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SIMQ: a methodology for simulation by questionnaire Goulet, Maurice Eugene 1978

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2_ SIMQ: A METHODOLOGY FOB SIMULATION BY QUESTION NAI8E by aiDEIGE EUS1BE SOOLET B. A. /''^SiB:oh;•f^:•as€r^'Ona:yers•it'f1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED•• IB^,P/ABTIA^10tfIlL'ttENT- OF THE REQUIREMENTS; FOB THE/DEGREE' OF MASTER; 01 SGIEHGE in BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION . IN THE -FACUI,?rX"^014^GB&:aiJA;f £• STORIES -in the;;:Faculty • of Commerce and Business Administration We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard TIE UNIVERSITY Of BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1S78 (c) Maurice Eugene Goulet, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of Camm*™* _ The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 T h i s paper presents SIMQ, a method o f s i m u l a t i o n program genera t i o n through q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , ; S i m u l a t i o n i s a powerful technique f o r a n a l y z i n g complex systems; Hut i t s , acceptance has been impeded by the high c o s t of computer s i m u l a t i o n s . The o b j e c t i v e of SIMQ i s to enhance the u s e f u l n e s s of computer s i m u l a t i o n by redu c i n g the c o s t of developing s i m u l a t i o n programs. , Eela t e d r e s e a r c h i s reviewed i n order t o o u t l i n e the development of the co n c e p t of program generation-and t o provide a standard of comparison f o r SIMQ. The s t r u c t u r e and use of SIMQ i s e x p l a i n e d and then i l l u s t r a t e d through a p p l i c a t i o n t o a demonstration problem. I n i t i a l l y , the d i s c u s s i o n c e n t e r s on a b a s i c v e r s i o n of SIMQ. Subseguently an exte n s i o n of SIMQ i s presented which permits s t o c h a s t i c branching w i t h i n the model. F i n a l l y - an i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c a l f r o n t end f o r the SIMQ; system i s d e s c r i b e d . S e v e r a l experiments were conducted to t e s t SIMQ*s e f f i c i e n c y and char a c t e r i s t i c s . ^ B e s ^ l t s - of f i e l d t e s t s are a l s o r e p o r t e d . P o s s i b l e f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n s t o SIMQ are o u t l i n e d i n the f i n a l chapter. The major c o n c l u s i o n reached i s t h a t the concept c f program g e n e r a t i o n through g u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s f e a s i b l e and and t h a t the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e SIMQ system i s v a l i d and u s e f u l . i i i • TABLE OF CONfrENffS: ,INTBODUCTION . .. . 1 Queues 1 ' . Customer A r r i v a l s ,• 3 .• Servers- ... .:.:vvv.v^VT*»:V>;.;v:.^^ , 3 Objectives Of SIMQ 4 . .BELATED • EES EABCH '•«-.•>>..>:V-.'.-:. .V,y,y,.VvV . iw :» .-W* ........ , 8 USING THE SIMQ SYSTEM 13 Stage 1 Questionnaire . 14 Stage 2 Questionnaire Set ............................... 15 .. The: Simulation' "Model" ;vyWvVVrV»^ MODEL DESCRIPTION ,17 Modular Construction ................. -...vv. v.*:.'.-.' 17 The1'-Programming Language Chosen-- .,vv. v.vVvv..y.v:»yy.yyvyv..,19 HOW SIMULATION PBOGBAHS ABE SPECIFIED:.• • * • v ;.vv .>;. • • > Vv»y .'20 . Team' Structure"-Tasks And Task Capability 24 .: Customer Types .».>•"*•**yi»;»'«>:V*;'**V:>^  . Task•:Segueacing •«y .y.v. vyy.vv/v*yy.yy. :.vy »v Vvv? :*yy* v»vvv . 25 Simulations-Duration .\v f^,yy.yy v.:vyyyy.vv.vs iyvy,y f.v.yyv.y. ;-27 APPLYING SIMQ TO A DEMON STB A TI ON PIOBLEM . y.> yi y y . y. * . ;.y.y,v29 Description Of The Setting 29 Stage 1 Questionnaire 32 Stage 2 Questionnaire Set 33 The Simulation Program 54 The Simulation Results , 54 FIELD TESTING SIMQ 61 Experiments 61 iv ..Dental' Setting- .., ,64 THE STOCHASTIC SESSION OF SIMQ ........... ... . 69 Introduction To The Stochastic Version .................. 69 Routing Transactions In The Stochastic Version 70 Rules For Constructing Network Paths .75 Network Definition Cards •y;..,-.'. v«v>#y>-v. 77 Hematology Laboratory: An Application 78 FREND : AN INTERACTIVE FRONT END FOR SIMQ 83 Introduction To FREND . • 83 Reasons For Developing FREND 83 Method Of Use : . .->•-*••*•• * V v w « . • , y , - > » v v > » • • • • • ' • . . 8 6 Modelling The Hematology Laboratory 95 DISCUSSION AND EXTENSIONS yw . , ^  . r* •» .......... ., .V^ .. * . V 98 Conclusion .....................• 105 LITERATURE CITED 106 APPENDIX A -^.vv. .:V.yvy.:vy>:.v.'v-;'^ ,^'.;V,i :^.. :v, • 108 APPENDIX B .114 APPENDIX C . , . . . , ..V« .142 " TABLE Of :f3GOSES 1. A S k e l e t a l S e r v i c e System 2 2. The Steps In Using SIMQ 16 3. A Modular S e r v i c e System 18 4. A S i n g l e Server Model- ;.,.yyvyyyy.yy»vy ...-;,>,.'.,21 5. A Two Server Model ......... 23 6. A More'.Gomplex Model- y ^ . y y y y y y y y y y • V• • '•»••• *... . 27 7. F l o s Chart Of A Gas Bar And Car Wash 30 8. A Stage 1 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ... •..... 33 9. Team S t r u c t u r e Subset 35 10. ,• . 36 11 .v... ... . .. . 37 12. /Processor-Task Subset .,.,»•.........« ........ •........ 40 13. 41 -14. . ...... ...-> .-'.yyy..vv 42 15 ' ... *y. . ~.y-.y ^ yy .yyvyy.yy;.y 43 16. vC«stomer' I n f o r m a t i o n Subset'. v*y-yyy-yy>.yyy:-yyyyy yyyy.yyysyv^S 17. Task Sequencing Subset 48 18 49 19 50 20 51 2i..,;.vv;,;vv>^iVvv ,yv.;-...;.yyy ,-,yy ,. 52 22. S i m u l a t i o n Duration Subset .-yyyyyyyyv'.yyyy . 54 23. Output From A Completed S i m u l a t i o n . fv->v>VrfyV:ji*V-y»v»y> 55 . 24. ,v.;.-vv.V.:v; y. v'.".'. ,-.:.-:,:.=,v.'V,:y ....... ... .yy, 56 25. , Output From S e v e r a l S i m u l a t i o n s ....., .»y.,y . ,58 26.,:,:.-v.,.vyyyy,yr,.v^^ .. . 59 27. P o t e n t i a l A p p l i c a t i o n s For S t o c h a s t i c Branching 69 v i 28. Flow Chart Of M u l t i p l e Paths With Loop . 71 29. Nested Loops: An I l l e g a l C o n f i g u r a t i o n 74 30. A Network Flow-Chart Conforming To The Rules 77 31. Nodes In A F8END Di s p l a y 89 32. >Tvo Linked Nodes In A FREND D i s p l a y .......v^;......... 90 33. A Loop C o n s t r u c t e d With FREND-;'.yyyW, V%VVVv«>:V»• 91 34.,Moving Nodes And L i n k s ................................ 93 35. A Bad Diagram Produced By Moving Nodes .>y : .yv...wv*.., . 9 4 ; 36. A Network Diagram For The Hematology S i m u l a t i o n ....... 96 V 1 X ftckn owle d qeme nt s I would l i k e t o thank P r o f e s s o r O.H. tiyeno, the C h a i r nan of my T h e s i s Committee, f o r h i s v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . I would a l s o l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n of the e f f o r t s of P r o f e s s o r s I. Benbasat and W. Haters who a l s o served on the T h e s i s Committee and provided v a l u a b l e advice and c r i t i c i s m . $3.85, $3.96T $SIG 1 IBTfiODOCTlON T h i s paper i s concerned with the concept and development of a system f o r automatic generation of s i m u l a t i o n programs. SIMQ i s designed f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i n the g e n e r a l area of s e r v i c e systems. To expl o r e the meaning of t h i s statement, l e t us view a flow c h a r t r e p r e s e n t i n g a simple s e r v i c e system {figure 1) and examine each of i t s elements: gueues, customer a r r i v a l s , and s e r v e r s . Queues I t can be seen t h a t one o f the dominant f e a t u r e s of t h i s system i s that gueues of var y i n g s i z e s a r i s e a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s . T h i s f e a t u r e i s common to many s e r v i c e systems. Examples of gueue-based, s e r v i c e systems are t i c k e t c o u n t e r s , medical o f f i c e s , t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n s , sea p o r t s , and auto r e p a i r shops. The gueueing model i s a b a s i s f o r SIMQ. Given t h a t we w i l l focus our a t t e n t i o n on the gueueing behavior of s e r v i c e systems, the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s w i l l o u t l i n e the ways i n which s i m u l a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e . 2 F i g u r e 1 Flowchart o f a S e r v i c e System 3 Customer A r r i v a l s The number c f a r r i v a l s i n t o the system, per time i n t e r v a l w i l l , of course, have an impact on the gueue l e n g t h s and the time r e q u i r e d f o r a customer t o progress through the system. ; I f the a r r i v a l r a t e o f the customers v a r i e s over time, e i t h e r i n a d a i l y c y c l e or a t r e n d , s i m u l a t i o n g i v e s i n s i g h t s i n t o problems of s t a f f i n g and f a c i l i t y design. A n a l y t i c a l methods are not a v a i l a b l e to examine the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r i n g customer types. A change i n the mix of a r r i v i n g customers would f u r t h e r complicate the i s s u e s surrounding the e f f e c t s o f v a r y i n g a r r i v a l r a t e s . These problems are e a s i l y ; handled by s i m u l a t i o n methods. Servers In a system such as we have d e s c r i b e d , i t i s always d e s i r a b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e the a l t e r a t i o n of the number of s e r v e r s at v a r i o u s p o i n t s to t e s t the e f f e c t upon queues and on the u t i l i z a t i o n of other s e r v e r s . I t would a l s o be p o s s i b l e and i n v a l u a b l e f o r s t a f f i n g s t u d i e s i f t h e number o f r e g u i r e d s e r v e r s c o u l d be determined under changing a r r i v a l c o n d i t i o n s . A method of v a r y i n g the number of s e r v e r s i n response to changes i n demand c o u l d be based upon some p o l i c y r u l e . .Simulation would be much s u p e r i o r to a n a l y t i c a l methods f o r problems of t h i s type s i n c e t r a n s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s between v a r i o u s s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n s may be c r u c i a l . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t would be u s e f u l to c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t s of a l t e r n a t e groupings of s e r v e r s or s u b s t i t u t i o n of more capable or l e s s capable s e r v e r s i n place of e x i s t i n g ones. Since more capable s e r v e r s are u s u a l l y more c o s t l y , b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r use m u s t - j u s t i f y the e x t r a cost i n v o l v e d . ,. i A l l of the f o r e g o i n g s t u d i e s which are a v a i l a b l e through s i m u l a t i o n c o u l d be rendered f o r dynamic c o n d i t i o n s or on a steady s t a t e b a s i s . Steady s t a t e r e s u l t s c o u l d be provided e i t h e r through longer s i m u l a t i o n s or some form of r e p l i c a t i o n , depending upon the s i t u a t i o n a t hand. A s i m u l a t i o n model could y i e l d such . i n f o r m a t i o n as the average; and maximum s i z e o f gueues, average and maximum s e r v e r u t i l i z a t i o n and r e s i d e n c e times f o r a l l customers passing through the model. Objectives' Qf, MM-Now t h a t we have e s t a b l i s h e d that s i m u l a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i n s e r v i c e systems, l e t us take a c l o s e r l o c k a t the process of problem s o l v i n g through s i m u l a t i o n i n order to o u t l i n e t h e areas o f b e n e f i t which d e r i v e from the use of SIMQ. Simulation may be co n s i d e r e d t o be composed of f i v e phases: 1) D e f i n i t i o n of a model i i ) C o l l e c t i o n o f data 5 i i i ) C o n s t r u c t i o n and e x e c u t i o n cf model i v ) V a l i d a t i o n o f r e s u l t s v) Feedback f o r model refinement a f t e r v a l i d a t i o n A program g e n e r a t i o n system has r e l e v a n c e p r i m a r i l y i n phase ( i i i ) . T h i s phase may be s p l i t i n t o three s t a g e s : a) Programming b) Debugging c) Execution. In most cases, c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t must be expended to accomplish the three stages of c o n s t r u c t i n g a s i m u l a t i o n model. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f f a c t o r s which discourage the use of computer s i m u l a t i o n models. 1. Considerable time and expense are o f t e n r e q u i r e d t o c r e a t e and debug the computer model. 2. Development of computer programs c a l l s f o r computer and r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g s k i l l e d p e rsonnel. 3. D e c i s i o n makers must work through t e c h n i c a l personnel to get analyses performed. The e x t r a l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n can l e a d t o hampered communication i n the r e c o g n i t i o n and s o l u t i o n of problems. 4 . A l l of the above f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o lengthe n i n g of the span of time r e q u i r e d between problem r e c o g n i t i o n and problem r e s o l u t i o n . Since most a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s are time dependent, the u s e f u l n e s s o f any problem s o l v i n g approach v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y with the amount of time r e q u i r e d 6 to generate s o l u t i o n s . F u r t h e r , i t has been suggested t h a t most d e c i s i o n makers have shor t a t t e n t i o n spans with r e s p e c t t o new i d e a s . I f r e s u l t s are not a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n a reasonable p e r i o d , the s i m u l a t i o n study i s not l i k e l y to be used at a l l . The o b j e c t i v e of SIMQ i s to i n c r e a s e the a p p l i c a t i o n of s i m u l a t i o n by overcoming these problems to the g r e a t e s t extent p o s s i b l e . To be e f f e c t i v e , SIMQ should be guick, easy to use, f l e x i b l e and not s u s c e p t i b l e t o e r r o r s . Since the s i m u l a t i o n proqram i s to be a u t o m a t i c a l l y generated, i t becomes l e s s e s s e n t i a l f o r the user to know the programming language i n which the s i m u l a t i o n w i l l be w r i t t e n . , T h i s f e a t u r e cannot be over-emphasized as i t cou l d make s i m u l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to a wider spectrum of users, much as higher l e v e l programming languages r e l i e v e u s ers of the need to program i n assembler code. The p o s s i b l e e l i m i n a t i o n of the reguirement f o r programming s k i l l s may allow s i m u l a t i o n to be used by managers c l o s e r to the problem l o c a t i o n . Any e x p e r i e n c e d programmer w i l l understand t h a t w r i t i n g a program f o r even moderately complex s i m u l a t i o n s can be very t e d i o u s and time consuming* Since the s i m u l a t i o n program w i l l be a u t o m a t i c a l l y generated the time and resource requirements needed f o r program development should be reduced s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h e r e f o r e an automatic program genera t i o n system can be u s e f u l t o experienced programmers as well as non-programmer u s e r s . 7 Diminished r e l i a n c e on programmer s p e c i a l i s t s and g r e a t e r involvement of the problem s o l v e r s w i l l normally l e a d t o more e f f e c t i v e problem s o l v i n g . Less i n t e r f e r e n c e i n communication and i n implementation of s o l u t i o n s i s made p o s s i b l e through gr e a t e r involvement of the a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s . 8 S e v e r a l attempts have been made t o f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s i t i o n from a gen e r a l problem statement t c computer code. The f o l l o w i n g i s a survey o f nethods of s i m u l a t i o n program generation., Connors et a l . f have r e p o r t e d a D i s t r i b u t i o n System Simulator (DSS) which i s s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed a t s i m u l a t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n systems, /The process of program g e n e r a t i o n used i n DSS may be d e s c r i b e d i n two st a g e s . In stage 1, the user d e f i n e s the s t r u c t u r e of the model through a s e t of pre-designed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are presented i n n a t u r a l E n g l i s h language so that a non-programmer can use DSS. A minimal amount of numeric data i s r e q u i r e d i n stage 1. An e d i t o r program t r a n s l a t e s the answers'-to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t o a computer program and prov i d e s a l i s t of parametric data r e q u i r e d f o r ex e c u t i o n . In stage 2, the user must manually o r g a n i z e the deck of c o n t r o l statements and generated program statements and submit the parametric data b e f o r e running.the program, 4The input procedure used i n stage 1 i s q u i t e lengthy but not t e c h n i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t * O v e r a l l , t h e r e are many ste p s and much t h a t the user must do. DSS i s very s p e c i f i c i n i t s intended f i e l d of a p p l i c a t i o n and i t has not been shown that t h i s approach i s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e . k s i m u l a t i o n program generator has been developed by flathewson and A l l e n 8 . , DRAFT/GASP i s one of a f a m i l y of DRAFT program generators. The i n i t i a l s tep i n system s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s 9 to model the system i n g r a p h i c a l form. The DRAFT approach i s based on e n t i t y c y c l e diagrams which por t r a y the a c t i v i t y c y c l e s of a l l the e n t i t i e s i n the modelled system using symbols suggested by T o c h e r * 9 . Parametric data does not form any pa r t of the e n t i t y c y c l e diagram. The network portrayed i n the e n t i t y c y c l e diagram i s conveyed to the DRAFT program which i n t e r a c t i v e l y e l i c i t s from the user a l l the r e q u i r e d parametric i n f o r m a t i o n . A GASP program i s generated from t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n which s i m u l a t e s the system d e s c r i b e d . T h i s package r e q u i r e s the user t o l e a r n the f l o w c h a r t i n g method and codes f o r i n p u t t i n g the model d e s c r i p t i o n . The s p e c i f i c a t i o n procedure does not appear to be e x c e s s i v e l y lengthy or i n e f f i c i e n t . Roberts and S a d l o w s k i l s have developed a system c a l l e d O S f o r network s i m u l a t i o n . T h i s program generator a l s o r e l i e s on a g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the system being simulated. The network c h a r t which the user must c o n s t r u c t i n v o l v e s many complex symbols. F o l l o w i n g the network c h a r t , the user must assemble a s e t of i n p u t cards with a p p r o p r i a t e codes. The authors c l a i m t o f r e e the user from the need f o r programming s k i l l s but the s p e c i a l knowlege r e g u i r e d t o complete the g r a p h i c a l model and code the i n p u t to the program generator appears to be c o n s i d e r a b l e . P r i t s k e r * ^ 1 1 Q-GERT system of modelling i s a l s o a network based system f o r ge n e r a t i n g s i m u l a t i o n programs. L i k e INS, t h i s system r e l i e s upon a complex s e t of symbols f o r network d e s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w e d by a lengthy coding o p e r a t i o n f o r model s p e c i f i c a t i o n . Hogg, Dessouky and Tonegawa 5 have developed a 10 network s i m u l a t o r which i s e s s e n t i a l l y an e x t e n s i o n of the GEET packages of P r i t s k e r et a l . T h e i r paper l a c k s d e t a i l r e l a t i n g to the input procedure but i t i s reasonable t o assume t h a t the i n p u t procedure resembles t h a t used i n o t h e r GERT-based packages.: The l e a r n i n g time r e q u i r e d f o r these two packages would be c o n s i d e r a b l e and t h e r e f o r e may o f f s e t any b e n e f i t s gained through e l i m i n a t i o n of the programming f u n c t i o n . The network based methods appear to engender a s y s t e m a t i c approach to model f o r m u l a t i o n as a byproduct of the model s p e c i f i c a t i o n procedure. T h i s may be a prime a t t r a c t i o n of these methods f o r users who are not adept at modelling methods, Seeley and Chheda 1* have developed an i n t e r a c t i v e graphics system which enables the user to formulate a s i m u l a t i o n model on an i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s t e r m i n a l . In t h i s system of Computer A s s i s t e d M o d e l l i n g , c a l l e d CAM, the user d e s c r i b e s the model using a l i g h t pen and a s m a l l menu of commands and graphic symbols to c o n s t r u c t a f l o w c h a r t . ; The f l o w c h a r t i s then t r a n s l a t e d by a program which generates a CSMP program t o s i m u l a t e the d e s c r i b e d s i t u a t i o n . T h i s programming language, because i t performs continuous s i m u l a t i o n , i s a p p r o p r i a t e to the system dynamics models Seeley and Chheda wanted t o c o n s t r u c t . T h i s system a l s o has the a b i l i t y t o e d i t the network f l o w c h a r t f o r convenient r e c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the model. Alemparte, Chheda, Seeley and H a l k e r 1 have r e p o r t e d a means f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g s i m u l a t i o n models through human i n t e r a c t i o n with the computer v i a a g r a p h i c s t e r m i n a l . The c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of t h i s system, c a l l e d ANISIM, i s the f a c t t h a t i t r e p o r t s the 11 s i m u l a t i o n r e s u l t s both by t r a d i t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c a l output and by an animated r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s i m u l a t i o n . ANISIM»s most i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e f o r the present d i s c u s s i o n i s the f a c t t h a t the user b u i l d s the s i m u l a t i o n models through an i n t e r a c t i v e process whereby e n t i t y types are arranged and l i n k e d on a g r a p h i c s screen., Parametric data i s entered a t the same time. The model b u i l d i n g a c i t i v i t y i s broken i n t o e i g h t modes to segment the e x e r c i s e i n t o manageable p i e c e s . A l e m p a r t e e t a l f e e l t h a t the h i g h l y v i s u a l nature of the model c o n s t r u c t i o n process tends t o prevent e r r o r s through programming o b s c u r i t y . T h i s f e a t u r e a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o model v e r i f i c a t i o n . ANISIM r e g u i r e s the user to l e a r n the f l o w c h a r t i n g conventions and a command language which are p a r t i c u l a r to t h i s package. Both CAM and ANISIM r e l y cn the d e s c r i p t i o n of models through networks c o n s t r u c t e d using symbols chosen from a menu and the e n t i r e m o d e l l i n g procedure appears to r e g u i r e very l i t t l e t r a i n i n g of the user.: However Seeley, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n with the author, commented t h a t h i s experience with the implementation of these methods suggests t h a t the f l o w c h a r t i n g a c t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t s a l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n which i s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t f o r many n o n - a n a l y t i c a l users to use c o m f o r t a b l y . Previous work which l e d to t h e development of the SIMQ system was done by J . K. s i u *?« *« and L. P o r t e r a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. S i u i n v e s t i g a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of automatic g e n e r a t i o n of modular s i m u l a t i o n programs through q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P o r t e r extended the work of Siu and formulated the i n i t i a l model s t r u c t u r e from which t h i s 1 2 r e s e a r c h evolved, & system of data i n p u t i s of course necessary to complete the program genera t i o n system, To t h i s end. P o r t e r formulated a g u i t e simple s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which do not demand a gre a t deal o f e f f o r t from the user, e i t h e r i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l reguirements or i n volume of i n p u t r e q u i r e d . However, SIMQ as i t was developed by P o r t e r , i n a d d i t i o n to being q u i t e u n r e f i n e d , l a c k e d s u f f i c i e n t v i s u a l a i d s t o model c o n s t r u c t i o n . Because of the g e n e r a l l y i m p l i c i t s t r u c t u r e o f the generated models, g r a p h i c a l a i d s were seen to be complementary t o the system of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s advanced by P o r t e r . SIMQ attempts to combine the conc e p t u a l advantages of g r a p h i c a l methods with the c o n c i s e and , s i m p l i f i e d data s p e c i f i c a t i o n procedures suggested by P o r t e r . 13 • USING TBE SIMQ ~'S|s%EM: D e f i n i t i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were chosen as the mode of e l i c i t i n g user i n p u t s t o the program generator. In order t o u t i l i z e SIMQ t o generate a s i m u l a t i o n program, the user must d e s c r i b e the system i n a way compatible with the c a p a b i l i t i e s of SIMQ. T h i s r e g u i r e s t h a t the s e r v i c e system under i n v e s t i g a t i o n be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of fo u r e n t i t y types. These are d e f i n e d below: CUSTOMER TIPS Customers are those <not n e c e s s a r i l y people) who r e g u i r e s e r v i c e s . A l l a r r i v a l s i n t o the system are customers. For purposes of s i m u l a t i o n , a l l customers which r e g u i r e the same s e t of s e r v i c e s i n the same seguence behave i d e n t i c a l l y . Customer types are t h e r e f o r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the s e t of s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d and by the seguence i n which the s e r v i c e s are demanded. TASK Tasks are the s e r v i c e s the customers demand. In most s e r v i c e systems any s i n g l e s e r v i c e w i l l c o n s i s t of s e v e r a l s t e p s . Often these s t e p s can be aggregated i n t o a s i n g l e task. For example t h e t a s k of f i l l i n g the f u e l tank of an automobile may be broken down i n t o : removing the gas cap, s e i z i n g the hose and i n s e r t i n g i t , f i l l i n g the tank, then removing the hose and r e p l a c i n g the gas cap. The s i n g l e task named f i l l - u p would adequately d e s c r i b e the s e r v i c e . 14 PBOCISSOB TYPE Processors are those (not n e c e s s a r i l y people) who provide the s e r v i c e s . A processor i s any s e r v i c e u n i t capable of r e n d e r i n g a s e r v i c e (completing a t a s k ) . P r o c e s s o r types are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the t a s k s they perform and the e f f i c i e n c y with which they perform them. TEA H A group of p r o c e s s o r s . T h i s f e a t u r e i s u s e f u l f o r p a r t i t i o n i n g complex systems, f a c i l i t a t i n g a n a l y s i s . I t i s mainly a c o n c e p t u a l and s t a t i s t i c a l a i d r a t h e r than an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the s i m u l a t i o n . I t i s a s t a t i s t i c a l a i d because SIMQ a u t o m a t i c a l l y generates gueueing and u t i l i z a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s f o r each team d e f i n e d . .Therefore the user of SIMQ w i l l get i n c r e a s e d d e t a i l i n output merely by p a r t i t i o n i n g the processors I n t o s m a l l e r teams. Stage J[; Q u e s t i o n n a i r e T h i s i s a simple aast€r»flusstioflaaire i n which the user i n d i c a t e s the s i z e of the modelled system. T h i s i s done by s p e c i f y i n g the number of each of the f o u r e n t i t y types which w i l l be used t o c o n s t r u c t the model.,As well as the number o f each e n t i t y type, names f o r each e n t i t y i n v o l v e d most be s p e c i f i e d . / These names serve as convenient l a b e l s i n a l l subseguent s t e p s . T h e S t a g e 1 q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t r o l s the p r i n t i n g of the Stage 2 g u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t . 15 Stage :2- Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Set ••• T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t i s a machine-generated, response to the. i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d v i a the Stage 1 q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In t h i s s t age, the user w i l l d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a l l of the e n t i t y types d e f i n e d . T h i s i s accomplished through a s e r i e s of f i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e subsets. Each subset i s d i r e c t e d toward a p a r t i c u l a r aspect o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e d . , In most of the f i v e s u b s e t s , the number o f e n t r i e s r e q u i r e d i s , determined by the number of comppnents i n d i c a t e d i n the Stage 1 g u e s t i o n n a i r e . As such, the Stage 2 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t may be s m a l l or l a r g e depending on the s i z e of the system being modelled. / S i n c e the l e n g t h o f the Stage 2 g u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t i s customized f o r each a p p l i c a t i o n , there are few redundancies or s u p e r f l u o u s q u e s t i o n s . T h i s ensures t h a t the s p e c i f i c a t i o n procedure w i l l be as r a p i d as p o s s i b l e . ;i f he-^5lBulatic;n;--^Model* • SIHQ uses the responses t o t h e Stage 2 g u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t to generate a complete ready t o run s i m u l a t i o n program w r i t t e n i n GPSS. T h i s program i s subsequently run and the r e s u l t i n g output d e s c r i b e s the simulated behavior o f the; system which was d e s c r i b e d i n the questionnaires. V The s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n the use of SIHQ are o u t l i n e d i n the f l o w c h a r t of f i g u r e 2. CONCEPTUALIZE THE SYSTEM IN TERMS OF THE FOUR ENTITY TYPES \ t F I L L OUT STAGE 1 QUESTIONNAIRE AND SUBMIT \ t RECEIVE STAGE 2 QUESTIONNAIRE \ f F I L L OUT STAGE 2 QUESTIONNAIRE AND SUBMIT N RECEIVE READY-TO-RUN GPSS PROGRAM i RUN THE GPSS PROGRAM f RECEIVE OUTPUT FROM GPSS SIMULATION S t e p s i n U s i n g SIMQ f i g u r e 2. 17 •Modular-" C o n s t r u c t i o n The model which i s c o n s t r u c t e d by SIMQ must be assembled a c c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m a t i o n from g u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Because the s i m u l a t i o n program w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o an a l g o r i t h m i n the program generator module, the r e s u l t i n g ; model w i l l almost n e c e s s a r i l y be modular i n desi g n . In s p i t e o f any r e s u l t i n g r i g i d i t y , the model must adegfuately represent the system under study; The f o l l o w i n g t e l l s how a s u i t a b l e model may be c o n s t r u c t e d , y The b a s i c buildings^ blocJc: che sen f o r the model i s a queueing model s i n c e i t i s simple yet a p p l i c a b l e t o many s e r v i c e systems. A r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s i n g l e s e r v e r system based on a serve r module i s shown i n f i g u r e 3. T h i s b a s i c c o n s t r u c t i o n can be extended t o handle much l a r g e r and more complex systems by a r r a n g i n g s e v e r a l s e r v e r modules s e q u e n t i a l l y . F u r t h e r , s e v e r a l s e r v e r modules can be made members of a *team* by enveloping a l l of them i n s i d e a s e t of e n t r y and e x i t p o i n t s . Thus a m u l t i p l e s e r v e r system of c o n s i d e r a b l e complexity may be co n t r u c t e d using s e t s of s e r v e r modules nested i n •teams* of v a r i o u s s i z e s . Heavy r e l i a n c e on a modular system of program genera t i o n was seen as e s s e n t i a l i n l i m i t i n g the complexity of the program generator. 