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Assessment of problems in the transportation of blind and deaf children Stuart, Colleen Mary 1977

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AN ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEMS IN THE TRANSPORTATION OF BLIND AND DEAF CHILDREN  by  COLLEEN MARY STUART B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES i n t h e Department of  H e a l t h Care and E p i d e m i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e  required standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  (c)  1977  C o l l e e n Mary S t u a r t ,  1977  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y agree t h a t and  study.  of t h i s my  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  available for  reference  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  g r a n t e d by  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  written  Department o f H e a l t h Care and  permission.  Epidemiology  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  the Head o f  I t i s understood  c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l be  requirements  that  gain s h a l l  not  ABSTRACT  This study was a preliminary step in an assessment of the transportation services accessible to blind and deaf children i n Vancouver.  It originated in response to the ever increasing concern  voiced within the community about the problem of inadequate transportation f a c i l i t i e s for handicapped children.  The purpose of the  research was to determine the extent to which public and special transportation services are accessible to children with visual and hearing impairments and to propose improvements that might be made. In order to research this problem, four basic methods of collecting information were employed, as follows: documentary analysis interviews and correspondence with transportation experts; mailed questionnaires to parents of blind and deaf children; and, personal interviews using the same questionnaire.  The sample population was  randomly selected from blind and deaf children between the ages of 6 and 19 years who were affiliated with Jericho H i l l School in the 1974-75 school term.  Sixty-one (48%) questionnaires were completed  and used i n this study. Findings regarding mobility limitations showed that the sampl population was quite mobile and over half reported not having to rely on special aids to help them get around outdoors.  Of those requiring  some kind of aid, most used either a cane or another person.  Travel data were obtained for three trip destinations: school medical f a c i l i t i e s , and recreational activities.  Findings showed the  children were not restricted in travel to recreational activities. Transportation to medical f a c i l i t i e s was not found to be a problem because the majority of the children used those provided at Jericho H i l l School.  Access to school transportation was not reported to be ,  problem in i t s e l f ; however, i t was found that the trip from home to school was problematic in terms of travel time and safety requirements It i s a conclusion of this study that i f Jericho H i l l School remains as a central f a c i l i t y a more localized shuttle service would bi the maximum requirement. However, i f decentralization occurs the provision of a parallel system run  on a demand-responsive basis would  be necessary. It i s apparent from this study, which has attempted to review the  range of problems and needs for transit of blind and deaf children  that problems for them are perhaps common to a l l handicapped children.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES  v  "  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  i  i  i  i  i  i  x  CHAPTER  I.  II.  INTRODUCTION  1  PURPOSE  3  SCOPE  4  LIST OF REFERENCES  5  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  6  THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPORTATION  6  SOCIETY'S VIEW OF A HANDICAP  9  TRANSPORTATION AS A RIGHT  10  EQUAL ACCESS TO PUBLIC SERVICES  III.  H  GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT  13  LIST OF REFERENCES  1  7  1  9  PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS INTERVIEWS AND CORRESPONDENCE EXPERTS  19 WITH TRANSPORTATION 1  9  V  CHAPTER  IV.  ' PAGE  MAILED QUESTIONNAIRES  21  PERSONAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULES  22  LIST OF REFERENCES  24  RESULTS  2  5  QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE RATES  2  5  QUESTIONNAIRE FINDINGS  2  5  Population  Characteristics  Family S i t u a t i o n Level of Functioning  • o f Sample P o p u l a t i o n  Transportation  to S c h o o l  Transportation  to M e d i c a l  Transportation  to R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s  . . . .  Facilities . . . .  . . . . . . IN SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION  . .  . . . . . .  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Identification  .  SERVICES IN VANCOUVER  GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROVISION OF SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES LIST OF REFERENCES  49  5  2  ^2 5  8  6  0  6  i  62  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problems and Requirements SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION  8  Services i n Greater  LIST OF REFERENCES  Population  2  48  SERVICES IN VANCOUVER . . . .  Vancouver, 1975  V.  7  51  Survey o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT  2  35  Deaf D r i v e r s EXISTING TRANSPORTATION  ^  2  62 . . . .  79  8  1  85  vi  CHAPTER  VI.  PAGE  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  87  A l t e r n a t i v e Systems o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h Decentralization SUMMARY  9  LIST OF REFERENCES  9  '  3  ^  9  POSTSCRIPT  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  ^8  5  98  APPENDIX A - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and Cover L e t t e r s  103  APPENDIX B - Vancouver S c h o o l Board P r o p o s a l  119  APPENDIX C - Model White Cane Law  122  vii  LIST OF TABLES Table I.  Page Distribution of the Number of Questionnaires Mailed and Returned by Handicap  II.  26  Distribution of the Number of Questionnaires  Personally Administered by Handicap  26  Trips Prevented from Being Made  29  IV.  Bus Usage by Level of Functioning  33  V.  Taxi Usage by Level of Functioning  34  Age by Mode of Transportation  39  Mode of Transportation by Income  40  Distance from School by Time in Transit  45  III.  VI.  VII. "  VIII.  IX.  Factors i n the Non-Participation of the Sample Population in Recreation  50  viii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  1.  Page  L i m i t a t i o n s i n the Use o f C e r t a i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Methods  31  2.  D i s t a n c e from Home to S c h o o l  3.  Mode o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n from S c h o o l to Home  38  4.  Time o f Departure  42  5.  Time o f A r r i v a l Home from S c h o o l  43  6.  Cost o f One Return T r i p  46  7.  O r g a n i z a t i o n s I d e n t i f i e d as Those Who Pay S c h o o l  36  f o r School  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Costs  8.  . '.  to S c h o o l  . . .  47  Organization of the Regional T r a n s i t Organization . . . .  91  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This thesis has been made possible through the support of a great number of people.  For their advice and encouragement through  the course of this study, I wish to thank Liz Shoofey who contributed to the design and administration of the questionnaire, Ron Sizto who assisted in programming for data production, and Dr. Pauline Morris and Dr. Greg Stoddart whose ideas and criticisms have contributed to numerous improvements to this thesis. I am especially thankful to Professor Morton Warner, my research advisor, for his help, and his constant availability during the course of this study. Finally, to some special friends whose support and encouragement during the writing of this thesis meant so much to me.  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  M o b i l i t y i s one s o l u t i o n t o a l l o w i n g caps t o p a r t i c i p a t e more f u l l y i n l i f e . patterns  those w i t h p h y s i c a l h a n d i -  Because our s o c i e t y ' s  o f l a n d use and a c t i v i t y have developed i n such a way as t o  s p a t i a l l y detach homes from p l a c e s medical f a c i l i t i e s ,  o f employment, s c h o o l s ,  i t i s e s s e n t i a l that  t a t i o n among these p l a c e s  shopping and  t h e r e be a means o f t r a n s p o r -  f o r h a n d i c a p p e d ' c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s .  The  i n c r e a s i n g dependence upon c a r s has come about as a r e s u l t o f the d i s persion  o f such a c t i v i t i e s , but many o f those w i t h handicaps a r e e i t h e r  unable t o h a n d l e a motor v e h i c l e o r i n the case o f s c h o o l too young t o d r i v e .  To p r o v i d e the means f o r the handicapped popu-  l a t i o n t o take p a r t on a r e g u l a r b a s i s  i n normal a c t i v i t i e s ,  type o f a c c e s s i b l e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n This  some  service i s a necessity.  study o r i g i n a t e d as a response t o the ever  concern voiced w i t h i n  c h i l d r e n are  increasing  the community about the problem o f inadequate  transportation services  f o r handicapped s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s .  R e c e n t l y , two committees i n Vancouver most c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the problems o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  f o r the handicapped have complained  of the inadequacy o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s .  The P a n e l f o r t h e  Handicapped, sponsored by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Review C o u n c i l o f B r i t i s h Columbia  (SPARC o f B.C.), composed o f consumers o f  t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  from those o r g a n i z a t i o n s  transporwho d e l i v e r  2  s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the Greater k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n  Vancouver a r e a , has been  and implementation o f b e t t e r  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r a l l handicapped p e r s o n s . h e l d i n June, 1975, the P a n e l r e v e a l e d handicapped themselves. volved  At a conference  the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the  S p e c i f i c aspects of t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n -  the i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system due to p h y s i c a l  b a r r i e r s i n the v e h i c l e ' s d e s i g n ,  and the h i g h  of s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . B r i t i s h Columbia  c o s t and u n r e l i a b i l i t y  I n a study p r e p a r e d by SPARC o f  (1975), the b a s i c needs o f handicapped t r a v e l l e r s t o  adequate s e r v i c e s were i d e n t i f i e d and g u i d e l i n e s were e s t a b l i s h e d aimed a t s e t t i n g s t a n d a r d s i n the d e l i v e r y o f s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n services. In September, 1974, the Vancouver S c h o o l Board set-up an Ad Hoc  Committee composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  Board, the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Board o f H e a l t h ,  from the Vancouver S c h o o l the Department o f Human Reft  s o u r c e s and a g e n c i e s concerned w i t h the handicapped. referred  group,  t o as the Committee on S p e c i a l Needs o f C h i l d r e n , sought i n  p a r t t o d i r e c t i t s a t t e n t i o n to the q u e s t i o n of s c h o o l  This  children.  the v a r i o u s  o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems  The Committee's major concern has been  listing  d i f f i c u l t i e s a c h i l d f a c e s w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g to s c h o o l .  Other members i n c l u d e the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department o f the C i t y o f Vancouver, Oakridge S c h o o l f o r M e n t a l l y Retarded C h i l d r e n , C h i l d r e n ' s H o s p i t a l , the B r i t i s h Columbia A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department.  3  Perhaps the most important c o n t r i b u t i o n t h i s committee has made i s i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the widespread problem o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and i t s e f f o r t s to b r i n g  t h i s concern to the a t t e n t i o n o f government. In a d d i t i o n to these two committees, there has been over the  years continuing  dialogue  about t h i s problem and i t s p o s s i b l e  solutions  between a g e n c i e s such as the Canadian I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d , the Vancouver Richmond A s s o c i a t i o n r  f o r the M e n t a l l y  Retarded, G.F. S t r o n g  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre and the Canadian P a r a p l e g i c t h i s problem and i t s p o s s i b l e  Association  about  solutions.  PURPOSE  The  purpose o f t h i s c u r r e n t  research  which p u b l i c and s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h v i s u a l and h e a r i n g  was to determine the e x t e n t to  s e r v i c e s are a c c e s s i b l e to c h i l d r e n  impairments and t o c o n s i d e r  ways i n which  trans-  p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r both handicapped c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s might be improved. Specifically,  1.  To i d e n t i f y ing  2.  the o b j e c t i v e s  o f the study were as f o l l o w s :  the p o p u l a t i o n  o f b l i n d and deaf c h i l d r e n  or a f f i l i a t e d with Jericho H i l l  The c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f an i n v e n t o r y  attend-  Schools;  o f community  transportation  s e r v i c e s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f modes a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n ; 3.  To a s s e s s the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs o f c h i l d r e n with Jericho H i l l  Schools;  associated  4 4.  To propose improvements and a l t e r n a t i v e s to the p r e s e n t transportation following  s e r v i c e and s p e c i f i c a l l y  to c o n s i d e r the  questions:  (a)  what i s the a p p r o p r i a t e  organizational  structure?  (b)  how s h o u l d the s p e c i a l i z e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  service  be  i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s ; what w i l l  be  the e f f e c t o f new s e r v i c e s upon the a l r e a d y  e x i s t i n g system? (c)  what e l i g i b i l i t y  c r i t e r i a s h o u l d be used?  (d)  how and by whom s h o u l d the s p e c i a l  transportation  s e r v i c e be funded? (e)  what s t a n d a r d s o f s e r v i c e s h o u l d be in  incorporated  the s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e ?  SCOPE  In o r d e r to a c h i e v e the o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s study, a d e c i s i o n was  made d u r i n g  i n i t i a l i n q u i r i e s to l i m i t  h a n d i c a p s , the deaf and b l i n d .  d a t a c o l l e c t i o n to two  Promised c o - o p e r a t i o n  S c h o o l s f o r the Deaf and B l i n d l e d to i t s c h o i c e from which the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n made c o n s i d e r i n g  s h o u l d be drawn.  by J e r i c h o  Hill  as the o r g a n i z a t i o n This  d e c i s i o n was  the time a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s p r o j e c t and the problems  o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g handicapped groups.  REFERENCES CHAPTER I  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Review C o u n c i l o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A Working Paper Towards G u i d e l i n e s f o r S e t t i n g Standards f o r the Delivery of Special Transportation. Vancouver, 1975.  6  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  I n i t i a l efforts having d i r e c t  i n v o l v e d a comprehensive review o f s t u d i e s  or indirect  handicapped c h i l d r e n .  relevance  The outcome was the r e a l i z a t i o n  i n g f u l s t u d i e s and l i t t l e v a l u a b l e published  literature relative  limitation  to the study o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r  data e x i s t s .  t h a t few mean-  While the l a c k o f  t o t h i s s u b j e c t may have imposed a  t o the s t u d y , i t does emphasize the need f o r such an under-  taking. The  i s s u e s to be d i s c u s s e d  1.  The importance o f adequate  2.  The e f f e c t  i n t h i s review a r e as f o l l o w s :  transportation;  o f s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e toward handicapped  persons; 3.  The handicapped person's r i g h t  to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s ;  4.  The p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system as an e q u a l l y  accessible  s e r v i c e ; and 5.  Government involvement i n the p r o v i s i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c c e s s i b l e to the handicapped.  THE  Several Nugent, 1972)  IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPORTATION  researchers  have d e s c r i b e d  (Markovitz,  1970; Magidson, 1972; and  m o b i l i t y as the access to o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  7 Lack of satisfactory transportation limits the l i f e span of an individual, limits their capacity for self-maintenance, impedes their activities and social contacts with other people.  It may also contri-  bute to a person's alienation from society and ultimately to a state of anomie.  Adequate transportation i s not only humane but i t is of  economic value to society in that i t sustains the person's capacity for independent living. Magidson (1972) suggests that most public transportation services are planned for the "average man"; individuals then becomes apparent.  the problem for handicapped  Compared to the majority of the  population, the handicapped because of their physical disability are less likely to drive their own vehicles, and are more often dependent on friends and relatives and public transportation services as a means of commuting. ,  Carp (1971) has described transportation as the mediator  between the person and much of his environment.  Although she was  writing specifically about the mobility problems of retired persons, her findings appear to have wider application: medical, educational and recreational services are useful only to the degree that transportation is useable or workable for those who need i t .  Informal social contacts  are possible only i f access to friends is convenient and available. Psychologically, satisfactory transportation services may act as a catalyst for a fundamental transition of the way in which the handicapped person regards himself and his social role..  It may be extremely frus-  trating to live in a community that highly values mobility and self-  8  r e l i a n c e and to r e a l i z e those aims a r e beyond r e a c h . by  lessening  Carp c l a i m s  that  the handicapped person's dependence on f r i e n d s f o r t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n an immediate degree o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s g i v e n . Brattgard's  study  (1973) o f persons s u f f e r i n g from d i s o r d e r s o f  the c e n t r a l nervous system and t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the mainstream o f society provides of m o b i l i t y .  useful information  He i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t an e s s e n t i a l component i n a c c o m p l i s h -  i n g i n t e g r a t i o n i s the o p p o r t u n i t y ever d e s i r e d . are not,  i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the importance  f o r handicapped p e o p l e to go where-  He i s c o r r e c t i n s t a t i n g t h a t some o f the worst b a r r i e r s  as many t h i n k ,  curbs,  narrow doors o r the t h r e s h o l d s ,  bothersome they may be b u t r a t h e r the f a c t t h a t p u b l i c systems do n o t f u n c t i o n f o r the handicapped.  however,  transportation  Other s o c i e t a l  arrange-  ments such as r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , employment, and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n ities,  l o s e much o f t h e i r advantage i f they a r e n o t a c c e s s i b l e . The  Report  S o c i a l Planning  (1974) o f the Saskatchewan C o - o r d i n a t i n g  (Charlebois)  C o u n c i l on  i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r study on t h e s p e c i a l  needs o f the handicapped t h a t the a f f e c t o f a v a i l a b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l ity  is difficult  t o measure.  However, the f i n d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t  multi-  d i m e n s i o n a l b e n e f i t s would r e s u l t p o s s i b l y f o r the handicapped and the community a l i k e .  Some o f the gains would be immediate  while  others  would come about as a r e s u l t o f l o n g - t e r m changes i n the l i f e s t y l e o f the handicapped p e r s o n . Following  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s an a p p r a i s a l o f the n a t u r e o f a  handicap and the ways i n which s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e s handicapped.  and r e a c t s  t o the  9 SOCIETY'S VIEW OF A HANDICAP  Much of the literature seeks to establish that the handicapped are more similar to than different from those people not handicapped. In a study designed by Clunk (1950) to investigate employer attitudes to blind applicants, i t was found that most negative attitudes consist in part of false beliefs and misinformation.  To improve this situation  agents of change w i l l try to scatter accurate knowledge about the nature and the consequences of loss upon the individual. Clunk concluded that once the public is properly informed and has i t s fears dissipated, i t w i l l discover i t s negative attitude incapable of being defended and w i l l by necessity begin thinking of the handicapped as equals: fair treatment would ensue. In a study on physical rehabilitation, Litman (1972) asserts that society shows greater willingness to. provide more resources for the sick than the disabled.  He cites Parsons' (1963) analysis of the  sick role to illustrate that society f a i l s to pay regard to the consequences of chronic long-term illness or disability.  