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The uses of graphics in planning Farevaag, Marta 1977

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THE USES OF GRAPHICS IN PLANNING by MARTA FAREVAAG B.A., Reed C o l l e g e , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f i r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1977 M a r t a F a r e v a a g , 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r e xtensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. School of Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B.C., Canada i ABSTRACT P r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s spend a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t i m e and b u d g e t s p r e p a r i n g and u s i n g p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s . Y e t v e r y l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d w h i ch a t t e m p t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e uses o f g r a p h i c s f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n . Hence, t h e t h e s i s s e t s out an i n t r o d u c t o r y f r a m e -work f o r a p p l y i n g both c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s and know-l e d g e about g r a p h i c s f r o m o t h e r f i e l d s t o t h e r o l e o f g r a p h i c s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C u r r e n t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n a s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f two g r o u p s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a : p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c a r t i s t s who p r e p a r e t h e b u l k o f t h e i r work f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s i s p r e s e n t e d i n d e t a i l e d f o r m i n C h a p t e r 1 and i s summarized and a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r 2. The l i t e r a t u r e on g r a p h i c s was r e v i e w e d f o r t h o s e a s p e c t s which seem s u g g e s t i v e f o r p l a n n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . In C h a p t e r 3, g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s which d i s c u s s t h e r o l e o f g r a p h i c s i n c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s and i n t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f i d e a s a r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e o r i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e f u n c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s i n g r a p h i c s a r e t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f C h a p t e r 4. S p e c i f i c a l l y , p r i n c i p l e s o f p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g y , c o l o u r t h e o r y , t y p o g r a p h y , t h e use o f s y m b o l s , and t h e c h o i c e o f a p p r o p r i a t e g r a p h i c m edia a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . F i n a l l y , a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn r e g a r d i n g b o t h t h e c u r r e n t g r a p h i c p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y o p t i m a l use o f g r a p h i c s . , The i i c o n c l u s i o n s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , r e l a t e d both t o t h e t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s and t o t h e r e v i e w o f r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s s u g g e s t a v a r i e t y o f improvements i n b o t h p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e and e d u c a t i o n . I l l TABLE.;'OF CONTENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n p. 1 C h a p t e r 1: I n t e r v i e w M a t e r i a l p. '6 C h a p t e r 2: A n a l y s i s o f I n t e r v i e w M a t e r i a l p. 54 C h a p t e r 3: Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e o f V i s u a l Language p. 64 C h a p t e r 4: The Grammar o f V i s u a l Language p. 88 C o n c l u s i o n s p.130 B i b l i o g r a p h y p.144 A p p e n d i x p.149 i v L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS The Q u a t e r l y Review P- 17 L i f e o f R i l e y P. 20 Route S e l e c t i o n S t u d y P. 25 F i g u r e / G r o u n d ( I ) P. 91 F i g u r e / G r o u n d ( I I ) P. 92 F i g u r e / G r o u n d ( I I I ) P. 93 S i m i l a r i t y ( I ) P. 96 S i m i l a r i t y ( I I ) P- 97 P r o x i m i t y ( I ) P. 98 P r o x i m i t y ( I I ) P. 99 P r o x i m i t y ( I I I ) P. 100 C o n t i n u a t i o n ( I ) P- 102 C o n t i n u a t i o n ( I I ) P. 103 C o n t i n u a t i o n ( I I I ) P. 104 C l o s u r e ( I ) P- 106 C l o s u r e ( I I ) P- 107 C l o s u r e ( I I I ) P. 108 C l o s u r e ( I V ) P. 109 E q u i l i b r i u m ( I ) P- 112 E q u i l i b r i u m ( I I ) P. 113 Rhythm ( I ) P. 115 Rhythm ( I I ) P. 116 1 INTRODUCTION P r o f e s s i o n a l planners r e l y on graphic techniques at v a r i o u s stages in the planning process. Graphic devices are used by i n d i v i d u a l planners as research and t h i n k i n g t o o l s , by groups of p r o f e s s i o n a l s as d i s c u s s i o n a i d s , and by planning o r g a n i z a t i o n s to communicate ideas to c l i e n t s and the p u b l i c . Estimates by planning p r o f e s s i o n a l s range as high as 25% f o r the time and budget devoted to graphic work. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , s u r p r i s i n g that there i s v i r t u a l l y no l i t e r a t u r e w i t h i n the planning f i e l d which attempts to evaluate planning graphics on a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s . Hence, t h i s paper attempts to formulate an i n t r o d u c t o r y framework f o r a p p l y i n g knowledge about graphic techniques from other f i e l d s to c u r r e n t planning p r a c t i c e s to render these processes more e f f e c t i v e . Interviews were conducted with f i f t e e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of two groups in the Vancouver area: p r a c t i c i n g planners and graphic a r t i s t s who prepare the bulk of t h e i r work f o r planning purposes. The s p e c i f i c people chosen to be i n t e r -viewed represent a v a r i e t y of planning o r g a n i z a t i o n s . They are g e n e r a l l y people with a g r e a t e r than average i n t e r e s t in the use of graphics in planning. The i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from these i n t e r v i e w s represents a background of c u r r e n t l o c a l planning p r a c t i c e i n t o which t h e o r e t i c a l graphic concepts can be i n t e g r a t e d . The t h e s i s which i s proposed i s that t h e o r e t i c a l l y g r aphics can communicate on many l e v e l s at the same time and that c u r r e n t planning graphics o f t e n f a i l to take f u l l 2 advantage of t h i s p o t e n t i a l . Furthermore, graphic theory suggests s p e c i f i c steps which can be taken to b r i n g planning graphics c l o s e r to t h e i r optimum e f f e c t i v e n e s s . In Chapter 1, the responses of the people interviewed to a number of question' t o p i c s are recorded. They d e s c r i b e the graphic techniques they use and the purposes f o r which they apply them. The o b j e c t i v e s set f o r graphics are d i s c u s s e d , as w e l l as the techniques used to communicate these o b j e c t i v e s to those i n v o l v e d i n producing planning g r a p h i c s . Questions were asked about the s t r u c t u r e of the planning o r g a n i z a t i o n as i t r e f l e c t s the methods f o r graphic p r o d u c t i o n . Estimates were requested of the percentages of s t a f f time and money budgeted f o r graphic purposes. Any s t u d i e s which evaluated the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s p e c i f i c graphics or of the graphic production process were sought. Both the planners and the graphic a r t i s t s d e s c r i b e d the formal and i n f o r m a l s t u d i e s which they f e l t aided them or t h e i r co-workers in the e f f e c t i v e use of graphics f o r planning purposes. A l l these questions shed l i g h t on the p r a c t i c e of graphics and on the a t t i t u d e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s towards graphic techniques. In Chapter 2, the d e t a i l e d i n t e r -view m a t e r i a l i s analyzed and s y n t h e s i z e d i n t o a compact form which i s more sugg e s t i v e of c o n c l u s i o n s . In Chapter 3, the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e which dea l s g e n e r a l l y with the r o l e of graphics in communication i s presented. A case i s made f o r the a b i l i t y of graphics to ex-press complex i n f o r m a t i o n c l e a r l y and c o n c i s e l y . Graphics are considered with r e f e r e n c e to t h e o r i e s which t r e a t v i s u a l 3 images as e s s e n t i a l t o c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . In t h i s s e n s e , g r a p h i c s a r e a t y p e o f v i s u a l l a n g u a g e which i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e mode t o a n a l y z e and e x p r e s s some i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s . In C h a p t e r 4, s p e c i f i c g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s a r e e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e . These t e c h n i q u e s may be viewed as t h e grammar o f t h e v i s u a l l a n g u a g e o f g r a p h i c s . M a s t e r y o f t h i s grammar i s t h e key t o t h e o p t i m a l use o f g r a p h i c s i n p l a n n i n g . F i n a l l y , i n t h e C o n c l u s i o n s t h e c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s and a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e g a r d t o p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s a r e compared and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t i n g s p e c i f i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f g r a p h i c s f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t a k i n g a b r o a d and c o m p r e h e n s i v e l o o k a t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s , t h e terms " g r a p h i c " and " g r a p h i c s " a r e i n t e n d e d t o encompass a wide v a r i e t y o f m edia and t e c h n i q u e s . A c c o r d i n g t o W e b s t e r ' s D i c t i o n a r y , " g r a p h i c " as a noun means "a p i c t u r e , map, or graph used f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n o r demonstration"."'' " G r a p h i c s " i s " t h e a r t or s c i e n c e o f d r a w i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an o b j e c t upon two d i m e n