18 CUSTOMER ARRIVES QUEUE FOR SERVICE Server Module SERVICE PERFORMED CUSTOMER DEPARTS F i g u r e 3 A Modular S e r v i c e System 19 The Programming Language- Chosen • • Co n c e i v a b l y , any programming language could be used as the language i n which the model i s w r i t t e n . However GPSS has s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s which make i t most a t t r a c t i v e f o r use i n automatic program g e n e r a t i o n . , F i r s t o f a l l , GPSS has a s m a l l s e t of a v a i l a b l e statements r e l a t i v e to other languages. Secondly, the GPSS language i s based on a modular; concept./This was seen as being very complementary t o an automatic program generation system which i s i t s e l f modular i n design. T h i r d l y , GPSS a u t o m a t i c a l l y generates voluminous s t a t i s t i c a l output d e s c r i b i n g the simulation.;Simple commands such as QOEOE invoke s u b r o u t i n e s which perform a s e r i e s o f r e c o r d keeping and s t a t i s t i c a l f u n c t i o n s , thereby e l i m i n a t i n g the need t o e x p l i c i t l y i n c o r p o r a t e s t a t i s t i c a l i c a p a b i l i t i e s ; i n t o the; program g e n e r a t i o n package. While g i v i n g s t a t i s t i c a l : d e s c r i p t i o n s a u t o m a t i c a l l y , GPSS a l s o permits f l e x i b i l i t y through user designed output which can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the program generator with l i t t l e e f f o r t . 20 HOW SIBULATI0 NJ' Pi OS# ft'MS H ft BE SPECIFIED P rpgram S t r u c t u r e To i l l u s t r a t e how a program genera t i o n system c o u l d e a s i l y c o n s t r u c t a simple s i m u l a t i o n model u s i n g GPSS, a s i n g l e s e r v e r system i s completely programmed i n F i g u r e 4., C a r e f u l examination o f the program r e v e a l s t h a t l i n e s 2-6 c o n s t i t u t e a complete s e r v e r module through which the customer t r a v e l s a f t e r e n t e r i n g the system and b e f o r e l e a v i n g i t * I t can r e a d i l y be seen t h a t l i n e s 2-6 can be d u p l i c a t e d any number of times to achieve a s i m u l a t i o n of m u l t i p l e s e r v e r s performing m u l t i p l e t a s k s s e q u e n t i a l l y . Note t h a t the subroutine c o n t r o l l i n g the queue l a b e l l e d WAYT i s a c t i v a t e d by two commands, QUEUE and DEPABT, on l i n e s 2 and 4. These commands serve as c h e c k p o i n t s which switch on and switch o f f the r e c o r d keeping f u n c t i o n s of the queue subroutine., In GPSS such che c k p o i n t s may be p l a c e d anywhere i n the model. Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e to p l a c e a s e r i e s of s e r v e r s i n s i d e a s e t o f gueue ch e c k p o i n t s to r e c o r d r e s i d e n c e time of customers i n the r e g i o n d e f i n e d by the c h e c k p o i n t s . In the above example, these che c k p o i n t s are used to r e c o r d the amount of time customers spend gueueing f o r the s e r v e r SEEV. ,/If such; ch e c k p o i n t s are used t o envelop a group o f s e r v e r s , t h i s i s e g u i v a l e n t t o d e l i n e a t i n g a team comprised of the e n c l o s e d s e r v e r s . The output of the s i m u l a t i o n would then d e t a i l the amount of time each customer 21 Line Number GPSS Blocks Operands Comments 1 GENERATE 10 customer a r r i v e s every 10 min. Server Module 2 QUEUE WAYT queue f o r service 3 ENTER SERV seize server 4 DEPART WAYT leave the queue 5 ADVANCE 6 service requires 6 min. 6 LEAVE SERV release server 7 TERMINATE customer leaves model F i g u r e 1 A S i n g l e S e r v e r Model 2 2 type spends w i t h i n the teams d e l i n e a t e d by the c h e c k p o i n t s corresponding to those teams. As always, the output would i n c l u d e the amount of time spent by the customers with each s e r v e r and i n each queue w a i t i n g f o r s e r v i c e . A two server! model i s provided f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n f i g u r e 5, Team S t r u c t u r e Based on t h i s s t r u c t u r e , a simple FOBTBAN program c o u l d be w r i t t e n which c o u l d w r i t e a s i m u l a t i o n program using i n f o r f t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the number of teams-involved and the l i s t of s e r v e r s on each team. The example of f i g u r e 5 c o u l d be c r e a t e d by s p e c i f y i n g two teams, one named ONION c o n t a i n i n g s e r v e r s SEBV1 and SEBV2, and the other team named SPABE, c o n t a i n i n g the s e r v e r SEEV3. Of course, model parameters r e g a r d i n g customer types, a r r i v a l r a t e s , s e r v i c e times e t c , would have to be added, but the s t r u c t u r e of the s i m u l a t i o n program i s determined by the number and o r g a n i z a t i o n c f teams and s e r v e r s , Beviewing what has been accomplished; s p e c i f y i n g o n l y the number of teams and s e r v e r s and t h e i r arrangement, the program generator can be used t o assemble a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d model. The c o n c i s e l y w r i t t e n program takes advantage of the s u b r o u t i n e -based s t r u c t u r e of GPSS t o generate voluminous s t a t i s t i c s . Host other s i m u l a t i o n languages would r e g u i r e many complex commands to r e c o r d and manipulate the s t a t i s t i c s d e s c r i b e the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e system being modeled. One can e a s i l y see the advantages i n using GPSS t o reduce program w r i t i n g e f f o r t . 23 Comment s team UNION f i r s t server module second server module GENERATE • QUEUE -QUEUE ENTER DEPART ADVANCE -LEAVE " QUEUE ENTER DEPART ADVANCE -LEAVE DEPART TERMINATE 10 customer generated every 10 time u n i t s UNION customer enters team UNION WAYTl customer queues f o r server SERV1 SERV1 customer seizes server SERV1 WAYTl customer stops queuing f o r SERV1 5 service requires 5 time units SERV1 customer releases server SERV1 WAYT2 customer queues for server SERV2 SERV2 customer seizes server SERV2 WAYT2 customer stops queuing f o r server SERV2 7 service requires 7 time u n i t s SERV2 customer releases server SERV2 UNION customer leaves team UNION customer leaves model 24 Tasks And -Task- C a p a b i l i t y In order f o r SIMQ to r e a l i s t i c a l l y s i m u late r e a l world systems, s e r v e r s must be a b l e t o perform more than one t a s k . A l i s t of tasks can be p r o v i d e d f o r each s e r v e r i n which i t w i l l be i n d i c a t e d which t a s k s t h a t s e r v e r i s capable of performing. In a d d i t i o n to e l i g i b i l i t y f o r performance o f v a r i o u s t a s k s , one c o u l d , at the same time, i n d i c a t e how much time such s e r v i c e would r e g u i r e . Since s e r v e r s may be capable of performing more than one task type, the generated program must have seme method of r e l a t i n g s e r v i c e times to task type f o r each s e r v e r . Customer Typ.es Thus f a r nothing has been s a i d about the customers which pass through the model. A major i s s u e i n v o l v e d i n the use of the customer concept i n SIMQ i s the d e f i n i t i o n of customer t y p e s . For the purposes o f s i m u l a t i o n modeling, customers can be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the s e t o f s e r v i c e s r e g u i r e d . For a bank, a customer who makes a d e p o s i t i s a d i f f e r e n t customer type from one who makes a withdrawal.- Customer types may a l s o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the sequence* i n which m u l t i p l e t a s k s may be r e g u i r e d . The problem cf task sequencing w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . For each customer type, the a r r i v a l r a t e must be s p e c i f i e d by i n d i c a t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of time i n t e r v a l s s e p a r a t i n g s u c c e s s i v e a r r i v a l s . These i n t e r - a r r i v a l times may be constant 25 or, say vary a c c o r d i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n . Each t r a n s a c t i o n , as i t i s generated, i s assigned a customer type i d e n t i t y which w i l l be used i n subsequent steps f o r r o u t i n g as well as s t a t i s t i c a l purposes. Task Sequencing Once the customer types are generated, some l o g i c must be employed t o guide them through the model. Thetask.--sequencing i n f o r m a t i o n i s the focus of one type o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e found i n the Stage 2 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t . Because SIMQ w i l l schedule customers so t h a t the r e g u i r e d t a s k s are performed i n the c o r r e c t sequence i t i s i m p l i e d t h a t a seguence of team and s e r v e r v i s i t s must be scheduled. The use of TfiAHSFEfi statements i n GPSS a l l o w s the customers t o v i s i t the teams and s e r v e r s any number o f times and i n any sequence d e s i r e d . For each customer type, then, complete r o u t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s must be recorded so t h a t the c o r r e c t path w i l l be f o l l o w e d . For each customer type, a complete schedule o f v i s i t s w i l l be generated as f o l l o w s : 1. L i s t o f teams to be v i s i t e d , i n sequence, 2. Number of s e r v e r s t o be v i s i t e d on each v i s i t t o a team. 3. L i s t o f s e r v e r s t o be v i s i t e d , i n seguence. 4. Number of t a s k s t o be performed on each v i s i t t o a s e r v e r . 5. L i s t of t a s k s to be p e r f o r med,: 1n sequence. 26 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t o r e d . i n f i v e GPSS matrix savevalues ( a r r a y s ) . T h i s h i e r a r c h i c a l data s t r u c t u r e c o n t a i n s a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d to guide each customer type through the model* Each t r a n s a c t i o n c a r r i e s with i t a customer type i d e n t i t y parameter which i s a key t o the, matrix savevalues. s Through the use of i n d i r e c t a d d r e s s i n g and p o i n t e r s , the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e t r i e v e d , item by item, u n t i l t h e customer has exhausted the l i s t o f r e q u i r e d t a s k s . A d e t a i l e d f l o w c h a r t i l l u s t r a t i n g a l l o f the model f e a t u r e s thus f a r d i s c u s s e d i s presented i n f i g u r e 6. Si m u l a t i o n •Jurat The o n l y remaining in f o r f f i a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r SIMQ regards the d u r a t i o n o f the s i m u l a t i o n . C u r r e n t l y , two o p t i o n s e x i s t f o r stopp i n g the s i m u l a t i o n . The f i r s t o p t i o n i s based upon the , number of customers which pass through the model.. The second o p t i o n stops the s i m u l a t i o n a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r amount of simulated time u n i t s have passed. Both o f these o p t i o n s are very simple t o program i n GPSS due to the e f f i c i e n t coding permitted by that language., . " In many s i t u a t i o n s , r e p l i c a t i o n s of s i m u l a t i o n experiments are d e s i r a b l e i n order t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the average o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the system being s t u d i e d . For example, i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e to s i m u l a t e the o p e r a t i o n s of many busi n e s s e s i n a way which r e f l e c t s t h e changing c o n d i t i o n s faced throughout t h e day. Because of s t o c h a s t i c v a r i a t i o n s , the events which occur on a s i n g l e day cannot be considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 27 GENERATE CUSTOMER i COMPILE LIST OF TEAMS TO BE VISITED GO TO NEXT TEAM QUEUE TEAM1 % •GO TO NEXT SERVER •QUEUE WAYT1 ENTER SERV1 DEPART WAYT1 I < ADVANCE i MORE TASKS AT THIS SERVER? |No LEAVE SERV1 Yes •QUEUE WAYT2 I , ENTER SERV2 I DEPART WAYT2 I * ADVANCE I MORE TASKS: AT THIS SERVER? |No Yes LEAVE SERV 2 = -MORE SERVERS ON THIS TEAM Yes j DEPART TEAM1 1 QUEUE TEAM2 o o DEPART TEAM2 F i g u r e 6 A More Complex Model 28 of the average c o n d i t i o n s i n the: system. For t h i s reason a l o n g e r s i m u l a t i o n i s appropriate,, Due to the e f f e c t s of s t a r t - u p and shut-down which may occur each day i t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o simulate a day's o p e r a t i o n s e v e r a l times r a t h e r than to run a s i n g l e long s i m u l a t i o n i n order to achieve steady s t a t e r e s u l t s . T h i s i s c o n c i s e l y provided f o r i n GPSS and t h e r e f o r e can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n SIHO. very simply. < 29 APPLYING cSIJJ TO A IfiOiiSS D e s c r i p t i o n Of The S e t t i n g A l o c a l auto s e r v i c e s t a t i o n and c a r sash w i l l be used to demonstrate the a p p l i c a t i o n o f SIMQ. The s e r v i c e s t a t i o n chosen i s one which combines a s e l f - s e r v e g a s o l i n e o p e r a t i o n with a c a r wash. In a d d i t i o n , t h r e e vacuums are provided f o r the use of customers. The vacuums a r e f r e e of charge and no purchase i s r e g u i r e d . There i s a l s o a c a s h i e r which must be v i s i t e d i f any gas i s bought or a c a r wash d e s i r e d . Customers g e n e r a l l y v i s i t the c a s h i e r a f t e r t a k i n g on gas and before the c a r wash s e r v i c e begins. Customers may wish t o have any or a l l o f the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d . S e r v i c e times are c o n s t a n t f o r the c a r wash and q u i t e v a r i a b l e f o r the gas pump and vacuum o p e r a t i o n s . The mix of a r r i v i n g customers can be expected t o vary a c c o r d i n g t o time-of-day and dayrof-week. / A b r i e f p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n on l o c a t i o n at the s e r v i c e s t a t i c n provided enough i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e flow c h a r t i n f i g u r e 7. For the purposes of t h i s demonstration, we may assume t h a t f o u r customer types v i s i t t h e s t a t i o n . T h i s cumber was chosen to minimize the s i z e of the demonstration problem while a l l o w i n g adequate complexity t o i l l u s t r a t e t he use of SIMQ ,s f e a t u r e s . The flow c h a r t i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t each s e r v i c e i s followed by a d e c i s i o n p o i n t where the customer w i l l choose t h e next s e r v i c e 30 A r r i v a l s ueue ARRIVALS © © © © 1 "O O « o i • • • • • ^ O O *• i eue Cashier i o Queue o I [ [ [ j j Vacuums I Next server? • LEAVE PREMISES Next server? • o Queue I 1 Car Wash LEAVE PREMISES -*> LEAVE PREMISES F i g u r e 7 Flowchart o f a Gas Bar and Car Wash 31 or leave the premises. • Having completed a flow chart, the user has a conceptual ..model of the system and may now describe the system in terms of the H entity types permitted. The servers are the pumps, vacuums, cashier and car-wash. These may be arranged in 2 teams; the f i r s t , named OUTER, containing a l l of the gasoline pumps and the cashier, and the second team, named INNER, containing the vacuums and car wash. The team structure i s chosen according to the user *s judgement. In general, the make-up of the teams i s determined by the s t a t i s t i c a l output the user desires since residence time within each team w i l l form part of the output. The l i s t of tasks performed will be simplified for this example problem. Four tasks comprise the entire l i s t of services available.; These are; FILUP, the dispensing; of gasoline, PIKUP, use of the vacuum, and SCRUB/ passihg through the car wash, and PAYUP, paying for the services reiguired.jFour customer types wi l l be sufficient to demonstrate the flexability- of customer routing permitted., At this point, the user i s ready to complete the Stage 1 questionnaire. 32 ic Stage 1 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e • A completed Stage 1 q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s presented i n f i g u r e 8. The responses i n d i c a t e t h a t the system being modeled i s made up of 2 teams, fo u r s e r v e r types, f o u r task types and f o u r customer types. A l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s entered on l i n e 1. In l i n e s 2-5, the user i s r e q u i r e d t o supply names f o r a l l of the e n t i t i e s i n the proposed model. Two team names are s u p p l i e d f o r the two teams and f o u r p r o c e s s o r names are s u p p l i e d . The r e s t of the e n t i t y names a r e s i m i l a r l y entered. The number of l i n e s used i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s determined by the l a r g e s t number Of a s i n g l e e n t i t y type. In t h i s example, the user must supply f o u r names f o r the p r o c e s s o r s , t a s k s and customers t h e r e f o r e f o u r l i n e s are needed a f t e r l i n e 1. Names .,, must be f i v e c h a r a c t e r s or l e s s . r Stage 2 Que s t i o n n a i r e Set The i n f o r m a t i o n from the Stage 1 g u e s t i o n n a i r e i s used by the Stage 2 q u e s t i o n n a i r e generator to produce the c o r r e c t forms . f o r e l i c i t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u i r e d . The Stage 2 g u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t w i l l a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e e n t i t y names as provided i n Stage 1. The Stage 2 q u e s t i o a a i r e i s a c t u a l l y a group of the f i v e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u b s e t s : 1) Team S t r u c t u r e 2) Processor Task 3) Customer Information 33 STAGE 1 QUESTIONNAIRE Column (1-2) Number of Teams (3-4) Number of Processor Types (5-6) Number of Tasks (7-8) Number of Customer Types Om pm 10141 o i q -Column (1-5) Team Names (6-10) Processor Names iDiurrifc|R|iPittiMiPiS l l |Nl|^ |b|R||\/lAlC|U|fv\ l l O l f l | S | H | ( c j (11-15) Task.Names (16-20) Customer Names P| V |U|U|P] ICJUISIOI1 Pit IklUIPIlCiuisio'S-PlA lviu[p|iqais]o|3 S [ q Q - [ u [ f e i | C | m s | o m Figure 8 34 U) Task Sequencing 5) S i m u l a t i o n Duration These g u e s t i o n n a i r e sunsets are e x p l a i n e d i n f u l l d e t a i l below. The data e l i c i t e d through these f i v e subsets a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o completely d e f i n e the s i m u l a t i o n model. 1) Team S t r u c t u r e Subset The f i r s t s e t o f g u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n f i g u r e s 9-11, deals with team s t r u c t u r e . There w i l l be one such g u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r each team. The major item of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u i r e d here i s the composition o f each team. The e n t r i e s i n the g u e s t i o n n a i r e pages shown i n f i g u r e 10 i n d i c a t e that t h e r e are 7 SU HPS and 1 CASBB on team OUTEB. Figure 11 i n d i c a t e s t h a t there are 5 VACUMs and 1 WASHB, on team IHUEB. , SIMQ i s capable of monitoring and a d j u s t i n g the number of p r o c e s s o r s on a p a r t i c u l a r team. To invoke t h i s o p t i o n , the user must s p e c i f y the range w i t h i n w h i c h t h e g u a n t i t y of s e r v e r s may be v a r i e d as w e l l as a c r i t e r i o n f o r adding or t a k i n g away pro c e s s o r s . T h i s f e a t u r e i s intended t o be an a i d i n s o l v i n g s t a f f i n g and l a y o u t problems by i n d i c a t i n g the number of s e r v e r s and amount of gueueing area r e g u i r e d under v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s f o r any s e r v i c e p o l i c y . The a d d i t i o n a l items are 1) minimum c a p a c i t y f o r a processor type 2) minimum gueue per a v a i l a b l e processor 3) maximum queue per a v a i l a b l e p r o c e s s o r . The minimum c a p a c i t y , along with maximum c a p a c i t y (the number THIS IS THE SFCOND GF THREE STAGES. AT THIS POINT ME ARE INTERESTED IN THE F I N E R O F T AILS OF THE SYSTEM YOUWISH TO.JJJ jUJuy^. EACH QUESTIONNAIRE I S ; [ DESCRIBED IN SOME DETAIL AT THE TOP OF EACH SECTION. IF THE EXPLANATION GIVEN I S INSUFFICIENT PLEASE REREAD THE APPROPRIATE SECTIONS OF THE USERS MANJAL. A CARD FOR EACH LI NE OF THE yU.£SI.1.0.NNA M0§.I....1L ENJJE_RJED_ E VEN_ IF THAT CARD IS BLANK. A TALLY OF CARDS REQUESTED IS GIVEN ON THF LEFT SIDE Of T H E QUESTIONNAIRE. THE FIRST 5 CARDS IN THE DECK WILL BE THE CARDS USED TO GENERATE THIS QUESTIONNAIRE S E T . PLEASE MAKE CERTAIN ALL REQUESTED CARDS ARE PRESENT AND IN ORDER. • THE FOLLOWING 2 SETS OF QUESTIONNAIRES ARE TO INFORM THE SYSTEM OF THE M A K E - J P OF EACH 1EAM. IF YOU WANT PROCESSOR CAPACITY TO BF VARIED F I L L IN COLUMNS 3 - 8 . NOTE THAT ' E A C H P ^ Q Q Q S " 5 Q R ; ^ y - - - ^ _ _ _ _ _ TEAM OF A PARTICULAR PROCESSOR MUST BE THE SAME FOR ALL TEAMS SHARING THIS  PROCESSOR. PLEASE ENTER ALL CARDS REQUESTED AS A BLANK CARD WILL INDICATE TO THE 'SYSTEM T H A T T H E C T S F H T E S P _ T _ J T N G P £ Q £ £ ^ ^ i T l J O T " " ^ ^ Figure 9 ******************************* * " TEAM STRUCTURF QUESTIONNAIRE: OUTER It 1 * COLUMN ( I-2J (3-4J (5-6) (7-8) PROCESSOR NUMBER MINIMUM MINIMUM MAXIMUM C A R D A V A I L A I J ' L E C I F A C T T Y Q U E T J E QUEUE 6 PUMPS | _ | _ | l . l . l VACUM |_|_| |_|_| s"""XAS-RR I M J I T T O T i m r : r : T 9 WASriR I . I . I Figure 10 *^********************************************** . * * .. * TF AM S TRl'lf.TUR F UUES T I ON NA IRE : INNER # 2 * \ „ ************************************************ COLUMN U - ? l <3-4J PROCESSOR NUMBER MINIMUM (5-6) 1 7 - 8 ) MINIMUM MAXIMUM C A R D AV A T L ABLE C A P A C i f Y QUEUE QUEUE 1 0 PUMPS 1 1 1 l - i - l ! 1 1 111 VACUM * 5 T O f GL A » 12 C A S H R 1 1 1 1 1 " I I T I T ~ T I T _ I 1 3 foA SHR CM I I - l . I l - l - l Figure 11 38 a v a i l a b l e as p r e v i o u s l y e n t e r e d ) / d e f i n e s the range i n .which processor c a p a c i t y may be v a r i e d . The minimum and maximum queue s p e c i f i c a t i o n s form the c r i t e r i o n f o r adding or dropping processors* For example, i f one s p e c i f i e s 01 and 02 as the minimum and maximum queues f o r a processor type, SIMQ w i l l then add processors when more than an average of 2 customers are gueueing at each a v a i l a b l e p r o c e s s o r . , S i m i l a r l y , p r o c e s s o r s w i l l be withdrawn whenever l e s s than ah average Of 1 customer i s gueueing at each a v a i l a b l e p r o c e s s o r . At the end of the s i m u l a t i o n , complete s t a t i s t i c s w i l l d e s c r i b e the h i s t o r y of processor u t i l i z a t i o n . I f one dofes not wish t o make use of SIMQ*s monitoring c a p a b i l i t y , b l a n k s may be l e f t i n response to minimum c a p a c i t y and t h e minimum and maximum queue gue s t i o n s . F i g u r e 11 i l l u s t r a t e s the i n v o c a t i o n of the monitoring f u n c t i o n f o r the pr o c e s s o r VACUM. Monitpring w i l l not be done f o r the other s e r v e r s because no o t h e r e n t r i e s are placed i n columns 3^8 throughout the team s t r u c t u r e g u e s t i o n n a i r e subset. The number of VACOMs a v a i l a b l e w i l l b e v a r i e d between a maximum of 5 and a minimum of 1.;/VACOMs are added when, on average, more than 2 customers are gueueing per a v a i l a b l e VACUM and they are dropped when t h i s s t a t i s t i c f a l l s below 1. A f u r t h e r f e a t u r e of SIMQ i s the a b i l i t y to share p r o c e s s o r s among teams. I t may be d e s i r a b l e t o c o n s i d e r a group of p r ocessors members of d i f f e r e n t teams when performing d i f f e r e n t t a s k s . T h i s may be s p e c i f i e d very simply by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a non-zero q u a n t i t y o f s e l e c t e d s e r v e r s are a v a i l a b l e to more than one team. Hhen a customer a r r i v e s at a s e r v e r , s e r v i c e 39 w i l l ; begin only i f the number o f occupied s e r v e r s on a l l teams i s l e s s than the t o t a l number a v a i l a b l e , ; I t must be noted t h a t i f the user wishes to have i d e n t i c a l s e r v e r s performing t a s k s on d i f f e r e n t teams without being shared between teams, a d i f f e r e n t p r ocessor type, d i s t i n c t l y named, must be defined f o r each team. 2) Processor-Task Subset In t h i s g u e s t i o n n a i r e group, the user i n d i c a t e s which tasks each processor type can perform. T h i s i s done by e n t e r i n g the r a t e at which the processor can perform each task. A blank l i n e i s entered i f the processor cannot perform the i n d i c a t e d task. T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e s 12 to 15. The s e r v i c e r a t e i s i n d i c a t e d by c h o o s i n g , from a s h o r t l i s t provided, a d i s t r i b u t i o n which adequately d e s c r i b e s the s e r v i c e times f o r each task. Four commonly used p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s are provided. > I f the user chooses one of these d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the c h o i c e i s i n d i c a t e d by e n t e r i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e number between 1 and 4. I f the d i s t r i b u t i o n d e s i r e d by the user i s not provided, a u s e r - s u p p l i e d d i s t r i b u t i o n may be s p e c i f i e d . A number between 5 and 99 i n d i c a t e s that the s e r v i c e t i m e s f o r t h i s p r o c e s s o r - t a s k p a i r w i l l come from the d i s t r i b u t i o n which w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by t h a t number. I t i s then up to the user to c o n s t r u c t the a p p r o p r i a t e GPSS f u n c t i o n f o r t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n s e r t i t i n the generated program. Line 14 i n f i g u r e 12 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r o c e s s o r POMPS performs the task FILOP i n about 120 seconds, The s e r v i c e times * PROCESSOR- ! ASK QUESTIONNAIRE: PUMPS *_ ; ' **** THE NEXT 4 QUESTIONNAIRES ARE 10 INFORM THE SYSTEM OF THE RATE AT WHICH EACH PROCESSOR CAN PERFURM EACH TASK ANO WHERE THE_ TASKS wILL BE PERFORMED. TO DO THIS ENTER THE 0 ISTRI BUT ION NUMBER AND THE REQUIRED INFORMATION REGARDING TEAM P R E F E R E N C E . A BLANK CARD WILL INDICATE THAT A PROCESSOR CANNOT PERFORM THE CORRESPONDING TASK AND THE ABSENCE OF A TEAM PREFERENCE ~ WILL NOT_ HINDER THE SYSTEM. **NQTE- F I L L IN ALL LEADING AND FOLLOWING ZEROES . » * ' ' ~ " 0 1 : CONSTANT SERVICE TIME - ENTER MEAN [ 0 2 : UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN AND 1/2 SPREAD ~~ "• 0 3 : NORMAL DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIAT ION  0 4 : EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN 0 5 - 9 9 : USER SUPPLIED F U N C T I O N - MUST BE SELF CONTAINED • - Is PROCESSOR : PUMPS COLI 1-2) ( 3 - 1 0 ) ( 1 1 - 1 8 1 ( 1 9 - 2 0 ) CARD TASK D I S T R I BU T I ON MEAN DI SPERSION TEAM : 14 F I L U P AO 1 5 * 0 0 0 • J _ | _ | i\\-'y~'-:^ 15 PIKUP 16 PAYUP 1 I J i 1•J_l_l_l . 17 SCRUB i _ i _ i _ i _ i . i _ i _ i _ i UL-_U M J J X . „ . ' § 1 _ Figure 12 ************************************************ * * * , PKOCES SDR-TASK QUE ST 1 0 N N A I k E : VACUM * * * ************************************************ 0 1 : CONSTANT SERVICE TIME 0 2 : UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN - ENTER MEAN AND 1/2 SPREAD 0 3 : NORMAL DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION 0 4 : EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN 0 5 - 9 9 : USER SUPPLIED FUNCTION- MUST BE SELF CONTAINED PROCESSOR : VACUM CARD TASK C O L l l - 2 ) D I STR I BUT I ON 1 3 - 1 0 J MEAN ( 1 1 - 1 8 ) DISPERSION ( 1 9 - 2 0 ) TEAM I B FILUP 19 PIKUP 20 PAYUP 21 SCRUB i - i - i _ T - i . i - i - i - i J i i i i - J i i i Figure 13 ****************************************** * # * ' P R O C E S S O R - T A S K Q U E S T I O N N A I R E : C A S H R * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 01: C O N S T A N T S E R V I C E T I M E - E N T E R M E A N 02 : U N I F O R M D1STRI B U T ! O N 7...E.NI1?. M E A N . AN.5 1/2SPjR_EAJJ_ 03: N O R M A L D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N T E R M E A N A N D S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N 04: E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N T E R M E A N 05-99: U S E R S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N - M U S T B E S E L F C O N T A I N E D P R O C E S S O R : C A S H R C O L ( 1 - 2 ) (3-10) ( 1 1-18) (19-20) • C A R D T A S K D I S T R I B U T I O N M E A N D I S P E R S I O N T E A M 22 F I L U P l_l_l l_ l_ l_ i -| . I_ l_ l_ l 1-1.1 * 1 A' 23 24 P I K U P P A Y U P l - I J O f t 1 1 1.1 I.I 1 1 1 rO-QJiS.&QlOi 1 1 J 1 1 - J J 1 « 1 4 i i J . I - I - I - I 1-1-1 > 25 S C R U B 1 1 I-l I.I I-l 1 l - l - l - l - l . I _ l _ l _ l l - l - l ********** ***** **************************** ** * ** * PROCFSSUR- tASK QUESTIONNAIRE: WASHR * ************************************************ O l : CONSTANT SERVICE TIME - ENTER MEAN 02: UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN AND 1/2 SPREAD 03: NORMAL DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION 04: EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN 05-99: USER SUPPLIED FUNCTION- MUST BE SELF CONTAINED PROCESSOR : WASHR COLI 1-2) (3-10) (11-18) (19-20) ?' CARD TASK DISTRIBUTION MEAN DI S P E R S 1 0 N TEAM 26 j F I LUP l _ l _ l _ l _ l . l _ l . i - l 27 PIKUP l . l - l L I _ J _ i _ i . l _ l _ l _ l i - i - i ' • i t '• 28 PAYUP .1-1.1-1 l _ l _ l _ l _ U 29 SCRUB i - i - i Figure 15 44 are normally d i s t r i b u t e d about the mean with a standard d i s t r i b u t i o n of 15 seconds. T h i s processor cannot perform any o t h e r t a s k s as i n d i c a t e d by the blank e n t r i e s of l i n e s 15-17. The t h r e e other processors are t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . When a processor type i s shared between teams, i t may be necessary to i n d i c a t e the team at which t h i s processor w i l l perform each i n d i v i d u a l task. .The team w i l l be i n d i c a t e d i n columns 19-20 of the p r o c e s s o r - t a s k q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In t h i s example problem, no processors are shared, a c c o r d i n g l y , these columns are l e f t blank. 3) Customer Inf o r m a t i o n Subset The customer i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e of f i g u r e 16 l i s t s a l l of the customer types. For each customer type, s e v e r a l items are r e q u i r e d . F i r s t , one i n d i c a t e s the a r r i v a l r a t e by choosing the d i s t r i b u t i o n type and the mean and d i s p e r s i o n { i f appropriate) f o r i n t e r - a r r i v a l times. T h i s i s done i n e x a c t l y the same manner as the s e r v i c e times. The next item i s p r i o r i t y . P r i o r i t y c l a s s e s are assigned t o customer types by e n t e r i n g a number from 1-99 which i n d i c a t e s p r i o r i t y c l a s s . l a r g e r numbers i n f e r higher p r i o r i t y , Higher p r i o r i t y a llows customers t o j o i n queues ahead o f any other customer with lower p r i o r i t y but does not allow pre-emption of s e r v i c e . A l l customer types f o r which columns 19-20 are l e f t blank w i l l belong to the lowest p r i o r i t y c l a s s , / ************************************* * * * C..US.I.O.MEE I NF.UR.M AT I UN QUfcSI i UNN AI Rfc * THIS QUESTIONNAIRE INFORMS THE SYSTEM AS TO THE ARRIVAL D ISTRIBUTION OF EACH „.....__ OF (HE C..y.5..i:.OME.R IY.PES AND THE TASKS THEY REQUIRE PERFORMED.. THJ...S 1.S.J2.QNE fiY ENTERING THE DISTRIBUTION NUMBER AND THE REQUIRED INFORMATION. FOLLOWING THIS ENTER A " I " IN EACH COLUMN CORRESPONDING TO A TASK WHICH THIS CUSTOMER R E Q U I R E S . • .Qi..: C.U.N..S.IA.NT ARRIVAL R..AT£ - ENI.ER MEAN 0 2 : UNIFORM DISTRIBUT ION - ENTER MEAN AND 1/2 SPREAD 0 3 : NORMAL DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIAT ION ....... _...._._>.