Stigmatizing  of illness as deviant and undesireable, and the organization of various community resources to fight illness is a reassertation of the value of health, and an opposing influence against the desire for illness. With a modification in attitudes i t may be contended that people w i l l gradually start to realize that handicapped people are their equals and commence to let them have equal access to opportunities.  10  The  following section w i l l  to e q u a l and a c c e s s i b l e  d i s c u s s handicapped  people's  rights  transportation.  TRANSPORTATION AS A RIGHT  I n a paper concerned w i t h the problems o f p u b l i c  transportation  t h a t c o n f r o n t c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s w i t h p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s ,  Nugent  (1972) s t a t e s t h a t the r i g h t and the need o f m o b i l i t y i s common to a l l p e o p l e arid has never l e g a l l y o r m o r a l l y been d e n i e d the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped.  He  f u r t h e r argues t h a t the r i g h t  thought o f as one o f the b a s i c fundamental But when we  to m o b i l i t y s h o u l d be  freedoms f o r a l l p e o p l e .  speak o f a r i g h t what i s meant?  R i g h t s have  commonly been e x p r e s s e d as c l a i m s upheld by law, o r i n terms o f d u t i e s , where e v e r y r i g h t r e s t s on a r e l a t i v e duty l y i n g on a p a r t y o r p a r t i e s o t h e r than i n who  the r i g h t r e s t s .  In A u s t i n ' s terms (1954) a duty  e x i s t s o n l y where the law imposes (and e n f o r c e s ) a s a n c t i o n f o r the breach of i t . Although F r i e d  (1976) was  w r i t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y o f the e q u a l i t y  and r i g h t s i n m e d i c a l c a r e , h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the concepts appear have w i d e r a p p l i c a t i o n .  He  d e f i n e s a r i g h t as more than an  t h a t a p e r s o n might  have, a c o n d i t i o n which a person might  s t a t e of a f f a i r s .  A claim of r i g h t c a l l s  t h i n g which p e o p l e  must  have, and which,  to  interest  prefer or a  f o r t h e n t i t l e m e n t s , o r somei f they do not have, may  whether the r e s t o f the p o p u l a t i o n l i k e i t o r n o t .  F r i e d does not  demand,  consider,  however, the f a c t  claiming  them u n l e s s The  t h a t r i g h t s are not  they are  o f much use  to those  enforced.  concept of some k i n d o f a r i g h t to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  p r o b a b l y not be  found i n any  legislation.  but  the l a t e s t w r i t i n g s , not  F r i e d p o i n t s out,  will  to mention  t h a t even the much o l d e r and  well  e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s of f r e e , u n i v e r s a l p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n  has  a t t a i n e d the s t a t u s of a f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t .  litigation  concerning  educational  r i g h t s has  o f whatever p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n not  really  come as any  as o p t i m a l  The  been l i m i t e d to the p r o v i s i o n  i s i n fact given.  Therefore,  equally  i t should  s u r p r i s e t h a t the i d e a of a r i g h t to an  as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s something o f a  not  activity  novelty.  EQUAL ACCESS TO PUBLIC SERVICES  One  of the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s embodied i n the Report  o f the Saskatchewan C o - o r d i n a t i n g is  (1974)  C o u n c i l on S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  (Charlebois)  t h a t the r i g h t to adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s t s on a fundamental  maxim t h a t a l l c i t i z e n s are e n t i t l e d to e q u a l a c c e s s to b a s i c p u b l i c services. I n a d i s c u s s i o n o f e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s to s e r v i c e s i n Great B r i t a i n , Warham (1974: 84) entitlements formulated to make use  may  and  be  states that " e q u a l i t y of r i g h t s  e f f e c t e d by  administered,  of t h e i r i n t e n d e d  and  the ways i n which the law by  and i s both  the c a p a c i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l s  rights."  In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e ,  this  12  s k i l l may  be  a f u n c t i o n not  o n l y a person's t a l e n t , but  which the s e r v i c e s are c o - o r d i n a t e d In o r d e r  and  put  into  o f the ways i n  operation.  f o r a s e r v i c e to c l a i m t h a t i t g i v e s e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s  to a l l c i t i z e n s ,  the r e s o u r c e s  ient information  a v a i l a b l e to p o t e n t i a l users about them.  f u r t h e r , however, and geographical  and  must be  requires  bureaucratic  equitably apportioned  b a r r i e r s , and  the r e a l t a s k i s not t a t i o n s e r v i c e s but Gallagher  and  to e x p l a i n why  transportation  (1973) acknowledges t h a t  t h e r e must be  equality i n  transpor-  r a t h e r the d e t e r m i n i n g of a decent minimum.  F r i e d agree t h a t t h i s minimum must be  flexibility:  psycho-  facilities.  Columbians, G a l l a g h e r  sound e t h i c a l judgements and and  Warham goes  o f stigma o r o t h e r  In a study d e a l i n g w i t h p o l i c y i s s u e s i n p u b l i c handicapped B r i t i s h  suffic-  the absence o f f i n a n c i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s to the use of the  for  and  i t should  Both  i n keeping with  s u s t a i n the v i r t u e s o f freedom, v a r i e t y  a l s o r e f l e c t some c o n c e p t i o n  o f what makes  a tolerable l i f e . The  p r o c e s s of d e t e r m i n i n g s t a n d a r d s as o u t l i n e d by  consists f i r s t  i n i d e n t i f y i n g what i t i s t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can  cannot p r o v i d e ,  i n i d e n t i f y i n g the  c o s t , and  s o c i e t y w i l l be w i l l i n g to c o n t r i b u t e . a r r i v i n g at a standard  would be  No  legal assistance,  doubt t h i s p r o c e s s  f u l l of p o l i t i c a l  t h e r e must p r e v a i l the  s t a n d a r d , such t h a t when i t i s met  would be  been e n f o r c e d .  To  and  then i n d e c i d i n g how  With t r a n s p o r t a t i o n j u s t as w i t h h e a l t h  o f r i g h t s has  Gallagher  much  of  controversy. care, education  i d e a o f a decent,  a l l that i s required  and  fair  i n the  way  demand e q u a l i t y beyond the minimum,  c o u n t e r to the p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y  which i s dominant i n  our  13  s o c i e t y : as l o n g as s o c i e t y views i n e q u a l i t i e s o f income and w e a l t h as t o l e r a b l e , i t would be anomalous t o demand t h a t e q u a l i t y must r u l e i n the  transportation  sector.  GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT  A l t h o u g h a number o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Canada have acknowledged the need t o improve the t r a n s i t system, few have r e c o g n i z e d u l a r needs o f t h e p h y s i c a l l y handicapped.  In theory,  t r a n s i t systems a r e i n b u s i n e s s t o p r o v i d e transportation services. disqualified  accessible?  a l l o f the p u b l i c with b a s i c  How  'public' i s a service i f i t  The Canadian P a r a p l e g i c A s s o c i a t i o n  i s the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e t h a t s i n c e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems a r e a P u b l i c U t i l i t y  then they s h o u l d of the D i s a b l e d  be a v a i l a b l e t o 'The P u b l i c ' !  s u b s i d i z e d by  transit taxes,  At the Canadian  Council  (C.R.C.D.) seminar i n 1974,, Funk asked why i t i s t h a t  p e o p l e who pay taxes which a r e used to p r o v i d e for  (1973)  r e p o r t , argues t h a t b e h i n d the whole problem o f p r o v i d i n g  transportation f a c i l i t i e s and  public  from use o f these s e r v i c e s because o f p a r t i c u l a r r o u t i n g  i s not equally a recent  municipal  I t may be q u e s t i o n e d how many c i t i z e n s a r e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r systems design?  in  the p a r t i c -  transportation service  some p e o p l e n o t accorded access t o the same k i n d o f s e r v i c e ? One o f t h e g r e a t e s t  stumbling blocks  the handicapped has been the f a i l u r e s o l v i n g the problem.  i n transportation of  t o set-up groups r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  Saskatchewan's e x p e r i e n c e d e s c r i b e d  i n Funk's  14  (1974) r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s a g e n e r a l  f e e l i n g by  transportation  t h a t the problem i s i n the domain of h e a l t h or w e l f a r e does not  r e l a t e to the o r d i n a r y  individuals  be  that i t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s because  i n v o l v e d were handicapped.  governments s h o u l d  and  officials  responsible  He  claims  t h a t the  f o r d e l i v e r i n g and  municipal  operating  s e r v i c e but w i t h f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t g i v e n by a l l t h r e e  the  the  l e v e l s of  govern-  ment. During recent Victoria,  c o n f e r e n c e s i n Saskatoon, T o r o n t o , Ottawa  the handicapped have v o i c e d  to the government t h e i r demand  f o r e q u a l a c c e s s to p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . t i o n s and  recommendations  came  from  the  Specific resolu-  following  meetings:  - M i n i s t e r s Conference on the Needs of the P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped, V i c t o r i a , O c t o b e r , 1973 - N a t i o n a l Conference o f the P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d , November, 1973 -  Toronto,  Canadian R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l f o r the D i s a b l e d (C.R.C.D.) Seminar, Saskatoon, December, 1974  - The M e e t i n g o f the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r s of W e l f a r e , Ottawa, A p r i l - M a y , 1975 - The B.C. A d v i s o r y Committee on the Needs of the P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped, V i c t o r i a , January, 1974.  The are  f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n s from the Toronto  conference  i n d i c a t i v e o f the handicapped person's p o s i t i o n :  Whereas, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a common r i g h t o f a l l p e o p l e , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r the d i s a b l e d have been shown t o be inadequate, Be I t R e s o l v e d : 1. 2.  and  That t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r p e o p l e who need s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n be made a v a i l a b l e That such t r a n s p o r t a t i o n be no g r e a t e r i n c o s t than r e g u l a r t r a n s i t .  15  Resolutions  from the F i n a n c i a l S e c u r i t y  Seminar groups o f the Toronto  Conference made two o f the f o l l o w i n g demands:  1.  That the p r o v i n c i a l government be p e t i t i o n e d t o i n c l u d e i n t h e i r s c h o o l a c t s t h e f o l l o w i n g : t h a t as regards p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s , such e d u c a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o ensure a f u l l normal l i f e be made a v a i l a b l e and t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and any o t h e r s p e c i a l arrangements and requirements be p r o v i d e d by t h e educat i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s to ensure unsegregated normal e d u c a t i o n wherever humanly p o s s i b l y .  2.  I n r e g a r d t o a c t u a l l y changing the handicapped s t a t u s i n t h e B i l l o f R i g h t s , i t has been r e s o l v e d . That the f e d e r a l government be p e t i t i o n e d to enact an amendment to the p r e s e n t B i l l o f R i g h t s t o i n c l u d e i n the d e s c r i p t i o n wherever i t a p p e a r s , ' o f r a c e , n a t i o n a l o r i g i n , c o l o u r , r e l i g i o n o r sex,' the words ' p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d ' as i t c o n t a i n s i n i t s p r e s e n t form no r e f e r e n c e to t h e r i g h t s o f the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped.  I n s p i t e o f t h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s demanding e q u a l a c c e s s , t h e r e i s still  no l e g i s l a t i o n making t h i s p r o v i s i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  However, i n t h e U n i t e d Mass T r a n s i t B i l l  States  mandatory.  Congress, a 1970 amendment t o t h e Urban  took the l e a d by g i v i n g e f f e c t i v e o f f i c i a l  recognition  of t h i s r i g h t :  I t i s hereby d e c l a r e d to be n a t i o n a l p o l i c y t h a t e l d e r l y and handicapped persons have the same r i g h t as o t h e r persons t o u t i l i z e mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , t h a t s p e c i a l e f f o r t s s h a l l be made i n t h e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n o f mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s so t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t y t o e l d e r l y and handicapped persons o f mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n which they can e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e w i l l be a s s u r e d .  In B r i t i s h Columbia, James G. L o r i m e r , the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n 1973 made t h e f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y statement w i t h r e g a r d t o handicapped person's s p e c i a l needs:  16 We are also very much aware of the special transportation needs of the handicapped persons, and we intend, when our programme is more advanced, to look into possible programmes for these British Columbians. We feel this i s one area where community services and voluntary resources must work closely together. While  this statement expresses awareness by the government of  the handicapped person's problems, i t does not acknowledge the need to mandate services through a process of legislation. At the federal level views were expressed by the Minister of Health and Welfare.  He stated that transportation i s seen as a provin-  c i a l responsibility, even though the federal government, through grants, has made some private transportation projects possible.  Again, Lalonde  (1974) emphasizes the need to determine the federal role in a predominately, provincial jurisdiction.  The department also indicates  awareness that more can be achieved in this f i e l d ; however, they state they have no alternative at the present time but to continue within the limitation of existing legislation.  This statement appears to be an  indication by the government that transportation of the handicapped w i l l continue to remain a low priority until they are pressured to meeting the demands. In the preceding section, the importance of adequate transportation services for the handicapped and the benefits accruing from i t have been discussed.  Also, transportation has been viewed as a  right, a need and as a means of access to various opportunities. There was limited information about the transportation of handicapped people and in fact less that pertains to deaf and blind children.  17  REFERENCES CHAPTER I I  A u s t i n , J . The P r o v i n c e of J u r i s p r u d e n c e Determined - 1832. 1954.  London,  B r a t t g a r d , S. I n t e g r a t i o n i n t o S o c i e t y . O f f - p r i n t of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A f t e r C e n t r a l N e r v i o u s System Trauma Symposium, Sponsored by the Skandia Group, Stockholm, September 25-27, 1973.  Canadian P a r a p l e g i c A s s o c i a t i o n . 1973.  Carp, F.  Paratracks.  Vancouver, May-June  The M o b i l i t y o f R e t i r e d P e o p l e . Washington: U n i t e d Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , 1971.  States  Clunk, J . "Employer A t t i t u d e s and the Adjustment o f the B l i n d , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f the U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n C o n f e r e n c e f o r the B l i n d , 1947. Ed. W. Donahue, New York: Americans f o r the B l i n d , 1950.  F r i e d , C.  " A n a l y s i s of ' E q u a l i t y ' and ' R i g h t s ' i n M e d i c a l Care," H o s p i t a l P r o g r e s s . V o l . 57, 1976, pp. 44-49.  Funk, J .  "A P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System f o r the Handicapped," Paper r e a d a t the Canadian C o u n c i l f o r the D i s a b l e d , Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, December 3-4 1974.  G a l l a g h e r , T. M o b i l i t y f o r the D i s a b l e d : Towards a P o l i c y on P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r D i s a b l e d B r i t i s h Columbians. P r e p a r e d f o r the Bureau of T r a n s i t , Vancouver, 1973.  Litman, T. " P h y s i c a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n : A S o c i a l - P s y c h o l o g i c a l Approach," Human B e h a v i o u r and S o c i a l P r o c e s s e s . Ed. A. Rose, Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1962.  L a l o n d e , M. S o c i a l S e c u r i t y i n Canada. Prepared by the M i n i s t r y o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , Ottawa, 1974.  Magidson, E . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problems o f the E l d e r l y . Chicago: Mayor's O f f i c e f o r S e n i o r C i t i z e n s , December 1972.  M a r k o v i t z , J . "The E l d e r l y , S o c i a l , Economic and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Need Mimeographed, I n t e r i m T e c h n i c a l Report 4187-5250, T r i s t a t e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Commission, New York, June 1970.  Nugent, T. " P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the D i s a b l e d , " Mimeographed, U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , Champaign, 1972.  P a r s o n s , T. " D e f i n i t i o n s o f H e a l t h and I l l n e s s , " P a t i e n t s , P h y s i c i a n s and I l l n e s s . E d . G. Jaco, D a l l a s : The Free P r e s s o f Glencoe 1963.  P o l i c y Statement. P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbians. Honourable James L o r i m e r , M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Vancouver, 1973.  P u b l i c Law 91-453. 1970.  The Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Amendment A c t .  Saskatchewan C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l on S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . A Study on the S p e c i a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Needs o f the Handicapped. P. C h a r l e b o i s , Chairman, Saskatoon, May 1974.  Warham, J . E q u a l i t y as a Concept i n S o c i a l P o l i c y . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1974, u n p u b l i s h e d .  19  CHAPTER I I I  PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY  The  major concern o f t h i s study i s an assessment o f the t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n problems and requirements o f handicapped s c h o o l In o r d e r t o r e s e a r c h  children.  a d e q u a t e l y t h i s problem and a c h i e v e the o b j e c t i v e s  o f t h i s s t u d y , f o u r b a s i c methods o f c o l l e c t i n g  information  were  employed.  DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS  Documents p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n ' s and  policy  P u b l i c S c h o o l R e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were s u r v e y e d .  In a d d i t i o n , t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A d v i s o r y  Committee Recommendations t o  the Department o f Human Resources and t h e recommendations o f t h e Royal Commission on t h e S p e c i a l Needs o f S p e c i a l C h i l d r e n were  collected.  INTERVIEWS AND CORRESPONDENCE WITH TRANSPORTATION EXPERTS  In p u r s u i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s t i o n about t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from v a r i o u s children. following  of t h i s research,  facilities  general  informa-  f o r t h e handicapped was o b t a i n e d  a g e n c i e s concerned w i t h t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f handicapped L e t t e r s were r e c e i v e d  persons:  and i n t e r v i e w s  were h e l d w i t h t h e  20  Mr. V.  Parker,  D i r e c t o r o f T r a n s i t , Bureau of T r a n s i t Services  Mr. B. P i p e r  Consultant,  Mr. J . Eastwood,  Administrative and  Mr. P. Lawrence,  Bureau o f T r a n s i t S e r v i c e s Supervisor,  B.C.  Hydro  Authority  A c t i n g Program O r g a n i z e r  f o r the 111,  Aged,  and Handicapped, Vancouver Parks Board. Mr. A. Shave,  D i r e c t o r of Information, Transport  Mr. D. O ' C o n n e l l ,  and  Systems,  Development Agency  A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r , B.C. L i o n s S o c i e t y f o r Crippled  Mrs. K. Hudson,  Communication  Program Manager, Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Transportation  Mr. R. S t . D e n i s ,  Department o f  Children  Transportation  Manager, B.C. L i o n s  Society  f o r C r i p p l e d C h i l d r e n , Easter Seal Transportation Mr. D. W o r s l e y ,  Service  S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s A s s i s t a n t , D i v i s i o n of Integrated of  Mr. F.  Flemming,  and S u p p o r t i v e  S e r v i c e s , Department  Education  Acting Superintendent, D i v i s i o n of Integrated and  Supportive  S e r v i c e s , Department o f  Education Mr. R. Jones,  D i r e c t o r , Community Programmes D i v i s i o n , Department o f Human Resources  Mr. M.  Dion,  Acting Director, Rehabilitation Services, Department o f H e a l t h  and W e l f a r e .  I n t e r v i e w s w i t h these a g e n c i e s were d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y opinions  about p r e s e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  improvement. for  I t was  thought t h a t  obtain  suggestions f o r i t s  an open-ended i n t e r v i e w would  more c r e a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  g a t h e r e d by  s e r v i c e s and  to  A d d i t i o n a l l y , information  allow  was  t e l e p h o n e about t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to h a n d i -  capped p e r s o n s i n and  around Vancouver.  