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Baroque elements in the poetry of M.V. Lomonosov Yancey, John Vernon 1977

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BAROQUE ELEMENTS IN THE POETRY OF M. V. LOMONOSOV JOHN VERNON YANCEY, JR. B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1970 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY by i n the Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1977 John V. Yancey, J r 1977 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i cat ion of this thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 W 5 / ABSTRACT M i x a i l V a s i l ' e v i c Lomonosov (1711-1765) i s probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e i n the h i s t o r y of modern Russian l i t e r a t u r e before Puskin, yet few scholars outside the realm of S l a v i c studies are f a m i l i a r with h i s accomplishments. Lomonosov l i v e d during a dynamic and formative period i n Russian h i s t o r y , and without doubt, h i s work on the reform of the Russian l i t e r a r y language, his i n t e r e s t i n s y l l a b o -t o n i c v e r s i f i c a t i o n and h i s poetic genius helped to lay the groundwork fo r the marvellous p o e t i c a l creations of Puskin. Lomonosov i s a poet whose work r e f l e c t s the influences of many d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s . With his education and t r a i n i n g , he was exposed to several l i t e r a r y trends, the most prominent being the Baroque. I t i s the purpose of t h i s study to examine the s t y l i s t i c features i n Lomonosov's poetry that can be l i n k e d with the Baroque. I t w i l l focus the attention on h i s panegyric odes, although i t also incorporates several examples from h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Psalms, Anacreontic poems, and the unfinished epic "Peter the Great." The organization of t h i s study i s as follows. The f i r s t chapter i s devoted to a b r i e f survey of European l i t e r a r y Baroque and to a review of the c r i t i c a l works, both pre-revolutionary and Soviet, which examine the Baroque trend i n Russian culture. The second chapter discusses i i i i i Loraonosov*s l i t e r a r y p r e d e c e s s o r s who e x h i b i t Baroque f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r works. T h i s survey looks b r i e f l y a t the works o f Simeon P o l o c k i j , Avvakum, Feofan P r o k o p o v i c and V a s i l i j T r e d i a k o v s k i j . The second p a r t of t h e c h a p t e r f o c u s e s on the p e r i o d s i n Lomonosov's e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g which must have i n f l u e n c e d h i s p o e t i c a l s t y l e . The next t h r e e c h a p t e r s are a d i s c u s s i o n o f the Baroque elements i n Lomonosov's work, based on. a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f h i s poems. The l a s t c h a p t e r i s a summary and c o n c l u s i o n o f the m a t e r i a l t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d i n the study. The Appendix comprises f o u r odes t r a n s l a t e d by the author. The purpose o f the t r a n s l a t i o n s i s t o a c q u a i n t t h e non-Russian r e a d e r w i t h Lomonosov's p o e t r y and, a t the same time, t o p r e s e n t examples o f those works which r e v e a l the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s p e r t i n e n t t o the study. To accomplish the purpose o f the s t u d y , Imbrie Buffurn's A g r i p p a d'Aubigne 1s 'Les T r a g i q u e s , ' A Study o f the  Baroque S t y l e i n P o e t r y i s used as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e . Buffum has shown t h a t a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the s t y l i s t i c and t h e m a t i c elements i n d'AubignS's p o e t r y r e v e a l s h i s s t y l e as i n d i c a t i v e o f the Baroque i n g e n e r a l . Moreover, i n h i s e xamination, Buffum has t r i e d t o show d'Aubigne as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Baroque man. The p r e s e n t study does not t r y t o p r e s e n t the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f Lomonosov's odes as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s i s t o show t h a t Loraonosov was i n f l u e n c e d by Baroque p o e t r y , of the Baroque Age. i v Weltanschauung. I t s purpose a poet who was g r e a t l y y e t was one who was not a poet S u p e r v i s o r TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER Ii; THE BAROQUE: SEVERAL VIEWS 5 1. Aspects of Western European Baroque . . . 5 2. P r e - R e v o l u t i o n a r y and S o v i e t C r i t i c i s m of Russian Baroque 15 I I . THE BAROQUE TREND IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE . . . 37 1. Russian L i t e r a r y Baroque Before Lomonosov 37 2. M. V. Lomonosov — A Baroque Background . 65 I I I . ENERGY . 85 1. Dynamism 86 2. Dynamic Nature . . . . . 95 3. V i o l e n c e 107 4. C o n t r a s t 117 5. Oxymoron 125 6. Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n 12 8 IV. SPECTACLE 137 1. T h e a t r i c a l i t y 137 2. The C l a s s i c a l - C h r i s t i a n M ixture 156 3. Devices of Emphasis and G r a n d i o s i t y . . . 164 V. INCARNATION . . 202 1. The Concreteness of Imagery 2 02 v v i PAGE 2. M u l t i p l e - S e n s e Imagery 216 3. Co l o u r 224 CONCLUSION "2 39 \) NOTES TO INTRODUCTION 247 NOTES TO CHAPTER I 24 8 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I 256 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I . 267 NOTES TO CHAPTER IV 269 NOTES TO CHAPTER V . . . . . 271 BIBLIOGRAPHY 273 APPENDIX 293 NOTES TO APPENDIX 337 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I should l i k e t o express my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. Zbigniew F o l e j e w s k i , under whose s u p e r v i s i o n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n has been conducted. His constant encouragement, understanding and i n v a l u a b l e advice are deeply a p p r e c i a t e d . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Dr. Mi c h a e l F u t r e l l and Dr. A l i s t a i r MacKay f o r t h e i r k i ndness, h e l p and i n t e r e s t i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s study. A very s p e c i a l thank you goes t o Mrs. Ruby Toren f o r her moral support and the t y p i n g and e d i t i n g of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o my pa r e n t s , without whose encourage-ment t h i s study c o u l d never have been w r i t t e n . v i i INTRODUCTION There i s no doubt t h a t Russian l i t e r a t u r e began . . . w i t h the ode 'On the Taking of X o t i n . ' . . . I t d i d not begin w i t h Kantemir, T r e d i a k o v s k i j , and c e r t a i n l y not w i t h Simeon P o l o c k i j . . . . Lomono-sov was the f a t h e r of Russian p o e t r y . . . . He was the P e t e r the Great of Russian l i t e r a t u r e . M i x a i l V a s i l ' e v i c Lomonosov (1711-1765) i s probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e i n the h i s t o r y of modern Russian l i t e r a t u r e b e f o r e Puskin, y e t few s c h o l a r s o u t s i d e the realm of S l a v i c s t u d i e s are f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s accomplishments. Limonosov l i v e d d u r i n g a dynamic and f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d i n Russian h i s t o r y , and without doubt, h i s work on the reform of the Russian l i t e r a r y language, h i s i n t e r e s t i n s y l l a b o -t o n i c v e r s i f i c a t i o n and h i s p o e t i c genius helped t o l a y the groundwork f o r the marvellous p o e t i c a l c r e a t i o n s of Puskin. In 1843, S. P. Seyyrev wrote i n Mo'skvitlaniniii"; ' F i r s t we have the s y l l a b i c v e r s e s of Simeon P o l o c k i j , Feofan [ P r o k o p o v i c ] , and Kantemir. Then, the f i r s t clumsy experiments i n the t o n i c measure by the assiduous but u n g i f t e d T r e d i a k o v s k i j . . . . Suddenly, out of t h i s awkwardness and d i s c o r d we have, f o r the f i r s t time resounding i n the Russian ear, such sounds as: TaK 6 t J C T p H f i K O H b ero C K a K a x i Korfla OH T e nojra T o n T a J i , Tp,e 3 P K M BCXOflHIHy K H a M J i e H H H U y . We r e c a l l s i m i l a r verses from P u s k i n : K a K SHCTPO B n o n e > B K p y r OTKPHTOM, I l O H K O B a H B H O B B , M O f i K O H b 6e)KHT ! KaK 3BOHKO nofl ero KOIHTOM 3eMJiH npoMep3Jian 3BV*IHT! Wasn't i t here, i n these verses of Lomonosov, t h a t 1 2 we f i n d the o r i g i n of t h a t harmony of Russian s t y l e which c a p t i v a t e s us now i n a l l i t s beauty i n the v e r s e s of our Puskin?^ Lomonosov i s appeet whose work r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e s of s e v e r a l s t y l e s . With h i s e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , he was exposed t o s e v e r a l l i t e r a r y t r e n d s , the most prominent being the Baroqee. I t i s the purpose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t o examine the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s i n Lomonosov's poetry t h a t can be l i n k e d w i t h the Baroque. I t w i l l focus the a t t e n t i o n on h i s p a n e g y r i c odes, although i t a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s s e v e r a l examples from h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Psalms, A n a c r e o n t i c poems, and the u n f i n i s h e d e p i c "Peter the Great." In h i s a r t i c l e , . "Baroque and Rococo i n E i g h t e e n t h Century Russian L i t e r a t u r e , " H. S e g e l w r i t e s : "And i n d e a l i n g w i t h Lomonosov, i t i s necessary to bear i n mind t h a t the baroque a t t r i b u t e s of h i s s t y l e r e v e a i l t h e m s e l v e s almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n h i s 3 p a n e g y r i c odes." A c l o s e r a n a l y s i s o f Lomonosov's poetry supports t h i s statement. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s . The f i r s t chapter i s devoted t o a b r i e f survey o f European l i t e r a r y Baroque and to a review of the c r i t i c a l works, both p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y and S o v i e t , which examine the Baroque t r e n d i n Russian c u l t u r e . The second chapter d i s c u s s e s Lomonosov's l i t e r a r y p redecessors who e x h i b i t Baroque f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r work. This survey looks b r i e f l y at the works of Simeon P o l o c k i j , 3 Avvakum, Feofan Prokopovic and V a s i l i j T r e d i a k o v s k i j . The second p a r t .of the chapter focuses on the p e r i o d s i n Lomono-sov's e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g which must have i n f l u e n c e d h i s p o e t i c a l s t y l e . The t h i r d , f o u r t h and f i f t h chapters are a d i s c u s s i o n of the Baroque elements i n Lomonosov's work, based on a c a r e f u l and d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s of h i s b e s t poems. The s i x t h chapter i s a summary and c o n c l u -s i o n of the m a t e r i a l t h a t i s presented i n the d i s s e r t a t i o n . The Appendix comprises f o u r odes which the author has t r a n s l a t e d . The purpose of the t r a n s l a t i o n s i s t o acquaint the non-Russian reader w i t h Lomonosov's poetry and, at the same time, t o present examples of those works which r e v e a l the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s p e r t i n e n t t o the d i s s e r t a t i o n . To accomplish our purpose, we propose t o use as a p o i n t of departure Imbrie Buffum*s e x c e l l e n t book, A g r i p p a  d'Aubigne's 'Les Tragiques,' A Study of the Baroque S t y l e i n P o e t r y . Buffum has shown t h a t a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the s t y l i s t i c and thematic elements i n d'Aubign^'s poetry r e v e a l h i s s t y l e as i n d i c a t i v e o f the Baroque i n g e n e r a l . Moreover, i n h i s examination, Buffum has t r i e d t o show d'Aubigne as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Baroque man. Thespresentdstudy. .does • not t r y t o present the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s of Lomonosov's odes as representat'ive veof h i s Weltanschauung. I t i s the. purpose of t h i s study to show t h a t Lomonosov was a poet who 4 was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Baroque p o e t r y , y e t was one who was not a poet of the Baroque Age. In t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , the s o - c a l l e d " s c i e n t i f i c " t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n system i s used. The Russian form of names t r a n s l i t e r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s system i s used throughout t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , except i n the case of the names of Russian r u l e r s , when the A n g l i c i z e d form i s used, §.g. , A l e x i s Romanov, P e t e r I (The G r e a t ) , C a t h e r i n e I I (the G r e a t ) . Moskva and Sankt-Peterburg are a l s o rendered by t h e i r common E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s , Moscow and S t . Pet e r s b u r g , but other Russian place-names are t r a n s l i t e r a t e d . In those cases where a book i s c i t e d t h a t i s not i n the Russian language, the author's name, although Russian, w i l l be gi v e n i n whatever form i t appears on the t i t l e page, e.g., F l o r i n s k y ( i n s t e a d of F l o r i n s k i j ) . The dates c o n t a i n e d h e r e i n are those of the J u l i a n Calendar, which i n the e i g h t e e n t h century was e l e v e n days behind the Gregorian Calendar commonly i n use at the time i n Western Europe. * * * * * CHAPTER I THE BAROQUE: SEVERAL VIEWS l.> Aspects of Western. European Baroque Since the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h century h i s t o r i a n s of l i t e r a t u r e and the other a r t s have t r i e d t o o f f e r an acc e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n of the Baroque. Many s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s and thematic elements have been discussed', y e t no s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n has been developed which i s ac c e p t a b l e t o everyone. The q u e s t i o n o o f d e f i n i t i o n becomes even more complex when one expands i t to i n c l u d e chronology, Weltanschauung, n a t i o n a l • c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and so f o r t h . The e d i t o r s of a r e c e n t anthology of Baroque poetry s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e the problem: . . . f o r , l i k e c l a s s i c i s m or romanticism, baroque i s a term which p o i n t s t o a s e r i e s of complex and o f t e n s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y a t t i t u d e s towards l i f e which no d e f i n i t i o n can encompass.! Today i n the f i e l d of l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y there are few who deny the u s e f u l n e s s of the term Baroque. C o n t r o v e r s i e s s t i l l abound i n s e v e r a l areas and s t u d i e s are o f t e n c o n t r a -d i c t o r y , y e t Baroque as a term i n l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y i s d e c i d e d l y here t o s t a y . As an a e s t h e t i c term, Baroque was 2 f x r s t used i n the realm of p i c t o r i a l a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e 3 and as e a r l y as 188 8 was a p p l i e d t o l i t e r a t u r e . S i n c e the t r a n s f e r e n c e of the term from the h i s t o r y of a r t t o the sphere of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s has 5 6 been the absence of a clear d e f i n i t i o n . Any discussion of the Baroque, Sla v i c or otherwise, leads to an investigation of several areas. A b r i e f l i s t i n g of a few spheres that relate to the Baroque and are ce r t a i n l y germane to any study of i t w i l l indicate the vastness of the question. Areas to be explored are the Baroque i n i t s relationship to Gothic, the Renaissance, Neoclassicism and Romanticism; Baroque and humanism; Greek and Roman c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e ; rationalism and the Enlightenment; Baroque and the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation. As one c r i t i c writes: "By i t s very nature the Baroque was protean and polymorphous. It i s d i f f i c u l t to reduce i t to a set of formal s t y l i s t i c charac-4 t e r i s t i c s . " There i s no dearth of material available on the Baroque in Western Europe. Some of the debated questions range from the time-span covered (generally accepted as from 1580 to about 1680, but very often placed even l a t e r , up to the middle of the eighteenth century), country of o r i g i n , who i s to be included under the term and what i s the nature 5 of Baroque s t y l e . Another controversial question i s whether Baroque should be defined s o l e l y i n terms of sty l e or defined by i t s ideology, i n other words, i f there i s a Baroque We11ans ch auung. Within the l a s t twenty years, c r i t i c s have attempted to define and delineate a Baroque world-outlook, to portray the Baroque man. A synthesis of s t y l e and Weltan-schauung i s perhaps the best approach to any study of Baroque 7 p o e t r y . S i n c e H. W S l f f l i n ' s ground-breaking s t u d i e s , the term Baroque has won e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g acceptance as d e l i m i t i n g a stage i n the development of the a r t s between the Renaissance and C l a s s i c i s m . As a p e r i o d , the Baroque spans more than one hundred y e a r s . The concept of the Baroque i n c o r p o r a t e s numerous ideas and as such, i t becomes a term w i t h a broad spectrum of meaning; and i t f o l l o w s then t h a t i t a l s o r e p r e -sents a p e r i o d w i t h an e q u a l l y broad spectrum of s t y l e , i n d i v i d u a l s , r e s u l t s and a r t i s t i c i n t e n t . I t i s a l s o impor-t a n t to keep i n mind t h a t the Baroque i n each p a r t i c u l a r country or r e g i o n has a c h a r a c t e r t h a t accords w i t h i t s l o c a l h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y development. In a d d i t i o n , one must never l o s e s i g h t of the f a c t t h a t each c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l , each g i f t e d a r t i s t r e a c t s i n a p e r s o n a l way to the i n f l u e n c e s of h i s time and environment. Baroque i s now the g e n e r a l l y - a c c e p t e d term f o r many aspects and m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of seventeenth-century European . . . . 7 c i v i l i z a t i o n . I . Buffum remarks: As a means of l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , the Baroque s t y l e transcended the n a t i o n a l boundaries of Europe; Baroque s e n s i b i l i t y dominated the minds of men i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t i e s . 8 L o c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s engender d i v e r s e forms of the Baroque. T h i s i s seen i n French p r e c i o s i t e , I t a l i a n mari- nismo, the c u l t i s m o of Spain's Gongora or the conceptismo of 8 Quevedo, the E n g l i s h metaphysicals and the euphuism of L y l y and German Schwulst. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o develop a c o n c i s e d e f i n i t i o n broad enough to c o n t a i n such d i v e r s i t y . There i s no p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f the Baroque. F. J . Warnke, i n h i s Versions, of Baroque, w r i t e s : In the case of the Baroque i t i s perhaps e s p e c i a l l y u n r e a l i s t i c to attempt to a r r i v e at a s t y l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n which i s at once p r e c i s e and h i s t o r i c a l l y i n c l u s i v e , f o r the Baroque e r a . . . was notable f o r the v a r i e t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the l i t e r a r y phenomena which i t embraced.^ Warnke d i v i d e s the d e f i n i t i o n s of Baroque l i t e r a t u r e i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : . . . those which conceive of the Baroque as a s i n g l e s t y l e , d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the c o n s i s t e n t occurrence of s p e c i f i c d e v i c e s , emphases, and ideas (sometimes i n t e r p r e t e d as i m p l y i n g a d e f i -n i t e c u l t u r a l or r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n ) , and those which conceive of Baroque as a complex of r e l a t e d s t y l e s c o n s t i t u t i n g a d i s t i n c t p e r i o d i n European l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . 1 ® Warnke i s committed to the l a t t e r usage. As can be seen, the problem of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s s t i l l too complex to be r e s o l v e d t o everyone's s a t i s f a c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o the many d e f i n i t i o n s of Baroque l i t e r a -t u r e , t h e r e i s y e t another area of c o n t r o v e r s y . T h i s c e n t e r s around those c r i t i c s who use the term Baroque f o r a r e c u r r e n t constant i n l i t e r a r y s e n s i b i l i t y , not c o n f i n e d t o any one h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d . Opposed are those who f a v o r a Z e i t g e i s t concept, i n other words, those who view Baroque as a d e f i n a b l e 9 s p i r i t pervading a l l aspects of thought i n a p a r t i c u l a r e r a . The i d e a of Baroque as a term not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n f i n e d to a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d by W o l f f l i n . In a d d i t i o n t o a Baroque Age, W o l f f l i n suggests Baroque can be used as an a d j e c t i v e w i t h a s m a l l "b" when d e s c r i b i n g the l a s t d e c l i n i n g phase of any a r t . Today, one of the most not a b l e advocates of a c y c l i c a l theory i s D. C i z ' e v s k i j . He remarks t h a t s t y l e s tend to o s c i l l a t e between extremes and only p e r i o d i c a l l y are there f i x e d and c l e a r norms. He s t a t e s : L i t e r a r y s t y l e s appear to o s c i l l a t e between two extremes which a l t e r n a t e l y dominate: from the quest f o r u n i t y to the quest f o r complexity, from the i n c l i n a t i o n t o rounded and ' c l o s e d ' forms t o f r e e forms or even t o f o r m l e s s n e s s , although a c t u a l l y i n both cases form i s e q u a l l y i n t e n t i o n a l and planned. I t i s only from time t o time t h a t t h e r e , a r e f i x e d , c l e a r , symmetrical frames c r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g to g i v e n norms; at other times the p l a n of the work i s hidden; i t i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y p e r m i t t e d to d i s s o l v e i n t o the i n d e f i n i t e ; symmetry i s i n t e n -t i o n a l l y broken; i n p l a c e of t r a n s p a r e n t c l a r i t y of thought we have darkness which o f t e n a r i s e s out of r e a l c h a o t i c depths; but which at times merely a c t s to hide the i n s i p i d i t y . L i n g u i s t i c a l l y t h e r e stands on the one s i d e the e x a c t , pregnant e x p r e s s i o n , on the other r i c h n e s s and c o l o r f u l n e s s which so w e l l s u i t the other hallmarks of such a s t y l e . A f t e r a time the g e n e r a l impression of s t a b l e , measured e q u i l i b r i u m becomes a quest t o r e s o l v e a q u i e t harmony i n t e n s i o n , movement and dynamism. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of both s t y l e s do not value the same t h i n g s — c l a r i t y as opposed to p r o f u n d i t y , s i m p l i c i t y to ornament and embellishment, q u i e t t o movement, boundednesssto u n l i m i t e d p e r s p e c t i v e , roundedness t o a g r a t i n g d i v e r s i t y , c o n c e n t r a t i o n to v a r i e t y , adherence to a canon or n o v e l t y as opposed to the s u r p r i s i n g i m p r e s s i o n , and so f o r t h . On the one s i d e the i d e a l of beauty dominates, on t h e , o t h e r beauty i s regarded as one of many, but by no means the most important, a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . 10 Besides beauty stand other v a l u e s , even the ugly i s adopted i n t o the sphere of a e s t h e t i c values.11 C i z e v s k i j suggests t h a t the s t y l e of the E a r l y Middle Ages, the Romanesque, i s the f i r s t s t y l e (as mentioned above) and t h i s grows i n t o the G o t h i c , the second t y p e , of the Late Middle Ages. T h i s p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e s , w i t h the G o t h i c becom-in g the Renaissance, the f i r s t type, and the Renaissance i n t u r n becoming the Baroque, the second type. I t goes without s a y i n g t h a t such s i m p l i f i e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are open t o c r i t i c i s m and q u e s t i o n . S i z e v s k i j w r i t e s : We w i l l f i n d s c a r c e l y a s i n g l e epoch, however u n i f i e d i t may appear, where the i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s of both types do not c r o s s , do not combine i n p a r t i -c o l o r e d i n t e r p l a y which so o f t e n lends a s p e c i a l b r i l l i a n c e , a n d charm t o a work, t o a tendency, indeed, t o a whole period.12 W. Sypher, i n h i s Four Stages of Renaissance S t y l e , w r i t e s : " E s p e c i a l l y i n any p e r i o d as f e r t i l e as the Renaissance two or more d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s can be c u r r e n t a t not only the same 13 moment i n d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s , but even i n the same a r t i s t . " In c o n s i d e r i n g C i z e v s k i j's theory, i t i s h e l p f u l t o keep i n mind t h a t , although each new g e n e r a t i o n becomes i n t e r e s t e d i n some area or areas of the p a s t and t h e r e i s a conscious i m i t a t i o n of a p r e v i o u s s t y l e or s t y l e s , t h e r e are, i n each s u c c e s s i v e p e r i o d , m o d i f i c a t i o n s which the e v o l u t i o n a r y process must r e f l e c t . While i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a r r i v e at a s i n g l e s t y l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o note c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i t i e s t h a t reappear i n most d i s c u s s i o n s about the Baroque. H. K e t t l e r > i n h i s Baroque T r a d i t i o n , i n the L i t e r a t u r e o f the German  Enlightenment, c o n s i d e r s Baroque as a l i t e r a r y s t y l e t o be an aggregate of s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s based on the e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r of movement. He w r i t e s : Baroque i s , p r i m a r i l y , a s t y l e of movement. I t does not progress e v e n l y , but s p a s m o d i c a l l y , i n s p u r t s ; no development takes p l a c e i n i t s form which i s not rounded o f f i n t o an o r g a n i c whole. Pressure and couriterrpressure are s i g n a l i z e d by a n t i t h e s i s ; these produce a t e n s i o n . . . . x ^ Baroque suggests e v e r - p r e s e n t a c t i o n , continuous "movement."': C i z e v s k i j r e f e r s t o t h i s movement as "dynamism": What i s e s p e c i a l l y t y p i c a l of baroque c u l t u r e and what lends i t i t s i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s 'dynamism.' In the p l a s t i c a r t s t h i s means the p r e f e r e n c e of the 'dynamic' curve t o the s t r a i g h t l i n e s and semicircleso-fftheeRgnaissanceeanddtoathe acute angle and p a r a l l e l l i n e s of Gothic s t y l e . In l i f e and l i t e r a t u r e one f i n d s a l o n g i n g f o r change; at the r i s k of c a t a s t r o p h i c consequences one loves t r a g i c t e n s i o n , b o l d combinations and a d v e n t u r e s . x ^ James Lees - M i l n e , i n h i s BarOque ;.in. I t a l y , c a l l s "movement" the "key word." He emphasizes what German s c h o l -ars c a l l Baroque, S t i l des Werdens, the s t y l e of becoming, t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from the S t i l des S e i n s , the s t y l e o f b e i n g , which i s the Renaissance formula. E s s e n t i a l l y , the Baroque c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of movement/dynamism r e f l e c t s the p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h change, w i t h metamorphosis; i t i'syan. emphasis on becoming r a t h e r than s t a t i c b e i n g . Baroque seems to r e f l e c t no sense of permanence, of s t a b i l i t y . Instead 12 there i s an .emphasis on the t r a n s i e n t . There i s an emphasis on t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and metamorphosis. F r e q u e n t l y time p l a y s an important p a r t i n Baroque t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . lEhe Baroque poet o f t e n has a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n time and shows how man i s caught i n the v i o l e n t c o n t r a s t between the temporal and the e t e r n a l . Another t o p i c f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Baroque, one which has s e v e r a l s t y l i s t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , i s an aware-ness of the dichotomies of r e a l i t y . There i s a concern w i t h the c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature of e x i s t e n c e . Baroque poets exp l o r e the a n t i t h e t i c a l nature of t h e i r world — they sense d i s p a -r a t e appearances i n r e a l i t y . H. S e g e l , i n h i s Baroque Poem, A Comparative Stozey, w r i t e s : "The Baroque never o f f e r s us p e r f e c t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t or the s t a t i c calm of 'being,' 17 only the u n r e s t and t e n s i o n of t r a n s i e n c e . " C o n t r a d i c t i o n , paradox and a n t i t h e s i s are a l l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Baroque p o e t r y . L. N e l s o n , . i n The Baroque L y r i c , r e f e r s to Baroque a n t i t h e s i s as " r a d i c a l p o l a r i t i e s " and i n c l u d e s i n these p o l a r i t i e s such d i v e r s e areas as the s a c r e d and the profane, time and e t e r n i t y and a f u l l l i f e and all-encompassing death. The a n t i t h e s i s of s e n s u a l i s m and s p i r i t u a l i t y i s o f t e n con-s i d e r e d t y p i c a l f o r the Baroque. W. P. F r i e d e r i c h remarks: Baroque l i t e r a t u r e i s , above a l l , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the sudden and v i o l e n t c l a s h between the pagan se n s u a l i s m of the Renaissance on the one hand, and the newly a s s e r t e d s p i r i t u a l i s m , a s c e t i c i s m , and f a n a t i c i s m of the Age of the Counter-Reformation on 13 the o t h e r hand. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the t r a g i c c o n f l i c t s i n the s o u l s of men.18 Fr e q u e n t l y mentioned i n any d i s c u s s i o n of the Baroque i s the u n i v e r s a l scope of the s u b j e c t matter of i t s p o e t r y . There seems t o be no s u b j e c t which the poet does not embrace — he touches numerous aspects of l i f e and death. K e t t l e r remarks: I t was a s s e r t e d by the Enlightenment t h a t the poet c o u l d t r e a t of every s u b j e c t , because h i s s c i e n c e was the f o u n d a t i o n and essence of a l l o t h e r s , a t e n e t which.Baroque,had alr e a d y formu-l a t e d . ! 9 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r Lomonosov's o p i n i o n on t h i s matter. In h i s R h e t o r i c of 1748, Lomonosov w r i t e s : R h e t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s e v e r y t h i n g about which one can read and w r i t e , t h a t i s t o say, a l l known th i n g s of the w o rld, out of which can c l e a r l y be seen t h a t the r h e t o r w i t h the' l a r g e s t knowledge of the p r e s e n t and past world . . . has got t h a t much more m a t e r i a l f o r h i s 'sweet speech' [ s l a d k o r e c i j u ] . Whoever wishes to be the p e r f e c t r h e t o r has t o study a l l the knowledges and s c i e n c e s , past h i s t o r y and moral te a c h i n g s of philosophy.20 Another common f a c t o r , c l o s e l y l i n k e d to movement, i s the Baroque poet's s w i f t and sudden l e a p i n g from t o p i c to t o p i c . Frequently, i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the reader t o keep e v e r y t h i n g i n proper p e r s p e c t i v e . I t seems as i f there i s no apparent connection between the main theme and the v a r i o u s u n r e l a t e d and extraneously-int•reduced s u b j e c t s . T h i s t e c h -nique i s g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d " l y r i c a l d i s o r d e r . " The immense mass of m a t e r i a l covered by Baroque poets was not presented w i t h Renaissance calm and harmony, but w i t h ever new and ingenious methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n . S i z e v s k i j notes: "The h i g h e s t task of a r t [Baroque] i s not the awakening of calm a e s t h e t i c or r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , but the s t r o n g e s t e f f e c t , 2 1 e x c i t a t i o n , shock." Shock, v i o l e n c e , grotesque n a t u r a l i s m and g r a p h i c v i v i d n e s s are a l l elements found i n Baroque s t y l e . One d e f i n i t i o n of Baroque i s : " t r h ^ s t t h e s t y l e which produces the highest, p i t c h of v i v i d a c t u a l i t y , b o l d e s t i n 22 i t s attempts a t -realism." S e v e r a l preoccupations and f a v o r i t e t o p i c s are asso-c i a t e d w i t h the Baroque. The a r t of the Baroque i s c a l l e d the a r t of the s p e c t a c u l a r , the pompous and the t h e a t r i c a l . Baroque s t y l e i s h i g h l y r h e t o r i c a l and e l a b o r a t e — o f t e n i t i s c a l l e d the o s t e n t a t i o u s s t y l e . B:aa?oque poets f r e e l y employ such d e v i c e s as anaphora, asyndeton, oxymoron and hyperbole, among o t h e r s . Baroque poets d e l i g h t i n construct' i n g e l a b o r a t e metaphors. J . P. H i l l and E. C a r a c c i o l o - T r e j o w r i t e : "What c h a r a c t e r i z e s - b a r o q u e poetry i s the r e p e t i t i o n 2 3 of the c o n c e i t . " L. Nelson, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of Baroque p o e t r y , r e f e r s t o "the extravagant metaphors fas h i o n e d from the l i n k a g e of d i s p a r a t e s . " 2 ' * There i s an, abundance of s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Baroque. There are as many d e f i n i t i o n s of the Baroque as t h e r e are c r i t i c s . L. P. W i l k i n s o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n seems i n c l u s i v e enough t o sum,up w i t h . He w r i t e s : 1 5 Baroque a r t tends t o be g r a n d i o s e , a r r e s t i n g , t h e a t r i c a l : f u l l of r e s t l e s s and exuberant v i t a l i t y , i t s t r i v e s a f t e r v a r i e t y , strangeness'and c o n t r a s t — now f a n t a s t i c a l , now p l a y f u l , now p i c t u r e s q u e . . . i t claims the r i g h t t o exaggerate or deceive f o r a r t i s t i c e n d s . 2 5 2T. ? Pre-Revolutionary/and, S o v i e t . C r i t i c i s m of Russian Baroque The term Baroque was not unknown i n p r e - R e v o l u t i o n a r y R u s s i a , but i n comparison w i t h the a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l on Western European Baroque, the monographs are not as numerous. S t u d i e s continued i n S o v i e t R u s s i a u n t i l the e a r l y 1 9 3 0 ' s when work on the Baroque a l l but disappeared. There are s e v e r a l reasons why c r i t i c i s m stopped soon a f t e r the end of the New Economic P o l i c y (ended 1 9 2 8 ) . One important reason was a change i n a t t i t u d e toward comparative c r i t i c i s m . L i n k s w i t h Western European l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n were t o be avoided. During the 1 9 3 0 ' s and 4 0 ' s , there was a r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t of S o v i e t c r i t i c s t o use the term Baroque and those who had p r e v i o u s l y used i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o Russian c u l t u r e , changed t h e i r o p i n i o n s . I t i s not u n t i l the 1 9 5 0 ' s t h a t the concept of the Baroque was r e v i v e d by a few S o v i e t s c h o l a r s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y A. Morozov and M. G u k o v s k i j ) . Today, the debate on.Russian Baroque s t i l l continues i n S o v i e t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . A b r i e f look at the work on the Baroque i n p r e - R e v o l u t i o n a r y R u s s i a and i n the S o v i e t Union w i l l be 16 of some h e l p . The f i r s t work i n Russian t o d e a l w i t h the concept of the Baroque was by I. M. Snegirev i n 1852. Baroque was not a p e j o r a t i v e term f o r Snegirev; he used i t i n a p o s i t i v e manner. In h i s book, Russkaja s t a r i n a v pamjatnikax cerkov-nago i grazdanskago zodcestva, he d i s c u s s e s the N a r y s k i n . churches b u i l t i n and around Moscow. P a r t i c u l a r l y he mentions the T r o i c a Church i n Trockoe-Lykovo. He mentions -the b e a u t i f u l I t a l i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e of the Renaissance, b e t t e r (he says), t o say Baroque, which appeared i n Moscow at the 2 6 end of the seventeenth century. His main o b j e c t i v e i s t o emphasize the Western c h a r a c t e r ( p a r t i c u l a r l y I t a l i a n ) o f the churches. He compares ot h e r churches of the seventeenth century (these being the l a s t examples of the Byzan t i n e -Russian a r c h i t e c t u r a l - t r a d i t i o n — he p o i n t s t o t h e i r u n i -f o r m i t y of s t y l e i n form and de c o r a t i o n ) w i t h the Naryskin churches. Snegirev*s book s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n the Baroque both i n R u s s i a and i n Western Europe. Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e began t o i n t e r e s t s e v e r a l people. In 1864, V. K i p r i a n o f f p u b l i s h e d h i s book, H i s t o i r e p i t t o r e s q u e de 1 1 a r c h i t e c t u r e 27 en :Russie. In the 1870*s,.two i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on Russian 2 8 a r c h i t e c t u r e were p u b l i s h e d by L. V. Dal* and V. A. Proxo-29 rov. D a l ' , l i k e S n e g i r e v , emphasized the Western i n f l u e n c e on Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e . He b e l i e v e d the source of Western 17 i n f l u e n c e to have been the Ukraine. He c a l l s Russian a r c h i -t e c t u r e of t h i s p e r i o d the " P e t r i n e " s t y l e and f u r t h e r 3 0 d i s t i n g u i s h e s , i t by c a l l i n g i t Germano-Russian Baroque. Baroque as a p e j o r a t i v e term was used by E. Vic-Met l e 31 Due i n h i s 1877 book on Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e . In Western a r c h i t e c t u r e , he condemns the p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s and t w i s t e d s c h o o l of B e r n i n i , i t s heavy ornamentation, and i t i s these f e a t u r e s he c r i t i c i z e s i n Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e . He condemns Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e of the seventeenth century f o r f o l l o w i n g the overloaded d e c o r a t i v e forms of German and I t a l i a n a r c h i -32 t e c t u r e . He admires only e a r l i e r Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e when church c o n s t r u c t i o n was under O r i e n t a l / B y z a n t i n e i n f l u e n c e . 33 In 187 8 an anonymous author responded t o t h i s book sa y i n g t h a t Western i n f l u e n c e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l t h a t was praiseworthy i n Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e . In 1894, A. M. P a v l i n o v wrote a h i s t o r y of Russian 34 a r c h i t e c t u r e . He p r a i s e d the seventeenth century as the Golden Age of Russian a r t . He a l s o p o i n t e d out the N a r y s k i n churches as examples of Western i n f l u e n c e . P a v l i n o v b e l i e v e d Russian a r t s u f f e r e d a d e c l i n e towards the end of the seven-te e n t h century. T h i s he a t t r i b u t e s to the i n f l u e n c e s of 35 d i s t o r t e d western forms. In 1897 A. Sultanov r e p l i e d t o P a v l i n o v ' s book. Sultanov examined s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n h i s work. He suggested the term "Russian Baroque" f o r a r c h i t e c -t u r e of the seventeenth century. He used the term i n a 18 p o s i t i v e way and, u n l i k e P a v l i n o v , d i d not b e l i e v e the l a t e seventeenth century was a p e r i o d of d e c l i n e f o r Russian a r t . In a d d i t i o n , he b e l i e v e s Snegirev's r a t h e r f r e e c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r e of t h i s p e r i o d as I t a l o - R u s s i a n i s m i s l e a d i n g , f o r I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e i n form i s to be seen i n Ru s s i a of the middle f i f t e e n t h and as w e l l as a l l the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . He a l s o r e j e c t s Dai's "Petrrine" s t y l e as h i s t o r i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e when d i s c u s s i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e . Sultanov emphasizes the Western elements i n a r c h i t e c t u r e of the P e t r i n e age and b e l i e v e d i s o l a t e d Russian t r a i t s c r e p t i n only by a c c i d e n t . One of the l a s t p r e - R e v o l u t i o n a r y sources on Baroque 3 6 i s I. Grabar's IstO£ija^russkago ;,iskusstva (1910/1916). In 37 one a r t i c l e , "Barokko Ukrainy," G. P a v l u c k i j supports Dai's theory t h a t the Ukraine was the main source of Western i n f l u e n c e on Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e . He d i s c u s s e s the Counter-Reformation, Baroque s t y l e of seventeenth-century U k r a i n i a n wooden a r c h i t e c t u r e . He i s o l a t e s such f e a t u r e s as,the curved l i n e , t a l l towers, p i c t u r e s q u e n e s s and attempts at c h i a r o s -curo. In two other a r t i c l e s the Baroque i s d i s c u s s e d . Once again the Nar y s k i n churches are mentioned. F. Gornostaev, 3 8 •»• i n "Barokko Moskvy," r e f e r s to the Naryskin churches as 39 Moscow Baroque. I. Grabar, in,"Sud'ba moskovskago barokko" advances the concept of the Baroque even f u r t h e r : he suggests a d i s t i n c t i o n between Moscow and P e t r i n e Baroque. v.. 19 With the r e v o l u t i o n s and the c i v i l war, p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h on the Baroque ceased. I t i s only i n 1923 t h a t the term Baroque s u r f a c e s again. V. N i k o l ' s k i j p u b l i s h e d h i s S o v i e t h i s t o r y of Russian a r t i n 1923.^° Once again the Ukraine i s s i n g l e d out as the source of Western i n f l u e n c e . N i k o l ' s k i j goes back even f u r t h e r than p r e v i o u s c r i t i c s and suggests the new s t y l e p e n e t r a t e d from Poland t o the Ukraine and thence t o Moscow. The new s t y l e c r e a t e d i t s own d i s t i n c -t i v e s t y l i s t i c nuance of Russian Baroque, or as N i k o l ' s k i j c a l l s i t , the "Nagryskin s t y l e . " A c c o r d i n g to N i k o l ' s k i j , the Baroque s t y l e i n R u s s i a was the r e s u l t of R u s s i a j o i n i n g the European c u l t u r a l stream. He says the s t y l e of the Renaissance became more and more developed i n i t s d e c o r a t i v e -ness, g r a d u a l l y becoming the Baroque s t y l e , and at t h a t moment R u s s i a j o i n e d the mainstream of European c u l t u r a l 41 development. In h i s book, the Baroque i n c l u d e s the end of the seventeenth century and the f i r s t q u a r t e r of the e i g h t -eenth century. In the 1926 e d i t i o n of the B o l ' s a j a s o v e t s k a j a e n c i -42 k l o p e d i j a , W. Hausenstein w r i t e s t h a t the concept of the Baroque envelops the a r t i s t i c s t y l e of the epochs from the Renaissance t o the Empire, t h a t i s , European a r t from the end of the s i x t e e n t h century, a l l of the seventeenth and the 43 l a r g e r p a r t of the e i g h t e e n t h century. In Hausenstein's a r t i c l e the term Baroque covers n e a r l y two hundred y e a r s . 20 He was the f i r s t S o v i e t c r i t i c t o d i s c u s s the concept of Baroque i n s o c i a l and economic terms. For Hausenstein, the Baroque was a s y n t h e s i s of two t r a d i t i o n s , the f e u d a l and the c l e r i c a l (as expressed by Mediaeval Gothic) and the bour-geois^?- and l i b e r t i n e , both r e s u l t i n g from the Renaissance. S. Toporov, i n h i s a r t i c l e "Barokko russkoe," c a l l s Moscow Baroque the development of Old Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e p l u s forms of Western i n f l u e n c e . At the same time he emphasizes 44 the completely unique s t y l e of Moscow Baroque. One of the most s u c c e s s f u l attempts i n S o v i e t c r i t i c i s m t o e x p l o r e the concept of the Baroque was a c o l l e c -t i o n of essays p u b l i s h e d a l s o i n 1926. In t h i s work, Barokko • • 45 v R o s s n , s e v e r a l noted s c h o l a r s ( d i s c u s s d i f f e r e n t problems and aspects of the Baroque. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n , A. I. Nekrasov presents W o l f f l i n ' s i d e a t h a t the term Baroque i s not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n f i n e d to a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d . ( I t should be mentioned t h a t N. Sultanov had suggested t h a t h i s term "Russian Baroque" was not to be thought of as an a d j e c t i v e w i t h a s m a l l "b,'v thereby i m p l y i n g the l a s t d e c l i n i n g phase of an a r t . ) Another p o i n t Nekrasov emphasizes i s t h a t Russian a r t took no p a r t i n the Renaissance, but i n i t s a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l development passed s t r a i g h t from the Middle Ages to the Baroque. (This i d e a i s l a t e r taken up by I. P. Eremin i n 1958.) In h i s essay on the Baroque i n Russian iconography, M. V. A l p a t o v p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l c o n t r a d i c t o r y ideas about the Baroque, y e t comes to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the seventeenth century was the Baroque Age 46 i n R u s s i a . A l p a t o v d i s c u s s e s the Baroque as a s t y l e i n Russian a r t and c u l t u r e — he sees s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the mouldings on the e x t e r i o r w a l l s of the D'mitrievskij C a t h e d r a l i n V l a d i m i r and G o t h i c tanglewood m o t i f s , and between the c u l t u r e of .'