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Psychophysiological correlates of sensation seeking and socialization during reduced stimulation Cox, David Neil 1977

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PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF SENSATION SEEKING AND SOCIALIZATION DURING REDUCED STIMULATION by DAVID NEIL COX M.A., University of British Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR OF PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF PHILOSOPHY in The Department of Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1977 0 David Neil Cox, 1977 In presenting this thesis in partia l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writ ten pe rm i ss i on . Department of pCy?h^"l n ™ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2 0 7 5 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October 4, 1977 i i ABSTRACT The main purpose of this research was to investigate the psycho-physiological correlates of socialization and sensation seeking during a period of reduced stimulation. The subjects were male university students divided, on the basis of self-report measures of socialization and sensation seeking, into four groups of 14 subjects each: high socialization-low sensation seeking; low socialization-low sensation seeking; high socialization-high sensation seeking; low socialization-high sensation seeking. A f i f t h group consisted of 14 subjects with median scores on each scale. Continuous physiological recordings were made while each subject was exposed to 70 minutes of sensory isolation in an acoustically shielded room. In addition, self-report data on subjective experiences were obtained prior to and following the isolation. The need for stimulation and a deficiency in socialization have been experimentally and theoretically linked with antisocial behaviour. It was hypothesized that the low socialization-high sensation seeking subjects would bear some resemblance to the antisocial personality identified in criminal populations. The results indicated that compared with the other groups, these subjects admitted to a greater degree of alcohol and drug use, and to having a poorer academic and occupational history. Several of these subjects admitted having had criminal convictions. In general, the responses of the low socialization-high sensation subjects on the self-report and physiological measures were consistent with similar data obtained from inmate populations. During isolation they became drowsy and appeared to use i i i reverie and perceptual distortion as sources of stimulation. They were disturbed by the physical restraints imposed by the recording devices. Despite this, they demonstrated autonomic st a b i l i t y throughout the experi-mental period. The results suggest that research on selected noncriminal populations might be a f r u i t f u l way of investigating antisocial behaviours in general. For example, i t may be possible to identify factors that determine to what extent socialization and the need for stimulation influence the develop-ment of prosocial and antisocial behaviour. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE i ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES x LIST OF APPENDICES x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 Review of the Literature 1 Cl i n i c a l Concept of Psychopathy 1 Empirical Validations of the Concept 8 Clin i c a l Checklists 14 Self-Report Inventories 16 The Socialization Scale 19 Psychopathy and Stimulation-Seeking Behaviour 26 The Sensation Seeking Scale 29 Stimulation Seeking Behaviours 34 Arousal and Antisocial Behaviour 40 Electrodermal Activity 42 Cortical Activity Basis of the Present Research 52 CHAPTER TWO - METHOD 71 Subjects 71 Apparatus 71 Procedure 73 Measurements 76 Skin Conductance 76 Heart Rate 78 Digital Vasomotor Activity 78 Electroencephalographic Activity 78 V Table of Contents (cont'd) Page Respiration 79 Electrooculographic Activity 79 Electromyographic Activity 79 Analysis of Dependent Measures 79 CHAPTER THREE - RESULTS 81 Group Composition 83 Demographic Measures 83 Self-Report Measures 86 Spielberger's State Anxiety Scale 86 Neary's State Sensation Seeking Scale 88 Subjective Stress Scale 94 Eysenck Personality Inventory 94 Stanford Sleepiness Scale 98 Reaction Scales 98 Hotelling's T 2 108 Physiological Measures 115 Heart Rate 115 Vasomotor Activity 131 Electrodermal Activity 142 Respiration 164 Electroencephalographic Activity 178 Correlations 187 Time Estimation 187 CHAPTER FOUR - DISCUSSION 189 Subject Composition 189 Demographic Measures 189 Self-Report Measures 191 Physiological Measures 200 Time Estimation 211 Theoretical Considerations 212 REFERENCES 221 v i Table of Contents (cont'd) Page APPENDICES Appendix 1 - Explanatory L e t t e r 243 Appendix 2 - Subject S e l e c t i o n Procedures 244 Appendix 3 - B i o g r a p h i c a l Data 245 Appendix 4 - Reaction Scales 1 and 2 246 Appendix 5 - C o r r e l a t i o n s : S e l f - r e p o r t Measures 248 v i i LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1. Group Composition 84 TABLE 2. Demographic Data 85 TABLE 3. Pre State Anxiety (Spielberger's State Anxiety Scale) 87 TABLE 4. Post State Anxiety (Spielberger's State Anxiety Scale) 89 TABLE 5. Neary's State Sensation Seeking Scale 90 TABLE 6. Subjective Stress Scale 95 TABLE 7. Eysenck's Neuroticism Scale 97 TABLE 8. Eysenck's Extroversion Scale 99 TABLE 9. Eysenck's Psychoticism Scale 100 TABLE 10. Eysenck's Lie Scale 101 TABLE 11. Stanford Sleep Scale 102 TABLE 12. Reaction Scale One 104 TABLE 13. Reaction Scale Two 109 2 TABLE 14. Self-Report Measures - Hotelling's T 116 TABLE 15. Heart Rate- I n i t i a l Rest Period 118 TABLE 16. Heart Rate - Responses to Tones 1 and 2 119 TABLE 17. Heart Rate - Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period) 123 TABLE 18. Heart Rate - Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation) 124 TABLE 19. Heart Rate - Response to Tone 1 125 TABLE 20. Heart Rate - Tonic Activity During Isolation 128 TABLE 21 Heart Rate - Hotelling's T 2 132 TABLE 22 Vasomotor Activity - I n i t i a l Rest Period 133 v i i i L i s t of Tables (cont'd) Page TABLE 23. Vasomotor Activity - Response to Tones 1 and 2 134 TABLE 24. Vasomotor Activity - Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period) 136 TABLE 25. Vasomotor Activity - Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation Period) 137 TABLE 26, Vasomotor Activity - Response to Tone 1 138 TABLE 27. Vasomotor Activity - Tonic Activity During Isolation 143 2 TABLE 28. Vasomotor Activity - Hotelling's T 146 TABLE 29 Skin Conductance - I n i t i a l Rest Period 147 TABLE 30 Skin Conductance - Response to Tone 1 149 TABLE 31 Skin Conductance - Response to Tones 1 and 2 150 TABLE 32. Skin Conductance - Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period) 151 TABLE 33. Skin Conductance - Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation Period) 152 TABLE 34. Skin Conductance - Tonic Activity During Isolation 156 2 TABLE 35. Electrodermal Activity - Hotelling's T 158 TABLE 36. NSP Activity - I n i t i a l Rest Period 161 TABLE 37. NSP Activity - Tonic Activity 162 TABLE 38. Recovery Half-Time-Response to Tone 3 165 TABLE 39. Respiration - I n i t i a l Rest Period 166 TABLE 40. Respiration - Response to Tone 1 167 TABLE 41. Respiration - Response to Tones 1 and 2 168 TABLE 42 Respiration - Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period) 171 ix List of Tables (cont'd) Page TABLE 43. Respiration - Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation Period 172 TABLE 44. Respiration - Tonic Activity During Isolation 174 2 TABLE 45. Respiration - Hotelling's T 176 TABLE 46. EEG Activity-Theta 179 TABLE 47. EEG Activity - Alpha 181 TABLE 48. EEG Activity - Beta 184 TABLE 49. EEG - Hotelling's T 2 186 TABLE 50. Time Estimation 188 LIST OF FIGURES Page FIGURE 1. HR Responses to Tones 121 FIGURE 2. HR Response to Tone 1 122 FIGURE 3. Tonic HR Over Isolation 130 FIGURE'4. Vasomotor Responses to Tones 140 FIGURE 5. Vasomotor Response to Tone 1 141 FIGURE 6. Tonic Vasomotor Activity Over Isolation 145 FIGURE 7. SC Response to Tones 1 and 2 153 FIGURE 8. SC Response to Tone 3 154 FIGURE 9. Tonic SC Over Isolation 159 FIGURE 10. Respiration Response to Tones 1 and 2 169 FIGURE 11.. Respiration Response to Tone 3 173 FIGURE 12. Tonic Respiration Rate Over Isolation 177 x i LIST OF APPENDICES Page Appendix 1 - Explanatory Letter 243 Appendix 2 - Subject Selection Procedures 244 Appendix 3 - Biographical Data 245 Appendix 4 - Reaction Scales One and Two 246 Appendix 5 - Correlations: Self-report Measures 248 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my extreme gratitude to the chairman of my doctoral committee, who has given his support to my work completely and without hesitation, in a manner which has extended well beyond the bounds of expectation. I feel greatly privileged to have had the guidance of Dr. Robert D. Hare. I am grateful also to the members of the doctoral committee, Dr. K. D. Craig, Dr. A. R. Hakstian, Dr. P. Suedfeld, Dr. R. Lakowski and Dr. J. Wada, who gave freely of their advice and energy. To those outside of the doctoral committee who have supported this research I extend my appreciation. Particularly the assistance given by Janice Frazelle, John Lind, Brent McNeil, Susan Lopatecki, Pat Waldron, and Sharon Kenny. I would also like to thank my father who has shared a deep involve-ment in a l l phases of my graduate education. 1 INTRODUCTION Research on psychopathic behaviour has to a l a r g e extent been concerned w i t h c r i m i n a l populations where appropriate subjects are more e a s i l y i d e n t i -f i e d and supportive l i f e h i s t o r y data are. f r e q u e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . Consequently, not as much i s known about the incidence of these behaviours w i t h i n the gen-e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , or the ways i n which such a n t i s o c i a l tendencies are ex-pressed. When research i s proposed using n o n c r i m i n a l populations the s e l e c -t i o n of subjects w i l l g e n e r a l l y become more d i f f i c u l t . The approach taken i n the present research was to use two s e l f - r e p o r t s c a l e s , which measure d i -mensions that have been e m p i r i c a l l y r e l a t e d to a n t i s o c i a l behaviour i n order to i d e n t i f y the appropriate experimental groups. The s c a l e s s e l e c t e d were the S o c i a l i z a t i o n Scale (Gough, 1969) and the Sensation-Seeking Scale (Zuck-erman, K o l i n , P r i c e and Zoob, 1964). The former i s a measure of Gough's (1948) conception of the psychopath as an i n d i v i d u a l d e f i c i e n t i n the s o c i a l -i z a t i o n process w h i l e the l a t t e r i s r e l a t e d to Quay's (1965) d e s c r i p t i o n of the psychopath as a s t i m u l a t i o n seeker. However, before examining the r e -search l i t e r a t u r e behind the use of these measures i n greater d e t a i l , the con-cept of the a n t i s o c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l be examined more g e n e r a l l y to provide a background to the s e l e c t i o n of these p a r t i c u l a r dimensions and the e x p e r i -mental paradigm used. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE C l i n i c a l Concept of Psychopathy The term psychopathy has been used i n a v a r i e t y of contexts r e s u l t i n g i n some confusion as to d e f i n i t i o n , so t h a t , when one i s i n v o l v e d i n research i n t h i s area, the n e c e s s i t y s t i l l e x i s t s to engage i n p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n s 2 concerning the definitional approach one w i l l take. Although the terms may differ - psychopathy, sociopathy, psychopathic disorder, antisocial personality - there is a set of common attributes shared between these terminologies which are recognized by most of those who use them. An examination of several different viewpoints w i l l make these com-monalities more obvious. The current term used by the American Psychiatric Association for this disorder is category 301.1 antisocial personality which is described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dis-orders (1968) as follows: "This term i s reserved for individuals who are basically unsocialized and whose behaviour pattern brings them repeatedly into conflict with society. They are incapable of significant ' loyalty to individuals, groups, or social values. They are grossly selfish, callous, irresponsible, impulsive, and unable to feel guilt or to learn from experience and punishment. Frus-tration tolerance is low. They tend to blame others or offer plausible rationalizations for their behaviour. A mere history of repeated legal or social offenses is not sufficient to jus-t i f y this diagnosis..." (American Psychiatric Association, 1968, p. 43). The most influential c l i n i c a l profile of the psychopath is that pro-vided by Cleckley in the five editions of his book, The mask of sanity (5th ed., 1976). He considers the main features to be: superficial charm and good intelligence; absence of delusions and other signs of irrational thinking; absence of nervousness or psychoneurotic manifestations; unreli-a b i l i t y ; untruthfulness and insincerity; lack of remorse or shame; inad-equately motivated antisocial behaviour; poor judgment and failure to learn from experience; pathologic egocentricity and incapacity for love; general poverty in major affective reactions; specific loss of insight; unresponsiveness in general interpersonal relations; fantastic and unin-viting behaviour with drink and sometimes without; sex l i f e impersonal, t r i v i a l , and poorly integrated; failure to follow any l i f e plan. Yet in 3 spite of these many symptoms Cleckley states: "the observer is confronted with a convincing mask of sanity. A l l the outward features of this mask are intact; i t cannot be displaced or penetrated by questions directed toward deeper personality levels...Only very slowly and by a complex e s t i -mation or judgement based on multitudinous small impressions does the conviction come upon us that, despite these intact rational processes, these normal emotional affirmations, and their consistent application in a l l directions, we are deal-ing here not with a complete man at air but with something that suggests a subtly constructed reflex machine which can mimic the human personality perfectly. This smoothly oper-ating psychic apparatus reproduces consistently not only specimens of good human reasoning but also appropriate sim-ulations of normal human emotion in response to nearly a l l the varied stimuli of l i f e . " (Cleckley, 1976, p. 368) Hare, who uses Cleckley's c r i t e r i a extensively in his own research, elaborates on them in stating: "the psychopath tends to treat others as objects rather than as persons with feelings of their own, and experiences l i t t l e guilt or remorse for having done so and for having used them to satisfy'his own selfish needs. His judgement is poor, and his behaviour reflects a sort of short-term hedonism in which current, momentary needs are satisfied in spite of the pos-s i b i l i t y of more temporally remote punishment or unpleasant consequences to himself or to others. Although his asocial behaviour frequently gets him into trouble, he is often suf-fi c i e n t l y charming and skilled at manipulation, lying and rationalization to convince others that he is not really to blame or that he sincerely intends to mend his ways. The apparent ina b i l i t y to empathize with others and to form gen-uine emotional relationships with them, plus lack of appro-priate emotional response for his social depredations, leads to the suggestion that the psychopath is a two-dimensional or hollow person - a person with apparently normal intellec-tual and physical attributes, but one whose personal and interpersonal behaviour lacks essential emotional concomi-tants. (Hare, 1975, p. 2). An important extension of this conception of psychopathy is the delin-eation of those subtypes that are frequently included within the concept but perhaps shouldn't be. The individual that has been described to this point could be referred to as the primary, idiopathic or classical psycho-path. It i s possible to distinguish him from neurotic individuals whose 4 antisocial acts are assumed to be symptomatic of some underlying emotional disturbance. These individuals have sometimes been termed secondary, symp-tomatic, or neurotic psychopaths. However, as Hare (1971) points out, the implication!?is that individuals given these labels w i l l be considered basi-cally psychopathic when, in fact, their behaviour, motivations, personality structure, life-history and treatment prognosis are entirely different from those of the primary psychopath. Many of the Cleckley characteristics w i l l not apply to these individuals and yet their behaviour i s clearly antisocial. Hare argues for the use of terms such as acting-out neurotic or neurotic delinquent in labelling this individual. Hare (1971) also makes the distinction between the primary psychopath and those individuals who exhibit antisocial behaviour as a consequence of having grown up in a delinquent subculture or in an environment that re-wards such behaviour. Although their behaviour may be opposed to societal standards i t is completely consonant with that of their peer group. They have been termed dysocial psychopaths, a misnomer in that they may be capa-ble of extreme loyalty, guilt, anxiety, remorse and warm relationships, especially within their own group. It would seem more appropriate to use a term such as subcultural delinquent to describe individuals of this type. This is not to say that there w i l l not be primary psychopaths within these groups. In fact, they may be attracted to such situations as a means to purposefully engaging in antisocial behaviour, but i t does seem necessary to make individual assessments when attaching these labels. Empirical support for these groupings can be found in research such as that of Quay and his associates (Peterson, Quay and Tiffany, 1961; Quay, 1964ay fr).awhoxhave) i'dentmf i'ed^severalefae:t'ors^relatedvto-: adolescent, delin-quency - psychopathic delinquency, neurotic delinquency and subcultural 5 delinquency. These factors w i l l be discussed in greater detail shortly. Robins (1966, in press) has provided a behavioural description of psychopathy. She excludes from her definition individuals who meet the behavioural c r i t e r i a for schizophrenia, chronic brain syndrome, or mental retardation, or whose antisocial behaviour is preceded by heavy drinking or drug use. Psychopaths are then defined as: "those non-psychotic and non-retarded adults who have multiple d i f f i c u l t i e s in many l i f e areas, d i f f i c u l t i e s broadly characterized as a failure to conform to social norms. While no one behaviour i s diagnostic, i t is hard to imagine applying that label to anyone who is described by his boss as a good worker or who is law-abiding. Typ-i c a l l y we refer to someone who f a i l s to maintain close personal relationships with anyone else, performs poorly on the job, who is involved in i l l e g a l behaviour (whether or not apprehended), who f a i l s to support himself and his dependents without outside aid, and who is given to sudden changes of plan and loss of temper in response to what ap-pear to others as minor frustrations. These characteristics must be chronic and more or less typical of the whole l i f e history up to the point of diagnosis. A sudden appearance of antisocial behaviour in a previously conforming adult suggests mania, paranoid schizophrenia, drug intoxication, organic brain disease, even new p o l i t i c a l allegiances, but not antisocial personality" (Robins, in press). It should be noted that Robins does not contend that there are not psychological substrates of antisocial behaviour, nor does she argue, as Ullman and Krasner (1975) do, that psychopathy as a c l i n i c a l entity does not exist. Rather, her contention i s that at this time i t does not seem possible to validate the psychological components independently of the be-haviour. It is her stated experience that in a given psychopathic indi -vidual certain of the psychological components usually inferred with this disorder may in fact be incorrect, including most noticeably a lack of neurotic symptoms. So that in the interest of parsimony she argues for the continued use of behavioural symptoms as a diagnostic tool. Buss (1966) describes the psychopath -in terms of two distinct components -6 symptoms and personality t r a i t s . The former consist of: thrill-seeking behaviour and disregard of conventions; ina b i l i t y to control impulses or delay gratification; rejection of authority and discipline; poor judgment about behaviour but good judgment about abstract situations; failure to alter punished behaviour; pathological lying; and asocial and antisocial behaviour. The personality traits consist of: defective personal rela-tionships or a fundamental incapacity for love or true friendship; no self-insight; an absence of guilt or shame; a facade of competence and maturity; and inconsistency and unreliability. Based on these personality features Buss proposes a pattern which contains three manifest characteristics: the psychopath is a hollow-isolated person; the psychopath has no fundamental identity of his own; and the psychopath cannot bind time. - McCord and McCord (1964) describe the psychopath as one who is asocial; is driven by uncontrolled desires; is highly impulsive; is aggressive; feels l i t t l e guilt; and has a warped capacity for love. In, a summary description they conclude: "Putting a l l the foregoing traits together, we see a picture of a dangerously maladjusted personality. The psychopath is asocial. His conduct often brings him into conflict with so-ciety. The psychopath is driven by primitive desires and an exaggerated craving,for excitement. In his self-centered search for pleasure, he ignores restrictions of his culture. The psy-chopath is highly impulsive. He is a man for whom the moment is a segment of time detached from a l l others. His actions are un-planned and guided by his whims. The psychopath is aggressive. He has learned few socialized ways of coping with frustration. The psychopath feels l i t t l e , i f any, guilt. He can commit the most appalling acts, yet view them without remorse. The psycho-path has a warped capacity for love. His emotional relationships, when they exist, are meager, fleeting, and designed to satisfy his own desires. These last two t r a i t s , guiltlessness and love-lessness, conspicuously mark the psychopath as different from other men." (McCord and McCord, 1964, p. 16). Karpman (1955) has described two subtypes of primary psychopathy: the aggressive-predatory and the passive-parasitic. The f i r s t of these is 7 characterized by constant aggression with no regard for the rights of others. Living only for the satisfaction of immediate desires this individual i s de-scribed as one whose "entire l i f e is spent in active predatoriness" and who exists "on a simple, primitive, animal plane - direct, impulsive, uncondi-tioned and unconditionable", (Karpman, 1955, p. 46). The second subtype i s characterized by their a b i l i t y to satisfy needs in a manner described as parasitic and passive. "Parasite-like, they attach themselves to one or another person on whom they 'sponge', as i t were, even 'bleeding' him without conscience or remorse, and with no intent ever to return the help received - indeed, with no appreciation that i t ought to be returned". (Karpman, 1955, p. 47). Craft (1966) provides a description of the psychopath that combines two primary c l i n i c a l features, both of which need to be present for the diagnosis to be made. These features are a lack of feeling for others, which might be described as affectionlessness or lovelessness, and a l i a b i l i t y to act on impulse, without forethought. Derived from these are secondary features which include: violent behaviour under certain circumstances; a lack of shame or remorse for actions taken; an inab i l i t y to profit from experience; a lack of response to punishment; and a lack of drive or emotion, resulting in a general inadequacy of conduct such that the individual does not use his ap-parent a b i l i t i e s . An additional feature i s the presence of a viciousness, or a desire to do damage to others. After an extensive review of studies concerned with the psychopathic personality, Fotheringham (1955) concludes that the disorder i s an: "illness without evidence of mental deficiency, structural disease of the brain, epilepsy, psychosis, psychoneurosis, or intellectual impairment, which manifests i t s e l f primarily in a disorder of behaviour in contradistinction to a disorder of thinking, and is evidenced by five main characteristics which are: poorly motivated antisocial behaviour, absent or weak superego or conscience, lack of sympathy, with individuals and society, marked egocentricity, and at present is unmodi-fiable" (p. 52). 8 Fotheringham also concludes that unlike the psychoneurotic, the psycho-path displays a surprising lack of anxiety and guilt, tends to be free of neurotic symptoms, and acts out his feelings rather than develop neurotic tr a i t s . He may have ideas of persecution but unlike the paranoid personality these do not affect his behaviour such that i t becomes directed towards their alleviation. Unlike common criminals, the psychopath's criminal activity lacks purposeful movement towards a goal, is badly concealed, and often harms himself as well as others. Although he may involve himself in many different sexual practices at different times he is rarely involved in any one form of sexual perversion exclusively. Unlike the alcoholic, who may have emotional problems coupled with the insight and desire to change, the psychopath may drink excessively due to a lack of inhibition. He resents punishment, is averse to confinement and lacks persistence in anything he does. Fotheringham also concludes from his review that each of these charac-ter i s t i c s may'Vtbe found in other illnesses, and that no single characteristic is pathonomic of the psychopath except perhaps his lack of conscience. t > Empirical Validations of the Concept A number of attempts have been made to empirically validate the concept of psychopathy with a relatively consistent pattern emerging. Quay et a l (1961, 119.64a, -i$.64;97U9:i^?5)-9fiaye^d'evel0pearseveral fac-tor analytically derived scales for the assessment of antisocial behaviour in adolescents and adults. Across the three scales derived for adolescents, four factors consistently emerge: inadequate-immature; neurotic-disturbed; socialized-subcultural; and unsocialized-psychopathic. The latter is char-acterized by descriptive items such as: disruptive, boisterousness, fighting, irresponsibility, disobedience, assaultive, cruel, quarrelsome, obscene; and 9 self-report statements such as "I don't mind hurting people who get in my way" and "You have to get the other guy before he gets you." With respect to adults the same pattern is present with an aggressive-psychopathic factor emerging across two scales. This dimension reflects toughness, defiance, physical and verbal aggression, trouble-making, victim-izing, quick temperedness, a history of thrill-seeking, uncontrollability and unresponsiveness to counselling. On the basis of case history data, Jenkins (1964, 1966) has described similar clusters of personality traits in delinquent children and guidance c l i n i c referrals. The three most common clusters were: the unsocialized-aggressive syndrome, which is psychopathic in nature and is characterized by assaultive tendencies, starting fights, cruelty, defiance of authority, malicious mischief, inadequate guilt feelings; the overanxious syndrome which is neurotic and characterized by seclusiveness, shyness, apathy, wor-rying, sensitiveness, and submissiveness; and the socialized delinquency syndrome which could be described as subcultural as i t is characterized by bad companions, gang ac t i v i t i e s , cooperative stealing, habitual truancy from school and home, and being out late at night. Finney (1966) provides further support for the distinction between psy-chopathic and neurotic forms of antisocial behaviour based on responses to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). He isolated several factors, one of which related to antisocial behaviour and another to anxiety, distress and guilt. He distinguished between: psychopathy, which was high in antisocial behaviour and low in guilt; acting-out neurosis, which was high in antisocial behaviour and high in guilt; neurotic inhibition, which was low in antisocial behaviour and high ingguilt; and normalcy which was low in antisocial behaviour and guilt. 10 Hintcm and 0'Neill(1976) f a c t o r analyzed p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l , person-a l i t y , psychometric and s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s obtained from inmates i n a maximum s e c u r i t y h o s p i t a l w i t h one of the r e s u l t a n t f a c t o r s being i d e n t i f i e d as the primary psychopath. At the opposite pole of t h i s dimension was the h i g h l y -conditioned i n t r o v e r t who was described as w e l l s o c i a l i z e d , peaceable and c o r t i c a l l y a c t i v e . The psychopath i s described as being low i n c o r t i c a l and sympathetic a r o u s a b i l i t y w i t h few spontaneous f l u c t u a t i o n s i n s k i n con-ductance and a small s k i n conductance o r i e n t i n g response. With respect to p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s described as: having exper-ienced numerous home' changes before age 16; a good f a k e r ; t r o u b l e s t i r r i n g ; e x t r a v e r t e d ; emotionally u n r e a c t i v e ; having high v e r b a l r e l a t i v e to perform-ance a b i l i t y on the WAIS. General observations i n c l u d e d e s c r i p t o r s such as -con-man, l a c k i n g i n imagination and a s o c i a l . The authors i n d i c a t e that using data of t h i s type could make p o s s i b l e p r e d i c t i o n s of r e c i d i v i s m and more accurate pre-discharge assessments of inmates - the primary psychopath being a poorer candidate f o r discharge and a greater r i s k f o r r e - o f f e n d i n g i f r e l e a s e d . Blackburn (1970) r e p o r t s on a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of the MMPI p r o f i l e s of 56 male homicides. The a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d four independent p r o f i l e types one of which was i d e n t i f i e d as a psychopathic group. The MMPI p r o f i l e of t h i s group was the p a t t e r n t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the psychopathic person-a l i t y - abnormal e l e v a t i o n s i n the Pd and Ma scales.' These i n d i v i d u a l s d i s -played an absence of major n e u r o t i c or p s y c h o t i c symptoms, poor s o c i a l i z a t i o n , a l a c k of s o c i a l a n x i e t y , and a f a i r l y high l e v e l of predominantly outwardly d i r e c t e d h o s t i l i t y . Blackburn summarizes: "The members of t h i s group, t h e r e f o r e , do not appear to ex-perience any s i g n i f i c a n t degree of s u b j e c t i v e d i s t r e s s , but r e v e a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y 11 dealt with by the externallzation of h o s t i l i t y . They appear to conform closely to c l i n i c a l descriptions of the primary psychopath." (Blackburn, 1970, p. 7). As such, a majority of the individuals within this group had already been legally classified in the Psychopathic Disorder category. They tended to be younger than other criminal types, to have a criminal record, to be married, to have an intellectual level in the high average range and in a l l cases their victim was a member of their family. In a more recent study Blackburn (1974) subjected to cluster analysis the personality profiles of 79 male offenders admitted to a security hospi-t a l with the medico-legal categorization of Psychopathic Disorder as defined by the 1959 Mental Health Act for England and Wales. Four profile types emerged which accounted for four-fifths of the inmates. One of these was identifiable as a primary psychopathic group according to c l i n i c a l c r i t e r i a and their mean MMPI profile. Interestingly, this grouping contains only 19% of the total population. Blackburn states: "The extent to which these classes represent the main types of offender cannot be estimated but i t can be concluded that among offenders, i t is possible to identify a class of anti-social individual which is broadly/consistent with the c l i n -i c a l concept of the psychopath, and which is characterized by a high degree of aggression, impulsivity, extrapunitive attitudes, extraversion, and undersocialization. The use of the concept of psychopaths therefore seems vindicated by the present results, but they also indicate that individuals classified under the medico-legal label of Psychopathic Dis-order have in common nothing more than a history of antisocial behaviour." (Blackburn, 1974, p. 26). Hare (1975c) presents similar data based on a study also using an i n -mate population. On the basis of Cleckley's c l i n i c a l c r i t e r i a the subjects were assigned to a psychopathic or nonpsychopathic group. The autonomic responsivity of the individuals was then examined when they were presented with a series of tones. As well the subjects were reclassified on the basis 12 of their MMPI profiles rather than the c l i n i c a l ratings. Out of the cluster analysis three profiles emerged with one of them being the pattern associated with psychopathy, elevation in the Pd and Ma scales. Of the 11 inmates in this group 7 were part of the group c l i n i c a l l y diagnosed as psychopathic. Individuals with high Pd and Ma scores are described by Dahlstrom and Welsh (1960) as follows: "Persons with this profile pattern show clear manifestations of psychopathic behaviour, the hypomanic seemingly energizing or activating the pattern related to...I(the Pd scale). That i s , these people tend to be overactive and impulsive, i r r e -sponsible and untrustworthy, shallow and superficial in their relationships. They are characterized by easy morals, readily-circumvented consciences, and fluctuating ethical values. To satisfy their own desires and ambitions, they may expend great amounts of energy and effort, but they find i t d i f f i c u l t to stick to duties and responsibilities imposed by others. In superficial contacts and social situations they create favour-able impressions because of their freedom from inhibiting anx-ieties and insecurities. They arellively, conversational, fluent and forthright; they enter wholeheartedly into games, outings, and parties, without being self-conscious or d i f f i -dent. However, their lack of judgement and control may lead them to excesses of drinking, merrymaking, or teasing. They may be prone to continue activities so long that they exceed the proprieties, neglect other obligations, or alienate others." (p. 192). Selection of Subjects for Research  Global Ratings It might be expected that c l i n i c a l ratings of psychopathy would be f a i r l y unreliable, however this may not be the situation i f experienced raters, familiar with the concept and the rules of classification are used (Wing, Cooper and Sartorius, 1974). Hare has demonstrated in several studies that the selection of subjects for research can be made with a high degree of inter-rater r e l i a b i l i t y using a'.iglLdbalsassessment approach. Raters are familiarized with the Cleckley concept of psychopathy and then asked to use a 7-point scale in assessing each individual, with a rating of 1 indicating 13 confidence that the subject i s psychopathic and 7 indicating confidence he is not. Two research psychologists rating subjects for Hare and Quinn (1971) agreed on 70% of the subjects, were one step apart on 26% of them, and were two steps apart on the remaining 4% through 54 inmate f i l e s . Dengerink and Bertilson (1975) report an inter-rater r e l i a b i l i t y coefficient of .92 for two raters over 92 subjects. Using a 5-point scale, Chesno and Kilman (1975) obtained a correlation of .77 for two raters over 90 subjects. Schalling and Rosen (1975) report correlations from .75 to .92 for two psychologists using case-history data to rate inmates on five separate subscales related to psy-chopathy. In an earlier study, Hare (1972) had four raters assess inmates on the 7-point scale and attached a diagnosis only to those subjects who re-ceived the extreme designations (1 or 2; 6 or 7) from a l l four raters. About these findings Hare states: "I should note that r e l i a b i l i t i e s this high may depend upon the availability of very extensive and detailed inmate f i l e s , as well as interviews with the inmates. Further, although subjective elements are no doubt present, our ratings of psy-chopathy are based upon evidence of a consistent pattern of  behaviour over a long period of time. The same procedure would be less effective when inmate f i l e s are incomplete or when they have not had much contact with the authorities. Similarly, they would not be of much use with noncriminal subject populations unless extensive behavioural and demo-graphic data are available." (Hare, 1975). As an example of this, Hare cites his own work in which a drop in inter-rater r e l i a b i l i t y was noted in moving the research f a c i l i t y from a Federal i n s t i -tution, where more complete f i l e s are available, to a Provincial prison, where less information is often available on the inmates. In spite of this situation, r e l i a b i l i t i e s were .70 and .84 in two studies using the global assessment procedure. 