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Dialect survey of Halkomelem Salish Gerdts, Donna B. 1977

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A DIALECT SURVEY OP HALKOMELEM SALISH by DONNA B. GERDTS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of Missouri,  1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  The UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September,  1977  DONNA B. GERDTS,  1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I  further  for  of  this  freely  available  of  the  requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying o f  this  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  representatives. thesis for  Department of  It  financial  i s understood that gain s h a l l  Linguistics '  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  te  for  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  written permission.  D a  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  s h a l l make it  scholarly  by h i s  in p a r t i a l  19 Sept.. 1977  Columbia  not  copying or  publication  be allowed without my  i  Abstract Halkomelem i s the language spoken by the S a l i s h of  B r i t i s h Columbia whose t e r r i t o r y  Indians  s t r e t c h e s from Nanoose  to Malahat on Vancouver I s l a n d , from Tsawwassen n o r t h t o Vancouver on the mainland, and from Vancouver 1 0 5 m i l e s up the F r a s e r R i v e r t o a p o i n t n o r t h of Y a l e . such g e o g r a p h i c a l l i m i t s ,  A language with  even i f i t s speakers i n t e r a c t e d  f r e q u e n t l y , would be expected  to have r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  Elmendorf and S u t t l e s (I960) e l i c i t e d over 600 items at  three l o c a t i o n s i n the Halkomelem a r e a .  T h e i r data from  Cowichan, Musqueam, and C h i l l i w a c k show that there a r e phonol o g i c a l , m o r p h o l o g i c a l , and l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n Halkomelem.  The present study focuses on l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  A list  of 1 5 0 vocabulary  items showing l e x i c a l  differ-  e n t i a t i o n was e l i c i t e d a t twenty-one l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the area  (Appendix A and B).  dialect  These data a r e analyzed to d e l i m i t  and s u b - d i a l e c t areas w i t h i n Halkomelem.  The data  a r e a l s o analyzed with r e f e r e n c e t o cognates i n other  Salish  languages to suggest  change.  processes i n v o l v e d i n vocabulary  T h i s paper i s organized as f o l l o w s : Chapter  1 p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the sub-  grouping of S a l i s h languages and d e l i n e a t e s the p o l i t i c a l u n i t s w i t h i n the Halkomelem a r e a . Chapter  2 e x p l a i n s the t r a n s c r i p t i o n used f o r the  present data, with some comment on d i a l e c t a l  variation i n  ia  phonological  features.  C h a p t e r 3 e x p l a i n s t h e o r i g i n o f t h e 150 employed i n t h i s s t u d y .  Evidence i s presented to support  t h e d i v i s i o n o f Halkomelem  into three d i a l e c t areas:  I s l a n d , D o w n r i v e r , and U p r i v e r . divided into  word-list  These d i a l e c t s a r e f u r t h e r  sub-dialects.  C h a p t e r k examines t h e Halkomelem d a t a w i t h r e f e r e n c e to other S a l i s h languages  t o suggest t h r e e processes i n -  v o l v e d i n v o c a b u l a r y change:  borrowing, d e r i v a t i o n of d i f -  f e r e n t words f r o m d i f f e r e n t b u t s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d and l e x i c a l replacement w i t h c o n c u r r e n t semantic  roots,  shifting.  ii  Acknowledgement s I of  thank  their  the  time  and knowledge;  would have been Brent  Galloway,  sources  Straits  and  Lisa  Stenger  year  of the  so  you  generously this  gave  paper  Hukari, shared  Wayne their  Suttles, knowledge  on Halkomelem. made a v a i l a b l e gave  his  extensive  access  to  her  data  on  files  of  Nooksack. go  Finally,  for  Davis  and Barbara E f r a t  Thanks  without  Thomas E .  and P h i l  Bon Beaumont Sechelt  who  impossible.  Adrian Leslie, and  Halkomelem people  to  a r o a r i n g round of who  fieldwork maps.  Bichard Parent  shared  the  for  applause  trials  and w r i t i n g .  use  of to  his  Volkswagen.  Yvonne  and  and t r i b u l a t i o n s of  Especiaiitthanks to  Lisa  this  iii  Table of Contents Chapter  1  L i n g u i s t i c and Geographic  Chapter 2  Halkomelem  Phonology  Chapter 3  The D i a l e c t  Project  3.1  The Word L i s t  3.2  The D i a l e c t  Setting  Areas  Chapter k-  The Processes of L e x i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  Chapter 5  Conclusion  BibliographyAppendix A  The  Informants  Appendix B  The  Data  Appendix C  S a l i s h Cognates  iv  L i s t of Tables  Table I  Halkomelem Bands and Populations  Table I I  Consonant Phonemes Common to A l l Halkomelem Dialects p. 1 1  Table I I I  Cognates shared with other Salish Languages  Table IV  ".  ,  continued  p. 3  p. 28  1 1.  The L i n g u i s t i c and Geographic  Setting  Halkomelem i s a member o f the S a l i s h language  family  which i n c l u d e s languages o f southern B r i t i s h Columbia and the northwest  United States.  Thompson and Kinkade  (p.c.)  have proposed the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r S a l i s h : 1  Proto-Salish  Central Salish  Tillamook  Tsamosan ;  Interior Salish  Bella Coola  The C e n t r a l branch of S a l i s h , to which Halkomelem belongs, i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g  languages : 2  Cbmox Sechelt Pentlatch Squamish Halkomelem Straits3 /, Northern S t r a i t s Songish Sooke Saanich Lummi Clallam Nooksack Puget Salish-' Northern Puget Southern Puget  Salish Salish  Twana The t e r r i t o r y a s s o c i a t e d with the Halkomelem i s bounded  2  t o the south and north by speakers guages.  The  rugged country  of C e n t r a l S a l i s h  to the n o r t h e a s t  t a c t between the Halkomelem and  speakers  lan-  l i m i t e d the con-  of L i l l o o e t  Thompson, which are I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Languages.  The  and Fraser  R i v e r i s not n a v i g a b l e through the canyon which extends from a p o i n t below Spuzzum to the j u n c t i o n of the F r a s e r with Thompson R i v e r .  the  There are s e v e r a l f o o t p a t h s through the  mountains around the canyon which were used s e a s o n a l l y . A mountain range extending down the c e n t r e of Vancouver I s l a n d separates  the Halkomelem from t h e i r Nootkan  neighbors.  Nootka i s a Wakashan language u n r e l a t e d to S a l i s h .  The Waka-  shan and  S a l i s h people had  some amount of contact v i a the  sea.  In modern times, f o r example, Halkomelem o c c a s i o n a l l y f i s h the waters of Barkley Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The  Halkomelem l i v e p r i m a r i l y on r e s e r v e s s c a t t e r e d  along the r i v e r s and  l a k e s throughout t h e i r t e r r i t o r y .  The  b a s i c p o l i t i c a l u n i t i s the band, which w i l l o f t e n c o n t r o l more than one affinal ties.  reserve.  Bands i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y bear c l o s e  For the purpose of t h i s study,  informants  were chosen a c c o r d i n g to the l o c a t i o n of the band with which they were a s s o c i a t e d as Duff  (1964, pp. 25-8)  lists  t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n as of 1 9 6 3 . ^ i n Table  I.  children. the bands of Halkomelem  This information i s given  and  3  Nanaimo Nanoose Chemainus H a l a l t (Westholme) Lyacksun (Westholme) Penelakut Cowichan Lake Cowichan Malahat  56 302 77  Tsawwassen Musqueam Langley Coquitlam Katzie  24  153  Matsqui Sumas-Kilgard Sumas-Lakahahmen Aitchelitz Kwawkwawap i 1 1 Skulkayn Skwah Skway Soowahlie Squiala Yakweakwioose Tzeachten Scowlitz Chehalis Cheam Popkum Peters Ohamil Skawahlook Hope Yale Union Bar Seabird Island Table,!.  456 70 366 95 77 326 4 1,228 89  38 71 95 6 8  41 164  37 110 36 31 106 106 325 123 8 31 46  27 116 61  41 243  Halkomelem Bands and P o p u l a t i o n s  4 Indians on the Nanoose Reserve,  near L a n t z v i l l e ,  B.C.,  c l a i m t o speak i d e n t i c a l l y with the people of Nanaimo.  An  i n t e r v i e w with Len Edwards of Nanoose v e r i f i e d t h i s c l a i m . Although at  there are probably no Halkomelem speakers  remaining  Qualicum Beach, an area once i n h a b i t e d by the P e n t l a t c h  and now  settled  by Halkomelem, A l f r e d  Louie,of S h e l l  Beach,  c o u l d r e c a l l some words used by h i s grandmother's people, who  were from  Qualicum Beach.  In a l l cases, these are  i d e n t i c a l with the data e l i c i t e d a t Nanaimo. The Nanaimo band l i v e s a l o n g Nanaimo harbour and the Nanaimo R i v e r as f a r south as Cedar, B.C.  along  .This i s the  most populous band i n the n o r t h of the Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y on Vancouver I s l a n d . The  Indians of S h e l l  Ladysmith,  B.C.,  but are now  Beach, on the p e n i n s u l a east of  were f o r m e r l y c a l l e d the Kumalockasum Band  p a r t of the Chemairius Band.  gested t h a t Halkomelem as spoken a t S h e l l different  Alfred  Louie  sug-  Beach i s s l i g h t l y  from t h a t spoken at Westholme, the l a t t e r being  more l i k e the language a t Cowichan. The Penelakut band i n c l u d e s the Indians o f Kuper I s l a n d , many of whom are f l u e n t who  speakers of Halkomelem.  A r n o l d Guerin,  l e a r n e d Halkomelem while a t t e n d i n g school;-at Kuper I s l a n d ,  served as the informant f o r the f i e l d methods c l a s s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the 1975-6 s c h o o l year. The 1888  Cowichan band i s the r e s u l t  of an amalgamation i n  of the Somenos, Quamichan, Comiaken, C l e m c l e a l u t s ,  K o k s i l a h , Kenipsen,  and K i l p a u l u s bands.  There i s much  5 i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of these groups which l i v e a l o n g the c h a n and ly  K o k s i l a h R i v e r s and  a t C o w i c h a n Bay.  There i s probab-  a h o m o g e n e i t y o f s p e e c h amongst t h e s e g r o u p s ,  especially  where l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . many g o o d s p e a k e r s  Cowi-  There  are  o f Halkomelem i n t h e Duncan a r e a .  The  y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , h a v e n o t a c q u i r e d more  than  a few  basic vocabulary Data from Malahat,  items. the southernmost Halkomelem g r o u p  but a c t u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of the Saanich represented and  i n t h i s study.  t h e S a a n i c h , who  i s an i m p o r t a n t  I n t e r a c t i o n between the  spoke a d i a l e c t of N o r t h e r n  Cowichan  Straits,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n when s u g g e s t i n g , a s t h i s  does, the p o s s i b i l i t y of borrowing A Tsawwassen speaker  was  not  between these found  i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t t h e r e a r e no speakers  band, i s not  a t Tsawwassen, a l t h o u g h  for this remaining  t h i s has  study  groups. study.  It  Halkomelem  not been e x h a u s t i v e -  investigated. There a r e 7 or 8 f l u e n t  speakers  o f H a l k o m e l e m a t Mus-  queam, t h e most p o p u l o u s o f t h e r e s e r v e s on t h e  mainland.  F o r t h i s s t u d y , Musqueam d a t a f r o m E l m e n d o r f and  Suttles  ( i 9 6 0 ) were u s e d and list  and  i t e m number f r o m t h a t s o u r c e .  i n that l i s t  were e l i c i t e d  According he a n d  a r e marked i n the a p p e n d i x e s w i t h  t o my  h i s aunt,  from A r n o l d  Data not  available  Guerin.  Katzie informant, Richard  M a r g a r e t James o f B a r n s t o n  o n l y Halkomelem speakers  the  from t h a t band.  Bailey,  I s l a n d , are  The  the  K a t z i e have  6 c l o s e t i e s w i t h t h e Musqueam b u t a r e a l s o i n c o n t a c t w i t h Upriver  bands.  No H a l k o m e l e m s p e a k e r s c o u l d be l o c a t e d f r o m t h e L a n g l e y band.  Hill-Tout  (1903) p u b l i s h e d a w o r d l i s t  and  brief  g r a m m a t i c a l s k e t c h o f Kwantlen as spoken a t P o r t L a n g l e y . Data from t h i s been l e f t  s o u r c e have been r e f e r r e d t o h e r e and  i n the o r i g i n a l  There a r e r e l a t i v e l y  orthography. few  ( p r o b a b l y 4 o r 5)  Halkomelem  s p e a k e r s from the M a t s q u i and K i l g a r d r e s e r v e s n e a r f o r d , B.C.  o f the p r o x i m i t y o f t h e s e bands t o an  i s o g l o s s b u n d l e which s e p a r a t e s U p r i v e r and Halkomelem.  Downriver  The p e o p l e f r o m t h e M a t s q u i - S u m a s a r e a w e r e  in  f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t w i t h the Nooksack  to  the south a c r o s s the U n i t e d States-Canada border.  who  live  twenty m i l e s  b a n d t h a t D u f f l i s t s a s Sumas-Lakahahmen a r e t h e  I n d i a n s l i v i n g on N i c o m e n I s l a n d i n t h e v i c i n i t y B.C.  T h e r e a r e o n l y two  area. the 1952,  s o u r c e o f Halkomelem: p.  of  Deroche,  s p e a k e r s o f Halkomelem from  The u p r i v e r f o r m o f N i c o m e n — L e k e m e l — i s  The  Abbots-  These d a t a a r e o f i n t e r e s t , as a r e d a t a from  Kwantlen, because  The  have  supposedly  the language of Lekemel.  (Duff,  22) bands i n t h e C h i l l i w a c k v i c i n i t y  (Aitchelitz,  K w a w k w a w a p i l t , S k u l k a y n , Skwah, Skway, S o o w a h l i e , Yakweakwioose, show l i t t l e  Squiala,  and T z e a c h t e n ) a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d  d i f f e r e n c e i n language.  D a t a were e l i c i t e d  Soowahlie, near C u l t u s Lake, which i s the southernmost the  this  bands;  Aitchelitz,  and at of  t h e e a s t e r n m o s t ; Skwah, a l s o known  7  as  t h e W e l l i n g t o n R e s e r v e , w h i c h i s t h e most  i n C h i l l i w a c k ; and reserve  populated  T z e a c h t e n , w h i c h i s t h e most  populated  i n Sardis.  There a r e probably  s e v e r a l s p e a k e r s ofp H a l k o m e l e m  the S c o w l i t z Reserve, which i s near H a r r i s o n M i l l s , A s m a l l g r o u p o f h o u s e s on  the west s i d e of the  R i v e r i s a l s o known as S c o w l i t z . t o as H a r r i s o n M i l l s i n the The u  Harrison  This area w i l l  be r e f e r r e d  data.  a reserve  l o c a t e d where  C h e h a l i s R i v e r runs i n t o the H a r r i s o n R i v e r .  Cheam band l i v e s on t h e s o u t h  are reserve.  s i d e of the  R i v e r i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f R o s e d a l e , B.C.  the  the  There  s e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t s p e a k e r s of Halkomelem from t h i s The  B.C.  C h e h a l i s B a n d , w h i c h i s t h e most p o p u l o u s o f  p p e r S t a l o bands, occupies  on  Fraser  There are a  couple  o f g o o d s p e a k e r s o f H a l k o m e l e m f r o m Cheam. The  Upriver people,  often r e f e r r e d to c o l l e c t i v e l y  the T a i t , are c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d .  D a t a were c o l l e c t e d  from three p o i n t w i t h i n the T a i t area: B.C.;  American Bar,  2 m i l e s above U n i o n Bar  the  Union Bar,  reserve,  on  and  t h e w e s t bank  of  river. T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two  Halkomelem s p e a k e r s from  r e s e r v e a t Y a l e , M a g g i e Emery and b i l i n g u a l H a l k o m e l e m and Unfortunately, this  the Ohamil  2 m i l e s a b o v e Hope;  near Laidlaw,  as  survey.  Mary P e t e r s , who  Thompson b u t know l i t t l e  n e i t h e r c o u l d be  the  are English.  approached f o r data  for  8  The T a i t p e o p l e h a v e c o l l e c t i v e l y I s l a n d o u t s i d e o f A g a s s i z , B.C. t h i s reserve before  settled  Seabird  There were i n h a b i t a n t s on  resettlement; the data e l i c i t e d  L i z z i e Johnson perhaps r e f l e c t  from  t h e i r speech.  The U p r i v e r H a l k o m e l e m , e s p e c i a l l y t h e T a i t , o c c a s i o n a l l y married  amongst  the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h .  The C h e h a l i s band  i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e L i l l o o e t and o c c a s i o n a l l y m a r r i e d those  people.  were  among  9 Footnotes f o r Chapter 1 ^ P r e v i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f S a l i s h , e . g . Swadesh (1952), d i v i d e d S a l i s h i n t o f o u r b r a n c h e s : B e l l a Coola, I n t e r i o r S a l i s h , T i l l a m o o k , and Coast S a l i s h . Thompson and Kinkade have s i n c e p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e Olympic languages (Tsamosan), p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d a s Coast S a l i s h , branched a t a n e a r l i e r t i m e . They now e m p l o y C o a s t S a l i s h a s a c o v e r t e r m f o r T i l l a m o o k , C e n t r a l S a l i s h , a n d Tsamosan. S w a d e s h (1952), o n t h e b a s i s o f l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a proposed a North Georgia Branch: Comox, S e c h e l t , P e n t l a t c h ; a South G e o r g i a Branch: Squamish, Halkomelem, S t r a i t s , N o o k s a c k ; a P u g e t Sound B r a n c h ; a n d a Hood C a n a l B r a n c h : Twana. 2  3suttles (1959) a p p r o p r i a t e l y s u g g e s t s S t r a i t s a s a c o v e r t e r m f o r C l a l l a m , Lumrai, S o o k e , S a a n i c h , S o n g i s h , a n d Samish. ^Thompson, Thompson, a n d E f r a t (1974) s u g g e s t t h a t , due to p h o n o l o g i c a l and grammatical f e a t u r e s which separate C l a l l a m from t h e other d i a l e c t s , a l l t h e d i a l e c t s e x c l u d i n g C l a l l a m s h o u l d be c o l l e c t i v e l y l a b e l l e d N o r t h e r n S t r a i t s . ''Hess (1966) s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l l t h e d i a l e c t s s u r r o u n d i n g P u g e t Sound be r e f e r r e d t o a s P u g e t S a l i s h . In his dictionary o f t h e l a n g u a g e (1976), h o w e v e r , he s e p a r a t e s t h e a r e a i n t o two m a j o r d i a l e c t d i v i s i o n s , N o r t h e r n P u g e t S a l i s h ( i n c l u d i n g S k a g i t and Snohomish) and S o u t h e r n Puget S a l i s h ( i n c l u d i n g Duwamishv- S h u q u a l m i e , M u c k l e s h o o t , P u y a l l u p , . ' ' N i s q u a l l y , a n d Suquamish). T h i s s e p a r a t i o n i s based on p h o n o l o g i c a l and l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n f l o r a and fauna v o c a b u l a r y and i n a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f ' b a s i c ' v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s . r  ^These p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s a r e i n a c c u r a t e , o f c o u r s e , f o r 1977. F o r e x a m p l e , K w a w k w a w a p i l t , i n t h e C h i l l i w a c k a r e a , a p p e a r s t o be u s e d o n l y f o r f a r m i n g . Y a k w e a k w i o o s e i s s e t t l e ^ b y one f a m i l y , F r a n k M a l l o w a y . E x a c t l o c a t i o n a n d name o f t h e r e s e r v e s on C h i l l i w a c k L a n d i n g were h a r d t o a s c e r t a i n .  10 2.  