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Assessment of problems in the transportation of blind and deaf children Stuart, Colleen Mary 1977

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AN ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEMS IN THE TRANSPORTATION OF BLIND AND DEAF CHILDREN by COLLEEN MARY STUART B.A., Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES i n the Department of Health Care and Epidemiology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1977 (c) Colleen Mary Stuart, 1977 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Health Care and Epidemiology The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT This study was a preliminary step in an assessment of the transportation services accessible to blind and deaf children in Vancouver. It originated in response to the ever increasing concern voiced within the community about the problem of inadequate transpor-tation facilities for handicapped children. The purpose of the research was to determine the extent to which public and special transportation services are accessible to children with visual and hearing impairments and to propose improvements that might be made. In order to research this problem, four basic methods of collecting information were employed, as follows: documentary analysis interviews and correspondence with transportation experts; mailed questionnaires to parents of blind and deaf children; and, personal interviews using the same questionnaire. The sample population was randomly selected from blind and deaf children between the ages of 6 and 19 years who were affiliated with Jericho H i l l School in the 1974-75 school term. Sixty-one (48%) questionnaires were completed and used in this study. Findings regarding mobility limitations showed that the sampl population was quite mobile and over half reported not having to rely on special aids to help them get around outdoors. Of those requiring some kind of aid, most used either a cane or another person. Travel data were obtained for three trip destinations: school medical facilities, and recreational activities. Findings showed the children were not restricted in travel to recreational activities. Transportation to medical facilities was not found to be a problem because the majority of the children used those provided at Jericho H i l l School. Access to school transportation was not reported to be , problem in itself; however, i t was found that the trip from home to school was problematic in terms of travel time and safety requirements It is a conclusion of this study that i f Jericho H i l l School remains as a central facility a more localized shuttle service would bi the maximum requirement. However, i f decentralization occurs the provision of a parallel system run on a demand-responsive basis would be necessary. It is apparent from this study, which has attempted to review the range of problems and needs for transit of blind and deaf children that problems for them are perhaps common to a l l handicapped children. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES " v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSE 3 SCOPE 4 LIST OF REFERENCES 5 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPORTATION 6 SOCIETY'S VIEW OF A HANDICAP 9 TRANSPORTATION AS A RIGHT 10 EQUAL ACCESS TO PUBLIC SERVICES H GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT 13 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 7 I I I . PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY 1 9 DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS 19 INTERVIEWS AND CORRESPONDENCE WITH TRANSPORTATION EXPERTS 1 9 V CHAPTER ' PAGE MAILED QUESTIONNAIRES 21 PERSONAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULES 22 LIST OF REFERENCES 24 IV. RESULTS 2 5 QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE RATES 2 5 QUESTIONNAIRE FINDINGS 2 5 Population C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 2 ^ Family S i t u a t i o n • 2 7 Level of Functioning of Sample Population . . . . 2 8 Transportation to School 35 Transportation to Medical F a c i l i t i e s 48 Transportation to Recreational A c t i v i t i e s . . . . 49 Deaf Drivers 51 EXISTING TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN VANCOUVER . . . . 5 2 Survey of Transportation Services i n Greater Vancouver, 1975 . . . . . . ^2 GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION . . 5 8 LIST OF REFERENCES . . . . . . 6 0 V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 6 i Population I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 62 Transportation Problems and Requirements 62 SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN VANCOUVER . . . . 79 GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROVISION OF SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES 8 1 LIST OF REFERENCES 85 v i CHAPTER PAGE VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 87 Al t e r n a t i v e Systems of Transportation with D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ^8 SUMMARY 9 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 9 ^ POSTSCRIPT 9 5 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ' 98 APPENDIX A - Questionnaire and Cover L e t t e r s 103 APPENDIX B - Vancouver School Board Proposal 119 APPENDIX C - Model White Cane Law 122 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Distribution of the Number of Questionnaires Mailed and Returned by Handicap 26 II. Distribution of the Number of Questionnaires Personally Administered by Handicap 26 III. Trips Prevented from Being Made 29 IV. Bus Usage by Level of Functioning 33 V. Taxi Usage by Level of Functioning 34 VI. Age by Mode of Transportation 39 VII. " Mode of Transportation by Income 40 VIII. Distance from School by Time in Transit 45 IX. Factors in the Non-Participation of the Sample Population in Recreation 50 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. L i m i t a t i o n s i n the Use of Certain Transportation Methods 31 2. Distance from Home to School . '. 36 3. Mode of Transportation from School to Home 38 4. Time of Departure for School 42 5. Time of A r r i v a l Home from School 43 6. Cost of One Return T r i p to School 46 7. Organizations I d e n t i f i e d as Those Who Pay School Transportation Costs . . . 47 8. Organization of the Regional T r a n s i t Organization . . . . 91 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis has been made possible through the support of a great number of people. For their advice and encouragement through the course of this study, I wish to thank Liz Shoofey who contributed to the design and administration of the questionnaire, Ron Sizto who assisted in programming for data production, and Dr. Pauline Morris and Dr. Greg Stoddart whose ideas and criticisms have contributed to numerous improvements to this thesis. I am especially thankful to Professor Morton Warner, my research advisor, for his help, and his constant availability during the course of this study. Finally, to some special friends whose support and encourage-ment during the writing of this thesis meant so much to me. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION M o b i l i t y i s one s o l u t i o n to allowing those with p h y s i c a l handi-caps to p a r t i c i p a t e more f u l l y i n l i f e . Because our society's patterns of land use and a c t i v i t y have developed i n such a way as to s p a t i a l l y detach homes from places of employment, schools, shopping and medical f a c i l i t i e s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l that there be a means of transpor-t a t i o n among these places for handicapped'children and adults. The increasing dependence upon cars has come about as a r e s u l t of the d i s -persion of such a c t i v i t i e s , but many of those with handicaps are e i t h e r unable to handle a motor v e h i c l e or i n the case of school c h i l d r e n are too young to d r i v e . To provide the means f o r the handicapped popu-l a t i o n to take part on a regular basis i n normal a c t i v i t i e s , some type of acc e s s i b l e p u b l i c transportation s e r v i c e i s a necessity. This study originated as a response to the ever increasing concern voiced w i t h i n the community about the problem of inadequate transportation services f o r handicapped school c h i l d r e n and adults. Recently, two committees i n Vancouver most c l o s e l y involved with the problems of pu b l i c transportation f o r the handicapped have complained of the inadequacy of transportation s e r v i c e s . The Panel f o r the Handicapped, sponsored by the S o c i a l Planning and Review Council of B r i t i s h Columbia (SPARC of B.C.), composed of consumers of transpor-t a t i o n services and representatives from those organizations who d e l i v e r 2 s p e c i a l transportation services i n the Greater Vancouver area, has been keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n the formulation and implementation of bett e r transportation services f o r a l l handicapped persons. At a conference held i n June, 1975, the Panel revealed the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of the handicapped themselves. S p e c i f i c aspects of t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n -volved the i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system due to p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s i n the veh i c l e ' s design, and the high cost and u n r e l i a b i l i t y of s p e c i a l transportation s e r v i c e s . In a study prepared by SPARC of B r i t i s h Columbia (1975), the basic needs of handicapped t r a v e l l e r s to adequate services were i d e n t i f i e d and guidelines were established aimed at s e t t i n g standards i n the del i v e r y of s p e c i a l transportation s e r v i c e s . In September, 1974, the Vancouver School Board set-up an Ad Hoc Committee composed of representatives from the Vancouver School Board, the Metropolitan Board of Health, the Department of Human Re-ft sources and agencies concerned with the handicapped. This group, ref e r r e d to as the Committee on Special Needs of Children, sought i n part to d i r e c t i t s a t t e n t i o n to the question of transportation problems of school c h i l d r e n . The Committee's major concern has been l i s t i n g the various d i f f i c u l t i e s a c h i l d faces while t r a v e l l i n g to school. Other members include the S o c i a l Service Department of the City of Vancouver, Oakridge School for Mentally Retarded Children, Children's H o s p i t a l , the B r i t i s h Columbia Attorney General's Department. 3 Perhaps the most important contribution t h i s committee has made i s i t s recognition of the widespread problem of transportation and i t s e f f o r t s to bring t h i s concern to the att e n t i o n of government. In a d d i t i o n to these two committees, there has been over the years continuing dialogue about t h i s problem and i t s possible solutions between agencies such as the Canadian I n s t i t u t e for the B l i n d , the Vancouver rRichmond Association f o r the Mentally Retarded, G.F. Strong R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre and the Canadian Paraplegic A s s o c i a t i o n about t h i s problem and i t s possible s o l u t i o n s . PURPOSE The purpose of t h i s current research was to determine the extent to which p u b l i c and s p e c i a l transportation services are acc e s s i b l e to c h i l d r e n with v i s u a l and hearing impairments and to consider ways i n which trans-p o r t a t i o n services f o r both handicapped c h i l d r e n and adults might be improved. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the objectives of the study were as follows: 1. To i d e n t i f y the population of b l i n d and deaf ch i l d r e n attend-ing or a f f i l i a t e d with Jericho H i l l Schools; 2. The construction of an inventory of community transportation services and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of modes a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n ; 3. To assess the transportation needs of chi l d r e n associated with Jericho H i l l Schools; 4 4. To propose improvements and a l t e r n a t i v e s to the present transportation service and s p e c i f i c a l l y to consider the following questions: (a) what i s the appropriate organizational structure? (b) how should the s p e c i a l i z e d transportation service be integrated with the e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s ; what w i l l be the e f f e c t of new services upon the already e x i s t i n g system? (c) what e l i g i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a should be used? (d) how and by whom should the s p e c i a l transportation s e r v i c e be funded? (e) what standards of ser v i c e should be incorporated i n the s p e c i a l i z e d service? SCOPE In order to achieve the objective of t h i s study, a decision was made during i n i t i a l i n q u i r i e s to l i m i t data c o l l e c t i o n to two handicaps, the deaf and b l i n d . Promised co-operation by Jericho H i l l Schools f o r the Deaf and B l i n d l e d to i t s choice as the organization from which the target population should be drawn. This decision was made considering the time a v a i l a b l e f o r th i s project and the problems of a c c e s s i b i l i t y of data concerning handicapped groups. REFERENCES CHAPTER I S o c i a l Planning and Review Council of B r i t i s h Columbia. A Working  Paper Towards Guidelines f o r Setting Standards f o r the Delivery of Special Transportation. Vancouver, 1975. 6 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n i t i a l e f f o r t s involved a comprehensive review of studies having d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t relevance to the study of transportation f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n . The outcome was the r e a l i z a t i o n that few mean-i n g f u l studies and l i t t l e valuable data e x i s t s . While the lack of published l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i v e to t h i s subject may have imposed a l i m i t a t i o n to the study, i t does emphasize the need f o r such an under-taking. The issues to be discussed i n t h i s review are as follows: 1. The importance of adequate transportation; 2. The e f f e c t of society's a t t i t u d e toward handicapped persons; 3. The handicapped person's r i g h t to transportation s e r v i c e s ; 4. The p u b l i c transportation system as an equally a c c e s s i b l e s e r v i c e ; and 5. Government involvement i n the p r o v i s i o n of transportation a c c e s s i b l e to the handicapped. THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPORTATION Nugent, Several researchers (Markovitz, 1970; Magidson, 1972; and 1972) have described mobility as the access to opportunities. 7 Lack of satisfactory transportation limits the l i f e span of an individ-ual, limits their capacity for self-maintenance, impedes their activities and social contacts with other people. It may also contri-bute to a person's alienation from society and ultimately to a state of anomie. Adequate transportation is not only humane but i t is of economic value to society in that i t sustains the person's capacity for independent living. Magidson (1972) suggests that most public transportation services are planned for the "average man"; the problem for handicapped individuals then becomes apparent. Compared to the majority of the population, the handicapped because of their physical disability are less likely to drive their own vehicles, and are more often dependent on friends and relatives and public transportation services as a means of commuting. , Carp (1971) has described transportation as the mediator between the person and much of his environment. Although she was writing specifically about the mobility problems of retired persons, her findings appear to have wider application: medical, educational and recreational services are useful only to the degree that transportation is useable or workable for those who need i t . Informal social contacts are possible only i f access to friends is convenient and available. Psychologically, satisfactory transportation services may act as a catalyst for a fundamental transition of the way in which the handicapped person regards himself and his social role.. It may be extremely frus-trating to live in a community that highly values mobility and self-8 r e l i a n c e and to r e a l i z e those aims are beyond reach. Carp claims that by lessening the handicapped person's dependence on friends f o r trans-p o r t a t i o n an immediate degree of s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s given. Brattgard's study (1973) of persons s u f f e r i n g from disorders of the c e n t r a l nervous system and t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n into the mainstream of society provides useful information i n t h i s discussion of the importance of m o b i l i t y . He i l l u s t r a t e s that an e s s e n t i a l component i n accomplish-ing i n t e g r a t i o n i s the opportunity f o r handicapped people to go where-ever desired. He i s correct i n s t a t i n g that some of the worst b a r r i e r s are not, as many think, curbs, narrow doors or the thresholds, however, bothersome they may be but rather the f a c t that p u b l i c transportation systems do not function f o r the handicapped. Other s o c i e t a l arrange-ments such as r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , employment, and t r a i n i n g opportun-i t i e s , l ose much of t h e i r advantage i f they are not ac c e s s i b l e . The Report (1974) of the Saskatchewan Co-ordinating Council on S o c i a l Planning (Charlebois) i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r study on the s p e c i a l needs of the handicapped that the a f f e c t of a v a i l a b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l -i t y i s d i f f i c u l t to measure. However, the findings reveal that m u l t i -dimensional b e n e f i t s would r e s u l t p o s s i b l y f o r the handicapped and the community a l i k e . Some of the gains would be immediate while others would come about as a r e s u l t of long-term changes i n the l i f e s t y l e of the handicapped person. Following t h i s discussion i s an ap p r a i s a l of the nature of a handicap and the ways i n which society perceives and reacts to the handicapped. 9 SOCIETY'S VIEW OF A HANDICAP Much of the literature seeks to establish that the handicapped are more similar to than different from those people not handicapped. In a study designed by Clunk (1950) to investigate employer attitudes to blind applicants, i t was found that most negative attitudes consist in part of false beliefs and misinformation. To improve this situation agents of change will try to scatter accurate knowledge about the nature and the consequences of loss upon the individual. Clunk concluded that once the public is properly informed and has its fears dissipated, i t will discover its negative attitude incapable of being defended and will by necessity begin thinking of the handicapped as equals: fair treatment would ensue. In a study on physical rehabilitation, Litman (1972) asserts that society shows greater willingness to. provide more resources for the sick than the disabled. He cites Parsons' (1963) analysis of the sick role to illustrate that society fails to pay regard to the conse-quences of chronic long-term illness or disability. Stigmatizing of illness as deviant and undesireable, and the organization of various community resources to fight illness is a reassertation of the value of health, and an opposing influence against the desire for illness. With a modification in attitudes i t may be contended that people will gradually start to realize that handicapped people are their equals and commence to let them have equal access to opportunities. 