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Soil variability along a topographic sequence, University of British Columbia endowment lands Slavinski, Howard Chris 1977

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SOIL VARIABILITY ALONG A TOPOGRAPHIC SEQUENCE, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ENDOWMENT LANDS by HOWARD CHRIS SLAVINSKI B .Sc , University of British Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OB BRITISH COLUMBIA in the Department of Soil Science March, 1977 Howard Chris Slavinski, 1977 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Soil Science The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Date MO^JC/ XY /77 ABSTRACT 1 Environmental factors affecting a topographic sequence of soils were examined on the University of British Columbia Endowment Lands. The soils and other landscape components were studied at four sites along a transect to provide information on those processes which are active in affecting site and soil development. Characterization of the water chemistry of precipitation, organic leachate, soil solution and groundwater; the magnitude of soil spatial variability and the influence of land use on the landscape were also evaluated. The landscape components considered to exert the greatest influence on soil and site development include topography, moisture regime, vegetation and parent material. The interrelationship between these components has resutlted in the development of four podzol soils which differ in horizon differentiation and in the extent to which mobile constituents are redistributed in the pedon. Man, considered as an environmental factor, has indirctly influenced site and soil development through land use. The effects attributed to logging are reflected in the modification of the moisture regime along the lower portion of the transect. This appears to be the controlling factor in altering vegetation successional patterns and in affecting soil development. In these soils, soil development appears to be inten-sif ied, wiht the resultant increase in weathering and leaching processes in the surface mineral horizons and the initiation of the redistribution of mobile constituents within the pedon. Characterization of selected chemical components of precipitation (including crown wash), organic layer leachate, soil solution and ground-water was conducted to elucidate ion mobility and nutrient availability. i i The data presented suggest that: the weathering of soil minerals is the main source of ions to the soil-water system; the mineral weathering rates in the soils are fairly constant; the chemical concentrations in the groundwater are controlled to a great extent by the weathering of soil minerals; the input of ions from the atmosphere and organic leachates can be appreciable and may influence the exchange status in the surface mineral horizons; and the leaching of organic materials may be important in maintaining plant nutrient requirements in soils of inherent low fert i l i ty . Displacement techniques appear to be useful in providing data for the evaluation of water quality relationships between the atmosphere and the soil system and for assessing s i te- fert i l i ty . Spatial variability in the two soils was studied to elucidate soil chemical heterogeneity. Assessment of three sampling techniques in relation to sampling efficiency and intensity was made in light of the soil heterogeneity expressed by the soils. Spatial variability recorded for these soils, suggests that soil heter-ogeneity should be considered as an important soil characteristic as are the soils' inherent chemical and physical properties. The greatest extent of variation in soil chemical properties was found in the surface mineral layers where weathering and influences from environmental factor interactions are more pronounced. It is this portion of the soil that will regulate the sampling intensity required for soil f ield studies. The data presented suggest that the use of composite sampling schemes will allow for reasonable estimates of soil properties and reduce the probable disparites caused by non-representative samples. TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i Page ABSTRACT . . . i TABLE OF CONTENTS. i i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES. . vi LIST OF APPENDICES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I ENVIRONMENT, MORPHOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION INTRODUCTION '. • 4 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 5 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY SITES 7 Site 1 . ; 9 Site 2 13 Site 3 16 Site 4 21 METHODS AND MATERIALS 25 Field Methods 25 Laboratory Methods 25 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 26 Water Table Fluctuations 26 Soil Temperature . . . 28 Environmental Characteristics, Morphology and Classification 28 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. . 38 CHAPTER II PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES AND GENESIS OF FOUR PODZOL SOILS INTRODUCTION . . 40 METHODS AND MATERIALS 41 Physical Properties 41 Chemical Properties 41 Mineralogy • 42 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 44 Physical Properties 44 Chemical Properties. . 48 Mineralogical Properties . . . • 61 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 68 i v TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont'd) Page CHAPTER III WATER QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS OF FOUR TOPOGRAPHICALLY RELATED PODZOL SOILS INTRODUCTION 72 METHODS AND MATERIALS 75 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . 77 Throughfall and Leachate Chemistry 77 Groundwater Chemistry 78 Soil Solution Chemistry. 81 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 106 CHAPTER IV EVALUATION OF SOIL HETEROGENEITY IN TWO PODZOL SOILS INTRODUCTION 108 METHODS AND MATERIALS Ill Field Methods Ill Laboratory Methods 113 Statistical Methods 114 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . 115 Partitioning of Variance 115 Lateral and Vertical Variability 117 . Comparison of Sampling Procedures . 122 Depth Trends 124 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . 130 SUMMARY 132 LITERATURE CITED 135 APPENDIX A . 142 APPENDIX B 152 APPENDIX C 161 LIST OF TABLES v Table Page 1-1 Climatic Data Near the Study Sites 8 I- 2 Selected Chemical Properties of the Studied Soils/ . . . . . 31 II- l Selected Physical Properties of the Soils 4 5 11-2 Selected Chemical Properties of the Soils 4 9 11-3 Exchange Properties of the Soils 53 11-4 pH Dependent Exchange Properties of the Soils 56 11-5 Extractable Fe and Al and Amorphous Mineral Al and Si of the Soils 5 9 11-6 Elemental Analysis of the <2 mm Soil 62 11-7 Mineralogical Properties of Selected Soil Horizons 65" IV-1 Average Coefficient of Variation (CV) and Ranges (Rg) for Analytical Errors for Selected Chemical Properties . . . 1 1 6 IV-2 Average Mean (x), Standard Deviation (SD), Range (Rg), Coefficient of Variation (CV) and Number of Samples (N) Required to Give a Standard Error Within 10% of the Mean. Using 95% Confidence Limits 1 1 8 IV-3 Two-Way F-Test Comparing Average Mean Squares for the Three Sampling Procedures LIST OF FIGURES vi Figure Page 1-1 Location of the Study Area. 6 1-2 Schematic Diagram Showing Relationship Among Soils and Surfical Deposits 10 1-3 Soil Profile and Vegetation Featuresoof Site 1 12 1-4 Soil Profile and Vegetation Features of.Site 2 . . 14 1-5 Soil Profile Features of Site 3 17 1-6 Vegetation at Site 3 18 1-7 Soil Profile and Vegetation Features of Site 4 23 1-8 Seasonal Water Table Fluctuations and Distribution of Precipitation 27 111 -1 Diagram of Displacement Column . 76 111-2 Seasonal Trends for Selected Groundwater Chemical Properties. Station A 79 111-3 Seasonal Trends for Selected Groundwater Chemical Properties. Station A 80 III-4 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 1 Profile Average . . 82 III-5 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 1, 0-20 cm 83 111-6 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 1 , 20-40 cm 84 111-7 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 1 , 40-60 cm 85 111-8 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 1, 60-80 cm 86 111-9 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 2 Profile Average . . . . . . . . 87 I11-10 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 2, 0-2Q cm 88 III-ll Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 2, 20-40 cm 89 vii Figure Page 111-12 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 2, 40-60 cm . . . . 90 111-13 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties; Site 2, 60-80 cm 91 111-14 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 3 Profile Average 92 111-15 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 3, 0-20 cm. . 93 111-16 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 3, 20-40 cm 94 111-17 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 3, 40-60 cm 95 111-18 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 3, 60-80 cm 96 111-19 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 3, 80-100 cm. . 97 111-20 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 4 Profile Average 98 111-21 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties: Site 4, 0-20 cm 99 111-22 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 4, 20-40 cm 100 111-23 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 4, 40-60 cm 101 111-24 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 4, 60-80 cm 102 III- 25 Seasonal Trends for Selected Soil Solution Chemical Properties. Site 4, 80-100 cm . . 103 IV- 1 Schematic Diagram Showing the Distribution of Sampling Pits Within the Two Study Sites 112 V-2 Average Depth Trends for Selected Chemical Properties. . . . 125 LIST OF APPENDICES - v i i i Appendix Page A-l Plant Species Nomenclature 143 A-2 Seasonal Soil Temperature Patterns for Selected Soil Depths (cm) 144 A-3 Diurnal Soil Temperatures for Selected Soil Depths (cm). . . 148 B-l Selected Chemical Properties of the Throughfall and Organic Leachate . . • 153 B-2 Selected Groundwater Analysis 155 B-3 Selected Soil Solution Analysis 156 C-1 Means (R), Standard Deviations (SD), Range (Rg), Coefficient of Variation (CV), and Number (N) of Samples Required to obtain a 10% Error of the Mean for the Three Sampling Procedures (P-1.-P2s.P3) 162 C-2 Seasonal Effects of Selected Chemical Properties 174 C-3 Raw Data for Selected Chemical Properties for the Two Studied Soils 175 C-4 Seasonal Variation for Various Chemical Properties Sites 2 and 4 202 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. L.M. Lavkulich, Department of Soil Science, for his interest, direction and Assistance throughout the study. Thanks are also due to my committee members, Dr. T. Ballard, Dr. CA. Rowles and Dr. R. Willington for critical review of the manuscript. I would like to thank Mrs. B. Herman for her assistance in the laboratory and to all fellow graduate students in the department for their assistance and friendship throughout my studies. I am also indebted to Mrs. R. Gerstmar and Mrs. J . Holland for their technical advice during the preparation of the manuscript. Finally, I would like to thank Dr. E.A. Slavinski for her help and unfailing encouragement throughout the duration of my graduate program. Special thanks goes to Dr. G. Eaton and Dr. T. Kozak for their advice and guidance through the statistical portion of the thesis. INTRODUCTION 1 The ever increasing demand for land resources has dictated that a better understanding of the environment is necessary for sound resource management. Soils are one of the components of the environment that are affected by land management. Thus, i f a better understanding of resource management is to be achieved, then a better understanding of the soil is essential. However, soils are only a part of the total environment and are in fact a product of the environmental factors; thus soils must be studied in context of their natural setting. Landform is often considered to be a basic unit of the landscape, which influences the local environmental factors such as microclimate, biota and soils. Landform also influences the distribution of water throughout the landscape. The chemical load of water, however, is a function of the geologic substratum, climate, vegetation and pedogenic processes. Thus an understanding of the interaction of the environmental factor is necessary in order to better understand the soil resource. With the introduction of man, the sequential processes controlling the development of a soil may be altered through land use. These induced changes may modify the natural balance of processes in the landscape. Since the effects of environmental factors are reflected through morphological features and physical and chemical properties of the so i l , any changes in the landscape may be accountable by assessing these soil properties. With the above in mind, a series of studies was conducted along a transect of topographically related soils. The purpose was to provide data on and identify the environmental factors controlling development of the soils in the study area. The transect was established to provide a basis to assess the influences of rel ief, moisture regime, vegetation 2 and possibly parent material on soil development. The study area, situated on the southwest portion of the University of British Columbia Endowment Lands, has been disturbed by man and lends itself to investigation of land use in soil development. The f irst chapter presents the description of the four sites and soils along the transect and discusses the interrelationships between the dominant environmental factors and soil development. Chapter II presents the chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the soils and discusses soil genesis. An examination of each site included the sampling of soil for physical and chemical analysis and adescription of the sites is given in terms of rel ief, drainage, microclimate, vegetation and soil parent materials. Chapters III and IV emphasize specific environmental relationships, namely, water quality and spatial variation in the soils. Since water is important in terms of understanding element availability and mobility in soils and on land use implications, Chapter III describes a study directed towards the elucidation of water chemical relationships between the atmosphere, soil and ground water systems. The final chapter (IV) concentrates on the evaluation of spatial variability expressed by the soils. This variability may be as important a soil characteristic as are the measurements of the soil 's physical and chemical properties. Soil heterogeneity is discussed with particular reference to magnitude, seasonal influences, sampling schemes and chemical distribution within the pedon. 3 CHAPTER I ENVIRONMENT, MORPHOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION INTRODUCTION 4 Soil morphology is one criterion which can be used to assess the integrated effects of climate, geologic materials, rel ief, biota and time. In the f ie ld , spatial variation of these environmental factors may be reflected through a variety of morphological features. Thus, environmental factors can be considered to set limits and the direction for soil development. Most studies have involved the use of undisturbed landscapes for the elucidation of function-product relationships. However, with the increased intensity of land use, many ecosystems have been disturbed and have undergone secondary successional patterns. These changes may cause variation in the function-product interaction resulting in variation of a given soil property or in the modification of previous morphological features. The contribution of any factor to this variation will depend on the range of that factor (constancy of the factor in the area) and on its effectiveness within the ecosystem (Jenny, 1961). This influence must be appreciated and evaluated since i t could be highly relevant both to use interpretations of soils and to an understanding of soil genesis. In this light, a study was conducted to illustrate the relationships between the soil and other environmental factors prevailing in a recently disturbed area. The purpose of this study was to present selected environmental characteristics of four sites along a topographic transect of soils and to relate these factors to soil morphology. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 5 The study area is located on the University of British Columbia Endowment Lands, situated on the southern ridge of the Burrard Peninsula, bounded on the north by Burrard Inlet and on the south by the North Arm of the Fraser River (Figure 1-1). This area has experienced a number of Pleistocene glaciations, the most recent being the Vashon stage of the Fraser glaciation (Armstrong et a l , 1965). At the study site, Tertiary bedrock is overlain by various surficial deposits, exceeding 200 m in thickness. During the Vashon stade, the relative position of the land and sea fluctuated from 180 m or more above sea level, to present sea level or below. Armstrong (1956) explains that during the init ial retreat of the Vashon ice, Surrey t i l l (Vashon t i l l ) , was overlain by Newton stony marine clay deposits. As the ice continued to retreat, unloading resulted in isostatic rebound,' and the lower Fraser area began to rise above sea level. As the land rose above the sea, the retreating sea reworked the two deposits making their identification diff icult . In addition, as the ice melted the marine shore Sunnyside sands and Bose gravels were deposited and reworked by the retreating sea, resulting in a number of degraded terraces. The period since submergence is between 8,000 and 11,000 years. The climate of the area is coastal marine and is controlled largely by the presence of easterly moving air masses from the Pacific Ocean. In general, climate is characterized by warm summers and wet winters. Total annual precipitation is about 130 cm, with a winter surplus of 62 cm and a summer deficit of 12 cm (Lavkulich and Rowles, 1971). The mean annual temperature is 10 C. The climatic data given in Table 1-1 FIGURE I - l LOCATION OF THE, STUDY AREA is taken from the University of British. Columbia (U.B.C.) Meterological Station located about one km from the study area. The soils of the study area are mainly characteristic of the Podzolic Order (C.S.S.C., 1974). Their morphology is variable, reflecting the variability of the surficial deposits, influence of the vegetation and topographic positions. The study area is part of the wet subzone of the coastal Douglas f i r biogeoclimatic zone (Krajina, 1965). It has changed drastically over the last 70 to 100 years. Before man's intervension, strong evidence indicates that the vegetation consisted of a Pseudotsuga  menziesii var menziesii - Thuja plicata climax (Krajina, personal communication) (a l ist of common and scientific names for vegetative species described in the text is given in Appendix A- l ) . During the last 100 years the area has been logged and cleared at least once. The influence of man on the soils has been studied by Lavkulich and Rowles (1971). Large quantities of charcoal are present in the surface organic and mineral horizons. The major second growth stands present, vary from mixed Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla on the upper slopes, to essentially pure Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii on the lower slope position. Description of Study Sites The soil pedons which are described were selected as modal representatives of the sites. Samples were taken from each horizon and returned to the laboratory for processing and analysis. Depths and horizonations were recorded in the field and checked using the criteria as outlined in the System of Soil Classification for Canada (C.S.S.C., 1974). 8 Table 1-1 Climatic Data Near the Study Sites ( U.B.C. Meterological Station ) Temperature °C P r e c i p i t a t i o n cm Year Month Max Min Mean Daily Rain Snow Total 1972 Jan 2.8 -1.1 0.8 6.4 2.0 8.4 Feb 7.2 1.1 4.2 13.6 N i l 13.6 March 9.4 4.4 6.9 20.4 0.4 20.8 A p r i l 10.0 3.3 6.7 11.9 0.5 12.4 May 16.1 9.4 12.8 2.5 N i l 2.5 June 17.2 11.1 14.2 5.2 N i l 5.2 July 21.1 15.0 18.1 9.7 N i l 9.7 August 21.1 13.9 17.5 2.8 N i l 2.8 Sept 15.6 9.4 12.5 9.3 N i l 9.3 Oct 11.7 5.6 8.7 6.8 N i l 6.8 Nov 8.9 4.4 6.7 13.4 N i l 13.4 Dec 4.4 0.0 2.2 32.0 2.1 34.1 Average/Total 12.1 .6.4 9.3 139.0 1973 Jan 5.3 0.2 2.7 18.6 0.8 19.4 Feb 7.9 2.6 5.3 7.9 N i l 7.9 March 8.9 3.5 6.2 7.6 N i l 7.6 A p r i l 12.2 5.2 8.7 1.5 N i l 1.5 May 16.2 8.4 12.3 5.2 N i l 5.2 June 17.1 10.3 13.7 6.3 N i l 6.3 July 19.9 12.2 16.1 1.3 N i l 1.3 August 18.9 11.6 15.3 3.2 N i l 3.2 Sept 18.4 11.3 14.8 3.4 N i l 3.4 Oct 12.2 7.3 9. 8 13.2 N i l 13.2 Nov 6.8 1.8 4.3 22.9 1.6 24.5 Dec 7.6 3.3 5.4 24.1 0.1 24.2 Average/Total 12.6 6.5 9.6 117.7 Five Year Average (1967--1971) Jan 3.8 -0.8 1.5 12.3 4.3 16.6 Feb 7.4 2.0 4.7 9.0 0.9 9.9 March 9.0 3.0 6.0 12.3 0.5 12.8 A p r i l 11.2 4.7 7.9 8.4 N i l 8.4 May 15.9 8.6 12.3 3.5 N i l 3.5 June 18.0 11.5 14.8 4.8 N i l 4.8 July 20.6 12.7 16.7 3.9 N i l 3.9 August 20.1 12.7 16.4 3.1 N i l 3.1 Sept 16.8 10.5 13.3 9.8 N i l 9.8 Oct 12.3 6.6 9.4 11.2 N i l 11.2 Nov 8.6 3.8 6.2 16.0 3.4 19.4 Dec 5.5 1.5 3.6 21.0 2.7 23.7 Average 12.4 6.6 9.5 125.7 Vegetation associated with each site was described for four 9 vegetative layers; tree, shrub, herb and dwarf shrub, and moss layers. Estimates of percent cover, canopy closure and other observational field data were also recorded. Figure 1-2 shows the location of the sampling sites in relation to the surficial deposits and topographic position. The effect of marine erosion is evident along the transect. Marine forces had a greater effect in the mid-slope position resulting in material being eroded and redeposited over previously deposited beach sands at the slope interface. The transect studied is 400 meters long and varies from a 2 to 5% slope on the marine terraces and lower slope, to 25 to 30% over the entire upper slope. Site 1 This site is on the upper terrace of the transect. The area has a gentle 3% slope with a southwest aspect at 105 meters above sea level. The soil has developed from moderately stony, marine, wave-washed lag gravels, overlying very compact and almost impermeable glacio-marine or glacial t i l l deposits at depths to 1.2 meters (Figure I-3a). The pedon is rapidly drained above a seasonal water table perched on the glacio-marine or glacial t i l l . Soil churning by windthrow has given the surface a slightly hummocky microtopbgraphy. This site represents a subxeric hygrotope belonging to the Gaultheria (Moss) - Thuja plicata - Pseudotsuga menziesii vegetative association (Krajina, 1965). The tree layer consists of a 75% closed canopy of Pseudotsuga menziessi var menziesii, Tsuga heterophil la , with occasional Thuja plicata, Prunus emerginata and Cornus canadensis. The shrub layer is sparse wi th Thuja piicata and Vaccinium pervifolium LAG GRAVELS FIGURE 1-2 S C H E M A T I C D IAGRAM SHOWING SOILS, SURFICIAL M A T E R I A L S AND S T U D Y S I T E S making up 3% coverage. The third (herb and dwarf shrub) layer has 30% H coverage by Gaultheria shall on, Vaccinium parvifolium, PtefIdium agullinum, Blechnum spicant, Polystichum muni turn, Trientalts 1atifolia, Mahonia  nervosa, Rosa gymnocarpa and Ilex aguifolium. The moss layer has a coverage of 40% by Eurhynchium oreganum, Plagiothecium undulatum and Thizomnium glabrescens (Figure I-3b). Decaying wood, rocks and stones cover 30% of the surface at the site. The Ae horizon showed greater development under Plagiothecium  undulatum than under Eurhynchium oreganum. It was also greater under decaying Thuja piicata than under decaying Tsuga heterophylla or Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii. Soil churning was evident but not extensive. The forest floor is characteristic of the thin mor forest humus form of Hoover and Lunt (1952). SOIL CLASSIFICATION: Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol Horizon Depth Pedon Description cm. LFH 2.5-0 Dark reddish brown (2.5YR2/4 m) partially decomposed coniferous needles, twigs and other forest l i t ter ; abundant fine roots; some charcoal; clear wavy boundary; 1 to 4 cm thick; pH 3.8. Ae 0-5 Dark gray (10YR4/1 m, 10YR5/2 d) gravelly sandy loam; weak, platy to granular; very friable; occasional stones; very gravelly, 40% coarse fragments; abundant fine, medium roots; clear wavy boundary; 0-5 cm thick; pH 4.1. Bf 5-30 Dark yellowish brown (10YR4/4 m, 10YR6/4 d) gravelly sandy loam; single grained; very friable; scattered, fine concretions; occasional large stones; very gravelly; iron coatings on pebbles; few medium, fine roots; gradual smooth boundary; 20-30 cm thick; pH 5.4. Bf2 30-56 • Dark yellowish brown (10YR4/4 m, 10YR7/6 d) gravelly sandy loam; single grained; very friable; occasional fine concretions; occasional large stones;' few;;,medium -roots; very gravelly; gradual smooth boundary; 20-30 cm thick; pH 5.9. FIGURE 1-3 Soil Profile (top) and Vegetation Features of Site 1. Pedon Description Dark yellowish brown (10YR4/4 m, 10YR6/4 d) gravelly sandy loam; single grained; very friable; loose when moist; occasional stones; few, medium roots; gradual smooth boundary; 15-20 cm thick; pH 6.0. Light olive brown (2.5Y5/4 m, 10YR6/4 d) gravelly sandy loam; single grained to very weak, medium subangular blocky; friable when moist; occasional stones; few, medium roots; gradual wavy boundary; 15-20 cm thick; pH 6.1. Olive gray (5Y5./2 m, 2.5Y7/2 d) gravelly sandy loam; single grained to very weak, medium subangular blocky; friable when moist; abundant medium roots; root mat in lower part; few, fine, prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR6/6 m) mottles; abrupt smooth boundary; 15-20 cm thick; pH 5.8. Olive gray (5Y5/2 m, 5Y7/1 d) sandy loam, massive hard when dry, friable when moist; common, fine yellowish red (5YR4/6 m) mottles; no roots; clear smooth boundary; 4-8 cm thick; pH 6.0. Gray (5Y5/1 m, 5Y7/1 d) sandy loam; massive; hard when dry, friable when moist; moderately stony; pH 5.9. Site 2 The site is located on the lower terrace of the upper slope. This area has a moderate 5 to 8% slope with a southwest aspect at 98 m above sea level. The hummocky microtopbgraphy varies from 30 to 60 cm in relief. The soil has developed from about one metre of moderately stony, wave washed lag gravels, overlying very compact and almost impermeable glacio-marine or glacial t i l l deposits (Figure I-4a). The pedon is rapidly to well drained above a seasonal water table perched on the impermeable t i l l . The site represents a mesic to subhygric hygrotope, belonging to the Typic Moss - Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla Horizon Depth cm. Bf3 56-76 BC 76-96 BCg-IICg 96-116 IlCg 116-122 IIC2 122+ vegetative association of Krajina (1965). The tree layer consists of a 90% canopy closure of Tsuga heterophylla, Pseugotsuga menziesii var menziesii and occasional Prunus emerginata. The shrub layer is sparse consisting of Vaccinium parvifolium, Thuja plicata and Thamnus purshiana. The third layer has 15 to 20% coverage of Vaccinium parvifolium, Mahonia nervosa, Rubus ursinus, Pteridium aquilinum, Tiarella tr ifol iata and Tsuga heterophylla. The moss layer coverage is 20% and includes Plagiothecium undulatum, Rhizomnium glabrescens, Eurhynchium oreganum, Rhytidiadelphus loreus and Hylocomium splendens (Figure I-4b). Decaying wood, rocks and stones cover 20 to 25% of the site. Wind throw is evident and contributes to the hummocky microtopography. Eurhynchium oreganum grows only on exposed soil resulting from churning. The forest floor layer is of the thin more humus type of Hoover and Lunt (1952). SOIL CLASSIFICATION: Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol Horizon Depth Pedon Description cm. LFH 2.5-0 Dark reddish brown (2.5YR3/4 m) partially decomposed coniferous needles, twigs and other forest l i t ter ; abundant fine, medium roots; some charcoal; clear wavy boundary; 2-5 cm thick; pH 4.1. Ae 0-5 Gray (10YR5/1 m, 10YR5/2 d) gravelly sandy loam; very weak, platy to single grained; very friable; abundant fine, medium roots; occasional large stones; clear wavy boundary, 0-5 cm thick; pH 3.9 Bf 5-38 Dark yellowish brown (10YR4/4 m, 10YR6/4 d) gravelly sandy loam; single grained; very friable few scattered fine concretions; occasional large stones; very gravelly; frequent iron staining on pebbles; few medium roots; gradual smooth boundary; 30-40 cm thick; pH 5.4. Bf2 38-68 Yellowish brown (10YR5/4 m, 10YR6/4 d) gravelly sandy loam; single grained; loose when wet; occasional large stones; few medium roots; gradual smooth boundary; 25-35 cm thick; pH 5.7. Horizon Depth Pedon Description 16 cm. BCg-IICg 68-96 Yellowish brown (10YR5/4 m, 10YR7/3 d) gravelly sandy loam; single grained to very weak, medium subangular blocky; friable when moist; weakly cemented, cementation associated with blocky structure; abundant medium roots; root mat in lower part; few, fine faint reddish yellow (7.5YR4/6 m) mottles; abrupt smooth boundary; 25-35 cm thick; pH 5.6. IlCg 96-104 Olive (5Y5/3 m, 5Y7/2 d) sandy loam; massive; hard when dry, very firm when moist; common, fine prominent reddish brown to dark reddish brown (5YR4/2.5 m) mottles; no roots; gradual smooth boundary; 5-10 cm thick; pH 5.8. IIC2 104+ Gray (5Y5/1 m, 5Y7/1 d) sandy loam; massive; hard when dry, very firm when moist; moderately stony; pH 6.2. Site 3 This site is located at the mid slope position of the transect. This area has a gentle 3% slope with a southwest aspect at 90 m above sea level. A hummocky microtopography exists, varying between 30 and 60 cm in relief. The soil has developed from raised littoral and marine beach deposits of medium to coarse sands, overlying very compact, impermeable t i l l at depths to 4 m (Figure I-5a, b). The surface 60 cm consists of coarse materials eroded from the adjacent upper slope mixed with beach sands. The dominant texture is a gravelly sandy loam and grades through sand to loam to s i l t loam with depth. The pedon is rapidly drained above a perched water table that can fluctuate to within one meter of the surface during f a l l , winter and early spring. This site represents a subhygric to hygric hygrotope, belonging to a Hybrid - Tiarella - Polystichum - Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii -Thuja plicata vegetative association of Krajina (1965). The tree layer has 85% canopy closure, consisting of Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla, Cornus canadensis, Acer macrophyllum and Thuja plicata. 