.thener'aeofervanl.the T e r r i b l e (Ivan IV) and I t a l i a n 47 Mannerism. (The concept of Russian Mannerism i s taken up l a t e r by M. Gukovskij i n 1963.) In h i s a r t i c l e , A l p a t o v negates h i s own arguments by s t a t i n g t h a t the b a s i c premises f o r the Baroque d i d not e x i s t i n R u s s i a : t h a t i s , no Renais-sance, no exposure to humanism and no s c i e n t i f i c theory of a r t . G. V. Zidkov a l s o concludes t h a t the seventeenth cen-t u r y was the Age of Baroque a r t i n R u s s i a . He p o i n t s out t h a t C l a s s i c i s m i n Russian p a i n t i n g began at the same time as i t d i d i n Western Europe (that i s , the mid-1760's t o the e a r l y 1770's). . Zidkov s t a t e s C l a s s i c i s m evolved from Rococo which i n t u r n developed from the Baroque. He emphasizes t h a t these s t y l e s i n R u s s i a evolved at the same ashthey d i d i n Western Europe. Moreover, he says the development of Baroque a r t can be t r a c e d back t o works from the l a t e f i f -48 t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . N. I. Burnov, i n h i s a r t i c l e on Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e , a l s o c a l l s the seven-t e e n t h century Baroque. He p o i n t s to the h o r i z o n t a l r e s o l u -t i o n of the Baroque facade as i n d i c a t i v e of Russian Baroque. 22 He i s a l s o q u i c k to p o i n t out d i f f e r e n c e s between Russian and Western Baroque, l i s t i n g super-imposed octagons as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of^WesternEBaroqiiea'architecture, a f e a t u r e l a c k i n g i n Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e . For A. N. Grec, the Baroque was a l l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n i n the time of P e t e r the Great (Peter I ) . He a l s o c l a s s i f i e s as Baroque those works j u s t p r e c e d i n g and j u s t f o l l o w i n g the 49 P e t r i n e Age. V. V. Zgura g i v e s the top of the S p a s s k i j tower i n the Kremlin as an example of Baroque a r c h i t e c t u r e and dates the b e g i n n i n g of the Baroque s t y l e w i t h the e s t a b -lishment of the monarchy a f t e r the Time of T r o u b l e s , t h a t i s , w i t h the r e i g n of M i x a i l Romanov i n 1613. Zgura p o i n t s t o the Naryskin churches as an example of the Baroque i n R u s s i a , and p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s e s the upward motion of the churches as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of the Baroque. Grec and Zgura d i s c u s s the Baroque i n h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l terms, both emphasizing the Baroque as the s t y l e o f a b s o l u t i s m . The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t Grec r e f e r s t o P e t r i n e a b s o l u t i s m and •Zgura ,-ref ers \to anleaEl-ierogrowtH; o f s a b a ^ Withrthenreigni.of iMixailnRomanov. In 1927, P. D u l K s k i j p u b l i s h e d h i s Barokko v Kazani. D u l ' s k i j expounds Hausenstein's c h a r a c t e r of the Baroque, c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the new bourgeois c l a s s of the seventeenth-century Russians. He c a l l s the Baroque s t y l e the f a s h i o n of 50 law-givers and the c u l t u r e of patrons of a r t . D u l ' s k i j 23 uses the term Baroque i n a p e j o r a t i v e sense, and c o n t r a s t s the crude pomposity of the Baroque to the dry, a r i s t o c r a t i c s e r e n i t y of the Renaissance. A. V. L u n a c a r s k i j (1924) was the f i r s t S o v i e t c r i t i c to d i s c u s s Baroque l i t e r a t u r e , a l b e i t not Russian Baroque l i t e r a t u r e . L u n a c a r s k i j a s s o c i a t e s the Baroque w i t h the 51 J e s u i t s and the Counter-Reformation. He says the Baroque was r e f l e c t e d i n a l l branches of a r t , although i t i s d i f f i -c u l t to e x p l a i n s t y l i s t i c a l l y . Baroque movement, t e n s i o n , L u n a c a r s k i j c a l l s r e s t l e s s n e s s and says i t r e f l e c t e d the s t r u g g l e of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church a g a i n s t the f o r c e s of the Reformation. In a d d i t i o n , he d e s c r i b e s as two major elements of the Baroque, o s t e n t a t i o n (the d e p i c t i o n of pomp), and the g r a p h i c d e p i c t i o n of t e r r o r (grotesque n a t u r a l i s m ) . For L u n a c a r s k i j , o s t e n t a t i o n and t e r r o r are the d i r e c t a r t i s t i c r e s u l t of two J e s u i t t a c t i c s (coaxing and t h r e a t e n -ing) i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e t o r e c l a i m s t r a y sheep t o the C a t h o l i c f o l d . I t i s c l e a r t h a t L u n a c a r s k i j sees the Baroque as a r e a c t i o n a r y , c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e s t y l e , or i n more M a r x i s t -L e n i n i s t terminology, a r e g r e s s i v e p e r i o d . The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e to Russian Baroque as a l i t e r a r y phenomenon was i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to a c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i -c l e s commemorating the 12 5th a n n i v e r s a r y of the b i r t h of >• 52 T j u t c e v (1928) . In one of the f i n a l sentences d»f the i n t r o d u c t i o n , L. V. Pumpjanskij r e f e r s t o T j u t c e v as a unique 24 phenomenon i n the h i s t o r y of European p o e t r y , a poet who 53 combined the uncombmable, the Romantic and the Baroque. Although he does not apply the term Baroque to any, other Russian poet, Pumpj.anskij does r e f e r t o the s t r o n g l i n k between Derza v i n (whom l a t e r Western c r i t i c s were to c a l l 54 Baroque ), T j u t c e v ' s major source of i n s p i r a t i o n , and the German Baroque poets. Furthermore, Pumpjanskij notes t h a t Russian poets of the seventeenth century, such as Simeon P o l o c k i j , were f a m i l i a r w i t h the work of the German Baroque poets. One of the l a s t r e f e r e n c e s t o the term Baroque b e f o r e i t s disappearance from Sowiet l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , was by B. .^ . . 55 P u r i s e v i n the L i t e r a t u r n a j a e n c i k l o p e d i j a o f 1930. P u r i -sev takes a wide view of Western European Baroque, although he g i v e s o n l y a few l i n e s t o Russian Baroque. In h i s a n a l y s i s he d i v i d e s the Baroque i n t o fousn. groups-. He p l a c e s Calder6n and Gryphius i n the f i r s t , Scudery and L o h e n s t e i n , as r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s of the f i g h t i n g n o b i l i t y , i n the second, Grimmels-hausen the bourgeois landowner i n the t h i r d , and the mystics Tasso and Aribsto i n the f o u r t h . In the l a s t l i n e of the a r t i c l e P u r i s e v mentions Derzavin as the b e s t example of Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque. In h i s dis.cussion of Western European Baroque, he emphasizes the mystic s c h o o l , concen-t r a t i n g upon i t s themes and s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the d u a l i s m of the Baroque world outlook as seen i n such antinomies as s e c u l a r i s m / r e l i g i o s i t y and r a t i o n a l i s m / , . 56 i r r a t i o n a l i s m . From the middle 1930's to the middle 1950's, the term Baroque was seldom used i n S o v i e t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . F r e -quently c r i t i c s who had p r e v i o u s l y w r i t t e n on the Baroque, who had d i s c u s s e d c e r t a i n phenomena of Russian c u l t u r e as Baroque, a l t e r e d t h e i r statements. S e v e r a l reasons c o u l d be give n f o r t h i s estrangement, but one of the most obvious reasons i s the u n f a v o r a b l e S o v i e t r e a c t i o n t o any mention of a t u t e l a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Western c u l t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t method of l i t e r a r y and a r t c r i t i c i s m d e a l s w i t h the concepts " p r o g r e s s i v e " and '^regressive"; West European Baroque i s co n s i d e r e d by S o v i e t c r i t i c s t o be a r e g r e s s i v e p e r i o d . They p o s i t s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s , mainly the Baroque as the c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f abso-l u t i s m , the Counter-Reformation ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the J e s u i t s ) and the growth of c a p i t a l i s m . Russian Baroque as a term i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m (or f o r t h a t matter, i n any d i s c u s s i o n of the p i a s t i c a r t s ) i s acc e p t a b l e only when i t i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t , d e s p i t e numerous s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s , t h e r e i s an i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e w i t h Western European Baroque. Moreover, s e v e r a l S o v i e t c r i t i c s of Russian Baroque are wont to p l a y down any Western i n f l u e n c e s and always s t r e s s spe-c i f i c n a t i v e t r a i t s ("native" expands here t o i n c l u d e Russian, U k r a i n i a n and Byelo-Russian t r a i t s ) and indigenous s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c ircumstances. D. C l i z e v s k i j has t h i s t o say about the study of the Baroque i n the S o v i e t Union: "Das Barock gehort a l l e r d i n g s i n der UdSSR zu den verpSnten, j a , e i n e Zeitlangv d i r e k t verbotenen l i t e r a t u r h i s t o r i s c h e n B e g r i f f e n . " 5 7 There are examples of c r i t i c s a v o i d i n g the use of the term.Baroque, or changing t h e i r i n i t i a l a t t i t u d e , not only toward the term Baroque, but more generall^^tfcow.ardttK'e i n f l u e n c e of Western Europe. G. A. Gukovskij (1939) makes s e v e r a l v e i l e d r e f e r e n c e s to Western inffluen-cesnon Russian l i t e r a t u r e , but he i s non-committal i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f these i n f l u e n c e s and only sums up the new tendencies as a c o "new page i n Russian p o e t r y . " Although Gukovskij mentions Sunther as the l a s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the voluptuous and b e a u t i f u l Baroque s t y l e and b r i e f l y mentions Gunther's i n f l u e n c e on Lomonosov, he does not r e f e r t o Lomonosov as 59 Baroque. In an e a r l i e r book Gukovskij (1927) had emphar-s i z e d Lomonosov's solemn ceremonial s t y l e , the a b s t r a c t n e s s of h i s odes, the numerous tropes and f i g u r e s and Lomonosov's ft ex p r i n c i p l e of t e n s i o n — a l l -features of the Baroque. M. V. A l p a t o v , who had e a r l i e r (1926) d i s c u s s e d Western Baroque i n f l u e n c e s on Russian a r t and concluded t h a t the seventeenth century was the Baroque Age i n R u s s i a (see ft 1 note 46), changed h i s views i n h i s 19 55 book. Features A l p a t o v had e a r l i e r d i s c u s s e d as Baroque are now seen i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t — now he sees no reason to r e l a t e Russian a r t of the seventeenth century to the B a r o q u e . s t y l e . S. Bondi (1935) f a l l s j u s t s h o r t of c a l l i n g Lomono-sov's po e t r y Baroque. He suggests the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s of Lomonosov's poetry as hyperbole, abundant meta-phor, i n v o l v e d comparisons, c o n t r a s t i n g images, concr e t e p i c t u r e s w i t h m a g n i f i c e n t d e s c r i p t i o n , gusty movement, e t c . He d o e s not attempt t o d i s t i n g u i s h Lomonosov's s t y l e as 62 Baroque. To see a change i n a t t i t u d e toward Western l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e s , one can compare the 1945/46 e d i t i o n of D. D. B l a g o j * s I s ' t o r i j a Russkoj l i t e r a t u r y XVIII v e k a w i t h h i s l a t e r 1952 e d i t i o n . In h i s 1945/46 e d i t i o n , B l a g o j c i t e s the indebtedness of Lomonosov to Western European l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s , w h i l e i n h i s 1952 e d i t i o n , he t o t a l l y aYoidssany r e f e r e n c e t o European i n f l u e n c e s and proceeds t o e x p l a i n Lomonosov on l y i n terms of h i s e n l i g h t e n e d i d e a s , f a i l i n g t o account f o r the n o n - c l a s s i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s of Lomonosov's s t y l e . . In 1948, I . Eremin wrote a b r i l l i a n t a n a l y s i s of 63 Simeon P o l o c k i j ' s p o e t r y . He d i s c u s s e d s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s of Western European Baroque poetry i n P o l o c k i j ' s s t y l e , but he d o e s not c a l l Po-lodsLg,: Baroque. C i z e v s k i j (1970) w r i t e s : In Russland d u r f t e I . Eremin, der d i e B a r o c k e l e -.ymente i n den Werken von Simeon P o l o c k i j ausgezeich-net c h a r a k t e r i s i e r t , i n s e i n e r E i n l e i t u n g zur Ausgabe 28 der 1 ausgewahlten Werke' P o l o c k i j s d i e s e s • r e a k t i o n a r e Wort 1 n i c h t gebrauchen.64 A l a s t example r e f l e c t i n g t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e i s seen i n the works of P u r i s e v . E a r l i e r (1930) he had w r i t t e n f a v o r a b l y about the Baroque (see note 55), but t h e r e i s a decided d i f f e r e n c e between the 1940 e d i t i o n of h i s Xrestoma-t i j a po zapadnoevroperjsko j l i t e r a t u r e XVII veka and the 1949 e d i t i o n . In the 1940 e d i t i o n , P u r i s e v f r e e l y d i s c u s s e s Spanish Baroque p o e t r y , w i t h no p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g i c a l emphasis, w h i l e i n the 1949 e d i t i o n he s t r e s s e s the d i f f e r e d ence between the r e a c t i o n a r y Roman C a t h o l i c p ropagandist Calderon and the p a t r i o t i c humanist Lope de Vega. There are a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s i n h i s works on German Baroque p o e t r y . In Miie 1955 e d i t i o n of h i s O c e r k i nemeckoj l i t e r a t u r y , P u r i s e v 65 omits the term Baroque e n t i r e l y . I t i s only i n the l a t e 1950*s t h a t Baroque i s again d i s c u s s e d i n S o v i e t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , although t h e r e had been a few e a r l i e r works where the term Baroque was used.*^ The f i r s t p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s on Baroque were h e l d at the 19 58 fi 7 Fourth I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of S l a v i s t s . I . P. Eremin d i s c u s s e d the Baroque i n Ru s s i a as a p r o g r e s s i v e concept. He d i s t i n g u i s h e d WesternrEuropea^ mlani'fes.ta*a>©nao^aie^.aitate'aGtiSn and the Cou n t e r - r e f o r m a t i o n r e p l a c i n g the Renaissance, as opposed to Russian Baroque (and t h a t of ot h e r E a s t e r n S l a v i c c o u n t r i e s ) , where t h e r e had been no Renaissance and the Baroque was to be seen as an important and p r o g r e s s i v e s t a t e of l i t e r a r y development. Eremin sug-gested t h a t f o r R u s s i a t h e r e was a spontaneous t r a n s f e r e n c e from the Middle Ages to the Baroque. This was accomplished by a s s o c i a t i o n with P o l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . Eremin mentioned the e d u c a t i v e c h a r a c t e r of Simeon P o l o c k i j ' s p o e t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of the ensuing P e t r i n e reforms. He l i m i t e d the Baroque s o l e l y to an a r t i s t i c t r e n d c o n f i n e d to the Orthodox Church and the Russian c o u r t . ^ He d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the Baroque movement and the Baroque s t y l e . By doing so, he was able to p o s i t a p r o g r e s s i v e Russian Baroque. For Eremin, the Baroque movement was an a b s t r a c t n o t i o n which i n c l u d e d a l l the numerous d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and phenomena of Baroque l i t e r a t u r e . S t y l e was the concrete treatment of the movement. Moreover, Eremin noted t h a t d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the movement and no w r i t e r c o u l d ever r e f l e c t . t h e m a l l . A. Morozov i n c l u d e s the Baroque under the broader category of the Enlightenment. For him t h i s was an a l l - i n c l u s i v e movement embracing s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and s t y l e s . He suggests t h a t Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque can be t r a c e d from Simeon P o l o c k i j t o Der-69 z avm. Morozov suggests Lomonosov as a Baroque poet, f o r 70 almost the same reasons t h a t G. Gukovskij s a i d he was not a C l a s s i c i s t . Morozov emphasizes Lomonosov's ceremonial s t y l e , h i s grandiose images and e l a b o r a t e metaphors, and h i s 30 71 f e s t i v e n e s s . P. N. Berkov r e j e c t s the term Baroque f o r Russian l i t e r a t u r e . He b e l i e v e s the v a r i o u s Russian w r i t e r s suggested as Baroque (Simeon P o l o c k i j , T r e d i a k o v s k i j , Lomo-nosov, etc.) p r e s e n t such d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and such d i v e r s e and v a r i a b l e content i n t h e i r p o e t r y t h a t i t i s 72 i m p o s s i b l e t o say they a l l belong to the same s t y l e . Berkov a l s o r e j e c t s the term Baroque f o r s e v e r a l S l a v i c l i t e r a t u r e s and even doubts whether i t can be a p p l i e d t o P o l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . He suggests t h a t what i s c a l l e d Russian Baroque i s r e a l l y a t r a n s i t i o n from mediaeval s t y l e s t o e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y C l a s s i c i s m . He o f f e r s the new term 73 " P r e - C l a s s i c i s m . " In 1961, I. Eremin d i s c u s s e s Baroque i n h i s i n t r o d u c -t i o n t o Feofan Prokopovic". Eremin suggests t h a t Prokopovic cannot be c a l l e d Baroque. He a r r i v e s at t h i s c o n c l u s i o n because, although Prokopovic was steeped, i n Baroque l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n and was guided by the norms and a e s t h e t i c p r i n ^ 74 c i p l e s of the Baroque, he r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t them. T h i s i d e a of r e j e c t i o n , of not f o l l o w i n g the norm, was continued by A. Morozov i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o M i x a i l Lomonosov (19 62). He b e l i e v e s Lomonosov wrote Baroque poetry because he r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the norms of C l a s s i c i s m . B r i e f l y p a s s i n g over the i n f l u e n c e of the German Baroque poets, Morozov, r a t h e r than d i s c u s s i n g iJbs Baroque aspects ,ofe'f.ertsnto :the e i a s s i c a l e H e r i t a g e of Lomonosov's poetry. He emphasizes 31 t h a t Lomonosov, by b r e a k i n g the bonds of C l a s s i c i s m , c r e a t e d h i s own p o e t r y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the f e a t u r e s of Lomonosov's C l a s s i c i s m are n e a r l y the same as those Morozov had p r e v i o u s l y p o s i t e d as Baroque — h i s ceremonial eloquence, e l e v a t e d f e s t i v e n e s s , unusual energy and grandiose 75 xmages and comparisons. In a l a t e r work, Morozov concen-t r a t e s upon the i n f l u e n c e of the German Baroque poets (par-t i c u l a r l y Gunther) on Lomonosov. He s t r e s s e s c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s which Lomonosov adopted from German poetry . He suggests Lomonosov adopted the f o l l o w i n g : s w i f t p i c t o r i a l -ness, r e s t l e s s movement of images (as i f they were crowding 7 fi one another) and i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional t e n s i o n . Morozov has continued h i s work on Russian Baroque and can be c o n s i d e r e d i t s most v o c a l proponent. In 1962 he p u b l i s h e d h i s important a r t i c l e , "Problema barokko v r u s s k o j 77 l i t e r a t u r e XVII-nacala XVIII veka." In h i s a n a l y s i s he touches on s e v e r a l important f a c t o r s f o r Russian Baroque. He suggests t h a t f o r the Baroque there i s an interdependence between l i t e r a r y and f i g u r a t i v e a r t , t h a t Baroque i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y the study of an a r t term, but a wide h i s t o r i c a l -c u l t u r a l n o t i o n , p o i n t i n g t o a community of p o e t i c s , a r t i s -7 8 t i c t a s t e s and a e s t h e t i c views. Morozov b e l i e v e s t h e r e are two approaches to understanding the Baroque. F i r s t , one can approach the Baroque from a , s t y l i s t i c , l i t e r a r y d i r e c t i o n — t h a t i s , one can e x p l o r e the v a r i o u s p e c u l i a r i t i e s of i r ^ ' - i iii th<& &J f f e r a n t poets", of the 1 ..". _ •" 32 s t y l e found i n the d i f f e r e n t poets of the Baroque. He sees the Baroque as a composite of numerous c o n t r a d i c t o r y elements from many d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s . Second, one can approach the Baroque as an epoch which l e f t i t s i m p r i n t on the c u l t u r e of a l l c o u n t r i e s (European and S l a v i c ) — he i n c l u d e s such areas as a r t , r e l i g i o n , p h i l o s o p h y , e t c . E s s e n t i a l l y , Moro-79 zov b e l i e v e s i n the Baroque man. He r e j e c t s C i z e v s k i j 1 s concept of the Baroque i n favour of the Z e i t g e i s t concept. He b e l i e v e s the Baroque i s undoubtedly connected w i t h a d e f i n i t e h i s t o r i c a l epoch and d e f i n i t e s o c i a l - h i s t o r i c a l 8 0 phenomena. He a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i m i t s f o r the Baroque vary from country t o country. He c o n s i d e r s Avvakum, T r e d i a k o v s k i j , P o l o c k i j and Lomonosov to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Baroque s t y l e . He w r i t e s : Indeed, i f we d e l i b e r a t e l y do not shut our eyes to the f a c t t h a t , i n the h i s t o r y of Russian f i g u r a t i v e a r t and l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e not only to n o t i c e a m u l t i t u d e of phenomena connected w i t h Western European and, i n p a r t , S l a v i c Baroque, but a l s o t o e s t a b l i s h the presence of s p e c i f i c t r a i t s i n h e r e n t o n l y i n Russian n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , then we may p o s i t i v e l y d e c l a r e the e x i s t e n c e o f our own p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d of the Baroque, and not j u s t cases which are i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h Baroque elements.^1 In 1963, M. Gukovskij p u b l i s h e d h i s a r t i c l e on Russian Baroque. He r e f u t e s the i d e a t h a t R u s s i a was not i n the c u l t u r a l mainstream along w i t h Western Europe, and b e l i e v e s 8 2 the Baroque manifested i t s e l f i n a l l spheres of c u l t u r e . He sees Russian Baroque as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a b s o l u t i s m , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the r e i g n of M i x a i l Romanov i n 1613. He i s among the f i r s t S o v i e t c r i t i c s t o p o s i t a p e r i o d of Mannerism (see pages 21 and 34 of t h i s chapter) i n Russian c u l t u r e , and gi v e s as examples S t . B a s i l ' s C a t h e d r a l i n Moscow, the correspondence between Ivan IV and P r i n c e K u r b s k i j , and the 8 3 f i r s t p r i n t e d book of Ivan Fedorov. B a s i c a l l y , he d i s c u s s e s Russian Baroque i n terms of s o c i a l and economic p e r s p e c t i v e . In 1965, Morozov p u b l i s h e d h i s a r t i c l e "Lomonosov.i Barokko," i n which he prese n t s a c o n v i n c i n g d i s c u s s i o n of Lomonosov, not only as a Baroque poet, but as a Baroque man 84 as w e l l . In t h i s a r t i c l e he mentions the i n f l u e n c e of S. o c P o l o c k i j and s e v e r a l Baroque r h e t o r s on Lomonosov, but does not emphasize the i n f l u e n c e of the German Baroque poets. He p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l survey of Baroque elements i n Lomono-sov' s work, s t r e s s i n g the use of metaphor, hyperbole, a v i v i d use of c o l o u r , the s w i f t movement of h i s images, h i s antinomies, the g r a p h i c v i v i d n e s s of h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s , h i s t i t a n i c landscapes and h i s mixture of c l a s s i c a l - C h r i s t i a n imagery. He concludes t h a t Lomonosov"s poetry i s a s y n t h e s i s of v a r i o u s s t y l e s . ^ T h i s a r t i c l e i s the only one t h a t s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y d i s c u s s e s Lomonosov as a Baroque poet. Morozov continues h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Baroque i n ot h e r 87 a r t i c l e s . In 19 66 he pr e s e n t s an overview of the work t h a t has been done on Western European and S l a v i c Baroque. As i n h i s o t h e r a r t i c l e s , he d i s c u s s e s Baroque as a s y n t h e s i s of s t y l i s t i c and s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In t h i s a r t i c l e he expounds on the concept of Mannerism, and suggests t h a t Mannerism c o u l d develop i n c o u n t r i e s which d i d not pass through an a c t i v e stage of the Renaissance, or where t h i s , 88 a c t i v e s t a t e was v e i l e d by p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s . In 1968 Morozov again d i s c u s s e s the n o t i o n of Baroque and s t r e s s e s indigenous Russian elements t h a t are m a n i f e s t a -t i o n s of the Russian Baroque. He p o i n t s to f o l k a r t and the 89 importance of " c o l o u r " f o r Russian Baroque. He again s t r e s s e s Avvakum as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Baroque s t y l e . As b e f o r e , he mentions p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l problems, indigenous elements ( f o l k l o r e , legends, the church schism), the Russian c o u r t , e t c . A l s o i n 1968, Morozovvpublished h i s "Problemy evropejskogo barokko," i n which he d e a l s w i t h the problems which c o n f r o n t any l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n — - s t y l i s t i c d e f i n i -t i o n , chronology, i n f l u e n c e s , e t c . He d i s c u s s e s the a r i s t o -c r a t i c element i n Baroque p o e t r y , but says the Baroque should not be a s s o c i a t e d only w i t h i t or w i t h the Counter-Reformat 90 t i o n , but should be seen on a wider h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . He mentions Baroque " r a t i o n a l i s m " and s t r e s s e s the c l o s e t i e s between C l a s s i c i s m and Baroque. He p o i n t s to the Baroque s t r i v i n g f o r a "new harmony" (as opposed t o Mannerism) which 91 l e d to the e q u i l i b r i u m of C l a s s i c i s m . D. S. L i x a c e v , i n h i s "Barokko i ego r u s s k i i v a r i a n t XVII veka" (1969), maintains t h a t s t y l e s g r a d u a l l y change from the simple t o the complicated; however, "from the com-p l i c a t e d t o the simple i t r e t u r n s only as a r e s u l t of some 93 type of jump." He e x p l o r e s the Baroque i n i t s development i n Western l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m and debates the u s e f u l n e s s of Baroque as a p e r i o d concept. He a l s o sees the Baroque i n a h i s t o r i c a l - i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t , thus he a s s o c i a t e s i t w i t h 9 the Counter-Reformation, although only w i t h i t s b e g i n n i n g s . He emphasizes t h a t the Baroque i s only one of s e v e r a l phenomena found i n R u s s i a d u r i n g the second h a l f of the seventeenth century. He p a r t i c u l a r l y o b j e c t s t o c r i t i c s a s s o c i a t i n g Avvakum w i t h the Baroque. L i x a c e v sees the Baroque as a r e f l e c t i o n of a b s o l u t i s m and suggests i t had no n a t i o n a l boundaries and so transcended a l l s o c i a l b a r r i e r s . For Russian l i t e r a t u r e , a l l Baroque i s i n o n a r o d n y j . W r i t e r s such as P o l o c k i j are Baroque s o l e l y because they are devoid of s p e c i f i c n a t i v e (Russian) t r a i t s . Morozov r e t u r n s to the Baroque i n h i s "Novye aspekty i z u c e n i j a s l a v j a n s k o g o barokko" (1973). He mentions the 95 r e c e n t work done on P o l i s h , Czech and Hungarian Baroque. Again he suggests the Baroque took i t s form from v a r i o u s c o n t r a d i c t o r y elements. For Morozov, the Baroque r e f l e c t s the c o n t r a r i n e s s of r e a l i t y of the epoch of a c q u i s i t i o n ( g e o g r a p h i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n ) , b i t t e r wars, the Counter-Refor-mation and f e u d a l reform, bourgeois r e v o l u t i o n s and the s t r u g g l e s of the S l a v i c peoples f o r n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n . He d i s c u s s e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Baroque to a n t i q u i t y and emphasizes the Baroque as the age of new s c i e n c e . He a l s o mentions Baroque humanism, the importance of the emblem f o r 97 Baroque poets, and the r h e t o r i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m of the age. He concludes w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of the Baroque by T r e d i a k o v s k i j and Lomonosov. Today, the n o t i o n of Baroque i n Russian l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m p a r a l l e l s i t s Western c o u n t e r p a r t — t h a t i s , there are s e v e r a l c o n t r a d i c t o r y o p i n i o n s , and no d e f i n i t i o n t h a t any c r i t i c s can agree upon. Yet, as i n the West, the term Baroque i n Russian l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . From the m a t e r i a l reviewed i n t h i s chapter, i t i s c l e a r that' t h e r e are s e v e r a l areas to be e x p l o r e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the Baroque i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s study w i l l focus on th r e e areas g e n e r a l l y mentioned i n the works surveyed above. Two of these f e a t u r e s are o s t e n t a t i o n and ornamentation, the t h i r d i s dynamism. Chapters I I I , IV and V W i l l examine these elements. In the f o l l o w i n g chapter, we t u r n our a t t e n t i o n t o the Baroque t r e n d i n Russian c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o Lomonosov 1s l i t e r a r y predecessors who e x h i b i t Baroque f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r work. CHAPTER II THE BAROQUE TREND IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE 1., Russian L i t e r a r y Baroque Before Lomonosov C r i t i c s have suggested numerous s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l reasons f o r the Baroque s t y l e i n Western Europe and i n R u s s i a . F r e q u e n t l y mentioned i s the s o c i a l t u r m o i l and u n r e s t e v i d e n t i n Europe i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and the seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . The u n s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n of many c o u n t r i e s i s p o i n t e d out, as are famine, other n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , r e l i g i o u s wars and disenchantment w i t h humanist i d e a l s . ^ " The n o t i o n of Baroque i n Russian c u l t u r e , too, has 2 been approached from a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Although c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s should not be f o r g o t t e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y as R u s s i a d i d not experience the Renaissance, t h e r e are c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between R u s s i a and Western Europe of the seventeenth century. General s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n R u s s i a at t h i s time p l a y e d an important r o l e f o r the p e n e t r a t i o n of the Baroque. These c o n d i t i o n s r e f l e c t the p r e v a i l i n g mood of the time, a f e e l i n g one c o u l d c a l l a 3 "sense of c r i s i s . " F o r , indeed, j u s t b e f o r e the b e g i n n i n g of the seven-t e e n t h century, R u s s i a had been i n such a s t a t e of c r i s i s . One h i s t o r i a n w r i t e s : "At the end of the r e i g n of Ivan the Dread [Ivan IV, d i e d 1584], every s o c i a l c l a s s , n u r s i n g deep 37 38 and r e a l g r i e v a n c e s , faced the f u t u r e w i t h f e a r and f o r e -4 boding." The seventeenth century began wi t h a s e r i e s of shocks f o r the Russian people. There were famine, r e b e l l i o n s , 5 wars, f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n and o t h e r tumultuous events. The e a r l y years of the seventeenth century, u n t i l the a c c e s s i o n of M i x a i l Romanov i n 1613, were f i l l e d w i t h t e r r o r and d e s t r u c t i o n . T h i s p e r i o d i n Russian h i s t o r y was known as.the Time of Troubles (Smutnoe vremja). F l o r i n s k y notes: The o u t b u r s t , which o r i g i n a t e d i n the awakening of the masses, c o u l d have h a r d l y been more v i o l e n t . I t l e d the country t o i t s f i r s t s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n accompanied by frequent changes of d y n a s t i e s , f o r e i g n o c c u p a t i o n , d e s o l a t i o n , h a t r e d , impoverish-ment a l l the u s u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c i v i l war. No country has ever l i v e d through a more c r u e l o r d e a l . The s o c i a l c r i s i s i n R u s s i a d i d not stop w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the Romanov dynasty. There were s t i l l numerous outb u r s t s of v i o l e n c e . "The r e i g n of M i x a i l [1613-1645], and e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of A l e x i s {1645-1676], when serfdom was f i n a l l y e n shrined ,wwas a p e r i o d of r e c u r r i n g popular 7 u p r i s i n g s . " The schism (1666) which d i v i d e d the Russian Orthodox Church and l e d t o the p e r s e c u t i o n of the Old B e l i e v e r s a l s o i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the c u l t u r a l c r i s i s of the seventeenth century. H i s t o r i a n s have commented t h a t the movement of the Old B e l i e v e r s was a h e a l t h y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the masses were awakening from t h e i r s e c u l a r r e l i g i o u s i n d i f f e r e n c e . 39 F l o r i n s k y remarks: "This s t a r t l i n g development, which was a shock t o the Muscovite bureaucracy, was t y p i c a l of the deep i n n e r c r i s i s through which the country was l i v i n g . " M. V. A l p a t o v sums up the seventeenth century as f o l l o w s : The Time of Troubles shook the Moscow s t a t e p r o f o u n d l y , a f f e c t i n g i t s c u l t u r a l development no l e s s than the T h i r t y -Years'-War had a f f e c t e d Germany. A l l t h a t had^lived,lgrown> and developed i n the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r i e s of Russian h i s t o r y . . . was p e t r i f i e d i n the seventeenth century, c a s t i n t o r i g i d molds and degenerated i n t o b l i n d confidence i n a u t h o r i t y , the c l i n g i n g to the o b s o l e t e , the r e s p e c t f o r a n t i q u a t e d canons, and h o s t i l i t y towards e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was f o r e i g n , unaccustomed and new.9 I t i s p a r t l y t h i s h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e towards e v e r y t h i n g f o r e i g n t h a t accounts f o r the slow p e n e t r a t i o n of the Baroque i n t o Russian c u l t u r e . Yet new i d e a s , s t y l e s and customs d i d g r a d u a l l y f i l t e r i n t o Russian s o c i e t y . While the Baroque t r e n d , as i l l u s t r a t e d by the works of Simeon P o l o c k i j and M i x a i l Lomonosov, i s o b v i o u s l y to a l a r g e extent imported, the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n R u s s i a of the seventeenth century c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r development, and are no doubt r e f l e c t e d i n the more indigenous t r e n d as e x e m p l i f i e d by the work of Avvakum. The Baroque i s found i n the a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e of the l a t e s i x t e e n t h century and a l l of the seventeenth. The works of i c o n p a i n t e r s of the seventeenth century, p a r t i c u -l a r l y those connected w i t h the Stroganov workshop, r e f l e c t 40 c e r t a i n aspects of s t y l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Baroque. Those f e a t u r e s most f r e q u e n t l y s i n g l e d out are an i n t e r e s t i n minute d e t a i l , a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h i n c i d e n t a l s and p r e d i l e c -t i o n f o r n a t u r a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . These f e a t u r e s are d e r i v e d from c o n t a c t w i t h the f o r e i g n a r t i s t s l i v i n g and working i n Moscow: Through c o n t a c t w i t h these f o r e i g n e r s , the i c o n p a i n t e r s began t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n r e a l i s m , but the dogmatism of the c l e r g y forbade them from i n d u l g i n g i t , as i t d i d t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n towards s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and n a t u r a l i s m i n a r t . . . they [ t h e t m e o n c p a i n t e i i T S(]!rdiscoveredrari o u t l e t - i i n t h e t " 'y s u b s t i t u t i o n of e l a b o r a t e a l l e g o r i c compositions c o n t a i n i n g numerous new, b a s i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t i v e , elements and a p r o f u s i o n of d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l s i n p l a c e of the simple themes which s u f f i c e d t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s . 1 0 One of the best-known i c o n p a i n t e r s of the Stroganov s c h o o l was Simeon U s a k o v . x x K. Onasch comments on the work of Usakov and on Russian a r t of t h i s p e r i o d : Indeed, the p i c t u r e s of the Saviour by t h i s l a s t g reat master of Russian i c o n p a i n t i n g show an v i m p r e s s i v e attempt t o d i s c o v e r a new a r t i s t i c language f o r the o l d s u b j e c t s . Corresponding endeavours are found i n every sphere of Russian c u l t u r e i n the seventeenth century. L i t e r a t u r e i s equal t o a r t i n t h i s r e s p e c t . E c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u n c i l s , o u t s t a n d i n g w r i t e r s l i k e Simeon P o l o c k i j , and a r t i s t s l i k e Simeon Usakov and I o s i f V l a d i m i r o v , began to adapt c l a s s i c a l and -later i c o n p a i n t i n g to the trends of thought of the contemporary mind. ^ Onasch, w r i t i n g about Usakov's "The Saviour P a i n t e d Without Hands," p o i n t s out the i l l u s i o n i s t i c q u a l i t y of the i c o n , the human f e a t u r e s of C h r i s t ' s face and the m a s t e r l y treatment of l i g h t and shade. Moreover, he w r i t e s : "He [U§akov] t r i e d out a new language f o r h i s a r t , as Simeon P o l o c k i j had done 13 f o r h i s sermons." Baroque s t y l e i s found not only i n Russian i c o n p a i n t i n g , but i s a l s o m a n i f e s t i n Russian a r c h i t e c t u r e . Elements of the Baroque are found as e a r l y as the 1550's. T. Rice notes: . . . the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Baroque s t y l e , was given f r e e r e i g n i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the s i x -t eenth century. Baroque trends d i d not, however, reach Moscow d i r e c t from Western Europe, but came by way of Poland and the Ukraine, where they had alrea d y undergone l o c a l m o d i f i c a t i o n . Rice p o i n t s out s e v e r a l examples of e a r l y Baroque a r c h i t e c -t u r e i n R u s s i a — the facade of the Church of S t . N i c h o l a s , Xamovniki, Moscow ( e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) , the Church of the Beheading of S t . John the B a p t i s t , at Dyakovo, near Moscow (1533-1554), and the Church of S t . B a s i l the B l e s s e d , i n Moscow (1555-1560). The Narygkin churches are perhaps the most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d examples of the Baroque s t y l e i n 15 Ru s s i a . They are noted f o r t h e i r upward-soaring movement and wealth of ornamentation. One of the most famous i s the Church of the I n t e r c e s s i o n of the V i r g i n , F i l i (1693). The Church of the Archangel G a b r i e l , Moscow (1705-1707), commis-si o n e d by P r i n c e Mensikov ( g e n e r a l l y known as the Mensikov Tower), i s another example of the Baroque. Rice notes: " I t was b u i l t by I. P. Z a r u d n i j i[died 1727] . . . i n the Baroque s t y l e which P e t e r [Peter I] and h i s c i r c l e of f r i e n d s espe-16 c i a l l y admired." A c c o r d i n g to R i c e , Z a r u d n i j was the f i r s t Russian to have worked i n a f u l l y - f l e d g e d Baroque s t y l e . He worked on the church i n the F o r t r e s s of S t s . Peter and Paul i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g . Moreover, P e t e r I p l a c e d Z a r u d n i j i n charge of " a l l the p a i n t e r s employed i n the new c a p i t a l , r e g a r d l e s s of whether they worked i n the t r a d i t i o n a l or the 17 Western manner." Much o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n S t . P e t e r s -burg and around Moscow d u r i n g P e t e r ' s r e i g n i s c o n s i d e r e d Baroque. In d i s c u s s i n g P e t e r ' s summer p a l a c e o u t s i d e Moscow (1711-1714), Ri c e w r i t e s : ". . . i t was i n a s t y l e which, though i n s p i r e d by H o l l a n d , was so very d i f f e r e n t from Dutch a r c h i t e c t u r e of the same date t h a t i t i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as "I Q 'Peter's Baroque.'" C o n s t r u c t i o n of Baroque a r c h i t e c t u r e continued under the e n e r g e t i c genius of R a s t r e l l i . His work emphasizes the v e r t i c a l l i n e , draws the eye upward; i t answered E l i z a b e t h l ' s (1741-1762) demands f o r elegance and ornamentation. I t was R a s t r e l l i who c r e a t e d the f u l l y developed Russian Baroque s t y l e which was to become c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c n ot only of the P e t e r s b u r g i a n area, but of the grander b u i l d i n g s of the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century throughout the whole country.-^ The n o t i o n of the u n i t y and dependence of l i t e r a r y and f i g u r a t i v e a r t f o r Russian Baroque i s noted by A. A. Morozov i n h i s a r t i c l e "Problema barokko v r u s s k o j l i t e r a t u r e X V II-nacala XVIII veka." He w r i t e s : 43 The verse of Simeon P o l o c k i j complements the manner of the Kolomenskij Palace and the New J e r u -salem, d e c o r a t i o n s f o r the s c h o o l dramas of the e i g h t e e n t h century became ceremonial arches and symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of P e t r i n e triumphs, and the odes of Lomonosov are p e r c e i v e d a g a i n s t the background of the b r i l l i a n t c r e a t i o n s of R a s t r e l l i . ^ i Even A l p a t o v n o t e s : " R a s t r e l l i uses the idiom of Baroque i n h i s b u i l d i n g s , j u s t as Lomonosov i n h i s odes employs i t s 21 p o e t i c a l s t y l e . " The presence of Baroque i n Russian a r t and a r c h i t e c -t u r e precedes i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e . Yet i t i s not too f a r i n t o the seventeenth,century t h a t the Baroque s t y l e i s found i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e . C i Z e v s k i j notes: "The l i t e r a r y West which p e n e t r a t e d i n t o Moscow around 1640 was, of course, the l i t e r a r y West of t h a t time — namely 22 the Baroque." In h i s a n a l y s i s of the Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque, C i z e v s k i j r i g h t l y p o i n t s out p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s i n Old Russian l i t e r a t u r e t h a t bear a c l o s e k i n s h i p w i t h the Baroque s t y l e . Of those commonly-shared elements, C i z e v s k i j mentions the p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r hyperbole, the grotesque, the complicated and o r n a t e , the p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r r e l i g i o u s m o t i f s and " a l s o the symbolism and even i t s i d e o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n , the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the i n v i s i b l e world as concealed beyond 23 the v i s i b l e one. . ." m A. A. Morozov a l s o w r i t e s about Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque as a s y n t h e s i s of s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s of Western European Baroque, elements from Russian and U k r a i n i a n f o l k a r t ( c o l o u r and d e c o r a t i v e motifs) and f e a t u r e s o f Old Russian l i t e r a t u r e . He s t a t e s : 44 The works of Russian and U k r a i n i a n Baroque i n the middle of the seventeenth century are noted f o r a s t r i v i n g towards a s y n t h e s i s of forms of Western European and P o l i s h Baroque together w i t h the n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e and f o l k c u l t u r e , which i n the f i r s t p l a c e was the r e s u l t of an abundance of d e c o r a t i v e elements. . . . S c h o l a s t i c Baroque, coming from Poland and the Ukraine, met on Russian s o i l w i t h the Byzantine t r a d i t i o n , i n which one f i n d s one of the sources f o r f i g u r a t i v e splendour. . . . 'Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque was f u r t h e r d e r i v e d from Church S l a v i c bombast which was s t i l l adhered t o by the church sermonizers, e s p e c i a l l y those i n the c o n s e r v a t i v e camp.24 S v e t l a n a Mathauserova a l s o sees Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque as the s y n t h e s i s o f two d i f f e r e n t spheres, 1) the n a t i v e spon-taneous Baroque (Avvakum) and 2) a borrowed Western European Baroque, a s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the cou r t c u l t u r e i n net; ' R u s s i a (S. P o l o c k i j ) . ' • While C i z e v s k i j mentions the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Baroque and Old Russian l i t e r a t u r e , at the same time he s t a t e s t h a t the Baroque f a i l e d t o make a s t r o n g impact on Russian l i t e r a t u r e . He suggests t h r e e reasons f o r t h i s : 1) the s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s brought l i t t l e t h a t was new, 2) c e r t a i n Baroque elements ( p a r t i c u l a r l y dynamism, g r a p h i c n a t u r a l i s m and u n i v e r s a l i s m ) were a l i e n t o Russian c u l t u r e , and 3) the reforms of P e t e r the Great suspended most l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i n R u s s i a , thereby p r e v e n t i n g a n a t u r a l and g r a d u a l 2 6 development of the Baroque s t y l e . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o say t h a t a l l or even many aspects of Russian development d u r i n g the seventeenth and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s r e f l e c t a Baroque s e n s i b i l i t y , y e t i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the Baroque d i d p e n e t r a t e i n t o v a r i o u s spheres of Russian c u l t u r e . L i t e r a r y Baroque appears i n R u s s i a as a t r e n d adapted p a r t i a l l y from the West (but not as a movement as found i n Western Europe) and p a r t l y drawn from the t r a d i t i o n of Old Russian l i t e r a t u r e and f o l k c u l t u r e . With one e x c e p t i o n , there i s nocpoet i n Russian l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y who can be c o n s i d e r e d predominantly Baroque. I t seems necessary, then, b e f o r e any d i s c u s s i o n of the Baroque elements i n Lomonosov's p o e t r y , t o mention those e a r l i e r w r i t e r s who have been d i s c u s s e d i n the context of the Baroque. The f i r s t proponent of a l i t e r a r y Baroque and, a t the same time, perhaps the only Russian poet who can be c l a s s i -f i e d as a Baroque poet was Simeon P o l o c k i j . S e v e r a l c r i t i c s note t h a t i t i s w i t h P o l o c k i j ' s sermons and poetry t h a t the Baroque s t y l e p e n e t r a t e d i n t o Russian l i t e r a t u r e . C i z e v s k i j w r i t e s : "And w i t h Simeon t h e r e begins i n Moscow the r e i g n of the Baroque sermon, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s a r t i s t i c composition 27 and the ^abundant use of s t y l i s t i c adornments." Morozov comments: "Baroque r h e t o r i c . . . as p e r c e i v e d i n R u s s i a of the seventeenth century determined the p o e t i c s and s t y l i s t i c s 2 8 of Simeon P o l o c k i j . " Today, most s c h o l a r s agree t h a t P o l o c k i j ' s poetry i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Baroque s t y l e . As J . Gogol remarks: No one c o u l d p o s s i b l y deny t h a t P o l o c k i j was a Baroque poet, under any of the numerous d e f i n i t i o n s of t h a t term, because of h i s wholesale i m i t a t i o n of P o l i s h and I t a l i a n poetry i n i t s most mannerist form. The e d u c a t i o n a l background of P o l o c k i j i s no doubt r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s b e i n g a Baroque poet. Simeon P e t r o v s k i j -S i t n i a n i v i c ' was born i n 162 8 and d i e d i n 1680. He attended the K i e v Academy (founded by P e t e r M o h i l a , l a t e r M e t r o p o l i t a n of Kiev) and graduated i n 1653. The K i e v Academy t r a i n e d i t s young men (destined mainly to be c l e r i c s ) i n P o l i s h - L a t i n c u l t u r e . At t h a t time the p r e v a i l i n g l i t e r a r y s t y l e i n Poland and i n o t h e r European c o u n t r i e s was the Baroque. The Academy and i t s p a t t e r n of i n s t r u c t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m were 3 0 based upon P o l i s h J e s u i t academies. Moreover, the m a j o r i t y of the teachers at the Academy had been educated i n the h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s of l e a r n i n g 3ini Poland and i n o t h e r 31 European c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y I t a l y . At the K i e v Academy, P o l o c k i j began t o compose poetry i n i m i t a t i o n of P o l i s h - L a t i n models, t o study r h e t o r i c , mythology, Old Church S l a v o n i c , L a t i n and Greek, A r i s t o t e l i a n l o g i c , p h y s i c s , metaphysics, geometry, astronomy and, i n g e n e r a l , t o immerse 32 h i m s e l f i n Western c u l t u r e . A. Sydorenko, i n h i s study of the K i e v Academy i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y , remarks t h a t the t y p i c a l Kievan (from the Academy) had a s u s c e p t i b i l i t y : . . . f o r exaggeration and hyperbole, . . . the p a r a d o x i c a l , the uncommon and the grotesque, as w e l l as h i s lov e f o r a n t i t h e s i s , the grand form and the a l l embracing u n i v e r s a l i t y . A c h i l d o f the Baroque epoch, he was perhaps e x c e s s i v e l y fond of form, which he e l e v a t e d a t the expense of content. . . . One f i n d s i n him the i n h e r e n t r e s t l e s s n e s s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of Baroque s p i r i t u a l i t y , i n t h a t h i s being was t o r n between the a e s t h e t i c i d e a l and the r e a l i t i e s of the m a t e r i a l world.33 In 1656, P o l o c k i j entered the monastery i n Polock and the r e he taught s c h o o l . I t i s from Polock t h a t Simeon d e r i v e s h i s surname. U n t i l 1663 much of P o l o c k i j ' s l i f e i s unknown, but he d i d t r a v e l , perhaps to France and I t a l y and, no doubt, throughout Poland. He attended a P o l i s h J e s u i t academy and, f o r the sake of expediency, became a member of the Uniate Church. In 1663 he moved to Moscow as a teacher i n the F o r e i g n O f f i c e , and e v e n t u a l l y became t u t o r to the 34 c h i l d r e n of Tsar A l e x i s (1645-1676). P o l o c k i j a l s o a s s i s t e d the Tsar i n dev e l o p i n g the newly-proposed p l a n f o r an academy i n Moscow, which, however, was not completed u n t i l 1687. In a d d i t i o n t o h i s t e a c h i n g and t u t o r i n g , P o l o c k i j was a l s o a c t i v e i n church a f f a i r s . He acted as 3 5 c h i e f c l e r k f o r the Church C o u n c i l o f 1667. He d i e d i n 1680. Although he was i n v o l v e d i n s e v e r a l spheres of a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e the realm of l i t e r a t u r e , P o l o c k i j was, above a l l , a p r o l i f i c and i n f l u e n t i a l w r i t e r . S.. Zenkovsky w r i t e s t h a t P o l o c k i j was the r e c o g n i z e d head of the p r e v a i l -i n g Westernized l i t e r a r y s c h o o l . P o l o c k i j i s important i n the h i s t o r y of Russian p o e t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y as h i s poetry 48 3 7 was amongst the f i r s t s y l l a b i c v erse to appear i n Moscow. During the seventeenth c e n t u r y , p r i o r t o the s t u d i e s of p o e t i c s at the K i e v Academy, there was a n o t a b l e absence of w r i t t e n poetry i n R u s s i a . There were simple adaptations of Greek poetry i n t o Old Church S l a v o n i c , but these f l o u r -i s h e d only d u r i n g the medieval p e r i o d . Learned poetry does not seem to be one of the Byzantine l i t e r a r y genres adopted by Old Rus'. These few t r a n s l a t i o n s soon f e l l by the wayside. Unbegaun notes: "This imported poetry disappeared very soon, and Russian l i t e r a t u r e contained no l e a r n e d p o e t r y through 3 8 the Middle Ages." Poetry d i d not appear again i n R u s s i a u n t i l the b e g i n n i n g of the seventeenth century. The poetry of t h i s p e r i o d d i f f e r e d from prose only by i t s rhyme, which was u s u a l l y i n c o u p l e t s . N e i t h e r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r e s s nor the number of s y l l a b l e s were taken i n t o account. There a l s o e x i s t passages of r h y t h m i c a l prose, found i n v a r i o u s genres of Old Russian l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t somewhat resemble p o e t r y . Those passages c o n t a i n rhymed l i n e s of p a r a l l e l s y n t a c t i c a l u n i t s t h a t have a c e r t a i n rhythmic q u a l i t y . At the b e g i n n i n g of the seventeenth century the a p p l i c a t i o n of rhyme t o whole poems seems t o have been due o r i g i n a l l y t o the i m i t a t i o n of a form of U k r a i n i a n p o e t r y , U k r a i n i a n v i r s i . T h i s poetry was a p r i m i t i v e type of v e r s e , c o n s i s t i n g of l i n e s of an unequal number of s y l l a b l e s rhymed i n c o u p l e t s . I t soon began t o be i m i t a t e d by the Russians. U k r a i n i a n 49 v i r s i f l o u r i s h e d throughout the seventeenth century, even a f t e r the appearance of s y l l a b i c p o e t r y . Real s y l l a b i c poetry made i t s appearance i n Russian only towards the middle of the seventeenth century. The system of prosody s t u d i e d and i m i t a t e d by the students of the K i e v Academy (and by S. P o l o c k i j ) was t h a t of P o l i s h s y l l a b i c v e r s i f i c a t i o n . In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of s y l l a b i c v e r s e , Unbegaun w r i t e s : " I t d i s p l a y e d every f e a t u r e of P o l i s h poetry .and indeed i t was from Poland, v i a the Ukraine, t h a t 39 s y l l a b i c v erse came t o R u s s i a . " P o l i s h s y l l a b i c v e r s e , which i n t u r n had been d e r i v e d from the French A l e x a n d r i n e , was d i f f e r e n t from p r e - s y l l a b i c verse i n s e v e r a l ways. S i n c e i n the P o l i s h language the word s t r e s s always f a l l s on the penultimate s y l l a b l e , P o l i s h verse was always rhymed i n c o u p l e t s w i t h an e x c l u s i v e l y feminine rhyme. In a d d i t i o n , P o l i s h s y l l a b i c v erse hadia,-fixed> number of s y l l a b l e s (gener-a l l y eleven or t h i r t e e n ) i n each l i n e , and a f i x e d caesura r e g u l a r l y f o l l o w i n g a f t e r the f i f t h o r seventh s y l l a b l e . P o l o c k i j , when he came t o Moscow, brought t h i s method of v e r s i f i c a t i o n w i t h him. Because P o l o c k i j was f a m i l i a r w i t h the p o e t r y of seventeenth-century Europe, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of Poland, i t f o l l o w s t h a t h i s w r i t i n g s would be p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the then p r e v a l e n t s t y l e of the Baroque. A. H i p p i s l e y , i n h i s study " S ime oh. P £> 1 oek i j ~ as a aR Re p r e s e n t a t i v e >of • "the Baroque i n Russian 50 --' 40 L i t e r a t u r e " suggests s e v e r a l themes i n P o l o c k i j * s work as t y p i c a l of Western.European Baroque p o e t r y . These themes are: 1) p a t e r e c s t a t i c u s (a m y s t i c a l contemplation of the Godhead), 2) dynamism, 3) v i o l e n c e , and 4) v a n i t a s ( o f t e n 41 expressed i n terms of memento m o r i ) . In P o l o c k i j ' s p o e t r y , m y s t i c a l union w i t h God i s d e s c r i b e d as a dynamic upward s o a r i n g ( f r e q u e n t l y symbolized by an eagle s o a r i n g up toward the sun); h i s outlook on v a n i t a s i s o f t e n expressed i n terms of the ephemerality of t h i s world. Such themes are t y p i c a l o f Baroque p o e t r y . Morozov a l s o r e f e r s t o the " t y p i c a l 42 Baroque the m a t i c s " of P o l o c k i j ' s work. " I f many of the themes in' Simeon P o l o c k i j ' s w r i t i n g s can be seen t o r e f l e c t the Baroque world outlook, h i s s t y l i s -43 t i c techniques a l s o s t r i k e us as pure Baroque." S e v e r a l c r i t i c s have c i t e d p a r t i c u l a r s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s of P o l o c k i j as t y p i c a l of > the:BaroqueIe,,Gizevski'j:^anduHippisley--'both comment upon the importance of the emblem f o r P o l o c k i j ' s 44 p o e t r y . In order to i l l u s t r a t e the moral and s p i r i t u a l t r u t h t h a t he i s propounding, P o l o c k i j employs a v a r i e t y of e x o t i c images, many of which are p r:. -preeisely.o.thoseufourid inmeontemporaby books of emblems. . . . There are more than e i g h t y - t h r e e images i n P o l o c k i j ' s w r i t i n g s d i r e c t l y t r a c e a b l e to emblems. 5 Eremin, i n h i s " P o e t i c e s k i j s t i l ' Simeona Polockogo," men-t i o n s P o l o c k i j ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r c u r i o s i t i e s and r a r i t i e s , p r e c i o u s stones, f o r e i g n and m y t h o l o g i c a l animals and h i s f a n c i f u l e r u d i t i o n . 1 1 0 Morozov comments on P o l o c k i j ' s orna-mental s t y l e and says i t d e r i v e s from the e x o t i c i s m of the 47 Baroque. Both Eremin and Morozov d i s c u s s P o l o c k i j ' s use of metaphor and a l l e g o r y . Moreover, Morozov notes: . . . the ' f o r c e d ' m e t a p h o r i z a t i o n does not appear as a s i n g u l a r q u a l i t y of j u s t Simeon P o l o c k i j ' s p o e t r y , but r e p r e s e n t s a t y p i c a l t r a i t of the ' l o f t y p o e t r y ' of the Baroque, b e g i n n i n g with Marino and Gongora and ending with the r e l i g i o u s poetry of the seventeenth c e n t u r y . ^ 8 Other s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s f r e q u e n t l y found i n P o l o c k i j ' s work are oxymora, hyperbole, puns and a n t i t h e s i s — a l l f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Baroque p o e t r y . H i p p i s l e y emphasizes (as does Morozov) P o l o c k i j ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r mixing c l a s s i c a l 49 and C h r i s t i a n imagery. In a d d i t i o n , Morozov p o i n t s out the humanistic t r a i t s developed i n P o l o c k i j ' s p o e t r y . Of these he mentions the cendemnationrofntyranhy:., a^burning -iovegbfeen'flighterimenterandtanper s i s t e n t s t r i v i n g n t o persuade theegowerhmen'totonopehosGhooiLs anddacademies. P o l o c k i j ' s p o e t i c output was enormous. He p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l c o l l e c t i o n s of poems: Vert o g r a d mnogocvetnij (The 51 Garden of Many Flowers, 1677-78), a c o l l e c t i o n of nugae genre poetry and d i d a c t i c works; P s a l t y r ' r i f m o t v o r n a j a (Rhymed P s a l t e r ) , a verse r e n d e r i n g of the Book of Psalms, based on Jan Kochanowski*s t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Psalms; and R i f m o l o g i a (1678), which contained h i s two p l a y s , p a n e g y r i c s and o c c a s i o n a l p o e t r y , i n a d d i t i o n t o declamatory monologues. He a l s o p u b l i s h e d "Z'ezl p r a v l e n i j a " (The Sceptre of Govern-ment, 1667), d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Old B e l i e v e r s ; "Vlnec vSry" (The Crown of F a i t h , 1670), a t h e o l o g i c a l t r e a t i s e ; and two c o l l e c t i o n s of sermons: Obed dusevnyj (The S p i r i t u a l Midday Meal) and V e c e r a dusevnaja (The S p i r i t u a l Evening Meal). P o l o c k i j * s work r e f l e c t s other s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s f r e q u e n t l y l i n k e d w i t h the Baroque. He wrote macaronic v e r s e , cryptograms and f i g u r e p o e t r y , t h a t i s , poems i n v a r i o u s shapes, such as a c r o s s , a h e a r t or a s t a r . In g e n e r a l , h i s work r e f l e c t s the p o e t i c j e s t s of the Baroque. As Unbegaun remarks: "He [ P o l o c k i j ] i s a genuine example of 52 the Baroque i n Russian p o e t r y . " P o l o c k i j was not the only graduate of the K i e v Academy who was a c t i v e i n Moscow. The K i e v Academy was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s c h o o l i n g most of the t e a c h e r s who f i r s t brought Western ideas of education and l i t e r a t u r e t o R u s s i a . Having been u n d e r ' P o l i s h r u l e , K i e v was c l o s e r than Moscow to the mainstream of European development. The K i e v Academy was Western i n i t s outlook. H. Segel w r i t e s : The Baroque p a t t e r n s of s t y l i s t i c ornamentation and i n t r i c a c y , the f a m i l i a r j u x t a p o s i t i o n s of l i g h t and dark, of hot and c o l d , the a n t i t h e s i s and hyperbole f o r which the Baroque had a s t r o n g p r e d i l e c t i o n — a l l , t o t a l l y , the legacy of the U k r a i n i a n s c h o o l . . .^3 Most prominent among the U k r a i n i a n s who went t o Moscow were M e t r o p o l i t a n D m i t r i j T u p t a l o (1651-1709), M e t r o p o l i t a n S t e f a n J a v o r s k i j ( 1 6 5 5 - 1 7 2 2 ) , and Feofan Prokopovic ( 1 6 8 1 -1 7 3 6 ) . I t i s the l a s t of these t h r e e who i s the best-known and who e x e r c i s e d the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on Russian l i t e r a -t u r e . Prokopovic was a p r o l i f i c sermon w r i t e r (he s t u d i e d at the K i e v Academy), but he was a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n p o e t r y . 5 4 L i k e P o l o c k i j , Prokopovic f o r a s h o r t time became a U n i a t e . He i s important f o r Russian l i t e r a t u r e i n t h a t he i n v e s t i -5 5 gated new areas f o r Russian p o e t r y . Having s t u d i e d i n I t a l y , he was; familiar w i t h I t a l i a n poetry and the d i f f e r e n t rhymes found i n i t . In h i s poetry of l a t e r y e a r s , Prokopovic abandoned the rhyming of c o n s e c u t i v e l i n e s and i n t r o d u c e d the rhyme scheme a.b.a.b. and I t a l i a n octave a.b.a.b.a.b.c.c. He a l s o made frequent use of enjambment and non-grammatical 5 6 rhyme. About h i s stay i n I t a l y , J . C r a c r a f t w r i t e s : "Prokopovic beheld Rome i n a l l i t s c l a s s i c a l r u i n and 5 7 melancholy Baroque splendour . . . " With h i s e d u c a t i o n a l background and h i s s o j o u r n i n I t a l y , i t i s very l i k e l y t h a t ProkopoviS knew the works of s e v e r a l Baroque poets. Prokopovic was a s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r of Peter the Great and h i s reforms. He f e l t t h a t the church should be s u b o r d i -nated to the s t a t e , and f r e q u e n t l y advocated as much i n h i s sermons. Morozov, i n h i s a n a l y s i s of P e t r i n e times, w r i t e s : Russian c u l t u r e of the P e t r i n e times developed under the s i g n of the Baroque and enveloped a l l aspects of a r t i s t i c l i f e , from a r c h i t e c t u r e t o p o e t r y . The r h e t o r i c a l means of the Baroque p a i n t e d i n gay c o l o u r s the church sermon and p o l i t i c a l essay. . . . Russian Baroque of Peter's time was, t o a l a r g e degree, subordinated t o the p o l i t i c a l and e n l i g h t e n e d aims i n i t i a t e d under Pe t e r I . 5 8 Morozov b e l i e v e s the l i t e r a t u r e of the Baroque d u r i n g the age of P e t e r I became s e c u l a r i z e d , and was f i l l e d w i t h s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t . P r o k o p o v i c 1 s work r e f l e c t s t h i s s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l content. His poems and sermons are v e h i c l e s by which he i s able t o champion the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l reforms of P e t e r . He was an ardent proponent of e d u c a t i o n a l 59 x. reform i n R u s s i a . C i 2 e v s k i j l i s t s s e v e r a l elements of ProkopoviS's s t y l e t h a t are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Baroque. He mentions exclamations, i n v o c a t i o n s , a n t i t h e s i s , climax, oxymora and audacious m e t a p h o r s . ^ Morozov c i t e s numerous Baroque elements i n Prokopovic's work: he d i s c u s s e s the theme of memento mori, the mixture of C h r i s t i a n and pagan images, 61 hyperbole and antinomy. A. Sydorenko a l s o n o t e s : "Proko-p o v i c 's i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts o f t e n appear as a study i n -i ii 62 paradox. In a d d i t i o n t o sermons and poems, Prokopovic wrote t r e a t i s e s on the theory of l i t e r a t u r e . His two t r e a t i s e s ( a c t u a l l y they are h i s c o l l e c t e d e s says, i n L a t i n , on the theory of l i t e r a t u r e ) are "De a r t e p o e t i c a " ( published at Mogilev, 17 86) and "De a r t e r h e t o r i c a " ( d a t i n g from a course of l e c t u r e s given 1706-07} but never p u b l i s h e d ) . He a l s o wrote a p l a y , the tragicomedy 'iviadii&rti'h.(1705) , two d i a l o g u e s (published only i n the nineteenth and twentieth centuries) and a theological t r e a t i s e , Duxovny reglament' ( E c c l e s i a s t i -c a l Regulation), i n which he staunchly supports Peter l ' s reforms of the Orthodox Church. He also translated the emblematic c o l l e c t i o n of Foxardo Saavedra, Princeps p o l i t i -cus. In his a r t i c l e "Barokko v russkoj l i t e r a t u r e , 1 1 C i z e v s k i j comments on the importance of the emblem i n 6 3 Prokopovic's poetry. F i n a l l y , he wrote a Primer (1720) which was the basic textbook for r e l i g i o u s and moral 64 i n s t r u c t i o n i n Russia for the next one hundred years. Prokopovic's sermons and poems r e f l e c t aspects of the Baroque, f o r , as M o r o z o v remarks: "Feofan was associated with the old r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n of the Baroque presented in the Kievan Academy, from which he came." Moreover, C i z e v s k i j writes: "Die Poetik Prokopovycs . . . zeigt s i c h als ein durchaus barockes Werk."^ It has been noted by several c r i t i c s that Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque i s a synthesis of two spheres, the indige-nous, spontaneous Russian Baroque and an imported Western European Baroque. The most notable example of indigenous Russian Baroque i s the autobiography and pe t i t i o n s of the Archpriest Awakum -(1620-1682) . A. Angyal, i n his Die slawische Barockwelt, expresses the b e l i e f that Awakum's autobiography i s one of the most in t e r e s t i n g and character-i s t i c works of the whole S l a v i c Baroque w o r l d . ^ Morozov a l s o comments: The poetry of Simeon P o l o c k i j presented only the e x t e r n a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i d e of the Baroque, i t s e r u d i t e - s c h o l a s t i c v a r i a n t . Russian r e a l i t y found i n i t but a meagre and embellished r e f l e c t i o n , whereas the works of Avvakum c a r r y us almost i n t o the very vocus o f the s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l c o n f l i c t , i n f e c t us w i t h the p a s s i o n s , sorrows, and emotional experiences of h i s t i m e . ^ S. Mathauserova d i s c u s s e s Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque as e f f e c t e d by a d i s t i n c t i v e i n t r o d u c t i o n of s u b j e c t i v i t y , an attempt to o r g a n i z e anew the r e l a t i o n between the s u b j e c t i v e and the o b j e c t i v e , and she sees Avvakum 1s autobiography as "the most ingenious example of the superimposing of subjec-t i v i s m i n seventeenth century l i t e r a t u r e . " V a r i o u s aspects of Avvakum's autobiography have been mentioned as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Baroque. J . Gogol, i n h i s a r t i c l e "The A r c h p r i e s t Avvakum and Q u i r i n u s Kuhlmann: A Comparative Study i n the L i t e r a r y Baroque," d i s c u s s e s s e v e r a l of these. He s i n g l e s out Avvakum 1s d e t a i l e d d e p i c t i o n of r e a l i t y and says i t was "a f a v o r i t e d e v i c e of the Baroque 69 which served to accentuate the s p i r i t u a l world." Both Gogol and Morozov c i t e Avvakum's p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r mixing the 70 f a n t a s t i c and the r e a l . Gogol notes: "This mixture of the f a n t a s t i c and the r e a l i s a very important f e a t u r e of the 71 Baroque." Avvakum's autobiography r e f l e c t s Baroque dynamism and t e n s i o n . Morozov notes t h a t Avvakum's work p r o j e c t s a s o c i a l antinomy — t h i s i s e v i d e n t i n t h a t Avvakum's democratic sympathies and h i s r e b e l l i o u s n e s s are i n c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n as a defender of the o l d 72 f e u d a l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l world outlook. There i s a constant t e n s i o n i n Avvakum's p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c o n f l i c t between the f o r c e s of good and e v i l i n the world — h i s whole l i f e i s a s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the A n t i c h r i s t and the powers of darkness. In t y p i c a l l y Baroque f a s h i o n , the b a t t l e which rages between the f o r c e s of good and e v i l i n the macrocosm i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the b a t t l e i n the microcosm. As P. Hunt n o t e s : In h i s autobiography, he i d e n t i f i e d the h i s t o r i c a l c o n f l i c t between the Old B e l i e v e r s , h i s f o l l o w e r s , and the N i k o n i a n s , h i s i d e o l o g i c a l enemies w i t h the c o n f l i c t between good and e v i l going on i n h i s own soul.73 Moreover, Morozov comments: " A l l the works of Avvakum are permeated wi t h a p a s s i o n a t e experience of r e a l i t y , g i v i n g r i s e t o e c s t a t i c form, s t r a i n e d t o the l i m i t i n h i s n a r r a -74 t i o n . " One a l s o sees a t e n s i o n between Avvakum's i d e a of v a n i t a s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h h i s c e a s e l e s s and u n t i r i n g v i t a l i t y (his long and strenuous t r a v e l s , h i s vigorous sermonizing and condemnations and so f o r t h ) . O p p o s i t i o n and t e n s i o n are a l s o c i t e d i n s t u d i e s of the language of Avvakum's work. V. Vinogradov d i s c u s s e s the importance of the i n t e r p l a y of l i n g u i s t i c o p p o s i t i o n s as a s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e of Avvakum's autobiography. He notes t h a t Avvakum's s t y l e i s based on the i n t e r p l a y of Old Church 58 75 S l a v o n i c and o r a l elements of f o l k - R u s s i a n . Another c r i t i c comments: The emotional i n t e n s i t y of Awakum's prose supports h i s i n d i v i d u a l language s t y l e , which i s r e i n f o r c e d by the dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n o f two languages the Church S l a v i c of the t r a d i t i o n a l books and v e r n a c u l a r Russian.^6 In h i s a n a l y s i s of Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque, Morozov notes s e v e r a l Baroque s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s shared by Awakum and P o l o c k i j , and concludes: "Awakum and Simeon P o l o c k i j are only d i f f e r e n t poles of the Russian l i t e r a r y Baroque of the 77 seventeenth century, and not n e c e s s a r i l y alien'phenomena." Simeon P o l o c k i j and Feofan Prokopovic are important i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e f o r s e v e r a l reasons, not the l e a s t of which i s t h a t , having been educated o u t s i d e Muscovite R u s s i a , these men were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r spreading Western l i t e r a r y i deas i n R u s s i a . R u s s i a was moving toward c l o s e r and more i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t w i t h Europe. At the same time, R u s s i a was undergoing a p e r i o d of s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n t h a t allowed f o r the growth of new ideas and f o r change t o take p l a c e . Baroque p e n e t r a t e d i n t o Russian l i t e r a t u r e d u r i n g the seventeenth century because o l d l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s were b r e a k i n g down, and t h i s made i t e a s i e r f o r new l i t e r a r y trends to become e s t a b l i s h e d . L i t e r a r y Baroque was estab-l i s h e d i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e , y e t soon a f t e r i t s appearance the t e n e t s of N e o c l a s s i c i s m became known t o Russian w r i t e r s . R u s s i a , d u r i n g the l a t t e r h a l f of the seventeenth century 59 and the f i r s t h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h century, underwent a process of a s s i m i l a t i n g Western ideas and l i t e r a r y f a s h i o n s . H. Segel w r i t e s : In t h e i r e f f o r t s t o Westernize Russian l i t e r a t u r e , the Russian w r i t e r s f i r s t engaged i n the process found themselves n e c e s s a r i l y t e l e s c o p i n g i n t o two decades the o r g a n i c Western l i t e r a r y e v o l u t i o n of over a century. f\} . .78 So much was b e i n g absorbed i n a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f p e r i o d of time, however, t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw an accurate p i c t u r e of the h i s t o r y of Russian l i t e r a t u r e s t y l e s i n the p e r i o d . T h i s i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y t r u e i n regard t o the Baroque and Rococo.79 J . G a r r a r d , i n h i s essay "The Emergence of Modern Russian L i t e r a t u r e and Thought," p o i n t s out: " I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t any major country has been so r a d i c a l l y transformed i n such a b r i e f p e r i o d of time as was Russian d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h 80 century." Together, the t r a d i t i o n of Old Russian l i t e r a -t u r e , Baroque elements, the t e n e t s of N e o c l a s s i c i s m and other f e a t u r e s were a l l being r e f a s h i o n e d to accommodate a 81 new c o n c e p t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e . Morozov s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e s : The e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of the development of Russian Baroque i s r e c o g n i z e d as a h i s t o r i c a l combination of s t y l e s . In R u s s i a , i n face of the a c c e l e r a t e d development of the country evoked by the P e t r i n e reforms, i n one h i s t o r i c a l stage, combined s e v e r a l h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s of a r t i s t i c development, stacked one upon the other.82 The ground had been prepared f o r the poetry of Lomonosov — but f i r s t i t i s necessary to mention T r e d i a k o v s k i j . V a s i l i j K i r i l l o v i c T r e d i a k o v s k i j has been c a l l e d 60 8 3 Russia's f i r s t modern w r i t e r . He was born the son of a p r i e s t i n Astraxan i n February 17 03. He f i r s t s t u d i e d under C a t h o l i c F r a n c i s c a n monks, and they l a i d the foundation f o r 84 h i s L a t x n - C a t h o l i c o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n . In 1723 Trediakov-s k i j l e f t h i s home and went t o study at the S l a v i c - G r e e k -L a t i n Academy i n Moscow. For Russian Baroque of the P e t r i n e Age, the most importent c e n t r e of a r t i s t i c propaganda was 85 the S l a v i c - G r e e k - L a t i n Academy. T r e d i a k o v s k i j remained at the Academy f o r two y e a r s . Wishing to t r a v e l , and r e a l i z i n g he c o u l d o b t a i n a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n abroad, he l e f t f o r Europe i n 1726. He t r a v e l l e d t o H o l l a n d and s t u d i e d f o r two years at the Hague. Next he went t o France and remained t h e r e f o r t h r e e y e a r s . In France he s t u d i e d theology at the Sorbonne, and p h i l o s o p h y , l i n g u i s t i c s and mathematics at the 8 6 U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s . During h i s s t u d i e s i n Europe, T r e d i a k o v s k i j read the works of s e v e r a l Baroque poets. "Und b e i s e i n e n S t u d i e n im Westen s t i e s s e r gerade auf d i e D i c h t e r , d i e zum Barock gehorten, z. T. [ T r e d i a k o v s k i j ] f u r d i e s e n r e p r a s e n t a t i v w a r e n . " ^ He r e t u r n e d t o R u s s i a i n 1730, i n 1732 became s e c r e t a r y of the Academy, and i n 1745 a p r o f e s s o r of L a t i n 8 8 and Russian eloquence. T r e d i a k o v s k i j wrote c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g the r e s t of h i s c a r e e r . He wrote poetry i n French 89 and Russian, but he was not a g r e a t poet. Nonetheless, he worked d i l i g e n t l y t o p u r i f y and develop the Russian l i t e r a r y language, and h i s importance i n the h i s t o r y of Russian l i t e r a t u r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . _ -In a d d i t i o n t o h i s p o e t r y , T r e d i a k o v s k i j was a c t i v e i n the f i e l d of t r a n s l a t i o n . He t r a n s l a t e d the a l l e g o r i c a l n o v e l , Le Voyage a 1 ' l i e d'Amour (1633) by the French author Paul Tellemant (Angyal c a l l s t h i s work a product of the l a t e 90 Baroque " g a l l a n t " l i t e r a t u r e ); twelve volumes of Charles R o l l i n ' s h i s t o r y of Rome; J e a n - B a p t i s t e C r e i v e r ' s h i s t o r y of the Roman emperors; John B a r c l a y ' s p o l i t i c a l n o v e l A r g e n i s (1621) C i z e v s k i j r e f e r s t o Argenis as an a l l e g o r i c a l - B a r o q u e 91 n o v e l ); and Fenelon's "Les Aventures de Tgleinaque" (1699), 92 the f x r s t Russian " e p i c " t o employ c l a s s i c a l hexameter. (In c i t i n g J . Rousset, Cizevskij r e f e r s to Fenelon's works 93 as an example of French Baroque p o e t r y . ) Along w i t h h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s , T r e d i a k o v s k i j wrote s e v e r a l t r e a t i s e s on l i t e r a t u r e , p o e t i c s and language. S c h o l a r s c o n s i d e r h i s most important c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Russian l i t e r a t u r e t o be h i s "Novyj i k r a t k i j sposob k sloz'eniju r u s s k i x s t i x o v " (A New 9 4 and B r i e f Method f o r Composing Russian Verse, 1735). T r e d i a k o v s k i j was c o n t i n u o u s l y exposed t o Baroque w r i t e r s . C i z e v s k i j notes: " T r e d i a k o v s k i j stand s e i n Leben lang i n enger Verbindung mit dem r u s s i s c h e n und westeuropSischen 9 5 Barock." And Angyal w r i t e s : "Er s t e h t i n m i t t e n n i c h t nur der europSischen, sondern auch der slawischen B a r o c k t r a d i -..96 t i o n . " T r e d i a k o v s k i j was a r e s p e c t e d member of the Academy of S c i e n c e s , but e v e n t u a l l y h i s f o r t u n e s began to wane. A f t e r Lomonosov's l e t t e r on v e r s i f i c a t i o n and h i s ode on the ' t a k i n g a o f f XOtini-irb'aeheddtheeAeademyyin.,,1.73 9v T r e d i a k o v s k i j 1 s p o s i t i o n became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . He became i n v o l v e d i n b i t t e r c o n t r o v e r s i e s w i t h Lomonosov and Sumarokov over 97 l i t e r a r y q u e s t i o n s . In 1759 he was thrown out of the Academy, and e v e n t u a l l y was able to support h i m s e l f only by t r a n s l a t i n g . His t r a n s l a t i o n s allowed him to p u b l i s h h i s own p o e t r y . As he was very unpopular a t c o u r t , no one would p u b l i s h h i s p o e t i c a l works, so he would i n s e r t them i n t o the p r e f a c e s of these t r a n s l a t i o n s . His l i f e was now one of 9 8 f r u s t r a t i o n and poverty. He d i e d a f o r g o t t e n man xn 1769. T r e d i a k o v s k i j ' s importance f o r Russian l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y l i e s i n h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the reform of Russian v v e r s i f i c a t i o n . He i n t r o d u c e d the concept of verse f e e t , based on a s y s t e m a t i c arrangement of s t r e s s e d and u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . He was among the f i r s t t o i n t r o d u c e the concept 99 of t o n i c poetry i n R u s s i a . He a p p l i e d thxs concept t o the e l e v e n - and t h i r t e e n - s y l l a b l e l i n e s of e a r l i e r s y l l a b i c v e r s i f i c a t i o r u a " ' " ^ He r e t a i n e d the feminine rhyme of the o l d s y l l a b i c v e r s e , but reformed the l i n e so t h a t i t was no l o n g e r measured by s y l l a b l e s , but by f e e t . He f e l t there s h o u l d be a masculine caesura a f t e r the seventh s y l l a b l e ( d i f f e r e n t from the feminine one found i n P o l i s h verse.) In a d d i t i o n , he i n t r o d u c e d the concept of rhythm or cadence i n the l i n e . He f e l t t h a t a t r o c h a i c cadence was b e s t s u i t e d to Russian v e r s e . His t r e a t i s e on Russian v e r s i f i c a t i o n was the most comprehensive of i t s time. Angyal says: "Sehen w i r nun d i e Gedichte T r e d i a k o v s k i j s e l b s t an, so werden w i r auf S c h r i t t und T r i t t barocke 101 Elemente, barocke Ziige und Motive f i n d e n . " Both Neo-c l a s s i c a l and Baroque elements are found i n T r e d i a k o v s k i j ' s p o e t r y . I t r e f l e c t s the Baroque p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the dynamic, f o r hyperbole and the monumental. K. Jensen and P. M i l l e r b e l i e v e t h a t the most s t r i k i n g s t y l i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of T r e d i a k o v s k i j i s h i s tendency to a m p l i f i c a t i o n . In t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of T r e d i a k o v s k i j 1 s paraphrase of the 143rd Psalm, they note: T r e d i a k o v s k i j develops the r h e t o r i c which i s but f a i n t l y expressed i n the t a u t o l o g i e s of the o r i g i n a l to a m a j e s t i c stream of words, to what might be c a l l e d a l i t e r a r y monumentary a r t , where the t a u t o -logy only adds to the whole s u p e r l a t i v e q u a l i t y . 2 Moreover, they emphasize the t e n s i o n and a n t i t h e t i c a l nature of h i s work: He c o n s t a n t l y aims at d e s c r i b i n g both the e x a l t e d and the lowly w i t h maximum e x p r e s s i o n and r h e t o r i c a l emphasis. Thus the fundamental tone of the paraphrase became d r a m a t i c a l l y tense and a n t i t h e t i c a l . 1 0 3 C i z e v s k i j s t a t e s t h a t T r e d i a k o v s k i j * s fondness f o r i n v e r s i o n s , h i s f r e e word o r d e r , was d e r i v e d from the B a r o q u e . H i s 64 poetry abounds wi t h exclamatory and r h e t o r i c a l sentences and oxymora. Angyal b e l i e v e s t h a t T r e d i a k o v s k i j ' s poetry exhib-i t s the Baroque m o t i f s of " g l o r y , the p a t h e t i c apostrophe t o the f a t h e r l a n d , a s t r o n g emphasis on greatness and the s u b j e c t i v e movement of f e e l i n g s — i n one word, a p e r f e c t 105 example of the Baroque l y r i c . " T r e d i a k o v s k i j i s a poet whose work r e f l e c t s h i s v a r i e d e d u c a t i o n a l background. His poetry serves as an e x c e l l e n t example of the new l i t e r a r y e v o l u t i o n t h a t was t a k i n g p l a c e i n R ussia d u r i n g the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h century. I t shows Russ i a becoming, c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h Western c u l t u r e . With h i s s t u d i e s i n Moscow, h i s knowledge of U k r a i n i a n and Russian p o e t r y , h i s t r a v e l s and s t u d i e s abroad, i t i s understandable how h i s work would be a c o l l e c t i o n , a f u s i n g t o g e t h e r of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a r y t r e n d s . As C i z e v s k i j p o i n t s out: Wenn w i r auch der Erwahnung n i c h t r u s s i s c h e r D i c h t e r i n der r u s s i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r des 18. Jhs. keine besondere Bedeutung zuschreiben s o l l t e n , da d i e Russen mit v o l l i g e r S o r g l o s i g k e i t d i e Namen nannten, d i e s i e z u f a l l i g gehort Oder gelesen h a t t e n , so d a r f man doch b e i T r e d i a k o v s k i j d i e Erwahnung u k r a i n i s c h e r (Ioann Maksymovyc), r u s s i -scher ( P o l o c k i j , Medvedev, K. Istomin und P. Buslaev) und n i c h t s . l a v i s c h e r B a r o c k d i c h t e r ( M i l t o n , Scudery, V o i t u r e , S p i t z , K a n i t z , Neukirch, Giinther und Brockes) n i c h t iibersehen! x06 I t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o present T r e d i a k o v s k i j 1 s poetry c l e a r l y and f a i r l y as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of any one l i t e r a r y s t y l e . 65 2. Lomonosov — : A Baroque Background I t i s not necessary to p r e s e n t here a d e t a i l e d biography of Lomonosov, f o r s e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t ones already 107 e x i s t . Yet at the same time, i t i s h e l p f u l to o r i e n t the reader t o Lomonosov's exposure throughout h i s l i f e to aspects of the Baroque t r a d i t i o n , f o r Lomonosov i s a poet whose work r e f l e c t s a s y n t h e s i s of s e v e r a l elements, i n c l u d i n g p a r t i c u -l a r l y those of the Baroque. As Morozov notes: With a b r i l l i a n t s y n t h e s i s of opposing tendencies i n the development of the Baroque came the o d i c -l y r i c s of Lomonosov which managed t o use and s e c u l a r i z e the a r t i s t i c means of s c h o l a s t i c p o e t r y of the seventeenth century and the s c h o o l dramas of the P e t r i n e Age, combining them w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s from h i s experience of Western European l i t e r a t u r e . 