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Buddhist philosophy : principle and practice Dumdeang, Sompong Gunavaro 1977

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BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY: PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE SOMPONG GUNAVARO DUMDEANG B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE •.•^ REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES i n THE DEPARTMENT OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES W.e accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1977 Sompong Gunavaro Dumdeang, 1977 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Sompong G. Dumdeang Department of HfVUffJOTIS Studies The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date September 25. 1977 i i ABSTRACT This t h e s i s i s an e x p o s i t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e of Buddhism from the perspective of Thai Theravada. The emphasis which has been placed by exponenets of Buddhism on "major d i v i s i o n s " such as Hinayana and Mahayana, or on "schools of thought" such as Madhyamikaj Yogacara. Vijnanavada e t c . , has produced a f r a c t u r e d image of Buddhism. The value of these s p e c i a l i z e d treatments can-not be denied but: t h e i r e f f e c t i n producing a notion of "many Buddhisms" has done some d i s s e r v i c e to the t r a d i t i o n . Underlying the d i v e r s i t i e s of Buddhism there i s an e s s e n t i a l u n i t y . The char-a c t e r i s i c s of human e x i s t e n c e , the causal nexus which r e s u l t s i n bondage, the promise .of freedom; these fundamental t r u t h s are found i n a l l schools of Buddhism so that the c e n t r a l myth expres-sing the r e l i g i o u s t r u t h has remained unchanged through h i s t o r y . For t h i s reason the t h e s i s i s organized according to the conven-t i o n a l pattern:,., of the Four Noble Truths. The Buddhism here presented does not deny the existence of t r u t h outside i t s own system. Hence I have made comparative r e - , ference i n the t h e s i s to other systems of thought which have pro-found s i m i l a r i t i e s w ith Buddhism. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the s c e p t i c i s m of David Hume and the i n s i g h t s of modern e x i s t e n -t i a l i s t t h i n k e r s such as Jean Paul Satre. I have concluded that Buddhism i s philosophy r a t h e r than psychology, p r a c t i c a l r e l i g i o n r ather than t h e o r e t i c a l r e l i g i o n and that i t s value i s r e l a t e d to contemporary need r a t h e r than to mere h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s . Buddhism i s s p e c u l a t i v e philosophy le a d i n g one toward freedom by working on the elements of the causal chain and culminating i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of bondage and the winning of freedom. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I The Philosophy i n P r a c t i c e 1 I I The Second P r i n c i p l e of the Four Noble Truths: The Nature of Causation — Samudaya-Sacca 6 I I I The Gradual Development of the Second P r i n c i p l e : The Nature of Causation 33 IV A C r i t i q u e of the Truths i n Mahayana Buddhism 43 V The Yogacara School 68 VI The T h i r d P r i n c i p l e : The Absolute Freedom i n Perfect Existence 77 VII The P r i n c i p l e of Nirvana 85 V I I I Notion of Freedom 94 IX The Theory of Samadhi 102 X P r a c t i c e of Samadhi and Vipassana 129 XI The P r i n c i p l e of the Fourth Noble Truth 136 APPENDIX I 149 APPENDIX' I I 152 BIBLIOGRAPHY 167 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my g r a t i t u d e to the f o l l o w i n g f o r t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n , advice and encouragement during the course of my studies i n North America: Dr. Adrian S i e g l e r , formerly of the Department of Philosophy, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, Dr. Richard Olsen, Department of Philosophy, Adelphi U n i v e r s i t y , New York, Professor Joseph Richardson, Department of R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Professor Shotaro I i d a of the same department. I had come from the p r a c t i c a l samgha s o c i e t y of a Thai Buddhist monastery s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from normal Thai s o c i e t y and worlds apart from American s o c i e t y . The man who had l i v e d h i s l i f e as a bhikku, chanting, preaching, begging and r e c e i v i n g honour, l i v i n g i n a temple p e a c e f u l l y and calmly without j n a t e r i a l s i m , was now i n a world of m a t e r i a l i s m , t e c h -nology and s e x u a l i t y . In such a new environment i t i s hard to adjust to d a i l y l i v i n g . The law of a n i c c a , impermanence and change, was d a i l y demonstrated: from preaching to becoming a student; from being a vegetarian to eat i n g bread and meat; from bowing to shaking hands; from walking long distances as a wandering monk to r i d i n g i n cars and buses; from meditation and chanting, to reading books and searching l i b r a r i e s ; from g i v i n g to r e c e i v i n g ; from being honoured to g i v i n g honour. Those mentioned above and many others , e s p e c i a l l y Dr. Joseph Cook of S e a t t l e , helped me to a new and broader outlook and the achievement of my goals. v i INTRODUCTION The terms Buddhism and Buddhist Philosophy have been used i n such a v a r i e t y of ways that a p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n of these terms i s needed. For the most p a r t , when we hear the word Buddhism, we take i t to mean a) the teaching of Gautama Buddha or b) the teaching of one of the schools of e i t h e r Hinayana or Mahayana. I t i s not wrong to define Buddhism i n t h i s way; i t i s only i n s u f f i -c i e n t . Buddhism i s of course, an E n g l i s h word and r e f e r s i n a general way to the r e l i g i o n of the Buddha much as the word Hind-uism r e f e r s to the r e l i g i o n of the Hindus. In P a l i , the canonical language of e a r l y Buddhism, the word i s Buddhasassana which means "the teaching of a l l knowers of a l l ages". The o r i g i n a l sense appears i n the Samanta Pasa t i k a i n the Patimokkha s e c t i o n of the P a l l Vinaya c o l l e c t i o n as: Avoiding the acts> of a l l e v i l deeds, Committing the act d.f a l l good deeds, P u r i f y i n g your h e a r t s , these ( a l l of these three commitments) - j _ are the teaching of a l l Buddhas (knowers). sabbassa akaranam kusalas supasampadam ci t t a p a r i y a t n a m atam buddhasassanam. According to the l a s t phrase of t h i s P a l i gatha, "atam buddhasas-sanam", Buddhism would r e f e r to the teachings of a l l Buddhas or enlightened ones of the past i n c l u d i n g Gautama, the h i s t o r i c a l 2 Buddha and even the future Buddha, Maitreya. The terms Hinayana and Mahayana are not h e l p f u l to us i n our understanding of e s s e n t i a l Buddhism. The Buddha himself a t t a i n e d supreme enlightenment and taught the way to a l l mankind. "There v i i are two p i l l a r s supporting the great ediface of Buddhism; Mahapraj-na, great Wisdom, and Mahakarupa, great Compassion. The wisdom flows from the compassion and the compassion from the wisdom f o r -3 the two are one." In a f u r t h e r statement a t t r i b u t e d to the Buddha from Thai sources, he says, " a l l my teachings of dhamma f a l l s i n t o these c a t e g o r i e s : s a n d i t t h i l o - that which i s v i s i b l e , belonging to t h i s l i f e . a k a l i k o - that which i s immediate and without delay, opanayiko - that which leads inward, paccattam - that which i s i n d i v i d u a l , s i n g l e , p a r t i c u l a r . " 4 These dhammas are ins e p a r a b l e , e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r own nature (svabhava) and not d i v i s i b l e i n t o separate schools. Thus a l l Bud-dhas have two fundamental d u t i e s , a) to develop from ordinary man-hood i n t o Buddhahood through the p e r f e c t i o n of dhammasand to teach a l l mankind and b) to f o l l o w and p r a c t i c e a l l the dhammas prac-t i c e d by enlightened ones i n the t r a d i t i o n of the Buddhas. Hence a l l dhammas permanently r e t a i n t h e i r own natures. They do not change however much men t r y to redevelop them or make them ap p e a r - d i f f e r e n t . I t i s true that there are p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the areas where Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism developed; the former i n Thai l a n d , Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Ceylon and the l a t t e r i n T i b e t , Mongolia, Japan, Vietnam and Korea. The expression may be d i f f e r e n t but the dhamma i s one. By the same token, I have t r i e d to avoid the term Theravada Buddhism as i n any way de s i g n a t i n g a unique kind of Buddhism. S i m i l a r l y the names of Asanga or Nagarjuna i n d i c a t e h i s t o r i c a l v i i i i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and not "other" Buddhism . For a l l teachings of Buddhism r e l a t e to the Buddha and are based on the Dhamma. I t i s sa i d by the Andhra school t h a t ; The Buddha's dicovery i s t r a n s c e n t e n t a l ; that the power of the Buddha or h i s p u p i l s allows them to e f f e c t what-ever they wish,, regardless of the laws of nature, and that a (or the) boddhisattva (future Buddhas) was (among h i s numerous l i v e s , sometimes) reborn i n very unhappy circumstances ( r u i n , i . e . i n purgatory, as an animal, a ghost or a demon) of h i s own free w i l l ( i . e . not as a r e s u l t of h i s previous a c t i o n s ) . 5 Warder, r e f e r r i n g to the Madhyamikas, states that the p e r f e c t i o n of i n s i g h t i s dependent on s p i r i t u a l m aturity. I i n s i s t that t h i s i s true f o r a l l schools whose teachings are a l l based i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s on the Four Noble Truths. These Truths although the b a s i s of Buddhism do not stand alone nor do they come i n t o existence ex h i h i l o . The t r u t h s of Buddhism are not t o t a l l y d i s -s i m i l a r from those expressed i n other r e l i g i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Hinduism which shares a common matrix. I t i s p l a u s i b l e to st a t e that Buddhism a s s i m i l a t e d much of i t s e a r l y Brahmanic m i l i e u and that Hinduism adopted Buddhist methods f o r the propogation of i t s ideas and i n s t i t u t i o n s . S i m i l a r i t i e s i n r e l i g i o n are not only due to mutual i n t e r a c t i o n as in.Hinduism and Buddhism, or to c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n . Ideas i n one c u l t u r e are often s i m i l a r l y developed i n another c u l t u r e remote i n time and place. Such i s the case with the s i m i l a r i t y between aspects of Theravada Buddhism and the philosophy of David Hume. Undoubtedly Hume had a d o c t r i n e s i m i l a r to Buddhism i n the sense that both Buddhism and Hume do not b e l i e v e i n the s e l f , "there i s 7 no s e l f or s o u l " ( a n a t t a ) " . • i x Furthermore both Hume and Buddhism teach the momentary tenet. The Buddhist-Anicca d o c t r i n e i s the theory of mementary chamma; one perceives anicca as n i c c a because of d e l u s i o n . Hume thought one perceived s e l f or soul r a t h e r than no s e l f or no soul' because of impression and idea (impression of sensation and/or r e f l e c t i o n ) . Hume t h i n k s that a l l moral b e l i e f s , impressions, and ideas lead us to i d e n t i f y ourselves as "I-ness". For in s t a n c e , he expl a i n s i n Books I I and I I I that impressions of r e f l e c t i o n are 1 ) non-r a t i o n a l i n o r i g i n and 2 ) contributed by the mind to experience ra t h e r than derived d i r e c t l y from perception. Hume uses impres-sions of r e f l e c t i o n to e x p l a i n h i s o r i g i n a l e m p i r i c a l b e l i e f which i s very d i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w . He f u r t h e r t h i n k s that we be l i e v e that there i s the s e l f because " b e l i e f " a r r i v e s from "impressions" of causal n e c e s s i t y , and impressions of causal n e c e s s i t y from the mechanism of sympathy. The mechanism of sympathy r e s u l t s from the nature of what the mind does with i t s contents (content of nature of mind i t s e l f ) . " B e l i e f " , says Hume, " i s more properly an act of g the s e n s i t i v e , than of the c o g i t a t i v e part of our natures." Returning to an Eastern context, a l l three "systems" of Bud-dhism — Hinayana, Simi-Mahayana, and N i h i l i s t i c Mahayana — are s i m i l a r . Simi-Mahayana Buddhism was formulated by Vasubandhu from Harivarman's ideas that the r e a l thought of Hinayana Buddhism gives r i s e not to the negative t h e s i s that m a t e r i a l substances are not r e a l , but to the p o s i t i v e t h e s i s that ideas — the o r i g i n a l l y -r e f e r r e d - t o data of the senses i n the a e s t h e t i c continuum — are alone r e a l . Consequently from t h i s system arose the n i h i l i s t i c - X Mahayana Buddhism of Nagarjuna. He bel i e v e d that the f i n a l data of sense and i n t r o s p e c t i o n . Nirvana, d i d not leave one with ab-s o l u t e l y nothing. The nothingness of Nagarjuna was only p a r t i a l -l y understood by Tao. Tao perceived "what i t i s not" but d i d not perceive "what i t . i s " . L o g i c a l l y "what i t i s " can be derived from deduction. Westerners, n e v e r t h e l e s s , m i s i n t e r p r e t the con-ception of Nirvana of the three schools as a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . But the three systems of Buddhism have a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s s i m i l a r to the r e l a t e d p h i l o s o p h i e s of Hobbes, Berkeley, and Hume. As i n d i c a t e d above, Hume's philosophy i s e s p e c i a l l y compatible with e a r l y Theravada Buddhism. - - 9 Hinayana Buddhism was e s t a b l i s h e d by e a r l y Buddhist e l d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y by Harivarman who b e l i e v e d that n e i t h e r the mental, nor the m a t e r i a l substance of common sense e x i s t s . Mental and m a t e r i a l mean t r a n s i t o r y succession of immediately i n t r o s p e c t e d data i n the a e s t h e t i c continuum. Harivarman's notion i s obviously s i m i l a r to Hume's philosophy. Furthermore, Hume's viewpoint of the s e l f i s merely impression and i d e a , which i s s i m i l a r to the f i v e skandhas i n Buddhism which create the "I-ness" (Ahamkara — " I - c r e a t o r " ) . Hence there i s no such t h i n g as s e l f but impression and idea. In Buddhism there i s only phenomena of the mind (mental phenomena); indeed, the mind i t s e l f i s empty (Sunyata) from defilement (Upadana). Consequently, when the mind i s empty, man can be a b s o l u t e l y d e l i v e r e d from the unfree c o n d i t i o n (Samsara). The mind i s then formless, s i g h t l e s s , and w i s h l e s s . This i s the concept of Nirvana. The meaning of the s e l f i s e x t i n c t , and the world i s no longer extant, t h e r e f o r e transcending a l l words and concepts. The philosophy of Hume stat e s that there i s no s e l f i n m a t e r i a l substance; there i s only impression and idea ( r e a l and u n r e a l ) , and i f d e l u s i o n e x i s t s , i t i s r e a l . Buddha taught that d e l u s i o n i s unrea l . Therefore, when there i s d e l u s i o n , "I-ness" (Ahamkara) e x i s t s and i s u n r e a l . When man has a t t a i n e d wisdom there i s no del u s i o n and ther e f o r e no "I-ness," which i s r e a l . Wisdom i s the c o n t i n u i t y of de l u s i o n dynamically changing under the p r i n c i p l e of the Four Noble Truths. There i s no longer d e l u s i o n . This i s the twin d o c t r i n e of impermanence and n o - s e l f . Buddhism states that the conditioned world i s d e l u s i o n , fundamentally f u l l of undesire-a b l e , u n l a s t i n g appearances (Avidya). Freedom and s a l v a t i o n (enlightenement) can only be found from the escape to the uncon-d i t i o n e d world c a l l e d Nirvana. Everything e l s e i s u n r e a l . Buddha r e s i s t e d the d o c t r i n e of permanence and emphasized that a l l e n t i t i e s are impermanent. He banished permanent substance (atta) from h i s metaphysics. The transcendental U t o p i a n g o a l , Nirvana, e x i s t s not as a substance, as Arahata wrongly became i d e n t i f i e d , but as a state — a permanent s t a t e . Hume s i m i l a r l y conceived personal i d e n t i t i e s as simple impressions. C o n t r a r i l y , Buddha defined l i f e as more than impression, i d e a , and d e l u s i o n . He defined r e a l l i f e as Nirvana. In order to reach Nirvana, one has to destroy d e l u s i o n according to the p r i n c i p l e of the Four Noble Truths; Buddhism i s a r e l i g i o n of p r a c t i c e . Hume says X l l d e l u s i o n i s non-existent unless i t i s r e a l . Therefore there i s nothing that can be removed from the mind. Nirvana i s thus a c r e a t i o n of the mind according to Hume. Hence Hume begins h i s d i c t r i n e with a s c e p t i c a l point of view. He may say that every-t h i n g i s s c e p t i c a l , a r i s i n g from impressions of the mind, including Nirvana. But Nirvana i s only one aspect of b e l i e f which a r i s e s from impressions, and those impressions produce not the nature of the mind, but the content of the mind. Hume's s c e p t i c a l d o c t r i n e i s . o n l y "academic," not a r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e as i n Buddhism. Chapter I THE PHILOSOPHY IN PRACTICE I would l i k e to analyze, i n t h i s chapter, Buddhist p h i l o s o -p h i c a l issues i n both a p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l sense. Theory without p r a c t i c e i s empty and p r a c t i c e without theory i s meaning-l e s s . Thus they both have to work together i n order to f u l f i l l a p h i l o s o p h i c a l goal. To' make t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i n t e l l i g i b l e and l o g i c a l , c e r t a i n questions must be r a i s e d . Do we have to b e l i e v e that the only way to achieve complete, freedom i n Buddhism — to realease s u f f e r -i n g — i s to p r a c t i c e the Four Noble Truths? Is the one who f o l l o w s the Four Noble Truths able to prove the d i s t i n c t i o n be-tween the mundane and super-mundane (nirvana) world (both p h y s i c a l and mental phenomena): Or i s the t r u t h of the Four Noble Truths only transcendental phenomena? I f i t i s not only transcendental phenomena, how can we show i t , i n the f u l l e s t sense, f o r those not p r a c t i c i n g the Four Noble Truths? A l l of these questions should be re-examined, but we do not need to answer them a l l . For they are only a r e l a t i o n s h i p to p h i l o s o p h i c a l games. I s h a l l now set these questions aside u n t i l l a t e r . Let us look at the etymological content f i r s t . Perhaps i t w i l l be h e l p f u l i n understanding Buddhism since philosophy i s based on language and grammer as w e l l as mental phenomena of the science of l o g i c . Let us begin with the word "philosophy". What does the word mean i n Buddhist philosophy? The P a l i word f o r philosophy i s "panna", which means wisdom and i n t e l l i e g e n c e ; l i k e w i s e , the - 2 -S a n s k r i t "prajna" means the same. "Panna" and "prajna" are noun forms. The P a l i verb "pannayati" means to be known, to be per-c e i v e d , to appear , to e x i s t ; to be well-known. The Sans k r i t verb i s "prajnayate" (pra = complete plus j na = to know). The word "panna" has a v a r i e t y of connotations as i t i s com-2 bined w i t h other words. For example, "pannacakkhu" means "the eye of wisdom" (one of the f i v e kinds of extr a o r d i n a r y s i g h t s of 3 a Buddha). "Pannaratana" means the gem of reason or knowledge. Our a n a l y s i s i s of the word "philosophy" (panna) i n the nominative case. "Panna" may be used as an a d j e c t i v e as w e l l as a noun. The word "Buddhist" has the same meaning as "panna" or "Bodhi". The word "Bodhi" i s from the same root as the word "Buddha" and means enlightenment. I , however, p r e f e r to t r a n s -l a t e the word "bodhi" as " A l l Enlightened One". Hence "Buddhist" that we use i n the phrase "Buddhist Philosophy" i s the a d j e c t i v e (visesana) of the noun "philosophy" or "panna". The Greek word " p h i l o s o p h i a " means love of wisdorrx;; p h i l o s means love and sophia means wisdom. Therefore, as the d i c t i o n a r y says, philosophy i s the science which aims at the explanation of a l l the phenomena of the universe by u l t i m a t e cause...the calm and unexc i t a b l e s t a t e of mind of the wise man..). Hence the phrase "Buddhist Philosophy" or "Buddha (buddhi) panna" l i t e r a l l y means the wisdom of the A l l Enlightened One. Some Westerners perceive buddhi to mean i n t u i -t i o n , the "immediate apprehension by the mind without reasoning," which he attunes h i s l i m i t e d human consciousness to the spark of the L i g h t , or S p i r i t , or the Buddha w i t h i n . E t y m o l o g i c a l l y the word "panna" (buddhi) r e q u i r e s of an - 3 -object the "whatness". I t i s equivalent to the E n g l i s h sentence X knows ?. The verb "know" re q u i r e s an object because the meaning of the^knowing i s incomplete i n the same way that t h i n k and under-stand are incomplete and r e q u i r e complementary words or o b j e c t s . "Know" re q u i r e s an a c t i o n or d e s c r i p t i o n that i s the "whatness". In the case of "panna" an object i s required and that object i s caturaryasacca (Four Noble T r u t h s ) , the basic d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s chapter. I would f u r t h e r l i k e to analyze the word "Buddhist". "Bud-d h i s t " i s one who can obtain the wisdom of the Four Noble Truths. 5 A l l Enlightened Ones are those who have the eyes of dhammas, namely, i n regard to t h e i r conduct of a c t i o n of p e r f e c t i o n of merit (some a u t h o r i t i e s c a l l t h i s p e r f e c t i o n of the three v e h i c l e s — Savaka (Arahanta), Pratyekabuddha, and Boddhisattva. These enlightened ones p r i m a r i l y and u l t i m a t e l y a t t a i n nirvana i n both froms, that i s , a) i n the form i n which the f i v e group g elements remain a f t e r enlightenment and b) i n the form i n which the f i v e group elements do not remain a f t e r enlightenment. I w i l l l a t e r discuss the attainment of nirvana more completely. We can simply summarize the e s s e n t i a l meaning of Buddhism by asking and answering two questions: 1) What i s Buddhism? Buddhism i s the science i n which one r e l e a s e s s u f f e r i n g . 2) How can one release s u f f e r i n g ? He can r e l e a s e suf-f e r i n g by p r a c t i s i n g ( f o l l o w i n g ) the Four Noble Truths. In b r i e f , the Four Noble Truths c o n s i s t of the t r u t h of m o r a l i t y , m e d i t a t i o n , and wisdom, which i s sometimes c a l l e d "the o l d learned a Buddhism". These are, however, not only Buddhist p r a c t i c e s , but - 4 -common to a l l r e l i g i o n s . The Eight-Fold-Noble P a t h 1 0 i s the path the Buddhist f o l l o w s which leads to e x t i n c t i o n of a l l s u f f e r i n g , or nirvana. I t cons-s i s t s of r i g h t view, r i g h t i n t e n t i o n , r i g h t conduct, r i g h t speech, r i g h t l i v e l i h o o d , r i g h t e f f o r t , r i g h t mindfulness, and r i g h t con-c e n t r a t i o n . Only by f o l l o w i n g the Eight-Fold-Noble-Path can human beings end t h e i r s u f f e r i n g and r e a l i z e (obtain) nirvana. Before f u r t h e r presenting the c h i e f d o c t r i n e of the Four Noble Truths, I s h a l l c r i t i c i z e i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s . I am more concerned with the d o c t r i n e of the Four Noble Truths than any other facet of Buddhism. The teachings of a l l Indian p h i l o s o p h i e s , Buddhist and non-Buddhist, are known as dhammas. The p r a c t i c e of dhammas a p p l i e s to the l a i t y on the s o c i a l mundane l e v e l and to the monks on the super-mundane l e v e l . The monk i s one who gives up the m a t e r i a l world and p r a c t i c e s Dhamma on the super-mundane l e v e l f o r u l t i m a t e deliverance or r e n u n c i a t i o n , and who teaches the way of Dhamma to the l a i t y . Non-Buddhists l i k e J a n i s t s who p r a c t i c e Dhamma are monks. They b e l i e v e that only monks can be l i b e r a t e d from samsara; thus t h e i r Dhamma concerns the monk rather than the l a i t y . This s o c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n caused Buddha to destroy the s o c i a l caste, 11 - -fo r He maintained that Dhamma concerns a l l mankind. Mahayana Buddhism l a t e r developed from Hinayana Buddhism and Dhamma c l o s e l y concerned the l a i t y as w e l l as the monk. In Buddhism, dhammas f o r s o c i e t y ( l a i t y ) are taken to mean duty. Duty means the p r a c t i c e of l i f e . Hence, when one p r a c t i c e s Dhamma, one t r e a t s things commonly thought of as other than one-s e l f . Hence Dhamma i s used as the moral conduct f o r man to reach - 5 -h i s u l t i m a t e goal much l i k e Kant's duty, or moral habit and righteousness which became one of h i s c u r c i a l d o c t r i n e s . Besides f o l l o w i n g Dhamma, Buddhists p r a c t i c e artha and karma, and b e l i e v e that i t i s t h e i r duty to t r e a t themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s to a calm and peaceful s p i r i t u a l l i f e . I w i l l l a t e r d i s c u s s the Dhamma notion of the super-mundane. Dhamma i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t r e a t e d i n agreement with science and i t s philosophy — metaphysics, morals ( e t h i c a l science) and epistemology, e t c . According to various sources of Buddhist canon, I s h a l l review Dhamma from an emotive standpoint, avoiding t e c h n i c a l i t i e s as f a r as p o s s i b l e , concentrating more on s u t t a s , i . e . , Dhammacakkapava.tna Sutta and Anattalakkhana S u t t a , which are the c h i e f d o c t r i n e s of Thai Theraveda Buddhism. What i s Dhamma i n the super-mundane l e v e l ? I t i s the most important Dhammic p r a c t i c e . In b r i e f , one has to p r a c t i c e moral habi t s ( s i l a ) , meditation (samadhi), concentration of the mind (panna) and f i n a l l y destroy maya with the development of the i n -si g h t of wisdom according to panna of vipassana bhavana. When one p r a c t i c e s these states of Dhamma, h i s mind becomes p u r i f i e d and freed from the c o n d i t i o n a l world — the world of samsara — and one becomes Arahanta. Thus one a t t a i n s Arahantaship by p r a c t i c i n g the four ways of Mindfulness — Satipatthanas. This i s only one way to achieve nirvana - "The One Path to Deliverance" — the "Ekayano Maggo" (as s a i d i n P a l i ) . Of the three highest s a i n t s h i p s , the Theraveda Buddhist pre-f e r s the one who achieves nirvana as an Arahant to any other. Arahants are those who have reached n i r v a n a , the "Supreme Goal", - 6 -the "Highest F r u i t " , of the E i g h t - F o l d - N o b l e - P a t h . 1 2 Buddhaghosa says that "bhikkhu samma v i h a r a t i " , who, having himself entered the Noble Path, leads h i s brother i n t o i t , and t h i s i s n , no doubt, good Buddhism. But i t i s a p r a c t i c a l a p p l i -c a t i o n of the t e x t , a t h e o l o g i c a l exegesis, and not a p h i l o l o g i c a l e xplanation. Even so i t seems to lay the s t r e s s too much on " b e r e f t " and too l i t t l e on "Arahant". 1 3 Sati-patthana has four kinds of meditation of mindfulness. In E n g l i s h , Sati-patthana c l o s e l y t r a n s l a t e s as the "Establishment of Mindfulness". Sati-patthana was proclaimed by Buddha, that i s , i t i s the highest Dhamma f o r one path to d e l i v e r a n c e . The Four Kinds of E s t a b l i s h i n g Mindfulness are: 1) E s t a b l i s h i n g Mindfulness on the P h y s i c a l Body i n which there are 14 ways of r e f l e c t i o n on the body. Two ways are a) meditation on r e s p i r a t i o n (Anpanasati) and b) meditation on the p h y s i c a l composition of the parts of the body (Kayagata S a t i ) . With t h i s p r a c t i c e , one r e a l i z e s that there i s no soul i n the body. Then we can know that we are n a t u r a l l y empty or anatta; then there i s no d e s i r e i n the body (sexual d e s i r e -- Kama Tanha). I t helps us destroy c r a v i n g ( d e s i r e ) and attachment to f a l s e views. This meditation helps us to gain more power i n the e f f o r t toward reaching s a l v a t i o n ( n i r v a n a ) . This meditation i s sometimes c a l l e d Kayanupasna which i s per-ceived i n the body as H a l l u c i n a t i o n of the Wholesomeness 14 (Subha Sanna V i p a l l s a ) . 2) E s t a b l i s h i n g Mindfulness on F e e l i n g i n which there are nine kinds of r e f l e c t i o n mainly to destroy the f e e l i n g s that a r i s e at d i f f e r e n t moments of one's l i f e , marked by sensations of r i s e and f a l l . This Sati-patthana helps destroy the H a l l u c i n a t i o n of Happiness (Sukha Sanna V i p a l l a s a ) . 3) E s t a b l i s h i n g Mindfulness of Thought helps destroy i l l -w i l l , greed, j e a l o u s y , e t c . This meditation guides us to destroy the H a l l u c i n a t i o n of Permanence (Nicca Sanna V i p a l l a s a ) . 4) E s t a b l i s h i n g Mindfulness on Phenomena, i . e . , the F i e l d of Constituents of Enlightenment and Truth. For example i s the r e f l e c t i o n of Ariya-Sacca — the search f o r the four forms of s u f f e r i n g which i n c l u d e : a) s u f f e r i n g b) the cause of s u f f e r i n g c) the c e s s a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g d) the way to the c e s s a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g This Sati-patthana helps the p r a c t i t i o n e r destroy the idea "there i s s o u l " (or H a l l u c i n a t i o n of S e l f — A t t a Sanna V i p a l l a s a ) . One who p r a c t i c e s the Sati-patthana s e r i o u s l y i s never a slave to t h r e e - f o l d s i g h t . Thus he i s more advanced to reach nirvana d i r e c t l y . This the Lord Buddha stressed as the only path to the complete freedom of mankind. Mindfulness i s S a t i which i s c o n t r o l to act and reach the highest path: The one and only path, Bhikkhus ("Buddhist monks"), l e a d i n g to the p u r i f i c a t i o n of beings, to passing f a r beyond g r i e f and lementation, to the dying out of i l l and misery, to the attainment of r i g h t method, to the r e a l i z a t i o n of Nirvana, - 8 -15 i s that of the F o u r f o l d Setting-up of Mindfulness. When one a t t a i n s Nirvana he has reached p e r f e c t i o n , that i s to say, he i s f r e e . Free from what? This freedom, i n b r i e f , i s freedom from attachment (Upadana) which r e s u l t s i n l e a d i n g him to r e a l i z e that there i s no "I-ness" or "My-ness", but r a t h e r anatta — n o - s e l f . Thereby hesis f r e e from the s t r u c t u r e of s u f f e r i n g and removed from a l l worldly c o n d i t i o n s . This merit b a s i c a l l y de-r i v e s from the p r a c t i c e of m e d i t a t i o n , f o r one who searches f o r the cause of things a l s o comes to understand the nature of the cause-effect r e l a t i o n s h i p s , known as the Law of Dependent O r i g i n - a t i o n or the Wheel of Law (sometimes c a l l e d the Twelve Chains of Gautama). One who c o r r e c t l y p r a c t i c e s the basic elements of teaching S i l a , Samadhi, and Panna reaches Nirvana. The r e s u l t of reaching Nirvana enlightens him to see "I-ness" as "no I-ness". This " g i v i n g up attachment of the f i v e skhandas" appears i n the same man who at f i r s t i s an ordinary man and who then, t o t a l l y i s t r a n s -formed by h i s Nirvana. Who i s Buddha? Buddha i s the man, but the man who won N i r v -ana. Tathagata i s the Puggala, the prototype of a l l puggalas, and as Stcherbatsky s t a t e s , the V a t s i p u t r i y a s intended "to support the d i c t r i n e of a supernatural s u r v i v i n g Buddha from the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i d e . " " ^ Thus the person who had not yet reached Nirvana and who then reached Nirvana i s one and the same. No matter whether one has the experience of Nirvana i n the present or f u t u r e time, that experience i s c a r r i e d from the past (previous l i f e ) , not i s o l a t e d from any previous experience. Every event i s r e l a t e d to every other. P r a t i t y a Samutpada Theory, f o r example, i s the basic - 9 -teaching of Buddhism. The question i s "Why do I not know, myself, that I was another form of being before t h i s form of being?" The answer i s because of d e l u s i o n (ignorance does not allow us to know). Another question i s "Was I enlightened i n a previous l i f e ? " The answer i s yes. But again we do not know because of d e l u s i o n ( A v i j j a ) . Buddha gives us the evidence that " t h i s sage Sunetra, 17 who e x i s t e d i n the past, that Sunetra was I " . L i n g u i s t i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y speaking, the word " I " means u n i v e r s a l person r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l person. Since a l l of the psycho-physical elements have changed, i t can only be the "person" himself who makes the Buddha and Sunetra i n d e n t i c a l . S i m i l a r l y when the Bud-dha says, " i n the past I have had such body", the work " I " can r e -18 f e r only to a p a r t i c u l a r person, not to an e t e r n a l " s e l f " : One who a t t a i n s Nirvana a l s o experiences the r i s e and f a l l of the nature (way) of p h y s i c a l and mental forms (elements). Having experienced that the f i v e skhandas are momentary existence and d e l u s i o n - unreal - n o - s e l f - one sees that the s e l f and soul are only the union of mind (mana) and matter (rupa). In s h o r t , one understands that the mark of impermanence i s i n a l l phenomena. There i s no sense of happiness (dukkha) and no i d e n t i t y , such as the soul or s e l f ( a n a t t a ) . Egolessness of s e l f (phenomena) becomes c l e a r . This c l a r i f i c a t i o n the Buddhist c a l l s Dhammacakkhu — The Eye of Wisdom. The Arahanta i s one who b a s i c a l l y overcomes Tilakkhana of nature. He i s then f r e e , that i s to say, he c o n t r o l s himself from u n i v e r s a l c o n d i t i o n s ; he i s unmoveable from any phenomena since he understands himself as the o r i e n t a t i o n character (of the game of nature). He i s f r e e to understand, the c o n d i t i o n s of the Twelve Chains... free from the conditioned world to the unconditioned world. That i s , the Four Noble Truths that he made an e f f o r t to f o l l o w r e s i d e w i t h i n him. Freedom corresponds with u n i v e r s a l power. He works to overcome a l l attachments and thereby achieves complete freedom. He i s a l s o free from the law of karma. What i s done by him i s beyond what i s u n i v e r s a l l y determined; i t i s n e i t h e r i t increase nor decrease, good (kusala) nor bad (akusala). There i s no cause or e f f e c t . I t i s "neitherness" (abbhayagrit). He has nothing more to do according to s o c i a l s t a t u s . As the Buddha ut t e r e d a f t e r He became enlightened: "Aneka J a t i Samsara" . . . which t r a n s l a t e s as Many a House of Light hath held me — seeking ever Him who wrought these prisons of the senses, sorrow fraught; sore was my ceaseless s t r i f e ! But now, Thou b u i l d e r of t h i s Tabernacle — Thou! I know Thee! Never Shalt Thou b u i l d again these w a l l s of p a i n , nor r a i s e the roof t r e e of d e c e i t s , nor l a y f r e s h r a f t e r s on the c l a y ; broken Thy house i s , the ridge pole s p l i t ! Delusion fashioned i t ! Safe pass I thence-Deliverance to o b t a i n . ( S i r Edwin Arnold i n Light of Asia) We should note that Dhama, i n b r i e f , has two notions. The 19 f i r s t i s Samkhatadhama (the nature which i s created by i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l causes depending upon each other — r e l a t i v i s m ) . My 20 t r a n s l a t i o n i s imperfected nature. In the a n a l y s i s of t h i s word, sam i s a p r e f i x . There are many meanings, but t h i s means "together or connection". I t i s synonomous with the S a n s k r i t word "sama" 21 which means even or i n the same way, and the P a l i word Samanta which means a l l together. An example of t h i s case i s the word Samanta. Kha'ta comes from the root word "kara" which means to perform. In the S a n s k r i t " k r t a " kr changes "kara" i n t o khahra according to the grammatical r u l e of Akhayata. In P a l i i t i s s a i d that "kara" can be changed to "hkara" when a p r e f i x or s u f f i x i s added. Here we have sam as a p r e f i x and t a as a s u f f i x . Ta makes the verb kara a past p a r t i c i p l e of K a r o t i and changes i t to become a noun to mean "that made, done, composed or performed". These root words are combined with "dhamma" f o r proper use. Hence Sam-khatadham i s here d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : a) inanimated beings (unmoveable being ) , i . e . , mountains, oceans, b u i l d i n g s , farms, e t c . , and b) animated beings (movable t h i n g s ( , i . e . , humans, animals, e t c . Samkhatadhama regards animate beings as c o n s i s t i n g of the f i v e skhandas, v i z . , rupa, vedana, sanna, samkhan, vinnan. These groups of elements are r e a l f o r conventional r e a l i t y (samati sacca) and are perceived by the common man (puthu jana) but are not r e a l f o r the absolute r e a l (paramattha sacca) which i s per-ceived by A r i y a s . Who are the Ariyas? They are s a i n t s who are i n one of four categories depending upon t h e i r enlightenment. These categories (degrees) are c a l l e d Sota, Sakkitha, Anakha, and Ara- h a t t a . They are: 1st d e g r e e — Sota panna — "the s t a t e of e n t e r i n g i n t o the stream of wisdom". The s a i n t who has a t t a i n e d t h i s cannot have more than seven b i r t h s among men and angels before he enters Nirvana. 2nd d e g r e e — Sakidagamin — "he who must come back once". A f t e r a t t a i n i n g t h i s degree there w i l l be only one b i r t h among men or angels before reaching Nirvana. 3rd d e g r e e — Anagami — "he who w i l l not come back". There w i l l be another b i r t h , but not i n the world of s e n s u a l i t y . From the heavens of the Brahmans, Nirvana w i l l be a t t a i n e d . - 12 -4th degree — Arahatta — "the venerable". This i s the per-f e c t s a i n t who w i l l pass to Nirvana without f u r t h e r b i r t h . This 22 source i s from the Siamese Pathamma Somphothiyan katha. Since we have seen how words may come together i n P a l i gram-mar, we can give an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n l i k e t h i s : Samkhatadhama i s nature. A l l aspects of nature are r e l a t e d , or, as western t h i n k e r s c l a r i f y , are " r e l a t i v e r e a l " . How do the aspects of nature perform together? The elements of nature produce them-selves i n regard to nature's processes i n t o c o n g n i t i o n of ( i n t o ) . 