-15 cm at a given ents in the manure rate control N added in the manure 45 For a l l but the 20 and 40 t/ha plots in 1975 and the 40 t/ha plots in 1976, the N removed by the crop i s the only component used. Total N and n i t ra te values recorded as kg/ha were determined using 3 3 0.95 g/cm as the bulk density in the surface 30 cm and 1.25 g/cm in the 30 to 90 cm zone. The surface bulk density was based on a leaching column study in the lab using the Grigg s o i l (Safo, personal communication, 1978) and values given in the l i t e r a tu re (Adams ejt al_., 1960; Soanes, 1970; Flocker et aJL, 1958). The value of 1.47 g/cm3 (2 x 10 6 kg/hectare furrow s l i c e ) often used i s f a r too high for surface agr icu l tura l s o i l s 3 as values of 1.20 to 1.50 g/cm have been shown to i nh ib i t i n g crop y ie ld s (Flocker et al_., 1958). E. S t a t i s t i c s Percentage nutr ient values and y i e l d were subjected to analysis of variance treatments and s i gn i f i can t effects at the 0.05 level were graphed using cu rv i l i near relat ionships ( L i t t l e and H i l l s , 1975). Regression equations s i gn i f i can t at the 0.05 and 0.01 level are reported. Soi l n i t ra te levels were subjected to an analysis of variance treatment and LSD values were determined at the 0.05 l e v e l . 46 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. Manure Composition Mean values, rangesof concentrations and the coef f i c ient s of var iat ion of the nutr ient elements and moisture content of the poultry manure are given in Table i l l . The N supplied by the d i f fe rent rates of manure in 1975 and 1976 i s l i s t e d in ; Table IV. Moisture content, % Ca, and % Na of the poultry manure were s im i l a r in both 1975 and 1976. The N, P, K and Mg percentages were a l l lower in 1976 than in 1975. In 1976 the v a r i a b i l i t y of the manure composition among bags was between three and ten times greater than in 1975. Higher moisture content in several of the bags accounted for the greater v a r i a b i l i t y in 1976. Nitrogen showed the greatest increase in v a r i a b i l i t y and Ca the lowest. Generally, aged manure from the high-r ise poultry house produced a comparatively consistent source of nutrients (Table I I I ) . Within a given year (or batch of manure removed from the house), the nutr ient v a r i a b i l i t y was low, pa r t i cu l a r l y in 1975. Nitrogen concentrations in the manure remained high even though the manure was dried and stored in the p i t at least one year. The N:P:K ra t io of the manure indicates that K may become l im i t i n g i f the manure i s applied at rates to meet the N requirements of most crops. B. Y ield Analysis of variance for dry matter forage y ie lds in 1975 and 1976 Table II I: Manure composition % Moisture %N %P %K %Ca %Mg %Na _________ o r y Weight Basis - - -19751 Mean 22.50 5.08 2.51 2.02 5.92 0.72- 0.51 7.4 3.7 5.4 6.1 10.1 4.1 3.6 Coeff ic ient of Variation Range 20.28- 4 .63-2 .27-1 .84- 4.77- 0.66- 0.47-27.34 5.45 2.82 2.30 7.63 0.78 0.55 19762 Mean 23.10 3.53 1.60 • 1J44 5.60 0.58 0.45 30.0 39.11 35.0 30.4 30.6 28.5 28.9 Coeff ic ient of Var iat ion Range 18.33- 1 .96 -1 .10 -1 .25 -4 .57 - 0.48- 0.40-33.33 6.10 2.40 2.01 7.49 0.74 0.56 ^Mean of 31 samples 2 Mean of 29 samples 48 are given in Appendix Tables BI and B2. Total y ie lds and the indiv idual y i e l d tota l s for each harvest for both years are also l i s t e d (Appendix Tables CI and C2). The control y ie lds are l i s t e d in Appendix Tables CI and C2 but are not included in the s t a t i s t i c a l analys is. In 1975, the control produced a mean forage y i e l d per cut of 1.54 t/ha and a tota l dry matter y i e l d of 3.08 t/ha. This high value i s due to the legume component in the forage. In 1976 the tota l y i e l d of the control was the same as the 1.25 t/ha treatments. Again, the reason for th i s v/as the c o n t r i -bution of the clover component in the stand. In 1975, there was a s i gn i f i can t mean y i e l d response to manure t r ea t -ment (Figure 2). Mean y i e l d values increased from 1.91 to 3.53 tonnes of dry matter/ha for the 1.25 and 40 t/ha manure treatments, respect ively. Although mean y i e l d values increased with manure treatment, there was a ten-fo ld decrease in the forage y i e l d increase per tonne of poultry manure as the rate of manure increased. The mean dry matter increase per tonne of manure was 200, 112, 64, 36 and 21 kg of dry matter forage per hectare, respect ively, for 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha of poultry manure. The y i e l d increase per tonne of manure i s approximately halved as the manure rate i s doubled. Above the 2.5 t/ha treatment, the addit ional manure produced an increase in grass y i e l d and a decrease in clover y i e l d and content. The overal l sward s t i l l showed an increase in y i e l d above the 2.5 t/ha treatment because the dry matter y i e l d of the clover decreased at a slower rate than the grass y ie lds increased. The 2.5 t/ha rate of poultry manure supplied 98.5 kg N/ha in 1975 (Table IV). Manure rates of between f i ve and ten t/ha/year would supply a range of N which would optimize the forage mixture y ie lds without a complete removal of the clover component. 6t7 Table IV: N supplied by manure treatments in 1975 and 1976 Manure Treatment N Supplied by the Manure Year t/ha kg/ha 1975 1976 1.25 2.5 5.0 10 20 40 1.25 2.5 5.0 10 20 40 49.0 98.5 197 394 787 1575 33.9 67.8 136 272 543 1086 51 The 1976 tota l y ie lds were considerably higher than in 1975. This would be expected as the sward was a new stand in 1975. In 1976 the poultry manure was surface applied rather than incorporated and there was no clover in the heavily manured p lots . There was an addit ional factor of method of appl icat ion (single versus s p l i t ) in 1976. For a l l cuts and both methods, except:the s p l i t appl icat ion method on the second cut, there was a s i gn i f i can t y i e l d response to manure treatment. The f i r s t cut produced the highest y i e l d s , between 30 and 50% of the tota l y i e l d in less than one-fourth of the growing season. The s ingle appl icat ion of manure produced forage y ie lds of 5.97 and 6.03 t/ha of dry matter at the 5 and 10 t/ha treatments, respect ively. The dry matter produced at the 20 and 40 t/ha manure treatments was s im i l a r to the y ie lds obtained at the 2.5 and 1.25 t/ha rates. Excessive soluble s a l t s , free ammonia t o x i c i t y , smothering of the forage and/or ammonium induced cation def ic ienc ies were a l l possible mechanisms which caused the y i e l d reductions at the 10, 20 and 40 t/ha manure treatments. Soluble sa l t s can reduce y ie lds by up to 20% without any noticeable damage to the plants. Free ammonia affects the roots and possibly the crown of the grass, reducing y i e l d s . Ammonium can induce a cation def ic iency such as Ca which causes terminal bud malfunction r e s t r i c t i n g the i n i t i a l plant growth. Smothering of the forage can also reduce growth i f the forage remains covered long enough. A s im i la r decrease at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments occurred at the second harvest, s p l i t appl icat ion method. The s p l i t appl icat ion did not cover the fo l iage s u f f i c i e n t l y , - p a r t i c u l a r l y at the 20 t/ha rate, for smothering to be a cause of the y i e l d reduction. There was no s i gn i f i can t reduction in the cation concentration of the orchardgrass for any s ingle 52 treated plot at the f i r s t cut, so an ammonium induced def ic iency was un l i ke ly . The % P concentration was unaffected by manure appl icat ion at the f i r s t harvest. Thus a reduction of P a v a i l a b i l i t y as a resu l t of s a l t or ammonia increasing the pH was also un l ike ly to have been respon-s i b l e for the y i e l d decreases. Free ammonia t o x i c i t y or a general sa l t e f fect due to ra i s ing of the osmotic pressure of the solut ion around the roots of the grass or within the plant, was the most l i k e l y cause of the y i e l d reduction. Adverse effects of the manure at the high appl icat ion rates were modified at the i n i t i a l manure appl icat ion date because of two intense r a i n f a l l s within two weeks of app l i cat ion , when 22.10 and 23.88 mm of rain f e l l . The high in tens i ty of th i s rain could have been su f f i c i en t to pre-vent permanent damage. The orchardgrass at these high manure treatments was reduced i;n tota l y i e l d only at the 40 t/ha treatment. The potential for crop damage or complete crop f a i l u r e i s high, pa r t i cu l a r l y when a p p l i -cations of heavy rates of poultry manure are applied during dry periods or l a te r in the growing season. The 40 t/ha s p l i t manure appl icat ion produced the highest y ie ld s at the f i r s t cut. This was a 47% increase over the 1 dry matter produced at the 1.25 t/ha manure treatment. Diminishing increases in the dry matter produced per tonne of manure occurred at rates above 2.5 t/ha. However, a substantial increase in dry matter y i e l d per tonne of manure was s t i l l obtained at the 5 t/ha treatment (Figure 3). Pure established orchardgrass stands have been found to require between 170 and 340 kg N/ha/year for optimum y i e l d responses (Wedin, 1974). Only the 10 t/ha treatment supplied tota l N within that range (271 kg N/ha, Table IV). Cool, wet c l imat ic / / SINGLE APPLICATION —A-SPLIT APPLICATION J L • » Significant at the O.OI level • Significant at the 0.05 level 1.25 2.5 5 10 20 40 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes/hectare) Figure 3. F i r s t Cut, 1976 - T o t a l Y ield as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Appl ication 54 conditions and the clover present in the two lower manure treatment plots may have accounted for the optimum y i e l d response at the lower manure treatments. The second cut produced the lowest y i e l d of any harvest for both appl icat ion methods in 1976. There was a s i gn i f i can t y i e l d response to manure treatment for the s ingle appl icat ion method only (Figure 4). The response was s im i la r to the s