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Dialect survey of Halkomelem Salish Gerdts, Donna B. 1977

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A DIALECT SURVEY OP HALKOMELEM SALISH by DONNA B. GERDTS B.A., University of Missouri, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Li n g u i s t i c s ) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1977 DONNA B. GERDTS, 1977 In present ing th i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of Linguistics ' The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e 19 Sept.. 1977 i Abstract Halkomelem i s the language spoken by the Salis h Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia whose t e r r i t o r y stretches from Nanoose to Malahat on Vancouver Island, from Tsawwassen north to Vancouver on the mainland, and from Vancouver 1 0 5 miles up the Fraser River to a point north of Yale. A language with such geographical l i m i t s , even i f i t s speakers interacted frequently, would be expected to have regional differences. Elmendorf and Suttles (I960) e l i c i t e d over 600 items at three locations i n the Halkomelem area. Their data from Cowichan, Musqueam, and Chilliwack show that there are phono-l o g i c a l , morphological, and l e x i c a l differences within Halko-melem. The present study focuses on l e x i c a l differences. A l i s t of 1 5 0 vocabulary items showing l e x i c a l d i f f e r -e n t iation was e l i c i t e d at twenty-one locations within the area (Appendix A and B). These data are analyzed to delimit d i a l e c t and sub-dialect areas within Halkomelem. The data are also analyzed with reference to cognates i n other S a l i s h languages to suggest processes involved i n vocabulary change. This paper i s organized as follows: Chapter 1 provides information concerning the sub-grouping of Sa l i s h languages and delineates the p o l i t i c a l units within the Halkomelem area. Chapter 2 explains the t r a n s c r i p t i o n used f o r the present data, with some comment on d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n i n ia p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . Chapter 3 e x p l a i n s the o r i g i n o f the 150 w o r d - l i s t employed i n t h i s s t u d y . E v i d e n c e i s p r e s e n t e d t o s u p p o r t t h e d i v i s i o n o f Halkomelem i n t o t h r e e d i a l e c t a r e a s : I s l a n d , D ownriver, and U p r i v e r . These d i a l e c t s a r e f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o s u b - d i a l e c t s . C h a pter k examines the Halkomelem d a t a w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o o t h e r S a l i s h languages t o suggest t h r e e p r o c e s s e s i n -v o l v e d i n v o c a b u l a r y change: b o r r o w i n g , d e r i v a t i o n o f d i f -f e r e n t words from d i f f e r e n t but s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d r o o t s , and l e x i c a l r e placement w i t h c o n c u r r e n t semantic s h i f t i n g . i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I t h a n k t h e H a l k o m e l e m p e o p l e who s o g e n e r o u s l y g a v e o f t h e i r t i m e a n d k n o w l e d g e ; w i t h o u t y o u t h i s p a p e r w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o s s i b l e . B r e n t G a l l o w a y , T h o m a s E . H u k a r i , Wayne S u t t l e s , A d r i a n L e s l i e , a n d P h i l D a v i s s h a r e d t h e i r k n o w l e d g e a n d s o u r c e s o n H a l k o m e l e m . B o n B e a u m o n t made a v a i l a b l e h i s e x t e n s i v e d a t a o n S e c h e l t a n d B a r b a r a E f r a t g a v e a c c e s s t o h e r f i l e s o f S t r a i t s a n d N o o k s a c k . T h a n k s go t o B i c h a r d P a r e n t f o r u s e o f h i s V o l k s w a g e n . F i n a l l y , a r o a r i n g r o u n d o f a p p l a u s e t o Y v o n n e a n d L i s a S t e n g e r who s h a r e d t h e t r i a l s a n d t r i b u l a t i o n s o f t h i s y e a r o f f i e l d w o r k a n d w r i t i n g . E s p e c i a i i t t h a n k s t o L i s a f o r t h e m a p s . i i i Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter k-Chapter 5 Bibliography-Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C L i n g u i s t i c and Geographic Setting Halkomelem Phonology The Dialect Project 3 . 1 The Word L i s t 3 . 2 The Dialect Areas The Processes of Lexical d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Conclusion The Informants The Data Sa l i s h Cognates i v List of Tables Table I Halkomelem Bands and Populations p. 3 Table II Consonant Phonemes Common to A l l Halkomelem Dialects p. 1 1 Table III Cognates shared with other Salish Languages Table IV ". , continued p. 28 1. The L i n g u i s t i c and Geographic Setting 1 Halkomelem i s a member of the Sa l i s h language family which includes languages of southern B r i t i s h Columbia and the northwest United States. Thompson and Kinkade (p.c.) have proposed the following c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for S a l i s h 1 : Proto-Salish Central Tillamook Tsamosan In t e r i o r B e l l a Salish ; Salish Coola The Central branch of Salish, to which Halkomelem belongs, includes the following languages 2: Cbmox Sechelt Pentlatch Squamish Halkomelem S t r a i t s 3 /, Northern S t r a i t s Songish Sooke Saanich Lummi Clallam Nooksack Puget Salish-' Northern Puget S a l i s h Southern Puget S a l i s h Twana The t e r r i t o r y associated with the Halkomelem i s bounded 2 to the south and north by speakers of Central Salish lan-guages. The rugged country to the northeast l i m i t e d the con-tact between the Halkomelem and speakers of L i l l o o e t and Thompson, which are Inte r i o r Salish Languages. The Fraser River i s not navigable through the canyon which extends from a point below Spuzzum to the junction of the Fraser with the Thompson River. There are several footpaths through the mountains around the canyon which were used seasonally. A mountain range extending down the centre of Vancouver Island separates the Halkomelem from t h e i r Nootkan neighbors. Nootka i s a Wakashan language unrelated to S a l i s h . The Waka-shan and Sal i s h people had some amount of contact v i a the sea. In modern times, for example, Halkomelem occasionally f i s h the waters of Barkley Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The Halkomelem l i v e primarily on reserves scattered along the r i v e r s and lakes throughout t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . The basic p o l i t i c a l unit i s the band, which w i l l often control more than one reserve. Bands i n close proximity bear close a f f i n a l t i e s . For the purpose of this study, informants were chosen according to the location of the band with which they were associated as children. Duff (1964, pp. 25-8) l i s t s the bands of Halkomelem and t h e i r population as of 1963.^ This information i s given i n Table I. 3 Nanaimo 456 Nanoose 70 Chemainus 366 Halalt (Westholme) 95 Lyacksun (Westholme) 77 Penelakut 326 Cowichan Lake 4 Cowichan 1 ,228 Malahat 89 Tsawwassen 56 Musqueam 302 Langley 77 Coquitlam 24 Katzie 153 Matsqui 38 Sumas-Kilgard 71 Sumas-Lakahahmen 95 A i t c h e l i t z 6 Kwawkwawap i 1 1 8 Skulkayn 41 Skwah 164 Skway 37 Soowahlie 110 Squiala 36 Yakweakwioose 31 Tzeachten 106 Scowlitz 106 Chehalis 325 Cheam 123 Popkum 8 Peters 31 Ohamil 46 Skawahlook 27 Hope 116 Yale 61 Union Bar 41 Seabird Island 243 Table,!. Halkomelem Bands and Populations 4 Indians on the Nanoose Reserve, near L a n t z v i l l e , B.C., claim to speak i d e n t i c a l l y with the people of Nanaimo. An interview with Len Edwards of Nanoose v e r i f i e d t h i s claim. Although there are probably no Halkomelem speakers remaining at Qualicum Beach, an area once inhabited by the Pentlatch and now se t t l e d by Halkomelem, Alfred Louie,of S h e l l Beach, could r e c a l l some words used by his grandmother's people, who were from Qualicum Beach. In a l l cases, these are i d e n t i c a l with the data e l i c i t e d at Nanaimo. The Nanaimo band l i v e s along Nanaimo harbour and along the Nanaimo River as f a r south as Cedar, B.C. .This i s the most populous band i n the north of the Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y on Vancouver Island. The Indians of Shell Beach, on the peninsula east of Ladysmith, B.C., were formerly c a l l e d the Kumalockasum Band but are now part of the Chemairius Band. Alfred Louie sug-gested that Halkomelem as spoken at Shell Beach i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from that spoken at Westholme, the l a t t e r being more l i k e the language at Cowichan. The Penelakut band includes the Indians of Kuper Island, many of whom are fluent speakers of Halkomelem. Arnold Guerin, who learned Halkomelem while attending school;-at Kuper Island, served as the informant f o r the f i e l d methods class at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1975-6 school year. The Cowichan band i s the res u l t of an amalgamation i n 1888 of the Somenos, Quamichan, Comiaken, Clemclealuts, Koksilah, Kenipsen, and Kilpaulus bands. There i s much 5 i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of these groups which l i v e a l o n g t h e Cowi-chan and K o k s i l a h R i v e r s and a t Cowichan Bay. There i s probab-l y a homogeneity of speech amongst t h e s e groups, e s p e c i a l l y where l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . There a r e many good s p e a k e r s o f Halkomelem i n the Duncan a r e a . The younger g e n e r a t i o n s , however, have n o t a c q u i r e d more t h a n a few b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s . Data from Malahat, the southernmost Halkomelem group but a c t u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f the S a a n i c h band, i s not r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I n t e r a c t i o n between the Cowichan and the S a a n i c h , who spoke a d i a l e c t o f N o r t h e r n S t r a i t s , i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n when s u g g e s t i n g , as t h i s s t u d y does, th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b o r r o w i n g between the s e groups. A Tsawwassen speaker was not found f o r t h i s s t u d y . I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t t h e r e a r e no r e m a i n i n g Halkomelem sp e a k e r s a t Tsawwassen, a l t h o u g h t h i s has not been e x h a u s t i v e -i n v e s t i g a t e d . There a r e 7 or 8 f l u e n t s p e a k e r s of Halkomelem a t Mus-queam, the most populous of the r e s e r v e s on the m a i n l a n d . F o r t h i s s t u d y , Musqueam d a t a from Elmendorf and S u t t l e s ( i 9 6 0 ) were used and a r e marked i n the appendixes w i t h the l i s t and i t e m number from t h a t s o u r c e . Data not a v a i l a b l e i n t h a t l i s t were e l i c i t e d from A r n o l d G u e r i n . A c c o r d i n g t o my K a t z i e i n f o r m a n t , R i c h a r d B a i l e y , he and h i s a u n t , Margaret James of B a r n s t o n I s l a n d , a r e the o n l y Halkomelem sp e a k e r s from t h a t band. The K a t z i e have 6 c l o s e t i e s w i t h the Musqueam but a r e a l s o i n c o n t a c t w i t h U p r i v e r bands. No Halkomelem s p e a k e r s c o u l d be l o c a t e d from the L a n g l e y band. H i l l - T o u t (1903) p u b l i s h e d a word l i s t and b r i e f g r a m m a t i c a l s k e t c h o f Kwantlen as spoken a t P o r t L a n g l e y . Data from t h i s s ource have been r e f e r r e d t o here and have been l e f t i n the o r i g i n a l o r t h o g r a p h y . There a r e r e l a t i v e l y few ( p r o b a b l y 4 o r 5) Halkomelem s p e a k e r s from the M a t s q u i and K i l g a r d r e s e r v e s n e a r A b b o t s -f o r d , B.C. These d a t a a r e o f i n t e r e s t , as a r e d a t a from K w a n t l e n , because o f the p r o x i m i t y o f t h e s e bands t o an i s o g l o s s b u n d l e which s e p a r a t e s U p r i v e r and Downriver Halkomelem. The p e o p l e from t h e Matsqui-Sumas a r e a were i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t w i t h the Nooksack who l i v e twenty m i l e s t o the south a c r o s s the U n i t e d S t a t e s - C a n a d a b o r d e r . The band t h a t D u f f l i s t s as Sumas-Lakahahmen a r e the I n d i a n s l i v i n g on Nicomen I s l a n d i n the v i c i n i t y o f Deroche, B.C. There a r e o n l y two s p e a k e r s o f Halkomelem from t h i s a r e a . The u p r i v e r form o f N i c o m e n — L e k e m e l — i s s u p p o s e d l y the s o u r c e o f Halkomelem: the language o f Lekemel. ( D u f f , 1952, p. 22) The bands i n t h e C h i l l i w a c k v i c i n i t y ( A i t c h e l i t z , Kwawkwawapilt, S k u l k a y n , Skwah, Skway, S o o w a h l i e , S q u i a l a , Yakweakwioose, and Tzeachten) a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d and show l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n language. Data were e l i c i t e d a t S o o w a h l i e , n e a r C u l t u s Lake, which i s the southernmost o f the bands; A i t c h e l i t z , the e a s t e r n m o s t ; Skwah, a l s o known 7 as the W e l l i n g t o n Reserve, which i s the most p o p u l a t e d i n C h i l l i w a c k ; and T z e a c h t e n , which i s t h e most p o p u l a t e d r e s e r v e i n S a r d i s . There a r e p r o b a b l y s e v e r a l s p e a k e r s ofp Halkomelem on t h e S c o w l i t z R e s e r v e , which i s near H a r r i s o n M i l l s , B.C. A s m a l l group of houses on the west s i d e o f the H a r r i s o n R i v e r i s a l s o known as S c o w l i t z . T h i s a r e a w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as H a r r i s o n M i l l s i n t h e d a t a . The C h e h a l i s Band, which i s the most populous of the u p p e r S t a l o bands, o c c u p i e s a r e s e r v e l o c a t e d where the C h e h a l i s R i v e r r u n s i n t o the H a r r i s o n R i v e r . There a r e s e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t s p e a k e r s of Halkomelem from t h i s r e s e r v e . The Cheam band l i v e s on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f the F r a s e r R i v e r i n the v i c i n i t y of R o s e d a l e , B.C. There a r e a c o u p l e of good s p e a k e r s of Halkomelem from Cheam. The U p r i v e r p e o p l e , o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o c o l l e c t i v e l y as the T a i t , a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . Data were c o l l e c t e d from t h r e e p o i n t w i t h i n t h e T a i t a r e a : the Ohamil r e s e r v e , n e a r L a i d l a w , B.C.; Union Bar, 2 m i l e s above Hope; and A merican B a r , 2 m i l e s above Union Bar on the west bank o f t h e r i v e r . There a r e a t l e a s t two Halkomelem s p e a k e r s from the r e s e r v e a t Y a l e , Maggie Emery and Mary P e t e r s , who a r e b i l i n g u a l Halkomelem and Thompson but know l i t t l e E n g l i s h . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , n e i t h e r c o u l d be approached f o r d a t a f o r t h i s s u r v e y . 8 The T a i t p e o p l e have c o l l e c t i v e l y s e t t l e d S e a b i r d I s l a n d o u t s i d e o f A g a s s i z , B.C. There were i n h a b i t a n t s on t h i s r e s e r v e b e f o r e r e s e t t l e m e n t ; the d a t a e l i c i t e d from L i z z i e Johnson perhaps r e f l e c t t h e i r speech. The U p r i v e r Halkomelem, e s p e c i a l l y the T a i t , o c c a s i o n a l l y m a r r i e d amongst the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . The C h e h a l i s band were i n c o n t a c t w i t h the L i l l o o e t and o c c a s i o n a l l y m a r r i e d among th o s e p e o p l e . 