1 0 8 M i x a i l V a s i l i e v i c Lomonosov was born i n 1711, the son of a prosperous fisherman i n the s m a l l v i l l a g e of M i s a n i n -109 s k a j a . The v i l l a g e was l o c a t e d on an i s l a n d i n the Northern Dvina, d i r e c t l y across from the town of Xolmogory . and a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from the A r c t i c p o r t of Arxangel'sk. Lomonosov grew up i n the rugged n o r t h and i n h e r i t e d a t r a d i -t i o n which c h e r i s h e d freedom. His amazing d r i v e f o r success was p a r t of h i s homeland t r a d i t i o n . At the age of nine or ten he began to accompany h i s f a t h e r on f i s h i n g t r i p s and f r e q u e n t l y went w i t h him to Arxangel'sk. There Lomonosov saw f o r e i g n s h i p s i n the harbour, Dutch and E n g l i s h s a i l o r s i n the s t r e e t s , and no doubt v i s i t e d the f o r e i g n r e s i d e n t s ' q u a r t e r (where Dutch, Germans, Swedes and Danes i n permanent c o l o n i e s ) next t o the Gostyny, j Dvor (the Merchants' Court) . ^  I t was on these voyages t h a t Lomonosov became acquainted w i t h Baroque a r t ; In h i s youth he [Lomonosov] saw K u r o s t r o v s k i j bone-carvers prepare from walrus and unearthed mammoth bones carved boxes and t r i n k e t s f o r d r e s s -i n g t a b l e s . . . . Having mastered the d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s of the Baroque, they combined t h e i r " r o c a i l l e " [ i n t r i c a t e d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s ] w i t h f o l k o r n a m e n t a t i o n .m I t was a l s o d u r i n g these e x p e d i t i o n s throughout the no r t h e r n seas t h a t Lomonosov experienced the n a t u r a l phenomena of the A r c t i c , many years l a t e r brought v i v i d l y t o l i f e i n h i s poetry and explo r e d i n h i s s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . He \ beheldafcheavast^panoramacofoArcfcie c o l o u r , he saw the no r t h e r n l i g h t s , the r i s i n g and f a l l i n g of the t i d e s , saw and heard v a s t f l o c k s of sea b i r d s and s a i l e d beneath a n i g h t sky f i l l e d w i t h thousands of s t a r s . A l l the n a t u r a l wonders of the no r t h l e f t a l a s t i n g impression on him: KOJIB M H O r H C M e p T H b l M H e H 3 B e C T H b I T B O P H T H a T y p a ^yfleca, Tfle r y c T O C T b i o SHBOTHHM T e c H b i C T OHT r j i y 6 O K H H j i e c a , r j j e B POCKOHIH n p o x j i a H H b i x T e H e f i t Ha n a c T B e C K a ^ y i q u x eneueii J l o B H i q u x KPHK H e p a 3 r o H H J i ; OXOTHHK rne H e M e T H J i J i y K O M , C e K H p H H M 3 e M J i e f l e J i e i i ; C T y K O M noioiqHX nTHu; H e ycTpanian. (#141, l i n e s 161-170) Lomonosov's s e a f a r i n g t r a v e l s , which l a s t e d u n t i l he was ni n e t e e n , endowed him w i t h a-strong c h a r a c t e r and f o s t e r e d h i s n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n f o r i n q u i r y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As a c h i l d of ten or el e v e n , Lomonosov s t u d i e d at a newly-founded s c h o o l f o r church s e r v i t o r s ( i n the home of the Archbishop of Xolmogory) under the l o c a l deacon S. N. Sabel'ni k o v . As a peasant, i t was t e c h n i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r Lomonosov t o attend the archbishop's s c h o o l , but no doubt the r e s p e c t e d p o s i t i o n of Lomonosov's f a t h e r made h i s attendance p o s s i b l e . Under Sa b e l ' n i k o v , Lomonosov s t u d i e d 112 the l o c a l p s a l t e r and p r a y e r books. Through these works he became exposed to the t r a d i t i o n of Old Russian l i t e r a t u r e , w i t h i t s very ornate and complicated s t y l e . From the l i b r a r y of a l o c a l p r i e s t , X r i s t o f o r Dudin, he read such r e l i g i o u s works as "Peace with God," "About the Beauty of the Holy Church" and Z l a t o u s t ' s "Discourse on the Acts of the Apos-t l e s . " Lomonosov a l s o found s e c u l a r books i n Dudin's l i b r a r y . x x 3 He read M. S m o t r i c k i j 1 s Church S l a v i c Grammar 1 1^ 115 and L. M a g n i c k i j ' s A r i t h m e t i c . M a g n i c k i j ' s book was p u b l i s h e d f o r p u p i l s i n Tsar P e t e r ' s n a v i g a t i o n a l schools and i n c l u d e d i n i t was a s p e c i a l s e t of n a v i g a t i o n t a b l e s . Here again Lomonosov encountered Baroque a r t : Lomonosov encountered the Baroque everywhere. . . In the i l l u s t r a t i o n s of books and i n t h e i r f l y l e a v e s . Even i n the t a b l e s w i t h s i n e s , tangents and sec a n t s , where there was p l a c e d a Baroque v i g n e t t e of Adam s p r i n k l i n g a heavenly t r e e . x x " Much more important f o r Lomonosov were the works by Simeon P o l o c k i j t h a t he found i n Dudin*s l i b r a r y . There was 68 a copy of P o l o c k i j ' s P s a l t e r , R i f m o l o g i a and The Garden of Many Flowers. I t was the P s a l t e r t h a t was most i n t e r e s t i n g f o r him. N. Novikov notes t h a t P o l o c k i j ' s P s a l t e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k i n d l i n g Lomonosov's p a s s i o n f o r p o e t i c 117 e x p r e s s i o n and induced him to study v e r s i f i c a t i o n . As a lready mentioned, s c h o l a r s of Russian l i t e r a t u r e have 118 d e s c r i b e d P o l o c k i j as a Baroque poet. Lomonosov a v i d l y s t u d i e d the works of P o l o c k i j and c a r r i e d them w i t h him wherever he sent — t o Moscow, S t . P e t e r s b u r g and even t o Germany„(when Dudin d i e d h i s sons gave Lomonosov the books). The P s a l t e r of Simeon P o l o c k i j [writes Lamanski] was f o r a long time the t e a c h e r and c u l t i v a t o r of one of the most t a l e n t e d people; Lomonosov read i t e x t e n s i v e l y , l e a r n e d i t by h e a r t , c a r e f u l l y examined each word and e x p r e s s i o n ; w i t h h i s development, to which i t [the P s a l t e r ] c o n t r i b u t e d much, the s i g -n i f i c a n c e of the book grew f o r h i m . ± x ^ From h i s e a r l i e s t e d u c a t i o n , Lomonosov memorized the Baroque w r i t i n g s of P o l o c k i j and was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by them. The i n f l u e n c e i s seen i n Lomonosov's odes and psalms, where one f i n d s s i m i l a r bombastic e x p r e s s i o n s , a shared p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the c o l o u r f u l and the c u r i o u s , the b l e n d i n g of C h r i s t i a n and c l a s s i c a l imagery and the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the Russian 120 monarch. Morozov w r i t e s : "By thousands of threads Lomo-nosov i s l i n k e d w i t h the p r e c e d i n g n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n — w i t h the p o e t r y of Simeon P o l o c k i j and s t i l l more w i t h 121 a n c i e n t o r a t o r i c a l - l i t e r a r y a r t . " About the books of S m o t r i c k i j , M a g n i c k i j and P o l o c k i j , Lomonosov was l a t e r t o w r i t e t h a t they were h i s "gateway t o knowledge." Lomonosov l e f t home i n 173 0 and went t o Moscow. There he attended the S l a v i c - G r e e k - L a t i n Academy. As peasants were not allowed t o attend the Academy, Lomonosov l i e d t o A r c h i -mandrite Kopcevic,. s a y i n g t h a t h i s f a t h e r was a l o c a l c l e r g y -man i n Xolmogory. I t has already been noted t h a t f o r the Russian Baroque of the P e t r i n e Age, the most important c e n t r e 122 of a r t i s t i c propaganda was the S l a v i c - G r e e k - L a t i n Academy. At the Academy, he s t u d i e d s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s i n c l u d i n g L a t i n , Church S l a v i c , p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c . His courses on r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s were taught by men who had been educated and i n s t r u c t e d i n the Baroque t r a d i t i o n . These men, p a r t i c u l a r l y F. K v e t n i c k i j and P. K r a j c k i j , had been educated at the K i e v Academy. K r a j c k i j taught r h e t o r i c , a d v i s i n g the use of numerous tr o p e s and a l l e g o r i e s ; f o r example, t o enhance the concept of v i r t u e , one should (he suggests) compare i t t o the sun, to f i r e , t o s t a r s or jewels; one should compare wisdom t o 123 lamps, a l i g h t h o u s e , a t o r c h , and so f o r t h . The i n f l u e n c e of emblematic l i t e r a t u r e i s c l e a r . K v e t n i c k i j ' s c l a s s was on p o e t i c s ; students were t o w r i t e s h o r t poems, i n both L a t i n and Russian, on c l a s s i c a l themes or on s e l e c t i o n s from the Psalms. K v e t n i c k i j b e l i e v e d t h a t the Russian language was as capable of p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n as c l a s s i c a l L a t i n , and t h a t Russian poets c o u l d w r i t e a l l forms of c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y , 70 from odes to l y r i c s , i n t h e i r n a t i v e language. In 1732, he wrote a book on p o e t i c composition i n which, although he denounced Baroque a c r o s t i c s and echo v e r s e as word games, he wrote: Imagination i s a necessary f a c t o r f o r the poet, but h i s i m a g i n a t i o n should not run t o d i s t o r t e d images. I t must be chastened and d i r e c t e d by reason. To have a p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n means t o d i s c o v e r and comprehend the u n d e r l y i n g u n i v e r s a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n a p p a r e n t l y d i s s i m i l a r things.12 4 Cliz'evskij n o t e s : "Seine Lehrer waren d i e beiden U k r a i n e r an der K i e v e r Schule, K r a j s k y i und K v i t n y c k y j , d i e anno 1733 125 und 173 4 n a t i i r l i c h beide Barockpoetik v o r t r u g e n . " More-over, K v e t n i c k i j used the B a r o q u e r r h e t o r i c ^ o f ^ N i c h o l a s Caussin (1580-1651) (De e l o q u e n t i a s a c r a e t humana, 1620) i n h i s 12 6 course. Caussin's r h e t o r i c was one of the i n f l u e n t i a l Baroque r h e t o r i c s throughout the seventeenth century and the 12 7 b e g i n n i n g of the e i g h t e e n t h century. In a d d i t i o n t o the Baroque r h e t o r i c of C a u s s i n , Lomonosov was f a m i l i a r w i t h the Baroque r h e t o r i c (Novus candidatus r h e t o r i c a e , 1.714) of 12 8 another French J e s u i t , F r a n c o i s Antoine Pomey (1619-1693). Lomonosov made numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o these Baroque w r i t e r s i n h i s own R h e t o r i c . Furthermore, i t should be mentioned t h a t w h i l e Lomo-nosov was at the Academy, i t was o b l i g a t o r y f o r him t o attend l e c t u r e s on dramas of the time and, as a r e s u l t , he became f a m i l i a r w i t h the Baroque t h e a t r e . The dramas of the day were t y p i c a l of those performed i n P o l i s h J e s u i t c o l l e g e s — -71. from there they had come t o the Russian e c c l e s i a s t i c a l 129 schools o f the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . Although t h e r e i s no r e c o r d of h i s e n r o l l m e n t , Lomo-nosov i s b e l i e v e d t o have s t u d i e d f o r a few months at the Kie v Academy i n the summer of 1734. ' Here again he would have been exposed t o the Baroque p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c taught at the Academy. He r e t u r n e d t o Moscow i n the same year; and i n 1735 he was one of twelve students sent to S t . P e t e r s b u r g 131 t o study at the I m p e r i a l Academy of S c i e n c e s . In St. ^ Petersburg, he read the poetry of T r e d i a k o v s k i j and even took a copy of T r e d i a k o v s k i j 1 s work on Russian v e r s i f i c a t i o n w i t h him to Germany. In 1736, he and two other s t u d e n t s , Gustav R e i z e r and D m i t r i j Vinogradov, l e f t 132 Ru s s i a t o study at Marburg U n i v e r s i t y i n Germany. There Lomonosov s t u d i e d v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s under the famous C h r i s t i a n W o l f f , i n c l u d i n g chemistry, p h i l o s o p h y and p h y s i c s , and t h e o r e t i c a l chemistry under Johann Duysing. He a l s o s t u d i e d French and German. Upon completion of h i s work at Marburg, he proceeded t o F r e i b u r g t o study m e t a l l u r g y and mineralogy 133 under Johann F r e i d r i c h Henkel. In Germany, Lomonosov became f a m i l i a r w i t h the works of s e v e r a l Baroque w r i t e r s . He purchased Fenelon's Adven-t u r e s of Telemaque, Johann Hubner's A B r i e f I n t r o d u c t i o n t o  German Po e t r y , With a D e t a i l e d R e g i s t e r of Rhythms, h i s own copy of Caussin's r h e t o r i c and a c o l l e c t i o n of poetry by the 13 4 German Baroque poet Johann C h r i s t i a n Gunther. I t should be mentioned t h a t Lomonosov a l s o made useftof the books Vinogradov and R e i z e r had purchased. These i n c l u d e d the c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s of M o l i e r e , V o l t a i r e ' s tragedy "The Death of Cato," and a six-volume anthology of German poets t i t l e d 135 Herrn von Hofmannswaldau and Other S e l e c t e d German Poets. He a l s o a c q u i r e d s e v e r a l other books, i n c l u d i n g Johann 13 6 Gottsched's A Complete and Genuine German R h e t o r i c and works by C i c e r o , Ovid and Seneca. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t Lomonosov's f i r s t attempt at t r a n s l a t i o n was a poem by 137 the French Baroque poet Fenelon. Lomonosov was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the Baroque poetry of J . C. Gunther: "For him the b e s t w r i t e r was Gunther and 13 8 Lomonosov l e a r n e d many of h i s poems by h e a r t . " Moreover, "He began composing Russian v e r s e s a c c o r d i n g to the meters 139 of the German poets and e s p e c i a l l y those of Gunther." Even those c r i t i c s r e l u c t a n t t o admit t h a t Lomonosov d e r i v e d a g r e a t d e a l from Gunther's poetry concede t h a t Lomonosov's f i r s t ode "Oda v l a z e n n y j a pamjati Gosudaryne Imperatrice Anne Ioannovne na pobedu Turkami i Tatarami i na vz.jatie X o t i n a 1739, goda" (An Ode t o the B l e s s e d Memory of Empress Anna Ioannovna on the V i c t o r y over the Turks and T a r t a r s and on the "Takings of: X o t i n i n 1739) i s s i m i l a r i n many ways to Gunther's poem "Auf den zwischen Ihre K a i s e r l - M a j e s t a t und der P f o r t e an 1718 geschlossenen F r i e d e n " (On the Peace Concluded Between His I m p e r i a l Majesty and the Porte i n . 1 4 0 1 7 1 8 ) u Even G;. Gukovskij notes t h a t Lomonosov p e r c e i v e d the t r a d i t i o n of the Renaissance through German Baroque 1 4 1 p o e t r y . C i S e v s k i j emphasizes the i n f l u e n c e Giinther had on Lomonosov's poetry . Although C i z e v s k i j notes the d i f f e r -ence — "Lomonosov i s t p a n e g y r i s c h e r O p t i m i s t , Giinther 1 4 2 erschexnt uns m e i s t a l s p o l i t i s c h e r P e s s i m i s t " — he s t r e s s e s s e v e r a l s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two poets. A c c o r d i n g to C i z e v s k i j , Lomonosov d e r i v e d from Giinther (among ot h e r things) : 1 ) the t e n - l i n e v e r s e s t r u c t u r e of h i s odes, 2 ) h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r p i l i n g up words, 3 ) the use of anaphora i n such word-chains, 4 ) e x t e n s i v e use of hyperbole, and 5 ) h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r unexpected and s u r p r i s -1 4 3 i n g metaphors and p i c t u r e s . C i z e v s k i j i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t . o u t t h a t such f e a t u r e s as hyperbole, s u r p r i s i n g metaphors and o t h e r s are not j u s t t y p i c a l of Giinther (and Lomonosov), but are t y p i c a l of Baroque poetry i n g e n e r a l . Suxomlinov a l s o sees s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the two poems, p r i m a r i l y the shared theme concerning the s t r u g g l e w i t h the Turks and 1 4 4 t h e i r d e f e a t , and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n rhyme and meter. Suma-rokov a l s o comments t h a t Lomonosov d e r i v e d a great d e a l from 1 4 5 Gun.fcher. The Baroque elements i n Lomonosov's poetry were e s s e n t i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n h i s f i r s t poem. As Morozov remarks: The s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of Lomonosov's p o e t i c s t y l e were c l e a r l y formulated i n h i s f i r s t o r i g i n a l ode "On the Taking of X o t i n " and d i d not change essen-t i a l l y i n the course of h i s e n t i r e l i f e . In 1741 Lomonosov r e t u r n e d t o S t . P e t e r s b u r g . Four years l a t e r , i n 1745, he became a f u l l member of the S t . P e t e r s b u r g Academy and was g i v e n a p r o f e s s o r s h i p i n chemistry. At the same time as he pursued h i s s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , he continued to w r i t e p o e t r y , p r i m a r i l y f o r the Russian c o u r t . As Angyal remarks: "Es i s t n i c h t u n i n t e r e s s a n t d i e s e n meist a l s 1 a u f g e k l a r t e n N a t u r f o r s c h e r ' a p o s t r o p h i e r t e n Mann einmal auch a l s barocken 'Hofmann und H o f d i c h t e r ' zu b e t r a c h -147 t e n . " Morozov a l s o notes t h a t Lomonosov 1s poetry r e f l e c -14 8 ted the m a t e r i a l surroundings of the c o u r t and t h a t " h i s o d i c - l y r i c s were c l o s e l y t i e d t o the a r t i s t i c m a t e r i a l i s m surrounding c o u r t l i f e , which had a d i s t i n c t l y Baroque 149 c h a r a c t e r , and t h i s was not c o n t r a d i c t e d i n h i s s t y l e . " He wrote odes c e l e b r a t i n g most members of the r o y a l f a m i l y , and d u r i n g the r e i g n of Empress E l i z a b e t h I he wrote s e v e r a l odes commemorating her ascension to the throne. Lomonosov p a r t i c i p a t e d i n many events at c o u r t , and one of h i s tasks was to a s s i s t i n the d i s p l a y of i m p e r i a l f i r e w o r k s . These "amusing f i r e s " o r i g i n a t e d d u r i n g the r e i g n of Tsar A l e x i s , a c q u i r e d g r e a t importance under Peter the Great, and reached the h e i g h t of splendour under E l i z a -150 b e t h . The f i r e w o r k d i s p l a y s g e n e r a l l y were emblematic and a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s . These events were very grand and c o l o u r f u l . Lomonosov f r e q u e n t l y composed i n s c r i p t i o n s f o r them or wrote notes e x p l a i n i n g the a l l e g o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e 151 of the p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Morozov notes t h a t the p r e s e n t a -t i o n s at E l i z a b e t h ' s c o u r t were c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the emblems and a l l e g o r i e s of P e t r i n e Baroque, and remarks t h a t Lomonosov "not only c o n s c i o u s l y used the s t y l i s t i c and d e c o r a t i v e means of P e t r i n e Baroque, but emphasized t h i s 152 c o n n e c t i o n . " Lomonosov was f a m i l i a r with C. Ripa's book of emblems and used i t as a guide w h i l e working on the f i r e w o r k p r o j e c t s . Lomonosov was surrounded by the Baroque a r c h i t e c t u r e of R a s t r e l l i i n both Moscow and St. P e t e r s b u r g . In such an atmosphere, he designed Baroque cartouches and t i t l e pages f o r h i s own p u b l i c a t i o n s and, i n 1758, he even submitted to the Senate plans f o r an e l a b o r a t e tomb f o r P e t e r I, decorated i n the Baroque s t y l e . There were t o be numerous a l l e g o r i c a l 154 s t a t u e s and mosaics. Peter was t o be d e p i c t e d as the s e t t i n g sun, s h i n i n g on h i s uncompleted deeds, and E l i z a b e t h was to be a sunflower i n c l i n i n g toward the s e t t i n g sun. There was t o be a p e r s o n i f i e d R u s s i a weeping on her knees, p i l l a r s and urns of v a r i o u s marbles, s i l v e r and g o l d s t a t u e s i n n i c h e s — each t o r e p r e s e n t a t r a d i t i o n a l v i r t u e (Wisdom, Courage, D i l i g e n c e , J u s t i c e , Love, and so f o r t h ) . There were t o be mosaics showing Glor y trumpeting and t r a m p l i n g Death; Truth and E t e r n i t y w r i t i n g the deeds of P e t e r i n the 155 " i m p e r i s h a b l e book" and so on.. -Lomonosov continued working on h i s v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s u n t i l the end of h i s c a r e e r . He d i e d i n 1765. One can see c l e a r l y t h a t he had a l i f e - l o n g exposure to s e v e r a l aspects of the Baroque. tltsisohotiWibt-hbutacauselifehatnAn about Lomonosov: " . . . a l s Reprasentant des l i t e r a r i s c h e n Spatbarocks i n Russlang, . . . Aus s e i n e n p a t h e t i s c h -h e r o i s c h e n Oden konnte d i e ganze A s t h e t i k der B a r o c k z e i t 157 zusammengestellt werden." ' As the p r e c e d i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l has shown, Lomonosov was a product of the seventeenth-century t r a d i t i o n . His e d u c a t i o n brought him i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h European Baroque p o e t r y . Of the men who taught him, and the poets, both Russian and f o r e i g n , t h a t he chose to emulate, n e a r l y a l l are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Baroque — the Baroque p o e t i c s taught by F. K v e t n i c k i j and P. K r a j c k i j at the Moscow S l a v i c -G r e e k - L a t i n Academy, the Baroque r h e t o r i c s of N. C a u s s i n and F. Pomey and poetry of Fenelon, O p t i z , Polfflckij and e s p e c i -a l l y Gunther. A t the same time, Lomonosov was h e i r t o a natuve l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n t h a t had s e v e r a l s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the Baroque. As J . B u c s e l a remarks: Lomonosov's a r t was a l s o i n keeping w i t h the p o e t i c and l i n g u i s t i c t r a d i t i o n of h i s n a t i v e country. . . . The pompous and ornate s t y l e had always been the hallmark of Old Russian l i t e r a t u r e and Church S l a v o n i c was u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s s t y l e . . . . A l l these a r t i s t i c d e v i c e s and the ornate r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e had come to R u s s i a from Byzantium and predominated throughout the e i g h t e e n t h century.1^8 C l e a r l y , those s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s t h a t are found i n Lomono-sov's work and are t y p i c a l of the Baroque are the r e s u l t of h i s t r a i n i n g , both abroad and i n Ru s s i a . The Baroque t r e n d i n h i s work i s a s y n t h e s i s o f indigenous (Russian and Ukrai n i a n ) and Western European ( p a r t i c u l a r l y German and, v i a P o l o c k i j , P o l i s h ) Baroque elements. Lomonosov owes much t o the Baroque s t y l e and s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s p o i n t t h i s out, y e t many bthe»s -CGO'fis^aSr^Mm*"to. be ) i5!5 9 .. a t s i r i c t l c l a s s i e i s t : . Thqjho's'ehwhpopo.i-ntotoOjEemSn'SSo^Sas • a c l a s s i c i s t r e f e r t o h i s p o e t i c embellishments, the p r a i s e of e n l i g h t e n e d monarchs, the l o f t y " p o e t i c e c s t a s y " of h i s odes, the P a r n a s s i a n ardour and the sup p r e s s i o n of the author's 160 p e r s o n a l i t y . A. Angyal b e l i e v e s t h a t s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s 16 suggested as t y p i c a l of c l a s s i c a l s t y l e are r e a l l y Baroque. A. Morozov, on the other hand, notes how pr o b l e m a t i c • , , . . . 1 6 2 Lomonosov's c l a s s i c i s m i s . The problem of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , as Chapter I p o i n t s out, i s even more complicated i n t h a t t h e r e i s no c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of Baroque s t y l e . F. B. A r t z , i n From- the Renaissance t o Romanticism, remarks: There i s a l s o i n Baroque a re-emphasis on c l a s s i c a l forms, and th e r e i s much evidence o f a d e s i r e t o impose on the tumultuous and c o n f l i c t i n g f e e l i n g s of the a r t i s t or poet or composer some-t h i n g o f c l a s s i c a l r e s t r a i n t , p r o p o r t i o n and balance . . . the l i t e r a t u r e of the Baroque Age i s f i l l e d w i t h a d i d a c t i c purpose and w i t h e t h i c a l concerns.163 78 I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t the accepted d e f i n i t i o n of French c l a s s i c i s m i s a l s o changing. S c h o l a r s suggest t h a t o r d e r , r u l e , reasonaand p e r f e c t i o n are n o t l o n g e r the only c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by which one may judge c l a s s i c a l s t y l e . W. G. Moore emphasizes t h a t c l a s s i c i s m shows numerous examples of v i g o u r , shock/ss.Ur.priaej/rre even v i o l e n c e . Furthermore, he suggests: " . . . t h a t much, the g r e a t e r p a r t of the l i t e r a r y p r o d u c t i o n of the age was 1 ft & indeed the r e v e r s e of c l a s s i c a l . " More d e f i n i t i v e l y , F. B. A r t z w r i t e s : "French ' c l a s s i c a l * l i t e r a t u r e should be • 16 S seen xnsxde the framework of the Baroque Age." What may be c o n s i d e r e d Baroque by one c r i t i c i s o f t e n seen as c l a s s i c a l by another, and v i c e v e r s a . Jean Rousset, i n "Le Baroque e t l e C l a s s i q u e , " comments: "Le Baroque e t l e c l a s s i q u e se regardent e n e n n e m i s , mais. comme on l e f a i t 16 6 dans une f a m i l l e , i l s s'opposent avec un a i r f r a t e r n e l . " The c o n t r o v e r s y over c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l s o a p p l i e s to Russian l i t e r a t u r e , f o r , aside from minor d e v i a t i o n s , Russian c l a s s i c i s m i s d e r i v e d from French c l a s s i c i s m . For Lomonosov's po e t r y , the problem of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t . He wrote at a time when s e v e r a l l i t e r a r y trends weee d i s c e r n i b l e . D. C i z e v s k i j comments on the d i f f e r e n c e s between Lomonosov and Sumarokov, the staunch defender of French N e o c l a s s i c i s m i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e . C i z e v s k i j p o i n t s out t h a t Sumarokov and Lomonosov agree t h a t 79 t h e r e are e t e r n a l laws of beauty t h a t are v a l i d f o r a l l time, but at the same time he underscores t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . Sumarokov demands: 1) c l a r i t y and s i m p l i c i t y of s t y l e , 2) an avoidance of u n c l e a r a n d f a n t a s t i c metaphors, 3) a s t y l e t h a t i s l e s s voluptuous, 4) normal syntax,aarid 5) no unusual l e x i c o n or a r c h a i c w o r d s . C i z e v s k i j r e p e a t e d l y e m p h a s i z e s t h a t Sumarokov 1s s t y l e i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o t h a t of Lomonosov. He w r i t e s : E r 1 s t auch gegen d i e Wandlung der Wortbedeu-tungen, gegen Neologismen, n i c h t t r a d i t i o n e l l e Metaphern und Metonymien, gegen Unterbrechungen i n der Entwicklung eines Themas — l a u t e r Charakter-i s t i k a der Lomonosovschen Oden. . . . Das a l l e s i s t d i e K r i t i k e i nes K l a s s i z i s t e n an einem Barock-d i c h t e r , j a , an der Barockdichtung iiberhaupt. 1^9 G. G u k o v s k i j , i n Russkaja l i t e r a t u r a XVIII veka, suggests: On the whole, i n the very essence of i t s a r t i s t i c method, the poetry of Lomonosov can not be i n c l u d e d i n t h a t c i r c l e of phenomenon . . . t h a t i s designated by c l a s s i c i s m . 1 7 0 Moreover, he adds t h a t the poetry of Lomonosov r . . remained a l i e n t o . . . the d r y , l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r of c l a s s i c a l semantics, i t s dread of f a n t a s y , i t s s c h e m a t i z a t i o n of a b s t r a c t thought, at which l a y the b a s i s of i t s p o e t i c a l method.171 P. Hart b e l i e v e s t h a t i t was the German Baroque poets ( e s p e c i a l l y Giinther) and not the French " c l a s s i c a l " poets who i n f l u e n c e d Lomonosov most: I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t these [German Baroque poets] s e t the tone f o r h i s subsequent a e s t h e t i c 80 posture s i n c e he seems to have been unimpressed by French verse p r a c t i c e as he came t o know it . 1 7 2 Hart f u r t h e r suggests: I have found f u r t h e r d e t a i l s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t h i s was a d e l i b e r a t e l y and c o n s c i o u s l y d e c l a r e d p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t the i n c r e a s i n g l y a e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t s which w r i t e r s l i k e Sumarokov were promoting.173 An e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of French " c l a s s i c a l " l i t e r a t u r e i s the concept of r a t i o n a l i s m . K a r l V o s s l e r , i n "Le Bon Gout," w r i t e s : La c o h a b i t a t i o n de l'humanisme e t du n a t u r a l i s m e que nous avons notee a l'epoque de l a Renaissance s ' e s t transformee en une c o l l a b o r a t i o n du r a t i o n a l - . isme e t du nationalisme.17 4 R a t i o n a l i s m i s a l s o an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of Russian . . 175 c l a s s i c i s m . I t i s the presence of r a t i o n a l i s m t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s Lomonosov from w r i t e r s of the Baroque Age. As H. Sege.l notes: "In s t y l e he c l e a r l y owes much t o the Baroque, but he i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y a 176 product of the Enlightenment." Lomonosov, w h i l e s t u d y i n g i n Germany, p a r t i c u l a r l y when he worked under C h r i s t i a n W o l f f at Marburg, became f a m i l i a r w i t h the r a t i o n a l i s t p hilosophy of the E n l i g h t e n -ment. I f one i s to look f o r a d i f f e r e n c e i n Weltanschauung between a poet of the Baroque Age and Lomonosov, i t would have t o be i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p h i l o s o p h i c a l approaches t o l i f e . F a c t o r s of a Baroque Weltanschauung, i n c l u d i n g c r i s i s , 81 pessimism with regard to t h i s world o f f s e t by a j o y f u l a n t i c i p a t i o n of the world to come and a deep sense of v a n i t a s , are found i n Western European Baroque poetry and, as A. H i p p i s l e y remarks: "These are a l l e v i d e n t i n P o l o c k i j , but are the s o r t of a t t i t u d e s t h a t were d i s p e l l e d by the Enlightenment and are t h e r e f o r e not t o be found i n Lomono= ;" 17 7 sov." M. Raeff, i n "The Enlightenment i n Russian and Russian Thought i n the Enlightenment," emphasizes the i n f l u e n c e of C h r i s t i a n W o l f f ' s philosophy on Lomonosov. He comments: He . . . was a product of German p i e t i s t s c h o o l s (Marburg, F r i e b u r g ) , i n both s c i e n c e and l i t e r a t u r e . . . . In the realm of l i t e r a t u r e he never went beyond t h i s German i n f l u e n c e . - * ^ 8 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note why W o l f f ' s p h i l o s o p h y was so a c c e p t a b l e , not only t o Lomonosov, but t o a l a r g e segment of Russian s o c i e t y . Raeff suggests: In the f i r s t p l a c e was t h e i r s i n c e r e and complete acceptance of C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e and the i n j u n c t i o n to obey c o n s t i t u t e d a u t h o r i t i e s , an a t t i t u d e most welcome to a monarch j e a l o u s of h i s a b s o l u t e power. No l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t a f a c t o r was the W o l f f i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of n a t u r a l law. I t s t r e s s e d the conceptions of o b l i g a t i o n and duty as the p r e r e q u i s i t e of i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , i n c o n t r a s t to the 'possessive i n d i v i d u a l i s m ' of the Hobbesian andlLockean t r a d i t i o n . I t a l s o gave p r i o r i t y to the community and to s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s over and a g a i n s t the claims of the autonomous i n d i v i d u a l , as emphasized by the E n g l i s h and French n o t i o n s of n a t u r a l r i g h t s . Such an o r i e n t a t i o n , b u t t r e s s e d by a s t r o n g b e l i e f i n a n e o - s t o i c i s m which assigned a major r o l e to human w i l l and a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the framework of g e n e r a l l y v a l i d u n i v e r s a l moral laws, 82 appealed to a s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y d e d i c a t e d to t o t a l change of t r a d i t i o n a l circumstances. The d o c t r i n e s taught by W o l f f and h i s f o l l o w e r s gave moral and p h i l o s o p h i c s a n c t i o n t o the g o a l - d i r e c t e d , w i l f u l , a c t i v e s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t P e t e r the Great had rooted i n R u s s i a . Lomonosov i s an.advocate of the Enlightenment i n h i s p o e t r y . At the same time, as i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h W o l f f ' s acceptance of C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , he a l s o b e l i e v e s i n God. V. A. Tumins notes: Lomonosov was the f i r s t one who t r i e d t o harmonize r a t i o n a l i s m and the s p i r i t u a l l i f e , and here he r e f l e c t e d the Russian e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , where the church was not r e j e c t e d but o n l y g i v e n her own p l a c e . He says t h a t ithetmH^nemat-ieiahic reasons i n c o r r e c t l y i f he wishes to measure God's w i l l w i t h a compass, but the t h e o l o g i a n too i s wrong i f he t h i n k s t h a t one can l e a r n astronomy or chemistry from the p s a l t e r . x ^ 0 Enlightenment through edu c a t i o n and self-improvement are themes t h a t reappear p e r s i s t e n t l y i n Lomonosov's poems. I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t Lomonosov's ideas on education continue the t r a d i t i o n of Baroque humanism, p a r t i c u l a r l y as found i n P o l o c k i j ' s p o e t r y . In h i s d e s i r e to spread education throughout the l a n d , one sees s i m i l a r i t i e s between Lomonosov and Baroque poets. R. M. Browning w r i t e s : T h i s i s the achievement of the late-baroque, s t y l e : t o shed over the world the l i g h t of the mind . . . to s e t , f i n a l l y , upon the a r t s of t h a t whole gr e a t e r a we c a l l the Renaissance, the measure of the human s p i r i t . x ^ l Indeed, A. Morozov suggests t h a t i n S l a v i c c o u n t r i e s , the 83 Baroque took on the f u n c t i o n of the Renaissance, t h a t humanist ideas p e n e t r a t e d the Ukraine and Ru s s i a i n "Baroque 182 c l o t h i n g . " Moreover, Morozov b e l i e v e s t h a t , not only i n Rus s i a , but a l s o i n Germany, the Enlightenment found i t s 183 e x p r e s s i o n i n Baroque form. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Lomonosov i s a proponent of the Enlightenment. Throughout h i s odes, he p r a i s e s Russian monarchs who support e d u c a t i o n , who b u i l d s c hools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . In a 1761 ode honouring Empress E l i z a b e t h ' s a c c e s s i o n t o the throne, he not only praistes the e s t a b l i s h -ment of Moscow U n i v e r s i t y and of l o c a l s c h o o l s , but he a l s o p r a i s e s the 1744 decree which a b o l i s h e d c a p i t a l punishment: Ha O T ^ i e c K o f i n p e c T O J i B c x o a c y C n a c T H OT 3 J I O 6 H y i e c H e H H u x H menpoa B J i a c T B i o noKaacy CBOft P O f l 6 VMHCTKy n p o c B e i n e H H H x . Moea i i e p x c a B b i K p o T K a MOMB O T B e p r H e T C M e p T H O f i K a 3HH HOTB; (#260, l i n e s 81-86) The empress i n c r e a s e s her people's g l o r y w i t h peace and r a i s e s s c i e n c e over war: Ho B c e p f l i i e nepymuT c e i l coBeT P a 3 M H O > K H T b MHPOM H a i n y c n a B y H Bfclllie, K a K B O e H H O K 3 B y K , L T o c T a B H T B KpacoTy HayK. (#260, l i n e s 203-206) In another ode., the empress giv e s succour t o s c i e n c e . R u s s i a i s b l e s s e d by s c i e n c e : Ho HCTHHHO neTpoBa HmepB K H a y K a M M a T e p c K H CHHCXOITJIT, (#176, l i n e s 24-25) 84 And: KOJIB ECH3HB H a y K a M 3 f l e c B 6Jia>KeHHa (#176, l i n e 29) L o m o n o s o v c o n s t a n t l y a n t h r o p o m o r p h i z e s a l l a s p e c t s of l e a r n i n g . S c i e n c e r e j o i c e s , i t . i s h a p p y a n d e x t e n d s i t s h a n d s t o R u s s i a . A l l l e a r n i n g w a n t s t o c o m e t o R u s s i a : JIHKVH ace C B e T J i o , x o p H a y K , OTKPBIJI .ITO n e T p c E K a T e p H H o f t , ^TOG cjibioieH 6faiji B e c e J i o H 3 B y K . (#23, l i n e s 89-91) Or: EH H SOBPOCTB, H BOCXOA 3jiaTOH H a y K a M B e K B O C C T S B H T H OT n p e 3 p e H H H a3 6 a B H T B03JTK)6JTeHHBIH P a C C H i i C K H H p o f l . (#266, l i n e s 7-10) Or a g a i n : O BH, macTJ iHBBiH H a y K H ! npHJieacHbi n p o c T H p a f t T e p y K H H B 3 0 P flO CaMblX n a J I B H H X M e C T . (#176, l i n e s 168-170) The " b l e s s e d f i e l d s of l e a r n i n g " e x t e n d t h e i r h a n d s t o R u s s i a a n d a r e j o y o u s l y a c c e p t e d b y t h e m o n a r c h : T o r f l a S o x e c T B e H H H H a y K H ^ p e 3 r o p b i , p e K H H MOPH B POCCHK) n p O C T H p a J I H p y K H , K c e M y M o H a p x y r o B o p n : nMfai c K p a f i H H M T i q a H H e M TOTOBBI I l O f l a T B B P O C C H H C K O M p o f l e HOBBI ^ H C T e f t i i i a r o y M a njioflBi". M o H a p x K Ce6e H X n p H 3 U B a e T ; Yace POCCHH O K H f l a e T IIoJTe3HBi B H f l e T B HX T p y f l B i . (#141, l i n e s 81-90) L o m o n o s o v ' s d e s i r e i s t o s e e e d u c a t i o n s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t R u s s i a a n d h e u s e s h i s p o e t r y t o p r o p a g a t e t h e i d e a . In t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a n z a , w w h e s E e h h e h o p e s t h a t b r i l l i a n t m e n o f 8 5 l e a r n i n g , s u c h a s P l a t o and Newton, w i l l b e b o r n f r o m t h e Russian w o m b , he c l e a r l y s h o w s h i m s e l f t o b e a confirmed proponent o f t h e Enlightenment: 0 B b l , K O T O p b l X OSCHflaeT O T e i e c T B o OT H e f l p CBOHX H BHfleTb T a K O B b i x xcejiaeT, K a K H X 3 0 B e T O T C T p a H ^ y a c H X , 0 Banni flHH 6 J i a r o c J i O B e H H b i ! JJ ,ep3aftTe HtJHe o 6 o f l p e H H b i P a ^ e H b e M B a u i H M n o K a 3 a T b , <lTO MOSCeT C O S C T B e H H b l X r i J i a T O H O B M 6bICTpbIX p a 3 y M O M H e B T O H O B P o c c H f i C K a H 3eMJiH p a a c f l a T b . (#141, l i n e s 211-220) Although n u m e r o u s Baroque e l e m e n t s a r e e v i d e n t i n Lomonosov ' s odes, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e i r f u n c t i o n i s n o t 'ia4waysaBarffqBeyotfor,h-is^^ th = ; r a t i o n a l i s t i c o u t l o o k of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Lomonosov w a s n o t a p o e t of t h e Baroque A g e , b u t r a t h e r , o n e w h o w a s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e s t y l e o f Baroque p o e t r y . With t h e a b o v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n m i n d , w e n o w t u r n t o t h e Baroque elements i n t h e p o e t r y o f Lomonosov. CHAPTER I I I ENERGY M i x a i l Lomonosov was a product of a seventeenth-century t r a d i t i o n which was l a r g e l y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n n a t u r e . His e d u c a t i o n brought him i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the Western European Baroque. The f o l l o w i n g chapters attempt t o i s o l a t e the Baroque s t y l i s t i c elements found i n Lomonosov's poems. In d i s c u s s i n g Lomonosov's poetry i t i s w e l l t o keep i n mind the phenomenon of s i m u l t a n e i t y . A. W. Sypher remarks i n h i s work on the Renaissance: " E s p e c i a l l y i n any p e r i o d as f e r t i l e as the Renaissance two or more d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s can be c u r r e n t a t not only the same moment i n d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s , but even i n the same a r t i s t . " 1 I do not present Lomonosov as a Baroque poet, but propose t h a t there i s an.aggregate of Baroque s t y l i s t i c elements apparent i n h i s work. To c l a r i f y my approach f u r t h e r , I s t r e s s t h a t , when speaking of s t y l i s t i c elements i n Lomonosov's poems, I do not i n t e n d these to be c o n s i d e r e d as " i n h e r e n t l y Baroque." I t i s the c o n j u n c t i o n of these elements, r a t h e r than any one taken by i t s e l f , which allows one to a s s o c i a t e them wi t h the Baroque. * * * * * 86 87 In the facade of a Baroque church, a movement, which i n the midst of a cBramantesque design would be d e s t r u c t i v e and repugnant, i s turned to account and made the b a s i s of a'more dramatic, but not l e s s s a t i s f y i n g treatment, the motive of which i s not peace, but e n e r g y . 2 1. Dynamism The Baroque was an age of r e s t l e s s n e s s and i n s t a b i l -i t y . P a r t i a l l y as a r e s u l t of t h i s i n s t a b i l i t y , one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s of Baroque a r t and l i t e r a t u r e was dynamism. Some s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e t h a t dynamism i s perhaps the most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Baroque facade. I t i s the one major f a c t o r which separates Baroque p a i n t i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e and s c u l p t u r e from the Renaissance. Baroque dynamism i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e i s comparable w i t h i t s western European c o u n t e r p a r t . Baroque dynamism o f t e n takes the form of a v i g o r o u s and powerful upward s t r i v i n g of a seemingly heavy mass. This m o t i f i s o f t e n found i n Baroque r e l i g i o u s poetry and i s u s u a l l y expressed i n a d e s i r e t o take wings and leave the e a r t h behind. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r form 3 of dynamxsm i s found i n the poetry of Simeon P o l o c k i j . Lomonosov, too, uses the element of dynamism i n h i s p o e t r y . Dynamism i s expressed i n s e v e r a l ways, but p r i m a r i l y i t i s , 4 as Morozov w r i t e s , the s w i f t movement of images through Lomonosov's poetry t h a t b e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s dynamism. The upward s t r i v i n g i n Lomonosov 1s poems man i f e s t s i t s e l f i n 88 numerous images. There are several references to eagles soaring up to and through the skies. In one poem, the 1743 ode celebrating the nameday of Grand Duke Peter (Peter I I I ) , the eagle represents the future tsar soaring to the heights. Even his glory soars up to heaven: 5 XBaJioK B3oJj,n;eT K B e p b x y H e b e c (#28, l i n e 74) In Lomonosov's poems, the upward-soaring eagle frequently represents Russian monarchs. In a 1750 ode dedicated to Empress Elizabeth, the monarch i s compared to a soaring eagle: H 3 HHX BO B e e C T p a H b l B S H p a e T H Ha eflHHe npeflCTaBUHeT' Bpy^eHHbifi c B e T non C K H n e T p c B o f t , nono6Ho KaK opeji napnmHfi, OT caMbix oSJiaK 3PHT Jieacaiqw n o J i H H r p a x i B i nofl c o b o f t . (#176, lines 135-140) And again, i n another ode dedicated to Peter III (17 62) , Lomonosov compares the tsar to a soaring eagle: Opeji BeJIHKHfi O6HOBHJICH Ha B b i c o T e C B o e f i HBHJICH H H a n EBponoio n a p H T (#261, lines 15-17) He uses the image again i n : B n y T H , K O T o p b i M n p c n e T a e u i b , KaK 6 b i c T p o f t B B b i c o T e opeji, (#189, lines 41-42) The use of the eagle image i s not confined to tsars and empresses. In his f i r s t ode, on the ^takingeof f XSt-irin (1739)., Lomonosov twice uses this dynamic image. Both times i t 89 r e f e r s t o t h e Russian a r m y . In s t a n z a 6: Ho *ITO6 OPJIOB 3flepacaTb n o j i e T , Tarax npenoH H a C B e T e H e T . H M B O f l b i , J i e c Syrpbi, C T p e M H H H b i , T j i y x H H c T e n n — p a B e H n y T B . Tfle TOJIBKO B e T p b i M o r y T nyTB, flodynHT T S M n o x i K H o p j i H H U . (#4, l i n e s 55-60) In s t a n z a 19 h i s s i n g serpents t w i s t themselves i n t o b a l l s a n d t r y t o c o n c e a l t h e m s e l v e s w h e n t h e y s e e t h e s o a r i n g Russian e a g l e : Opeji K o r f l a myMH J i e T H T H T a M n a p H T , rne B e T e p H e B o e T ; npefl P O C C K O H T a K HPOHCHT O p J l H I j e H , C T e C H f l e T B H y T P B X O T H H CBOHX. (#4, l i n e s 183-184 and 187-188) The d y n a m i c e l e m e n t i n Lomonosov ' s p o e m s i s r e p r e s e n -t e d i n o t h e r i m a g e s w h i c h a l s o e x p r e s s the n o t i o n o f upward m o t i o n * I t i s n o t o n l y the e a g l e t h a t s o a r s t o t h e h e a v e n s , but t h e v o i c e o f "many w a t e r s , " m e r i t g l o r y , s h o u t s , gazes a n d e v e n t h e m u s i c f r o m Lomonosov ' s l y r e . Each i m a g e i n i t s e l f h a s m o v e m e n t , n o t h i n g i s s t a t i c . Each i m a g e e x p r e s s e s a s o a r i n g upward. In a 1746 b i r t h d a y ode t o Empress E l i z a b e t h , i t i s R u s s i a t h a t i s r a i s e d t o the h e i g h t s . In t h e f i r s t s t a n z a o f t h e poem, Ru s s i a i s b l e s s e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f E l i z a b e t h , w h o w a s s e n t f r o m s a i n t l y h e i g h t s t o r e s u r r e c t the s p i r i t o f P e t e r the Great, t o c r u s h R u s s i a ' s enemies, t o judge a n d t o r a i s e R u s s i a t o the h i g h e s t c l o u d s : 9 0 H BHUie o6JiaK B03HecTH. ( # 4 4 , l i n e 1 0 ) In the 1 7 5 0 ode mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , Lomonosov b e l i e v e s the m e r i t s of Empress E l i z a b e t h should be r a i s e d t o the s t a r s i n the form of a new p l a n e t : B H e 6 e c H b i , V p a H H H , K p y r n Bo3BbicH nocpene J i y y e f i E J i H c a B e T H H f a i 3 a c J i y r H , ^ T O S T a M O B B e ^ i H y c J i a B y EE: CHHJia HOB an n \ n a H e T a . ( # 1 7 6 , l i n e s 2 0 1 - 2 0 5 ) In the 1 7 4 2 ode c e l e b r a t i n g the b i r t h d a y of Grand Duke Pe t e r (Peter I I I ) and h i s s a f e r e t u r n from H o l s t e i n , i t i s the v o i c e of many waters t h a t soars t o the h e i g h t s : KaK rjiac BOA M H o r u x , B B e p & x BOCXOAHT, H. MO& O T p a f l b i n o J i H b i a y M , BOCXHTHB T e M , B B O C T O p r n p H B O f l H T . ( # 2 4 , l i n e s 1 8 - 2 0 ) F a r t h e r a l o n g i n the same poem, i t i s the poet's v i s i o n t h a t i s c a r r i e d a l o f t : Ho c n e u i H o TOJIB K v i n a BOCXOHHT B H e 3 a n H O Mof i n j ieHeHHbi f i B 3 o p ? BHfle.HHe MOH flyx B 0 3 B O f l H T ripeBbnne TeccajiHftCKHX rop! ( # 2 4 , l i n e s 1 0 1 - 1 0 4 ) Or i n the 1 7 4 1 b i r t h d a y ode to Empress E l i z a b e t h i t i s s h o u t s t h a t soar u p w a r d : Cepfleij Te6e K a K B e p H b i x rjiac H B H B a T K Bepbxy 3 B e 3 « n p o N P i a J i c H . ( # 2 3 , l i n e s 8 3 - 8 4 ) A 1 7 4 6 ode on the a s c e n s i o n of Empress E l i z a b e t h begins w i t h : Ha Bepbx napHaccKHX r o p n p e K p a c H b i f t C T p e M H T C H MbicJieHHbiii Moft B 3 o p , ( # 4 3 , l i n e s 1 - 2 ) 91 The n o t i o n of s o a r i n g i s repeated i n t h e b e g i n n i n g of s t a n z a 5: KaKyio ^yBCTByeT npeMeHy )Ke.naHHeM BnepeHHbiH nyx? (#43, l i n e s 41-42) The g l o r y o f Empress E l i z a b e t h s o a r s upward i n the 1742 ode c e l e b r a t i n g Her Majesty's r e t u r n from Moscow t o S t . P e t e r s -b u r g a f t e r the c o r o n a t i o n : B3JreTH npeBHUiie MOJIHHH, My3a KaK nHHflap, 6HCTPHH TBOH op e j i , TpeMHIUHX Ap$ Him COK)3a H B Bepbx n a p H CKopne C T p e j i , (#27, l i n e s 11-14) Lomonosov f u r t h e r expounds on Her Majesty's s o a r i n g g l o r y i n s t a n z a 4: TH TBepflb O C T 3 B B O flpeBHH JlHpa, B3HeceHHa SacHbMH K BepBxy MHpa: MOH ^HCJIO yMHOMT 3 B e 3 f l , B03BblCHBIUHCb RO r o p H H X MeCT napnmeH cnaBoii B03HeceHHa H HOBbiM 6 J i e c K O M o c B e i i i e H H a . (#27, l i n e s 35-40) T h i s image of s o a r i n g g l o r y u p l i f t e d by Lomonosov's l y r e i s r e p e a t e d a g a i n i n the 1750 ode to the e m p r e s s : A Tbl, B O 3 J B 0 6 J i e H H a H J T n p a , IIpaBflHBblM macTbeM BeceJIHCb, K 6JiH :cTaioiHH[M npe ^ e j i a M MHpa UlyMHIUHM 3BOHOM B03HeCHCB H B 0 3 r j i a c H , ^ T O HeT H a CBeTe, K T O 6 paBeH 6HIJI EJiHcaBeTe T a K H M 6 J T H C T a H H e M XBaJibi. (#176, l i n e s 221-227) The dynamism of Lomonosov's poems i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n t h e numerous comparisons of the Russian monarch t o the s u n r i s i n g and s h i n i n g i n the heavens. Here again i s expressed 92 the element of upward motion, of l e a v i n g the e a r t h . I t i s important t o note here t h a t Lomonosov, i n h i s use of sun and eagle symbolism, draws p a r t i a l l y from the t r a d i t i o n of o l d Russian l i t e r a t u r e . ^ In the 1754 ode c e l e b r a t i n g the marriage o f the f u t u r e P e t e r I I I and C a t h e r i n e I I (The G r e a t ) , Lomonosov d e s c r i b e s how R u s s i a sees C a t h e r i n e as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the sun: O T B a c P O C C H H oacH^aeT IIIaCTJIHBHX H C n O K O H H H X J i e T , Ha B a c no BCHKOH ^ac B3HpaeT, K a K H a BCXOflHIItfiH flHeBHblH C B e T . (#42 , l i n e s 1 4 7 - 1 5 0 ) In h i s 1746 ode t o Empress E l i z a b e t h he compares the b o u n t i e s t h a t flow from the empress w i t h the warm l o v i n g rays t h a t flow from the sun: B 3 H p a a H a E n H c a B e T H K y n H o Ha E H AO6POTH: O T H e n T e n y T H a B c e x i n e ^ p o T U , KaK T B O H nOBCWf ly HCHHH C B e T . ( # 4 3 , . l i n e s 1 0 7 - 1 1 0 ) Perhaps the most im p r e s s i v e use of t h i s image of the monarch as the r i s i n g sun i s used i n the 1 7 5 2 ode addressed to the Empress E l i z a b e t h . The empress shines high over R u s s i a , her z e n i t h i s over Moscow and she pours f o r t h joy and happiness: T a K TbI , M O H a p X H H H , C H H e i l l b B KOHiibi ,n;epacaBbi T B o e n , Korfla no OHBIM n p o T e K a e u i t , OTpany, panocTB, >KH3Hb nan, O T c j i aBHb ix BOA B a J i T H H C K H X K p a n K B O C T O K y n y T b C B O H npocTHpan, HBJiHenib n o j i f l e H B H a f l MOCKBOH. TbI M H O r H M , K a K 3 a p H , B O C X O H H U I b . . ( # 1 8 9 , l i n e s 3 1 - 3 8 ) The p i c t u r e o f t h e empress as t h e r i s e n s u n s h i n i n g i n f u l l g l o r y i s e n l a r g e d . I n s t a n z a 6 an o l d man, b e n t w i t h age, r a i s e s h i s h e a d t o s e e h e r b r i g h t s h i n i n g l i g h t : HHoft, OT CTapocTH H a r 6 e H H b i f i , LTpocTepTb d a p a e T C H x p e 6 e T , TJiaBy H O^H yTOMJieHHbi ."B03BOHHBO3B0flHT^OEfleJi3?B',0fi 6\neiiteT, CBeT„. -; t # % 8 9 0 , ' l s i n e s : ' 5 1 - 5 4 ) . : The p i c t u r e i s e x p a n d e d so t h a t Lomonosov i s a b l e t o d e s c r i b e a l l p r e v i o u s R u s s i a n monarchs s h i n i n g i n t h e s k y . I n a d d i t i o n t o Empress E l i z a b e t h he m e n t i o n s H e l e n , m o t h e r o f I v a n I V (The T e r r i b l e ) , and N a t a l i a N a r y s k i n , m o t h e r o f P e t e r I (The G r e a t ) : 0 B b l , POCCH&CKH TepOHHH, I T O B B e ^ H o c T H n p e B t o m e 3 B e 3 f l CHHeTe, yace EornHH, 3 e M H t a x o c T a B H HHCKOCTB M e c T ! ( # 1 8 9 , l i n e s 1 3 1 - 1 3 4 ) I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o keep i n mind t h a t w i t h Lomonosov's use o f s u n s y m b o l i s m , he a g a i n . e m p h a s i z e s upward m o t i o n . The s t r e s s i s on t h e upward g l a n c e , l e a v i n g t h e e a r t h b e h i n d , o f a s c e n d i n g and r i s i n g . I n Lomonosov's poems, t h e r e a d e r c l e a r l y s e e s an e m p h a s i s on a t t a i n i n g t h e h e i g h t s , o f s o a r -i n g t o t h e h e a v e n s . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r l i n e t h i s n o t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e o n l y a few o f t h e numerous examples a v a i l a b l e . T h e s e . s e n t e n c e s a l l c o n t a i n v e r b s t h a t i n d i c a t e o r i m p l y an upward m o t i o n o f some s o r t : OT Bcex K Te6e n p o c T g p T H B3opbi ( #189 , l i n e 45) 94 BcTaiOT BeptXH PH^eKcKH Bbime (#189, l i n e 68) Tan B30ftireT c coHHiieM panocTB MHora (#232, l i n e 149) B n p e K J i o H H o f t B e K M O H B 0 3 J i e T a f l MnaiTBiH J i e T a n p e B b n u a H . (#2 609[f l i n e s - 1 5 - 1 6 ) B o 3 f l B H r H H H a M EieTpoBO r i J i e M H (#43, l i n e 29) K Ce6e B 3 H J i a , H a TpoH B C T y n H J i a (#23, l i n e 80) H B H B a T K B e p B x y 3,n;e3fi n p o M ^ a n c H (#23, l i n e 84) B 3 J i e T H n p e B H i i i e M O J I H H H , M y 3 a (#27, l i n e 11) B 3 H e c e H H a 6 a c H B M H K B e p B x y M H p a : M O H ^ H C J I O y M H o x H T 3 B e 3 f l , B o 3 B b i c H B u i H C B RO r o p H H X M e C T (#27, l i n e s 36-38) Lomonosov's v e r b s o f m o t i o n a r e a g a i n an i n d i c a t i o n o f dy n a m i s m , o f c o n s t a n t movement. P e r h a p s i t i s h e l p f u l h e r e t o n o t e W o l f f l i n ' s comment c o n c e r n i n g B a r o q u e movement — t h a t i t was u n l i k e t h e p e r m a n e n c e and r e p o s e i n e v e r y t h i n g s o u g h t b y t h e a r t o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , t h a t B a r o q u e movement s o u g h t i t s e x p r e s s i o n i n an u p w a r d d i r e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h p a s s i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a n o t h e r s e c t i o n , i t i s r e l e v a n t t o m e n t i o n h e r e C i z e v s k i j ' s comment on Lomonosov's p a s s i o n . R e f e r r i n g fe:o t h e is.udden e c s t a s y <ehatt is:o, o f t e n a p p e a r s dm Lomonov *s p o e t r y , he r e m a r k s : T h i s e c s t a s y r e a p p e a r s i n f o u r o d e s as w e l l . To t h e C h u r c h S l a v o n i c u s e o f t h e w o r d v o s t o r g ( L a t i n : rapt-us; j.iiGreefe'':•neks=Sas-ifs~), b e i o n g s s t h e v e r b vosxiscatT ( t o c a r r y a l o f t ) . T h i s w o r d r e c u r s i n s i m i l a r f o r m s i n s e v e n o d e s : " r e a s o n , " " s p i r i t , " " f e e l i n g s , " " t h o u g h t , " " t h e l y r e " — a l l o f t h e m a r e c a r r i e d a l o f t . ^ 95 Instances of s o a r i n g up, l o o k i n g up, r i s i n g up, and so f o r t h , are numerous. Dynamism i s f u r t h e r m a n i f e s t i n the unceasing motion and a c t i o n e v i d e n t i n Lomonosov's p o e t r y . T h i s aspect of motion i s b e s t expressed i n Lomonosov* e d e s c r i p - .... t i o n s of v i o l e n t n a t u r e . Dynamic Nature Lomonosov's dynamism i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n the s w i f t and r a p i d movement found i n h i s nature imagery. In h i s poetry he presents the reader w i t h many examples of v i o l e n t and u n s t a b l e nature. The n o t i o n of nature i n constant f l u x , of nature as u n s t a b l e and a r b i t r a r y , i s a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n of Baroque dynamism. Furthermore, Lomonosov's dynamic nature presents a.world where much i s ephemeral and i n c o n s t a n t . ' ' Nature i n Lomonosov's odes i s dynamic: seas b o i l , whirlwinds r o a r and r a i s e s w i r l i n g cftouds of dust, thunderous storm clouds c r a s h i n t o each o t h e r , t i d a l waves crash upon the lan d s , mountains b e l c h , sob, and are washed away. Lomonosov presents a landscape of continuous w i l d s e e t h i n g movement. In h i s 1739 ode on the t'ak'ingeof'fXotinr; -;he--ppesents - _ -a p i c t u r e of w h i r l i n g and r e e l i n g dynamic nature. There are tumultuous waves c r a s h i n g i n the ocean, a speeding s h i p , thundering Boam, t h r e a t e n i n g hordes of T a r t a r s , s w i f t l y horse herds r a i s i n g clouds of dust to the sky and thousands of men d y i n g : 96 KopaSJib K a K n p b i x B O J I H cpe,n;H, K O T O p b l H X O T H T . • E f O K p b l T H , Ee>KHT , C p b l B a H C H H X B e p b X H , I I p e T H T c n y T H ce6n C K J I O H H M H , Ceflan n e H a B K p y r w y M H T , B n y H H H e c j i e f l ero ropm — K P O C C H H C K O H C H J i e T a K C T p e M H T C H , KpyroM o S b e x a B , T b M b i T a T a p ; C K p b i B a e T H e 6 o K O H C K O H nap! (#4, lines 21-30) Farther along, another view of turbulent nature, t h i s time a v i v i d presentation which includes the sulphurous smell of moihten brass bubbling in Etna's womb?, 'He Mefais iik B..,.^ bese" BtE.HU bates?:; H,r c cepoio K H n a , K J i o K o y e T ? He an JIH T H K K H yatj p B e T H *iejnoCTH pasHHyTb xoieT? (#4, lines 41-44) WWil&htithesef .f o u r l l i n r h e t o r i c a l sentences and a grammatical form of anaphora. These elements w i l l be discussed i n the section on devices of emphasis and ex a g g e r a t i o n . ) , I f t i i s s s u f f i M e h t t f c o h n o t e h h e r e the trend o f Lomonosov to use i n conjunction several elements associated with the Baroque i n one passage. Throughout the Xotin ode, a l l nature i s i n constant turmoil: 3 a x q j i M b i , rp,e H a J i H i u a xjin6b flbiM, n e n e j i , n J i a M e H b , C M e p T b p u r a e T , (#4, lines 51-52) Deserts, woods and the a i r a l l howl! n y c T b i H H , Jiec^H B 0 3 f l y x B o e T ! (#4, l i n e 84) Everything i n Lomonosov's nature i s animated. Twice he uses the image of Orpheus and h i s l o v e l y music which arouses and e n l i v e n s e v e r y t h i n g to a c t i o n . In the 1742 ode, c e l e b r a t i n g the a r r i v a l of Empress E l i z a b e t h from Moscow t o S t . P e t e r s -burg a f t e r the c o r o n a t i o n , Lomonosov w r i t e s : H, K a K Op$efi, c CO6OH Bej5H B iopaeCTBeH JIHK flpeBa.fL, Hr-'BOflHy ^  H Bcex 3BepeH nycTUHHux poflH; (#27, l i n e s 18-20) And again the reader encounters Orpheus, t h i s time i n the 1745 ode c e l e b r a t i n g the marriage of Grand Duke Peter (Peter III) and the f u t u r e C a t h e r i n e the Great: He c a M JTH B a p $ y y f l a p n - e T Op$eK , H K SMHH 05KHBJIHeT , H cJ ie f lOM BoflHM xop flpeBec? (#42, l i n e s 121-123) In the same ode are other examples of Lomonosov's dynamic nature. P e r s o n i f i e d f i d e l i t y braves stormy elements — whi r l w i n d s , f l a s h e s of l i g h t n i n g , gloomy storm clouds and c r a s h i n g thunder: K a K B THHCKHX T a B p c K n x H y T p r o p a x B y p J I H B b l X B H X p e H H e S O H T C H H n p e 3 H p a e T MQJIHHH 6 J i e c K , OT M p a ^ H b i x Tykb 6e>KaTb He TIUHTCH,/' B HH1TO BMeHHeT r p O M O B T p e c K . (#42, l i n e s 116-120) Nymphs j o y o u s l y c e l e b r a t e and Mount Parnassus w h i r l s w i t h a gushing: K a C T a J I b C K H H H M $ H JIHKOB C T B y i O T , C JHOSOBBIO K y n H O T o p s c e c T B y i O T H JTCBHJKVT n J i e c K a M H IlapHac; (#42, l i n e s 131-133) 98 In the 1746 ode on Empress E l i z a b e t h ' s a c c e s s i o n t o the throne, one f i n d s a very powerful stanza d e p i c t i n g v i o l e n t and u n s t a b l e nature. Here i s nature i n a s t a t e of f r e n z i e d and f e v e r i s h motion. The sea rages i n i t s f u r y and b a t t e r s i t s waves t o the very gates of heaven. One sees g i g a n t i c c r a s h i n g waves r e a c h i n g towards the sky. The e a r t h moans, whirlwinds c l a s h v i o l e n t l y w i t h one another, storm clouds thunderously crash i n t o each other and t i d a l waves smash a g a i n s t the land and inundate e n t i r e c i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n t o the s w i f t movement of these l i n e s , i t i s a l s o apparent t h e r e i s an element of s t r o n g l y - i m p l i e d v i o l e n c e : H a M B O H O M y a c a c e K a 3 a j i o c B , * I r o M o p e B H P O C T H C B O e f t C npenejiaMH H e 6 e c c p a x c a j i o c B , 3 e M J i H C T e H a J i a O T 3 b i 6 e H ^ T O B H X P H B B H X P H V f l a p H J I H C B , H T y ^ H c T y i a M H c n n p a j i H C B , H y c T p e M J i H J t C H r p o M H a r p o M H I T O H a f l y T H B O i l r p o M a z T B i T e K J I H n O K p b l T B n p o c T p a H H B i r p a i i B i , C p a B H H T B X p e S T H T O P C BJiaJKHBIM flHOM. (#43, l i n e s 81-90) R e l e n t l e s s l y Lomonosov pres e n t s nature i n constant movement. His imagery i s never s t a t i c , but i n i n c e s s a n t t u r m o i l . One f i n d s t u r b u l e n t nature i n h i s p a n e g y r i c a l odes, h i s medita-t i o n s , h i s paraphrases of the psalms, and i n h i s e p i c on P e t e r the Great. In h i s "Morning M e d i t a t i o n " ( f i r s t p r i n t e d i n 1751) nature i s again seen i n constant and c o n t i n u a l f l u x : TaM or-HeHHbi Baxibi cTpeMHTcn H H e H a x o f l H T 6 e p e r o B , TaM B H X P H n J i a M e H H H K P V T H T C H , 99 E o p i o m H C b M H O K e C T B O . ' B e K G B ' : TaM KaMHH, K a K Bona, KVHIKT, TopKmH T a M BOJKflH IIIVMHT. (#30, l i n e s 13-18) The image o f something b o i l i n g i s repeated s e v e r a l times i n Lomonosov's poems. In X o t i n there i s the b u b b l i n g brass i n Etna's womb. In a 1761 ode ( c e l e b r a t i n g Empress E l i z a b e t h ' s a c c e s s i o n to the t h r o n e ) , blood b o i l s : B ioiiHy KhnkT. c seMJieio K ' P O B E / H cyma c M o p e M HeronyeT, (#260, l i n e s 211-212) B o i l i n g b l o o d i s found again i n the 1742 ode ( c e l e b r a t i n g Empress E l i z a b e t h ' s r e t u r n from Moscow to S t . Petersburg a f t e r the c o r o n a t i o n ) : C M e c H B i i i H C b c n p a x o M , KpOBb K H I I H T ; (#27, l i n e 197) In h i s e p i c on P e t e r the Great, the white sea b o i l s and f a r t h e r along, one again encounters b o i l i n g waves: y»ce 6 e j i e n n o H T nepen IleTpoM K H I I H T . . . (#256, l i n e 71) fiOJKflM H a B C T p e i y ROKRb C KHnHIUHX BOJIH J i e T e J I . . . (#256,llmne 8A) In h i s paraphrase of the Book of Job there i s a b o i l i n g k e t t l e : Korxia K O SpaHH ycTpeMHTCH, no M o p e , K a K KOTen, KHnHT; (#17"4£ , l i n e s - 89-90) There are s e e t h i n g h e a r t s , and a s e e t h i n g "twofold h e a r t of a double contagion": CepflHLia ManeubeM 3aKHneJiH... (#24, l i n e 58) 100 Kor-fla 6 J i e c T H T Ha Bac r o p j u n n e a n M a 3 b i , 1 [ B O H H O H KHnHT B Hac acap c y r y b b i n 3 a p a 3 b i ! (#191, l i n e s 117-118) As i s c l e a r , not only are the elements of Lomonosov's nature i n constant motion,, but o f t e n the c h a r a c t e r s found i n h i s nature p r e s e n t a t i o n s are a l s o i n motion, some v i o l e n t l y so. Much of nature i s p e r s o n i f i e d and p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h i s movement. (rRer-sronUffdcGa'.tiron -.w'iflU tee cHissoWs-eii IMtfe-r.) i>Rivers , oceans, mountains c l a p t h e i r hands, they weep, or r o a r w i t h a loud v o i c e . Lomonosov even has Moscow and St. P e t e r s b u r g c l a p t h e i r hands or g e s t i c u l a t e somehow. For examples of g e s t i c u l a t i n g n a t u r e : Bpera HeBbi pyKaMH n J i e m y T , . . (#27, l i n e 9) y»e n p o c T e p T o f ! BaM p y K o f i flapyeT MHpHbie O J I H B K I . . . (#27, l i n e s 258-259) I mention only two scenes w i t h g i a n t s from the numerous g i a n t s who rage about i n Lomonosov's poems and c r e a t e havoc. In the 1741 ode o n the b i r t h of Ioann I I I , Lomonosov unleash-es a mad g i a n t who rushes about the land and l i t e r a l l y r e-arranges i t . He t e a r s mountains from the ground, heaven trembles, the s t a r s are d i s t u r b e d , and he putsEEtmaaafcop the Caucasus: ^ T O cepflixe Tan Moe npoH3aeT? H e f l e p c K jm TO T H r a H T n i y M H T ? He r o p u j i b c M e c T C B O H X T O J I K a e T ? XOJIMbI C O p B a B U I H , B T B e p f l b p a 3 H T ? Kpan H e 6 e c y»e T p n c y T C H , I l y T H 06bPiHbl 3 B e 3 f l M H T y T C f l ! H H K a K H P H T C H A H T e J i 3 J I O H ! He UUHRTTJIH O H Ha Occy C T a B H T ? A 3 T H a Bept -. Kas?-a; "oii. r - . v r ' CoJiHixe T~ ~ • ^ pyKOH? 101 A 3 T H a B e p B X KaBKaccKOH j j a B H T ? He CanHiie J I B xo^eT C B I H T B pyKofi? (#21, l i n e s 81-90) The r e a d e r a g a i n e n c o u n t e r s a f i e r c e g i a n t . This t i m e he i s i n Lomonosov's 1746 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a b e t h . T h i s g i a n t a l s o r a g e s , he wants to s c a t t e r t h e peoples of the e a r t h , he wants t o d e s t r o y a l l h u m a n i t y . He t e a r s h i l l s f r o m t h e i r p l a c e s and throws them t h r o u g h t h e c l o u d s : H nyxoM 3pio MHHyBme BpeMH: TaM TP03HBIH 3 J T H T C H HCnOJIHH PaccbinaTB 3eMHopoflHbix n j i e M H H pa3pyniHTB HaTypbi I H H ! O H peBOM 6e3flHy B03MymaeT, J l e c H C T u c MecT Syrpu xBaTaeT H B TBepflB C K B 0 3 B obJiaKa pa3HT. (#43, l i n e s 91-97) The r e a d e r meets y e t a n o t h e r g i a n t i n t h e 1742 ode ( c e l e b r a t -i n g t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e Empress f r o m Moscow to St. Petersburg), T h i s t i m e the g i a n t , f o u n d i n s t a n z a 22, i s not w i l l f u l l y d e s t r u c t i v e — he j u s t l e a v e s u p r o o t e d t r e e s a l l a b o u t . Lomonosov does not o n l y p r e s e n t n a t u r e i n a l l i t s movement, he f r e q u e n t l y c a u t i o n s n a t u r e t o r e s t r a i n i t s v i o l e n c e and tame i t s e l f : C T . H X H H , / . HpOG .T.B yKpOTaHTfey TyMaHbi, B H C H B I , D ; H H "pacTafiTe, JfBsaHftB @<sorjgBtfi£$St (, He:6o;p, 3 P . » K . K IlejiyHTecB, rpoMbi, c T H U I H H O I O YneHCH, M O J I H H H , pocow, CTaHB, P H X T noaHeT, B iaacTJiHBHH 3 H a n . (#28, l i n e s 105-110) Here Lomonosov commands nature to tame i t s f u r y and orders the l i g h t n i n g t o quench i t s t h i r s t w i t h the dew. One notes 102 here the p h y s i c a l l y a n t i n o m i c a l p i c t u r e of these two elements. This a l s o a p p l i e s t o the thunder k i s s i n g the q u i e t s t i l l n e s s . ^Theee'lemehtoof a a n i i t h e t i e a l " j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i l l b e "discussed i n the s e c t i o n on paradox and m u t a b i l i t y . ) FEur-the'r^on, Lomonosov commands the r i v e r s not t o overflow t h e i r banks: B 6perax na JIBKITCH THXO p e K H , He CMefl r p e 3 npeneji C T y n H T B ; He- z ns?.*-*• CTyrr:ri#28, l i n e s 111-112) There are s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s where Lomonosov i n some manner caut i o n s nature t o b e r e s t r a i n e d , t o c o n t r o l i t s t u r b u l e n c e : BaflepKHSe ' - ;6bIC .T-P0Hppe 'KHTT .0K , T H X O H B K O B H H 3 T e r a , M O J P I H T e , nofl MOH JIHIIIb HHCKOH C T H X K y p ^ I H T e . YMOJIKHH, 3anan, ceBep, BCTOK. ( # 2 1 , l l i n e s i l 7 - 2 0 ) Or: Y T H X CBHpenbiH BHXPB B MOPHX,,, (#24, l i n e 127) Or again: Bta 6 y p H b i BHXPH , He flep3aHTe I I o f l B H r H y T b HfaiHe r j i y S H H y . (#42, l i n e s 29-30) A l l of Lomonosov's poems c o n t a i n p r e s e n t a t i o n s of dynamic nature. In h i s e p i c on Peter the Great, he has winds t h a t blow, t w i s t , rush and thunder. There are running horses t h a t n eigh, paw the ground, r a i s e whirlwinds of dust and shed buckets of sweat. There are v a r i o u s examples or r o a r i n g winds, b o i l i n g seas and so f o r t h . There i s t h i s example from h i s e p i c : T y T B e T p b i C H J i b H B i e , HMen $JIOT BO B J i a c T H , Co B c e x CTOPOH cjioacacb K n o r H 6 e J i b H O H H a n a c T H , Ha 3anafl H H a fOr, H a CeBep H BOCTOK C T p e M H T c a H B e p T H T M r j i y , B i J i a r y H necon; 103 riepyHbi MpaK rycroft CBepKan pa3in;eJiHioT, H r p o M U c niyMOM BOP, C B O H TpecK coeflHHHWT; Mexc MopeM pynmjicH H B03xryxoM npeneji; • (#256, l i n e s 77-83) Lomonosov p a i n t s a word p i c t u r e of t w i s t i n g and r u s h i n g winds, the g l a r e of t h u n d e r b o l t s — one hears the crash o f thunder and howl of the r o a r i n g water — a l l elements found i n h i s t u r b u l e n t n a t u r e . (Oneaa-OisosseeshhereLEomonosov 'tS us"emoftmiil.tip<lessehsegi^^ ithet|gGti'onionai*ncarnation.) The ode t h a t b e s t e x e m p l i f i e s Lomonosov's use of dynamic nature i s h i s 1742 ode c e l e b r a t i n g the r e t u r n of Empress E l i z a b e t h to S t . Petersburg from Moscow. This ode i s b u r s t i n g w i t h images of s w i f t motion, of v i o l e n t and u n s t a b l e nature. I n - s t a n z a -2 ,> t h e r e f i s K r l i g h t n i n g , a s w i f t e a g l e , thunderous harps, arrows f l y i n g , n e c t a r pouring, a v o i c e r i s i n g , a r i v e r r o a r i n g , Orpheus p l a y i n g and t r e e s , waters and beasts f o l l o w i n g him. The stanza i s v i v i d l y a l i v e w i t h a c t i v i t y and m o t i o n . Again t h i s p i c t u r e o f dynamic nature i s repeated i n stanza 9: there are c o u n t r i e s g r i e v i n g , drops of bloody r a i n pouring f o r t h , r i v e r s smolder-i n g , dales d r i n k i n g flames, burning woods, and y e t another r i v e r t r y i n g t o hide i t s a g i t a t e d waters beneath the e a r t h . In s t a n z a 11, Lomonosov prese n t s t r e m b l i n g enemy armies and n a v i e s , w h i r l w i n d s , f a l l i n g t r e e s , a Russian goddess h u r l i n g t h u n d e r b o l t s and arrows of burning vengeance a g a i n s t her •enemies : 104 TpHCeT riOJIKH HX, <£>JIOT H C T d H } KaK cHjiBHbiH BHxpb, c noJien n p a x TOHHT H flpeB BepbXH BblCOKH KJIOHHTJ BorHHe POCCKOH r p o M Bpy ^ H J i , 1eM 3J!OCTb p a 3 H T b npOTHBHBIX CHJI; II ripHMH p a 3 » e H H b i K Me CTH CTpeJIH, Pa .3CbinB BparoB CBOHX n p e f l e j i b i . " (#27, l i n e s 104-110) V i o l e n t a c t i o n s are i m p l i e d i n the l i s t i n g of a l l the o p e r a t i o n s of the Russian army: the taming of the Don, the b a t t l e of P o l t a v a , and other b a t t l e s w i t h Sweden. With a l l these b a t t l e s one imagines scenes of c r u e l and v i o l e n t d e s t r u c t i o n . Stanzas 16 and 17 b e s t i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p i c t u r e of r a p i d motion i n h e r e n t i n Lomonosov's dynamic nature. In these two s t a n z a s , Lomonosov's dynamism reaches a crescendo: y»ce H MopeM H 3eMJieio POCCHHCKO BOHHCTBO Te^ieT H CHJIbHOH KpenocTbio C B o e i o 3a Jiec H peKH TOTOB )KMeT, GTHH peByiqaro yflapbi H CBHCT OT HflP JieTHIUHX KpblH 3 r y m e H H b i H HHMOM B03flyx pByT H TH>KKHX r o p ceppjxa. T p n c y T ; y»e Mpa^HTCH C B e T n o j i H H e B H b i a , IIoBciOBy B H f l H cjiyx njia ^ e B H b i H . (#27, l i n e s 151-160) The movement i n the s t a n z a i s r e l e n t l e s s and continuous. The Russian army flows>andspushes, f i r e s r o a r , smoke b i l l o w s , cannonballs f l y through the a i r , they t e a r the e a r t h , meunfeaihskshaked", ande&amentslf i M the. air'.tisThis-already -extremely dynamic p i c t u r e i s f u r t h e r enhanced by stanza 17. Lomonosov weaves a s t r i k i n g p i c t u r e : the legs of the horses are not j u s t i n motion, but they are burnye n o g i , stormy 105 l e g s . Lomonosov adds the p e r s o n i f i e d image of death running among the enemy t r o o p s . The reader sees and senses the death of thousands of s o l d i e r s : TaM K O H H 6ypHhJMH H o r a M H B3BHBaioT K He6y npax rycro H , TaM C M e p T B M e » r O T $ C K H M H n O J I K a M H B e K H T H P H C B H 3 C T p O H B C T p O H , H a j i ^ H y ^ c e j n o c T B O T B e p 3 a e T , H x j i a f l H u p y K H n p o c T H p a e T , Hx r o p f l b i H H C T o p r a n pyx; TaM T B I C H I H H B a J i H T C H B f l p y r . (#27, l i n e s 161-168) The f u r i o u s p i t c h of a c t i v i t y i s s u s t a i n e d throughout t h i s ode. There f o l l o w other images of dynamic n a t u r e : g a l l o p i n g t r e e s and h i l l s , r o a r i n g r i v e r s , y e t another r a g i n g g i a n t , moaning oceans and so f o r t h . These examples should be s u f f i c i e n t t o i n d i c a t e the e v e r - p r e s e n t element of dynamic nature. One may note y e t another Baroque element t h a t i s an aspect of Lomonosov's dynamic nature. I t i s h i s conception and sense of i n f i n i t e space. Roy D a n i e l l s , • i n h i s M i l t o n , Mannerism and Baroque, comments t h a t the sense of the i n f i -n i t e manifests i t s e l f as an e x h i l a r a t i o n i n contemplating 8 the c o n t i n u i t y of space. I t i s the same f o r Lomonosov — he f r e q u e n t l y meditates upon the i n f i n i t y of the heavens: TBopeu, H n,apB H e 6 e c 6 e 3 M e p H B i x (#28, l i n e 131) In the 1743 ode on the name-day of Grand Duke Peter (Peter I I I ) , Lomonosov r e f l e c t s not only upon the i n f i n i t e v a u l t of heaven, but upon the vastness of the ocean and, 106 indeed, the e n t i r e world. I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , as i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Lomonosov's p r e s e n t a -t i o n of dynamic n a t u r e , the i n f i n i t e v a u l t of heaven i s i n motion — i t surges and s w e l l s i n order t o see the g l o r y t h a t shines i n the grand duke's eyes: Bo3pn CBeTa map npocTpaHHbiH, Bo3pn H a n o H T , Te6e n o f l C T J i a H H b i H , Bo3pH B 6e3MepHHH K p y r HeSec: O H 3fai6JieTCH H noMaBaeT H c u a B y 3 p e T B T B O I O xcejiaeT CBeTHIf lHX T B M a M H B H e M OTeC. (#28, l i n e s 115-120) The image of the i n f i n i t e v a u l t of heaven i s again found i n Lomonosov's famous "Evening M e d i t a t i o n " (1743), i n the l a s t two l i n e s of the f i r s t s t a n z a : O T K p b i n a c B 6e3flHa 3 B e 3 f l n o r m a ; 3Be3,n.aM ^ H C J i a H e T , 6e3flHe flHa. (#31, l i n e s 5-6) Yet another time Lomonosov o f f e r s t h i s image of immeasurable space -— i n h i s paraphrase of the Book of Job. Here God i s shown ask i n g man, r a t h e r f o r c e f u l l y , where he was when t h i s vastness was c r e a t e d : r^e 6 b i TBifjj' K a K n e p e f l o M H O K > E e 3 ^ I H C J i e H H H TMbl HOBblX 3 B e 3 f l , Moeft B03»5KeHHbix Bflpyr pyKow, B 06111HPHOCTH 6e3MepHBix MecT Moe B e j i H ^ i e c T B O BeiqaJiH. (#174, l i n e s 17-21) Twice t h e r e i s an a l l e g o r i c a l image of E t e r n i t y which e i t h e r g i v e s Lomonosov a key o r i t s e l f opens the doors t h a t a l l o w him t o see v a s t expanses which have no end: 107 Bpy^aeT BeiHOCTb MHe C B O H K J I K T C I B , OTMKHyjiaCB flBepb, nOJIH O T K p b l J I H C B , ripeflejioB HeT, rHe6 Te K O H ^ H J I H C B . (#21, l i n e s 154-156) And: 0TBep3JiacB n s e p B , He BHf leH K p a f t , B npocTpaHCTBe 3a6Jiy3K,naeT O K O ; (#24, l i n e s 117-118) I t i s c l e a r t h a t the element of dynamism was used by Lomonosov t o work upon the im a g i n a t i o n and emotions of h i s rea d e r s . Because o f h i s f o r c e f u l n e s s one i s l e f t w i t h an impression of v i o l e n c e , vehemence and r e s t l e s s n e s s . Perhaps the r e i s a p o i n t at which Baroque dynamism becomes Baroque v i o l e n c e . Indeed, one f i n d s a c t u a l p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e i n Lomonosov's poems: there are numerous scenes of c r u e l and bloody carnage, i n s t a n c e s of murder and a l l manner of v i o l e n t deeds. 3 i i . V i o l e n c e c e Odette de Mourges i n d i s c u s s i n g the Baroque w r i t e s : "The themes which are cons i d e r e d Baroque are more or l e s s the f e a t u r e s h e l d t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l a t e Renais-9 sance: death, v i o l e n c e and p a s s i o n , f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y . " The Baroque age was an age of v i o l e n c e . The Renais-sance world had been t o r n apart by r e l i g i o u s wars, and man's f a i t h i n h i m s e l f had been g r a d u a l l y shaken. ,Vi o l e n c e i s ev i d e n t i n a l l aspects o f Baroque a r t . Of course, i t would not be c o r r e c t t o say t h a t a l l ex p r e s s i o n s of v i o l e n c e i n a 108 work o f l i t e r a t u r e a r e B a r o q u e ; y e t i t i s c l e a r t h a t B a r o q u e p o e t r y does r e f l e c t , and q u i t e f o r c e f u l l y , t h e v i o l e n c e o f t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . T h i s t r a d i t i o n o f v i o l e n c e i s a l s o f o u n d i n Lomonosov's p o e t r y . T h a t Lomonosov i s c o n s c i o u s l y p a i n t i n g a p i c t u r e o f v i o l e n c e i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f v e r b s c o n n e c t e d w i t h v i o l e n c e and d e a t h . The v e r y n a t u r e o f Lomonosov's s u b j e c t s o f t e n r e -q u i r e s t h e d e p i c t i o n o f f u r y and v i o l e n c e — what b e l l i c o s e theme i s w i t h o u t i t s t e r r o r and f e r o c i t y ? Y e t , w h a t e v e r Lomonosov's s u b j e c t , he p r e f e r s t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f i n t h e most v i o l e n t manner p o s s i b l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e v i v i d l y p r e s e n t e d p i c t u r e s o f d e a t h and s u f f e r i n g , v i o l e n c e a l s o m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f Lomonosov's v e r b s — h i s v e r b s o f v i o l e n c e . The n o t i o n o f v i o l e n t d e s t r u c t i o n i s a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n Lomonosov's poems. The R u s s i a n t r o o p s , t h e m o n a r c h s , a r e t o c r u s h , f r i g h t e n , t r a m p l e , p i e r c e and d e s t r o y t h e enemy. A s a m p l i n g o f l i n e s f r o m h i s poems w i l l g i v e a b r i e f g l i m p s e o f t h i s : To f r i g h t e n and c c u s h u ^ — ~ Me^ieM c T p a n i H T b H r-HaTb B p a n a (#21, l i n e 44) To t r a m p l e — IIpoTHBHbix nep30CTB B c e x CTorraHTe (#21, l i n e 56) To t r a m p l e — I Io3Haeni K a K , I T O B p a r n o n p a H (#21, l i n e 74) To d e s t r o y — IIpoTHBHbix ^ T O B BaM cnjiy c i e p T H (#21, l i n e 123) 1 0 9 To trample, s l a s h , t e a r , d e s t r o y , t o r t u r e , rob, burn and t r e a d on — OflHaKo .TorrayT/ peacyT, p B y T , T y 6 H T , T e p 3 a i O T , r p a 6 H T , J K r y T , C K J T O H H K J T H a c B p a r H nofl H o r a ; ( # 2 2 , l i n e s 9 1 - 9 3 ) To r o a r , b l a z e , beat and torment — O H C C O H m y M H T , Barnan F i B i n a e T , T a M B O n J I B H 3 B y K H B B 0 3 f l y X 6 B K)T, A C C H P C K H CTeHH O T H B Tep3aeT ( # 2 8 , l i n e s 9 1 - 9 3 ) To o b l i t e r a t e , t e r r o r i z e — r o p x i B i H K ) c o n o c n a T O B C T e p T H H B yacac O H B I X n p H B e c T H ( # 4 4 , l i n e s 6 - 7 ) To tremble, w a i l , c r y , s l a s h , s t r i k e — LTpoTHBHbiH C T p a H H - T p e n e m y T , BonJiB, iayM B e 3 f l e , u K P O B B , H 3 B y K . YacacHbie nepyHH MeinyT P 0 3 M a X H C H J I B H b l X P O C C K H X p y K ( # 2 3 2 , l i n e s 9 1 - 9 4 ) Throughout, the p i c t u r e o f v i o l e n t d e s t r u c t i o n and devasta-t i o n i s unmistakable. V i o l e n c e i s best expressed i n Lomono-sov's 1 7 4 2 ode c e l e b r a t i n g the r e t u r n of Empress E l i z a b e t h from Moscow, and i n h i s e p i c on Peter the Great. In both poems, the main theme i s a b e l l i c o s e - h e r o i c one. There are frequent scenes of r a g i n g and barbarous b a t t l e and cataclysm. The e l e v e n t h s t a n z a of the 1 7 4 2 ode d e p i c t s the enemy s t r u c k low by thund e r b o l t s which God Himself gave t o Empress E l i z a -b e t h . The ranks of the enemy are s c a t t e r e d by arrows of bur n i n g vengeance. f4ae~ORms»i?£a^na1rihy fcbHaliy-deslSroys.Tthe • • Swede's^""^Arms are hacked o f f , heads severed, blood flows and bodies f a l l . Perhaps the most v i o l e n t s tanza i s 2 0 , w i t h i t s a l l e g o r i c a l image o f A l c i d e s (an e p i t h e t f o r Hercules) 110 c l o t h e d i n a l i o n s k i n , b a t t l i n g w i t h h i s enemies: BCHK MHHT , *ITO paBeH OH AJIKHflV H I T O , HeMefiCKHM JIBBOM nOKpblT HJIH yacacHyio Ernny HOCH, BparoB CBOHX CTpauiHT: n p O H 3 a e T , pBeT H p a 3 c e K a e T , lip OT H B HBIX cHJiy n p e 3 H p a e T . CMeCHBUIHCB C npaXOM, K p O B B KHnHT f 3necB uuieM c raaBofl, TSM Tpyn JiexcHT, TaM M e i b , C pyKOH O T 6 H T , BaJIHTCH. KOJIB 3 J i o 6 a acecTOKO K a 3 H H T c n ! (#27, l i n e s 191-200) Probably Lomonosov's b e s t examples of v i o l e n c e a r e . found i n "Peter the Great." I t may be because he i s d e a l i n g w i t h Peter the Great, a s u b j e c t so near and dear t o h i s h e a r t , t h a t he becomes so a c u t e l y e x p r e s s i v e . Lomonosov prese n t s a s t r i k i n g p i c t u r e of f r e n z i e d mob v i o l e n c e . The r i o t e r s are prepared t o k i l l e n d l e s s l y ( s p i l l ( r i v e r s of b l o o d ) ; they are d r i v e n by madness, h a t r e d , drunkenness and other contemptible reasons: flejiHT. Ha cxpnkiqax MocKBy SyHT.oBiiiHKH/ TOTOBHCB TOK n p O J I H T B KpOBaBblfl peKH . IlpeflxoflHT SeineHCTBO, H HarJiocTB, H 6VHHCTBO, H e f l K a HeHaBHCTB , H BOJKflB p a 3 H O p O B nBHHCTBO; 06ceJiH y j i n n , H , TOPTH H B o p o T a ; Ha p a 3 X H m e H H e p a c n n c a H H MecTa. (#256, l i n e s 363-368) The mob, encouraged by the t r a i t o r T o l s t o y , rages on. They a r r i v e as f i e r c e w i l d beasts and demand the N a r y s k i n s x ^ f o r revenge: KaK 3 B e p n flHKHe, pbiKaHHe BOBBBHTJIH: „Ha MecTB cneuiHTe HaM HapbiuiKHHBix OTflaTB. HJIH MBI CTaHeM Bcex 6HTB, rpa6HTB H T e p 3 a T B H . (#256, l i n e s 390-393) I l l Lomonosov a g a i n p o r t r a y s the r i o t e r s as w i l d b e a s t s , i n f l a m e d b y t h e w i n e of P e ter's e v i l s i s t e r Sophia: I I O f l r H e T y 6 y H H o c T H • B e J i e x t a flaTB—BHHS, ^ T O 6 , c H O B a B o c n b i n a B , r o p e x i a B H y T p b BOHH a . TyT B C K o p e , p a s ^ n p H C B , c T p e j i b i i u , K a K 3 B e p H XTJHKH . B0306HOBHJTH IIiyM y 6 H H C T B e H H O H My3bIKH . (#256, l i n e s 403-406) A f t e r the r i o t e r s have broken i n t o the chambers of the Kremlin, the v i o l e n c e i n c r e a s e s . The chambers are f i l l e d w i t h moans, people are t o r t u r e d , the r i o t e r s p i l l a g e , they scream shouts of death — they p i e r c e , s l a s h , and s t a b : B ^ i e p T o r a x a c a J i K o f t CTOH, T e p 3 a H t e H rpa6eacy H p a 3 , n ; a e T C H KPHK : „KOJTH, p y © H H p e x c b ! " (#256, l i n e s 439-440) The v i o l e n c e reaches a climax w i t h the murder of P e t e r ' s u n c l e A f a n a s i j N a r y s k i n . Although he attempted to c o n c e a l h i m s e l f beneath an a l t a r i n the church, he was found by the r i o t e r s and t o s s e d onto t h e i r p i k e s . Yet even t h i s does not s a t i s f y the b l o o d t h i r s t y r i o t e r s and they c r u e l l y hack h i s body t o p i e c e s : J l e T e T H a KOIIHH, n o B e p s c e H c BHCOTH. TeKyiqy BH,HH K P O B B , pb iKa ioT : „JIio6o, JIK>6O!" npoH3eHHaro noflHHB, cne r j i a c H T cyrySo. Cero HeBHHHbiH pyx, npejjTe^a K HefiecaM, OcTaBHJi TJieHHy q a d b HencTOBbiM BparaM. HeMeflJieHHO Me^H C B e p K a i o T o6Ha>:ceHHH, H pa3Bpo6J iHH3TCH T p e n e i n y m H e - q j i e H b i ! (#256, l i n e s 448-454) These examples are s u f f i c i e n t t o i l l u s t r a t e the v i o l e n c e found i n Lomonosov's poems. However, i t i s important to 1 1 2 note here, at the same time, another element associated with the Baroque — macabre naturalism. Perhaps one of the most d i r e c t results of the r e l i -gious wars and persecution of the Baroque age was the appearance of naturalism i n art and l i t e r a t u r e . Martyrdom and death i n general are depicted with an extraordinary amount of blood and hideous cruelty. This element of macabre naturalism also made i t s appearance i n Russia. I t i s seen i n Russian iconography. Yet the r e l i g i o u s wars of the age are only p a r t i a l l y responsible for fostering this element of naturalism. Roy Daniells offers another reason: ". . . naturalism, that respect for v i s i b l e , material realism which we expect from an age that gave b i r t h to the physical s c i e n c e s . " x x I t i s always well to keep i n mind that Lomo-nosov was a s c i e n t i s t of repute. Macabre naturalism i n Baroque poetry i s r e f l e c t e d i n i t s concentration upon violence; i t i s seen i n poetry's imagery of the sickbed, of the grave, of the charnel house, and i t i s f e l t with the poet's general emphasis on death. Lomonosov, too, gives his reader extremely n a t u r a l i s t i c representations depicting the carnage r e s u l t i n g from war. Often his descriptions border on the hideously macabre. He presents his scenes with graphic vividness. Blood flows f r e e l y and abundantly i n Lomonosov's poems. B a t t l e f i e l d s turn crimson from the blood of Russia's enemies, Russian 1 1 3 r i v e r s t u r n r e d a n d f l o w w i t h t h e b l o o d o f s l a i n s o l d i e r s , -s w o r d s a n d l a n c e s a r e d r e n c h e d w i t h b l o o d , a n d s o f o r t h . A s e l e c t i o n f r o m L o m o n o s o v ' s p o e m s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h i s . S e v e r a l t i m e s t h e D o n R i v e r t u r n s r e d f r o m t h e b l o o d o f R u s s i a ' s e n e m i e s : T a T a p c K a KPOBB B H o H y 6 a r p e e T ( # 2 1 , l i n e 1 3 9 ) £ e , J JMHTpiieBbi" C H - J I B H H n J i e ^ H r y c T H T T a T a p c K O H KPOBBW JJ,OH. ( # 2 6 0 , l i n e s 1 5 9 - 1 6 0 ) O t h e r r i v e r s s w i r l w i t h b l o o d : K p y T H T p e n a T a T a p c K y KPOBB ( # 4 , l i n e 1 2 1 ) M o u n t a i n s a r e d r e n c h e d a n d c o v e r e d w i t h b l o o d : B KPOBH M o j f f l a B C K H r o p B i T O H y T ( # 4 , l i n e 6 4 ) „ n p e c T a H B n p e K p a c H b i f t B e K M p a H H T B H OHHCKH r o p u K p o B a B H T B ( # 2 7 , l i n e s 3 5 7 - 3 5 8 ) T h e s t e p p e i s s o a k e d i n b l o o d , s o l d i e r s f l e e c o v e r e d i n t h e b l o o d o f t h e i r f a l l e n c o m r a d e s , a n d b o i l i n g b l o o d m i x e s w i t h t h e e a r t h : B KPOBH flpyroB CBOHX J i e a c a i q H X ( # 4 , l i n e 1 2 7 ) T a M C T e n H , KPOBBW H a n o e H H b i , P o f l H J i H J t a B p H H a M 3 e n e H H . ( # 2 7 , l i n e s 1 2 5 - 1 2 6 ) B B O H H y KHIIHT c 3 e M J i e i o KPOBB ( # 2 6 0 , l i n e 2 1 1 ) L o m o n o s o v g i v e s h i s r e a d e r s s w o r d s d r i p p i n g w i t h b l o o d : M e ^ e M K p o B a B B i M n o K a 3 a n a ( # 4 , l i n e 1 6 4 ) y M b i T B i M K p o B H i o M e ^ e M ( # 4 , l i n e 8 9 ) 114 Lomonosov even prays to God to g i v e Ioann I I I swords b l o o d i e d from h i s enemies: nonaH, M T O 6 TaioKe B H H X B O H 3 H J I C H H HOB O H KPOBBK) H X 6arpHJICH H a r p e T H H B Heft HoaHHOB M e ^ b . (#22, l i n e s 228-230) Lomonosov not only does not shy away from f r i g h t f u l l y v i v i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of h o r r i f i c and gruesome scenes, but at times i t seems as i f he enjoys d e p i c t i n g p h y s i c a l h o r r o r f o r i t s own sake. His a t t e n t i o n t o p h y s i c a l d e t a i l i n p o r t r a y i n g g r i s l y scenes i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t seen i n Baroque r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g s concerned with.martyrdom. Lomonosov l i t t e r s h i s landscapes w i t h f a l l e n c o r p s e s , severed heads and hacked-off hands. Among the dead bodies s t a l k t e r r i f y i n g images of death. In h i s 1739 ode on Xp.tin, a wolf sneaks among the f a l l e n T u r k i s h s o l d i e r s , snatches a "pale corpse" and runs o f f : H 3 JlblB r y C T b l X B b l X O f i H T BOJIK H a 6JieflHHft T p y n B T y p e i i K H f t n o J i K . (#4, l i n e s 75-76) In a 1757 b i r t h d a y ode to Empress E l i z a b e t h , Lomonosov presents a p i c t u r e of bloody corpses and a h o r r i f y i n g image of greedy cold-handed death tormenting the enemy: T a M MpaK S o a c e c T B e H H a r o r -HeBy n o f l B e p r H y j i r p a f l b i H nojiKH Ha a c e p T B y a j P i H o f t C M e p T H 3 e B y , Tep3aHbio x j i a f l H b i H p y K H ; T a M c j i b i t a e H B O H B o p y a c H O M T p e c K e ; 115 H 3 ' * T y H b n p H c M e p T O H o c H O M 6 J i e c K e KpoBaBfai T p y r m M H o a c a T C T p a x . (#232, l i n e s 171-178) The image of cold-handed death i s encountered on another b a t t l e f i e l d . T h i s time death runs from s o l d i e r t o s o l d i e r w i t h her jaws wide open and w i t h her c o l d hands she chokes the l i f e out of each of them: T a M c M e p T B M e a c TOT^CKHMH n o j i K SMH EeXCHT H p f l C b H 3 C T p O H B C T p O H , H a j r a H y ^ i e j i w c T B O T B e p 3 a e T , H xnaHHb i p y K H n p o c r a p a e T , H x r o p f l b i H H C T o p r a f l flyx; T a M THCHIHH B a J i H T C H B f l p y r . (#27, l i n e s 163-168) In the same poem w i t h s t a l k i n g death, Lomonosov presents a s t r i k i n g p i c t u r e of dismembered bodies c a s t about the b a t t l e -f i e l d : 3 H e c B u i n e M c r j i a B O H , T a M T p y n J i e x t H T , T a M M e ^ B , C p y K O H O T 6 H T , B a J i H T C H . (#27, l i n e s 198^199) And i n another, the 17 41 ode t o Ioann I I I , Lomonosov has the Russian army pu r s u i n g the f l e e i n g Swedish troops through p a l e mounds of corpses, t r a m p l i n g over c o u n t l e s s heads: ; : B f l a e T C H"^B • 6 e r ITPSHTHH IilBeB?," BeHCH T ^ -POC C K H C K O H "-KOHHHKBB ; ; C J i e f l H p e s T l i l B e f l C K H x T p y n b B KV^IH S J i e f l H b i flO C a M B I X B H J I M a H C T p a H n C K H X P B O B , E e 3 m e T y T o m e T T e x TOJIOB, (#22, l i n e s 141-145) Even i n h i s p o e t i c e p i s t l e on the use of g l a s s (1752), Lomonosov o f f e r s a gory scene — t h i s time i t i s the poor Indian n a t i v e s of South America murdered by the Spaniards 116 f o r t h e i r g o l d : Y)Ke r o p H T Ilapen T a M flpeBHHH a c H J i H i n a , BeHiibi BparaM KOPKCTB H nJiOTB HX BpaHaM nnma! H K O C T H n p e f l K O B H X H 3 3 0 J I O T B I X rpo60B ^ p e 3 C T e H b i n a n a i o T K CMepHHiuiHM T p y n a M B POB ! C n e p c T H H M H p y K H npo ^ B H r o J i o B B i c y S p a H C T B O M C e K y T H e c b i T H e H 3 J i a T O M , H THPSHCTBOM. (#191, l i n e s 163-168) S e v e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of a t r o c i t i e s are f o u n d i n Lomo-nosov' s e p i c o n P e t e r the Great. The hideous f a t e of Peter's u n c l e has a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d . As a f i n a l e x a m p l e of Lomonosov's a t t e n t i o n t o g r u e s o m e p h y s i c a l d e t a i l , t h e r e i s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e a t h of the b o y a r Matveevr H K p a c H o p e ^ n e M H e c ^ a c T J i H B O H M a T B e e B , KoToparo p e ^ B M H n p o H 3 a J i a c B r p y ^ B 3 J i O f l e e B , Y 6 H T , HO B C M e p T H )KHB : *ITO 6nep,uan r j i a B a flBHaceHBeM K a s c e T y c T He C K O H ^ a H b i c j i o B a . (#256, l i n e s 465-468) The p i c t u r e o f t h e m o u t h t w i s t e d i n d e a t h i s a v e r y p o w e r f u l o n e . Lomonosov i n c r e a s e s 1 t h e h o r r o r o f the scene b y s e l e c t -i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y g r u e s o m e d e t a i l s f o r e m p h a s i s . He s t r e s s e s the p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s o f s u f f e r i n g . I t i s c l e a r t h a t Lomonosov h a s a d e c i d e d p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e m a c a b r e . Moreover, h i s p o e t r y , l i k e m u c h Baroque p o e t r y , i s f i l l e d w i t h v i v i d p o r t r a y a l s o f v i o l e n c e a n d d e s t r u c t i o n . A l l t h e s e s c e n e s a r e of h e i g h t e n e d i n t e n s i t y . A l s o t o be i n c l u d e d i n a n y d i s c u s s i o n concerned w i t h m o v e m e n t i s c o n t r a s t a n d t r a n s f o r -mation. We now t u r n t o those f e a t u r e s i n Lomonosov's p o e t r y . 117 4. C o n t r a s t "The Baroque i s o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d as an age of 12 a n t i t h e s i s , paradox and i n c o n g r u i t y . " Baroque poetry i s noted f o r the l o v e of c o n t r a s t s , paradox and c o n t r a d i c t i o n . These elements are e v i d e n t i n both content and form. On the plane of content, one notes the p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r t e n s i o n and change. In Baroque p o e t r y , one f r e q u e n t l y encounters s t a t e s of mind, f e e l i n g s or ideas t h a t are c o n t r a s t e d w i t h each o t h e r . In form, one notes a constant use of r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s t o achieve s u r p r i s e and c o n t r a s t — puns, c o n c e i t s , oxymora, a n t i t h e s i s and so f o r t h . As a f i g u r e of speech, antitheses has been used by poets throughout the ages, ye t i n any d i s c u s s i o n about Baroque p o e t r y , a n t i t h e s i s f i g u r e s prominently. I. Buffum remarks: " I t would be more reasonable ,. . . t o say t h a t a l l 13 Baroque w r i t e r s l o v e d c o n t r a s t . " C o n t r a s t i s a l s o a conspicuous f e a t u r e of Lomonosov's poetry and p l a y s an important p a r t i n any d i s c u s s i o n of hrs work. He d e l i g h t s . i n p r e s e n t i n g the reader w i t h numerous a n t i t h e t i c a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n s . A 1759 ode honouring Empress E l i z a b e t h ' s nameday, and her v i c t o r i e s over the P r u s s i a n k i n g , c o n t r a s t s two scenes — one, the p e a c e f u l world of R u s s i a , the o t h e r , war-torn P r u s s i a . TaM (there) s i g n i f i e s P r u s s i a and 3fle.cfc (here) i s R u s s i a . There are howls, flames, screams i n P r u s s i a , the 118 gates of h e l l are opened there, while i n Russia the land basks i n the warmth of peace and grace: TaM — n n a M e H B , 3BVK , H B o n x t B , H UIVM! 3aecb — n o J i f l e H b MHJIOCTH H J i e T o , me,npoTOH o6mecTBo H a r p e T o , TaM C M e p T H y XJXH6B pa3HHyji afl! (#238, lines 24-27) The contrast of war and peace i s frequently used by Lomono-sov. He presents such simple juxtapositions as: Bac T e m H J i MHP, Hac Mapc TpyxtHJI:• (#22 , l i n e 174) And: B B O H H y KHIIHT C 3eMJieio KPOBB, H c y m a c M o p e M H e r o x t y e T j BJiaxreeT B MHPHBI RHH JIIO6OBB, H BCH HaTypa TopacecTByeT. (#260, lines 211-214) Several s t r i k i n g and det a i l e d contrasts are present. In the following example, seven l i n e s are employed to paint a v i v i d picture of the horrors and destruction of war, i n contrast to three lines depicting the b l i s s and harmony of peace. P a r t i c u l a r l y graphic d e t a i l s emphasize the contrast. The description of war i s the more dramatic of the two —- lamen-tations f i l l the a i r , bloody corpses cover the land, they are s a c r i f i c e s for the g u l l e t of anthropomorphized death that• stalksdthfeslan'dd,ddivM'eewwath.^issmmft^i£is€r and so forth.. The contrasting picture of peace i s a bucolic one which presents the dear fatherland basking i n the benevolent rays of Empress Elizabeth's reign, and r e j o i c i n g i n i t s i n t e r n a l harmony: 119 T a M MpaK e c o f c e c T B e H H a r o r H e B y n o f l B e p r H y j i r p a f l b i H noJ iKH H a s e p T B y a j raHo f i c M e p T H 3 e B y , T e p 3 a H B i o XJiaflHbiH p y K H ; T a M cjTbinieH BOH B OPPCHOM T p e c n e ; H.3 TV^IB n p n C M e p T O H o c H O M 6 J i e c K e K p o B a B b i T p y n u MHoacaT C T p a x . A T H , O T e ^ e c T B o j i p a r o e , J l H K y H n p n B H y T p e H H e M n o K o e B E j i H c a B e T H H H X J i y ^ a x . (#232, l i n e s 171-180) I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e s e i m a g e s a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d i n s t a t i c r e p o s e , b u t g e n e r a l l y t h e y a r e s e t i n m o t i o n . Y e t a n o t h e r w a y t h a t m o t i o n i s s h o w n i s b y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I n h i s p o e t r y , L o m o n o s o v p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l e x a m p l e s o f c h i a r o s c u r o . T h i s g e n e r a l l y t a k e s t h e f o r m o f c o n t r a s t i n g l i g h t a n d d a r k . . C C G h d i a r o s c u r ' O i i s ^ e x a m a i n e d a a t 1 l e n g t h ''.din C h a p t e r V . ) iLri a d d i t i o n t o c o l o u r c o n t r a s t s , L o m o n o s o v a l s o e m p l o y s c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n h o t a n d c o l d . T h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f h o t a n d c o l d i s s o f r e q u e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e o d e s t h a t e x a m p l e s m u s t b e l i m i t e d t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f e w . 