*,: _AP.QME N i l A.L D.I..ST.RI BUI10.N - ENTER MEAN _ , 0 5 - 9 9 : USER SUPPL IED FUNCT ION- MUST BE SELF CONTAINED COLUMN ( 1 - 2 ) ( 3 - 1 0 ) ( 1 1 - 1 8 ) ( 1 9 - 2 0 ) ( 2 1 - 2 4 ) F P P S _ X JL. -A—0. CARD. PUS TDM FR DISTR I BUT I ON MEAN DISPERSION PRIORITY L K Y R U U U U P P P B 31 30 C U S O l CUSQ3 CUS02 33 CUS04 Figure 16 46 Columns 21-24 a r e reserved f o r the i n d i c a t i o n of tasks r e g u i r e d . The user must enter a * 1 * i n the columns corresponding t o the t a s k s r e g u i r e d f o r each of the customer types. In the event t h a t one wishes t o simulate the d a i l y flows i n t o a system where the a r r i v a l r a t e i s not constant, i t becomes i n n a p r o p r i a t e t o e n t e r a c o n s t a n t value as the mean i n t e r -a r r i v a l p e r i o d . I t i s p o s s i b l e with SIMQ t o s p e c i f y a f u n c t i o n which gives the c o r r e c t value of the mean under v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The s u b s t i t u t i o n of a f u n c t i o n f o r a numerical constant i s i l l u s t r a t e d cn l i n e 30 of f i g u r e 16. In t h i s case, the value f o r the mean i n t e r - a r r i v a l time i s taken from the f u n c t i o n ftfifilV;which s u p p l i e s values o f the mean i n t e r r a r x i v a l times a c c o r d i n g to the time elapsed i n the s i m u l a t i o n . T h i s e f f e c t i v e l y s i m u l a t e s t h e v a r i a t i o n i n customer a r r i v a l s throughout the day. The f u n c t i o n s u p p l i e d w i l l cause the c a r r i v a l r a t e f o r customer type CUS01 to peak at the 6 hoar p o i n t each day. Systematic v a r i a t i o n of the a r r i v a l r a t e throughout the day p l a c e s v a r y i n g demands upon the s e r v e r s . Since CUS01 r e g u i r e s the use of VACOM, i t i s l o g i c a l t o expect t h a t the number of VACOMs r e g u i r e d w i l l vary throughout the day., The monitoring f u n c t i o n been invoked f o r the, processor type VACUM, so we may l o o k f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i n the f i n a l output. 47 4) Task Sequencing Subset In t h i s s e c t i o n , the user w i l l s p e c i f y the order i n which the r e q u i r e d t a s k s must be completed f o r each customer type. A sepa r a t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p r o v i d e d f o r each customer t y p e . , The procedure i s e a s i l y understood i f one loo k s at the q u e s t i o n n a i r e pages i n f i g u r e s 17-21. Figure 18 d e a l s with t a s k sequencinq f o r CUS01. A l l the task names are l i s t e d i n rows and i n columns.. C o n s i d e r i n g each l i n e s e p a r a t e l y , the user must i n d i c a t e the ta s k s which must be completed b e f o r e the task o f t h a t l i n e by e n t e r i n g a «1» i n the corresponding column. Since PILUP i s the f i r s t task r e q u i r e d by t h i s customer type, l i n e 34 i s l e f t blank to i n d i c a t e t h a t no t a s k s precede FILUP, The task PIKOP f e l l o w s t h e A t a s k s FILOP and PAYOP and t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n l i n e 35 by e n t r i e s i n the columns corresponding t o FILUP and PAYUP. I t l i n e 36, an e n t r y i s placed i n column 1 corresponding to FILUP because t h i s task precedes PAYUP, Line 37 i s l e f t blank because 'COS01 does not r e q u i r e t h i s t a s k . The other customer types are handled i n the same manner. In the cases where only one task i s r e g u i r e d by the customer type, no sequencing problem e x i s t s and blanks may be entered. T H E F O L L O W I N G 4 Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S A R E T O I N F O R M T H E S Y S T E M A S T O T H E O R D E R I N W H I C H T H E T A S K S E A C H C U S T O M E R R E Q U I R E S A R E T O B E P R O C E S S E D . T O D O T H I S O N E Q U E S T -IONNA1RE F O R E A C H C U S T O M E R T Y P E I S P R E S E N T E D . F O R E A C H R O W C O R R E S P O N D I N G T O A T A S K E N T E R A nl" I N E A C H C O L U M N C O R R E S P O N D I N G T O T H O S E T A S K S W H I C H M U S T B E P R O C E S S E D B E F O R E T H E T A S K O F T H A T R O * . ( N O T E : O N E C A R D M U S T B E E N T E R E D F O R E A C H T A S K F O R E A C H C U S T O M E R T Y P E t E V E N I F T H A T C A R D I S B L A N K I Figure 17 * * * TASK SEQUENCING QUESTIONNAIRE: CUSOl * * * COLUMN 1 2 3 4 F P P s I I A c L K Y R U U U u CARD TASK P P P B . . . 34 F I L U P 1 J - I J J " ~ ~ 35 PIKUP i l l l ] > 1 i 36 PAYUP .1. - I - l _ l 37 SCRUB 1-1 _ 1 J J Figure 18 ***** ************************ ******************* * * * T A S K SEQUENCING QUESTIONNAIRE: CUS02 ' * * * ***************** ******************************* COLUMN 1 2 3 4 F P P S I I A c L K Y R U U U u < • . . . • CARD TASK P P P B 38 Fi'LUP LI _ L " 1 1 ~ ~ 39 PIKUP LI _ L i 40 PAYUP 1 - L _i 41 SCRUB LI _ L V'; Figure 19 i n o ***************************************** * * * TASK "SEQUENCING QUESTIONNAIRE: CuSOJ * * * ************************* ********************* ** COLUMN 1 2 3 4 F I L P I K P S A C Y R ' CARD TASK U P U P U U P B " •? . . . . . 42 F J L U P l _ l _ l 43 PIKUP l _ l _ l 44 PAYUP .1. 1 _ l 1 : 45 SCRUB III _l I I _ I Figure 20 * *********************************** * * * TASK' SEQUENCING QUESTIONNAIRE: CUS04 * * * ************************************************ COLUMN 1 2 3 4 F I L P I K P A Y S C R CARD TASK U P U P U P U B 46 F I L U P L I J -I ' l l ~ 47 PIKUP l _ l _ J I I - 48 PAY UP l _ i _ l 1 I - I 1 ' 49 SCRUB U _! 1 Figure 21 53 5) Simulation Duration Subset The l a s t page of the Stage 2 guestionnaire set, shown i n figure 22, deals with simulation duration. Option 1 provides for stopping the simulation aft e r a certain number of customers have been processed. Option 2 stops the simulation after a specified number of simulated time units,.Figure 22 shows that option 2 has been chosen and that the length of the 'simulation w i l l be .28800 seconds (8 hours) . I n addition four r e p l i c a t i o n s have been requested so that four eight-hour days w i l l be simulated. A complete description of each r e p l i c a t i o n w i l l be generated i n the fina1 output.• .- They'Slmplation- Program -From the Stage 1 and Stage 2 responses, the program generator produces a l i b e r a l l y documented GPSS program. The generated program f o r t h i s example i s reproduced i n Appendix A. V'T^e.fe;Si;mulationf:'Besults -, The output consists primarily of processor u t i l i z a t i o n and queueing s t a t i s t i c s i n the standard GPSS format. The processor u t i l i z a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s are quite detailed and are la b e l l e d with user supplied names. The use of queues enables SIMQ to record the residence time s t a t i s t i c s for customers i n each team arid in the model as well ********************************************* A** * * * S I M U L A T I O N D U R A T I O N Q U E S T I O N N A I R E * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * FOR CONTROLLING THF DURATION OF THE SIMULATION THERE ARE TwO BASIC OPTIONS. 0 P T I 0 N 1 t N l L L SJOP THE SIMULATION AFTER A S P E C IF 1 t p N UMBER U F CUSTOMERS HAVE PASSED THROUGH THE SYSTEM, OPTION _ WILL STOP THE SIMULATION AFTER A S P E C I F I E D PERIOD OF TIME HAS ELAPSED. INDICATE THE NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS DESIRED IN COLUMNS 7-d~ COLUMN(1) ( ? M B ) (7*8) MAXIMUM NUMBER OF NUMBER OF CARD OPTION CUSTOMERS/TIME UNITS REPLICATIONS ^ f f i S Off Figure 22 * * * * * * * U T I L I Z A T I O N OF M O N I T O R E D P R O C E S S O R S * * * * * * * T A B L E V A C U M E N T R I E S I N T A B L E M E A N A R G U M E N T S T A N D A R D OEV I AT I U N SUM O F V R G U M E N T S > 2 i 2 . 2 8 1 . U J L 2 J J 2 1 9 . O Q Q M O N - W F l r . H T F D U P P E R O B S E R V E D P E R C E N T C U M U L A T I V E C U M U L A T I V E M U L T I P L E - D E V I A T I O N • .11 M I T F R E Q U E N C Y . U l T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E _ R E M A I N D E R _ O f . M E A N F R O M M E A N ....„ _ 1 31 3 2 . 2 9 3 2 . 2 6 7 . 7 . 4 3 8 - 1 . 1 3 4 2 22 2 2.91 5 5 . 2 4 4 . 7 . 6 7 6 - . 2 4 9 : 3 i 3 3 4 . 3 7 . 8 J L L 5 1 0 . 4 U J X 5 *ii3jb 4 5 5 . 20 9 4 . 7 5 . 2 1 . 7 5 3 1 . 522 O V E R F L O W 5 5 . 2 0 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 AVERAGE. VALUL. Of .CVERCLOW . 5 . 0 0 * * * * * * * * * P R O C E S S O R U T I L I Z A T I O N S T A T I S T I C S * * * * * * * * * 1 ' : - A V E R A G E U T I L I Z A T I O N D U R I N G -S T O R A G E C A P A C I T Y A V E R A G E E N T R I E S A V E R A G E T O T A L AVAI L . U N A V A I L • C U R R E N T P E R C E N T C U R R E N T MAX I MUM - C O N T E N T S T I M E / U N I T T I M E T I M E T I M E S T A T U S A V A I L A B I LI TY C O N T E N T S C O N T E N T S PUMPS 7 3 . 2 2 2 7 7 7 _ . 1 1 9 . 4 2 1 _ i_*.6.a 1 0 0 . 0 1 .7 VACUM 5 2 . 4 7 8 3 0 1 2 3 7 . 1 3 3 . 4 9 5 1 0 0 . 0 2 5 '•' • C A S H R 1 . . 4 4 6 8 56 1 5 . 0 0 5 . 4 4 5 1 0 0 . 0 1 WASHR 1 . 6 1 6 2 9 6 5 9 . 9 6 6 . 6 1 6 lon.n 1 1 * * * * * * * * * * C O M P L E T E Q U E U E S T A T I S T I C S * * * * * * * * * * Q U E U E MAXIMUM A V E R A G E T O T A L Z E R O P E R C E N T A V E R A G E $ A V E R AGE T A B L E C U R R E N T C O N T E N T S C O N T E N T S E N T R I E S E N T R I E S Z E R O S T I M E / T R A N S T I M E / T R A N S NUMBER C O N T E N T S 0AFU17 B ?.7 6n 1 H 4 8 2^6 2 1 4 . 121 2 1 9. 9 0 B 3. WHOLE 19 9 . 8 6 6 8 5 7 .0 3 3 1 . 5 6 6 3 3 1 . 5 6 6 1 0 O U T E R 1 2 3 . 9 8 8 8 5 7 .0 1 3 4 . 0 2 4 1 3 4 . 0 2 4 1 PUMPS 3 LJQJLS 7 7 7 7 6 0 9 7 . 8 _.. .5.7.5 2 6 . 2 9 4 C A S H R 6 . 3 0 4 8 5 6 5 0 5 5 8 . 9 1 0 . 2 5 4 2 5 . 0 0 8 INNER 13 5 . 8 7 8 6 0 3 .0 2 8 0 . 752 2 8 0 . 752 9 VACUM 8 2 - 2 6 0 i04 8 2 1 4 . 1 2 1 2 1 9 . 9 Q B 1 WASHR 5 . 5 2 3 2 9 9 1 0 5 3 5 . 1 5 0 . 4 1 4 7 7 . 7 0 1 3 2 0 1 14 6 . 2 8 6 3 0 4 .0 5 9 5 . 5 7 2 5 9 5 . 5 7 2 5 2 0 2 _ ~ 5. 1.. 2 63.... 2.54. ...0 1 4 3 . 2 5 1 1 4 3 . 2 5 1 1. 2 0 3 8 1 . 9 4 2 2 1 9 .0 2 5 5 . 4 3 8 2 5 5 . 4 3 8 2 2 0 4 3 . 3 7 4 8 0 .0 1 3 4 . 6 4 9 1 3 4 . 6 4 9 2 $ AV E R A G E T I M E / T R A N S « A V E R A G E TI M E / T R A N S E X C L U D I N G Z E R O E N T R I E S  Figure23 S t a t i s t i c a l O u t p u t From a S i m u l a t i o n * * ...**.. ** ** ** ** ..-**-. ** ** ** ** *« ** ** Histogram. o * * * ** ** ** ** ** «* ** .** ** From ._ o 4 * * * ** * * « « ** «* ** ** ** ** ** S iiriu.1 at i<~»n o * * * *« ** * * ** ** ** ** ** *» ** ** •* o * * * * * ** ** ** ** ** *« ** ** ** ** ** o * • « * * »* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *• ** ** o 3 * « * ** *ft ** ** ** ** • * ** ** ** ** •» ** ** ** ** * * ** »* ** •* ** »* »* *• •* ** ** ** ** • » ** ** *» ** ** o « » • *» *» ** ** ** ** ** • * ** «* ** ** ** *• • * ** ** ** ** »* »* *« ** ** •* ** *• ** •* »* ** *• ** ** *« ** o * * * *• ** ** ** ** ** ** • * *« • * *o ** • « ** ** ** ** ** *• ** ** ** ** ** ** *» ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** o NUMBER 2 * * * ** **  ** ** *• ** *» ** ** • * •* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *« ** ** ** ** ** *« «* ** ** *» ** ** »* ** «« ** «* ** ** ** ** ** ** »* ** ** ** ** «* ** ** ** »* o OF P R O C E S S O R * * • ** ** ** *» ** *• ** «* ** • • *• ** *» ** • « ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** »* ** ** ** «* ** ** ** ** ** »• ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** »* ** *« ** *• ** ** •* ** • * *4 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** »* o VACUM » » * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** • * *» ** ** ** ** ** • « ** ** ** *« ** • * ** ** ** ** ** *« ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *» ** ** ** ** ** *• ** *» *• ** »» ** ** •* *• • « *» ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * * * * o AT TEAM I N N F R 1 * * * ** ** ** ** ** ** «* ** *« ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** »* ** ** »# ** ** ** «* ** ** ** ** ** *• ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *» ** ** »* ** ** «* •* »* ** *• ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * * * * ** ** o * * * ** ** ** ** ** ** • * ** *« ** • * ** ** ** ** ** ** • * ** ** ** • * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *« «* ** ** «* ** *« ** ** ** »* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** e* *• ** ** ** ** ** »* ** ** ** 4* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * * 4* * * «* ** ** «« ** ** ** •* ** ** *• ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** o * * * ** »« ** ** ** ** ** *• ** ** ** ** *» *» ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** • * ** *« *« *« «* ** «* ** *e ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *» ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** •* ** «* ** «* »» ** ** ** ** ** *» *• ** ** *» ** ** * * ** ** ** ** © * * * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *« ** *« *« ** ** *« *« ** ** *« ** *» ** ** ** *• ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *» ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *« «« ** ** ** ** ** ** ** •* *• ** ** ** •* *• •* ** • * *# ** ** ** *• ** ** *» ** ** ** *« ** ** * * ** ** o : *** ** ******* *** ** * *«* ********* * **** ************ ******** * ******* ** ** *** ** ********* ** *** ************************ *********** | 1 | 2 I 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 1 0 © HOURS OF S I M U L A T I O N I P I V I O E O I N T O Q U A R T E R HOURS 1 F i g u r e 2 4 57 as i n queues waiting -for-.service. The customer e n t e r s the model : • •: ,"b:y ,1"entering' the queue WHOLE for^'.t',he;:entlre/::fflcdelN-i:as.-iwell'->a:S' a .:r ;,=q:ueue,,-foxi-its. own../customer••• type*^- The queues la-belled 201-204 corespond to t h e customer types C0S01 t o CUS04. As the customer progresses through the model, i t j o i n s other queues f o r the teams and pr o c e s s o r s entered. These queues are s u c c e s s i v e l y entered and l e f t behind. As the customer l e a v e s the model, i t l e a v e s the queue WHOLE as w e l l as the gueue f o r i t s own customer type. Thus a very complete r e c o r d i s kept of many movements i n the model. The queueing s t a t i s t i c s a r e l a b e l l e d with user s u p p l i e d names with the exception o f WHOLE and the queues f o r each customer t y p e . The u t i l i z a t i o n of monitored processors i s presented i n the t a b l e l a b e l l e d VACOM. T h i s t a b l e presents i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the requirements o f v a r i o u s c a p a c i t y l e v e l s . F or example, i t i s shown i n the cumulative percentage column of f i g u r e 23 t h a t 94,7 per cent of the time, f o u r or fewer VACUMs were r e g u i r e d . The mean, number of VACOMs r e g u i r e d was 2.281. A histogram of the p l o t t i n g processor r e g u i r e d a g a i n s t a time a x i s i s presented i n f i g u r e 24.., T h i s i s based on a s i n g l e day s i m u l a t i o n . The histogram i s very e r r a t i c and there i s l i t t l e c l e a r evidence of the peak l o a d which should be o c c u r r i n g at the s i x hour p o i n t . Included i n the output are the r e s u l t s of f o u r r e p l i c a t i o n s . Scanning the r e s u l t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i m u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e s a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e average o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the s e r v i c e s t a t i o n . F i g u r e s 25-26 provide an example of a t y p i c a l s i m ulated day. The s t o c h a s t i c v a r i a t i o n i n a r r i v a l s has r ******* U T I L I Z A T T UN OF MUNIUll'.r.D P R O C E S S C R S * * * * * * * TAIiLF. VACUM ENTRIES I N TABLE M E A N ARGUMEN T STANDARD DEVIATION S U M OF ARGUMENTS 96 2.?t.0 1.195 217.000 NON-rir IGHTFO / • I l o > U P P E R OBSERVED P E R C E N T CUMULATIVE CUMULATIVE MULT IPLE >OEV I A T I O M LIMJ I FREQUENCY OF. T O T A L PERCENTAGE REMAINDER OF,. MEAN FROM MEAN 1 33 34.37 34.3 65.6 . 442 - 1. 054 • 2 23 23. 45 58.3 41 .6 .884 -.217 , o 3 30 31.25 89. 5 10.4 1. 327 .618 4 2 2.08 9 1 .6 8.3 1 . 769 1. 455 •O OVERFLOW 8 8.33 100.0 .0 AVERAGE VALUE OF OVERFLOW 5 .00 * * * * * * * * * PROCESSOR UTILIZATION STATISTICS * * * * * * * * * i c -AVERAGE UTILIZATION DURING-STORAGE CAPACITY AVERAGE ENTRIES AVERAGE TOTAL AVAIL. UNAVAIL. CURRENT PERCENT CURRENT MAXIMUM CONTENTS TIME/UNIT TIME TIME TIME STATUS AVAILABILITY CONTENTS CONTENTS o PUHPS 7 3.260 786 119.467 .. ...465 . 100.0 4 . . _ _ J_ • VACUM 5 2.458 294 240.816 .491 100.0 1 5 < CASHR I .453 863 15.129 .453 100.0 1 1 o WASHR 1 .692 332 60.000 .691 1 00.0 1 is z 1 o s t o • * * * « » * « * * COMPLETE QUEUE STATISTICS * * * * * * * * * * o QUEUE MAXIMUM AVERAGE TOTAL ZERO PERCENT AVERAGE SAVERAGE TABLE CURRENT CONTENTS CONTENTS ENTRIES ENTRIES ZEROS TIME/TRANS TIME/TRANS NUMBER CONTENTS o OARfl? 1 3 2. 38? 2 97 10 3.3 231 .057 239.108 WHOL E 28 10. 370 867 .0 344.48 3 344.483 8 OUTER 14 4. 149 867 3 .3 137.844 138.322 4 o PUMPS 5 .049 7 86 729 92,7 1.805 ._ 2 « , 894 CASHR 7 . 3 86 863 474 54.9 12.902 28.624 I NNF R 20 6.220 629 . 0 284.826 2 84.826 4 o VACUM 13 2.382 2 97 10 3.3 231.057 239. 108 3 WASHR 6 .687 332 98 29.5 59.674 84.666 o 201 .20 6 .407 300 .0 615.083 615.083 7 202 6 1.212 234 .0 149.264 149.264 203 8 2.3 38 252 .0 267.273 267.273 1 204 3 .411 81 .0 146.432 146.432 o ^AVERAGE TIME/TRANS = AVERAGE TIME/TRANS EXCLUDING Z E R O ENTRIES o O R C f i a f i o f l <"« _ 1 . On'+-T~»i-i'4-. TP'"V* ,V"\TYV- - 3--_ D o t a u i s v i e a t KJ U T _ p U T _ r J. OIU SL K c p i l C a C l u ] 1 ,© J Ul 00 o ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *» H i s t o g r a m r * ** ** s /—> * * ** ** ** ** " From a * ** ** » * ** •* ** ** ** ** R ^ r i l i r a t i n n * ** ** ** »* * ** ** ** ** CL * ** *• ** ** * ** ** ** *» * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * ** ** ** ** * ** ** ** «* r * *« ** *# ** 3 * «* ** ** ** ** ** *• ** ** ** ** ** ** *• »• ** • ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** • * ** ** *• ** * * * ** ** *« ** ** ** ** ** «* ** ** ** ** *» ** ** * ** ** «* ** ** • * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *« ** ** * ** ** ** ** «* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *» *• *• »* * ** ** ** ** ** ** »* ** ** ** ** ** *» *• ** ** * ** ** ** *» ** ** *• ** ** ** • * ** *• ** »* ** < * ** ** • * ** »« ** ** ** •* »* ** *• *• «• ** •« z ** ** ** ** ** ** ** «* ** *« ** ** t* *•* ** < u * ** ** *» *» ** ** ** *« ** •* • * ** ** ** ** ** H NUMBER 2 »* ** ** • * ** *» ** •* ** *« ** «« ** *• ** ** ** ** »* ** ** 9 i * ** ** ** ** *• ** ** ** ** ** ** ** •• ** ** ** ** •* ** ** «* O F * ** ** ** ** «* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *• ** « ** c* ** ** *« ** ** •* ** ** *« ** «* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** P R O C E S S O R * ** ** »* ** ** ** ** *« •* ** ** • « ** *• ** • * ** ** ** *• ** * ** ** ** ** ** ** »* ** •* «* ** • • ** ** ** ** ** *« ** *• «* V A C U M * ** *» ** ** ** ** ** *« ** ** *« *« ** ** ** ** ** ** ** •* * * * ** ** ** ** *» ** ** •* ** ** ** ** ** *• ** ** ** ** ** ** * * AT T E A M * ** ** *« ** •* ** ** ** ** «* ** • * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *« * * * • * ** ** ** *• ** ** »* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *• •* •* ** ** ** INNFR 1 * ** ** *• ** ** ** ** ** *« ** ** • * ** ** ** ** ** ** <•* ** ** ** *• *« ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** • * •• ** ** ** * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** «* ** ** ** ** ** *« «* ** • • ** ** ** ** ** * * * ** ** ** ** «* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** _** ** *.*_**. ..**. .**... ** ** •* ** ** ** ** ** ** *• ** ** * ** ** ** ** *« ** «» •« ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *• ** ** ** ** »« ** ** *• ** ** ** ** »* • * ** * * * ** ** ** ** ** ** *• ** ** •* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** »* •* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * * « ** ** ** ** «* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *« ** ** ** ** ** ** ** • * ** ** *» ** ** ** ** ** ** *» •* *« ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * • * ** ** ** ** »* ** ** •* ** ** ** ** ** ** «« ** ** *» ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * * * ** ** ** ** ** *» *• ** ** ** ** ** ** *» ** *« ** «» ** *« «* ** »* ** ** *« «* »* *« ** ** * * 0 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * t t t t t t « « * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 1 1 2 1 i 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 1 1 0 H O U R S O f S I M U L A T I O N ( O I V I D E O I N T O U U A R T E R H O U R S ) F i g u r e 0 £, Z D J sD 60 caused the histograms o f f i g u r e s 24 and 26 to be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t yet they both show a tendancy to low demand at the beginning of the day and high demand duri n g the l a t t e r p a r t of the day, conferming t o t h e p a t t e r n of a r r i v a l s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t the peak l e v e l of demand f o r V&CUHs l a g s behind the a r r i v a l peak s l i g h t l y . T h i s behavior i s what would be expected i n an a c t u a l s e t t i n g and tends to v a l i d a t e the model. 61 FIELD TESTING SIMjQ Experiments To date S I M Q has been p i l o t t e s t e d i n a v a r i e t y of s e t t i n g s such as banks, d e n t a l p r a c t i c e s and a hematology l a b o r a t o r y . An e a r l y t e s t of S I M Q * s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n a c h i e v i n g the g o a l s s e t f o r i t i n v o l v e d a group o f students who were asked to model a .test problem u s i n g t h i s system, at t h i s e a r l y stage, a major f a c t o r i n choosing students f o r t h i s t e s t was t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y . . E q u a l l y important, a measure of t h e i r s uccess with S I M Q c o u l d e a s i l y be made as w i l l be e x p l a i n e d . T h i s was due to the f a c t t h a t these students were e n r o l l e d i n a s i m u l a t i o n course which had been o f f e r e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . A G P S S programming assignment had been part of the course f o r some time. From past experience, i t i s estimated t h a t students i n t h i s course r e q u i r e 20-25 hours t o complete the r e g u i r e d t e s t problem. In e f f e c t , a c o n t r o l study f o r t h i s experiment had a l r e a d y been done. The performance of new students, using S I M Q , c o u l d be compared to the performance o f p r e v i o u s students who d i d not have t h i s a i d . The experimental group encountered the t e s t problem, read the users manual f o r S I M Q , and completed t h e s i m u l a t i o n i n l e s s than t h r e e u h o t t r s v Furthermore, the S I M Q r e s u l t s i n c l u d e d a histogram as well as more d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c s . At t h i s point i t appeared as though S I M Q c o u l d be very e f f e c t i v e i n reducing the time and a t t e n d a n t expense a s s o c i a t e d with the development of s i m u l a t i o n programs. The 62 r e d u c t i o n i n model b u i l d i n g e f f o r t appeared to be a r e s u l t of the ready s t r u c t u r e which SIMQ provides. Once the s t r u c t u r e has been e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s a simple matter t o s p e c i f y the ap p r o p r i a t e . model parameters. Though i t was t r u e t h a t the t e s t problem was o f a type e s p e c i a l l y w e l l s u i t e d t o SIMQ, i t was encouraging t h a t such r e s u l t s had been obtained with undergraduate students who were not s p e c i a l i s t s i n a n a l y t i c methods. Since i t was i n t e n d e d t h a t SIMQ would make s i m u l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to the n o n - t e c h n i c a l user c l o s e to the problem l o c a t i o n , a f i e l d t e s t seemed i n order. A nearby branch of the Bank of Montreal was chosen as a p o s s i b l e t e s t i n g ground. The manager of the branch was very r e c e p t i v e and eager to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the experiment. The i n i t i a l s t r a t e g y was t o in t r o d u c e the manager t o SIMQ and r e l a t e t o him the goals o f the re s e a r c h . I t was i n t e n d e d t h a t he would read the users manual and then complete the model f o r m u l a t i o n and f i l l i n the Stage 1 g u e s t i o n n a i r e . These r e s u l t s would be entered i n t o the computer toi generate the Stage 2 g u e s t i o n n a i r e set^j.Onfortiiii'atel-y, t h i n g s d i d not go ac c o r d i n g t o plan. /Although the branch manager had no p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y i n reading, the user*s manual, he wasn't a b l e t o formulate a model i n terms of the e n t i t y types d e f i n e d . T h i s was due simply t o a l a c k o f exposure t o modelling concepts. 8 i t h the a i d of an a n a l y s t , he was a b l e t o progress t o Stage 2 but was unable to d e a l with the g u e s t i c n s regarding d i s t r i b u t i o n types f o r a r r i v a l and s e r v i c e r a t e s . Furthermore the use of SIMQ's f e a t u r e s such as shared processors, monitoring, and 6 3 r e p l i c a t i o n s were not grasped f u l l y enough to be u s e f u l . In a d d i t i o n , the problem he decided upon was t h a t of determining s t a f f i n g l e v e l s given v a r y i n g a r r i v a l r a t e s throughout the day. T h i s r e g u i r e d the i n s e r t i o n of user w r i t t e n f u n c t i o n s i n GPSS which, of course, he was unable t o do.: O v e r - r i d i n g a l l o f t h i s was; a ge n e r a l l a c k o f comprehension of what the s i m u l a t i o n would give him and how t h i s was a c h i e v e d . T h i s was q u i t e understandable given t h a t he had never been exposed to s i m u l a t i o n b e f o r e . T h i s experience l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t SIMQ r e g u i r e s the presence of a s i m u l a t i o n a n a l y s t t o i n t e r p r e t the problem as d e f i n e d by the user. Since we had shown.that™'5IM%':-:Has:.'-very. s u c c e s s f u l on i t s own f o r people with an understanding ? o f , but -.^o^ti^-guea.t ..experience, with, s i m u l a t i o n i t was s t r o n g l y suggested t h a t t h e r e i s a t h r e s h o l d l e v e l of f a m i l i a r i t y with s i m u l a t i o n m o d e l l i n g which permits c l o s e user involvement i n the s i m u l a t i o n process. The next phase o f e v a l u a t i o n centered upon the us e f u l n e s s of SIMQ i n a p r a c t i c a l s e t t i n g . 64 Dental S e t t i n g The area of d e n t a l p r a c t i c e was seen as a t y p i c a l s e r v i c e system. I t was a l s o seen as being g u i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a c l a s s o f s i m i l a r systems such as ge n e r a l medicine, p e d i a t r i c s and optometry which-.operate i n the same manner. In attempting to.- • f i t * SIMQ to the d e n t a l s e t t i n g , s e v e r a l o b s t a c l e s presented themselves. The f i r s t was t h e f a c t t h a t most p r a c t i c e s operate a system o f scheduled a r r i v a l s whereas SIMQ i s based upon a system where i n t e r - a r r i v a l times f o l l o w a p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n . l a r g e d e n t a l c l i n i c s o p e r a t i n g without appointment systems would f i t t h i s reguirement but, due to the r a r i t y o f such c l i n i c s , t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n was seen as being q u i t e severe* The second o b s t a c l e was one of d e f i n i n g tasks and proc e s s o r s . In g e n e r a l , d e n t i s t s work with some combination of a u x i l i a r y s t a f f i n c l u d i n g a c h a i r s i d e a s s i s t a n t . For the purposes o f s i m u l a t i o n , the d e n t i s t - a s s i s t a n t p a i r c o u l d be cons i d e r e d as a s i n g l e processor . T h e d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s because the a s s i s t a n t spends v a r y i n g amounts of time working independently o f the d e n t i s t . SIMQ has no p r o v i s i o n f o r a customer t o si m u l t a n e o u s l y engage more than one s e r v e r . , I t i s t h e r f o r e impossible to sim u l a t e the behavior of both s e r v e r s . A t h i r d o b s t a c l e concerned the c a p a b i l i t i e s of s e r v e r s . In the s i m u l a t i o n model generated by SIMQ each task i s s p e c i f i c a l l y assigned t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v e r . In an a c t u a l d e n t a l s e t t i n g . 65 there s i l l o f t e n be t a s k s which any of s e v e r a l s e r v e r s may perform. I t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t the proper p o l i c y to be f o l l o w e d was t h a t the cheapest i d l e s e r v e r would always perform t a s k s as they a r i s e . However, an e f f e c t i v e s i m u l a t i o n of t h i s behavior would r e q u i r e execution-time a l l o c a t i o n of t a s k s t o s e r v e r s . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , SIMQ produces programs i n which the c h o i c e of s e r v e r f o r each task i s s t a t i c , Seasoning t h a t the d e n t i s t , i f he should be i d l e , w i l l have seme o f f i c e o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s which c o u l d be done , and t h a t the c o s t to the d e n t i s t of a w a i t i n g p a t i e n t i s very low, i t was concluded that the d e n t i s t should never perform d u t i e s f o r which an a u x i l i a r y i s g u a l i f i e d , ; T h i s p o l i c y was endorsed by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r c f a l a r g e d e n t a l p r a c t i c e , : Proceding from t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , i t was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r SIMQ to a s s i g n , i n a s t a t i c manner, each task to the cheapest q u a l i f i e d s e r v e r . In order to c o n v i n c i n g l y model the d e n t a l p r a c t i c e , i t was f e l t t h a t the system of randem a r r i v a l s would have to be r e j e c t e d i n f a v o r of seme method of emulating scheduled a r r i v a l s . In an a c t u a l s e t t i n g , p a t i e n t a r r i v a l s are planned i n the hope t h a t a new p a t i e n t a r r i v e s j u s t before s e r v i c e i s completed on the previous p a t i e n t . For a l l p a t i e n t s then, some estimate of time r e q u i r e d must be made by the d e n t i s t or r e c e p t i o n i s t so t h a t p a t i e n t a r r i v a l s may be e f f i c i e n t l y scheduled. For the d e n t a l model, i t was decided t h a t the p r o j e c t e d s e r v i c e times would serve as an estimate of r e s i d e n c e time i n the o f f i c e . The sum of s e r v i c e times f o r a l l r e q u i r e d tasks would be the amount of time r e g u i r e d by each p a t i e n t type. 66 A GPSS function was constructed r e l a t i n g customer type to time reguirement. The a r r i v a l , of a p a r t i c u l a r l y demanding patient should cause the simulation program to allow a r e l a t i v e l y long i n t e r v a l before the a r r i v a l of the next patient. The type of an a r r i v i n g patient would therefore trigger the next patient a r r i v a l . I t was deemed appropriate to base the time reguirements for each patient type on the.mean time spent with the dentist since the dentist i s the most c r i t i c a l resource i n t h i s setting. Therefore, following the a r r i v a l of a patient requiring 30 minutes of the :dentist*s time and U5 minutes of an a u x i l i a r y ' s time, only a 30 minute spacing would be used to schedule the next a r r i v a l . This policy ensures that that the dentist w i l l be highly u t i l i z e d . This necessarily means that much of the a u x i l i a r i e s * workload w i l l be unscheduled. This was seen to be a reasonable approximation of actual practice. I t should be noted that many other p o l i c i e s could be substituted. Bith respect to the d e n t i s t r a s s i s t a n t pair, i t was decided to s define a single server which would represent this: pair. In recognitipn of the time spent by the assistant independently of the dentist, an a d d i t i o n a l server i s defined to undertake such procedures as i n i t i a l patient preparation, rubber dam placement, and operatory clean up. The u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s server would serve as an i n d i c a t o r of the amount of time the assistant spends i n independent a c t i v i t y . An i m p l i c i t assumption of t h i s approach i s that the d e n t i s t - a s s i s t a n t pair i s not handicapped when the assistant attends to other duties. This assumption i s permitted because of the f l e x i b i l i t y i n timing of the assistant's 67 independent d u t i e s permitted i n a r e a l s e t t i n g . I n t e rviews with v a r i o u s people i n the d e n t a l p r o f e s s i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l o b s t a c l e s as w e l l as the p r o v i s i o n of r e a l i s t i c t a s k - ; c a p a b i l i t y d e f i n i t i o n s f o r a l l s e r v e r s , The dete r m i n a t i o n o f d u t i e s which w i l l be assigned to a v a i l a b l e personnel i s unique to each i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e , s u b j e c t to d e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n s - s t a t u t o r y requirements and a v a i l a b i l i t y of s t a f f . A wide v a r i a n c e i n degree of d e l e g a t i o n of d u t i e s can be found a c r o s s d e n t a l p r a c t i c e s because c f the pre f e r e n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l d e n t i s t s . A f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e t of processor c a p a b i l i t i e s was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t e s t case employed. Complete accuracy i n s i m u l a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e was not attempted s i n c e a demonstration o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the concepts embodied i n SIMQ i s a l l t h a t was sought. / A demonstration case was c o n s t r u c t e d d e f i n i n g one team with , t h r e e p r o c e s s o r s . The a r r i v a l s are comprised of 23 p a t i e n t types r e q u i r i n g some combination o f 22 ta s k s . The complete s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and a program •.