9 F o o t n o t e s f o r Chapter 1 ^ P r e v i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f S a l i s h , e.g. Swadesh (1952), d i v i d e d S a l i s h i n t o f o u r b r a n c h e s : B e l l a C o o l a , I n t e r i o r S a l i s h , T i l l a m o o k , and Coast S a l i s h . Thompson and Kinkade have s i n c e proposed t h a t t h e Olympic languages (Tsamosan), p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d as Coast S a l i s h , branched a t an e a r l i e r t ime. They now employ Coast S a l i s h as a c o v e r term f o r T i l l a m o o k , C e n t r a l S a l i s h , and Tsamosan. 2Swadesh (1952), on the b a s i s o f l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a proposed a N o r t h G e o r g i a Branch: Comox, S e c h e l t , P ent-l a t c h ; a South G e o r g i a Branch: Squamish, Halkomelem, S t r a i t s , Nooksack; a Puget Sound Branch; and a Hood C a n a l Branch: Twana. 3suttles (1959) a p p r o p r i a t e l y s u g g e s t s S t r a i t s as a c o v e r term f o r C l a l l a m , Lumrai, Sooke, S a a n i c h , S o n g i s h , and Samish. ^Thompson, Thompson, and E f r a t (1974) suggest t h a t , due t o p h o n o l o g i c a l and g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e s which s e p a r a t e C l a l l a m from the o t h e r d i a l e c t s , a l l the d i a l e c t s e x c l u d i n g C l a l l a m s h o u l d be c o l l e c t i v e l y l a b e l l e d N o r t h e r n S t r a i t s . ''Hess (1966) suggested t h a t a l l t h e d i a l e c t s s u r r o u n d i n g Puget Sound be r e f e r r e d t o as Puget S a l i s h . I n h i s d i c t i o n a r y o f the language (1976), however, he s e p a r a t e s the a r e a i n t o two major d i a l e c t d i v i s i o n s , N o r t h e r n Puget S a l i s h ( i n c l u d i n g S k a g i t and Snohomish) and S o u t h e r n Puget S a l i s h ( i n c l u d i n g Duwamishv- Shuqualmie, M u c k l e s h o o t , Puyallup r,.''Nisqually, and Suquamish). T h i s s e p a r a t i o n i s based on p h o n o l o g i c a l and l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n f l o r a and fa u n a v o c a b u l a r y and i n a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f ' b a s i c ' v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s . ^These p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s a r e i n a c c u r a t e , o f c o u r s e , f o r 1977. For example, Kwawkwawapilt, i n the C h i l l i w a c k a r e a , appears t o be used o n l y f o r f a r m i n g . Yakweakwioose i s s e t -t l e ^ by one f a m i l y , Frank Malloway. E x a c t l o c a t i o n and name of the r e s e r v e s on C h i l l i w a c k L a n d i n g were h a r d t o a s c e r t a i n . 10 2. Halkomelem Phonology There i s a set of consonant sounds that exist throughout Halkomelem that have been transcribed i n these data as given i n Table I I . 1 Additional symbols are needed to represent consonants which d i f f e r i n pronunciation within Halkomelem. Vancouver Island Halkomelem uses / s / where Mainland Halkomelem uses /xy/. Mainland and Island d i a l e c t s have as an allophonic variant of / s / before /x w/. The pre f i x [sx w] i s a common nominalizer. / s / also exists i n some loans from English, e.g. Item 54. /ia'spai / SHOVEL. In a p a r a l l e l process , Upriver speakers frequently interchange / e,e', c, c' / with [s, c',c, £'] . Some environment f o r t h i s process are given by Galloway (1977, pp. 5 - 8 ) , but i t i s lar g e l y unpredicatable and may depend upon d i a l e c t area, neeessitation both / c / and /£/ i n the tr a n s c r i p t i o n s . The Island d i a l e c t s have very few instances of / c / ; / c/, second person person pronoun (Musqueam, /cx w/), and Item 101.RUM are two major examples. Upriver Halkomelem has an i n t e r e s t i n g merger of / l / and /n/ to / l / i n a l l positions. Elmendorf and Suttles ( i 9 6 0 , p. 5) propose an isogloss i n the Matsqui-Whonnock area for t h i s feature. The present data agree. Katzie has /n/ i n a l l instances of Musqueam /n/, as did the Kwantlen data of Hill-Tout (1903). The Matsqui informant generally had /!/ i n her speech. However, she did have /n/ i n four word's i n t h i s survey: 6. MINK, 17. HUMMINGBIRD, and 123. SMALL (2 forms). 11 r H CD CD r H CO N N CO • H co r H r H •rH - H CD Xi r H r H cO CO r-H r H bO co CO O JH - P CO CO CO H • P CD CD CO CO - H r H - H 1 > - P r H r H X I 3 ,Q f -• H CD r H cO CO CD CO > CO 00 , Q CO r H Ou > r H 3 r H r H v o i c e l e s s stop p t (k) k w q q* v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l i z e d stop p> t» k w ,q'q v v o i c e l e s s a f f r i c a t e ,0. c v o i c e l e s s g l o t t a l i z e d e' c» j,» a f f r i c a t e v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e e s ± x w x x* v o i c e d resonants m l v w Table I I . Consonant Phonemes Common to a l l Halkomelem D i a l e c t s 12 She rejected / l / i n these items. This may be due to the influence of Nooksack upon the speaker. The Kilgard speaker consistently used / l / , as did the Nicomen informant. A second phonological feature which divides Upriver from Downriver Halkomelem i s the defective d i s t r i b u t i o n of g l o t t a l stop. Upriver d i a l e c t s substitute vowel length f o r g l o t t a l stop. For example:" Dr skwaye? Ur sk waye- ' s q u i r r e l ' k w'£ ?x w- k w , i - x w 'pitch' Elmendorf and Suttles (I960, p. 8) presume that cases of vowel length i n Chilliwack that are not represented by g l o t t a l stop i n other d i a l e c t s are extensions of t h i s r u l e . For example: D r s'aeaa. U r s?a'-9as ' f a C e ' lapen lape'-l ' shovel 1 Occasionally vowels around a g l o t t a l stop are contracted to a long vowel. For example: Dr spe^ee Ur spe-e 'black bear' ma'?aqw ma'-qw. 'duck, b i r d ' The phonemic status of length i s further complicated by occurrences of long vowels i n the Downriver and Island d i a l e c t s of Halkomelem. For example: Dr ho-n? ,is hu-n? 'humpback salmon 1 p'a-m p'a-m 'Swell' Upriver d i a l e c t s lose s y l l a b l e - f i n a l g l o t t a l stops, p a r t i c u l a r l y 13 t h o s e which o c c u r a f t e r a r e s o n a n t . F o r example: I s s p a i ? 'raven' Ur S p a - i 'crow' Dr tqece? Ur tqe-ce ' e i g h t ' I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t a l t h o u g h the Matsqui and K i l g a r d d a t a sometimes agree w i t h the U p r i v e r d a t a i n th e l o s s o f g l o t t a l s t o p and the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f vowel l e n g t h f o r g l o t t a l s t o p , the d a t a more o f t e n r e t a i n g l o t t a l s t o p . F o r example: Items 3 . , 8., 1 1 . , 1 3 . , 1 6 . , 17 . , 1 9 . , 2 2 . , 2 5 . , 3 5 . , 36. The vowels p r e s e n t somewhat more d i f f i c u l t y i n d e v i s i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s c r i p t i o n system. Elmendorf and S u t t l e s ( i 9 6 0 , p. 4) a n a l y z e d the vowel phonemes o f Halkomelem as / i , u, a, e, a /• They p o s i t t h e s e a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n s : / s / i s f r e q u e n t l y h e a r d as [ x] b e f o r e o r a f t e r / y / o r / x y / and as [u] b e f o r e a l a b i a l i z e d consonant; / i / i s l o w e r e d , open, w i t h a g l i d e , , b e f o r e ^ u v u l a r s o r l a b i a l i z e d u v u l a r s . Examples o f thes e p r o c e s s e s i n the d a t a a r e : [ ? U X w t l l ] [yakw',uja] [mimuqw] [?1"-9X] These c a s a w i l l be t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h Galloway (1977, p. 19) s t a t e s t h a t / a / becomes [*] i n a l l e g r o speech i n n o n - s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n s i n U p r i v e r H a l komelem. T h i s r u l e seems t o a p p l y t o a l e s s e r degree i n o t h e r d i a l e c t s o f Halkomelem b u t , because i t s s t a t u s i s /•?,BXwt-11/ /yak*" am/ /mimaqw/ / ' l ' X / ' broom 1 ' smash' • b i r d ' 1 s c r a t c h ' 14 u n c l e a r , t h i s sound i s t r a n s c r i b e d as [ i ] ^. The o r i g i n o f t h i s f e a t u r e i s perhaps a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f the f o l l o w -i n g a l l o p h o n i c r u l e . Elmendorf and S u t t l e s (I960, p. 19) note t h a t p h o n o l o -g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n consonants i n U p r i v e r Halkomelem a r e accompanied by a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n i n t h e v o w e l s : / i ? G j u / a r e l o w e r e d ( r e > D ] ). / s / i s h i g h e r ({•*]'):, and /a/ i s f u r t h e r back ( [o] ) near [s, c', c, c ' j ; ] . They t r a n s c r i b e d / • ! _ „ / f o r t h e s e sounds. However, v a r i a t i o n o f A/ i n o t h e r environments o c c u r s i n U p r i v e r Halkomelem. Galloway (1977, pp. 14-18) s t a t e s t h a t / e / i s [&] i n most s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n s and [e] u n s t r e s s e d . There a r e r a r e c a s e s o f s t r e s s e d [e] and u n s t r e s s e d [as] t o c o m p l i c a t e the s i t u a t i o n . Both w i l l be t r a n s c r i b e d as such i n t h e s e d a t a , Elmendorf and S u t t l e s p h o n emicize a s i n g l e h i g h back vowel which they r e l a t e t o the d i p t h o n g /aw /. G a l l o w a y (1977, p. 24) p r e f e r s t o phonemicize w i t h / u / and /o/, both of which a r e r a r e i n U p r i v e r but which seem t o v a r y d i a l e c t i -c a l l y . • I n t h e s e d a t a , Items 27 and 31 show t h i s v a r i a t i o n . I s l a n d has / u / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o some c a s e s o f S o w n r i v e r /o/ ( e . g . , Item 22.), f u r t h e r n e c e s s i t a t i n g t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f / u / and /o/ i n t h e s e data.'* 15 F o o t n o t e s f o r Chapter 2 ^ I s l a n d / s , c, c'/ a r e made f u r t h e r back on t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e , sometimes sounding more l i k e / s, 6, c' /. The u v u l a r s t o p s i n U p r i v e r Halkomelem a r e re l e a s e d , w i t h more f r i c a t i o n . E lmendorf and S u t t l e s ( I 9 6 0 , p. 6) p o s i t a s e r i e s o f f i v e changes t o account f o r d i a l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r i c a t i v e s and a f f r i c a t e s : c >r; c .> c > - e > e S' > c' > c' > e ' > e ' s •>"• s > s > s > s k > ky > c > c > c k' > ky' > c > c' > c' x > xy > xy > xy > s I n t h e s e d a t a t h e r e a r e examples o f / e / ~ / s / : Items 21, 4 3 , 69, 128. The a c t u a l p h o n e t i c v a l u e of / s / and [*] may be s l i g h t -l y l o w e r , i . e . , [ / , j j . and [ s] . Item 56. shows an a l t e r n a t i o n o f / i / and /u/. 16 3 . The D i a l e c t P r o j e c t The f o c u s o f t h i s p r o j e c t b e i n g l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the Halkomelem language, a l i s t o f i t e m s was c o m p i l e d t h a t were known t o v a r y w i t h i n the language. Elmendorf and S u t t l e s (I960) had l i s t e d forms from Cowichan, Musqueam, and C h i l l i w a c k f o r over 600 i t e m s grouped i n t o 8 l i s t s . Of t h e s e , 100 i t e m s v a r i e d l e x i d a l l y i n one or more d i a l e c t s o f Ha l k o -melem and were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . Another 75 i t e m s were i n c l u d e d by comparing f i e l d n o t e s on Halkomelem sp e a k e r s from Kuper I s l a n d , K a t z i e , and K i l g a r d . G a l l o w a y ' s f i l e s on Halkomelem as spoken by the Upper S t a l o p e o p l e , which sometimes l i s t e d two forms d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by a r e a , were a l s o c o n s u l t e d . T h i s l i s t o f 175 i t e m s was i n i t i a l l y r educed t o 150 i t e m s because c e r t a i n words were t o o d i f f i c u l t t o e l i c i t o r were not t r u e l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s l i s t was a r r a n g e d i n a g e n e r a l semantic o r d e r f o r the purposes o f e l i c i t a t i o n . The d a t a e l i c i t e d a t 21 l o c a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n Appendix B; As can be seen i n Appendix B, e i g h t e e n items were e l i c i t e d t oo i n f r e q u e n t l y t o i n c l u d e i n the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s . These i t e m s a r e : 26. CHEEKS OP FISH, 39- QUIVER, 47. WOOD-CARVING KNIFE, 48. D-ADZE, 49. HALF-DONE CANOE, 50. THWART, 51. ANCHOR, 52. BOOM, 58. LOOM, 63. LONG DISH, 66. GRAVE, 119. BLUE, 143. WIND FROM DOWN-WATER, 144. STORM, 145. STORM FOR 3-4 DAYS, 147. PERHAPS, 149. SOMETIMES, and 150. SOON. Four a d d i t i o n a l forms proved too d i f f i c u l t t o e l i c i t because o f m u l t i p l e 17 v a r i a n t s : 8 3 . BE OUT OP BREATH, 104. SCOUT, 124. SMOOTH, 122. SAD. Thirty-eight words w i l l be eliminated from t h i s analysis because the item existed throughout Halkomelem, perhaps with an unusual phonological change. There are also occurrences of two words, both which exi s t throughout Halkomelem, fo r a single English gloss; these were mistaken i n i t i a l l y as d i a l e c t differences. These items are: 2 . ELK, MOOSE, 4 . CHIPMUNK, 6. MINK, 18. NIGHTHAWK, 22. HUMPBACK SALMON, 32. UNDERBRUSH, 33. BUSHES BUNCHED UP, 34. BARK ( OP A TREE), 36. PITCH, 40. FISH SPEAR, 42. SPLIT ROASTING STICK, 54. SHOVEL, 55 . BUCKET, 67. CEMETERY, 68. BURY, 71. ROOF, 76. BRAIN, 77. THROAT, 8 0 . SOLE, 81. PALM, 87. SICK, 89. POKE, 90. SCRATCH, 91. SMASH, 94. BOIL, 97. LAUGH, 98. SMILE, 100. COME, 101. RUN, 102. SWIM, 105. TAKE, HOLD, 113. SMART, 123. SMALL, 125. STRAIGHT, 133. MUD, 137. EDDY, I 3 8 . WAVE, 146. MUST. An analysis of the remaining 90 vocabulary items shows very c l e a r l y that there are two major isogloss bundles d i v i d -ing the Halkomelem area into three d i a l e c t s : 1 Island, Down-2 r i v e r , and Upriver Halkomelem. Not a l l the isoglosses f a l l neatly on one of these boundaries, i n d i c a t i n g several-sub-d i a l e c t s within each area. Island Halkomelem has at least 3 the sub-dialects of Cowichan, Nanaimo, and Chemainus. J •Downriver Halkomelem can be divided into Musqueam, Katzie, 4 u 5 and Kwantlen. Upriver "alkomelem consists of Sumas, Chilliwack, Chehalis, and Tait sub-dialects. (See Map 1) The remainder of t h i s chapter reviews the evidence supporting MAP 1 THE DIALECTS OP HALKOMELEM 19 t h e s e c l a i m s . Of the 90 i t e m s c o n s i d e r e d here, 25 show a c l e a r s p l i t between the I s l a n d (Nanaimo, S h e l l Beach, Kuper I s l a n d , and Cowichan) and the M a i n l a n d (Musqueam, K a t z i e , and a l l u p r i v e r p o i n t s ) . These i t e m s a r e : 5. RACCOON, 8. PROG, 24. STEELHEAD, 64. BOX, 74. BLIND, 75. HAIR, 78. CHEST, 79. KNEE, 84. GIRL'S PUBERTY, 96. SWELL, 106. BE CAREFUL, 108. KNOW, 110. CHILDREN, 117. HAIRY GIANT, 121. DARK, 126. EIGHT, 128. SUN, 130. FREEZE, 131. ICE, 132. WARM, 134. SAND, 141. SMOKE, 148. REALLY. Two a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s , 111. LAZY and 116. ECHO, a r e o f i n t e r e s t because one a r e a has two words f o r t h i s i t e m w h i l e the o t h e r has o n l y one. Three more i t e m s , 35. PIRBARK, 112. STINGY, and I36. WATERFALL, p r o b a b l y s p l i t between I s l a n d and M a i n l a n d , b u t the d a t a a r e not c l e a r due t o m i s s i n g forms. A major i s o g l o s s s e p a r a t i n g the I s l a n d from the Mai n l a n d can thus be p o s i t e d on the b a s i s o f t h i s e v i d e n c e . On f o u r i t e m s , 88. MEDICINE, 99. BARK, 103. SEE, 114. NAME, th e form from Nanaimo agrees w i t h t h e M a i n l a n d o r has booth the I s l a n d and M a i n l a n d forms. On two i t e m s , 21. C0H0 and 46. KNIFE, t h e r e a r e t h r e e forms i n Halkomelem, one on t h e M a i n l a n d , one on the I s l a n d , and one a t w a n a i m o . A l t h o u g h the e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d by these s i x i t e m s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h Nanaimo as a major d i a l e c t a r e a , i t does mark Nanaimo as d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r I s l a n d a r e a s . Nanaimo i s t h u s a s u b - d i a l e c t w i t h i n t h e I s l a n d group. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by it e m s 25. CRAB, 139. LOW TIDE, and 20 140. ROCK, for which Nanaimo i s d i f f e r e n t from the rest of Halkomelem. There are several items which do not neatly divide at the Mainland-Island isogloss. For items 82. SPRAIN LEG, 115. DREAM, and 135- ISLAND, i t appears that Musqueam has both the Mainland and isl a n d form. The data from Katzie, however, do not show both forms. There i s one item, 129. FOG, where Katzie has both the Mainland and Island form while Musqueam does not. This item i n Nanaimo has only.the Mainland form. There are two items, 27. MAPLE and 73- MIRROR, WINDOW, that have one form throughout Halkomelem except f o r Cowichan, which has a d i f f e r e n t form i n the f i r s t instance, and two forms i n the second. A second isogloss bundle, i n keeping with phonological changes as outlined i n Chapter 2, separates the Island and Downriver groups ( i . e . , Musqueam and Katzie) from points Upriver. Fi f t e e n items c l e a r l y divide at thi s point: 1. DEER, 7. STRIPED SKUNK, 11. ANT, 12. SPIDER, 41. WEIR, 4 5 . CHOP WOOD, 53- CEDAR ROPE, 57. LANTERN, 69. BED, 92. TEAR, 95. SINK, 109. FIGHT, 118. WHAT COLOUR IS IT? 120. BIG, 142. SMOKE SHED. An additional nine items may divide at thi s point. Two items, 127. MOON and 107. FALL, have one form throughout Halkomelem and a second form Upriver. Item 2 3 . , SPRING SALMON, i n Downriver-Island Halkomelem i s the generic term 21 for f i s h i n Upriver Halkomelem, which has at least 5 words f o r d i f f e r e n t spring salmon. Upriver Halkomelem speakers knew one of three words for 70. BEAM, while Downriver-Island speakers knew another word. Conversely, Downriver-Island Halkomelem has a word for 139. LOW TIDE,plus an expression 'the water went down1, while Upriver speakers use only the l a t t e r , which i s not surprising as tides a f f e c t the Fraser only as far as Mission. Katzie data were unavailable for two items, 29. SCOTCH THISTLE and 3 1 . LONG OREGON GRAPE. For item 14. BLUEJAY, Katzie had both the Upriver and Downriver-Island forms. An i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of t h i s isogloss i s that i t seems to catch Kwantlen right i n the middle. Data are available f o r six of the items that divide between Upriver and Downriver-Island. Three of the Kwantlen forms, ?. STRIPED SKUNK, 11. ANT, and 14. BLUEJAY, agree with the Downriver forms; two of the Kwantlen forms, 12. SPIDER, and 69. BED, agree with the Upriver form; Kwantlen has both the Downriver and Upriver forms for 1. DEER. (See Appendix C for these data.) There are four items f o r which the forms f o r Matsqui and Kilgard are l i k e the Downriver-Island forms and unlike the Upriver forms: 9. TREE FROG, 17. RAVEN, 30. RED HUCKLE-BERRY, 37. STUMP. On the basis of these words and the phono-l o g i c a l distinctiveness mentioned i n Chapter 2, Kilgard and Matsqui form a sub-dialect of Upriver Halkomelem. 22 I t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t 9 words s p l i t t w i c e i n Halkomelem, g i v i n g 3 forms d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by a r e a . Three i t e m s have forms f o r t h e I s l a n d , Downriver, and U p r i v e r : 4 3 . DIP NET, 28. ALDER, 65. COFFIN. Two it e m s s p l i t between the I s l a n d and M a i n l a n d and between C h i l l i w a c k and U p r i v e r : 44. AXE, 19. SEAGULL. One i t e m , 15. CROW, s p l i t s between the I s l a n d and M a i n l a n d and between U p r i v e r and Downriver, w i t h M a t s q u i and K i l g a r d h a v i n g the Downriver form. Four more it e m s t h a t s p l i t t w i c e w i t h i n Halkomelem a r e more i r r e g u l a r . Item 13. BIRD has one form f o r the I s l a n d , Musqueam, and K a t z i e , one form f o r C h e h a l i s , S c o w l i t z , and Lekemel, and one form f o r the r e s t o f U p r i v e r . Item 10. BAT has one form f o r U p r i v e r and K a t z i e , one form f o r K i l g a r d and C h i l l i w a c k , and a s e p a r a t e form f o r the I s l a n d . Item 3 . SQUIRREL has one form on t h e I s l a n d , one form a t Musqueam, K i l g a r d , and C h e h a l i s , and a t h i r d form f o r the remainder o f U p r i v e r . Item 56 . ,LAMP has a form f o r t h e I s l a n d , Kwantlen, and M a t s q u i , an U p r i v e r form, and a form a t K a t z i e . There a r e t h r e e items t h a t appear t o have two forms w i t h i n Halkomelem where the I s l a n d and U p r i v e r a r e the same and the Downriver i s d i f f e r e n t : 62. BROOM, 59. TOOLS, 61. BLANKET. The Musqueam p r o b a b l y p r e s e r v e s an o l d e r word f o r th e s e i t e m s . 23 Footnotes f o r Chapter 3 xElmendorf and S u t t l e s (I960, p. 17) d i v i d e Halkomelem i n t o two l e x i c a l d i a l e c t s (Cowichan and Musqueam-Chilliwack), basing t h e i r d e c i s i o n on a comparison of 200 'basic' words. o Galloway (1977, p. x i i i ) had suggested Upper S t a l o f o r Upriver Halkomelem, but had r e j e c t e d the former because of the s o c i a l connotations of Lower S t a l o . ^Elmendorf and S u t t l e s (I960, p. 31) i d e n t i f y Chemainus as the t e r r i t o r y between the Nanaimo and the Cowichan and suggest f i e l d w o r k to v e r i f y the i d e n t i t y of Cowichan and Chemainus. Evidence from the present study suggests that Chemainus i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from Cowichan. I n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n Chemainus were not i n v e s t i g a t e d here. The exact st a t u s of Kuper I s l a n d and other Gulf Islands on which Halkomelem i s spoken cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d from these data. ^The l e x i c a l evidence concerning Kwantlen i s ambivalent but because Kwantlen i s unambiguously a Downriver d i a l e c t when phonological evidence i s considered, i t i s c l a s s i f i e d here as a Downriver s u b - d i a l e c t . ^ F o l l o w i n g Elmendorf and S u t t l e s (I960, p. 2), Sumas w i l l be employed f o r the reserves i n the Abbotsford area (Matsqui and K i l g a r d ) . The phonological data f o r Matsqui show more Downriver f e a t u r e s than those f o r K i l g a r d , but these two areas are q u i t e s i m i l a r l e x i c a l l y . 24 4. The Processes of Lexical D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n In Chapter 3 , i t was established that three d i a l e c t d i v i s i o n s can be proposed for Halkomelem on the basis of l e x i c a l differences. The 90 items used to analyze the d i a -l e c t s of Halkomelem vocabulary i n Chapter 3 ar*e presented alphabetically i n Appendix C. Etymological information and cognates from other Salish languages are given. By examining the data i n Appendix C, c e r t a i n claims can be made concerning the possible sources or processes involved i n the l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of Halkomelem d i a l e c t s . It i s apparent that no one explanation can account for the differences i n the three d i a l e c t s . Rather several processes have affected Halkomelem vocabulary; those outlined here can only account f o r a portion of the data. The present evidence suggests that Halkomelem vocabulary has been affected by borrowing. Elmendorf and Suttles ( I960, p. 18 very tent a t i v e l y suggest: l e x i c a l borrowing i n Cw might often be from adjacent S t r a i t s or North Georgia Salish languages, or from non-Salish Nootka, whereas Ms and other downriver Fraser Halkomelem d i a l e c t s were more i n contact with one another than with d i s t i n c t l i n g u i s t i c s sources of borrowing. Ch and other upriver Halkomelem d i a l e c t s were i n contact not only with one another and with downriver Halkomelem, but with I n t e r i o r S a l i s h lan-guages ( L i l l o o e t , Thompson) which might have exercised a disturbing influence on t h e i r phonology. Yet i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see why l e x i c a l disturbance would not operate i n t h i s l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n to as great an extent as on Vancouver Island. It i s furthermore by no means ce r t a i n that borrowing i s at the root of the Cw l e x i c a l difference. 25 I f a form i s shared by S t r a i t s and I s l a n d Halkomelem t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r S a l i s h l a n g u a g e s , the form c o u l d be an example o f a b o r r o w i n g (perhaps w i t h S t r a i t s as the s o u r c e ) , a common r e t e n t i o n , o r a s h a r e d i n n o v a t i o n . Three i t e m s , 75. HAIR, 79. KNEE, and 132. WARM, show cognateness between S t a i t s and I s l a n d Halkomelem. Pour a d d i t i o n a l forms, 110. CHILDREN, 8. PROG, 46. KNIFE, and 134. SAND, may a l s o r e p r e s e n t t h i s p r o c e s s . There a r e examples of i t e m s cognate i n Comox, S e c h e l t , o r Squamish and I s l a n d Halkomelem, but t h e s e forms a r e a l s o i n S t r a i t s . One form, 141. SMOKE, s h a r e d by I s l a n d Halkomelem and S o u t h e r n Puget t o t h e e x c l u s i o n , as f a r as the d a t a show, o f S t r a i t s , i s most l i k e l y an example of a shared r e t e n t i o n . Item 19. SEAGULL i s the unique example o f a Wakashan cognate w i t h an I s l a n d Halkomelem form. C l e a r e v i d e n c e f o r b o r r o w i n g i n I s l a n d Halkomelem can acco u n t f o r o n l y a s m a l l number o f forms. Two i t e m s , 9. TREE FROG and 17. HUMMINGBIRD, appear t o be b o r r o w i n g s from Thompson i n t o U p r i v e r Halkomelem; th e s e words r e t a i n a / k ' / . 1 B o r r o w i n g appears t o have o c c u r r e d from U p r i v e r Halkomelem by I n t e r i o r language i n a few i n s t a n c e s : 19. SEAGULL i n t o L i l l o o e t , 7. STRIPED SKUNK i n t o Shuswap, and perhaps 64. BOX i n t o Thompson. Some l e x i c a l d i s t u r g a n c e a p p a r e n t l y o p e r a t e d on U p r i v e r Halkomelem, a l t h o u g h perhaps not t o the e x t e n t t h a t S t r a i t s has i n f l u e n c e d I s l a n d Halkomelem. 26 Rather than c i t e s p e c i f i c examples of possible borrowing, i t i s more useful to look f o r general d i s t r i b u t i o n s of cognates among Salish languages for the vocabulary e l i c i t e d i n th i s study. Of the 25 items which are d i f f e r e n t for Island and Mainland Halkomelem, 19 have cognates i n other Sali s h languages. (See Table III.) I f the number of cognates that agree with the Island and the Mainland form are counted for each language, an i n t e r e s t i n g and not unexpected pattern occurs. Sechelt, Squamish, and Nooksack have more cognates with the Mainland than with the Island. The S t r a i t s d i a l e c t s show greater cognacy with the Island. Similar calculations are made for the items that s p l i t at the Upriver-Downriver isogloss and are presented i n Table IV. Such patterns of cognacy perhaps suggest an areal spread of vocabulary. This concept i s es p e c i a l l y useful when both Halkomelem forms have cognates i n several Coast Sali s h lan-guages assigned to d i f f e r e n t subgroupings. Examples of items such as these are: 99. BARK, 106. BE CAREFUL, 21. COHO, 16. CROW, 121. DARK, 126. EIGHT, 129- FOG, 135- ISLAND, 27. MAPLE, 114. NAME, 5- RACCOON, 103- SEE, 110. CHILDREN.2 It i s noticeable that a l l of the items concerning body parts (74. BLIND, 75- HAIR, 78. CHEST, 79. KNEE) s p l i t at the Island-Mainland isogloss, as do the majority of terms related to natural phenomena (128. SUN, 130. FREEZE, 131. ICE, 132. WARM, 134. SAND, 141. SMOKE).3 27 Item Cx Se Sq Nk Sa Sg So Lm CI NPg SPg Tw L i Th 5 - + 8 0 + + 0 24 -64 + + 0 0 0 -74 - + 0 0 75 - - © - + + + + 0 0 -78 - - - -79 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 84 + 96 + + + + 110 - + + - 0 121 0 + - + + + 126 + + - - + + + + - - -128 0 - 0 - 0 0 0 0 130 - 0 - 0 0 0 0 131 G - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 132 - - - + + 0 0 134 0 + e + 0 0 141 - - - + + 2 1 2 1 3 7 5 6 7 1 1 0 0 0 3 5 9 9 1 1 0 2 0 2 1 1 1 2 + cognate to Island form cognate to Mainland form * 2 forms, one cognate to Island and one to Mainland o form not cognate, ^ , ... See appendix C for data and abbreviations. Table I I I . Cognates shared with other S a l i s h languages 28 Item 1 7 11 12 41 ^5 109 Cx-SQ S§ Nk Sa Sg So Lm Cl NPg SPg Tw L i Th Sh + + + o + + o + + + + + + + + + + + o o o o o o 0. 4 0 0 2 4 3 3 2 0 0 0 2 0 "2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 o o 0 1 0 0 0 1 + cognate to Island-Mainland form - cognate to Upriver form * 2 forms, one cognate to Island-Downriver and one to Upriver o form not cognate See appendix C for data and abbreviations. Table IV. Cognates shared with other Salish Language s, c ont i nued 29 Many o f the items e l i c i t e d f o r t h i s s u r v ey were c u l t u r a l a r t i c l e s a c q u i r e d i n modern t i m e s . Three s o u r c e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the naming of thes e i t e m s : E n g l i s h ( e . g . , 54. SHOVEL), Chinook J a r g o n ( e . g . , 54. SHOVEL), and Halkomelem. I n s e v e r a l c a s e s , d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s employed d i f f e r e n t y e t s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d r o o t s t o c o i n words ( e . g . , 69. BED, 4 5 . CHOP WOOD, 56. LAMP, 57. LANTERN, 46. KNIFE, 29- SCOTCH THISTLEj 59. TOOLS). O c c a s i o n a l l y the r o o t s were the same but the a f f i x a t i o n d i f f e r e n t (44. AXE). To account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between C h i l l i w a c k and the r e s t of Halkomelem, Elmendorf and S u t t l e s ( i 9 6 0 , p. 18) suggest a r a p i d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n Ch f o r the v o c a b u l a r y o f p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , and t e c h n o l o g y and g i v e the o c c u r r e n c e o f synonym p a i r s i n Ch as e v i d e n c e . The p r o c e s s of l e x i c a l r e p l a c e m e n t and semantic s h i f t i n g i s apparent i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s i n U p r i v e r Halkomelem: 13. BIRD, 16. CROW, 1. DEER, 127. MOON. However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l i n many ca s e s whether the U p r i v e r form s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a r e t e n -t i o n o r an i n n o v a t i o n ( e . g . , 28. ALDER, 70. BEAM, 118. WHAT COLOUR IS I T ? , 43. DIPNET, 142. SMOKESHED 12. SPIDER, 41. WEIR). More l i k e l y , such forms a r e examples of the p r o c e s s d i s c u s s e d above; d i f f e r e n t s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d r o o t s a r e employed by d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s t o d e r i v e forms. A p p a r e n t l y , t h e r e were t h r e e b a s i c p r o c e s s e s which con-t r i b u t e d t o l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n Halkomelem. The f i r s t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d b o r r o w i n g , but i s perhaps more a c c u r a t e l y 30 d e s c r i b e d as an a r e a l s p r e a d of v o c a b u l a r y a c r o s s sub-group b o u n d a r i e s . T h i s p r o c e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y a f f e c t s the I s l a n d d i a l e c t s . A second p r o c e s s , t h a t of c o i n i n g words from Halkomelem stems, i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t when d i s c u s s i n g i t e m s of a c q u i r e d t e c h n o l o g y . The t h i r d , l e x i c a l replacement and c o n c u r r e n t semantic s h i f t i n g , appears p a r t i c u l a r l y t o a f f e c t U p r i v e r Halkomelem. 31 Footnotes for Chapter 4 Elmendorf and Suttles ( I960, p. 32) give •humming-b i r d ' and 'coyote' as examples of words containing /k'/ and suggest a L i l l o o e t source f o r the l a t t e r . 2The Lummi form for 'children' agrees with the Mainland, while the Clallam and Sooke agree with the Island, further supporting t h i s analysis. 