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The Response of orchardgrass-ladino clover to the application of high-rise poultry manure in the Lower… Maynard, Douglas George 1978

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THE RESPONSE OF ORCHARDGRASS-LADINO CLOVER TO THE APPLICATION OF HIGH-RISE POULTRY MANURE IN THE. LOWER FRASER VALLEY by DOUGLAS GEORGE MAYNARD B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of S o i l Science)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978. 0 Douglas George Maynard, 1978.  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  written  thesis  make i t  t h a t permission  the requirements  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  It  that  thesis or  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  for financial  gain s h a l l  S o i l Science  October, 1978  for  study.  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  freely available  permission.  Department of  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  Columbia  not be allowed without my  i i  ABSTRACT  Approximately 86% of the poultry population of B r i t i s h Columbia i s concentrated in the lower Fraser V a l l e y .  Because many of these operations  are located on small land areas adjacent to suburban developments, the management of the poultry manure i s a major problem.  Landspreading  i s s t i l l the most widely practised way of handling poultry manure.  The  objectives of t h i s study were to determine maximum disposal rates and optimum f e r t i l i z e r rates of h i g h - r i s e poultry manure on orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover forage.  Experimentation with poultry manure rates  of 1.25 to 40 tonnes per hectare applied to orchardgrass and orchardgrassclover forage was c a r r i e d out in the Chilliwhack d i s t r i c t of the lower Fraser Valley over a 2-year period.  The poultry manure contained 5.1,  2.5 and 2.0% N, P and K r e s p e c t i v e l y in 1975, and 3.5, 1.6 and 1.4% N, P and K r e s p e c t i v e l y in 1976, with c o e f f i c i e n t s of v a r i a t i o n from 5 to. 40%.  The N:P:K r a t i o in the manure indicated that K and P (in some  cases) would be l i m i t i n g i f the manure was applied to meet the N r e q u i r e ments of the crop. The recommended rate of poultry manure determined for disposal was 20 t/ha/year on orchardgrass on orchardgrass  forage.  A poultry manure rate of 10 t/ha/year  forage i s recommended to e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e the N  resource of the manure as a f e r t i l i z e r .  A poultry layer operation of  2500 hens would require 3.6 ha of orchardgrass forage to dispose of the poultry manure produced in one year and 7.3 ha of orchardgrass to u t i l i z e the manure e f f i c i e n t l y as a f e r t i l i z e r .  forage  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  J___  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS  ii iii  LIST OF TABLES  V  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  I  INTRODUCTION  1  II  LITERATURE REVIEW  3  A. Poultry Manure Characterization 1. Production and Composition 2. Forms of Nitrogen 3. Nitrogen M i n e r a l i z a t i o n from Poultry Manure 4. Phosphorus M i n e r a l i z a t i o n from Poultry Manure 5. Potassium A v a i l a b i l i t y in Poultry Manure  3 3 7 8 11 12  B. Landspreading of Poultry Manure 1. Introduction 2. Land Disposal of Poultry Manure a) Introduction b) Soluble Salts c) N i t r a t e Leaching 3. U t i l i z a t i o n of Poultry Manure a) Introduction b) Y i e l d i . E f f e c t s of nitrogen i i . E f f e c t of botanical composition' i i i . E f f e c t of potassium c) Botanical Composition i . Orchardgrass-clover mixtures i i . Weeds d) Chemical Composition of Forage i . Introduction i i . Total nitrogen in forage i i i . Total phosphorus in forage i v . Total potassium in forage v. Total Ca, Mg and Na in forage v i . N i t r a t e in forage e) Rate Comparisons  12 12 15 15 15 17 19 19 19 19 22 23 23 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 29 31 33  iv  Pacie  III  IV  V  C. Nitrogen Balance 1. N Balance in Grassland and Grass/Clover Swards 2. Methods of Determining N Balance  34 34 37  MATERIALS AND METHODS  39  A. S i t e Description  39  B. F i e l d Work  41  C. Laboratory Procedures 1. Poultry Manure 2. Plant Material 3. S o i l Samples  42 42 43 44  D. N Balance Determination  44  E. S t a t i s t i c s  45  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  46  A. Manure Composition  46  B. Y i e l d  46  C. Botanical Composition  60  D. Percent Total Kjel.dahl Nitrogen and % Nitrate-N i n the Forage  63  E. Percent Phosphorus i n the Forage  74  F. Percent Potassium in the Forage  76  G. Percent Ca, Mg and Na i n the Forage  81  H. Nitrate-N Levels in the S o i l  84  I. N Balance  88  J . Rate Recommendations  92  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  97  REFERENCES  100  APPENDICES A. P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Temperature Data B. Analysis of Variance C. Forage Y i e l d s by Cut D. Elemental Concentrations in the Forage By Cut E. Chemical Analysis of the Ladino Clover in 1976  109 111 120 122 130  V  LIST OF TABLES Table I  Page Poultry manure or l i t t e r composition from data i n the literature.  II  5  Chemical properties of the Grigg s o i l at the experimental s i t e .  40  Manure composition.  47  N supplied by manure treatments i n 1975 and 1976.  50  Botanical composition - second c u t , 1975.  61  Percent legume - 1 9 7 6 .  62  Total P and estimated P a v a i l a b l e from h i g h - r i s e poultry manure and the P removed i n the forage,.1975. Total P and estimated P a v a i l a b l e from h i g h - r i s e poultry manure and the P removed i n the forage, 1976.  75 77  K added i n the manure, t o t a l K a v a i l a b l e to the forage and the K removed i n the herbage, 1975.  79  Residual K from 1975, K added i n the manure, t o t a l K a v a i l a b l e to the forage and the K removed i n the herbage, 1976.  80  XI  Mean n i t r a t e - N l e v e l s i n the s o i l and the e f f e c t of manure treatment and depth, 1975.  85  XII  Mean n i t r a t e - N l e v e l s i n the s o i l and the e f f e c t of manure treatment and depth, 1976.  87  XIII  N balance sheet, 1975 - N removed By the crop, d i f f e r e n c e i n t o t a l N of the top 15 cm of s o i l , n i t r a t e - N i n the 0-90 cm depth of s o i l , N added by the manure and the % N accounted f o r .  89  N balance sheet, 1976 - N removed by the crop, d i f f e r e n c e i n t o t a l N o f the top 15 cm o f s o i l , n i t r a t e N i n the 0-90 cm depth of s o i l , N added by the manure and the % N accounted f o r .  91  Land requirements f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n and disposal of h i g h - r i s e - p o u l t r y manure on a pure orchardgrass sward.  95  III IV V VI VII VIII IX X  XIV  XV  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure  ___L  1.  N balance in a grass/clover manure.  2.  Mean y i e l d s and t o t a l y i e l d in 1975 as affected by manure treatment.  49  3.  F i r s t c u t , 1976 - t o t a l y i e l d as: affected by poultry manure treatment and method of a p p l i c a t i o n .  53  4.  Second c u t , 1976 - t o t a l y i e l d as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of a p p l i c a t i o n .  55  5.  Third c u t , 1976 - t o t a l yi.eld as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of a p p l i c a t i o n .  56  6.  Fourth c u t , 1976 - t o t a l y i e l d as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of a p p l i c a t i o n .  57  7.  1976 t o t a l y i e l d as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of a p p l i c a t i o n . •  59  8.  Percent t o t a l kjeldahl N and % n i t r a t e - N in the forage by cut in 1975 as affected by poultry manure treatment.  64  9.  F i r s t c u t , 1976 - percent TKN and % n i t r a t e - N in the forage as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of application.  67  Second c u t , 1976 - percent TKN and % n i t r a t e - N in the forage as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of application.  69  Third cut, 1976 - percent TKN and % n i t r a t e - N in the forage as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of application.  71  Fourth c u t , 1976 - percent TKN and % n i t r a t e - N in the forage as affected by poultry manure treatment and method of application.  73  10.  11.  12.  sward f e r t i l i z e d with poultry  35  :  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  A very special thank you to Dr. Art Bomke f o r his advice, support and encouragement throughout the duration of the p r o j e c t .  Also f o r his  tolerance and patience when things did not go according to plan. A special thanks to Diane Singleton and Bev Herman f o r t h e i r help and encouragement in the l a b . The author appreciates the assistance of Dr. G.W. Eaton with the s t a t i s t i c s and Dr. L.E. Lowe f o r his suggestions. Thanks to the B.C. Agricult'ura.l; Sciences Co-ordinating Committee f o r t h & j f i n a n c i a l support. Thanks to the technicians C a r o l , Eva and Audrey f o r t h e i r assistance in the laboratory.  1  I.  INTRODUCTION  Poultry manure management has become a major problem in the lower Fraser V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Confinement poultry houses located  on small land areas (usually less than f i v e hectares) combined with the spread of suburban developments into t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l areas and the high cost of transporting fresh poultry manure, has led to the s t o c k p i l i n g of the manure.  As a r e s u l t , environmental problems, mainly  n i t r a t e runoff into surface streams, n i t r a t e leaching into the groundwater, odor and insect p r o l i f e r a t i o n and the e l i m i n a t i o n of plant cover have occurred. About 86% of the poultry population of B.C. i s concentrated in the lower Fraser V a l l e y .  In 1975, the poultry population of B.C. was 26,640,000  birds c o n s i s t i n g of 21,000,000 b r o i l e r chickens, 4,100,000 layer hens and p u l l e t s , and 1,500,000 turkeys, geese and ducks (Anon., 1974; Anon., 1976; Anon., 1977).  The main egg producing area i s centered in the  Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y around Abbotsford.  High-rise poultry houses with  e l e c t r i c fans c i r c u l a t i n g a i r over the fresh droppings under the cages i s one of the most common systems u t i l i z e d by poultry producers in the lower Fraser V a l l e y . and labor costs.  This system i s economical to run with low energy  It allows the manure to be dried down to less than 30%  moisture and conserves high q u a n t i t i e s of N,  The poultry manure i s easy  to remove from the house and odor and insect p r o l i f e r a t i o n - a major problem when cleaning out poultry houses in populated areas - i s v i r t u a l l y eliminated.  Also, transporting the poultry manure i s less c o s t l y when  2  the moisture content i s lower.  With r i s i n g costs of N f e r t i l i z e r s and  increasing d i f f i c u l t y in obtaining inorganic N, poultry manure from the h i g h - r i s e poultry houses could be an e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , economic source of plant n u t r i e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y N for the lower Fraser V a l l e y . The objectives of t h i s study were: (a) To determine the rates of poultry manure which provide s u f f i c i e n t N f o r optimum y i e l d of orchardgrass-clover and orchardgrass forage; (b) To determine the maximum disposal rates of the poultry manure with minimum n i t r a t e leaching losses and no decrease in y i e l d . The maximum disposal rates were studied only as a short-term a l t e r n a t i v e to a l l e v i a t e a possibly serious p o l l u t i o n problem.  Utilizing  the poultry manure e f f e c t i v e l y in crop production must be considered as the major long-term o b j e c t i v e .  3  II.  LITERATURE REVIEW  A. Poultry Manure Characterization 1. Production and Composition Several workers (Yushok and Bear, 1943; White et_ al_., 1944; Papanos and Brown, 1950) have reported a consistent rate of manure produced by l a y i n g hens of 63.6 kg of manure per b i r d per year.  This would mean in  a layer operation of 10,000 hens that greater than 600,000 kg of manure would be produced annually. The n u t r i e n t composition of poultry manure i s extremely v a r i a b l e and any general statements on the n u t r i e n t status of poultry manure can be misleading.  The use of mean percentages f o r the major nutrients from  several unrelated sources of manure produced under d i f f e r e n t conditions can give f a l s e values f o r the major n u t r i e n t s .  This can make disposal  or f e r t i l i z e r rates subject to large e r r o r (Wallingford et_ a]_., 1975). There are many factors which contribute to the v a r i a b i l i t y found in poultry manure.  Three of the more important factors are feed rations  and the type of poultry house and the manure handling system used (Perkins et_ al_. , 1964; Ostrander, 1975).  Feed rations are the source of plant  nutrients found in the manure so consequently the composition of the manure i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the feed r a t i o n .  Working with white  leghorn hens over a two year period, Yushok and Bear (1943) found that 81%  of the N, 88% of the P and 95% of the K in the feed was voided in  the manure.  Only 19%, 12% and 5% of the N, P and K r e s p e c t i v e l y went into  the production of the hen i t s e l f and the eggs.  Of the dry matter contained  4  in the feed, 56% i s digested by the hen and the remaining 44% i s voided in the manure (White et a]_., 1944).  Therefore, in fresh hen droppings,  with no l i t t e r , the concentration of N, P and K on a dry weight basis i s a c t u a l l y increased from the i n i t i a l feed consumed by the hen. Ostrander (1975) indicates moisture content and n u t r i e n t content, p a r t i c u l a r l y N, are affected by poultry house type and the handling system used.  The h i g h - r i s e poultry house i s one of the l e a s t c o s t l y  systems and most e f f i c i e n t in the use of labor. ground with a concrete f l o o r .  The house i s b u i l t above  Drying of the manure underneath the cages  can be enhanced by using e l e c t r i c fans to c i r c u l a t e a i r over the manure cones formed or by using the s l a t system to increase the surface area of the manure exposed for drying (Ostrander, 1975; Elson and King, 1975). The moisture content should be below 30%, reducing odor and insect germination and making f o r easier handling. drying or dehydration.  Other dry systems include in-house  There are also several l i q u i d systems which  w i l l a f f e c t manure composition. Other factors which a f f e c t poultry manure composition include species of b i r d , b i r d density, age and physiological status of the b i r d , kind, amount and depth of l i t t e r ( i f any), c l i m a t e , poultry house c o n d i t i o n s , and age of the manure (Eno, 1962; Moore et_ al_., 1964; Perkins et a l . , 1964; Hileman, 1967; El-Sabben et aT_., 1969).  Hileman (1967)  and El-Sabben e l a l - (1969) conclude that because of these factors and the i n t e r a c t i o n of many of these f a c t o r s , i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to predict the composition of manure or l i t t e r .  An i n d i c a t i o n of the general  range  and the v a r i a b i l i t y of the N, P and K content in poultry manure i s shown in Table I.  The values are expressed as percent dry matter and range  5  Table I: Poultry manure or l i t t e r composition from data i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  Description  •__% Dry Weight Moisture 'IN P  K  Source Yushok and Bear, 1943  l a y i n g hens, fresh manure  77.8  1.05  0.36  0.42  laying hens, 1-2 wks. o l d  66.8  1.41  0.45  0.47  l a y i n g hens, old l i t t e r  47.2  1.83  0.62  0.63  hen manure, 6 mo. accum.  15.8  2.79  1.24  1.23  fresh undiluted hen droppings  -  1.131.75  0.360.71  0.310.65  Papanos and Brown, 1950  fresh droppings, l a y i n g hens  2027  3.5^ • 6.0  1.5^ 2.0  1.35  T i n s l e y and Nowakowski,  2.1  fresh manure  76  6.73  1.98  1.68  Eno, 1962  10 wk. manure  68  3.64  2.64  2.29  Eno, 1962  _  3.70  1.66  1.66  Moore et al_., 1964  -  3.37  1.47  1.42  Moore et al_.; 1964  11.068.0  1.106.74  1.376.25  1.37-  29.0  4.11  1.45  b r o i l e r manure (82 samples)  24.9  2.27  1.07  1.10  Perkins and Parker, 1971  hen manure (31 samples)  36.9  2.00  1.91  1.88  Perkins and Parker, 1971  deep l i t t e r  6-71  0.3-3.5 .04-2. 3 0.17-2.1 G.W. Cooke, 1972  broiler  9-75  0.4-3.6 .09-1. 7 0.25-2.0 G.W. Cooke, 1972  12-88  0.5-4.5 .13-2. 1 0.17-3.3 G.W. Cooke, 1972  l a y i n g hens, fresh manure broiler l i t t e r (after 1 brood) broiler l i t t e r (197 samples) Average  litter  batter  4.80  Yushok and Bear, 1943 Yushok and Bear, 1943 White et al,.', 1944  1959  Hileman, 1967  2.18  poultry manure, s l a t dried  15.0  4.9  2.-1  2.3  Elson and King, 1975  poultry manure, deep p i t I (Avg. 0-90 cm)  67.2  3.12  3.49  2.2  Bomke and L a v k u l i c h , 1975 Continued . . . .  6  Descri ption deep p i t II (Avg. 0-75 cm)  % Dry Weight—Moisture N P  Source  69.1  5.34  3.17  1.5  Bomke and L a v k u l i c h , 1975  Stored, h i g h - r i s e poultry manure 1975 22.5  5.08  2.51  2.02  Maynard, 1978  23.1  3.53  1.60  1.44  Maynard, 1978  1976  Mean values of the manure used in t h i s study.  1  7  from s i x to 77.8% moisture; 1.05 to 6.74% N; 0.04 to 6.75% P; and 0.17 to 4.80% K.  2. Forms of Nitrogen The forms of N i n fresh manure include a range of 40 to 70% of the t o t a l N as u r i c acid and 5 to 10% as ammonia.  The remainder of the N i s  as complex nitrogenous compounds of varied composition.  In accumulated  droppings, investigators found ammonia accounted for 42 to 43% of the t o t a l N (Papanos and Brown, 1950).  In one-month-old droppings, 40 to 45%  t o t a l N was in the ammoniacal form (Eno, 1962).  Under warm, moist con-  d i t i o n s , u r i c acid i s r e a d i l y converted to ammonia.  Burnett and Dondero  (1969) found extended storage of poultry manure resulted in a rapid decrease in u r i c a c i d accompanied by ammonia and a l i p h a t i c amine production. Ammonia evolution peaked a f t e r only f i v e days and amine content a f t e r 14 days.  In both cases, u r i c acid content decreased r a p i d l y over the  f i r s t seven days.  A v a r i e t y of aerobic and anaerobic b a c t e r i a associated  with manure are capable of decomposing u r i c acid contained in f r e s h l y excreted poultry manure. P h i l l i p s et al_. (1978) found that 23 to 24% of the t o t a l N in stored h i g h - r i s e poultry manure was in the ammoniacal form.  The manure had been  stored f o r at l e a s t one year and had probably composted during t h i s time. This accounts f o r the higher ammonium content than i s generally found in fresh hen manure.  Lower ammonium values in the one-year-old manure  compared to one-month-old hen manure could be the r e s u l t of additional composting, tying.up the ammonium N in complex compounds.  8  3. Nitrogen M i n e r a l i z a t i o n from Poultry Manure Manure-N m i n e r a l i z a t i o n in the s o i l i s s i m i l a r to N m i n e r a l i z a t i o n from s o i l organic matter.  The environmental factors (pH, temperature,  microbial populations, e t c . ) a l l a f f e c t N m i n e r a l i z a t i o n from manure. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n of manure N i s also influenced by the decomposition status of the manure and the form of the manure N. As mentioned previously, between 40 and 70% of the t o t a l N in fresh hen manure i s in the form of u r i c acid and i t i s r e a d i l y converted to ammonia.  Thus, in fresh hen manure i t would be expected that a large  portion of the t o t a l N i s r e a d i l y mineralized upon contact with the s o i l . Pratt et a]_. (1973) suggested that 90%. of total-.N i s a v a i l a b l e in the f i r s t year of a p p l i c a t i o n , assuming the N i s l a r g e l y in the form of urea or u r i c a c i d .  A f t e r f i v e years only an additional two percent of  the t o t a l N was mineralized.  It should be noted that these values were  not f i e l d - t e s t e d and are assumptions based on the author's with decomposition studies.  experience  Turner (1975) suggested that 75% of the  t o t a l N i s a v a i l a b l e in the f i r s t year and 93% a f t e r f i v e years.  Again  there i s no reference of these values being f i e l d - t e s t e d . The f i r s t year m i n e r a l i z a t i o n value of 90% i s based on C a l i f o r n i a conditions where the s o i l temperature seldom i s low enough to i n h i b i t microbial decomposition of the manure (Pratt et al_., 1975).  Turner's  m i n e r a l i z a t i o n rates are applied to the c l i m a t i c conditions of the P a c i f i c Northwest.  S o i l temperatures in the P a c i f i c Northwest often remain  between 0 and 10°C through much of the winter.  Mineralization w i l l  proceed at temperatures above 0°C but at a much slower r a t e .  still  Therefore,  Turner (1975) indicates a lower i n i t i a l m i n e r a l i z a t i o n rate than the  9  C a l i f o r n i a workers suggest. P r a t t et_ aj_. (1973) and Turner (1975) i n d i c a t e by t h e i r decay series that l i t t l e of the remaining portion of the t o t a l N in the manure becomes available.  This i s probably based on the assumption that the remaining  N i s in complex compounds which are very stable to f u r t h e r rapid decomposition. Ageing or composting fresh manure a l t e r s the N forms usually r e s u l t i n g in decreased m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .  P a r t l y decomposed material tends to be  r e s i s t a n t to f u r t h e r decomposition as the more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e sources of energy have been removed (Barrow, 1961).  The decay series f o r aged,  covered poultry manure suggested f o r the P a c i f i c Northwest indicated 60% of the t o t a l N as a v a i l a b l e in the f i r s t year with 87% a v a i l a b l e a f t e r f i v e years (Turner, 1975).  