p l i t appl icat ion of the f i r s t cut with dim-in ish ing y i e l d returns per tonne of manure occurring above the 2.5 t/ha manure treatment. A good y i e l d response to manure treatment was s t i l l observed up to the 10 t/ha treatment. There was no s i gn i f i can t y i e l d response to the s p l i t appl icat ion method at the second harvest. At rates above 10 t/ha, free ammonia damage or soluble sa l t s resulted in y i e l d reductions. The addit ional manure applied a f te r the f i r s t harvest was benef ic ia l at the lower manure rates. Yield values were greater for the s p l i t appl icat ion treatments than for the s ingle appl icat ion treatments at manure rates below 10 t/ha. For the th i rd harvest, the e f fect of manure treatment on y ie lds for both the s ingle and s p l i t appl icat ion y ie lds produced s i gn i f i can t responses (Figure 5). Generally, the s p l i t appl icat ion treatments produced y ie lds higher than the s ingle appl icat ion treatments. The s ingle appl icat ion treatments showed a y i e l d increase of 89% over the range of manure t rea t -ments compared to 55% for the s p l i t appl icat ion treatments. Good increases in y i e l d per tonne of manure were found up to 10 t/ha although the maximum increase occurred at the 5 t/ha treatment for both methods. At the fourth cut, both the s p l i t and s ingle appl icat ion methods showed s im i la r s i gn i f i can t y i e l d responses to manure treatment (Figure 6). The 2 I .34(x!f!!ll SINGLE APPLICATION QT-I—L * Significant at the 0.05 level 1.25 2.5 5 10 20 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes/hectare) 4 0 Figure 4. Second Cut, 1976 - Total Y ield as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Application 5 r 1.25 2.5 5 10 2 0 40 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes/hectare) Figure 5. Third Cut, 1976 - Total Y ield as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Application Figure 6. Fourth Cut, 1976 - Total Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure ^ Treatment and Method of Application 58 s p l i t appl icat ion method had y ie lds 0.3 to 0.4 t/ha higher than the s ingle appl icat ion method. The s ingle appl icat ion led to a 131% y i e l d increase compared to 113% for the s p l i t appl icat ion between the 1.25 and 40 t/ha treatments. Residual N at the higher manure treatments i s responsible for the higher percentage y i e l d increase at the fourth cut. Total y ie lds ranged from 10.04 at the 1.25 t/ha manure rate to 16.08 t/ha at the 20 t/ha manure rate, s p l i t appl icat ion (Figure 7). The 40 t/ha rates were s l i g h t l y lower than e i ther of the 20 t/ha treatments' tota l y i e l d s . At the 5, 10 and 20 t/ha manure treatments the s p l i t a p p l i -cation method produced tota l y ie lds about 1.2 t/ha higher than the s ingle appl icat ion method. The tota l y ie lds of the mid-range manure treatments would indicate a more e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of the manure resources, pa r t i cu l a r l y N, when the manure i s surface applied in three equal a p p l i -cations rather than a l l at once. The lower tota l y ie lds for the s ingle appl icat ion method might also be the resu l t of damage due to free ammonia or soluble sa l t s when the manure was applied in the spring. The y i e l d data were influenced by the clover present in the 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha manure treatments and the coo l , wet weather during the summer. The clover increased the y ie lds at the lower treatments above what would be expected i f a pure stand of orchardgrass had received the same treatments. As w e l l , the cooler weather increased the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of the mineralized N. The cooler weather provided excel lent growing conditions for the grass so there was a higher demand for N and thus less N was l o s t during the growing season. The combination of these two factors produced maximum increases in dry matter y ie lds per tonne of manure at the 2.5 t/ha rate. Excellent y i e l d increases s t i l l occurred up to the 10 t/ha rate but Q> k_ O O If) Q _ J U l >-_ l < r -o CO 16 15 14 I 13 12 It o T C - SINGLE APPLICATION S - SPLIT APPLICATION 1.25 2.5 5.0 10 20 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes/hectare) 40 Figure 7. 1976 Total Y ie ld as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Application cn CD 60 at a lower increase per tonne of manure than at the 2.5 t/ha treatment. The wet weather, pa r t i cu l a r l y around the f i r s t and th i rd manure a p p l i -cation dates, possibly modified the adverse e f fect of the heavy manure rates. Had d r i e r weather followed any one of the manure appl icat ions, more severe damage could have resulted at the s ingle appl icat ion rates of 10 t/ha and above and at the s p l i t appl icat ion rates of 20 and 40 t/ha. C. Botanical Composition In 1975 increasing the manure rate decreased the clover content. The clover content from the 5 t/ha to the 40 t/ha manure treatment remained f a i r l y constant (Table V). It has been suggested that N applied as manure causes less depression of clover content than i f the same amount of N i s applied as inorganic N f e r t i l i z e r s (Whitehead, 1970; Parker, 1966). The l e ve l l i n g o f f of the clover content at approximately 25% above the 5 t/ha rate could be an ind icator of t h i s . Weeds were present in the new stand only. They were not a function of manure treatment but of the forage growth rate. The weeds were highest in the control and the 1.25 t/ha treatment, which had the lowest forage y i e l d s . V i r t u a l l y no weeds were present at rates greater than 10 t/ha in 1975. In 1976 no appreciable weed component was observed. The clover was eliminated at the 10 t/ha manure treatment and above from the f i r s t harvest date on in 1976 (Table VI). By the th i rd cut, the clover disappeared completely from the 5 t/ha p lo t s , both methods. Only in the cont ro l , 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha plots was clover a factor. The clover-content decreased considerably from the l a s t harvest date in August 1975 Table V: Botanical composition - second cut, 1975 Control 1.25 2.5 5 10 20 40 ___________________ t/ha — — — — % Legume 46 47 33 22 28 26 25 % Weeds' 15 20 9 8 2 1 2 Table VI: Percent legume - 1976 Cut Control 1.25 s in spl 2. s in 5 spl 5 - . t / h a s in spl 10 1 20 40 — % Clover - Dry Weight Basis 1st 11 14 16 7 9 2 3 0 0 0 2nd 26 24 27 13 18 3 5 0 0 0 3rd 27 34 32 22 12 1 1 0 0 0 4th 26 37 39 27 19 0 0 0 0 0 For the manure treatments.above 10 t/ha, the legume content was the same for both methods. 63 to the f i r s t harvest date in May 1976. By the f i r s t cut, the clover content in these plots was less than 20%. More frequent cuts in 1976 reduced the shading by the grass and the clover content improved by the fourth cut to at least double the i n i t i a l percentage in 1976. The th i rd manure appl icat ion fol lowing the second harvest at the 2.5 t/ha manure treatment depressed clover y ie lds at the th i rd and fourth harvests com-pared to the s ingle appl icat ion. Otherwise the s p l i t appl icat ion had no apparent e f fect on the clover percentage at the 1.24 and 2.5 t/ha rates. Besides the obvious adverse e f fect of N on the c lover, shading of the clover by the grass, pa r t i cu l a r l y between the l a s t cut in 1975 and the f i r s t cut in 1976, was a major cause of the clover disappearance. In 1976, the more frequent cutt ing dates allowed the clover percentage to increase in the manured plots where the clover was not i r r eve r s i b l y affected. D. % Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and % Nitrate-N in the Forage Percent to ta l kjeldahl nitrogen (% TKN) shows a s i gn i f i can t response s im i la r to the response of the mean y ie ld s in 1975 (Figure 8). The % TKN levels had the greatest increase per tonne of manure at the 2.5 t/ha treatment. Substantial gains in percentage increases per tonne of manure continued un t i l the 10 t/ha rate. The second cut produced no s i gn i f i can t response. Only the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments produced higher % TKN in the forage than the 1.25 t/ha rate. This i s because the 1.25 t/ha treatment contained 50% clover in the stand while the remaining treatments had about 30% clover. There i s very l i t t l e transfer of N f ixed by clover to the grass in the establishment year of a clover-grass sward (Whitehead, 1970). 64 4.0 h % TKN IN THE FORAGE % TKN - FIRST CUT Y = 2 . 3 6 ( X a " 3 4 ) * * 3.0 L * *• Significant at the 0.01 level 2.0 0.3 % N0 3-N IN THE FORAGE 0.2 % N0 3 -N - FIRST CUT % N0 3 -N - SECOND CUT *--*v Y s • ,0.5712)* / / ~ , 0.9318*** . . ^ # Y = 0.006 (X • ) * * Significant at the 0.01 level * Significant at the 0.05 level 0.0 5 10 20 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes hectare) 40 Figure 8. Percent Total Kjeldahl N and % Nitrate-N in the Forage by Cut in 1975 as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment 65 Therefore, the high TKN percentage in the 1.25 t/ha treatment was simply a resu l t of the higher clover content in the stand which contains a higher percentage of N than orchardgrass. The 20 and 40 t/ha treatments produced the highest % TKN values because of the high quantit ies of N supplied at these manure rates (787 and 1575 kg N/ha, respect ive ly ) . The TKN levels were s i g n i f i c an t l y higher at the f i r s t cut in 1975. The f i r s t cut produced n i t ra te concentrations s i g n i f i c an t l y higher than the second cut but the n itrate-N levels were s t i l l below the 0.34% nitrate-N considered potent ia l l y tox ic by Wright and Davison (1964). Only the 10 and 40 t/ha treatments in the f i r s t cut produced n itrate-N percen-tages in the forage above 0.20% ( c r i t i c a l n i trate-N level c i ted by Williams et_ al_., 1972).