3jorgensen (1969, pp. 49-50) and Elmendorf and Suttles ( i 9 6 0 ) see some significance i n the semantic class of lexicon retained across d i a l e c t boundary. However, numerical per-centages of shared cognac jr are subject to a high degree of error because of the inherent d i f f i c u l t y i n equating a single English gloss with a single Halkomelem word. 32 5 . C o n c l u s i o n T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on the l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n H a l -komelem S a l i s h . A l i s t of 150 v o c a b u l a r y items showing l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was e l i c i t e d a t twenty-one l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the Halkomelem a r e a . N i n e t y o f t h e s e i t e m s were s u i t a b l e f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e d a t a , t h e r e a r e two major i s o g l o s s b u n d l e s d i v i d i n g the Halkomelem a r e a i n t o t h r e e d i a l e c t s : I s l a n d , D ownriver, and U p r i v e r Halkomelem. Because some i s o g l o s s e s do not f a l l on t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s , the d i a l e c t s can be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o s u b - d i a l e c t s - I s l a n d Halkomelem: Cowichan Nanaimo, Chemainus; Downriver Halkomelem: Musqueam, K a t z i e , Kwantlen; U p r i v e r Halkomelem: Sumas, C h i l l i w a c k , C h e h a l i s , T a i t . These s u b - d i a l e c t s agree w i t h the d i a l e c t s o f Halkomelem as suggested by Elmendorf and S u t t l e s ( i 9 6 0 ) . Three p r o c e s s e s can account f o r some o f the l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n Halkomelem. I s l a n d Halkomelem has some v o c a b u l a r y i n common w i t h S t r a i t s t o the e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r S a l i s h l a n g u a g e s ; t h i s s u g g e s t s b o r r o w i n g . U p r i v e r Halkomelem i s e s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t e d by l e x i c a l r e placement and semantic s h i f t i n g . E m p l o y i n g d i f f e r e n t y e t s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d r o o t s t o c o i n words i n Halkomelem has been a p e r v a s i v e p r o c e s s . 33 BIBLIOGRAPHY Amoss, Pamela T. 1961. Nuksack Phonemics. M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington. Boas, F r a n z , and Herman H a e b e r l i n . 1927. Sound S h i f t s i n S a l i s h a n D i a l e c t s . U A L 4 : 1 1 7 - 3 ° D a v i s , John H. 1968. Some P h o n o l o g i c a l R u l e s i n M a i n l a n d Comox. M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a . Drachman, G a b e r e l l . 1969. Twana Phonology. OSU-WPL 5 . D u f f , W i l s o n . 1952. The Upper S t a l o I n d i a n s of the F r a s e r R i v e r of B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir No. 1. . 1964. The I n d i a n H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. V o l I . The Impact of the White Man. P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir No. 5 . E f r a t , B a r b a r a S. I969. A Grammar of N o n - P a r t i c l e s i n Sooke, A D i a l e c t of S t r a i t s Coast S a l i s h . Ph.D. D i s s -e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a . E l mendorf, W i l l i a m W., and Wayne S u t t l e s . i 9 6 0 . P a t t e r n and Change i n Halkomelem S a l i s h D i a l e c t s . AL 2 . 7 : 1 - 3 2 . G a l l o w a y , B r e n t . 1976a. Anatomy i n Upper S t a l o Halkomelem, A Morphosemeraic Study. Paper r e a d a t the 11th I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Conference on S a l i s h a n Languages, S e a t t l e , Washington. August, 1976. . 1976b. Lessons i n Upper S t a l o Halkomelem. C o q u a l e e t E d u c a t i o n T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , S a r d i s , B.C. . 1977. A Grammar o f C h i l l i w a c k Halkomelem. Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y . Hess, Thomas M. 1966. Snohomish Chameleon Morphology. U A L 32:350-6. . 1976. D i c t i o n a r y of Puget S a l i s h . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s . H i l l - T o u t , C h a r l e s . 1903. E t h n o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s of the Main-l a n d HalkomelEm, a d i v i s i o n o f the S a l i s h o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. Report of the 72nd M e e t i n g of the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement o f S c i e n c e , 1902. pp. 255.449. 3^ Jorgensen, Joseph G. 19^9. Salish Language and Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Publications. Kuipers, Aert H. 1967. The Squaroish Language. The Hague: Mouton. . 1969. The Squamish Language, I I . The Hague: Mouton. . 1974. The Shuswap Language. Grammar, Texts, Dictionary. The Hague: Mouton. . 1976. On the Phonological Typology of Proto-Salish. Paper presented at the Symposium on Genetic and Typo-l o g i c a l Relations. XLIIth International Congress of Americanists. Paris, Sept. 2-9. M i t c h e l l , Marjorie R. 1968. A Dictionary of Songish, a Dialect of S t r a i t s S a l i s h . M.A. Thesis, University of V i c t o r i a . Pidgeon, Michael. 1970. Lexical Suffixes i n Saanich, a Dialect of S t r a i t s Coast S a l i s h . M.A. Thesis, University of V i c t o r i a . Raffo, Yolanda A. 1972. A Phonology and Morphology of Songish, A Dialect of S t r a i t s S a l i s h . Ph.D. Disser-tation, University of Kansas. Sapir, Edward, and Morris Swadesh. 1939. Nootka Texts. Philadelphia: L i n g u i s t i c Society of America. Snyder, Warren A. 1968a. Southern Puget Sound S a l i s h : Phonology and Morphology. Sacramento Anthropological Society Paper 8. . 1968b. Southern Puget Sound S a l i s h : Texts, Place Names-and Dictionary. Sacramento Anthropological Society Paper 9. Suttles, Wayne. 1951. Economic L i f e of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario S t r a i t s . Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington. Swadesh, Morris. 1950. S a l i s h Internal Relationships. IJAL 16.4:157-167. Swoboda, Leo. 1968. L i l l o e t Phonology^ Texts, and Dictionary. M.A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 35 Thompson, Laurence C , and M. Terry Thompson. 1971. Clallam: A Preview. Studies i n American Indian Languages, ed. by Jesse Sawyer. UCPL 65. 251-94. . n.d. Clallam: Short Northwest L i s t . . n.d. Lummi: Short Northwest L i s t . . n.d. C l a s s i f i e d Word L i s t of Thompson. , and Barbara S. E f r a t . 1974. Some Phonological Developments i n S t r a i t s Salish. UAL 40 .3 :182-196. Thompson, Laurence C , M. Terry;Thompson, and M. Dale Kinkade. n.d. Comparative S a l i s h Notebooks, 2 vols. Walker, Carl Ian. 1973* An English-Squamish Dictionary. Graduating Essay. University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 36 Appendix A. The Informants Richard Bailey was born in 1902 on the Katzie Reserve. His mother was from Coquitlam, His father, who died in 190*1, was from Katzie. Richard Bailey was raised by his father's parents who were from Katzie when his mother remarried at Sechelt. In 1917, Richard Bailey attended St. Mary's in Mission. Since then he has resided at Katzie,-employed as a fisherman, and now retired. Peter Bolan was born on April 12, 192*+, at Kilgard. His father, Frances Ernest Bolan, was from-Tahiti. His mother, Anriie Silver, was from Kilgard, as was her mother, Sarah Silver. Peter Bolan's grandfather, Peter Silver, was from Laidlaw but resided at Kilgard. After attending school at Sumas Prairie Elementary, Peter Bolan-was sent, at age 1*+, to the Vancouver Sexman School. He graduated from Dewdney Senior High School i n 19*+8 and attended a year at University of British Columbia. Since that time he has lived around Chilliwack and in the Okanagan. Dolly Felix was born in 1897 or 1898 at Scowlitz. Her father, James William Johnston, was from Lytton, B.C. and her mother, Sophie Petters , was from Harrison Mills.. Dolly Felix lived on Nicomen Island un t i l she was 9'or'10, then lived in Scowlitz. She attended school at. St. Mary's i n Mission for 3 years. She presently resides on the Chehalis reserve. John George, born at Aitchelltz in 1926, is the only person who speaks Halkomelem from that reserve. His father was from Aitchelltz. At age 7, John George.attended school at St. Mary's in Mission. As an adult, he lived and worked at different locations u n t i l he settle down at Ait c h e l l t z , where he is band leader. Although not very fluent in the Halkomelem language, John George, because of his interests i n native culture and religion, knew many of the words^on my l i s t . Arnold Guerin was born in 1910 at the Musqueam reserve. His father was half-Musqueam and his mother was Lummi. He was raised on the Musqueam reserve speaking primarily English u n t i l age 10,.at which time he was sent to the Indian school on Kuper Island. After school, he returned to Musqueam for four years but then returned to Kuper Island where he married and raised a family. Arnold Guerin i s now an active member of the Musqueam band. He i s cur-rently involved in a project to teach Musqueam to adults and school-age children. Lucy Jackson was born.at American Bar i n 1909. Her father was Joseph Alex. Her mother, who was a Thompson, died when Lucy Jackson was young. She is now l i v i n g on the Datz reserve, the home of her deceased humband. T i l l i e Guitterez, Lucy Jackson's daughter, was born at Katz in 1921. She is active as a teacher' of the Halkomelem language. T i l l i e Guitterez was present at the interviews and helped to e l i c i t and verify data. 37 Laurence James was born on December 29, 1897, at the Wellington Reserve. His father was from Wellington and his mother, who was half Douglas, was from Harrison M i l l s . From age 7-15 he attended school.at St. Mary's i n Mission. He also attended school i n Vancouver where he was known for his abi l i t y as a runner. Laurence James now. resides on the Wellington Reserve where he is known for his knowledge of local history, his.stories, and his music. Stanley James was form on the Nanaimo Reserve in 1911. His mother was Josephine George.. He.attended school.at Coqualeetza from 1919-1931. He -has also lived in Esquimalt and Duncan and knows words from those areas. He curren t l y resides on the portion of the Nanaimo Reserve on the Nanaimo reiver. Arthur Joe was born on March 26, 1891, in Duncan. His mother, Ju l i a Joe, his father and his father's parents were from the Duncan area. Arthur Joe how resides on the reserve on Allenby-road. at the Cowichan River. His wife, Susan Joe, was present at the interviews and helped to e l i c i t data as Arthur Joe's Halkomelem is considerably better than his English. Lizzie Johnson, born in,190U, was raised on Seabird Island. Her father, Charles Alexander was a Thompson from.Snuzzum. Her mother, Rosy James, was from Seabird Island. The father of - Rosy J Junes, was from Seabird Island and her mother was from ah area above Ruby Creek. Lizzie Johnson did not attend school. She speaks some Thompson as well as fluent Halkomelem. Agnes Kelly was born in Squatats on March 17, 1921. Her father, Patrick Louie was from Squatats, as were his parents. Her mother, Amelia Joseph, was from Ohamil. Agnes Kelly l i v e d at Squa-tats u n t i l age. 9 when she moved to Mission. She now resided at the Ohamil reserve near Laidlaw. Ed Leon was born.at the Chehalis Reserve i n 1899 or 1900. His father, James Leon, was from Chehalisand his mother, was from Soowahlie. Ed Leon did not go to school and started logging at age l 6 . He -spent ko years working for that industry mostly around Chechalis but also on Vancouver Island. Ed Leon, an excellent speaker of Halkomelem, is well-respected for his knowledge of native culture. Alfred Louie was born on August 15, 1917, at Steveston. His father, Alex Louie is from q»elicj bay and his mother, Catherine Jim, was from Shell Beach, where Alfred Louie was raised and now resides. He.attended school.at Coqualeetza from 1930-36. His grandmother was from Qualiqum Beach, so Alfred Louie was also able to give Nanoose forms for certain words. 38 Hank Pennier was born o n the Chehalis reserve on February 6, 190*+. His father, who died when Hank Pennier was young, was French Canadian. His mother, Alice Davis, whom he.describes as half from Deroche and half American, remarried and moved to Union Bar when Hank Pennier was 5- From age 9-1^, Hank Pennier attended school.at St. Mary's Mission. At-age l 6 , he took on logging jobs u n t i l he was injured in 1951. Hank Pennier, who now lives at Scowlitz, has written a book which, describes l i f e around the Harrison Mills area. Maggie Pennier, Hank's wife, was born in February, 190^. Her father was Jimmy Leon of Chehalis and her mother was Elizabeth Tom • of Soowahlie.. She attended school at St. Mary's in Mission for 5 years. Maggie Pennier, who is Ed Leon's sister, was present at the interviews with her husband and offered verification on some forms. Susan Peters was born i n 191^ at Ruby Creek. Her father, Issac James, was from Union Bar. Her mother, Celia Charlie, was from Yale. After the death of her mother when she was 3 or h years old, Susan Peters lived with her father's sister, Sarah Bob.at Yale. Susan Peters attended school at St. Mary's i n 1925-Nancy Phillips was born on March h, 1907, at Tzeachten. Her father, Alec Joe, was from Lekelem but lived.at Skwah. Her mother, Martha, was from Tzeachten. From age 9-18 Nancy Phillips.attended school, at St. Mary's i n Mission. She now resides on the Chehalis Reserve where she teaches the Halkomelem language in the local elementary school. Nancy Phillips gave both the Tzeachten and Chechalis forms of certain words. E l l a Reid was born in 1897 near Everson, Washinton. Her father, Thomas Cline was from the Kilgard reserve near Sumas, B.C. Her mother, Belinda Antoine, was from 3 miles south of Nooksack, Washington. When E l l a was 13, her family returned to Matsqui. She attended Coqualeetza school from age 1^-18. She is presently l i v i n g near Everson, Washington. E l l a Reid, although she slaims to know only a few words of Halkomelem, was able to supply most of the words on the l i s t . This can be accounted for because her father's sister, Agnes, who could not speak English, often li v e d with her family. Alice Hunt, E l l a Reid's sister, was born i n 1907 near Everson, Washinton. She was h or 5 when the family moved to Matsqui. From age 11-18 she attended school at Coqualeetza. She was present at the interview with her sister and frequently verified forms. Celia Thomas was born on May 11, 1913, at Cheam reserve. Her father, Willie Alev, was from Rosedale and her moether, Mary Charlie, was from Cjilliwack Landing. When she was 3, her father died; she was raised by her father's sister, Joesy Alec, and her father's mother, Lucy Alec, of Cheam. Celia Thomas now resides on Seabird Island. 39 Henry Thompson was born.at Nicomen Island i n 190*1. His father, Harry Thompson was from Nicomen. His mother, Margaret Walker was from from Tzeachten. He attended school at.St. Mary's i n Mission from 1918-1921. Sam Wallace was born.at the Soowahlie Reserve on January 15, 19L*t. His father'was from Soowahlie and his mother, Mary, -.was from Squatats. He attended school at Coqualeetza. MAP 2 b THE INFORMANTS Appendix B T h e D a t a The 150 word l i s t as follows was e l i c i t e d from the 21 people described i n Appendix A. Musqueam forms from Elmendorf and Suttles ( i960) are marked with the l i s t and item number. 1. deer 41. weir 2. elk 42. s p l i t roasting s t i c k 3. " s q u i r r e l 43. dip net 4. chipmunk 44. axe 5 . raccoon 45. • chop wood 6. mink 46. knife 7. striped skunk 47. wood-carving knife 8. frog 48. D-adze 9. tree frog 49. half-done canoe 10. bat 5 0 . thwart 11. ant 51. anchor 12. spider 52. boom 13. b i r d 53. rope of cedar 14. bluejay 54. shovel 15. crow 55. bucket 16. raven 56. lamp 17. hummingbird 57. lantern 18. nighthawk 58. loom 19. seagull 59. tools 20. salmon 60. r a t t l e 21. coho 61. blanket 22. humpback 62. broom 23. spring 6 3 . long dish, p l a t t e r 24. steelhead 64. box 25. crab 65. c o f f i n 26. cheeks of f i s h 66. grave 27. maple 67. cemetery 28. alder 68. bury 29. t h i s t l e 69. bed 30. red huckleberry 70. beam 31. long Oregon grape 71. roof 32. underbrush 72. f l o o r 33. bushes bunched up 73. window 34. bark 74. be blind 35. f i r bark 75. hair 36. pitch 76. brain 37. stump. 