23 s i x s u b j e c t i v e and s i x o b j e c t i v e "bases" upon ayatana c o g n i t i o n . This i s i l l u s t r a t e d below: SUBJECT — A Function O f — OBJECT 24 25 I. S i x I n t e r n a l Bases I I . Six E x t e r n a l Bases sense of v i s i o n c o l o r , shape, sight sense of a u d i t i o n sound sense of s m e l l i n g odour sense of t a s t e (tongue) t a s t e sense of touch t a n g i b l e s f a c u l t y of the i n t e l l e c t no sense object or consciousness A l l of these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s from categories one to s i x are func-t i o n i n g together i n correspondence, i . e . , c o l o r i s the f u n c t i o n of the eye. This phenomenon i s represented to the f u n c t i o n of the mind according to the f i v e skhandas. The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the f i v e skhandas regards the s i x i n t e r n a l bases and the s i x e x t e r n a l bases. For example, i f the eye perceives a good c o l o r or shape, * Each of the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l bases has independent and primary a u t h o r i t y (the eye sees and then, secondly, the mind per-c e i v e s ) , i . e . , the eyes have a u t h o r i t y to see but the nose does not. This i s why P a l i terms t h i s phenomena I n d r i y a . For example, I n t r i y a Cakkhu means independent a u t h o r i t y . Cf. Abhidhamma — Dhatu Katha. - 13 -the mind r e g i s t e r s a good f e e l i n g (Sukha-Ramana: produces p l e a s -u r e ) ; i f the eye perceives a bad c o l o r or shape, unpleasant f e e l -ings a r i s e i n the mind (dukkharamana). This phenomena occurs f o r Puthujana (mundane people) but not f o r Ariyas because t h e i r mind has gone beyond pleasure and d i s - p l e a s u r e . Therefore they have n e i t h e r Sukkha-Aramana nor Dukkha Aramana and are c a l l e d Abyak-r i t a ( n e i t h e r one). Hence i n t e r n a l bases and e x t e r n a l bases create 64 elements (6 i n t e r n a l bases ;\and' 6 e x t e r n a l bases X 5 skhandas = 6 0 & 4 Mahabhuta (elements: f i r e , a i r , e a r t h , water) = 64) . Some s u t h o r i t i e s d i v i d e the Samkhata Dhammainto 18 cla s s e s (dhatu = gotra) of.elements represented i n the composition of an i n d i v i d u a l stream of l i f e (Asantana) i n the d i f f e r e n t planes of existen c e . The s i x Vigayas are (objects) i n regard to the s i x Indriyas ( r e c e p t i v e f a c u l t i e s ) , but Alambana are a t t r i b u t e s i n regard to the s i x Vinnanas (consciousness). The second notion of Dhamma i s the Asamkhatadham — the i n -dependent n a t u r a l r e a l i t y (as may be noted, the second notion of Dhamma i s the negative of the f i r s t . The p r e f i x "A" means "no" or " i s o l a t e " . When we s t a r t to t r a v e l , we have a w i l l of d i r e c t i o n — of where to go — and then we have a t t e n t i o n according to our w i l l . The w i l l brings us where we want to be. This i s c a l l e d d e s t i n a -t i o n of the world t r a v e l l e r . In the same way Buddhists have the i n t e r n a l and ul t i m a t e g o a l , both when l i v i n g and a f t e r the end of l i f e . The end of l i f e i s the f i n a l r e s u l t of the world process which i s i t s suppression. Some Westerners c a l l t h i s Utopia or absolute freedom. But Buddhists c a l l t h i s Nirvana, which i s Absolute Calm, the d e s t r u c t i o n of a l l of the co n d i t i o n s of the world, namely, a l l c o - o r i g i n a t i o n i s e x t i n c t and replaced by i m m u t a b i l i t y . A l l of t h i s i s the notion of Asamkhatadhamma. Therefore Asamkhatadhamma, g e n e r a l l y speaking, i s synonomous with Nirvana. The question, then, i s "how can one reach Nirvana?" In s h o r t , one must cut o f f d e s i r e and p r a c t i c e the m o r a l i t y of karma which i s c a l l e d the Eight Fold Noble Truths. A f t e r prac-t i c i n g t h i s , one experiences h i s p r a c t i c e (of the Four Noble Truths) and i n s i g h t . This expectation of p r a c t i c e i s i n common with many other approaches to l i f e . I t i s c a l l e d by Buddhists the C a t a r i - A r i y a - S a c c a n i . This system of teaching cannot be taught, but each man has to r e a l i z e i t by himself. I w i l l f u r t h e r discuss t h i s i n the next chapter. Theravadin Buddhists f i n d the essence of Dhamma i n the f i r s t sermon of the Buddha e n t i t l e d " S e t t i n g i n Motion of the Wheel of the Dhamma" 2 ^ This f i r s t sermon i s known as the Dhammacakkapa-vatana Sutta — Turning the Wheel of the Dhamma. In the Dhammacak-kapavatana Sutta taught by Buddha are the Four Noble Truths: 1) This i s the t r u t h of s u f f e r i n g 2) This i s the cause of the a r i s i n g of s u f f e r i n g 3) This i s the t r u t h of the c e s s a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g 4) This i s the t r u t h of the path which leads to the ces s a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g 2 7 The f i r s t Noble Truth was intended to e x p l a i n (describe) the e x i s -tence of human nature as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and p a i n f u l . How can one f a l l i n love i n the u n c e r t a i n t y of l i f e and i n the midst of suf-f e r i n g ? Our love that we engage and enjoy together i n t h i s world i s only momentary pleasure and un r e a l . The r e a l of l i f e i s not - 1 5 -s a t i s f a c t o r y and l o g i c a l l y love i s meaningless. Since we have no power of demanding our l i v e s to be perfe c t and of l i v i n g together h a p p i l y the r e s t of our l i v e s , and since love should not be t r a n s -formed i n t o s u f f e r i n g , although love i s the sign of s u f f e r i n g be-cause love i s one of the d e s i r e s (kama tanha), then one loves one another and only becomes s e l f i s h i n the sense that t h i s .person i s mine — I am hers or h i s and so f o r t h (machariya). I f love works out w e l l then one (he) w i l l be happy momentarily. But i t i s not r e a l ; i t i s only a r t i f i c i a l and d e l u s i o n . Love has to c o n s i s t of sympathy and be beyond d e s i r e and one must understand that there i s no way of s a t i s f y i n g our l i f e no matter i f we love or hate. Love i s only another form of s u f f e r i n g . Buddha says, "Piyato — 28 Jayate Soko" — "where i s love there i s s u f f e r i n g " . Hence the f i r s t Noble Truth describes the nature of l i f e . B a s i c a l l y l i f e i s p a i n f u l , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and a n x i e t y - r i d d e n . This l i f e i s n a t u r a l l y and l o g i c a l l y subject to s u f f e r i n g : This i s the Noble Truth of Dukkha: b i r t h i s Dukkha; decay and o l d age i s Dukkha; disease i s Dukkha; deathc i s Dukkha; assoc-i a t i o n with what i s unpleasant i s Dukkha; sepatation from what i s pleasant i s Dukkha; f a i l u r e to obtain what one wants i s Dukkha. B r i e f l y s t a t e d , the f i v e groups of p h y s i c a l mental processes that make up the i n d i v i d u a l .are due to grasping and are the objects of 29 grasping. These f i v e groups of grasping are Dukkha. This teaching i s in t e n d i n g to l e t man be aware of h i s own experience that he may give up attachment of d e l u s i o n of l i f e , that i s , to understand the impermanance of l i f e and i t s process as i t i s . Humans should experience and e n l i g h t e n i t r a t h e r than - 16 -Ignore i t , and r e a l i z e t h e i r c o n d i t i o n of l i f e , thereby a v o i d i n g fear and i n s e c u r i t y . F i n a l l y they w i l l f e e l free here on earth. The Legend of the Four Signs r e v e a l s i n simple form the r e a l i z a -t i o n of the Buddha-to-be^ that a l l beings and things are t r a n s i -t o r y (anicca) — a l l beings born must grow, must grow o l d , become i l l and d i e . We f i n d that some schools of Buddhism have d i f f e r e n t ideas as to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Four Noble Truths. As Th. Stcheratsky says: "In any comparative study of them, they should be under-stood according to the context of t h e i r school system. For example, the Theravada method of Magga-Nirodha-Sacca, which i s intended f o r the Theravada conception of Nirodha-. Sacca which i s p e r t i n e n t to the Theravada n o t i o n of Samud-aya-Sacca. S i m i l a r l y , the Sarva s t i v a d a , Madhyamika, and Yogacara views of Marga-Nirodha re Samudays re Dukkha." 31 The fundamental d o c t r i n e of Buddhism f a l l s i n t o three cate-g o r i e s : impermanence, i m p e r f e c t i o n , and n o - s e l f (Anicca, Dukkha, and Anatta). This Dhamma covers both animate and inanimate, as already mentioned. However, each school views t h i s d o c t r i n e d i f -f e r e n t l y . A l l Dhamma i s r e a l . I t does not change from one period to another, or from the past and f u t u r e , but i s momentarily i n the present. This held by the S a r v a s t i v a d i n School. A l l Dhamma i s empty. What we perceive i s only the r e l a t i o n a l n a t u r a l r e a l i t y , which i s r e a l . Dhamma i s Sunyata. This view i s held by Madhay-amika. Dhamma i s nothing but the c r e a t i o n of our mind. This i s held by the Yogacara school ( V i j n a p t i m a t r a t a ) . The theory of Dhamma which i s defined by Th. Stcheratsky i n t e r e s t s me. Here I w i l l present a l l of h i s d e f i n i t i o n s except one : The conception of Dhamma i s the c e n t r a l point of the Bud-d h i s t d o c t r i n e . In the l i g h t of t h i s conception. Buddhism d i s c l o s e s i t s e l f as a meta-physical theory developed out of one fundamental p r i n c i p l e , v i z . , the idea that existence i s an i n t e r p l a y of a p l u r a l i t y of s u b t l e , u l t i m a t e , not f u r t h e r analyzable elements of matter, mind and forces...the f i n a l r e s u l t of the world-process i s i t s suppression, Absolute Calm: a l l co-operation i s e x t i n c t and replaced by immutabi-l i t y . 3 2 We can see according to the quotation above that Dhamma, then, i s ch a r a c t e r i z e d by a) conventional use and b) u l t i m a t e l y absolute r e a l i t y (Nirvana) — being super-mundane. Fundamentally, we compare the Theravadin and Yogacarin n o t i o n of Dhamma as being the same since they both b e l i e v e i n the same t e x t u a l content and hold the same b e l i e f that there i s nothing i n Dhamma but the s t r u c t u r e of our mind. In the verse which was con-sidered s u f f i c i e n t l y important to be placed at the beginning of the Dhammapadha, a l l dhammas are s a i d to be dominated, governed, and created by mind. We should a l s o be aware that most Buddhist scholars describe the dhammas as Samkhatadhama ( r e l a t i v e r e a l i t y or Samkkara) and Asamkhatadhama (independent r e a l i t y or Nirvana). Broadly speak-i n g , the common man who holds t h e o r i e s and ignores the p r a c t i c a l p a r t , would l i k e to describe dhammas as being i n three parts i n order to make t h e i r theory look q u a n t i t a t i v e l y b e t t e r ; they do not know the q u a l i t y of Buddhist Dhamma. Hence, by q u a l i t y (of Dhamnic p r a c t i t i o n e r s ) Dhamma i s d i v i d e d i n t o c ategories as men-tion e d and described p r e v i o u s l y . By qu a n t i t y Dhamma i s d i v i d e d i n -to three c a t e g o r i e s , v i z . , the f i v e skhandas, the 1 2 sense f i e l d s , and the 1 8 elements. At any rat e the three c a t e g o r i e s f u r t h e r f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n of t h i s system i s - 1 8 -that Samkhatadhama and Asamkhatadhama are the measurement of the f i v e skhandas, e t c . , i n regard to the degree reached by the Dhammlc p r a c t i t i o n e r . For example, Puthujana i s the s t i l l - b e c o m i n g Samkha-tadhamma. In the same way, I f he works h i s way up to the path of A r i y a , then he becomes A r i y a ; he i s then i n the Asamkhatadhamma l e v e l . Thus i n the Samkhatadhamma and the Asamkhatadhamma, the f i v e skhandas are i n t e r - r e l a t e d . The Parinibbana Sutta describes that the Enlightened One s t i l l maintains h i s l i f e (khandha) on e a r t h ; he i s both Samkhatadhamma and Asamkhatadhamma (Sesanibbana). He who passes away from t h i s world with h i s enlightenment i s Asam-khatadhamma (Asesanibbana). Buddhagosa describes the Dhamma of the f i v e skandhas. The skandhas (heaps of groups) are the f i v e c o n s t i t u e n t s of the per-s o n a l i t y as i t appears. On a n a l y s i s , a l l the f a c t s of experience, of ourselves and of objects i n r e l a t i o n to us, can be stated i n terms of the skandhas. The purpose of the a n a l y s i s i s to do away with the nebulous word " I " . The skandhas "define the l i m i t of 33 the basis of grasping a f t e r a s e l f , and what belongs to s e l f " . The Five Skandhas i s the d o c t r i n e considered as the metaphysics of man. Man g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e s that there i s s e l f or ego, as was taught by the Hindus before Buddha. They grasped w i t h ignorance that s i z e , shape, c o l o r , i . e . , of h a i r , eyebrow, nose, hands, l e g s , e t c . , are s e l f and belonging to them. Buddha taught to give up attachment of the f i v e skandhas by appealing to the reason that there i s Annicca, Dukkha, and Anatta i n the f i v e skandhas. Thus why are we deluded with i t ? We use i t while we have l i f e w i t h i n i t . L i k e we rent a house or c a r , they are not i n our power; they - 1 9 -come and go the way they are. They do not belong t o us. The best way f o r us i s to l i v e our l i v e s according to the f i v e skandhas; then we should e i t h e r a f f i r m or deny them. We have to accept that we are here while we are here -- there i s nothing much we can do except reason. This i s why t h i s teaching of Buddha i s c a l l e d mid-dle path (not a f f i r m i n g or denying l i f e ) . Our l i f e appears as the momentariness of the f i v e skandhas not as s e l f . We should not f a l l i n t o a stat e i n which we grasp them as the s e l f because they are u n i t e d . In the p h i l o s o p h i c a l sense Buddha, of course, denied the existence of the soul or personal i n d i v i d u a l i t y sur-v i v i n g death. He set up h i s d o c t r i n e to teach mans nature. Man i s nothing but an aggregate of the f i v e skandhas, that i s : the form, the sensation, the per c e p t i o n , the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n , and the consc iousness. The f i v e skandhas give r i s e to Puthu Janas as permanent and r e a l , but to Arahantas they are impermanent and i l l u s o r y . I t i s easy to get the impression that there i s form and soul and s e l f , but our death proves that i t i s i l l u s o r y and no s e l f . As soon as we discover by our experience, we f i n d that i t i s l i k e the candle and the flame. They both are unreal as soon as they go out. To f o l l o w what i s l e f t us i s karma and karma causes us to enter the c y c l e again and again by the process of d e l u s i o n . Hence the f i v e skandhas f a l l i n t o three fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of t r u t h — Anicca, Dukkha, and Anatta. I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the common man to understand the t h r e e -f o l d s i g h t of the f i v e skandhas, only the Arahanta understands. As the Buddha states to h i s f o l l o w e r s : - 20 -Those who are not yet enlightened (have e r r o r s ) have the d e l u s i o n of permanence where i t i s impermanent, u t o p i a where i t i s s u f f e r i n g , s e l f where there i s no s e l f and whole-someness, hold f a l s e views. Such as these do not reach Nirvana but are t i e d up i n the bonds of the d e v i l , and r e t u r n to the c y c l e of l i f e f u l l of b i r t h , decay and death. According to t h i s gatha we can see c l e a r l y that the world of our existence i s f u l l of d e l u s i o n , f u l l of s u f f e r i n g ; nothing can be c o n t r o l l e d , only r e a l i z e d . One must f i r s t r e a l i z e that every-t h i n g changes i n the beginning, middle and end, from one form to another, from one time to another, from one space to another. There i s no permanence of our existence at a l l — a l l of t h i s phenomena... you might c a l l coming and going, j u s t l i k e the wave of the sea, foam of the water, has organized i t s e l f w ith i t s processes of nature without any meaning or purpose. I t j u s t ap-pears as the form of foam at that momentary present that we perceive. Soon the sun w i l l come and c r y s t a l i z e i t . There i s no such t h i n g as the form of foam that we perceived. I t i s coming and going, happening ( U p a t j i t v a ) and d e s t r o y i n g ( N i r u c h j a n t i ) as the way of nature (Dhammataya). This i s i n the case of form. I t i s analogous to the case of the f i v e skandhas' existences which are always c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Anicca, Dukkha, and Anatta. There are no exceptions. As long as we r e a l i z e the way things are (Dhammat-aya), then we can reason and experience that they deceive (delude) us. They do not help us. We are i n the middle of t h e i r way, n e i t h e r a f f i r m i n g nor denying, j u s t accepting things the way they are and the way they are not. This i s c a l l e d Dhammataya. I would l i k e to quote Th. Stcherbatsky's statement which r e l a t e s to my d e s c r i p t i o n of the dhammic notion - 21 -These elements are t e c h n i c a l l y c a l l e d Dhammas, a meaning which t h i s word has i n t h i s system alone. Buddhism, accord-i n g l y , can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a system of r a d i c a l p l u r a l i s m (Sanghata-vada): the elements alone are r e a l i t i e s , every combination of them i s a mere name covering a p l u r a l i t y of separation elements. The moral teaching of a path toward F i n a l Deliverance i s not something a d d i t i o n a l of extraneous to t h i s o n t o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e , i t i s most i n t i m a t e l y connected with i t and i n fac t i s i d e n t a c a l with i t . 35 A c t u a l l y Dhamma means Drong. Dhar i s the root of t h i s word and means Drong (pronounced as i n song), which means to stay by i t s e l f or be supported by i t s e l f , that i s , t o e x i s t independently, to be a substance. Therefore Dhamma means everything without exception, from the f i n e s t speck of dust that has no m a t e r i a l value and i s changeable, to things that are a b s t r a c t , meaning s p i r i t , thought, f e e l i n g s , even acts or karma, i n c l u d i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of Nirvana. A l l these are c a l l e d Dhamma. I t can thus be s a i d that Dhamma means everything i f we take Dhamma i n i t s l i t e r a l sense. Obviously, "the word" i s none other than the Dhamma i n the sense of Natural Laws, or what i s known i n Buddhism as the Truth (Saccdhamma).. In Buddhism, what forms the essence of everything i s termed as Dhamma...there i s no word b e t t e r than that ... etymologists might examine the roots of the word " s p i r i t " i n L a t i n and Greek, so that the Tai v e r s i o n can be more acc u r a t e l y 37 produced both l i t e r a l l y and meaningfully. In b r i e f , one has r e a l i z e d what l i f e i s , according to prac-t i c i n g the S i l a , Samadhi, Panna, and Vimukti , v i z . , r i g h t view, r i g h t speech, e t c . That way of p r a c t i c i n g leads man to the middle path which g i v e t h v i s i o n , which g i v e t h knowledge, which g i v e t h enlightenment, Nirvana. Thus he i s free from attachment of the f i v e skandhas through the experience of the three s i g h t s . He i s - 2 2 -no longer caught up with the power of d e l u s i o n of the worldly-c o n d i t i o n (good, bad, happiness, sadness, e t c . ) . At the same time he i s f r e e — from the power of d e s i r e and d e l u s i o n , or c o - o r i g i n a l cause; he cuts o f f h i s l i f e c y c l e . He i s free both from "he i s " and "he i s not". He i s ready f o r , "he w i l l be" and "he w i l l not yet be," according to h i s own experience r a t h e r than being taught. R e l i g i o u s experience i s absolute. I t i s i n d i s p u t a b l e . No matter what the world t h i n k s about r e l i g i o u s experience, the one who has i t posseses the great treasure of the t h i n g that has provided him with a source of l i f e , meaning, and beauty, and that has given a new splendour to the world and to mankind. The opening of S a t o r i i s the remaking of l i f e i t s e l f . Jung, C.G., Psychology and R e l i g i o n , pp. 1 , 3 Dr. Suzuki, Essay i n Zen Buddhism, I , p. 2 1 7 - 2 3 -REFERENCE NOTES 1 . Dhammapadha V o l . Bangkok, Mahamakut U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 2 , p. 8 5 2 . Digha-Nikaya PTS. V o l . I l l p. 2 1 9 CF the word "Cakkhumant" 3 . Visudhimagga PTS. V o l . XVII P. 5 1 7 4. Majjhima-Nikaya PTS. 1 8 8 7 - 1 9 0 2 V o l . 1 P. 3 5 6 and V o l . 1 1 P. 9 5 CF D. 1 1 1 . P. 1 5 6 (sadho h o t i , saddahati Tathagatassa bodhi-) 5 . Dhammacakkhu ( n ) — the eyes of wisdom, the eyes (or v i s i o n ) of the Truth. Skt. Dhamma & caksus (from Saudmontra Plakhongkou and Buddhapavati) V o l . 1 P. 6 5 CF D. 1 . 8 6 , 1 1 0 . V o l . 1 1 . 2 8 0 , S. LV., 48, and A. Lv., 1 8 6 , V i n . 1 , 1 1 , P. 1 6 , 40 e t c . , E x p l . at DA. 1 , 2 3 7 6 . Pancca khandhas, v i z : rupa vedana, sanna, samkhara, and vinnana. (Form i s the p h y s i c a l or m a t e r i a l side of things — moral and mental q u a l i t y ) : F e e lings are pleasant, unpleasant, n e u t r a l ; Perception — s i x corresponding to the s i x sense-organs; Impulses are a c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s , tendencies, s t r i v -i n g s , emotions ( l o v e , hate, etc.) both consciously and uncons-c i o u s l y ; Consciousness i s the most important category of the f i v e skandhas and i s always e l u s i v e of the f i v e skandhas. Sometimes I t i s c a l l e d soul i n the Buddhist sense. 7 . Sesanibbana 8 . Asesanibbana 9 . T r i s i k k h a , v i z : s i l a , samadhi, and panna 1 0 . Synonomous terms f o r the Path are Ekayano Magga, Visuddhi Mag-ga, Majjhima Patipade, A r i y a Magga, Bodhi, Sambhodhi. General-l y i t i s c a l l e d The Noble E i g h t - F o l d Path of the Path of Moral Development, v i z . , Right Speech (Samma Vaca), Right A c t i o n (Samma Kammanta), Right L i v e l i h o o d (Samma A j j i v a ) , Right E f f o r t (Samma Vayama), Right Mindfulness (Samma S a t i ) , Right Concentration (Samma Samadhi), Right A s p i r a t i o n (Samma Sam-kappa), Right. Views (Samma D i t t h i ) 1 1 . . Vanna-cathism, V i z . : K h a t i y a - k i n g , Brahman-spiritual l e a d e r , Besa (Bessaya) — t r a d e r , Sutra — Working c l a s s or slaves 1 2 . M u l l e r , Max, The Sacred Books of the East, V o l . XL., P. 1 0 7 1 3 . I b i d . , p. 1 0 7 1 4 . A l l novices and monks i n Thailand were given the f i r s t Estab-lishment of Mindfulness by the Preceptor (upaja) d i r e c t l y a f t e r o r d i n a t i o n (upasampadha). Thai Buddhists c a l l t h i s Taca- Panna - 24 -Kammatthan — Medit a t i o n on parts of the body such as the h a i r , t e e t h , e t c . , to perceive whether they are Anicca, Dukkha, or Anatta. CF Rhys David, Buddhism, pp. 1 6 9 - 1 7 1 - Also see (CF) Ala b a s t e r , Henry, The Wheel of The Law, Buddhism, P. SLIV, and p. 2 0 6 1 5 . Mahasatipatthana Suttanta p. 3 2 7 1 6 . Stcherbatsky, The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana, p. 3 1 , n. 1 1 7 . Abhidhammakos, by Vaubandhu, — L. de L a l l e e - P o u s s i n , L'AK de Vasubandhu, t r a d , ed annote LX 2 2 1 1 8 . I b i d . , p. 2 5 3 1 9 . Gatha Dhammapadha ( i n Tha i s c r i p t u r e ) verse 9 6 , p. 2 6 2 0 . My t r a n s l a t i o n 2 1 . Sutta Nipata Commentary, V o l . PTS. 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 1 7 . P- 1 5 1 . Also CF (KhA) — Khuddaka-Patha Commentary PTS. 1 9 1 5 - P. 2 0 9 2 2 . CF. Al a b a s t e r , Henry, The Wheel of the Law Buddhism p. 1 7 1 2 3 . Ayatanam — sense-organ and sense-object 2 4 . Adhyatma-Ayatana, v i z . : Cakkhu I n d r i y a Ayatana, Sota I n d r i y a Ayatana, Gandha I n d r i y a Ayatana, J i v h a I n d r i y a Ayatana, Kaya I n d r i y a Ayatana, Mana Andriya Ayatana. Sometimes c a l l e d Ayatana. 2 5 . Bahya Ayatana. Sometimes c a l l e d V i s y a , v i z : Rupa Ayatana, Sota Ayatana, Gandha Ayatana, Rasa Ayatana, Photaba Ayatana, and Dhamma Ayatana. 2 6 . In The Wheel of the Law, Buddha taught two absolute laws, the f o l l o w i n g of the Midle Ways, and the c l e a r wisdom of the Four Noble Truths. He f i r s t taught t h i s r i g h t a f t e r h i s e n l i g h t e n -ment to Panca Vaggiyas, and h i s teachings included Kontanna, Vappa Bhadhiya, Mahanama, and A s s a j i . This Sutta He claimed as the highest enlightenment. (Samy. 5 6 . 1 1 Thai D i s c r i p t i o n ) 2 7 - Dukkha A r i s a c c a , Dukkha Samudya A r i y a s a c c a , Dukkha Nirodha Ariyasacca and Dukkha Ariyasacca 28.. Dhamma Subhasit (Thai Beginner-Dhamma i n Thai P a l i s c r i p t u r e my t r a n s l a t i o n ) 2 9 . Nyanasatta, Thera C , Basic Tenets of Buddhism. R a j a g i r i y a , Celon: Anonda Semage, 1 9 5 7 , P- 40 3 0 . The main c o l l e c t i o n of Jatakas includes 550 s t o r i e s . Many ad-d i t i o n s have been made by a number of people i n Ceylon and the - 2 5 -Mainland of Southeast A s i a , i n c l u d i n g Thailand. The Jatakas were adopted i n t o l o c a l custom and f o l k l o r e . The T h a i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , adopted Vessandara J'ata'ka, which are great s t o r i e s of Buddha, as t h e i r n a t i o n a l s t o r y and f o l k l o r e . They c a l l i t Mahajatigamhlaung, or "The King Vessandara who had e x i s t e d i n tne past, that Vessandara was Buddha." 3 1 . Th. Stcherbatsky, "The Cen t r a l Conception of Buddhism and The Meaning of the Word 'Dhamma'". (London: Royal A s i a t i c Soc±~'.. ety) , pp. 7 3 c f . 3 2 . I b i d . , p. 7 3 f f • 3 3 . M u l l e r , op. c i t . , p. 1 0 7 3 4 . My t r a n s l a t i o n from V i p a l l a s s a Sutta i n the Angutara Nikaya. This i s a Gatha: Anicce n l c c a sanno-dukkhe ce sukha sannino A n t t a n i ca attati-asubhe subha sannino M i c c h a d i t t h i gatta s a t t a - k h i t t a c i t t a visannino Te yogayutta marassa-ayogakkemino jana S a t t a G a c c h a n t i samsaram-Jati maran gamino 3 5 . Th, Stcherbatsky, op. c i t . , pp. 7 3 f f . 3 6 . The Veneral Bhikkhu Buddhadasalndapanno, Dhamma the World  Saviour; Buddhist U n i v e r s i t y Press, pp. 2 - 3 3 7 - BuddhadasaBhikkhu, C h r i s t i a n i t y and Buddhism, p. 1 0 8 - 26 -Chapter I I THE SECOND PRINCIPLE OF THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS:  THE NATURE OF CAUSATION-SAMUDAYA-SACCA The teaching of Guatama Buddha i n the second p r i n c i p l e of the Four Noble Truths i s f o r man to r e a l i z e h i s own nature which i s the r ediscovery of the s o l u t i o n of the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e of the Four Noble Truths — that there must be the cause of s u f f e r i n g since the existence of nature i s s u f f e r i n g . This i s the imp e r f e c t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n of man's nature. Hence the second p r i n c i p l e of t h i s d i c t r i n e r a i s e s the more c r u c i a l question. Even i n the West, Hume and h i s f o l l o w e r s emphasize the causa.1 r e l a t i o n of the nature of man. Hume never paid a t t e n t i o n to what was happening as he found the question obvious and unnecessary. How things came to happen was a more i n t e r e s t i n g question to him. I w i l l represent t h i s problem i n a l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n . Here I am s t r e s s i n g that the teach-ings of Buddha and Hume are a c c i d e n t a l l y s i m i l a r because Buddha, l i k e Hume, was a r a d i c a l e m p i r i c i s t . He attempted to c o n t r o l the force of human nature by understanding what was happening. Mere-l y knowing that the existence of man i s s u f f e r i n g i s not enough fo r the Buddhist; what i s the cause of s u f f e r i n g i s more import-ant to know, i n order to c o n t r o l or master h i m s e l f , nature, and f i n d the u l t i m a t e goal of h i s l i f e . Man has t o l e a r n how to con-t r o l h i s events i n order t o achieve freedom which i s c a l l e d f r e e -dom to — t_o Nirvana. Thus the second p r i n c i p l e of t h i s d o c t r i n e i s to i l l u s t r a t e how and why s u f f e r i n g a r i s e s . A l l compound subjects are t h r e e -- 27 -f o l d — a n i c c S j dukkha, and anatta. This phenomena imp l i e s that l i f e i s imperfect and u n b l i s s f u l since i t i s t r a n s i t o r y and l a c k -ing s e l f . Buddhism has t r i e d to show the viewpoint that l i f e i s a proc-ess, going on and on as c o n t i n u a l phenomena, having no beginning and having no end. This l i f e i s c a l l e d samsara. Knowing that samsara i s the conditioned world, Buddhists t r y to c o n t r o l i t by r e d i s c o v e r i n g the nature of causation of s u f f e r i n g . In the gatha of the Dhammapadha i t i s s a i d : ye dhamma hetupabhva-tesam hetum Tathagato tesam ca yo nirodho ca-evam v a t i Mahasmano (Tathagata, who i s p e a c e f u l , has always taught that a l l phenomena have the nature of causation. He f u r t h e r taught how to decease t h i s nature of causation. This i s the way Mahasamana always teaches.) According to the above gatha, then, we can remark that Buddha a l -ways r e a l i z e s f o r himself and teaches others that a l l phenomena have to have a cause, that nothing i s able to happen ( e x i s t ) w i t h -out cause. Thus the concept of cause (hetu) i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r Buddhist teaching. Buddhists do not b e l i e v e i n chance. What i s the cause of s u f f e r i n g ? Buddhism answers that i t i s the cooriginal-depending-causation. For example, d e l u s i o n causes karma which produces i n man a d i f f e r e n t i d e n t i t y (kammam satte v i b h a j j a t i ) . Karma creates mankind. Then the question a r i s e s , why do we have karma? We have karma because we have d e s i r e . Hence d e s i r e i s the cause of s u f f e r i n g . Buddhists b e l i e v e that i n order to make l i f e p e r f e c t and happy, they have to remove s u f f e r -ing (nirodha). This i s why I mentione e a r l i e r that a Buddhist attempts to struggle against the nature of man and t r i e s to c o n t r o l h i s own events i n order to master nature. He c o n t r o l s nature by hi s a b i l i t y to destroy s u f f e r i n g according to the second p r i n c i p l e of the Pour Noble Truths. I f he can do t h i s he overcomes the force of nature (samsara) and achieves the freedom of l i f e that i s n i r v a n a . L i f e w i l l be meaningful and he can l i v e beyond fear and s u f f e r i n g since he has stopped h i s s u f f e r i n g . Hence he learns to l i v e and make himself free from a l l c o n d i t i o n s of the world. He no longer separates happiness from s u f f e r i n g . He makes the t r a n -s i t o r y s t a t e of l i f e permanent and i m p e r f e c t i o n p e r f e c t . We l i v e day by day; the more we l i v e , the more we gain exper-ience. Then i t i s not d i f f i c u l t f o r us to discover the t r u t h of s u f f e r i n g as long as we experience l i v i n g . What we a c t u a l l y d i s -cover i s that a l l beings are born, grow to decay, and d i e ; t h i s i s a n i c c a . L i f e i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; t h i s i s dukkha. L i f e i s be-coming r a t h e r than being; t h i s i s anatta (no s o u l ) . There i s no s e l f r e l i a n c e of c i n t i n u i t y of u n c h a n g e a b i l i t y , happiness, " I -ness," or "my-ness." How could there be s e l f r e l i a n c e i f there i s no s e l f ? "The ' s e l f i s that which appropriates and owns. This f u n c t i o n i s s i m p l i e d denied. 'Owning' and 'belonging' are d i s -missed as categories invented by people swayed by c r a v i n g and ignorance, who superimpose t h e i r own imaginations on the r e a l f a c t s as the exist.""'" "I-ness" and "my-ness" are "becoming" from the p u r i t y of t h e i r own elements (mahaputa rupa — e a r t h , water, a i r , f i r e ) which are known as the f i v e skandhas. Because of t h i s each man has h i s own i n d i v i d u a l f i v e skandhas. The r e s u l t gives r i s e to man's deluding himself that there i s such a t h i n g as "I-ness" which e x i s t s . What are the f i v e skandhas? They are phenomena. (Each man i s a constantly-changing conglo-merate, from one moment to the next, of sensations, p e r c e p t i o n , mental formations, and consciousness. Hence there i s no such t h i n g as form. There i s only momentary gross p h y s i c a l form w i t h sense functions ( s i g h t , sound, e t c . ) . This appears t o us as mom-entary phenomena. Nothing i s r e a l . Things come and go the way they r e a l l y are. They n e i t h e r belong to us nor are they from them-sel v e s . And so i t i s with perception. I f one has the d e l u s i o n or notion that there i s " I , " because of h i s attachment, then he w i l l s u f f e r when he discovers that i t i s t r a n s i t o r y and imperfect. This i s why the Buddhist d o c t r i n e teaches us the t r u t h of s u f f e r -i n g . Having mentioned e a r l i e r that the cause of s u f f e r i n g i s d e s i r e (tanha), as described i n the second p r i n c i p l e of t h i s , the true teaching, This i s the Noble Truth of the o r i g i n of dukkha: I t i s t h i s c r a v i n g (tanha) that leads to ever-f r e s h and repeated r e b i r t h , and i s connected with d e l i g h t and pleasure, f i n d i n g now here, now t h e r e , i t s objects of enjoyment, namely 1) craving f o r sense pleasure, 2) c r a v i n g f o r s e l f - c o n t i n u e d becoming ( e x i s t e n c e ) , and 2 3) c r a v i n g f o r s e l f - a n n i h i l a t i o n a f t e r death. I t i s quite evident, according t o the above passage, that tanha i s the data of, or causation of, s u f f e r i n g . Hence one wants to be free from -- from samsara — and reach complete freedom — not only freedom from but al s o freedom t o . (I w i l l d i s c u s s freedom l a t e r ) . One has to cut o f f h i s tanha to have the a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l himself over the n a t u r a l force of being reborn, decaying, dying, e t c . - 3 0 -Immediately upon o b t a i n i n g nirvana he goes beyond that s t a t e be-cause he b e l i e v e s that being born, decaying, dying, e t c . , i s not r e a l , but only a state of mind. Tanha l i t e r a l l y means t h i r s t — t h i r s t f o r what? For the sen-sual m a t e r i a l world, namely, the human world, god world, and a n i -mal world. Because of d e s i r e , man cannot see "I-ness" as "no-I-ness." Thus d e s i r e i s the c e n t r a l " I - c r e a t o r . " " I - c r e a t o r " i s produced by attachment and attachment produces a sensual f e t t e r , what one wants and what one does not want. This i s analogous to The t h i r s t of a thoughtless man grows l i k e a creeper; he runs from l i f e to l i f e , l i k e a monkey seeking f r u i t i n the f o r e s t . 3 Furthermore, d e s i r e creates man to be occupied by n a t u r a l f i r e , which c o n t i n u a l l y burns with i t s power of s e n s u a l i t y . E v e r y t h i n g , brethren, i s on f i r e . How, brethren, i s everything on f i r e ? The eye, brethren, i s on f i r e ; v i s i b l e objects are o n v f i r e ; the f a c u l t y of the yee i s on f i r e ; the sense of the eye i s on f i r e , and a l s o the s e n s a t i o n , whether pleasant or unpleasant or both, which a r i s e s from the sense of s i g h t , i s on f i r e . With what i s i t on f i r e ? With the f i r e of passion (raga), of hate (dosa), of i l l u s i o n (moha), i s i t on f i r e , with b i r t h , old age, death, g r i e f , lamentation, s u f f e r i n g , sorrow, and despair. Thus I d e c l a r e . The ear i s on f i r e , sounds are on f i r e . . . The nose i s on f i r e , scents . are on f i r e . . . The f a c u l t y of the mind i s on f i r e . . . In t h i s passage Buddha teaches that l i f e i s f u l l of s u f f e r i n g and s u f f e r i n g i s caused by e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l causes (ayatana bhainok and ayatana b h a i n a i ) . These causes create the burning of mental and p h y s i c a l phenomena. This f i r e i s c a l l e d raga ( p a s s i o n ) , dosa ( g u i l t ) , and moha ( s e l f - d e c e p t i o n ) . These three aspects of f i r e d e l u s i o n become the major powerful discharge (asava) which - 3 1 -t i e s man to the world's never-ending c y c l e . The c o n d i t i o n of man i n Samsara i s c a l l e d the t w e l v e f o l d chain of causation. Man has to s t r i v e f o r c e s s a t i o n . That i s , man has to p r a c t i c e the E i g h t -Fold-Noble Path u n t i l he reaches arahantaship (enlightened being). Otherwise he w i l l continue i n the c y c l e with no beginning and no end. What i s the cycle of l i f e ? We should look at the drawings and comments which f o l l o w . Sanyoga, "The Chain of Interdependent O r i g i n a t i o n s " or "Con-tinued Co-Production," applies.".to the r e b i r t h and e v o l u t i o n of man: Ignorance Karma Foundations Consciousness Mind and Body (Name and Form) Six Sense F i e l d s Impression (Contact) F e e l i n g (Sensation) Craving (Desire or T h i r s t ) Prehension (Grasping) Existence (Becoming) B i r t h Old Age Death. Ignorance — not knowing, c r e a t i o n of erroneous know-ledge and f a l s e views, not seeing t h i n g s as they r e a l l y are, that i s , not knowing p a s t p l i f e l i f e i n regard to s u f f e r i n g , o r i g i n a t i o n , stopping and the course l e a d i n g to stopping. Karma Formations — of body, speech and thought ... the r e s u l t . o f these three a c t i o n s determines why we are here r i g h t now. Consciousness — f i r s t moment of new l i f e ( p r e s e n t ) , and consciousness due to v i s u a l , o l f a c t o r y , a u d i t o r y , gustatory, and mental. Mind and Body — m a t e r i a l existence (form, body, four elements), f e e l i n g , p e r c e p t i o n , v o l i t i o n , and wise a t t e n t i o n ... t h i s i s c a l l e d mind, present S i x Sense F i e l d s — f i e l d of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body l i f e and mind. Impression (Contact) — due to eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. F e e l i n g (Sensation) — due to eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind ... there are three types — pleasant, unpleasant, and n e u t r a l . - 3 2 -Craving (Desire or T h i r s t ) Prehension (Grasping) — grasping attachment ... begin-ning, of new karma formations. E x i s t e n c e , becoming, ac t i o n s f u t u r e B i r t h l i f e Old Age Death GREED — HATRED — DELUSION Human beings k i l l , s t e a l , become j e a l o u s , e t c . , because of t h e i r greed f o r things or ideas. Human beings k i l l , become j e a l o u s or envious, e t c . , because of t h e i r hatred f o r things or ideas, on Human beings have greed and hatred because of t h e i r d e l u s i o n . In t h e i r d e l u s i o n they t h i n k that they are happy when they are s u f f e r i n g or causing others to s u f f e r . REFERENCE NOTES 1 . Conze, Edward, Buddhist Thought i n I n d i a , p. 1 0 3 . 2 . Nyanastta, Thera C , Basic Tenets of Buddhism, R a j a g i r i y a , Ceylon: Ananda Semage, 1 9 5 7 , p. 40. 3 . Dhammapada, p. 9 0 . 4 . Thomas, Edward Joseph, Buddhist S c r i p t u r e s , London: John Murray, 1 9 1 3 , PP. 5 4 , 5 5 -- 33 -Chapter I I I THE GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECOND PRINCIPLE: THE NATURE OF CAUSATION "The Chain of Interdependent O r i g i n a t i o n s " — or "Continued Co-Production" a p p l i e s to the r e b i r t h and e v o l u t i o n of man. Ignorance Karma Formations Consciousness Mind and Body (Name and Form) S i x Sense F i e l d s Impression (contact) F e e l i n g (Sensation) Craving (desire or t h i r s t ) Prehension (grasping) Existence (becoming) B i r t h Old Age Death. 1. Ignorance — not knowing, c r e a t i o n of erroneous know-ledge and f a l s e views, not seeing things as they r e a l l y are, that i s , not knowing i n regard to s u f f e r i n g , o r i g -past l i f e i n a t i o n , stopping and course l e a d i n g to stopping. 