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GPSSV simulation model of timber harvesting operations Henkelman, Larry Allan 1978

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GPSSV SIMULATION MODEL OF TIMBER HARVESTING OPERATIONS by LARRY ALLAN HENKELMAN B.S.F., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Faculty of Forestry) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1978 © Larry A l l a n Henkelman, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Forestry The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 Canada Date April 28, 1978 Abstract This thesis provides a methodology for examining forest harvesting operations through simulation. The model i s capable of simulating multiple landing, single dump logging configurations. F a c i l i t y locations, equipment types and numbers, parameters, and functional relationships may be varied so that a wide range of west coast Br i t i s h Columbia logging operations can be represented. The model was written in General Purpose Simulation System V (GPSSV) language. A substantial saving in development cost i s realized over a FORTRAN-based simulation. The model allows independent users to make modifications within the program in order to adapt to the particular operating rules and policies of their operations. Model formulation for this thesis i s based on an actual west coast logging division. Verification of the model involves a three-stage approach. F i r s t , a set of hypotheses and postulates are constructed for the subsystems of the harvesting operation and, secondly, these are empirically tested. Historical data is compared to simulation results i n order to confirm that particular subsystems adequately model the real system. Tactical considerations and experimental design regarding model execution are presented. It is shown that antithetic variates can be effectively used to reduce the variance of the mean of a response. i i i An improved truck dispatching routine i s developed with the objective of maximizing productivity, subject to the availability of yarding and trucking resources. This policy balances the objectives of minimizing truck travel time, truck delays at landings, and yarding stoppages due to timber "saturated" landings. In comparison with other dispatching policies, productivity can be increased from two to over ten percent. The dispatching algorithm has been programmed for a Hewlett-Packard 9830A desktop computing system. The dispatcher, u t i l i z i n g radio communications with a l l of the landings and trucks, can theoretically be supplied with the optimum landing to which a truck should be dispatched. Some other practical applications of the timber harvesting simulation model are discussed. F l e x i b i l i t y in the model, in parameter i n i t i a l i z a t i o n and the substitution of new relationships, allows the investigation of many features of forest resource planning and machine allocation and scheduling. The determination of equipment requirements for various configurations, the evaluation of new equipment and the comparison of different operating policies can be undertaken with the model. Another benefit derived from the development of the model is an increased understanding of the timber harvesting system which allows the design of better operating policies and greater control within the system. iv Table of Contents page Abstract i i List of Tables i x L i s t of Figures x Acknowledgement X 1 1 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Past Studies on the Application of Simulation to Forest Harvesting Systems 5 1.2 Objectives 6 1.3 Method of Presentation 7 2.0 Developing the Simulation Model 8 2.1 The GPSSV Simulation Framework 8 2.2 An Algorithm for Developing Continuous GPSSV Functions ' 10 2.2.1 Inverse Transformation 11 2.2.2 Interpolating the Inverse Cumulative Distribution Function 15 2.3 Analysis of Data Requirements and Availability of Sources 22 3.0 Description of the Timber Harvesting System 27 3.1 Introduction 27 3.2 Yarding 28 3.2.1 Description of the Physical Yarding Subsystem 28 3.2.2 The Yarding Model 32 3.2.3 Simulation of the Yarding Subsystem 33 3.3 Loading 35 3.3.1 Description of the Physical Loading Subsystem 35 V 3.3.2 The Loading Model 37 3.3.2.1 Loading Time Versus Pieces Loaded Relationship 38 3.3.2.2 Volume Loaded Versus Weight Relationship 39 3.3.3 Simulation of the Loading Subsystem 40 3.4 Hauling 43 3.4.1 Description of the Physical Hauling Subsystem 43 3.4.2 The Hauling Model 44 3.4.2.1 Camp Delays 44 3.4.2.2 Travel Times 45 3.4.3 Simulation of the Hauling Subsystem 49 3.5 Unloading 3.5.1 Description of the Physical Unloading Subsystem 49 3.5.2 The Unloading Model 52 3.5.3 Simulation of the Unloading Subsystem 53 3.6 Equipment Downtimes 53 3.6.1 Description of the Physical Equipment Downtime Subsystems 53 3.6.2 The Equipment Downtime Models 55 3.6.3 Simulation of the Breakdown Subsystems 57 3.7 The Daily Start-up and Shutdown Modes 58 4.0 Simulation Methodology 64 4.1 Model Programming and Computing Requirements 64 4.2 Validating the Simulation Model 64 4.2.1 Model Construction 65 4.2.2 Empirical Testing of Subsystem Representation 66 4.2.3 Comparison of Input-Output Transformations 68 v i 4.3 S t a r t i n g Conditions 71 4.4 Analyzing Stochastic Simulation Runs 72 4.5 Model F l e x i b i l i t y 79 5.0 Improving Truck Dispatching Techniques 80 5.1 Introduction 80 5.2 Indexing Algorithm 81 5.3 Bonita's Algorithm 84 5.4 Developing an Improved Dispatching Routine Algorithm 87 5.4.1 Vehicle Scheduling Problems 87 5.4.2 Dispatching Routine Algorithm Based on Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory 90 5.4.2.1 Minimum Return Time Model 90 5.4.2.2 Landing Inventory 93 5.5 Comparison of Dispatching Techniques 100 5.6 Truck Redispatching 5.6.1 Truck Redispatching P o l i c i e s 109 5.6.2 Modelling Truck Redispatching ' 109 5.7 Computerized Truck Dispatching 113 5.7.1 Program Description 113 5.7.2 Program Data Requirements and Input 114 5.7.3 Results and Discussion 116 6.0 Applications of the Logging Simulation Model i n Resource Planning 118 6.1 Determination of Logging Truck Requirements f or Various Logging Configurations 118 6.2 Determination of Truck Requirements and Cost Analysis Using D i f f e r e n t Combinations of "Highway" and "Off-Highway" Trucks 119 6.3 Comparison of D i f f e r e n t Operating P o l i c i e s 119 6.4 Machine A l l o c a t i o n and Scheduling 121 v i i 6.5 The Introduction of New Equipment 121 7.0 Summary and Conclusions 123 Bibliography 127 Appendices l.A Solving the Coefficients of Cubic Spline Interpolation 129 l.B FORTRAN Program for Cubic Spline Interpolation of Inverse Cumulative Distribution Functions 131 2 Daily Production Forms for Gold River Logging Division 136 3 Sample Data Collection Forms 139 4 Yarder Characteristics 142 5 GPSSV Flowcharts of the Timber Harvesting Simulation Model 143 5.1 Yarding 144 5.2 Loading, Hauling and Unloading 146 5.3 Equipment Breakdowns 156 5.4 Equipment Daily Schedule 169 5.5 Starting Conditions for Trucks 176 i 5.6 Starting Conditions and Daily Tabulation of Production for Yarders 178 5.7 Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory Dispatching Routine 180 5.8 Calculating the Estimated Completion Time for Redispatched Trucks 185 5.9 Truck Redispatching 190 6 Truck Characteristics 203 7 Gold River Logging Division — Start-up and Shutdown Modes " 204 8 Listing of the GPSSV Timber Harvesting Simulation Model 205 9 System Specifications for the Hewlett-Packard 9830A Computing System 224 10 Operating Instructions for the Truck Dispatching Program 225 11 Menu Operation 237 L i s t of Tables Polynomial approximation versus s p l i n e i n t e r p o l a t i o n of the truck interbreakdown d i s t r i b u t i o n . S t a t i s t i c s of the Timber Harvesting Model and t h e i r sources. The states and a c t i v i t i e s of the high lead and grapple yarding subsystems. The a t t r i b u t e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the loading subsystem. Estimated t r a v e l time per round t r i p . Mean t r a v e l times f o r return t r i p s . The states and a c t i v i t i e s of the unloading subsystem. Harvesting subsystems' representation. Testing the difference between the mean p r o d u c t i v i t y for the r e a l system and f o r the simulation model. Testing the difference between variance of p r o d u c t i v i t y for the r e a l system and for the simulation model. Testing f o r a d i f f e r e n c e i n mean volume dumped for various dispatching techniques. Comparison of various dispatching techniques. Testing f o r a differ e n c e i n mean volume dumped for various dispatching techniques. Parameters required for various dispatching technique Requirements f o r each section of the computerized dispatching algorithm. Two equipment shutdown modes. L i s t of Figures x page 1. The Forest I n d u s t r i a l Product Flow System 2 2. D e t a i l s of the Log Production System 3 3. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Truck Interbreakdown Times 12 4. Cumulative D i s t r i b u t i o n Function of Truck Interbreakdown Times 13 5. Inverse Cumulative D i s t r i b u t i o n Function of Truck Interbreakdown Times 14 6. Least Squares Approximation of the Truck Interbreakdown Inverse Cumulative D i s t r i b u t i o n Function 16 7. Cubic Spline Interpolation of Data Points 18 8. Cubic Spline Interpolation of the Truck Interbreakdown 20 D i s t r i b u t i o n 9. A Schematic Diagram of the Harvesting System ' 29 10. Volume Yarded Versus Time 33 11. The Yarding Function 34 12. The Loading Function 41 13. Travel Time per Round-Trip Mile f or "Off-Highway" Trucks 46 14. The Hauling Function 50 15. The Unloading Function 54 16. Exponential Approximation of the Truck Interbreakdown D i s t r i b u t i o n 56 17. Flowchart of the Yarder Breakdown and Move and Rig Functions 59 18. The Loader Breakdown Function 60 19. The Truck Breakdown Function 61 20. Flowchart of the Camp, Yarders, Trucks, Loaders and Dump Daily Schedule 63 21. Flowchart of the S t a r t i n g Conditions for Trucks 73 x i 22. Flowchart of the Starting Conditions and Daily-Tabulation of Production for Yarders 74 23. Negative Correlation Between Pairs of Observations 76 24. Flowchart of the Indexing Dispatching Technique 85 25'. Flowchart of Bonita's Dispatching Routine 88 26. Network Flow for the Gold River Logging Division Configuration 92 27. Macroflowchart of the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory Model for Truck Dispatching 94 28. Productivity Versus Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory Dispatching Algorithm at Various Landing Inventories 95 29. Microflowchart of the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory Dispatching Routine 97 30. Production Versus Dispatching Technique (Configuration 1) 101 31. Production Versus Dispatching Technique (Configuration 2) 102 32. Flowchart of Completion Time Updating for Dispatched Trucks 106 33. Flowchart of the Truck Redispatching Policies 110 34. Effects on Productivity due to Yarder and Loader Breakdowns 112 35. Truck Dispatching Menu 227 36. Aligning the Truck Dispatching Menu 238 Acknowledgement I would like to acknowledge the invaluable assistance provided by my supervisor, Mr. G.G. Young, throughout my graduate program at the University of British Columbia. His constructive criticism and encourage ment were greatly appreciated. My gratitude i s also extended to the National Research Council of Canadar.and Tahsis Company Limited for generously providing financial support while I worked on my Master's program. I would like to thank Dr. D.H. Williams and Mr. B. Craig for being on my committee and reviewing the text. I also wish to acknowledge the help and cooperation provided by Mr. G. Atkinson and the personnel of Gold River Logging Division, of Tahsis Company Limited. Their help i n the collection of data used in the thesis and the technical assistance provided has proved to be invaluable. Finally, to my wife Ann, sincere thanks for her patience and assistance. 1 1.0 Introducti on If the forest industry of British Columbia is to remain competitive within the world wood product market, i t must update existing policies and introduce new concepts in order to derive greater productivity from i t s man-power and equipment. The GPSSV (General Purpose Simulation System V) Simulation Model of Timber Harvesting Operations, focusing on the logging aspect of the forest industrial product flow system (Figure 1), provides a means for examining changes within the existing structure. The procuring and transporting of raw materials from the standing tree to an intermediate destination, such as a truck unloading f a c i l i t y , is characterized by activities that can be analysed for system improvement. Details of the production system activities are shown in Figure 2. Limits of the "timber harvesting system" considered in this study are outlined as part of the total forest industrial product flow system. The activities include log yarding, loading, hauling, unloading, truck dispatching and equipment maintenance. The activities associated with these processes, and considered as exogenous to the harvesting system, are: timber inventories, road surveying, machine scheduling and allocation, road construction, cutting area surveying, and f e l l i n g and bucking. Characteristics represented by these act i v i t i e s are fixed for any particular configuration of the timber harvesting system. The logging manager requires an intensive study of the logging system in order to formulate policies and make decisions. This need can be met by 2 FORESTRY 1. Forest Establishment 2. Stand • Management harvestable trees 1 TIMBER HARVESTING SYSTEM 1. Falling and Bucking 2. Yarding 3. Transport to Intermediate Destination (unloading f a c i l i t y ) 4. Unloading logs y TRANSPORTATION TO THE MANUFACTURING SITE \ 1 MANUFACTURE OF WOOD PRODUCTS \ lumber, pulp, paper, poles, etc. 1 CONSUMPTION Figure 1. The forest industrial product flow system. Timber I n v e n t o r i e s Road Surveys Machine A l l o c a t i o n and Scheduling Road Construction C u t t i n g Area Survey Yarding of Logs Loading Transport-a t i o n to Dump Unloading Equipment Maintenance - r e p a i r - s e r v i c i n g Transport-a t i o n to Side Truck D i s p a t c h i n g TIMBER HARVESTING ACTIVITIES F a l l i n g and Bucking ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES - CLIMATE - MARKET DEMANDS - LABOUR DISPUTES A ~ OPERATING POLICIES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Figure 2. D e t a i l s of the l o g production system. a comprehensive study that encompasses the various :component processes and the interactions between these components. These interactions may be dynamic and stochastic in nature, and generally are non-linear responses to changes in independent variables. The timber harvesting process exemplifies a system which i s so complex and containsiso many random variables that i t s overall investigation with an analytic model is d i f f i c u l t . An analytic solution is hindered by a lack of applicable deterministic techniques and insufficient information about the relationships between the variables involved. Experimenting directly with the real system often requires a major investment which can be both expensive and time-consuming. A simulation should eliminate these factors that prevent the use of analytic models or real-world experimentation. It is imperative that the simulation model be capable of: a) providing for the important characteristics of logging problems such as the existence of interacting events of a stochastic nature which affect the manner in which the independent variables of the system are related to the various system responses, b) allowing the examination of a wide class of alternative system configurations, and c) fast execution to make feasible the use of experimentation (Bonita 1972). 5 1.1 Past Studies on the Application of Simulation to Forest Harvesting Systems The investigation of individual logging activities was emphasized in, early studies of forest harvesting systems. Several simulation studies in logging have been aimed at improving production and reducing costs for specific equipment functions. Newnham (1968) used simulation to test the dependence of productivity of feller-buncher machines on minimum merchantable diameter. The aim of the study was to design a pulpwood harvesting machine. The simulations of forest industrial systems have included the logging system as a subsystem of the forest management model. Clutter and Bamping (1965) and O'Regan, et_ al_ (1965) developed large scale simulation models that, projecting forest resource plans, included the logging system simply as a cost. The most relevant simulations of the forest harvesting system have been developed within the last ten years. McPhalen (1970) developed a FORTRAN simulation of a west coast British Columbia logging operation. The model took the form of a dispatching game which allowed the player to act the part of a truck dispatcher within a logging operation. McPhalen's model was expanded by Bonita (1972) to permit experimentation with a wide class of logging configurations. Written in FORTRAN IV, the model was used to compare two operation shutdown modes and to determine equipment requirements for different operating conditions. 6 Routhier (1974) developed a stochastic simulation model for the analysis of pulpwood and sawlog trucking systems in which trucks travel from one or more loading areas to a single unloading area. The simulation, based on GASP IIA (General Application Simulation Package IIA, Pritsker and Kiviat, 1969), studies the effects of modifications on a trucking system. Corcoran (1971) studied the application of GPSS/360 in harvesting system analysis. Equipment requirements and schedules for roundwood movement were determined. Seppala (1971) constructed a GPSS simulation model for timber harvesting, that described the structure and operation of two types of limbing-bucking machines. Levesque (1975) presented a deterministic simulation model that represented the movement of logging trucks for specified road alignment (actual or proposed) and truck parameters. None of these studies have attempted to analyse the dependence of productivity on the dispatching technique employed in the transportation subsystem of the timber harvesting system. 1.2 Objectives The underlying objective of this study i s the methodological improvement of the timber harvesting system, so that a required quantity and quality of wood may be produced by an existing logging operation at a lower and more competitive cost. To meet this task, improvements in the planning and management of equipment allocation and scheduling must be made in each phase of the harvesting system. This study aims to provide: 7 a) A methodology for analysing complex timber harvesting subsystem problems. This involves a General Purpose Simulation System V abstraction of the logging operation. b) The capacity to modify and experiment with models of the logging subsystems, with the aim of improving the system. c) An improved logging truck dispatching policy, and the means to implement the policy in a logging operation environment. 1.3 Method of Presentation This thesis follows the logical steps in the construction of the harvesting system simulation model and i t s application to the truck dispatching problem. Chapter 2 develops the basis for the simulation model: data requirements and sources, a method for developing functional relationships for system variables and an introduction to GPSSV. Chapter 3 follows with a description of the physical logging subsystems, their abstraction as models and representation in the simulation language. The background to the simulation methodology is presented in Chapter 4. The model's input and output requirements, validation, design and f l e x i b i l i t y are discussed; as well as s t a t i s t i c a l considerations in execution. The application of the logging simulation model in the development of an improved truck dispatching technique, and the application of desktop computing systems for dispatching, are described in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 illustrates the types of problems to which the simulation model can be applied. 8 2.0 Developing the Simulation Model 2.1 The GPSSV Simulation Framework GPSSV (General Purpose Simulation System V, I.B.M., 1970) was selected as the best simulation language i n which to program the harvesting model. GPSS i s a complete language, oriented towards problems i n which items pass through a s e r i e s of processing and/or storage functions (Emshoff and Sisson, 1970). The language approximates the way i n which the analyst would describe the problem i n h i s everyday vocabulary. That i s , the statements of the language enable the analyst to e a s i l y describe the functional flow of the items (trucks) through the system. GPSS i s quite d i f f e r e n t from a multipurpose language such as FORTRAN. GPSS has a vocabulary and syntax. The programmer i s thus spared a considerable amount of programming work, i n comparison with the amount of work required when using a general computer language. Flows of items are not described d i r e c t l y by FORTRAN, whereas GPSS converts the process flow d e s c r i p t i o n d i r e c t l y to a computer program. Ease i n programming and error diagnosis are key features of GPSS. As we l l , the following functions are b u i l t i n : a) creation of random numbers b) creation of random va r i a t e s (such as t r a v e l times) c) time advance by units (seconds, minutes, hours, days, etc.) d) experience recording 9 e) s t a t i s t i c analysis on recorded experience f) outputs arranged in specific formats g) adjustment of state variables as a result of an event h) experience retrieval i) prewritten event subroutines j) capability for inserting user-written subroutines (FORTRAN, PL/1, or ASSEMBLER). The major advantage of using a simulation language, over a multipurpose language, i s the saving in time and money required to prepare and debug the model. Emshoff and Sisson presented a case study where the programming efficiency of GPSS was ten times that of FORTRAN. Bonita (1972) spent approximately five thousand "computer dollars" developing his i n i t i a l harvesting simulation model. The i n i t i a l model developed by the author was achieved at a cost of less than five hundred "computer dollars", yet i t i s of a complexity comparable to Bonita's model. GPSSV allows a high degree of f l e x i b i l i t y in the model. Alterations may be made during a single simulation run. T.J. Corcoran, Professor of Forest Resources-,- University of Maine, stated in a presentation to the 1971 Winter Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers: "Perhaps over riding the ease of GPSS implementation, it s f l e x i b i l i t y to project realism, i t s adaptability to the intake of various forms of raw or summary data and it s a b i l i t y to readily put forth useful information conveniently displayed, i s the proposition that GPSS has acceptability in demonstration. Understandably the creators of any GPSS simulation of a harvesting system can mentally relate to their creation, i t s positives and negatives, i t s capacities and limitations, i t s useful highs and lows. But this may not be of ultimate importance, for the creators may occupy only one 10 echelon on the decision-making chain. They must convince superiors and underlings alike of the merits of their deliberations. A GPSS description or interpretation i s more nearly within the realm of understandability of multipurpose languages. Furthermore, i t s potential to logically supplant many algorithmic optimizing techniques has not been f u l l y realized." 2.2 An Algorithm for Developing Continuous GPSSV Functions Various inter-event times and event durations must be represented by functions within the simulation. Data collected through observations of the real system may be u t i l i z e d to derive variable relationships by: a) the selection of a theoretical distribution function, based on a sequence of hypothesis tests to determine whether the distribution of the samples f i t s a known function, or b) the construction of an empirical inverse cumulative distribution function. These distribution functions, when b u i l t into the simulation, allow the computer processor to sample from nonuniform distributions in order to determine inter-event times and event durations. Some scheme- must be followed to convert a sample from the uniform 0-1 population into a draw from the nonuniform distribution of interest. l'l r 2.2.1 Inverse Transformation From data obtained through observations or historical data, a distribution histogram can be formulated. As an example of this process, Figure 3 illustrates the distribution of truck interbreakdown times at the Gold River Logging Division. The peaks in the distribution are suspected to have been caused by other processes, such as the continued operation of trucks in need of repair u n t i l the end of the production day. The variate (truck interbreakdown time) with cumulative distribution function (C.D.F.) F(X) (Figure 4) i s transformed into a variate r with a uniform cumulative distribution function by the transformation: F(X) = P (x < X) r F(X) = U (0,1) = r where d stands for distribution Regardless of how the random variable, x, is distributed, the C.D.F. of that random variable i s uniformly distributed. Figure 4 illustrates the cumulative distribution function F(X) versus truck interbreakdown time. To generate a truck interbreakdown time (X), a uniform random number r is obtained from a generator, and X is calculated: -1, , X = F (r) Figure 5 illustrates the inverse C.D.F. of truck interbreakdown times, F (r) . This graphs interbreakdown duration versus uniformly distributed random numbers U(0,1). 23 t- FREQUENCY D I S T R I B U T I O N - TRUCK INTERBRERKDOWNS HOR.SCRLE: 1 I N . - 10 HR. CI CM.- 3.94 HR. ) H-cQ C ri CD 13 4->-o z U 3 O u u. 10 4-e It 4 ~ n n rt H-3 fD cn H fD fD 3 O <^ . & H-cn rt H H-cr c rt H-O O Hi rt n *• H-3 rt CD H CD p) O 3 8 10 80 30 48 50 88 78 88 t—1 to INTERBREAKDOWN TIMECHR.) Figure 4. Cumulative d i s t r i b u t i o n function of truck interbreakdown times 13 250 I N V E R S E C U M U L R T I V E D I S T R I B U T I O N FUNCTION OF TRUCK INTERBRERKDOHN T I M E S VERT.SCRL.Es 1 I N . - 50 HR. CI CM.- 19.7 HR. ) 200 4-0 ) LZ 3 O I 150 4-u z H h Z Z o a I y a: n a y i-z H 100 4-50 H-cQ c Hi fD 3 < fD H cn fD O c 3 C H PJ rr < fD a. H-CO rt HI H-tr c rt H-O 3 C 3 O rt H-O 3 O Hi rt C o H-3 rt fD .2 .3 .4 .6 .7 . 8 ,9 r - FCX) - uC0, 1) 15 2.2.2 Interpolating the Inverse Cumulative Distribution Function Bonita (1972) used the method of regression to f i t a fourth order polynomial to the set of points (r^/ t^) for i = l,...,n where: n = number of observations r = uniformly distributed random number (0 < r < 1) t = s t a t i s t i c observation (e.g. truck interbreakdown time) and 2 n -1, s t = c.+ c r. + c r + . . . + c r = F (r) 0 1 2 n Again using truck interbreakdown times as an example, Figure 6 illustrates the least squares f i t t i n g of the inverse C.D.F. with fourth degree orthogonal polynomials. A fourth degree orthogonal polynomial resulted in the best approximation (highest R-square value and lowest standard error y), based on regression equations from two to six degrees. The equation for truck interbreakdown times i s : t = 10.9339 - 276.78r + 1703.7r2 - 3095.7r3 + 1877.6r4 R2 = 0.9825 standard error y = 8.4231 At f i r s t glance, this equation would seem to be an excellent f i t , but some problems exist: sanoH N I cx) 3wix NMoaayaaeaaxNi a) A very poor estimate of F (0) r e s u l t s as the regression produces t = 10.93 hours while the actual value i s 2.0 hours. b) The minimum value of the equation i s not at F(x) = 0. The inverse C.D.F. has the property: F "'"(r) S F 1 (r + dr) c) The equation y i e l d s interbreakdown times le s s than zero f o r 0.05 <r < 0.18. Negative time i n t e r v a l s are unacceptable. These problems r e s u l t from the tendency of higher degree polynomial ; equations to become "wavy". Errors i n the approximating polynomial are discussed i n Conte and DeBoor (1972). The inverse C.D.F. may also be inte r p o l a t e d using cubic s p l i n e s . The "s p l i n e " interpolant has the form: 2 3 P.(x) = c . + c_.(x-x.) + c_.(x-x.) + c ..(x-x.) l l i 2i I 3 i l 4 i l The problem i s to f i n d the function P.(x) which f i t s the data points and "looks smooth" (Figure 7). The requirement that P (x) be twice continuously d i f f e r e n t i a b l e insures that the "global" function r e f l e c t s the shape of the e n t i r e sample. 18 Figure 7. Cubic spline interpolation of data points. The conditions on the spline are: a) P. (x. ) = y. = c 1 1 l l i (i = 0,1,...,n-l) 2 3 b) P.(x. ,)' = y. , - c„ . + c„.h. + c . h . +c„.h. i i+1; i+l l i 2i i 3i l 4i l (i = 0,1,...,n-l) c) P. ' (x. ) = P. ' (x. ) l l l - l l c„. = c„. + 2c,. nh. + 3c h.' 2i 2 i - l 3 i - l l - l 4 i - l l - l (i = 1,2,...,n-l) d) P."(x.) = P." (x.) = 2c,. = 2c,. ' + 6c.. .h. 0 , l l l - l l 3i 3 i - l 4 i - l l - l (l = l,2,...,n-l) Based on these conditions, the solution for the coefficients c,.. , c„. , c„ . , c„. ) can be found (Appendix l.A) . l i 2i 3i 4i / 19 The resulting interpolation P^(x) results in a smooth and accurate representation of the data points. Figure 8 shows the cubic spline interpolation of truck interbreakdown times. The FORTRAN program developed to interpolate inverse C.D.F.'s has been included in Appendix I.B J The only problem that persists from the polynomial approximation is the incidence of t > t , for 0.4 < r < 0.45. Otherwise, cubic splines r r+dr show an improvement over polynomial approximation. Table I illustrates the improvement in standard error of estimate for cubic spline interpolation versus orthogonal polynomial approximation. Cubic splines provide a method for smoothing data points, interpolating more data points for inverse C.D.F.'s (where existing data points are sparse), and reducing the number of data points required to accurately represent an empirical C.D.F. Splines provide a controlled number of uniformly spaced data points for defining continuous GPSS functions. Therefore, the method for creating continuous GPSS functions from observed data can be summarized as follows: a) From observed, or historical, data plot or tabulate a cumulative distribution function. b) Construct an empirical inverse C.D.F. of the distribution formed in a) . c) (i) Utilize the cubic spline interpolation program to obtain a uniformly spaced and controlled number of interpolated data points, or (ii) construct the continuous GPSS function directly from the e to H-O O 21 Table I. Polynomial approximation versus cubic spline interpolation of the truck inter-breakdown distribution. Value of random True value of Estimated value number distribution Polynomial Cubic Spline F(x) (hours) t error P. (x) l error 0.00 2.0 10.9 8.9 2.0 0.0 0.05 5.8 1.0 4.8 5.9 0.1 0.10 6.9 -2.6 9.5 7.0 0.1 0.15 7.5 -1. 7 9.2 7.3 0.2 0.20 8.2 2.0 6.2 9.6 1.4 0.25 8.4 7.2 1.2 8.9 0.5 0. 30 9.0 12.6 3.6 9.4 0.4 0. 35 16.0 18.2 2.2 16.1 0.1 0.40 17.6 22.8 5.2 18.2 0.6 0.45 18.3 26. 