18 FIGURE 1-6 Vegetation Features of Site 3. The shrub layer is sparse, consisting of Thuja plicata and Vaccinium  parvifolium. The herb and dwarf shrubs have a 35 to 40% cover of Mahonia  nervosa, Pteridium aquilinum, Dryopteris austriaca, Vaccinium parvifolium  Ilex aquifolium, Tubus ursinus, Linnaea boreal i s , Trientalis lat i fo l ia , Polystichum munitum, Thuja plicata and Tsuga heterophyTla. The moss layer cover is 10% and includes Hylocomium splendens, Rhizomnium  glabrescens, and Eurhynohium oreganum (Figure 1-6) Decaying wood, rocks and stones cover 25% of the site. Wind throw is evident and contributes to the hummocky microtopography of the site. The flora of this site represents a transitional zone between the drier upper slope sites and the wetter lower site. The suppressed nature of the Thuja plicata and Acer macrophyllum, suggests that this site was once wetter than at present. The forest floor layer is characteristic of the thin mor type of humus formation of Hoover and Lunt (1952). SOIL CLASSIFICATION: Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol Horizon Depth Pedon Description cm. LFH 5-0 Very dusky red (2.5YR2/2 m) moderately decomposed coniferous needles, deciduous leaves, twigs and other forest l i t ter ; abundant fine, medium roots; some charcoal; clear wavy boundary; 2-8 cm thick; pH 3.5. Ae Trace; 0-1 cm thick. Bf 0-8 Dark brown (10YR3/3 m, 7.5YR5/4 d) loamy sand; single grained; loose; occasional stones; non sticky, non plastic; abundant fine, medium roots; charcoal in old root canals; gradual smooth boundary; 4-12 cm thick; pH 5.0. Bf2 8-30 Dark yellowish brown (10YR4/4 m, 7.5YR5/6 d) gravelly sand; single grained; loose; occasional stones; few fine, medium roots; gradual smooth boundary; 20-30 cm thick; pH 5.8. Horizon Depth Pedon Description t u cm. Bf3 30-56 Dark yellowish brown (1QYR4/4 m, 7.5YR6/6'Jd) gravelly sand; single grained; very friable; soft; occasional stones; few medium roots; gradual smooth boundary; 20-30 cm; pH 5.5. BC 56-76 Yellowish brown (10YR5/4 m, 20YR6/6 d) sand; single grained; very friable; soft; occasional stones; few medium roots; gradual smooth boundary; 15-25 cm thick; pH 5.5. Cg 76-96 Yellowish brown (10YR6/4 m, 10YR7/4 d) sand; weak; coarse angular blocky; firm; hard; weakly cemented; occasional stones; few fine, prominent yellowish red (7.5YR6/6 m) mottles; few medium roots; gradual smooth boundary; 15-20 cm thick; pH 5.5. IlCg 96-132 Light olive brown (2.5Y5/4 m, 2.5Y6/4 d) sand; weak, coarse angular blocky; friable; slightly hard; weakly cemented; occasional pebbles; few fine, distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR6/4 m) mottles; no roots; gradual smooth boundary; 30-40 cm thick; pH 5.6. IICg2 132-152 Dark yellowish brown (10YR4/4 m, 7.5YR5/6 d) sand; single grained to weak, coarse subangular blocky; slightly firm; slightly hard; weakly cemented; occasional pebbles; many fine, medium prominent red (2.5YR4/8 m) mottles; abrupt wavy boundary; 15-25 cm thick; pH 5.8. IHCg 152-157 Olive (5Y5/3 m, 5Y6/4 d) loamy sand; single grained to very weak, medium, fine subangular blocky; very friable; soft; abrupt wavy boundary; 3-7 cm thick; pH 5.8. IVCg 157-162 Olive (5Y5/3 m, 5Y6/4 d) sand; single grained to very weak, fine subangular blocky; very friable; soft; abrupt smooth boundary; 4-6 cm thick; pH 5.7. VCg 162-172 Olive gray (5Y5/2 m, 2.5Y7/4 d) loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, coarse subangular blocky; firm; slightly hard; weakly cemented; occasional pebbles; few, fine, prominent yellowish red (5YR4/8 m) mottles; gradual smooth boundary; 5-15 cm thick; pH 6.1. VCg2 172-185 Olive (5Y5/3 m, 215Y7/4 d) sandy loam; single grained to very weak, medium, fine subangular blocky; very friable; soft; weakly cemented; few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR5/8 m) mottles; abrupt smooth boundary; 10-15 cm thick; pH 6.0. Pedon Description 21 Olive (5Y5/3 m, 5Y6/3 d) sandy loam; single grained to very weak., fine subangular blocky; very friable; soft; gradual smooth boundary; 25-20 cm thick; pH 6.2. Olive gray (5Y5/3 m, 5Y6/3 d) sandy loam; weak, medium subangular blocky; firm; slightly hard; weakly cemented; occasional pebbles; common, medium prominent dark reddish brown (5YR3/3 m) mottles; gradual smooth boundary; 10-20 cm thick; pH 6.2. Olive gray (5Y5/3 m, 5Y6/3 d) sandy loam; weak, medium subangular blocky; friable; slightly hard; weakly cemented; occasional pebbles; few fine, prominent reddish brown to yellowish red (5YR4/5 m) mottles; abrupt smooth boundary; 10-20 cm thick; pH 6.2. Olive (5Y5/3 m, 5Y6/3 d) loam to s i l t loam; moderate, coarse, medium subangular blocky; slightly sticky; slightly plastic; friable; occasional pebbles; pH 6.2. Site 4 The site is located at the lower extension of the transect. It has a gentle 1 to 2% slope on a south to southwest aspect at 88 m above sea level. The soil has developed from raised littoral and marine beach deposits overlying very compact and impermeable t i l l (Figure I-7a). The texture varies from a loamy sand at the surface to sand at depth. The pedon is rapidly drained above the seasonal water table which reaches the surface during the rainy seasons. This site represents a hygric hygrotope, belonging to the Tiarella -Polystichum - Thuja plicata vegetation association of Krajina (1965). The tree layer consists of a 75% canopy closure of Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii, with occasional Tsuga heterophylla, Thuja plicata a'nd Acer macrophyllum. The shrub layer has 25 to 30% cover consisting of . Vaccinium parvifolium, Sambucus pubens, Rubus spectabilis, Rhamnus Horizon Depth cm. VICg 185-203 VICg2 203-218 VICg3 218-234 VHCg 234-268 22 purshiana, Rubus parviflorus, Tsuga heterophylTa and Thuja plicata. The third layer has 75% cover including Pteridium aquilinum, Polystichum  muni turn, Dryopteris austriaca, Athyrium felix - femina, Rubus ursinus, Tiarella t r i fo l iata, Trientalis lat i fo l ia , Mahonia nervosa, Rubus  leucodermis, Ilex aquifolium, Galium trlflorum, Tel 1ima grandiflora, Streptopus amplexifolius, Blechnum spicant, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata. The moss layer has 35% coverage of Plagiothecium undulatum, Eurhynchium oreganum, Thizomnium glabrescens, Pogonatum macounii and Eurhynchium stokesii (Figure I-7b). Decaying wood covers 15 to 20% of the site. The stand is essentially second growth Rseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii with a conspicuously open canopy. Subordinate vegetation exhibits vigorous growth. Nitrophilous species (Sambucus pubens, Tiarella t r i fo l iata, Tel 1ima grandiflora, Athyrium felix - femina, Galium triflorum) are abundant, denoting nitrification at this site (Krajina, personnal communication). Wind throw contributes greatly to the hummocky microtopography which varies between 30 and 60 cm in relief. The forest floor reflects the influence of the subordinate vegetation and is of the transitional felty-greasy mor humus formation of Hoover and Lunt (1952) with a moderately well developed H horizon. SOIL CLASSIFICATION: Horizon Depth Pedon Description cm. LF 4-1 Very dusky red (2.5YR2/2 m) fresh to partially decomposed deciduous leaves, coniferous needles, twigs and other forest l i t ter ; abundant medium, , . fine roots; 1-4 cm thick; pH 3.8. H 1-0 Black (5YR2/1 m) decomposed organic matter; amorphous; friable; abundant medium, fine roots; abundant charcoal; gradual wavy boundary; 0-1 cm thick; pH 4.4. FIGURE 1-7 S o i l P r o f i l e (top) and Vegetation Features of S i t e 4. Horizon Depth cm. Pedon Description 24 Ahe 0-10 Dark brown (7.5YR3/2 m, 7.5YR4/4 d) loamy sand; variegated colors give a pepper and salt appearance; single grained; loose; non sticky; non plastic; occasional pebbles; plentiful fine, medium roots; charcoal in old root canaills; gradual smooth boundary; 6-12 cm thick; pH 4.8. Bf 10-25 Dark brown to brown (10YR4/3 m, 7.5YR5/4 d) loamy sand to sandy loam; single grained; very friable; soft; occasional pebbles; few, fine, medium roots; charcoal in old root canals; gradual smooth boundary; 10-20 cm thick; pH 5.9. Bf2 25-43 Dark yellowish brown (10YR4/4 m, 10YR5/6 d) sand; single grained; very friable; soft; occasional pebbles; few medium roots; charcoal in cold root canals; gradual smooth boundary; 15-20 cm thick; pH 5.7. Bfg 43-61 Yellowish brown (10YR5/4 m, 10YR6/6 d) sand; weak, coarse subangular blocky; friable; slightly hard; weakly cemented; few medium roots; charcoal in old root canals; occasional pebbles; few fine, prominent yellowish red (5YR5/8 m) mottles; gradual wavy boundary; 15-25 cm thick; pH 5.5. Bfg2 61-79 Yellowish brown (10YR5/4 m, 10YR 5/3 d) sand; moderate, coarse subangular blocky; firm; hard; weakly cemented; cemented areas not continuous; few medium roots; occasional pebbles; few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR5/8 m) mottles; gradual wavy boundary; 15-25 cm thick; pH 5.4. Cg 79-96 Dark yellowish red (10YR4/4 m, 10YR6/6 d) sand; moderate, coarse subangular blocky; firm; hard; very firm, very hard in pockets; weakly to strongly cemented; cemented areas not continuous; common, medium prominent reddish yellow (5YR6/6 m) mottles; occasional pebbles; no roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 15-25 cm thick; pH 5.4. HCg 96-160 Olive brown (2.5Y4/4 m, 2.5Y6/4 d) gravelly sand; single grained; loose; occasional fine grave]; cleanly washed sand; pH 5.5. METHODS AND MATERIALS Field Methods Butyl acrylic piezometers were installed at four locations along the transect (Figure 1-2), and water table fluctuations were recorded at weekly intervals from May 1972 through May 1973. Additional measurements were recorded during specific storm periods, to assess the fluctuation pattern of the water table during intense storms. Soil temperatures were measured using Silicone FD300 diodes. Diode were installed at 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 and 100 cm depths. Air temperatures at the soil surface were also recorded. Measurements were taken at weekly intervals from May 1972 through October 1972. Diurnal temperature patterns were also measured at selected times. Laboratory Methods Soil pH was measured on a. 1:1 soil:water suspension using a glass electrode and pH meter. Organic matter was determined using the Walkley-Black method as outlined in Jackson (1958). The pH-dependent CEC was determined according to the method of Clark (1965). Iron arid aluminum extracted by acid ammonium oxalate and sodium pyrophosphate were determined by methods outlined by McKeague and Day (1966) and Bascomb (1968). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 26 Water Table Fluctuations Seasonal fluctuations in water table levels and total precipitation received at the study area are shown in Figure 1-8. Fluctuations in the perched water table levels of site 1 and 2 were minimal, and responded rapidly to the intense storm periods experienced in July and December 1972. These two storms produced 8.6 and 13.2 cm of precipitation, respectively. At sites 3 and 4, water table fluctuations were more pronounced and were influenced both by the intensity and frequency of storm periods. At these sites the decrease in fluctuation during the summer was interrupted by a sharp rise and fall in the water table caused by the intense July storm. During this storm the water table rose to within 37 cm of the surface at site 4. In the autumn months subsurface drainage was sufficient to remove most of the autumn precipitation, resulting in a gradually increasing or stable water table level. Following the December storm, levels again rose sharply, reaching the surface at site 4. This level was maintained near or at the surface by frequent storms through February 1973. A gradual, decreasing trend was recorded as spring approached. Water table levels at site 3 remained below the 100 cm depth throughout the study period. Water table levels were constantly higher for site 4 than for site 3, indicating that site 4 received seepage waters and runoff from the surrounding area. Seepage waters from the adjacent upper slope are received at site 3. Preliminary studies indicate that for specific storm periods, there was a lag period of up to 60 hours, for sites 3 and 4 and 12 hours for sites 1 and 2, before the water table approached pre-storm levels. FIGURE 1 - 8 SEASONAL WATER TABLE AND PRECIPITATION VARIATION S E A S O N A L S T O R M V A R I A T I O N O P R E C I P I T A T I O N ( > 2 c m ) • O B T A I N E D F R O M U . B . C M E T E O R O L O G I C A L S T A T I O N Soil Temperature " Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends are shown in Appendix A-2 to A-9. Diurnal and seasonal trends were similar for all sites indicating that the thermal characteristics of each site are similar. Seasonal temperature trends increased from spring through the summer months. Maximum solum temperatures were reached during later summer, which decreased rapidly during early autumn. The reflection of surface air temperatures was more pronounced for the surface 20 cm than for the lower solum, indicating similar damping effects with depth for all sites. In early autumn, solum temperatures were similar at all depths, although they were slightly higher in the lower solum than in the upper solum. The data indicates that, during the period in which soil temperatures were measured, fluctuations due to changes in weather and length of day had a greater influence on soil temperatures than the possible influence of vegetation, slope, elevation, soil moisture and ground water levels. Environmental Characteristics, Morphology and Classification In the study area the environment is conducive for the development of Podzols. Spatial variation in the environmental factors will tend to change the function of the factors of soil formation and result in the development of different genetic characteristics. These may be reflected by soil morphology. In this respect, soil morphology may be used to evaluate the contribution of environmental components on soil development. Thd^sievaluation was done on a general basis on three distinct segments of the transect. Boundaries were determined on the basis of moisture regime. Sites 1 and 2 have a xeric to subxeric hygrotope, and exhibit a well to moderatly-well drained pedon. The pedons have developed from wave-washed, lag gravels that vary between 0.8 and 1.3 meters in depth. Soil depth is limited by the impermeable t i l l , which at site 2 is encountered at a shallower depth (approximately one meter) than site 1. This reflects the variation in intensity of marine erosion during isostatic rebound of the landscape. The gravelly sandy nature of the soils influences the soil moisture regime. This along with slope gradient would permit rapid percolation of infiltrating water through the pedon and its removal downslope along the impermeable t i l l - s o i l interface. The available water storage capacity (AWSC) is low, except in the upper portion of the pedon, where colloidal material from weathering and the decomposition of organic matter tends to increase the AWSC. Mottling and weak subangular blocky structure are observed at a shallower depth at site 2. This, along with the slightly more prominent color of the mottles, would indicate that site 2 is influenced more by seepage water than site 1. Cementation associated with the weak subangular structure in the BCg-IICg horizon is mainly associated with the 11C material in proximity to decaying roots. The apparent higher s i l t and clay content of the 11C material, the influence of seepage water on oxidation-reduction processes with its probable effect of Fe movement and the higher organic matter content associated with decaying roots, have probably influenced aggregation and cementation in specific areas in the lower portion of the pedon. The influence of seepage water and organic matter could have affected the pH of the BCg-IICg horizon since i ts i pH value is lower than those recorded for horizons above or below. This has been observed in soils of the study area by Lavkulich and Rowles (1971) The extent of l i t ter accumulation and pedon development is similar for both sites. Forest floor layers formed under the coniferous vegetation are typical of the thin mor type (Bernier, 1968) and are indicative of the cool moist conditions of the forest floor during most of the year (Cruisckshank, 1972). The decomposition products of these humus layers, in the form of acid leachates, tend to intensify the acidifying and leaching processes prevailing in the soils. This is evidenced by the acidic nature of the humus layer and surface horizons and by the presence of the eluviated Ae horizons. The wavy to discontinuous boundary of the Ae horizons is probably the result of soil churning from wind-throw, although surface disturbance could have resulted from forest harvesting. Selected definitive criteria for the classification of the soils along the transect are given in Table 1-2. The data presented allow classification into both the System of Soil Classification for Canada (C.S.S.C., 1974) and Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, U.S.D.A., 1973). The presence of a Podzolic B horizon is required for classification of soils into the Podzolic Order (C.S.S.C., 1974). This is defined by the accumulation of oxides of Fe and Al and organic matter. Soil color as expressed by chroma, the brown staining and coatings on coarse fragments and oxalate and pyrophosphate extractable Fe and Al indicate the presence of a Podzolic B horizon. These soils are classified as Orthic Humo -Ferric Podzols (C.S.S.C., 1974) and as Typic Haplorthods (Soil Survey Staff, U.S.D.A., 1973). The major factors contributing to soil development at sites 1 and 2 appear to be parent material, slope position, vegetation and climate. The integrated effects of these factors have determined the well to moderately-well drained site conditions, the revegetation succession and the humus characteristics of the forest floor. These same factors have largely influenced pedogenic development resulting in eluvial and i l luvial morphologic features. Influence on soil or site development from site disturbance appears to be negligible. It is possible that effects from Table 1-2 Selected Chemical Properties of the Studied Soils 31 T T . _ Pyrophosphate Oxalate Dependent Horizon Depth pH OM Fe A l Fe A l tEC (cm) (H20) % % % % % meq/100 g SITE 1 Ae •0.-5 4.1 3.98 0.14 0.21 0.38 0.09 4.61 Bf 5-30 5.4 1.90 0.11 0.48 0.43 1.25 1.93 Bf 30-56 5.9 1.40 0.05 0.42 0.41 1.34 1.27 Bfi 56-76 6.0 1.07 0.04 0.36 0.44 1.48 1.67 BC 76-96 6.1 0.89 0.04 0.34 0.35 1.04 1.28 BCg-IICg 96-116 5.8 0.60 0.05 0.34 0.36 0.59 0.87 HCg 116-122 6.0 0.30 0.02 0.26 0,27 0.33 2.76 IIC 122-147 6.1 0.27 0.02 0.25 0.33 0.48 2.79 SITE 2 Ae 0-5 4.1 5.37 0.16 0.24 0.31 0.13 4.32 Bf 5-30 5.4 2.78 0.14 0.53 0.53 1.21 1.69 Bf„ 30^68 5.7 2.15 0.12 0.56 0.42 1.34 1.90 BCg-IICg 68-96 5.6 1.66 0.10 0.45 0.35 0.59 1.65 HCg 96-104 5.8 0.66 0.09 0.27 0.44 0.35 1.66 IIC 104-137 6.2 0.27 0.04 0.10 0.37 0.08 3.09 SITE 3 Bf Bf B f 3 BCg Cg HCg IICg 0 IHCg IVCg VCg vcg ? VTCg VTCg VlCg^ VHCg 0-8 5.0 3.83 0.12 0.70 0.44 1.28 1.51 8-30 5.8 2.71 0.07. 0.45 0.37 0.93 0.86 30-56 5.. 5 1.87 0.07 0.44 0.36 0.79 0.77 56-76 5.5 1.33 0.07 0.38 0.28 0.61 0.83 76-96 5.5 0.92 .0.06 0.37 0.23 0.41 0.82 96r-132 5.6 0.61 0.05 0.29 0.18 0.34 0.48 132-152 5.8 0.37 0.08 0.28 0.64 0.71 0.50 152-157 5.8 0.35 0.03 0.16 0.25 0.37 0.48 157-162 5.7 0.28 0.03 0.12 0.27 0.26 0.49 162-172 6,1 0.17 0.04 0.15 0.30 0.28 0 92 172-185 6.0 0.06 0.05 0.16 0.18 0.07 2.91 185-203 6.2 0.0.7 0.07 0.13 0.12 0.04 3.61 203-218 6.2 0.17 0.07 0.13 0.29 0.06 5.25 218-234 6.2 0.17 0.08 0.15 0.17 0.06 4.36 234-268 6.2 0.40 0.15 0.14 0.22 0.06 7.23 32 Table 1-2 (cont'd) pH Pyrophosphate Oxalate Dependent Horizon Depth pH OM Fe Al Fe Al CEC (cm) (H20) % % % % % meq/100 g SITE 4 Ahe Bf Bf Bfg Bfg ? Cg HCg 0-10 5.1 4.23 0.19 0.62 0.44 0.67 2.71 10-25 5.9 2.67 0.18 0.51 0.60 0.98 1.76 25-43 5.5 2.00 0.11 0.41 0.62 0.85 1.29 43-61 5.5 2.04 0.10 0.46 0.82 2.11 0.79 61-79 5.4 1.77 0.09 0.42 0.85 2.13 0.65 79-96 5.4 1.32 0.08 0.34 0.10 0.30 0.61 96-160 5,5 0.83 0.07 0.31 0.14 0.40 0.56 33 site disturbances have been masked by pedogenesis since the morphology expressed is typical of an Orthic Podzol soi l . In contrast to the topographically higher sites laand 2, the pedon of site 3 is imperfectly drained. The soil has developed from materials having a complex mode of origin. The upper portion of the pedon consists of a mixture of sandy beach materials and marine eroded coarse deposits.?. The material in the lower pedon, to a depth of four meters, is weakly to moderatly cemented littoral deposits and reflects this mode of origin by the presence of lithologic discontinuities. Iron-enriched strata observed (Figure I-5b) in the lower pedon are probably the result of the lithologic discontinuities, fluctuating water table and pedogenesis. This feature is more pronounced in the IICg2 horizon where there appears to be an incipient ortstein being formed. The cementation observed in the lower solum and pedon appears to be the result of repeated wetting and partial drying of the strata, although this is probably augmented by S i , Fe and Al cementing agents. Litter accumulation is similar to sites 1 and 2 and is characteristic of the thin mor forest floor development. Horizon differentiation in the upper pedon reflects podzol formation and indicates that similar processes at sites 1 and 2 are taking place. The Ae horizon is weakly defined and discontinuous. The color of the B shows evidence of i l luvial organic matter and sesquioxides. The upper B horizon has a slightly darker chroma than was observed for sites laand 2, suggesting greater amorphous organic matter accumulation. This soil has been classified as a Gleyed Mini Humo -Ferric Podzol (C.S.S.C., 1974) and a Aquic Haplorthod in the American System (Soil Survey Staff, U.S.D.A., 1973). The influence of ground water may be a major contributor to soil development since some morphological and chemical properties can reflect the soil water regime (De Kimpe, 1974; Siuta, 1967; McKeague, 1965). Mottling and gray coloration observed throughout the lower pedon may be attributed to the influences of the fluctuating water table. The Fe-enriched strata and'the incipient ortstein may also be a function of ground water, although the iron source may come from a pedogenic origin rather than from the ground water or in situ weathering. In comparing the depths at which mottles, gray coloration and water table levels (Figure 1-8) are encountered, it appears that present water table levels are lower than would be required'for the mottling of the Cg horizons. This suggests that former water table levels were higher than those recorded during the study period, even though annual and seasonal distribution of precipitation were similar or higher than normal (Table I It is concievable that changes in subsurface flow downslope would be reflected in ground water fluctuations at this site. Soil acidity and distribution of i l luvial Fe and Al in the upper pedon (Table I-2)are not consistent with the inherent rapid permeability pf the soi l . The pH values showed a fluctuating trend from the surface to the Bf horizons Also, maximum accumulation of Fe and Al occur in the upper B. These features could be attributed to the soil being churned and truncated during logging. The poorly drained soil of the lower site has developed from partially stratified beach deposits. Soil depth is approximately two meters. Mottled and weakly cemented horizons occur below about 45 cm. The water table periodically reached the surface (Figure 1-8). The lack of mottles and gray coloration in the surface horizons may be attributed to the ease with which soil water passes through the upper portion of the pedon. The cleanly washed appearance of the IIC material would indicate that the water table remains near or above this depth for a large part of the year. This is confirmed by the data in Figure 1-8. The moisture status at the site is probably augmented by seepage water. This seepage water was probably influential in initiating the development of the dense and vigorous growth of understory vegetation, since the parent material is inherently of low fert i l i ty . Litter accumulation and differentiation at site 4 reflect the influence of deciduous understory vegetation. From the discussion by Bernier (1968), this humus layer, conforms to a transitional mor, felty-greasy mor type. This could be the result of influences from deciduous species since herbaceous species can exert considerable influence on the debris from potential mor-forming coniferous species by modifying the mor-forming factors (Handley, 1954). At the site, areas where coniferous debris appears to be dominant, a felty-mor organic layer is evident. This is characterized by an abundant development of fungal hyphae in both the F and H horizons. The F horizon is prominent and the H is only slightly humified. In other areas, deciduous debris appears to be the dominant l i t ter . Here, the H is well developed, amorphous and greasy, but lacks fungal hyphae. These features along with abundant moisture conditions is characteristic of the greasy-mor formation. The decomposition of deciduous materials, during the favorable spring to autumn weather, would potentially increase the amount of amorphous organic materials entering the so i l , wHiich could contribute to soil development. The most distinguishing feature of the soil is the accumulation of amorphous organic matter in the surface mineral horizon. The dark chroma and staining on sand grains indicate that appreciable amounts of organic matter have been translocated from the organic layers. The slightly variegated colors and the moderate acidity of the Ahe horizon would indicate that the surfacehhorizon is in the process of degradation. The upper B satisfies the current criteria for Bf horizons. The presence of prominent mottling in the Bfg horizons and the presence of a fluctuating water table indicate a hygric moisture regime. The classification of the soil in the Canadian and American systems are, Gleyed Humo - Ferric Podzol and Typic Aquod. Morphological observations suggest that vegetation and moisture regime are the major factors controlling soil development at this site. Also, there appears to be evidence to suggest that changes in site development have occurred that are directly or indirectly related to site disturbances by man. These changes could cause morphological features produced by present pedogenic processes to be superimposed on relict features of soil development under former site conditions. From site observations and the literature (Krajina, 1965, 1969) i t is believed that, prior to man's intervention, the lower slope of the transect had developed a climax vegetative community of Ceda.r-Hemlock composition. Under this vegetative community and water regime, a soil having a thick organic layer, soil morphology expressing i l luvial organic matter, and Fe and Al in the upper solum, and features consistent with a soil having a high water table should develope. This would appear to be similar to the morphology expressed in the soil of a successional Cedar-Hemlock site adjacent to site 4. The contrast in site features between site 4 and the a'djacent area can be attributed to the sequence of events following logging. The clearing of the surface vegetative cover would leave the soil susceptible to erosion. The ephemeral stream adjacent to site 4 is probably the result of surface erosion, possibly along skid roads, after site disturbance. A hydraulic gradient is produced by the stream which would effectively change the moisture regime of the upper solum and provide an optimum edatope for the successional development of the present Douglas Fir community. Under former conditions saturation of the pedon throughout most of the year would result in less segregation of mobile constituents into specific horizons. The effective change in the water regime would eventually lead to the emphasis of leaching and acidifying processes in the upper pedon and the redistribution of mobile constituents into lower areas of the pedon. The combined effects of the fluctuating water table biocycling of basic components and il luvial organic matter and Fe and Al from the organic layers would tend to retard these processes. However, from the degraded appearance of the Ahe, and the increasing trend in i l luvial Fe and Al (Table 1-2) in the upper pedon, there appears to be a net result of eluviation and redistribution processes in the upper pedon Morphological features in the lower pedon would suggest that the influence of the water table has not been appreciably changed at these depths. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The four sites described show that soil formation is related to topographic position, moisture regime arid vegetation. Soil morphology observed at each site appears consistent with the variation in site factors, which are conditioned by topography. These same factors have contributed to the variation in successional vegetative patterns observed along the transect. Present communities are typical of the geographical region (Krajina, 1969). Disturbance by man has indirectly influenced the moisture regime in the lower portion of the transect. This has effectively modified the edatope and altered vegetative succession. It i possible that these changes have resulted in the impression of present pedogenic processes upon relicofeatures of soil development. Although this interaction is not readily apparent, it is conceivable that the dominant present pedogenic processes have masked or obliterated the readable effects of the former environment. CHAPTER II PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES AND GENESIS OF THE SOILS INTRODUCTION 40 In Chapter I, the description of the soils in the study area and other environmental components considered to be relevant to soil genesis were presented. Discussion was oriented toward assessment of the effects of site characteristics on soil development. In this section results of chemical, physical and mineralogical determinations performed on the soils are presented. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret these data with respect to soil genesis and to provide further evidence as to the effect of site disturbances on soil development. The data provides a basis by which an assessment of the effects of precipitation and soil properties may be made on water quality as well as the influence of spatial variability on soil chemical properties. METHODS AND MATERIALS 41 A modal pedon was selected for each site described in Chapter I and each horizon was sampled. Each horizon was sampled continuously around the perimeter of the pedon and bulked. Bulked samples were air dried, gently crushed and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Percentage (by wt) <2 mm a n d » 2 mm size fractions were determined and the <2 mm bulk sample was thoroughly mixed and subsampled for subsequent physical and chemical analysis. Physical Properties Particle size analysis was determined by the hydrometer method (Day, 1965). Soil water content was measured at 0.1 and 15.0 bar tensions for all horizons,.using a pressure plate apparatus outlined by Richards (1948). Available water holding capacity was calculated as the difference in water content between the two measured tensions. Bulk density was determined by one of two methods for each horizon (Blake, 1965). At sites 3 and 4 duplicate measurements were taken for each horizon using the core method. At sites 1 and 2 the volume measure method was used since these soils were much too gravelly to be sampled using a core sampler. Chemical Properties Soil pH was measured 1:1 soil:water and 1:2 soil:0.01M CaCl2 suspensions using a glass electrode and pH meter. Cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) were determined using 1.0N NHitOAc at pH 7.0. (Chapman, 1965). Cations were measured with the Perkin-Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer; Total CEC was determined by the micro-Kjeldhal method following desplacement of adsorbed HH^ with KC!. The pH-dependent CEC was determined according to the method of 4 2 Clark (.1965). Base saturation and the theoretical base saturation were calculated from the above results. Total carbon and sulfur were determined using the Leco Gasometric Carbon Analyzer and Leco Combustion Sulfur Analyzer Apparatus, respectively (Leco, 1959). Total nitrogen was determined by the semi-micro-Kjeldhal method as outlined by Bremner (1965). Available phosphorus was extracted using 0.03N NH4F in 0.025N HCT solution and phosphorus measured colorimetrically using ammonium molyldate and stannous chloride (Jackson, 1958). Organic matter was determined using the Walkley-Black method as outlined in Jackson (1958). Iron and Al were determined according to three methods. Acid ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Al were determined by the procedure of McKeague and Day (1966). Citrate-bicarbonate-dithionate extractions were carried out for free Fe and Al (Weaver et_ al_, 1968; Mehra and Jackson, 1960). Sodium pyrophosphate extractable Fe and Al were determined as outlined by Bascomb (1968). Sodium hydroxide extractable AVand Si were determined using the method outlined in Black (1965). Total elemental analysis was determined by acid digestion using HC1, HF and HClOi* following ignition of the sample to 900°C for four hours (Black ejt al_, 1965). Elemental concentrations were'measured.-by. atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mineralogy The s i l t and clay fractions of the soil were prepared for X-ray analysis according to Jackson (1964). The separation of the s i l t and clay was accomplished using the Sharpies continuous flow supercentrifuge. Oriented slides of the clay fraction were prepared for K, Mg and Mg-glycerol treated clay samples as outlined by Jackson (1956). The K saturated slides were subsequently re-analyzed after heating to 300°C and 550°C, respectively for four hours X-ray diffraction analysis was completed on a Norelco X-ray diffractometer. The s i l t fraction was treated with K in preparation for X-ray diffraction analysis. The relative quantities of each clay mineral present were expressed as a function of peak intensity and peak area (Jackson, 1964; Whittig, 1965). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 44 Physical Properties Results for selected physical properties of the soils are given in Table 11-1. The soils studied are predominately coarse textured. Variation in texture may be attributed to the complex mode of material deposition and subsequent exposure to marine forces during isostatic rebound of the land surface. Upper slope sites (1 and 2) are similar in their measured physical properties. Textures ranged from gravelly sandy loam in the sola, to sandy loam in the 11C material. Clay content is low, and with the exception of site 4 increases with depth when the lithologic discontinuities are reached. Silt content was substantially greater in the surface mineral layer, suggesting a possible aeolian source. Bulk density (Bd) values were variable, being lowest in surface horizons, gradually increasing with depth. The increase in values in the BCg-IICg horizons reflects the aggregation and weak cementation observed. The lower values observed for the HCg horizon are primarily the result of the loosening of the somewhat compacted structure through weathering and root penetration. Similar results have been reported by Lavkulich and Rowles (1971). The AWSC is variable and generally low, characteristic of coarse textured soils. Values decreased sharply below the surface horizon. The larger values near the surface are the result of the greater amounts of s i l t and organic matter recorded for these horizons. . The coarse fragment content,' the rounded and polished appearance of stones and cobbles in the upper pedon of site 3, reflect the intensity of past marine erosion at the slope break. Sand fractionation analysis Table I I - l Selected Physical Properties of the Soils Sand Soi l Very Very and Depth Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Fine S i l t Clay /2mm. Bd AWSC Horizon (cm) % by wt :— g/cc % SITE 1 Ae Bf Bf B f 3 BC BCg-IIC HCg IIC Ae Bf Bf BCg-IIC HCg IIC Bf Bf B f 3 BCg Cg 0-5 8.6 12.8 13.3 14.6 9.9 33.2 7.6 39 1.08 15.3 5^30 21.0 21.2 14.2 13.4 5.7 17.0 7.5 45 1.29 8.1 30-56 19.8 19.5 14.3 15.4 7.4 16.8 6.8 38 1.30 6.9 56-76 14.2 18.3 17.0 16.9 11.3 15.3 7.0 35 1.21 7.2 76-96 12.2 16.3 19.9 21.0 9.5 14.0 7.1 37 1.28 9.3 96-116 8.1 15.9 23.1 19.8 8.0 17.6 7.5 31 1.46 7.9 116-122 4.8 7.6 20.2 20.8 7.8 23.0 17.8 15 1.71 9.6 122-147 3.9 6.9 19.1 21.5 7.5 21.9 17.2 17 2.36 10.0 SITE 2 0-5 10.7 11.1 12.7 11.4 6.0 36.1 12.0 39 0.99 18.3 5-38 8.1 14.5 19.3 17.5 6.8 22.8 11.0 57 1.21 10.9 38-68 15.9 18.4 17.7 13.8 6.1 18.7 9.4 54 1.27 10.9 68-96 6.7 12.6 21.9 19.7 7.4 21.7 10.0 41 1.43 11.7 96-104 5.5 7.5 21.1 16.6 8.5 22.0 18.8 18 1.66 9.2 104-137 3.9 6.9 19.1 18.1 7.7 24.0 20.3 15 2.42 8.7 SITE 3 0-8 5.3 26.1 41.3 10.3 3.2 6.8 7.0 24 0.91 8.1 8-30 9.2 35.1 38.4 6.1 2.2 2.1 6.9 21 0.85 1.9 30-56 5.6 24.4 37.3 20.9 3.7 2.9 6.0 32 0.90 4.0 56-76 2.7 8.9 29.1 41.8 8.2 3.0 6.3 12 1.31 2.6 76-96 1.7 6.7 26.0 47.1 8.8 4.7 5.0 11 1.47 7.6 Table I I - l (cont'd) Sand S o i l Very Very and Depth Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Fine S i l t Clay 2mm Bd AWSC Horizon ((cm) % by wt : g/cc % HCg HCg ? I H C g IVCg VCg VCg„ VICg VICg v i c g ; VHCg Ahe Bf Bf Bfg Bfg ? Cg HCg 96-132 0.5 2.2 27.4 55.0 7.9 2.8 4.2 1 1.51 6.9 132-152 1.7 7.6 55.8 30.0 1.6 1.0 2.3 2 1.88 3.4 .152-157 1.1 3.8 18.1 46.3 17.1 8.1 5.5 1 1.61 7.8 157-162 2.3 26.0 63.5 3.6 1.0 1.2 2.4 1 1.28 3.2 162-172 1.3 12.6 38.0 28.6 2.2 10.6 6.7 1 1.48 9.6 172-185 0.3 1.1 7.7 39.3 23.5 18.4 9.7 0 1.61 12.2 185-203 0.3 • 0.3 2.4 28.7 42.5 17.0 8.8 0 1.77 11.8 203-218 0.2 0.7 2.3 39.0 22.3 26.0 9.5 1 1.77 14.7 218-234 0.1 0.7 2.9 28.4 24.8 30.8 12.3 3 1.86 15.4 234-268 0.6 0.9 2.4 11.1 19.9 48.7 16.4 3 2.11 19.9 SITE 4 0-10 1.9 19.0 57.2 6.6 2.2 5.0 8.1 5 0.91 8.7 10-25 1.3 21.0 56.5 6.6 2.6 4.3 7.7 6 0.79 8.0 25-43 0.9 25.4 55.8 5.8 2.9 3.1 6.1 4 0.83 7.7 43-61 0.8 25.8 57.1 6.1 3.0 3.3 3.9 2 1.16 5.1 61-79 1.5 23.0 63.4 5.2 1.8 2.8 1.3 1 1.20 6.1 79-96 0.9 9.6 72.3 11.5 1.5 1.9 2.3 4 • 1.29 5.2 96-160 13.3 25..0 51.2 5.9 1.5 1.7 1.4 23 0.66 3.9 CT> 47 showed a trend from coarse sand to predominately fine to very fine sand at depth. Textures range from a gravelly loamy sand at the surface to a loam or s i l t loam in the lower pedon. This variation in texture indicates the presence of 1ithologicadiscontinuities. Si l t and clay content in the solum is low, increasing to approximately 49 and 17% respectively in the lower pedon. The variation in sand size distribution and s i l t and clay contents in the pedon can be attributed largely to the variable marine shore conditions during deposition and rebound of the land surface. Bulk density values range from 0.91 g/cc at the surface to 1.91 g/cc at depth. Variation in Bd is associated with horizons in which weak cementation or textural changes are encountered. Material deposition at site 4 appears to have been more uniform. Medium sand dominates the <2 mm fraction throughout the pedon. Textures are coarse, ranging from loamy sand at the surface to sand and gravelly sand in the 11Cg horizon. Silt and clay content is very low with the greatest amount found in the surface horizon. The AWSC is low, decreasing gradually with depth. Bulk density values are low, increasing slightly in the gleyed horizons, where weak cementation is encountered. These values range from 0.91 g/cc at the surface to 1.29 g/cc and 0.61 g/cc, respectively in the Cg and HCg horizons. The dominant physical features of these soils are the high variation in coarse fragment content and texture throughout the pedons. The coarse textures and weak granular structure exhibited by these materials tend to increase the permeability of the soils. The soils of the upper slope are well to moderately-well drained, a result of the inherent rapid permeability and topographic position, which allows for the lateral removal of percolating water along the impermeable t i l l layer. Soils on the lower slope, although being rapidly permeable, are imperfectly to poorly drained due to the presence of a perched water table (Figure 1-8). This characteristic would tend to facilitate leaching processes in the pedons. Irregularities in Bd are observed in the soils of the lower slope. Although Bd values tend to increase where weakly cemented layers are encountered, it could not be determined whether or not Bd was'affected by the cementation process. At site 3, it appears that Bd variation from one horizon to another is influenced more by changes in grain size or mode of deposition than through cementation. Fractionation analyses indicate that the variability in Bd appears to parallel variation in sand size, or s i l t and clay content. However, at site 4, where particle size distribution is more uniform, it appears that cementation could function to increase the Bd of horizons in the lower solum. Analyses, designed to assess any increase in bulk density due to accumulation of plasma in the matrix material were not conducted. At site 3, variation in sand size distribution and texture indicate the presence of lithologic discontinuities. This supports the complex mode of material deposition in which the soils have formed. Textural changes, which are often abrupt, would have considerable influence on water movement throughout the pedon. Cementation would also influence water movement. These features together with the fluctuating water table appear critical for the formation of the apparent ortstein in the IICg2 horizon. Chemical Properties Table 11-2 gives the results for pH (H20, CaCl 2), carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and available phosphorus. Soil pH is extremely acid in the organic horizons and ranges from slightly to extremely acid in all pedons. There was an increasing trend with depth at sites 1 and 2. At sites 3 and 4, pH values were higher in Table II-2 Selected Chemical Properties of the Soils S o i l and pH Total Total Total Available Horizon Depth Yifi CaCl 2 C OM N S . C:N C:N:S P (cm) % ppm SITE 1 LFH 2.5-0 3.8 3.2 37.90 62.30 1.04 0.13 36.5 330: :8 :1 23.3 Ae 0-5 4.1 3.4 3.19 3.98 0.10 0.01 32.5 168: :8 :1 19.6 BF 5-30 5.4 4.8 1.14 1.90 0.04 0.01 25.9 81: :3 :1 17.6 Bf 9 30-56 5.9 5.2 0.90 1.40 0.04 0.03 23.7 36 :2 :1 7.0 Bf? 56-76 6.0 5.3 0.06 1.07 0.03 0.02 18.2 35: :2 :1 6.1 BCJ 76-96 6.1 5.3 0.81 0.89 0.03 0.02 27.0 . 51 :2 :1 8.6 BCg-IIC 96-116 5.8 4.8 0.53 0.60 0.02 0.01 26.5 88: :3 :1 15.7 H C g 116-122 6.0 5.0 0.14 0.30 0.01 0.01 14.0 14: :1 :1 12.6 IIC 122-147 6.1 5.0 0.13 0.27 0.01 0.01 13.0 16 :1 :1 14.4 SITE 2 LFH 2.5-0 3.9 3.2 40.23 66.4 1.07 0.13 37.7 300: :8 :1 26.8 Ae 0-5 4.1 3.6 3.87 5.37 0.12 0.03 33.6 155: :5: :1 18.6 Bf 5-38 5.4 4.8 1.68 2.78 0.05 0.01 37.5 129: :3 :1 18.8 Bf, 38-68 5.7 4.7 1.24 2.15 0.05 0.02 27.5 73: :3 :1 5.8 BCg-IIC 68-96 5.6 4.7 0.90 1.66 0.04 0.02 25.0 53: :2 :1 10.0 II Cg 96-104 5.8 4.7 0.24 0.66 0.02 0.01 12.0 22: :2 :1 11.0 l i e 104-137 6.2 5.4 0.12 0.27 0.02 0.01 13.5 6: :2 :1 9.9 Table II-2 (cont'd) S o i l and pH Total Total Total Available Horizon Depth H 2 0 CaCl 2 C OM N S C:N C:N:S P (cm) — % P p m SITE 3 LFH 5-0 3.5 2.9 42.12 70.62 1.06 0.14 39.7 . 300:8:1 19.9 Bf 0-8 5.1 4.1 2.59 3.83 0.09 0.03 30.1 90:3:1 30.0 Bf 8-30 . • 5.8 4.7 0.95 2.71 0.05 0.01 19.4 79:4:1 30.3 B f3 30-56 5.5 4.8 0.95 1.87 0.04 0.02 21.6 56:3:1 14.0 BC| 56-76 5.5 4.8 0.73 1.33 0.04 0.02 19.7 41:2:1 14.7 Cg 76-96 5.5 4.7 0.46 0.92 0.03 0.02 15.3 27:2:1 15.4 IlCg 96-132 5.6 4.9 0.33 0.62 0.02 0.01 17.4 36:2:1 18.8 n c g 9 132-152 5.8 5.2 0.20 0.47 0.01 0.01 25.0 40:2:1 25.5 IHCg 152-157 5.8 5.2 0.13 0.35 0.01 0.01 16.3 19:1:1 29.8 IVCg 157-162 5.7 5.1 0.05 0.28 0.01 0.01 4.2 5:1:1 20.5 VCg 162-172 6.1 . 5.1 0.05 0.17 0.01 0;.01 4.2 6:2:1 34.0 vcg 9 172-185 6.0 5.2 0.03 10.06 0.01 0.01 4.3 10:2:1 18.6 VI Cg 185-203 6.2 5.3 0.03 0.07 0.01 0.01 7.5 15:2:1 12.2 v i c g ? 203-218 6.2 5.4 0.03 0.17 0.01 0.01 5.0 10 :2:1 10.7 VTCg; 218-234 6.2 5.4 0.03 0.17 0.01 0.01 10.0 10:1:1 10.4 VHCg 234-268 6.2 5.4 0.09 0.40 •0.01 0.01 15.0 11:1:1 8.3 SITE 4 LFH 4-0 3.8 3.2 30.4 49.47 1.09 0.16 28.0 190:7:1 20.6 Ahe 0-10 4.7 4.6 2.89 5.23 0.10 0.03 27.6 100:4:1 25.2 Bf 10-25 5.6 4.9 1.25 2.67 0.08 0.02 16.2 57:4:1 28.2 Bf 25-43 5.5 4.6 1.09 2.00 0.07 0.01 16.3 99:6:1 19.8 Bfg 43-61 5.5 4.4 0.91 2.04 0.07 0.02 13.0 40:3:1 19.8 Bfg 9 61-79 5.4 4.8 0.72 1.77 0.05 0.01 15.0 51:3:1 19.6 eg 2 79-96 5.4 4.9 0.49 1.32 0.03 0.01 15.8 38:2:1 14.7 HCg 96-160 5.5 4.8 0.33 0.83 0.02 0.01 14.4 33:2:1 13.7 51 the surface mineral horizons then decreased to a stable level in the lower solum. In the lower pedon of site 3, the pH increased with depth to a stable value. The pH measured by 0.01M CaCl2 was 0.5 to 1.1 pH units lower than those found in water. Total organic carbon in the LFH horizons was highest in the upper three sites, ranging from 37 to 42% and lowest (30%) at site 4. Mineral soil values were highest in the surfacehhorizons and decreased rapidly with depth. However, distribution of organic carbon in the pedon was variable among sites. Values were consistently higher in the solum of sites 2 and 4, remaining at greater than 1% throughout the lower B. Organic matter and total nitrogen of both the LFH layer and in the mineral soil showed similar trends to that of total carbon. In the mineral so i l , greatest accumulation of organic matter occurred in the B horizon at sites 2 and 4, where values were greater than 2% throughout the B. Total nitrogen content was greatest in the surface horizons at all sites. Site 4 had slightly greater solum values than the other sites suggesting that greater mineralization and nitrification processes occur at this site. Total sulfur of the organic horizons increased from 0.13% at site 1 to 0.16% at site 4. Mineral soil values generally decreased with depth, although a slight increase was observed in the lower B at all sites. The highest solum values were recorded at site 4. The C:N ratios of the organic horizons ranged from 36 to 40 at sites 1, 2 and 3, and 28 at site 4. In general, all pedons showed a decreasing trend with depth, with slightvariations. Ratios below the surface mineral horizon at site 4 were consistently lower than corresponding values at the other sites. This difference among sites indicates that the organic materials and rates and degree of decomposition is different for 52 site 4. This can be attributed to the influence of the deciduous understory vegetation on the decomposition rates at this site, since the microclimate appears to be similar,at all sites (as previously discussed in Chapter I). The C:N:S ratios show similar trends at all sites. Available phosphorus showed similar trends to those observed for organic matter. This indicates that most of the available phosphorus in these soils is organic. Values were highest in the upper pedon ranging from 17.6 ppm to 30.3 ppm among the four-sites. Values were consistently higher for sites 3 and 4 than for sites 1 and 2. Exchange Properties The results for exchange properties of the soils are given in Table I1-3. Exchangeable cations were generally low, being greatest in the surface mineral horizons. Exchangeable cations decreased sharply below the surface horizons except for Ca at sites 1 and 2, where values remained fai'rly constant throughout the solum. Greater amounts of Ca, Mg and K were found in the upper solum at site 4 than at the other three sites. This reflects the effects of biocycling from the understory vegetation, since the exchangeable levels in the organic layer is substantially higher at site 4 than shown for the other sites. The CEC of the solum is fairly uniform for all sites, except for the slightly higher values in the surfacehhorizons. The higher s i l t and clay content in these horizons of sites 1 and 2 would tend to increase the exchange capacity. The higher values at sites 3 and 4 reflect the importance of colloidal organic matter on the retention capacity of these soi ls, considering the rather low amounts of inorganic colloidal material found. Generally the exchange capacity at these sites showed similar trends as organic matter with depth. Exchangeable cations in the lower pedon at Table II-3 Exchange Properties of the Soils S o i l ': and pH Exchangeable Cations Horizon Depth H20 CaCl 2 Ca Mg Na K CEC 0 .BS (cm) _—.—U_—J—'..nfeq/'lOOg- ~ % SITE 1 LFH Ae Bf Bf B f 3 BCd BCg-IIC HCg IIC 2.5-0 3.8 3.2 10.01 1.28 0.29 0.99 99.8 12.6 0-5 4.1 3.4 0.49 0.10 0.23 0.08 13.5 6.7 5-30 5.4 4.8 0.40 0.05 0.15 0.07 12.5 5.4 30-56 5.9 5.2 0.54 0.10 0.23 0.09 12.8 7.5 56-76 6.0 5.3 0.48 0.11 0.06 0.08 12.0 6.1 76-96 6.1 5.3 0.49 0.09 0.07 0.08 11.9 - 6.1 96-116 5.8 4.8 0.20 0.03 0.05 0.02 8.3 3.6 116-122 6.0 5.0 0.93 0.69 0.21 0.08 12.1 15.8 122-147 6.2 5.0 1.18 1.10 0.37 0.29 10.7 27.5 SITE 2 LFH Ae Bf Bf BCg-IIC HCg IIC 2.5-0 3.9 3.2 12.98 1.85 0.20 1.57 95.1 17.5 0-5 4.1 3.6 0.64 0.19 .0.31 0.21 22.2 6.1 5-38 5.4 4.8 0.49 0.08 0.24 0.09 10.7 8.4 38-68 5.7 4.7 0.70 0.09 0.04 0 08 14.7 6.2 68-96 5.6 4.7 0.59 0.08 0.04 0.07 11.1 7.0 96-104 5.8 4.7 0.85 0.15 0.11 0.11 13.1 9.3 104-137 6.2 5.4 1.19 0.96 0.45 0.24 12.3 23.1 Table II-3 (cont'd) S o i l and pH Exchangeable Cations r_ j_- . Horizon Depth H20 CaCl 2 Ca Mg Na K CEC ./:_BS (cm) meq/lOOg — — % SITE 3 LFH Bf Bf B f 3 BCg Cg H C g n c g 7 IHCg IVCg VCg v c g ? VICg VICg? v i c g ; VHCg LFH Ahe Bf Bf Bfg Bfg 9 Cg HCg 5-0 3.5 2.9 10.98 1.48 0.12 1.11 95.6 14.6 0-8 5.1 4.1 0.81 0.15 0.02 0.04 17.5 5.8 8-30 5.8 4.7 0.55 0.06 0.01 0.04 14.0 4.7 30-56 5.5 4.8 0.25 0.04 0.02 0.03 12.4 2.7 56-76 5.5 4.8 0.21 0.04 0.02 0.02 10.5 2.8 76-96 5.5 4.7 0.19 0.03 0.02 0.02 6.31 4.1 96-132 5.6 4.9 0.11 0.02 0.02 0.01 9.6 1.7 132-152 5.8 5.2 0.14 0.03 0.02 0.02 4.4 4.8 152-157 5.8 5.2 0.19 0.04 0.04 0.04 3.4 0.1 157-162 5.7 5.1 0.18 0.04 0.03 0.03 3.0 9.3 162-172 6.1 5.1 0.34 0.11 0.05 0.04 3.5 12.6 172-185 6.0 5.2 1.04 0.49 0.08 0.04 3.6 45.8 185-203 • 6.2 5.3 1.74 0.84 0.07 0.06 4.6 58.9 203-218 6.2 5.4 2.24 1.17 0.07 0.08 4.7 75.7 218-234 6.2 5.4 2.11 1.11 0.08 0.08 4.4 76.8 234-268 6.2 5.4 3.99 2.28 0.08 0.15 7.7 84.4 SITE 4 4-0 3.8 3.2 18.56 3.16 0.46 2.47 90.4 27.3 0-10 5.1 4.6 1.34 0.33 0.05 0.33 13.5 15.3 10-25 5.9 4.9 1.23 0.16 0.01 0.06 13.0 11.2 25-43 5.5 4.6 0.51 0.07 0.01 0.03 12.9 4.8 43-61 5.5 4.4 0.26 0,04 0.01 0.01 13.4 2.4 61-79 5.4 4.8 0.19 0.03 0.02 0.01 10.8 2.3 79-96 5.4 4.9 0.18 0.03 0.03 0.01 8.4 3.0 96-160 5.5 4.8 0.18 0.02 0.02 0.01 6.4 3.6 site 3 exhibited a substantial increase over the adjacent horizons. This probably reflects the influence of the marine depositional environment and, also, could give an indication of the depth of leaching that would be expected in these materials i f a restricting layer was not present. Percent base saturation (BS) is very low, (less than 10%) and fairly constant within the solum. The higher BS values for the surface horizons at site 4 and in the lower pedon of site 3 can be attributed to the increase in exchangeable cations as previously discussed. Percent BS for the organic layers is characteristic of the mor humus type except for site 4 where the higher BS (27.3%) is more characteristic of the mull or moder humus type (Handley, 1954). Although this relationship is not^  absolute, it does indicate the modifying influence of the deciduous understory vegetation on the chemical status of the organic layer and probably in its development. The pH-dependent CEC is extremely low at all sites (Table 11-4). The low values are expected, since the pH-dependent CEC is associated with weakly dissociated acid components of organic matter and Al - and Fe-interlayers and coatings. It appears that the decrease in pH-dependent CEC can be attributed to the organic matter component in these acid soils. Sawhney (1970) concluded that in acid soils the organic matter component had a greater influence on pH-dependent CEC than inorganic colloids, because organic acid groups are protonated at low pH values. The extremely low values <fior pH-dependent CEC make the use of it as criteria to differentiate between the B horizon of Brunisolic and Podzolic soils (Clark ejt al_, 1966) unsuitable for soils developed on these parent materials. Table II-4 pH Dependent Exchange Properties of the Soils 56 S o i l BS and pH (Ca+Mg/ Horizon Depth CaCl 2 Ca Mg A l CEC Ca+Mg+Al) (cm) meq/lOOg % SITE 1 Ae Bf Bf Bff BC BCg-IIC HCg IIC Ae Bf Bf BCg-IIC II Cg IIC Bf B f2 B f 3 BCg Cg HCg H'Cg. UlCg IVCg VCg vcg 9 VICg VICg 2 0-5 3.8 1.48 0.04 3.09 4.61 32.9 5-30 4.6 1.15 0.06 0.72 1.93 62.7 30-56 4.7 0.85 0.06 0.36 1.27 71.7 56-76 4.6 1.28 0.06 0.33 1.67 80.2 76-96 4.6 0.89 0.06 0.33 1.28 74.2 96-116 4.6 0.46 0.06 0.33 0.87 59.8 116-122 4.6 2.39 0.04 0.33 2.76 88.0 122-147 4.6 2.40 0.06 0.33 2.79 88.1 SITE 2 0-5 3.4 1.59 0.08 2.65 4.32 38.7 5-38 4.5 1.03 0.06 0.60 1.69 64.5 38-68 4.6 1.48 0.06 0.36 1.90 81.1 68-96 4.5 1.26 0.06 0.33 1.65 80.0 96-104 4.5 1.25 0.08 0.33 1.66 80.1 104-137 4.9 2.55 0.21 0.33 3.09 89.3 VTCg* VTICg SITE 3 0-8 4.3 1.04 0.08 0.39 1.51 74.2 8-30 4.6 0.68 0.04 0.16 0.86 83.7 30-56 4.6 0.69 0.06 0.03 0.77 97.4 56-76 4.5 0.73 0.06 0.04 0.83 95.2 76-96 4.6 0.55 0.04 0.03 0.83 95.2 96-132 4,5 0.41 0.04 0.03 0.48 93.8 132-152 4.6 0.38 0.06 0.06 0.50 88.0 152-157 4.6 0.40 0.06 0.02 0.48 95.8 157-162 4.5 0.39 0.06 0.04 0.49 91.8 162-172 4.6 0.78 0.06 0.08 0.92 91.3 172-185 4.7 2.24 0.12 0.55 2.91 81.1 185-203 4.7 2.73 0.19 0.69 3.61 80.9 203-218 4.8 3.93 0.33 0.99 5.25 81.1 218-234 4.8 3.28 0.27 0.81 4.36 81.4 234-268 4.7 5.33 0.72 1.18 7.23 82.7 Table 11-4 (cont'd) 57 S o i l BS and pH (Ca+Mg/ Horizon Depth CaCl 2 Ca Mg A l CEC Ca+Mg+Al) (cm) meq/lOOg % SITE 4 Ahe 0-10 4.2 1.46 0.06 0.56 2.71 76.8 Bf 10-25 4.6 1.30 0.08 0.09 1.76 83.5 Bf 25-43 4,4 1.19 0.06 0.04 1.29 96.9 Bfg 43-61 4.5 0.69 0.06 0.04 0.79 94.9 Bfg 61-79 4.5 0.58 0.04 0.03 0.65 95.4 Cg 79-96 4.5 0.54 0.04 0.03 0.61 95.1 IIC 96-160 4.5 0.49 0.04 0.03 0.56 94.6 Extractable Fe and Al 58 In Table 11-5 the results for pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite extractions for Fe and Al are presented. The pyrophosphate extraction, which is an indication of organically bound Fe (McKeague, 1967; Bascomb, 1968), shows a decrease in Fe and Al with depth at all sites. This trend is similar for organic matter observed previously. The oxalate extraction, which theoretically extracts total amorphous Fe (McKeague, 1967), showed a slight decreasing trend with depth, except at site 4. Aluminum extracted by this method shows a maximum in the lower B, except at site 3 where a maximum of Al occurs in the surface mineral horizon. The dithionite extractable Al and Fe exhibited variable trends among the four sites. At site 1 and 2 values increased from the Ae to upper Bf horizon. At site 4 this increasing trend continued throughout the solum. At site 3 maximum values were observed in the surface mineral horizon. These results show that greater amounts of Fe and Al are being precipitated and accumulated in the B horizons of site 4. This may be attributed to the influence of the fluctuating water table and i l luvial organic matter in these horizons. An approximate difference can be made for organic complexed Fe, amorphous inorganic Fe, and the crystalline Fe oxides by selective extraction of soils by pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite (McKeague, 1971). These results are given in Table 11-5. The inorganic amorphous Fe is generally highest in the upper solum for,the sites, except at site 3. Extractable crystalline Fe shows similar trends. The extractable inorganic Fe does,not show any consistent trends for sites 1 and 2 but does show decreasing and increasing trends, respectively at site 3 and 4. Sodium hydroxide extractable Al and Si are given in Table 11-5. At sites laand 2 maximum values for both Al and Si were recorded for the Table II-5 Extractable Fe and Al and Amorphous Mineral Al and Si of the Soils S o i l Amorphous Extractable Extractable and Pyrophosphate Oxalate Dithionate Inorganic Crystalline Inorganic NaOH Horizon Depth A l Fe A l Fe Al Fe Fe Fe Fe Al Si (cm) % by wt ppm ppm SITE 1 Ae 0-5 0,21 0.14 0.09 0.38 0.17 0.53 0.24 0.15 0.59 0.35 0.86 Bf 5-30 0.48 0,11 1.25 0.43 0.63 0.68 0.32 0.25 0.89 1.99 1.10 Bf 30-56 0.42 0.05 1.34 0.41 0.60 0.78 0.36 0.37 0.73 2.63 1.32 B f 3 56-76 0.36 0.04 1.48 0.44 0.51 0.73 0.40 0.29 0.69 2.31 1.15 BC 76-96 0.34 0.04 1.04 0.35 0.44 0.63 0.31 0.28 0.59 2.15 1.13 BCg-IIC 96-116 0.34 0.04 0.59 0.36 0.33 0.38 0.31 0.02 0.33 1.46 0.87 HCg 116-122 0.26 0.02 0.33 0.27 0.18 0.30 0.25 0.03 0.28 1.66 1.00 l i e . 