MAILED QUESTIONNAIRES  The consisted  population  from which the sample f o r t h i s study was  of c h i l d r e n a f f i l i a t e d with Jericho H i l l sample o f  the B l i n d .  was  chosen at random to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e i t h e r a m a i l e d interview  when u s i n g  that  the  difficulties  p a r e n t s o f handicapped  f o r day  s t u d e n t s was  c h i l d r e n w i t h v i s u a l and  transportation  are handled by  i n t o a number o f s e c t i o n s  system and  the p a r e n t s .  and  included  socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , choice to p e r f o r m the p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and modifications.  Deaf  children  questionnaire  schedule.  A questionnaire difficulties  the  S c h o o l f o r the  and  or a p e r s o n a l  The  drawn,  designed to i d e n t i f y  hearing  handicaps experience  to i n v e s t i g a t e how The  i n s t r u m e n t was  these divided  q u e s t i o n s about demographic of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes,  r e q u i r e d by  the  p u b l i c and  a t t i t u d e s concerning p o s s i b l e  special  and  capacity trans-  transportation  22  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d o f 53 items; not every one  a p p l i c a b l e t o each i n d i v i d u a l p a r t , from an Abt  (See Appendix A ) .  Associates inquiry  addressed  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  envelope  research.  and  a f t e r one month.  a l s o s e n t i f no response was Of the 96 p a r e n t s who  S c h o o l were r e q u e s t e d  regard to t h e i r e l d e s t The  child  completed  child  were s e n t  child  affiliated  only.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were coded and key-punched a t  b i v a r i a t e t a b u l a t i o n s were conducted c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  U n i v a r i a t e and  to examine the demographic  and  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n requirements  of  the sample p o p u l a t i o n .  PERSONAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULES  A sub-sample of 30 p a r e n t s was personally; had b l i n d  the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  and  21 had  of  to answer the q u e s t i o n s w i t h  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's Computer Centre.'  socio-economic  received  and 83 were p a r e n t s  P a r e n t s of more than one handicapped  with Jericho H i l l  self-  a cover l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g the purpose o f the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 13 were p a r e n t s of a b l i n d a deaf c h i l d .  to  system.  m a i l e d complete w i t h a stamped  A f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r was  from the p a r e n t  constructed i n  (1969) c a r r i e d out i n Boston  r e s e a r c h t r a v e l b a r r i e r s i n the p u b l i c t r a n s i t The  I t was  was  deaf c h i l d r e n .  chosen to be i n t e r v i e w e d administered.  I t was  Nine p a r e n t s  hoped t h i s would promote  e n r i c h e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the main d a t a base.  23  Letters of introduction were sent to the 30 parents explaining the nature and objectives of the study and indicating when potential contact by telephone for arrangements would be made.  REFERENCES CHAPTER III  Abt Associates Inc. Travel Barriers - Transportation Needs of the Handicapped. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Transportation, Of f ice of Economic and Systems Analysis, Cambridge Massachuetts, 1969.  25  CHAPTER IV  RESULTS  QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE RATES  The rates.  f o l l o w i n g Tables  Difficulty  I and  I I g i v e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  i n making c o n t a c t was  i n p a r t due  to the  response school's  p o l i c y to keep o n l y the c u r r e n t s c h o o l s e s s i o n ' s r e c o r d o f a d d r e s s e s up-to-date. c o n t a c t was a r e on  The  low  response r a t e was  due  p o s s i b l y to the f a c t  that  attempted d u r i n g the month of August when many f a m i l i e s  vacation.  QUESTIONNAIRE FINDINGS  The  h i g h l i g h t s o f the r e s u l t s a r e as f o l l o w s :  Population Characteristics  1.  Data were c o l l e c t e d on 61 48%  2.  Of  o f the s c h o o l ' s the two  day  student  (26%)  of the sample, w h i l e  of 45 accounted f o r 74%. in a Statistics  The  approximately  population.  handicapped groups r e p r e s e n t e d ,  c o n s i s t e d of 16  presented  c h i l d r e n which comprised  the b l i n d the deaf  population population  most r e c e n t n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s  Canada Report  (1976: 6) show a  similar  26 TABLE I D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Number o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s M a i l e d and Returned by Handicap  Handicap  Number M a i l e d  Number Returned  Deaf  83 (86%)  35 (74%)  Blind  13 (14%)  12 (26%)  Total  96 (100%)  47 (100%)  TABLE II D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Number o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s P e r s o n a l l y A d m i n i s t e r e d by Handicap  *  Handicap  Number  Telephoned  Number C o n s e n t i n g t o be I n t e r v i e w e d  21 (70%)  10 (71%)  Blind  9 (30%)  4 (29%)  Total  30 (100%)  14 (100%)  Deaf  18 telephone  c a l l s were  completed.  r a t i o o f c h i l d r e n w i t h h e a r i n g impairments to v i s u a l ments r e c e i v i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n of 5.9 3.  The  sample comprised  a sex r a t i o o f 1.3  of 35 boys and  to 1.  impair-  to 1.  26 g i r l s which r e p r e s e n t e d  T h i s i s comparable to the  Statistics  Canada (1976: 6) f i g u r e s which r e p o r t a sex r a t i o o f 1.3 for children with s i m i l a r 4.  The  to 1  handicaps.  c h i l d r e n ' s ages range from 6 to 19 y e a r s .  Fewer b l i n d  c h i l d r e n were r e p r e s e n t e d i n the 13 t o 19 age b r a c k e t because the b l i n d s c h o o l ends at grade  Family  1.  The  8.  Situation  average  s i z e o f the 61 f a m i l i e s was  i s l a r g e r than r e p o r t e d i n the 1971 1974: and  169)  f o r the average  the average  2.  This  census ( S t a t i s t i c s  figure  Canada  B r i t i s h Columbia f a m i l y o f 3.5  Canadian f a m i l y of 3.7  p e r c e n t o f the p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d capped c h i l d  5 members.  members.  members  Twenty-five  they had more than one  handi-  i n their family.  T h i r t y - t w o o f the 61 f a m i l i e s r e s i d e d i n Vancouver and 28 i n the Lower M a i n l a n d .  N i n e t e e n p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g t o change  t h e i r p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e at l e a s t once to accommodate child's disability.  Most changes i n v o l v e d a move from  p a r t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia to the Lower Mainland c e n t r e o f treatment  their  and  other  which i s the  s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f o r the  handicapped.  3.  Nine  (15%) o f the p a r e n t s d i d not respond  cerning  their  responded, $14,999.  the average The  the average and 4.  f a m i l y income.  1971  Of the r e m a i n i n g 52 p a r e n t s  income f o r 1974  census  family  income to be  T h i r t y - e i g h t p a r e n t s responded  225)  shows  $11,212  $10,368.  t h a t they r e c e i v e  for their child's transportation.  g r a n t s , who  who  between $10,000 and  ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1974:  i n the d i s t r i c t where J e r i c h o H i l l  5.  was  B r i t i s h Columbian's f a m i l y income to be  the Canadian  assistance  to the q u e s t i o n con-  The  financial S c h o o l Boards  S c h o o l r e s i d e pay  i n t u r n s i g n these over to the E a s t e r  the p a r e n t s  Seal  Society.  F i f t y - t h r e e p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d they owned one or more motor v e h i c l e s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes. out t h e i r own p u b l i c bus  Four o f the 8 p a r e n t s w i t h -  p r i v a t e . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n reported  as t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s o u r c e o f  t h a t they used  transportation.  Nineteen parents i n d i c a t e d that t h e i r c h i l d often lacks p o r t a t i o n r e s t r i c t i n g the p l a c e s  the  trans-  to which they have a c c e s s .  T a b l e I I I i d e n t i f i e s the t r i p s the p a r e n t s f e e l t h e i r c h i l d i s prevented and s o c i a l  from making: these are m a i n l y activities.  Level of Functioning  o f Sample P o p u l a t i o n  G e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s were asked mobility.  r e l a t e d to r e c r e a t i o n a l  about  o v e r a l l l i m i t a t i o n s to  TABLE I I I T r i p s P r e v e n t e d from B e i n g Made  Trips  Number  Shopping  1  Medical  1  School  1  Entertainment  5  Social  3  Visit  Recreation  15  Don't Know  -  Other  -  Total  26  30  1.  Special Aids:  Dependence on m e c h a n i c a l m o b i l i t y a i d s i s one  i n d i c a t i o n o f the degree o f m o b i l i t y l i m i t a t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n . Over h a l f used no s p e c i a l a i d s t o h e l p Of  them get around o u t d o o r s .  those w i t h some r e q u i r e m e n t s , most r e p o r t e d  using e i t h e r a  cane o r the a i d o f another p e r s o n . Although there  i s no comparable d a t a f o r a l a r g e r  population,  the sample appears t o be q u i t e m o b i l e w i t h no s t a t e d need f o r w h e e l c h a i r s which would prove* t o be a problem w i t h p u b l i c  trans-  portation. 2. ,  Transportation  Limitations:  P a r e n t s were asked to answer  questions  about t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s problems and l i m i t a t i o n s i n u s i n g c e r t a i n modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . played (a)  i n Figure  The r e s u l t s a r e r e l a t e d below and d i s -  1.  F o r t y - s i x (75%) o f t h e p a r e n t s s t a t e d t h e i r c h i l d walk e a s i l y w i t h o u t the h e l p c u l t y was r e p o r t e d ,  o f another p e r s o n .  could Diffi-  however, i n the use o f p u b l i c  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and 24 (39%) o f the c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d assistance.  T h i s p e r c e n t a g e i s so h i g h p r o b a b l y because  of the l a c k of c e r t a i n t r a v e l s k i l l s  of sight  identifica-  t i o n and o r a l communication i n the sample p o p u l a t i o n . comparison, o n l y  In  6 (10%) o f the c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d  a s s i s t a n c e on the E a s t e r  S e a l bus.  Reasons f o r t h i s  d i f f e r e n c e a r e p r o b a b l y due t o the E a s t e r  Seal  a d o o r - t o - d o o r s e r v i c e and the d r i v e r s b e i n g  operating  trained for  100 90 80 70  unassisted easy  m  60 unassisted with difficulty  n 50  .1 •. ••.  H  assistance required  40  not  30  applicable 20 non-response I 10 0 MODE  Figure 1  Walk  Bus  Easter S e a l Bus  L i m i t a t i o n s i n the Use of C e r t a i n Note:  Taxi  Parent  Transportation  Other r e f e r s to f e r r y and a i r p l a n e  travel  Volunteer  Methods  Other  32  and  f a m i l i a r i n dealing with c e r t a i n handicaps.  and  p a r e n t d r i v e r s were then i d e n t i f i e d  t r a v e l s e r v i c e which r e q u i r e d or t a x i was taken. 'other'  as p r o v i d i n g a b e t t e r  less assistance  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e q u i r i n g  i d e n t i f i e d as modes  about t h e p h y s i c a l  t i o n a l performance o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n while The r e s u l t s a r e d i s p l a y e d Usage:  i n T a b l e s IV and V.  I n 7 o f t h e 10 f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  10 o f the 16 b l i n d c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t y  d e s t i n a t i o n o f the bus.  func-  u s i n g buses and/or  o f the b l i n d c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d some d i f f i c u l t y . ing,  under  assistance.  (b) P a r e n t s were asked s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s  Bus  than i f a bus  F e r r y and a i r p l a n e t r a v e l r e p o r t e d  column were by s e v e r a l p a r e n t s ,  taxis.  The v o l u n t e e r  A major d i f f i c u l t y  over 50%  Not s u r p r i s -  d e t e c t i n g the  e x p e r i e n c e d by 10  o f t h e b l i n d c h i l d r e n had to do w i t h l o c a t i n g a v a c a n t bus seat. Deaf c h i l d r e n encountered d i f f i c u l t y and  asking  f o r assistance or information  i n both  obtaining  from the bus d r i v e r .  T w e n t y - f i v e (55%) o f t h e deaf c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e e i t h e r difficulty obtain  or required  the a s s i s t a n c e  the h e l p  o f another p e r s o n i n o r d e r t o  they r e q u i r e d .  T h i r t y one (68%) o f the  deaf c h i l d r e n found problems when they needed t o ask the bus d r i v e r f o r a s s i s t a n c e , f o r example, t o ask f o r a t r a n s f e r slip.  These problems a r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n  c h i l d r e n o f t e n have communication d i f f i c u l t i e s . child  t h a t deaf I f a deaf  g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n t o the d r i v e r t h a t they have a h e a r i n g  Bus Usage by L e v e l of F u n c t i o n i n g Unassisted Easy ' Bus  Total  Blind  With A s s i s t a n c e Difficulty  Deaf  Total  Blind  Easy Deaf  Total  Blind  Difficulty Deaf  Total  Blind  detect approach  38  5  33  7  4  3  5  •3  2  3  3  scand w a i t i n g  45  7  38  2  2  -  3  2  1  2  2  l o c a t e entrance  44  6  38  4  4  - •  4  1  3  2  2  go up and down stairs  50  12  38  -  -  -  5  4  1  -  _  l o c a t e vacant seat  44  6  38  5  5  -  4  3  1  2  2  grip  43  8  35  3  1  2  4  3  1  1  1  detect d e s t i n a tion  41  4  37  2  2  -  5  2  3  4  4  pull  38  8  3  1  -  1  4  -  4  5  3  obtain a s s i s tance  27  7  20  4  -  4  8  4  4  8  ask d r i v e r f o r assistance  20  6  14  6  1  5  5  1  4  12  Deaf  _  -  Not  No  Applicable  Response  Total  Blind  Deaf  Total  •4  _  4  4  .5  2  3  Blind  Deaf  1  3  4  1  3  _  3  4  1.  3  3  3  _  3  3  _  3  _  _  5  2  2  7  3  4  2  2  10  5  5  3  -  2  6  9  2  7  5  1  3  9  12  5  7  6  -  _  3  3  3  stand h o l d i n g  cord  '  5  1  4  1 3  j  4  6  34  TABLE V T a x i Usage by L e v e l o f F u n c t i o n i n g •  e  Obtaining' A Taxi  Going to Proper Destination  Leaving the Taxi  Other  Unassisted, Easy  5  4  7  -  Unassisted, With Some Difficulty  1  1  0  -  Easy, With Assistance  4  3  1  -  Some Difficulty With Assistance  2  2  2  _  Not Applicable  1  1  0  -  Non-Response  48  50  51  61  Total  61  61  61  61  Taxi  Travel  35  impairment he may p e r c e i v e t h e c h i l d nuisance.  t o be c r e a t i n g a  The h e a r i n g a i d when worn i s an e x c e l l e n t  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n mechanism.  However, n o t a l l deaf  c h i l d r e n who own h e a r i n g a i d s wear them: i n t e r v i e w a mother e x p l a i n e d profoundly  i n one p e r s o n a l  t h a t because h e r son was  deaf and d i d n o t r e c e i v e any b e n e f i t o f sound  from t h e d e v i c e , he r e f u s e d to wear i t even though he knew he would p r o b a b l y T a x i Usage: children. and  encounter fewer problems. T a x i usage was r e l a t i v e l y low among the  T r a v e l by t a x i was used by 7 (16%) o f t h e deaf  2 (13%) o f the b l i n d  attributed  T h i s may be p a r t l y  to the c h i l d ' s age, n a t u r e o f t h e handicap and  the c o s t o f t a x i t r a v e l . by  children.  The c h i l d r e n who do t r a v e l  t a x i f i n d t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s problems .  some l i g h t  on t h e n a t u r e  along  T a b l e V sheds  o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s .  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n to School  Most handicapped c h i l d r e n must be p r o v i d e d w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n if  they a r e t o a t t e n d s c h o o l .  I t i s e s s e n t i a l i n l a r g e urban  communi-  t i e s where s p e c i a l s c h o o l s and programmes may be s i t u a t e d a t some d i s t a n c e from t h e c h i l d ' s r e s i d e n c e and where heavy t r a f f i c makes  travelling  difficult. 1.  Distance:  As shown i n F i g u r e 2, 32 o f the 61 c h i l d r e n i n the  sample l i v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  11 o r more m i l e s from t h e i r  I t may be remembered t h a t 19 p a r e n t s  changed t h e i r  school.  residence  NUMBER  CO  H  OF  CHILDREN O  oo c H  ro O O  O I  CO  o CO  rt P3  O O  3  o  Ui I  pr oo co  Hi H  o a H- o  o  s ro  M  O  co  B  to o o o  H- ro M I  fD CO  iji  I  ro CD  B  o H" < h1  ro ro H  CO  I  ro Hi  i—* 3  a.  ]  LO  O  O  to lower mainland l o c a t i o n s from v a r i o u s  points  throughout  B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a because o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s Figure 2  handicap and the need f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . illustrates  t h a t t h i s change o f r e s i d e n c e  d i d not necessar-  i l y mean a move f o r t h e f a m i l y t o w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f the  c h i l d ' s s c h o o l , b u t r e s u l t e d i n r e l o c a t i o n to the o u t -  s k i r t s o f Vancouver where t h e taxes a r e lower and t h e houses are  cheaper than i n o t h e r  explained  Jericho  Several  t h a t they moved c l o s e to t h e s c h o o l  their child at  districts.  could s t i l l  parents to ensure  l i v e a t home and n o t i n the d o r m i t o r y  Hill.  Mode o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t i o n most f r e q u e n t l y  from S c h o o l :  The type o f t r a n s p o r t a -  used i s shown i n F i g u r e  3.  Multiple  r e s p o n s e s were p o s s i b l e i n answering t h i s q u e s t i o n . way  In this  a f r e q u e n c y count o f t h e type o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n most  commonly used was r e p r e s e n t e d .  The E a s t e r  Seal  S e r v i c e which i s under c o n t r a c t  to J e r i c h o H i l l  Transportation S c h o o l and t h e  Vancouver S c h o o l Board was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used method o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , followed Cross-tabulations  by t h e p u b l i c bus and p a r e n t d r i v e r s .  o f mode by age and mode by income were  p r e p a r e d and the d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s VI and V I I . Age is  may be a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g which mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o be used as no v e r y young c h i l d r e n i n t h e 6 t o 9 y e a r age  group e i t h e r walked home from s c h o o l o r used the p u b l i c bus. In c o n t r a s t ,  t h e frequency i n the o l d e r age groups t o use e i t h e r  50  * n = 71  40  3 Q  30  r-l  «  O  20  Pi  w  10  Blind |  MODE  Walk  Figure 3 Note:  Bus  Easter Seal Bus  Taxi  Parent  [ Deaf  Other  Mode of Transportation from School to Home  * Other includes the Optimist Hearing Handicapped Bus ft* n refers to the number of responses  LO  oo  39  TABLE VI Age by Mode of Transportation  Age Group (years)  Walk  6-9  —  —  10-15  2  16-19 over 19  Public Bus  Easter Seal Bus  Taxi  Parent  Other  8  1  2  1  9  10  -  2  -  1  7  4  -  -  -  -  -  3  -  1  -  6-9  -  -  3  -  -  -  10-15  -  1  10  1  -  -  16-19  -  2  2  -  -  -  over 19  -  -  1  -  -  Note:  A child may have used more than one mode of transportation from school.  Other refers to Optomist Hearing Handicapped Bus.  1  40  TABLE V I I Mode o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n by Income  Income  Walk  up t o $ 4,999  Public Bus  Easter Seal Bus  _  5  Volunteer  Taxi  Parent  Friend  Another Person  *  $ 5,000$ 9,000  -  7  3  -  -  -  —  —  $10,000$14,000  3  3  12  -  1  -  —  —  $15,000$24,999  -  4  8  4  -  3  1  1  $25,000$39,999  -  2  1  -  -  -  -  -  $40,000 and up  -  -  1  -  -  -  -  -  NonResponse  -  3  7  -  -  2  -  -  Note:  I n s e v e r a l o f the income b r a c k e t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were g i v e n .  m u l t i p l e responses to means o f  the p u b l i c bus o r walk home was 19 f o r t h e deaf c h i l d r e n and 3 f o r the b l i n d c h i l d r e n . The  d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I I does n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t  income i s a f a c t o r i n the mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Time i n T r a n s i t :  One o f t h e d i f f i c u l t  problems p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n l a r g e urban communities, i s t h a t o f p l a n n i n g t i o n routes excessive  employed.  the t r a n s p o r t a -  so t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e n o t f o r c e d to spend an  amount o f e l a p s e d  Jericho H i l l  School,  time  travelling.  l i k e other  schools  i n t h e Vancouver  a r e a , b e g i n s c l a s s e s a t 9 a.m. and f i n i s h e s a t 3 p.m.  How  e a r l y a c h i l d must l e a v e home i n t h e morning o r how l a t e i t i s when he o r she r e t u r n s distance route  from s c h o o l ,  (a)  pertained  f a c t o r s such as t h e  t h e type o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n employed, t h e  t h e v e h i c l e t r a v e l s and the t r a f f i c  questions as  depends on v a r i o u s  conditions.  to t h i s important area.  Several  The r e s u l t s were  follows: Figure  4 shows t h a t 28 o f t h e c h i l d r e n d e p a r t f o r  before  7:30 a.m.  Figure  school  5 shows s i m i l a r amounts o f time  were spent i n t r a n s i t r e t u r n i n g home.  I n order  f o r these  times t o be m e a n i n g f u l i t i s assumed t h a t t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n leaves  soon a f t e r t h e s c h o o l day i s f i n i s h e d . E a s t e r  Seal reported  they t r y t o arrange f o r t h e i r bus and vans  to be a t J e r i c h o H i l l classes are dismissed.  S c h o o l and o t h e r  s c h o o l s when t h e  30  20  10  TIME  before 7:00 a.m.  Figure 4  7:017:30 a.m.  7:318:00 a.m.  8:018:30 a.m.  