3 8.0 15.7 2.6 0.50 25.0 28.9 3.9 25.0 0.0 0.55 27.5 30.8 3.3 27.6 0.1 0.60 35.3 32.9 2.4 35.5 0.2 0.65 42.0 35.8 6.2 42.0 0.0 0.70 46.0 41.0 5.0 45.9 0.1 0.75 55.0 49.8 5.2 55.0 0.0 0.80 64.0 63.9 0.1 64.1 0.1 0.85 92.5 85.6 6.9 93.1 0.6 0.90 109.0 117.0 8.0 107.6 1.4 0.95 151.5 160.7 9.2 151.0 0.5 1.00 264.0 219.8 44.2 263.1 0.9 Mean Error 7.3 0.5 Maximum Error 44.2 2.6 Standard Error of Estimate 11.9 0.8 22 empirical inverse C.D.F. (i f i t is f e l t that the data points adequately represent the distribution). Orthogonal polynomials may be used to approximate the empirical inverse C.D.F. i f the problems associated with the example do not prevail. 2.3 Analysis of Data Requirements and Availability of Sources The Timber Harvesting Simulation Model requires information on the characteristics, behaviour, and operating rules of each part of the harvesting system. Data must be available for: a) estimating values of parameters b) providing functional relationships and starting values for a l l variables c) validating simulation outputs. The relevant statistics of the harvesting model include: a) equipment inter-down times b) duration of down times c) daily yarding rates d) truck volumes e) loading times f) number of pieces per load g) travel speeds h) unloading times 23 i) camp delays j) landing size. The historical data used in this study are based on sets of samples provided by: a) Daily production forms and weight scale results (Appendix 2) from Gold River Logging Division, Tahsis Company Limited (January, 1976 to June, 1976). This operation i s located at Gold River, on the west coast of Vancouver Island. b) Simulation data collection by Mr. J. McPhalen at Harrison Mills Logging Division, Canadian Forest Products Company Limited (1969). This operation i s located at Harrison Mills, 70 miles east of Vancouver. These sources provide a good representation of the different subsystems of coastal harvesting systems. Table II l i s t s the statistics u t i l i z e d in the harvesting model, as well as the data sources. Appendix 3 contains sample data collection forms which record the daily productivity and avail a b i l i t y of yarders, loaders and trucks. Information collected could provide values for new models or improvements to the existing timber harvesting simulation. Chapter 3 analyses the results from the data interpretation stage. Unless a suitable theoretical distribution function is found to represent the subsystem process, various inverse cumulative distribution functions (C.D.F.'s) are derived and used to generate variables in the program. Table II. Statistics of the timber harvesting model and their sources. Statistic Source* Value a) Mean yarding GR rate (cu. f t ./clay) and standard deviation yarder mean s.d. ~ 1 8197 2064 2 9103 2448 3 7382 2705 4 13812 4645 5 7717 3148 6 7729 1816 b) Mean truck load GR (lbs.) and standard deviation truck mean s.d. 1 107014 22561 2 109292 39140 3 103795 34196 4 141965 28124 5 151550 16924 6 65934 11865 7 105313 ' 14615 8 103253 15231 9 64890 8127 10 94115 22989 11 143136 16303 12 145364 19047 13 152803 16111 14 170439 15487 15 172983 20235 16 169279 18125 17 70539 7688 18 74793 6956 c) Mean loading time HM 43.0 (minutes) d) Mean number of HM 36.1 pieces loaded e) Mean travel speed HM 11.0 of empty trucks (mi./hr.) f) Mean travel speed HM 11.8 of loaded trucks (mi./hr.) Table II (cont'd). Statistics of the timber harvesting model and their sources. Statistic Source'' Value g) Distance to landings GR (miles) landings 1 2 3 4 5 6 distance 10 10 11 24 10 19 h) Mean truck inter-breakdown time (hours) GR 43.8 i) Mean truck repair time (hours) GR 2.36 j) Mean yarder inter-breakdown time (hours) GR type tower crane time 42.8 18.9 k) Mean yarder repair time (hours) GR tower crane 1.76 1.87 1) Mean inter-move and r i g time (hours) GR tower crane 87.8 25.7 m) Mean move and r i g duration (hours) GR tower crane 2.04 1.76 n) Mean loader inter-breakdown time (hours) GR 41.6 o) Mean repair time for loaders GR 2.06 p) Mean unloading time (minutes) GR 7.0 q) Mean camp delay for loaded trucks (minutes) HM 2.69 Table II (cont'd). Statistics of the timber harvesting model and their sources. Statistic Source* 1 Value r) Mean camp delay HM 4.11 for empty trucks (minutes) * GR : Gold River Logging Division HM : Harrison Mills Logging Division 0 27 3.0 Description of the Timber Harvesting System 3.1 Introduction The timber harvesting system is generally a multi-source, single-sink network represented by nodes linked by a set of arcs (roads). Intermediate stations, such as a camp or redispatching point, may exist on the road network. The sources are the yarding locations, referred to as "landings". Each landing has a yarding machine and a truck loader. The sink is the truck unloading f a c i l i t y , or "dump", which is an intermediate point preceding the transportation of the logs to a manufacturing site. For the model's purpose, the dump i s the end of the harvesting system. The above network i s referred to as a "stump to dump" operation. This chapter describes the different subsystems of the harvesting process; the operating rules, a c t i v i t i e s and their stochastic components. This w i l l allow an appreciation of the nature of the timber harvesting system and i t s variables. The simulation model was developed specifically for the Gold River Logging Operation, u t i l i z i n g information collected from both the Gold River and Harrison Mills operations. It must be noted however, that data from these sources was only used in model formulation; the resultant model may be applied to other specific logging system situations. 28 Figure 9 shows a schematic representation of a logging system. The various physical subsystems and their routines include: a) Yarding or log extraction (i) representation of the yarding process (ii) generation of the average daily yarding rate b) Truck loading (i) loading time - pieces loaded relationship (ii) volume loaded c) Hauling (i) camp delays (empty and loaded) (ii) truck dispatching ( i i i ) travel time generation -empty trucks to landing from camp -loaded trucks to camp from landing -loaded trucks from camp to dump -empty trucks from dump to camp d) Unloading e) Equipment downtime (repair, maintenance, non-productive a c t i v i t i e s ) . 3.2 Yarding 3.2.1 Description of the Physical Yarding Subsystem .The 11 long-log" yarding and transport method, rather than the short wood or the full-tree methods, i s used in west coast logging operations. Trees are felled, limbed and bucked i f necessary (log lengths range from 8 to 50+ F i g u r e 9 . A schematic diagram of the h a r v e s t i n g system. H 2 •baaj 30 feet), then yarded to the road landing location. Two yarding systems have been employed i n the study. F i r s t , the high lead yarder involves interaction with the loader in the yarding function. If the landing i s crowded, safety conditions may determine whether the yarding process may proceed. Specifically, i f a truck must be loaded on or near the yarding path of the high lead tower, yarding i s stopped. If the landing i s "plugged", or f i l l e d to capacity, and the loader cannot keep pace with the yarder, then the yarding process w i l l stop. The second yarding system considered i s the grapple crane. This method allows the yarder to work independently of the loader because logs are generally yarded to the roadside rather than to a centralized landing, when terrain and road conditions permit. Table III summarizes the states and activities associated with the high lead and grapple yarding subsystems. Appendix 4 identifies the types of yarders used in the study and their respective productivity. Several factors contribute to the volume yarded over a specified time period. These include side slope, terrain, landing size and inventory, log size and number per acre, weather, slash, crew and machine characteristics. These conditions can result in a very complex stochastic function for volume yarded per unit time. 31 Table III. The states and activities of the high lead and grapple yarding subsystems. States Sequence of Activities Yarding with high lead 1. Yarder hauls line and chokers from the landing to logs on the setting. 2. Chokerman sets chokers around the logs. 3. Yarder hauls the logs to the landing. 4. Chaser unhooks the chokers from the log. 5. Go to step (1.). Yarding with grapple crane 1. Crane hauls grapple from the landing to logs on the setting. 2. Crane secures grapple on logs. 3. Yarder hauls the logs to the roadside. 4. Grapple releases the logs. 5. Go to step (1.). Yarder not operating - broken down - lunch break - moving and rigging within the same setting - landing is plugged - log hangups 1. Loading continues un t i l a l l the logs on the landing have been loaded. 2. Loading stops until yarder becomes operative. 32 3.2.2 The Yarding Model A more complete representation of the yarding system involves the log, landing, and terrain characteristics, as noted above. Unfortunately, the data and probability functions required for such a representation were not available. Based on the null hypothesis that the normal distribution provides a good f i t for the distribution of average daily yarding rates, the following analysis resulted: number of observations (n) : 107 data source : Gold River Logging Division 2 computed chi-square (x ) : 6.05 level of significance : 0.05 degrees of freedom = 7 X0.05 = 1 4 - ° 6 7 2 2 Since the computed x value i s less than x^ , there i s no reason to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, the normal distribution provides a good f i t for the model's distribution of daily yarding rates. A r e a l i s t i c representation of the yarding process involves a step function, where each step involves the arrival of a "turn" (one or more logs) to the landing. The turn times and volumes are generated from separate distribution functions. These distributions account for the influence of." log size, yarder type, terrain, etc. The disadvantage of this representation i s i t s very fine resolution of detail which makes the yarding subsystem complicated and cumbersome. Bonita found that a linear function, where the slope i s the mean yarding rate for the day, should suffice to represent the yarding process. Figure 10 ill u s t r a t e s the linear yarding function. Figure 10. Volume yarded versus time T3 cu T3 U cfl >> cu § r H O > yarder down due to plugged landing or repair linear yarding / function \ / y • .y •A \y 7 hypothetical actual yarding function (step model) i n i t i a l landing inventory time Again, the lack of sufficient data to build a step model did not allow evaluation of the effect of using this linear approximation. 3.2.3 Simulation of the Yarding Subsystem Figure 11 flowcharts the yarding subsystem. At the start of each day a yarding rate i s assigned from a normal distribution about the estimated mean daily productivity. If the yarder is operating and the landing i s not plugged, the volume on the landing i s incremented every five minutes. The formula i s : 34 Yarding Function a s s i g n the y a r d i n g rate/day i no increment the volume yarded to l a n d i n g = 5 min. * yarding r a t e increment the timer by 5 min. yes i f yes, wait at t h i s b l o c k i f yes, wait at t h i s b l o c k Figure 11. The y a r d i n g f u n c t i o n . 35' 1 day 5 min. * daily yarding rate (cu.ft./day) * • 480 operating minutes The GPSSV routine for the yarding function has been included as Appendix 5.1. 3.3 Loading 3.3.1 Description of the Physical Loading Subsystem The loading of logs on the trucks takes place at either the landing (logs yarded by high lead or grapple crane yarding systems) or the roadside (logs windrowed by the grapple crane). Trucks are loaded in a f i r s t - i n -first-out basis. If other trucks arrive at the landing while the f i r s t truck is being loaded, a queue develops. Because of v a r i a b i l i t y in loader type and speed, log sizes and grade and landing conditions, the time to load a truck and the volume loaded are stochastic variables. If the landing inventory i s depleted before the truck i s f u l l y loaded, the loading time is increased by the amount of time required to yard enough logs to finish loading. When the loader breaks down, yarding can proceed u n t i l the landing becomes plugged, at which time yarding ceases. Table IV summarizes the states and activities associated with the loading subsystem. To simplify the model, the loading time includes the positioning of the truck for loading, the setting up of the t r a i l e r by the loader, the loading of each log and the binding of the load. 36 Table IV. The a t t r i b u t e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the l o a d i n g subsystem States Sequence of a c t i v i t i e s Loader i s busy Loader i s i d l e 1 . A r r i v i n g t r u c k s j o i n the queue. 1 . A r r i v i n g t r u c k , or the f i r s t t r u c k i n the queue, i s p o s i t i o n e d and i t s t r a i l e r i s set by the loader f o r l o a d i n g . 2. Loader loads the tr u c k . 3. Truck leaves the l a n d i n g . 4 . I f one or more truc k s are i n the queue go to step ( 1 . ) , otherwise; 5. Loader becomes i d l e . 1 . Trucks queueing at the l a n d i n g or en route redispatched. Loader not operating - broken down - l a c k of logs due to yarder breakdown 2 . Yarding continues u n t i l the l a n d i n g becomes plugged. 3.3.2 The Loading Model 37 Bonita (1972) tested the following hypothetical relationships for volume loaded versus loading time: a) The volume loaded i s independent of the loading time, i.e. volume loaded = f(x), x ~ uniform (0,1) loading time = g(y), y ~ uniform (0,1) where f and g are inverse cumulative distribution functions. b) Volume loaded and loading time are represented by common random variates. i.e. volume loaded = f(x) loading time = g(x), x ~ uniform (0,1) c) The relationship can be represented by using "antithetic" random variates. i.e. volume loaded = f(1-x) loading time = g(x), x ~ uniform (0,1) Bonita tested for significant differences among the three relationships and concluded that his harvesting model was insensitive to changes i n the relationship between loading time and volume loaded. Therefore, a l l three functions w i l l be assumed to adequately represent the loading time - volume loaded relationship. The loading model developed in the Timber Harvesting Simulation is based on relationship (a) - the volume loaded i s independent of the loading time. This relationship i s preferred because a specific truck i s loaded to a relatively consistent load weight (Table II), whether the load consists of 38 a few large logs or many small ones. It is shown in Section 3.3.2.2 that there is a high correlation between load weight arid volume. The low correlation between load weight and the number of logs in the load (n) is illustrated by the following regression equation: load weight (lbs.) = 0.414n3 - 67.18n2 + 3723.4n + 57337 R-squared = 0.0931 Standard Error Y = 40770 Number of observations : 588 Source : Gold River Logging Division The best indicator of loading time and volume loaded would be log size, but insufficient data were available on log dimensions per load to conduct an analysis. Therefore, independent relationships were developed for loading time (versus pieces loaded) and volume loaded (versus truck load capacity). 3.3.2.1 Loading Time Versus Pieces Loaded Relationship Based on 100 observations (Harrison Mills Logging Operation) of the number of logs per load, an inverse cumulative distribution function was developed and approximated by an orthogonal polynomial regression equation. The resulting formula i s : # pieces in load = ((571.5 * x -x ~ uniform (0,1) R-squared = 0.9809 924.76) * x + 432.04) * x + 6.4351 .3.1 39 Standard Error Y = 4.0896 Goodness of f i t tests have shown that the distribution of number of pieces per load follows a gamma distribution. Each different truck size w i l l have a specific distribution. The above polynomial equation was utilized for a l l truck sizes due to the lack of sufficient data to generate gamma distributions for each truck size. From 256 observations (Harrison Mills Logging Operation) of loading time versus number of pieces loaded, the following regression equation was formulated: loading time (minutes) = 14.8726 + 1.0668 * (# pieces in load) R-squared = 0.3796 ...3.2 Standard Error Y = 14.8316 Variance in log size and truck bunk size account for the relatively poor f i t . 3.3.2.2 Volume Loaded Versus Weight Relationship Weight scaling provides an accurate measure of load volumes. From 90 observations (Gold River Logging Division) of volume loaded versus load weight, the following regression equation was developed: volume loaded (cu.ft.) = 0.01985 * load weight (lbs.).-R-squared =0.9272 Standard Error Y = 246.97 46.8 .3.3 40 A normal distribution was used to generate load weights. A goodness of f i t test for one truck from Gold River Logging Division follows: number of observations (n) : 146 2 computed chi-square (x ) : 4.78 level of significance : 0.05 degrees of freedom : 11 *0.05 = 1 9 " 6 7 5 2 2 Since the computed x value i s less than x^ , there is no reason to reject the null hypothesis that the normal distribution provides a good f i t for the model's distribution of truck load weights. Therefore, to compute the loading time and volume loaded, the following steps are followed: a) Determine the number of pieces in the load from equation 3.1. b) Find the loading time from equation 3.2. c) The weight of the load i s : S.D. * Normal function + average truck load weight (Table II) where S.D. = standard deviation in the specific truck load weight (Table II). d) Determine the volume loaded from equation 3.3. 3.3.3 Simulation of the Loading Subsystem Figure 12 flowcharts the loading subsystem. The GPSSV routine has been included with the hauling segment of the model (Appendix 5.2). 41 Loading Function i truck arrives and enters the land-ing queue u t i l i z e the loader when free I generate jme to be aased on weight the v o l -loaded the load \ generate the load-ing time based on // pieces i n load vol enou ume to loat the trucl 1 yes advance clock time] to load the truck no |wait un t i l enough vo l -ume i s yardejd and loaded W  deplete the land-ing inventory by truck load; truck departs  Figure 12. The loading function. If there i s not enough volume to finish loading the truck, the loader waits for two turns of the yarder (10 minutes) and then loads the timber yarded within the two turns and again tests i f the load i s sufficient. If not, i t repeats the process. 43 3.4 Hauling 3.4.1 Description of the Physical Hauling Subsystem Logging trucks transport the logs from the landing to the unloading f a c i l i t y . Trucks may vary from highway trucks with 8-foot t r a i l e r bunks (design payload of 75,000 lbs.) to off-highway trucks with 14 to 16-foot bunks (design payloads as high as 170,000 lbs,). This simulation model ut i l i z e s four truck sizes: a) Highway trucks - 8-foot bunks - 75,000 lb. payload b) Off-highway trucks - 12-foot bunks - 100,000 lb. payload c) Off-highway trucks - 14-foot bunks - 150,000 lb. payload d) Off-highway trucks - 15-foot bunks - 170,000 lb. payload Appendix 6 summarizes the truck models and capacities u t i l i z e d in the hauling system. The hauling subsystems involve three elements: a) Camp delays for servicing (truck empty or loaded). b) Truck dispatching. c) Travelling time (truck empty or loaded). The service f a c i l i t i e s for trucks are usually located in the camp. Trucks arriving at the camp, either loaded or unloaded, may require diesel, o i l , water, tires, etc., or the driver may require a break or instructions. The trucks w i l l stop but should not be required to form a queue because of the availability and variety of f a c i l i t i e s . When the trucks are ready to leave the camp and be loaded, they are dispatched to an appropriate landing. Either the dispatcher or the woods foreman w i l l dispatch empty trucks based on information received by radio from the landings and on previous dispatching decisions. The following landing information is v i t a l for truck dispatching: a) Is the loader in operating condition? b) Is the yarder in operating condition? c) What is the present landing inventory? d) What is the landing queue length? e) How many trucks are presently dispatched to the landing? Chapter 5 deals with improving existing truck dispatching policies. 3.4.2 The Hauling Model 3.4.2.1 Camp Delays Minor truck delays for maintenance and service at camp have been grouped into one frequency distribution for loaded trucks, and one for empty trucks. This relieves the model of unnecessary complications in representing the variety of camp delays, for they are relatively minor when compared with the round tr i p time of a truck. From 160 observations (Harrison Mills Logging Operation) of loaded vehicles proceeding from a landing to the dump, 96.8% of the trucks stopped in camp, with an average service time of 2.7 minutes. From the same number of observations of empty vehicles proceeding to the woods from the dump, 91.1% of the trucks stopped in camp, with an average service time of 4.1 minutes. 45 3.4.2.2 Travel Times Levesque (1975) produced a simulation model that predicts the travel times of logging trucks for road and truck parameters. It is a determin-i s t i c model that includes independent variables such as road alignment, grades, surface type, and vehicle characteristics such as H.P. versus R.P.M., gear ratios and rear axle ratio. The technique developed can be used to determine an estimate of travel time over a defined route of specified alignment (actual or proposed). Byrne, Nelson and Googins (1960) developed graphs which determine travel times per round tr i p mile for high-way and off-highway trucks. Independent parameters include road grade, surface type, width, alignment and number of turnouts (Figure 13). The estimated travel times, from camp to the six landings utilized in the f i r s t configuration of the simulation model, have been calculated from these graphs and the results are l i s t e d in Table V. If the road network is divided into specific road sections, each with specific road characteristics, an average travel time for each section can be calculated. The total travel time for a specific route can be found by summing the sections over that route. If the model is further subdivided into y different truck types and x different road sections, 2 * x * y different velocity generating distributions would be required to represent the travelling empty times and travelling loaded times. Bonita (1972) states that the improvement resulting from a more re a l i s t i c travel time representation does not justify the added complexity i t imposes. Routhier (1974) utilized a normal distribution to generate tri p durations. Figure 13. Travel time per round t r i p mile for off-highway trucks. 1 : T 2? = 2 10. 17 10. 43 25 22' 10. 17 III. 17 10. 43 23 22 10. 17 10.43 10 51 23« 222 10. 43 10.51 10. 51 10.51 10.02 2 i i m 3." SS sr. ss BE ss Sr: ss 3~ s's a s S7ZS, a s s 3-g s s s OS s s s s 2 i »« odea SS SS s§ SOS SS ods SS obs sss obaa sss abss SS SS s s s s s s T IB OCOO KS 06 ob odod S5 00 30 85 ad* S5 GO OC 30* S2S obobo SS oc'ai £ a ob 5 s = i SS SS SS r- r» SS SS r- i-, SS sss r- i- 2>3b £ '£ m S s s i = R = 3 =s =s =s = S S3S SS oba> ; s CO i 155 as vici CO Sft <3<C SK cb SK2 O rJ i-SS 2 <= S3 s ob r-1 5-ri.o cow - RS «>« s= RES n e e SsS3 o e = SS s <D 5 ob 7 | s s 2s w o 2S 23 = 5 £§ •ri«s . 2S •on SzS S"2 «=<= ui SS r-"1- 2 to E 5 00 *o i IE •»•» •»» ES SS . d m S3 S33 SSS <=d<= SS S s ob i 2S -r'-r' 53 SS 22S sss e<ei<s S3 s X s ob i " -.•riri = £ i r i r d as ~ — » v trim 2^ ^ SSS SS s • r i S ob 1 I s a SE S3 v. ricd Si' SS mm 22 vv 222 •ri.rf.ri SSS cuiao SS s » •e S ob T SS r d r r i SS rdri SS m m 22 222 SSS <= -c o SS s « S <c s ob = J M I H s SK £S £3 -r V SS m m 22 222 sss SS s X <o S SO |!5 SS V.ri s = ; *=.d SS m m 33 25!: ««« sss «=• «• 1= SS X CO s ob 1 + |:5 SS •r><> 32 •ri«i SS 5 = 53 •=«> gs £S2 »j S3 S <ri 3 S ob ' « ! i + 2S C O SS tccc SS oped £2 e'r." r- r- <='<d SS2 53 mm S 5 CO S s 1 ? ! i i is 2S S3 SS E2 i^od S3-ob*> 5SS ob>s S3 SS s 3d 5 s S 2 I l 22 si I) S3 six SS *>ob ods R2 . ss SS 9O0O SS2 2£§ -=»2 53 = 2 . 2 s 5 2 5 — i ? i SE2 £2 = 2 £2 =• = £2 "2 S2 -2 R5 22 B2 »2 -22 3£S 22 = S3 S 2 5 5 2 i + i i 5s = 2 = ='=' SS 2 = SS 2 = S3 —— SS 2' = SSa 2' = = S?s =' = 2 555 22.. • - S —• 3 2 s 2 i ? j 1 = 8 S = S = s 22-23 2" 22 22 22 22 sr. 22 22 22 2S? 222 SSS. 222 33 22 s 2 ; 2 5 = ? ! i ?S3 52 = S3 22 S3. 22 S3 22 S3 22 S3 22 SS 22 S3S 22i S3s 22 = S3 v« s S 2 + SSS = 2 SS SS = 2 SS = 2 SS SS = 2 sss = 22 SSS = 22 S3 22 s s S 2 «n c c tv c .. e— — -c & <L — z ; 1 Ul Ms Mil!! Mi ns Mi* 1: I l i l l l l l J (from Byrne, Nelson and Googins, 1960) 47 Table V. Estimated t r a v e l time per round t r i p , based on Byrne, Nelson and Googins(1960) Area Road c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Speed c o e f f . ( 4 ) Time(min.) / . w i \ v (min./mi.) (1) * (4) Distance(mi.)(1) % Class 1 & 2 0.6 14 6.4 2 3.0 0 3 1.1 9 2.9 1 7.0 1 4 8.7 1 8.3 1 7.0 1 5 2.0 2 8.0 4 6 12.0 2 7.0 1 3D2 10.43 12.46 2B2 4.82 61.70 1B2 3.94 23.64 97.80 3D2 10.43 22.94 3C2 6.23 36.14 2B2 4.82 67.48 126.56 3B2 5.12 89.08 2C2 5.78 95.94 2B2 4.82 67.48 252.50 1C2 4.23 16.92 3B2 5.12 81.92 98.84 2C2 5.78 138.72 2B2 4.82 67.48 206.20 based on s i x landings i n the Gold R i v e r Logging Operation. 48 The following formula was developed by McPhalen (1970), based on Harrison Mills time studies, to estimate travel times for loaded and unloaded logging trucks, and was utilized in this simulation model: a) Travel loaded speed (m.p.h.) = ((27.71 * x - 50.943) * x + 34.4226) * x + 6.418 ...3.4 where x>~ uniform (0,1) b) Travel empty speed (m.p.h.) = ((28.202 * x - 38.961) * x + 18.5791) * x + 7.92325 ...3.5 where x ~ uniform (0,1) Table VI shows the mean travel times, in minutes, from camp to the six landings used in the f i r s t configuration, based on McPhalen and Byrne e_t a l . The results compare favourably; therefore the simplified model of one function to generate travel loaded speeds, and another to generate travel empty speeds, was adopted. Table VI. Mean travel times for return trips using McPhalen and Byrne et a l . Setting Travel time (min.) McPhalen Byrne ajL 1 & 2 101.0 97.80 3 111.0 126.56 4 242.0 252.50 5 101.0 98.84 6 191.0 206.20 49 3.4.3 Simulation of the Hauling Subsystem Figure 14 flowcharts the hauling subsystem. Inverse cumulative distribution functions were developed for camp delays. The number of trucks that stop for camp servicing i s based on the statistics derived from the Harrison Mills data (Section 3.4.2.1). Travel times are generated by equations 3.4 and 3.5. Appendix 5.2 contains the GPSSV flowchart of the hauling model. Truck dispatching and redispatching (due to loader breakdowns) w i l l be examined in Chapter 5. 3.5 Unloading 3.5.1 Description of the Physical Unloading Subsystem Only one unloading f a c i l i t y i s ut i l i z e d in both of the logging operations in this study. This i s typical of west coast logging divisions. Only one truck may be unloaded at a time and queues form on a f i r s t - i n -first-out basis i f more than one truck i s at the dump. Table vVII illustrates the states and activities associated with unloading a truck. 50 Hauling Model i truck arrives at camp dispatch truck using dispatch-ing technique travel time to landing yes advance clock time of delay yes travel time to redispatching point truck arrives at landing and enters the loading routine Figure 14. The hauling function. 51 travel time « back to camp i at camp -- check night shutdown strategy travel time to dump 1 : truck enters the unloading routine at dump i travel time back to camp i at- camp -- check night shutdown strategy Figure 14. The hauling function (cont'd). Table VII. The states and a c t i v i t i e s of the unloading subsystem. States Sequence of acti v i t i e s 52 The dump is busy 1. Truck arrives at the dump. 2. Truck enters the dump queue. The dump i s idle 1. Arriving truck, or the f i r s t truck in the queue, positions for unloading. 2. Truck i s unloaded. 3. Trailer i s set in place. 4. Truck leaves the dump. 5. If one or more trucks are in the queue, go to step (1.), otherwise; 6. Dump becomes idle. 3.5.2 The Unloading Model The unloading time is a function of dump type, efficiency, speed and truck load size. Routhier (1974) used a normal distribution to generate unloading times. Testing the null hypothesis that the timber harvesting simulation unloading time data f i t s a normal distribution follows: number of observations (n) : 396 source.: Harrison Mills Logging Operation, 2 computed chi-square (x ) : 138.66 level of significance : 0.05 degrees of freedom : 9 X0.05 = 1 6 • 9 1 9 ' On this basis, the null hypothesis was rejected. The null hypothesis that the unloading time data f i t s a gamma distribution was similarly rejected, therefore an empirical inverse C.D.F. was developed to generate unloading times. 53 3.5.3 Simulation of the Unloading Subsystem Figure 15 i l l u s t r a t e s the unloading subsystem. The GPSSV simulation statements required for the unloading model have been incorporated i n t o the hauling model (Appendix 5.2). 3.6 Equipment Downtimes 3.6.1 Description of the Physical Equipment Downtime Subsystems Yarders, loaders and trucks do not have 100 per cent production a v a i l a b i l i t y due to breakdowns, maintenance or non-productive a c t i v i t i e s . When a machine f a i l s , i t stops the a c t i v i t y i t was involved with and may, i f i n t e r a c t i n g with other equipment, a f f e c t other subsystems. Yarders and loaders are generally repaired i n the f i e l d , while trucks are usually repaired i n camp. Equipment maintenance, which occurs on a regular basis, i s also included as a breakdown i f i t occurs during the working day. Yarders also incur a d d i t i o n a l non-operating time due to moving and rigging (setting-up) within the same s e t t i n g , whether i t i s turning on the same landing, changing "roads" (yarding path), or moving to a new landing within the s e t t i n g . Trucks may be c a l l e d upon to a i d i n the moving of heavy equipment. Unloading Model i t r u c k a r r i v e s and enters the dump queue i u t i l i z e the dump when f r e e 1 generate the un-lo a d i n g time from i n v e r s e C.D.F. 1 advance c l o c k time to unload the t r u c k i increment the # of loads and volume dumped i n the day 1 the t r u c k leaves the dump gure 15 . The unloading f u n c t i o n . I 3.6.2 The Equipment Downtime Models 55 Several studies (Drinkwater and Hastings (1967), Lambe (1970) and Vandenboom (1971)) have found that equipment interbreakdown times follow an exponential distribution. Most simulation models of logging operations u t i l i z e this distribution to generate inter-failure and repair times. However, a goodness of f i t test on an exponential distribution for the Timber Harvesting Simulation Model's data follows: number of observations (n) : 176 source : Gold River Logging Division 2 computed chi-square (x ) : 79.62 level of significance : 0.05 degrees of freedom : 12 x 2 „ r = 21.026 0. 05 Similar results occurred for truck repair times: number of observations (n) : 186 source :..Gold River Logging Division 2 computed chi-square (x ) : 29.73 level of significance : 0.05 degrees of freedom : 8 x 2 n_. = 15.507 0. 