•listing are given i n Appendix B. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s i m u l a t i o n along with some explanatory m a t e r i a l s comprised a d e n t a l a p p l i c a t i o n demonstration. I t was then necessary t o f i n d a person g u a l i f i e d to e v a l u a t e the work which had been done. The person chosen was Lana Hightman, the a d m i n i s t r a t o r of a l a r g e d e n t a l p r a c t i c e . The p r a c t i c e i t s e l f c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t d e n t i s t s of v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i t i e s , p l u s a complement of 22 permanent and H permanent r e l i e f o f f i c e s t a f f f o r d e n t a l and o f f i c e d u t i e s . Because of her involvement with 68 the problems of c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h i s o f f i c e and her previous background , i t was f e l t t h a t Ms. Hightman was the i d e a l person to comment upon the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of SIMQ t o d e n t a l p r a c t i c e management. A f t e r r e v i e w i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d e n t a l a p p l i c a t i o n demonstration, Ms. Hightman f e l t t h a t the model was a reasonable r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a t y p i c a l d e n t a l o f f i c e . , Commenting t h a t she e s p e c i a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d the comprehensive a n a l y s i s of p a t i e n t f l o w , Ms. Hightman s t a t e d t h a t t h i s type of a n a l y s i s c o u l d " l e a d t o more e f f i c i e n t appointment book c o n t r o l " , and would be " u s e f u l i n f u t u r e planning f o r growth" with r e s p e c t t o o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s . However she a l s o f e l t t h a t SIMQ should be more comprehensive i n modelling a c t i v i t i e s of the o f f i c e . .-69 THE STOCHASTIC VERSION OF SIMQ T g t r e d u c t i o n To The S t o c h a s t i c V e r s i o n T h i s o p t i o n a l l o w s l o o p i n g and p r o b a b i l i s t i c branching w i t h i n the model. These c a p a b i l i t i e s would be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n s i t u a t i o n s where a s i n g l e customer type i s not homogeneous causing i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s to f o l l o w d i f f e r e n t paths owing t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s . An example of t h i s would be t e l e v i s i o n s e t s on an assembly l i n e . I f there i s a q u a l i t y c o n t r o l t e s t on the l i n e , seme of the s e t s w i l l be found to be d e f e c t i v e and w i l l f o l l o w a d i f f e r e n t path from the n o n - f a i l e d s e t s . The path of the f a i l e d s e t s might i n v o l v e a r e p a i r o p e r a t i o n f o l l o w e d by r e - e n t r y i n t o the assembly l i n e to be r e f i n i s h e d and r e - i n s p e c t e d . T h i s vould c o n s t i t u t e a loop ( f i g . 27a). A l t e r n a t i v e l y , f a i l e d s e t s might simply be destroyed, thereby l e a v i n g the model a t a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t than the main flow of s e t s ( f i g . 27b). • o — o - * o ^ ' TEST CONTINUE , TERMINATE TEST CONTINUE a) b) 70 Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s the c r e a t i o n of loops with no e x i t . T h i s would r e s u l t i n t r a n s a c t i o n s c o n t i n u a l l y r e v i s t i n g the same sequence of s e r v e r s i n d e f i n i t e l y . A model with t h i s s t r u c t u r e would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s i t n a t i o n s where an e n t i t y t r a v e l s i n an unending l o o p such as a f e r r y boat or a component w i t h i n a production process. A model such as t h i s would be terminated a c c o r d i n g t o e l a p s e d time r a t h e r than by counting the number of t r a n s a c t i o n s to e x i t the model. Rou:^^ng?vTransactlons--ln - The S t o c h a s t i c V e r s i o n - . In the d e t e r m i n i s t i c v e r s i o n , the matrix save-values are c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t there i s one s e t of save-values f o r each customer type. In the d e t e r m i n i s t i c v e r s i o n , each customer type has only one p o s s i b l e r o u t e through the model.(Therefore, SIflQ provides one s e t of matrix save-values f o r each customer type t o f u l f i l a l l r o u t i n g requirements. ,This i s not adequate i n t h e s t o c h a s t i c v e r s i o n because each customer type may have more than one p o s s i b l e path. > Since a set of save-values i s provided f o r each p o s s i b l e path through the model, SIMQ must o f t e n provide more than one s e t o f matrix save-values f o r each customer type. I f each p o s s i b l e path o f a customer t y p e i s : viewed as a customer subr-type then i t can be seen t h a t SIMQ must provide a s e t of matrix save-values f o r a l l of the customer sub-types f o r each customer type. A d d i t i o n a l l y , e x t r a s e t s of save-values must be provided f o r each l o o p . 71 A simple flow chart i n f i q u r e 28 w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e the r o u t i n g of a s i n g l e customer type along m u l t i p l e paths i n c l u d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a loop. For t h i s example, SIMQ Figure 28 M u l t i p l e paths with, a loop would e s t a b l i s h three customer sub-types f o r t h i s customer type. The two paths corresponding to the f i r s t two sub-types a r e ; 1) 1-2-3-4 2) 1-2-3-5-6 A t h i r d customer sub-type w i l l be def i n e d f o r the loop i n d i c a t e d i n the flow c h a r t . T h i s path w i l l be given as: 61) 2-3. At t h i s p o i n t , the methods used t o achieve .the s t o c h a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s of SIMQ deserve some comment. As a t r a n s a c t i o n e n t e r s the model, i t i s assign e d a customer type and customer sub-type. S i n c e the assignment of a customer sub-type determines the t r a n s a c t i o n ' s path through the model, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s i m u l a t e p r o b a b i l i s t i c branching w i t h i n the model by randomly a s s i g n i n g 72 the customer sub-type t o t r a n s a c t i o n s at the time of e n t r y i n t o the model; The s t o c h a s t i c b e h a v i o r a t the p o i n t o f branching i n t o the l o o p , however, i s handled independently. T r a n s a c t i o n s are randomly switched e i t h e r i n t o or out of the loop a t the p o i n t o f e n t r y I n t o the loop. I t must be noted t h a t t h e branching which occurs a t node 3 i s p r o b a b i l i s t i c i n the sense t h a t the t r a n s a c t i o n may e n t e r the l o o p or c o n t i n u e with equal p r o b a b i l i t y assigned to each outcome. However i f the t r a n s a c t i o n does not e n t e r the loop, t h e r e i s no element of p r o b a b i l i t y remaining.. I t should be r e a l i z e d t h a t the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the t r a n s a c t i o n ^ path a f t e r branching out of the loop i s done at the point of e n t r y i n t o the model because the t r a n s a c t i o n proceeds a c c o r d i n g t o i t s customer sub-type which was a s s i g n e d a t t h i s p o i n t . As each customer ent e r s the model, i t w i l l be assigned a customer sub-type of e i t h e r 1 or 2 with equal p r o b a b i l i t y . The customer w i l l never l o s e t h i s i d e n t i t y , then a customer reaches node 2 f o r the f i r s t time, i t may branch i n t o the loop or continue on i t s path a c c o r d i n g to i t s customer sub-type. Suppose the t r a n s a c t i o n branches i n t o the loop. Since the s e t of matrices f o r the o r i g i n a l customer sub-type has no i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the loop path, theccustomer sub^type must be a l t e r e d so t h a t the t r a n s a c t i o n draws i t s r o u t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s from a d i f f e r e n t source. I t was e a r l i e r s t a t e d t h a t once i t i s assigned, a t r a n s a c t i o n w i l l never l o s e i t s o r i g i n a l customer sub-type i d e n t i t y . s B u t i n order f o r the t r a n s a c t i o n to 73 draw i t s r o u t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s from a d i f f e r e n t source i t must have a d i f f e r e n t s e t of i d e n t i t y parameters. I f i t i s s t i l l to r e t a i n i t s o r i g i n a l customer sub-type i t must t e m p o r a r i l y s t o r e i t s ^ o r i g i n a l i d e n t i t y parameters i n an a l t e r n a t e l o c a t i o n . A s e t o f parameter l o c a t i o n s i s r e s e r v e d so t h a t the t r a n s a c t i o n may t e m p o r a r i l y shed i t s o r i g i n a l customer sub-type i d e n t i t y while i t i s n e g o t i a t i n g the loop. In t h i s example, the subtype #61 corresponds t o the r o u t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g u i r e d f o r the loop c f f i g u r e 28. Once a customer has entered the loop i t i s routed through nodes 2 and 3. A f t e r the task a t node 3 has been completed, the t r a n s a c t i o n again encounters the p o i n t of p r o b a b i l i s t i c branching. I f i t does not branch out of the l o o p , the t r a n s a c t i o n simply proceeds a c c o r d i n g t o the r o u t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s of customer sub-type 61 s t a r t i n g again a t the beginning of t h e loop. I f the customer should branch out of the loop at t h i s p o i n t , i t must re-assume i t s o r i g i n a l customer sub-type i d e n t i t y . T h i s i s done by r e i n s t a t i n g the parameters which were p r e v i o u s l y s t o r e d . The t r a n s a c t i o n then proceeds along i t s path u n t i l i t l e a v e s the model. Although the present example does not i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t , the t r a n s a c t i o n may go on to n e g o t i a t e any number of subsequent loops., R e f e r r i n g to f i g u r e 29, c o n s i d e r a t r a n s a c t i o n which has reached node 5 and e n t e r s the loop a t t h i s p o i n t . I t s o r i g i n a l customer sub-type i d e n t i t y w i l l be s t o r e d to make room f o r the new :customer sub-type i d e n t i t y r e q u i r e d f o r the loop path 2-3-4-5. Suppose t h a t w hile f o l l o w i n g t h i s path, the t r a n s a c t i o n i s 74 branched at node 4 i n t o the loop path defined as 3-4. In order f o r the t r a n s a c t i o n to be routed v t h i s way, i t would have to again t e m p o r a r i l y assume a new customer sub-type i d e n t i t y , now r e g u i r i n g twc s e t s of customer sub-type i d e n t i t y parameters to be s t o r e d . Since no p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r s t o r i n g m u l t i p l e s e t s c f parameters, nested loops can not be accommodated. I t i s t h e r e f o r e i l l e g a l to s p e c i f y nested loop paths i n SIMQ. f i g u r e 29 Nested Loops - An i l l e g a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n I t should be a p p r e c i a t e d that the use of a separate customer sub-type f o r the loop i s a simple f e a t u r e which a c h i e v e s a g r e a t d e a l . Since the branching at node 2 i s p r o b a b i l i s t i c , i t can be seen that a t r a n s a c t i o n may encounter the branching p o i n t and complete the loop any number of times before branching out and proceeding onward. I f a s i n g l e n e g o t i a t i o n of the loop i s co n s i d e r e d a d i f f e r e n t path frcns two c y c l e s through the loop, i t can be seen t h a t t h e r e are an i n f i n i t e number of r o u t e s and hence customer sub-types p o s s i b l e . 75 ^Pji>i:..ithe•.approach t a k e * was to d e f i n e a separate customer sub-type ; f o r each p o s s i b l e path through the model, i t would only be p r a c t i c a l t o c o n s i d e r approximating the s t o c h a s t i c process with a l i m i t e d number of the most l i k e l y paths. Use of the separate customer sub-type f o r the loop, t o g e t h e r with the a b i l i t y to s t o r e the t r a n s a c t i o n ' s o r i g i n a l i d e n t i t y a l l o w s the above d e s c r i b e d s t o c h a s t i c process t o be a c c u r a t e l y modeled i n a co n c i s e f a s h i o n . Rules f o r C o n s t r u c t i n g Network Paths-There are a few r u l e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g network paths f o r the t r a n s a c t i o n s i n the c o n s t r u c t e d model. These are l i s t e d below. 1) The nodes correspond to t a s k s r e g u i r e d by each customer type. The nodes must be numbered from 1-30 corresponding t o the order i n which they appear i n the customer l i s t o f the Stage 1 g u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t . 2) T r a n s a c t i o n s are assumed to en t e r the model a t a node which has no ar c s e n t e r i n g i t . Only one such node i s ; p e r m i t t e d f o r each customer type. ,3} T r a n s a c t i o n s e x i t the model when no f u r t h e r path i s de f i n e d f o r them. T h i s happens when a node has nc a r c s l e a v i n g i t . In t h i s case,^ ajj- t r a n s a c t i o n s a r r i v i n g at t h i s node w i l l e x i t the model here. In g e n e r a l , a node becomes an e x i t p o i n t when the sum of the p r o b a b i l i t i e s of the; e x i t i n g a r c s i s l e s s than 1.0. Consider a node f o r ; which t h i s sum i s 0.75. For 25 per cent of the a r r i v a l s a t 76 t h i s node there i s no f u r t h e r path d e f i n e d . For t h i s p r o p o r t i o n then, t h i s node w i l l be the e x i t point from the model. <i) loops may be d e f i n e d by s p e c i f y i n g a r c s from a node which connect t o a previous node. Only one e x i t may be de f i n e d from a loop and t h i s node,must be the h i g h e s t numbered node i n the loop. Since there may only be one e x i t from the l o o p , there may be, at most, two ar c s from the highest numbered node of the loop. The f i r s t of the a r c s l e a d s back t o complete the loop while the second a r c i s the e x i t path. , 5) Nested ldops are not permitt e d , 6) In Order t o comply with the above r u l e s and f o r c l a r i t y i n p r e s e n t a t i o n , dummy nodes may be used i n the network d e f i n i t i o n , a dummy node i s any nod© numbered 31-60. These , may be used f r e e l y as they are i n v i s i b l e to the SIMQ program generator. ; F i g u r e 30 shows the flow, c h a r t of f i g u r e 28 as i t would appearwhendrawn a c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e s r e g u i r e d by the s t o c h a s t i c v e r s i o n o f SIMQ. Node 31 i s added so t h a t there i s only 1 e x i t from the loop.„ 7 7 F i g u r e 30 Network flow c h a r t conforming to r u l e s Network D e f i n i t i o n Cards Once the user has decided upon a network path f o r a l l the customer types, he must code these networks i n t o a form s u i t a b l e f o r SIMQ. One set of network d e f i n i t i o n c a r d s i s r e q u i r e d f o r each customer type proceeding i n sequence from the f i r s t one l i s t e d i n the customer type l i s t of Stage 1 to the l a s t customer type named. For the purposes of network d e f i n t i o n c a r d s , the nodes are denoted by numbers corres p o n d i n g to t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the l i s t of task names given i n response to the Stage 1 q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l i n k i s d e s c r i b e d by q i v i n q the number of the o r i g i n node, the number of the d e s t i n a t i o n node and the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a t r a n s a c t i o n a t the o r i g i n node w i l l take t h i s path. For example, the code 01-02-01.0 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the customers le a v e node one to go to node two with a p r o b a b i l i t y of 1.0. That i s , a l l customers which a r r i v e at node one w i l l go to node two. Network d e f i n i t i o n c a r d s f o r a given customer type may be l i s t e d i n any order as nothing i s i m p l i e d by the order i n which these c a r d s are given. The user s i g n a l s the end of a 78 customer type network by e n t e r i n g a l i n e which reads 00-00. The network d e f i n i t i o n c a r d s f o r the next customer type w i l l f o l l o w immediately.,• The network d e f i n i t i o n c a r d s f o r the flow c h a r t o f f i g u r e 28 are l i s t e d here: 010201.0 020301.0 030200.5 033101.0 310400.5 310500.5 050601.0 0000 Hematology Laboratory: An A p p l i c a t i o n The choice of t h i s s e t t i n g f o r t e s t i n g SIMQ was prompted by two f a c t o r s . F i r s t was the f a c t t h a t the o p e r a t i o n s i n the l a b o r a t o r y are w e l l s u i t e d t o the s t r u c t u r e used i n SIMQ. R e q u i s i t i o n s and blood samples enter the l a b o r a t o r y and undergo a s e r i e s of s e r v i c e s before the r e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d . I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s s e t t i n g c o u l d be handled with a minimum of s i m p l i f y i n g assumptions or a l t e r a t i o n s to SIMQ. The second f a c t o r i n choosing t h i s s e t t i n g were the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by Rath et a l * * . In t h i s paper the authors d e s c r i b e the s i m u l a t i o n model they formulated f o r s t u d y i n g a l a r g e hematology 79 department. The model s t r u c t u r e d e s c r i b e d by Rath very c l o s e l y approximates the s t r u c t u r e embodied i n the programs generated by SIMQ. T h i s suggests t h a t the s t r u c t u r e of SIMQ generated programs has al r e a d y been v a l i d a t e d i n t h i s s e t t i n g . , The a p p l i c a t i o n o f SIMQ i n t h i s case would p r i m a r i l y be a t e s t of the system of automatic program gen e r a t i o n . Rath a l s o p o i n t s out th a t the s t r u c t u r e he used f o r t h e hematology department could be immediately extended to other, s e c t i o n s of the c l i n i c a l p a thology l a b o r a t o r y because o f t h e great s i m i l a r i t y with which these s e c t i o n s operate. These s e c t i o n s are chemistry, c y t o l o g y , b a c t e r i o l o g y ; s e r o l o g y , s u r g i c a l pathology, and blood bank. The aims of t h i s r e s e a r c h were;explained t o Dr. Grey, the a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the Hematology Department at the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l . Permission was reguested t o make the necessary o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a s i m u l a t i o n model. L i t t l e d i r e c t involvement of the l a b o r a t o r y s t a f f was r e g u i r e d a p a r t from d e s c r i p t i o n of the system. User involvement i n the modelling a c t i v i t y was not h e a v i l y s t r e s s e d . Dr. Grey granted permission t o conduct an experiment i n a p p l y i n g SIMQ to the l a b o r a t o r y . I t was a l s o agreed t h a t the r e s u l t s o f the experiment would be presented t o him f o r h i s c r i t i c i s m and comments. An understanding of the procedures f o l l o w e d i n the l a b o r a t o r y was gained through d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and by c o n s u l t a t i o n with a l a b s u p e r v i s o r .w F o r t u n a t e l y , f l o w c h a r t s d e t a i l i n g the flow o f m a t e r i a l s and i n f o r m a t i o n i n the l a b o r a t o r y were a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . H i t h these a i d s the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of t h e model was r a p i d l y done., 80 The apparent o b s t a c l e s to the a p p l i c a t i o n df SIMQ were q u i t e few i n number. The f i r s t was the l a c k of . p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s i n g of t a s k s r e q u i r e d by a s i n g l e r e q u i s i t i o n . In g e n e r a l , the r e q u i s i t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d i d e n t i c a l t o the blood sample i t accompanies. T h i s i s because they, f o r the most p a r t , t r a v e l together encountering the same de l a y s and p r o g r e s s i n g through the l a b o r a t o r y at the same r a t e . The e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s r u l e cause problems. ihen a blood sample r e g u i r e s two or more of a group of t e s t s , these procedures are handled simultansottsly. T h i s group i n c l u d e s C o u l t e r S panel, r e t i c u l o c y t e count or any type of m i c r o s c o p i c t e s t . S l i d e s or blood samples may proceed independently of the r e q u i s i t i o n and w i l l l a t e r be matched t o the r e q u i s i t i o n so t h a t the t e s t r e s u l t s may be entered. The accurate s i m u l a t i o n of these procedures r e q u i r e s t h a t new t r a n s a c t i o n s be generated t o f o l l o w the p a r a l l e l paths and, l a t e r , be destroyed when the paths converge. SIMQ does not have t h i s c a p a b i l i t y so i t was necessary to d e v i s e some method t o approximate the m u l t i p l e customers which may emanate frcm a s i n g l e r e q u i s i t i o n . Independent customer types were c r e a t e d whose r e q u i r e d t a s k s were those which would be processed i n p a r a l l e l t o the path of the r e q u i s i t i o n from which they o r i g i n a t e . T h i s a d d i t i o n c r e a t e s the proper l e v e l of demand on a l l of the s e r v e r s but i m p e r f e c t l y s i m u l a t e s the i n t e r a c t i o n between b o t t l e n e c k s i n the l a b o r a t o r y . There i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r the r e q u i s i t i o n t o be delayed while a p a r a l l e l t e s t i s completed* T h i s flaw: could not be overcome with SIMQ i n i t s present form without user i n t e r v e n t i o n to i n s e r t the 81 necessary GPSS statements. The second major o b s t a c l e was the great number of p o s s i b l e paths through the l a b o r a t o r y . The great m a j o r i t y of the work done i n the l a b o r a t o r y i n v o l v e s s i x procedures. I t t h e r e f o r e seemed reasonable to expect t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of customer types ' ( r e q u i s i t i o n s ) would r e p r e s e n t t h e bulk of a l l paths through the system. The d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s because there are s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n the l a b o r a t o r y where a c h o i c e of paths i s r e g u i r e d . For example, the p l a t e l e t count i s one of the s i x commonly requested t e s t s and t h e r e e x i s t s an automated as w e l l as a manual procedure f o r doing t h i s . When the r e g u i s i t i o n and blood sample ; reach the p l a t e l e t t e s t i n g area, the g u a n t i t y of blood i n the sample w i l l determine which procedure w i l l be used. The throughput r a t e f o r these two procedures i s d i f f e r e n t . I t t h e r e f o r e becomes necessary to c r e a t e two customer types f o r each r e g u i s i t i o n type i n v o l y i n g p l a t e l e t count as well as an a d d i t i o n a l s e r v e r type, s i m i l a r d e c i s i o n p o i n t s occur i n three other l o c a t i o n s i n the laboratoiry; each time a d d i t i o n a l customer types are r e g u i r e d . T h i s l e a d s t o a great i n c r e a s e i n the number of custcmer types r e g u i r e d to model the l a b o r a t o r y a c c u r a t e l y . While any number of customer types may be handled with SIMQ , i t becomes q u i t e cumbersome to d e a l with so many se p a r a t e e n t i t i e s . I t must be understood t h a t any i n c r e a s e i n the e f f o r t r e g u i r e d t o use SIMQ o f f s e t s the b e n e f i t s achieved through automatic program gen e r a t i o n . P r o v i s i o n f o r s t o c h a s t i c branching w i t h i n the , model would allow a l l the p o s s i b l e r o u t e s without a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of customer types. 82 The s t o c h a s t i c v e r s i o n of SIMQ was used i n t h i s case and i t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y modelled the flew of r e q u i s i t i o n s and blood samples. Thus SIMQ s u c c e s s f u l l y modeled t h i s l a b o r a t o r y while a v o i d i n g the n e c e s s i t y of d e f i n i n g a new customer type f o r each of the many paths which a r e q u i s i t i o n may p o s s i b l y take. Given these a d a p t a t i o n s , the a p p l i c a t i o n of SIMQ t o the hematology s e t t i n g was q u i t e r o u t i n e . A completed s i m u l a t i o n was c o n s t r u c t e d and subsequently'. presented t o Dr. Grey* A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s with a number o f h i s s t a f f and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , with h i s l a b s u p e r v i s o r , Br, Grey s t a t e d , " I b e l i e v e t h a t the model r e p r e s e n t s the lab*', and t h a t , "the model i s an ac c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the l a b " . He rep e a t e d l y expressed h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o help improve the q u a l i t y o f the data i n the model.jThis was deemed unnecessary s i n c e h i s comments provided t h e evidence r e g u i r e d f o r the purposes of t h i s r e s e a r c h . The complete s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and a program l i s t i n g i s g i v e n i n Appendix C. 83 Ffi END j. AN MIIMSMS^ lIIQIX END FOR SIMQ I n t r o d u c t i o n To FBEND FRENB i s a g r a p h i c a l f r o n t end system, w r i t t e n i n FGBTBAN, which has been developed f o r SIMQ. Using t h i s system, the user c o n s t r u c t s flow c h a r t diagrams of the paths f o l l o w e d by each customer type. The g r a p h i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of FREND are achieved through the use of the INTEGRATED GRAPHICS SYSTEM (IG). IG i s a l i b r a r y of FGRTKAN-callable s u b r o u t i n e s f o r performing g r a p h i c s o p e r a t i o n s . FREND produces two forms o f output. The f i r s t i s the g r a p h i c a l network r e p r e s e n t a t i o n which the user views while c o n t s t r u c t i n g the flow c h a r t f o r each customer type. The second form of output i s a s e t of coded network d e f i n i t i o n s f o r each of the customer types d e s c r i b e d . T h i s output i s an i n p u t t o the GPSS program generator. Beasons":-ffOfr• Developing • FBJND -. Through accumulated experience, i t was f e l t t h a t the goals of SIMQ with r e s p e c t t o ease of use and freedom from e r r o r s were not f u l l y r e a l i z e d . While SIMQ can be used t o g u i c k l y c o n s t r u c t complex models, i t i s too easy f o r someone u n f a m i l i a r with modeling o r with SIMQ i t s e l f t o make e r r o r s . An i n e x p e r i e n c e d modeler c o u l d be expected t o have d i f f i c u l t y i n e n v i s i o n i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the model being c o n s t r u c t e d . F u r t h e r , once a model has been c o n s t r u c t e d using SIMQ; i t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o detect 84 e r r o r s i n i t s f o r m u l a t i o n . T h i s p o i n t : cannot be o v e r - s t a t e d s i n c e the generated program i s exceedingly uninformative due t o the heavy r e l i a n c e on i n d i r e c t s p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r d i r e c t i n g customers through the model. I t was f e l t t h a t some form of g r a p h i c a l i n p u t t o or output from SIMQ was necessary t o overcome the above noted d i f f i c u l t i e s . , ft means of producing g r a p h i c a l feedback from SIMQ would allow the novice modeler t o b e t t e r understand the model he has c o n s t r u c t e d . F u r t h e r , i t would e a s i l y permit him to see i f he had a c c i d e n t a l l y m i s - S p e c i f i e d the model. Upon c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t i s apparent t h a t some g r a p h i c a l means of in p u t to SIMQ would accomplish a l l of the goals a t t a i n a b l e through the p r o v i s i o n of feedback through g r a p h i c a l output. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the use of g r a p h i c a l i n p u t would c o n f e r a d d i t i o n a l advantages. A network f l o w - c h a r t i f used as an input would e f f e c t i v e l y r e f l e c t back t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the model as i t i s being developed. I n t h i s way i t would serve as an a i d to f o r m u l a t i o n of the model r a t h e r than simply p r o v i d i n g c o n f i r m a t i o n of the u s e r 1 s i n t e n t i o n s a f t e r the model i s c o n s t r u c t e d . F u r t h e r , i f i t was designed c o r r e c t l y , i t would f o r c e the user t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e ;the model i n a form t o which SIMQ i s w e l l s u i t e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s g r a p h i c a l network d e s c r i p t i o n , i f i t can be used as i n p u t to SIMQ, would e l i m i n a t e the need f o r some o f the g u e s t i o n n a i r e subsets. As i t has developed, the use of FfiEND b r i n g s with i t the f o l l o w i n g advantages: 85 1) , :It i s an a i d to c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f the model./ 2) Guides the user i n c o n s t r u c t i n q the type of model SIMQ r e q u i r e s . , 3) Provides the user with a p i c t u r e of the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of the model. 4) I t r e p l a c e s c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of the Stage 2 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t . 5) P r o v i d e s e r r o r checking at the t l i e o f model f o r m u l a t i o n r a t h e r than a t the time of program generation., 6) I t f r e e s the user from the task of manually coding and e n t e r i n g the; network d e f i n i t i o n c a r d s . , 7) A hardcopy g r a p h i c a l r e c o r d o f the model s t r u c t u r e may be produced i f i t i s needed.. In a d e t e r m i n i s t i c model, the use of FBEND e l i m i n a t e s the task requirement p o r t i o n o f t h e customer-information q u e s t i o n n a i r e subset as w e l l as the t a s k , sequencing q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u b s e t , •„ -.This must be seen as a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement s i n c e iboth o f the e l i m i n a t e d p o r t i o n s can become q u i t e l e n g t h y and t e d i o u s t o complete,; As a r e s u l t , e r r o r s are q u i t e common i n these q u e s t i o n n a i r e subsets. The importance of e r r o r r e d u c t i o n i s g r e a t because o f t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t such e r r o r s would escape d e t e c t i o n i n subseguent s t e p s , , In the s t o c h a s t i c v e r s i o n , FBEND serves as an a l t e r n a t i v e to completing the network d e f i n i t i o n c ards. In t h i s case, the b e n e f i t s of using FREND stem l a r g e l y from the advantages 86 i n h e r e n t i n a g r a p h i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n procedure. That i s , ease of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and r e d u c t i o n c f e r r o r s . • I t s hould be noted t h a t using FREND w i l l r e l i e v e the user of the need t o code the networks i n t o network d e f i n i t i o n c a r d s . The user may continue t o d e a l with the names he has given t o the t a s k s r a t h e r than c o n v e r t i n g t o a coded d e s c r i p t i o n with numbered nodes as i s r e g u i r e d i n the network d e f i n i t i o n c a r d s , !