1. T h e c o l d , t h e e t e r n a l i c e o f t h e f r o z e n n o r t h i s j u x t a -p o s e d w i t h t h e i n t e n s e h e a t o f t h e s o u t h e r n s t e p p e : T B o e e p e x B a j i B H o HMH nn ineT HejiOHCHa c j i a B a B BSMHOM j i B ,ne , B c e r n a rpe x j iaf lHBiH c e B e p xTBiuieT H TOJIBKO B e p o f i T e n J i K Te6e; H C T e n n B 3 H o e OTf lane.HHbi , K Te6e JHO6OBHK) B03xceHHBi, Eine y c e p f l H e e r o p H T . (#27, l i n e s 2 81-287) 2. E t e r n a l i c e i s j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e w a r m A f r i c a n c u r r e n t s o f t h e N i l e : OT BeMHHX JIBXT;OB HO TOKOB HHJIBCKHX (#42, l i n e 172) 120 3. C o o l , r e f r e s h i n g s p r i n g s o f f e r r e s p i t e from the i n t e n s e h e a t : H 3 rop B flOJiHHbi J i b e u n V ' K J B O ^ H M n p o x j i a s c f l a e u i B T e M O T 3 H O H : JKyp^iaT RJIH. cnaflKaro I I O K O H , Meatfly ropaMH T e n y ^ H . (#151, liness37-40) 7 4. An oxymoronic c o n t r a s t of the poet's l o v e b l a z i n g h o t t e r by being s p r i n k l e d w i t h dew from Mount Parnassus.; (oxymoron i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r ) : 1eM 6oJibine H pocoii Kponxoocb, C n a p H a c c K H x n o B e p b x o B C T e K a e T , 5Kap*iae TeM jnoSoBb nbinaeT, K Te6e C H J i b H n e T O H najnocb. (#21, l i n e s 27-30) Lomonosov uses c o n t r a s t p a r t i a l l y f o r i t s s t a r t l i n g and s u r p r i s i n g e f f e c t . He wants t o amaze h i s rea d e r . He presents the f o l l o w i n g c o n t r a s t s : w i n t e r as golden s p r i n g : I T O 3 f l e c B 3 H M O H BecHa 3 J i a T a n (#2>7,, l i n e 310) the bow of the s t r o n g becomes weak: H C H J I B H H X H 3 H e M o a c e T J i y K (#42, l i n e 160) autumn as a y o u t h f u l season of the y e a r : Ho oceHb TaMO — W H O C T B roaa (#176, l i n e 68) The use of c o n t r a s t i s not l i m i t e d t o nature p r e s e n t a t i o n s — f r e q u e n t l y a c o n t r a s t of emotions i s d e p i c t e d : the e a r t h i s f r i g h t e n e d and marvels a t the same time: Ho ew B e c b n p o c T p a H H b i H C B e T HanoJiHeHHbiH, cTpamacb, l y f l H T C H ' t i (#27, l i n e s 28-29) 1 2 1 the enemies of Empress E l i z a b e t h a r e , on the one hand, f e a r f u l of her might, w h i l e , on the o t h e r , they marvel at her kindness: r i p O T H B Hbl CHJT EH CTpaniaTCH H KynHo MHJIOCTH ^yflKTCH. ( # 4 3 , l i n e s 1 4 5 - 1 4 6 ) the s o r r o w f u l t e a r s of Ioann I I I become j o y f u l : Ho T B O H BecejiBeM nJia^B CKOH^JHTCH ( # 2 1 , l i n e 7 9 ) God's anger t u r n s to kindness: MOH rHeB Ha KPOTOCTB npejioacHJia ( # 2 7 , l i n e 6 0 ) and the haughtiness of the Swedes sharpens E l i z a b e t h ' s sword, wh i l e t h e i r submission s o f t e n s i t : HejiyBt EjiHcaBeTHH Me^b, ^TO TBI npHHyflHJI CaM H3BJieHb: Ero MHriHT oflHa noKopHocTB, OCTPHT KH^JIHBaH ynopHOCTB. ( # 2 7 , l i n e s 1 1 7 - 1 2 0 ) Again i t i s seen t h a t .the emphasis i s on t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , on change. There i s a c l e a r focus on becoming r a t h e r than on b e i n g . Although c o n t r a s t i s employed i n one, two or t h r e e l i n e s i n a poem, f r e q u e n t l y the emotional t e n s i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r a s t i s i n t e n s i f i e d by d e v e l o p i n g i t f o r an e n t i r e t e n - l i n e s t a n z a . The f o l l o w i n g example presents s e v e r a l c o n t r a s t i n g a c t i o n s — f i r s t , the Swedes! draw t h e i r swords, then they t h r u s t them at Russia; they t h r e a t e n t o cut s h o r t the peace, then they want to p r e s e r v e i t f o r e v e r ; they harbour c r u e l i n t e n t a g a i n s t the Russians, wish them b i t t e r n e s s , then t h e i r h e a r t s are s o f t as wax. Lomonosov seems t o d e l i g h t i n t h i s r a p i d l y - c h a n g i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o n t r a s t i n g emotions (one -also notes the heaping technique, and the anaphora of t o ) : CMOTPH, THXCKa KOJIB IIlBeflOB C T p a C T b , KOJIB HM C T p a u i H a PoccHHCKa BJiacTB. Kyna XOTHT , Toro He 3HaK>T: TO T f l H y T , TO BTBIKaiOT Me*IB , To Ham rpo3HTca MHP n p e c e i b , To OH OH B BeK xpaHHTB HceJiawT; * i H H H T T O yMBICJI H a M XCeCTOK , X O T H T H a M HcexniH 6BITB r o p v a e , To B O C K y cepzwe H X raxiae; O f l H a K O Bac cHCKaJi CBOH POK . (#22, l i n e s 71-80) Another example of expanded, i n t e n s i f i e d c o n t r a s t i s found' i n the 1742 ode d e d i c a t e d to Empress E l i z a b e t h . Again the reader encounters s e v e r a l c o n t r a s t i n g ideas — s t r o n g power f r i g h t e n s the h e a r t , lyet gentleness g i v e s l i f e t o i t ; f e a r i s courage, y e t f e a r f a l l s crushed; c o n f l i c t i n g p a s s i o n s d r i v e one another away (note a l s o the f o u r f o l d anaphora of TO) : TO CepflUe CHJTBHa B J i a C T B C T p a i U H T , TO K P O T O C T B OHOe JKHBHT , To 6 o x ( p o c T B C T p a x , TO C T p a x T y KJIOHHT: IIpOTHBHa C T p a C T B n p O T H B H y r O H H T ! (#27, l i n e s 327-333) In both the above passages, an element of change, p a r t i c u -l a r l y the i l l u s o r y nature of t h i n g s , becomes e v i d e n t . I t i s important t o note t h a t such a combination of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 123 a n d a n t i t h e s i s i s t y p i c a l o f t h e Baroque. As a f i n a l example, l e t us examine the u s e of c o n t r a s t as the p r i n c i p a l s t r u c t u r a l device i n Lomonosov 1s "Conversa-t i o n s w i t h Anacreon?" The poem c o n s i s t s of S i s . . t r a n s l a t i o n o f e f o u r odes b y Anacreon, a n d h i s responses t o them. Each o f Lomonosov"s answers i s juxtaposed and c o n t r a s t e d with Anacreon's statement. In Ode I, Anacreon says he s i n g s o n l y o f l o v e — Lomonosov's r e p l y i s t h a t h e c a n s i n g only o f the g l o r y of heroes. In Ode XXVIII, Anacreon commands the foremost p a i n t e r s o f Rhodes t o p a i n t a v i s i o n of beauty f o r h i s p e r s o n a l use — i n c o n t r a s t , Lomonosov does not want a beauty f o r h i m s e l f , but w a n t s h i s l o v e l y m a i d e n to be Mother R u s s i a . The most obvious use of c o n t r a s t i n t h e poem i s seen i n Lomonosov's answer t o Ode XI. In t h i s r e p l y , he presents a l t e r n a t i n g l i n e s w h i c h c o n t r a s t the s e l f - c e n t r e d , g p i c u r e a n p l e a s u r e s of Anacreon w i t h the moral, s o c i a l s a c r i f i c e s of Cato: A H a K p e o H T , TH 6bin p o c K o i n e H , B e c e j i , c n a f l O K , K a T O H C T a p a J i c H B B e c T B B p e c n y d J i H K y n o p n f l O K ; Tta B e K B 3 a 6 a B a x BCHJI H B3HJI C B o e c CO6OH , Ero y r p i o M C T B O M B PHM H e B 0 3 B p a m e H TIOKOHJ TH >KH3HB y n o T p e 6 J i H J i K a K B p e M e H H y y T e x y , OH 5KH3HB n p e H e 6 p e r a J i K p p e c n y SJIHKH y c n e x y ; 3 e p H O M T B O H OTHHJI RYX n p H H T H O H B H H O r p a f l , HoiceM OH c a M ce6e 6BIJI C M e p T H U H c y n o c T a T ; Be33Jio6Ha POCKOIUB B TOM 6Bma Te6e n p n i K H a , Y n p H M K a c j i a B H a n Sb ina eMy c y j j B S H H a . H e c x o f l C T B a ^ A H B I B f l p y r H c x o f l C T B a noHHJi H. y M H e e KTO H 3 B a c , flpyroH 6 y f l B B TOM c y f l B H . (#262, l i n e s 81-92) In t h e l a s t t w o l i n e s , he e m p h a s i z e s not only a c o m b i n a t i o n 124 of the a n t i t h e t i c a l , but a l s o achieves a s y n t h e s i s of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . On the one hand, he does not attempt t o r e c o n c i l e the s e n s u a l d e l i g h t s sought by Anacreon wi t h the a l t r u i s t i c a c t i o n s of Cato, y e t , on the other hand, he i s 14 aware of the c o n t i n u i t y i n such d i s s i m i l a r a c t i o n s . A. Morozov b e l i e v e s t h a t the combination.of a n t i t h e t i c a l c o n t r a s t s i s an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Baroque: Not i n any c u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e i s the u n i t y of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s so n o t i c e a b l e as i n the extreme a r t of the Baroque. Baroque antinomy i n i t s very base i s capable of combining the uncom-b i n a b l e : a e s t h e t i c i s m and s e n s u a l i t y , mysticism and r a t i o n a l i s m , concrete n a t u r a l i s m and a b s t r a c t symbolism, naive s i m p l i c i t y and e x t r a o r d i n a r y complicatedness.. T y p i c a l l y f o r the Baroque, t e n s i o n i s generated by the c o u p l i n g of seemingly i r r e c o n c i l a b l e or remotely r e l a t e d concepts. T h i s aspect of Lomonosov's poetry complies w i t h the n o t i o n of Baroque wit<> ,;, t h a t i s , the c a p a c i t y f o r f i n d i n g l i k e n e s s between the a p p a r e n t l y u n l i k e . F. J . Warnke not e s : The c h i e f p o e t i c f a c u l t y [of the Baroque], then, i s what seventeenth-century E n g l i s h c a l l e d 'wit' (Spanish i n g e n i o , I t a l i a n ingegno), the c a p a c i t y f o r . p e r c e i v i n g l i k e n e s s beneath seeming u n l i k e n e s s , and the essence of poetry becomes not so much the i m i t a t i o n o f the phenomenal world, as the imagina-t i v e m o d i f i c a t i o n of i t . ± f i Moreover, i n h i s j o i n i n g of the u n l i k e , Lomonosov i s able to o f f e r the reader the i n t e l l e c t u a l p l e a s u r e of f l a s h i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o h e r e t o f o r e u n n o t i c e d aspects of r e a l i t y . 125 -5.; Oxymoron Of a l l the r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s oxymoron i s perhaps the one which e x h i b i t s c o n t r a s t i n most compact form. I t f r e q u e n t l y c o n s i s t s only of a noun m o d i f i e d by a c o n t r a s t i n g a d j e c t i v e , and so w i t h i n the compass of j u s t two words expresses the sense of a n t i t h e s i s which, as we have seen, i s so c o n g e n i a l t o the Baroque mind. x7 Oxymoron i s a d e v i c e which f r e q u e n t l y occurs i n Lomonosov's poetr y . A. Morozov notes: "Me . . . forms oxymoronic e p i t h e t s l i k e 6onpaH jjpeMOTa ( c h e e r f u l drowsiness) 18 and rpoMKaH THUIHH a (loud s i l e n c e ) . " His work o f f e r s s e v e r a l examples: 1. A r i v e r e n k i n d l e d : H 3 H e f t pa3> K 5 K e H H a H p e K a T e K J i a B n y ^ H H y (#191, l i n e 29) 2. V o l u n t a r y p r i s o n e r s : Tae BOJibHbi n u e H H H K H c n a c a n c j j CHZT;HT (#256, l i n e 224) 3. M o i s t flame: H BJiajKHaH or-HeM n o K p u T a 6 b i c T p H H a (#256, l i n e 830) 4. A burning ocean: r o p n i n H H B e i H o O K e a H (#30, l i n e 12) Lomonosov 1s "Morning and Evening M e d i t a t i o n s " are two s h o r t poems which seem to seethe w i t h oxymora. Again one sees movement i n these passages. A l l the images are s e t i n 126 motion. The f o l l o w i n g passage c o n t a i n s the t h r e e f o l d oxymora of f i e r y b i l l o w s , f l a m i n g w h i r l w i n d s a n d burning r a i n s . Moreover, one f i n d s the l i n e , oxymoronic i n i t s i m a g e r y , i n which r o c k s , l i k e w a t e r , a r e b o i l i n g (one a l s o n o t e s the f o u r f o l d anaphora of TaM): TaM oEHeHHbi Banbi cipeMHTca H He HaxoflHT ,6eperoB, TaM B H X p H n J i a M e H H b l K p y T H T C H , BOPKDIUHCB M H O X C e C T B O B e K O B f TaM K a M H H , KaK B o n a , KUTIRT , r o p H i i r n T a M floacflH m y M H T . (#30, l i n e s 13-18) There are t h r e e passages i n the "Evening M e d i t a t i o n " t h a t , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , u s e the p r e c i s e f o r m o f o x y m o r o n , a n d i m a g e r y which i s a l s o oxymoronic. The p r e c i s e u s e of oxymoron i s f o u n d i n " c o l d flame," y e t one a l s o notes t h e oxymoronic imagery of the l i n e , the i c y s e a s t h a t s t i r t h e f i r e . There i s a l s o the c o l o u r j u x t a p o s i t i o n , b l a c k ( n i g h t ) / white ( d a y ) : He J i B f l H C T b i J i B M e m y T OTHB MOPH? Ce xxc a f l H b i H n x t a M e H B H a c n o K p b i J i ! Ce B H o i b H a 3eMJTK> fleHB B C T y n H J i ! (#31, l i n e s 22-24) Again, Lomonosov presents the p a r a d o x i c a l s i d e of n a t u r e . He e m p l o y s t h e o x y m o r o n " f r o z e n s t e a m , " a n d p o n d e r s how i t , i n the midst of w i n t e r , can b r i n g f o r t h f i r e . Once more the r e a d e r notes the c o n t r a s t of hot a n d c o l d : Kak M o a c e T 6BITB, ^TO6 M e p 3 x t B i H n a p CpeiTH 3 H M H paxcflaJi n o a t a p ? (#31, l i n e s 35-36) The b e s t of the thr e e passages t o i l l u s t r a t e Lomonosov's 127 oxymoronic imagery i s found i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , i n which he d e l i b e r a t e l y emphasizes the p a r a d o x i c a l aspect of each image — a minuscule g r a i n of sand c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the endless waves of the sea, a s m a l l spark opposed t o e t e r n a l i c e , the r o a r i n g wind which e n g u l f s the l i g h t dust and the hapless f e a t h e r i n the r a g i n g f i r e . A l l the images are chosen f o r t h e i r mutually c o n t r a d i c t o r y q u a l i t i e s — the c o n t r a s t s are h o t / c o l d , l a r g e / s m a l l , wet/dry and e t e r n a l / t r a n s i t o r y : nec^HHKa Kan B MOPCKHX BOJiHax, KaK M a J i a H C K p a B B e ^ H O M J i b f l e , KaK B • C H J i b H O M B H x p e TOHKOH npax, B cBHpenoM K a K nepo o r a e , (#31, l i n e s 7-10) I t must be emphasized what an i n t e g r a l p a r t c o n t r a s t p l a y s i n Lomonosov's work. Repeatedly he presents p i c t u r e s t h a t are composed of p a r a d o x i c a l , c o n t r a d i c t o r y and oxymoronic elements. Moreover, these c o n t r a s t s are f r e q u e n t l y presented i n motion and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I t i s such a combination of c o n t r a s t , t e n s i o n and motion t h a t one can c a l l Baroque. In h i s ode on the t a k i n g e o f iXotini;., Lomonosevvdepicts a s h i p s a i l i n g through the sea, but he adds t o the image by s a y i n g t h a t the s h i p ' s t r a c k s burn i n the ocean: B. ny*iHHe cnep, ero T O P H T (#4, l i n e 26) * . / He juxtaposes the f e e l i n g s of a man who longed f o r death, but who now wants long l i f e : 5KHTB xo^ieT B e K , KTO B rpo6 a c e j i a j i (#4, l i n e 259) 128 In another passage, thunder and s i l e n c e k i s s each other and l i g h t n i n g quenches i t s t h i r s t w i t h dew: IlejiyfiTecb, r p o M u , c T H I U H H O I O , YneHCH, M O J I H H H , pocoio, (#28, l i n e s 108-109) I t i s c l e a r t h a t Lomonosov has a decided p r e f e r e n c e f o r c o n t r a s t and paradox. In a d d i t i o n , one can say t h a t h i s u s e c o f f c e o n t f a s t t p a f e t ^ #he amtatab-3?la?€y to-f 'the w o r l d . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, Lomonosov d i s p l a y s a keen i n t e r e s t i n change and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . '61. Tr ans format ion , 19 "Je ne p e i n t s pas l ' e s t r e . Je p e m t s l e passage." Montaigne i s concerned w i t h the changes and t r a n s f o r -mations t h a t take p l a c e not only i n one man, but i n h i s e n t i r e world. The above l i n e i n d i c a t e s h i s i n t e r e s t i n the e v o l u t i o n of thought. He does not want t o d e s c r i b e s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , but development. J . P. H i l l and E. C a r a c c i o l o -T r e j o b e l i e v e t h a t . . . the near i m p o s s i b i l i t y of s e e i n g the world as s t a s i s , and the apparent i n e v i t a b i l i t y of s e e i n g the w o r l d as a t e n s e , mobile, changing ' d i s c o r d * r e s u l t s from the frequent r e p e t i t i o n of the conceit.20 Moreover, they conclude t h a t , i n Baroque p o e t r y , "There i s 21 l i t t l e permanency." I. Buffum a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t Baroque poets show a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n growlfch, change and t r a n s f o r -22 mation. 129 Lomonosov i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n change. He i s p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h metamorphosis. His i s a world of c o n t i n u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . He wants t o know what causes change i n e v e r y t h i n g : I H H H T npeMeHy M T O B O BceM? (#4, l i n e 221) His c o n c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y i s not s t a t i c , but dynamic. L i k e Montaigne, he p a i n t s " l e passage" not " l ' e s t r e . " The reader r e c a l l s the numerous i n s t a n c e s of dynamic nature t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d . Nothing i s s t a b l e i n Lomonosov's world, e v e r y t h i n g changes. A. Morozov comments: " A l l h i s nature i s found i n stormy movement. In o r d i n a r y phenomena he saw t i t a n i c s t r e n g t h , i n c e s s a n t l y changing the face o f the 23 e a r t h . " E v e r y t h i n g changes w i t h the one exc e p t i o n of God —— He i s unchanging, f o r e v e r s t a b l e . For Lomonosov, God i s always the b a s t i o n o f fir m n e s s . Lomonosov r e f e r s to the support of God's f i r m r i g h t hand: He H J I H C H J I B H O K ) pyKOK) (#il4 ' J lihe.~3j3')". TaM Bor i j ; e c H H i i y n p o c x H p a e T (#260, l i n e 174) * I T O B O O p y K O K ) HepjKHiu T B a p B (#22, l i n e 222) God's s t a f f a s s i s t s Lomonosov: JKe3JioM K a p a H H X M e c T H c a M (#22-/ / l i n e 2 24) He seeks s h e l t e r i n God's f i r m temple: ^ T O 6 B xpaM ero B c e j i H T B C H , 130 H 6oJiBUie B C B e T e He Hiny, Kan B OHOM BecejiHTBCH. (#171, l i n e s 14-16) Con t r a s t e d w i t h God's s t a b i l i t y , e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s i n . c o n s t a n t motion, i n c e a s e l e s s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n — - the f i r m mountains shake, tremble and rush i n t o the sea, volcanoes e r u p t , b e l c h i n g flames and smoke, r i v e r s and oceans f l o o d c i t i e s , and so f o r t h . Lomonosov r e p e a t e d l y employs the verb MVTHTbcg (to become t u r b i d or c l o u d y ) . With i t s use, there i s an emphasis on change, on t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e t h i s : 1) H X BOJIH T B O H e f l H H b l H B 3 r J I H J J . O T 3anpemeHHH MYTHTCH H B T y i H , y C T p a i l i a C b , T e C H H T C H \ JlHIIIB r p H H e T r p O M T B O H , B H H 3 UIVMHT . (#151, l i n e s 25-28) 2) M y T H T C H CMeacHKt H a M 6pera (#22, l i n e 37) 3) TiOMeHb B S p e r a x CBOHX M y m T C H H B O f l b l C K p b l T b . n O f l 3eMJIK) T I U H T C H . (#27, l i n e s 89-90) Transformation i s found on s e v e r a l l e v e l s . In a 1742 ode, the v a l o u r of the Russian e x p l o r e r s i s l i k e n e d t o a dry reed t h a t r e q u i r e s only i g n i t i o n t o tr a n s f o r m i t i n t o a r o a r i n g f i r e : Kojno^en T e p H , cyxon TPOCTHHK, TaHJICH B K O H X 3 H O H B e J I H K , T e n e p b y>K HBHO B c e M B c n H X H y j i H . (#22, l i n e s 84-86) Or, i n a s i m i l a r example, the f e r o c i t y of r i o t e r s , t r a n s -formed from a smoldering, subdued f e e l i n g t o one o f heightened 131 emotional i n t e n s i t y , i s compared to the dying embers of a f i e l d f i r e , t h a t w i t h j u s t one "breath" r e v i v e s and consumes the dry grass i n a f l a m i n g i n f e r n o : IIponymeHfai ^acu He B03BpaTHTCH 6ane. KaK Ha noJiflx noxcap B Ha^iane yTyineH, Ho pflpyr flbixaHHeM H 3 nenjia oxcHBJieH, CyXOH TpOCTHHK T p a B y B flHH J i e T H H n O H f l a e T , (#256, l i n e s 426-430) In a nameday ode d e d i c a t e d to Grand Duke P e t e r , 1743, the o l d l o v e f o r the dead t s a r , P e t e r the Great, i s r e s u r r e c t e d f o r the young grand duke: B Te6e BecB Hopfl H KpaK A 3HHCKHH BocKpecmy npeflHio I T H T JTH}6OBB. (#28, l i n e s 36-37) Lomonosov's world i s one of f l u x and motion — i t i s a world of c onstant t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . As another example, the reader witnesses s e v e r a l stages of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n — the earth,.is covered w i t h water, which changes t o vapour, which i n t u r n condenses i n t o r a i n and snow. The vapour becomes t u r b i d , and f r i g h t e n e d , i t forms i n t o b l a c k storm clouds which, t o complete the c y c l e , b u r s t and r a i n down upon the e a r t h : TBI 6 e 3 f l H o i o en o 6 x r e K , TBI noBejieji BOflaM napaMH BcxoflHTb, crymancH Haa HaMH, r«e floscflB paacflaeTCH H CHer. MX BOJIH TBOH eflHHBIH B3TJIHIJ;. O T 3 a n p e m e H H H MYTHTCH H B T y ^ i n , ycTpauiacB, TecHHTcn; JlHiiiB rpaHeT rpoM T B O H , BHH3 myMHT . (#151, l i n e s 21-28) 132 In the above e x a m p l e , a n d i n s e v e r a l o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , p h y s i c a l metamorphosis i s i n d i c a t e d . In a 1745 m a r r i a g e o d e , the t h e m e centres o n h o w the l a t e t s a r , P e t e r t h e Great, a n d h i s ; w i f e , C a t h e r i n e I, h a v e been reborn i n t h e Grand Duke Pe t e r a n d the Grand Duchess C a t h e r i n e : „K y T e x e P o c c K a r o Hapo i^a r l e T p a c E K a T e p H H o f t B H O B B C M e i a e T m a c T b e H n o p o i j a , I l p H r O S C C T B O , M J i a f l O C T b H J I K ) 6 0 B b " . (#42, l i n e s 37-40) In a 1757 ode h o n o u r i n g the b i r t h o f Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna, Lomonosov i m p l i e s t h a t t h e y o u n g c h i l d i s h e r d e a d a u n t r e b o r n a n d r e t u r n e d t o R u s s i a : I I p e K p a c H a A H H a B 0 3 B p a T H J i a c b , H , c Hew p a 3 J i y * i a c b , K p y i n n J i a c b , H C J i e 3 M O H X H C T O I H H K T e K ! (#232, l i n e s 28-30) Time a n d a g a i n , throughout Lomonosov's w o r k , the r e a d e r e n c o u n t e r s m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f s o m e type. A d d i t i o n a l e x a m p l e s s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s : 1) P e t e r t h e Great d e s c e n d s f r o m h e a v e n , a t a l c i h g u h u m a n f o r m : O H ^ J i e H b i B 3 H J I B T e 6 e n J i O T C K H H , Confen K T e 6 e O T ropbHHx MecT; (#28, l i n e s 126-127) 2) Empress E l i z a b e t h w i l l r e s u r r e c t the d e a d t s a r , P eter the Great, f o r us: B o 3 f l B H r H y T b H a M n e T p a n o C M e p T H (#44, l i n e 5) 1 3 3 3 ) The s p i r i t o f Peter the Great i s resurrected i n the Grand Duchess Catherine and Empress Elizabeth: B o 3 B e c e J i H C H HbiHe Tom, KoTopy OH pjin H a c TO6OK> noflogHy 0 6 O H M p o f l H J i . ( # 1 8 9 , l i n e s 2 0 8 - 2 1 0 ) 4 ) A burning cloud becomes Peter the Great: H e 6 e c H a n o T B e p 3 J i a c B flBepb; Hafl BOHCKOM o6JiaK B f l p y r p a 3 B H J i c H ; EjiecHyji ropHEHHM B f l p y r J i H n . e M , y M f a l T b I M KpOBHK) M e i e M T O H H BparoB, TepoH OTKPBIJICH. ( # 4 , lines 8 6 - 9 0 ) The best and most des c r i p t i v e metamorphosis i s Lomonosov's description of the dead tsar, Peter the Great, risen as a phoenix from his smoldering pyre, l i v i n g on i n his namesake, Grand Duke Peter: Tbi 3 p H n i B B e j i H K a r o n e T p a , KaK O e H H K c a , B O C K p e c n i a HbiHe} HpaMcaHiuaH TBOH C e c T p a X H B a B C B o e M j n o 6 e 3 H O M c b i H e . ( # 2 4 , lines 3 7 - 4 0 ) One f i n a l aspect to be considered i n this., or in any discussion of the Baroque, i s the notion of vanitas, the attitude that a l l i s vanity before triumphant death, that man i s naught before all-destroying time. The theme of 2 4 vanitas i s frequently found i n Baroque poetry. The outlook of vanitas,. i s often stated i n terms of the ephemerality of the world. "To the Baroque thinker, everything i s i n f l u x : a l l that the world has to o f f e r i s but a shadow, and man 2 5 himself i s passing through i t l i k e a voyager." Baroque .s; .•op«a~edly express t h = notion' of 134 poets r e p e a t e d l y express the n o t i o n of v a n i t a s i n terms of carpe diem and memento mori. One of the most quoted l i n e s i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y to express the o u t l o o k of e n j o y i n g the p l e a s u r e s of the moment without concern, f o r the f u t u r e i s Robert H e r r i c k ' s "Gather ye rosebuds w h i l e ye may." I t has a l r e a d y been mentioned t h a t the theme of v a n i t a s i s found i n s e v e r a l poems by Simeon P o l o c k i j . Yet A. Morozov n o t e s : "Even Simeon P o l o c k i j ' s themes of b i t t e r and t e r r i b l e death and the p e r i s h a b l e nature of e a r t h j y splendour occupy only a s m a l l p l a c e i n h i s works." F u r t h e r , Morozov notes: Russian and U k r a i n i a n Baroque as a whole remained almost a l i e n t o the t r a g i c i d e a of v a n i t a s or i t was expressed i n a very muted form and d i d not come t o the f o r e . . . as i n Western r e l i g i o u s p oetry of the seventeenth century. ° The outlook of v a n i t a s i s r a r e l y expressed i n Lomono-sov's p o e t r y . There . are only two passages t h a t r e v e a l such an a t t i t u d e . C i z e v s k i j c a l l s Lomonosov a p a n e g y r i c a l o p t i m i s t — Lomonosov i s not concerned w i t h death on a s u b j e c t i v e l e v e l , but approaches i t from a more o b j e c t i v e viewpoint. Lomonosov l i v e d when Rus s i a was c o n s t a n t l y at war, and although he never a c t u a l l y fought i n any b a t t l e , h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s of the carnage of war, of macabre deaths must be taken i n t o account. Lomonosov i s more concerned w i t h the changes, the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s he sees i n the world around him. A. Morozov remarks: "The i d e a of inconstancy 135 and the t r a n s i e n c e o f a l l t h a t i s r e a l . . . i s changed by Lomonosov i n t o a p r e s e n t a t i o n of the m u t a b i l i t y and develop-29 ment of the world." The c l o s e s t p a r a l l e l t o Baroque v a n i t a s i n a l l the works of Lomonosov are two l i n e s found i n h i s R h e t o r i c . The i d e a t h a t a l l i n l i f e i s v a n i t y i s c l e a r l y expressed. The image of a human b e i n g as food f o r the worms i s the c l o s e s t Lomonosov comes to the grotesque: 0 nHma T H ^epBeS! 0 npax H nbuib npe3peHHa! 0 H O I B ! 0 cyeTa! 3a^:eM Tbi T a n ropflHiiibCH? -,n ( R h e t o r i c , S e c t i o n 247) An a d d i t i o n a l example . w i l l h e l p t o i l l u s t r a t e Lomonosov's a t t i t u d e toward l i f e and death. In the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , one notes the s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t s p r e s e n t e d , and how they emphasize,the ephemerality o f the world. The n o t i o n o f time i s very important. The s h o r t span of time that;, man has to. l i v e on the e a r t h i s underscored. :. No sooner i s man from h i s mother's womb, m e t a p h o r i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as a dungeon, than he, at the same .'time/9g.e>e:S;tfeoaabBikackutoriib' C©r :fchecqohtrast of a man s m i l i n g who suddenly c l o s e s h i s eyes fior e t e r n i t y . The i n c o n s i s t e n c y and a r b i t r a r i n e s s of death i s a l s o accentuated. Death s t r i k e s man at any time — death f e l l s a man e n t e r i n g h i s marriage chamber, or i t takes another i n h i s prime: Be3ne Hac THHeT POK HacmibCTBOM 3JTbix K or T e n ! Kojib MHorn, B b n i i e f l i i i H H 3 M a T e p H e f t T e M H H q b i , OTXOHHT B TOT ace ^:ac B MpaK ^ e p H b i H rpo6HHn;bi! 136 HHOH y c M e u i K o i o o T i i a n o B e c e j i H J i H O*IH B f l p y r n p e f l HHM BO B e K H 3 a T B o p H J i . TOTOBOlViy B C T y n H T b B O Spa^HblH ^ e p T O E H IlpoH3aeT cepzwe c M e p T b H noflceKaeT Horn. B c p e f l H H e JIVT^HX J i e T HHOH, y c T p o H B HOM, C n O K O H H b l M T O B O P H T , J l b C T H C b 3 f l p a B n p e g H T b , y M O M : H OT HbiHe n o a c H B y H H a c J i a a c j j y c b T p y n a M H " , — Ho ^ac nocjieflHeH 6HJI, CKOH^IaJICH CO c j i o B a M H . K O J I b M H O r H O S C T O H T 6 0 J i e 3 H H H ,£ieZTH, K o T o p b i M , ^ e j i o B e K , B c e r f l a n o j x B e p > K e H T H ! (#256, l i n e s 1090-1102) I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the theme of v a n i t a s , the t r a g i c nature of e a r t h l y l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when one co n s i d e r s the frequency w i t h which i t i s found i n European Baroque p o e t r y , does not p l a y even a minor r o l e i n Lomono-sov' s work. I t i s t o the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s t h a t can be l i n k e d w i t h Baroque o s t e n t a t i o n t h a t we now t u r n our a t t e n t i o n . CHAPTER IV SPECTACLE 1. T h e a t r i c a l i t y Baroque a r t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by dramatic d i s p l a y . There can be observed, i n the p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , and a r c h i t e c t u r e of the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and s^-. ^  •-sevenfe e en.th u ce n t u r i e s n a t e on s t an t -.• s t r i v i ngm So r i i J magnificence and t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t s . x Rubens i s one of s e v e r a l Baroque a r t i s t s t o employ s p e c t a c l e i n h i s p a i n t i n g s . The b e s t examples of t h i s are h i s M e d i c i s e r i e s , which g l o r i f y the French r o y a l f a m i l y . Perhaps one of the f i n e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n s of s p e c t a c l e i s h i s "Landing of Marie of M e d i c i a t M a r s e i l l e s ; " In t h i s s e r i e s , Rubens presents the viewer w i t h h e r o i c landscapes thronged w i t h crowned heads. In a l l of them, s p e c t a c u l a r dramas are u n f o l d i n g . F r e q u e n t l y i n Baroque poetry one encounters s i m i l a r t h e a t r i c a l scenes which are a l s o a mixture of drama and pageantry. These t h e a t r i c a l scenes are r e p r e s e n t e d by three spheres. I. Buffum l a b e l s these "the p u r e l y human or h i s t o r i c a l , the p u r e l y s u p e r n a t u r a l , and a m i n g l i n g of the 2 • . two." He f u r t h e r comments t h a t i t i s perhaps the m i n g l i n g which i s most t y p i c a l l y Baroque. A f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s necessary. An image of i n t e r a c t i o n between two l e v e l s i s b e s t seen i n the p a i n t i n g s of E l Greco. In E l Greco's work one f r e q u e n t l y witnesses a dramatic exchange between c h a r a c t e r s on a p u r e l y human l e v e l 137 138 on one hand, and c h a r a c t e r s from a s u p e r n a t u r a l l e v e l on the oth e r . There i s an i n t i m a t e mixture of r e a l i s t i c and super-n a t u r a l elements. For E l Greco, the s u p e r n a t u r a l l e v e l i s heaven and the dramatis personae are God, C h r i s t , the Holy V i r g i n and a host of s a i n t s . Perhaps the b e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s i s E l Greco's " B u r i a l of Count Orgaz." A d e s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w s : The lower h a l f o f t h i s p i c t u r e i s a scene of solemn ceremony, noteworthy f o r i t s s p l e n d i d a r r a y of h i s t o r i c a l p o r t r a i t s ; save f o r the miraculous attendance of SS Stephen and Augustine w i t h the body of Count Orgaz, the pageantry i s human and r e a l i s t i c . But i n the upper h a l f , enthroned upon c l o u d s , are C h r i s t , the V i r g i n Mary, and the nobles of the kingdom of heaven.3 This p i c t u r e r e p r e s e n t s a combination of human pageantry and heavenly g l o r y , a mutual i n t e r a c t i o n between e a r t h and heaven. T h i s type o f scene i s very common i n Lomonosov's odes. H. Haitzfeld terms t h i s m i n g l i n g of s u p e r n a t u r a l and 4 h i s t o r i c a l drama the Jacob's ladd e r m o t i f . The Jacob's l a d d e r m o t i f i s found i n Lomonosov's poetry w i t h only s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n . Lomonosov i s fond of d e p i c t i n g grandiose scenes t h a t / t a k e " p l a c e on-earth, ryet •frequently there i s an i n t r u s i o n , an i n t e r v e n t i o n by a c h a r a c t e r who i s not on e a r t h . There i s , as i t were, an i n t e r a c t i o n between two d i f f e r e n t spheres. G e n e r a l l y , Lomonosov s h i f t s from a c t i o n on e a r t h t o a c t i o n i n the heavens. This i n t e r a c t i o n between heaven and e a r t h i s not 139 always presented i n a v i v i d w o r d - p a i n t i n g , but i s sometimes only i m p l i e d . The i m p l i e d i n t e r a c t i o n between the two spheres c o n s t i t u t e s a v a r i a t i o n of the Jacob's ladder m o t i f . There i s a l s o the additional-distinction..that.'Lomonosov's c h a r a c t e r s , h i s dramatisspersonae, i n c l u d e n n o t i o n l y God i n h i s heaven, but l i k e w i s e members of the Russian r o y a l f a m i l y who have d i e d , g l o r i o u s l y ascended t o heaven, y e t s t i l l take an a c t i v e p a r t i n the a f f a i r s of R u s s i a . He presents a p i c t u r e t h a t u n i t e s e a r t h l y and heavenly spheres, and, at the same time, mixes B i b l i c a l and c l a s s i c a l e p i t h e t s f o r the same image. I t i s not always members of the t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n community who appear i n the combined spheres. In the 1739 ode on the t a k i n g _ o f i X o t i h i ; Phoebus? appears on a horse w i t h f l a m i n g n o s t r i l s . Phoebus marvels at the Russian v i c t o r y over the Turks and says t h a t as long as the e a r t h has been i n " c y c l e " he has r a r e l y seen such triumphs. The primary a c t i o n , the s e i z u r e of the f o r t r e s s , takes p l a c e on e a r t h , but w i t h the a r r i v a l of Pheobus Lomonosov opens up the heavens f o r a mi n g l i n g of spheres: OT B C T O K a c K a i e T n o c T y B e p c T , n y c K a n K C K P H KOHB HO3ZT;PHMH. JlHiieM C H H e T Oe6 H a TOM. OH n J i a M e H H b i M n o T p n c BepxoM, npecjiaBHo Reno 3 p n , ITHBHTCH: „H MaJio TaKOBbix B H f l a J i noSen, KOJIB HOJiro H SJiHCTaJi, KOJIB nojiro K p y r B e K O B K S T H T C H " . (#4, l i n e s 173-180) (The p r e s e n t a t i o n of combined C h r i s t i a n and c l a s s i c a l imagery 1 4 0 w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . ) Often mutual i n t e r a c t i o n between heaven and e a r t h i s only i m p l i e d . In the 1 7 4 7 ode c e l e b r a t i n g Empress E l i z a b e t h ' s ascension t o the throne, the main events are i n i t i a l l y p o r t r a y e d on e a r t h , but, at the same time, there i s an i m p l i e d communication between E l i z a b e t h i n R u s s i a and God i n heaven. God g i v e s E l i z a b e t h her crown: Kor,n.a H a TPOH OHa B C T y n H J i a , KaK EbnuHHa noflan E H B e H e i i , ( # 1 4 1 , l i n e s 2 1 - 2 2 ) The t e r r e s t r i a l events c o n t i n u e , but i n stanza 1 5 the reader s e e s again t h a t God Himself a s s i s t s E l i z a b e t h : TojiHKoe 3 e M e x t B n p o c T p a H C T B O Korna BceBbiuiHHH nopy*iH.n Te6e B macTJiHBoe nojwaHCTBO, Torna coKpoBHiaa OTKPHJI, K a K H M H X B a J i H T C H HHIJHH} ( # 1 4 1 , l i n e s 1 4 1 - 1 4 5 ) I t i s c l e a r t h a t Lomonosov expounds on the t r a d i t i o n of the monarch being the s o l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of God's a u t h o r i t y on e a r t h , y e t t h a t does not negate the v i v i d i n t e r a c t i o n p resented between the two spheres. In a 1 7 4 3 nameday ode t o Grand Duke Pe t e r (Peter I I I ) , Lomonosov i m p l i e s t h a t God asks P e t e r t o r u l e over the Russians: TBOHMH caM rocnoflb ycTSMK 3 a B e T BO B e K n o c T S B H T C HSMH} ( # 2 8 , l i n e s 5 5 - 5 6 ) God i n t e r v e n e s d i r e c t l y i n the a f f a i r s of the Russian monarch. He guards Rus s i a H i m s e l f , and through the empress, 141 He d e s t r o y s t h e i r mutual enemies: P O C C H K ) c a M T o c n o f l b 6 j n o f l e T ; PyKOK) O H E j i H c a B e T b i n p O T H B H E J X p a 3 p y i I I H T HSBeTH. (#27, l i n e s 148-150) God giv e s the r o y a l crown to-Empress o E l-izabeth: O f l H a K O B C H J i a x Eor B e j i H K H H Te6e B e H e u , , H a M p a f l o c T B nan, (#189, l i n e s 221-222) The p i c t u r e of the Russian monarch sent from heaven i m p l i e s an i n t e r a c t i o n between heaven and e a r t h . R u s s i a i s b l e s s e d by God and He sends E l i z a b e t h t o the Russian people. One can almost see the empress, surrounded by s i n g i n g angels, descending down a golden s t a i r c a s e from heaven t o her throne B ceft j j ; e H b , SJ iaaceHHan P O C C H H , J l i o 6 e 3 H a H e 6 e c a M C T p a H a , B Ceft fleHB OT BblCOTbl CBflTblH E j i H c a B e T T e 6 e n a H a — (#44, l i n e s 1-4) In another ode Lomonosov r e j o i c e s t h a t not only was Empress E l i z a b e t h s ent from on h i g h , but so were a l l the members of the r o y a l f a m i l y . E l i z a b e t h ' s e n t i r e entourage descends from heaven w i t h her: O T B e p f l L H e 6 e c H a r o 3 a B e T a , B e j i H K a n E j i H c a B e T a , E K a T e p H H a , n a B e j i , n e T p , 0 H O B a n H a M p a n o c T B — A H H a , P O C C H H CBbinie n a p o B a H H a , BoacecTBeHHb ix nopona H e a p ! (#232, l i n e s 15-20) In the above examples, the reader i s gi v e n t o understand t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t e r a c t i o n between the s a i n t l y h e i g h t s and 142 the Russian land. These examples r e q u i r e . t h e reader to use h i s i m a g i n a t i o n t o see the c o n n e c t i o n , but i n other i n s t a n c e s there are c r y s t a l - c l e a r p r e s e n t a t i o n s of heavenly and e a r t h l y i n t e r a c t i o n . In ah 3:7 43 ode t o P e t e r the Great's grandson, the f u t u r e P e t e r I I I , the c e n t r a l drama u n f o l d s on e a r t h . Towards the end of the ode, i n s t a n z a 13, the reader encounters the "Jacob's l a d d e r " m o t i f . (One a l s o notes i n t h i s s t a n z a the b l e n d i n g of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n imagery.) The e n t i r e world knows of the g l o r y of P e t e r the Great. C l a s s i c a l d e i t i e s p r o c l a i m him as Russia's god. P e t e r the Great shines i n heaven, he looks through the clouds and j o y o u s l y beholds h i s grandson. There i s a combination of three spheres — e a r t h , a C h r i s t i a n heaven and a c l a s s i c a l m i l i e u ( i m p l i e d through the presence of the d e i t i e s Mars and M i n e r v a ) : Bo3PH H a TpyH H rpoMKy cJiaBy, I T O C B e T B IleTpe H e J i o x c H O I T H T ; HenTyH n o 3 H a J i Ero nepacaBy, C MHHepBOH CHJiBHbiH Mapc rjiacHT: „0H Bor, OH Bor TBOH 6HJI, P O C C H H , OH ^JieHbi B 3 H J I B Te6e roioTCKHH, Comep, K T e 6 e OT TOP&HHX M e c T ; OH HfaiHe B Be^iHocTH c H f l e T , Ha BHyKa B e c e j i o B3HpaeT CpeHH TepoeB, Bbiixie 3 B e 3 f l . " (#28, l i n e s 121-130) The reader encountersaanothervvisiont?of"?Eeter"the -Great — i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the gates of heaven open up, a burning c l o u d appears and behold, i t i s P e t e r h i m s e l f . Not only does 143 Peter I appear, but he i s accompanied by Ivan the T e r r i b l e . The capture of Xotin, the batt l e s between the Russians and the Turks take place on earth, but both Peter and Ivan appear i n the heavens. To emphasize t h e i r presence, both men are accompanied by a dazzling display of nature — r p e M H U p e n e p y H b i 6 n e i u y T : HeSecHan o T B e p 3 J i a c B j i B e p b ; Han BOHCKOM o6JiaK Bflpyr pa3BHJicji; E j i e c H y j r r o p a i u H M B f l p y r J i H i i e M , V M b l T b l M KPOBHK) Me^teM r o H H B p a r o B , Tepofi OTKPHJICH. (#4, l i n e s 86-90) KTO C HHM TOJIB r p o 3 H o 3 P H T H a i o r , Of lenH C T p a u i H b i M r p o M O M B K p y r ? HHKaK CMHpHTeJIb C T p a H K a 3 a H C K H X ? K a c n H H C K H BOf lb i , Cen n p H B a c Ce j iHMa r o p n a r o n o T p n c , HanoJ iHHJi C T e n H TOJIOB n o r a H C K H x . (#4, lines 105-110) In another ode, the Jacob's ladder motif i s reversed. Instead of heavenly f i g u r e s intervening i n the a f f a i r s of e a r t h , Lomonosov p l a c e s e a r t h l y f i g u r e s in the h e a v e n s . The poet's captive gaze s u d d e n l y soars higher than a mountain and i n the sky he beholds a b e a u t i f u l maiden standing i n the sun — she holds a y o u n g boy by the hand. They are surroun-ded by stars. It "isnEmpress i Elizabeth-and her^hephew Peter. An association between the Russian royal house and heaven i s c l e a r : H fleBy B c o J i H i i e 3 p i o C T O H i n y , PyKora O T p o K a flepxcaiuy H B e e C T p a H b i n o J i H o ^ H b i c HHM. Y K p a m e H H a K p y r o M 3 B e 3 f l a M H , P a 3 H T n e p y H O M B H H S C B O H M , T O H H n p O T H B H O C T H c 6eflaMH . (#24, l i n e s 105-110) In a 1752 ode on the a c c e s s i o n ; o f Empress E l i z a b e t h to the throne, Lomonosov p a i n t s a p i c t u r e i n which s e v e r a l deceased Russian monarchs are e t e r n a l l y r e s u r r e c t e d i n the heavens. In stanzas 14, 15, and 16: these Russian heroines s h i n e i n the sky o f f e r i n g t h e i r guidance and a s s i s t a n c e t o R u s s i a . Once more th e r e i s a combination of heaveMy and e a r t h l y spheres. One of the most t h e a t r i c a l examples of the Jacob's l a d d e r m o t i f i s i n the 1757 ode c e l e b r a t i n g the b i r t h d a y s of Empress E l i z a b e t h and Grand Duchess Anna. T y p i c a l l y , the i n i t i a l a c t i o n u n f o l d s on e a r t h , but i n stanza 12 the sphere of a c t i v i t i e s s h i f t s t o heaven. GGod speaks, young David p l a y s h i s l y r e and the Hebrew prophet I s a i a h thunders to the people on e a r t h . I t i s a very dramatic scene. In s t a n z a 13 I s a i a h admonishes everyone t o f o l l o w the path of r i g h t e o u s -ness and i n s t a n z a 14, the reader again encounters a m i n g l i n g of heavenly and e a r t h l y l e v e l s . E l i z a b e t h has been sent from heaven and the l i k e n e s s of God appears i n her face In the l a s t l i n e o f t h i s s t a n z a , God, Peter I and E l i z a b e t h are a l l together i n u n i v e r s a l harmony: B cefi neHb fljin oSmaro npHMepa Ee na 3eMJno H n o c j i a j i . B Hen e o x r p o c T B , KpoTOCTb, npaBii;a, B e p a ; H c a M B J i H i i e E H npeflCTaJi. Co.ne.naJi 3 H a M e H n e H O B O , Y K p a c H B T o p a c e c T B O LTeTpoBO H a c j i e j j H H q e H B e j i H K H x next, M O H K ce6e mejjpoTbi 3 H a f t T e , Ho T B e p j j o B e e T O H a S J i i o j j a H T e , I T O n e T p , O H a H fl B e J i e J i . ( # 2 3 2 , l i n e s 1 3 1 - 1 4 0 ) T h e b e s t e x a m p l e of t h e J a c o b ' s ladder m o t i f i s i n t h e 1 7 4 2 o d e c e l e b r a t i n g E m p r e s s E l i z a b e t h ' s r e t u r n f r o m M o s c o w t o S t . P e t e r s b u r g a f t e r t h e c o r o n a t i o n . T h e p r i m a r y -a c t i o n o f t h e p o e m c e n t r e s o n e a r t h , y e t L o m o n o s o v w e a v e s i n d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d c o m b i n e s t h e t w o s p h e r e s o f h e a v e n a n d e a r t h . E m p r e s s E l i z a b e t h s t a n d s b e f o r e G o d i n a l l H i s g l o r y . G o d i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e r f a t e : h e c r o w n s h e r a n d s t r e n g t h e n s h e r l e g a c y . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t L o m o n o s o v d o e s n o t s a y t h a t G o d d e s c e n d s f r o m h e a v e n ; i n s t e a d h e e m p l o y s a c l a s s i c a l e p i t h e t ^ p a y i n g , I ! a l m i g h " t y o © l y ( m p g S Q O p e n s . i t s g a t e s " : C B H i i j e H H b i H y x c a c M b i c j i b o6-beMJieT! 