Eno (1962) indicated that 30 to 60% of the  t o t a l N becomes a v a i l a b l e during the f i r s t s i x weeks of the growing season depending upon the N content and form of N in the manure. In c o n t r o l l e d incubation s t u d i e s , P h i l l i p s et aJL (1978) studied the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of N from poultry manure stored f o r at l e a s t one year in a h i g h - r i s e poultry house.  The manure was incorporated into two acid  s o i l s of the lower Fraser Valley and incubated at two temperatures, 10 and 20°C.  Between 53 and 65% of the t o t a l N was m i n e r a l i z e d .  Twenty-four  percent of the t o t a l N was already in ammonium form, so approximately one quarter to one h a l f of the organic N was released.  Temperature, liming  and s o i l type had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the o v e r a l l ammonium-N production.  Most  of the N was mineralized w i t h i n the f i r s t week of incubation. In stored poultry manure, usually very l i t t l e n i t r i f i c a t i o n occurs unless the accumulating manure i s aerated.  In both fresh and stored manure  10  there i s l i t t l e or no n i t r a t e present.  Once poultry manure i s applied  to the s o i l , n i t r i f i c a t i o n becomes important.  Olsen e_t al_. (1970) sug-  gested that in the incubation of dairy c a t t l e manure incorporated in an aerobic s o i l , the conversion of ammonium to n i t r a t e i s at l e a s t as rapid as the conversion of organic N to ammonium. In an e a r l i e r study, i t was found that very l i t t l e of the t o t a l N in poultry manure added to a s o i l had been n i t r i f i e d a f t e r one week (Papanos and Brown, 1950).  The greatest percentage of t o t a l N was n i t r i f i e d  between the f i r s t and second week with 50% of the t o t a l N n i t r i f y i n g by the end of four weeks incubation at 28°C.  A s i m i l a r pattern f o r n i t r i f i -  cation in "warm, moist" s o i l s was suggested by Eno (1962).  N i t r a t e pro-  duction i s slow during the f i r s t week increasing to a maximum by four weeks. In the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n study of stored poultry manure i t was found that n i t r i f i c a t i o n was affected by both temperature and liming et al_., 1978).  (Phillips  While m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was unchanged by the two temperatures,  10 and 20°C, n i t r i f i c a t i o n was adversely affected by the lower temperature. The authors f e l t that 10°C could have an i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t on n i t r i f i c a t i o n f o r up to two months.  Tyler e_t al_. (1959) reported s i m i l a r  observations  while studying the e f f e c t s of low temperatures in four C a l i f o r n i a s o i l s and suggested i t could be due to n i t r i f i c a t i o n being retarded by the lower temperatures to a greater extent than ammonification.  Floate (1970b),  studying the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of N from sheep faeces, found that m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of N did not show a temperature dependence at 5, 10 or 30°C. Giddens and Rao (1975) found n i t r a t e production was greater at lower rates of poultry manure a p p l i c a t i o n and when applied as one complete treatment rather than as s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n s .  With c a t t l e feedlot manure,  11  a delay in n i t r i f i c a t i o n occurred with increasing manure rates (Mathers and Stewart, 1970).  Giddens and Rao (1975) a t t r i b u t e d t h i s to ammonia  i n h i b i t i o n of the n i t r i f y i n g organisms, p a r t i c u l a r l y Nitrobacter. et a K  01 sen  (1970) found large amounts of n i t r i t e in the surface s o i l four  weeks a f t e r c a t t l e manure a p p l i c a t i o n to an aerobic s o i l .  They indicated  that excessive amounts of ammonia at high l e v e l s of manure could i n h i b i t t n e  Nitrobacter and permit n i t r i t e accumulation.  Gidden and Rao (1975)  also found a decrease in n i t r a t e production when poultry manure was surface applied rather than incorporated into the s o i l .  This i s due more  to a loss of N by ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n rather than ammonia i n h i b i t i o n of the n i t r i f y i n g b a c t e r i a .  4. Phosphorus M i n e r a l i z a t i o n from Poultry Manure The major portion of P in poultry manure i s in the organic form except f o r small quantities in the urates (Eno, 1962). m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of the organic P i s v a r i a b l e .  A v a i l a b i l i t y and  Eno (1962) f e e l s that P  a v a i l a b i l i t y i s d i r e c t l y related to the rate of manure decomposition and that P becomes a v a i l a b l e much slower than N.  Working with sheep faeces,  Bromfield (1961) s i m i l a r l y observed that organic P was not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and was slow to m i n e r a l i z e .  Floate (1970a) also using sheep faeces, found  that between 3 and 34% of the o r i g i n a l t o t a l P in the faeces had been mineralized a f t e r 12 weeks at 30°C.  These samples had been inoculated  with a s o i l e x t r a c t rather than incorporated in a s o i l .  Bromfield (1961)  used only d i s t i l l e d water to wet the manure samples, so t h i s may account for the differences in m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and a v a i l a b i l i t y . In incubation studies using stored poultry manure from h i g h - r i s e  poultry  12  houses, i t was found that between 41 and 44% of added manure P was mine r a l i z e d ( P h i l l i p s et_ al_., 1978).  Since 32% of the manure P was Bray P-j  extractable less than 15% of the organic P i n the manure was m i n e r a l i z e d . Parker et aj_. (1959), using c i t r a t e soluble P as an index of a v a i l a b i l i t y , found 94.1% of P a v a i l a b l e in b r o i l e r manure and 88.4% of P a v a i l a b l e in hen manure.  These values are averages determined from a wide range  of fresh material c o l l e c t e d i n Georgia. The v a r i a b i l i t y in P m i n e r a l i z a t i o n reported here may be due to the age of manure used (fresh versus stored) and the methods involved in incubation and a v a i l a b l e P determinations.  In general, though, P a v a i l -  a b i l i t y and m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s less than N and some index of net release other than t o t a l P i s needed when looking at P from e i t h e r a disposal or agronomic viewpoint.  5. Potassium A v a i l a b i l i t y in Poultry Manure As in the s o i l , K i s found mainly in the inorganic form in poultry manure, usually in inorganic s a l t s in the excretions from kidneys and in l i v i n g and dead c e l l u l a r material in faeces (Eno, 1962). s a l t s are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  A l l forms of K  Parker et_ al_. (1959) found between 86 and 88%  of the t o t a l K i s water s o l u b l e .  B. Landspreading of Poultry Manure 1.  Introduction Most animal wastes have been and w i l l continue to be disposed of on  13  land (Stewart, 1968; Loehr, 1972; Wallingford et al_., 1975).  In the past,  most farms were integrated farms (combined l i v e s t o c k and crop production) and were s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t operations.  They could spread a l l t h e i r manure  on t h e i r own land and i n s u f f i c i e n t manure was a greater problem than oversupply (Mcintosh and Varney, 1973).  This was previous to the advent  of inexpensive, e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e and easy to handle inorganic f e r t i l i z e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y N f e r t i l i z e r s (Pratt et_ al_., 1973). By the m i d - f i f t i e s , inexpensive inorganic f e r t i l i z e r s were easy to obtain and manures were considered low value f e r t i l i z e r s and regarded as l i a b i l i t i e s rather than assets  (McCalla, 1974).  The value per unit of  manure was too low to warrant transporting the manure to areas where i t could be used (Turner, 1975). Confined animal production operations were developed during t h i s time to meet the demands f o r increased e f f i c i e n c y and animal production. Between 1941 and 1966 the number of farms in Ontario was d r a s t i c a l l y reduced by 57, 65 and 50% f o r swine, poultry and dairy c a t t l e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , while the number of animals was increased (number of d a i r y c a t t l e decreased s l i g h t l y ) (Townshend et a l . , 1969).  S i m i l a r l y , in the United States there  was one h a l f the number of farms in 1969 as in 1940 supplying t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l needs (Loehr, 1972).  By 1972 nearly 100% of the United States  commercial egg production was from confinement poultry houses (Loehr, 1972). Because of t h i s , large amounts of manure have accumulated in small areas with no place to dispose of i t .  The problem has been accentuated by the  expansion of urban and suburban developments into former a g r i c u l t u r a l areas (Zindel and F l e g a l , 1970). During the 60's and the early 70's, most researchers considered animal  14  manures waste and only the technological and economical problems of disposal were considered.  L i t t l e work was done with regard to the con-  servation of the nutrients in manures.  Moore e_t aJL (1964) stated that  "the greatest loss from manure i s in the N content but since N i s one of the cheaper of the f e r t i l i z e r elements i t ' s loss appears of minor importance when weighed against manure handling problems". In recent years, the high cost and short supply of commercial f e r t i l i z e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y N has stimulated a new i n t e r e s t in manures as a n u t r i e n t source.  Furthermore, the increased awareness of the short supply  of the f o s s i l f u e l s , from which many N f e r t i l i z e r s are derived, has led to a change in a t t i t u d e s .  Jackson* e_t al_. (1977) state that " i n view of  environmental concern and high costs of f e r t i l i z e r s , the disposal of b r o i l e r l i t t e r i s to be discouraged.  However, the u t i l i z a t i o n - of l i t t e r  at recommended rates f o r i t s n u t r i e n t value i s encouraged". Landspreading i s one of the most widely used systems of manure handling and i s possibly the most p r a c t i c a l at t h i s time with regard to poultry manure.  Landspreading of manure (to dispose of i t ) i s "the incorporation  of wastes to the land in a c o n t r o l l e d land management program so that the applied wastes do not contribute to a d d i t i o n a l environmental q u a l i t y problems such as contamination of groundwater, p o l l u t i o n caused by excessive runoff, odor or insect germination" (Loehr, 1972).  U t i l i z a t i o n of poultry  manure as a f e r t i l i z e r involves the landspreading of manure, coupled with crop production to maximize crop y i e l d s with the optimum n u t r i e n t supply. It i s the conservation of the n u t r i e n t resources derived from the manure. Normally, N i s the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r from e i t h e r a disposal or u t i l i z a t i o n viewpoint (Jones, 1969).  15  2. Land Disposal of Poultry Manure a)  Introduction  The problems that must be considered when determining land disposal rates are: runoff p o l l u t i o n , s a l i n i t y , groundwater p o l l u t i o n , odor, insect germination, metal t o x i c i t i e s and pathogen hazards (Hileman, 1967; McCalla, 1974).  Nutrient imbalances and animal health problems are some-  times considered in determining land disposal rates but are usually only included when looking at the agronomic value of poultry manure.  Soil  n i t r a t e and soluble s a l t s are the two s o i l chemical properties which have received the most a t t e n t i o n (Wallingford et_ aJL, 1975).  For the purposes  of t h i s review, the discussion on land disposal w i l l be l i m i t e d to these two problems. b) Soluble  Salts  Mathers and Stewart (1970) suggest that the disposal rate of manures should not impair y i e l d , since that would eliminate a way of removing N from the s o i l system.  It has been suggested that s o i l s a l i n i t y due to  excess soluble s a l t s in poultry manure i s the main cause of y i e l d reduction. S h o r t a l l and Liebhardt (1975) indicated that there was a good c o r r e l a t i o n between s o i l s a l i n i t y and tonnes of poultry manure.  They suggest that  excessive soluble s a l t s are the primary cause of the y i e l d reduction when high rates of poultry manure are applied to s o i l .  K i s considered the  primary soluble s a l t responsible f o r s a l i n i t y in heavy a p p l i c a t i o n s of poultry manure (Liebhardt and S h o r t a l l , 1974; Wall ingford et al_., 1975). Liebhardt and S h o r t a l l (1974) found a very s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between K extractable with water and e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y of a manured s o i l .  16  Jackson et al_. (1975) applied excessive rates of poultry l i t t e r on established fescue stands.  They found depressed y i e l d s at 45 t/ha/year,  and indicated that the mechanism f o r y i e l d reduction was probably due to the smothering e f f e c t on the fescue from the heavy manure a p p l i c a t i o n s . The healthy appearance of the s u r v i v i n g species indicated very l i t t l e evidence of d i r e c t s a l t damage.  Vandepopuliere et_ aj_. (1975), also i n d i -  cated that y i e l d reductions of fescue stands occurred at poultry manure rates in excess of 44.8 t/ha/year.  They suggested that the reduction was  due to the k i l l i n g or stunting of the plant growth but gave no i n d i c a t i o n of the mechanism. Hensler et_ al_. (1970) found that excessive rates of dairy c a t t l e manure on unlimed s o i l s caused a marked reduction in the y i e l d of the f i r s t crop but an enhancement in y i e l d of the remaining two crops.  They  f e l t that the y i e l d reduction was due to an ammonium induced Ca d e f i c i e n c y (malfunction of the terminal bud).  In e a r l i e r work, Olsen e_t al_. (1970)  found 220 ppm and 440 ppm of exchangeable ammonium-N in the surface s o i l within four days a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n of the two highest rates of dairy c a t t l e manure.  Hensler e_t aJL (1970) assumed that these high l e v e l s of ammonium  were the main cause of the low i n i t i a l y i e l d s .  In the f o l l o w i n g crops  and in the limed s o i l s , l i t t l e or no reduction of crop y i e l d at the same rates of manure was observed. Soluble s a l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the K  +  ion,.were a major cause of y i e l d  reduction in corn and cool season grasses f e r t i l i z e d with poultry manure. The smothering e f f e c t of heavy rates of poultry manure and ammonium t o x i c i t y may also be important in y i e l d reductions.  17  c) N i t r a t e Leaching The accumulation and downward movement of n i t r a t e in the s o i l has been reported as a potential threat to groundwater q u a l i t y and animal and human health (Wal 1 ingford et al_., 1975). by mammals i s undesirable f o r two reasons:  Excessive n i t r a t e ingestion  ( i ) possible metabolic con-  version to n i t r i t e which can cause methaemoglobinaemia, e s p e c i a l l y in infants and in the presence of high amine d i e t s or amine-derived drugs, and ( i i ) possible hepatoxic action and the formation of a l k y l nitrosamines which have carcinogenic properties (Winteringham, 1974).  N i t r a t e i s also  a f a c t o r in eutrophication of inland water bodies and hence i s a possible threat to c e r t a i n aquatic f i s h species (Winteringham, 1974).  The World  Health Organization (WHO) has established 10 ppm n i t r a t e - N (45 ppm n i t r a t e ) as the maximum permissible concentration of n i t r a t e in d r i n k i n g water. Active growing plants act a s - a : " s i n k " b o l i z i n g them (Kl.ausner e_t a K , 1971).  f o r most nutrients by meta-  The crop used should produce large  amounts of vegetative growth, be t o l e r a n t of high f e r t i l i t y l e v e l s , and remove r e l a t i v e l y large amounts of nutrients in the harvested portion (Hensler et al_., 1970).  Long season crops such as grasses present less  opportunity f o r n i t r a t e leaching than do annual crops such as corn and soyabean ( V i e t s , 1974). In some cases, n i t r a t e w i l l leach i f the N applied in the manure i s greater than that used by p l a n t s , and at other times no s i g n i f i c a n t leaching occurs even a f t e r excess N i s added to a crop.  Wall ingford et al_. (1975)  suggested that the varied r e s u l t s reported on n i t r a t e leaching in s o i l s a f t e r manure a p p l i c a t i o n s i s due to d i f f e r e n t leaching volumes and v a r i a t i o n s  18  in the complicated factors of ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n , n i t r i f i c a t i o n and denitrification. Adriano et al_. (1974) indicated that 50% of N from c a t t l e f e e d l o t manure applied to uncropped land can be l o s t through ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n w i t h i n a few weeks.  Lauer et_ al_. (1976) suggested that large q u a n t i t i e s  of ammonia may v o l a t i l i z e from manure in c e r t a i n weather c o n d i t i o n s . General evaporative conditions and p r e c i p i t a t i o n appear to be the p r i n c i p l e determinants of ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n under f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . Therefore, with surface applied manures, a large percentage of the t o t a l N may be l o s t due to ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n and w i l l not be subject to leaching.  In a d d i t i o n , the ammonia produced may i n h i b i t the n i t r i t e  o x i d i z i n g b a c t e r i a preventing n i t r i f i c a t i o n (Giddens and Rao, 1975). Other conditions a f f e c t i n g n i t r i f i c a t i o n from poultry manure were discussed earl i e r . D e n i t r i f i c a t i o n could also be responsible f o r a more s i g n i f i c a n t portion of n i t r a t e losses than leaching from manured s o i l s during a growing season.  Kimble e_t al_. (1971), using dairy manure, found a decreasing  NOg/Cl r a t i o at a l l depths from spring to f a l l which suggests that something other than leaching was responsible f o r the loss of n i t r a t e .  They  i n d i c a t e that i t probably was d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n . Ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n , n i t r i f i c a t i o n and d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n are d i f f i c u l t to measure, e s p e c i a l l y when heavy rates of N are added in poultry manure. This makes land disposal rates d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t .  Thus, the best way  to avoid n i t r a t e leaching i s to apply rates of poultry manure that do not provide N i n excess of crop use.  19  3. U t i l i z a t i o n of Poultry Manure as a F e r t i l i z e r a)  Introduction  Y i e l d and q u a l i t y of forage are the important considerations in the u t i l i z a t i o n of poultry manure as a f e r t i l i z e r .  Botanical and chemical  composition are two q u a l i t y components that may be adversely affected by manure a p p l i c a t i o n .  N i t r a t e leaching and s a l i n i t y problems, important in  land d i s p o s a l , should be of l i t t l e concern i f the manure i s applied to optimize forage y i e l d s . b) Y i e l d The e f f e c t s of f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s (manure or inorganic) on the y i e l d of orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover mixtures are complicated by many management f a c t o r s .  Nitrogen r a t e s , time of a p p l i c a t i o n , c u t t i n g  frequency, K l e v e l s and botanical composition are the major factors involved (Gardner e t a j _ . ,  1960).  ( i ) Effects of Nitrogen Orchardgrass  has a high N requirement and N f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s usually  necessary to obtain high forage y i e l d s (Singh et_ al_., 1967; George et a l . , 1973).  Orchardgrass y i e l d s normally range from 6.5 to 13 t/ha/year in  temperate climates of North America (Maas et a K , 1962; Alexander and McCloud, .1962; Schmidt and Tempas, 1965). Several researchers have investigated the optimum N rates f o r maximum orchardgrass y i e l d s under various management and environmental c o n d i t i o n s . Optimum N rates as inorganic f e r t i l i z e r s range from 224 kg N/ha/year to 672 kg N/ha/year (Mortensen et al_., 1964; George et al_., 1973).  With the  exception of a.few s t u d i e s , N f e r t i l i z e r rates of between 225 and 340 kg  20  N/ha/year produced optimum orchardgrass y i e l d s .  Donohue ert aj^. (1973)  indicated that 250 kg N/ha/year should be applied f o r optimum orchardgrass y i e l d s with minimal N losses on a Crosby s i l t loam s o i l . Climatic c o n d i t i o n s , inherent s o i l f e r t i l i t y and management practices may e f f e c t the optimum N rates required.  Mortensen et_ al_. (1964) found  that increasing the frequency of cuts from three to f i v e increased the elemental N required to produce the same amount of dry matter from 224 kg N/ha/year to 336 kg N/ha/year.  Donohue et al_. (1963) found that in drought  conditions f o r one year, N rates up to 336 kg N/ha/year increased y i e l d s . The f o l l o w i n g year was cool during the normally hot dry months of J u l y and August and y i e l d s increased only up to N rates of 168 kg N/ha/year. Hileman (1967), using b r o i l e r l i t t e r as the N source, found 9 t/ha was the optimum rate o f . a p p l i c a t i o n f o r maximum fescue production. rate of manure supplied 394 kg N/ha/year.  This  At 18 t/ha, 790 kg N/ha was  supplied to the fescue with no a d d i t i o n a l y i e l d .  