2. Karma Formations — of p h y s i c a l a c t i o n , v e r b a l a c t i o n , mental a c t i o n . The r e s u l t of these three a c t i o n s de-termines why we are here r i g h t now. 3. consciousness — f i r s t moment of new l i f e ( p r e s e n t ) , and consciousness due t o v i s u a l , o l f a c t o r y , a u d i t o r y , gustatory, and mental phenomena. 4. mind and body — m a t e r i a l existence (form) (body) (four elements), f e e l i n g , p e r c e p t i o n , v o l i t i o n and wise a t t e n t i o n , t h i s i s c a l l e d mind. present 5- s i x sense f i e l d s — f i e l d of eye, ear, nose, tongue, l i f e body and mind. 6. impression — (contact_ due to eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. 7. f e e l i n g — due to eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. There are three types — pleasant, unpleasant, ' - and', n e u t r a l . 8. c r a v i n g — d e s i r e or t h i r s t . 9 . grasping attachment — beginning of new karma formation. 10. becoming, e x i s t e n c e , a c t i o n . 11. b i r t h 1 ge death fu t u r e l i f e 12. o l d age The f o l l o w i n g i s a diagram of the 12-Fold Chain of Guatama Buddha as t r a n s l a t e d by Rhys Davids. Please compare i t with my i l l u s t r a t i o n on the previous page. The Wheel of Becoming (bhava-cakka) I l l u s t r a t i n g the Formula of Dependent O r i g i n a t i o n (paticca-samuppada) Both diagrams are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . Both i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Depen-dent O r i g i n a t i o n are the same i n content but d i f f e r e n t i n organiz-a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the d i v i s i o n of the three consecutive e x i s t -ences — p a s t , present, and f u t u r e . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s are, I be-l i e v e , c l e a r and easy to understand. "In t h i s r espect," Buddha says, "one may r i g h t l y say of me: that I teach a n n i h i l a t i o n , that I propound my d o c t r i n e f o r the - 35 -purpose of a n n i h i l a t i o n , and that I h e r e i n t r a i n my d i s c i p l e s ; f o r c e r t a i n l y I do teach a n n i h i l a t i o n — the a n n i h i l a t i o n namely, of greed, anger, and d e l u s i o n , as w e l l as of the manifold e v i l and •5 unwholesome t h i n g s . " T r u l y , i f one holds the view that the v i t a l p r i n c i p l e ( j i v a ; soul) i s i d e n t i c a l with t h i s body, i n that case a holy l i f e i s not p o s s i b l e ; and i f one holds the view that the v i t a l p r i n c i p l e i s something quite d i f f e r e n t from the body, i n that case a l s o a holy l i f e i s not p o s s i b l e . Both these two extremes the P e r f e c t One has avoided, and he has shown the Middle Doctrine of Dependent O r i g i n -a t i o n (Paticca-Samuppada) as i l l u s t r a t e d above. Therefore one who f o l l o w s Paticca-Samuppada holds the Middle Doctrine as h i s r e a l Venerable Path (the h i g h e s t , purest path). (He, of course, has no 4 whole mass of s u f f e r i n g ; he goes beyond the w o r l d l y c o n d i t i o n ) . He then i s free ... free from what? From s u f f e r i n g dukkha. Since he i s f r e e , he a d d i t i o n a l l y reaches nirvana. This i s c a l l e d Ara-hantship, or Sainthood, or l i f e i n God, or Noble Truth. Whatever one wants to c a l l i t , i t means free from the o r i g i n of s u f f e r i n g . No god, no Brahman, can be c a l l e d The maker of t h i s wheel of l i f e : Empty phenomena r o l l on, t-Dependent on Conditions a l l . The Paticca-Samuppada, l i t e r a l l y , the Dependent O r i g i n a t i o n , i s the d i c t r i n e of the c o n d i t i o n a l i t y of a l l p h y s i c a l and mental phenomena, a d o c t r i n e which, together with that of Impersonality ( a n a t t a ) , forms the indispensable c o n d i t i o n f o r the r e a l under-standing and r e a l i z a t i o n of the Buddha's teaching. I t shows that the various p h y s i c a l and mental l i f e - p r o c e s s e s , c o n v e n t i o n a l l y - 36 -called, p e r s o n a l i t y , man, animal, e t c . , are not merely a play of b l i n d chance, but the outcome of causes and c o n d i t i o n s . Above a l l , the Paticca-Samuppada explains how the a r i s i n g of r e b i r t h and suf-f e r i n g i s dependent upon c o n d i t i o n s ; and, i n i t s second p a r t , i t shows how, through the removal of these c o n d i t i o n s , a l l s u f f e r i n g must disappear. Hence the Pat icca-Samuppada serves to e l u c i d a t e the second and t h i r d Noble Truths, by e x p l a i n i n g them from t h e i r very foundations upwards, and g i v i n g them a f i x e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l form. When one discusses Buddhist philosophy he must agree that the Paticca-Samuppada i s the c r u c i a l question i n s o l v i n g the problem of l i f e , as Nyanatiloka has mentioned above. Let us now consider s e n s u a l i t y . What i s s e n s u a l i t y ? Sensu-a l i t y i s tanha which i s the main ground of craving — "that crav-in g which leads to c o n t i n u a t i o n of r e b i r t h . " According to the 12-Fold Chain, ignorance i s the f i r s t being of. the present l i f e . The f i r s t and second l i n k members of the chain, ignorance and karma formations, are the pre-c o n d i t i o n s of the t h i r d l i n k member. Hence the t h i r d l i n k member, consciousness, i s the e f f e c t of the previous two (see diagram of the "Chain of Interdependent O r i g i n a t i o n s ) . Thereby the t h i r d member i s the f i r s t locus of p e r c e i v i n g the momentarily new l i f e . The t h i r d l i n k member has been given d i f f e r e n t t r a n s l a t i o n s from the terms U p a t t i and J a t i , i n c l u d i n g r e b i r t h , consciousness, and the " I -* maker". From a p h i l o s o p h i c a l standpoint these are synonomous terms i n the E n g l i s h language. There i s al s o a d i s t i n c t i o n bet-ween consciousness and the "I-maker". I would l i k e to express my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the terms U p a t t i and J a t i . Both U p a t t i and J a t i mean consciousness. Consciousness can not be consciousness of i t s e l f . Consequently, consciousness i s always consciousness o something. In t h i s context, consciousness of "I-ness". There-fore when we have consciousness c o n t a n t l y , there i s an idea and that idea i s the idea of "I-ness". Therefore the idea of "I-ness comes to bear i n our minds because of consciousness. Suppose there i s no "consciousness". Then there Is no "I-ness", no animalness — nothing which can e x i s t i n our mind. The q u a l i t i e s (of the th i n g s ) come i n t o existence a f t e r the mind, ( l i t . the q u a l i t i e s have mind as t h e i r p r e c u r s o r ) , are dependent upon mind, and are made up (formed) of mind. I f a man speaks or acts with an e v i l l thought (mind), sorrow pur-sues him as the wheel f o l l o w s the foot of the . draught-ox.7 Mano pubhbham gama dhamma Mano settha manomaya Manasa ce patthena Bhasati karo t i tatonam s Dukkamamveti cakkam va vahato patam-ti As my teacher e x p l a i n s , In Dhamma language the word " b i r t h " r e f e r s to the b i r t h of the idea of " I , " "me," any time i t a r i s e s i n the mind from day to day. In t h i s sense the ordinary person i s born very o f t e n , time and time again; a more developed person i s born l e s s f r e q -u e n t l y ; a person w e l l advanced i n p r a c t i c e ( a r i y a n  or Ariya-puggala) i s born l e s s f r e q u e n t l y s t i l l , and u l t i m a t e l y ceases being re-born a l t o g e t h e r . Each a r i s i n g i n the mind of the idea of " I " i n one form or another i s c a l l e d a " b i r t h " ... When the Buddha was speaking, i f he was expounding Higher Dhamma, he wasn't t a l k i n g about p h y s i c a l b i r t h ... He was t a l k i n g about the b i r t h of the obsessive idea of "me" and "mine," "myself" and "my own" ... i n Dhamma language the word "death" r e f e r s to the ces s a t i o n of the idea of " I , " "me" ... when there i s Dhammapadatakata, Siamese ed i t i o n , - p. 1. - 38 -no b i r t h there i s a l s o no death. And t h i s s t a t e  i s the unconditioned. I t i s what we c a l l Nirvana and what i n other r e g l i g i o n s i s often spoken of as the l i f e e v e r l a s t i n g . " E s s e n t i a l l y s e n s u a l i t y a r r i v e s from d e l u s i o n . I t should be accepted that d e l u s i o n occupies the mind. In a d d i t i o n , s e n s u a l i t y i s a karmic act which r e q u i r e s p h y s i c a l a c t i o n . Nontheless, psy-c h o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p of p h y s i c a l acts are the outward expression of a thought which seals the commitment of good or bad deeds. The r e s u l t of these deeds returns to the f a c u l t y of the mind. Then the mind w i l l remove from the e s s e n t i a l and n a t u r a l being i t s e l f to mix with a l l karma. What i s karma i n the sexual context? Karma i n the sexual con-te x t i n Buddhism i s described i n the Samantika Pasathika (the com-mentary of Pasathika) and the Ankutatranikay Tasaka Vagga, Book Twenty-four, page 303 (Siamese t e x t ) . The t h i r d precept of Buddhism, Karma'sumlccha Caraveramani, ... i s c a l l e d s e l f - c o n t r o l i n regard to the most powerful and d e l i g h t f u l of human i n s t i n c t s , sex. Buddha s a i d , 'Of a l l the l u s t s and d e s i r e s , there i s none so power-f u l as sexual i n c l i n a t i o n . ' Buddhists regard women as being i n four p o s i t i o n s : Is she old? Regard her as your mother; Is she honorable? Regard her as your s i s t e r ; Is she of small account? .. as .. younger s i s t e r ; Is she a c h i l d ? Treat her r e v e r e n t l y with 9 p o l i t e n e s s . The sex of the p h y s i c a l body i s a matter of karmic r e s u l t and sexual d e s i r e i s a c a r n a l a p p e t i t e as n a t u r a l i n i t s proper sphere as food. Woman as w e l l as man may a t t a i n the highest goal of l i f e . The best example of t h i s i s found i n a conversation between Buddha and Ananda. Buddha t o l d Ananda that a l l mankind has - 39 -equal r i g h t s , i . e . , Bhikku as w e l l as Bhikk u n i , layman as w e l l as monk. Buddhism does not say, as does C h r i s t i a n i t y , that woman i s s i n f u l . One of the objects of Buddhist meditation i s the teaching of (anicca) impermanence of f r e s h beauty and a t t e n t i o n on the beauty of the informed mind. Buddhists t r y to r e a l i z e that a l l v i s u a l a t t r a c t i o n i s the r e a c t i o n of the lower s e l f from tanha or crav-ing of unregenerate d e s i r e s ... they can thereby perceive that s e x u a l i t y i s the d e l u s i o n of v a n i t y and charm. Today i n the West, e s p e c i a l l y America, women are regarded as sexual o b j e c t s . West-eners f r e q u e n t l y occupy t h e i r minds with u n c o n t r o l l e d d e s i r e s ; even i f they do c o n t r o l t h e i r minds they do not c o n t r o l them w e l l , and l e t t h e i r minds go to the l e v e l of the lowest s e l f , expres-s i n g themselves i n terms of n a t u r a l d e s i r e . Mere p h y s i c a l con-t r o l with f o u l thoughts i n the mind i s greater defilement than a n a t u r a l p h y s i c a l o u t l e t with a wholesome, clean m e n t a l i t y . For as man t h i n k s , so he i s . Man has more sexual energy i f he does not l e t h i s mind be occupied by d e s i r e . Sex i s a c l e a n , imper-s o n a l , c r e a t i v e f o r c e , as n a t u r a l as water i n a rever bed, as r e s t l e s s and tremendous as the emotional plane i t s e l f . On the p h y s i c a l plane we c a l l i t sex; on the emotional plane I t func-t i o n s as a r t i s t i c impulse, enthusiasm and emotional power, while i n the realm of mind i t i s that ' c r e a t i v e urge' which i s respon-s i b l e f o r a l l that man has ever made, i n c l u s i v e of himself. Thus the third, precept of Buddhism may be u s e f u l f o r Western s o c i e t y today. . Why? . Because i t i s the mental element which matters, f o r t h i s precept i s p r i m a r i l y aimed at the c o n t r o l and sublima-- 40 -t i o n of d e s i r e . Having p r a c t i c e d the t h i r d precept, one grad-u a l l y withdraws the c r e a t i v e force from purely p h y s i c a l to emo-t i o n a l or mental l e v e l s by the ex e r c i s e of ceaseless v i g i l e n c e and s e l f - c o n t r o l . Since i t i s most important f o r ones l i f e , one should r e a l i z e s e l f - c o n t r o l and c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between c o n t r o l and suppression. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between male and female i s nothing but energy. In the past i t was thought that man had more powerful energy than woman; t h i s i s not the thought of today. Man can e a s i l y destroy nature — the Himalaya Mountains or the universe — but he l a c k s energy i n hi s s e l f - c o n t r o l of s e x u a l i t y . As i t i s w r i t t e n : Man can har-ness the f i e r c e s t mountain stream, but he cannot dam the humbl-est r i v u l e t without p r o v i d i n g an o u t l e t f o r i t s energy. Sexual-i t y i s considered f i r e which burns more powerfully and destroys more than n a t u r a l f i r e . There i s nothing wrong with sexual pleasure. The problem i s attachment with sex. Ananda asked Buddha i n the Mahaparinib- bhana Sutta how we should act about sex. He was t o l d that hav-i n g no attachment to i t i s the best way, as Hansaskuna ( B i r d King) has no attachment to the l o t u s p o o l , l o t u s f l o w e r , and f i s h by r e a l i z i n g , a f t e r having swum and fed h i m s e l f , that they do not belong to him. He l e t himself remain free from a t t a c h -ment. This i s how the Noble One should p r a c t i c e and remain free from the f i v e sexual skandhas ... be reminded that there i s no permanence i n the f r e s h beauty (of t h i s body), but dukkha and no-s e l f . Beauty or not beauty i s not r e a l ... i t i s only i n the eye - 41 -of the beholder. What I t i s or i s not, how things should be, i s how our mind receives and r e f e r s us to i t ... not the t h i n g i n i t s e l f , l i k e a phenomenological point of view. Thus g i v i n g up attachment to s e x u a l i t y i s the way to solve the problem of sexual i n f a t u a t i o n . Sexual pleasure i s not d i f -ferent from making a mark i n the water; as soon as we f i n i s h making the mark i t i s gone. Why do we become attached to sex? B a s i c a l l y i t i s only two f r e s h bodies touching one another. There i s no meaning without the mind's g i v i n g i t . Hence the problem i s how the mind reforms or perceives that a c t i o n by the power of d e l u s i o n . Thus one has to c o n t r o l h i s own mind, f r e e from attachment ... she i s mine, he i s mine ... by meditation on the impurity of the body. G i v i n g up attachment i s d e s t r o y i n g the whole mass of s u f f e r i n g ... r e b i r t h of I-ness, my-ness. Hence one reaches the free l i f e that i s del i v e r a n c e from condi-t i o n s — nirvana. S e n s u a l i t y i s the second member of Samsara. Therefore s e n s u a l i t y i s the cause of the c y c l e of l i f e . Thus one has to destroy the idea of beauty as inherent i n the imper-manent body, which i s reformed by the mind. The t h i r d precept i s r e q u i r e d f o r s e l f - c o n t r o l . - 42 -REFERENCE NOTES 1 . Selected from my l e c t u r e to my Buddhist c l a s s at the U. of W. 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 3 . 2 . Sources: Dialogues of the Buddha. Sacred Books of the Buddhist S e r i e s . Maha Nidana Suttanta, T.W. Rhys Davids & C. A.F. Rhys Davids, t r a n s . , v o l . 3 , pp. 5 0 - 7 0 ; C o l l e c t i o n of  the Middle-Length Sayings, Sammaditthi S u t t a , Lord Chalmers, t r a n s . , v o l . 1 , pp. 3 - 4 0 ; Book of the Kindred Sayings, Trans-l a t i o n S e r i e s , Nidana-vagga, T.W. Rhys Davids, t r a n s . , v o l . 2 , pp. 1 - 9 4 passim. 3 . A, V I I I , 1 2 4 . S, X I I , 2 5 5 . Quoted i n Visuddhi-Magga XLX. 6 . N y a n a t i l o k a , The Word of THE BUDDHA: Buddhist P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y , Kandy, Ceylon, 1 9 5 9 a P- 4 ~ 5 . 7 . Dhammapada, Text i n Devanagari, t r a n s , by Dr. P.L. Vaidya, Second E d i t i o n Revised, Poona, The O r i e n t a l Book Agency, 1 9 3 4 , p. 5 3 -8 . Buddhadasa Bhikkhu, Two Kinds of Language, t r a n s , by Ariyananda Bhikku, ppT 1 6 - 1 8 . 9 - B e a l , Acatena of Buddhist S c r i p t u r e s , P. 1 9 8 . _ 243 -Chapter IV A CRITIQUE OF THE TRUTHS IN MAHAYANA BUDDHISM The growth of Buddhism w i t h i n the change of s o c i o - p o l i t i c o events has been defined w i t h i n three p e r i o d s , according to Sprawozdania, as: 1. the phase of the s o - c a l l e d pure Hinayana 2. the phase of formation of Mahayana and of i t s r i v a l r y with Hinayana. 3. the phase of f i n a l prevalence of Mahayana. 1 0 The s o - c a l l e d pure Hinayana, Mahavibhas was the champion of Sarv-a s t i v a d i n s , by h i s well-known commentary work of the Jnanapras-thana. Nagarjuna was the champion of the second phase and the author of the Madhyamikasastra. As the authors of the Yocacara- bhumi and Abhidharmakosa, r e s p e c t i v e l y , the brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu were the champions of the t h i r d phase. Asanga was the founder of the school of Yogacara and the author of Yogacaryabhumi and enormous works. He converted a younger brother, Vasubandhu, who i n i t i a l l y was Hinayanist. Vasu-bandhu was a s i g n i f i c a n t philosopher i n r e l a t i n g Hinayana and Mahayana thought more c l o s e l y with h i s t r e a t i s e on the Abhidhar- makosa which he combined with the d o c t r i n e of Yogacara. Later developers i n c l u d i n g Dignaga and Dh a r m a k i r t i , have produced im-portant l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d i n g Dignaga's Pramana-Samuccaya and Dharmakirti's Nyayabindu. Before attempting to discuss the Mahayana philosophy f u l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y , I w i l l t r e a t my•paper as the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t d i v i d e d i n t o s u b t i t l e s . I b e l i e v e t h i s w i l l be h e l p f u l f o r the reader; i t - /Jil -w i l l be e a s i e r to see how the whole stream of thought of Mahayana came along. That i s to say that we should look from the s k e l t o n of Mahayana i n the form before i t s growth to the f u l l body of thought we know today. L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y Generally Mahayana t e x t s have developed from Hinayana t e x t s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , c o l l e c t i v e l y , and s e l e c t i v e l y . How do we know? I t i s obvious that Nagarjuna condemned the Hinayana' school S t h a r v i r a (not P i t a k a ) . He was d i s s a t i s f i e d with the way i n which S t h a r v i r a v a d i n accepted the Anattmanvada or denied the s o u l . His i n t e r e s t l a y i n the s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of the Prajnaparamita-sutras. The Prajna-Paramita l i t e r a t u r e which most i n t e r e s t e d him, d i d not o r i g i n a t e from Nagarjuna him s e l f . There was much development from one school to another. And the stream of development of textbooks became the major defect of Buddhism. The Tibetan say-i n g "Every d i s t r i c t i t s own d i a l e c t , every lama h i s own d o c t r i n e " 11 - -comes clo s e to the case. As the Mahabharata puts i t : The Vedas are d i v e r s e and the T r a d i t i o n s (smrti) are d i v e r s e . He i s not a sage whose d o c t r i n e (mata) i s not i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . The t r u t h of Dharma i s hidden i n the cave (of the h e a r t ) . That by which a great man has gone i s a path (panthan = s e c t , school)12 P u t t i n g together the various suggestions o f f e r e d by the Abhidharma and then making t h e i r own observations, the o l d teachers worked out the mechanism of the stream of consciousness, the thought-13 s e r i e s ( c i t t a v i t h i ) i n which mental phenomena occur. S t h a v i r -avada d i f f e r e d from Mahayana by using the word "artha" i n the Kathavatthu and the Yamaka. to mean "meaning." The word " t a k r a " ( l o g i c ) i s synonomously used f o r the word "artha." The meaning of l o g i c f o r t h i s school r e f e r s to phenomena, not words of the t e x t . Therefore l o g i c f o r them i s a l o g i c of meaning, of phenomena, not of words, and defines the r e a l i t y only as o c c u r r i n g i n Abhidharma. For example, (2 & 2 = 4) i s a l o g i c of words. But the perception of (2 & 2 = X) can be (5) or "bracket." The mind can create any phenomena i n the bracket. Phenomena i s t h e r e f o r e something more than the d e s c r i p t i o n of words. Tarka, however, was not the major concern of t h i s school. The school was patronaged by the Satava-hana dynasty which was the longest dynasty t o r e i g n i n the h i s t o r y of K r i s n a and Godavari i n Southern I n d i a . Mouyan overthrew t h i s dynasty and favored orthodox b e l i e f s l i k e Brahmanism. Because of these p o l i t i c a l events, Buddhism i n Southern and Northern I n d i a has had d i f f e r e n t ideas and d i f f e r e n t schools began to develop. One of these schools, C a i t i k a , o r i g i n a t e d during t h i s period and took place i n the Northern part of I n d i a along with Magadha and Av a n t i . C a i t i k a r e j e c t e d the Andhra (Sthavira) point of view i n the Abhidharma which held that the most important point i n Buddhism i s r e l a t e d to Buddha. I t i s said by the Andhra school that "The Buddha's discourse (vyavahara) i s tr a n s c e n d e n t a l , i. that the power (rddhi) of the Buddha or h i s p u p i l s enables them to e f f e c t whatever they wish, regardless of the laws of nature and that a (or the) boddhisattva (future Buddha) was (among h i s numerous previous l i v e s sometime) reborn i n very unhappy circumstances ( r u i n , i . e . , i n purgatory, as an animal, a ghost, or a demon) of h i s own free w i l l ( i . e . , not as a r e s u l t of h i s previous actions).'14 This school began t o give b i r t h t o the Mahayana according t o the •idea of Boddhisattva as stated above. The other schools, i . e . , S a i l a , R a j a g i r i k a , S i d d h a r t h i k a , argue that the Boddhisattva was born c e r t a i n of a t t a i n i n g e n l i g h t ment and that phenomena was not c l a s s i f i a b l e under other pheno-mena, nor contained w i t h i n other phenomena, and that "mental phenomena" ( c a i t a s i k a s , i . e . , the forces) does not e x i s t . 1 5 The l a t e s t t h i n k e r s i n t h i s school made m o d i f i c a t i o n s of Abhidharma by determining previous thought and maintaining that of only the two l a t e s t schools since they b e l i e v e d i t seemed to be fundamental and e a r l y Abhidharma. These t h i n k e r s were much l i k e some monks among t h i s community. And t h i s idea gave r i s e to l a t e r Mahayana schools. We do not know f o r sure that the Mahayana school o r i g i n a t e d from the Khotan area. Mahayana Buddhism may have r i s e n from the Andhra school. 3"^ The Mahayana school developed the idea of Bod-d h i s a t t v a and made a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between the Arahtaship and Boddhisatvahood. "However, with the growth of Mahayana p r a c t i c e s there s t a r t e d a twin tendency to d e i f y the Buddha and to concentrate upon the i d e a l of the Buddha-to-be (or Boddhi- ' i ' . s a t t v a ) . This i d e a l derives mainly from the story of the Buddha himself. Before h i s enlightenment, he was tempted by Mara (the Buddhist equivalent of Satan) to vanish i n t o f i n a l Nirvana w i t h -out communicating h i s s p i r i t u a l d i s c o v e r i e s to mankind. Reject-i n g t h i s , the Buddha went on f o r some f o r t y - f i v e years to preach and teach i n Northern I n d i a . Thus there arose the notion Buddha s a c r i f i c e s himself on behalf of mankind ... when he was Buddha-to-be, i n which he displayed heroic a c t i v i t i e s of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . Mahayana Buddhism o r i g i n a t e d from Mahasamgikha and included the development of the idea of the Lokottaravada which held that "the Buddha was a transcendental being whose body was not of t h i s world. This n a t u r a l l y l e d to increased i n t e r e s t i n the story of Buddha's l i f e , and to some extent i n h i s former l i v e s l e a d i n g up 18 to t h i s consummation. Presumably the Mahayana t e x t Prajna-paramita enlarged some Si 9 parts of the S a i l a t e x t ! " However, I b e l i e v e that Paramartha had thought of Praj na-paramit a before Nagarjuna. Unfortunately h i s works were not e f f e c t i v e among the Mahayanists. I t i s p o s s i b l e that the purva s a i l a s intended these verses to r e f e r only to the no n - o r i g i n a t i o n and non-cessation of "being" and of the "world" i n the sense of the t o t a l i t y of "beings" of "persons," whereas 20 C a n d r a k i r t i makes them r e f e r to a l l phenomena."^ I perceive the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s as these: "At some time dur-ing the founding of the purva s a i l a school i n the l a s t century B.C., c e r t a i n monks f e l t the need not simply f o r new i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l s u t r a (such as, f o r example, the new abhid-harma t e x t s of the schools, or the Patisambhidamagga of the 21 Sthaviravada), but f o r wholesale restatements of the d o c t r i n e . " Hence Nagarjuna based h i s work on the Prajna-paramit~a-sutras which r e s u l t e d i n h i s Mulamadhyamakakarika. I t i s important to note that i t r e f e r s by name to the Boddhisattva P i t a k a f o r the basic d o c t r i n e of the s i x " p e r f e c t i o n s , " paramita, to be f u l f i l l e d 2 2 by the Boddhisattva as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r becoming Buddha. Hence I w i l l summarize the fundamental content of the Pra j r i a - paramita L i t e r a t u r e to see how t h i s t e x t was supported as the - 48 -basic a u t h o r i t y f o r Nagarjuna; the thousands of l i n e s of the Prajna-paramita can be condensed i n t o the f o l l o w i n g two sentences: 1 . One should become a Boddhisattva (Buddha-to-be), i . e . , one who i s content with nothing l e s s than a l l know- ; ledge a t t a i n e d through the p e r f e c t i o n of wisdom f o r the sake of a l l beings. 2.. There Is no such t h i n g as a Boddhisattva, or as a l l -knowledge, or as a "being," or as an attainment. 2 3 To accept both these c o n t r a d i c t o r y f a c t s i s to be p e r f e c t . Nagarjuna studied other works of the Hinayana Sthaviravada school, i n c l u d i n g the M i l i n d a Panna which c o n t r i b u t e d to the dev-elopment of h i s Mulamadhyamakakarika. Professor Rhys Davids st a t e s that "One Greek k i n g , Menondros ( P r a k r i t Menendra), de-serves p a r t i c u l a r mention: on h i s b i l i n g u a l c o i n s , Sanskrit M i l i n d r a ( P a l i M i l i n d a ) , who reigned according to the l a t e s t 2'4 a u t h o r i t y around B.C. 1 5 5 - 1 3 0 . This was composed of dialogue between the King M i l i n d a and the monk Nagasena i n the period that the Greeks r u l e d the Indians. What I am t r y i n g to say here i s that the idea of Boddhisattva i s not only i n Mahayana thought but i n Hinayana thought as w e l l . The d o c t r i n e of non-existence of the soul that was mistraught by Brahmins before the Buddha r e s i s t e d the i d e a , was accepted by the Hinayanans a l s o . The questions of M i l i n d a should be summarized l i k e t h i s : "The k i n g s a i d , 'How i s your reverence known? What i s your name?' Nagasena r e p l i e d , 'I am c a l l e d Nagasena by my parents, the p r i e s t s , and others. But Nagasena i s not a separate e n t i -t y . ' The king objected to t h i s i dea. Nagasena attempted to e x p l a i n to him by separating the 5 skandhas i n t o p a r t s . The k i n g s t i l l d i d not agree w i t h him and only understood that Nagasena was a negative person. - 49 -'Then,' s a i d the k i n g , 'I do not see Nagasena. Nagasena i s a sound without meaning. You have spoken an untruth. There i s no Nagasena.' The Mendicant asked, 'Did your majesty come here on f o o t , or i n a c h a r i o t ?' In a c h a r i o t was the answer. Nagasena kept asking 'what c h a r i o t ' and t r i e d to point out that there i s no r e a l i t y of c h a r i o t , only the name of i t , because of the u n i t y of many parts together. We do not see c l e a r l y . We deludedly c a l l c h a r i o t i n the case of c h a r i o t . In the case of man we deludedly c a l l man because united are many parts of the. 5_skandhas, v i z . , body, form, being, l i v i n g , e x i s t e n c e , . e t c , x 2 5 As f a r as the argument goes, soul i n man i s j u s t a separate sub-stance l i k e the separate m a t e r i a l i n the c h a r i o t . This d o c t r i n e was emphasized i n the s'unyata of man before Mahayana, but the pro-blem i s that Avidya stops him from seeing sunyata. Furthermore, t h i s argument i n d i c a t e s that s'unyata o r i g i n a t e d from Brahmanism and J a i n i s m r a t h e r than from Buddhism. What I mean here i s that the idea of Sunyata p r i m a r i l y was held i n former r e l i g i o n s p r i o r to Buddhism. "Brahmanism and Jainis m teach that the soul i s m a t e r i a l , or i s immaterial, or i s both, or i s n e i t h e r ; that i t i s f i n i t e or i n f i n i t e , or both, or n e i t h e r ; that i t w i l l have one or many modes of consciousness; that i t s perceptions w i l l be few or boundless; that i t w i l l be i n a st a t e of joy or misery or of 2 6 n e i t h e r . " This d o c t r i n e was developed i n t o the mentalist school of Mahayana by the Yogacara school. "One of the c h i e f agents i n t h i s l i n e of development seems to have been Asanga, an i n f l u e n t i a l monk of Peshaweir i n the Punjab, who l i v e d and wrote the f i r s t textbook of the creed — the Yogacara-bhumi — about 27 the s i x t h century of our era." I t i s my personal opinion that he developed Buddhism from the Hindu f a i t h and a l s o d e a l t with - 50 -the mystic t a n t r i c d o c t r i n e from the prevalent animism. I f u r -ther b e l i e v e that h i s creed i s the s o - c a l l e d newer Buddhism. Another account should be added here: Mahayana Buddhism has an unclear s t a r t i n g point and there i s incomplete and inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n . Many d i f f e r e n t t e x t s have presented d i f f e r e n t h i s -t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . For example, i n the Dhammapada Sutta i n the f i r s t book (Patamo Paga) of the f i r s t value, i t i s s a i d that there are two groups of monks: Dhammatara had f i v e hundred monks who accepted h i s ideas and V i n a y t a r a had f i v e hundred monks who accepted h i s . There was dispute between the d i s c i p l e s of Dham-matara and the d i s c i p l e s of Vinaytara over the case of water being l e f t i n the bathroom ... whether i t was r i g h t or wrong according to e i t h e r Vinaya or Dharma d o c t r i n e . The argument went on f o r three months (one vassa); reaching an agreement seemed impossible. The Lord'J.Buddha came to judge the dispute and s e l e c t e d a group of hearers. They s t i l l disagreed. Buddha l e f t f o r the Lalaiyakavana f o r e s t and l i v e d with f i v e hundred elephants and f i v e hundred mon-keys: the monkeys o f f e r e d honey f o r Buddha with baby bees. Buddha di d not accept. F i n a l l y the monkeys took the baby bees away and o f f e r e d honey to him. Buddha accepted i t . The elephants got wood and water and l i t a f i r e to keep the Buddha warm and the monkeys b o i l e d water f o r a bath and f o r a d r i n k . Both animals c a r r i e d out these d u t i e s f o r Buddha and f o r one vassa. F i n a l l y the monks assembled and went to v i s i t and apologize to him and i n v i t e him back to V e s a l i . They thought Buddha had no one t a k i n g care of him and f e l t t e r r i e b l e since they had l e f t him s u f f e r i n g . Hence - 51 -they agreed not to have the argument anymore. Buddha taught the lesson to them of "Eko Caro" ... when one l i v e s w ith another and does not l i s t e n one to the other, i t i s b e t t e r o f f to l i v e alone, go alone. In the end of hearing they understood that a l l pheno-mena are empty. That i s to say that empty or sunyata i s the r e -s u l t of a t t a i n i n g the Arhantaship or Boddhisattva. However, the s u t t a i s s t i l l confusing to us. I b e l i e v e that the concept was mistaken by Mahayana. Indeed Mahayana i n the Buddha's time was not f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , as agreement on the above q u a r r e l was l a t e r reached. However, t h i s argument was set f o r t h i n the South of I n d i a . Secondly, the term "Mahayana" h i s t o r i c a l l y occurs i n the Astasahasrikoprajnaparamita f o r the f i r s t time and according to Lamotte, o r i g i n a t e s from Khotan. 2 8 — — T h i r d l y i t occurs i n the P a r i n i r v a n a Sutta ' that Mahayana was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the South a f t e r P a r i n i r v a n a and l a t e r spread i n t o the East and North by d i f f e r e n t teachers who were i n c l i n e d to i n t e r p r e t the T r i p i t a k a s with a new concept or new d o c t r i n e . One of these teachers was Nagarjuna, the most important master of Mahayana l a t e r . And l a s t l y other major suttas which show new phases i n Mahayana al s o had connection with the South. For i n -stance the d e t a i l e d i t i n e r a r y of the Gandavyuha and l o c a t i o n of the Boddhisattva Maitreya are t h e r e , while the Lankavatara i s connected with Ceylon. Personal H i s t o r y of Nagarjuna - - 2Q Nagarjuna was born i n the Vidarbha country i n Maharasta. There i s some confusion about him. Some b e l i e v e that he became a - 52 -monk i n Nalanda and was S r i c i a k a of Rahulabhadra. He has a legendary personal h i s t o r y . He came to Dragon (a c i t y i n Heaven) by i n v i t a t i o n of the Dragon King. He came there because of the king's i n v i t a t i o n , but returned to earth as soon as p o s s i b l e with a hundred thousand perceptions of understanding, culminating the Mahayana s u t t r a , which he found i n the Dragon World. He taught h i s d o c t r i n e numerous ce n t u r i e s and b u i l t and improved many pagodas and v i h a r a s . His biography can be found i n the Tararatna and other sources i n the period of the Satavahana kings. There were many named Nagarjuna.but the founder of Madhyamaka was the author of Mulamadhyamakarika ( d o c t r i n e of t h i s s c h o o l ) , and other works be l i e v e d to be h i s i n c l u d i n g V i g r a h a v y a v a r t a n i , ' _ _ _ Sunyatasaptati, Y u k t i s a s t i k a , V a i d a l y a s u t r a and Prakarana, and S u h r l l e k h a , and perhaps the R a t n a v a l i and some "hymns" ( s t o t r a ) i n p r i a s e of the Buddha. L i t e r a l l y speaking Nagarjuna borrowed the terminolgy from P i t a k a without reference to the t e x t . I mean to say that Mulamad- hamakarika was found i n P a l i and San s k r i t canons i n the e a r l y schools of Buddhism. As Professor A.K. Warder s t a t e s , "The Mulam- adhyamakarika nowhere mentions Mahayana nor does i t appear to make reference to any Mahayana s u t r a (canonical t e x t ) , e i t h e r by 3 0 name or by quoting."