Time of Departure  8:319:00 a.m.  for School  NonResponse  30  20  3  Q •J H  ra o o  10  erf w  TIME  3:013:30 p .m.  Figure 5 Note:  3:314:00 p.m.  4:014:30 p .m.  4:315:00 p.m.  after 5:00 p .m.  other times  Time of Arrival Home from School  Other refers to one child who arrives home from school at various times  (b)  T a b l e V I I I shows the r e s u l t s as r e l a t i v e l y  consistent i n  t h a t the l o n g e r d i s t a n c e s r e q u i r e d l e n g t h i e r t r a v e l  T r a v e l Costs: child's for (a)  it.  Parents  were asked to i d e n t i f y  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to s c h o o l and The  data i s p r e s e n t e d  the c o s t of  for this being  their  the o r g a n i z a t i o n who  i n F i g u r e s 6 and  payed  7.  These r e s u l t s are d i s p a r a t e and not s t a t i s t i c a l l y the reason  time.  significant,  t h a t many o f the p a r e n t s  are  not  a b s o l u t e l y s u r e o f the s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s because funding  to the parent  t h e i r c h i l d uses.  may  vary  f o r each mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  T h i s r e s u l t s i n some c o n f u s i o n and i t  remains u n c l e a r what i n d i v i d u a l expenses are If  to the  parents.  s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are not a v a i l a b l e , the  parent  is eligible  Allowance.  to r e c e i v e a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Parents  a r e p a i d g r a n t s by  whose c h i l d r e n r i d e the E a s t e r S e a l  the s c h o o l boards and  Easter Seal Society. are e l i g i b l e  Assistance  C h i l d r e n who  they  i n t u r n pay  v i n c i a l government.  between the s c h o o l board and  Thus, no p a r e n t  the  r i d e the p u b l i c buses  f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Allowance,  c o s t o f which i s shared  bus  need pay  the the  pro-  f o r transpor-  tation costs. (b)  Parents sibility to  responded i n e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s  t h a t the  respon-  to arrange t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to s c h o o l s h o u l d be  the p r o v i n c i a l government, the s c h o o l and  the  left  parents.  TABLE VIII Distance from School by Time in Transit  0-4 blocks  5-8 blocks  9 blocks1 mile  Less than 1/2 Hour  -  -  -  1/2 Hour  1  -  1 Hour  -  1 1/2 Hours  2-5 miles  6-10 miles  11 miles & over  2  2  —  _  _  _  -  5  4  1  -  -  -  -  1  1  3  9  1  -  2  -  -  -  -  4  15  -  -  -  2 Hours  -  -  -  -  -  4  1  1  -  Over 2 Hours  -  -  -  -  -  1  -  -  -  Don't Know  -  -  -  2  -  -  -  -  1  Time  Don't Know  Other  NonResponse  Ln  o o  CO H  c  ri fD  n o CO o 3 fD  50 fD rf  C H 3  H H H-  13  00 O P* O  o  9*7  NUMBER  OF  hO  1  <_n  CHILDREN M Ui  to O  to Ul  o  30  20  ORGANIZATION  Parent  Figure 7  Guardian Organization B. Vancouver Charity Treatment C. School Centre Government Board  Don't Know  Organizations Identified as Those Who Pay School Transportation Costs  48  Transportation  The  to M e d i c a l  Facilities  s u r v e y p r e s e n t e d a s e t of open q u e s t i o n s  a c c e s s i b i l i t y of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s The  1.  f i n d i n g s are r e p o r t e d  Fourteen  (23%)  therapy or 2.  Eighteen  to m e d i c a l care  c h i l d r e n were r e p o r t e d  sessions Hill  counselling.  ups  c h i l d r e n who  also received  S c h o o l and  avoided.  Medical  t h e i r c l a s s e s of i n s t r u c t i o n at J e r i c h o  Transportation,  r e q u i r e d and  10  normally pro-  private  transporta-  bus.  treatment was and  being  (22%)  r e c e i v e d by  4 (25%)  o f the deaf p o p u l a t i o n  l e n g t h o f the treatment r e p o r t e d  between 1 and  o f the b l i n d w i t h an  The very  low.  child's  Eight be  school.  a c t u a l response r a t e to the q u e s t i o n s The  average  2 years.  p a r e n t s responded t h a t they p r e f e r r e d the treatment to given at  usually  however, to r e g u l a r m e d i c a l .check-  the p a r e n t s u s i n g e i t h e r t h e i r own  population  counselling  thus the problem o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was  t i o n o r the p u b l i c 4.  regular  offices.  took p a r t i n therapy o r  a t the p h y s i c a n ' s o f f i c e was  v i d e d by  centers.  to have r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l  c h i l d r e n , 12 of^whom were deaf, went to  Most of the  the  below.  m e d i c a l appointments a t t h e i r p h y s i c a n s ' 3.  deal.ing w i t h  parents i d e n t i f i e d  few  i n this section  problems i n a r r a n g i n g  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s .  for  was  their  49 Transportation  For  to Recreational  Activities  some handicapped c h i l d r e n i t may be n e c e s s a r y t h a t s p e c i a l  programmes be o r g a n i z e d  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n arrangements t o these  a c t i v i t i e s be made a v a i l a b l e i f they a r e to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n recreation. In t h e s u r v e y , a s e t o f q u e s t i o n s participation i n recreation. reported 1.  F o r t y - o n e c h i l d r e n o f whom 11 were b l i n d and 30 were deaf, i n r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes.  Sponsors o f these programmes organization,  3.  The h i g h l i g h t s o f t h e f i n d i n g s a r e  below.  participated 2.  were asked about t h e c h i l d r e n ' s  opportunities  included  t h e community,  school,  f o r Youth p r o j e c t s and p a r e n t s .  F i f t e e n o f t h e 41 c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n r e c r e a t i o n n o r m a l l y had t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r r a n g e d and the mode most o f t e n used was t h e f a m i l y c a r .  Other methods o f t r a v e l  i n c l u d e d w a l k i n g , p u b l i c bus, t h e E a s t e r d r i v e r s and t h e J e r i c h o H i l l 4.  Sixteen parents reported trip  S e a l bus,  volunteer  S c h o o l bus.  that the estimated costs o f a r e t u r n  to a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y  ranged from 25c t o $5.00.  Seven  p a r e n t s responded they d i d n ' t know the c o s t and 19 p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was no c o s t 5.  Non-participation The  involved.  i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was a l s o examined.  r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e IX.  These i n d i c a t e t h a t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a y s a minor p a r t i n the n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the respondent's c h i l d r e n i n r e c r e a t i o n programs.  TABLE IX F a c t o r s i n the N o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the Sample Population i n Recreation  Factors  Number  No T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  4  Cost  2  Don't Know o f Any R e c r e a t i o n a l Activities  10  C h i l d i s Not Capable  1  Don't Know  2  Others-  3  Total  22  Other r e f e r s to two p a r e n t ' s comments t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r r i v e home too l a t e to p a r t i c i p a t e and one parent s t a t e d t h a t h e r son had no f r i e n d s i n t h e community to a t t e n d the programmes.  51 Deaf Drivers Having looked at the various modes of transportation, questions were directed toward finding out what problems deaf student drivers experienced when obtaining a licence and insurance.  The highlights  of the results are as follows: 1.  Of the 11 deaf students in the 16 years of age category eligible to obtain a valid driver's licence, 5 reported having a valid licence.  Two responded they were unable  to get their driver's licence due to the nature and degree of their handicap. 2.  Only one of the 5 student drivers reported having had any problems i n obtaining car insurance.  3.  One student reported having received financial assistance to obtain a driver's licence.  52  EXISTING TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN VANCOUVER  T h i s s e c t i o n attempts t o show the r e s u l t s o f the s u r v e y o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s undertaken i n t h e summer o f 1975. S p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r the handicapped i n Vancouver are l i m i t e d .  The c a r , t a x i and p u b l i c t r a n s i t system a r e s t i l l the  main modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n used by most o f the handicapped particularly  population,  t h e l e s s s e v e r e l y handicapped groups such as the b l i n d and  deaf. A b r i e f survey o f s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t a t i o n appears below.  transpor-  A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e adequacy o f these s e r v i c e s  w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n the next  Survey o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  chapter.  Services  i n Greater  Vancouver, 1975  Airlines: A i r Canada  —  • Provides  accommodation f o r w h e e l c h a i r s ,  dogs and the w a l k i n g  seeing-eye  disabled  • P r e f e r s i n d i v i d u a l s t o have own a t t e n d a n t • No s p e c i a l r a t e s a r e g i v e n Canadian P a c i f i c A i r — • Provides  assistance  to i n d i v i d u a l s who  assistance • No s p e c i a l r a t e s a r e g i v e n  require  53  P a c i f i c Western A i r l i n e s  —  • Provides a carry-on wheelchair  f o r on-plane  • Handles w h e e l c h a i r s , s t r e t c h e r c a s e s ,  the'walking  d i s a b l e d and the b l i n d • I n d i v i d u a l must p r o v i d e own  attendant  Ferries: British  Columbia F e r r y System  —  • P r o v i d e s e l e v a t o r s e r v i c e , and ramps a r e available • I f a s s i s t a n c e i s r e q u i r e d , arrangements must be made i n advance • No s p e c i a l r a t e s are g i v e n  Taxis: B l a c k Top Cab  —  • P r o v i d e s s e r v i c e f o r w h e e l c h a i r s t o r a g e but must n o t i f y wheelchair service  first  • An e x t r a 20 minutes w a i t i s r e q u i r e d d u r i n g busy hours • D r i v e r may MacLures Cab  r e f u s e to l i f t  a person who  i s too heavy  —  • P r o v i d e s s e r v i c e f o r w h e e l c h a i r s t o r a g e and w i l l take s e e i n g - e y e  dogs  • Must phone a t l e a s t wheelchair  use  20 minutes i n advance and s p e c i f y  54 • D r i v e r may  refuse  Yellow B i r d Taxi • Provides  to l i f t  i f person i s too heavy  —  s e r v i c e f o r handicapped  • Operates from 9:00  a.m.  to 5:00  only p.m.,  Monday through  Friday • Reservations  are  required  • Mileage l i m i t — • Trip limit — Y e l l o w Cab  10 m i l e s  two  from p o i n t of  p i c k - u p s per  pick-up  day  —  • Provides  s e r v i c e f o r wheelchair storage  and  takes  s e e i n g - e y e dogs • Must r e s e r v e • D r i v e r may  ahead and  refuse  specify wheelchair  to l i f t  i f p e r s o n i s too  heavy  Organizations: Volunteer  Bureau o f G r e a t e r  • Provides  • Service provided  referral  from  agency  f o r any  trip  purpose  c o s t to u s e r s  B.C. L i o n s S o c i e t y Services — • Provides (i)  —  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s by  a s o c i a l worker of an  • No  Vancouver  for Crippled Children - Transportation  3 services:  Scheduled s e r v i c e s f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g c h i l d r e n to school and  ( p a i d f o r by  school  boards)  the p r o v i n c i a l government  55 (ii)  Scheduled s e r v i c e t r a n s p o r t i n g  handicapped  c h i l d r e n to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n h o s p i t a l s , children's  schools,  treatment c e n t e r s , a d u l t workshops  and p r e s c h o o l c e n t e r s ( p a i d f o r by the agency) 0 (iii)  I n d i v i d u a l and group s e r v i c e s f o r a d u l t s c o s t i s $1.50  f o r a one way  radius of 3 miles —  —  trip within a  e x t r a charge a f t e r  3  miles  D e l t a s s i s t Society  —  • T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e to m e d i c a l and  treatment  c e n t r e s f o r handicapped r e s i d e n t s o f D e l t a  N o r t h Shore T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S e r v i c e  —  • P r o v i d e s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the e l d e r l y and handicapped who tation.  are unable to use p u b l i c  the  transpor-  S e r v i c e s are m a i n l y f o r h o s p i t a l t h e r a p y ,  a d u l t day c a r e c e n t e r s and d o c t o r s appointments. V i s i t i n g and s h o p p i n g have low p r i o r i t i e s fitted  i n when openings a r e a v a i l a b l e .  o n l y the North Shore a r e a , from Horseshoe  and are Serves Bay to  Deep Cove  Surrey Community Resource C e n t r e  —  • Provides transportation services f o r Senior Citizens and the handicapped  f o r medical  appointments  Marpole-Oakridge S e r v i c e s Handicapped —  f o r S e n i o r C i t i z e n s and  • T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f o r medical  the  and  social  programmes appointments  FISH, Richmond • Provides tance  neighbourly  help  to p e o p l e n e e d i n g a s s i s -  such as emergency f a m i l y or c h i l d  care,  housework and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n • Serves Richmond o n l y  White Rock Community A i d • Provides  —  a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e to m e d i c a l  ments and  some t r a n s p o r t t o o t h e r community  f o r S e n i o r C i t i z e n s , the p h y s i c a l l y and handicapped and • A 3 day  low  appointagencies  mentally  income p e o p l e  notice i s preferred  B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro Bus  Passes  —  • Persons on Handicapped Persons Income A s s i s t a n c e (over 18 y e a r s  o f age)  may  purchase a bus  pass  f o r $5.00 f o r a l l or p a r t o f a 6 month p e r i o d • T r a v e l i s f r e e i n the G r e a t e r the f i r s t  Vancouver a r e a  2 f a r e zones of the B.C.  and  Hydro Suburban  L i n e S e r v i c e ( S u r r e y , D e l t a , and White Rock)  L a u r e l House  —  • It i s forAutistic  Children  • Operates one s t a t i o n wagon  Jericho H i l l  School  —  • Operates one bus, one v a n and one s t a t i o n wagon • Uses t a x i s e r v i c e f o r m e d i c a l appointments o f r e s i d e n t i a l c h i l d r e n and the E a s t e r tation Service  Pearson H o s p i t a l  f o r day student  Seal  Transpor-  transportation  —  • Operates one c o n v e r t e d bus which i s c a p a b l e o f c a r r y i n g 13 w h e e l c h a i r s and 4 passengers • Used f o r Pearson H o s p i t a l ' s p a t i e n t s s e e i n g and o t h e r  Children's  Hospital  for sight-  outings  —  • Operates two c a r s w i t h one h o s p i t a l d r i v e r and one volunteer  driver  Vancouver G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l • Out-patient  —  Department has t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e  f o r anyone w i t h m o b i l i t y problems • Operates one c a r d r i v e n by a u x i l i a r y v o l u n t e e r s • R e f e r r a l s a r e based on d o c t o r s ' recommendations  58 GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION  The  survey  of s e v e r a l experts  involved with transportation  s e r v i c e s i n the Vancouver area r e v e a l e d page  the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  (see  20). Parker  (1975) s t a t e d t h a t the Bureau o f T r a n s i t has not been  a b l e to p r o g r e s s w i t h Seal.  He  explained  a specialized public service like t h a t because t h e r e was  no p o l i c y  that of  concerning  Easter the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f handicapped p e r s o n s , the b e s t immediate s o l u t i o n would be  to expand the E a s t e r S e a l S e r v i c e .  c e n t r a l c l e a r i n g agency be be met  set-up  by s p e c i f i c a g e n c i e s .  more s p e c i f i c and  felt  i t was  to examine a l l demands and  up  f o r the handicapped.  s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s or  in  b i g g e s t problem, i n terms o f  according  special  Hydro s h o u l d be more i n v o l v e d  to Lawrence, i s the fragmenting  H e a l t h , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  respon-  o f departments o f  Human Resources.  Shave (1975) e x p l a i n e d  no  Lawrence (1975) s t a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  t h a t B.C.  sibility,  to  Eastwood n o t e d t h a t t h e r e are  i s a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and The  (1975) were  f o r handicapped p e o p l e and  Hydro c o n c e r n i n g  t h i s a r e a o f concern.  could  to the Department of Human Resources to  c o o r d i n a t e a l l departments i n v o l v e d .  design plans  these  Both Eastwood (1975) and P i p e r  take a systems view o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  p l a n s whatsoever at B.C.  He went on to suggest t h a t a  i n the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r  the p r o v i n c i a l government's involvement and  policies  the e x t e n t  concerning  of  the  handicapped: With r e g a r d to our department, (Department of T r a n s p o r t and Communications) we p r o v i d e s p e c i a l washrooms f o r p a r a p l e g i c s on a l l s t r e t c h f e r r i e s as w e l l as i n onshore t r a i l e r u n i t s , and  i n a d d i t i o n , we .make no d i s t i n c t i o n i n g r a n t i n g d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where hand c o n t r o l s a r e concerned. Municipal A f f a i r s i s presently designing foot passenger f e r r i e s f o r B u r r a r d I n l e t which w i l l be a c c e s s i b l e f o r handicapped, and I understand t h e i r T r a n s i t Bureau i s i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r the handicapped i n a l l i t s u n d e r t a k i n g s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f p u b l i c b u s e s . In t h e Department o f Human Resources, a sum o f $700,000 was spent l a s t y e a r f o r a s s i s t i n g the handicapped and s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A t o t a l o f 16 s e p a r a t e s e r v i c e s were funded which i n c l u d e s a $40,000 grant t o the E a s t e r S e a l S o c i e t y which o p e r a t e s the "bunny buses." The Department o f H e a l t h p r o v i d e s the handicapped w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r e d u c a t i o n and v o c a t i o n a l accomplishments, and I understand the Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l o c a l s c h o o l boards i s a l s o p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to such s t u d e n t s a t a f l a t r a t e . As f a r as t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i s concerned, t h e Department o f P u b l i c Works i s c u r r e n t l y c o - o r d i n a t i n g a survey o f government b u i l d i n g s both permanent and r e n t a l , i n o r d e r to a s c e r t a i n what the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e ( i n c l u d i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r handicapped workers) and what w i l l be r e q u i r e d i n future.  In the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , f i n d i n g s taken from the responses 61  completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  were h i g h l i g h t e d  and d i s p l a y e d .  a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s o f the survey o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  In  services i n  Vancouver and the s u r v e y o f e x p e r t s i n v o l v e d w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were reported.  The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n o f these  r e s u l t s i n greater  detail.  •REFERENCES CHAPTER IV  Statistics Canada. Canada Year Book. mation Canada, 1974.  1974 Edition, Ottawa: Infor-  Statistics Canada. Enrollment and Staff in Schools for the Blind and Deaf - 1975-76. Catalogue 81-217 Annual, Ottawa: The Department of Industry, Trade and Commerce, 1976. Parker, V. Piper, B.  Personal Communication, August 13, 1975. Interview, Vancouver, June 17, 1975.  Eastwood, J. Interview, Vancouver, June 25, 1975. Lawrence, P. Shave, A.  Interview, Vancouver, August 12, 1975,  Personal Communication, August 8, 1975.  61  CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  The  need to p r o v i d e i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  deaf and b l i n d  c h i l d r e n has been met through the c r e a t i o n o f s p e c i a l  s c h o o l s s t a f f e d by s p e c i a l l y  trained teachers.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n to these s c h o o l s i s a problem f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and p l a n n e r s  as w e l l as f o r p a r e n t s .  While a s e p a r a t e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e d the s u b j e c t must be c o n s i d e r e d by t h e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e i r i n i t i a l  programme  planning. Throughout the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a g e t t i n g c h i l d r e n -to and  from s c h o o l i s a s i z a b l e t a s k : i t i s a major concern  districts.  Should  of school  the c h i l d r e n use p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ?  the p a r e n t s be expected  t o s e r v e as c h a u f f e u r s ?  There a r e n o t o n l y  the problems o f a r r a n g i n g s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n b u t a l s o t i e s o f g e t t i n g the c h i l d  Should  difficul-  to and i n t o the v e h i c l e ; t r a v e l time can  a l s o be e x c e s s i v e . The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e sought t o q u a n t i f y the magnitude o f these  s p e c i f i c problems and o t h e r s h a v i n g  to do w i t h  functional limitations  involved i n using p u b l i c transportation, financing t r i p s t i o n a l and m e d i c a l  facilities  transportation services.  to r e c r e a -  and the g e n e r a l adequacy o f the p r e s e n t  Population I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  I n s e l e c t i n g o n l y deaf and b l i n d handicaps to make up the sample p o p u l a t i o n ,  i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t c e r t a i n problems and needs  a s s o c i a t e d with severe p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s  ( f o r example w h e e l c h a i r  dependence) would l i k e l y n o t be accounted f o r i n the r e s u l t s and i n subsequent recommendations and p l a n s facilities.  