05 On this basis, the null hypothesis that truck interbreakdown and repair times follow an exponential distribution i s rejected. Figure 16 il l u s t r a t e s the poor f i t of the exponential approximation of the inverse C.D.F. for truck SanOH NI (X) 3WIX NMOd>IU3aSa3XNI interbreakdown times. 57 In order to develop a close approximation to his t o r i c a l data, empirical inverse C.D.F.'s were developed for: a) spar interbreakdown times b) spar repair times c) grapple interbreakdown times d) grapple repair times e) spar inter-move and r i g times f) spar move and r i g duration g) grapple inter-move and r i g times h) grapple move and r i g duration i) loader interbreakdown times j) loader repair times k) truck interbreakdown times 1) truck repair times. It is assumed in the model that the probability of unloading f a c i l i t y breakdown i s zero. This occurance i s rare and i f i t does happen, alternative unloading procedures are usually available (e.g. par-buckling with a front-end loader). 3.6.3 Simulation of the Breakdown Subsystems Times between failures are measured only on machine productive time. If an interfailure time of 8 hours i s generated on one day, the breakdown w i l l occur during the next working day. If yarders are scheduled to move and r i g during a breakdown, the duration of the move and r i g w i l l start when the yarder i s repaired. Trucks, when scheduled for repair, are allowed to proceed through the hauling model u n t i l they reach the camp in an unloaded state. This assumption, while not r e a l i s t i c , adequately accounts for the loss in truck productivity due to breakdowns. This assumption has been made to alleviate the problems associated with modelling truck break-downs throughout the network. New interbreakdown times are generated as soon as the yarder or loader i s repaired. The next scheduled breakdown for a truck i s generated after the timer has advanced the duration of the truck's generated repair time, even though the truck w i l l not physically be repaired u n t i l i t reaches camp. At the start of the simulation run, an interbreakdown time i s randomly assigned to each yarder, loader and logging truck. Figures 17 through 19 respectively flowchart the yarder breakdowns and' moves and rigs, the loader breakdowns and the truck breakdowns. Appendix 5.3 contains the GPSSV flowcharts for equipment breakdowns. '. . 3.7 The Daily Start-up and Shutdown Modes The start-up sequence of activities determines the start of yarding, hauling, loading and unloading functions at the beginning of each production day. The shutdown mode determines the time at which these functions cease at the end of the day. The start-up and shutdown sequences ..of activities used in this study are summarized in Appendix 7. The model assumes that 59 Yarder Breakdown Model Yarder Move & R i g Model 1 generate the interbreakdown time i generate the time that the next Move and R i g occurs advance c l o c k time u n t i l M & R or breakdown xs ;he yarder j l r e a d y down. yes wait u n t i l the yarder i s o p e r a t i n g no V shut down the yarder and gener-ate the r e p a i r time advance c l o c k d u r a t i o n of r e p a i r and then yarder becomes o p e r a t i v e yes ' i t a break-down? no Figure 17 . Flowchart of the yarder breakdown and move and r i g f u n c t i o n s . Loader Breakdown Model 60 generate the interbreakdown time i advance clock to time of break-down i generate repair time and shut down the loader redispatch these trucks no I advance clock duration of re-pair and then IOJ er becomes operat _ •— d-ive Figure 18. The loader breakdown function Truck Breakdown Model V generate the interbreakdown time \r advance clock to time of breakdown i generate repair time - the truck . is due for repairs 1 advance clock time of repair when the empty truck reaches cam) shut i t down for duration of repair Figure 19. The truck breakdown function. 62 only one regular s h i f t i s operating and no overtime i s purposely incurred. Yarders work an eight-hour day, loaders eight and one-half hours, while trucks and dump may work up to nine and one-half hours. Figure 20 flowcharts the camp, trucks, yarders, loaders and dump daily schedules. The GPSSV statements that represent these schedules are included as Appendix 5.4. 63 Camp, Yarders, Truck, Loaders and, Dump D a i l y Sched-u l e 1 advance cl o c k to 7:15 A.M. empty truc k s are f r e e f o r d i s -patching 1 loaded tru c k s may proceed to the dump 1 advance cl o c k to 7:45 A.M. i the dump s t a r t s o p erating i advance c l o c k to 8:00 A.M. i yarders and loaders s t a r t operating advance c l o c k to 12:00 A.M. yarders shut down f o r lunch ± advance c l o c k to 12:30 P.M. 1 yarders s t a r t --up again advance c l o c k to 4:00 P.M. a f t e r 4:00 P.M. empty t r u c k s stay i n camp advance . c l o c k to 4:15 I 3.M. 1 a f t e r 4:15 P.M. loaded t r u c k s stay i n camp advance c l o c k to 4:30 P.M. yarders and load-ers shut down f o r the n i g h t ± advance c l o c k to 5:00 P.M. ± t r u c k s en route are parked f o r the n i g h t dump shuts down; t a b u l a t e // loads and volume dumped i n the day J L _ t r u c k s parked by the roadside may proceed Fi g u r e 20. Flowchart of the camp, yarders, t r u c k s , loaders and dump d a i l y schedule. 4.0 Simulation Methodology 64 4.1 Model Programming and Computing Requirements The development of the harvesting simulation model, from problem statement and model description to the simulation language form, involved three months of programming and about five hundred "computer dollars". Experience with GPSSV, the logging system and the availability of previous simulation models (Bonita (1972); Routhier (1974), etc.) have greatly aided in the development of the model. The number of simulated days and the system configuration determines the computer time requirements for each simulation run. The harvesting model required an average of 1.3 seconds (I.B.M. 370/168 system), per simulated day, for several configurations of yarders, loaders, and logging trucks. 4.2 Validating the Simulation Model Making valid conclusions about the real-world system, through experiments with the simulation model, requires a correct relationship between the behaviour of the system and i t s model. Van Horn (1969) states that seldom, i f ever, w i l l validation result in a proof that the simulator i s a true model of the real process. Therefore, the aim of validation should be the testing of the model in order to produce an acceptable level of confidence that the simulation i s a valid representation of the real 65 system under study. The concept of multi-stage validation has been developed by Naylor and Finger (1967), Hermann (1967) and Van Horn (1969). The three stage approach to simulation validation developed by Naylor and Finger was found to be appropriate for the Timber Harvesting Model. Van Horn (1971) l i s t s the phases in a generalized form: a) Construct a set of hypotheses and postulates for the process using a l l available information - observations, general knowledge, relevant theory and intuition. b) Attempt to verify how subsystems were represented by subjecting them to empirical testing. c) Compare the input-output transformations generated by the model to those generated in the real world. This approach attempts to check the structure, relationships and policy of each component of the model. The combined components should approximate the overall characteristics and behaviour associated with the real system. 4.2.1 Model Construction The author's experience as Assistant Engineer (1976-77) and Project Forest Engineer (1977-78) at Gold River Logging Division, as well as the Resident Engineer's assistance in model formulation and data collection, provided a thorough knowledge of the harvesting system and thus adds to the credibility of the model. Processes which have undergone extensive validation in similar simulation systems can be associated with a high degree of confidence. Bonita (1972) conducted extensive validation on the input-output trans-formations of his FORTRAN-based harvesting simulation model. Several aspects of his model have been used as a guide to select the resolution to which the yarding and hauling functions were incorporated. He concluded that the input-output transformation i n the harvesting model is plausible and added confidence in the simulation. Do the distribution functions, that generate variables and parameter values compare with their counterparts in the real process? A high degree of confidence is associated with the model i f processes are represented by functions derived from data which is easy to observe and measure. This requires a sufficiently lengthy study in order to obtain a reliable estimate of the required distributions. In this study, about six months of historical data were collected from Gold River Logging Division's production sta t i s t i c s , and about a month of time studies were made at Harrison Mills Logging Operation, to obtain the various inverse C.D.F.'s used as inputs to the model. 4.2.2 Empirical Testing of Subsystem Representation The testing of subsystem representation, by using s t a t i s t i c a l theory of estimation and hypothesis testing, i s essential to validation. Table VIII summarizes the subsystem parameters and representation. Naylor and Finger (1967) point out that a l l s t a t i s t i c a l tests make some assumptions about the nature of a process. Tests themselves are subject to questions of validity 67 Table VIII. Harvesting subsystems' representation Subsystem Parameter Representation Yarding Loading Hauling Unloading Downtimes (i) trucks (ii) towers ( i i i ) cranes (iv) loaders yarding rate per day time # pieces weight volume camp delays travel times interbreakdown duration interbreakdown duration interbreakdown duration interbreakdown normal distribution* polynomial- approximation of the empirical inverse C.D.F.* polynomial approximation of the empirical inverse C.D.F.** normal distribution* linear approximation of the empirical inverse C.D.F.** empirical inverse C.D.F. polynomial approximation of the empirical inverse C.D.F.** empirical inverse C.D.F. cubic spline interpolation of the empirical inverse C.D.F. empirical inverse C.D.F. polynomial approximation of the empirical inverse C.D.F.** empirical inverse C.D.F. cubic spline interpolation of the empirical inverse C.D.F. empirical inverse C.D.F. cubic spline interpolation of .the empirical inverse C.D.F. duration empirical inverse C.D.F. * theoretical distributions were tested using the goodness of f i t test ** polynomials were derived using regression and were selected based on R-squared, standard error Y and F-prob values 68 (Van Horn, 1971), and although s t a t i s t i c a l validation i s desirable, i t is not always possible. 4.2.3 Comparison of Input-Output Transformations One obvious way of gaining confidence in the model i s to compare the output of the simulator and the system, using identical input. The model must be demonstrated to be a reliable and accurate representation of event sequences and results. Twenty days of historical information (independent of the data used to develop the model) were checked against a simulation of a comparable harvesting system configuration. Table IX shows the test for the difference between mean volumes hauled. Ut i l i z i n g a level of significance of 0.05, the c r i t i c a l region i s defined as z < -1.96 and z > 1.96. The resulting z values confirm the null hypothesis that the mean of the simulation is not significantly different from that of historical data. The null hypothesis, that the difference between the two population variances (o* - o" ) equals zero, was tested (Table X) . The resulting F values confirm the null hypothesis that the difference between the simulation and the real system variance i s insignificant for the f i r s t test period. The second test period reveals a significantly lower variance within the simulation results. Although not a test of validity, i t can be argued that low var i a b i l i t y i s desirable because a stochastic model with a high variance, due to internal processes, may obscure changes in results expected by changing controllable variables. Finally, simulation experiments must be able to test the effects of modifications on the system. Seppala (1971) notes that, on the basis of 69 Table IX. Testing the di f f e r e n c e between the mean p r o d u c t i v i t y for the r e a l system and for the simulation model. (i) n u l l hypothesis H Q: j ^ l Q = y\ ^  or 1*1 Q - ± = 0 for i = 1,2 ( i i ) alternate hypothesis H : jvl ^ ^ or jvi Q - Jvl ^  ^  0 ( i i i ) l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e oc = 0.05 (iv) c r i t i c a l region : z < -1.96 and z > 1.96 (two-tailed test) (v) c a l c u l a t i o n s : * = (^0 " * i } 7 (c*2 / n Q) + (a 2 / n.) Test 1. Based on volume dumped (cunits) at Gold River Logging D i v i s i o n — ' * f i r s t ten production days — July, 1976 : * * Actual Run #1 Run #2 ^ 0 S.d. Q ^ 1 S - d - l Z l ^ 2 s.d. 2 z 2 520 67.1 498 42.4 0.88 517 48.8 0.11 Test 2. Based on volume dumped (cunits) at Gold River Logging D i v i s i o n — production days 11 through 20 -- July, 1976: ** Actual Run #1 Run #2 ^ 0 s.d. Q ^ 1 S - d ' l Z l ^2 s.d. 2 Z2 458 90.7 498 42.4 1.26 517 48.8 1.81 * The true configuration of 6 yarders and 14 trucks was simulated. ** Run #2 va r i e s from #1 by the use of " a n t i t h e t i c v a r i a t e s " (Section 4.4). 70 Table X. Testing the difference between variance of productivity for the real system and for the simulation model. (i) null hypothesis H Q : a = a ^  for i = 1,2 (ii) alternate hypothesis H-^ : O Q > ( i i i ) level of significance oc = 0.05 (iv) reject H Q for values of F larger than f - Q 5 (v) calculations: „ Test 1. Based on volume dumped (cunits) at Gold River Logging Division — * f i r s t ten production days == July, 1976 : ** Actual Run #1 Run #2 s.d. s.d.., F N s.d. 0 1 1 2 2 67.1 42.4 2.50 48.8 1.89 Test 2. Based on volume dumped (cunits) at Gold River Logging Division — production days 11 through 20 == July, 1976: ** Actual Run #1 Run #2 s.d. Q S - d ' l F l s.d. 2 F 2 90.7 42.4 4.58 48.8 3.45 F „ for v„ = 9 and v. =9 degrees of freedom i s 3.18 0.05 0 I * The true configuration of 6 yarders and 14 trucks was simulated. ** Run #2 varies from #1 by the use of "antithetic variates". subjective interpretation, i t becomes necessary to assume that the model remains valid after modifications are introduced. If the simulation model yields r e a l i s t i c and acceptable results, while examining alternative operating conditions, confidence i n the model increases. Therefore, the validation process involves comparing the various parameters and variables of the system to h i s t o r i c a l data, and monitoring the a b i l i t y of these values to represent the characteristics and behaviour of the real process. Credibility, h i s t o r i c a l validation, low v a r i a b i l i t y and r e a l i s t i c results are keys to the acceptance of the harvesting simulation model. 4.:3 Starting Conditions If the starting conditions used to i n i t i a l i z e the simulation model are atypical of operating conditions, there i s a transient period un t i l the effects of the starting conditions become insignificant. Steady-state or stable conditions are expected after this "warm-up" period. Steady-state occurs when successive observations of the model's performance are s t a t i s t i c a l l y indistinguishable (Emshoff and Sisson, 1970). To make the transient phase as short as possible, one of the following methods for i n i t i a l i z i n g starting conditions should be u t i l i z e d : a) Begin in an empty and idle state and run the simulation u n t i l the transient effects become insignificant. Results are collected from this point on. b) Start the simulation at the expected steady-state condition. i 72 The f i r s t method can be costly i f the transient period i s quite long and steady-state may be hard to determine and d i f f i c u l t to i n i t i a l i z e . To overcome these factors, the following starting conditions were established for the model: a) i n i t i a l location and state (loaded or empty) of trucks b) i n i t i a l volume at each landing c) generation of the i n i t i a l interbreakdown period for equipment d) generation of the i n i t i a l intermove and r i g period for yarders e) i n i t i a l yarding rates. To avoid the p o s s i b i l i t y of biasing the results, a l l of the simulation runs use these identical starting conditions. Under these conditions the simulation was run for a "warm-up" period of one productive day. At this point a l l trucks had completed at least one round t r i p . The deletion of the f i r s t day's observations was f e l t to be sufficient to establish steady-state conditions. Figure 21 flowcharts the starting conditions for trucks, while Figure 22 ill u s t r a t e s the starting conditions and daily tabulation of production for yarders. The GPSSV flowcharts are contained i n Appendices 5.5 and 5.6, respectively. 4.4 Analyzing Stochastic Simulation Runs Simulation experiments generally require an estimate of the average of dependent variables from one or more specified combinations of controllable variables. The efficiency with which information i s obtained, S t a r t i n g Conditions ± advance c l o c k to 8:01 A.M. of the f i r s t day 73 6 empty t r u c k s i n camp 1 a l l but 6 tr u c k s i n camp i n the loaded s t a t e t enter d i s -p a t c h ing r o u t i n e i loaded t r u c k s assigned average l o a d volumes L enter h a u l i n g r o u t i n e Figure 21. Flowchart of the s t a r t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r t r u c k s . Yarder S t a r t i n g Conditions \ 1 i n i t i a l i z e each l a n d i n g i n v e n t o r y at 3,000 c u . f t . advance c l o c k to 5:00 P.M. t a b u l a t e the volume yarded i n the day I advance c l o c k to 12:00 P.M. (new day) Figure 22 .. Flowchart of the s t a r t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and d a i l y t a b u l a t i o n of pro d u c t i o n f o r yard e r s . 75 under two different operating conditions, can be improved through the use of correlated random variables. The fluctuations of a single observation 2 around the true value i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y described as i t s variance, o . The population average i s estimated as: ^ = _ ___ i=l n i where x.s = the individual observations l n = the number of observations in the sample If each of the x's is'independent, the confidence placed in the estimate of the mean i s given by: 2 A 2 o o, = n If the simulation is run for a very long time, the number of obser-A 2 vations w i l l become very large and o" w i l l get smaller. However, this Jvl involves costly computer time. A desired stochastic convergence must be achieved by keeping the length of the run down while meeting the desired variance of the estimate. If two replications of a simulation run are made, X and Y, where 2 both have the same variance d , the estimate of the mean is the average (each run has n/2 independent observations): A n/2 (\ + V = _ 2 i=l 76 and the confidence i n t e r v a l i s given by: 2 A 2 o °K1 = ( 1 + P Jvl n where p i s the c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e p l i c a t i o n s . I f the runs are t r u l y independent, p = 0 and o"jj can be found from one run of twice the length (n observations). However, i f negative c o r r e l a t i o n between p a i r s of observations i n the two runs i s introduced (-1 < p < 0), the variance of the sum of observations (X^ + Y ), (X 2 + Y^), ..., (X , + Y ,„) i s l e s s than the variance of a continuous run of n observations. n/2 n/2 This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 23. time Figure 23. Negative c o r r e l a t i o n between p a i r s of observations (Emshoff and Sisson, 1970). Negative c o r r e l a t i o n between p a i r s can be produced by using " a n t i t h e t i c v a r i a t e s " (Hammersley and Handscomb, 1964). I f the sequence r n , r , r J 1 2 n 7 7 of uniformly distributed random numbers (0.0 < r < 1.0) is used for stochastic events in the f i r s t run, then the sequence (1-r^), ( l - r 2 ) , (1-r ) i s used for the equivalent events in the second run. n When comparing two runs with different controllable variables, the effects of positively correlated variates are u t i l i z e d . The mean and variance of two runs (X and Y) i s : = - , MY S 2 = a2 + Ao2 D X Y Testing whether jvl i s significantly different from zero i s par t i a l l y A 2 A 2 dependent on how small i s . may be reduced by introducing a positive correlation between runs X and Y, because: A 2 A 2 A 2 A A . a = o + ° v - 2 p o a (for correlated parrs) D X Y X Y Positive correlation i s induced by using the same sequence of random numbers r , r , r in both simulation runs. 1 2 n If the same sequence of random numbers i s used in two separate runs, i t i s unlikely that the i 1 " * 1 random number w i l l be used in the same event in both simulations. The correlation techniques can be made more effective by the use of eight sequences of random numbers: a) the sequence used in the generation of interbreakdown and repair times for logging trucks b) the sequence used in the generation of interbreakdown and repair times for loaders c) the sequence used in the generation of interbreakdown and repair times and intermove and r i g , and move and r i g times for steel tower yarders d) the sequence used in the generation of interbreakdown and repair times and intermove and r i g , and move and r i g times for grapple cranes e) the sequence used in the generation of daily yarding rates f) the sequence used in the generation of truck travel times (loaded or empty) g) the sequence used in the generation of duration of camp delays (empty or loaded) h) the sequence used in the generation of unloading times, weight of truck loads and the number of pieces to be loaded. Therefore, the procedure for analysing two or more simulation runs under different controllable variables involves: a) introduction of a negative correlation for replications of a run by using uniformly distributed random numbers (0.0 < r < 1.0) on the f i r s t run and 1.0 - r for equivalent events on the second run b) introduction of a positive correlation for runs under different controllable variables by using the same sequence of random numbers. 79 4.5 Model F l e x i b i l i t y The harvesting simulation model i s designed to represent various multi-source, s i n g l e - s i n k logging configurations. To accomodate the v a r i a t i o n s i n logging operations, the following changes may be made i n the model: a) the number of trucks (unrestricted) b) the truck payload (unrestricted) c) the number of yarders and loaders (the number i s u n r e s t r i c t e d , but the type of yarder i s r e s t r i c t e d to high lead or grapple) d) the distance between landings and camp, and camp and the dump e) the landing c a p a c i t i e s f) the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r : -yarding rates -truck loads -loading time -number of logs/load - t r a v e l speeds -camp delays -machine inter-down times and durations -unloading time. By a l t e r i n g the parameter i n i t i a l i z a t i o n or s u b s t i t u t i n g the new r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the model, the desired operating conditions may be met. 5.0 Improving Truck Dispatching Techniques 80 5.1 Introduction When empty trucks are ready to proceed from camp to a landing, they are assigned a setting by a dispatching routine. The key to a good dispatching policy is the availability of up-to-date information. The dispatcher must obtain the most recent data on landing inventories, truck locations and machine states (operating, under repair, or performing non-productive duties) by radio communication. Once this information is obtained, the question i s ; "How should the data be analysed so that the trucks are dispatched in the most efficient manner?". The objective of a dispatching routine i s to maximize production subject to the availability of the yarding and trucking resources. In order to achieve this objective, the following points should be considered: a) Dispatch enough trucks to each landing in order to prevent the accumulation of logs on the landing and the resultant stoppage of. yarding. b) Truck delays at the landing, due to queueing or waiting for more logs to be yarded to complete a load, should be minimized. c) Truck travel time should be minimized. These considerations make the maximization of production, measured by the timber volume that reaches the unloading f a c i l i t y , a d i f f i c u l t objective to achieve. The best policy must be one that balances a l l three competing objectives. The three dispatching policies considered below a l l attempt 1 8 1 to meet the underlying objective of balancing landing volumes against truck delays and travel times. The dispatching technique developed by Bonita i s similar to policies used by logging operations lik e Gold River and Harrison M i l l s . Two new dispatching routines were developed by the author, and tested against both Bonita's and a uniform dispatching policy. The loader and yarder breakdowns were deleted for this portion of simulation testing. Besides complicating the model with elaborate redispatching requirements when machines broke down; i t was f e l t that these simplifications could be made without significantly affecting the response of the system. The inclusion of these interactions, while enhancing the realism of the simulation, may have obscured the significance of the results obtained from different dispatching routines. . The on-site computer application of truck dispatching w i l l also be examined. 5.2 Indexing Algorithm A heuristic indexing method for dispatching trucks was developed. This routine requires information regarding the inventory at each landing, the number of trucks previously assigned to each setting, the yarder produc-t i v i t y , the average truck load, yarder and loader status and the length of the different queues. A l l landings are-assigned the same i n i t i a l index, and subsequently are penalized on the basis of the statis t i c s l i s t e d above. The truck i s dispatched to the landing which has achieved the highest index 82 after the following procedure: a) Check landings for f e a s i b i l i t y of assignment. (i) If the loader is "down", eliminate the landing from contention. (ii) Check to see i f there w i l l be enough volume on the landing to make up the truck's average load when i t arrives. If the inventory i s less than a truck load, penalize the landing by: penalty = (average truck load (cu.ft.) - estimated inventory not accounted for by previously dispatched trucks) / 100 If the yarder i s "down", with insufficient volume on the landing to load the truck, eliminate the landing from contention. b) Rank the landings based on queue lengths and the number of scheduled arrivals. (i) Landings to which no other trucks have currently been dispatched. index = 100 - (basic landing index) - (penalty from a)) The i n i t i a l index (100) is simply great enough to avoid the fi n a l index from becoming negative. The basic landing index (B.L.I.) i s a predetermined ranking of the landings based on distance from camp. The furthest landing from the dispatching point would be assigned B.L.I. = 0, while the closest would be assigned a B.L.I. > 0. ( i i ) Landings with trucks already en route. index = 100 - B.L.I. - 10 * (# of trucks presently dispatched to the landing) + 5 * (present landing queue) - penalties from section a)) c) Dispatch the truck to the landing with the highest index. EXAMPLE: Volume accounted Queue Inventory # BLI Status # Trucks yarder loader dispatched f o r by previously dispatched trucks (cu.ft.) (cu.ft.) 1 2 up up" 1 1500 0 2400 2 2 down up 1 2000 1 1500 3 3 up down 1 2200 1 3500 4 0 up up 2 3500 1 4800 5 3 up up 2 3000 2 1900 6 1 up up 2 3700 2 5200 If a 2000 cubic foot capacity truck a r r i v e s f o r dispatching, the Indexing algorithm i s used to f i n d the following landing i n d i c e s : Landing # Index 1 77 2 0 3 0 4 78 5 0 6 84 Therefore the truck i s dispatched to landing #6. 84 The flowchart for the Indexing dispatching technique is shown in Figure 24. 5.3 Bonita's Algorithm Bonita (1972) developed a dispatching technique intended to balance the landing volumes and to minimize the trucking delays due to queueing or waiting for logs. To meet these objectives, his dispatching routine goes through the following procedure: a) Check a l l landings for f e a s i b i l i t y of assignment: (i) If the loader is "down" do not include i t s landing as a candidate. (ii) If the yarder i s "down", check the number of loads to which the landing inventory i s equal. This number should not be exceeded. Each truck which has already been dispatched to the landing, and has not been loaded, accounts for one of these loads. ( i i i ) Note the landing inventory, the yarding rate, the length of the queue, and the number of scheduled arrivals. b) Classify the landings into two groups: (i) Landings which can give a ready load, i.e. landings without any queue and whose landing inventory i s at least a load. (ii) Landings which can give a truck load after only a few minutes wait (due to queueing or lack of logs). c) Rank the landings according to the following set of rules: (i) Rank landings in group b) (i) according to volume i f the time L.I.=L.I. + (avg t r u c k load - inv-l entory when true!} a r r i v e s ) / 1 0 0 Indexing D i s p a t c h i n g Technique 1 85 index=p=0; a s s i g n B a s i c Landing Ind-i c e s ( B . L . I . ) ; l a n c -i n g index(L.I.)=B.L.I, s t a r t search a t f i r s t l a n d i n g ; i = l yes yes yes L.I.=100 ± L.I.=100 - L . I . -| 10*# of t r u c k s p r e s e n t l y d i s p a t c h -ed to l a n d i n g + present queue L.I.=100 - L . I . f i n d i n g the highest dispatch-i n g index F i g u r e 24. Flowchart of the Indexing d i s p a t c h i n g technique. Figure 24(cont'd). Flowchart of the Indexing dispatching technique. 87 is earlier than 1:00 p.m., or according to distance from the dump (distance index) i f the time i s after 1:00 p.m.. d) Dispatch the truck to the landing with the highest ranking. Figure 25 flowcharts the Bonita dispatching algorithm. 5.4 Developing an Improved Dispatching Routine Algorithm 5.4.1 Vehicle Scheduling Problems A vehicle scheduling problem involves the development of schedules and the dispatching of vehicles of known capacity to serve a set of customers at known locations. If the locations, requirements, number of vehicles and vehiclersize do not change as time progresses, a "static" vehicle schedule is indicated. Dantzig and Ramser (1959) introduced the truck dispatching model in a linear-programming form, as a static model. If the characteristics of the system change during a specified time period, a "dynamic" vehicle scheduling model must be developed. Doll (1974) and Szeto (1974), both u t i l i z e d simulation models to study dynamic vehicle scheduling problems. According to their approach, a vehicle scheduling problem involves developing schedules and dispatching vehicles to serve a set of customers, each at a known location and with a known requirement for some commodity, subject to the following constraints: a) The requirements of a l l customers must be met. b) The total load allocated to each vehicle may not exceed i t s capacity. 