Halkomelem Phonology There i s a set of consonant sounds that e x i s t  throughout  Halkomelem that have been t r a n s c r i b e d i n these data as g i v e n i n Table I I .  A d d i t i o n a l symbols are needed to r e p r e s e n t  1  consonants which d i f f e r i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n w i t h i n Halkomelem. Vancouver I s l a n d Halkomelem uses / s / where Halkomelem uses /x /. y  Mainland  and I s l a n d d i a l e c t s have  as an a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t of / s / before / x / .  The  w  [sx ]  i s a common n o m i n a l i z e r .  w  l o a n s from E n g l i s h , e.g.  Item 54.  In a p a r a l l e l process interchange / e,e', c, c'  Mainland  prefix  / s / a l s o e x i s t s i n some /ia'spai / SHOVEL.  , U p r i v e r speakers f r e q u e n t l y /  with  [s, c',c, £']  .  Some  environment f o r t h i s process are g i v e n by Galloway  (1977,  pp. 5 - 8 ) ,  depend  but i t i s l a r g e l y u n p r e d i c a t a b l e and may  upon d i a l e c t area, n e e e s s i t a t i o n both / c / and /£/ i n the transcriptions.  The  I s l a n d d i a l e c t s have very few  instances  o f / c / ; / c/, second person person pronoun (Musqueam, / c x / ) , w  and Item 101.RUM  are two major examples.  U p r i v e r Halkomelem has an i n t e r e s t i n g merger of and /n/ to / l / ( i 9 6 0 , p. 5)  in a l l positions.  /l/  Elmendorf and S u t t l e s  propose an i s o g l o s s i n the Matsqui-Whonnock area  for this feature.  The present data agree.  K a t z i e has  /n/  i n a l l i n s t a n c e s of Musqueam /n/, as d i d the Kwantlen data of H i l l - T o u t  (1903).  i n her speech. t h i s survey:  The  Matsqui  informant g e n e r a l l y had  /!/  However, she d i d have /n/ i n f o u r word's i n 6.  MINK, 17.  HUMMINGBIRD, and 123.  SMALL (2  forms).  11  CD N  rH  CO  •H Xi  rH  H  •P  co  1 •H ,Q  voiceless  stop stop  p  rH  rH  O  JH  -P  >  -P  rH  CO  rH  CD  CD  rH  >  t  voiceless glottalized affricate  e' »  voiceless fricative  e  Table  II.  cO  •rH r-H  CO  0  -H rH  CO  CO  CO CO  CO - H rH X I  CO Ou  > rH  (k) k  f-  rH  w q  *  k q'q w,  v  c  c  m  s  j,»  ± l  x v  w  w  C o n s o n a n t Phonemes Common t o a l l Halkomelem  Dialects  CO CD bO  rH  3  q  rH  rH - H 3 ,Q  > CO  CD CO  »  ,.  resonants  CD  t  voiceless affricate  voiced  cO  rH  CO  p  voiceless glottalized  co  CD N  x x*  00  12 She  rejected / l /  i n these  items.  T h i s may  i n f l u e n c e of Nooksack upon the speaker. c o n s i s t e n t l y used / l / ,  be due  to  the  The K i l g a r d speaker  as d i d the Nicomen  informant.  A second p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e which d i v i d e s U p r i v e r from Downriver Halkomelem i s the d e f e c t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n of g l o t t a l stop.  U p r i v e r d i a l e c t s s u b s t i t u t e vowel l e n g t h  f o r g l o t t a l stop. Dr  For example:" sk aye?  Ur  w  k '£ x w  Elmendorf and  ?  k aye-  'squirrel'  w  s  k  w  w ,  i-x  'pitch'  w  S u t t l e s (I960, p. 8) presume that cases  vowel l e n g t h i n C h i l l i w a c k that are not represented g l o t t a l stop i n other d i a l e c t s are extensions  of  by  of t h i s  rule.  F o r example: D  r  s'aeaa.  U  s?a'-9as  r  lapen  '  lape'-l  f  a  C  e  '  ' shovel  O c c a s i o n a l l y vowels around a g l o t t a l stop are c o n t r a c t e d a l o n g vowel.  to  For example: Dr  spe^ee  Ur  ma'?aq  spe-e  'black  ma'-q.  w  of l o n g vowels i n the Downriver and  of Halkomelem. Dr  bear'  'duck, b i r d '  w  The phonemic s t a t u s of l e n g t h i s f u r t h e r complicated occurrences  1  by  Island d i a l e c t s  For example: ho-n  p'a-m  ?  ,is  hu-n?  'humpback  p'a-m  salmon 'Swell'  U p r i v e r d i a l e c t s l o s e s y l l a b l e - f i n a l g l o t t a l stops,  1  particularly  13 those which Is  spai  Dr  tqece?  It and  occur a f t e r a resonant. 'raven'  ?  Ur  K i l g a r d d a t a sometimes agree  for glottal  tqe-ce  'eight'  with the Upriver data i n  stop and the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f vowel l e n g t h  I t e m s 3 . , 8., 1 1 . ,  13.,  16.,  17.,  stop.  19., 22.,  3 5 . , 36. The  vowels present  somewhat more d i f f i c u l t y  an a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s c r i p t i o n (i960,  system.  i ndevising  Elmendorf and S u t t l e s  p . 4) a n a l y z e d t h e v o w e l phonemes o f H a l k o m e l e m a s  i , u, a, e, a  /•  They p o s i t  these a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n s :  / /  i s f r e q u e n t l y heard as [ ]  and  a s [u]  s  'crow'  s t o p , t h e d a t a more o f t e n r e t a i n g l o t t a l  F o r example:  /  pa-i  S  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t although the Matsqui  the l o s s o f g l o t t a l  25.,  Ur  F o r example:  before o r a f t e r /y/ o r / y /  x  before a l a b i a l i z e d  open, w i t h a g l i d e , , uvulars.  x  consonant;  / i / i s lowered,  before ^uvulars o r l a b i a l i z e d  Examples o f these processes  i n the data a r e : ' broom  /•?,BX t-11/  [yak ',uja]  /yak*" am/  ' smash'  [mimuq ]  /mimaq /  •bird'  [?1"-9X]  /'l'X/  w  w  w  w  w  1  These c a s a w i l l Galloway  1  [?UX tll]  be t r a n s c r i b e d  scratch'  with  (1977, p . 19) s t a t e s t h a t / a / becomes  [*]  i n a l l e g r o speech i n n o n - s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n s i n U p r i v e r H a l komelem.  This rule  seems t o a p p l y t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e i n  o t h e r d i a l e c t s o f Halkomelem  b u t , because i t s s t a t u s i s  14 unclear, this  s o u n d i s t r a n s c r i b e d a s [ i ] ^.  The  origin  of t h i s f e a t u r e i s perhaps a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the ing allophonic  follow-  rule.  E l m e n d o r f and S u t t l e s  (I960, p. 19)  note that  phonolo-  g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n s o n a n t s i n U p r i v e r Halkomelem a r e accompanied  by a l l o p h o n i c  are lowered (r f u r t h e r back / • ! _ „ /  v a r i a t i o n i n the vowels: / i  ] ). / / s  e >  D  ( [o]  )  i s h i g h e r ({•*]') , a n d /a/ :  n e a r [s, c', c, c'j;]  f o r t h e s e sounds.  .  They  p o s i t i o n s a n d [e] stressed situation.  [e]  unstressed. and u n s t r e s s e d  Both w i l l  is  [&]  u  /  transcribed A/  i n o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t s o c c u r s i n U p r i v e r Halkomelem. e  G j  is  However, v a r i a t i o n o f  (1977, pp. 14-18) s t a t e s t h a t / /  ?  i n most  Galloway stressed  There a r e r a r e c a s e s of [as]  to c o m p l i c a t e the  be t r a n s c r i b e d a s s u c h i n t h e s e d a t a ,  E l m e n d o r f and S u t t l e s p h o n e m i c i z e a s i n g l e h i g h b a c k vowel which they r e l a t e (1977, p. 24)  t o t h e d i p t h o n g /aw  /.  Galloway  p r e f e r s t o p h o n e m i c i z e w i t h / u / and /o/,  o f w h i c h a r e r a r e i n U p r i v e r b u t w h i c h seem t o v a r y c a l l y . • I n t h e s e d a t a , I t e m s 27 and 31  show t h i s  both  dialecti-  variation.  I s l a n d h a s / u / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o some c a s e s o f S o w n r i v e r ( e . g . , I t e m 22.),  further necessitating transcription  / u / a n d / o / i n t h e s e data.'*  of  /o/  15 Footnotes f o r Chapter 2 ^ I s l a n d / s , c , c ' / a r e made f u r t h e r b a c k o n t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e , s o m e t i m e s s o u n d i n g more l i k e / s, 6, c' /. The u v u l a r s t o p s i n U p r i v e r H a l k o m e l e m a r e r e l e a s e d , w i t h more f r i c a t i o n . E l m e n d o r f a n d S u t t l e s ( I 9 6 0 , p. 6) p o s i t a s e r i e s o f f i v e changes t o account f o r d i a l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r i c a t i v e s and a f f r i c a t e s : c >r; c .> S' > c' > s •>"• s > k > k' > x >  c c' s  ky > c ky' > c xy > xy  > > > > > >  e e' s c c' xy  > > > > > >  e e' s c c' s  I n these d a t a there a r e examples o f / e / 69, 128.  43,  /s/:  The a c t u a l p h o n e t i c v a l u e o f / / a n d [*] lower, i.e.,[/,jj. a n d [ s] . s  ly  ~  Item 56.  Items 21, may be  shows a n a l t e r n a t i o n o f / i / a n d / u / .  slight-  16 3.  The D i a l e c t The  Project  focus of this project  w i t h i n t h e Halkomelem language, t h a t were known t o v a r y w i t h i n Suttles  being l e x i c a l  differentiation  a l i s t o f i t e m s was c o m p i l e d the language.  Elmendorf and  (I960) h a d l i s t e d f o r m s f r o m C o w i c h a n , Musqueam, a n d  Chilliwack  f o r o v e r 600 i t e m s g r o u p e d i n t o 8 l i s t s .  100 i t e m s v a r i e d l e x i d a l l y  i n one o r more d i a l e c t s o f H a l k o -  melem a n d were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r f u r t h e r Another  Of t h e s e ,  75 i t e m s were i n c l u d e d  study.  by c o m p a r i n g  field  notes  on H a l k o m e l e m s p e a k e r s f r o m K u p e r I s l a n d , K a t z i e , a n d K i l g a r d . Galloway's  f i l e s on H a l k o m e l e m a s s p o k e n by t h e U p p e r  people, which  sometimes l i s t e d  Stalo  two f o r m s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y  a r e a , were a l s o c o n s u l t e d . T h i s l i s t o f 175 i t e m s was i n i t i a l l y  reduced  t o 150  i t e m s b e c a u s e c e r t a i n w o r d s were t o o d i f f i c u l t t o e l i c i t o r were n o t t r u e  lexical  i n a general semantic The  differences.  T h i s l i s t was a r r a n g e d  order f o r the purposes  of e l i c i t a t i o n .  d a t a e l i c i t e d a t 21 l o c a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x As c a n be s e e n i n A p p e n d i x  too i n f r e q u e n t l y items are:  to include  B;  B, e i g h t e e n i t e m s w e r e  i n the present a n a l y s i s .  elicited These  2 6 . CHEEKS OP F I S H , 39- QUIVER, 47. WOOD-CARVING  K N I F E , 48. D-ADZE, 49. HALF-DONE CANOE, 5 0 . THWART, 51.  ANCHOR,  5 2 . BOOM, 5 8 . LOOM, 6 3 . LONG DISH, 66. GRAVE, 119. BLUE, 143. WIND FROM DOWN-WATER, 144. STORM, 145. STORM FOR 3-4 DAYS, 147. PERHAPS, 149. SOMETIMES, a n d 150. forms proved  too d i f f i c u l t to e l i c i t  SOON.  Four  additional  because o f m u l t i p l e  17 variants:  122.  83.  BE OUT  OP BREATH, 104.  SCOUT, 124.  SMOOTH,  SAD. T h i r t y - e i g h t words w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d  from t h i s a n a l y s i s  because the item e x i s t e d throughout Halkomelem, perhaps with an unusual p h o n o l o g i c a l of two  change.  There are a l s o occurrences  words, both which e x i s t throughout Halkomelem, f o r a  s i n g l e E n g l i s h g l o s s ; these were mistaken i n i t i a l l y as d i a l e c t differences. 6. 33.  MINK, 18.  NIGHTHAWK, 22.  BUSHES BUNCHED UP,  FISH SPEAR, 42.  CEMETERY, 68.  80.  SOLE, 81.  102.  STRAIGHT, 133.  MOOSE, 4 .  HUMPBACK SALMON, 32.  PALM, 87.  ROOF, 76.  SICK, 89.  LAUGH, 98.  TAKE, HOLD, 113. MUD,  137.  CHIPMUNK, UNDERBRUSH,  BARK ( OP A TREE), 36.  34.  BURY, 71.  BOIL, 97.  SWIM, 105.  ELK,  SPLIT ROASTING STICK, 54.  67.  SMASH, 94.  2.  These items a r e :  SHOVEL, 55.  BRAIN, 77.  POKE, 90.  SMILE, 100.  THROAT, 91.  COME, 101.  RUN,  125.  SMALL,  WAVE, 146.  40.  BUCKET,  SCRATCH,  SMART, 123.  EDDY, I 3 8 .  PITCH,  MUST.  An a n a l y s i s of the remaining 90 vocabulary items shows very c l e a r l y that there are  two  major i s o g l o s s bundles d i v i d -  i n g the Halkomelem area i n t o three d i a l e c t s :  1  I s l a n d , Down-  2 r i v e r , and  Upriver  n e a t l y on one  Halkomelem.  Not  a l l the i s o g l o s s e s  of these boundaries, i n d i c a t i n g  d i a l e c t s w i t h i n each area.  fall  several-sub-  I s l a n d Halkomelem has  at l e a s t 3 the s u b - d i a l e c t s of Cowichan, Nanaimo, and Chemainus. •Downriver Halkomelem can be d i v i d e d i n t o Musqueam, K a t z i e , 4 u 5 and Kwantlen. Upriver "alkomelem c o n s i s t s of Sumas, J  Chilliwack, Chehalis, The  and  Tait sub-dialects.  (See  remainder of t h i s chapter reviews the evidence  Map  1)  supporting  MAP 1  THE DIALECTS OP HALKOMELEM  these  19  claims. Of t h e 90 i t e m s c o n s i d e r e d h e r e , 25 show a c l e a r  between t h e I s l a n d  (Nanaimo, S h e l l Beach, Kuper I s l a n d , a n d  Cowichan) and the Mainland points).  split  (Musqueam, K a t z i e , a n d a l l u p r i v e r  These items a r e :  5.  RACCOON, 8. PROG, 24. STEELHEAD,  64. BOX, 74. BLIND, 75. HAIR, 78. CHEST, 79. KNEE, 84. G I R L ' S PUBERTY, 96. SWELL, 106. BE CAREFUL, 108. KNOW, 110. CHILDREN, 117.  HAIRY GIANT, 121. DARK, 126. EIGHT, 128. SUN, 130.  131.  I C E , 132. WARM, 134. SAND, 141. SMOKE, 148. REALLY.  FREEZE,  Two a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s , 111. LAZY a n d 116. ECHO, a r e o f i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e one a r e a h a s two w o r d s f o r t h i s i t e m w h i l e t h e o t h e r has  o n l y one.  T h r e e more i t e m s , 35. PIRBARK, 112. STINGY,  and  I36. WATERFALL,  probably s p l i t  between I s l a n d  b u t t h e d a t a a r e n o t c l e a r due t o m i s s i n g f o r m s . isogloss  separating the Island  be p o s i t e d  on the b a s i s  from  of this  and Mainland, A major  the Mainland can thus  evidence.  On f o u r i t e m s , 88. MEDICINE, 99. BARK, 103. S E E , 114. NAME, t h e f o r m f r o m Nanaimo a g r e e s w i t h t h e M a i n l a n d o r h a s booth  the I s l a n d and Mainland forms.  On t w o i t e m s , 21. C0H0  and 46. K N I F E , t h e r e a r e t h r e e f o r m s i n H a l k o m e l e m , one o n the Mainland,  one o n t h e I s l a n d , a n d o n e a t a n a i m o . w  Although  t h e e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d by t h e s e s i x i t e m s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h Nanaimo a s a m a j o r d i a l e c t a r e a , i t d o e s mark Nanaimo a s d i f f e r e n t f r o m thus a sub-dialect is  other Island areas.  w i t h i n the I s l a n d group.  f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d b y i t e m s 25.  Nanaimo i s This hypothesis  CRAB, 139. LOW T I D E , a n d  20 140. ROCK, f o r which Nanaimo i s d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t o f Halkomelem. There a r e s e v e r a l items which do not n e a t l y d i v i d e a t the Mainland-Island i s o g l o s s .  For items 82. SPRAIN LEG,  115. DREAM, and 135- ISLAND, i t appears that Musqueam has both the Mainland and i s l a n d form. however, do not show both forms. FOG,  The data from K a t z i e , There i s one item, 1 2 9 .  where K a t z i e has both the Mainland and I s l a n d form  w h i l e Musqueam does not.  T h i s item i n Nanaimo has o n l y . t h e  Mainland form. There a r e two items, 27. MAPLE and 73- MIRROR, WINDOW, that have one form throughout Halkomelem except f o r Cowichan, which has a d i f f e r e n t form i n the f i r s t  i n s t a n c e , and two  forms i n the second. A second i s o g l o s s bundle, i n keeping with p h o n o l o g i c a l changes as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 2, separates the I s l a n d and Downriver groups Upriver.  ( i . e . , Musqueam and K a t z i e ) from p o i n t s  F i f t e e n items c l e a r l y d i v i d e a t t h i s p o i n t :  1.  DEER, 7. STRIPED SKUNK, 11. ANT, 12. SPIDER, 41. WEIR, 45.  CHOP WOOD, 53- CEDAR ROPE, 5 7 . LANTERN, 6 9 . BED, 9 2 .  TEAR, 95. SINK, 109. FIGHT, 118. WHAT COLOUR IS IT? 120. BIG, 142. SMOKE SHED. An a d d i t i o n a l n i n e items may d i v i d e a t t h i s p o i n t . Two items, 127. MOON and 107. FALL, have one form throughout Halkomelem and a second form U p r i v e r .  Item 2 3 . , SPRING  SALMON, i n Downriver-Island Halkomelem i s the g e n e r i c term  21 f o r f i s h i n U p r i v e r Halkomelem, which has a t l e a s t 5 words for different  s p r i n g salmon.  U p r i v e r Halkomelem speakers  knew one of three words f o r 70. BEAM, while Downriver-Island speakers knew another word.  Conversely, Downriver-Island  Halkomelem has a word f o r 139. LOW TIDE,plus an e x p r e s s i o n 'the water went down , w h i l e U p r i v e r speakers use only the 1  l a t t e r , which i s not s u r p r i s i n g as t i d e s a f f e c t  the F r a s e r  o n l y as f a r as M i s s i o n . K a t z i e d a t a were u n a v a i l a b l e f o r two items, 29. SCOTCH THISTLE and 3 1 . LONG OREGON GRAPE. For item 14. BLUEJAY, K a t z i e had both the U p r i v e r and Downriver-Island forms. An i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of t h i s i s o g l o s s i s that i t seems t o c a t c h Kwantlen r i g h t i n the middle.  Data a r e a v a i l a b l e  f o r s i x o f the items that d i v i d e between U p r i v e r and DownriverIsland.  Three of the Kwantlen forms, ?. STRIPED SKUNK, 11.  ANT, and 14. BLUEJAY, agree w i t h the Downriver forms; two of the Kwantlen forms, 12. SPIDER, and 69. BED, agree with the U p r i v e r form; Kwantlen has both the Downriver and U p r i v e r forms f o r 1. DEER.  (See Appendix C f o r these data.)  There a r e f o u r items f o r which the forms f o r Matsqui and K i l g a r d a r e l i k e the Downriver-Island forms and u n l i k e the U p r i v e r forms: BERRY, 37. STUMP. logical  9. TREE FROG, 17. RAVEN, 30. RED HUCKLEOn the b a s i s o f these words and the phono-  d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s mentioned i n Chapter 2, K i l g a r d and  Matsqui form a s u b - d i a l e c t of U p r i v e r Halkomelem.  22 It  i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t 9 w o r d s s p l i t  g i v i n g 3 f o r m s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by a r e a . for  the I s l a n d , Downriver, and U p r i v e r :  65.  COFFIN.  Two i t e m s s p l i t  CROW, s p l i t s  Three i t e m s have 43.  forms  D I P NET, 2 8 . ALDER,  between t h e I s l a n d and M a i n l a n d 4 4 . AXE, 19.  and between C h i l l i w a c k and U p r i v e r : One i t e m , 15.  t w i c e i n Halkomelem,  SEAGULL.  between t h e I s l a n d and M a i n l a n d  and between U p r i v e r and D o w n r i v e r , w i t h M a t s q u i and K i l g a r d having the Downriver form.  F o u r more i t e m s t h a t s p l i t  w i t h i n H a l k o m e l e m a r e more i r r e g u l a r .  I t e m 13.  twice  BIRD h a s one  f o r m f o r t h e I s l a n d , Musqueam, a n d K a t z i e , one f o r m f o r C h e h a l i s , S c o w l i t z , a n d L e k e m e l , a n d one f o r m f o r t h e r e s t of  Upriver.  I t e m 10.  BAT h a s one f o r m f o r U p r i v e r a n d K a t z i e ,  one f o r m f o r K i l g a r d a n d C h i l l i w a c k , a n d a s e p a r a t e f o r m f o r the  Island.  Item 3.  SQUIRREL h a s one f o r m on t h e I s l a n d ,  one f o r m a t Musqueam, K i l g a r d , a n d C h e h a l i s , a n d a form f o r the remainder of U p r i v e r . for  third  Item 56.,LAMP has a form  t h e I s l a n d , Kwantlen, and M a t s q u i , an U p r i v e r form, and  a form a t K a t z i e . T h e r e a r e t h r e e i t e m s t h a t a p p e a r t o h a v e two f o r m s w i t h i n H a l k o m e l e m where t h e I s l a n d a n d U p r i v e r a r e t h e same and t h e Downriver i s d i f f e r e n t : BLANKET.  62.  BROOM, 59.  TOOLS,  61.  The Musqueam p r o b a b l y p r e s e r v e s a n o l d e r word f o r  these items.  