using  transportation  However, i n - s p i t e - o f t h e apparent m o b i l i t y o f those  with sensory d i s a b i l i t i e s , population  f o r improved  i t was* found t h a t o n e - t h i r d  o f the sample  e i t h e r experienced d i f f i c u l t y or required a s s i s t a n c e i n  the p u b l i c bus  (see F i g u r e  1).  Perhaps many o f t h e problems and  r i s k s f o r those persons w i t h s e v e r e p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s for  l e s s s e v e r e l y handicapped deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n .  r e s u l t s a r e comparable to those o f the Vancouver S c h o o l Hoc  Committee's assessment o f the s c h o o l  also exist This  study's  Board—Ad  transportation service i n  the a r e a s o f s a f e t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , s u p e r v i s i o n and time spent i n t r a n s i t t o and from s c h o o l .  Transportation  ,  Problems and Requirements  How do p a r e n t s ,  the s c h o o l board o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  operators  determine whether the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i s adequate?  One way may  be  and to a d j u s t  t o i d e n t i f y the l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g o f the p o p u l a t i o n  the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f the mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n b e i n g Adequacy may a l s o be a s c e r t a i n e d is  the v e h i c l e ; i s t h e r e  used.  by answering the f o l l o w i n g : how s a f e  s u f f i c i e n t s u p e r v i s i o n on the bus o r vans;  how l o n g b e f o r e l o n g a r e they  school begins  do the c h i l d r e n have to l e a v e home; how  i n t r a n s i t ; how many c h i l d r e n have to s t a n d on the bus?  A c c e s s i b i l i t y may be a f f e c t e d by the l o c a t i o n o f the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g . Jericho H i l l  School,  s i t u a t e d on P o i n t Grey, i s a poor l o c a t i o n because  the l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the s c h o o l l i v e i n e a s t e r n Vancouver.  School  d i s t r i c t s who use J e r i c h o H i l l  School a r e  committed to t r a n s p o r t i n g many c h i l d r e n who may, i n some i n s t a n c e s , have been a b l e t o walk to s c h o o l o r who may have been a b l e t o f i n d more c o m f o r t a b l e Expenditures and  a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to a neighbourhood s c h o o l .  f o r t h i s purpose add n o t h i n g  t o the e d u c a t i o n a l programme  o n l y reduce the amount o f funds f o r i t .  reasonable  that administrators  and p l a n n e r s  Thus, i t seems o n l y g i v e thought to the nature  o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n programme t h a t w i l l be r e q u i r e d when d e c i d i n g the l o c a t i o n o f a new s c h o o l . Parents provided  o f b l i n d and deaf c h i l d r e n a c t i n g as respondents  sufficient  information  f o r an assessment o f the t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n problems and requirements t o be made. a number o f items w i l l be l o o k e d  I n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n  a t more c l o s e l y .  time, bus s a f e t y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s ,  These i n c l u d e ' t r a v e l  and the p o l i c y  and l e g i s -  l a t i o n regarding school transportation.  T r a v e l Time.  S p e c i a l s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s the method  o f c h o i c e t o c o n c e n t r a t i n g s u f f i c i e n t p u p i l s a t one c e n t r e to i n c r e a s e the s i z e o f c l a s s e s , thus making i t p o s s i b l e to have a t e a c h e r f o r each grade and o t h e r w i s e  improve the e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  64  the child.  The difficulty with this is that in large urban communities  like Vancouver children are often forced to spend long periods of time in travelling to and from school. the young handicapped pupils.  This is especially fatiguing for  For many children even a short ride i n  a crowded bus may precipitate outbreaks of excitement and overstimulation and yet some of the children may spend two to four hours each school day riding the school bus.  This increased travel time also cuts into  the time available for school work and/or time available for recreation. The Vancouver School Board's Committee on the Special Needs of Special Children was specifically concerned with reducing the time children spent i n travel.  They noted that after one-half hour, the  incidence of problems with handicapped children rises greatly and after one hour, the incidence of problems with a l l children sharply increases.  It was agreed that one hour was maximum in travelling  time, with considerations of security and safety features as a guideline.  It may be recalled that 45 (74%) of the children l e f t home for  school before 8 a.m.  Of these 45 children, 28 l e f t home before 7:30 a.m.  Nearly half of the sample population were required to spend three or more hours on the school bus or van each day. The Chud Inquiry (1974: 9) of Jericho H i l l School also found problems with the length of travel time and made the following recommendations:  65 The present system should be c r i t i c a l l y reviewed by the Administration at Jericho H i l l School and improvised to the extent possible within the existing conditions. No child, particularly blind children, should be required to travel more than one hour on the bus. Every possible resource must be brought to bear in order to make this possible. In the f i r s t instance, government departments must make available additional subsidies for children living far from school. In the course of the inquiry several solutions were offered in response to the present conditions where some of the children must spend excessive amounts of time in transit.  One solution calls for  the use of mini-buses taking fewer children on a more direct route. Integrating other bus systems taking children to and from f a c i l i t i e s for the handicapped is another possible proposal.  Lastly, i t was  suggested that a l l buses transporting children to and from-school f a c i l i t i e s (including private schools) could constitute a bussing pool which could be programmed to deliver the most rational and expedient form of transportation for a l l children being bussed around in Vancouver. In a study by Cruickshank and Johnson (1958) on the education of exceptional children, they suggest in some cases i t might be expedient to plan 'feeder' routes which w i l l pick-up children in different areas and bring them to a prearranged location where they can be transferred into a larger coach which w i l l then take them to school. This system they claim would overcome the excessively long ride of the f i r s t child picked up and the last to be dropped off. Yuker's (1967) report on the transportation of the physically handicapped students draws attention to a way by which travel time can  be s h o r t e n e d by s c h e d u l i n g c l a s s e s a f t e r peak t r a f f i c i n s t a n c e , 10 a.m.  to 4 p.m.  T h i s s c h e d u l i n g may  hours, f o r  be n e c e s s a r y  i n large  urban communities such as Vancouver where s p e c i a l s c h o o l s l i k e J e r i c h o Hill  S c h o o l a r e l o c a t e d some d i s t a n c e from  the c h i l d ' s home and where  heavy t r a f f i c makes t r a v e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t and disadvantage  i s t h a t i t may  a c t i v i t i e s as they w i l l  time consuming.  i n t e r f e r e w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l  a r r i v e home a t an even l a t e r  hour.  The P r o v i n c i a l Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l s o has problems i n the Lower Mainland handicapped  children.  Worsely  recognized  area regarding t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r (1975) notes  t h a t the problem c o u l d  be s o l v e d i n two ways, e i t h e r by l o c a t i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n the a r e a s where the c h i l d r e n l i v e , on more d i r e c t r u n s .  facilities  or by o p e r a t i n g many s m a l l vans  The problem w i t h the f i r s t s o l u t i o n i s t h a t the  l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of handicapped  school children i s i n East  Vancouver where t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e of c l a s s r o o m space. of  One  The  Department  E d u c a t i o n has r e c e i v e d s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t they s h o u l d fund brand  facilities  f o r handicapped  taken i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . second  i n t h i s a r e a , but no a c t i o n has y e t been Worsely r e p o r t s t h a t the problem w i t h  s o l u t i o n i s the f u n d i n g .  However, due  p l a i n t s by the p a r e n t s and o t h e r concerned government has  involved i t s e l f  problem of t r a v e l time.  the  to the c o n s t a n t com-  citizens  the  provincial  i n f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n on  The Department o f E d u c a t i o n  r e q u e s t e d a r e p o r t to be prepared by  the  recently  the B r i t i s h Columbia L i o n s  S o c i e t y f o r C r i p p l e d C h i l d r e n (1975) on the s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n for  new  the Vancouver S c h o o l Board.  Hudson, the author of the r e p o r t  s t a t e d one major aim o f the r e p o r t was ling  to f i n d a way  to reduce t r a v e l  time spent on a s c h o o l bus to a maximum of f o r t y - f i v e minutes.  She i d e n t i f i e d  seven problems which a f f e c t the l e n g t h o f  travelling  time on the s c h o o l bus and they a r e as f o l l o w s :  1.  Traffic  -  (a) Buses a r e t r a v e l l i n g a t the peak of r u s h hour traffic (b) Time i s consumed i n t r y i n g to c r o s s busy s t r e e t s and i n t e r s e c t i o n s (c) Door-to-door p i c k - u p i s o f t e n hampered by b l o c k e d s t r e e t s and l a n e s (d) F a l l and w i n t e r weather c o n d i t i o n s have a s e r i o u s e f f e c t on the f l o w o f t r a f f i c . E v e r y y e a r the t r a f f i c problem becomes worse. 2.  Hours and D e s t i n a t i o n s S c h o o l hours 9:00 to 3:00 p.m. and 9:00 to 2:00 p.m. The moving of 301 c h i l d r e n i n the a.m. to be a t s c h o o l f o r 9:00 a.m. Not b e i n g a b l e to drop c h i l d r e n a t O a k r i d g e S c h o o l b e f o r e 8:45 a.m.'  3.  The number of s p e c i a l s c h o o l s c h i l d r e n a t t e n d (31) a r e s c a t t e r e d i n a l l f o u r c o r n e r s o f the C i t y . Many c h i l d r e n l i v i n g extreme E a s t a t t e n d s c h o o l which i s l o c a t e d extreme West and v i c e - v e r s a . This s i t u a t i o n i s undoing any good the c h i l d might have r e c e i v e d by a t t e n d i n g t h i s s p e c i a l c l a s s .  4.  These c h i l d r e n who t r a v e l on E a s t e r S e a l buses would not need s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i f they d i d not have problems i n l e a r n i n g , s o c i a l or p h y s i c a l , and many need h e l p to get on and o f f the buses which i s another timeconsuming f a c t o r to c o n s i d e r .  5.  C h i l d r e n not b e i n g ready f o r the bus Two minutes l o s t on f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n works out to oneh a l f hour t r a v e l l i n g time.  6.  L a c k o f communication between a l l p a r t i e s concerned p a r e n t s , s c h o o l s , S c h o o l Boards, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e t c . , e s p e c i a l l y the p a r e n t s when a c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r becomes a problem.  68  7. C o s t - A t r a n s p o r t a t i o n programme i s a v e r y c o s t l y b u s i n e s s and i s planned on the b a s i s o f what monies a r e a v a i l a b l e ; l a b o u r , o f c o u r s e , t a k i n g the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f the f u n d s .  Hudson's r e p o r t suggested the f o l l o w i n g methods to a c c o m p l i s h the t a s k of r e d u c i n g  the  time spent i n t r a n s i t by handicapped  school  children:  1.  using  e x t r a buses of the m i n i  2.  staggering  3.  t r y i n g to p l a c e schools  school  hours;  c h i l d r e n who  need s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g  i n the a r e a where they l i v e ,  the need f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; 4.  type;  thus e l i m i n a t i n g  and  e s t a b l i s h i n g more c e n t r a l i z e d d e s t i n a t i o n s whereby e l i m i n a t i n g the need f o r c h i l d r e n t r a v e l l i n g more miles  The  than needed.  r e p o r t s t r e s s e d t h a t a l t h o u g h the employment of  methods would d e c r e a s e the amount of same time i n c r e a s e s c a l e by an  time i n t r a v e l , i t would a t  the c o s t to o p e r a t e a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system  e s t i m a t e d $183,860 or 123.52% f o r a f u l l s c h o o l  For a d e t a i l e d breakdown o f the e s t i m a t e d c o s t s see Appendix Hudson i n d i c a t e s t h a t i f the E a s t e r to s o l v e such as  these  Seal Transportation  these problems, t h e r e would s t i l l the b l i n d and  deaf a t t e n d i n g  r e c e i v e no b e n e f i t s from any  this  term. B.  system were  be a number o f c h i l d r e n ,  Jericho H i l l  changes made.  the  She  r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s the l o c a t i o n o f the s c h o o l  School,  claims  who  would  the p r i n c i p l e  in relation  to where  69  the c h i l d r e n r e s i d e .  She  suggests t h a t s p e c i a l i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n would be needed f o r the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y .  It is  difficult  buses  and  to comprehend, however, t h a t the employment o f m i n i  the r e - r o u t i n g of the Vancouver S c h o o l Board s e r v i c e would not  some way  improve the  children travelling under the p r e s e n t  travel conditions to J e r i c h o H i l l  Easter  Seal  of  the b l i n d and  Schools.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n operators  p o i n t , i n t h i s case G.F. time and  cost w i l l  n e i t h e r be  i d e a l , p r a c t i c a l or  Transportation Board and  choice  c o n t i n u e to i n c r e a s e .  The  Easter  schools  the  T h i s a c t i o n would  appropriate.  Operators.  Both the Vancouver S c h o o l  S o c i e t y f o r C r i p p l e d C h i l d r e n who  Seal Transportation  the  of a c e n t r a l t r a n s f e r  the Department of E d u c a t i o n c o n t r a c t out  Columbia L i o n s  that  c h i l d r e n a r e not c e n t r a l -  Strong R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre, both  travelling  school  I t i s apparent  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, u n l e s s  o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l programmes f o r e x c e p t i o n a l i z e d near the  deaf  in  to The  British  o p e r a t e the  Easter  Service. Seal Society operates three  transportation services:  an i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e o f f e r i n g a t a x i - l i k e s e r v i c e to handicapped c h i l d r e n and  a d u l t s by appointment; a s c h e d u l e d s e r v i c e  handicapped c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l s  f o r the s c h o o l board; and  s c h e d u l e d s e r v i c e t r a n s p o r t i n g handicapped c h i l d r e n to h o s p i t a l s , schools,  treatment c e n t r e s ,  I n a study p r e p a r e d by T r a n s i t , he  found the s c h o o l bus  transporting  and  Gallagher  another  rehabilitation  a d u l t workshops. (1972) f o r the Bureau of  s e r v i c e to be  the b e t t e r  developed  70  o f the t h r e e s e r v i c e s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g o f f e r e d . was  The s c h o o l bus s e r v i c e  a l s o found to be the most economical system per s e a t / m i l e to  operate daily;  because: (a) the volume o f t r a f f i c  i s great;  (b) the demand i s  (c) and the r o u t e p a t t e r n s a r e s t a b l e ; and (d) d e s t i n a t i o n s a r e  concentrated.  He goes on to p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e s c h o o l s e r v i c e r o u t e s  i n the system make a s t r o n g east-west p a t t e r n . treatment f a c i l i t i e s  Because v i r t u a l l y a l l  f o r the handicapped a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d  west o f Cambie S t r e e t , the system, has  been d e s i g n e d ,  i n the a r e a  f o r the most  p a r t , to t r a n s p o r t c h i l d r e n from t h e i r homes i n the e a s t end o f Vancouver to f a c i l i t i e s  i n t h e w e s t e r n areas  I n 1975 t h i s scheduled c h i l d r e n every all  s e r v i c e p i c k e d up a p p r o x i m a t e l y  day and t r a n s p o r t e d  s e c t i o n s o f the Lower M a i n l a n d .  as f a r e a s t as F o r t L a n g l e y ,  o f the c i t y .  them to 50 d i f f e r e n t d e s t i n a t i o n s i n Perimeter  bus r o u t e s  C o q u i t l a m , D e l t a and Surrey  commencing using  v e h i c l e s met a t p r e s c r i b e d t r a n s f e r p o i n t s w i t h i n the c i t y . hundred and twenty o f these c h i l d r e n were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h School  Board w h i l e c h i l d r e n from J e r i c h o H i l l  return trips,  Schools  smaller Three  the Vancouver  made 57 d a i l y  3 one-way t r i p s and 9 weekend t r i p s by E a s t e r S e a l .  q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d the E a s t e r S e a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n as  730  The  Service  the most f r e q u e n t mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n used by the sample  p o p u l a t i o n when t r a v e l l i n g from s c h o o l to home.  Costs. a r e covered negotiates  The c o s t s o f t h i s s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e  by the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l boards, w i t h whom the s o c i e t y contracts.  I n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e i s a c o s t  sharing  71  agreement i n e f f e c t between the p r o v i n c i a l government and boards, whereby,the government pays 15% s c h o o l board which i s m u n i c i p a l l y  who  i n t u r n s i g n them over to the E a s t e r  the p a r e n t s and  1975,  individual  Jericho  the p a r e n t s  Hill  districts  grants, For  the f o l l o w i n g monies were r e c e i v e d Seal  Society:  Amount  Name  $ 6,150.00  38  Richmond  39  Vancouver  40  New  41  Burnaby  4,780.00  44  N o r t h Vancouver  2,340.00  The  Service  I n a d d i t i o n to the Seal Transportation  and  1,570.00  Westminster  f o r the 1975 - 76 s c h o o l y e a r was  For a breakdown o f these see Appendix  o f i t s own  28,000.00  c o s t of the Vancouver S c h o o l Board's c o n t r a c t w i t h the  Seal Transportation  van  As  school  S e a l S o c i e t y as payment.  d i s p e n s e d to the E a s t e r  District  one  the  the s c h o o l boards i n the  S c h o o l s t u d e n t s r e s i d e , pay  the year ending December 31, by  the c o s t and  funded, pays 85%.  School i s a p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , where J e r i c h o H i l l  of  the  one  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n provided  are m a i n t a i n e d a t the S c h o o l .  f o r by  School operates  25 passenger bus,  s t a t i o n wagon.  $148,841.  B.  Service, Jericho H i l l  vehicles—one  Easter  one  14  the  Easter  several  passenger  bus,  These v e h i c l e s a r e government owned, Occasionally  additional services  are  and  72  provided by hired buses and the entire cost is paid for by the provinc i a l government.  The annual budget allotted to Jericho H i l l School  for the operation of their transportation programme in 1974/1975 was  $1000.  Bus Safety.  In British Columbia, the individual school  board is responsible for their districts school transportation programme including school bus safety.  The parents noted their concern in the  questionnaire that adequate safety standards were not being met.  They  specifically note the lack of safety belts, l i t t l e or no supervision, the overloading of children at certain times, and the fear that some drivers are too old to meet with emergencies.  Given that the individual  school board is responsible for bus safety i t is up to them to set certain safety standards to which their contracting transportation operator must be made to adhere. The selection and orientation of bus drivers is important for the safety of a l l school children.  In a study dealing with the trans-  portation of handicapped children to recreational activities, Pomeroy (1964) suggests that character and resourcefulness along with the ability to drive should be considered when hiring a driver.  To ensure  safe driving, a person, to qualify, must meet certain minimum requirements which include such factors as health, age, f i r s t aid knowledge, and driving s k i l l s . The responding parents indicated that the problems that arise in the transportation of the handicapped children are, in many  73  ways different from those of non-handicapped children. on the methods of handling handicapped child on buses  In a report Mandel (1975)  suggests that i f there are no special transportation devices on the bus, the driver should avail himself of any information on the handling of the children under ordinary conditions and every child should have personal identification as to their special needs.  Both the parents  in the survey and the members of the Committee on the Special Needs of Special Children questioned the lack of proper supervision on the school buses.  Due to the additional cost of placing attendants on  the school buses, the Easter Seal Transportation Service have employed only two attendants which are used on the large 50-passenger buses. Bus attendants would be an aid to both the bus driver and children i n that their main duties are: 1.  to load and unload the multiply handicapped children;  2.  to maintain control of the children while i n transit (operation);  3.  to look after the needs of the children; and  4.  to assist the driver i n emergency situations. The Easter Seal Transportation Service  requires that their  drivers have the required licence (Class A) for operating a bus and a safe driving record.  New drivers are required to undergo a one week  training period and pass a specified probationary period before being hired.  