- No n itrate-N percentages in excess of 0.20% were found for any treatment at the second cut. The higher n i t rate-N concentrations for the f i r s t cut are due to the high rates of N incorporated into the s o i l with the manure in the spring. The rate of increase of the % nitrate-N for both cuts i s much higher than for any other element or for dry matter y i e l d (Figure 8). The second cut produced the highest rate of increase, twice the rate increase of the f i r s t cut. It i s the resu l t of the residual N at the higher manure treatments. Nitrate responses to manure appl icat ions were much greater than the % TKN yet in no case did the nitrate-N levels become alarmingly high. For manure rates which supplied the optimum N suggested for maximum orchardgrass-clover y ie lds (5 or 10 t/ha treatment), n i t rate-N concentrations were no cause for concern. In 1976, the orchardgrass forage was analyzed separately from the clover when clover was present. Only in the cont ro l , 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha 66 treatments was there s u f f i c i en t clover in the samples for analys is . At these low rates, n itrate-N percentages in the clover were s im i la r to the % nitrate-N in the orchardgrass (less than 200 ppm). The % TKN concentrations were approximately two to three times higher in the clover than the orchardgrass for a l l four cuts. A complete chemical analysis of the clover i s presented in Appendix Table E l . The N concentrations are taken into account for the N balance sheet but the N values recorded for the clover have been omitted from the discussion of % TKN and % n i t ra te -N. The effects of the clover and N f i xa t i on by the clover on the chemical composition of the orchardgrass i s important in explaining some of the responses observed in 1976. At the f i r s t harvest the % TKN for the s ingle and s p l i t appl icat ion treatments produced s i gn i f i can t responses to manure treatment (Figure 9). The maximum increase in % TKN per tonne of manure for the s ingle appl icat ion method occurred at the 2.5 t/ha manure treatment. The maximum increase in % TKN for the s p l i t appl icat ion method occurred at the 5 t/ha manure rate. Substantial increases in the % TKN gain per tonne of manure for both methods were observed up to the 10 t/ha treatment. The s ingle a p p l i -cation treatments produced % TKN concentrations higher than the s p l i t appl icat ion treatments at a l l rates of manure. Percent n i t rate-N increased approximately 25 times from the 1.25 to the 40 t/ha treatment. The s ingle appl icat ion treatments produced actual n i t rate-N concentrations.ranging from 0.01 to 0.50%. The s p l i t appl icat ion treatments ranged from 0.01 to 0.30% nitrate-N (Figure 9; Appendix Table D3). Nitrate-N percentage in the orchardgrass at the 10, 20 and 40 t/ha single appl icat ion treatments and the 20 and 40 t/ha s p l i t appl icat ion 67 3.0 h % TKN IN THE FORAGE % TKN -SINGLE — -% TKN -SPLIT - — o Y = . . 2 3 ( X 0 - 2 2 2 4 ) * * 2.0 ?'= 0.0371 -0.0180X'+ 0.I573(X') * * Significant at the 0.01 level • Significant at the 0.05 level .0 0.6 % N 0 3 - N IN THE FORAGE 0.4 % N 0 3 - N - SINGLE + •'+ % N 0 3 - N - SPLIT &• • «A Y = 0 . 0 0 9 ( X 1 1 0 8 ) i 0.2 Y= 0.004 (X I J 3 b ) * * Significant at the 0.01 level j L-5 10 20 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes/hectare) 40 Figure 9. F i r s t Cut, 1976 - Percent TKN and % Nitrate-N in the Forage as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Appl icat ion. 68 treatments were in excess of 0.20%. The rate of increase in % n i t rate-N per tonne of manure was maximum at the higher manure treatments for both methods. This i s the opposite response to that found for % TKN and dry matter y i e l d . At the higher manure treatments, the manure was supplying N in excess and the orchardgrass i s taking up n i t ra te faster than i t can be assimilated into protein. Therefore the n i t ra te i s accumu-la t ing in the orchardgrass on the heavily manured p lots . At the second %!<TKN and % nitrate-N responded s i g n i f i c a n t l y ' t o both the single-and s p l i t appl icat ion methods (Table lO)".- The % TKN for the s ingle and s p l i t appl icat ion treatments followed a s im i l a r response. The addit ional manure added fol lowing the f i r s t harvest had no apparent e f fect on the % TKN. The maximum rate increase in % TKN was at the 2.5 t/ha treatment for both methods. Substantial increases in % TKN occurred up to the 20 t/ha rate. The % TKN for the second cut, both methods, was s i g n i f i c an t l y higher than the f i r s t cut. At the second harvest lower y ie lds coincide with higher qua l i ty forage in terms of crude protein (% TKN). The 20 and 40 t/ha treatments for both methods produced the maximum increase in % n itrate-N per tonne of manure for the second cut. The excessive N applied at these manure rates caused the large increase in % nitrate-N above the 10 t/ha treatment. Nitrate-N concentrations in the orchardgrass at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments for both methods were higher than the potent ia l l y toxic l im i t s of 0.34 to 0.45% suggested by Wright and Davison (1964). Orchardgrass in the 10 t/ha s p l i t appl icat ion treatment had 0.32% n i t ra te -N. Nitrate-N percentages for the above-mentioned treatments were considerably higher at the second harvest than at the f i r s t harvest. 69 4.0 h % TKN IN THE FORAGE 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.2846v** % TKN-SINGLE —A— % TKN - SPLIT Significant at the 0.01 level 0.8 0.6 % N 0 3 - N IN THE FORAGE 0.4 %N0 3 -N -S INGLE <>—o % N 0 3 - N - SPLIT Y =0.006 ( X L 5 3 6 ) * V * * 1 4 1 3 . * * .•• Y= 0.004 (X 1- 4 1 3) 0.2 0.0 # * Significant at the 0.01 level 5 10 20 30 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes / hectare) 40 Figure 10. Second Cut, 1976 - Percent TKN and % Nitrate-N in the Forage as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Appl icat ion 70 Higher % TKN values and increased n i t r i f i c a t i o n of the manure N resulted in more rapid accumulation of n i t r a te s . Above a certa in to ta l organic N l e v e l , n i t ra te ass imi lat ion into protein slows and n i t ra te accumulation proceeds very rap id ly . Lund et aj_. (1975) indicated about 2.5% tota l organic N was the c r i t i c a l percentage. N i t r i f i c a t i o n of the manure N probably reached a maximum between the f i r s t and second harvest, thus large quantit ies of n i t rate-N were present in the root zone. At the f i r s t harvest n i t r i f i c a t i o n was l imited to some degree by temperature. Produc-t ion of n i t ra te from the mineralized manure N probably peaked between the f i r s t and second harvests. For the th i rd harvest,.% TKN responded s i gn i f i c an t l y to-the s p l i t appl icat ion treatments (Figure 11).",., The concentrations and response are s im i la r to those observed in the f i r s t cut for the s p l i t appl icat ion treatments. There was no s i gn i f i can t response of the % TKN in the s ingle appl icat ions. The clover present in the 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha manure treatments (34 and 22% c lover, respectively) produced higher % TKN values in the orchardgrass than in the orchardgrass of the 5 and 10 t/ha manure treatments. Very l i t t l e manure N was ava i lab le at the s ingle a p p l i -cation rates below 20 t/ha by the th i rd harvest. Both methods produced s im i la r n i t r a te concentrations un t i l the 10 t/ha treatment for the th i rd cut. The s p l i t appl icat ion treatments i n -creased at a greater rate than the s ingle appl icat ion treatments above the 10 t/ha treatment. The th i rd manure appl icat ion fol lowing the second harvest probably accounts for the greater rate of increase at the higher manure rates in the s p l i t appl icat ion treatments. The rate of increase and the % n itrate-N were lower for both methods at the th i rd cut than for the second cut. The 20 and 40 t/ha treatments for both methods produced % n itrate-N 71 2.0 % TKN IN THE FORAGE 1.01 Y = « . 0 2 ( X ° - 2 3 9 8 ) * % TKN-SPLIT * Significant at the 0.05 level j i i _ 0.4 % N 0 3 - N IN THE 0.2 FORAGE % N 0 3 - N - SINGLE — — • % N 0 3 - N - SPLIT • • Y = 0.004 (X l d * b ) ' 1 Y- 0.004 ( X 1 1 5 3 ) * ••Significant at the 0.01 level * Significant at the 0.05 level _i 1 L 5 10 20 30 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes/ hectare) 40 Figure 11. Third Cut, 1976 - Percent TKN and % Nitrate-N in the Forage as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Appl icat ion 72 concentrations in the orchardgrass in excess of 0.20%. A l l other treatments had nitrate-N percentages below 0.15%. The % TKN in the orchardgrass of the fourth cut responded s i g -n i f i c an t response for the s ingle appl icat ion treatments (Figure 12). There was no s i gn i f i cant response for the s p l i t appl icat ion treatments. The % TKN concentrations for the s ingle appl icat ion treatment decreased i n i t i a l l y then increased at the manure rates greater than 5 t/ha. A s imi la r negative response at the lower manure treatments was observed for the s p l i t appl icat ion method. The negative response for both methods at the low manure treatments i s because of the clover present in the 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha treatments. A portion of the N f ixed by the clover i s transferred to the orchardgrass giving the 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha treatments an addit ional supply of N. By the fourth harvest, at the 5 and 10 t/ha rates, there is l i t t l e residual ava i lable manure N to provide an increase in the N concentration of the orchardgrass. This i s also ref lected in the n i t ra te concentrations of the orchardgrass. The % nitrate-N of the fourth cut produced s i gn i f i can t responses for the s ingle and s p l i t appl icat ion treatments (Figure 12). Nitrate levels were s imi la r for both methods except at the 40 t/ha treatment. The 40 t/ha s p l i t appl icat ion treatment produced orchardgrass containing n itrate-N in excess of 0.50%. The large jump in the nitrate-N percentage between the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments indicates a s i gn i f i can t amount of avai lable s o i l N was s t i l l present at the fourth cut of the 40 t/ha treatment for both methods. 