122-147 0.25 0.02 0.48 0.33 0.22 0.43 0.31 0.10 0.41 1.12 0.74 SITE 2 Ae 0-5 0.24 0.16 0.13 0.31 0.24 0.48 0.15 0.17 0.32 0.65 0.99 Bf 5-38 0.53 0,14 1.21 0.53 0.54 0.85 0.39 0.32 0.71 1.80 1.18 Bf 9 38-68 0.56 0.12 1.34 0.42 0.69 0.98 0.30 0.56 0.86 2.17 2.01 BCg-IICg 68-96 0.45 0.10 0.59 0.35 0.48 0.50 0.25 0.15 0.40 1.74 1.21 HCg 96-104 0.27 0.09 0.35 0.44 0.23 0.73 0.35 0.29 0.64 1.79 1.77 IIC 104-137 0.10 0.04 0.08 0.37 0.12 0.48 0.33 0.11 0.44 0.66 1.19. SITE 3 Bf 0-8 0.70 0.12 1.28 0.44 0.79 0.80 0.32 0.35 0.58 2.16 1.24 Bf 8-30 0.45 0.07 0.93 0.27 0.54 0.60 0.20 0.33 0.53 2.04 1.80 B f 3 30-56 0.44 0.07 0.79 0.26 0.53 0.60 0.19 0.34 0.53 1.93 0.79 BCl 56-76 0.38 0.07 0.61 0.28 0.44 0.48 0.21 0.20 0.41 1.45 0.72 Cg 76-96 0.37 0.06 0.51 0.23 0.41 0.43 0.17 0.20 0.37 1.38 0.65 Table II-5 (cont'd) Soi l and Pyrophosphate Oxalate ODithionate Amorphous Extractable Extractable Inorganic Crystalline Inorganic NaOH Horizon Depth Al Fe A l Fe •,:AI Fe Fe Fe Fe A l Si (cm) % by wt ppm ppm HCg 96-132 0.29 0.05 0.34 0.18 0.28 0.33 0.13 0:15 • 0.28 0.91 0.61 n c g 9 132-152 0.21 0.08 0.21 0.44 0.21 0.73 0.36 0.29 0.65 1.36 0.54 IHCg 152-157 0.16 0.03 0,37 0.25 0.14 0.28 0.22 0.03 0.25 1.30 0.59 IVCg 157-162 0.12 0.03 0.26 0.27 0.10 0.28 0.24 0.01 0.25 0.94 0.62 VCg 162-172 0.15 0.04 0.28 0.30 0.13 0.35 0.26 0.05 0.31 1.10 0.61 vcg 9 172-185 0.16 0.05 0.07 0.18 0.05 0.43 0.13 0.25 0.38 1.31 0.83 VICg 185-203 0.12 0.05 0.04 0.12 0.04 0.35 0.07 0.23 0.30 1.23 0.69 VICg 203-218 0.13 0.07 0.06 0.29 0.04 0.35 0.21 0.06 0.28 1.28 0.53 v i c g ; 218-234 0.15 0.08 0.06 0.27 0.05 0.40 0.19 0.13 0.32 1.16 0.59 VTICg 234-268 0.14 0.15 0.06 0.22 0.06 0.48 0.07 0.26 0.33 1.79 0.62 SITE 4 Ahe 0-10 0.62 0.19 0.67 0.44 0.64 0.65 0.25 0.21 0.46 5.16 0.76 Bf 10-25 0.51 0.18 0.98 0.60 0.52 0.70 0.42 0.10 0.52 4.20 0.67 Bf 25-43 0.41 0.11 0.85 0.62 0.48 0.80 0,51 0.18 0.69 3.87 0.60 Bfg 43-61 0.46 0.10 2.11 0.82 0.47 1.03 0.72 0.21 0.93 4.21 1.05 Bfg 9 61-79 0.42 0.09 2.13 0.85 0.44 1.03 0.76 0.18 0.94 3.90 0.87 eg 2 79-96 0.34 0.08 0.30 0.10 0.34 0.38 0.02 0.28 0.30 2.73 0.47 HCg 96-160 0.31 0.07 0.40 0.14 0.24 0.25 0.07 0.11 0.18 2.56 0.49 cn o lower B=horizons. At site 3 these values were observed in the surface mineral horizons, then decreased to relatively stable levels in the lower pedon. At site 4 maximum Si values occurred in the upper gleyed B horizon. Aluminum values'"also showed an increase, at this, depth, however, maximum values were observed in the Ahe horizon. Elemental Analysis The results of elemental analysis are given in Table II-6. No apparent trends can be observed in these soils. This reflects the heterogeniety of material composition in relation to origin and mode of deposition. The use of S i 0 2 to R 20 3 and A1 20 3 to T i 0 2 ratios as indicies of weathering indicate that the greatest amount of weathering has occurred in the surface horizons with the accumulation of sesquioxides in the B. Mineralogical Properties X-ray diffraction data on the whole clay and s i l t fractions for selected horizons are given in Table 11-7 - The analyses of the whole clay fraction exhibited low rationality of peak intensities, indicating poor crystallinity of the clays, thus individual or interstratified minerals c could not be detected. Because of the poor diffraction patterns, relative estimates of each clay mineral was diff icult . Quantities are expressed as dominant, having well defined intensity peaks or minor simply acknowledging the presence of that mineral in the clay suite. It is diff icult to estimate kaolinite in the presence of chlorite by X-ray diffraction analysis. This may be accomplished by acid solubilization of chlorite but overestimation of kaolinite can result through partial dissolution of associated mica. This procedure was not carried out since most horizons contained sufficient quantities of mica to make any estimation of kaolinite suspect. Table II-6 Elemental Analysis of the <:2mm Soil Sand A L2°3 S 1 ° 2 1 / 3 3 3 ° n Horizon Depth A l ^ Fe 20 3 T i 0 2 Si0 2 Na20 K20 •'•MgO CaO Mn02 T i 0 2 Ignition (cm) % by wt % Ae Bf Bf B f 3 BC BCg-IIC HCg IIC Ae Bf Bf BCg-IIC HCg IIC SITE 1 0-5 17.43 6.72 1.09 65.12 5.70 1. 88 0.70 1.19 0.17 15.99 2.70 4.92 5-30 26.89 8.90 1.02 51.89 6.60 2. 43 .1.10 1.06 0.11 26.36 1.45 4.28 30-56 24.30 8.45 1.01 55.03 6,60 2. 35 1.12 1.05 0.09 24.06 1.68 4.34 56-76 31.26 9.03 1.00 47.33 6T.63J.- 2, 31 1.31 1.03 0.10 31.26 1.17 3.33 76-96 26.99 7.93 1.03 51.15 6.95 2. 36 1.34 1.33 0.10 26.20 1.46 3.38 96-116 26.08 8.55 1.04 53.42 6.30 2. 18 1.22 1.12 0.09 25.08 1.54 2.34 116-122 25.16 7.93 1.07 53.88 6.87 2. 44 1.32 1.23 0.10 23.51 1.63 1.74 122-147 24. 82 7.43 1.01 54.56 7.14 2. 41 1.21 1.32 0.10 24.57 1.69 0.82 SITE 2 0-5 24.01 7.37 1.09 56.30 6.52 2. 29 1.03 1.29 0.10 22.03 1.79 6.30 5-38 26.01 8.31 1.05 53.50 6.55 2. 39 1.14 0.95 0.10 24.77 1.56 3.41 38-68 31.39 9.39 1.03 47.09 6.57 2. 42 1.21 0.86 0.10 30.47 1.16 4.62 68-96 21.32 6.52 1.03 59.83 6.77 2. 35 0.96 1.14 0.08 20.70 2.15 3.09 96-104 25.06 8.60 1.03 53.60 6.80 2. 22 1.07 1.53 0.09 24.33 1.59 2.02 104-137 28.42 7.87 1.02 49.77 7.43 2. 41 1.28 1.69 0.11 27.86 1.37 1.09 Table H-6 (cont'd) Soi l anfi A120 3 Si0 2 Loss on Horizon depth A 1 2 ° 3 F e2°3 T i ° 2 S i 0 2 N a 2 ° K2° M g 0 0 3 0 M n ° 2 T i 0 2 R2°3 I g n i t i o n (cm) % by wt % SITE 3 Bf Bf B f 3 BCg Cg H C g n c g 9 I H C g IVCg VCg vcg 9 VICg VICg v i c g 3 VHCg 0-8 28.91 10.50 1.05 48.04 8-30 27.55 9.73 0.85 50.35 30-56 28.41 7.68 0.82 50.93 56-76 24.86 6.91 0.78 55.01 76-96 30.29 7.86 0.73 46.47 96-132 31.06 7.33 0.70 48.11 132-152 22.95 6.53 0.65 60.12 152-157 28.66 6.78 0.67 51.66 157-162 28.65 5.49 0.66 52.61 162-172 26.20 6.86 0.67 53.92 172-185 25.42 8.10 0.81 53.47 185-203 28.05 8.33 0.84 50.23 203-218 29.30 8.83 0.93 48.72 218-234 29.36 8.77 0.93 48.63 234-268 26.97 9.53 1.01 50.00 6.58 6.51 6.83 7.01 8.58 7.57 5.69 7.28 7.71 7.24 7.04 7.09 6.88 6.97 6.57 2.42 1.26 1.10 0.14 27.53 1.22 6.06 2.52 1.31 1.07 0.11 32.41 1.35 3.83 2.37 0.98 1.89 0.09 22.45 1.41 3.89 2.38 1.26 1.71 0.08 31.87 1.73 2.97 2.63 1.42 1.92 0.10 41.49 1.22 2.80 2.45 1.51 1.18 0.09 44.37 1.25 1.75 2.01 1.14 0.83 0.08 35.31 2.04 0.66 2.44 1.29 1.13 0.09 42.78 1.46 0.66 2.76 1.06 0.99 0.07 43.41 1.54 0.55 2.25 1.24 1.53 0.09 39.1 1.63 0.68 2.13 1.32 1.60 0.11 31.38 1.60 0.77 2.15 1.33 1.88 0.10 33.40 1.38 0.49 2.12 1.44 1.67 0.11 31.51 1.28 0.39 2.22 1.40 1.58 0.11 30.58 1.28 0.41 2.23 1.65 1.93 0.11 26.70 1.37 0.23 SITE 4 Ahe Bf • Bf Bfg Bfg 9 Cg H C g 0-10 27.54 8.30 1.01 51.75 6. 85 2.40 1.18 1.03 0 .14 27.26 1.44 0.92 10-25 29.56 8.69 0.82 49.36 6. 74 2.29 1.35 1.05 0 .14 36.05 1.29 1.11 25-43 34.73 8.04 0.79 44.84 6. 82 2.30 1.29 1.06 0 .13 43.96 1.05 1.09 43-61 29.94 8.47 0.80 48.82 6. 78 2.29 1.43 1.34 0 .13 37.43 1.27 1.67 61-79 22.93 8.12 0.78 55.84 6. 89 2.15 1.43 1.75 0 .11 29.40 1.80 1.54 79-96 23.53 5.77 0.80 58.72 6. 72 2.30 1.05 1.03 0 .08 29.41 2.00 0.91 96-160 20.64 6.85 0.80 59.42 7. 24 2.44 1.15 1.37 0 .09 25.80 2.16 0.81 cn 64 Mineralogical characteristics of the clay and s i l t fractions were similar for all sites. Chlorite, Kaolinite, quartz and plagioclase feldspars dominated the clay suite. I l l i te was present in the lower solum of each site except at site 4 and decreased to non-detectable amounts in the upper solum. Smectite was present in the surface horizons of sites 1 and 2 but was not detected in the lower parts of the pedon or in the pedons of site 3 and 4. Amphiboles were present in all horizons analyzed and appeared to be in greater amounts at site 1 and 2. Vermiculite was only detected in the lower portion of the pedon at site 3. Mineralogical characteristics of the s i l t fraction was similar to that of the clay suite, although i l l i t e , kaolinite and amphiboles appeared to be in lesser quantities. Smectite and vermiculite were not detected in the s i l t samples analyzed. The clay minerals detected appear to be inherited from the parent materials. Smectite in the surface horizons could haveooriginated from synthesis of amorphous alumino-silicates or through a direct alternation product of mica (Jackson, 1965; Ross and M6rtland, 1966; and Brydon et a l , 1968). The second process is more likely since i l l i t e is absent in the surface horizons. Also, Kodama and Brydon (1968) indicated that decomposition of chlorite in a Podzol Ae is considered to y.iseld an amorphous alumino-silicate rather than a smectite by partial alteration. The possibility that smectite was inherited from the parent material can be discounted since it was not detected in the lower horizons. It is also possible, that in the surface horizons, pedogenic chlorite is formed since chlorite can form through weathering of mica and the precipitation of aluminum liberated from silicate minerals (Clark, et a l , 1962; Clark and Brydon, 1963). The low rationality of the reflection of mineral peaks makes it difficult to discount the possible presence of interstratified Table II-7 Mineralogical Properties of Selected S o i l Horizons S o i l and Clay Fraction S i l t Fraction Horizon Depth S C V I K Q F A S C V I K Q F A SITE 1 Ae 0-5 2 ' 1 • 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 . 1 1 Bf 5-30 1 2 2 i 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 Bf„ 30-56 1 2 2 l 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 B f 3 56-76 1 2 2 l 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 BC^ 76-96 BCg-IIC 96-116 1 1 2 l 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 HCg 116-122 IIC 122-147 1 1 2 l 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 SITE 2 Ae 0-5 2 1 2 l 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 Bf 5-38 1 2 2 l 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 Bf 9 38-68 1 2 2 l 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 BCg-IIC 68-96 1 1 2 l 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 HCg 96-104 lie- 104-137 1 1 2 i 1 1 1 2 2 1 - 1 2 Bf B f2 B f Q BCg Cg IlCg n c g 9 IllCg IVCg 0-8 8-30 30-56 56-76 76-96 96-132 132-152 152-157 157-162 1 1 2 2 1 1 SITE 3 1 2 1 7 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2. 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 Table II-7 (cont'd) Z S o i l and Horizon Clay Fraction S i l t Fraction Depth S C V I K Q F A S C V I K Q F A 162-172 172-185 1 1 2 l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 185-203 203-218 1 2 1 2 l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 218-234 1 2 1 2 l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 234-268 1 1 1 2 l 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 SITE 4 0-10 1 2 l 1 1 2 1 1 10-25 25-43 1 2 l 1 2 1 43-61 61-79 1 2 l 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 79-96 1 2 l 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 96-160 1 2 l 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 VCg VCg VTCg VICg v i c g ^ VllCg Ahe Bf Bf Bfg Bfg 9 Cg H C g S- Smectite C- Chlorite V- Vermiculite I- I l l i t e K- Kaolinite Q- Quartz F- Feldspar A- Amphibole 1- Dominant 2- Minor silicates such as smectite-il l ite, hydrous mica or xhlortte-vermi.culi.te. Brydon et_ al_ )1968) indicates that these interstratifications can occur in Podzol soils. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 68 The soils studied .support present theories of Podzol. development. The Tow amounts of exchangeable cations in the mineral horizons are an indication of extensive leaching. The coarse textures in the soil contribute to the low retention of bases and accentuate the leaching processes. . The slightly higher base saturation in the surface mineral horizon at site 4 reflects the influence of the relatively dense deciduous vegetation in its potential to supply colloidal organic matter and bases through biocycling. This would tend to retard the leaching processes in these horizons. The relatively high amount of precipitation received by the site and the high permeability of the soil allows the leaching of bases and organic matter, with a subsequent decrease in pH, and the redistribution of organic matter and weathering products in the'lower solum. The data presented indicates that the greatest rates of weathering are taking place in the surface;;:mineral horizons. Clay translocation was not evident. The clay minerals identified, except for smectite, appear to be inherited from the parent materials.' In the soils on the upper slope, distribution of Fe and Al in the pedon shows that mobilization and transfer of these elements from the organic layer and Ae horizon, into the B has taken place. The slightly higher levels of organic matter in the lower pedon can be attributed to the development of a root mat above the impermeable t i l l layer. This together with the deposition of Fe has probably influenced aggregation in this portion of the pedon. At site 3 pedogenic processes appear to be similar to those occurring on the upper slope. From the distribution of Fe and Al in the pedon there is an indication that the soil surface has been either mixed thoroughly or has been truncated. This may be the result of disturbances caused by man. 69 The influence of discontinuities in the pedon on soil development is apparent from the formation of an incipient ortstein layer in the IICg2 horizon, and Fe enriched strata in the lower pedon. At site 4 present pedon morphological features and distribution of mobile constituents are consistent with prevailing pedogenic processes. However, as discussed previously, there is evidence to suggest that site factors, specifically water table levels and vegetation, have been altered , by man. Thisshas resulted in the accentuation of soil development. It appears that soil genesis in this soil was influenced by the depth of the water table from the mineral surface. The saturation of all horizons during most of the year would reduce the segregation of materials into specific horizons. The high water table would prevent removal of weathering products and eliminate cycles of wetting and drying. This would=effectively prevent deep soil development. With the presumed change in site conditions, the lowering of the water table would facilitate the redistribution of mobile constituents within the solum. The decrease in pH expected during drying periods would result in an increased destruction of the primary minerals high in bases and subsequently increase the leaching processes. While the influence of the water table on pedogenic development has been reduced, i t is s t i l l a vital factor influencing site development, especially with respect to site vegetation. The data presented in this chapter confirms the conclusions made in Chapter I, that the interrelationship between water, slope position and vegetation can be considered the dominant forces inthe genesis of the soils studied. The difference in the effects of water in the pedon would effect the distribution of materials during pedogenesis. This, plus the difference in vegetation among sites, would result in different degrees of soil development. Analysis of soil properties show that the sequence of processes in the Podzol soils was an accumulation of organic matter and subsequent leaching of the soluble and weathering components with organic acids. These mobilized materials were translocated and precipitated lower in the pedons as colloidal organic matter and'Fe and Al oxides. Disturbances by man has influenced site development along the studied transect. This is more evident along the lower slope positions. Here site disturbances have modified the moisture regime and effectively changed edaphic characteristics, which have resulted in new vegetative successional patterns to develops However5 at this time, no conclusive chemical and physical evidence can be forwared to substantiate the effects of changes in site factors on soil development. Further study comparing soil characteristics between site 4 and adjacent areas on the lower slope should provide the requireduevidence necessary to assess the influence of site changes on soil development. CHAPTER III WATER QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS OF FOUR TOPOGRAPHICALLY RELATED PODZOL SOILS INTRODUCTION 72 The circulation of water through terrestrial ecosystems is a natural process and should be evaluated with regards to environmental research (Wiklander, 1974). The chemical composition of water as it is transported from the atmosphere to the sea, is influenced greatly by the integrated effects of climate, vegetation, soils and geologic materials. As there are a number of components influencing the chemical quality of water, there have been a variety of approaches used by investigators to evaluate the importance and interpretative value of water quality in relation to the general areas of soil productivity, soil development and as indicators of particular environments. Most of these studies have emphasized the nutrient content of atmospheric, soil and ground waters in an attempt to determine the origin, movements and losses of nutrients, from the soil-water system. The area of greatest concern has been the soil-water regime, since the soil is the medium of plant growth and the soil-water or soil solution in the available state is the "metabolic pool" (Moss, 1963) from which the plant takes up most of its nutrients. The study of soil-water chemistry under field conditions is di f f icult , due to the diversity of the sources and factors affecting the supply of elements to soil solution. Sources of elements include the supply from the atmosphere in precipitation and its associated inputs through contact with vegetation, l i t ter layers and from soil minerals. The factors which influence the supply of elements in the soil solution include: those associated with soil peroperties such as texture, structure, mineral composition and rate of weathering, pH, water infiltration and. permeability, leaching processes, ion exchange and fixation; those associated with 73 topography, which influence surface runoff and natural drainage; those associated with vegetation which cause an internal nutrient circulation (soilplant); and those associated with climate, especially the amount and distribution of precipitation and soil temperature. The supply of elements from the atmosphere can be measured directly and has been well documented (Carrol, 1962; Fisher et al_, 1968; Gorham, 1959; Lag, 1968; Madgwick and Ovington, 1959; Pearson and Fisher, 1971; Tamm, 1951; Tarrant et al_, 1968; Will , 1955, 1959; Voigt, 1960a, 1960b). Studies by Kimmins (1973) suggest that the atmospheric sources of elements can be variable and unless sampling intensity is adequate, the interpretative value, other than on a general basis, is limited. The mineral source of elements and the factors affecting the supply of ions to soil solution is complex. Investigators have approached this problem using indirect evidence of ion movement in soils gained from tension lysimetry and equilibrium techniques. The nutrient content of leachates and seepage waters have been studied by a number of investigators with particular reference to soil-water systems (Bourgeois and Lavkulich, 1972; Cole et at, 1961, 1967; Likens, 1967) and ground water systems (Pearson and Fisher, 1971; Walmsley and Lavkulich, 1975). Others, using modified extraction or displacement techniques of Burd and Martin (1923), Parker (1921) and Richards (1941), have studied the nutrient composition of equilibrated soil solution (Eaton e_t al_, 1960; Komorova, 1956; Larsen and Widdowson, 1968; McKeague and Cline, 1963a, 1963b; Moss, 1963; Nemith et al_, 1970; Tucker, 1971). Although the data should not be taken as absolute, generalizations may be made for interpretation of nutrient loss and ion movement. The objective of this portion of the study was to evaluate the use of the displacement technique in the characterization of soil solution chemistry. Further attempts were made to assess any influences of soluble constituents on infiltrating waters and on soil solution composition and to determine i f any relationship exists between soil solution chemistry and ground water quality. METHODS AND MATERIALS 75 Studies of soil solution, throughfall, organic layer leachates and ground water chemistry were completed to assess the water quality interrelationships of the study area. Soil solution was extracted periodically from May 1972 through February 1973 by a modified displacement technique (Burd and Martin, 1923). Bulk soil samples (3 to 4 kg) were taken at 20 cm depth increments at each site, sieved to pass a 2 mm sieve, transported in polyethelene plastic bags to the laboratory where they were carefully tamped into displacement columns (Figure 111—1). Isopropyl alcohol was used as a displacement liquid and the extracted soil solution was collected in 250 ml plastic bottles and stored for analysis. The validity of the miscible displacement technique and the use of alcohol as a displacement liquid has been discussed by Moss (1963) and Tucker (1971). Selected chemical components were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and solution pH was measured using a glass electrode and pH meter. Throughfall and organic layer leachate samples were collected at each site using twelve 10 cm diameter plastic containers and three tension lysimeters, respectively. Tension lysimeters were installed beneath the LFH layer. Samples were taken periodically from May through October 1972, bulked and subsampled for further analysis. Seepage water was periodically drawn from butyl acrylic piezometers installed at four locations along the transect (Figure 1-2. Selected chemical components were determined spectrophotometrically and solution pH was measured using a glass electrode and pH meter. DISPLACING SOLUTION SOIL DISPLACEMENT COLUMN J'* L COLLECTION BOTTLE SOIL SOLUTION SUPPORTING STAND FIGURE m - l DIAGRAM OF DISPLACEMENT APPARATUS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 77 Throughfall and Leachate Chemistry Selected chemical components for the throughfall samples and organic layer leachates are given in Appendix B-l and B-2. The throughfall values reported represent bulk precipitation, i .e . , a mixture of chemical components from atmospheric sources and leaf wash. Since throughfall samples were collected to obtain an estimate of only the input of cations to the ground surface, sampling intensity was lower than that recommended in the literature (Kimmins, 1973). Total cation concentrations were highly variable during the sampling period. Values ranged from 0.6 to 3.3 mg/1 for Ca, 0.2 to 1.4 mg/1 for Mg, 0.4 to 2.1 mg/1 for Na, and 1.2 to 7.5 mg/1 for K. The order of diminance for cations was similar for all sites, following a K > Ca > Na > Mg sequence. Values for Ca, Mg, and Na were generally similar for all sites, while K values appeared to be consistently higher at site 4. The results shown for organic layer leachates were obtained from a subsample after all samples were bulked. The values for cations ranged from 1.3 to 3.9 mg/1 for Ca, 0.8 to 2.1 mg/1 for Mg, 1.5 to 6.8 mg/1 for Na, and 0.9 to 8.2 mg/1 for K. The concentrations of cations and amounts of leachate collected were variable over the sampling period. Differences in storm patterns and intensity, stand composition and density and organic layer characteristics probably contributed to this variability. Generally site 4 recorded higher total cation concentrations than the other sites. This possibly reflects the higher amounts of cations being leached from the deciduous understory vegetation at this site. The order of dominance generally followed a Na > K > Ca > Mg relationship at sites 1, 2 and 3, while K was generally the dominant cation measured at site 4. 78 The pH values for the leachates were usually lower than those recorded for the throughfall samples. Values ranged from 4.0 to 7.0 for the leachates and 5.0 to 7.0 for throughfall samples. Ground Water Chemistry Data for selected ground water chemical components are given in Appendix B-3. Seasonal trends are shown in Figures III-2 and III-3. The results reported were obtained from piezometers positioned at the slope break (Station B) and on the lower slope, adjacent to site 4 (Station A) (Figure 1-2). Piezometers were also installed adjacent to the upper slope sites. Ground water levels were not sufficient to allow samples to be collected from the upper slope sites, eventhough lateral flow of water was periodically detected. Total cations measured showed similar seasonal trends at both stations, being highest during the spring and early autumn period, decreasing through the winter months, then rising as spring approached. Total cationsconcentrations were slightly higher for station B than for station A. Solution silicon concentrations, presumably Si (OH)j+ (McKeague and Cline, 1963a) were similar for both stations and was the most abundant species measured. This was reflected in the total concentration as both seasonal trends followed similar patterns. Silicon ranged from a low of 3.0 mg/1 during the winter to a high of 12.0 mg/1 in the summer months. No distinct seasonal trends were" observed for the basic cations, although minor fluctuations were observed for Na and K concentrations. The values ranged from 2.5 to 3.6 mg/1 for Ca, 0.9 to 1.4 mg/1 for Mg, and 2.8 to 6.1 mg/1 for Na, and were similar for both slope positions. Potassium concentrations at station B were nearly twice those recorded for station A, with ranges from 2.9 to 4.4 mg/1 and 0.6 to 1.7 mg/1 respectively. FIGURE I I I - 2 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED GROUND WATER CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 5-2 4 6-22 7-7 8-1 9-11 10-15 10-29 H-2712-ll 1-8 1-15 2-5 3-5 4-3 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES FIGURE I I I - 3 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED GROUND WATER CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 81 The order of dominance for station A was Na > Ca > K > Mg and Na > K > Ca > Mg at station B. Solution pH was fair ly uniform at both, stations with a 0.7 to 1.2 pH unit decrease from summer to winter values. Soil Solution Chemistry Results of the chemical composition of the soil solution are given in Appendix B-4. Seasonal trends are shown in Figures 111-4 to 111-25. The data presented shows that the chemical concentrations in soil solution were generally similar at all sites. Variations did occur, for example, site 2 values were consistently higher f o r a l l cations measured and K concentrations below the surface mineral layer at site 4 were consistently lower than the other sites. Concentration as a function of depth was variable. Calcium and Mg remained fairly constant with depth, while Na and K were generally highest in the upper solum. Solution silicon generally decreased slightly with depth. Seasonal trends were variable being more pronounced for the upper solum than in the lower solum. Total solution concentrations were highest at site 2. Summer values were the highest with considerable variation being observed, while a rapid but uniform decrease was shown for autumn and winter values. Seasonal variation in total solution concentration appeared to be influenced more by the fluctuations in solution silicon than any other measured cation. Generally the order of dominance for the basic cations was Na > Ca > K > Mg. Variation in this sequence did occur, especially in the upper solum. Although seasonal trends in concentrations were observed, i t was not possible to assess whether these fluctuations were due to natural seasonal fluxs or the result of spatial variation. However, i t appears that fluctuations at the surface for cations and for solution silicon in the pedon may be attributed to seasonal variation. 