In Georgia, 9 t/ha of  poultry l i t t e r supplying between 180 and 336 kg N/ha was considered optimum to produce  10 »to  12. t/ha of dry fescue forage or nearly  hay/ha/year (Williams et_ al_.,' 1972).  12 t/ha of  Parker (1966) found that 9 t/ha of  poultry manure gave optimum responses on orchardgrass-clover stands. rate supplied 152 kg N/ha and produced 6.52 t/ha of dry forage.  This  The average  forage y i e l d increase per tonne of manure decreased as the rate of manure increased.  The average increase per tonne was 317, 232 and 192 kg of  forage/ha, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r 9, 18 and 26.9 tonnes of manure/ha.  Vande-  populiere et_ aJL (1975) applied poultry manure at rates of 22.5, 44.9, 67.4 and 89.8 t/ha to fescue pasture. kg N/ha/year, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  This supplied 216, 431, 647 and 862  The t o t a l forage y i e l d f o r three harvests was  21  14.4 t/ha f o r the 22.5 tonnes manure/ha and 16.1 tonnes of dry matter/ha f o r the 44.9 t/ha r a t e . Parker and Perkins (1971) found that b r o i l e r l i t t e r was only 55 to 65% as e f f i c i e n t as NH^NO^ when the manure was applied to coastal bermudagrass sod.  Vandepopuliere et_ al_. (1975) compared the amount of dry matter  produced by manure treated plots to that produced by a chemical f e r t i l i z e r . The chemical f e r t i l i z e r supplied 339 kg N/ha and y i e l d e d 16.9 t/ha of dry forage.  An equivalent amount of N/ha supplied by manure would y i e l d  approximately 15.3 t/ha of dry matter.  Thus, the poultry manure N was  about 90% as e f f i c i e n t as the chemical f e r t i l i z e r in the production of dry matter. Two-thirds or more of the t o t a l annual y i e l d of dry matter in cool season grasses i s produced during the cooler weather of May and June in temperate North America (Wedin, 1974).  Heavy spring a p p l i c a t i o n s of N and  favorable weather conditions at t h i s time of year are the main reasons. Parker (1966) found that with medium to high rates of poultry manure (18 and 26.9 t/ha), almost one h a l f of the t o t a l y i e l d production was obtained in the f i r s t c l i p p i n g . season.  This represents less than one-third of the growing  Burns et al_. (1970) found that a p p l i c a t i o n s of 50% or more of the  t o t a l N required e a r l y in the spring causes an e a r l y spring peak in y i e l d followed by a marked reduction in midseason growth. Several researchers (Gardner et al_., 1960; Maas e_t a K , 1962; Alexander and McCloud, 1962; Burns et a l , 1970) have found that d i v i d i n g the N among frequent a p p l i c a t i o n s gave greater uniformity of y i e l d over the growing season but no net increase.  Since the t o t a l production of dry matter i s not  affected by a s i n g l e N a p p l i c a t i o n in the e a r l y s p r i n g , e a r l y applied N i s  22  u t i l i z e d j u s t as e f f i c i e n t l y as l a t e r or s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n s (Burns et a l . , 1970). ( i i ) E f f e c t of Botanical  Composition  Clover or other legumes mixed with orchardgrass requirement f o r the stand.  decreases the N  Tempieton J r . (1975) indicated that forage  p r o d u c t i v i t y of perennial cool-season grass-legume mixtures was normally equivalent to that of the same grass r e c e i v i n g 150 to more than 200 kg N/ha/year.  In B r i t a i n , a l l - g r a s s swards require 157 kg N/ha/year to  achieve the same herbage y i e l d s as u n f e r t i l i z e d grass/clover swards (Whitehead, 1970). The y i e l d increase of an orchardgrass-clover mixture, due to an N a p p l i c a t i o n , i s influenced by the amount of grass in the mixture.  The  greater the proportion of grass in a mixed stand, the greater the y i e l d response per unit of N applied (Wolf and Smith, 1964).  Whitehead (1970)  suggests that the average annual response f o r an a l l - g r a s s sward i s 25 kg of dry matter per kg of N and 12 kg of dry matter per kg of N f o r grass/ clover swards. Increasing the N a p p l i c a t i o n to a grass-clover mixture, suppresses the c l o v e r content and any y i e l d response to high rates of N i s due to an increase i n grass growth only (Gardner e_t al_., 1960).  N rates up to 101 kg  N/ha increased the grass y i e l d in a grass-clover mixture without decreasing the y i e l d of the c l o v e r appreciably.  Higher N rates decreased the c l o v e r  y i e l d s by the same amount that the grass y i e l d s were increased (Maas et a l . , 1962). Grass-clover mixtures are a complicated forage to evaluate, because of the varied proportions of grass and clover found at d i f f e r e n t rates of  23  N applied. ( i i i ) E f f e c t of K The p r i n c i p l e n u t r i t i o n a l f a c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g the y i e l d of established herbage i s N.  I f the forage i s cut o f t e n , other nutrients may cause  y i e l d reductions.  Potassium i s the most l i k e l y element other than N to  become l i m i t i n g (Hemmingway, 1963; D u e l l , 1965; Nowakowski, 1970). Dry matter y i e l d s of both pure orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover mixtures were increased by the a p p l i c a t i o n of K f e r t i l i z e r s (Gardner et_ a l . , 1960).  The increases were much greater f o r the mixed stand than  orchardgrass alone.  Hemmingway (1963) found over three years that N-only  a p p l i c a t i o n s to established orchardgrass swards gave decreasing y i e l d s compared to NK treated swards.  The N-only treatment maintained y i e l d s at  80 to 100% r e l a t i v e to the NK treatments in the f i r s t year.  By the t h i r d  year of continuous cropping, the N-only treatment y i e l d s had f a l l e n to 60% of the NK treatment y i e l d s .  Singh et al_. (1967) noted s i m i l a r r e s u l t s .  Continuous cropping with orchardgrass gradually depleted the K reserve in the s o i l .  This may be very important in poultry manure a p p l i c a t i o n s where  the N:K r a t i o in the manure can be high (4:1).  Reith et_ al_. (1964)  indicated that the amount of K supplied to orchardgrass depended on the N used as well as the s o i l reserves of K.  No y i e l d response from orchard-  grass occurred when K content in the herbage exceeded 1.6% K (Hemmingway, 1963). c) Bptan i cal Compos i t i on ( i ) Orchardgrass-Clover  Mixtures  The advantages and disadvantages of a grass-clover mixture versus a  24  pure stand of grass have been thoroughly investigated (Whitehead, 1970; Baylor, 1974; Jacobs and S t r i e k e r , 1975; Templeton J r . , 1975).  The  advantages i n c l u d e : higher dry matter y i e l d s , higher protein content and c e r t a i n mineral nutrients in the herbage, more even forage production over the growing season, and diminished N requirements f o r the sward.  The  major disadvantage i s the more.intense management that i s required to maintain the clover in the stand. N often has an adverse e f f e c t on the clover content.  Alexander and  McCloud (1962) found that in the course of t h e i r study (2 y e a r s ) , applying various rates of N to an orchardgrass-clover sward, the c l o v e r content decreased from 17% to v i r t u a l l y n i l (4%).  Gardner et aJL (1960) found  that under the conditions of t h e i r experiment, ladino c l o v e r was t o l e r a n t to N a p p l i c a t i o n s .  Frequency of N a p p l i c a t i o n s had no apparent e f f e c t on  the percentage of c l o v e r in an orchardgrass-clover stand (Gardner et a l . , 1960; Maas et al_., 1962). Whitehead (1970) suggested that N applied in l i q u i d manure or s l u r r y appeared to cause less depression of c l o v e r than f e r t i l i z e r N. (1966) found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s with s o l i d poultry manure.  Parker  The clover p e r f o r -  mance on a 9 tonnes of manure/ha treatment and the highest f e r t i l i z e r rates were about equal, yet the manure treatment contained, on the average, four times as much N/ha/year.  At the highest manure r a t e , 26.9 t/ha, v i r t u a l l y  a l l the c l o v e r was eliminated by the f i r s t cut of the second year a f t e r manure a p p l i c a t i o n (Parker, 1966). ( i i ) Weeds Weed i n f e s t a t i o n may be an adverse e f f e c t of poultry manure a p p l i c a t i o n on agronomic crops.  Many poultrymen and farmers, using poultry manure as a  25  f e r t i l i z e r , have expressed b e l i e f s that the incidence of weeds increased where manure was spread.  In laboratory studies using white leghorn hens,  i t was found that the v i a b i l i t y of 25 weed species were destroyed in the i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t of the hen (Cooper et_ al_., 1960).  Faecal matter c o l l e c t e d  showed no evidence of seeds nor was germination of any seed, i f present, found in the faecal matter.  This study suggests that any increase i n  weeds in the botanical composition of a crop, i s the r e s u l t of weeds entering the manure a f t e r i t i s excreted by the hen. d) Chemical Composition of Forage (i)  Introduction  The concentration and balance of nutrients in forage i s of great importance.  In p r a c t i c e , ruminants are usually fed non-regulated or v a r i -  able d i e t s of forages.  "Thus the concentrations of n u t r i e n t s in the forage,  as they a f f e c t voluntary intake of the forage, have a s i g n i f i c a n t a f f e c t in the ultimate output of a useful animal product" (Raymond, 1969, according to Wedin, 1974).  In a d d i t i o n , the composition of forage can  i n d i c a t e "luxury consumption" of an element which suggetsVthe i n e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of that n u t r i e n t . ( i i ) Total N in Forage Total N content in forage i s c l o s e l y associated with the amount of N applied (Dotzenko and Henderson, 1964).  Extremes in % N in cool-season  grass forage range from 1.5% in d e f i c i e n t mature grass to 6.0% in a w e l l f e r t i l i z e d lawn clipped weekly.  Normally in t a l l growing  cool-season  grasses, s l i g h t l y over 3% is considered average (Wedin, 1974). Total N in orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover mixtures have shown  26  v a r i a b l e response to poultry manure a p p l i c a t i o n s .  Parker (1966) found  very l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n in the N content of orchardgrass-clover related to manure treatments.  swards  High c l o v e r content in the check and low  manure plots may have accounted f o r t h i s . Vandepopuliere et_ aj_. (1975) and Papanos and Brown (1950),  using  grass stands, indicated that only s l i g h t increases in t o t a l N content of the forage occurred with increasing manure rates.  Papanos and Brown  (1950) found that the N content increased from 1.7% in the check plots to 2.2% in the 18 tonnes of poultry manure/ha p l o t s .  Vandepopuliere et a l .  (1975) found less than a 0.50% t o t a l N increase in the fescue t i s s u e between the control and the 89.8 t/ha p l o t (supplied 862 kg N/ha).  In  a study using c a t t l e manure on corn, the manure N did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y increase the t o t a l N in the leaves.  In one year of the study, t o t a l N  in the leaves decreased with increasing manure rates (Mcintosh and Varney, 1972).  The i n d i c a t i o n was that manures have only a minimal e f f e c t on the  t o t a l N content in forage grasses. Maturity of orchardgrass content.  i s another f a c t o r which a f f e c t s t o t a l N  Cutting frequency and time of a p p l i c a t i o n have very l i t t l e e f f e c t  on the protein production of orchardgrass  (Mortensen et a_h, 1964).  N declines with maturity (Whitehead, 1970).  George et_ a K  Percent  (1973) indicates  that lower t o t a l N values are expected f o r the f i r s t harvest of orchardgrass than the r e s t of the cuttings because the f i r s t cut i s usually taken at the heading stage whereas other harvests are taken during the vegetative growth stage. (iii)  Total Phosphorus i n Forage  Total P in forage grasses ranges from 0.14 to 0.50% (Wedin, 1974).  27  Approximately 0.30% i s required f o r the maintenance of grazing animals (Baylor, 1974).  The concentration of P i n orchardgrass pasture was  highest in early spring (0.40%), decreased s l i g h t l y by l a t e spring, and then remained f a i r l y constant (0.25 to 0.30%) (Reynolds et_ al_., 1971). Several researchers found that %P decreased as the amount of N f e r t i l i z a t i o n increased (Gardner et_ aJL, 1960; Mortensen et_ al_., 1964; Dotzenko and Henderson, 1964; Reynolds et_ al_., 1971).  However, y i e l d and  uptake of P by orchardgrass increased (Gardner et_ al_., 1960; Singh et a l . , 1967). With manure a p p l i c a t i o n s , %P response i s i n c o n s i s t e n t .  Mcintosh  and Varney (1972) found a small but s i g n i f i c a n t decrease in %P of corn with increasing N from c a t t l e manure.  Papanos and Brown (1950) found that  %P remained constant at 0.3% P regardless of manure treatment.  In Georgia,  the %P in fescue pastures f e r t i l i z e d with poultry l i t t e r increased 50% from 0.36% P with no poultry l i t t e r to 0.49% P where poultry l i t t e r was applied (Jones et al_., 1973).  Parker (1966) found that the poultry manure  rates of 18 and 26.9 t/ha on orchardgrass-clover supplied P in excess of crop needs. ( i v ) Total Potassium in Forage Wedin (1974) indicates that a range of 1 to 4% K i s normal f o r c o o l season grasses.  Concentrations above 1.6 to 1.7% K i n orchardgrass  represents luxury consumption of K (Hemmingway, 1963).  The highest concen-  t r a t i o n s of K are found in the e a r l y spring in orchardgrass, decreasing to a low in the l a t e spring and increasing again during the summer (Reynolds et al_., 1971). Potassium f e r t i l i z a t i o n , N a p p l i c a t i o n s and Na a l l a f f e c t the percentage  28  of K in orchardgrass and orchardgrass-clover mixtures.  Potassium f e r -  t i l i z a t i o n increased the K content in both pure stands and mixtures. Percent potassium was increased by K f e r t i l i z a t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e of N treatment ( G r i f f i t h e_t al_., 1964).  Potassium in orchardgrass  tissue  decreased when N was the only f e r t i l i z e r applied ( G r i f f i t h et_ al_., 1964; D u e l l , 1965; Hemmingway, 1963).  Hemmingway (1963) found that in N-only  treatments, the K content s t e a d i l y declined with each cut of forage. the f i r s t year,.:% K declined from 1.50% to 1.38% K.  By the end of the  three years, the percentage K in the N-only treated orchardgrass decreased to 0.40% K.  In  had  G r i f f i t h et_ al_. (1965) suggested that there was a  loose inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between Na and K content.  Nitrogen f e r t i l i z a -  t i o n raised the Na content while percentage K decreased.  They i n d i c a t e  i t may be due to an i n s u f f i c i e n t supply of K to cope with the increased y i e l d s associated with N a p p l i c a t i o n s . Potassium in grass t i s s u e increased due to manure a p p l i c a t i o n s (Vandepopul i e r e et aJL, 1975; Drysdale and Strachen, 1966; Jones et_ al_., 1973a). Vandepopul i e r e et al_. (1975) found that % K i n fescue t i s s u e increased from 1.86% K in the check to 4.50% K where 89.8 tonnes of poultry manure/ha rate.  Drysdale and Strachen (1966) found increasing % K in grass with  increasing manure r a t e s .  The l i q u i d manure used had a N:K r a t i o of 1.0:1.7  and therefore supplied K in excess of that required f o r normal plant growth. If the N:K r a t i o was higher (e.g. 4:1 as i t i s in some poultry manure), the manure would not supply s u f f i c i e n t K f o r optimum plant growth when applied at rates to meet the N demand of the crop.  When the a v a i l a b l e s o i l K was  depleted, % K in the forage decreased s i m i l a r to the r e s u l t s reported by Hemmingway  (1963).  29  (v) Total Ca, Mg and Na in Forage Ranges f o r Ca and Mg i n cool-season grasses ranged from 0.28 to 2.50% and 0.06 to 0.73% r e s p e c t i v e l y (Wedin, 1974).  Both % Ca and %  Mg in orchardgrass tend to increase in the spring and level o f f and remain constant through the rest of the growing season (Todd, 1961; Reynolds et a]_., 1971). The responses of Ca and Mg to f e r t i l i z a t i o n with N and K were inconsistent.  Generally, K f e r t i l i z a t i o n tended to depress Ca and Mg concen-  t r a t i o n in orchardgrass, p a r t i c u l a r l y Mg (Todd, 1961; Gardner et a l . , 1960; Wedin, 1974).  The response of Mg content i n orchardgrass to N  f e r t i l i z a t i o n was v a r i a b l e from year to year and shows no.consistent pattern (Todd, 1961.). Jones et a l . (1973a) and Vandepopuliere et al_. (1975), reported that s l i g h t increases of Ca and Mg content in t i s s u e occurred with the a p p l i c a t i o n of poultry manure ( l i t t e r ) on fescue pastures.  Jackson et a l .  (1975) observed that heavy rates of b r o i l e r l i t t e r resulted in large q u a n t i t i e s of extractable K in acid s o i l p r o f i l e s while extractable Ca and Mg were depleted.  They f e l t t h i s may contribute to the p o t e n t i a l  grass tetany hazard in c a t t l e grazing fescue pastures heavily manured with poultry l i t t e r . Grass tetany i s a metabolic disorder of ruminants where intake of Mg i s too low (Grunes et_ aj_., 1970; Grunes, 1973). to as "hypomagnesmic"  tetany.  It i s often referred  Spring or f a l l conditions when there i s  cool weather or when a period of cool weather i s followed by warmer conditions i s usually when the incidence of tetany i s greatest (Grunes et a l . , 1970).  Percent Mg, K/Ca Mg r a t i o (meq basis) and excessive % N in  30  the forage have a l l been suggested as i n d i c a t o r s of "tetany prone" forage (Grunes et al_., 1970; Grunes, 1973; Jones et_ al_., 1973b).  Grass  forage with a K/Ca + Mg r a t i o (meq basis) exceeding 2.2 i s considered "tetany prone".  High K/Ca + Mg r a t i o s usually are more common i n the  spring and/or f a l l  (Grunes, 1973).  B r o i l e r l i t t e r appears to enhance the  K content without increasing the Ca or Mg content, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the spring period when both cows and grass are "tetany prone" (Wilkinson et al_., 1971).  However, they found that when the r a t i o exceeded 3.0 no  c l i n i c a l symptoms of grass tetany occurred in the c a t t l e . Mg l e v e l s of 0.20% and greater are considered safe l e v e l s in forage. Grunes (1973) suggests that i f Mg l e v e l s are maintained at high l e v e l s (in excess of 0.20%), ruminants should not s u f f e r from Mg d e f i c i e n c y even though K and N in the forage may be high. N are considered "tetany prone".  Forages containing excessive  Jones et aj_. (1973b) found that 3.8% N  or more in forage increased the l i k e l i h o o d of grass tetany. Jones e_t al_. (1973a) and Stuedeman et_ al_v (1975) indicated that fescue pastures f e r t i l i z e d with poultry manure ( l i t t e r ) have a greater tendency f o r tetany than moderately f e r t i l i z e d forage.  Mature cows grazing on these  pastures could be susceptible to grass tetany i f there was no other source of Mg in the d i e t . Orchardgrass has a high Na content r e l a t i v e to other grass species (Loehr, 1960; G r i f f i t h et al_., 1960).  Although no normal range i s given,  Loehr (1960) suggests that 0.16% Na in forage i s the requirement f o r dairy cattle.  Drysdale and Strachen (1966) found that the Na content of ryegrass  and white c l o v e r was high at the f i r s t c u t , decreased during midseason, and increased again by f a l l .  31  As mentioned above, there i s a rough inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between Na and K content in orchardgrass.  Butler (1963), according to G r i f f i t h  et_al_. (1965), indicated that the low herbage Na was not always accompanied by a high K content. ( v i ) N i t r a t e in Forage As f a r as i s known, n i t r a t e accumulation i s not i n j u r i o u s to the plant, but high l e v e l s of n i t r a t e in forage are t o x i c to ruminants and Davison, 1964).  (Wright  Ingested n i t r a t e i s reduced to n i t r i t e in the rumen  and is r e a d i l y absorbed through the g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t i n t o the blood stream.  Once in the blood, n i t r i t e reacts with the oxyhemoglobin o x i d i z i n g 3+  2+  Fe  to Fe  to form methemoglobin.  When t h i s occurs the oxyhemoglobin  loses i t s a b i l i t y to transport and release 0^ to the body and death can occur by asphyxiation (Williams et al_., 1972; Wright and Davison,  1964).  Various l e v e l s of n i t r a t e have been indicated as p o t e n t i a l l y t o x i c to ruminants.  Murphy and Smith (1967) suggest that 0.07% (700 ppm) n i t r a t e - N  and above may be t o x i c to l i v e s t o c k i f that forage i s the only feed consumed.  Ryan et a_l_. (1972) set 0.15% n i t r a t e - N as the safe l e v e l .  Williams  et al_. (1972) i n d i c a t e that ruminants may s u f f e r from acute or chronic nitrate toxicity.  N i t r a t e l e v e l s i n excess of 0.2% n i t r a t e - N can cause  acute t o x i c i t y usually r e s u l t i n g in death.  Chronic t o x i c i t y i s associated  with l e v e l s below 0.2% n i t r a t e - N but greater than 0.07% n i t r a t e - N .  Wright  and Davison (1964) f e l t that n i t r a t e concentrations between 0.34 and 0.45% n i t r a t e - N were p o t e n t i a l l y t o x i c . N i t r a t e accumulates i n pasture plants when the s o i l supplies n i t r a t e f a s t e r than i t can be assimilated into protein by the p l a n t .  Factors that  a f f e c t t h i s are: excess N f e r t i l i z a t i o n , drought, cloudiness  (shading),  32  herbicides, s o i l n u t r i e n t imbalances, plant p a r t , and kind and age of the plant (Wright and Davison, 1964; Williams et al_., 1972).  Excessive  N, s o i l imbalances and kind and age of the plant are the main factors considered here.  Deficiencies of K, P and S may i n h i b i t protein synthesis  in the plant and promote n i t r a t e accumulation.  