-Warder presumes that Nagarjuna here quotes from the key words, saying that the master avoids both the extremes " i t e x i s t s , " a s t i , and " i t does not e x i s t , " n a s t i ( w r i t i n g i n verse K a r i k a s , Nagar-juna cannot reproduce the exact wording of the o r i g i n a l prose - 31 sutras i n extenso.) - 53 -Furthermore, Professor Warder maintians that Nagarjuna quotes i n a s i m i l a r manner, but without naming the s u t r a from the Acclaka-32 syapa. We can however see a d i s t i n c t i o n of notion between the P i t a k a and Nagarjuna's work. Now--for the T r i p i t a k a , there are no souls or beings, but there are phenomena. For Nagarjuna there seems to be no phenomena e i t h e r , at l e a s t at the u l t i m a t e t r u t h . Of course, t h i s p o s s i b l e contrast depends on the meaning of "are;" and whether i t should be a s s i m i l a t e d to " e x i s t " ( e t e r n a l l y ) . I t can be seen that i n the commentary d o c t r i n e of own-nature of phenomena i n the T r i p i t a k a that he denied both " i t i s " and " i t i s not. " That i s the viewpoint that I have t r i e d to d i s t i n g u i s h between the P i t a k a and Nagarjuna's works. We now s h a l l look at the idea that i s held by the e a r l y school i t s e l f and t r y to determine how and i n what way Nagarjuna has r e -sponded to that school. S a r v a s t i v a d i n s b e l i e v e that every element which appears i n consciousness i s a f u n c t i o n of a corresponding transcendent "bearer" which i s a separate r e a l e n t i t y . Nagarjuna r e j e c t s that idea and holds that the r e a l e n t i t y i s "empty" — having no r e a l 34 a t t r i b u t e s and i s undescribable. •'-Having discussed Nagarjuna's philosophy, we should remember the l a s t school of Yogacara's that gives a monistic s o l u t i o n : from the standpoint of absolute t r u t h , there i s no u n d e r l y i n g p l u r a l i t y corresponding to elements of the e m p i r i c a l i n d i v i d u a l -i t y and a l l the d i v e r s i t y given by immediate experience reduces i t s e l f to one store consciousness ( a l a y a v i j n a n a ) . ^ J Professor Shotaro I i d a gives an account of the Madhyamika say-— ' _ _ i n g that "Madhyamika, S a n t a r a k s i t a denies svabhava i n u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y - However, as a svana n t r i k a , he r e t a i n s the n o t i o n of svabhava as f a r as tathyasamvrtisatya i s concerned. L a s t l y , as a Yogacarin, he denies the absolute r e a l i t y of the e x t e r n a l world 3 6 which i s taken as independent of our experiencing i t . " P rofessors I i d a and Warder agree that Nagarjuna denied both e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y and s o u l . For instance i t i s s a i d i n the Rast-r a p a l a p a r i p r c c h a d e a l i n g with the way of Boddhisattva and, a l s o i n the Amitabhavyuha, that "In the Mulamadhyamakakarika which was adopted o r i g i n a l l y from S t h i r a m a t i and i n the Heart Sutra _ _ _ i _ _ (Prajna-paramita-hrdaya-sutra) that the sunyata i s n e i t h e r the f i v e skandhas, nor the 1 2 ayatana, nor the 1 8 dhatus, nor the t w e l v e f o l d chain of o r i g i n a t i o n , nor the Four Noble Truths. Such a negation of a l l things expresses the conception that emptiness must be the basis which brings everything i n t o e x i s t e n c e , a non-37 being free of a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s . " There i s no d i s t i n c t i o n between e x t i n c t i o n and t r a n s m i g r a t i o n t - N 38 (samsara). Philosophy of Madhayamika School According to Professor Yensho Kanakura i n h i s A H i s t o r y of Hindu-Buddhist Thought! the notion of Sunyata i s an o l d not i o n which was one of the Agames i n the Madhyamagama. There are two sut r a s : Mahasunna-sutta and Cula-eunna-sutta. The Mahasunna-t _ s u t t a , Sari-Patra-Abhidharma-Sastra, contains s i x kinds of i _ _ _ _ ' _ _ _ Sunyata, e t c . : the Hinayana Sunyata, Abhidharma-Mahavibhasa-* _ ' ' o f Sunyp' ' - I _ _ s a s t r a , contains ten kinds of Sunyatas. Professor Kanakura t e l l s us that s u r e l y the Sunyata d o c t r i n e was the Hinayana before. There i s nothing new f o r the Mahayana do c t r i n e except that i t denies the existence of the ego-self on one hand, but a s s e r t s the existence of dharma on the other. Mahayana developed the theory of knowledge and d e l u s i o n and pre-supposed that i f dharma i s Sunyata then Atman i s Sunyata. U l t i -mately the Mahayana Sunyata means that there i s no basis f o r apprehension whatever. In the Prajnaparamita a l l Dharma i s empty; hence i t i s Sunyata and free from a l l being. I t seems Mahayana regards Dharma as a negative notion r a t h e r than as an a f f i r m a t i v e n o t i o n . But that i s not t r u e . Mahayana denies the r e a l i t y of no-soul i n the lower degree — e m p i r i c a l and conventional realm — and ac-cepts existence of s e l f i n the higher degree ... u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y . The Dharmic a n a l y s i s of t h i s school i s common to a l l Buddhist schools. As the Katha i n P a l i may be a p p l i e d to the whole notion of paticca-samuppada i t i s s a i d : Yo p a t i c c a samuppadam p a s s a t i so dhammam p a s s a t i so paticcasamupadam p a s s a t i which I t r a n s l a t e to mean the person who sees dependent c o - o r i g i n a t i o n he (at the same time) sees Dharma he sees c o - o r i g i n a l interdependence of r e a l i t y S t a n i l a s Schayer a l s o states t h a t : "This (Dharma) term possesses such importance i n Buddhist philosophy that the whole of t h i s system might be named 'theory of Dharma'; j u s t as we c a l l the philosophy of P l a t o a 'theory of ideas' and the philosophy of L e i b n i t z a •theory of Monads '. "34)0 - 56 -Hence Nagarjuna developed h i s theory and c a l l e d i t the "theory of new c a u s a l i t y u n d e r l y i n g Dharma argument." In the mind of the Mahayana Buddhist, a l l Dharma f a l l s i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : 1. Samdithiko w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d 2. A k a - l i k a n e i t h e r past nor present nor future 3 . E h i t p a s s i k a come (under the sense of) f e e l i n g or seeing 4 l A.K. Warder sta t e s t h a t : "Comparing M.K. I and XXIV, we see that i t can be sai d that dharmas 'occur', ' o r i g i n a t e * , 'cease', provided that t h i s i s understood only of 'empty' dharmas, not of ' e x i s t -i n g ' dharmas, i . e . , what are c a l l e d bhavas, ' e x i s t i n g s ' , ' e x i s t e n t s ' . This l a s t term derives from a l a t e phase of Abhidharma type d i s c u s s i o n , as i n the Sthavivavada commentary A t t h a s a l i n i . " J I According to the above statement, there i s nothing new that Mahayana Buddhism developed i n Buddhism. What bothers me i s that Nagarjuna i s c r e d i t e d not only with the Prajna-paramita-sutra but also even the term "prajna". I b e l i e v e the term "prajna" came from the three learned p r i n c i p l e s of e a r l y Buddhism: S i l a ( p r i n c i p l e or law of m o r a l i t y ) , Samadhi (m e d i t a t i o n ) , and Prajna (wisdom). These fundamental p r i n c i p l e s appear i n a l l Buddhist T i p i t a k a , not only i n Mahayana Buddhism. I f Mahayana Buddhism does not take the o r i g i n a l source out of the three learned p r i n -c i p l e s from Hinayana, where do they r e c e i v e the d o c t r i n e i n the f i r s t place? Of course some Buddhists agree that Nagarjuna's fundamental d o c t r i n e came from the s i x paramitas. "To f o l l o w the d e f i n i t i o n of Vasubandhu's, Abhidharma i s the pure knowledge and the concomitant dharmas; 'pure knowledge' - 5 7 -c o n s i s t s i n processes of c o g n i t i o n , the subjects of which are 1) the Nirvana as Dharma 'par e x c e l l e n c e ' and 2) the a n a l y s i s of Santana i n t o i t s components. The concomitant dharmas are a l l p h y s i c a l s t a t e s connected with the evolution, towards the u l t i m a t e d e l i v e r a n c e . " I b e l i e v e that when Nagarjuna t a l k s about Dharma as being empty he means that i t i s the u l t i m a t e d e l i v e r a n c e and i s not s t r i c t l y f o r one or some being but a l l beings. For example, i n chapter 2 of the Suvr i k r a n t a v i k r a m i - P a r i p r c c h a - P r a j na-Par amit i t -S u t r a , I t i s s a i d that a l l good dharmas are born of transcenden-t a l i n s i g h t , and the chapter "On the Mother of the Buddhas" i n the Paneavimsati-Sahasrika-Prajna-Paramita-Sutra e x p l a i n s that prajna gives r i s e to the works that p r a i s e the p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n - 4 4 of Prajna. Nagarjuna's thought was broad, as f o l l o w s : His monism states that a l l phenomena come from non-existence and behind i t there i s 215 _ _ _ only r e a l existence." Nagarjuna's n o t i o n of Sunyata a l s o empha-s i z e s the problem of being, viewing the r e a l nature of a l l dharmas as empty, but takes l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the problem of becoming, of 1} 6 how phenomena can come i n t o e x i s t e n c e . I t i s under t h i s sub-j e c t that we f i n d a verse (verse 21) p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h one i n the Ratnagotravibhaga to the e f f e c t that there i s nothing to be removed, nothing to be obtained, but simply r e a l i t y has to 2J7 be seen. The phenomenal and transcendental universes are i d e n t i c a l with separateness of phenomena on the surface but per-il 8 feet harmony and u n i t y w i t h i n . - 5 8 -According to Astasahasrikaprajnaparamita, "the Dharma bodies are the Buddhas, the Lords; but monks, you should not think that t h i s i n d i v i d u a l body i s my body. Monks, you should see me from the accomplishment of the Dharma-body. Here we can see that Mahayana not only disagrees with Hinay-ana but also with Jainism. J a i n i s m accepts only an i n d i v i d u a l god but not a u n i v e r s a l god. So there i s room f o r argument f o r Mahayana. Nagarjuna's viewpoint of Sunyata i s that i t does not mean merely negative or n i h i l i s m . He terms Sunyata as always having a double meaning: that maya i s , as w e l l as Brahman. In the same v e i n i s the Upanishadic t r a d i t i o n , as i f we know that there are two standpoints of meaning — e m p i r i c a l and u l t i m a t e absolute. When I say that Nagarjuna had a double meaning, I am r e f e r r i n g to what has been well-expressed by Kanakura: "Such a negation of a l l t hings expresses the conception that emptiness must be the basis which brings everything i n t o e x i s t e n c e , a non-being free of a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s . " For Nagarjuna, Samsara i s , as w e l l as Nirvana, as the Buddha taught. But Hinayanins, l i k e S t h a v i r a v a -d i n s , misunderstood the meaning and purpose of Buddha's anatta theory. What Nagarjuna developed of Buddhism was l i k e l y already pre-sent i n e a r l y Buddhism ( p r i m i t i v e Buddhism). I t i s t h i s God-in-man that Buddha understood by atman — n e i t h e r body nor mind but s p i r i t . Buddha bel i e v e d t h a t , as s p i r i t , i t p e r s i s t s here as w e l l as h e r e a f t e r , so that i t i s wrong to say, as i s often done, that Buddha denied the s e l f or i d e n t i f i e d i t with the body and - 5 9 -mind. Hinayana continues to say that e a r l y Buddhism i s thus a i gospel of happiness and not a gospel of despair as i t i s commonly 51 - -represented to be. Secondly Nagarjuna adopted Buddhism, accord-i n g to K.M. Sen, i n the sme sense i n which the Hundus d i d . :"Budd,ha i s s t i l l accepted by the Hindus as one of the Avataras spreading enlightenment to a-Il c r e a t u r e s , and the f a c t that Budd-hism had so much i n common with the Upanishads of course made h i s §2 a s s i m i l a t i o n e a s i e r . " The Hinayanist' si misunderstanding of the d o c t r i n e of no soul became the serious problem of the new theory of c a u s a l i t y f o r the Mahayanist who b e l i e v e s everything i s r e a l or u n r e a l . Nagarjuna t r e a t e d the n o t i o n of Avidya as unseeable knowledge and Atman as emptiness, wherein he b e l i e v e d Avidya to be maya and Atman to be n o - s e l f . Likewise he has a b e t t e r theory f o r removing ignorance and emptiness together, than other e a r l y schools of thought have. Hence we are wrong to c l a i m that h i s Sunyata i s metaphysics. He t r e a t e d Sunyata as e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and metaphy-s i c a l at the same time. Hinayana's idea of "Eko Caro" i s wrong according to the Maha-yana. Mahayanists hold that our world i s not alone (eko). To get out from t h i s world means to be free from Samsara. That i s to say, to obtain quite nothing but Nirvana which i s i n the world and at the same time "of" the world. Hence Mahayanists i n v o l v e themselves i n a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . To put i t i n another way, then, Hinayanists b e l i e v e i n terms of a two-value system: Samsara on one hand and Nirvana on the other. To become free from Samsara meant to be "of" the world. Mahayana argues that there i s no - 6 0 -two-value system but a dynamic system. Hence they held that so-c i a l mundane r e a l i t y i s as w e l l as u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y . I have found that Nagarjuna held the Satyadvaya point of view that "everything i s both r e a l and u n r e a l " which i s incomprehensible. Furthermore Nagarjuna emphasizes as most important, the l a s t of the three c a t e g o r i e s , "Anatta." As i t i s s a i d i n the P a l i suppe samkara a n i c c a t i yatha pajnaya p a s s a t i ata n i p p a n t a t i dukkhe esa maggo v i s u t h i y a suppe samkara dukkhati yatha pajnaya p a s s a t i ata n i p p a n t a t i dukkhe esa maggo v i s u t h i y a suppe samkara a n a t t a t i yatha pajnya p a s s a t i ata n i p p a n t a t i dukkhe esa maggo v i s u t h i y a My t r a n s l a t i o n i s that Brahman acknoledges wisdom that a l l t h i n g s are subject t o impermanence. There he i s free ( r e l e a s e d ) , renunciated from s u f f e r i n g . This i s the path of p u r i t y . Where Brahman sees with knowledge that a l l t h i n g s are subject of s u f f e r -i n g , there he i s dissappointed i n the s u f f e r i n g . That i s the way of p u r i t y . Where Brahman f e e l s with Pajna that -a l l dharmas are no-self,- there he r e a l i z e s the dukkha. This i s the path of p u r i t y . According to the above kathas i t can be seen c l e a r l y that the phrase "sappe Dharma" was t h e f a v o r i t e of Nagarjuna. He means empty of the 5 skandhas, e t c . Hence, free from a l l being. He draws the conclusion that a l l dharmas have t h e i r own being by c r i t i c i z i n g the notion svabhava (own being). In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , he g r e a t l y emphasized the p r a t i t y a -sumutpada or s o - c a l l e d Guatama's twelve chains. Thus the basic a l t e r n a t i v e s are: permanent events or s t a t e s , e t c . But c l e a r l y i t i s absurd to speak of change i n regard to what i s permanent.-^ Professor I i d a i n h i s "The Nature of Samvrti" quotes from - 6 1 -" A l l the dharmas (are n e i t h e r born nor do they p e r i s h ) l i k e Nirvana. However t h i s (view) i s considered from the u l t i m a t e point of view. Many v i r t u o u s acts ( l i k e g i v i n g , etc.) are able to be held and followed. In s o c i a l con-vention a l s o , these ( v i r t u e s ) have r e a l ( v a l u e ) . There-fore everybody knows that these i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l en-t i t i e s ( l i k e the sense organs and t h e i r object) are r e a l . (On the other hand, a flower i n the sky, a t u r t l e ' s h a i r , etc.) are regarded as unreal by everybody. According to the s o c i a l conventional t r u t h (Nagarjuna) says: Everything i s r e a l or u n r e a l . " . For t h i s reason Sunyata i s c a l l e d " v o i d " which means t h a t : 1. i t c o r r e l a t e s with the voidness of inner s t a t e s which i s one of the marks of Buddhist contemplation. 2. the apprehension of the void becomes equivalent to the attainment of Nirvana ... i n the greater v e h i c l e , the c ^^quest f o r Nirvana i s seen as the quest f o r Lord Buddha. 3 . The Buddha's e s s e n t i a l nature i s the v o i d . In b r i e f the Buddha becomes a_manifestation of the absolute: absolute equals Nirvana equals Buddhahood 4. The absolute equated with the t r u t h body of Buddha phenomenalizes i t s e l f as the c e l e s t i a l Lord and on earth as the h i s t o r i c a l Buddha.'55 Some t r a n s l a t i o n s as to the p e r f e c t i o n of Dhyana which have become major Buddhist p r a c t i c e i n the Northern part of China around the t h i r d or f o u r t h century say, as Professor Arthur E. Link points out, that "as regards making wisdom (prajna) the conveyance f o r ent e r i n g meditation (Dhyana), indeed there are three c l a s s e s of beings: A r h a t t a , Pratyekabuddha, and Boddhisattva. Arhatta denied the soul and t r i e d to leave t h i s world. I t i s the same as the true Pratyekabuddha and-Sravaka who are f o l l o w i n g t h i s notion of "eko caro khandggo vissane kappu". But Mahayana Buddhism accepts the 56 soul and t r i e s to be i n the world." Nagarjuna denied, as Warder s t a t e s , that i n the P a l i t e x t Ved-ana or a l l are unhappiness (dukkha). Nagarjuna i n h i s Kar i k a - 62 -extends t h i s to a l l forces (samskaras), which C a n d r a k i r t i a l s o gives as i f part of the s u t r a . I t seems as i f Nagarjuna followed t h i s s u t r a . Nagarjuna h i m s e l f , admits as other Buddhist masters whose words he accepts, that a l l of Buddhas's teachings are nothing more than 5 8 the Four Noble Truths and c o n d i t i o n a l o r i g i n a t i o n . I f that statement i s t r u e , then what Nagarjuna r e j e c t s of Bud-dhism, what he a t t a c k s , i s not Abhidharma as such but the systems and methods of c e r t a i n schools, some of which are known to us from t e x t s s t i l l a v a i l a b l e . Furthermore Nagarjuna denied that the s i x p e r f e c t i o n s of F r a j na-Par am i t a are not from e a r l y Buddhism. Nagarjuna f o l l o w s Buddha i n the sense of r e a l i z a t i o n of what man i s , what he i s and i s not; man i s only a superimposition. Hence he draws the conclusion of h i s Sunyata theory. I t i s Sunyata because of 1 . Samaropa superimposition, namely, to add something which i s not t h e r e , i . e . , memory, imagination, dream 2 . Aparad d e p r e c i a t i o n to subtract something which i s not th e r e , i . e . , Dhamkaya body i s not i n d i v i d u a l but u n i v e r s a l . There i s nothing to a t t a i n and nothing to remove t o , nothing to be escaped. Likewise Nagarjuna developed the theory of dynamic r e a l i t y r a t h e r than s t a t i c r e a l i t y . His work i s b a s i c a l l y a theory of meta-physics. "The works on metaphysics demonstrate the ( 5 ) groups of elements, the ( 1 8 ) component elements of an i n d i v i d u a l , the ( 1 2 ) bases of c o g n i t i o n , the d i f f e r e n c e between them, and t h e i r s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — from the standpoint of e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y . Such i s the Abhidharma l i t e r a t u r e , the Mahaya.na-laksana-samuccaya, etc. As to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s p e c i a l d i v i s i o n s of s c r i p t u r e (that of the e a r l y , the intermediate, and the l a t e s t p e r i o d ) , the works c o n t a i n i n g them are, ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , of three kinds as f o l l o w s : 1. T r e a t i s e s i n t e r p r e t i n g Hinayana S c r i p t u r e (The t r e a t i s e s that give an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e a r l y s c r i p t u r e are of two kinds:) 2. Those e l u c i d a t i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l part 3 . Those r e f e r r i n g to r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e • In some ways the Mahayanist d o c t r i n e i s s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y . F i r s t l y they accept cause-effect i n the d o c t r i n e pratitya-samut-pada. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of cause-effect i s the major d o c t r i n e f o r them. They deny the r e l a t i o n s h i p of time, accepting only present and f u t u r e , denying past. How can p e r f e c t i o n e x i s t with present and future ... two things being t r u e , only one t h i n g , past, being untrue? Why are they untrue at a l l ? Past i s the o r i g i n of both present and f u t u r e . I f there i s t r u t h f o r both present and future _ i there i s a l s o t r u t h f o r past. The notion of Nirvana i s t i m e l e s s for.Hinayana (not only true f o r past, present, and f u t u r e , but a l -so o b j e c t l e s s — no skandha, no s o u l , only name; no space, no de-f i n i t e cosmology). I f the Hinayana notion of time i s i n c o r r e c t , what can be c o r r e c t ? Mahayanist " v o i d " gives the p r i n c i p l e of Buddhism m u l t i p l e negations as a slogan to j u s t i f y t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to show that a l l views about r e a l i t y are c o n t r a d i c t o r y , but holds that t h i s d i d not - 64 -i n v o l v e them i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n since they ( a l l e g e d l y ) a f f i r m t h e i r views. Hence the d o c t r i n e of Sunyata of Nagarjuna i s beyond the problem of metaphysics and beyond the question of " i s he Mahaya-n i s t ? " I t i s s a i d to be the s t a t e of p e r f e c t freedom, joy and 60 b l i s s . Mahayanists admit a degree of r e a l i t y , and l e v e l s of i n s i g h t i n t o the r e a l i t y depend upon s p i r i t u a l maturity and degree of samadhi.^ 1 For me the Madhyamika argument i s too loose and Nagar-,; juna seems to be setting~up h i s system f o r the sake of argument r a t h e r than to a r t i c u l a t e a s p e c i f i c point of view. Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism have the same common sense; i . e . j i t i s s a i d i n canonical Buddhism that a l l things had to be conceived as impermanent. Hence t h i s d o c t r i n e of Hinayana and Mahayana i s the d o c t r i n e of momentariness (ksanika bhangavada). In Hinayana d o c t r i n e and elsewhere Nirvana i s a transcendent s t a t e . This means that i t i s d i s t i n c t from the e m p i r i c a l world. And does not Nirvana c o n s i s t i n r e l e a s e from the::cycle of existence and from the process of r e b i r t h ? I t therefore must seem an e x t r a -ordinary paradox to a f f i r m that a f t e r a l l Nirvana and the e m p i r i -c a l world are i d e n t i c a l . " ^ Note: See b i b l i o g r a p h y at end of Chapter V. - 65 -REFERENCE NOTES 10. Rocznik, Or j e r i t a l l s t y e z n y 1-2, Krakow, p. 293 11. B e l l , C.A., Grammar of C o l l o q u i a l Tibetan, A l l p o r e : 1939, P- V 12. Madhava Acharya, The Sarva-dasana-samgraha, t r a n s l a t e d by E.B. Cowell, London: Kegan Poul, 6th e d i t i o n , Varanasi (Banaras): Ch-wkhamba Sa n s k r i t S e r i e s , 1961, p. X 1 3 . Warder, A.K., Indian Buddhism, M o t i l a l Banarsidass, I n d i a , 1970, P. 325 1 4 . Warder, A.K., Indian Buddhism, M o t i l a l Banarsidass, I n d i a , 1970, P. 327 1 5 . I b i d . , p. 3 2 8 16. c f . Conze, Edward, P r a j n a p a r a m i t a - L l t e r a t u r e , pp. 10-11 1 7 . S'amart, N i n i a n , Doctrine of Argument, p. 2 9 1 8 . Warder, A.K.,op. c i t . , p . 3 2 8 1 9 . I b i d . , p. 365 20. I b i d . , p. 353 21. ;:Warder, A.K., Indian Buddhism, p. 354 2 2 . I b i d . , p. 3 5 7 2 3 . Conze, Edward, The Prajnaparamita L i t e r a t u r e , C a l c u t t a ; The A s i a t i c S ociety" 1958> p. 1 5 24. Narain, A.K., The Indo-Greeks, p. 330 25. Davids. Rhys, Buddhism, New York. The Macmillan Co., 1 8 7 7 , PP. 9 6 - 9 7 26.. Davids, Rhys, Buddhism, p. 9 8 27. Davids, Rhys, Buddhism: I t s H i s t o r y and L i t e r a t u r e , New York and London, the Knickerbocker Press, 1901, p. 43 2 8 . Warder, A.K., Indian Buddhism, c f . pp. 354-357 2 9 . c f . , Robinson, E a r l y Madhyamlka. 30. Warder, A.K., The Problem of Two Truths i n Buddhism and  Vedanta, D. ReiDel P u b l i s h i n g Co., Dordecht-Holland/Boston U.S.A., p. 79 - 6 6 -3 1 . I b i d . , p. 7 9 3 2 , , I b i d . , p. 7 9 3 . 3 . Warder, A.K., Indian Buddhism, p. 3 7 7 3 4 . Sprawozdania, Rocznik O r j e n t a l i s t y c z n y , I - I I , Krakow, 1 9 1 6 , p. 2 8 . 8 3 5 . I b i d . , p. 2 9 9 3 6 . I i d a , Shotaro,•"The Nature of Samvrti and the R e l a t i o n s h i p of Paramartha to i t i n Svatantrika-Madhyamika," from The Problem  of Two Truths i n Buddhism and Vedanta, edi t e d by Mervyn Sprung, D. R e i d e l P u b l i s h i n g Co., Dordrecht/Holland/Boston U.S.A., 1 9 7 3 , P. 6 6 3 7 - Kanakura, Yensho, A H i s t o r y of Hindu-Buddhist Thought, t r a n s -l a t e d by Neal Donner and Shotaro I i d a , p. 1 0 9 3 8 . I b i d . , p. 1 0 9 3 9 . I b i d . , p. 1 0 9 40. Schayer, S t a n i l a s , Rocznik, O r j e n t a l i s t y e z n y , 1 - 2 , Krakow, p. 3 0 0 4 1 . c f . p. I l l 42. Warder, A.K., "Is Nagarjuna a Mahayanist?" from The Problem  of Two Truths i n Buddhism and Vedanta, edited by Mervyn Sprung, D. R e i d e l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 3 , p. 82 . 4 3 . Schayer, S t a n i l a s , op. c i t . , p. 3 0 1 4 4 . Kanakura, op. c i t . , p. 1 0 9 4 5 . Niwano, Nikkyo, The Lotus Sutra L i f e and Soul of Buddhism, Tokyo, 1 9 7 0 , p. 1 5 7 46. Kanakura, op. c i t . , p. 1 2 1 . 4 7 , Warder, A.K., op. c i t . , p. 412 48 . I b i d . , p. 4 2 7 4 9 . Conze, Edward, The Prajnaparamita L i t e r a t u r e , p. 3 5 5 0 . Kanakura, Yensho. op. c i t . , p. 1 0 9 5 1 . ' H i r i y a n n a , H., The E s s e n t i a l s of Indian Philosophy, George A l l e n & Unwin, 1 9 4 9 , p. 7 3 - 6 7 -5 2 . Sen., K.M., Hinduism, Baltimore, Penguin Press, 1 9 6 1 , p. 6 6 5 3 - I i d a , Shotaro, op. c i t . , p. 6 8 5 4 . Smart, N i n i a n , Doctrine and Argument i n Indian Philosophy, George A l l e n & Unwin, 1 9 6 4 , p. 1 8 3 5 5 . Smart, op. c i t . , p. 5 5 5 6 . L i n k , Arthur E., "Evidence f o r D i c t r i n a l C o n t i n u i t y of Han Buddhism from the 2 n d Through the 4 t h Centuries," p. 2 9 5 7 . Warder, op. c i t . , p. 8 0 5 8 . Warder, op. c i t . , p. 8 0 5 S L Bu-ston, H i s t o r y of Buddhism, t r a n s l a t e d from Tibetan by Dr. E. O b e r m i l l e r , Heidelberg, 1 9 3 1 , p. ^ 9 6 0 . M a t i l a l , B.K., op. c i t . , p. 7 3 6 1 . I b i d . , p. 7 3 6 2 . Smart, op. c i t . , p. 5 5 - 68 -Chapter V THE YOGACARA SCHOOL Let us now turn to the Yogacara school i n order to re-examin i t s major s y n t h e t i c problem which stems from the Madhyamika school. However there i s no need f o r me to go i n t o d e t a i l , having e s t a -b l i s h e d e a r l i e r that my emphasis would only be i n the Madhyamika school. At any rat e I do not fee adequately informed about the Madhyamika school without connection to the Yogacara school. The Madhyamika school emphasizes the u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y (Paramartha) more than samvrti ( e m p i r i c a l world) whereas the Yogacara school emphasizes both. One of the c h i e f agents i n t h i s l i n e of development seems to have been Asanga, an i n f l u e n t i a l monk of Peshawar i n the Panjab, who l i v e d and wrote the f i r s t textbook of the creed — the Yoca-gara Bhumi Sastra — around the s i x t h century of our era."'" Professor Yensho Kanakura states that j u s t as Nagajuna, Aryadeva and Rahula are regarded as the founders of the Madhyamika sc h o o l , so are Maitreya, Asanga and Vasubandhu venerated as the founders of the Yogacara-Vijnanavada. 2 Vijnanavada t h e o r i e s are mentioned i n the Viniscaya-Samgraha s e c t i o n i n which i t i s explained that the alaya-consciousness i s the cause of the a r i s i n g of both the sentien t world and the p h y s i -3 c a l world. The r e s t of the arguments are s i m i l a r to those of the Madhyamika school and ther e f o r e are unnecessary to repeat. The contents can be b r i e f l y discussed as f o l l o w s : a. the f i r s t two chapters expound the elusiveness of pe r f e c t wisdom and contain the e s s e n t i a l s of the book - 69 -chapters 3 - 5 are devoted to the advantages derived from the p r a c t i c e of per f e c t wisdom chapter s i x concerns metaphysical problems and the pro-cess of d e d i c a t i n g a l l merit to the f u l l enlightenment of a l l beings chapters 7 - 1 0 cover a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s i n c l u d i n g the a t -t r i b u t e s of the paramitas and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other. The reason? Some b e l i e v e i n i t , others do not. I t s depth and p u r i t y t o r e a l i t y and i l l u s i o n and i t s ef-f e c t on the b e l i e v e r chapter I I ... one cannot achieve study of Prajnaparamita because of the obstacles created by Mara chapter 1 2 gives the explanation of the kind of knowledge which the tathagata has of the world chapter 1 3 describes the a t t r i b u t e s of Absolute chapter 1 4 : one cannot compare Bodhisattva with d i s c i p l e s and pratyekabuddhas favorably chapter 1 5 : the help that Bodhisattva gives to others and the d e s c r i p t i o n of per f e c t wisdom chapter 1 6 : suchness — tathagata's h e l p i n g of the imper-f e c t s u t r a chapter 1 7 : i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y chapter 18: ontology of perfect wisdom, i . e . , emptiness chapter 1 9 : s i x p e r f e c t i o n s ; p r a c t i c e i n the r e l a t i o n to the other being; a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r e d i c t i o n of Bud-dhahood of the Ganges Goddess chapter 20: s k i l l i n means; d e l u s i o n back t o i r r e v e r s i b i -l i t y (XX 3 ^ 0 - 4 ) and the process from there to the e v i l s of p r i d e chapters 22-28: v a r i e t i e s of t o p i c s such as good f r i e n d s , meaning of emptiness, v a l u e s , the value of per f e c t wisdom, i n f l u e n c e of mara, the marks of p e r f e c t t r a i n i n g , nature of i l l u s i o n , the p r a i s e of a l i f e of a Bodhisattva, and the p e r f e c t i o n to Buddhahood by many thousands of monks chapter 2 9 : l i t a n y chapters 3 0 - 3 3 : s t o r y about Bodhisattva Sadapravudita and hi s search f o r p e r f e c t i o n chapter 32: Once more, the tr a n s m i s s i o n of the su t r a to Ananda 4 - 70 -One of the s i m i l a r i t i e s of Hinayana and Yogacara i s the b e l i e f that i n about 5000 years from now, the universe w i l l be burned by n a t u r a l f i r e and human f i r e (the f i r e of passion, "Raga", the f i r e of anger, "Dosa", and the f i r e of d e l u s i o n , "Moha"). Man i s f u l l of confusion; there i s no love among humans. Man has no apprecia-t i o n of m o r a l i t y whatsoever, i . e . , c h i l d r e n do not know t h e i r par-ents and k i l l them, e t c . The universe w i l l burn and destroy the en-t i r e human race. Right afterwards the Bodhisattva, Maitreya, w i l l come to earth and b l e s s mankind ... who w i l l be newly created i n t h e i r next l i f e c y c l e . " A l l beings there would have "compassion" (pratisamvid) when studying. The world w i l l be f u l l of radiance, j e w e l s , incense, fragrance, j e w e l - f l o w e r s , musical clouds." A l l beings w i l l be completely happy, have complete freedom, by b l e s s i n g s of the Bodhisattva who now dwells i n heaven, Sukhavati. I would l i k e to quote the d e s c r i p t i o n of Sukhavati heaven from A.K. Warder's work: "Sukhavati i s then described by the Buddha i n more d e t a i l , w ith f o r example i t s enormous j e w e l - l o t u s e s , i t s absence of mountains, i t s fragrant r i v e r s bearing jewel-flowers and making sweet sounds, i t s heavenly music whose so f t and l o v e l y sounds produce happiness by suggesting "imperman--ence, calm, and non-soul." The beings there spend t h e i r time i n pleasure play and enjoy whatever they wish. I f they bathe i n the r i v e r s , the water seems to each one t o be at the exact temperature he wishes; i f any do not wish to hear the music, they do not have to hear i t , w h i l s t those who wish t o hear i t do hear i t and hear whatever music they would l i k e to hear, i n c l u d i n g of course, the chanting of the d o c t r i n e i f they so wish, the d o c t r i n e of emptiness, s i g n l e s s n e s s , uncommittedness, non-synthesis-i n g , not being born, non-occurrence, non-existence, ces-s a t i o n , e t c . There i s no d i f f e r e n c e between gods and men t h e r e . " 6 Maitreya says, "the world i s endowed with 6 0 d i s t i n c t i v e f e a -tures of transcendental nature." Aryasanga, Vimuktasana, Vasubandhu and others (profoundly versed) i n s c r i p t u r e say that very s u t r a (the Tathagata-gahya) mentions 60 d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s . I t may be stated that there i s evidence to show that the Yoga-cara a l s o admitted an absolute consciousness or u n i v e r s a l s e l f i n a d d i t i o n to the p a r t i c u l a r egos and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e ideas r e f e r r e d g to i n the account given above. Both Mahayana and Hinayana are the same idea according to the T i p i t a k a . That i s to say, that merging i n the absolute i s the same as a n n i h i l a t i o n . But Mahayana claims that Hinayana's idea of Arahat i s s e l f i s h and i n d i v i d u a l , escaping the world and not as-s i s t i n g the welfare of others. The person who helps others i s called. Bodhisattva (wisdom-being) . They took the p o s i t i o n that Buddha had become Bodhisattva i n many former l i f e t i m e s . The .Lord Buddha i s not an i n d i v i d u a l body but Dharmabody; Buddha i s Sunyata. Gautama Buddha a l s o i n a r e f l e c t i v e phenomenan, not r e a l . As i t occurs i n one of the passages of the Lotus Sutra; "the Buddha i s o r i g i n a l l y the equivalent of existence to a l l people, so. each, of them can become a Buddha," some h e r e t i c s r i d i c u l e with m a l i c i o u s i n t e n t and address the b e l i e v e r s of t h i s s u t r a with the Q words " A l l you are Buddhas! Aren't you?" Yogacara, according to Yogacarabhumi s a s t r a and Mahayana-Sutralamkara> b e l i e v e s that "the fundamental argument of t h i s Sastra i s to show how mind manifests i t s e l f as both subject and object. A l l dharmas are d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s , namely, mind, matter, mental, non-mental/non-material, and u n c o n d i t i o n a l . 1 0 This concept developed i n t o the three t h e o r i e s of knowledg. The f i r s t p r i n c i p l e i s c a l l e d the N a t i o n a l Conceptual ( P a r i k a l p i t a ) , i . e . , the j a r i s - 72 -i n f r o n t of me as w e l l as another j a r that i s not there. The second p r i n c i p l e I t r a n s l a t e as "the r e l a t i v e " ( P a r a t a n t r a ) , i . e . , I see the rope as a snake. The t h i r d p r i n c i p l e i s that of the " " i d e a l l y absolute" (Parinispanna) and i s s a i d to r e s t on "the r e -l a t i v e " i n the sense that the former i s a p r e s e n t i a l value of the l a t t e r , i . e . , I see the rope as the rope and the snake as a snake, etc . This school i s a l s o c a l l e d Vijnanavada and was developed by Asangga and h i s brother. Herbert Guenther c a l l s t h i s school men-t a l i s t . As he s a i d , " I used the term' 'mentalist' f o r the adher-ents of those views which are r e f e r r e d to by such terms as Yoga-_ _ _ 12 - - -cara and Vijnanavada and C i t t a m a t r a ! Alayavijnanavadasutra explains that even the dependent nature i s only a p a r t i a l t r u t h : the fundamental r e a l i t y i s t a t h a t a , the "suchness" that u n d e r l i e s a l l things e q u a l l y . Thus the o r i g i n a l i t y of t h i s Sutra can be i n i t s T r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of the metaphysical foundation of pheno-mena i n t o the purely mentally constructed nature ( P a r i k a l p i t a ) , r e l a t i v e nature ( P a r a t a n t r a ) , and p e r f e c t r e a l i t y (Parinispanna)."'" Parinispanna r e f e r s to Nirvana, and means not the e x t i n c t i o n , the negation, of being, but the e x t i n c t i o n , the absence, of the 14 three f i r e s of passion of Raga, Dosa, and Moha. According to prajnaparamita, "the Dharmabodies are the Lords, but monks, you should not t h i n k that t h i s i n d i v i d u a l body i s me, monk, you should see me from the accomplishment of the Dharmabody. i-v M e n t a l i s t s held that nothing e l s e can be held but mind. This has d e f i n i t e l y developed from the Hinayana school and appears i n the Dhammapada Sutra: Mind i s the d i c t a t o r f o r a l l t h i n g s . As i t i s sa i d i n the f i r s t verse of Dhammapada: mano puppam kamadhamma mano setha mano maya mahasa ee pathusthena p a s t i va k a r o t h i tatonam dukuman na v e t i cakkam va vahatopatanti This i s t r a n l a t e d mean a l l man's m a t e r i a l productions are the c h i l d of thought, the c r e a t i v e process of the mind, even as the forms of nature are the product of U n i v e r s a l Mind. The essence of the mind i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y pure: A l l t h i n g s , good or e v i l , are only i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , and good deeds and e v i l deeds are only the r e s u l t of good thought and e v i l thought r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 5 Professor Max Muller pointed out that " i f we look i n the Dham-mapada at every passage where Nirvana i s mentioned, there i s not one which would r e q u i r e that i t s meanings should be a n n i h i l a t i o n , while most, i f not a l l , would become p e r f e c t l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e i f we as-— 1 6 signed t o the word 'Nirvana' that s i g n i f i c a t i o n . " Buddha has pointed out the way of s a l v a t i o n which c o n s i s t s i n the attainment of Nirvana: and Nirvana can be a t t a i n e d i n t h i s l i f e by abandoning a l l attachment to the t r a n s i t o r y and f i n d i n g a r e s t i n g place i n the e t e r n a l . Nirvana i s n e i t h e r born nor o r i g i n a t e d — i t i s n e i t h e r w i t h i n 5 skandhas nor without 5 skandhas. M e n t a l i s t philosophers b e l i e v e that t r a n s m i s s i o n s t a t e (samsara) and u l t i m a t e absolute (Nirvana) are i d e n t i c a l . In sum, a l l Dhammas are nothing but p r o j e c t i o n s of ...... . 1 8 consciousness — a l l v - i s pure consciousness. Vasubandhu supports t h i s d o c t r i n e s y n t h e t i c a l l y wherever i t occurs i n the Vimsatika. His theory of consciousness-only-and-no-e x t e r n a l - w o r l d , and the T r i m s i k a , explains the transformations of the 1 9 alaya-consciousness. He developed h i s brother Asanga's T r i w o r l d nature, h o l d i n g that "the triple-world-show ( i n c l u d i n g the worlds of d e s i r e , form, and. formlessness) i s nothing but a transformation of consciousness JXecause these phenomena have no o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y and are merely V.- 4-- l|20 s u b j e c t i v e ideas." I t may be pointed out again that phenomena are nothing but the object of the mind. Ac c o r d i n g l y , Vasubandhu set f o r t h the p o s s i b l e objections of c r i t i c s , and showed that the greater part of them can be r e f u t e d by arguments. He b e l i e v e s i n the r e a l i t y of existence i n the dream as w e l l as i n the waking s t a t e . He goes on to answer se v e r a l o b j e c t i o n s with h i s arguments that the e x t e r n a l world i s nothing more than the imaginal ( d i s c r i m i n a t e d ) nature, which ap-pears as both subject and object over and above the constant flow 21 of consciousness. He maintains that alay.a v i j n a n a i s the seed of a l l t h i n g s but we do not r e a l i z e i t as the way things are ( t a t h a t a ) . We cannot see the r e l a t i o n s h i p . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are i n d i c a t e d b r i e f l y by the formula: "seeds produce m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , manifestations perfume 22 ( i n f l u e n c e ) seeds, seeds produce seeds." Hence t h i s fundamental p r i n c i p l e of c o - e x i s t i n g i n the process of nature made Vasubandhu be l i e v e that " a l l i s a product of f a l s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and a l l 23 Dhammas are nothing but transformation of consciousness." Conclusion M e n t a l i s t s do not d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y between the r e a l i t y of existence i n the dream, and r e a l i t y i n the waking s t a t e . R e a l i t i e s are not l i t e r a l l y part of the perceived object although they r e -- 75 -semble p h y s i c a l objects as o r d i n a r i l y conceived. They are more l i k e mental st a t e s i n t h e i r p r i v a c y and depend upon the mind of the ob-24 server. M e n t a l i s t s hold r e a l i t y i n the ul t i m a t e sense r a t h e r than.the conventional sense. And they emphasize the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l question r a t h e r than metaphysical question. Hence Mahayana e s p e c i l l a y Yoga-cara denied not only e x t e r n a l objects but a l s o s o u l . I t made Bud-dha a god because of the i n f l u e n c e of Hindu thought, whereas Hina-yana. made Buddha the greatest man. Their d o c t r i n e tends to be i d e a l i s t i c r a t h e r than p r a c t i c a l . I t s concern i s the e s o t e r i c t r u t h about phenomena and how we know them. To t h i s extent i t seems f a r from the words of the Buddha whose preaching was p r a c t i c a l , whose goal was the e x t i n c t i o n of s u f f e r i n g f o r every man. " I have preached the t r u t h without mak-ing any d i s t i n c t i o n between e x o t e r i c and e s o t e r i c d o c t r i n e : f o r i n respect of the t r u t h s Snanda, the Tathagata has no such t h i n g as 25 the closed f i s t of a teacher who keeps something back." - 7 6 -REFERENCE NOTES 1 . Davids, op. c i t . , p. 2 0 7 2 . Kanakura, op. c i t . , p. 1 2 3 3 . I b i d . , p. 1 2 3 4 . Conze, Edward, The Composition of the As t s a h a s r i k a Prajnaparami-t a , BSOAS, XLV, 1 9 5 2 , pp. 2 5 1 - 2 6 2 " 5 - Warder, op. c i t . , p. 3 6 0 6 . I b i d . , p. 3 6 l 7 . Bu-ston, op. c i t . , p. 2 9 8 . H i r i y a n n a , op. c i t . p. 8 3 9 . Niwano, op. c i t . , p. 1 0 . Kanakura, op. c i t . , p. 124 1 1 . Sprung (ed.), op. c i t . , pp. 9 2 - 9 6 1 2 . I b i d . , p. 9 2 1 3 . Kanakura, op. c i t . , p. 1 2 2 1 4 . Davids, op. c i t . , p. 1 1 5 1 5 . Christmas, Humphries, Studies i n the Middle Way Being Taught on Buddhism: London, A l l e n and Urwin L i m i t e d , Ruskin House, p. 2 2 6 1 6 . Davids, op. c o t . , p. 1 1 5 1 7 . Carus, P a u l , Nirvana, Chicago: 1 9 1 3 , p. 9 2 1 8 . Kanakura, op. c i t . , p. 1 2 6 1 9 . I b i d . , p. 1 2 7 2 0 . . I b i d . , p. 1 2 7 2 1 . Kanakura, op. c i t . , p. 1 2 7 2 2 . I b i d . , p. 1 2 8 2 3 . I b i d . , p. 1 2 8 2 4 . Sprung, (ed.), op. c i t . , p. 9 1 25. Davids, op. c i t . , p. 2 1 1 - 77 -Chapter VI THE THIRD PRINCIPLE  THE ABSOLUTE FREEDOM IN PERFECT EXISTENCE In the second and t h i r d chapters, we have t r e a t e d i n d e t a i l the ' f i r s t and second p r i n c i p l e s of the Four Noble Truths and some r e -l a t e d aspects of the t h i r d p r i n c i p l e . In t h i s chapter I would l i k e to f u r t h e r consider the Third Noble Truth. Let us begin with four i l l u s t r a t i o n s and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . 1) The Truth of the O r i g i n a t i o n of S u f f e r i n g . "That c r a v i n g which leads to continued r e b i r t h , seeking i t s pleasure now here, now there." One f i n d s momentary pleasure i n one of the s i x inward-out-ward sense f i e l d s . One then wishes to perpetuate t h i s momentary pleasure b e l i e v i n g t h i s i s the source of one' happiness. In h i s d e l u s i o n , he keeps seeking and c r a v i n g f o r impermanent things which only cause st r u g g l e and continued r e b i r t h . From our not knowing (ignorance), we act by body, speech or mind. From the r e s u l t of these a c t i o n s , s e n s u a l i t i e s a r i s e (greed, hate, d e l u s i o n ) , and i n these s e n s u a l i t i e s we f i n d momen-t a r y happiness or p l e a s u r e , which again leads us i n t o ignorance so we again act because we seek ple a s u r e , here and now. action - 7 8 -2) O r i g i n a t i o n of S u f f e r i n g c r a v i n g which leads to r e b i r t h one seeking d e l i g h t now here, now there Cessation of S u f f e r i n g The complete stopping of the c r a v i n g -- withdrawal from i t , l i b e r a t i o n from i t , non-attachment to i t . Stopping of three main types of c r a v i n g s : a) f o r sense pleasure b) f o r existence c) f o r non-existence f e e l i n g s c r a v i n g grasping pleasantl unpleasant neutral' grasping a) b) c) d) sense objects at wrong views at customs and r i t u a l s at the word " s e l f " i n the past tt j tt c e s s a t i o n of c r a v i n g N i r v a n a _ ( l i k e the eye of a h u r r i c a n e ) . In Nirvana, 5 skandhas.become ex-t i n c t . Peace and calmness, because of 3 s e n s u a l i t i e s , greed, hatred, and . d e l u s i o n , are e x t i n c t . Escape, because i n Nirvana you are free from anything which may cause s u f f e r i n g . 3 ) Cause of s u f f e r i n g (samudhaya) - 7 9 -1) s e n s u a l i t y ( k i l e s a ) 2) a c t i o n (kaminu) — samsara (the c y c l e of l i f e ) , the wandering of l i v e s . 3) e f f e c t vipaka c i t a — i f good, c a l l e d kusala c i t a ; i f bad, akusala c i t a . Produce p a t h a s a t i — new mind, c o r r e c t i v e mind. 4) The Path Leading to the Cessation of S u f f e r i n g Eight-Fold-Noble-Path r i g h t views, r i g h t i n t e n t i o n s , r i g h t speech, r i g h t con-duct, r i g h t e f f o r t , r i g h t l i v e l i h o o d , r i g h t mindfulness, r i g h t concentration r i g h t views = to the 4 holy t r u t h s : t h i s i s s u f f e r i n g , t h i s i s o r i g i n a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g , t h i s i s the c e s s a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g , t h i s i s the path l e a d i n g to the c e s s a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g r i g h t i n t e n t i o n s = d e s i r e to a t t a i n Nirvana, the welfare of others, r e n u n c i a t i o n , absence of i l l w i l l , i n o f f e n s i v e n e s s . r i g h t e f f o r t = abondoning of unwholesome dharmas and the development of wholesome dharmas, those which lead to enlightenment. The E i g h t - F o l d - Noble-Path i s to be followed i f one wants l i b e r a -t i o n from s u f f e r i n g . - 80 -Nirvana can be c l a s s i f i e d as two-fold — Samkhata-nirvlna and Asamkhata-nirvana -- or as t h r e e - f o l d -- Tadanga-nirvana, Pahani-baba-nirvana, and Upachetha-nirvana, r e s p e c t i v e l y t r a n s l a t e d as momentary freedom, freedom from time t o time, and complete freedom. The two-fold c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been c l e a r l y discussed i n a previous chapter; the t h r e e - f o l d w i l l be confirmed here. Nonetheless I w i l l emphasize only the Tadanga-nirvana which occurs i n the Anguttara-Nikaya. Once again I w i l l render an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n given by my teacher, Buddhadasa, i n a l e c t u r e he gave i n the Pattalung province i n southern Thailand on J u l y 1 6 , 1 9 6 9 . "In dhamma language, 'nirvana' r e f e r s to the kind of coolness that r e s u l t s from e l i m i n a t i n g mental defilements. At any time when there i s freedom from mental_defilements, at that time there i s coolness, momentary nirvana ... when no such idea a r i s e s , there i s no b i r t h and t h i s freedom from b i r t h i s a stat e of coolness ... and whenever_there i s freedom from defects of these kinds there i s ni r v a n a , niravana of the type r e f e r r e d t o as tadanga-nirvana or vikkhambhana-nirvana ... Tadanga-nirvana i s momentary c e s s a t i o n of the idea " I " , "mine", due to favorable e x t e r n a l circumstances. At a higher l e v e l than t h i s , i f we develop some form of Dharma p r a c t i c e , i n p a r t i c u l a r i f we develop c o n c e n t r a t i o n , so that the idea of " I " , "mine" cannot a r i s e ^ that e x t i n c t i o n of " I " , "mine" i s c a l l e d vikkbambhana-nirvana. And f i n a l l y , when we succeed i n - 8 1 -b r i n g i n g about the complete e l i m i n a t i o n of a l l d e f i l e m e n t s , that i s f u l l n i r v a n a , t o a t l nirvana ... I t must be understood that at any time when there e x i s t s the idea " I " , "mine", at that time there e x i s t s b i r t h , s u f f e r i n g , the c y c l e of samsara. The " I " i s born, endures f o r a moment, then ceases, i s born again, endures f o r a moment, and again ceases -- which i s why the process i s r e f e r r e d to as the c y c l e of samsara. I t i s s u f f e r i n g because of the b i r t h of the " I " . I f at any moment con d i t i o n s happen to be f a v o r a b l e , so that the " I " - i d e a does not a r i s e , then there i s peace — what i s c a l l e d tadanga-n i r v a n a , momentary n i r v a n a , a t a s t e of n i r v a n a , a sample of n i r v a n a , peace, coolness ... How can a human being become "cool"? This question Is complicated by the f a c t that man's present knowledge and understanding of l i f e has not been sud-denly acquired but has evolved g r a d u a l l y over a long p e r i o d . . . The Jhanas are states of genuine mental coolness and t h i s was the kind of nirvana people were connected with i n the period immediately before the Buddha's enlightenment. Gurus were teaching that nirvana was i d e n t i c a l with the most r e f i n e d sta t e of mental co n c e n t r a t i o n . The Buddha's l a s t guru, Udak-atSpasa RSmaputra, taught him that to a t t a i n the "jhana of n e i t h e r perception nor non-perception (n' eva sanna n' asannayatana)" was to a t t a i n complete c e s s a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g . But the Buddha d i d not a c c e p t _ t h i s teaching; he d i d not con-s i d e r t h i s to be genuine nirvana. He went o f f and delved i n t o the matter on h i s own account u n t i l he r e a l i z e d the nirvana that i s the t o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n of every kind of c r a v i n g and c l i n g i n g . As he himself l a t e r taught: "True happiness con-s i s t s i n e r a d i c a t i n g the f a l s e idea " I " . When defilements have been t o t a l l y e l i m i n a t e d , t h i s i s nirvana. I f t h e _ d e f i l e -ments are only mo.me:ntta9n.i7i;y absent, i t i s momentary nir v a n a . _ Hence the teaching of tadanga-nirvana and vikkhanbhananibbana already discussed. These terms r e f e r to a c o n d i t i o n of f r e e -dom fx.om-.defilements ... There i s the time we are asleep, and there are times when the mind i s c l e a r , c o o l , at ease. A person who can manage to do as Nature intended can avoid nervous and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s ; one who cannot i s bound to have more and more nervous d i s o r d e r s u n t i l he becomes men-t a l l y i l l or even d i e s . Let us be t h a n k f u l f o r momentary ni r v a n a , the t r a n s i e n t type of nirvana that comes when condi-t i o n s are f a v o r a b l e . For a b r i e f moment there i s freedom from c r a v i n g , c o n c e i t , and f a l s e views, i n p a r t i c u l a r , freedom'from the idea of " I " and "mine". The mind i s empty, f r e e , j u s t long enought to have a r e s t or to s l e e p , and so i t remains heal-^ thy." 1 At t h i s point I would f u r t h e r l i k e to speak about the i l l u s t r a -t i o n s and t h e i r meanings. The simple i l l u s t r a t i o n A) on page c l e a r l y shows that where there isflignorance there i s a c t i o n ; consequently there Is s e n s u a l i t y . E i t h e r there i s a c t i o n or, as - 82 -C) i l l u s t r a t e s , where there i s ignorance there i s s e n s u a l i t y . Ignorance i s the most basic of defilements. In a d d i t i o n i t gives r i s e to defilements of s e n s u a l i t y , i . e . , raga, dosa, moha, e t c . This s e n s u a l i t y r e s u l t s i n a c t i o n or "kamma"; th e r e f o r e there i s kamma. I f A v i j j a i s a karma-process and s e n s u a l i t y i s caused by A v i j j a then s e n s u a l i t y i s a karma-process. What i s s e n s u a l i t y ? S e n s u a l i t y i s "tanha," which i s c r a v i n g . Tanha i s the flower of a l l man's defilements which r e s u l t i n the present and f u t u r e , which has returned to repeat i t s e l f again and again i n the same phenomena ( b i r t h , death, etc.) from the past. This i s why Buddha reminds us i n the F i r s t Sermon that Tanha i s f i r e : "... Then the Exalted One said to the brethren: 'Brethren, the A l l i s on f i r e . ' 'What a l l , brethren, i s on f i r e ? " '•'The eye, brethren, i s on f i r e , v i s i b l e objects are on f i r e , eye-consciousness ... eye-contact ... that weal or woe or n e u t r a l s t a t e experienced, which a r i s e s owing to eye-contact, a l s o i s on f i r e ' ... 'The tongue i s on f i r e , t a s t e s are on f i r e , tongue-con-sciousness (gustatory consciousness) ... tongue-contact ... that weal or woe or n e u t r a l s t a t e experienced, which a r i s e s owing to tongue-contact, that a l s o i s on f i r e ' . . . 'On f i r e w ith the blaze of l u s t , ...'... 'So seeing, brethren, the well-taught Ariyan d i s c i p l e i s r e p e l l e d by the eye, i s r e p e l l e d by v i s i b l e o b j e c t s , by eye-consciousness, by that weal or woe ... by mind, by mind-consciousness (as before) ... Being r e p e l l e d by i t , he l u s t s not f o r i t . Not l u s t i n g he i s set f r e e . In t h i s freedom comes i n s i g h t that i t i s a being f r e e . Thus he r e a l i z e s : "Rebirth i s destroyed, l i v e d i s the righteous l i f e , done i s the tas k . For l i f e i s the con d i t i o n s there i s no h e r e a f t e r . " 2 - 8 3 -Thus Tanha i s the cr a v i n g which leads to continued r e b i r t h . On the other hand i f there i s no s e n s u a l i t y or a c t i o n , there i s no d e l u s i o n . Delusion and kamma are past extension. Both give r i s e to s e n s u a l i t y while substance and mind act as the momentary a c t i o n f o r the present e x i s t e n c e . Consequently there i s no end: "Thus, through the e n t i r e fading away and e x t i n c t i o n of t h i s 'Delusion', the karma-formations are extinguished. Through the e x t i n c t i o n of the karma formations, 'Consciousness' ( r e b i r t h ) i s extinguished. Through the e x t i n c t i o n of consciousness, the 'Mental and P h y s i c a l E x i s t e n c e ' i s extinguished. Through the e x t i n c t i o n of the mental and p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e , the s i x 'Sense Organs', 'Se n s o r i a l Impression', i s extinguished. Through the e x t i n c t i o n of s e n s o r i a l impression, 'Feeling' i s e x t i n -guished. Through the e x t i n c t i o n of f e e l i n g , 'Craving' ' C l i n g i n g ' i s extinguished. Through the e x t i n c t i o n of c l i n g i n g , the process of becoming, " R e b i r t h ' , i s e x t i n -guished. Through the e x t i n c t i o n of the r e b i r t h , 'Decay and Death, Sorrow, Lamentation, P a i n , G r i e f , and Despair' are extinguished. Thus takes place the e x t i n c t i o n of t h i s whole mass of s u f f e r i n g . This i s c a l l e d the Noble Truth of the E x t i n c t i o n of S u f f e r i n g . " 3 In speaking about the e x t i n c t i o n of s u f f e r i n g , I would l i k e to f u r t h e r mention the Twelve-Fold Chain. The 1 2 l i n k s of the chain may always be conveyed by the three elements of c o n d i t i o n s , i . e . , d e l u s i o n , kamma, and s e n s u a l i t y . Thus I f i n d i t wise to speak of the 1 2 chains rearranged as f o l l o w s : Nos. 1 and 2 r e s u l t from nos. 1 , 2 , 8 , 9 . & 1 0 Nos. 6 and 1 2 r e s u l t from nos. 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , & 7 Nos. 1 1 r e s u l t s from i t s e l f or from no. 1 Oen might wonder why I say that no 1 and no 1 1 are equivalent. I say t h i s because r e b i r t h r e s u l t s from d e l u s i o n . Suppose that there i s no d e l u s i o n ; then there i s no r e b i r t h . Therefore there i s no dukkha, which i s nirvana. - 84 -REFERENCE NOTES 1. op. c i t . , Another Kind of B i r t h , p. 10 2. Phra Daksinganadhikorn, " A d i t t a p a r i y a y a S u t t a " (The Buddha's Sermon on F i r e ) , Buddhism, Thai Watana Panich Press Co., L t d . , Bangkok, Thailand, 1 9 7 3 , pp. 6 2 - 6 5 . 3 . S. X I I , I . Chapter V I I THE PRINCIPLE OF NIRVANA In the concept of Nirvana, one should bear i n mind that the d o c t r i n e of r e l e a s e i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y f o r r e l e a s e , that i s , the capacity f o r t a k i n g out of the s e l f (or overthrowing the s e l f , " a t t a " , "I-ness", "ego"). Thus the concept of Nirvana a r i s e s out of thought which i t transcends ... which i s fr e e from worldly c o n d i t i o n s (samsara). Hence Nirvana i s n e i t h e r of empir-i c a l q u a l i t y nor datumless. In Buddhism t h i s concept i s known as concentration or Samadhi. Nirvana i s inconceivable on one hand, though conceivable as an i n t e r n a l idea (object) which i s i d e n t i c a l with experiences of simultaneousness — ease est p r e s c i t i (sohopal-ambhaniyama). On the other hand Nirvana i s conceivable by the i n -d i v i d u a l (patcattam) who has p u r i f i e d the mind. As i t i s s a i d , Nirvana i s able to be perceived by the experience of Arahanta or Pacceka Buddha or Buddha who has completed the p r a c t i c e of the Four Noble Truths. Nirvana i s , to some degree, j u s t l i k e dream and waking st a t e s which cannot be described or p r e d i c t e d . Nirvana appear ssa:s:-. e x t e r n a l objects and merely inconceivable phenomena between d e l u s i o n and Nirvana. This phenomenon, at that moment, i s n e i t h e r i d e n t i c a l to nor d i f f e r e n t from d e l u s i o n . The renun-c i a t i o n or complete freedom of man i s a t t a i n e d when h i s mind i s beyond defilements of d e l u s i o n and reaches to Nirvana. How do I know that I have reached Nirvana? By the instrument of the middle path of which the c r u c i a l element i s meditation. My mind calms down, becomes enlightened and p e a c e f u l , and no longer moves f o r -- 8 6 -ward to the power of d e s i r e . This phenomena of mind i s between d e l u s i o n and Nirvana. This i s c a l l e d the one way of the middle path ... the middle path of d e l u s i o n and Nirvana. This phenom-ena i s almost impossible t o prove unless aided by a p u r i f i e d mind of a s a i n t or Buddha. Hence nirvana i s understood not merely i n the metaphysical sense, but a l s o i n the expression of something given to the s a i n t or Buddha i n i n t e r i o r experiences. The problem with the explanation of the concept of nirvana i s that nirvana i t s e l f i s SELF-DESCRIPTION. In most cases nirvana i s out there (whether or not i t corresponds with con-sciousness) w i t h i n consciousness which can be perceived. The f a c t i s that nirvana i n v o l v e s knowledge (bhodi) on one hand, and does not i n v o l v e knowledge on the other. Consequently knowing that one i s a t t a i n i n g nirvana or not depends upon b e l i e v i n g or d i s b e l i e v i n g . B e l i e v i n g and d i s b e l i e v i n g are simultaneous and both e x i s t i n the consciousness of the person (no matter wh). My own view i s that "when I know 'P' while b e l i e v i n g 'not P' I am aware on two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . I would l i k e to c a l l the f i r s t l e v e l "pure awareness" or "awareness-in-itself:" or "self-aware-ness" and the second l e v e l "awareness i n v o l v i n g i n t e n t i o n a l i t y of f e e l i n g (knowing) 'P' or 'not P'." I f I r a i s e the question "why do I not know that I am a t t a i n i n g n i r v a n a ? " , .this comes about because I may be d i s t r a c t e d by some-t h i n g e l s e , or because I may d e l i b e r a t e l y ignore i t , or because my mind i s i n an empty stat e already, or because I may not wish (care) to t h i n k about i t , or f o r whatever reason my mind c o r r e -sponds with at the moment. In any case one cannot make a c l a i m " I " am not a t t a i n i n g n i r v a n a . " I f one claims "I knew a l l along I was a t t a i n i n g n i r v a n a , " t h i s does not mean he has a t t a i n e d nirvana. His c l a i m i n g a knowledge of nirvana could create a f a l s e mental sta t e of nirvana (Bhavanamaya ... "something more ' i d e a l ' i n the 'intermediary world*, s p r i n g i n g from meditation — t r u e r to what i s r e a l l y there than that found i n the sensory world) which i s not the v i r t u e of nirvana which i s r e a l w i t h i n h i s consciousness. He i s c a r r y i n g a c l a i m of nirvana which men-t a l l y f u n c t i o n s as the r e c o g n i t i o n of something r e v e a l i n g h i s past apprehensions, hopes, or fears which r e s u l t from s o c i a l h a b i t , not from h i m s e l f . In the same token when a person says " I am no good, because I am not p r a c t i c i n g samadhi, or performing good kamma" — then examing the f a i l u r e of h i s l i f e — he does not mean that he i s not a t t a i n i n g ; what he says does not correspond to what e x i s t s i n h i s mind. In other words what he says i s g i v i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s mental s t a t e at that moment. But even i f t h i s i s what i s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n h i s momentary and sensory consciousness then I (the author) have not e s t a b l i s h e d that the man knew P (nirvana) while he believed not-P ( n o t - n i r v a n a ) , or that he intended to b e l i e v e not-P (not n i r v a n a ) . In other words, nirvana of Buddhism i s relevant to Kant's transcendental wisdom and i n t e l l e c t u a l wisdom which fu n c t i o n s f r e e l y as i t i s understood as phenomena or noumena. Buddhist n i r -vana i s concerned with one true r e a l i t y — Dhamma. Kant's pur-pose of transcendental wisdom i s a s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e , that i s to say, the w i l l of God. - 88 -Nirvana has a t e l e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n transforming " o b j e c t i v e l u r e " i n t o s u b j e c t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . What i s there i s transformed i n t o what i s here. Why and how t h i s i s so i s obscure. To such questions, "there are answers and the Tathagata knows them, but he does not r e v e a l them because they are of no use to us."^ One fundamental defect of contemporary r e l i g i o n i s that i t i s concerned with speaking and arguing p h i l o s o p h i c a l , moral and p s y c h o l o g i c a l matters but i s not concerned with p r a c t i c e . For the Buddhist there i s f i r s t of a l l the pure path of moral law, the 7 V i s s u d h i Magga Patipadha. Second i s the beauty of the middle way-by p r a c t i c i n g calmness of mind and j o i n i n g i t s peacefulness with the purest s t a t e of mind f o r a l l beings which i s c a l l e d p r a c t i c -in g meditation or samadhi. Third and l a s t i s the f i n a l beauty of a l l o w i n g the mind to be f i l l e d with complete wisdom, namely, hav-. • ing immediate comprehension of what i s and what i s not ... know-ing and p e r c e i v i n g that there i s no b i r t h of dukkha occuring w i t h i n phenomena. This i s c a l l e d r e n u n c i a t i o n by wisdom or enlightenment. Whoever l i v e s with t h i s beauty i s s a i d to l i v e l i f e with the a r t of l i f e . R e l i g i o u s b e l i e v e r s , by and l a r g e , reduce r e l i g i o n to the con-cepts of s k e p t i c a l science, accepting immediate notions of prac-t i c e , and i g n o r i n g a l l they cannot observe and measure. This i s the mistaken behavior which should be c o r r e c t e d . From another point of view, metaphysical r e f l e c t i o n about the world a r i s e s from the confused notion of r e l i g i o u s experience. War, economic depression, racism, c u l t u r a l and educational problems, and t r i b a l , group, n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , - 8 9 -are the consequences of d i s t o r t e d r e f l e c t i o n r a t h e r than some kind of r e l i g i o u s experience. The r e l i g i o u s experience seems no problem ... the problem i s that there i s a l a c k of r e l i g i o u s ex-perience. There i s the c r e a t i o n of s u p e r - a r t i f i c i a l experience claimed as r e l i g i o u s experience. For example, some Buddhists be-l i e v e i n the r i t u a l s of the death ceremony, b i r t h ceremony, o r d i n -a t i o n , k a t h i n (the g i v i n g of yellow robes to the monks) and feed-ing the ghosts or s p i r i t s , e t c . , which have been taken from t a n -t r i e t r a d i t i o n , as the essence of Buddhism, and have spread t h i s idea throughout Thailand and A s i a . This i s why we have many d i f -f erent schools of Buddhism. We have t h i r t y schools and already that i s not enought; more schools w i l l develop. Thus Buddhism i s unnec e s s a r i l y c r e a t i n g confusion. This has been going on since the death of Buddha. Founders of various schools f r e q u e n t l y con-fused simple Buddhist teachings i n an e f f o r t to a i r t h e i r own views. One should bear i n mind that the Buddhist r e l i g i o n i s much more than t e x t u a l manner, v e r b a l argument, memorization, and r i t -u a l i z a t i o n ... most of a l l i t i s p r a c t i c e with the s i n c e r e s t and purest mind. This i s common to a l l r e l i g i o n s ... a r e l i g i o u s man must be genuine. How? For the Buddhist, by e l e v a t i n g one's mind beyond a l l c o n d i t i o n s , l e t t i n g i t be empty from a l l phenomena, comprehending a l l things as t r a n s i t o r y , nauseous, l a c k i n g of s e l f , and, deeper than t h i s , understanding what dukkha i s , what the cause of dukkha i s , what the c e s s a t i o n of dukkha i s , and the path which leads to complete freedom. This i s the essence of Buddhism. - 9 0 -I know that I have digressed from the c e n t r a l d i s c u s s i o n . Nevertheless I would l i k e to make a few remarks more about western r e l i g i o n s . Westerners should not overlook that some problems a r i s i n g i n f a i t h come from the b e l i e f i n God or Gods to whom are often a s c r i b e d a v a r i e t y of c o n f l i c t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Such be-l i e f s c o n f l i c t with the O r i e n t a l f a i t h . Theravadins e s p e c i a l l y do not b e l i v e i n God. Thus i n t e l l i g e n t Westerners l i k e Kant and Hume became d i s s a t i s f i e d with C h r i s t i a n theologians who concep-t u a l i z e d God with an e x c l u s i v e , l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Adolph H i t l e r saw the l e a d i n g Buddhist viewpoints as only an e t h i c a l system and nothing e l s e ; but Buddhism i s more than a l i m i t e d e t h i c a l system. Those seeing Buddhism as merely m y s t i c a l , w i t h i t s cognates, give no room f o r Buddhism to be evaluated i n any other sense. But something beyond our knowledge and consciousness about Buddhism should be observed. E l d e r Buddhism regards God as quite p e r i p h e r a l to i t s main s p i r i t u a l i n t e r e s t s . The elder Buddhists are i n t e r e s t e d i n s p i r i t , not r e l i g i o n , f o r r e l i g i o n has to do with t h i s world. Indeed, by and l a r g e , they teach that r e a l Buddhism i s the c l a r i t y of agnosticism about creatur e s . Thus Buddhism i n t h i s sense i s equal to no other p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f such as the humanism of Marx, atheism of Nietzche, e x i s t e n t i a l i s m of S a r t r e , Camus, and so f o r t h . In my op i n i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , Buddhism i s b e t t e r described by the term s p i r i t u a l r a t h e r than God. E l d e r Buddhist d o c t r i n e i n -volves a c e r t a i n kind of " s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e . " An example i s the contemplative l i f e which I w i l l d i s c u s s l a t e r i n the treatment of - 91 -meditation. We then have two choices i n which to t a l k about Buddhism: 1) Use the word " r e l i g i o n " to r e f e r to the r e a l and simplest Buddhist sense and 2) create a new term which i s not l i m i t e d to "God" or "God b e l i e v e r s , " a term to cover both " r e l i g i o n " as God o r i e n t e d and Buddhism. The f i r s t i s the more p l a u s i b l e and r a d i c a l choice since Buddhism, mysticism, and the contemplative l i f e are found both at the heart of Agnostic Buddhism and i n some phases of the " O r i e n t a l God" of various other branches of Buddhism. What T mean by " O r i e n t a l God" i s that Buddhists show e i t h e r devotion to a per-sonal God or contemplative l i f e or both. We may then connect t h i s concept of Buddhism with some western points of view l i k e Wittgenstein's "Doctrine of Family Rosemblanc.e" which i s r e f l e c t e d i n the thought of Paul T i l l i c h , or the humanism of Marx as the " Q u a s i - r e l i g i o n " and " s e m i - f a i t h " of Marx, etc . Buddhism i s , t h e r e f o r e , u n l i k e other r e l i g i o n s since i t i s m y s t i c a l without a god. My aim here i s not to e x p l a i n m y s t i c a l Buddhism as such. I merely wish to emphasize the contemplative l i f e i n the p a r t i c u l a r sense that l i f e i s s u r e l y s u f f e r i n g but that there are some ways i n which Buddhism helps us to cease our s u f f e r i n g , the foremost being the path which leads to u l t i m a t e freedom. And we can f i n d i t i n t h i s transcendental s t a t e which r e c o n s t r u c t s the world process-cy c l e of existence (of l i v e , of r e b i r t h ) . The contemplative l i f e i s r e l a t e d to Buddhist concentration i n which the mind i t s e l f i s withdrawn from conceptual mental images of the s o c i a l conditioned world. Thus past, present, and future l i f e are i n the mind of man. - 9 2 -And t h e r e f o r e Nirvana i s simply without e m p i r i c a l q u a l i t i e s — datumless. In Buddhism the form of concentration i s known as sam-adhi or vipassana. I w i l l not e x p l a i n t h i s here since I w i l l ex-pl o r e i t i n the f u l l e s t sense i n a l a t e r chapter. Thus Nirvana i s not inconceivable f o r the s a i n t who has reached a m y s t i c a l s t a t e through various kinds of meditation. I b e l i e v e i t i s nonsense and f a l s e to say that Nirvana i s inconceivable since enlightened people have indeed perceived. Nirvana i s able to be perceived not merely i n a metaphysical sense but a l s o as something given to a l l s a i n t s . When one i s enlightened, having inner eyes, one e a s i l y 9 -perceives Nirvana with i n t e r i o r experiences. Hence Nirvana i s supreme t r a n q u i l i t y , that b l i s s reported by mysticism i n other t r a d i t i o n s or c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s . NIRVANA IS EQUAL TO IMMORTALITY OR GOD. Conclusion. The con c l u s i o n of t h i s chapter can be drawn l i k e t h i s : L i f e i s to l i v e . But merely l i v i n g i s not the question. The question i s how to l i v e . The technique of l i v i n g i s c a l l e d the a r t of l i v i n g . The a r t of l i v i n g i s avoi d i n g bondage, and ga i n i n g d e l i v -erance from the c o n t i n u i t y of the l i f e c y c l e . How? By p r a c t i c i n g and experiencing the Third Precept regarding meditation on the im-p u r i t y of l i f e ; by d e s t r o y i n g the d e l u s i o n of the f r e s h beauty and permanence of the body. This i s the betterment of the l i f e process. I f one does not do so, the c o n t i n u i t y of l i f e becomes bondage. L i f e i s , , l i k e man, t r a n s i t o r y . The t r a n s i t o r y c o n d i t i o n i s caused by one of the members of Samsara. Delusion i s the e f f e c t of l i f e i t s e l f and the f i r s t member of Samsara - 9 3 -S e n s u a l i t y i s the second member of Samsara Therefore s e n s u a l i t y i s the cause of the c y c l e of l i f e . REFERENCE NOTES 4. This i s the conclusion answering the various questions r a i s e d i n the f i r s t chapter, pp. I , f f . 5- Conze, Edward, Buddhist Thought i n I n d i a , p. 2 5 4 . 6. This i s c e r t a i n l y and p e r f e c t l y c l e a r from Majjhima Nikaya No. 6 3 , and the f u l l e r account of Nacajura, E t i r n Lamotte, t r a n s l a t o r , Le T r a i t e l e Grande Vertu de Sagesse (Louvain: Bureau du Museon, 1 9 4 4 ) , V o l . I . , pp. 1 5 5 - 8 . 7 . "Visuddhimagga" means "most pure" and "Patipadha" means "path" or " p r a c t i c e " . 8. T i l l i c h , P a u l , C h r i s t i a n i t y and the Encounter of the World  R e l i g i o n s , p. 5 f f - 3 on the treatment of the d e f i n i t i o n of r e -l i g i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the r e l a t i o n to Theravada Buddhism. See al s o "Noumena, Nirvana, and D e f i n i t i o n of R e l i g i o n s " , Church Quarterly Review, January-March, 1958, p. 216, f f . by Ninian Smart. 9 - c f . the f i r s t chapter. - 9 4 -Chapter V I I I THE NOTION OF FREEDOM Let me c l a r i f y the concepts of human m o r a l i t y and the b e t t e r -ment of man. These are not the being of man but the q u a l i t y of man. What i s the q u a l i t y of man? The q u a l i t y of man can be c l a s s -i f i e d i n two states g e n e r a l l y known as mundane and supermundane. The Ven. Chao Khun Phra Tepsiddhimuni Mahathera describes these states more c l e a r l y than other philosophers. I am quoting him be-low, adding my own d i v i s i o n s of mundane and supermundane. "In Buddhist t r a d i t i o n the term 'Path' has two senses, one being 'Pakati maggo' or an ordinary path, i . e . , a byway f o r men and animals, and another 'Patipada maggo' or.the path of good or bad behaviour f o r men alone, traversed through deeds, words, and thoughts. Patipada maggo i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e k i n ds: 1. The Descending Path, brought about by offences against the normal Code, and based on Greed, Hatred and Delusion. 2. The Human Path, the path of f i v e m o r a l i t i e s or the 10-fold wholesome course of a c t i o n (Kusala-Kamma-Patha). 3. The Path to the Six Classes of Heaven, which comprises eight c l a s s e s of moral consciousness, culmin-a t i n g i n Moral Shame ( H i r i ) and Moral Dread (Ottappa), r e s u l t i n g In a l m s - g i v i n g , attending sermons, b u i l d i n g chapels, temples, e c c l e s i a s t i c a l schools, h o s p i t a l s and ordinary schools. 4. The:.'Path to the Abode of Brahma which i s the development of t r a n q u i l i t y of mind (Samatha Bhavana) by means of meditation upon any of the f o r t y t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s ; very b r i e f l y , these are c l a s s i f i e d t e c h n i c a l l y as the ten 'Kasina (Contemplation d e v i c e s ) , ten 'Asubhas' ( I m p u r i t i e s ) , ten 'Anussatis' ( R e f l e c t i o n s ) , four •Brahma-Viharas' .(Sublime S t a t e s ) , one ' Aharepati-kulas-anna' ( R e f l e c t i o n on the loathsomeness of food), one 'Catudhatu Vavatthana' (A n a l y s i s of the four elements), and four "Arupakammatthana'_(Stage of arupa-jnana). 5. The Path to Nirvana, P a l i ; ( S a n s k r i t : N i rvana), which is_the_development of I n s i g h t (Vipassana Bhavana), having Namarupa, or mental and p h y s i c a l s t a t e s , as the objects of meditation." 10 - 95 -Buddhism can be described simply not as a r e l i g i o n but as a science which allows a l l beings to r e a l i z e who they are, thus breaking the t r a n s i t o r y state (samsara). As soon as samsara has been destroyed, one no longer has d e l u s i o n . Complete freedom (nirvana) can be accomplished and a t t a i n e d ; i t i s the outcome of c l a r i t y which caused him to f o l l o w and p r a c t i c e human morals and human goodness, c o r r e c t l y and p e r f e c t l y , according to the i d e a l of the Eight Fold Noble Path. Hence he a t t a i n s the Caturiyasacca (the Fourth T r u t h ) , the v i c t o r y over the l i f e c y c l e . A l l d e f i l e -ments are weakened and f i n a l l y r e b i r t h i s exhausted (destroyed). This i s the complete freedom of mankind. Let.us begin with the question "what i s freedom?" In my sense (not i n formal terms), freedom means 'the c o n d i t i o n of being able to choose and to carry out purposes created by man i n h i s s o c i a l p o l i t i c a l realm, purposes compatable with i n d i v i d u a l and u n i v e r s a l choice as w e l l as the purposes of nature The term freedom means 'freedom from' and 'freedom t o ' — freedom from one state of being to another. The word freedom i n the broad sense employs three meanings: 1 ) the primary d i c t i o n a r y meaning — the absence of e x t e r n a l con-s t r a i n t s ; 2 ) p r a c t i c a l purpose, or a c t u a l c a p a b i l i t y having a v a i l a b l e means; 3 ) a power of conscious choice, between s i g n i -f i c a n t , known a l t e r n a t i v e s . This covers the common sense ideas of freedom from, freedom t o , and freedom of. Therefore my purpose i s to attempt to t e x p l a i n the meaning of freedom i n the t h i r d c ate-gory and open the common question f o r the s e l f to answer "freedom from WHAT, freedom to WHAT, and freedom of WHAT." B a s i c a l l y I - 9 6 -mean that man i s free i n the d i a l e c t i c a l sense. By d i a l e c t i c a l sense I mean p o s i t i v e and negative sense as f a r as man can do something and/or choose not to do i t ; that man can make up h i s mind, can f r e e l y say yes or no when he wants t o , to any given question or command. Furthermore he can decide himself the cruc- . i a l questions (matters) of duty f o r what, to what, and of what. I f there i s w i l l , t h i s i s freedom of a c t i o n . In sho r t , I mean freedom of thought, speech and a c t i o n from p h y s i c a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l production, i n d i v i d u a l l y as w e l l as s o c i a l l y . Since we are t a l k i n g about freedom, one may have the question i n mind "what i s not f r e e ? " Man i s not free i n so f a r as he i s v i r t u a l l y i n h i b i t e d by others from h i s w i l l to do something, being o b l i g a t e d from a c t i o n X to a c t i o n Y, and so f o r t h . This binds him, whether through d i r e c t c o e r c i o n or by f e a r of conscious con-sequences, even though i t might be b e t t e r f o r him than h i s heart's w i l l i n g , a t t e n t i o n , or d e s i r e . In any case, t h i s causes man to be unfree, since he has to be s o c i a l l y o b l i g a t e d from one man to another. But man n a t u r a l l y and i n essence i s f r e e . The Zen masters a p t l y expressed that we are born free and equal. Never-t h e l e s s , we l i v e i n p o l i t i c a l and economic s o c i e t i e s c o n t r o l l e d by deluded and t y r a n n i c a l people. Hence though freedom i s theor-e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e i t has l i t t l e meaning i n the s o c i a l conventional world. Freedom e x i s t s i n the s p i r i t u a l ground, as Zen maintains, and a l l f e t t e r s and manacles we seem to be c a r r y i n g about us are put on l a t e r through Ignorance of the true c o n d i t i o n of existence. This i s one of the senses of freedom i n Zen Buddhism. - 9 7 -As I mentioned e a r l i e r , freedom i s i n r e l a t i o n to e t h i c a l sense — good, bad, s i n f u l , u n s i n f u l , and so f o r t h . Buddha teaches that good or bad i s independent of academic or s o c i a l p o l -i t i c a l f o r c e . He allows man to re-examine and continue doing ac-cording to h i s freedom of thought. Evidence of t h i s can be found i n h i s conversation with Kalama i n the Anguttara-nikaya: "Yes, Kalama, i t i s proper that you have doubt, that you have p e r p l e x i t y , f o r doubt has a r i s e n i n matter which i s d o u b t f u l . Now look, Kalama, do not be l e d by r e p o r t s , or t r a d i t i o n , or hearsay. Be not l e d by the a u t h o r i t y of r e l i g i o u s t e x t s , or J3y- 'Jjiere l o g i c or by i n f e r e n c e , or by c o n s i d e r i n g appearances, or by the d e l i g h t i n s p e c u l a t i v e o p i n i o n s , or by seeming pos-s i b i l i t i e s , or by the idea: ' t h i s i s our teacher'. But 0 Kalama, when you know f o r y o u r s e l f that c e r t a i n things are unwholesome (akusala), wrong or bad, then give them up ... and. when you know f o r y o u r s e l f that c e r t a i n things are whole-some (kusala) and good, then accept them and f o l l o w the. i i What i s good or bad has to be decided by o n e s e l f , not other-wise. This i s the idea of freedom of thought i n Buddhism. In the. Vlmamsaka-sutta, Buddha allows monks and laymen to examine Buddha h i m s e l f , as i t i s s a i d that 'a d i s c i p l e should examine even f u r t h e r . ' He t o l d the bhikkus that the d i s c i p l e must be f u l l y convinced of the true value of the teacher whom he followed.12 Indeed the Buddhist notion of freedom Is p r a c t i c a l . Buddhism makes more sense to me than other concepts. I b e l i e v e I am able to choose why I was born; thus I f i n d r i d i c u l o u s some expressions and opinions that man i s not fre e according to h i s a b i l i t y — 'therefore he i s not able to choose why he was born here.' Buddha allows that freedom e x i s t s f o r a l l h i s d i s c i p l e s as w e l l as him-s e l f ; freedom e x i s t e d f o r him before he discovered i t . In the Mahaparinibbana s u t t a the Buddha taught that he never thought of c o n t r o l i n g the sanga (monk community), nor d i d he want the sanga to depend on him. He stressed that there was no e s o t e r i c d o c t r i n e i n h i s tea c h i n g , nothing hidden i n the ' c l o s e d - f i s t ' of the - 98 -teaching ( a c a r i y a - m u t t h i ) , or to put i t i n other words, there was 13 never anything 'up h i s sleeve.' Buddha gives the freedom of thought that he i s not the t e a -cher of the world (man) and the world does not depend upon what he knows that i s already 'out there'. Man has to go beyond what he knows and what he needs to understand the world as Buddha under-stands. Hence man o b l i g a t e s himself to the world no matter what kind of connection he makes. That i s the freedom of choice f o r each person. Even though the world i s c a l l e d the conditioned world, man can be free under h i s freedom of choice, which I c a l l momentary Nirvana. Man l i v e s i n the conditioned or sams.aric world, but i n h i s own mind, as the Dhammapada teaches, everything includes freedom and e s s e n t i a l l y depends upon what we t h i n k and nothing more. Hence the freedom of thought allowed by Buddha i s not s i m i -l a r to other thought. Freedom of thought i s a necessary part of man's nature since the emancipation of man depends upon h i s own r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s t r u t h , and not upon something e x t e r n a l to him-s e l f , e i t h e r someone else or some God. Theories of freedom i n Western thought are based on academic t r a d i t i o n s from various sources. I t i s b a s i c a l l y from European thought that Western freedom i s defined as i n d i v i d u a l i t y , namely, from one man to another. Now we should look at Indian thought, e s p e c i a l l y the Buddhist idea of freedom, i n order to get back to our o r i g i n a l d i s c u s s i o n . In the fundamental b e l i e f of Buddhism, man i s free p r i m a r i l y before he i s born. He i s born here accord-ing to choice of being male, female, e t c . , before the f i v e skand-has ; a r e formed. As such, man i s completely free i n h i s own w