s i o n a l 2 s u r f a c e a c c o r d i n g t o m a t h e m a t i c a l r u l e s o f p r o j e c t i o n " . L i m i t i n g t h e meaning o f " g r a p h i c s " t o t w o - d i m e n s i o n s seems t o o r e s t r i c t i n g . John C a t a i d o s u g g e s t s a w i d e r g r o u p i n g i n h i s book G r a p h i c D e s i g n : " I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t y p e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n which a r e e s s e n t i a l l y v i s u a l and which a p p e a l t o a p o p u l a r a u d i e n c e , we must i n c l u d e n ewspapers, m a g a z i n e s , p o l i t i c a l c a r t o o n s , t h e c o m i c s , p o s t e r s , h a n d b i l l s , m a i l i n g p i e c e s , p e r i o d i c a l s , t r a d e j o u r n a l s , t e l e v i s i o n , p h o t o g r a p h y , and , motion p i c t u r e s . " 3 4 The p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d m e n t i o n e d most o f t h e above uses as " g r a p h i c s " as w e l l as such t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s as t o p o g r a p h i c and a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o d e l s. T h e r e f o r e , t h e term " g r a p h i c s " i s used here t o r e f e r t o any e x p r e s s i o n o f an i d e a w hich r e l i e s p r i m a r i l y on c o n v e y i n g a v i s u a l image as opposed t o a v e r b a l message. In h i s book Urban and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g P e t e r H a l l e x p l a i n s t h a t : " P l a n n i n g . . . . i s an e x t r e m e l y ambiguous and d i f f i c u l t word t o d e f i n e . P l a n n e r s o f a l l k i n d s t h i n k t h a t t h e y know what i t means; i t r e f e r s t o t h e work t h e y do. The d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t t h e y do a l l s o r t s o f d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , and so t h e y mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s by t h e work; p l a n n i n g seems t o be a l l t h i n g s t o a l l men." 4 The d e f i n i t i o n w hich he f o r m u l a t e s t o c o n f r o n t t h i s a m b i g u i t y s e r v e s e q u a l l y w e l l f o r t h e p u r p o s e s <bf t h i s p a p e r : " P l a n n i n g as a g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y i s t h e making o f an o r d e r l y s e q u e n c e o f a c t i o n t h a t w i l l l e a d t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a s t a t e d g o a l or g o a l s . I t s main t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t s , s u p p l e m e n t e d as a p p r o p r i a t e by s t a t i s t i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s , m a t h e m a t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , q u a l i f i e d e v a l u a t i o n s and d i a g r a m s i l l u s t r a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e p l a n . I t may, but need not n e c e s s a r i l y , i n c l u d e e x a c t p h y s i c a l b l u e p r i n t s o f o b j e c t s . " 5 I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a c knowledge t h a t g r a p h i c s a r e a t o o l i n p l a n n i n g , a means t o g i v e n ends. B e cause t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s can be s t a t e d , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t s t o e v a l u a t e g r a p h i c s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n h e l p i n g t o a c h i e v e p l a n n i n g g o a l s . 5 INTRODUCTION - FOOTNOTES 1 W e b s t e r ' s S e v e n t h New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y . G. and C. M e r r i a m Co. S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass., 1965. p. 364. 2 I b i d . p. 364. 3 John C a t a l d o . G r a p h i c D e s i g n & V i s u a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k Co. S c r a n t o n , Pa., 1966. p. 7. 4 P e t e r H a l l . Urban &. R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . P e n g u i n Books. M i d d l e s e x , 1975. p. 3. 4 I b i d . p. 6. 6 CHAPTER 1 ; INTERVIEW MATERIAL I n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h p e o p l e i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a who a r e e i t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s o r g r a p h i c a r t i s t s p r e p a r i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r work f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . In s e v e r a l c a s e s , t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n b r e a k s down where i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n e r s t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i r own g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l . Many o f t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s r e g u l a r l y p r o -duce work f o r t h e p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o compare the p l a n n i n g and g r a p h i c i n p u t s t o s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s . The p l a n n e r s were asked t o d e s c r i b e t h e p u r p o s e s f o r w hich t h e y use g r a p h i c s i n t h e i r work. T h e s e u s e s f a l l i n t o two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : f o r p u r p o s e s w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h p e o p l e e x t e r n