This i s u n l i k e l y to occur  in pastures heavily f e r t i l i z e d with poultry manure or l i t t e r (Williams ejt al_.,' 1972). Excessive N f e r t i l i z a t i o n has been associated with increased n i t r a t e concentrations (Dotzenko and Henderson, 1964; George e_t al_., 1973; Murphy and Smith, 1967; Crawford et al_. , 1961).  F e r t i l i z e r rates of 448 and 672  kg N/ha produced maximum n i t r a t e l e v e l s in excess of 0.40% n i t r a t e - N (Reynolds et aj_., 1971).  George et aJL (1973) found 0.63% n i t r a t e - N in  orchardgrass f e r t i l i z e d with 1344 kg N/ha.  They suggest that the r i s k  of n i t r a t e t o x i c i t y (using 0.15% n i t r a t e - N as the p o t e n t i a l l y t o x i c l e v e l ) may e x i s t during the spring and midsummer with orchardgrass when topdressed with at l e a s t 84 kg N/ha/cut. Summer annuals, c e r t a i n weeds and cool-season grasses are l i s t e d as n i t r a t e accumulators (Wright and Davison, 1964). age of the plant can be c r i t i c a l .  With the grasses, the  Reid et/al_. (1966) reported lower  n i t r a t e l e v e l s in J u l y regrowth than in May regrowth.  Reynolds et a l . •  (1971) found that n i t r a t e concentrations were not as high in the second h a l f of the growing season as in the f i r s t h a l f .  George et aj_. (1973)  found that n i t r a t e l e v e l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower f o r orchardgrass during periods of rapid growth and high y i e l d .  harvested  Concentrations reached a  maximum during the July and August c u t t i n g dates when temperature and moisture stress reduced the y i e l d s .  Wilkinson et al_. (1971),.,using poultry  l i t t e r on fescue pastures, found n i t r a t e l e v e l s below 0.20% n i t r a t e - N  33  u n t i l August when concentrations of 0.33% n i t r a t e - N were observed u n t i l November.  Lund et_ al_. (1975), working with c a t t l e manure, reported  that the organic N content in coastal bermudagrass  increased u n t i l i t was  about 2.5% at which point n i t r a t e accumulation proceeded very r a p i d l y . The above ranges of n i t r a t e concentrations are considered as " p o t e n t i a l l y " t o x i c to ruminants.  Health and type of ruminant and the  percentage of the " p o t e n t i a l l y " t o x i c forage consumed in the animals d i e t are some of the conditions which a f f e c t the forage's t o x i c i t y to the ruminant.  Wilkinson e_t al_. (1971) found n i t r a t e l e v e l s of 0.33% from  August to November in manured fescue pastures, yet reported no c l i n i c a l signs of n i t r a t e t o x i c i t y in the c a t t l e grazing i t . Gorden et_ al_. (1962), according to George et al_. (1973),  suggested  that economic considerations should be a greater concern than n i t r a t e t o x i c i t y in s e t t i n g upper l i m i t s to N f e r t i l i z a t i o n f o r orchardgrass. Optimum y i e l d s usually occurred at concentrations equal to or less than 0.15% n i t r a t e - N (George et_ al_., '1973).  Drought conditions and N a p p l i c a -  tions a f t e r each harvest are possible exceptions.  e) Rate Comparisons Some rates of poultry manure a p p l i c a t i o n in r e l a t i o n to c e r t a i n aspects of y i e l d and botanical composition have been mentioned.  N appears to be  the best constituent on which to base a p p l i c a t i o n rates of poultry manure. Generally, higher rates of poultry manure are applied to s o i l when disposal rather than e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n i s the o b j e c t i v e .  The land requirements  f o r e f f i c i e n t use of poultry manure on corn i s twice as much as f o r the maximum a p p l i c a t i o n of N which w i l l not reduce y i e l d s or cause water  34  p o l l u t i o n (Jones, 1969).  Ten thousand laying hens in one year w i l l  produce approximately 5670 kg N and w i l l require 40.5 ha f o r crop u t i l i z ation and only 20.2 ha f o r p o l l u t i o n control (Jones, 1969).  The same land  requirements are necessary f o r 100,000 b r o i l e r s over 10 weeks, excreting 7030 kg N. Hileman (1965) suggested that 18 t of poultry manure/ha/year i s the maximum disposal rate and 9 t/ha/year i s the optimum rate f o r crop u t i l i z ation.  Parker (1966) found that 9 t . o f poultry manure/ha/year gave the  biggest y i e l d increase of orchardgrass-clover forage per tonne of manure applied.  Increases in y i e l d s t i l l occurred at 18 and 26.9 t/ha/year  rates but the N was not used as e f f i c i e n t l y .  Perkins and Parker (1971)  indicated that 6.7 to 9 t/ha/year of poultry manure maintained an adequate supply of the most important elements f o r crop growth.  Nine t/ha of-  poultry l i t t e r on fescue pastures has been suggested as the rate which supplies adequate nutrients and minimizes grass tetany and n i t r a t e t o x i c i t y (Williams et al_., 1972).  C. Nitrogen Balance 1. N Balance in Grassland and Grass/Glover Swards The N balance of a grass/clover sward adapted from Whitehead (1970) is shown in Figure 1.  Manure additions and symbiotic f i x a t i o n of N by  clover ( i f present) are the major N additions to the system.  N fixation  by non-symbiotic b a c t e r i a and additions to the s o i l by r a i n f a l l , e t c . , are of minor importance, e s p e c i a l l y i f large amounts of manure N are a p p l i e d .  35  ATMOSPHERIC N  N REMOVED IN CUT 'HERBAGE  N0  3  N IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER  IN SOIL  POULTRY MANURE N  LOSS BY NH VOLATILIZATION 3  FIXED N H BY CLAY MINERALS 4  Figure 1.  N balance i n a Grass/Clover Sward F e r t i l i z e d with Poultry Manure. A: N f i x a t i o n by symbiotic Rhizobium; B: N f i x a t i o n by free l i v i n g b a c t e r i a ; C: Ammonification; D: N i t r i f i c a t i o n ; E: D e n t r i f i c a t i o n ; F: Additions of N from the atmosphere. Modified from Whitehead, 1970.  36  In s o i l s d e f i c i e n t in N and where low rates of N are a p p l i e d , these l a t t e r additions may be important ( A l l i s o n , 1966). A l l i s o n (1955) indicated that accurate values f o r f e r t i l i z e r  (manure)  additions can be determined but legume f i x a t i o n values are a problem. Whitehead (1970) f e e l s that estimates of symbiotic N f i x a t i o n in grass,legume mixes can be made.  He suggests up to 252 kg N/ha/year can be f i x e d  by clover in a clover/grass sward. ferred to the grass.  Of t h i s , 101 kg N/ha/year can be t r a n s -  The t r a n s f e r of N i s usually by the decomposition  of c l o v e r roots and nodule t i s s u e .  There i s some evidence of the l i v i n g  roots exuding organic compounds containing N (Whitehead, 1972).  Little  t r a n s f e r takes place in the establishment year of a grass/clover sward presumably because the c l o v e r i s using a l l the N f i x e d and there i s very l i t t l e root decomposition (Whitehead, 1970). The losses from the system (Figure 1) include crop removal, leaching, d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n , ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n and ammonium immobilization by c e r t a i n clay minerals.  Under normal f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s , crop removal,  leaching and d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n are the major losses.  Ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n  can be s i g n i f i c a n t when manure i s the source of N, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t i s surface applied and not incorporated ( A l l i s o n , 1955; Adriano et al_., 1974; Lauer et al_., 1976).  Although most mechanisms f o r losses are known,  q u a n t i t a t i v e data r e l a t i n g to each type of loss are inadequate ( A l l i s o n , 1955). N recovery by the crop under average f i e l d conditions often i s no greater than 50 to 60% of the applied N even i f immobilization of N in the s o i l i s taken into account ( A l l i s o n , 1966).  Wedin (1974) found that 69,  83 and 84% of the N applied to orchardgrass was recovered when applied at  37  rates of 269, 90 and 180 kg N/ha/year, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  2. Methods of Determining N Balance 15 N  t r a c e r techniques and the more common nontracer d i f f e r e n c e method  are the two major techniques used in determining N balances in the f i e l d ( A l l i s o n , 1966).  The d i f f e r e n c e method considers only the N recovered in  the crop or series of crops subtracting the values f o r the control from the treated p l o t s .  S o i l gains may be included.  Although not exactly  comparable, the simpler difference method often y i e l d s r e s u l t s that agree favourably to the t r a c e r method except when there i s excessive b i o l o g i c a l or chemical t i e - u p of N in the s o i l ( A l l i s o n , 1966).  The d i f f e r e n c e method  i s a c t u a l l y preferred when p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s not r e q u i r i n g extreme accuracy are needed. Tests have shown that N recoveries in crops plus s o i l i s r a r e l y greater than 95% of the applied N and values of 70 to 95% are more common. It is not unusual f o r recovery values to be as low as 50 to 60% ( A l l i s o n , 1955; A l l i s o n , 1966).  Values of 5 to 25% N not recovered are so common they  represent real s o i l losses and not experimental error ( A l l i s o n , 1966). These losses are most l i k e l y to occur from leaching and d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n , although ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n may be s i g n i f i c a n t in c e r t a i n circumstances. Olsen e_t al_. (1970) determined the percent manure N recovered from an uncropped s o i l by subtracting the sum of n i t r a t e , n i t r i t e , ammonium, and organic N in the check from the sum of these values in the treated s o i l s . Mathers and Stewart (1974) determined % N recovered from c a t t l e f e e d l o t manure applied to corn.  The N recovered included the increase of the  manured plots over the check in t o t a l N removed by the crop, n i t r a t e  38  accumulation in the p r o f i l e , and t o t a l N changes in the surface 30 cm of the s o i l .  At the lower manure rates (22 and 44 t/ha), the N added  was accounted f o r but at the higher rates large amounts of N could not be accounted.  Mathers and Stewart (1974) suggest that considerable  losses of N occurred probably by ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n and d e n i t r i f i c a t i o n from the heavily manured p l o t s . Variations in manure composition and increased ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n make N balance sheets of manure N under f i e l d conditions even more d i f f i c u l t than under normal f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s (Mathers and Stewart, 1974).  39  III  MATERIALS AND METHODS  A. S i t e Description The study s i t e was established in A p r i l 1975, in the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y of Chilliwhack on a gray gleysol of the Grigg series clay loam).  (silty  Grigg s o i l was derived from floodplain^.deposits of the  Fraser River with good inherent f e r t i l i t y (Comar et al_., 1962).  Some  chemical properties of the s o i l at the experimental s i t e p r i o r to the i n i t i a l manure a p p l i c a t i o n are given in Table II.  In general, Grigg s o i l  i s poorly drained, but the experimental s i t e was adjacent to a drainage d i t c h on a s l i g h t l y raised portion of the f i e l d which improved the drainage.  In December of both years, the water table rose to w i t h i n 90  cm of the surface but during the growing season the water table was well below t h i s depth. The climate of the area i s inshore maritime (Comar e_t a l . . , 1962). During the growing season (May to September), crop growth i s often r e s t r i c ted due to a moisture d e f i c i t .  During the two years of the study, p r e c i p -  i t a t i o n data from the C h i l l i w a c k Gibson Road Climatological Station show that in one h a l f of the growing season months of May through September (1975 and 1976), r a i n f a l l was less than 50 mm per month. these months (July 1976) occurred in 1975. than 50 mm of r a i n f a l l .  A l l but one of  In 1975, only August had more  Mean temperatures over the period of May to Septem-  ber were approximately the same - 15.7°C and 15.0°C f o r 1975 and 1976, respectively.  P r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature data in d e t a i l are presented  in Appendix Table A l .  Table II:  Chemical properties of the Grigg s o i l at the experimental s i t e .  pH i n CaCl  Available P ppm  Total N  CEC  0-15  4.74  87.5  0.219  26.61  0.45  10.98  8.35  15-30  4.78  67.0  0.182  24.66  0.37  10.51  9.21  30-45  4.83  10.5  0.078  20.11  0.08  9.49  14.59  45-60  4.82  7.2  0.054  19.07  0.05  8.98  19.14  60-75  4.84  8.4  0.040  16.94  0.05  7.95  18.98  75-90  4.85  9.8  0.031  14.06  0.05  6.60  17.19  Depth cm  2  K  Ca  Mg  --meq/100 g —  1. Average of the four blocks; 20 cores/block  41  B. F i e l d Work Plots measuring 3.05 m by 6.10 m were established on A p r i l 15, 1975 in a randomized complete block design with four blocks.  Each r e p l i c a t i o n  contained poultry manure treatments of 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha, a f e r t i l i z e r p l o t and a control p l o t .  The manure rates were based  on the manure as i t came from the bag not on a dry weight b a s i s .  The  poultry manure was applied..before seeding and incorporated into the s o i l by raking.  Seeding of the plots with orchardgrass  (Dactylis glomerata  L.)  and Ladino (white) c l o v e r ( T r i f o l i u m repens) mixture was done w i t h i n three days of manure a p p l i c a t i o n .  Problems with the percent c l o v e r in the  f e r t i l i z e r p l o t s and an i n s u f f i c i e n t amount of N applied in 1976 made any comparisons between the manure rates and the f e r t i l i z e r treatment i n v a l i d . Therefore, the r e s u l t s of the f e r t i l i z e r treatment have been omitted from the discussion. In 1976 ( A p r i l 5), the manure plots were halved in width from 3.05 m to 1.525 m.  The length remained at 6.10 m.  On one h a l f of the s p l i t plots  a s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n of poultry manure was surface applied onto the established forage stand at the same rate as in 1975.  On the other h a l f  of the p l o t s the a p p l i c a t i o n rate was the same, but was divided into three equal a p p l i c a t i o n s , once in the spring ( A p r i l 5) and once a f t e r the f i r s t two harvests.  In 1976 the manure was surface applied to the established  sward. In 1975, forage y i e l d s were obtained on J u l y 2 and August 21.  In  1976 there were four c u t t i n g dates - May 18, June 18, J u l y 27 and September 9.  The same harvest technique was applied to a l l cuts in both years.  An  87 cm swath was cut lengthwise down the middle of each p l o t and the sample  42  was removed and weighed immediately.  A weighed subsample was taken f o r  determination of dry matter y i e l d and chemical a n a l y s i s .  The rest of  the p l o t was then cut and the forage removed. Following both growing seasons, s o i l samples were taken with an Oakfield probe to a depth of 90 cm (November 25, 1975 and December 15, 1976).  Ten cores per sample were taken when the sampling depth was 15 cm  (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm) and f i v e cores per sample when the sampling depth was 30 cm (30-60 cm and 60-90 cm).  Soil samples were s i m i l a r l y c o l l e c t e d  p r i o r to the manure a p p l i c a t i o n in 1976 to check f o r residual n i t r a t e s .  C. Laboratory Procedures 1. Poultry Manure Poultry manure was obtained from an egg producer near Aldergrove. The hens were housed in a h i g h - r i s e poultry house with a concrete f l o o r . The poultry droppings f a l l to the f l o o r where they are p a r t i a l l y dried by e l e c t r i c fans c i r c u l a t i n g a i r over the p i l e s .  Approximately once a year  the manure was removed from the house, ground by hammer-mill and bagged for sale to home gardeners.  The manure was dry enough to handle and  spread, e a s i l y with l i t t l e or no odor problem. A subsample from each bag of manure used was taken in the f i e l d before a p p l i c a t i o n and was frozen immediately upon return to the l a b .  The sample  was kept frozen u n t i l the analysis was to be done, then i t was thawed and analyzed wet.  Moisture content was determined by drying a thawed sample  for 24 hours at 80°C in a forced a i r oven.  A l l values recorded were on a  43  dry weight basis.  A modified dry ashing procedure f o r organic materials  was used f o r the e x t r a c t i o n of P, K, Ca, Mg and Na (Jackson,.1956; and Jones, 1972; Walsh and Beaton, 1973).  Isaac  The samples were ashed one  hour at 300°C and at l e a s t seven hours at 450 to 480°C.  Following the  ashing, the elements were extracted with 3 ml of IN HNO^ followed by 5 ml of 2N HCI.  Potassium, Ca, Mg and Na concentrations were determined with  the Perkin-Elmer 330 atomic absorption u n i t .  Phosphorus was determined  c o l o u r i m e t r i c a l l y using the Molybdenum Blue Method (Fisk and Subbarow, 1925, according to Chapman and P r a t t , 1961).  Total N was extracted by  acid digestion at 420°C and determined c o l o u r i m e t r i c a l l y by a Technicon Autoanalyzer II  (Technicon,.1975).  Total N did not include n i t r a t e s .  2. Plant Material Plant samples were brought in from the f i e l d in paper bags and dried at 70°C in a forced a i r oven f o r 24; hours.  The plant material was ground  in a s t a i n l e s s steel Wiley m i l l to pass a 2 mm sieve and stored in p l a s t i c containers.  In 1975 the clover and orchardgrass were analyzed together  and a separate sample was taken f o r the determination of the percent c l o v e r (second cut o n l y ) .  In 1976, when there was c l o v e r present, the grass and  clover components were hand separated p r i o r to drying and chemical a n a l y s i s . The percentage of each component was then determined on a dry weight basis and each component was analyzed separately. The elements analyzed and procedures used f o r the plant material were i d e n t i c a l to those used f o r the poultry manure, except that n i t r a t e content was determined on the plant samples.  N i t r a t e was extracted in a 10:1 water  to plant sample r a t i o , shaken f o r 30 minutes and f i l t e r e d .  N i t r a t e was  44  determined using the Cadmium reduction method with a Technicon Autoanalyzer II  3. S o i l  (Technicon, 1972).  Samples  The s o i l samples were brought from the f i e l d in paper bags and immediately dried at 55°C in a forced a i r oven f o r 24 hours.  The samples  were ground in a Hewitt s o i l grinder to pass a 2 mm sieve and stored in a i r t i g h t p l a s t i c containers. N i t r a t e and ammonium were extracted according to Bremner and Keeney (1963) using 2N KC1 at a 10:1, KC1 to dry weight of s o i l r a t i o .  Nitrate  was determined c o l o r i m e t r i c a l l y using the same procedure as f o r the plant samples.  Ammonium was determined c o l o r i m e t r i c a l l y by the same procedure  as f o r t o t a l N determinations of the poultry manure and plant m a t e r i a l . Total s o i l N was determined s i m i l a r l y to the t o t a l N determinations of the poultry manure and plant m a t e r i a l .  D. N Balance Determination The % N recovered f o r the manured plots was determined by the d i f f e r e n c e method according to A l l i s o n (1966) and Mathers and Stewart (1974).  It was  c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : % N accounted f o r = N, removed by grass and clover plus n i t r a t e - N in 0-90 cm plus t o t a l N 0-15 cm at a given manure rate N added in the manure  N f o r the same components in the control  45  For a l l but the 20 and 40 t/ha plots in 1975 and the 40 t/ha plots i n 1976, the N removed by the crop i s the only component used. Total N and n i t r a t e values recorded as kg/ha were determined using 0.95 g/cm  3  as the bulk density in the surface 30 cm and 1.25 g/cm  the 30 to 90 cm zone.  3  in  The surface bulk density was based on a leaching  column study in the lab using the Grigg s o i l (Safo, personal communication, 1978) and values given in the l i t e r a t u r e (Adams ejt al_., 1960; Soanes, 1970; Flocker et aJL, 1958).  The value of 1.47 g/cm  3  (2 x 10  6  kg/hectare  furrow s l i c e ) often used i s f a r too high f o r surface a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s 3 as values of 1.20 to 1.50 g/cm  have been shown to i n h i b i t i n g crop y i e l d s  (Flocker et al_., 1958).  E. S t a t i s t i c s Percentage n u t r i e n t values and y i e l d were subjected to analysis of variance treatments and s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s at the 0.05 level were graphed using c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( L i t t l e and H i l l s , 1975).  Regression  equations s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 and 0.01 level are reported.  Soil nitrate  l e v e l s were subjected to an analysis of variance treatment and LSD values were determined at the 0.05 l e v e l .  46  IV  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  A. Manure Composition Mean values, rangesof concentrations and the c o e f f i c i e n t s of v a r i a t i o n of the n u t r i e n t elements and moisture content of the poultry manure are given in Table i l l . The N supplied by the d i f f e r e n t rates of manure in 1975 and 1976 i s l i s t e d in  Table IV.  ;  Moisture content, % Ca,  and % Na of the poultry manure were s i m i l a r in both 1975 and 1976. N, P, K and Mg percentages were a l l lower in 1976 than in 1975.  The  In 1976  the v a r i a b i l i t y of the manure composition among bags was between three and ten times greater than in 1975.  Higher moisture content in several  of the bags accounted f o r the greater v a r i a b i l i t y in 1976.  Nitrogen showed  the greatest increase in v a r i a b i l i t y and Ca the lowest. Generally, aged manure from the h i g h - r i s e poultry house produced a comparatively consistent source of nutrients (Table I I I ) .  