14 Cl i n i c a l Checklists A number of c l i n i c a l checklists have been constructed in an attempt to systematize the diagnostic procedure. An example is Ziskind's Sociopathic Behaviour Rating Scale (1970) which is divided into sections concerning trai t s , diagnostic exclusions, and types of antisocial behaviour. The traits are rated on a scale of seven adjectives related to severity of presence from 'never' to 'extremely'. The traits l i s t e d are: inability to learn from past experience - repetition of asocial or antisocial acts; superficiality of af-fect - deficiency in commitment, deficiency in empathy or deficiency in con-tagion of emotional reaction to others; irresponsibility - failure to assume obligations related to various l i f e roles, particularly those of family re-lationships, earning a livelihood or carrying out a trust; lack of conscience -inab i l i t y to conform to conventional standards of morality; impulsiveness -sudden action without adequate reflection, inability to defer gratifications, or low frustration tolerance. The diagnostic exclusions are rated according to their presence or ab-sence and include: mental retardation, organic brain syndromes or demonstra-ble brain damage; psychoses - break with reality and reality testing; neuro-ses - intrapsychic conflict; situational maladjustments. Craddick (1962) presented a large number of psychiatric characteristics to a group of psychiatrists and asked them to rate the items with respect to diagnosing psychopathy. As the result of this procedure a checklist of 12 characteristics was obtained with the rating of "significant" or "very sig-nificant". The "significant" characteristics were: unable to either under-stand or appreciate kindness, making insincere suicidal attempts occasionally. The "very significant" characteristics included: unreliable, irresponsible, disappointing, and i r r i t a t i n g ; has low ethical standards; shows no concern 15 over others' rights when they interfere with personal satisfaction; must express impulses regardless of consequences; shows poor judgment, inade-quate planning, and lack of perseverance in pursuing goals; does not profit by experience, blames others for his troubles; conscience poorly developed; refuses to accept behaviour as inadequate and thus has no genuine concern or anxiety over i t ; shows no regard for rules or mores. Using this checklist, a prison population was rated and a psychopathic and nonpsychopathic group, each containing 27 inmates, was obtained. MMPI scores were obtained for both groups and significant differences were found on the Pd and Ma scales in the expected direction. A two-year follow up found that 16 of the psychopathic group had returned to prison whereas this had occurred with only 2 of the nonpsychopathic group. The conclusion was that a checklist of this type appears to be useful in differentiating psycho-pathic from nonpsychopathic inmates. As mentioned earlier, Quay and his associates have developed several checklists concerned with antisocial behaviour. The Behaviour Problem Check-l i s t (Quay and Parsons, 1971) allows for the assessment of adolescents on 55 behaviours. The rater must be familiar enough with the individual's behav-iour to make valid decisions concerning the items which characterize his behaviour as well as their degree of severity. With respect to case history data of delinquent boys the Checklist for the Analysis of Life History Data (Quay and Parsons, 1971) has been developed. To be able to complete this checklist adequately the rater must have access to extensive l i f e history data. Similar scales have been developed for adults - the Correctional Adjust-ment Checklist and the Checklist for the Analysis of Life History Record of Adult Offenders (Quay, 1972). The dimensions that have been derived from these scales were described in some part earlier. They relate to antisocial behaviour as descriptors of the motivations behind the individual's actions, e.g., aggressive-psychopathic, immature-dependent, neurotic-anxious, socialized-subcultural, unsocialized-psychopathic. Quay (1972) reiterates the importance of using these scales only i f sufficient information i s available. In accounting for some of the disappointing results obtained with the adult scales he comments: "With respect to the CACL this state of affairs is most l i k e l y attributable to the lack of real knowledge about the behaviour of inmates being rated by those doing the ratings. In the case of the CALH, the incompleteness of most present reports, espe-c i a l l y with respect to the behaviour of the inmate, is legion." (Quay, 1972, p. 11). Self-Report Inventories Self-report measures are frequently used in the selection of subjects for research on antisocial behaviour. The most widely used is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory of MMPI (Dahlstrom and Welsh, 1960) from which subject selection is usually decided on the basis of elevated scores on the Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) and Hypomania (Ma) scales. To what ex-tent the individuals selected for any given study by this method w i l l actu-al l y meet the c l i n i c a l c r i t e r i a for psychopathy is questionable. In criminal populations, i t is not unusual to obtain elevated Pd and Ma scores in non-psychopathic individuals. Murray, Munley and Gilbrant (1965) found that college males and females had significantly higher Pd scale scores than those of the respective Minnesota normal groups and recommended separate Pd norms for college populations. A factor analysis of the Pd scale by Astin (1959) revealed five dimensions which might characterize a person labelled psychopathic deviate. Examination of the scores of different populations on these factors led to the conclusion that identical Pd scores can have quite 17 different c l i n i c a l implications, depending upon the factors contributing to the total Pd score. In a more recent study Gynther, Altman and Warlin (1973) found l i t t l e support for the assumption that there is a relation be-tween the 4-9 profile and the behaviour of the psychopath. They question the use of the code type as a diagnostic tool. Hare (1975) reports mixed results using the MMPI with criminals. He found in an early study that the scale was useful in discriminating between psychopathic and nonpsychopathic prisoners. However, in more recent studies he reports a failure to find significant, useful differences between the MMPI scale scores and profiles of selected groups of psychopathic and nonpsychopathic prisoners. In one study the rat-ings of three raters were combined to a composite score and the correlations with the Pd and Ma scales were .13 and .01 respectively^with the MMPI pro-f i l e s of the individuals at one end of the rating scale being not greatly different from those at the other. It is Hare's suggestion that perhaps the MMPI may be more useful in selecting subjects from noncriminal populations. In a review of studies concerned with the definition of the criminal personality, Waldo and Dinitz (1967) found that objective tests were far more discriminating than projective ones, with the Pd scale of the MMPI and Socialization Scale (Gough, 1969) producing the most consistent results. With respect to the MMPI the authors acknowledge that although the results concerning i t s use are impressive several cautions should be noted. For example, although s t a t i s t i c a l significance may exist between two groups on the Pd scale this may result from different responses to very few items so that the theoretical significance may be not so great. Other variables be-sides delinquency, such as socio-economic status, may have a marked effect on the scores. Over a number of studies i t becomes apparent that the 18 differences within delinquent and nondelinquent groups are often greater than those between them. A fi n a l criticism is focused on the way the Pd scale is used for hypothesis testing rather than for diagnostic purposes. If a researcher administers the scale to noncriminals and criminals and then concludes that the latter are psychopathic one should not be surprised by the results since the method by which the scale was constructed should en-sure that happening. In fact, i f such differences were not present the validity of the construct should come into question. It does seem clear however, that although psychopathic individuals may display the 4-9 profile, the reverse may not be true; .thathis, the diagnosis of psychopathy may not be j u s t i f i e d solely on the basis of an obtained 4-9 profile on the MMPI. The third in Quay's series for adolescents is the Personal Opinion Survey (Quay and Parsons, 1971), a self-report questionnaire composed of factorially homogeneous scales: neurotic-disturbed; unsocialized-psychopath; socialized-subcultural. It is based on the responses of delinquents and normals to items relating to attitudes, beliefs, feelings and behaviours. It is recommended by Quay that a l l three of his tests be used and the scores of .conceptually^ similar factors be combined into a best estimate of the be-haviour category that most characterizes each offender. A study by Ross and Hundleby (1973) compared ratings of psychopathy with a number of frequently used self-report inventories. The rating scales were Craddick's (1962) checklist, the Behaviour Problem Checklist (Quay and Peterson, 1973) and a Cleckley type checklist fashioned after Schacter and Latane (1964) and Hare (1970). The self-report questionnaires were the MMPI, the Activity Preference Questionnaire (APQ; Lykken and Katzenmeyer, 1968), the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI; Eysenck, 1967), the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS; Zuckerman, Kolin, Price and Zoob, 1964) and the Personal Opinion 1 9 Survey, which was modified f o r use w i t h a d u l t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the c h e c k l i s t s were hi g h , e s p e c i a l l y between the C l e c k l e y and Craddick s c a l e s . However, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s e l f - r e p o r t i n v e n t o r i e s were very small as were those between the c h e c k l i s t s and the i n v e n t o r i e s , e.g., the C l e c k l e y c h e c k l i s t and the Pd and Ma scales of the MMPI c o r r e l a t e d only .01 and .12 r e s p e c t i v e l y w h i l e the e x t r a v e r s i o n and n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e s of the EPI were c o r r e l a t e d .00 and -.01 r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h the c h e c k l i s t . The case record data c o r r e l a t e d somewhat b e t t e r w i t h the c h e c k l i s t s than d i d 'thfes tjue%^ionnair es. Hare (1975) r e p o r t s on a recent study which included the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the S t a t e - T r a i t Anxiety Inventory (STAT; S p i e l b e r g e r , Gorsuch, and Lushene, 1970), the Hogan Empathy Scale (Hogan, 1969), the B a r r a t t I m p u l s i v i t y Scale ( B a r r a t t , 1959) and the S o c i a l i z a t i o n Scale (So; Gough, 1969) along w i t h the p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e c o r d i n g . I t was found that only the S o c i a l i z a t i o n Scale showed any c o n s i s t e n t and t h e o r e t i c a l l y meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the p h y s i o l o g i c a l data i n r e l a t i o n to the concept of psychopathy. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were obtained i n a study using c o l l e g e students, reported i n Hare and Cox ( i n p r e s s ) , w i t h only the S o c i a l i z a t i o n Scale y i e l d i n g mean-i n g f u l p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s u l t s . The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Scale The concept of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to a n t i s o c i a l behaviour i s most notably described i n a t h e o r e t i c a l paper by Gough (1948) i n which the psychopath i s portrayed as one d e f i c i e n t i n r o l e - p l a y i n g a b i l i t i e s . S c h a l l i n g ( i n press) summarizes the development of t h i s viewpoint, s t a t i n g : "The most f r u i t f u l t h e o r e t i c a l approach towards an understanding of psychopathy i s according to Gough the s e l f - t h e o r y and r o l e -t a k i n g theory, as developed by Mead. For him s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s what produces 'the s e l f and the c a p a c i t y to look upon oneself 'as an o b j e c t ' . During childhood an image of 'the g e n e r a l i z e d other' i s created by i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a c o g n i t i v e scheme of the 20 experiences of interpersonal interaction. This is the basis for the development of 'role-taking a b i l i t y ' , the a b i l i t y to perceive and evaluate one's own behaviour as i t is perceived and evaluated by others in the same culture. Role-taking is related to empathy. It is assumed to provide the individual with means of achieving self-understanding and self-control." Gough describes the psychopath as one who is incapable of looking upon himself as an object or identifying with another's point of view. He cannot foresee the social implications of his acts, does not experience social emo-tions, does not accept the justice of punishment or deprivation and lacks behavioural control, as he does not forsee the objections others might have to his actions. Gough concludes: "It has been one of the purposes of this paper to show that the essential diagnostic element is not social maladjustment, per se, or even a special kind of social maladjustment such as amorality; rather, i t is a deficiency in role-playing a-b i l i t y which is peculiarly liable to manifestation in social relationships." (1948, p. 366). Out of this theoretical position Gough and Peterson (1952) developed the Delinquency (De) Scale, the purpose of which was the reliable prediction of delinquent and criminal behaviour. As the result of cross validation, ten items were then eliminated from the scale and the remaining items were included in the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) as the Socialization (So) scale. Research as to the validity of the scale is reviewed by Gough (1960, 1965). Individuals with low So scores are described as "arrogant, disorderly, impatient, impulsive, i r r i t a b l e , restless". Evidence is presented for a con-tinuum of socialization-asocialization with obtained samples covering a wide range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , from the highest socialization scores for nominated "best citizens" through to the lox<rest for inmates in a federal reformatory. Megargee (1972) reports that in a factor analysis of the CPI the So scale had high loadings on the f i r s t factor for which the items "stress the triumph of reason over emotion; high scorers are seen as calm, mature, 21 dependable people who are warm and responsive to others but in good control of their own feelings. Low scorers are volatile, impulsive, and li k e l y to step on people's toes in their heedless pursuit of pleasure" (p. 125). As the result of an extensive review of the research literature on the So scale Megargee concludes: "...an impressive array of data have accumulated demonstrating the concurrent, predictiveaand construct validity of the CPI socialization scale...There seems to be l i t t l e doubt that the So scale is one of the best-validated and most powerful person-a l i t y scales available;...as one does research on personality assessment devices, one becomes aware of inherent limits on the degree to which any single, scale score can correlate with overt behaviour. However, the data indicate that few scales approach these limits as closely as does So." (p. 65). In their analysis of research studies concerned with the personality attributes of the criminal completed in the period from 1950—1965, Waldo and Dinitz (1967) indicate that the So scale was second only to the MMPI in use and was most effective in discriminating delinquents from nondelinquents. Reed and Cuadraa(1957) had student nurses f i l l out a checklist of ad-jectives three times - the f i r s t time as they perceived themselves, the sec-ond time as they perceived three other students assigned to them and a third time as they thought these other three would rate them. When subjects from the extremes of obtained scores on the De scale were compared with respect to their ratings several conclusions were reached. Among these were that: those individuals who had high De scores were significantly less accurate in predicting how they would be described by others; in the pre-nomination rat-ings of insight, high De scorers were rated significantly less insightful; high De scorers were poorer in predictive accuracy; high De scorers appeared to expect to be misunderstood by others. In a pilot study, the high De scorers seemed to expect that they would be described with adjectives such as confused, immature, and impatient which,:*:in fact, they were. The authors 22 conclude: "If incapacity in role-taking implies a relative i n a b i l i t y to understand and predict one's own social stimulus value in a particular setting the findings of this study support indirectly the assumption upon which the De scale is based. The scale i t -self apparently discriminates between Ss on their a b i l i t y to see themselves as others see them." (p. 390). This scale has been translated into Swedish by Schalling and Rosen and used in a number of studies by their research group. Two studies using a multivariate approach (Rosen and Schalling, 1974; Rosen, 1977) suggest that the So scale reflects a unitary dimension with the highest loadings on sub-scales reflecting positive interpersonal experiences, conformity and obser-vance of convention and superego strength. It seems clear that low scorers have a high risk of being or becoming delinquent or criminal as compared to high scorers. Part of their population was students of whom a surprisingly large number f e l l within the low socialization group. However, i t is noted by the authors that several studies (Carlson, 1972; Lefcourt, 1968) have found that students as subjects in personality research w i l l frequently ad-mit to deviant behaviour or having committed i l l e g a l offenses. In the Rosen study i t was found that the obtained subscales effectively measure the as-pects of role-playing and socialization regardless of whether or not the subjects were criminals. In a study involving three different exam situations Hetherington and Feldman (1964) found that the So scale successfully discriminated between cheaters and noncheaters. The highest risk situation involved the use of a textbook during an oral examination. Subjects who cheated in this s i t u -ation were described by the authors as "unconventional, poorly socialized, and impulsive." This group was distinguished by their low scores on the So scale and was the only one in which cheating was significantly related to the Pd scale of the MMPI. 23 Hogan (1973) suggests that the development of moral character can be described in terms of five dimensions: moral knowledge, socialization, em-pathy, autonomy, and moral judgment. Of these concepts socialization is seen as most important with a major breakthrough in the study of moral con-duct being the development of the So scale. A review of i t s use leads the author to conclude: "Gough*s Socialization scale seems to be a highly valid empirical index of the degree to which one has internalized culturally de-fined rules." (p. 222). Schalling and her associates have studied the psychophysiology of social-ization extensively as an extension of their work on psychopathy, which is reviewed in detail in Schalling (in press). Schalling and Levander (1964) demonstrated that psychopathic delinquents, selected on the basis of c l i n i c a l ratings, had a higher tolerance for pain and subsequently, (Schalling and Levander, 1967), that they displayeddfewer spontaneous fluctuations in skin conductance during anticipation of pain stimulation. Using the So scale to select subjects, Schalling, Lidberg, Levander, and Dahlin (1973) found that low scorers showed fewer spontaneous fluctuations in skin conductance, during and after auditory stimulation, as well as lower levels of skin conductance than high scorers. Schalling, Levander, Dahlin-Lidberg (1975) again found fewer spontaneous fluctuations with low Soicscor.er-s's before painful stimula-tion and before mental arithmetic tasks. Schalling (in press) relates this absence of spontaneous fluctuations in anticipatory situations shown by the psychopath to lowered attention, or sensitivity, to cues of impending un-pleasant stimulation, or possibly to an inability to fantasize or be aware of future events. These deficits may be related to their inadequate role-taking behaviour. In social interaction the psychopath may lack the a b i l i t y to anticipate through fantasy what the other individuals' reactions might be. 24 Schalling states: "the idea that lack of fantasy, not only lack of fear, is crucial for psychopathic behaviour, appears thus well in line with Gough's theory of psychopathy, and our findings of rela-tions between high De (low So) scores and few SC fluctuations in various anticipatory situations thus constitutes a link be-tween cognitive and psychophysiological aspects of psychopathy." (in press). Schalling (in press) reports on two other studies done by their research group which relate to socialization. Levander, Schalling, Lidberg, Bader-Bartfai, and Lidberg (1976) found that subjects high in De (low So), high in impulsiveness and low in empathy, had a longer recovery time for skin con-ductance responses. This phenomenon has been related to psychopathic behav-iour i n two theories. Mednick (1975) equates slow electrodermal recovery with slow fear reduction when making avoidance responses to conditioned nox-ious stimuli. A consequence of this would be poor reinforcement which might explain the psychopath's deficiencies in avoidance learning and relative i n -sensitivity to punishment. Another hypothesis is Venable's (1975), that slow electrodermal recovery is associated with closedness to the environment. This could be related to the stimulation seeking behaviour associated with psycho-pathy, resulting from reduced perceptual input. The second study related to differences in socialization scores is that of Lidberg, Levander, Schalling, and Lidberg (1976) in which urinary cate-cholamine excretion values were studied during a high stress situation. Ad-renalin and noradrenalin secretion levels differed significantly between low and high De scorers. The low scorers (high socializationdsubjects) displayed changesuwh'ieh JSggfe?$minyolK^entiaftdaaM4c'±patltonsofe.th§ustressful event. Hare (1975) reports on the use of the So scale in several of his more recent studies on psychopathy. The use of this scale in conjunction with c l i n i c a l ratings (Hare, Frazelle and Cox, submitted) seems to delineate a 2 5 group of inmates d i s p l a y i n g l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n h e a r t r a t e , r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of a v e r s i v e s t i m u l i and s m a l l e l e c t r o -dermal r e s p o n s e s to u n s i g n a l l e d s t i m u l i . T h i s p a t t e r n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t found i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s by Hare, i n which psychopaths were found to be e l e c -t r o d e r m a l l y h y p o r e a c t i v e and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r l y h y p e r r e a c t i v e t o t h e t h r e a t of n o x i o u s s t i m u l i . T h i s g r o u p i n g o f s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h psychopathy - low So r a t i n g s may r e s u l t i n the f o r m a t i o n of a group of more homogeneous and " p u r e " p s y c h o p a t h s . T h i s group was d i f f e r e n t from the h i g h p sychopath - h i g h So ( h i g h r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r inmates) b e h a v i o u r a l l y as w e l l as p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y . They had h i g h e r mean s c o r e s on the Pd, D e p r e s s i o n , H y s t e r i a and S c h i z o p h r e n i a s c a l e s of the MMPI and had been charged w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c r i m e s . Hare comments: "About the o n l y t h i n g t h a t would seem t o be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the view t h a t the low So group was 'purer' and more homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t to psychopathy i s the f a c t t h a t t h e i r h e a r t r a t e r e s p o n s e i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of a s t r e s s o r was s i m i l a r . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , even though the r e sponse of each group was h e a r t r a t e a c -c e l e r a t i o n , we might s p e c u l a t e t h a t the c r i t i c a l l e v e l o f p s y -chopathy ( w i t h i n a group) needed f o r t h i s a s p e c t of p h y s i o l o g i -c a l a c t i v i t y t o emerge i s lower than i t i s f o r the a t t e n u a t i o n of e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y t o o c c u r . I f so, we might expect t h a t group d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n t i c i p a t o r y c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y would be e a s -i e r t o d e t e c t than would d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n t i c i p a t o r y e l e c t r o -dermal a c t i v i t y , t h e l a t t e r r e q u i r i n g b e t t e r c l i n i c a l s e p a r a t i o n between groups than the f o rmer." (Hare, i n p r e s s ) . The S o c i a l i z a t i o n S c a l e may be most u s e f u l i n the s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s f o r r e s e a r c h , when used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y c l i n i c a l r a t i n g s . A l t h o u g h psychopaths may o b t a i n low So s c o r e s , i t does not seem r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who o b t a i n low So s c o r e s a r e nec-e s s a r i l y p s y c h o p a t h i c . T h i s i s an assumption which does not seem j u s t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s of r e s e a r c h done so f a r on t h i s s c a l e . I t may be t h a t when c l i n -i c a l r a t i n g s and the So s c a l e a r e combined, as has been done by Hare and S c h a l l i n g , convergence i n d e f i n i t i o n o c c u r s , b o t h methods b e i n g i m p e r f e c t 26 measures of psychopathy. It may be possible to combine the So scale with other measures and obtain similar results. Psychopathy and Stimulation-Seeking Behaviour Ludwig (1971) contends that not only can we assume that individuals possess unique perceptual styles through which they organize and interpret sensory input in a particular way but also that people w i l l seek out those sensory environments that are conducive to~ optimal functioning. The range of situations across individuals w i l l be great. He states: "In their general daily activities some people seem to be sensation-seekers, while others seem to be sensation-avoiders. Some prefer variety, novelty, or change in their stimulus i n -put while others prefer constancy, familiarity, or predicta-b i l i t y . These tendencies may be exaggerated in some mental patients such as c l i n i c schizophrenics, some of whom seem im-pervious to most forms of sensory and social stimulation and others of whom, on the contrary, frantically seek out such stimulation. If, in fact, these various c l i n i c a l observations are valid, i t is surprising they have not been the object of more research scrutiny. It is possible that investigation i n -to the manner by which man reacts to and chooses to modulate his sensory environment w i l l yield important c l i n i c a l insights about the behaviour of normal and mentally i l l people alike." (p. 413). The psychopath has frequently been described as an individual who finds i t d i f f i c u l t to tolerate routine and is continually in need of stimulation (e.g., Cleckley, 1976; Quay, 1965; Petrie, 1967; Eysenck, 1967). This view-point has been extensively developed by Quay who describes the psychopath as a "pathological stimulation seeker." In his seminal paper concerning this concept he states: "What we have suggested is that the psychopath, either due to a lessened basal reactivity or an increased rate of adaptation, quite frequently finds himself in a condition of stimulus de-privation. Since this condition is affectively unpleasant he is motivated to change this affective state by seeking stimula-tion." (Quay, 1965, p. 182). 27 In a more recent paper he elaborates: It is the undirected impulsivity and the lack of even minimal tolerance for sameness which appear to be the unique features of disorder. In accounting for these and related features of the disorder an explanation of psychopathic behaviour in terms of the concepts of need for varied sensory stimulation, adapta-tion to sensory inputs, and the relationship of these to affect and motivation seems reasonable. The basic hypothesis is that psychopathic behaviour represents an extreme of stimulation-seeking behaviour and that the psychopath's primary abnormality lies in the realm of basal reactivity and/or adaptation to sen-sory inputs of a l l types." (Quay, 1975, p. 1). As a consequence of his ina b i l i t y to tolerate boredom, his impulsivity and need for t h r i l l s and adventure the psychopath shows an inordinate need for change in patterns of stimulation. It may be, as Quay suggests, that in what would be construed as normal l i f e circumstances the psychopath experi-ences the unpleasant affect which can be induced by sensory deprivation or monotony. Cli n i c a l l y , Cleckley (1975) has described this hunger for stimulation displayed by the psychopath as a consequence of a l i f e devoid of meaningful goals, values and satisfactions. He states: "If, as we maintain, the big rewards of love, of the hard job well done, of faith kept despite sacrifices, do not enter sig-nificantly in the equation, i t is not d i f f i c u l t to see that the psychopath is li k e l y to be bored. Being bored, he w i l l seek to cut up more than the ordinary person to relieve the tedium of his unrewarding existence." (p. 398). Cleckley speculates that i t is out of this state of chronic boredom that much of the psychopath's deviant behaviour grows. "Perhaps the emptiness or superficiality of l i f e without major goals or deep loyalties, or real love, would leave a person with high intelligence and other superior capacities so bored that he would eventually turn to hazardous, self-damaging, outlandish, antisocial, and even self-destructive exploits in order to find something fresh and stimulating in which to apply his relatively useless and unchallenged energies and talents." (p. 402). 28 McCord and McCord (1964) also describe vividly the psychopath's search for excitement and his avoidance of s t a b i l i t y . "It seems probable, though not provable, that the psychopath has not learned to find pleasure in sta b i l i t y , for he seeks excitement in variety more than most human beings. The aver-age man wants excitement, but he also wants security. The psychopath, however, seems willing to sacrifice everything for excitement. His satisfactions have always been fleeting and highly changeable from childhood through maturity. Con-sequently, he seems to know no greater pleasure than constant change, and the search for excitement at any cost becomes an important motive." (;(p. 9). It may be that what was considered "not provable" now i s . Using more recent psychometric devices in conjunction with physiological measures i t may now be possible to at least in part assess the antisocial individual's reaction to " s t a b i l i t y " and establish some constitutional basis for his constant seek-ing of stimulation. The immediacy of the psychopath's demand for satisfaction, in spite of the possible negative consequences, is emphasized by Buss (1966) who l i s t s thrill-seeking behaviour and the ina b i l i t y to control impulses or delay grati-fication as his two f i r s t symptoms of the disorder. He states: "The psychopath demands immediate gratification of each passing impulse. Beyond the childlike i n a b i l i t y to delay or deny sat-isfaction, the psychopath often actively seeks t h r i l l s . " (p. 432). With respect to the passage of time he concludes: "The psychopath cannot bind time. He cannot wait; he cannot surrender a smaller present pleasure for a distant goal. He cannot abide routine for long and takes no comfort in a stable, recurrent regime of daily l i v i n g . He has no sense of time, es-pecially of the future; he senses only the here and now." (p. 435). Eysenck (1970) has described the psychopath in terms of three personal-it y dimensions — neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism. On the dimen-sion of extraversion the psychopath is said to represent the extreme. Eysenck (1962) predicts that the extravert w i l l show less stimulus deprivation tolerance and greater stimulus hunger when compared to the introvert. The activities the extravert engages in w i l l be those that provide increased stimulation, ranging from a greater use of stimulants such as cigarettes to increased risk-taking. It is also expected that body movements w i l l be larger and more frequent resulting in increased proprioceptive stimulation and that vigilance w i l l be decreased in extraverts. Eysenck relates the development of the socialization process to conditioning and i t s relationship to the d i -mension of introversion-extraversion. The extravert is seen as deficient in conditionability with the extreme situation being, "the psychopath, who is undersocialized and prone to antisocial acts due to his defective con-ditioning equipment." (1963, p. 14). ..The Sensation. Seeking Scale As a means to assessing the personality implications of the concept of "an optimal stimulation level", as proposed by individuals such as Leuba (1955) and Berlyne (1960), the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) was developed by Zuckerman, Kolin, Price and Zoob (1964). The scale has gone through a number of revisions and the current Form IV consists of 72 items containing five factor analytically derived scales. The General scale is a first-order factor retained from earlier forms. It contains 22 items which represent a good factorial definition of the general sensation seeking t r a i t with high loadings for both males and females. Further analysis has produced four sec-ond order factors in addition to the general factor. These factors are seen to represent differentiable but overlapping aspects of sensation seeking and arousal and are described as follows: The T h r i l l and Adventure Seeking Scale (TAS) consists of items expressing a desire to engage in outdoor sports or other activities involving speed and danger. 30 The Experience Seeking Scale (ES) assesses the search for new experi-ences via the mind and senses and an unconventional, non-conforming l i f e style. The items reflect considerations such as travel, unusual dress and behaviour, the use of hallucinogenic drugs, associating with unconventional people, a like for arousing music and art, and a flouting of "irrational" authority. The Disinhibition Scale (Dis) consists of items expressing a hedonistic "playboy" philosophy. It indicates a positive attitude towards variety in sexual partners, heavy social drinking, "wild parties", gambling, and social disinhibition. The Boredom Susceptability (BS), unlike the other scales, is defined more clearly for males than females. It contains items indicating a dislike for repetition of experience, routine work, predictable, dull or boring peo-ple, a preference for variety and a subsequent restlessness when things are monotonous. Ample data is available concerning the r e l i a b i l i t y and validity of the SSS (e.g., Zuckerman, 1974, 1975; Zuckerman and Link, 1968). In the latter the high sensation seeker is described as being "...oriented to body sensations, extraverted, thrill-seeking, active, impulsive, antisocial or nonconformist, and low on anxiety." (p. 421). The f u l l spectrum of the dimension is described as follows: "The low sensation seeker seems to need order and predictabil-ity in his environment. He values social a f f i l i a t i o n and i s willing to give to, or give in to, others to maintain s t a b i l i t y . The high sensation seeker needs change in his environment, i n -dependence from others, and probably needs others primarily as an audience to his own performance." (p. 425). In a more recent article Zuckerman, Bone, Neary, Mangelsdorff and Brustman (1972), describe the sensation seeker from the viewpoint of mainten-ance of optimal levels of stimulation. 