i l l and nature. - 9 9 -Buddhism has no s i n as some r e l i g i o n s b e l i e v e and understand. Why do I say that? Because man i s o r i g i n a l l y ignorant ( a v i d j a ) . In order to be free and c l a r i f y h i s understanding, he has to destroy the d e l u s i o n . Thus man i s fre e when he destroys d e l u s i o n with h i s enlightenment. Here he has r e a l absolute freedom ( n i r v a n a ) . Freedom i n Buddhism comes from the w i l l of man i n attempting to destroy the members of the chain ( t w e l v e - f o l d chain of the nature of man). As we know, to the Buddhist, man i s not s i n f u l . He does not e n l i g h t e n himself because he does not know good or bad. This i s caused by ignorance, a v i d j a , and i s advocated by d e s i r e , tanha. Hence, a v i d j a and tanha are the fundamental c o n d i t i o n s that he has to a b o l i s h . A v i d j a i s man's o r i g n i a l nature and tanha i s the a t t r i b u t e of a v i d j a ' s agency. This process Buddhists c a l l r e -b i r t h , which i s synonomous with the Hindu r e i n c a r n a t i o n . Hence f o r man to achieve absolute freedom, he has to produce the s u f f i -c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r absence of ignorance or absence of d e s i r e . In order t o a s c e r t a i n that h i s e f f o r t w i l l succeed, he ought to be able to avoid the necessary c o n d i t i o n s of ignorance and d e s i r e . This i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t and fundamental bas i s f o r man to reach h i s u l t i m a t e freedom. Otherwise freedom w i l l not be a t -ta i n e d . To a t t a i n freedom means to destroy the chain of man's nature. There i s no a c c i d e n t a l way to achieve freedom. E t h i c a l Science By e t h i c a l science I mean m o r a l i t y . M o r a l i t y i s the compat-able l i v i n g with one's own freedom and the freedom of others. In the eighth part of the Four Noble Truths, t h i s i s known as " r i g h t - 100 -l i v i n g . " Later I w i l l f u r t h e r discuss " r i g h t l i v i n g . " Why i s m o r a l i t y required i n a l l r e l i g i o n s ? Because a l l of us are s e l f i s h animal beings who have d e s i r e s of committing harmful a c t s . , e t c . , against one another. This a c t i o n i s due to n a t u r a l human s e l f i s h n e s s which i s free f o r one's own a c t i o n ; one commits t h i s free act under d e s i r e , but i t i s unfree a c t i o n to others. Why do we do i t ? To confirm our own good and happiness i n a s e l f -i s h way. Therefore m o r a l i t y ( P a l i , S i l a ) i s required so man may know himself i n h i s own a c t i o n . Every r e l i g i o n has thought about m o r a l i t y . Buddhist moral d o c t r i n e i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i n the Eight Fold Noble Path which embodies the f i r s t step of the prac-t i c e of m o r a l i t y ( S i l a ) , meditation (Samadhi), and wisdom (Panna). The p r a c t i c e of m o r a l i t y not only p a r t i c u l a r l y belongs to the monks or m i n i s t e r s , but to a l l s o c i e t y . For in s t a n c e , Mahatma Gandhi was i n f l u e n c e d by Hinduism and Buddhism i n the f i r s t law of moral-i t y — non-violence. When Great B r i t a i n was oppressing the Indian people, under the guidance of Gandhi, they responded with non-v i o l e n c e . Their reward was v i c t o r y and the r e t u r n of freedom. There are many good examples which show that m o r a l i t y i s obviously needed i n human s o c i e t y , though they are unnecessary to describe here. M o r a l i t y i s needed a s o c i a l p o l i t i c a l system i n order to b r i n g peace and freedom to i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y . In e a r l y I n d i a , a l l r e l i g i o u s leaders ignored e t h i c a l science even though they were awar of i t . Among themselves, Brahmins, kings, commercialists, workers or s l a v e s , and untouchables t r e a t e d each other c r u e l l y l i k e animals. Most r e l i g i o u s leaders pronounced - 1 0 1 -that r e l i g i o n t r i e s to r i d unfreedom and p r e j u d i c e , p r o v i d i n g happiness f o r a l l mankind. Obviously the caste system s t i l l f l o u r i s h e d . How, then, could a l l men be happy? R e l i g i o u s leaders had t r i e d t o teach t h e i r f e l l o w men to reach the super mundane rat h e r than the mundane freedom. Hence t h i s t y p i c a l d o c t r i n e was i n v a l i d and useless and d i s s a t i s f i e d Gautama Buddha. He became a r e v o l u t i o n a r y against the system. Samadhi i s known as super mundane since only Samadhi allows the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s f a c u l t y of mind to reach the human goal ... nirvana. I t i s necessary to understand m o r a l i t y before I e x p l a i n the theory of Samadhi. REFERENCE NOTES 1 0 . The Ven. Chao Khun Phra Tepsiddhimuni Mahathera, The Path to  Nirvana, Prachandra P r i n t i n g Press, Bangkok, Thailand, 1 9 7 1 , pp. 1 - 2 1 1 . A., Colombo, 1 9 2 9 , p. 1 1 5 1 2 . Vimamsaka-sutta, no. 4 7 of M. (Majjhima-Nikaya), (PTS e d i t i o n ) 1 3 - D., I I , Colombo, 1 9 2 9 , p. 6 2 - 102 -Chapter IX THE THEORY OP SAMADHI As space and time are l i m i t e d , i t i s most important to dis-'. cuss the c u r c i a l question of meditation (Samadhi) and to s t r e s s i n s i g h t (Vipassana) where i t i s needed. Samadhi i s known to the West as meditation. When I speak of meditation I am al s o r e f e r -r i n g to i n s i g h t . I w i l l not, however, discuss Samadhi i n com-p l e t e d e t a i l since i t i s not the e s s e n t i a l aspect of my t h e s i s . I would l i k e t o d i v i d e the d i s c u s s i o n of Samadhi i n t o two s u b - d i v i s i o n s : A) The Subjects and Methods of Samadhi, which deals the l i t e r a l source from the t e x t . B) The P r a c t i c e of Samadhi. This i s f o r the i n i t i a l b e n e f i t of both Westerners and Thais. I f one wants to reach n i r v a n a , of course, one must spend more time alone — e i t h e r i n a temple with a teacher or i n the f o r e s t alone — since Samadhi i s not some-t h i n g one can study i n t e n s i v e l y . I t i s a p r a c t i c a l  way of l i f e . A) The Subjects and Methods of Samadhi I would l i k e to f u r t h e r d i v i d e the. subjects and methods i n -to two p a r t s : 1) The L i t e r a l Source of Samadhi 2) Connotational and D e f i n i t i o n a l Samadhi - 103 -I) The L i t e r a l Source of Samadhi Samadhi can be found In numerous canons of various t e x t s . I f we study c a r e f u l l y , Samadhi can be found i n almost every c o l l e c t i o n of ' T r i p i t a k a under the system of Samadhi and Vipassana. In order to recognize i t e a s i l y , we should use the f o l l o w i n g order: l a ) Samadhi found i n the Nikaya lb ) Samadhi found i n the Abbhidhamma Ie) Samadhi found i n the Commentaries Samadhi i s general mental t r a i n i n g . Vipassana i s p h y s i c a l and mental t r a i n i n g . Both may be p r a c t i c e d i n d i v i d u a l l y or w i t h other forms of t r a i n i n g , and are c a l l e d Jhanas. There are four Jhanas occuring i n the Jhana Ankutaranikaya. The "Jhanavagga" of Ankutaranikaya gives the complete l i s t of a l l kinds of Samadhi.^ Ia) Samadhi found i n the Nikaya According t o my observation of t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s , t h i s method of meditation has 14 d i f f e r e n t sources. I t i s unnecessary f o r us to d iscuss a l l sources here. However, i t i s fun and impressive to look b r i e f l y at these;; sources as f o l l o w s : a l ) Samadhi and Vipassana The "Four Jhanavaggas" of Angutara-Nikaya has l i s t e d the f u l l e s t i nformation about the Four Jhanas. Further explanation should be sought from that reference. "Detached from sensual ob-j e c t s , detached from e v i l t h i n g s , the d i s c i p l e enters i n t o the f i r s t Absorption, which i s accompanied by Thought Conception and D i s c u r s i v e Thinking, i s born of detachment, and f i l l e d with Rap-2 ture and Happiness" ... "This f i r s t Absorption i s free from - 104 -f i v e t h i n g s , and f i v e are present. When the d i s c i p l e enters the f i r s t Absorption, there have vanished (the Five Hindrances): Lust, I l l - w i l l , Torpor and S l o t h , Restlessness and Mental Worry, Doubts; and there are present: Thought Concetration ( v i t a k k a ) , D i s c u r s i v e Thinking ( v i c a ) , Rapture ( p i t i ) , Happiness (sukkha), and Concentra-t i o n ( c i t t a - e k a g g a t a Samadhi)." Let us look at the l i t e r a l meaning. In Visuddhimagga, V i t a k k a i s compared with the t a k i n g hold of a pot, and Vihara with the wip-ing of a pot. In the f i r s t Absorption, both V i t a k k a and Vihara are present only i n a weak degree, and are e n t i r e l y absent i n the f o l l o w i n g A b s o r p i t i o n s . 'In the second Absorption, there are three Factors of Absorption: Rapture, Happiness, and Concentra-t i o n ... i n the t h i r d Absorption there are two Factors of Absorp-t i o n : Equanimious Happiness (Upekkha-Sukkha) and Concentration ( c i t t a ekaggata). Right a f t e r p r a c t i c i n g the t h i r d Absorption he enters i n t o the s t a t e beyond pleasure and p a i n , i n t o the f o u r t h Absorption, that i s p u r i f i e d by equanimity and mindfulness as w e l l as other F a c t o r s . Accept i n t h e f i r s t F a c t o r , the p r a c t i t i o n e r (of Samadhi) enters i n t o a s t a t e f r e e from thought, conception, and d i s c u r s i v e t h i n k i n g . The second Absorption i s born of Concen-t r a t i o n (Samadhi), and f i l l e d with Rapture ( p i t i ) and Happiness (sukkha). In the f o u r t h Absorption there are two Factors of Absorption: Concentration and Equanimity (upekkha).' Further t e x t u a l reference should be considered. In V i s u d d h i -Magga, f o r t y subjects of meditation (kammatthana) are enumerated and t r e a t e d i n d e t a i l . One should a l s o study V i s . M, I..X. 1 - 3 , and A. No. I , pp. 3 8 - 4 3 . - 1 0 5 -In c o n c l u s i o n , a l l Four Absorptions can be obtained through Mindfulness of Breathing ( c f . V i s . M, V I I I , 3 ) , the ten Kasina-e x e r c i s e s ( c f . V i s . MIV, V, and B. D i e t . ) , the contemplation of Equanimity (Upekkha) and the p r a c t i c e of the f o u r t h Brahma-Bihara ( V i s . M, IX, 4 ) . a l l ) The Four E x c e l l e n t States (Brahma-Viharas—  Meta, Karuna, M a t i t a , and Upekkha Perhaps the best t o p i c s of study to e n r i c h the understanding of Buddhism are the Jhanas and the Four E x c e l l e n t States. I f one wants to be an expert i n Buddhist m e d i t a t i o n , I h i g h l y recommend that he (she) become a mond (non). Study alone i s , of course only academic and i n t e l l e c t u a l grounds, l e a v i n g p r a t i c a l matters unattended. . The Brahma-Viharas are i n t e r - r e l a t e d with the Absorptions: 'The f i r s t three Absorptions: (are a t t a i n e d ) through the develop-ment of Loving Kindness (metta), Compassion (karuna), and Sympa-t h e t i c Joy (mudita), being t h e p r a c t i c e of the f i r s t three Brahma-Viharas ( V i s . MIX, 1 - 3 ) ••• the f i r s t Absorption: ( i s a t t a i n e d ) through the ten Concentrations of Impurity (asubha-abhavana, i . e . , the Cemetary Contemplations, which are ten according to the enumeration i n V i s . M. VI.; the Contemplation of the Body, i . e . , the 3 2 parts of the body i n V i s . M. V I I I , 2 ) . ' This i s merely an example f o r the second, t h i r d and f o u r t h Absorptions which are r e l a t e d to the Brahma-Viharas of concentration and contemplation ( m e d i t a t i o n ) , which are t r e a t e d i n V i s . M. I I I - X I I I (also see Fund. IV.) Again, the Absorptions and Brahma-Viharas i s one of - 106 -the noble paths f o r reaching the end of s u f f e r i n g . "This i s the Middle Path which the Perfect One has discovered, which makes one both to see and to know, and which leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to Nirvana." Therefore, " f o l l o w i n g upon t h i s path., you w i l l put an end to s u f f e r i n g . " J a l i i ) The Four A p p l i c a t i o n s of Mindfulness (Satipatthans) This i s the same as the seventh step of the E i g h t - F o l d Noble Path (see my d i s c u s s i o n i n the f i r s t c hapter). 'Now being equipped w i t h t h i s l i f t y " M o r a l i t y " ( S i l a ) , equipped w i t h t h i s noble "Con-t r o l of the Senses" (Indriyasamvara), and f i l l e d with t h i s noble "Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension" (Sati-Sampabna)', one has a t t a i n e d the Four A p p l i c a t i o n s fo Mindfulness. This method i s •used, f o r both Samadhi and Vipassana. alV) The Four E f f o r t s (Sammappadhana) One should see my d i s c u s s i o n on the concept of Right E f f o r t , f o r i t i s c l e a r and p r e c i s e . aV) The Four Basic Psychic Powers (Iddhipadas) This method j o i n s with the seventh and eighth steps of the Ei g h t - F o l d Noble Path and the Four Absorptions, yet places more emphasis on concentration (Samadhi) p r a c t i c e d r e s p e c t i v e l y with w i l l , energy, thought, and i n v e s t i g a t i o n (Chanda-iddhipada, Y i r i y a , C i t t a , Vimamsa-iddhipada). This system i s p r a c t i c e d i n Samadhi as w e l l as i n the l a s t s t a t e of Vipassana. Samadhi and - 1 0 7 -Vipassana are i n t e r - r e l a t e d . One should bear i n mind that Samadhi i s preceded by Vipassana, though some a u t h o r i t i e s b e l i e v e Vipas-sana to be preceded by Samadhi. aVI) The Five F a c u l t i e s ( I n d r i y a ) The Five F a c u l t i e s include the f a c u l t i e s of F a i t h , Energy, Mindfulness, Concentration, and Wisdom.(in P a l i , Saddhindriya, B a l i n d r i y a , V i r i y i n d r i y a , S a t i n d r i y a , and Pannindriya, r e s p e c t i v e -l y ) . This system i s the same as the Four Basic Psychic Powers along with the seventh and eight steps of the E i g h t - F o l d Noble Path. aVII) The Five Powers (Balas) The Five Powers inc l u d e the powers of F a i t h , Energy, M i n d f u l -ness, Concentration, and Wisdom ( i n P a l i , sadha, b a l a , v i r i y a , s a t i , and panna, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A l l of these terms appear i n the Five F a c u l t i e s and the seventh step of the E i g h t - F o l d Noble Path. Thus i t i s to be s a i d that they cause and e f f e c t each other i n i n t e r - r e l a t e d p r a c t i c e . aVIII) The Seven Elements of Enlightenment (Bojjhangas) Nos. 1 and 7 are r e p e t i t i o u s of the Four A p p l i c a t i o n s of Mind-f u l n e s s ; nos. 2 and 3 , r e p e t i t i o u s of the Five F a c u l t i e s and the Five Powers; and nos. 4 , 5 , and 6 , r e p e t i t i o u s of the f i r s t , s i x t h , and eighth steps of the E i g h t - F o l d Noble Path. Hence a l l inform-a t i o n should be derived from these references. I t i s s a i d that 'The d i s c i p l e dwells i n contemplation of mind-objects, namely, of - 108 -seven "Elements of Enlightenment." He knows when there i s i n him "Mindfulness" ( S a t i ) , " I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Law" (Dhammavi-caya), "Energy" ( V i r i y a ) , "Enthusiasm" ( P i t i ) , " T r a n q u i l i t y " (Passaddhi), "Concentration" (Samadhi), and "Equanimity" (Upekkha). He knows when i t i s not i n him, knows how i t comes to a r i s e , and how i t i s f u l l y developed.' alX) The E i g h t - F o l d Noble Path ( A r i y a Attangika Magga) This system i s commonly known and well-presented i n the con-cept of the Twelve Chains of Gotama. I t i s an extremely s i g n i f i -cant method both f o r Samadhi and Vipassana. Samadhi and Vipas-sana r e q u i r e the p r a c t i c e of the E i g h t - F o l d Noble Path; i t over-laps a l l other systems. Some a u t h o r i t i e s say t h a t the E i g h t -f o l d Noble Path i s given i n the context of Bodhi-Pakkhiyadhamma. aX) The Eight States of Release (Vimokkha) I t i s f a i r l y s i a d that t h i s system i s a r e p e t i t i o n of the Four Absorptions and the E i g h t - F o l d Noble Path. P a r t i c u l a r l y , i t i s r e p e t i t i o u s of the eighth step of the E i g h t - F o l d Noble Path, i . e . , " E n t i r e l y transcending the sphere of n e i t h e r perception nor non-perception, he enters and abides i n the complete c e s s a t i o n "Nirodha) of perceptions (Sanna) and f e e l i n g s (Vedana)." This system i s known only i n the p r a c t i c e of Samadhi. The highest con-ception of t h i s system i s known as "Sannavedayitanirodha", where-i n perceptions (sanna) and f e e l i n g s (vedana) come to being, con-f l i c t c o n d i t i o n , or d i s s o l u t i o n . - 109 -aXI) The Eight Spheres of Mastery of Control (Abhibbayatana) This system i s r e l a t e d to the E i g h t - F o l d Noble Path and main-t a i n s a l l knowledge as d i f f e r e n t objects of the mind through per-c e p t i o n . For example, possessing i n t e r n a l form-perception, one sees e x t e r n a l forms as l i m i t e d , on f i r e , or f o u l i n c o l o r . Having mastered t h i s i n t e r n a l form-perception, t h i n k i n g " I know, I see", one p e r c e i v e s . This system i s p r a c t i c e d i n Samadhi and i s the e f f e c t of Kasina medi t a t i o n . aXII) The Ten Devices (Kasinas) The Ten Devices are the Four!.-Elements, Major C o l o r s , Space, and Consciousness. The four major c o l o r s are i d e n t i c a l to the system of kasinas. Space i s i n t e r - r e l a t e d with the Four Elements and Consciousness i s j o i n e d with the Four Absorptions. I would l i k e to c l e a r l y describe the Four Elements since they have the most s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n i n our psycho-physical system. The d i s c i p l e contemplates t h i s body, however i t may stand or move, with regard to the elements: 'This body c o n s i s t s of the s o l i d element, the l i q u i d element, the heating element, and the v i b r a -t i n g element.' For t h i s s t a t e of being c o n s i s t s of nothing but the elements which St. Paul d i v i d e d i n t o body, s p i r i t , and s o u l ; Buddha advised g e t t i n g r i d of the attachment afterwards. We can see that there i s separateness of the body; that the body can be d i v i d e d i n t o elements or the f i v e skandhas. There i s nothing i n man. I t i s s a i d , "I am t h i s and you are t h a t " , through a l l e t e r -n i t y . This i s the best treatment that Buddhist psychotherapy - 1 1 0 -makes: that man i s unique on one hand and, on the other, insep-arable — " I am not separate from you and you are not d i f f e r e n t from me" — the "Hersay of Separateness". With no attachment t o t h i s body, the highest s t a t e of consciousness i s a t t a i n e d (the f i r s t , second, t h i r d , and f o u r t h Jhanas). The r e s u l t i s that the meditator perceives the emptiness of the body i n regard t o the four elements (see d e t a i l s of t h i s i n V i s u d d i Magga X I I I , 2 ) . (The P a l i terms f o r e a r t h , water, f i r e , a i r , blue, yellow, r e d , white, space, and consciousness are: p a t h a v i , apo, t e j o , vayo, n l l a , p i t a , l o h i t a , odata, akasa, and vinnana k a s i n a ) . a X I I I ) Twenty Subjects Known As Sanna The term sanna means contemplation on one hand and " i n s i g h t " on the other. ^  (see d i s c u s s i o n on the three signs of being and the connotation of the detachment from the whole world — d i s c u s -s i o n which i s c r u c i a l i n t h i s work). This system i s r e l a t e d to both Samadhi and Vipassana. One shoul'cl r e a l i z e that a l l twenty subjects known as Sanna have not come together from one source. For example, Nos. 1 and 1 3 are found i n Anguttara Nikaya. (One should research f u r t h e r i n I) A.N. I l l p. 2 2 7 ; 2 ) S.N., V., p. 3 4 5 ; 3 ) M.N., I , pp. 2 6 9 & 2 7 5 ; I I I , p. 3 f f . ) aXIV) The Six Anussatis ( R e c o l l e c t i o n s ) and Four S a t i s (Mindfulness) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . Buddhanussati Dhammanussati Sanghanussati S i l a n u s s a t i R e c o l l e c t i o n of the Buddha R e c o l l e c t i o n of the Dhamma R e c o l l e c t i o n of the Sangha R e c o l l e c t i o n of M o r a l i t y - I l l -5 6 7 8 9 10 Caganussati Dev.atanussati Anapanasatl Maranassati Kayagatasati Upasamanussati R e c o l l e c t i o n of C h a r i t y R e c o l l e c t i o n of the Devas Mindfulness of Breathing Mindfulness of Death Mindfulness of the P h y s i c a l Body Mindfulness of Calmness According to the Visuddhimagga, these ten subjects are i n -cluded both In Samadhi and Vipassana meditation. The Abbhidhammathasongaha has mentioned the f o l l o w i n g systems 7 as the Vipassana-Kammathan. The p r a c t i c e of these systems w i l l lead to freedom or complete e x t i n c t i o n of bondage to the c o n d i t i o n -a l world (anupada Parinibbhanam): 1. S i l a -Visuddhi P u r i t y of Moral Conduct 2. C i t a - V i s u d d h i P u r i t y of Mind 3. D i t t h i - V i s u d d h i P u r i t y o T Views 4. Kankhavitarata-Visuddhi P u r i t y of Overcoming Doubts 5 . Maggamagga-Nanadassana-Visuddhi P u r i t y of knowledge and i n s i g h t i n t o the r i g h t and wrong paths 6 . Patipada-Nanadassana-Visuddhi P u r i t y of knowledge and i n s i g h t i n t o progress ( p r a c t i c i n g ) 7. Nanadassana-Visuddhi P u r i t y of knowledge and i n s i g h t (.into the Noble Path) These systems show obviously that meditation i s a - p r i o r i to i n s i g h t since they proceed, f o l l o w , and develop from one another. By p r a c t i c i n g these systems, any person, even of the s o c i a l mun-dane world, may d i r e c t l y enter Nirvana. According to the Visudd-g himagga S u t t a , these systems of p r a c t i c e are the successive steps of p u r i f i c a t i o n . Visuddhi i s concerned e n t i r e l y with the development of f u l l knowledge (Panna-bhavana). F i n a l l y and most im p o r t a n t l y , a l l meditation systems des-c r i b e d above are found i n the Nikayas. Ib) Samadhi found i n the Abbhidhamma One of the passages i n the Visuddhimagga describes a l l methods (systems) of Samadhi and Vipassana as i n t e r - r e l a t e d with t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . One s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g to bear i n mind i s that both Samadhi and Vipassana are the p s y c h o l o g i c a l as-pects known to the West as E.S.P. Samadhi and Vipassana are always p r a c t i c e d with the Four Jhanas, accept that t h i s system i s , to some degree, purely con- • cerned with i n s i g h t alone. Why? Because p r a c t i c e of the Four 9 Jhanas leads to the highest s t a t e of mental t r a i n i n g . The r e s t of the systems i n the Nikaya are normally a - p r i o r i and a - p o s t o r i r e l a t e d . G e n e r a l l y , the Four Jhanas are considered as the s p i r i t u a l goal f o r a l l Indian t h i n k e r s , i n c l u d i n g Gautama. Jhana are the scheme of the stat e of a l l consciousness. One can be a god or man and perform m i r a c l e s , depending upon the. l e v e l of the Jhanas a t t a i n e d . This i s i n regard to both Samadhi and Vipassana. Thus Jhanin (One who has a t t a i n e d the Four Jhanas) i s the media-t o r between man and god, n e a r l y and no more, maya and e n l i g h t e n -ment (knowledge), s e l f and no s e l f (Brahma-deva and Abrahama-deva or Rupa-Brahma and Arupa-Brahma), s o c i a l mundane and super mundane, ordinary men and s a i n t s , freedom and bondage, e t c . - 1 1 3 -A l l of these states of consciousness come from mental pheno-mena which are c o n t r o l l e d by the Jhanas. What i s i n our minds i nothing but thought to an ob j e c t . I would l i k e to c a l l t h i s "sentimental essence" -- the a c t i o n of the mind r a t h e r than the mind i t s e l f . As i t i s sa i d i n the Dhammapada, a l l that we are i the r e s u l t of our thought. Thus a l l meditation and i n s i g h t i s accompanied by the Jhanas since the Jhanas are the c r u c i a l s t a t e s of consciousness wherein s a i n t s a s c e r t a i n f i n a l mental t r a i n i n g before becoming aware of reaching Nirvana. The f o l l o w i n g accompany the Jhanas: 1 . The Eight Devices (Kasinas) 2 . The Eight Objects of Mastery (Abhibhayatanas) 3 . The F i r s t Three Stages of Release (Vimokkhas) 4. The Four Brahma-Viharas 5 . The Ten Imp u r i t i e s (Asubhas), which are: f i f t h , s i x t h , and seventh Vimokkhas. I f we compare the above systems to those found i n the Nikaya we see that the two Kasinas, Vinna-Kasina and Akas-Kasina, are missing. Why? Because some a u t h o r i t i e s t h i n k the Kasinas are 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 Uddhumataka V i n i l a k a Vipubhaka Vicchiddaka V i k k h a y i t a k a V i k k h i t t a k a H a t a v i k k h i t t a k a Lohitaka Pulavaka A t t h i k a A Swollen Corpse A Discoloured Corpse A F e s t e r i n g Corpse A F i s s u r e d Corpse A Mangled Corpse A Dismembered Corpse A Cut and Dismembered Corpse A Blood-Stained Corpse A Worm-Infested Corpse A Skeleton 6. The Four Arupa Jhanas corresponding to the f o u r t h , - 1 1 4 -connected with the Arupas. As i t i s s a i d : "In the Mahasakuludayi S u t t a , ten devices (Kasinas) are mentioned. Of them Vinnana-Kasina and Akasa-Kasina are i n f i n i t e consciousness produced by Arupa Jhanas ... Akasa-Vinnakasina i s the f o u r t h Jhana i n the attainment of the formless s t a t e . 1 0 Therefore, according to the Abhidhamma, we can draw the con-c l u s i o n that there are t h i r t y - s e v e n subjects of Jhanas medita-t i o n — t h i r t y - t h r e e of Rupa-Jhanas, and four of Arupa-Jhanas, which are concerned more with Samadhi than Vipassana. Ic) Samadhi found i n the Commentaries The most well-known commentator of the Visuddhi Magga Sutta i s Buddhaghosa Thera. He i s known as the Hinayanist Commentator. Mainly he emphasizes the f o u r t y s u b j e c t s , known as Kammatthan (exerc i s e s of m e d i t a t i o n ) , which appear under the seven f o l l o w i n g d i v i s i o n s : 1 . The Ten Kasinas 2. The Ten Asubhas 3. The Ten Anussatis 4 . The Four Brahma-Viharas 5. The Four Arupas: A. Skasannacayatana The Sphere of Space B. Vinnanancayatana The Sphere of Consciousness C. Akincannayatana The Sphere of Nothingness D. Nevasannavasannayatana The Sphere of Neither Preception nor Non-Perception 6. Ahare Patikulasanna The Contemplation of Loathsomeness of Food. 7- Catudhatuvavatthana A n a l y s i s of the Four P h y s i c a l Elements H In s h o r t , Buddaghosa has g r a d u a l l y developed the Visuddhis i n t o the T r i - M o r a l i t y . V i z . , the f i r s t two Visuddhis, r e v e a l i n g Moral Conduct ( S i l a ) and Concentration (Samadhi), s i g n i f y Samadhi; the l a s t f i v e V i s uddhis, r e a v e a l i n g Panna-bhavana (meditation on knowledge), s i g n i f y Vipassana. He has c i t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y the S i x t h Patipada — the P u r i f i c a -t i o n of the Path which s i g n i f i e s Nirvana i n regard to the n i n e f o l d Panna (knowledge) of i n s i g h t . 1. Udayavanupassna-Nana 2. Bhanganupassna-Nana 3. Bhanyatupatthana-Nana 4. Adinavanupassana-Nana 5. Nibbidanupassna-Nana 6. Muncitukamyata-Nana Knowledge which r e f l e c t s on the r i s e and f a l l of composite things Knowledge which r e f l e c t s on the breaking up of p e r i s h a b l e nature of composite things Knowledge of presence of fear of composite things Knowledge which r e f l e c t s on the dangers of composite things Knowledge which r e f l e c t s on the f e e l i n g s of d i s g u s t aroused by composite t h i n g s that are dangerous Knowledge of d e s i r e f o r r e l e a s e from composite things which arouse f e e l i n g s of disgust Patisankhanupassan-Nana Knowledge which r e f l e c t s on a n a l y s i s of composite things i n order to be released from them Sankharupekkha-Nana Anuloma-Nana Knowledge of i n d i f f e r e n c e toward composite things Adaptive knowledge which r i s e s i n connection w i t h the Pour Noble Truths One should bear i n mind that normally there are ten kinds of knowledge of i n s i g h t . But the tenth i s the r e s u l t of a l l stages of previous knowledge. My personal experience i s that as long as t.h.e' meditator p r a c t i c e s a l l of the f i r s t n i n e f o l d Panna, the - 116 -t e n t h , Nanaclasana V i s u d d h i , i s a t t r i b u t e d as the Super-Knowledge. Some a u t h o r i t i e s argue that the tenth knowledge, not being found i n the e a r l i e r work of Buddhaghosa, i s thus p e c u l i a r to the Vi s u d d h i , but should be found i n the seventh system of P u r i t y — the Patisambhidamagga as mentioned by S a r i p u t t a the Great. One should f r e e l y c r i t i c i z e t h i s . I t i s u s e f u l to note that even i n the Commentary, Buddhaghosa emphasizes the f o u r t y subjects of Kasina (one of the methods of me d i t a t i o n ) . He mentions Kammatthanas as the t h i r t y - e i g h t h i n 12 number, which i s found i n the Paliyam Text. At any r a t e , de-t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n cannot be found. In t e x t u a l comparative stud-i e s , i t appears t h a t the l a s t two of the ten Kasina have been omitted i n the Dhammasanghini. I am almost c e r t a i n , because of t h i s , that the tenth knowledge should be maintained. The f o r t y subjects have been p r a c t i c e d as the fundamental Samadhi method of the Theravada school. Besides t h i s work which I have mentioned, one should f u r t h e r study the works of the f o l l o w e r s of Buddhaghosa: the Abbhidham- mattha Sanghaha of Anurudha Thera; the "Compendium of Philosophy" of Mr. S.Z. Aung and Dr. Rhys David; the Vimuttimagga of U p a t i s s a , t r a n s l a t e d by Rev. N.R.M. Ehara; and The Path of Freedom, from the Chinese source, by Thera Soma and Kheminda Thera. A l l of these modern works have consequently developed from the works of Buddhaghosa. As Edward Conze says, "This (the Dhammasanghini) i s a t r e a t i s e very much on the l i n e s of the Visuddhimagga, but w r i t t e n from the standpoint of the Abhayagiradin sect wherein the - 1 1 7 -Buddhaghosa f o l l o w s the Mahavira." I t should be noted that when the Buddhist Commentaries t a l k about Samadhi, Samadhi connects with some kinds of Jhanas which l i k e w i s e connect with the l o r d s or gods. This i s Jhanic Samadhi. There are two kinds of l o r d s : 1 ) the s o c i a l mundane l o r d s , such as kings who are beli e v e d to have descended from d i e t i e s from heaven (Issavas) and 2 ) the super-mundane l o r d s , such as Brahmans. Furthermore, Samadhi i s c l a s s i f i e d i n t o four kinds i n accor-dance with the Four Stages of Jhanas as f o l l o w s : 1 ) That which i s associated with f i v e mental f a c t o r s , namely, V i t a k a , V i c a r a , P i t i , Sukha, and Ekaggata, with the sup-pression_of the f i v e Hindrances, i s c a l l e d "Samadhi of the f i r s t Jhana (pathamajjhananga)". 2 ) That which i s associated with the three f a c t o r s , v i z . , P i t i , Sukkha, and Egaggata, i s c a l l e d "Samadhi of the second Jhana (dut i y a j j hanaiiga)" . 3) That which i s associated with two f a c t o r s , Sukkha and Egaggata, i s known as "Samadhi of the t h i r d Jhana (Tat i y a j j hananga). 4 ) That which i s associated with Egaggata, together with equanimity, i s c a l l e d "Samadhi of the f o u r t h Jhana ( C a t u t t h a j j h a n a n g a ) . 1 ^ Thus these systems of Samadhi are associated with nirvana. When a Samadhin reaches a c e r t a i n l e v e l of Jhana, he then pene-t r a t e s h i s mind i n t o the true nature of th i n g s i n themselves ' (noumena). When and how that knowledge a r r i v e s to h i s mind appears according to the above-mentioned f o u r - f o l d c a t e g o r i e s . What do I mean by knowing the true nature of things or noumena, that which i s perceived and i s to be perceived? The on-t o l o g i c a l and metaphysical s e t t i n g f a l l s under samadhin epistem-ology. There are two types of samadhins: the Vipassana-yamika < - 1 1 8 -and the Sukkhavlpassaka ( d r y - v l s i o n e s ) . In any ease, i t i s pos-s i b l e f o r samadhins to. know what i s true nature through t h e i r m e d i t a t i o n s , which i s known as the attainment of the Noble Paths and F r u i t i o n by Pure Insight (Vipassana) As i t i s s a i d : "Formations are a l l impermanent: When he sees thus with understanding And turns away from what i s i l l That i s the path of p u r i t y " 1 5 2 ) Connetationa-1 and D e f i n i t i o n a l - Samadhi "Samadhi" i s a P a l i word. Samadhi and Vipassana are i n t e r -r e l a t e d and depend upon T r i m o r a l i t y , v i z . , Sila-magga, Jhanas-magga, and Panna-magga: 1 ) Sila-magga may be d i v i d e d i n t o the Pancca, Dasa, and Patimokkha s i l a s , which are f u r t h e r c a tegorized as s o c i a l or super mundane. The Pancca and Dasa s i l a s are considered as ordinary mundane s i l a s ; the Patimokkha S i l a or Adhi S i l a , as super mundane. The l a t t e r , held s e r i o u s l y by Theravada Buddhists, i s c a l l e d Vinaya Sutta. Today i t i s found i n the Mahayana and Vajrayana t r a d i t i o n s . P r a c t i c e of the s i x Prajnaparamitas leads to a t t a i n -ment of B o d h i s a t t v a - s i l a and i s p r a c t i c e d s e r i o u s l y by the Madhy-amika school. The Vajrayana school p a r t i c u l a r l y p r a c t i c e s the s i x Paramitas, which lead to the attainment of abhisekha ( b l e s s i n g ) . 2 ) Jhanas-magga i s the Path of M e d i t a t i v e Concentration and c o n s i s t s of mindfulness ( s a t i ) , c o n centrative absorption (samadhi), and a t t e n t i v e absorption (bhavana). I t i s sometimes c a l l e d i n -s i g h t . This leads to transcendent comprehension and understanding (Panna); Sk., P r a j n a ) , which i s enlightenment (Bodhi). This path i s p r a c t i c e d a c t i v e l y i n the Theravada schools, e s p e c i a l l y i n - 119 -Thailand and Burma. The Mahayana school describes t h i s as the notion of the Sukhavati Movement, and the Vajrayana school has p r a c t i c e d i t i n the Tibetan c u l t u r e . The Mahayana school i n China t r a n s l a t e s t h i s path as the form of Ch' an-tsung which l a t e r gives r i s e to Zen-shu i n Japan and i s maintained as the Theravada school i n Korea and Vietnam. 3) Panna-magga (Sk., Prajna-marga) i s the Path of Transcen-dent Comprehension and Understanding f o r Enlightenment (Bodhi) ( c f . Adhipanna-sikkha; Sk., Adhiprajna) i n which there are three kinds of panna: a) Suttamaya-panna (that transcendent comprehension, understanding science, from o r a l t r a d i t i o n , i . e . , Ananda l i s t e n e d to the Buddha) b) Cintamya-panna (that panna or knowledge gained from pure thought — b a s i c a l l y from samadhi) c) Bhavanamaya-panna (that knowledge gained from c u l t u r a l thought or c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g ) This path i s held s e r i o u s l y by the Theravadin school. They espec-i a l l y have used t h i s as the study of a n a l y s i s of s t r u c t u r a l e x i s t -ence or Patthana i n the Abhidhamma P i t a k a . In a d d i t i o n to the T r i m o r a l i t y are the Bhatti-magga (the Path of Devotional P r a c t i c e R e l a t i n g to S p i r i t u a l Aid — the a r t of committing a c t i o n of merit — "Punja") and the Buddhanusmrti-magga (the path of complete r e l i a n c e upon the e f f i c a c y , of Karuna as manifested and o f f e r e d by the Amitabha Buddha who i s revealed to the Bodhisattva A v a l o k i t e s v a r a . We should pay a t t e n t i o n to both of these paths, though my aim here i s not i n c i t i n g them. T r i m o r a l i t y i s held by a l l schools. I t was s e r i o u s l y p r a c t i c e d i n e a r l y Mahayana schools and has become t h e i r c r u c i a l - 120 -standpoint even today. This t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g i s c a l l e d only one path or one way and i s found i n the text c o n t a i n i n g the spec-i a l theory of magga (path) to the attainment of nirvana according to a l l Buddhist f a i t h s . When one p r a c t i c e s the T r i m o r a l i t y , he has v i r t u o u s conduct. What i s path or s o - c a l l e d understanding as path? Path i s the way i n which man brings himself to l i b e r a t i o n from the bond os phenomenal e x i s t e n c e , or the process of the c o g n i t i o n of the way t h i n s are — Truth as nir v a n a . The f i v e p r i n c i p l e paths noted by.E. Obermiller are: 1) The Path of Accumulating Merit (Sambhara-Marga ." .• cftshoga-lam) 2) The Path of T r a i n i n g (Prayoga-Marga cfsbyor-lam) 3) The Path of I l l u m i n a t i o n (Darsana-Marga cfmthon-lam) 4) The Path of Concentration (Bhavana-Marga cfsgom-lam) 5) The P i n a l Path, where one i s no longer subject to t r a i n i n g (Asaiska-Marga cf mi-slob-lam) The l a s t three represent "the Path of the S a i n t " (Ary-Marga), whereas the f i r s t two are regarded as the subservient degrees. Obermiller f u r t h e r describes the path as having two c h i e f f a c t o r s of r e a l i z a t i o n : "...the p e r f e c t quiescence of the mind (samadha of zi-gnas) and transcendental a n a l y s i s (vipasyana of lhag-mthon) ... Therefore a l l the yogins, a l l the meditators eo ipso a l l the Saints of t h e i r Paths, must at a l l times take ve-il course-to mental quiescenc and transcendental a n a l y s i s . " Buddhaghosa, i n h i s e x p o s i t i o n on the Visuddhi-Magga, em-bodies a l l buddhist d o c t r i n e s i n the t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g as 1 2 1 -1 ) A d h l - S i l a 2 ) A d h i - C i t _ 3 ) Adhi-Samadhi (the v i r t u e of moral conduct) (mindfulness) (meditation) Thus the t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g i s Samapada, the accomplishment of ( i n ) the progress of l i f e toward complete freedom. That ac-complishment i s required of the paths which a l l Buddhists have observed: 1 ) Sila-Khandha 0 0 the p r i n c i p l e d e a l i n g with the prac-t i c e of m o r a l i t y 2 ) Samadhi-Khandha — the p r i n c i p l e d e a l i n g with the development of concentration 3 ) Panna-Khandha — the p r i n c i p l e d e a l i n g with the development of true wisdom 4) Vimutti-Khandha — the p r i n c i p l e d e a l i n g with the attainment of emancipation 5) Vimutti-Nana-Dassana-Khandha — the p r i n c i p l e d e a l i n g The t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g , as i t appears i n the Theraveda P a l i t r a d i t i o n , reads: "Thus have I heard ... (and the Exalted One s a i d ) : 'Monks, there are these three forms of t r a i n i n g . What three? That t r a i n i n g i n the higher m o r a l i t y , that i n the higher thought, and that i n the higher I n s i g h t . ' .... 'And what, monks, i s the t r a i n i n g i n the higher i n s i g h t ? Herein a monk understands, as i t r e a l l y i s , the meaning of 'This i s 1 1 1 ' " These are the three forms of t r a i n i n g ' " 1 9 One should bear i n mind that the t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g c o n s i s t s of both Samadhi and Vipassana. Both moral conduct ( s i l a ) and concentration (samadhi) are e s s e n t i a l , but i t i s i n s i g h t (Vipas-sana) (or wisdom — panna) that enables one to see things that t r u l y are. These three p r i n c i p l e s are completed by: with r e a l i z a t i o n of achievement of emancipation !° - 122 -The t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g i s a c a r d i n a l t r a i n i n g , an i n t e g r a l part of the path, not an i s o l a t e d r e a c t i o n . This i s c l e a r when the Enlightened One says: "Concentration perfected by v i r t u e brings much f r u i t , brings great advantage; wisdom perfected by concentration brings much f r u i t , brings great advantage; the mind perfected by wisdom i s wholly and e n t i r e l y freed from the i n t o x i c a t i o n of sense-d e s i r e s , becoming, and from ignorance." 