Within a given  year (or batch of manure removed from the house), the n u t r i e n t v a r i a b i l i t y was low, p a r t i c u l a r l y in 1975.  Nitrogen concentrations in the manure  remained high even though the manure was dried and stored in the p i t at l e a s t one year.  The N:P:K r a t i o of the manure i n d i c a t e s that K may become  l i m i t i n g i f the manure i s applied at rates to meet the N requirements of most crops.  B. Y i e l d Analysis of variance f o r dry matter forage y i e l d s in 1975 and 1976  Table III:  Manure composition  % Moisture  %N  _________ o y r  1975  %P %K %Ca Weight Basis  %Mg ---  %Na  0.72-  0.51  4.1  3.6  1  Mean Coefficient of Variation  1976  22.50  5.08  2.51  2.02  7.4  3.7  5.4  6.1  5.92 10.1  Range  20.2827.34  4 . 6 3 - 2 . 2 7 - 1 . 8 4 - 4.775.45 2.82 2.30 7.63  0.660.78  0.470.55  Mean  23.10  3.53  0.58  0.45  Coefficient of V a r i a t i o n  30.0  2  Range  ^Mean of 31 samples 2 Mean of 29 samples  18.3333.33  1.60 • 1J44  39.11 35.0  30.4  5.60 30.6  1.96-1.10-1.25-4.576.10 2.40 2.01 7.49  28.5 0.480.74  28.9 0.400.56  48  are given in Appendix Tables BI and B2.  Total y i e l d s and the i n d i v i d u a l  y i e l d t o t a l s f o r each harvest f o r both years are also l i s t e d (Appendix Tables CI and C2).  The control y i e l d s are l i s t e d in Appendix Tables CI  and C2 but are not included in the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  In 1975, the  control produced a mean forage y i e l d per cut of 1.54 t/ha and a t o t a l dry matter y i e l d of 3.08 t/ha. in the forage.  This high value i s due to the legume component  In 1976 the t o t a l y i e l d of the control was the same as  the 1.25 t/ha treatments.  Again, the reason f o r t h i s v/as the c o n t r i -  bution of the c l o v e r component in the stand. In 1975, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t mean y i e l d response to manure t r e a t ment (Figure 2).  Mean y i e l d values increased from 1.91 to 3.53 tonnes of  dry matter/ha f o r the 1.25 and 40 t/ha manure treatments, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Although mean y i e l d values increased with manure treatment, there was a t e n - f o l d decrease in the forage y i e l d increase per tonne of poultry manure as the rate of manure increased.  The mean dry matter increase per tonne  of manure was 200, 112, 64, 36 and 21 kg of dry matter forage per hectare, r e s p e c t i v e l y , for 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha of poultry manure.  The y i e l d  increase per tonne of manure i s approximately halved as the manure rate i s doubled.  Above the 2.5 t/ha treatment, the a d d i t i o n a l manure produced an  increase in grass y i e l d and a decrease in clover y i e l d and content. o v e r a l l sward s t i l l  The  showed an increase in y i e l d above the 2.5 t/ha treatment  because the dry matter y i e l d of the c l o v e r decreased at a slower rate than the grass y i e l d s increased.  The 2.5 t/ha rate of poultry manure supplied  98.5 kg N/ha in 1975 (Table IV).  Manure rates of between f i v e and ten  t/ha/year would supply a range of N which would optimize the forage mixture y i e l d s without a complete removal of the clover component.  6t7  Table IV: N supplied by manure treatments in 1975 and 1976  Year  1975  Manure Treatment t/ha  1.25  49.0  2.5  98.5  5.0  1976  N Supplied by the Manure kg/ha  197  10  394  20  787  40  1575  1.25  33.9  2.5  67.8  5.0  136  10  272  20  543  40  1086  51  The 1976 t o t a l y i e l d s were considerably higher than in 1975. would be expected as the sward was a new stand in 1975.  This  In 1976 the  poultry manure was surface applied rather than incorporated and there was no c l o v e r in the heavily manured p l o t s .  There was an a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r  of method of a p p l i c a t i o n (single versus s p l i t ) in 1976.  For a l l cuts and  both methods, except:the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n method on the second c u t , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d response to manure treatment. The f i r s t cut produced the highest y i e l d s , between 30 and 50% of the t o t a l y i e l d in less than one-fourth of the growing season.  The s i n g l e  a p p l i c a t i o n of manure produced forage y i e l d s of 5.97 and 6.03 t/ha of dry matter at the 5 and 10 t/ha treatments, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The dry matter  produced at the 20 and 40 t/ha manure treatments was s i m i l a r to the y i e l d s obtained at the 2.5 and 1.25 t/ha r a t e s .  Excessive soluble s a l t s , free  ammonia t o x i c i t y , smothering of the forage and/or ammonium induced cation d e f i c i e n c i e s were a l l possible mechanisms which caused the y i e l d reductions at the 10, 20 and 40 t/ha manure treatments.  Soluble s a l t s can reduce  y i e l d s by up to 20% without any noticeable damage to the p l a n t s .  Free  ammonia a f f e c t s the roots and possibly the crown of the grass, reducing yields.  Ammonium can induce a cation d e f i c i e n c y such as Ca which causes  terminal bud malfunction r e s t r i c t i n g the i n i t i a l plant growth.  Smothering  of the forage can also reduce growth i f the forage remains covered long enough.  A s i m i l a r decrease at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments occurred at  the second harvest, s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n method.  The s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n did not  cover the f o l i a g e s u f f i c i e n t l y , - p a r t i c u l a r l y at the 20 t/ha r a t e , f o r smothering to be a cause of the y i e l d reduction.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t  reduction in the cation concentration of the orchardgrass  f o r any s i n g l e  52  treated p l o t at the f i r s t c u t , so an ammonium induced d e f i c i e n c y was unlikely.  The % P concentration was unaffected by manure a p p l i c a t i o n at  the f i r s t harvest.  Thus a reduction of P a v a i l a b i l i t y as a r e s u l t of  s a l t or ammonia increasing the pH was also u n l i k e l y to have been respons i b l e f o r the y i e l d decreases.  Free ammonia t o x i c i t y or a general s a l t  e f f e c t due to r a i s i n g of the osmotic pressure of the s o l u t i o n around the roots of the grass or w i t h i n the p l a n t , was the most l i k e l y cause of the y i e l d reduction. Adverse e f f e c t s of the manure at the high a p p l i c a t i o n rates were modified at the i n i t i a l manure a p p l i c a t i o n date because of two intense r a i n f a l l s w i t h i n two weeks of a p p l i c a t i o n , when 22.10 and 23.88 mm of r a i n fell.  The high i n t e n s i t y of t h i s r a i n could have been s u f f i c i e n t to pre-  vent permanent damage.  The orchardgrass at these high manure treatments  was reduced i;n t o t a l y i e l d only at the 40 t/ha treatment.  The p o t e n t i a l  f o r crop damage or complete crop f a i l u r e i s high, p a r t i c u l a r l y when a p p l i cations of heavy rates of poultry manure are applied during dry periods or l a t e r in the growing season. The 40 t/ha s p l i t manure a p p l i c a t i o n produced the highest y i e l d s at the f i r s t cut.  This was a 47% increase over t h e d r y matter produced at 1  the 1.25 t/ha manure treatment.  Diminishing increases in the dry matter  produced per tonne of manure occurred at rates above 2.5 t/ha.  However, a  substantial increase in dry matter y i e l d per tonne of manure was s t i l l obtained at the 5 t/ha treatment (Figure 3).  Pure established orchardgrass  stands have been found to require between 170 and 340 kg N/ha/year f o r optimum y i e l d responses  (Wedin, 1974).  Only the 10 t/ha treatment supplied  t o t a l N w i t h i n that range (271 kg N/ha, Table IV).  Cool, wet c l i m a t i c  /  /  SINGLE APPLICATION SPLIT APPLICATION  —A-  • » Significant at the O.OI level • Significant at the 0.05 level J  L  1.25 2.5  5  10 MANURE  Figure 3.  20 TREATMENT  40 (tonnes/hectare)  F i r s t Cut, 1976 - T o t a l Y i e l d as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of A p p l i c a t i o n  54  conditions and the c l o v e r present in the two lower manure treatment plots may have accounted f o r the optimum y i e l d response at the lower manure treatments. The second cut produced the lowest y i e l d of any harvest f o r both a p p l i c a t i o n methods in 1976.  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d response to  manure treatment f o r the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n method only (Figure 4).  The  response was s i m i l a r to the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t cut with dimi n i s h i n g y i e l d returns per tonne of manure occurring above the 2.5 t/ha manure treatment.  A good y i e l d response to manure treatment was s t i l l  observed up to the 10 t/ha treatment. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d response to the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n method at the second harvest.  At rates above 10 t/ha, free ammonia damage  or soluble s a l t s resulted in y i e l d reductions.  The a d d i t i o n a l manure  applied a f t e r the f i r s t harvest was b e n e f i c i a l at the lower manure r a t e s . Y i e l d values were greater f o r the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments than f o r the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n treatments at manure rates below 10 t/ha. For the t h i r d harvest, the e f f e c t of manure treatment on y i e l d s f o r both the s i n g l e and s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n y i e l d s produced s i g n i f i c a n t responses (Figure 5).  Generally, the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments produced y i e l d s  higher than the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n treatments.  The s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n  treatments showed a y i e l d increase of 89% over the range of manure t r e a t ments compared to 55% f o r the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments.  Good increases  in y i e l d per tonne of manure were found up to 10 t/ha although the maximum increase occurred at the 5 t/ha treatment f o r both methods. At the fourth c u t , both the s p l i t and s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n methods showed s i m i l a r s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d responses to manure treatment (Figure 6).  The  2  I  .34(x!f!!ll  SINGLE  APPLICATION  * Significant at the 0.05 level  QT-I—L 1.25 2.5 5  10 MANURE  Figure 4.  40  20 TREATMENT  (tonnes/hectare)  Second Cut, 1976 - Total Y i e l d as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Application  5  r  1.25 2.5 5  10 MANURE  Figure 5.  20 TREATMENT  40 (tonnes/hectare)  Third Cut, 1976 - Total Y i e l d as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Application  Figure 6.  Fourth Cut, 1976 - Total Y i e l d as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Application  ^  58  s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n method had y i e l d s 0.3 to 0.4 t/ha higher than the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n method.  The s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n led to a 131% y i e l d  increase compared to 113% f o r the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n between the 1.25 and 40 t/ha treatments.  Residual N at the higher manure treatments i s  responsible f o r the higher percentage y i e l d increase at the fourth cut. Total y i e l d s ranged from 10.04 at the 1.25 t/ha manure rate to 16.08 t/ha at the 20 t/ha manure r a t e , s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n (Figure 7).  The 40  t/ha rates were s l i g h t l y lower than e i t h e r of the 20 t/ha treatments' total yields.  At the 5, 10 and 20 t/ha manure treatments the s p l i t a p p l i -  cation method produced t o t a l y i e l d s about 1.2 t/ha higher than the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n method.  The t o t a l y i e l d s of the mid-range manure treatments  would i n d i c a t e a more e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of the manure resources, p a r t i c u l a r l y N, when the manure i s surface applied in three equal a p p l i cations rather than a l l at once.  The lower t o t a l y i e l d s f o r the s i n g l e  a p p l i c a t i o n method might also be the r e s u l t of damage due to free ammonia or soluble s a l t s when the manure was applied in the s p r i n g . The y i e l d data were influenced by the clover present in the 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha manure treatments and the c o o l , wet weather during the summer. The c l o v e r increased the y i e l d s at the lower treatments above what would be expected i f a pure stand of orchardgrass  had received the same treatments.  As w e l l , the cooler weather increased the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of the mineralized N.  The cooler weather provided e x c e l l e n t growing conditions  f o r the grass so there was a higher demand for N and thus less N was l o s t during the growing season.  The combination of these two factors produced  maximum increases in dry matter y i e l d s per tonne of manure at the 2.5 t/ha rate.  Excellent y i e l d increases s t i l l occurred up to the 10 t/ha rate but  16 C - SINGLE APPLICATION 15  S - SPLIT APPLICATION  Q> k_  O O  14  If)  I  13  Q _J Ul  >-  12  _l < r-  o  It  CO  oT 1.25  Figure 7.  2.5 5.0 10 MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes/hectare)  20  40  1976 Total Y i e l d as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Application  cn  CD  60  at a lower increase per tonne of manure than at the 2.5 t/ha treatment. The wet weather, p a r t i c u l a r l y around the f i r s t and t h i r d manure a p p l i cation dates, possibly modified the adverse e f f e c t of the heavy manure rates.  Had d r i e r weather followed any one of the manure a p p l i c a t i o n s ,  more severe damage could have resulted at the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n rates of 10 t/ha and above and at the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n rates of 20 and 40 t/ha.  C. Botanical Composition In 1975 increasing the manure rate decreased the clover content. The c l o v e r content from the 5 t/ha to the 40 t/ha manure treatment remained f a i r l y constant (Table V).  It has been suggested that N applied  as manure causes less depression of c l o v e r content than i f the same amount of N i s applied as inorganic N f e r t i l i z e r s (Whitehead, 1970; Parker, 1966).  The l e v e l l i n g o f f of the clover content at approximately 25%  above the 5 t/ha rate could be an i n d i c a t o r of t h i s . Weeds were present in the new stand only.  They were not a function  of manure treatment but of the forage growth r a t e .  The weeds were highest  in the control and the 1.25 t/ha treatment, which had the lowest forage yields. in 1975.  V i r t u a l l y no weeds were present at rates greater than 10 t/ha In 1976 no appreciable weed component was observed.  The clover was eliminated at the 10 t/ha manure treatment and above from the f i r s t harvest date on in 1976 (Table VI).  By the t h i r d c u t , the  clover disappeared completely from the 5 t/ha p l o t s , both methods. i n the c o n t r o l , 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha plots was c l o v e r a f a c t o r .  Only  The clover-  content decreased considerably from the l a s t harvest date in August 1975  Table V: Botanical composition - second c u t , 1975  Control  1.25 2.5 5 10 ___________________ t/ha — —  20  40 ——  % Legume  46  47  33  22  28  26  25  % Weeds'  15  20  9  8  2  1  2  Table VI: Percent legume - 1976  Cut  Control  2. 5  1.25 sin  spl  sin  spl  5 -.t/ha s i n spl  —  % Clover - Dry Weight Basis  10  1  20  40  1st  11  14  16  7  9  2  3  0  0  0  2nd  26  24  27  13  18  3  5  0  0  0  3rd  27  34  32  22  12  1  1  0  0  0  4th  26  37  39  27  19  0  0  0  0  0  For the manure treatments.above 10 t/ha, the legume content was the same f o r both methods.  63  to the f i r s t harvest date i n May 1976.  By the f i r s t c u t , the c l o v e r  content in these plots was less than 20%.  More frequent cuts in 1976  reduced the shading by the grass and the clover content improved by the fourth cut to at l e a s t double the i n i t i a l percentage in 1976.  The t h i r d  manure a p p l i c a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the second harvest at the 2.5 t/ha manure treatment depressed c l o v e r y i e l d s at the t h i r d and fourth harvests compared to the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n .  Otherwise the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n had no  apparent e f f e c t on the clover percentage at the 1.24 and 2.5 t/ha r a t e s . Besides the obvious adverse e f f e c t of N on the c l o v e r , shading of the clover by the grass, p a r t i c u l a r l y between the l a s t cut in 1975 and the f i r s t cut in 1976, was a major cause of the c l o v e r disappearance.  In  1976, the more frequent c u t t i n g dates allowed the clover percentage to increase in the manured plots where the clover was not i r r e v e r s i b l y a f f e c t e d .  D. % Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and % Nitrate-N i n the Forage Percent t o t a l kjeldahl nitrogen (% TKN) shows a s i g n i f i c a n t response s i m i l a r to the response of the mean y i e l d s in 1975 (Figure 8).  The % TKN  l e v e l s had the greatest increase per tonne of manure at the 2.5 t/ha treatment.  Substantial gains in percentage increases per tonne of manure  continued u n t i l the 10 t/ha r a t e . response.  The second cut produced no s i g n i f i c a n t  Only the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments produced higher % TKN i n the  forage than the 1.25 t/ha r a t e .  This i s because the 1.25 t/ha treatment  contained 50% clover in the stand while the remaining treatments had about 30% c l o v e r .  There i s very l i t t l e t r a n s f e r of N f i x e d by clover to the grass  in the establishment year of a clover-grass sward (Whitehead, 1970).  64  4.0 h %  TKN  % TKN - FIRST CUT  IN THE FORAGE Y=2.36(X " )** a  3 4  3.0 L  * * • Significant at the 0.01 level 2.0  % N 0 -N - FIRST CUT 3  % N 0 -N - SECOND CUT * - - * v 3  0.3 %  N0 -N 3  IN THE FORAGE  Y  ,0.5712)*  0.2 s  • ..^  #  ~ , 0.9318*** Y = 0.006 (X • )  /  * * Significant at the 0.01 level * Significant at the 0.05 level  /  0.0 5  10 MANURE  Figure 8.  20 TREATMENT  40 (tonnes hectare)  Percent Total Kjeldahl N and % Nitrate-N in the Forage by Cut in 1975 as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment  65  Therefore, the high TKN percentage in the 1.25 t/ha treatment was simply a r e s u l t of the higher c l o v e r content in the stand which contains a higher percentage of N than orchardgrass.  The 20 and 40 t/ha treatments  produced the highest % TKN values because of the high q u a n t i t i e s of N supplied at these manure rates (787 and 1575 kg N/ha, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  The  TKN l e v e l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher at the f i r s t cut in 1975. The f i r s t cut produced n i t r a t e concentrations s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the second cut but the n i t r a t e - N l e v e l s were s t i l l below the 0.34% n i t r a t e - N considered p o t e n t i a l l y t o x i c by Wright and Davison (1964).  Only  the 10 and 40 t/ha treatments in the f i r s t cut produced n i t r a t e - N percentages in the forage above 0.20% ( c r i t i c a l n i t r a t e - N level c i t e d by Williams et_ al_., 1972).- No n i t r a t e - N percentages in excess of 0.20% were found f o r any treatment at the second cut.  The higher n i t r a t e - N  concentrations f o r the f i r s t cut are due to the high rates of N incorporated into the s o i l with the manure in the spring.  The rate of increase of the  % n i t r a t e - N f o r both cuts i s much higher than f o r any other element or f o r dry matter y i e l d (Figure 8).  The second cut produced the highest rate  of increase, twice the rate increase of the f i r s t cut.  It i s the r e s u l t  of the residual N at the higher manure treatments. N i t r a t e responses to manure a p p l i c a t i o n s were much greater than the % TKN yet in no case did the n i t r a t e - N l e v e l s become alarmingly high.  For  manure rates which supplied the optimum N suggested f o r maximum orchardgrassclover y i e l d s (5 or 10 t/ha treatment), n i t r a t e - N concentrations were no cause f o r concern. In 1976, the orchardgrass forage was analyzed separately from the c l o v e r when c l o v e r was present.  Only in the c o n t r o l , 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha  66  treatments was there s u f f i c i e n t c l o v e r in the samples f o r a n a l y s i s . At these low r a t e s , n i t r a t e - N percentages in the c l o v e r were s i m i l a r to the % n i t r a t e - N in the orchardgrass  (less than 200 ppm).  The % TKN  concentrations were approximately two to three times higher in the clover than the orchardgrass f o r a l l four cuts.  A complete chemical analysis of  the c l o v e r i s presented i n Appendix Table E l .  The N concentrations are  taken into account f o r the N balance sheet but the N values recorded f o r the c l o v e r have been omitted from the discussion of % TKN and % n i t r a t e - N . The e f f e c t s of the c l o v e r and N f i x a t i o n by the clover on the chemical composition of the orchardgrass  i s important in explaining some of the  responses observed in 1976. At the f i r s t harvest the % TKN f o r the s i n g l e and s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments produced s i g n i f i c a n t responses to manure treatment (Figure 9). The maximum increase in % TKN per tonne of manure for the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n method occurred at the 2.5 t/ha manure treatment.  The maximum increase  in % TKN f o r the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n method occurred at the 5 t/ha manure rate.  