£&k£d Ose The user must complete the:Stage t g u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t before beginning t o c o n s t r u c t the network d e f i n i t i o n s because FfiEND suses as i n p u t the u s e r * s respqnsesi ^to the Stage 1 g u e s t i o n n a i r e . As noted i n a previous chapter, the responses t o the Stage 1 g u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e s t o r e d i n a f i l e along with t h e responses t o the Stage 2 g u e s t i o n n a i r e s e t . Because FSEND uses the Stage 1 responses only, i t may be used any time between the completion of t h i s g u e s t i o n n a i r e and the ;generation of the s i m u l a t i o n program. I t i s up to the user t o choose the best time f o r the network d e s c r i p t i o n . / Since the- use of FEEND may w e l l be a powerful conceptual a i d t o the modeler i t i s suggested t h a t the user complete the network d e s c r i p t i o n s as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . A f t e r FREND reads from the Stage 1 responses the names of a l l the e n t i t y names which are t o be used, the user must c o n s t r u c t a l l network d e s c r i p t i o n s using the names p r e v i o u s l y s p e c i f i e d . ; FREND w i l l accept as e n t i t y symbols on l y the names from the Stage 1 responses. A l l other names are i l l e g a l . The 87 form of the network d e s c r i p t i o n i s a flow c h a r t f o r each customer type where e n t i t y symbols (nodes) correspond to ta s k s which may be r e q u i r e d by the customer. L i n k s between the e n t i t y symbols d e t a i l customer requirements as well as p r o v i d i n g task sequencing i n f o r m a t i o n . P r o b a b i l i t i e s may be assigned to the l i n k s i f n o n - d e t e r m i n i s t i c paths are d e s i r e d . Since PEEND i s used to c o n s t r u c t network d e s c r i p t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e s of the s t o c h a s t i c v e r s i o n o f SIHQ, customers enter the model through the s i n g l e node which has no a r c s e n t e r i n g i t and e x i t the model a t any node where a f u r t h e r route i s not s p e c i f i e d . The user begins a customer type network d e s c r i p t i o n with a blank g r i d . The network d e s c r i p t i o n i s c o n s t r u c t e d through a s e r i e s o f o p e r a t i o n s . These o p e r a t i o n s are invoked by s p e c i f y i n g one of s e v e r a l 'command o p t i o n s * . T h e s e are l i s t e d : • 1* c r e a t e a node. •2* d e l e t e a node. *3* move a node. * 4' c r e a t e a l i n k . •5* d e l e t e a l i n k . These o p e r a t i o n s are q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and w i l l net be e x p l a i n e d f u r t h e r than to say th a t FREND responds to the command o p t i o n with a prompt f o r a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . I n v a l i d requests i n c l u d e c r e a t i n g a node which already e x i s t s i n the network, p o s i t i o n i n q a node o f f the g r i d , attempting t o l i n k two nodes whose p o r t s are not a p p r o p r i a t e l y o r i e n t e d , e t c . I n v a l i d r e g u e s t s are igno r e d and an e r r o r message i s p r i n t e d i n f o r m i n g 88 the user of the nature o f the e r r o r . The remaining command op t i o n s 6-8 w i l l lie e x p l a i n e d i n some d e t a i l at a l a t e r stage of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . To begin the network d e s c r i p t i o n , the user chooses a customer type f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I f t h e user does not s p e c i f y a customer type by name, the f i r s t customer type on the l i s t becomes a c t i v e . At t h i s p o i n t , the u s e r . i s presented with a blank, q r i d of dimension 8x8. There are thus provided 64 l o c a t i o n s i n which to p l a c e nodes (task names). T h i s i s done by naminq the task type and s u p p l y i n q the c o - o r d i n a t e s f o r the l o c a t i o n of the node. Any nodes cre a t e d become part of the network immediately. A f t e r two or more nodes have been d e f i n e d , the user may d e f i n e l i n k s . A l i n k connecting two nodes, may be s p e c i f i e d by naming the o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n nodes and s u p p l y i n g a p r o b a b i l i t y f o r t h i s l i n k , FBEND a u t o m a t i c a l l y checks a l l e n t r i e s f o r accuracy and r e a s o n a b i l i t y . I f the p r o b a b i l i t y i s ommitted, a value o f 1.0 i s assumed. Any changes made to the network cause the s t a t u s of the network to change immediately although the image i s not updated u n l e s s the user prompts f o r the image t o be r e f r e s h e d . T h i s i s done by e n t e r i n g a n u l l or zero command o p t i o n . A l l nodes have * p o r t s 9 . /Ports are l o c a t i o n s where l i n k s may be attached t o the node. There are two ports per node, one on the l e f t s i d e and one on the r i g h t s i d e . The c h a r a c t e r s •>• and *<» i n d i c a t e the l o c a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n o f the ports. 89 B + * *• • N0DE1 N0DE2 4 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fi g u r e 31 Nodes i n a FREND d i s p l a y •Forward' p o r t s p o i n t from l e f t t o r i g h t and are denoted by the •>• c h a r a c t e r . 'Beverse* p o r t s are i n d i c a t e d by the *<• c h a r a c t e r . A node with no l i n k s a s s o c i a t e d with i t has no d i r e c t i o n assigned to i t s p o r t s . In t h i s case the g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e no c h a r a c t e r s to i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n of the p o r t s , as i n f i g u r e 31 above. F i g u r e 32 i l l u s t r a t e s tha appearance of po r t s i n two l i n k e d nodes. From the o r i e n t a t i o n of the p o r t s , i t i s immediately c l e a r t h a t the l i n k t r a v e l s from N0DE1 to N0DE2. The a d d i t i o n of t h i s l i n k has served to d e f i n e the d i r e c t i o n of the p o r t s i n both nodes f o r subseguent o p e r a t i o n s . N0DE2, f o r example, nay be an o r i g i n node f o r a l i n k but t h i s l i n k oust e x i t the ncde on 90 t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e . Any l i n k s w hich have NODE2 as a d e s t i n a t i o n must -join t h i s node on t h e l e f t hand s i d e . N0DE1 > >N0DE2 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 f i g u r e 32 Linked nodes in. a FREND d i s p l a y . A l i n k w hich t r a v e l s f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t must c o n n e c t two nodes whose p o r t s a r e f o r w a r d . A l i n k t r a v e l l i n g f r o m r i q h t t o l e f t must c o n n e c t two n o d e s whose p o r t s e r e r e v e r s e . I f e i t h e r o r b o t h nodes do n o t have t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r p o r t s d e f i n e d , t h e i r p o r t s w i l l be o r i e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r u l e . I n c a s e s where t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p o r t s has been p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d and t h e p r o p o s e d l i n k would v i o l a t e t h e r u l e , t h e a t t e m p t i s d e c l a r e d i n v a l i d and no l i n k i s f o r m e d . 91 From the above rule one can see that, in the case of most links, the connected nodes must have the same orientation in their ports and that this orientation must aqree with the direction of the link. The only exception to this rule occurs when the nodes to be connected are on the same point on the horizontal axis. In this case, the link i s vertical. For vertical links, the ports on the connected nodes must he opposed or te unestablished so that opposed ports may be defined. This i s because vertical links have been reserved for ccnstructinq loops. One can see from fiqure 33 that two vertical links are c BEGIN*- _2£_ >N0DE2 1 2 3 4 5 6 gigyrg. 33 A I O O D constructed with FREND 92 s u f f i c i e n t t c complete a loop I f t h e c d i r e c t i o n of the p o r t s i n the connected nodes r e v e r s e with each such l i n k with non-v e r t i c a l l i n k s , the proposed l i n k i s d e c l a r e d i n v a l i d i f these c o n d i t i o n s are not met. Nodes may be moved a f t e r they are c r e a t e d . The two r u l e s s t a t e d above serve to preserve the c l a r i t y and unambiguity of the network diagrams. However, due t o a p o s s i b l e l a c k of working space i n the g r i d provided, the user may f i n d i t advantageous to move p a r t s o f t h e network diagram a f t e r they are c o n s t r u c t e d . PEEHD a l l o w s the user to move the nodes at w i l l without any regard to o r i e n t a t i o n o f p o r t s and the r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g to them. A l l ; l i n k s a s s o c i a t e d with the moved nodes w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y a d j u s t t o the new l o c a t i o n s . One can t r a n s f o r m the^network diagram of f i g u r e 34a t o 34b by simply moving NODE 2 t o i t s new l o c a t i o n u s ing command o p t i o n number t h r e e . , FBEND . t h e r e f o r e f o r c e s the user to c o n s t r u c t c l e a r , unambiguous network diagrams i n order to minimize e r r o r s . Once the network diagram has been c r e a t e d , FREND a l l o w s the user to , s h i f t parts of i t to s u i t h i s needs. The network segment of f i g u r e 35 i s a badly designed diagram which FBEND would not i n i t i a l l y p ermit yet which i t i s p o s s i b l e to achieve by moving nodes. Since the c o n s t r u c t e d networks w i l l produce the coded network d e f i n i t i o n cards f o r the program generator i t i s important t h a t the networks c r e a t e d with the use of PRIND be a c c e p t a b l e to SIHQ. Without IBEND, e r r o r checking of the 93 R * * * * * * * * * * * * G * * «• • •» ' * H 1 2 3 a 5 6 a) b) F i g u r e 34 Moving n o d e s and l i n k s n e t w o r k s s p e c i f i e d i s done a t t h e t i m e o f proqram g e n e r a t i o n . With FREND, an e r r o r c h e c k i n g r o u t i n e i s a v a i l a b l e t o c h e c k each n etwork a t t h e t i m e o f i t s c r e a t i o n . The c h e c k i s i n v o k e d s i m p l y t y s e l e c t i n g command o p t i o n #6. FREND w i l l t h e n c h e c k t h e network f o r c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e r u l e s o f t h e s t o c h a s t i c n e t w o r k s and r e p l y back w i t h a message i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e network s a t i s f i e s t h e r u l e s o r i n d i c a t e t h e e r r o r s d e t e c t e d . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e a d v a n t a g e s of v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e n e t w o r k , t h i s f e a t u r e s h o u l d g r e a t l y r e d u c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f e r r o r s e n t e r i n g t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . H a r d c o p y CalCcmp p l o t s may be p r o d u c e d a t w i l l by r e g u e s t i n g command o p t i o n # 7 . The u s e r may t h e r e f o r e have a 9 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 f i g u r e 35 A bad diagram produced by moving nodes permanent g r a p h i c a l r e c o r d of the model he has de f i n e d . When the user has f i n i s h e d with the network d e f i n i t i o n f o r the c u r r e n t customer type he s i g n a l s t h i s to FREND by s e l e c t i n q command option #8. FREND w i l l then ask the user i f he wishes to continue d e f i n i n g network paths. A * y * or n u l l response w i l l b r i n g a prompt f o r the name of the customer type i n which the user i s i n t e r e s t e d . A n u l l response causes the next customer type i n the customer type l i s t t c become a c t i v e . An *N• response t o the g u e s t i c n r e g a r d i n g c o n t i n u a t i o n o f network d e f i n i t i o n w i l l cause the program to terminate. Another u s e f u l f e a t u r e of FREND i s the f a c t that a working f i l e i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y output at the end of each s e s s i o n . T h i s 95 w o r k f l i e may be s t o r e d f o r l a t e r use. I f the user can not complete the network d e f i n i t i o n s f o r a l l customer types or must make c o r r e c t i o n s t o e a r l i e r work i t i s not necessary t o s t a r t again from s c r a t c h ; The user may resume the task of d e f i n i n g networks without l o s i n g any p a r t o f the p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d networks. A summary o f t h e r u l e s which r e l a t e to the FREND system i s given here. 1) Nodes must be given names which are from the task l i s t . 2) Each node name may appear only once i n each customer type network d e f i n i t i o n . 3) N o n - v e r t i c a l l i n k s can only connect nodes whose ports do not c o n f l i c t with the d i r e c t i o n o f the proposed l i n k . 4) v e r i t c a l - l i n k s can o n l y connect nodes whose ports are opposed or are undefined., 5) Nodes may be moved anywhere, anytime.:, 6) P r o b a b i l i t i e s may be assigned t o l i n k s . 7) Dummy nodes, l a b e l l e d DUM01-DUM30 may be used f r e e l y . M o d e l l i n g The Hematology l a b o r a t o r y . . A commonly r e c u r r i n g event i n the use of the s t o c h a s t i c v e r s i o n of SIMQ i s the drawing o f flow c h a r t s by the user before completing the network d e f i n i t i o n cards. T h i s was indeed part of the procedure f o l l o w e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the hematology l a b o r a t o r y s i m u l a t i o n of the previous c h a p t e r . With FREND however, the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e flow c h a r t s i s the only t h i n g 96 r e q u i r e d . The FREND system a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t s the flow c h a r t s and codes the network d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the proqram generator. fOUM02<-LMIC *PLAUT * 0 JNITL -OUMO! f N * ----- • -----> C 0 U 3 P a •COULT* •COWBC UPDflT< <OIFF. < P9 H F i g u r e 36 2 3 4 5 6 A network diagram f o r the Hematology. S i m u l a t i o n Figure 36 i s a p l o t t e d r e p r o d u c t i o n of the g r a p h i c a l network diagram which was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r customer type #7, l a b e l l e d REQ07. From the hematology l a b o r a t o r y model which was used to demonstrate SIMQ's s t o c h a s t i c r o u t i n g p r o p e r t i e s i t was known t h a t t h i s r e g u i s t i o n type r e g u i r e s that the en t r y of the blood sample i n t o the l a b o r a t o r y be recorded (INITL) and t h a t a p l a t e l e t count be performed. One s t o c h a s t i c element i n t h i s . 9 7 system i s the type of specimen-which''^ f o r the P l a t e l e t count. In t h i r t y percent o f a l l c a s e s ; the q u a n t i t y of blood i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e ^ a u t o m a t i c p r o c e d u r e and must be d i l u t e d (PLDIL) * t h e r e a f t e r r e q u i r i n g a manual p l a t e l e t count (PLMAN), The remaining sevehty :percent tof blood samples w i l l be i n s u f f i c i e n t g u a n t i t y t o permit; the s t sample t o be e x t r a c t e d (PLflIC) and the automated p l a t e l e t count t o be performed (PiAQT). F o l l o w i n g 't^±Si:,^,sp&c:xmen :'for- the C o u l t e r : test\;'»i:li-;-';/b« v;,drawn • .;:teo0SP|.v:;;v.an.d.-,;i_. aV;-t:onltetv:-test • performed (COUIT). Next a white blood c e l l count (CQWBC) i s performed, f e l l o w e d by a d i f f e r e n t i a l count (DIFF.)4; I t i s known t h a t i n twenty per cent of the blood samples, the r e s u l t s o f the white blood c e l l count w i l l r e q u i r e t h a t another C o u l t e r t e s t be done f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f r e s u l t s . i F i n a l l y , t he t e s t r e s u l t s are recorded and t r a n s m i t t e d (GPDAT). One can e a s i l y see t h a t t he t r a n s i t i o n from a v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a customer type to a network diagram i s very s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . The FBEND program generates the coded i n p u t to the program generator from the network of f i g u r e 36. In t h i s form, i t can be c o n f i d e n t l y s t a t e d t h a t the ease o f using S I H Q i s s u p e r i o r t o the QGEBT and DBAFT packages. 98 ,, • T3ISCTJSSIQ : H A N D V E X T E « S I Q « S . . As i t c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s , SIMQ.is easy to use, .quick, and has shown t h a t i t can r e l i a b l y produce s i m u l a t i o n programs./A major f e a t u r e of SI8Q i s t h a t very l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i s needed f o r i t s use. T h i s i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o network based-systems which i n v o l v e the use of g r a p h i c a l symbols and coded input. While i t i s always t r u e t h a t the user of s i m u l a t i o n must understand modelling and s i m u l a t i o n concepts, SIMQ w i l l be e a s i e r f o r l e s s e r g u a l i f i e d a n a l y s t s t o use than other systems of program generat i o n such as DBAFT/GASP or Q-GERT. In g e n e r a l , SIMQ*s b e n e f i t s r e l a t e t o the guick, e f f i c i e n t g e n e r a t i o n of computer models. The l a r g e r the s i m u l a t i o n , the gre a t e r w i l l be the p o s s i b l e s a v i n g . I t must be understood t h a t , because of t h e high running cost o f GPSS, the s a v i n g s i n programming c o s t s w i l l be q u i c k l y l o s t as the amount of run time with the generated program i n c r e a s e s . Accumulated experience i n a p p l y i n g SIMQ t o v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s has r shown t h a t a s i n g l e v e r s i o n w i l l not be adeguate t o acccmodate the p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f many v a r i e d s i t u a t i o n s , R e l i a n c e upon a; system of automatic g u e s t i o n n a i r e and program generators almost n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d s t o s o l e r i g i d i t y . C a r e f u l c h o i c e of a , b a s i c s t r a t e g y can overcome many of these problems but a vast amount o f time and e f f o r t would be r e q u i r e d t o develop a g e n e r a l v e r s i o n of SIMQ which would be u s e f u l i n many v a r i e d s e t t i n g s . The r e s u l t of such an e f f o r t might very w e l l be cumbersome and d i f f i c u l t t o use, thereby negating many of: the b e n e f i t s SIMQ 99 p r o v i d e s . T h i s s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t SIMQ should he extended i n s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s , each one aimed a t a s m a l l c l a s s o f problems or a p p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s s t e p would y i e l d b e n e f i t s from two sources: 1) C o n c e n t r a t i n g on a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n would l i m i t the f l e x i b i l i t y r e g u i r e d of any s i n g l e v e r s i o n . 2) S p e c i f i c v e r s i o n s c o u l d i n c l u d e s p e c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s which a r e - p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s . • The f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s might be added t o some .or a l l v e r s i o n s o f SIMQ as the s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s . , 1) P r o v i s i o n f o r nested loops i n the paths f o r the s t o c h a s t i c i; v e r s i o n , j T h i s would permit more complex models to be co n s t r u c t e d . , ;2); Bules f o r dynamic c h o i c e of path. For i n s t a n c e , t h i s would be: u s e f u l i n s i m u l a t i n g the behavior o f customers who choose the s h o r t e s t queue i n s e l e c t i n g a s e r v e r . 3) Some,means of a s s i s t i n g i n t h e generation of user s u p p l i e d f u n c t i o n s . T h i s would f r e e ;the user of the need t o undertake a c t u a l GPSS programming. 4) P r o v i s i o n o f some means o f o b t a i n i n g s e n s i t i v i t y a n a l y s i s from a s i n g l e s i m u l a t i o n run r a t h e r than performing m u l t i p l e s i m u l a t i o n s . 1 0 0 5) Extension of the e n t i t y types to i n c l u d e equipments., Equipments would be used t o more a c c u r a t e l y s i m u l a t e the complex requirements which must be met bef o r e many s e r v i c e s begin,, f o r example, t h e d e n t a l model r e q u i r e s that both the d e n t i s t and a c h a i r be a v a i l a b l e before s e r v i c e on a p a t i e n t may begin, § )Extension of the e n t i t y types t o i n c l u d e products. Eecording and a n a l y z i n g product usage would be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n i n v e n t o r y p l a n n i n g . 7) A l t e r n a t e gueueing d i s c i p l i n e s c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e . SIMQ provides only f o r the FIFO gueueing d i s c i p l i n e . T h i s may not be a p p r o p r i a t e i n many s e t t i n g s . . The ex t e n s i o n to provide f o r nested loops i n network: paths would be q u i t e e a s i l y implemented. The major problem here i s the storage of s e v e r a l s e t s of customer sub-type parameters, Because GPSS has no r e c u r s i v e data storage c a p a b i l i t i e s , the st o r a g e o f these s e t s of parameters would have to be allowed f o r by r e s e r v i n g s u f f i c i e n t parameter s t o r a g e space f o r a s m a l l number of l e v e l s of nested loops. A d d i t i o n a l l y , s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the model l o g i c would be r e g u i r e d t o handle the updating of parameter s e t s as necessary. T h i s c o u l d a l l be done g u i t e e a s i l y but would s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e the running c o s t of c o n s t r u c t e d models. For t h i s reason i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e only to develop and implement t h i s c a p a b i l i t y when i t i s r e q u i r e d . 101 , The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of dynamic choice of path f o r t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h i n SIMQ generated models has provided i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . The implementation of dynamic c h o i c e of path r a t h e r than simple s t o c h a s t i c branching may be accomplished i n two ways. 1} at the generate block when customer types are s p l i t . , Instead of a simple p r o b a b i l i s t i c assignment of customer type, the assignment c o u l d be based upon some c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n the model. T h i s method i s very simple and could doubtless be implemented very e a s i l y , O n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s tends t o become l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y as the d i s t a n c e to the c o n t r o l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n c r e a s e s . In s p i t e of t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n , t h i s method may be very u s e f u l i n many cases. 2) Imbedded i n t h e program., T h i s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i f f i c u l t than the al>ove approach because much more c o n t r o l must be e x p l i c i t l y provided f o r . F i r s t , the p o s i t i o n i n the model must be l o c a t e d where the t e s t i n g i s to be done. Then each p a s s i n g t r a n s a c t i o n must be t e s t e d to determine i f i t i s the c o r r e c t customer type. A f t e r the a p p r o p r i a t e customer types have been i s o l a t e d , the t e s t may only be done i f i t i s the c o r r e c t time f o r each t r a n s a c t i o n . Only a f t e r a l l these c o n d i t i o n s have been s a t i s f i e d may the t e s t be conducted. O f t e n the new path chosen w i l l not match the path normally p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s customer type. In these cases t h e customer type must be changed. T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t the customer type parameters of the t r a n s a c t i o n must be modified so t h a t they p o i n t t o 102 the correct; p o s i t i o n s i n the r o u t i n g ma t r i c e s . ; Due to the heavy r e l i a n c e upon i n d i r e c t s p e c i f i c a t i o n one may e a s i l y see t h a t i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t such t h i n g s w i l l he accomplished v i a the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and program generator d e v i c e s . A l l c f the t h i n g s mentioned here are w e l l w i t h i n the realm of p o s s i b i l i t y but only f o r a very experienced GPSS programmer who i s w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t i n t h i s endeavor. I t i s much more reasonable to undertake manual programming f o r each s i t u a t i o n i n which dynamic r o u t i n g i s r e q u i r e d . . S i m u l a t i n g the use o f equipments r e g u i r e d f o r completion of t a s k s r e q u i r e s t h a t the t r a n s a c t i o n which r e q u i r e s such a task must wait u n t i l the equipment and s e r v e r are s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e s e r v i c e may begin. T h i s may be accomplished through the use of GPSS boolean v a r i a b l e s which r e g i s t e r the t r u t h of two statements simultaneously. T h i s i s not d i f f i c u l t . The d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s i n the matter of placement of the t e s t statement i n the program. I f the task i n q u e s t i o n i s the f i r s t task to be performed i n the team a s s o c i a t e d with the s e r v e r , then the t e s t should be done b e f o r e the t r a n s a c t i o n e n t e r s the team. T h i s i s because i t i s l i k e l y i n a r e a l s e t t i n q t h a t a customer would not enter the s e r v i c e area u n t i l the work co u l d begin. However, f o r the t a s k s which a r e not the f i r s t task to be performed w i t h i n a team, i t may be reasonable t o expect t h a t the customer would remain i n the s e r v i c e area while w a i t i n g f o r a s e r v e r or eguipment. ;in these caSes the t e s t statement should be placed w i t h i n the team but: b e f o r e the s e r v e r i n q u e s t i o n . I f 103 t h i s l e v e l of complexity i s desired,; the program generator must be able t o determine the c o r r e c t placement f o r the t e s t Statements w i t h i n the'• mo del.;-f u t t t j e f c . - ' d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e when one co n s i d e r s the behavior of s e r v e r s and equipments In t h i s s e t t i n g . Perhaps the server, may perform o t h e r d u t i e s while w a i t i n g f o r the r e q u i r e d eguipment. Or perhaps the eguipment may be used elsewhere u n t i l the r e q u i r e d s e r v e r becomes a v a i l a b l e . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t when e i t h e r item becomes i d l e , i t i s u n a v a i l a b l e f o r other d u t i e s while the customer i s w a i t i n q f o r the other r e g u i r e d item,-vThese .are only a few o f many p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . Since there i s no combination of c o n d i t i o n s which account f o r a m a j o r i t y o f p o s s i b l e r e a l world a p p l i c a t i o n s i t does not seem s e n s i b l e to adopt a s i n g l e v e r s i o n f o r implementation. Such an approach would impart an i d i o s y n c r a t i c nature to SIMQ and r e s t r i c t i t s g e n e r a l u s e f u l n e s s . However a very f l e x i b l e implementation which r e l i e s on q u e s t i o n n a i r e s would be both d i f f i c u l t to c o n s t r u c t and cumbersome to use. I t remains t o d i s c o v e r an imminent a p p l i c a t i o n before any e f f o r t should be expended i n p u r s u i t of t h i s q o a l . The s i m u l a t i o n o f the use of products f o r s e r v i c e i s b a s i c a l l y s t r a i q h t f o r w a r d . Counters c o u l d be placed a t l o c a t i o n s where s e r v i c e s are performed to r e c o r d the d e p l e t i o n o f the i n v e n t o r y of such products. Replenishment of depleted s t o c k s would be e a s i l y s i m u l a t e d . However the i s s u e s surroundinq the behavior of customers and s e r v e r s durinq p e r i o d s of stock-outs are s i m i l a r to those p e r t a i n i n q to equipments as d i s c u s s e d above. For s i m i l a r reasons as a p p l i e d i n the above d i s c u s s i o n , 104 no attempt, has thus f a r been made to simulate the use of products i n the r e n d e r i n g o f s e r v i c e t o t r a n s a c t i o n s . The problem of p r o v i d i n g a l t e r n a t e queueinq d i s c i p l i n e s has been i n v e s t i g a t e d with encouraging r e s u l t s . In GPSS i t i s normal p r a c t i c e t o p l a c e w a i t i n g t r a n s a c t i o n s i n a queue. THe queueinq d i s c i p l i n e provided f o r i s FIFO. There i s however an easy a l t e r n a t i v e to t h i s . I t i s p o s s i b l e i n GPSS t o s p e c i f y that t r a n s a c t i o n s e n t e r a u s e r - d e f i n e d f c h a i n-when they• are queueinq. , The method of t a k i n g t r a n s a c t i o n s from t h i s c h a i n may be c o n t r o l l e d by the user.--.ylt- would be a very simple matter t o provide f o r random o r LIFO queueinq c r i t e r i a f o r removing t r a n s a c t i o n s from t h i s c h a i n thereby accomplishing other gueueing d i s c i p l i n e s . f i l t h i t s e a s i l y comprehended procedures and i t s g r a p h i c a l f r o n t end, i t seems t h a t SIMQ might w e l l be a u s e f u l e d u c a t i o n a l t o o l . Freed from the need to undertake programming, students might more e a s i l y adapt to a computer environment which i s necessary f o r moderate to l a r g e s i m u l a t i o n s . Only a f t e r the student has become acguainted with the approach taken i n modeling would he be r e g u i r e d to manually program s i m u l a t i o n models. T h i s gradual approach i n exposing the student to the f a c e t s of computer modeling . might encourage more p o t e n t i a l a n a l y s t s to remain i n v o l v e d with s i m u l a t i o n before being discouraged. A p o s s i b l e use of SIMQ i s as a t o o l to very q u i c k l y c o n f i g u r e very l a r g e S o d e i s . y S i a c e . a l l of the components of the 105 g e n e r a t e d program are modular, i t would be a simple matter f o r a programmer t o r e p l a c e a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v e r module, f o r example, with a module c o n t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s which are not a v a i l a b l e with SIMQ. T h i s c o u l d be an a l t e r n a t i v e t o developing many ext e n s i o n s i n order t o handle a l l the p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f r e a l s i t u a t i o n s . C o n c l u s i o n T h i s paper has presented a method of generating gueue-based s i m u l a t i o n models. I t has been demonstrated t h a t such models are a widely a p p l i c a b l e means of a n a l y z i n g s e r v i c e systems. SIMQ e x p l o i t s the modular nature o f gueueing systems and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of GPSS to generate complex s i m u l a t i o n programs e f f i c i e n t l y . While i t s a p p l i c a t i o n has been demonstrated i n s e v e r a l s e t t i n g s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t SIMQ must be extended i n a number of ways before i t can be c o n s i d e r e d a g e n e r a l l y u s e f u l means of problem a n a l y s i s . 106 illJlftfjajLI CITED 1. Alemparte, a., D. Chheda, D. Seeley and f . i a l k e r , "Interacting with Discrete Simulation Osing On Line Graphic Animation," Computation and Graphics Vol. 1, pp. 309-318 (1975) . 2. Ccnnors, Coray, Cuccaro, Green, Low and Markowitz, "The Di s t r i b u t i o n System Simulator." Management Science 20, (1972). 