88 Bonita's D i s p a t c h i n g Routine . 1 i n i t i a l i z e v a lues; k=0,j=32000,i=l Figure 25 • Flowchart of Bonita's d i s p a t c h i n g r o u t i n e . 89 Section B yes ion 1 no find the completion time of the truck! (to loaded state) i f dispatched to : no 1 find the completion time of the truck i f dispatched to * i L = i ; j = estimated completion time i f dispatched to i no / 1 \ the truck is dispatched to landing L a detailed flowchart for finding the estimated completion time is included in Figure 29. Figure 25 (cont'd). Flowchart of Bonita's dispatching routine; 90 c) The time to complete the tour may not exceed some predetermined level. The objective i s to minimize the cost of delivery. The logging truck dispatching problem must be designed as a dynamic vehicle scheduling model, based on constraints similar to those mentioned above. 5.4.2 Dispatching Routine Algorithm Based on Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory In developing an improved dispatching technique with the objective of maximizing timber production, both the yarding and trucking configurations must be examined. The underlying objective i s to minimize the hauling return time and minimize yarder downtime. Enough trucks must be dispatched to each landing to prevent the landing from becoming "plugged" with yarded wood. Meanwhile, travel time and truck delays due to queueing or waiting for more logs should be minimized. 5.4.2.1 Minimum Return Time Model The minimum return time for a hauling system involves the application of network analysis to a transportation system. The shortest route problem is designed to find the shortest route from an origin to a destination through a connecting network, given the non-negative distance associated with the respective branches of the network ( H i l l i e r and Lieberman, 1972). 91 The hauling model is a very simple shortest route problem, with the origin and destination being equivalent (the main dispatching point). The only constraint is that the truck must travel to one node (landing), receive a load, and then return to the starting point (camp). The following network illustrates the details of one route: 1 = camp stage 2 = arrival at landing and enter queue stage 3 = begin loading of the truck stage 4 = finish loading of the truck stage i = route or landing number x i l = e s t :>- m a t e <^ travel time for the empty truck to landing i = estimated queueing time at the landing based on the number of trucks previously dispatched to the landing and their estimated loading time = estimated loading time based on landing inventory, yarding rate and yarder and loader status x.„ = estimated travel time for the loaded truck from landing i4 to camp Figure 26 illustrates the flow system for the logging operation simulated in the study. 92 a = road s e c t i o n from r e d i s p a t c h i n g p o i n t to camp b = road s e c t i o n from r e d i s p a t c h i n g p o i n t to l a n d i n g Figure 26. Network flow f o r the Gold R i v e r Logging D i v i s i o n c o n f i g u r a t i o n (6 y a r d e r s ) . The Minimum Return Time model has the form: 93 When dispatching a truck at time t, find the optimum landing i , so that: * f = MIN i=l to n for x^^ a n c* x ^ - j dependent on landing characteristics (queue, inventory) at time t where: optimum (minimum) return time at time t total number of landings 5.4.2.2 Landing Inventory To prevent the shutdown of the yarder, resulting from lack of space on the landing, trucks must be dispatched on a landing inventory basis. If dispatching i s based solely on minimum return time, no consideration can be given to the non-productivity of plugged landings. Therefore, i f a landing is at a point where there is danger of i t becoming plugged, i t w i l l take priority over the landing indicated in a Minimum Return Time dispatching policy. Figure 27 shows the macroflowchart of the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory model of truck dispatching. Figure 28 i s a histogram showing productivity in volume hauled for five different dispatching policies based on Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory. The landing inventory takes priority when the following 94 D i s p a t c h i n g P o l i c y 1 Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory Model i f i n d estimated r e t u r n time of t r u c k f o r each l a n d i n g landings w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d volume of being plugged take p r i o r i t y I zz rank la n d i n g s by p r i o r i t y and minimum r e t u r n time _! d i s p a t c h t r u c k to l a n d i n g w i t h the lowest r e t u r n time i n the highest p r i o r i t y c l a s s Figure 27 . Macroflowchart of the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory Model f o r t r u c k d i s p a t c h i n g . 95 Figure 28. Productivity versus Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory dispatching algorithm at various landing inventories. P R O D U C T I O N V S D I S P R T C H I N G T E C H N I Q U E CBRSED ON L R N D I N G I N V E N T O R Y ) VERT.SCRLE; 1 I N . - 200 CUNITS 1 CM.- 566 CU. METERS 56 34 J-SB 4-48 ± 46 44 42 VOLUME HRULED 50 DISPRTCHING TECHNIQUE 96 conditions are met: Technique Description 3 landing within 3 loads of being plugged when truck ready for loading, 2 landing within 2 loads of being plugged when truck ready for loading, 1 landing within 1 load of being plugged when truck ready for loading, 50 landing within 50 cu.ft. (one turn) of being plugged when truck ready for loading, 0 landing presently plugged (at time of dispatching) Dispatching techniques 3,2,1 and 50 are based on the average load of the truck presently ready for dispatching and an estimate of the time, and the expected inventory at the landing, when the truck begins loading. The predicted inventory i s based on the number of trucks currently dispatched to the landing, the present inventory and the average yarding rate. The details for calculating the expected inventory are shown in Figure 29. Table XI l i s t s the results of testing the Minimum Return Time dispatching policy, with priority increasing for varying levels of landing inventories, in terms of the difference between the mean volume hauled per day. The policy of giving priority to landings within one load of being plugged results in a significant improvement in production over a l l but the two-load level. Further analysis with the simulation model w i l l be based on 97 IMinimum Return Time and Landing Inventory Model 1 i n i t i a l i z e v alues i=l,j=L=32000 1 d ( i ) = t r a v e l time to l a n d i n g i,p=0 yes eing d(i)=estimated time of completion of l a s t t r u c k dispatched to i yes p = 1 yes i c i e s t volume to a l t e r pcfjticy? no no T=time u n t i l enough volume i s yarded yes d ( i ) = d ( i ) + l o a d i n g timet no yes d ( i ) = d ( i ) + time to f i n i s h y a r ding enough volume to f i n i s h l oad F i gure 29• M i c r o f l o w c h a r t of the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory d i s p a t c h i n g r o u t i n e . d ( i ) = d ( i ) + trave!. time back to camp xs yes is yes 1? d ( i ) < L L = d ( i ) k = i no d ( i ) < j yes yes j = d ( i ) k = i the t r u c k i s dispatched to la n d i n g k gure 29 (cont'd). M i c r o f l o w c h a r t of the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory d i s p a t c h i n g r o u t i n e . 99 Table XI. Testing for a difference -'in mean volume dumped for various dis-patching techniques (based on landing inventories). H Q : - j^i = o (where 1 i s the dispatching technique with priority increased for landings within one load of being plugged) i = 3,2,50,0 H l : J * l " * ° C*= 0.05 c r i t i c a l region : z < -1.96 and z > 1.96 (x. - x.) 1 l z = 2 2 (a /ri:;) + (cf. /n.) c cj x x DISPATCHING TECHNIQUE BASED ON LANDING INVENTORY < a •s. a H a l i z o to u H En CO H IS co co EH H D U 3 2 1 50 0 MEAN 506. 0 517. 1 529. 2 49.49 49.21 - S.d. 42. 5 45. 3 46. 3 50.4 53.6 SIMULATED DAYS (n) 60 70 70 60 40 z 2. 98 1. 56 0 4.02 5.64 the one-load method. Figure 29 shows the microflowchart of the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory Dispatching algorithm. Appendix 5.7 illustrates the GPSSV flowchart for this dispatching routine. 5.5 Comparison of Dispatching Techniques Figures 30 and 31 graph the productivity of the harvesting model against the various dispatching techniques. Technique Description A Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory (within 1 load of being plugged) method. B Indexing method. C Bonita's method. D Uniform consecutive method (the dispatching sequence i s 1,2,3,4,5,6,1,2,3,4,5,6, and so on). Table XII summarizes the efficiency of each method compared to the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory (with the priority increased i f the landing is within one load of being plugged) algorithm. Figure 30. Production versus d i s p a t c h i n g technique ( c o n f i g u r a t i o n 1 - 6 yarders, 14 t r u c k s ) . P R O D U C T I O N V S D I S P R T C H I N G T E C H N I Q U E C O N F I G U R R T I O N 1 VERT.SCRLEI 1 I N . - 200 CUNITS 1 CM.- 566 CU. METERS 101 56 34 J. (D h H z • o s Q X z o H h u D P O a v 38 SB 4-48 4-48 4-44 4-48 EL YA VOLUME YRRDED VOLUME HRULED 1/ / / / / / DISPRTCHING TECHNIQUE Figure 31. Production versus dispatching technique (configuration 2 7 yarders, 16 trucks). 102 70 ~-68 — 66 4-64 CO h H Z D O a z o H h U P o a: o. 62 _L 8 0 _ P R O D U C T I O N V S D I S P R T C H I N G T E C H N I Q U E C O N F I G U R R T I O N 2 VERT.SCRLEt 1 I N . - 200 CUNITS 1 CM.- 566 CU. METERS EL E l VOLUME YRRDED VOLUME HRULED 58 4-36 _L 54 EM DISPRTCHING TECHNIQUE Table XII. Comparison of various dispatching techniques. 103 Technique Production (xlOO cunits) over 10 days configuration ] configuration 2 (6 yarders - 14 trucks) (7 yarders - 16 trucks) yarded % of A hauled % of A yarded % of A hauled % of A A 52.44 100 53.09 100 62.62 100 62.42 100 B 51.47 98.2 51.83 97.6 60.83 97.1 61.51 98.5 C 50.45 96.2 50.73 95.6 56.73 90.6 57.18 91.6 D 48.46 92.4 47.96 90. 3 54.79 87.5 54.61 87.5 Table XIII l i s t s the results of testing the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory method versus the other dispatching techniques in terms of the difference between the mean volume hauled per day. The results of this table confirm that the ut i l i z a t i o n of the Minimum Return and Landing Inventory algorithm results i n a significant improvement in production over a l l but the Indexing algorithm. Table XIV summarizes the parameters that are necessary for each method. Estimates of travel and loading times used in the table are based on average values for these st a t i s t i c s . The Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory routine and the algorithm developed by Bonita are comparable in parameter requirements. The Indexing algorithm does not require the estimated completion time (finished loading ) of dispatched trucks. This s t a t i s t i c i s d i f f i c u l t to measure and must be recalculated at specific points on the truck's route. The completion time i s calculated for each truck dispatched, and i s updated at two stages; (a) at the time the truck arrives at the landing, and (b) when the truck has started loading. Figure 32 illustrates these updating processes. Table XIII. Testing for a difference in mean volume dumped for various dispatching techniques. 104 ^0 : /^ A ~ J^± = ^ (where A i s the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory algorithm; i=B,C,D) H l : ^ A - ^ i * 0 oc = 0.05 c r i t i c a l region : z<-1.96 and z>1.96 ( two simulation runs were made for each configuration and dispatching technique using antithetic variables) Dispatching Technique •H § cfl T) T3 0) CU E 3 r-H O > c O cn o •rt •u w • r t rt 4-1 CO Configuration 1 mean s.d. simulated days(n) Configuration 2 mean s.d. simulated days(n) Uniform D Bonita C Indexing B Min. Return Time and Landing Inventory A 479.6 507.3 518.3 530.9 63.1 45.6 48.2 36.4 20 20 20 20 3. 15 1.81 0.93 0 546.0 571.8 615.1 624.2 72.3 57.8 49.5 47.3 20 20 20 20 4.05 3.14 0.59 0 Table XIV . Parameters required for various dispatching techniques. Technique 0) 3 ro rt ro Min. Return Time and Landing & Inventory-Indexing ro C n) •U •H C o pq time of day * landing capacity * present landing inventory * * * yarding rate * * * Basic Landing Index (B.L.I.) * yarder and loader status * * * queue at the landing * number of trucks dispatched to landing * * * volume accounted for on landing,by ' * trucks previously dispatched * * average truck load * * * estimated completion time of the last * truck dispatched to the landing * estimated travel time to landing * * * estimated loading time * estimated travel time back to camp * Completion Time Updating. (a.) Truck arrives] at l a n d i n g 106 i n i t i a l i z e v a l u e s P15=pl3=0, truck// = T, I = 1 yes no no ± yes pl5=pl5 + average load of I (b.) Truck ready f o r l o a d i n g P15= average T load c a l c u l a t e the estimated time u n t i l enough v o l -ume i s yarded(Tl) 1 Figure 32 • Flowchart of completion time updating f o r dispatched t r u c k s . Figure 32(cont'd). Flowchart of completion time updating for dispatched trucks. Appendix 5.8 contains the GPSSV flowchart "for calculating the estimated completion times of trucks arriving at the landings and trucks starting the loading function. 5.6 Truck Redispatching The inclusion of the loader and yarder breakdown provisions, while enhancing the realism of the model, creates some significant second-order interactions. Those associated with a loader breakdown include: a) The loading process stops. b) Yarding continues u n t i l the landing i s f i l l e d to capacity and yarding stops. c) Trucks waiting in the landing queue are redispatched to other landings. d) Trucks en route to this landing are redispatched. e) No trucks are dispatched to this landing from camp. When the yarder breaks down, trucks w i l l continue to be loaded. Empty trucks may be dispatched from camp as long as there i s enough volume on the landing to complete a load. If there i s not enough volume, trucks en route and queueing at the landing are redispatched and no further dispatching to this landing takes place. 5.6.1 Truck Redispatching Policies 109 When loader or yarder breakdowns force the redispatching of trucks, an attempt i s made to maintain the dispatching strategy. Three policies were developed for trucks originally dispatched to landings with the following conditions: a) Areas with one landing, or two or more non-operating landings, having no redispatching point between the area and camp - send truck(s) back to camp to be redispatched by the dispatching routine. b) Areas with two or more landings, and at least one landing i s operative - redispatch truck(s) to the operating landing. c) Areas with one landing, or two or more non-operating landings, that have a redispatching point between the area and camp - send truck(s) to the redispatching point and dispatch to the landing which w i l l allow the earliest expected completion time for the vehicle. If a l l landings past the redispatching point are down, the truck(s) queue at the redispatching point u n t i l a landing becomes operative. 5.6.2 Modelling Truck Redispatching Figure 33 flowcharts the three truck redispatching policies. Care is taken in the model to make the estimated completion times of dispatched trucks as up-to-date as possible. This ensures an accurate dispatching policy. The GPSSV flowcharts for truck redispatching are included as Appendix 5.9. Figure 34 shows the effect of Truck Re-d i s p a t c h i n g P o l i c i e s 110 I T=l; t r u c k s en route to l a n d i n g i or queueing theije must be redispatched s e l e c t the r e d i s -patching p o l i c y based on the area c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s no no T = T + 1 truck may not pro--ceed to another landing on area, or landing is not past redispatching puiuL— 1 send the t r u c k • back to camp f o r r e d i s p a t c h i n g 3 V t r u c k i s dispatched to a l a n d i n g past a r e d i s p a t c h i n g p o i n t 1 send the t r u c k back to the r e -d i s p a t c h i n g p o i n t yes d i s p a t c h t r u c k to o p e r a t i n g l a n d i n g • w i t h the e a r l i e s t l a s t t r u c k dispatched completion t i m e — xng no queue at the r e -d i s p a t c h i n g p o i n t u n t i l a l a n d i n g becomes o p e r a t i o n a l F i g u r e 33.. Flowchart of the t r u c k r e d i s p a t c h i n g p o l i c i e s . I l l the truck may proceed to another landing on the area ± dispatch truck to this landing V  increment the # of trucks dis-patched to, and volume required oh, the new [landing 1 adjust the land-ing # that the truck i s assigned JlL calculate the completion time of the last trucld dispatched to landing decrement the # ci trucks dispatchec and volume requiied on, the downed landir g to, adjust the comple-tion time of the last truck dis-patched to new ldnding Figure 33(cont'd). Flowchart of the truck redispatching policies. 112 Figure 34. The effects on productivity due to yarder and loader SB _ 54 4-52 4-5 0 46 46 4-44 4-breakdowns (6 yarders - 14 trucks). E F F E C T S O F Y R R D E R R N D L O R D E R B R E R K D O N N S V E R T . S C R L E : 1 I N . - 2 0 0 CUNITS 1 C M . - 566 C U . METERS VOLUME HRULED 42 4 0 NO BRERKDONNS BREAKDOWNS YRRDER & LORDER STRTUS redispatching trucks when required by yarder or loader breakdowns. A l i s t i n g of the GPSSV Timber Harvesting Simulation Model has been included as Appendix 8. 5.7 Computerized Truck Dispatching The Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory dispatching routine algorithm has been programmed for a Hewlett-Packard 9830A desktop computer. The system specifications are given in Appendix 9. 5.7.1 Program Description The dispatching routine program provides seven elements: a) Dispatching—When empty trucks are ready for dispatching, the "optimum" landing is selected. The completion time of the truck is calculated. Statistics on landing volume requirements and number of trucks dispatched are updated. b) Redispatching—Trucks en route or queueing at a landing may be redispatched i f the loader at that landing breaks down, or i f the yarder breaks:;down and there is insufficient volume on the landing to load the truck. Statistics of landing volume requirements and number of trucks dispatched are adjusted accordingly. c) Truck arrival at the landing—When the empty truck arrives at the landing, i t s estimated completion time is updated. d) Truck ready for loading—When the truck begins the loading process, the estimated completion time i s again updated. e) Dispatcher o v e r r i d e — I f the dispatcher chooses to dispatch the truck, independent of the computer, he may do so. f) Truck finished—When the truck has been loaded, the s t a t i s t i c s on landing volume requirements and number of trucks dispatched are updated. g) Truck breakdown—If the truck breaks down en route to a landing, the s t a t i s t i c s on landing volume requirements and number of trucks dispatched must be a l t e r e d . 5.7.2 Program Data Requirements and Input Table XV summarizes the data requirements for the dispatching algorithm. The dispatcher, r e l y i n g on radio communications with a l l of the landings„and trucks, must update the pertinent information i n the computer. Information regarding truck average loads, average t r a v e l times to landings from camp and from the landings to camp, average yarding rates and landing c a p a c i t i e s must be supplied to the program for a s p e c i f i c operating configuration. The operating i n s t r u c t i o n s for the use of the program have been included as Appendix 10. The e n t i r e dispatching algorithm i s c o n t r o l l e d by a "menu" (Figure 35, found i n Appendix 10). A l l data are entered from the d i g i t i z e r . P o t e n t i a l problems, a r i s i n g when the menu i s not properly aligned, are a l l e v i a t e d by program control (Appendix 11). The dispatching XV. Requirements for each section of the computerized dispatching algorithm. Information required <D -rH >< status Section U n u n S-l day hour minute truck number landing inventi landing inventi yarder & loade: landing number 1. Dispatching * * * * * * 2. Redispatching * * * * * 3. Truck arrival at * * * * * landing 4. Truck ready for * * * * * loading. 5. Dispatcher * " * * * * override 6. Truck finished * * * * * 7. Truck breakdown * * * * 116 algorithm has also been programmed for use with input through the computer keyboard. This eliminates the need for a digitizer, but sacrifices the element of speed in dispatcher-computer communication. 5.7.3 Results and Discussion Following i s an example of the result obtained from the computer for a dispatching situation: When empty trucks arriving at camp are dispatched to the landing with the lowest estimated completion time (in this case, return time to camp) for that truck and the highest priority or "status" (if the landing i s within one truck load of being plugged when the truck arrives, the status equals 1, otherwise i t equals 0): ************************************** DISPATCHING POLICY AT: 8:00 A.M. LANDING EST. COMPLETION TIME STATUS 1 144.0 0 2 1117.0 0 3 154.0 1 4 1187.0 1 5 1117.0 0 6 234.0 1 DISPATCH TRUCK TO LANDING #3 ****************************************************************** In less than one minute, the dispatcher can determine the "optimum" landing to which a truck should be dispatched. The program automatically updates the truck locations, the landing volume requirements, the estimated time in which the trucks w i l l be loaded, the number of the landing to which the truck i s dispatched, and the number of trucks dispatched to each landing. This information i s stored on a tape cassette f i l e for quick retrieval. 118 6.0 Applications of the Logging Simulation Model in Resource Planning The a b i l i t y of the simulation model to approximate the true harvesting system allows experimentation with, and manipulation of, the processes of the real system. Real problems may be investigated with the model, without having to measure the effects of various alternative configurations on the real system. Due to the f l e x i b i l i t y of the model, both in parameter "*v. i n i t i a l i z a t i o n and the substitution of new relationships, the investigation of many features of forest resource planning is possible. The following sections i l l u s t r a t e some types of problems which can be handled with the simulation model. The approach to each case is presented in a general context. 6.1 Determination of Logging Truck Requirements for Various Logging Configurations The logging manager is faced with the problem of determining the optimum number of logging trucks required for a specific configuration of yarders and loaders. If more trucks are required, they can be supplied through purchase, lease, or contracting. If fewer logging trucks are needed, some may have to be shut down, or made available to another operation. A multi-source, single-sink logging operation can be simulated with the model, as long as parameter values and functional relationships are known. The model can then be run with a range of trucks and the logging cost per cunit calculated. 6.2 Determination of Truck Requirements and Cost Analysis Using Different Combinations of "Highway" and "Off-Highway" Trucks The model w i l l allow the u t i l i z a t i o n of any number and combination of logging trucks. In general, the payload may range from 75,000 pounds for a "highway" truck to 170,000 pounds for an "off-highway" truck with 15-foot bunks. The large trucks, while having a higher purchase price and operating cost, have an increased capacity. Small trucks offset their lower capacity with increased speeds and shorter loading times. As well, the increased maintenance required on road surfaces used by the heavier vehicles is an added cost for the larger trucks (this expense is usually quite d i f f i c u l t to measure). Insufficient data on the differences in travel speeds and loading times restricted the examination of this application. Bonita (1972), using two truck sizes only, found that a fleet of a l l "large" trucks realized a lower unit cost of production. 6.3 Comparison of Different Operating Policies The logging system may be improved through design changes in the operating rules and policies. The use of an optimum truck dispatching policy has shown that the cost of production can be reduced without additional equipment, Some notable policy changes that can be examined with the simulation model include: a) Shutdown policies. Table XVI illustrates two examples of different policies regarding the shutting down of equipment at the end of a regular shift. Table XVI. Two equipment shutdown modes. Machine Shutdown Schedule Mode 1 Mode 2 Dump Loaders Yarders Trucks shut down after the last truck i s unloaded shut down after a l l trucks dispatched to the landing are loaded shut down after 8 hours work unless a truck being loaded requires more logs for a complete load shut down at camp, dump a l l loads shut down at a given time shut down after 8 hours work shut down after 8 hours work shut down at the camp i f i t i s too late to be dispatched or to proceed to the dump; may park overnight at the land-ings or along the road-side The two policies presented are at extremes of shift duration. Mode 1 allows for a maximum of overtime, while Mode 2 allows l i t t l e or no overtime. These, or any other combination of daily schedules between these two shutdown modes, may be examined with the simulation model. The objective w i l l be to determine which shutdown mode yields a lower unit production cost. b) Double shifting. The effects of introducing double shifts may be examined with the simulation model i f modifications are made in the daily timing sequences in the model. c) Changes in the definition of a "work-week". If the forest industry i 2 i : were to adopt a four-day week, or expand the logging operations to a f u l l seven-day work-week with shifting crews, the effects on productivity could be examined. Again, modifications would have to be made with the daily timing sequences in the model to compensate for changes i n the work-day schedule. 6.4 Machine Allocation and Scheduling The planning of timber harvesting operations and the scheduling of logging machinery i s a d i f f i c u l t decision making process for forest engineers. The optimization of these operations has been based primarily on the intuition of the resource managers. When planning the future cutting areas, and the yarding machine scheduling upon these areas, consideration must be given to terrain, the distribution of timber, climate, log characteristics, hauling distance, road characteristics and the mechanical, economic and crew characteristics of the machine. Dykstra and Riggs (1977) and Newnham (1975) have developed linear programming models for planning logging operations and allocating and scheduling harvesting equipment. The Timber Harvesting Simulation Model may be used to ver i f y the optimality of these machine schedules, and provide a r e a l i s t i c estimate of productivity. 6.5 The Introduction of New Equipment Changes in the logging subsystems, caused by the introduction of new equipment, may be analysed. For instance, i f a new yarder-loader is introduced, the effects of the complication in the yarding-loading subsystems'jcan be measured. Another example might be the introduction of "pup" trailers or "pre-loaded" trailers within the hauling subsystem. If pre-loaded tra i l e r s are available at the landings, trucks w i l l not have to wait at the landings for a load. The simulation model can be altered to show the changes in truck and t r a i l e r requirements, as well as the resulting productivity. 7.0 Summary and Conclusions 123 This study has provided a methodology for examining forest harvesting operations through simulation. The model i s capable of simulating multi-source, single-sink logging configurations. F a c i l i t y locations, equipment types and numbers, parameters, and functional relationships may be varied so that most west coast B r i t i s h Columbia logging operations can be represented. The model was written in the GPSSV language. This language i s problem-oriented and approximates the manner in which the analyst would express the problem in English. GPSSV allows extensive experimentation and fast execution at relatively low cost. A substantial saving in development cost was realized over a FORTRAN-based simulation. The interpolation of observed data with continuous GPSSV functions ensures the variable relationships are accurately represented. Subsystems of the "stump to dump" harvesting operation were inter-related into a logical structure of variables, operating rules and stochastic components. The Gold River Logging Division of Tahsis Company was u t i l i z e d as the basis for model formulation. Verification of the model rested on the empirical testing of model assumptions and the comparison of input-output transformations generated by the model to those generated in the real world. Observable events, event patterns and variations in results, were shown to be accurately predicted, based on the data used. 124 Tactical considerations and experimental design regarding model execution were presented. Starting conditions and the use of antithetic variates to reduce the variance of the mean of a response, were discussed. An improved truck dispatching routine was developed. Based on the objective of maximizing productivity, subject to the availability of yarding and trucking resources, the Minimum Return Time and Landing Inventory dispatching routine was formulated. This policy balances the constraints of minimizing truck travel time, truck delays at landings, and yarding stoppages due to timber "saturated" landings. In comparison with other dispatching policies, productivity was increased from two to over ten percent. The algorithm was programmed for the Hewlett-Packard 983OA desktop computing system. The dispatcher, u t i l i z i n g radio communications with a l l of thef-landings and trucks, can theoretically input pertinent information to the computer and be supplied with the "optimum" landing to which a truck should be dispatched. Some other practical applications of the logging simulation model have been discussed. F l e x i b i l i t y in the model, in parameter i n i t i a l i z a t i o n and the substitution of new relationships, allows the investigation of many features of forest resource planning and machine allocation and scheduling. Determining equipment requirements for various configurations, the evaluation of new equipment and the comparison of different operating policies can be undertaken with the model. 