0 T B e p 3 OJIHMII B C e C H J T b H b l H J X B e p b . BCH T B a p b CO MHOrHM C T p a X O M BHeMJ ieT , B e j i H K H x 3pn M o H a p x o B flmepb, O T BepHbix B c e x cep/ieu. H36paHHy, PyKOK) BbTLUHHrO B e H i a H H y , CTOHiqy n p e B Eajo jiHijeM, K o T o p y B c B e T e O H C B O S M npocjiaBHB menpo K HeK B3HpaeT, 3 a B e T K p e n H T H y T e n i a e T . ( # 2 7 , l i n e s 4 1 - 5 0 ) D i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n c o n t i n u e s i n s t a n z a 6 . G o d b l e s s e s t h e e m p r e s s , H e e n t r u s t s p o w e r t o h e r , p e o p l e d r a w H i s b o u n t i e s o n l y f r o m h e r . H e r g o o d n e s s c h a n g e s H i s a n g e r t o k i n d n e s s . T h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n G o d a n d e m p r e s s i s a c u t e l y d e p i c t e d . I n s t a n z a 7 , G o d a g a i n s a y s H e p l a c e d t h e e m p r e s s o n t h e t h r o n e : 146 Te6n nocTaBHJi B 3 H S K 3aBera Hafl 3HaTHeHoieio ^ a c T b i o C B e T a . (#27, l i n e s 69-70) F i n a l l y , the interfewined spheres of heaven and e a r t h reaches a climax i n s t a n z a 8. Here the union between God and Empress E l i z a b e t h reaches i t s apogee. E l i z a b e t h becomes transformed, as i t were, i n t o God. The f o r c e f u l n e s s , the massiveness of t h i s passage i s r e i n f o r c e d by the heaping of one image upon another (another Baroque element to be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n ) . P i l e d one upon the other are the q u a l i t i e s by which the s p i r i t of God i s m a n i f e s t i n E l i z a b e t h . God's image i s honoured i n the empress, He grants j u s t i c e through her, He punishes m a l i c e through her. Through her He rewards, r u l e s , and so forihh (one a l s o notes the use of anaphora i n t h i s passage): „ M O H o6pa3 ^ T H T B Te6e Hapoflbi H O T MeHH B J I H H H H B I H flyx; B 6ec^ H C J i e H H b i n p o N r a e T C H PO I JB I flOdpOT T B O H X H eJT05KHbIH C J T V X . To6oft n o c T a B J i K ) cyn n p a B f l H B f a i H , T O 6 O H coTpy cepima K H ^ J I H B H I , T06OH Si 6 y f l y 3 J I O C T B Ka3HHTB, T O 6 O H 3 a c J i y r a M M3j j;y flapHTb; r o c n o n c T B y f t , y T B e p » c n e H H a M H O K I ; H 6yiJ,y 3aBcerrta c T 0 6 0 K ) " . (#27, l i n e s 71-80) I t i s apparent t h a t the Jacob's l a d d e r m o t i f i s used i n Lomonosov's poems i n a dramatic and s p e c t a c u l a r manner. In a d d i t i o n , h i s dramatic d e s c r i p t i o n s of heroic-panoramic landscapes enhance the n o t i o n of t h e a t r i c a l i t y . To c l a r i f y f u r t h e r — Lomonosov f r e q u e n t l y presents h i s reader w i t h 147 extensively" d e t a i l e d scenes r e p r e s e n t i n g p a s t h i s t o r i c a l events. The a c t i o n of these scenes i s v i v i d l y p o r t r a y e d — the capture of X o t i n , the b a t t l e of P o l t a v a , p a l a c e r i o t s , and r e v o l u t i o n s . The dramatic nature of the events which a f f l i c t e d R u s s i a i s keenly sensed. Lomonosov d e p i c t s v a s t h i s t o r i c a l scenes (where heaven and e a r t h o f t e n i n t e r a c t ) , i n which s p e c t a c u l a r dramas u n f o l d . In most of these, there i s i n t e n s e , dramatic movement, and abundant concrete d e t a i l . I t i s the combination of these t h a t allows one to c a l l such scenes t h e a t r i c a l . Lomonosov's p o e t i c p a s s i o n soars to the h e i g h t s ; from these towering h e i g h t s he d e s c r i b e s h i s t o r i c a l o c c a s i o n s . F r e q u e n t l y , the s h i f t i n g of t e r r e s t r i a l a c t i o n to the c e l e s t i a l sphere allows y e t another vantage p o i n t t o view the u n f o l d i n g events. Not only does the dramatic a c t i o n s h i f t t o heaven, the reader, as i t were, i s a l s o t r a n s f e r r e d . From there he i s witness to numerous events. Lomonosov's gaze i s r a i s e d t o the h e i g h t s and from t h i s advantageous viewpoint he watches h i s t o r i c a l dramas u n f o l d . N a t u r a l l y , these h e i g h t s are o f t e n mountains: Ha B e p t x napHaccKHX r o p npeKpacHHH C r p e M H T C H M H C J i e H H b i H MOH B 3 o p , (#43, l i n e s 1-2) Or: Ho c n e n i H o TOJIB K y n a BOCXORHT B H e 3 a n H o MOH n J i e H e H H b i H B 3 o p ? B H , n e H H e MOH nyx BO3BOAHT npeBbmie T e c c a n H H C K H X rop! (#24, l i n e s 101-104) 148 From t h e s e h e i g h t s p a n o r a m i c l a n d s c a p e s u n r o l l and s p r e a d f o r t h . From o n , h i g h one can s e e e v e r y t h i n g — a r m i e s c l a s h i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r , s o l d i e r s d y i n g , monarchs and God d i s p e n s i n g j u s t i c e and w r a t h , happy c i t i e s , p e a c e f u l v i l l a g e s , a l m o s t any g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d , o r , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , tit h e m i g h t o f t h e R u s s i a n army: O T y c T B H SbicTpbix _ C T p y f l flyHancKHX flo caMbix ycKHx MecT AxaftcKHX Me-qa PoccHficKa BHjjeH 6JiecK. (#21, l i n e s 158-160) Lomonosov's g a z e s o a r s and, s u r p a s s i n g any p h y s i c a l b o u n d a r y , he t r a v e r s e s t h o u s a n d s o f m i l e s and t r a n s c e n d s t h e o r d i n a r y l i m i t s g i v e n t o man's v i s i o n . From h i s i m a g i n e d h e i g h t s he c r o s s e s t h e m o u n t a i n s and r i v e r s o f R u s s i a , he t r a v e l s o v e r R u s s i a ' s v a s t t e r r i t o r y u n t i l he s e e s a R u s s i a n Columbus s a i l i n g t h r o u g h i c e - f i l l e d s e a s : H BHJKy yMHbiMH 0*1 a M H : K o j i y M 6 P O C C H H C K H H M e s c j j y JlbJXaMH CnemHT H n p e 3 H p a e T p o K . (#189, l i n e s 118-120) V a s t p a n o r a m i c d e p i c t i o n s a r e n o t o n l y t h e r e s u l t o f h i s " s o a r i n g g a z e , " b u t a l s o r e s u l t f r o m h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e p a s t : "51 j j y x o M 3 p i o M H H y B i u e BpeMHfei" The p o e t t e l l s t h e r e a d e r t o i m a g i n e p i c t u r e s o f p a s t e v e n t s i n R u s s i a n h i s t o r y . Once t h i s i d e a o f p a i n t i n g m e n t a l p i c t u r e s , as i t w e r e , i s p r o p o s e d , s e v e r a l v i g n e t t e s f r o m R u s s i a n h i s t o r y a r e p r e s e n t e d . A good example o f t h i s i s a 1761 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a b e t h . I n s t a n z a 13, Lomonosov s e t s t h e 149 stage —- he p r e s e n t s p a s t examples of Russian heroism and b r a v e r y . He exhorts the reader to gaze i n t o the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t , f o r t h e r e he w i l l f i n d regiments of v a l i a n t Russians: BO 3 3PHM H a u p e B H H B p e M e H a ! PoccHHCKa noBecTB TeM n o J i H a . yyme H3 TMH H a C B e T BBIXOHHT, 3a H e f t B e / i H K H X n o J i K Myaceil, ^TO H a TeaTp BcecBeTHbin B3BOXT;HT ©fleTbix coJTHe^HOH 3 a p e f i . (#2 60, l i n e s 12 5-13 0) These seven stanzas d e s c r i b e the g l o r i o u s deeds of s e v e r a l former Russian r u l e r s . There are Grand P r i n c e S v i a t o s l a v , the brave w a r r i o r who d e f e a t e d the V i a t i c h i and Kazars; Grand P r i n c e V l a d i m i r , who brought C h r i s t i a n i t y t o R u s s i a ; g r e a t Monomaxht> who caused Byzantium to tremble; f i e r c e Alexander N e v s k i j , who defeated the T e u t o n i c Knights on Lake Chud; Strong D m i t r i , who d e f e a t e d the T a r t a r s on the f i e l d of K u l i k o v o ; Ivan I I I and Ivan IV (the T e r r i b l e ) , who subjugated the Kazan and Astraxan khanates; A l e x i s (the Quiet One),wwhorreturned the Ukraine to the bosom of R u s s i a , and of course, P e t e r the Great and h i s h e r o i c deeds. The Russians are not the only ones t o l d t o imagine p i c t u r e s from the p a s t . In one ode, a f t e r the Swedes are c h i d e d on t h e i r d e f e a t by the Russian army, Stockholm i s urged t o k i s s the sword of E l i z a b e t h as a s i g n of submission (stanza 12). To hasten and encourage such a c t i o n , Lomonosov t e l l s Stockholm to r e c a l l v a r i o u s examples of Russian b r a v e r y (stanza 13) : 150 npHMepbi xpa6pocTH POCCHHCKOH I I p e j j c T a B B T e n e p B B y M e c B o e M j (#27,. l i n e s 121-122) Both Stockholm and the reader are t r a n s p o r t e d to the Black Sea area, where they see Peter the Great and the Azov - r . campaign, and the events of the 1739 Russo-Turkish war. The next s t a n z a i n c l u d e s landscapes i n which the Russians d e f e a t the Swedes at P o l t a v a , and where Swedish p r i s o n e r s of war l a n g u i s h i n c a p t i v i t y somewhere beyond the U r a l mountains, i n S i b e r i a . Lomonosov"s gaze extends across steppes, mountains and bceanseanain tHesehfeheatrieaiidepidfeions^onot 'ortlybclo.esdt-he poetp4o6kluponuexpansjpv.es lands eapes^pbut the p a r t i e i p a n t s - - do,-as w e l l . In s e v e r a l odes, the Russian army soars as an e a g l e over R u s s i a and other n a t i o n s . Two i n s t a n c e s a l r e a d y mentioned are i n the 1739 ode on the takingeoffXetiiiu.. Irina^ -1741 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Ioann I I I , there i s a v i v i d p i c t u r e of the Russian army as a s w i f t f a l c o n s o a r i n g i n h i s a e r i a l kingdom above the enemy. The p i c t u r e o f a v a s t landscape i s d i s t i n c t l y drawn (one a l s o notes here the use of anaphora and the heaping t e c h n i q u e ) : nojj;o6Ho SBICTPOH KaK C O K O J I C, p y K H J I O B I I O B O H B B e p & X H B JJOJT B O f l p 6 B 3 H p a e T CKOpbIM O K O M , H a BCHKOH M a c B 3 J i e T e T b r O T O B , noXHTHTB, T l i e y B H J X H T J I O B B B 0 3 J X y i l I H 0 M i i a p c T B e C B O H U B V J p O K O M , B p a r o B T a x CMOTPHT H a m c oJTJ jaT , B p a r o B , I T O B e ^ f i o H MHP n o n p a j i H , B p a r o B , n o H a m n OK OH CMymaJ iH , B p a r o B , n o H a c n o K p a T B ; XOTHT . (#22, l i n e s 101-110) 151 In a 1750 ode, a n y m p h surveys from e v e r y a s p e c t t h e b e a u t i f u l l y - a d o r n e d m e a d o w s of Tsarskoe S e l o . In the s a m e poem, the empress g a z e s u p o n the broad l a n d s c a p e . From the h e i g h t s of h e r s p l e n d i d t e m p l e s , w h i c h r i s e t o t h e v e r y heavens, E l i z a b e t h looks a b o u t the c o u n t r y s i d e a n d examines e v e r y t h i n g . As i f t h i s broad view were not enough, the c o n t e m p l a t i v e empress i n her t o w e r s resembles a s o a r i n g e a g l e who l o o k s down o n the f i e l d s a n d c i t i e s below: „ B e j i H K O J i e n H b i M H B e p B x a M H B o c x o f l H T x p a M b i K H e 6 e c a M ; H 3 H H X . n p e C B e T J I b l M H O^iaMH E j i H c a B e T C H H e T K H a M j H3 H H X B O B C e C T p a H b l B 3 H p a e T H H a e i x H H e n p e f l C T a B J i n e T Bpy - q e H H H H C B e T nojj C K H n e T p C B O H , F I O H O S H O K a K o p e j i n a p n n p H , O T c a M b i x o 6 J i a K 3 P H T j i e a c a m H noJiH H r p a f l f a i n o f l C O 6 O H " . (#17.6? l i n e s J,131-1.40) An e l e m e n t of t h e a t r i c a l i t y i s e v i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t Lomonosov's p o e m s . His s c e n e s of h o r r o r a n d v i o l e n c e a r e c o n c e i v e d d r a m a t i c a l l y — t h e r e a d e r i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h p a n o r a m i c l a n d s c a p e s f i l l e d w i t h s p e c t a c u l a r d r a m a , v i o l e n c e , c r u e l t y a n d r a g i n g n a t u r e . Not o n l y s o l d i e r s s e e t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of b a t t l e , b u t f r e q u e n t l y i n n o c e n t i n h a b i t a n t s a l s o witness i t . In a 1742 o d e , i n n o c e n t F i n n i s h p e a s a n t s a r e c a u g h t i n t h e war between R u s s i a and Sweden. The people f l e e t h e i r h o m e s and leave t h e i r r i p e n i n g c r o p s . From a h i g h m o u n t a i n they w a t c h the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r p r o p e r t y — the b u r n i n g of t h e i r houses and t h e l o o t i n g o f t h e i r f i e l d s : Ha HUB ax s c a T B y ocTaBJineT O T M e C T H y c T p a i u e H H b i H OHH, H c r o p , o i i e n e H e B , B 3 n p a e T Ha flblM, B C X O f l H I U H H H 3 flOJIHH , Ha M e ^ B f ? H a T O T O B ' obHaaceHHBiH, Ha n u a M e H B , B cexiax B O c n a J i e H H b i H ; TaM HO^IBIO OT noacapoB n e H B , TaM flHeM B nHJiH H o ^ H a n T e H B ; BarpoBHii o 6 n a K B H e 6 e p i j e e T , 3eMJiH noB HHM B KPOBH KpacHeeT. (#27, l i n e s 241-250) In t h e h e r o i c l a n d s c a p e s e v e r y t h i n g i s i n a c t i o n . N o t o n l y Russ.iasis. i n c l u d e d i n t h e p a n o r a m i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s , b u t e v e r y c o r n e r o f t h e e a r t h . T h e r e a r e g l i m p s e s o f I n d i a , C h i n a , t h e N e a r E a s t , and N o r t h A m e r i c a . O f t e n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s s e e k t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e R u s s i a n e m p i r e . The r e a d e r i s t a k e n on a w h i r l w i n d t o u r o f t h e g l o b e . I n l a n d s c a p e s where d e a t h s t a l k s , v o l c a n o e s e r u p t , f i r e s b u r n i n Damascus, C a i r o o r A l e p p o , and g i a n t s r a g e , i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t i r a n d t h a t w h i c h i s p u r e f i c t i o n . The a r t o f t h e t h e a t r e i s n o t o n l y s u s p e n s e and s p e c t a c l e , b u t i t i s a l s o t h e c r e a t i o n o f i l l u s i o n . The e l e m e n t o f i l l u s i o n i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e t h e a t r e , b u t i s f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d i n B a r o q u e p o e t r y . I l l u s i o n i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e a t r i c a l i t y t o be f o u n d i n Lomonosov's poems. The p l a y w i t h i l l u s i o n was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f c o u r t c u l t u r e o f s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E u r o p e . A f f e c t e d m a n n e r i s m s , pomp, o s t e n t a t i o u s w i g s and c l o t h i n g , a r e t y p i c a l o f t h e B a r o q u e Age. When c e l e b r a t i o n s were h e l d a t c o u r t , s u c h as 153 b i r t h d a y s of monarchs or other members of the r o y a l f a m i l y , c o r o n a t i o n s , marriages, and so f o r t h , m u s i c i a n s , a r t i s t s and poets took p a r t i n these events w i t h g r e a t gusto. Pretense and a r t i f i c i a l i t y were accepted modes of behaviour. The emphasis was on a r t i f i c e . Russian c o u r t p o e t r y , r e p r e s e n t e d by P o l o c k i j , T r e d i a k o v s k i j and Lomonosov, was no e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e . The Russian c o u r t of the seventeenth and ei g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s a l s o r e f l e c t e d elements of pomp and a r t i f i c i a l i t y . Lomonosov continued the t r a d i t i o n of over-i d e a l i z a t i o n of r e a l i t y , of i l l u s i o n . In Lomonosov's p o e t r y , R u s s i a i s a country c o n t i n u a l l y favoured by the heavens. I t becomes a b l e s s e d country, where the d i v i n e l y - o r d a i n e d monarchs are v i r t u o u s , brave and benevolent r u l e r s . R u s s i a resembles an i l l u s o r y land where i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between p a r a d i s e and e a r t h — a land where m i l k and honey always flow, where t h e r e are l u s h meadows, where the sun shines e t e r n a l l y — i n s h o r t , where "paradise blooms": I i B e T e T B P O C C H H KpacHOH p a n , n p O C T e p T B O B C e C T p a H f a l UIHPOKO. M j i e n o M H MeflOM H a n o e H H b i , Ty^iHeioT BJiaxcHH 6epera, H, HCHbIM C O J I H U e M O C B e i H e H H b l , C M e i o T C H 3 J i a ^ H b i e Jiyra. C noJiyflHH BeeT jiyx CMHpeHHbiH *Jpe3 n j i o f l 3eMJiH S J i a r o c j i o B e H H H H . (#24, l i n e s 119-126) The p i c t u r e of a land of milk and honey i s repeated s e v e r a l times: 154 HpeBa H i i B e T n o K p b i J i H C B Meinc-M (#28, l i n e 8) H B e T B B H , M e f l O M opouieHHbi (#42, l i n e 55) B H'gBe n p o J i e f i C H , M e j j a C J i a x r o c T B (#21, l i n e 9) I t i s a l w a y s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f R u s s i a as a n e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e w h e r e b u i l d i n g s a n d p a l a c e s a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h g o l d a n d p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , where t h e r e i s an abundance o f e v e r y t h i n g . The 1745 m a r r i a g e o d e ( f o r P e t e r I I I ) b e g i n s b y c o m p a r i n g R u s s i a t o t h e g a r d e n o f Eden w h e r e t h e f i r s t m a r r i a g e ( t h a t o f Adam a n d Eve) t o o k p l a c e : He Ba,n. J I H BHacy H CBHmeHHbift, B EfleMe BbniiHHM H a c a x n e H H H H , Txie n e p B b i H y a a K O H e H 6 p a K ? (#42, l i n e s 1-3) E d e n - l i k e R u s s i a h a s m e a d o w s c o v e r e d w i t h f l o w e r s , c r y s t a l m o u n t a i n s ( K P H C T a J I B H B I r o p B i o K p y i a c a i o T ) , c l e a r r e f r e s h i n g s t r e a m s a n d m i l k y - w h i t e c c b q u d s t h r o u g h w h i c h s h i n e g o l d a n d a z u r e : Mescjjy M J i e ^ H b i M H o6J i aKaMH C H H e T 3 J i a T O H J i a 3 y p B . (#42, l i n e s 49-50) (One n o t e s h e r e t h e u s e o f c o l o u r and m u l t i p l e - s e n s e i m a g e r y , w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . ) E v e r y t h i n g i s b o u n t i f u l a n d s h i n i n g — R u s s i a r e s e m b l e s t h e b e a u t i f u l i s l e o f Ormuz, f a m e d f o r i t s f a n t a s t i c p e a r l s : B n p u r o p K a x 6 B I O T K J H O M H n p o 3 p a ^ H u , C B e p B K a n B c o j i H e ^ H b i x J i y - q a x , H : c b i n J i K ) T -qpe3 J J ; O J I H H H 3 J i a ^ i H B i 1 e M 6J iemeT OpM B C B O H X K p a n x . (#42, l i n e s 127-130) Even the people i n the poems cannot decide i f R u s s i a i s heaven or not. A nymph observes the g l o r i e s and beauty of Tsarskoe S e l o and does not know i f i t was made by heaven or n o t : „To caMo H e 6 o c o 3 H f l a e T HJIH I l e T p o B O H IJmepH B J i a c T b " ? ' " r I'.: 1? 1" (#176,"lines 39-40) L o m o n o s o v c o m p a r e s T s a r s k o e S e l o t o E d e n — i t s f i e l d s r e s e m b l e t h o s e o f h e a v e n , a n d i t i s s u c h a w o n d r o u s p l a c e t h a t e v e n a u t u m n i s a " y o u t h f u l " s e a s o n . I t i s e t e r n a l l y s p r i n g - t i m e : MOH( H C T O I H H K H B e H ^ a e T E f l e M C K O H p a B H a K p a c o T a , VRB, c a n E o r H H H H a c a a w a e T , I Ipoxj iaf lHbi BO3JIK)6HB M e c T a , n o j i H r n e H e 6 y n o r j p a a c a i o T , Ce6n i i B e T a M H H c n e i n p n i O T , He TOKMO H e s c H a n B e c H a , Ho o c e H b T a M O — KJHOCTB rofla; B c e r n a p o c K o m c T B y e T n p H p o f l a , H c K y c c T B O M p y K no6ya<neHa. (#176, l i n e s 61-70) The enemies of R u s s i a a l s o covet t h i s land of milk and honey, the Russian p a r a d i s e . In a 1741 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Ioann I I I , the Swedes are asked i f they were drawn to R u s s i a by i t s miraculous beauty: K ce6e B a c T a 3eMJin B J i e ^ e T , B K O T O P O H Mef l C MJieKOM T e ^ i e T ? (#22, l i n e s 54-55) Lomonosov answers yes, and taunts them to come f o r t h t o h i s Russian p a r a d i s e : Hy.K B n p e j n b j n p o H f l H T e ! H e T H i j ;HBa! B e i j B Bbi n o M T H yxc T a K B Paw. #.#.22 , "L lines-56-57) R u s s i a becomes a land where e v e r y t h i n g i s p o s s i b l e because i t has been favoured by the heavens — a land where not only human b e i n g s , but heavenly and m y t h o l o g i c a l -figures come i n t o motion. I t i s the use of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n f i g u r e s , and o f t e n t h e i r i n t e r m i x t u r e , t h a t we s h a l l now c o n s i d e r . 21„ The C l a s s 1 c a l - C h r i s t i a n Mixture I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o conceive of the Baroque poet o u t s i d e the context of Renaissance c l a s s i c i s m . Baroque poets drew upon the h e r i t a g e of a n t i q u i t y which the Renais-sance d i s c o v e r e d and disseminated. In t h i s l i g h t , Baroque po e t r y can be seen as a development of the Renaissance and not j u s t as a r e a c t i o n t o i t . A n t i q u i t y f o r the Baroque poet d i d not r e p r e s e n t an i d e a l or norm. There i s no riorm f o r the Baroque poet — the Baroque outlook was dynamic, an endless s t r i v i n g which was never completely s a t i s f i e d . I t has a l s o been noted t h a t much of Western European Baroque poetry i s e s s e n t i a l l y C h r i s t i a n i n nature — Baroque poets g l o r i f y both the r u l i n g monarch and AlmightyGGod. On the use of c l a s s i c a l imagery i n Baroque p o e t r y , . Odette de Mourges comments: As.a r u l e Baroque poetry e i t h e r shuns the themes of a n t i q u i t y o r , as i s the case w i t h Saint-Amant or T h e o p h i l e , uses mythology merely as p i c t u r e s q u e and amusing d e c o r a t i o n , which may account f o r i t s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d the o p p o s i t e of C l a s s i c i s m . 157 B i b l i c a l and m y t h o l o g i c a l images abound i n Baroque p o e t r y . They are a l s o found i n Russian p o e t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of P o l o c k i j and Lomonosov. The b l e n d i n g of a n c i e n t [ c l a s s i c a l ] and C h r i s -t i a n mythology i s one t r a i t of the Baroque. Pagan and B i b l i c a l imagery served a s i n g l e r h e t o r i c a l g o a l and became e q u a l i z e d , as i t were, among themselves. T h i s prepared c o n d i t i o n a l - a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r a t i v e n e s s c o n s o l i d a t e s i n Russian Baroque, becoming the p r o p e r t y of p a n e g y r i c s , p o l i t i c a l s c h o o l t h e a t r e and church sermons. The Baroque poet employs c l a s s i c a l imagery as a s t y l i s t i c ornamentation, o f t e n w h i m s i c a l l y and w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r accuracy. G. Highet remarks t h a t f o r Baroque poets " . . . these e v o c a t i o n s and i m i t a t i o n s of c l a s s i c a l m y t h o l o g i c a l symbols . . . seem to serve only as ornament 7 or a d i s p l a y of e r u d i t i o n . " The Baroque poet i s concerned w i t h adding c o l o u r to h i s work. The use of c l a s s i c a l imagery was an e x c e l l e n t d e c o r a t i o n i n p a n e g y r i c a l odes. Although the use of c l a s s i c a l - m y t h o l o g i c a l imagery was not unknown i n Russian poetry b e f o r e Lomonosov, i t was s t i l l f a i r l y new, so t h a t such -images added an e x o t i c touch t o h i s w o r k , — T a l l " the more so as few people i n R u s s i a knew e i t h e r the names or the a l l e g o r i c a l meaning behind them. They were a l s o very e f f e c t i v e , as de co-rat i o n -because they tended to / i d e n t i f y the "„ r o y a l f a m i l y w i t h the s e m i - d i v i n e world of a n c i e n t mythology. In the poetry of Lomonosov one f r e q u e n t l y f i n d s r e f e r e n c e s to c l a s s i c a l gods and goddesses. Often these 158 f i g u r e s are juxtaposed w i t h B i b l i c a l imagery. He seems t o seek an i n t e g r a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n imagery. Throughout the odes, t h e r e are numerous r e f e r e n c e s to the pantheon of c l a s s i c a l d e i t i e s — Mars, B e l l o n a , Diana, H e r a c l e s , Neptune, P l u t o and a host of other m y t h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r s . A 1742 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a b e t h opens w i t h a p l e a s a n t "zephyr" w a f t i n g through the a i r . In the second s t a n z a the reader goes t o Mount Parnassus and f i n d s Homer and Orpheus. S h o r t l y a f t e r the appearance of these c l a s s i c a l f i g u r e s , the reader sees God descend from the heavens t o g l o r i f y the empress. Lomonosov does not h e s i t a t e t o change from the m y t h o l o g i c a l sphere t o the C h r i s t i a n . Indeed, he s a y s , t h a t n ot heaven but .almightyOOfympusoopenedii-tsggate's One notes here the ease with which Lomonosov changes spheres. This' f a c i l e t r a n s i t i o n between d i f f e r e n t worlds i s charac-t e r i s t i c of Baroque p o e t r y . J . M i r o l l o , w r i t i n g about the Baroque poet G. Marino, n o t e s : With s i m i l a r ease the m y t h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r s and p a s t o r a l scene may be transformed at any moment i n t o a l i e n w orlds, without the l e a s t concern f o r j u s t i f y i n g a e s t h e t i c a l l y the j a r r i n g s h i f t s . . With the appearance of God i n the above 1742 ode, Lomonosov takes t o the heavenjy sphere; i n stanzas 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11 God i s pr e s e n t . Thereupon f o l l o w s a s h i f t down t o e a r t h . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s t here i s a s h i f t t o a c l a s s i c a l 1 5 9 m i l i e u ; the Roman P l u t o appears i n stanza 1 9 , and i n sta n z a 2 0 the reader encounters brave A l c i d e s , r e s p l e n d e n t i n the s k i n of a l i o n , and i s giv e n a v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s f e r o c i t y and s t r e n g t h . The wrath of these two i s compared to the wrath of God. I t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t God's wrath w i l l a s s i s t the Russians and be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Swedes: Hapoflta, HbiHe Hay^HTecB, CMOTPH H a cTpauiHy ropflbix K a 3 H B , COK)3bl p a 3 p y u i a T B SJUOflHTeCB , X p a H H T e H C K p e H H K ) n p H H 3 H B J Ha M H o x c e c T B O He ynoBaHTe H TeM He6ec H e pa3flpa>KaHTe: Me^H, WHTBI H K p e n o c T B d e H — npeH B O»BHM THeBOM T H H J 1 B H TJieH : ( # 2 7 , l i n e s 2 0 1 - 2 0 8 ) In the 1 7 4 3 ode on the nameday o f Grand Duke Peter (Peter I I I ) the reader again encounterstitheuU§eo©f thhe c l a s s i c a l - C h r i s t i a n mixture. Once more the opening s t a n z a p r e s e n t s a p a s t o r a l scene w i t h a c a r e s s i n g zephyr: jKoJTg&JieT •••BCe-TEBH-- | H X 3 6 ^ ^ . . ' Od&eMJieT MHTKHH J i y r K p H J i a M H , ( # 2 8 , l i n e s 4 - 5 ) P r e s e n t l y the sun, the eye of heaven (Ho, o HeSec npecBeTJio O K O ) , a r r i v e s . Lomonosov p r a i s e s the s t r e n g t h of Pe t e r which i s f o r t i f i e d by the w i l l of heaven. In sta n z a 7 , the grand duke prays i n church f o r God t o i n t e r c e d e on b e h a l f of Ru s s i a . In s t a n z a : 8 , P e t e r i s compared t o A c h i l l e s and, w i t h him, Rus s i a w i l l become a new Troy:(-IlOJJ H H H y T p o i o B H O B B n p H C T y n H T POCCHHCKHH xpa6pbiH AxHJiJiec, ( # 2 8 , l i n e s 7 1 - 7 2 ) 160 Yet, two l i n e s down, the new A c h i l l e s w i l l be g l o r i f i e d i n a C h r i s t i a n heaven (again a j u x t a p o s i t i o n of s p h e r e s ) : XBanoH B30HfleT K BepBxy He6ec. (#28, l i n e 74) F a r t h e r along i n the same s t a n z a , the bounties o f the Heavenly C r e a t o r w i l l be upon R u s s i a . Throughout the ode the r e i s a mixture of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n r e f e r e n c e s . Stanza 12 r e f e r s t o the i n f i n i t e v a u l t of heaven, and s t a n z a 14 ends w i t h an appeal t o the C r e a t o r and Tsar of i n f i n i t e Heaven, y e t between the s e , i n s t a n z a IS, Neptune r e c o g n i z e s the powers of Peter the Great, and Minerva and Mars p r o c l a i m t h a t P eter was and i s Russia's god: BO3PH H a T p y f l H r p o M K y C J i a B y , I T O C B e T B n e T p e H e x i o x c H o I T H T ; H e n T y H no3Hajr Ero flepxcaBy, C M H H e p B O H CHJIBHBIH Mapc r j i a c H T : „0H Eor, OH Eor TBOH OBIJI, P O C C H H , ." (#28, l i n e s 121-125) This type of c l a s s i c a l - C h r i s t i a n mixture i s very prominent i n Lomonosov's odes. A 1750 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a -beth opens w i t h the poet r a i s e d t o the h e i g h t s of Mount Olympus; from there he sees the l o v e l y bounties of F l o r a . In s t a n z a 2, E l i z a b e t h walks through the f o r e s t s l i k e the b e a u t i f u l Diana: I T O XC ce? flnaHe H n p e K p a c H O H Yace nocnenyio B J i e c a x , (#176, l i n e s 11-12) Lomonosov c a l l s upon a muse to s i n g the g l o r i e s of Tsarskoe S e l o . In s t a n z a 4 an amazed nymph does not know i f heaven 161 or E l i z a b e t h c r e a t e d such a p l a c e . S e v e r a l times R u s s i a i s compared t o Eden and heaven. Interwoven w i t h the r e f e r e n c e s t o God and heaven are images of nymphs and other c l a s s i c a l f i g u r e s . In s t a n z a 16, a r o a r i n g g i a n t , Enceladus, f i g h t s w i t h mighty Zeus. One of the b e s t odes t o i l l u s t r a t e the c l a s s i c a l -C h r i s t i a n mixture i s the 1747 ode c e l e b r a t i n g the ascension of Empress E l i z a b e t h to the throne. Once again, the reader encounters a zephyr — - t h i s time i t i s l i k e n e d t o E l i z a b e t h ' s s o u l : flyuia E H 3 e $ H p a T H i u e (#141, l i n e 19) In the very next l i n e , E l i z a b e t h ' s countenance i s as beau-t i f u l as p a r a d i s e — presumable the p a r a d i s e of a C h r i s t i a n heaven: H 3paK npenpacHee Pan. (#141, l i n e 20) Heavenly i n t e r a c t i o n i s d e p i c t e d i n stanza 3, w i t h God g i v i n g E l i z a b e t h her crown. God appears again i n s t a n z a 7 — t h i s time he sends Peter the Great t o R u s s i a : n o c J i a J i B POCCHK) * I e . n o B e K a , K a K O B H e c J i b i x a H 6HJI OT B e n a . (#141, l i n e s 65-66) Although i t i s God who sends Peter the Great t o d e l i v e r R u s s i a and i t s people, i t i s Mars on the B a t t l e f i e l d and Neptune i n the seas who witness the might of P e t e r : B n O J I H X KpOB a B b l X M a p C CTpaUIHJICH , CBOH Meib B I l e T p o B b i x 3 p n p y K a x , 162 H c TpeneTOM H e n T y H ^HORHSICH. , B3Hpan H a POCCHHCKHH (Jjiar. ( # 1 4 1 , l i n e s 7 1 - 7 4 ) The poem i s s a t u r a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o c l a s s i c a l d e i t i e s — Minerva and P l u t o are found i n the U r a l s , muses are present everywhere, and i n the-, frozen' north' the presence of Boreas becomes apparent along w i t h t h a t of God: X O T H BcerflauiHHMH cHeraMH I IOKpbiTa c e B e p H a C T p a H a , T i j e Mep3JibiMH 6open KpbiJiaMH TBOH B3BeBaeT 3HaMeHa; Ho 6or Meat JIBAHCTHMH ropaMH BejiHK CBOHMH ^ynecaMH: ( # 1 4 1 , l i n e s 1 5 1 - 1 5 6 ) The epitome of the c l a s s i c a l - C h r i s t i a n mixture i s found i n t h i s ode. In the d e s c r i p t i o n of the g r i e f and lamentation a f t e r the death o f P e t e r the Great, not only does a l l R u s s i a sorrow, but even the summits of Parnassus moan. Moreover, w a i l i n g muses guide P e t e r ' s pure s o u l t o the gates of heaven: B e p b X H napHaccKH B O C C T e H a J i H , H My3ta B o n J i e M npoBoacHaJ iH B He6ecHy . r r s e p B npecBeTJibiH nyx. ( # 1 4 1 , l i n e s 9 8 - 1 0 0 ) One f i n d s here a complete i n t e g r a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n spheres. As i s c l e a r , the i n t e r m i x t u r e of imagery i s seen not only i n the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of stanzas imbued w i t h t h e two d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s , but a l s o w i t h i n the stanzas themselves, e v e n i n t h e space of a f e w l i n e s . Lomonosov's use of c l a s s i c a l images i m p l i e s a f a m i l i -a r i t y w i t h a n c i e n t mythology; of course, he uses i t only f o r ornamental or secondary purposes. His main purpose i s t h e g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f God and monarch. A c l a s s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s c r e a t e d by t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f m y t h o l o g i c a l d e i t i e s who t a l k t o e a c h o t h e r o r f r e q u e n t l y s p eak t o t h e R u s s i a n p e o p l e . Y e t t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t i s shown t o be e p h e m e r a l , f o r t h r o u g h o u t h i s poems Lomonosov employs B i b l i c a l images t h a t t r a n s f o r m t h e c l a s s i c a l s e t t i n g — t h e r e a d e r a l w a y s r e t u r n s t o a h e a v e n l y s p h e r e . The c l a s s i c a l e l e m e n t i s n o t t h e e s s e n c e o f Lomonosov's p o e t r y , m e r e l y i t s d e c o r a t i o n — much t h e same as t h e o r d e r i n a B a r o q u e f a g a d e i s n o t s t r u c t u r a l , b u t o n l y d e c o r a t i v e . As a f i n a l comment on L o m o n o s o v 1 s m i x t u r e o f c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n m o t i f s , one n o t e s i n h i s e p i s t l e on t h e u s e o f g l a s s h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d God and t h e c l a s s i c a l d e i t i e s . C l e a r l y Lomonosov was a C h r i s t i a n who b e l i e v e d i n God as t h e Supreme B e i n g . He employed c l a s s i c a l i m a g e r y o n l y t o d e c o r a t e h i s o d e s : He noKa3aJia BceM, MTO HenocTHscHa cnjia EfiHHaro TBopiia Becb MHP c e i l c oTBopmia, I T O Mapc, H e n T V H , 3 e B e c , B e e coHMHme EoroB He CTOHT TyqHbix a c e p T B , H H ) K e nop a c e p T B y JJPOB , I T O ar-HbiioB H BOJIOB xcpeuu epn.T H a n p a c H o : (#191, l i n e s 261-265) H i s l i b e r a l v i e w s on t h e R u s s i a n O r t h o d o x C h u r c h d i d n o t mean t h a t he had a d i s b e l i e f i n God. God i s alw a y s p r e s e n t e d i n a l l H i s m a j e s t y and g l o r y . The m a j e s t i c , t h e g r a n d i o s e e l e m e n t i s t r a c e a b l e on a l l s t y l i s t i c l e v e l s i n Lomonosov's p o e t r y . W i t h t h a t i n mind, we t u r n t o a t h i r d a r e a t o be 164 c o n s i d e r e d under the heading of s p e c t a c l e — namely, d e v i c e s of emphasis and grandiosity.;, I I I . Devices of Emphasis and G r a n d i o s i t y Quite u n l i k e the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c mannerism, the c o l l e c t i v e baroque was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and, t h e r e -f o r e , dominated by ex a g g e r a t i o n , g r e a t n e s s , g l o r y , s u b l i m i t y , power, demonstration, pomp . . . ^  Baroque poetry i s o f t e n d e f i n e d by i t s s p e c t a c l e , i t s love of o s t e n t a t i o n , i t s monumentality. I t has been c a l l e d the grand and m a j e s t i c s t y l e . T h i s grand s t y l e i s d e s c r i b e d by R. Browning: . . . there i s a n o t i c e a b l e s t r i v i n g f o r evermore e l a b o r a t e ornament, expansion, b i z a r r e metaphor, p i l i n g up of noun on noun and phrase on phrase, i n s h o r t , the whole spectrum of r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s i n exuberant excess, what i s known d e r o g a t o r i l y as 'schwulst' or bombast (the swollen s t y l e ) . x ^ Lomonosov's poetry i s a l s o known f o r i t s ornamentation. C i z e v s k i j w r i t e s : "Lomonosov's s t y l e i s marked by i t s r i c h ornamentation which the next c l a s s i c i s t g e n e r a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d 'overloaded' and an encumbrance." 1 1 J . B u c s e l a remarks: Yet . . . Lomonosov does not seem t o f i t i n t o the framework of C l a s s i c i s m . Calm, c l a r i t y , p o l i s h and symmetry, so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of C l a s s i c i s m and Renaissance, are not what we f i n d i n Lomonosov's p o e t r y . x ? Even those c r i t i c s r e l u c t a n t t o admit t o any Baroque elements i n h i s poetry g e n e r a l l y mention Lomonosov's hyperbole,, h i s grandiose p r e s e n t a t i o n , or h i s p i l i n g o f image upon image. 165 S. B o n d i c h a r a c t e r i z e s Lomonosov's s t y l e a s : . . . h e a v y , h a v i n g s e v e r a l r a t h e r h e a v y i s h , g u s t y , f u l l m e t a p h o r s , p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , a l l e g o r y , t h e p i l i n g up o f h y p e r b o l e on h y p e r b o l e , c o m p a r i s o n on c o m p a r i s o n and . . . c o n t r a s t i n g i m a g e s . ^ Lomonosov u s e s s e v e r a l d e v i c e s f o r e m p h a s i s and g r a n d i o s i t y . A common o p i n i o n i s t h a t B a r o q u e c o n f r o n t s t h e w o r l d by f e e l i n g ( p a t h o s ) , n o t by r e a s o n ( l o g o s ) . U n l i k e Sumarokov, who b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p o e t s h o u l d n o t be g u i d e d . by e x a l t e d and i m p a s s i o n e d i n s p i r a t i o n , b u t by d i g n i f i e d and r e s t r a i n e d g o od s e n s e , Lomonosov p l a c e d g r e a t emphasis on p a s s i o n he b u i l t h i s p o e t i c s on p a s s i o n s . I n h i s R h e t o r i c (1748), he w r i t e s : P r o f o u n d r e a s o n i n g and arguments a r e n o t so m o v i n g <;(tastfcoaarous.e t h e p a s s i o n s ) and t h e y c a n n o t i n f l a m e t h e p a s s i o n s ; f o r t h i s , r e a s o n must be b r o u g h t down f r o m i t s h i g h s e a t t o t h e s e n s e s and must be u n i t e d w i t h them s o t h a t i t may be s e t a f l a m e w i t h p a s s i o n . x ^ T h r o u g h o u t h i s poems, o n e . i s c o n t i n u a l l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h Lomonosov's p a s s i o n , w i t h t h e e c s t a s y o f t h e p o e t . He i s f r e q u e n t l y i n r a p t u r e o r i n e c s t a s y . H i s r a p t u r e s o a r s t o t h e h e i g h t s , i t c a r r i e s h i m a l o f t . H i s f i r s t ode, t h e 1739 poem on t h e c a p t u r e o f X o t i n , opens w i t h t h e p o e t b e i n g s e i z e d by a s u d d en r a p t u r e t h a t l e a d s him t o a h i g h m o u n t a i n — t h a t i s , Mount P a r n a s s u s : B o c T o p r B H e 3 a n H b i f t yM njreHHJi, BejieT Ha B e p t x ropbi BHCOKOH, ( # 4 $ , l i n e s ^ l - 2 J ' T h i s r a p t u r e , t h i s e c s t a s y , i s r e p e a t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s : H MOH OTpaflbl nOJJHblH VM, BOCXHTHB T e M , B B O C T O p r npHBOJXHT. (#24, l i n e s 19-20) His s p i r i t soars to the ends of the e a r t h , i t i s f a s c i n a t e d , enraptured: MOH nyx T e ^ e T K n p e j j e j i a M C B e T a , ft OXOTOH xpafipHx next njieHeH, B BocTopre 3 P H T r p H f l y m H x i e T a (#28, l i n e s 81-83) There are s e v e r a l poems where Lomonosov swoons i n g l o r i o u s r a p t u r e . A f e w m o r e examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s . In h i s e p i c on P e t e r the Great: H noJioH p e B H O C T H cneuiHT B BocTopre j j y x (#256,lline. 11) An ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a b e t h concludes w i t h a command to h i s enraptured s p i r i t to r e j o i c e : K p a c y n c H , j j y x MOH BocxHtaeHHbiH (#27, l i n e 431) In the 1745 m a r r i a g e o d e f o r t h e f u t u r e P e t e r I I I , a l l the poet's senses a r e l i f t e d t o e c s t a s y : BocTopr B e e l y B C T B a BocxHinaeT! (#42, l i n e 57) Or i n another ode d e d i c a t e d to Empress E l i z a b e t h , h i s b l i s s b e c o m e s so; o v e r w h e l m i n g t h a t i t i s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o h i m : Enaix-aHCTiiO iscBJi'a^eHCTBOTMBiGJiHM HenoHHTHo! (#176, l i n e 18) Lomonosov i s not t h e only person to sense sweet r a p t u r e . Sometimes not j u s t one person, but everyone p r e s e n t e f f u s e s such a f e e l i n g . In a 1750 ode, Empress E l i z a b e t h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such r a p t u r e : Ho H C T H H H O neTpoBa fliqepB K HayKaM MaTepcKH C H H C X O H H T , m e f l p O T O K ) B B O C T O p r n p H B O f l H T . (#176, l i n e s 24-26) In a 1752 ode, nymphs i n sweet e c s t a s y p r o c l a i m Empress E l i z a b e t h : C e p n i i a M H noHflyT H y c T a M H B BocTopre onaflKOM B03rjiacHT. (#i89Q,lin:es38IET82) In the e p i c o n P e t e r the Great, the A r c h i m a n d r i t e of the S o l o v e t s k i j Monastery r a p t u r o u s l y g r e e t s the v i s i t i n g monarch Ha B C T p e ^ y c J I H K O M tope y c e p f l C T B y n c n e u i H T H, TOCTH OCeHHB , B BOCTOpre r O B O p H T ' S i (#256, l i n e s 239-240) Not only do human beings soar i n e c s t a s y , inanimate o b j e c t s a s w e l l undergo the d e l i g h t s o f joyous r a p t u r e . H i l l s and i s l a n d s become enraptured: 0 X O J I M B I KpacHbie H O C T P O B H 3exteHH, KaK paflOBanHCB B H , - C H M CT:acT&eM BocxHmeHHbi! (#256, l i n e s 57-58) Yet Lomonosov does not always bask i n e c s t a s y , h e i s not always s e i z e d by r a p t u r e . Often h i s sweet p a s s i o n i s s e t on edge, i t i s d i s t u r b e d . He i s enveloped by s a c r e d t e r r o r : CBHineHHfaiH yxcac M H C J I B o6"beMJieT! (#27, l i n e 41) His p l e a s a n t dreams and sweet e c s t a s y are d r i v e n away: ^ T O T O J I b n p H H T H M H C O H cMymaeT, 168 B o c T o p r n p e c j i a f l K H H TOHHT n p o ^ B , H I T O c n o K O H H y 6 p a H b C K p b i B a e T H OTBpamaeT H C H y HOTB? (#27, l i n e s 401-404) He i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h l o u d n o i s e s and b r i g h t f l a s h e s . H i s s e n s e s a r e s t a r t l e d and he becomes amazed: K a K H M HeodbraaHHtJM T p e c K O M . KaKHM MOJI HH e B H flHfcJM 6J ieCKOM BOCXHTHJICH B H e 3 a n H o y M ? (#1899/, lihess88-90) T h i s l o u d n o i s e i s e n c o u n t e r e d f r e q u e n t l y i n h i s poems: I T O r p o M K O B c j i y x MOH ynapneT? (#232, l i n e 88) I t i s n o t u n u s u a l f o r h i m t o be. f r i g h t e n e d a n d t e r r i f i e d : ^ T O T a K TeCHHT 6 0 H 3 H b MOH flyx? Xj ia f lHe ioT acHJrta, c e p j j j i e H o e T ! ^ T O 6 b e T 3 a C T p a H H O H i n y M B MOH c j i y x ? . (#4, l i n e s ' 81-83)-More f r e q u e n t l y , t h o u g h , Lomonosov d e s c r i b e s j o y o u s p a s s i o n s o r t h e s e n s a t i o n o f z e a l and d e v o t i o n . The s e c t i o n on v i o l e n c e h a s a l r e a d y shown t h a t he . r e p e a t e d l y i t e l l s i i t K e r e a d e r how t h e R u s s i a n army, t h e R u s s i a n p e o p l e a r e r e a d y t o s a c r i f i c e t h e i r b l o o d f o r t h e c o u n t r y and t h e i r m o n a r c h . He c o n s t a n t l y e x h o r t s e v e r y o n e and e v e r y t h i n g t o r e j o i c e . I n a 1752 ode he t e l l s R u s s i a t o r e j o i c e , t o i n c r e a s e t h e a r d o u r o f i t s h e a r t : K p a c y H T e c B , macTJiHBbi npeBejibi, B c e p f l u a x y c y r y 6 J i H H T e x<ap. (#189, l i n e s 6-7) He t e l l s t h e r i v e r s o f R u s s i a t o r e j o i c e , t o b e g a y : JlHKyHTe c B e T J i o , B e c e J i H T e c b (#189, l i n e 75) 169 In another ode, the lakes are to r e j o i c e . A l l nature i s d e l i g h t e d , R i v e r s applaud. E v e r y t h i n g becomes joyous: Ho X O J I M H H npeBa cKa^HTe, JlHKyHTe, M H o s c e c T B a 0 3 e p , P y K a M H , p e K H , BocnJieinHTe, (#27, l i n e s 251-253) Lomonosov d e s c r i b e s the people as j o y f u l and r e j o i c i n g throughout R u s s i a : y»C C p a f l O C T b K ) JIK>6OBB cor - J i a c H o Be3fle JiHKyioT 6e3onacHo. Beer.o Hapona -Be 'cej iBii iyM, (#24, l i n e s 15-17) In h i s poems the reader encounters people i n f l a m e d by j o y , s i g h i n g w i t h love and tenderness. One f i n d s sweet l o v e , h e a r t s f e r v e n t l y l o n g i n g , impassioned people s i g h i n g , happiness s p r e a d i n g over the l a n d : K a K a H c j i a f l o c T b JiBeTCH B K P O B B ? B npHHTHOM s cape cepuue T a e T i He TyT J I H iiapcTByeT JIK>6OBB? (#42, l i n e s 58-60) . The two most o u t s t a n d i n g examples of p a s s i o n found i n Lomonosov's work are two odes d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a b e t h . In the 1742 ode, s t a n z a 33 i s a m a s t e r l y p i c t u r e of h e i g h t -ened p a s s i o n (at the same time, one should a l s o note the c o n t r a s t and j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n t h i s passage): Lomonosov i s seized.'with a b u r n i n g des-' .e, fri"jht*?n s e i z e d w i t h a b u r n i n g d e s i r e , f r i g h t e n i n g thunder b l a z e s , a s t r o n g f o r c e f r i g h t e n s h i s h e a r t , gentleness e n l i v e n s i t . Fear and courage are mentioned, and he c l o s e s with a marvellous l i n e on c o n f l i c t i n g p a s s i o n s : KaKan 6 o i j p a H p p e M O T a 170 O T K p b l J i a MblCJTH H B H b l H C O H ? Eme r o p H T BO M H e o x o i a TopHCeCTBeHHblH B 0 3 B B I C H T B TOH . M H e B f l p y r y a c a c H b i H r p o M g j i H C T a e T , H K y n H O H C H b l H fleHb C H f l e T ! T o c e p f l i i e c H J T B H a B j i a c T B c T p a u i H T , T O K P O T O C T B OHOe 5KHBHT, To 6ojippcTB C T p a x , TO C T p a x T y KJIOHHT: I I pOTHBHa C T p a C T B n p O T H B H y TOHHT! (#27, l i n e s 321-330) ( N o t e a l s o t h e f o u r f o l d a n a p h o r a o f TO.) I n t h e 1752 o d e , t h e r e a d e r e n c o u n t e r s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c a t a l o g u e o f t h e p a s s i o n s t h a t e v e r y o n e f e e l s u p o n r e a l i z i n g t h e t r i a l s a n d t e r r o r s u n d e r g o n e b y E m p r e s s E l i z a b e t h . T h e l i n e o n c o n f l i c t i n g p a s s i o n s i s r e p e a t e d . ( A l s o t o b e n o t e d h e r e i s t h e p i l i n g t e c h n i q u e — i n t h i s c a s e , a c l e a r e x a m p l e o f a s y n d e t o n . ) : I T O HOJDKHO OHOH n o H a c J i e j J C T B y r e p o H C T B O M B 0 3 M o r j r a JJOTTH, K a K O M y TBI n o f l B e p r j r a c B 6 e J J C T B y . M o H a p x H H H , MTO6 H a c c n a c T H . MBI l a c TOT HbiHe n p e f l C T a B J i H e M ; I I p e j j c T a B H B, BHe ce6n S b i BaeM. Ha/jejKJja, p a j a o c T B , c T p a w , JHOSOBB KHBHT , K p e n H T , n e ^ a j i H T , KJIOHHT, I I pOTHBHa C T p a C T B n p O T H B H y T O H H T . T y c T e e T H KHIIHT B H a c KPOBB! (#189, l i n e s 211-220) C l e a r l y L o m o n o s o v u s e s h i s r a p t u r e , h i s p a s s i o n t o s e r v e a p u r p o s e . T h e g o a l o f s u c h p a s s i o n - f i l l e d l i n e s i s t o r o u s e t h e p e o p l e , t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i r b r a v e r y , t o i n s t i l l i n t h e m a l o v e f o r m o n a r c h a n d c o u n t r y . C o m m e n t i n g o n t h e u s e o f p a s s i o n i n B a r o q u e p o e t r y , R. B r o w n i n g n o t e s : P o e t r y t o o w a s t h o u g h t o f a s a w a y o f i n f l u e n c i n g a c t i o n , t h o u g h t h a t a c t i o n m i g h t b e l a r g e l y i n w a r d , emotional. The aim of p o e t r y , l i k e t h a t of o r a t o r y , was p e r s u a s i o n , the w i n n i n g o v e r of h e a r t and m i n d . 1 ^ C l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h Lomonosov's p a s s i o n i s the i d e a of " l y r i c a l d i s o r d e r . " . C i z e v s k i j c o m m e n t s : "The a r r a n g e m e n t of the whole t e x t of the ode was intended t o convey e n t h u s i -asm and e c s t a s y and t h e r e f o r e a ' l y r i c a l d i s o r d e r ' r e i g n s i n 1 fi the g r e a t e r p a r t of each ode." " L y r i c a l d i s o r d e r " i s a r a p i d and unexpected l e a p i n g from s u b j e c t to s u b j e c t — so t h a t the reader has d i f f i c u l t y keeping e v e r y t h i n g i n proper p e r s p e c t i v e . F r e q u e n t l y , there seems to be no a p p a r e n t c o n n e c t i o n between the m a i n theme and the d i f f e r e n t u n r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s i n t r o d u c e d . A. Angyal s u g g e s t s t h a t a s Lomonosov's p o e t i c t e m p e r a m e n t f r e q u e n t l y t u r n s t o e c s t a s y , s o h i s . 1 7 l o g i c a l development o f i d e a s turns i n t o l y r i c a l d i s o r d e r . This r e s u l t s i n a s e r i e s o f d i s c o n n e c t e d images, r e m i n i s -c e n c e s and t h o u g h t s . Lomonosov o f t e n r u s h e s f r o m one i m a g e t o a d i f f e r e n t one. In a 1750 ode h e p r a i s e s the g l o r i e s o f Tsarskoe S e l o , t h e n j u m p s t o a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s ( m o n s t e r s ) f o u n d throughout a n t i q u i t y . He r e f e r s t o the E g y p t i a n pyramids and the p a l a c e o f the l e g e n d a r y A s s y r i a n q u e e n , Semiramis. E v i d e n t l y h e was a l s o r e f e r r i n g t o the Tower o f Babel: K a K e c T b J i H 3 f l a H H e M npeKpacHbiM YMHOXCHTb H O J I 5 K H O 3 B e 3 f l M H C J I O , C03Be 3flHeM H B J I H T b C H H C H b l M HOCTOHH'O CapcKoe cejio. ^yHOBHiua, I T O j i e r K O B e p H H M P a i e H B e M n p e B H o c T B H 6e3MepHbiM 172 IIOJJHHB H a T B e p J X b , B M e C T H J i a T a M , Y K p o H T e c B 3 a n p e j j e j i u c B e T a : Ce 3H )Kf leT 3necB E j i n c a B e T a K p a c y , npHJTH^Hy H e S e c a M . B e J I H K H H CeMHpaMHiTBI P a c c b i n a H H a o K p y a c H o c T B c T e H , H BBI, o r o p / J B i n HpaMHJJBI, *IeM HHJIBCKHH 6per O T H r o m e H , (#176, l i n e s 111-124) In a n o t h e r ode, he l e a p s f r o m China t o the Near E a s t and then t o t h e Indian Ocean, a l l i n the space o f s i x l i n e s . He d e p i c t s a p i c t u r e of the Great W a l l o f China t r e m b l i n g i n f e a r , t h e r o a r i n g N i l e a n d T i g r i s l o s i n g t h e i r w a y s , a n d a f a n t a s t i c i m a g e o f m y t h o l o g i c a l T r i t o n s t r u m p e t i n g i n t h e o c e a n : E O H 3 H B T p H C e T XHH e H C K H C T e H b l , r e OH H T H r p T e p n i o T n y T & , nojj r o p B i J I & I O T C H , n O J T H B I n e H B l i B c e r j j a n i H e H BCTOK He C M e e T flyTB. HHXTHHCKHX T p y 6 H T BOJJ TPHTOHBI npejj T e M , I T O HM j j a e T 3 a K O H B i . OH C K H I I T p CKJIOHHJI C p e f l H B a J I O B , (#21, l i n e s 161-167) The n a m e d a y ode d e d i c a t e d t o the f u t u r e Tsar Peter I I I w i l l s e r v e a s a f i n a l e x a m p l e . In i t , Lomonosov d e s c r i b e s the f u t u r e of the y o u n g h e i r to the t h r o n e . He i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s m o l d e r i n g p e a k s o f L e b a n o n , i m a g e s o f Joshua a n d Samson, a p i c t u r e of the Euphrates f l o w i n g b a c k w a r d , Phison r o a r i n g , Baghdad b l a z i n g a n d m o u n t a i n s f l e e i n g i n t o t h e s e a : B B o c T o p r e 3 P H T r p a n y m H j i e T a H r p 0 3 H B I H flpeBHHX B H f l B p e M e H : 173 XOJIMOB J l H B a H C K H X B e p B X IJBIMHTCH ! TaM HaBBHH HJIB CaMnCOH C T p e M H T C H I T e K V T C T p y H E B $ p a T C K H B C I I f l T b ! OH TurpoB ^ e J i M C T H T e p 3 a e T , BoJiHaM vs. BHXPHM 3 a n p e m a e T , BejiHT JiyHe vs cojiHiiy CT aTB. OHCCOH m y M H T , B a r n a f l r i b i J i a e T , TaM B o n J i B H 3 B y K H B B03ij;yx 6BK)T, ACCHPCKH CTeHBi orHB Tep3aeT, H TaBp, H K a B K a 3 B n o H T 6 e r y T . (#28, l i n e s 83-94) I t i s c l e a r t h a t h e l e a p s r a p i d l y f r o m i m a g e t o s u c c e s s i v e i m a g e . O f t e n t h e s e d i s c o n n e c t e d p i c t u r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d h y p e r b o l i c a l l y . A n o t h e r o r n a m e n t a l d e v i c e l i n k e d w i t h t h e a t r i c a l i t y i s h y p e r b o l e , a c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e t o e x a g g e r a t e . L o m o n o s o v ' s R h e t o r i c n o t o n l y s u p p o r t s t h e u s e o f p a s s i o n i n p o e t r y , b u t a l s o r e c o m m e n d s t h e u s e o f l u s h o r n a m e n t a t i o n ; i t c a l l s f o r m a g n i f i c e n c e ( v e l i k o l e p i e ) arid f o r r i c h n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n ( " i z o b i l i e ) . Lomonosov wants t o overwhelm t h e r e a d e r . He c h o o s e s t o . e x p r e s s h i m s e l f m o r e f o r c e f u l l y t h a n t h e i d e a r e a l l y r e q u i r e s . T h e r e a r e examples o f h y p e r b o l e i n a l l h i s o d e s . T h e l i t e r a r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e p a s s a g e s d e r i v e s d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e i r e x a g g e r a t i o n . I t i s t h e o v e r e m p h a s i s i n t h e s e p a s s a g e s t h a t m a k e s t h e m m e m o r a b l e . T h e r e a r e h y p e r b o l i c d e s c r i p t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t h i s w o r k . — f a n t a s t i c p i c t u r e s o f d y n a m i c n a t u r e , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f w a r , t h e g l o r i e s o f m o n a r c h a n d o f God. One f a c e t o f t h e B a r o q u e Age was t h a t a r t i s t s f r e q u e n t l y i n d u l g e d i n s e r v i l e , h y p e r b o l i c f l a t t e r y o f a r u l i n g m o n a r c h . F o r e x a m p l e , t h i s . 