31 "The sensation seeker is seen as a person who needs varied, novel, and complex sensations and experiences to maintain an optimal level of arousal. His optimal arousal level i s as-sumed to be greater than that of non-sensation seekers, a l -though this has not yet been tested. When stimuli and experi-ences become repetitive, i t is assumed that the sensation seeker w i l l become bored and nonresponsive more quickly than most other persons. He is presumed to be more sensitive to inner sensations and less conforming to external constraints." (p. 308). Empirical Examinations of Antisocial Behaviour and Sensation Seeking It is relevant at this point to review the extensive literature which has developed with respect to the empirical examination of stimulation or sensation seeking behaviour and the way in which this behaviour relates to antisocial behaviour. Zuckerman, Bone, Neary, Mangelsdorff and Brustman (1972) conducted a series of studies to examine some of the personality traits and experience correlates of the SSS. With respect to the MMPI the outstanding correlations were obtained with the F (response deviance), Psychopathic Deviate (Pd), and Hypomania (Ma) scales, results which were replicated. When comparisons were made with Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (Cattell, Saunders and Stice, 1957), positive correlations were obtained with the Dominance, Surgency, Adventurous, Bohemian and Radicalism scales and a negative correla-tion was obtained with the Super-Ego scale. The authors suggest that this pattern describes a dominant, impulsive, nonconforming extraversion rather than the cooperative, trustful, warm-hearted type of extraversion associated with the Cyclothymia scale, which did not correlate with the SSS. It was found that high sensation seekers reported more drug, alcohol, smoking and sexual experience than low scorers. Using a shortened version of the Welsh Figure Preference Test (Welsh, 1959) the preference for visual complexity was examined for extreme scorers on the SSS. The authors conclude: "the marked contrast between the simple designs liked by the low sensation seeker and the complex designs liked by the high tends 32 to support the construct validity of the SSS as a measure of 'optimal level of stimulation'. It might be hypothesized that while the complex designs have more arousal value than the sim-ple for a l l Ss, the high sensation seekers like them and the lows dislike them just for that reason." (p. 317). Significant correlations were also obtained between the Experience Inventory (Fitzgerald, 1966) and the SSS indicating that there is a toler-ance for irrationality, a reflection of high scores on the Experience In-ventory, as part of the sensation seeking t r a i t . Kipnis and Wagner (1967) report a highly significant correlation between the SSS and the Insolence Scale (Kipnis and Wagner, 1967) which is described as a measure of impulsive, psychopathic tendencies. Kipnis states that the scale measures "aspects of social immaturity, particularly in differentiating those who f a i l to adapt to socially defined achievement roles or those who would be labelled character disordered in a c l i n -i c a l population from those who adapt or would be labelled non-character disordered." (p. 218). Farley and Farley (1967) obtained a significant correlation (r = .47) between the SSS and extraversion as measured by Eysenck's Personality In-ventory, results which were replicated in a later study (Farley and Farley, 1970). A reference is made to Eysenck's theory in which the extravert is seen as an individual displaying more frequent alterations in behavio'ur, greater alcohol and cigarette consumption, more physical movement, less t o l -erance for stimulus deprivation and increased pain tolerance (Eysenck, 1963). Farley and Farley (1972) examined delinquent behaviour in institutional-ized g i r l s and found that the high sensation seekers were involved in a sig-nificantly greater number of escape attempts than were low sensation seekers. Also, the former had been disciplined more frequently for disobedience to su-pervision and had engaged in more fighting behaviour. A recommendation of the authors is that institutions of this type could anticipate this need for constant stimulation and provide a variety in stimulus input that might well function to decrease the amount of disruptive behaviour within the i n s t i t u -tion. A similar point was made by Rogers (1939) when he described how the behaviour of young psychopaths often improves when they are transferred to a new foster home. This is attributed to increased interest and attention fo-cused on the unfamiliar environment. However, as the novelty of the situation wears off the delinquent behaviour can be expected to reappear. Farley and Farley (1972) suggest that the higher incidence of disruptive behaviours in the high sensation seekers is due to low physiological arousal levels and that anything which w i l l raise these levels w i l l decrease the behaviours. More recently, Farley (1973) has proposed a two-factor theory of delin-quency based on the combination of stimulation-seeking behaviours, resulting from a physiological arousal de f i c i t , and environmental opportunities for the channeling of stimulation. If the environment that the high sensation seeker lives in does not make available a variety of socially acceptable experiences i t is more lik e l y that delinquent behaviour w i l l occur. The low sensation seeker would not be expected to become delinquent even i f approbative experi-ences were not available. Blackburn (1969) found a significant positivescorrelation between the SSS and the MMPI measures of impulsivity, extrapunitiveness and psychopathy and with scales measuring overt and covert h o s t i l i t y . These results are pre-sented as support for Quay's hypothesis of pathological stimulation seeking in psychopaths. Using a typology empirically derived from the MMPI, Blackburn (1975) divided a sample of male offenders into primary psychopaths, secondary psy-chopaths and nonpsychopaths. The psychopathic groups were differentiated from the nonpsychopathic group on the Pd scale of the MMPI, scales of 34 impulsivity and aggression and on the SSS. The two psychopathic groups d i f -fered on extraversion, and social anxiety or withdrawal indicating that, a l -though Quay's hypothesis is supported in both psychopathic groups, in the secondary psychopaths this stimulation seeking behaviour is moderated by so-c i a l avoidance. These two groups differed on the subscales of the SSS with primary psychopaths obtaining extreme scores on a l l four subscales whereas for the secondary psychopaths this occurred on only two of the subscales. Emmons and Webb (1974) used scores on the MMPI and the Activity Prefer-ence Questionnaire (APQ; Lykken and Katzenmeyer, 1968) to designate three groups of prisoners - psychopathic, acting-out neurotic and normal controls. These subjects were then administered the SSS and Izard's (1971) Differential Mood Scale (DMS). Again the results support the contention that psychopaths are pathological stimulation seekers as they scored significantly higher than the other two groups on three of the subscales and significance was approached on the general sensation seeking scale. Stimulation-Seeking Behaviours A number of studies has been done to examine the performance of the anti-social individual in situations designed to assess responses to stimulation. Whitehall, DeMyer-Gapin and Scott (1976) examined stimulation seeking behav-iour in antisocial preadolescent children, in comparison to neurotic and nor-mal children. The f i r s t two groups were selected on the basis of ratings made by professional staff members of the treatment center in which the c h i l -dren lived. The subjects were asked to s i t and view a large number of slides which were of scenes devoid of animate subject matter or thematic content. The slides were set to change automatically although the subject had the op-tion to speed up the viewing process by manually decreasing the inter-slide interval. Again, the results supported Quay's stimulation-seeking hypothesis 35 as the antisocial group spent.a significantly shorter time viewing the slides over t r i a l blocks with the neurotic group representing the other extreme of maximal viewing time and the normal group being intermediate. Psychopaths, anxiety neurotics and normals, selected on the basis of MMPI c r i t e r i a , were compared by Wiesen (1965) in a situation involving the onset or offset of both mechanical and human stimulation as a function of the subject's correct key pressing behaviour while seated in a dark quiet room. The stimulation was presented in an operant period, a conditioning period, and an extinction period. Significant differences between the groups with respect to learning to offset or onset the stimulation indicate the psy-chopath's need for stimulation and the anxiety neurotic's concern to avoid i t . The author states: "The results imply that anxiety neurotics, seeking a reduction in stimulation, might benefit most from a quiet undemanding therapeutic environment. Psychopaths, however, might be aided in their therapeutic progress by controlled alleviation of their sensory deprivation (i.e. stimulation) to reduce antisocial acts aimed at obtaining such stimulation." (p. 1786). Caron (1967) studied three groups of adolescents to determine preference for stimulus complexity, v a r i a b i l i t y and intensity. The groups were made up of individuals with juvenile court records, normal controls, and students i -dentified as having discipline problems in school. The subjects were tested on: their expressed preference for shapes of different complexity; their ex-pressed preference for sounds of different va r i a b i l i t y ; and their expressed preference for sounds of different decibel levels. Although the expectations with respect to Quay's hypothesis were not upheld s t a t i s t i c a l l y , the obtained differences were in the predicted direction. One explanation offered for the non-significant results was the use of a group testing format, to avoid sin-gling out the delinquent subjects. Another possible explanation i s that the results approached significance only to the extent that the delinquent group approached the description of psychopathy as intended by Quay in his descrip-tion of the "pathological stimulation seeker". The fact that the delinquents had juvenile court records does not necessarily justify their being labelled psychopathic. One of the most frequently cited studies in this area is that of Skrzypek (1969) in which psychopathic and neurotic delinquents experienced situations of perceptual isolation and arousal and were administered pre and postmeasures of novelty and complexity preference and anxiety. The subjects were selected on the basis of Quay's (1964) behaviour rating checklist which identifies the two dimensions of "unsocialized-psychopath" and disturbed-neurotic". Prior to perceptual isolation psychopathic delinquents had allower anxiety score and a significantly higher novelty and complexity preference score as com-pared to the neurotic delinquent. Following perceptual isolation the psycho-pathic delinquents significantly increased their complexity scores whereas after an arousal condition their scores did not change. The neurotic delin-quents showed an increase in anxiety scores and a decrease in complexity pre-ference scores following the arousal condition. It is interesting to note that the period of time necessary to produce the changes in complexity and novelty preference behaviour was only 40 minutes in this experiment. The author concludes: "The results suggest a description of the psychopath as an individual who lacks tolerance for even short periods of i n -activity and sameness, and who is highly motivated to seek added intensity and va r i a b i l i t y of stimulation after experi-encing such sensory restriction. Furthermore, the psycho-path seems to find himself in a state of stimulus deprivation even in the everyday environment." (p. 358). If one can assume that physiological arousal and anxiety levels w i l l be re-lated following a stressful event then, the author suggests, the low anxiety 37 levels reported by the psychopathic group should be indicative of an auto-nomically unreactive individual. Orris (1967) found that individuals who scored high on the psychopathic scale of the Quay and Peterson (1967) questionnaire showed a significant dec-rement in vigilance when compared to those who scored high on the neurotic or subcultural scales. The groups were involved in 100 minute practice and criterion sessions with the psychopathic group performing consistently poorer than the other two. It was the c l i n i c a l impression that the psychopathic group engaged in more self-stimulation, such as singing and talking, which interfered with continuous attention. This behaviour was apparently the re-sult of an intolerance for boredom. Schoenherr (1964), while investigating Lykken's earlier study on avoid-ance learning in psychopaths, found unexpectedly that the c l i n i c a l l y diagnosed psychopath displayed a significantly higher perceptual threshold for awareness of electrical current in the skin when compared to secondary psychopaths or normals. As a consequence of this difference he suggested that the amount of noxious stimulation experienced by primary psychopaths is less than for other subjects which could explain their relative failure in avoidance behaviour. A replication of this study by Hare (1968) again indicated a higher detection threshold for electric shock in psychopaths. One interpretation offered is that a lack of interest or the rapid development of boredom in the psycho-paths may be at least partially responsible for the differences. It was hy-pothesized that their in a b i l i t y to sustain attentiveness could be improved i f the appropriate rewards were available. An early study which examined this situation to a certain extent is Fairweather's (1953) in which criminal psychopaths werelinvolved in three reward conditions - no reward, certain reward, and uncertain reward - for 38 the learning of nonsense syllables. The most effective condition for learn-ing was that of uncertain rewards, which would be expected to be the condition of maximum arousal due to the v a r i a b i l i t y in stimulation induced by the uncer-tainty of the situation. Hare and Thorvaldson (1970) offered incentives for correct detections to electrical stimulation. When this was done the differences between psychpaths and nonpsychopaths were not significant, with decreases being shown for both groups. An extension of this study was the examination of tolerance levels for shocks. With no incentives there were no differences between the groups in either the level tolerated or verbal descriptions of intensity levels. However, when incentives were offered the psychopaths were able to tolerate significantly more shock than the other subjects. Mathis (1970) examined emotionality in the antisocial personality by comparing a group of diagnosed criminal psychopaths with individuals diagnosed as character disorders and normal controls on autonomic and behavioural meas-ures. Physiologically, the psychopathic group displayed a significantly lower tonic autonomic arousal level as measured by electrodermal activity. The groups were asked to observe a series of slides of meaningful content about which self-report and response-latency data were collected. The psychopathic group showed a preference for more sensational images and a disinterest in more neutral, p i c t o r i a l themes in comparison to the other groups. Self-report ratings indicate that they found pictures of fac i a l injuries less po-tent than did the other groups. These results were interpreted as supportive for the position that the psychopath is a thrill-seeking individual who bores easily. Schmauk (1970) investigated the relationship between different forms of punishment - physical, tangible, and social - on autonomic arousal, subjective anxiety, and avoidance learning in primary psychopaths, secondary psychopaths and normal controls. The subjects were presented with an avoidance learning task and, depending upon group assignments received shock, loss of money or verbal disapproval for an incorrect response. Under the shock and verbal punishment situations the psychopathic group scored significantly below the controls in: anticipatory arousal, as measured by GSR activity; subjective anxiety, as measured by a self-rating scale; and avoidance learning, as meas-ured by their a b i l i t y to learn the correct path through a maze of multiple choicepoints. However, when the loss of money was involved the psychopathic group showed significant increases in a l l three measures attaining levels similar to those of the normal control group. The increase in subjective anxiety levels was unexpected and the author suggests that the psychopath has been described as displaying a lack of anxiety only because fewer stimuli are capable of generating anxiety in this individual. If the punishment is appropriate to his value system however, then in fact i t w i l l be experienced as noxious or anxiety-provoking, and there w i l l be motivation to perform ef-fectively. Chesno and Kilman (1975) investigated the prediction that primary psycho paths w i l l be deficient in a shock avoidance situation i f stimulation other than the shock is minimal, and that as the nonshock stimulation is increased their shock avoidance behaviour w i l l improve. Subjects were selected on the basis of Cleckley c r i t e r i a and groups of neurotics and normals were included. The avoidance task was performed under three conditions - low, medium and high levels of background auditory stimulation, which was maintained during the duration of the session. The results indicated that the auditory stimu-lation level had a significant influence on shock-avoidance behaviour. The psychopaths did most poorly under the situation of low stimulation, with the 40 situations of increased auditory stimulation resulting in a significant de-crease in errors. These results were interpreted in terms of optimal levels of stimulation which are greater for the psychopath. The authors suggested that the psychopath's poor performance in avoidance learning in laboratory situations may be artifactual, resulting from the long, monotonous and un-stimulating nature of the situation. His apparent failure to learn as a consequence of punishment may occur only in those situations in which l i t t l e sensory input i s available. Pfeiffer and Maltzman (1974) examined the warned reaction times of c l i n -i c a l l y diagnosed psychopaths and normal controls. Several warning intervals, from 1-16 seconds, were used and they were presented in both a regular and irregular series. The psychopaths were uniformly slower in reaction time than were the controls and they displayed a constant decrement across a l l interval lengths in both series. It would seem reasonable to assume that these differences were due to deficits in attention, set or motivation. How-ever, the authors contended that these differences are due to synaptic and/or motor factors and that the psychopath is characterized by a reduced state of cortical excitability. Their contention was that psychopaths do not attend to contain stimuli because they are underaroused and that results like Schmauk's (1970) can be explained in terms of money being the type of stimulus that is arousing enough to improve performance. AroUsal and Antisocial Behaviour It is relevant to this formulation of psychopathy to discuss the concept of an arousal deficit as a causal factor in antisocial behaviour. The most recent review of this area i s by Hare (1975), which places special emphasis on electrodermal and cardiovascular functioning. Cortical functioning i s re-viewed by Syndulko (1977) and Gale (1975). I n i t i a l l y i t might appear that research results in this area are not consistent. However, i t may be that these discrepancies are attributable at least in part, to procedural differences, particularly subject selection. Reference to two research situations should il l u s t r a t e this problem, although a more thorough discussion of subject selection i s available in Hare and Cox (in press). In a study done in Hare's laboratory (Hare and Quinn, 1971) on autonomic conditioning and psychopathy, the primary psychopathic group was made up of 18 inmates selected from a population of approximately 500 in a maximum security institution. I n i t i a l l y Cleckley's concept of psychopathy was reviewed with a prison psychiatrist, psychologist and classification of-ficer who were asked to submit names of inmates of personal acquaintance who could be generally described as psychopathic or nonpsychopathic. Two psycho-logists then read the f i l e s on the nominated inmates, which are extensive in a Federal institution, and independently completed checklists of psychopathic characteristics for each individual. They also made a global rating on each inmate to indicate their certainty that the individual was or was not psycho-pathic, using a 7-point scale, with 1 indicating the extremes of psychopathy and 7 that the rater was certain the inmate was nonpsychopathic. Only those inmates who received a rating of 1 or 2 were included in the psychopathic group and 6 and 7 comprised the nonpsychopathic group. In comparison to these selection procedures are those used by Gautheh (1972) in which 12 subjects were selected from intoductory psychology classes on the basis of an elevated Psychopathic Deviate Scale (Pd) on the MMPI and no scales above 65 t-scores except Pd and the Manic Scale. The control was comprised of 9 subjects low on Pd with no scales above 65 t-scores. Although the author acknowledges that this population w i l l be less deviant than an i n -carcerated one, the results are interpreted with respect to psychopathy. The 42 i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s i s that the research becomes part of the l i t e r a t u r e and may be used by others to provide evidence f o r a poi n t of view, w i t h the man-ner i n which the subjects were s e l e c t e d being overlooked. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, one aspect of the r e s u l t s r e l a t e s to c o r t i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g , w i t h the r e s u l t s being opposite t o what most research would p r e d i c t of the psychopath. I t may be, however, that the r e s u l t s are only a f u n c t i o n of the popu l a t i o n -u n i v e r s i t y students who may show a l a c k of s o c i a l conformity or s e l f - c o n t r o l r a t h e r than being psychopathic. I t may be that a c r u c i a l d i a g n o s t i c i n d i c a -t i o n of psychopathy i s the element of c r i m i n a l i t y (Eysenck, personal commu-n i c a t i o n ) . This i s not to imply that research should not be done on i n d i v i d -u a l s other than c l i n i c a l l y diagnosed psychopaths or c r i m i n a l s , e s p e c i a l l y as i t i s of i s s u e whether t h i s behaviour should be viewed as a dimension or a concept. I f i t i s a dimension how f a r does i t extend, or i f a category, what are the c r u c i a l elements that d e l i n e a t e i t from other behaviours. In s t u d i e s such as Gauttn'en\,!s"'. i t i s important to maintain an awareness of the o r i g i n s of the subject p o p u l a t i o n . I t may be appropriate to accept the r e s u l t s only as they support or c o n t r a d i c t research conducted on more e s t a b l i s h e d populations. With t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i t becomes more important to review the p h y s i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e ±nx a more d i s c e r n i n g manner to e x t r a c t those s t u d i e s which serve to remove the confusion i n t h i s area r a t h e r than c o n t r i b u t e to i t . Hare (1975) has expressed the concern that psychopaths may i m p l i c i t l y r e a c t to the demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the stimulus p r o p e r t i e s of the r e -search paradigm d i f f e r e n t l y than others do; the s u b j e c t - e x p e r i m e n t - s i t u a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n may not be the same f o r psychopathic subjects as i t i s f o r others. Electrodermal A c t i v i t y Taking these c o m p l e x i t i e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a much c l e a r e r d e s c r i p t i o n of the physiology of the a n t i s o c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y becomes p o s s i b l e . Several studies have examined tonic skin conductance (SC) levels and have found those of psychopaths to be significantly lower than those of nonpsychopaths. (Blank-stein, 1969; Dengerink and Bertilson, 1975; Hare, 1965a, 1968a; Mathis, 1970; Schalling, Lidberg, Levander and Dahlin, 1973). In certain other studies the difference in tonic SC for psychopaths was lower than that of nonpsychopaths, although not significantly so (Hare, 1972a, 1975a; Hare and Craigen, 1974; Hare and Quinn, 1971; Borkovec, 1970; Schalling, Lidberg, Levander and Dahlin, 1968; Schmauk, 1970; Sutker, 1970). Hare (in press) reports that when the results of a l l eight studies done by himaaridhhi'sccdlleaguessare^ combined stat-i s t i c a l l y , the combined analysis yields a highly significant difference in tonic SC between psychopathic and nonpsychopathic inmates, although the dif -ferences were significant in only two of the studies. He concluded that when these results are considered along with the occasional positive findings of other investigators support i s given to the contention that psychopaths have lower resting tonic SC levels than do other subjects. These i n i t i a l differences in tonic SC might be expected to increase over an experiment. In situations of repetitive stimulation for prolonged periods the tonic SC of psychopaths has been found to continue decreasing, while that of nonpsychopaths remains the same or increases (Hare, 1968a; Schalling et a l . , 1973). In a study involving the injection of adrenalin (Hare, 1972a), and in another in which other subjects were administered shocks for errors made (Dengerink and Bertilson, 1975), tonic SC in psychopaths changed very l i t t l e while that of nonpsychopaths increased greatly. Another aspect of electrodermal functioning is spontaneous or nonspecific fluctuations in SC (NSP activity), with several studies reporting less NSP activity in psychopaths during rest periods than in nonpsychopaths (Fox and Lippert, 1963; Hare, 1968a; Hare and Quinn, 1971; Schalling et a l . , 1968, 1973). In a recent study, Hinton and O'Neill (1976) factor analyzed psychometric and social history data in a maximum security hospital and identified a p r i -mary psychopath or "con-man" factor. When physiological data was analyzed, the individuals in this group had small skin conductance orienting responses and a:'low rate of NSP activity. Although psychopaths seem to be less aroused electrodermally than normal i t is not clear how these results should be interpreted. Katkin (1975) has suggested that electrodermal activity reflects more than general arousal; i t is a variable that selectively enhances effective central processing. The psychopath's decreased electrodermal activity may be related to decreased cor t i c a l arousal, increased drowsiness and inefficient central processing in s i t uations which for them are boring or lack excitement. This is in accord with the view of the psychopath as a stimulation seeker. Several studies have found psychopaths to be electrodermally hyporespon-sive to aversive stimuli presented without warning (Blankstein, 1969; Mathis, 1970; Hare, 1972a; Hinton and O'Neill, 1976). Other studies have been unable to replicate these results (Hare, 1975; Hare, Frazelle and Cox, submitted). However, Hare (in press) reports that when the SC responses are range correct ed, as suggested by Lykken and Venables (1971), and the subjects divided on the basis of age, young psychopaths appear to be considerably less reactive than older psychopaths and nonpsychopa'ths. It may be that some aspects of th electrodermal hyporeactivity in psychopaths decrease with age. The study reported by Hare, Frazelle and Cox (submitted), used subjects selected on the basis of c l i n i c a l ratings, however, when the results were an-alyzed according to obtained scores on the So scale some interesting results emerged. The low So subjects were less responsive electrodermally than were the high So subjects, especially at the higher intensities. The conclusion 45 would be that In this study electrodermal hyporeactivity was more clearly delineated on the basis of So scores than ratings of psychopathy. As an extension of this study the c l i n i c a l ratings and scores on the So scale were combined to form four groups. The data indicate that the c l i n i c a l l y diagnosed psychopaths with low So scores were as responsive as the other groups to low intensity tones but were much less responsive to high intensity tones. In comparison the diagnosed psychopaths with high So scores were as respon-sive as the nonpsychopaths. As described earlier this combination of high rat-ings of psychopathy and low So scores may result in the delineation of a more homogeneous group of psychopaths. It should be noted that the low and high So scores for the psychopathic group were relative to a prison population. The "high" So group had a mean of 27.5 which is similar to the scores obtained by Gough (1969) for delinquents and prison inmates. The "low" So group had a mean of 16.1 which i s extremely low and well below any of the sample norms Gough obtained. It may be that a low So score by normative standards is not sufficient to bring out the hyperreactivity of psychopathy and that i t would only become obvious at the extreme lower levels where a "purity" of selection may be attained. Also of relevance i s the manner in which psychopaths respond in an t i c i -pation of an aversive stimulus. Lykken (1957) found that in a classical con-ditioning paradigm psychopaths acquired the conditioned SC response prior to electric shock less readily than did nonpsychopaths. The results were con-firmed by Hare and Quinn (1971) who found that psychopaths showed significant-ly smaller anticipatory responses (AR) to an aversive stimulus than did other inmates. In a vicarious conditioning situation several studies have found that psychopaths display depressed electrodermal activity when anticipating the 46 delivery of an aversive stimulus to another subject (Sutker, 1970; Fisher, 1971; Aniskiewicz, '1973; House and MiHigan, 1973; Hare and Craigen, 1974). With respect to electrodermal conditioning in the psychopath i t is un-clear whether this deficiency is due to a^constitutional inability or to an inability to grasp the contingencies involved. As Schmauk's (1970) and Chesno and Kilman's (1975) studies i l l u s t r a t e , avoidance learning in the psychopath improved when they were sufficiently aroused or motivated. It has been demonstrated by McDonald and Johnson (1975) that individuals dis-playing EEG signs of drowsiness do not condition as well as alert subjects. If the psychopath finds routine situations boring i t may be that his lack of avoidance conditioning may be in part due to drowsiness. Evidence for the presence of slow-wave EEG patterns in psychopaths has been found in numerous studies reviewed, as mentioned earlier, by Syndulko (1977). A number of studies have examined the psychopath's anticipatory reaction to an aversive stimulus about which the subject has been forewarned. Hare (1965c) had subjects watch a count from 1-12 with the knowledge that they would receive a strong electric shock at the number 8. Psychopaths showed a smaller SC response in anticipation of the shock as compared to the nonpsycho-paths. Similar results have been obtained by Lippert and Senter (1966), Schal-ling and Levander (1967), and Schalling, Levander and Dahlin-Lidberg (1975), the latter study using the So scale to select subjects. More recently Hare et al_ (submitted) had subjects listen to a count to nine with the knowledge that a loud tone would be delivered at i t s completion. Unexpectedly the differences between psychopaths and nonpsychopaths selected on the basis of c l i n i c a l ratings were not significant for SC and NSP activity in anticipation of the tone. However, when a further separation was made within these groups on the basis of So scores the inmates with the high 47 psychopathy ratings and the low So scores were much less reactive electroder-mally i n anticipation of the tone than were the other three groups. Again, i t seems that the combination of high psychopathy ratings and low So scores combine to form a group hyporeactive electrodermally to unsignalled tones and to the threat of aversive stimuli. With respect to electrodermal activity an intriguing longitudinal study of 13 years is reported by Loeb and Mednick (1976). The authors state that the underlying hypothesis of the research was that the asocial individual's "failure to conform to society's sanctions and conventions is correlated with, and perhaps partially caused by lowered ANS responsiveness, and reduced capa-city for learning to inhibit behaviour which e l i c i t s punishment" (p. 2). They questioned whether the electrodermal abnormalities found in criminals diag-nosed as psychopaths might also be present in individuals guilty of lesser i n -fractions and whether these abnormalities are present prior to society's rec-ognition of the deviant acts. Originally 104 children, male and females, were tested, with electrodermal measures being .taken for a l l of them. In follow-up, thirteen years later, i t was found that seven of the children, a l l males, f u l -f i l l e d the requirements for delinquency which were that they had been convict-ed at least twice for i l l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s . A control group with no legal i n -fractions and matched for sex, age, social class and having been raised in a children's home was selected from the subject pool. The delinquent group had a lower tonic level of SC than did the nondeli-quent group,although the difference did not achieve s t a t i s t i c a l significance. This difference in tonic level continued throughout the testing period. With respect to mean SC response amplitudes to tones, the delinquent group was sig-nificantly less responsive i n i t i a l l y ; however, the nondelinquent group appeared to habituate over the t r i a l s whereas there was no change in the delinquent 48 group. The nondelinquent group responded to repeated presentations of a noxious loud noise with continuous decreases in response amplitude whereas the delinquent group, who started at a lower response level, showed a ten-dency to stop responding entirely. The rate of electrodermal recovery of responses was also calculated and the delinquent group was found to recover at a significantly slower rate than did the nondelinquents. As mentioned earlier, Venables (1975) has argued that SC recovery rate is a measure of the degree of "openness-closedness" to the environment, with the retarded recovery time in the psychopath indicating a "closedness" to environmental stimuli. Mednick and Hutchings (in press) have hypothesized that the psycho-path's slow recovery results in delayed fear reduction and poor avoidance learning. The authors conclude: "The evidence from the present study adds additional support to the etiological hypothesis explaining the role of ANS recovery in the development of asocial behaviour. The fact that the psy-chophysiological differences predated the onset of asocial behav-iour in almost a l l these delinquent subjects, makes i t clear that they are not a result of the contact of the subjects with the l e -gal process." (p. 17). On the basis of the data presented i t i s possible to draw some conclu-sions concerning the relationship between autonomic functioning and psycho-pathy. It would appear that psychopaths are hyporeactive electrodermally while at rest and that they give relatively small electrodermal responses in situations that would usually be considered stressful. These findings are consistent with the c l i n i c a l characteristics (e.g., Cleckley, 1975) of the psychopath as an individual who does not experience anxiety or arousal, in what would be considered appropriate circumstances, to the same extent as do nonpsychopaths. 49 C o r t i c a l A c t i v i t y Another aspect of p h y s i o l o g i c a l functioning i n psychopaths which i s r e l -evant to the hypothesis that they are hyporeactive i s the data a v a i l a b l e on c o r t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n psychopaths. Hare (1975b) provides a t h e o r e t i c a l l i n k between the autonomic and c o r t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n psychopaths. He points out that Lacey and Lacey (1958) have postulated that autonomic f l u c t u a t i o n s may have excitatory e f f e c t s on the cortex, while Lader (1965) has suggested that they r e f l e c t the functioning of an i n t e r n a l arousal mechanism or according to Venables (1967) a c o r t i c a l - s u b c o r t i c a l regulatory system. A l l of these would serve the function of maintaining optimal l e v e l s of c o r t i c a l arousal. Hare states: "What th i s suggests i s that the r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e spontaneous autonomic v a r i a b i l i t y observed i n psychopaths r e f l e c t s a chronic tendency towards both autonomic and c o r t i c a l hypo-arousal...there i s a considerable amount of p h y s i o l o g i c a l and behavioural e v i -dence that also leads to the hypothesis that psychopaths are cor-t i c a l l y underaroused, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n si t u a t i o n s that are mono-tonous or tedious. One i n t e r e s t i n g behavioural i m p l i c a t i o n of th i s c o r t i c a l underarousal i s that psychopaths probably need an inordinate amount of stimulation i n order to maintain a l e v e l of c o r t i c a l arousal that i s optimal for the p a r t i c u l a r task at hand." (p. 10). Few studies have s p e c i f i c a l l y used the electroencephalogram (EEG) i n the study of psychopathy; however, the r e s u l t s obtained have been f a i r l y consis-tent although the reviews by Gale (1975) and Syndulko are extremely c r i t i c a l of much of the research methodology. Figures between 30 and 75 percent are frequently given as the percentage of diagnosed psychopaths di s p l a y i n g some form of EEG abnormality,.*(e.g. , E l l i n g s o n , 1954; Silverman, 1943; H i l l and Wat-terson, 1942; Forssman and Frey, 1951; Arthurs and Cahoon, 1965; Predescu and Roman, 1971) as compared to figures of 10-15 percent f o r control groups. The abnormality most con s i s t e n t l y noted i s the presence of widespread slow-wave a c t i v i t y , usually an excess of b i l a t e r a l theta a c t i v i t y of a non-specific 50 nature. As an example, Gottlieb and his associates in a series of studies (e.g., Gottlieb, Ashby and Knott, 1947; Knott, Gottlieb, 1944) examined more than 700 psychopaths and found consistently .that between 49 and 58 percent of the subjects displayed EEG abnormalities, usually widespread slow-wave activ-i t y . Several hypotheses have related the abnormal EEG patterns observed in psychopaths to their behaviour. The fact that i t is usually slow-wave ab-normalities that are displayed by psychopaths, that these abnormalities some-times decrease or disappear with increasing age, that psychopaths displaying EEG abnormalities have a better prognosis for eventual behaviour change than those with normal EEGs (Gibbons, Pond and Stafford-Clark, 1955) and that ap-proximately a third of diagnosed psychopaths were found to improve behaviour-all y between 30-40 years of age (Robins, 1966) has led to the suggestion that these abnormalities are the result of a delayed maturation of cortical pro-cesses (Kiloh and Osselton, 1966; Hare, 1970). A second hypothesis, based on the finding of localized EEG abnormalities in some studies (e.g., H i l l , 1952; Bay-Rakal, 1965), is that psychopathy is the result of a structural or functional brain disorder in areas concerned with emotional activity and the regulation of behaviour,:ssuch as the limbic system. Hare !(1975b) has speculated that these localized abnormalities might be interpreted in terms of McCleary's (1966) concept of response perseveration, based on studies which indicate that "lesions in limbic inhibitory mechanisms may result in persevera-tion of the most dominant response in any given situation, even though this response would ordinarily be inhibited. With respect to psychopathy, we might assume that the activity of these mech-anisms is periodically dampened, perhaps during states of high drive produced by sexual arousal, anger, etc. As a result, the dominant response in that particular situation (e.g., sexual or aggressive behaviour) would occur, regardless of the consequences." (Hare, 1975, p. 26). 51 Neither of these hypotheses, the maturational retardation or the brain disorder approaches, would appear to conflict with the cortical underarousal theory of psychopathic behaviour and the subsequent sensation seeking behav-iours . A third possibility is directly related to the concept of sensation seek-ing and w i l l be developed in more detail presently in connection with the pres-ent research. It is that the slow-wave activity observed in the psychopath is indicative of drowsiness, induced by a state of chronic boredom. This behav-iour, noticed particularly in situations of routine or monotony, has been re-marked upon by a number of researchers (e.g., Forssman and Frey, 1953; Hare, 1975b). In a recent study Johnston (1976) compared the EEG records of inmates and divided them into those with abnormally slow brain wave patterns and those with normal records. A further distinction was made on the basis of MMPI scores between psychopathic and nonpsychopathic subjects and a l l subjects were com-pared on the scales of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). It was found that subjects in the abnormal EEG group scored significantly higher on the SSS General scale than the normal group. The psychopathic group with abnormal EEGs scored significantly higher than the psychopathic group with normal.EEGs, and the nonpsychopathic group with normal EEGsaand tended to score higher than the nonpsychopathic group with abnormal EEGs, on the SSS General, T h r i l l and Adventure Seeking and Experience Seeking scales. The re-sults appear to be supportive of the contention that psychopathy is a disorder reflecting cortical underarousal. In a summary of his own review, Hare (1970) states: "Several lines of research and theory suggest that psychopathy is related to cortical underarousal. As a result, the psycho-path actively seeks stimulation with arousing or 'exciting' 52 qualities. In the process, however, he may be unaware of, or inattentive to, many of the subtle cues required for the gui-dance of behaviour and for adequate social functioning." (p. 72). Originally Quay (1965) proposed two possibilities to account for the psycho-path's pathological need for sensory input: a lowered basal reactivity to stimulation, which results in an increased need for sensory input in order to maintain adequate cortical functioning; and/or a more rapid adaptation to stimulation, which results in a need for stimulation of increased variety and intensity. As the result of subsequent research in this area i t appears that the psychopath experiences both these phenomenon to some degree — lowered reactivity and increased adaptation. BASIS OF THE PRESENT RESEARCH Throughout this review the antisocial personality has been described both c l i n i c a l l y and experimentally as being deficient in the development of optimal levels of anxiety, as reflected in overt behaviour, typically low scores on self-report anxiety scales, and a diminished state of physiological arousal. Paralleling this is the description of the antisocial individual as a person who cannot bind time, who lacks even a minimal tolerance for same-ness, routine or boredom, and who has an inordinate need for stimulation. What for normals would be ordinary l i f e circumstances appear to constitute a most monotonous situation for the psychopath. When considered together, these two descriptors of the antisocial personality - an apparent lack of anxiety coupled with a constant need for stimulation - present an interesting possi-b i l i t y . How would such an individual react i f he were placed in what would be a monotonous, non-stimulating environment for even those with only normal needs for stimulation? Would he perhaps become aroused and show symptoms of anxiety, engage in some form of avoidance behaviour, become drowsy and f a l l asleep or would he appear unaffected by the situation? As stated succinctly by Suedfeld and Landon (in press), one answer is that "...the psychopath would probably find low-stimulus environ-ments stressful." (p. 31). Recognizing that self-regulation of the environment reflects an important i n -dividual difference Ludwig (1971) points out that studying the way in which a person reacts to and attempts to modulate his sensory environment can be used to obtain important insights into the functioning of abnormal behaviour. In this context i t is interesting that the literature pertaining to the re-action of the antisocial individual to the situation just described, that of 'fedlicecl. stimulation, is meagre and somewhat confusing. A number of studies w i l l be reviewed, beginning with those that deal indirectly,bbut.are considered relevant, to the topic and finishing with those that are directly concerned with antisocial behaviour. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) was originally designed as a predictive instrument, with the expectation that high scorers would find the condition of •reduced stimulation in sensory deprivation disturbing. Subjective and behav-ioural reports of individuals in sensory deprivation indicate attempts to i n -crease levels of stimulation and thereby raise activation levels. The effects used include self-stimulation, hallucinations, body movements, talking aloud, attempts to contact the experimenter and possibly termination of the experi-ment . In an early study (Zuckerman, Schultz and Hopkins, 1967) found that vol-unteers for sensory deprivation experiments scored higher on general sensation seeking than did non-volunteers, although they did not differ on a measure of t r a i t anxiety. This unexpected finding is attributed to the popular belief that the individual in this situation w i l l have unusual cognitive and hallu-cinatory experiences, a possibility which seems to appeal to the high sensation seeker. However in an earlier study, Zuckerman, Persky, Hopkins, Murtaugh, Basu and Schilling (1966) found that the highest scorers either terminated the experiment early or became more restless and showed more random body movements, perhaps because the unusual effects that were expected did not occur. Hocking and Robertson (1969) placed subjects, representing the ex-tremes of sensation seeking, in a situation of sensory restriction with the option to obtain either visual, auditory or kinesthetic stimulation by button pressing. They found that high sensation seekers button pressed at a higher rate than did low scorers although the differences were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. The former group preferred the kinesthetic stimulation, which involved the opportunity to move around, while the latter showed a preference for visual stimulation. The authors suggested that exercise may provide suf-ficient variety i n kinesthetic and proprioceptive stimulation to lessen some of the effects of restricted visual and auditory stimulation and that a pre-ference for kinesthetic stimulation may be in part an attempt to decrease the effects of restricted visual and auditory stimulation. They recommended that a comparison should be made in which kinesthetic stimulation is held to a minimum. Related to this phenomenon of kinesthetic stimulation are studies by Tranel (1962) and Rossi and Solomon (1966) which examined the relationship of introversion-extraversion to perceptual isolation. The f i r s t study found that introverts were much more prone to terminate the experiment early but while they were in the room these subjects followed instructions closely, remaining alert and not moving about. They seemed to attend to the immediate experimental situation. Although the extraverts showed a greater tolerance for the situation the author reports: "In contrast to the introverts they responded to the situation by rejecting the specific conditions. They tended to go to 55 sleep, to move about while awake, to engage in some form of reverie and to whistle or hum tunes. As a result, they re-ported less discomfort while in the room then did the intro-verts." (p. 191). In the second study, which was essentially a replication of Tranel's research, differences between the introverts and extraverts were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y sig-nificant, however, both groups displayed more movement, with the extraverts showing the largest amount of body movement. In a study by Lambert and Levy (1972) high and low sensation seekers, selected on the basis of the SSS, xrere placed in a socialiisolation situation and offered the opportunity to button press only for visual stimulation pre-sented under two conditions. In a low stimulation condition the same slide appeared when the button was pressed, while in a high stimulation condition different slides were presented. Throughout the experiment the subject's galvanic skin response (GSR) was also monitored. It was found that during a two hour isolation period the high sensation seekers viewed more slides as a function of their time in isolation while the high autonomic responders used more visual stimulation, but only in the high stimulation conditions.-: However the SSS was not significantly related to autonomic arousal, which caused the authors to speculate that there are distinct variables which mediate in the need for stimulation. One of these would be individual differences in the need for stimulation as measured by the SSS, and the other would be individual differences in discomfort to isolation as indicated by autonomic functioning. It is stated: "While 'stimulus seekers' on the SSS appear to take advantage of whatever external stimulation is available, those whoeare made un-comfortable by isolation w i l l use external stimulation i f i t is sufficient to be of some use in reducing their discomfort. Other-wise, they w i l l employ other defensive strategies, such as suppres-sion, fantasy, trying to sleep, etc." (Lambert and, Levy, 1972, p. 52). The psychopath may experience both the need for stimulation and the fear of isolation. However, i t may be more d i f f i c u l t to assess this phenomenon in psychopaths since a fear of isolation, as reflected in increased GSR activity, would interact to some extent with their autonomic hyporesponsivity• Alter-natively, i t may be that Lambert and Levy (1972) have made an important dis-tinction in individual reactivity to isolation, with the antisocial personal-ity loading more on one of these response patterns. An assumption of course, is that the increased GSR activity in those who used the variable stimuli to a greater extent is a reflection of discomfort and fear of isolation, rather than some other phenomenon such as interest or excitement. The use of sub-jective reports would be useful in elucidating this issue. Zuckerman, Levine and Biase (1964) found that subjects gave a s i g n i f i -cantly larger GSR response during auditory-visual deprivation than during e i -ther visual or auditory stimulation alone. When these subjects were compared in post experimental interviews the high responders were found to complain more about the inactivity and the sensory isolation than did the low responders. Based on the results of this experiment i t was hypothesized that those subjects who showed the greatest reaction to the perceptual isolation situation would show a greaterrneed for stimulation in subsequent experiments. Zuckerman and Haber (1965) tested this hypothesis by placing these high and low GSR reactors in a perceptual isolation situation with the opportunity to make an operant re-sponse to produce their choice of either visual or auditory stimulation. They found that those who appeared to have been most stressed by the previous per-ceptual isolation situation responded at a significantly greater rate for both forms of stimulation than the low stress group, although a l l subjects respond-ed more for visual than for auditory stimulation. The studies discussed have demonstrated to some extent a relationship be-tween the SSS and behaviour in situations of reduced stimulation. However, the results have not been entirely consistent. A number of studies (e.g., 57 Smith and Myers, 1966; Kish and Busse, 1969; Zuckerman, Persky, Link and Basu, 1968; Landon and Suedfeld, 1969) has found no relationship between scores obtained on the SSS and stimulation seeking behaviour. It is out of a concern for issues such as these that the SSS has been revised several times - in an effort to increase i t s predictability. It may also be that SSS w i l l have i t s greatest predictive value in specific situations which may not as yet have been defined. As Zuckerman (1975) states: "Informal observations of high sensation seekers suggest that the nature of the stimulation reinforcement may be crucial. High sensation seekers often find the novelty of sensory dep-rivation, and the internal experiences sensory deprivation produces, more interesting than the dull and repetitive stim-u l i usually offered as reinforcement in stimulation seeking studies." (p. 64). Thus, in assessing the validity of the SSS as a predictive tool i t seems most important to try to understand the ways in which the individual might inter-pret the situation he is placed in with respect to the absence or presence of a l l forms of stimulation. For example, the experiences of sensory deprivation and boredom may be similar in their effects on sensation seeking individuals. Berlyne (1960) suggests that both of these situations lead to a state of high arousal. Sued-feld (1975) has corroborated part of this hypothesis in summarizing a research programme on sensory deprivation by stating: "We conclude that sensory deprivation is i t s e l f an arousal ma-nipulation - that i s , a treatment which leads to a generally heightened awareness and readiness to react." (p. 65). With respect to psychopathy Suedfeld and Landon (in press) pointed out that "sensory deprivation in fact i s not as stressful for psychopaths as one might predict" (p. 33). Perhaps for the sensation seeking individual there are as-pects of the sensory deprivation environment which have the effect of raising his arousal levels sufficiently to make the situation quite tolerable. With respect to sensory deprivation the SSS may be an unreliable predictor of"an individual's tolerance for the situation. With respect to boredom, London, Schubert and Washburn (1972) also found support for the Berlyne hypothesis; tasks designed by them to be boring had the effect of increasing autonomic arousal in their subjects. They state however, that "the relationship between sensory deprivation and arousal must not be taken as necessarily relevant to the boredom-arousal relationship, given the differences between the subjective states induced by sensory depri-vation" (p. 34). The increase in autonomic arousal associated with boredom is seen to occur as a result of an inadequate rate of information flow. The authors conclude that the sensation seeking individual w i l l find this environ-ment much more boring that w i l l the low sensation seeker due to his a b i l i t y to process what information is available more rapidly. Therefore i t would seem that the SSS would be a good predictor of individ-ual reactivity to boring situations of low information flow. Again i t is important to recognize that two environments such as these may be viewed as somewhat similar in their effects (and they may be at one level, the physiological level in this comparison), yet they have different subjective effects on individuals differentiated on the basis of a scale such as the SSS. Placing an antisocial, sensation seeking individual in a boring, monotonous situation w i l l therefore be expected to have a much different ef-fect on him than i f he is placed in a sensory deprivation situation although both might result in autonomic arousal. A monotonous situation i s defined as a condition of sensory insufficiency. As Petrie (1967) states: "One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s about this concept i s the lack of words with which to describe the restlessness and loss of feeling of identity and loss of contact with real-ity of the person deprived of enough sensation'.'1'(p. 88). L i t t l e research concerned directly with the reactions of the antisocial individual to the boring situation has been carried out and much of the i n -formation available is somewhat anecdotal. Petrie (1967) has proposed three patterns of individual difference in the modulation of sensory input. The reducer tends to subjectively decrease the intensity of the sensory environment, the augmentor tends to increase i t , while the moderator does neither. Petrie views the psychopath as a reducer and her description of that individual is consonant with earlier descriptions of the antisocial personality. The reducer was found to have a much greater tolerance for pain, to be far less apprehensive about pain, and to be involved in many more accidents when compared to the augmentor. However, as Petrie points out: "Ifethe reducer's tolerance of pain is partially due to his tendency to diminish the perception of the stimulation, then this tendency to reduce becomes a handicap in a situation where the environment starves the individual of sensation i n -stead of bombarding him with sensation, as is the case with pain." (p. 27). In this context the reducer is seen as being subjected to sensory scarcity in his everyday l i f e and is intolerant of any further sensory lack; for him, confinement or isolation becomes a most painful experience. This individual derives considerable sensory input from his own body movements. Reducers when subjected to solitary confinement, are frequently found to i n f l i c t injury on themselves, the assumption being that physical pain is preferred to the lack of stimulation. During sensory monotony the i n f l i c t e d pain provides the re-ducer with "sensory nourishment" resulting in an alleviation of a stressful situation. These individuals would seem to prefer physical punishment, such as whipping, to being placed in isolation, and when the latter does occur, they w i l l become extremely agitated in their efforts to increase the available 60 stimulation. It i s interesting to note the comments of prison inmates charged in a hostage-taking incident in a Canadian Federal Penitentiary during 1975. Sev-eral of the prisoners involved, described as psychopaths by prison medical o f f i c i a l s , used as a justification for their behaviour the issue of being placed in solitary confinement or segregation as punishment for misdemeanors within the prison. A report of the t r i a l states: "Convict testified Wednesday he would prefer being beaten to being confined under administrative segregation at the British Columbia Penitentiary." And in a report of another prisoner's testimony i t is stated: " , who has escaped from prison five times, said he fled from the B. C. Penitentiary on one occasion because he was told he would be sent to solitary confinement. 'I feared being returned to solitary confinement', said . 'I had a lot of bad experiences....there was mental and physical deterioration. ' said he has never overcome his ex-perience i n solitary. 'I s t i l l fear that i f I ever go back to solitary, I ' l l never come out alive.'" This intolerance of confinement i n psychopaths has been acknowledged for some time. As noted in an early paper by Darling and Sanddal (1952), psycho-paths : "are extremely reluctant to be confined and w i l l go to almost any lengths to escape either confinement or punishment." (p. 177). Grunebaum, Freedman and Greenblatt (1960) found that in a perceptual iso-lation experiment two subjects diagnosed as having strong psychopathic tenden-cies were unable to tolerate the situation. They did not terminate the exper-iment themselves but forced termination by their disruptive behaviour, which included removing the experimental equipment. They attempted to justify their actions by blaming the experimental situation, claiming that i t was uncomfort-able and they did not think i t was important. The authors state: "It would seem lik e l y that subjects using certain patterns of adaptation and defense w i l l find sensory deprivation more tolerable than others who favour those techniques which are most curtailed." (p. 881). The implication is that for the psychopath his acting-out impulses are cur-tailed and his tolerance for the situation i s low. This disruptive aspect of antisocial behaviour was also noticed in the study by Orris (1967) in which he examined stimulation seeking in psychopaths by studying their monitoring efficiency on a vigilance task, designed specif-i c a l l y to be boring and monotonous. A vigilance decrement occurred early in the session with the psychopaths and was maintained throughout the experiment. Orris also notes that they gave the impression of engaging i n more self-stimulating behaviours, such as singing and talking, than did the other groups. He relates this activity to an intolerance for boredom in the psychopath, which interferes with the maintenance of continuous attention. More recently Blackburn (1976) reported on psychophysiological data col-lected on psychopaths and nonpsychopaths under several conditions, including one of monotonous stimulation. He noted that the psychopaths showed the greatest need for stimulation, as indicated by scores on the SSS, and that they were consistently more aroused cortically and electrodermally during the monotonous period in comparison to the nonpsychopaths, although both groups showed a decrease in arousal during this period. Myers, Murphy, Smith and Goffard (1966) found that subjects with high scores on the Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) and the Hypomania (Ma) scales (or the 4-9 profile associated with antisocial behaviour) tended to be "quitters" in a sensory deprivation experiment. Wright, Sisler and Chylinski (1963) found that among the negative indicators of adjustment to work on the Arctic DEW line were elevated Pd and Ma scales on the MMPI and a high aggression score on the Edwards Personal Preference Scale (EPPS; Edwards, 1953). In reviewing 62 the personality correlates of individual reactions to deprivation Myers (1969) concluded that high Pd and Ma scores on the MMPI, high t h r i l l seeking scores, and high EPPS need aggression scores have consistently characterized the early release subjects: He states: "Considered jointly, the findings suggest that the psychopathic personality, needful of impulse expression, 'kicks', and room to manipulate others, is poorly suited for the task of enduring inactive, nonstimulating solitude." (p. 330). Tyler and Brown (1967) found that a high degree of control could be a-chieved over antisocial behaviour in delinquents by using social isolation as a punishment as compared to verbal reprimand. When a punishable event occurred the guilty individual was isolated in a small room for 15 minutes. In trying to account for the effectiveness of the procedure one issue which was not con-sidered was the impact that the isolation might have on the delinquent. It is highly li k e l y that being isolated in a nonstimulating environment is aver-sive to them, i.e., what is important in controlling their behaviour is not what they are missing - the activities with their peers — but the situation they find themselves in — one which is monotonous and nonstimulating. Suedfeld and Roy (1975) reported on the behaviour of four inmates placed in isolation for disciplinary reasons. The isolation unit was described as being "considerably more stimulus-poor and monotonous than the rooms and other f a c i l i t i e s routinely available to residents." It is interesting to note that the individual considered to be the most incorrigible, violent and anti-social in his behaviour "became agitated and started to make noises by bang-ing on the door" (p. 3) after being in the isolation for several days. Later in the course of isolation he became quiet, showed no interest i n his sur-roundings and fi n a l l y began to mutter in an.incoherent way. A l l of these i n -dividuals showed some improvement in their behaviour following the period of isolation. Suedfeld and Landon (in press), in discussing the treatment of psycho-paths , pointed out the search for comfortable levels of arousal may be used as a punitive technique. They acknowledge "the possibility of shaping be-haviour by using low stimulation environments as appunishment that is termi^ nated when the patient demonstrates desirable behaviour." Based on the studies cited i t appears that the boring, monotonous sit u -ation is indeed aversive to the antisocial individual, and the typical behav-iour seems to be an active reaction to such environments. Sehmauk (1970) hypothesized that the psychopath was capable of experiencing anxiety i f the appropriate stimuli were used. Perhaps the situation of reduction of stimuli is such an instance. Unable to tolerate boredom the psychopath experiences anxiety in such an environment and acts out i n a way designed to alleviate his predicament. At least this is what the previous studies would indicate. However, there also appear to be several studies which contradict these re-sults; they indicate that when the antisocial individual is placed in a bor-ing, monotonous situation he assumes a very passive role, becoming drowsy, and perhaps f a l l s asleep. Forssman and Frey (1953) examined EEG activity in a large number of normal and antisocial adolescents. They found not only that the latter exhibited a higher incidence of slow-wave activity in their EEGs but they also tended to f a l l asleep more readily during the examination. Stern and McDonald (1965) state of these results: "They relate this to the possibility that wavering or lowering of attention is characteristic of the antisocial personality, or one might suspect that they are less 'stressed' or that less anxiety.is aroused in this group by the laboratory procedure." (p. 228). An interesting statement by Gale (1976) reflects both on the conditions under which EEG testing is conducted and the way in which the psychopath might 64 perceive the s i t u a t i o n . He s t a t e s : "Theta a c t i v i t y , observed i n the waking EEG of psychopaths, can be seen i n the EEG of normal persons when i n the e a r l y stages of s l e e p . Now i t i s hard to f i n d an experimental treatment more bo r i n g than a standard EEG i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r c l i n i c a l EEG recording i n v o l v e t r u s s -in g the subject w i t h w i r e s , the modern equivalent of the P a v l o v i a n dog harness, asking him to l i e supine w i t h eyes shut, w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s to r e l a x and keep h i s mind c l e a r . . . i n such circumstances, i f the psychopath i s indeed a l -ready low aroused, and i f indeed he a l s o couldn't care a damn about what the experimenter wants, he could e a s i l y d r i f t o f f i n t o a l i g h t s l e e p , whereas psyc h o t i c and anxiety s t a t e p a t i e n t s may be so d i s t r e s s e d by the t e s t i n g environment and so confused by the need to obey an impossible i n s t r u c t i o n , that they f i n d i t impossible to r e l a x at a l l . " (p. 10). Hare (1968b19r75).hh 'asaM'sp^^^ mates to become drowsy during monotonous s i t u a t i o n s and i n t h i s connection s t a t e s that "many of the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s reported i n the l i t e r a -t ure may r e f l e c t t h i s pronenesss>to drowsiness'""(1977, p. 16). An example of t h i s i s a study by Hare (4-968a)i>in^wh-rchi'it. was found that the c a r d i a c component of the o r i e n t i n g response (OR) to a s e r i e s of tones was considerably s maller i n psychopaths than nonpsychopaths. He t e n t a t i v e l y con-cluded t h a t , when compared to normal subjects the psychopath i s l e s s a t t e n t i v e and s e n s i t i v e to changes i n the environment. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study were compared to those obtained by McDonald, Johnson and Hord (1964) i n which sub-j e c t s were presented w i t h a s e r i e s of tones and the h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e of the OR observed. They found d i f f e r e n t patterns i n the OR emerging when the sub-j e c t s were d i v i d e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r EEG records i n t o those who d i d and those who d i d not show i n d i c a t i o n s of drowsiness. Hare comments that the patt e r n s of response obtained f o r drowsy and a l e r t subjects were very s i m i l a r to those that he found w i t h psychopaths and nonpsychopaths r e s p e c t i v e l y , and that the psychopaths i n h i s study e x h i b i t e d a p a t t e r n of autonomic responses c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of drowsy, c o r t i c a l l y •undera^k*e4^8ix^ee1ts^ ••' 65 In the case study by Suedfeld and Roy (1975) reporting inmates' reactions to punitive isolation i t is interesting to note that, one of the four subjects "slept heavily" and another "slept for long stretches of time" while they were in the situation of "isolation and environmental monotony". In studies such as that by Orris (1967), in which psychopathic subjects are described as engaging in self-stimulating behaviours when place in mono-tonous situations, i t may be that this i s an attempt by the subject to remain awake. The individualjs a b i l i t y to combat drowsiness may be influenced great-ly by his freedom to indulge in such behaviour. In a more restrictive situa-tion, such as being ^connected to a polygraph, these symptoms of drowsiness in the antisocial individual may become more evident. Related to this i s Eysenck's assumption that antisocial individuals w i l l have high scores on the extraversion scale of the EPI, a dimension which he has related to criminal behaviour. As Schalling (1977) puts i t : "The essen-t i a l assumption i s in short that extraverts have high thresholds in the r e t i -cular system, which is related to low cortical arousal, low conditionability, and a tendency to drowsiness and consequent stimulation-seeking" (p. 7). At a more speculative level i s the work of Yeudall (1977) on the neuro-psychological correlates of psychopathy. His research indicates that a large number of the criminal psychopaths examined in his laboratory are character-ized by dysfunctions in the anterior regions of the brain as determined by neuropsychological testing. The behavioural symptoms reported are associated with dysfunction of the frontal and temporal neocortical and limbic systems. Among the behaviours associated with dysfunction in these areas are: a reduc-tion in the a b i l i t y to sustain attention, concentration or motivation; an i n -crease in distractability, impulsivity and disinhibition; a lack of self-control; dramatic changes in personality; affective mood states such as loneliness, 66 detachment, confusion, verbal unresponsiveness and drowsiness. Based on the research presented there appears to be some confusion as to the manner in which the antisocial, sensation seeking individual w i l l re-act to monotonous situations of minimal stimulation. Will he have d i f f i c u l t y maintaining a level of cortical arousal sufficient to remain awake or w i l l he find the situation so aversive as to engage in behaviours intended to increase stimulation levels? The present research was designed to investigate further the reactions of a selected subject population to a situation intentionally designed to offer them minimal stimulation. As this research was concerned with aspects of antisocial behaviour the issue of subject selection was an i n i t i a l and primary concern. Should the subjects be selected from an inmate or non-inmate population and by what meth-od? A limitation and frequent criticism of research on antisocial behaviour is that a large proportion of i t , albeit out of necessity, has involved the study of incarcerated populations (e.g., NATO Advanced Study Institute on Psychopathic Behaviour, 1975, ref. see Hare and Schalling, ,.,in'.prjess),. One concern is the extent to which the behaviours being studied are the products of incarceration. As pointed out by Schalling (1975): "there are disadvan-tages in doing research on institutionalized subjects, due' to the d i f f i c u l t y of separating transitory effects of the unusual kind of l i f e they are restric-ted to, and the more stable habitual personality characteristics" (p. 2). Widom (in press) has directly addressed the issue of methods of obtaining sub-ject populations of noninstitutionalized psychopaths. She states: "So far, studies of psychopaths have been limited primarily to those psychopaths who have been caught and institutionalized after having violated moral and legal codes. The state of our current knowledge about psychopathy may therefore be limited to those psychopaths who have failed or been deficient in some sense and may characterize only the unsuccessful psychopaths. 67 We have no knowledge of the extent to which psychopathy remains undetected in the general population, or even whether the con-cept is a meaningful one outside the prison or psychiatric hos-p i t a l . " It is interesting to note that using an advertisement recruitment tech-nique she successfully obtained a sample which demonstrated many of the spe-c i f i c behaviours associated with psychopathy. Her conclusion was that "psy-chopaths do exist outside of prisons, appear to possess many of the tradition-al distinguishing characteristics, and are amenable to serious empirical i n -vestigations" (p. 15). Referring to his own work, as well as that of others, Hare (1975d) em-phasized the uncertainty with which the results of research on incarcerated subjects can be applied to the general population. Although data are needed on antisocial individuals who are socially successful, i t is very d i f f i c u l t to identify them without obtaining information from those close to them and without violating confidences. The often extensive c l i n i c a l and l i f e history data available with inmates would rarely occur within the general population, so that alternative methods of identifying subjects must be used. One approach, that which was used in the present research, i s that of combining dimensions that have been empirically, and theoretically related to psychopathy. A d i f f i c u l t y with this approach is that a very large number of subjects w i l l frequently be needed in order to obtain satisfactory pop-ulations for the many possible combinations of relevant personality dimensions. Two concepts (reviewed earlier) that have been related to antisocial be-haviour in a meaningful sense are socialization and sensation seeking, meas-ured, respectively, by Gough's Socialization (So) scale and Zuckerman's Sen-sation Seeking Scale (SSS). The latter scale was described in terms of i t s relevance to the position that antisocial behaviour i s , in part, the con-sequence of a pathological need for stimulation. It also seems highly 68-applicable to this particular research situation, which examined reactions to a situation of low stimulation. The research reviewed previously with respect to the So scale (e.g., Hare, 1975; Schalling, 1975, in press; Wade, 1976) i n -dicates that i t seems to be consistently and meaningfully related to the con-cept of psychopathy in both criminal and noncriminal populations. When used separately, both of these scales appear to be relevant to the prediction of antisocial tendencies, so that this predictability should only increase through their combination. As mentioned earlier, combining these measures means a large number of scores w i l l have to be obtained in order to yield relevant criterion groups. It was decided, therefore, to use male, undergraduate students of this university as the subject population. They were available in large numbers, the research f a c i l i t y was convenient to them and they minimized many of the problems with demographic variables such as age, occupation, and socio-economic status. It is interesting that Rosen and Schalling (1974) not only found that low scorers on the So scale were at high risk for being or becoming delinquent or criminal, but that of those subjects who were students a large number f e l l within the low socialization group. As mentioned earlier, the authors com-mented that several studies (e.g., Carlson, 1972; Lefcourt, 1968) found that students as subjects in personality research w i l l frequently admit to deviant behaviour or having committed i l l e g a l offences. Thus, the research to be reported here is primarily concerned with the behavioural and physiological reactions of individuals to a situation of low stimulation. The subjects were selected on the basis of their scores on meas-ures of socialization and sensation seeking, a combination which has not pre-viously been used with a noncriminal population. The combination of physio-logical and self-report measures permits, in effect, the evaluation of both 69 the subjective and objective responses of the subjects to the situation on the basis of a large number of dependent variables. A battery of self-report questionnaires was administered prior to and following the experimental manip-ulation, and continuous physiological recordings (heart rate, electrodermal activity,, respiration, d i g i t a l vasomotor activity, muscle tension, and electro-encephalographic activity) were obtained throughout the experiment. Of prime interest was the effect that the experimental situation had on the group characterized by their combination of low socialization and high sensation seeking scores i.e., that group which would be predicted to be most antisocial in their behaviour. Would they become drowsy and f a l l asleep, agi-tated and disruptive or appear unaffected by their circumstances? Does their behaviour in any way distinguish them from fchesother subject groups, as a function of one or both of the independent variables? Perhaps differences between the groups would be most noticeable for the subjective data or vice versa - subjective equanimity being belied by physiological differences. Are certain variables better discriminators than others and are they consistent with existing theories, e.g., antisocial individuals do not experience sub-jective anxiety to the extent that normals do and they are autonomically hypo-reactive? The implications of the research are partially in terms of being able to more carefully predict the behaviour of antisocial individuals when they are placed in isolation or monotonous, non-stimulating>situations. Definition in this area could be most important for the treatment of these individuals when they come to the attention of corrections or mental health personnel in terms of being able to teach appropriate coping techniques. The use of a noncriminal population permits the comparison of the re-sults to the abundant literature available on inmate populations. This is also relevant to the controversy as to whether the antisocial personality should be viewed as a discrete category or as part of a continuum (e.g., Mathis, 1970; Hare, 1970; Eysenck and Eysenck, 1977). 