125 An appreciation of the complexity of the timber harvesting system can be realized through the simulation of the real process. Bonita (1972) states: "Perhaps the greatest benefit from a simulation model can be derived from i t s capability of increasing our understanding of the system - through learning how the parts of the system behave and interact and through learning how the system responds to changes in i t s factors. These capabilities can be beneficial not only in the design of better policies but also in the exercise of better control of the system." This model has not been developed to handle a l l timber harvesting problems. It is hindered by the problem of simplifying representations and maintaining f l e x i b i l i t y to examine specific configurations in a very , diversified system. Further developments in the model should include divisions of subsystems and relationships that profoundly affect the system's behaviour. Possible improvements might be: a) An accurate representation of the yarding process. This would involve producing a "step" model which would be dependent on terrain, log, landing and yarder characteristics. b) An accurate prediction of the performance of a specific truck on a defined route. This would be dependent on road characteristics and vehicle characteristics. Simulation must not be used as a substitute for knowledge. Far too often researchers are satisfied that they have optimized the performance of one subsystem, without accounting for the restrictions imposed by other 126 subsystems. Limitations on the Timber Harvesting Simulation Model are derived from the nature of simulation i t s e l f . These include: a) The size of experimentation must be kept at an economic and manageable level, while allowing the desired precision of results. b) The assumptions made within the model, regarding the properties and behaviour of the real system, must be recognized and outlined. c) Optimization i s based on the examination of simulation results for varying levels of pertinent variables. Simulation is not inherently optimizing (Bonita, 1972). As far as possible, these factors have been accounted for within the body of this study. The model presents an opportunity to improve the design of the system for handling logs from forest to unloading f a c i l i t y . The next logical step for simulation results, such as the truck dispatching policy developed within this thesis, is their application within the real system environment. Although f i e l d implementation has not been possible, this study has demonstrated that revisions in truck dispatching techniques may provide a financially worthwhile alternative to present policies. Simulation is a useful tool for the study of harvesting systems and can aid in the management of the forest resources. Bibliography Bonita, M.L., 1972. A Simulation Model for Planning and Control of Forest Harvesting Operations. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bri t i s h Columbia. 208 pages. Byrne, J.J., R.J. Nelson, and P'.'H. Googins, 1960. Logging Road Handbook. The Effect of Road Design on Hauling Costs. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook #183. 65 pages. Clutter, J.L., and J.H. Bamping, 1965. Computer Simulation of an Industrial Forestry Enterprise. Proceedings, Society of American Foresters. Conte, S.D., and C. DeBoor, 1972. Elementary Numerical Analysis, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 396 pages. Conway, R.W., 1963. Some Tactical Problems in Digital Simulation. Management Science, Vol.10, No.l. pages 47-61. Corcoran, T.J., 1971. Advantages of GPSS/360 for Harvesting System Design and Equipment Levelling. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 18 pages. Dantzig, G.B., and J.H. Ramser, 1959. The Truck Dispatching Problem. Management Science, Vol.6, No.l. Doll, C.L., 1974. A Simulation Study of a Dynamic Vehicle-Scheduling Problem. Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University. 109 pages. Drinkwater, R., and N. Hastings, 1967. An Optimum Replacement Model. Operations Research Quarterly, Vol.18, pages 121-128. Dykstra, D.P., and J.L. Riggs, 1977. An Application of F a c i l i t i e s Location Theory to the Design of Forest Harvesting Areas. Oregon State University. 18 pages. Emshoff, J.R., and R.L. Sisson, 1970. Design and Use of Computer Simulation Models. MacMillan Publishing Co. Ltd. 302 pages. H i l l i e r , F.S., and G.L. Lieberman, 1972. Introduction to Operations Research. Holden-Day, Inc. 639 pages. I.B.M., 1970. General Purpose Simulation System V User's Manual. 421 pages. Lambe, T., 1970. A Bayesian Model for Equipment Replacement Decisions. Unpub. paper. C.O.R.S. Annual Meeting. Lemkow, D.Z., 1977. Development of a Digital Terrain Simulator for Short-Term Forest Resource Planning. Master's Thesis, University of British Columbia, pages 175-177. Levesque, Y., 1975. A Deterministic Simulation of Logging Truck Performance. Master's Thesis, University of British Columbia. 106 pages. 128 Maisel, H., and G. Gnugnoli, 1972. Simulation of Discrete Stochastic Systems. Science Research Associates, Inc. 465 pages. McPhalen, J.C., 1970. A Computer Simulation Model of the Trucking System at the Harrison Mills Logging Division of Canadian Forest Products Ltd. Unpub. Bachelor's Thesis, University of British Columbia. Naylor, T.H., and J.M. Finger, 1967. Verification of Computer Simulation Models. Management Science. Vol.14, No.2. pages B92-B101. Newnham, R.M., 1968. Minimum Merchantable Tree Size and Machine Productivity-A Simulation Study. Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada, pages 227-229. , 1975. A Model for Planning Logging Operations. Forest Management Institute Information Report. FMR-X-77. 59 pages. O'Regan, W.G., L. Arvanitis, and E.M. Gould, 1965. Systems, Simulation and Forest Management. Proceedings, Society of American Foresters. Pritsker, A.A., and D.J. Kiviat, 1969. Simulation with GASP II. Prentice-Hall Inc. 332 pages. Routhier, J.G., 1974. A Simulation Model for the Analysis of Pulpwood and Sawlog Trucking. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada. LRR/57. 51 pages. Seppala, R., 1971. Simulation of Timber-Harvesting Systems. Folia Forestalia 125. Schriber, T.J., 1974. Simulation Using GPSS. John Wiley and Sons. 533 pages. Szeto, C , 1974. A Dynamic Vehicle-Scheduling Problem. Master's Thesis, University of British Columbia. Vandenboom, H.W., 1971. A Technique for Analysing the Effect of Absolute Vehicle and Component Age on the Failure Behaviour and Repair Costs of Logging Truck Components. Unpub. Bachelor's Thesis, University of British Columbia. Van Horn, R., 1969. Validation. The Design of Computer Simulation Experiments. Duke Univeristy Press. — , 1971. Validation of Simulation Results. Management Science. Vol.17, No.5. pages 247-258. Walpole, R.E., 1971. Introduction to Statistics. The MacMillan Company. 365 pages. Appendix l.A Solving the C o e f f i c i e n t s of Cubic Spline Interpolation (Conte and De boor, 1972). The cubic s p l i n e i n t e r p o l a n t has the form: 2 3 P. (x) = c. . + c„. (x-x.) + c_. (x-x.) + c .. (x-x.) I lx 2x x 3x x 4i x The conditions on the spli n e are: (1.) P ± ( x i ) = Y i = c l j L ( i = 0,l,...,n-l) (2.) P . ( x i + 1 ) = y 1 + 1 = c1± + c 2.h. + c 3 . h . 2 + c 4 . h . 3 ( i = 1,2. (3.) P . ' ( x . ) = P ^ C x . ) = c 2 . = c ^ + 2 0 3 . , ^ . ^ + 3 0 ^ ^ ( i = 1,2,...,n-l) (4.) P . " ( x . ) = PV . ^ x . ) = 2 0 3 . ^ = 2 0 3 . ^ + e c ^ h . ^ ( i = 1,2,...,n-l) introducing v a r i a b l e ; S ^ P . M x . ) S. = c x 2x from (2.); . 2 Y i + 1 ' Y i  S i + C 3 i h i + C 4 i h i = n — (5-)C3i=(zx3zi "C4ihi h. x from (3.); 130 2 (6.) S. + 2c„.h. + 3c..h. = S.,.. (using i for i-1) l 3 i I 4 i l l + l su b s t i t u t i n g the value of c^^ from equation (5.) into (6.); S. . • S. - 2 " ^ , n . _ i + l i V h. I (7.) c A . = v i y 4i = h . 2 I s u b s t i t u t i n g the value of from equation (7.) in t o (6.) solves c^^. From (4.) t h i s becomes a system of equations inv o l v i n g only S.T (S. = slope at x.). This s i m p l i f i e s to: h.S. . + 2(h. + h.) S. + h. S-l i - i l - l l l i - l i + l 3 | h . i V U t ^ - 7 " i - H h. j i.y h . ^ This i s a system of (n-1) l i n e a r equations i n (n+1) unknowns S. . Therefore, i f S„ and S are i n i t i a l l y assigned values ( i n t u i t i v e l y V o 0 n or g r a p h i c a l l y ) , the r e s u l t i s a system of (n-1) equations i n (n-1) unknowns. The so l u t i o n of t h i s matrix y i e l d s the slope of the interpolant a t each data point and the c o e f f i c i e n t s may be solved by equations (5.) , (6.) and (7.) . Appendix l.B FORTRAN Program for Cubic Spline Interpolation of Inverse Cumulative Distribution Functions C N ro zz I z 0 z 6 I 8 1 L\ wi=r t oc s • 3 oCa * J M i A ics • =b 1 t * 5 J ' £" *7d • £ , 4 ? a ) iV ft'dUd OOI I T U •! 1 IV • I I )H 1001 ' S IClffSd L_ z i n C I 9 I S I "e i Z 1 I I 1=1 I 0 0 Z — .Nl = V. _I —M=^. OZ=t; •C*SZS'S/V 7 i V G o I 6 e ( I Z I d ' l I Z I d M i i l X ' I S i ) 9 ' I S i ' G i l V NO 13N3* i( j ( i i l S M i i l H M i i l A ' l i i ' V I O IvQWHOO • a>l»aa6<i3iM a3*Ci**D * *D SNiaaa Nouno3xa .^„i..iA*M*_NQ--S_ i i / C E A O N O S M NO 8 v:i6 : ^ I VI N'O O S M S i S . .XNIH . i «3sn Z I : 9 0 = 9 I = S » M f lONOlS 1 S V " 1 * « I -_dL XX XX M N i . XX XX NN NM XX XX N MM Ntl MX XX. J J rjf-j N NN XX ~xx " N N NX \' l-l x x x x x x x N l v kti x x x x x x x 1M N N M N .'1 xx XX Ml; N : •; XX XX NN 1 XX xx_ KM " xx"'" " XX* N M XX XX NN M IN 11 i 1 1 1 1 1 ; i L I I i HM KH HH HH HH HH_ HH HH riHHHHHHMHHHH HHHHHHHHHHHH 1 I I i I 1 i i i I 1 I 1 I I I I i I I I I i I h l l HH HH_ ~HH HH HH HH HH _ ' HH HH X M H OIJjJL ii/OE ACN 03M i < 7 : j Q : 9 I ( J Z I X V I S I H 3 J 1 M 3 0 O N I i n d U C O ] 8 J U A l 1 ? » n A IN l l _ . — l a ? " | . ' ^ s ; * • £ * " a K n d " Z " , a N n d " i " " a M n d ' * 0 " * 0 N n d * " 6 * • 'awid' 'B' • 'GNn-j' • L • • • mm " 9 •• 'ON'nd • •$ •• • at:n a • • * " * "o-^n J • '£ ' * "UNi ia • 'z • <J..I.J I unn-j C X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ^ X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X y X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X £1N'0 rn m -a r- x (\j M (M l\J f« M J> O —4 f\j r*"> IM m m m m jm co o o n m n w * f-t rg m -4" IA 1*0 •4- -r *r st- <r <*• CD C- O — (\i !N* vt J- in m *n -j- in O r— co •LTi in LO IT\ LT IT\ b O « rj M ^ in -o -o -a so -o jm •£> r- cn o •ti -0 -O *D >0 h-• i> r it u u * i -j- m o f-^ • r- — I- ' If— r- r- t~~ r~ [o r- co r-. r-, r- h- r-~ cc "u |r- t- ? i- ?• t-lo " I 133 134 j i /• C U B I C S f > L l N r ! \ T " ~ i ' I K~ ! : J k : POINT X •> 1 0 . 0 3 3.CO 2 0 . 0 ? r"„"2l" i j . 1 0 5 . c •> 4 0 . 1 5 i . 1 3 £ 0 . 2 0 12.1 A o 0 . 2 5 ] 3c 1 1 7 0 . 3 ~ > I J B 0 . 3 5 1 3 " . 52" ° 0 . 4 0 1 4 . " f i 1 0 0 . 4 ? l ' , 7 c 1 1 0 . 5 0 1 4 . ?l 1 2 0 . 5 5 2 3 . 5 4 1 3 0 . 6 0 30.52 1 4 0 . 6 5 31.62 1 5 0 . 7 0 •*!••' It 0 . 7 5 3 1 7 C.SO 76 . 3 s l b 0 . 8 5 1 0 3 . 3 a 1 ' , 0 . 9 0 1 2 J . .1 5 T5 0 . c 5 132.61 2 1 1 . 0 0 Appendix 2 Daily Production Forms for Gold River Logging Division a) Daily production by yarder, loader and truck. b) Weight scaling record. 1 ' L i 1 Hjjvi» Loaoiiu_. jDjvtvioii PROD. CU i'; 6 DATE :'• NAY. k l 8 - ? , 8 137 : LOADER : ACT. "•• PRODUCTION ! : LOADS : c c f BUDGET STRATUM t; : :ACT. : c-f ACTUAL: A: B: c: D Ccf MACHINE HOURS LOAD:REP:M&R:IDLE : Lti i : J7S- : 424 6 : ie?: : 531: l : 2: 3 : a : -| :L8? : : LOS : :Co«" "~: : L l i : : i l 2 " : -a S: 4: 88: : 88: 2: 1 : l : e _Joo 'too ; 'Jt.it : 44 3 5 : 6 9 : 3 ho : 512: 3: 2: 8: a 5e£ ¥• 5: 137: Jffo 639: 5: 0: a: 8 3667 7 9 : 445: 2: 8: l : 8 ¥°t> : 7*4: 4 : 3 : TT7 84 s: 1 : l : 0: l ; 1. 1 3 : 7 L 1 6" 7 : YUPVENG: 4/oo : _4oo :' S~: 5 : l i s : 789: l : 3 : l : 8 • T -4 3 8! * : 3 : 7 6 : 587: 2: 1: e : O 563: y : lse: bOO 719: 8 : 3: 2: 5 .^fPP. •• 538: 4 : 3 : s ? : 4oo_ 625: o: e : 0: 3 :'.OMPis : 3?S: 267: ¥ : 2: 49: 316: 2: 8: o : e : v s s : t? : e : in e : 8: - Jf 8: 8 : 8 : 8 : 8 -JSo : 182: 3 • 2: 3 6 : 218: e: « : 2 : 8 i _ i _ i : 0: 8: 8: 6: 8: 0: e : e 8: 8: 6: 8: 8: 8: e: e : T O I F I L : 3894: 46:1861: S.too : 6155: 19: l 3 : ie : 4 : T R U C K PRODUCT I OH : M.T.B. : MACHINE "f OUR LOfit'S: Ccf : _ _ I E I f C U N I T S : ACTUAL :HAUL:REPAIR WA I r: L O W OTH " I OLE : A C T . MTD : : CUNITS : LHDG: BED :_H0.l i s : 183: 3 18: . 42: 229: : H36 11: 253: 3 14: 76: 336: : : H O ? 11: 255: 2 1 3 : 78: 325: : T "H4?~ t 3 : 36a: 3 16: 76: 436: : VH48 1 5 : 445: 1 16: 27: 472: : H 5 « i s : 148: 3 15: 37: 184: : 1_H59 12: 264: 2 14: 44: 388: : H60 0: 8: 8 . o: e: 6: ; : H6I 13: 192: 3 . i s : 35: 228: : : H62 15: 324: i s : 54: 378: : H63 14: 412: 3 : 17: 89: . sai : : H64 : 1 0 : 295! 3 : 13: 81: 376: : BAIHE82: t 3 : 484: 2 : 15: 59: 462: : DAINE64: 12: 351: 15: 97: 448: : DAINE85: 12: 366: 3 : 15: 97: 463: : KOMPIS : 8: 8 : o : e: 8: e: : HALDON : 8: 8: ~o 7 a: e: 8: : HEBER : i i i : 657: 7 : 38: 141: 798: : CROSS : • l l : 182: 2 : 13: 36: 218: 8: 8: e : 8: e: o: : ; 8: 0: 0 : 8: 8: 8: : : 0: 0: 8 : o: 8 : e: : TOTAL : , 220: 5894: 46 : 266: 1861! 6155: : PRODUCTION TO BUDGET : STRATUM SUMMARY : ' ; HBC TOTAL: : DAY : M .T.D. : OWN :CONTR.:TOTAL: STRATA :DAiv LOADS: ICUHITS: CUNir -3 :PROD :PROD. :PROD.: A : B : c : ,D :MTD : 1861 : 6155 : 118 : 9 1 : 1 8 8 :L0HDS - 1 9 : 13 : 1 8 : 4 : 91 46 : : : : : : i t u t U T S - 4 8 8 : 229: 252: 9 9 : 9 8 : Gold River Logging Division Daily Production Form. i -pjioosy; avisos ^ m£>T9M U O T S T A T Q B U T B B O I J C a A T H f-o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o . « n o ' o o o o o o L o o o o cJo o o o o o ' o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o »• C* Cf C7" O1 O CP1 ^ 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o c o o ;^  z m C T p S C C T 7 7j7 7 7 * 7 7|7 77777 * *• j * I o O OtO 0 0 0 0 0 ! b o o o o o 1 b o n n o o 'o o o >-* o o . KI — O — -r- O o - - o o o o o o » — o < o o /- — p o n o o u ^ O c *» » C ^ „ „ O^D 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 - as c; o v-j ro >j> a. -~t J •— ~J O O <" o r- c* f- a O p o o n > o 3 o o o o j o o o o o o C O X X X X X X O X * b i i n 7 „ jo o- o » w o 'x o z x x xlx o x ^  x x J> O C> Cn O £-T O O OCT l - r r r r r l n r r r r i r t i r p r r .0 o o *- o Ul "*0 ^ (Tl Z T)N O M ' x o x x x x o x x ^ i 10 c y w c o o • - »- O -J O " *" "' -* *"* O »— O O O f i—r-r-r- n o r r r o o o c c c c o o I' W W W C C G a> » -* ow r u r r r r o »- o o o I,K M ?t n -r- o ti n " 2 » r-i 0 o z T3 0 M S ( - u 1* P CO O O U i u< nDrrrrrhrrrrrt-rrorr-rrrr O O O O C O O O O O D O C O O O C O O ocoococooc«; r , : 7' r , r i r : n o c ( j > ( / i ( / i t / , l / ' t ^ i / ' i y t r i r i r i . » ^ v « " - - - -m n x n c i i n . T i m n m m p m r i T i m n f i n i . T i i i i r r f inrp h rrrrtrrrcrffhrrrr j r -o c o o o c o o o o o c o c c o c o o a o o c b o ^ o o c n o c o c o r a c r - o i r o c o o o i r D t - D ^ i / i A l ' U - i m i l r l ' L ' l f l ' C U ' O L - l ' V m V O L f m [>a tr rsi a> " rr o* ~j - j o o o o o b o o o o o b o o o o a b o O O C O E I -4 M M « O O O O O O O O O O O t0 *0 O O *6 QJ CB T CD C i> ut ist O'O Cn j-J J" O O O O O O O O O O O •C 4^ -O -J o l«* -4 -J w ro o o o r W O I - J - J 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ' 0 0 0 0 O O O O O O O i O O O O i l i o r i i i l i i o t LU (7- C O O /- O <?• O 0" V m — o* " j O ts» *• IJ* ooccobooo coorooooo n r n rn r * n rn m r*i r*> b o o o o o b o o o o o b o o o W *- » W O » r-v-n> ro ~ *• I* La IJ« *-s e x 139 Appendix 3 Sample Data Collection Forms S § IS11 2 5 t-i D V. — -* z z ^ r^ : s 5 c > r-Z n > O 3*. Z o {2 • > o DAILY TRUCK SCHEDULE DATE• • i • • i i • i i i i i i i i i i • TRUCK $I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 EVENT TIME 1. DISPATCHED AREA/YARDER 2, REDISPATCHED AREA/YARDER 3. ARRIVE AT LANDING L\. START LOADING 5. FINISH LOADING 6. ARRIVE AT CAMP (LOADED) 7. LEAVE CAMP FOR DUMP 8. ARRIVE AT DUMP 9. START DUMPING 10. FINISH DUMPING 11. ARRIVE AT CAMP (EMPTY) 12. BREAKDOWN 13. LOW BED V\, ASSIST M&R 15. OTHER: I I I I I I I I I I I i I • i 16. FREE FOR HAULING Appendix 4 Yarder Characteristics Yarder Area Make Model Cunits yarded/day average s.d. 1 K8 Sparmatic(V.I.E.W.) K-65(120') 82.0 20. 6 2 K8 Madill (spar) 009(90') 91.0 24. 5 3 68 Madill (spar) 3-500(90*) 73.8 27. 1 4 P8 Washington(grapple) 108 138.1 46. 5 5 E30 Washington(grapple) 108 77.2 31. 5 6 N8 Madill (spar) 3-500(90') 77.3 18. 2 Appendix 5 GPSSV Flowcharts of the Timber Harvesting Simulation Model GPSSV flowcharts are included for the following subsystems: 5.1 yarding 5.2 loading, hauling and unloading 5.3 equipment breakdowns 5.4 equipment daily schedule 5.5 starting conditions for trucks 5.6 starting conditions and daily tabulation of production for yarders 5.7 Minimum Return Time and Landing inventory dispatching routine 5.8 calculating the estimated completion time for redispatched trucks 5.9 truck redispatching 144 Appendix 5.1 DAILY YARDING START THE YARDING FUNCTION AT 8:00 A.M. OF THE FIRST DAY SPLIT # OF LANDINGS IN MODEL 1PH XH3 HHH1 indexing 91 to 90+(# landings) J. 3,V84,PH ASSIGN random number generator HHH3 C J JL SAVEVALUE 6,V8,H 3 ASSIGN THE YARDING RATE PER DAY TESTING IF YARDING  MAY PROCEED IS IT THE END OF THE DAY OR LUNCH? IS THE YARDER BROKEN DOWN? IS THE LANDING PLUGGED? VOLUME YARDED IN 5 MINUTES 2,V$YARD,PH c ASSIGN INCREMENT VOLUME AT LANDING ± ENTER PH2 INCREMENT VOLUME YARDED PER DAY BY YARDER c 1 MSAVEVALUE LNDG+,PHl, 8,PH2,H ADVANCE TIMER 5 MINUTES 1 ADVANCE NEXT TURN 146 Appendix 5.2 HAULING MODEL DISP 91.1% CHANCE OF CAMP DELAY AAA5 AAA3 91.13 random number generation ADVANCE TIMER DURATION OF DELAY SAVEVALUE 6,V10,H \ ADVANCE FN$DLAY2 MH$TRUCK(PH1,2) DOES THE TRUCK PASS A REDISPATCHING POINT (A-FRAME) EN ROUTE TO LANDING? MH$TRUCK(PH1,2) random number generator ^JAAA16) TRAVEL TIME TO A-FRAME ADVANCE V32 IS THE LOADER OPERATING? YES 147 AAA16 indexing range 13 to 12+ (# trucks) 1+,12,PH C ASSIGN ON ROAD SECTION WHERE REDISPATCHING IS POSSIBLE 1 SEIZE random number generator C JL SAVEVALUE 8,V9,H LANDING # THAT THE TRUCK IS DISPATCHED TO TRAVEL TIME TO LANDING C _ _ J 2,MH$TRUCK (V81,2),PH ASSIGN ± ADVANCE V*TIMEE J COMPLETION TIME UPDATING SPLIT AAA22 QUEUE AT LANDING AAA34 1 QUEUE MHSTRUCK(V8i,2) SEIZE THE LOADER END REDISPATCHING DECREMENT THE NUMBER OF TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING LEAVE THE LANDING OUEUE SEIZE 1 RELEASE c 148 $\RUCK(V81,2) MSAVEVALUE LNDG-,MH$TRUC K (V81,2),2,1,H ± DEPART MH$TRUCK(V81,2) COMPLETION TIME UPDATING J L SPLIT random number generation C -^AAA4l) \ SAVEVALUE 8,V11,H NUMBER OF PIECES TO BE LOADED % 4,V$PIECE,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ 149 LOADING TIME G,V$LDTM,PH c ASSIGN random number generation C 1 SAVEVALUE LOAD WEIGHT c 6,V11,H \ / 5,V* 1,PH ASSIGN MAXIMUM VOLUME TO BE LOADED c \ 5,V$VOL,PH ASSIGN copy c \ 7,PH5,PH ASSIGN landing # truck assigned C \ / 3,MHSTRUCK (V81,2),PH ASSIGN ENOUGH VOLUME AT LANDING? NO, PRESENT VOLUME REQUIRED REDUCE LANDING INVENTORY TIME TO LOAD CURRENT VOLUME IS THERE ENOUGH VOLUME TO FINISH LOADING? NO, WAIT 10 MINUTES ± 5-,S*3,PH c ASSIGN ± LEAVE S*3 ADVANCE VSWAIT S*3 ± ADVANCE 10 AAA18 TIME TO COMPLETE LOADING landing # that truck i s assigned indexing range 1 to # trucks DECREASE VOLUME REQUIRED FOR LOADING ON THE LANDING REDUCE LANDING INVENTORY truck no longer assigned a landing indexing range 13 to 12+ (# trucks) ADVANCE V$RLT 2, MH STRUCK] (V81,2),PH ^ ASSIGN ^ \ 1 1-,12,PH ASSIGN r — ' — i I MSAVEVALUE J |LNDG-,PH3,5, |MH$TRUCK(PH3 ,D ,H LEAVE _ffi5_ C k ^ f MSAVEVALUE j TRUCK,PHI, 2, 0,H 1+,12,PH ASSIGN <3> 152 CAMP BOUND SECTION OF ROAD FREE THE LOADER indexing range 54 to 53+(# landings) random number generation TRAVEL TIME TO CAMP FROM LANDING TRUCK AT CAMP - FREE CAMP BOUND SECTION OF ROAD indexing range 41 to 40+(# trucks) SEIZE PH1N RELEASE ± 2+,53,PH c ASSIGN c 1 SAVEVALUE ) 8,V9,H ADVANCE V*TIMEL ± RELEASE 1+,28,PH c ASSIGN 0 153 96.8% CHANCE OF CAMP DELAY 96.8% AAA20 IF PAST 4:15 P.M. STAY IN CAMP AAA21 AAA19 random number generation ADVANCE TIME OF DELAY SAVEVALUE LNK1 random number SAVEVALUE 8,V9 ,H \ TRAVEL TIME TO DUMP ADVANCE V31 QUEUE AT THE DUMP QUEUE 3 DUMP STARTS UP AT 7:45 A.M. 31 SEIZE THE DUMP 1 / SEIZE A 6,V10,H ± ADVANCE FNSDLAYl LEAVE THE DUMP QUEUE random number generation UNLOADING TIME TOTAL VOLUME DUMPED IN THE DAY 154 DEPART \ 1 SAVEVALUE 6,Vll,H \ ! ^ ^ ADVANCE FNSUNLD \ 1 SAVEVALUE 1+,PH7 TOTAL VOLUME HAULED BY THE TRUCK I MSAVEVALUE J TRUCK+,V46, 3,V80,H INCREMENT THE NUMBER OF LOADS DUMPED < ^ I SAVEVALUE J 2+,l,H FREE THE DUMP RELEASE W random number generation C SAVEVALUE 8,V9,H TRAVEL TIME TO CAMP FROM THE DUMP ADVANCE V32 Appendix 5.3 LOGGING TRUCK BREAKDOWNS START FUNCTION GENERATE 8:00 A.M. OF THE FIRST DAY CREATE # TRUCKS USED IN MODEL indexing range 41 to 40+(#'trucks) TIME OF NEXT TRUCK BREAKDOWN true clock time of breakdown WILL THE BREAKDOWN OCCUR TODAY? CCC1 V ,,,1,,2PH \ / ADVANCE 435 \ / SPLIT 1PH V71 \ / 1+,40,PH ASSIGN CCC8 J 2,FN$TBRK,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ c iL SAVEVALUE 10,V75,H NO, TO MINUTE AND DAY OF BREAKDOWN ADVANCE V77 YES, ADVANCE TIMER TO TIME OF BREAKDOWN CCC2 ADVANCE PH2 CCC3 THE TRUCK IS DUE FOR REPAIR STOP FUNCTION 'ERMINATE! 158 CCC4 DURATION OF REPAIR ACCUMULATE TRUCK DOWNTIME 2, FN $TTRPR, Ptj c ASSIGN c MSAVEVALUE TRUCK+,V46, 4,PH2,H TIME OF REPAIR c SAVEVALUE 10,V75,H PH2 XH10 WILL THE TRUCK BE REPAIRED TODAY? NO, ADVANCE TIMER TO MINUTE AND DAY OF REPAIR CCC5 ± ADVANCE V77 YES, ADVANCE TIMER TO TIME OF REPAIR CCC6 THE TRUCK IS REPAIRED FIND NEXT /" N SPLIT BREAKDOWN TIME^^W-AND FREE V_^/ TRUCK FOR 1 DISPATCHING ADVANCE PH2 LOGIC PHI 159 LOADER BREAKDOWNS START FUNCTION ADVANCE TIMER TO 8:00 A.M. OF THE FIRST DAY ADVANCE 480 # LOADERS USING IN MODEL SPLIT 1PH BBB1 XH3 TIME OF NEXT LOADER BREAKDOWN true clock time of breakdown BBB1 _ J 2,V$LBRK,PH C ASSIGN c 7 J L SAVEVALUE 1 10,V42,H WILL IT OCCUR TODAY? TO MINUTE AND DAY OF BREAKDOWN J L ADVANCE V44 160 BBB3 BBB3 indexing range BBB2 ADVANCE TIMER TO TIME OF BREAKDOWN (IF TODAY) ARE LOADERS PAST THE A-FRAME DOWN? #3? #4? #5? TRUCKS STOP AT MUCHALAT A-FRAME 19 to 18+ (# landings) 1+,18,PH ASSIGN LOADER GOES DOWN \ LOGIC S PHI BBB4 BBB4 BBB4 BBB4 \ / LOGIC S 40 \ / REDISPATCH-ING POLICY <3> 161 DURATION OF BREAKDOWN ACCUMULATE DOWNTIME 2,FN$TLBRK,PH ASSIGN C 1 MSAVEVALUE ) LNDG+,PH1, 7,PH2,H ANY TRUCKS BEING LOADED ARE FROZEN true clock time of repair X PREEMPT c A. SAVEVALUE 10,V42,H WILL IT OCCUR TODAY? PH2 XH10 NO, ADVANCE TIMER TO MINUTE AND DAY BBB20 BBB20 YES,ADVANCE TIMER BBB21 indexing range 19'-.to 18+ S (# landings) [ 1+,18,PH ASSIGN J 0 162 THE LOADER IS REPAIRED indexing range 1 to # landings \ / 1-,18, PH ASSIGN ARE ALL LANDINGS PAST THE A-FRAME STILL DOWN? #3? #3? #6? BBB22 ONE IS NOW FREE SAVEVALUE 3 5,PH1,H AFR ALL FREE TRUCKS QUEUEING ATr"'A-FRAME HERE BBB23 TRUCKS FROZEN ON LANDING CAN^?| NOW BE LOADED 1 UNLINK 1 RETURN GO BACK TO FIND NEXT LOADER BREAKDOWN TIME CRANSFER BBB1 163 YARDER BREAKDOWNS & MOVING & RIGGING /GENERATE ' 1 START FUNCTION V ,,rl,,4PH| 8:00 A.M. OF THE FIRST DAY TOTAL # OF YARDERS FOR M&R TOTAL # OF YARDERS FOR BREAKDOWNS SPLIT 1PH V82 DDD indexing 1 to # 1-,1,PH landings c ASSIGN \ / 4,1,PH ASf 3IGN DDD2 GRAPPLE CRANE? DDD10 PHI GRAPPLE CRANE? TOWER M&R TIME TO NEXT M&R ± 2,V$TMR,PH c ASSIGN ) 0 DURATION OF M&R DDD2 GRAPPLE M&R random number generation C SAVEVALUE 8,V5,H TIME TO NEXT M&R DURATION M&R w  2,V$GMR,PH C ASSIGN C \ 3,FN$TGMR,PH ASSIGN 165 indexing range 1 to # landings breakdown index based on yarder type TOWER OR GRAPPLE BREAKDOWN? DDD1 1-,1,PH c ASSIGN \ / 4,2, PH DDDll TOWER BREAKDOWNS DDD15 randon number generation TIME TO NEXT BREAKDOWN DURATION OF BREAKDOWN C SAVEVALUE 8,V7,H JL 2,V$TWBRK,PH c ASSIGN 3,FN$TTBRK,PH C ASSIGN 166 DDD16 BREAKDOWNS INSIGNIFICANT DDD17 GRAPPLE BREAKDOWNS 2,V$GBRK,PH TIME TO NEXT BREAKDOWN c ASSIGN DURATION OF BREAKDOWN \ 1 3,FN$TGBRK,PH DDD3 FINDING TIME  OF DAY AND DAY OF BREAKDOWN \ / ADVANCE TIMER ADVANCE LENGTH OF INTER-BREAKDOWN (NOT V44 SAME DAY) IS THE DUR ATION 0 ADVANCE TIMER (SAME DAY) WAIT IF THE YARDER IS ALREADY DOWN x / 1 SHUT THE YARDER DOWN LOGIC PHI PHI PH. 2 = duration of down time w 2,PH3,PH C ASSIGN • ACCUMULATE DOWNTIME c ± MSAVEVALUE LNDG+,PH1,6, PH2,H DOWNTIME GENERATION C i SAVEVALUE 10,V42,H WILL IT BE OPERATIVE TODAY? NO, ADVANCE TIMER ADVANCE V44 DDD8 YES, ADVANCE TIMER -3H ADVANCE PH2 168 DDD9 THE YARDER IS OPERATING AGAIN LOGIC R PHI 169 Appendix 5.4 START FUNCTION AT 7:15 A.M. OF THE FIRST DAY CAMP,YARDERS AND DUMP DAILY SCHEDULE FFF J L LOGIC DUMP IS SHUT-DOWN UNTIL 7:45 A.M. 31 EMPTY TRUCKS FREE FOR DISPATCHING LOADED TRUCKS MAY PROCEED TO THE DUMP CCC7 CAMP' ALL AAA21 DUMP1 ALL TRUCKS FROM DUMP MAY BE DISPATCHED LOGIC UNL INK \ / ' ? UNLINK \ 1 R 32 JL TRUCKS FROM LANDINGS MAY GO TO THE DUMP LOGIC R 33 7:45 A.M. ADV 3 ANCE 0 "3 170 THE DUMP STARTS-UP 8:00 A.M. YARDERS START-UP YARDERS ARE FREE TO WORK HHH3 LOGIC R 31 i ADVANCE 15 LOGIC R 34 YARD1} ALL i UNLINK 12:00 A.M. ± ADVANCE 240 YARDERS DOWN FOR LUNCH LOGIC 34 12:30 P.M. ADVJ 3 WCE 0 <3 171 YARDERS START-UP AGAIN LOGIC R 34 YARDERS FREE TO WORK HHH3 YARDJT ALL ± UNLINK 4:00 P.M. ADVANCE 210 AFTER 4:00 P.M. EMPTY TRUCKS STAY IN CAMP 1 LOGIC 33 4:15 P.M. i ADVANCE 15 AFTER 4:15 P.M. LOADED TRUCKS STAY IN CAMP LOGIC 32 4:30 P.M. 1 ADVANCE 15 YARDERS SHUT-DOWN' FOR THE NIGHT LOGIC 34 7:00 P.M. TABULATE THE # OF LOADS DUMPED IN THE DAY TABULATE THE VOLUME DUMPED IN THE DAY r e i n i t i a l i z e to 0 C r e i n i t i a l i z e to 0 7:15 A.M. AND NEW DAY J L ADVANCE 150 J L TABULATE JL TABULATE 1 SAVEVALUE 1,0 J J L SAVEVALUE LOADS PRPD ) J 2, 0,H \ / ADVANCE 735 ! • 173 OVERNIGHT LOADER & TRUCK SHUTDOWN START SCHEDULE AT 4:30 P.M. GENERATE V ,,990,1,,1PH indexing range 2 to 1+ (# trucks) CREATE TOTAL # OF TRUCKS indexing range 3 to 2+ (# landings) CREATE TOTAL # OF LANDINGS LOADING SECTION SPLIT 1PH X H 3 _^GGG1^ ± SPLIT 1PH GGG2 indexing range 1 to # landings GGG4 SHUT-DOWN LOADERS 8:00 A.M. REACTIVATE LOADERS IN MORNING X H 3 \ 1 1*-,1,PH ASSIGN \ 1 PREEMPT 1 ADVANCE 930 1 RETURN 4:30 P.M. SHUT-DOWN LOADERS 174 ADVANCE 510 GGG4 TRUCK SECTION indexing range 13 to 12+(# trucks) 5:00 P.M. GGGl 1+,11,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ ± ADVANCE 30 GGG3 HOLD THE TRUCKS OVERNIGHT 8:00 A.M. REACTIVATE THE TRUCKS IN THE MORNING PREEMPT 1 /A ADVANCE 900 RETURN W 0 175 5:00 P.M. ADVA 54 LNCE 0 / SHUT-DOWN THE TRUCKS AGAIN GGG3 Appendix 5.5 HAULING SEQUENCE STARTS AT 8:01 A.M. (DAY 1) STARTING CONDITIONS 176 8:01 A.M. JL ADVANCE 481 ALL BUT 6 TRUCKS IN CAMP AND LOADED SPLIT 1PH V70 6 TRUCKS READY FOR DISPATCHING TRUCK #1 TO DISPATCHER SPLIT 1PH c / 1,1 ,PH ASSIGN AAA3 AAA2 1-,1,PH indexing, trucks #2 to 6 C ASSIGN 5 AAAl TRUCK #7 AND UP LOADED TRUCKS ASSIGNED AVERAGE LOAD VOLUMES indexing range 41 to 40+(# trucks) AT CAMP 1+,5,PH 177 ASSIGN 7,MH$TRUCK (PHI,1),PH C ASSIGN \ 1+,40,PH ) Appendix 5.6 YARDING START FUNCTION , ,,1,,1PH CREATE TOTAL # OF LANDINGS SPLIT 1PH XH3 EEE INITIALLY 3000 CU.FT. AT EACH LANDING 1 ENTER 3000 5:00 P.M. 1 ADVANCE 1020 TOTAL VOLUME YARDED IN DAY \ 1 SAVEVALUE 11,MH$LNDG (PHI,8),H \ 1TABULATE THIS VALUE TABULATE PHI r e i n i t i a l i z e to 0 I MS AVEVALUE I LNDG,PHl, 8, 0,H Appendix 5.7 DISPATCHING ROUTINE 180 AAA5 i n i t i a l i z e at a big number i n i t i a l i z e at a big number START LANDING SEARCH AT MAX # IS THE LOADER DOWN? NO, TRAVEL TIME TO LANDING ( MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PHI, 5,32000,H I MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PHI, 6,32000,H J L 8,V82,PH AAA6 V83 1 C 13,MH $LNDG (PH8,10) ,PH ASSIGN MHSLNDG(PH8, 2) HAVE OTHER TRUCKS BEEN DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING? YES, EST. COMPLETION TIME OF LAST TRUCK DISPATCHED AAA12; -^AAA^ 1_ 16,MH $LNDG (PH8,9) ,PH ASSIGN 181 a c t u a l clock time of completion IS IT LESS THAN THE ARRIVAL TIME OF THIS TRUCK TO LANDING? NO, ADJUST START OF LOADING TIME FOR THIS TRUCK 14,V114,PH C ASSIGN AAA8 A. 13,PH14,PH ASSIGN AAA8 i n i t i a l i z e at 0 ± 3,0,PH ^ ASSIGN MH$TRUCK(PH1,1) IS THE LANDING WITHIN 1 LOAD OF BEING PLUGGED? V118 AAA13 / NE \ 1 BV$CHE YES, SET INDEX AT 3,1,PH 1 \ A S S I G N •NO,IS THERE SUFFICIENT VOLUME TC7 \TEST, LOAD THE TRUCK WHEN IT IS DUE FOR LOADING / NO, IS THE YARDER DOWN? ONLY A LANDING WITH INDEX=1 MAY BE SEL-ECTED FOR DISPATCH-ING set high p r i o r i t y index switch \ LOGIC • S 35 NO, TIME UNTIL SUFFICIENT VOLUME IS YARDED 12,V109,H 182 AAA9 XH12 y VPH13 13+,XH13,PH IS THIS TIME LESS / LE N THAN THE EST. COMPLETION TIME? AAA10 NO, ADJUST EST. COMPLETION TIME TEST JL YES,ADJUST EST. S COMPLETION TIME L BY ADDING TIME FOR LOADING ASSIGN 13+,Vl09,PH c ASSIGN AAA11 ADD TRAVEL TIME TO CAMP 1 13+,MH$LNDG (PH8.11),PH ASSIGN IS THE LANDING WITHIN 1 LOAD OF BEING PLUGGED? AAA14 PH13 / A V MH$TRUCK(PH1,6) LE YES, FIND MINIMUM 4- ^ 3=4AAAl2) RETURN TIME MINIMUM RETURN TIME * . J MS AVEVALUE 1 TRUCK,PHI, 6,PH13,H copy of minimum return time I MSAVEVALUE I TRUCK,PHI, 5,PH13,H 183 OPTIMUM LANDING TO DISPATCH THE TRUCK TO 2,PH8,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ AAA14 HAS A PREVIOUS LANDING BEEN WITHIN 1 LOAD O: BEING PLUGGED? PH13 NO, FIND MINIMUM RETURN TIME 35 AAA12 MH$TRUCK(PH1,5) AAA12 MINIMUM RETURN TIME r — 1 — i I MSAVEVALUE J TRUCK,PHI, 5,PH13,H OPTIMUM LANDING TO DISPATCH THE TRUCK TO A A A 12 ,2.PH8,PH GO THROUGH ALL LANDINGS ^ ASSIGN ^ AAA6 reset high priority index switch TRANSFER, AAA12 SUBTRACT TIME FROM LANDING TO CAMP I MSAVEVALUE I TRUCK-,PHI, 5,!^ H$LNDG(PH2, ll) ,H 0 AAA15 find true clock time of completion of loading SPLIT LAST TRUCK DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING INCREMENT THE # OF TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING INCREMENT THE VOLUME REQUIRED ON THIS LANDING FOR LOADING RESERVE THE LANDING # THAT THIS TRUCK IS ASSIGNED < % 1 I MSAVEVALUE J LNDG,PH 2, 9,PH1,H < % 1 I MSAVEVALUE I lLNDG+,PH2, 2,1,H ^ MSAVEVALUE ^ MH LNDG+,PH2,5, $TRUCK(PH1,] I MSAVEVALUE J PH2,H , 1 THE TRUCK HAS BEEN DISPATCHED Appendix 5.8 FINISH TIME UPDATE 1. TRUCK ARRIVES AT LANDING indexing 1 to # trucks AAA34 I 1-,12,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ \ 15,0,PH i n i t i a l i z e at 0 ^ ASSIGN i n i t i a l i z e at 0 13,0,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ FINDING # OF TRUCKS PREVIOUSLY DISPATCHED TO LANDING START TRUCK SEARCH AT MAX # AAA36 1 8,XH9,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ PHI IF THE SAME TRUCK INCREMENT PH8 MH$TRUCK(PH1,2) FINDING TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING -a>JAAA35J MH$TRUCK(PJi8,2) AAA351 MH$TRUCK(PH8,5) ARE OTHER TRUCKS AHEAD OF THIS TRUCK? TEST MH$TRUCK(PJL1,5) >/AAA35) YES, INCREMENT VOLUME ACCOUNTED FOR JlL 15+,MH$TRUCBJ ASSIGN ^) FINDING THE COMPLETION TIME OF THE TRUCK IMMEDIATELY AHEAD OF THIS TRUCK V116 PH13 SAVE THIS VALUE -^AAA35) NEXT TRUCK AAA42 LANDING # THAT THE TRUCK IS ASSIGNED \ LOOP \ 8,MH$TRUCK (PHI. 2) .PH BV$CHEK3 IS THERE SUFFICIENT VOLUME TO LOAD THE TRUCK WHEN IT ARRIVES? 