1 7 4 can b e f o u n d i n M a l h e r b e ' s p r a i s e s o f t h e F r e n c h r o y a l f a m i l y . Lomonosov, l i k e P o l o c k i j b e f o r e him, w r o t e odes t h a t g l o r i f i e d t h e R u s s i a n r o y a l f a m i l y i n t h e same manner. A l l h i s odes g l o r i f y a t s a r , an e m p r e s s , a g r a n d duke o r d u c h e s s o r some member o f t h e R u s s i a n r u l i n g f a m i l y . I n f a c t , t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s p o e t r y i s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e f i v e monarchs who r e i g n e d i n R u s s i a between 1 7 3 9 and 1 7 6 5 . He employs s e v e r a l r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e v i r t u e s , g l o r y , b e a u t y , b r a v e r y and s o f o r t h o f members o f t h e r o y a l f a m i l y . N a t u r a l l y , he employs h i s p o e t i c s k i l l t o f u r t h e r t h e c a u s e he b e l i e v e s i n — h i s p o l i t i c a l g o a l i s t h e a g g r a n d i s e m e n t o f R u s s i a and i t s a i u l e r s . I n t h e o d e s , t h e r u l i n g house i s a l w a y s g l o r i f i e d . The t s a r ' s h o u s e i s s t u p e n d o u s — i t becomes e v e r y t h i n g f o r him, h i s h o p e , j o y , and s o on: Hafleacfla, CBGT P O C C H H B c e f l , B Te6e mejjpoTa BOHCBH 3 PHTCH, ( # 2 3 , l i n e s 2 5 - 2 6 ) nopojjBi UapcKOH BeTBB npeKpacHa, MOH HaflejKjja, PaxiocTB, CBeT, ( # 2 1 , l i n e s 2 1 - 2 2 ) TBoe KOJIB, PypHK, nJieMH cJiaBHo! KOJIB M H e TBOH noJie3Ha KPOBB! ( # 2 1 , l i n e s 1 4 3 - 1 4 4 ) No m a t t e r w h i c h monarch he a d d r e s s e s t h e y a r e t h e most g l o r i o u s , t h e most p r a i s e w o r t h y , and n o t o n l y do t h e p e o p l e . r e c o g n i z e and p r a i s e them f o r t h e i r g o o d n e s s , b u t God t o o shows an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e R u s s i a n r u l i n g h o u s e . God 175 wants t h e monarchs t o p r o s p e r and i n c r e a s e i n number: B c e r o KOTOPOH C B e T a KpyroM flOCTOHH TOJIB , K a K Tbi, BJiaijeTb . flan E o r , flparo ^TO6 Bame njieMH Bo MHe n p o c T e p j i o c b B Be^iHO BpeMH H BaM CblHOBHHX BHVKOB 3peTb. (#21, l i n e s 206-210) The p o e t e n t r e a t s God t o g i v e t h e f u t u r e C a t h e r i n e t h e G r e a t an h e i r : 0 He6o, npeflBapH c y ; x b 6 H H y , CHaSiJCH njroflOM EKaTepHHy! BHVUIH HapoflOB MHornx r j i a c ! (#189, l i n e s 198-200) He p l e a d s w i t h God i n o r d e r t h a t t h e g l o r i e s o f P e t e r t h e G r e a t may l i v e on i n h i s d e s c e n d a n t s : 0 Eoxce , KpenKHft BceflepxcHTeJib! n O f l a H , * I T 0 6 P O C C O B O S H O B H T e J I b B noTOMKax B e i H o XCHJI CBOHX. (#42, l i n e s 191-193) The p e o p l e a l s o i n t e r c e d e w i t h . G o d f o r t h e R u s s i a n t h r o n e . I n a l l t h e c i t i e s and v i l l a g e s o f R u s s i a , t h r o u g h o u t t h e A s i a n s t e p p e s , t h e p e o p l e e n t r e a t God t o g r a n t e t e r n i t y t o t h e r u l i n g h o u s e : KaK E o r npoflJTHT * i p e 3 B e i H o B p e M H Itpaacafiiuee I l e T p o B O n j i e M H , m a C T J I H B a XCH3HB H HaniHx ^ a i j : (#42, l i n e s 154-156) Or:S KpenHT OTe^ecTBa jiio6oBb CHHOB POCCHHCKHX flyx H p y K y ; ) K e j i a e T BCHK n p o J i H T b BCK> KPOBB, (#4, l i n e s 31-33) The ; monarch ^ n l i y . * n s s >ber s n ' - j e c t s a n d .gives • -t'aera; The monarch e n l i v e n s h e r s u b j e c t s and g i v e s them renewed 176 s t r e n g t h . The people who share i n t h e i r m o n a r c h ' s g l o r y , w a n t t o s h e d b l o o d f o r t h e i r r u l e r s . R u s s i a h e r s e l f e x h o r t s the empress t o n u r t u r e her people, a n d f o r such n u m e r o u s k i n d n e s s e s a n d a b u n d a n t g e n e r o s i t y t h e y g l a d l y s h e d t h e i r b l o o d : B C H K K P O B B CBOKD n p O J I H T B T O T OB , 3a M H O r H f l TBOH fl06pOTBI H K nOJXflaHHBIM TBOHM IHejjpOTBI. (#27, l i n e s 274-276) I f i t i s n o t t h e i r b l o o d t h e y a r e r e a d y to s h e d , i t becomes s o m e t h i n g e l s e they a r e w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e : E O J K e C T B e H H B I E H me/jpoTBi K ^eiviy H e M o r y T H a M OXOTBI H CHJI Heno,6;ejxHMbix j j a T B ? t # i 8 9 " ^ M ; h e s M.28-fr3Q).s F r e q u e n t l y Lomonosov e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h e m o n a r c h he p r a i s e s h a s b e e n b'orn or s e n t f o r t h e g l o r y of R u s s i a , h a s b e e n s e n t f o r t h e d e l i v e r a n c e a n d s a l v a t i o n of Russ i a , h a s b e e n s e n t f o r the n e w l i f e a n d joy of t h e p e o p l e . The p e o p l e s h o u t l o n g l i f e t o E l i z a b e t h , b o r n f o r t h e ;g_lory o f R u s s i a : H H M H O r O K p a T H O nOBTOpHIOT : „JJ,a 3 J j p a B C T B y e T E J i n c a B e T , JJjia POCCKOH anaBBi flHecb poacjjeHHa, fla S y j j e T C B H i n e y K p e n j i e H H a y p e 3 M H O T C C T B O IUaCTJTHBHX J i e T 1 ' . (#44, l i n e s 136-140) The m e r i t s of the e m p r e s s e n l i v e n the people: TaK HbiHe M H J I O C T B H JIK ) 6 0 B B , H c B e T J i b i H fliqepn B 3 0 P I l e T p O B O H H a C KH3HBK) O K H B J I H e T H O B O H . (#27, l i n e s 318-320) 1 7 7 The monarch was g i v e n f o r t h e j o y o f t h e p e o p l e . B l e s s e d i s t h e y e a r , day and h o u r she came: BjiasceH TOT r o f l , TOT fleHB H q a c , Ko r « a FocnoflB ymeflpHJi Hac, n o f l a B Ee H a M H a y T e x y H Bce x TpynoB MOHX K y c n e x y " , ( # 2 7 , l i n e s 3 4 7 - 3 5 0 ) W h a t e v e r t h e monarch does b e n e f i t s R u s s i a : MoHapxHHH, KOJIB SJiar c o B e i IDIH P O C C O B BBHIIHHH HO6POTBI! ( # 2 6 0 , l i n e s 3 - 4 ) The monarch i n c r e a s e s l e a r n i n g i n t h e c o u n t r y : HBJIHHI? n o EjiHcaBeTa B P O C C H H y c y r y 6 H T C B e T a flepxcaBOH H B e H i i e M CBOHM. ( # 4 4 , l i n e s 5 5 - 5 7 ) The p e o p l e a r e r e a d y t o s a c r i f i c e y e a r s f r o m t h e i r own l i v e s s o t h a t t h e i r monarch c a n c o n t i n u e t o b l e s s n o t o n l y R u s s i a , b u t t h e e n t i r e w o r l d : n r o c n o f l B y i q e p 6 o M H a u m x flHen YMHOSCB T B O H H p a x c a H i i i H j i e i a K OTpane H 3anjHTe c B e i a ! " ( # 2 7 , l i n e s 4 0 8 - 4 1 0 ) Lomonosov a f f i r m s t h e c o n c e p t t h a t g l o r y t o t h e monarch e q u a l s g l o r y t o t h e f a t h e r l a n d . He b e l i e v e s t h a t o n l y t h e r o y a l f a m i l y c a n b r i n g g l o r y t o R u s s i a : EjiHcaBeTBi noJirn JieTa npn6aBHT OT^en cJiaBe CBeTa. ( # 2 3 , l i n e s 9 5 - 9 6 ) In another ode, anthropomorphized t e c h n i c a l progress r i s e s i n honour of the monarch who so g l o r i f i e s R u s s i a : 178 H3 r o p Hcce^eHHbi KOJIOCCH, MexaHHKa, TH B v e d b B O 3 B H C B MoHapxaM, OT KOTOPHX P O C C H IlOfl COJIHlteM C J i a B O H B 0 3 H e C J I H C B ; (#176, l i n e s 181-184) Lomonosov's p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e becomes c l e a r . He s p e a k s f o r t h e g l o r y o f t h e R u s s i a n s t a t e and o f i t s m onarchs. W h a t e v e r and whoever g l o r i f i e s a R u s s i a n monarch a u t o m a t i -c a l l y h e r a l d s t h e g l o r y o f t h e R u s s i a n s t a t e . F o r Lomonosov, s t a t e and monarch a r e i n s e p a r a b l e . Commenting on t h i s , J . B u c s e l a r e m a r k s t h a t i n Lomonosov's p o e t r y . . . t h e r u l e r o f a c o u n t r y i s more t h a n j u s t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e S t a t e ; he i s t h e a c t u a l embodiment o f t h e i d e a s and i d e a l s , c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y , hopes and a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e he r e p r e s e n t s . T h u s , when Lomonosov p r a i s e d a R u s s i a n monarch, he was a c t u a l l y g l o r i f y i n g R u s s i a ' s g r e a t n e s s and h e r g l o r i o u s f u t u r e . i 8 Lomonosov, l i k e most c o u r t p o e t s , o p e r a t e d w i t h i n a p r e s c r i b e d manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . L. N e l s o n , i n The B a r o q u e L y r i c , b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h i s t r a d i t i o n : N a t u r a l l y , i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( c o u r t s , s a l o n s ) where p o e t r y f u n c t i o n e d above a l l as e n t e r t a i n m e n t , manner f a r o u t w e i g h e d s u b s t a n c e i n i m p o r t a n c e and l e d t o a k i n d o f h i g h l y a r t i f i c i a l e x h i b i t i o n i s m o f w i t and w o r d . 1 ^ Lomonosov a t t e m p t s v i r t u o s i t y i n h i s f l a t t e r i n g h y p e r b o l i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e a c h monarch, y e t o f t e n he r e p e a t s h i m s e l f i n h i s i m a g e r y and p r e s e n t a t i o n s . T h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r -e n c e between t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f E l i z a b e t h and GatRer'inevII-:; 179 vs. ,Hapo,rry ,rpy.6ocTb , ' y M f l r q a e T ' v . . and HyuiH H T e j i a K p a c o T a . . . v s . nyiiiK H T e j i a K p a c o T o f t . . . Lomonosov knows no r e s t r a i n t i n his hyperbolic g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f Russian m o n a r c h s . They a r e c a p a b l e o f anything. Sometimes Lomonosov's presentation surpasses the i m a g i n a t i o n . In a 1741 ode t o Empress Elizabeth, h e w r i t e s that i n o r d e r for misfortune t o leave Russia, t h e p e o p l e a n d country worked for only one t h i n g — the b i r t h o f Elizabeth: OnacHocTb M o s e T B n p e f l b n p o 3 p H T b H T o e B e e y n p a B H T b 3 H a e i , B c e f i j a e H b C T a p a j i a c b TO I H H H T B , B i e M i q a c T b H B e p x ce6n H B J i H e T , T O T O B O I T O ZVIH H a i i i H X J i e T , ^TOe H a M yHTH O T JJaJIbHHX 6e/j, B O f l H O M JIHUIb T O J I b K O T O M T p y f l H J i a C b , ^ T o d b i E j i H c a B e T p o f l H J i a c b . (#23, l i n e s 17-24) Or i n a n o t h e r ode t o Empress Elizabeth, h e writes t h a t i f t h e a n c i e n t s h a d k n o w n o f her bounteous g e n e r o s i t y a n d e x t r a o r d i n a r y b e a u t y , t h e y would h a v e offered s a c r i f i c e s i n t h e i r t e m p l e s t o h e r i m a g e : Korfls C'~-' flper Korna 6u / j peBHH B e K H 3HaJiH TBOKI njejipoTy c KpacoToft, Torjja. 6H atepTBoil noMHTajra r i p e K p a c H b i H B x p a M e o 6 p a 3 T B O H . (#27, lines 411-414) He heaps praise o n Russian monarchs. They b u i l d , conquer, a s t o n i s h , r i s e l i k e t h e s u n a n d protect. The o p e n i n g l i n e s o f his epic on Peter t h e Great w i l l serve a s a n i l l u s t r a t i v e 1 8 0 example. P e t e r b u i l d s c i t i e s , a r m i e s and n a v i e s . C o n t e n d i n g w i t h " e v i l d e e d s " he d e f e a t s h i s enemies ( b o t h f o r e i g n and i n t e r n a l ) , and becomes a champion o f e d u c a t i o n ; t h e e n t i r e w o r l d m a r v e l s a t h i s wondrous d e e d s : IloK) npeMynparo PoccHHCKaro T e p o f l , ^TO, rpaflbl HOBbie , nOJIKH H $JIOTH CTPOH, OT caMbix HexcHBix JieT c o 3JIO6OH Bexi BOHHy, CKB03B CTpaXH npOXOflH, B03HeC CBOK) CTpaHy , CMHPHJI 3JiofleeB BHyTpB H BHe nonpaji npoTHBHbix, PyKofi H pa3yMOM c B e p r nep30CTHbix H JIBCTBHHBIX, CpeflH BoeHHbix 6ypB HayKH HaM OTKPBIJI H MHp fleJiaMH B e C B H 3 a B H C T B y f l H B H J l . (#256;^lMes-.1^8) In a 1743 ode, the sun r i s e s only t o honour the monarch. In s t a n z a 2, there i s a b e a u t i f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the sun r i s i n g i n i t s splendour. The opening l i n e of the s t a n z a i s : H TeM no^iTH IleTpoBa B H y K a ; ( # 2 8 , l i n e 2 1 ) I n a n o t h e r ode, t h e b e a u t y o f Empress E l i z a b e t h i s so s t u n n i n g t h a t t h e moon i s u n a b l e t o f i n d anyone more l o v e l y t h a n t h e monarch n o r any c o u n t r y more b e a u t i f u l t h a n R u s s i a : BeJffiK'oe CBe.THJip Mkpy,/ EJIH C T a n c B e ^ H o n BBICOTBI Ha SHcep, 3JiaTO H nop<J>npy, Ha B e e 3eMHHH KpacoTbi, BO B C e CTpaHBI CBOH B30P B03B0IJ;HT, Ho Kpame B C B e T e He HaxoflHT . EjiHcaBeTBi H T e 6 H . ( # 1 4 1 , l i n e s 1 1 - 1 7 ) E l i z a b e t h i s more b e a u t i f u l t h a n any o t h e r e a r t h l y monarch c o u l d e v e r b e : 0 cuaBa xceH BO CBeTe cjiaBHbix, POCCKH paflocTB, CTpax BparoB, Kpaca BJiaij;eTejT&HHii flepacaBHBix! (#27, l i n e s 271-273) 181 Lomonosov does n o t r e s t r i c t h y p e r b o l i c g l o r i f i c a t i o n t o o n l y R u s s i a n m onarchs. I n d e e d , he o f t e n e x a g g e r a t e s h i s own s u c c e s s . I n one poem, Homer w o u l d h a v e been e n v i o u s o f h i m and i n another, o t h e r p o e t s p r a i s e t h e t r u t h f u l n e s s o f Lomonosov's poems — a t t h e i r own e x p e n s e : 3 a B H C T H o H a M e H H B3Hpan H C H C a J I O C T H K ) B 0 3 J J B I X a H , Ko MHe BO3HOCHT cKopdHHH r j i a c : „0 KOJIB TH i q a c T J i H B e e Hac! Hani c J i o r H c n o j i H e H SacHen JDKHBBIX . T B O H — c j ioaceH H3 n b x B a J i n p a B J X H B B i x . (#27, l i n e s 385-390) The p u r p o s e o f B a r o q u e e x a g g e r a t i o n was t o s t u p e f y t h e r e a d e r w i t h a v e r b a l d i s p l a y . One o f t h e b e s t examples o f a h y p e r b o l i c o p e n i n g i s t h e f i r s t s t a n z a o f a 1761 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a b e t h . E v e r y t h i n g t h a t t h e empress does b e n e f i t s R u s s i a ! Heaven i s b e n e v o l e n t t o R u s s i a , showers i t w i t h m i r a c l e s b e c a u s e o f h e r . B o t h i n w a r and i n p e a c e E l i z a b e t h g a i n s v i c t o r i e s . I n t h e f i n a l l i n e o f t h e s t a n z a Lomonosov a s k s , how c a n R u s s i a e v e r r e p a y God f o r H i s g e n e r o s i t y : B j i a n e e u i B HSMH H B a T i i a T B J i e T , HJIB j i y T ^ e , J i B e i u B H a H a c ine / jpoTta. MoHapxHHH, KOJIB 6 j i a r c o B e T flnfl P O C C O B BB1UIHHH J J O S p O T b l ! 0 KOJIB K HaM CKJIOHHBI He6eca! 0 KOJIB npecJiaBHbi ^ y f l e c a ! TepoHCKaro Bocxoxia c j iej jBi IlpHoceHHeT 6JiarojjaTBj BoHHa H Map jjaioT no6eiTBi. 0 Eoyae, i e M Te6e B03flaTB? (#260, l i n e s 1-10) Lomonosov employs o t h e r d e v i c e s o f e m p h a s i s and 182 g r a n d i o s i t y i n h i s poems. One such d e v i c e i s m u l t i p l e - a s p e c t imagery. M u l t i p l e - a s p e c t imagery i s a s w i f t s u c c e s s i o n of d i f f e r e n t metaphors, used by a w r i t e r to i l l u s t r a t e a s i n g l e concept. Each ,image, c o n s t i t u t i n g a separate p i c t u r e , g i v e s concrete e x p r e s s i o n t o an aspect of the i d e a . By a s e r i e s of views, a more concrete and v i v i d p r e s e n t a t i o n i s achieved. M. W. C r o l l remarks: " . . . we may compare i t w i t h succes-s i v e f l a s h e s of a jewel or prism as i t i s turned about on 20 i t s a x i s and takes the l i g h t i n d i f f e r e n t ways." There e x i s t s a s e r i e s of examples, each c o n c r e t e and p i c t o r i a l , which c r e a t e mass.ive emphasis as they f o l l o w one a f t e r the other and p i l e themselves up. A good example of m u l t i p l e -aspect imagery i s found i n a 1742 ode c e l e b r a t i n g the b i r t h d a y o f Grand Duke Peter (Peter I I I ) . A f t e r the poet's thoughts have been l e d t o e c s t a s y ( l a s t l i n e of s t a n z a 2 ) , there are, i n s t a n z a 3, three concrete and p i c t o r i a l images, f o l l o w i n g one another i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n . There i s a p i c t u r e of B e l l o n a , the Roman goddess of war — he t e l l s her t o cease her war c r i e s . There i s Mars w i t h drawn sword — he exhorts him t o sheathe i t . Both these d e i t i e s are s i l e n c e d so t h a t the world may hear the c h a r a c t e r s i n the f o l l o w i n g scene. Then Lomonosov prese n t s a p i c t u r e of s i n g i n g muses. They are j o i n e d by the l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s who are r e j o i c i n g . In the f i n a l scene, a i r , sea and e a r t h t o g e t h e r p r o c l a i m the g l o r y of E l i z a b e t h . Lomonosov ends by 183 s a y i n g t h a t a l l t h i s r e j o i c i n g o n l y i m i t a t e s t h a t o f h i s l y r e : B O H H C K H H 3 B y K O C T a B , EeJIJ IOHa, H, MapC, B J I O ) K H C B O H U i y M H B I H M e ^ B , ^TO6 CTPOHHOCTB n p a 3 f l H H M H a r o T O H a H My3 noioiqHX HbiHe pe^B EflHHa r p O M K O p a 3 H O C H J i a C B H Hanieft panocTH c p a B H H J i a c B } ^ T 0 6 B O f - J j y X , M O p e H 3eMJIH EjTHcaBeTy B03r\nainajTH H, K y n H o c Heft n e T p a x B a j i n , Moeft 6BI J i H p e nofl3aacaJiH. (#24, l i n e s 21-30) A 1746 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a b e t h o f f e r s a s e r i e s o f s u c c e s s i v e p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g r a g i n g n a t u r e . The f u r y o f t h e e l e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t s t h e f e a r and t e r r o r f e l t by t h e p o e t d u r i n g E l i z a b e t h ' s march on t h e K r e m l i n . T h i s s t a n z a has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on d y n a m i c n a t u r e . T h e r e a r e e f d v e f d i f f e r e n t n s e e n e s 9 h e a e h i d e p i c t i n g a v i o l e n t a s p e c t o f n a t u r e . As w i t h h i s u s e o f t h e c l a s s i c a l - C h r i s t i a n m i x t u r e , Lomonosov employs m u l t i p l e - a s p e c t i m a g e r y e i t h e r i n a s i n g l e s t a n z a o r i n a s e r i e s o f s t a n z a s . A 1741 ode d e d i c a t e d t o I o a n n TIT shows t h e p o e t , i n s t a n z a 4, k i s s i n g t h e " g e n e r o u s " e y e s o f t h e c h i l d . F u r t h e r d e t a i l adds t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t s a r : rjejiyio B a c , BBI, me/jpu II^IH, H e 6 e c H o f t B KOHX 6 J i e m e T J i y ^ c B . (#21, l i n e s 31-32) In s t a n z a 5, t h e p o e t k i s s e s t h e t s a r ' s l i t t l e hands w h i c h , f o r t u n a t e l y , w i s e n a t u r e gave t h e t s a r t o r u l e t h e w o r l d and 184 crush h i s enemies: IleJiyio Py^iKH, I T O K T j e p s c a B e EpHpofla M y f l p a B C B e T flajia, KOTOPH 6ynyT B rpoMKOfi cjraBe Me^eM C T p a n i H T b H r H a T b B p a r a . (#21, l i n e s 41-45) The image of the hands i s f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d — a l l the t s a r has t o do i s bend one s m a l l f i n g e r and thousands of people are ready t o obey h i s s l i g h t e s t wish. In s t a n z a 6, i t i s the t s a r ' s l i t t l e feete which the l i p s of important people lo v e t o k i s s : BH, HOSCKH, n o Jio63aTb xcejiaioT flaBHO ycTa BHCOKHX JIHU;, (#21, l i n e s 51-52) Thereupon f o l l o w s e v e r a l o t h e r scenes — people k n e e l b e f o r e the t s a r ; he i s t o f o l l o w i n the f o o t s t e p s of h i s predeces-sors P e t e r and Anna, and he i s t o trample on those who would oppose him. The s u c c e s s i v e s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s g i v e s the . impression of a man moving around an o b j e c t (the t s a r ) t o view i t from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t angles. I. Buffum sees i n m u l t i p l e - a s p e c t imagery a s i m i l a r i t y w i t h c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of Baroque a r c h i t e c t o r e : In baroque c i t y - p l a n n i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r a l ensembles are g e n e r a l l y arranged w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of encouraging the s p e c t a t o r t o move and t o o b t a i n a s u c c e s s i o n of o b l i q u e views. There i s no s i n g l e symmetrical b e s t view, but a s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s q u e a s p e c t s . 2 1 In another ode, the r e are f i v e s t a n z a s , each d e p i c t i n g a d i f f e r e n t manner i n which the monarch i s g l o r i f i e d . I t i s 185 a 1750 ode d e d i c a t e d to Empress E l i z a b e t h . In s t a n z a 19, p e r s o n i f i e d t e c h n i c a l progress r i s e s t o honour her. In 20, p e r s o n i f i e d chemistry g l o r i f i e s the f a t h e r l a n d . In 21, U r a n i a , the muse of astronomy and c e l e s t i a l f o r c e s , r a i s e s E l i z a b e t h ' s m e rits as a new p l a n e t , and geography d e p i c t s the vastness of the Russian empire. In 22, p e r s o n i f i e d meteorology a n d , i t s wonders come to the shores of R u s s i a , and i n 23, i t i s the poet's l y r e t h a t r e j o i c e s and proclaims t h a t none on e a r t h i s equal to the Russian monarch. One of the b e s t examples of m u l t i p l e - a s p e c t imagery i s the 1739 ode on the capture of X o t i n . The f i r s t few stanzas d e s c r i b e the Russian army and the enemy, the Turks, w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t images. The army i s a v a l i a n t s h i p s t u b b o r n l y b a t t l i n g i t s way'.through the angry waves (the Turks) of a tempestuous sea; i t i s a f i e r c e l i o n pursued by a pack of f r i g h t e n e d wolves (the T u r k s ) ; i t i s a s o a r i n g e a g l e f r i g h t e n i n g the h i s s i n g snakes below (the T u r k s ) . The T u r k i s h t r o o p s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the above, are a l s o d e s c r i b e d as H a g a r i t e s , the Murza hordes, t i g e r s and w i l d b e a s t s . F a r t h e r along, the reader encounters s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e s c a l U r e p r e s e n t i n g . t h e same event — the v i c t o r y of the Russian army over the Turks. In s t a n z a 13, a r i v e r s w i r l s w i t h T u r k i s h b l o o d , s o l d i e r s f l e e l e a v i n g t h e i r swords, f o r g e t t i n g both rank and shame. They are so crushed, so t e r r i f i e d , t h a t a t h i n l e a f f l o a t i n g i n a p o o l of T u r k i s h 186 b l o o d f r i g h t e n s t h e m more t h a n f l y i n g cannon b a l l s : B KPOBH jjpyroB CBOHX jie5Kamnx. y»e , T p H X H y B I I I H C b , J i e T K H H JIHCT CTpai i rHT e r o , K a K HPBTH CBHCT Eb lCTpO C K B 0 3 B B 0 3 , H . y X H f l P J i e T H I U H X . (#4, l i n e s 127-130) In s t a n z a 14, w o o d a n d d a l e a n d f l y i n g G l o r y a l l p r o c l a i m t h e Russian v i c t o r y . The m o o n (a metonym f o r Turkey) i s so embarrassed b y t h e shame of t h e t r o o p s , t h a t i t t u r n s r e d a n d h i d e s i t s f a c e i n d a r k n e s s : J l y H a c T B w k j i a c B cpaMy. k x .H B M p a K j i k i ie - 3 a p J j ; e B i i i H C B C K p a J i a " ' (#4, l i n e s 136-137) In s t a n z a 15, t h e Danube r i v e r p r o c l a i m s a Russian v i c t o r y . In r a g e i t pours w a v e a f t e r w a v e o v e r t h e Turks — - a n d b e h i n d t h e s e waves t h e Turks hide t h e i r shame: H p n c b B O J i H a M H T y p K a J i B e T , I T O cTb i f l CBOH 3a H e r o C K p b i B a e T . (#4, l i n e s 143-144) In s t a n z a 16, t h e Turks a r e t a u n t e d about t h e i r p r i d e a n d i n s o l e n c e . Despite t h e f e r o c i t y o f t h e i r w a r r i o r s , ( t h e y fought as t i g e r s ) , they f a l l s l a i n : H H B I M a p T B O H C B H p e n O . 3 J I H J I C H , KaK T n r p H a POCCKHH noJ iK c K a K a J i . Ho MTO? B H e 3 a n H O M e p T B y n a j i , B K p O B H CBOeft n p O H 3 e H 3 a J I H J l C H . • (#4i vlMes'3l5^,160| In s t a n z a 17, t h e Turks a r e t o l d t o k i s s t h e f o o t t h a t trampled t h e m , t o k i s s t h e blood-drenched sword t h a t 187 f r i g h t e n e d them. Empress Anna becomes m e r c i f u l t o those who s u r r e n d e r . In s t a n z a 18, golden Phoebus a r r i v e s on a horse w i t h f l a m i n g n o s t r i l s — he p r o c l a i m s t h a t never has he seen such a v i c t o r y . And f i n a l l y , s t a n z a 20 d e p i c t s the t e r r i f i e d T u r k i s h s o l d i e r s and the Russian army as h i s s i n g snakes f r i g h t e n e d by a s o a r i n g e a g l e . J u s t as t h e r e are s e v e r a l f a c e t s t o a s h i n i n g gem, so arersevea?a3Lvimages needed to r e p r e s e n t one thought. Each image i s p i l e d on top of the o t h e r , the e f f e c t b e i n g one of massiveness. T h i s concept of p i l i n g one image upon the other i s c l o s e l y connected w i t h asyndeton. Both f o r r h e t o r i c a l impact and to achieve a cumulative e f f e c t , Baroque poets made abundant use of Various d e v i c e s of r e p e t i t i o n . H. S e g e l w r i t e s : T h i s baroque sense of amplitude, r e i n f o r c e d by the cumulative use of v a r i e t y and ornament, r e s u l t e d i n the massiveness and p h y s i c a l sumptusus ousness g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Baroque a r t . 2 2 One of these d e v i c e s i s asyndeton. Asyndeton i s d e f i n e d as a r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e c o n s i s t i n g of the omission of c o n j u n c t i o n s , a r t i c l e s , and sometimes 23 even pronouns.. Asyndeton xs f r e q u e n t l y used by Baroque poets f o r i t s cumulative e f f e c t . Lomonosov a l s o employs asyndeton f o r t h i s purpose. A b r i e f s e l e c t i o n of passages w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s : 3 a xoJiMbi, m e nanniqa XJIH6B HHM, n e n e J i , n x i a M e H B , c M e p T B p n r a e T , (#4 . , . 7lines .51-52) 188 Or: H M BOIJBI, Jiec, 6yrpbi, C T p e M H H H b i , T j i y x H H d e n H — paB e a n y T B . (#4, l i n e s 57-58) Or: Haflexcija, p a j j o c T B , C T p a x , JIK>6OBB 5KHBHT , KpenHT, ne^iaJiHT, KJIOHHT , (#189, l i n e s 217-218) A s y n d e t o n i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e t s a r : nopoiJBi U,apcKOH BeTBB npenpacHa, M O H Haneatfla, PanocTB, CBeT, (#21, l i n e s 21-22) Or a g a i n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g example: „K y T e x e P o c c K a r o Hapofla. IleTpa c EKaiepHHOH BHOBB C^ieTaeT macTBe a nopofla, IIpHrosccTBO, MJiaflocTB H JIK>6OBB". (#42, l i n e s 37-40) He employs i t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f n a t u r a l -e l e m e n t s : CHK) BorHHe HecpaBHeHHOH , B H36HTOK n p H H e c y T O C e H H O H 3 e M J i H , Bona, Jiec, B 0 3 J j y x J i a H B . (#271, l i n e s 138-140) W i t h o u t d o u b t , t h e b e s t example o f a s y n d e t o n f o u n d i n h i s p o e t r y i s i n t h e e p i c on P e t e r t h e G r e a t . Lomonosov p r e s e n t s a s t a r t l i n g c a t a l o g u e o f t h e m i s e r i e s and d a n g e r s t h a t a w a i t man i n h i s s h o r t l i f e . M o r e o v e r , w i t h t h e u s e o f a s y n d e t o n , he a c h i e v e s an e f f e c t o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y s p e e d . The c a t a l o g u e p r e s e n t s numerous h o r r o r s : KOJIB MHorn OOCTOHT 6oJie3HH H Sejjbi, k p ' T . © p B i M , ^e/ioBeK, B c e r j i a nojxBepxceH T U ! Kpoivie n o H e M O f f l H , n e ^ a x i H BHyTpB Tep3ai0T, H3BHe KOJIB MHorHH HanacTH OKpyscaiOT: noTonbi, 6ypn, MOP, OTpaBBi, BpeflHHH r a n , 189 T p H c e H H e 3 e M J i H , CBHpenbi 3 B e p n , r j i a j j , n a f l e H H e JJOMOB H H p y m n e n o a c a p u , H r p a n , H MOJIHHH r p e M H m H e yjjapbi, BojioTa, J i e / j , n e c o , 3 e M J i H , B o n a H J i e c V. c T ~ R - S BofiHy e • p o e o H a B e f l y T C H B t a c o T a HeSec. (#256, l i n e s 1101-1110) No t o n l y i n t h e p r o p e r s e n s e i s a s y n d e t o n f o u n d i n h i s poems. 24 A l s o e x p r e s s e d i s what H. H a t z f e l d c a l l s W o r t h a u f u n g — t h e h e a p i n g - u p o f words f o r t h e s a k e o f a c h i e v i n g m a s s i v e n e s s and e m p h a s i s . I t i s n o t o n l y words t h a t Lomonosov p i l e s up, b u t a l s o w h o l e s c e n e s and e p i s o d e s . A. A n g y a l c o n s i d e r s t h e 25 h e a p i n g t e c h n i q u e t o be t y p i c a l o f Lomonosov"s p o e t r y . The 1745 m a r r i a g e ode t o G r a n d Duke P e t e r and G r a n d D u c h e s s C a t h e r i n e r e p r e s e n t s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e . T h e r e i s a l o v e l y d e s c r i p t i o n o f p l a y f u l l i t t l e s t r e a m s — t h e i r p a t h s t w i r l i n t o e a c h o t h e r , t h e y c h a s e e a c h o t h e r , t h e y b e c k o n t o one a n o t h e r , t h e n t h e y r u s h t o w a r d s e a c h o t h e r . One v e r b w o u l d h a ve been s u f f i c i e n t t o c o n v e y t h e m e a n i n g , b u t i n s t e a d , he c h o o s e s t o a m p l i f y i n o r d e r t o be more d e s c r i p t i v e : T O T O H H T , T O C e 6 H M a H H T , To n p H M o T i p y r K flpyry c T P e M H T C H H, cJiHBii iHCb Meac e o d o f i , a c y p ^ a T . (#42, l i n e s 68-70) A n o t h e r example o f t h e p i l i n g up o f words and s c e n e s i s f r o m a 1746 ode c e l e b r a t i n g Empress E l i z a b e t h ' s a s c e n s i o n t o t h e t h r o n e . I n s t a n z a 14, t h e R u s s i a n t r o o p s s a y t h e y w i l l e n d u r e a n y t h i n g , do a n y t h i n g f o r P e t e r t h e G r e a t , whose r e s u r r e c t e d s p i r i t now s h i n e s i n h i s d a u g h t e r , E l i z a b e t h . 190 They w i l l g o t h r o u g h f i r e a n d w a t e r , t h e y w i l l c o n q u e r s t o r m s a n d a l l w e a t h e r , t h e y w i l l b u i l d c i t i e s , a n d d e f e a t t h e e n e m y . The e x t r a w o r d s a d d n o t h i n g t o t h e e s s e n t i a l i d e a — t h e y a r e . m e r e d e c o r a t i o n : „Mbi np6HJjeM c HHM CKBO3B OTHB H BOHBI, n p e i r o j i H M 6 y p H H n o r o f l H , I I o c T a B H M rpaflbi H a p e x a x , Mbi JiepcKHH B3op BparoB n o T y n H M , Ha r o p i i B i BHH HX H a c T y n H M , Ha rpo3Hfa ix C T a H e M MH B a J i a x " . (#43, l i n e s 135-140) As m e n t i o n e d , h h e f f r e q u e n t l y © e m p l o y s S S S W E o n e w o u l d c o n v e y t h e s e n s e . In t h e e p i c o n Peter t h e Great, a l l m o r t a l p e o p l e l o o k t o Peter n o t o n l y a s a n e x a m p l e , b u t a s a n e a r t h l y l o r d , a s a b u i l d e r , n a v i g a t o r , a h e r o i n t h e f i e l d a n d a h e r o o n t h e s e a s : JJa H a Ero n p u M e p H H a flejia B e j i H K H CMOTPH B e C b CMepTHfalX POJJ , C M O T p f l 3eMHH Bjiaf lblKH n O 3 H a i 0 T , M T O M O H a p X H M T O v O T e U n p f l M O H , C T p o H T e n b , nJiaBaTeJib, B n o j i n x , B MOPHX Tepoft, "'('#256 , l i n e s 17-20) W h e n e v e r h e u s e s t h e p i l i n g t e c h n i q u e , i t c r e a t e s a f e e l i n g o f m a s s i v e n e s s , o f f o r c e f u l n e s s . Of t h i s t e c h n i q u e I.^Buffum1 r e m a r k s : "The e f f e c t i s o n e o f m a s s i v e n e s s , c o m -p a r a b l e , I t h i n k , t o t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f c o l u m n s o r 2 6 d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s o n a b a r o q u e f a c a d e . " A g o o d i l l u s t r a -t i o n o f t h e a c h i e v e d m a s s i v e n e s s e x i s t s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a n z a ( a l l t h e i m a g e s a r e p i l e d o n e o n t o p o f t h e o t h e r ) : Tpr / j a OT p a j i o c T H O H noxtTaBH no6eflbi POCCKOH 3 B y K r p e M e J i , 1 9 1 Tor,na He M o r I l e T p o B O H cnaBBi BMecTHTb BcejieHHbiH npefleji, Tor / j a BaHflaJibi no6e»xreHHHi TjiaBbi HMejiH npeKJiOHeHHbi Erne n p H n e J i e H a x TBOKX; Toriia npefl'bHBJieHo cy,riB6oio, I T O C TpeneTOM nepefl T06010 Ila/jyT noJiKH n o T O M K O B HX . ( # 4 4 , l i n e s 1 1 1 - 1 2 0 ) (Here one a l s o notes the u s e of a n a p h o r a w i t h the r e p e t i t i o n o f "then" —— T O E f l a . ) Anaphora i s one .61 the l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s 2 7 f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Baroque p o e t r y . Lomonosov makes f r e q u e n t u s e o f a n a p h o r a . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e o n l y a s a m p l i n g o f the many examples where a n a p h o r a i s e m p l o y e d . In a l l t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s , t h e u s e o f a n a p h o r a r e i n f o r c e s the d e s i r e d e f f e c t o f m a s s i v e n e s s and f o r c e f u l n e s s ; A f o u r f o l d r e p e t i t i o n o f where ('r'jie) : T i r e HbiHe n o x B a J i B 6 a TBOH? Tjje flep30CTB? TJie B 6010 y n o p c T B O ? rjje 3 J IOCTB H a c e B e p H b i K p a n ? ( # ; 4 , l i n e s 1 5 1 - 1 5 3 ) A t h r e e f o l d r e p e t i t i o n o f b e h o l d t h e . . . (BQ 3 PH Ha...): B o s p n H a CBeTa map n p o c T p a H H U H , Bo3pH Ha noHT, T e 6 e noJJCTJiaHHbiH, Bo3pH B 6 e 3 M e p H H H Kpyr H e 6 e c : ( # 2 8 , l i n e s 1 1 5 - 1 1 7 ) There a r e s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s o f anaphora i n a 1 7 4 2 ode t o Empress E l i z a b e t h . Three o f the b e s t examples a r e : T O S O H nocTaBJBO cyn npaBHHBBiH, T06OH C O T p y C e p J^Iia KHMJTHBBI, T060H fl 6 y f l y 3JIOCTB K 3 3 H H T B , T O S O H 3 a c J i y r a M M 3 f l y j j a p H T B f ( # 2 7 , l i n e s 7 5 - 7 8 ) 192 ripen EOXCBHM rHeBOM r-HHJiB H TJieH: npefl/i-HBMkH •firp.pHHHs'aea'aioT , IlpeJJ HHM ny^HHbl H 3 C U X a K)T. ( #27 , l i n e s 2 0 8 - 2 1 0 ) To cepflue CHJiBHa B J i a c T B C T p a n i H T , To K p O T O C T B O H O e XCHBHT , To 6 o f l p o c T b C T p a x , TO C T p a x T y KJIOHHT: (#27 , l i n e s 3 2 7 - 3 2 9 ) I n a 1 7 6 1 ode, w i t h t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h o u (Tbi), he e f f e c -t i v e l y e m p h a s i z e s t h e l i s t o f c a p t u r e d P r u s s i a n towns s e i z e d d u r i n g t h e S e v e n Y e a r s ' War: Tu, MeMejiB, <ppaHK$ypT H RHCTPHH , Tu, LUBeHZTHHu,, Ke H H r c 6 e p r , EepjiHH, Tu, 3ByK J i e T a i o m a r o CTPQH, Tu, Illnpen, xHTpan p e K a , — -:(# 2 6 0 £ l i n e s 1^ 9 5 - i 9 8) I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e he a c h i e v e s m a s s i v e n e s s w i t h t h e combined u s e o f a s y n d e t o n and a n a p h o r a : Tu, cjiaBa, jjajre npocTHpancB, Ha 3 a n a n cojiHiia ycTpeMJiHHCB, Tjje BncJia, PeH, CeKBaHa, T a r , Tjje CJiaBHU B O H C K P O C C H H C K H X CJiejJBI, T / je HX eme rpeMHT no6eiJBi, Tjje BepHBiH j j p y r , rne CKPUTUH Bpar, — ( # 2 1 3 , l i n e s 9 1 - 9 6 ) The above examples c e r t a i n l y do n o t e x h a u s t t h e i n s t a n c e s o f a n a p h o r a t o be f o u n d i n Lomonosov's work. He employed o t h e r r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s i n h i s p o e t r y . The f i n a l d e v i c e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e : e x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s , c l i m a x , t h e a p o s t r o p h i z i n g o f t h e r e a d e r , and i n c l i n a t l o , ttheeeeho-edevirce. T h r o u g h o u t . t h e poems, Lomonosov e x h i b i t s a d e c i d e d 193 p r e f e r e n c e f o r e x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s . T h e s e s e n t e n c e s a r e u s e d f o r an o r n a m e n t a l p u r p o s e — m o r e o v e r , t h e y u n d e r s c o r e t h e e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y o f a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , t h e p s y c h o l o g -i c a l s t a t e o f t h e p o e t o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e poem. I n a .'Qi761wode>de^ e x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s ; i n a 1745 ode, s e v e n t e e n ; and i n a 1750 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress. E l i z a b e t h , t h e r e a r e f o u r t e e n s u c h s e n t e n c e s . He u s e s e x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s t o u n d e r s c o r e p r a c t i c a l l y any s i t u a t i o n . F r e q u e n t l y i t i s when t h e p o e t ' s s e n s e s a r e t r a n s p o r t e d t o e c s t a s y , o r when some p a s s i o n i s i n v o l v e d : Bocropr B e e I Y B C T B S B o c x H i q a e T ! B npHHTHOM acape cepjiiie T a e i ! (#42, l i n e s 57 and 59) Or: E j i a x c e H C T B O MHICJIHM H e n o H H T H o ! (#176, l i n e 18) Or: CBHiqeHHUH yacac Mbiorib 0 6 b e M . n e T ! (#27, l i n e .41) And: BHfleHne MOH jjyx BO3BOJJ;HT npeBbiuie T e c c a J i H H C K H X r o p ! (#24, l i n e s 103-104) O f t e n e x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s a r e u s e d t o e m p h a s i z e a v i c t o r y f o r t h e R u s s i a n s , t h e m a j e s t y o f God or t h e g l o r y of a monarch: „no6pfla, P o c c K a n no6e.na!" (#4, l i n e 13 2) 0 Eoace, KpenKHft Bce/jepacHTeJib! (#42, l i n e 191) Or: 0 cjiaBa acen BO CBeTe cnaBHbix, P O C C H H p a j j ; o c T b , C T p a x B p a r o B , K p a c a BJ ia f leTeJ ibHHu; nepacaBHux! (#27, l i n e s 271-273) 194 A p a r t i a l l i s t o f such sentences i s s u f f i c i e n t t o i n d i c a t e Lomonosov's p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r exclamation: 0 cJiaflKOfi HescHocTH o6HTejTB! (#44, l i n e 121) XOJIMOB JlHBaHCKHX BepBX JJBIMHTCH ! (#28, l i n e 85) 'If*,rieT.pOBBIx -\Hesc-HBIX . H X \ QBexeTA B Te6e, P O C C H H , BOspacieT! (#24, l i n e s 42 and 44) noJiH, Jieca, 6pera H BOBBI! (#232, l i n e 3) T B o e KOJIB, PypHK, njieMH c j i a B H o ! KOJIB MHe TBOH noJie3Ha KPOBB! <1#?V(# Sidelines 1«3->144) The reader a l s o notes the frequent use of r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s i n Lomonosov's poetr y . They appear as o f t e n as do exclamatory sentences. He employs them as an ornamental d e v i c e — they too add massiveness to.each p r e s e n t a t i o n . Here f o l l o w only a few examples: ^ T O cep jax ie T a K M o e n p o H 3 a e T ? H e f l e p c K JTH TO TnraHT uiyMHT? He ropBiJiB c MecT CBOHX TOJiKaeT? XOJTMBI COpBaBIUH, B TBepjXB pa3HT? (#21, l i n e s 81-84) And: He Mej jB JIH B M p e B e 3THBI pxceT C, c cepoio KHIIH, KJioKo^ieT? He an JTH THSCKH y3u pBeT H ^ejiiocTH pa3HHyTB x o i e T ? (#4^,lines ;s41=4 4)7 * C l o s e l y connected w i t h exclamatory sentences and r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s i s Lomonosov's use of climax. C i z e v s k i j w r i t e s : "Often he concludes h i s odes i n a c l i m a c t i c manner 1 9 5 ( e . g . , summons, d e f e n d s and c o m f o r t s ; b u i l d s , r u l e s and l e a d s , e t c . ) . 1 , 2 8 I n o r d e r f o r t h e w o r l d t o know t h a t l i f e i n R u s s i a i s b l e s s e d by s c i e n c e , Lomonosov commands h i s l y r e t o r i s e , t o t h u n d e r : Tbi, My3a, J i H p y IIPHHMH H, MTO6 yc j ibmiaJ ia BceJieHHa, KOJIB K H 3 H B H a y n a M 3 f l e c B SJiaxceHHa, B03HHKHH, B 0 3 H e C H C b , r p e M H . ( # 1 7 6 , l i n e s 2 7 - 3 0 ) I n a 1 7 5 0 ode t h e p o e t e x h o r t s p e r s o n i f i e d c h e m i s t r y t o u s e i t s s k i l l t o make summer e t e r n a l i n R u s s i a : H n o npeKpacHo TOKMO J i e T O M , Tbi 3 f l e x i a H B e i H o M a c T e p c T B O M . ( # 1 7 6 , l i n e s 1 9 9 - 2 0 0 ) I n a 1 7 5 2 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a b e t h , he d e s c r i b e s how S t . P e t e r s b u r g h as b e e n a g g r a n d i z e d by t h e g l o r i o u s deeds o f t h e e m p r e s s : KOJIb CJiaB HblMH OHa H e J i a M H IleTpoB pacnpocTpaHHJia r p a n . ( # 1 8 9 , l i n e s 8 3 - 8 4 ) Lomonosov u s u a l l y ends h i s odes i n a c l i m a c t i c manner; i n d e e d , he ends most s t a n z a s i n t h e same way. T h e r e i s o f t e n an a p p e a l t o g i v e s u c c o u r t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f R u s s i a , t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e army and e n l i v e n t h e p e o p l e , t o p r o t e c t and d e f e n d t h e f a t h e r l a n d : Ha B 0 3 p a c T e T E H j j e p a c a B a , E o r a T C T B o , macTbe H noJiKH H KynHo Heji TepoiiCKHX cJiaBa, . 196 KaK TOK B e J I H K H H p e K H *IeM jjajre 6 e r CBOH n p o c T H p a e T , TeM Sojibiue BOB B ce6n BMeinaeT H M H o x e c T B O rpaBOB n o H T ; (#43, l i n e s 201-207) Or: „Te6e H n o B f l a H H b i x n H T a i o H xpa6py KPOBB H X O6OAPHIO, *Iro6 T y i o 3a Te6H n p o J i H T b ^ II (#24, l i n e s 135-137) And: flejia I l e T p o B O H flmepn TPOMKH, I T O C T a H y T n o 3 H b i n e c T B TIOTOMKH. (#27, l i n e s 439-440) Another d e v i c e favoured by Lomonosov i s h i s apostro -p h i z i n g o f the reader. A c t u a l l y , he a p o s t r o p h i z e s not only the reader but a l s o the sun, r i v e r s , r i v e r banks, c i t i e s , . . . the a p o s t r o p h i s i n g of the reader, which at times runs t o the l e n g t h of a s t a n z a . In a d d i t i o n , he makes God and the s p i r i t o f P e t e r I d e l i v e r long speeches and c o n s t a n t l y addresses peoples and c o u n t r i e s , Russian and f o r e i g n r u l e r s . 2 " In h i s 1745 marriage ode to the f u t u r e P e t e r I I I , the poe;£ urges the youth of Ru s s i a to send f o r t h c r i e s of joy — a c t u a l l y i t i s the faces of b e a u t i f u l maidens and youths t h a t he addresses: a n d s o f o r t h . C i z e v s k i j n o t e s : fleBHU H KIHOIII K p a C H b l X JTHKH , B 3 H O C H T e p a f l O C T H b i e KJTHKH (#42, l i n e s 31-32) In the same ode he addresses r i v e r s , the sun and a zephyr. He asks the zephyr, guardian of such g e n t l e e n v i r o n s , what draws i t from i t s b e a u t i f u l s p o t : 197 3 e $ n p , CHX HexcHbix wiecT x p a H H T e j i b , Kyjja CBOH n p a B H i i i B c HHX n o j i e T ? 3 e $ H p , K y c T O B H potqb j n o 6 H T e J i b , , . I T O n p o i b OT HHX T e 6 n B J i e ^ e T ? v - i - . -• _ . (#42, l i n e s 77-80) A 1742 ode d e d i c a t e d t o Empress E l i z a b e t h has God d e l i v e r long speeches (stanzas 6, 7, 8 and 10); He addresses the reader (stanzas 17, 18 and 21), P e t e r the Great d e l i v e r s a speech (stanza 35), and among o t h e r s , the poet addresses Stockholm: C T O K r O J T M , r J i y 6 0 K H M CHOM n O K p b l T b l H , n p O C H H C b , n 0 3 H a H I l e T p O B y K p O B b , (#27, l i n e s 111-112) the Neva r i v e r : 0 , - t IHCTblH H e B C K H H T O K H H C H H H , Il),*aCTJIHBeHIIIHH B C e X B O R 3eMHfcJXl\ (w .acrTJiHBe^iiiHa B c e x 5o# 3eMHs(t.#:27f> l i n e s 3 01-302) and S t . P e t e r s b u r g : L t e j i y f i , n e T p o n o j i b , T y n e c H H u y , KOTOPOH JioJiro T H ace j iaJ i : (#27, l i n e s 421-422) A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i s t w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the frequency of the use o f apostrophe i n h i s work. H e addresses the Eg y p t i a n pyramids and t e l l s them they would marvel at the speed w i t h which Tsarskoe S e l o was b u i l t . He t e l l s them they were b u i l t by mere m o r t a l s , w h i l e t h i s monument was b u i l t by a d e i t y : H B b i , o r o p j j b i nHpaMH/jbi, ^ e M HHJIBCKHH 6 p e r O T H r o m e H , X O T H 6b l W B C T B a Bbi HMeJIH H MyjxHbiH T p y j j J i e T MaJTBix 3 p e J i H , 198 BaM He 6Hjio6fai TH>KKO TO, ^TO C T p o e H H Bbi IieJIbl B e K H ! Bac co3Hjj;ajiH -qenoBeKH, — 3jjecb c o 3 H / j a e T 6 o x c e c T B O . (#176, l i n e s 123-130) He a p o s t r o p h i z e s e a r t h , n a t u r e and joy.: 3eMHH, n y c T H TSKH u B e i o i K H , (#21, l i n e 61) HaTypa, Bbime B C T a H b 3&KOHOB , (#21, l i n e 66) r o c n o f l C T B y f l , p a i J O C T b T b i e j x H H a Hafl BJiacTbio TOJib DMPOKHX cTpaH. (#21, l i n e s 71-72) In a n o t h e r ode, he a d d r e s s e s t h e v i g i l a n t e y e s t h a t g u a r d S t . P e t e r s b u r g : O B b i , H e / j p e M J n o n r H e OTH, CrperymHe He6ecHbifi r p a j j ! (#43, l i n e s 111-112) He t u r n s t o R u s s i a ' s f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s and to t h e s u n : ^TO B b i , O n 0 3 H b i e nOTOMKH, rioMbicjiHTe o HauiHx JJHHX? (#43, l i n e s 151-152) ' H HO, O n p e K p a c H a n r u i a H e T a , JlK)6e3Hoe CBeTHJio flHeft! (#43, l i n e s 101-102) Lomonosov a d d r e s s e s t h e sun i n s e v e r a l o t h e r o d e s as w e l l . F o r e xample: Tb i — Hau iea pa / J o c T H CBHJj;eTejib, T b i 3 p H i i i b y c e p j x H H H a i n u x 3 H a K , (#42, l i n e s 187-188) (One a l s o n o t e s h e r e t h e a n a p h o r a w i t h t h e t w i c e r e p e a t e d t h o u — TH.) As i s f r e q u e n t l y t h e c a s e i n h i s poems, t h e r e g e n e r a l l y a p p e a r s more t h a n one B a r o q u e e l e m e n t a t a t i m e . As h as b e e n n o t e d , i t i s t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f t h e s e phenomena 199 i n Lomonosov 1s p o e t r y , r a t h e r than any one taken by i t s e l f , which allows one to a s s o c i a t e them wi t h the Baroque s t y l e . A f i n a l r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e used to achieve massiveness and emphasis i s i n c l i n a t i o , the echo-technique. I t i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h the Baroque fondness f o r the pun. S t r i c t l y speaking, the pun c o n s i s t s i n the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of words which look s i m i l a r or even i d e n t i c a l but have d i f f e r e n t meanings. I n c l i n a t i o i s the converse of the pun. I t i s