71 METHOD Subjects The subjects (Ss) i n this research were male volunteers drawn from the student body of the University of British Columbia, Winter Session. They were paid five dollars for their participation. I n i t i a l l y , approximately 695 test packages were handed out with a brief explanation in undergraduate classes. Each package contained: the Sensation Seeking Scale, Form IV (SSS, Zuckerman, 1975), the Socialization (So) Scale (Gough, 1969), and an explan-atory letter (Appendix 1). The students were encouraged to f i l l out these questionnaires and return them as soon as possible. After a reasonable length of time returns had been obtained from 230 individuals from whom the subject population was selected. Seventy Ss were chosen to take part in the study although for specific reasons, usually concerned with the scoring of the physiological data, the data analysis did not involve a l l of the Ss for certain of the dependent measures. The age range of the Ss was from 17 Jto 26 years with a mean age of 19.94 years. The experimental design involved the use of 5 groups of 14 Ss. The groups were composed of: Group 1 - high socialization, low sensation seeking; Group 2 - low socialization, low sensation seeking; Group 3 - high socializa-tion, high sensation seeking; Group 4 - low socialization, high sensation seeking; Group 5 - median socialization, median sensation seeking. The method by which the Ss were selected for these groups is discussed in detail in Ap-pendix 2. Apparatus A BeckmantType R Dynograph was used to .r'e"c'ord?:simuli*aneou'sly heart rate 72 (HR) , palmar skin conductance (SC), respiration, d i g i t a l vasomotor activity, electromyographic (EMG) activity, electrooculographic (EOG) activity, electro-encephalographic (EEG) activity. Skin conductance (umhos) was measured directly by putting a constant volt-age of 0.5 V across two Beckman biopotential electrodes attached to the f i r s t and third fingers of the l e f t hand. Heart rate was obtained from two Beckman biopotential electrodes, one on the sternum to the right of the midline and another on the stomach to the l e f t of the midline. A ground lead was placed on the stomach to the right of the midline. This particular lead configura-tion was used to minimize the effect that body movements would have on the re-cording. The signal was passed through a cardiotachometer coupler which ex-pressed the output in beats per minute (bpm). Digital vasomotor activity was measured by taping a photocell plethysmograph (with a light-emitting diode as the light source) to the thumb of the l e f t hand. The signal was AC coupled with a time constant of .1 seconds. A strain gauge placed around the lower part of the chest was used to record respiratory activity. Integrated EMG activity was recorded by placing two Beckman biopotential electrodes on the neck using the lead configuration described by Lippold (1967). EOG activity was recorded from the l e f t eye with two Beckman biopotential electrodes, one placed on the outside corner of the eye and the other below mid-eye. The signals were fed into a direct nystagmus coupler with a time constant of 1.0 seconds. A l l the electrodes were f i l l e d with Beckman electrode paste and attached to the skin with Beckman adhesive collars. The exception to this was the SC electrodes for which a 0.5 percent NaCl paste was used as the con-tact medium. Skin areas to which the HR, EMG and EOG electrodes were attached were prepared with Redux paste and a l l subjects were asked to wash their hands in preparation to the placement of the SC electrodes. Occipital EEG recordings 73 were made using a single electrode placed 2-3 cm anterior to the inion on the midline, roughly corresponding to electrode placement 0^ of the 10-20 System. A second electrode was placed approximately 60% above the preauric-ular point of the l e f t ear at a point roughly corresponding to electrode placement of the 10-20 System. The recording was in the unipolar mode so that a reference electrode was . clipped to the l e f t ear. The scalp was pre-pared with alcohol and Grass EEG paste was used as the contact medium. Tape was placed over the electrodes to help to secure them to the scalp. The sig-nal was AC coupled with a time constant of .03 seconds. The chart speed was 5 mm per second. The Ss were seated in a comfortable chair in a constantly ventilated IAC acoustical chamber. The recording equipment was situated outside the chamber and could not be heard by the Ss. The room.was dimly l i t with one 70 watt light bulb. A white noise generator provided an ambient background level of 27 decibels. The interior of the room was relatively devoid of stimulation with the Ss facing one wall with the speakers placed behind the chair. A 12 inch by 18 inch two-way window provided the experimenter with a view of the Ss who, were seated such that they could unknowingly be observed. Communica-tion with the Ss was conducted through a two-station intercom system which was placed next to the Ss and set up such that continuous monitoring of any sounds within the room was possible. During the experiment tones of two lev-els were presented to the Ss. They were a mild tone of 400 cps, 78 decibels and a loud tone of 800 cps, 110 decibels as measured on the A scale. Both tones had slow rise-time characteristics. Procedure When the test packages were i n i t i a l l y distributed a basic statement was made concerning the experiment: that f i l l i n g out the questionnaires did not 74 obligate anyone to the experiment, but that i f chosen, they would be given the opportunity to participate for which they would be paid; that the experi-ment would be of a psychophysiological nature; and that i t would involve no threat to them, although they would have the option to terminate their par-ticipation at any time. Following the selection of the Ss, those chosen were contacted by phone and asked i f they would like to participate. Those who were cayailable w§redass-ignedsagtimeatgj/reportr£o0|the«laboratpr^ which-, was convenient to them. An attempt was made to balance the groups with re-spect to the time of day the Ss were tested, i.e., whether their session took place in the morning or afternoon. Upon reporting to the laboratory each S was asked to go to the washroom and wash his hands. Next he was asked to read and then sign a statement con-cerning the "basic rights and privileges of volunteer subjects", A series of questionnaires and scales was administered which included: biographical data (Appendix 3), the State Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1968), the Subjective Stress Scale, Form A (Berkun, Bialek, Kern and Yagi, 1962) and the Sensation Seeking State Scale (Neary, 1975). The S was then led into the shielded room and asked to s i t in the chair. The nature of the acoustical chamber was explained, including a demonstration of the way the door opened from within, to allay any fears he might have about being locked in the room. The electrodes and transducers were attached and the polygraph was calibrated so that the quality of the physiological record-ing could be assessed. The following statement was then read to the subject: "To begin -I would like to outline for you what the format of this session w i l l be. I n i t i a l l y there w i l l be a short period —approximately 5 to 10 minutes. It may be necessary for me to come in and adjust some of the electrodes during that peri-od. Following this you w i l l hear two f a i r l y loud tones in succession, approximately 15 seconds apart—they w i l l be loud tones. Then w i l l follow what w i l l be a long period in which we would like you to s i t quietly with your eyes open. You 75 should try to remain alert and engage in a minimum of bodily movements so as not to disturb the electrode placements. This long period w i l l be terminated by a single mild tone and fur-ther instructions w i l l be given to you then. This room has an intercom in i t through which you could communicate with me at any time i f the need arises*, i t is on a l l the time. But only i f the need arises. A l l of the instructions which I w i l l give to you from this point w i l l be given through the intercom. Are there any questions?" If there were no questions and the S was accepting of his situation the experimenter l e f t the room and closed both doors to the chamber. If there were any apparent problems with the physiological recording attempts were made at this point to improve the quality of the record through techniques such as moving the electrode placements or attempting to improve the contact with the skin. Approximately 5-10 minutes was allowed to pass before the f i r s t tone was administered. This f i r s t tone was the 110 decibel, loud tone, and was followed in 15 seconds by another at the same level. These tones lasted for one second. Then followed a period of 70 minutes during which no communication was carried out with the S unless necessary. During this peri-od the experimenter observed the S for 30 seconds every 10 minutes through the viewing window and noted any body movements or unusual behaviours. To signal the end of this 70 minute period the milder 78 decibel tone was used. This tone was four seconds in duration. Before terminating the experiment S was contacted via the intercom and asked to estimate how much time had elapsed since he had heard the i n i t i a l two 'loud' tones. Following the removal of the electrodes and transducers the S was asked •againato-fill out a number of questionnaires and scales. These consisted of: The State Anxiety Scale, the Subjective Stress Scale, Form B, the State Sen-sation Seeking Scale, the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (Hoddes, Zarcone, Smythe, Phillips and Dement, 1973), two reaction scales (Appendix 4), Eysenck's Per-sonality Inventory (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1972), and a subjective report 76 concerning his - impressions-of the session. Following this the S was paid $5.00 for his participation in the experi-ment and was asked to sign a receipt for the payment. If the S had any ques-tions about the experiment they were answered at this time. Frequently his physiological chart record was briefly reviewed with him before he l e f t the laboratory. Measurements The data were scored in the same manner for a l l five groups. With re-spect to scoring of the physiological data the record was divided into eleven sections which were as follows: the minute preceding the i n i t i a l tone: the fifteen seconds between the f i r s t and second tones; the minute following the second tone; every tenth minute of "the next sixty minutes; the minute preced-ing the f i n a l tone; and the minute following the f i n a l tone. Within these one minute segments heart rate and vasomotor activity were scored for the f i r s t ten seconds, the middle ten seconds, and the last ten seconds of the period. The electroencephalographic record was scored for a period prior to the presentation of the f i r s t tone and again prior to the last tone immediately before the termination of the isolation period. To elaborate more specifically on the measurement process the following observations are.made. a) Skin Conductance: Four measures of electrodermal activity were obtained. Tonic skin conductance measures were obtained prior to the f i r s t tone and at seven equidistant points over the 70 minute isolation period. Phasic responses were obtained for the periods following the i n i t i a l two tones and following the f i n a l tone after. fheldJsoiation period. For the period following the f i n a l tone recovery half-time was also calculated. This was defined as the length of time i t took for the recoveryllimb of the electrodermal response to attain 50 percent return to the prestimulus level. Also measured were the number Tone 1 (110 db) I n i t i a l "Rest" Period 5-10 minutes Tone 2 (110 db) Response to Tone 1 15 seconds Tonic Measures During Isolation Tone 3 (78 db) Response to Tones 1 & 2 70 minutes Response to Tone 3 1 minute Time Estimation Experimental Procedure of spontaneous or nonspecific fluctuations in SC (NSP activity). The c r i -terion for spontaneous fluctuations were those described by Schalling et al^ (1973) and Hare and Quinn (1971) in which deflections that were similar to specific responses to stimuli and which were greater than .1 umho were con-sidered. b) Heart Rate: Heart rate was scored on a second-to-second basis, so that i t was therefore necessary to convert the record from a beat-to-beat basis by averaging those periods when more than one beat occurred within any second. The second-to-second scoring system insured that the same time period would be considered i n each minute scored, i.e., 30 seconds of the minute. It also allowed for the assessment of variability in heart rate based on 30 measures of heart rate per scored minute. c) Digital Vasoconstriction: Changes in finger pulse amplitude were used as an indirect measure of vasoconstriction (ref. see Lader, 1967). Again a second-to-second analysis was used, so that i t was necessary to calculate the peak-to-trough amplitude for each pulse and then either calculate aver-ages for those seconds in which more than one pulse occurred, or to average the values obtained for seconds adjacent to any period that did not contain a peak-to-trough interval. d) Electroencephalographic Activity: The EEG record was analyzed for a period prior to the i n i t i a l tone and then again approximately 70 minutes later prior to the f i n a l tone. The EEG data were stored on FM tape and analyzed by com-puter using a fast Fourier Transform which sampled the wave form at a rate of 64 times per second. The computer programme analyzed half second periods of the EEG wave into three components. These were the theta wave of 3-7 c.p.s., the alpha wave of 8-13 c.p.s., and the beta wave of 13-30 c.p.s. In this particular analysis 20 half second samples were obtained in the period prior 79 t o the f i r s t tone and a g a i n p r i o r t o the l a s t tone. An e x a m i n a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l EEG, the EOG, and EMG r e c o r d s made i t p o s s i b l e t o sample s e c t i o n s of the r e c o r d t h a t were f r e e from n o t i c e a b l e a r t i f a c t . e) R e s p i r a t i o n : The r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e was computed on the b a s i s of the number o f r e s p i r a t o r y c y c l e s i n each of the s c o r e d p e r i o d s . However, i f the p a r t i c -u l a r sample d i d not appear to be a good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s u b j e c t ' s r e s -p i r a t i o n r a t e , due to body movements, or anomalies such as deep b r e a t h s f o l -lowed by momentary c e s s a t i o n s i n the p a t t e r n , the d a t a were taken from o u t s i d e o f the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a to o b t a i n a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample. f ) E l e c t r o o c u l o g r a p h i c A c t i v i t y : EOG a c t i v i t y o r eye movements were n o t quan-t i f i e d i n t h i s experiment, but as mentioned, t h e i r p r e s e n c e was n o t e d i n the sampling of the EEG r e c o r d to h e l p o b t a i n r e s u l t s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e of e y e - b l i n k a r t i f a c t s . g) E l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c A c t i v i t y : EMG a c t i v i t y was a l s o not q u a n t i f i e d i n t h i s ex-periment but was used as a g e n e r a l i n d i c a n t o f body movement throughout the ex-p e r iment. I f the e x p e r i m e n t e r n o t e d any u n u s u a l a c t i v i t y i n t h i s c h a n n e l d u r -i n g the experiment he was a l e r t e d to o bserve the s u b j e c t through the o b s e r v a t i o n window to n o t e any i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . A c t i v i t y i n the c h a n n e l was a l s o used ex-t e n s i v e l y i n t h e s c o r i n g of t h e r e c o r d t o ensure t h a t t h e samples o b t a i n e d o f the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s were not a f f e c t e d by body movements. A n a l y s i s of Dependent Measures Dependent measures were s u b j e c t e d to t h r e e s e t s of a n a l y s e s , the f i r s t two b e i n g u n i v a r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s and the t h i r d a m u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e . I n i t i a l l y , a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed on each dependent v a r i a b l e f o r Groups 1-5 i n o r d e r to e v a l u a t e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the median group to the experiment. Next a two-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed a l s o on each dependent v a r i a b l e f o r Groups 1-4, w i t h the f a c t o r s b e i n g S o c i a l i z a t i o n ( h i g h 80 2 and low) and Sensation Seeking (high and low). Hotelling's (1931) T pro-cedure was used to compare Groups 1 and 4, the high socialization-low sensa-tion seeking and the low socialization-high sensation seeking groups respec-tively. This necessitated the arrangement of the dependent measures into homogenous sets for these comparisons. Two-group linear discriminant function analyses were also performed for each of these sets of variables. The dis-criminant function coefficients were used to determine which of the variables, in each set, were most effective in discriminating between the groups. 81 RESULTS Before reporting the results of this research, i t is important to dis-cuss the manner in which the data pertaining to Group 5, the median "control" group were treated. To assess the effect that this group had on the results they were included, as stated, in a l l one-way analysis of variance conducted on the data. Inspection of the results obtained indicated that, in summary, the contribution of this group was as might be expected, their position most frequently being central to that of the other four groups. When significance was obtained i t did not generally appear to be as a consequence of Group 5. Their inclusion did not enhance the interpretation of the results in any meaningful way, other than to confirm their position of neutrality with re-spect to Groups 1-4. Therefore, in reporting the results, consideration w i l l be given to Group 5 only with respect to the demographic measures and the cor-relations as the differences between Groups 1-4 could most meaningfully be examined in the context of the two-way analysis of variance which provided separation on the factors of socialization and sensation seeking. 2 An explanation should also be given for the use of the Hotelling's T procedure- and the selection of Groups 1 and 4 as those to be compared by this procedure. The emphasis in this research is on the concept of antisocial be-haviour and specifically as i t can be studied in non-criminal populations by selecting subjects on the basis of measures of socialization ans sensation seeking, dimensions that have been related both in theory and through research to this concept. The prediction would be that the most antisocial individuals would be low on socialization and high on sensation seeking behaviours. While i t is of interest to compare this group to each of the other groups, as is done through two-way analysis of variance, i t was also decided to compare this group to the one which should be most differentoffom~itfer-the h'igh socialization, 82' low sensation seeking group. This requires the comparison of these two groups on a large number of dependent measures. The use of multiple, independent t-tests with correlated measures, as is frequently done in this situation, can-not be j u s t i f i e d , since the procedure does not provide adequate control of the 2 experiment-wise error rate (Hays, 1963). Hotelling's T was used to com-pare e the-iprgrjDupsj. as i t sets a significance level for the entire range of com-parisons, rather than for each one individually. An effect of maintaining this control over the error rate w i l l be that fewer significant comparisons w i l l emerge than might occur, when individual t-tests are used; however, since a por-tion of such results would likely be Type I errors, occurring as a consequence of an inflated error rate, the use of a more conservative procedure such as Hotelling's is j u s t i f i e d . As there was a large number of comparisons to be made relative to the number of subjects in the groups i t was necessary to ana-lyze the dependent measures in smaller homogeneous sets in order to maintain the power of the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure. Throughout the presentation of the results the groups w i l l frequently be referred to by their group number rather than their position on the dimensions of socialization and sensation seeking; to reiterate, the composition of the groups is as follows: Group 1 - High Socialization-Low Sensation Seeking Group 2 - Low Socialization-Low Sensation Seeking Group 3 - High Socialization-High Sensation Seeking Group 4 - Low Socialization-High Sensation Seeking Group 5 - Median Socialization-Median Sensation Seeking The s t a t i s t i c a l level of probability generally accepted as significant in this research was the .05 level; although trends at the .10 level were also considered. Due to the exploratory nature of this research, this extension was important i n terms of examining trends within the data rather than having the discussion of the results depend entirely on significance being present (also see Lykken, 1968; Skipper, Guenther and Nass, 1967). Group Composition Based on the selection procedures described i n Appendix 2, delineation between the groups was possible to the extent outlined in Table 1. The five groups i n i t i a l l y contained 14 Ss each, selected from the original population of 230 sets of test scores. It was discovered prior to the data analysis that one of the Ss had been incorrectly placed in Group 4 and he was subsequently dropped from that group. In those situations for which there was no reduction in group size due to missing data the number of Ss in the groups was equalized to 13 by removing the last Ss placed in Groups 1-3 as outlined i n Appendix 2. f-teeWnafglies£ipercentitiei 5f-rse©ial-±izaM'ohfor s§nsa£iones§e£MgewasS3292-. either the dxmsnr: - • ization or sensation seeking„ was 32„2., Demographic Measures The five groups were compared on a number of demographic variables, quan-t i f i e d according to the values outlined in Appendix 3'.. The information ob-tained related to occupational history, family l i f e , school history, alcohol use and non-medical drug use. Differences between the groups on these meas-ures were tested for significance by means of analysis of variance. The data are summarized in Table 2. The Ss were also asked to describe their personal history with respect to the occurrence of any mental disorders or past con-victions for delinquent behaviour. As the incidence of these two aspects of behaviour was low, and confined to specific groups, only the means are pre-sented. The differences between the groups were significant on three of the 84 TABLE 1 Group Composition Group 1: High Socialization-Low Sensation Seeking Group 2: Low Socialization-Low Sensation Seeking Group 3: High Socialization-High Sensation Seeking Group 4: Low Socialization-High Sensation Seeking Group 5: Median Socialization-Median Sensation Seeking Mean Mean Socialization Sensation Scores Seeking Scores 41.46 31.08 41.08 28.54 36.77 8.15 7.92 17.08 17.00 13.69 High Socialization Low Socialization Mean 41.27 29.81 High Sensation Seeking Low Sensation Seeking 17.04 8.04 Variable TABLE 2 Demographic Data Group Means Groups Occupational 3.00 History Family Life 2.86 School 3.0 History Alcohol Use .79 Non-Medical .0 Drug Use Mental 0 Disorder Admitted 0 Convictions 2.79 2.79 2.54 2.86 .92 .23 .5 .21 1.97 2.07 2.57 2.54 2.86 4.88 2.79 2.86 2.54 2.79 2.06 1.36 1.23 1.77 1.21 2.88 3.47 .11 .002 .10 .03 .01 Note: The descriptions associated with each variable are presented in Appendix 3. comparisons and approached significance on one of the others. Group 4 had the lowest ratings on occupational history, school history and the highest on alcohol and non-medical drug use. In contrast to this is Group 1 who had the highest ratings on occupational history, family l i f e , school history and the lowest on alcohol and non-medical drug use. The only exception to this pattern i s with regard to family l i f e for which Group 2 had a lower rating than Group 4. There were no admissions of any history of mental disorders from any of the subjects. However, with regard to convictions for delinquent behaviours there were differences between the groups. Six Ss admitted to criminal convictions and they occurred equally i n only Groups 4 and 5, a l -though Group 4 had a slightly higher mean as i t contained fewer subjects. The offences involved included: possession of marijuana, impaired driving, theft under $200, possession of alcohol as a minor, and auto-theft. The pattern which emerges from these data i s quite consistent. Groups 1 and 4 generally represent extremes on a l l of the measures, with the latter, the low socializers-high sensation seekers, admitting to the more extensive use of alcohol, i l l e g a l non-medical drugs and being convicted more frequently for delinquent behaviours. Self-Report Measures I n i t i a l l y , the results of those measures that were administered both pre-and post-experimentally w i l l be considered, followed by those that were only administered at the end of the experimental session. Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory; The analysis of variance for Groups 1-4 on the scores obtained prior to the experimental period on this measure of state anxiety is summarized in Table 3. Also presented are the means and standard deviations of the anxiety scores obtained by each group. The significant main effect for socialization indicates that the low TABLE 3/ Pre State Anxiety ( S p i e l b e r g e r ' s State Anxiety Scale) Summary of a n a l y s i s of variance Source df MS So. SSS So x SSS E r r o r 1 1 1 48 220.1719 23.5573 290.9407 54.3333 4.052 0.434 5.355 <.05 >;50 <.05 Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s ( i n brackets) High S o c i a l i z a t i o n Low Sensation-Seeking Low High Group 1 33.54 (7.08) Group 3 36.92 (8.11) Group 2 42.38 (7.53) Group .4 36.31 (6.69) 35.23 39.34 37.96 36.61 8'8 socializers were more anxious prior to the isolation period than were those with high socialization scores. The Significant Socialization x Sensation Seeking interaction reflects the fact that this is most noticeable in Group 2, which was also low on sensation seeking. Thus, although Ss with low so-cialization scores were higher on state anxiety much of this effect is at-tributable to the very high score obtained by Group 2, i n which low social-ization interacts with low sensation seeking. The analysis of variance for the state anxiety scores obtained following the experimental period is summarized in Table 4, along with the means and standard deviations for the four groups. As with the pre-measures there was a significant main effect for socialization again, resulting from the higher anxiety scores obtained from the low socializers. A l l groups showed a re-duction in anxiety over the experimental period. Neary's State Sensation Seeking Scale: Contained within this recently con-structed scale (Neary, 1975) are state measures of sensation seeking and anx-iety which were analyzed independently. The results of the analysis of va r i -ance performed on both the pre and post scores and the means and standard de-viations for the two parts of this scale are summarized in Table 5. The re-sults are presented i n this manner as there were no significant comparisons for any of these four measures. This finding i s of interest as i t may be a reflection of the validity of this scale. The results for state anxiety con-tradict somewhat the results reported previously for Spielberger's state anx-iety measure for which significant effects were found for socialization. The results obtained for Neary's sensation seeking measure also seem contradictory, as subjects who were originally selected on the basis of scores on a measure of t r a i t sensation seeking were not differentiated on the basis of this state measure. In fact, the group means were in the opposite direction to expectations TABLE 4 ; Post State Anxiety (Spielberger's State Anxiety Scale) Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 245.5562 4.703 <.05 SSS 1 2.3266 0.045 >.50: So x SSS 1 6.9419 0.133 >.50 Error 48 52.2082 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) High Socialization-Low Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 30.62 (6.93) Group •. 3 30.92 (4.94) Group 2 35.69 (10.07) Group 4 34.53 (5.91) 30.77 35.11 33.16 32.73 90 _ TABLE 5 Neary's State Sensation Seeking Scale Summary of analysis of variance Pre State Sensation Seeking Source df MS So SSS So x SSS Error 1 1 1 34 10.7952 135.8474 1.3826 84.2145 0.1282 1.6131 0.0164 > .50 > . 10 > .50 Post State Sensation Seeking So 1 31.7773 SSS 1 106.9375 So x SSS 1 20.2148 Error 34 131.9841 0.2408 0.8102 0.1532 > .50 v > .25 > .50 Pre State Anxiety So 1 SSS 1 So x SSS 1 Error 34 3.0505 0.8398 78.0859 46.9788 0.0649 0.0179 1.6622 > .50 > .50 > .10 cont 1 d Table 5 ;(cont'd) Post State Anxiety Source df MS F p So 1 34.3657 1.8490 > .10 SSS 1 5.9451 0.3199 > .50 So x SSS 1 4.9761 0.2677 > .50 Error 34 18.5858 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Pre State Sensation Seeking Sensation-Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 42.82 39.38 41.1 (10.93) (6.95) Socialization-Group 2 Group 4 Low 42.13 37.91 40.02 (6.75) (10.05) 42.47 38.64 Table 5,_(cont' d) Post State Sensation Seeking 92 High Socialization Low Sensation Seeking Low High Group Al 37.00 (12.59) Group 2 37.38 (10.77) Group 3 32.13 (9.29) Group 4 35.35 (12.19) 34.56 36.41 37.19 33.79 Pre State Anxiety Socialization Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 26.55 (8.44) Group 2 28.88 (8.71) Group " 3 29.75 (4.98) Group 4 26.27 (4.24) 28.15 27.57 27.71 28.01 cont' d Table 5. '„(cont' d) Post State Anxiety High Socialization-Low Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 21.09 (3.63) Group 2 23.75 (5.85) Group 3 22.62 (2.87) Group 23.82 (4.49) 21.85 23.78 22.42 23.22 94 i . e . , the low sensation seekers on the t r a i t measure obtained the higher s t a t e sensation score both before and a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d . In summary, t h i s proposed measure of s t a t e s e n s a t i o n seeking and s t a t e anxiety was not con-s i s t e n t w i t h more e s t a b l i s h e d measures of the same c o n s t r u c t s , although i t should be noted that the sample s i z e was somewhat sm a l l e r f o r t h i s measure; data were obtained from only 38 subjects as compared to 52 f o r the p r e v i o u s l y discussed r e s u l t s . This was caused by the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i s s c a l e during the i n i t i a l stages of the research. S u b j e c t i v e Stress Scale; The a n a l y s i s of variance and the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s obtained f o r t h i s measure both p r i o r to and f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i -mental p e r i o d are presented i n Table 6. I n i t i a l l y there were no d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups on t h i s measure; however, f o l l o w i n g i s o l a t i o n the low sen-s a t i o n seekers reported increased s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s at a l e v e l approaching s i g n i f i c a n c e w h i l e there were no d i f f e r e n c e s f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The s c a l e v a l -ues used i n t h i s comparison were appropriate to t h i s p o p u l a t i o n as they were those reported by Neufeld and Davidson (1972), who r e s c a l e d the items from the o r i g i n a l values obtained w i t h a m i l i t a r y p o p u l a t i o n to a sample of u n i v e r s i t y students. Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory: This t e s t was administered f o l l o w i n g the ex-perimental- period and was scored to y i e l d four subscales - n e u r o t i c i s m (N), e x t r a v e r s i o n ( E ) , p s y c h o t i c i s m (P) and l y i n g ( L ) . The r e s u l t s of the analyses are presented s e p a r a t e l y f o r each s c a l e . Neuroticism: The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of vari a n c e and the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s are summarized i n Table 7. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r sens a t i o n seeking; higher n e u r o t i c i s m scores were obtained by the low sensation seekers than by the high sensation seekers. E x t r a v e r s i o n : The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of variance and the means and TABLE -6 Subjective Stress Scale Pre-Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 0.1007 0.0916 > .50 SSS 1 1.6469 1.4970 > .10 So x SSS 1 0.2335 0.2122 > .5.0 Error 47 1.1002 Post-So 1 0.0349 0.0610 > .50 SSS 1 1.9357 3.3854 < .10 So x SSS 1 0.0105 0.0184 > .50 Error 48 0.5718 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Pre Socialization-Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 1.1831 (1.1496) Low Group ;2 1.4074 (1.0355) 0.9589 (1.0355) Group * 0.9124 (0.8074) 1.0710 1.1599 1.2953 .9357 cont'd Table ,6(cont'd) Post High S o c i a l i z a t i o n Low Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 1.0662 (1.2281) Group .'2 1.0896 (0.6294) Group 3 0.6519 (0.4275) Group 4 0.7322 (0.4413) 0.8591 0.9109 1.0779 .6921 TABLE ,7 Eysenck's Neuroticism Scale Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F p So 1 38.9417 2.1770 >.l-0 SSS 1 166.3262 9.2983 <.01 So x SSS 1 16.1726 0.9042 >.25 Error 48 17.8877 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) High Socialization-Low Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 10.2308 (4.3427) Group 2 ; 13.0769 (5.1229) Group ,3 7.7692 (3.4678) Group 4 8.3846 (3.7978) 9.00 10.73 11.65 8.07 standard deviations are summarized i n Table 8. Although none of the effects tested was significant, Group 4 had the highest mean on this variable. Psychoticism: The results of the analysis of variance and the means and standard deviations are summarized in Table 9. There was a significant main effect for socialization with the low socialization groups obtaining higher scores on psychoticism than did the high socialization groups. Lie Scale: The results of the analysis of variance and the means and . standard deviations are presented in Table 10 with no significant differences emerging between the groups. Stanford Sleepiness Scale. The higher the score obtained on this scale the closer the subject has rated himself to being asleep. The results of the ana-lysis of variance and the means and standard deviations for this measure are summarized in Table 11. A significant main effect was obtained for socializa-tion with the low socializers admitting to being more drowsy at the end of the experiment. If the means are rounded off so as to be interpretable in terms of the scale the low socialization group rated their state as: "fogginess; be-ginning to lose interest in remaining awake; slowed down" as compared to "a l i t t l e foggy; not at peak; let down" for the high socialization subjects. The differences in the means obtained for low and high sensation seekers were very small. Reaction Scales. At the completion of the experimental period the Ss were asked to rate themselves on two reaction scales, containing 14 descriptors in total. Both these scales had been devised for use in previous psychophy-siological studies completed in the laboratory in which the present research was conducted. The particular descriptors were considered to be most appro-priate in assessing subjective reactions to this research. There was some item overlap with "boredom" and "uneasiness" appearing on both scales so that 99 TABLE ;8." Eysenck's Extroversion Scale Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS So 1 0.1729 0.0090 > 50 SSS 1 38.9419 2.0257 >.10 So x SSS 1 6.9421 0.3611 >-50 Error 48 19.2242 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group ..' 3 High 11.3846 12.3846 11.8846 (4.8225) (3.9694) Socialization Group 2 Group 4 12.0000 Low 10.7692 13.2308 (4.3041) (4.3999) 11.0769 12.8077 TABLE 9 Eysenck's Psychoticism Scale Summary of analysis of variance 10Q Source df MS So SSS So x SSS Error 1 1 1 48 12.0191 0.0192 0.4808 1.8750 6.4102 0.0103 0.2564 <.05 >.50 >.50 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation Deeking Low High Socialization-High Group 1-1.3077 (1.8213) Low Group 2 2.4615 (1.7135) Group 3 1.5385 (1.0500) Group 4: 2.3077 (1.4367) 1.4231 2.3846 1.7674 1.9231 TABLE 10 Eysenck's Lie Scale Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS So SSS So x SSS Error 1 1 1 48 30.7688 3.7690 2.7690 13.3525 2.3044 v. 10.. 0.2823 >.50 0.2074 >.50 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Socialization-Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 7.0769 (2.1001) Low Group 2 6.0000 (4.0620) Group 3 7.0000 (4.1231) Group 4 5.0000 (3.9370) 7.0384 5.500 6.5384 6.000 TABLE: 11 Stanford Sleep Scale Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS So SSS So x SSS Error 1 1 1 46 10.4132 0.3334 3.6616 2.1097 4.9360 0.1581 1.7356 <.05 >.50 >.10 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation Seeking Low High Socialization-Group .1 3.4615 (1.3914) Group 2 4.9167 (1.5050) Group 3 4.1667 (1.5275) Group 4 4.5385 (1.3914) 3.8141 4.7276 4.1891 4.3526 103. the results w i l l be examined for 12 items, six from each scale. The analyses of variance and the group means and standard deviations are summarized in Ta-ble 12 for the f i r s t scale and in Table 13 for the second. Reaction Scale One., "Entertained" Although there were no significant main effects there was a significant Socialization x Sensation Seeking interaction which is the effect of Groups 1 and 4, the high socialization-low sensation seeking Ss and low socializa-tion-high sensation seeking Ss, who rated themselves as being more "enter-tained" by the experiment than those i n Groups 2 and 3, the high socializa-tion-high sensation seeking Ss and the low socialization-low sensation seek-ing Ss. "Disgusted" The differences between the groups were not significant for this des-criptor. "Unreality" A significant main effect for sensation seeking was the result of a higher "unreality" rating given to the experiment by high sensation seekers. The largest mean for this descriptor was that of Group 4, the low socializa-tion-high sensation seeking Ss. "Anxious" The differences between the groups were not significant for this descrip-tor. "Dreaming" No significant differences existed between the groups on this descriptor. "Confused" The differences between the groups were not significant for this descriptor. Entertained TABLE -12: Reaction Scale One Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 0 .1731 0 .2584 *:.so SSS 1 0 .1731 0 .2584 >.50 So x SSS 1 3 .2400 4 .8517 <.05 Error 48 32 .1536 0 .6699 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Socialization-Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 2.000 ( 0 . 8165 ) Group 3 1.6154 ( 0 . 7680 ) Low Group 2 1.3846 (0.7680) Group 4 2.000 (0.9129) 1.5827 1.6923 1 .6923 1.5827 Disgusted Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS So SSS So x SSS Error 1 1 1 48 0 .769 0 .3077 0 .0769 0 .2660 0 .2892 1.1566 0 .2892 >.50 >.25 >;50 Table 12,(cont1d) Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 1.2308 1.3077 1.2692 (0.4385) (0.6304) t-f v_/ _l_ CX _1_ JL. £J CA L- _l_ \J L L Group 2 Group 4 Low 1.0769 1.3077 1.1923 (0.2774) (0.6304) 1.1538 1.3077 Unreality Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 2.3269 1. 6425 >.10 SSS 1 10.1730 7. 1810 <.01 So x SSS 1 0.1731 0. 1222 >.50 Error 48 1.4167 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 1.6154 2.3846 2.000 CO.9608) (1.1929) SoplflT l 7 a t " i on t-I\J ^  J-dJ- -L CL 1 -L W11 Group 2 Group , 4 Low 1.9231 2.9231 2.4231 (1.0378) (1.4979) 1.7692 2.6538 Table 12 (cont'd) Anxious Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 0.01923 0.0211 >..50 SSS " 1 0.1731 0.1895 >.50 So x SSS 1 0.01923 0.0211 >.50 Error 48 43.8459 0.9135 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 2.1539 ' 2.0769 2.1154 (0.8006) (0.7596) Socialization : Group 2 ; Group 4 Low 2.2308 2.0769 2.1538 (1.2352) (0.9541) 2.1923 2.0769 Dreaming Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F p So 1 1.2308 0.8384 >.25 SSS 1 0.0 0.0 >.50 So x SSS 1 1.2308 0.8384 >,25 Error 48 1.4679 Table 12 (cont'd) Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 Socialization High 2.4615 (1.1983) 2.1539 (0.9871) 2 .3077 Group 2 Group -4 Low 2.4615 (1.5064) 2.7692 (1.0919) 2 .6153 2.4615 2.4615 Confused Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 0.4808 1.0135 >.25 SSS 1 0.1731 0.3648 >.50 So x SSS 1 0.0192 0.0405 >.50 Error 48 0.4744 Means and standard deviation (in brackets) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 1.6154 (0.6504) 1.5385 (0.6602) 1.5769 Socialization Group 2 Group 4 Low 1.8462 1.6923 1.7692 (0.8006) (0.6304) 1.7308 1.6154 R e a c t i o n S c a l e Two. " I n t e r e s t " The d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h i s des-c r i p t o r . "Boredom" The d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h i s des-c r i p t o r . " U n e a s i n e s s " There were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups on t h i s d e s -c r i p t o r . " C u r i o s i t y " There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups on t h i s des-c r i p t o r . " P h y s i c a l D i s c o m f o r t " There were no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s between the groups on t h i s d e s c r i p t o r "Mental D i s c o m f o r t " A l t h o u g h t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s , a s i g n i f i c a n t S o c i a l -i z a t i o n x S e n s a t i o n S e e k i n g i n t e r a c t i o n r e s u l t e d from the h i g h r a t i n g g i v e n by Group 2, the low s o c i a l i z a t i o n - l o w s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g Ss, as compared to Group 1, the h i g h s o c i a l i z a t i o n - l o w s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g Ss, who a d m i t t e d to t h l e a s t amount of m e n t a l d i s c o m f o r t as the r e s u l t of the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n . 2 2 2 Hollo t e l l i n g •' s* >:I b ». ~S t a t i s t i c A n a l y s i s As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r t h i s p r o c e d u r e was used t o p r o v i d e - a s i m u l t a n e o u s compar'isonobe.tweennGrbupss'lnahdo47 onla-liLdthe dependents v a r i a b l e s . T h i s p r o -cedure-w'asr cho sent becauses of i d t s z r i g p u f g w i t h n r e s p e c t s t o k . T y p e r I e r r o r c o n t r o l s " --'s cJ-io^en because of i t s r i g o u r w i t h r e s p f c * • o TABLE 13 Reaction Scale Two Summary of analysis of variance Interest Source df MS F P So 1 1.2308 0.4506 >.25 SSS 1 0.0 0.0 >.50 So x SSS 1 1.2308 0.4506 >.25 Error 48 125.5382 2.6154 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation Seeking Socialization-Low High Group 1 5.3077 (1.7505) Low Group 2 4.6923 (1.7505) High Group 3 5.000 (1.2247) Group . 