20 The Buddha teaches Samadhi and Vipassana, one repeatedly emphasizing the other, Samadhi u s u a l l y preceded by Vipassana. At times, Vipassana precedes Samadhi, as i n the Patisambhidamagga: "... Sammathapubbhahgamam vipassanam bhaveti — One who c u l t i v a t e d - 21 the path of Vipassana preceded by Samadhi." Why do I say that Buddha repeatedly emphasizes Samadhi? Because Samadhi and Vipassana share the common f u n c t i o n (duty) with regard to the f o l l o w i n g : objects (arammana), sense objects or sense spheres (gocara), e r a d i c a t i o n (pahana), abandoning ( P a r i c c a g a ) , emerging (vutthana), breaking up ( v i v a t t a n a ) , peace (sa n t a ) , s u b t l e t y ( p a n i t a ) , l i b e r a t i o n ( v i m u t t a ) , non-existence of asava (anasava), passing beyond ( t a r a n a ) , s i g n l e s s s t a t e — with reference to defilement ( a n i m i t a ) , the s t a t e without d e s i r e ( a p p a n i h i t a ) , voidness of defilement (sunnata), united f u n c t i o n (ekarasana), and i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y ( a n a t i v a t t a n a ) . This i s why I am able to guarantee that Buddha repeatedly emphasized Samadhi and Vipassana together. I t i s proper f o r me to say that both Samadhi and Vipassana, i n the lowest l e v e l , are t o some degree d i f f e r e n t , but i n the highest degree are i d e n t i c a l since t h e i r aim i s a t t a i n i n g the highest p u r i t y ... p u r i t y i s nothing but knowledge, and pure knowledge i s nirvana. Most of the time, the root and body of Vipassana and Samadhi share the same objects of meditation and Vipassana, i . e . , the Vipassana system as a whole, as w e l l as the Samadhi system, i s based upon the seven stages of p u r i t y and men-t a l e x e r c i s e s . When a meditator wants to put h i s mind i n t o Sam-adh i , he must be w e l l equipped with moral q u a l i t y and concentra-t i o n f i r s t . F i n a l l y h i s mind i s pure and d e l i v e r e d from a l l • 22 t h i n g s . The seven stages of Visuddhi ban be simple stated as: 1) s i l a v i s u d d h i — p u r i t y of moral conduct 2) c i t t a v i s u d d h i - p u r i t y of mind 3) panna vis u d d h i - p u r i t y of understanding the true nature of phenomenal existence ( a n i c c a , dukkha, anatta) S i l a v i s u d d h i and c i t t a v i s u d d h i are the roots of Vipassana; panna visu d d h i i s the body of both Vipassana and Samadhi. As the Visud-dhimagga s t a t e s , p u r i t y of m o r a l i t y and p u r i t y of mind are the roots of f u l l knowledge that should be a t t a i n e d by the d i s c i p l e who possesses a thorough understanding of the fundamental doct-- 23 r i n e s , described as the ground of f u l l knowledge (Vipassana). Another object shared by both Samadhi and Vipassana i s the Doctrine of Dependent O r i g i n a t i o n ( P a t i c c a Samuppada). The meditator recognizes h i s previous existence (pubbenivassanussati-nana) through attainment of the j h a n i c s t a t e . That knowledge appears l i k e t h i s : "With h i s mind thus concentrated ... he a p p l i e s and d i r e c t s h i s mind to the knowledge of r e c o l l e c t i n g h i s previous e x i s t e n c e . He r e c o l l e c t s various kinds of former l i v e s , such as one b i r t h , two, th r e e , f o u r , f i v e , t e n , twenty, t h i r t y , f o u r t y , f i f t y , one hundred, a thousand and a hundred thousand b i r t h s , many c y c l e s of the e v o l u t i o n of the universe of d i s s o l u t i o n , and of e v o l u t i o n andtcl-issolution. 'In that one I had such - 124 -name, c l a n , case, such sustenance, experience of pleasure and p a i n , and such end of l i f e . Passing away thence I was reborn i n such place. There too I had such a name, c l a n ... and such an end of l i f e . Passing away thence I was reborn here.' Thus he remembers var-ious kinds of h i s former l i v e s with t h e i r modes and d e t a i l s . " 2 4 The purpose of p r a c t i c i n g the t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g i s the attainment of nirvana. When one has p r a c t i c e d the t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g , he g r a d u a l l y and e v e n t u a l l y a t t a i n s Nirodha Samapatti. Right a f t e r he a t t a i n s t h i s , he perceives the Noble F r u i t (phala samadhi), which r e f e r s to n i r v a n a . Nirvana i s s a i d to be exper-ienced by the attainment of phala samadhi. Nirodha Samapatti i s the other name f o r one who reaches the stage of anagami and the arahat. "Sannavadayitanirodha" i s the c e s s a t i o n of f e e l i n g and perception. I t i s synonomous with Nirodha Samapatti. I be-l i e v e that t h i s degree i s the degree of those a t t a i n i n g nirvana at the present time. The anagamins and the arahats who have reached t h e i r paths by p r a c t i c i n g the eight attainments — the four rupa-jhanas and the four arupa-jhanas — can enter i n t o Nirvana In t h e i r present l i f e t i m e and remain f o r seven days. As i t i s sai d i n the Visuddhimagga: "Wise men when they have brought to pass The i n s i g h t to A r i y a n s , a t t a i n This t r a c e calm_, p r a c t i c e d by the Ariyans And c a l l e d Nirvana, i n t h i s very l i f e . Therefore a b i l i t y to pass i n t o This trance i s sai d to be a good result2r-of Understanding i n the Ariyan Paths." Those who enter the Noble Paths with pure i n s i g h t without p r a c t i c i n g the j h a n i c s t a t e are known as Sukkh-Vipassaka (without - 1 2 5 -a t t a i n i n g the j h a n i c s t a t e ) . They do not enjoy the Nirodha Samapatti. At any r a t e , they enjoy the F r u i t of happiness from nirvana by r e a l i z i n g whatever f r u i t they have a t t a i n e d . Furthermore, whoever has p r a c t i c e d the t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g , a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t t a i n s the F r u i t of n i r v a n a , since t h r e e - f o l d t r a i n i n g i s the s t a t e of a t t a i n i n g Samapatti as w i l l as the path of the e n t i r e system of d i s c i p l e t r a i n i n g . The state of r e a l i z a t i o n i s nirvana or Mokkha or Vimokkha. The commentaries have given two meanings to the word "Vimokkha": I) release (Vimuccana) from opposite c o n d i t i o n s (paccanikadhamma), and I I ) absorption i n t o the object i n the sense of free c o n f i -dence (adhimuccana). Thus the r e s u l t of p r a c t i c i n g Samadhi and Vipassana i s that the yogin or arahat enters i n t o the eight s t a t e s of r e l e a s e . One seeking f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on these eight s t a t e s should see: I) D.N., V o l . I I , pp. I l l , 1 5 9 ; A.N., V o l . IV, p. 410. I I ) M.N. V o l . I I , p. 1 2 ; A.N., V o l . I . p. 41 I I I ) Patisambhidamagga XX, I I , p. 3 8 IV) Com. on M.N., V o l . I I . , p. 1 3 - The eight s t a t e s of release which are relevant to Ubhatobhaga-vimutta (release from both sides) are c o n c l u s i v e l y described i n the f o l l o w i n g passages: "When the bhikhu a t t a i n s these eight s t a t e s of release i n d i r e c t order, and can a l s o a t t a i n them i n reverse order, i n both orders c o n s e c u t i v e l y , so that he i s able to enter them as w e l l as to emerge from them, whenever he wishes, and r e -main as long as he wishes: by uprooting the asavas he a t t a i n s (the f i n a l ) emancipation through Samadhi and wisdom, and r e -mains comprehending an d . r e a l i z i n g by h i m s e l f ; then he i s s a i d to be released from both sides ( m a t e r i a l and Immaterial ex-i s t e n c e ) i n two ways (by the formless attainment and by the knowledge of the Noble Path). There i s no other release h i -gher or greater than t h i s . " 2 6 - 126 -I t w i l l be seen from the order of my theory of Samadhi and Vipassana that the Eight Spheres of Mastery — one of which i s Abhibhayatana — are regarded as the advanced s t a t e of mind development and are acquired through the path of Samadhi. I t i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t to enter the higher knowledge and overcome t e r r o r s and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , before f i n a l l y e n t e r i n g Nirvana. I f s a i n t s do not p r a c t i c e t h i s j h a n i c stage, they may come back to r e b i r t h i n the form-world. As Rhys Davids w r i t e s : " I t s purpose i s to get r i d of the d e l u s i o n that one sees ond f e e l s i s r e a l and permanent." Buddhists hold that the Abhibhayatana i s the s k i l l f u l n e s s of the t r a i n i n g . He who reaches t h i s stae l i v e s without the fear of death. He enjoys t h i s jhana i n the process of that namelessness which i s compatible with existence as when a person, f o r the f i r s t time, experiences or r e a l i z e s the nature of an element that he had not know before. This jhana might e x i s t as an imageless thought; but i t i s maintained that no thought even a r i s e s without an object. Arahats have known a l l things before the object i s given name — they even know t h e i r future and past l i v e s before the name and the meaning grasping processes occur. Their knowing comes from every case of a composite p i c t u r e , v i z . , t a s t e s or senses, or p h y s i c a l contents. They have p r a c t i c e d the scheme of the s k i l l f u l n e s s of k a s i n a , e s p e c i a l l y sound or the proces f o r the group of sounds and c o l o r s , e t c . This i s p a r a l l e l , i n some ways, with the teaching of Gest a l t psychology where there i s grasping of wholes, but u n l i k e t h a t , the - 1 2 7 -Buddha mentioned that the mind does not see (perceive) a whole at once, i . e . , I see the rose before I come t o the con c l u s i o n that i t i s accompanied wi t h imagination, memory, a s s o c i a t i o n of sensation, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , judgement, e t c . But the s a i n t who a t t a i n s Abhibhayatana i s able to perceive a'whole at once. REFERENCE NOTES 1. A.N.I., pp. 38-43 2 . D. 22 3. M. 43 4. S. LVI I I 5. Dhp. p. 2 7 5 6. Sanna i s P a l i meaning "perception", and has been used synono-, mously with "contemplation", "meditation", and " i n s i g h t " . Nanamoli Thera, Mindfulness of Breathing, Buddhist P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y , Ceylon, 1 9 6 4 , p. 5 n. 3 7- Abbhidhammathasongaha, p. 43 8. Visuddhimagga S u t t a , pp. 436-697 9. c f . Dhammasangi, pp. 1 6 6 - 2 6 4 1 0 , . c f , I . A t t h a s a l i n i , I . , p. 1 8 6 ; 2. M.N._I, p. 1 8 6 ; 3- I b i d , p. 423; 4. M.N. I l l , p. 243; 5- A t t h a s a l i n i , I . , p. 1 9 1 1 . c f . I . M.N. I I , p. 14; 2. A t t a s a l i n i V o l . I . , p. 1 8 6 ; 3 . The E x p o s i t o r I . , pp. 249-2501 4. Dhammanasangani, pp. 2 6 5 f f 1 2 . A t t h a s a l i n i , I . , p. 1 8 6 ; Dhp. cy 3- 3- p. 4 2 1 1 3 . Conze, Edward, Buddhism, A l l e n and Unwin, London, p. 2 5 14. : Visuddhimagga, V o l . I . , p. 85; D.N., I I . p. 3 1 3 1 5 . ' Dhammapada, Verse 277 1 6 . O b e r m i l l e r , E., "The D i c t r i n e of Prajna-paramita as Exposed i n the Abhisamyalamkara of Maitreya", Acta O r i e n t a l i a (Leiden), XI ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p. I - 1 2 8 -1 7 - I b i d . , pp. 1 4 - 1 7 l 8 Bhikkhu Sanharahita, "Ordination and I n i t i a t i o n i n the Three Yanas", The Middle Way, (London) XXXIV, No. 3 (Nov., 1 9 5 9 ) , PP 4 - 5 1 9 - I b i d . , XL, p. I 2 0 . S i l a p a r i b h a v i t o _ s a m a d h i mahapphalo h o t i mahanisamso samadhi-p a r i b h a v i t a panna mahappla h o t i mahanisamsa^ panna-paribhavitam c i t t a m sammad-eva asavehi vimuccati seyyathidam kamasava bhavasava d i t t h a s a v a a v i j j a s a v a t i . D.N. I I , p. 8 l 2 1 . Cf. Patisambhidamagga (Siamese ed.) pp. 4 3 3 - 4 3 8 , 4 4 0 - 4 4 5 2 2 . Visuddhimagga, pp. 1 - 5 8 ( i n the "Sil a - N i d e s a " ) (my condensa-r ion) 2 3 - Visuddhimagga, p. 4 4 3 2 4 . D.N.I., p. 8 1 2 5 - Visuddhimagga, p. 7 0 9 ; t r a n s , from the Path of P u r i t y , p. 8 7 3 2 6 . D.N. V o l . I I , p. 7 1 2 7 - Dialogues, I I , p. 1 1 8 - 1 2 9 -Chapter X THE PRACTICE OF SAMADHI AND VIPASSANA-To some extent I have already c l e a r l y explained t h i s i n the f i r s t chapter on mindfulness. At any r a t e I w i l l present the ex-e r c i s e s of some of the i n s i g h t s of Vipassana as described by the same author. Exercise 1 1 . While s i t t i n g , meditate on the abdomen which r i s e s on i n h a l i n g and f a l l s on ex h a l i n g . Acknowledge the r i s -i n g and f a l l i n g i n your mind: " R i s i n g , F a l l i n g , " according to whether i t Is a r i s e or a f a l l . 2 . While r e c l i n i n g , do the same and acknowledge i n a sim-i l a r manner. 3. While standing, acknowledge the posture "Standing, standing." 4. While performing the mindful walking, acknowledge i n stages as f o l l o w s : When the r i g h t foot advances, acknowledge the movement, "Right goes thus," keeping the eyes f i x e d on the t i p of the r i g h t f o o t ; when the l e f t foot advances, acknowledge the movement, "Lef t goes thus", keeping the-eyes f i x e d on the t i p of the l e f t f o o t . Acknowledge every step i n t h i s way. Hav-ing t r a versed the space allowed f o r the mindful walk and wishing to t u r n back, stand s t i l l f i r s t , acknow-ledge the posture, "standing, standing", then t u r n back slowly and composedly, and acknowledge the move-ment " t u r n i n g , t u r n i n g " . Having turned r i g h t round, stand s t i l l f i r s t , acknowledging "standing, standing", then continue to walk m i n d f u l l y , acknowledging move-ments as before. P r a c t i c e each e x e r c i s e u n t i l you are w e l l experienced i n i t and can achieve good concentra-t i o n , then pass onto the next one. Exer c i s e 4 1 . While s i t t i n g , acknowledge the r i s i n g and f a l l i n g of the abdomen i n four stages: " R i s i n g , f a l l i n g , s i t t i n g , touching", acknowledging "touching" s e v e r a l times ( u n t i l the end of the out-going b r e a t h ) ; i . e . , " R i s i n g , f a l l i n g , s i t t i n g , touching, touching, e t c . " * The Ven. Chao Khun Phra Tepsiddhimuni Mahathera, op. c i t . , pp. 1 8 . 1 9 . 2 2 - 130 -2. While r e c l i n i n g , acknowledge awareness i n four stages, " R i s i n g , f a l l i n g , r e c l i n i n g , touching, touching, e t c . " 3. While standing, acknowledge your posture, "Standing, standing." 4. While performing the mindful walking, do as i n Exer-c i s e s 1, 2, and 3 f o r about 10 to 20 minutes each, and then change the acknowledgement, i . e . , while ad-vancing with your r i g h t or l e f t f o o t , acknowledge the movement i n four stages, "Heel up: l i f t i n g : going: t r e a d i n g , " f o r about 10 to 20 minutes. That i s : a. ..Acknowledge the movement of your f e e t , "Right goes thus, l e f t goes thus" f o r about 10 t o 20 minutes. b. Acknowledge " L i f t i n g , t r e a d i n g , " f o r about 10 to 20 minutes. c. Acknowledge "Heel up, L i f t i n g , going, t r e a d i n g , " f o r about 10 to 20 minutes. Exe r c i s e 2 1. I f the mind Is contented i n s i g h t , sound, s m e l l , t a s t e , touch, t r y to r e a l i z e that i t i s a sensual contentment (Kamaguna). Acknowledge your f e e l i n g , "Contented." 2. When aversion a r i s e s , t r y to r e a l i z e that i t i s hatred or a wish f o r revenge. Acknowledge i t "Hating" or "Revengeful." 3- When the mind i s jaded or a p a t h e t i c , t r y t o _ r e a l i z e that t h i s f e e l i n g i s Torpor and Languor (Thinamidha). Acknowledge i t , i . e . , "Sleepy." 4. I f the mind i s d i s t r a c t e d , woreeied, or depressed, t r y to r e a l i z e that d i s t r a c t i o n and worry (Uddhaccakukku-cca) have a r i s e n , and acknowledge such f e e l i n g s , "Dis t r a c t e d , " or "Worrying," or "Depressed." 5. When doubts i n respect of mental and p h y s i c a l states (namarupa), Ultimate r e a l i t y and the concepts (Pannat-t i ) a r i s e , _ t r y t o r e a l i z e that t h i s i s S k e p t i c a l Doubt . ( y i c i k i c c h a ) , Acknowledge i t "Doubting."! Before going on f u r t h e r , we should bear i n mind that m o r a l i t y i s the nature of man which i s not a l i e n a t e d from or outside of him. I define nature as nature i t s e l f , r e g a r d l e s s of man's observation through the senses ... namely, sense perception. I p e r c e i v e , am aware of, something which i s not thought and which i s s e l f - c o n -t a i n e d f o r thought. What I mean i s that we can t h i n k of nature without t h i n k i n g of thought ... nature does not re q u i r e the object - 131 -which our thought i s about. I t h i n k purely and homogenously about nature. I am not t a k i n g i n t o account the p s y c h o l o g i c a l question of whether sense-perception i n v o l v e s thought, and i f i t does not i n v o l v e thought, what does i t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e . Sense-perception to me means I am aware of something which i s not thought. I would l i k e to term i t "sense awareness." Thus, to me, nature regards homogenous thought w i t h i n nature i t s e l f and not awareness or d e f i n i t i o n of human s o c i a l custom or human h a b i t . L i n g u i s t i c a l l y speaking, i t i s more corr e c t to say m o r a l i t y i n man r a t h e r than m o r a l i t y of man. Hence I p r e f e r to say the former. When I speak of m o r a l i t y I am t h e r e f o r e speaking of . human m o r a l i t y r a t h e r than a d i v i s i o n of m o r a l i t y , i . e . , m o r a l i t y of Buddhism or C h r i s t i a n i t y , e t c . P r i m a r i l y and b a s i c a l l y , m o r a l i t y allows man to be mindful ( f i a r and empty) and e q u i a l , to share happiness and s u f f e r i n g e q u a l l y with a l l beings. I f there i s no m o r a l i t y , then man has not unique q u a l i t y . Man without such q u a l i t y i s the same as an animal. Therefore the happiness and peace of world s o c i e t y today deri v e s from human m o r a l i t y . This we a l l can see. Wisdom (panna) i s one of the forms of m o r a l i t y . As i t i s c l e a r l y said i n the Sabbasava Sutta: "He (a Bhikkhu) c u l t i v a t e s that part of the higher wisdom c a l l e d Search a f t e r Truth, he c u l t i v a t e s that part of the higher wisdom c a l l e d Energy, he c u l t i v a t e s that part of the higher wisdom c a l l e d Joy, he c u l t i v a t e s that part of the higher wisdom c a l l e d Peace, he c u l t i v a t e s that part of the higher wisdom c a l l e d Earnest Contemplation, he - 132 -c u l t i v a t e s that part of the higher wisdom c a l l e d Equanimity — each dependent upon s e c l u s i o n , depend-ent upon passionlessness, dependent on the u t t e r ecstasy of contemplation, r e s u l t i n g i n the pas-s i n g o f f of thoughtlessness."2 I t i s undeniable that man i s by nature p h y s i c a l l y unequal; f o r example, one has power over another by b i r t h . Let us say that I am smaller than other men. I t i s easy f o r them to hurt me phys-i c a l l y i f they have no m o r a l i t y . Princess Poon Pisamai addresses her f e l l o w Buddhists saying: " R e l i g i o n only gives man the sense of shame, g u i l t and other developed q u a l i t i e s c o l l e c t i v e l y c a l l e d 'conscience.' I t i s a f a c t that a r e l i g i o n , by what-ever name i t goes, i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same with the re s t with regard to i t s fundamental purpose: to make a human being of a man ... i t may be sa i d that the Buddha taught us the t r u t h s of our l i f e , from the c r a d l e to the grave, how we are enslaved and how we can be f r e e . By the Buddha's teaching, we have come to know how we have been t y r a n i z e d by our own passion ( c o l l e c -t i v e l y c a l l e d K i l e s a i n Buddhist terms), being d r i v e n to spasmodic joys and sorrows imposed upon us by circumstances ... that Buddhism has survived a l l up- heavals f o r nearly 3>000 years should be a f a c t worthy  of reasoning based on the law of cause and e f f e c t . I t may be said that the teachers of o l d had recognized the three fundamental t r u t h s and t h e r f o r e had r e a l i z e d the wonder and excellence of the Buddha's Dhamma. The three fundamental Truths or the Three Signs of Being are: ANICCAM, DUKKHAM, and ANATTA."3 In s h o r t , m o r a l i t y i s required by human s o c i e t y i n order to a t -t a i n peace and the complete,freedom of man. Generally Buddhist scholars do not p r a c t i c e the necessary steps to a t t a i n peace and complete freedom. There are monks and laymen i n Thailand who have devoted themselves only to theory ( P a r i y a t i ) , excluding p r a c t i c e ( P a t i p a t i ) and the deliverance ( P a t i v a t i ) . Monks i n Thailand and elsewhere should be advised that the T r i s i k k h a (the Three Old Learner) should be c a r r i e d out - 1 3 3 -completely and r e s p e c t i v e l y , namely, P a r i y a t i , P a t i p a t i , and P a t i v a t i , without e x c l u s i o n . As I mention i n my i n t r o d u c t i o n , Thai and Ceylon monks are d i v i d e d i n t o two schools: the Vipas-sana school which holds vipassana p r a c t i c e only. Today there are i n c r e a s i n g l y more Samadha monks than Vipassana monks. I am a f r a i d that i f Thailand monks do not r e t u r n t o both study and p r a c t i c e , Buddhism w i l l run d o w n h i l l as d i d the e a r l i e r Buddhism. Buddha taught that one who learned and taught others without p r a c t i c i n g i s empty-headed j u s t l i k e the cowboy who takes care of the cows f o r someone e l s e , never g e t t i n g any b e n e f i t from the cows. Hence Thai monks should develop Vipassana p r a c t i c e . I t seems that only 5 - 7 percent of the monks p r a c t i c e Vipassana as w e l l as Samadhi. This i s a major defect of Thai monkhood today. According to Sunno Bhikku, who d i d research f o r A B r i e f Guide to  Meditation Temples of Thailand, only 1 6 temples e f f e c t i v e l y prac-t i c e meditation (Vipassana).^ I p r a c t i c e d at one of these tern-' p i e s , Wat Suan Moke, before l i v i n g with the mountain people i n northern Thailand. L i f e i n the temple was calm and p e a c e f u l . I would l i k e to l i s t the temples that he mentioned: Temples of Bangkok and C e n t r a l Thailand Wat Pleng Wat Pak Nam Wat Maha Tat Wat Bovoranives Wat Cholapratan Wat Asokaram Wat Vivekasrom Temples of the Northeast Wat Ba Ban Tat • Wat Ban Na Hua Chang - 1 3 4 -Wat Ba Pong Wat Nern Panow Temples of the South Wat Suan Moke Wat Sukontawas Wat Tow Kote Temples of the North Wat Muang Mang Wat U Mong Vipassana Temples  are Found i n Ten Provinces: Chieng Mai Nakhon Sawan Udon Thani Ubon Ratchathani Sakon Nakhon Nong Khai Samut Prakan Chonburi Surat Thani Nakhon S i Thammarat - 1 3 5 -REFERENCE NOTES 1 . The Ven Chao Khun Phra Tepsiddhlmunl Mahathera, op., c i t . , pp. 1 8 , 2 2 , 2 9 & 30 2. Sacred Books of the East, "Sabbasava S u t t a " , #36 ed. by F. Max. M u l l e r , t r a n s , from P a l i by T.W. Rhys Davids, p. 306. 3. H.S.H. Princes Poon Pismai D i s k u l , A BEING THAT IS HUMAN, WFB. Book S e r i e s , No. 4 5 , 1 9 4 7 , pp. 2 , 2 , 6, & 7 . 4 . For f u l l e r i nformation see A B r i e f Guide to Med i t a t i o n Temples  of Thailand, e s p e c i a l l y pp. 46-48. - 136 -Chapter XI THE PRINCIPLE OP THE FOURTH NOBLE TRUTH In t h i s chapter I w i l l d iscuss the Path acknowledged as the most important as i t i s man's f i n a l s o l u t i o n . I f one c l o s e l y studies and thereby understands the previous chapter, he may come to understand t h i s chapter. Who i s Buddha? How can one perceive who Buddha i s ? Who i s free from the bondaged world? How does one know when he a t t a i n s enlightenment? What i s the goal of the Noble E i g h t f o l d Path, A l l of these p h i l o s o p h i c a l answers can be found i n the f i n a l p r i n c i p l e of the Four Noble Truths. The Four Noble Truths are the way of removal (the way of c e s s a t i o n ) . How do we know that the c e s s a t i o n of Dukkha has been attained? The answer i s CONSCIOUSNESS, the i n t e g r a t i n g f a c t o r , or SELF, which i s s u b j e c t , l i k e a l l e l s e , to a n i c c a , dukkha and anatta. This e v o l v i n g consciousness achieves successive states of s p i r i t u a l knowledge u n t i l the l a s t , our t r a n s i t o r y or mortal knowledge, i s reached i n Buddhahood. For the point of a l l of Buddha's teachings i s that a human has to stru g g l e and struggle f o r h i s freedom — not only be accept-i n g h i s n a t u r a l e v o l u t i o n and by being disappointed with h i s own being — hut by stopping h i s b e l i e f that since he i s s i n , some-t h i n g besides himself w i l l help remove h i s s i n . As i n one of Aesop's f a b l e s , a c h a r i o t d r i v e r whose c h a r i o t had gotten stuck i n the mud, sat down and c r i e d to the Gods to remove h i s c h a r i o t f o r him. God came and t o l d him that he was f o o l i s h , and asked why he - 137 -didn't h i t h i s cow and make h i s cow move the c h a r i o t . And God sai d "that i s a l l I can do to help you". The c h a r i o t d r i v e r then h i t h i s cow and the cow p u l l e d the c h a r i o t from the mud. He then r e a l i z e d that man has to do a l l things by himself — that no one elese can rescue him. How can man do t h i s ? In Buddhism t h i s i s known as release from the l a s t FETTERS. Human e f f o r t without ex-t e r n a l help i s marked as a dew-drop on a l o t u s l e a f . Aesop's t a l e represents man as simi-man. The term simi-man means that man i s not only man alone, but something more than man h i m s e l f , and that man i s the center of the whole t h i n g i n c l u d i n g the property of Gods w i t h i n man. This n o t i o n a p p l i e s to what and where i s goodness. The simplest way of viewing goodness i s that i t i s w i t h i n man, w i t h i n h i s f r e s h b o d i l y s t a t e , and i s the a t t a i n -ment 'of happiness while l i v i n g i n the present l i f e on earth. What do I mean by present l i f e ? The present l i f e i s the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the f i v e skandhas even though we cannot c o n t r o l i m p e r f e c t i o n of s e l f , namely, r e b i r t h , o l d age, sorrow, death and the l i k e . 1 Buddha, however, gives the hope to man that as long as he works through to attainment of the f i n a l Path of the Noble Truths — the Path of c e s s a t i o n of dukkha — then he i s f r e e . Again, free or unfree to Buddha i s nothing more than the mind-creator, the mind producer, the mind maker. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , knowledge created by the mind extends to the Noble E i g h t f o l d Path of the Noble Truths, which i s f a r more than a code of m o r a l i t y . The f i n a l Path of Buddhism i s p r a c t i c e d by a l l schools. I t i s the noblest course of s p i r i t u a l t r a i n i n g yet presented to man. - 138 -The f i r s t f i v e steps of the Path — the Way — may be c l a s s -f i e d as the e t h i c s , the l a s t three c l a s s i f i e d as the mind's d e v e l -opment. 'Cease to do e v i l , l e a r n to do good; cleanse your own mind; t h i s i s the teaching of the Buddha.' This i s , i n my o p i n i o n , the main key of ce s s a t i o n of dukkha, since there i s no such t h i n g as a Saviour or the l i k e i n Buddhism. Each man must deve-lop h i s own mind by c r e a t i n g i t s inner power (samadhi, vipassana). Trie inner power i s the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the mind's knowing that i t s resources ( e x t e r n a l world or Aramana — the mind object) are i n f i n i t e . There i s no instrument yet invented which i s able to do more than the mind of man i s able to do while i t s power i s f u l l y and completely developed. This i s common to a l l sense i n man. L o g i c a l l y speaking, t h i s hypothesis can be r a i s e d : I f only the mind e x i s t s and i f r e a l knowledge (not maya but bodhi) i s born w i t h i n the mind Then a l l things e x i s t i n g i n the mind are r e a l ('while the mind i s c r e a t i n g these phenomena; hence a l l things appear to us because of the c r e a t i n g of the mind, or producing of the mind) We then can put i t i n a d i f f e r e n t way, l i k e t h i s : I f only the mind e x i s t s Then a l l things e x i s t Therefore a l l things e x i s t through power of the cause of the mind (mind i s i n t e r n a l cause, things are e x t e r n a l cause; or, mind i s noumena, a l l objects of i t s appearance are phenomena) This i s knowledge f o r the common man (puthujana); beyond t h i s i s knowledge of the Supreme (paramatha). - 1 3 9 -A l l power of u n i v e r s a l knowledge i s i d d h i s (SK s i t h i ) , which i s the super-normal f a c u l t y ( p e r f e c t i o n ) e x i s t i n g i n the mind be-cause (since) the mind i s made up to be pe r f e c t on the day yet unborn ( t h i s p e r f e c t i o n of knowledge i s b a s i c a l l y because the f i v e skandhas are un l i m i t e d ) r i g h t a f t e r the mind enters the f i v e skandhas. At t h i s stage knowledge i s e i t h e r p e r f e c t or imperfect w i t h i n the ma n i f e s t a t i o n of the man. The p e r f e c t i o n of knowledge i s c a l l e d the Four Noble Truths. Why i s i t c a l l e d the Four Noble Truths? Because only s a i n t s l i k e Arahatas, Paccakabuddhas, Savakabuddhas or Buddha can a t t a i n that kind of knowledge. Truth i n Buddhism i s of two d i f f e r e n t kinds. The f i r s t , Samatisacca or Pariyayasacca, i s conventional t r u t h . This i s not the t u r t h of the t r u t h , hence i t i s c a l l e d Nippariyayasacca. The second i s the Paramathasacca — the highest t r u t h or absolute t r u t h or the Four Noble Truths, Ariyasacca. The f i r s t t r u t h i s r e s p e c t f u l of e s s e n t i a l s of elements and un i t e s such things as speaking of man, of woman, r i v e r , mountain, b u i l d i n g and so f o r t h . The second t r u t h concerns moral thought or r e s u l t of moral thought and i s a mental u n t i which e x i s t s i n respect to a higher general-i z a t i o n ormetaphysics. Truth i n Buddhism i s knowing what i s r e a l and unreal i n the category of things that f o l l o w a n i c c a , dukkha and anatta i n the f i v e - f o l d mass of a l i v i n g being. This i s de-scr i b e d i n the Patisambhida Magga as the Mountain of S u f f e r i n g on Account of the Four Natures. The four Natures are 1 ) the nature of oppression or Causing pain of various s o r t s (Palanatho); 2 ) - 140 -the nature of having to be caused or renewed or re p a i r e d c o n t i n u -a l l y (Sankhtattho); 3 ) the nature of frequent burying (Santapat-t h o ) ; and 4) the nature of change on account of breaking up 2 (Vaparinamattho). I would l i k e to c a l l these the Four Natures of the Noble Truths. They are present i n every mass (of f i v e skandhas). R e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s i s Paramatha or Ariyasacca. I t i s known as the Noble Truth. These t r u t h s share three q u a l i t i e s : 1) they are true i n that they always occur as stated (Tatha); 2) they are not f a l s e i n that nothing contrary to t h e i r statement ever occurs ( A r i t a t h a ) ; 3 ) there i s never a happening i n any way other than as stated as the Four Natures (Anannata). The i n d i v i d u a l s e l f i s mortal because i t i s changing. The existence of the body i s i l l , and i l l n e s s , of course, i s u n s a t i s -f y i n g as the breaking up and changing of the body occurs i n death and i n the change from happiness to unhappiness, from pleasant to unpleasant. This i s coming from i n t e r n a l cause. Friends become enemies, wives and husbands become u n f a i t h f u l , accidents and as-s a u l t s occur; c h i l d r e n become dis o b e d i e n t ; people love and l i v e together and then separate. This i s the e x t e r n a l cause of the change and i s known as dukkha, the f i r s t of the Four Noble Truths. Everything i n existence ought to have a cause Dukkha e x i s t s . Therefore, Dukkha ought to have a cause. The cause, the cre a t o r or producer of t h i s body as a l i v i n g being, i s IDENTIFIED AS DESIRE.^ Desire i s of three d i f f e r e n t k i n d s , as I have mentioned be-6 — f o r e : sensuous d e s i r e (Kamatanha), d e s i r e f o r Et e r n a l i s m (Bhava-- 141 -tanha), and. de s i r e f o r N i h i l i s m (Vibhavatanha). The c e s s a t i o n of l i f e and the way to cause that c e s s a t i o n i s the freedom of man or the freedom from s u f f e r i n g . This freedom I - 7 -would l i k e to c a l l the NIRVANA ELEMENT. This Nirvana element i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n f r e e i n g man from both the Mundane and Super-g mundane, or the conditioned and the unconditioned. Why does man want to be free? Because he has v i c t o r y i n the complete a n n i h i l -Q a t i o n , the abandoning and the f o r s a k i n g of every form of d e s i r e . Since he i s free he has no l u s t , no i l l - w i l l , no d e l u s i o n — Ragakkhaya, Dosakkhaya, Mohakkhaya. He then i s of complete P u r i -f i c a t i o n , Peace, S e c u r i t y , D eliverance, Uniqueness, I n d e s t r u c t i b i l -i t y and Safety, not having to f e e l the o l d age of So u l , e t c . 1 0 The Path of Knowledge and D e s i r e l e s s A c t i o n i s Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipada A r i y a Sacca or Magga Sacca. Man has to work through to t h i s state with the highest e f f o r t . The well-known P a l i phrase " v i r i y e n a dukkhamacceti" says that man can a s c e r t a i n complete freedom "because of h i s highest e f f o r t " . He i s not able to reach t h i s s t a t e by s i t t i n g down and wishing f o r i t . As we have discussed, l i f e comes and goes because of ignorance and d e s i r e . This i s the boundariness of the samsara s i d e . Then we should s t r i v e f o r the opposite side — that of freedom. Name-l y we have to have the c e s s a t i o n of l i f e w i t h i n Wisdom and Non-d e s i r e . This i s the key i n des t r o y i n g a l l egoism, a l l attachment such as I , 'Mine, My, You, Yours, Your, Our, Ours, Us, e t c . L i v i n g and being on earth i s no d i f f e r e n t from d r i v i n g an automobile, knowing that an accident may occur no matter how w e l l - 142 -we d r i v e ; i f we do not h i t someone, we may be h i t by someone. In any case, the e x i s t i n g of an accident i s analogous to dukkha of l i f e ; s t r i v i n g to get away from a l l problems, such as accidents and p a i n f u l n e s s , i s analogous to the cause of dukkha of l i f e ; g e t t i n g away from a c c i d e n t s , which i n t e r f e r e with our peacefulness of l i f e , i s analogous to the c e s s a t i o n of dukkha; knowing how to c o n t r o l a l l problems which may happen to our c a r , with the s k i l l of experience — keeping the best d r i v i n g record p o s s i b l e — i s analogous to the Path of Knowledge and D e s i r e l e s s A c t i o n of L i f e . This Path of l i f e , t h i s Dhamma, one has to p r a c t i c e with h i s own d i l i g e n t i n q u i r y . This i s what Buddha encourages f o r a l l mankind -- the e x t i n c t i o n of bondage. He can only teach; he can not do fo r others. This path i s c a l l e d the Noble E i g h t f o l d Path because i t c o n s i s t s of eight p a r t s . " L 1 This i s the major theme to be ex-plored i n t h i s chapter. This Path i s nothing more than re-asses-s i n g the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l f through Nirvana i n prac-t i c i n g the l a s t and f i f t h stage of In s i g h t Wisdom (Nana Dasana 12 V i s u d d h i ) . (See my d i s c u s s i o n on the theory and p r a c t i c e of Samadhi and Vipassana). T he r e a l i z a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l f comes through the Four Noble Truths. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S e l f become immortal. How does one r e a l i z e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l f ? By r e a l i z -in g that both l i f e i t s e l f and the r e a l i z a t i o n of the goal of l i f e are GENUINE or unchanged. This kind of r e a l i z a t i o n i s c a l l e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l f or the r e a l i z a t i o n of Nirvana. This i s the essence of the teaching of Buddha which leads to genuine l i b e r a t i o n ... to freedom from ... from s u f f e r i n g . - 143 -In connection with t h i s , Buddhadas, my teacher, taught the simplest way of r e a l i z a t i o n , which i s to perceive non-selfhood ( n a t t a ) , emptiness (sunnata), so that s e l f i s done away with. He c o n t i n u a l l y says that t h i s i s the essence of Buddhism. This expression as understood i n Dhamma language, as the Buddha has put i t , i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that nothing whatsoever should be grasped at or clung t o . "Sabbe dhamma nalam abhinivesaya" Nothing whatsoever should be grasped at or clung to as "me" or "mine"13 As long as one reaches the Pour Noble Truths, then r e b i r t h becomes acceptable as the way things are, namely, the r e a l i z a t i o n of what i t i s i n i t s e l f r a t h e r than i t ' s c r e a t i n g , i t ' s c o n d i t i o n . This i s the notion of Wisdom and the Desirelessness of L i f e . How i s knowledge a t t a i n e d by the S e l f ? The S e l f i s s p l i t i n t o two pa r t s : 1) the s e l f i t s e l f or unknowable t h i n g or non-perception or maya and I I ) the knowledge of what s e l f i s through d e s t r u c t i o n of maya, i n which knowing perceives dukkha, the cause of dukkha, and the c e s s a t i o n of dukkha. Ther term stop means to become the empty s e l f . I f there i s no s e l f , what i s there to go running about? Why not t h i n k about t h i s point? I f there i s no s e l f , where i s the " I " to go running about? Obviously the " I " has stopped. This i s stop i n the language of Buddha: 'absence of any s e l f .to. be grasped.at and clung t o , absolute emptiness of s e l f -hood.' I understand t h i s concept c l e a r l y and r e l a t e t h i s notion of stop to sunnyata i n Mahayana Buddhism, since stop i s the same as empty. - 144 -R e b i r t h o f s e l f i n the lowest l e v e l a p p l i e s t o A n i c c a , Dukkha, and A n a t t a , which a re u n f r e e d , but i n t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l a p p l i e s t o the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Pour Noble T r u t h s , which i s c h a n g e l e s s s o u l , but which i n v o l v e s the kamma c r e a t o r . A l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s reached by t h e Buddha n a t u r e are f r e e . What happens t o one who r e a l i z e s t h e T r u t h , N i r v a n a ? He i s the h a p p i e s t b e i n g i n the w o r l d , f r e e from a l l "complexes" and a l l human problems. T h i s h a p p i e s t b e i n g i s r e s u l t i n g from p r a c t i c i n g t h e Noble E i g h t f o l d P a t h , i . e . , r i g h t view i n the b e g i n n i n g and r i g h t m e d i t a -t i o n i n the end. Thus: T h i s , monks, i s t h e M i d d l e P a t h , the knowledge of which t h e T a t h a g a t a has g a i n e d , which l e a d s t o i n s i g h t , which l e a d s t o wisdom, which conduces t o calm^ t o knowledge, t o p e r f e c t e n l i g h e n m e n t , t o Nirvana.14 T h i s d i c t r i n e i s c a l l e d M i d d l e Path because i t i s i n between hed-onism and a s c e t i c i s m , and t h a t i s t h e way o f s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e t o -ward t h e c e s s a t i o n o f tanh a and the a c q u i s i t i o n o f V i p a s s a n a . T h i s i n c l u d e s thought o f kama beyond kama, i . e . , n e i t h e r good kama nor bad kama. T h i s a l s o i n c l u d e s c e s s a t i o n o f c o n t i n u e d r e b i r t h and r e d e a t h . The E i g h t f o l d P a t h may be summed up i n t o t h e t h r e e f o l d m o r a l -i t y and e x e r c i s e d t h r o u g h the p r a c t i c e of the Path o f M i n d f u l n e s s . (See my d i s c u s s i o n on the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of samadhi and v i p a s s a n a . ) * See Two Ki n d s o f Language by Buddhadasa B h i k k h u , p. 30. He c l a s s i f i e d kama i n t o t h r e e k i n d s — goo, bad, n e i t h e r good nor bad. He f e l t t h a t most people were not i n t e r e s t e d i n the t h i r d k i n d o f kama which i s n e i t h e r b l a c k nor w h i t e , good nor bad, which c o n s i s t s i n complete freedom from s e l f h o o d and l e a d s t o a t t a i n m e n t of N i r v a n a . _ 145 -Mindfulness i s i n t e r e l a t e d with r i g h t being and r i g h t moral conduct. As long as the mind ex e r c i s e s Mindfulness, the mind be-comes the key instrument toward the c o n t r o l of tanha and the r i s -i n g of i n s i g h t . Dukkha, samudhaya, nirodha, and magga must be penetrated and f u l l y r e a l i z e d . This r e a l i z a t i o n comes with the deepest trance of p e r f e c t i n s i g h t . Mindfulness i n the c l a s s i c a l Chamma i s c a l l e d the Mahasatipatthan (see the f i r s t chapter and d i s c u s s i o n of samadhi and vipassana). Buddhadas i n t e l l i g i b l y e x p lains the notion of Mindfulness: "A person who p r a c t i c e s Mindfulness (satipatthana) c o n s i t e n t l y i s always f u l l y aware. Even i f he r e t i r e s to sleep he i s yet immediately f u l l y aware, 15 fornthe' moment he i s asleep he i s a l s o awake." This i s what i t i s to be "awake" i n the Dhamma language. Now we are enlightened by Buddhadas that although we sleep as the nature of man, we are awake i f we c o n t i n u a l l y p r a c t i c e Mindfulness. One who does not p r a c t i c e c o n t i n u a l l y i s not awake even though he may not sleep a l l n i g h t . One i s not awake i f he i s i n the bondage of d e l u s i o n . L i k e w i s e , f o r one who p r a c t i c e s mindfulness, even die i s not die ( i m m o r t a l i t y ) ; f o r one who does not p r a c t i c e , even l i f i s d i e . The two languages of Buddhadas have enlightened h i s f o l l o w e r s i n understanding mankind. He has been e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l to me while I have been w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . I almost gave up t h i s work because my l i f e i s now f u l l of tragedy. My brother was murdered and burned by bandits i n the south. Unto h i s death he l i v e d h i s philosophy that the q u a l i t y of l i f e i s — i t has put me out of the road of good l i f e i n t o deepest depression. When I r e a l i z e that my brother i s a Saint of - 146 -Muslims, a Dhamma man who committed the act of good m e r i t , I then r e a l i z e that even though he died,, f o r me he has not d i e d ; he i s s t i l l a l i v e . This Mindfulness i s very h e l p f u l to me and makes me free from d e l u s i o n . I s i n c e r e l y t e l l you that Mindfulness i s the King of Dhamma and helps man to be f r e e . Thus c l e a r l y have I explained that a l l problems, a l l spheres of l i f e , whether i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l , r e s u l t from the lac k of wisdom. To give oneself up to indulgence i n Sensual Pleasure, the base, common, v u l g a r , unholy, u n p r o f i t a b l e ; or to give oneself up to S e l f - m o r t i f i c a t i o n , the p a i n f u l , i n h o l y , u n p r o f i t a b l e : both these two extremes, the Perfect One has avoided, and has found out the Middle Path, which makes one both to see and to know, which leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to M - - 16 Nirvana. From t h i s f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the Path, one should see that i t i s a way of l i f e that should be fo l l o w e d , p r a c t i c e d and developed f o r each i n d i v i d u a l s e r i o u s l y . I t i s s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e i n p h y s i c a l , mental, and v e r b a l a c t i o n . This a c t i o n i s self-development and s e l f - p u r i f i c a t i o n . I t has nothing to do with prayer, worship, or the a i d of e x t e r n a l Being (Gods). This i s the essence of Buddhism which leads to r e a l i z a t i o n of Ultimate R e a l i t y , to complete f r e e -dom. "Freedom from pain and t o r t u r e i s t h i s path; freedom from 17 groaning and s u f f e r i n g : i t i s the Perfe c t Path." This Path i s happiness and peace through moral, s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r f e c t i o n . Thus our f u n c t i o n i s to f o l l o w and p r a c t i c e , keep to - 147 --i Q i t (bhavetabha), r e a l i z e to i t . This you w i l l , i n no long time, i n t h i s , very l i f e , make known to y o u r s e l f , r e a l i z e , and make your 1 9 Own, (Tour own s a l v a t i o n and own good). REFERENCE NOTES 1 . S:ee the: .Buddha' s Sermon on Non-Self, S V o l . I l l , pp. 66,67. 2. Rupupadanakkandho, Vedanupadanakkandho, Sannupadanakkhandho, Sankharupadakkhandho, Vinnanupadanakkhandho, Idamvuccati Bhikkave Dukkham Ariyasaccam. The Mass of C o r p o r a l i t y i n which Grasping a r i s e s , the Mass of Feelings i n which Grasping a r i s e s , the Mass of Nothing i n which Grapsing a r i s e s , the Mass of Formations i n which Grasping a r i s e s , the Mass of Cognition i n which Grasping a r i s e s i s c a l l e d the Noble Truth of S u f f e r i n g . 3. : c f , . VISM (PTS) p. 5 1 0 4. Yayam tanha ponobhavika nandiraga sahagata t a t r a b h i nandini seyyathidam? Kamatanha, Bhavatanha, Vibhavatanha idam v u c c a t i bhikkhave dukkh, samuddhayam ariyasaccam. 5 - Cf. K.N. J a y a t i l l e k e of the Ceylong U n i v e r s i t y Philosophy Dept. i s the Freudian concept of Eros, L i b i d o and Thanatos. 6, Sometimes I t r a n s l a t e Kamatanha as s e n s u a l i t y which i s the same as the o r i g i n a l P a l i word Kama, v i z . : vathu kama-form, sound, money, e t c . , which I c a l l sense o b j e c t s ; and sometimes as d e s i r e i n the sense of object of the f i v e skandhas; and sometimes i n other ways — K i l e s a kama — i n c l u d i n g the body of the l i v i n g being. Ext e r n a l i s m means d e s i r e i n p a r t i c u l a r kinds of existence ... d e s i r e i n the l i f e e t e r n a l b a s i c a l l y means the thought "May I send my dear ones to be born to the enjoyment of e t e r n a l happiness", e t c . The term n i h i l i s m -.means the wish f o r l i f e to cease at death, or the wish f o r death coming from disappointment with l i f e and the thought "what i s the b e n e f i t i n l i v i n g when l i f e i s insane and the i n s a n i t y i s coming from a l l elements which are s o - c a l l e d persons" and d e n i a l that there i s no future l i f e and hence no r e b i r t h , e t c . 7. You tassayeva tanhaya asesa v i r a g a nirodha cago patinissaggo mutti analayo idam v u c c a t i bhikkhave dukkha nirodam i r i y a saccam, - 148 -8 . Kana c i t t a utu aharehi s a n k h a r i y a n t i t i samkhara. The name conditioned means that which i s fashioned or formed by con d i t i o n s such as Past A c t i o n , Thoughts, Energy, and Nutriment. 9 - Tanhaya pahanam ayam v u c c a t i dukkha nirodho. The expulsion of Desire i s c a l l e d the Cessation of S u f f e r i n g . 1 0 . Cf. Dr. C.L.A. de S i l v a ' s "Four E s s e n t i a l Doctrines of Buddhism," pp. 8 9 & 9 8 ( i n maintaining these terms). 1 1 . Aya meva a r i y o atthangiko maggo seyyathidam? Samma d i t t h i , samma sankappo, samma vaca, samma kammanto, samma a j i v o , samma vayamo, samma s a t i , samma samadhi_-- idam v u c c a t i bhikkhave dukkha nirodha gamini patipada a r i y a saccam (see t r a n s l a t i o n of the F i r s t Noble Truth). 12: Understanding up to P u r i t y Transcending Doubts i s c a l l e d the F u l l Understanding as the Known (Nata P a r i n n a ) ; understanding up to P u r i t y of Knowledge of Progress i s c a l l e d the F u l l Understanding as the I n v e s t i g a t i o n (Tirana P a r i n n a ) ; under-standing t h e r e a f t e r i s Understanding as Abandoning (Pahana Parinna). This i n f o r m a t i o n I have explored f u l l y i n the chapter on theory and p r a c t i c e of Samadhi and Vipassana. 1 3 . Buddhadas taught me as an i n d i v i d u a l person while I l i v e d w ith him before l i v i n g w i t h the mountain people i n northern Thailand. Please see h i s teachings i n Human Language and  Dhamma Language which were published from h i s r a d i o program. 1 4 . Brewster, E.H., The L i f e of Gotama — th Buddha, N.Y., E.P. Dutton and Co., 1 9 2 6 , p. 6 3 -1 5 . I b i d , p. 3 4 . 1 6 . S. LVI I I . 1 7 . Dhp., p. 2 7 6 . 1 8 . For f u r t h e r information see Mhvg "Alutgama" 1 9 2 2 , p. 1 0 . 1 9 . M. 2 6 . APPENDIX I SUMMARY OF THE BASIC TEXTUAL DOCTRINE OF MAHAYANA BUDDHISM The Six Main T r e a t i s e s of Nagajuna The- s i x main t r e a t i s e s demonstrating the e s s e n t i a l meaning of the d o c t r i n e s , d i r e c t l y from s u t r a s , and other t e x t s . 1) The Sunyata-Saptati and Prana-Mula The.- Y k t i - S a s t i k a The V i g r a h a - V y a v a r t a n i — The Vaidalya-Sutra The Vyavahara-Siddhi Theory of r e l a t i v i t y denying the r e a l i t y of o r i g i n a t i o n from s e l f and non-self Logic Antagonists Controversy p r i n c i p l e with adversaries and l o g i c i a n s Absolute Truth — non-Substani-a l i t y , and from the e m p i r i c a l point of view -- wordly p r a c t i c e go along together. Works on the Prajna Paramita 2) The Abhisamayalamkara — Dealing with the knowledge of the p r a c t i c a l way — the omniscience of Buddha, e t c . 3) The Astasahasrika-pindartha — Explains the subject of Prajnaparamita i n 32 paragraphs, i . e . , f a i t h , deed, m o r a l i t y , etc . 4) The commentary of the Satasahasrika (the Pancavimsati-sahasrika and the Astadasa-sahasrika) — an e x p o s i t i o n of the Climax of Wisdom; includes "the medium of teaching i n abridged form." This work became the basic d o c t r i n e of the Yogacara school. 1 - 1 5 0 -I t i s s a i d that the works of Lord Maitreya are: The Sutralamkara The Madhyanta-vibhanga The Dharma-dharmata-vibhanga The U t t a r a t a n t r a I n c l u d i n g the Yogacara-bhumi which i s d i v i d e d i n t o 5 d i v i s i o n s The Bahubhumika-vastus The Nirnaya-samgraha The Vastu-samgraha The Paryaya-Samgraha The Vivarana-samgraha (explains the 1 7 subjects on the 5 skandhas and sesation) commentary of preceeding volume (demonstrating that the f i r s t preceeding value should be combined, v i z . , s u t r a , v inaya, i . e . , "the subject of study," says the Nirna-samgraha, " i s the Abhidharma, which i s contained i n the 1 7 subjects and i n the four compendia." Explanatory of the preceeding volumes Enlarge the methods of teaching The .work of Aryasanga i s The Abhidharma-samuccaya — The Mahayana-Samgraha d e a l i n g with three v e h i c l e s , i n c l u d -i n g the Pour Noble Truths, e t c . d e a l i n g with v a r i e t i e s of the_elements of existence according to Mahayanist view. The work of Vasubandhu on i d e a l i s m i s The Trimsaka-karika-prakarana — : a l l elements of existence are nothing but the process of consciousness. - 1 5 1 -The Vimsika-karika-prakarana — d e a l i n g with the means of l o g i c . The Pancaskandha-prakarana the 5 skandhas are the foundation of l o g i c The Vyakhyayukti studying, preaching, according to theory of idea The Karma-siddhi-prakarana d e a l i n g with acts of three media These f i v e works are independent. The r e s t of the work i s com-mentary on: Sutralamkara d e a l i n g with p r a c t i c e of the s i x transcendental v i r t u e s Pratityasamutpada-sutra d e a l i n g with a 12-membered formula of the e v o l u t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l l i f e Madhyanta-vibhanga three aspects of r e a l i t y Some b e l i e v e that Dasabhumika-sutra i s a l s o h i s work. Vasubandhu's work i s connected with the Lord Maitreya's work, namely, the f i v e books of Yogacara-bhumi and the two summary works of the f i v e books (of the Lord Maitreya) and the eight t r e a t i s e s (of Vas.ubhandhu). T h e - t r e a t i s e e l u c i d a t i n g the p r a c t i c a l p a r ts of the Doctrine are the Bodhisattva-samvara-vimsaka, e t c . REFERENCE NOTES 1 . Bu-ston, H i s t o r y of Buddhism, Part I , Heidelberg, 1 9 3 1 , pp. 5 0 -5 3 . 2 . Bu-ston, op. c i t . , pp. 5 1 - 5 7 - 152 -APPENDIX I I A COMPARISON Western Phenomenology, Samkhya and Buddhism In t h i s chapter I would l i k e to draw a comparison between phenomenology, Samkhya and Buddhism. What i s i n my mind that i n -t e r e s t s me to w r i t e on t h i s subject? F i r s t , I have not seen any Western w r i t e r do t h i s to my s a t i s f a c t i o n . Second, one of my primary i n t e r e s t s i s the philosophy of the phenomenologist. I do not wish to confine my w r i t i n g to the comparison of p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i e s , but to r e f e r to Western phenomenology i n general and i t s Eastern counterparts, the Samkhya and Buddhism. As I have t r i e d to i n d i c a t e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to t r e a t or discuss any p h i l o s o p h i c a l aspect as one s i n g l e philosophy. I t almost i s impossible unless one i s i n c l i n e d to deal with only one philosopher and ignore the r e s t . There i s one s i g n i f i c a n t point to bear i n mind i f we do compare the o r i e n t - o c c i d e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s . The West, i n s p i r e d by Jesus and championed by Kant and Heidegger, al s o produced a counter man-centered universe i n s p i r e d by Nietzsche and S a r t r e . S i m i l a r l y , the East, l e d by i t s great men-t o r s the V e d i c i s t s , was championed by Brahmans and orthodox yoga. I t • t o o has i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , such as the great Buddha. I f e e l the East and the West share t h i s fundamental r e l i g i o u s philosophy. As Richard Robinson s t a t e s , " I f i t seems s u r p r i s i n g that God should be an o p t i o n a l element i n r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s , consider modern - 1 5 3 -e x i s t e n t i a l i s m j with Heidegger and Sartre on the a t h e i s t s i d e , Jaspers and Marcel on the t h e i s t i c s i d e . In the Indian system, God and n a t u r a l law (karma, the p r i n c i p l e of p h y s i c s , etc.) were r i v a l candidates f o r the o f f i c e of w o r l d - r u l e r . But a l l the c l a s s i c a l systems accepted the'-efficacy of karma. Consequently, the t h e i s t s were posed with the problem of r e c o n c i l i n g the r o l e s of God and karma."l I t i s c l e a r enough f o r e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , phenomenology, Samkhya yoga and Buddhism that t h e i r major concern i s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l chaos — the world of human s o c i e t y . This i s the one i d e n t i t y f o r both systems. Hence i t i s p l a u s i b l e f o r one to • cl a i m that there are c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s which are p a r a l l e l i n both systems. There i s , apparently, no h i s t o r i c a l connection between phenomenology and Samkhya-yoga. Both systems grew up under q u i t e d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and the u l t i m a t e answers and s o l u t i o n s to the problem of human existence i n the two systems 2 are opposite. I am, however, i n c l i n e d to f i n d a s i m i l a r i t y be-tween both of them. Let us f i r s t take Sartre's phenomenological ontology which i s defined as fundamental d u a l i s t i c consciousness and being. To ge n e r a l i z e h i s philosophy, he asks h i s f e l l o w man — "Why worry about death? In the universe there i s nothing to be a f r a i d of. One should r e a l i z e that 'I am alone'. No one can die f o r me. No one can help me. I am a b s o l u t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r my own l i f e . No one can stop me from death. No doubt I do not b e l i e v e i n Gods. I love my own l i f e day by. day. I hope that everything i s a l r i g h t . I remind myself to stop being a f r a i d of everything. I am respons-i b l e f o r my own ideas. I want to l i v e the way i n which I am. I am as I have been and what I have not yet been." - 154 -The r e a l i z a t i o n of man i s not only i n i t s e l f , but a l s o has r e l a t i o n with t h i n g s . Hence the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i n g s i s nothing more or l e s s than the things i n themselves which do the r e a l i z a t i o n of man. Sartre developed Hume's thought, namely, of resemblance, con-t i n u i t y i n time, space and time together, and cause and e f f e c t , i . e . , the assemblance of the world things ( t h i n g ) . The c u r c i a l phenomenological, o n t o l o g i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and methodological question which has a r i s e n to a l l phenomenologists i n c l u d i n g Sartre i s — " i s there any way that an object acts upon a subject? Noumena-phenomena is- idea. The r e l a t i o n of sub-j e c t - o b j e c t i s consciousness. What then i s r e a l i t y ? " Before I answer the above question i n the sense of S a r t r e ' s argument to the other phenomenologists, I w i l l give p r e c i s e statements and arguments from one phenomenologist to another, r a t h e r than give S a r t r e ' s point of view alone. R e a l i t y i s not dependent upon consciousness. R e a l i t y i s dependent upon minds. Husserel was i n f l u e n c e d by Bretano. For i n s t a n c e , Bretano b e l i e v e d that our minds become an object which contains a) content and b) a c t i v i t y of t h i n k i n g which to some extent has always been something to the world. How i s Sartre attached t o Husserel? Sartre holds that Husserel's t r u e i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y was found i n an e a r l y work, L o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The "me" was a s y n t h e t i c transcendent production of consciousness. To f a i l t o d i s t i n g u i s h the ego and consciousness, to p o s i t a transcendental ego and to make the ob-j e c t immanent contents of consciousness as Husserel l a t e r d i d , - 155 -was, f o r S a r t r e , to destroy the great c o n t r i b u t i o n which he o r i g -i n a l l y made. Husserel's l a t e r i d e a l i s m , i n Sa r t r e ' s view, could not do j u s t i c e noematic of experince. A proper study of object of consciousness r-could only be conducted i f objects were not part of consciousness, were not mental a c t s , but were transcendent of consciousness. I f the l a t t e r were the case, objects of conscious-ness could be constructed as they were t r u l y given — as t r a n s -cending consciousness. The ego can be produced from consciousness of consciousness of the world. At t h i s point I would l i k e to r e t u r n to the Samkhya-yoga point of view i n order not to lose sight of the comparison. The Samkhya stystem maintains that dualism i s understood i n terms of Purusa and P r a k r t i , and represents an attempt to e s t a b l i s h the u l t i m a t e basis of man's l i f e apart from the determining forces of existence i n the world. As Sharma says: Samkhya means the philosophy of r i g h t knowledge (samyak k h y a t i or jnana). The system i s predominantly i n t e l -l e c t u a l and t h e o r e t i c a l . Right knowledge i s the know-ledge of the separation of the Purusa from the P r a k r t i . Yoga, as the counterpart of Samkhya; means a c t i o n of p r a c t i c e and t e l l s us how the t h e o r e t i c a l metaphysical teachings of Samkhya might be r e a l i z e d i n a c t u a l prac-t i c e ... Samkhya maintains a c l e a r - c u t dualism between Purusa and P r a k r t i and f u r t h e r maintains the p l u r a l i t y of the Purusas, and i s s i l e n t on God. I t i s a p l u r a l -i s t i c s p i r i t u a l i s m and an a t h e i s t i c r e a l i s m and ..an uncompromising dualism.3 At t h i s point we can compare Samkhya and Sa r t r e ' s b e l i e f i n the u l t i m a t e b a s i s of man under the p r i n c i p l e of consciousness. Sartre c a l l e d being f o r i t s e l f , being of phenomena, which i s tans-cendent and i n f i n i t e . Being of phenomena i s to understand the world and to understand the world i s to understand our conscious-ness. Phenomena i s then that which a l l consciousness i s . - 156 -Consciousnes Is consciousness of our p r e - r e f l e c t i v e something. Sartre shows us that nothing comes to the world through man. T h i s , of course, i s not to be understood as saying that man as a whole i s nothing at a l l , f o r i n man there i s b e i n g - i n - i t s e l f — man's body, ego, h a b i t s , e t c . Nevertheless, what i s s p e c i f i c a l -l y human c o n s i s t s beyond a l l that i s nothing. He s t a t e s that there i s no u l t i m a t e ground, f o r existence of being i s simply contingent, e x p l i c a l e absurd. B e i n g - i n - i t s e l f was c a l l e d by Sartre that b e i n g - i n - i t s e l f ,(l'en s o i ) . He means that i t i s n e i t h e r passive nor a c t i v e , n e i t h e r an a f f i r m a t i o n nor a negation. Here he means that f o r the other, being i s complete-l y excluded. A being has no r e l a t i o n s h i p to other being. I t i s beyond time. Hence he concludes that b e i n g - f o r - i t s e l f and being-i n - i t s e l f are transcendent phenomena. Sartre t e l l s us t h a t : The i n - i t s e l f i s f u l l of i t s e l f , and no more t o t a l p l e n t i t u d e can be imagined, no more pe r f e c t equivalence of content to c o n t a i n e r . There i s not the s l i g h t e s t emptiness i n being, not the t i n i e s t crack through which nothingness might s l i p i n . The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g charac-t e r i s t i c of consciousness, on the other hand, i s that i t i s a decompression of being. ^ Again, Sartre says: To what being does the f o r - i t s e l f make i t s e l f presence? The answer i s c l e a r : the f o r - i t s e l f i s presence to a l l of b e i n g - i t s e l f and i s what makes b e i n g - i n - i t s e l f e x i s t as a t o t a l i t y . Here we then can see that the notion of S a r t r e ' s consciousness i s consciousness of something besides i t s e l f . Otherwise i t i s meaningless. How, tlren,, i s Samkhya-yoga r e l a t e d to Sartre? The Purusa i s something l i k e the simple f a c t of consciousness apart from a l l - 157 -thought, self-awareness, e t c . The Purusa Is described i n terms of i t s being a witness. I t i s not a something or an evolute of P r a k r t i . L i k e w i s e , Sartre b e l i e v e s that consciousness i s im-personal yet i n d i v i d u a l . Sharma b e l i e v e s with Larson that i t , the P r a k r t i , " i s the ego, and not the Purusa, which i s bound. When the Purusa r e a l i z e s i t s own pure nature, i t gets l i b e r a t e d , which, i n f a c t , i t always was. Hence bondage i s due to ignorance or n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between the s e l f and the n o t - s e l f , and l i b e r a t i o n i s due to r i g h t knowledge or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between the s e l f and the n o t - s e l f . L i b e r a t i o n cannot be obtained by means of a c t i o n s . " Samkhya admitted that Purusa and P r a k r t i are interdependent or c o - o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r than subject and object to each other, as are c o n d i t i o n s held by S a r t r e . I t i s p l a u s i b l e to say that the u l t i m a t e nature of Purusa i n i t s e l f i s apart from i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to P r a k r t i . Hence Samkhya never holds that Purusa i s nothingness whereas Sartre b e l i e v e s that the i n d i v i d u a l conscious-ness i s nothingness. Furthermore both consciousness of Sartre and Purusa of Samkhya support the theory of the processing p r i n c i p l e of t h i n g s r a t h e r than s e t t i n g up the beginning and end of the things (man and h i s u n i v e r s e ) . Samkhya shows that the accomplishment of ends i s not to God as i t s author but to s e l f f o r whom i t supposes to e x i s t . I t thus ac-cepts design, but denies a conscious designer. On the other hand Samkhya pos t u l a t e s the existence of God (Isvara) over and above that of Purusas. Here then i s a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e of b e l i e f . - 158 -Sartre does not b e l i e v e i n God and Samkhya merely b e l i e v e s i n I s v a r a . One should bear i n mind that the conception of Isvara of the Samkhya stystem i s completely d i f f e r e n t from the Upanishad b e l i e f of the Brahman ... God i s part of Purusa as w e l l as of P r a k r t i . Purusa i s l i m i t e d to i t s own being. This point of view, of Samkhya-yoga i s relevant to Buddhism. They both agree that when man has r e a l i z e d himself who he i s , who he w i l l become, and has become, and a l s o who he has not yet become — i n other words, man i s not only who he i s , but he himself i s beyond himself — he can f u l l y become himself and he can be free with h i s presence during the t r a n s m i g r a t i o n s t a t e (samsara) ... reasoning that he i s r e a l l y something more than h i s l i m i t a t i o n of p h y s i c a l body ( f i c e skandhas fo r Buddhis, Purusa and P r a k r t i f o r Samkhya-yoga). In other words, he can be more than who he i s at the time that h i s body associated him i n that present time. However, i t may be pointed out that Samkhya-yoga seems not to p r e f e r to c a l l freedom i n the jivanmu r e a l freedom since man always depends upon h i s nature ( P r a k r t i ) , Therefore he does not have h i s own choice since h i s l i f e i s mastered by P r a k r t i or Purusas, e t c . Hence there i s no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n of absolute freedom f o r man i n samsara, even though man has become f u l l y enlightened. Buddha p r e f e r s to teach that man should be f r e e both i n the s t a t e of the f i v e skandhas and without i t as long as he has r e a l i z e d who he i s and who he w i l l become and whom he has not yet become. Buddha's o p i n i o n , of course, makes more sense than Samkhya-yoga and has given man more hope with l i f e r a h t e r than hopelessness. He emphasizes that man - 159 -has h i s own freedom to be made ra t h e r than l e t t i n g nature manage him, as i s i n the case of Samkhya-yoga. Therefore Buddha became a t e l c o l o g i c a l philosopher f o r a l l mankind i n the East. In the same token, Nietzsche and Sartre preached d i r e c t l y to Westerners c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g the Buddha, to help man r e a l i z e who he i s . Li k e w i s e , the e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s , phenomenologists and Samkhya-yoga have, to some extent, had the same point of view i n the sense that they a l l were t e l e o l o g i c a l f o r t h i e r f e l l o w man, to help them f e e l at home and f i n d heaven on earth. Samkhya, to some extent, holds that P r a k r t i i s due to the prim-a l cause of man. P r a k r t i , the f i r s t cause of the u n i v e r s e , i s thus one and complex; and i t s complexity i s the r e s u l t of i t s being a c o n s t i t u a t e of three f a c t o r s , each of which i s described as a Guna. P r a k r t i and Guna are e q u a l l y beginningless. That means that one cannot understand that P r a k r t i has b u i l t the three Gunas nor that Gunas are c o n s t i t u t e d i n i t ... they are interdependent ... they are so dependent, t h e r e f o r e , that they can never separate from one another. In the same resp e c t , Sartre b e l i e v e s that con-sciousness and being p r e - r e f l e c t together. The three Gunas are named S a t t v a , Rajas, and Tamas. Each of them stands f o r a d i s t i n c t aspect of p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y . Roughly, Sattva s i g n i f i e s what-ever i s pure and f i n e ; Rajas, whatever i s a c t i v e ; Tamas, whatever i s s o l i d and o f f e r s r esistence.7 As Richard Robinson says, "This theory s a t i s f i e s superbly the r u l e that explanations s h a l l p o s i t the fewest p o s s i b l e e n t i t i e s . I t ' s a. very high-order g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , a remarkable feat of s c i e n t i f i c imagination ... This theory may t e l l what happens very w e l l , but i t does not r e a l l y explain'why i t happens, any more than the - 160 -g s o p o r i f i c p r i n c i p l e e x p l a i n s why the slee p i n g potion works." My o p i n i o n , according to the d e s c r i p t i o n f o r each of the Guna's f u n c t i o n s , i s that they are. not measureable. That i s to say they are working together harmoniously, so t h e i r harmoniousness be-comes a n t a g o n i s t i c i n t h e i r own nature. Their f i n e s t f u n c t i o n can be i l l u s t r a t e d by the example of a lamp-flame: namely, one cannot say that flame i s separate from lamp and that lamp i s a part of the flame. The flame o r i g i n a t e s from o i l and wick or has not beginning at a l l because t h e i r co-operation i s beyond judgement of the human mind to give the most appropriate d e s c r i p t i o n , e t c . Therefore a l l of the f a c t s ( e f f e c t of P r a k r t i ) are e s s e n t i a l l y I d e n t i c a l with m a t e r i a l cause. My opinion i s harmonious with Sharma's. He notes that "Samk-hya says that the disturbance of the e q u i l i b r i u m of the Gunas which s t a r t s e v o l u t i o n i s made p o s s i b l e by the contact of Purusa and P r a k r t i . Purusa without P r a k r t i i s lame and P r a k r t i without • • • • Purusa i s b l i n d . 'Theory without p r a c t i c e i s empty and p r a c t i c e without theory i s b l i n d . ' "Concepts without precepts are empty and precepts without concepts are b l i n d . P r a k r t i needs Purusa i n order to be known, to be seen, to be enjoyed (darshanartham); and Purusa needs P r a k r t i i n order to enjoy (bhoga) and al s o i n order to obtain l i b e r a t i o n (apavarga), i n order to d i s c r i m i n a t e between himself and P r a k r t i and thereby obtain emanciapation ( k a i v a l y a r -tham)., I f P r a k r t i and Purusa remain separate, there i s no d i s s o -l u t l o n . ^  In so f a r as Samkhya maintains Purusa and P r a k r t i as d u a l i s t -i c a l l y interdependent, l e t us r e t u r n to Sar t r e ' s point of view - 161 -which i s d i f f e r e n t . There should be no mistake of what he has done: he has created a dualism as r a d i c a l as that of Descartes — hut the dualism i s not between t h i n k i n g and extended substances, Jiut between consciousness and objects (which includes the I of c o g n i t o ) . S artre wishes to keep the p u r i t y of consciousness and o b j e c t s ; they are r a d i c a l l y d i s t i n c t , though they cannot e x i s t without each other. This he conceives as the essence of i n t e n -t i o n a l i t y . Consciousness f i n d s o b j e c t s , except f o r the s p e c i a l o b j e c t , the ego, which consciousness produces i n r e f l e c t i o n . A proper phenomenological r e d u c t i o n would leave only consciousness absolute, and, as absolute, with no p a r t s ; o b j e c t s , whose e x i s t e n -t i a l status could be doubted, are other than consciousness. This notion of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y places Being-in-the-world (of objects) to be confronted by consciousness. This e x i s t e n t i a l i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y i s opposed to an " i d e a l i s t " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which places Being-in-consciousness. The issue i s of prime im-portance f o r epistemology. Here Sartre's notion of d u a l i t y i s free from d i v e r s i t y and s i m i l a r to Advaita-Vedanta r a t h e r than samkhya. I f Kockelmans (Phenomenology, Transcendental Idealism) i s r i g h t , one who would be so dogmatic as to evaluate Sartre's phenomenological procedure by a comparison with Husserel would be engaged i n a f u t i l e e f f o r t — for- i t seems that Husserel has both an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t i c and an i d e a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n t e n t i o n -a l i t y . Only a c r i t i c a l understanding and r e s o l u t i o n of t h ambi-gui t y i n Husserel on t h i s problem would seem to allow f o r a genuine c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of S a r t r e . Indeed, t h i s would u l t i m a t e l y en-l e s s an understanding of Husserel than an understanding of one-- 162 -s e l f . Therefore I must become aware of what I am doing when I am consciousness. I can only say i n a b r i e f and t e n t a t i v e way that i n my own experience I am aware of no i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t u i t i o n ; no c o n f r o n t a t i o n of myself with immanent objects or of consciousness with transcendent o b j e c t s . In t r u t h , I f i n d " l o o k i n g i n t o " myself r a t h e r unrewarding. I ask whether the n o t i o n that knowing i s "something l i k e " seeing i s erroneous, i s , i n f a c t , part of the Natural A t t i t u d e which has not been phenomenologically reduced. I would a n t i c i p a t e that theproblem of how I become aware of objects and what the status of these objects would be i s a task f o r a phenomenology of c o g n i t i o n . This would seem to r e q u i r e more a t -t e n t i o n to acts of understanding and judgement than e i t h e r Husserel or Sartre has given to them. However, i t would seem that Sartre was at l e a s t heading i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n when he.postulated as act of r e f l e c t i n g consciousness as producing the I ; however much a departure i t may be from the phenomenology of Husserel or S a r t r e , I cannot ignore what seems to be my experience of producing objects by acts of understanding and judgement upon the data of experience. While I am u n c e r t a i n of the r e l a t i o n of these acts to a l l o b j e c t s , i . e . , a e s t h e t i c or imaginary o b j e c t s , they seem to apply t o t h i n k i n g , i n the usual sense of the term, and t o r e f l e c -t i o n . This would seem to have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r epistem-ology. Both Sartre and Samkhya have the same problem. That i s to say that there i s s u f f e r i n g f o r Samkhya because Purusa i s more than what i t i s not, and s u f f e r i n g f o r S a r t r e , because consciousness of being i s more than what i t i s not. As Larson p o i n t s out, "The - 163 -fac t of s u f f e r i n g a r i s e s because Purusa appears as what i t i s 4- ..10 not. " Quoting from the K a r i k a Larson says, Purusa, which i s consciousness, a t t a i n s there the s u f f e r i n g made by decay and death: u n t i l d e l i v - ^ , erance of the subtle body; t h e r e f o r e , s u f f e r i n g . Furthermore, Johnston i n d i c a t e s , as Larson, that S u f f e r i n g a r i s e s because the Purusa appears as what i t i s not — i . e . , as part of the manifest world of s u f f e r i n g and death. Yet i t i s the nature or f u n c t i o n of Purusa to so appear, and, as a r e s u l t , s u f f e r i n g i s of the nature of things (svabhava). 12 In c o n c l u s i o n I suggest that Sartre and Samkhya, l i k e Buddha, see the existence of humans as s u f f e r i n g . S u f f e r i n g i s the r e s u l t of Purusa appearing i n the world as what i t i s not -- i . e . , as bound up and determined by the world. Both the t h e o r i e s of Sartre and Samkhya are concerned with the do c t r i n e of freedom on the basi s of a n a l y s i s and the nature of the i n d i v i d u a l consciousness. In the Samkhya system the Purusa i s very nature separated from the P r a k r t i and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n . This r e a l i z a t i o n of Purusa i s separated from P r a k r t i which i s the d o c t r i n e of freedom of Samkhya. This r e a l i z a t i o n leads u l t i -mately to a c o n d i t i o n of " i s o l a t i o n " (Kaivalya) and i n the same token, Sartre maintains that the freedom of man i s due to the fa c t that i n d i v i d u a l pure consciousness e x i s t s apart from the de-termining forces of the world and man's own past. Man's freedom centers i n h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n or r e a l i z a t i o n that h i s consciousness i s not determined by the world, but h i s freedom cannot e x i s t apart from the-world. Thus s u f f e r i n g i s the b a s i c , u n a l t e r a b l e f a c t of e x i s t e n c e , and man i s condemned to be - 164 -free w i t h i n t h i s s u f f e r i n g . Says S a r t r e , "Man i s a useless pas-sion . " For both Sartre and Samkhya-yoga i s the d o c t r i n e of removing man's s u f f e r i n g i n h i s own existence without God's a s s i s t a n c e . God to Samkhya i s Purusa's m a n i f e s t a t i o n due to P r a k r t i ; to S a r t r e , God i s only what man t r i e s to become i n so f a r as con-sciousness s t r i v e s to overcome the fundamental dualism of the Pour-soi and En-soi. Such an attempt i s doomed to f a i l u r e , how-ever, and thus God or god i s i r r e l e v a n t from the perspective of 13 human existence i n the world. The phenomenological ontology of S a r t r e , Samkhya-yoga and Buddhism deals with r e l i g i o u s issues and supports humans to re a -l i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l i v e s i n the sense that man i s not only who he i s , but beyond who he i s , and that he can be more than who he should be and who he has not been. F i n a l l y , S a r t r e , Samkhya and Buddha preach that man should f e e l at home on earth and f e e l heaven on ea r t h . - 165 -SUMMARY I tend to b e l i e v e that a l l e x i s t e n t i a l and phenomenological science i s based on the F i r s t P r i n c i p l e of the Four Noble Truths, which i s s u f f e r i n g . The struggle f o r peacefulness i n the realm of Human Society i s to know the cause of s u f f e r i n g , which i s the Second Noble Truth. To a b o l i s h that cause and to t e l l man to be happy while s u f f e r i n g , and to give hope f o r man's becoming a be t t e r man, that i s the Thi r d Noble Truth. To reach the U t o p i a of human being here on earth i s the l a s t and Fourth Noble Truth. This i s Nirvana i n Buddhism — the aim of e x i s t e n t i a l phenomeno-l o g i c a l science. - 1 6 6 -REFERENCE NOTES 1 . Robinson, Richard H., C l a s s i c a l Indian Philosophy, Madison Wisconsin, p. 1 5 6 . 2 . Larson, Gerald J . , C l a s s i c a l Samkhya, p. 2 3 0 . 3 . Sharma, Chandradhar, Indian Philosophy: A C r i t i c a l Survey, Barnes and Noble, Inc . , p. 1 3 b 1 . 4 . S a r t r e , Jean P a u l , Being and Nothingness, p. 7 4 . 5 . Sharma, Chandradhar, Indian Philosophy: A C r i t i c a l Survey, Barnes and Noble, p. 1 5 1 . 6 . H i r i y a n n a , M., The E s s e n t i a l s of Indian Philosophy, London, England, George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , p. 1 2 5 . 7 - H i r i y a n n a , M., The E s s e n t i a l s of Indian Philosophy, London, England, George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , p. 1 0 8 . 8 . Robinson, Richard H., C l a s s i c a l Indian Philosophy, Madison, Wisconsin, p. 2 0 2 . 9_. Sharma, Chandradhar, Indian Philosophy: A C r i t i c a l Survey, Barnes and Noble, Inc., p. 146 1 0 . Larson, Gerald J . , C l a s s i c a l Samkhya, Jawaharnagar, D e l h i - 7 , Indian, Indian Press L t d . , p. 1 9 0 . 1 1 . Larson, Gerald J . , C l a s s i c a l Samkhya, Jawaharnagar, D e l h i - 7 , Indian, Indian Press L t d . , p. 1 9 1 . 1 2 , . Johnston, E a r l y Samkhya, p. 6 7 . 1 3 . S a r t r e , Jean P a u l , Being and Nothingness, p. 1 1 5 . I b i d . , p . 6 1 5 • - 1 6 7 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A. 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