77. throat 38. arrow 78. chest 39. quiver 79. knee 40. f i s h spear 80. sole 1+3. 81. palm 131. ice 82. sprain leg 132. warm 83. be out of breath 133. mud 84. g i r l ' s puberty- 134. sand 85. pregnant 135. i s l a n d 86. pass out, f a i n t 136. w a t e r f a l l 87. sickness 137. eddy 88. medicine 138. wave 89. poke 139. low tide 90. scratch 140. rock 91. smash 141. smoke 92. tear 142. smoke shed 93. wipe 143. wind from down water 94. b o i l 144. storm 95. sink 145. storm for 3-4 days 96. swell 146. must 97. laugh 147. perhaps 98. smile 148. r e a l l y 99. bark 149. sometimes 100. come 150. soon 101. run 102. swim 103. see 104. scout 105. take, hold 106. be careful 107. f a l l down 108.,. know 109. f i g h t 110. children 111. lazy 112. stingy 113. smart 114. name 115. dream 116\ echo 117. hairy giant 118. What colour i s i t ? 119. blue 120. big 121. dark 122. sad 123. small 124. smooth 125. straight 126. eight 127. moon, month 128. sun 129. fog 130. freeze American Bar LuJ fc'alqt/le smiyeQ •'-meat' Union Bar SP it Cheam AK " tt Seabird I. LiJ » Rosedale CT <> Chehalis EL ti Harrison Mills HP « Scowlitz DF ti n Lekemel HT ft it it Tzeachten NP » Soowahlie SW " mawic 'deer Wellington LaJ •fc'blqtile smiyaG mawic 'meat' 'deer' Aitchelitz JG tt „ I T Kilgarde PB tt » Matsqui ER tt Katzie RB s m 4 y ^ Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ ' deer, meat' deer American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ q'eync 'moose • mooae' x w i e . x q i l •elk' Rosedale CT Chehalis EL HarriBon Mills HP Scowlitz DF •elk' 'elk, moose' Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ Aitchelltz JG q'eyiec 'elk (moose not around here)' Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ sx woqal 'elk' q'eyi?'ec 'elk' q'ey^i'ac 'moose' it 'elk' q eyic 'moose' q-eyii c 'elk' q'jeyiec 6.21 k unsure, k wewe?ec 'moose' kwewa?ac 'elk' . e l k / m 0 g g e American Bar LuJ sqwa'e'a4 Union Bar SP " Cheam AK " Seabird I . L i J " Hosedale CT " Chehalis EL sk waye-Harrison M i l l s HP " Sc o v l i t z DF " Lekemel HP " Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW sq wa9'ai sk waye (in stories) Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it skaye 9 skwaye'? 6. s9 ?ap'? cia?-9an s9'ape ,ia ?9an sc'apsiaGan9 c'apc'i'aian 3. squirrel American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW xaxp'ical t! I I xaxp'ici1 xaxp'icil xaxp'ICI1 xaxp'ical it I I Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ it I I it xaxp'icin xaxp'ican 6 . 3 (Vancouver Island could not identify this animal.) k. chipmunk American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ Aitchelltz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 1! !l It males 6.14 sxaVsk w'as tt it 5 . raccoon American Bar LuJ ceci-q'ei Union Bar SP „ Cheam AK sqayax Seabird I . L i J cacx-q'ai Bosedale CT " Chehalis EL " Harrison M i l l s HP " Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW sqayexiye (in stories) Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ cici'q al sqayax s/ . v S « f t ciciq an ti ciciq'an 6.18 cici*q an caci'q'an I ! 6. mink American Bar LuJ s e > s p a q Union Bar SP tt Cheam AK tt Seabird I. LiJ tt Rosedale CT tt Chehalis EL " Harrison Mills HP n Scovlitz DF » Lekemel HT tt Tzeachten NP tt Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ t Aitchelitz JG " Kilgarde PB t. Matsqui EB » Katzie RB sp'se'i-h Musqueam spsps©'in Nanaimo SJ 6.1 Shell Beach AL ^-wv* ' spap0'7;in Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ pepaWn 7• skunk American Bar LuJ plptha-m xamoi 'frog i n myths Union Bar SP „ Cheam AK „ Seabird I. LiJ " Rosedale CT » Chehalis EL " Harrison Mills HP » Scovlitz DF » Lekemel HT " Tzeachten NP " Soowahlie SW wa'xyim [wo'Vim] Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam A G Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ pl-gsha;ni I I pipaha.m9 pipsha'm 7 spapa'm7 pip a'in?. sxa ?enx w [sxa?aenxw] ;> ti ii 8. frog American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW s w i l i k ' wilik'.'^ ( rioise) s w i l i k ' w i l i V ? ('frog's language') swellk' wile*k' (noise) Wellington LaJ Aitchelltz JG palipaha'm 'alot of l i t t l e trot Kilgarde PB W3X3S Matsqui ER Katzie RB waxad Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL " Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ 9. tree frog American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Roeedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW skw''!ikw':'iiye/'xal [»]' k ^ i l i ' e - x a l s k w ' i l i ? e - x a l k w ,ek w'iye-xal p'ip'iG'iye*xal k w' i l i y e - x a l sqalye'xal p'ip'a6'ale • xal Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ st'ale'*xal p'e *p'a9'ale'• xal p'ls p'lO'elexal ^'ukw'li'exen sialp'al^&xan 10. bat American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ )t Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER xye-'sam Katzie RB e'amae'e Musqueam " 6.69 Nanaimo SJ c'amc'i7! Shell Beach AL e^ ame'ayi Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ c'amc'i'i 11. ant American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW q'asq'asicil IT q'asq'asicil ii ii qlasq'as ci1 tt q'asq ascil Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ q'asq'ascil q'asq'asicil sqatqatcala? / qatcale qatqatcala, 6.68 qatqatcala9 ti V71 12. spider American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP mimaq" -'little bird' 'duck, bird' x weyx*.slsq w 'bird' x waxreli-q v x weyleq w Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW mi•maqv ma*'qv tt 'duck' tt Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam S- p c Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ sq w'iq w'aleV sq w'3laxy sq w'ales tt 'duck' ma?aqv tt ma>aqv 13. bird (big and l i t t l e ) American Bar LuJ kweN-y Union Bar SP « Cheam AK » Seabird I. LiJ " Rosedale CT » Chehalis EL " Harrison Mills HP " Scovlitz DF » Lekemel HT » Tzeachten NP " Soowahlie SW skwe°y Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ kwe^y k weyic k weyk wey 'bluejay' (what he s kwe*-y k wey / sk wi9'ac sx wi9'9C 6.U6 sk wi9'ac Ik. bluej ay American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK spa-l skiwsq'' s (type of crow) Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL spapala-1 (lots of crows) Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ tt A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB spa'plal Matsqui ER spapalal Katzie RB spa?pal?al Musqueam spalal Nanaimo SJ q' al aq1? a S h e l l Beach AL q'ale'?aq'e? Kuper I . AG 11 Cowichan AJ " 6.1+6 15. crow Co American Bar LuJ sqiwaqs Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J skwaweIs ' Voiron I spa*l 'raven' k walwils (in stories) kiwaqs (Raven & crow warning sqiwaqs you) Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP spa-1 Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT sqaq waq w Tzeachten HP Soovahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG spa'. ± Kilgard PB " Matsqui EB spa'l? Katzie RB " Musqueam AG " Nanaimo SJ " S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG Covichan AJ " 16. raven vo American Bar LuJ p'/sk'e Union Bar SP " Cheam AK "'• Seabird I . L i J " Rosedale CT " Chehalis EL " Harrison M i l l s HP " Scowlitz DF 11 Lekemel HT " Tzeachten NP " Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it " (in stories) t i - n ? it / .-. s x w a - ? c , a - ? l i ' ? sxifanc'ali sx^at'c'alf" tt tt IT. hummingbird OA o American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW (sound of nighthawk) Wellington LaJ n Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB tt (a bird, not nighthawk; around when Matsqui ER the sockeye run) it Katzie RB » Musqueam A G tt Nanaimo SJ tt Shell Beach AL » Kuper I. AG n Cowichan AJ 18. nighthawk American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SV s l i l i w y e it it ti it it ti qy'.alitaq it s l i l i w y e . Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ s l i l i w y e s l i l i w y e 7 q w , a l i t e q it it 6. q wani? ti it 19. seagull American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW s9'a-qwi it tt it it I I it tt Wellington LaJ » Aitchelltz JG » Kilgarde PB n Matsqui ER " Katzie RB Musqueam A G sce-iten. sceitan Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ sce.'itan 2o. salmon (generic") American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW k wsx we9 it I I I I k w e x w a s k wex w ae k w a x w a c k w3X wIS k w4x wae It k w a x w a c Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ k wax wa9 k wex^i9 k wex we9 k wox wec k w a x w i 9 k w 3x w ? se 6.5^ 9e?wan ce'wsn / q'etcaqs (Nanaimo) 9e?wan se ?wan 21. coho American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW huliye it ti tt it it / s x w i l m e * y i ti tt Wellington LaJ Aitchelltz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ tt tt huliye' ? hu?lays' 6.53 h u m 7 tt tt ti 22. humpback American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Roeedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW pa-q w' W l x * x i ti I I it I I it it tt tt skwaxam . p'qi's tt it it c a.lal ti tt tt it tt it tt Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ s9'aq wi ? s0'aqwey? 6.55 se'a?q wi? I I tt 23. spring salmon American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L U Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DP Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ tt q ' e 'wx tt tt 6.58 sxsx w q 'am sxaw ? q'am 2k. steelhead American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soovahlie SV Wellington LaJ „ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB ? a y ? x Matsqui ER Katzie RB " Musqueam AG " Nanaimo SJ " / Sh e l l Beach AL " '' N a Kuper I . AG " / Na Covichan AJ 2 5 . crab American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW s i i q w e l e s 4 i q w i l a s i p i l a siaq wa*la s x w i - l a -Y?(gen.) (of fish) (gen.) (gen.) (gen.) Wellington LaJ c'xyaysii A i t c h e l l t z JG Ki l g a r d PB Matsqui ER siaq"i'na? (gen.) Katzie RB sxwt'q"am Musqueam Nanaimo SJ iqfnas S h e l l Beach AL sx wiqana (gen. ) Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ sx^flana 26. cheeks of fish American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW q'amuliip q'amo?i'ip q'emu1lip q'amo ?iip q' aimi* l i i p q'amu•iip q'amo'iip q'mo'lip q'amo ?iip q'emoiip Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ q'amalaiip q'amlaip q'amu'iip IT q'amalaip q'amaneip q'amani.ip c'aiaip 27. maple American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW xe-y9'iip it it tt it tt tt it tt Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ tt ti k w'ax wsi-ip k w i l a l a ? a i p it it it 28. alder American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP c'ac'a'qw' Cheam AK c'aq w ,c'aq w' ('lip) Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT c'ac'a'qw' Chehalis EL e'ae'a' q w' ( I*P ) Harrison M i l l s HP Sco v l i t z DP c'a'c'aqw' i i p Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP " Soowahlie SV Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ c'aq wc'ac' it ciceqK? xaw.?xawi*4p 5-75 xawxawiniip 29. t h i s t l e — j American Bar LuJ sqe•la Union Bar SP tt Cheam AK tt Seabird I. L i J tt Rosedale CT tt Chehalis EL tt Harrison M i l l s HP tt Scowlitz DF tt Lekemel HT tt Tzeachten NP -Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ sk w'aq wcis 'black thimbleberries' skwc'-oqwci s sk w'aq wcis sk w'aq wcas 5.68 tt tt tt tt 30. red huckleberry American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison H i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW e'uie'i/ip G'uie'iyiip e ' o i e ' i ' i i p e'uG'iyiip e'o-ie'iip e'al9'ay aip Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan e'uw^e'i^iip ialac'aip 9 'if; -waq'aip ia l i c ' a i p i a l i c ' a i p 31. long Oregon grape lax wsqel x w i x w a l 'bushy' 'bush used for whips' I I it Cheam AK " Seabird I . L i J i9x wsqeie-c Rosedale CT " " American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Chehalis EL " simlicel 'underbrush' Harrison M i l l s HP " Sc o v l i t z DF " 'bushes , young shoots ' Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW I I 'bush' Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB " 'brush, whip' Matsqui ER s^xyixyic Katzie RB Musqueam sqai 9 5.l6 Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL sx waimc Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 32. underbrush American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW sq'aple•c sq'sGle*c q' spale* c q'eG'ele-sq'eG'ale sq'epale• ti I I Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ Musqueam s3 spnec g _ p c Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL sq'ap'nec 33. bushes bunched American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW p'aliyi'ws tt I ! (bark of bush or young tree) it tt tt tt Wellington LaJ » Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER " Katzie RB Musqueam p » a l a y ? a'w? s 1.38 Nanaimo SJ p ' a i i ? Shell Beach AL " Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ " 3*+. bark (of a tree) American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ 1 /v sle *y siaq wey 'bark of anything Rosedale CT Chehalis EL 'bark of the Douglas f i r ' Harrison Mills HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT 'cedar bark' Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW » Wellington LaJ Aitchelltz JG Kilgarde PB " Matsqui ER sle'-y? Katzie RB sley? Musqueam sley Nanaimo SJ 'cedar bark' 5.30 Shell Beach AL siaq w' 'bark of whole tree, f i r , cedar' Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ 35. bark of f i r tree — j co American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ k w ' i ' x w camax 'thin, syrupy pitch' 'thick, hardened; used for caulking' Shell Beach AL camsx Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ 36. pitch vo American Bar LuJ sq'xe-p Union Bar SP " Cheam AK " Seabird I. LiJ " Rosedale CT " Chehalis EL " Harrison Mills HP " Scovlitz DF 11 Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP " Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ q'xe'-p s ?i*lac s ? x l i c s'alec s ?elac 5-18 s ?alnac « 11 it CO o 37' stump American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW s i k w a l e - x y ' arrcw, gun S3k wale-xy ' gun' Wellington LaJ s i k w a l e ; x y Aitchelltz JG Kilgarde PB S3k welexy Matsqui ER Katzie RB sk welexy / e'smen / sqole. 'gun Musqueam ©'smen 8.13 Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL „ a / s k w 9 l -Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ * gun' 38. arrow American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW G'esi'la c ' i l x w e l s t i l s i y e t ' e l e retrix we'lst3l Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ s i k w e l e - s y t i l l 3 q w e 'any kind of bag' l*£e 8.13 39• quiver American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP 0 'n = 'spear he Cheam AK it » Seabird I. L i J -» n Rose dale CT n Chehalis EL u » Harrison M i l l s HP n n Scowlitz DF n Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP e'a*-q w i t n Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ „ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilg a r d PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB 9'aq witen Musqueam s'anam t£?ei 8.1, 8.2 Nanaimo SJ n S h e l l Beach AL n n Kuper I . AG » » Cowichan AJ " n qe9ax w 'spear point' ho. fish spear American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW ciaq'tel c'e*qtil c' iyaqtel s e x aq c iye-q' Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Ki l g a r d PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ c'iysq'tel sc'iye*q' sc'iyaV S x e V 8.10 ti ti hi. weir American Bar LuJ p i q w i l Union Bar SP » Cheam AK " Seabird I . L i J " Rosedale CT tt Chehalis EL » Harrison M i l l s HP »» Scowlitz DF » Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP » Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ » A i t c h e l l t z JG n Kilgarde PB tt Matsqui ER tt Katzie RB y . V e y a l e q ' t e n .