In-service training includes safety standards, l i f t i n g and  transferring handicapped persons, tire changes and equipment use.  74  Employees are made responsible for their vehicles in terms of reporting mileage and upkeep.  The drivers must be 19 years of age and  may  drive after 65 years of age but must report for regular medical checkups.  Jericho H i l l School bus drivers must also meet similar standards  to qualify.  Teachers and child-care counsellors, at Jericho H i l l  School w i l l act as attendants on the buses while on field trips.  The  school behaviour rules under the Public Schools Act pertain to the children while travelling on the bus.  Transportation Policy.  The Department of Education trans-  portation policy is predicated upon the assumption that two categories of students are involved in pupil transportation: 1.  Those who are not physically handicapped; and  2.  Kindergarten pupils and physically handicapped pupils who  for other reasons require special  transportation. School boards transporting children residing in areas beyond a departmental walk limit are eligible to receive grants to assist in the provision of such transportation.  Those children who are kindergarten  or physically handicapped pupils are eligible to receive either shareable bus transportation or Transportation Assistance Allowances, regardless of any walk limits.  These Transportation Assistance Allowances, in  the form of grants, may be available to parents and are paid through the local Board of School Trustees: costs are shared with the Department of Education.  E f f e c t i v e January 1, 1975, t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n has shared  the c o s t s o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Allowance w i t h  s c h o o l boards a c c o r d i n g  1.  to the f o l l o w i n g  the l o c a l  formula:  25C p e r p u p i l p e r day, p l u s 15c p e r v e h i c l e m i l e (or p a r t )  t r a v e l l e d p e r day, to a maximum o f  $3.75 per p u p i l per day; 2.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s f o r p h y s i c a l l y handicapped p u p i l s who t r a v e l 13 m i l e s p e r day o r l e s s a r e shared  at a flat  rate of  $2.25 p e r p u p i l per day,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r such p u p i l s who t r a v e l more than 13 m i l e s p e r day a r e shared item 3.  a c c o r d i n g to  (1); and  I n s p e c i a l cases where p h y s i c a l l y handicapped p u p i l s must be t r a n s p o r t e d i n v e h i c l e s designed date w h e e l c h a i r s , of the c o s t s .  to accommo-  e t c . , t h e Department shares  i n 75%  D i s t r i c t s submit d e t a i l s o f such  cases  separately. -  Bus is involved.  r o u t e s may be extended to any p o i n t even i f o n l y one p u p i l S h a r e a b i l i t y f o r g r a n t purposes i s based, i n r e s p e c t to  the a d d i t i o n a l m i l e a g e involved," upon the l e s s e r o f :  1.  the m i l e a g e r a t e a p p l i c a b l e to the S c h o o l  District  concerned o r 2.  the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Allowance amount.  76  A l l cases involving Transportation Assistance are dealt with by the local Board of School Trustees concerned and the Parents involved. Extra-curricular activities involving the transportation of pupils are the financial responsibility of the individual School Board concerned.  Legislation.  The legislation dealing with the conveyance  of pupils to and from any school i n a particular school d i s t r i c t i s set down i n the Public Schools Act Regulations.  Specific clauses i n  Regulation 160 pertaining to the transportation of pupils are as follows: 160 (1) The Board of a School District may: (a) provide for and defray the cost of the conveyance to and from any school i n the school d i s t r i c t that is a considerable distance from the school; (b) provide for and defray the cost of conveyance of pupils for the purposes related to the instructional or other activities of the schools; (c) subject to the regulations, enter into an agreement with a recreation commission, or a parks and recreation commission, or a civic properties and recreation commission, or any other similar body, to permit the use by such commission or other body of buses owned by the Board, for the purposes of a recreation programme; and (d) provide for and defray the cost of the conveyance of pupils resident in the school d i s t r i c t to a school i n another school district i f the pupils attend such school under an agreement entered into under this Act between the Boards of the respective school d i s t r i c t s . Although the Department of Education has set down written policies regarding the transportation of pupils and has passed legislation dealing with the conveyance of pupils to and from any school in a particu-  lar  school d i s t r i c t ,  there  to p r o v i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n preventing of  the  operation  is  still  no r e g u l a t i o n c o m p e l l i n g s c h o o l s  to p u p i l s . o f a bus  There  route  E d u c a t i o n to be w h o l l y o r p a r t l y The l a c k o f m a n d a t o r y  legislation)  regarding  school d i s t r i c t s decides  not  funded  implications. for  If  (1972)  If  a local  full  to  p o i n t e d out  independence.  get  to  present  the  Fifth  i s not  gathered  is  in  the  this  a  be  special  this,  child to  to  a  not  employment  Due t o  Report of the  a n d C h i l d r e n ' s Law was p u b l i s h e d .  s p e c i a l needs o f s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n , the c h i l d r e n with handicaps most  parents  is  oppor-  parents not  effect  in  the  study. In March 1975,  Family  school board  a n d may e v e n  that without full  the  confronted with  special transportation  ' No e v i d e n c e was  by  o r h a n d i n g them o v e r  may d e c i d e o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n e v e n i f t h e i r severely handicapped.  enabling  p u p i l s , many  w o u l d be  c h i l d r e n may n e v e r h a v e  their  Department  transportation  their  home,  t r e a t m e n t may b e h a r d  the  or reach  reside,  them a t  institution.  Gallagher  transportation, tunities  caring for  regular  impossible.  (compared w i t h  c h i l d r e n whose s p e c i a l s c h o o l programme  choice of either  available,  regulations  they  regulation  'non-shareable.'  transportation  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t where  publicly  a l s o no  c o n s i d e r e d by the  provision of pupil  certain  to p r o v i d e  of handicapped local  has  the  is  other  children.  p o s s i b l e exposure handicaps.  have  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n On  In Part  IV dealing with  commission recognized  s p e c i a l needs o v e r and above  problems  of  children with  that  those of  The C o m m i s s i o n ' s g o a l was t o b r i n g t h e  to the  the  a variety  best . of  78  The being, his  Commission's b a s i c p o s i t i o n was t h a t a c h i l d as a human  i s entitled  to human r i g h t s .  handicap should The  incorporated  not diminish  A l s o , where a c h i l d  i s handicapped,  h i s r i g h t s as a c h i l d .  Commission recommended t h a t the f o l l o w i n g r i g h t s should be into  legislation:  1.  A l l c h i l d r e n must have a c c e s s to an e d u c a t i o n appropriate to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs; f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l needs such a c c e s s i n c l u d e s adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y , s p e c i a l a i d s and programmes. I t i s o f paramount importance to m a i n t a i n the i n t e g r i t y of the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y , i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e . Thus h i s s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e b e s t served by del i v e r i n g the s e r v i c e s to him r a t h e r than f o r c i n g him to t r a v e l beyond h i s immediate community.  2.  I n o r d e r t o promote p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h and to remedy i l l n e s s , c h i l d r e n must have a c c e s s to a l l a s p e c t s of h e a l t h care. T h i s r i g h t suggests r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s to and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f h e a l t h c a r e and i n c l u d e s the r i g h t a t p u b l i c expense to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to a h e a l t h f a c i l i t y i n cases o f emergency o r i n cases o f handicapped c h i l d r e n whose a c c e s s to t h i s i s r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r handicap.  3.  C h i l d r e n must be p r o v i d e d w i t h the r i g h t to p l a y and r e c reation. P l a y and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s should be a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to handicapped c h i l d r e n and where r e q u i r e d , s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to these f a c i l i t i e s should be p r o v i d e d . s  4.  The Department o f E d u c a t i o n must ensure t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e s f o r a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e i t , and f u r t h e r , t h e department s h o u l d s p e c i f y i n i t s r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t t h e r e be a maximum d a i l y l e n g t h o f time c h i l d r e n should be i n t r a n s i t .  The i s provided, educational use  Commission s t r e s s e d  that unless  satisfactory transportation  a handicapped c h i l d may be unable to make use o f the s p e c i a l facilities  of educational  created  facilities  f o r him. should  Transportation  planning  f o r the  be the fundamental p a r t o f the  o v e r a l l p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g .  A l t h o u g h p u b l i c t r a n s i t may  r i a t e f o r some handicapped c h i l d r e n t h e r e prevent i t s  be  approp-  are o t h e r s whose h a n d i c a p ( s )  use.  Given t h a t government p o l i c y i s to i n t e g r a t e , wherever p o s s i b l e , handicapped c h i l d r e n and  adults  i n t o s o c i e t y , then i t must be  to propose a s t a t u t o r y s t r e n g t h e n i n g handicapped. courts  o f p r o v i n c i a l laws r e l a t i n g to  Lowry (1972) suggests t h a t w h i l e w a i t i n g  the  f o r the p r o v i n c i a l  t o become a t t u n e d to changes i n s o c i a l p o l i c y , the l e g i s l a t u r e s  should s e r i o u s l y consider  enacting  American Model White Cane Law shift  reasonable  new  laws.  For  proposes a s t a t u t o r y  i n p u b l i c p o l i c y t o g e t h e r w i t h the s t a t u t o r y  b a s i c p r o t e c t i o n o f the b l i n d (see Appendix Lowry f e e l s t h a t then modern s c h o o l  the  r e c o g n i t i o n of strengthening  the of  C).  i f such l e g i s l a t i o n i s passed p r o v i n c i a l l y ,  p o l i c y w i l l be made more w o r k a b l e .  SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN  From the  instance,  review o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s ,  VANCOUVER  i t i s apparent  that  e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r the handicapped are becoming more and page  more fragmented i n b o t h the p r i v a t e and  public sectors  (see  52 ) • Both groups have t h e i r r a t i o n a l e f o r the way  vehicles.  Each has  of a c t i v i t y .  i t s own  While t h e r e  the s e r v i c e i s not  c l i e n t e l e and  seems to be  properly  they o p e r a t e t h e i r  o f t e n i t s own  physical  centre  s u f f i c i e n t v e h i c l e s i n Vancouver,  coordinated.  80  If the  f r a g m e n t a t i o n c o n t i n u e s the f o l l o w i n g problems may e x i s t i n  future: 1.  d u p l i c a t i o n of routes;  2.  i n s u f f i c i e n t s c a l e o f demand o f i n d i v i d u a l  3.  l a c k o f e f f i c i e n t communication between . c l i e n t s ,  operations;  d r i v e r s and c e n t r e s ; 4.  lack of s p e c i a l i z e d features severely  5.  handicapped  on v e h i c l e s  f o r handling  clients;  u n d e r - u t i l i z a t i o n of transportation  facilities  ( v e h i c l e s and d r i v e r s ) ; and 6.  inadequate t r a i n i n g o f d r i v e r s to handle  clients.  F r a g m e n t a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s i n Vancouver has a f f e c t e d of handicapped c h i l d r e n i n the c i t y .  Nineteen parents reported  l a c k o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n somewhat r e s t r i c t s particularly  the t r a v e l  the p l a c e s  f o r s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  their child The  t h a t the can go,  transportation  used by those c h i l d r e n who d i d p a r t i c i p a t e i n these types o f a c t i v i t i e s was p r o v i d e d  f o r the most p a r t by t h e p a r e n t s .  m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s was n o t seen as g r e a t  Transportation  to  a problem f o r the p a r e n t s .  The  r e a s o n f o r t h i s , i n p a r t , may be the p r o v i s i o n o f m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s and the e x i s t a n c e  of a school  infirmary at Jericho H i l l  School.  GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROVISION OF SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES  The Advisory Committee on the Needs of the Physically Handicapped was set-up i n 1973 to focus on British Columbia's involvement in the provision of transportation services and f a c i l i t i e s for the handicapped.  The Committee recognized both the serious shortage of  transportation for the handicapped in the Greater Vancouver area and the lack of defined responsibility by the provincial government. 1974,  In  the Committee made these recommendations to the Provincial  Government. TRANSPORTATION Recommendation #6 The Committee Recommends that: 1.  the Minister of Human Resources create a position of administrator of transportation for the handicapped to act as a central authority;  2. an advisory board to the central authority be appointed with representatives from groups involved with and of handicapped people; and 3.  the central authority and advisory board consider the immediate need for short term goals and long term planning.  Immediate Need — Evaluation and funding for existing services to prevent collapsing and to ensure continuing transportation services for the handicapped. Short Term Goal — To coordinate, integrate, and expand existing transportation services to be used as a model for a provincial transportation system for the handicapped. Long Term Planning — To investigate existing resources, public, private, volunteer, commercial and f i l l i n gaps i n S 6 IT V I C 6  To ensure that the design and planning of existing and future transportation services and f a c i l i t i e s whether municipal, regional, provincial, or federal are usable by handicapped people (subway, etc.) throughout the province.  TRANSPORTATION Recommendation #12 The Committee Recommends t h a t : 1.  such l e g i s l a t i o n be d r a f t e d and passed i n t o law by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government;  2.  the province s p e c i f y a c e r t a i n percentage o f a l l g r a n t s a l l o t t e d f o r urban t r a n s i t be used to e s t a b l i s h and/or improve t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r t h e handicapped.  Note:  These two recommendations would ensure t h a t t h e handicapped a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n any present and future t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g o f any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n made i n the p r o v i n c e .  3.  funds f o r s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s o f any mode s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d from the p u b l i c t r e a s u r y as i s the c a s e f o r p r e s e n t p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  4.  t h e c i v i c - m u n i c i p a l and/or r e g i o n a l l e v e l o f government should be a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the e s t a b l i s h i n g and/or i m p r o v i n g o f any handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n services i n t h e i r l o c a l area. This p a r t i c i p a t i o n would i n c l u d e m a i n l y p l a n n i n g and f i n a n c i n g and o p e r a t i n g o f the s e r v i c e .  Note:  Presumably the f i n a n c e s would be n e g o t i a t e d on a c o s t - s h a r e d b a s i s between t h e c i v i l - m u n i c i p a l and/or r e g i o n a l l e v e l s o f l o c a l government, (whichever has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n a s p e c i f i c a r e a ) and the p r o v i n c i a l government. The Bureau o f T r a n s i t s e r v i c e s would be f i n a n c i a l l y i n v o l v e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n , Department o f H e a l t h and t h e D e p a r t ment o f Human R e s o u r c e s . T h i s would make up the p r o v i n c i a l government f i n a n c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t . As w e l l , the f e d e r a l government i s now i n the p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g a p o l i c y o f s u b s i d i z a t i o n to handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n through the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of Transport. I t i s expected t h a t they would a l s o c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l l y .  5.  t h e government c r e a t e a p o s i t i o n o f a handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r to e v a l u a t e , coordinate and i n t e g r a t e handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; and then a u t h o r i z e the a p p r o p r i a t e f i n a n c i n g to b r i n g about a c o h e s i v e system o f handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes f o r the province. The handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r s h o u l d have the a u t h o r i t y to work w i t h any government department and p r i v a t e agency concerned w i t h handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  83  6.  l i a i s o n between t h e Department o f Human Resources and t h e Bureau o f T r a n s i t S e r v i c e s be s t a r t e d as soon as implementation o f recommendation "#1" i s made, u n t i l such time as t h e Bureau i s a b l e to take on t h i s additional specific responsibility.  7.  all existing  legislation i n the s t a t u t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the new B r i t i s h Columbia T r a n s i t A c t , be made use o f to p r o p e r l y i n t e g r a t e and c o o r d i n a t e all forms and all modes of handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n I n the p r o v i n c e .  Jones  (1975) o f t h e Department o f Human Resources,  commenting  upon the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f recommendations made by t h e A d v i s o r y Committee on t h e Needs o f t h e Handicapped,  s t a t e s t h a t work i s now g o i n g on to  determine how some e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s  i n the Lower Mainland c a n a c h i e v e  b e t t e r i n t e g r a t i o n so t h a t maximum s e r v i c e s a r e made a v a i l a b l e from t h e funds which a r e p r e s e n t l y b e i n g a l l o c a t e d . referring  S p e c i f i c a l l y , he i s  to some n o n - p r o f i t community based groups  i n D e l t a , Surrey  and White Rock a r e a who a r e a l r e a d y funded  through the Department o f  Human Resources  The main o b j e c t i v e o f these  groups  Community Grants Program.  i s to ensure t h a t d u p l i c a t i o n does n o t o c c u r and whether  by  c o o r d i n a t i n g such t a s k s as s c r e e n i n g , d i s p a t c h i n g , and the p u r c h a s i n g of  equipment.  initial  Jones suggests t h a t t h i s p l a n may be p e r c e i v e d as an  s t a r t on Recommendation #6. Jones s t a t e d  t h a t as D i r e c t o r o f the D i v i s i o n o f Community P r o -  grammes he d i d n o t have i n f o r m a t i o n on the implementation o f t h e o t h e r items Recommendations #6 and' #12. Resources  does r e a l i z e  p h y s i c a l l y handicapped equipment.  But, he noted, the Department o f Human  t h a t p r o b a b l y t h e g r e a t e s t m a j o r i t y o f those a r e unable to use the s t a n d a r d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Thus, i t i s apparent the government i s aware o f t h e  84  problems and needs o f the handicapped but i s not w i l l i n g , to implement  a l l o f the A d v i s o r y  Committee's  most l i k e l y because o f the a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s is  at t h i s time,  Recommendations: involved.  This  this i s conclusion  r e a s o n a b l e i n l i g h t o f the p r e s e n t r e s o u r c e s c a r c i t y , f i s c a l problems  and the f a c t t h a t an a d v i s o r y  these recommendations  committee  f o r a previous  r e p r e s e n t e d work completed by  government.  From the d i s c u s s i o n o f the e x t e n t to which p u b l i c and s p e c i a l transportation hearing  s e r v i c e s are a c c e s s i b l e  impairments, a p r e s e n t a t i o n  s i d e r ways i n which t r a n s p o r t a t i o n be improved.  to c h i l d r e n w i t h v i s u a l and  i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l services  con-  f o r these c h i l d r e n might  REFERENCES CHAPTER V  A d v i s o r y Committee on the Needs of the Handicapped. Recommendations P r e s e n t e d to the Department of Human Resources, V i c t o r i a , 1974.  Chud, B.  Report o f I n q u i r y J e r i c h o H i l l S c h o o l . Submitted to the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , Vancouver, B.C., 1974.  C r u i c k s h a n k , W. and Johnson, G. E d u c a t i o n of E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n Youth. Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1958.  F i f t h Report of the R o y a l Commission on F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Law. P a r t IV, S p e c i a l Needs of S p e c i a l C h i l d r e n . Vancouver, March 1975.  G a l l a g h e r , T. M o b i l i t y f o r the D i s a b l e d : Towards a P o l i c y on P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r D i s a b l e d B r i t i s h Columbians. P r e p a r e d f o r the Bureau of T r a n s i t , Vancouver, 1973.  Hudson, K. Report on the S p e c i a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the Vancouver S c h o o l Board. Prepared f o r the Vancouver S c h o o l Board, Vancouver, December 30, 1975.  