73 3.0 % TKN IN THE FORAGE % TKN - SINGLE 2.0 Y'= 0.3701- 0.2961 X'+ 0.2341 (X') • x 2 * 0.0^-* Significant at the 0.05 level 1 1 L 0.5 0.4 % N 0 3 - N 0.3 h IN THE 0.2 h FORAGE 0.1 h 0.0 % N 0 3 - N -SINGLE %N0 3 -N-SPLIT o — o / o ^ 2 * / Y'= -1.779 -0.7420X'+ l.055(XT / / ^-rS' Y= 0.005 ( X 1 0 6 6 ) * Significant at the 0.05 level 1 I L 5 10 20 30 40 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes/hectare) Figure 12. Fourth Cut, 1976 - Percent TKN and % Nitrate-N in the Forage as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Appl icat ion 74 E. Percent P in the Forage In 1975 there was a s i gn i f i cant cut e f fect with % P (Appendix Table B7). The f i r s t cut produced concentrations s i g n i f i c an t l y higher than the second cut. For both cuts, % P concentrations were independent of manure treatment. Percent P ranged from 0.25 to 0.28% P for the 2.5 and 20 t/ha treatments, respect ively, at the f i r s t harvest. The second harvest produced a range of 0.18 to 0.22% P (Appendix Table D4). Phos-phorus was supplied by the poultry manure in excess of the crops' needs. The P removed by the crop, the P added in the manure, and the estimated P ava i lable over the growing season are l i s t e d in Table VII. The avai lable P from the poultry manure i s 40% of the tota l P as suggested by P h i l l i p s et_ al_. (1978). In a l l treatments in 1975, the tota l P supplied in the manure was in excess and the estimated P avai lable exceeded the P removed by the herbage in a l l but the 1.25 t/ha treatment. In 1976 a s imi la r pattern was observed. There was no s i gn i f i cant method ef fect so % P concentrations presented are an average for both methods. Percent P increased from the f i r s t cut to the second cut. The th i rd and fourth cuts produced % P levels that f luctuated between the concentrations obtained at the f i r s t two harvests. There was no s i g -n i f i c an t response of % P to manure treatment. The results were inconsis-tent and varied with each cut. The f i r s t cut showed very l i t t l e f l u c -tuation in % P. At the second cut the % P in the orchardgrass increased 25% over the range of manure rates appl ied. The th i rd and fourth harvests produced % P concentrations which decreased 15 to 25% from 1,25 to the 40 t/ha treatments (Appendix Table D5). Avai lable P in the surface 15 cm of the so i l was high so no immediate e f fect of the added P in the manure 75 Table VII: Total P and estimated P ava i lable from high-r ise poultry manure and P removed in the forage, 1975 Manure Treatment Total P Added Estimated P P Removed in By Manure Avai lable! The Forage t/ha - - - - — - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - kg/ha — 1 .25 24.3 9.7 9.0 2.5 48.6 19.4 8.9 5.0 97.3 38.9 11 .4 10 194.5 77.8 13.3 20 389.0 155.6 13.8 40 778.1 311.2 17.2 Forty percent of the tota l manure P as determined by P h i l l i p s et a l . , (1978). 76 on the % P concentration in the orchardgrass would be observed at the f i r s t cut. The negative response of % P to manure treatment at the th i rd and fourth harvests was most l i k e l y a d i l u t i on ef fect of the increased y i e l d response to the manure treatment. The P removed by the orchardgrass, the P added by the manure, and the estimated P avai lable in 1976, are given in Table VII I. The e s t i -mated P avai lable for the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments was well in excess of the P removed by the crop. The 10 t/ha treatment had a s imi la r amount of P removed in the harvest as was estimated to be avai lable from the manure. The lower manure rates did not supply an adequate amount of avai lable P to equal the P removed by the crop. The high level of avai lable P in the surface so i l would more than compensate for the differences. At a l l but the two lowest manure rates of 1976, tota l P was added in excess of P removed by the crop. Assuming 40% i s avai lable over the growing season, the 2.5 t/ha treatment in 1975 and the 10 t/ha treatment in 1976 supply s u f f i c i en t P to meet the P demand of the forage. For orchardgrass swards, the high-r ise poultry manure w i l l supply P in adequate amounts when the manure is applied to optimize N u t i l i z a t i o n . F. Percent K in the Forage In 1975, s i gn i f i cant cut and treatment effects for % K were observed (Appendix Table B9). Percent K decreased in the second harvest. The treatment response was the same for both cuts and the mean % K values produced a s i gn i f i cant response, s imi la r to the mean y i e l d response in 77 Table VIII: Total P and estimated P avai lable from high-r ise poultry manure and the P removed in the forage, 1976 Manure Treatment Total P Added Estimated P P Removed in By Manure Available^ The Forage t/ha — ___ kg/ha - — 1.25 15.4 6.2 36.7 2.5 30.8 12.3 41.9 5.0 61.5 24.6 46.4 10 123.0 49.2 49.5 20 246.1 98.4 55.0 40 492.2 196.9 54.9 Forty percent of the tota l manure P as determined by P h i l l i p s et a l . , (1978). 78 1975. The K concentrations in the forage were above 2.0% for a l l treatments of both cuts indicat ing "luxury consumption". The tota l K removed in the herbage, the K added in the manure, and the tota l K avai lable in 1975, are indicated in Table IX. The l a t t e r estimate i s the sum of the avai lable so i l K in the surface 15 cm (pr ior to the i n i t i a l manure appl icat ion) and the tota l K- in the manure (assuming 100% becomes avai lable over the growing season). The tota l K avai lable in 1975 was well in excess of that removed by the crop and most of the excess would remain in the rooting zone for use in 1976. In 1976 the second cut produced the highest percentage of K with the other three harvests having a s imi la r range of concentrations. A l l the values were in excess of the 1.6 to 1.7% K that Hemmingway (1963) suggested as ind icat ing luxury consumption. Percent K values were aver-aged for both methods as there was no s i gn i f i can t method e f fec t . The f i r s t three harvests produced three d i f fe rent s i gn i f i cant responses. At the f i r s t harvest the % K remained approximately at the 3.0% level and then increased to 3.5% at the 40 t/ha treatment (Appendix Table D7). Percent K for the second harvest ranged from 3.20 to 4.50%. At the th i rd harvest, % K ranged from 2.64 to 2.90% K for the 1.25 and 10 t/ha manure treatments, respect ively. The 20 and 40 t/ha treatments had % K concentrations in the orchardgrass of 3.41 and 4.59% K. The % K at the fourth cut had no s i gn i f i cant response. Concentrations of 2.72 to 3.04 were observed up to the 20 t/ha treatment. The 40 t/ha treatment y ielded a % K value of 4.15%. The K removed by the crop in 1976, the residual Kfrom 1975 and the K added by the manure in 1976 are given in Table X. A l l the manure rates supplied less K than was removed by the crop. Most of the K avai lable 79 Table IX: K added in the manure, tota l K avai lable to the forage and the K removed in the herbage, 1975 Manure Treatment Total K Added K Avai lable To K Removed By The Manure The Forage' in the t/ha k g / h a ______.__.._Herbage_ 1.25 19.6 371.5 91.5 2.5 39.1 391.1 117.8 5.0 78.3 430.3 145.3 10 156.6 508.6 195.9 20 313.1 665.1 216.9 40 626.2 978.2 262.4 K added by the manure plus ava i lable s o i l K (352 kg K/ha). 80 Table X: Residual K from 1975, K added in the manure, tota l K ava i lable to the forage and the K removed in the herbage, 1976 Manure Treatment Residual K Total K Added K Avai lable K Removed from 1975 By the Manure to the in the *,/ha ______ wh_ _______•_£________ H----_--1.25 280.0 13.8 293.8 288 2.5 273.3 27.7 301.0 340 5.0 285.0 55.4 340.4 358 10 312.7 110.7 423.4 396 20 448.2 221.5 669.7 519 40 715.8 442.9 1158.7 604 81 for the crop, pa r t i cu l a r l y below the 20 t/ha treatment, was from the K in the so i l and residual K from the manure applications in 1975. In 1976, the to ta l K ava i lable at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments (manure plus residual K) was s t i l l higher than the K removed in the herbage. This could explain the sharp increase in % K between the lower manure rates and the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments (pa r t i cu la r l y the 40 t/ha ra te ) , in a l l but the second cut. Up to the 20 t/ha treatment, the ava i lable K is approximately equivalent to the K removed in the forage. Thus, in a less f e r t i l e s o i l with low ava i lab le s o i l K, the appl icat ion of these poultry manure rates would not meet the orchardgrass needs for K. This would be espec ia l ly so at manure rates applied to meet the N requirements of the crop. Had th i s study continued and the only source of K ava i lable was that supplied by the poultry manure, % K concentrations in the orchardgrass would have decreased and K would probably have become l im i t i n g for plant growth. G. Percent Ca, Mg and Na in the Forage In 1975, % Ca and % Mg were s i g n i f i c an t l y d i f fe rent between cuts (Appendix Tables B l l and B12). For both elements, the concentrations increased from the f i r s t to the second cut. Percent Ca in 1975 decreased s l i g h t l y as the manure rate increased (0.71 to 0.64% at the f i r s t cut 'and 1.11 to 0.86 at the second cut ) . Magnesium concentrations showed no pattern and were inconsistent in re la t i on to manure treatment. In 1975, s i gn i f i cant cut and treatment effects were observed for % Na (Appendix Table B13). As with % Ca and % Mg, Na concentrations increased from the 82 f i r s t to the second cut. The response of mean % Na to manure treatment was s imi la r to the mean forage y i e l d in 1975. Approximately 79 and 158 kg Na/ha were added by the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments, respect ively, so an increase in % Na in the forage was expected. In 1976, the % Ca and Mg increased in the spring from the f i r s t to the second cut then leve l led o f f and remained constant throughout the rest of the growing season. Percent Na showed a gradual increase in concentration as the growing season progressed. The Ca concentrations were low in 1976 compared to 1975. The f i r s t cut produced no s i gn i f i cant response to manure