4 5.000 (1.6833) 5.1538 4.8461 5.000 5.000 Boredom Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS So 1 1.5577 0.5844 >.25 SSS 1 0.0192 0.0072 >.50 So x SSS 1 5.5577 2.0892 >.10 Error 48 2.6603 Table -13. (cont'd) Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 4.0769 (1.9774) 4.6923 (1.4367) 4.3846 L J U l _ X c l X J_ £iCi U - L U L L Group 2. Group 4 Low 5.0769 (1.7060) 4.3846 (1.3253) 4.1307 4.5422 4.5384 Uneasiness Summary of analysis : of variance Source df MS F P So 1 0.0769 0 .0295 >.50 SSS 1 0.3077 0 .1181 >.50 So x SSS 1 2.7692 1 .0627 >.25 Error 48 2.6058 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group . .3 High 2.3846 (1.2609) 3.0000 (1.6330) 2.6923 i-/ W V_ -LCX _1_ _I_ CL i. i U 1.1 Group 2 Group 4 Low 2.9231 (1.9774) 2.6154 (1.5021) 2.7692 2.6538 2.8077 Table 13-(cont'd) Curiosity Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 0.0192 0.0110 >.50 SSS 1 0.1731 0.0991 >.50 So x SSS 1 0.0192 0.0110 >.50 Error 48 83.8458 1.7468 Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Socialization-Physical Discomfort Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1, Group 3 High 5.6923 5.6154 5.6538 (1.4936) (1.4456) Group 2 Low 5.6923 (1.0316) 5.6923 Group 4 5.5385 5.6154 (1.2659) 5.5769 U l Source df MS So SSS So x SSS Error 1 1 1 48 1.0131 2.4197 0.4103 1.5952 0.6351 1.5169 0.2572 > .25 >..10 >.50 Table 13 (cont 1d) Means and standard deviations (in brackets) Socialization-Mental Discomfort Source So SSS So x SSS Error High Socialization Low Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1./ Group 3 1.6154 2.2308 1.9231 (0.8697) (1.0919) Group 2 Group 4 2.0769., 2.3333 2.2051 (1.8010) (1.0731) 1,8461 2.2830 F P .3890 £.10 .2055 >.50 .6246 <.10 Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 1.8462 2.8462 2.3462 (0.6888) (1.6756) Group 2 Group 4 3.1539 2.5385 2.8462 (1.9936) (1.4500) Summary of analysis of variance df MS 1 3.2500 1 1 0.4808 0 1 8.4806 3 48 2.3397 2.5000 2.6923 113 Due to the reasonably high probability of a Type II error the significance level was established as .10 for the comparisons. As there was a large num-ber of comparisons to be made relative to the number of subjects in the groups, the data were arranged into four relatively homogenous sets of dependent v a r i -ables and the results w i l l be described according to these divisions. A sum-mary of the analysis is presented in Table 14. The normalized standard score weights for the discriminant function analysis are also listed so that the r e l -ative contributions of the individual dependent measures to the discrimination of the groups can be examined. Set One. The measures involved in this set of comparisons were: 1) pre State Anxiety (Spielberger's) 2) post State Anxiety (Speilberger 1s) 3) pre Subjective Stress Scale 4) post Subjective Stress Scale 2 The overall T for this set of variables was significant, however, none of the individual multiple comparisons was found to be significant. Although the differences for each of the simultaneous multiple comparisons were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant, the linear combination of these comparisons resulted in rejection of the hypothesis that the groups were similar on these variables. The discriminant function analysis was also significant. The indications are that Ss in Group 1 experienced more subjective stress both prior to and f o l -lowing the experimental period. However, with respect to state anxiety this situation was reversed, with Group 4 having higher ratings for both these peri-ods . Set Two. The measures involved in this set of comparisons were those of Eysenck's Personality Inventory: 1) Neuroticism 2) Extraversion 114 3) Psychoticism 4) Lie 2 Again the overall T was significant and yet for none of the variables were the differences found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant by the individual 2 multiple comparisons associated with the T analysis. The discriminant func-tion was also significant, with the best discriminator between the groups being the measure of psychoticism; Group 4 being higher on this variable. Set Three. The items involved in this set of comparisons were those of the f i r s t Reaction Scale. They are:, 1) Entertained 2) Disgusted 3) Unreality 4) Anxious 5) Dreaming 6) Bored 7) Uneasy 8) Confused 2 The overall T and the discriminant function analysis for this set of variables were not significant. Set Four. The items involved in this set of comparisons were the Sleep Scale and the items of the second Reaction Scale. The order being: 1) Sleep Scale 2) Interest 3) Boredom 4) Uneasiness 5) Curiosity 'fi) F h j s i f E l .'_scomccrt 115 6) P h y s i c a l Discomfort 7) Mental Discomfort 2 The o v e r a l l T and the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s set of v a r i a b l e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measures  Heart Rate The periods of comparison f o r heart r a t e were those s e c t i o n s of the phy-s i o l o g i c a l record scored according to the procedure o u t l i n e d i n the Method (p. 78). I n i t i a l Rest P e r i o d . This comparison i s concerned w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups during the i n i t i a l r e s t or pre pe r i o d j u s t p r i o r to the a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n of the f i r s t tone. The summary of the a n a l y s i s of vari a n c e and the group means are presented i n Table 15. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l . Response to Tones 1 and 2. This a n a l y s i s i s concerned w i t h the comparison of the pe r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l two tones w i t h the p e r i o d p r i o r to t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The analyses of vari a n c e and the group means are sum-marized i n Table 16. I t should be remembered that these values are expressed as d e v i a t i o n s from the P e r i o d One l e v e l s so that they are assigned + or -valu e s . The l a c k of any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups i n d i c a t e s a uniform response i n a l l subjects to the i n i t i a l loud tones (see Figure l a ) . Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest P e r i o d ) . This a n a l y s i s i s 116 TABLE 14 2 Self-Report Measures <- Hotelling's T Set One 2 T Analysis: F = 3.1060; df = 4,21; p = <.05 Discriminant Function Analysis: 2 1st eigen value = 0.5916; X = 9.76; df = 4; p = <.05 Normalized Standard Score Weights  Variable 1 0,5405 Variable 2 0.4032 Variable-3 0.5867 Variable 4 0.4485 Set Two 2 T Analysis: F =2.6183; df = 4,21; p = <.10 Discriminant Function Analysis: 1st eigen value = 0.4987; X 2 = 8.50; df = 4; p = <,10 Normalized Standard Score Weights  Variable 1 0.0958 Variable 2 0.4597 Variable 3 0,6967 Variable 4 0.5423 .... cont'd Table 14 (cont'd) Set Three 2 T Analysis: F = 0.952; df = 8,17; p = >.50 Discriminant Function Analysis: 1st eigen value = 0.4481; X 2 = 7.03; df = 8; p = >.53 Variable 1 Variable 2 Variable 3 Variable 4 Variable 5 Variable 6 Variable 7 Variable 8 Set Four T Analysis: F = 1.546; df = 7,18; p = >,10 Discriminant Function Analysis: Normalized Standard Score Weights 0.2608 0.3958 0.6806 0.2503 0.0569 0.4213 0.1243 0.2307 1st eigen value = 0.6012; X == 9.18; df = 7; p = >. 10 Normalized Standard Score Weights Variable 1 Variable 2 Variable 3 Variable 4 Variable 5 Variable 6 Variable 7 0.5469 0.4664 0.1384 0.3432 0.0819 0.3134 0.4914 118 TABLE 15 Heart Rate - I n i t i a l Rest Period Mean. Heart Rate Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 49.69 0.33 >,50 SSS 1 180.20 1.24 >.25 So x SSS 1 6.09 0.04 >.50 Error 48 145.70 Group Means in beats per minute (bpm) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 72.93 77.34 75.14 Socialization Group 2 Group 4 Low 75.53 78.57 77.05 74.23 77.95 TABLE 16 Heart Rate - Response to Tones 1 and 2 Mean Heart Rate Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 3.15 0.11 >.50 SSS 1 25.20 0.86 >.25 So x SSS 1 35.89 1.23 >.25 Error 48 29.14 Socialization Group Means (bpm) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 1.00 -2.05 -0.53 Group 2 Group 4 Low -0.17 0.10 • - .03 0.42 -0.98 120 concerned with the comparison of the period immediately following the mild tone signalling the end of the isolation period with the i n i t i a l rest period. The analyses of variance and the group means are summarized i n Table 17. A significant main effect for sensation seeking resulted from the larger decrease displayed by those high on this variable over this time period. The largest decrease was shown by Group 3, the high socialization-high sensation seeking Ss, while the only group to show an increase over this period is Group 2, the low socialization-low sensation seeking Ss. (see Figure l b ) . Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation Period). This analysis involves the comparison of the period immediately prior to the fi n a l mild tone signalling the end of the isolation period with the period immediately following the tone. The analyses of variance and the group means are summarized in Table 18. There was a significant main effect for socialization, while the sensation seeking main effect and the Sensation Seeking x Socialization interaction both approach significance. As can be seen in Figure lc,titheseseffects exert them-selves most noticeably in Group 2, the low socializers-low sensation seekers, which is the only group to show a mean increase in HR following the tone, an increase which is quite large at 7-8 beats. Response to Tone 1. This analysis involves the 15 seconds immediately f o l -lowing the f i r s t loud tone prior to the administration of the second loud tone. The data were scored on a second basis with the results being expressed as a deviation from the pre period mean. The analysis of variance and the group means are summarized i n Table 19. A main effect for seconds results from the large increase in HR shown by a l l groups following the tone. The increase appears to peak at the fourth sec-ond and i s followed by a period of recovery and a small rebound effect, as can be seen in Figure 2. The main effect for sensation seeking approaches -123. TABLE 17 Hear.t Rate - Response to Tone 3 (Comparison-to I n i t i a l Rest Period) •Mean Heart Rate Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 72.03 0.73 > .25 SSS 1 423.51 4.30 < .05 So x SSS 1 0.05 0.000 > .50 Error 48 98.42 Socialization Group Means (bpm) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High -2.35 -8.00 -5.18 Group 2 Group 4 Low •0.06 -5.71 -2.82 -1.15 -6.85 TABLE 18 Heart Rate - Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation) Mean: Heart Rate Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 279.24 3.81 <'.05 SSS 1 205.21 2.84 < .10 So x SSS 1 203.62 2.82 < .10 Error 48 72.20 Group Means (bpm) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 High --KL;31 Group 3 -1.15 -1.14 Socialization Group 2 Group 4 Low 7.46 -0.47 3.50 3.17 -0.81 125 TABLE 19 Heart Rate - Response to Tone 1 Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 169.87 0.34 •>;50 SSS 1 1503.70 2.97 .10 So x SSS 1 36.19 0.07 >.50 Error Between 48 505.66 Seconds 14 1396.2 34.99 .01 Seconds x So 14 22.62 0.57 >.50 Seconds x SSS 14 28.85 0.72 >,50 Seconds x Sb x SSS 14 7.43 0.19 >.50 Error 672 39.90 Group Means (for 15 second period) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 1.97 -1.24 0.36 Socialization Group 2 Group 4 Low 2.47 0.12 1.30 2.22 -0.56 Table 19 (cont'd) Means Group Means by Seconds (Beats) S e c o n d s 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Group 1 0.45 2.07 8.53 12.61 10.99 8.38 4.15 0.38 -1.32 -1.70 -1.70 -3.01 -3.55 -3.70 -3.09 Group 2 0.55 0.93 5.32 12.16 12.47 8.62 3.16 0.32 -0.99 -1.61 -1.15 0.08 -0.3 -1.30 -1.15 Group 3 0.20 1.35 4.97 9.43 8.05 3.82 -1.11 -3.80 -3.34 -4.88 -6.65 -7.03 -6.72 -6.95 -5.95 Group 4 1.43 0.43 5.05 9.89 8.89 4.59 0.20 -1.19 -2.19 -3.88 -4.95 -6.03 -5.42 -2.80 -2.19 0.66 1.20 5.97 11.02 10.10 6.35 1.60 -1.07 -1.96 -3.02 -3.61 -4.02 -3.40 -2.69 -3.09 127 s i g n i f i c a n c e and i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the l a r g e r p o s i t i v e mean HR value d i s -played by the low sensation seeking Ss as compared to the high sensation seek-ing Ss who di s p l a y e d a negative mean HR value f o r t h i s time p e r i o d . Tonic HR During I s o l a t i o n . This a n a l y s i s compared the seven periods scored during the 70 minute i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d w i t h the pre pe r i o d . The changes over time are expressed as a d e v i a t i o n from the r e s t i n g l e v e l s . The a n a l y s i s of varia n c e and the group means are summarized i n Table 20. For the mean HR the only e f f e c t which was s i g n i f i c a n t was f o r p e r i o d s . Figure 3 shows that t h i s i s due to the gradual decrease i n HR demonstrated by a l l of the groups over the 70 minute i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d . The maximum mean de-crease i s a t t a i n e d by the 60th minute. 2 H o t e l l i n g ' s T . Using t h i s procedure ei g h t HR comparisons were made be-tween Groups 1 and 4. These comparisons were: 1) the i n i t i a l r e s t p e r i o d means 2) the r e s t p e r i o d standard d e v i a t i o n s 3) the means f o r the pe r i o d f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l two loud tones compared to the i n i t i a l r e s t p e r i o d means 4) the means f o r the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the m i l d tone a f t e r i s o l a t i o n compared to the i n i t i a l r e s t period means 5) the standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r the pe r i o d f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l two loud tones compared to the r e s t p e r i o d standard d e v i a t i o n s 6) the standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the m i l d tone a f t e r i s o l a t i o n compared to the r e s t period standard d e v i a t i o n s 7) the means f o r the pe r i o d f o l l o w i n g the m i l d tone a f t e r i s o l a -t i o n compared to the means f o r the pe r i o d p r i o r to the tone. 8) the standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r the pe r i o d f o l l o w i n g the m i l d tone a f t e r i s o l a t i o n compared to those of the pe r i o d p r i o r to the tone 128 TABLE 20 Heart Rate - Tonic Activity During Isolation 'Mean Heart-Rate, Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 6.15 0.06 >.5'0 SSS 1 69.37 0.71 >.25 So x SSS 1 57.52 0.59 >.25 Error Between 48 97.29 Period 6 203.30 11.18 0.01 Period x So 6 15.03 0.83 > .50 Period x SSS 6 8.68 0.48 > .50 Period x So x SSS 6 14.51 0.81 > .50 Error 288 18.19 Group Means (for seven periods) Sensation Seeking Low High, Group 1 Group 3 High -1.77 -3.44 -2.60 Socialization — — — Group 2 Group 4 Low -2.83 -2.90 -2.86 -2.30 -3.17 129 Table 20 (cont'd) Group Means by Periods P e r i o d s 3 4 Group 1 1.00 -0.96 -1.44 -2.55 -0.28 -4.78 -3.39 Group 2 -0.17 -0.63 0.17 -3.25 -4.52 -6.45 -4.93 Group 3 -2.05 -1.12 -2.27 -2.84 -3.49 -6.22 -6.08 Group 4 0.100 -1.50 -1.86 -3.11 -3.92 -4.20 -5.83 Means -0.28 -1.05 -1.35 -2.94 -3.054 -5.41 -5.06 Minutes Figure 3 Tonic HR Over Isolation 40 50 60 70 131 (Note: for each of the comparisons of mean HR and vasomotor activity made between Groups 1 and 4 the standard deviation was also included as a measure of v a r i a b i l i t y . As both sets of comparisons for the cardiovascular measures were not significant, this particular aspect of the response was not discussed further. The results of the analysis are summarized in Table 21 with neither the 2 T nor the discriminant function analyses being significant. Vasomotor Activity The analysis for peripheral vasomotor activity was similar to that for HR, with the same periods of comparison involved. As with HR the results are presented and discussed on the basis of these six comparisons. The i n i t i a l means and standard deviations were measured in millimeters and the subsequent values expressed as percentage deviations from these i n i t i a l values. A posi-tive value indicates vasodilation and a negative value vasoconstriction (i.e., an increase or decrease in pulse amplitude). I n i t i a l Rest Period. The summary of the analysis of variance and the group means for the i n i t i a l rest period are presented in Table 22. There were notsignificant effects for the mean vasomotor activity. Response to Tones 1 and 2. This analysis compares the period following the i n i t i a l two loud tones with the i n i t i a l rest period. The data summary is presented in Table 23 and the results indicate that none of the comparisons was significant. Following the tones a l l of the groups exhibited a decrease in pulse amplitude, (see Figure 4a). Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period). This analysis 132 TABLE 21 9 Heart Rate - Hotelling's T 2 T Analysis: F = 1.8256; df = 8,17; p >,10 Discriminant Function Analysis: 2 1st eigen value = 0.8592; X = 11.78; df = 8; p = >.10 Normalized Standard Score Weights  Variable 1 0.1853 Variable 2 0,4066 Variable 3 0.1037 Variable 4 0,3046 Variable 5 0.1905 ' Variable 6 0.2353 Variable 7 0,6672 Variable 8 0.4001 133 TABLE 22 Vasomotor Activity - I n i t i a l Rest Period Mean Vasomotor Activity Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 1.37 0.10 >.50 SSS 1 0.39 0.03 >.25 So x SSS 1 16.45 1.18 >.50-Error 44 13.93 Group means in millimeters (mm) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High 14.59 13.24 13.92 Socialization Group 2 Group 4 Low 13.08 14.07 13.58 13.84 13.66 134 TABLE 23 Vasomotor Activity - Response to Tones 1 and 2 Mean Vasomotor Activity Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 5.67 0.01 >,50 SSS 1 663.80 1.39 >.10 So x SSS 1 248.89 0.52 >.25 Error 44 478.04 Group means (% deviation) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High -44.59 -32.60 -38.60 Socialization Group 2 Group 4 Low -39.35 -36.47 -37.91 -41.97 -34.53 135 compares the period following the mild tone ending isolation with the i n i t i a l rest period. The analysis of variance and the group means are presented in Table 24. Although the results do not indicate significance a l l of the groups displayed vasoconstriction, as can be seen in Figure', 4b. Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation Period).. This analysis considers the effect of the mild tone at the end of the isolation period by comparing the periods immediately before and after i t s administration.. The results are sum-marized in Table 25 with none of the comparisons having been significant. The group means are very similar, as a l l groups displayed vasoconstriction as a response to the tone (see Figure '4c) . Response to Tone 1. This analysis considers the reaction to the i n i t i a l loud tone on a second to second basis for fifteen seconds. The results are summarized i n Table 26. As can be seen from Figure 5, a highly significant seconds effect reflects the vasoconstriction displayed by a l l groups in response to the tone. Con-stric t i o n (reduction in pulse amplitude) reached a maximum during the eighth second,..after which recovery occurred. The main, effect for socialization ap-proached significance with the low socialization Ss showing less vasoconstric-tion to the tone than the high socialization Ss. When this effect was exam-ined on a second to second basis an interesting difference in response pat-terns emerged. Although the subjects were told in the instructions prior to the isolation period that two loud tones would be administered at the begin-ning of this period they had no warning as to when these tones would actually be given. As the pre-period was 5-10 minutes for a l l subjects the f i r s t loud tone occurred essentially as an unsignalled stimulus, with the subjects know-ing that the second tone would occur shortly after i t . When the responses of the subjects were examined on the basis of their socialization scores, the 136 TABLE 24 Vasomotor Activity - Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period) Mean Vasomotor Activity Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 1834.0 0.57 >:25 SSS 1 1898.8 0.59 > .25. So x SSS 1 7522.5 2.35 >.10 Error 44 3201.0 Group means (% deviation) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High -46.10 - 8.48 -27.29 Socialization Group 2 Group 4 Low -33.42 -45.88 -39.65 -39.76 -27.18 TABLE 25 Vasomotor Activity - Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation Period) Mean Vasomotor Activity Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 0.03 0.00 >.50 SSS 1 21.87 0.06 >..5.0. So x SSS 1 609.19 1.74 >.10\ Error 44 350.97 Socialization Group means (% deviation) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High -33.32 -24.85 -29.09 Group 2 Group 4 Low -26.25 -32.02 -29.14 -29.79 -28.44 TABLE - 26 Vasomotor Activity - Response to Tone 1 Mean Vasomotor Activity Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F p So 1 20785.0 2.80 <.10 SSS 1 214.62 0.03 >*50 So x SSS 1 13582.0 1.83 >.10 Error Between 44 7413.2 Seconds 14 253.99 69.12 <.01 Seconds x So 14 459.41 1.25 >.10 Seconds x SSS 14 308.05 0.84 >.50 Seconds x So x SSS 14 361.63 0.98 >.25 Error 616 , 367.49 Group means (for 15 second period; % deviation) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 Group 3 -52.02 -42.24 -47.13 Socialization Low Group 2 . Group 4 -32.59 -40.18 -36.39 -42.30 -41.21 . cont' d Table 26 (cont'd) Group means by seconds (% deviation) S e c o n d s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Group 1 -7.3 -7.68 -12.07 -22.39 -59.03 -72.45 -74.12 -75.37 -77.88 -71.47 -69.88 -64.89 -59.23 -54.44 -52.01 Group 2 15.09 6.97 1.23 -16.02 -42.12 -48.49 -49.96 -58.45 -59.08 -55.98 -48.52 -40.27 -52.65 -31.50 -29.08 Group 3 -14.34 -16.34 -17.40 -16.49 -49.06 -56.89 -60.58 -57.50 -55.. 77 -53.20 -54.73 -55.02 -51.12 -39.00 -36.18 Group 4 5.23 4.19 -5.85 -23.89 -45.12 -59.24 -69.9] -68.87 -65.96 -60.39 -54.81 -46.35 -42.03 -37.29 -32.44 Means -0.32 -3.22 -8.52 -19.70 -48.83 -59.27 -63.65 -65.05 -64.67 -60.26 -56.98 -51.63 -46.28 -40.56 -37.43 2 Figure Tones 1 and 2 4 Vasomotor Response Tone 3 to Tones high socialization subjects exhibited vasoconstriction within the f i r s t second; however, the low socialization subjects exhibited an i n i t i a l vasodilation last-ing several seconds before vasoconstriction occurred. This phenomenon was present in both groups containing low socialization subjects - Groups 1 and 4. In terms of response magnitude the group displaying the largest constriction to the tone was Group 1, the high socialization-low sensation seeking Ss. Tonic Vasomotor Activity During Isolation. This period examines the changes in tonic pulse amplitude over time in the isolation period, as a deviation from the i n i t i a l rest period. A summary of the results is presented in Table 27. The only significant main effect for the mean vasomotor activity was for peri-ods. Following marked vasoconstriction i n response to the tones, there was a rapid return towards the pulse amplitude observed during the i n i t i a l rest peri-od. This is also presented in Figure 6Y. 2 Hotelling's T Statistic The eight, yariablesjfofovasomotoroactivitytwe'rerthehsamef'as those for -2 HR. (pThe .r_i€sultsdofhfeheeanalysesea^eesummad-izedT-ihlTable 281;.' Neither the- t nprrthehdiscriminanttfunctionpanalysiswwereosighif'ican'to.t, ^  Electrodermal Activity The results of analyses concerned with electrodermal activity are presented according to three divisions: skin conductance (SC), non-specific fluctuations (NSP), and recovery half-time. Skin Conductance This measure is concerned with the tonic and phasic changes in electro-dermal activity over the experimental period. There are six periods of compar-ison^ and the unit of measurement is the umho. I n i t i a l Rest Period. This is the i n i t i a l rest prior to the administration of the f i r s t tones. The results of the analysis of variance and the group 143 TABLE 27 Vasomotor Activity - Tonic Activity During Isolation Mean Vasomotor Activity Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 10933 1.00 >.25 SSS 1 13566 1.24 >.25 So x SSS 1 18116 1.65 >.10 Error Between 44 10948 Period 6 8402.0 7.91 <.01 Period x So 6 1102.9 1.04 > .25 Period x SSS 6 676.94 0.64 >.50 Period x So x SSS 6 1294.7 1.22 >,25 Error 264 1062.7 Group means (% deviation) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 -17.02 Group 3 10.37 -3. 33 Socialization — • Low Group 2 -13.75 Group 4 -15.72 -14. 74 -15.39 - 2.688 144 Table 27 (cont'd) Group means by periods (% deviation) P e r i o d s 2 3 4 5 Group 1 -44.59 -5.13 -2.31 -6.53 -12.08 -19.44 -29.09 Group 2 -39.35 -4.23 -16.92 -16.50 -3.64 -7.55 -8.03 Group 3 -32.60 1.41 29.66 8.06 16.81 31.22 18.03 Group 4 -36.47 -8.58 -13.16 -12.39 -8.98 -12.61 -17.88 Means -38.25 -4.14 -0.68 -6.84 -1.97 -2.10 -9.24 Minutes Figure 6 Tonic Vasomotor Activity Over Isolation 146 TABLE 28 2 Vasomotor Activity - Hotelling's T 2 T Analysis: F = 0.2818; df = 8,15; p = >.50 Discriminant Function Analysis: 2 1st eigen value = 0.1503; X = 2.38; df = 8; p >.50 Normalized Standard Score Weights  Variable 1 0.1030 Variable 2 0.0881 Variable 3 0.2425 Variable 4 . 0.1354 Variable 5 0,5189 Variable 6 0.7361 Variable 7 0,1070 Variable 8 0.2864 TABLE- 29/ Skin Conductance -. I n i t i a l . Rest Period Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 1.025 0.08 >.50 SSS 1 2.120 0.11 >.50 So x SSS 1 0.002 0.00 >.50 Error 48 12.78 Group Means (umhos) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 Group Socialization 6.97 6.55 6.76 Low Group 2 Group 4 6.68 6.29 6.48 6.82 6.42 148 means are presented in Table 29. There were no significant differences between the groups. Response to Tone 1. This analysis is concerned with the SC response to the administration of the f i r s t loud tone as a deviation from the i n i t i a l rest peri-od. The summary of the data i s presented in Table 30.* The. mean effect for sensation seeking approaches significance, due to the larger responses given by the low sensation seekers. As can be seen in Figure 7a,tthis..effect is most notableLl-nv.Group 2. Response to Tones 1 and 2. This analysis is concerned with the SC response in the period immediately following the i n i t i a l two tones as a deviation from the i n i t i a l rest period. The summary of the data is presented in Table 31 and Figure 7b. The difference between the groups was not significant. Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period). This analysis compares the period immediately following the tone indicating the end of the isolation period with the i n i t i a l rest period. The summary of the data is presented in Table 32. A significant main effect i s present for sensation seeking with high sensation seekers exhibiting a decrease in SC over this time period. This effect is present in both of the groups containing high sensation seekers although i t is most noticeable in Group 3, the high socializers-high sensation seekers. The group showing the largest increase over this period is Group 2, the low socializers-low sensation seekers (see Figure 8a). Response to lTonet3on-(End of Isolation Period). This analysis considers the effect of the tone ending the isolation period by comparing the periods immediately before and after i t . The summary of the variance is presented in Table 33. A significant main effect was obtained for socialization, a result of the greater SC reactivity of the low socialization subjects to the tone as can be seen in Figure 8b/ 149 TABLE 30 Skin Conductance - Response to Tone 1 Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 1.082 0.95 >.25 SSS 1 3.402 3.00 <.10 So x SSS 1 0.501 0.44 >i50 Error 48 1.133 Group means (in umhos) Sensation Low Seeking High Socialization High Group 1 1.19 Group 3 0.88 1.04 Low Group .2 1.68 Group ~ 4 0.97 1.32 1.44 0.92 1 150 TABLE'. 31 Skin Conductance - Response to Tones Land 2 Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 0.425 0.62 >,25 SSS 1 0.102 0.15 >.5.0 So x SSS 1 0.102 0.15 >.50 Error 48 0.680 Group Means (in umhos) Socialization Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 0.839 Low Group 2 1.108 Group 3 0.839 0.839 Group 4. 0.931 1.019 0.973 0.885 151 TABLE' 32-Skin Conductance - Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period) Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS So SSS So x SSS Error 1 1 1 48 1.262 15.840 0.009 3.648 0.35 4.35 0.00 >.50 <.05 >.50 Socialization Groups means (in umhos) High Low Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 0.723 Group 3 -0.408 0.158 Group 2 1.008 Group A -0.069 0.469 0.865 -0.239 152 TABLE' 33 Skin Conductance - Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation Period) Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F p So 1 2.862 4.10 <.05 SSS 1 1.422 2.04 >.10 So x SSS 1 0.500 0.7 >.25 Error 48 0.698 Group Means (in umhos) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 Group 3 0.823 0.692 0.758 Socialization  Low Group 2 Group 4 1.492 0.962 1.227 1.158 0.827 Tone 1 Tones 1 and 2 Figure- 7 SC Response to Tones 1 and 2 155 Tonic A c t i v i t y During I s o l a t i o n . This a n a l y s i s considers the changes i n t o n i c SC over time during the i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d , as a d e v i a t i o n from the i n i t i a l r e s t p e r i o d l e v e l s . The summary of the r e s u l t s i s presented i n Table 34. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r periods i s a t t r i b u t e d to the co n s i s t e n t mean decrease i n SC over the i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d . . The sensation seeking main e f f e c t approached s i g n i f i c a n c e due to the minimal decrease i n SC e x h i b i t e d by the low sensation seekers. As can be seen i n Figure 9 the group showing the l a r g e s t decrease i n SC over the i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d was Group 4, and the low socializersThigh s e n s a t i o n seekers. H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 S i x comparisons were made f o r electrodermal a c t i v i t y between Groups 1 2 and 4 usi n g H o t e l l i n g ' s T . These were: 1) the i n i t i a l r e s t i n g l e v e l . 2) the response to the f i r s t tone w i t h the i n i t i a l r e s t p e r i o d 3) the pe r i o d f o l l o w i n g the two tones w i t h the i n i t i a l r e s t p e r i o d 4) the p e r i o d a f t e r the tone ending the i s o l a t i o n w i t h the i n i t i a l r e s t p e r i o d 5) the periods before and a f t e r the tone ending the i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d 6) the i n i t i a l r e s t p e r i o d l e v e l s f o r n o n - s p e c i f i c f l u c t u a t i o n s (discussed i n the next s e c t i o n ) The r e s u l t s of the analyses are summarized i n Table 35 w i t h n e i t h e r the 2 T nor the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s being s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h i s set of v a r i a b l e s . TABLE- 34 Skin Conductance - Tonic Activity During Isolation Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 0.578 0.04 >.50 SSS 1 43.823 3.35 <.10 So x SSS 1 2.139 0.16 >.50 Error Between 48 13.085 Period 6 3.127 7.23 <.01 Period x So 6 0.363 0.84 >.50 Period x SSS 6 0.145 0.33 >.50 Period x So x SSS 6 0.680 1.57 >.10 Error 288 0.432 Group Means (in ymhos) Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group 3 High -0.198 -0.739 -0.468 Socialization Group 2 Group 4 Low .0.035 -0.812 -0.389 -0.081 -0.775 157 Table 34 (cont'd) Group means by period (ymhos) P e r i o d s L 2 3 4 Group 1 0.308 0.000 -0.223 -0.469 -0.462 -0.439 -0.1000 Group 2 0.262 0.246 0.015 0.100 -0.115 0.223 -0.485 Group 3 -0.262 -0.471 -0.700 -0.623 -0.977 -1.031 -1.031 Group 4 -0.323 -0.531 -0.823 -1.069 -0.939 -0.969 -1.031 Means -0.004 -0.190 -0.433 -0.515 -0.623 -0.554 -0.679 158 TABLE 35 2 Electrodermal Activity - Hotelling's T 2 T Analysis: F = 1.3142; df = 6,19; p = >.25 Discriminant Function Analysis: 1st eigen value = 0,4151; X 2 <= 6,94; df = 6; p = >.25 Normalized Standard Score Weights '  Variable 1 0.0262 Variable 2 0,2270 Variable 3 0.1028 Variable 4 0.7932 Variable 5 0.0899 Variable 6 0,5477 J I I I 1 1 L 10 20 30 40 ' 5 0 60 70 Minutes Figure 9 Tonic SC Over Isolation i - 1 Ln VO 160 Non-Speclfic Electrodermal Activity This section of the results i s concerned with the assessment of dif f e r -ences between the groups in the emission of spontaneous or nonspecific fluctu-ations in SC (NSP activ i t y ) . Two sections of the experimental period were considered i n the analysis. I n i t i a l Rest Period. This analysis is concerned with the NSP activity in the i n i t i a l rest period prior to the administration of the f i r s t tone. The results are summarized i n Table 36. There were no significant differences between the groups in this i n i t i a l period. Tonic Activity. This analysis i s concerned with the NSP activity during the isolation period as a deviation from the i n i t i a l rest period levels. The data summary is presented in Table 37. There were no significant differences between the groups on this measure although the Period x Socialization x Sen-sation Seeking interaction approached this level. This effect would appear to be due to Group 2, the low socialization-low sensation seeking subjects, who exhibit constant negative values over the isolation period relative to the i n i t i a l rest period, as compared to the other groups who display relatively random fluctuations in NSP activity over the 70 minute period. With respect to the group means only Group 2 has a negative overall mean value, however, this effect is relative to the i n i t i a l rest period values, for which Group 2 had the highest positive levels. Recovery Half-Time This measure was used to assess differences in recovery rate to the tone delivered at the end of the isolation period. The data associated with the two f i r s t loud tones were not considered as the tones were presented 15 sec-onds apart, meaning that some Ss had not completed their recovery to the f i r s t tone by the time the second tone was delivered. TABLE 36 NSP Activity - I n i t i a l Rest Period Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 3.250 0.93 >.25 SSS 1 6.942 1.98 >ao So x SSS 1 2.327 0.66 >.25 Error 48 3.510 Group means (responses) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 Group 3 1.385 1.077 1.231 Socialization Low Group 2 2.308 Group ^ 1.154 1.731 1.846 1.115 TABLE 37 NSP Activity,.-. Tonic Activity Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 10.223 0.44 >.50 SSS 1 13.080 0.57 >.25 So x SSS 1 15.453 0.67 >.25 Error Between 48 Period 6 1.8745 1.08 >.25 Period x So 6 0.864 0.50 >.50 Period x SSS 6 1.413 0.81 >.50 Period x So x SSS 6 3.505 2.01 <.10 Error 288 Group means (responses/period) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 Group . 3 Socialization 0.033 0.0 0.016 Low Group 2 - Group 4 -0.714 0.077 -0.319 -0.341 0.038 cont'd 1-63 Table 37 (cont'd) Group means by period P e r i o d s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Group 1 0.077 -0.308 -0.692 -0.077 -0.308 0.462 1.077 Group 2 -0.769 -0.615 -0.692 -0.462 -1.231 -0.231 -1.000 Group 3 -0.077 0.385 -0.231 -0.462 -0.231 0.231 0.462 Group 4 -0.077 0.385 -0.231 -0.462 0.231 0.231 0.462 Means -0.192 -0.173 -0.365 -0.212 -0.327 0.135 0.077 164 Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation Period). This analysis considers the effect of the mild tone signalling the end of the isolation period. This tone was delivered after 70 minutes of minimal stimulation. The data summary is presented in Table 38 with no significant differences emerging between the groups. Respiration Respiration was scored for the same periods as HR, vasomotor activity and SC so that the results are similarly based on six sets of comparisons. The unit of measurement is the complete respiratory cycle. I n i t i a l Rest Period. This is the rest period prior to the administration of the f i r s t tone. The data summary is presented in Table 39. Although there were no significant main effects the Socialization x Sensation Seeking inter-action approaches significance due to the low mean value obtained by Group 2, the low socialization-low sensation seeking Ss. Response to Tone 1. This analysis is concerned with the response to the f i r s t tone and deviation from the i n i t i a l rest period levels. The data sum-mary is presented in Table 40 and Figure 10a,wwibhnnone ^ oft'the "comparisons •' s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. Response to Tones 1 and 2. This period considers the respiration rate im-mediately after the two loud tones as a deviation from the i n i t i a l rest period. The results are summarized in Table 41. There were no significant differences between the groups, (see Figure 10b). Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period). This analysis considers the deviation in the period following the tone ending the isolation from the i n i t i a l rest period. The data summary is presented in Table 42. The main effect for sensation seeking approached significance with the high sen-sation seekers having displayed a decrease in respiration over this comparison TABLE 38 Recovery Half-Time - Response, to Tone" 3 Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS , F So 1 179.61 1.02 >.25 SSS 1 137.72 .78 >.50 So x SSS 1 222.07 1.27 >.2-5 Error 43 175.47 Socialization Group means (seconds) Sensation seeking Low High High Group 1 Group 3 14.23 22.05 18.14 Low Group 2 , Group 4 14.67 13.74 14.21 14.45 17.90 166 TABLE: 39 Respiration - I n i t i a l Rest Period Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS So 1 26.327 2.48 >.10 SSS 1 26.327 2.48 >.10 So x SSS 1 35.558 3.34 <.10 Error 48 10.635 Group means (respirations/minute) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group .1 Group 3 15.54 15.31 15.42 Socialization Low Group ,:2 Group 4 12.46 15.54 14.00 14.00 15.42 TABLE 40 Respiration -.Response to-Tone 1 Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS So SSS So x SSS Error 1 1 1 48 8.481 8.481 0.173 14.840 0.57 >.25 0.57 >.25 0.01 >.50, Socialization Group Means (respirations/minute) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 Group 3 0.769 0.077 0.423 Low Group 2 Group 4 1.692 0.769 1.231 1.231 0.423 TABLE 41 Respiration ^ Response '-to.; Tones and 2 Summary of analysis of variance 168 Source df MS So SSS So x SSS Error 1 1 1 48 0.019 8.481 3.250 4.728 0.00 1.79 0.69 >.50. >.10 >.25: Socialization Group means (respirations/minute) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group .1 Group 3 -0.154 -0.462 -0.308 Low Group 12; Group "4 0.385 -0.923 -0.269 0.115 -0.692 Figure 10 Respiration Response to Tones 1 and 2 170 while the low sensation seekers showed an increase. This increase in respira-tion was most noticeably centered in Group 2, while the decrease was exclusive to Group 3, the high socialization-high sensation seeking Ss. (see Figure 11a). Response to Tone 3 (End of Isolation Period). This analysis considers the deviation in respiration rate from the period prior to the tone ending the iso-lation to the period following i t . The data summary is presented in Table 43 and Figure l i b . A significant main effect was present for sensation seeking with the high sensation seekers having displayed a decrease in respiration rate over this period, in response to the tone. For low sensation seeking there was increase in response to the tone. Tonic Activity During Isolation. This analysis considers the changes in respiration over time during the isolation period as a deviation from the i n -i t i a l rest period. The results are summarized in Table 44. Over the isolation period no significant differences emerged, with the group means generally i n -dicating small increases in respiration in comparison to the rest period levels (see Figure 12). 2 Hotelling's T Statistic Five variables of respiration activity were analyzed simultaneously using 2 Hotelling's T procedure. They were: 1) the i n i t i a l rest period means 2) the responses to the f i r s t loud tone compared to the i n i t i a l rest period means 3) the means for the period following the two i n i t i a l loud tones compared to the i n i t i a l rest period. 4) the means for period fbllpwingdtfielmMfdntoneeending ' the •isdlatiohecomparednt'o '.the.rinitialtrestiiperiod" " 4 5) the means for the period before and after the mild tone -TABLE--42-Respiration - Response to Tone 3 (Comparison to I n i t i a l Rest Period) Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 7.692 0.88 >.25 SSS 1 30.769 3.50 <.10 So x SSS 1 0.308 0.04 >.50 Error 48 8.782 Group Means (respirations/minute) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group .1 Group '3. 0.846 -0.846 0.00 Socialization Low Group 2 Group 4 1.462 0.077 0.769 1.154 -0.385 172 '.TABLE 43 Respiration - Response to-Tone 3~(End of Isolation Period) Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F p So 1 1.231 0.22 >.50 SSS 1 24.923 4.38 <.05 So x SSS 1 2.769 0.49 >.25 Error 48 5.696 Group Means (respirations/minute) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 Group 3 . 0.385 -1.462 -0.539 Socialization Low Group 2 Group . 4 0.231 -0.692 -0.231 0.308 -1.077 Tone 3 Tone 3 Figure II Respiration Response to Tone 3 .TABLE 44 Respiration .- Tonic Activity During Isolation Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 2.473 0.08 >.5Q SSS 1 5.319 0.17 >.50 So x SSS 1 12.703 0.40 >.50 Error Between 48 31.816 Periods 6 3.041 1.51 >.10 Periods x So 6 1.287 0.64 >.50 Periods x SSS 6 1.979 0.98 >.-25 Periods x So x SSS 6 1.646 0.82 >.50 Error 288 2.019 Group means (respirations/minute) Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 Group 3 . 