5NAAA37 187 TIME WHEN ENOUGH VOLUME IS YARDED r — — ) I SAVEVALUE 1 12,V121,H IS THIS EARLIER THAN THE DISPATCHED TRUCKS ARRIVAL TIME XH12 AAA37 YES, ESTIMATE LOADING TIME AAA38 2. TRUCK READY FOR LOADING AAA38 NO, ADJUST STARTING TIME OF LOADING 13+,V121,PH ASSIGN C MSAVEVALUE =a> , SAVE EST.COMPLET- TRUCK,PHI, ION TIME OF LOADING 5,PHI3,H 3 find true clock completion time AAA41 indexing range 1 to # trucks w 1-,12,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ 188 i n i t i a l i z e to 0 VOLUME ACCOUNTED FOR ON LANDING 189 ESTIMATED TIME OF TRUCK LOADING AAA32 true clock time of loading completion MH$TRUCK(PH1,5) WILL IT BE COMPLETED TODAY? NO, FIND DAY AND MINUTE [MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PHI, 5,V104,H 1 AAA33 AAA33 CMSAVEVALUE J YES, RESERVE VALUE STOP FUNCTION TRUCK+,PH1 5,M1,H Appendix 5.9 REDISPATCH-ING POLICY BBB4 indexing range 1 to # landings 1-,18,PH C ASSIGN TOTAL NUMBER OF LOGGING TRUCKS IN MODEL \ 3,XH9,PH FINDING TRUCKS BBB5 DISPATCHED MH$TRUCK(PH3,2) THE DOWN LANDING FINDING THE REDISPATCHING POLICY A-FRAME REDISPATCHING POLICY TRUCK PAST A-FRAME? PREEMPT TRUCK FROM DOWN LANDING FREE ROUTE FACILITY BBB40/GATE U JlL PREEMPT PR,BBB10, 10PH,RE RETURN 191 NEXT TRUCK AREA (K8) R E D I S P A T C H I N G P O L I C Y AREA 1st CHOICE CHECK STATUS BBB41 yf^S. V G A T E \ . V85 PREEMPT TRUCK FROM DOWN LANDING PREEMPT PR,END1, 10PH,RE FR E E ROUTE F A C I L I T Y 1 RETURN NEXT TRUCK LANDINGS D I R E C T L Y FROM CAMP R E D I S P A T C H I N G P O L I C Y B B B 4 2 PREEMPT TRUCK FROM DOT-ra LANDING F R E E ROUTE F A C I L I T Y PREEMPT P R , B B B 9 , 10PH,RE 1 RETURN NEXT TRUCK 192 POLICY #1 A LANDING ON AN AREA WITH 2 OR MORE LANDINGS SELECT OTHER LANDING ON AREA TO DISPATCH THE TRUCK TO ENDl ON ROAD SECTION WHERE REDISPATCHING IS AGAIN POSSIBLE TRAVEL TIME TO LANDING INCREMENT # TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING ( * ^ I MSAVEVALUE J LH»G+,PH3, 2,1,H INCREMENT VOLUME ACCOUNTED FOR ON THIS LANDING f * 1 | MSAVEVALUE I LNDG+,PH3,5> MF $TRUCK(V81,l) ,H DECREMENT # TRUCKS DIS-PATCHED TO DOWN LANDING f % 1 f MSAVEVALUE J LNDG-,PH 2, 2,1,H DECREMENT VOLUME ACCOUNTED FOR ON DOWN LANDING I MSAVEVALUE A LNDG-,PH 2,5 MHiTRUCK(V81,l ,H 0 193 REASSIGN # THAT THE TRUCK HAS BEEN REDISPATCHED TO FIND THE ESTIMATED TIME OF COMPLETION ^ MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,V81,2, PH3,H \ 1 SPLIT GO THROUGH ALL TRUCKS PAST / /3PH BBB5\ LOOP 194 POLICY #2 THE TRUCK MAY NOT PROCEED TO  ANOTHER LANDING ON THE AREA  OR THE LANDING IS NOT PAST A REDISPATCHING POINT BBB9 LANDING # THAT THE TRUCK IS ASSIGNED TRAVEL TIME FROM CAMP TO LANDING TRAVEL TIME TO CAMP LESS REMAINING TIME TO LANDING IS IT LESS THAN 0? NO, ADVANCE TIMER TRAVEL TIME TO CAMP 12,V86,PH C ASSIGN 12,V$TIMEF,HH ^ ASSIGN ^ 1 12,V89,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ PHI 1 ADVANCE PH12 indexing range 1 to # trucks DECREMENT VOLUME ACCOUNTED FOR ON DOWN LANDING END 2 _ _ J L _ 1-12,PH ASSIGN ^MSAVEVALUE ^ LNDG-J ,MH$TRUCK (PIj 5,MH$TRUCK(PH1 1,2) , 1) ,H 9 DECREMENT # TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO DOWN LANDING AT CAMP FOR REDISPATCHING 196 POLICY #3 ONE OF THE LANDINGS PAST THE REDISPATCHING POINT GOES DOWN LANDING # THAT THE TRUCK IS ASSIGNED BBB10 12,V86,PH ( ^ I ASSIGN J TRAVEL TIME FROM CAMP TO LANDING 1 12,V$TIMEF, PH ^ ASSIGN TRAVEL TIME TO CAMP LESS REMAINING TIME TO LANDING \ 12,V89,PH ^ ASSIGN ^ PH12 IS IT LESS THAN 0? BBBll indexing range 1 to # trucks END4 NO, ADVANCE .TIMER TRAVEL TIME TO CAMP ADVANCE PH12 ARE ANY LOADERS PAST THE A-FRAME OPERATING? YES, FINDING AN OPERATING LOADER FINDING AN OPERATING LOADER GATEP LR V88 BBBA2 LANDING # THAT THE TRUCK IS PRESENTLY ASSIGNED 1 3,MHSTRUCK, (PHI,2),PH ASSIGN LATEST COMPLETION TIME AT ONE LANDING 1 8,MH$LNDG (FN3,9),PH Q ASSIGN \ / 9,MH$LNDG (FN4,9),PH LATEST COMPLETION TIME AT THE OTHER LANDING MH$TRUCK(PH8,5) \ MH$TRUCK(PH9, 5) L 4-FIND MINIMUM BBBA2 save minimum value BBBAl save minimum value 11,FN4,PH c ASSIGN 3 A. MSAVEVALUE SAVE LANDING # THAT^ THE TRUCK IS REDISPATCHED TO 3 LNDG+,PH11, 2,1,H INCREMENT THE VOLUME THAT IS REQUIRED ON THE LANDING INCREMENT THE # OF TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO THE LANDING 198 {^MSAVEVALUE ]JNDG+,PH11,5 MH:;TRUCK(PHI,I ,H i _ _ ^MSAVEVALUE 1NDG-,MH$TRU(EK (PHI,2),2,l,fc DECREMENT THE VOLUME REQUIRED ON THE DOWN LANDING DECREMENT THE # OF TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO THE DOWN LANDING • * >, f MSAVEVALUE 1 LNDGH,MH$TRUCK (PHD., 2) , 5,MH$TRUCK (PHI', lj ) ,H <• * ^ [ MSAVEVALUE 1 [TRUCK,PHI, I-, PH11,H FINDING THE COMPLETION TIME OF THIS TRUCK SPLIT -^^^70) NOW AT, THE A-FRAME' A-FRAME REDISPATCH-ING HERE THE TRUCKS ARE XH5 REDISPATCHED TO THE OPERATING LANDING INCREMENT TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING LNDG+,XH 5, 2,1,H INCREMENT VOLUME REQUIRED FROM THIS LANDING I MSAVEVALUE I LNDG+,XH5,5 M4$TRUCK(PHI, ) ,H DECREMENT TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO DOWN LANDING I MSAVEVALUE I LWDG-,MH$TRUCK [PHI, 2),2,1,4 DECREMENT VOLUME REQUIRED ON DOWN LANDING c MSAVEVALUE L1IDG-,MH$TRUC] (PH., 2) ,5,MH$TR1ICK (PHI •rrrH-ASSIGN LANDING # THAT THE TRUCK IS DISPATCHED TO FIND EST. TIME OF COMPLETION f * 1 I MSAVEVALUE J TRUCK,PHI,2,XH5,H 1 SPLIT TRUCK NOW LEAVES THE A-FRAME 200. COMPLETION TIME OF REDISPATCHE D TRUCKS AAA70 LANDING # TRUCK ASSIGNED TO 8,MH$TRUCK (PHI, 2) ,PH ASSIGN TRAVEL TIME TO LANDING 1 13,V122,PH ^ ASSIGN AAA76 MH$LNDG(PH8,2) / NE HAVE OTHER TRUCKS BEEN DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING? YES, OTHER TRUCKS EN ROUTE Jit 16,MH$LNDG (PH8,9),PH ^ ASSIGN ^ EST. FINISH TIME OF LAST TRUCK 1 14,V114,PH ^ ASSIGN }^ IS IT AFTER THIS TRUCK ARRIVES? YES, ADJUST START OF LOADING TIME 13,PH14,PH ASSIGN ^) 0 SUFFICIENT VOLUME TO LOAD TRUCK? NO, TIME UNTIL THERE IS AAA71, BV$CHEK1 / NE AAA72 AAA72 TEST ^ SAVEVALUE \^ 12,V109,H IS THIS LESS THAN THE EST. START LOADING TIME? NO XH12, PH13 EST. LOADING TIME AAA73 YES, ADJUST EST. COMPLETION TIME 13+,V109,PH / ' ^ ASSIGN AAA74 SAVE EST. COMPLETION TIME 1 * . | MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PHI, 5,PH13,H LANDING # THAT TRUCK IS ASSIGNED, TO i 2,PH8,PH r v |^  ASSIGN find true clock time of completion 1 SPLIT 1 NOW THE LAST TRUCK DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING » s MSAVEVALUE LNDG,PH^, 9,PH1,H STOP FUNCTION 202 AAA75 indexing range 1 to # trucks LANDING # ASSIGNED TO TRUCK 0 TRAVEL TIME TO LANDING 1-,12,PH c ASSIGN \ 1 8,MH$TRUCK (PHI,2),PH TRANSFER Appendix 6 Truck C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Truck Make Model Bunk s i z e (ft.) Average payload (lb.) S.D. 1 Kenworth Gl i d e r 12 107014 22561 2 P a c i f i c P-16 12 109292 39140 3 P a c i f i c P-16 12 103795 34196 4 Hayes H.D.X. 14 141965 28124 5 Hayes H.D.X. 14 151550 16924 6 Kenworth Gl i d e r * 12 65934 11865 7 Kenworth Gl i d e r 12 105313 14615 8 Kenworth G l i d e r 12 103253 15231 9 Hayes G l i d e r * 12 64890 8127 10 Hayes Gl i d e r 12 94115 22989 11 Hayes H.D.X. 14 143136 16303 12 Hayes H.D.X. 14 145364 19047 13 Hayes H.D.X. 14 152803 16111 14 Hayes H.D.X. 15 170439 15487 15 Hayes H.D.X. 15 172983 20235 16 Hayes H.D.X. 15 169279 18125 17 Hayes Gl i d e r 8 70539 7688 18 Hayes G l i d e r 8 74793 6956 * used as a short-boom "chunk" truck Appendix 7 Gold River Logging Division - Start-up and Shutdown Modes 7.1 Start-up Sequence The start-up of logging a c t i v i t i e s in the simulation model i s based on the following real-world times: 7:15 A.M. - The empty trucks are dispatched from camp. Loaded trucks proceed from camp to the dump. 7:45 A.M. - The dump starts-up. 8:00 A.M. - The yarders and loaders start-up. Trucks parked overnight at the side of the road start-up. 7.2 Lunch Breaks 12:00 A.M. to 12:30 P.M. - The yarders shut down for lunch. 7.3 Shutdown Sequence The shutdown sequence at the end of a regular shift i s as follows: After 4:00 P.M. - Empty trucks arriving in camp from the dump are shut down. After 4:15 P.M. - Loaded trucks arriving in camp are shut down. 5:00 P.M. - Trucks travelling to or from landings are parked at the roadside. The dump shuts down. Appendix 8 Listing of the GPSSV Timber Harvesting Simulation Model o w on RES NO. 260992 U N t V E k S I T V Or B L C O M P U T I N G C E N T R E M T S l r r - i O j I "ST* - "*! T5~P"R 0 T T C T r e T T T E "A T Ok E - NOW ENABXETT • SSIG HINK P»BO T = 20 HM HH riH HH HH HH ~ H H H T T rHHHHHHHHHHH HhHHHHHHHHHH i i i i i n i n T T T 1 T T I T I l " 11 I I n NN " H U M — NNNN HM M l KIT NN KK "NN k"K NN K K KK NN KK KK K K " H T T HH HH HH HH -T7T" NN NN " T i l l " NN NN Ml-: NN NN NN — I J H T K H " NNNN NNN "RT KK K K K K K K K K K K K K K K " K K - KK KK KK KK KK "R7T H H -m—iiiiinin—Rir h h I I I I I I I I I I UN ~m—RTT N KK KK *»IAST S I G N O N W A S : 1 3 : < I S : 3 » —uSEr " « H i N'K^sTGTiiEDntjK^aT—rr: 5ii; z^arrflofrfwr oi77r » R U N » & P S S V S C A R O S - G R S I M R P A R - S IIB'C • * » V E R S I O N O F K A P C H 2 6 , 1 9 7 7 .  « . » nuu IN R CAC/ SA V E P I X E L - JU L V 11, !<>,'/. E X E C U T I O N B E G I N S 1 3 : 5 1 : 2 9 BLOCK NUMBF.R "LOC O P E R A T I O N A , B , C . C , E , F , G . H , I » G P S S V — M T S V_E R $ 1 0 N_ * - »*» - - I6M _ PRCloR:AH" 'Pr;uUUCT~r734 -XS2"Tv~M*l CJMNENTS '• STATEMENT NUMBER S I M U L A " . _-' GCLD RIVER LOGGING OPERATION » * * F C L L O K I N O I S A G P S S V S I M U L A T I O N Of T A H S I S ' GOLD R I V E R LOGG'.: -' OTV'l S I G N , " B A S E D ' 0,4 t*M A'lV .J.J' icD Y A K D f r . 3 ' . L O i O c R S M.U - T R U C K S , T> THF STUMP TO DUMP T R A N S P O " T A T 1CN CF L C G S . 6 9 "io u 12 to o T I M E U N I T S => M I N U T E S T A B L E D E F I N I T I O N S VOLUME Y A R D E D / D A Y ( C U B I C F I E T ) BY Y A R D F R 1 T A b L E X H 1 1 . 0 , l O O O t 2 0  X H 1 1 , C . 1 0 0 0 , « ! 0 TAJLfc T A B L E T A U L E " T A B L E " T A B L E X H 1 1 . C . 1 0 0 0 , 2 0 X H 1 1 , 0 . 1 0 0 0 , 2 0 _ '"XHl'l'VOUTJOTTZ^ X H 1 1 . C ( 1 0 0 0 , 2 0 v u U E U L l r i G T lK fc A T L A N D I N G S CjUEl OTABL - 1 , 0 . 1 0 , 1 2 UUE2 U T A B L E 2 . 0 , 1 0 . 1 2 U 0 = 3 — O T A B t E 3 , 0 , 1C , 12 " CUE* OTA RLE 4 , 0 . 1 0 , 1 2 0 U E 5 O T A B L E 5 . 0 , 1 0 , 1 2 L A N D l N G f l l - AREA K t f l A I L A N D I N G S - fc*EA K 8 l b ) -T3KDIKGT3~=~S"KEA 6 8 L A N D I N G « 4 - APEA P 8 L A N 0 1 N G * 5 - AREA E 5 0 1 3 14 _JJ_ l b 1 7 I B 1 9 2 0 2 1 ~ 2 2 ~ 2 3 2 * T r 2 b 2 7 T T 2 9 3 0 ' DUE6 CITABLE 6 . 0 . 1 0 . l<: L A N D I N G ^ - A n t A N B • N U M B E R O F L O A D S D U M P E D P E R D A Y — L " C T A D S ~ T A B L " E -XBzr07571"5~ • P R O D U C T I O N P E F L A Y ( C U B I C F E E T ) TRDTJ—TABL'E X l . O . i O O O . J d " i » M A T R I X S A V E V A L U E D E F I N I T I C N S " L O G G I N G T R U C K C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S TF.UCF M A T R I X H . 1 4 , 6 1 4 TRUCKS "TT 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 T T 3(i 3 9 - « r 4 1 4 2 T H £ K U K ^ i n T H E M A U I X S T A N b f o P )HE U U C K N U K H L K COLUMN D E F I N I T I O N S : M H : 1 « A V C F A G E TRUCK L U A O ( C U B I C FfcETI _ L A N D I N G " N U M B E R " T H E - T R T J C K ~ T S O' lS 'P 'A 'TCHEDTO 3 = T 0 T A L V3LUME H A U L E D BY TRUCK ( C U N I T S I TOTAL DOWNTIME ( M I N U T E S ) 4 3 4 4 4 5 ' 4 6 4 7 4 b 5 = ES T 1HAT E D CC.MPLETION T IME 6-ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME(HI GH PRIORITY) T L T N D T N G - C f f A k " A X T E R 1 ST I CS LNDG M A T R I X H . 6 , 1 3 * T H E PDWS IN THE M A T R I X STAND FOR THE L A N D I N G NUMBER M H : ' 1 = D I S P A T C H I N G P R 1 0 R I T Y B A S E D UN D I S T A N C E ANU P R O D U C T I V I T Y 2=THE C U P R E N T NUMBER OF T R U C K S D I S P A T C H E D TO T H I S L A N D I N G 3=THtf~C U R R E N T - D I S P A T C H I N G - I N D E X 4= T h c C U P r E I l T D A Y ' S Y A R D I N G RATE ( C U b I C F t E T / O A Y ) • 5 = THfc A V - ^ A G E VOLUME THAT IS 4CC.")L"<Tt Z FU?. UN THE LA I .u l i ' .o 4 9 ^ 5 0 5 1 ~52 5 3 5 4 " 5 3 5 6 5 7 " 5 8 5 9 6 0 o = T L I AL V A K J r k U - J H S T I H C I M l U u l c S ) 7 = T C T A L L O A D E R R E P A I R . T I M E ( M I N U T E S ) B - T O T A L VOLUME Y A R D E D I C U N I T S ) " 9 i - i i - C F - V A S T " T R U C K " D I S P A T C H E D TO L A N D I N G 1 0 = E S T . U N L O A D E D TK IP T I M E T o L A N D I N G 11 = E S T . L 0 A 0 E D T R I P T I ME TC CAMP 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 66 S T 1 Z - D 1 S T A N C E l-ROH L A S T P.bl) 1 S P A T I H I N l i MUII4I H i l A N l M - n « 13 = D I S T A N C 6 F R O " L A N D I N G TO CAMP - * I N I T I A L ! Z ING M J i - . B c V O F " L A N D I N G S AND T - ' J C K S I N I T I A L XH<J ,14 1* LCGGING T R U C K S I N I T I A L X h 3 , 5 6 L A ' i J l N G S 6 6 6 9 7 0 71 72 O / . 06681,- 1.5/. 11 507,-1. 2/. 1 5 b 6 6 , M / . 21 1 8 6 , - . 8 / . 2 7 4 2 5 , - . 6 \ 1 3 < ( . 3 4 4 5 8 , - . 4 / . 4 2 0 7 4 , - . Z / . 5 , 0 / . 5 7 9 2 6 , . 2 / . t 5 ^ 4 2 , . 4 ^ r\ .72575, . 6 / . 78814,. 8 / . 64134,1 8 49 3_ ,1 .2/. ? A3. L* A .-A — • ; 13 6~ ^ r9"777Ff"2/~«379T2.5/.99Et5.3/.9<«997,4/li5 1 3 7 • 138 «FN»DLAY1 = CAMP DF L AY I LCAOE DI (MINUTES ) _ . ] 39 OLAY1 FUNCllUN VIK/.HL-.C IS 0 , / . , A . , _ * 1*0 0 , 0 / . 0 1 , . 3 / . 0 2 , . 5 / . 0 9 , . 6 4 / . 2 7 b , 1 . / . 4 4 4 , 1 . 2 8 / . 7 5 6 , 1 . 9 2 / . 8 56,2.4 4  . 9, 2. 88/. 9 3, 3. 36/. 9 6,4. 8/. 97,8.64/. 98, l l . t ^ / . 1 ^ , 13.44/1.16 141 • FNi DL AY 2 = CAMP OELAY(EMPTY) (MINUTES) 143 DLA>2 FUNCTION VtKANL.CU ; 144 0,0/.167, .3 2/.32,. 8/.36, 1 .2b/.4,2.4/. 43,2. 88/.57, 3. 8 4/.72,5.12 T45~ . 8 6 , 6 . 4 / . 9 , 7 . 2 / . 9 2 , b . 3 2 / . 9 4 , 9 . 4 4 / . 9 6,1C.86/.97,11.84/.99,14. 08/1,16 146 • . 147 -TmiWKtuznofias't. o i K GTTM E~ ( H I N UTE SI I 48~ UNLU FUNCTION ViP.AND,C14 149 0 , 3 . b / . 0 4 , 4 . 6 / . 1, 5.Z.2 3, 5.4/. 48, 6. 2/. 58. L. 6/. 63. 7./. 85, 8. 6 150 . 9,9. 4/. 93, It). 2/. 96 ,11. 8 / . 98,13. 6/. 99, 15. 4/1, ID. 6 T5T" • 152 •FNJLCBRK- LOADER INTERBREAKDOWN TIME (HOURS) 153 CUB P. K~FWCTrOfI V 27C21 T54 -0 , 0 / . 0 5 , 3 . 0 7 / . 1 , 4 . 0 6/. 15,6. 06/.2,6.31/.25,6.49 155 .3,7.17/ .35.14.79/ .4.17.1/ . 45, 23. 36/. 5.31.0 5/.55,32. 16/. 6,33. 07 156 .t5, 39.15/.7,47. l/.75,5fc.03/.8 ,67.03/.85,75.Oo/.9 ,85.01/ .<ib, 102 . i 3 T5T • 1 ,221.78 158 ; • _ _I?9 _ '• • Flrtfc'RKkK- GR A PPL t I NT E k BP EAKUCKN"" TIKE (HOURS')' " U C " " " - " I GRBRK FUNCTION V4.C21 l o l '! 0 , 0 / . 0 5 , 4 . 0 3 / . 1 , 4 . 5 7 / . 1 5 , 5 . 1 / . 2 , 5 . 6 / . 2 5 , 5 . 6 8 / . 3 . 6 . 0 3 / . 3 5 , b . 5 3 162 ' . 4 , 6 . b 4 / . 4 5 , b . 7 1 / . 5 . 7. C4/. 55,7.13/. 6,7. 15/. o5,10. 03/.7,12.2 ] 63 . 7 5 . 1 4 . 0 7 / . 8 , 1 6 . 3 / . 65, 2 8.49/. 9, 31.4 3/. "-5, 56. 5 2/1, 120.68 164 • 165 " » F N * 7 L B P K«LOAD E R "h EP AIR" T 1"ME 1 MI NOTE S i lb6~ TLHRK FUNCTION V2.C14 167 0 , 0 / 0 . 12 5, 30/. 525 , 6 0 / . 613.90/. 663,120/. 713.150/. 8 1-3,180/.888. 240 168 .9,27C/.925,300/.963,330/.975,360/.988,39(3/1. ,4BO WT • 170 • FNtTTWMF.- TOWER KCVF. AND RIG TIME (MINUTfcSI 171 TTwr.fTFUN'CTlTjK" 93,02 ITT" 0,0/.073.30/.341 ,60/.512 ,90/.707,120/.78,150/.829,180/.854, 210 173 .927,240/.951,270/.?7b,300/1,360 174 —_ n v *FNtTGMR= GRAPPLE MCVE AND PIG TIME MINUTES) 176 TGMF FUNCTION V4.C8 ; 177 0 ,0/ . 104r307. 3 75760774797 90/775. 1207779"2; 150/7896,180/ iV240 .. - - - - J g • 179 • FMTTbFK* YAFt'ERS 1 I t F.CPA1F. TIME (VI NL'TES 1 - 180 - - — — 1H1 T T B h K F U N C l l L N _ i ( ; f t / o , , _ l j i n / _ 0 f c „ . , , , , , , 1 B 2 ie3 i " i 4 " TTDK  F U N C T I O N V J I H 0 , 0 / . 1 3 8 , 3 0 / . 3 7 9 , 6 0 / .44 8,SO/.655 ,120/.793,150/.931,180/.9bo,210/1, 24C * TGbF.K FUNCTION V4.L13 185 0,0/.197,30/. 479,60/.521,90/.746,120/.789,150/.845,1BO/. 887,210 186 . 9 4 4 , 2 4 0 / . ? 5 a , 2 7 0 / . « 72.330/.vflA,360/1 ,420 T57-* 168 _«FNtTTHPr." TPIJCK KLPAIR T IfR (MINUTES) ipq 0 , 0 / . 1 24, 30/. 38 7, 60/.4 34, 90/. 64, 120/.71 ,15C/. 7ti5 ,180/. 01 2 .21Z 191 . 855 , 24U/.87t., 270/ . 9 09 , 30c/. 9 3 . 3 30/ . 9 5 7. 3 c C / . 9 6 0 . 390/. •» 7 3 , 5 1 11. S 70 j o -O f»W U V O f - Q Q ~+ CM r*\ *t ^ _ ^ ,-. _ i .M IM <VJ rg • O "s. O O TI 3 Z. 1 * » - ^ -* r- m ^ jm m f-o * rg i n D - ~* o r - o* LL |tn r\| UJ '<M (Ni x. ; • • >* 4 0* f- T" t • W s ^ 3 rg m <*\ n i_>y« o O ^ o -V • » -< >|Mno i UJ N i n a: • cC | * \ UJ o t*+ O *A »- • m m m » a 3 I ( * > • * u . ' a : [i) O h J9 ^ O 'J O O O -J —« rg rg i-g rg rg 1^ , c\i t n h r . n -0 p j nj f*t <v IN ou to ft 12 to 2 CD •-» CO 5 i ; t- * ,»» < O O O. iV» ~« X ^. — CU a a. co UJ 1 -rt a o ^ u_ co a . 1- cc X o «D UJ Z ! -C D M 2 U. S ~ c? • ca ~ « CO f>i i- co — u . ! » * r" » * o p. X u t CO V> O -« fM U, _t oj CM |rg rg rg r g rg <M IINI fsi rvi o j rg l-g rg eg frg rg rg tt Z E2 i X u ' UJ z P 3 ' s : l i . rt n UJ o r . < rt (I x u . a. UJ z -•1-UL * | -• r> * c* o *~ £SI fM *V rt^^of-jeoo^o ,rt rt rt rt rt rt trt rt •* AlfMNfMrjlNljAJCMfM « t J J O !'J O |o.a rt ; * o — - o - a J Q z » •X o H L3 C L« I lU Cw o o x5 • 4 (O CO il U. —' oc ac oc O p O - s b c ^ LU U. U. « » I m,co o go co • r k n - * UJ LU UJ -» j U J CD XI 33 CO 4 < f< < cc iX lot oc R < < -a < s > > t> > Li. LL LL Li, U. Lj> IT CT :0> (71 X 4A * O IM (M l i rg rt L » >n •<> Lf o-— —' UJ o o Z IT I i l 3C X * * o a > > •I • O O o JJ z. _I-J 210 -^ o> u « Nl gr ^  tn in Irg rg rg rg .M f\j| « * ' » * « * x * x x u o o o o 3 3 3 3 3 u : a c a c u ! cc o o o o o iO rg tn • • i • • H O" -o O <M f~ f- J i ^ H O O p -T + + + + 2: ^ X ct nC DC of o o b o z z iz. v» •» H * * r z ^  z _ U. LL U. LL «J> « « * * « r~ rg co —« O o o m >r . J J; p* N N !Tt r-t C (M > hj1 3) -O |o r~ co > —< • * * ii ^ . o o o o * 3 3 3 3 . a. CL ^ a. . O O i v . v . o -« ^ I m m \ - ' . . - f» • <n -si in • r - i m • • *r r n» rg ^  ^ • » in ni ^  H • Ln o o c: -J" • O - - ^ " !• • + O + i r i ' + i : K o. .1 ^  i 1 b 3 O u : 3 : TO co rQ co cc *i < '< < < CL 2 C a : of < < < < > > ! > > > L . a. u . 1: a. >-._ _ i u. * 1 p i i h i f Ln -r o. • JO t Lo _ r - a < p *0 rg -^J T ' •t 'J\ C\i ' •H ^ i i rg • LU LU UJ LU ui _j —1 —1 —1 —* r i i 1.1 x 2 < < < < < < ^ ac of m a. JC. a < < •< «i < > > > > > " A. a. U. LL . o 24 25 2fc ~zT 28 29 "W VARIABLE FVARIABLE FVARIABLE ~FVAk"lAbLE~ FVARI ABLE FVARIABl E FVARIABLE [ 19047.2*FN»NORM» 1453t4«0l /10 TRUCK* 12 (161 10.B»FN*NI)RM*1 52802.61/ 10 TRUCK * 13 I 15486. 9*FNtN0RMO70439l/10 TRUCK»14_ T 2UT3"5T1«FN iNORM*! 7 29b2~.~5|7 1 0 T R Ut k » 1 5 ( 1B125*FN»NUKM*169279.4I/ 10 TRUCK «16 ( 7687.S*FNtNCF.M*7P539.4l /10 TPUCK,«17 (e-J55.9»FN*NUkr.W4 792.51/ 10 TRUCK* lb 253 254 _2>5_ 2 i t 257 25B • TRAVEL TIME FROM_ L_AHDING TO CAMP ( M1 NUTESI TIMEL FVARIABLE 6 0. / V*LSPn*MHiL(IOr,(PH2 ,131 IrlSCELLANEuUS IKAVcL MKhS IHlHUIbSt 31 FVARIABLE "FVARTSBLE"" 60./VtLSP0*7. £f0r/Vic5Prj*7T" CAMP TO UUMP ~DU MP TO-CCT A - r r . A M b " •DISPATCHING VARIABLES 25V 260 261 ~76Z~ 263 264 TbT" 266 267 _ 2 6 r T 2 6 9 2 7 0 ~ T 7 T 33 34 -"35-36 38 - 4 0 " FVARIABLE VARIABLE "VARTATiTT""* VARIABLE VARIABLE VARIABLE "' S»8*V72*MH»LNDG(PH8,4t/480-HHtLNDUlPH6,5l PHB*6 -lTO^hHTCN"^ PH er, n i l5-MHlLN0GlPH8,l l-10*MHiL.>IDG(PH8,2l*5«U*PH8 ( MHt T RUCK 1PH1,1)-V33)/100  18*PH1 112 273 ""2T4~ 275 276 T f T 53 70 72 73 46 80 81 83 84 "ST" 86 67 ~S8" 89 90 104 105 106 " T C T " 108 109 113 VARIABLE VARIABLE V~ARTAHL'K FVARIABLE VARIABLE VARIABLE FVARIABLE VARIABLE ""VAT* IASCE VARIABLE VARIABLE VARIABLE VARIABLE VARIABLE ~V ART A B IN-VARIABLE VARIABLE VARIABLE FVARIABLE VARIABLE r VARIABLE" FVARIABLE FVARIABLE FVARlAbLt PH3 + 12 XH9-6 ~XH°-'l 60-/V*ESPI)*13. HHiTRUCMPHl ,21*16 PH1-40 PH7/100 PHI-12 _X"H3*1 PH8*16 PH1+90 , FN6+1B HHSTRUCM V81,21 FN3H8 "TN~4*1~8 PH12-PH10 HH*LNPG(PH8. 101+XH13  V105+M1 PH1A*930*V106»1440*( V107/510-V106)*51C V107/510 ~H HlTTOtiCrPHTT5~]^ PHT4" S*B*(PH13I*MH*LNDGIPHB,4>/480-MHSLNDG(PHB,51 IMHST PUCK I PHI,1)-V10e)*480/HH$LNDGIPHB.A) S»R*<PH13)*HHlLN0T-lPHfl,<.)/4<)U-PH15 27B 27?_ 2 BO 281 2 62 TeT" 284 285 2bZ~ 287 2B8 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 30C " K l ' 114 115 - r i o ~ 117 118 119" 120 121 ""122" 123 124 V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E V A R I A B L E F V A R I A B L E — V ' A R T A B L E"~ F V A R I A B L E F V A R I A B L E MHiTRUCK(PHI 6,5)-(VI15)"930-M1 (MHiTPUCK (PH16,5t-Ml-V42)/9 30 "HRiTRUCICI PHB»~5~)-TV1171 *93C~ Ml" (MH*TRUCK(PH8,5)-Ml-V4ZJ/930 P»B+ S*B-V108 Z*rlHi1r.UTMrHl,]t ~~. 3*MM»TRUCK1PH1,1) ( MHiTRUCK ( PHI , 1I-V113_)»48G/MHILNDGJPHB,4| "MfllL"RTJfG(P~H8T10 1 -"35'" " 1ViLCTr-PHIO >/VlLDTM*PH7 P H10/V*LPTM«PH7 302 3C3 "3W" 305 306 308 309 310" 3 1 1 312 o f 125 * * EVENT VARIABLE PH7-PH5 DATF AND TIME OF OAV VARIABLES 313 31* 315 $ 1 t» * 41 42 VARIABLE Ml/1440 FVARIABLE 990-<M1/1440-V41)»1440 r hir l 1- DU 5 - VIII fl 317 JIB 31V { 4 4 4 5 "75" 76 77 " 7 T J -FVARIABLE XH10«930*V45»1440*IV43/51O-V45)*510. VARIABLE V43/S10 , , ... __ -FVARIABLE—rOB 15=('Hl/ 1440- V4VJ *T44TJ FVARIABLE . PH2-XH10 FVARIABLE XH10*870*V78«1440*1V76/570-V78I«57C. V76/5.U ~ VARIABLE •RANDOM NUMBER GENERATION 39 R A N D F VARIABLE FVAR IABLE 1-XH8/1000. 1-XH6/1000. 321 T 2 2 -323 324 - 3 T 5 -326 327 ~3'2V" 329 330 FVAP.IAbLfc" FVARIABLE FVARIABLE "TVTSRlTtBtT" VARIABLE FVARIABLE •1-ftMl/lCOo." 1-RN2/10C0. 1-P.N3/1000. "T-RN4"/TD00T RN4 1-RN6/1000. -3TT 332 333 335 336 ~STT 3 3 B 3 3 9 'VOL F VAR IABLE 0.1985*PH5-46.B _ VOL.LO»UfcU b A S E D ON WE1-HT - P I E C E - F v i R - l A B T E - « 1^7175*V39- 924776 P W W T O T C * 1 . V i 9* 6 . . 4 . 5 1 LDTM FVARIABLE 1 4 . 8 7 2 6 * 1 . 0 6 6 8 * P H 4 WAIT 1-VAklAbLE M H 6 - f H 5 / P h > * P H 6 l • PIECES IN LOAD L0AC1NG TIME (MINUTES )  LOADING ll>.r. 1CA:M'I Ull iSH) 340 341 342 343 345 -34t~ 347 34B RLT FVARIABLE P H 6 - 1 P H 7 - P H 5 > / P H 7 * P H 6 LOADING TIME( CAN FI N I S H ! v A RTJTT;CTV ARTABTE Y A R D F V A R I A B L E M r t f L N D G I P H I , 4 1 / 9 6 . VOLUME YARDED IN 5 MINUTES - 3 4 V 350 351 353 354 •HAULING VARIABLES * —CTPD—FVARTA 6TE ESPD FVARIABIE • 7 T m - V 1 5 - 5 0 7 9 4 " 3 V 3 9 + T 4 7 4 7 2 6 ) *V 39+6".4TB T R A V E L L O A L ' E O S P E E D ( M . P . H . I l 2 a . 2 0 2 « V 3 9 - 3 G . 9 6 1 ) » V 3 9 * l B . 5 7 9 1 l » V 3 S i * 7 . 9 2 3 2 5 • -rcAVfcl 1-MPIV S r t c b ( H . P . H . j 1 » INT ERBRE AKDQWN TIMES (MINUTES! TkHRK FVARIABLE 60. • I ( ( 6B0. 4*V 39-659.061 * V3 9* 199. 06 I * V39 I THBRK o u . . i i TOWERS (L AN D INGS 1 t 6l L U A U E R S -rjm F V A K I A U L k 6 0 . * r M L l / b r l R G b R K F V A R I A B L E 6 U . » F f : » G r - BRK -J3T-356 357' 15B -359 360 ~~TtT~ 362 363 ~36"4~ 365 366 • 3 6 7 GP. APPLES( LAND I NGS 4 t 51 -* 1NTER-HOVE-ANC~RTT T1HE3~"( MINUTE SI OMR FVARIABLE 60.«(((2B7*V39-302.91*V39*104)*V391 3 6 B 369 370" 371 372 to to o TMR F V A R I A B L E 1 0 ( 4 3 . 3 5 2 « F N ! N 0 R r U 8 7 . 7 B ) G R A P P L E S TUHEfcS "bCTDTEAN •V'A'h'nratT" C H E K 1 BV A R I A t l C C H C k i INVARIABLE C H E K 3 B V A R I A B L C C H E K 4 B V A P I A B L E V 1 0 3 ' GF.' MH IT F U C K I P H 1 , 1 ) V 3 3 ' G b ' I ' . H i T R l I C k ( P H I , I I 3 7 3 3 7 4 3 7 5 -STt,-'-3 7 7 3 7 8 V I 1 3 ' G E ' M m RUCK I PH I , 1 ) V 4 2 ' L E ' 2 1 C F A C I L I T Y I N D E X I N G ~TTV 360 381 "30 2" 3B3 3K4 1 TU » L N U U > 3 1 1 3 TO 1 2 + KTPL 'CKS LUAUbr iS UN L A N D I N G S 1 l b U L A N D I N G S 0 0 1 0 R I V E R DUMP S H C T 1 C N OF POAO THAT A TFUCK I S P R E S E N T L Y O N L O G I C SV. ITCH I N D E X I N G 1 1I) K L N U G S 4 1 TO 4 0 » # T H ' C K S 19 TO l m U L N D G S "31 3 2 3 3  T4~ 3 5 4 0 V A r O E R S CN L A N D I N G S 1 IU » L A N L H N u S L O G G I N G T R U C K S L O A D E R S ON L A N D I N G S 1 TO » L A N D I N G S " G O L D ~ R T V T R _ D U M P ROAD FPOM CAMP TO DUMP L E A V I N G CAMP FOP B U S H _ _ _ YAr DI NG U M l N U 385 38b 387 _3"BrT 389 390 - T 9 T " 392 393 T 9 4 -395 396 C 1 S P A T C M I N G S W I T C H L O A F E R S PAST THE A—FRAME * * * * * * * * * * * 3 9 8 3 " 9 _ 4 - c r 401 402 r.CDEL S L G M I M A * HAULING *********** T R U C K P A R A M E T E R S P H 1 = L O G G I N G TRUCK NUMBER  NuMBEP D F L A N D I N G A S S I G N C D 1C " 4 X 3 " 4 0 4 _ 4 0 5 _ 4 0 6 4 0 7 4 0 8 T H T ^ PH3" PH4= C O P Y OF PH2 ( I N D E X I N G ) NUMBER OF P I E C E S TC BE L O A D E D T l i A"Cr » T r G H T ~ = - L'OATrVDL'UME-L O A O I N G T I M E 4 0 9 4 1 0 4 1 1 " P U S P H 6 P H 7 - C O P Y OF P H 5 LANDING NuHBEF.ING INDEX FDR DISPAIlHlNG PHB*- . . . P H 9 * L A N D I N G NUMEE R I N G INDEX FOR D I S P A T C H I N G P H 1 0 * P R E E M P T I O N P A R A M E T E R NUMBER " T H T l ~ r i A X I H C H " D I S P A r C H I N G " I N D E X L A N D I N G P H 1 2 * T 1 A V E L T I K E BACK FOR R E D I S P A T C H I N G P H 1 3 « D I S P A T C H I N G I N U I X TIME TO I L H P L E U LAMP TO LLAUED SI A lb 4 1 2 4 1 3 4 1 4 Phi 4= _ - - _ _ -P H 1 5 * L A N D I N G VOLUMF ACCOUNTFD FOR F H 1 6 = D I S P A T C H I N G INDEX VAF I A B L E S T A F T I N G C O N D I T I O N S G E N E R A T E , , , 1 . 1 . 1 6 P H A D V A N C E H A U L I N G SEQUENCE S T A R T S AT 8 : J 1 A . M . ( P A T 11 4 1 6 4 1 7 ' - 4 T B — 4 1 9 4 2 0 4 2 l 4 2 2 _ 4 23__ "4 2 4 4 2 5 * 2 6 AAA 2 S P L I T S P L I T " A S S I G N '""' T R A N S F E r A S S I G N V 7 0 i A A A l , 1PH 5 , » A A 2 , 1 P H "I"II;PH---,DISP l - . l . P H K T R U C K S - 6 IN CAMP L O A D E D 6 T R U C K S READY Fufv D I S P A T C H I N G TRUCKrfl TCI D I S P A T C H E R TRUCKP2 TU «b " 4 T T 4 2 8 4 2 9 ' 4 3 0 4 3 1 4 3 2 6 9 10 11 12 13 "TV-I S lb i r -is 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2b 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 T R A N S F F F , D I S P Ti) DISPATCHER AAA1 ASSIGN 1*,5,PH TRUCK*! AND JP ASSIGN 7 ,MHtTPUCMPHl , l ^ P H ASSIGN TRANSFFF 1+.40.PH ,AAA21 LOAOTu~WUCtiT ASSIGNED AVERAiC LOAU VOLUME RANGE 147-40+#TkUCNSI AT CAMP . 433 434 436 437 438 • CAMP DELAYS - START OF HAULING MODEL LOUP DISP TFANSFf.F .069,AAA3,AAA5 9 1 . U CHANCE OF CAMP DELAY —TAATS—S A v " E W L U E ~ 6 , V l 0 , H FNSDLAY2 CAMP DELAY!UNLOADED) ADVANCF DISPATCHING POLKA1 -HlNlMuH F.ETURN HHP. t.ETHubi1LAN^ING ALMUSI I'LjGbtU) 439 440 441 "JPi.2" 443 444 -T4T-AAA5 MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,Phi,5.32C00^H ">75 A"VL~V"Al. Ut T R U C K~, Phl 'Vo7370'00, fT ASSIGN 8,V02,PH AAA6 GATE LK V63.AAA12 • FINDING RETURN T U P I 1 Ml START LANDING SEAKCK AT MAX « IS THE LANDING DOWN? 44b 447 -4-4B-449 450 ASSIGN TEST NE "ASSIGN 13,KHSLNl<G<PH6,10),PH TFAVF.L TIME TO LANDING MH1LN0G(PH8,2) ,0,AAA8 ASSIGN T 6 , MM i LTDG"I PH 8 ,'9 T7>H OTHER TFUCKS ON F.OUTb 14.V114.PH EST.FINISH TIME OF LAST TRUC<, AAA 8 "Est Gt" ASSIGN ASSIGN PH14.PH13.AAA8 13.PH14.PH 3.0.PH ~* IS" THE TANDING "hTtKiN T LOAD UF BETNG 'PLUGGED? TEST GE 50,V118,AAA13 ASSIGN 3,1 , P H  I LOGICS 451 452 453 454 455 45t 457 450 459 460 4ol 462 AAA13 TCST NE GATE IV S~AVEVA"LuV AAA9 TEST LC ASSIGN TF.ANSFEF AAA10 ASSIGN AAA11 ASSIGN 35 BViCHEKl,1,AAA9 PH8.AAA12 "r2,V109,H" XH12.PH13.AAA10 13«.XH13.PH ,AAA11 SUFF.VOL.TO LOAD TRUCK ? I S THE YARDER DOWN? E ST. LOADING TIME 4o3 464 465_ "466 467 468 13*,V1C9,PH TIME WHEN VOLUME YARDED 13», HHtLNDGI PH8,_11), PH_ 4 6 9 470 471 -TRAVCL~-T'1"MT-TO "CAMP FIND MINIMUM TEST E PH3, 1.AAA14 ,  Phi3 ,MHSTMJCKIPH1,6> ,AAA12 472 473 474 TEST LF. MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PHI,6,PH13,H MSAVEVALUE TRUCK, P HI , 5 , PHI 3iJl ASSIGN 2.PH8VPH TP.ANSFEf. ,AAA12 AAA14 GATE LF 35.AAA12 475 476 "476 479 48C 45 46 47 48 T E S T L E — ' PM13,)'H1TP.UCKIPH1 ,5) , A A Al 2 MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PHI,5»PH13,H ASSIGN 2 ,PH3,PH TOSAIZ LOOP B>H';AAA6 LANDING ASSIGNED L0GICR 35 481 4B2 4U3 464 ' 485 4 86 -4br 3 0 -51 ~52~ 53 54 HSAVEvALUE T R U C K - , P h U 5 . H H i L U b G t P H 2.nl ,H " , SUBTRACT RETUFN TIME AAA 15 SPLIT 1 .AAA32 _ ......... . . - .. . . . . . h"S'AVEVALUE_Li<i)G,'PH2,97PHr,"H T AST TRUCK D1SP.T0 LNDG MSAVEVALUE LI:DG*,PH2,2,1,H INCREMENT v OF TRUCKS DISPATCHER TO L IDG K.SAVEVALUc LNDG* , PH2 , 5 , MH STRUC K 1 PH 1 ,1) ,H 4bE 4H9 490 491 492 * W r - CO J i 0> o ! J* V* O 0> O p . , oj IA tnh^ *A IA O 1/1 z 3 3 UJOC 3 < l u X UJUI r > u a : j£ UJ ZUJ b o o p O H J\ lA IA fA IA IA IX < u l 3 ui U .1 o. 3 i o a : o 1- t r « - -J I uj + K JI I < « l l ^1 r - _t .n 1 J l U -OJ i UJ > t- & <x z Df 0 < < < H OC x r * * * X U ( J 3 a. 3 Z3 X z -•• UJ «NJ i - V- C* I *• •* *j* > eg m -X x *n r- • X I£ co ;> > UJ ! UJ J U i u . < O -J ~ > -Z o UJ < O < */> I- u>kt O < U < 3 < X < ko r - a> in m J» O m o * ^ ^ |« .-«.<--. U« •--» • m t n a n - n m k n i A t n « >• u »-t _j ft. • a . wO •-H i t o > o a : ~ 2; j > » - o Q 2 a a . Z - i < < D h - J «X —' o -I 1 X »— o JJ 1* t -LU L 'U < s : - 3 a . H - o -4 -J 2 - j UJ LU > => u - - c be rt: D ' U Z CL 1- 3 UJ jrg UJ IN LU (M OJ CM mU» r - ffllc o ^ p * <*» •* rsi f\i rg N rg ro|r\i rn m F 6 fe-us tu ^ t n o is: < P ° i a > UJ n 3 o K _J z o — i n OA a of z — z t-< 3 JJ z -1 3 UJ > UJ Z HC (- <* -• a : < D tu J o UJ 3: Z x 3 -• Q 3 -J 3 < J O T O o > a - i > _ i t— a X z O UJ JJ r -_) 5« 3 UJ O UJ 3 X z a. u •-« UJ c u; j » AJ ^ < X Q. V " X X - i 3 • a & a «A " - O » r - I > IA'-* 0. * * * X X -> > a . X PA • i » » 1 tA r - J*l */> *A Z Z Z Z J -o o o p o L/> or) ^ t/) cO >yi trt tfl *^  "U *fl <<<<!-< >>• a> <T« j o N r » r - -oo «o co > h-lco ( _ . a» o m m im m 4" L-. (NJ m i*r IA tJ k n i n IA *t\ m m U. cu a- o <-« i U * *r. tn t kn <n m *A >A 1 3 3 x x LL G- a . < - i < JC |X * H J * o I z , _ z > < < > _ l 3 -1 < UJ UJ UJ _ J U u. U r - X Z < ;> < > Ui O ac o rri ^ IA CO CO V t o i/> »/> uj to fd < »; I J S Lo r - » CO 31 X IA a. x • a * «« x a : a . Y-U o ho 9 O (\i on 215 — • x; z o o i t r j l - i D I Z 1*1 3 - " O -CO Ul • O o. Z < « u. U j> « l i : I ^ Q. < 0. _ _ . ait vi UJ O UJ O < UJ M N < oc */> H as _ i 3 Z 5 U.' ^ i A 0* 0* K- co o o 101 • * CAMP DELAYS - LOADED TSAKiVFIi .037.AAA19.AAA20 96.8* CHANCE OF CAMP DELAY _ . _ . — — — — — — — — — — — \ 553 554 555 102 103 104 AAA 19 SAVEVALUE ADVANCE AAA20 GATE LK b T v T o T n FNSDLAY 1 CAMP DELAY 32.LNK1 GC ON USER CHAIN 556 557 558 J > — 105 ' AAA21 SAVEVALL'fc * ADVANCE • b,V9,H V31 TRAVEL TIME TO DUMP 559 | 560 ' 1 561 1 0 0 107 —*—AT~TTCE~GCSCTJ F.IVEP. DUMP QUEUE 31 QUEUE AT THE DUMP r.ATt LF 31 DUMP STARTS UP AT 7:45 A . M . 562 563 564 g ^ L 108 109 110 SEIZE DEPART SAVEVALUE T I S E I Z E THE DUMP 31 LEAVE THE DUMP OUtUE 6.V11 .H 56P 566 567 111 " 112 113 ADVANCE SAVEVALUE MSAVEVALUE FNiUNLD" UNLOADING T I M E 1*,PH7 TOTAL VOLUME OUMPED IN DAY T R U C K 4 ,V46,3,V80,H 56 8 569 570 114 115 116 SAvEvALUt RELEASE SAVEVALUE 2»,1,H NUMBER OF LOADS DOMPLb IN DAY 31 RELEASE THE DUMP 8 , V9 , H . i l l 572 573 117 118 119 ADVANCS GATE LR CCC7 GATE LR - v 3 2 TRAVETJ TIME" "TO CAMP FROM THE uUMP 33.LNK2 DISPATCH TRUCKS TO HOJDS UNTIL 4:C0 P.M. PHI t CCC4 IS THE TRUCK DUE FOR REPAIRS? 574 575 576 120 121 ASSIGN TRANSFER * 1-.40 ,Ph RANGE l l - M K U L k S ) " ,OISP THE TRUCK IS FREE FOR DISPATCHING 5 7 1 578 579 FTNI5H TIKE UPDATE 58C j 5dl • 1.TRUCK ARRIVES AT LANDING 582 1 122 123 124 AAA34 ASSIGN ASSIGN ASSIGN - l - . 1 2 . P h 15.0.PF 13,0,FH 583 584 585 125 126 127 " A S S I G N ~ AAA36 TEST NE TEST E -67XH9",PH STATTI TRUCK "SEARCH AT MAX « PHI.PH8.AAA35 IF SAME TRUCK - INCREMENT MHiTRUCM PHI ,21 ,MHiTRUCK(PH8,21 .AAA35 586 . 5 87 588 128 129 *~ FINDING TRUCKS blSPAlLHEb htkc TEST L MHiTRUCMPH8,51,MHJ>TFUCKlPHl,5l.AAA35 ACCir.hl 1 5+.MHiTRUCK (PH8. 11 .PH 589 590 591 130 131 * TEST GE ASSIGN -VOC-TfCCDUNTED FOR V116,PH13,AAA35 13.V116.PH 592 593 594 132 ~ 133 134 "AAA35 LOOP AAA42 ASSIGN TEST NE l)PH,yAA36 NEXT IP.UU B.MHSTRUC.MPH1 ,2) ,PH BV»CHEK3,1.AAA37 595 596 59 7' "135 136 137 S AVEvACUi" TEST LI AAA37 A S S I G N — 1 2 , V T 2 1 , H " -XH12,PH13,AAA38 13»,XH13 ,PH EST.LUAD1NG TIME 59B 599 600 138 139 140 TRANSFER ,AAA40 AAA38 ASSIGN 13+.V121.PH TIME KHEN VOL YARDED AAA40 MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PHI,5,PHI 3,H 6C 1 602 603 '6C4 . 605 606 141" 142 1RANSFEF * 2.TFUCK READY AAA41 ASSIGN ,AAA32 FOR LOADING 1-.12.PH 1 4 J " 1 4 4 145 ASSIGN ASSIGN TP.ANSFEP l i . O . P h 15.HHITFUCMPH1.1I.PH F A A A4 2 _ . . . __. _ 6C7 608 609 610 611 612 J * * ROUTINE TO F IND ESTIMATED TIME OF TRUCK L J A O I N G • to 1 o 146 147 148 AAA32 ASSIGN 14.V42.PH TEST GE MH»TRUCK(PH1,5),PH14,AAA33 M^AVFVAIIIF TRIIf K.PH1 .5.V104.H 613 614 615 149 150 TERMINATE •COMPLETION T I K E IS TOCAY »A/m V. ^ AV FV Al IIP TRUCK*.PHI . 