10 The following section w i l l discuss handicapped people's rights to equal and accessible transportation. TRANSPORTATION AS A RIGHT In a paper concerned with the problems of p u b l i c transportation that confront c h i l d r e n and adults with p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , Nugent (1972) states that the r i g h t and the need of mobility i s common to a l l people arid has never l e g a l l y or morally been denied the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped. He further argues that the r i g h t to mobility should be thought of as one of the basic fundamental freedoms for a l l people. But when we speak of a r i g h t what i s meant? Rights have commonly been expressed as claims upheld by law, or i n terms of duties, where every r i g h t rests on a r e l a t i v e duty l y i n g on a party or p a r t i e s other than i n who the r i g h t r e s t s . In Austin's terms (1954) a duty e x i s t s only where the law imposes (and enforces) a sanction for the breach of i t . Although F r i e d (1976) was w r i t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y of the equality and r i g h t s i n medical care, h i s discussion of the concepts appear to have wider a p p l i c a t i o n . He defines a r i g h t as more than an i n t e r e s t that a person might have, a condition which a person might prefer or a state of a f f a i r s . A claim of r i g h t c a l l s f o r t h entitlements, or some-thing which people must have, and which, i f they do not have, may demand, whether the rest of the population l i k e i t or not. F r i e d does not consider, however, the fact that r i g h t s are not of much use to those claiming them unless they are enforced. The concept of some kind of a r i g h t to transportation w i l l probably not be found i n any but the l a t e s t w r i t i n g s , not to mention l e g i s l a t i o n . F r i e d points out, that even the much older and w e l l established i n s t i t u t i o n s of free, u n i v e r s a l p u b l i c education has not attained the status of a f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t . The l i t i g a t i o n concerning educational r i g h t s has been l i m i t e d to the p r o v i s i o n equally of whatever p u b l i c education i s i n fact given. Therefore, i t should not r e a l l y come as any surprise that the idea of a r i g h t to an a c t i v i t y as optimal as transportation i s something of a novelty. EQUAL ACCESS TO PUBLIC SERVICES One of the guiding p r i n c i p l e s embodied i n the Report (1974) of the Saskatchewan Co-ordinating Council on S o c i a l Planning (Charlebois) i s that the r i g h t to adequate transportation rests on a fundamental maxim that a l l c i t i z e n s are e n t i t l e d to equal access to b a s i c p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . In a discussion of equality of access to services i n Great B r i t a i n , Warham (1974: 84) states that "equality of r i g h t s and entitlements may be e f f e c t e d by the ways i n which the law i s both formulated and administered, and by the capacity of the i n d i v i d u a l s to make use of t h e i r intended r i g h t s . " In actual p r a c t i c e , this 12 s k i l l may be a function not only a person's t a l e n t , but of the ways i n which the services are co-ordinated and put into operation. In order for a service to claim that i t gives equality of access to a l l c i t i z e n s , the resources must be equitably apportioned and s u f f i c -i e n t information a v a i l a b l e to p o t e n t i a l users about them. Warham goes further, however, and requires the absence of f i n a n c i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , geographical and bureaucratic b a r r i e r s , and of stigma or other psycho-l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s to the use of the f a c i l i t i e s . In a study dealing with p o l i c y issues i n p u b l i c transportation fo r handicapped B r i t i s h Columbians, Gallagher (1973) acknowledges that the r e a l task i s not to explain why there must be equality i n transpor-t a t i o n services but rather the determining of a decent minimum. Both Gallagher and F r i e d agree that t h i s minimum must be i n keeping with sound e t h i c a l judgements and sustain the v i r t u e s of freedom, v a r i e t y and f l e x i b i l i t y : i t should also r e f l e c t some conception of what makes a t o l e r a b l e l i f e . The process of determining standards as outlined by Gallagher consists f i r s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g what i t i s that transportation can and cannot provide, i n i d e n t i f y i n g the cost, and then i n deciding how much society w i l l be w i l l i n g to contribute. No doubt t h i s process of a r r i v i n g at a standard would be f u l l of p o l i t i c a l controversy. With transportation j u s t as with health care, education and l e g a l assistance, there must p r e v a i l the idea of a decent, f a i r standard, such that when i t i s met a l l that i s required i n the way of r i g h t s has been enforced. To demand equality beyond the minimum, would be counter to the p o l i t i c a l philosophy which i s dominant i n our 13 society: as long as society views i n e q u a l i t i e s of income and wealth as t o l e r a b l e , i t would be anomalous to demand that equality must ru l e i n the transportation sector. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT Although a number of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Canada have acknowledged the need to improve the t r a n s i t system, few have recognized the p a r t i c -u l a r needs of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped. In theory, municipal p u b l i c t r a n s i t systems are i n business to provide a l l of the p u b l i c with basic transportation s e r v i c e s . I t may be questioned how many c i t i z e n s are d i s q u a l i f i e d from use of these services because of p a r t i c u l a r routing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or systems design? How 'public' i s a se r v i c e i f i t i s not equally accessible? The Canadian Paraplegic A s s o c i a t i o n (1973) i n a recent report, argues that behind the whole problem of providing transportation f a c i l i t i e s i s the guiding p r i n c i p l e that since t r a n s i t and transportation systems are a P u b l i c U t i l i t y subsidized by taxes, then they should be a v a i l a b l e to 'The P u b l i c ' ! At the Canadian Council of the Disabled (C.R.C.D.) seminar i n 1974,, Funk asked why i t i s that people who pay taxes which are used to provide transportation service f o r some people not accorded access to the same kind of service? One of the greatest stumbling blocks i n transportation of the handicapped has been the f a i l u r e to set-up groups responsible for so l v i n g the problem. Saskatchewan's experience described i n Funk's 14 (1974) report indicates a general f e e l i n g by transportation o f f i c i a l s that the problem i s i n the domain of health or welfare and that i t does not r e l a t e to the ordinary transportation services because the i n d i v i d u a l s involved were handicapped. He claims that the municipal governments should be responsible for d e l i v e r i n g and operating the s e r v i c e but with f i n a n c i a l support given by a l l three l e v e l s of govern-ment. During recent conferences i n Saskatoon, Toronto, Ottawa and V i c t o r i a , the handicapped have voiced to the government t h e i r demand f o r equal access to p u b l i c transportation s e r v i c e s . S p e c i f i c r e s o l u -tions and recommendations came from the following meetings: - Mi n i s t e r s Conference on the Needs of the P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped, V i c t o r i a , October, 1973 - National Conference of the P h y s i c a l l y Disabled, Toronto, November, 1973 - Canadian R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Council f o r the Disabled (C.R.C.D.) Seminar, Saskatoon, December, 1974 - The Meeting of the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Ministers of Welfare, Ottawa, A p r i l - M a y , 1975 - The B.C. Advisory Committee on the Needs of the P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped, V i c t o r i a , January, 1974. The following resolutions from the Toronto conference are i n d i c a t i v e of the handicapped person's p o s i t i o n : Whereas, transportation i s a common r i g h t of a l l people, and transportation services for the disabled have been shown to be inadequate, Be I t Resolved: 1. That transportation for people who need s p e c i a l consideration be made a v a i l a b l e 2. That such transportation be no greater i n cost than regular t r a n s i t . 15 Resolutions from the F i n a n c i a l Security Seminar groups of the Toronto Conference made two of the following demands: 1. That the p r o v i n c i a l government be pe t i t i o n e d to include i n t h e i r school acts the following: that as regards p h y s i c a l l y disabled c h i l d r e n and adults, such education i s necessary to ensure a f u l l normal l i f e be made a v a i l -able and that transportation and any other s p e c i a l arrangements and requirements be provided by the educa-t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s to ensure unsegregated normal education wherever humanly possibly. 2. In regard to a c t u a l l y changing the handicapped status i n the B i l l of Rights, i t has been resolved. That the fe d e r a l government be p e t i t i o n e d to enact an amendment to the present B i l l of Rights to include i n the descrip-t i o n wherever i t appears,'of race, n a t i o n a l o r i g i n , colour, r e l i g i o n or sex,' the words 'p h y s i c a l l y disabled' as i t contains i n i t s present form no reference to the r i g h t s of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped. In s p i t e of these re s o l u t i o n s demanding equal access, there i s s t i l l no l e g i s l a t i o n making t h i s p r o v i s i o n of transportation mandatory. However, i n the United States Congress, a 1970 amendment to the Urban Mass T r a n s i t B i l l took the lead by giving e f f e c t i v e o f f i c i a l r ecognition of t h i s r i g h t : I t i s hereby declared to be n a t i o n a l p o l i c y that e l d e r l y and handicapped persons have the same r i g h t as other persons to u t i l i z e mass transportation f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , that s p e c i a l e f f o r t s s h a l l be made i n the planning and design of mass transportation f a c i l i t i e s so that the a v a i l -a b i l i t y to e l d e r l y and handicapped persons of mass transpor-t a t i o n which they can e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e w i l l be assured. In B r i t i s h Columbia, James G. Lorimer, the Minist e r of Municipal A f f a i r s i n 1973 made the following p o l i c y statement with regard to handicapped person's s p e c i a l needs: 16 We are also very much aware of the special transportation needs of the handicapped persons, and we intend, when our programme is more advanced, to look into possible pro-grammes for these British Columbians. We feel this is one area where community services and voluntary resources must work closely together. While this statement expresses awareness by the government of the handicapped person's problems, i t does not acknowledge the need to mandate services through a process of legislation. At the federal level views were expressed by the Minister of Health and Welfare. He stated that transportation is seen as a provin-cial responsibility, even though the federal government, through grants, has made some private transportation projects possible. Again, Lalonde (1974) emphasizes the need to determine the federal role in a predom-inately, provincial jurisdiction. The department also indicates awareness that more can be achieved in this field; however, they state they have no alternative at the present time but to continue within the limitation of existing legislation. This statement appears to be an indication by the government that transportation of the handicapped will continue to remain a low priority until they are pressured to meeting the demands. In the preceding section, the importance of adequate trans-portation services for the handicapped and the benefits accruing from i t have been discussed. Also, transportation has been viewed as a right, a need and as a means of access to various opportunities. There was limited information about the transportation of handicapped people and in fact less that pertains to deaf and blind children. 17 REFERENCES CHAPTER II Austin, J. The Province of Jurisprudence Determined - 1832. London, 1954. Brattgard, S. Integration into Society. O f f - p r i n t of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A f t e r Central Nervious System Trauma Symposium, Sponsored by the Skandia Group, Stockholm, September 25-27, 1973. Canadian Paraplegic A s s o c i a t i o n . Paratracks. Vancouver, May-June 1973. Carp, F. The M o b i l i t y of Retired People. Washington: United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1971. Clunk, J . "Employer Atti t u d e s and the Adjustment of the B l i n d , " Proceedings of the U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Conference for  the B l i n d , 1947. Ed. W. Donahue, New York: Americans f o r the B l i n d , 1950. F r i e d , C. "Analysis of 'Equality' and 'Rights' i n Medical Care," H o s p i t a l Progress. V o l . 57, 1976, pp. 44-49. Funk, J . "A Pub l i c Transportation System for the Handicapped," Paper read at the Canadian Council f or the Disabled, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, December 3-4 1974. Gallagher, T. M o b i l i t y for the Disabled: Towards a P o l i c y on Pu b l i c  Transportation for Disabled B r i t i s h Columbians. Prepared for the Bureau of T r a n s i t , Vancouver, 1973. Litman, T. " P h y s i c a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n : A S o c i a l - Psychological Approach," Human Behaviour and S o c i a l Processes. Ed. A. Rose, Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1962. Lalonde, M. S o c i a l Security i n Canada. Prepared by the Mi n i s t r y of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, 1974. Magidson, E. Transportation Problems of the E l d e r l y . Chicago: Mayor's O f f i c e for Senior C i t i z e n s , December 1972. Markovitz, J . "The E l d e r l y , S o c i a l , Economic and Transportation Need Mimeographed, Interim Technical Report 4187-5250, T r i s t a t e Transportation Commission, New York, June 1970. Nugent, T. "Public Transportation and the Disabled," Mimeographed, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Champaign, 1972. Parsons, T. " D e f i n i t i o n s of Health and I l l n e s s , " Patients, Physicians  and I l l n e s s . Ed. G. Jaco, D a l l a s : The Free Press of Glencoe 1963. P o l i c y Statement. P u b l i c Transportation f o r B r i t i s h Columbians. Honourable James Lorimer, M i n i s t e r of Municipal A f f a i r s , Vancouver, 1973. Pu b l i c Law 91-453. The Urban Mass Transportation Amendment Act. 1970. Saskatchewan Co-ordinating Council on S o c i a l Planning. A Study on  the S p e c i a l Transportation Needs of the Handicapped. P. Charlebois, Chairman, Saskatoon, May 1974. Warham, J . Eq u a l i t y as a Concept i n S o c i a l P o l i c y . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1974, unpublished. 19 CHAPTER I I I PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY The major concern of t h i s study i s an assessment of the trans-p o r t a t i o n problems and requirements of handicapped school c h i l d r e n . In order to research adequately t h i s problem and achieve the objectives of t h i s study, four basic methods of c o l l e c t i n g information were employed. DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS Documents pe r t a i n i n g to the Department of Education's p o l i c y and P u b l i c School Regulations concerning transportation were surveyed. In a d d i t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia Advisory Committee Recommendations to the Department of Human Resources and the recommendations of the Royal Commission on the Spe c i a l Needs of Spe c i a l Children were c o l l e c t e d . INTERVIEWS AND CORRESPONDENCE WITH TRANSPORTATION EXPERTS In pursuing the objectives of t h i s research, general informa-t i o n about the transportation f a c i l i t i e s f o r the handicapped was obtained from various agencies concerned with the transportation of handicapped c h i l d r e n . L e t t e r s were received and interviews were held with the following persons: 20 Mr. V. Parker, Mr. B. Piper Mr. J. Eastwood, Mr. P. Lawrence, Mr. A. Shave, Mr. D. O'Connell, Mr. R. St. Denis, Mrs. K. Hudson, Mr. D. Worsley, Mr. F. Flemming, Mr. R. Jones, Mr. M. Dion, Director of T r a n s i t , Bureau of Tr a n s i t Services Consultant, Bureau of T r a n s i t Services Administrative Supervisor, B.C. Hydro and Authority Acting Program Organizer for the 111, Aged, and Handicapped, Vancouver Parks Board. Director of Information, Department of Transport and Communication Program Manager, Urban Transportation Systems, Transportation Development Agency Associate D i r e c t o r , B.C. Lions Society f o r Crippled Children Transportation Manager, B.C. Lions Society for Crippled Children, Easter Seal Transpor-t a t i o n Service Special Projects A s s i s t a n t , D i v i s i o n of Integrated and Supportive Services, Department of Education Acting Superintendent, D i v i s i o n of Integrated and Supportive Services, Department of Education D i r e c t o r , Community Programmes D i v i s i o n , Department of Human Resources Acting D i r e c t o r , R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Services, Department of Health and Welfare. Interviews with these agencies were designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to obtain opinions about present transportation services and suggestions for i t s improvement. I t was thought that an open-ended interview would allow for more creative contributions. A d d i t i o n a l l y , information was gathered by telephone about transportation services a v a i l a b l e to handi-capped persons i n and around Vancouver. MAILED QUESTIONNAIRES The population from which the sample for t h i s study was drawn, consisted of c h i l d r e n a f f i l i a t e d with Jericho H i l l School for the Deaf and the B l i n d . The sample of the parents of handicapped ch i l d r e n was chosen at random to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e i t h e r a mailed questionnaire or a personal interview schedule. A questionnaire for day students was designed to i d e n t i f y the d i f f i c u l t i e s that c h i l d r e n with v i s u a l and hearing handicaps experience when using the transportation system and to i n v e s t i g a t e how these d i f f i c u l t i e s are handled by the parents. The instrument was divided into a number of sections and included questions about demographic and socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , choice of transportation modes, capacity to perform the p h y s i c a l functions required by p u b l i c and s p e c i a l trans-p o r t a t i o n services and a t t i t u d e s concerning po s s i b l e transportation modifications. 