treatment. A s i gn i f i can t response was observed at the second cut. In the th i rd and fourth cuts, % Ca in the orchardgrass decreased s i g n i f i c an t l y with increasing manure treatments. A simple d i l u t i on e f fect and the high K concentration at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatment could have caused the % Ca depression at the th i rd and fourth cuts. Percent Mg was not consistent with manure treatment. There was no s i gn i f i can t response at the f i r s t and th i rd harvests. The second and fourth cuts produced s i gn i f i can t responses. The inconsistent pattern of the Mg concentrations in response to manure treatment or N i s not unexpected. Results from e a r l i e r work (Todd, 1961) indicated that the Mg content in orchardgrass as a function of N f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s var iable from year to year and shows no consistent pattern. In 1976 the rate of response of % Na to manure treatment was the highest except for the nitrate-N response. The s ingle appl icat ion t rea t -ments had no s i gn i f i can t responses at the second and fourth harvests. The s p l i t appl icat ion treatments also had two non-s ignif icant responses 83 at the second and th i rd cuts. In a l l cuts, for both methods except the s p l i t appl icat ion treatment, f i r s t cut, there was a consistent increase in % Na up to the 40 t/ha treatment. At the 40 t/ha rate the Na concentration dropped. At the cuts where the % Na response to manure treatment produced no s i gn i f i can t response, the depression of % Na at the 40 t/ha treatment was s i gn i f i c an t . The increase in % Na was expected due to the large quantit ies of Na added by the manure. The decrease in the % Na at the 40 t/ha treatment could be a competition e f fect with K. The concentrations for a l l cuts increased considerably at the 40 t/ha treatment. G r i f f i t h et^ al_. (1965) have suggested that a rather loose inverse re lat ionship between Na and K content does occur. In 1976, K/Ca + Mg meq rat ios were determined for both methods for a l l cuts. With the exception of one or two treatments, a l l manure rates produced K/Ca + Mg rat ios in excess of 2.2. The highest rat ios were found in the forage of the f i r s t harvest and decreased with each succes-sive cut. There was an inconsistent response of the K/Ca + Mg ra t i o to manure treatment. The high rat ios were p a r t i a l l y the resu l t of the low Ca concentrations in the orchardgrass in 1976 and the general environ-mental conditions in the lower Fraser Val ley. Although forage containing a K/Ca + Mg ra t io in excess of 2.2 i s considered potent ia l l y tetany prone, th i s i s by no means the only ind icator . Mg concentrations below 0.20% are also used to indicate Mg def ic ienc ies and tetany prone forage. Grunes (1973) suggested that i f Mg levels are above 0.20%, ruminants should not suffer Mg def ic iency even though K and N in the forage may be high. The data indicate that the forage of the f i r s t cut would have the potential to cause grass tetany. The K/Ca + Mg ra t i o exceeds 4.0 and % 84 Mg levels are a l l below 0.20% (0.13% Mg average for a l l treatments. If no other Mg was supplemented in the d i e t , mature cows might be susceptible to grass tetany. Tests with ruminants consuming the forage are required before any pos i t ive statements can be made. H. Nitrate-N Levels in the Soi l The analysis of variance tables for n i t rate-N concentrations in the so i l for 1975 and 1976 are in Appendix Tables B17 and B18. In 1975 the treatment x depth interact ion was s i gn i f i can t at the 0.01 l e v e l . The treatment means for n itrate-N in 1975 are in Table XI. Only the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments produced s i gn i f i can t differences in n i t rate-N at any depth. S ign i f i cant differences were found at the 30 to 60 cm depth for the 20 t/ha manure treatment and at the 15 to 30, 30 to 60 and 60 to 90 cm depths for the 40 t/ha treatment. By the end of November in 1975, at the time of sampling, the bulk of the nitrate-N was concentrated at the 30 to 60 cm depth. The n itrate-N concentrations at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments also indicated nitrate-N had leached to the 60 to 90 cm depth. The water table at the time of sampling was at the 90 cm depth in most parts of the plot so n i t ra te was beginning to enter the groundwater. By the spring less than 8.0 ppm nitrate-N was found at the 20 and 40 t/ha rates for a l l depths. Thus, the high levels of n i t ra te found at the 20 and 40 t/ha rates had leached into the groundwater over winter. In 1976, there was a highly s i gn i f i can t treatment x depth interact ion with respect to n i t rate-N concentrations in the s o i l . The method of manure appl icat ion had no s i gn i f i cant e f fect on the so i l n i trate-N concentrations. Table XI; Mean nitrate-N levels in the so i l (ppm) and the e f fect of manure treatment and depth, November 25, 1975. Manure-Treatment Depths t/ha " ~" 0-15cm 15-30cm 30-60cm 60-90 cm — - - - - ppm — — Control 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.4 5 3.1 3.0 3.4 3.1 10 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.3 20 4.2 4.4 10.6 6.5 40 6.6 17.9 33.8 26.2 LSD n ( - - 4.6 ppm. i 86 The mean nitrate-N levels for 1976 are given in Table XII. Only the 40 t/ha treatment produced s i g n i f i c an t l y higher n itrate-N concentrations. The levels of n i t ra te were much less than in 1975. The maximum concen-t rat ion in 1976 was 18.8 ppm nitrate-N compared to 33.8 ppm in 1975. The bulk of the n i t ra te was concentrated at the 30 to 60 cm depth for the 40 t/ha treatment with a s i gn i f i can t proportion at the 60 to 90 cm depth. A s i g n i f i c an t l y higher concentration was found at the 15 to 30 cm depth as we l l . At the 0 to 15 cm depth, the 40 t/ha treatment had a n i t rate-N concentration s i g n i f i c an t l y d i f fe rent from the other manure.treatments except the 20 t/ha rate. The lower n i t ra te concentrations in the so i l in 1976 were possibly the resu l t of the fo l lowing: less N was added by the manure in 1976, the poultry manure was surface applied rather than incorporated, and the manure was applied to an established stand. Considerable N (up to 50%) can be los t by ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n when manure i s surface applied depending on the weather conditions. Some N that otherwise would have been l o s t to leaching could have been v o l a t i l i z e d as ammonia in 1976. Applying the manure to an established forage stand also l im i t s leaching losses as the growing stand can u t i l i z e the•immediately avai lable N. In 1975 i t was several weeks before the forage was growing vigorously and most of the N n i t r i f i e d during th i s period would have been subject to leaching. There was also 450 kg N/ha less applied at the 40 t/ha treatment in 1976 because of a lower concentration in the manure. Table XII: Mean nitrate-N levels in the s o i l (ppm) and the ef fect of manure treatment and depth, December 15, 1976. Manure Treatment Depths t/ha 0-15cm 15-30cm 30-60cm 60-90 cm LSD Q 5 - 3.7 ppm. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ p p m  Control 3.1 3.2 2.9 2.8 5 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 10 3.1 3.0 2.8 3.1 20 4.3 3.6 3.3 3.4 40 7.2 9.6 18.2 10.9 88 I. N Balance The % N accounted for was determined as outl ined in the "Materials and Methods". The N balance in 1975, including the N recovered in the crop, tota l N in the top 15 cm and n itrate-N at the 30 to 90 cm so i l depth, -is presented in Table XIII. In 1975, s i gn i f i can t differences in tota l N in the surface s o i l s (0-15 cm) and n itrate-N concentrations in the so i l (15-90 cm) were observed only at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments. At the lower manure rates, the only N accounted for was in the crop. Total N and nitrate-N concentrations in the so i l were not s i g n i f i c an t l y d i f fe rent from the control at these manure treatments. At the 20 and 40 t/ha manure treatments, 51.3 and 86.6% N was accounted for . In the remaining four manure treatments, between 25 and 33% N was recovered, a l l in the orchard-grass-clover forage. The most N accounted for was at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments, yet only 15 and 10%? respect ively, of the N was recovered in the forage. Total recovery of the N from the manure by the orchardgrass decreased with increasing manure appl icat ion probably because mineral N was ava i lable in excess of the grass 's a b i l i t y to take i t from the s o i l . Leaching losses were s i gn i f i can t at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments and tota l N in the surface 15 cm was increased. Approximately 1000 kg N or about 63% of the added manure N at the 40 t/ha treatment was accounted for in the tota l N of the surface 15 cm. The 20 t/ha treatment had an increase 'of 250 kg N/ha in the surface 15 cm accounting for 31% of the manure N added. No increases occurred below 15 cm. Ammonium determinations were made on the samples at a l l depths but no appreciable differences for any treatment at any depth were observed. At the 2.0 and 40 t/ha treatment, between 30 and 60% of the added manure N remained in an organic form in the top 15 cm. 89 Table XIII: N balance sheet, 1975 - N removed by the c rop*d i f fe rence: in tota l N of the top 15 cm of s o i l , n itrate-N in the 0-90 cm depth of s o i l , N added by the manure.and the % N accounted for . Manure Treatment t/ha. N Removed 2 Cuts Total N in Soil 0-15cm NO3-N 30-90 cm Total N Measured kn/ha - -Increase over Control ' N Added in the Manure Percent N Accounted for K.y/ Ma Control 74 3098 25 3197 - - -1.25 90 - - 16 49 32.6 2.5 100 - - - 26 98 26.5 5.0 130 - - - 56 197 28.4 10 172 - - 98 394 24.9 20 192 3344 65 3601 404 787 51.3 40 236 4097 228 4561 1364 1575 86.6 Increase over the control for a l l but the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments i s based on the N removed by the crop only. 90 This indicates that between 40 and 70% of the added poultry manure N was mineralized over the growing season. No increases in tota l N were found at the lower manure treatments, where experimental er ror , var iat ions in manure composition and any minor losses can account for a s i gn i f i can t portion of the N added. Decomposition rates for manure have been found to be s im i la r over a wide range of manure appl icat ion treatments (Mather and Stewart, 1974). Thus, the manure N l i k e l y was mineralized at a s imi la r rate for a l l the treatments, but only at the two highest manure treatments was there s u f f i c i en t N added for an accurate assessment of the N balance sheet. In 1976, the % N accounted for was generally lower than in 1975 (Table XIV). The exceptions were the 10 t/ha treatment where the % N accounted for was higher in 1976 and the 20 t/ha treatment which had a s im i la r recovery percentage. The general trend for lower recovery values is the resu l t of three factors . Ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n losses would increase because the poultry manure was not incorporated. There was greater v a r i a b i l i t y in the manure N composition which may also account for the increase in the % N recovered at the 10 t/ha treatment. The N f ixed by the clover in the control decreased % N recovered by increasing the N removed by the orchardgrass in the cont ro l . In 1976 only the 40 t/ha treatment supplied s u f f i c i en t N for a pa r t i a l assessment of the N balance sheet. Below the 40 t/ha rate an accurate determination of the N balance i s impossible. The residual tota l N from 1975 makes an estimate of mineral izat ion for 1976 i n va l i d . A decay series is required whereby the mineral izat ion of the residual manure N from the previous year could be determined. 91 Table XIV: N balance sheet, 1976 - N removed by the crop, difference in to ta l N of the top 15 cm of s o i l , n i t rate-N in the 0-90 cm depth of s o i l , N added by the manure and the % N accounted for Manure^ Treatment t/ha N Removed 4 cu t s 2 Total N in s o i l 0-15 cm3 N03-N 0-90 cm Total N Measured - - kg/ha -Increase over Control^ N Added in the Manure Percent N Accounted for Control 176 - 29 205 - - -1. 5 184 - • - )8 34 24.0 2.5 181 - - - 5 68 7.4 5.0 202 - - - 26 136 19.0 10 281 - 105 272 38.7 20 445 - - - 269 543 49.4 40 453 251 126 830 625 1086 57.5 Average of both methods. Includes the N removed in the clover at the cont ro l , 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha rates. Increase in tota l N from the residual tota l N determined in A p r i l , 1976 for a l l the treatments. Increase over the control i s based on the N removed in the crop only, except for the 40 t/ha treatment. 92 The two year balance produced differences only at the 40 t/ha t rea t -ment for the tota l s o i l N and s o i l n i t rate-N concentrations. Between 20 and 30% of the N added in the manure was recovered in the crop over the two years at manure rates below 40 t/ha. At the 40 t/ha treatment, only 16% of the tota l manure N added was recovered by the crop. However, 52% of the tota l N added was accounted for at th i s rate. Approximately one-th i rd of the tota l N added was accounted for in the surface tota l s o i l N. This would indicate that two-thirds of the poultry manure added over the two years was mineral ized. It i s important to note that approximately 30% of the tota l N added was recovered in the harvested orchardgrass at the 10 t/ha rate over the two years. Losses usually resu l t in only 50 to 70% of the tota l added N from inorganic f e r t i l i z e r s being recovered in the crop. Often th i s value is lower (A l l i s on , 1966). Thus, the N added in the manure at the 10 t/ha treatment over the two years is at least 45 to 60% as e f f i c i e n t as an inorganic N source. J . Rate Recommendations The high-r ise poultry manure used in th i s study was easy to handle, v i r t u a l l y odorless and, when applied at rates to meet the N crop requirement, only K was l i m i t i n g . Before using a s im i la r poultry manure product, an analysis for chemical composition and moisture content i s recommended to determine the nutr ient value of the manure. Although within a given batch the manure's v a r i a b i l i t y i s usually low, the chemical composition can vary considerably between poultry houses or batches within one house-. An N input/output scheme could possibly work well for poultry manure. 93 Knowing the N in the feed and the N used by the b i r d , an estimate of the N voided in the manure could be determined without chemical analys is. In e i ther case, an accurate estimate of the nutr ient content, pa r t i cu l a r l y N, is necessary before applying poultry manure to the land. A disposal rate of 20 t/ha/year on orchardgrass forage would ensure maximum loading without n i t ra te leaching problems. Incorporation of the poultry manure into the s o i l i s not possible i f the manure i s applied to an established stand. Odor control could be a problem but the poultry manure from the high-r ise house was dried to less than 25% moisture and the odor was minimal. Whether the manure was applied in a s ingle a p p l i -cation or in three equal appl icat ions did not make any s i gn i f i can t d i f f e r -ence for d isposal . If manure rates in excess of 20 t/ha/year are applied in a s ingle appl icat ion under dry or drought condit ions, crop y i e l d reductions may result. ' Caution i s advised i f applying this rate a l l at once. Sp l i t appl icat ions would decrease the chances of plant damage in the spring. Although:hot the~case-iin=vthis study, drought conditions fol lowing the appl icat ion of one-third of the 20 t/ha/year rate could possibly resu l t in plant damage and y i e l d reduction. The appl icat ion of manure merely for disposal i s not recommended unless there is a serious po l lut ion hazard and there i s no feas ib le a l te rnat i ve . Whenever possible the poultry manure should be stored, handled and u t i l i z e d to conserve the nutrient resources of the poultry manure, pa r t i cu l a r l y N. Based on the data obtained in th is study,.a poultry manure appl icat ion of 10 t/ha/year would supply s u f f i c i en t N most e f f i c i e n t l y to maximize orchardgrass forage y ie lds without ser iously af fect ing the forage qua l i t y . Rates below 10 t/ha/year did not supply enough N to maximize y i e l d s . Above 94 10 t/ha/year there was a very low return in dry matter y i e l d and % TKN of the forage per tonne of manure appl ied. Also, potent ia l l y n i t rate-N toxic forage was common for a l l the harvests at poultry manure rates above the 10 t/ha/year rate. Manure incorporation into the s o i l where possible would increase the e f f i c i ency of the N u t i l i z a t i o n . In established forage stands, incorpor-ation i s not.possible. Sp l i t appl ications i f feas ib le would resu l t in a more uniform y i e l d , possibly a higher dry matter y i e l d and a reduction of n itrate-N in the grass in the spring forage. Drought conditions fol lowing a s p l i t appl icat ion of 10 t/ha/year could possibly cause n i t ra te accumula-tions in the forage and caution should be taken i f s p l i t appl icat ions are applied during the summer months. I r r i gat ion w i l l reduce the v o l a t i l i z a t i o n losses, the n i t ra te accumulating in the plant, and hence w i l l increase the e f f i c i ency of the manure N. When the manure is applied at rates to u t i l i z e the N resource, the K and possibly the P added in the manure i s low re l a t i ve to the N component. Potassium would have to be supplemented for orchardgrass forage and most, other crops. Phosphorus, depending on the inherent s o i l f e r t i l i t y , may or may not have to be supplemented to forage. For most row crops, P would need to be supplemented to the crop i f only manure was used. The land requirements for the u t i l i z a t i o n and disposal of h igh-r ise poultry manure on an orchardgrass sward are shown in Table XV. An integrated farm system where poultry manure can be e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d as a f e r t i l i z e r i s most.desirable. The land areas determined are based on previous work, the data col lected in;.this study and the assumption that N i s the l im i t i n g factor in the appl icat ion of manure to the land. A poultry layer operation 95 Table XV: Land requirements for the u t i l i z a t i o n and disposal of h igh-r i se poultry manure on a pure orchardgrass sward in the Lower Fraser Val ley. 2 5 Size of Fresh Stored N 3 Crop . Disposal Operation Manure , Manure Excreted U t i l i z a t i o n Excreted Dried -Dry wt. to 25% Basis Moisture - - - - — — — kg/year - - - - - - - ha. ha. 1000 layers 64,600 29,070 772 2.9 1.4 365 days 2500 layers 161,500 72,675 1930 7.3 3.6 365 days 5000 layers 323,000 145,350 3859 14.6 7.3 365 days 10,000 layers 646,000 290,700 7718 29.1 14.6 365 days 1. Assuming 64.6 kg manure/bird/year at 80% moisture. 2. One year in a high-r ise poultry house with drying fans. 3. Moisture - 25% and N - 3.54%, dry weight basis. 4. Land requirement as orchardgrass forage, equivalent to 10 t/ha/year. 5. Maximum appl icat ion of manure which w i l l not reduce y ie lds or cause n itrate-N leaching, equivalent to 20 t/ha/year. 96 of 2500 hens would require 7.3 ha of orchardgrass forage to e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e the N resource in the poultry manure. 97 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1. The poultry manure contained 5.1% N, 2.5% P and 2.0% K on a dry weight basis in 1975 with coef f i c ient s of var iat ion less than 10%. Concentrations of 3.5% N, 1.6% P and 1.4% K with an average coe f f i c i en t of var iat ion of 35% were found in.1976. The N:P:K ra t io indicates K and P for some crops would be l im i t i n g i f the poultry manure is applied at rates to meet the N requirements of most crops. 