Substantial increases in the % TKN gain per tonne of manure f o r  both methods were observed up to the 10 t/ha treatment.  The s i n g l e a p p l i -  cation treatments produced % TKN concentrations higher than the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments at a l l rates of manure. Percent n i t r a t e - N increased approximately 25 times from the 1.25 to the 40 t/ha treatment.  The s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n treatments produced actual  n i t r a t e - N concentrations.ranging from 0.01 to 0.50%.  The s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n  treatments ranged from 0.01 to 0.30% n i t r a t e - N (Figure 9; Appendix Table D3).  Nitrate-N percentage in the orchardgrass at the 10, 20 and 40 t/ha  single a p p l i c a t i o n treatments and the 20 and 40 t/ha s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n  67  3.0 h % TKN  % TKN -SINGLE — -—o % TKN -SPLIT  Y=..23(X 0  2 2 2 4  )**  IN THE FORAGE 2.0 ?'= 0.0371 -0.0180X'+ 0.I573(X') * * Significant at the 0.01 level • Significant at the 0.05 level .0  % N 0 - N - SINGLE + •'+ % N 0 - N - SPLIT &• • «A 3  0.6 %N0 -N  3  3  IN THE FORAGE  Y = 0.009(X  0.4  1 1 0 8  )  i  0.2 Y= 0.004 ( X j  5  10 MANURE  Figure 9.  **  )  Significant at the 0.01 level  L-  40  20 TREATMENT  I J 3 b  (tonnes/hectare)  F i r s t Cut, 1976 - Percent TKN and % Nitrate-N in the Forage as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of Application.  68  treatments were in excess of 0.20%.  The rate of increase in % n i t r a t e - N  per tonne of manure was maximum at the higher manure treatments f o r both methods.  This i s the opposite response to that found f o r % TKN  and dry matter y i e l d .  At the higher manure treatments, the manure was  supplying N in excess and the orchardgrass than i t can be a s s i m i l a t e d into p r o t e i n .  i s taking up n i t r a t e f a s t e r Therefore the n i t r a t e i s accumu-  l a t i n g in the orchardgrass on the heavily manured p l o t s . At the second %!<TKN and % n i t r a t e - N responded s i g n i f i c a n t l y ' t o both the single-and s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n methods (Table lO)".  -  The  % TKN f o r the s i n g l e and s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments followed a s i m i l a r response.  The a d d i t i o n a l manure added following the f i r s t harvest had  no apparent e f f e c t on the % TKN.  The maximum rate increase in % TKN was  at the 2.5 t/ha treatment f o r both methods. TKN occurred up to the 20 t/ha r a t e .  Substantial increases in %  The % TKN f o r the second c u t , both  methods, was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the f i r s t cut.  At the second harvest  lower y i e l d s coincide with higher q u a l i t y forage i n terms of crude protein (% TKN). The 20 and 40 t/ha treatments f o r both methods produced the maximum increase in % n i t r a t e - N per tonne of manure for the second cut.  The  excessive N applied at these manure rates caused the large increase i n % n i t r a t e - N above the 10 t/ha treatment.  Nitrate-N concentrations in the  orchardgrass at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments for both methods were higher than the p o t e n t i a l l y t o x i c l i m i t s of 0.34 to 0.45% suggested by Wright and Davison (1964).  Orchardgrass  had 0.32% n i t r a t e - N .  i n the 10 t/ha s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatment  Nitrate-N percentages f o r the above-mentioned treatments  were considerably higher at the second harvest than at the f i r s t harvest.  69  0.2846v**  4.0 h %  TKN  IN THE FORAGE 3.0  % TKN-SINGLE —A—  2.0  % TKN - SPLIT Significant at the 0.01 level 1.0  %N0 -N-SINGLE 3  0.8  <>—o  % N 0 - N - SPLIT 3  Y =0.006  0.6 %N0 -N IN THE FORAGE 0.4  (X  L 5 3 6  )*V*  3  .••  *  1413.**  Y= 0.004 (X 1  413  )  0.2 #*  Significant at the 0.01 level  0.0 5  10 MANURE  Figure 10.  20 TREATMENT  30  40  (tonnes / hectare)  Second Cut, 1976 - Percent TKN and % Nitrate-N i n the Forage as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of A p p l i c a t i o n  70  Higher % TKN values and increased n i t r i f i c a t i o n of the manure N resulted in more rapid accumulation of n i t r a t e s .  Above a c e r t a i n t o t a l organic  N l e v e l , n i t r a t e a s s i m i l a t i o n into protein slows and n i t r a t e accumulation proceeds very r a p i d l y .  Lund et aj_. (1975) indicated about 2.5% t o t a l  organic N was the c r i t i c a l percentage.  N i t r i f i c a t i o n of the manure N  probably reached a maximum between the f i r s t and second harvest, thus large q u a n t i t i e s of n i t r a t e - N were present in the root zone.  At the f i r s t  harvest n i t r i f i c a t i o n was l i m i t e d to some degree by temperature.  Produc-  t i o n of n i t r a t e from the mineralized manure N probably peaked between the f i r s t and second harvests. For the t h i r d harvest,.% TKN responded s i g n i f i c a n t l y to-the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments (Figure 11).",.,  The concentrations and  response are s i m i l a r to those observed in the f i r s t cut f o r the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t response of the % TKN  in the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n s .  The clover present in the 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha  manure treatments (34 and 22% c l o v e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) produced higher % TKN values in the orchardgrass than in the orchardgrass of the 5 and 10 t/ha manure treatments.  Very l i t t l e manure N was a v a i l a b l e at the s i n g l e a p p l i -  cation rates below 20 t/ha by the t h i r d harvest. Both methods produced s i m i l a r n i t r a t e concentrations u n t i l the 10 t/ha treatment f o r the t h i r d cut.  The s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments i n -  creased at a greater rate than the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n treatments above the 10 t/ha treatment.  The t h i r d manure a p p l i c a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the second harvest  probably accounts f o r the greater rate of increase at the higher manure rates in the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments.  The rate of increase and the %  n i t r a t e - N were lower f o r both methods at the t h i r d cut than f o r the second cut.  The 20 and 40 t/ha treatments for both methods produced % n i t r a t e - N  71  2.0 %  Y=«.02(X°-  2  3  9  8  )*  TKN  IN THE FORAGE %  j  1.01  % %  TKN-SPLIT  * Significant at the 0.05 level i i_  N 0 3 -  N - SINGLE  ——•  N 0 3 -  N - SPLIT  •  •  0.4 Y = 0.004 (X %  l  d  *  b  )  '  N0 -N 3  IN THE 0.2 FORAGE Y - 0.004 ( X  1 1 5 3  )*  ••Significant at the 0.01 level * Significant at the 0.05 level 1  5  10 MANURE  Figure 11.  _i 20 TREATMENT  1  30 (tonnes/ hectare)  Third Cut, 1976 - Percent TKN and % Nitrate-N i n the Forage as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of A p p l i c a t i o n  L  40  72  concentrations in the orchardgrass in excess of 0.20%.  A l l other  treatments had n i t r a t e - N percentages below 0.15%. The % TKN in the orchardgrass of the fourth cut responded n i f i c a n t response for the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n treatments (Figure  sig12).  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t response f o r the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments. The % TKN concentrations f o r the s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n treatment decreased i n i t i a l l y then increased at the manure rates greater than 5 t/ha.  A  s i m i l a r negative response at the lower manure treatments was observed f o r the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n method.  The negative response f o r both methods  at the low manure treatments i s because of the clover present in the and 2.5 t/ha treatments.  1.25  A portion of the N f i x e d by the clover i s  transferred to the orchardgrass giving the 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha treatments an additional supply of N.  By the fourth harvest, at the 5 and 10 t/ha  r a t e s , there i s l i t t l e residual a v a i l a b l e manure N to provide an increase in the N concentration of the orchardgrass. the n i t r a t e concentrations of the  This i s also r e f l e c t e d in  orchardgrass.  The % n i t r a t e - N of the fourth cut produced s i g n i f i c a n t responses for the s i n g l e and s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments (Figure 12).  Nitrate  l e v e l s were s i m i l a r f o r both methods except at the 40 t/ha treatment. The 40 t/ha s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatment produced orchardgrass containing n i t r a t e - N i n excess of 0.50%.  The large jump i n the n i t r a t e - N percentage  between the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of a v a i l a b l e s o i l N was s t i l l present at the fourth cut of the 40 t/ha treatment for both methods.  73  3.0  % TKN - SINGLE  % TKN IN THE FORAGE • 2*  Y'= 0.3701- 0.2961 X'+ 0.2341 (X') x  2.0 * Significant at the 0.05 level 0.0^-  0.5  1  % N 0 - N -SINGLE %N0 -N-SPLIT 3  1  L  o — o  3  /  0.4 %N0 -N 0.3 h IN THE 3  ^ 2 *  Y'= -1.779 -0.7420X'+ l.055(XT  /  o  /  /  0.2 h FORAGE 0.1 h  Y= 0.005 ( X  ^-rS'  1 0 6 6  )  * Significant at the 0.05 level  0.0 5  10  1  20  I  30  MANURE TREATMENT (tonnes/hectare)  Figure 12.  Fourth Cut, 1976 - Percent TKN and % Nitrate-N i n the Forage as Affected by Poultry Manure Treatment and Method of A p p l i c a t i o n  L  40  74  E. Percent P in the Forage In 1975 there was a s i g n i f i c a n t cut e f f e c t with % P (Appendix Table B7).  The f i r s t cut produced concentrations s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  than the second cut.  For both cuts, % P concentrations were independent  of manure treatment.  Percent P ranged from 0.25 to 0.28% P f o r the 2.5  and 20 t/ha treatments, r e s p e c t i v e l y , at the f i r s t harvest.  The second  harvest produced a range of 0.18 to 0.22% P (Appendix Table D4).  Phos-  phorus was supplied by the poultry manure in excess of the crops'  needs.  The P removed by the crop, the P added i n the manure, and the estimated P a v a i l a b l e over the growing season are l i s t e d in Table VII.  The a v a i l a b l e  P from the poultry manure i s 40% of the t o t a l P as suggested by P h i l l i p s et_ al_. (1978).  In a l l treatments in 1975, the t o t a l P supplied in the  manure was i n excess and the estimated P a v a i l a b l e exceeded the P removed by the herbage in a l l but the 1.25 t/ha treatment. In 1976 a s i m i l a r pattern was observed.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t  method e f f e c t so % P concentrations presented are an average for both methods.  Percent P increased from the f i r s t cut to the second cut.  The  t h i r d and fourth cuts produced % P l e v e l s that f l u c t u a t e d between the concentrations obtained at the f i r s t two harvests. n i f i c a n t response of % P to manure treatment. tent and varied with each cut. tuation in % P.  There was no s i g -  The r e s u l t s were i n c o n s i s -  The f i r s t cut showed very l i t t l e  At the second cut the % P in the orchardgrass  25% over the range of manure rates a p p l i e d .  fluc-  increased  The t h i r d and fourth harvests  produced % P concentrations which decreased 15 to 25% from 1,25 to the 40 t/ha treatments (Appendix Table D5).  A v a i l a b l e P i n the surface 15 cm  of the s o i l was high so no immediate e f f e c t of the added P in the manure  75  Table VII:  Total P and estimated P a v a i l a b l e from h i g h - r i s e poultry manure and P removed in the forage, 1975  Manure Treatment t/ha  Total P Added Estimated P By Manure Available! - - - - — - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - kg/ha  P Removed in The Forage —  1 .25  24.3  9.7  9.0  2.5  48.6  19.4  8.9  5.0  97.3  38.9  11 .4  10  194.5  77.8  13.3  20  389.0  155.6  13.8  40  778.1  311.2  17.2  Forty percent of the t o t a l manure P as determined by P h i l l i p s et a l . , (1978).  76  on the % P concentration i n the orchardgrass would be observed at the f i r s t cut.  The negative response of % P to manure treatment at the  t h i r d and fourth harvests was most l i k e l y a d i l u t i o n e f f e c t of the increased y i e l d response to the manure treatment. The P removed by the orchardgrass, the P added by the manure, and the estimated P a v a i l a b l e in 1976, are given in Table V I I I .  The e s t i -  mated P a v a i l a b l e f o r the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments was well i n excess of the P removed by the crop.  The 10 t/ha treatment had a s i m i l a r amount  of P removed i n the harvest as was estimated to be a v a i l a b l e from the manure.  The lower manure rates did not supply an adequate amount of  a v a i l a b l e P to equal the P removed by the crop.  The high l e v e l of  a v a i l a b l e P in the surface s o i l would more than compensate f o r the differences. At a l l but the two lowest manure rates of 1976, t o t a l P was added in excess of P removed by the crop.  Assuming 40% i s a v a i l a b l e over the  growing season, the 2.5 t/ha treatment i n 1975 and the 10 t/ha treatment i n 1976 supply s u f f i c i e n t P to meet the P demand of the forage.  For  orchardgrass swards, the h i g h - r i s e poultry manure w i l l supply P i n adequate amounts when the manure i s  applied to optimize N u t i l i z a t i o n .  F. Percent K i n the Forage In 1975, s i g n i f i c a n t cut and treatment e f f e c t s f o r % K were observed (Appendix Table B9).  Percent K decreased i n the second harvest.  The  treatment response was the same f o r both cuts and the mean % K values produced a s i g n i f i c a n t response, s i m i l a r to the mean y i e l d response in  77  Table VIII: Total P and estimated P a v a i l a b l e from h i g h - r i s e poultry manure and the P removed in the forage, 1976  Manure Treatment t/ha  Total P Added By Manure —  Estimated P Available^ ___ kg/ha -  1.25  15.4  6.2  36.7  2.5  30.8  12.3  41.9  5.0  61.5  24.6  46.4  10  123.0  49.2  49.5  20  246.1  98.4  55.0  40  492.2  196.9  54.9  —  P Removed in The Forage  Forty percent of the t o t a l manure P as determined by P h i l l i p s et a l . , (1978).  78  1975.  The K concentrations in the forage were above 2.0% f o r a l l  treatments of both cuts i n d i c a t i n g "luxury consumption".  The t o t a l K  removed in the herbage, the K added in the manure, and the t o t a l K a v a i l a b l e in 1975, are indicated in Table IX.  The l a t t e r estimate i s  the sum of the a v a i l a b l e s o i l K in the surface 15 cm ( p r i o r to the i n i t i a l manure a p p l i c a t i o n ) and the t o t a l K- in the manure (assuming 100% becomes a v a i l a b l e over the growing season).  The t o t a l K a v a i l a b l e in  1975 was well in excess of that removed by the crop and most of the excess would remain i n the rooting zone f o r use in 1976. In 1976 the second cut produced the highest percentage of K with the other three harvests having a s i m i l a r range of concentrations.  A l l the  values were in excess of the 1.6 to 1.7% K that Hemmingway (1963) suggested as i n d i c a t i n g luxury consumption.  Percent K values were aver-  aged f o r both methods as there was no s i g n i f i c a n t method e f f e c t .  The  f i r s t three harvests produced three d i f f e r e n t s i g n i f i c a n t responses.  At  the f i r s t harvest the % K remained approximately at the 3.0% l e v e l and then increased to 3.5% at the 40 t/ha treatment (Appendix Table D7). Percent K f o r the second harvest ranged from 3.20 to 4.50%.  At the  t h i r d harvest, % K ranged from 2.64 to 2.90% K f o r the 1.25 and 10 t/ha manure treatments, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The 20 and 40 t/ha treatments had % K  concentrations in the orchardgrass of 3.41 and 4.59% K. fourth cut had no s i g n i f i c a n t response.  The % K at the  Concentrations of 2.72 to 3.04  were observed up to the 20 t/ha treatment.  The 40 t/ha treatment y i e l d e d  a % K value of 4.15%. The K removed by the crop in 1976, the residual K f r o m 1975 and the K added by the manure in 1976 are given in Table X. supplied less K than was removed by the crop.  A l l the manure rates  Most of the K a v a i l a b l e  79  Table IX:  K added i n the manure, t o t a l K a v a i l a b l e to the forage and the K removed i n the herbage, 1975  Manure Treatment  Total K Added By The Manure  t/ha  K A v a i l a b l e To K Removed The Forage' i n the / ______.__.._Herbage_ k g  h a  1.25  19.6  371.5  91.5  2.5  39.1  391.1  117.8  5.0  78.3  430.3  145.3  10  156.6  508.6  195.9  20  313.1  665.1  216.9  40  626.2  978.2  262.4  K added by the manure plus a v a i l a b l e s o i l K (352 kg K/ha).  80  Table X:  Residual K from 1975, K added i n the manure, t o t a l K a v a i l a b l e to the forage and the K removed in the herbage, 1976  Manure Treatment *,/h  Residual K from 1975  a  Total K Added K Available K Removed By the Manure to the in the ______ wh_ _______•_£________ H----_--  1.25  280.0  13.8  293.8  288  2.5  273.3  27.7  301.0  340  5.0  285.0  55.4  340.4  358  10  312.7  110.7  423.4  396  20  448.2  221.5  669.7  519  40  715.8  442.9  1158.7  604  81  for the crop, p a r t i c u l a r l y below the 20 t/ha treatment, was from the K i n the s o i l and residual K from the manure a p p l i c a t i o n s in 1975.  In  1976, the t o t a l K a v a i l a b l e at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments (manure plus residual K) was s t i l l higher than the K removed in the herbage. This could explain the sharp increase in % K between the lower manure rates and the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the 40 t/ha r a t e ) , i n a l l but the second cut.  Up to the 20 t/ha treatment, the a v a i l a b l e K  i s approximately equivalent to the K removed in the forage.  Thus, in a  l e s s f e r t i l e s o i l with low a v a i l a b l e s o i l K, the a p p l i c a t i o n of these poultry manure rates would not meet the orchardgrass needs f o r K.  This  would be e s p e c i a l l y so at manure rates applied to meet the N requirements of the crop.  Had t h i s study continued and the only source of K a v a i l a b l e  was that supplied by the poultry manure, % K concentrations in the orchardgrass would have decreased and K would probably have become l i m i t i n g f o r plant growth.  G. Percent Ca, Mg and Na in the Forage In 1975, % Ca and % Mg were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between cuts (Appendix Tables B l l and B12).  For both elements, the concentrations  increased from the f i r s t to the second cut.  Percent Ca i n 1975 decreased  s l i g h t l y as the manure rate increased (0.71 to 0.64% at the f i r s t cut'and 1.11 to 0.86 at the second c u t ) .  Magnesium concentrations showed no  pattern and were inconsistent i n r e l a t i o n to manure treatment.  In 1975,  s i g n i f i c a n t cut and treatment e f f e c t s were observed f o r % Na (Appendix Table B13).  As with % Ca and % Mg, Na concentrations increased from the  82  f i r s t to the second cut.  The response of mean % Na to manure treatment  was s i m i l a r to the mean forage y i e l d in 1975.  Approximately 79 and 158  kg Na/ha were added by the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments, r e s p e c t i v e l y , so an increase in % Na in the forage was expected. In 1976, the % Ca and Mg increased in the spring from the f i r s t to the second cut then l e v e l l e d o f f and remained constant throughout the r e s t of the growing season.  Percent Na showed a gradual increase in  concentration as the growing season progressed. The Ca concentrations were low i n 1976 compared to 1975. cut produced no s i g n i f i c a n t response to manure treatment. response was observed at the second cut.  The f i r s t  A significant  In the t h i r d and fourth c u t s ,  % Ca in the orchardgrass decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y with increasing manure treatments.  A simple d i l u t i o n e f f e c t and the high K concentration at  the 20 and 40 t/ha treatment could have caused the % Ca depression at the t h i r d and fourth cuts. Percent Mg was not consistent with manure treatment. no s i g n i f i c a n t response at the f i r s t and t h i r d harvests. and fourth cuts produced s i g n i f i c a n t responses.  There was The second  The inconsistent pattern  of the Mg concentrations in response to manure treatment or N i s not unexpected.  Results from e a r l i e r work (Todd, 1961) indicated that the  Mg content i n orchardgrass as a function of N f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s v a r i a b l e from year to year and shows no consistent pattern. In 1976 the rate of response of % Na to manure treatment was the highest except for the n i t r a t e - N response.  The s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n t r e a t -  ments had no s i g n i f i c a n t responses at the second and fourth  harvests.  The s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatments also had two n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t responses  83  at the second and t h i r d cuts.  In a l l c u t s , f o r both methods except  the s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n treatment, f i r s t c u t , there was a consistent increase in % Na up to the 40 t/ha treatment. the Na concentration dropped.  At the 40 t/ha rate  At the cuts where the % Na response to  manure treatment produced no s i g n i f i c a n t response, the depression of % Na at the 40 t/ha treatment was s i g n i f i c a n t .  The increase in % Na  was expected due to the large q u a n t i t i e s of Na added by the manure. The decrease in the % Na at the 40 t/ha treatment could be a competition e f f e c t with K.  The concentrations f o r a l l cuts increased considerably  at the 40 t/ha treatment.  G r i f f i t h et^ al_. (1965) have suggested that  a rather loose inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between Na and K content does occur. In 1976, K/Ca + Mg meq r a t i o s were determined f o r both methods for a l l cuts.  