5 . M l . H 616 617 618 < > 151 * TERMINATE KOUTINC TO FIND COMPLETION TIME OF KED1SPATCHEU TRUCKS 619 620 621 152 153 • AAA70 ASSIGN 8 ,MH»TRUCK)PH1,2) ,PH ASSIGN 13.V122.PH TRAVEL TIME TO LANDING 622 623 624 154 155 AAA76 * TP5T NE MHSLNDGIPH8,2>,0.AAA71 ASSIGN 16,MH*LNDG(PH8,9» ,PH OTHER TRUCKS ON ROUTE 625 626 627 - 1 5 6 157 158 "ASSIGN" r 5 T v T 1 4 , P H " E S T . F I N I S F T T T H E " O F LAST TRUCK TEST GE PH14.PH13.AAA71 ASSIGN 13.PH14.PH 628 629 630 159 160 161 AAA71 TEST NE bVtCHFKl,l,AAA?2 S U H - . V o L . T O LuAU TRUCK7 SAVEVALUE 12.V109.H T E S T LF XH12.PH13.AAA73 631 632 633 162 163 164 AAA""72-AAA73 TTST1GN 13+»XHT3"i"PH EST.LOADING TIME TRANSFER ,AAA74 ASSIGN 13+,V1C9,PH TIME WHEN VOLUME YARDED 634 635 636 165 166 167 168 169 170 AAA74 T . 5 AVE VALUE- TRUCK,PH1,5,PH13,M ASSIGN 2,PH8,PH S P L I T 1.AAA32 637 638 • 639 AAA75 M-SAVEVA"LUE"CNDG,PH2.9,PH1 ,H LAST TRUCK DISP.TO LNDG TERMINATE ASSIGN 1-,12,PH 640 641 642 l 7 l 172 173 ASSIGN 8,MH*TRUCK(PH1,21,PH ASSIGN 13.0.PH TRANSFER ,AAA76 643 644 645 * •»*••**•••»••• • - * 64b 647 648 * • BP.EAKDUWNS • • • -649 650 651 MODEL SEGF'.ENT b - LOADER BREAKDCWNS AND TRUCK REDISPATCHING P O L I C I E S 652 653 654 • PARAMETERS * PH1« 1 OAOFR NUMBER 655 65b 657 ' PH2- TIME 0F'NEXT~T.0AD E f t " BREAKDOWN PH3" TRUCK NUMBEP PH4<= LANDING THAT THE TPUCK IS PE01SPATCHED TO - -65b 659 660 174 175 * GENERATE ,.200C0.1.2,10PH ADVANCE 480 bbl 662 663 • •—- — 1— un^ - n r- T-i —^ n n ~ -•»•— i ~ r i n r n c 664 665 666 1 lb 177 178 BBBl SPLTT XH3»BEE1 11 * LCAUtHi ASSIGN 2,VtLBRK,PH TIME UF NEXT LOADER BREAKDOWN SAVEVALUE 10.V42.H i n " 1 80 181 — r E S T GE PH2.XH10.BBU2 WILL IHt BKbAKUuWN UCCUK I UUAY ADVANCE V44 . TO MINUTE AND DAY UF BREAKDOWN TF.ANSFEF , BBB3 66 I 668 669 1.82'"" 183 164 B B H T BBB3 -AliVANCE" PH2 - * — ~ "OCCURS TODAY ASSIGN 1+,18,PH RANGfcC19-18*»LNOGS1 LOGICS PHI LCADER GOES DOxN 670 671 672 185 186 lBT" 188 190 191 193 194 195 196 197 199 200 201 203 204 205 206 207 208~" 209 210 TTT 212 213 * APfc ALL THE LANDINGS PAST THE MUCHALAT A-FRAME SHUT DOWN? GATE LS 21,BBB4 LNDG*3 GATE LS 22.bBB4 LNDG*4 -CA7E _ CS LOGICS ~247&~BB4 40 TfiT)G""(.6 TRUCKS STOP AT MUCHALAT A-FF.AHE 673 674 67 5_ ~67fr 677 67B r REDISPATCHING PCLICY * « FINDING TRUCKS 01SPATCFED TO THIS LANDING "T)B~64 ASSTGN 1 - ,18 ;PH RAKGEO-»LNOGS) ASSIGN 3,XH9,PH BBB5 TEST E HHtTRUCK1PH3,2),PHI,PAST 7VT 68C 601 "6 8? 683 6 84 * FINDING REDISPATCHING POLICY 192 TRANSFER _t_FNl_ * A-FPAMF REDISPATCHING POLICY BBB40 GATE U V53tPAST PTEEHPT RLTL'RN TRANSFER TRUCK PAST A-FRAME? V53.PF .bbBlO.lPMH.RE PkhMPT TKUCK 685 686 687 " T 8 8 " 689 690 V53 .PAST FREE ROUTE FACILITY FREE RUuTE FACILITY » AREA (K8» REDISPATCHING POLICY BBB41 GATE LR V85.B0B42 PREEMPT AREA 1ST CHOICE-CHECK STATUS V53|PK,bl\Dl,10PH,Kc -59T 692 693 695 696 RETURN • V53 TF.ANSFEF. .PAST ~*~0THOTTD'ADEp-ir'DOwU--—GtrTTArK" TO-'CAHp-FtR' F."EGTS PA"TC"Hi R C~ * LANOING'S DIRECTLY FRCK CAMP REDISPATCHING POLICY BBB42 PREEMPT V53.PP.BBB9.10PH.RE RETURN 698 699_ "7 00 701 702 TRANSFER TFT .PAST END 1 "P.EDISPTTT'CH 1NG "CHANOES"Pt)LIC Y "T~ " (ONE - OFT. A JJ D1NG*rOR~2^TJETT50wKr ASSIGN SE IZE 3.FN2.PH TTfl Tor 704 7C5_ _70o 707 708 ADVANCE PH10 MSAVEVALUE LN0G+.PH3.2, l . H ~V. S'AVf V A LUE-DiDG• ",'PH3 ,15. MH VT RuTCK TV 61 ,1 ITH" MSAVEVALUE L N D G - . P H 2 . 2 , l . H MSAVEVALUE LNDG—.PH2. 5. MH STRUCK I V 8 1 . D . H MSAVEVALUE ThUCK.Vai.2,PH3,H 710 711 713 714 SPLIT TRANSFER 1. AAA75 .AAA22 214 PAST LOOP 3PH.BBB5 * * DURATION DF BREAKDOWN GO THROUGH ALL TRUCKS 715 716 717' "718 719 720 215 "2T6 -217 218 ASSIGN 2.FNtTLBFK.PH LOACER REPAIR TIME ~M"5~A~VE VAtTJE L"NDG*TPHT77. PH2 .H PREEMPT • PHI SAVEVALUE 10.V42.H T 2 1 722 723 724 725 726 TIT 220 221 ~2TT~ 223 224 rE ST Gt ADVANCE TRANSFER T B ^ j m c V A N C E — BB821 ASSIGN LOGIC-• p H 2 , X H 1 0 , b b b 2 0 V44 ,bbB21 ~PM2 1 • , 1 B .PH PHI REPAIRED TODAY? TO MINUTE AND DAY OF REPAIS RANGE! 19-18*«LN0GS ) THE LGtDER IS REPAIRED 728 729 "730 731 732 225 226 2 27" 228 229 ASSIGN 1-.18.PH RANGE!1-KLNDGS) * ARE ALL LANDINGS PAST THE MUCHALAT A-FRAME STILL SHUT-D0WN7 GATE LS 21,BBB22^ "GATE LS GATE L S TRANSF ER ONE is NOW FREE 22,88822 24,BBB22 ,6BB23 733 734 _I35_ 736 737 738 230 231 -232" 233 BBB22 SAVEVALUE UNLINK "BB'B 25" RETURN TRANSFER 5,PH1,H AFR.JhERE^ALL^ "PHI" , BBB1 FREE THE TRUCKS QUEUEING AT THE A^F^AME ~TRUCKS~F~R'cEZED ON XAN6TNG CTiT< NOW Be LOADED GO BACK TU FIND NEXT L0A3EK BREAKDOWN TIME F EDI 5PATCHING CHANGES POLICY 2 tBOTH LNDGSCl AND 2 UK 5 Gj JUWNl 739 740 741 "742"" 743 744 234 "235" 236 237 BBB9 238 ASSIGN "A~S"S7GN ASSIGN TEST G AOvAKiCb 12 ,V86,PH T2.VtTIMFF7PH~ 12,V89,PH PH12.0,END2 -prrn "TRAVEL"" TIKE" BACK" TO" CAT.F IS IT>0? 1r4lT~ 74o 747 "7 46"" 749 750 "239" 240 241 » AT CAMP ~EN02 SSSTGN -R"ANGTIT-TiTR LTCK5 P "242" HOJiWI I " t l 2 , P H MSAVEVALUE LNDG-, MHiTRUCK I PHI, 2 >. 5, MHiT RUCK (PHI, 1) ,H MSAVEVALUE LNDG— , MH STRUCK I PHI, 2) ,2,1 , H  . AT CAMP FOR SEOISPATCHlNl-"75T 752 753 "T54" 755 756 TRANSFER ,uISP F.E DISPATCHING CHANGES POLICY 3 (ONE OF LNDGS«3_,4 OK t GLES DOWN fcHILE "TH"£-'TfiUcT""ir"P"ASr T"HT"r-FSAMFJ" 243 BBB10 ASSIGN 244 245 246 "24T" 248 249 250 251 "252 253 2 54 A5SIGN ASSIGN TEST G ADVANCE" b B B l l ASSIGN END4 GATE LF: 12.V86.PH ITT 758 759 7tC 761 762 ' I2.V»TIMEF, PH 12 ,V89,PH PH12.0,B B B l l "PHI 2 1-,12,PH 40,HOLD TRAVEL TIME BACK TU A-FRAME" • FIND AN OPERATING LOADtft V87.BBBA1 RANGE!1-XTRUCKS1 ANY LNDGS PAST A-FRAME UP? •763" 764 765_ "7t6 767 76e GATE LP GATE LR_ A'SsTSNf 1 5 5 256 257 - 2 5 T V88,BFBA2 T , M H * T RUC K t PHI ,21 , PH ASSIGN 8,MH*LNDG(FN3,9(,PH ASSIGN 9,MH$LM)G(FN4,9),PH  - 7E ST T MHSY RUC K t PH8 » 5 i »MHJTRUCK(PH9,51 ,BBBA1 769 770 771 772 773 774 BBBA2 ASSIGN TRANSFER "TBBXI-A"S"57GR l l . F N 3.PH , BBBX ~rr . F M , P H " * REASSIGN KATF1X VALUES 775 776 777 • ~7?8~ 779 78C -259-260 BBBX P R — I N C R E M E N T TRUCKS DISPATCHEJ T J Nfc> ..NIJV. 262 263 MSAVEVALUE LNDG*,PHl 1, 2,1 ,\ MSAVEVALUE LNDG+, PHI 1,5 ,MH*T RUCK (PHI, 1), H NEW VOLUME ACCOUNTED _FOK -KSTSVCv"ffLUETNOG-TMHtTP.UCK.TPHl, 2T, 2T1,H """" MSAVEVALUE LNDG-,CHiTRUCK(PHl,2»,5,MH»TRUCK(PHl,lJ,H MSAVEVALUE TRUCK ,PH1,2, PH11 ,H , T 6 4 -265 SPLI1 TRANSFER 1 , AAA/0 ,MUCHA NOW AT THE MUCHALAT A-FPAME 266 267 -5-7 F. UCK S" 0 UEUE7 NG-AT—THE-"A-F RAM E AR F" NOK"RE DI SP AT CHE D" HERE TCST Nt XH5,MHiTRUCKI PHI,21,MUCHA MSAVEVALUE LNUG*,XH5,2,1,H "T5T~ 762 783 784 785 786 ~TST~ 788 789 790 791 792 o 268 269 270 Trr 272 273 MSAVEVALUE LNDG*,XH5i5,MH*TRUCK(PHl,l) , H MSAVEVALUE LNDG-,"H*TRUCK (PHI, 21, 2, 1 ,H MSAVEVALUE I Wlifi-. MHtT_PUCK ( PHJU2Jj 5 .MHtT RUCK (P HI. 1 ). H ~hSAVE VAL'UE"" TRUCRTPH'l. 2 > XH5VH SPLIT 1.AAA70 TRANSFER .MUCHA . 793 794 795 796" 797 798 MODEL SEGMENT C - LOGGING TRUCK BREAKDOWNS PARAMETERS PH1» NUMBER OF TRUCK 799 800 801 Tor 803 804 PH2- TIME OF NEXT TVUCk BREAKDOWN 274 "275~ 2 76 277 ~rrw 279 280 ~zsr 283 CCC1 CCC8 284 285 CCC2 CCC3 GENERATE —ACVANCE SPLIT ASSIGN ASSIGN SAVEVALUE TEST GE "ADVANCE TRANSFER AOVANCE LOGIC S , , .1 . .2PH "435 " V71,CCC1,1PH 1*,40,PH  2 ,FNi"l b R K . P H START FUNCTION ALL TRUCKS P.ANGE(41-4C*»TRUCKS)  TIME OF NEXT TRUCK BRfcAkDOhN 806 807 ~BG"B— 809 81C 10.V75.H PH2, XH10.CCC2 ~V77 ,CCC3 PH2 HILL THE BREAKDCHl) OCCUR TODAY? _T0~fllT4UTE AND DAY OF BRTATOllwN OCCURS TODAY 812 813 814 815 816 286 287 PHI TERMINATE TRUCK REACHES CAMP _ ~w H A T - m HE~OOR;"ATI ON C F~RETXI R 7 CCC4 ASSIGN 2 »FNSTTRPR,PH TRUCK IS DUE FOR ktPAlR STT 819 288 289 2 90 ~29T~ 292 293 CCC5 CCC6 MSAVEVALUE TPUCK*,V46,4,PH2,H SAVEVALUE 10.V75.H TEST GE PH2, XH10.CCC5 ADVANCE V77 "TRANSFER VCCC6" ADVANCE PH2 LOGIC R PHI OURATION OF REPAIR B20 821 822 HILL THE TRUCK BE UP TODAY? TO MINUTE AND DAY OF REPAIR OCCURS TODAY THE TRUCK IS UP 294 295 FIND NEXT BREAKDOWN TIME AND FREE TRUCk FOR D15PATCHING" SPLIT 1.CCC7 TRANSFER ,CCC8 823 824 825 "826 827 828 -B79-830 831 MODEL SEGMENT D - YARDER BREAKDOWNS AND MOVING t, RIGGING 832 B33 834 PARAMETERS PH1« NUMBER OF YARDERS PH 2=~"T I f E""DF~oX CURANCE" PH3= DURATION PH4= 1(Map);2(REPAIR) 835 836 _837J 838 839 840 296 297 "29T" 299 300 GENERATE , , 2 0 0 0 0 , 1 . . 4 P H ADVANCE 480 "~5PL"1T Vb2',"DDDTlPH SPLIT Xh3,DDDl,lPH TRANSFER , DDD1 START FUNCTION "YARDER~S~ FOR" H t R " YARDERS FOR BREAKDOWNS 841 842 843 "BAT"'" 845 846 . 301 "3&r 303 304 • MOVING AND RIGGING DDD ASSIGN 1-, l.PH "ASSIGN 4~rr;pv" RANGE! 1-KLNDGS) DCD1G TEST NF TEST NE PH 1,4,0DD2 PH1,5,DDD2 8 4 8 849 85 0 851 852 O CO 00 CO 'CO 30 CD IO» O KD CD CO team n *c r- p 0^  O •O 4) -0 »D * co co co <u *o co ar-*J 3 L < r 1 ; J. a: */»,!/) 4 l/> V ) OC I i i < t - - J m >o ' r - co O 0;0 O fl fl J*^ fl > o o o U J H M Z > »/» w Lo < < * -;> o - * j o - * -n A A . > i n »o r-- r - r -KD 3> 00 ro co 00 la ^ r\i I CO CO co j CO CO CO . . , * UVO f- CD CO 00 0^ CO CO co S CO 00 .30 CO CO Z x a x Q. O » h-• i n * f- * r\j Z - t > > u - UJ * • U * - a : ao <M r 00 »0 UJ b.0 J K ^ a. Z < Z - i *~ z u j in m <i U > * n A */> ac I < ^ <l < i - g */» <t W w Q -< o p t o ID Q U O P Q >- 3 •* tn i / i a F -»P Q rvj O IN »< P- a « a UJ * 2 u I-UJ CJ u 3 • z I/) * i I IS ft, M (M •n fl O* *J* o» > CO CD I CO 0 00 k E in *A hi U M I -» X ?• > -a o r L - °-3 lu J UJ X < O > (- Ul H • I > "> Vi < UJ !z •/> I-r * l CM C o A A . . i - o i o » ; O I X X X » O. Q. H Cv LU Lu ac L C O J O liO 2 o < u1> I- L5 I cc U J U < O , t— f«i 13 -J _ «o r- iao o I co co eo i s co 221 r\j rsj ro h> m fl JO* o - « KM A A IA cn fl o rsj m «* LO w !fl fi A •O N CD rt> fl f*> *n fl fl u O l O O O o» o> ff» o* o* b. (O C* O « N to o o ^ o» o * o 1 , cr w o> is 2 t o < H of X o PARAMETERS PH1» NUMBER OF YARDER 342 343 EEE ~GE~NERATE~ S P L I T ENTER , , . 1 . . 1 P H XH3.EEE.1PH PHI,3000 "TT ART -FUNCTl ON * LANDINGS 345 346 "347 34H 349 -J50-ie.il ADVANCl 10^ 5:00 P.M. * TABULATING VOLUME YARDED.IN CAY BY MACHINE SAVEVALUE 1 1 , H H*LNDGJPHljB)_,M "PHI 3000 CUNITS AT EACH LANDING 914 _915 916 917 918 -TABULATE MSAVEVALUE LNDG,PH1,8,0,H ADVANCE 4 20 12:00 A.M. "TRANSFFP- ETTT STAKT A NEW DAY MODEL SEGMENT F - CAMP,YARDERS AND DUMP DAILY SCHEDULE_ 351 GENERATE 352 353 354 T F T LOGIC i 3T ,435,1, "3T5~ 356 357 UNLINK UNLINK ~L"OGTCR"~ LOGICR ADVANCE CAMPT.CCC7,ALL D UM PT.AAA21 , AL L_ ""32" 33 30 7:15 A.M. DUMP IS SHUT-DOWN U N l l L 919 920 921 ~9?2" 923 924 -975" 92t 927 ~92tT 929 93C -35-r 359 360 361 362 363 LOGICR TT ADVANCE 15 8:00 A. LOGICR 34 YARDERS START-UP TfNL ffik" Y~ART)T , HHH3 , ALL ADVANCE 240 LOGICS 34 „ W 7:45 A . M . EMPTY TRUCKS FREE FOR D I S P A T C H I N G LOAO=D TRUCKS MAY PROCEED TO T H E DUMP TRUXTC5TKOlTTSUMP-£~A"N BE DISPATCHTD TRUCKS FROM LNDGS CAN GO TO DUMP 7:45 A . M . THE DUMP STAUS-UP M. 12:00 A.M. YARDERS DOWN FOR LUNCH 931 932 933 934 935 936 -93T-938 939 94 0 941 942 364 365 366 ""367-368 369 ADVANCE LOGICR UNLINK "ADVANCE"" . LOGICS ADVANCE 30 34 YARDT.HHH3, ALL "210 """ 3 3 15 • 12:30 P.M. YARDERS START-UP AGAIN • 4TOO""PTK; 370 371 372 "373" 374 LOGICS ADVANCE LOGICS ADVANCE -32 15 _34 150 AFTER 4:00 P.M. EMPTY TRUCKS STAY l.V, CAMP 4:15 P.M. AFTEK 4 :15 P.M. LJADEO TRUCKS STAY ,N CAMP 943 944 945 946 947 948 4:30 P.M. YARDERS SHUT-DOWN FOR THE NIGHT TABULATING VOLUME AMD NUMBER OF TABULATE LOADS TVtfO P.M. LOADS DUMPED IN THE DAY 949 950 951 952 953 954 375 376 377 -JTB-3 7 9 TABULATE PROD SAVEVALUE 1,0 SAVEVALUE 2,D,H —735 " "ADVANCE"" TRANSFER "7T15~aTM.—SflD~NE WD A Y ,FFF MODEL SEGMENT G" OVERNIGHT TRUCK SHUT-DOwN "PAPTAMETERS^ ^ ( L 0 & [ ) E R S E Q U E N C E ) ; 1 3 T 0 12*#TRUCKS (ROAD SE0UENCE1 "95T" 956 957^ 958 959 960 ~5oT" 962 963 964 965 966 3 BO 381 382 "3B3" 364 385 GENERATE" S P L I T S P L I T -AS"STGN PFEEMPT ADVANCE , , 9 9 0 , 1 . . 1 PH START SCHEDULE AT 4:30 P.*. XH9.GGG1.1PH RANGE.2 - l*»TRUCKSI XH3,GGG2,1 PH RANGE!3-2*»LMDGSI "T-,"1,"PH" LOADING -SECTIONS PHI SHUT-OCWN LOADERS 930 8:00 A.M. 967 968 969 " 970" 971 972 to to o ( 386 387 vi an RCTURN PHI ADVANCE 510 TRANSFER ,GGG4 REACTIVATE LOADERS IN MORNING 4:30 P.M. 973 974 975 > 389 390 GGG1 GGG3 ASSIGN 1*.11.PH ADVANCE 3 0 PREEMPT PHI RANGE!13-12+#TRUCKS) 5:00 P.M. HOLD THE TRUCKS OVERNIGHT 976 977 978 — < i 391 f 392 393 ADVANCE 900 RETURN PHI ADVANCE 540 8:00 A.M. REACTIVATE THE TRUCKS IN THE MQRNlNj 5:00 P.M. 9 79 980 981 3 " 39 5 "" * *: "TRANSFER " »GGG3 . 982 983 984 * * ^ m MODEL SEGMENT H • YARDING • * • 985 986 987 Qftn j * * * * * * * * * * * * * DAP AM F T FRS T O D 989 990 * * * PHl= NUMBER OF LANDING PH2- VOLUME YARDzO IN 5 PH3= PH1*90 MINUTES 991 992 993 396 397 • GENERATE , ,480,1.,3PH SPLIT XH3.HHH1.1PH START YARDING FUNCTION * LANDINGS 994 995 996 398 399 400 HHH1 HHH3 ASSIGN 3.V84.PH SAVEVALUE 6,V8,H uc A U C U A I nc 1 •jnr..DlHl.&.u**.H ASSIGN THE YARDING RATE/OAY 997 99b 999 ""G'ATE'TR" ^.LN'Ka GATE LK PHI GATE SNF PHI " NEK GAY OR LUNCH? I S THE SIDE SHUT-DOWN? IS THE LANDING PLUGGED? 10C0 401 402 HHHT" 1001 10C2 403 404 405 'ASSIGN 2,V$YARD,PH ENTER PH1.PH2 MSAVEVALUE LNDG+,PHI,8, INCREMENT VOLUME AT LANDING PH2.H 1003 1004 1005 407 ' 408 * "ADVANCE" 5 TRANSFER , HHH2 NEXT-TORN-- 1006 1007 100B * • LlKlK BLOCKS * * * * * » • * * * 1 009 1010 1011 * I " T % V K " I " C T J * — T 6 1 iTiTt" AT r* > « D " At T CO & • l^i P.M. 1012 409 410 u\\ LNK2 LNK3 L~l NK DUMPT.HFO LINK CAMPT.FIFO LINK YARDT.FIFO LU AD I NG T KUlKd A 1 L Rflr flr 1 »t <* *.» r » n * EMPTY TRUCKS AT CAMP AFTER 4:00 P.M. YARDING FUNCTION 1013 1014 i l l 412 HOLD • * L INK AFR.FIFO HOLDING TRUCKS AT THE A-FRAME * * * * * * * * * * 1015 1016 1017 ' * * MODEL SEGMENT I * • * TIMING * * * 1018 1019 102C 413_ 414 GENERATE 1440 "TCITMINATf 1 ONE DAY DECP EKENT-TRE-TERMINATI ON COUNTER B» f -* CONTROL CARDS STATH 5TART I HE 1ST 1K111 I A L I Z A I ION RUN RESET START "END 10 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 M M Ul Appendix 9 System Specifications for the Hewlett-Packard 9830A Computing System a) Calculator - Model 9830A - 8K bytes read/write memory - Matrix ROM - Extended Input/Output ROM - Plotter Control ROM - String Variable ROM - Advanced Programming I ROM - Advanced Programming II ROM b) Printer - Model 9866A - 80 characters/line - 250 lines/minute : - thermal printing c) Plotter - Model 9862A - 15" x 10" plotting surface d) Digitizer - Bendix Corp. (Hewlett-Packard Electronics) - 36" x 48" digiti z i n g surface e) Input/Output Expander - Model 9868A Appendix 10 Operating I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the Truck Dispatching Program KEY FOR DISPATCHING MENU OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS - SCREEN DISPLAY - KEYBOARD INPUT - DIGITIZER INPUT (THE LETTER STANDS FOR THE COLOUR OF BUTTON ON THE CURSOR TO DEPRESS) OR - MENU LOCATIONS < c / ) c / ) — C D Z CD if) _IO<QLIJ^ > - < r r Q u c t : Q O ^ Z CO o — C\J ro if) CD 00 CD TIME o — CM ro m CD | \ 00 cn TIME CM o — CM ro m CD (\ 00 CT> TIME CM ro LO i \ CO O) o o j < z Q - z O G) < o : c r — > i x J _ i O < Q FINISHED 00 Q —COQ. r r L i J Q — c o Q -FINISHED 1^ O O U J U I — O z CD O CM ro if) CD (\ 00 O) if) o CM ro if) ^ - Z Z D r - u J 00 CD O CM CO no CD LU C D ro z CM o — CM ro if) CD oo CD o — CM ro to CD r\ 00 0) ( J o or 1— Q . Q . D \ F i g u r e 35. Truck d i s p a t c h i n g 227 menu. C9 / LU X ( J 1— 00 Operating Instructions for Using the Dispatching Menu 228 LOAD (#) ) ( " ) \ ^  DATA ON FILES? ^ (#),(#) ^ ^ EXECUTE ^ @ LOWER LEFT MARK OF MENU @ UPPER LEFT MARK OF MENU @ UNITS 6. ENTERING HOUR 229 W) @ HOUR IN DAY 7. ENTERING MINUTE ® @ TENS ® @ UNITS 8. DISPATCHING ROUTINE (a.) TRUCK NUMBER ® TRUCK NUMBER (#) (b.) LANDING INVENTORIES ® (c.) ENTERING VOLUME (CUNITS) (^y^ @ HUNDREDS L A N D I N G (#) © @ TENS ® @ UNITS REPEAT STEPS (b.) AND (c.) FOR ALL LANDINGS ANGS xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXANG5XXXXX # .,D00R./a..000R:/.a..D00RU'.3..DQ0 1 RFS MO, 027 3 ^ 3 U N I V E R S I T Y OF B C COMPUTING CENTRE MTSCEP2S6) 0 9 : 4 9 : 3 9 WED MAR 09/77 > S S I G HINK 132 : _ : J m HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH I I I I I I I I 1 1 NN NN KK NNN NNNN NN NN KK I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I NN NN NN KK KK KK KK KK KK HH HH HHHHHHHHHHHH HHHHHHHHHHHH I I I I I I NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN KK KK KKKKKKK KKKKKKK HH HH HH HH HH HH I I I I I I NN NN NN NN NN NNNN NNN KK KK KK KK KK KK HH HH HH I I I . I I I I I I I NN HH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NN NN N KK KK KK KK AAAAAAAAAA NN NN GGGGGGGGGG SS S S S S S S S S AAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A A A NNN NNNN NN NN NN NN NN GGGGGGGGGGGG GG GG GG S S S S S S S S S S S S SS ss ss • _ „ _ . A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA NN NN NN NN NN NN NN $N NN GG GG GG GGGGG sss sssssssss sssssssss AA AA A A AA AA AA NN NN NN NN NNNN NN NNM GG GGGGG GG GG GG GG sss ss ss ss AA AA AA A A NN NN NN N GGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGG SS S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S **LAST SIGNQN WAS: 09: «0,27 USER "HINK" SIGNED ON AT 0 9 * 4 9 : 4 0 ON WED MAR 09/77 $RUN *WATFIV 4 = <*DUMp 3=»FRED EXECUTION BEGINS  C,. C,,CUBIC S P L I N E INTERPOLATION C ..GRAPPLE INTERBREAKDOWN TIMES COMMON C(4.25). YC25) ,Ht25),SC25)  DIMENSION A(23,23)r B(23)f X ( 2 S ) » F ( 1 0 n »P(lOi: ft D A T A P f l T W T . q 4 S .6.. 7 8  A ( 2 C , ,READ  POINTSN = 25 4 S 6 L = N-»1 M = N«.2 DO 1 1=1 N 10 11 .1.2... 13 14 7 a 9 100 1 READ(5#100) X f l ) , Yd) F0RMATC4X.F4,3,F5'.l) IF CI, N E'. 1) H. (11 = Xil..)..-X.II.-.1..)... 10 JLL SOLVING DO 2 DO 3 FOR S'S 1 = 1,M J e t . M  16 17 .1.8... 19 20 _2i 12 A ( I , J ) = 0, r 13 14 IFCI.NE'.J) GO TO 3 A(I,J)=2,*(H(I + l)+H(I + 2)) 23 : 24 IS 16 17 3 IFCJ.NE.n ACI#J-l)=H(I+2) IFCJ .NE ' .Mj A(I,J+l)=H(Itl) CONTINUE 25 26 27 1 3 3 J 18 19 2 B(I)a3,*('H(I + l)*(Y(I+2)^Y(I + l))/H(I+2)+H(I+2)*(Y(Itl)wY(I))/H(Itl)-*) CONTINUE 28 29 3.0 20 21 C. .USING LIBRARY SUBROUTINE SOLTN TO SOLVE LINEAR SYSTEM FOR S NDIM=M CALL SOLTN(A,B.M.NDIM,DET) 31 32 33 2 2 23 4 c, DO 4 1 = 1,M S(I+!)=B(I) .INPUT S VALUES FOR END POINTS 34 35 3.6 24 25 c. S(1)=0, 8(2S)=1.E06 .FINDING COEFFICIENTS 37 38 39 26 27 c. CALL COEFF .INTERPOLATION POINTS DO 5 1=1,101 40 41 42 28 29 c, IA = ,T*1 F (I) = I A/1 001 .FINDING XfI) AND X(I+1) 43 30 31 6 •C. DO 6.J=1,L IF(FCI3'.GF,.X(J).AND'.FCI).LE.XCJ + i n K = J .EVALUATING SPLINE POLYNOMIAL 46 47 .. 48 . : 32 33 5 P(1)=C(1,K)+CC2fK)*(F(I)-X(K))+C(3»K)*(F(I)«X(K))**2+C(fl,K)*(F(I)» *X(K))**3 CONTINUE 49 50 51 34 35 c, P(100)=0» 90UTPUT RESULTS WRlTE(6,10) 52 53 .. _ 54. ..... 36 37 38 10 1 1 FORMATC!1'CUBIC SPLINE INTERPOLATION;') WRITE (6, 1 1) FORMAT (t 0 'POINT X P!) 55 56 57 39 40 41 12 WRITE(6,12) FORMAT CO?) DO 7 1 = 1,101 58 59 .. .. .6.0. 42 43 44 13 7 wRiTEf4,i3) Fcn,pm FORMATC2F7.2) WRITE(6,14) I.F(I),P(I) 61 62 63 45 <> 46 47 14 15 FORMAT(' ',I4,2F7.2) WRITEC6.15) FORMAT(i1!, 'DATA POINTS!') 64 65 6.6 48 49 50 16 W RIT E (6 , J 6) FORMAT(!0',« X Y') WRITE(6,12) 67 68 69 51 52 S3 8 DO 8 1=1#N WRITE(3,13) X(I),Y(I) WRITE(6,17) X(I),Y(I) 70 71 72 54 55 56 17 FORMATC ',2F7,2) STOP END 73 74 75 c. c. 'SUBROUTINE TO CALCULATE COEFFICIENTS 76 77 < 57 58 59 SUBROUTINE COEFF COMMON C(4,25),Y(25),H(2S),S(25) DO 200 1=1,24 78 79 80 > H 60 C(l,I)=Y(I) 81 61 62 c ( ^ , n . a f S ( i + n + s c i ) - a , * ( ( Y C i + n - Y ( i n / H ( i i . i ) ) J;H (I + D * * 2 82 8.3 63 200 C ( 3 , I ) = C( Y ( 1 + 1 ) * Y C I ) ) / H ( I + l)-S(I))/H(I+l)»C(4,1)*H(I + 1) 6U 6« RETURN 85 > 65 END 8fo $DAT A r CUBIC SPLINE INTERPOLATION. POINT X P J 1 2 3 0.00 o'.oi 0.02 0,00 0.34 1,19 ; 4 s 6 0.03 0.04 0.05 2.28 3.34 4.12 7 8 9 0.06 0'.0 7 0.08 4.43 4.56 4,66 10 n 12 0.09 0.10 0. 1 1 4,76 4,86 4,96 13 14 15 0.12 0!. 13 0.14 5,09 5,20 5,31 16 17 18 6.15 0. 16 0'. 17 5,40 5,49 5.57 < 19 20 '21 0'. 18 0.19 0,20 5,62 5,65 5,67 22 23 24 0.21 0.22 0.23 5,69 5,70 5.70 25 26 27 0.24 0.25 0.26 S.72 5.74 5.77 28 29 30 0.27 0.28 0.29 5,83 5,90 6.00 31 32 33 0.30 0.31 0.32 6,11 6,22 6,32 34 35 36 0.33 0.34 0.35 6,42 6,51 6.58 37 38 39 0.36 0'.37 0.38 6,65 6,70 6.75 40 41 42 0.39 0'.4 0 0'.41 6,78 6,81 6.84 * 43 44 45 0.42 0.43 0'.44 6,86 6,88 6.89 46 47 48 0.45 0'.46 0.4 7 6,91 6,93 6.96 49 50 51 0.48 0.49 0.50 6.99 6,99 6.85 52 53 54 0.51 0.52 0'.53 6.59 6,25 5.89 55 0'.54 5,54 H C.NT3 PTR4 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx XXXXXXX XXXXXXXX xxxxxxxxxxXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXTKXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXxxxxx x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x ..FUND.. .1. .FUND...2.» FUND...3..FUND.» »4. . FUND.. »5 . .FUND ... 6. . FUND . . . 7 . . FUND . . . 8. . F UND . < . 9. .FUND. . . Q. .FyNO. . . 1. .FUN D . . . 2 . .FUND . . .3 . UNIVERSITY OF B C COMPUTING CENTRE MTS(UG118) 13:26:58 R'FS NO. 27908 5 WED SEP 2 0/78 $SIG HINK P=80 20 E HH HH HH i m i l l i n HH I III I II III HH HH HH HH HH HH I r I I 1 1 NN NNN NNNN NN NN NN NN NN NN KK KK KK KK NN NN NN KK KK KK KK KK KK HHHHHHHHHHHH HHHHHHHHHHHH HH HH II I I-II NN NN NN KKKKKKK NN NN NN KKKKKKK NN NN NN KK KK HH HH HH HH IT NN HH I I • NN HH • I I I I I I I I I I NN NNNN KK NNN KK NN KK KK KK KK HH HH 111IIII 111 NN N KK KK **LAST SIGNON WAS: 21:39:11 WED SEP 13/78 USER "HINK" SIGNED ON AT 13:26:58 ON WED SEP 20/78 • " C I S T G R S I M ' ' 1 SIMULATE 2 * 3 # .^**3^^*^*^^*#^S{t^^^^**^*^*^^^#5^*^^ 5 * * GOLD RIVER LOGGING OPERATION * 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 FOLLOWING IS A GPSSV SIMULATION OF TAHSIS* GOLC RIVER LOGGING * DIVISION, BASED ON COMPANY OWNED YARDERS, LOADERS AND TRUCKS* TRACING * THE STUMP TC DUMP TRANSPORTATION OF LOGS. * TIME UNITS = MINUTES 15 16 17 18 19 20 * TABLE DEFINITIONS * • . • *VOLUME YARDED/DAY {CUBIC FEET) BY YARDER i ; T A B L E x T u T T i o T r o W i T o 2 TABL E XH11,0,1000,20 3 TABLE XH11 ,0,1000,20 J C I 21 22 23 4 5 6 TABL E XH11,C, 1000, 20 TABLE XH11,0,1000,20 TABLE XH11,C,1G00,20 > 24 25 2 6 * ' • *QUEUEING TIME AT LANDINGS QUE1 QTABLE 1,0,10,12 LANDING*! - AREA K8(A) 207 27 28 29 QUE 2 QUE 3 QUE 4 QTABLE 2,0,10,12- LANDING#2- AREA K8(B) . QTABLE 3,0,10,12 L ANDING#3 - AREA 68 QTABLE 4,0,10,12 LANDING#4 - AREA P8 s 30 31 3 2 QUE 5 QUE6 * QTABLE 5,0,10,12 LAND I NG#5 - AREA E5G Q TABLE 6,0,10,12 LANDING#6 - AREA N8 33 . 34 35 •NUMBER OF LOADS DUMPED PER DAY LOADS TABLE XH2,0,5,15 • 36 3 7 38 •PRODUCTION PER DAY (CUBIC FEET J PROD TABLE XI,0,5000,30 * -39 40 41 * MATRIX SAVEVALUE DEFINITIONS * •LOGGING TRUCK CHARACTERISTICS 42 43 44 TRUCK • .• 'MATRIX H,14,6 14 TRUCKS THE ROWS IN THE MATRIX -STAND FOR THE TRUCK NUMBER COLUMN DEFINITIONS: 45 46 47 * MH: 1= AVER AGE TRUCK LOAD (CUBIC FEET) 2=LA NDING NUMBER THE TRUCK IS DISPATCHED TO 3=T0TAL VOLUME HAULED BY TRUCK (CUNITS) 48 49 *50 * * 4=T0TAL DOWNTIME (MINUTES) 5=ESTI MATED COMPLETION TIME . 6 = ESTI MAT ED COMPLETION TIME 51 52 53 •LANDING CHARACTERISTICS LNDG MATRIX K, 6, 11 -"54 55 56 * • • THE ROW'S IN THE' MATRIX STAND FOR THE LANDING NUMBER COLUMN DEFINITIONS: MH: 1 = DISPATCHING PRIORITY BASED ON DISTANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY < 57 58 59 • 2 = THE CURRENT NUMBER OF TRUCKS DISPATCHED TC THIS LANDING 3= THE CURRENT DISPATCHING INDEX 4=THE CURRENT DAY'S YARDING RATE'(CUBIC FEET/DAY) 60 61 6 2 • 5= THE AVERAGE VOLUME THAT IS ACCCUNTEO FCR CN THE LANDING 6=T0TAL YARDER DOWNTIME (MINUTES) 7 = T0TAL LOADER REPAIR TIME (MINUTES) 63 64 ' 65 • 8= TOTAL VOLUME YARDED (CUNITS) . 9=# OF LAST TRUCK DISPATCHED TO LANDING 10=EST.UNLOADED TRIP TI ME TO LANDING-66 67 68 * iV ll=ESToLOADED TRIP TIME TO CAMP • INITIALIZING NUMBER OF LANDINGS AND TRUCKS 69 70 71 INITIAL XH9,14. 14 LOGGING TRUCKS INITIAL XH3,5 6 LANDINGS INITIAL XH13,43 AVERAGE LOADING TIME 72 73 74 • • INITIALIZING MATRIX SAVEVALUES INITIAL MH$TRUCK(1 ,1) ,2077/MH$TRUCK(2,U ,2 123 . ' 75 76 77 INITIAL MH$TRUCK(3,1),2013/MH$TRUCK(4,1),2771 INITIAL MH$T RUCK (5 , 1), 29 61/MH$TRUCK {6, 1 i , ,1 26 2 INITIAL MH$TRUCK{7 ,1) ,2044/MH$TRUCK (8 ,1),2003 78 79 80 INITIAL MH$TRUCK(9, 1) , 1 241/MH$TRUCK (10 , 1) , 1821 INITIAL MH$TRUCK(11,1),2794/MH$TRUCK(12,1),2839 INITIAL MH$TRUCK( 13,1) , 2986/MH$TRUCK (14 ,1 ) ,3337 81 82 83 * INITIAL MHSTRUCK (15,1 ) ,3387/MH$TRUCK{ 16, 1) ,3314 * INITIAL MH$TRUCK{17,1 ) , 1353/MH STRUCK (18 ,1 j ,1438 INITIAL M H $ L N D G ( 1 , 1 ) » 2 / M H S L N D G ( 2 , 1 ) » 2/MH$ L NDG(3 »1) ,3 8 5 86 INITIAL MH$ LNDG(4,1),0/MH$LNDG < 5 » 1 ),3/MH$LNDG< 6 , 1 ) , 1 INITIAL MH$LNDG(1,10) ,51/MH $ L NO G(2 ,10),51/NH$LNDG(3, 1 0 ) , 5 6 INITIAL MH$LNDG(4, 10), 12 2/MH$L NDG ( 5 , 10) ,51 2 0 B / 87 88 89 INITIAL MH$LNDG(6,10),96/ MHSLNDG (1 ,11 ) , 50/.MH$LNDG ( 2, 11) , 50 INITIAL MH$LNDG(3, 11),55/MH$LNDG(4,11),120 INITIAL • MH$LNDG(5, 11),50/MH$LNDG( 6 , 1 1 ) , 9 5 91 92 * SAVEVALUE DEFINITIONS * 93 94 95 * X1=T0TAL NUMBER OF CUBIC FEET DUMPED IN THE DAY * XH2=T0TAL NUMBER OF LOADS DUMPED IN THE DAY * XH3=T0TAL NUMBER CF LANDINGS 96 97 98 * Xfl5=.THE LANDING A TRUCK IS DISPATCHED TO BEFORE CUEUEING AT £-FRAME * XH7-INITIAL DISPATCHING INDEX' * XH8=RANDOM NUMBER 99 100 101 • * XH9=NUMBER OF LOGGING TRUCKS * XH10 = FVARIABL E #42 OR 75 * XH11=VGLUME YARDED/DAY 102 103 104 * XH12=TIME UNTIL ENOUGH VOLUME IS YARDED * XH13 =AV ER AG E ESTIMATE OF LOADING TIME * 105 106 107 * STORAGE DEFINITIONS * 1 ' STORAGE 8000 LANDINGS HAS AN 80 CUNIT CAPACITY 108 109 110 2 STORAGE 8000 LAND I NG# 2 HAS AN 80 CUNIT CAPACITY 3 STORAGE 8000 LAND ING# 3 HAS AN 80 CUNIT CAPACITY 4 STORAGE 8000 LANDING#4 HAS AN 80 CUNIT CAPACITY 111 112 113 5 STORAGE 8000 LANDI NG# 5 HA.S AN 80 CUNIT CAPACITY . 6 STORAGE 8000 LANDINGS HAS AN 80 CUNIT CAPACITY * 114 115 116 * FTJNC'T ION DEFINITION'S *FN$NORM= NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION 117 118 119 NORM FUNCTION V$RAND,C25 0 , - 5 / , 0 0 0 0 3 , - 4 / . 0 0 1 3 5 , - 3 / . 0 0 6 2 1 , - 2 . 5 / . 0 2 2 7 5 , - 2 . 0 6 6 8 1 , - 1 . 5 / . 1 1 5 0 7 , - 1 . 2 / . 1 5 8 6 6 , - 1 / . 2 1 1 8 6 , - . 8 / . 2 7 4 2 5 , - . 6 • 120 121 122 o 3445 8 , -o4/o4207 4 , - o 2/o 5 , 0 / o 579 26,o 2/o 6 5 5 ^ 2 , « 4 .7 2 57 5 , . 6 / . 7 8 8 1 4 , . 8 / . 8 4 1 3 4 , 1 / . 8 8 4 9 3 , 1 . 2 / . 9 3 3 1 9 , 1 . 5 . 9 7 7 2 5 , 2/. 99379,2 . .5/. 99865,3 /.99997 ,4/1 ,5 123 124 125 *FN$DL AY 1= CAMP DEL^Y(LOADED) (MINUTES) DLAY1 FUNCTION V$RAN0,C15 126 127 128 0 , 0 / o 0 1 , o 3 / o 0 2 , o 5 / o 0 9 , e 6^i/c 278, 1 . / . 444,1 . 2 8 / . 756,1 . 9 2 / . 856 , 2.4 . 9 , 2 . 8 8 / . 9 3 , 3 . 3 6 / . 9 6 , 4 . 8 / . 9 7 , 8 . 6 4 / . 9 8 , 1 1 . 8 4 / . 9 9 , 1 3 . 4 4 / 1 , 16 129 130 131 • *FN$DL AY 2= CAMP DELAY(EMPTY) (MINUTES) DLAY2 FUNCTION V$RAND,C16 0 , 0 / . 167, . 3 2/. 2 2 , . 8 / . 3 6 , l o 28 /o4,2o4/o43 ,2o 8 8/„ 5 7 ,3 .84/o 7 2 ,5 .12 132 133 134 .86 , 6 . 4/ .9 , 7 . 27 . 92 , 8 . 3 2 / . 9 4 , 9 . 447 . 96, 10 . 88/ . 97, 11. 84/.99 ,14.08/1 ,1 6 *FN$UNLD= UNLOADING TIME (MINUTES) 135 136 137 UNLD FUNCTION VSRAND,C14 0 , 3 . 8/ .04 , 4 . 6 / . 1 ,5 . / . 2 3 , 5 . 4 / .48 , 6 . 2 / . 5 8 , 6 . 6 / . 6 3 , 7 . / . 8 5 , 8 . 6 . 9 , 9. 4/. 93, 1 0 « 2 / « 9 6 t 11. 8/o 98 , 1 3 . 6/ . 99 ,1 5. 4/1 , 1 8 . 6 138 139 140 *FN$ LDBR K= LOADER INTERBREAKDOWN TIME (HOURS) LDBRK FUNCTION V$RAND,C23 J f 141 0,0/. 01 ,.42/,0 2,1 .42/.03,2.49/.04, 3. 1/.05 ,3.41/ . 1,4.4 2/ .2, 6.54 142 .3.6. 14/. 31 , 11. 2 7/. 4,1 8. 7/. 5 ,31 .4/.6 ,34. 84/o 7 ,47„ 96/ »8 , 67 o0 2/o 9, 8 5 „27 143 ,92,90.12/.94, 10U61/.96,104,78/.97, 137. 75/. 9 8,186. 99/.99,220./I ,280. 144 * 145 *FN$GRBRK = GRAPPLE INTERBREAKDOWN TIME (HOURS) 2 0 3 I 146 GRBRK FUNCTION V$RAND,C25 • ) 147 0,0/, 05,4,/.06 ,4. 5/. 11 ,5./.16 ,5. 5/. 29, 6./.34, 6, 5/.4 8,7./. 61,7. 5/,6 3, 9, \ 148 . 64, 10o/o66, l l c / o 68,12o/o74, l4o /o77 ,15o/o 79,16./»81 ^ 25 0/„82,.28 0/.89 ,31. 149 . 92,3 9./. 94, 54, / .95,95./.9 7, 111./. 98, 1.27./I. , 15 7. 150 151 *FM$TL BR K=LOADER REPAIR TIME (MINUTES) 152 TLBRK FUNCTION V$RAND,C14 153 0,G/0. 12 5,30/. 52 5, 60/. 613,90/.663,120/. 71 3, 150/. 813, 180/. 88 8, 240 154 o 9, 270/o 925, 300/ c 9.63, 330/. 97 5,3 60/o 988,3 90/1 o ,4 80 155 * • • 156 *FN$TTWMR= TOWER MOVE AND RIG-TINE (MINUTES I 157 TTWMR FUNCTION V.t.RAND,C12 1 58 0,0/.073,30/.341,60/.512,90/.707,120/.78,150/.829,180/.£54,210 159 .927, 240/. 951 ,2707.976 ,300/1 ,360 160 * •.. 161 *FN$TGMR= GRAPPLE MOVE AND RIG TIME (MINUTES) 162 T'G'M'R FUNCTION V$RAND,C8 163 0,0/o 104, 30/o375 ,60/o479,90/ o75,120/o792,150/o896,180/1 ,240 164 * 165 *FN$TTBRK- YARDERS 1 & 6 REPAIR TIME (MINUTES) 166 TTBRK FUNCTION V$RAND,C9 . I 167 0,0/.13 8,30/.379,60/.448,90/.655,120/.793,15 0/,9 31,180/.966,210/1,240 I 168. * • , ' 169 . *FN$TGBRK= GRAPPLE REPAIR TIME (MINUTES) 170 TGBRK FUNCTION V$RAND,C13 171 0 , 0 / . 197, 30/. 479,60/.521 ,90/. 746 ,120/.789 ,150/.845 ,180/„887,210 172 o944,240/.958,270/.972,330/.986,360/1,42 0 173 * 174 *FN$TTRPR= TRUCK REPAIR TIME {MINUTES', 175 TTRPR FUNCTION V$RANO,C16 176 0,0/.124, 30/.387,60/.484,90/.64,120/.71, 150/.785, 180/.8 12,210 177 .855, 24G/o876, 270/„ 909 , 300/. 93 ,330 /«, 957 ,3 60/. 968 ,3 90 U973 ,510/1 ,570 178 179 *FN$TBRK= INTERBREAKDOWN TIME FCR TRUCKS (MINUTES) 180 TBR.K FUNCTION V$RAND,C13 . 181 0,0/.16,360/.3,720/.39,1080/,55,1800/.67,2520/.75,3240 182 .82,4320/.87,5760/.92,7920/.96,10440/.99,129 60/1,15 840 183 * 184 *FN1 = INDEX FOR REDISPATCHING POLICY 185 1 FUNCTION PH1,D6 186 1,8BB41/2,BBB4i/3,BBB40/4,BBB40/5,BBB42/6»BB B40 187 • * 188 *FN2 = INDEX FOR AREA REDISPATCHING POLICY 189 • 2 FUNCTION PH2,D2 190 . 1,2/2,1 191 £ • 192 *FN3= INDEX FOR A-FRAME REDISPATCHING POLICY 193 3 FUNCTION PH3,D3 194 3,4/4,3/6,3 195 * 196 *FN4= INDEX FOR A-FRAME REDISPATCHING POLICY 197 4 FUNCTION PH3,D3 198 3,6/4,6/6,4 199 •* 200 *FN5= TRANSFER INDEX FOR YARDER BREAKDOWNS AND C&R M A D E I N C A N A D A ro r o r o ro ro ro ro ro ro r o ro ro ro ro I\ J ro ro ro r o ro ro ro r o ro ro ro ro ro ro ro I\J ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro O Ul sTI Ul Ul Ul Ul UV Ul Ul J> J> j> j> U J OJ U J UJ UJ UJ U J OJ U J U J ro ro ro ro r o ro ro ro ro ro H-" H-< r-• H-" H-- H-» H " O O 0 O O 0 O O 0 O vO CD -sj o Ul J> UJ l\J H H o x6 CD - j o Ul J > U J ro H-" O sO CO 1^ 0 Ul -f> OJ ro H-* O sO 00 —J O Ul J> U J ro 1—• O sD CO ~ J O Ul J> UJ ro H-» O xO 00 —si O Ul U J ro M i t i t •it * •a- -* * i t # # -Jf- i t i t i t -It i t H H * #t »—• OJ Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul -1 U J ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro •—• H-1 H H H-> I—* H-< s : O Ul J> U J ro H-" -1 v£> ••O vD xO sO xO -< «# 0 T l Ul t—• vO CO - J O Ul J> 73 o x£> CO O Ul -*> U J ro O sO 00 —j O Ul J > UJ r n 73 O Ul 4 > UJ y\) H H J> r o 2 O CO H H X> x> \ O O r> < 0 < 0 ro ii O m m I r n H H H"< r - —H r - 2 H-* H H Ul TI r~ TI TI TI T i TI TI TI TI TI TI TI TI T l TI TI Tl T l T l T l T l T l T l T l T l T l T l T) T l T l T l T l T l T l T l T l T l CD < T i 2 S. 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O r - r~ r r— | — <— r* O x0 xO * • « 6 » • • 0 • m 0 • * 0 • m r n r n m r n m O 2 2 2 2 2 2 c r r H H H> to m CO CO CO co co CO i t i t TI H H vO co ro U J -si * -si O H - O H-» 00 ro -s) r - 00 co CO GO CO _ ir> 4*  Wt Wt tft- *«• CD 2 CO •• Xt co Tj XI TJ TJ TJ TJ Tt TI 2 i t » * * » * T l * * * * <* n TJ TJ TJ TJ XI TJ f— 2 2 2 2 2 2 H H f-o TJ O o O o O o a o O 2 2 TI- TI T i T i T i T l 2 T l T l T l T l T l n T l T l > O 0 O a 0 O > O O O O O O O > O * * * * i t # irr 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 a * •a- *• i t -it » 2 73 X) XI X) XI X> —1 O -si 2 H-* ro H - H-1 o 2 2 O Wt w •t* Wt W> 2 Wt Wt «r> •tr> ( O H - H-' J> r - O 2 2 2 T l O H -• H H xO o H - O o i> a O 71 2 2 2 2 2 2 O 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 r o O -si » O O H H + + + + + + m X -sl 2 0 • • • * 8 2 73 73 2 O O O a 0 O ^) O O O O O CD O O ax* • e • . • • 2 -J -si •—* —J xO 00 m ,HH ^s G TJ 2 2 + x> 7 3 ;» 73 73 73 2 XI X> 73 XI 70 X> X> H H CD -sj - J U J U J l-H H-» 2 Ul H + •f H-» 2 2 2 2 2 2 + 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 CO ro H H 00 co 0 xO 0 m <~» - J - J O + + + + + + O + + + + + + t + r— ro U J -4 0 co 2 J> O xO r—* H H H - H-* H-* J> H-' Cr> H-> H** H-- H-« -H ^ ro TJ 0 ^ > H H —J Ul ro - J U l J> J > 4> 00 O O Ul Ul 4> O O O m 2 0 2 xO UJ - J ro 0 ro Ul U J H - 00 U J Ul vO 1—• H-* U J vO -sj 2 H H r— H-* C ro sO xO J> 00 U J r - 1— sO ro U J U J Ul vO - J ro 0 CO 2 H H -sj - —1 • • 0 00 U J O O U J J> • Ul 1—• H> Ul O vO vO H-" C O \ m Ul ro sO ro 0 Ul ro U J • 0 Ul ro U J 0 -4 < 0 Co • w e • » -si • • H-. 