Jones, R.  P e r s o n a l Communication,  Lowry, D.  B l i n d Rights Report.  November  1975.  Dalhousie University, Halifax,  Mandel, L. " T r a n s p o r t i n g the Handicapped C h i l d -1975," Fleet. F e b r u a r y - March 1975, pp. 23-28.  Pomeroy, C. R e c r e a t i o n f o r Handicapped C h i l d r e n . New M a c m i l l a n Company and the F r e e P r e s s , 1964.  1972  S c h o o l Bus  York: The  86  P u b l i c Schools A c t Regulations. Province of B r i t i s h V i c t o r i a : Queens P r i n t e r , 1975.  Worsely, D.  Columbia,  P e r s o n a l Communication, June 11, 1975,  Yuker, H. The T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l l y D i s a b l e d S t u d e n t s . Human Resources Study, No. 10, A b e r t s o n : Human Resources C o r p o r a t i o n , 1967.  87  CHAPTER VI  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has shown t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e support  evidence to  development o f s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s o f b l i n d and  deaf c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t h a t they may use r e g u l a r r e c r e a t i o n a l or  attend medical services.  of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to s c h o o l . It  will In  facilities  However, problems a r e e v i d e n t i n the a r e a  i s n o t c l e a r a t the p r e s e n t time whether J e r i c h o H i l l  remain as a c e n t r a l f a c i l i t y  the former  or i f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n w i l l  occur.  s i t u a t i o n b a s i c improvements t o the s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  s e r v i c e must be made.  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t  taken from p a r e n t ' s responses  o f s u g g e s t i o n s have been  and comments.  1.  The E a s t e r S e a l s h o u l d have a t t e n d a n t s on a l l o f i t s buses.  2.  The E a s t e r S e a l s h o u l d p r o v i d e mini-buses shuttle  3.  i n the form o f a  service.  Bus r o u t e s s h o u l d be d i r e c t  t o the s c h o o l s and t r a n s f e r  points discarded. 4.  Parents  s h o u l d be immediately  n o t i f i e d o f any a c c i d e n t o r  breakdown. 5.  Separate  School  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e s s h o u l d be arranged  deaf and b l i n d  children.  f o r the  88  6.  P a r e n t s s h o u l d get t o g e t h e r and arrange to p r o v i d e music or another a c t i v i t y  7.  Drivers  f o r the c h i l d r e n w h i l e i n t r a n s i t .  should insure  the c h i l d r e n a r e p r o p e r l y  s e a t e d and  secure i n t h e i r seats. 8.  Drivers  s h o u l d be more c o n s i d e r a t e  o f t h e i r passengers.  9.  The l u n c h hour might be s h o r t e n e d to a l l o w  the c h i l d r e n t o  a r r i v e home a t an e a r l i e r hour.  I n the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n ( d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ) i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o seek out which t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  a l t e r n a t i v e ( s ) a r e a v a i l a b l e and d e c i d e  which would be most s u i t a b l e as an i n i t i a l transportation  step  i n the d e s i g n o f a  system a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e b l i n d and deaf c h i l d r e n .  A l t e r n a t i v e Systems o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  With  Decentralization  There a r e two p o s s i b l e methods by which e q u a l a c c e s s to p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by the c h i l d r e n can be a c h i e v e d . p r o v i d e a system o f i n t e g r a t e d sent  facilities.  i s to  through the a d a p t a t i o n  of pre-  There a r e , however, problems w i t h such a system due  to the p o t e n t i a l e x i s t e n c e the " c h a l l e n g e  services  The f i r s t  of travel barriers.  Abt (1969: 48) s t a t e s  o f e l i m i n a t i n g t r a v e l b a r r i e r s i s compounded by the f a c t  t h a t both p h y s i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and t r a v e l b a r r i e r s o c c u r i n combination, rather  than i n d i v i d u a l l y , w i t h any p e r s o n o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode."  Therefore,  the e l i m i n a t i o n o f one b a r r i e r , r e g a r d l e s s  w i l l n o t make the i n t e g r a t e d the  population.  o f i t s importance,  system a c c e s s i b l e to a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f  89  S p e c i f i c to the sample p o p u l a t i o n requirements. to  o f the i n f o r m a t i o n  longer  are  sensory  To use p u b l i c t r a n s i t systems the passenger i s r e q u i r e d  r e c e i v e and p r o c e s s  speakers.  i n t h i s study  i n f o r m a t i o n about s c h e d u l e s  t h a t guides  him  routes.  Much  i s t r a n s m i t t e d by s i g n s and  loud-  I f h e a r i n g or s e e i n g i s i m p a i r e d ,  communicated.  and  t r a v e l i n f o r m a t i o n i s no  Improvements i n i n f o r m a t i o n  and  t r a n s m i s s i o n need  to be undertaken as w e l l as the removal o f c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s such as l o n g s t a i r c a s e s , narrow doors, d e s i g n and  c o n s t r u c t i o n time p e r i o d s  improvements to the p r e s e n t to  transit  i t would o n l y have a m a r g i n a l  and h i g h bus  and  difficult  impact on  handicapped to the s e r v i c e .  It is likely  about from a complete system  redesign.  The  high  t h a t i s s p e c i a l l y designed  to recommend.  Adaptations  The  parallel  t r a n s i t system. operation  Possibly  can p r o v i d e  f o r the use of handicapped c h i l d r e n .  demand-responsive type of s e r v i c e o f f e r s  b e n e f i t s i n that i t provides i n d i v i d u a l s who  The  principle  one  Generdoor-to-  important to  underlying  o f a s p e c i a l s e r v i c e when and where i t i s  r e q u i r e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y where no p u b l i c t r a n s i t system i s b e s t i n s i t u a t i o n s , where no forecast.  is  d i r e c t m o b i l i t y on a one-to-one b a s i s  have g r e a t e s t need.  t h i s concept i s the supply  the  improvements can o n l y come  such s e r v i c e s run on a demand-responsive b a s i s , o f f e r i n g  door m o b i l i t y .  those  c o s t would make c a p i t a l  second method i s through the development of  the most f a v o u r a b l e p a t t e r n which t r a n s i t  Lengthy  the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f  s e r v i c e s which would complement the p r e s e n t  ally,  steps.  is available.  The  long-range demand p a t t e r n can  be  90  Problems under c e n t r a l o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i l l be s o l v e d through  p r o p o s a l s put forward  Regional D i s t r i c t proposals. accommodate a broad D i s t r i c t prepared  under the G r e a t e r Vancouver  The s e r v i c e s proposed  range o f h a n d i c a p s .  a r e designed to  The G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l  the f o l l o w i n g diagram i l l u s t r a t i n g  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d e v e l o p i n g system and i d e n t i f y i n g  the p r i n c i p l e interlocking  relationships. At the m i c r o - l e v e l the f o l l o w i n g l i s t parent's  1.  responses  and comments.  Bus d r i v e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d handicapped  2.  o f s u g g e s t i o n s came from  i n the h a n d l i n g o f  people.  P l a c e d e s t i n a t i o n s h o u l d be p l a c e d on b o t h  the f r o n t  and back o f the bus. 3.  I n f o r m a t i o n booths s h o u l d be l o c a t e d a t every major bus  4.  loop.  A B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro Bus pass  c o u l d s i m p l i f y bus  t r a v e l f o r the c h i l d r e n . 5.  C h i l d r e n s h o u l d be g i v e n s p e c i a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Cards which would make bus d r i v e r s aware o f the handicap and whether i t i s p h y s i c a l o r communicative.  F i n a l l y , moving to the macro l e v e l some g e n e r a l recommendations can be put forward  t h a t may r e s o l v e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems  the v a r i o u s s e r v i c e c e n t r e s and p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t o r s :  facing  91  GVRD . Greater Vancouver Regional District  Bureau o f T r a n s i t (Min. o f M u n i c i p a l Affairs)  Department o f Human Resources  GREATER VANCOUVER TRANSIT SYSTEM  S p e c i a l System f o r the Handicapped  B.C. Hydro Transit  P a c i f i c Stage Lines  West Vancouver Municipal Transit  d i r e c t l i n e s of control communication  Figure 8  Source:  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the R e g i o n a l  Transit  Organization  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r a L i v a b l e Region by G r e a t e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , p. 90.  Vancouver  Others  That l e g i s l a t i o n s e c u r i n g handicapped persons e q u a l r i g h t of a c c e s s t o p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n be d r a f t e d i n t o law by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government.  and passed  T h i s would  guarantee t h a t a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s a r e taken i n t o account i n p r e s e n t and f u t u r e  transportation  planning.  That r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f u n d i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n  required  f o r the p a r a l l e l s e r v i c e be s e c u r e d from t h e p u b l i c as i t i s f o r t h e p r e s e n t p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Presumably t h e f i n a n c e s would be n e g o t i a t e d  treasury  system.  on a  cost-shared  b a s i s between the c i v i l - m u n i c i p a l and/or r e g i o n a l l e v e l s o f l o c a l government. sidered  In order that  t h i s new s e r v i c e be con-  an a l t e r n a t i v e mode o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i t  s h o u l d have s i m i l a r f u n d i n g  provisions.  That Vancouver s h o u l d be a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f any new s p e c i a l s e r v i c e , because community i s b a s i c a l l y a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the municipal  transportation government.  That c o n t r o l o f any p a r a l l e l s e r v i c e be d i s c h a r g e d community l e v e l , differ  as p a r t i c u l a r needs o f each  community  considerably.  That the Department o f M u n i c i p a l for looking services  a t the  A f f a i r s be made  i n t o requests f o r help  i n setting-up  f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s .  the new s p e c i a l s e r v i c e be c o n s i d e r e d  responsible transit  In order  a public u t i l i t y  that rather  93  than a s o c i a l s e r v i c e i t s h o u l d c a t e g o r y as the p u b l i c  be d e s i g n a t e d  to the same  transit.  SUMMARY  The  p r o v i s i o n o f a p a r a l l e l system run on a demand-responsive  b a s i s o f f e r s important b e n e f i t s i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s and  therefore mobility.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  d i r e c t access  o f t h i s s e r v i c e would  enable t h e p u b l i c t r a n s i t system t o c l a i m t h a t i t r e n d e r s e q u a l i t y o f access to a l l c i t i z e n s :  entitlement  would be o f essence, a r i g h t  which can be thought o f as fundamental because i t p r o v i d e s  freedom.  However, i f J e r i c h o H i l l S c h o o l remains as a c e n t r a l f a c i l i t y education  o f deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n a more l o c a l i z e d w e l l  s h u t t l e s e r v i c e would be the maximum A pertinent the  current  problem:  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n should chief conclusion  l i m i t e d and B r i t i s h  the extent o f  " I t seems g r o s s l y u n f a i r t h a t handicapped have t o t r a v e l such l o n g hours  every day o f the week t o t r y to o b t a i n  The  organized  requirement.  comment from one p a r e n t d e s c r i b e s  c h i l d r e n who a r e o f t e n i l l s h o u l d  efficient  f o r the  an e d u c a t i o n .  We  feel  be g i v e n each one."  o f t h i s t h e s i s i s that resources are  Columbia S o c i e t y has y e t t o be d e f i n i t i v e i n  s e t t i n g out i t s standards, p o l i c i e s ,  and laws which might p r o v i d e f o r  adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l .  • REFERENCES CHAPTER VI  G r e a t e r Vancouver Region.  Regional D i s t r i c t . Transportation f o r a Livable Vancouver, October 1973.  95  . POSTSCRIPT  This and  study has  c o n c e n t r a t e d upon a l i t t l e  i n e v i t a b l y further research  p r e s e n t study employing b e t t e r  i s warranted. research  whether the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s c o u l d be capped  be  R e p l i c a t i o n of  instruments  generalized  area  the  might determine  to o t h e r h a n d i -  populations. The  dations  investigated  f i n d i n g s of the p r e s e n t study and  are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to J e r i c h o H i l l  a p p l i c a b l e to the  S c h o o l and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n programs i n any  In a d d i t i o n , the sample s i z e was t i o n i n g c o u l d be  the r e s u l t i n g recommen-  described  small  as o n l y b o r d e r l i n e .  other  and To  thus may  not  institutions.  i n terms o f illustrate  func-  the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs o f handicapped persons b e t t e r , a group dependent on  the w h e e l c h a i r would have i d e a l l y been chosen.  on  the p a r t  of s e v e r a l organizations  handicapped group was  not  was  the  Lack of  r e a s o n why  a  cooperation severely  studied.  Implications  Although there that  the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  remains much ground to c o v e r , i t i s apparent o f p r e s e n t s e r v i c e s and  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  s p e c i a l p a r a l l e l s e r v i c e s h o l d s much promise f o r the f a i r and  adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  system.  development o f  Unless there be  use  f o r them.  programmes c r e a t e d  a  is satisfactory  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o v i d e d , handicapped c h i l d r e n may o f the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l  of  unable to make Transpor-  96  t a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d both by s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t r a n s i t planners i n t h e i r i n i t i a l  public  program p l a n n i n g : i t i s an a s p e c t  which i s e s s e n t i a l to the e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l development o f the child. To guarantee  t h a t the handicapped  account o f i n p r e s e n t and of  legislation  blind  and deaf c h i l d r e n are taken  f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g , implementation  s e c u r i n g the handicapped  p u b l i c t r a n s i t must be made.  persons e q u a l r i g h t o f a c c e s s to  I f government p o l i c y i s to i n t e g r a t e  b l i n d and deaf c h i l d r e n wherever p o s s i b l e i n t o s o c i e t y , then i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to propose  a statutory strengthening of p r o v i n c i a l  r e l a t i n g t o handicapped  laws  people.  P r o p o s a l s f o r F u r t h e r Research  T h i s p r o j e c t r e p r e s e n t e d a b e g i n n i n g p o i n t i n the study o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n requirements Vancouver.  I t i s suggested  o f b l i n d and deaf s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h a t o t h e r areas of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  be examined on a wider s c a l e and i n a way With  the r e s u l t i n g d a t a , i t i s suggested  services  s i m i l a r to t h a t of t h i s t h a t one handicapped  study.  group  be s e l e c t e d and a p i l o t s e r v i c e set-up f o r them which c o u l d be rigorously evaluated. While t h i s t o p i c may flect  the l a c k o f p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e and d a t a r e l a t i v e to have imposed a l i m i t a t i o n  the need f o r such an u n d e r t a k i n g .  to the p r o j e c t , i t does r e Because o f the numerous  v a r i a b l e s t h a t must be taken i n t o account, c o n s i d e r a b l y more r e s e a r c h must be c a r r i e d out i n t h i s a r e a b e f o r e any o v e r a l l p l a n s can be  designed and implemented.  A further l i m i t a t i o n to this study was  disadvantage of using a mailed questionnaire. concentrate One  upon i n depth personal  should  interviews.  other aspect which must be considered  involvement.  i s that of c l i e n t  Although the frame of reference-directly considered  c l i e n t , i t i s suggested that he may only way  Future studies  the  be more d i r e c t l y involved.  the  The  one can be assured that the transportation operators are  ful-  f i l l i n g t h e i r function i s through communication with those i n receipt i t s services.  Such feedback would be invaluable i n assessing  formulating transportation p o l i c i e s ' and practices.  and  98  S E L E C T E D  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  99  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books  Abt A s s o c i a t e s I n c . A c c e s s i b i l i t y of the Metro Washington, D.C. P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System to the Handicapped and E l d e r l y . 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Words a r e S t i l l S a f e t y and Economy," The V o l . 65, May 1960, pp. 72-74.  Nation's  F e a t h e r s t o n , E. " S c h o o l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; the Things a S c h o o l Board Should Know," The American S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l . V o l . 157, November 1969, pp. 15-29.  100  Franzan, C. "Board P o l i c i e s Needed f o r E f f i c i e n t T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , " The American S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l . V o l s . 128-129, August 1954, pp. 32-33.  Isenburg, R. "The Bus Can Be An I n s t r u c t i o n a l F a c i l i t y , " The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s . V o l . 65, May 1960, pp. 80-81.  Mouchahoir, G. "Management o f a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System f o r the D i s advantaged," T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y . V o l . 28, A p r i l 1974, pp. 306-326.  Murray, J . "Operate Safe S c h o o l Bus Programs," The American J o u r n a l . V o l s . 1 4 2 - 1 4 3 , " A p r i l 1961, pp. 11-12.  S c h o o l Bus  Noakes, E . 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T o r o n t o : Metro Toronto P l a n n i n g Review, Toronto T r a n s i t Commission, F e b r u a r y 1974.  Peat, Marwick and P a r t n e r s . Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the D i s a b l e d . P r e p a r e d f o r the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Communication, T o r o n t o , 1975.  S a n d l i n , R. Community T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S e r v i c e s . P r o p o s a l , Vancouver, June 1973.  Provincial  Service  T o p l e y , M. e t a l . A Survey and Proposed D e s i g n to Improve P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped. The U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o , F a c u l t y of E n g i n e e r i n g S c i e n c e , London, O n t a r i o , September 1973.  B a r r i e r Free  U.S.  Department of Housing and Urban Development, Design. Washington, D . C , April 1975.  U.S.  Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Travel Barriers. S e c r e t a r y , Washington, D.C, May 1970.  O f f i c e of  Site  the  102  A P P E N D I C E S  APPENDIX  A  QUESTIONNAIRE AND COVER LETTERS  104 UNIVERSITY OF  BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH CARE AND  QUESTIONNAIRE FOR  PARENTS OF DAY  STUDENTS AT  August,  child these  EPIDEMIOLOGY  JERICHO HILL SCHOOL  1975  The purpose of t h i s study i s to l o o k i n t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s your e x p e r i e n c e s i n u s i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and how you n o r m a l l y handle difficulties.  We a r e i n t e r v i e w i n g p a r e n t s of c h i l d r e n w i t h v i s u a l and h e a r i n g handicaps. Your answers w i l l h e l p us i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e f e a t u r e s of the p r e s e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system which p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s to h a n d i capped p e o p l e . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l form p a r t of our recommendations f o r changes i n e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and may h e l p to shape p l a n s f o r f u t u r e systems. The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d i v i d e d i n t o a number of s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t a r e a s r e l a t i n g to the handicapped. These i n c l u d e the s c h o o l , m e d i c a l treatment, r e c r e a t i o n and the l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g o f your c h i l d i n view of e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . We a p o l o g i z e f o r the monotony o f some of the q u e s t i o n s i n each a r e a ; however,' we f e e l t h i s i s the o n l y way to get an o v e r a l l view of the t o p i c . We guarantee t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n we w i l l r e c e i v e w i l l be t r e a t e d w i t h the utmost c o n fidentiality.  OFFICE USE  ONLY  8  n  9  •  10  •  In r e g a r d to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f , i f you have more than c h i l d a t J e r i c h o p l e a s e answer a l l q u e s t i o n s i n terms of your o l d e s t child.  one  P l e a s e do not w r i t e i n the squares i n the r i g h t - h a n d e d column on each page and i n d i c a t e your answer by c i r c l i n g the c o r r e c t number where t h e r e i s a c h o i c e . Where t h e r e a r e d o t t e d l i n e s , you may answer the q u e s t i o n s i n sentence form on the l i n e s p r o v i d e d .  