With the exception of one or two treatments, a l l manure rates  produced K/Ca + Mg r a t i o s in excess of 2.2.  The highest r a t i o s were  found in the forage of the f i r s t harvest and decreased with each successive cut.  There was an inconsistent response of the K/Ca + Mg r a t i o to  manure treatment.  The high r a t i o s were p a r t i a l l y the r e s u l t of the low  Ca concentrations in the orchardgrass  in 1976 and the general environ-  mental conditions in the lower Fraser V a l l e y .  Although forage containing  a K/Ca + Mg r a t i o in excess of 2.2 i s considered p o t e n t i a l l y tetany prone, t h i s i s by no means the only i n d i c a t o r .  Mg concentrations below  0.20% are also used to i n d i c a t e Mg d e f i c i e n c i e s and tetany prone forage. Grunes (1973) suggested that i f Mg l e v e l s are above 0.20%, ruminants should not s u f f e r Mg d e f i c i e n c y even though K and N in the forage may be high.  The data i n d i c a t e that the forage of the f i r s t cut would have the  potential to cause grass tetany.  The K/Ca + Mg r a t i o exceeds 4.0 and %  84  Mg l e v e l s are a l l below 0.20% (0.13% Mg average for a l l treatments. If no other Mg was supplemented i n the d i e t , mature cows might be susceptible to grass tetany.  Tests with ruminants consuming the forage  are required before any p o s i t i v e statements can be made.  H. Nitrate-N Levels in the S o i l The analysis of variance tables for n i t r a t e - N concentrations in the s o i l f o r 1975 and 1976 are in Appendix Tables B17 and B18. the treatment x depth i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 The treatment means for n i t r a t e - N in 1975 are in Table XI.  In 1975 level.  Only the 20  and 40 t/ha treatments produced s i g n i f i c a n t differences in n i t r a t e - N at any depth.  S i g n i f i c a n t differences were found at the 30 to 60 cm depth  f o r the 20 t/ha manure treatment and at the 15 to 30, 30 to 60 and 60 to 90 cm depths f o r the 40 t/ha treatment.  By the end of November in 1975,  at the time of sampling, the bulk of the n i t r a t e - N was concentrated at the 30 to 60 cm depth.  The n i t r a t e - N concentrations at the 20 and 40  t/ha treatments also indicated n i t r a t e - N had leached to the 60 to 90 cm depth.  The water table at the time of sampling was at the 90 cm depth in  most parts of the p l o t so n i t r a t e was beginning to enter the groundwater. By the spring less than 8.0 ppm n i t r a t e - N was found at the 20 and 40 t/ha rates f o r a l l depths.  Thus, the high l e v e l s of n i t r a t e found at the  20 and 40 t/ha rates had leached into the groundwater over winter. In 1976, there was a highly s i g n i f i c a n t treatment x depth i n t e r a c t i o n with respect to n i t r a t e - N concentrations in the s o i l .  The method of manure  a p p l i c a t i o n had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the s o i l n i t r a t e - N concentrations.  Table XI;  Mean n i t r a t e - N l e v e l s in the s o i l (ppm) and the e f f e c t of manure treatment and depth, November 25, 1975.  Manure-Treatment t/ha  Depths 0-15cm  15-30cm  —----  " 30-60cm ppm —  ~"  60-90 cm  —  Control  3.4  3.2  3.2  3.4  5  3.1  3.0  3.4  3.1  10  3.5  3.2  3.2  3.3  20  4.2  4.4  10.6  6.5  40  6.6  17.9  33.8  26.2  LSD  n(  - - 4.6 ppm.  i  86  The mean n i t r a t e - N l e v e l s f o r 1976 are given in Table XII.  Only the 40  t/ha treatment produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher n i t r a t e - N concentrations. The l e v e l s of n i t r a t e were much less than in 1975.  The maximum concen-  t r a t i o n in 1976 was 18.8 ppm n i t r a t e - N compared to 33.8 ppm in 1975. The bulk of the n i t r a t e was concentrated at the 30 to 60 cm depth f o r the 40 t/ha treatment with a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion at the 60 to 90 cm depth. A s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher concentration was found at the 15 to 30 cm depth as well.  At the 0 to 15 cm depth, the 40 t/ha treatment had a n i t r a t e - N  concentration s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the other manure.treatments except the 20 t/ha r a t e . The lower n i t r a t e concentrations in the s o i l in 1976 were possibly the r e s u l t of the f o l l o w i n g : less N was added by the manure in 1976, the poultry manure was surface applied rather than incorporated, and the manure was applied to an established stand.  Considerable N (up to 50%) can be  l o s t by ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n when manure i s surface applied depending on the weather conditions.  Some N that otherwise would have been l o s t to  leaching could have been v o l a t i l i z e d as ammonia in 1976.  Applying the  manure to an established forage stand also l i m i t s leaching losses as the growing stand can u t i l i z e the•immediately a v a i l a b l e N.  In 1975 i t was  several weeks before the forage was growing vigorously and most of the N n i t r i f i e d during t h i s period would have been subject to leaching.  There  was also 450 kg N/ha less applied at the 40 t/ha treatment in 1976 because of a lower concentration in the manure.  Table XII:  Mean n i t r a t e - N l e v e l s i n the s o i l (ppm) and the e f f e c t of manure treatment and depth, December 15, 1976.  Manure Treatment  Depths  t/ha 0-15cm  15-30cm  ___________________  30-60cm p  p  60-90 cm  m  Control  3.1  3.2  2.9  2.8  5  2.8  2.7  2.7  2.7  10  3.1  3.0  2.8  3.1  20  4.3  3.6  3.3  3.4  40  7.2  9.6  18.2  10.9  LSD  Q 5  - 3.7 ppm.  88  I. N Balance The % N accounted f o r was determined as o u t l i n e d in the "Materials and Methods".  The N balance in 1975, i n c l u d i n g the N recovered in the  crop, t o t a l N in the top 15 cm and n i t r a t e - N at the 30 to 90 cm s o i l depth, -is  presented in Table X I I I .  In 1975, s i g n i f i c a n t differences in t o t a l N  in the surface s o i l s (0-15 cm) and n i t r a t e - N concentrations in the s o i l (15-90 cm) were observed only at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments. lower manure r a t e s , the only N accounted f o r was in the crop.  At the Total N and  n i t r a t e - N concentrations in the s o i l were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the control at these manure treatments.  At the 20 and 40 t/ha manure  treatments, 51.3 and 86.6% N was accounted f o r .  In the remaining four  manure treatments, between 25 and 33% N was recovered, a l l in the orchardgrass-clover forage.  The most N accounted for was at the 20 and 40 t/ha  treatments, yet only 15 and 10%? r e s p e c t i v e l y , of the N was recovered in the forage.  Total recovery of the N from the manure by the orchardgrass  decreased with increasing manure a p p l i c a t i o n probably because mineral N was a v a i l a b l e in excess of the g r a s s ' s a b i l i t y to take i t from the s o i l . Leaching losses were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments and t o t a l N in the surface 15 cm was increased.  Approximately 1000 kg N or about  63% of the added manure N at the 40 t/ha treatment was accounted f o r in the t o t a l N of the surface 15 cm.  The 20 t/ha treatment had an i n c r e a s e ' o f 250  kg N/ha in the surface 15 cm accounting f o r 31% of the manure N added. No increases occurred below 15 cm.  Ammonium determinations were made on the  samples at a l l depths but no appreciable differences f o r any treatment at any depth were observed.  At the 2.0 and 40 t/ha treatment, between 30 and  60% of the added manure N remained in an organic form in the top 15 cm.  89  Table XIII:  Manure Treatment t/ha.  N balance sheet, 1975 - N removed by the c r o p * d i f f e r e n c e : i n t o t a l N of the top 15 cm of s o i l , n i t r a t e - N i n the 0-90 cm depth of s o i l , N added by the manure.and the % N accounted f o r .  N Removed 2 Cuts  Total N in Soil 0-15cm  NO3-N  30-90 cm  N Increase Added over C o n t r o l ' in the Manure kn/ha - -  Total N Measured K.y/  Ma  -  -  -  16  49  32.6  -  26  98  26.5  -  -  56  197  28.4  -  -  98  394  24.9  74  3098  25  1.25  90  -  -  2.5  100  -  -  5.0  130  -  Control  Percent N Accounted for  3197  10  172  20  192  3344  65  3601  404  787  51.3  40  236  4097  228  4561  1364  1575  86.6  Increase over the control f o r a l l but the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments i s based on the N removed by the crop only.  90  This indicates that between 40 and 70% of the added poultry manure N was mineralized over the growing season.  No increases in t o t a l N were found  at the lower manure treatments, where experimental e r r o r , v a r i a t i o n s in manure composition and any minor losses can account for a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of the N added.  Decomposition rates f o r manure have been found  to be s i m i l a r over a wide range of manure a p p l i c a t i o n treatments (Mather and Stewart, 1974).  Thus, the manure N l i k e l y was mineralized at a  s i m i l a r rate f o r a l l the treatments, but only at the two highest manure treatments was there s u f f i c i e n t N added f o r an accurate assessment of the N balance sheet. In 1976, the % N accounted f o r was generally lower than in 1975 (Table XIV).  The exceptions were the 10 t/ha treatment where the % N  accounted f o r was higher in 1976 and the 20 t/ha treatment which had a s i m i l a r recovery percentage.  The general trend f o r lower recovery values  i s the r e s u l t of three f a c t o r s .  Ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n losses would  increase because the poultry manure was not incorporated.  There was greater  v a r i a b i l i t y in the manure N composition which may also account f o r the increase in the % N recovered at the 10 t/ha treatment.  The N f i x e d by  the clover in the control decreased % N recovered by increasing the N removed by the orchardgrass  in the c o n t r o l .  In 1976 only the 40 t/ha treatment supplied s u f f i c i e n t N f o r a p a r t i a l assessment of the N balance sheet.  Below the 40 t/ha rate an accurate  determination of the N balance i s impossible.  The residual t o t a l N from  1975 makes an estimate of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n for 1976 i n v a l i d .  A decay series  i s required whereby the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of the residual manure N from the previous year could be determined.  91  Table XIV:  Manure^ Treatment  N balance sheet, 1976 - N removed by the crop, d i f f e r e n c e in t o t a l N of the top 15 cm of s o i l , n i t r a t e - N i n the 0-90 cm depth of s o i l , N added by the manure and the % N accounted f o r  N Removed 4 cuts 2  t/ha  Total N in s o i l 0-15 cm  N0 -N 0-90 cm 3  3  Total N Measured  Increase over Control^  N Added in the Manure  Percent N Accounted for  -  -  -  )8  34  24.0  - - kg/ha -  Control  176  -  29  1. 5  184  -  •-  2.5  181  -  -  -  5  68  7.4  5.0  202  -  -  -  26  136  19.0  105  272  38.7  205  -  10  281  20  445  -  40  453  251  -  -  269  543  49.4  126  830  625  1086  57.5  Average of both methods. Includes the N removed in the c l o v e r at the c o n t r o l , 1.25 and 2.5 t/ha r a t e s . Increase i n t o t a l N from the residual t o t a l N determined in A p r i l , 1976 f o r a l l the treatments. Increase over the control i s based on the N removed in the crop only, except f o r the 40 t/ha treatment.  92  The two year balance produced differences only at the 40 t/ha t r e a t ment f o r the t o t a l s o i l N and s o i l n i t r a t e - N concentrations.  Between 20  and 30% of the N added in the manure was recovered in the crop over the two years at manure rates below 40 t/ha.  At the 40 t/ha treatment, only  16% of the t o t a l manure N added was recovered by the crop. of the t o t a l N added was accounted f o r at t h i s r a t e .  However, 52%  Approximately one-  t h i r d of the t o t a l N added was accounted f o r in the surface t o t a l s o i l N. This would i n d i c a t e that two-thirds of the poultry manure added over the two years was m i n e r a l i z e d .  It i s important to note that approximately 30%  of the t o t a l N added was recovered in the harvested orchardgrass at the 10 t/ha rate over the two years.  Losses usually r e s u l t in only 50 to 70% of  the t o t a l added N from inorganic f e r t i l i z e r s being recovered in the crop. Often t h i s value i s lower ( A l l i s o n , 1966).  Thus, the N added in the manure  at the 10 t/ha treatment over the two years i s at l e a s t 45 to 60% as e f f i c i e n t as an inorganic N source.  J . Rate Recommendations The h i g h - r i s e poultry manure used in t h i s study was easy to handle, v i r t u a l l y odorless and, when applied at rates to meet the N crop requirement, only K was l i m i t i n g .  Before using a s i m i l a r poultry manure product, an  analysis f o r chemical composition and moisture content i s recommended to determine the n u t r i e n t value of the manure.  Although w i t h i n a given  batch the manure's v a r i a b i l i t y i s usually low, the chemical composition can vary considerably between poultry houses or batches w i t h i n one house-. An N input/output scheme could possibly work well f o r poultry manure.  93  Knowing the N in the feed and the N used by the b i r d , an estimate of the N voided in the manure could be determined without chemical a n a l y s i s . In e i t h e r case, an accurate estimate of the n u t r i e n t content, p a r t i c u l a r l y N, i s necessary before applying poultry manure to the land. A disposal rate of 20 t/ha/year on orchardgrass forage would ensure maximum loading without n i t r a t e leaching problems.  Incorporation of the  poultry manure i n t o the s o i l i s not possible i f the manure i s applied to an established stand.  Odor control could be a problem but the poultry  manure from the h i g h - r i s e house was dried to less than 25% moisture and the odor was minimal.  Whether the manure was applied in a s i n g l e a p p l i -  cation or in three equal a p p l i c a t i o n s did not make any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence f o r d i s p o s a l .  If manure rates in excess of 20 t/ha/year are applied  in a s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n under dry or drought c o n d i t i o n s , crop y i e l d reductions may result.' once.  Caution i s advised i f applying t h i s rate a l l at  S p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n s would decrease the chances of plant damage in  the spring.  Although:hot the~case-iin=vthis study, drought conditions  following the a p p l i c a t i o n of one-third of the 20 t/ha/year rate could possibly r e s u l t in plant damage and y i e l d reduction.  The a p p l i c a t i o n of  manure merely f o r disposal i s not recommended unless there i s a serious p o l l u t i o n hazard and there i s no f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e .  Whenever possible  the poultry manure should be stored, handled and u t i l i z e d to conserve the nutrient resources of the poultry manure, p a r t i c u l a r l y N. Based on the data obtained in t h i s study,.a poultry manure a p p l i c a t i o n of 10 t/ha/year would supply s u f f i c i e n t N most e f f i c i e n t l y to maximize orchardgrass  forage y i e l d s without s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t i n g the forage q u a l i t y .  Rates below 10 t/ha/year did not supply enough N to maximize y i e l d s .  Above  94  10 t/ha/year there was a very low return in dry matter y i e l d and % TKN of the forage per tonne of manure a p p l i e d .  Also, potentially nitrate-N  t o x i c forage was common f o r a l l the harvests at poultry manure rates above the 10 t/ha/year r a t e . Manure incorporation i n t o the s o i l where possible would increase the e f f i c i e n c y of the N u t i l i z a t i o n . ation i s n o t . p o s s i b l e .  In established forage stands, incorpor-  S p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n s i f f e a s i b l e would r e s u l t in a  more uniform y i e l d , possibly a higher dry matter y i e l d and a reduction of n i t r a t e - N in the grass in the spring forage.  Drought conditions following  a s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n of 10 t/ha/year could possibly cause n i t r a t e accumulations in the forage and caution should be taken i f s p l i t a p p l i c a t i o n s are applied during the summer months.  I r r i g a t i o n w i l l reduce the v o l a t i l i z a t i o n  losses, the n i t r a t e accumulating in the p l a n t , and hence w i l l  increase  the e f f i c i e n c y of the manure N. When the manure i s applied at rates to u t i l i z e the N resource, the K and possibly the P added in the manure i s low r e l a t i v e to the N component. Potassium would have to be supplemented f o r orchardgrass forage and most, other crops.  Phosphorus, depending on the inherent s o i l f e r t i l i t y , may or  may not have to be supplemented to forage.  For most row crops, P would  need to be supplemented to the crop i f only manure was used. The land requirements f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n and disposal of h i g h - r i s e poultry manure on an orchardgrass sward are shown i n Table XV.  An integrated  farm system where poultry manure can be e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d as a f e r t i l i z e r i s most.desirable.  The land areas determined are based on previous work,  the data c o l l e c t e d in;.this study and the assumption that N i s the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r in the a p p l i c a t i o n of manure to the land.  A poultry layer operation  95  Table XV:  Size of Operation  Land requirements f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n and disposal of h i g h - r i s e poultry manure on a pure orchardgrass sward in the Lower Fraser Valley.  Fresh Manure , Excreted ----  2 Stored N Crop . Manure Excreted Utilization Dried -Dry wt. to 25% Basis Moisture ha. — — — kg/year - - - - - - 3  Disposal  ha.  1000 layers 365 days  64,600  29,070  772  2.9  1.4  2500 layers 365 days  161,500  72,675  1930  7.3  3.6  5000 layers 365 days  323,000  145,350  3859  14.6  7.3  646,000  290,700  7718  29.1  14.6  10,000 layers 365 days  5  1. Assuming 64.6 kg manure/bird/year at 80% moisture. 2. One year i n a h i g h - r i s e poultry house with drying fans. 3. Moisture - 25% and N - 3.54%, dry weight basis. 4. Land requirement as orchardgrass forage, equivalent to 10 t/ha/year. 5. Maximum a p p l i c a t i o n of manure which w i l l not reduce y i e l d s or cause n i t r a t e - N l e a c h i n g , equivalent to 20 t/ha/year.  96  of 2500 hens would require 7.3 ha of orchardgrass forage to e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e the N resource in the poultry manure.  97  V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  1. The poultry manure contained 5.1% N, 2.5% P and 2.0% K on a dry weight basis in 1975 with c o e f f i c i e n t s of v a r i a t i o n less than 10%. Concentrations of 3.5% N, 1.6% P and 1.4% K with an average c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n of 35% were found in.1976.  The N:P:K r a t i o i n d i c a t e s K and  P f o r some crops would be l i m i t i n g i f the poultry manure i s applied at rates to meet the N requirements of most crops. 2. In 1975, the highest t o t a l y i e l d of 7.0 t/ha was produced at the 40 t/ha treatment.  The maximum y i e l d increase per tonne of manure occurred  at the 2.5 t/ha treatment.  Above the 2.5 t/ha manure treatment, the y i e l d  increase per tonne of manure decreased with each successive manure t r e a t ment.  In 1976, t o t a l y i e l d s ranged from 10 to 16 t/ha.  Y i e l d reductions  at the f i r s t and second cuts were probably the r e s u l t of soluble s a l t s or free ammonia.  Smothering of the forage and/or ammonium induced cation  d e f i c i e n c i e s could also have been a f a c t o r .  Clover in the 1.25 and 2.5  t/ha treatments and the c o o l , wet weather of 1976, could have modified the e f f e c t s of manure treatment on dry matter y i e l d s . 3. Clover was eliminated at a l l rates above 2.5 t/ha by the spring of 1976.  More frequent cuttings in 1976 increased the c l o v e r percentages in  plots receiving manure rates up to 2.5 t/ha.  Weeds in the stand were a  function of forage growth rather than manure treatments. 4. Percent TKN ranged from 2.41 to 3.58% f o r the f i r s t cut in 1975. The varying clover percentages at the d i f f e r e n t manure treatments produced v a r i a b l e % TKN concentrations f o r the second harvest.  Nitrate-N  98  concentrations were higher in the f i r s t c u t , but no percentages exceeded 0.34% n i t r a t e - N . 5. Percent TKN differences among cuts in 1976 are due to the maturity of the orchardgrass at harvesting. ponse to manure treatment.  Percent TKN showed a diminishing r e s -  The c l o v e r present in the lower manure treatments  modified the response of % TKN to manure treatments at the t h i r d and fourth harvests p a r t i c u l a r l y .  Generally, % TKN showed substantial increase up to  the 10 t/ha/year manure treatments.  Percent TKN concentrations f o r the  10 t/ha. treatment ( s p l i t and s i n g l e method) ranged from 1.24 to 3.30% TKN.  At manure rates below 20 t/ha, n i t r a t e - N concentrations did not  exceed 0.34% n i t r a t e - N .  Only at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatment, both methods,  did % n i t r a t e - N reach alarmingly high concentrations, p o t e n t i a l l y t o x i c to ruminants. 6. Levels of P, K, Ca and Mg in the forage were adequate.  High s o i l  concentrations of these elements did not allow f o r any responses to manure treatments.  Poultry manure applied at the 10 t/ha rate supplied a v a i l a b l e  P s i m i l a r to that removed in the harvested orchardgrass.  At t h i s r a t e ,  manure K would not meet the crop's needs i f the manure was the only source of K. 7. S i g n i f i c a n t differences in s o i l n i t r a t e concentrations were found at the 20 and 40 t/ha treatments in 1975 and the 40 t/ha treatment i n 1976. The n i t r a t e - N concentrations were lower in 1976 at these r a t e s .  