0.374 0.506 0.440 Socialization  Group 2 Group 4 Low 0.912 0.297 0.604 0.643 0.401 . cont 'd 175 Table 44 (cont'd) Group means by periods P e r i o d s Group 1 0.769 0.154 0.462 0.692 0.308 -0.231 0.462 Group 2 0.539 0.308 1.462 0.923 1.000 0.923 1.231 Group 3 0.308 -0.077 0.077 0.385 1.385 0.846 0.615 Group 4 0.385 -0.231 0.308: 0.077 0.308 0.462 0.769 Means 0.500 0.038 0.577 0.519 0.750 0.500 0.769 TABLE 45 2 Respiration - Hotelling's T 2 T Analysis: F =0.6367; df = 5.20, p = >.50 Discriminant Function Analysis: 2 1st eigen value <= 0.1592; X = 3.03; df = 5; p = >.50 Normalized Standard Score Weights  Variable 1 0.3581 Variable 2 0.1974 Variable 3 0,4894 Variable-4 0.1325 Variable 5 0.7587 LLT .178 ending the isolation The results of the analyses are summarized in Table 45. Neither the 2 T nor the discriminant function analysis were significant. Electroencephalographic Activity The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was analyzed for the alpha, theta and beta frequencies prior to the beginning of and immediately before the end of the isolation period. Three sets of analyses, comparing the pre and post scores were performed for each of the three frequencies. The value given for each wave form represents the percentage of the power associated with that frequency range in the period sampled. Theta Wave Activity. This analysis i s concerned with the presence of theta wave activity of the 4-7 c.p.s. range. The analysis of variance and the group means are summarized in Table 46. The only significant effect which emerged was for periods; there was a general increase in theta wave activity from the pre to post periods. This increase was most noticeable for the low socializa-tion Ss in Groups 2 and 4. It is interesting to note that Group 1, the high socialization-low sensation seeking Ss, actually showed a slight decrease in theta activity over this period. However, none of the group differences was significant. Alpha Wave Activity. This analysis i s concerned with the changes in the production of alpha waves of the 8-13 c.p.s. range from the pre to post periods. The data summary is presented in Table 47. There were no signif-icant comparisons in this analysis, with the percentage of this wave form in the samples chosen remaining relatively stable from the pre to post peri-ods . TABLE 46/; EEG Activity - Theta Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F P So 1 25.561 2.11 >.10 SSS 1 0.101 0.01 >.50 So x SSS 1 1.201 0.10 >.50 Error Between 1 12.093 1.76 >.10 Period 1 45.920 6.67 <.01 Periods x So 1 16.340 2.37 >.10 Periods x SSS 1 0.050 0.01 >.50 Periods x So x SSS 1 7.801 1.13 >.25 Error 32 6.886 Group Means Sensation Seeking Low High High Group 1 Group 3 Socialization 16, .74 16. ,41 16.58 Group 2 Group .4 Low 17, .68 17. 86 17.77 17. ,21 17. 14 Periods P e r i o d High Pre High Post Low Pre Low Post Socialization 16.26 16.90 16.49 19.04 Sensation Seeking 16.31 17.96 16.44 17.98 . cont' d Table 46^  (cont'd) Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Pre 16.78 16.10 15.73 16.89 Post 16.71 19.26 17.09 18.83 TABLE 47-EEG Activity - Alpha Summary of analysis of variance 181 Source df MS So 1 SSS 1 So x SSS 1 Error Between 32 30.811 15.033 41.254 22.746 1.35 0.66 1.81 >.25 >.50 >.10 Period 1 Period x So 1 Periods x SSS 1 Periods x So x SSS 1 Error 32 0.1901 0.7002 8.7502 1.3612 8.4848 0.02 0.68 1.03 0.16 >.50 >.50 >.25 >.50 Group Means High Socialization Low Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 22.74 Group 3 25.17 23.96 Group 2 22.95 Group 4 22.35 22.65 22.85 23.76 . cont' d 182 Table 47 (cont'd) Periods High Pre High Post Low Pre Low Post Socialization 24.01 Sensation Seeking 23.36 23.91 24.16 22.50 23.14 22.80 22.55 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Pre Post 23.28 22.91 23.01 22.89 24.73 25.61 21.99 22.71 183 Beta Wave Activity. This analysis i s concerned with the changes in beta wave activity of the 13-30 c.p.s. range from the pre to post periods. The results are summarized in Table 48 with .the only significant effect being a main effect for periods. This was due to the consistent decrease in this frequency demonstrated by a l l groups across'this time period. A l -though not significant, this effect was again noticeable in the low s o c i a l i -zation Ss, particularly those i n Group 2. It i s interesting to note that with respect to EEG activity the changes occurred in the extreme frequencies, i.e., an increase in theta and a de-crease in beta wave activity.^ while the percentage of alpha wave activity remained f a i r l y stable from the pre to post measurements. 2 Hotelling's T Statistic This procedure was also used to compare the pre and post percentages of theta, alpha and beta wave activity in Groups 1 and 4. Six measures were i n -cluded in this analysis. 1) theta activity pre 2) theta activity post 3) alpha activity pre 4) alpha activity post 5) beta activity pre 6) beta activity post 2 The results of the analyses are summarized in Table 49, Neither the T or the discriminant function analysis were significant. TABLE 48/ EEG Activity - Beta Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS So 1 SSS 1 So x SSS 1 Error Between 32 49.170 1.510 77.917 44.790 1.10 0.03 1.74 >.25 >.50 >.25 Periods 1 Periods x So 1 Periods x SSS 1 Periods x So x SSS 1 Error 32 154.00 12.251 0.1013 61.05 22.321 6.90 0.55 0.00 2.74 <.01 >.50 >.50 >.10 Group Means High Socialization Sensation Seeking Low High Group 1 Group . 3 48.02 45.69 46.86 Low Group 2 44.29 Group 4 46.12 45.20 46.16 45.90 . cont'd 185 Table 48' (cont'd) Periods High Pre High Post Low Pre Low Post S o c i a l i z a t i o n 47.91 45.81 47.08 43.33 Sensation Seeking 47.33 44.48 47.66 44.66 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 P r e 48.19 47.12 47.62 47.03 P o s t 47.86 41.46 43.62 45.20 186 TABLE 49 2 Hotelling's T - EEG Activity 2 T Analysis: F = 1.8076; df = 6,11; p =.K>10 Discriminant Function Analysis: 2 1st eigen value = 0,9860; X = 8.23; df - 6; p = >,10 Normalized Standard Score Weights  Variable 1 .0.4666 Variable 2 0.1811 Variable 3 0.6336 Variable 4 0.0117 Variable 5 0.5846 Variable 6 0.0782 187 Correlations Correlations were computed between a l l of the measures in this research and those for the self-report data are lis t e d i n Appendix 5. Although i t was not the original intention to consider these correlational data i t was decided to include them to the extent that they might assist in the interpretation of the results. Only the self-report measures are included in the Appendix as the relationships between them were much more interpretable than those for the physiological measures for which significance was obtained much less fre-quently, more randomly, and generally for reasons which appeared relatively obscure, Time Estimation Following the isolation period the subjects were asked to estimate how much time had elapsed since the i n i t i a l two loud tones. The actual time involved was 70 minutes. The analysis of variance and the group means are summarized in Table 50. The differences between the groups are not s i g n i f i -cant with a l l groups underestimating the elapsed time. TABLE 50 Time Estimation Summary of analysis of variance Source df MS F p Groups 4 125.13 .48 >.50 Error 60 261.23 Means and standard deviations G r o u p  1 2 3 4 5_ Mean 45.9 43.4 46.7 38.8 41.7 Standard deviation 17.5 15.2 18.4 13.6 15.6 189 DISCUSSION The results of this study provide delineation between the subject group-ings on numerous dependent measures. These differences are present as apparent consequences of the selection procedures alone and, as a reaction to the ex-perimental manipulation. Of prime interest in the interpretation of the re-sults is the extent to which the measures of socialization (So) and sensation seeking (SSS) can be used to study antisocial behaviour. In order to system-atically evaluate the data, the i n i t i a l part of the discussion is organized in a manner similar to that used in the reporting of the results. Subject Composition Due to the size of the original population (N = 230) the selection pro-cedures appear to have successfully defined experimental groups that represent the extremes of socialization and sensation seeking. Based on samples report-ed by Gough (1969), the mean obtained on the So scale for low scorers in the present research is comparable to that of "county j a i l inmates" while for high scorers the mean is beyond that of "high school 'best citizens'", the highest value reported by Gough. With respect to the SSS, the low scorers f a l l within the 5th percentile..and the high scorers beyond the 80th percentile, according to norms described by Zuckerman (1975a). Demographic Measures Although the l i f e history data was based on information volunteered by the subjects, the differences between the groups approached or attained sig-nificance on four of the five variables quantified. Of particular importance is the separation which existed between Groups 1 and 4, the high socialization-lowMsensation seeking Ss and the low socialization-high sensation seeking Ss, respectively. The latter group described themselves as having a poorer 190 occupational and academic record and a less satisfactory family l i f e . They admitted to a much greater incidence of alcohol and non-medical drug use, and several subjects within this group admitted to convictions for criminal of-fences. Conversely, Group 1 had the highest scores for occupational history, academic record and the quality of their family l i f e . They had the lowest i n -cidence of alcohol use, and no SsiintTthisgg^oupaadmlLttedccr'iminal convictions or the use of non-medical drugs. The consistency of pattern within these two groups seems quite remarkable, considering the manner in which the data were obtained, and the population from which the subjects came, i.e., university students. The only exception to this pattern was that the lowest rating given to family l i f e was that of the subjects in the low socialization-low sensation seeking group, with Group 4 following them. On the basis of these results, Group 4 clearly emerges as the most antisocial of the five groups considered in this research. This is consistent with the results of several previously described studies. For example, Rosen and Schalling (1974) report that low scorers on the So scale had a higher risk of being or becoming delinquent or criminal and that in their population a large number of students had low So scores. Also Lefcourt (1968) and Carlson (1972) found that students used as subjects in research w i l l frequently admit to having been involved in anti-social behaviour. With respect to sensation seeking, Farley (1973) found the delinquent orientation, as described by Gough and Peterson, to be a s i g n i f i -cant function of SSS scores and to be positively related to alcohol use and drug-taking. An inspection of the group means along either the dimension of socializa-tion or sensation seeking indicates that i n general i t is the combination of these measures that results in the pattern displayed by Group 4. 191 Self-Report Measures Since there were two sets of s e l f - r e p o r t measures — those administered both p r i o r to and f o l l o w i n g the i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d , and those administered only f o l l o w i n g i t — the r e s u l t s are evaluated both f o r those d i f f e r e n c e s that ex-i s t e d between the groups and those that occurred w i t h i n the groups over the experimental p e r i o d . I n i t i a l l y the low s o c i a l i z a t i o n Ss had higher l e v e l s of s t a t e a n x i e t y than d i d the high s o c i a l i z a t i o n Ss; however t h i s was almost completely a t t r i b -u table to the e f f e c t of Group 2, which had a s t a t e anxiety l e v e l much higher than that of the other three groups. Over the experimental p e r i o d a l l of the groups reported a decrease i n s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e a n x i e t y , w i t h the low s o c i a l i z a t i o n Ss c o n t i n u i n g to d i s p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher a n x i e t y l e v e l . However, i n the post t e s t i n g t h i s e f -f e c t was due almost e q u a l l y to the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Groups 2 and 4; i n f a c t , the l a r g e s t decrease f o r a l l groups i n s t a t e anxiety over the experimental p e r i o d was shown by Group 2, w i t h only a s m a l l decrease o c c u r r i n g i n Group 4. R e l a t i v e to pre l e v e l s , Group 4 maintained i t s reported s u b j e c t i v e anxiety more c o n s i s t e n t l y . t h a n d i d the other groups. I t may be that p r i o r to the i s o -l a t i o n p e r i o d a l l of the Ss experienced some s t a t e anxiety as a consequence of the experimental s i t u a t i o n and that 'this e f f e c t was most n o t i c e a b l e i n Group 2, which appears g e n e r a l l y to be the most unstable of the groups. As a con-sequence of f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n and h a b i t u a t i o n to the experimental s i t u a t i o n a l l of the Ss would be expected to show some decrease i n s u b j e c t i v e a n x i e t y s t a t e s . That t h i s r e d u c t i o n i n anxiety was smallest f o r Group 4 could be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n that the Ss i n t h i s group experienced more s u b j e c t i v e a n x i e t y over the i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d and d i d not adjust as w e l l to the experimental s i t u -a t i o n as d i d the other Ss. Relevant to t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s Schmauk's (1970) 192 research in which antisocial Ss reported subjective anxiety in an avoidance learning situation only when faced with the possible loss of money. He states: "The frequent finding that primary sociopaths tend to score lower on the mani-fest anxiety scales may indicate only that fewer stimuli are capable of gener-ating anxiety i n them. This does not mean that the primary sociopath is i n -capable of becoming anxious, very likely he can become as anxious as anyone else i f the appropriate few out of the many potential anxiety-evoking stimuli are,chosen" (p. 333). This use of money to improve performance in psychopaths is supported by Widom (1973) who found that antisocial individuals tolerated the boredom of the prisoners dilemma game when possible monetary gain was i n -volved. As money was apparently an appropriate stimulus in these studies , per-haps the isolation period was anxiety provoking for the Ss in Group 4. When a comparison was made directly between Group 1 and 4 on the pre and post meas-ures of state anxiety the differences were again significant with the latter having the highest scores at both levels. The highest rating of subjective stress was obtained from the low sensa-tion seeking Ss, particularly those in Group 2, both prior to and following the isolation period. Three scale items are contained within the mean values of the four groups. These items in increasing order are "indifferent; didn't bother me; timid". The Ss in Group 2 loaded more on the latter item and the high sensation seekers more on the former. It may be that prior to the iso-lation period the low socialization-low sensation seeking Ss were feeling somewhat more "timid" with respect to their circumstances than were the other Ss, feelings that appeared to dissipate somewhat over the experiment, with the high sensation seekers feeling quite "indifferent" by the end of the experi-ment . The failure of Neary's recently developed (1975) measure of state 193 sensation seeking to contribute to the present results is intriguing. Neary reports that the correlations between the SSS tra i t scale and his state scale should be low and significant i f given on the same day and not significant and slightly lower i f given on separate sessions. In this study the tr a i t and state measures were administered on separate occasions, however, the correla-tions were not only low, they were negative. The correlation coefficient be-tween the SSS General Scale and Neary's state scale was -0.14 for the pre measures and -0.05 for the post measure. Thus, on the basis of this research the effectiveness of the state sensation scale appears to s t i l l be in question. In viewing personality from a dimensional perspective, Eysenck and Eysenck ^ihApre^sx)eh&v^ an'dcipsyeh^p'athifeibehaviour are most likely to be found in that part of personality space generated by the major variables psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism which has high positive values for these three dimensions" and, "these dimensions of personality are linked with antisocial, criminal and psychopathic conduct in children, ado-4Le%%£flft& 'am^  'a#&Jl't%'' (ff^ some , . extent by the results of this research. Most notably the low socialization Ss scored significantly higher on the P scale than did the high socialization Ss; the correlation between the P and So scales was significant at -.41. Extra-version was significantly correlated with sensation seeking (r = .28); Thus, the most antisocial Ss in this studyswere higher on Eysenck's measures of psy-choticism and extraversion than were the least antisocial ones. The high P scorer is described by Eysenck as being "cold, impersonal, hostile, lacking in empathy, unfriendly, untrustful, rude, unmannered, unhelpful, unemotional, and lacking in human feeling... It is interesting that criminals have unusually high P scores" (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1972, p. 54). In the same study the au-thors also state: "Psychopathic behaviour resembles that of our high P scorers i n many ways, and the high P scores of prisoners may suggest that P may stand for psychopathy rather than for psychoticism" (p. 55). The significant effect obtained for sensation seeking on the N scale was largely centered i n the low socialization-low sensation seeking Ss. The correlation between N and sensa-tion seeking is significant at -.30. In summary, those Ss who theoretically should be most antisocial in their behaviour the low socializers-high sensation seekers, emerge in this research as higher on psychoticism and extraversion, with the dimension of neuroticism being expressed most noticeably in those low socialization Ss who were also low on sensation seeking. Many of the low socialization Ss also indicated, by ratings on the sleepi-ness scale, that by the end of the isolation period they had become drowsy and were having d i f f i c u l t y remaining awake. Indeed, the subjective reports of some of these Ss indicated that they may have fallen asleep for some of the 70 min-utes of the isolation period; comments included: "A point where I'm not sure whether I f e l l asleep or not then occurred" and "my mind began to wander or think of nothing at a l l - i t became a fight to stay entertained and awake". It is interesting to note that several items in the reaction scales correlated significantly with the ratings of sleepiness; the higher the rating of sleepi-ness the less entertained the S was (r = -.41), the more unreality he experi-enced (r = .41), the more dreaming he experienced (r = .42), and the more bored he was (r = .44). Group 2 scored the highest on the sleep scale. Group 1, the high socialization-low sensation seeking Ss, had the lowest scores on this scale, possibly because the Ss in this group made a more sustained effort to please the experimenter by following instructions to " s i t quietly with the eyes open" and to "try and remain alert". The differences between the groups were significant for only a few of the twelve descriptors contained in the reaction scales, however, by combining 195 these with the correlational data and an examination of the group means i t is possible to construct a more complete analysis of the Ss' subjective reactions to the isolation period. For example, Groups 1 and 4 both reported being "entertained" during iso-lation. However, i t is possible that the two groups were "entertained" for different reasons. An analysis of the subjective reports of Group 1 revealed that a central aspect of many of the Ss' reactions to the experiment was one of curiosity and interest in their circumstances. Statements such as "I think my curiosity also made the experiment seem not as boring as i t actually was"; "My curiosity for the experiment led me to guess what the object of the ex-periment was"; and "I kept wondering what the purpose of the experiment was", convey a sense of interested curiosity. However, with Group 4, the entertain-ment appeared to be derived much more from the particular effect that the iso-lation had on the individual. Some examples of Ss' statements are: "I f e l t as though I was going into a trance. My vision was blurring and my mind was escaping from my body";"You do lose a l l sense of time, and feel excluded from reality"; "Some of the designs on the wall could be made to look like writing i f I didn't focus my eyes"; "I began to enjoy experiences of unreality" and "I began to look at a shadow to the l e f t of the door which looked like a man's head frowning at me". Recall that the Ss in Group 4 admitted to becoming drow-sy during the isolation period, while the Ss in Group 1 reported being "re-laxed, awake; not at f u l l alertness; responsive". Thus, in comparing the two groups i t may be that they were equally "entertained" but for different reasons. For Group 1 the entertainment seems to have been derived more from observing the circumstances, whereas for Group 4 i t may have been more the result of par-ticipating in them. A decrease in reality contact is emphasized by the signif-icant effect obtained on the "unreality" item for sensation seeking. This effect is centered in Group 4, who had the highest rating on this item whereas the lowest was that of Group 1. Responses to other items on the reaction scales suggest that Groups 1 and 4 were generally not disturbed by the i s o l a -tion. Group 1 had the lowest mean on "uneasiness", "physical discomfort" and "mental discomfort", with the latter effect approaching significance. Group 4 was average in "uneasiness" and "mental discomfort", although they did have the highest score for "physical discomfort". This may be an indication that although they found their experience mentally tolerable, and perhaps even en-tertaining, they experienced some distress physically due to the restrictions placed upon bodily movement. Perhaps the failure of Ss in this group to show much of a decrease in state anxiety from the pre to post measurements was in part a consequence of this physical discomfort. The research of Hocking and Robertson (1969) is relevant here; not only did they demonstrate that high sensation seekers have a greater need for stimulation but they also found that the preferred form of stimulation was kinesthetic rather than visual or audi-tory. One interpretation given to this finding is that in a situation of sen-sory restriction kinesthetic stimulation may serve to decrease the effects of restricted auditory and visual stimulation. The Ss in the present research were instructed to "engage in a minimum of bodily movements so as not to dis-turb the electrode placements". And i f , as Gale (1976) suggests, the hook-up for physiological recording is "the modern equivalent of the Pavlovian harness", then the poss i b i l i t i e s for kinesthetic stimulation were at least decreased. Un-der these circumstances the more antisocial, high sensation seeking individuals might be expected to more actively seek out alternative sources of visual or auditory stimulation. Ss 1 reports from Group 4 such as, "I began to become bored and so I began to seek out and notice small details in the room around me", and visual observations such as, "the man's face next to the door", "the designs on the wall (the crisscross pattern) could be made to look like writ-ing", and "patterns on the wall shifted into visual pictures", would seem to indicate that this occurred. It appears that the individuals in this group were not only prone to drowsiness during the isolation period but they also sought out whatever sources of stimulation were available within the confines of the experimental situation. They also appeared to engage in the sort of self-stimulation behaviours noted by Orris (1967). Different Ss stated: "I got a l i t t l e bored so I started singing to myself"; "I made up songs"; and "I was going through each of my classes and looking at each g i r l that had caught my attention". The need for body movement has also been described in extraverts by Eysenck (1962) and Farley and Farley (1967). Schalling and her colleagues (Schalling, 1970; Schalling, Cronholm and Asberg, 1975; Schalling, Tobisson, Asberg and Cronholm, 1975; Schalling, Cron-holm, Asberg and Eysenck, 1973) have applied a multidimensional model to the analysis of anxiety in antisocial individuals and have constructed a scale to identify three components of anxiety: Psychic Anxiety (PA) which has items concerned with worry, insecurity, social anxiety; Somatic Anxiety (SA) with items related to autonomic symptoms, distress, distractability; and Muscular Tension (MT) with items related to aspects'of muscular.tenseness. Schalling states: "In light of this model the question is not whether psychopaths have low or high anxiety, but rather what type of anxiety i s predominant and under which circumstances. It may be hypothesized that psychopaths are habitually higher in SA and MT, and habitually lower in PA" (p. 6). With respect to the present study, the Ss in Group 4 appear to f i t this model, i f the distractability in their behaviour and their expression of phy-si c a l discomfort can be construed as indications of somatic anxiety and mus-cular tension respectively. Conversely, there did not appear to be any signs 198 of psychic anxiety amongst these Ss. Schalling associates this condition of low psychic anxiety with a state of low cortical arousal or underalertness, in which psychophysiological dissociation might occur in some individuals. This could manifest i t s e l f i n elevated cardiovascular activity and lowered electro-dermal activity (a pattern that Hare (in press) has found with /psychopaths). Katkin (1975) has related lowered electrodermal activity to decreased cortical arousal and this position w i l l be examined further during discussion of the physiological data. Since sensation seeking and extraversion were significantly correlated in this study, a study by Tranel (1962) is relevant. He compared the reactions of introverts and extraverts to a situation of perceptual isolation. He found that introverts followed the instructions carefully while in an isolation room, remaining awake and not moving about. Their attention was given to the room, the equipment and the purpose of the experiment. Their thoughts were described as being much more 'stimulus bound' in nature. In comparison to this i t is said of the extraverts: "they responded to the situation by rejecting the spec-i f i e d conditions. They tended to go to sleep, to move about while awake, to engage in some form of pleasant reverie, and to whistle or hum tunes" (p. 191). Tranel also mentioned that the thoughts of the extraverts seemed to be centered much more on experiences removed from the present situation. It is clear that the reactions of Tranel's introverts and extraverts were similar to Groups 1 and 4, respectively i n this study. The Ss in Group 2 indicated that they found the isolation experience to be minimally entertaining, uninteresting, confusing, boring and to cause them some mental discomfort. Their low mean on the sleep scale has already been indicated and reference has been made to the possibility that some of the Ss in this group actually did f a l l asleep. Their confusion may have resulted 199 from trying to remain alert, or, awakening in a strange environment. Unlike the Ss in Group 4, who admitted to drowsiness and yet appeared to be enter-tained by their experience, the Ss in Group 2 seemed to find their situation disturbing. With respect to Group 3, the high socialization-high sensation seeking Ss, their subjective reports convey the feeling that these Ss wanted to obey the rules and remain alert while engaging in a minimum of bodily movements. Like some of the subjects described by Tranel (1962), these Ss seemed to per-ceive the experimental conditions as a challenge and as best they could they waited out the time required. While some of these Ss ;adm:i'tt'ed to" drowsiness there are not the descriptions of reverie or unreality as were given by Group 4. In summary, i t seems reasonable to conclude that on the basis of the self-report data reasonable distinctions can be made between the groups. The Ss in Group 4 presented themselves in a manner which is consistent with much of the theoretical formulation concerning stimulation seeking behaviour in antisocial individuals. In reaction to the monotony of social isolation the low socialization-high sensation seeking Ss admitted to a certain amount of state anxiety, possibly the result of acknowledged physical discomfort caused by the restrictions placed on body movements. During the isolation, Ss in this group appeared to disregard the instructions, by not remaining alert, giving into drowsiness and seemingly seeking out the stimulating' experiences associa-ted with reverie and perceptual hallucination. Zuckerman et al's (1972) des-cription of the high sensation seeker's reactions to monotony supports these findings. They suggest that in such situations he w i l l quickly become bored and nonresponsive, w i l l be more sensitive to inner sensations and w i l l conform less to the external constraints imposed on him. 200 Physiological Measures This discussion of the physiological results i n i t i a l l y considers each of the response-variables following which a summation i s given for each of the groups to determine what patterns emerge. Prior to the presentation of the f i r s t tone the groups were similar in mean HR. With the presentation of the f i r s t loud unsignalled tone a l l of the groups exhibited rapid HR acceleration which .wasg.gre'atestffort, the low. sensation seeking Ss, particularly those in Group 2. Over the isolation period a grad-ual decrease in mean HR was observed in a l l the groups. With the presentation of the mild tone signalling the end of the isolation a l l of the groups appeared to orient to the tone showing a small HR deceleration, except Group 2, for whom a sudden large increase in HR was observed. As a consequence of this response this i s the only group to display a positive HR value over the experimental period. The largest decrease over this period i s displayed by the high sensa-tion seekers and most notably those in Group 3. The model proposed by Lacey (1967; Lacey and Lacey, 1974) can be applied to the phasic HR responses in this research. A decrease in HR is associated with an increase i n cortical arousal and a readiness for sensory intake, where-as HR acceleration i s associated with decreased cortical arousal and a readi-ness for sensory rejection. Or as similarly suggested by Graham and Clifton (1966), HR deceleration i s indicative of an orienting response (OR) and i n -creased sensitivity to the environment, whereas HR acceleration i s indicative of a defensive response (DR).and decreased sensitivity to the environment. Based on this model the results suggest that a l l of the groups exhibited a DR to the f i r s t tone; an attempt to reject the stimulus which was extremely loud. The presentation of the tone ending the isolation appears to have af-fected the groups differentially, with Groups 1, 3, and 4 displaying what is interpreted to be sensory intake behaviour indicated by a decrease in HR. This response may be taken as an indication that these Ss were relieved by it s occurrence. In comparison, Group 2 displayed a DR to the tone as evi-denced by their large HR increase. As the tone was mild and did not e l i c i t a similar response from the other groups the implication is that the reaction of the Ss in this group to the isolation was much different at this time. Over the isolation a gradual decrease in tonic HR was observed in a l l the groups. This is consistent with E l l i o t t ' s (1969) suggestion that i t is p r i -marily the instigation, anticipation, or i n i t i a t i o n of responses that controls tonic HR. As there were no response demands being placed on the Ss during the isolation period the expectation would be that tonic HR would decrease. Silver-man, Cohen, Shmavonian and Greenberg (1961) reported that in a social isolation situation f i e l d independent and f i e l d dependent Ss were differentiated on the basis of skin conductance (SC) but not tonic HR. It was assumed that the a-rousal effect measured by SC was due to the sensory loss experienced in the situation, whereas, as there were no responses to be made by the Ss, HR did not differentiate between the groups. The second aspect of cardiovascular activity to be considered is peri-pheral vasomotor activity. During the i n i t i a l rest period a l l of the groups were very similar in mean vasomotor activity. The presentation of the f i r s t loud tone resulted in a reduction in pulse amplitude in a l l of the groups, how-ever, a difference in the reaction patterns of the high and low socialization Ss was observed. With the presentation of the tone the high socialization Ss displayed immediate vasoconstriction following the tone, whereas the low so-cialization Ss displayed an i n i t i a l vasodilation response over several seconds before vasoconstriction occurred. This response was observed in both groups containing low socialization Ss, regardless of the level of sensation seeking. 202 What this pattern is indicative of is not clear, however, a similar response was observed in a recent study by Hare, Frazelle and Cox (submitted) using low and high socialization Ss. However, the Ss in this study were a l l i n -mates in a Provincial prison. In the present research the low socialization Ss also recovered more rapidly following the i n i t i a l decrease in pulse ampli-tude. It has been suggested (Teichner, 1965) that individuals who vasocon-st r i c t more rapidly and to a greater degree following shock are overly aroused as compared to Ss who do not exhibit this pattern. This response difference may be relevant to the distinction between low and high socialization Ss as was done in the present research. Over the isolation period the vasomotor reaction was generally constric-tion, however for Group 3 this response was present only i n i t i a l l y and was re-placed by a consistent pattern of vasodilation over the isolation period. With the presentation of the mild tone a uniform decrease in pulse ampli-tude was observed in a l l of the groups. When the post period is compared with the i n i t i a l rest period vasoconstriction is observed in a l l of the groups a l -though this occurred to a much lesser extent in Group 3. The differences in vasomotor activity provide further insight into the levels of sympathetic arousal and the emotional states experienced by the Ss. The i n i t i a l constriction to the loud tone is part of the DR observed already as a HR increase in a l l the groups. The vasoconstriction displayed by Groups 1, 2, and 4 over the isolation period might be an indication of increased anx-iety i n the Ss, however, an alternative interpretation is that i t is an indica-tion of increased drowsiness in these Ss. McDonald, Johnson and Hord (1963) found that vasoconstriction increased over time in drowsy Ss and that the re-sponse of drowsy Ss showed significantly more constriction over the experiment than that of alert Ss. This study also reports that the HR response of the 203 drowsy group was significantly greater than that of the alert subjects. The progressive vasodilation displayed by Ss in Group 3 over the isolation period suggests that these Ss became more relaxed in their circumstances once they had recovered from the presentation of the i n i t i a l loud tones. Such a re-sponse is a reflection of decreased activity in the sympathetic nervous system (Newmann, Lhaman and Conn, 1944; Aniskiewicz, 1973). The small decrease ob-tained in mean vasomotor activity over the experimental period for Group 3 is impressive when one considers that the post period response reflects the ef-fect of the mild tone delivered at the end of the isolation. The implication is that these Ss were not bothered greatly by i t s occurrence. The three aspects of electrodermal activity considered in this research were skin conductance (SC), non-specific fluctuations (NSP) and recovery half-time. With respect to SC the groups were extremely similar in the i n i t i a l rest period, however with the presentation of the f i r s t loud tone the effect for sensation seeking approached significance with Group 2 clearly being the most reactive of the groups. Over the isolation period a l l of the groups, except Group 2, displayed consistent negative values for tonic SC in comparison to the i n i t i a l rest period levels with the largest mean decrease being shown by Group 4. When the tone was presented at the end of the isolation period a l l of the groups showed an increase in SC, most noticeably Group 2. From the i n i t i a l rest period to the post period Jaigi'gfia'f-ifc'antffefiftecfejforais:ensation seeking reflected the increase i n SC shown by the low sensation seeking Ss, particu-la r l y those in Group 2, and the corresponding decrease in SC for high sensation seeking Ss over the same period. The Ss in Group 2, the low socialization-low sensation seeking Ss, were clearly the most reactive in terms of SC to both the tones and the isolation period. These Ss admitted to the highest levels of state anxiety which may be 204 reflected i n their i n i t i a l reaction to the tones. Also, there were indications that the Ss in this group were the most prone to f a l l i n g asleep and the SC re-sults can be interpreted as supporting this contention. In comparison to the consistent pattern displayed by the other three groups, these Ss displayed an inconsistent pattern of increases and decreases in SC over the isolation peri-od which may be indicative of an uneasy sleep interspersed with periods of a-rousal. Periods of transient arousal during sleep are described (Snyder and Scott, 1972) as being similar to orienting reactions during wakefulness. They are usually accompanied by peripheral vasoconstriction, HR acceleration, a de-crease in respiration and an increase in SC. Loomis, Harvey and Hobart (1938) f i r s t described the K complex, which is part of the electroencephalogram of sleep. It is a manifestation of arousal and almost always precedes body move-ments during sleep. It is associated (Johnsons ahrd?Karpanh I1968) with brief Encreaseso)intHR^f..vaspc0nst,rdction, and SC. The Ss in Group 2 described themselves as experiencing the most boredom and mental discomfort during the isolation in comparison to the other Ss. This admission is relevant to the study described earlier in which London et a l (1972) reported that boredom resulted in increased autonomic arousal in their Ss. Group 2 also displayed the largest SC response to the f i n a l tone, which, in conjunction with their large HR increase, indicates that they were disturbed by i t s presentation. This may have occurred because a greater number of Ss in this group were drowsy or asleep. In fact, the tonic SC level obtained for Group 2 in the minute prior to the presentation of the f i n a l tone is negative relative to the i n i t i a l rest period. This may be an indication that a large number of these Ss were asleep or drowsy at the end of the isolation period. 