105 I  Caret  rr~t i—i—i f 1.  Sex of child? 1.  2.  female  2.  male  Year of birth of child?  •  il  a  The next series of questions involves family resources which are available as we feel these have some bearing on the transportation your child receives. You are not obligated to answer any of these questions i f you feel at a l l uncomfortable. 3.  What is the size of the family? 1. 2. 3. 4.  4.  *  6. 7. 9.  seven eight other - please specify  •  Do you have any other handicapped children? 1.  5.  two three four five  yes  2.  no  What type of private means of transportation does the family have? 1. 2.  car two cars  4. 9.  •  H  van other - please specify JO  6.  Under which of the following categories does your income fall? 1. 2. 3.  up to $4,999 $5,000 - $9,999 $10,000 - $14,999  4. 5. 6.  $15,000 - $24,999 $25,000 - $39,999 $40,000 and up  The next series of questions involves your child's level of functioning in relation to transportation and other f a c i l i t i e s .  •  Is your child able to: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  walk without the help of another person use stairs move i n crowds identify audio cues identify visual cues other - please specify .. ,  Yes 1 1 1 1 1  Yes, with No difficulty 2 2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3 3  Does your child need any of the following special aids to get around? Yes No Occasionally (a (b (c (d (e! (f (g (h (i (j  wheel chair crutches walker braces cane seeing-eye dog hearing aid van elevator or ramp in home aid of another person:  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  Who? How Often? (k)  other - please specify  Discuss the limitations involved i n the use of the following methods of transportation: 1. 2. 3. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  unassisted, easily unassisted, some difficulty easily, with assistance • walking public bus Easter Seal bus taxi parent driver volunteer driver other - please specify  4. 5. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  some difficulty, with assistance not applicable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3 3 3 3  4 4 4 4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5 5 5 5  107 10.  Referring specifically to the use of the bus, comment on the level of functioning of your child in terms of each of the following: 1. 2. 3. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k)  unassisted, easily unassisted, some difficulty easily, with assistance detect approach of bus stand waiting for bus locate entrance of bus go up/down stairs locate vacant seat stand holding grip detect destination pull cord obtain assistance ask directions from driver other - please specify  4. some d i f f i c u l t y , with assistance 5. not applicabl e 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  11.  Does your child experience any other d i f f i c u l t i e s using a bus?  12.  Does your child ever travel alone in a taxi? 1.  Yes  •  2. No  57  If yes, comment on his/her level of functioning i n terms of each of the following areas:  13.  1. 2. 3.  unassisted, easily unassisted, some d i f f i c u l t y easily, with assistance  5,  (a) (b) (c) (d)  getting getting leaving other -  1 1 1 1  taxi to proper destination taxi please specify  4.  5t  some difficulty, with assistance not applicable 2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3  4 4 4 4  Does your child experience any other d i f f i c u l t i e s travelling in a motor vehicle?  108  14.  If you were able to make any changes i n the present public transportation system, which specific changes would you make?  The next series of questions relates to the school and your child. 15.  What i s the distance from your home to the school? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  16.  17,  0-4 blocks 5-8 blocks 9 blocks to 1 mile 2-5 miles 6-10 miles  6. 11 miles or over * 7. don't know 9. other - please specify  What factors were involved i n your decision to send your child to Jericho?  • «3  the mode of transportationto school? 17/  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  18.  walk public bus Easter Seal bus Easter Seal van volunteer  6. taxi 7. parent/relative 8. friend 9. other - please specify  What i s the mode of transportationfrom school? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  walk public bus Easter Seal bus Easter Seal van volunteer  Which i s most often used?  6. taxi 7. parent/relative 8. friend 9. other - please specify  C a r d  X  109 19.  If 17 and 18 differ, state reason:  20.  What is the time of departure from home? 1. 2. 3. 4.  21.  7:00 7:30 8:00 8:30  a.m. a.m. a.m. a.m.  - 9:00 a.m. 5. 8:31 6. don't know 9. other - please specify  •  What is the time of departure from school? 1. 2. 3. 4.  22.  before 7:01 7:31 8:01 -  2:00 2:31 3:01 3:31  -  2:30 3:00 3:30 4:00  p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m.  •  5. don't know 9. other - please specify  I fc>  What is the time of arrival at home? 1. 2. 3. 4.  2:30 3:01 3:31 4:01  -  3:00 3:30 4:00 4:30  p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m.  5. 6. 7. 9.  - 5:00 p.m. 4:31 after 5:00 p.m. don't know other - please specify  •  *  23.  What is the cost of one return trip per day? 1. no thing 2. $ .10 - $ .25 3. .26 .50 4. .51 - 1.00 1.01 - 1.50 5. 6. 1.51 - 3.00  24.  17  7. 8. 9. 10.  $3.01 - $5.00 over $5.00 don't know other - please specify  6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  Provincial Government treatment centre charitable organization don't know other - please specify  ii  Who pays for the transportation? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  parents foster parent/guardian relative organization Vancouver School Board/ Municipal Government  >1  110 25.  Who do you feel should pay for transportation to and from school? 1. parent/guardian 2. school 3. Vancouver School Board/ Municipal Government 4. Provincial Government  5. 6. 7. 9.  3e  organization charitable organization don't know other - please specify 37  26.  Whose responsibility do you feel i t i s to make the arrangements for transportation to and from school? 1. 2. 3.  parent/guardian school Vancouver School Board/ Municipal Government 4. Provincial Government  27.  5. 6. 7. 9.  3S1  organization charitable organization don't know other - please specify  Is there anything else you would like to add about the transportation to and from school which we have not discussed?  The next series of questions concerns any treatment your child may be receiving. 28. Has your child received any special therapy or counselling? 1. Yes  2. No  •  Ho  If no, proceed to Question 33. If yes, over how long a period of time? 1. 2. 3.  0-6 months 6 months 1-2 years  4. over 2 years 5. don't know  •  H7  29.  Please specify which of the following treatments your child receives: Yes  No  Psychiatric Counselling  1  2  Psychological Counselling  1  2  Social Work Counselling  1  2  Physiotherapy or Occupational Therapy Audio/Speech Therapy  Other - please specify Are there any specific transportation problems associated with any of the above?  Jericho's, where?  How Often?  What is the Transportation Used  Cost  Who Pays?  112  30.  Does your c h i l d 1.  r e c e i v e any k i n d o f m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g ?  Yes  2.  No  I f no, do you f e e l t h e r e i s a need f o r i t and who do you f e e l should provide i t ?  •  5-t  31.  Where would you p r e f e r treatment 1. 2. 3.  32.  home school treatment  to be 4. 9.  given? don't know other - please  A r e you p l e a s e d w i t h the type o f treatment receiving? 1.  specify  centre  Yes  2.  your c h i l d i s  No  I f no, can you make any recommendations?  •  ho  33.  Does your c h i l d 1.  go to r e g u l a r m e d i c a l  Yes  2.  I f y e s , bow o f t e n ?  Where?  appointments? No  What i s the mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ?  •  Ca I  The  34.  next s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s concerns r e c r e a t i o n .  Does your c h i l d programs? 1. 2.  take p a r t i n any r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s o r  Yes No  I f no, go to q u e s t i o n 41.  3.  Don 1 know 1  •  113 35.  Who sponsers the recreation program? 1. 2. 3.  63  4. treatment centre 5. don 1 know  community school organization/charitable organization 9.  1  other - please specify  36.  What type of activities does this include and how often?  37.  Is transportation arranged?  38.  •  don't know  1. Yes 2. No  What is the mode of transportation most often used? 7"  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  walk public bus Easter Seal bus Easter Seal van organization car volunteer taxi  8. 10. 11, 9.  parent other private car don't know other - please specify  7i  i  39,  the average cost of the return trip? 1. nothing 2. $ .10 - $ .25 .50 .26 3. 4. .51 - 1.00 5. 1.01 - 1.50 6. 1.51 - 3.00  40.  7. 8. 10. 9.  $3.01 - $5.00 over $5.00 don't know other - please  Who pays for transportation? 1. 2. 3.  parents foster parent/quardian agency/charitable organization 4. Easter Seal  i  Co. r-ct  5, 6. 7. 9,  Vancouver School Board Provincial Government don't know other - please specify  3  *r  114 41.  If child does not take part in any recreational programs, why? 1. 2. 3.  42.  4. child not capable 5 . don't know 9. other - please specify  no transportation cost don't know of any available  Does lack of transportation ever restrict the places your child can go to? 3.  1. Yes 2. No 43.  6. recreation - daytrips, swimming 7. don't know 9. other - please specify  Are you receiving any financial assistance for any of the following? where Y  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  45.  2-1  If yes, what trips is he/she prevented from making? 1. shopping 2. medical 3. school 4. entertainment park, movies 5. social v i s i t  44.  •  Don't know  child's equipment/aids transportation medical special school housing other - please specify  e  s  1 1 1 1 1  N  o  F r o m  2 2 2 2 2  30  35  Have you ever had to change your place of residence because of your child's disability? 1.  Yes  2. No  If yes, elaborate •  3<#  115  46.  Does your c h i l d have any s p e c i a l i n s u r a n c e 1.  Yes  2.  coverage?  No  I f y e s , what i s the c o s t and to whom?  •  37  47.  What, i f any, r i s k f a c t o r s do you f e e l a r e i n v o l v e d r e f e r e n c e to p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ?  with  FOR DEAF CHILDREN 1 6 - 1 9 YEARS OLD  48.  Do you d r i v e ? 1.  Yes  2.  No  • 38  I f y e s , go to q u e s t i o n 50.  49.  I f no, does your handicap p r e v e n t you? 1.  50.  Yes  2.  No  Have you had any problems o b t a i n i n g a d r i v i n g l i c e n s e ? 1.  Yes  2.  No  Have you had any problems o b t a i n i n g 1.  Yes  •  -40  I f yes, elaborate:  51.  •  insurance? 2.  No  •  HI  116  52.  What i s the cost and coverage of insurance? .  53.  Are you receiving any f i n a n c i a l  1. Yes  assistance? 2.  No  If yes, please state from where and how much.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Health Sciences Cenire Faculty of Medicine DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH CARE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY Vancouver 8, Canada  117  (604) 228-2  August 8, 1975  Dear Parent: We are completing a study on the transportation problems that you and your child may be experiencing to and from school. This work is* being sponsored by of British Columbia with the co-operation of Jericho Mr. Thorsell has read and approved the questionnaire prepared.  costs and in travelling the University H i l l School. we have  With your help i t i s hoped to identify some of the barriers that transportation imposes in your child's travel to school and recreation facilities. It would be greatly appreciated i f you would f i l l out the enclosed questionnaire and return i t . i n the stamped addressed envelope provided. You are, of course, under no obligation to complete the questionnaire; however, i t i s hoped you w i l l realize the importance of the work that i s being done. A l l information w i l l be kept in strictest confidence and i t i s hoped that the information gained w i l l help to shape a more convenient transportation system for your child.  Yours sincerely,  Morton M. Warner, (Assistant Professor, Health Services Planning)  Colleen Stuart, (Student, Health Services Planning)  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH  COLUMBIA  I I Q  Health Sciences Centra Faculty of Medicine DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH CARE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY  xxo  Vancouver 8, Canada  (604) 228-2  September 8, 1975  Dear P a r e n t , We a r e p r e s e n t l y c o m p i l i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n we have gathered about the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and problems f a c e d by p a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n attending Jericho H i l l School. S i n c e we hope to i n c l u d e a l a r g e sample o f c h i l d r e n who a r e at J e r i c h o o r the off-campus c l a s s e s , we would l i k e the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f as many f a m i l i e s as p o s s i b l e . We hope t h a t you have r e c e i v e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t was sent to you a l o n g w i t h an o u t l i n e o f o u r s t u d y and t h a t you have g i v e n some c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the a r e a o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n r e f e r e n c e to your c h i l d . I t would be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d i f y o u would complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and send i t i n to us. Our survey has g i v e n us a l o t of i n s i g h t i n t o the p a r t i c u l a r problems which t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n v o l v e s and we s i n c e r e l y hope our recommendations can l e a d to a more p r a c t i c a l arrangement. We hope you w i l l r e a l i z e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the i n f o r m a t i o n you can g i v e us and t h a t you w i l l c o - o p e r a t e as soon as p o s s i b l e .  Thanking you, I remain, Yours s i n c e r e l y ,  Colleen Stuart Student, Health Services  Planning  A P P E N D I X  B  VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD PROPOSAL  THE BRITISH COLUMBIA LIONS SOCIETY FOR  CRIPPLED CHILDREN  VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD - SPECIAL SCHOOLS Wheel Chair  4 -  Oakridge Renfrew Annex Douglas Annex Trafalgar Children's Hospital SunnyHill Hospital G.F. S t r o n g Rehab. C e n t r e John O l i v e r Windermere Vancouver Tech P r i n c e o f Wales E r i c Hamber Maples K i n g s f o r d Smith Carlton D a v i d L l o y d George South H i l l Emily Carr Queen A l e x a n d e r Edith Cavell C e c i l Rhodes Charles Dickens Dickens Annex Florence Nightingale L o r d Tennyson Mount P l e a s a n t Douglas Annex Annie B. Jamieson R i c h a r d McBride Brock Annex E m i l y C a r r Reading  -  5 12 1 1 1 1 -  -  1 -  1 -  -  —  27 P a s s e n g e r s S p e c i a l W/C T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 274 P a s s e n g e r s Ambulatory 31 S c h o o l s 301 P a s s e n g e r s 20 V e h i c l e s 1000 M i l e s D a i l y Average 200 G a l l o n s o f Gas D a i l y Average @ 75c p e r Bus Average Bus Average Bus Average  15 m i l e s p e r hour 8 1/2 c h i l d r e n p e r hour @ 7 minutes p e r c h i l d  gallon  Regular Vehicles  141 11 9 9 2 10 1  -  2 1 7 4 4 5 3 4 2 4 10 4 5 1 1 4 5 2 11 3 9  121 VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD PROPOSAL (100% VSB use - maximum r i d i n g time (4)  W/C  7 passenger Van Duras  Cost P e r S c h o o l Term  3/4 hour d a i l y ) (15)  (20)  (1)  15 passenger 42 passenger G M C Van Duras  Total Cost e  D a i l y R e g u l a r Hours :"*" ( 3) ( 3) (17) (17)  6-hour 6-hour 4-hour 4-hour  d r i v e r s @ $5.75 a t t e n d a n t s @ $3.25 d r i v e r s @ $5.75 a t t e n d a n t s @ $3.25  S i c k and S t a t u t o r y Leave G e n e r a l Expenses Bus Maintenance - D i r e c t Lease and C a p i t a l Costs Gas, l u b r i c a t i o n and o i l c o s t s 200 g a l l o n s d a i l y @ 75c p e r gallon I.C.B.C. and l i c e n s e s Share o f D i r e c t S u p e r v i s i o n i n Transportation Administration  Reduced l o a d s t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s r e s u l t i n g i n lower e f f i c i e n c i e s w i l l r e q u i r e subsidy Share o f G e n e r a l S o c i e t y Overhead Proposed Cost New S e r v i c e Present  7,245 $ 21,735 12,285 4,095 82,110 0 46,410 0  $ 14,490 8,190 62,790 25,490  1,000 400 3,000 9,600  3,750 1,500 11,250 28,500  250 100 750 4,000  5,000 2,000 15,000 42,100  6,300 500  23,625 1,875  1,575 125  31,500 2,500  2,896  10,861  725  14,482  $ 53,936  $202,321  7,000  26,250  1,750  35,000  4,550  17,070  959  22,579  $ 65,486  $245,641  $ 18,865 $275,122  $ 21,574 $332,701 ($148,841)  System Cost 1975 - 76  I n c r e a s e d Cost f o r a f u l l term (Up 123.52%)  $  0 0 $ 19,320 10,920  school  $183,860  P r o j e c t e d Number o f Return T r i p s  $ 63,840  Cost p e r r e t u r n / t r i p - New  $  5.21  $  2.33  Proposal  - Present  '''Union c e r t i f i c a t i o n pending  Proposal  and p r o v i d e d f o r .  APPENDIX  C  MODEL WHITE CANE LAW  123 MODEL WHITE CANE LAW § 1 — I t i s the p o l i c y o f t h i s S t a t e t o encourage and e n a b l e the b l i n d , the v i s u a l l y handicapped, and the o t h e r w i s e p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n t h e s o c i a l and economic l i f e o f the S t a t e and to engage i n remunerative employment. § 2 — (a) The b l i n d , the v i s u a l l y handicapped, and the o t h e r w i s e p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d have the same r i g h t as the a b l e - b o d i e d to t h e f u l l and f r e e use o f t h e s t r e e t s , highways, s i d e w a l k s , walkways, p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , and o t h e r p u b l i c p l a c e s . (b) The b l i n d , t h e v i s u a l l y handicapped, and the o t h e r w i s e p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d a r e e n t i t l e d to f u l l and e q u a l accommodations, advant a g e s , f a c i l i t i e s , and p r i v i l e g e s o f a l l common c a r r i e r s , a i r p l a n e s , motor v e h i c l e s , r a i l r o a d t r a i n s , motor buses, s t r e e t c a r s , boats o r any o t h e r p u b l i c conveyances o r modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h o t e l s , l o d g i n g p l a c e s , p l a c e s o f p u b l i c accommodation, amusement o r r e s o r t , and o t h e r p l a c e s to which the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s i n v i t e d , s u b j e c t o n l y to t h e c o n d i t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by law and a p p l i c a b l e a l i k e to a l l persons. (c) E v e r y t o t a l l y o r p a r t i a l l y b l i n d person s h a l l have the r i g h t to be accompanied by a guide dog, e s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d f o r the purpose, i n any o f t h e p l a c e s l i s t e d i n s e c t i o n 2(b) w i t h o u t b e i n g r e q u i r e d to pay an e x t r a charge f o r the guide dog; p r o v i d e d t h a t he s h a l l be l i a b l e f o r any damage done t o t h e premises o r f a c i l i t i e s by such dog. § 3 — The d r i v e r o f a v e h i c l e approaching a t o t a l l y o r p a r t i a l l y b l i n d p e d e s t r i a n who i s c a r r y i n g a cane p r e d o m i n a t e l y w h i t e o r m e t a l l i c i n c o l o r ( w i t h o r w i t h o u t a r e d t i p ) o r u s i n g a guide dog s h a l l take a l l n e c e s s a r y p r e c a u t i o n s t o a v o i d i n j u r y to such b l i n d p e d e s t r i a n , and any d r i v e r who f a i l s t o take such p r e c a u t i o n s s h a l l be l i a b l e i n damages f o r any i n j u r y caused such p e d e s t r i a n ; p r o v i d e d t h a t a t o t a l l y o r p a r t i a l l y b l i n d p e d e s t r i a n not c a r r y i n g such a cane o r u s i n g a guide dog i n any o f the p l a c e s , accommodations o r conveyances l i s t e d i n s e c t i o n 2, s h a l l have a l l o f the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s c o n f e r r e d by law upon o t h e r p e r s o n s , and the f a i l u r e o f a t o t a l l y o r p a r t i a l l y b l i n d p e d e s t r i a n to c a r r y such a cane o r t o use a guide dog i n any such p l a c e s , accommodations o r conveyances s h a l l n o t be h e l d to c o n s t i t u t e n o r be e v i d e n c e o f c o n t r i b u t o r y negligence. § 4 — Any person o r p e r s o n s , f i r m o r c o r p o r a t i o n , o r the agent o f any p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s , f i r m o r c o r p o r a t i o n who denies o r i n t e r f e r e s w i t h admittance to o r enjoyment o f the p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s enumerated i n s e c t i o n 2 o r o t h e r w i s e i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the r i g h t s o f a t o t a l l y o r p a r t i a l l y b l i n d or o t h e r w i s e d i s a b l e d person under s e c t i o n 2 s h a l l be g u i l t y o f a misdemeanor.  124 § 5 — Each year, the Governor shall take suitable public notice of October 15 as White Cane Safety Day. He shall issue a proclamation in which: (a)  he comments upon the significance of the. white cane;  (b)  he calls upon the citizens of the State to observe the provisions of the White Cane Law and to take precautions necessary to the safety of the disabled;  (c)  he reminds the citizens of the State of the policies with respect to the disabled herein declared and urges the citizens to cooperate in giving effect to them; .  (d)  he emphasizes the need of the citizens to be aware of the presence of disabled persons in the community and to keep safe and functional for the disabled the streets, highways, sidewalks, walkways, public buildings, public f a c i l i t i e s , other public places, places of public accommodation, amusement and resort, and other places to which the public i s i n vited, and to offer assistance to disabled persons upon appropriate occasions.  § 6 — It is the policy of this State that the blind, the visually handicapped, and the otherwise physically disabled shall be employed in the State Service, the service of the p o l i t i c a l subdivisions of the State, in the public schools, and in a l l other employment supported in whole or in part by public funds on the same terms and conditions as the ablebodied, unless i t is shown that the particular disability prevents the performance of the work involved.  Source:  B l i n d Rights  by David R.  Lowry, p.  98.  

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