It may  have been because of increased ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n due.to surface applying the manure, a lower N content in the manure used in 1976 and the manure being applied to an established orchardgrass  sward.  8. In 1975, the increases in t o t a l N content in the surface 15 cm  99  i n d i c a t e between 40 and 70% of the N added i n the manure m i n e r a l i z e d .  Of  the t o t a l N added in the manure over the two years between 16 and 30% was recovered in the crop.  At the 10 t/ha manure treatment, 30% of the  t o t a l N added in the manure was recovered in the harvested orchardgrass f o r both years.  This i s at l e a s t 45 to 60% as e f f i c i e n t as an inorganic  N source. 9. High-rise poultry manure of the same approximate composition used in t h i s study could be disposed of at rates of 20 t/ha-year on orchardgrass forage.  A l a y e r operation of 2500 hens would require 3.6 ha to dispose of  the poultry manure produced in one year.  Variations i n composition and  environmental conditions could a f f e c t the maximum disposal rate and how i t is applied. 10. A poultry manure rate of.10 t/ha/year on orchardgrass forage i s recommended to e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e the N resource of the manure as a f e r tilizer.  K supplements would be required on a s o i l low in a v a i l a b l e K.  An orchardgrass stand of 7.3 ha would produce maximum dry matter y i e l d s of good q u a l i t y i f f e r t i l i z e d with the poultry manure produced in one year from a h i g h - r i s e poultry house containing 2500 l a y e r s .  1 00  REFERENCES  1. Adams, E.P., G.R. Blake, W.P. Martin and D.H. Boelter. 1960. Influence of s o i l compaction on crop growth and development. Int. Congr. S o i l S c i . Trans. 7th (Madison, Wise.) I: 607-615. 2. Adriano, D . C , P.F. P r a t t and S.E. Bishop. 1971. N i t r a t e s and s a l t s in s o i l s and ground water from land disposal of dairy manure. S o i l S c i . Soc. Am. Proc. 35: 759-762. 3. Alexander, C.W. and D.E. McCloud. 1962. Influence of time and rate of nitrogen a p p l i c a t i o n on production and botanical composition of forage. Agron. J . 54:- 521-522. 4. A l l i s o n , F.E. 1955. The enigma of s o i l nitrogen balance sheets. Adv. Agron. 7: 213-250. 5. A l l i s o n , F.E. 1966. 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Present knowledge  108  on the e f f e c t s of land a p p l i c a t i o n of animal waste; p. 580-582 (6). In_ Managing Livestock Wastes. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on L i v e stock Wastes. Am. Soc. A g r i c . Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan. 101. Walsh, L.M. and J.D. Beaton. 1973. S o i l t e s t i n g and plant a n a l y s i s . SSSA Inc., Madison, Wise. 102. Wedin, W.F. 1974. F e r t i l i z a t i o n of cool-season grasses, p. 95-118. _In_ D.A. May (ed.) Forage f e r t i l i z a t i o n . ASA, Madison, Wise. 103. White, J.W., F.I. Holben and A.C. Richer. 1944. Production, composi t i o n and value of poultry manure. Pennsylvania A g r i c . Exp. Stn. B u l l e t i n 469. 104. Whitehead, D.C. 1970. The r o l e of nitrogen i n grassland p r o d u c t i v i t y . The Grassland Res. I n s t i t u t e , Hurley. B u l l e t i n 48. 105. Wilkinson, S.R., J.A. Stuedemann, D.J. W i l l i a m s , J.B. Jones J r . , R.N. Dawson and W.A. Jackson. 1971. Recycling b r o i l e r house l i t t e r on t a l l fescue pastures at disposal rates and evidence of beef cow health problems, p. 321-324(8). J j v L i v e s t o c k waste management and p o l l u t i o n abatement. Proc. Int. Symp. on Livestock Wastes. Am. Soc. A g r i c . Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan. 106. W i l l i a m s , D.J., J.A. Stuedemann and S.R. Wilkinson. 1972. Animal problems and pasture f e r t i l i z a t i o n with poultry l i t t e r . Univ. Georgia, Georgia Cooperative Extensive Service. Misc. Unnumbered Pub!. 107. Winteringham, F.D. 1974. Introductory paper. Nitrogen residue problem of food and a g r i c u l t u r e , p. 3-6. J j v F . D . Winteringham (ed.) E f f e c t s of A g r i c u l t u r a l Production on N i t r a t e s i n Food and Water with P a r t i c u l a r Reference to Isotope Studies. International Atomic Agency, Vienna. 108. Wolf, D.D. -and D. Smith. 1964. Y i e l d and persistance of several legume-grass mixtures as a f f e c t e d by c u t t i n g frequency and nitrogen f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Agron. J . 56: 130-133. 109. Wright, H.C. and K.L. Davison. 1964. N i t r a t e accumulation i n crops and n i t r a t e poisoning in animals. Adv. Agron. 16: 197-247. 110. Yushok, W. and F.E. Bear. 1943. Poultry manure - i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n , deodorization and d i s i n f e c t i o n . New Jersey A g r i c . Exp. S t n . , Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, New Jersey. B u l l e t i n 707. 11 p. 111. Z i n d e l , H.C. and C . J . F l e g a l . 1970. Introduction. Poultry p o l l u t i o n ; problems and s o l u t i o n s , p. 4-7. J_n.C.C. Sheppard (ed.) Farm S c i . Res. Report 117. Michigan A g r i c . Exp. S t n . , 55 p.  108a  APPENDICES  109  APPENDIX TABLE A l : P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Temperature Data f o r 1975 and 1976 from the C h i l l i w a c k Gibson Road Climatological S t a t i o n .  Year  Month  Day  April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.  -  Jan. Feb. March April  _  May  -• -  -  -  -  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24  -  18 19 20 21 22 23  Temperature-°C Min. Max. Mean  Rrecipitation-mm. Total No. of Days  -4.4 1.7 2.8 8.3 4.4 4.4 -1.1 -5.0 -6.7  20.6 29.4 31.1 32.8 30.6 29.4 24.4 21.7 14.4  7.3 12.4 14.7 18.7 16.2 15.9 9.4 5.4 3.3  51.10 49.78 38.86 43.94 94.23 10.92 336.04 255.27 413.77  8 10 10 5 12 4 25 19 17  -2.2 -5.0 -10.0 -1.1 2.8 7.2 5.6 7.8 5.6 7.2 6.1 1.7 1.7 2.8 1.1 -1.1 4.4 5.0 4.4 5.Q 1.7 3.9 2.2 6.1 1.7 1.7 2.8 7.8 3.3 6.1 8.9  12.2 10.6 12.8 25.6 21.7 15.0 16.1 10.6 17.8 22.2 9.4 15.0 15.0 8.9 8.9 12.2 9.4 11.1 14.4 10.6 12.8 13.3 12.2 10.6 27.8 18.9 17.7 15.6 21.7 13.9 17.7  3.8 3.'2 4.2 9.6  230.12 167.13 125.22 87.38 4.57  18 17 15 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 1 1 1 1 1 1  -  -  -  12^1  -  -  1.78 4.57  -  2.03 5.59  -  -  22.10  -  TR 1.27 1.27 23.88 6.35  6.10  7.87 79.50  -  -  -  0.51 0.51  Continued . . . .  no  Year  Month  1976  June  July  Aug. Sept.  Day 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31  -  1 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30  -  1 2 3 4  -  Temperature- C Min. Max. Mean 8.9 7.2 7.8 8.3 4.4 5.6 2.8 2.8 1.7 5.6 12.2 12.8 11.1 10.0 14.4 7.8 8.3 11.1 10.6 10.0 7.8 10.0 5.6 9.4 13.3 8.9 4.4 10.0 9,4 4.4 5.0 8.3 5.6  13.3 15.0 13.3 12.2 13.9 13.9 15.0 14.4 27.2 13.3 15.0 18.9 26.1 27.2 19.4 27.2 21.1 16.7 16.1 15.6 16.7 18.3 24.4 26.1 21.1 20.0 28.8 17.8 22;2 15.6 21.7 26.1 27.8  -  -  14.2  -  -• -  Precipitation-mm. Total No. of days 10.67 16.76 11.18 TR 2.29 5.59  -  5.08 102.11 2.03 39.37 TR  --  2.29  -  -  -  -  4.32 2.79 16.00  -  -  -  -• -  16.7  -  16.3 15.6  10  -• -  9.65 40.39 5.59  10  -  3.05 10.16 115.82 86.36  15 8  APPENDIX TABLE B l : Analysis of V a r i a n c e - Y i e l d , 1975.  Source  DF  MS  Block Treatment T x B (A) Cut T xC Error Total  3 5 15 1 5 18 47  0.0757 2.9359 0.2125 1.6476 0.1854 0.2045  F-Value 0.3703 13.818 * * 1.0391 8.1068* 0.9067 _  -  , * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  APPENDIX TABLE B2: Analysis of V a r i a n c e - Y i e l d , 1976.  Source Block Treatment B x T (A) Method T xM MB/T = B Cut C x T C xM G x TM Error Total  DF  MS  3 5 15 1 5 18 3 15 3 15 108 191  0.0329 8.9450 0.2394 1.5337 0.1790 0.0961 137.25 2.1704 0.5631 0.5952 0.1381 0 —  - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l .  F-Value 0.2383 64.779 * * 1.7340 11.106 * * 1.2960 0.6958 993.87 * * 15.717 * * 4.0778** 4.3098**  -  -  APPENDIX TABLE B3: Analysis of variance - % TKN, 1975.  Source  DF  MS  F-Value  Block Treatment T x B(A) Cut T x C Error Total  3 5 15 1 5 18 47  0.0500 0.8820 0.0380 3.1982 0.2226 0.0435  1.1493 23.210 * * 0.8734 75.511 * * 5.1164**  -  -  * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l .  APPENDIX TABLE B4: Analysis of variance - % n i t r a t e - N , 1975.  Source  DF  MS  F-Value  Block Treatment T xB(A) Cut T x C Error Total  3 4 12 1 4 15 39  0.0022 0.0535 0.0019 0.0990 0.0066 0.0019  1.2008 28.118 * * 1.0190 53.013 * * 3.5388*  -  -  -  , * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  APPENDIX TABLE B5: Analysis of variance - % TKN, 1976.  Source Block Treatment B x T(A) Method T xM MB/T = B Cut C xT C xM C x TM Error Total  DF  MS  F-Value  3 5 15 1 5 18 3 15 3 15 108 191  0.1160 11.715 0.0595 0.1403 0.0140 0.0222 11.768 0.7601 0.6929 0.0967 0.0400  2.8957* 292.59 * * 1.4868 3.5038 0.3493 0.5533 293.90 * * 18.983 * * 17.305 * * 2.4141**  -  -  * * , * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l s , r e p s e c t i v e l y .  APPENDIX TABLE B6: Analysis of variance - % N i t r a t e - N , 1976.  Source Block Treatment B x T(A) Method T xM MB/T = B Cut C xT C xM C x TM Error Total  DF  HS  F-Value  3 5 15 1 5 '18 3 15 3 15 106 189  0.0016 0.8861 0.0015 0.0001 0.0014 0.0019 0.1054 0.0360 0.0218 0.0078 0.0027  0.5840 326.37 * * 0.5394 0.0516 0.5154 0.7021 38.808 * * 13.274 * * 8.0140** 2.8735**  -  * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l .  -  -  APPENDIX TABLE B7: Analysis of variance - % P, 1975.  Source  DF  MS  F-Value  Block Treatment T x B(A) Cut T xC Error Total  3 5 15 1 5 18 47  0.0031 0.0009 0.0005 0.0588 0.0010 0.0009  3.6721* 1.8634 0.5954 69.403 * * 1.1685  -  - •  , * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  APPENDIX TABLE B8: Analysis of variance - % P, 1976.  Source Block Treatment B x T(A) Method T xM MB/T = B Cut C x T C xM C x TM Error Total  DF  MS  F-Value  3 5 15 1 5 18 3 15 3 15 108 191  0.0023 0.0012 0.0012 0.0003 0.0010 0.0005 0.1838 0.0100 0.0011 0.0012 0.0015  1.5341 0.7704 0.7993 0.1825 0.6313 0.3458 121.76 * * 6.6304** 0.7465 0.8012  -  - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l .  -  -  APPENDIX TABLE B9: Analysis of variance - % K, 1975.  Source  DF  MS  F-Value  Block Treatment T x B(A) Cut T xC Error Total  3 5 15 1 5 18 47  0.1664 2.1400 0.0516 5.1026 0.0698 0.0391  4.2556* 41.511 * * 1.3183 130.48 * * 1.7840  -  -  , * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  APPENDIX TABLE B10:  Source Block Treatment B x T(A) Method T xM MB/T = B Cut C x T C xM C x TM Error Total  Analysis of variance - % K, 1976.  DF  MS  F-Value  3 5 15 1 5 18 3 15 3 15 108 191  1.0535 8.0764 0.1463 0.0501 0.2668 0.1119 5.0797 0.6146 0.3622 0.1345 0.1166  9.0365** 69.276 * * 1.2550 0.4293 2.2882 0.9596 43.572 * * 5.2720** 3.1069* 1.1537  -  -  * * , * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  APPENDIX TABLE B l 1 : Analysis of variance - % Ca, 1975.  Source  DF  MS  F-Value  Block Treatment T x B(A) Cut T xC Error Total  3 5 15 1 5 18 47  0.0291 0.0485 0.0290 0.9718 0.0322 0.0479  0.6071 1.6752 0.6046 20.282 * * 0.6720  -  -  * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 1evel.  APPENDIX TABLE B12: Analysis of variance - % Mg, 1975.  Source  DF  MS  F-Value  Block Treatment T x B(A) Cut T xC Error Total  3 5 15 1 5 18 47  0.0021 0.0017 0.0007 0.0320 0.0021 0.0006  3.2657* 2.3613 1.1119 49.814 * * 3.1387*  -  -  * * , * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  APPENDIX TABLE B13:  Analysis of variance - % Na, 1975.  Source  DF  MS  F-Value  Block Treatment T x B(A) Cut T xC Error Total  3 5 15 1 5 18 47  0.0004 0.0031 0.0007 0.0096 0.0005 0.0002  1.6687 4.5454* 3.0012* 42.552 * * 2.1129 _  -  , * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 and 0.05 l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  APPENDIX TABLE B14:  Source Block Treatment B x T(A) Method T xM MB/T = B Cut C xT C xM C x TM Error Total  Analysis of variance - !1 Ca, 1976.  DF  MS  F-Value  3 5 15 1 5 18 3 15 3 15 108 191  0.0037 0.0030 0.0017 0.0001 0.0023 0.0008 0.0786 0.0077 0.0003 0.0011 0.0016  2.2338 1.8134 1.0410 0.0314 1.3981 0.4776 47.396 * * 4.6285** 0.1780 0.6823  - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l .  -  APPENDIX TABLE B15:  Source Block Treatment B x T(A) Method T xM MB/T = B Cut C x T C xM C x TM Error Total  Analysis of variance - % Mg, 1976.  DF  MS  F-Value  3 5 15 1 5 18 3 15 3 15 108 191  0.0012 0.0058 0.0004 0.0001 0.001-0 0.0002 0.1015 0.0021 0.0008 0.0003 0.0003  4.2405** 20.580 * * 1.2455 0.2669 3.3984** 0.6277 361.23 * * 7.6418** 3.0494* 1.0507  -  .  -  -  * * , * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0;.01 and 0.05 l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  APPENDIX TABLE B16:  Source Block Treatment B x T(A) Method T xM MB/T = B Cut C x T C xM C x TM Error Total  Analysis of variance - % Na , 1976.  DF  MS  F-Value  3 5 15 1 5 18 3 15 3 15 108 191  0.0177 0.2391 0.0046 0.0075 0.0113 0.0056 0.0257 0.0301 0.0212 0.0047 0.0020  8.8551** 119.74 * * 2.2923** 3.7567 5.6420** 2.7927** 12.871 * * 15.065 * * 10.604 * * 2.3624**  -  * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l .  -  APPENDIX TABLE B17: Analysis of variance - Nitrate-N i n the s o i l , 1975.  Source  DF  Block Treatment Error (A) Depth T x D Error (B) Total  3 4 12 3 12 45 79  MS  F-Value  5.1969 960.21 20.142 163.89 103.98 6.3370  -  0.2580 47.672 * *  -  25.862 * * 16.409 * * .  .  .  * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 1 eve!.  APPENDIX TABLE Bl8:; Analysis of variance - Nitrate-N in the s o i '  Source Block Treatment Error (A) Method T xM Error (B) Depth T x D M x D T x MD Error (C) Total  DF  MS  F-Value  2 4 8 1 4 10 .3 12 3 12 60 119  18.956 340.03 12.886 6.1291 6.6542 26.373 20.526 29.210 2.2830 1.2168 1.1423  1.4710 26.387 * *  -  * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.01 l e v e l .  -  0.2324 0.2523  -  17.969 * * 25.572 * * 1.9986 1.0653  -  -:  APPENDIX TABLE C l : Forage y i e l d by c u t , 1975.  Manure Treatment t/ha  Yield F i r s t Cut Second Cut ' Total _ _____ t/ha - - - - - - - •  1.25  1.44  2.38  3.82  2.5  1.92  2.24  4.16  5.0  2.32  2.63  4.95  10  2.95  3.02  5.97  20  2.90  3.05  5.95  40  3.29  3.71  7.00  Control  1.28  1.80  3.08  APPENDIX TABLE C2: Forage y i e l d s by c u t , 1976.  Manure Treatment  Method of Application  Cut 1st  t/ha  2nd  Total 3rd  4th t / h a  1.25  Single Split  4.72 4.17  1.31 1.54  2.33 2.61  1.68 1.72  10.04 10.04  2.5  Single Split  5.94 5.30  1.42 1.53  2.22 2.91  1.61 1.86  11.19 11.60  5.0  Single Split  5.97 5.78  1.58 1.74  2.72 3.74  1.59 2.14  11.86 13.40  10  Single Split  6.03 5.56  1.78 1.94  3.21 3.94  1.86 2.58  12.88 14.02  20  Single Split  5.77 6.06  1.54 1.65  4.48 4.63  3.32 3.74  15.11 16.08  40  Single Split  4.84 6.14  1.77 1.24  4.40 4.05  3.88 3.66  14.89 15.09  4.50  1.24  2.54  1.87  10.11  Control  _  APPENDIX TABLE DI: % t o t a l Kjeldahl N by c u t , 1975.  Manure Treatment  F i r s t Cut  Second Cut <y  t/ha Control  2.37  2.45  1.25  2.30  2.40  2.5  2.64  2.18  5.0  2.99  2.18  10  3.13  2.38  20  3.40  2.72  40  3.39  2.90  APPENDIX TABLE D2: % n i t r a t e - N by c u t , 1975.  Manure Treatment t/ha 1.25  F i r s t Cut r-  i-i  P* H  Second Cut  • c n n n n ^ n n r- .y  0.04  0.01  2.5  -  5.0  0.16  0.02  10  0.22  0.05  20  0.19  0.13  40  0.29  0.19  APPENDIX TABLE D3: % t o t a l kjeldahl N and % n i t r a t e - N i n the forage by c u t , 1976.  Manure Treatment  F i r s t Cut %  N  1 . 2 5  1 .  3 4  2 . 5  1 .  5 . 0  % N 0  Second Cut N  % N 0  N  0 . 0 1  1 .  6 7  0 . 0 1  1 . 3 4  0 . 0 1  2 .  1 6  0 . 0 2  3 9  0 . 0 1  1 .  5 9  0 . 0 1  1 . 2 1  0 . 0 1  2 .  0 3  0 . 0 1  1 .  71  0 v 0 7  2 .  2 2  0 . 0 1  1 . 1 0  0 . 0 1  1 .  9 4  0 . 0 2  1 0  2 .  2 8  0 . 2 3  3 .  3 0  0 . 1 8  1 . 2 4  0 . 0 3  1 . 8 2  0 . 0 1  2 0  2 .  51  0 . 3 0  3 .  9 2  0 . 4 5  2 . 2 0  0 . 2 1  2 .  6 2  0 . 2 0  4 0  2 .  6 2  0 . 3 0  3 .  5 7  0 . 5 2  2 . 1 6  0 . 3 2  3 .  0 7  0 . 5 0  1 . 2 5  1 .  1 4  0 . 0 1  1 .  6 7  0 . 0 1  1 . 2 6  0 . 0 1  2 .  "12  0 . 0 2  2 . 5  1 .  0 9  0 . 0 1  1 . 8 6  0 . 0 2  1 . 1 0  0 . 0 1  1 . 8 4  0 . 0 1  5 . 0  1 .  1 6  0 . 0 1  2 .  2 9  0 . 0 3  1 . 3 4  0 . 0 2  1 .  9 4  0 . 0 2  1 0  1 .  5 3  0 . 0 3  3 .  0 8  0 . 3 2  1 . 7 4  0 . 1 3  1 .  9 2  0 . 0 3  2 0  2 .  1 8  0 . 2 2  3 .  7 8  0 . 5 2  2 . 4 8  0 . 2 8  2 .  8 5  0 . 1 9  4 0  2 .  3 8  0 . 3 0  3 .  6 2  0 . 4 9  2 . 3 6  0 . 3 5  3 .  0 0  0 . 4 2  1 .  1 7  0 . 0 1  1 .  7 4  0 . 0 0  1 . 3 9  0 . 0 0  2 .  0 9  0 . 0 2  3  - N  %  N  % N 0  Fourth Cut %  3  - N  Third Cut  %  t/ha  3  - N  % N 0 3 - N  Single Method  pi i t Method  ontrol  124  APPENDIX TABLE D4: % P i n the forage by c u t , 1975.  Manure Treatment t/ha  F i r s t Cut  1.25  0.26  0.21  2.5  0.25  0.18  5.0  0.27  0.19  10  0.27  0.18  20  0.28  0.18  40  0.26  0.22  Second Cut  0/  APPENDIX TABLE D5: % P i n the forage by cut, 1976.  Manure Treatment  F i r s t Cut  Second Cut  1.25  0.29  0.38  0.40  0.39  2.5  0.29  0.39  0.38  0.41  5.0  0.28  0.44  0.36  0.39  10  0.30  0.48  0.32  0.37  20  0.28  0.46  0.30  0.37  40  0.31  0.48  0.32  0.35  t/ha  Third Cut %  Fourth Cut  APPENDIX TABLE D6: % K i n the forage by c u t , 1975  F i r s t Cut  Manure Treatment t/ha  Second Cut 0/  1.25  2.68  2.10  2.5  3.30  2.36  5.0  3.22  2.64  10  3.67  2.90  20  3.98  3.32  40  3.94  3.56  APPENDIX TABLE D7: % K i n the forage by c u t , 1976  Manure Treatment t/ha  F i r s t Cut  Second Cut  1.25  2.96  3.20  2.64  2.72  2.5  2.98  3.42  2.88  2.79  5.0  2.89  3.42  2.54  2.64  10  3.03  3.52  2.90  2.99  20  3.15  4.38  3.41  3.04  40  3.<44  4.50  4.59  4.15  °/  Third Cut  Fourth Cut  APPENDIX TABLE D8: % Ca in the forage by c u t , 1975.  Manure Treatment  F i r s t Cut  e  I  t/ha  Second Cut —  r  1.25  0.71  1.11  2.5  0.62  1.11  5.0  0.66  0.89  10  0.61  0.79  20  0.69  0.88  40  0.64  0.86  APPENDIX TABLE D9: % Mg i n the forage by cut, 1975.  Manure Treatment  F i r s t Cut  Second Cut •%  t/ha 1.25  0.20  0.30  2.5  0.20  0.26  5.0  0.23  0.25  10  0.23  0.27  20  0.26  0.28  40  0.22  0.29  APPENDIX TABLE DIP: % Na in the forage by c u t , 1975.  Manure Treatment  F i r s t Cut  t/ha  »L  Second Cut  1.25  0.02  0.05  2.5  0.04  0.05  5.0  0.06  0.08  10"  0.06  0.10  20  0.05  0.07  40  0.06  0.12  APPENDIX TABLE D l l : % Ca in the forage by c u t , 1976.  F i r s t Cut  Second Cut  Third Cut  1.25  0.16  0.21  0.31  0.27  2.5  0.15  0.22  0.27  0.27  5.0  0.16  0.24 .  0.21  0.26  10  0.15  0.24  0.21  0.22  20  0.18  0.27  0.23  0.22  40  0.18  0.28  0.23  0.20  Manure Treatment t/ha  Fourth Cut  128  APPENDIX TABLE D12: % Mg in the forage by c u t , 1976.  Manure Treatment t/ha  F i r s t Cut  Second Cut 0  ,  Third Cut ^  Fourth Cut  "  1.25  0.12  0.20  0.18  0.21  2.5  0.11  0.21  0.18  0.20  5.0  0.14 .  0.24  0.17  0.20  10  0.13  0.24  0.17  0.20  20  0.13  0.24  0.20  0.24  40  0.13  0.22  0.20  0.27  APPENDIX TABLE D13: % Na i n the forage by c u t , 1976.  Manure Treatment t/ha  F i r s t Cut  Second Cut Third Cut •--— %  Fourth Cut  Single Method 1.25  0.05  0.03  0.02  0.05  2.5  0.06  0.04  0.03  0.04  5.0  0.07  0.10  0.02  0.04  10  0.11  0.18  0.06  0.03  20  0.19  0.23  0.33  0.32  40  0.17  0.10  0.12  0.28  1.25  0.04  0.03  0.04  0.06  2.5  0.02  0.02  0.02  0.02  5.0  0.05  0.15  0.14  0.10  10  0.08  0.22  0.26  0.10  20  0.09  0.17  0.31  0.44  40  0.13  0.10  0.15  0.26  S p l i t Method  130  APPENDIX TABLE E l : Chemical composition of the Ladino clover by c u t , 1976.  Manure Treatment t/ha  Method of Application  F i r s t Cut Control 1,'25 1.25 2.5 2.5  Single Split Single Split  Second Cut Control 1.25 1.25 2.5 2.5  Single Split Single Split  Third Cut Control 1.25 1.25 2.5 2.5  Single Split Single Split  Fourth Cut Control 1.25 1.25 2.5 2.5  Single Split Single Split  N  P  K "  Ca  Mg  Na  o  "  0/ /  3.82 3.68 3.33 3.22 4.00  1.05 1.08 1.18 1.00 1.03  0.23 0.23 0.22 0.24  0.07 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.07  0 . 3 4  2 . 8 6  1 . 6 9  0 . 2 4  0 . 0 7  0 . 3 5  2 . 1 6  1 . 5 6  0 . 2 2  0 . 1 0  2 . 8 2  0 . 3 6  2 . 4 4  1 . 9 8  0 . 2 6  0 . 1 2  2 . 8 7  0 . 3 9  2 . 4 0  1 . 6 0  0 . 2 5  0 . 1 2  2 . 6 3  0 . 3 6  2 . 8 0  1 . 5 0  0 . 2 4  0 . 0 8  2 . 7 0  0 . 3 1  2 . 1 0  1 . 6 7  0 . 2 3  0 . 2 7  2 . 6 2  0 . 3 1  1 . 6 6  1 . 9 5  0 . 3 0  0 . 2 6  2 . 6 0  0 . 3 0  1 . 4 5  1 . 8 4  0 . 2 9  0 . 2 6  2 . 6 8  0 ' i 2 4  1 . 2 4  1 . 7 6  0 . 2 8  0 . 2 7  2 . 8 1  0 . 3 0  2 . 2 0  1 . 7 3  0 . 3 0  0 . 2 8  3 . 0 9  0 . 3 4  2 . 3 6  1 . 9 4  0 . 3 2  0 . 1 1  3 . 2 7  0 . 3 6  2 . 1 5  1 . 7 3  0 . 3 3  0 . 2 2  3 . 3 7  0 . 3 6  1 . 7 3  1 . 8 4  0 . 3 4  0 . 2 7  3 . 1 9  0 . 3 8  1 . 9 1  2 . 0 5  0 . 3 4  0 . 2 2  3 . 1 6  0 . 3 4  2 . 0 6  1 . 7 6  0 3 3 2  0 . 1 8  3.20 3.37 3.28 3.58 3.20  0.38 0.40 0.37 0.40 0.39  2 . 9 0 2 . 8 9  0:23  Nitrate-N "  0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01  "  131  APPENDIX TABLE F l : Horizon Aha  S i t e Description in Grigg Series Description  Depth 0 - 15 cm  Very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2 moist) s i l t y clay.  Weak medium granular  s t r u c t u r e ; f r i a b l e , porous, many f i n e roots. Bg  15 - 30 cm  Abrupt change t o :  Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2 moist) s i l t y clay.  Rare to common d i s t i n c t y e l l o w i s h -  brown (10YR 5/6 moist) mottles.  Modern  medium subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e , many roots. Cg-1  30 - 60 cm  Clear change t o :  Olive gray (5Y 4.5/2 moist) s i l t y c l a y . Common d i s t i n c t y e l l o w i s h - r e d (5YR 4/8 moist) mottles.  Massive, f i r m , a few  cracks, roots common but decrease with depth. Cg-2  60 - 80 cm  Gradual change t o :  Olive gray (5Y 4.5/2 moist) s i l t y c l a y . Many d i s t i n c t to f a i n t y e l l o w i s h - r e d (5YR 4/8 moist) mottles.  Massive,  f i r m , rare cracks, a few roots. change t o :  From Comar et a l . , 1962.  Gradual  132  Horizon Cg-3  Depth 80 - 110 cm  Description Olive gray (5Y 5/2 moist) s i l t y c l a y . Many d i s t i n c t and f a i n t y e l l o w i s h - r e d to strong brown (5YR 4/8 - 7.5YR 5/6 moist) mottles which give s l i g h t colour to the mass.  Massive, f i r m , a few  r o o t s , an occasional crack terminating with depth.  

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