23 F o o t n o t e s f o r Chapter 3 E l m e n d o r f and S u t t l e s (I960, p. 17) d i v i d e Halkomelem i n t o two l e x i c a l d i a l e c t s (Cowichan and M u s q u e a m - C h i l l i w a c k ) , b a s i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n on a comparison o f 200 ' b a s i c ' words. x  o  Galloway (1977, p. x i i i ) had suggested Upper S t a l o f o r U p r i v e r Halkomelem, but had r e j e c t e d the former because of the s o c i a l c o n n o t a t i o n s of Lower S t a l o . ^Elmendorf and S u t t l e s (I960, p. 31) i d e n t i f y Chemainus as the t e r r i t o r y between the Nanaimo and the Cowichan and suggest f i e l d w o r k t o v e r i f y the i d e n t i t y of Cowichan and Chemainus. E v i d e n c e from the p r e s e n t study s u g g e s t s t h a t Chemainus i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from Cowichan. Internal d i f f e r e n c e s i n Chemainus were not i n v e s t i g a t e d h e r e . The e x a c t s t a t u s of Kuper I s l a n d and o t h e r G u l f I s l a n d s on which Halkomelem i s spoken cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d from these data. ^The l e x i c a l e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g Kwantlen i s a m b i v a l e n t but because Kwantlen i s unambiguously a Downriver d i a l e c t when p h o n o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s c l a s s i f i e d here as a Downriver s u b - d i a l e c t . ^ F o l l o w i n g Elmendorf and S u t t l e s (I960, p. 2 ) , Sumas w i l l be employed f o r the r e s e r v e s i n the A b b o t s f o r d a r e a (Matsqui and K i l g a r d ) . The p h o n o l o g i c a l d a t a f o r Matsqui show more Downriver f e a t u r e s t h a n those f o r K i l g a r d , but these two a r e a s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r l e x i c a l l y .  24 4.  The Processes of L e x i c a l In Chapter 3 ,  Differentiation  i t was  e s t a b l i s h e d that three d i a l e c t  d i v i s i o n s can be proposed  f o r Halkomelem on the b a s i s of  The 9 0 items used to analyze the d i a -  lexical differences.  l e c t s of Halkomelem vocabulary i n Chapter 3 *e presented ar  a l p h a b e t i c a l l y i n Appendix C.  E t y m o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and  cognates from other S a l i s h languages are g i v e n .  By  examining  the data i n Appendix C, c e r t a i n c l a i m s can be made c o n c e r n i n g the p o s s i b l e sources or processes i n v o l v e d i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of Halkomelem d i a l e c t s .  lexical  I t i s apparent  that no one e x p l a n a t i o n can account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the three d i a l e c t s .  Rather s e v e r a l processes have a f f e c t e d  Halkomelem vocabulary; those o u t l i n e d here can o n l y account f o r a p o r t i o n of the d a t a . The p r e s e n t evidence suggests that Halkomelem vocabulary has been a f f e c t e d by borrowing. p. 18 very t e n t a t i v e l y  Elmendorf  and S u t t l e s  (I960,  suggest:  l e x i c a l borrowing i n Cw might o f t e n be from adjacent S t r a i t s or North Georgia S a l i s h languages, or from n o n - S a l i s h Nootka, whereas Ms and other downriver F r a s e r Halkomelem d i a l e c t s were more i n c o n t a c t with one another than with d i s t i n c t l i n g u i s t i c s sources of borrowing. Ch and o t h e r u p r i v e r Halkomelem d i a l e c t s were i n c o n t a c t not only with one another and with downriver Halkomelem, but with I n t e r i o r S a l i s h l a n guages ( L i l l o o e t , Thompson) which might have e x e r c i s e d a d i s t u r b i n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r phonology. Yet i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see why l e x i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e would not operate i n t h i s l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n to as g r e a t an extent as on Vancouver I s l a n d . I t i s furthermore by no means c e r t a i n that borrowing i s a t the r o o t of the Cw l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e .  25 I f a f o r m i s s h a r e d by S t r a i t s a n d I s l a n d  Halkomelem  t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r S a l i s h languages, t h e form  could  be a n e x a m p l e o f a b o r r o w i n g ( p e r h a p s w i t h S t r a i t s a s t h e s o u r c e ) , a common r e t e n t i o n , o r a s h a r e d i n n o v a t i o n . i t e m s , 75.  HAIR, 79. KNEE, a n d 132.  WARM, show  between S t a i t s and I s l a n d Halkomelem. 110.  There a r e examples  i n Comox, S e c h e l t , o r S q u a m i s h  cognateness  Pour a d d i t i o n a l  CHILDREN, 8. PROG, 46. K N I F E , a n d 134.  represent t h i s process.  Three  forms,  SAND, may a l s o of items cognate  and I s l a n d Halkomelem, b u t  these forms a r e a l s o i n S t r a i t s .  One f o r m , 141. SMOKE, s h a r e d  by I s l a n d H a l k o m e l e m a n d S o u t h e r n P u g e t t o t h e e x c l u s i o n , a s f a r a s t h e d a t a show, o f S t r a i t s , of a shared r e t e n t i o n .  i s most l i k e l y a n e x a m p l e  I t e m 19. SEAGULL i s t h e u n i q u e  o f a Wakashan c o g n a t e w i t h a n I s l a n d H a l k o m e l e m f o r m .  example Clear  e v i d e n c e f o r b o r r o w i n g i n I s l a n d Halkomelem c a n a c c o u n t f o r o n l y a s m a l l number o f f o r m s . Two i t e m s , 9. TREE FROG a n d 17.  HUMMINGBIRD, a p p e a r t o  be b o r r o w i n g s f r o m Thompson i n t o U p r i v e r H a l k o m e l e m ; t h e s e words r e t a i n a / k ' / .  1  B o r r o w i n g a p p e a r s t o have o c c u r r e d  f r o m U p r i v e r H a l k o m e l e m by I n t e r i o r l a n g u a g e i n a f e w instances:  19.  SEAGULL i n t o L i l l o o e t ,  i n t o Shuswap, a n d p e r h a p s lexical  7.  STRIPED SKUNK  64. BOX i n t o Thompson.  d i s t u r g a n c e a p p a r e n t l y o p e r a t e d on U p r i v e r  Some Halkomelem,  although perhaps not t o the e x t e n t that S t r a i t s has i n f l u e n c e d Island  Halkomelem.  26 Rather than c i t e s p e c i f i c examples of p o s s i b l e borrowing, it  i s more u s e f u l t o look f o r g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f cognates  among S a l i s h languages f o r the vocabulary e l i c i t e d i n t h i s study.  Of the 25 items which a r e d i f f e r e n t f o r I s l a n d and  Mainland Halkomelem, 19 have cognates i n other S a l i s h (See Table I I I . )  languages.  I f the number of cognates t h a t agree with  the I s l a n d and the Mainland form are counted f o r each an i n t e r e s t i n g and not unexpected p a t t e r n o c c u r s .  language,  Sechelt,  Squamish, and Nooksack have more cognates with the Mainland than with the I s l a n d .  The S t r a i t s d i a l e c t s show g r e a t e r  cognacy with the I s l a n d .  S i m i l a r c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e made f o r  the items that s p l i t at the Upriver-Downriver i s o g l o s s and are presented i n Table IV. Such p a t t e r n s of cognacy perhaps of vocabulary.  suggest an a r e a l spread  T h i s concept i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l when both  Halkomelem forms have cognates i n s e v e r a l Coast S a l i s h guages a s s i g n e d t o d i f f e r e n t such as these a r e : CROW, 121.  subgroupings.  Examples o f items  99. BARK, 106. BE CAREFUL, 2 1 .  DARK, 126. EIGHT, 129- FOG, 135-  114. NAME, 5- RACCOON, 103- SEE, 110.  lan-  COHO, 16.  ISLAND, 27.  CHILDREN.  MAPLE,  2  I t i s n o t i c e a b l e that a l l of the items c o n c e r n i n g body parts  (74. BLIND, 75- HAIR, 7 8 . CHEST, 7 9 . KNEE) s p l i t a t  the Island-Mainland i s o g l o s s , as do the m a j o r i t y of terms r e l a t e d to n a t u r a l phenomena (128. SUN, 130. FREEZE, 131. ICE, 132. WARM, 134. SAND, 141. SMOKE).3  27 Item  Cx Se Sq Nk Sa Sg So Lm CI NPg  5  -  8  0  24  -  64  +  74  -  75  -  -  78  -  79  0  ©  0  +  +  +  -  +  0  0  0  0  +  0  0  0  0  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  -  -  -  -  0  +  0  +  -  +  84  +  96  +  +  -  110 121  0  +  -  + +  126  +  +  - -  128  0  -  0  -  -  0  -  130 131  G  -  0  0  132  -  - -  +  0  134  +  +  +  +  +  +  0  0  0  -  0  -  -  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  +  0  0  0  0  +  e  -  141  +  L i Th  +  0  SPg Tw  -  +  -  2  1  2  1  3  7  5  6  7  1  1  0  3  5  9  9  1  1  0  2  0  2  1  1  0  0 1 2  +  cognate to I s l a n d form cognate to Mainland form * 2 forms, one cognate to I s l a n d and one to Mainland o form not cognate, ^ , ... See appendix C f o r data and a b b r e v i a t i o n s . Table I I I .  Cognates shared with other S a l i s h  languages  28 Item  Cx-SQ S§ Nk Sa Sg So Lm C l NPg SPg Tw +  1 7  +  11  +  12  o  +  + +  +  L i Th Sh  o +  o  o  +  o  o  o o  +  o  41  ^5  +  109  +  o  0. 4  0  0  0  0 "2  2  +  +  +  +  2  4  3  3  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1 0  0  + cognate to I s l a n d - M a i n l a n d form - cognate to U p r i v e r form * 2 forms, one cognate to Island-Downriver and to U p r i v e r o form not cognate See appendix C f o r data and a b b r e v i a t i o n s .  1  one  Table IV. Cognates shared with other S a l i s h Language s, c ont i nued  29 Many o f t h e a r t i c l e s acquired  items e l i c i t e d  for this  i n modern t i m e s .  t o the naming o f t h e s e i t e m s :  survey were  Three sources  English  (e.g.,  cultural  contributed  5 4 . SHOVEL),  Chinook Jargon  (e.g.,  54. SHOVEL), a n d H a l k o m e l e m .  several cases,  d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s employed d i f f e r e n t yet  semantically related roots 45.  6 9 . BED,  CHOP WOOD, 56. LAMP, 5 7 . LANTERN, 46. K N I F E , 29- SCOTCH  T H I S T L E j 5 9 . TOOLS). but  t o c o i n words (e.g.,  In  Occasionally  the  r o o t s were t h e  same  t h e a f f i x a t i o n d i f f e r e n t (44. A X E ) . To  a c c o u n t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between C h i l l i w a c k and t h e  r e s t o f H a l k o m e l e m , E l m e n d o r f a n d S u t t l e s ( i 9 6 0 , p . 18) s u g g e s t a r a p i d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n Ch f o r t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f plants, animals,  and technology  and g i v e  synonym p a i r s i n Ch a s e v i d e n c e .  the o c c u r r e n c e o f  The p r o c e s s o f l e x i c a l  replacement and semantic s h i f t i n g i s apparent i n s e v e r a l instances  i n U p r i v e r Halkomelem:  DEER, 127. MOON.  1 3 . BIRD, 16. CROW, 1.  However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  c a s e s whether the U p r i v e r t i o n o r an i n n o v a t i o n  form should  (e.g.,  to tell  be c o n s i d e r e d  i n many a reten-  28. ALDER, 7 0 . BEAM, 118. WHAT  COLOUR I S I T ? , 43. DIPNET, 142. SMOKESHED 12. SPIDER, 41. WEIR).  More l i k e l y ,  discussed  such forms are  examples o f the  above; d i f f e r e n t s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d r o o t s  employed by d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s t o d e r i v e Apparently, tributed  process  t h e r e were t h r e e  forms.  b a s i c processes which  t o l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n Halkomelem.  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  are  con-  The f i r s t  b o r r o w i n g , b u t i s p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e l y  30 d e s c r i b e d a s an a r e a l s p r e a d boundaries. dialects.  This process A second  of vocabulary a c r o s s  specifically  a f f e c t s the  p r o c e s s , t h a t of c o i n i n g words  sub-group Island from  H a l k o m e l e m s t e m s , i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t when d i s c u s s i n g i t e m s of  acquired technology.  concurrent Upriver  semantic  Halkomelem.  The  shifting,  third,  l e x i c a l replacement  appears p a r t i c u l a r l y  and  to a f f e c t  31 Footnotes f o r Chapter  4  E l m e n d o r f and S u t t l e s ( I 9 6 0 , p. 32) g i v e •hummingb i r d ' and 'coyote' as examples of words c o n t a i n i n g /k'/ and suggest a L i l l o o e t source f o r the l a t t e r . T h e Lummi form f o r ' c h i l d r e n ' agrees with the Mainland, w h i l e the C l a l l a m and Sooke agree with the I s l a n d , f u r t h e r supporting t h i s a n a l y s i s . 2  3 j o r g e n s e n (1969, pp. 49-50) and Elmendorf and S u t t l e s ( i 9 6 0 ) see some s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the semantic c l a s s of l e x i c o n r e t a i n e d a c r o s s d i a l e c t boundary. However, numerical p e r centages of shared cognac jr are s u b j e c t to a high degree of e r r o r because of the i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t y i n equating a s i n g l e E n g l i s h g l o s s with a s i n g l e Halkomelem word.  32 5.  Conclusion T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on t h e l e x i c a l  komelem S a l i s h . lexical  A list  o f 150  vocabulary items  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was e l i c i t e d  w i t h i n t h e Halkomelem a r e a . suitable f o rfurther  differences  i n Hal-  showing  a t twenty-one  locations  N i n e t y o f t h e s e i t e m s were  analysis.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e d a t a , t h e r e a r e two m a j o r  isogloss  b u n d l e s d i v i d i n g t h e Halkomelem a r e a i n t o t h r e e d i a l e c t s : I s l a n d , D o w n r i v e r , and U p r i v e r isoglosses  do n o t f a l l  be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d  Halkomelem.  B e c a u s e some  on t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s , t h e d i a l e c t s c a n  into sub-dialects-Island  Halkomelem:  C o w i c h a n Nanaimo, C h e m a i n u s ; D o w n r i v e r H a l k o m e l e m : Katzie,  Kwantlen; Upriver  Chehalis,  Tait.  Halkomelem:  These s u b - d i a l e c t s  Musqueam,  Sumas, C h i l l i w a c k ,  agree with  the d i a l e c t s  o f H a l k o m e l e m a s s u g g e s t e d by E l m e n d o r f a n d S u t t l e s  (i960).  T h r e e p r o c e s s e s c a n a c c o u n t f o r some o f t h e l e x i c a l differences  i n Halkomelem.  v o c a b u l a r y i n common w i t h  I s l a n d H a l k o m e l e m h a s some S t r a i t s to the exclusion  S a l i s h languages;this suggests borrowing.Upriver is  especially affected  shifting.  by l e x i c a l  of other  Halkomelem  r e p l a c e m e n t and s e m a n t i c  Employing d i f f e r e n t y e t semantically  t o c o i n words i n Halkomelem h a s been a p e r v a s i v e  related  roots  process.  33 BIBLIOGRAPHY Amoss, P a m e l a T. 1961. Nuksack U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington.  Phonemics.  B o a s , F r a n z , a n d Herman H a e b e r l i n . 1927. in Salishan Dialects. U A L 4:117-3°  M.A.  Thesis,  Sound S h i f t s  D a v i s , J o h n H. 1968. Some P h o n o l o g i c a l R u l e s i n M a i n l a n d Comox. M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a . Drachman, G a b e r e l l .  1969.  Twana P h o n o l o g y .  OSU-WPL 5 .  Duff, Wilson. 1952. The U p p e r S t a l o I n d i a n s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r o f B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Memoir No. 1. . 1964. The I n d i a n H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V o l I . The Impact o f t h e W h i t e Man. P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Anthropology i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Memoir No. 5 . E f r a t , B a r b a r a S. I 9 6 9 . A Grammar o f N o n - P a r t i c l e s i n S o o k e , A D i a l e c t o f S t r a i t s C o a s t S a l i s h . Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Pennsylvania. E l m e n d o r f , W i l l i a m W., a n d Wayne S u t t l e s . i960. Pattern and Change i n H a l k o m e l e m S a l i s h D i a l e c t s . A L 2 . 7 : 1 - 3 2 . Galloway, Brent. 1976a. Anatomy i n U p p e r S t a l o H a l k o m e l e m , A Morphosemeraic S t u d y . P a p e r r e a d a t t h e 11th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on S a l i s h a n Languages, S e a t t l e , Washington. A u g u s t , 1976. . 1976b. L e s s o n s i n Upper S t a l o Halkomelem. C o q u a l e e t E d u c a t i o n T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , S a r d i s , B.C. . 1977. A Grammar o f C h i l l i w a c k H a l k o m e l e m . Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley. H e s s , Thomas M.  UAL  1966.  32:350-6.  Snohomish Chameleon  . 1976. D i c t i o n a r y o f Puget S a l i s h . U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington Press.  Morphology. Seattle:  H i l l - T o u t , C h a r l e s . 1903. E t h n o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s o f t h e M a i n l a n d HalkomelEm, a d i v i s i o n o f t h e S a l i s h o f B r i t i s h Columbia. R e p o r t o f t h e 72nd M e e t i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Advancement o f S c i e n c e , 1902. p p .  255.449.  3^ Jorgensen, Joseph G. 19^9. S a l i s h Language and C u l t u r e . Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s . K u i p e r s , Aert H. Mouton. . 1969.  The  1967.  The  Squaroish Language.  Squamish Language, I I .  The  The  Hague:  Hague: Mouton.  . 1974. The Shuswap Language. Grammar, Texts, The Hague: Mouton.  Dictionary.  . 1976. On the P h o n o l o g i c a l Typology of P r o t o - S a l i s h . Paper presented a t the Symposium on Genetic and Typol o g i c a l R e l a t i o n s . X L I I t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Americanists. P a r i s , Sept. 2-9. M i t c h e l l , M a r j o r i e R. 1968. A D i c t i o n a r y of Songish, a D i a l e c t of S t r a i t s S a l i s h . M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a . Pidgeon, Michael. 1970. L e x i c a l S u f f i x e s i n Saanich, a D i a l e c t of S t r a i t s Coast S a l i s h . M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a . R a f f o , Yolanda A. 1972. A Phonology and Morphology of Songish, A D i a l e c t of S t r a i t s S a l i s h . Ph.D. Dissert a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas. S a p i r , Edward, and Morris Swadesh. 1939. Nootka Texts. Philadelphia: L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y of America. Snyder, Warren A. 1968a. Southern Puget Sound S a l i s h : Phonology and Morphology. Sacramento A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y Paper 8. . 1968b. Southern Puget Sound S a l i s h : Texts, Place Names-and D i c t i o n a r y . Sacramento A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y Paper 9. S u t t l e s , Wayne. 1951. Economic L i f e of the Coast S a l i s h of Haro and R o s a r i o S t r a i t s . Ph.D. Dissertation, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington. Swadesh, M o r r i s . 1950.  Salish Internal Relationships.  IJAL  16.4:157-167. Swoboda, Leo. 1968. L i l l o e t Phonology^ Texts, and M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Dictionary.  35 Thompson, Laurence C , and M. T e r r y Thompson. 1971. C l a l l a m : A Preview. S t u d i e s i n American I n d i a n Languages, ed. by Jesse Sawyer. UCPL 6 5 . 251-94. .  n.d. C l a l l a m :  Short Northwest  .  n.d. Lummi:  .  n.d. C l a s s i f i e d Word L i s t of Thompson.  Short Northwest  , and Barbara S. E f r a t . 1974. Developments i n S t r a i t s S a l i s h .  List.  List.  Some P h o n o l o g i c a l U A L 40.3:182-196.  Thompson, Laurence C , M. Terry;Thompson, and M. Dale Kinkade. n.d. Comparative S a l i s h Notebooks, 2 v o l s . Walker, C a r l Ian.  1973*  Graduating Essay.  