3. Forrester, J.S., Pr i n c i p l e s pf Systems . Bright Allan Press (1968). 4., Ginsberg, A.S. , H.M. Markowitz ana P.M. Old fat her. Programming b;Questionnaire , Band Corporation RM-4460-PB. 5. 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Chheda, "An I n t e r a c t i v e G r a p h i c s System f o r M o d e l l i n g and Besearch by Non-Programmers," ,„,,,,..,:/ Proceedings, 4 t h M ah^-Co mpu'%er '• Commun j c a t j o n s Co nf ere nee , / Ottawa (1975)., " " 17. S i u , J.K. And D. H. Oyeno, Si m u l a t i o n by .Questionnaire: - A Semi-Modular Approach , unpublished working paper. F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver (19711). 18. , A Se mi- Modular A pproach to Programming by Qu e st j o n a i re As I l l u s t r a t e d by • a-:.:- General S e r v i c e System Simulator , Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver (1975). 19. Tccher, K.O.T.,; "Some Techniques of Model B u i l d i n g , " Proceedings of the IBM S c i e n t i f i c Cojmpu^lnq Symposium- on Simulation Models and Gaming . IBM, New York (1964). 20. Uyeno, D.B., "Health Manpower Systems: An A p p l i c a t i o n of S i m u l a t i o n to t h e Design of Primary Health Care Teams," Management Science 20. (1974) . 108 APPENDIX A Contents 1) SIMQ generated program for the demonstration problem. B L O C K * * * G P S S V - M T S V E R * * * IBM P R O G R A M P R O D U C T 5 7 3 4 - X S 2 S I 0 N * * ( V 1 M 4 I * * * . . . . . S T A T E M E N T s. NUMBER * L O C O P E R A T I O N A , B , C , D , E , F , G , H , I C O M M E N T S S I M U L A T E * S T O R A G E B L O C K FOR P R O C F S S U R P U M P S NUMBER 1 7 .... r P U M P S S T O R A G E 0 7 * S T O R A G E B L O C K FOR P R O C E S S O R V A C U M .... V A C U M S T O R A G E 0 5 _ . _ _ . 3 4 5 * S T O R A G E B L O C K FUR P R O C E S S O R C A S H R C A S H R S T O R A G E 0 1 * S T n R A G F RIOT.K FOR P R O C E S S O R WASHR 6 7 R WASHR S T O R A G E 0 1 if. 9 10 11 * _ . T H E F U U 0 H 1 N & B L O C K S A R E R E L A T E D TO P R U C I S S U R HON IT UR I NO _. C O U N T F V A R I A B L E X $ C O U N T / 3*( (P 1 - 1 1 * 4 0 1 T I M E R V A R I A B L E X t C O U N T M VACUM F V A R I A H L E 0 5 - X 0 9 7 12 13 14 V A B 0 2 F V A R I A B L E Q t Q A f l 0 2 / X 0 9 2 * . 5 I N I T I A L X 0 9 2 . 0 5 V A C U M T A B L E X 0 9 2 . 1 . 1 . 0 5 15 16 11 * V A R I A B L E TO C O N T R O L C U S I O M E R Q U E U I N G . Q U E C O V A R I A B L E 2 0 0 + P 5 * 18 19 2 0 * * E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N .. E X P O F U N C T I O N _ R M i , C 2 4 _ _ . .. _ . _ _ . _ . . . . . . . 21 22 23 . 0 , 0 . / ; 1 . . 1 0 4 / . 2 , . 2 2 2 / . 3 , . 3 5 5 / . 4 , . 5 0 9 / . 5 , . 6 9 / . 6 , . 9 1 5 / . 7 , 1 . 2 . 7 5 , 1 . 3 8 / . 8 , 1 . 6 / . 8 4 , 1 . 8 3 / . 8 8 , 2 . 1 2 / . 9 , 2 . 3 / . 9 2 , 2 . 5 2 / . 9 4 , 2 . 8 1 . 9 5 . 7 . 9 9 / . 9 6 . 3 . ? / . 9 7 . 3 . 5 / . 9 8 . 3 . 9 / . 9 9 . 4 . 6 / . 9 9 5 . 5 . 3 / . 9 9 8 . 6 . ? 24 25 2 6 . 9 9 9 , 7 . / . 9 9 9 8 , 8 . * ... * . N 0 R , M A L „ D I S T R I B U T 1 U . N _ 27 28 29 NORM F U N C T I O N R N 1 . C 2 5 . 0 , - 5 . / . 0 0 0 0 3 , - 4 . / . 0 0 1 3 5 , - 3 . / . 0 0 6 2 1 , - 2 . 5 / . 0 2 2 7 5 , - 2 . . 0 6 6 B 1 . - 1 . 5 / . 1 1 5 0 7 . - 1 . 2 / . 1 5 8 6 6 . - I . / . 2 1 1 8 6 . - . 8 / . 2 7 4 2 5 . - . 6 30 31 3? . 3 4 4 5 8 , - . 4 / . 4 2 0 7 4 , - . 2 / . 5 , 0 . / . 5 7 9 2 6 , . 2 / . 6 5 5 4 2 , . 4 . 7 2 5 7 5 , . 6 / . 7 8 8 1 4 , . 8 / . 8 4 1 3 4 , I . / . 8 8 4 9 3 , I . 2 / . 9 3 3 1 9 , 1 . 5 _ j , 5 r i r 2 i . i , y _ » 3 9 J „ I 9 j 2 . 3 / . 9 9 8 6 5 , 3 . / . 9 9 9 9 7 . 4 . / I . . 5 . 33 34 35 * * I N S E R T U S E R - S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N S H E R E I F R E Q U I R E D A R R I V F U N C T I O N C l . f . 5 3 4 37 38 0 . , 1 0 5 / 1 8 0 0 0 , 1 0 5 / 2 1 6 0 0 , 5 5 / 2 4 2 0 0 , 10 5 / 2 9 0 0 0 , 1 0 5 3 9 4 0 4 1 * T H I S I S T H F T E A M R O U T I N G F U N C T I O N T E A M F U N C T I O N P I , DO 3 0 0 , TE A O O / 0 1 , TE A A A / 0 2 , T E A AB * 42 4 3 4 4 * T H E F O L L O W I N G 2 F U N C T I O N S A R E FOR T H E R O U T I N G W I T H I N E A C H TEAM * T H I S I S THE R O U T I N G F U N C T I O N FOR T E A M O U T E R T T T A A F U N C T I O N P 2 . D 0 2 45 4 6 47 0 1 , B A A 0 1 / 0 3 , B A A 0 3 * T H I S I S THE R O U T I N G F U N C T I O N FOR T E A M I N N E R T T T A B F U N C T I O N P 2 . D 0 2 4 8 49 53 0 2 , H A B 0 2 / 0 4 , B A B 0 4 * T H E F O L L O W I N G 1 F V A R I A B L E S A R E FUR T H E C O N S T A N T D I S T R I B U T I O N * OF I N T E R - A P R I V A L T I M E S . 51 52 53 0 1 F V A R I A B L E 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 0 * . 5 * T H E F O L L O W I N G 2 FVAR 1 A B L E S A R E FOR THE N O R M A L D I S T R I B U T I O N * OF I N T F R - A R R I V A I . T I M E S . 55 55 o o o o o o o o o u t M IO o o o o .o-o o o © r 0 2 0 3 * T H E F V AR I AR L E P V A R I A B L E F O L L O W I N G 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 0 + 0 0 1 5 . 0 0 0 * F N * N U R ' " I * . 5 0 2 4 0 . 0 0 0 « - 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 0 * F N . N . ) R M i - . 5 5 F V A R I A B L E S A R E . FOR .THE . E X P O N E N T I A L . IUST_R. IBUT. IDN ._._ 57 5 3 5 9 \ « O F 0 4 0 5 I N T E R - A P R I V A L T I M E S . F V A R 1 A B L F 0 0 1 5 . 0 0 0 * F N $ E X P O + . 5 F V A R T A R 1 F F N _ AR R I V * F N i F X PI ] « - . 5 6 0 61 6 7 / > 0 6 0 7 O H F V A R I A B L E F V A R I A B L E F V A R I A R L F 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 0 * . N t E X P U * . 5 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 0 * F N $ E X P O * . 5 0 3 0 0 . 0 0 0 * F N $ E X P O * . 5 _ 63 6' . , _._.65. \ * * T H E F O L L O W I N G 0 4 F U N C T I O N S A R E F O R T H E P R O C E S S O R A O V A N C E B L O C K S * P R n r F . - n u P U M P S R F O I I I R F S NO F U N C T I O N A S I T P F R F O K M S ONI Y 1 T A S K 6 6 67 6 S * P R O C E S S O R V A C U M * P R O C E S S O R C A S H R * P R O C E S S O R WASHR R E Q U I R E S NO F U N C T I O N A S I T P E R F O R M S O N L Y 1 T A S K R E Q U I R E S NO F U N C T I O N AS I T P E R F O R M S O N L Y 1 I ASK R E Q U I R E S NO F U N C T I O N A S I T P E R F O R M S O N L Y 1 T A S K _ _ _ 6 9 70 _ ... ...... 7.1... _ * * T H E S E M A T R I X A N D I N I T I A L S T A T E M E N T S A R E U S E D FOR R O U T I N G T H E C U S T O M E R S , i M A T R I X M . n _ . n 4 72 73 7 4 2 3 4 M A T R I X M A T R I X M A T R I X H . 0 5 , 0 4 H , 0 5 , 0 4 H . Q J 5 . 0 4 . . . . . . .. ..... - ... 75 7 6 . _. __7JL_ 5 M A T R I X I N I T I A L I N I T I A L H , 0 5 , 0 4 M H U O l , 0 1 1 , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 1 ) , 0 2 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 1 1 , 0 2 M H 2 I 0 2 . 0 1 1 . 0 1 / M H l ( 0 3 . 0 1 ) . 0 0 / M H 7 ( 0 3 . 0 1 ) . 0 0 78 79 8 ) I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L -M H 3 ( 0 l , 0 1 ) , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 1 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 1 1 , 0 3 M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 1 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 1 ) , 0 2 / M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 1 1 , 0 1 M H 5 I Q J . X J 1 1 J J L . 0 J . / H H 5 1 0 Z j 0 l j j Q 3 / MH 5 ( 0 3 , . 0 1 . ) ,_Q 2 _ 81 82 B 3 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A I . M H l ( 0 1 , 0 2 1 , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 2 ) , 0 2 / M H 1 ( 0 2 , 0 2 1 , 0 0 M H 2 I 0 2 , 0 2 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 I O I , 0 2 ) , 0 l / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 2 1 , 0 1 M H 3 ( 0 ? . n 7 1 . 0 3 / M H 4 l 0 2 . 0 7 I . 0 1 / M H . I 0 1 . 0 7 1 . 0 1 84 8 5 85 I N I T I A L , I N I T I AL I N L T L A l M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 2 ) , 0 3 M H l ( 0 l , 0 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 t 0 1 , 0 3 ) , 0 2 / M H 11 0 2 , 0 3 ) , 0 2 M H 2 . 0 2 , 0 3 ) , Q 1 / M H U 0 3 . 0 3 ) . 0 0 / M H 2 ( 0 3 , 0 3 ) , . Q . O 87 83 ... . . . 89 ....... . I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A I M H 3 I 0 1 , 0 3 l , 0 l / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 3 1 , 0 3 M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 3 ) , 0 l / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 3 ) , 0 4 / M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 3 ) , 0 1 M H S I 0 1 . 0 3 1 . 0 1 / MHS ( 0 7 . 0 3 1 . 0 3 / M H . ( 0 3 . 0 3 1 . 0 4 9 0 9 1 9 7 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 0 2 M H 2 ( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H l ( 0 3 , 0 4 ) , 0 0 / M H 2 I 0 3 , 0 4 ) , 0 0 M J H 3 t 0 1 , 0 4 ) , Q 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 4 1 , 0 4 . _ . 9 3 9 4 _ 9 5 * * I N I T I A L M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H M 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 3 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 0 4 9 6 97 9B 1 ? * C U S T O M E R C U S O l G E N E R A T E A S S I G N H A S E X P O N E N T I A L I N T E R - A R R I V A L T I M E V 0 5 , , , , 0 0 5 . 0 1 9 9 1 0 0 _ . . . _ . . . . LQ1_ 3 4 T R A N S F E R * C U S T O M E R C U S 0 2 G F N F R A T F , T E A M R H A S E X P O N E N T I A L I N T E R - A R R I V A L T I M E V 0 6 . . . . 0 0 102 1 0 3 1 0 4 5 6 A S S I G N T R A N S F E R * C U S T O M E R C U S 0 3 5 , 0 2 , T E A M R H A S _ E X P O N E N T I A L \ N T E R - „ A R R I V A L T I M E _ 105 106 1 , 0 7 . . . . ; _ 7 8 9 G E N E R A T E A S S I G N T R A N S F E R V 0 7 , , , , 0 0 5 , 0 3 . T E A M R 103 1 0 9 1 10 1 0 11 * C U S T O M E R C U S 0 4 G E N E R A T E A S S I G N HAS E X P O N E N T I A L I N I E R - A R R I V A L T I M E V 0 8 , , , , 0 0 5 . 0 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 * * T H E T R A N S F E R , T E A M R F O L L O W I N G I S I H E T R A N S A C T I O N R O U T I N G B L U C K 1 1 4 1 1 5 1 1 6 f 13 14 1 5 T E A M R Q U E U E A S S I G N Q U E U E , WHOLE 12 . V S O U E C G ........P..1.2 117 118 119 16 T E A M S A S S I G N 6 + , l 120 17 A S S I G N 1 , M H 1 ( P 6 , P 5 I 121 < 1 H A S S I G N H . M H 7 1 P h . P 5 1 17? > 19 T R A N S F E R * , F N $ T EAM 123 124 \ * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E FOR T E A M O U T E R .1.25 _._ 2 0 T E AAA Q U E U E O U T E R 126 21 T E B A A A S S I G N 7 + , l 127 2 2 A S S I G N 7 . M H 3 I P 7 . P 5 I 12S 2 3 A S S I G N 9 , M H 4 ( P 7 , P 5 ) 129 2 4 T R A N S F E R , F N $ T T T A A 130 * T H E F O L L O W I N G b L U C K S ARf.. FOR P R U C E S S U R . P U M P S UN TE AM O U T E R 131 2 5 B A A 0 1 Q U F U E P U M P S 132 26 E N T E R P U M P S 133 7 7 O F P A R T P U M P S 134 2 8 A S S I G N 1 0 * , 1 135 2 9 A D V A N C E V 0 2 136 3 0 _ LiLA VE _ P U M P S 137 3 1 T R A N S F E R . T E C A A 138 * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E F O R P R O C E S S O R C A S H R ON T E A M O U T E R 1 3 9 3 ? B A A 0 3 QIIFIJF C A S H R 1 4 0 3 3 E N T E R C A S H R 141 3 4 D E P A R T C A S H R 142 3 5 A S S I G N 1 0 * . 1 1 4 3 3 6 A D V A N C E V 0 4 1 4 4 3 7 L E A V E C A S H R 145 3 8 T R A N S F E R • T F f . A A 1 4 6 3 9 T E C A A L O O P 8 , T E B A A 1 4 7 4 0 D E P A R T O U T E R 143 4 1 T R A N S F E R __, .TEAMS 1 4 9 * 150 * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E FOR T E A M I N N E R 151 4 7 T E A A B OUFIIF I N N E R 157 4 3 T E B A B A S S I G N 7 + . 1 153 4 4 A S S I G N 2 , M H 3 ( P 7 , P 5 I 1 5 4 4 5 A S S I G N 9 . M H 4 I P 7 . P 5 1 1 55 4 6 T R A N S F E R , F N t T T T A B 1 5 6 * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E FOR P R O C E S S O R VACUM ON T E A M I N N E R 1 5 7 4 7 R A R 0 7 OUFIIF V A C U M 1 58 4 8 Q U E U E Q A B 0 2 159 4 9 T E S T L X . 1 5 2 . X 0 9 2 163 5 0 S A V E V A L U E 1 5 2 + . 1 _ ._ J L 6 1 _ . ... . 5 1 D E P A R T Q A B 0 2 162 52 E N T E R V A C U M 163 53 D E P A R T V A C U M 1 64 5 4 A S S I G N 10 + , 1 165 5 5 A O V A N C E V 0 3 165 5 6 L E A V E V A C U M 1 6 7 5 7 S A V E V A L U E 1 5 2 - , 1 163 5 8 T R A N S F E R , T E C A B 1 6 9 * THE F O L L O W I N G B L U C K S A R E FUR P R O C E S S O R WASHR ON T E A M INNE R 1 7 0 5 9 BA 1304 Q U E U E W ASHR 171 6 0 E N T E R WASHR 172 61 D E P A R T WASHR 1 73 6 2 A S S I G N 1 0 + ,1 1 74 6 3 A D V A N C E V 0 1 1 75 6 4 L E A V E « A S HR 1 7 6 f 6 5 T R A N S F F R , T E C A B 177 6 6 T E C A B L O O P 8 , T E B A B 178 6 7 J? E P J A R T I N N E R . . , . _ - - .. .1.79. 6 8 T R A N S F E R * , T E A M S 1 8 0 181 i. 6 9 T F A O O D E P A R T P 1 2 182 J > 7 0 O E P A P T WHOLE 183 S 71 T E R M I N A T E * 134 _. .....1.35... .. • T H I S S E G M E N T T E S T S S E R V I C E L E V E L AND A D J U S T S S E R V I C E C A P A C I T Y AS R E Q U I R E D 1 8 6 72 GEN ER A T E 3 0 0 , , , , 9 9 DONE E V E R Y 5 M I N U T E S 187 7 1 S A V F V A I UF C O U N T + . 1 188 7 4 R E F 0 2 T E S T L E V * V A U 0 2 , O l , R E F 3 2 189 75 T E S T G X 0 9 2 . 0 1 . R E F 3 2 190 76 S A V E . V A L U E 0 9 2 - 1 1 _ ... - - — .- ....... 1 9 1 . 7 7 T R A N S F E R , R E F 0 2 192 7 8 R E F 3 2 T E S T GE V $ V A B 0 2 , 0 2 , S A V 0 2 193 7 9 T F S T 1 X 0 9 7 . 0 5 . S A V 0 2 1 94 8 0 S A V E V A L U E 0 9 2 * - , 1 1 9 5 81 T R A N S F E R , R E F 3 2 196 8 2 S A V 0 2 T E S T E V j t I J M E R , 0 , T A B 0 2 _ . . . _ 1 9 7 8 3 A S S I G N 1 , 0 2 198 8 4 S A V E V A L U E V S C 0 U N T + . X 0 9 2 . H DONE E V E R Y 15 M I N U T E S 1 9 9 B5 T A B 0 7 TAR Ul AT F V A C U M 2 0 0 8 6 T E R M I N A T E * * 2 0 1 2 0 2 2 0 3 * T H E F O L L O W I N G S E C T I O N C O N T R O L S D U R A T I O N OF R U N 2 0 4 8 7 G E N E R A T E 2 8 8 0 0 , , , , 9 8 2 0 5 RH T F R M I N A T F 1 . 0 6 S T A R T I 2 0 7 C L E A R M H 1 - M H 5 , X 9 1 - X 1 2 0 2 0 8 S T A R T L . . : .... .. . 2 0 9 C L E A R M H 1 - M H 5 , X 9 1 - X 1 2 0 2 1 0 S T A R T 1 211 C l FAR M H 1 - M H 5 . X 9 1 - X 1 2 0 2 1 2 S T A R T 1 2 1 3 R E P O R T 2 1 4 E J E C T 2 1 5 T A B T I T L E , * * * * * * * U T I L I Z A T I O N O F M O N I T O R E D P R O C E S S O R S * * * * * * * 2 1 6 S P A C E 3 2 1 7 S P A C F 218 S T O T I T L E , * * * « • * • * * P R O C E S S O R U T I L I Z A T I O N S T A T I S T I C S * * . * * * . . * 2 1 9 S P A C E 3 2 2 0 S P A C E 3 ..... „._. 2 2 1 . . . . . ...... QUE T I T L E , * * « * * * » * » » C O M P L E T E Q U E U E S T A T I S T I C S * * * * * * * * * * 2 2 2 S P A C E 3 2 2 3 S P A C F 3 2 7 4 F S V T I T L E , * * * * * * * * * * P A R A M E T E R V A L U E S * * * * * * * * * * 2 2 5 S P A C E 3 2 2 6 S P A C E 3 . _ : . 2 2 7 C L O T I T L E , * * * * * * * * * * E L A P S E D T I M E * * * * * * * * * * 2 7 8 S P A C E 3 2 2 9 B L O T I T L E , * * * * * * * * * * B L O C K C O U N T S * * * * * * * * * * 7 3 3 E J E C T 2 3 1 E J E C T 2 3 2 G R A P H . X H » 0 4 1 , 0 8 0 . . , . _ - 2 3 3 „ O R I G I N 5 1 , 1 1 2 3 4 X , 2 , 1 , , , , N 0 2 3 5 Y 0 . 1 . 9 5 , 1 0 7 36 1 S T A T E M E N T 3 1 1 6 , N U M B E R 2 3 7 1 S T A T E M E N T 3 3 , 2 , O F 2 3 B . I S X M _ 0 1 £ . N I 3 5 . 9 , P R O C E S S O R . _ _ _ _ - — - .239. 1 S T A T E M E N T 3 7 , 5 , V A C U M 2 4 0 1 S T A T E M E N T . 3 . , 7 , A T T E A M 2 4 1 1 S T A T F M F N T 4 1 . S . I N N F R ; 2 4 ? 1 7 S T A T E M E N T 5 2 , 1 1 5 , 1 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 1 2 4 3 I 5 I 6 I 7 I B I 9 I 10 2 4 4 2 0 S..T.A.T CME.NT .5A,..48..,H.Q.URS O F S I M U L A T I O N ( D I V I D E D I N T O . 8 U A R T E R H O U R S ) 2.45.. ) 2 4 6 E N D G R A P H 2 4 7 FND , , , 2 4 B 114 APPENDIX B Contents 1) Flow-chart, patient and task l i s t s for the dental application model. 2) Stage 1 and stage 2 questionnaires for the dental application problem. 3) SIMQ generated program for this model. 4) Simulation output. Notes: 1) In the customer information questionnaire subset of the stage 2 questionnaire set, no arrival times are provided. This i s because of the simulated appointment system which was inserted in the generated program. 2) The task sequencing questionnaires for five customer types only, as the inclusion of the other pages would serve no useful purpose. 115 { Patient A r r i v e s i n O f f i c e | Begin Waiting . \£ Determine Sequence of Servers 1 Queue Dentist 3E Leave Queue I f yes, proceed Leave Waiting Room Seize Chair Go to F i r s t Server 1 Queue Hygiene Al v. Leave Queue 1 Queue A s s i s t 3Z \ I Leave Queue Seize Dentist 3 F Service Leave Dentist Seize Hygiene JL Service Leave Hygiene Seize A s s i s t Service JL Leave A s s i s t None 'Go to next server Leave Chair Leave O f f i c e 116 PATIENT TYPES NUMBER DESCRIPTION LIST OF TASKS 1 V i s u a l Exam + Xray 3, 17 2 Examine New Patient + F i l l 4, 17, 2, 3 Prophy - Flouride 5 4 Study Impression 6 5 Dentures 8 6 Root Canal Drain + F i l l 1, 2, 9 7 F i l l i n g 1, 2, 10 8 Crown Prep 1, 2, 13, 9 Crown Insert 1, 2, 12 10 Extr a c t i o n 1, 2, 22 11 Ortho (Nite Guard) 14 12 Consult 15 13 Re c a l l + Prophy - Fl o u r i d e 3, 5 14 R e c a l l + F i l l 3, 1, 2, 15 Pfx - Scale 5, 16 16 Xray 17 r 17 Apioectomy 1, 2, 18 18 Pfx - Misc - Xray 5, 19, 17 19 F i l l , Scale 1, 2, 10, 20 Placque Control 20 21 Occlusion Adj 21 22 Scale 16 23 F i l l + Impression 1, 2, 10, TASK TYPES NUMBER DESCRIPTION SERVER 1 I n i t i a l Contact Danny 2 Freezing + Rubber Dam A s i s t 3 V i s u a l R e c a l l Hygen 4 V i s u a l New Patient Danny 5 Prophy - Flouride Hygen 6 Study Impression A s i s t 7 Rubber - Base Impression A s i s t 8 Dentures Danny 9 Root Canal Danny 10 F i l l i n g Danny 11 Crown Prep Danny 12 Crown Insert Danny . 13 Packing Gum A s i s t 14 Orthodontics Danny 15 Consultation Danny 16 Scaling Hygen 17 X-ray A s i s t 18 Apioectomy Danny 19 Miscellaneous Danny 20 Plaque Control Hygen 21 Occlusional Adjustment Danny 22 Extraction Danny 118 STAGE 1 QUESTIONNAIRE Col umn (1-2) Number of Teams (3-4) Number of Processor Types (5-6) Number of Tasks (7-8) Number of Customer Types P i l l j613| [212-1 |2.j3 Column (1-5) Team Names (6-10) Processor Names (11-15) Task Names Dl6WiLi|ftiS|\|_miT|ftjSi6H |l>ftlr4|KllV fflAlSlQI. (16-20) Customer Names C i m s i o n ClCl|S|6|-l If rnAiSi2.i_ii i { o o o r n f T H I S I S T H E S E C O N D O T " I H K E E S T A G E S . A T T H I S P U I N T lit A R E I N T E R E S T E D I N T H E F I N E R D E T A I L S O F T H E S Y S T E M Y O U W I S H T O S I M U L A T E . E A C H Q U E S T I O N N A I R E I S \ > — D E S C R I B E D I N S O M E D E T A I L A T T H E T O P O F E A C H S E C T I O N . I F T H E E X P L A N A T I O N G I V E N » C IMriicrrtfTfTMT r»i c A r r in:i> c»n T ut Anr»nrinnT*ii. f e r n our nr n ir tirco c U A I M H I I A r A I I I I J X.' ' F O R E A C H L I N E O F T H E Q U E S T I O N N A I R E M U S T B E E N T E R E D E V E N I F T H A T C A R D I S B L A N K . A T A L L Y O F C A R D S R E Q U E S T E D I S G I V E N O N T H E L E F T S I D E O F T H E Q U E S T I U N N A I R E . T H E F I R S I 2 4 C A R D S I N T H E D E C K W I L L B E T H E C A R D S U S E O T O G E N E R A T E T H I S Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S E T . P L E A S E M A K E C E R T A I N A L L " R E Q U E S T E D C A R D S A R E P R E S E N T A N D I N O R D E R . T H E F O L L O W I N G 1 S E T S O F Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S A R E T O I N F O R M T H E S Y S T E M U F T H E M A K E - U P U F E A C H T E A M . I F Y O U W A N T P R O C E S S O R C A P A C I T Y T O B E V A R I E D F I L L I N C O L U M N S 3 - 8 . N O T E T H A T E A C H P R O C E S S O R M A Y B E M O N I T O R E O O N 1 T E A M ~ O N L Y A N D T H A T T H E N U M B E R A V A I L A B L E T O ~ A N Y T E A M O F A P A R T I C U L A R P R O C E S S O R M U S T B E T H E S A M E F U R A L L T E A M S S H A R I N G T H I S  P R O C E S S O R . P L E A S E E N T E R A L L C A R O S R E Q U E S T E D A S A B L A N K C A R D W I L L I N D I C A T E T O T H E S T f F E W T H S T T T T E C O R R E S P O N D I N G P R O C E S S O R I S N O T A V A I L A B L E T O T H A T ~ 7 E T M T H (—1 r * * * " ' T E A M ' S T R U C T U R E Q U E S T I O N N A I R E : D E N T L # 1 * ssttt $s sense ftistftrti* est. <rtr# e tr« »t tetetm C O L U M N ( 1 - 2 ) ( 3 - - I ( 5 - 6 1 ( 7 - 8 ) P R O C E S S O R N U M B E R M I N I M U M M I N I M U M M A X I M U M T S R T 5 " A V A I T A B L E " C A P A C I T Y Q U E U E Q U E U E O.J. 2 5 A S I S T M l J l l_l_l L l - I 2 6 H Y G E N "27 D A N N Y — i Q r l , ,:nr o o o o o I o o o o 1° jfo o o o o o \o ' : © . ( * * * P R U C E S SO R - T A SK 0 UF S T 1 O N N A I K E : AS I ST * ft****:****************************** T H E NEXT" 3 Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S A R E T n IMEORM T H E S Y S T E M UF THE R A T E AT WHICH E A C H P R O C E S S O R C A . P E R F O R M E A C H T A S K AND WHERE T H E T A S K S W I L L B E P E R F O R M E D . TO DO T H I S E N T E R T H E 0 1 S T R IB UTI ON NUMBER AND T H E R E Q U I R E D I N F O R M A T I O N R E G A R D I N G T E A M P R E F E R E N C E . A B L A N K C A R D W I L L I N D I C A T E ' T H A T A P R O C E S S O R CANNOT P E R F O R M T H E C O R R E S P O N D I N G T A S K AND T H E A B S E N C E OF A T E A M P R E F E R E N C E M I L L NOT H I N D E R T H E S Y S T E M . * * N O T E - F I L L I N A L L L E A D I N G AND F O L L O W I N G Z E R O E S . « » 0 1 : C O N S T A N T S E R V I C E T I M E - E N T E R M E A N - frKit Eft M E A N AND 1 / 2 S P R E A D - E N T E R M E A N AND S T A N D A R D O E V I A T I O N 0 2 : U N I F O R M D) _ 5 T R I 6 U t . ON 0 3 : N O R M A L D I S T R I B U T I O N " 0 . : E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N T E R M E A N MUST B E S E L F C O N T A I N E D 6 . - 9 . : U S E R S U P F - U E D E U N C T I U N -P R O C E S S O R : A S I S T C O L l l - 2 ) ( 3 - 1 0 ( 1 1 - 1 8 ) ( 1 9 - 2 0 ) C A R D T A S K 2 8 T A S 0 1 D I STR I B U T I ON M E A N 2 9 T A S 0 2 0_i3, QQQ S P E R S I O N -I. I-I-I-I T E A M ooo 3 0 3 1 T A S 0 3 T A S O 4 I U TT. 3 2 T A S 0 5 IQOIO _ i t i T 3 T A S 0 6 3 4 T A S 0 7 3 5 T A S 0 8 - l - I J r o r r _r_i_i 3 6 3 7 T A S 0 9 T A S I O l_l_l r r r r r r .i-i-i 3 8 T A S U l_l_l .1-1-1 -I-I-I _ 4 0 4 1 T A 5 1 2 _ T A S 1 3 _ T AS 1 4 L l - I OS. -I .i-i-i .i_i_i .1-1-1 CONTINUING FOP PROCESSOR : ASIST 0.1: CONSTANT SERVICE TIME - ENTER MEAN 02! UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN AND 1/2 SPREAD 03: NORMAL DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN ANO STANDARD DEVIATION 04: EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION - .ENTER MEAN „ 05-99: USER SUPPLIED FUNCTION- MUST BE SELF CONTAINED COL(1-21 CARD ..TASK. DISTRIBUTION 42 TAS15 l_l_l (3-101 .MEAN _ l _ l . l _ l _ l _ (11-18) DISPERSION (19-201 TEAM 43 TAS16 44 ...TAS1.7. 45 TAS18 Mi 46 TAS19 .47. TAS20_ 48 TAS21 49 TAS22 l - l - l _L_L_L l - l - l I- l-.L_ia_i_ - I - l . I-l. - I - l . I - l . _ l _ l _ P R O C E S S O R - T A S K Q U E S T I O N N A I R E : H Y G E N l o 0 1 : C O N S T A N T S E R V I C E T I M E 0 2 : U N I F O R M D I S T R I B U T I O N E N T E R MEAN E N T E R M E A N AND 1/2 S P R E A D 0 3 : N O R M A L D I S T R I B U T I O N E N T E R MEAN AND S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N 0 4 : E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N -0 5 - 9 9 : U S E R S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N -E N T E R MEAN MUST B E S E L F C O N T A I N E D P R O C E S S O R H Y G E N C A R D T A S K C O L ! 1 - 2 ) D I S T R I B U T I O N ( 3 - 1 0 1 MEAN 5 0 T A S 0 1 T T 5 2 T A S 0 2 T A S 0 3 5 3 T A S 0 4 TV 5 5 T A S 0 5 T A S 0 6 5 6 T A S 0 7 l_l_l T X T 0 3 . i . u . I J . L I J . 3 I Q I . I Q Q Q I .1 j . L U . 1 - 1 8 1 S P E R S I O N ( 1 9 - 2 0 1 T E A M • .1-1. .1-1. "TT 5 8 TA SO 8 T A S 0 9 5 9 T A S I O H O " 1 t I . I J . L L I . TT. . I J . _ l _ l . l - l _ l . 6 0 6 1 T A S 1 1 T A S 1 2 6 2 T A S 1 3 T j C T U J I. . L I . L L I . .I_l .1-1.1. .1.1.1_l_l. .1.1-6 3 6 4 T AS 1 4 TA S I 5 6 5 T A S 1 6 T T C T l_l_l - L I . I . L L _ l _ l . L l - L I 3 I Q . I Q | C ^ _ L . 6 6 6 7 6 8 T A S 1 7 TA SI 8 T A S 1 9 J . I - L I . L L L - I - l . l - L I - [NO co l - l - l .1-1. o r 1 C O N T I N U I N G FOR P R O C E S S O R : H Y G E N 0 1 : C O N S T A N T S E R V I C E T I M E - E N T E R MEAN _ - — — s . . . 0 2 : U N I F O R M D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N T F R MEAN AND 1/2 S P R E A D MCAM A M n _TAr_nAPn n r . I AT 1 fiN < c I ! c 1 ^  i- V-••' O J G'' Q O Q 0 . : E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N T E R M E A N 0 5 - 9 9 : U S E R S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N - MUST B E S E L F C O N T A I N E D CARD TASK C O L ) l - 2 > D I S T R I B U T I O N ( 3 - 1 0 1 M E A N ( 1 1 - 1 8 1 D I S P E R S 1 0 N ( 1 9 - 2 0 1 T E A M 6 9 T A S 2 0 _ 3 Q . I Q I Q Q -73 T A S T T O H L L L I . I . L L I - I 7 1 T A S 2 2 'I-I-I l - l - l - l - l . l - l - l - l I_I_I_I?I . PIQPI i - i - i l - l - L L I . L l - I - I r u I -1 -1-1-l-l-l-l-l I-I-I o © o o rs r —: bbbbbbbsb *»******>.**»***•»**<• ***<.•*»*»#*** « * * P R O C E S S O R - T A S K Q U E S T I O N N A I R E : DANNY * s. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * < 0 2 : U N I F O R M D I S T R I B U T I O N E N T E R MEAN AND 1 / 2 S P R E A D 0 3 : NORMAL D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N T E R MEAN ANO S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N 0 4 : E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N -0 5 - 9 9 : U S E R S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N -E N T E R MEAN MUST B E S E L F C O N T A I N E D P R O C E S S O R D A N N Y C A R D T A S K C O L I 1 - 2 ) ' " DI S T R I B U T I O ' N ( 3 - 1 0 1 MEAN ( 1 1 - 1 8 1 D I S P E R S I O N ( 1 9 - 2 0 1 T E A M 7 2 T A S 0 1 . I J . L L l - l l.QQQi "73" 74 t A $ 0 2 T A S 0 3 1ZTT t • I . L I J J - • 1 1 t 7 5 T A S 0 4 D 3 i L&.OQQ J J . L L U QOQi IT 77 T A S 0 5 T A S 0 6 • C I JL l - l - l . l 78 T A S 0 7 " 7 9 " 80 t A S o e T A S 0 9 Oft i i «i i i • fliSi.iQQQi .1. n3 i . i - i - i ISI . IQQQ 8 1 T A S 1 0 Qi3, |3iQi.i0tO 8 2 8 3 T A S 1 1 T A S 1 2 S I Q I . Q Q O I T A S 1 3 O S " ST 8 6 T A S 1 4 T A S 1 5 8 7 TA S l 6 8 9 YAS 17 T A S 1 8 l_l_l .1-1-1. .1-1-1. 9 0 T A S 1 9 Di3 _ l _ | . L l . l . l - IZ I . IQOC I - i t i I—1 NJ cn ! o I I I ° I ° l I c I C ! r i i i n * i ! o 1 • il° •t j l ° ! o I i I o o o o o o o o C O N T I N U I N G FUR P R O C E S S O R : DANNY O i : C O N S T A N T S E R V I C E T I M E - E N T E R MEAN 0 2 : U N I F O R M D I S T R I B U T I O N - ENTfcR MEAN AND 1 / 2 S P R E A D < 03: NORMAL D I S T R I B U T I O N 0 4 : E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N T E R M E A N 0 5 - 9 9 : U S E R S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N - M U S T B E S E L F C O N T A I N E D C A R D T A S K C 0 L I 1 - 2 ) D I S T R I B U T I O N ( 3 - 1 0 1 M E A N 9 1 T A S 2 0 9 3 TAS21 T A S 2 Z Oi3i i -» - iJQi.OiQQ ( 1 I- 1 B I D I S P E R S I O N ( 1 9 - 2 0 ) T E A M i_i_i_p?t. Q O O ) l - l - l CM o © • o o c o ************************************************ * * ' * " CUSTOMER INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE * * * < o i j o o o o Jo,. .© © OF THE CUSTOMER TYPES AND THE TASKS THEY REQUIRE PERFORMED. TH IS IS DUNE BY ENTERING THE D I S T R I B U T I O N NUMBER AN D TH E REQUIREO INFORMATION. FOLLOWING T H I S ENTER A * 1 " IN EACH COLUMN CORRESPONDING TO A TASK WHICH THIS CUSTOMER R E Q U I R E S . 0 1 : CONSTANT ARRIVAL RATE - ENTER MEAN 0 2 : UNIFORM D I S T R I B U T I O N - ENTER MEAN AND 1/2 SPREAD 0 3 : NORMAL D I S T R I B U T I O N - ENTER MEAN AND STANOARD D E V I A T I O N 0 4 : E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N - ENTER MEAN 0 5 - 9 9 : USER S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N - MUST B E S E L F CONTAINED COLUMN ( 1 - 2 1 3 - 101 D I S T R I B U T I O N ME AN CARD CUSTOMER 94 CUS01 " " 9 5 " T U S 0 2 l - I J 9 6 C U S 0 3 9 7 C U S 0 4 9 8 9 9 "CTJS05" CUS06 100 C U S 0 7 TtTI 1 0 2 C U S 0 8 C U S 0 9 l _ 103 C U S 1 0 T 0 4 1 0 5 TiJSTT-C U S 1 2 106 C U S 1 3 T O T " 108 " C U S 1 4 " C U S 1 5 _l r r ( 1 1 - 1 8 D I S P E R S _ l . ( 1 9 - 2 0 1 ( 2 1 - 4 2 1 T T T T T T A A A A A A T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A ON "PRIORITY S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 H i t / — '• 01 : C O N S T A N T A R R I V A L k AT t MMICnDM h I STR I PL l JT T ON - E N T E R - E N T E R MEAN M E A N AND 1 / 2 S P R E A D \ , . 0 2 • 0 3 : NORMAL D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N T E R M E A N AND S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N . < 0 5 - 9 9 : U S E R S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N - MUST B E S E L F C O N T A I N E D 1 1 - 1 8 ) C O L U M N ( 1 - 2 ) ( 3 - 1 0 1 D I S T R ( B U T ION ME AN CARD C U S T U M E R " C U S 1 6 S P E R S I O N ( 1 9 - 2 0 ) ( 2 1 - 4 2 ) T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T / V A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A P R I O R I T Y S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ 5 6 7 8 g 0 ! 2 3 4 5 6 T 8 9 0 1 2 J 1 0 9 1 1 0 C U S 1 7 TTT 112 TDTTT" C U S 1 9 113 CUS20 T T 4 115 C U S 2 1 C U S 2 2 116 C U S 2 3 J 1.1 i i CO • 1 Q j Q 1 o THE F O L L O W I N G 2 3 Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S A R E TO I N F O R M T H E S Y S T E M AS TO T H E OROER IN W H I C H T H E T A S K S E A C H C U S T O M E R R E Q U I R E S A R E TU B E P R O C E S S E D . TO DO T H I S ONE Q U E S T -I O N N A I R E F O R E A C H C U S T O M E R T Y P E IS P R E S E N T E D . FOR E A C H ROW C O R R E S P O N D I N G TO A < > "' t A S k E N T E R A " l " IN E A C H C O L U M N C O R R E S P O N D I N G TO T H O S E T A S K S WHICH MUST B E P R O C E S S E D R F P n R F T H F T A S K (IF T H A T R O W . ( N O T E S *ONE C A R D MUST B E E N T E R E D F O R E A C H TASK F O R E A C H C U S T O M E R T Y P E , E V E N IF T H A T C A R D I S B L A N K 1 ••" * ' * * T A S K S E Q U E N C I N G Q U E S T I O N N A I R E : C U S O l * " * * •«**«**#*«****«*****» ********** _• < > C O L U M N t 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 » T A S T A S T T T T T T T T T t t T T T T T T T T T A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S C A R D T A S K 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 117 T A S O l 118 TAS02 119 TAS03 120 TAS04 121 TAS05 122 TAS06 7123 TASOT ' 124 TAS08 125 TAS09 127 TAS11 128 TAS12 "T.T9~TAST2T" 130 TAS14 131 TAS15 T32 TAS16 133 TAS17 134 T AS 18 ~T3~5TA"5T9" 136 TAS20 137 TAS21 **#$***<<**************************************** * * * ' T A S K ' S E Q U E N C I N G Q U E S T I O N N A I R E : C U S Q 2 *_ ************************************************ C O L U M N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 1 ) 2 1 2 2 » T T T T T T " I T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S ' S S S S O O O O O O O O O l l l l l 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C A R O T A S K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 139 TASOl 1 4 0 T A S 0 2 1 4 1 T A S 0 3 1 4 2 T A S 0 4 1 4 3 T A S 0 5 1 4 4 T A S 0 6 T4T"TSS0T' 1 4 6 T A S 0 8 1 4 7 T A S 0 9 1 4 8 T A S 1 0 1 4 9 T A S 1 1 1 5 0 T A S 1 2 1 5 1 T A S 1 3 1 5 3 T A S 1 5 T 5 4 ~ T A S 1 6 1 5 5 T A S 1 7 1 5 6 T A S 1 8 T i T T A S 1 9 1 5 8 T A S 2 0 1 5 9 T A S 2 1 CO 1 6 0 T AS 2 2 c— • • • f t * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * T A S K S E Q U E N C I N G Q U E S T I O N N A I R E : C U S 0 3 * * * < > C O L U M N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 t A S T A S T T T T T T A A A A A A S S S s s s T T T T T T T T T T T T T T A A A A A A A A A A A A A A s s s s s s s s s s s s s s C A R O T A S K 0 1 0 2 O O O O O O 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 1 6 1 T A S O l 1 6 2 T A S 0 2 1 6 3 T A S 0 3 164 TAS04 1 6 5 T A S 0 5 1 6 6 T A S 0 6 1 6 7 T A S 0 7 1 6 8 T A S 0 8 1 6 9 T A S 0 9 Tro~TTST?r 1 7 1 T A S 1 1 1 7 2 T A S 1 2 ITI'TA'S'l'S'"' 1 7 4 T A S 1 4 1 7 5 TA S l 5 1 7 6 T A S 1 6 1 7 7 T A S 1 7 1 7 8 T A S 1 8 T 7 T T A S T 9 " 1 8 0 T A S 2 0 1 8 1 T A S 2 1 T8T~TAS2T" © o o o O o o 1 ° i ° i i o i | O I ° l o o o o "o o o **»****#**»***«****»***«**#'•****** ************** * * * TASK S F C J U E N C I N G Q U E S T I O N N A I R E : C U S 0 4 . _ * ._ _ . . — >. __ 1 » *»*#*******»************************************ . : - ^ : 7 : 1 r. rt • n i 1 I 1 1 1 I /. 