a l t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h i s s e n s e r e p r e s e n t s t h e u s u a l w o r k i n g team f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n e r w h ether i t be a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t o r an a g g r e g a t i o n o f c o n s u l t a n t s a s s e m b l e d t o c o m p l e t e one p r o j e c t . The p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e t h o s e t o whom t h e p l a n n i n g c o n c l u s i o n s must be communicated: p o l i t i c a l b o d i e s , p r i v a t e c l i e n t s , and t h e p u b l i c . The p l a n n e r s e x p l a i n e d t h e o b j e c t i v e s t h e y s e t f o r g r a p h i c s and how t h e s e i n t e n t i o n s a r e communicated t o t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s . The d e c i s i o n t o use a c e r t a i n medium i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s p r o c e s s . A n o t h e r c o n c e r n was t h e s t a g e o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t which t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t would be a s k e d t o become i n v o l v e d . In t h o s e c a s e s where t h e 7 g r a p h i c a r t i s t s a r e p a r t o f t h e same d e p a r t m e n t o r o r g a n -i z a t i o n as t h e p l a n n e r s , t h e i r p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a r e o f i n t e r e s t . I n f o r m a t i o n on how much t i m e and money i s d e v o t e d t o g r a p h i c s i n p e r c e n t a g e terms was o b t a i n e d when i t was a v a i l -a b l e . Any e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e g r a p h i c s p r o d u c e d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t i m e and budget e x p e n d i t u r e s , were a l s o r e q u e s t e d . However/•such e v a l u a t i v e m a t e r i a l was v i r t u a l l y n o n e x i s t e n t . 1 The g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s d e s c r i b e d how o b j e c t i v e s f o r p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s a r e communicated t o them by t h e p l a n n e r s w i t h whom t h e y work. They a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n o f g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s t o a c h i e v e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . The s t a g e a t w h i c h t h e y a r e b r o u g h t i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s an a s p e c t o f t h i s i s s u e as i s t h e i n i t i a t i v e w h i c h t h e y a r e g i v e n by t h e p l a n n e r s once t h e y have been c o n s u l t e d . The p l a n n e r s and t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s were asked a b o u t t h e i r f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t r a i n i n g b o t h i n g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e and t h e o r y and i n t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d . They commented on t h o s e s t u d i e s which a r e o f c o n t i n u i n g v a l u e t o them. Some m e n t i o n e d s u b j e c t s w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e c o u l d be u s e f u l t o them i f t h e y were t o have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u r s u e them. Examples o f g r a p h i c s f r o m r e c e n t p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s were o b t a i n e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e y had been r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s . 8 G r a p h i c s a r e used f o r a wide range o f p u r p o s e s w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d . In g e n e r a l , t h e g r a p h i c s w h i c h a r e used w i t h i n a p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n t e n d t o be i n f o r m a l , f a i r l y l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d , and t e m p o r a r y . Hence, a p r o f e s s i o n a l g r a p h i c a r t i s t i s not u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d . They o f t e n s e r v e as w o r k i n g t o o l s f o r a group o r as t h i n k i n g a i d s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s F o r t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n o f t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , t h e main p u r p o s e o f g r a p h i c s i s t o f u r t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o t h r e e a u d i e n c e s : members o f t h e P l a n n i n g Department,' V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l , and t h e p u b l i c . G r a p h i c s w i t h i n t h e Department a r e i n f o r m a l but f a i r l y i n f r e q u e n t . Len T e n n a n t , a p l a n n e r i n t h e same D i v i s i o n , l i s t e d a number o f g r a p h i c methods used by h i s c o - w o r k e r s . They o f t e n "model t h e i r i d e a s on p a p e r " . R e c e n t l y , t h e y have been e x p l o r i n g t h e S t r a t e g i c C h o i c e Method d e v e l o p e d a t t h e T a v i s t o c k I n s t i t u t e i n E n g l a n d and t a u g h t t o them by A l l e n H i c k l i n g . He f e e l s t h a t a major v a l u e o f H i c k l i n g ' s a p p r o a c h i n v o l v e s t h e t e r m i n o l o g y w hich has been d e v e l o p e d f o r v a r i o u s c o n c e p t s s u c h