205 Katkin and McCubbin (1969) have suggested that, as compared to intense stimuli which w i l l be perceived as threatening by a l l Ss, moderately intense stimuli w i l l emphasize individual differences in response patterns. They demonstrated that anxious Ss display autonomic responses characteristic of the DR to stimuli of moderate intensity whereas for nonanxious Ss the auto-nomic response evoked i s characteristic of the OR. The fin a l tone in the present study was moderately intense (78 decibels) and may have had this ef-fect on Group 2 who appeared to be the most anxious of the Ss groups. The SC responses of the Ss in Group 3 and 4 during the experimental peri-od were unlike those displayed by Group 2. Their responses to the i n i t i a l two tones and to the mild tone ending the isolation were much less severe. Over the isolation period they displayed consistent decreases in SC in comparison to their i n i t i a l rest period levels. However, although the Ss in these two groups displayed very similar patternsoof SC activity, i t is proposed that there was a difference that existed between the groups concerning their per-ception of the experimental situation. The decrease in autonomic activity observed in Group 3 is considered to be part of a general relaxation response experienced by these Ss during the isolation. Whereas for Group 4 this de-crease in SC occurred despite the subjective indications that these Ss were not that comfortable with their circumstances; in fact, in many other of their responses these Ss were very similar to those in Group 2. It is hypothesized therefore, that these low socialization-high sensation seeking Ss were hypo-reactive with respect to SC activity. With regard to non-specific fluctuations in electrodermal (NSP) activity the differences between the groups were minimal in the i n i t i a l rest period; however, over the isolation period differences emerged. Specifically, these related toC'the consistent decrease in NSP activity displayed by Group 2 as 206 compared to the relatively random changes observed in the other groups. This finding i s consistent with the indications that Ss in this group were the most prone to drowsiness and sleep. McDonald, Johnson and Hord (1963) found that in two experiments drowsy Ss showed less NSP activity when compared to alert Ss. With respect to the third aspect of electrodermal functioning considered, recovery half-time, no significant differences emerged between the groups. However in his review of this phenomenon, Hare (1977), indicates that i t is s t i l l of issue whether or not i t has been demonstrated that antisocial behav-iour is related to the rate of electrodermal recovery. In summary, discrimination between the groups emerged on two of the meas-ures of electrodermal activity considered, SC and NSP activity. Support was provided for the contention that: the Ss in Group 2 were i n i t i a l l y disturbed by their circumstances and were prone to drowsiness and sleep from which they were frequently aroused; the Ss in Group 3 were relatively relaxed during the isolation; and the Ss in Group 4 were electrodermally underaroused over the experimental period relative to the other Ss. A l l of the groups displayed an increase in respiration with the presenta-tion of the i n i t i a l two loud tones; this i s consistent with the pattern of a defensive response (DR) as indicated byepreviously discussed measures. Over the isolation period respiration rate stabilized within a l l the groups. How-ever, with the presentation of the tone ending the isolation period different patterns of response were observed. The low sensation seekers exhibited a slight increase in respiration rate which is interpreted as part of a DR to the tone. For the high sensation seekers, and particularly those in Group 3, there was a decrease in respiration rate which may be an indication of an orienting response (OR) to the tone. The Ss i n Group 3 appear to be relatively 207 relaxed during the isolation period so i t is unlikely that the mild tone would have any startle properties for them. The Ss in Group 4 may have o r i -ented to the tone for i t s signal value as the end of the isolation period. Their autonomic s t a b i l i t y has been indicated on previously discussed measures; however, there are also indications that these Ss were subjectively concerned as to when the isolation would end. Although some differences exist between the groups in respiration rate interpretation of the results is more d i f f i c u l t f f o r as Duffy (1972) points out, respiration rate has been used less frequently than other measures as an indicator of activation. This i s due to the conflicting results obtained by different investigators. As an example, Snyder and Scott (1972) note that the expected change at the onset of sleep is a gradual decrease in respiration how-ever some studies have reported that no changes occurred while others found an increase i n this measure with sleep onset. With respect to electroencephalographic (EEG) activity the only changes which were significant i n the present research were periods effects, resulting from the increase in theta wave activity and the decrease in beta wave activ-ity displayed by a l l groups over the isolation period. An examination of means reveals that group differences were present, although not significant, partic-ularly between the low and high socializers. The largest increase in theta wave activity and the largest decrease in beta wave activity was displayed by the low socialization Ss. This slow-wave shift occurred most noticeably in Group 2 where i t was interpreted as an indication of increased drowsiness and sleep among these Ss. This effect i s also present, although to a lesser extent, in Group 4 who also displayed signs of increased drowsiness over the isolation period. For Group 3 the most noticeable brain wave shift was a decrease in beta wave activity and a corresponding increase im alpha wave activity. This 208 may be interpreted as an indication that these Ss were relaxed but somewhat more alert during the isolation period. With Group 1 there were only slight shifts in the EEG frequencies over the isolation period, the indication being that these Ss remained relatively alert over the experimental session. Having discussed each of the physiological variables individually a sum-mation w i l l be made for each of the groups to provide an overall assessment of reactions to the experimental situation. The high socialization-low sensation seeking Ss in Group 1 appear to be those Ss who were least affected by the experimental situation. Their sub-jective indications of minimal physical and mental discomfort, low pre and post anxiety levels, high interest and their low rating on the sleep scale are substantiated by the physiological data. Their responses were not gen-erally extreme in comparison to the other groups. Over the isolation period they appeared to adapt to the situation but remained relatively alert, and were not disturbed by the presentation of the f i n a l tone. Group 2, composed of low socialization-low sensation seeking Ss, contains those Ss who were the most labile in their reactions to the experimental man-ipulations. They were the most reactive to the presentation of the i n i t i a l two tones as reflected in HR acceleration, increased SC, peripheral vasocon-striction and increased respiration. This reflects their subjective ratings of high anxiety and subjective stress states in the i n i t i a l resttperiod. The indications are that Ss i n this group were the most prone to drowsiness and f a l l i n g asleep over the isolation period. With the instructions to try and remain alert these Ss appear to have experienced periods of f i t f u l sleep punc-tuated by moments of arousal and confusion. Subjectively these Ss acknowledged higher levels of mental discomfort, boredom, and sleepiness, a l l of which is reflected i n the physiological data. 209 As mentioned previously the indications are that the Ss in Group 3, the high socialization-high sensation seeking Ss, were relatively undisturbed by the isolation period and appear to have maintained a relaxed pose throughout i t . Their st a b i l i t y i s reflected in minimal responses to the i n i t i a l tone, decreases in the cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory measures over the isolation period and an;-apparent readiness for the presentation of the f i n a l tone. The Ss in Group 4, the low socialization-high sensation seeking Ss, dem-onstrated an autonomic st a b i l i t y which belied certain of their subjective ad-missions, such as highgreratihgsgof state anxiety and physical discomfort. They also acknowledged an increase in drowsiness and sleep states such as was found in Group 2. Over the experiment they displayed electrodermal s t a b i l i t y with small SC responses to the tones, and the largest decrease in SC over the isolation period. Despite the fact that this group showed the same increases in slow-wave EEG activity as Group 2 and had higher ratings for sleepiness, dreaming, and unreality, their response to the f i n a l tone appeared to be an orienting response, as compared to the defensive response displayed by Group 2. In fact, their physiological behaviour was in many ways similar to that of Group 3, who appeared to be relaxed and undisturbed by their circumstances. Hare (in press) in commenting on one of his earlier studies, points out that as London et al (1972) found with normal Ss, nonpsychopathic Ss displayed electrodermal arousal during a boring situation. However with respect to psy-chopathic Ss he states: "the boredom associated with monotonous, repetitive stimulation did not have the same arousing effect with psychopaths." The re-sults of the present research are consistent with these findings. Group 4, the most antisocial group was the least responsive electrodermally to the mono-tony of the isolation. This occurred despite their similarity in other ways 210 to Group 2, which was the most reactive group electrodermally. Descriptively, Groups 2 and 4, resemble the dimensions, neurotic-anxious and unsocialized-psychopathic, described by Quay and his associates (1972) in their factor analytic studies of antisocial behaviour. In summary, it'vappears that during the i n i t i a l rest period the groups were similar i n their physiological responses to the demands being placed upon them e.g. being selected as a S, being hooked up to the polygraph in an unfa-miliar environment. However, behaviourally differences were already apparent, particularly with respect.to anxiety and subjective stress levels. With the presentation of the two loud tones physiological differences emerged, with the low sensation seeking Ss, particularly those in Group 2 being more responsive to the tones. Over the isolation period both physiological and behavioural differences were present between the groups. The most unusual pattern observed was that for Group 4, the low socialization-high sensation seeking Ss, who were similar to Groups 1 and 3 in displaying autonomic stab i l i t y , particularly with respect to the electrodermal measures. However, behaviourally and cortically they resembled Group 2, in admitting to boredom, drowsiness and sleep, and some concern over their circumstances. With the presentation of the f i n a l tone differences were present between the groups, as Group 2 displayed the physiological pattern associated with a defensive response. This might be expected i f a sufficient number of Ss within this group were asleep or drowsy when the tone was presented. The other groups appeared to orient to the tone, as i f they were relieved by i t s presentation. Group 4 demonstrated this auto-nomic sta b i l i t y to the f i n a l tone despite their behavioural similarities dur-ing the isolation period to Group 2. They also displayed the smallest decrease in state anxiety from the pre to post experimental assessment. These results argue against the traditional concept of a unidimensional mechanism of arousal or activation. This dissociation between somatic and behavioural response was most evident in Group 4, the most antisocial of the S groups. Lacey (1967) elaborates on this position in stating: "I think the evidence shows that electrocortical arousal, autonomic arousal, and behavioural arousal may be considered to be 'different forms' of arousal, each complex in i t s e l f . I think the evidence also shows that one cannot easily use one form of arousal as a valid index of another. That so many investigators do so is attributable to the fact that the three complexes of arousal processes - elec-trocortical, autonomic, and behaviour - 'in general' occur simultaneously" (p. 80). Time Estimation Although the differences between the groups were not significant the pooled estimates for a l l the Ss appear to be in accordance with previous find-ings. Ludwig (1971) found that in comparison to Ss in a situation of normal sensory input, Ss i n sensory deprivation underestimated the subjective passage of time while Ss experiencing sensory overload tended to overestimate. Reed and Kenna (1964) found that when they tested Introverts and extraverts there were no differences in the time estimates under normal conditions, whereas in sensory deprivation a l l the Ss underestimated the passage of time, however the extravert's error of estimation was much greater than the introvert's. The authors state: "where external stimuli are reduced, the number of mental events experienced w i l l be directly related to personality. By definition the intro-vert's psychic energy is normally directed toward himself, whereas the extra-vert is more attentive to external cues" (p.182). Thus, in a situation of re-duced stimulation the extravert w i l l experience a greater decrease in mental events and w i l l subsequently make larger errors in time estimation. Petrie, Collins and Solomon (1960) found somewhat similar results in that 212 those who tolerated pain well were more extraverted, were less tolerant of sensory deprivation and experienced time as moving slowly. This is related to a reduced perception of the environment and a relatively empty time ex-perience. In the present research i t appears that time moved more slowly for Group 4, the low socialization-high sensation seeking Ss. These Ss were higher on extraversion and admitted to being stressed by the physical restraints placed upon them. It has been suggested that stress may serve to f i l l out time mak-ing i t seem shorter (Sturt, 1925). Theoretical Considerations A pattern of responses exists throughout the results of the present re-search which is extremely consistent with current formulations of the anti-social personality. The group of Ss displaying this pattern i n i t i a l l y distin-guished themselves demographically, and then, in subsequent responses to the experimental situation, both subjective and objective differences became ob-vious . An implication of these results relates to the possibility of studying antisocial behaviour using noncriminal populations. In the present research the combinationsof theoretically relevant dimensions, socialization and sensa-tion seeking, appears to have extracted from a student population individuals who might be expected to display such behaviours. This might not have occurred i f a single measure had been used, or i f the c r i t e r i a for selection had been less stringent. Although the results might have been more dramatic i f a crim-inal population had been used, the fact is that meaningful differences were obtained using a student population. This provides strong support for the contention that antisocial behaviour should be viewed in terms of a continuum rather than a typology. This position 213 is supported by the finding that, not only the demographic data, but also the self-report and physiological results were consistent with patterns obtained from more deviant populations. Within the prison population there w i l l be a concentration of antisocial individuals. However, the distinction should be made between antisocial behaviour, of which a l l the inmates are guilty, and the c l i n i c a l l y defined antisocial personality, which would include only a por-tion of the inmates. In the present research i t was possible to identify a group of Ss who were asocial to the extent that they obtained extremely low scores on the measure of socialization; yet within this group there was a sub-group of low socialization Ss who exhibited a pattern of behavioural and phy-siological responses similar to those associated with the antisocial personal-i t y . Thus, i t may be more appropriate to distinguish two continuums; a con-tinuum of antisocial behaviour within which willbbe found the antisocial per-sonality, who w i l l be distinguishable beyond the behavioural level. At some point along the continuum of antisocial behaviour incarceration becomes a factor, which greatly affects the nature of any research involving these individuals. Inmates usually have extensive case records so that selec-tions for research can be made on the basis of a number of c r i t e r i a , such as self-report measures, analysis of l i f e history records and c l i n i c a l interviews. With noncriminal populations such asrange of data w i l l not be available and one w i l l usually be limited to the use of self-report measures as was done in the present research. The novel advertisement recruitment technique used by Widom (1977) has been described and may be a viable method of obtaining Ss from the noncriminal population. However, with regard to the situation at present, a limitation of using noncriminal Ss w i l l be the lack of l i f e history or independent f i l e data from which to corroborate the results of the self-report measures. 214 If antisocial behaviour is described in terms of a continuum one might speculate why i t is that certain individuals, even as demonstrated in the present study with university students, display antisocial and delinquent behaviours. In this respect Farley's (1973) two-factor model of delinquency described earlier is appealing. He states: "If an adolescent's environment is rich in socially acceptable experience then a high stimulation-seeker w i l l be less l i k e l y to become delinquent. However, i f an environment does not pro-vide sufficient amounts of variety of socially approbative experience, then a high stimulation-seeker w i l l be more lik e l y to become delinquent.... the latter environment i s expected to be significantly associated with low socio-economic status indications, while the former environment i s expected to be associated with middle to high socio-economic status indicators" (p. 2). Recently, Farley (1974) has extended this model. He argues that creativ-ity is in part a function of a high need for stimulation based on an arousal def i c i t . If the child with a high need for stimulation obtains satisfaction of his needs through socially acceptable a c t i v i t i e s , he w i l l develop into a "creative nondelinquent". This viewpoint is illustrated by comments attributed to a very successful rock combination. A recent interview begins with one member stating: "I think I would have been either Gary Gilmore or a musician. In my l i f e I had the capability of being a mass murderer or an a r t i s t . I think i t ' s that way with any intense person." In response to this admission his partner states: "I feel the same way. I always feel that the fact that I was moved by my parents from New York to Pennsylvania when I was four years old totally altered my whole l i f e . I know that was probably the most important thing that ever happened to me because then I was brought up in a f a i r l y healthy environment with generally good peo-ple surrounding me and a f a i r l y good education." It is interesting to note that the interviewer comments on these state-ments as an "uncharacteristic expression of antisocial sentiments". 215 It may be that the particular measures chosen to select Ss in the present research are particularly relevant to the identification of antisocial individ-uals in normal populations. The Sensation Seeking Scale to tap the stimulation seeking behaviours, which Farley (1973) suggests are the consequence of a phy-siological arousal d e f i c i t , and the Socialization Scale to assess the quality of social development. Within a university population one would expect to find a greater proportion of individuals whose developmental history includes higher socio-economic levels and more opportunities for socially acceptable ex-periences. Consequently, the incidence of antisocial behaviour should be min-imal in such a population, but the physiological substrates Farley implicates in i t s development would be expected to be present. Such are the indications based on the results of the present research. The model applied in the present research also has implications for the use of reduced sensory environments in prison situations. Suedfeld and Landon (in press) address this issue directly. They state: "What about aversive con-ditioning with the use of extremely low-stimulation environments as a punish-ment? Such environments might be unpleasant for the psychopath, but the treat-ment w i l l not be useful i f he is relatively incapable of learning anything from negative outcomes. It would therefore appear unadvisable to use severe envi-ronmental restriction with these subjects, since such situations might merely be stressful for them without at the same time inducing them to modify their behaviour.... there would seem to be no added advantages, and a possible disad-vantage, in making the conditions particularly monotonous." As a consequence of being placed in or threatened with a low-stimulation environment, the anti-social personality might be expected to engage in disruptive and potentially violent behaviour in order to avoid such a situation. As noted by Wiesen (1965), the reduced stimulation environment could be most beneficial to the 216 anxiety neurotic but, in the interest of maintaining s t a b i l i t y within the prison setting, the antisocial personality would derive more therapeutic benefit from the controlled alleviation of his need for stimulation, either through environmental or c l i n i c a l manipulations. With respect to punishment i t might be more appropriate that i t be assessed in a manner that is relevant to the particular value system of the individual, e.g., an inmate who has worked up to a position in the staff dining room, which provides him with valued social interaction, could be returned to the normal prison routine for a specific period. The recognition that antisocial behaviour may be the result of an inor-dinate need for stimulation, combined with a lack of socially acceptable meth-ods of f u l f i l l i n g this need, has important implications for the control or a l -leviation of these tendencies. Focusing on this need for stimulation Suedfeld and Landon (in press) have suggested several methods of arousal modification that might be applied with the antisocial individual. The f i r s t centers on methods of increasing the chronic state of underarousal, the most obvious of which is the use of stimulant medication. However this is seen as only a tem-porary measure with the problems of maintenance. A second approach would be the use of techniques, such as meditation, biofeedback or sensory deprivation, that would be expected to increase the individual's sensitivity to the stimu-lation he does receive. It is pointed out that considering the basic premise being examined—an arousal d e f i c i t — a n d as indicated by the results of present research, both meditation and sensory deprivation should be aversive situations for the antisocial personality. Myers and Eisner (1974) found that high sensa-tion seekers tended to volunteer for meditation training more frequently than low sensation seekers, but they were more li k e l y to discontinue the practice. Zuckerman (1975) comments on these results: "Considering the monotonous nature 217 of meditation the results are not surprising. Sensation seekers are quick to volunteer for any new or unusual experience, but i f they do not find suf-ficient unusual effects in the experience tend to drop out and lack for some-thing else" (p. 61). With respect to biofeedback, Steinberg and Schwartz (1976) found that psychopaths could learn to modify their spontaneous electrodermal activity in a way comparable to controls although they differed in their patterns of autonomic response. Some success was achieved with biofeedback, however, the authors acknowledge the prematurity in assuming that corresponding changes in personality w i l l occur as a consequence of this training. Another possibility, for the control of excessive stimulation seeking behaviour, would be to provide the individual with the opportunity to engage in what for most would be highly stimulating, exciting and perhaps dangerous act i v i t i e s . Although some of these activities would be openly disdained by the majority of society, they would certainly be more acceptable socially than flagrant criminal activity. The characteristics attributed to the antisocial individual might be expected to enhance his performance in these areas. One such outlet is sports, particularly those of an individualistic, violent na-ture. It is reported that those who engage in such sports display personality traits such as emotional detachment, stimulation seeking behaviours, social rebelliousness, defective affective relationships, low anxiety levels and stubbornness. (Ogilvie, 1968). One,would expect that the sports which would attract individuals of this type would be those of an aggressive nature involving body contact and violence such as boxing, American football, or ice hockey. However, i t may be that these qualities, i f present in an individual, w i l l aid in his success at the top levels of any sport; the " k i l l e r instinct" may separate the winner from 218 the loser. Bjorn Borg, currently the top-ranked tennis player in the world, has been nicknamed "The Iceman" for his unemotional behaviour on the tennis court. In a recent interview he stated: "During a match you can't be friends on the court. You have to try to hate the other guy. It doesn't matter i f i t ' s your parents on the other side, you can't be nice. You must learn to hate them. You must want to k i l l them." An athletic programme originally designed to work with delinquent youths is the Outward Bound Schools, in which the individual i s purposefully placed in high risk outdoor situations, such as mountain climbing and white water canoeing. The hope is that through f u l l y extending themselves, these adoles-cents w i l l undergo experiences of self-discovery. An extreme example of high stimulation employment is military activity, particularly for those "soldiers of fortune" who s e l l their services in armed conflict situations around the world. Two quotes attributed to mercenaries in Rhodesia i l l u s t r a t e their search for excitement: "Except for the two years in Vietnam and the time I've spent here I've been bored a l l my l i f e . You're never more alive than when you're close to death"; and "Basically I wanted to see how much I could take." (Treaster, 1977, p. 45). Or, as they are des-cribed by a c r i t i c of their a c t i v i t i e s : "These hangmen, rapists and thieves were hailed as the defenders of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n . And every pain was taken to picture them as 'individuals' 'adventure seekers'" (Zabirov, 1977, p. 6) . As an alternative to considering the need for stimulation in the anti-social personality one might focus on the lack of socialization apparent in these individuals as a means to modifying or changing their behaviour. This is essentially what Gough (1948) was concerned with; that the antisocial per-sonality i s defective in social interactions as the consequence of a deficiency 219 in role-taking a b i l i t i e s . He suggested that therapy should involve the development of role-playing s k i l l s , so that the individual may become more aware of the social effects of his behaviour. It has been reported recently (Bruner, 1977) that a social therapy approach has been used with violent of-fenders in the Ontario prison system and that the programme has been most successful. Success in this case is defined in terms of the numbers of i n -mates who, having previously been considered incorrigible, have been released into society with decreased indications of recidivism. Rotenberg (1977) states that the Socialization Scale may be, "one of the best, standardized, nonbehav-iouristic measures of social sensitivity, since i t actually detects the sub-ject's empa'tMc or role-taking a b i l i t y " (p. 9). In this connection he con-siders antisocial behaviour to be the consequence of various insensitivities which may occur within the development of the socialization process and which should be dealt with differentially. Trasler (1977) has considered the issue of socialization and the controls that may or may not be present in i t s development. Antisocial behaviour may be a viable adaptation to the social circumstances in which the individual exists, so that following incarceration a return to their environment w i l l i n -crease the likelihood of repeated criminal activity. What i s necessary i s a change in the behavioural contingencies under which the individual finds him-self. Trasler comments that, rather than attempting to increase the aversive consequences of criminal behaviour, the effort should be made to adjust the individualss social environment. Greater rewards should exist for behaviour change, as compared to those available for maintaining the existing behaviours. With respect to the present study i t would be expected that university students are part of an environment where most of the rewards would be given to prosocial rather than antisocial behaviour. Thus, although a physiological 220 propensity, such as an arousal de f i c i t , might be present there w i l l be no evi-dence of antisocial behaviour due to the effectiveness of the socialization process that the individual has been exposed to, and the existence within the environment of the appropriate contingencies to maintain this l i f e pattern. The solidity of this socialization process could be tested by examining the willingness of the individual to engage in cheating behaviours on university exams. Perhaps in situations such as these, the inhibitions i n s t i l l e d through social training w i l l break down and the low arousal, high sensation seeking i n -dividual w i l l identify most with those cues which indicate that his actions w i l l be rewarded, i.e., success on the exam; he w i l l be less aware to the pos-sible negative consequences of his behaviour. Trasler (1977) states: "People do not simply react to social pressures: they attempt to resolve their problems, they take in i t i a t i v e s and in doing so they exert a continuously selective ef-fect on the kinds of social experience that, in turn, further shape their be-haviour. It is common c l i n i c a l observation that deviant individuals persist-ently make things worse for themselves by misperception of the attitudes of others, and by clumsy attempts to cope with their d i f f i c u l t i e s . " (p. 35). If the results of the present research are interpreted as indicating that an increased need for stimulation, as the function of an arousal deficit , i s present to some extent in a noncriminal population then the importance of the socialization process in the development of antisocial behaviour becomes ap-parent. It w i l l be necessary to continue this comparison of criminal and non-criminal populations in order to more clearly delineate the differences between the two. To the present most of the research in this area has focused on de-viant populations and the reasons for their antisocial behaviours. 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Paper presented at NATO Confer-ence on Dimensions of Anxiety and Stress, Oslo, Norway, June, 1975. Zuckerman, M., and Haber, M.M. Need for stimulation as a source of stress response to perceptual isolation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 371-377. Zuckerman, M., and Link, K. Construct validity for the Sensation-Seeking Scale. Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1968, 32, 420-426. Zuckerman, M., Murtaugh, T., and Siegel, J. Sensation seeking and cortical augmenting-reducing. Psychophysiology, 1974, 11, 535-542. Zuckerman, M., Levine, S., and Biase, D.V. Stress response in total and par-t i a l perceptual isolation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1964, 25, 250. Zuckerman, M., Schultz, D.P., and Hopkins, T.R. Sensation seeking and volun-teering for sensory deprivation and hypnosis experiments. Journal of  Consulting Psychology, 1967, 31, 358-363. Zuckerman, M., Persky, H., Link, K., and Basu, G.K. Experimental and subject factors determining responses to sensory deprivation, social isolation and confinement. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1968, 73, 183-194. 243 Zuckerman, M., Kolin, E.A., Price, L. , and Zoob, I. Development of a sensa-tion-seeking scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1964, 28, 477-482. Zuckerman, M., Bone, R., Neary, R., Mengelsdorff, D., and Brustman, B. What is the sensation seeker? Personality t r a i t and experience correlates of the Sensation Seeking Scale. Journal of Consulting and Cli n i c a l  Psychology, 1972, 39, 308-321. Zuckerman, M., Persky, H., Hopkins, R., Murtaugh, T., Basu, G.K. , and Schilling, M. Comparison of stress effects of perceptual and social isolation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1966, 14, 356-365. Appendix 1 - Explanatory Letter PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU BEGIN THE QUESTIONNAIRES You are being asked to f i l l out two questionnaires as a part of some research to be conducted here at U.B.C. Both these ques-tionnaires are relatively short and straightforward, however, please read the instructions before beginning each one. After you have completed them would you return them to the room given on the label. It would be appreciated i f you returned the questionnaires by the f i r s t week of the next term. We are anxious to begin this research a& soon as possible. Briefly the nature of the research i s concerned with the psychophysiological examination of relaxation and states of arousal. Out of the questionnaires which are returned a certain number w i l l be randomly selected and asked i f they wish to volunteer for the study. A l l subjects w i l l receive financial remuneration for their time even though the time commitment w i l l be minimal. By f i l l -ing out the questionnaires you are in no way obligated to take part i f your name i s selected. In order to identify yourself i t w i l l only be necessary to give your f i r s t name and phone number so that you may be contacted. As you w i l l notice each questionnaire has i t s own answer sheet and you should indicate your selection by placing an X over the ap-propriate letter on the asnwer sheet. Your participation in providing us with this data i s greatly ap-preciated. Thank you. David Cox R^oom 12, Henry Angus *This room i s located in the basement floor of Henry Angus. 245 Appendix 2 Subject Selection Procedures The 230 sets of scores obtained for the Socialization Scale and the Sensation Seeking Scale were i n i t i a l l y rank ordered. Then those Ss were located who f u l f i l l e d the requirements for one of the groups, i.e., that they occupied positions of: high socialization-low sensation seeking, low socialization-low sensation seeking, high socialization-high sensation seeking, low socialization-high sensation seeking, or median socialization-median sensation seeking. A score was calculated for each of these Ss by considering the extent to which the particular S deviated from the extreme score in the cateories being considered, e.g., high socialization and low sensation seeking. Priority for participation in the experiment was to the Ss who had the lower scores, as this was considered to be a reflection of increasing discrimination between the groups. With respect to the median group those Ss were selected who occupied a position that was mini-mally deviant from the mean score on each of the scales. As one example, S 116 occupied a position of low socialization and high sensation seeking i n the range of 230 test scores. He deviated from the low socialization score of 22 by 7 and the high sensation seeking score of 21 by 4. His combined total of 11 was low enough in comparison to the other Ss in his category to result in his being selected as a subject for the experiment. Appendix 3 - "Biographical Data,. : 246 The following information w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y confidential and w i l l be destroyed following the study, as such i t i s important :hat you provide the correct information. It i s not necessary to identify yourself. Age University year Birth order Occupational history: (stability of employment, r e l i a b i l i t y , etc.) Good ( 3 ) Average ( 2 ) Poor ( 1 ) Family l i f e : (organized, disruptive, stability) Good ( 3 ) Average ( 2 ) Poor ( 1 ) Raised by: Father ( ) School History: (behavior, attendance) Mother ( . ) Good (3 ) Both ( ) Average (2 ) Relative ( ) Poor (1 ) Other ( ) Alcohol Use: Alcoholic ( 4 ) Problem Drinker ( 3 ) Moderate ( 2 ) Light ( 1 ) None ( 0 ) Non-Medical Drug Use: Heavy ( 3 ) Moderate ( 2 ) Light ( l ) None (o ) History of Mental Disorders: (type and treatment, i f any). Have you ever been convicted for any delinquent behaviour? If yes, describe 247 Appendix 4 - Reaction Scale .One How did you feel while you were in the room? 1. 4. Entertained (check one) Not at a l l entertained Slightly entertained Moderately entertained Entertained _Quite entertained Disgusted (check one) Not at a l l disgusted Slightly disgusted Moderately disgusted Disgusted _Extremely disgusted Unreality (check one) Strong feelings of unreality Feelings of unreality JModerate feelings of unreality _Slight feelings of unreality _No feelings of unreality at a l l Anxious (check one) Not at a l l anxious Slightly anxious Moderately anxious 7. Anxious _Extremely anxious 5. Dreaming (check one) Very similar to feelings I have when I'm dreaming. Similar to feelings I have when I'm dreaming. Moderately similar to feelings I have when I'm dreaming. Slightly.similar to feelings I have when I'm dreaming. Not at a l l similar to feelings I have when I'm dreaming Bored (check one) Extremely bored Bored _Moderately bored Slightly bored Not at a l l bored Uneasy (check one) Not at a l l uneasy Slightly uneasy Moderately Uneasy Uneasy Quite easy Confused (check one) Not at a l l confused Slightly confused Moderately confused Confused Quite confused 248 Appendix 4 (continued) Reaction Scale Two Indicate your general reactions to the session by placing a check mark in the appropriate place on each scale. Interest Boredom Uneasiness Curiosity very l i t t l e : _ very l i t t l e : very l i t t l e : very l i t t l e : Physical discomfort very l i t t l e : Mental discomfort very l i t t l e : very much very much very much very much very much very much Were you disturbed by any outer noise? Were you disturbed by the physiological appratus? Appendix 5 - Correlations Self-Report Measures Scare Ar.::. Pre — < < uz w 1 a. 1 i V . f— i • ."NI _ i i _ i z.~. '£ Sr^te Ar.x. Post .27 Eyser.c-:. S. .40 .10 Eysenc.V., K. - .25 -.04 - .20 ? .39 -.05 .24 - .13 L - .03 -.19 - . IS -.26 -.19 SSS Pre - .41 _ 2 - .19 .24 .13 .15 SSS Post - .21 - .53 .17 .03 .20 .30 .70 S.-.S Pre .61 .01 .14 -.34 .17 .IS - .13 - .OS "AS "est .46 .56 .0? - .10 .14 - .37 -.35 - .36 .21 Sub; . Stress Pre .57 .05 .24 -.45 .31 .16 -.29 -.15 .42 .22 S-jbj. Stress Post .04 .53 .07 .15 .05 -.11 .16 -.12 - .23 .41 -.01 R.S. No. 1 (1) - .24 _ 27 - .23 - .05 .22 .36 .14 .31 - .10 - .13 .06 .09 R.S. Mo. 1 (2) - .09 .30 .14 .17 .11 - .17 .35 .07 -.12 .21 -.09 .23 .26 R.S. Xo. 1 (3) .16 .14 -.01 .10 .31 .02 .15 .04 .15 .07 .15 .13 - .03 .42 R.S. So. 1 (4) .11 .59 . -2 -.01 -.03 .03 .03 -.15 .06 .39 .21 .43 .05 .41 .21 R.S. So. 1 (5) - .02 - .09 - .10 .36 .19 -.03 .OS - .09 - .27 - .13 -.00 .01 .05 .13 .27 .00 R.S . No. 1 (6) .11 .36 .16 -.12 .03 .04 .IS .03 .10 .11 .08 .14 .15 .56 .29 .55 .11 Sleep Scale .30 .23 .32 .13 .23 -.21 -.11 - . IS - .28 .21 .14 .23 -.14 -.01 .43 .07 .42 -.28 ?..Z. Mo. 2 (1) - .36 -.24 -.02 .25 .02 .23 .65 .48 - .07 - .19 -.12 .05 .43 .42 .09 .13 .33 -.05 -.12 R.S . Xo. 2 (2) .25 .23 .22 .07 .22 -.29 .27 -.01 - .03 .16 .10 .25 - .50 .45 .21 .06 .06 .07 • 13 -.22 R.S . No. 2 (3) .39 .50 .02 .07 .09 -.OS - .03 -.19 .21 .43 .20 .24 -.22 .26 .22 .65 .06 - .54 .15 - . I S R.S. No. 3 (4) - .24 - .46 .03 .22 .03 .45 .61 .58 -.25 - .43 -.17 - .24 .39 .12 .05 -.02 .23 .16 - .13 .54 R.S. No. 3 (5) .IB .45 .14 .15 .OS - .23 -.13 - .27 -.12 .43 .12 .17 .01 .S2 .06 .44 - .09 .37 - .03 - .03 R.S . No. 3 (6) .16 .33 .17 .19 .05 - .07 -.04 .00 -.01 .05 -.09 .14 - .40 .15 .25 .24 .08 .30 .19 - .07 .21 -.16 .36 .43 . n -. 21 .41 " .05 .05 . ''O M •fi-ve 

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