An English-Squamish D i c t i o n a r y . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  36 Appendix A.  The Informants  Richard Bailey was born i n 1902 on the Katzie Reserve. His mother was from Coquitlam, His father, who died i n 190*1, was from Katzie. Richard Bailey was raised by h i s father's parents who were from Katzie when his mother remarried at Sechelt. In 1917, Richard Bailey attended S t . Mary's i n Mission. Since then he has resided at Katzie,employed as a fisherman, and now r e t i r e d . Peter Bolan was born on A p r i l 12, 192*+, at K i l g a r d . His father, Frances Ernest Bolan, was from-Tahiti. His mother, Anriie S i l v e r , was from K i l g a r d , as was her mother, Sarah S i l v e r . Peter Bolan's grandfather, Peter S i l v e r , was from Laidlaw but resided at K i l g a r d . A f t e r attending school at Sumas P r a i r i e Elementary, Peter Bolan-was sent, at age 1*+, to the Vancouver Sexman School. He graduated from Dewdney Senior High School i n 19*+8 and attended a year at University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Since that time he has l i v e d around Chilliwack and i n the Okanagan. Dolly F e l i x was born i n 1897 or 1898 at Scowlitz. Her father, James William Johnston, was from Lytton, B.C. and her mother, Sophie Petters , was from Harrison Mills.. Dolly F e l i x l i v e d on Nicomen Island u n t i l she was 9'or'10, then l i v e d i n Scowlitz. She attended school at. St. Mary's i n Mission for 3 years. She presently resides on the Chehalis reserve. John George, born at A i t c h e l l t z i n 1926, i s the only person who speaks Halkomelem from that reserve. His father was from A i t c h e l l t z . At age 7, John George.attended school at St. Mary's i n Mission. As an adult, he l i v e d and worked at different locations u n t i l he s e t t l e down at A i t c h e l l t z , where he i s band leader. Although not very fluent i n the Halkomelem language, John George, because of his interests i n native culture and r e l i g i o n , knew many of the words^on my l i s t . Arnold Guerin was born i n 1910 at the Musqueam reserve. His father was half-Musqueam and his mother was Lummi. He was raised on the Musqueam reserve speaking primarily English u n t i l age 10,.at which time he was sent to the Indian school on Kuper Island. A f t e r school, he returned to Musqueam f o r four years but then returned to Kuper Island where he married and raised a family. Arnold Guerin i s now an active member o f the Musqueam band. He i s currently involved i n a project to teach Musqueam t o adults and schoolage children. Lucy Jackson was born.at American Bar i n 1909. Her father was Joseph Alex. Her mother, who was a Thompson, died when Lucy Jackson was young. She i s now l i v i n g on the Datz reserve, the home of her deceased humband. T i l l i e Guitterez, Lucy Jackson's daughter, was born at Katz i n 1921. She i s active as a teacher' of the Halkomelem language. T i l l i e Guitterez was present at the interviews and helped to e l i c i t and v e r i f y data.  37 Laurence James was born on December 29, 1897, at the Wellington Reserve. His father was from Wellington and his mother, who was h a l f Douglas, was from Harrison M i l l s . From age 7-15 he attended school.at St. Mary's i n Mission. He also attended school i n Vancouver where he was known f o r h i s a b i l i t y as a runner. Laurence James now. resides on the Wellington Reserve where he i s known for his knowledge of l o c a l h i s t o r y , h i s . s t o r i e s , and his music. Stanley James was form on the Nanaimo Reserve i n 1911. His mother was Josephine George.. He.attended school.at Coqualeetza from 1919-1931. He -has also l i v e d i n Esquimalt and Duncan and knows words from those areas. He curren t l y resides on the portion of the Nanaimo Reserve on the Nanaimo r e i v e r . Arthur Joe was born on March 26, 1891, i n Duncan. His mother, J u l i a Joe, his father and his father's parents were from the Duncan area. Arthur Joe how resides on the reserve on Allenby-road. at the Cowichan River. His wife, Susan Joe, was present at the interviews and helped to e l i c i t data as Arthur Joe's Halkomelem i s considerably better than his English. L i z z i e Johnson, born in,190U, was raised on Seabird Island. Her father, Charles Alexander was a Thompson from.Snuzzum. Her mother, Rosy James, was from Seabird Island. The father of - Rosy J Junes, was from Seabird Island and her mother was from ah area above Ruby Creek. L i z z i e Johnson did not attend school. She speaks some Thompson as w e l l as fluent Halkomelem. Agnes K e l l y was born i n Squatats on March 17, 1921. Her father, Patrick Louie was from Squatats, as were h i s parents. Her mother, Amelia Joseph, was from Ohamil. Agnes K e l l y l i v e d at Squatats u n t i l age. 9 when she moved to Mission. She now resided at the Ohamil reserve near Laidlaw. Ed Leon was born.at the Chehalis Reserve i n 1899 or 1900. His father, James Leon, was from C h e h a l i s a n d h i s mother, was from Soowahlie. Ed Leon d i d not go to school and started logging at age l 6 . He -spent ko years working f o r that industry mostly around Chechalis but also on Vancouver Island. Ed Leon, an excellent speaker of Halkomelem, i s well-respected for his knowledge of native culture. A l f r e d Louie was born on August 15, 1917, at Steveston. His father, Alex Louie i s from q»elicj bay and his mother, Catherine Jim, was from S h e l l Beach, where A l f r e d Louie was raised and now resides. He.attended school.at Coqualeetza from 1930-36. His grandmother was from Qualiqum Beach, so A l f r e d Louie was also able to give Nanoose forms f o r certain words.  38 Hank Pennier was born o n the Chehalis reserve on February 6, 190*+. His father, who died when Hank Pennier was young, was French Canadian. His mother, A l i c e Davis, whom he.describes as h a l f from Deroche and h a l f American, remarried and moved to Union Bar when Hank Pennier was 5- From age 9-1^, Hank Pennier attended school.at St. Mary's Mission. At-age l 6 , he took on logging jobs u n t i l he was injured i n 1951. Hank Pennier, who now l i v e s at Scowlitz, has written a book which, describes l i f e around the Harrison M i l l s area. Maggie Pennier, Hank's wife, was born i n February, 190^. Her father was Jimmy Leon of Chehalis and her mother was Elizabeth Tom • of Soowahlie.. She attended school at St. Mary's i n Mission f o r 5 years. Maggie Pennier, who i s Ed Leon's s i s t e r , was present at the interviews with her husband and offered v e r i f i c a t i o n on some forms. Susan Peters was born i n 191^ at Ruby Creek. Her father, Issac James, was from Union Bar. Her mother, C e l i a Charlie, was from Yale. A f t e r the death of her mother when she was 3 or h years o l d , Susan Peters l i v e d with her father's s i s t e r , Sarah Bob.at Yale. Susan Peters attended school at St. Mary's i n 1925Nancy P h i l l i p s was born on March h, 1907, at Tzeachten. Her father, Alec Joe, was from Lekelem but lived.at Skwah. Her mother, Martha, was from Tzeachten. From age 9-18 Nancy Phillips.attended school, at St. Mary's i n Mission. She now resides on the Chehalis Reserve where she teaches the Halkomelem language i n the l o c a l elementary school. Nancy P h i l l i p s gave both the Tzeachten and Chechalis forms of certain words. E l l a Reid was born i n 1897 near Everson, Washinton. Her father, Thomas Cline was from the K i l g a r d reserve near Sumas, B.C. Her mother, Belinda Antoine, was from 3 miles south of Nooksack, Washington. When E l l a was 13, her family returned to Matsqui. She attended Coqualeetza school from age 1^-18. She i s presently l i v i n g near Everson, Washington. E l l a Reid, although she slaims t o know only a few words of Halkomelem, was able to supply most of the words on the l i s t . This can be accounted f o r because her father's s i s t e r , Agnes, who could not speak English, often l i v e d with her family. A l i c e Hunt, E l l a Reid's s i s t e r , was born i n 1907 near Everson, Washinton. She was h or 5 when the family moved t o Matsqui. From age 11-18 she attended school at Coqualeetza. She was present at the interview with her s i s t e r and frequently v e r i f i e d forms. C e l i a Thomas was born on May 11, 1913, at Cheam reserve. Her father, W i l l i e Alev, was from Rosedale and her moether, Mary C h a r l i e , was from C j i l l i w a c k Landing. When she was 3, her father died; she was raised by her father's s i s t e r , Joesy Alec, and her father's mother, Lucy A l e c , of Cheam. C e l i a Thomas now resides on Seabird Island.  39 Henry Thompson was born.at Nicomen Island i n 190*1. His father, Harry Thompson was from Nicomen. His mother, Margaret Walker was from from Tzeachten. He attended school at.St. Mary's i n Mission  from 1918-1921.  Sam Wallace was born.at the Soowahlie Reserve on January 15, 19L*t. His father'was from Soowahlie and his mother, Mary, -.was from Squatats. He attended school at Coqualeetza.  MAP 2 b  THE INFORMANTS  Appendix B  T  h  e  D  a  t  a  The 150 word l i s t as f o l l o w s was e l i c i t e d from the 21 people d e s c r i b e d  i n Appendix A.  Elmendorf and S u t t l e s ( i 9 6 0 )  Musqueam forms from  a r e marked w i t h the l i s t and  item number.  1. deer 2. elk 3. " s q u i r r e l 4. chipmunk raccoon 5. 6. mink 7. s t r i p e d skunk 8. f r o g tree f r o g 9. 10. bat ant 11. 12. s p i d e r 13. b i r d 14. b l u e j a y 15. crow 16. raven 17. hummingbird 18. nighthawk seagull 19. 20. salmon 21. coho 22. humpback 23. s p r i n g 24. steelhead crab 25. cheeks of f i s h 26. 27. maple 28. a l d e r 29. t h i s t l e red h u c k l e b e r r y 30. 31. long Oregon grape underbrush 32. 33. bushes bunched up 34. bark f i r bark 35. 36. p i t c h 37. stump. arrow 38. 39. q u i v e r 40. f i s h spear  41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.  weir s p l i t roasting stick d i p net axe • chop wood knife wood-carving k n i f e D-adze half-done canoe thwart anchor boom rope of cedar shovel bucket lamp lantern loom tools rattle blanket broom long d i s h , p l a t t e r box coffin grave cemetery bury bed beam roof floor window be b l i n d hair brain throat chest knee sole  1+3.  81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89.  palm sprain l e g be out of breath g i r l ' s pubertypregnant pass out, f a i n t sickness medicine poke scratch 90. smash 91. 92. tear wipe 93. 94. boil sink 95. 96. swell laugh 97. 98. smile 99. bark 100. come 101. run swim 102. see 103. 104. scout take, hold 105. be c a r e ful 106. f a l l down 107. 108.,. know fight 109. 110. children lazy 111. 112. stingy smart 113. 114. name 115. dream 116\ echo hairy giant 117. 118. What c o l o u r i s i t ? blue 119. big 120. 121. dark 122. sad small 123. 124. smooth straight 125. eight 126. moon, month 127. 128. sun fog 129. freeze 130.  131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137.  138.  139.  140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149.  150.  ice warm mud sand island waterfall eddy wave low t i d e rock smoke smoke shed wind from down water storm storm f o r 3-4 days must perhaps really sometimes soon  American Bar  LuJ  fc'alqt/le  Union Bar SP  it  Cheam AK  "  Seabird I. L i J  »  Rosedale  CT  <>  Chehalis  EL  ti  Harrison Mills  HP  smiyeQ •'-meat'  tt  DF  ti  Lekemel  HT  ft  Tzeachten  NP  »  Soowahlie  SW  "  LaJ  •fc'blqtile  Aitchelitz  JG  tt  „  tt  »  Kilgarde Matsqui Katzie  PB ER  RB  smiyaG 'meat'  tt s m 4 y  ^  ' deer, meat' mawic 'deer  Musqueam Nanaimo SJ  «  Scowlitz  Wellington  it  n  Shell Beach AL  it  Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ  deer  mawic 'deer'  IT  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  q'eync 'moose  Union Bar SP  x ie.xqil •elk' w  Aitchelltz  JG  Kilgarde PB  Cheam AK • mooae'  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui ER  Rosedale  Katzie  CT  RB  •elk'  Chehalis  EL  HarriBon Mills  Musqueam HP  Nanaimo SJ 'elk, moose'  Scowlitz  DF  Shell Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten HP  q'eyiec 'elk (moose not around here)'  sx oqal 'elk' w  q'eyi?'ec 'elk' q'ey^i'ac 'moose'  6.21  it  'elk' q eyic 'moose' q-eyii c 'elk'  k ewe ec 'moose'  q'jeyiec  k ewa ac  k  w  w  ?  ?  unsure,  Cowichan AJ 'elk'  Soowahlie  SW  .  elk/  m 0  g  g e  American Bar LuJ  sq a'e'a4  Wellington LaJ  w  Union Bar SP  "  Aitchelitz  Cheam  AK  "  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  "  Matsqui  Hosedale  CT  "  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  sk aye-  Harrison M i l l s  JG PB  ER  skaye  RB  9  sk aye' w  ?  Musqueam  w  HP  it  "  Nanaimo SJ  6. s9 ap' cia -9an ?  ?  ?  Scovlitz  DF  "  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HP  "  Kuper I . AG  sc'apsiaGan  Cowichan AJ  c'apc'i'aian  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  sq a9'ai w  sk aye (in s t o r i e s ) w  AL  s9'ape ia 9an ,  3.  ?  9  squirrel  American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP  t!  Cheam AK  II  Seabird I. L i J  xaxp'ici1  Rosedale CT  xaxp'icil  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills Scovlitz  xaxp'ical  xaxp'ICI1  HP  xaxp'ical  DF  Wellington LaJ  it  Aitchelitz JG Kilgarde  PB  II  Matsqui ER Katzie  it  RB  xaxp'icin  Musqueam  xaxp'ican  6.3  Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach  AL (Vancouver Island could  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten NP Soowahlie  SW  Kuper I. AG  it  not i d e n t i f y t h i s animal.)  Cowichan AJ  II  k.  chipmunk  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  Kilgarde PB  !l  Matsqui ER  It  Seabird I.  LiJ  Rosedale CT  Katzie RB  Chehalis EL  Musqueam  Harrison Mills  HP  JG  Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz  DF  Shell Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten NP Soowahlie SW  1!  males  6.14 sxaVsk 'as w  tt  Cowichan AJ it  5.  raccoon  American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP  ceci-q'ei „  Wellington LaJ sqayexiye  Aitchelltz  cici'q al  JG  (in stories) Cheam  AK  Seabird I . L i J Bosedale  CT  sqayax  Kilgard  cacx-q'ai  Matsqui  "  PB  sqayax  ER  s/ . v  S  «  ft  c i c i q an  Katzie  RB ti  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  HP  "  Musqueam  ciciq'an  "  Nanaimo SJ  c i c i * q an  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  AL  caci'q'an  I!  Cowichan AJ  6.  mink  6.18  American Bar LuJ  s  e>  s p a q  Wellington  LaJ JG  Union Bar SP  tt  Aitchelitz  Cheam AK  tt  Kilgarde  Seabird I. L i J  tt  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  tt  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  "  Musqueam  Harrison Mills Scovlitz  DF  HP  PB EB  RB  t  " t. » sp'se'i-h spsps©'in  n  Nanaimo SJ  »  Shell Beach AL  6.1  ^-wv* ' spap0'7;in  Lekemel Tzeachten  HT NP  tt  Kuper I. AG  tt  Cowichan  AJ  pepaWn  Soowahlie SW  7• skunk  American Bar LuJ  plptha-m  xamoi  Wellington LaJ  pl-gsha;ni  'frog i n myths Aitchelitz Union Bar SP  Kilgarde PB  pipaha.m  9  Matsqui ER  pipsha'm  7  Katzie RB  spapa'm  Musqueam  pip a'in?.  „  Seabird I. L i J  Chehalis  II  „  Cheam AK  Rosedale  JG  CT  " 7  »  EL  A G  " Nanaimo SJ  Harrison Mills  HP  » Shell Beach AL  Scovlitz Lekemel  DF HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  »  sxa enx ?  Kuper I. AG  ti  Cowichan AJ  ii  [sxa?aenx ]  w  w  " " wa'xyim  [wo'Vim]  8.  frog  ; >  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  swilik'  palipaha'm  'alot o f l i t t l e  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz JG  wilik'.'^  Cheam AK  Kilgarde PB  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui ER  Rosedale  (rioise)  CT  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten HP  Katzie  swellk'  waxad  Nanaimo SJ  wiliV? ('frog's  RB  Musqueam AG  swilik'  HP  W3X3S  language')  Shell Beach  AL  "  Kuper I. AG wile*k'  Cowichan AJ  (noise)  Soowahlie  SW  9.  tree frog  trot  American Bar LuJ  sk ''!ik ':'iiye 'xal w  w  /  Wellington L a J  st'ale'*xal  [»]'  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  k^ili'e-xal  Cheam  AK  Kilgard  PB  p'e *p'a9'ale'• xal  sk 'ili e-xal w  ?  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  ER  p'ls p'lO'elexal  k ek 'iye-xal w ,  Roeedale  w  CT  Katzie  RB  ^'ukw'li'exen  p'ip'iG'iye*xal  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam k ' iliye-xal w  Harrison M i l l s  HP  sialp'al^&xan  Nanaimo SJ sqalye'xal  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  p'ip'a6'ale • x a l  AL  Cowichan AJ  10.  bat  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  JG  Cheam AK  Kilgarde PB  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  Katzie  CT  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills Scovlitz DF Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  xye-'sam  ER RB  e'amae'e  Musqueam HP  Nanaimo SJ  )t  6.69  "  c'amc'i!  Shell Beach AL  7  e^ame'ayi  Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ  c'amc'i'i  11.  ant  American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP  q'asq'asicil IT  Cheam AK  q'asq'asicil  Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz  q'asq'ascil  JG  Kilgarde PB  Seabird I. L i J  ii  Matsqui ER  q'asq'asicil  Rosedale  ii  Katzie  sqatqatcala? / qatcale  CT  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills  HP  qlasq'as ci1  RB  Musqueam  qatqatcala,  Nanaimo SJ  qatqatcala  Scovlitz  DF  Shell Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten NP Soowahlie  SW  tt  6.68  9  ti  Cowichan AJ  q'asq ascil V71  12.  spider  American Bar  LuJ  mimaq" -'little bird'  Wellington L a J 'duck, b i r d '  Union Bar SP  A i t c h e l l t z JG  Cheam AK  Kilgard  tt  'duck'  PB  ma aq ?  'bird'  Seabird I .  Matsqui ER  LiJ  Rosedale CT  x axreli-q w  Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s S c o w l i t z DF Lekemel  HT  x eyx*.slsq w  w  x eyleq w  HP  v  w  tt  Katzie RB Musqueam S -  sq 'iq 'aleV w  pc  Nanaimo S J  mi•maq  v  ma*'q  v  tt  v  w  sq '3laxy w  ma>aq  v  sq 'ales w  S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG  'duck'  Tzeachten NP Soowahlie  tt  Cowichan A J  SW  13.  b i r d (big and l i t t l e )  American Bar LuJ  k e -y w  N  Union Bar SP  «  Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz  k e^y w  JG  k eyic  k eyk ey  w  w  'bluejay'  Cheam AK  »  Kilgarde PB  Seabird I. L i J  "  Matsqui ER  Rosedale  CT  »  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  "  Musqueam  sx i9'9C  "  Nanaimo SJ  sk i9'ac  Harrison Mills  HP  DF  »  Shell Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  »  Kuper I. AG  "  Cowichan AJ  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie SW  (what he s  k e*-y w  RB  Scovlitz  w  k ey / s k i 9 ' a c w  w  w  w  sk e°y w  Ik.  bluej ay  6.U6  American Bar L u J Union Bar SP  spa-l  skiwsq'' s (type of crow)  LaJ  Aitchelltz  JG  Kilgard  Cheam AK Seabird I . Rosedale  Wellington  LiJ  spapala-1  CT  PB  Matsqui Katzie  tt  spa'plal  ER  spapalal  RB  spa?pal?al  (lots of crows)  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Musqueam HP  Nanaimo  spalal SJ  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  Cowichan  AJ  6.1+6  q' al aq a 1?  AL  q'ale'?aq'e? 11  "  15.  crow  Co  Wellington LaJ  American Bar LuJ  sqiwaqs  Union Bar SP  sk aweIs  Cheam  Aitchelitz  w  AK  spa*l k alwils kiwaqs sqiwaqs w  Seabird I . L i J  'raven' (in stories) (Raven & crow warning you) '  Voiron I  Kilgard Matsqui Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soovahlie  SW  spa-1 sqaq aq w  ±  spa'l?  RB  Nanaimo w  '.  "  EB  CT  HP  spa  PB  Rosedale  Harrison M i l l s  JG  "  AG  "  SJ  "  S h e l l Beach  AL  "  Kuper I . AG Covichan  AJ  "  16.  raven  vo  American Bar L u J  p'/sk'e  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  "  Aitchelltz  Cheam  AK  "'•  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  "  Matsqui  Rosedale  "  Katzie  Chehalis  CT EL  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  HP  JG PB  ER RB  "  ( i n stories)  ti-n? it / .-.  "  Musqueam  "  Nanaimo SJ  11  it  S h e l l Beach AL  sx a- c a li' w  ?  ,  - ?  ?  sxifanc'ali sx^at'c'alf"  "  Kuper I . AG  tt  "  Cowichan A J  tt  IT.  hummingbird  OA  o  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  JG  Cheam AK  Kilgarde PB  n  tt  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui  (a b i r d , not nighthawk; around when  ER  the sockeye run) it  Rosedale CT  Katzie  Chehalis EL  RB  » tt  Musqueam  A G  Harrison Mills Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  HP  Nanaimo SJ Shell Beach Kuper I. AG  Tzeachten NP  tt  AL  » n  Cowichan AJ (sound of nighthawk)  Soowahlie SW  18.  nighthawk  American Bar LuJ  sliliwye  Union Bar SP  Kilgarde PB  Seabird I. L i J  ti  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SV  Matsqui ER  it  CT it  HP  sliliwye  Aitchelitz JG  it  Cheam AK  Rosedale  Wellington LaJ  Katzie  sliliwye q  w ,  aliteq it  RB  Musqueam  it  6.  it  Nanaimo SJ  ti  Shell Beach AL  ti  Kuper I. AG  it  qy'.alitaq  it  7  q ani? w  Cowichan AJ  sliliwye .  19.  seagull  American Bar LuJ  s9'a-q i w  Wellington  LaJ JG  Union Bar SP  it  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  tt  Kilgarde  Seabird I. L i J  it  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  PB ER  » » n "  Katzie RB  Chehalis EL  it  Musqueam  A  G  sce-iten. sceitan  Harrison Mills  HP  II  Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz DF  it  Shell Beach AL  Lekemel  tt  Kuper I. AG  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  sce.'itan  Cowichan AJ  2o.  salmon (generic")  American Bar LuJ  k sx e9 w  w  Wellington LaJ  k ax a9 w  w  Union Bar SP  it  Aitchelitz JG  k ex^i9  Cheam AK  II  Kilgarde PB  k ex e9  II  Matsqui ER  k ox ec  Seabird I.  LiJ  w  w  w  w  w  Rosedale CT  k ex as  Katzie RB  k ax i9  Chehalis EL  k ex ae  Musqueam  k 3x se  k ax ac  Nanaimo SJ  9e wan  k 3X IS  Shell Beach AL  ce'wsn  Harrison Mills Scovlitz DF  w  w  HP  w  w  w  w  w  w  w  w  w  6.5^  w?  ?  /  q'etcaqs (Nanaimo)  Lekemel  HT  k 4x ae w  w  Kuper I. AG 9e wan ?  Tzeachten NP  Cowichan AJ  It  se wan ?  Soowahlie  SW  k ax a w  w  c  21.  coho  American Bar LuJ  huliye  Wellington LaJ  tt  tt  Union Bar SP  it  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  ti  Kilgarde PB  huliye'  Seabird I. L i J  tt  Matsqui ER  hu?lays'  Rosedale  it  Katzie RB  CT  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills  Musqueam HP  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  hum  Shell Beach AL  tt  ti  Kuper I .  AG  tt  tt  Cowichan AJ  ti  / sx ilme*yi w  ?  6.53  Nanaimo SJ  it  Scowlitz DF Lekemel  JG  7  22.  humpback  American Bar L u J  pa-q '  Wellington L a J  Wlx*xi  w  Union Bar SP  ti  II  Aitchelltz  Cheam  it  II  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  it  it  Matsqui  Roeedale  CT  tt  Chehalis  EL  AK  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  tt sk axam . p'qi's w  Katzie  JG PB  ER RB  s9'aq i w  Musqueam HP  s0'aq ey? w  it  it  ti  tt  tt  S h e l l Beach  it  Kuper I . AG  II  tt  Cowichan A J  tt  tt  it  6.55  Nanaimo SJ  tt  c a.lal  ?  AL  se'a?q i? w  23.  spring salmon  American Bar L u J  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I . CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  SW  6.58  Nanaimo SJ  DP  HP  tt  RB  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  tt  ER  Rosedale  tt  q'e'wx  PB  Matsqui  LU  JG  Cowichan A J  AL  sxsx q'am w  sxaw q'am ?  2k.  steelhead  American Bar L u J  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  JG  Cheam  AK  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  PB  RB AG  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soovahlie  SV  ?  x  "  Nanaimo SJ  Covichan  y  "  DF  NP  ?a  ER  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  „  AL  "  /  "  ''  "  /  N Na  AJ  25.  crab  a  American Bar LuJ Union Bar Cheam  SP  siiq ele w  AK  -Y?(gen.)  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelltz  JG  Kilgard  s4iq ila  (of fish)  sipila  (gen.)  Seabird I . L i J  siaq a*la  (gen.)  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  sx i-la  (gen.)  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  w  Harrison M i l l s  w  w  PB  ER  HP  Nanaimo  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  SW  sx t'q"am w  SJ  S h e l l Beach  Soowahlie  (gen.)  Musqueam  DF  NP  siaq"i'na?  RB  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  c'xyaysii  Cowichan  AJ  iqfnas AL  sx iqana w  (gen. )  sx^flana  26.  cheeks of f i s h  American Bar L u J Union Bar SP  q'amuliip q'amo i'ip ?  Cheam AK  q'emu1lip  Seabird I .  LiJ  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  HP  q'amo iip ?  Wellington LaJ  q'amalaiip  Aitchelitz  q'amlaip  Kilgard  JG PB  Matsqui  ER  Katzie  RB  q'amu•iip  Musqueam  q'amalaip  q'amo'iip  Nanaimo SJ  q'amaneip q'amani.ip  DF  q'mo'lip  S h e l l Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  q'amo iip  Kuper I . AG  q'emoiip  Cowichan A J  NP  Soowahlie  SW  IT  q' aimi* l i i p  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  q'amu'iip  ?  c'aiaip  27.  maple  American Bar L u J  xe-y9'iip  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  it  Aitchelltz  Cheam  it  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  tt  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  it  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  tt  Musqueam  tt  Nanaimo SJ  AK  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG PB  tt  ER  ti  RB  k 'ax si-ip w  w  k ilala aip w  ?  Scowlitz  DF  it  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  tt  Kuper I . AG  it  Cowichan AJ  it  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  AL  it  28.  alder  Wellington L a J  American Bar L u J  Aitchelitz  Union Bar SP  c'ac'a'q '  Cheam AK  c'aq c'aq '  w  w ,  Seabird I .  w  CT  c'ac'a'q '  Chehalis  EL  e'ae'a' '  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DP  Lekemel  HT HP  Kilgard  w  it  JG  PB  ciceqK?  Matsqui ER  LiJ  Rosedale  Tzeachten  ('lip)  c'aq c'ac'  Katzie  w  w  q  ( I*P )  HP c'a'c'aq ' w  iip  RB  Musqueam  xaw. xawi*4p  Nanaimo SJ  xawxawiniip  ?  5-75  S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG  "  Cowichan A J  Soowahlie SV —j  29.  thistle  American Bar L u J  sqe•la  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  tt  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  tt  Kilgard  tt  Matsqui  JG PB  k 'aq cis w  s  w  'black thimbleberries' Seabird I .  LiJ  ER  Rosedale  CT  tt  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  tt  Musqueam  tt  Nanaimo SJ  Harrison M i l l s  HP  sk c'-oq ci s w  RB  w  sk 'aq cis w  w  sk 'aq cas w  w  tt  tt  Scowlitz  DF  tt  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  tt  Kuper I . AG  tt  -  Cowichan AJ  tt  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  5.68  AL  30.  red huckleberry  American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam  e'uie'i/ip G'uie'iyiip  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelltz  JG  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison H i l l s  e'oie'i'iip  Matsqui  e'uG'iyiip  Katzie  e'o-ie'iip  Musqueam  HP  PB ER  e'uw^e'i^iip  RB ialac'aip  Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  ialic'aip  Cowichan  ialic'aip  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  e'al9'ay aip  AL  9 'if; -waq'aip  31.  long Oregon grape  American Bar LuJ  lax sqel 'bushy' w  Union Bar SP  II  Cheam AK  "  x ix al 'bush used f o r whips' w  w  it  Wellington LaJ Aitchelitz Kilgard  JG PB  " 'brush, whip'  Seabird I .  LiJ  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  i9x sqeie-c w  "  " "  HP  "  simlicel 'underbrush'  Tzeachten  "  HT NP  s^xyixyic  RB  Musqueam  sqai  S h e l l Beach Kuper I .  5.l6  9  AL  sx aimc w  AG  II  'bush'  Soowahlie  Katzie  ER  Nanaimo SJ  'bushes , young shoots '  Lekemel  Matsqui  Cowichan AJ  SW  32.  underbrush  American Bar LuJ  sq'aple•c  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  sq'sGle*c  Aitchelltz  Cheam  q' spale* c  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  q'eG'ele-  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  sq'eG'ale  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  sq'epale•  Musqueam  AK  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  HP  ti  II  JG PB  ER RB s  3 spnec  g  _  p c  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  AL  sq'ap'nec  Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ  33.  bushes bunched  American Bar LuJ  p'aliyi'ws  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  tt  Aitchelitz JG  Cheam AK  I!  Kilgarde PB  »  (bark o f bush or young tree)  Seabird I. L i J Rosedale  Matsqui  ER  CT  it  Katzie RB  Chehalis EL  tt  Musqueam  Harrison Mills Scovlitz DF Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  HP  tt  Nanaimo SJ  tt  Shell Beach AL  "  p  »  a la y  ?' ? a  w s  1.38  p'aii? "  Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ  "  3*+.  bark (of a tree)  American Bar LuJ  1 /v sle *y  Union Bar SP  Wellington LaJ siaq ey 'bark of anything » w  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  Kilgarde  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  Katzie  CT 'bark of the Douglas f i r '  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills  HP  JG PB  ER RB  Musqueam  sle'-y? sley? sley  5.30  Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz DF  Shell Beach AL 'cedar bark'  Lekemel  'cedar bark' "  siaq ' w  'bark of whole tree, f i r , cedar'  HT Kuper I. AG  Tzeachten  NP Cowichan AJ  Soowahlie  SW —j  co  35. bark of f i r tree  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz JG  Cheam AK  Kilgarde PB  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui ER  k 'i'x  Rosedale  Katzie  camax 'thin, syrupy p i t c h ' 'thick, hardened; used f o r caulking'  CT  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills  RB  Musqueam AG HP  DF  Shell Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I. AG  NP  Soowahlie  SW  w  Nanaimo SJ  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  w  camsx  Cowichan AJ  36.  pitch  vo  American Bar LuJ  sq'xe-p  Wellington LaJ  q'xe'-p  Union Bar SP  "  Aitchelitz  Cheam AK  "  Kilgarde  Seabird I. L i J  "  Matsqui ER  s xlic  Rosedale  CT  "  Katzie  s'alec  Chehalis  EL  "  Musqueam  s elac  "  Nanaimo SJ  s alnac  Harrison Mills Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  HP  11  "  JG  PB  RB  s i*lac ?  ?  ?  5-18  ?  Shell Beach AL  «  Kuper I. AG  11  Cowichan AJ  it  Soowahlie SW CO  o 37' stump  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam AK  Kilgarde  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui ER  Rosedale CT  Katzie  PB  sik ale;x w  y  S3k elexy w  RB  sk elexy w  /  e'smen  / sqole. 'gun  Chehalis  EL  sik ale-xy w  ' arrcw, gun  Harrison Mills  Musqueam  ©'smen  8.13  HP Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz  DF  S3k ale-xy w  Shell Beach  AL  „  a  ' gun'  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten NP Soowahlie  /  s  k  w  9  l  -  * gun'  Kuper I. AG Cowichan AJ  SW  38.  arrow  Wellington LaJ  American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP  G'esi'la  Aitchelitz JG  Cheam AK  c'ilx elstil  Kilgarde PB  Seabird I. L i J  siyet'ele  Matsqui ER  Rosedale  w  Katzie  CT  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills  etrix e'lst3l w  r  HP  RB  Musqueam  Shell Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I. AG  Soowahlie  SW  l3q e w  'any kind of bag'  8.13  Nanaimo SJ  DF  NP  w  l*£e  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  sik ele-sytil  Cowichan AJ  39•  quiver  American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP  0  '  =  n  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelltz  JG  „  'spear he Kilgard Cheam  AK  it  PB  » Matsqui  Seabird I .  LiJ  -»  n Katzie  Rose dale  ER  CT  RB  9'aq iten w  n Musqueam  Chehalis  EL  u HP  n  SJ  Lekemel  ?  8.1, 8.2  n  n S h e l l Beach  Scowlitz  t£ ei  » Nanaimo  Harrison M i l l s  s'anam  DF  AL  n  n  Kuper I . AG  »  »  Cowichan  "  n  n  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  e'a*-q itn  AJ  w  qe9ax  w  'spear point'  ho.  f i s h spear  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  ciaq'tel  Aitchelitz  Cheam  c'e*qtil  Kilgard  c' i y a q t e l  Matsqui  AK  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Katzie s e x aq  HP  JG PB  Musqueam  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  SW  SxeV  Nanaimo S J S h e l l Beach  Soowahlie  sc'iyaV  RB  DF  HP  sc'iye*q'  ER  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  c iye-q'  c'iysq'tel  Cowichan A J  8.10  AL ti  ti  hi.  weir  piq il  Wellington  LaJ  »  Union Bar SP  »  Aitchelltz  JG  n  Cheam AK  "  Kilgarde  Seabird I . L i J  "  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  tt  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  »  Musqueam  »»  Nanaimo  »  S h e l l Beach  American Bar LuJ  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  HP  w  »  tt  PB  tt  ER RB  y  . Veyaleq'ten .(from 'squeeze') ' pi?q" S n  tt  SJ AL  »  Kuper I .  AG  »  Cowichan  AJ  "  CO  h2. s p l i t roasting s t i c k  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelitz  JG  American Bar LuJ  q lqi'smasti 1  Union Bar SP  q'amastal  Cheam  q' amastil  Kilgarde  Seabird I . L i J  q'sq'ma'stal  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  q' ama'sti 1  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  AK  Harrison M i l l s  /  PB ER  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  SW  ca k amt9n ?  w  Nanaimo SJ  DF  NP  qalec  RB  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  q'lq'mastal  Musqueam HP  q'ama-stil  Cowichan AJ  AL  ?  ak 'in  /  w  'axeim'tan  'exsim'tan  sq'eq'amastel k3.  dip net,  oo ON  American Bar LuJ u u u  , k 'aq le-ctil w  w  'axe'.  , /  . /  AK  w  'hatchet'  »  ti  tt  n  Aitchelltz Kilgarde  CT  JG PB  tt  ER  sk 'qw w  RB  w  w,  » "  tr  EL  Nanaimo SJ Harrison M i l l s  9m  k q aman  Musqueam Chehalis  w  » Katzie  Rosedale  w  w  Matsqui Seabird I . L i J  /k 'ik 'am  k 'q am  Union Bar SP  Cheam  "  Wellington LaJ  HP  tt  sk q sm w,  n  Scowlitz  DF  „  'double-headed axe'  Lekemel  RT  k 'q«3m w  S h e l l Beach  (Suttles, p.c.)  AL  w  tt  Kuper I . AG  tt  Cowichan  "  'axe' Tzeachten  NP  tt  Soowahlie  SW  »  AJ  /  sk 'xk 'q am w  w  w  5f hk.  axe  American Bar L u J Union Bar SP  e'iq elcip w  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelitz  JG  Cheam AK  tt  Kilgard  Seabird I. L i J  tt  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  tt  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  t'amit  HP  'splitting  Scovlitz  OF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SV  tt  tt  od'  »  PB ER  "  RB  sq'a'lcap  Musqueam Nanaimo  SJ  sq'als  t'at'amit  'choppin tt  'hammering'  S h e l l Beach Kuper I . AG  tt  tt  Cowichan  AJ  AL  sq'alcap s q ' a l cap 7  "  ^5.  chop wood  American Bar LuJ  ie-c'til  Union Bar SP Cheam  11  AK  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelltz  JG  Kilgarde ti  Matsqui  Rosedale  II  Katzie  ti  Musqueam  II  Nanaimo  Chehalis . EL Harrison M i l l s  HP  H  PB  Seabird I . L i J CT  n  u  ER  »  ieVtan  RB  SJ  ^  p  t  3  DF  it  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  II  Kuper I .  AG  "  II  Cowichan  AJ  "  HP  Soowahlie  SW  AL  2  ,  n  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  g Q  "  ?  "  k6.  knife  ^  t  s  n  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  AK  -, xyipeltjfl v  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  Kilgarde  Katzie  HP  PB  x*£ptil 'a t o o l f o r shaving wood'  Matsqui  x*pe'ltil  JG  ER  x  yfptal  RB  Musqueam  Sxatak"'  8.21  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  AL  §  a p e  '  / . sxatak"'  y t i n  'digging out t o o l ' Kuper I . AG sxe'-t'k^els  Cowichan  AJ  U;"'gxattek ' saptan w  'thing for digging or carving'  ^7.  woodcarving knife  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam  Kilgarde  AK  Seabird I .  LiJ  / . ,, nayli'til  'chopper  1  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  st et'emeis  , /  •,  /  n  t'et'emi'l  ' chopping  PB  Matsqui Katzie  RB  Musqueam HP  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  SW  st'et'emeis  8.22  Nanaimo SJ  DF  NP  w  ER  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  sx ti'at'imel  Cowichan AJ  AL  sx t'et'emewei w  vO  h8. D-adze  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  AK  Kilgarde  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  ,  , ,  JG PB  ER RB xee'ey?  Musqueam  8 . 5 3  p aq'sawai  'half-done canoe' Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soovahlie  SW  HP  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  AL  Kuper I . AG Covichan AJ  h9.  unfinished h u l l  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  xlaxalawitil  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  s9'aiawalt'il  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  iaxalawaiti1  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  ixalawiiti1  Musqueam  Cheam  AK  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG PB  ER RB x\'alawait an  Nanaimo S J  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  ixalawaitan  Cowichan  sxa^'wiltan  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  s6'axialawal  AJ  AL  gxaX'wi'tan  50.  thwart  American Bar Union Bar Cheam  LuJ  SP  masflatil  AK  it  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelitz  JG  Kilgarde Matsqui  masi'yaltil  Katzie  PB ER RB  Musqueam HP  Nanaimo  q  SJ  Scovlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I .  AG  Cowichan  AJ  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  « a'ntan s  8.h  iqaWen AL  tt  51.  anchor  9  American Bar L u J  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam  AK  c ' 3 q ' e l i s t i l ta p'a'til  Kilgard  se'aiswaitii  Matsqui  w  Seabird I . L i J  (cf  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison H i l l s  c'q 'e-x3tii  HP  PB ER RB  Musqueam  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  NP  Soowahlie  SW  x at'3lie'?tan w  Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  s  'thwart')  Katzie w  e'aqwiie tii  AL  Cowichan AJ  vo 52.  "boom (on s a i l )  Wellington L a J  American Bar L u J Union Bar SP Cheam  sti'lswi1  AK  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Aitchelitz  II  Kilgard  II  Matsqui Katzie  II  HP  JG PB  ER RB  Musqueam  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  NP  Soowahlie  SW  sy3q '9m  8.58  w  Nanaimo SJ  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  II  AL  Cowichan AJ  53.  cedar-writhe rope  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgarde  AK  Matsqui  Seabird I . L i J  JG  it  PB ER  x cayq als w  w  'something to dig with' Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam AG  ti  Nanaimo SJ  it  Harrison M i l l s  HP  RB  Scovlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  Cowichan  AJ  saspal  AL  /  "  lapen  /  geay q*al'>s  it  lapen  5^.  shovel  ?  