2. In 1975, the highest tota l y i e l d of 7.0 t/ha was produced at the 40 t/ha treatment. The maximum y i e l d increase per tonne of manure occurred at the 2.5 t/ha treatment. Above the 2.5 t/ha manure treatment, the y i e l d increase per tonne of manure decreased with each successive manure t rea t -ment. In 1976, tota l y ie lds ranged from 10 to 16 t/ha. Yield reductions at the f i r s t and second cuts were probably the resu l t of soluble sa l t s or free ammonia. Smothering of the forage and/or ammonium induced cation def ic ienc ies could also have been a factor . Clover in the 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha treatments and the coo l , wet weather of 1976, could have modified the effects of manure treatment on dry matter y i e l d s . 3. Clover was eliminated at a l l rates above 2.5 t/ha by the spring of 1976. More frequent cuttings in 1976 increased the clover percentages in plots receiving manure rates up to 2.5 t/ha. Weeds in the stand were a function of forage growth rather than manure treatments. 4. Percent TKN ranged from 2.41 to 3.58% for the f i r s t cut in 1975. The varying clover percentages at the d i f fe rent manure treatments produced variable % TKN concentrations for the second harvest. Nitrate-N 98 concentrations were higher in the f i r s t cut, but no percentages exceeded 0.34% n i t rate-N. 5. Percent TKN differences among cuts in 1976 are due to the maturity of the orchardgrass at harvesting. Percent TKN showed a diminishing res-ponse to manure treatment. The clover present in the lower manure treatments modified the response of % TKN to manure treatments at the th i rd and fourth harvests pa r t i cu l a r l y . Generally, % TKN showed substantial increase up to the 10 t/ha/year manure treatments. Percent TKN concentrations for the 10 t/ha. treatment ( s p l i t and s ing le method) ranged from 1.24 to 3.30% TKN. At manure rates below 20 t/ha, n itrate-N concentrations did not exceed 0.34% n i t ra te -N. Only at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatment, both methods, did % n itrate-N reach alarmingly high concentrations, potent ia l l y tox ic to ruminants. 6. Levels of P, K, Ca and Mg in the forage were adequate. High so i l concentrations of these elements did not allow for any responses to manure treatments. Poultry manure applied at the 10 t/ha rate supplied ava i lab le P s im i l a r to that removed in the harvested orchardgrass. At th i s rate, manure K would not meet the crop 's needs i f the manure was the only source of K. 7. S ign i f icant differences in s o i l n i t ra te concentrations were found at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments in 1975 and the 40 t/ha treatment in 1976. The n itrate-N concentrations were lower in 1976 at these rates. It may have been because of increased ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n due.to surface applying the manure, a lower N content in the manure used in 1976 and the manure being applied to an established orchardgrass sward. 8. In 1975, the increases in tota l N content in the surface 15 cm 99 indicate between 40 and 70% of the N added in the manure mineral ized. Of the tota l N added in the manure over the two years between 16 and 30% was recovered in the crop. At the 10 t/ha manure treatment, 30% of the tota l N added in the manure was recovered in the harvested orchardgrass for both years. This i s at least 45 to 60% as e f f i c i e n t as an inorganic N source. 9. High-rise poultry manure of the same approximate composition used in th is study could be disposed of at rates of 20 t/ha-year on orchardgrass forage. A layer operation of 2500 hens would require 3.6 ha to dispose of the poultry manure produced in one year. Variations in composition and environmental conditions could a f fect the maximum disposal rate and how i t i s appl ied. 10. 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Poultry manure - i t s preservation, deodorization and d i s i n fec t i on . New Jersey Agr ic. Exp. Stn., Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, New Jersey. Bu l l e t i n 707. 11 p. 111. Z indel , H.C. and C.J. F lega l . 1970. Introduction. Poultry po l l u t i on ; problems and solut ions, p. 4-7. J_n.C.C. Sheppard (ed.) Farm Sc i . Res. Report 117. Michigan Agr ic. Exp. Stn., 55 p. 108a APPENDICES 109 APPENDIX TABLE A l : P rec ip i ta t ion and Temperature Data for 1975 and 1976 from the Chi l l iwack Gibson Road Climatological Stat ion. Temperature-°C Rrecipitation-mm. Year Month Day Min. Max. Mean Total No. of Days Apr i l - -4.4 20.6 7.3 51.10 8 May - 1.7 29.4 12.4 49.78 10 June - 2.8 31.1 14.7 38.86 10 July - 8.3 32.8 18.7 43.94 5 Aug. 4.4 30.6 16.2 94.23 12 Sept. - 4.4 29.4 15.9 10.92 4 Oct. - • -1.1 24.4 9.4 336.04 25 Nov. - -5.0 21.7 5.4 255.27 19 Dec. - -6.7 14.4 3.3 413.77 17 Jan. _ -2.2 12.2 3.8 230.12 18 Feb. - -5.0 10.6 3.'2 167.13 17 March - -10.0 12.8 4.2 125.22 15 Apr i l - -1.1 25.6 9.6 87.38 12 5 2.8 21.7 - 4.57 1 6 7.2 15.0 - - 1 7 5.6 16.1 - 1.78 1 8 7.8 10.6 - 4.57 1 9 5.6 17.8 - - 1 10 7.2 22.2 - 2.03 1 11 6.1 9.4 - 5.59 1 12 1.7 15.0 - - 1 13 1.7 15.0 - 1 14 2.8 8.9 22.10 1 15 1.1 8.9 - - 1 16 -1.1 12.2 - TR 1 17 4.4 9.4 - 1.27 1 18 5.0 11.1 - 1.27 1 19 4.4 14.4 - 23.88 1 20 5.Q 10.6 - 6.35 1 21 1.7 12.8 - 1 22 3.9 13.3 - - 1 23 2.2 12.2 - 6.10 1 24 6.1 10.6 7.87 1 May - 1.7 27.8 12^1 79.50 14 18 1.7 18.9 - - 1 19 2.8 17.7 - - 1 20 7.8 15.6 - - 1 21 3.3 21.7 - - 1 22 6.1 13.9 - 0.51 1 23 8.9 17.7 0.51 1 Continued . . . . n o Temperature- C Year Month Day Min. Max. Mean Precipitation-mm. Total No. of days 1976 June July Aug. Sept. 24 8.9 13.3 - 10.67 25 7.2 15.0 16.76 26 7.8 13.3 - 11.18 27 8.3 12.2 - TR 28 4.4 13.9 - 2.29 29 5.6 13.9 - 5.59 30 2.8 15.0 - -31 2.8 14.4 - 5.08 - 1.7 27.2 14.2 102.11 1 5.6 13.3 - 2.03 15 12.2 15.0 39.37 16 12.8 18.9 TR 17 11.1 26.1 - • - -18 10.0 27.2 - 2.29 19 14.4 19.4 - -20 7.8 27.2 - -21 8.3 21.1 -22 11.1 16.7 4.32 23 10.6 16.1 - 2.79 24 10.0 15.6 - 16.00 25 7.8 16.7 - • 26 10.0 18.3 - -27 5.6 24.4 - -28 9.4 26.1 -29 13.3 21.1 - • 30 8.9 20.0 - 9.65 - 4.4 28.8 16.7 40.39 1 10.0 17.8 - 5.59 2 9,4 22;2 - -3 4.4 15.6 - 3.05 4 5.0 21.7 - 10.16 - 8.3 26.1 16.3 115.82 - 5.6 27.8 15.6 86.36 10 10 15 8 APPENDIX TABLE B l : Analysis of Variance-Yield, 1975. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0757 0.3703 Treatment 5 2.9359 13.818 * * T x B (A) 15 0.2125 1.0391 Cut 1 1.6476 8.1068* T x C 5 0.1854 0.9067 Error 18 0.2045 _ Total 47 -, * - S ign i f i cant at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l , respect ively. APPENDIX TABLE B2: Analysis of Var iance-Yield, 1976. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0329 0.2383 Treatment 5 8.9450 64.779 * * B x T (A) 15 0.2394 1.7340 Method 1 1.5337 11.106 * * T x M 5 0.1790 1.2960 MB/T = B 18 0.0961 0.6958 Cut 3 137.25 993.87 * * C x T 15 2.1704 15.717 * * C x M 3 0.5631 4.0778** G x TM 15 0.5952 4.3098** Error 108 0.1381 -Total 191 0 — -- S i gn i f i cant at the 0.01 l e v e l . APPENDIX TABLE B3: Analysis of variance - % TKN, 1975. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0500 1.1493 Treatment 5 0.8820 23.210 * * T x B ( A ) 15 0.0380 0.8734 Cut 1 3.1982 75.511 * * T x C 5 0.2226 5.1164** Error 18 0.0435 -Total 47 - -* * - S ign i f i cant at the 0.01 l e v e l . APPENDIX TABLE B4: Analysis of variance - % n i t ra te -N, 1975. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0022 1.2008 Treatment 4 0.0535 28.118 * * T xB(A) 12 0.0019 1.0190 Cut 1 0.0990 53.013 * * T x C 4 0.0066 3.5388* Error 15 0.0019 -Total 39 - -, * - S ign i f icant at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l , respect ively. APPENDIX TABLE B5: Analysis of variance - % TKN, 1976. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.1160 2.8957* Treatment 5 11.715 292.59 * * B x T(A) 15 0.0595 1.4868 Method 1 0.1403 3.5038 T x M 5 0.0140 0.3493 MB/T = B 18 0.0222 0.5533 Cut 3 11.768 293.90 * * C x T 15 0.7601 18.983 * * C x M 3 0.6929 17.305 * * C x TM 15 0.0967 2.4141** Error 108 0.0400 -Total 191 -* * , * - S ign i f i cant at the 0.01 and 0.05 l eve l s , repsect ively. APPENDIX TABLE B6: Analysis of variance - % Nitrate-N, 1976. Source DF HS F-Value Block 3 0.0016 0.5840 Treatment 5 0.8861 326.37 * * B x T(A) 15 0.0015 0.5394 Method 1 0.0001 0.0516 T x M 5 0.0014 0.5154 MB/T = B '18 0.0019 0.7021 Cut 3 0.1054 38.808 * * C x T 15 0.0360 13.274 * * C x M 3 0.0218 8.0140** C x TM 15 0.0078 2.8735** Error 106 0.0027 -Total 189 - -* * - S ign i f icant at the 0.01 l e v e l . APPENDIX TABLE B7: Analysis of variance - % P, 1975. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0031 3.6721* Treatment 5 0.0009 1.8634 T x B(A) 15 0.0005 0.5954 Cut 1 0.0588 69.403 * * T x C 5 0.0010 1.1685 Error 18 0.0009 -Total 47 - • -, * - S ign i f icant at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e ve l s , respect ively. APPENDIX TABLE B8: Analysis of variance - % P, 1976. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0023 1.5341 Treatment 5 0.0012 0.7704 B x T(A) 15 0.0012 0.7993 Method 1 0.0003 0.1825 T x M 5 0.0010 0.6313 MB/T = B 18 0.0005 0.3458 Cut 3 0.1838 121.76 * * C x T 15 0.0100 6.6304** C x M 3 0.0011 0.7465 C x TM 15 0.0012 0.8012 Error 108 0.0015 -Total 191 - -- S ign i f icant at the 0.01 l e v e l . APPENDIX TABLE B9: Analysis of variance - % K, 1975. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.1664 4.2556* Treatment 5 2.1400 41.511 * * T x B(A) 15 0.0516 1.3183 Cut 1 5.1026 130.48 * * T x C 5 0.0698 1.7840 Error 18 0.0391 -Total 47 - -, * - S ign i f icant at the 0.01 and 0.05 l eve l s , respect ively. APPENDIX TABLE B10: Analysis of variance - % K, 1976. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 1.0535 9.0365** Treatment 5 8.0764 69.276 * * B x T(A) 15 0.1463 1.2550 Method 1 0.0501 0.4293 T x M 5 0.2668 2.2882 MB/T = B 18 0.1119 0.9596 Cut 3 5.0797 43.572 * * C x T 15 0.6146 5.2720** C x M 3 0.3622 3.1069* C x TM 15 0.1345 1.1537 Error 108 0.1166 -Total 191 -* * , * - S ign i f icant at the 0.01 and 0.05 l eve l s , respect ively. APPENDIX TABLE Bl1: Analysis of variance - % Ca, 1975. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0291 0.6071 Treatment 5 0.0485 1.6752 T x B(A) 15 0.0290 0.6046 Cut 1 0.9718 20.282 * * T x C 5 0.0322 0.6720 Error 18 0.0479 -Total 47 - -* * - S ign i f i cant at the 0.01 1evel. APPENDIX TABLE B12: Analysis of variance - % Mg, 1975. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0021 3.2657* Treatment 5 0.0017 2.3613 T x B(A) 15 0.0007 1.1119 Cut 1 0.0320 49.814 * * T x C 5 0.0021 3.1387* Error 18 0.0006 -Total 47 - -* * , * - S ign i f icant at the 0.01 and 0.05 l eve l s , respect ively. APPENDIX TABLE B13: Analysis of variance - % Na, 1975. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0004 1.6687 Treatment 5 0.0031 4.5454* T x B(A) 15 0.0007 3.0012* Cut 1 0.0096 42.552 * * T x C 5 0.0005 2.1129 Error 18 0.0002 _ Total 47 -, * - S ign i f icant at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e ve l s , respect ively. APPENDIX TABLE B14: Analysis of variance - ! 1 Ca, 1976. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0037 2.2338 Treatment 5 0.0030 1.8134 B x T(A) 15 0.0017 1.0410 Method 1 0.0001 0.0314 T x M 5 0.0023 1.3981 MB/T = B 18 0.0008 0.4776 Cut 3 0.0786 47.396 * * C x T 15 0.0077 4.6285** C x M 3 0.0003 0.1780 C x TM 15 0.0011 0.6823 Error 108 0.0016 -Total 191 -- S ign i f icant at the 0.01 l e v e l . APPENDIX TABLE B15: Analysis of variance - % Mg, 1976. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0012 4.2405** Treatment 5 0.0058 20.580 * * B x T(A) 15 0.0004 1.2455 Method 1 0.0001 0.2669 T x M 5 0.001-0 3.3984** MB/T = B 18 0.0002 0.6277 Cut 3 0.1015 361.23 * * C x T 15 0.0021 7.6418** C x M 3 0.0008 3.0494* C x TM 15 0.0003 1.0507 Error 108 0.0003 -Total 191 - . -* * , * - S ign i f icant at the 0;.01 and 0.05 l eve l s , respect ively. APPENDIX TABLE B16: Analysis of variance - % Na , 1976. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 0.0177 8.8551** Treatment 5 0.2391 119.74 * * B x T(A) 15 0.0046 2.2923** Method 1 0.0075 3.7567 T x M 5 0.0113 5.6420** MB/T = B 18 0.0056 2.7927** Cut 3 0.0257 12.871 * * C x T 15 0.0301 15.065 * * C x M 3 0.0212 10.604 * * C x TM 15 0.0047 2.3624** Error 108 0.0020 -Total 191 -* * - S ign i f icant at the 0.01 l e v e l . APPENDIX TABLE B17: Analysis of variance - Nitrate-N in the s o i l , 1975. Source DF MS F-Value Block 3 5.1969 0.2580 Treatment 4 960.21 47.672 * * Error (A) 12 20.142 -Depth 3 163.89 25.862 * * T x D 12 103.98 16.409 * * Error (B) 45 6.3370 -Total 79 - . . . * * - S ign i f i cant at the 0.01 1 eve!. APPENDIX TABLE Bl8: ; Analysis of variance - Nitrate-N in the soi ' Source DF MS F-Value Block 2 18.956 1.4710 Treatment 4 340.03 26.387 * * Error (A) 8 12.886 -Method 1 6.1291 0.2324 T x M 4 6.6542 0.2523 Error (B) 10 26.373 -Depth .3 20.526 17.969 * * T x D 12 29.210 25.572 * * M x D 3 2.2830 1.9986 T x MD 12 1.2168 1.0653 Error (C) 60 1.1423 -Total 119 - - : * * - S ign i f i cant at the 0.01 l e v e l . APPENDIX TABLE C l : Forage y i e l d by cut, 1975. Manure Treatment Y ie ld t/ha F i r s t Cut Second Cut ' Total _ _____ t/ha - - - - - - - - • 1.25 2.5 5.0 10 20 40 Control 1.44 1.92 2.32 2.95 2.90 3.29 1.28 2.38 2.24 2.63 3.02 3.05 3.71 1.80 3.82 4.16 4.95 5.97 5.95 7.00 3.08 APPENDIX TABLE C2: Forage y ie lds by cut, 1976. Manure Method of Cut Treatment Appl icat ion Total 1st 2nd 3rd 4th t/ha t / h a 1.25 Single 4.72 1.31 2.33 1.68 10.04 Sp l i t 4.17 1.54 2.61 1.72 10.04 2.5 Single 5.94 1.42 2.22 1.61 11.19 Sp l i t 5.30 1.53 2.91 1.86 11.60 5.0 Single 5.97 1.58 2.72 1.59 11.86 Sp l i t 5.78 1.74 3.74 2.14 13.40 10 Single 6.03 1.78 3.21 1.86 12.88 Sp l i t 5.56 1.94 3.94 2.58 14.02 20 Single 5.77 1.54 4.48 3.32 15.11 Sp l i t 6.06 1.65 4.63 3.74 16.08 40 Single 4.84 1.77 4.40 3.88 14.89 Sp l i t 6.14 1.24 4.05 3.66 15.09 Control _ 4.50 1.24 2.54 1.87 10.11 APPENDIX TABLE DI: % tota l Kjeldahl N by cut, 1975. Manure Treatment t/ha F i r s t Cut <y Second Cut Control 2.37 2.45 1.25 2.30 2.40 2.5 2.64 2.18 5.0 2.99 2.18 10 3.13 2.38 20 3.40 2.72 40 3.39 2.90 APPENDIX TABLE D2: % n itrate-N by cut, 1975. Manure Treatment t/ha F i r s t Cut • c r- i-i P* H n n n n ^ n n r- .y Second Cut 1.25 0.04 0.01 2.5 -5.0 0.16 0.02 10 0.22 0.05 20 0.19 0.13 40 0.29 0.19 APPENDIX TABLE D3: % tota l kjeldahl N and % nitrate-N in the forage by cut, 1976. Manure Treatment F i r s t Cut Second Cut Third Cut Fourth Cut t/ha % N % N 0 3 - N % N % N 0 3 - N % N % N 0 3 - N % N % N 0 3 - N Single Method 1 . 2 5 1 . 3 4 0 . 0 1 1 . 6 7 0 . 0 1 1 . 3 4 0 . 0 1 2 . 1 6 0 . 0 2 2 . 5 1 . 3 9 0 . 0 1 1 . 5 9 0 . 0 1 1 . 2 1 0 . 0 1 2 . 0 3 0 . 0 1 5 . 0 1 . 7 1 0 v 0 7 2 . 2 2 0 . 0 1 1 . 1 0 0 . 0 1 1 . 9 4 0 . 0 2 1 0 2 . 2 8 0 . 2 3 3 . 3 0 0 . 1 8 1 . 2 4 0 . 0 3 1 . 8 2 0 . 0 1 2 0 2 . 5 1 0 . 3 0 3 . 9 2 0 . 4 5 2 . 2 0 0 . 2 1 2 . 6 2 0 . 2 0 4 0 2 . 6 2 0 . 3 0 3 . 5 7 0 . 5 2 2 . 1 6 0 . 3 2 3 . 0 7 0 . 5 0 pi i t Method 1 . 2 5 1 . 1 4 0 . 0 1 1 . 6 7 0 . 0 1 1 . 2 6 0 . 0 1 2 . " 1 2 0 . 0 2 2 . 5 1 . 0 9 0 . 0 1 1 . 8 6 0 . 0 2 1 . 1 0 0 . 0 1 1 . 8 4 0 . 0 1 5 . 0 1 . 1 6 0 . 0 1 2 . 2 9 0 . 0 3 1 . 3 4 0 . 0 2 1 . 9 4 0 . 0 2 1 0 1 . 5 3 0 . 0 3 3 . 0 8 0 . 3 2 1 . 7 4 0 . 1 3 1 . 9 2 0 . 0 3 2 0 2 . 1 8 0 . 2 2 3 . 7 8 0 . 5 2 2 . 4 8 0 . 2 8 2 . 8 5 0 . 1 9 4 0 2 . 3 8 0 . 3 0 3 . 6 2 0 . 4 9 2 . 3 6 0 . 3 5 3 . 0 0 0 . 4 2 ontrol 1 . 1 7 0 . 0 1 1 . 7 4 0 . 0 0 1 . 3 9 0 . 0 0 2 . 0 9 0 . 0 2 124 APPENDIX TABLE D4: % P in the forage by cut, 1975. Manure Treatment t/ha F i r s t Cut 0/ Second Cut 1.25 0.26 0.21 2.5 0.25 0.18 5.0 0.27 0.19 10 0.27 0.18 20 0.28 0.18 40 0.26 0.22 APPENDIX TABLE D5: % P in the forage by cut, 1976. Manure Treatment t/ha F i r s t Cut Second Cut Third Cut % Fourth Cut 1.25 0.29 0.38 0.40 0.39 2.5 0.29 0.39 0.38 0.41 5.0 0.28 0.44 0.36 0.39 10 0.30 0.48 0.32 0.37 20 0.28 0.46 0.30 0.37 40 0.31 0.48 0.32 0.35 APPENDIX TABLE D6: % K in the forage by cut, 1975 Manure Treatment t/ha F i r s t Cut 0/ Second Cut 1.25 2.68 2.10 2.5 3.30 2.36 5.0 3.22 2.64 10 3.67 2.90 20 3.98 3.32 40 3.94 3.56 APPENDIX TABLE D7: % K in the forage by cut, 1976 Manure Treatment F i r s t Cut Second Cut Third Cut °/ Fourth Cut t/ha 1.25 2.96 3.20 2.64 2.72 2.5 2.98 3.42 2.88 2.79 5.0 2.89 3.42 2.54 2.64 10 3.03 3.52 2.90 2.99 20 3.15 4.38 3.41 3.04 40 3.<44 4.50 4.59 4.15 APPENDIX TABLE D8: % Ca in the forage by cut, 1975. Manure Treatment t/ha F i r s t Cut e Second Cut I — r 1.25 0.71 1.11 2.5 0.62 1.11 5.0 0.66 0.89 10 0.61 0.79 20 0.69 0.88 40 0.64 0.86 APPENDIX TABLE D9: % Mg in the forage by cut, 1975. Manure Treatment F i r s t Cut Second Cut t/ha •% 1.25 0.20 0.30 2.5 0.20 0.26 5.0 0.23 0.25 10 0.23 0.27 20 0.26 0.28 40 0.22 0.29 APPENDIX TABLE DIP: % Na in the forage by cut, 1975. Manure Treatment F i r s t Cut »L Second Cut t/ha 1.25 0.02 0.05 2.5 0.04 0.05 5.0 0.06 0.08 10" 0.06 0.10 20 0.05 0.07 40 0.06 0.12 APPENDIX TABLE D l l : % Ca in the forage by cut, 1976. Manure Treatment t/ha F i r s t Cut Second Cut Third Cut Fourth Cut 1.25 0.16 0.21 0.31 0.27 2.5 0.15 0.22 0.27 0.27 5.0 0.16 0.24 . 0.21 0.26 10 0.15 0.24 0.21 0.22 20 0.18 0.27 0.23 0.22 40 0.18 0.28 0.23 0.20 128 APPENDIX TABLE D12: % Mg in the forage by cut, 1976. Manure F i r s t Cut Second Cut Third Cut Fourth Cut Treatment 0, t/ha ^ " 1.25 2.5 5.0 10 20 40 0.12 0.11 0.14 . 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.20 0.21 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.22 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.24 0.27 APPENDIX TABLE D13: % Na in the forage by cut, 1976. Manure F i r s t Cut Second Cut Third Cut Fourth Cut Treatment • - - — % t/ha Single Method 1.25 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.05 2.5 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.04 5.0 0.07 0.10 0.02 0.04 10 0.11 0.18 0.06 0.03 20 0.19 0.23 0.33 0.32 40 0.17 0.10 0.12 0.28 Sp l i t Method 1.25 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.06 2.5 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 5.0 0.05 0.15 0.14 0.10 10 0.08 0.22 0.26 0.10 20 0.09 0.17 0.31 0.44 40 0.13 0.10 0.15 0.26 130 APPENDIX TABLE E l : Chemical composition of the Ladino clover by cut, 1976. Manure Method of N P K Ca Mg Na Nitrate-N Treatment Appl icat ion 0/ t/ha " / o " " " F i r s t Cut Control 1,'25 Single 1.25 S p l i t 2.5 Single 2.5 Sp l i t Second Cut Control 1.25 Single 1.25 Sp l i t 2.5 Single 2.5 S p l i t Third Cut Control 1.25 Single 1.25 S p l i t 2.5 Single 2.5 S p l i t Fourth Cut Control 1.25 Single 1.25 S p l i t 2.5 Single 2.5 S p l i t 3.20 0.38 3.82 1.05 0.23 0.07 0.01 3.37 0.40 3.68 1.08 0.23 0.10 0.01 3.28 0.37 3.33 1.18 0.22 0.08 0.01 3.58 0.40 3.22 1.00 0 : 2 3 0.08 0.01 3.20 0.39 4.00 1.03 0.24 0.07 0.01 2 . 9 0 0 . 3 4 2 . 8 6 1 . 6 9 0 . 2 4 0 . 0 7 2 . 8 9 0 . 3 5 2 . 1 6 1 . 5 6 0 . 2 2 0 . 1 0 2 . 8 2 0 . 3 6 2 . 4 4 1 . 9 8 0 . 2 6 0 . 1 2 2 . 8 7 0 . 3 9 2 . 4 0 1 . 6 0 0 . 2 5 0 . 1 2 2 . 6 3 0 . 3 6 2 . 8 0 1 . 5 0 0 . 2 4 0 . 0 8 2 . 7 0 0 . 3 1 2 . 1 0 1 . 6 7 0 . 2 3 0 . 2 7 2 . 6 2 0 . 3 1 1 . 6 6 1 . 9 5 0 . 3 0 0 . 2 6 2 . 6 0 0 . 3 0 1 . 4 5 1 . 8 4 0 . 2 9 0 . 2 6 2 . 6 8 0 ' i 2 4 1 . 2 4 1 . 7 6 0 . 2 8 0 . 2 7 2 . 8 1 0 . 3 0 2 . 2 0 1 . 7 3 0 . 3 0 0 . 2 8 3 . 0 9 0 . 3 4 2 . 3 6 1 . 9 4 0 . 3 2 0 . 1 1 3 . 2 7 0 . 3 6 2 . 1 5 1 . 7 3 0 . 3 3 0 . 2 2 3 . 3 7 0 . 3 6 1 . 7 3 1 . 8 4 0 . 3 4 0 . 2 7 3 . 1 9 0 . 3 8 1 . 9 1 2 . 0 5 0 . 3 4 0 . 2 2 3 . 1 6 0 . 3 4 2 . 0 6 1 . 7 6 0 3 3 2 0 . 1 8 131 APPENDIX TABLE F l : Horizon Depth Aha 0 - 15 cm Bg 15 - 30 cm Cg-1 30 - 60 cm Cg-2 60 - 80 cm From Comar et a l . , 1962. S ite Description in Grigg Series Description Very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2 moist) s i l t y c lay. Weak medium granular structure; f r i a b l e , porous, many f ine roots. Abrupt change to: Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2 moist) s i l t y c lay. Rare to common d i s t i n c t ye l lowish-brown (10YR 5/6 moist) mottles. Modern medium subangular blocky structure, many roots. Clear change to: Olive gray (5Y 4.5/2 moist) s i l t y c lay. Common d i s t i n c t yel lowish-red (5YR 4/8 moist) mottles. Massive, f i rm, a few cracks, roots common but decrease with depth. Gradual change to: Olive gray (5Y 4.5/2 moist) s i l t y c lay. Many d i s t i n c t to f a i n t yel lowish-red (5YR 4/8 moist) mottles. Massive, f i rm, rare cracks, a few roots. Gradual change to: 132 Horizon Depth Description Cg-3 80 - 110 cm Olive gray (5Y 5/2 moist) s i l t y c lay. Many d i s t i n c t and f a i n t yel lowish-red to strong brown (5YR 4/8 - 7.5YR 5/6 moist) mottles which give s l i gh t colour to the mass. Massive, f i rm, a few roots, an occasional crack terminating with depth. 

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