22 The questionnaire consisted of 53 items; not every one was a p p l i c a b l e to each i n d i v i d u a l (See Appendix A). I t was constructed i n part, from an Abt Associates inquiry (1969) c a r r i e d out i n Boston to research t r a v e l b a r r i e r s i n the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system. The questionnaire was mailed complete with a stamped s e l f -addressed envelope and a cover l e t t e r explaining the purpose of the research. A follow-up l e t t e r was also sent i f no response was received from the parent a f t e r one month. Of the 96 parents who were sent questionnaires, 13 were parents of a b l i n d c h i l d and 83 were parents of a deaf c h i l d . Parents of more than one handicapped c h i l d a f f i l i a t e d with Jericho H i l l School were requested to answer the questions with regard to t h e i r eldest c h i l d only. The completed questionnaires were coded and key-punched at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's Computer Centre.' Univariate and b i v a r i a t e tabulations were conducted to examine the demographic and socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the transportation requirements of the sample population. PERSONAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULES A sub-sample of 30 parents was chosen to be interviewed personally; the same questionnaire was administered. Nine parents had b l i n d and 21 had deaf c h i l d r e n . I t was hoped t h i s would promote enriched i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the main data base. 23 Letters of introduction were sent to the 30 parents explaining the nature and objectives of the study and indicating when potential contact by telephone for arrangements would be made. REFERENCES CHAPTER III Abt Associates Inc. Travel Barriers - Transportation Needs of the  Handicapped. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Trans-portation, Of f ice of Economic and Systems Analysis, Cambridge Massachuetts, 1969. 25 CHAPTER IV RESULTS QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE RATES The following Tables I and II give the questionnaire response rates. D i f f i c u l t y i n making contact was i n part due to the school's p o l i c y to keep only the current school session's record of addresses up-to-date. The low response rate was due possibly to the f a c t that contact was attempted during the month of August when many f a m i l i e s are on vacation. QUESTIONNAIRE FINDINGS The h i g h l i g h t s of the r e s u l t s are as follows: Population C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1. Data were c o l l e c t e d on 61 c h i l d r e n which comprised approximately 48% of the school's day student population. 2. Of the two handicapped groups represented, the b l i n d population consisted of 16 (26%) of the sample, while the deaf population of 45 accounted for 74%. The most recent n a t i o n a l figures presented i n a S t a t i s t i c s Canada Report (1976: 6) show a s i m i l a r 26 TABLE I D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Number of Questionnaires Mailed and Returned by Handicap Handicap Number Mailed Number Returned Deaf 83 (86%) 35 (74%) B l i n d 13 (14%) 12 (26%) T o t a l 96 (100%) 47 (100%) TABLE II D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Number of Questionnaires Personally Administered by Handicap Handicap * Number Telephoned Number Consenting to be Interviewed Deaf 21 (70%) 10 (71%) B l i n d 9 (30%) 4 (29%) T o t a l 30 (100%) 14 (100%) 18 telephone c a l l s were completed. r a t i o of c h i l d r e n with hearing impairments to v i s u a l impair-ments r e c e i v i n g s p e c i a l education of 5.9 to 1. 3. The sample comprised of 35 boys and 26 g i r l s which represented a sex r a t i o of 1.3 to 1. This i s comparable to the S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1976: 6) figures which report a sex r a t i o of 1.3 to 1 for c h i l d r e n with s i m i l a r handicaps. 4. The children's ages range from 6 to 19 years. Fewer b l i n d c h i l d r e n were represented i n the 13 to 19 age bracket because the b l i n d school ends at grade 8. Family S i t u a t i o n 1. The average s i z e of the 61 f a m i l i e s was 5 members. This fi g u r e i s l a r g e r than reported i n the 1971 census ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1974: 169) for the average B r i t i s h Columbia family of 3.5 members and the average Canadian family of 3.7 members. Twenty-five percent of the parents indicated they had more than one handi-capped c h i l d i n t h e i r family. 2. Thirty-two of the 61 f a m i l i e s resided i n Vancouver and 28 i n the Lower Mainland. Nineteen parents reported having to change t h e i r place of residence at l e a s t once to accommodate t h e i r c h i l d ' s d i s a b i l i t y . Most changes involved a move from other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia to the Lower Mainland which i s the centre of treatment and s p e c i a l education for the handicapped. 3. Nine (15%) of the parents did not respond to the question con-cerning t h e i r family income. Of the remaining 52 parents who responded, the average income for 1974 was between $10,000 and $14,999. The 1971 census ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1974: 225) shows the average B r i t i s h Columbian's family income to be $11,212 and the Canadian family income to be $10,368. 4. T h i r t y - e i g h t parents responded that they receive f i n a n c i a l assistance f or t h e i r c h i l d ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The School Boards i n the d i s t r i c t where Jericho H i l l School reside pay the parents grants, who i n turn sign these over to the Easter Seal Society. 5. F i f t y - t h r e e parents ind i c a t e d they owned one or more motor v e h i -c l e s f or transportation purposes. Four of the 8 parents with-out t h e i r own p r i v a t e . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n reported that they used the p u b l i c bus as t h e i r p r i n c i p l e source of transportation. Nineteen parents ind i c a t e d that t h e i r c h i l d often lacks trans-p o r t a t i o n r e s t r i c t i n g the places to which they have access. Table I I I i d e n t i f i e s the t r i p s the parents f e e l t h e i r c h i l d i s prevented from making: these are mainly r e l a t e d to r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . Level of Functioning of Sample Population General questions were asked about o v e r a l l l i m i t a t i o n s to m o b i l i t y . TABLE I I I Trips Prevented from Being Made Tri p s Number Shopping 1 Medical 1 School 1 Entertainment 5 S o c i a l V i s i t 3 Recreation 15 Don't Know -Other -T o t a l 26 30 1. Special Aids: Dependence on mechanical mobility aids i s one i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of mo b i l i t y l i m i t a t i o n s of the ch i l d r e n . Over h a l f used no s p e c i a l aids to help them get around outdoors. Of those with some requirements, most reported using e i t h e r a cane or the aid of another person. Although there i s no comparable data f o r a la r g e r population, the sample appears to be quite mobile with no stated need f o r wheelchairs which would prove* to be a problem with p u b l i c trans-p o r t a t i o n . 2. Transportation L i m i t a t i o n s : Parents were asked to answer questions , about t h e i r children's problems and l i m i t a t i o n s i n using c e r t a i n modes of transportation. The r e s u l t s are r e l a t e d below and d i s -played i n Figure 1. (a) F o r t y - s i x (75%) of the parents stated t h e i r c h i l d could walk e a s i l y without the help of another person. D i f f i -c u l t y was reported, however, i n the use of p u b l i c transportation and 24 (39%) of the ch i l d r e n required assistance. This percentage i s so high probably because of the lack of c e r t a i n t r a v e l s k i l l s of sight i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n and o r a l communication i n the sample population. In comparison, only 6 (10%) of the ch i l d r e n required assistance on the Easter Seal bus. Reasons f or th i s d i f f e r e n c e are probably due to the Easter Seal operating a door-to-door service and the dr i v e r s being trained for 100 unassisted easy unassisted with d i f f i c u l t y assistance required not a p p l i c a b l e non-response I MODE .1 •. ••. Walk Bus Easter Seal Bus Taxi Parent Volunteer Other 90 80 70 m 60 n 50 40 30 20 10 0 H Figure 1 Limitations i n the Use of Certain Transportation Methods Note: Other ref e r s to f e r r y and airplane t r a v e l 32 and f a m i l i a r i n dealing with c e r t a i n handicaps. The volunteer and parent d r i v e r s were then i d e n t i f i e d as providing a better t r a v e l s ervice which required l e s s assistance than i f a bus or t a x i was taken. Ferry and airplane t r a v e l reported under 'other' column were by several parents, i d e n t i f i e d as modes of transportation r e q u i r i n g assistance. (b) Parents were asked several questions about the p h y s i c a l func-t i o n a l performance of t h e i r c h i l d r e n while using buses and/or t a x i s . The r e s u l t s are displayed i n Tables IV and V. Bus Usage: In 7 of the 10 f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s over 50% of the b l i n d c h i l d r e n experienced some d i f f i c u l t y . Not s u r p r i s -i n g , 10 of the 16 b l i n d c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t y detecting the des t i n a t i o n of the bus. A major d i f f i c u l t y experienced by 10 of the b l i n d c h i l d r e n had to do with l o c a t i n g a vacant bus seat. Deaf c h i l d r e n encountered d i f f i c u l t y i n both obtaining and asking for assistance or information from the bus d r i v e r . Twenty-five (55%) of the deaf c h i l d r e n experience e i t h e r d i f f i c u l t y or required the help of another person i n order to obtain the assistance they required. T h i r t y one (68%) of the deaf c h i l d r e n found problems when they needed to ask the bus dr i v e r f o r assistance, f o r example, to ask for a tr a n s f e r s l i p . These problems are not s u r p r i s i n g given that deaf c h i l d r e n often have communication d i f f i c u l t i e s . I f a deaf c h i l d gives no i n d i c a t i o n to the d r i v e r that they have a hearing Bus Usage by Level of Functioning Unassisted With Assistance Not No Easy D i f f i c u l t y Easy D i f f i c u l t y Applicable Response ' Bus Total Blind Deaf Total Blind Deaf Total Blin d Deaf Total Blin d Deaf Total Blind Deaf Total B l i n d Deaf detect approach 38 5 33 7 4 3 5 •3 2 3 3 _ •4 _ 4 4 1 3 scand waiting 45 7 38 2 2 - 3 2 1 2 2 - . 5 2 3 4 1 3 locate entrance 44 6 38 4 4 - • 4 1 3 2 2 - 4 1. 3 3 _ 3 go up and down s t a i r s 50 12 38 - - - 5 4 1 - _ 3 _ 3 3 _ 3 locate vacant seat 44 6 38 5 5 - 4 3 1 2 2 _ 3 _ 3 3 stand holding grip 43 8 35 3 1 2 4 3 1 1 1 _ 5 2 2 ' 5 1 4 detect destina-tion 41 4 37 2 2 - 5 2 3 4 4 7 3 4 2 1 p u l l cord 38 8 3 1 - 1 4 - 4 5 3 2 10 5 5 3 - 3 obtain a s s i s -tance 27 7 20 4 - 4 8 4 4 8 2 6 9 2 7 5 1 j 4 ask driver for assistance 20 6 14 6 1 5 5 1 4 12 3 9 12 5 7 6 - 6 34 TABLE V Taxi Usage by Level of Functioning • e Taxi Travel Obtaining' A Taxi Going to Proper Destination Leaving the Taxi Other Unassisted, Easy 5 4 7 -Unassisted, With Some D i f f i c u l t y 1 1 0 -Easy, With Assistance 4 3 1 -Some D i f f i c u l t y With Assistance 2 2 2 _ Not Applicable 1 1 0 -Non-Response 48 50 51 61 To t a l 61 61 61 61 35 impairment he may perceive the c h i l d to be creating a nuisance. The hearing a i d when worn i s an exce l l e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n mechanism. However, not a l l deaf c h i l d r e n who own hearing aids wear them: i n one personal interview a mother explained that because her son was profoundly deaf and did not receive any be n e f i t of sound from the device, he refused to wear i t even though he knew he would probably encounter fewer problems. Taxi Usage: Taxi usage was r e l a t i v e l y low among the ch i l d r e n . Travel by t a x i was used by 7 (16%) of the deaf and 2 (13%) of the b l i n d c h i l d r e n . This may be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d to the c h i l d ' s age, nature of the handicap and the cost of t a x i t r a v e l . The c h i l d r e n who do t r a v e l along by t a x i f i n d there are various problems . Table V sheds some l i g h t on the nature of the d i f f i c u l t i e s . Transportation to School Most handicapped c h i l d r e n must be provided with transportation i f they are to attend school. I t i s e s s e n t i a l i n large urban communi-t i e s where s p e c i a l schools and programmes may be si t u a t e d at some distance from the c h i l d ' s residence and where heavy t r a f f i c makes t r a v e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t . 1. Distance: As shown i n Figure 2, 32 of the 61 chi l d r e n i n the sample l i v e approximately 11 or more miles from t h e i r school. I t may be remembered that 19 parents changed t h e i r residence CO H NUMBER OF CHILDREN oo c H ro o CO rt P3 3 o H i H o a o s ro to o o o O L O O O O O O I CO O U i O I pr oo co H- o M O co B H- ro M I fD i j i CO ] I ro CD o < B H" h-1 ro ro H CO I ro i—* H i 3 a. to lower mainland locations from various points throughout B r i t i s h Columbia and Alber t a because of t h e i r c h i l d ' s handicap and the need for s p e c i a l education. Figure 2 i l l u s t r a t e s that t h i s change of residence did not necessar-i l y mean a move for the family to with i n walking distance of the c h i l d ' s school, but re s u l t e d i n r e l o c a t i o n to the out-s k i r t s of Vancouver where the taxes are lower and the houses are cheaper than i n other d i s t r i c t s . Several parents explained that they moved close to the school to ensure t h e i r c h i l d could s t i l l l i v e at home and not i n the dormitory at J e richo H i l l . Mode of Transportation from School: The type of transporta-t i o n most frequently used i s shown i n Figure 3. M u l t i p l e responses were possible i n answering t h i s question. In t h i s way a frequency count of the type of transportation most commonly used was represented. The Easter Seal Transportation Service which i s under contract to Jericho H i l l School and the Vancouver School Board was the most frequently used method of transportation, followed by the p u b l i c bus and parent d r i v e r s . Cross-tabulations of mode by age and mode by income were prepared and the data are presented i n Tables VI and VII. Age may be a fac t o r i n determining which mode of transportation i s to be used as no very young c h i l d r e n i n the 6 to 9 year age group ei t h e r walked home from school or used the p u b l i c bus. In contrast, the frequency i n the older age groups to use e i t h e r 50 * n = 71 3 Q r-l « O Pi w 40 30 20 10 MODE Walk Bus Easter Seal Bus Taxi Parent Other Blind | [ Deaf Figure 3 Mode of Transportation from School to Home Note: * ft* Other includes the Optimist Hearing Handicapped Bus n refers to the number of responses LO oo 39 TABLE VI Age by Mode of Transportation Age Group (years) Walk Public Bus Easter Seal Bus Taxi Parent Other1 6-9 — — 8 1 2 1 10-15 2 9 10 - 2 -16-19 1 7 4 - - -over 19 - - 3 - 1 -6-9 - - 3 - - -10-15 - 1 10 1 - -16-19 - 2 2 - - -over 19 - - 1 - -Note: A child may have used more than one mode of transportation from school. Other refers to Optomist Hearing Handicapped Bus. 40 TABLE VII Mode of Transportation by Income Income Walk P u b l i c Bus Easter Seal Bus Volunteer Taxi Parent Friend Another Person up to $ 4,999 _ 5 * $ 5,000-$ 9,000 - 7 3 - - - — — $10,000-$14,000 3 3 12 - 1 - — — $15,000-$24,999 - 4 8 4 - 3 1 1 $25,000-$39,999 - 2 1 - - - - -$40,000 and up - - 1 - - - - -Non-Response - 3 7 - - 2 - -Note: In several of the income brackets multiple responses to means of transportation were given. the p u b l i c bus or walk home was 19 for the deaf c h i l d r e n and 3 for the b l i n d c h i l d r e n . The data presented i n Table VII does not i n d i c a t e that income i s a factor i n the mode of transportation employed. Time i n T r a n s i t : One of the d i f f i c u l t problems p a r t i c u l a r l y i n large urban communities, i s that of planning the transporta-t i o n routes so that c h i l d r e n are not forced to spend an excessive amount of elapsed time t r a v e l l i n g . Jericho H i l l School, l i k e other schools i n the Vancouver area, begins classes at 9 a.m. and f i n i s h e s at 3 p.m. How ear l y a c h i l d must leave home i n the morning or how l a t e i t i s when he or she returns depends on various factors such as the distance from school, the type of transportation employed, the route the v e h i c l e t r a v e l s and the t r a f f i c conditions. Several questions pertained to t h i s important area. The r e s u l t s were as follows: (a) Figure 4 shows that 28 of the ch i l d r e n depart for school before 7:30 a.m. Figure 5 shows s i m i l a r amounts of time were spent i n t r a n s i t returning home. In order f o r these times to be meaningful i t i s assumed that the transporta-t i o n leaves soon a f t e r the school day i s finished.Easter Seal reported they t r y to arrange f o r t h e i r bus and vans to be at Jericho H i l l School and other schools when the classes are dismissed. 30 20 10 TIME before 7:01- 7:31- 8:01- 8:31- Non-7:00 7:30 8:00 8:30 9:00 Response a.m. a.m. a.m. a.m. a.m. Figure 4 Time of Departure for School 30 3 Q •J H ra o o erf w 20 10 TIME 3:01-3:30 p .m. 3:31-4:00 p.m. 4:01-4:30 p .m. 4:31-5:00 p.m. after 5:00 p .m. other times Figure 5 Time of Arrival Home from School Note: Other refers to one child who arrives home from school at various times (b) Table VIII shows the r e s u l t s as r e l a t i v e l y consistent i n that the longer distances required lengthier t r a v e l time. Travel Costs: Parents were asked to i d e n t i f y the cost of t h e i r c h i l d ' s transportation to school and the organization who payed for i t . The data i s presented i n Figures 6 and 7. (a) These r e s u l t s are disparate and not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the reason for t h i s being that many of the parents are not absolutely sure of the school transportation costs because funding to the parent may vary for each mode of transportation t h e i r c h i l d uses. This r e s u l t s i n some confusion and i t remains unclear what i n d i v i d u a l expenses are to the parents. I f s p e c i a l transportation services are not a v a i l a b l e , the parent i s e l i g i b l e to receive a Transportation Assistance Allowance. Parents whose chi l d r e n r i d e the Easter Seal bus are paid grants by the school boards and they i n turn pay the Easter Seal Society. Children who ri d e the p u b l i c buses are e l i g i b l e f o r Transportation Assistance Allowance, the cost of which i s shared between the school board and the pro-v i n c i a l government. Thus, no parent need pay for transpor-t a t i o n costs. (b) Parents responded i n equal proportions that the respon-s i b i l i t y to arrange transportation to school should be l e f t to the p r o v i n c i a l government, the school and the parents. TABLE VIII Distance from School by Time in Transit Time 0-4 blocks 5-8 blocks 9 blocks-1 mile 2-5 miles 6-10 miles 11 miles & over Don't Know Other Non-Response Less than 1/2 Hour - - - 2 2 — _ _ _ 1/2 Hour 1 - - 5 4 1 - - -1 Hour - - 1 1 3 9 1 - 2 1 1/2 Hours - - - - 4 15 - - -2 Hours - - - - - 4 1 1 -Over 2 Hours - - - - - 1 - - -Don't Know - - - 2 - - - - 1 Ln o o CO H NUMBER OF CHILDREN h-1 M <_n O Ui to O to U l o c ri fD n o CO o 3 fD 50 fD rf C H 3 H H H-13 00 O P* O o 9*7 30 20 ORGANIZATION Parent Guardian Organization B. Vancouver Charity Treatment Don't C. School Centre Know Government Board Figure 7 Organizations Identified as Those Who Pay School Transportation Costs 48 Transportation to Medical F a c i l i t i e s The survey presented a set of open questions deal.ing with the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of transportation f a c i l i t i e s to medical care centers. The findings are reported below. 