American Bar LuJ  sk 'a-wis w  Wellington  LaJ  tt  JG  tt  Union Bar SP  tt  Aitchelltz  Cheam  ti  Kilgarde  Seabird I . L i J  it  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  tt  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  tt  Musqueam  it  Nanaimo SJ  AK  Harrison M i l l s  HP  PB  tt  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  RT  tt  Kuper I . AG  tt  Cowichan AJ  Soowahlie  SW  'something to carry water i n ' sk^.fa'was tt  RB  DF  NP  w  ER  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  sx qa-m  . 8.33 tt  AL  tt  55.  bucket  American Bar Union Bar Cheam  LuJ  SP  AK  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelltz  JG  Kilgard  ' 11  PB  1  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam AG  hay'q^in  Nanaimo  hay ?q u • n f  Harrison M i l l s  HP  ER RB  sx i?q x-n w  SJ  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  hi?q"i-i  Cowichan  w  ?  w  AL  " hayVu-n  AJ  56.  lamp, light  vo vo  American Bar Union Bar Cheam  LuJ  SP  sle *xa9  Wellington  LaJ  sle"xat  Aitchelitz  JG  Kilgarde  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam AG  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soovahlie  SW  HP  ER RB  sk^anxVin tt  Nanaimo SJ  slex^at  S h e l l Beach slexat  sxyec'it  /la'ltal  •flashlight, torch•  Kuper I .  AG  Cowichan  AJ  sk ansan w  AL  "  /  k anstan w  tt  'lantern'  57.  lantern, f l a s h l i g h t , torch  Wellington L a J  American Bar L u J Union Bar SP Cheam AK  'rack f o r drying  Seabird I .  Aitchelitz  t'slp'eitil  skins'  Kilgard  PB  Matsqui  LiJ  JG  ER  tsp'aitil  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  £L  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  HP  RB ? a y amen  8. 6 l  7  Nanaimo SJ  DF  S h e l l Beach  AL  " 'loom, drying rack'  Lekemel Tzeachten  HT HP  Kuper I . AG stsp'q*4  Covichan  AJ  tt  'stretching frame'  Soowahlie  SW  58.  loom  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam  SP  Kilgarde  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  ER Vewk m9n  RB  Nanaimo  w,  it  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I .  AG  Cowichan  AJ  HP  Soowahlie  SW  -  SJ  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  11  8.17  '. o_  sya*y as ?  AL  59. tools  Union Bar SP Cheam  k ax mi1 w  w  'deer hoof, r a t t l e '  Aitchelitz  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  sq £•tx cls  Wellington L a J  American Bar LuJ  sk '£•tx eis w  'deer h o o f  w  'rattle'  w  JG  PB  Matsqui ER Katzie Musqueam  HP  w  RB  k aatun w  AG  Nanaimo SJ  Scovlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  AL  k ax man w  w  'deer h o o f  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  k acmin w  Cowichan AJ  60.  deer-hoof r a t t l e  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  JG PB  it tt sie•wal 'cover, "blanket'  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  ER  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  SW  X'ax ten w  Cowichan AJ  Q.lh  11  Nanaimo SJ  DF  NP  w  RB  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  lax t/l  lax tan w  AL  tt tt tt  6l.  blanket  American Bar L u J  Wellington LaJ  11  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  11  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam HP  n  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Harrison M i l l s  JG  ER  11  RB  q 'e'?ean w  8.31  11  Nanaimo S J  sx ix als w  w  Scovlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  sx ixiaeat  Covichan A J  ?ax tan  Tzeachten  NP  Soovahlle  SW  AL  ?ax tan w  w ?  w  o  62. broom  American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP  Wellington L a J Aitchelltz  xap'iyiwei  Cheam AK  Kilgard  it  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  k 'i'k 'iiyiw ai w  w  ,;,  q ai yuwii w  HP  ?  PB  Matsqui Katzie  JG  ER RB  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  SW  w  8.72  Nanaimo SJ  DP  HP  tq 'alas  Musqueam  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  qxiyiwai  Cowichan A J  AL  q ea'las w  q sa'las w  63.  long diah, platte  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  t!  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  II  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG  ER  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  SW  w  Cowichan AJ  w  k ax a w ,  w  ?  8.32  Nanaimo SJ  DP  NP  k 'ax a?  RB  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  II  PB  xGam  AL  n  II  ti  61*.  "box  3  American Bar LuJ  (s ame as  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  TT  Aitchelltz  Cheam  TT  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  IT  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  II  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  II '  Musqueam  nawak 'e  II  Nanaimo SJ  maqeya  AK  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG PB  it  ER RB  w  II  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  II  Kuper I . AG  Tt  II  Cowichan AJ  II  Soowahlie  SW  w  ?  k. 131  w  DF  HP  sme-q 'e  snaw3k 'a' ela  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  /  11  AL  TT  H  65.  coffin  O CO  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I . L i J  SX 9?1-X W  Matsqui  W  JG PB  ER  'grave, tomb  1  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  RB  Nanaimo S J  Scovlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  AL  9X ?a-mat w  'grave, deceased'  Cowichan AJ  66.  gr ave  American Bar L u J  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar 8P  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui  Roaedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo  »  PB  "  ER RB  sx mek 'ela w  SJ  w  "  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  "  Cowichan  "  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  AJ  AL  "  67.  cemeter  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  "  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  "  Cheam  AK  Kilgard  p i *ls 'planting'  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Matsqui  pi • 1  pi'It  PB  pi l e s t 'cover up, make a hill'  HP  pi Item  Katzie  ER RB  Musqueam Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  BP  Soowahlie  SW  n  it  panet  Cowichan  AJ  " AL  " 11  "  68.  bury  American Bar L u J  SX ?E• W  Wellington L a J  [ae]  Union Bar SP  »  Aitchelitz  Cheam  „  Kilgard  tt  Matsqui  AK  Seabird I .  LiJ  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Katzie  „  PB ER  la*l wis ?  RB  sx a?m9t w  Musqueam Nanaimo  HP  JG  SJ  S h e l l Beach tt  Kuper I . AG  u  Cowichan  AJ  " AL "  /  tt  1  ^ 7 {  /  t  3  t  tt  (old word) Soowahlie  SW  69. bed  American Bar L u J  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  AK  t'eiawsi te  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  st'iiwiltil  HP  JG PB  ER RB  Musqueam  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  NP  Soowahlie  SW  sxaA'wiltan  Nanaimo SJ  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  t'p'aitil  8.28  t!  AL  It  Cowichan A J  70.  beam ( i n house)  American Bar  LuJ  s^iitx™  si-qacii  .'boards'  Wellington LaJ  si-qacil  '.shingles'  Aitchelltz  JG  Union Bar SP Kilgard  PB  sc'eltax  Cheam AK Matsqui Seabird I . L i J  sc'a-itax  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  s^iltx"  HP  s iltax ?  8.29  w  Nanaimo SJ  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  SW  s?iqacan  Musqueam  S h e l l Beach  Soowahlie  w  RB  DF  NP  ?  si-qecii  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  s iltx  w  Katzie Rosedale  ER  siqacal  w  AL  s itx ?  w  n  II  it  Cowichan AJ  71.  roof  American Bar L u J  4axiiaptii  Union Bar SP Cheam  le-iawis  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelltz  JG  AK  »  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  „  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  iaxiiaptii  Katzie iaxe'ylaptil  HP  „ „  „  PB ER RB  ixilap iaxanaptan "  Musqueam  s - P C  Nanaimo S J S h e l l Beach  „  "  AL  Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ  72.  floor  American Bar LuJ  k 'ca-stil w  Wellington  Union Bar SP  w  sk ca-stil w ,  k«'ca'-stn  LaJ  k 'ik 'casam w  k 'ik 'casam  m  k 'aca'stil  w.  w  Aitchelitz  JG  w  w  sk ik 'casam w,  Cheam  AK  w  k aca'stil  Kilgard  s 'acastil  Matsqui  w ,  Seabird I . L i J  w  PB  sk 'ca'-stii  w,m  sk 'ca•stal  w,m  sk^-'aeastan  w,m  w  ER  w  s ik ca*sam w,  Roeedale  CT  w,  s 'ca-stil w  RB  s 'ik ca-stil w  Chehalis  Katzie  EL  w ,  sk 'ik 'casam sk acastan s 'ik 'casam " / w  s 'acastil w  Musqueam AG  w  w,  w  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  HP  k 'ca-stil  Nanaimo  k ca'-stil  S h e l l Beach  w  w,  SJ AL  w  m w,m m sx al' mastan'? w  ?  "  "  "  "  k 'ik 'ca-sam w  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  w  Kuper I . AG  Cowichan  AJ  H H  73.  window, mirror  ON  American Ear LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  «  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  "  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  HP  Nanaimo  »  ER  "  RB  " AG  SJ  S h e l l Beach  " s^'sialic'  AL  i'elic'  e'apalas  '"bad eye sight'  Tzeachten Soowahlie  HP  Kuper I . AG Cowichan  *'a?iic'  AJ  s9 'a palas /,?  SW i—•  lh.  be blind  American Bar L u J  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  KatZie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG PB  ER  r meqan  RB  "  Nanaimo SJ  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  "  Cowichan  "  HP  Soowahlie  SW  AJ  •71  se'itan  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  1  AL  "  75.  hair  American Bar L u J  sma9'qai  Union Bar SP  it  Cheam  »  AK  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s ScOWlitZ  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soovahlie  SW  Wellington L a J /  sma9'alaq  w  Kilgard  t'aimai  HP  w  Katzie  JG sma9 ' a i a l a q '  PB  Matsqui ma'e'ailaq  smaG ' q a l  Aitchelitz  ER  ma9' aiaq'  RB  sma9'qan  Musqueam Nanaimo SJ  mi'e'qal  sm/e'qai  S h e l l Beach  ti  AL  it  Kuper I . AG  sma9 'qan  Cowichan A J  sxalamas  H  r-> vo  76.  "brain  American Bar LuJ  sqalx e le w  /,  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  it  Aitchelitz  Cheam AK  ti  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  tt  Matsqui  JG PB  tt  ER  x aha•ma4 w  q'£yaq ' w  'windpipe'  Rosedale  CT  it  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  ti  Musqueam  sqanx eyla  tt  Nanaimo SJ  sx qanx ela  it  S h e l l Beach  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  OF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  BP  Soovahlie  SW  HP  RB  sx qanx £la w  w  w  w  AL  w  xaminai  Kuper I . AG Covichan A J  77. throat  'windpipe  American Bar  LuJ  Union Bar SP  q'(9)p'a-ieatii  Wellington  LaJ  sq'(a)p'a -ieatii  Aitchelltz  JG  /  Cheam AK  tt  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  tt  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  tt  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  HP  PB  q'p'alstil  sq'p'al6itil  ER  q'p'a'lctil  RB  sq'p'alGatim  Musqueam  sqp'al9aten  sq'p'a-ls£il  Nanaimo S J  sq ewam  tt  S h e l l Beach  Tzeachten  NP  sq'ap'a-letii  Soowahlie  SW  q'ap'a'lstil  1.75  AL  Kuper I . AG  tt  Cowichan AJ  tt  ro  79.  knee  American Bar L u J  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam HP  Nanaimo  ER RB  SJ  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  HP  Soowahlie  SW  ? s  i-nas  3.ho  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  11  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Harrison M i l l s  "  e'axemen AL  I  . sc'mi'nas 'breast bone'  it  Cowichan A J  78.  chest  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  JG  II  ER  sx ?a-cisxyil w  RB  sx a6isqan w,?  3.36  / xy  HP  sx a9asxyan w?  Nanaimo SJ  snax aisan w  'arch' S h e l l Beach Kuper I . AG  AL  sxaGis it  it  Cowichan AJ  80.  sole of foot  American Bar LuJ  sx ?a0 w  Union Bar SP  t?  Cheam AK  Wellington L a J Aitchelltz Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  » it  PB  Matsqui Katzie  JG  ER  'CISCIS  RB  Musqueam HP  qelemces  3.30  Nanaimo S J S h e l l Beach  AL  sxa'Gis t e n  9  celis  'palm of your hand'  Tzeachten  HP  Kuper I . AG sx ?aec w  Cowichan AJ  qelemcis 'the very centre of your hand'  Soowahlie  SW H  8l.  palm of hand  ro  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  p'iaq 'xyil w  Union Bar SP Cheam  Aitchelitz  AK  Kilgard " / sak xyil 'twist the hone' 'sprain  JG PB  w  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  II  CT  c'4a-q yil w  Matsqui Katzie  ER RB  x  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  it  HP  se'94aq 'xyil w  p'4eq xysn w  Musqueam AG. Nanaimo S J  "  w  S h e l l Beach AL  n  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  it  Cowichan A J  n  Soovahlle  SW  q ayaxyi w  ?  DF  BP  /  q aya s3n  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  1  82.  sprain leg  American Bar L u J  4cu.s.  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  ?ewk 'ixyil  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  S3C1WS  Kilgard  Seabird I.  w  LiJ  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  t x a t t e ' a l s4E'-q 3m w  w  ?  HP  awate s4e'q 3mw  PB  Matsqui Katzie  ?E-k 'slxyil  Nanaimo SJ  wite  S h e l l Beach  ?  w  o-k 'xuil w  w  t'q ilis w  RB  Musqueam  siE*q um  p'q ilas  ER  iciws  w  JG  iciws  AL  ?  ewk 'aina4 w  Kuper I . AG  IT  Cowichan A J  IT  83. be out of breath  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG PB  ER RB  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  NP  Soowahlie  SW  k.126  Nanaimo SJ  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  GaGax™  AL  x 4\'as w  Cowichan A J  81*.  g i r l ' s puberty  American Bar L u J  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG  ER RB  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  HP  Soovahlle  SW  sysm ysm ?  Nanaimo SJ  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  sy-im'yim •  AL  it tt  Ccvichan A J  85. pregnant  American Bar L u J  malq'fwssm  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK Seabird I .  Wellington L a J  LiJ  n  Kilgard  ti  Matsqui ER  malq'awai  JG  PB  x malq'wai w  malqi'wsam  Rosedale  CT  it  Chehalis  EL  it  Musqueam AG  n  Nanaimo S J  it  S h e l l Beach AL  II  Kuper I . AG  n  Katzie  RB  maA'  'to be stumpe  II it  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Scowlitz  DF  it  Lekemel  HT  II  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  maA'el  'to see a spi  Cowichan A J  86.  pass out, f a i n t  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  „  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  -  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  q'aq'ay  Nanaimo SJ  q'aq'i  Harrison M i l l s  HP  ER RB  ti IT  DF  S h e l l Beach AL  ><  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  »  Cowichan  »  Soowahlie  7  'sick, die'  Scowlitz  Tzeachten IIP  k.222  AJ  I  sxai 'sick, ache'  SW  87.  sick  American Bar LuJ  st'  al(a)max  w  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  it  Aitchelitz  Cheam  tt  Kilgard  it  Matsqui  AK  Seabird I .  LU  JG PB  ER  st'almax' tt it ti  Rosedale  CT  ti  Katzie  RB  it  Chehalis  EL  ti  Mu8quee%Q  it  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo SJ  /  siexan?  Scovlitz  DF  tt  S h e l l Beach AL  it  Lekemel  HT  tt  Kuper I . AG  ti  ti  Covichan A J  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  t' almax'  88. medicine  American Bar L u J  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I .  LiJ  Matsqui  ER  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Scowlitz  DF  HP  "  PB  Rosedale  Harrison M i l l s  ? "  c'q'at  RB  6q' it  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  AL j c eq tam 'poking l i k e with w  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  Kuper I . AG  c'aq"  needle'  Cowichan A J  89.  poke  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  c * xat HP  JG PB  ER RB  xeyp " "  Musqueam Nanaimo SJ  " AL "  Scovlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  "  Cowichan  "  Tzeachten  HP  Soovahlle  SW  yp'  AJ  90. scratch  / xip  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  it  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  tt  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG PB  ti  Nanaimo SJ  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I .  SW  n  AG  S h e l l Beach  Soovahlle  'shatter, burst  RB  DF  HP  it  ER  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  ^t'xyeyxati  AG  AL  it tt  Cowichan A J  91.  smash  American Bar  LuJ  x te•t w  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  "  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  "  Kilgard  Seabird I. L i J  "  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  "  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  "  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG PB  ER RB AG  Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz  DP  "  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  "  Kuper I . AG  "  Cowichan AJ  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  AL  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  JG  ?  e-p'it  PB  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  e'p' et  Nanaimo SJ  ?ee'et  Harrison M i l l s  HP  ER RB  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  RT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  Cowichan  AJ  AL  2.20  "  x elat w  "  93.  wipe  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I .  LiJ  Matsqui  JG PB  ER  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam AG  Harrison M i l l s  HP  RB  DF  S h e l l Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  HP  Soowahlie  SW  4at'qwam  ii  Nanaimo SJ  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  IT  Cowichan A J  4ap'q 3m w  it  it  9k.  boiling  (intrs  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  A i t c h e l l t z JG  Cheam AK  Kilgard  PB  A'pi-lastsx" 'lowering i t down'  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui ER  Rosedale CT  K a t z i e RB  Chehalis EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  A'pilstax*  A  S h e l l Beach AL  Lekemel  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten HP Soowahlie  'push him down into the water, dunk him'  Nanaimo S J  S c o w l i t z DF HT  miq'sst  Q  Cowichan A J  SW co  95.  sink ( i t )  CO  American Bar L u J  Sx atim w  p  a*m  Wellington LaJ  'bread r i s i n g '  Union Bar SP  "  Aitchelitz  Cheam AK  "  Kilgard  "  Matsqui  Seabird I .  LiJ  JG  CT  "  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  "  Musqueam  "  Nanaimo SJ  HP  "  DF  »  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  "  Kuper I .  AG  "  Cowichan  AJ  HP  Soowahlie  SW  t!  RB  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  it  ER  Rosedale  Harrison M i l l s  t>  PB  2.100  p' a*m  AL  tt it  96.  swell  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam HP  tt  PB  Seabird I. L i J  Harrison M i l l s  JG  it  ER RB  ti  nayai  2.66  Nanaimo SJ  yen am  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach AL  "  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  "  Cowichan  "  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  AJ  H  97.  laugh  O  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam^  Harrison M i l l s  HP  ti  JG  tt  ER RB  xW  nay3mas tt  A G  Nanaimo SJ  IT '  x y3nsm3s w  Scovlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  AL  tt tt  Cowichan AJ  98.  