1Kltl7lfl1Qlfni?5 _ < T T T T A A A A s s s s T"T~T~T A A A A S S S S T T A A S S T T T A A A S S s C A R D T A S K 1 8 3 T A S O l 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 0 0 5 6 7 8 0 I 9 0 1 8 4 T A S 0 2 1 8 5 T A S 0 3 1 8 6 T A S 0 4 1 8 7 T A S 0 5 1 8 8 T A S 0 6 T 5 9 - T A W 1 9 0 T A S 0 8 1 9 1 T A S 0 9 T9TT53T0~ 1 9 3 T A S 1 1 1 9 4 T A S 12 1 9 5 T A S 13 1 9 6 T A S 1 4 1 9 7 T A S 1 5 1 9 8 T A S 1 6 1 9 9 T A S 1 7 200 T A S 1 8 * 23T T A S T 9 * 202 T A S 2 0 2 0 3 T A S 2 1 ~TKW~T£S2~T _ l _ 1 1 2 3 T T T f T T T T A A A A A A A A s s s s s s s s 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 H Co to o O f - i o . o c o o o jo i i© o o o o Q •o © © f " * * * * * * * * S I M U L A T I O N D U R A T I O N Q U E S T I O N N A I R E * . . . . . _ -. " * * < > — FOR C O N T R O L L I N G T H E D U R A T I O N O F T H E S I M U L A T I O N T H E R E A R E TWU B A S I C O P T I O N S . n P T i n w 1 w i l l S T O P THE S I M U L A T I O N A F T E R A S P E C I F I E D NUMBER O F C U S T O M E R S H A V E _ » P A S S E D T H R O U G H T H E S Y S T E M . O P T I O N 2 W I L L S T O P T H E S I M U L A T I O N A F I E R A S P E C I F I E D P E R I O D OF T I M E HAS E L A P S E D . I N D I C A T E T H E NUMBER OF R E P L I C A T I O N S D E S I R E D I N C O L U M N S 7 - 8 . r.OI IIMNI II ( 2 - 6 1 ( 7 - 8 1 MAXIMUM NUMBER O F NUMBER OF C A R D O P T I O N C U S T O M E R S / T I M E U N I T S R E P L I C A T I O N S , _ 6 2 3 1 % B l ^ l S C l lllfel . *. • '. < i M •"<' ' ' ' u,. ... • -.'.v.. ' fn.'J - 1 . i*.(..fi. i-. •  .•' . ' = . ! '.'I'-' its S < \ Ii i : ' . ' IM'I.;'.:H ' . ) " . ' • , * S W T " ' * ' i f K ' « » ' » . ! . l ' . 5 - f > '• ' J " ' s l , n Y - . C V , . . 7 •. 1 >- s r c M : ; 5 : ptotK r - t - : : ? ; . . ; 0 ' ' . . . . . 'A - .'.>•"": -i. •?!<•;• i j ( i i . ' , !.!> < \ 7 , . - l - A „ r U -.1 • * ?1t ; ' H l ' W I * ' H M n • '• ! >> '• « V " • 1 ' 1'. , , i . i . jft « » ( « t , ' / « ' . ; • - ' • **•.>••! <••."•'.• '<" I'!'" 1 ... . - - -~ — — 11-3 ' . , . : s ; ' • < • ' " ' • • • : [ • .. • f mi •>•:? . — — — — . - , . , :... • T _> r _> J V I - I I O » !_ 1^  _> 1 H * * * IBM P R O G R A M P R O D U C T 5 7 3 4 - X S 2 (V 1 1 4 ) * * * B L U C K D U M B E R * L O C O P E R A T I O N A , V C D . E . r . G . H , I S I M U L A T E « S T O R A G E B L O C K FOR P R O C E S S O R A S I S T C O M M E N T S A S I S l S l U H A G f c CT * S T O R A G E B L O C K FOR P R O C E S S O R H Y G E N H Y G E N S T O R A G E 0 1 * S T O R A G E " B L O C K " F O P . P R O C E S S O R D.ANNY DANNY S T O R A G E 0 1 " * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E R E L A T E D T o P R O C E S S O R M O N I T O R I N G O I V I D FV A R I A B L E ( X H * 1 I / 1 6 * . 5 C O U N T F V A R I A B L E X S C 0 U N T / 3 + 1 ( P I - 1 > * 4 0 ) T I M E R " V A R T A B L E X $ C 0 L N T a 3 " " " " * V A R I A B L E TO C O N T R O L C U S T O M E R Q U E U I N G . Q U E C O V A R I A B L E 2 0 0 + P 5 S T A T E M E N T N U M B E R 1 2 9 10 11 12 13 1 4 * E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N E X P O F U N C T I O N " R N 1 . C 2 4 ~ . 0 , 0 . / . I t . 1 0 4 / . 2 , . 2 2 2 / . 3 . . 3 5 5 / . 4 , . 5 0 9 / . 5 , . 6 9 / . 6 , . 9 1 5 / . 7 , 1 . 2 . 7 5 , 1 . 3 8 / . 8 , 1 . 6 / . 8 4 , 1 . 8 3 / . 8 8 , 2 . 1 2 / . 9 , 2 . 3 / . 9 2 , 2 . 5 2 / . 9 4 , 2 . 81 . 9 5 , 2 . 9 9 / . 9 6 , 3 . 2 / . 9 7 , 3 . 5 / . 9 8 , 3 . 9 / . 9 9 , 4 . 6 / . 9 9 b , 5 . 3 / . 9 9 8 , 6 . 2 . 9 9 9 , 7 . / . 9 9 9 8 , 8 . « NORMAL D I S T R I B U T I O N " _ NORM F U N C T I O N R N 1 . C 2 5 . 0 , - 5 . / . 0 0 0 0 3 , - 4 . / . 0 0 1 3 5 , - 3 . / . 0 0 6 2 1 , - 2 . 5 / . 0 2 2 7 5 , - 2 .  . 0 6 6 8 1 , - 1 . 5 / . 1 1 5 0 7 , - 1 . 2 / . 1 5 8 6 6 , - 1 . / . 2 1 1 8 6 , - . 8 / . 2 7 4 2 5 , - . 6 . 3 4 4 5 8 , - . 4 / . 4 2 0 7 4 , - . 2 / . 5 , 0 . / . 5 7 9 2 6 , . 2 Z . 6 5 5 4 2 , . 4 . 7 2 5 7 5 , . 6 / . 7 8 8 1 4 , . 8 / . 8 4 1 3 4 , 1 . / . 8 8 4 9 3 , 1 . 2 / . 9 3 3 1 9 , 1 . 5 . 9 7 7 2 5 , 2 . / . 9 9 3 7 9 , 2 . 5 / . 9 9 8 6 5 , 3 . / . 9 9 9 9 7 , 4 . / ! . , 5 . * I N S E R T U S E R - S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N S H E R E IF R E Q U I R E D C U S 0 1 J -UNLTIUf* R N 2 , D l b . 1 4 4 , 2 / . 1 8 4 , 5 / . 3 2 3 , 6 / . 7 4 9 , 7 / . 7 6 4 , 8 / . 7 7 9 , 9 / . 8 5 3 , 1 0 / . 8 6 3 , 1 1 / . 8 9 8 , 1 2 . 9 2 3 , 1 4 / . 9 2 8 , 1 7 / . 9 3 3 , 1 8 / . 9 8 7 , 1 9 / . 9 8 8 , 2 1 / 1 . 0 , 2 3 C U S 0 2 F U N C T I O N R N 2 . D 8 . 2 3 , 1 / . 4 6 5 , 3 / . 4 7 9 , 4 / . 6 4 3 , 1 3 / . 7 5 6 , 1 5 / . 7 7 , 1 6 / . 8 8 3 , 2 0 / 1 . 0 , 2 2 ~% • : • T I M E l F U N C T I O N P 5 . L 2 3 1 , 0 / 2 , 4 / 3 , 0 / 4 , 0 / 5 , 3 / 6 , 3 / 7 , 3 / 8 , 2 / 9 , 2 / 1 0 , 3 / 1 1 , 3 / 1 2 , 1 / 1 3 , 0 1 4 , 3 / 1 5 , - / 1 6 , 0 / 1 7 , 2 / 1 8 , 1 / 1 9 , 3 / 2 0 , 0 / 2 1 , 3 / 2 2 , 0 / 2 3 , 3 * I N I T I A L X t C O U N l . l * T H I S I S THE T E A M R O U T I N G F U N C T I O N T E A M F U N C T I O N P 1 . D 0 2 0 0 , T E A O O / 0 1 , T E A A A * T H E F O L L O W I N G 1 F U N C T I O N S A R E FOR T H E R O U T I N G W I T H I N E A C H T E A M * T H I S I S THE P O U T I N G F U N C T I O N FOR T E A M D E N T L  — T T T A A (-UNCI ION P 2 . D 0 3 0 1 , B A A C 1 / 0 2 , B A A 0 2 / 0 3 , B A A 0 3 * « T H E F O L L O W I N G A R E R E L A T E D TO T H E T E S T FOR NUMBER UF C H A I R S U S E D 0 1 B V A K I A B L E S E t A S I S T * O t C H A I R • L ' 2 0 2 B V A R I A B I E S E * H Y G E N * O t C H A I R ' L • 2 1 5 1 6 17 18 19 2 0 TT 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 31 3 2 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 " 4 9 5 0 TV 52 53 ' 5 4 55 5 6 0 3 B V A R I A B L E S E t O A N N Y * 0 t C H A I f : 1 L ' 2 5 7 58 5 9 * T H E F O L L O W I N G 5 F V A R I A B L E S A R E FOR T H E NORMAL D I S T R I B U T I O N * O F I N T E R - A R R I V A L 0 1 F V A R I A B L E 0 2 F V A R I A B L E T I M E S . 0 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 * F N t N 0 R M + 1 / 2 0 0 1 4 . 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 * F N * N U R M + 1 / 2 6 0 6 1 6 2 J > 0 3 0 4 0 5 F V A R I A B L E F V A R I A B L E F V A R I A B L E 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 * F N t N O R M * 1 / 2 0 0 4 5 . 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 * F N t N O R M * 1 / 2 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 3 . C O O * F N * N 0 R M + 1 / 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 *' * T H E « T H I S F O L L O W I N G 0 3 F U N C T I O N S A R E FOR T H E P R O C E S S O R A O V A N C E B L O C K S I S THE A D V A N C E F U N C T I O N FOR P R O C E S S O R A S I S T 6 6 6 7 6 8 P R O C l F U N C T I O N P 3 . D C 5 0 2 , 0 1 / 0 6 , 0 2 / 0 7 , 0 2 / 1 3 , 0 1 / 1 7 , 0 2 * T H I S I S THE A D V A N C E F U N C T I O N F O P P R O C E S S O R H Y & E N 6 9 7 0 71 _ P C 0 C 2 F U N C T I O N P 3 . D 0 4 0 3 , 0 2 / 0 5 , 0 3 / 1 6 , 0 3 / 2 0 , 0 3 * T H I S I S THE A D V A N C E F U N C T I O N FOR P R O C E S S O R DANNY 7 2 7 3 7 4 P R 0 0 3 F U N C T I O N P 3 . D 1 3 0 1 , 0 1 / 0 4 , 0 2 / 0 8 , 0 4 / 0 9 , 0 4 / 1 0 , 0 5 / 1 1 , 0 1 / 1 2 , 0 1 / 1 4 , 0 4 / 1 5 , 0 2 / 1 8 , 0 3 1 9 , 0 2 / 2 1 , 0 4 / 2 2 , 0 3 75 7 6 77 * * T H E S E M A T R I X AND I N I T I A L S T A T E M E N T S A P E U S E D FOR R O U T I N G T H E C U S T O M E R S . 1 M A T R I X H , 2 3 , 2 3 7 8 79 8 0 2 3 4 M A T R I X M A T R I X M A T R I X H . 2 3 , 2 3 H . 2 3 , 2 3 H , 2 3 , 2 3 81 82 8 3 • ~ 5 M A T R I X ~ ~ I N I T I A L I N I T I A L H , 2 3 , 2 3 M H l ( 0 1 , 0 1 1 , 0 1 / M H 2 I 0 1 , 0 1 1 , 0 2 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 1 1 , 0 0 M H 2 ( 0 2 , 0 1 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 1 ) , 0 2 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 1 1 , 0 1 8 4 8 5 8 6 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 2 , O l ) , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , O l ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 1 ) , 0 3 M H 5 I 0 2 . 0 1 ) • 1 7 M H l ( 0 1 , 0 2 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 2 1 , 0 3 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 2 1 , 0 0 8 7 88 8 9 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 2 ( C 2 , 0 2 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 2 ) , C 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 2 ) , 0 1 M H 3 I 0 2 . 0 2 1 , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 Z ) , 0 2 / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 2 ) , 0 3 M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 2 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 2 ) , 0 4 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 2 ) , 17 9 0 9 1 9 2 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L MH5( 0 3 , 0 2 1, 0 2 / M H 5 ( 0 4 , 0 2 1 , 10 M H l ( 0 1 , 0 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 3 1 , 0 1 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 3 ) , 0 0 M H 2 ( 0 2 , 0 3 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 3 ) , 0 2 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 3 ) , 0 1 9 3 9 4 9 5 1 N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 3 ) , 0 5 M H l ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) . 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 0 0 MH2( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 < 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 9 6 9 7 9 8 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 6 M H K O l , 0 5 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 5 ) , 0 1 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 5 ) , 0 0 M H 2 ( 0 2 , 0 5 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 5 1 , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 5 1 , 0 1 9 9 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 2 1 0 3 1 0 4 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 6 l , 0 5 ) , 0 8 M H U O l , 0 6 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 6 ) , 0 3 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 6 ) , 0 0 M H 2 1 0 2 , 0 6 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 6 I , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 6 1 , 0 1 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 t > , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 6 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 I 0 3 , 0 6 ) , 0 3 M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 6 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 I 0 1 , C 6 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 6 1 , 0 2 M H 5 ( 0 3 , 0 6 ) , 0 9 1 0 5 1 0 6 1 0 7 " " 1 0 8 " " 1 0 9 1 1 0 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H K O l , 0 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 7 ) , 0 3 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 7 ) , 0 0 M H 2 ( 0 2 , 0 7 1 , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 7 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 I 0 1 , 0 7 ) , 0 1 M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 7 1 , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 7 ) , 0 3 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 7 ) , 0 l / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 7 ) , C 1 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 7 ) , 0 2 M H 5 ( 0 3 , 0 7 ) , 1 0 M H l ( 0 1 , 0 8 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 8 ) , 0 3 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 8 ) , 0 0 111 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 5 1 1 6 * I N I T I A L I N I T I A L I N I T I A L M H 2 ( C 2 , O e ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 8 1 , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 8 I , 0 1 MH3< 0 2 , 0 8 ) , 0 1 / M H 4 < 0 2 , 0 8 ) , 0 2 / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 8 ) , 0 3 N,H4( 0 3 , 0 8 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 8 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 I 0 2 , 0 8 ) , 02 J o f INITIAL M - i _ l 0 3 , 0 8 ) , l 3 / M H 5 ( 0 4 , 0 b > , 11 117 I N I T I A L M H H 0 1 , 0 9 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 . 0 9 1 , 0 3 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 9 1 ,00 1 1 8 I N I T I A L M H 2 I 0 2 , 0 9 1 , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 9 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 9 ) , 0 1 1 1 9 _ " " I . M T I A l " ' fcH3'(C2,09) , 0 l 7 M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 9 ) ,01/MH3 1 0 3 , 0 9 ) , 0 3 1 2 0 I N I T I A L ^ ^ H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 S > , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 9 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 9 J , 0 2 1 2 1 I N I T I A L M H 5 I 0 3 . 0 9 ) , 1 2 1 2 2 < > I N I T I A L MH1 ( 01,10) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 ,10) , 0 3 / M H l I 0 2 , 1 0 1 , 0 0 1 2 3 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , 1 D ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 1 0 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 1 0 ) , 0 1 1 2 4 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 2 , 1 0 > , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 1 0 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 1 0 ) , 0 3 1 2 5 " I N I T I A L M H 4 ( 0 3 , 1 C ) , 0 J » / MH5 ( 0 1 ' , 1 0 ) , 0 1 7 MH5 10 2 , 1 0 ) , 0 2 1 2 6 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 3 , 1 0 1 , 2 2 1 2 7 I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 1 , 1 1 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 1 1 ) , 0 1 / M H 1 I 0 2 , 1 1 ) , 0 0 1 2 8 I N I T I A L MH2< 0 2 , 1 1 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 1 1 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 1 1 ) , 0 1 1 2 9 I N I T I A L M H 5 1 0 1 . 1 1 I , 1 4 1 3 0 I N I T I A L M H H 0 1 , 1 2 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 1 2 ) , 0 1 / M H K O Z , 1 2 1 , 0 0 1 3 1 • ~ - I N I T I A L MH2 ( 0 2 T T 2 ) 0 0 7 M H 3 ( O T , 1 2 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 1 2 ) ,01 1 3 2 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 1 2 ) , 1 5 1 3 3 I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 1 , 1 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 1 3 I , 0 1 / M H 1 ( 0 2 , 1 3 ) , 0 0 1 3 4 INI TIAL M H 2 1 0 2 , 1 3 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 1 3 ) , 0 2 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 1 3 ) , 0 2 1 3 5 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 1 3 ) , 0 3 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 1 3 ) , 0 5 1 3 6 I N I T I A L M H 1 1 0 1 , 1 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 1 4 ) , 0 4 / M H l ( 0 2 , 1 4 1 , 0 0 1 3 7 " I N I T I A L f H 2 ( 0 2 , 1 4 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 1 4 ) , C 2 / M H 4 < 0 1 , 1 4 ) , 0 1 1 3 8 I N I T I A L M H 3 I 0 2 , 1 4 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 1 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 1 4 1 , 0 1 1 3 9 I N I T I A L M H 4 I 0 3 , 1 4 1 , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 4 , 1 4 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 4 , 1 4 ) , 0 1 1 4 0 I N I T I A L M H S < 0 1 , 1 4 ) . 0 3 / M H 5 1 0 2 , 1 4 ) . 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 3 , 1 4 ) , 0 2 1 4 1 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 4 , 1 4 I , 1 0 1 4 2 I N I T I A L M H K 0 1 . 1 5 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 1 5 ) , 0 1 / M H 1 ( 0 2 , 1 5 ) , 0 0 1 4 3 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , 1 5 i , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 1 5 ) , 0 2 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 1 5 ) , 0 2 1 4 4 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 1 5 ) , 0 5 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 1 5 ) , 1 6 1 4 5 I N I T I A L M H H 0 1 , 1 6 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 1 6 1 , 0 1 / M H l ( 0 2 , 1 6 ) , 0 0 1 4 6 INITIAL M H 2 ( 0 2 , 1 6 ) . 0 0 / M H 3 1 O 1 , 1 6 ) , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 1 6 ) , 0 1 1 4 7 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 1 6 ) , 1 7 1 4 8 I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 1 , 1 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 1 7 ) , 0 3 / M H l ( 0 2 , 1 7 ) , 0 0 1 4 9 ' ~ _ I N I T I A L M H 2 I 0 2 , 1 7 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 1 7 1 , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 1 7 1 , C 1 150" I N I T I A L M H 3 1 0 2 , 1 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 1 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 1 7 ) , 0 3 1 5 1 I N I T I A L M H 4 I 0 3 , 1 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 1 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 1 7 ) , 0 2 1 5 2 INITIAL M H 5 1 0 3 , 1 7 ) , 1 8 1 5 3 I N I T I A L MHH 0 1 , 1 8 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 1 8 ) , 0 3 / M H l ( 0 2 , 1 8 ) , 0 0 1 5 4 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , 1 8 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 1 8 ) , 0 2 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 1 8 ) , 0 1 1 5 5 " I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 2 , 1 8 ) , 0 3 / M . H 4 ( 0 2 , 1 8 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 1 0 3 , 1 8 ) , 0 1 1 5 6 I N I T I A L M H 4 1 0 3 , 1 8 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 1 8 ) . 0 5 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 1 8 ) , 1 9 1 5 7 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 3 , 1 8 ) , 1 7 1 5 8 I N I T I A L M H H 0 1 , 1 9 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 1 9 ) , 0 4 / M H l ( 0 2 , 1 9 ) , 0 0 1 5 9 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , 1 9 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 1 9 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 1 9 ) , 0 1 1 6 0 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 2 , 1 9 I , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 1 9 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 1 91 , 0 3 1 6 1 " " " I N I T I A L M H 4 T 0 3 , 1 9 ) , 0 1 7 M H 3 ( 0 4 , 1 9 ) , 0 2 / M H 4 ( 0 4 , 1 9 ) , 0 1 1 6 2 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 1 9 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 1 9 ) , 0 2 / M H 5 ( 0 3 , 1 9 ) , 1 0 1 6 3 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 4 , 1 9 ) , 1 6 1 6 4 I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 1 , 2 0 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 2 0 ) , 0 1 / M H l ( 0 2 , 2 0 ) , 0 0 1 6 5 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , 2 C ) , 0 0 / M H 3 1 0 1 , 2 0 1 ,02 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 20 1 . 0 1 1 6 6 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 2 0 ) , 2 0 1 6 7 I N I T I A L H H K 0 1 , 2 1 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 2 l ) , 0 1 / M H l ( 0 2 , 2 1 > , 0 0 1 6 8 I N I T I A L M H 2 I 0 2 , 2 1 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 2 1 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 I 0 1 , 2 1 ) . 0 1 1 6 9 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 2 1 ) , 2 1 1 7 0 I N I T I A L K H l ( 0 1 , 2 2 ) . 0 1 / M H 2 I 0 1 , 2 2 ) , 0 1 / M H l ( 0 2 ,2 2 ) .00 1 7 1 I N I T I A L M H 2 I 0 2 , 2 2 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 2 2 ) , 0 2 / M H 4 I 0 1 , 2 2 ) , 0 1 1 7 2 I N I T I A L M H 5 I 0 1 , 2 2 ) , 1 6 1 7 3 I N I T I A L r ' H l ( 0 1 , 2 3 ) , O l 7 M H 2 ( 0 1 , 2 3 ) , 0 4 / M H l (02 , 2 3 1 ,00 1 7 4 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , 2 3 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 2 3 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 1 , 2 3 ) , 0 1 1 7 5 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 2 , 2 3 ) . 0 1 / M H 4 I 0 2 , 2 3 ) . 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 3 , 2 3 1 , 0 3 1 7 6 LO f I h l T I A L M H 4 ( 0 3 , 2 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 4 , 2 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 4 I 0 4 , 2 3 ) , 0 1 1 7 7 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 1 , 2 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 2 J ) , 0 2 / M H 5 ( 0 3 , 2 3 ) , 1 0 1 7 8 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 4 , 2 3 I , 0 6 1 7 9 1 8 0 1 8 1 * C U S T O M E R C U S C 1 H A S C O N S T A N T I N T E R - A R P I V A L T I M E 1 8 2 1 U L N t K A I L V02,,,,00 1 8 3 2 S A V E V A L U E C O U N l - , 1 1 8 4 3 T E S T E X * C O U M , 0 , O U T 1 8 5 4 A S S I G N 5 , F N * C U S 0 1 1 8 6 5 S A V E V A L U E C O U N 1 , F N $ T IME^l 1 8 7 6 T R A N S F E R . 0 4 , , O U T 1 8 8 7 T R A N S F E R . 2 8 7 , , T E A M R 1 8 9 8 S P L I T 1 , T E A M R 1 9 0 9 A S S I G N 5 , F N $ C U S 0 2 1 9 1 10 ~ '"" " T R A H S F E F TEAMR" ' - ' - " — " ~ " 1 9 2 * 1 9 3 * T H E F O L L O W I N G I S THE T R A N S A C T I O N P O U T I N G B L O C K 1 9 4 1 1 T E A M R O U E U E WHOLE 1 9 5 12 A S S I G N 1 2 , V $ C U E C 0 1 9 6 13 O U E U E P 1 2 1 9 7 ' 1 4 TEAMS A S S I G N " ~6 + , l ~ " " 1 9 8 1 5 A S S I G N 1 , M H 1 ( P 6 , P 5 I 1 9 9 1 6 A S S I G N 8 , M H 2 ( P 6 . P 5 I 2 0 0 1 I T R A N S F E R , F N $ T EAM 2 0 1 * 2 0 2 * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E FOR T E A M D E N T L 2 0 3 1 8 T E A A A O U E U E D E N T L " " " " " 2 0 4 1 9 T E B A A A S S I G N 7 + , l 2 0 5 2 0 A S S I G N 2 , M H 3 ( P 7 , P 5 ) 2 0 6 2 1 A S S I G N 9 . M H 4 I P 7 , P5> 2 0 7 2 2 T E S T E P 7 , 1 , F N S T T T A A 2 0 8 2 3 T E S T E B V * 2 . 1 2 0 9 2 4 O U E U E C H A I R 2 5 T R A N S F E R , F N $ T T T A A 2 1 1 * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E FOR P R O C E S S O R A S I S T ON T E A M D E N T L 2 1 2 2 6 B A A 0 1 O U E U E A S I S T 2 1 3 2 7 E N T E R A S I S T 2 1 4 2 8 D E P A R T A S I S T 2 1 5 2 9 C A A 0 1 A S S I G N 1 0 » , 1 . . . . . . . . 2 1 6 3 0 A S S I G N 3 , M H 5 ( P 1 0 , P 5 ) 2 1 7 3 1 A S S I G N l l . F N S P R O O l 2 1 8 32 A D V A N C E V * l l 2 1 9 3 3 L O O P 9 , C A A 0 1 2 2 0 3 4 L E A V E A S I S T 2 2 1 3 5 T R A N S F E R " , T E C A A " " - " " " — - 2 2 2 * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E FOR P R O C E S S O R H Y G E N ON T E A M D E N T L 2 2 3 3 6 B A A 0 2 O U E U E H Y G E N 2 2 4 3 1 E N T E R H Y G E N 2 2 5 3 8 D E P A R T H Y G E N 2 2 6 3 9 C A A 0 2 A S S I G N 10 + , 1 2 2 7 4 0 " A S S I G N " 3 , M H 5 ( P i O , P 5 1 ' " " " 2 2 8 4 1 A S S I G N l l , F N t P R 0 0 2 2 2 9 4 2 A O V A N C E V * l l 2 3 0 4 3 L O O P 9 . C A A 0 2 2 3 1 4 4 L E A V E H Y G E N 2 3 2 4 5 T R A N S F E R , T E C A A 2 3 3 * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E F O R P R O C E S S O R DANNY OM T E A M D E N T L 2 3 4 4 6 B A A 0 3 O U E U E D A N N Y 2 3 5 4 7 E N T E R DANNY 2 3 6 J o 4 8 4 9 5 0 51 52 53 " 5 T T 5 5 5 6 57 5 8 59 6 0 6 1 ~62 ~ 6 3 ~ 6 4 6 5 6 7 6 8 6 9 7 0 71 D E P A R T C A A 0 3 A S S I G N A S S I G N A S S I G N A D V A N C E L L O P DANNY 1 0 * . 1 3 , M H 5 ( P 1 0 , P 5 I 2 3 7 2 3 8 2 3 9 1 1 , F N $ P R C 0 3 V * l l 9 , C A A 0 3 2 4 0 2 4 1 2 4 2 L E A V E DANNY T R A N S F E R , T E C A A T E C A A L O O P 8 , T E B A A D E P A P T C H A I R D E P A R T D E N T L T R A N S F E R , T E A M S T E A O O D E P A R T D E P A R T P 1 2 WHOLE T E R M I N A T E * T H I S S E G M E N T T E S T S S E R V I C E L E V E L AND A D J U S T S S E R V I C E C A P A C I T Y AS R E Q U I R E D G E N E R A T E 3 0 0 , , , , 9 9 D O N E E V E R Y 5 M I N U T E S S A V E V A L U E C O U N T * , 1 OUT T E R M I N A T E _ _ _ _ . T H E F O L L O W I N G S E C T I O N C O N T R O L S D U R A T I O N UF R U N G E N E R A T E ~ 2 4 3 2 4 4 2 4 5 2 4 6 2 4 7 2 4 8 2 4 9 2 5 0 2 5 1 2 5 2 2 5 3 2 5 4 2 5 5 2 5 6 2 5 7 2 5 8 2 5 9 2 6 0 A S S I G N SUMRY T R A N S F E R 0 0 4 5 0 , , , , 9 8 1 , 4 0 , E N D IT L C O P 1 , SUMRY E N D I T S A V E V A L U E C O U N T , 0 T E R M I N A T E 1 S T A R T 2 6 1 2 6 2 2 6 3 2 6 4 2 6 5 2 6 6 R E S E T T B 1 - T B 3 0 , Q I - Q 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 C S T A R T 1 R E S E T T B 1 - T B 3 0 , Q 1 - 0 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 P S T A R T 1 R E S E T T B 1 - T B 3 0 , Q 1 - Q 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 0 S T A R T R E S E T S T A R T R E S E T S T A R T R E S E T S T A R T R E S E T S T A R T P E S E T S T A R T R E S E T 5 T APT R E S E T S T A R T R E S E T " S T A R T R E S E T 1 T B 1 - T B 3 0 , 0 1 - Q 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 0 1 T U 1 - T B 3 C C 1 - Q 5 0 , S l - S 3 0 T B 1 - T B 3 0 , Q 1 - Q 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 0 1 T B 1 - T B 3 0 . 0 1 - 0 5 0 , S l - S 3 0 1 T B 1 - T 6 3 0 V 0 1 - 0 5 0 , S l - S 3 0 1 T B 1 - T 6 3 0 , Q 1 - Q 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 0 ~I T B 1 - T B 3 0 , Q 1 - Q 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 0 1 •T B l - T R 3 0 , Q l - 0 5 0 , S l - S 3 0 1 T B 1 - T B 3 0 . Q 1 - Q 5 0 . S 1 - S 3 0 2 6 7 ^ 2 6 8 2 6 9 2 7 0 2 7 1 2 7 2 2 7 3 2 7 4 2 7 5 2 7 6 2 7 7 2 7 8 2 7 9 2 8 0 2 8 1 2 8 2 2 8 3 2 8 4 " T 5 T " 2 8 6 2 8 7 2 8 8 2 8 9 2 9 0 S T APT I ~ R E S E T T B 1 - T B 3 0 . Q 1 - Q 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 C S T A R T 1 RE Sn T B 1 - T 6 3 0 , 0 1 - 0 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 0 S T A R T 1 R E S E T T B 1 - T B 3 0 , 0 1 - 0 5 0 , S 1 - S 3 0 2 9 1 2 9 2 2 9 3 2 9 4 2 9 5 2 9 6 Co o ""63 SUMKY S A V E V A L U E P 1 , V t R I V I D , H M U L T I P L E D E F I N I T I O N L'F S Y M B O L IN A B O V E S T A T E M E N T S T A R T 1 PC "PORT E J E C T T A B T I T L E , * « * * * * « U T I L I Z A T I O N OF M O N I T O R E D P R O C E S S O R S * * * * * * * 2 9 7 2 9 8 ' ' '299 3 0 0 3 0 1 SP-ATE 3 S P A C E 3 S T O T I T L E , * * * * * * * * * P R O C E S S O R U T I L I Z A T I O N S T A T I S T I C S * * * * * * * * * S P A C E 3 ' , S P A C E 3 O U E T I T L E , * * * * * * * * * * C O M P L E T E O U E U E S T A T I S T I C S * * * * * * * * * * 3 0 2 3 0 3 3 0 4 3 0 5 3 0 6 3 0 7 STATE 3 S P A C E 3 F S V T I T L E t * * * * * * * * * * P A R A M E T E R V A L U E S * * * * * * * * * * S P A T E 3 S P A C E 3 C L O T I T L E , * * * * * * * * * * E L A P S E D T I M E * * * * * * * * * * 3 0 8 3 0 9 3 1 0 " 3 1 1 3 1 2 3 1 3 B L O S P A C E T I T L E E J E C T ""END' , * * * * * * * * * * B L O C K C O U N T S * * * * * * * * * * 3 1 4 3 1 5 3 1 6 3 1 7 O * * * * * * * U I I L I Z A I U I N Ot- M O N I T O R E D P R O C E S S O R S * » « * * « « o * * * * * * * * * P R O C E S S O R U T I L I Z A T I O N S T A T I S T I C S * * * * * * * * * S T O R A G E C A P A C 1 T Y A V E R A G E C O N T E N T S E N T R I E S AS1 SI H Y G E N D A N N Y . 1 3 1 . 5 1 3 . 8 9 6 8 1 6 - A V E R A G E U T I L I Z A T I O N D U P I N G -A V E R A G E T U T A L A V A I L . 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C U R R E N T T I M E / U N I T T I M E T I M E T I M E S T A T U S . 1 3 1 P E R C E N T A V A I L A B I L I T Y C U R R E N T C O N T E N T S M A X I M U M C O N T E N T S 8 . 4 2 9 2 8 . 8 7 5 2 5 . 1 8 7 . 5 1 3 . 8 9 5 1 O O . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 * * * * * * * * * * C C M P I E T E O U f U E S T A T I S T I C S * * * * * * " * * * * U U b U E C H A I R WHOLE D E N T L A S I S T H Y G E N DANNY 2 0 1 2 3 2 2 0 3 20 5 M A X I M U M C O N T E N T S 2 — A V E k A U f c C O N T E N T S 1 . 6 1 9 2 . 9 5 9 2 . 9 5 9 . 0 0 0 T U T A L E N T R I E S 1 8 Z E R O E N T R I E S 2 1 2 1 7 . 0 0 0 . 0 7 9 . 0 6 4 . 1 7 1 . 3 0 2 . 1 8 8 16 1 7 8 14 P f c R L b N I Z E R O S . 0 ".o . 0 1 0 0 . 0 A V E R A G E T I M E / T R A N S 4 0 . 5 0 0 " 6 3 7 4 2 8 6 3 . 4 2 8 . 0 0 0 i A V b K A U b T I M E / T R A N S 4 0 . 5 0 0 6 3 . 4 2 8 6 3 . 4 2 6 . 0 0 0 T A B L E NUMBER C U R R E N T C O N T E N T S 2 " " 5 5 1 0 0 . 0 8 7 . 5 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 5 0 2 9 . 0 0 0 7 7 7 0 0 0 4 5 . 3 3 3 8 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 8 . 0 0 0 2 9 . 0 0 0 7 7 . 0 0 0 4 5 . 3 3 3 8 5 . 0 0 0 2 0 6 2 0 7 2 1 0 21 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 . 4 4 8 . 8 2 2 . 0 4 6 . 1 5 7 . 3 5 1 . 2 7 9 . 0 6 2 " T 0 ~ . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 1 0 1 . 0 0 0 9 2 . 5 0 0 2 1 . 0 0 0 7 1 . 0 0 0 7 9 . 0 0 0 4 2 . 0 0 0 10 1 . 0 0 0 9 2 . 5 0 0 2 1 . 0 0 0 7 1 . 0 0 0 7 9 . 0 0 0 4 2 . 0 0 0 1 7 0 5 2 1 7T5 2 8 . 0 0 0 2 2 2 1 - 0 6 4 1 . 0 2 9 . 0 0 0 t A V E R A G E T I M E / T R A N S = A V E R A G E T I M E / T R A N S E X C L U D I N G Z E R O E N T R I E S 2 8 . 0 0 0 2 9 . 0 0 0 APPENDIX C Contents 1) Stage 1 and stage 2 questionnaires for the hematology laboratory model. 2) SIMQ generated program for this model. 3) Simulation output. Note: 1) Because this model was constructed using the stochastic version of SIMQ, the tasks required portion of the customer information subset and a l l of the task sequencing subset have been omitted. They have been replaced by a series of network definition cards following the customer information questionnaire subset. 143 STAGE 1 QUESTIONNAIRE Column (1-2) Number of Teams (3-4) Number of Processor Types (5-6) Number of tasks (7-8) Number of Customer Types O i l i i D l f S l 1 1 3 | D h Column (1-5) Team Names (6-10) Processor Names |H|E|M|ftmiP|Tl6|CiHi i E i e i > j | c | v \ R i n e i c i H |C|L|E|R|kl [C|Q|m^|P (11-15) Task Names I l K l l l l T l L l P l U D l l l L l PH.|ft|A|d| T>[L|AlUrTi|H.ieiGloig (16-20) Customer Names RieiGioiv R,ltlQ|Ol»| R | L | & | o | ? | o O o e 1 C o . o 11 o o o o o o © © — THIS' 15 THE sfecdlJo Oh IHHEE STAGES, AT THIS POINT » E ARE INTERESTED |N THE FINER DETAILS UF THE SYSTEM YOU WISH TO SIMULATE. EACH QUESTIONNAIRE IS _ _ „ DESCRIBED IN SOME DETAIL AT THE TOP OF EACH SECTION. IF THE EXP LAN A T ION GIVEN < FOR EACH LINE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE MUST BE E N T E R J E O E V E N IF THAT C A R D IS BLANK. A TALLY OF CARDS REQUESTED IS GIVEN ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE QUEST IUNNAIRE. THE FIRST 14 C A R D S t N T H E DECK W I L L B E T H E C A R D S U S E D TO G E N E R A T E T H I S Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S E T . P L E A S E M A K E C E R T A I N A L L R E Q U E S T E D C A R D S A R E P R E S E N T AND IN O R D E R . THE FOLLOWING 1 SETS OF QUESTIONNAIRES ARE TO INFORM THE SYSTEM OF THE MAKE-JP OF EACH TEAM. IF YOU WANT PROCESSOR CAPACITY TO BE VARIED FILL IN COLUMNS 3 - 8 . NOTE THAT EACH PROCESSOR MAY B£ MONITORED ON I TEAM ONLY AND THAT THE NUMBER AVAILABLE TO ANY TEAM OF A PARTICULAR PROCESSOR MUST BE THE SAME FUR ALL TEAMS SHARING THIS PROCESSOR. PLEASE ENTER ALL CARDS REQUESTED AS A BLANK CARD WILL INDICATE TO THE "TYSTEM'THAI THE CORRESPONDING PROCESSOR IS NOT AVAILABLE TO THAT TEAM. h -4 ^ * * * TEAM STRUCTURE QUESTIONNAIRE: HEMAT # 1 * * » *^*************^ •**•***»•*«**«*** ************** • COLUMN ( 1 - 2 1 ( 3 - 4 ) ( 5 - 6 ) ( 7 - 8 ) PROCESSOR NUMBERMINIMUM MINIMUM MAXIMUM CARO 1 5 PTECH AVAILABLE Dii C 4 P A C ITY I_I_I QUEUE l-l-l QUEUE l_l_l 16 BENCH 98. no. l_l_l 1 r» l-l-l 17 18 C TECH MICRO (Jo o.t UJi l-l-l ilivi i_i_i i_t_r 19 2 d RTECH CLERK Qj. l-l-l l-l-l i i i i_i-i i I i © 9 :.o. o o c c o u .•I-l * * '* ' ' P R O C E S S O R - T A S K Q U E S T I O N N A I R E : PTECI I *_ T H g NS>Y 6 Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S A R E T O I M F O * M THE S Y S T E M OF T H E R A T E AT WHICH E A C H P R O C E S S O R CAM P E R F O R M E A C H T A S K AND WHERE T H E T A S K S W I L L B E P E R F O R M E D . 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I.I 1 I J 7 4 P L D l L 7 5 P L M I C U J U . I J U J 1 1 1 I-I-I I.I-I 1 1 l_ l_ l L L L I J . L . J J 1 1 1 1 I.I I J J I l l 7 6 P L M A N l_ l_ l ? L I . L L I . I J J J I-I-I 1 I.I I-I-I I J J 11 P L A U Y 7 8 C O U S P I J J 1 L U J . l I I I 1 I J J I-I-I I-I I J J . L L L L I . I - L L I L L L L I . L L L I I I I 7 9 C O U L T L U L L L L I . L L L I L I I J J . L I 1 1 L U 8(5 C 0 W 8 C 8 1 D I F F . I J J 1 1 L L I . L I I J i - t - i - l l . l - l - l - l U J L L L L I . 1 L L I L I L L I - L L L I I-I-I 8 2 M O R P H L U 1 1 L I I.I 1 L I L L I L I . L I 1 1 L U 8 3 P L « T 8 4 R E T I C L L I L L L L I . i - i - i - i L L L I . M . I . U - Oil L t o O O . D Q O i . i . A 5 . e a o I I I 8 5 U P D A T L L . ... . . . . — ' O o o o o L' 1" * * * P R O C E S S O R - T A S K Q U E S T I U N N A I RE : C L E R K * > — « . " *"~ "" ~ ~ ~ ' 0 1 : C O N S T A N T S F R V T f . F T T MF - F N T F R MF A w — — — . J 02: UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION ENTER MEAN AND 1/2 SPREAD 03: NORMAL DISTRIBUTION - ENTER MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION 04: EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION ENTER MEAN 05-99: USER SUPPLIED FUNCTION- MUST BE SELF CONTAINED PROCESSOR : CLERK coL<i-2i (3-101 (11-18) (19-201 CARD TASK DISTRIBUTION " MEAN DISPERSION TEAM 86 INITL 01 I-I6(5DI.OIOO i_i_£i_i.i9_ia L L , 8 f PLDIL 1 1 t l_ l _ l _ l _ l . I . l - I - I I_I_I_I_I.I_I.LI L L I ' 88 PLMIC l_l_l 1 l _ l _ l _ l _ l . l _ l . l _ l L L L L I . L L L I .1.1-1 PLMAN l-l-l l_l_l_l_l.1-1-1-1 L L . 