1. Fourteen (23%) c h i l d r e n were reported to have received s p e c i a l therapy or counselling. 2. Eighteen c h i l d r e n , 12 of^whom were deaf, went to regular medical appointments at t h e i r physicans' o f f i c e s . 3. Most of the c h i l d r e n who took part i n therapy or counselling sessions also received t h e i r classes of i n s t r u c t i o n at Jericho H i l l School and thus the problem of transportation was usually avoided. Transportation, however, to regular medical .check-ups at the physican's o f f i c e was required and normally pro-vided by the parents using e i t h e r t h e i r own p r i v a t e transporta-t i o n or the p u b l i c bus. 4. Medical treatment was being received by 4 (25%) of the b l i n d population and 10 (22%) of the deaf population with an average length of the treatment reported between 1 and 2 years. Eight parents responded that they preferred the treatment to be given at school. The actual response rate to the questions i n t h i s s ection was very low. The parents i d e n t i f i e d few problems i n arranging f o r t h e i r c h i l d ' s transportation to medical s e r v i c e s . 49 Transportation to Recreational A c t i v i t i e s For some handicapped c h i l d r e n i t may be necessary that s p e c i a l programmes be organized and transportation arrangements to these a c t i v i t i e s be made a v a i l a b l e i f they are to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n recreation. In the survey, a set of questions were asked about the children's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n rec r e a t i o n . The h i g h l i g h t s of the findings are reported below. 1. Forty-one c h i l d r e n of whom 11 were b l i n d and 30 were deaf, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes. 2. Sponsors of these programmes included the community, school, organization, opportunities f o r Youth projects and parents. 3. F i f t e e n of the 41 c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n recr e a t i o n normally had t h e i r transportation arranged and the mode most often used was the family car. Other methods of t r a v e l included walking, p u b l i c bus, the Easter Seal bus, volunteer d r i v e r s and the Jericho H i l l School bus. 4. Sixteen parents reported that the estimated costs of a return t r i p to a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ranged from 25c to $5.00. Seven parents responded they didn't know the cost and 19 parents i n d i c a t e d there was no cost involved. 5. Non-participation i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was also examined. The r e s u l t s are presented i n Table IX. These i n d i c a t e that transportation plays a minor part i n the non-participation of the respondent's c h i l d r e n i n recr e a t i o n programs. TABLE IX Factors i n the Non-participation of the Sample Population i n Recreation Factors Number No Transportation 4 Cost 2 Don't Know of Any Recreational A c t i v i t i e s 10 C h i l d i s Not Capable 1 Don't Know 2 Others- 3 T o t a l 22 Other ref e r s to two parent's comments that the ch i l d r e n a r r i v e home too l a t e to p a r t i c i p a t e and one parent stated that her son had no friends i n the community to attend the programmes. 51 Deaf Drivers Having looked at the various modes of transportation, questions were directed toward finding out what problems deaf student drivers experienced when obtaining a licence and insurance. The highlights of the results are as follows: 1. Of the 11 deaf students in the 16 years of age category eligible to obtain a valid driver's licence, 5 reported having a valid licence. Two responded they were unable to get their driver's licence due to the nature and degree of their handicap. 2. Only one of the 5 student drivers reported having had any problems in obtaining car insurance. 3. One student reported having received financial assistance to obtain a driver's licence. 52 EXISTING TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN VANCOUVER This s e c t i o n attempts to show the r e s u l t s of the survey of trans-p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s undertaken i n the summer of 1975. Spe c i a l transportation services f o r the handicapped i n Vancouver are l i m i t e d . The car, t a x i and p u b l i c t r a n s i t system are s t i l l the main modes of transportation used by most of the handicapped population, p a r t i c u l a r l y the l e s s severely handicapped groups such as the b l i n d and deaf. A b r i e f survey of s p e c i a l services associated with transpor-t a t i o n appears below. A discussion of the adequacy of these services w i l l be presented i n the next chapter. Survey of Transportation Services i n Greater Vancouver, 1975 A i r l i n e s : A i r Canada — • Provides accommodation f o r wheelchairs, seeing-eye dogs and the walking disabled • Prefers i n d i v i d u a l s to have own attendant • No s p e c i a l rates are given Canadian P a c i f i c A i r — • Provides assistance to i n d i v i d u a l s who require assistance • No s p e c i a l rates are given 53 P a c i f i c Western A i r l i n e s — • Provides a carry-on wheelchair f or on-plane • Handles wheelchairs, stretcher cases, the'walking disabled and the b l i n d • I n d i v i d u a l must provide own attendant F e r r i e s : B r i t i s h Columbia Ferry System — • Provides elevator s e r v i c e , and ramps are a v a i l a b l e • I f assistance i s required, arrangements must be made i n advance • No s p e c i a l rates are given Taxis: Black Top Cab — • Provides s e r v i c e for wheelchair storage but must n o t i f y wheelchair s e r v i c e f i r s t • An extra 20 minutes wait i s required during busy hours • Driver may refuse to l i f t a person who i s too heavy MacLures Cab — • Provides service f o r wheelchair storage and w i l l take seeing-eye dogs • Must phone at l e a s t 20 minutes i n advance and speci f y wheelchair use 54 • Driver may refuse to l i f t i f person i s too heavy Yellow B i r d Taxi — • Provides service for handicapped only • Operates from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday • Reservations are required • Mileage l i m i t — 10 miles from point of pick-up • T r i p l i m i t — two pick-ups per day Yellow Cab — • Provides service for wheelchair storage and takes seeing-eye dogs • Must reserve ahead and s p e c i f y wheelchair • Driver may refuse to l i f t i f person i s too heavy Organizations: Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver — • Provides transportation services by r e f e r r a l from a s o c i a l worker of an agency • Service provided for any t r i p purpose • No cost to users B.C. Lions Society f o r Crippled Children - Transportation Services — • Provides 3 s e r v i c e s : ( i ) Scheduled services f o r transporting c h i l d r e n to school (paid for by the p r o v i n c i a l government and school boards) 55 ( i i ) Scheduled service transporting handicapped c h i l d r e n to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n h o s p i t a l s , schools, children's treatment centers, adult workshops and preschool centers (paid for by the agency) 0 ( i i i ) I n d i v i d u a l and group services f o r adults — cost i s $1.50 for a one way t r i p within a radius of 3 miles — extra charge a f t e r 3 miles D e l t a s s i s t Society — • Transportation service to medical and treatment centres for handicapped residents of Delta North Shore Transportation Service — • Provides transportation f or the e l d e r l y and the handicapped who are unable to use public transpor-t a t i o n . Services are mainly f o r h o s p i t a l therapy, adult day care centers and doctors appointments. V i s i t i n g and shopping have low p r i o r i t i e s and are f i t t e d i n when openings are a v a i l a b l e . Serves only the North Shore area, from Horseshoe Bay to Deep Cove Surrey Community Resource Centre — • Provides transportation services f or Senior C i t i z e n s and the handicapped for medical appointments Marpole-Oakridge Services for Senior C i t i z e n s and the Handicapped — • Transportation i s a v a i l a b l e for medical and s o c i a l programmes appointments FISH, Richmond • Provides neighbourly help to people needing a s s i s -tance such as emergency family or c h i l d care, housework and transportation • Serves Richmond only White Rock Community A i d — • Provides a transportation s e r v i c e to medical appoint-ments and some transport to other community agencies f o r Senior C i t i z e n s , the p h y s i c a l l y and mentally handicapped and low income people • A 3 day notice i s preferred B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro Bus Passes — • Persons on Handicapped Persons Income Assistance (over 18 years of age) may purchase a bus pass for $5.00 for a l l or part of a 6 month period • Travel i s free i n the Greater Vancouver area and the f i r s t 2 fare zones of the B.C. Hydro Suburban Line Service (Surrey, Delta, and White Rock) Laurel House — • I t i s for A u t i s t i c Children • Operates one s t a t i o n wagon Jericho H i l l School — • Operates one bus, one van and one s t a t i o n wagon • Uses t a x i service f o r medical appointments of r e s i d e n t i a l c h i l d r e n and the Easter Seal Transpor-t a t i o n Service f o r day student transportation Pearson Hospital — • Operates one converted bus which i s capable of carrying 13 wheelchairs and 4 passengers • Used f o r Pearson Hospital's patients f o r s i g h t -seeing and other outings Children's H o s p i t a l — • Operates two cars with one h o s p i t a l d r i v e r and one volunteer d r i v e r Vancouver General H o s p i t a l — • Out-patient Department has transportation a v a i l a b l e f o r anyone with mobility problems • Operates one car driven by a u x i l i a r y volunteers • Referrals are based on doctors' recommendations 58 GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION The survey of s e v e r a l experts involved with transportation services i n the Vancouver area revealed the following information (see page 20). Parker (1975) stated that the Bureau of T r a n s i t has not been able to progress with a s p e c i a l i z e d p u b l i c s e r v i c e l i k e that of Easter Seal. He explained that because there was no p o l i c y concerning the transportation of handicapped persons, the best immediate s o l u t i o n would be to expand the Easter Seal Service. He went on to suggest that a c e n t r a l c l e a r i n g agency be set-up to examine a l l demands and these could be met by s p e c i f i c agencies. Both Eastwood (1975) and Piper (1975) were more s p e c i f i c and f e l t i t was up to the Department of Human Resources to take a systems view of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or handicapped people and to coordinate a l l departments involved. Eastwood noted that there are no plans whatsoever at B.C. Hydro concerning s p e c i a l services or s p e c i a l design plans for the handicapped. Lawrence (1975) stated transportation i s a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and that B.C. Hydro should be more involved i n t h i s area of concern. The biggest problem, i n terms of respon-s i b i l i t y , according to Lawrence, i s the fragmenting of departments of Health, Transportation and Human Resources. Shave (1975) explained i n the following l e t t e r the extent of the p r o v i n c i a l government's involvement and p o l i c i e s concerning the handicapped: With regard to our department, (Department of Transport and  Communications) we provide s p e c i a l washrooms for paraplegics on a l l s t r e t c h f e r r i e s as well as i n onshore t r a i l e r u n i t s , and i n addition, we .make no d i s t i n c t i o n i n granting d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where hand controls are concerned. Municipal A f f a i r s i s presently designing foot passenger f e r r i e s f or Burrard I n l e t which w i l l be access-i b l e f or handicapped, and I understand t h e i r T r a n s i t Bureau i s in c l u d i n g provisions f o r the handicapped i n a l l i t s undertakings with the exception of p u b l i c buses. In the Department of Human Resources, a sum of $700,000 was spent l a s t year f o r a s s i s t i n g the handicapped and senior c i t i z e n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A t o t a l of 16 separate services were funded which includes a $40,000 grant to the Easter Seal Society which operates the "bunny buses." The Department of Health provides the handicapped with transportation f o r education and vocational accomplishments, and I understand the Department of Education i n conjunction with l o c a l school boards i s also providing transportation to such students at a f l a t rate. As f a r as the pub l i c services i s concerned, the Depart-ment of P u b l i c Works i s currently co-ordinating a survey of government buil d i n g s both permanent and r e n t a l , i n order to a s c e r t a i n what the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s are (i n c l u d i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r handicapped workers) and what w i l l be required i n future. In the preceding chapter, findings taken from the responses 61 completed questionnaires were highlighted and displayed. In addition, the r e s u l t s of the survey of transportation services i n Vancouver and the survey of experts involved with transportation were reported. The following chapter w i l l present a discussion of these r e s u l t s i n greater d e t a i l . •REFERENCES CHAPTER IV Statistics Canada. Canada Year Book. 1974 Edition, Ottawa: Infor-mation Canada, 1974. Statistics Canada. Enrollment and Staff in Schools for the Blind and  Deaf - 1975-76. Catalogue 81-217 Annual, Ottawa: The Department of Industry, Trade and Commerce, 1976. Parker, V. Personal Communication, August 13, 1975. Piper, B. Interview, Vancouver, June 17, 1975. Eastwood, J. Interview, Vancouver, June 25, 1975. Lawrence, P. Interview, Vancouver, August 12, 1975, Shave, A. Personal Communication, August 8, 1975. 61 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The need to provide increased educational opportunities f o r deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n has been met through the creation of s p e c i a l schools s t a f f e d by s p e c i a l l y trained teachers. Transportation of c h i l d r e n to these schools i s a problem for administrators, and planners as w e l l as f o r parents. While a separate transportation system i s not n e c e s s a r i l y required the subject must be considered by the school administrators i n t h e i r i n i t i a l programme planning. Throughout the Greater Vancouver area getting c h i l d r e n -to and from school i s a s i z a b l e task: i t i s a major concern of school d i s t r i c t s . Should the chi l d r e n use p u b l i c transportation? Should the parents be expected to serve as chauffeurs? There are not only the problems of arranging s p e c i a l transportation but also d i f f i c u l -t i e s of getting the c h i l d to and into the v e h i c l e ; t r a v e l time can also be excessive. The questionnaire sought to quantify the magnitude of these s p e c i f i c problems and others having to do with f u n c t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s involved i n using p u b l i c transportation, financing t r i p s to recrea-t i o n a l and medical f a c i l i t i e s and the general adequacy of the present transportation s e r v i c e s . Population I d e n t i f i c a t i o n In s e l e c t i n g only deaf and b l i n d handicaps to make up the sample population, i t was r e a l i z e d that c e r t a i n problems and needs associated with severe ph y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s (for example wheelchair dependence) would l i k e l y not be accounted f o r i n the r e s u l t s and i n subsequent recommendations and plans f o r improved transportation f a c i l i t i e s . However, i n - s p i t e - o f the apparent m o b i l i t y of those with sensory d i s a b i l i t i e s , i t was* found that one-third of the sample population e i t h e r experienced d i f f i c u l t y or required assistance i n using the pub l i c bus (see Figure 1). Perhaps many of the problems and r i s k s f o r those persons with severe p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s also e x i s t for l e s s severely handicapped deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n . This study's r e s u l t s are comparable to those of the Vancouver School Board—Ad Hoc Committee's assessment of the school transportation service i n the areas of safety requirements, supervision and time spent i n t r a n s i t to and from school. , Transportation Problems and Requirements How do parents, the school board or transportation operators determine whether the transportation system i s adequate? One way may be to i d e n t i f y the l e v e l of functioning of the population and to adjust the p h y s i c a l aspects of the mode of transportation being used. Adequacy may also be ascertained by answering the following: how safe i s the v e h i c l e ; i s there s u f f i c i e n t supervision on the bus or vans; how long before school begins do the c h i l d r e n have to leave home; how long are they i n t r a n s i t ; how many ch i l d r e n have to stand on the bus? A c c e s s i b i l i t y may be affected by the l o c a t i o n of the school b u i l d i n g . Jericho H i l l School, s i t u a t e d on Point Grey, i s a poor l o c a t i o n because the lar g e s t concentration of c h i l d r e n attending the school l i v e i n eastern Vancouver. School d i s t r i c t s who use Jericho H i l l School are committed to transporting many c h i l d r e n who may, i n some instances, have been able to walk to school or who may have been able to f i n d more comfortable alternate transportation to a neighbourhood school. Expenditures f o r t h i s purpose add nothing to the educational programme and only reduce the amount of funds for i t . Thus, i t seems only reasonable that administrators and planners give thought to the nature of the transportation programme that w i l l be required when deciding the l o c a t i o n of a new school. Parents of b l i n d and deaf c h i l d r e n a c t i n g as respondents provided s u f f i c i e n t information f o r an assessment of the transporta-t i o n problems and requirements to be made. In the following discussion a number of items w i l l be looked at more c l o s e l y . These include' t r a v e l time, bus safety, transportation operators, and the p o l i c y and l e g i s -l a t i o n regarding school transportation. Travel Time. Special school transportation i s the method