smile  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  "  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  JG  "  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo  ER  "  RB  " AG  "  SJ  wa was  A'awam  ?  'yapping' Scovlitz  DF S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  'barking  AL  "  HT Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  HP Cowichan  Soovahlle  AJ  "  SW  99.  (to) bark  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  JG PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam AG  Harrison M i l l s  BP  ER RB  DP  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  NP  Soowahlie  SW  am ' i  Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  tt  AL  Cowichan AJ  LAJ  100.  come  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  II  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  it  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG  II  ER  II  RB  x anxyensm w  Nanaimo SJ  x cenam w  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  it  Cowichan AJ  II  Tzeachten IIP Soowahlie  AL  II  SW  101.  run  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar 8 P  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I. L i J  Matsqui ER  Rosedale  Katzie RB  CT  Chehalis EL Harrison Mills  JG :  PB  Musqueam AG HP  Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz DF  Shell Beach AL  Lekemel  Kuper I. AG  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  Cowichan AJ  102.  swim  American Bar  LuJ  k 'scit w  k^aciex*  Wellington  LaJ "  1!  Aitchelitz  JG  II  'look at . i t ' 'see' Union Bar SP Cheam  "  AK  11  k 'acit w  k 'sclax w  w  Kilgard  "  IT  PB  'look at i t ' 'see' Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  HP  Nanaimo  ER  TT  "  RB  k e'k ac w,  w,  k 'acnax w  SJ  S h e l l Beach  1.79  w  le'mat AL  le'mat  la'mnax  w  k ' e c i t k 'e'cnax w  Na.  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  11  TI  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  Cowichan  AJ  " IT  103.  see, look  w  w  American Bar LuJ  k 'scxyil w  Wellington  LaJ  k 'acx il w  'scout' Union Bar SP  k 'acxyit w  y  'look for tracks' Aitchelitz  JG  'look f o r footprints Cheam AK  k 'ac yil •look f o r footprints  Seabird I. L i J  k 'ak 'acxyit 'scouting'  Matsqui  k 'acxyil 'look f o r tracks'  Katzie  k scxyil 'see the tracks'  Musqueam  Rosedale  Chehalis  w  X  CT  Lekemel  Tzeachten  Soowahlie  DF  HT  HP  PB  k 'acxe-lem w  'to look backwards, t o be aware'  w  ER  w  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Scovlitz  w  Kilgard  RB  w ,  HP  k 'cile.p 'scout' w  k -' acxye • lam 'scout'  Nanaimo SJ  w  sa-lq t 'look for t r a c k s '  w  Shell Beach AL  w ,  k 'aca'ma 'hunting around'  x Islam? Sans x le lamaxanam 'looking for tracks" 'always lookin around' w  Kuper I. AG  w  Cowichan AJ  SW  iQk.  scout  /?  American Bar LuJ  ku  -.  t  'take'  Union Bar 8P  m  i  £  .  t  'hold'  kfaie'is  'carry  Wellington  LaJ  'hold'  along'  It  Tl  AK  TT  IT  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  TT  TT  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  »  TT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  TT  TI  Musqueam  n  »  Nanaimo S J  Cheam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Aitchelltz  JG  ER RB  II  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  n  „  Kuper I . AG  it  Cowichan A J  Soowahlie  SW  n  w  'hold'  it  it  k anet  AG  DF  UP  "  PB  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  "  k ariat 'take' w  AL  k anet 'hold' w  "  105.  take,  hold  American Bar  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I .  LuJ  eahi-eat  xya'-iamaGat  k"ak aiax w,  LiJ  Matsqui  PB ER  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam AG  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  HP  Nanaimo S J  k 'a'-k 'acit w  Lekemel Tzeachten  ak ac6at w,  la'lam'aGat.  S h e l l Beach AL Kuper I . AG  k 'ak '3ceat w  Soowahlie  w  HT NP  RB  w  Cowichan A J  SW  1 0 6 .  "be careful  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I .  LU  Matsqui  ER  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam HP  wsVa*' AG  Nanaimo S J  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  "  RB  Scovlitz  Tzeachten IIP  Covichan  "  PB  Rosedale  Harrison M i l l s  JG  AJ  waA'ac' AL  " 11  "  SW i—• 107.  f a l l down, stumble  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  "  JG  "  Union Bar SP  it  Aitchelitz  Cheam  it  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I.  LU  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  sq'elax"  II  HP  Matsqui Katzie  n  PB ER RB  "  Musqueam  "  II  Hanaimo  II  S h e l l Beach it  "  SJ  Kuper I . AG  stat3i?stex  AL  1.82 w  " "  Cowichan AJ  108. know  H H  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam HP  it ti  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Harrison M i l l s  JG  ER  ti  RB  k intal w  2.97  Nanaimo SJ  tt  Scovlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  tt  Cowichan AJ  it  Tzeachten  NP  Soovahlle  SW  AL  it  109.  fight  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG  Nanaimo SJ  HT  Kuper I . AG  HP  Soowahlie  SW  TT  A G  Lekemel Tzeachten  II  RB  S h e l l Beach  w  IT  ER  DF  ?  II  PB  Scowlitz  ste 3x ai  sA'aliqei  AL  TI  II  Cowichan AJ  110.  children  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG  ER RB  A G  Nanaimo S J  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  AL  Cowichan AJ  H  111. lazy  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I .  LU  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo SJ  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  SW  it  RB  S h e l l Beach  Soowahlie  it  ER  DF  HP  ti  PB  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  it  JG  x qel9wii w  AL  xwW? ti  Cowichan AJ  112. stingy  American Bar L u J  scuwat  Wellington  LaJ  "  JG  "  'quick' 'know how'  Union Bar SP  ,,  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  „  Kilgard  PB  "  q'a ilis ?  'adept, capable'  Seabird I .  LiJ  „  Matsqui  ER  'sensible, level-headed' x q'3?£*lss  "  w  ' smart'  Rosedale  CT  „  leq'si-iss  Katzie  RB  x q?il9 'well-behaved' w  S  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  HP  „  Musqueam  „  Nanaimo  SJ  Scowlitz  DF  „  S h e l l Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  „  Kuper I . AG  „  Cowichan AJ  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  sieyc'ai  113.  smart  American Bar L u J  Wellington  LaJ  "  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  JO  "  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I .  LiJ  PB  Matsqui ER  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo  RB  sWx* it  SJ  sk £s w  Scovlitz  DP  S h e l l Beach AL  sne  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  »  Covichan  »  Tzeachten  NP  Soovahlle  SW  AJ  ^..Q^  '?  I—  Hk.  name  1  American Bar L u J  s aliya ?  Wellington  LaJ JG  Union Bar SP  it  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  it  Kilgard  it  Matsqui  Seabird I .  LiJ  " 11  PB ER  "  ?  a'liya  a  ' s p i r i t power'  Rosedale  CT  tl  Chehalis  EL  tt  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Katzie  RB  Nanaimo  ?al?alys  SJ  Scowlitz  DF  tl  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  It  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  tt  s'al'aliye  Musqueam  It  Cowichan  AJ  'dream'  ~  qal^qal^aGan  *+.91  sqalqalaean AL  "  "  ?  ay lama t  i—  1  CO  115.  dream  American Bar L u J  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kil«ard  AK  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  HP  JG PB  ER  wilam  ?  tt  RB AG  tt  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  AL tt  Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ  "  tawtaw^alaqsp  tt  tt  H  116.  echo  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  U.121 9 ' amaq ' as w  'giant'  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  SW  sesq E C  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  Soowahlie  it  RB  DF  NP  ti  ER  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  it  Cowichan AJ  peps£\\ Lws ?  'hairy man'  AL tt  ti  117. hairy giant  American Bar L u J Union Bar SP Cheam  Wellington LaJ  stem amixy ?  Aitchelitz  s i lei'mamixy  AK  Kilgard  it  Seabird I .  LiJ  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  secima'mixy  Katzie  it  it  HP  Matsqui  stem k s tamixy w  JG PB  selcimamixy  ER RB  Musqueam  sc9k al' a' l3s w  ?  it  AG  Nanaimo SJ it  ?  tu?sk alss w  ti  S h e l l Beach AL  tt  Kuper I . AG Cowichan A J  118.  What colour i s i t ?  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  HP  JG  ER RB  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  AL  9£ee'ax am w  'colours at sunset' Lekemel  HT  ti  Kuper I . AG  'blue' Tzeachten Soowahlie  NP SW  Cowichan A J  cq ay w  'blue, green'  ON  119.  blue  American Bar L u J  Wellington  LaJ  "  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  JG  "  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo  "  ER  "  RB  Gi? ei*  SJ  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  e£*  Cowichan  "  Soovahlle  AJ  S-PC  "  Scovlitz  Tzeachten IIP  r  C1C9  AL  9i?  SW  120. b i g  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo  SJ  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  SW  n it  S h e l l Beach  Soowahlie  ce  RB  DF  NP  „  ER  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  „  Cowichan AJ  2.79 iec  AL  it  ti  121.  dark  American Bar LuJ  t'et'i'-l  Union Bar SP  'lonely' it  Cheam  AK  Seabird I .  UJ  st'a-yx  w  Wellington L a J  'sorry'  Aitchelitz  n  Kilgard  it  Matsqui  PB ER  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison H i l l s Scovlitz  OP  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soovahlie  SW  HP  II  Nanaimo II  JG  RB  SJ  S h e l l Beach Kuper I . AG  sqiqalss AL qiias  Cowichan AJ  122.  sad  American Bar LuJ  ?  i 9xwii ?  'small'  Union Bar Cheam  SP  ?  amimal  Wellington LaJ  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  tt  CT  Chehalis  EL  Matsqui  Harrison M i l l s  Katzie ?sx ii w  HP  ?  PB  ?ex i'-l  ER RB  e' ax i-n' 7  w  ''ax'-in  Nanaimo  tt  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  tt  SW  7  SJ  S h e l l Beach AL  Soovahlle  ?  Musqueam  DF  HP  "  w  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  mimal  w  JG  7  Rosedale  e ax i*l  'tiny'  Aitchelitz  AK  ?  Cowichan A J  ON ON  123.  small  American Bar L u J  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP Cheam  'eyiG'e 'smooth-of clothes, f a b r i c '  AK  yalisam (as shake)  Seabird I .  syayA'al  LiJ  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Aitchelltz Kilgard  PB  Matsqui  ?  iya*lisim  laq'alep 'smooth, l e v e l ground'  yilsp 'even ground'  HP  Katzie  JG  ER RB  salic'  Musqueam Nanaimo S J  yalisem  Scowlitz  DF  ?  S h e l l Beach  aliy3p  'smooth, l e v e l ground'  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  AL  s a l i q ' silq'anap i?yalas 'even' 'level ground' (as shake)' ?  Kuper I . AG i(a)li-q'  eyie'e, ' l e v e l , smooth'  ?  Cowichan A J  124.  smooth  American Bar LuJ Union Bar  GeV"  Wellington L a J e'i*-k '  SP  w  Cheam AK  „  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Kilgard e'aV"  Matsqui  t'ak '  Katzie  w  l ^ HP  Aitchelltz  g  '  c'aq  JG PB  ER  w  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  SW  w  Musqueam  DF  HP  caq  RB  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  sGsGik"'  GaGeq"'  AL  Cowichan AJ  125.  straight  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  JG  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo  SJ  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  SW  Cowichan  " "  S h e l l Beach  AJ  ?  "  RB  DF  NP  tqe•ce  ER  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  "  2  t e c1s 9  AL  " 11  "  126.  American Bar L u J  sk '(i) yas 'moon, month' w  X  iqelc' 'month'  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  A i t c h e l l t z JG  Cheam AK  Kilgard  PB  »  ti  " 'moonlight'  Seabird I .  LiJ  Matsqui  ER  "  Rosedale CT  Katzie  Chehalis EL  Musqueam  "  Nanaimo S J  "  Harrison M i l l s  HP  RB  "  S c o w l i t z DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  Kuper I . AG  "  Cowichan  "  HT  Tzeachten NP  AJ  'moon, month'  AL  "  Soowahlie Sw  127.  moon, month  American Bar LuJ  sy a*q am w  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  it  Aitchelitz  Cheam AK  it  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  it  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  II  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  II  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  JG PB  ER RB  Nanaimo SJ  Scovlitz  DF  II  S h e l l Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  II  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten IIP Soowahlie  II  syaq am w  1.27 sem'saGat /s  Cowichan A J  SW 3 128.  sun  American Bar L u J  sq atxyim w  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  ii  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  II  Kilgard  n  Matsqui  Seabird I .  LiJ  JG  PB ER  it  Rosedale  CT  II  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  ti  Musqueam  sq atxy3m  it  Nanaimo SJ  spe x  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Scowlitz  DF  it  S h e l l Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  II  Kuper I . AG  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  it  RB  /  w  ?  w  ti  spe x am ?  w  Cowichan AJ  129.  fog  spe'x^m  American Bar Union Bar  LuJ  piwatem  SP  Cheam AK  Wellington  LaJ  Aitchelitz  JG  Kilgard  Seabird I .  LiJ  pislwals  PB  Matsqui  ER  Rosedale CT  Katzie  Chehalis  Musqueam  EL  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo  RB  SJ  DF  S h e l l Beach AL  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie SW  II  II  spawels 7.68  pawels  Scovlitz  Tzeachten HP  ti  Gimatam  I  pipawatam Na.  'becoming s o l i d '  n  pawels  Covichen  AJ II  130.  freeze  3  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam  AK  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  "  s p  £ ? w  n  PB ER  "  RB  "  Nanaimo SJ  sGima ? -  Scowlitz  DF  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  "  Cowichan  "  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  2.1+3  »  AJ  AL  »  131. i c e  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  k 'ak 'is w  w  Union Bar SP  tt  Aitchelitz  Cheam  tt  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I . L i J  tt  Rosedale  tt  CT  ha-lq am w  'mild' II  PB  Matsqui Katzie  JG II  ER  n  RB  tt  'hot, warm' Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  HP  ti  it  Musqueam  k 'ak 'as  tt  ti  Nanaimo SJ  k 'e?las  w  w  w  tt  Scovlitz  DF  it  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  ti  Kuper I . AG  ti  Cowichan A J  ti  Tzeachten  HP  Soovahlie  SW  AL  132.  American Bar L u J  sG'i-q'el ii  Union Bar SP  Wellington L a J  sG'iG'aqal  Aitchelltz  t'aq t'aq  JG  w  it  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  si&q~.  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  G'iG'aq'al  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  sG'iq'al  Musqueam  t'aq t'aq  Nanaimo SJ  st'iqel  Cheam  AK  PB  w  siyaq'  ER  st'it'aqal  t'aq t'aq w  'dingy'  Harrison M i l l s  HP  II  RB  sGlaqal w  II  Scowlitz  DF  sG'iG'aq'al  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HP  t'aq t'aq  Kuper I . AG  n  Cowichan AJ  II  w  Tzeachten  NP  sG'lqal  Soowahlie  SW  G'iG'aqal  w  'mud'  AL  'muddy' 133. mud  w  7-9  w  American Bar LuJ  Wellington LaJ  syic'am  Aitchelitz  Union Bar SP Cheam  AK  Kilgard  II  Seabird I . L i J Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  ti  HP  ER RB  Musqueam  1.33  Nanaimo SJ  ti  it it  Katzie  JG PB  Matsqui s y i c am  it  S h e l l Beach  p'q acan w  ?  AL  Kuper I . AG Cowichan AJ  3 13 1+  sand  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  Kilgard  Seabird I . L I J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  JG sqGa-9  PB  A'ce•s  ER RB  sk 9e?(s) w  AG  7.37 Harrison M i l l s  HP  Nanaimo SJ  Scowlitz  DP  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  sk 0e? w  AL  sk 0e?s w  sqaqeGaq. 'islands '  Tzeachten Soowahlie  HP  Cowichan A J  s l f  island'  A'ce's 'island by V i c t o r i a ' (off Oak Bay) 'island' sk ik 0a •little w  SW  135.  island  w  ?  island'  American Bar LuJ Union Bar SP Cheam  sk il w  " ti  AK  Ge-txam 'high -waterfall' n sk iya 'small f a l l s * w  •little falls'  Seabird I .  LiJ  CT  Lekemel  DF HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  Kilgard  PB ER  falls'  RB  Musqueam Ge-txam  Scowlitz  JG  ca-lqtaqa  1  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Aitchelltz  Katzie sca'laGat ta q a  Chehalis  LaJ  Matsqui 'big  Rosedale  Wellington  HP  (ta sta'lo)  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  AL  sk ac w  Cowichan  AJ  caVam qa  'falling water'  'jumping water'  ?  ' f a l l s by Cowichan River'  Kuper I . AG  hi lam qa  it 'waterfall*  n  3 VO  136.  waterfall  American Bar L u J  q'ayetam  Union Bar SP Cheam  x tilti^m w  AK  Seabird I .  LU  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Wellington L a J  q'ayi-x  Kilgard  x ilq 'iyam  Matsqui  q' ayaxam  Katzie  w  w  x titi-m  Musqueam  hamq'alaq 'whirlpool'  Nanaimo  w  HP  Aitchelitz  q ayxam 'rough water' q' eyaxam  titi*m  JG  PB  q ayax  ER RB  x titim w  sq'ay axam ?  SJ  S h e l l Beach  ?  AL  1.2k  iyamtam  sqeqam  Kuper I . AG  qem q'ayaxam sxalac' 'hack eddy' 'whirlpool' 'cross current' . x t i t i m 'river flowing against current' AJ > „ /. , qayxam sxalac' 'choppy water' ?  w  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  IT  :  Cowichan  137.  eddy, whirlpool  American Bar L u J  ya* l c i p  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  tt  A i t c h e l i t z JG  Cheam AK  it  Kilgard  tt  Matsqui ER  Seabird I .  LiJ  Rosedale CT  GiGahe'laq  Katzie  xy icii a  PB  RB  sq 'a41e'laq w  'big wave'  Chehalis EL Harrison M i l l s  sme'leq  HP  Musqueam  sha ya laq ?  ?  Nanaimo SJ  Scovlitz  DF  sme' 'yalaq  S h e l l Beach AL  hqay'yiiaq  Lekemel  HT  sy a l c i p -  Kuper I . AG  la'yal^aq  sme•laq  Cowichan A J  ha' yalaq  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  7.29  GiGe'?laq 'big wave' w  ?  138.  wave  American Bar L u J  e'e-m  Wellington L a J  'water went down  Union Bar SP Cheam AK Seabird I . Rosedale  ,  A i t c h e l l t z JG  „  Kilgard  t  LiJ  CT  PB  Matsqui ER „  Katzie  RB  c3k cak  "  w  w  ' low t i d e '  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  „ HP  it  Musqueam ni9qiniil  Nanaimo  A  G  ssVssm?  SJ  'low t i d e  S h e l l Beach AL Scowlitz Lekemel  DF  ,t Kuper I .  AG  Cowichan  AJ  x  „ ' w c a  k  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  u  0  » ' E  m  'water went down'  139.  low t i d e  American B a r L u J  Wellington LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  AK  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison H i l l s  HP  JG PB  RB  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  SW  tt  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  Soovahlle  sme.nt  A G  DF  NP  tt  ER  Scovlitz  Tzeachten  it  Jk'sc'a AL  ti  Covichan AJ  H  11*0.  rock  CO  sp'aA'am  Wellington  LaJ  "  Union Bar SP  tt  Aitchelltz  JG  »  Cheam AK  tt  Kilgard  American Bar LuJ  Seabird I .  LiJ  PB  Matsqui  ER  Rosedale  CT  tt  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  it  Musqueam AG  tt  Nanaimo  Harrison H i l l s  HP  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  tt  Kuper I . AG  it  Cowichan  SW  " "  sA'ayaq'  'cigarette, tobacco'  ti  Soowahlie  "  SJ  DF  NP  "  RB  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  "  AJ  AL  11  "  " "  11  1*+1.  