82 FIGURE 111-5 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES i i i i 1 1 1 i — ' 7-7 8-1 9-11 10-15 10-29 11-27 12-11 1-8 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES 85 FIGURE I I I - 7 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SITE 1 40-60 cm 1 , ! , , ! j P 7 - 7 8 -1 9-11 10-15 1 0 - 2 9 11-2712-11 1-8 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES FIGURE 111-8 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SITE 1 60-80 cm Mg J , , 1 2 , , , , p l 7 - 7 8 - 1 9-11 10-15 1 0 - 2 9 11-2712-11 1-8 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES 87 FIGURE III-9 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 7-7 8-1 9-11 10-15 10-29 11-27 12-11 1-8 1972/73 SAMPLING.DATES FIGURE 111-10 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES —, 1 1 1 1 1 r r * 7-7 8-1 9-11 10-15 10-29 11-27 12-11 1-8 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES FIGURE 111-11 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 38 i 7-7 8-1 9-11 10-15 10-29 11-27 12-11 1-8 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES FIGURE 111-13 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 7-7 8-1 9-11 10-15 10-29 11-27 12-11 1-8 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES 92 FIGURE 111-14 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SITE 3 PROFILE AVERAGE 6 - 2 2 7 - 7 8 - 1 9-11 10-15 1 0 - 2 9 11-2712-11 1 -8 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES 94 FIGURE 111-16 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL, SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SITE 3 20-40 cm Mg — , r , , , , , i • 6 - 2 2 7 - 7 8-1 9-11 10-15 1 0 - 2 9 11-2712-11 1-8 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES 95 FIGURE 111-17 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Mg 6 - 2 2 7 - 7 8 -1 9-11 10-15 1 0 - 2 9 11-2712-11 1-8 ' 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES FIGURE 111-18 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SITE 3 60-80 cm K Mg 6-227-7 8-1 9-11 10-15 10-29 11-2712-11 1-8 1972/73 SAMPLING DATES 97 98 99 IGO FIGURE 111-22 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SITE 4 20-40 cm 2CH I6H: 12 8J TOTAL 410 5 - 2 4 6-22 7-7 8-1 9-11 1972 SAMPLING DATES 10-15 10^29 11-27 12-11 1972 SAMPLING DATES 102 FIGURE 111-24 SEASONAL TRENDS FOR SELECTED SOIL SOLUTION CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SITE 4 60-80 cm T 1 1 1 1 1 1 " r 5-24 6-22 7-7 8-1 9-11 10-15 10-29 11-27 12-11 1972 SAMPLING DATES 103 104 Similar values were recorded for soil solution pH at each. site. Values generally increased with depth, while seasonal trends remained uniform with depth. Seasonal fluctuations of 0.7 to 2.1 pH units were observed for the soil solution, with changes being more "pronounced for the surface mineral layer, especially at site 4. One of the most active agents "in the soil is percolating water. It can be the most important factor in controlling weathering reactions and movements of soluble constituents through the pedon to the subsurface drainage system. The successive changes that may be expected in its ionic composition may be equated to the process of a moving zone of ion exchange. The extent of the changes will vary with the properties of exchangeable ions in solution and the soil and with the rate of percolation ( i .e . , quantity and infiltration patterns). The fairly stable concentrations shown for the exchangeable cations in this study indicate that exchange rates with the percolating water must be rapid. This stability in solution concentration would also indicate that in these soils, except possibly for the surface mineral layers, weathering of soil minerals may be the main source of cations for soil solution. The fluctuation shown in the surface 20 cm would indicate that solutes in the infiltrating waters may have a certain bearing on the exchange status of the topsoil. Appreciable amounts of soluble constituents has been shown to enter the soil via throughfall and in organic layer leachates. This is more apparent for K at site 4. This could possibly be attributed to the biocycling of nutrients through deciduous vegetation and indicate the importance of such biocycling on the exchange status in the upper solum. Solution silicon may be considered to be influenced by the percolation rate of infiltrating'waters, since a decrease in concentration coincides with an increase in the amount of 105 p r e c i p i t a t i o n . S i l i c o n i s shown to exh ib i t a slow but constant weathering ra te , espec ia l l y at the pH values recorded, for these s o i l s . The measurements of elemental concentrations- in the drainage water (ground water) have shown f a i r l y stable values, i r respect i ve of p rec ip i ta t ion amounts. These concentrations show remarkable s i m i l a r i t y to s o i l so lut ion concentrations. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 106 The data, presented in this chapter indicates that appreciable amounts of exchangeable ions can be added to the soil from the atmosphere, through throughfall and organic layer leachates. This is more apparent in soils having substantial deciduous' vegetative cover. This input may have a bearing on the exchange status of the surface mineral layers and may be an important source of available nutrients in soils of inherently flow fert i l i ty . The input of soluble constituents appear to have l i t t le influence on the final chemical concentration of the soil solution. This indicates that the weathering of soil minerals may be the main source of ions to soil solution. The use of the displacement technique in providing information of the mobility of soluble constituents in the soil could not be fully*assessed in this study. However, soil solution data can provide valuable information on the concentration levels of exchangeable or available nutrients in the soil and may have practical application in the f ie ld of soil fert i l i ty . There appears to be a relationship between exchangeable cations and solution silicon in the soil solution and concentrations found in the ground water. This indicates, that in these soils, ground water chemistry is influenced to a greater extent by the soil surrounding the ground water system than by inputs through atmospheric sources. CHAPTER IV EVALUATION OF SOIL HETEROGENEITY IN TWO PODZOL SOILS INTRODUCTION 1 0 8 Variations in soil properties from point to point on the. landscape are derived from various sources. Some variations occur over short distances while others produce long-range gradations. In the natural landscape parent materials may vary irregularly depending on their mode or origin, minerology and geomorphic processes. Climate can introduce gradual changes in soils such as continental gradations, or abrupt changes induced by microclimatic gradients. Topography can produce regional changes or short-range site variation the result of slope, micro-relief and related drainage characteristics. Within the soil i tself differential rates of some physical and chemical processes tend to increase lateral variation as well as to provide a means for the introduction of a vertical gradient. Many biological activities tend to increase lateral variability. Biologically induced pedoturbation can produce heterogeneity more rapidly than i t can be smoothed out by diffusion andc3horizonation. Soils subjected to management tend to superimpose additional heterogeneity above that due to natural variation. Time, although the most difficult to assess, must be considered, since it sets the limits under which the above factors operate. Since many factors cause non-uniformity in soils, soil properties must be considered to vary in the horizontal, vertical and time dimensions. To assess the influence of the soil component in many investigations, soil samples are analyzed to make meaningful statements about the properties of a relatively large soil area from laboratory determinations on small samples. To insure that analytical results from soil samples represent the natural soil volume under study, evaluation of soil heterogeneity and, therefore, soil sampling adequacy must be emphasized. 109 The extent to which this heterogeneity is important depends on the purpose of the study. In agricultural studies, major emphasis is on the horizontal component. With most forest soil -site studies, the soils' vertical dimension increases in importance because of the nature of tree rooting characteristics. Several studies have employed analysis of soil properties, by various sampling procedures, to elucidate soil heterogeneity and sampling adequacy (Hammond, 1958; Mader, 1963; Wilding ejt al_, 1964; McFee and Stone, 1965; Mclntyre, 1967; Ball and Williams, 1968; Keogh and Maples, 1968; Ike and Clutters 1968; Hart, et_ al_, 1969; Ball and Williams., 1971; Becket and Webster,, 1971; Drees and Wilding, 1973). The general concensus from these studies is that: (i) the number of samples ordinarily taken to characterize a soil is often inadequate; (ii) the sampling of representative or "modal" pedons often produce variable estimates of population mean values. However, such a sample provides very l i t t le information as to the true nature of the pattern of variability for the soil properties measured; and ( i i i ) the number of pedon samples required to estimate a mean value adequately is or should be a reflection of the variability of the property measured. Often sampling of forest soils has as its objective the estimation of plot means. Although the desired precision and the variability of the property being measured should determine sampling intensity, the choice of the number of pits to be sampled is often made arbitrarily. Recognition and acceptance of the fact that forest soils are variable is but the f i rst stage in designing an efficient sampling plan. Reference to reports in the literature on soil heterogeneity and efficiency of sampling schemes can be of considerable help where similar soils are to be sampled. In the field of forest soils, data regarding the variability of chemical 110 and physical properties of soils are meager in comparison to information available on the importance of these properties din soil classification and genesis. This study presents statistical data for selected chemical properties of two forest podzol soils for the purpose of evaluating soil variability. The objectives of the study are: (i) to determine the extent of chemical variability in two forest podzol soils; (ii) to determine the sampling intensity required to estimate the population mean value within stated limits of precision; ( i i i ) to determine whether this sampling intensity is the same for all parameters measured and for each depth sampled; (iv) to determine whether the time of sampling influences the extent of variation; (v) to determine the efficiency of different sampling procedures on their ability to reduce within site-pedon variation and to estimate the population mean; and (vi) to determine i f sampling of representative or "modal" pedons produces accurate estimates of the population mean. METHODS AND MATERIALS 111 Two sampling areas were selected from the toposequence of soils previously described in Chapter I. Site 2, an Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol, and site 4, a Gleyed Humo-Ferric Podzol, were selected for this study since they were the most uniform in relation to slope, drainage, stand composition and stand density. Field Methods Each study site consisted of a 0.4 hectare plot upon which a 2 meter grid pattern was-located. Sampling points were taken at the grid intersections (Figure IV-1). No attempt was made to screen for "modal" pedons. At each randomly selected grid point a pit , approximating a pedon in dimensions, was excavated from which samples were taken. The gradual change in horizon characteristics made sampling to a standard depth realistic and 20 cm depth intervals (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80) were sampled at each pit. These depth intervals will be referred to in the text as D-|, D2, D^ ? and D ,^ respectively. To avoid bias in sample selection, each depth was sampled continuously around the face of the pit. Each sample was transported to the laboratory in polyethelene plastic bags* air dried, sieved to pass a 2 mm sieve and the <2 mm portion thoroughly mixed before a subsample was taken for subsequent analysis. This laborious procedure, dealing with large samples and repeated mixing, was felt necessary to reduce variation due to subsampling error, since evaluation of subsampling error would require at least twice the number of analyses than actually conducted. The close proximity of the study, area to the laboratory allowed the collection of large volumes of samples. However, in most soi l -s ite studies this would not be feasible or even practical, so samples could be sieved in the f ie ld , thoroughly mixed and 112 - • -• A • -o A • o • -A 0 A o - • • - O A O A - O - O A • A - A • • i O i i i i A i 1 O i • i - • A o - o O A - A A • - o • • -A • O O - A • - • O • -A A - O • O A i... 1 A i O « i • 1 • SAMPLING PERIOD • MAY. A JULY O SEPT. FIGURE IV -1 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLING PITS WITHIN THE TWO STUDY SITES 113 then subsampled before being brought to the laboratory for further preparation. The study consisted of sampling ten randomly located pits, at three sampling times and each pit was sampled at four depths by three sampling procedures. The sampling procedures consisted of: (1) individually bulked samples; (ii) composites of five pits, since pits were selected at random, the f irst five and the last five determined the individual composite sample; ( i i i ) composites of ten pits, which consisted of samples from all ten randomly selected pits. These sampling procedures will be referred to in the text as P-|, P^, and P ,^ respectively. Three sampling periods (May, July and September) were selected equally spaced over the main growing season. It was believed that sampling at these times during the growing season would give representative accounts of any seasonal effect on the extent of heterogeneity in the soil properties measured", since these periods relate closely to distinct differences in temperature (mean daily) and monthly precipitation (Table 1-1). Laboratory Methods All analyses were carried out on the <2 mm size fraction. Soil pH was measured on <li:l soil:water and 1:2 soil :0.01 M CaCT2 suspensions using a glass electrode and pH meter. Exchangeable cations were extracted by centrifiugation using a 10 gram sample and three washings (100 ml total) with 1.0 N (NH4)0AC at pH 7.0 (Chapman, 1965). Cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) were measured with the Perkin-Elmer, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Organic matter was determined using the Walkley-Black method, as outlined in Jackson (1958). Total nitrogen was determined bythe semi-micro Kjeldhal method of Bremner (1965). Available phosphorus was extracted using 0.03 N4NH F in 0.025 N HC1 as an extractant and measured colorimetrically using ammonium molydate and stannous chloride (Jackson, 1958). Statistical Methods The mean, standard deviationj coefficient of variation and required number of samples to have a standard error within 10% of the mean value at the 95% confidence level were computed by normal statistical procedures (Steel and Torrie, 1960; Snedecor and Cochran, 1968; Zar, 1974). Analysis of variance was computed- to evaluate the efficiency of the three sampling procedures in their ability to reduce the extent of variability shown by the two soils. An example of the analysis of variance table is shown in Appendix C-2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1 1 5 The results presented in this chapter were obtained from samples of the mineral soil only. Organic layers (L-H) were excluded from the study since these layers were too variable in depth, in amount, size and distribution of roots and in their source materials. The rain data is shown in Appendix C-3. Partitioning of Variance One of the objectives of this study was to determine the extent of variability in two forest soils. In these studies there are three sources which contribute to the variation found. These are: material heterogeneity, subsampling error and analytical error. Knowledge about analytical and subsampling error serves as a basis to judge the significance of lateral variability within a particular horizon or depth. Variations greater than those expected from analytical and subsampling errors may reasonably be attributed to material heterogeneity arising from pedogenic or inherited sources. If the opposite is shown then it is not possible to determine whether disparities are due to inherent variability or analytical or subsampling sources. Since the analytical error was believed to be similar, for all depths at each sampling period, the average coefficient of variation for each variable at each site, along with the range in error found, are reported in Table IV-1. These results are similar to those reported by Mader (1963), Ball and Williams (1968), and Drees and Wilding (1973). Although, subsampling error was not evaluated in this study, the previously mentioned authors reported that this error is low, usually not greater than 2% for any one parameter measured. These findings Indicate that the Table IV - 1 Average Coefficient of Variation XCV) and. Ranges (Rg) for Analytical Errors for Selected Chemical Properties* Property CV CV Rg SITE 2 SITE 4 pH (H 2 0) 0 . 3 L V 1 0 . 3 0 - 1 pH (CaCl 2) 0 . 2 0 - 1 0 . 2 0 - 1 OM (%) 2 . 3 0 - 6 2 . 3 0 - 5 N (%) 2 . 3 0 - 1 0 2 . 1 0 - 8 P. (ppm) 3 . 4 . 0 r.ll 3 . 1 0 - 1 0 Ca (meq/100 g) 5 . 6 0 - 1 6 6 . 1 0 - 1 9 Mg (meq/100 g) 3 . 5 0 - 1 4 3 . 8 0 - 1 4 Na (meq/100 g) 7 . 4 0 - 1 7 6 . 3 0 - 1 6 K (meq/100 g) 3 . 1 0 - 1 2 4 . 7 0 - 1 2 * Calculations based on 336 samples for each property at each site 117 analytical and subsampling error would be minor In comparison to the total variation produced by Inherent sources. Lateral and Vertical Variability The standard deviation and coefficient of variation give an indication of the variability within each of the two soi ls, and is of some value in the comparison of results of various experimental tests. These results, along with the mean depth values, range and number of samples required to give a standard error with §0% of the mean at the 95% confidence level, are given in Table IV-2. The data shown has been calculated from results obtained from sampling period one (P-|) and combine all observations obtained at each depth from all three sampling periods for each site. This was done because.on examination of similar data calculated for each sampling period separately, no particular pattern was observed for any change of variability or in mean values between sampling periods (Appendix C - l , Appendix C-2). This would suggest that' heterogeneity in these soils is a general characteristic and that any seasonal effect on this variation within the main growing season must be small and subordinate to spatial variation. In combining these data it is assumed that the seasonal means represent estimates of the mean of a single population at each site. To achieve high precision to detect minor seasonal changes would require more laborious and extensive sampling which would be too distructive of the sampling location. The coefficients of variation and standard deviations shown in Table IV-2, indicated that differences appear to exist between the natural variability of certain properties and that some will be more easily estimated than others. In general, the magnitude of lateral variability that can be expected for any one depth in both, soils were: Table IV-2 Average Mean (x), Standard Deviation (SD), Range (Rg), Coefficient of Variation (CV), and Number of Samples (N) Required to Give a Standard Error Within--10'% of the Mean Using 95% Confidence Limits Property Depth (cm) X SD Rg CV N X SD Rg CV N SITE 2 SITE 4 pH (Ho0) 0-20 4.8 0.367 4.3-5.7 7.6 9 5.2 0.256 4.8-5.9 4.9 7 i. 20-40 5.6 0.304 5.0-6.1 5.4 7 5.5 0.166 5.2-5.9 3.0 6 40-60 5.8 0.247 5.2-6.2 4,2 6 5.5 0.081 5.3-5.7 1.5 5 60-80 5.7 0.208 5.4-6.3 3.6 6 5.5 0.079 5.3-5.7 1.4 5 pH (CaCl 0) 0-20 4.2 0.272 3.8-4.9 6.5 8 4.6 0.256 4.2-5.2 5.5 7 z 20-40 5.0 0.250 4.4-5.7 5.0 7 5.0 0.169 4.6-5.3 3.4 6 40-60 5.3 0.238 4.8-5.8 4.5 6 5.0 0.128 4.6-5.3 2.6 5 60-80 5.1 0.234 4.7. 5.7 4.6 6 5.1 0.080 4.9-5.2 1.6 5 OM (%) 0-20 2.84 0.757 1.41-4.91 26.7 63 3.38 0.687 2.03-4.74 20.3 38 20-40 1.88 0.453 1.05-3.21 24.1 52 2.27 0.496 1.35-3.59 21.8 44 40-60 1.29 0.231 0.96-1.95 18.0 30 1.88 0.415 1.19-3.32 22.1 45 60-80 1.55 0.194 1.09-2.22 12.5 17 1.32 0.315 0.82-2.33 23.9 52 N (%) 0-20 0.059 0.014 0.!059-0.<097<; 24.4 51 0.106 0.030 0.064-0.195 28.4 71 20-40 0.048 0.010 0.029-0.072 20.2 38 0.084 0.016 0.054-0.114 19.6 34 40-60 0.037 0.007 0.023-0.052 17.8 30 0.070 0.016 0.041-0.114 22.1 48 60-80 0.041 0.010 0.025-0.074 24.4 53 0.047 0.010 0.030-0.076 21.7 42 CO Table IV-2 (cont'd) Property Depth (cm) X SD Rg CV N X SD Rg CV N P (ppm) 0-20 10.1 2.919 5.6-17.8 28.9 74 8v5 • • 2.640 4.6-15.4 31.1 85 20-40 8.0 2.401 3.1-16.4 30.0 80 6.3 1.447 3.7-11.2 23.0 48 40-60 6.3 1.876 3.8-9.7 29.8 79 7.4 1.819 4.8-11.0 24.6 54 60-80 7.2 1.781 4.0. 12.1 24.7 55 11.7 3.523 7.1-21.1 30.1 80 Ca (meq/ 0-20 0.28 0.209 0.08-0.88 74.6 480 0.33 0.181 0.10-0.88 54.8 260 100 g) 20-40 0.40 0.227 0.08-0.88 56.8 278 0.29 0.156 0.08-0.62 53.9 250 40-60 0.37 0.146 0.06-0.82 39.6 136 0.18 0.067 0.06-0.33 37.3 121 60-80 0.33 0.160 0.12-0.73 48.6 204 0.14 0.042 0.06-0.22 30.0 80 Mg (meq/ 0-20 0.062 0.033 0.016-0.170 53.2 245 0.060 0.030 0.016-0.137 48.8 191 100 g) 20-40 0.065 0.024 0.020-0.109 36.3 119 0.043 0.016 0.028-0.082 37.2 121 40-60 0.063 0.022 0.022-0.144 34.9 113 0.035 0.010 0.017-0.080 28.6 73 60-80 0.057 0.022 0.025-0.106 38.6 130 0.026 0.009 0.010-0.048 34.6 105 Na (meq/ 0-20 0.048 0.012 0.026-0.080 25.0 56 0.026 0.007 0.011-0.043 27.0 65 100 g) 20-40 0.039 0.012 0.017-0.080 30.8 84 0.023 0.007 0.012-0.049 28.8 73 40-60 0.032 0.010 0.019-0.063 30.2 81 0.024 0.005 0.014-0.040 20.8 40 60-80 0.037 0.011 0.022-0.069 29.2 78 0.024 0.007 0.013-0.038 27.3 65 K (meq/ 0-20 0.075 0.024 0.034-0.120 32.0 90 0.050 0.011 0.030-0.088 22.9 44 100 g) 20-40 0.072 0.021 0.035-0.130 29.2 76 0.035 0.008 0.023-0.059 23.8 48 40-60 0.069 0.019 0.038-0.115 27.0 68 0.028 0.005 0.015-0.046 18.3 30 60-80 0.069 0.020 0.039-0.123 28.9 75 • 0.023 0.005 0.016-0.031 20.6 39 1 to 8% for pH (both In H20 and CaCl 2); 20 to 3Q% for organic matter (%), nitrogen {%), ph.osph.orus (ppm) and exchangeable Na and K Oneq / 1 0 0 g ) a n d 30 to 70% for exchangeable Ca and Mg. These results are comparable to others found in t h e literature (Mader, 1963; Ballaand Williams, 1968). As mentioned previously, in soi l -s ite studies the vertical component of variability may be as important as the lateral component. In this study the whole'mineral soil rooting zone was of interest. The magnitude of vertical variability may be evaluated by comparing the trends or patterns observed with depth for each parameterin Table IV-2. Both the standard deviation and coefficient of variation showed a general decreasing trend with depth, with changes in standard deviations being more pronounced, especially between the surface or upper solum depths and the lower solum depths. Generally, pH for both soils and organic matter.for site 2 showed a gradual change in variation (coefficient of variation) with depth. For exchangeable Ca and Mg of both soils and nitrogen at site 2 a rapid decrease in variation occurred below the surface, with lower depths being fairly uniform. With nitrogen, phosphorus and exchangeable Na at site 2; and organic matter, phosphorus and exchangeable Na at site 4, there appeared to be minimal differences in variation among depths, although for nitrogen at site 2 and phosphorus at site 4, middle solum depths did appear to be slightly less variable than the surface and lower depths. These results indicated that for most variables studied, variation does not differ markedly in the vertical dimension. When differences occurred, these were observed in the upper solum where mean values were the highest and ranges in values the widest. This is possibly related to the increased influence from pedogenic phenomena, since weathering and the effects of environmental factors at the site would be greatest in the upper pedon. L d -If the acceptable standard of accuracy for the: estimate of the average value for any particular chemical property were set at 10% from the mean, with 95% confidence limits, a goal which might be considered reasonable, the present study gives good estimates of mean depth values. Table IV-2 l ists the numberof samples required to estimate the means at the 0.1 precision level. Soil pH would be consistently estimated at this level with 5 to 8 samples; whereas, the other measured properties, with the exception of.exchangeable Ca and Mg, would require between 20 and 90 samples. For exchangeable Ca and Mg prohibitively large sample numbers would be required to meet this standard. While a general range of samples (20 to 90) for most parameters can be stated, the results indicated that there is no definite pattern of an optimum size of samples for any one property within a pedon or between1 sites. For example, organic matter in the lower pedon of site 2 would require lower sampling intensity than the corresponding depths at site 4, and exchangeable K at site 2 would need nearly twice the number of samples than would be required at site 4. From these results, it can be appreciated that problems will arise when several determinations are to be made on a single sample, as is the case with most soil -site studies. Some measurements are bound to be more variable than others. For practical'purposes, a compromise may be made. The sampling intensity desired will be governed by those estimates whose parameters are of greatest importance with the required degree of precision, while sacrificing precision of"*the more variable but less important measurements. When considering the whole pedon, the variation in the upper pedon will dictate the sampling intensity desirable for that soi l . These results indicated that modiflcation'of the sampling procedures ( i .e . , composite sampling) may he necessary to obtain a representative sample, since the calculated number of samples recorded are rather large to be practical in most soil studies. Comparison of Sampling Procedures As'may be seen from the previous discussion, relatively large number of samples would be required to estimate mean values with narrowly specified precision levels. The choice of a sampling procedure that would reduce the magnitude of this natural variability would ultimately reduce the amount of work required for the study. One objective of this study was to evaluate different sampling procedures (individual vs composite) on their ability to reduce the extent of within site variability. Table IV-3 gives the results of a two-way F-test on mean squares obtained from an analysis of variance test, combining results from all three sampling periods. Where significant differences occur, these indicate the relative efficiency of one procedure over the other in its ability to reduee variation within the s'ampled pedon.' The results clearly indicate that, except for exchangeable K and pH (CaCl2) at site 4 and nitrogen at site 2, taking composite samples tended to be more efficient in reducing the level of parameter variation observed for the two soils. For specific properties, for example, pH, organic matter, phosphorus and exchangeable Ca at site 2, procedure three (Pg), is more efficient than Pg. This would indicate that bulking of individual samples in the field would reduce the amount of work required in the laboratory. While composite samples appear to reduce variability, the apparent reduction in analytical effort would only be advantageous-if these samples gave reasonable estimates of mean values. Comparison of the three Table IV-3 Two-Way F-Test Comparing Average Mean Squares For The Three Sampling Procedures Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure ; Property P /P r 2 P /P - 1 3 P /P T 3 P /P r 2 P /P T 3 P /P 2/ 3 SITE 2 SITE 4 pH (H90) 4.838b 12.135b 2.510a 2.766a 15.663b 5.663b z pH (CaCl 9) 5.269b 30.560b 5.800b 2.862a 1.804 0.630 z OM (%) 2.848a 10.799b 3.791b 7.199b 6.211b 0.863 N (%) 1.597 2.651 a 1.660 6.033b 5.099b 0.845 P (%) 6.443b 82.295b 12.774b 2.963a 3.985b 1.345 Ca (meq/100 g) 3.263b 8.857b 2.714a 2.789a 24.844b 8.906b Mg (meq/100 g) 3.741b 6.882b 1.840 6.971b 12.444b 1.785 Na (meq/100 g) 2.400a 5.277b 2.200 2.672a 6.792b 2.542a K (meq/100 g) 2.618a'' 2.512a 0.959 0.598 1.132 1.893 df 87/15 87/15 15/15 87/15 87/15 15/15 a.Significant at 5% b Significant at 1% Tabulated F values F .05 (2) 87,15 2.140 0.529 F .01 (2) 87,15 2.980 0.442 F .05 (2) 15,15 2.410 0.415 F .01 (2) 15,15 3.520 0.284 124 sampling procedures i s given in Appendix C - l . Considering the range observed for the various propert ies and the. magnitude of var ia t ion that can be expected in the two s o i l s , the resu l t s Indicated that: composite samples can, fo r most propert ies , give reasonable estimates of population means. However, some resul ts l i e outside the p r o b a b i l i t y l i m i t s set by the standard P-|. This suggests that more samples are' required to make up the composite sample than was used for t h i s study. • The number of subsamples to be composited for a given depth or horizon w i l l be a funct ion 'of the property under considerat ion, the magnitude of the v a r i a b i l i t y and the precis ion of the mean desired. Although composite samples often produce quite accurate estimates of population means, such a sample provides very l i t t l e information as to the true nature of the pattern of v a r i a b i l i t y in a s o i l . This i s shown by the highly i r regu la r patterns of v a r i a b i l i t y expressed by coe f f i c ien ts of var ia t ion in Appendix C - l . A knowledge of the trueeextent of the var iat ion could reduce the problem of interpret ing borderl ine t e s t s . When using values obtained from composite samples f o r in terpretat ion or s i t e comparisons, one must e i ther have a"measure of the v a r i a b i l i t y or at least accept the p robab i l i t y that the quantity measured w i l l have s i m i l a r patterns of var ia t ion as the mean values obtained by more intense sampling schemes. Depth Trends S o i l s in the landscape are commonly c l a s s i f i e d on the basis of obvious morphological features and characterized by chemical and physical analys is on these morphological un i t s . Often these charac te r i s t i cs provide a basis fo r assessong i n t r a - and I n t e r - s i t e differences with environmental f a c t o r s . However, most chemical var iables 125 FIGURE IV-2 AVERAGE DEPTH TRENDS FOR SELECTED CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OM (%) 3.0-i.o-0! J N (%) 0.04 • SITE 2 SITE 4 pH ( H 2 0 ) 6.0 4.0 6.0 -J pH (CaCl2) 4.0 P (ppm) Dl D2 D3 D4 Dl D2 D3 0 4 FIGURE IV-2 (cont'd) 126 SITE 2 SITE 4 C a 0.5 0.1 0.06 A M g 0.02 E CP o o Na | 0.05 0.01 0.0 7 K 0.01 i 1 r Dl D2 D3 D4 Dl D2 D3 D4 • DEPTHS UNDERLINED INDICATE NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN VALUES (SNK , TEST) show continuous trends in the ax magnitude throughout the pedon, and these trends may not be closely related to morphological horizons. Charac-terization of pedon trends based on mean depth values, rather than on particular horizons may be more meaningful in discussing intra- and inter-site differences. Mean depth curves are given in Figure IV-2 along with the results pf the Student's Newman-Kuel (SNK) test for homogeneity of depth means. Although tests to determine any significant differences between site depth means and the degree of association (correlation coefficient) among the chemical properties were not calculated, they can be inferred from the curves. However, statements other than on a general basis is limited. The depth curves show that the vertical distribution in chemical properties measured are fairly similar for both soils. Significant differences (SNK) between mean values were more frequent between the surface and lower depths than between depths in the lower portion of the pedon. Exchangeable cations at site 3 and Na at site 4 revealed no significant difference among depths. Significant differences were observed for all depths for organic matter and nitrogen at site 4. Soil pH shows an increasing trend with depth, while the other chemical properties, except phosphorus at site 4, showed a pronounced or a slight decreasing trend. At site 4, phosphorus decreased init ial ly to D2 then increased sharply at D .