of choice to concentrating s u f f i c i e n t p u p i l s at one centre to increase the s i z e of clas s e s , thus making i t possible to have a teacher f o r each grade and otherwise improve the educational opportunities for 64 the child. The difficulty with this is that in large urban communities like Vancouver children are often forced to spend long periods of time in travelling to and from school. This is especially fatiguing for the young handicapped pupils. For many children even a short ride in a crowded bus may precipitate outbreaks of excitement and overstimulation and yet some of the children may spend two to four hours each school day riding the school bus. This increased travel time also cuts into the time available for school work and/or time available for recreation. The Vancouver School Board's Committee on the Special Needs of Special Children was specifically concerned with reducing the time children spent in travel. They noted that after one-half hour, the incidence of problems with handicapped children rises greatly and after one hour, the incidence of problems with a l l children sharply increases. It was agreed that one hour was maximum in travelling time, with considerations of security and safety features as a guide-line. It may be recalled that 45 (74%) of the children left home for school before 8 a.m. Of these 45 children, 28 left home before 7:30 a.m. Nearly half of the sample population were required to spend three or more hours on the school bus or van each day. The Chud Inquiry (1974: 9) of Jericho H i l l School also found problems with the length of travel time and made the following recommendations: 65 The present system should be critically reviewed by the Administration at Jericho H i l l School and impro-vised to the extent possible within the existing conditions. No child, particularly blind children, should be required to travel more than one hour on the bus. Every possible resource must be brought to bear in order to make this possible. In the first instance, government departments must make available additional subsidies for children living far from school. In the course of the inquiry several solutions were offered in response to the present conditions where some of the children must spend excessive amounts of time in transit. One solution calls for the use of mini-buses taking fewer children on a more direct route. Integrating other bus systems taking children to and from facilities for the handicapped is another possible proposal. Lastly, i t was suggested that a l l buses transporting children to and from-school facilities (including private schools) could constitute a bussing pool which could be programmed to deliver the most rational and expedient form of transportation for a l l children being bussed around in Vancouver. In a study by Cruickshank and Johnson (1958) on the education of exceptional children, they suggest in some cases i t might be expedient to plan 'feeder' routes which will pick-up children in different areas and bring them to a prearranged location where they can be transferred into a larger coach which will then take them to school. This system they claim would overcome the excessively long ride of the first child picked up and the last to be dropped off. Yuker's (1967) report on the transportation of the physically handicapped students draws attention to a way by which travel time can be shortened by scheduling classes a f t e r peak t r a f f i c hours, for instance, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. This scheduling may be necessary i n large urban communities such as Vancouver where s p e c i a l schools l i k e Jericho H i l l School are located some distance from the c h i l d ' s home and where heavy t r a f f i c makes t r a v e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t and time consuming. One disadvantage i s that i t may i n t e r f e r e with the children's r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as they w i l l a r r i v e home at an even l a t e r hour. The P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education also has recognized problems i n the Lower Mainland area regarding transportation for handicapped c h i l d r e n . Worsely (1975) notes that the problem could be solved i n two ways, either by l o c a t i n g s p e c i a l education f a c i l i t i e s i n the areas where the c h i l d r e n l i v e , or by operating many small vans on more d i r e c t runs. The problem with the f i r s t s o l u t i o n i s that the l a r g e s t concentration of handicapped school c h i l d r e n i s i n East Vancouver where there i s a shortage of classroom space. The Department of Education has received suggestions that they should fund brand new f a c i l i t i e s f o r handicapped i n t h i s area, but no a c t i o n has yet been taken i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . Worsely reports that the problem with the second s o l u t i o n i s the funding. However, due to the constant com-p l a i n t s by the parents and other concerned c i t i z e n s the p r o v i n c i a l government has involved i t s e l f i n further i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the problem of t r a v e l time. The Department of Education recently requested a report to be prepared by the B r i t i s h Columbia Lions Society for Crippled Children (1975) on the s p e c i a l transportation fo r the Vancouver School Board. Hudson, the author of the report stated one major aim of the report was to f i n d a way to reduce t r a v e l l i n g time spent on a school bus to a maximum of f o r t y - f i v e minutes. She i d e n t i f i e d seven problems which a f f e c t the length of t r a v e l l i n g time on the school bus and they are as follows: 1. T r a f f i c -(a) Buses are t r a v e l l i n g at the peak of rush hour t r a f f i c (b) Time i s consumed i n t r y i n g to cross busy s t r e e t s and i n t e r s e c t i o n s (c) Door-to-door pick-up i s often hampered by blocked s t r e e t s and lanes (d) F a l l and winter weather conditions have a serious e f f e c t on the flow of t r a f f i c . Every year the t r a f f i c problem becomes worse. 2. Hours and Destinations -School hours 9:00 to 3:00 p.m. and 9:00 to 2:00 p.m. The moving of 301 c h i l d r e n i n the a.m. to be at school for 9:00 a.m. Not being able to drop c h i l d r e n at Oakridge School before 8:45 a.m.' 3. The number of s p e c i a l schools c h i l d r e n attend (31) are scattered i n a l l four corners of the C i t y . Many c h i l d r e n l i v i n g extreme East attend school which i s located extreme West and vice-versa. This s i t u a t i o n i s undoing any good the c h i l d might have received by attending t h i s s p e c i a l c l a s s . 4. These c h i l d r e n who t r a v e l on Easter Seal buses would not need s p e c i a l transportation i f they did not have problems i n learning, s o c i a l or p h y s i c a l , and many need help to get on and o f f the buses which i s another time-consuming fa c t o r to consider. 5. Children not being ready for the bus -Two minutes l o s t on f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n works out to one-h a l f hour t r a v e l l i n g time. 6. Lack of communication between a l l p a r t i e s concerned -parents, schools, School Boards, transportation, etc., e s p e c i a l l y the parents when a c h i l d ' s behaviour becomes a problem. 68 7. Cost - A transportation programme i s a very c o s t l y business and i s planned on the basis of what monies are a v a i l a b l e ; labour, of course, taking the l a r g e s t portion of the funds. Hudson's report suggested the following methods to accomplish the task of reducing the time spent i n t r a n s i t by handicapped school c h i l d r e n : 1. using extra buses of the mini type; 2. staggering school hours; 3. t r y i n g to place c h i l d r e n who need s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g schools i n the area where they l i v e , thus eli m i n a t i n g the need f o r transportation; and 4. e s t a b l i s h i n g more c e n t r a l i z e d destinations whereby eli m i n a t i n g the need for c h i l d r e n t r a v e l l i n g more miles than needed. The report stressed that although the employment of these methods would decrease the amount of time i n t r a v e l , i t would at the same time increase the cost to operate a transportation system t h i s scale by an estimated $183,860 or 123.52% f o r a f u l l school term. For a d e t a i l e d breakdown of the estimated costs see Appendix B. Hudson ind i c a t e s that i f the Easter Seal Transportation system were to solve these problems, there would s t i l l be a number of c h i l d r e n , such as the b l i n d and deaf attending Jericho H i l l School, who would receive no b e n e f i t s from any changes made. She claims the p r i n c i p l e reason for t h i s i s the l o c a t i o n of the school i n r e l a t i o n to where 69 the c h i l d r e n r e s i d e . She suggests that s p e c i a l i n d i v i d u a l i z e d trans-p o r t a t i o n would be needed for the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s category. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to comprehend, however, that the employment of mini buses and the re-routing of the Vancouver School Board service would not i n some way improve the t r a v e l conditions of the b l i n d and deaf school c h i l d r e n t r a v e l l i n g to Jericho H i l l Schools. I t i s apparent that under the present Easter Seal transportation system, unless the schools o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l programmes for exceptional c h i l d r e n are not c e n t r a l -i z e d near the transportation operators choice of a c e n t r a l transfer point, i n t h i s case G.F. Strong R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre, both the t r a v e l l i n g time and cost w i l l continue to increase. This a c t i o n would neither be i d e a l , p r a c t i c a l or appropriate. Transportation Operators. Both the Vancouver School Board and the Department of Education contract out to The B r i t i s h Columbia Lions Society for Crippled Children who operate the Easter Seal Transportation Service. The Easter Seal Society operates three transportation s e r v i c e s : an i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e o f f e r i n g a t a x i - l i k e s e r v i c e to handicapped c h i l d r e n and adults by appointment; a scheduled service transporting handicapped c h i l d r e n to schools f o r the school board; and another scheduled s e r v i c e transporting handicapped c h i l d r e n to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n h o s p i t a l s , schools, treatment centres, and adult workshops. In a study prepared by Gallagher (1972) for the Bureau of T r a n s i t , he found the school bus s e r v i c e to be the better developed 70 of the three services presently being o f f e r e d . The school bus service was also found to be the most economical system per seat/mile to operate because: (a) the volume of t r a f f i c i s great; (b) the demand i s d a i l y ; (c) and the route patterns are stable; and (d) destinations are concentrated. He goes on to point out that the school s e r v i c e routes i n the system make a strong east-west pattern. Because v i r t u a l l y a l l treatment f a c i l i t i e s f o r the handicapped are concentrated i n the area west of Cambie Street, the system, has been designed, f o r the most part, to transport c h i l d r e n from t h e i r homes i n the east end of Vancouver to f a c i l i t i e s i n the western areas of the c i t y . In 1975 t h i s scheduled s e r v i c e picked up approximately 730 c h i l d r e n every day and transported them to 50 d i f f e r e n t destinations i n a l l sections of the Lower Mainland. Perimeter bus routes commencing as f ar east as Fort Langley, Coquitlam, Delta and Surrey using smaller v e h i c l e s met at prescribed transfer points w i t h i n the c i t y . Three hundred and twenty of these c h i l d r e n were a f f i l i a t e d with the Vancouver School Board while c h i l d r e n from Jericho H i l l Schools made 57 d a i l y return t r i p s , 3 one-way t r i p s and 9 weekend t r i p s by Easter Seal. The questionnaire r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d the Easter Seal Transportation Service as the most frequent mode of transportation used by the sample population when t r a v e l l i n g from school to home. Costs. The costs of t h i s school transportation service are covered by the i n d i v i d u a l school boards, with whom the society negotiates contracts. In B r i t i s h Columbia, there i s a cost sharing 71 agreement i n e f f e c t between the p r o v i n c i a l government and the school boards, whereby,the government pays 15% of the cost and the i n d i v i d u a l school board which i s municipally funded, pays 85%. As Jericho H i l l School i s a p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , the school boards i n the d i s t r i c t s where Jericho H i l l School students reside, pay the parents grants, who i n turn sign them over to the Easter Seal Society as payment. For the year ending December 31, 1975, the following monies were received by the parents and dispensed to the Easter Seal Society: D i s t r i c t Name Amount 38 Richmond $ 6,150.00 39 Vancouver 28,000.00 40 New Westminster 1,570.00 41 Burnaby 4,780.00 44 North Vancouver 2,340.00 The cost of the Vancouver School Board's contract with the Easter Seal Transportation Service for the 1975 - 76 school year was $148,841. For a breakdown of these see Appendix B. In a d d i t i o n to the transportation provided for by the Easter Seal Transportation Service, Jericho H i l l School operates several of i t s own v e h i c l e s — o n e 25 passenger bus, one 14 passenger bus, one van and one s t a t i o n wagon. These v e h i c l e s are government owned, and are maintained at the School. Occasionally a d d i t i o n a l services are 72 provided by hired buses and the entire cost is paid for by the provin-cial government. The annual budget allotted to Jericho H i l l School for the operation of their transportation programme in 1974/1975 was $1000. Bus Safety. In British Columbia, the individual school board is responsible for their districts school transportation programme including school bus safety. The parents noted their concern in the questionnaire that adequate safety standards were not being met. They specifically note the lack of safety belts, l i t t l e or no supervision, the overloading of children at certain times, and the fear that some drivers are too old to meet with emergencies. Given that the individual school board is responsible for bus safety i t is up to them to set certain safety standards to which their contracting transportation operator must be made to adhere. The selection and orientation of bus drivers is important for the safety of a l l school children. In a study dealing with the trans-portation of handicapped children to recreational activities, Pomeroy (1964) suggests that character and resourcefulness along with the ability to drive should be considered when hiring a driver. To ensure safe driving, a person, to qualify, must meet certain minimum require-ments which include such factors as health, age, first aid knowledge, and driving skills. The responding parents indicated that the problems that arise in the transportation of the handicapped children are, in many 73 ways different from those of non-handicapped children. In a report on the methods of handling handicapped child on buses Mandel (1975) suggests that i f there are no special transportation devices on the bus, the driver should avail himself of any information on the handling of the children under ordinary conditions and every child should have personal identification as to their special needs. Both the parents in the survey and the members of the Committee on the Special Needs of Special Children questioned the lack of proper supervision on the school buses. Due to the additional cost of placing attendants on the school buses, the Easter Seal Transportation Service have employed only two attendants which are used on the large 50-passenger buses. Bus attendants would be an aid to both the bus driver and children in that their main duties are: 1. to load and unload the multiply handicapped children; 2. to maintain control of the children while in transit (operation); 3. to look after the needs of the children; and 4. to assist the driver in emergency situations. The Easter Seal Transportation Service requires that their drivers have the required licence (Class A) for operating a bus and a safe driving record. New drivers are required to undergo a one week training period and pass a specified probationary period before being hired. In-service training includes safety standards, lifting and transferring handicapped persons, tire changes and equipment use. 74 Employees are made responsible for their vehicles in terms of report-ing mileage and upkeep. The drivers must be 19 years of age and may drive after 65 years of age but must report for regular medical check-ups. Jericho H i l l School bus drivers must also meet similar standards to qualify. Teachers and child-care counsellors, at Jericho H i l l School will act as attendants on the buses while on field trips. The school behaviour rules under the Public Schools Act pertain to the children while travelling on the bus. Transportation Policy. The Department of Education trans-portation policy is predicated upon the assumption that two categories of students are involved in pupil transportation: 1. Those who are not physically handicapped; and 2. Kindergarten pupils and physically handicapped pupils who for other reasons require special transportation. School boards transporting children residing in areas beyond a departmental walk limit are eligible to receive grants to assist in the provision of such transportation. Those children who are kindergarten or physically handicapped pupils are eligible to receive either shareable bus transportation or Transportation Assistance Allowances, regardless of any walk limits. These Transportation Assistance Allowances, in the form of grants, may be available to parents and are paid through the local Board of School Trustees: costs are shared with the Department of Education. E f f e c t i v e January 1, 1975, the Department of Education has shared the costs of Transportation Assistance Allowance with the l o c a l school boards according to the following formula: 1. 25C per p u p i l per day, plus 15c per v e h i c l e mile (or part) t r a v e l l e d per day, to a maximum of $3.75 per p u p i l per day; 2. Transportation costs for p h y s i c a l l y handicapped pu p i l s who t r a v e l 13 miles per day or l e s s are shared at a f l a t rate of $2.25 per p u p i l per day, transportation for such pupils who t r a v e l more than 13 miles per day are shared according to item (1); and 3. In s p e c i a l cases where p h y s i c a l l y handicapped pupils must be transported i n ve h i c l e s designed to accommo-date wheelchairs, etc., the Department shares i n 75% of the costs. D i s t r i c t s submit d e t a i l s of such cases separately. -Bus routes may be extended to any point even i f only one p u p i l i s involved. S h a r e a b i l i t y f o r grant purposes i s based, i n respect to the a d d i t i o n a l mileage involved," upon the l e s s e r of: 1. the mileage rate a p p l i c a b l e to the School D i s t r i c t concerned or 2. the Transportation Assistance Allowance amount. 