90 PLAUT l _ l _ l _ l _ l . I - I - I 1 L L L L I . L L L I L l . l 91 COUSP L L L L I . L I l_l L L L L I . L L L I I I I 92 COULT l-l-l ..... 93 COWBC l-l-l l . l - l I-l L L L L I . L L L I L L I 94 DIFF. l-l-l I-l l-l-l.1 I-l 1 L L L L I . L L L I I I I 95 MORPH l-l-l l.l-l.I-l.1-1-1.1 L L L L I . L L L I ..... 96 PLEST l - l - l l - l - l 1 I.I I -I .I L L L L I . L L L I L L I 97 RE TI C l-l-l i L L L I . L L I i L L L L I . L L L I I I I 98 UP DAT Q _ i I.I^OO.lQrOlQl LI-_.._r..l9Q_. l. l - l cn ************************************************ * V * C U S T O M E R I N F O R M A l l UfJ QUE S T ! UNNA 1 R F_ * * * ********************************** ************#s T H I S Q U E S T I O N N A I R E I N F O R M S T H E S Y S T E M A S TO THE A R R I V A L O I S I R I B U T I O N OF E A C H OF T H E C U S T O M E R T Y P E S AND T H E I R P R I O R I T Y L E V E L S . F O L L O W I N G T H I S E N T E R THE M A X I M U M NUMBER TO B E G E N E R A T E D IF R E L E V A N T . O T H E R W I S E L E A V E B L A N K . » * F O L L O W I N G T H I S Q U E S T I O N N A I R E , I N S E R T T H E NETWORK D E F I N I T I O N C A R D S * * 0 1 : C O N S T A N T I N T E R V A L S " . - E N T E R M E A N 0 2 : U N I F O R M D I S T R I B U T I O N 0 3 : N O R M A L D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N T E R M E A N ANO 1 / 2 S P R E A D - E N T E R M E A N AND S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N 0 * : E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N - E N t E R M E A N 0 5 - 9 9 i U S E R S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N - MUST B E S E L F C O N T A I N E O C O L U M N ( 1 - 2 ) ( 3 - 1 0 ) M E A N D I S T R I B U T I O N ( 1 1 - 1 8 ) DI S P E R S I O N ( 1 9 - 2 0 ) ( 2 1 - 2 4 ) P R I O R I T Y L I M I T C A R D C U S T O M E R ~ ~ 9 9 R E Q 0 1 M :._A.2i..5ci9 1 0 0 R E Q 0 2 1 0 1 R E Q 0 3 i Li~rY'r,i. i> \L\L6\l.QQQ\ 1 0 2 R E Q 0 4 1 0 3 R E Q 0 5 1 0 4 R E Q 0 6 Qti 1 0 5 R E Q 0 7 1 2 3 <J 5 6 010601.0 060701.0 070801,0 083300,ft 080600,2 331301.0 7 8 9 10 11 12 00 010601,0 060701,0 070801,0 080600,2 nftngpo a 1 3 l a 15 1 6 1 7 4 _ 091301,0 00 010601,0 060701 ,0 070801 ,0 080600.2 C \ c c c. \ 19 2 0 2 1 22 2 3 _2JL 081000,8 101301 ,0 00 010601.0 060701 ,0 070ftni_n 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 JO 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 080600,2 080900,8 091001,0 101301,0 00 010601,0 Network D e f i n i t i o n 060701.0 070801,0 080600.2 081200,8 121301,0 00 C a r d s 37 38 39 ao JL2_ 010601,0 060701 .0 070801.0 080600,2 080900,8 091101 .0 «3 au 06 a7 _08_ 111301.0 00 .01Q20Q,.l. 010300,7 o2oaoi,0 030501 ,0 a9 50 51 52 53 -5_L 5 5 5 6 57 5 8 END OF F I L E 003201,0 053201,0 320601.0 060701 ,0 070801,0 080600,? 080900,8 091301,0 00 101000 * * * * * * * * * * : * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ' S I M U L A T I O N O U R A T I U N J U F ST I ONNA I R E * _ *********************************** ****** ******* F O R C O N T R O L L I N G T H E D U R A T I O N O F T HE S I M U L A T I O N T H E R E A R E TWO B A S I C UP TI ON S . O P T I O N 1 W I L L S T O P THE S I M U L A T I O N A F T E R A S P E C I F I E D NUMBER O F C U S T O M E R S H A V E  P A S S E D T H R O U G H T H E S Y S T E M . O P T I O N 2 W I L L S T O P T H E S I M U L A T I O N AF TEi< A S P E C I F I E D P E R I O D OF T I M E H A S E L A P S E D . I N D I C A T E T H E NUMBER OF R E P L I C A T I O N S O E S I R E D IN C O L U M N S 7 C O L U M N I 1 I 1 2 - 6 1 ( 7 - 8 )  MAXIMUM NUMBER O F NUMBER OF C A R D O P T I O N C U S T O M E R S / T I M E U N I T S R E P L I C A T I O N S 1 0 6 111 CUSOT" rUNCIIUN • " O ^ L Y ' O N E ^ U T E ' F O I - LOOP 6 1 THEREFORE NO FUNCTION R E Q U I R E D . 34 « ONLY ONE ROUT, FUR LOOP 62 THEREFORE NO FUNCTION REQU IK L-U. * ONLY ONE ROUTE FOR LOOP 63 THEREFORE NU FUNCTION R E Q U I R E D . « ONLY ONF ROUTE FOR LOOP 64 THEREFORE NO FUNCTION R E Q U I R E D . _ _ . 35 36 37 *-TmiT^TgT/^ c5UT"F FOR LOOP 6 5 THEREFORE NO FUNCT ION R E Q U I R E D . * ONLY ONE ROUTE FUR LOOP 6 6 THEREFORE NO FUNCT ION R E Q U I R E D . + nMlY ONF pnilTF FOP I O O » h7 THFRFFHRF NU FUNCT ION R E Q U I R E D . 38 39 43 * * EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION cvph FUNCTION RNltC24 -41 42 43 C A r U r U H - 1 l u l l i x i , _. j _ «_ ^ , r - — - - ~ — ; X— .7j,d.TTITri077T2T-T22/:3 , . 3 5 5 / . 4 , . 5 0 . 7 5 , 1 . 3 8 / . 8, 1. 6 / . 8 4 , 1 . 8 3 / . 8 8 , 2. 1 2 / . 9 , 2 . 3 / . 9 2 , 2 . 5 2 / . 9 4 , 2 . 8 1 95 ,2 9 9 / . 9 6 , 3 . 2 / . 9 7 , 3 . 5 / . 9 8 , 3 . 9 / . 9 9 , 4 . 6 / . 9 9 5 , 5 . 3 / . 9 9 8 , 6 . 2 _ 44 45 46 . 9 9 9 , 7 . / . 9 9 9 8 , 8 . * * N I 1 R M A I D I S T R I B U T I O N - -47 48 49 • f i ^ u < \ n ^ L — . , „.„,„ - - - "~ — ' " " ~ ~ N O RM F U NC T10 N R N I , C 2 5 . 0 , - 5 . / . 0 0 0 0 3 , - 4 . / . 0 0 I 3 5 , - 3 . / . 0 0 6 2 1 , - 2 . 5/ . 0 2 2 7 5 , - 2 . . 0 6 6 8 1 , - 1 . 5 / . 1 1 5 0 7 , - 1 . 2 / . 1 5 86 6 , - 1 . / . 2 1 1 8 6 , - . 8 / . 2 7 4 2 5 , - . 6 _ _ 50 51 52 cn o o o o o r< Q O G . •|o i \o o o c o o o o o . 3 4 4 5 8 , - . 4 / . 4 2 0 7 4 , - . 2 / . 3 , 0 . / . 57 9 26 , . 2 / . 6 5 5 42 , . 4 . 72 5 7 5 , . 6 / . 7 » 3 1 4 , . 1 ) / . 8 4 1 3 4 , 1 . / . 8 8 4 9 3 , 1 . 2 / . 9 3 3 1 9 , 1 . 5 . 9 7 ' 7 2 5 , 2 . / . 9 9 3 7 9 , 2 . 5 / . 9 9 8 6 5 _ , 3 . / . 9 9 9 9 7 , 4 . / l . _ , 5 _ * I N S E R T U S E R - S U P P L I E D F U N C T I O N S H E R E I F R E Q U I R E D * T H I S I S THE T E A M R U U T I N G F U N C T I O N  5 . 55 5 5 5 7 5 8 5 9 6 0 _ 6 1 _ 6 2 " 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6 7 6 3 6 9 7 0 7 1 7 2 7 3 T E A M F U N C T I O N P 1 . D 0 9 O O . T E A O O / O l , T E A A A / 6 1 . L 0 0 6 1 / 6 2 , L 0 0 6 2 / 6 3 , L 0 0 6 3 / 6 4 , L U 0 6 4 / 6 5 , L O 0 6 5 6 6 , L 0 0 6 6 / 6 7 . L 0 0 6 7 T H E F O L L O W I N G 1 F U N C T I O N S A R E FOR T H E R O U T I N G W I T H I N E A C H T E A M T H I S I S THE R O U T I N G F U N C T I O N Ft)R T E A M HEMAT T T T A A F U N C T I O N P 2 . D 0 6 0 1 , B A A 0 1 / 0 2 , B A A 0 2 / 0 3 , B A A 0 3 / 0 4 , 8 A A 0 4 / 0 5 , 8 A A 0 5 / 0 6 , B A A 0 6 * T H E F O L L O W I N G 7 F V A R I A B L E S A R E F U R T H E N O R M A L D I S T R I B U T I O N * O F I N T E R - A R R I V A L T I M E S . 0 1 F V A R I A B L E 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 0 * 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 * F N * N 0 R M * . 5 0 2 F V A R I A B L E 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 » F N S N O R M * . 5 0 3 0 4 0 5 F V A R I A B L E F V A P I A B L E F V A R I A B L E F V A R I A B L E 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 0 * 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 * F N $ N O R M * . 5 0 4 8 0 . 0 0 0 * 0 0 2 5 . 0 0 0 * F N $ N O R M * . 5 0 1 8 0 . 0 0 0 * 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 * F N * N O R M * . 5 " 0 6 A B L E 0 5 0 0 . 0 0 0 * 0 0 3 5 . 0 0 0 * F N $ N O R M + . 5 0 7 F V A R I A B L E 0 2 2 0 . 0 0 0 * 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 0 * F N $ N O R M * . 5 » T H E F O L L O W I N G 9 F V A R 1 A B L E S A R E F O R T H E E X P O N E N T I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N * O F I N T E R - A R R I V A L T I M E S . ~ _ " O B F V A R I A B L E 0 3 0 0 . 0 0 0 * F N tE X P O * . 5 0 9 F V A R I A B L E 2 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 » F N » E X P O * . 5 " T o " 1 1 1 2 F V A R I A B L E F V A R I A B L E F V A R I A B L E 1 3 F V A R I A B L E 1 4 F V A R I A B L E 1 5 F V A R I A B L E . F V A R I A B L E 0 2 4 9 . 0 0 0 * F N $ E X P O * . 5 0 4 1 7 . 5 0 0 * F N $ E X P 0 + . 5 7 1 0 2 . 0 0 0 » F N i E X P O * . 5 1 5 0 5 . 0 0 0 * F N » E X P O * . 5 1 1 5 8 . 0 0 0 * F N t E X P 0 * . 5 ' 5 4 6 4 . 0 0 0 » F N i E X P O * . 5 " 1 6 1 9 0 0 . 0 0 0 * F N t E X P O * . 5 * T H E F O L L O W I N G 0 6 F U N C T I O N S A R E F O R T H E P R O C E S S O R A D V A N C E B L O C K S T H I S is T H E A D V A N C E F U N C T I O N F O R P R O C E S S O R P T E C H P R O O l F U N C T I O N . P 3 . D 0 2 0 4 , 0 8 / 0 5 , 0 8 " ' ' _ _ _ T H i S T S ' T H T AbVANCTFFUNCTTON F O R PROCESSOR BENCH P R 0 0 2 F U N C T I O N P 3 , D 0 2 0 2 , 0 8 / 0 3 , 0 9 7 4 7 5 7 6 7 7 7 8 7 9 8 0 8 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7 8 8 8 9 9 3 _51 9 2 9 3 9 4 * T H I S I S T H E A D V A N C E F U N C T I O N F O R P R O C E S S O R C T E C H P R 0 0 3 F U N C T I O N P 3 , 0 0 3 0 6 , 0 1 / 0 7 , 0 2 / 0 8 , 0 3 i ~»"~THTSTS T H E " A D V A N C E F U N C T I O N F O R P R O C E S S O R M I C R O P R 0 0 4 F U N C T I O N P 3 . D 0 3 0 9 , 0 4 / 1 0 , 0 5 / 1 1 , 0 3 9 5 9 5 9 7 9 8 9 9 1 0 0 * P R O C E S S O R R T E C H R E Q U I R E S N O F U N C T I O N A S I T P E R F O R M S O N L Y 1 T A S K • T H I S I S T H E A D V A N C E F U N C T I O N F O R P R O C E S S O R C L E R K P R 0 0 6 F U N C T I O N P 3 , D 0 ' 2 0 1 , 0 7 / 1 3 , 0 7 T H E S E M A T R I X A N D I N I T I A L S T A T E M E N T S A R E U S E D F O R R U U T I N G T H E C U S T O M E R S . 1 M A T R I X H , 2 1 , 1 5 2 M A T R I X H , 2 1 , 1 5 3 M A T R I X H , 2 1 , 1 5 4 M A T R I X H . 2 1 , 15 5 M A T R I X H , 2 1 , 1 5 I N I T I A L M H l ( 0 1 , 1 0 1 1 0 2 1 0 4 1 0 5 1 0 6 1 0 7 108 1 0 9 f i n 111 112 G o . e I-: s' 1 -v IN IT I AL MH2( 0 2 , 0 1 1, OO/MH 1< 0 3 , 0 1 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 < 0 3 , 0 1 1 , 0 1 113 I N I T I A L M H H 0 4 , 0 1 l , 0 0 / M H 2 ( 0 4 . 0 l ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 1 1 , 0 6 1 1 4 I N I T I A L ' MH4( 0 1 , 0 1 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 1 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 1 ) , 0 3 115 I N I T I A L M H 3 I 0 3 . 0 1 ) , 0 6 / M H 4 I 0 3 , 0 1 1 , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 01,6 11 , 0 1 116 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 1 ) , 0 6 / M H 5 ( 0 3 , 0 1 ) , 0 7 / M H 5 ( 0 4 , 0 1 1 , 0 8 117 IN I TI AL ^ H 5 ( 0 5 , 0 l ) , 13 118 I N I T I A L MH1 (0 1 , 0 2 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 2 ) , 0 2 / M H K 0 2 , 0 2 1 , 6 2 1 1 9 < I N I T I A L M H 2 I 0 2 , 0 2 1 , 0 0 / M H l ( 0 3 , 0 2 1 , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 3 , 0 2 ) , 0 2 1 2 0 I N I T I A L " ' M H l ( 0 4 , 0 2 ) , 0 0 / M H 2 ( 0 4 , 0 2 l , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 2 ) , 0 6 " 1 2 1 I N I T I A L M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 2 1 , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 . 0 2 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 2 1 , 0 3 122 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 2 ) , 0 4 / M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 2 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 4 , 0 2 ) , 0 6 123 I N I T I A L M H 4 I 0 4 . 0 2 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 2 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 2 1 , 0 6 1 2 4 I N I T I A L M H 5 1 0 3 . 0 2 1 , 0 7 / M H 5 ( 0 4 , 0 2 1 , 0 8 / M H 5 ( 0 5 , 0 2 ) , 0 9 1 2 5 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 6 , 0 2 ) , 13 126 I N I T I A L M H l ( 0 1 , 0 3 ) , O l / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 3 ) , 0 2 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 3 1 , 6 3 127 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , 0 3 ) , 0 0 / M H l ( 0 3 , 0 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 3 , 0 3 ) , 0 2 128 I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 4 , 0 3 ) , 0 0 / M H 2 ( 0 4 , 0 3 > . 0 0 / M H 3 I O 1 , 0 3 1 , 0 6 129 I N I T I A L M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 3 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 3 ) , 0 3 133 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 3 ) , 0 4 / M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 4 , 0 3 ) , 0 6 131 I N I T I A L , MH4( 0 4 , 0 3 ) , 0 1 / M H 51 0 1 , 0 3 ) , 0 l / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 3 1 , 0 6 132 I N I T I A L ' M H 5 ( 0 3 , 0 3 ) , 0 7 / M H 5 ( 0 4 , 0 3 ) , 0 8 / M H 5 ( 0 5 , 0 3 1 . 1 0 133 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 6 , 0 3 ) , 13 1 3 4 I N I T I A L . . M H K O 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 2 / M H l ( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 6 4 135 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 0 0 / M H 1 ( 0 3 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 3 , 0 4 ) , 0 2 1 3 6 I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 4 , 0 4 1 , 0 0 / M H 2 I 0 4 , 0 4 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 6 137 I N I T I A L M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 4 ) , 0 3 1 3 8 - ".: > I N I T I A L ' ; M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 4 ) , 0 4 / M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 4 ) , 0 2 / M H 3 ( 0 4 , 0 4 ) , 0 6 1 3 9 I N I T I A L M H 4 ( 0 4 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 4 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 4 1 , 0 6 143 I N I T I A L ' M H 5 ( 0 3 , 0 4 ) , 0 7 / M H 5 ( 0 4 , 0 4 ) , 0 8 / M H 5 ( 0 5 , 0 4 ) , 0 9 1 4 1 . I N I T I A L MH5( 0 6 , 0 4 ) , 1 0 / M H 5 ( 0 7 , 0 4 ) , 1 3 142 I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 1 , 0 5 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 5 ) , 0 2 / M H 1 I 0 2 , 0 5 ) , 6 5 143 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , O 5 ) , O 0 / M H l ( 0 3 , 0 5 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 3 , 0 5 ) , 0 2 1 4 4 . I N I T I A L M H H 0 4 , 0 5 1 " , 0 0 / M H 2 I 0 4 , 0 5 ) . 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 5 ) , 0 6 145 I N I T I A L . M H 4 ( 0 1 , 0 5 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 5 ) , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 5 ( , 0 3 1 4 6 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 5 ) , 0 5 / M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 5 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 4 , 0 5 ) , 0 6 147 I N I T I A L MH4( 0 4 , 0 5 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 5 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 I 0 2 , 0 5 ) , 0 6 148 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( O 3 , O 5 ) , O 7 / M H 5 ( O 4 , O 5 ) , O 8 / M H 5 ( O 5 , 0 5 ) , 1 2 1 4 9 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 6 , 0 5 ) , 1 3 1 5 0 I N I T I A L " ' M H i I 0 1 , 0 6 I, 0 1 / M H 2( 0 1 , 0 6 1 , 0 2 / M H K 0 2 , 0 6 1 , 6 6 151 I N I T I A L M H 2 ( 0 2 , 0 6 ) , 0 0 / M H l ( 0 3 , 0 6 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 3 , 0 6 ) , 0 2 1 5 2 I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 4 , 0 6 1 , 0 0 / M H 2 I 0 4 , 0 6 ) . 0 0 / M H 3 ( 0 1 , 0 6 ) , 0 6 153 I N I T I A L M H 4 < 0 1 , 0 6 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 6 ! , 0 3 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 6 I , 0 3 1 5 4 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 6 ) , 0 4 / M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 6 ) , 0 2 / M H 3 ( 0 4 , 0 6 1 , 0 6 155 I N I T I A L M H 4 ( 0 4 , 0 6 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 6 1 , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 6 ) , 0 6 156 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 3 , 0 6 ) , 0 7 / M H 5 ( 0 4 , 0 6 ) , 0 8 / M H 5 ( 0 5 , 0 6 1 , 0 9 1 5 7 I N I T I A L M H 5 I 0 6 . 0 6 ) , 1 1 / M H 5 ( 0 7 , 0 6 ) , 13 158 I N I T I A L M H H 0 1 , 0 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 21 0 1 , 0 7 ) , 0 4 / M H H 0 2 , 0 7) , 6 7 159 I N I T I A L MH2 ( 0 2 , 0 7 ) , 0 0 / M H H 0 3 , 0 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 3 , 0 7 ) , 0 2 1 6 0 I N I T I A L MH 1 1 0 4 , 0 7 I , 0 0 / M H 2 ( 0 4 , 0 71 , 0 0 / MH3 ( 0 1 , 0 7 ) , 0 6 161 I N I T I A L MH4 ( 0 1 , 0 7 1, 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 7 ) , 0 2 / M H 4( 0 2 , 0 7 ) , 0 1 162 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 3 , 0 7 I , 0 1 / M H 4 ( 0 3 , 0 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 4 , 0 7 1 , 0 3 163 I N I T I A L MH4( 0 4 , 0 7 ) , 0 3 / M H 3 I 0 5 , 0 7 ) , 0 4 / M H 4 ( 0 5 , 0 7 ) , 0 1 1 6 4 I N I T I A L M H 3 ( 0 6 , 0 7 ) , 0 6 / M H 4 ( 0 6 , 0 7 ) , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 7 l , 0 1 1 6 5 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 2 , 0 7 ) , 0 2 / M H 5 ( 0 3 , 0 7 ) , 0 4 / M H 5 ( 0 4 , 0 7 ) , 0 6 166 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( O 5 , 0 7 ) , O 7 / M H 5 ( O 6 , 0 7 ) , 0 8 / M H 5 ( 0 7 , O 7 l , 0 9 167 I N I T I A L M H 5 ( 0 8 , 0 7 ) , 1 3 163 I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 1 , 0 8 1 , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 8 ) , 0 4 / M H l ( 0 2 . 0 8 ) , 6 7 1 6 9 IN IT 1 AL M"H2( 6 2 , 0 8 1 , 0 0 / M H 1 ( 0 3 " , 0 8) , 0 I / M H 2 I 0 3 , 0 8 ) , 0 2 1 7 0 I N I T I A L 1 MHI (0 4 , 0 8 ) , 0 0 / M H 2 ( O 4 , 0 8 ) , 0 0 / M H 3 1 0 1 , 0 8 ) , 0 6 171 I N I T I A L M H 4 I 0 1 , 0 8 ) , 0 1 / M H 3 ( 0 2 , 0 8 ) , 0 2 / M H 4 ( 0 2 , 0 8 ) , 0 1 172 -o f INITIAL I N I T I A L MH3(03,08 »,01/MH4I 0 3 , 0 8 ) , 0 1/MH3I 0 4 , 0 8 1 , 0 3 M H 4 I 0 4 , 0 8 1 , 0 3 / M H 3 ( 0 5 ,08)•04/MH4I0 5 , 0 8 ) , 0 1 173 174 \ o IN IT IAL M H 3 ( ' 0 6 , 0 8 ) , 06/MH4I 0 6 , 0 8 1 , 0 1 / M H 5 ( 0 1 , 0 8 1 , 0 1 175 I N I T I A L I N I T I A L MH5 ( 0 2 , 0 8 1 , 0 3 / M H 5 ( 0 3 , 0 8 ) , 05/MH5I 0 4 , 0 8 ) , 0 6 M H 5 ( 0 5 , 0 8 ) , 0 7 / K H 5 ( 0 6 , 0 8 I , 0 8/ MH5 ( 0 7 , 0 8 ) , 0 9 I 75 177 INITIAL M H 5 ( 0 8 , 0 8 ) , 13 173 / I N I T I A L M H 1 ( 0 1 , 0 9 1 , 0 1 / M H 2 ( 0 1 , 0 9 1 , 0 1 / M H 1 ( 0 2 , 0 9 ) , 6 1 1 79 *\ INITIAL MH2( 0 2 , 0 9 ) , 00 / M H l ( 0 3 , 0 9 ) .00/MH2 ( 0 3 , 0 9 ) , 0 0 180 (~\ I NIT IAL" MH3(0r,09),03/MH4(01,09),03/MH5(01,09) , 0 6 181 INITIAL MH5 (02 ,09) , 07/MH5I03 , 0 9 ) , 0 8 182 INITIAL 1HK01,10),01/MH2(0l,10) ,01/MHl (02,10 1 ,62 MH2(02, 10),00/MH1(03,10I,00/MH2( 03,101,00 183 c INlTIAL 184 INITIAL MH3I01 ,10),03/MH4(01 , 1 0 1 ,03/MH 5101 ,10) ,06 185 INITIAL •4H5(02,lOI,07/MH5(03,10) ,08 186 c INITIAL MHl (01 , lU ,01/MH2 (O l , U ) , 0 1/MH 1(02,111 ,63 187 INITIAL MH2I02 ,11 ) , 0 0 / M H l ( 0 3,11) ,00/MH2(03,ll 1 ,00 188 I N I T I AL MH3I01, 1 I ) , 03/MH4( 01,11) .03/MH5I 01 ,11 ) ,06 18? r I NI T I AL MH5(02,11 ),07/MH5103,11), 08 190 INITIAL M H K O l ,12) ,01/MH2( 01 ,12) ,01/MHl (02,12 1,64 191 INITIAL MH2I0 2, 12),00/MHl(03,12), 00/MH2I 03,121,00 192 c INITIAL MH3(01 ,12 I,03/MH4(01 , 12 1, 03/MH5( 0 1,12 ),06 193 INITIAL INITIAL INITIAL MH5(02,12),07/MH5(03,12),08 MH1(01,13),01/MH2(01,13),01/MH1(02,13),65 MH2(02,13),00/MHl(03,13),00/MH2(03,13),00 194 195 196 INITIAL MH3(01,13),03/MH4(01,13),03/MH5( 01,13) ,06 197 INITIAL INITIAL MH5(02,131,07/MH5(03,13),08 M H l t 01, 1 4 ) , 01/MH2( 01 ,14) ,01/MHl (02,14 1,66 198 1 9 9 I NIT I AL MH2102,14),00/MH1(03,14),00/MH2(0 3 ,14 ) ,00 20D INITIAL MH3(01,141,03/MH4(01,14),03/MH5I01,14 1,06 201 i c INITIAL . MH5(02,14),07/MH5(03,14) ,08 2 0 2 3 INITIAL MHl(Ol,15),01/MH2(01,15),0 1/MHl (02 ,15l ,67 2 03 \ INITIAL' MH2(02 ,15) , 0 0 / M H l (03,15) .00/MH2I 03,15 ) , 0 0 2 0 4 \o INITIAL ' MH3(01,15), 03/MH4I 01,15) ,03/MH5( 01,151 ,06 2 0 5 • INITIAL MH5(02,15),07/MH5(03,15),08 2 06 207 o * 208 CUSTOMER R E Q O l HAS EXPONENTIAL INTER-ARRIVAL T I M E 209 1 GENERATE V 1 0 , , , , 0 0 , 1 9 210 o 2 ASSIGN 4,01 211 3 ASSIGN 5 ,01 212 - • 4 TRANSFER ,TEAMR 213 o * CUSTOMER REQ02 HAS EXPONENTIAL INTER-ARRIVAL TIME 2 1 4 5 GENERATE V l l , , , , 0 0 , 1 9 215 6 ASSIGN 4,02 216 o 7 ASSIGN 5,02 217 a TRANSFER ,TEAMR 218 * CUSTOMER RE003 H A S EXPONENTIAL INTER-ARRIVAL TIME 219 'o 9 GENERATE V 1 2 , , , , 0 0 , 1 9 220 10 ASSIGN 4,03 221 i l ASSIGN 5,03 222 o 12 TRANSFER ,TEAMR 223 C U S T O M E R R E u 0 4 HAS EXPONENTIAL INTER-ARRIVAL TIME 224 13 GENERATE V13,,,,00,19 225 G 14 ASSIGN 4,04 226 15 ASSIGN 5,04 227 16 TRANSFER .TEAMR 228 O CUSTOMER REQOS H A S EXPONENTIAL INTER-ARRIVAL TIME 2 2 9 17 GENERATE V 1 4 , , , , 0 0 , 1 9 230 IS ASSIGN 4 , 0 5 231 0 19 ASSIGN 5 ,05 2 3 2 J / 2 0 T R A N S F E R * C U S T O M E R R E Q 0 6 ,1b AMR H A S E X P O N E N T I A L 1 MT E R - A R R I V A L T I M E 2 33 2 34 21 G E N E R A ! E V 1 5 i . , , 0 0 , 1 9 2 35 2 2 A S S I G N 4 , 0 6 2 36 2 3 A S S I G N 5 , 0 6 2 37 L. 2 4 T R A N S F E R , T E A M R 2 3 8 < 7 * C U S T O M E R R E 0 0 7 HAS E X P O N E N T I A L I N T F R - A R R I V A L T I M E 2 39 2 5 G E N E R A T E V 1 6 , , , , 0 0 , 1 9 2 4 0 2 6 A S S I G N 4 , 0 7 241 2 7 " ' A S S I G N 5 , F N $ C U S 0 7 2 4 2 2 8 T R A N S F E R * , T E A M R » 2 4 3 2 4 4 * T H E F O L L O W I N G I S T H E T R A N S A C T I O N R O U T I N G B L O C K 2 4 5 2 9 T E A M R Q U E U E WHOLE 2 4 6 3 0 A S S I G N 1 2 , V $ Q U E C 0 2 4 7 3 1 Q U E U E P 1 2 2 4 8 3 2 T E A M S A S S I G N 6 + , 1 2 4 9 3 3 A S S I G N 1 , M H 1 ( P 6 , P 5 » 2 5 3 3 4 A S S I G N 8 , M H 2 ( P 6 , P 5 ) 251 3 5 T R A N S F E R * ' ' ' . , F N S T E A M 2 5 2 2 5 3 * THE F O L L O W I N G B L O C K S A R E F O R T E A M H E M A T 2 5 4 3 6 T E A A A Q U E U E H E M A T 2 5 5 3 7 T E B A A A S S I G N 7 * , 1 2 5 6 3 8 A S S I G N 2 , M H 3 ( P 7 , P 5 » 2 57 3 9 A S S I G N 9 , M H 4 ( P 7 , P 5 ) 2 5 8 4 0 T R A N S F E R , F N $ T T T A A 2 5 9 * T H E F O L L O W I N G B L U C K S A R E F O R P R O C E S S O R P T E C H ON T E A M H E M A T 2 6 0 4 1 B A A 0 1 Q U E U E P T E C H 2 6 1 4 2 E N T E R P T E C H 2 6 2 4 3 O E P A R T P T E C H 2 6 3 4 4 C A A 0 1 A S S I G N 10 + , 1 2 6 4 4 5 A S S I G N 3 , M H 5 ( P 1 0 , P 5 i 2 6 5 4 6 A S S I G N U , F N * P R 0 0 1 2 6 6 4 7 A D V A N C E V » l l 2 6 7 4 8 L O O P 9 . C A A 0 1 2 6 8 4 9 L E A V E P T E C H 2 6 9 5 0 T R A N S F E R * T H E F O L L O W I N G , T E C A A B L O C K S A R E F O R P R O C E S S O R B E N C H ON T E A M HEMAT 2 7 0 2 71 5 T B A A 0 2 Q U E U E B E N C H 2 7 2 5 2 E N T E R B E N C H 2 7 3 53 O E P A R T "' B E N C H 2 7 4 5 4 C A A 0 2 A S S IGN 1 0 * . 1 2 7 5 5 5 A S S I G N 3 , M H 5 ( P 1 0 , P 5 ) 2 76 5 6 A S S I G N " I 1 , F N » P R 0 0 2 2 77 5 7 A D V A N C E V * l l 2 7 3 5 8 L O O P 9 . C A A 0 2 2 79 5 9 L E A V E B E N C H 2 8 0 6 0 T R A N S F E R * T H E F O L L O W I N G , T E C A A B L O C K S A R E F O R P R O C E S S O R C T E C H ON T E A M H E M A T 2 8 1 2 8 2 6 1 B A A 0 3 Q U E U E C T E C H 2 8 3 6 2 Q U E U E 0 A A O 3 2 8 4 6 3 T E S T L X 1 5 1 . X 0 9 1 2 8 5 6 4 S A V E V A L U E 1 5 1 * , 1 2 86 6 5 D E P A R T 3 A A 0 3 2 8 7 6 b E N T E R C T E C H 2 88 6 7 D E P A R T C T E C H 2 8 9 6 3 C A AO 3 A S S I G N 1 0 * , 1 2 9 0 6 9 A S S I G N 3 , M H 5 ( P 1 0 , P 5 ) 291 7 0 A S S I G N 1 1 , F N « P R 0 0 3 2 9 2 < tl ADVANCE v*Ti 29T" 72 LOOP 9 FCAA03 294 73 LEAVE CTECH ' . ; 295 "T4~ SAVE VALUE 151-.1 " ' 296 75 TRANSFER ,TECAA 297 » THE FOLLOWING BLOCKS ARE FOR PROCESSOR MICRO ON TEAM HEM A T 298 * ~ 76 BAA04 OUEUE MICRO 299~ 77 ENTER MICRO 300 78 ' DEPART MICRO _ 301 79~ CTA7j4~A"S"S"rGN 10+,"1 " 3 0 2 80 ASSIGN 3.MH5IP10.P5I 303 81 ASSIGN ' U,FNSPR004 » 304 8"2" ADVANCE V*Tl 305~ 83 LOOP 9.CAA04 306 84 LEAVE MICRO 307 8"5 ' TPTANSPER TTECAlS — — — • — — - • * THE FOLLOWING BLOCKS ARE FOR PROCESSOR RTECH ON TEAM HEMAT 309 _^  86 BAA05 QUEUE RTECH 310 57 ENTER RTECH 3U~ 88 DEPART RTECH 312 89| ASSIGN ' 10*,1 -- - • . 313 9"0 ADVANCE V06 314 91 LEAVE RTECH 315 92 TRANSFER TECAA 316 " * T H E FOLLOWING BLOCKS ARE FOR P R O C E S S O R CLERK ON TEAM HEMAT ' TTT 93 BAA06 QUEUE CLERK 318 94 ENTER CLERK ' ' ' 319 95 DEPART CLERK 320~ 96 C AA06 ASSIGN 10*, 1 321 • . 97 ASSIGN 3,MH5IP10,P5I 322 9? " ASSIGN ! 11.FNSPR006 ' 32T" 99 AOVANCE V*ll 324 Too LOOP ' 9,CAAO6 * 325 — : TOT : TTSVE CTCJ<K ' — ~ ~ 326~ 102 TRANSFER ,TECAA 327 103 TECAA LOOP 8,TEBAA • 328 104 DEPART HEMAT 329 105 TRANSFER ,TEAMS 333 ' _ » ' _ _ ' 331 1 0 6 T ' E A O O DEPART P ' 1 2 " " " ' "~" ' ' " "" ~ "" 332 107 DEPART WHOLE 333 108 TERMINATE 1 334 109 L0061 TRANSFER .200,L0A61,L0B61 335 110 L0A61 TEST E P4,61,TEAMS 336 111 TRANSFER ,L00UT ^ 337 UT" L0B61 ASSIGN 18,61 ' " ~ "" " ~ " 338 113 ASSIGN 19,09 339 114 TEST NE P4.61 ,LOORE 340 ~~ T T 3 TRANSFER ,LOOST 341 -116 L0062 TRANSFER .200,L0A62,L0B62 342 117 L0A62 TEST E P4.62,TEAMS ' ' !____ 343 •,1 ;.• U S " TRANSFER .LOOU.T " " " ' " 3 * * .>'; 119 L0B62 ASSIGN 18,62 345 f 120 ASSIGN 19, 10 346 , ' 121 TEST NE P4,62,LOORE ' 347~ •: • 122 TRANSFER ,LOOST 348 123 L0063 TRANSFER . 200,LOA63, L0B63 349 124 " LOA63~ T F 'S i f . P 4 , " 6 3 T T E 7 M S - " " " " " " ' " " ~ " ' " " 3 5 3 125 TRANSFER ,LOOUT 351 126 L0B63 ASSIGN 18,63 352 I o O 1 2 7 1 2 8 1 2 9 A S S I G N T E S T N E T R A N S F E R ' 1 9 , 1 1 P 4 , 6 3 , L O O R E , L O O S T 3 5 3 3 5 4 3 5 5 1 3 0 131 1 3 2 L 0 0 6 4 L 0 A 6 4 T R A N S F E R T E S T E T R A N S F E R . 2 0 0 , L 0 A 6 4 , L U B 6 4 P 4 , 6 4 , T E A M S , L O U U T  3 5 6 3 5 7 3 5 8 133 1 3 4 1 3 5 T $ 6 1 3 7 1 3 8 L 0 B 6 4 A S S I G N A S S I G N T E S T NE 1 8 , 6 4 1 9 , 1 2 P 4 , 6 4 , L O O R E 3 59 3 6 0 3 6 1 L 0 0 6 5 L 0 A 6 5 " T R T N T F E R T R A N S F E R T E S T E . L O O S T • 2 0 0 , L O A 6 5 , L U B 6 5 P 4 . 6 5 , T E A M S ' 3 6 2 3 6 3 3 6 4 1 3 9 1 4 0 1 4 1 T 4 " 2 ~ 1 4 3 1 4 4 L O B 6 5 T R A N S F E R A S S I G N A S S I G N , L O O U T 1 6 , 6 5 1 9 , 1 3 L 0 0 6 6 T R A N S F E R T R A N S F E R ~P~4 , 6 5 * L O O R E , L O O S T • 2 0 0 , L O A 6 6 , L Q B 6 6 3 6 5 3 6 6 3 6 7 3 6 8 " 3 6 9 3 70 "T4T" 1 4 6 1 4 7 T 4 ~ r 1 4 9 1 5 0 L 0 A 6 6 L 0 3 6 6 T E S T E T R A N S F E R A S S I G N P 4 , 6 6 , T E A M S , L O U U T 1 8 , 6 6 A S S I G N T E S T NE T R A N S F E R 1 9 , 14 P 4 , 6 6 , L O O R E , L O O S T 3 7 1 3 7 2 3 73 3 7 4 3 7 5 3 76 1 5 2 1 5 3 1 5 4 1 5 5 1 5 6 1 5 8 1 5 9 T6TT 1 6 1 1 6 2 L 0 0 6 7 L 0 A 6 7 T R A N S F E R T E S T E T R A N S F E R . 2 0 0 . L 0 A 6 7 , L 0 B 6 7 P 4 , 6 7 , T E A M S , L O U U T 3 7 7 3 7 8 3 79 T5B6T A S S I G N A S S I G N T E S T NE L O O U T T R A N S F E R A S S I G N A S S I G N 1 8 , 6 7 1 9 , 1 5 P 4 . 6 7 , L O O R E 3 8 0 3 8 1 3 8 2 , L O O S T 4 . P 1 3 ' 5 . P 1 4 ASSIGN A S S I G N A S S I G N -Z7PT5— 7 . P 1 6 1 0 , P I 7 3 8 3 3 84 3 85 3 8 6 3 8 7 3 8 8 1 6 3 1 6 4 1 6 5 1 6 6 1 6 7 1 6 8 L O O S T T R A N S F E R A S S I G N A S S I G N . T E A M S 1 3 . P 4 1 4 , P 5 3 8 9 3 9 0 3 9 1 " A S S I G N A S S I G N A S S I G N 1 5 . P 6 1 6 . P 7 1 7 . P 1 0 3 9 2 3 9 3 3 9 4 1 6 9 1 7 0 1 7 1 TTT 1 7 3 1 7 4 L O O R E A S S I G N A S S I G N A S S I G N 4 . P 1 8 5 , P 1 9 6 , 0 3 95 3 9 6 3 9 7 A"S$TGN A S S I G N T R A N S F E R 7 , 0 1 0 , 0 . T E A M S 3 9 8 3 9 9 4 0 3 1 7 5 1 7 9 1 8 0 1 8 1 T a r 1 8 3 1 8 4 • T H I S S E G M E N T T E S T S S E R V I C E L E V E L AND A D J U S T S S E R V I C E C A P A C I T Y AS R E Q U I R E D " G E N E R A T E 3 0 0 , ' , , , 9 9 DONE E VI. * Y 5 M I N U T E S _ _ " T A V E V i t W " 4 0 1 4 0 2 4 0 3 T T 6 ~ — S  A L U E T U U N f * Y l 1 7 7 R E F 0 1 T E S T LE V t V A A 0 3 , 1 0 , R E F 3 1 1 7 8 T E S T G X 0 9 1 . 0 1 , R E F 3 1 4 0 4 4 0 5 4 0 5 R E F 3 1 S A V E V A L U E T R A N S F E R T E S T G F 0 9 1 - . 1 , R E F 0 1 V $ V A A 0 3 , 2 0 , S A V 0 l 4 0 7 4 0 8 4 0 9 T E S T L S A V E V A L U E T R A N S F E R X 0 9 1 , 1 0 , S A V 0 1 0 9 1 1 , R E F 3 1 4 1 0 4 1 1 4 1 2 ' 1 8 5 S A V 0 1 T E S T E V S T I M E R . O . T A B O l 4 1 3 \ 1 8 6 A S S i r . N 1 . 0 1 4 14 o 1 8 7 S A V E V A L U E V $ C 0 U N T » , X 0 9 l , H OONE E V E R Y 15 M I N J 1 E S - 4 1 5 1 8 8 1 8 9 T A B O l T A B U L A T E T E R M I N A T E C T E C H 4 1 6 4 1 7 c * 4 1 8 / # 4 19 \ * T H E F O L L O W I N G S E C T I O N C O N T R O L S D U R A T I O N O F RUN 4 2 3 o S T A R T 0 0 2 0 0 4 2 1 R E P O R T 4 2 2 E J E C T 4 2 3 T A B T I T L E , * « * * « * * U T I L I S A T I O N OF M O N I T O R E D P R O C E S S O R S * * * * * * * 4 2 4 S P A C E 3 4 2 5 S P A C E 3 4 2 6 (-•• S T O T I T L E ,********* P R O C E S S O R U T I L I Z A T I O N S T A T I S T I C S * * * * * * * * * 4 2 7 S P A C E 3 4 2 8 S P A C E 3 4 2 9 Q U E T I T L E , »»*****»** C O M P L E T E Q U E U E S T A T I S T I C S * * * * * * * * * * 4 3 0 S P A C E 3 4 3 1 S P A C E . 3 4 3 2 r- F S V T I T L E ,*•***«***« P A R A M E T E R V A L U E S * * * * * * * * * * 4 3 3 S P A C E 3 4 3 4 S P A C E 3 4 3 5 c~ C L O T I T L E ,********** E L A P S E D T I M E * * * * * * * * * * 4 3 6 S P A C E 3 4 3 7 r , B L O T I T L E E J E C T ,********** B L O C K C O U N T S * * * * * * * * * * 4 3 8 4 39 E J E C T 4 43 G R A P H X H . O O l , 0 4 0 4 4 1 r O R I G I N 5 1 , 1 1 4 4 2 X , 2 , 1 , , , , N 0 4 4 3 Y 0 , 1 , 1 0 , 0 5 4 4 4 1 S T A T E M E N T 3 1 , 6 , N U M B E R 4 4 5 1 "5TAT"EMTNT' 3 3 , 2 , O F 4 4 6 1 S T A T E M E N T 3 5 , 9 , P R O C E S S O R 4 4 7 1 S T A T E M E N T 3 7 , 5 , C T E C H 4 4 8 1 S T A T E M E N T 3 9 , 7 , A T T E A M 4 4 9 1 S T A T E M E N T 4 1 , 5 . H E M A T 4 5 0 1 7 S T A T E M E N T 5 2 , 1 1 5 , | 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 451 5 T " ~ 6 " ~ I ^ "7 [ 8 f 9 1 10 4 5 2 • 2 0 1 S T A T E M E N T 5 6 . 4 8 , H O U R S OF S I M U L A T I O N ( D I V I D E D I N T O Q U A R T E R H O U R S ! 4 53 4 5 4 E N D G R A P H 4 5 5 END 4 56 K> o f— ******* UTILIZATION OF MUNITURED PROCESSORS ******* f ABLE CTECH T ENTRIES IN TABLE MEAN ARGUMENT 86 2. 244 STANDARD DEVIATION .701 SUM OF \ RGUME NTS 193.000 NON-nl E IGH TED < cf }— UPPER OBSERVED LIMIT FREQUENCY PER CENT OF TOTAL CUMULATIVE CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE REMAINDER MULTIPLE OF MEASJ DE V I AT I ON FROM MEAN " T T 3 2 39 3 34 15.11 45 .34 39.53 15.1 6 0 . 4 100 .0 84 .8 3 9 . 5 . 0 .445 .891 1 .336 - 1.773 - . 3 4 8 1 .077 REMAINING FREQUENCIES ARE ALL ZERO ********* PROCESSOR UTILIZATION STATISTICS ********* STORAGE CAPACITY AVERAGE CONTENTS ENTRIES -AVERAGE AVERAGE TOTAL TIME/UNIT TIME UTILIZATION OURING-AVAIL. UNA VA I L. CURRENT TIME TIME STATUS PERCENT AVAILABILITY CURREMT CONTENTS MAXIMUM CONTENTS PTECH BENCH CTECH 1 .134 99 . 5 5 9 10 2 .235 14 15 2 52 247.643 . 133 965 .467 .005 229.881 .223 100 .0 1 0 0 . 0 100.0 1 2 I 3 3 I — MTCRO " RTECH CLERK 8 1.637 5 .367 5 3 .799 83 19 449 511.084 .204 ' 500.737 .073 219. 261 . 759 100 .0 100 .0 100.0 4 7 2 5 S i I . i ********** COMPLETE QUEUE STATISTICS ********** QUEUE QAA03 MAXIMUM AVERAGE CONTENTS CONTENTS 43 29 .500 TOTAL ENTRI ES 290 ZERO PERCENT ENTRIES ZEROS 48 16 .5 AVERAGE TIME/TRANS 2636.144 SAVERAGE TIME/TRANS 3159.016 TABLE CURRENT NUMBER CONTENTS 38 WHOLE HEMAT PTECH 53 38.768 53 38.768 1 . 0 0 0 2 48 498 14 . 0 . 0 14 100.0 4050.955 2017.343 . 0 0 0 40 50.955 2017.343 . 0 0 0 48 48 BENCH CTECH MICRO 1 .000 43 29 .500 1 . 0 0 0 15 2 90 83 15 100.0 48 16.5 83 100.0 . 0 0 0 2636.144 . 0 0 0 . 000 3159.016 .003 38 RTECH CLERK 201 1 .000 6 .536 27 17.945 19 452 124 19 100.0 252 55.7 . 0 . 0 0 0 30 .738 3 750.2 82 . 000 6 9 . 469 3750.282 3 24 202 203 204 18 9 .377 2 .633 7 3 .285 58 5 19 . 0 .0 .0 4189. 5 35 3283.199 4480.633 4189.585 3283.199 4480.683 10 2 4 205 206 207 6 3 .717 2 .783 5 3.026 22 5 15 . 0 .0 . 0 4378.500 4063.399 5228.531 4378. 500 4060.399 52 2 8.531 4 4 tAVERAGE "TIRF/TRANS' = A VER AGE f I M"FV f RANS EXCLUDING ZERO ENTRIES J CJ1 co 10 * " " * ' , - r -* > — 9 * — \ * 8 * . — * » 7 * * * * 6 * * # * * 5 * * * * N U M B E R 4 * • • DF " P R O C E S S O R * * C T E C H 3 * * * • « * * * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * *e « « * * * * * * * * * * « * * * * * * * * * * » *• ** * t «* ** * * * « * * * * * * * * H E M A T 2 » * « * * » * » * * * ** * * * * « * * * • * * * * * * * * • * * * « * * * • * * * * * * * » * * • » * * * * « « <,* * * * * * * * * * * « * * * * • * » » * ** to ** »* ** •* »* ** ** »* * * * * * » • * * * * * * * T » " * » * • * * * * * * * * * « * * * * * * * * * * * * * * « 4 O t * « « » « « « * » * * * » * » * * * * * » * • * « * * * * * * * * * * * * * « * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * » e * * » * * * * * * * • * * « » * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 * * * * * * • * * * * * * * * * » * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * « • * * * * * * * * * * « » « » * * * * * * » » * * * * * * « * * * * » * « * * * * * <.» * * *<• * * c e * * * * * * * * » * » * <•* » * » « * * «.<. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * » » * * * * * * * » * » * * * * * * * * « * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * e* * * * * * * « • » * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * « * * * » * * * * * « * » • * * » * * * * * «t »• «* *« ** * * * * * * * * * * « « « « * * « * « * * * * * * * * * * * * * «•» * * <.* « * « * * * * * * * * * « * * » » * « * *<• « * * * • « » * * * * * * * *# * * * * * * * * * * * « e * 0 | l | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 i 8 | 9 | l 0 HOURS O F S I M U L A T I O N ( D I V I D E D I N T O Q U A R T E R H O U R S 1 _ J v — 

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