^ It is possible that this increase is the result ofpphosphorus associated with Fe and Al sesquioxides being extracted by the N.HitF-HCl method (Black, 1965). Further analyses would be necessary to determine whether the phosphorus is associated with the sesquioxide fraction at this depth or is from another source. Generally there appears to be a good relationship between pH values and organic matter and nitrogen within each site. Phosphorus 128 at site 2 also shows similar trends as organic matter and nitrogen, indicating that i t may be largely from an organic source. The slight differences shown between sites for the distribution of chemical components could possibly be attributed, to differences in site-environmental factors. The depth trends in pH at site 4 could be the result of effects from the dense deciduous vegetation, in their ability to biocycle basic components and to the influence of the fluctuating water table. Also at this site, the expected greater rate of decomposition of the deciduous vegetation has probably contributed to the slightly higher levels of organic matter and nitrogen throughout the solum and for the increase in concentrations of exchangeable Ca, Mg and K in the surface mineral layers. At site 2 the slight increasing trends observed in for pH, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus may be attributed to the root mat at this depth. The distribution of chemical components as shown in the depth curves is in general similar to the distribution revealed in Tables II-2 and II-3, which are based on single sample analysis. The one exception is phosphorus at site 4. This discrepancy probably results from the random inclusion of "high" of "low".spots when single samples are used to characterize the distribution of chemical components within a pedon. Although distribution curves from individual samples would be similar to the comparative standard shown in Figure IV-2, there are sufficient differences to be sceptical about results based on single analysis as they pertain to pedon distribution. This would be especially important in assessing soils for classification purposes. It appears that for some soils the use of composite samples to determine pedon distribution of chemical components would be more reliable than Individual samples. However, further investigations would be required before definite recommendations could be postulated. I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1 : The magnitude of lateral variation for various soil properties within two podzol soils has been studied. It was found that this variability can be much larger than generally appreciated and may in itself be as significant as are the mean chemical values. Variability arising from inherent sources is invariably greater than the variation caused by analytical errors. It has been shown that certain chemical properties are more variable than others and require rather large number of samples to estimate mean values within specified precision levels. Generally 20 to 90 samples would be required to characterize most chemical properties in the two soils. The variability found in the surface mineral layers is usually equal to or greater than that expressed in the subsoil and necessitates greater sampling intensities. Seasonal effects on soil variability, within the main growing season, appear to be small and subordinate to spatial variation. To achieve high precision to detect minor seasonal changes would require more laborious and extensive sampling. In assessing the efficiency of the three sampling schemes, ft was found that composite samples tended to reduce the extent of within-plot variation existing in the pedon. These samples will give reasonable estimates of mean values, thereby reducing the amount of work required in the laboratory. However, they do not give any information about the true nature of the variation in the pedon. It appears that the number of sub-samples necessary for a composite is greater than the number used in this study. In assessing the vertical distribution of chemical components in the pedon,.it appears that mean depth values give a better assessment of chemical distribution than values obtained from individual samples based on morphological units. The use of individual samples of representative or "modal" pedons often produce accurate estimates of population mean values, but such a sample provides very l i t t le information as to the true nature of chemical variability and has a greater probability for random inclusion of "high" or "low" spots, which may lead to erroneous conclusions on trends within the pedon. SUMMARY 132 A topographic sequence of soils on the University of British Columbia was studied in relation to the environmental and cultural factors cont-rolling soil and site development on a recently disturbed area. Four sites along a transect, each exhibiting a difference in topographic position, moisture regime, vegetation and soil development were selected for this study. Data presented in Chapters I and II provide a basis to illustrate the relationship between soil and other environmental components in the landscape. The interrelationship between slope position, moisture regime, parent material and vegetation can be considered the dominent forces in the genesis of the soils. All four soils are classified as podzol soils. Morphological features and chemical and physical properties support present theories of podzol development. The net result of pedogenic processes prevailing in the soils is the formation of a Fe and Al enriched B horizon. Variation in soil development between soils, as expressed by morphological features and soil properties, appears consistent with the variation in site factors. Along the transect variations in site factors appear to be attributed to disturbance of the study area during logging. This is more apparent along the lower portion of the transect, at site 4. At this site, present soil development is consistent with prevailing pedogenic processes. However, there is evidence to suggest that site factors, specificially water table levels and vegetation has been altered as a result of logging. A change in moisture regime can be expected to change edaphic characteristics of the site, which would be reflected in a change in vegetation successional patterns. It is possible that these changes redirected soil. 5 development by increasing weathering and leaching in the^urface mineral horizons 133 and by initiating the redistribution of mobile constituents in the pedon. However, at this time conclusive evidence cannot be forwarded to sub-stantiate this hypothesis. Although this interaction is not readily apparent it is conceivable that present pedogenic processes have masked or obliterated the readable effects of the former environment. Chapter III presents data on selected chemical components of pre-cipitation, organic leachate, soil solution and ground water. Ion mob-i l i t y and nutrient availability is discussed in light of this data. Appreciable amounts of exchangeable ions can be added to the soil from the atmosphere and through crown-wash and organic layer leachate. This input of ions may have a bearing on the exchange status of the surface mineral horizons and may be an important source of available nutrients in soils of inherently low fert i l i ty . However, weathering of soil minerals appear to be the main source of ions to the soil solution. Concentrations of exchangeable cations and solution silicon and pH in the soil solution appear to correlate well with expected seasonal changes in weathering rates within the soi l . There appears to be a relationship between soil solution concentrations of elements and concentrations found in the ground water. This indicates that in these soils, ground water chemistry is influenced to a greater extent by the soil surrounding the ground water system than by inputs through atmospheric sources. The magnitude of variation for various soil properties within two Podzol soils are presented in Chapter IV. It was found that this var-iabil ity can be much larger than generally appreciated and may in itself be as significant as the soils' inherent chemical and physical properties. Certain chemical properties were found to be more variable than others and required rather large number of samples to estimate mean values within 134 specified precision levejs. This variability was usually equal or greater than that expressed in the subsoil. Seasonal effects, within the main growing season, appears to be small and subordinate to spatial variability. In assessing the efficiency of the sampling schemes, it was found that the use of composite samples will allow for reasonable estimates of soil properties and reduce the probable disparities caused from non-representative samples. However, they do not give any information about the true nature of variation in the pedon. In assessing the vertical distrubtion of chemical components in the pedon, i t appears that mean depth values give a better assessment of chemical distrubution than values obtained from individual samples based on morphological units. The use of individual samples has a greater probability for random inclusion of "high" or "flow" spots, which may lead to erroneous conclusions on trends within the pedons. LITERATURE CITED 135 Armstrong, J.E. 1956. Surfical geology of the Vancouver area, British Columbia. Geol. Surv. Canada., Paper 55-40. Armstrong, J.E., Crandell, D.R., Easterbrooke, A.J. and Noble, J.B. 1965. Late pleistonoene stratigraphy and chronology i n S.W. 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I lex aquifol ium Shrubs Red huckleberry Vaccinium parv i fo l ium Smith Red elderberry Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (Michne) Keohne Salmonberry Rubus spec tab i l i s Pursh Thimbleberry Rubus parv i f lo rus Nutt. Herbs Bracken fern Spiny wood-fern Sword fern Lady-fern Deer fern T r a i l i n g blackberry Blackcap Salal Oregon grape Dwarf rose Fragrant bedstraw Twisted s ta lk Star flower Foam flower Ta l l fringecup Twin flower Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Dryopteris austr iaca (Jacq.) Wayner Polystichum muni turn (Kaulf . ) P r e s l . Athyriurn fe ! i x - femina (L.) Roth. Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth. Rubus ursinus Cham, and Schlecht Rubus leucodermis Dougl. Gautheria shal lon Pursh. Mohonia nervosa Pursh) Nutt. Rosa qymnocarpa Nutt. Galium tr i forum  Streptopus amplexifolus  T r i e n t a l i s l a t i f o l i a  T i a r e l l a t r i f o l i a t a  Tel l ima grandi f lora Linnaea boreal i s L. Mosses Plagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. Rhizomnium glabrescens Kindb. Eurhynchium oreganum ( S u l l . ) j . and S. Eurhynchium stokes i s (Turn.) Bry. Eur. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. Rhytidiodelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst. Pogonatum maccounii A P P E N D I X A - 2 S E A S O N A L S O I L T E M P E R A T U R E P A T T E R N S S I T E I A P P E N D I X A - 2 ( c o n t ' d ) S E A S O N A L S O I L T E M P E R A T U R E P A T T E R N S S I T E 3 A P P E N D I X A-2 ( c o n t ' d ) S E A S O N A L S O I L T E M P E R A T U R E P A T T E R N S S I T E 4 2 0 n 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 1 r~ 2 9 . 6 13 20 27 4 II 18 25 I 8 15 22 29 4 II 18 25 j 9 16 MAY JUNE JULY A U G U S T S E P T O C T DATE / MONTH 1972 APPENDIX A - 3 DIURNAL SOIL TEMPERATURE PATTERNS SITE I ~i— 800 1 2400 —I 1200 600 1200 600 AUG - 2 4 - 1 9 7 2 A U G - 2 5 - 1 9 7 2 APPENDIX A - 3 (cont'd) A U G - 2 4 - 1 9 7 2 AUG — 25 — 1972 APPENDIX A - 3 (cont'd) I DIURNAL SOIL TEMPERATURE PATTERNS - i r 1 1 1 — — i 600 1200 1800 2400 600 1200 A U G - 2 4 - 1972 A U G — 2 5 - 1 9 7 2 APPENDIX A — 3 (cont'd) DIURNAL SOIL TEMPERATURE PATTERNS A U G - 2 4 - 1 9 7 2 A U G - 2 5 - 1 9 7 2 152 A P P E N D I X B Appendix B - l Selected Chemical Properties of the Throughfall and Organic Leachate Date/ Year Throughfall pH Ca Mg Na mg/1 Organic Leachate Total K Cations pH Ca Mg Na-mg/1 Total K Cations SITE 1 6/22/72 5.3 3.0 0.6 1.8 5.4 11.6 4.1 2.8 1.1 3.6 0.8 8.3 7/7 5.5 2.6 0.7 1.8 4.0 9.8 - - - - - -8/1 5.9 0.9 0.2 0.6 1.6 3.8' i 4.4 1.2 1.0 2.0 1.5 5.7 9/11 5.3 2.3 0.7 1.6 4.2 10.4 4.2 2.0 1.8 3.1 1.6 8.4 10/15 5.7 2.2 0.6 1.5 3.4 8.7 5.1 2.1 0.8 4.2 1.6 8.8 10/29 5.8 2.8 . 1.1 1.9 3.1 11.7 5.6 1.7 0.8 5.2 1.7 9.3 SITE 2 6/22/72 5.9 2.0 0.5 1.3 2.9 7.4 4.3 2.5 1.6 3.0 0.9 7.9 7/7 6.1 2.3 0.8 1.6 4.7 10.3 - - - - - -8/1 5.9 0.6 0.2 0.4 1.2 3.0 4.1 1.5 1.6 2.2 1.4 6.6 9/11 6.9 2.5 0.8 1.5 5.8 13.3 4.3 2.1 1.9 3.9 2.1 10.0 10/I5b 6.3 1.3 0.4 1.3 2.3 5.8 4.8 1.9 1.1 3.6 1.9 8.5 10/29 5.8 2.9 1.3 1.8 3.0 11.5 5.4 1.6 0.8 2.6 3.1 8.1 SITE 3 6/22/72 6.4 2.4 0.7 1.7 4.0 9.8 4.7 1.9 1.1 2.0 1.1 6.1 7/7 6.0 2.9 1.1 2.0 6.1 13.4 - - - - - -8/1 6.0 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.5 3.9 5.9 1.3 1.0 1.5 2.2 6.1 9/11 6.3 2.6 1.0 2.0 7.5 15.4 5.4 2.0 1.6 1.5 3.7 8.8 10/15 6.6 1.7 0.5 1.5 2.8 7.0 5.0 1.4 0.9 2.6 3.0 7.9 10/29 6.6 2.8 1.1 2.1 3.7 10.8 5.4 1.7 1.0 3.1 2.3 8.1 Appendix B-l (cont'd) Throughfall Date/ Total Year pH Ca Mg Na K Cations mg/1 SITE 6/22/72 5.7 2.0 0.6 1.2 4.5 8.7 7/7 5.6 2.3 0.9 1.8 6.4 11.8 8/1 6.0 0.5 0.2 0.3 1.6 2.7 9/11 6.2 2.2 0.7 1.1 6.1 11.3 10/15 6.2 1.7 0.4 1.2 3.8 7.4 10/29 6.1 3.3 1.4 1.4 4.7 11.4 Organic Leachate Total pH Ca Mg Na K Cations mg/1 6.5 3.2 6.6 2.1 6.7 3.9 5.9 3.9 5.5 2.6 5.7 2.1 1.8 4.5 1.6 3.9 2.1 6.8 1.9 5.0 1.6 6.1 1.8 5.8 5.1 14.5 6.1 13.8 8.2 21.0 5.4 16.2 3.4 13.8 5.1 14.8 Appendix B-2 155 Selected Ground Water Analysis Date/ Total Year pH Ca Mg Na K S i Cations mg/1 Station A 5/17/72 6.3 3.1 1.4 5.1 1.7 9.0 21.6 6/22 5.9 3.0 1.3 5.4 1.5 10.0 24.5 7/7 5.7 3.6 1.2 3.2 1.1 9.0 18.1 8/1 5.8 3.4 1.0 3.1 0.6 10.0 19.5 9/11 5.8 3.2 1.3 4.4 1.0 12.0 21.8 10/15 5.6 2.9 1.1 4.5 1.0 10.0 19.6 10/29 5.5 3.1 1.0 3.2 0.7 10.0 18.1 11/27 5.3 3.2 1.1 3.2 0.7 7.0 15.2 12/11 5.2 3.3 1.1 2.9 0.6 6.0 13.9 1/8/73 5.1 3.4 1.2 3.1 0.7 4.0 12.5 1/15 5.1 2.5 1.0 2.8 0.7. '3.0 11.5 2/5 5.2 2.6 1.1 3.1 0.9 5.0 12.7 3/5 5.3 2.7 1.0 3.4 1.0 5.0 13.1 4/10 5.4 2.6 1.0 3.8 1.0 5.0 13.4 5/15 6.0 2.8 1.1 4.6 1.7 8.0 18.9 Station B 5/17/72 6.1 3.2 1.2 6.1 3.4 11.0 24.9 6/22 6.2 3.1 1.1 5.4 3.9 11.0 22.5 7/7 5.9 3.4 1.1 4.4 4.4 12.0 23.3 8/1 5.8 3.5 0.9 3.7 3.2 11.0 22.3 9/11 5.8 3.2 1.0 4.6 3.7 10.0 22.5 10/15 5.8 3.0 0.9 4.3 4.1 10.0 22.3 10/29 5.7 2.9 1.0 3.8 3.6 8.0 18.9 11/27 5.5 2.8 0.9 3.6 3.3 6.0 16.4 12/11 5.4 2.9 0.9 3.4 4.0 6.0 17.2 1/8/73 5.4 2.8 1.0 3.2 3.8 5.0 15.8 1/15 5.4 2.7 0.9 2.9 3.1 5.0 14.6 2/5 5.5 2.8 0.9 3.0 2.9 4.0 12.6 3/5 5.5 2.6 1.0 3.3 3.6 5.0 15.6 4/10 5.7 2.8 1.1 3.6 4.0 7.0 18.6 5/15 6.0 3.2 1.1 3.9 4.4 9.0 21.6 Appendix B-3 156 Selected Soi l Solution Analysis Date/ Total Year pH Ca Mg Na K Si Cations mg/1 SITE 1 0-20 cm 7/7/72 4.7 4.3 0.9 3.8 3.1 8.0 20.6 8/1 5.7 3.9 0.4 3.8 2.8 7.0 18.1 9/11 6.3 4.0 0.7 4.0 3.2 10.0 22.3 10/15 5.9 4.1 0.7 4.6 2.5 11.0 23.1 10/29 5.7 3.3 0.7 3.5 3.5 8.0 19.5 11/27 5.6 2.7 0.5 3.3 3.6 4.0 14.4 12/11 5.8 2.9 0.6 3.5 3.0 2.0 12.0 1/8/73 5.7 2.3 0.5 3.1 2.7 1.0 9.8 20-40 cm 7/7/72 6.0 4.5 0.8 3.5 3.1 5.0 17.0 8/1 6.2 4.3 0.6 2.9 2.9 7.0 17.9 9/11 6.5 3.4 0.6 2.5 2.5 6.0 14.6 10/15 6.2 3.1 0.7 2.6 1.8 10.0 ' 18.2 10/29 6.4 3.4 0.6 2.2 1.6 6.0 13.9 11/27 5.9 2.6 0.6 2.0 1.5 4.0 10.7 12/11 6.0 2.3 0.4 2.7 1.3 1.0 7.8 1/8/73 5.7 2.0 0.4 4.2 1.5 1.0 9.1 40-60 cm 7/7/72 5.9 4.3 0.8 4.2 2.6 4.0 16.0 8/1 6.1 3.9 0.7 4.0 1.8 6.0 16.5 9/11 6.8 3.4 0.5 3.1 1.7 5.0 13.9 10/15 6.6 3.2 0.6 3.3 1.3 9.0 17.5 10/29 6.8 3.5 0.6 2.7 1.8 4.0 12.9 11/27 6.3 3.4 0.5 2.9 2.0 2.0 10.7 12/11 6.2 2.8 0.4 3.1 1.7 1.0 9.0 1/8/73 5.9 2.4 0.5 2.6 1.7 1.0 7.2 60-80 cm 7/7/72 6.2 4.7 0.8 3.4 2.6 4.0 15.6 8/1 6.3 4.0 0.7 3.0 2.0 6.0 15.8 9/11 6.6 3.1 0.5 2.3 1.8 5.0 12.9 10/15 6.6 3.2 0.7 3.5 2.0 7.0 16.4 10/29 6.6 3.5 0.6 4.6 1.9 5.0 15.7 11/27 6.4 3.7 0.5 4.5 2.0 4.0 14.7 12/11 6.3 2.8 0.5 3.5 1.8 2,0 10.6 1/8/73 5.9 1.9 0.5 2.7 1.4 1.0 7.5 Appendix B-3 (cont'd) 157 Date/ Total Year pH Ca Mg Na K Si Cations mg/1 SITE 2 0-20 cm 7/7/72 4.8 5.4 1.6 4.1 4.9 13.0 29.4 8/1 5.2 5.1 1.7 5.2 5.0 11.0 28.3 9/11 6.5 5.5 2.5 7.3 6.0 15.0 37.0 10/15 6.0 4.2 1.6 7.8 5.0 12.0 30.7 10/29 6,1 4.2 1.6 7.7 5.3 10.0 28.9 11/27 6.1 4.0 1.4 8.0 5.6 8.0 27.0 12/11 5.9 3.6 1.2 8.3 5.2 6.0 24.5 1/8/73 6.0 3.7 1.1 8.9 4.9 '•5.0 24.7 20-40 cm 7/7/72 5.2 3.5 1.0 5.2 2.9 9.0 21.8 8/1 5.5 4.1 1.6 4.8 5.8 10.0 26.4 9/11 6.5 6.9 2.2 8.3 8.1 11.0 "36.9 10/15 6.5 5.3 1.4 6.7 6.5 11.0 29.8 10/29 6.7 5.0 1.3 7.1 5.4 10.0 28.8 11/27 6.8 5.2 1.3 8.2 3.9 9.0 27.6 12/11 6.5 4.8 1.1 7.5 313 5.0 21.7 1/8/73 6.3 4.4 1.0 6.8 2.9 3.0 18.0 40-60 cm 7/7/72 5.4 4.8 1.4 4.3 2.5 7.0 20.1 8/1 5.7 4.9 1.6 5.2 3.1 8.0 22.9 9/11 6.9 7.1 2.5 7.4 4.2 11.0 32.7 10/15 6.4 4.4 1.2 6.7 2.3 9.0 23.7 10/29 6.6 4.2 1.1 7.2 2.5 8.0 23.8 11/27 6.3 4.3 1.1 7.9 2.6 8.0 23.8 12/11 6.1 3.0 1.0 . 7.6 2.9 6.0 20.5 1/8/73 6.0 3.7 0.9 8.5 2.6 4.0 19.7 60-80 cm 7/7/72 5.6 4.4 1.3 4.2 1.7 5.0 16.7 8/1 5.7 4.0 1.7 7.2 3.6 7.0 23.5 9/11 '6.2 6.0 2.2 11.5 2.7 11.0 33.8 10/15 6.7 4.9 1.5 8.5 2.5 10.0 27.5 10/29 6.5 4.8 1.5 7.9 2.5 9.0 25.4 11/27 6.7 4.5 1.4 7.1 2.3 8.0 23.3 12/11 6.0 3.8 1.1 5.0 1.7 6.0 17.7 1/8/73 5.7 2.9 1.0 3.6 1.1 4.0 12.6 Appendix B-3 (cont'd) 158 Date/ Total Year pH Ca Mg Na K Si Cations mg/1 SITE 3 0-20 cm 6/22/72 5.4 5.8 1.2 4.0 2.0 7.0 20.2 7/7 5.2 4.2 1.1 3.8 1.6 9.0 20.0 8/1 5.4 2.9 0.7 3.1 1.6 7.0 15.3 9/11 5.9 1.4 0.9 6.3 3.2 12.0 26.0 10/15 6.0 1.6 0.9 4.1 2.5 10.0 21.1 10/29 5.7 2.1 1.0 4.0 2.4 9.0 18.5 11/27 5.7 2.7 1.0 3.8 2.2 9.0 18.9 12/11 5.6 2.9 0.9 3.5 1.7 6.0 15.2 1/8/73 5.6 3.2 1.0 3.3 1.2 4.0 12.8 20-40 cm 6/22/72 5.1 4.2 1.0 4.1 1.5 5.0 15.8 7/7 5.0 3.7 0.8 3.7 1.4 5.0 14.8 8/1 5.7 3.3 0.9 3.1 1.4 7.0 15.7 9/11 6.2 2.5 0.8 3.0 1.3 9.0 16.7 10/15 6.3 2.8 0.7 4.8 1.2 . 8.0 17.5 10/29 6.2 3.2 0.8 4.3 1.5 7.0 16.8 11/27 6.0 4.4 0.7 3.9 1.8 6.0 17.0 12/11 5.8 3.9 0.8 3.6 1.6 4.0 13.9 1/8/73 5.7 2.6 0.8 2.9 1.4 2.0 9.7 40-60 cm 6/22/72 5.3 4.2 0.9 5.3 1.4 5.0 16.9 7/7 5.6 3.8 0.9 5.0 1.3 6.0 17.1 8/1 5.7 3.7 0.8 4.1 1.1 7.0 16.9 9/11 5.6 2.7 0.9 3.9 1.3 8.0 17.3 10/15 6.5 3.1 0.9 4.2 1.1 9.0 18.4 10/29 6.8 3.7 0.9 4.0 1.3 10.0 19.7 11/27 6.3 4.6 0.9 3.-8 1.4 7.0 17.9 12/11 6.0 4.1 0.9 3.0 1.3 5.0 14.3 1/8/73 6.0 3.4 0.9 2.6 1.1 2.0 10.0 60-80 cm 6/22/72 5.7 4.3 1.0 5.6 1.3 5.0 17.2 7/7 5.4 3.7 0.9 5.4 1.3 6.0 17.3 8/1 5.7 3.1 0.9 4.9 1.2 9.0 19.2 9/11 5.3 2.6 0.8 4.0 1.2 8.0 16.8 10/15 6.8 2.7 0.8 3.6 1.1 8.0 16.4 10/29 6.4 3.4 0.8 3.8 1.0 8.0 17.0 11/27 5.8 4.6 0.9 3.5 0.9 8.0 18.0 12/11 6.0 3.9 0.8 3.1 1.0 5.0 13.9 1/8/73 5.9 3.2 0.8 2.4 0.9 2.0 9.3 Appendix B-3 (cont'd) 159 Date/ Total Year pH Ca Mg Na K S i Cations mg/1 80-100 cm 6/22/72 5.6 4.2 1.0 5.8 1.6 6.0 18.7 7/7 5.4 3.8 0.9 5.3 1.4 7.0 18.6 8/1 5.6 3.5 0.9 5.7 1.5 11.0 22.6 9/11 5.9 2.7 0.9 6.3 1.6 9.0 20.6 10/15 7.0 2.8 0.9 4.7- 1.3. 9.0 18.8 10/29 7.0 3.6 0.9 4.4 1.0 8.0 17.9 11/27 6.4 3.1 1.0 3.9 0.9 5.0 13.9 12/11 6.2 2.6 0.9 2.7 0.9 3.0 10.1 1/8/73 5.9 2.4 0.9 2.4 0.9 2.0 8.6 SITE 4 0-20 cm 5/24/72 5.0 4.0 1.4 4.9 2.5 9.0 21.8 6/22 4.8 3.8 1.1 4.5 2.5 8.0 20.2 7/7 4.1 1.6 0.9 3.6 3.8 11.0 22.9 8/1 4.9 1.9 0.9 4.0 4.6 9.0 21.0 9/11 6.1 3.7 1.1 4.2 5.8 7.0 22.1 10/15 6.6 2.4 0.8 2.6 6.7 10.0 22.6 10/29 7.0 3.7 0.7 2.2 1.4 8.0 16.1 11/27 6.8 3.0 0.8 2.6 1.2 8.0 15.8 12/11 5.2 2.7 0.7 3.2 1.8 6.0 15.6 1/8/73 4.9 2.3 0.9 3.6 1.4 5.0 15.3 1/15 5.0 2.4 0.9 3.3 1.5 4.0 12.1 .20-40 cm 5/24/72 5.0 4.7 1.3 5.7 1.4 10.0 21.1 6/22 5.0 4.4 1.2 5.1 1.2 9.0 21.0 7/7 5.2 3.5 1.0 4.7 1.9 8.0 19.2 8/1 5.5 3.2 1.1 3V8 1.8 11.0 21.0 9/11 5..6 2.9 1.0 3.3 1.8 9.0 18.4 10/15 6.6 3.1 1.1 3.3 1.6 10.0 19.1 10/29 6.7 2.9 1.1 2.6 1.1 7.0 14.6 11/27 6.3 2.6 0.9 2.3 1.0 6.0 12.8 12/11 5.6 2.1 0.8 1.9 0.5 4.0 9.3 *l/8/73 - - - - - — — *1/15 - - - - - — — Appendix B-3 (cont'd) 160 Date/ Total Year pH Ca Mg Na K S i Cations mg/1 40-60 cm 5/24/72 5.0 4.2 1.1 4.6 1.1 10.0 20.0 6/22 4.9 4.3 1.2 4.7 1.2 9.0 20.5 7/7 5.1 3.7 1.0 5.1 1.2 9.0 20.2 8/1 5.4 3.6 1.1 4.7 1.1 11.0 21.5 9/11 5.9 2.9 1.1 4.6 1.2 9.0 18.9 10/15 6.7 3.5 1.3 4.5 0.8 8.0 18.2 10/29 6.9 4.9 1.6 3.7 0.9 8.0 19.2 11/27 6.1 4.3 1.0 2.9 0.7 6.0 14.9 12/11 5.8 2.7 1.0 2.4 0.5 3.0 9.5 *l/8/73 -. - - - - - -* 1/15 - - - - - — — 60-80 i cm 5/24/72 5.2 4.6 1.2 5.2 1.5 7.0 19.8 6/24 4.9 4.5 1.2 5.1 1.5 7.0 19.4 7/7 5.5 3.7 1.0 4.6 1.4 9.0 19.8 8/1 5.6 3.6 1.0 4.8 1.1 11.0 21.5 9/11 5.7 2.7 0.9 5.0 0.8 10.0 19.9 10/15 6.9 3.3 1.1 5.0 i:o- 10.0 19.8 10/29 6.9 2.8 1,0 3.7 0.6 9.0 17.8 11/27 6.1 2.5 1.0 2.6 0.5 6.0 12.6 12/11 5.8 2.1 0.9 2.3 0.8 4.0 10.1 n/8/73 - - - - - — — *1/15 - - - - — — — 80-100 cm 5/24/72 5.4 4.6 1.3 6.0 1.2 8.0 22.0 6/22 5.6 4.1 1.1 5.7 1.0 9.0 21.2 7/7 5.7 3.5 1.0 5.0 1.6 8.0 19.2 8/1 5.9 2.6 0.8 4.7 1.2 7.0 16.4 9/11 6.1 2.8 1.0 ' 6.3 1.8 10.0 22.2 10/15 ' 7.1 2.8 0.9 6.2 1.4 10.0 21.4 10/29 6.7 3.5 0.9 4.2 0.8 7.0 16.5 11/27 6.2 2.9 0.9 3.3 0.7 5.0 12.9 12/11 5.9 2.6 0.9 3.0 0.6 2.0 9.0 *l/8/73 *1/15 * Samples were not collected due to the high water table APPENDIX C A p p e n d i x C - l ! SITE 2 - MAY Mean (x), Standard Deviation (SD), Range (Rg)*, Coefficient of Variation (CV), and Number (N)** of Samples Required to Obtain a 10% Error of the Mean for the Three Sampling Procedures (P 1 , P„ Depth 0 - 20 cm 20 - 40 cm 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm Property P P, * P3 ? ± P?_ P3 P, ? 2 P3 P, P 0 P ; pH (H 0) x 4.8 4.8 4.7 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.6 5.9 5.9 SD 0.321 0.284 0.036 0.332 0.289 0.232 - 0.323 0.545 0.030 0.144 0.099 0.530 CV 6.7 • 5.9 0.8 6.1 5.1 4.1 5.7 9.4 0.5 2.6 1.7 9.1 Rg 4.3-5.3 —. 5.0-6.1 —5.2-6.2-—= 5.4-5.9 • N 5 7 7 5 pH (CaCl ) x 4.4 4.5 4.2 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.2 • SD 0.265 0.311 0.381 0.254 0.537 0.018 0.331 0.653 0.045 0.148 0.029 0.156 CV 6.0 6.9 9.0 4.9 10.2 0.4 6.3 12.6 0.9 2.9 0.5 . 3.0 Rg 4.0-4.8 .4.8-5.7 -4.8-5.8 4.9-5.5 N 7 7 7 5 OM (%) x 2.76 2.51 3.25 1.90 1.51 1.83 1.30 1.37 1.51 1.52 1.40 1.50 SD 0.840 0.812 1.046 0.395 0.053 0.362 0.162 0.465 0.305 0.185 0.144 0.342 CV 30.4 32.3 32.2 20.8 3.5 19.8 12.5 34.0 20.2 12.2 10.3 22.8 Rg — 1.41-4.22 1.34-2.63 0.97-1.52 — • 1.09-1.89 • N 82 40 17 16 N (%) x 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 SD 0.017 0.005 0.010 0.001 0.003 0.041 0.007 0.012 0.019 0.013 0.023 0.001 CV 31.6 8.1 18.9 22.8 7.2 79.2 20.0 23.9 45.6 32.4 47.8 26.5 Rg 0.03-0.09 0.03-0.06 0.02-0.04 0.03-0.07 N 88 47 37 93 Appendix C-1 (cont'd) Depth 0 - 20 cm 20 - 40 cm . 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm Property ? 1 . P± F? ?3 ^ ?n ^ P± Fn P3 P (ppm) x 8.7 9.0 7.9 7.6 8.4 7.9 7.0 6.6 6.0 8.3 9.7 9.0 SD 2.214 3.875 3.928 1.748 2.199 3.115 1.459 2.777 3.286 2.370 3.551 4.017 CV 25.4 43.3 49.8 23.0 26.2 39.7 20.9 41.9 54.8 28.5 36.5 44.6 Rg 6.0-12.2 5.3-11.2 5.5-9.7 4.0-12.1 N 58 48 40 72 Ca (meq/ x (100 g) SD CV Rg N 354 0.43 0.22 0.19 0.278 0.123 0.233 64.1 57.0 120.7 0.12-0.88 0.43 0.38 0.29 0.315 0.111 0.238 74.2 29.7 82.1 0.08-0.88 474 0.32 0.174 54.3 255 0.33' 0.232 70.4 0.08-0.58 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.25 0.123 0.177 0.323 0.173 38.9 62.4 122.0 69.3 0.12-0.70 336 Mg (meq/ .). x '100 g) SD CV Rg N 553 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.045 0.024 0.035 80.2 35.7 58.5 0.02-0.17 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.027 0.004 0.019 38.0 7.0 38.2 0.03-0.10 :  0.07 0.06 0.06 0.035 0.045 0.007 53.6 73.1 10.8 0.02-0.14 126 249 0.06 0.021 36.8 118 0.05 0.022 43.9 0.03-0.09 0.05 0.037 69.8 Na (meq/ x 0.04 ;100 g) SD 0.007 CV 16.9 Rg — N 27 0.03 0.008 26.7 -0.03-0.06 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.016 0.009 0.009 0.008 52.3 28.4 40.0 37.6 0.02-0.05 — 72 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.005 0.003 0.003 20.0 9.6 9.6 0.02-0.04 . 37 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.012 0.008 0.006 28.5 26.7 19.7 0.02-0.07 72 K (meq/ x 0.07 0.08 0.07 100 g) SD 0.028 0.041 0.019 CV 40.9 54.5 29.8 Rg 0.03-0.12 N 146 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.028 0.036 0.040 41.2 55.7 61.1 : 0.04-0.13 r-148 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.011 0.017 0.014 19.7 30.5 26.5 0.04-0.07 :  36 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.015 0.030 0.009 24.3 55.0 18.6 0.04-0.08 53 Appendix C-l (cont'd) SITE 2 - JULY 0 - 20 cm Property 1 Depth 20 - 40 cm 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm P. P, pH (H20) x 4.9 4.7 4.6 SD 0.461 0.099 0.052 CV 9.5 2.1 1.1 Rg 4.3-5.7 N 11 4.2 0.410 9.8 12 4.2 4.1 0.037 0.142 0.9 3.5 3.8-4.9 7 2.71 3.09 3.69 0.590 0.304 0.401 21.8 9.8 10.9 1.68-3.43 : 42 pH (CaGl 9) x " 1 SD CV Rg N OM (%) x SD CV Rg N N (%) x 0.06 0.07 0.07 SD 0.010 0.012 0.018 CV 17.5 17.2 24.3 Rg 0.04-0.08 N 29 P (ppm) x 10.3 SD 2.830 CV 27.5 Rg • N 68 10.0 8.7 2.327 2.008 23.4 23.2 5.6-13.5 5.7 0.306 5.4 7 5.0 0.260 5.2 5.8 0.070 1.2 ,0-6.1 5.1 0.082 1.6 4.4-5.4 1.81 1.59 0.309 0.337 17.1 21.2 1.05-3.21 28 0.05 0.006 13.1 0.04 0.003 6.4 0.04-0.06 18 5.3 1.447 27.6 68 5.4 2.453 45.8 3.1-8.1 5.6 0.103 1.8 5.0 0.052 1.0 1.53 0.244 16.0 0.04 0.004 9.1 4.5 0.730 16.2 6.0 0.156 2.6 5.4 0.180 3.3 1.19 0.176 14.7 OS 1. 0.96-1.45 22 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.003 0.003 0.005 9.7 8.2 15.0 0.03-0.04 — 5.9 0.058 1.0 5.7-6.2 5.4 0.092 1.7 5.1-5.6 1.18 0.078 6.6 6.0 0.037 0.6 5.3 0.037 0.7 1.14 0.251 22.0 12 5.8 1.325 22.8 47 4.3 4.5 0.588 1.278 13.6 28.7 3.8-8.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 0.250 0.131 0.108 4.3 2.2 1.8 5.5-6.3 5.1 5.2 5.2 0.334 0.311 0.166 6.6 6.0 3.2 4.7-5.7 :  1.55 1.52 1.40 0.194 0.743 0.176 12.5 48.8 12.5 — 1.20-1..84 17 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.009 0.010 0.008 23.7 26.2 22.1 0.03-0.06 51 6.9 9.4 5.7 1.303 1.678 0.474 19.0 17.9 8.4 4.0-8.4 ;  34 Appendix C-l (cont'd) Depth 0 - 20 cm 20 - 40 cm 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm Property P. P, Ca (meq/ x 0.23 0.30 0.19 100 g) SD 0.119 0.155 0.013 CV 51.5 51.6 7.0 Rg 0.08-0.53 N 230 0.41 0.39 0.42 0.208 0.129 0.151 51.2 33.5 35.9 0.09-0.84 227 0.44 0.145 32.8 ?95 0.37 0.126 34.0 0.28-0.82 0.40 0.37 0.36 0.48 0.040 0.161 0.098 0.157 35.1 43.1 27.3 32.7 0.18-0.73 162 Mg (meq/ x 100 g) SD CV Rg N 0.09 0.04 0.015 0.005 17.9 12.3 0.07-0.13 30 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.007 0.017 0.012 0.010 12.3 23.0 19.0 20.0 . • 0.05-0.11 48 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.020 0.013 0.004 28.3 27.7 6.6 0.05-0.11 71 0.07 0.05 0.07 0.024 0.014 0.023 35.0 25.9 35.3 0.03-0.11 108 Na (meq/ x 100 g) SD CV Rg N 0.07 0.004 6.1 0.03 0.010 36.1 0.06-0.08 0.04 0.005 14,1 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.013 0.004 0.002 22.4 9.5 6.9 0.04-0.08 46 0.04 0.03. 