76 A l l cases involving Transportation Assistance are dealt with by the local Board of School Trustees concerned and the Parents involved. Extra-curricular activities involving the transportation of pupils are the financial responsibility of the individual School Board concerned. Legislation. The legislation dealing with the conveyance of pupils to and from any school in a particular school district is set down in the Public Schools Act Regulations. Specific clauses in Regulation 160 pertaining to the transportation of pupils are as follows: 160 (1) The Board of a School District may: (a) provide for and defray the cost of the conveyance to and from any school in the school district that is a considerable distance from the school; (b) provide for and defray the cost of conveyance of pupils for the purposes related to the instructional or other activities of the schools; (c) subject to the regulations, enter into an agreement with a recreation commission, or a parks and recreation commission, or a civic properties and recreation commission, or any other similar body, to permit the use by such commission or other body of buses owned by the Board, for the purposes of a recreation programme; and (d) provide for and defray the cost of the conveyance of pupils resident in the school district to a school in another school district i f the pupils attend such school under an agreement entered into under this Act between the Boards of the respective school districts. Although the Department of Education has set down written polic-ies regarding the transportation of pupils and has passed legislation dealing with the conveyance of pupils to and from any school in a particu-l a r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t h e r e i s s t i l l no r e g u l a t i o n c o m p e l l i n g s c h o o l s t o p r o v i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o p u p i l s . T h e r e i s a l s o no r e g u l a t i o n p r e v e n t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a bus r o u t e c o n s i d e r e d by the D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n t o be w h o l l y o r p a r t l y ' n o n - s h a r e a b l e . ' The l a c k o f m a n d a t o r y r e g u l a t i o n s ( compared w i t h e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n ) r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u p i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s has c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s . I f a l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d d e c i d e s n o t t o p r o v i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r t h e i r p u p i l s , many p a r e n t s o f h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n whose s p e c i a l s c h o o l programme i s n o t i n t h e l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t where t h e y r e s i d e , w o u l d be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a c h o i c e o f e i t h e r c a r i n g f o r them a t home, o r h a n d i n g them o v e r t o a p u b l i c l y f u n d e d i n s t i t u t i o n . I f s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , r e g u l a r t r e a t m e n t may be h a r d to g e t t o and may even be i m p o s s i b l e . G a l l a g h e r (1972) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t w i t h o u t s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n may n e v e r have f u l l employment o p p o r -t u n i t i e s o r r e a c h t h e i r f u l l i n d e p e n d e n c e . Due to t h i s , p a r e n t s may d e c i d e on i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n even i f t h e i r c h i l d i s n o t s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d . ' No e v i d e n c e was g a t h e r e d to t h i s e f f e c t i n t he p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n M a r c h 1 9 7 5 , t he F i f t h R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n On F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Law was p u b l i s h e d . I n P a r t I V d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s p e c i a l needs o f s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n , t h e c o m m i s s i o n r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h h a n d i c a p s have s p e c i a l needs o v e r and above t h o s e o f most o t h e r c h i l d r e n . The C o m m i s s i o n ' s g o a l was t o b r i n g t h e b e s t . p o s s i b l e e x p o s u r e t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h a v a r i e t y o f h a n d i c a p s . 78 The Commission's basic p o s i t i o n was that a c h i l d as a human being, i s e n t i t l e d to human r i g h t s . Also, where a c h i l d i s handicapped, his handicap should not diminish h i s r i g h t s as a c h i l d . The Commission recommended that the following r i g h t s should be incorporated into l e g i s l a t i o n : 1. A l l c h i l d r e n must have access to an education appropriate to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs; f o r c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l needs such access includes adequate transportation s e r v i c e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y , s p e c i a l aids and programmes. I t i s of paramount importance to maintain the i n t e g r i t y of the c h i l d ' s family, i f at a l l p o s s i b l e . Thus h i s s p e c i a l educational requirements are best served by de-l i v e r i n g the services to him rather than f o r c i n g him to t r a v e l beyond h i s immediate community. 2. In order to promote p h y s i c a l and mental health and to remedy i l l n e s s , c h i l d r e n must have access to a l l aspects of health care. This r i g h t suggests reasonable access to and a v a i l a b i l i t y of health care and includes the r i g h t at publ i c expense to transportation to a health f a c i l i t y i n cases of emergency or i n cases of handicapped c h i l d r e n whose access to t h i s i s r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r handicap. 3. Children must be provided with the r i g h t to play and re c -r e a t i o n . Play and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s should be a r c h i -t e c t u r a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to handicapped c h i l d r e n and where required, s p e c i a l transportation to these f a c i l i t i e s should be provided. s 4. The Department of Education must ensure that l e g i s l a t i o n provides for a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n who require i t , and further, the department should s p e c i f y i n i t s regulations that there be a maximum d a i l y length of time c h i l d r e n should be i n t r a n s i t . The Commission stressed that unless s a t i s f a c t o r y transportation i s provided, a handicapped c h i l d may be unable to make use of the s p e c i a l educational f a c i l i t i e s created for him. Transportation planning f o r the use of educational f a c i l i t i e s should be the fundamental part of the o v e r a l l process of planning. Although p u b l i c t r a n s i t may be approp-r i a t e f or some handicapped c h i l d r e n there are others whose handicap(s) prevent i t s use. Given that government p o l i c y i s to integrate, wherever p o s s i b l e , handicapped c h i l d r e n and adults into s o c i e t y , then i t must be reasonable to propose a statutory strengthening of p r o v i n c i a l laws r e l a t i n g to the handicapped. Lowry (1972) suggests that while waiting f o r the p r o v i n c i a l courts to become attuned to changes i n s o c i a l p o l i c y , the l e g i s l a t u r e s should s e r i o u s l y consider enacting new laws. For instance, the American Model White Cane Law proposes a statutory recognition of the s h i f t i n p u b l i c p o l i c y together with the statutory strengthening of b a s i c p r o t e c t i o n of the b l i n d (see Appendix C). Lowry f e e l s that i f such l e g i s l a t i o n i s passed p r o v i n c i a l l y , then modern school p o l i c y w i l l be made more workable. SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN VANCOUVER From the review of a v a i l a b l e resources, i t i s apparent that e x i s t i n g transportation services f o r the handicapped are becoming more and more fragmented i n both the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c sectors (see page 52 ) • Both groups have t h e i r r a t i o n a l e for the way they operate t h e i r v e h i c l e s . Each has i t s own c l i e n t e l e and often i t s own p h y s i c a l centre of a c t i v i t y . While there seems to be s u f f i c i e n t v e h i c l e s i n Vancouver, the s e r v i c e i s not properly coordinated. 80 I f fragmentation continues the following problems may e x i s t i n the future: 1. d u p l i c a t i o n of routes; 2. i n s u f f i c i e n t scale of demand of i n d i v i d u a l operations; 3. lack of e f f i c i e n t communication between .clients, d r i v e r s and centres; 4 . lack of s p e c i a l i z e d features on vehicles for handling severely handicapped c l i e n t s ; 5. u n d e r - u t i l i z a t i o n of transportation f a c i l i t i e s (vehicles and d r i v e r s ) ; and 6. inadequate t r a i n i n g of d r i v e r s to handle c l i e n t s . Fragmentation of services i n Vancouver has af f e c t e d the t r a v e l of handicapped c h i l d r e n i n the c i t y . Nineteen parents reported that the lack of transportation somewhat r e s t r i c t s the places t h e i r c h i l d can go, p a r t i c u l a r l y for s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The transportation used by those c h i l d r e n who did p a r t i c i p a t e i n these types of a c t i v i t i e s was provided f o r the most part by the parents. Transportation to medical f a c i l i t i e s was not seen as great a problem for the parents. The reason f o r t h i s , i n part, may be the p r o v i s i o n of medical services and the existance of a school infirmary at Jericho H i l l School. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROVISION OF SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES The Advisory Committee on the Needs of the Physically Handi-capped was set-up in 1973 to focus on British Columbia's involvement in the provision of transportation services and facilities for the handicapped. The Committee recognized both the serious shortage of transportation for the handicapped in the Greater Vancouver area and the lack of defined responsibility by the provincial government. In 1974, the Committee made these recommendations to the Provincial Government. TRANSPORTATION Recommendation #6 The Committee Recommends that: 1. the Minister of Human Resources create a position of administrator of transportation for the handi-capped to act as a central authority; 2. an advisory board to the central authority be appointed with representatives from groups involved with and of handicapped people; and 3. the central authority and advisory board consider the immediate need for short term goals and long term planning. Immediate Need — Evaluation and funding for existing services to prevent collapsing and to ensure continuing transportation services for the handicapped. Short Term Goal — To coordinate, integrate, and expand exist-ing transportation services to be used as a model for a pro-vincial transportation system for the handicapped. Long Term Planning — To investigate existing resources, public, private, volunteer, commercial and f i l l in gaps in S 6 IT VIC 6 To ensure that the design and planning of existing and future transportation services and facilities whether municipal, regional, provincial, or federal are usable by handicapped people (subway, etc.) throughout the province. TRANSPORTATION Recommendation #12 The Committee Recommends that: 1. such l e g i s l a t i o n be drafted and passed into law by the p r o v i n c i a l government; 2. the province s p e c i f y a c e r t a i n percentage of a l l grants a l l o t t e d f or urban t r a n s i t be used to e s t a b l i s h and/or improve transportation services for the handicapped. Note: These two recommendations would ensure that the handicapped are considered i n any present and future transportation planning of any transporta-t i o n made i n the province. 3. funds for s p e c i a l i z e d services of any mode should be obtained from the pub l i c treasury as i s the case for present public transportation systems. 4. the ci v i c - m u n i c i p a l and/or r e g i o n a l l e v e l of gov-ernment should be a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the e s t a b l i s h -ing and/or improving of any handicapped transpor-t a t i o n services i n t h e i r l o c a l area. This p a r t i c i p a t i o n would include mainly planning and financing and operating of the s e r v i c e . Note: Presumably the finances would be negotiated on a cost-shared basis between the c i v i l - m u n i c i p a l and/or r e g i o n a l l e v e l s of l o c a l government, (which-ever has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the transportation function i n a s p e c i f i c area) and the p r o v i n c i a l government. The Bureau of T r a n s i t services would be f i n a n c i a l l y involved, along with the Department of Education, Department of Health and the Depart-ment of Human Resources. This would make up the p r o v i n c i a l government f i n a n c i a l involvement. As w e l l , the f e d e r a l government i s now i n the process of determining a p o l i c y of s u b s i d i z a t i o n to handicapped transportation through the Federal M i n i s t r y of Transport. I t i s expected that they would also contribute f i n a n c i a l l y . 5. the government create a p o s i t i o n of a handicapped transportation coordinator to evaluate, coordinate and integrate handicapped transportation; and then authorize the appropriate financing to bring about a cohesive system of handicapped transportation modes for the province. The handicapped transportation co-ordinator should have the authority to work with any government department and p r i v a t e agency concerned with handicapped transportation. 83 6. l i a i s o n between the Department of Human Resources and the Bureau of T r a n s i t Services be started as soon as implementation of recommendation "#1" i s made, u n t i l such time as the Bureau i s able to take on th i s a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 7. all existing legislation i n the statutes, p a r t i c u l a r l y the new B r i t i s h Columbia T r a n s i t Act, be made use of to properly integrate and coordinate all forms and all modes of handicapped transportation In the province. Jones (1975) of the Department of Human Resources, commenting upon the implementation of recommendations made by the Advisory Committee on the Needs of the Handicapped, states that work i s now going on to determine how some e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n the Lower Mainland can achieve better i n t e g r a t i o n so that maximum services are made a v a i l a b l e from the funds which are presently being a l l o c a t e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he i s r e f e r r i n g to some non-profit community based groups i n Delta, Surrey and White Rock area who are already funded through the Department of Human Resources Community Grants Program. The main obje c t i v e of these groups i s to ensure that d u p l i c a t i o n does not occur and whether by coordinating such tasks as screening, dispatching, and the purchasing of equipment. Jones suggests that t h i s plan may be perceived as an i n i t i a l s t a r t on Recommendation #6. Jones stated that as Director of the D i v i s i o n of Community Pro-grammes he did not have information on the implementation of the other items Recommendations #6 and' #12. But, he noted, the Department of Human Resources does r e a l i z e that probably the greatest majority of those p h y s i c a l l y handicapped are unable to use the standard transportation equipment. Thus, i t i s apparent the government i s aware of the 84 problems and needs of the handicapped but i s not w i l l i n g , at t h i s time, to implement a l l of the Advisory Committee's Recommendations: t h i s i s most l i k e l y because of the a d d i t i o n a l costs involved. This conclusion i s reasonable i n l i g h t of the present resource s c a r c i t y , f i s c a l problems and the fa c t that these recommendations represented work completed by an advisory committee for a previous government. From the discussion of the extent to which p u b l i c and s p e c i a l transportation services are accessible to c h i l d r e n with v i s u a l and hearing impairments, a presentation i n the following chapter w i l l con-s i d e r ways i n which transportation services f o r these c h i l d r e n might be improved. REFERENCES CHAPTER V Advisory Committee on the Needs of the Handicapped. Recommendations Presented to the Department of Human Resources, V i c t o r i a , 1974. Chud, B. Report of Inquiry Jericho H i l l School. Submitted to the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, Vancouver, B.C., 1974. Cruickshank, W. and Johnson, G. Education of Exceptional Children  Youth. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice H a l l , 1958. F i f t h Report of the Royal Commission on Family and Children's Law. Part IV, Special Needs of Special Children. Vancouver, March 1975. Gallagher, T. M o b i l i t y f o r the Disabled: Towards a P o l i c y on Pu b l i c  Transportation for Disabled B r i t i s h Columbians. Prepared fo r the Bureau of T r a n s i t , Vancouver, 1973. Hudson, K. Report on the Special Transportation f o r the Vancouver  School Board. Prepared for the Vancouver School Board, Vancouver, December 30, 1975. Jones, R. Personal Communication, November 1975. Lowry, D. Bl i n d Rights Report. Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , H a l i f a x , 1972 Mandel, L. "Transporting the Handicapped C h i l d -1975," School Bus F l e e t . February - March 1975, pp. 23-28. Pomeroy, C. Recreation for Handicapped Children. New York: The Macmillan Company and the Free Press, 1964. 86 Public Schools Act Regulations. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a : Queens P r i n t e r , 1975. Worsely, D. Personal Communication, June 11, 1975, Yuker, H. The Transportation of P h y s i c a l l y Disabled Students. Human Resources Study, No. 10, Abertson: Human Resources Corporation, 1967. 87 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This i n v e s t i g a t i o n has shown that there i s l i t t l e evidence to support development of s p e c i a l transportation services of b l i n d and deaf c h i l d r e n i n order that they may use regular r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s or attend medical services. However, problems are evident i n the area of transportation to school. I t i s not c l e a r at the present time whether Jericho H i l l School w i l l remain as a c e n t r a l f a c i l i t y or i f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n w i l l occur. In the former s i t u a t i o n b a s i c improvements to the school transportation s e r v i c e must be made. The following l i s t of suggestions have been taken from parent's responses and comments. 1. The Easter Seal should have attendants on a l l of i t s buses. 2. The Easter Seal should provide mini-buses i n the form of a sh u t t l e s e r v i c e . 3. Bus routes should be d i r e c t to the schools and transf e r points discarded. 4. Parents should be immediately n o t i f i e d of any accident or breakdown. 