0 • • a • T l m V. Ul CT< O U J — N Ul U J — 0 Ul ro U J CO co 0 a c 2 -a T l T l XI X) a o ~Z. 2 > 3 > 2 2 a o cn 0 Ox Ul T l T l T l Xi XI X 0 0 0 2 T 2 3 > > J > 2 2 2 a a o H H H H M 2 2 2 o o o % % % 4> U J ro n X" a 2 2 o H H 2 a o o —1 _| XI X! c : c o n 3^  7x sjfc ^ H -CO — J o o o .'J 73 73 e c c o o o 7 : 7 x ^ * % « : H-' H-* H-> o in J> 0 0 0 XI XI XI c c c 0 0 0 X 7x 7x % % * t—' 1—1 )—* U! I\).H t— o o o -H -H -H X> X> X> C C C 0 0 0 7* ~z * * ?fe I— v£> 00 o O O ! H -H X I X J X > c c c o o o i 7; 7x 7x *fc % % ->i Ox Ul 0 0 0 XI XI XJ c c c 0 0 0 7* 7\ 7Z % =fc * 4 > U J IN» O 30 C o 7=; Hit CO co 0 —I "Hi O O I> t> 2 2 O O H H H H 2 2 * % o u i T l 73 o .I* ( T l X ) > 2 m 0 0 0 J> j> i> 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * % J> U J ro TI - n X> XJ 0 o 2 2 1 ( T l T l 73 73 J> > 2 2 m m 2 a H H 2 CD * 2 2 1 O O i H H H H 2 2 a cn * 3fc! O Ul J > 1 > J > 2 Z 2 o o o H H H H H H 2 2 2 o <r> o % % J> oJ ro > 2 O LSI 261 32 FVARI ABLE .60./V$ESPD*7. DUMP TO CAMP OR CAMP TO A-FRAME 26 2 47 FVARIABLE Vl-PHIO TO CAMP FROM 1 263 . 48 FVARIABLE V2-PH10 TO CAMP FOR REDISPATCHINGt11 264 49 FVARI ABLE V3-PH10 TO A-FRAME FOR RED ISPATCHINGC 3) 265 50 FVARI ABLE .V4-PH1G TO A-FRAME FOR REDISPATCHING(4) 266 51 FVARI ABLE V5-PH10 TO CAMP FOR REDI SPATCHING< 5) / 7 267 52 FVARI ABLE V6-PH1C TO A-FRAME FOR RED ISPATCHING{ 6) . 268 * 269 •DISPATCHING VARIABLES -:270 * 271 33 FVARI ABLE S^8+V72^MH$LNDG(PH8,4)/480-MH$LNDG(PH 6,5} 272 34 VARIABLE PH8+6 273 35 VARIABLE 12 0-MH$LNDG{ PH8 ,1 ) . 274 36 VAR I ABLE 115-MH$LNDG<PH8, 1 )-10^MH$LNDG(:PH8, 2) +5^G+PH8 275 38 VARIABLE (MH$TRUCK<PHI,1)-V33J/100 276 40 VARIABLE 18+PH1 277 53 VARIABLE PH3+12 • 2 78/ 70 VARIABLE XH9-6 279 71 VARIABLE XH9-1 280 72 FVAR I ABLE 60./V$ESPD*13. 281 73 VARIABLE MH$TRUCK(PH1,2)+18 282 . 46 VAR I ABLE' PH1-40 2 83 80 FVARIABLE PH7/100 2 84 81 VARIABLE PHl-12 285 82 VARIABLE XH3 + 1 286 83 VARIABLE PH8+18 287 84 VARI ABLE PH1+90 288 85 VARI ABLE FN 6+18 289 ' .86 VARIABLE MH$TRUCK(V81,2) 290 87 VARIABLE FN3+18 291 88 VARIABLE FN4+18 292 89 VARI ABLE PH12-PH10 2 93 90 VARIABLE . MH$LNDG( PH8, 1QJ + XH13 294 104 VARI ABLE V105+M1 295 105 FVARIABLE PH14+930+V106^1440+(V107/510-V106)*510 296 106 VARI ABLE V107/510 297 107 FVARIABLE MH$TRUCK(Phl,5)-PH14 298 108 FVARIABLE S*8+(PH13J*MH$LNDG<PH8 ,4)/480-MH$LN0G(PH8,5) 299 109 FVARI ABLE (M H$TRUCK(P HI,1)-V108)#480/MH$LNDG(PH 8,4) 3 00 113 FVARIABLE S*8 + (PHI 3)•MH$LNDG( PH8 »4 )/480-PH15 30 1 114 FVAR I ABLE MH$TRUCK(PH16,5)r<V115l*930-Ml 302 115 V ARIABL E (MH$TRUCK( PH16, 5)-Ml-V42)/930 303 116 FVARI ABLE MH$TRUCK(PH8f5)-(V117)^930-Ml 304 117 VARIABLE { MH $TRUC K( PH8 , 5) - M1-V42 ) / 930 3 05 118 VARI ABLE R*8+S^8-V108 306, 119 VARIABLE 2^MH$T PUCK (PHI ,1 ) 307 120 VARIABLE 3*MH$TRUCK(PH1,1) 3 08 • 121 FVARIABLE . { MH$T RUCK(PHI,1)-V!13)•480/MH$LNDG(PH 8 ,4) 309 122 VARIABLE MH$ LNDG(PH 8 ,10)-35 309*2 123 FVARI ABLE (V$LDTM-PH10)/V$LDTM^PH7 309,4 124 FVARIABLE PH10/V$LDTM«PH7 309.6 125 VARIABLE PH7-PH5 310 * 311 •EVENT DATE AND TIME OF DAY VARIABLES ' ' 312 * 313 41 VARIABLE Ml/1440 3 14 42 FVARIABLE 990-(Ml/ 1440-V41 )*1440 315 43 FVAR! ABLE PH2-XH10 316 44 FVAR I ABL E XH10+9 30+V45*1440+1V43/510-V45)•510. < 317 45 VARIABLE V43/510 J f 318 75 FVARI ABLE 1005-(M 1/1440-V4 1)•1440 319 76 FVARIABLE PH2-XH10 320 77 FVARIABLE XH1Q+870+V78*1440+(V76/570-V78)^570o 321 78 VARI ABLE V76/570 ' 32 2 2 12 323 •RANDOM NUMBER GENERATION f 3 24 * \ 3 25 3 9 FV ARI ABLE XH8/100G. 326 R AN D FVARIABLE 1-RN1/10Q0. • : 3 2 ? * 328 •LOADING VARIABLES 329 330 VOL FVARI ABLE 0.1985^PH5-46.8 VOL.LOADED BASED ON WEIGHT 331 PIECE FVARI ABLE ( ( 5 7 1 . 5 * V 3 9 - 9 2 4 . 7 6 ) * V 3 9 + 4 3 2 . 0 4 1 * V 3 9 * 6 . 4 3 5 1 33 2 • H PIECES IN LOAD 333 LDTM FVARIABLE 14.8726>1.06'68^PH4 LOADING TIME (MINUTE S) 334' WAIT F VAR I ABLE PH6~PH5/PH7^PH6 LOADING TIME. (CAN'T F I N I S H ) 335 RLT FVARIABL E PH6-(PH7-PH5)/PH7^PH6 LOADING TIME(CAN F I N I S H ) 336 * 33 7 •YARDING VARIABLE 33 8 * 339 YARD FVARI ABLE MH$LNDG(PHI,4)/96, VOLUME YARDED IN 5 MINUTES 340 * 341 • HAULING VARIABLES 342 • 343 LSPD FVARIABLE ( ( 27.7!•V39-50«943)•V39+34.4226)*V39+6 e418 344 * TRAVEL LOADED SPEED (M.P.H.) 345 E$PD F VAR I ABLE ('(28. 202*V39-38 .96 I J.*V39+18.5 791 j • V 39 + 7. 92325 346 * TRAVEL EMPTY SPEED (M.PoH,) 347 • 348 • INTERBREAKDOWN TIMES (MINUTES) 349 • 350 TWBRK FVARI ABLE 60 . • ( { (680 .4^V39-659.06)•V39+ 199.06)* V29) 3 51 TOWERS ( L AND INGS 1 6 6) 352 LBRK FVAR I ABLE 60.•FN SLDBRK LOADERS 353 GBRK FVARIABLE 60.•FN IGRBRK GRAPPLES(LANDINGS 4 6 51 3 54 355 •INTER MOVE AND RIG TIMES (MINUTES) 356 * • 357 GMR F VARIABLE 6 0 . * ( M 2 8 7 * V 3 9 - 3 0 2 .9 )*V39 + 104)*V3.9 ) 358 * GRAPPLES 3 59 TMR FVARIABLE 6 0 . • ( 4 3 , 3 5 2*FN $NORM + 87,78) TOWERS 3 60 361 • BOOLEAN VARIABLE " . 362 • 36 3 t'HEKl BVARIABLE VI08'GE'MH $~RUCK(PHI.1) 364 CHEK2 BVARIABLE V33«GE 'MH$TRUCK(PHI,15 365 CHEK3 BVARI ABLE V I 1 3 » GE' MH $ T RUCK (P H1, 1) 366 • • 3.67 • . F A C I L I T Y INDEXING 368 369 * i fO #LNOGS' LOADERS ON LANDINGS 1 TO S LANDINGS 370 • 31 GOLD RIVER DUMP 371 • 13 TO 12+#TRUCKS SECTION OF ROAD THAT A TRUCK IS PRESENTLY 372 • 373 * LOGIC SWITCH INDEXING 3 74 315 *' i TO #LNOG'S YARDERS ON 'LANDINGS 1 TO I LANDINGS 37 6 • 41 TO 40 + #TRUCKS LOGGING- TRUCKS 3 77 • 19 TC 18+#LNDGS LOADERS ON LANDINGS 1 TO # LANDINGS J f 378 31 GOLD RI VER DUMP 379 * 32 ROAD FROM CAMP TO DUMP • 380 * 33 LEAVING CAMP FOR BUSH 381 * 34 YARDING TIMING 382 * 35 DISPATCHING SWITCH 2 13 383 * 40 , LOADERS PAST THE A-FRAME 3 84 3 85 3 86 * * * 387 MODEL .'SEGMENT A * HAUL I NG * 388 * • * 3 89 * 390 391 * TRUCK PARAMETERS 392 * PH1 = LOGGING TRUCK NUMBER 393 P'H"2= NUMBER OF LANDING ASSIGNED TO 394 PH3= COPY OF PH2 (INDEXING) 395 PH4= NUMBER OF PIECES TO BE LOADED . 39 6. * PH5= LOAD WEIGHT = LOAD VOLUME 397 * PH6= LOADING TIME 39 8 PH7= COPY OF PH5 399 * PH8= LANDING NUMBERING INDEX FOR DISPATCHING 400 PH9= LANDING NUMBERING INDEX FOR DISPATCHING 401 * PH10= PREEMPTION PARANETER NUMBER 402 * PH11= MAXIMUM DISPATCHING INDEX LANDING - . • 403 • PH12= TRAVEL TIME BACK FOR REDISPATCHING 404 PH13= DISPATCHING INDEX 405 * PH14= TIME TO 'COMPLETE' CAMP TO LOADED STATE 406 PH15= LANDING VOLUME ACCOUNTED FOR 40 7 PH16= DISPATCHING INDEX VARIABLE 408 409 STARTING CONDITIONS 410 • GENERATE , ,,1,1,16PH HAULING SEQUENCE STARTS AT 8:01 A» M„< DAY 1) 411 ADVANCE 481 412 SPLIT V70,AAA1,1PH #TRUCKS~6 IN CAMP LOADED 413 SPLIT 5,AAA2,1PH 6 TRUCKS READY FOR DISPATCHING 414 ASSIGN 1,1,PH TRUCK#1 415 TRANSFER ,DISP TO DISPATCHER 416 AAA2 ASSIGN 1-,1,PH TRUCK#2 TO #6 417 TRANSFER ,DISP . TO DISPATCHER 418 AAA 1 ASSIGN 1+,5,PH TRUCK#7 AND UP 419 ASSIGN 7,MH$TRUCK(PH1,1),PH 4 20 * LOADED TRUCKS ASSIGNED AVERAGE LOAD VOLUME 421 ASSIGN H-,4Q,PH RANGE (47-4G+#TRU CKS ) 422 TRANSFER ,AAA21 AT CAMP 4 23 424 CAMP DELAYS - START OF HAULING MODEL LOOP 42 5 DISP TRANSFER .089,AAA3,AAA5 91.1? CHANCE OF CAMP DELAY 426 A A A3 ADVANCE FN$DLAY2 CAMP DEL AY (UNLOADED )' 427 a . .428 * DISPATCHING POLICY -MINIMUM RETURN TIME METHOD*LANDING ALMOST PLUGGED) 429 • 430 AAA5 MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PH 1,5 ,32000,H 431 MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PHI, 6,32000,H 432 ASSIGN 8,V82,PH START LANDING SEARCH AT MAX # 433 AAA6 GATE LR V83,AAA12 IS THE LANDING DOWN? 434 •FINDING RETURN TRIP TIME 435 ASSIGN 13, MH$ LNDG (PH8,10), PH. TRAVEL TIME TO LANDING 436 TEST ME' MH$LNDG(PH8,2),0,AAA8 437 ASSIGN 16,MH$LNDG(PH8,9 ),PH J 43 8- * OTHER TRUCKS ON ROUTE 439 ASSIGN 14,V114,PH EST.FINISH TIME OF LAST TRUCK 44 0 TEST GE PH14,PH13,AAA8 441 ASSIGN 13, PHI 4, PH. 442 AAA8 ASSIGN • 3 , 0 , P H 2 1 H 443 *I.S THE LANDING WITHIN 1 L CA D OF BEING PLUGGED? J 444 TEST GE . MH$TRUCK(PH1, 1) , V118,AAA13 445 ASSIGN 3 , 1 , P H • 446 LOGIC S 35 447 AAA13 TEST N E BV $CHEK1,1,AAA 9 SUFF.VOL.TO LOAD TRUCK? 44 8 GATE L R PH8,AAA12 IS' THE YARDER DOWN? 449 SAVE VALUE 12,V1C9,H 450 TEST L E • XH12,PH13,AAA 10 451 AAA9 ASSIGN 13 + ,XH13,.PH EST.LOADING TIME . 452 TRANSFER ,AAA11 453 AAAlO ASSIGN 13+,VI09,PH TIME WHEN VOLUME YARDED 454 AAA11 ASSIGN' 13+,MH$LNDGiPH8,11),PH 455 * TRAVEL TIME TO CAMP . 456 * FIND MINIMUM 457 TEST E PH3,1 , AAA14 458 TEST LE PH13,MH$TRUCK(PH1, 6) ,.AAA1 2 459 M S A V E V A L O E TRUCK,PHI ,6 ,PH13,H 460 MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PH1,5,PH13,H 461 ASS IGN 2,PH8,PH 46 2 TRANSFER ,AAA12 463 A A A 14 GATE LR 35 f AAA12 464 TEST LE PH13,MH$TRUCK(PH1,5),AAA12 465 MSAVEVALUE TRUCK , PHI ,5 ,PH13,H 466 ASSIGN 2,PH8,PH 467 AAA12 LOOP 8PH,AA,A6 468 * LANDING ASSIGNED 469 LOGIC R 35 470 MSAVEVALU E TRUCK- ,PHI , 5,MH$LNDG{PH2,11),H 471 SUBTRACT RETURN TIME 472 AAA15 SPLIT 1 ,AAA3 2 473 MSAVEVALUE LNDG,PH2,9,PH1,H LAST TRUCK DISP.TO LNDG 474 MSAVEVALUE LNDG+,PH2, 2,1 ,H INCREMENT # OF TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO LNDG 475 MSAVEVALUE LNDG+,PH2, 5,MH$TRUCK(PH1 ,1) ,H 476 * INCREMENT VOL REQUIRED ON LNDG FOR LOADING 477 M SAVE VALUE TRUCK ,PH1 , 2 ,PH2 ,H RESERVE LNDG# THAT TRUCK IS ASSIGNED 478 * 479 * THE TRUCK HAS BEEN DISPATCHED 480 * 481 * TRAVEL TO REDISPATCHING POINT {CAMP FOR LNDGS 1 , 2 , 5 ; A-FRAME FOR THE REST) 4 82 TEST G MH $T RU CK {P H1, 2 ) , 2 , A A A16 483 TEST NE MH$TRUCK(PH1,2),5,AAA16 . ' 484 SAVEVALUE 8,RN1,H 485 ADVANCE V32 TRAVEL T I M E TO MUCHALAT A-FRAME 486 MUCHA TRANSFER ,AAA16 IS THE LOADER OPERATING? 487 AAAl6 ASSIGN 1+,12,PH RANGE(13-12+#TRUCKS) I 488 SEIZE PHI ON ROAD SECTION WHERE REDISPATCHING POLICY 489 #1 IS POSSIBLE 490 SAVEVALUE 8,RN1,H 491 ASSIGN 2,MH$TPUCK(V81 ,2) ,PH 492 ADVANCE V*PH2 TRAVEL TIME TO LANDING 493 AAA22 QUEUE MH$TRUCK{V81,2) QUEUE AT THE LANDING 494 SEIZE MH$TRUCK(V81 ,2) SEIZE LOADER - START REDISPoPOLICY#2 49 5 RELEASE PHI END REDISPATCHING P0LICY#1 496 MSAVEVALUE LNDG-,NH$T PUCK (V81,2 ), 2, 1, H s 497 DEPART MH$TRUCK(V81,2) LEAVE THE LANDING QUEUE f 498 * 499 * ON THE LANDING 500 SAVEVALUE 8,R.N1,H 501 ASSIGN 4»V$PIECE, PH NUMBER OF PIECES TO BE LOADED 502 ASSIGN 6,V$LD7M,PH LOADING TIME 2 15 L 503 ASS'IGN 5,V*1,PH LOAD WEIGHT J f 504 ASSIGN 5,V$V0L,PH MAX.VOLUME TO BE.LOADED 505 ASSIGN 7,PH5,PH • COPY 506 • ASSIGN 3,MH$TRUCK(V81,2) ,PH 507 AAAI7TESTI-• S*3 ,'PH5 , AA'Ai'8 ENOUGH' VOLUME AT LANDING? 508 ASSIGN- .5- ,S*3 »PH PRESENT VOLUME REQUIRED 509 LEAVE PH3,S*3 REDUCE LANDING INVENTORY 510 ADVANCE VSWAIT TIME TO LOAD CURRENT VOLUME 511 TEST L S*3,PH5,AAA18 512 ADVANCE 10 513 TRANSFER ,AAA17 514 A A A18 ADVANCE V$RLT TIME TO COMPLETE LOADING 515 ASSIGN 2,MH$T RUCK (V81,2) ,PH 516 ASSIGN 1-,12,PH RANGEd - ^TRUCKS 3 517 MSAVEVALUE LNDG- ,PH3, 5,MH$TRUCK(PHI, 1) ,H 518 . * DECREASE VOL REQUIRED ON LNDG FOR LOADING " 5 1 9 LEAVE PH3,PH5 REDUCE LANDING INVENTORY 520 MSAVEVALUE TRUCK,PHI,2,0,H TRUCK NO LONGER ASSIGNED A LANDING 521 52 2 * NIGHT PREEMPTION STRATEGY 523 ASSIGN 1 + , 12, PH RANGET 13-12 + #TRUCKS) 524 SEIZE PHI CAMP BOUND SECTION OF ROAD 52 5 * TRAVEL BACK TO CAMP 526 RELEASE PH3 FREE THE LOADER 527 ASSIGN 2+,53, PH RANGE(54-53+#LNDGS) 528 SAVEVALUE 8,RN1,H 529 ADVANCE V*2 TRAVEL TIME TO CAMP FROM LANDING 530 : " : 5 3 1 * ENDNIGHTp'R"E'E"MP"TTONWATTEY 532 RELEASE PHI TRUCK AT CAMP 533 ASSIGN 1+ ,2 8,PH RANGE(41-40 + #TRUCKS ) 534 * 535 * CAMP DELAYS - LOADED 536 • TRANSFER .032»AAA19,AAA20 96.8? CHANCE OF CAMP DELAY 537 AAAl9 ADVANCE FN $DLAY1 CAMP DELAY 538 A A A 2 0 GATE LR 32,LNK1 GO ON USER CHAIN 539 AAA21 SAVE VALUE 8,RN1,H 540 * ADVANCE V31 TRAVEL TIME TO DUMP 541 * 542 * AT THE GOLD RIVER DUMP 543 QUEUE 31 QUEUE AT THE DUMP 544 GATE LR 31 DUMP STARTS UP AT 7:45 A.M. 545 SEIZE 31 SEIZE THE DUMP 546 DEPART 31 LEAVE THE DUMP QUEUE 547 ADVANCE FNSUNLD UNLOADING TIME 548 SAVEVALUE 1+,PH7 TOTAL VOLUME DUMPED IN DAY 549 MSAV EVALU E TRUCK+,V46,3,V80, H 550 SAVEVALUE 2+,1 ,H NUMBER OF LOADS DUMPED IN DAY 551 RELEASE 31 RELEASE THE DUMP 552 SAVEVALUE. 8,RN1,H 553 ADVANCE V32 TRAVEL TIME TC C ANP FROM THE DUMP 554 GATE LR 33,LNK2 DISPATCH TRUCKS TO WOODS UNTIL 4:00 P.M. CCC7 GATE LR PHI ,CCC4 IS THE TRUCK DUE FOR REPAIRS? 556 ASSIGN 1-,40,PH RANGE {1—#TRUCKS ) [ 557 TRANSFER ,D1SP THE TRUCK IS FREE FOR DISPATCHING f 5 5 8 5 5 9 F I N I S H T I M E U P D A T E 5 6 0 5 6 1 * 1 . T R U C K A R R I V E S A T L A N C I N G 5 6 2 . A A A 3 4 A S S I G N 1 - , 1 2 , P H 2 1 E I 5 6 3 A S S I G N 1 5 , 0 , P H ) 5 6 4 A S S I G N 1 3 , 0 , P H 5 6 5 A S S I G N 8 , X H 9 , P H S T A R T T R U C K S E A R C H A T M A X # • 5 6 6 A A A 3 6 T E S T N E P H I , P H 8 , A A A 3 5 I F S A M E T R U C K - I N C R E M E N T 5 6 7 T E S T 1 M R $ T R 0 C K i P H 1 , 2 ) , M H $ T R U C K ( P H 8 , 2 ) , A A A 3 5 5 6 8 * F I N D I N G T R U C K S D I S P A T C H E D H E R E 5 6 9 T E S T L M H $ T R U C K ( P H 8 , 5 ) , . M H $ T R U C K ( P H I , 5 3 , A A A 3 5 5 7 0 A S S I G N 1 5 + , M H $ T R U C K < P H 8 , 1 ) , P H 5 7 1 * • V O L A C C O U N T E D F O R 5 7 2 T E S T G E V 1 1 6 , P H 1 3 , A A A 3 5 5 7 3 ' A S S I G N 1 3 , V I 1 6 , P H 5 7 4 A A A 3 5 L O O P 8 P H , A A A 3 6 N E X T T R U C K 5 7 5 A A A 4 2 A S S I G N . 8 , M H $ T R U C K ( P H 1 , 2 ) , P H 5 7 6 T E S T N E B V $ C H E K 3 , 1 , A A A 3 7 5 7 7 S A V E V A L U E 1 2 , V I 2 1 , H 5 7 8 T E S T L E X H 1 2 , P H I 3 , A A A 3 8 5 7 9 A A A 3 7 A S S I G N 1 3 + , X H 1 3 , P H E S T . L O A D I N G T I M E 5 8 0 T R A N S F E R , A A A 4 0 5 8 1 A A A 3 8 A S S I G N 1 3 + , V 1 2 1 , P H T I M E W H E N V O L Y A R D E C 5 8 2 A A A 4 0 M S A V E V A L U E T R U C K , P H I , 5 , P H 1 3 , H 5 8 3 T R A N S F E R , A A A 3 2 5 8 4 * 2 o T R U C K R E A D Y F O R L O A D I N G 5 8 5 A A A 4 1 A S S I G N 1 - , 1 2 , P H 5 8 6 A S S I G N 1 3 , 0 , P H 5 8 7 A S S I G N 1 5 , M H $ T R U C K ( P H 1 , 1 ) , P H 5 8 8 T R A N S F E R • , A A A 4 2 5 8 9 • . 5 9 0 * R O U T I N E T O F I N D E S T I M A T E D T I M E O F T R U C K L O A D I N G 5 9 1 * 5 9 2 A A A 3 2 A S S I G N 1 4 , V 4 2 , P H 5 9 3 T E S T G E M H $ T R U C K ( P H I , 5 ) , P H 1 4 , A A A 3 3 5 9 4 M S A V E V A L U E T R U C K , P H I , 5 , V 1 0 4 , H 5 9 5 T E R M I N A T E 5 9 6 • C O M P L E T I O N T I M E I S T O D A Y 5 9 7 A . A A 3 3 M S A V E V A L U E T R U C K * , P H I , 5 , M l , H 5 9 8 T E R M I N A T E 5 9 9 6 0 0 * R O U T I N E T O F I N D C O M P L E T I O N T I M E O F R E D I S P A T C H E D T R U C K S 6 0 1 6 0 2 A A A 7 0 A S S I G N 8 , M H $ T R U C K ( P H 1 , 2 ) , P H 6 0 3 A S S I G N 1 3 , V 1 2 2 , P H T R A V E L T I M E T O L A N D I N G 6 0 4 A A A 7 6 T E S T N E M H $ L N D G ( P H 8 , 2 ) , 0 , A A A 7 1 6 0 5 A S S I G N 1 6 , M H $ L N D G ( P H 8 , 9 ) , P H 6 0 6 * O T H E R T R U C K S O N R O U T E 6 0 7 A S S I G N 1 4 , V 1 1 4 , P H E S T o F I N I S H T I N E C F L A S T T R U C K 6 C 8 T E S T G E P H 1 4 , P H 1 3 , A A A 7 1 6 0 ' 9 A S S I G N 1 3 , P H 1 4 , P H • 6 1 0 A A A 7 1 T E S T N E B V $ C H E K l f l , A A A 7 2 S U F F o V O L c T O L O A D T R U C K ? 6 1 1 S A V E V A L U E 1 2 , V 1 0 9 , H 6 1 2 T E S T L E X H 1 2 , P H 1 3 , A A A 7 3 • 6 1 3 A A A 7 2 A S S I G N 1 3 + , X H 1 3 , P H E S T . L O A D I N G T I M E • 6 1 4 T R A N S F E R , A A A 7 4 6 1 5 A A A 7 3 A S S I G N 1 3 + , V 1 C 9 , P H T I M E W H E N V C L U M E Y A R D E D 6 1 6 A A A . 7 4 M S A V E V A L U E T R U C K , P H I , 5 , P H 1 3 , H 6 1 7 A S S I G N 2 , P H 8 , P H f • 618 SPLIT 1.AAA32 619 MSAVEVALUE LNDG , PH2 ,9 , PHI ,H LAST TRUCK DISP.TO LNDG 620 TERMINATE 621 A A A 7 5 AS S I GN 1- , 1 2, P H 622 ASSIGN 8,MH$T RUCK(PHI ,2),PH 2 17 623 ASSIGN 13,0,PH ( 624 TRANSFER ,AAA76 • 625 626 627 * * *• 628 BREAKDOWNS * 629 * 630 631 632 •* MODEL SEGMENT B - LOADER BREAKDOWNS AND TRUCK REDISPATCHING POLICIES 633 * 634 635 * PARAMETERS 636 * PH1= LOADER NUMBER 637 * PH2= TIME OF NEXT LCADER BREAKDOWN 63 8 * PH3= TRUCK NUMBER 63 9 * p'H4= LANDING T HAT THE TRUCK IS REDISPATCHED TO 64 G 641 GENERATE ,, ,1,2,1 OPH' START LOADER . BREAKDCM FUNCTION 642 ADVANCE 480 • 643 SPLIT XH3,BBB1,1PH # LOADERS 644 BBB1 ASSIGN 2, V$LBRK,PH TIME OF NEXT LOADER BREAKDOWN 645 SAVEVALUE 10,V42,H 646 TEST GE- PH2,XH10,BBB2 WILL THEBREAKDOWN OCCUR TODAY 647 ADVANCE V44 TO MINUTE AND DAY OF BREAKDOWN 64 8 TRANSFER ,BBB3 649 BBB2 ADVANCE PH 2 OCCURS TODAY 650 B8B3 ASSIGN 1 + ,18,PH RANGEt 19-18 + #LNDGS! LOGIC S PHI LOADER GOES CCWN 652 * ARE ALL THE LANDINGS PAST THE MUCHALAT A-FRAME SHUT DtkN? 653 GATE LS 21,BBB4 LNDG#3 • 654 GATE LS 22,BBB4 LNDG#4 655 GATE LS 24,BBB4 LNDG#6 656 LOGIC S 40 TRUCKS STOP AT MUCHALAT A-FRAME 657 • 658 * REDISPATCHING POLICY 659 660 * FINDING TRUCKS DISPATCHED TO THIS LANDING 661 BBB4 ASSIGN 1-,18,PH RANGE*1-#LNDGS3 662 ASSIGN 3,XH9,FH 66 3 BBB5 TEST E MHSTRUCK(PH3,2) ,PHI ,PAST 664 • * * 665 * FINDING REDISPATCHING POLICY 666 TRANSFER ,PAST 667 * 668 *' A-FRAME REDISPATCHING POLICY 669 BBB4Q GATE 0 V53,PAST TRUCK PAST A-FRAME? 670 PREEMPT V53,PR,BBB10,10PH,RE PREEMPT TRUCK 671 RETURN V53 FREE ROUTE FACILITY 672 TRANSFER ,PAST FREE ROUTE FACILITY 673 * 674 * AREA (K8) REDISPATCHING POLICY 675 BBB4.1 GATE LR V85,BBB42 AREA 1ST CHOICE—CHECK STATUS 676 PREEMPT V53 ,PR ,END1,10PH,RE 677 RETURN V53 • • f 6 7 8 6 7 9 6 3 0 T R A N S F E R ,PAST • • '* OTHER LOADER I S DOWN - GO BACK TO CAMP FOR R E D I S P A T C H I N G * L A N D I N G ' S D I R E C T L Y FROM CAMP R E D I S P A T C H I N G P O L I C Y 6 8 1 6 8 2 6 8 3 B B B 4 2 PREEMPT RETURN T R A N S F E R V 5 3 , P R , B B B 9 , 1 0 P H , R E V 5 3 T P A S T 2 I B • J > 6 84 68 5 6 8 6 * . * R E D I S P A T C H I N G CHANGES P O L I C Y 1 ( O N E OF L ANOING#1 CR 2 GOES DOWN) -\-6 8 7 6 8 8 6 8 9 END1 ASSIGN' S E I Z E ADVANCE 3 , F N 2 , P H P H I P H 1 0 6 9 0 6 9 1 6 9 2 M S A V E V A L U E M SAVE V A L U E M S A V E V A L U E L N D G + , P H 3 , 2 , 1 , H LNDG+ , F H 3 , 5 , M H S T R U C K ( V 8 1 ,1),H L N D G - , P H 2 , 2, 1,H 6 9 3 6 9 4 6 9 5 MS AVE V A L U E M S A V E V A L U E S P L I T LNDG-, PH'2, 5 , M H $ T R O C K ( V 8 1 , 1 ) ,H T R U C K , V 8 1 , 2 , P H 3 , H , 1 , A A A 7 5 6 9 6 6 9 7 6 9 8 T R A N S F E R •J-,AAA22 "V-PAST LOOP 3 P H , B B B 5 GO THROUGH A L L TR U C K S 6 9 9 7 0 0 7 0 1 * ' D U R A T I O N OF BREAKDOWN 7 0 2 7 0 3 7 0 4 A S S I G N M S A V E V A L U E PREEMPT 2 , F N $ T L B R K , PH LOADER R E P A I R T I M E L N D G + , P H 1 , 7 , P H 2 , H P H I ; 7 0 5 7 0 6 7 0 7 S A V E V A L U E T E S T GE ADVANCE 1 0 , V 4 2 , H P H 2 , X H 1 0 , B B B 2 0 R E P A I R E D TODAY? V 4 4 TO MINUTE AND DAY OF R E P A I R 7 0 8 7 0 9 7 1 0 T R A N S F E R B B B 2 0 ADVANCE B B B 2 1 A S S I G N ,BBB21 PH 2 l + tl8tPH R A N G E ( 1 9 - 1 8 + # LND.GS ) 7 1 1 7 1 2 7 1 3 L O G I C R A S S I G N * ARE A L L L A N D I N G S P H I T H E LOADER I S R E P A I R E D 1 - , 1 8 , P H R A N G E ( 1 - # L N D G S) PAST T H E MUCHALAT A-FRAME S T I L L SHUT-DOWN? 7 1 4 7 1 5 7 1 6 GATE L S GATE L S GATE LS 2 1 , B B B 2 2 2 2 , B B B 2 2 2 4 , B B B 2 2 7 1 7 7 1 8 7 1 9 T R A N S F E R * ONE I S NOW F R E E B B B 2 2 S A V E V A L U E , B B B 2 3 5 , P H 1 , H 7 2 0 7 2 1 7 2 2 U N L I N K • B B B 2 3 RETURN TRAN S F E R A F R , H E R E , A L L F R E E THE TRUCKS Q U E U E I N G AT T H E A-FRAME PHl T R U C K S F R E E ZED ON L A N D I N G CAN NOW BE LOADED ,BBB1 GO BACK TO F I N D NEXT LOADER BREAKDOWN TIME 7 2 3 7 2 4 7 2 5 * . * R E D I S P A T C H I N G CHANGES P O L I C Y 2 ( B O T H L N D G S#1 AND 2 OR 5 GO DOWN) * 7 2 6 7 2 7 7 2 8 B B B 9 A S S I G N A S S I G N A S S I G N 12 ,V66 ,PH 1 2 , V * 1 2 , P H T R A V E L T I M E BACK TO CAMP 1 2 , V 8 9 , P H 7 2 9 7 3 0 7 3 1 T E S T G ADVANCE * P H I 2,6,END 2 I S iT>0? P H 1 2 7 3 2 7 3 3 7 3 4 * AT CAMP ' END2 A S S I G N M S A V E V A L U E 1 - , 1 2 , P H RANGEf 1-#TRUCKS) LNDG-,NH$TRUCK(PHl,2),5,MHSTRUCK(Phl, 1),H 1. 7 3 5 7 3 6 7 3 7 M S A V E V A L U E T R A N S F E R * LNDG- » MH STRUCK ( PH 1, 2) » 2 ,1 , H , D I S P AT CAMP FOR R E D I S P A T C H I N G J 738 * R E D I S P A T C H I N G CHANGES P O L I C Y 3 {ONE OF LNDGS#3,4 OR 6 GOES DOWN WHILE 7 3 9 * T H E TRUCK IS PAST THE A-FRAME) 740 * 7 4 1 B ' B B l ' O A S S I G N 1 2 , " V 8 6 , P H 74 2 A S S I G N 1 2 , V * 1 2 , P H T R A V E L T I M E BACK TO A-FRAME 2 13 7 4 3 A S S I G N 12 ,V89,PH  744 T E S T G P H 1 2 , 0 , B B B l l 7 4 5 ADVANCE PH12 7 4 6 B B B l l A S S I G N 1-,12,PH RANGE{1-#TRUCKS) 7 4 7 F N 0 4 G A T E L R 4 0 , H O L D " A N Y [ N O G S P A S T A - F R A M E "UP? " " V • 748 * F I N D AN O P E R A T I N G LOADER 7 4 9 GATE LR V 8 7 , B B B A 1 ' '  7 5 0 GATE LR V 8 8 , B B B A 2 751 . A S S I G N 3 ,MH$TRUCK(PHI,2) ,PH 7 5 2 A S S I G N 8, M H$L ND Gt FN3 , 9 ) , PH 7 5 3 : A T S T S N --~ - •  • 7 5 4 T E S T L M H $ T R U C K ( P H 8 , 5 ) , M H $ T R U C K ( P H 9 , 5 ) ,B E EA l 755 BBBA2 A S S I G N • 1 1 , F N 3 , P H . • • • . 756 TRANSFER ,BBBX 7 5 7 BBBA1 A S S I G N 11 ,FN4,PH ^ 7 5 8 * 75 9 * R E A S ' S I G N ^ j f ^ f ^ Y K l U " 7 6 0 ' BBBX MSAVEVALUE LNDG+, PH 11 ,2»1 ,H INCREMENT TRUCKS D I S P A T C H E D TO NEW LNDG ' 761 M S A V E V A L U E LNDG+,PH11, 5, MHSTRUCK ( P H I , 1) ,H ; . ; : ' 762 * . • NEW VOLUME ACCOUNTED FOR 763 MSAVEVALUE LNDG-, MH$TRUCK ( P H I , 2) ,2 ,1 , H 7 6 4 MSAVEVALUE L N D G - , M H $ T R U C K ( P H 1 , 2 ) , 5 , M H $ T R U C K ( P H l , l i ,H 7 6 5 ' i ^ V ^ V A T u T j R y j Q K ; p l H i : • " : : " ~ " ' • 7 6 6 S P L I T 1,AAA70 • 7 6 7 TRANSFER ,MUCHA ; NOW AT THE MUCHALAT A-FRAME • '  7 6 8 ' * 7 6 9 * TRUCKS Q U E U E I N G AT THE A-FRAME ARE MOW R E D I S P A T C H E D 7 7 0 HERE T E S T NE XH5 ,MH $TRUCK{ P H I , 2 ) ,MUCHA 7 7 1 f f S T T T E W L T J E L N D G + , XH5 , 2 ,1 , H " " " . 112 MSAVEVALUE LNDG + , XH5, 5,MH$TRUCK(PH1, 1) ,H 7 7 3 MSAVEVALUE LNDG-, MH$T RUCK ( P H I , 2 ) , 2,1, H ; ._ 7 7 4 MSAVEVALUE LNDG- , MH STRUCK ( PHI ,2 ) ,5 , MH$T RU CK { P hi , 1 ), H 7 7 5 . MSAVEVALUE TRUCK , P HI, 2 , XH5, H 776 S P L I T .1 ,AAA70 ' 7 7 7 t T T A T r s T E " R , M U C H A 7 7 8 * 7 7 9 . * MODEL SEGMENT C - LOGGING TRUCK BREAKDOWNS ' • 78 0 * 781 * 782 * PARAMETERS ' " " 7 8 3 * P H 1 = N U M B E R O F T R U C K • 7 8 4 * PH2= T I M E OF NEXT TRUCK BREAKDOWN 785 * ; ; ; : . , •'  7 8 6 GENERATE ,,,1,,2PH START F U N C T I O N 7 8 7 ADVANCE 4 3 5 7 8 8 S P L I T V 7 1 , C C C 1 , 1 P H ALL TRUCKS 7 8 9 C ' C ' C l A S S I G N i + ' ' , ' 4 0 ' , P H S ^ ^ . ^ . . ^ . ^ Z . ^ ^ . ^ . ^ . ^ ^ . ^ . ^ 7 9 0 CCC8 S A V E V A L U E 8,RN1,H 791 A S S I G N 2,FN$TBRK, PH T I M E OF NEXT TRUCK BREAKDOWN ; 792 SAVEVALUE 10,V75,H 7 9 3 T E S T GE P H 2 , X H 1 0 , C C C 2 WILL T H E BREAKDOWN OCCUR TODAY? 7 9 4 ADVANCE V77 TO MINUTE AND DAY OF BREAKDOWN " " 7 9 5 T P : A N ' S ' F E R , C C C 3 ' ' " 7 9 6 CCC2 ADVANCE PH2 OCCURS TODAY 79 7 C C C 3 L O G I C S PHI TRUCK IS DUE FOR R E P A I R • 798 . TERM I NAT E 799 * TRUCK REACHES CAMP, 800 * WHAT IS THE DURATION OF REPAIR? ' 8 0 1 C C C 4 A S S I ' G N 2 , FNSTTRPR ,PH DURATION OF REPAIR 802 . M SAVE VALUE TRUCK*- ,V46 ,4, PH2, H 2 2 0 803 SAVEVALUE 1Q,V75,H •  f 804 TEST GE PH2,XH10,CCC5 WILL THE TRUCK BE UP TODAY? 805 ADVANCE V77 TO MINUTE AND DAY OF REPAIR 806 TRANSFER ,CCC6. • . 807 CCC5 ADVANCE PH2 OCCURS TODAY 808 CCC6 LOGIC R PHI THE TRUCK IS UP 809 * FIND NEXT BREAKDOWN TIME AND FREE TRUCK FOR DISPATCHING 810 SPLIT 1 ,CCC7 811 TRANSFER ,CCC8 812 * 813 * MODEL SEGM ENT D — YARDER BREAKDOWNS AND MOVING £ RIGGING 814 • 815 * 816 * PARAMETERS 817 * PH1= NUMBER OF YARDERS 818 * PH2= TIME OF OCCURANCE 819 * PH3= DURATION 820 * PH4= 1( M£R) ; 2 (REPAIR) 821 822 GENERATE t j - t l . t4PH START FUNCTION 823 ADVANCE 480 824 SPLIT V82,DDD» 1PH YARDERS FOR M&R 825 SPLIT XH3,DDD1,1PH YARDERS FOR BREAKDOWNS 826 TRANSFER »DDD1 827 * 828 * MOVING AND RIGGING • 829 • DDD ASSIGN 1-f1,PH RANGE(1-#LNCGS) 830 ASSIGN .4, 1,PH 831 DDD10 TEST NE PHI,4,DDD2 832 TEST NE PHI,5,DDD2 833 * TOWER MfiR 834 ASSIGN 2,V$T.(tfR,PH TIME OF OCCURANCE 835 ASSIGN 3 , F N $ T T W MR , PH DURATION 836 • TRANSFER ,0003. 837 * GRAPPLE M£R 838 DDD2 SAVEVALUE 8,RN1,H 839 . ASSIGN 2-,V$GMR* PH TIME 840 ASSIGN 3 ,F NSTGMR,PH DURATION 841 TRANSFER ,DDD3 842 * 843 * BREAKDOWNS 844 DDD1 ASSIGN 1-,1,PH 845 ' ASSIGN 4,2,PH 846 DDD11 TRANSFER ,FN5 847 *YARDEP.S 1 AND 6 BREAKDOWNS 848 DDD15 SAVEVALUE 8tRN.lt H 849 ASSIGN 2,V$TWBRK,PH TIME 850 ASSIGN 3,FN$TTBRK,PH DURATION 851 TRANSFER tD003 852 * YARDERS 2 AND 3 BREAKDOWNS 853 DDD16 ASSIGN 2,32000,PH , BREAKDOWNS INSIGNIFICANT 854 TRANSFER , DDD3 855 *GRAPPLE BREAKDOWNS 856 DDD17 ASSIGN 2, VSGBRK,PH TIME 857 , ASSIGN 3,FNSTGBRK,PH DURAT ION f 858 * \ 859 * FINDING TIME AND DAY OF BREAKDOWN OR M SR * 860 DDD 3 SAVEVALUE 10,V42,H 861 TEST GE PH2, XH10,DDD6 862 ADVANCE V44 22 1 I 863 TRANSFER ,DDD7 / f 864 DDD6 ADVANCE PH2 865 DDD7 GATE LR PHI 866 LOGIC S PHI 86? 868 * WHAT IS THE DURATION OF THE DOWNTIME? 869 A SSIGN 2,PH3,PH 870 MSAVEVALU E LNDG+, PHI, 6,PH2,H 871 SAVEVALUE 10,V42,H 872 TEST GE PH2,XH 10,DDD8 873 ADVANCE V44 874 TRANSFER ,DDD9 875 DDD8 ADVANCE PH 2 876 . DDD9 LOGIC R PHI 877 878 * GO BACK TO FIND NEXT' YARDER BREAKDOWN OR M£R TI HE 879 TEST E PH4,2,DDD10 880 TRANSFER tDDDll 881 * 882 * . # *3jt # aji sf/sjc >>t>Jt#>)e;$t jjs 883 * * 884 * SCHEDULING * 885 * * • 886 54! 887 * 888 * MODEL SEGMENT E - YARDER FUNCTION 8 89 890 * * 891 * PARAMETERS 892 PH1= NUMBER OF YARDER 1 893 894 GENERATE ,,,1,,1PH START FUNCTION 895 SPLIT XH3,E£E,1PH # LANDINGS 896 EEE ENTER PHI,3000 3000 CUNITS AT EACH LANDING 897 EEE1 ADVANCE 1020 . 5:00 P.M. 898 * TABULATING VOLUME YARDED IN DAY BY MACHINE 899 SAVEVALUE 11,MH$LNDG(PH1,8),H 900 TABULATE PHI 901 MSAVEVALUE LNDG,PH1,8 ,0,H 902 ADVANCE 420 .12:00 A.M. 903 TRANSFER ,EEE1 START A NEW DAY 904 * 905 MODEL SEGMENT F - CAMP,YARDERS AND DUMP DAILY SCHEDULE 906 907 * 908 GENERATE ,,435, 1,,0 7:15 A.M., 909 FFF LOGIC S 31 DUMP IS SHUT-DOWN UNTIL 7:45 A„M0 910 UNLINK CAMPT,CCC7,ALL EMPTY TRUCKS FREE FCR DISPATCHING 911 UNLINK DUMPT, AAA21, ALL LOADED TRUCKS MAY PROCEED TO THE DUMP 912 LOGIC R 32 TRUCKS FROM DUMP CAN BE DISPATCHED 913 LOGIC R 33 TRUCKS FROM LNDG S CAN GO TO DUMP I 914 ADVANCE 30 7:45 A.M. [ 915 LOGIC R 31 THE DUMP STARTS-LP 916 ADVANCE 15 8:00 A.M. 917 LOGIC R 34 YARDERS START-UP ) 918 919 9 20 UNLINK ADVANCE LOGIC S YARDT,HHH3 » AL L 240 12:00 A.M. 34 YARDERS DOWN FOR LUNCH 921 ADVANCE 30 12:30 P.M. " 922 LOGIC R 34 YARDERS START-UP AGAIN 2 2 2 9.23 UNLINK YARDT,HHH3 ,ALL J > 924 ADVANCE 210 4:00 P.M. \ 925 LOGIC S ' 33 AFTER 4:00 P.M..EMPTY TRUCKS STA 926 ADVANCE 15 4 M 5 PoM. 92 7 LOGIC S 32 AFTER 4:15 P.M. LOADED TRUCKS STAY IN CAMP 928 ADVANCE 15 4:30 P.M. 929 LOGIC S 34 YARDERS SHUT-DOWN FCR THE NIGHT 93 0 ADVANCE 150 7:00 P.M. 931 * TABULATING VOLUME AND NUMBER OF LOADS DUMPED IN THE DAY 932 TABULATE LOADS 933 TABULATE PROD 934 SAVEVALUE 1,0 93 5 SAVEVALUE 2,0,H 93 6 . ADVANCE 735 7:15 A.M. AND NEW DAY 937 TRANSFER ,FFF 938 939 MODEL SEGMENT G - OVERNIGHT TRUCK SHUT-DOWN 940 941 * 942 * PARAMETERS 943 PH1= 1 TO 6 (LOADER SEQUENCE); 13 TO 12+#TRUCKS (ROAD SEQUENCE) 944 945 GENERATE , ,990, 1, ,1'PH START SCHEDULE AT 4:30 P.M. 946 SPLIT XH9.,GGG1 ,1 PH RANGE(2-1+#TRUCKS1 947 SPLIT XH3,GGG2,1PH RANGE(3-2+#LNDGS) 94 8 GGG2 ASSIGN 1-,1,PH LOADING SECTIONS 949 GGG4 PREEMPT PHI • 1 . SHUT-DOWN LOADERS • 950 ADVANCE. 930 8:00 A.M. 951 RETURN PHI REACTIVATE LOADERS IN MORNING 952 ADVANCE 510 4:30 PoM. 953 TRANSFER , GGG4 954 GGG1 ASSIGN 1+,11,PH RANGE(13-12 + #TRUCKS ) 955 ADVANCE 30 5:00 P.Mc 1 956 GGG3 PREEMPT PHI HOLD THE TRUCKS OVERNIGHT ' 957 ADVANCE 900 8 :00 A.M. 95 8 RETURN PHI REACTIVATE THE TRUCKS IN THE MORNING 959 ADVANCE 540 ' 5:00 P.M. 960 TRANSFER ,GGG3 961 * 962 *********** 963 * * 964 MODEL SEGMENT H * YARDING * 96 5 * * 966 * * * * t * * * * * * * * 967 * 96 8 •.PARAMETERS • 969 • PH1= NUMBER OF LANDING 970 PH2= VOLUME YARDED IN 5 MINUTES 971 • PH3= PHI+90 972 • • 973 GENERATE ,,480,1,,3PH START YARDING FUNCTICN I 974 SPLIT XH3,HHH1,1PH # LANDINGS 1 975 HHH1 ASSIGN 3,V84,PH 976 HHH3 MSAV EVALUE LNDG,PH1,4,V*3,H ASSIGN THE YARDING RATE/DAY I 977 HHH 2 GATE LR 34,LNK3 NEW DAY OR LUNCH? 978 979 980 981 982 983 GATE LR GATE SNF ASSI GN ENTER'' MSAVEVALUE ADVANCE PHI PHI . 2,V$YARDfPH 'p'H'r,p''H2 LNDG+ i PHI * 8 » PH2 , H IS THE SIDE SHUT-DOWN? IS THE LANDING PLUGGED? INCREMENT VOLUME AT LANDING NEXT TURN 2 2 3 984 9 85 986 TRANSFER HHH2 987 988 989 L INK BLOCKS LNK1 LINK DUMPT,FIFO LOADING TRUCKS AT CAMP AFTER 4:15 P.M. 990 991 992 LNK2 LINK LNK3 LINK HOLD LINK CAMPT,FIFO YARDT > FI FO AFR,FIFO EMPTY TRUCKS AT CAMP AFTER 4:QG P.M. YARDING FUNCTION HOLDING TRUCKS AT THE A-FRAME 993 994 995 996. 997 998 MODEL SEGMENT I * TIMING * 999 1000 1001 GENERATE 1440 TERMINATE 1 ONE DAY DECREMENT THE TERMINATION COUNTER BY 1 1002 1003 1004 * CONTROL CARDS START START THE 1ST INITIALIZATION RUN 1005 1006 1007 RESET START END 10 END OF FILE SSIGNOFF (d.) DOWN LOADERS REPEAT STEP (d.) FOR ALL DOWN LOADERS (e.) DOWN YARDERS REPEAT STEP (e.) FOR ALL DOWN YARDERS (f.) WAIT FOR OUTPUT GO TO 14. 9. REDISPATCHING ROUTINE / 0 A G £ £ 3 2 PO£S MOT f X ' S T 231 LEAF232 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. ® V o L U M E 233 UNITS (g.) WAIT FOR LIST OF ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIMES OF LAST TRUCK DISPATCHED TO LANDINGS. IF ALL THE LOADERS, PAST.THE REDISPATCHING POINT, ARE DOWN THE PROGRAM WILL GO TO STEP (k.). LANDING ASSIGNED? ® L A N D I N G GO TO STEP (j.) (h.) # OF OTHER LANDING?; ® L A N D I. N G (•#) / R E M A I N I N G (i.) / TIME TO \ LANDING? ® V o L U M E HUNDREDS ® V o L U M E TENS 234 ® V 0 L U M E UNITS (j-) WAIT FOR OUTPUT IF TOPPP TC T ^ T - , ^ TRUCK DISPATCHED TO LANDING" (#) GO TO 14. (k.) WAIT FOR OUTPUT: TRUCK SENT BACK TO CAMP" GO TO 14. 10. TRUCK ARRIVAL AT LANDING 235 (a.) TRUCK NUMBER TRUCK NUMBER ® (b.) LANDING (# THAT THE TRUCK IS ASSIGNED) ® (C •) (w) L A N D I N G (d.) GO TO 14, 11. TRUCK READY FOR LOADING (a.) DO STEPS 10(a.) and 10(b.) (b.) (C.) GO TO 14. 12. DISPATCHER OVERRIDE (a.) DO STEPS 10(a.) AND 10(b.). (b.) ® (c.) GO TO 14. 13. TRUCK FINISHED (a.) DO STEPS 10(a.) and 10(b.) (b.) ® (c.) GO TO 14. FINISHED 14. STORING (a •} (w) (b.) | _ 15. TRUCK BREAKDOWN (a.) ($) i TRUCK NUraER ,bJ (w) " (c.) GO TO 14. Appendix H 237 Menu Operation The menu used for truck dispatching, with the Hewlett-Packard 983OA desktop computing system, i s segmented into regions that are referenced to the "upper l e f t " point of the menu. The program i s controlled by the translation of the coordinates supplied when a point i s "digitized" within a region. Figure 36 ill u s t r a t e s a potential problem arising when the menu i s not properly aligned on the d i g i t i z i n g surface (Lemkow, 1977). To avoid this problem the following steps are undertaken: a) Digitize the bottom l e f t (x, ,y, ) and top l e f t ( x.y ) corners on the b b t t menu. b) Each point entered on the menu must be rotated through an angle 8 to yield the correct menu coordinates. 9 = arctangent ((x - x ) / (y - y )) t b t b c) If a point (x ,y ) i s digitized on the menu, rotating to the correct p p menu coordinates (x ',y ') involves: P P x ' = ((x - x) - ((y - y) tan G )) cos G P P t p t y 1 = (y ' - y. ') - ((x - x j tan e + (y - y )) cosG p t b p t p t where y, ' = y cos 6 - x,sin 0 t t t y, ' = y, cos 6 - x, sin 9 b b b d) The menu i s based on a quarter-inch scale, therefore the coordinates forwarded to the program for control are: x = 4x ' y = 4y ' P P Figure 36:. Aligning the truck dispatching menu. 

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