smoke  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam HP  ER  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  Soowahlie  SW  Cowichan  ti it  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  NP  q'lleVtx"  AG  DF  Tzeachten  ce'iti l'awtx'  RB  Scowlitz  c s i t i la*wtx' tl  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Harrison M i l l s  JG  AL  it  it  AJ  lk2.  smoke shed for drying fish  American Bar LuJ  Wellington L a J  Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  Seabird I . L i J  JG PB  Matsqui  ER  tilcalaq" 'wind from up-country'  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s ScOWlitZ  DF  HP  RB  tenia's spa'hsls  tanca laq ?  Nanaimo SJ tilca'-laq"  S h e l l Beach  'wind from u p h i l l '  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  NP  Soowahlie  SW  w  AL  tan ca?la'q ?  w  'west wind'  Kuper I . AG tiiaia-s  Cowichan  AJ  "  1L3.  wind from down-wat  American Bar LuJ  xaA'Gat ta sw£-yl  Union Bar SP  sqalam  Cheam  Aitchelltz  AK  Kilgard  Seabird WCOWJ.AU I.  L i" J  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  Wellington L a J  OF  '-, t ^ •a• swe*yl * maqalam  Matsqui  maqalam k s sw£'yl  Katzie  w  JG PB  ER RB  q a l swayal  Musqueam HP  qaqali'm  T. 56  yal'yal'ac'  Nanaimo SJ  qalqe•lam  S h e l l Beach  AL  scax am w  'storm, wind' Lekemel Tzeachten  HT HP  scux"am  Kuper I . AG  xaA' 'stormy'  Cowichan  AJ  sk ik ayal w  w  xaV 'strong wind'  Soowahlie  SW  1*4*+.  storm  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar  Aitchelitz  JG  Cheam  SP  AK  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  x^cfiiwistil 'storm for  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  OF  Lekemel  HT  HP  PB ER RB  Musqueam  8-9days' C'putting the paddles avay'D  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  AL 'wind that never stops'  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  Kuper I .  AG  Cowichan  AJ  tt  1^5.  storm that l a s t s 3-h  days  American Bar L u J  Wellington L a J  w  rT  Union Bar SP  A i t c h e l l t z JG  ti  Cheam AK Seabird I . Rosedale  l i yax  LiJ  Kilgard  n  PB  Matsqui  CT  l l t t 3WS  Katzie  ?  II  ER RB  i s t'aw3  ?  i 4 yax  w  'must be, maybe'  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scowlitz  DF  Musqueam HP  it ?  i 4 yax  w  Nanaimo SJ  ?  i yax  S h e l l Beach AL ni?yax  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soowahlie  SW  n i ' a i yax'  w  w  ?i4 yax  w  ii  Kuper I . AG Cowichan A J  lh6.  must  (inferential)  American Bar L u J  ?  i" 1  t'awa  tx t'awa  Wellington L a J  w  Union Bar SP  ya* saws  A i t c h e l i t z JG  Cheam AK  l i t'awa  Kilgard  yaswa t'awa  Matsqui ER  ya*swa 'perhaps'  Katzie RB  tawxc'E  Seabird I .  LiJ  'I guess  Rosedale CT Chehalis EL  yasaw'a  l i t'awa  PB  lit'awe 'mayhe'  Musqueam  'I don't Harrison M i l l s  HP ?  Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten HP  ii  t'awa  yaswe?  ya- sawa  Nanaimo SJ  ?  i wa'wa'  S h e l l Beach AL  it  Kuper I . AG  tt  Covichan A J  tt  SoovahUe SW  lhj.  perhaps, maybe  American Bar LuJ  c'ec'ai  Union Bar SP  <-  Aitchelltz  Cheam AK  n  Kilgard  Seabird I . L i J  »  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s  Katzie  HP  JG PB  ER RB  <>  Musqueam  »»  Nanaimo SJ  A  c'e c an  DF  ti  S h e l l Beach  Lekemel  HT  it  Kuper I . AG  »  Cowichan AJ  HP  Soowahlie  SW  TT  Q  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  IT  Wellington LaJ  *'alim?  AL  IT  IT  lh8.  really  (intensifi  Wellington LaJ  American Bar L u J Union Bar SP  Aitchelitz  iik is w  Cheam AK  tsmt  Seabird I . CT  Chehalis  EL  Harrison M i l l s Scovlitz  DF  Lekemel  HT  Tzeachten  HP  Soovahlle  SW  ti  Katzie  JG PB  Matsqui  LU  Rosedale  Kilgard  tamtE'mis  ER RB  Musqueam HP  c'8x ie  Nanaimo SJ  it  S h e l l Beach Kuper I .  AG  w  AL  ?  » "  Covichan A J  1^9.  sometimes  American Bar LuJ  Wellington  LaJ  Union Bar SP  Aitchelltz  JG  Cheam  Kilgard  AK  7  awe hieas  c'imai  PB  Seabird I . L i J  Matsqui  Rosedale  CT  Katzie  Chehalis  EL  Musqueam  Harrison M i l l s  HP  Lekemel  HT  Kuper I . AG  SW  H  cale'l  Nanaimo SJ S h e l l Beach  Soowahlie  »  RB  OF  NP  »  ER  Scowlitz  Tzeachten  "  AL  "  II  wai c a l e l  Cowichan A J  150.  soon  Appendix C.  Salish  Cognates  194  A b b r e v i a t i o n s and Sources: Cx Se Sq Nk CI Lm So Sa Sg NPg SPg Tw Sh Li Th  D a v i s , 1968 unpublished f i l e s , Ronald C. Beaumont Squamish K u i p e r s , 1967, 1969 Nooksack Amoss, 1 9 6 l Clallam Thompsonand Thompson, n.d. Lummi » Sooke E f r a t , 1969 Saanich Pidgeon, 1970 Songish " M i t c h e l l , 1968 Northern Puget S a l i s h Hess, 1976 Southern Puget S a l i s h Snyder, 1968 Twana M. Dale Kinkade, f i l e s Shuswap K u i p e r s , 197^ Lillooet Swaboda, 1968 Thompson Thompson and Thompson, n.d. Comox Sechelt  TTK  An important secondary source used f o r t h i s paper was the comparative S a l i s h notebooks of Thompson, Thompson, and Kinkade, e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r Comox and Nooksack. These notebooks c o n t a i n many s p e c u l a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s that a r e not i n f i n a l i z e d form. These w i l l be l a b e l e d PS-TTK.  BG-A BG-L  Brent Galloway, 1976a " b  TH WS  Thomas Hukari Wayne S u t t l e s  Forms f o r So, Sa, Sg, or Nk marked - f are from the f i l e s of Barbara E f r a t . A b b r e v i a t i o n s used f o r Halkomelem: Is Ml Dr Ur  Island Mainland Downriver Upriver  Ms Cw Na Kw Ka  Musqueam Cowichan Nanaimo Kwantlen Katzie  195 Mats Kilg Chil Cheh Le k l  Matsqui Kilgard a l l points i n Chilliwack area Chehalis Lekemel  Two c a p i t a l s , e.g., AG, RB, i n d i c a t e  informants.  Data from d i a l e c t s are between commas; languages a r e between semicolons. I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g word a n a l y s i s i s i n parentheses. More s p e c u l a t i v e cognates or a n a l y s e s are i n b r a c k e t s . i n d i c a t e s that the informant used both forms without d i s t i n c t i o n whereas / i n d i c a t e s that there were v a r i a t i o n s i n areas but not i n i n d i v i d u a l speakers, or there were two words of s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t meaning.  196  alder  Is k ilal?aip;Sq k^luVai Li-TTK k l u l ' a z ' PS-TTK w  k -lul  w  w  ;  ant  arrow  axe  Dr  k 'ax si-£p  Ur  xeye'iip  Is Sg  e'ame'iye, caV'c'iyi;  Ur  x^e-sam  I s,Dr Saa-f  e'ai'en'.^ Sq c'am'e'n  Ur  sik ale'.xy  w  w  ( xaye> Dr,Kw gq  e'amaG'e. c'ac'mxcn  c'm'a'l?  ;  ('arrow,  w  Is sk 'q am, c Cl-TTK sk 'q am Nk-TTK sk 'q^am w  'unripe')  h i l ,  w  w  gun')  NP  w  ;  Mats, K i l g k q am . sk [s]q ab . w,  w ,  g  w  w  w  (Ur  (to) bark  k q am w,  'hatchet')  w  Dr  k 'q aman  Ur  k 'aq lactal  Is  wawas; Se  w  Sq  w  w  ;  bat  Is  siaq '  Ml  sley^ ;  w  Is Sg Ur  wuwum  Sq  ;  w  (sp  su^n  Conomatopoeticll  X'swi"b k  siaq ey  Sq  w  ar  Q  f  anything')  slay?  _siap!el^exan' (AG ialp'ale'xan , Lm-TTK  'sloppy arms*): ia4]5alexan  p^ip'ae'ale-xal ("squeezing wings'), sk 'ik :?.:alye-xal [ Cx-TTK p'ip'iamax, Wn sap'iy'axan' ] w  heam  w  w  Ml, Na A'awals ; So-f f i r bark  q 'q amn  w  I s , Dr sxa^'wiltan -tan ' instrument') cf thwart, weir  ( x?>•£  'stretch across'  Ur t'aiawai, t ' p ' a i t i l , s x t ' l i w i l t i 1 NPg t'aiusad 'beam i n b u i l d i n g ' ( t'ai[a] 'crossways') w  ;  197 sax t'ax alik 'beam (architecture)' ( t'ax ad 'lay hoards on beam') w  w  w  w  Is,  Dr  sx ?a'?m3t  ( amat  M  (UR  sx amat  'sofa, chair, bedroom')  w,?  Is also (Ur  ' s i t up');  ?  sx ?itat Cold word: ( x t a t 'sleep') sx ?xtat 'bedroom, hotel') w  ?  w  Ur, Kw sx e'xa9, sx -?-exes ( exa9 ' l i e down') ER la^l'wis (old word- sleeping platform) ; NPg lalwa's ?  w  ?  Is, Dr © 1 , Kw s i or t s i (Ur-BG-A ©l- 'bigi'as'ih\L9x9acas 'big hands' ~cas 'hand', 9&:.axyal 'big feet' ~x*al 'foot') [Cx t i ; Se t i • ] Ur h i - k ; So. hx Nk-TTK hi? ( a ) k ; Lm hayx ; NPg hik w  w  Is, Sg  Dr  s q ' a l i s ; Se sq 'ales  ~ h i q , SPg he' k  w  w  sk 'alas ;  w  w  w  Ur  mima-q" mo'oq  'little bird',  ma*q  w  w  Nk  Cheh, Scow, Lekm x eylaq* x eyx alaq ' l i t t l e bird' w  w  w  'big  'big b i r d , duck' bird'  w  Is  lax tan,  Dr  A'ax tan (Ur BG-pc  Is  A''*' l i e '  Ml  qiyxas ;Sq  w  Ur  l a x t i . .1 w  w  Is , Dr  sk x9'ac  Ka  sk x9'ac  Ur  w  ( l a x " 'cover')  A'ax te-1 'blanket robe') w  qxxus  w  w  k e-y; Nk w  k e-y w  k ey; w  Sh  sk wey w  198 box  Is xGam; Sq Sa-f. xGam Ml Th  broom  k 'ax a(?); c 'ax a w  w  w  Dr  children  choprwood  Sq  k 'ax a?: w  w  w  w  w  w  w  /  w  chest  'cedar box'  Is ?ax tan, Ur ?ax til ; Sq ?ix -tn; [Sh ? i x - l e ? p ] ; ( sx a ?ix"aeat (old word) ; Sg s x ? i a x i s a t ; NPg sax ix icut ) w  be careful  xcam  w  w , ?  q 'e?t9n  (AG  w  Is la ama0at. reflexive') cf s ee, look  w  q 'et  'sweep')  w  ( lamat 'look'  ?  Ml  k 'a-k 'acit  Is  G'xeman (Ur-BG-A  Ml (AL Cx Lm  s'l-nas, s sc'minas s i-inas; s'iyanas;  Is CI  s ^ ' a l i q a i ; So si.'a'yi^'qi  Ml Lm  ste?ax a£, ste'-x ai; Sq s-taw'x™* ; ste ux 4;NP.gstawix a'?4;Nk-TTK ste ex a4  w  ( k"'acat  -Gat  w  ?  ?  w  ?  'look')  Q'xemal  'sternum, breastbone) 'chest')  i*las (-i-las 'breastbone'); Nk-TTK s'xlinwas; NPg s ilidag as ?  w  sA i i Aqai,  w  w  w  /?  I s , Dr sq'alcap (saq' ' s p l i t i n h a l f , EL saq'alcip ' s p l i t wood', NP saq'saq'et 'half wood'; Sq saq'nik up cf tear  w  -cap 'wood')  w  coffin  Ur  e'iq 'alcap  (G'iq"'  Is  maqeye; Sg  maqeya  Dr  nawak e, snawak a' ela;  Ur cf  w  w,  t 'ax a box w  w  w>  ?  'punch')  Sq  nawuk a w,  199 coho  Is  0E wan; Sq  Wa  q'etceqs ~  caw^in  /?  /„ 9e wan; CI q'scqs, Lm ?  What colour i s i t ?  NPg  sq'ecqs;  Ml SPg  k 3X^C?)ae ; Nk-TTK k ux -ac; s-k sx ic Tw sk ax ic w  w  w  w  I s , Dr s c a k ^ l ^ a ' l a s (scak el'? 'how' - a l a s ' colour') w  ?  silcimamixy, silcimamixy scak apa mixy 'What does i t look l i k e ? ) w  I s , Ml So icx Wa  crow  w  ;  Ur (AG crab  w  w  q'scqs  ?  ?  x ; Sq  ?  3  9  ay. x ?  ;  Lm  'e'ex  . •  c i a cx ?  ?  9 y x ^ ' ~ messq"; NP^ ?  besq  9  v  q'ale'aq'e?; q q'l'aq'c Is Cm-K q 'ulaqa? ' raven'J C (UR-BG-pc 'Brewer's blackbird') S  w  Dr, Mats, K i l g Ur  s p a l a l , spe'^pal'-al  spa-1  (sps'pal'al 'lots o f crows')  cf raven dark  deer  Is CI  iec; iac  Ml  9e«t;  Sq  i a c ; Lm  Wk  i e c , Sg l e c ,  cast  I s , Dr smaye9; Lu,So,Sa smayes; smiyc 'game , meat' ; Th smiye0 (Ur 'me at') Ur A ' s l q t / l s ( A ' ^ l q t 'long' -i'le 'ears') (Dr,Is • Jt'elqtana 'long ears'); . CTh s^'ule? 'deer'] Kw  smeis  or  t'likt*na  'long ears'  200 C t L p  Is ?axeim?tan 'dipnetting') ; Ms  dream  echo  (TH-pc Sa-f  'i^xeim? ?ax9im( ?) ten  ca k antan ?  w  Ur  q'ama( • ) s t a l , q'aq'ma'stal  Is NPg  sqalqalaGan ; qalqalalitut  Ms  qal?qal?a'ean  Ml Sq  s'aliya n'ali  Sq ~  sqal^qal^asan ; ?al?aliya  ( aliye ?  h.91)  'dream, have a v i s i o n , trance);  Is tawtaw?elaqap 'tree fungus, echo' Is swala a'm 'echo' , Ml wilam , wilwile-m; Sq swalam ?  eight  (ES  Is Se  :  ?  te?cas; ta'acis;  Cx-TTK CI  ta^cis ; ta'cs  Ml tqece?; Sq tq-ac ; Nk-TTK tqeci?; NPg tqaci?, SPg tqace; Tw tqacih f a l l , stumble  Is waA'ac', (Ur-BG-pc  Dr  wac'aA' (metathesis) wac'aA' ' f a l l , drop o f f )  calq, c i l q ;  fight  Is,Drrk intal; Lm • k i t a l , CI k inatl  Sq  Sq  w  11  w  So  cay-qs-am ' f a l l o f f , lose balance'  k^intl; k xn- , Sg w  k intal w  ;  w  Ur floor  ?  iya tal -  Is ,Dr iaxanaptan, Sq ixanptan; So Sg ixanak an w  Tait  lelawis  Ur iaxelaptil; 4xanaq n, Sa iaxnak an, w  w  201 fog  Is Sg  spe'x"; Lm spe?x aro , spe'?x , CI s p a x 3 n  Ml NPg  sq atsm; sq 9txyem; Sq sq sab , SPg sq esab  w  w  ?  w  w  w  w  w  RB spe x em -.. sq at y<3m; Nk-TTK sq atsem . spe x am ,,?  w  w  X  w  freeze  Is  ?  Gimatan  Ml piw9tam (Na s o l i d ' ) j, Nk-f Se piwitam cf i c e frog  hair  hairy giant  w  pxp9W9t9m '"becoming pi'w'els 'freezing';  Is So  sxs'e'nxw; sis ensx  Ml CLi  pipa.m?, pip9ha*m; pipae?£a 'bullfrog' 1  Is CI  se?itan; si'aien  Ml Se Th  me-qel Cx maq9n; m e^9n, maqin ,Nk-TTK . , meqin; meqin; meqin; LLii weqxn; PS-TTK maqin  Is  e'am9q 9s  ?  Sg sxa'enx"  s  w  Lu s i ' e t a n , So s i e t e n , [metathesisH ?  ;  ;  ( sG'am  w  'bone')  i 9'1WS Ml  red huckleberry  se'sq-ac  sk '?q c9s (sk '9q - 'hit' Is,Dr,Kilg,Mats -ess 'hand'); (BG-L 'berry ready.in mid-July') (PB 'black thimbleberries') Sq sk '9q c9s w  w  hummingbird  w  w  w  Ur  sqel9  Is  sx at'c'9li w  Ms , Mats^ t i ' n ; NPg t" Ka t i ' n ~ sx et'c'ali ?  teti'ad  w  Ur  p'isk'e  j Th  p'ssk'e  7  w  202 ice  island  Is  sQima  Ml  spiw( );Se spiw;  7  Nk  ?  spiw  Is sk 9e?; Se sk aca Cx k u9ays; Sa s k c a s , Lm-TTK sk se'? w  w  ;  w  w  ?  w  Ms  sk 9e?s  ~  w  X'ces  Ml *'ce'-s (AL *'ces. 'island o f f of Oak Bay, Victoria'^So*'ces, Sg A'ces; SPg ^'acas Nk-f *'c— ;  knee  Is Sg  sq ewam sq'ek ei3,  Lm CI  ?  ;  w  sq'e'k^an sq'iyaV'en  '  Ml sq'ap'a*19atan, SD'apa-19atal (BG-pc q'sp' 'cover over' -©st reflexive- t a l instrument)  knife  know  lamp, l i g h t  Is  saptan  Sa  Na  saptan  Ml Se  iec'tan, i e - c ' t i l iac'tan  Is  statalstax  Ml  iaq'alax"  ;  ~  sipn, Sg ?axtan  Sq  (BG-A  w  5  lantern, torch, flashlight  ('ix 'scrape') iac'tn-  w  q'al  Is hay^q^'n? Kw ER hi?q ial Ms (ysV Ifire'); Sq RB sx i'?q i-n'? w  srpan  'believe')  hayukwen, hay'q"!,^ hi?q i*n w  w  Ur  yaq f*-l  Sg  Is Dr  sk ansan, sk anstan sk anxyan Kw sk anxyen  Ur CNPg  sle-xat, s l e - x t i l (laxawa laxsad 'lamp':  w  ;  w  ci?iq sn w  w  w  w  5  'torchlight')  203 lazy  low t i d e  Is  s'em'met  Ml  s'u-mit / ?xc'sl  Se  s u' umat ?  ?  Is , Dr cek cek ; Se £uk te S'IWUC w  w  w  1  far-the-water  1  Na sem'sem?; Sq sam 'low t i d e , be i n shallow water, s t i c k up out of the water': So sesm 7  maple  Ur  9'em  'the water has gone down' (also I  Cw Sa  c'aie4p9'aieip;  So-f NPg  c'le?e4c, c'u iac ?  Is, Dr q'emeniip, Ur q'amu'jip, q'emeleip; Th q'am'neip ; Sq q'mlay medicine  Is  siexen (AG  ie'xent  Ml, Na st'e'lmex™ (AG 'medicate i t ' ) ; CI NPg st'eljix"  moon, month  name  Is, Dr  ?  'medicate i t ' )  t'elmex t stelnex"; w  iqe'lc'  Ur -a*s Sq So CI  iqs'lc' / sk 'xya-s ( k 'xye'-m 'count 'face, round object'); i q a l c ' ; Nk 'iqaelc' ; Lm iqe'lc', iq'ecs ~ i q e i c ' , iqelc', Sg iqayc  Is Lm Sg NPg  sne ( ne'tam 'to be named'); sne, So>'.-ne- 'to name',Sa sne , ne 'to be named', CI sna;  w  w  ?  ?  da?[a],  SPg  Cx  nan;  Ml CSh  sk ixy , s-k est ] w  w  Sq  da> • na-n  Na  sWs;  Se  s W s  ;  204  long Oregon grape  pass out, faint  I s , Dr i a l a c ' e i p CAG ielec'ales Oregon grape berries source of dyeH  'yellow'  Ur  6'uie'iyiip  Is So-f (AG  majt'e'l (RB ma?? 'see a s p i r i t ' ) ma)! 'to take revenge' matfeGat 'to take revenge'  Ml melq'iwsam 'forget o n e s e l f (BG-A malq 'forget' -i'ws 'in the body' -am middle-passive) pregnant  g i r l ' s puberty  raccoon  Is (NP CSg  x^'al'im? (k 'el-e 'stomach, b e l l y ) k 'ek 'ele-m 'Your stomach's getting big') ?esk ay 1  Ml CAG  syam^am?, syi'myim syam'tan 'belt'3  Is  x e£es;  w  w  1  w  w,  w  Ml  eaGix";  Is NPg  sxeyak 'as ; xa?xalus ( xal  ceciV  w  (So-f Ml  Sq  'mark, w r i t e ) ; 1  xay- ; 'to write ') males, melis;  melalus  Sq  I s , Dr, some Ur as borrowing k ecmin Sg k ecamin Ur k ax mal (deer, hoof, r a t t l e ' ) (is sk amen 'deer hooves') / sk e-t'exls, sq etx els w  deer-hoof r a t t l e  w  w  w  w  w  raven  w  w  spa*l  I s , Dr, K i l g , Mats Ur Sq cf  ?  sqiweqs, sqaq aq , sk awels; sqewq NPg kaw'qs, SBg w  crow  w  w  q aq w  w  205 really (intensifier)  Is  fc'slim  7  Ml c'e'c'an, c'e'c'al ("both also mean 'right, straight') rock  Is Sq Sg  sme'*nt smant ; sqenalj,  Ml sme-nt, sme'lt; Lu sneent, So snenat, c i snanat  N sme*nt ~ Jc'a'c's; Nk-TTK c'aVa up c'fc'a?, SPg c'.,e*'a Li-TTK k'aVe PS-TTK ktoav'a (metathesis) a  g  ;  ;  rope of cedar  I s , Dr hark'  s  y 3 s<  ;  3  Ur stilawil of cedar t r e e ' sand  seagull  'rope made from inner cedar  m  'rope made by twisting branches  Is CI CSq  p'q^ecan?; Sg p/Wcan, pq acan', Lm pq scan? q pilcn (metathesis):  Ml  syic'am  w  w  w  Is q ani Nootka „  [Nk  w  q  qene  i n i  Dr, Kilg.^Mats, C h i l Sq q *i'tq Nootka  q 'alitaq q itq w  ;  w  w  ;  Ur  s e e  >  l  G  o  k  I s , Na SPg  :  sliliwye ^  Li  lamnax" » » lab 'see' i ^ L u s e e  lselujag  ^ i ' , lenet 'look' e  m e t  Ml Na ik^a'cnax", k a ' c l a x t k 'acat, k ' a c a t i i k 'a'cnax" N k-TTK k 'ec 'look' w,  w  w  w  w  l  o  o  k  l o o k  s  a e e  ,  i ,' . see  w  sink ( i t )  I s , Dr ^'pilastax" ( *'pil 'below') (:PB A'pilastax" 'lowering i t down') Ur mi-q'at (AG miq'ast ' s h him down i n t o the water by force, dunk him') p U  206  skunk  I s , Dr, Kw spap9'in; Sa-TTK spapac'in?, Tim smamac'an., CI smamac'an ; Sq smac;,' i n ? , 'in? smraac 7  smoke  smokeshed (for drying f i s h )  Ur Sh  s9'apag; Nk-TTK sc'apaq; sc'ipaq ( ~ splant )  Is  s^ ayaq'am  Ml  sp'a'^'am (is 'cigarette, tobacco'); sp'uVam, Lm sp'a^'an, Sa spaVsn  I s , Dr Ur  spider  q'ileVtx"  ( sq'i'la  'dried f i s h ' )  ce•itilawtx™  I s , Dr  qatqatcala  Ur, Kw q'e'sq'escil (BG-L q'eys-et 'tie something') (sx^'aya'asacal 'neeting shuttle') q aq ascxn Sq sprain l e g  squirrel-  Is Ms  q 9y' san q ayaxym  Ml (AG Sq  p'iaq' xyan, p ' 4 a q ' x i l p'iaq san 'sprain knee or ankle (less p'alq^lsn seriously)  w  'twist knee or ankle'  ?  w  w  w  w  w  Is c'apsiy a9an CPB c'ic'piya9al 'rodent that carries food i n cheeks:: chipmunk, s q u i r r e l , marmot, pocket golpher'D Dr, K i l g , Cheh sk aye (NP name i n s t o r i e s ) ; Nk-TTK sk aya ; SPg skajo; PS-TTK sk ayu(h) ?  w  w  ?  w  Ur NPg spring salmon  s q ' a 9 a i , sk 'a9'ai ; sq 'aci 8'chipmunk' w  w  w  Is, Dr s9'aq i (Ur, Kw s9'aq i 's almon, gen.) Ur A'/lxyil ( fc'eix 'spotted' -xyil 'foot, t a i l ' ) pa*q ' ' f a l l spring on Chehalis and Harrison rivers w  w  1  ?  w  207 sk"axam ' s i l v e r spring salmon, runs i n winter' s6;^ala 4 'spring salmon which runs i n 'Chehalis Creek i n May'" (EL) p'qis 'early white spring' (CT) -  1  steelhead  stingy [no Ms formD  stump  sun  swell  Is  sxax'q'am  Ml  qe'wx ; Sq  sqiw'x  Is  x *'i?  fc'i?  Ml  sk 'ik 'iy  (  w  w  'desire, want')  w  Is s a l n a c , Dr, Mats,J>Kilg ( -nac, -lac 'stump') ?  s^alac  Ur  sq'xep  Is  sam sa6at;  Ml  syaq am;  Is Sa Nk  p'a-m (Ml 'bread r i s i n g ' ) ; pum?, Lm p'apa'aq , Sg p'a-n: pohomtam  CI  ?  w  sRiU^act  Se  syayaq"  Ml cx atam: Sa cx atm; Nk-TTK cx"atam ; CSPg sax" 1 w  tear ( i t )  Is, Dr Ur  Scotch thistle.  Is, Dr Ur  tools  w  sq'et  (sad;'  'half')  x"t'et  xawxawiniip e'aG'aq"'(iip)  ( e.'>aq' w  'poke')  Cw sq"ay-xcam , KI, Na, C h i l , Ur s x y a y i s ( yayas 'work'); NPg sax".uyayus 'what you work with' w  Ms, Ka  ewk 'man  ?  w  'engine, t o o l '  208 Is ,Dr,Kilg,Matswexes, waxes;  tree frog  So  warm  waterfall [no forms f o r Ms, K  a  n  w.exei  window, mirror  [NPg  waxes  'March frog'  Ur  wilik';  Is Sg  k 'elas  welis, waq'waq'J  Ml Cx  k 'ak 'as ( 'hot' or 'warm') k 'as q 'as; Se ' Sq  Is  sk ec  Lm  w  ;  k^e'les, CI k 'a us w  w  ?  w  w  w  k 'a-i? w  w  Qe-txam Ml s cax m 1 [Sq sk el 'falls  'high f a l l s ' s m a l l f a l l s '  w  w  weir  'frog',  'small w a t e r f a l l '  sk ik el w  w  I s , Dr sxeX' (xeA' cf beam, thwart  'stretch across')  Ur  c ' l a q t i l , sc'iaq ;  HI Sq Sg  sk *ecasten, s k " a c a s t i l ; k q*eustn; So sx"k 'enasn sk 'anasar ; Th nk 'en'-us-tn'  Cw  sx al?masten  w  v  Sq  ,  w,  w  w  w  w  ?  c laq  

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