5. Separate transportation vehicles should be arranged f o r the deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n . 88 6. Parents should get together and arrange to provide music or another a c t i v i t y f o r the ch i l d r e n while i n t r a n s i t . 7. Drivers should insure the children are properly seated and secure i n t h e i r seats. 8. Drivers should be more considerate of t h e i r passengers. 9. The lunch hour might be shortened to allow the ch i l d r e n to a r r i v e home at an e a r l i e r hour. In the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n (decentralization) i t i s necessary to seek out which transportation a l t e r n a t i v e ( s ) are av a i l a b l e and decide which would be most s u i t a b l e as an i n i t i a l step i n the design of a transportation system accessible to the b l i n d and deaf chi l d r e n . A l t e r n a t i v e Systems of Transportation With D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n There are two possible methods by which equal access to pub l i c transportation by the c h i l d r e n can be achieved. The f i r s t i s to provide a system of integrated services through the adaptation of pre-sent f a c i l i t i e s . There are, however, problems with such a system due to the p o t e n t i a l existence of t r a v e l b a r r i e r s . Abt (1969: 48) states the "challenge of elimi n a t i n g t r a v e l b a r r i e r s i s compounded by the fac t that both p h y s i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and t r a v e l b a r r i e r s occur i n combination, rather than i n d i v i d u a l l y , with any person or transportation mode." Therefore, the el i m i n a t i o n of one b a r r i e r , regardless of i t s importance, w i l l not make the integrated system accessible to a large portion of the population. 89 S p e c i f i c to the sample population i n t h i s study are sensory requirements. To use p u b l i c t r a n s i t systems the passenger i s required to receive and process information about schedules and routes. Much of the information that guides him i s transmitted by signs and loud-speakers. I f hearing or seeing i s impaired, t r a v e l information i s no longer communicated. Improvements i n information and transmission need to be undertaken as w e l l as the removal of c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s such as long s t a i r c a s e s , narrow doors, and high bus steps. Lengthy design and construction time periods and high cost would make c a p i t a l improvements to the present t r a n s i t d i f f i c u l t to recommend. Adaptations to i t would only have a marginal impact on the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the handicapped to the s e r v i c e . I t i s l i k e l y improvements can only come about from a complete system redesign. The second method i s through the development of p a r a l l e l services which would complement the present t r a n s i t system. Possibly the most favourable pattern which t r a n s i t operation can provide i s one that i s s p e c i a l l y designed for the use of handicapped chi l d r e n . Gener-a l l y , such services run on a demand-responsive b a s i s , o f f e r i n g door-to-door m o b i l i t y . The demand-responsive type of s e r v i c e o f f e r s important b e n e f i t s i n that i t provides d i r e c t m o b i l i t y on a one-to-one basis to those i n d i v i d u a l s who have greatest need. The p r i n c i p l e underlying t h i s concept i s the supply of a s p e c i a l s ervice when and where i t i s required, p a r t i c u l a r l y where no p u b l i c t r a n s i t i s a v a i l a b l e . The system i s best i n situations, where no long-range demand pattern can be forecast. 90 Problems under c e n t r a l or decentralized educational services w i l l be solved through proposals put forward under the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t proposals. The services proposed are designed to accommodate a broad range of handicaps. The Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t prepared the following diagram i l l u s t r a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a developing system and i d e n t i f y i n g i n t e r l o c k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . At the micro-level the following l i s t of suggestions came from parent's responses and comments. 1. Bus dr i v e r s should be trained i n the handling of handicapped people. 2. Place de s t i n a t i o n should be placed on both the front and back of the bus. 3. Information booths should be located at every major bus loop. 4. A B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro Bus pass could s i m p l i f y bus t r a v e l f o r the c h i l d r e n . 5. Children should be given s p e c i a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Cards which would make bus dr i v e r s aware of the handicap and whether i t i s ph y s i c a l or communicative. F i n a l l y , moving to the macro l e v e l some general recommendations can be put forward that may resolve the transportation problems facing the various s e r v i c e centres and pri v a t e contractors: 91 Department of Human Resources Bureau of Tr a n s i t (Min. of Municipal A f f a i r s ) GVRD . Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t GREATER VANCOUVER TRANSIT SYSTEM Special System for the Handicapped B.C. Hydro T r a n s i t P a c i f i c Stage Lines West Vancouver Municipal T r a n s i t Others d i r e c t l i n e s of co n t r o l communication Figure 8 Organization of the Regional T r a n s i t Organization Source: Transportation for a Li v a b l e Region by Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , p. 90. That l e g i s l a t i o n securing handicapped persons equal r i g h t of access to pub l i c transportation be drafted and passed into law by the p r o v i n c i a l government. This would guarantee that a l l handicapped c h i l d r e n and adults are taken into account i n present and future transportation planning. That r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r funding and coordination required f o r the p a r a l l e l s e r v i c e be secured from the p u b l i c treasury as i t i s for the present p u b l i c transportation system. Presumably the finances would be negotiated on a cost-shared basis between the c i v i l - m u n i c i p a l and/or regional l e v e l s of l o c a l government. In order that t h i s new ser v i c e be con-sidered an a l t e r n a t i v e mode of p u b l i c transportation, i t should have s i m i l a r funding provisions. That Vancouver should be a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the establishment of any new s p e c i a l s e r v i c e , because community transportation i s b a s i c a l l y a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the municipal government. That co n t r o l of any p a r a l l e l s e rvice be discharged at the community l e v e l , as p a r t i c u l a r needs of each community d i f f e r considerably. That the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s be made responsible f o r looking i n t o requests for help i n setting-up t r a n s i t services f o r handicapped c h i l d r e n and adults. In order that the new s p e c i a l s e r v i c e be considered a pu b l i c u t i l i t y rather 93 than a s o c i a l s ervice i t should be designated to the same category as the pu b l i c t r a n s i t . SUMMARY The p r o v i s i o n of a p a r a l l e l system run on a demand-responsive basis o f f e r s important benefits i n that i t provides d i r e c t access and therefore m o b i l i t y . The establishment of t h i s s e r v i c e would enable the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system to claim that i t renders equality of access to a l l c i t i z e n s : entitlement would be of essence, a r i g h t which can be thought of as fundamental because i t provides freedom. However, i f Jericho H i l l School remains as a cen t r a l f a c i l i t y f o r the education of deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n a more l o c a l i z e d w e l l organized s h u t t l e s e r v i c e would be the maximum requirement. A pertinent comment from one parent describes the extent of the current problem: " I t seems grossly u n f a i r that handicapped c h i l d r e n who are often i l l should have to t r a v e l such long hours every day of the week to t r y to obtain an education. We f e e l e f f i c i e n t transportation should be given each one." The chief conclusion of t h i s thesis i s that resources are l i m i t e d and B r i t i s h Columbia Society has yet to be d e f i n i t i v e i n s e t t i n g out i t s standards, p o l i c i e s , and laws which might provide f o r adequate transportation of deaf and b l i n d c h i l d r e n to school. • REFERENCES CHAPTER VI Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . Transportation for a Li v a b l e  Region. Vancouver, October 1973. 95 . POSTSCRIPT This study has concentrated upon a l i t t l e i n vestigated area and i n e v i t a b l y further research i s warranted. R e p l i c a t i o n of the present study employing better research instruments might determine whether the present findings could be generalized to other handi-capped populations. The findings of the present study and the r e s u l t i n g recommen-dations are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to Jericho H i l l School and thus may not be a p p l i c a b l e to the transportation programs i n any other i n s t i t u t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the sample s i z e was small and i n terms of func-t i o n i n g could be described as only borderline. To i l l u s t r a t e the transportation needs of handicapped persons better, a group dependent on the wheelchair would have i d e a l l y been chosen. Lack of cooperation on the part of several organizations was the reason why a severely handicapped group was not studied. Implications Although there remains much ground to cover, i t i s apparent that the reorganization of present services and the establishment of s p e c i a l p a r a l l e l services holds much promise for the development of a f a i r and adequate transportation system. Unless there i s s a t i s f a c t o r y transportation provided, handicapped c h i l d r e n may be unable to make use of the s p e c i a l educational programmes created for them. Transpor-96 t a t i o n must be considered both by school administrators and p u b l i c t r a n s i t planners i n t h e i r i n i t i a l program planning: i t i s an aspect which i s e s s e n t i a l to the educational and s o c i a l development of the c h i l d . To guarantee that the handicapped b l i n d and deaf c h i l d r e n are taken account of i n present and future transportation planning, implementation of l e g i s l a t i o n securing the handicapped persons equal r i g h t of access to p u b l i c t r a n s i t must be made. I f government p o l i c y i s to integrate b l i n d and deaf c h i l d r e n wherever pos s i b l e i n t o s o c i e t y , then i t i s reasonable to propose a statutory strengthening of p r o v i n c i a l laws r e l a t i n g to handicapped people. Proposals for Further Research This project represented a beginning point i n the study of transportation requirements of b l i n d and deaf school c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver. I t i s suggested that other areas of transportation services be examined on a wider scale and i n a way s i m i l a r to that of t h i s study. With the r e s u l t i n g data, i t i s suggested that one handicapped group be selected and a p i l o t s e rvice set-up for them which could be r i g o r o u s l y evaluated. While the lack of published l i t e r a t u r e and data r e l a t i v e to t h i s t o p i c may have imposed a l i m i t a t i o n to the project, i t does re-f l e c t the need for such an undertaking. Because of the numerous var i a b l e s that must be taken into account, considerably more research must be c a r r i e d out i n this area before any o v e r a l l plans can be designed and implemented. A further limitation to this study was the disadvantage of using a mailed questionnaire. Future studies should concentrate upon in depth personal interviews. One other aspect which must be considered is that of client involvement. Although the frame of reference-directly considered the client, i t is suggested that he may be more directly involved. The only way one can be assured that the transportation operators are f u l -f i l l i n g their function is through communication with those in receipt i t s services. Such feedback would be invaluable in assessing and formulating transportation policies' and practices. 98 S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y 99 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Abt Associates Inc. A c c e s s i b i l i t y of the Metro Washington, D.C. P u b l i c  Transportation System to the Handicapped and E l d e r l y . Prepared for the U.S. Department of Transportation, Cambridge, Massachuetts, 1972. Benn, S. and Peters, R. S o c i a l P r i n c i p l e s and the Democratic State. London: George A l l e n and Unwin Ltd., 1959. Featherston, E. and Culp, D. P u p i l Transportation, State and L o c a l Programs. New York: Harper & Row, 1965. Headley, L. The Unmet Needs of B l i n d Canadians. Vancouver: Canadian I n s t i t u t e for the B l i n d , 1975. Hoel, L. et a l . Latent Demand for Urban Transportation. Pittsburgh: Transportation Research I n s t i t u t e , Carnegie - Mellon U n i v e r s i t y , 1968. Monbeck, M. The Meaning of Blindness. London: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973. Scott, R. The Making of B l i n d Men. New York: Ru s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1969. A r t i c l e s Buehring, L. "Key Words are S t i l l Safety and Economy," The Nation's Schools. V o l . 65, May 1960, pp. 72-74. Featherston, E. "School Transportation; the Things a School Board Should Know," The American School Board Journal. V o l . 157, November 1969, pp. 15-29. 100 Franzan, C. "Board P o l i c i e s Needed f o r E f f i c i e n t Transportation," The American School Board Journal. Vols. 128-129, August 1954, pp. 32-33. Isenburg, R. "The Bus Can Be An I n s t r u c t i o n a l F a c i l i t y , " The Nation's  Schools. V o l . 65, May 1960, pp. 80-81. Mouchahoir, G. "Management of a Transportation System for the D i s -advantaged," T r a f f i c Quarterly. V o l . 28, A p r i l 1974, pp. 306-326. Murray, J . "Operate Safe School Bus Programs," The American School Bus  Journal. Vols. 142-143,"April 1961, pp. 11-12. Noakes, E. " T r a n s i t f o r the Handicapped," Nation's C i t i e s . V o l . 5, March 1967, pp. 32-33. Oosting, B. "Administering the Transportation Program," The Nation's  Schools. V o l . 65, May 1960, pp. 78-79. Schnell, J . and Braum, P. "Public P o l i c y and T r a n s i t Services f or the Handicapped and E l d e r l y Persons," Towards a U n i f i c a t i o n of National and State P o l i c y on the Transportation D i s -advantaged. Ed. W. B e l l and W. Olsen, Proceedings of the  4th Annual Transportation Conference, St. Petersburg Beach, F l o r i d a , December 3-5 1974, pp. 127-142. "School Buses for Handicapped Children," School and Society. V o l . 85, October 1957, pp. 291-292. Sorenson, T. "Key Person: The Bus Dr i v e r , " The Nation's Schools. V o l . 65, May 1960, pp. 84-85. Vinogradoff, P. "The Foundations of a Theory of Rights," i n Collected  Papers. V o l . I I , Oxford, 1928, pp. 367-380. Wallace, G. " S i x Ways to Safer Transportation," The Nation's Schools. V o l . 65, May 1960, pp. 75-76. 101 Wlrtz, M. "A S p e c i a l D i s t r i c t and a Multicounty Unit Plan," i n Cooperative Programs i n Special Education. Ed. F. Lord and R. Isenberg, Washington, D.C: The Council for Exceptional Children and the Department of Rural Education, 1964. Wimbish,-R. and G i l b e r t , G. "Planning Bus Routes i n No Easy Task: Here are Points to Keep i n Mind," The Nation's Schools. V o l . 65, May 1960, pp. 76-78. Reports Kates, Peat, and Marwick and Co. Transportation for the Disabled, Report // 33. Toronto: Metro Toronto Planning Review, Toronto T r a n s i t Commission, February 1974. Peat, Marwick and Partners. Urban Transportation for the Disabled. Prepared for the M i n i s t r y of Transportation and Communication, Toronto, 1975. Sandlin, R. Community Transportation Services. P r o v i n c i a l Service Proposal, Vancouver, June 1973. Topley, M. et a l . A Survey and Proposed Design to Improve P u b l i c  Transportation f o r the P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped. The U n i v e r s i t y of Western Ontario, Faculty of Engineering Science, London, Ontario, September 1973. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Design. Washington, D.C, A p r i l 1975. B a r r i e r Free S i t e U.S. Department of Transportation. Travel B a r r i e r s . O f f i c e of the Secretary, Washington, D.C, May 1970. 102 A P P E N D I C E S A P P E N D I X A QUESTIONNAIRE AND COVER LETTERS 104 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH CARE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARENTS OF DAY STUDENTS AT JERICHO HILL SCHOOL August, 1975 The purpose of t h i s study i s to look into the d i f f i c u l t i e s your c h i l d experiences i n using transportation and how you normally handle these d i f f i c u l t i e s . We are interviewing parents of c h i l d r e n with v i s u a l and hearing handicaps. Your answers w i l l help us i d e n t i f y and analyze features of the present transportation system which present d i f f i c u l t i e s to handi-capped people. This information w i l l form part of our recommendations for changes i n e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and may help to shape plans for future systems. The following questionnaire i s divided into a number of sections dealing with d i f f e r e n t areas r e l a t i n g to the handicapped. These include the school, medical treatment, r e c r e a t i o n and the l e v e l of functioning of your c h i l d i n view of e x i s t i n g transportation f a c i l i t i e s . We apologize for the monotony of some of the questions i n each area; however,' we f e e l t h i s i s the only way to get an o v e r a l l view of the t o p i c . We guarantee that the information we w i l l receive w i l l be treated with the utmost con-f i d e n t i a l i t y . OFFICE USE ONLY 8 9 10 n • • In regard to the questionnaire i t s e l f , i f you have more than one c h i l d at Jericho please answer a l l questions i n terms of your oldest c h i l d . Please do not write i n the squares i n the right-handed column on each page and i n d i c a t e your answer by c i r c l i n g the correct number where there i s a choice. Where there are dotted l i n e s , you may answer the questions i n sentence form on the l i n e s provided. 105 Caret I rr~t i — i — i 1. Sex of child? f 1. female 2. male • i l 2. Year of birth of child? The next series of questions involves family resources which are available as we feel these have some bearing on the trans-portation your child receives. You are not obligated to answer any of these questions if you feel at a l l uncomfortable. a 3. What is the size of the family? 