0.03 0.007 0.003 0.003 17.2 11.1 9.6 0.03-0.06 28 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.008 0.005 0.004 20.2 16.1 13.7 — r- 0.03-0.06 38 K (meq/ x 0.09 0.07 0.09 100 g) SD 0.018 0.011 0.041 CV 19.2 15.8 43.9 Rg 0.07-0.12 N 35 0.08 0.07 0v09 0.013 0.039 0.016 15.5 11.2 16.5 0.07-0.12 24 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.017 0.011 0.018 0.007 20.7 14.7 25.0 8.0 0.06-0.12 — 40 9 0.07 0.018 26.8 0.05-0.12 0.08 0.018 22.0 Appendix C-1 (cont'd) SITE 2 - SEPT 0 - 20 cm Depth 20 - 40 cm 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm Property P. 1 P P P 1 2 3 P P P 1 2 3 pH (H20) x SD CV Rg N pH (CaCl 9) x Z SD CV Rg N OM (%) N (%) P (ppm) x SD CV Rg N x SD CV Rg N x SD CV Rg N 4.7 4.6 4.5 0.317 0.134 0.080 6.8 2.9 1.8 4.3-5.5 4.0 0'. 143 3.6 3.04 0.814 26.8 r 64 0.06 0.014 21.9 44 11.4 3.126 27.4 62 4.0 0.043 1.1 3.8-4.3 4.0 0.037 0.9 3.92 3.93 0.490 0.448 12.5 11.4 ,26-4.91 0.06 0.007 12.2 0.05-0.10 9.4 1.371 14.5 3.0-17.6 0.07 0.012 17.5 13.1 2.468 18.9 5.5 5.7 5.6 0.274 0.260 0.138 5.0 4.5 2.4 5.0-5.8 7 4.9 5.0 4.9 0.173 0.135 0.095 3.5 2.7 1.9 4.6-5.2 1.92 1.76 1.83 0.406 0.535 0.834 21.1 30.4 45.5 — — 1.16-2.81 41 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.004 0.005 0.011 7.2 11.3 22 7 0.04-0.07 11.2 7.6 6.6 2.239 0.461 0.730 20.9 6.0 11.1 8.9-16.4 5.9 6.0 5.9 0.145 0.351 0.052 2.5 5.9 0.9 5.7-6.1 5.2 5.2 5.2 0.126 0.246 0.052 2.4 4.7 1.0 5.0-5.4 1.37 1.28 1.26 0.305 0.617 0.263 22.3 48.3 20.9 1.00-1.95 — 45 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.005 0.004 0.008 12.3 9.6 18.8 0.03-0.05 16 6.2 6.2 4.3 1.094 0.289 1.643 17.6 4.7 38.7 4.8-8.2 5.7 5.7 5.9 0.180 0.207 0.166 3.1 3.6 2.8 — : 5.5-6.0 — 5.0 5.0 5.1 0.159 0.119 0.061 3.2 2.4 1.2 4.8-5.2 1.58 1.66 1.44 0.220 0.520 0.129 14.0 31.4 9.0 — 1.36-2.12 20 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.006 0.005 0.006 12.5 10.7 13.4 0.04-0.06 —: 17 6.3 5.2 4.8 0.511 1.162 1.461 8.1 22.6 30.4 5.5-7.1 40 30 Appendix C-1 (cont'd) Depth 0 - 20 cm 20 - 40 cm 40 < 60 cm 60 - 80 cm Property ^ ?2 P3 ? 1 P? P3 F± Vn ^ P± P0 P3 Ca (meq/ x 0.17 0.12 0.16 0.37 0.40 0.35 0.36 0.48 0.36 0.33 0.26 0.37 100 g) SD 0.066 0.015 0.031 0.128 0.130 GO'.050 0.087 0.039 0.075 0.135 0.194 0.202 CV 38.6 12.2 20.1 34.1 32.8 14.3 24.2 8.2 21.2 41.4 75.9 54.5 Rg 0.10-0.30 0.27-0.72 —, 0.23-0.52 0.15-0.52 N 130 102 53 149 Mg (meq/ x 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.05 100 g) SD 0.010 0.019 0.008 0.019 0.021 0.009 0.023 0.012 0.009 0.019 0.017 0.035 CV 22.7 40.4 18.1 38.0 42.8 18.9 43.2 36.8 18.3 40.2 47.8 65.5 Rg 0.03-0.06 0.02-0.09 — 0.03-0.11 ^0.03-0.10— N 47 127 162 141 Na (meq/ x 0.03 .0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 100 g) SD 0.007 0.028 0.018 0.007 0.006 0.008 0.005 0.017 0.012 0.005 0.002 0.007 CV 21.2 67.3 53.3 24.8 20.0 29.0 17.8 59.9 40.3 17.0 6.7 19.2 Rg 0.03-0.05 0.02-0.04 0.02-0.04 0.02-0.04 N 41 55 30 28 K (meq/ x 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 CO.06 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.07 100 g) SD 0.014 0.023 0.030 0.016 0.021 0.018 0.018 0.030 0.026 0.013 0.011 0.012 CV 21.8 45.8 45.9 24.1 28.2 25.0 27.4 31.5 40.0 21.0 18.3 17.4 Rg 0.04-0.10 : — 0.04-0.09. r.-Z2- 0.04-0.10 0.05-0.09 N 44 52 67 40 Appendix C-l (cont'd) SITE 4 - MAY 0 -'20 cm Depth 20 - 40 cm 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm Property P l P2 X 5.2 5.3 SD 0.256 0.220 CV 4.9 4.1 Rg 4.9-5.9 N 6 x 4.8 4.9 SD 0.152 0.155 CV 3.2 3.1 Rg 4.6-5.2 N 6 X 3.6 2.37 .SD 0.767 0.728 P. p p p r l 2 3 P, P P P r l r2 3 pH (H20) OM (%) CV Rg N 21.3 42 30.7 2.39-4.50 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.6 0.160 0.175 0.382 0.030 3.0 3.2 6.8 0.5 5.3-5.9 4.8 5.2 5.2 4.9 0.557 0.084 0.163 0.348 11.7 . 1.6 3.1 7.1 5.1-5.3 2.84 2.33 1.68 1.81 1.385 0.499 0.039 0.366 48.8 21.4 2.3 20.2 1.78-3.59 42 5.5 5.6 5.6 0.103 0.202 0.047 1.9 3.6 0.9 5.3-5.7 5.1 5.1 5.0 0.092 0.259 0.073 1.8 5.1 1.5 —= 5.0-5.3 1.97 1.30. 1.71 0.556 0.113 0.210 28.2 8.7 12.3 - 1.19-3.32 71 5.5 5.7 5.7 0.066 0.025 0.203 1.2 0.4 3.6 5.3-5.6 5.1 5.2 5.0 0.069 0.070 0.037 1.9 1.3 0.7 5.0-5.2 1.39 0.90 0.96 0.421 0.092 0.404 30.3 10.2 42.0 0.82-2.33 81 N (%) P (ppm) x SD CV Rg N 124 0.10 0.038 37.7 0.08 0.018 22.7 0.06-0.19 x SD CV Rg N 7.6 1.756 23.2 49 9.7 2.003 20.6 4.6-10.0 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.05 0.020 0.022 0.006 0.016 20.2 26.0 8.4 32.7 0.05-0.11 64 10.4 5.8 5.6 6.0 3.834 1.406 1.874 2.191 37.0 24.3 33.3 36.5 3.7-8.1 53 0.07 0.05 0.07 0.021 0.016 0.022 30.4 34.7 34.3 0.04-0.11 82 6.5 8.7 9.0 1.719 2.200 3.104 26.4 25.3 34.7 4.8-9,8 62 0.05 0.04 '0.05 0.015 0.009 0.022 32.2 27.1 44.8 0.03-0.08 91 14.4 7.5 7.9 3.850 0.905 2.739 26.7 12.1 34.9 10.0-21.1 64 Appendix C-1 (cont'd) Depth 0 - 20 cm 20 - 40 cm 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm Property P, P. Ca (meq/ x 100 g) SD CV Rg N 304 0.36 0.26 0.211 0.198 59.3 77.6 0.10-0.88 Mg (meq/ x 0.06 100 g) SD 0.033 CV 56.8 Rg — N 278 0.06 0.010 17.4 0.02-0.13 Na (meq/ ' x 0.02 100 g) SD 0.009 CV 38.6 Rg N 130 0.29 0.174 61.1 0.06 0.011 19.1 0.02 0.007 43.3 0.01-0.04 0.02 0.012 50.9 0.29 0.25 0.180 0.136 62.1 54.3 0.10-0.60 333 0.05 0.017 32.0 0.05 0.031 67.4 0.03-0.08 91 0.02 0.004 20.0 37 0.23 0.183 79.4 0.04 0.024 56.5 0.02 0.003 14.4 0.02-0.03 0.02 0.011 45.7 0.12 0.11 0.13 0.054 0.026 0.082 45.8 23.5- 62.8 182 0.04 0.014 34.8 -0.06-0.24 0.03 0.004 14.2 0.03-0.08 '00?03 0.007 26.1 106 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.005 0.005 0.005 18.9 28.9 26.1 0.01-0.03 : — 33 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.019 0.026 0.079 20.4 28.7 73.2 0.06-0.14 39 0.03 0.006 18.8 33 0.03 0.004 13.8 19 0.02 0.009 41.0 0.02-0.05 0.02 0.007 36.5 0.02 0.02 0.003 0.003 13.0 14.2 0.03-0.04 K (meq/ x 0.04 0.04 0.04 100 g) SD 0.007 0.004 0.007 CV 16.7 11.4 16.3 Rg 0.03-0.06 N 27 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.007 0.016 0.015 0.006 20.0 57.9 59.6 21.4 0.03-0.06 37 42 0.02 0.02 0.001 0.003 6.1 15.0 0.02-0.05 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.004 0.005 0.003 19.2 29.4 17.6 0.02-0.03 34 cn to Appendix C-l (cont'd) SITE 4 - JULY 0 - 20 cm Property P-, P 9 Depth 20 - 40 cm P P P r l r2 3 40 - 60 cm P. 60 - 80 cm P, pH (H20) x SD CV Rg N pH (CaCl ) x Z SD CV Rg N 5.2 0.275 5.3 7 4.6 0.229 5.0 5.1 0.388 7.6 1-5.5 4.8 4.5 0.401 8.9 4.2-5.0 5.2 5.5 5.5 5.5 0.073 0.189 0.'056 0.037 1.4 3.4 1.0 0.7 5.2..5.8 4.6 4.8 4.9 4.9 0.082 0.133 0.063 0.037 1.8 2.8 1.3 0.7 4.6-5.1 5.5 5.5 5.6 0.049 0.099 0.037 0.9 1.8 0.7 5.5-5.6 4.9 5.0 4.9 0.091 0.032 0.095 1.9 0.6 1.9 4.6-5.0 : 5.6 5.6 5.6 0.062 0.047 0.040 1.1 0.8 0.7 — 5.5-5.7 5.0 5.0 4.9 0.056 0.045 0.061 1.1 0.9 1.2 4.9-5.1 OM (%) N (%) P (ppm) x SD CV Rg N x SD CV Rg N x SD CV Rg N 3.15 0.662 21.0 r ————— I 41 0.11 0.031 28.1 70 11.0 2.851 26.0 61 3.14 0.264 8.4 .03-4.36 0.09 0.024 26.6 0.08-0.20 2.92 0.275 -9.4 0.10 0.004 4.1 8.0 7.6 1.874 2.008 23.5 26.6 3.0-15.4 2.35 2.67 2.54 0.443 0.234 0.642 18.8 8.8 25.3 1.74-3.11 33 0.09 0.10 0.09 0.014 0.018 0.009 16.3 18.9 10.7 0.07-0.11 -26 7.2 5.2 5.4 1.523 0.258 0.913 21.2 5.0 17.1 5.5-11.2 41 1.94 2.07 1.81 0.324 0.104 0.187 16.7 5.0 10.3 1.52-2.32 27 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.014 0.013 0.006 19.3 17.5 8.4 0.05-0.10 35 8.3 5.6 5.9 1.480 2.456 2.921 17.9 43.9 49.5 6.2-11.0 30 1.33 1.36 1.47 0.315 0.056 0.451 23.7 4.1 30.4 1.04-2.07 51 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.008 0.003 0.005 16.6 6.2 10.6 0.04-0.06 27 9.7 10.6 11.7 2.188 2.648 2.206 22.7 25.0 18.9 — 7.1-14.0 47 Appendix C-1 (cont'd) Depth 0 - 20 cm 20 - 40 cm Property P P 2 P 3 P 1 P 2 Pg Ca (meq/ x '..0. 34 0.32 0.21 0.27 0.51 0.33 100 g) SD 0.171 0.092 0.091 0.163 0.287 0.037 CV 50.7 29.3 44.5 60.6 56.3 11.1 Rg 0.0.7-0.13 0.08-0,59 ' N/' 223 ' 317"- &••+• Mg (meq/ x 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.05 100 g) SD 0.026 0.010 0.023 0.022 0.016 0.004 CV 44.2 23.5 50.0 62.3 25.3 9.1 Rg 0.03-0.11 0.02-0.07 N 169 335 Na (meq/ x 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 100 g) SD 0.006 0.005 0.009 - 0.010 0.011 0.003 CV 23.5 18.1 41.4 45.7 29.5 9.6 Rg 0.02-0.04 0.01-0.05 N 50 182 K (meq/ x 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.06 100 g) SD 0.006 0.007 0.006 0.008 0.041 0.016 CV 13.9 12.2 12.9 27.3 52.3 25.9 Rg 0.03-0.06 ; 0.02-0.05 : N 20 67 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm 0.20 0.23 0.22 0.048 0.013 0.045 24.4 5.7 20.3 0.14-0.32 54 ar-0.03 0.04. 0.03 0.009 0.004 0.005 26.3 11.0 15.3 0.02-0.05:-61 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.005 0.004 0.006 19.6 12.6 20.3 0.02-0.03 — :  36 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.006 0.013 0.010 22.3 30.0 25.8 0.02-0.03 45 0.15 0.19 0.22 0.036 0.021 0.070 23.2 11.1 32.2 0.10-0.21 49 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.008 0.002 0.005 37.7 6.1 15.7 0.01-0.04 — 124 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.004 0.005 0.002 22.0 19.7 6.1 0.01-0.03 44 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.005 0.010 0.026 21.4 27.1 53.8 0.02-0.03 42 Appendix C-l (cont'd) SITE 4 - SEPT 0 - 20 cm Depth 20 - 40 cm Property 1 P3 pH (H20) x SD CV Rg N 5.1 0.046 0.9 5.1 0.220 4.3 4.8-5.4 5.2 0.103 2.0 5.5 0.019 0.4 5.6 0.037 0.7 ,4-5.9 5.6 0.037 0.7 pH (CaCl ) x 4.5 4.5 4.5 ~' SD 0.230 Q.135 0.077 CV 5.2 3.0 1.7 Rg 4.2-4.9 N 7 4.9 5.0 5.0 0.098 0.086 0.026 2.0 1.7 0.5 4.8-5.2 — O M ( % ) N (%) P (ppm) x SD CV Rg N x SD CV Rg N x SD CV Rg N 3.39 0.574 16.9 r l 27 3.30 0.251 7.6 ,48-4.74 0.10 0.09 0.017 0.013 16.6 13.6 0.14-0.72 27 7.0 0.873 .12.4 16 9.1 1.420 15.7 5.4-8.4 2.98 0.401 13.5 0.09 0.017 18.5 7.2 1.557 21.5 2.13 2.21 2.28 0.535 0.466 0.194 25.1 21.1 8.5 1.35-3.07 57 0.08 0.09 0.012 0.020 14.1 22.5 — — 0.06-0.10 20 6.1 1.015 16.7 27 7.1 2.456 34.6 4.6-7.4 0.09 0.015 17.5 9.0 2.008 22.4 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm P. 5,5 5.6 5.6 0.002 0.022 0.091 0.4 0.4 1.6 5.5-5.6 5 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.026 0.058 0.026 0.5 1.1 0.5 5.0-5.1 5 1.72 1.69 1.89 0.284 0.270 1.063 16.5 16.0 56.2 1.06-2.28 26 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.011 0.016 0.014 15.0 21.3 21.1 — : 0.05-0.09 22 7.5 5.1 6.4 1.733 0.646 1.461 23.2 12.8 22.8 5.5-10.6 49 5.6 5.6 5.6 0.004 0.056 0.068 0.7 1.0 1.2 5.5-5.7 5 5.1 5.1 5.1 0.052 0.032 0.066 1.0 0.6 1.3 5.0-5.2 5 1.25 1.24 1.38 0.145 0.254 0.192 11.6 20.5 13.9 0.91-1.53 15 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.005 0.010 0.-008 10.2 15.7 16.7 0.03-0.05 13 11.0 7.2 7.5 2.887 1.549 2.92-7 26.6 21.5 39.4 8.2-16.3 62 Appendix C-1 (cont'd) Depth 0 - 20 cm 20 - 40 cm 40 - 60 cm 60 - 80 cm Property P. P. Ca (meq/ x 0.30 100 g) SD 0.160 CV 53.6 Rg N 249 0.23 0.082 35.5 0.14-0.74 Mg (meq/ x 0.07 100 g) SD 0.030 CV 46.5 Rg N 187 0.06 0.007 12.3 0.03-0.14 Na (meq/ x 100 g) SD CV N 0.03 0.03 0.004 0.004 13.4 12.5 0.02-0.04 19 0.29 0.093 32.1 0.03 0.016 49.2 0.03 0.007 24.2 0.31 0.33 0.128 0.072 41.9 21.5 0.17-0.62 0.31 0.045 14.4 153 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.013 0.007 0.007 32.3 16,6 17.5 0.02-0.06 92 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.003 0.006 0.010 11.5 27.9 16.6 0.02-0.03 15 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.043 0.053 0.041 18.7 2 3."7 17.4 0.15-0.33 33 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.006 0.004 0.007 19.0 12.9 21.7 0.02-0.04 34 0.02 0.003 14.2 0.03 0.03 0.015 0.009 47.7 35.1 0.19 0.15 0.047 0.026 24.2 17.2 0.13-0.22 0.02-0.04 20 0.17 0.021 .12.5 17 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.005 0.003 0.003 21.8 13.4 16.9 0.01-0.03 43 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.003 0.004 0.006 14.8 14.0 31.9 0.02-0.03 22 K (meq/ x 100 g) SD CV Rg N 0.06 0.010 16.0 0.06 0.023 36.3 0.05-0.09 0.05 0.047 103.1 25 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.009 0.018 0.018 23.4 38.0 42.5 0.03-0.04 50 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.004 0.013 0.018 14.4 39.1 55.3 0.02-0.04 19 0.03 0.03 .0.03 0.004 0.013 0.018 15.8 39.1 55.3 0.02-0.03 24 " Range Obtained from Procedure One **, Number of Samples Calculated Using 0.1 Precision Level and 95% Confidence Intraval *A* p = Procedure One, P 9 = Procedure Two, P~ = Procedure Three CO Appendix C-2 Analysis of Variance Table 174 Source SITE 1 Pit Depth PxD Error Total DF Sum. Sq. P (ppm) Mean Sq. JULY 29 3 87 120 239 PROCEDURE 1 70.577 304.86 186.52 0.14 526.10 7.8419 101.62 25.100 0.35-02 Error PxD 2240.54 14.71 1973.81 Prob. 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 SITE.l Pit Depth PxD Error Total JULY 3 3 15 16 37 PROCEDURE 2 154.52 160.75 176.78 0.265 492.32 17.169 53.584 3.896 0.663-02 PxD 2591.58 8.18 988.30 0.0000 0.0005 0.0000 Appendix C-3 Raw Data for Selected Chemical Properties for the Two Studied Sites * * * * * * pn PH S M D N A P H20 CACL2 OM CA MG NA PPM MEQ./100 GM. 1 1 1 1 4.88 4.25 1.78 0.035 1 1 2 1 4.88 4.28 1.73 0.035 1 2 1 1 4.80 4.44 3.20 0.052 1 2 2 1 4.78 4.46 2.95 0.052 1 3 1 1 5.34 4.67 4.22 0.081 1 3 2 1 5.33 4.70 4.07 0.077 1 4 1 1 4.83 4.48 2.76 0.087 1 4 2 1 4.78 4.49 2.63 0.085 1 5 1 1 5.15 4.65 3.50 0.068 1 5 2 1 5.15 4.65 3.38 0.068 1 6 1 1 5.08 4.81 1.49 0.034 1 6 2 1 5.05 4.81 1.41 0.036 1 7 1 1 4.81 4.54 2.57 0.052 1 7 2 1 4.78 4.54 2.43 0.053 1 8 1 1 4.28 4.04 3.46 0.048 1 8 2 1 4.28 4.02 3.19 0.050 1 9 1 1 4.33 4.18 1.96 0.038 1 9 2 1 4.37 4.17 1.86 0.037 1 10 1 1 4.66 4.05 3.32 0.054 1 10 2 1 4.67 4.05 3.35 0.055 2 1 1 1 5.76 5.23 1.78 0.030 2 1 2 1 5.75 5.25 1.74 0.029 2 2 1 1 6.04 5.75 1.74 0.051 2 2 2 1 6.10 5.71 1.85 0.052 2 3 1 1 5.63 5.13 1.97 0.056 6.0 0.12 0.040 0.032 0.043 6.0 0.12 0.046 0.030 0.051 8.7 0.14 0.016 0.046 0.052 8.8 0.14 0.022 0.052 0.050 12.2 0.86 0.160 0.048 0.093 12.2 0.88 0.170 0.045 0.091 7.9 0.12 0.064 0.042 0.107 7.8 0.14 0.066 0.039 0.!l:09 10.5 0.68 0.102 0.038 0.115 10.4 0.68 0.102 0.040 0.112 7.0 0.60 0.028 0.038 0.064 7.0 0.60 0.032 • 0.040 0.062 10.8 0.36 0.022 0.035 0.077 10.9 0.36 0.022 0.035 0.077 6.0 0.80 0.048 0.056 0.046 6.0 0.80 0.048 0.051 0.048 11.1 0.38 0.018 0.037 0.034 11.1 0.38 0.018 0.037 0.035 7.0 0.24 0.044 0.045 0.040 7.1 0.26 0.042 0.050 0.045 7.8 0.78 0.078 0.034 0.056 7.8 0.74 0.074 0.032 0.056 11.0 0.44 0.070 0.035 0.037 11.2 0.42 0.068 0.029 0.035 8.2 0.88 0.102 0.035 0.078 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM MEQ./TOO GM. 2 3 2 1 5.62 5.13 1.92 0.055 8.1 0.88 0.102 0.037 0.077 2 4 1 1 5.54 5.10 1.85 0.037 7.7 0.52 0.100 0.043 0.093 2 4 2 1 5.53 5.13 1.78 0.036 7.8 0.54 0.100 0.042 0.094 2 5 1 1 5.40 5.05 2.51 0.056 7.8 0.88 0.104 0.043 0.130 2 5 2 1 5.42 5.05 2.51 0.055 7.8 0.86 0.104 0.045 0.122 2 6 1 1 5.76 5.38 2.18 0.030 .9.1 0.36 0.046 0.035 0.082 2 6 2 1 5.82 5.38 2.17 0.029 9.1 0.36 0.046 0.037 0.080 2 7 1 1 4.98 4.83 2.49 0.051 8.1 0.08 0.032 0.021 0.064 2 7 2 1 5.00 4.86 2.63 0.052 8.0 0.08 0.032 0.021 0.064 2 8 1 1 5.25 5.07 1.40 0.043 5.6 0.10 0.036 0.021 0.045 2 8 2 1 5.22 5.10 1.49 0.040 5.6 0.10 0.038 0.022 0.045 2 9 1 1 5.25 5.10 1.66 0.041 5.3 0.12 0.048 0.024 0.050 2 9 2 1 5.31 5.08 1.69 0.042 5.3 0.12 0.052 0.030 0.053 2 10 1 1 5.09 4.83 1.38 0.037 5.5 0.12 0.080 0.018 0.035 2 10 2 1 5.08 4.83 1.34 0.038 5.4 0.12 0.080 0.019 0.037 3 1 1 1 6.14 5.74 1.19 0.041 9.7 0.58 0.074 0.022 0.042 3 1 2 1 6.11 5.79 1.23 0.040 9.7 0.56 0.074 0.026 0.042 3 2 1 1 6.15 5.79 1.32 0.037 7.9 0.54 0.088 0.032 0.038 3 2 2 1 6.15 5.79 1.38 0.039 7.8 0.46 0.086 0.038 0.040 3 3 1 1 5.67 5.21 1.32 0.039 5.0 0.38 0.052 0.022 0.070 3 3 2 1 5.67 5.22 1.35 0.039 4.9 0.36 0.052 0.026 0.070 3 4 1 1 5.54 5.22 1.33 0.025 6.0 0.38 0.074 0.029 0.067 3 4 2 1 5.53 5.20 1.31 0.026 6;i 0.42 0.072 0.029 0.069 3 5 1 1 5.22 5.03 0.98 0.028 6.6 0.12 0.030 0.024 0.066 3 5 2 1 5.21 5.03 0.97 0.027 6.7 0.12 0.032 0.022 0.066 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM MEQ./100 GM. 1 3 6 1 1 5.38 4.81 1 .35 0.025 6.7 0.08 0.026 0.022 0.062 1 3 6 2 1 5.37 4.82 1 .38 0.023 6.8 0.08 0.022 0.022 0.062 1 3 7 1 1 5.32 4.80 1 .50 0.038 5.7 0.10 0.032 0.022 0.062 1 3 7 2 1 5.31 4.81 1 .52 0.040 5.7 0.10 0.032 0.021 0.064 1 3 8 1 1 5.81 5.28 1 .12 0.029 8.1 0.22 0.050 0.022 0.046 1 3 8 2 1 5.85 5.27 1 .05 0.033 8.1 0.24 0.050 0.024 0.046 1 3 9 1 1 5.70 5.27 1 .42 0.044 8.3 0.42 0.142 0.037 0.059 1 3 9 2 1 5.74 5.25 1 .52 0.044 8.4 0.48 0.144 0.034 0.059 1 3 10 1 1 5.96 5.47 1 .34 0.035 5.7 0.38 0.092 0.030 0.069 1 3 10 2 1 5.97 5.46 1 .34 0.035 5.5 0.38 0.096 0.034 0.069 1 4 1 1 1 5.73 5.16 1 .61 0.029 8.4 0.22 0.056 0.038 0.048 1 4 1 2 1 5.76 5.18 1 .53 0.029 8.5 0.20 0.052 0.045 0.051 1 4 2 1 1 5.63 5.29 1 .12 0.032 10.3 0.14 0.036 0.022 0.039 1 4 2 2 1 5.68 5.27 1 .09 0.037 10.3 0.20 0.034 0.026 0.039 1 4 3 i 1 5.61 5.13 1 .47 0.033 7.1 0.14 0.038 0.043 0.067 1 4 3 2 1 5.56 5.12 1 .52 0.032 7.1 0.12 0.038 0.045 0.072 1 4 4 1 1 5.69 5.08 1 .57 0.032 8.7 0.48 0.084 0.058 0.077 1 4 4 2 1 5.63 5.06 1 .59 0.035 8.7 0.52 0.082 0.056 0.077 1 4 5 1 1 5.41 4.97 1 .62 0.074 8.0 0.18 0.076 0.050 0.072 1 4 5 2 1 5.38 4.94 1 .57 0.074 8.0 0.22 0.078 0.046 0.075 1 4 6 1 1 5.71 5.17 1 .89 0.053 5.0 0.70 0.078 0.032 0.077 1 4 6 2 1 5.73 5.16 1 .82 0.053 5.0 0.70 0.076 0.032 0.075 1 4 7 1 1 5.46 4.97 1 .39 0.036 4.0 0.28 0.066 0.034 0.072 1 4 7 2 1 5.48 4.99 1 .40 0.037 4.1 0.32 0.064 0.034 0.075 1 4 8 1 1 5.62 5.27 1 .45 0.041 10.1 0.16 0.044 0.037 0.046 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA K s M D N A P H20 CACL2 0/ PPM MFO /inn GM 7o r r rl 1 1 4 8 2 1 5.63 5.26 1.45 0.040 10.1 0.18 0.044 0.040 0.045 1 1 4 9 1 1 5.85 5.46 1.56 0.030 9.3 0.30 0.058 0.069 0.051 1 1 4 9 2 1 5.91 5.48 1.51 0.031 9.3 0.24 0.058 0.066 0.051 1 1 4 10 1 1 5.45 5.13 1.65 0.043 12.1 0.18 0.026 0.027 0.047 1 1 4 10 2 1 5.48 5.12 1.58 0.042 12.1 0.08 0.026 0.027 0.047 2 1 1 1 1 1 5.32 4.76 4.50 0.193 9.5 0.50 0.086 0.027 0.043 2 1 1 1 2 1 5.26 4.76 4.31 0.187 9.4 0.48 0.089 0.026 0.043 2 1 2 1 1 5.29 4.87 3.90 0.065 4.6 0.28 0.064 0.019 0.032 2 1 1 2 2 1 5.32 4.87 3.94 0.064 4.7 0.26 0.068 0.016 0.030 2 1 3 1 1 5.11 4.71 4.03 0.114 9.3 0.14 0.048 0.021 0.045 2 1 1" 3 2. 1 5.11 4.71 3.90 0.116 9.4 0.14 0.046 0.022 0.050 2 1 1 4 1 1 5.19 4.85 2.74 0.101 5.8 0.10 0.026 0.016 0.042 2 1 1 4 2 1 5.21 4.86 2.85 0.106 5.8 0.10 0.028 0.016 0.040 2 1 5 1 1 4.91 4.64 4.76 0.124 7.2 0.38 0.024 0.011 0.053 2 1 ] 5 2 1 4.90 4.64 4.79 0.126 7.2 0.38 0.020 0.011 0.048 2 1 1 6 1 1 5.15 4.73 3.39 0.094 7.0 0.34 0.076 0.029 0.040 2 1 1 6 2 1 5.12 4.75 3.43 0.096 6.9 0.34 0.078 0.027 0.045 2 1 7 1 1 5.83 5.19 3.13 0.087 6.1 0.84 0.130 0.026 0.045 2 1 7 2 1 5.88 5.21 3.25 0.084 6.0 0.88 0.126 0.024 0.043 2 1 1 8 1 1 5.36 4.86 2.39 0.050 7.1 0.46 0.052 0.013 0.032 2 1 8 2 1 5.36 4.88 2.455 0.054 7.1 0.46 0.056 0.013 0.034 2 1 9 1 1 5.30 4.89 2.91 0.074 10.0 0.32 0.058 0.043 0.051 2 1 1 9 2 1 5.32 4.93 2.76 0.074 9.9 0.30 0.054 0.038 0.058 2 1 10 1 1 4.96 4.73 4.42 0.098 9.1 0.22 0.016 0.024 0.040 2 1 1 10 2 1 4.98 4.73 4.18 0.097 9.0 0.21 0.018 0.021 0.040 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM MEQ./100 GM. 2 1 2 1 1 1 5.43 5.08 2.53 0.114 6.0 0.16 0.046 0.026 0.032 2. .1 2 1 2 1 5.45 5.08 2.54 0.112 6.0 0.16 0.044 0.032 0.032 2 1 2 2 1 1 5.38 5.06 3.59 0.098 6.6 0.20 0.054 0.027 0.034 2 1 2 2 2 1 5.41 5.06 3.43 0.102 6.7 0.20 0.050 0.027 0.034 2 1 2 3 1 1 5.35 5.08 2.74 0.112 8.1 0.22 0.056 0.026 0.034 2 1 2 3 „2: 1 5.41 5.08 2.62 0.113 8.0 0.20 0.054 0.022 0.030 2 1 2 4 1 1 5.31 5.09 2.35 0.092 6.7 0.12 0.034 0.021 0.032 2 1 2 4 2 1 5.33 5.10 2.27 0.088 6.6 0.10 0.034 0.022 0.038 2 1 2 5 1 1 5.41 5.21 1.92 0.059 6.5 0.12 0.028 0.016 0.030 2 1 2 5 2 1 5.40 5.19 1.84 0.059 6.5 0.12 0.028 0.016 0.030 2 1 2 6 1 1 5.39 5.09 2.54 0.099 6.6 0.22 0.050 0.019 0.034 2 1 2 6 2 1 5.43 5.07 2.43 0.095 6.6 0.26 0.050 0.022 0.038 2 1 2 7 1 1 5.72 5.26 2.05 0.062 4.0 0.46 0.066 0.019 0.034 2 1 2 7 2 1 5.72 5.26 2.05 0.063 3.9 0.52 0.070 0.026 0.034 2 1 2 8 1 1 5.58 5.17 1.95 0.056 4.0 0.58 0.078 0.021 0.034 2 1 2 8 2 1 5.60 5.17 1.91 0.054 4.0 0.54 0.082 0.021 0.034 2 1 2 9 1 1 5.87 5.14 1.78 0.067 3.7 0.20 0.044 0.019 0.035 2 1 2 9 2 1 5.90 5.14 1.87 0.067 3.7 0.22 0.044 0.022 0.035 2 1 2 10 1 1 5.43 5.30 2.08 0.065 5.6 0.60 0.078 0.016 0.051 2 1 2 10 2 1 5.44 5.32 2.06 0.067 5.7 0.58 0.078 0.016 0.059 2 1 3 1 1 1 5.44 5.01 3.31 0.112 4.9 0.24 0.070 0.029 0.046 2 1 3 1 2 1 5.44 5.01 3.32 0.114 4.8 0.24 0.072 0.027 0.045 2 1 3 2 1 1 5.32 4.97 1.20 0.041 7.0 0.06 0.028 0.027 0.027 2 1 3 2 2 1 5.33 4.99 1.19 0.046 6.9 0.06 0.026 0.024 0.026 2 1 3 3 1 1 5.38 5.08 1.70 0.060 9.8 0.08 0.026 0.014 0.024 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH S M D N A P H20 PH OM CACL2 CA MG NA PPM MEQ./I00 GM. 2 1 3 3 2 1 5.42 5.09 1.74 0.059 9.7 0.08 0.026 0.014 0.024 2 1 3 4 1 1 5.31 5.09 2.28 0.086 5.0 0.08 0.034 0.030 0.027 2 1 3 4 2 1 5.35 5.11 2.20 0.085 4.9 0.08 0.034 0.026 0.026 2 1 3 5 1 1 5.40 5.08 1.87 0.073 7.5 0.08 0.036 0.027 0.026 2 1 3 5 2 1 5.37 5.10 1.76 0.071 TA 0.08 0.034 0.029 0.026 2 1 3 6 1 1 5.46 5.11 2.15 0.073 9.2 0.10 0.038 0.030 0.029 2 1 3 6 2 1 5.47 5.11 2.13 0.070 9.1 0.12 0.042 0.026 0.026 2 1 3 7 1 1 5.46 5.12 1.71 0.065 5.2 0.16 0.044 0.029 0.027 2 1 3 7 2 1 5.51 5.14 1.71 0.064 5.2 0.16 0.046 0.029 0.026 2 1 3 8 1 1 5.43 5.12 2118 0.045 5.8 0.08 0.034 0.026 0.027 2 1 3 8 2 1 5.41 5.14 2.13 0.049 5.8 0.08 0.032 0.026 0.027 2 1 3 9 1 1 5.55 5.16 1.91 0.090 5.3 0.12 0.040 0.034 0.029 2 1 3 9 2 1 5.54 5.16 1.96 0.089 5.1 0.14 0.040 0.032 0.027 2 1 3 10 1 1 5.69 5.34 1.47 0.050 5.9 0.16 0.046 0.024 0.027 2 1 3 10 2 1 5.66 5.32 1.48 0.048 5.9 0.14 0.044 0.022 0.027 2 1 4 1 1 1 5.49 5.06 2.16 0.065 12.5 0.<1.4 0.048 0.037 0.029 2 1 4 1 2 1 5.49 5.04 2.33 0.065 12.5 0.12 0.046 0.037 0.027 2 1 4 2 1 1 5.50 5.02 1.90 0.076 13.3 0.10 0.044 0.032 0.026 2 1 4 2 2 1 5.49 5.02 1.76 0.074 13.3 O.oO 0.042 0.037 0.026 2 1 4 3 1 1 5.49 5.24 1.23 0.041 21.0 0.08 0.028 0.030 0.018 2 1 4 3 2 1 5.55 5.24 1.32 0.040 21.1 0.08 0.028 0.029 0.018 2 1 4 4 1 1 5.46 5.11 0.99 0.030 19.1 0.08 0.024 0.026 0.016 2. 1 4 4 2 1 5.44 5.09 0.96 0.031 19.0 0.08 0.024 0.026 0.016 2 1 4 5 1 1 5.46 5.10 1.23 0.037 11.2 0.10 0.032 0.027 0.019 2 1 4 5 2 1 5.45 5.10 1.25 0.038 11.3 0.08 0.030 0.026 0.018 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A - P H20 CACL2 % PPM MEQ./100 GM. 2 1 4 6 1 1 5.45 5.01 1.42 0.055 10.6 0.10 0.036 0.030 0.019 2 1 4 6 2 1 5.43 5.03 1.43 0.056 10.6 0.10 0.032 0.034 0.021 2 1 4 7 1 1 5.43 5.08 1.32 0.052 10.0 0.10 0.036 0.038 0.024 2 1 4 7 2 1 5.45 5.10 1.33 0.055 10.1 0.10 0.036 0.038 0.024 2 1 4 8 1 1 5.37 5.05 1.09 0.034 14.0 0.06 0.032 0.030 0.019 2 1 4 8 2 1 5.34 5.01 1.03 0.033 14.1 0.06 0.032 0.032 0.019 2 1 4 9 1 1 5.5? 5.16 1.73 0.035 16.3 0.10 0.036 0.034 0.027 2 1 4 9 2 1 5.52 5.16 1.61 0.036 16.1 0.10 0.036 0.032 0.027 2 1 4 10 1 1 5.59 5.14 0.82 0.034 16.1 0.08 0.028 0.026 0.019 2 1 4 10 2 1 5.62 5.14 0.79 0.037 16.1 0.08 0.030 0.029 0.018 1 1 1 10 1 2 4.94 4.62 2.23 0.055 7.5 0.12 0.048 0.027 0.091 1 1 1 10 2 2 4.91 4.64 2.18 0.059 7.4 0.10 0.044 0.027 0.093 1 1 1 1 1 2 4.74 4.40 2.71 0.055 10.4 0.34 0.088 0.034 0.061 1 1 1 1 2 2 4.68 4.38 2.92 0.058 10.5 0.30 0.086 0.032 0.059 2 1 1 2 1 2 5.41 4.98 2.16 0.067 8.9 0.32 0.062 0.016 0.034 2 1 1 2 2 2 5.39 4.98 2.03 0.074 9.0 0.34 0.058 0.014 0.035 2 1 1 3 1 2 5.23 4.86 2.54 0.082 10.5 0.16 0.052 0.022 0.037 2 1 1 3 2 2 5.23 4.86 2.73 .0.084 10.5 0.20 0.054 0.019 0.038 1 1 1 4 1 3 4.69 4.36 2.96 0.051 6.8 0.14 0.050 0.027 0.070 1 1 1 4 2 3 4.69 4.35 2.96 0.058 6.8 0.12 0.050 0.025 0.062 1 1 1 5 1 3 4.67 4.06 3.49 0.054 8.9 0.24 0.067 0.032 0.057 1 1 1 5 2 3 4.67 4.06 3.57 0.057 9.0 0.27 0.071 0.036 0.069 2 1 1 6 1 3 5.25 4.92 2.46 0.092 9.3 0.22 0.054 0.022 0.042 2 1 1 6 2 3 5.22 4.93 2.47 0.092 9.3 0.26 0.056 0.027 0.038 2 1 1 7 1 3 5.32 4.62 3.27 0.104 11.4 0.32 0.059 0.018 0.038 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA K s M D N A P H20 CACL2 i PPM MFD /inn RM 7o rrl ' l 2 1 1 7 2 3 5.32 4.62 3.17 0.101 11.4 0.34 0.062 0.023 0.041 1 1 2 10 1 2 5.56 5.02 1.49 0.039 7.6 0.26 0.062 0.024 0.078 1 1 2 10 2 2 5.53 5.06 1.48 0.041 7.5 0.30 0.060 0.027 0.080 1 1 2 1 1 2 5.79 5.45 1.53 0.040 9.3 0.48 0.062 0.019 0.052 1 1 2 1 2 2 5.74 5.46 1.52 0.038 9.2- 0.46 0.058 0.019 0.050 2 1 2 2 1 2 5.79 5.30 1.69 0.070 6.3 0.38 0.058 0.017 0.034 2 1 2 2 2 2 5.76 5.28 1.68 0.066 6.4 0.38 0.058 0.019 0.035 2 1 2 3 1 2 5.49 5.16 1.68 0.072 4.9 0.12 0.034 0.019 0.022 2 1 2 3 2 2 5.47 5.17 1.65 0.071 4.9 0.12 0.034 0.017 0.022 1 1 2 4 1 3 5.52 5.14 1.73 0.059 7.1 0.20 0.046 0.022 0.054 1 1 2 4 2 3 5.55 5.13 1.73 0.066 6.9 0.26 0.044 0.024 0.054 1 1 2 5 1 3 5.66 5.14 1.88 0.040 8.7 0.33 0.053 0.018 0.079 1 1 2 5 2 3 5.66 5.13 1.96 0.041 8.7 0.37 0.057 0.021 0.071 2 1 2 6 1 3 5.58 4.80 1.67 0.045 6.6 0.18 0.036 0.022 0.024 2 1 2 6 2 3 5.59 4.78 1.76 0.045 6.6 0.18 0.036 0.019 0.024 2 1 2 7 1 3 5.60 4.98 1.93 0.055 5.4 0.28 0.047 0.022 0.021 2 1 2 7 2 3 5.60 4.98 1.87 0.052 5.4 0.28 0.051 0.027 0.032 1 1 3 10 1 2 5.56 5.16 1.55 0.045 5.6 0.24 0.056 0.028 0.061 1 1 3 10 2 2 5.60 5116 1.55 0.044 5.5 0.24 0.060 0.028 0.061 1 1 3 1 1. 2 5.98 5.68 1.20 0.054 7.7 0.42 0.066 0.026 0.048 1 1 3 1 2 2 6.02 5.65 1.18 0.053 7.7 0.42 0.066 0.026 0.048 2 1 3 2 1 2 5.70 5.16 1.23 0.040 7.9 0.12 0.026 0.018 0.018 2 1 3 2 2 2 5.64 5.17 1.28 0.038 7.8 0.12 0.026 0.018 0.018 2 1 3 3 1 2 5.53 4.96 1.34 0.051 9.6 0.10 0.028 0.018 0.019 2 1 3 3 2 2 5.51 4.97 1.33 0.051 9.5 0.10 0.024 0.018 0.018 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * pn S M D N A P H20 PH OM CACL2 CA MG NA PPM MEQ./100 GM. 1 1 3 4 1 3 5.78 5.11 1.38 1 1 3 4 2 3 5.79 5.09 1.49 1 1 3 5 1 3 5.80 5.12 1.60 1 1 3 5 2 3 5.80 5.12 1.56 2 1 3 6 1 3 5.59 5.00 1.61 2 1 3 6 2 3 5.56 5.00 1.73 2 1 3 7 1 3 5.56 5.04 1.73 2 1 3 7 2 3 5.56 5.04 1.76 1 1 4 10 1 2 5.89 5.19 1.47 1 1 4 10 2 2 5.91 5.20 1.42 1 1 4 1 1 2 5.82 5.21 1.37 1 1 4 1 2 2 5.83 5.22 HL 32 2 1 4 2 1 2 5.73 5.25 0.93 2 1 4 2 2 2 5.72 5.23 0.94 2 1 4 3 1 2 5.71 5.20 0.85 2 1 4 3 2 2 5.70 5.18 0.89 1 1 4 4 1 3 6.00 5.28 1.45 1 1 4 4 2 3 5.98 5.28 1.37 1 1 4 5 1 3 5.70 5.19 1.56 1 1 4 5 2 3 5.70 5.20 1.61 2 1 4 6 1 3 5.74 4.96 0.86 2 1 4 6 2 3 5.74 4.96 0.84 2. 1 4 7 1 3 5.62 4 .98 1.10 2 1 4 7 2 3 5.64 4.98 1.03 1 2 1 1 1 1 4.67 4.02 3.42 0.045 5.1 0.30 0.058 0.027 0.048 0.046 5.1 0.28 0.058 0.026 0.048 0.034 6.9 0.37 0.062 0.027 0.057 0.037 6.9 0.31 0.061 0.028 0.052 0.042 8.1 0.10 0.030 0.019 0.019 0.042 8.1 0.12 0.030 0.019 0.019 0.085 9.8 0.14 0.026 0.017 0.020 0.089 9.8 0.16 0.026 0.016 0.021 0.056 8.3 0.38 0.060 0.034 0.064 0.059 8.4 0.40 0.064 0.032 0.066 0.039 11.1 0.14 0.036 0.027 0.042 0.040 11.1 0.14 0.036 0.027 0.042 0.037 7.8 0.08 0.016 0.021 0.016 0.037 7.8 0.08 0.020 0.019 0.016 0.031 7.1 0.10 0.024 0.021 0.018 0.029 7.1 0.10 0.024 0.019 0.021 0.033 7.9 0.32 0.066 0.029 0.050 0.035 7.9 0.26 0.060 :o;o29 0.054 0.038 1.0.1 0.19 0.041 0.031 0.049 0.040 10.1 0.23 0.046 0.033 0.047 0.037 8.6 0.08 0.022 0.019 0.016 0.039 8.6 0.10 0.022 0.019 0.016 0.063 7.1 0.11 0.018 0.019 0.017 0.059 7.1 0.14 0.018 0.019 0.018 0.077 11.9 0.21 0.082 0.076 0.105 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM - — MEQ./100 GM. 2 1 1 2 1 4.69 4.04 3.43 0.074 11.7 0.22 0.073 0.080 0.100 2 1 2 1 1 5.55 4.76 3.09 0.066 12.4 0.53 0.128 0.070 0.120 2 1 2 2 1 5.53 4.78 3.18 0.065 12.3 0.54 0.125 0.068 0.115 2 1 3 1 1 4.71 4.00 3.23 0.063 9.7 0.21 0.082 0.070 0.095 2 1 3 2 1 4.69 4.00 3.24 0.063 9.6 0.22 0.082 0.068 0.105 2 1 4 1 1 4.46 3.78 3.15 0.056 7.9 0.14 0.084 0.066 0.090 2 1 4 2 1 4.44 3.78 3.10 0.059 7.9 0.15 0.081 0.068 0.077 2 1 5 1 1 5.68 4.88 1.71 0.049 5.6 0.24 01083 0.069 0.110 2 1 5 2 1 5.66 4.90 1.68 0.048 5.6 0.20 0.085 0.070 0.115 2 1 6 1 1 4.84 4.20 1.75 0.045 13.1 0.25 0.097 0.071 0.072 2 1 6 2 1 4.88 4.20 1.72 0.041 13.0 0.23 0.092 0.073 0.066 2 1 7 1 1 5.24 4.66 2.80 0.076 11.2 0.32 0.078 0.066 . 0.095 2 1 7 2 1 5.26 4.66 2.97 0.074 11.3 0.25 0.076 0.067 0.095 2 1 8 1 1 4.74 4.06 2.69 0.053 11.9 0.08 0.078 0.061 0.090 2 1 8 2 1 4.70 4.04 2.59 0.056 11.8 0.10 0.080 0.064 0.092 2 1 9 1 1 4.46 3.85 2.89 0.055 5.8 0.22 0.070 0.066 0.066 2 1 9 2 1 4.44 3.87 2.82 0.056 5.8 0.23 0.067 0.065 0.072 2 1 10 1 1 4.26 3.75 2.37 0.055 13.5 0.13 0.073 0.067 0.074 2 1 10 2 1 4.30 3.75 2.38 0.057 13.5 0.14 0.077 0.069 0.069 2 2 1 1 1 5.64 5.09 1.92 0.057 3.5 0.34 0.077 0.065 0.072 2 2 1 2 1 5.62 5.07 1.83 0.055 3.5 0.37 0.072 0.065 0.069 2 2 2 1 1 5.84 5.04 1.72 0.046 5.6 0.65 0.082 0.063 0.T10 2 2 2 2 1 5.88 5.02 1.66 0.044 5.6 0.69 0.085 0.061 0.115 2 2 3 1 1 5.76 5.00 1.33 0.042 4.4 0.33 0.085 0.063 0.077 2 2 3 2 1 5.78 5.00 1.38 0.044 4.4 0.37 0.082 0.060 0.072 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM - — MEQ./lOO GM. 2 2 4 1 1 5.68 5.14 1.69 0.046 3.1 0.38 0.077 0.080 0.069 2 2 4' 2 1 5.72 5.14 1.72 0.049 3.1 0.40 0.080 0.080 0.072 2 2 5 1 1 5.01 4.40 3.08 0.061 6.0 0.09 0.064 0.065 0.077 2 2 5 2 1 5.03 4.42 3.21 0.060 6.0 0.11 0.069 0.064 0.074 2 2 6 1 1 6.14 5.36 2.04 0.044 8.1 0.84 0.108 0.068 0.090 2 2 6 2 1 6.12 5.38 2.05 0.045 8.0 0.78 0.109 0.074 0.080 2 2 7 1 1 5.50 4.86 1.93 0.051 4.8 0.28 0.048 0.045 0.077 2 2 7 2 1 5.46 4.86 1.86 0.049 4.8 0.22 0.046 0.045 0.072 2 2 8 1 1 5.48 4.80 2.01 0.052 6.4 0.25 0.051 0.046 0.084 2 2 8 2 1 5.50 4.78 2.03 0.051 6.3 0.19 0.049 0.046 0.090 2 2 9 1 1 5.94 5.12 1.28 0.038 4.5 0.54 0.080 0.044 0.084 2 2 9 2 1 5.96 5.10 1.29 0.040 4.5 0.53 0.081 0.048 0.074 2 2 10 1 1 5.91 5.22 1.12 0.044 6.2 0.38 0.075 0.039 0.087 2 2 10? 