(from 'squeeze') Musqueam ' p i ? q " S n Nanaimo SJ tt S h e l l Beach AL » Kuper I . AG » Cowichan AJ " CO h2. s p l i t roasting stick American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW q lqi'smasti 1 q'amastal / q' amastil q'sq'ma'stal q' ama'sti 1 sq'eq'amastel Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ q'ama-stil q'lq'mastal qalec ca ?k wamt9n ?ak w'in / 'axeim'tan 'exsim'tan k3. dip net, oo ON American Bar LuJ , , . / u u u k w ' a q w l e - c t i l / kw'qwam 'axe'. 'hatchet' Union Bar SP » ti Cheam AK tt n Seabird I. L i J » Rosedale CT » Chehalis EL tr Harrison M i l l s HP tt n Scowlitz DF „ 'double-headed axe' Lekemel RT k w'q«3m 'axe' Tzeachten NP tt Soowahlie SW » Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ " /k w'ik w'am tt sk w ' q w 9 m kw ,qwaman " (Suttles, p.c.) sk w , q wsm tt tt " / sk w'xk w 'q wam 5f hk. axe American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z OF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SV e ' i q w e l c i p tt tt tt tt 'splitting tt t'amit tt od' 'choppin tt Wellington LaJ tt A i t c h e l i t z JG » Kilgard PB Matsqui ER " Katzie RB sq'a'lcap Musqueam Nanaimo SJ sq'als t'at'amit 'hammering' S h e l l Beach AL sq'alcap Kuper I . AG sq'al 7 cap Cowichan AJ " ^ 5 . chop wood American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis . EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW ie-c'til 11 ti II ti II it II II Wellington LaJ n A i t c h e l l t z JG H Kilgarde PB u Matsqui ER » Katzie RB ieVtan Musqueam " g 2 Q Nanaimo SJ ^ p t 3 n , ? ^ t s n S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG " Cowichan AJ " k6. knife American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK v -, xyi p e l t j f l Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL x*pe'ltil Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP sxe'-t'k^els 'thing for digging or carving' Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgarde PB x*£ptil 'a tool for shaving wood' Matsqui ER x y f p t a l Katzie RB Musqueam Sxatak"' 8.21 Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL § a p e ' y t i n Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ U;"'gxattekw' saptan / . sxatak"' 'digging out tool' ^7. woodcarving knife American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J / . ,, , •, / n n a y l i ' t i l / t'et'emi'l 'chopper 1 ' chopping Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW st et'emeis Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ sx wti'at'imel st'et'emeis 8.22 sxwt'et'emewei h8. D-adze vO American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL , , , p aq'sawai 'half-done canoe' Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soovahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam xee'ey? 8 . 5 3 Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Covichan AJ h9. unfinished h u l l American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW xlaxalawitil s 9'aiawalt'il iaxalawaiti1 ixalawiiti1 s 6 'axialawal Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam x\'alawait an Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach AL gxaX'wi'tan Kuper I . AG ixalawaitan Cowichan AJ sxa^'wiltan 50 . t h w a r t American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW masflatil it masi'yaltil Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam q«sa'ntan 8.h9 Nanaimo SJ iqaWen S h e l l Beach AL tt Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ 51. anchor American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK c ' 3 q w ' e l i s t i l ta p'a'til Seabird I . L i J se'aiswaitii (cf 'thwart') Rosedale CT Chehalis EL c'q w'e-x3tii Harrison H i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ e ' a q w i i e s t i i A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam x wat'3lie'?tan Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 52. "boom (on sail) vo American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW sti'lswi1 II II II Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ II sy3q w '9m 8.58 53. cedar-writhe rope American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it x wcayq wals 'something to dig with' saspal / lapen ti it " / geay?q*al'>s it lapen 5 ^ . shovel American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel RT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW skw'a-wis tt t i i t tt tt i t tt tt tt Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ tt tt sxwqa-m 'something to carry water i n ' sk^.fa'was tt . 8.33 tt tt 5 5 . bucket American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ ' A i t c h e l l t z JG 11 Kilgard PB 1 Matsqui ER h i ? q " i - i Katzie RB sx wi?q wx-n ? Musqueam AG hay'q^in Nanaimo SJ hay ?q wu • n f S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG hayVu-n Cowichan AJ 56. lamp, light vo vo American Bar LuJ sle *xa9 Union Bar SP sle"xat Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP slex^at S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soovahlie SW slexat / l a ' l t a l •flashlight, 'lantern' torch• Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ sxyec'it sk^anxVin tt skwansan " / k wanstan tt 57. lantern, flashlight, torch American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis £L Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW t ' s l p ' e i t i l 'rack for drying skins' t s p ' a i t i l stsp'q*4 'stretching frame' Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam ?a y 7 amen 8. 6l Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL " 'loom, drying rack' Kuper I . AG Covichan AJ tt 58. loom American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ 11 A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgarde PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Vewk w ,m9n Musqueam it Nanaimo SJ - ' . o _ sya*y ?as S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 8.17 59. tools American Bar LuJ Wellington LaJ sq w£•tx wcls Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW k wax wmi1 'deer hoof 'deer hoof, rattle' A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB skw'£•txweis Matsqui ER 'rattle' kwacmin Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ k waatun kwaxwman 'deer hoof 60. deer-hoof rattle American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it tt sie•wal 'cover, "blanket' l a x w t / l X'axwten 11 Q.lh lax wtan tt tt tt 6 l . blanket American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soovahlle SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Covichan AJ 11 11 n 11 qw'e'?ean 11 8.31 s x w i x w a l s ?ax wtan sx w ?ixiaeat ?ax wtan 62. broom o American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DP Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW xap'iyiwei it k w'i'k w'iiyiw , ; ,ai q wai ?yuwii Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilg a r d PB qxiyiwai Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach AL qwea'las Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ q wsa'las t q w ' a l a s 8.72 63. long diah, platte American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DP Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ t! II II k w'ax wa? k w , a x w a ? 8.32 xGam n II t i 61*. "box 3 American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW (s ame as TT TT IT II II ' II II II II Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it 11 / s m e - q w ' e s n a w 3 k w ' a ' ? e l a nawak w 'e k. 131 maqeya TT Tt II 65. coffin H O CO American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW S X W 9 ? 1 - X W 'grave, tomb 1 Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ 9Xw?a-mat 'grave, deceased' Cowichan AJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG 66. gr ave American Bar LuJ Union Bar 8P Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Roaedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ » A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB " Matsqui ER Katzie RB sxwmekw'ela Musqueam Nanaimo SJ " She l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG " Cowichan AJ " 67. cemeter American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL pi *ls 'planting' pi • 1 pi'It pi lest 'cover up, make a h i l l ' Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF pi Item Lekemel HT Tzeachten BP Soowahlie SW n it Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l l t z JG " Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB panet Musqueam Nanaimo SJ " She l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG 11 Cowichan AJ " 68. bury American Bar LuJ SX W?E• [ae] Union Bar SP » Cheam AK „ Seabird I. L i J tt Rosedale CT Chehalis EL „ Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT tt Tzeachten NP u Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER la*l ?wis Katzie RB sx wa? m 9 t Musqueam Nanaimo SJ " She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG " / ^ 7 { t 3 t tt / tt Cowichan AJ 1 (old word) 69. bed American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW t'eiawsi te s t ' i i w i l t i l Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilg a r d PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ t ' p ' a i t i l sxaA'wiltan 8.28 t! It 70. beam (in house) American Bar LuJ s^iitx™ s i - q a c i i .'boards' '.shingles' Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J sc'a-itax w Rosedale CT s i - q e c i i Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW s ^ i l t x " Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ s i - q a c i l sc'eltax w siqacal s ? i l t x w s?iqacan s ? i l t a x w 8.29 s ? i t x w n it II 71. roof American Bar LuJ 4 a x i i a p t i i Union Bar SP le-iawis Cheam AK » Seabird I . L i J „ Rosedale CT i a x i i a p t i i Chehalis EL iaxe'ylaptil Harrison M i l l s HP „ Scowlitz DF „ Lekemel HT „ Tzeachten HP „ Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER ixilap Katzie RB iaxanaptan Musqueam " s - P C Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 7 2. floor American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Roeedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW k w ' c a - s t i l k w'ik w'casam s k w , c a - s t i l sk w ,ik w'casam k w , a c a ' s t i l s w ' a c a s t i l s w ,ik w ,ca*sam s w ' c a - s t i l s w ' i k w , c a - s t i l s w ' a c a s t i l k w ' c a - s t i l k w ,ca'-stil k w'ik w'ca-sam Wellington LaJ k « ' c a'-stn k w'ik w'casam m A i t c h e l i t z JG k w'aca'stil w. Kilgard PB sk w'ca'-stii Matsqui ER sk w'ca•stal w,m w,m Katzie RB sk^-'aeastan w,m sk w'ik w'casam m Musqueam AG sk w ,acastan w,m s w'ik w'casam m Nanaimo SJ " / sxwal'?mastan'? S h e l l Beach AL " " Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ " " 73. window, mirror H H O N American Ear LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ « A i t c h e l l t z JG " Kilgard PB » Matsqui ER " Katzie RB " Musqueam AG " Nanaimo SJ s ^ ' s i a l i c ' S h e l l Beach AL i ' e l i c ' e'apalas '"bad eye sight' Kuper I . AG *'a?iic' Cowichan AJ s9 'a/,?palas lh. be blind i—• American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER r KatZie RB meqan Musqueam " 1•71 Nanaimo SJ se'itan S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I. AG " Cowichan AJ " 75. hair American Bar LuJ sma9 'qai Union Bar SP it / sma9 'alaq w Cheam AK » Seabird I . L i J t'aimai Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP ma'e 'ailaq w smaG ' q a l ScOWlitZ DF mi'e'qal Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP sm/e'qai Soovahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ sma9 ' a i a l a q ' ma9' a iaq ' sma9'qan t i it sma9 'qan sxalamas 76. "brain H r-> vo American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z OF Lekemel HT Tzeachten BP Soovahlie SW sqalx we / ,le it ti tt it ti tt it Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilg a r d PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Covichan AJ tt xwaha•ma4 q'£yaqw' 'windpipe' sxwqanxw£la sqanx weyla sx wqanx wela xaminai 'windpipe 77. throat American Bar LuJ q'(9)p'a-ieatii Union Bar SP sq'(a)p'a /-ieatii Cheam AK tt Seabird I . L i J tt Rosedale CT tt Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP sq'p'a-ls£il Scowlitz DF tt Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP sq'ap'a-letii Soowahlie SW q'ap'a'lstil Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ q'p'alstil sq'p'al6itil q'p'a'lctil sq'p'alGatim sqp'al9aten 1.75 sq ewam tt tt 79. knee ro American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l l t z JG 11 Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB s ?i-nas Musqueam Nanaimo SJ e'axemen S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG it Cowichan AJ 3.ho I . sc'mi'nas 'breast bone' 78. chest American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ II sx w?a-cisxyil sx w , ?a6isqan / xy sx w ?a9asxyan sxaGis it 3.36 snax waisan 'arch' it 8 0 . sole of foot American Bar LuJ sxw?a0 Union Bar SP t? Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J » Rosedale CT it Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP sxw?aec Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB ' C I S C I S Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ qelemces 3.30 sxa'Gis ten 9 celis 'palm of your hand' qelemcis 'the very centre of your hand' 8 l . palm of hand H ro American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten BP Soovahlle SW p'iaq w'xyil " / sak wxyil 'twist the hone' 'sprain II c'4a-q w xyil it Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG. Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ se'94aqw'xyil p'4eqwxysn1 " / q wayaxyi q waya ? s3n n it n 82. sprain leg American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW 4cu.s. ?ewk w'ixyil S3C1WS tx wat te'al s4E'-qw3m ?awate s4e'qw3m-iciws ? E - k w ' s l x y i l wite siE*q wum ? o - k w ' x u i l Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ p ' q w i l a s t ' q w i l i s iciws ?ewkw'aina4 IT IT 83. be out of breath American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ GaGax™ k.126 xw4\'as 81*. girl's puberty American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soovahlle SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Ccvichan AJ sy-im'yim • sysm?ysm it tt 85. pregnant American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW malq'fwssm n t i it it n it II Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ malq'awai xwmalq'wai malqi'wsam II maA'el it II n maA' 'to be stumpe it 'to see a spi 86. pass out, faint American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten IIP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ „ A i t c h e l l t z JG -Kilg a r d PB Matsqui ER ti Katzie RB IT Musqueam q'aq'ay Nanaimo SJ q'aq'i 7 'sick, die' S h e l l Beach AL >< Kuper I . AG » Cowichan AJ » k.222 I sxai 'sick, ache' 87. sick American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L U Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW s t ' al(a)maxw it tt it ti ti tt tt ti t' almax' Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Mu8quee%Q Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Covichan AJ st'almax' tt it ti it it / siexan? it ti 88. medicine American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ ? " A i t c h e l l t z JG " Kilgard PB Matsqui ER c'q'at Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ 6q' it S h e l l Beach AL j c eqwtam 'poking like with Kuper I . AG c'aq" needle' Cowichan AJ 89. poke American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soovahlle SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB xeyp Matsqui ER " Katzie RB " c * xat Musqueam Nanaimo SJ " Sh e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG " / xip yp' Cowichan AJ " 90. scratch American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soovahlle SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it tt ^t'xyeyxati 'shatter, burst it n ti it tt 91. smash American Bar LuJ x w t e • t Union Bar SP " Cheam AK " Seabird I. L i J " Rosedale CT " Chehalis EL " Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DP " Lekemel HT " Tzeachten HP " Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilg a r d PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel RT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilg a r d PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam ? e - p ' i t e'p' et 2.20 Nanaimo SJ ?ee'et S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG xwelat Cowichan AJ " 93. wipe American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ IT 4 a t ' q w a m ii 4ap ' q w 3 m it it 9k. boiling (intrs American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilg a r d PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam A Q Nanaimo SJ A'pi-lastsx" 'lowering i t down' A'pilstax* miq'sst 'push him down into the water, dunk him' S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 95. sink (it) co C O American Bar LuJ Sxwatim Union Bar SP " Cheam AK " Seabird I . L i J " Rosedale CT " Chehalis EL " Harrison M i l l s HP " Sc o v l i t z DF » Lekemel HT " Tzeachten HP " Soowahlie SW p a*m 'bread rising' Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilg a r d PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ t> it t! " 2.100 p' a*m tt it 96. swell American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB nayai Musqueam Nanaimo SJ yen am S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG " Cowichan AJ " tt it ti 2.66 9 7 . laugh H O American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam^ A G Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ ti tt xWnay3mas tt I T ' xwy3nsm3s tt tt 98. smile American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soovahlle SW Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l i t z JG " Kilg a r d PB Matsqui ER " Katzie RB " Musqueam AG " Nanaimo SJ A'awam wa ? was 'yapping' 'barking S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ " 99. (to) bark American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s BP Scowlitz DP Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ tt am ' i LAJ 100. come American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten IIP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ I I it I I I I x wanxyensm x wcenam I I it I I 101. run American Bar LuJ Union Bar 8P Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ Aitchelltz JG : Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ 102. swim American Bar LuJ k w ' s c i t k^aciex* 'look at . i t ' 'see' Union Bar SP " 11 Cheam AK k w ' a c i t k w'sclax w 'look at i t ' 'see' Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l i t z JG " Kilgard PB Matsqui ER " Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ le'mat S h e l l Beach AL le'mat Kuper I . AG 11 Cowichan AJ " 1! II IT TT k w ,e'k w ,ac k w'acnax w 1.79 la'mnaxw k w ' e c i t kw'e'cnaxw Na. TI IT 103. see, look American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. LiJ Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison Mills HP Scovlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW k w'scxyil 'scout' k w'acxyit 'look for footprints k w ' a c X y i l •look for footprints k w'ak w'acxyit 'scouting' k w'acxyil 'look for tracks' k w , s c x y i l 'see the tracks' k w'cile.p 'scout' kw-' acxye • lam 'scout' s a - l q w , t 'look for tracks' kw'aca'ma 'hunting around' Wellington LaJ k w ' a c x y i l 'look for tracks' Aitchelitz JG Kilgard PB kw'acxe-lem 'to look backwards, to be aware' Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ iQk. scout x w Islam? Sans xwle/?lamaxanam 'looking for tracks" 'always lookin around' American Bar LuJ k u-. t m i £ . t ' t a k e ' 'hold' Union Bar 8P It Tl Cheam AK TT IT Seabird I . L i J TT TT Rosedale CT » TT Chehalis EL TT TI Harrison M i l l s HP n » Scowlitz DF it II Lekemel HT n „ Tzeachten UP it it Soowahlie SW n kfaie'is Wellington LaJ " ' c a r r y along' A i t c h e l l t z JG " 'hold' Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG k wanet 'hold' Nanaimo SJ k wariat k wanet 'take' 'hold' S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 1 0 5 . t a k e , hold American Bar LuJ eahi-eat xya'-iamaGat k"ak w ,aiax Wellington LaJ Union Bar SP A i t c h e l l t z JG Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW k w'a'-k w'acit k w'ak w'3ceat Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ ak w ,ac6at la'lam'aGat. 1 0 6 . "be careful American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L U Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten IIP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG " Kilgard PB Matsqui ER " Katzie RB wsVa*' Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ waA'ac' S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG 11 Covichan AJ " i—• 1 0 7 . f a l l down, stumble American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L U Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW it it sq'elax" II n II II it Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l i t z JG " Kilgard PB Matsqui ER " Katzie RB " Musqueam " 1.82 Hanaimo SJ s t a t 3 i ? s t e x w S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG " Cowichan AJ H H 108. know American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soovahlle SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it ti ti k w i n t a l 2.97 tt it tt it 109. fight American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam A G Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ s t e ? 3 x w a i II IT II TT sA'aliqei TI II 110. children American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam A G Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ H 111. lazy American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L U Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it ti it it x wqel9wii x w W ? ti 112. stingy American Bar LuJ scuwat 'quick' 'know how' Union Bar SP ,, Cheam AK „ Seabird I . L i J „ Rosedale CT „ leq ' s i-iss Chehalis EL „ Harrison M i l l s HP „ Scowlitz DF „ Lekemel HT „ Tzeachten NP „ Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l l t z JG " Kilgard PB " 'adept, capable' Matsqui ER " Katzie RB Musqueam q ' a ? i l i s 'sensible, level-headed' xwq'3?£*lss ' smart' x w q ? i l 9 S 'well-behaved' Nanaimo SJ sieyc'ai S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 113. smart American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DP Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soovahlle SW Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l i t z JO " Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB sWx* Musqueam it ^..Q^ Nanaimo SJ sk w£s S h e l l Beach AL s n e'? Kuper I . AG » Covichan AJ » Hk. name I— 1 American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW s ? a l i y a it it it a t l tt It t l It tt Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l l t z JG 11 Kilgard PB Matsqui ER " ?a'liya 'spirit power' 'dream' Katzie RB s'al'aliye Musqueam ?al?alys ~ qal^qal^aGan *+.91 Nanaimo SJ sqalqalaean S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ " ? ay lama t i— 1 CO 115. dream American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kil«ard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ wilam ? tt tt tt " tawtaw^alaqsp tt tt 116. echo H American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it ti it sesq EC U.121 Lws 9 ' amaqw' as pe ?ps£\\ 'giant' 'hairy man' tt ti 117. hairy giant American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sco v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW stem ?amixy s i lei'mamixy it secima'mixy it it it Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ stem k w s tamixy selcimamixy sc9k wal' ?a' ?l3s it t u ? s k w a l s s ti tt 1 1 8 . What colour i s i t ? American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 9£ee'ax wam 'colours at sunset' ti 'blue' cq way 'blue, green' 119. blue ON American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten IIP Soovahlle SW r C1C9 Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l i t z JG " Kilgard PB " Matsqui ER " Katzie RB Gi? Musqueam ei* S-PC Nanaimo SJ " Sh e l l Beach AL 9i? Kuper I . AG e£* Cowichan AJ " 120. big American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ „ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB „ Matsqui ER ce Katzie RB n Musqueam it Nanaimo SJ iec S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it 2.79 ti 121. dark American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . U J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison H i l l s HP S c o v l i t z OP Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soovahlie SW t'et'i'-l st'a-yx w 'lonely' 'sorry' it n it II II Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ sqiqalss S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG qiias Cowichan AJ 122. sad American Bar LuJ ? i ? 9 x w i i ?amimal ' s m a l l ' ' t i n y ' Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J tt Rosedale CT Chehalis EL ? s x w i i Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soovahlle SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ ? e ? a x w i * l mimal ? e x w i ' - l " 7 e ' 7 a x w i - n ' ? ' 'ax'- in 7 tt tt 123. s m a l l ON ON American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J 'eyiG'e 'smooth-of clothes, fabric' yalisam (as shake) syayA'al Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW ? i y a * l i s i m laq'alep 'smooth, level ground' y i l s p 'even ground' yalisem ? a l i y 3 p 'smooth, level ground' i(a)li-q' ?eyie'e, 'level, smooth' Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB s a l i c ' Musqueam Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach AL saliq' silq'anap ?i?yalas 'even' 'level ground' (as shake)' Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 124. smooth American Bar LuJ G e V " Union Bar SP e ' i * - k w ' Cheam AK „ Seabird I . L i J e ' a V " Rosedale CT t ' a k w ' Chehalis EL l ^ g ' Harrison M i l l s HP c'aq w Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ sGsGik"' caq w GaGeq"' 125. straight American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB tqe•ce? Matsqui ER " Katzie RB " Musqueam " 2 Nanaimo SJ t e 9 c1s S h e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG 11 Cowichan AJ " 126. American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF sk w'(i) Xyas 'moon, month' iqelc' 'month' Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie Sw Wellington LaJ » A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB " 'moonlight' Matsqui ER " Katzie RB " Musqueam " Nanaimo SJ " Shel l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG " Cowichan AJ " ti 'moon, month' 127. moon, month American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I. L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sco v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten IIP Soowahlie SW sy a*qwam it it it II II II II Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ II syaqwam sem'saGat /s 1.27 128. sun 3 American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW sq watxyim i i II n II t i i t i t II Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ i t i t / spe'x^m s q w a t x y 3 m spe ?x w t i spe?xwam 129. fog American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW piwatem pislwals pawels Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG K i l g a r d PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Covichen AJ ti II II spawels pawels 7.68 Gimatam I pipawatam Na. 'becoming solid' n II 3 130. freeze American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l l t z JG s p£ w? Kilgard PB n Matsqui ER " Katzie RB " Musqueam » 2.1+3 Nanaimo SJ sGima-? S h e l l Beach AL » Kuper I . AG " Cowichan AJ " 131. ice American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soovahlie SW k w'ak w'is tt tt tt tt ti tt it ti ha-lqwam 'mild' II 'hot, warm' it ti Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ II n tt k w'ak w'as k w'e?las tt ti ti 132. American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HP Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW sG'i-q'el ii it si&q~. G'iG'aq'al sG'iq'al II sG'iG'aq'al t'aq wt'aq w sG'lqal G'iG'aqal 'muddy' Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ sG'iG'aqal t'aq wt'aq w siyaq' st'it'aqal t'aq wt'aq w 'dingy' 'mud' sGlaqal t'aq wt'aq w 7-9 st'iqel II n II 133. mud American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sco v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW syic'am II syic am ti ti it it Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ it p'q wacan ? 1.33 13 1+ sand 3 American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L I J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DP Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB sqGa-9 A'ce•s Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 7.37 skw0e? skw0e?s sqaqeGaq. 'islands ' s l f island' sk w9e?(s) AG A'ce's 'island by Victoria' (off Oak Bay) 'island' s k w i k w 0 a ? • l i t t l e island' 135. island American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW s k w i l " Ge-txam 'high -waterfall' ti n sk wiya • l i t t l e f a l l s ' 'small f a l l s * 'big f a l l s ' sca'laGat ta qa 1 Ge-txam (ta sta'lo) Wellington LaJ ca-lqtaqa A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach AL sk wac hi ?lam qa caVam qa ' f a l l Kuper I . AG s by Cowichan 'falling 'jumping River' water' water' it 'waterfall* Cowichan AJ n 3 V O 136. waterfall American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L U Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW q'ayetam q'ayi-x x wilq w'iyam q' ayaxam q ayxam 'rough water' q' eyaxam IT x w t i l t i ^ m x w t i t i - m hamq'alaq 'whirlpool' Wellington LaJ titi*m A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB q ayax Matsqui ER Katzie RB x wtitim Musqueam sq'ay?axam 1.2k Nanaimo SJ ?iyamtam S h e l l Beach AL sqeqam Kuper I . AG qem? q'ayaxam sxalac' 'hack eddy' 'whirlpool' 'cross current' . : x wtitim 'river flowing against current' Cowichan AJ > „ /. , qayxam sxalac' 'choppy water' 137. eddy, whirlpool American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW ya* lcip tt it tt GiGahe'laq 'big wave' sme'leq sme' 'yalaq sy a - l c i p sme•laq Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ x y a i c i i sqw'a41e'laq sha ?ya ?laq 7.29 hqay'yiiaq la'yal^aq GiGe'?laqw 'big wave' ha'?yalaq 138. wave American Bar LuJ e'e-m 'water went down Union Bar SP t, Cheam AK „ Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT „ Chehalis EL „ Harrison M i l l s HP it n i 9 q i n i i l 'low tide Scowlitz DF ,t Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP u Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB " c 3 k w c a k w ' low tide' Musqueam A G Nanaimo SJ s s V s s m ? S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG x „ c a ' k w Cowichan AJ 0» E' m 'water went down' 139. low tide American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison H i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soovahlle SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam A G Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Covichan AJ it tt sme.nt tt Jk 'sc 'a ti 11*0. rock H CO American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison H i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW sp'aA'am tt tt tt it tt ti tt it Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l l t z JG » Kilgard PB " Matsqui ER " Katzie RB " Musqueam AG " Nanaimo SJ " sA'ayaq' 'cigarette, tobacco' S h e l l Beach AL 11 Kuper I . AG " " Cowichan AJ 11 " 1*+1. smoke American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam AG Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ c s i t i la*wtx' tl ce'iti l'awtx' q ' l l e V t x " ti it it it lk2. smoke shed for drying fish American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP ScOWlitZ DF tilca'-laq" 'wind from u p h i l l ' Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP t i i a i a - s Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER t i l c a l a q " 'wind from up-country' Katzie RB tenia's spa'hsls Musqueam tanca ?laq w Nanaimo SJ tan ?ca?la'q w 'west wind' Cowichan AJ " Shell Beach AL Kuper I . AG 1L3. wind from down-wat American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz OF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW xaA'Gat ta sw£-yl sqalam Seabird I . L i J '-, ^ •• * W C O W J . A U " maqalam ta swe*yl maqalam k ws sw£'yl qalqe•lam