1. two * 6. seven 2. three 7. eight 3. four 9. other - please 4. five specify 4. Do you have any other handicapped children? • 1. yes 2. no • 5. What type of private means of transportation does the family have? H 1. car 4. van 2. two cars 9. other - please specify JO 6. Under which of the following categories does your income fall? 1. up to $4,999 4. $15,000 - $24,999 2. $5,000 - $9,999 5. $25,000 - $39,999 3. $10,000 - $14,999 6. $40,000 and up • The next series of questions involves your child's level of function-ing in relation to transportation and other facilities. Is your child able to: Yes, with Yes No difficulty (a) walk without the help of another person (b) use stairs (c) move in crowds (d) identify audio cues (e) identify visual cues (f) other - please specify .. , 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 Does your child need any of the following special aids to get around? Yes No Occasionally (a (b (c (d (e! (f (g (h ( i (j wheel chair crutches walker braces cane seeing-eye dog hearing aid van elevator or ramp in home aid of another person: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 (k) Who? How Often? other - please specify Discuss the limitations involved in the use of the following methods of transportation: 1. unassisted, easily 4. some difficulty, with 2. unassisted, some difficulty assistance 3. easily, with assistance • 5. not applicable (a) walking 1 2 3 4 5 (b) public bus 1 2 3 4 5 (c) Easter Seal bus 1 2 3 4 5 (d) taxi 1 2 3 4 5 (e) parent driver 1 2 3 4 5 (f) volunteer driver 1 2 3 4 5 (g) other - please specify 1 2 3 4 5 107 10. Referring specifically to the use of the bus, comment on the level of functioning of your child in terms of each of the following: 1. unassisted, easily 4. some difficulty, with 2. unassisted, some difficulty assistance 3. easily, with assistance 5. not applicabl e (a) detect approach of bus 1 2 3 4 5 (b) stand waiting for bus 1 2 3 4 5 (c) locate entrance of bus 1 2 3 4 5 (d) go up/down stairs 1 2 3 4 5 (e) locate vacant seat 1 2 3 4 5 (f) stand holding grip 1 2 3 4 5 (g) detect destination 1 2 3 4 5 (h) pull cord 1 2 3 4 5 (i) obtain assistance 1 2 3 4 5 (j) ask directions from driver 1 2 3 4 5 (k) other - please specify 1 2 3 4 5 5t 11. Does your child experience any other difficulties using a bus? 12. Does your child ever travel alone in a taxi? 1. Yes 2. No If yes, comment on his/her level of functioning in terms of each of the following areas: 1. unassisted, easily 4. 2. unassisted, some difficulty 3. easily, with assistance 5, (a) getting taxi 1 (b) getting to proper destination 1 (c) leaving taxi 1 (d) other - please specify 1 some difficulty, with assistance not applicable 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 • 57 13. Does your child experience any other difficulties travelling in a motor vehicle? 108 14. If you were able to make any changes in the present public transportation system, which specific changes would you make? The next series of questions relates to the school and your child. 15. What is the distance from your home to the school? 1. 0-4 blocks 6. 11 miles or over 2. 5-8 blocks * 7. don't know 3. 9 blocks to 1 mile 9. other - please specify 4. 2-5 miles 5. 6-10 miles 16. What factors were involved in your decision to send your child to Jericho? • «3 17, the mode of transportation to school? 1. walk 6. taxi 2. public bus 7. parent/relative 3. Easter Seal bus 8. friend 4. Easter Seal van 9. other - please specify 5. volunteer 17/ C a r d X 18. What is the mode of transportation 1. walk 2. public bus 3. Easter Seal bus 4. Easter Seal van 5. volunteer from school? 6. taxi 7. parent/relative 8. friend 9. other - please specify Which is most often used? 109 19. If 17 and 18 differ, state reason: 20. What is the time of departure from home? 1. before 7:00 a.m. 5. 8:31 - 9:00 a.m. 2. 7:01 - 7:30 a.m. 6. don't know 3. 7:31 - 8:00 a.m. 9. other - please specify 4. 8:01 - 8:30 a.m. 21. What is the time of departure from school? 1. 2:00 - 2:30 p.m. 5. don't know 2. 2:31 - 3:00 p.m. 9. other - please specify 3. 3:01 - 3:30 p.m. 4. 3:31 - 4:00 p.m. 22. What is the time of arrival at home? 1. 2:30 - 3:00 p.m. 5. 4:31 - 5:00 p.m. 2. 3:01 - 3:30 p.m. 6. after 5:00 p.m. 3. 3:31 - 4:00 p.m. 7. don't know 4. 4:01 - 4:30 p.m. * 9. other - please specify 23. What is the cost of one return trip per day? 1. no thing 7. $3.01 - $5.00 2. $ .10 - $ .25 8. over $5.00 3. .26 - .50 9. don't know 4. .51 - 1.00 10. other - please specify 5. 1.01 - 1.50 6. 1.51 - 3.00 • • I fc> • 17 ii 24. Who pays for the transportation? 1. parents 6. 2. foster parent/guardian 7. 3. relative 8. 4. organization 9. 5. Vancouver School Board/ 10. Municipal Government Provincial Government treatment centre charitable organization don't know other - please specify >1 110 25. Who do you feel should pay for transportation to and from school? 3e 1. parent/guardian 2. school 3. Vancouver School Board/ Municipal Government 4. Provincial Government 5. organization 6. charitable organization 7. don't know 9. other - please specify 37 26. Whose responsibility do you feel i t is to make the arrange-ments for transportation to and from school? 3S1 1. parent/guardian 2. school 3. Vancouver School Board/ Municipal Government 4. Provincial Government 5. organization 6. charitable organization 7. don't know 9. other - please specify 27. Is there anything else you would like to add about the transpor-tation to and from school which we have not discussed? The next series of questions concerns any treatment your child may be receiving. 28. Has your child received any special therapy or counselling? 1. Yes 2. No If no, proceed to Question 33. If yes, over how long a period of time? • Ho 1. 0-6 months 2. 6 months 3. 1-2 years 4. over 2 years 5. don't know • H7 29. Please specify which of the following treatments your child receives: What is the Yes No Jericho's, where? How Often? Transportation Used Cost Who Pays? Physiotherapy or Occupational Therapy Audio/Speech Therapy Psychiatric Counselling 1 2 Psychological Counselling 1 2 Social Work Counselling 1 2 Other - please specify Are there any specific transportation problems associated with any of the above? 30. Does your c h i l d receive any kind of m o b i l i t y training? 1. Yes 2. No If no, do you f e e l there i s a need f or i t and who do you f e e l should provide i t ? 112 • 5-t 31. Where would you prefer treatment to be given? 1. home 2. school 3. treatment centre 4. don't know 9. other - please s p e c i f y 32. Are you pleased with the type of treatment your c h i l d i s receiving? 1. Yes 2. No If no, can you make any recommendations? 33. Does your c h i l d go to regular medical appointments? 1. Yes 2. No If yes, bow often? Where? What i s the mode of transportation? The next s e r i e s of questions concerns r e c r e a t i o n . • ho • Ca I 34. Does your c h i l d take part i n any r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s or programs? 1. Yes 3. Don 11 know 2. No I f no, go to question 41. • 113 35. Who sponsers the recreation program? 1. community 2. school 3. organization/charitable organization 9. 4. treatment centre 5. don11 know other - please specify 36. What type of activities does this include and how often? 63 37. Is transportation arranged? 1. Yes 2. No don't know • 38. What is the mode of transportation most often used? 1. walk 8. 2. public bus 10. 3. Easter Seal bus 11, 4. Easter Seal van 9. 5. organization car 6. volunteer 7. taxi parent other private car don't know other - please specify 7" 7i Co. r-ct i i 3 *r 39, the average cost of the return trip? 1. nothing 7. $3.01 - $5.00 2. $ .10 - $ .25 8. over $5.00 3. .26 - .50 10. don't know 4. .51 - 1.00 9. other - please 5. 1.01 - 1.50 6. 1.51 - 3.00 40. Who pays for transportation? 1. parents 5, 2. foster parent/quardian 6. 3. agency/charitable 7. organization 9, 4. Easter Seal Vancouver School Board Provincial Government don't know other - please specify 114 41. If child does not take part in any recreational programs, why? 1. no transportation 2. cost 3. don't know of any available 4. child not capable 5 . don't know 9. other - please specify 42. Does lack of transportation ever restrict the places your child can go to? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Don't know • 2-1 43. If yes, what trips is he/she prevented from making? 1. shopping 2. medical 3. school 4. entertainment park, movies 5. social visit 6. recreation - daytrips, swimming 7. don't know 9. other - please specify 44. Are you receiving any financial assistance for any of the following? Y e s N o F r o m where (a) child's equipment/aids 1 2 (b) transportation 1 2 (c) medical 1 2 (d) special school 1 2 (e) housing 1 2 (f) other - please specify 45. Have you ever had to change your place of residence because of your child's disability? 1. Yes 2. No If yes, elaborate 30 35 • 3<# 115 46. Does your c h i l d have any s p e c i a l insurance coverage? 1. Yes 2. No If yes, what i s the cost and to whom? 47. What, i f any, r i s k factors do you f e e l are involved with reference to pu b l i c transportation? FOR DEAF CHILDREN 1 6 - 1 9 YEARS OLD 48. Do you drive? 1. Yes 2. No I f yes, go to question 50. 49. I f no, does your handicap prevent you? 1. Yes 2. No 50. Have you had any problems obtaining a d r i v i n g license? 1. Yes 2. No If yes, elaborate: 51. Have you had any problems obtaining insurance? 1. Yes 2. No • 3 7 • 3 8 • • -40 • HI 116 52. What is the cost and coverage of insurance? . 53. Are you receiving any financial assistance? 1. Yes 2. No If yes, please state from where and how much. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Health Sciences Cenire 117 Faculty of Medicine DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH CARE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY Vancouver 8, Canada (604) 228-27/ August 8, 1975 Dear Parent: We are completing a study on the transportation costs and problems that you and your child may be experiencing in travelling to and from school. This work is* being sponsored by the University of British Columbia with the co-operation of Jericho H i l l School. Mr. Thorsell has read and approved the questionnaire we have prepared. With your help i t is hoped to identify some of the barriers that transportation imposes in your child's travel to school and recreation facilities. It would be greatly appreciated i f you would f i l l out the en-closed questionnaire and return i t . i n the stamped addressed envelope provided. You are, of course, under no obligation to complete the questionnaire; however, i t is hoped you will realize the importance of the work that is being done. All information will be kept in strictest confidence and i t is hoped that the information gained will help to shape a more conven-ient transportation system for your child. Yours sincerely, Morton M. Warner, (Assistant Professor, Health Services Planning) Colleen Stuart, (Student, Health Services Planning) T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRITISH COLUMBIA I I Q Health Sciences Centra xxo Faculty of Medicine DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH CARE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY Vancouver 8, Canada (604) 228-277 September 8, 1975 Dear Parent, We are presently compiling the information we have gathered about the transportation costs and problems faced by parents of ch i l d r e n attending Jericho H i l l School. Since we hope to include a large sample of ch i l d r e n who are at Jericho or the off-campus classes, we would l i k e the co-operation of as many f a m i l i e s as possi b l e . We hope that you have received the questionnaire that was sent to you along with an o u t l i n e of our study and that you have given some consideration to the area of transportation i n reference to your c h i l d . I t would be greatly appreciated i f you would complete the questionnaire and send i t i n to us. Our survey has given us a l o t of i n s i g h t into the p a r t i c u l a r problems which transportation involves and we s i n c e r e l y hope our recommendations can lead to a more p r a c t i c a l arrangement. We hope you w i l l r e a l i z e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the information you can give us and that you w i l l co-operate as soon as po s s i b l e . Thanking you, I remain, Yours s i n c e r e l y , Colleen Stuart Student, Health Services Planning A P P E N D I X B VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD PROPOSAL THE BRITISH COLUMBIA LIONS SOCIETY FOR CRIPPLED CHILDREN VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD - SPECIAL SCHOOLS Wheel Chair Regular Vehicles Oakridge 4 141 Renfrew Annex - 11 Douglas Annex - 9 T r a f a l g a r - 9 Children's H o s p i t a l 5 -SunnyHill H o s p i t a l - 2 G.F. Strong Rehab. Centre 12 10 John O l i v e r 1 1 Windermere 1 -Vancouver Tech - 2 Prince of Wales 1 -E r i c Hamber 1 1 Maples - 7 Kingsford Smith - 4 Carlton - 4 David Lloyd George - 5 South H i l l - 3 Emily Carr 1 4 Queen Alexander - 2 Edith C a v e l l - 4 C e c i l Rhodes 1 10 Charles Dickens - 4 Dickens Annex - 5 Florence Nightingale - 1 Lord Tennyson - 1 Mount Pleasant - 4 Douglas Annex - 5 Annie B. Jamieson - 2 Richard McBride - 11 Brock Annex - 3 Emily Carr Reading — 9 27 Passengers S p e c i a l W/C Transportation 274 Passengers Ambulatory 31 Schools 301 Passengers 20 Vehicles 1000 Miles Daily Average 200 Gallons of Gas Daily Average @ 75c per gallon Bus Average 15 miles per hour Bus Average 8 1/2 c h i l d r e n per hour Bus Average @ 7 minutes per c h i l d 121 VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD PROPOSAL (100% VSB use - maximum r i d i n g time 3/4 hour d a i l y ) (4) W/C (15) (1) (20) 7 passenger 15 passenger 42 passenger To t a l Cost Per School Term Van Duras Van Duras G M C Cost Da i l y Regular Hours :"*" e ( 3) 6-hour dr i v e r s @ $5.75 0 $ 14,490 $ 7,245 $ 21,735 ( 3) 6-hour attendants @ $3.25 0 8,190 4,095 12,285 (17) 4-hour drive r s @ $5.75 $ 19,320 62,790 0 82,110 (17) 4-hour attendants @ $3.25 10,920 25,490 0 46,410 Sick and Statutory Leave 1,000 3,750 250 5,000 General Expenses 400 1,500 100 2,000 Bus Maintenance - D i r e c t 3,000 11,250 750 15,000 Lease and C a p i t a l Costs 9,600 28,500 4,000 42,100 Gas, l u b r i c a t i o n and o i l costs 200 gallons d a i l y @ 75c per ga l l o n 6,300 23,625 1,575 31,500 I.C.B.C. and l i c e n s e s 500 1,875 125 2,500 Share of D i r e c t Supervision i n 14,482 Transportation Administration 2,896 10,861 725 $ 53,936 $202,321 $ 18,865 $275,122 Reduced loads to other agencies r e s u l t i n g i n lower e f f i c i e n c i e s w i l l require subsidy 7,000 26,250 1,750 35,000 Share of General Society Overhead 4,550 17,070 959 22,579 Proposed Cost New Service $ 65,486 $245,641 $ 21,574 $332,701 Present System Cost 1975 - 76 ($148,841) Increased Cost f o r a f u l l school term (Up 123.52%) Projected Number of Return Trips Cost per r e t u r n / t r i p - New Proposal - Present Proposal $183,860 $ 63,840 $ 5.21 $ 2.33 '''Union c e r t i f i c a t i o n pending and provided f or. A P P E N D I X C MODEL WHITE CANE LAW 123 MODEL WHITE CANE LAW § 1 — I t i s the p o l i c y of t h i s State to encourage and enable the b l i n d , the v i s u a l l y handicapped, and the otherwise p h y s i c a l l y disabled to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the s o c i a l and economic l i f e of the State and to engage i n remunerative employment. § 2 — (a) The b l i n d , the v i s u a l l y handicapped, and the otherwise p h y s i c a l l y disabled have the same r i g h t as the able-bodied to the f u l l and free use of the s t r e e t s , highways, sidewalks, walkways, p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , and other p u b l i c places. (b) The b l i n d , the v i s u a l l y handicapped, and the otherwise p h y s i c a l l y disabled are e n t i t l e d to f u l l and equal accommodations, advan-tages, f a c i l i t i e s , and p r i v i l e g e s of a l l common c a r r i e r s , airplanes, motor v e h i c l e s , r a i l r o a d t r a i n s , motor buses, s t r e e t c a r s , boats or any other p u b l i c conveyances or modes of transportation, h o t e l s , lodging places, places of p u b l i c accommodation, amusement or r e s o r t , and other places to which the general p u b l i c i s i n v i t e d , subject only to the conditions and l i m i t a t i o n s established by law and appli c a b l e a l i k e to a l l persons. (c) Every t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y b l i n d person s h a l l have the r i g h t to be accompanied by a guide dog, e s p e c i a l l y trained f o r the purpose, i n any of the places l i s t e d i n se c t i o n 2(b) without being required to pay an extra charge f o r the guide dog; provided that he s h a l l be l i a b l e f o r any damage done to the premises or f a c i l i t i e s by such dog. § 3 — The d r i v e r of a v e h i c l e approaching a t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y b l i n d pedestrian who i s carr y i n g a cane predominately white or m e t a l l i c i n color (with or without a red ti p ) or using a guide dog s h a l l take a l l necessary precautions to avoid i n j u r y to such b l i n d pedestrian, and any d r i v e r who f a i l s to take such precautions s h a l l be l i a b l e i n damages f o r any i n j u r y caused such pedestrian; provided that a t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y b l i n d pedestrian not carrying such a cane or using a guide dog i n any of the places, accommodations or conveyances l i s t e d i n se c t i o n 2, s h a l l have a l l of the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s conferred by law upon other persons, and the f a i l u r e of a t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y b l i n d pedestrian to carry such a cane or to use a guide dog i n any such places, accommodations or convey-ances s h a l l not be held to co n s t i t u t e nor be evidence of contributory negligence. § 4 — Any person or persons, f i r m or corporation, or the agent of any person or persons, fi r m or corporation who denies or i n t e r f e r e s with admittance to or enjoyment of the p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s enumerated i n section 2 or otherwise i n t e r f e r e s with the r i g h t s of a t o t a l l y or p a r t i a l l y b l i n d or otherwise disabled person under section 2 s h a l l be g u i l t y of a mis-demeanor. 124 § 5 — Each year, the Governor shall take suitable public notice of October 15 as White Cane Safety Day. He shall issue a proclamation in which: (a) he comments upon the significance of the. white cane; (b) he calls upon the citizens of the State to observe the provisions of the White Cane Law and to take precautions necessary to the safety of the disabled; (c) he reminds the citizens of the State of the polic-ies with respect to the disabled herein declared and urges the citizens to cooperate in giving effect to them; . (d) he emphasizes the need of the citizens to be aware of the presence of disabled persons in the community and to keep safe and functional for the disabled the streets, highways, sidewalks, walkways, public buildings, public facilities, other public places, places of public accommodation, amusement and resort, and other places to which the public is in-vited, and to offer assistance to disabled persons upon appropriate occasions. § 6 — It is the policy of this State that the blind, the visually handicapped, and the otherwise physically disabled shall be employed in the State Service, the service of the political subdivisions of the State, in the public schools, and in a l l other employment supported in whole or in part by public funds on the same terms and conditions as the able-bodied, unless i t is shown that the particular disability prevents the performance of the work involved. Source: B l i n d Rights by David R. Lowry, p. 98. 

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