2 1 5.93 5.24 1.05 0.046 6.1 0.39 0.079 0.039 0.092 2 3 1 1 1 . 5.98 5.46 1.26 0.031 3.8 0.38 0.062 0.039 0.059 2 3 1 2 1 5.96 5.48 1.27 0.034 3.8 0.37 0.062 0.039 0.062 2 3 2 1 1 6.15 5.52 1.40 0.033 7.1 0.82 0.093 0.046 0.090 2 3 2 2 1 6.15 5.54 1.45 0.036 7.1 0.80 0.091 0.047 0.072 2 3 3 1 1 5.96 5.24 1.37 0.040 6.2 0.47 0.100 0.063 0.105 2 3 3 2 1 5.92 5.22 1.38 0.038 6.3 0.45 0.098 0.061 0.095 2 3 4 1 1 6.14 5.42 1.15 0.034 5.1 0.55 0.096 0.043 0.115 2 3 4 2 1 6.16 5.42 1.09 0.033 5.0 0.53 0.092 0.046 0.110 2 3 5 1 1 6.09 5.52 0.99 0.030 5.3 0.33 0.057 0.036 0.097 2 3 5 2 1 6.07 5.52 0.96 0.033 5.2 0.33 0.055 0.034 0.090 2 3 6 1 1 6.12 5.58 0.96 0.029 5.4 0.48 0.060 0.042 0.074 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH S M D N A P H20 PH OM CACL2 CA MG NA PPM MEQ./100 GM. 2 3 6 2 1 6.14 5.60 1.03 0.033 5.6 0.49 0.062 0.042 0.074 2 3 7 1 1 5.77 5.32 1.36 0.038 5.4 0.30 0.047 0.038 0.059 2 3 7 2 1 5.77 5.34 1.43 0.036 5.4 0.28 0.052 0.036 0.066 2 3 8 1 1 5.80 5.08 1.25 0.040 5.9 0.41 0.067 0.043 0.095 2 3 8 2 1 5.78 5.10 1.33 0.038 5.9 0.39 0.065 0.043 0.097 2 3 9 1 1 5.94 5.20 1.14 0.029 8.8 0.38 0.059 0.040 0.074 2 3 9 2 1 5.92 5.20 1.11 0.031 8.8 0.39 0.059 0.037 0.082 2 3 10 1 1 5.72 5.10 0.96 0.036 5.0 0.34 0.059 0.044 0.074 2 3 10 2 1 5.74 5.10 0.99 0.038 5.0 0.37 0.059 . 0.040 0.066 2 4 1 1 1 5.71 4.95 1.64 0.041 6.2 0.73 0.097 0.049 0.084 2 4 1 2 1 5.71 4.95 1.72 0.044 6.2 0.69 0.093 0.045 0.082 2 4 2 1 1 6.26 5.60 1.69 0.031 6.9 0.36 0.096 0.042 0.120 2 4 2 2 1 6.28 5.60 1.64 0.033 6.8 0.35 0.098 0.043 0.123 2 4 3 1 1 5.62 4.73 1.60 0.059 6.6 0.53r- 0.106' 0.061 0.097 2 4 3 2 1 5.66 4.73 1.68 0.056 6.5 0.52 0.104 0.060 0.095 2 4 4 1 1 5.68 4.80 1.84 0.045 8.1 0.34 0.084 0.042 0.100 2 4 4 2 1 5.68 4.82 1.77 0.042 8.1 0.32 0.080 0.045 0.102 2 4 5 1 1 5.50 4.68 1.46 0.025 6.4 0.22 0.052 0.039 0.079 2 4 5 2 1 5.46 4.70 1.48 0.031 6.4 0.24 0.056 0.037 0.084 2 4 6 1 1 6.18 5.66 1.70 0.025 6.2 0.51 0.063 0.038 0.079 2 4 6 2 1 6.20 5.68 1.69 0.029 6.3 0.52 0.059 0.038 0.064 2 4 7 1 1 5.70 5.12 1.43 0.041 4.1 0.18 0.030 0.030 0.049 2 4 7 2 1 5/72 5.14 1.48 0.040 4.0 0.20 0.034 0.029 0.059 2 4 8 1 1 5.58 4.88 1.49 0.040 8.4 0.25 0.049 0.035 0.097 2 4 8 2 1 5.62 4.86 1.56 0.036 8.4 0.25 0.045 0.035 0.072 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM MEQ./lOO GM. 1 2 4 9 1 1 5.84 5.14 1.33 0.030 7.3 0.24 0.047 1 2 4 9 2 1 5.86 5.12 1.37 0.033 7.2 0.24 0.042 1 2 4 10 1 1 5.92 5.26 1.20 0.033 8.7 0.40 0.070 1 2 4 10 2 1 5.94 5.22 1.23 0.036 8.5 0.38 0.067 2 2 1 1 1 1 5.48 4.70 3.04 0.100 8.0 0.68 0.092 2 2 1 1 2 1 5.46 4.72 3.14 0.102 8.0 0.64 0.090 2 2 1 2 1 1 5.40 4.84 2.03 0.082 14.2 0.24 0.032 2 2 1 2 2 1 5.40 4.84 2.03 0.086 14.0 0.22 0.028 2 2 1 3 1 1 4.92 4.52 2.98 0.089 8.3 0.35 0.047 2 2 1 3 2 1 4.94 4.50 2.91 0.086 8.4 0.33 0.043 2 2 1 4 1 1 5.37 4.66 2.82 0.100 8.7 0.45 0.106 2 2 1 4 2 1 5.39 4.66 2.95 0.094 8.5 0.39 0.104 2 2 1 5 1 1 5.52;. 4.94 2.89 0.115 15.4 0.25 0.025 2 2 1 5 2 1 5.52 4.96 2.92 0.118 15.4 0.22 0.029 2 2 1 6 1 1 5.46 4.76 3.71 0.195 9.2 0.51 0.077 2 2 1 6 2 1 5.46 4.78 3.61 0.187 9.0 0.47 0.066 2 2 1 7 1 1 4.80 4.25 3.71 0.112 8.2 0.13 0.034 2 2 1 7 2 1 4.76 4.27 3.84 0.120 8.4 0.15 0.039 2 2 1 8 1 1 4.82 4.20 4.36 0.135 13.6 0.17 0.066 2 2 1 8 2 1 4.82 4.22 4.19 0.143 13.6 0.20 0.077 2 2 1 9 1 1 5.33 4.58 3.66 0.109 10.1 0.52 0.059 2 2 1 9 2 1 5.35 4.58 3.53 0.112 10.3 0.50 0.050 2 2 1 10 1 1 5.26 4.60 2.31 0.082 13.9 0.15 0.047 2 2 1 10 2 1 5.26 4.62 2.45 0.086 13.9 0.19 0.051 2 2 2 1 1 1 5.40 4.70 2.95 0.100 8.0 0.59 0.083 2 2 2 1 2 1 5.40 4.70 3.11 0.096 8.2 0.52 0.086 0.035 0.035 0.042 0.042 0.033 0.030 0.021 0.023 0.028 0.025 0.025 0.024 0.025 0.023 0.032 0.033 0.028 0.026 0.034 0.036 0.016 0.016 0.017 0.018 0.049 0.045 0.064 0.054 0.(1:05 0.100 0.056 0.046 0.036 0.041 0.046 0.041 0.043 0.049 0.046 0.046 0.051 0.056 0.043 0.056 0.046 0.051 0.033 0.038 0.046 0.041 0.051 0.046 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH S M D N A P H20 PH OM CACL2 CA MG NA PPM MEQ./TOO GM. 2 2 2 2 1 1 5.53 4.90 2.01 2 2 2 2 2 1 5.53 4.90 2.00 2 2 2 3 1 1 5.44 4.78 2.42 2 2 2 3 2 1 5.42 4.78 2.32 2 2 2 4 1 1 5.48 4.60 2.47 2 2 2 4 2 1 5.46 4.62 2.42 2 2 2 5 1 1 5.74 5.08 2.84 2 2 2 5 2 1 5.76 5.08 2.83 2 2 2 6 1 1 5.33 4.93 2.79 2 2 2 6 2 1 5.35 4.91 2.89 2 2 2 7 1 1 5.22 4.81 1.92 2 2 2 7 2 1 5.20 4.81 2.02 2 2 2 8 1 1 5.30 4.78 2.50 2 2 2 8 2 1 5.32 4.76 2.41 2 2 2 9 1 1 5.78 4.96 1.81 2 2 2 9 2 1 5.78 4.96 1.81 2 2 2 10 1 1.;, 5.69 4.76 1.74 2 2 2 10 2 1 5.69 4.78 1.81 2 2 3 1 1 1 5.50 4.64 2.51 2 2 3 1 2 1 5.50 4.64 2.55 2 2 3 2 1 1 5.58 4.96 1.56 2 2 3 2 2 1 5.58 4.96 1.62 2 2 3 3 1 1 5.49 4.88 2.12 2 2 3 3 2 1 5.47 4.90 2.10 2 2 3 4 1 1 5.55 4.78 1.90 2 2 3 4 2 1 5.53 4.76 1.97 0.068 11.2 0.16 0.022 0.017 0.023 0.071 11.1 0.20 0.018 0.018 0.026 0.094 5.7 0.11 0.018 0.017 0.028 0.090 5.5 0.13 0.016 0.016 0.026 0.082 5.8 0.48 0.059 0.023 0.031 0.085 5.8 0.47 0.065 0.021 0.031 0.109 7.2 0.35 0.036 0.020 0.033 0.112 7.3 0.37 0.035 0.022 0.036 0.107 7.0 0.17 0.032 0.022 0.031 0.104 7.0 0.22 0.022 0.023 0.036 0.082 7.0 0.08 0.023 0.013 0.026 0.086 7.0 0.10 0.016 0.012 0.023 0.079 6.8 0.09 0.016 0.017 0.023 0.078 7.0 0.09 0.019 0.016 0.026 0.068 6.7 0.24, 0.027 0.014. 0.023 0.070 6.7 0.21 0.023 0.015 0.026 0.074 6.4 0.39 0.038 0.014 0.033 0.078 6.4 0.40 0.040 0.018 0.028 0.096 9.1 0.15 0.035 0.020 0.015 0.094 9.0 0.14 0.031 0.018 0.018 0.068 11.0 0.31 0.049 0.029 0.026 0.071 10.9 0.32 0.047 ' •' 0.031 0.020 0.088 10.0 0.17 0.030 0.025 0.028 0.092 10.0 0.18 0.028 0.023 0.030 0.055 8.8 0.21 0.034 0.015 0.020 0.056 8.7 0.20 0.036 0.017 0.026 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH S M D N A P H20 PH OM CACL2 CA MG NA PPM MEQ./100 GM. 2 2 3 5 1 1 5.58 4.88 1.64 2 2 3 5 2 1 5.60 4.90 1.61 2 2 3 6 T 1 5.58 4.88 2.31 2 2 3 6 2 1 5.54 4.88 2.32 2 2 3 7 1 1 5.50 4.84 2.14 2 2 3 7 2 1 5.52 4.84 2.17 2 2 3 8 1 1 5.46 4.90 1.75 2 2 3 8 2 1 5.46 4.92 1.73 2 2 3 9 1 1 5.56 4.92 1.52 2 2 3 9 2 1 5.60 4.90 1.57 2 2 3 10 1 1 5.58 4.92 1.85 2 2 3 10 2 1 5.60 4.94 1.80 2 2 4 1 1 1 5.63 4.96 1.50 2 2 4 3; 2 1 5.65 4.94 1.48 2 2 4 2 1 1 5.48 4.96 1.10 2 2 4 2 2 1 5.50 4.98 1.08 2 2 4 3 1 1 5.54 4.94 1.26 2 2 4 3 2 1 5.56 4.94 1.30 2 2 4 4 1 1 5.53 4.96 1.17 2 2 4 4 2 1 5.55 4.98 1.19 2 2 4 5 1 1 5.66 5.08 1.08 2 2 4 5 2 1 5.68 5.08 1.04 2 2 4 6 1 " i l 5.54 4.94 1.04 2 2 4 6 2 1 5.54 4.94 1.04 2 2 4 7 1 1 5.53 4.88 2.05 2 2 4 7 2 1 5.49 4.88 2.07 0.053 6.2 0.20 0.024 0.019 0.020 0.055 6.2 0.19 0.029 0.018 0.026 0.072 6.4 0.20 0.048 0.025 0.026 0.075 6.5 0.19 0.051 0.023 0.031 0.071 7.2 0.16 0.026 0.028 0.033 0.068 7.1 0.17 0.021 0.026 0.028 0.070 7.7 0.14 0.023 0.028 0.033 0.067 7.5 0.15 0.026 0.027 0.028 0.056 7.8 0.22 0.036 0.027 0.028 0.059 7.9 0.21 0.036 0.026 0.033 0.064 8.8 0.18 0.035 0.021 0.026 0.061 0.20 0.031 0.023 0.031 0.057 11.4 0.20 0.039 0.024 0.028 0.053 11.5 0.19 0.039 0.024 0.031 0.057 13.9 0.10 0.010 0.013 0.018 0.056 14.0 0.12 0.013 0.013 0.020 0.059 12.3 0.13 0.016 0.016 0.018 0.057 12.4 0.12 0.014 0.015 0.020 0.042 7.8 0.18 0.023 0.027 0.018 0.044 7.9 0.18 0.024 0.023 0.028 0.044 8.3 0.18 0.023 0.027 0.020 0.046 8.2 0.20 0.023 0.028 0.018 0.041 7.2 0.12 0.017 0.018 0.020 0.038 7.1 0.12 0.017 0.016 0.018 0.059 9.0 0.15 0.023 0.021 0.031 0.060 8.9 0.14 0.026 0.019 0.026 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH S M D N A P H20 PH OM CACL2 CA MG NA PPM MEQ./lOO GM. 2 2 4 8 1 •j 5.47 4.96 1.22 0.044 9.9 0.12 0.014 0.018 0.023 2 2 4 8 2 1 5.47 4.98 1.20 0.046 9.9 0.11 0.012 0.020 0.028 2 2 4 9 1 1 5.56 4.94 1.66 0.061 7.7 0.20 0.027 0.020 0.020 2 2 4 9 2 5.58 4.96 1.69 0.059 7.6 0.21 0.025 0.020 0.018 2 2 4 10 1 1 5.60 5.04 1.23 0.038 9.0 0.16 0.017 0.018 0.020 2 2 4 10 2 5.56 5.06 1.23 0.041 9.0 0.15 0.019 0.019 0.018 1 2 1 10 1 2 4.72 4.20 3.13 0.072 10.9 0.36 0.045 0.024 0.068 1 2 1 10 2 2 4.76 4.18 3.26 0.070 10.8 0.36 0.041 0.024 0.068 1 2 1 1 1 2 4.66 4.16 2.94 0.061 9.1 0.24 0.044 0.033 0.078 1 2 1 1 2 2 4.68 4.18 3.04 0.064 9.0 0.24 0.040 0.030 0.068 2 2 1 2 1 2 5.26 4.66 3.26 0.102 7.2 0.29 0.048 0.025 0.058 2 2 1 2 2 2 5.28 4.68 3.21 0.098 7.3 0.27 0.043 0.023 0.058 2 2 1 3 1 2 4.98 4.36 3.05 0.081 8.7 0.35 0.037 0.028 0.058 2 2 1 3 2 2 4.96 4.36 3.02 0.082 8.7 0.35 0.042 0.026 0.058 1 2 1 4 1 3 4.60 4.10 3.62 0.068 8.1 0.17 0.065 0.039 0.088 1 2 1 4 2 3 4.58 4.06 3.88 0.071 8.1 0.18 0.066 0.037 0.078 1 2 1 5 1 3 4.62 4.00 3.63 0.078 9.2 0.20 0.054 0.035 0.098 1 2 1 5 2 3 4.60 4.02 3.63 0.080 9.2 0.19 0.052 0.037 0.108 2 2 1 6 1 3 5.25 4.60 2.87 0.098 7.0 0.23 0.053 0.018 0.048 2 2 1 6 2 3 5.25 4.62 3.03 0.097 7.0 0.23 0.051 0.020 0.048 2 2 1 7 1 3 5.21 4.56 2.93 0.097 8.1 0.18 0.039 0.024 0.048 2 2 1 7 2 3 5.21 4.58 2.83 0.095 8.1 0.18 0.040 0.023 0.048 1 2 2 10 1 2 5.73 5.08 1.44 0.042 4.4 0.39 0.067 0.042 0.088 1 2 2 10 2 2 5.71 5.10 1.48 0.044 4.4 0.37 0.065 0.041 0.088 1 2 2 1 1 2 5.76 5.14 1.68 0.044 6.3 0.40 0.057 0.045 0.058 1 2 2 1 2 2 5.78 5.16 1.75 0.045 66.3 0.38 0.057 0.044 0.058 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH S M D N A P H20 PH OM CACL2 CA MG NA PPM MEQ./TOO GM. 2 2 2 2 1 2 5.46 4.86 2.60 0.089 5.1 0.39 0.058 0.034 0.058 2 2 2 2 2 2 5.50 4.90 2.55 0.090 5.1 0.41 0.058 0.033 0.068 2 2 2 3 1 2 5.46 4.84 2.79 0.105 5.3 0.64 0.071 0.041 0.098 2 2 2 3 2 2 5.44 4.84 2.68 0.102 5.3 0.60 0.070 0.043 0.088 1 2 2 4 1 3 5.60 5.00 1.56 0.044 4.3 0.37 0.050 0.025 0.098 1 2 2 4 2 3 5.64 5.02 1.62 0.045 4.3 0.39 0.049 0.025 0.098 1 2 2 5 1 3 5.68 5.02 1.45 0.044 4.7 0.45 0.054 0.026 0.098 1 2 2 5 2 3 5.64 5.04 1.48 0.042 4.7 0.47 0.056 0.026 0.088 2 2 2 6 1 3 5.48 4.92 2.36 0.085 5.6 0.34 0.046 0.027 0.058 2 2 2 6 2 3 5.46 4.92 2.37 0.087 5.6 0.32 0.043 0.028 0.068 2 2 2 7 1 3 5.48 4.90 2.74 0.089 5.1 0.32 0.045 0.027 0.058 2 2 2 7 2 3 5.46 4.90 2.69 0.092 5.1 0.34 0.044 0.026 0.058 1 2 3 10 1 2 5.88 5.38 1.16 0.036 4.1 0.38 0.053 0.025 0.078 1 2 3 10 2 2 5.90 5.40 1.14 0.034 4.1 0.36 0.051 0.027 0.078 1 2 3 1 1 2 5.84 5.32 1.19 0.034 4.6 0.36 0.042 0.026 0.068 1 2 3 1 2 2 5.86 5.32 1.22 0.033 4.5 0.38 0.042 0.024 0.078 2 2 3 2 1 2 5.42 4.97 2.07 0.068 6.5 0.23 0.038 0.027 0.038 2 2 3 2 2 2 5.44 4.97 2.12 0.072 6.6 0.22 0.039 0.029 0.048 2 2 3 3 1 2 5.52 5.00 2.09 0.078 4.6 0.22 0.036 0.031 0.038 2 2 3 3 2 2 5.48 4.98 2.01 0.081 4.7 0.23 0.035 0.029 0.048 1 2 3 4 1 3 6.01 5.30 1.08 0.036 4.1 0.40 0.054 0.027 0.078 1 2 3 4 2 3 6.01 5.30 1.06 0.034 4.1 0.38 0.056 0.026 0.068 1 2 3 5 1 3 6.03 5.32 1.19 0.037 4.8 0.41 0.054 0.027 0.078 1 2 3 5 2 3 6.03 5.32 1.22 0.038 4.8 0.40 0.056 0.028 0.068 2 2 3 6 1 3 5.55 4.88 1.83 0.067 5.1 0.21 0.032 0.028 0.038 2 2 3 6 2 3 5.55 4.88 1.88 0.071 5.1 0.24 0.030 0.028 0.038 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM — MEQ./TOO GM. 2 2 3 7 1 3 5.57 4.94 1.77 0.070 6.7 0.21 0.032 0.025 0.038 2 2 3 7 2 3 5.57 4.92 1.75 0.068 6.7 0.22 0.029 0.025 0.038 1 2 4 10 1 2 5.90 5.08 1.80 0.041 10.0 0.38 0.058 0.035 0.078 1 2 4 10 2 2 5.88 5.06 1.82 0.044 10.0 0141 0.059 0.034 0.068 1 2 4 1 1 2 6.00 5.30 1.22 0.034 8.7 0.34 0.047 0.031 0.068 1 2 4 1 2 2 5.98 5.32 1.25 0.036 8.7 0.31 0.049 0.030 0.058 2 2 4 2 1 2 5.55 4.98 1.33 0.052 . 9.5 0.18 0.029 0.024 0.038 2 2 4 2 2 2 5.57 4.94 1.37 0.049 9.6 0.19 0.030 0.025 0.038 2 2 4 3 1 2 5.60 4.94 1.36 0.052 11.6 0.20 0.031 0.029 0.038 2 2 4 3 2 2 5.58 4.94 1.39 0.051 11.6 0.20 0.030 0.028 0.038 1 2 4 4 1 3 6.00 5.28 1.46 0.038 5.5 0.53 0.073 0.029 0.088 1 2 4 4 2 3 6.04 5.26 1.44 0.040 5.6 0.51 0.071 0.031 0.088 1 2 4 5 1, 3 5.96 5.18 1.36 0.036 5.8 0.42 0.058 0.029 0.078 1 2 4 5 2 3 5.98 5.18 1.35 0.034 5.8 0.46 0.061 0.028 0.078 2 2 4 6 1 3 5.58 4.94 1.33 0.051 12.4 0.21 0.031 0.026 0.038 2 2 4 6 2 3 5.59 4.92 1.37 0.049 12.2 0.19 0.028 0.026 0.048 2 2 4 7 1 3 5.56 4.92 1.59 0.053 11.1 0.23 0.031 0.026 0.048 2 2 4 7 2 3 5.58 4.96 1.60 0.052 11.1 0.24 0.031 0.027 0.058 3 1 1 1 4.69 4.06 2.56 0.055 11.4 0.10 0.047 0.027 0.058 3 1 1 2 4.71 4.06 2.62 0.052 11.7 0.10 0.052 0.031 0.068 3 1 2 1 4.74 4.14 2.85 0.075 14.6 0.30 0.040 0.030 0.068 3 1 2 2 1 4.72 4.16 3.03 0.075 15.0 0.30 0.043 0.026 0.078 3 1 3 1 4.46 3.88 2.56 0.045 10.7 0.10 0.042 0.026 0.058 3 1 3 2 •j 4.46 3.88 2.60 0.046 10.7 0.10 0.045 0.026 0.058 3 1 4 1 4.48 3.96 2.67 0.055 11.3 0.10 0.039 0.042 0.058 1 3 1 4 2 1 4.46 3.98 2.75 0.057 11.5 0.10 0.043 0.038 0.058 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA K S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM MEQ./100 GM. 1 3 1 5 1 1 4.54 3.94 2.26 0.066 8.9 0.10 0.029 0.042 0.038 1 3 1 5 2 1 4.50 3.94 2.34 0.068 9.1 0.10 0.032 0.046 0.048 1 3 1 6 1 1 4.34 3.80 2.91 0.053 17.8 0.20 0.057 0.042 0.068 1 3 1 6 2 1 4.34 3.82 2.89 0.052 17.8 0.20 0.061 0.040 0.078 1 3 1 7 1 1 4.67 4.20 2.49 0.060 8.6 0.20 0.045 0.028 0.058 1 3 1 7 2 1 4.65- 4.16 2.51 0.057 8.5 0.20 0.049 0.031 0.058 1 3 1 8 1 1 4.68 4.15 4.27 0.094 13.6 0.20 0.036 0.031 0.078 1 3 1 8 2 1 4.68 4.19 4.32 0.097 13.8 0.20 0.037 0.028 0.068 1 3 1 9 1 1 4.80 4.21 4.91 0.063 8.1 0.20 0.057 0.038 0.088 1 3 1 9 2 1 4.80 4.25 4.75 0.066 8.0 0.20 0.058 0.043 0.098 1 3 1 10 1 1 5.51 3.92 2.77 0.068 8.4 0.20 0.034 0.026 0.048 1 3 1 10 2 1 5.53 3.92 2.68 0.072 8.3 0.20 0.032 0.029 0.058 1 3 2 1 1 1 5.80 5.14 1.57 0.040 9.1 0.30 0.041 0.020 0.048 1 3 2 1 2 1 5.78 5.16 1.65 0.041 9.0 0.28 0.041 0.023 0.048 1 3 2 2 1 1 5.38 4.72 1.99 0.066 9.7 0.27 0.051 0.032 0.088 1 3 2 2 2 1 5.36 4.70 2.05 0.067 9.7 0.30 0.056 0.027 0.078 1 3 2 3 1 1 5.16 4.72 2.01 0.053 9.1 0.31 0.022 0.017 0.048 1 3 2 3 2 1 5.14 4.74 2.09 0.055 8.9 0.31 0.020 0.018 0.058 1 3 2 4 1 1 5.01 4.60 2.15 0.056 13.0 0.31 0.023 0.019 0.038 1 3 2 4 2 1 4.99 4.60 2.17 0.057 12.6 0.32 0.020 0.019 0.048 1 3 2 5 1 1 5.55 4.90 2.73 0.068 9.0 0.42 0.055 0.020 0.048 1 3 2 5 2 1 5.55 4.90 2.81 0.072 9.0 0.46 0.063 0.024 0.058 1 3 2 6 1 1 5.70 4.98 2.04 0.060 14.2 0.72 0.086 0.037 0.068 1 3 2 6 2 1 5.68 5.00 2.10 0.056 14.0 0.68 0.076 0.038 0.068 1 3 2 7 1 1 5.65 4.96 1.70 0.049 11.8 0.27 0.049 0.036 0.078 1 3 2 7 2 1 5.61 4.94 1.75 0.051 11.8 0.28 0.043 0.033 0.088 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM MEQ./lOO GM. 1 3 2 8 1 1 5.55 4.90 1.96 1 3 2 8 2 1 5.55 4.92 1.99 1 3 2 9 1 1 5.84 5.12 1.60 1 3 2 9 2 1 5.84 5.14 1.68 1 3 2 10 1 1 5.76 4.94 1.16 1 3 2 10 2 1 5.80 4.96 1.25 1 3 3 1 1 1 5.88 5.21 1.69 1 3 3 1 2 1 5.84 5.23 1.75 1 3 3 2 1 1 5.66 4.98 1.54 1 3 3 2 2 1 5.66 5.00 1.64 1 3 3 3 1 1 5.72 5.09 1.07 1 3 3 3 2 1 5.70 5.05 1.16 1 3 3 4 1 1 5.85 5.03 1.24 1 3 3 4 2 1 5.83 5.05 1.20 1 3 3 5 1 1 5.78 5.16 1.63 1 3 3 5 2 1 5.80 5.14 1.61 1 3 3 6 1 1 6.10 5.38 1.07 1 3 3 6 2 1 6.08 5.36 1.13 1 3 3 7 1 1 5.78 5.09 1.89 1 3 3 7 2 1 5.76 5.09 1.95 1 3 3 8 1 1 5.79 5.15 1.23 1 3 3 8 2 1 5.83 5.15 1.21 1 3 3 9 1 1 6.09 5.36 1.17 1 3 3 9 2 1 6.09 5.38 1.16 1 3 3 10 1 1 5.97 5.12 1.06 1 3 3 10 2 1 5.99 5.16 1.00 0.055 15.8 0.36 0.049 0.031 0.058 0.053 16.4 0.34 0.053 0.033 0.068 0.041 10.5 0.46 0.059 0.026 0.078 0.042 10.6 0.45 0.056 0.029 0.078 0.040 9.8 0.34 0.080 0.029 0.078 0.041 9.8 0.30 0.071 0.025 0.088 0.042 8.2 0.27 0.033 01024 0.068 0.045 8.1 0.30 0.032 0.027 0.058 0.051 5.8 0.41 0.051 0.031 0.078 0.049 5.7 0.38 0.047 0.027 0.068 0.037 6.3 0.26 0.030 0.021 0.048 0.038 6.2 0.23 0.034 0.025 0.058 0.045 4.8 0.39 0.051 0.024 0.048 0.044 4.9 0.37 0.056 0.025 0.048 0.044 7.0 0.29 0.032 0.023 0.048 0.046 6.9 0.28 0.030 0.019 0.038 0.038 4.9 0.52 0.080 0.033 01058 0.041 4.9 0.46 0.077 0.028 0.058 0.052 5.1 0.24 0.037 0.024 0.048 0.049 5.1 0.27 0.041 0.028 0.058 0.044 5.8 0.36 0.053 0.029 0.068 0.046 5.8 0.38 0.055 0.033 0.078 0.038 7.3 0.49 0.060 0.021 . 0.088 0.037 7.2 0.46 0.056 0.024 0.098 0.034 7.1 0.39 0.107 0.037 0.088 0.036 7.1 0.41 0.103 0.034 0.098 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM MEQ./100 GM. 1 3 4 1 1 1 5.55 4.88 1.51 1 3 4 1 2 1 5.53 4.88 1.51 1 3 4 2 1 1 5.96 5.19 1.84 1 3 4 2 2 1 5.96 5.21 1.80 1 3 4 3 1 1 5.56 4.92 1.37 1 3 4 3 2 1 5.52 4.86 1.43 1 3 4 4 1 1 5.99 5.22 1.59 1 3 4 4 2 1 5.99 5.22 1.53 1 3 4 5 1 1 5.53 4.80 1.65 1 3 4 5 2 1 5.51 4.78 1.55 1 3 4 6 1 1 5.73 5.06 1.56 1 3 4 6 2 1 5.73 5.06 1.50 1 3 4 7 1 1 5.53 4.84 2.07 1 3 4 7 2 1 5.55 4.84 2.12 1 3 4 8 1 1 5.88 5.21 01.36 1 3 4 8 2 1 5.92 5.23 1.39 1 3 4 9 1 1 5.73 4.96 1.39 1 3 4 9 2 1 5.73 4.96 1.40 1 3 4 10 1 1 5.80 5.04 1.49 1 3 4 10 2 1 5.80 5.04 1.44 2 3 1 1 1 1 5.21 4.64 3.42 2 3 1 1 2 1 5.21 4.64 3.41 2 3 1 2 1 1 5.30 4.69 3.02 2 3 1 2 2 1 5.26 4.73 2.96 2 3 1 3 1 1 5.36 4.83 2.96 2 3 1 3 2 1 5.36 4.87 3.02 0.041 6.1 0.15 0.025 0.025 0.048 0.040 6.0 0.15 0.029 0.027 0.058 0.045 7.0 0.52 0.056 0.028 0.058 0.044 6.9 0.50 0.059 0.030 0.048 0.038 7.0 0.*7 0.029 0.022 0.058 0.040 7.1 0.20 0.032 0.025 0.048 0.041 5.7 0.49 0.059 0.032 0.058 0.044 5.8 0.48 0.057 0.035 0.048 0.051 5.7 0.16 0.033 0.035 0.068 0.053 5.7 0.18 0.031 0.032 0.058 0.045 6.5 0.33 0.046 0.031 0.058 0.044 6.4 0.32 0.049 0.028 0.048 0.056 5.6 0.24 0.046 0.031 0.088 0.053 5.5 0.25 0.049 0.030 0.078 0.038 6.3 0.32 0.038 0.026 0.058 0.038 6.4 0.34 0.033 0.027 0.058 0.038 6.4 0.35 0.054 0.023 0.068 0.040 6.4 0.38 0.052 0.027 0.078 0.044 6.7 0.52 0.091 0.042 0.088 0.045 6.7 0.48 0.097 0.039 0.078 0.116 6.0 0.17 0.040 0.025 0.068 0.118 6.0 0.16 0.046 0.031 0.068 0.097 8.5 0.17 0.036 0.023 0.058 0.098 8.6 0.16 0.041 0.027 0.068 0.105 7.6 0.33 0.038 0.025 0.078 0.104 7.6 0.30 0.033 0.030 0.088 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM —MEQ./TOO GM. 2 3 1 4 1 1 5.06 4.36 4.65 2 3 1 4 2 1 5.02 4.36 4.74 2 3 1 5 1 1 5.38 4.60 3.25 2 3 1 5 2 1 5.38 4.64 3.27 2 3 1 6 1 1 4.92 4.22 3.25 2 3 1 6 2 1 4.90 4.20 3.24 2 3 1 7 1 1 5.01 4.20 2.48 2 3 1 7 2 1 4.97 4.20 2.53 2 3 1 8 1 1 4.76 4.22 3.52 2 3 1 8 2 1 4.76 4.22 3.67 2 3 1 9 1 1 4.82 4.28 3.88 2 3 1 9 2 1 4.82 4.28 3.86 2 3 1 10 1 1 5.10 4.45 3.32 2 3 1 10 2 1 5.10 4.41 3.32 2 3 2 1 1 1 5.42 4.90 2.46 2 3 2 1 2 1 5.42 4.92 2.54 2 3 2 2 1 1 5.39 4.92 2.03 2 3 2 2 2 1 5.37 4.92 2.02 2 3 2 3 1 1 5.47 4.98 1.35 2 3 2 3 2 1 5.47 4.98 1.41 2 3 2 4 1 1 5.45 4.86 2.78 2 3 2 4 2 1 5.47 4.86 2.83 2 3 2 5 1 1 5.53 4.96 1.72 2 3 2 5 2 1 5.55 4.98 1.63 2 3 2 6 1 1 5.47 4.92 1.58 2 3 2 6 2 1 5.49 4.92 1.53 0.141 5.4 0.29 0.086 0.032 0.068 0.141 5.4 0.32 0.088 0.029 0.058 0.086 77.1 0.74 0.137 0.029 0.058 0.089 6.9 0.68 0.133 0.029 0.058 0.105 7.0 0.23 0.076 0.031 0.048 0.104 7.0 0.26 0.082 0.034 0.058 0.072 6.3 0.23 0.075 0.031 0.058 0.074 6.2 0.25 0.071 0.035 0.058 0.105 7.6 0.14 0.038 0.035 0.058 0.107 7.8 0.16 0.041 0.036 0.058 0.104 8.0 0.38 0.048 0.024 0.048 0.105 7.9 0.40 0.047 0.021 0.048 0.104 6.9 0.30 0.078 0.031 0.058 0.101 7.0 0.31 0.071 0.028 0.068 0.085 7.4 0.19 0.029 0.023 0.038 0.087 7.3 0.20 0.031 0.023 0.048 0.089 7.0 0.18 0.027 0.025 0.038 0.092 7.0 0.17 0.023 0.025 0.048 0.063 6.5 0.21 0.029 0.024 0.018 0.063 6.5 0.19 0.023 0.031 0.028 0.094 5.8 0.36 0.055 0.028 0.028 0.097 5.8 0.39 0.059 0.031 0.038 0.083 4.7 0.22 0.032 0.023 0.028 0.082 4.7 0.24 0.036 0.020 0.038 0.078 6.7 0.21 0.034 0.024 0.038 0.077 6.7 0.24 0.029 0.025 0.028 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM — MEQ./100 GM. 2 3 2 7 1 1 5.43 4.86 2.38 2 3 2 7 2 1 5.43 4.84 2.26 2 3 2 8 1 1 5.53 4.82 2.08 2 3 2 8 2 1 5.49 4.84 2.18 2 3 2 9 1 1 5.89 5.16 1.78 2 3 2 9 2 1 5.89 5.20 1.88 2 3 2 10 1 1 5.55 4.97 3.06 2 3 2 10 2 1 5.55 4.99 3.07 2 3 3 1 1 1 5.46 5.02 1.68 2 3 3 1 2 1 5.48 5.02 1.77 2 3 3 2 1 1 5.46 5.02 1.86 2 3 3 2 2 1 5.46 5.00 1.78 2 3 3 3 1 1 5.55 5.05 1.47 2 3 3 3 2 1 5.57 5.03 1.53 2 3 3 4 1 1 5.55 5.05 1.74 2 3 3 4 2 1 5.51 5.05 1.67 2 3 3 5 1 1 5.53 5.05 1.77 2 3 3 5 2 1 5.53 5.01 1.76 2 3 3 6 1 1 5.50 5.01 1.85 2 3 3 6 2 1 5.50 4.99 1.75 2 3 3 7 1 1 5.55 5.00 1.82 2 3 3 7 2 1 5.53 5.00 1.71 2 3 3 8 1 1 5.60 4.98 1.76 2 3 3 8 2 1 5.60 4.96 1.78 2 3 3 9 1 1 5.52 5.00 1.06 2 3 3 9 2 1 5.56 5.02 1.10 0.089 6.8 0.29 0.038 0.027 0.038 0.092 6.8 0.34 0.043 0.025 0.038 0.078 6.5 0.37 0.045 0.025 0.038 0.077 6.5 0.32 0.046 0.023 0.038 0.068 4.6 0.62 0.060 0.025 0.038 0.070 4.6 0.58 0.064 0.029 0.038 0.104 4.7 0.39 0.048 0.031 0.048 0.100 4.7 0.39 0.053 0.027 0.058 0.074 7.3 0.19 0.025 0.022 0.028 0.075 7.4 0.20 0.024 0.025 0.038 0.068 6.3 0.15 0.021 0.021 0.028 0.071 >6.2 0.18 0.017 0.025 0.028 0.060 7.2 0.20 0.032 0.027 0.028 0.057 7.2 0.18 0.032 0.023 0.028 0.081 9.8 0.24" 0.027 0.020 0.028 0.085 9.7 0.23 0.027 0.023 0.028 0.072 5.5 0.23 0.028 0.020 0.018 0.075 5.5 0.26 0.033 0.022 0.028 0.064 10.6 0.24 0.036 0.024 0.028 0.066 10.4 0.27 0.031 0.028 0.028 0.074 9.4 0.25 0.031 0.022 0.028 0.072 9.4 0.20 0.034 0.023 0.028 0.071 6.1 0.24 0.029 0.022 0.028 0.070 6.2 0.26 0.031 0.020 0.028 0.048 5.9 0.21 0.026 0.021 0.028 0.048 5.9 0.23 0.027 0.017 0.028 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA K S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM — MEQ./TOO GM. • 2 3 3 10 1 1 5.58 5.03 2.20 0.085 6.6 0.33 0.039 0.036 0.038 2 3 3 10 2 1 5.58 5.05 2.28 0.082 6.6 0.30 0.040 0.040 0.028 2 3 4 1 1 5.59 5.22 1.33 0.046 16.3 0.16 0.020 0.023 0.028 2 3 4 1 2 1 5.61 5.18 1.28 0.045 16.3 0.18 0.017 0.025 0.028 2 3 4 2 1 5.46 5.06 1.28 0.045 11.1 0.14 0.018 0.019 0.028 2 3 4 2 2 5.46 5.08 1.30 0.048 11.1 0.15 0.014 0.018 0.028 2 3 4 3 1 5.66 5.05 1.16 0.049 16.2 0.18 0.024 0.022 0.018 2 3 4 3 2 •j 5.62 5.05 1.20 0.048 16.1 0.15 0.021 0.017 0.028 2 3 4 4 1 ] 5.58 5.09 1.29 0.042 9.2 0.16 0.016 0.019 0.018 2 3 4 4 2 5.58 5.09 1.26 0.044 9.4 0.15 0.019 0.018 0.028 2 3 4 5 1 1 5.62 5.11 1.15 0.048 8.2 0.14 0.015 0.019 0.028 2 3 4 5 2 5.56 5.13 1.13 0.046 8.3 0.16 0.017 0.019 0.028 2 3 4 6 1 5.61 5.08 0.91 0.034 11.6 0.13 0.018 0.020 0.018 2 3 4 6 2 ] 5.57 5.08 0.98 0.036 11.7 0.17 0.023 0.016 0.028 2 3 4 7 1 1 5.56 5.05 1.47 0.053 9.6 0.17 0.026 0.020 0.028 2 3 4 7 2 5.56 5.03 1.53 0.052 9.7 0.17 0.025 0.021 0.028 2 3 4 8 1 5.66 5.05 1.24 0.046 8.5 0.19 0.027 0.021 0.018 2 3 4 8 2 1 5.66 5.03 1.21 0.045 8.5 0.17 0.023 0.026 0.028 2 3 4 9 1 5.54 5.04 1.43 0.041 9.1 0.17 0.024 0.024 0.028 2 3 4 9 2 5.58 5.02 1.42 0.044 9.0 0.18 0.029 0.027 0.028 2 3 4 10 1 5.66 5.04 1.23 0.046 9.6 0.22 0.026 0.021 0.028 2 3 4 10 2 1 5.70 5.02 1.28 0.048 9.7 0.19 0.029 0.024 0.028 1 3 1 10 1 2 4.50 4.02 3.75 0.053 10.0 0.11 0.039 0.032 0.058 1 3 1 10 2 2 4.54 3.98 3.72 0.055 9.9 0.11 0.041 0.029 0.028 1 3 1 1 1 2 4.62 4.02 4.07 0.060 8.8 0.14 0.056 0.047 0.078 1 3 1 1 2 2 4.62 4.00 4.15 0.058 9.0 0.13 0.053 0.055 0.068 Appendix C - 3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA K s M D N A P H20 CACL2 0/ - PPM __ ucf) /inn GM — r rl'l 2 3 1 2 1 2 5 . 0 3 4 . 4 4 3 . 3 7 0 . 0 9 7 8 . 5 0 . 2 7 0 .061 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 6 8 2 3 1 2 2 2 5 . 0 3 4 . 4 0 3 .41 0 . 1 0 0 8 . 5 0 . 2 5 0 .061 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 0 7 8 2 3 1 3 1 2 5 . 2 0 4 . 5 3 3 . 2 2 0 . 0 8 7 9 . 6 0 . 1 9 0 . 0 5 5 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 5 8 2 3 1 3 2 2 5 . 2 0 4 . 5 1 3 . 1 8 0 . 0 9 2 9 . 6 0 .21 0 . 0 5 6 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 4 8 1 3 1 4 1 3 4 . 5 0 3 . 9 8 3 . 8 6 0 . 0 6 8 1 3 . 8 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 6 8 1 3 1 4 2 3 4 . 5 4 4 . 0 0 3 . 7 6 0 .071 1 3 . 8 0 . 1 2 0 . 0 4 8 0 .031 0 . 0 7 8 1 3 1 5 1 3 4 . 5 6 3 . 9 8 4 . 0 5 0 . 0 6 3 1 2 . 4 0 . 1 7 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 3 9 0 . 0 5 8 1 3 1 5 2 3 4 . 5 4 4 . 0 0 4 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 4 1 2 . 5 0 . 1 9 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 5 8 2 3 1 6 1 3 5 . 1 6 4 . 5 0 3 . 1 3 0 . 0 9 6 7 . 7 0 . 2 7 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 2 8 2 3 1 6 2 3 5 . 2 0 4 . 4 8 3 . 0 4 0 . 0 9 4 7 .6 0 . 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 .031 0 . 0 3 8 2 3 1 7 1 3 5 . 2 0 4 . 5 3 2 . 8 7 0 . 0 8 7 . 6 . 8 0 .31 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 5 8 2 3 1 7 2 3 5 . 2 4 4 . 5 3 2 . 8 8 0 . 0 8 5 6 . 8 0 . 3 2 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 5 8 1 3 2 10 1 2 5 . 6 4 4 . 9 1 1 . 9 3 0 . 0 4 9 7 . 8 0 . 3 5 0 .041 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 0 6 8 1 3 2 10 2 2 5 . 6 2 4 . 9 5 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 4 8 7 . 8 0 . 3 4 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 6 8 1 3 2 1 1 2 5 . 8 2 5 . 0 4 1 . 5 8 0 . 0 4 4 7 . 4 0 . 4 4 0 . 0 5 8 0 .031 0 . 0 7 8 1 3 2 1 2 2 5 . 8 4 5 . 0 2 1 . 5 3 0 . 0 4 5 7 . 5 0 . 4 5 0 . 0 5 9 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 8 8 2 3 2 2 1 2 5 . 5 9 4 . 9 4 2 . 0 4 0 . 0 9 6 6.1 0 . 3 6 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 4 8 2 3 2 2 2 2 5 . 5 7 4 . 9 4 2 . 0 1 0 . 0 9 2 6 . 2 0 . 3 6 0 .041 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 5 8 2 3 2 3 1 2 5 . 5 9 4 . 9 8 2 . 3 8 0 . 0 7 7 8.0 0 . 3 0 0 . 0 3 9 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 3 8 2 3 2 3 2 2 5 .61 5 . 0 2 2 . 3 9 0 . 0 8 2 8 . 0 0 .31 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 4 8 1 3 2 4 1 3 5 . 6 0 4 . 9 2 2 . 0 7 0 . 0 5 1 6 . 8 0 .31 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 6 8 1 3 2 4 2 3 5 . 6 0 4 . 9 0 2 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 2 6 . 8 0 . 3 0 0 . 0 4 7 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 7 8 1 3 2 5 1 3 5 . 6 5 4 . 9 6 1 . 5 8 0 . 0 4 5 6 . 4 0 . 3 8 0 .051 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 6 8 1 3 2 5 2 3 5 . 6 9 4 . 9 6 1 . 6 3 0 . 0 4 6 6 . 4 0 . 4 0 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 7 8 2 3 2 6 1 3 5 . 6 0 4 . 9 6 2 . 3 3 0 . 0 8 9 9 . 5 0 . 3 1 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 0 6 0 0 . 0 3 8 2 3 2 6 2 3 5 . 6 2 4 . 9 8 2 . 2 5 0 .091 9 . 5 0 . 3 0 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 0 4 8 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM — MEQ./100 GM. 2 3 2 7 1 3 5.62 4.97 2.32 2 3 2 7 2 3 5.60 4.97 2.20 1 3 3 10 1 2 5.80 5.10 1.48 1 3 3 10 2 2 5.82 5.10 1.55 1 3 3 1 1 2 6.06 5.30 1.03 1 3 3 1 2 2 6.10 5.28 1.05 2 3 3 2 1 2 5.58 5.02 1.75 2 3 3 2 2 2 5.58 5.00 1.83 2 3 3 3 1 2 5.58 5.06 1.63 2 3 3 3 2 2 5.60 5.04 1.56 1 3 3 4 1 3 5.96 5.17 1.36 1 3 3 4 2 3 5.94 5.17 1.29 1 3 3 5 1 3 5.92 5.19 1.19 1 3 3 5 2 3 5.94 5.15 1.19 2 3 3 6 1 3 5.58 5.04 2116 2 3 3 6 2 3 5.58 5.02 2.20 2 3 3 7 1 3 5.63 5.03 1.57 2 3 3 7 2 3 5.63 5.03 1.63 1 3 4 10 1 2 5.60 4.92 1.43 1 3 4 10 2 2 5.60 4.94 1.48 1 3 4 1 1 2 5.76 5.01 1.83 1 3 4 1 2 2 5.76 5.03 1.88 2 3 4 2 1 2 5.61 5.07 1.36 2 3 4 2 2 2 5.61 5.09 1.30 2 3 4 3 1 2 5.63 5.06 1.12 2 3 4 3 2 2 5.57 5.06 1.16 0.081 8.4 0.33 0.039 0.054 0.038 0.083 8.4 0.30 0.041 0.058 0.048 0.040 6.0 0.46 0.031 0.020 0.048 0.038 6.1 0.46 0.031 0.023 0.058 0.038 6.3 0.49 0.036 0.036 0.058 0.036 6.2 0.49 0.031 0.032 0.068 0.078 4,8 0.21 0.028 0.026 0.028 0.081 4.8 0.20 0.031 0.024 0.038 0.067 5.3 0.24 0.031 0.038 0.028 0.068 5.3 0.25 0.028 0.034 0.038 0.038 4.7 0.38 0.053 0.033 0.068 0.037 4.7 0.37 0.050 0.030 0.058 0.041 3.8 0.34 0.049 0.026 0.068 0.042 3.8 0.33 0.046 0.025 0.078 0.061 6.8 0.24 0.032 0.026 0.028 0.064 6.8 0.25 0.031 0.029 0.038 0.071 6.0 0.22 0.028 0.022 0.028 0.068 6.0 0.23 0.028 0.025 0.038 0.044 4.7 0.18 0.028 0.033 0.058 0.045 4.7 0.18 0.031 0.031 0.068 0.041 5.6 0.33 0.044 0.033 0.058 0.041 5.6 0.33 0.041 0.032 0.058 0.068 7.8 0.21 0.023 0.030 0.028 0.070 7.8 0.19 0.021 0.027 0.038 0.060 6.6 0.16 0.020 0.028 0.028 0.063 6.6 0.18 0.021 0.026 0.038 Appendix C-3 (cont'd) * * * * * * PH PH OM N P CA MG NA S M D N A P H20 CACL2 % PPM - MEQ./100 GM. 1 3 4 4 1 3 5.90 5.10 1.40 1 3 4 4 2 3 5.90 5.12 1.48 1 3 4 5 1 3 5.80 5.08 1.41 1 3 4 5 2 3 5.82 5.08 1.47 2 3 4 6 1 3 5.63 5.13 1.46 2 3 4 6 2 3 5.61 5.11 ill. 39 2 3 4 7 1 3 5.58 5.08 1.35 2 3 4 7 2 3 5.62 5.10 1.32 0.038 5.2 0.42 0.062 0.036 0.068 0.041 5.2 0.43 0.062 0.036 0.068 0.042 4.4 0.31 0.043 0.033 0.068 0.041 4.4 0.32 0.043 0.032 0.068 0.049 8.3 0.15 0.019 0.017 0.028 0.046 8.2 0.14 0.017 0.021 0.038 0.051 6.6 0.15 0.019 0.019 0.028 0.052 6.7 0.16 0.018 0.017 0.038 * S Sites Site 2 Site 4 * M Season D Depth 1 2 3 May July September 1 0-20 cm \'D1 2 20-40 cm D2 3 40-60 cm D3 4 60-80 cm D4 * N Pit Number (1 to 10) * A Sample (Duplicates 1,2) * P Sampling Procedure 1 Modal Pit PI 2 Composite P2 3 Composite P3 APPENDIX C-4 2 0 2 SEASONAL VARIATION FOR VARIOUS CHEMICAL PROPERTIES SITE 2 SITE 4 .D4 - D 2 , 3 'DI 4 . 0 6 .0 A p H ( C a C I 2 ) 4 . 0 3.01 OM (%) 1.0-0 . 0 6 N (%) 0 . 0 2 .D2 - D 3 ' D 4 0.1 A 0 . 0 4 -D2 - D 3 •D4 -D2 . D 3 - D 4 203 A P P E N D I X C-4 (cont'd) S I T E 2 S I T E 4 0.5 A Ca 0.1 OA A 0.0 Mg 0.08 E 0.04 cn Na 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.04 0.0 -Dl •D2,3 D4 0.08 A K 0.04 0.06 H1 0.02 MAY JULY SEPT n r MAY JULY SEPT 

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