scux"am Wellington LaJ qaqali'm A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB qal swayal Musqueam yal'yal'ac' T. 56 Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL scaxwam 'storm, wind' Kuper I . AG xaA' 'stormy' Cowichan AJ s k w i k w a y a l xaV 'strong wind' 1*4*+. storm American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL x ^ c f i i w i s t i l 'storm for 8-9days' C'putting the Harrison M i l l s HP paddles avay'D S c o v l i t z OF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ 'wind that never stops' tt 1^5. storm that lasts 3-h days American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soowahlie SW l i yax w rT ti n l l t t 3WS 'must be, maybe' it ? i 4 yax w Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ ? i s t'aw3 II ? i 4 yax w ? i yax w ni'ai yax' ni?yax w ?i4 yax w ii lh6. must (inferential) American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Sc o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP SoovahUe SW ? i " 1 t'awa ya* saws l i t'awa yaswa t'awa 'I guess yasaw'a 'I don't ? i i t'awa yaswe? ya- sawa Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Shel l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Covichan AJ txwt'awa l i t'awa ya*swa lit'awe 'perhaps' 'mayhe' tawxc'E ? i wa'wa' it tt tt lhj. perhaps, maybe American Bar LuJ c'ec'ai Union Bar SP <-Cheam AK n Seabird I . L i J » Rosedale CT Chehalis EL <> Harrison M i l l s HP »» Scowlitz DF ti Lekemel HT it Tzeachten HP » Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam A Q Nanaimo SJ She l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ IT c'e c an TT *'alim? IT IT lh8. really (intensifi American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L U Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP S c o v l i t z DF Lekemel HT Tzeachten HP Soovahlle SW i i k w i s tsmt ti it Wellington LaJ A i t c h e l i t z JG Kilgard PB Matsqui ER Katzie RB Musqueam Nanaimo SJ c ' 8 x w i e ? S h e l l Beach AL » Kuper I . AG " Covichan AJ t a m t E'mis 1^9. sometimes American Bar LuJ 7awe hieas c'imai Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . L i J Rosedale CT Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s HP Scowlitz OF Lekemel HT Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW Wellington LaJ " A i t c h e l l t z JG Kilgard PB » Matsqui ER » Katzie RB H Musqueam Nanaimo SJ Sh e l l Beach AL " Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ cale'l II wai calel 150. soon Appendix C. Sali s h Cognates 1 9 4 Abbreviations and Sources: Cx Comox Davis, 1968 Se Sechelt unpublished f i l e s , Ronald C. Beaumont Sq Squamish Kuipers, 1967, 1969 Nk Nooksack Amoss, 196l CI Clallam Thompsonand Thompson, n.d. Lm Lummi » So Sooke Ef r a t , 1969 Sa Saanich Pidgeon, 1970 Sg Songish "M i t c h e l l , 1968 NPg Northern Puget S a l i s h Hess, 1976 SPg Southern Puget Salish Snyder, 1968 Tw Twana M. Dale Kinkade, f i l e s Sh Shuswap Kuipers, 197^ L i L i l l o o e t Swaboda, 1968 Th Thompson Thompson and Thompson, n.d. TTK An important secondary source used for t h i s paper was the comparative Salish notebooks of Thompson, Thompson, and Kinkade, e s p e c i a l l y useful for Comox and Nooksack. These notebooks contain many speculative reconstructions that are not i n f i n a l i z e d form. These w i l l be labeled PS-TTK. BG-A Brent Galloway, 1976a BG-L " b TH Thomas Hukari WS Wayne Suttles Forms for So, Sa, Sg, or Nk marked - f are from the f i l e s of Barbara E f r a t . Abbreviations used f o r Halkomelem: Is Island Ml Mainland Dr Downriver Ur Upriver Ms Musqueam Cw Cowichan Na Nanaimo Kw Kwantlen Ka Katzie 1 9 5 Mats Matsqui K i l g Kilgard C h i l a l l points i n Chilliwack area Cheh Chehalis Le k l Lekemel Two c a p i t a l s , e.g., AG, RB, indicate informants. Data from d i a l e c t s are between commas; languages are between semicolons. Information concerning word analysis i s i n parentheses. More speculative cognates or analyses are i n brackets. indicates that the informant used both forms without d i s t i n c t i o n whereas / indicates that there were variations i n areas but not i n in d i v i d u a l speakers, or there were two words of s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t meaning. 196 alder Is k wilal?aip;Sq k ^ l u V a i Li-TTK k w l u l ' a z ' ; PS-TTK k w - l u l Dr k w'ax wsi-£p Ur xeye'iip ( xaye> 'unripe') ant Is e'ame'iye, Dr,Kw e'amaG'e. Sg caV'c'iyi; gq c'ac'mxcn Ur x^e-sam arrow I Sa s,Dr e'ai'en'.^ ; Sq c'm'a'l? -f c'am'e'n Ur sikwale'.xy ('arrow, gun') axe Is skw'qwam, c h i l , Mats, K i l g k w ,q wam . Cl-TTK sk w'q wam ; NPg sk w ,[s]q wab . Nk-TTK skw'q^am (Ur k w ,q wam 'hatchet') Dr kw'qwaman ; Sq qw'qwamn Ur k w'aq wlactal (to) bark Is wawas; Se wuwum ; Sq su^n Conomatopoeticll Ml, Na A'awals ; So-f X'sw-f i r bark Is s i a q w ' (sp siaq wey i"b a r k Q f anything') Ml s l e y ^ ; Sq slay? bat Is _siap!el^exan' (AG 'sloppy arms*): Sg ialp'ale'xan , Lm-TTK ia4]5alexan Ur p^ip'ae'ale-xal ("squeezing wings'), skw'ikw:?.:alye-xal [ Cx-TTK p'ip'iamax, Wn sap'iy'axan' ] heam Is, Dr sxa^'wiltan ( x?>•£ 'stretch across' -tan ' instrument') cf thwart, weir Ur t'aiawai, t ' p ' a i t i l , s x w t ' l i w i l t i 1 ; NPg t'aiusad 'beam in building' ( t'ai[a] 'crossways') 197 sax wt'ax walik w 'beam (architecture)' ( t'ax wad 'lay hoards on beam') Is, Dr sx M?a '?m3t ( ?amat 'sit up'); (UR sxw,?amat 'sofa, chair, bedroom') Is also sx w?itat Cold word: ( ?xtat 'sleep') (Ur sx w?xtat 'bedroom, hotel') Ur, Kw sx?e'xa9, sxw-?-exes ( ?exa9 ' l i e down') ER la^l'wis (old word- sleeping platform) ; NPg lalwa's Is, Dr ©1, Kw s i or t s i (Ur-BG-A ©l- 'bigi'as'ih\L9x9acas 'big hands' ~cas 'hand', 9&:.axyal 'big feet' ~x*al 'foot') [Cx t i ; Se t i • ] Ur hi-k w ; So. hx Nk-TTK hi? (a)k w ; Lm hayx ; NPg h i k w ~ hiq w, SPg he' k w Is, Dr s q w ' a l i s ; Se sk w'alas ; Sg sq w'ales Ur mima-q" ' l i t t l e bird', Nk mo'oqw Cheh, Scow, Lekm x weylaq* x weyx walaq w ' l i t t l e bird' ma*qw 'big bird, duck' 'big bird' Is lax wtan, Ur lax wti. .1 ( lax" 'cover') Dr A'ax wtan (Ur BG-pc A'ax wte-1 'blanket robe') Is A''*' l i e ' Ml qiyxas ;Sq qxxus Is , Dr skwx9'ac Ka skwx9'ac k we-y Ur k we-y; Nk k wey; Sh skwwey 198 box Is xGam; Sq xcam 'cedar box' Sa-f. xGam Ml Th k w'ax wa(?); Sq k w'ax wa?: c w'ax wa broom Is ?ax wtan, Ur ? a x w t i l ; Sq ?ix w-tn; [Sh ?ix w-le?p]; ( sx wa /?ix"aeat (old word) ; Sg sx w?iax wisat; NPg sa x w , ? i x w i c u t ) Dr q w'e?t9n (AG q w'et 'sweep') be careful Is la?ama0at. reflexive') cf ( lamat 'look' -Gat s ee, look Ml k w'a-k w'acit ( k"'acat 'look') chest Is G'xeman (Ur-BG-A Q'xemal Ml (AL Cx Lm s'l-nas, s ? i * l a s (-i-las sc'minas 'breastbone'); s ? i - i n a s ; Nk-TTK s'xlinwas; s'iyanas; NPg s ? i l i d a g w a s 'sternum, breastbone) 'chest') children Is s^'aliqai ; So sA i i Aqai, CI si.'a'yi^'qi Ml ste?axwa£, ste'-x wai; Sq s-taw'x™* ; Lm ste?uxw4;NP.gstawixwa'?4;Nk-TTK ste / ?ex wa4 choprwood Is, Dr sq'alcap (saq' 'split in half, EL saq'alcip 'split wood', -cap 'wood') NP saq'saq'et Sq saq'nik wup cf tear Ur 'half wood'; e'iq w'alcap (G'iq"' 'punch') coffin Is maqeye; Sg maqeya Dr nawakw,e, snawakw>a'?ela; Sq nawukw,a Ur cf box t w'ax wa 199 coho Is 0E/?wan; Sq caw^in Wa NPg Ml SPg q'etceqs ~ /„ 9e?wan; sq'ecqs; CI q'scqs, Lm q'scqs k w 3X^C?)ae ; Nk-TTK k wux w-ac; s - k w s x w i c ; Tw sk wax wic What colour is it? Is, Dr scak^l^a'las (scakwel'? 'how' -a ?las ' colour') Ur silcimamixy, silcimamixy (AG scakwapa?mixy 'What does i t look like?) crab Is, Ml ? x ; Sq 9ay. ?x ; Lm So icx 3 c i ?a ?cx 'e'ex . • 9 Wa ?9y ?x^'~ messq"; NP^  besqv crow s q'ale'aq'e?; S q q'l'aq'c Cm-K q w'ulaqa? ' raven'J I C (UR-BG-pc 'Brewer's blackbird') Dr, Mats, K i l g spalal, spe'^pal'-al Ur spa-1 (sps'pal'al 'lots of crows') cf raven dark Is CI Ml iec; iac Sq iac; Lm iec, Sg lec, 9e«t; Wk cast deer Is, Dr smaye9; Lu,So,Sa smayes; Th (Ur smiyc 'game , meat' ; smiye0 'me at') Ur A'slqt/ls ( A'^lqt 'long' -i'le 'ears') (Dr,Is • Jt'elqtana 'long ears'); . CTh s^'ule? 'deer'] Kw smeis or t'likt*na 'long ears' 200 Is ?axeim?tan (TH-pc 'i^xeim? C t L p 'dipnetting') ; Sa-f ?ax9im( ?) ten Ms ca ?k wantan Ur q'ama( •)stal, q'aq'ma'stal dream Is sqalqalaGan ; Sq sqal^qal^asan ; NPg qalqalalitut Ms qal?qal?a'ean ~ ?al?aliya (ES h.91) Ml s'aliya ( ?aliye 'dream, have a vision, trance); Sq n ' a l i echo Is tawtaw?elaqap 'tree fungus, echo' Is swala?a'm 'echo' , Ml wilam ?, wilwile-m; Sq swalam eight Is te?cas; Cx-TTK ta^cis ; Se : ta'acis; CI ta'cs Ml tqece?; Sq tq-ac ; Nk-TTK tqeci?; NPg tqaci?, SPg tqace; Tw tqacih f a l l , stumble Is waA'ac', Dr wac'aA' (metathesis) (Ur-BG-pc wac'aA' ' f a l l , drop o f f ) calq, c i l q ; Sq cay-qs-am ' f a l l off, lose balance' fight Is,Drrk wintal; Lm 11 • k w i t a l , CI k w i n a t l Sq k ^ i n t l ; So k wxn- , Sg k w i n t a l ; Ur ? i y a - t a l floor Is ,Dr iaxanaptan, Sq ixanptan; So Sg ixanak wan Ur i a x e l a p t i l ; 4xanaqwn, Sa iaxnak wan, Tait lelawis 201 fog Is spe'x"; Lm spe?xwaro , Sg spe'?xw , CI spa ?x w3n Ml sq w9txyem; Sq NPg sq wsab , SPg sq wesab sqwatsm; RB spe,,?xwem -.. sq wat Xy<3m; Nk-TTK sqwatsem . spe?xwam freeze Is Gimatan Ml piw9tam (Na solid') j, Nk-f Se piwitam cf ice pxp9W9t9m '"becoming pi'w'els 'freezing'; frog Is sxs'e'nxw; Sg sxa'enx" s So sis ?ensx w Ml CLi pipa.m?, pip9ha*m; pipae?£a 'bullfrog' 1 hair Is se?itan; Lu si'etan, So si ?eten , CI si'aien [metathesisH Ml Se Th m e^9n, me-qel; Cx maq9n; maqin ; Nk-TTK , meqin; L i meqin; , . meqin; L i weqxn; PS-TTK maqin hairy giant Is e ' a m 9 q w9s ( sG'am 'bone') i 9'1WS Ml se'sq-ac red huckleberry Is,Dr,Kilg,Mats -ess 'hand'); (PB 'black thimbleberries') Sq sk w'9q w c 9 s sk w'?qwc9s (sk w'9q w- 'hit' (BG-L 'berry ready.in mid-July') Ur s q e l 9 hummingbird Is s x w a t ' c ' 9 l i Ms , Mats^ t i ' n ? ; NPg t" Ka t i ' n ~ sx wet'c'ali teti'ad Ur p'isk'e j Th p'ssk'e 7 202 ice Is sQima7 Ml spiw( ?);Se spiw; Nk spiw island Is sk w9e?; Se s k w a c a ; Cx k wu9ays; Sa sk wca ?s, Lm-TTK skwse'? Ms skw9e?s ~ X'ces Ml *'ce'-s (AL *'ces. 'island off of Oak Bay, Victoria'^So*'ces, Sg A'ces; SPg ^'acas ; Nk-f * ' c — knee Is sq?ewam; Lm sq'e'k^an ' Sg sq'ekwei3, CI sq'iyaV'en Ml sq'ap'a*19atan, SD'apa-19atal (BG-pc q'sp' 'cover over' -©st reflexive- - t a l instrument) knife Is saptan ; Sa sipn, Sg srpan Na saptan ~ ?axtan ('ix 'scrape') iec'tan, i e - c ' t i l - Sq iac'tn-Ml Se iac'tan know Is statalstax w Ml iaq'alax" (BG-A q'al 'believe') lamp, light Is hay^q^'n? Kw hayukwen, ER h i ? q w i a l 5 Ms hay'q"!,^ ( y s V I f i r e ' ) ; Sq hi?q wi*n RB sxwi'?qwi-n'? Ur yaq wf*-l ; Sg ci?iq wsn lantern, torch, Is skwansan, sk wanstan flashlight Dr sk wanxyan 5 Kw skwanxyen Ur CNPg sle-xat, s l e - x t i l (laxawa 'torchlight') laxsad 'lamp': 203 lazy Is s'em'met Ml s'u-mit / ?xc'sl Se s?u'?umat low tide Is , Dr cek wcek w; Se £uk w te S'IWUC 1far-the-water 1 Na sem'sem?; Sq sam 'low tide, be i n shallow water, stick up out of the water': So sesm7 Ur 9'em 'the water has gone down' (also I maple Cw c'aie4p- So-f c'le?e4c, Sa 9'aieip; NPg c'u ?iac Is, Dr q'emeniip, Ur q'amu'jip, q'emeleip; Th q'am'neip ; Sq q'mlay? medicine Is siexen (AG ie'xent 'medicate i t ' ) Ml, Na st'e'lmex™ (AG t'elmex wt 'medicate i t ' ) ; CI stelnex"; NPg s t ' e l j i x " moon, month Is, Dr iqe'lc' Ur iqs'lc' / skw'xya-s ( kw'xye'-m 'count -a*s 'face, round object'); Sq iqalc' ; Nk 'iqaelc' ; Lm iqe'lc', So CI iq'ecs ~ iqeic', iqayc Sg iqelc', name Is Lm Sg NPg Cx Ml CSh sne ( ne'tam 'to be named'); sne, So>'.-ne- 'to name',Sa sne ?, ne ? 'to be named', CI sna; da?[a], SPg da> • nan; Sq na-n sk wixy , s-k west ] Na s W s ; Se s W s ; 204 long Oregon grape Is, Dr ialac'eip CAG ielec'ales 'yellow' Oregon grape berries source of dyeH Ur 6'uie'iyiip pass out, faint Is majt'e'l (RB ma?? 'see a s p i r i t ' ) So-f ma)! 'to take revenge' (AG matfeGat 'to take revenge' Ml melq'iwsam 'forget oneself (BG-A malq 'forget' -i'ws 'in the body' -am middle-passive) pregnant Is (NP CSg Ml CAG x^'al'im? (k w'el-e 'stomach, b e l l y 1 ) k w'ek w'ele-m 'Your stomach's getting big') ?esk w ,ay 1 syam^am?, syi'myim syam'tan 'belt'3 girl's puberty Is x we£es; Ml eaGix"; Sq ceciV raccoon sxeyakw'as ; xa?xalus ( xal 'mark, write 1); Is NPg (So-f xay- ; 'to write ') Ml males, melis; Sq melalus deer-hoof rattle Is, Dr, some Ur as borrowing kwecmin Sg kwecamin Ur k wax wmal (deer, hoof, rattle') (is skwamen 'deer hooves') / sk we-t'exls, sq wetx wels raven Is, Dr, K i l g , Mats Ur spa*l ? Sq sqewq cf crow sqiweqs, sqaq waq w, sk wawels; NPg kaw'qs, SBg q waq w 205 really (intensifier) Is fc'slim7 Ml c'e'c'an, c'e'c'al ("both also mean 'right, straight') rock Is sme'*nt Ml sme-nt, sme'lt; Sq smant ; Lu sneent, So snenat, Sg sqenalj, c i snanat N a sme*nt ~ Jc'a'c's; Nk-TTK c'aVa ; u p g c'fc'a?, SPg c'.,e*'a ; Li-TTK k'aVe ; PS-TTK ktoav'a (metathesis) rope of cedar Is, Dr sy s <3 3 m 'rope made from inner cedar hark' Ur s t i l a w i l 'rope made by twisting branches of cedar tree' sand Is p'q^ecan?; Sg p/Wcan, CI pqwacan', Lm pqwscan? CSq q wpilcn (metathesis): Ml syic'am seagull Is q wani [Nk qene : Nootka q „ i n i Dr, Kilg.^Mats, Chil q w'alitaq ; Sq q w * i ' t q ; Nootka q w i t q Ur sliliwye ^ L i lselujag s e e> l G o k Is, Na lamnax" » s e e» ^ i e ' m e t , l o o k , SPg lab 'see' i ^ L u lenet 'look' Ml Na ik^a'cnax", k w ,a'clax w t a e e i k w'acat, k w'acat i l o o k i s kw'a'cnax" ,'see. N k-TTK k w'ec 'look' sink (it) Is, Dr ^'pilastax" ( * ' p i l 'below') (:PB A'pilastax" 'lowering i t down') Ur mi-q'at (AG miq'ast ' p U s h him down into the water by force, dunk him') 206 skunk Is, Dr, Kw spap9'in; Sa-TTK spapac'in?, Tim smamac'an., CI smamac'an7; Sq smac;,' in?, smraac 'in? Ur s9'apag; Nk-TTK sc'apaq; Sh sc'ipaq ( ~ splant ) smoke Is s^ ayaq'am Ml sp'a'^ 'am (is 'cigarette, tobacco'); sp'uVam, Lm sp'a^'an, Sa spaVsn smokeshed (for drying fish) Is, Dr q ' i l e V t x " ( sq'i'la 'dried fish') Ur ce•itilawtx™ spider Is, Dr qatqatcala Ur, Kw q'e'sq'escil (BG-L q'eys-et 'tie something') (sx^'aya'asacal 'neeting shuttle') Sq q aq ascxn sprain leg Is qw9y'?san 'twist knee or ankle' Ms q wayaxym Ml p'iaq' wxyan, p ' 4 a q w ' x w i l (AG p'iaq wsan 'sprain knee or ankle (less Sq p'alq^lsn seriously) squirrel-spring salmon Is c'apsiy ?a9an CPB c ' i c ' p i y a 9 a l 'rodent that carries food in cheeks:: chipmunk, squirrel, marmot, pocket golpher'D Dr, Kilg, Cheh sk waye (NP name in stories) ; Nk-TTK sk waya ? ; SPg skajo; PS-TTK sk wayu(h) Ur s q w ' a 9 a i , sk w'a9'ai ; NPg sq w'aci 8'chipmunk' Is, Dr s 9 ' a q w i ? (Ur, Kw s9'aq wi 's almon, gen.) Ur A' / l x y i l ( fc'eix 'spotted' - x y i l 'foot, t a i l ' ) pa*q w' ' f a l l spring on Chehalis and Harrison r i v e r s 1 207 sk"axam 'silver spring salmon, runs in winter' s6;^ala-4 'spring salmon which runs i n 'Chehalis Creek in May'"1 (EL) p'qis 'early white spring' (CT) steelhead Is sxax'q'am Ml qe'wx ; Sq sqiw'x stingy [no Ms formD Is x w*'i? ( fc'i? 'desire, want') Ml s k w ' i k w ' i y stump sun Is s ?alnac, Dr, Mats,J>Kilg s^alac ( -nac, -lac 'stump') Ur sq'xep Is sam ?sa6at; CI sRiU^act Ml syaqwam; Se syayaq" swell Is p'a-m (Ml 'bread r i s i n g ' ) ; Sa pum?, Lm p'apa'aq , Sg p'a-n: Nk pohomtam Ml cxwatam: Sa cxwatm; Nk-TTK cx"atam ; CSPg sax" 1 tear (it) Is, Dr sq'et (sad;' 'half') Ur x"t'et Scotch thistle. Is, Dr xawxawiniip Ur e'aG'aq"'(iip) ( e.'>aqw' 'poke') tools Cw sq"ay-xcam , KI, Na, Chil, Ur sx wyayis ( yayas 'work'); NPg sax".uyayus 'what you work with' Ms, Ka ?ewkw'man 'engine, tool' 208 tree frog Is ,Dr,Kilg,Matswexes, waxes; So w.exei 'frog', waxes 'March frog' Ur wilik'; [NPg welis, waq'waq'J warm Is Sg Ml Cx k w'elas ; k w'ak w'as k w'as Lm k^e'les, CI k w'a ?us ( 'hot' or 'warm') Se ' q w'as; Sq k w'a-i? waterfall [no forms for Ms, K a n Is Ml [Sq s k w e l sk wec Qe-txam 'high f a l l s ' s m a l l f a l l s ' s caxwm 1 'falls s k w i k w e l 'small waterfall' weir Is, Dr sxeX' (xeA' 'stretch across') cf beam, thwart Ur c ' l a q t i l , sc'iaq ; Sq c laq window, mirror HI Sq Sg sk w*ecasten, sk v"aca ,stil ; k w ,q*eustn; So sx"kw'enasn sk w'anasar ; Th nkw'en'-us-tn' Cw sx wal?masten ? 

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