as " i n t r o c o n n e c t i v e n e s s " . The use o f t h e s e t e r m s by t h e group i m p r o v e s c o m m u n i c a t i o n and s a v e s t i m e . D i v i s i o n members o f t e n use t a b l e s and l i s t s t o b r e a k t h e i r work l o a d i n t o s p e c i f i c t a s k s . From t i m e t o t i m e , a d i v i s i o n member w i l l do a " m i n i - p r e s e n t a t i o n " f o r t h e o t h e r s t o g e t a c r o s s a newly d e v e l o p e d c o n c e p t . Len T e n n a n t p e r s o n a l l y f i n d s i t most e f f e c t i v e t o s t a r t s u c h a p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a s i m p l e g r a p h i c f o r m on a l a r g e s h e e t o f p a p e r and w r i t e 9 i n t h e d e t a i l s d u r i n g t h e group d i s c u s s i o n , t h e r e b y g i v i n g t h e group members a s e n s e o f b u i l d i n g t h e c o n c e p t t o g e t h e r . L a r r y B e a s l e y , an A r e a P l a n n e r w o r k i n g i n t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d Improvement Program o f f i c e f o r t h e R i l e y Park n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n V a n c o u v e r has c o n s i d e r a b l e g r a p h i c ex-p e r i e n c e and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , f i n d s many uses f o r g r a p h i c methods as p a r t o f h i s o n g o i n g work. He uses a number o f g r a p h i c d e v i c e s t o communicate w i t h h i s N.I.P. Committee. He r e c o r d s d e c i s i o n s and i d e a s d u r i n g c ommittee m e e t i n g s on b i g s h e e t s o f p a p e r w h i c h a r e l a t e r hung on t h e w a l l s o f t h e o f f i c e t o be a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d y and r e f l e c t i o n by committee members. Work s c h e d u l e s a r e p o s t e d i n c h a r t f o r m f o r t h e same p u r p o s e . S t a n d a r d C i t y base maps a r e a l s o on d i s p l a y showing z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s , l a n d u se, l a n d o w n e r s h i p , and o w n e r - o c c u p i e d and t e n a n t - o c c u p i e d p r e m i s e s . He has f o u n d , however, t h a t c o mmittee members, a l t h o u g h many have been l o n g t i m e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a , c a n n o t a s s o c i a t e s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g s w i t h t h e a e r i a l v i e w s shown on t h e s e maps. As a c o n s e q u e n c e , he p l a n s t o p r e p a r e a c o m m e r c i a l s t u d y u s i n g s k e t c h e s and p h o t o g r a p h i c m o s a i c s o f t h e s t r e e t f a c e s as w e l l as maps. He has e v o l v e d a g r a p h i c method s i m i l a r t o t h a t used by C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r i n h i s " P a t t e r n Language". He uses a p i c t u r e t o e x p r e s s an i d e a f o r a s o l u t i o n t o an a s p e c t o f a p r o b l e m c o n f r o n t i n g t h e c o m m i t t e e . The p i c t o r a l f o r m s e p a r a t e s t h e i d e a f r o m " t h e p l a n n i n g j a r g o n " he might use i f he d e s c r i b e d i t i n words. T h i s p i c t u r e p e r m i t s e i t h e r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o s and cons o f t h e c o n c e p t a l o n e o r o f a group o f v a r i o u s 10 a l t e r n a t i v e s s i n c e t h e p a t t e r n s can be moved a r o u n d t o expose r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them. J i m Moodie, the c o - o r d i n a t o r o f t h e C h a m p i a i n H e i g h t s Development p r o c e s s , i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r and an ex-p e r i e n c e d g r a p h i c a r t i s t . He a l s o f e e l s t h a t p a t t e r n l a n g u a g e i s an i m p o r t a n t g r a p h i c method f o r t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d as a r e d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s . He u s e s b o t h p a t t e r n l a n g u a g e and d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t w i t h i n h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l -though t h e m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s t o be used by p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p e r s r e s t s w i t h t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m w h i c h was h i r e d t o c o n s u l t t o t h e C i t y f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . Ted R a s h l e i g h , a p l a n n e r who was u n t i l r e c e n t l y a S e n i o r A s s o c i a t e i n t h e P l a n n i n g Department o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , d e s c r i b e d a number o f ways t h a t g r a p h i c methods s e r v e as w o r k i n g t o o l s w i t h i n t h a t D e partment. The p l a n n e r s o f t e n use base maps t o rough o u t t h e i r i d e a s . D iagrams on s h e e t s o f paper o r b l a c k b o a r d s a r e used t o e x p r e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i d e a s . Flow c h a r t s a r e o f t e n u s e d . C r i t i c a l p a t h programs f r o m t h e computer a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e but l e s s common. O v e r l a y map s y s t e m s a r e used t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , p r i m a r i l y as o v e r h e a d s l i d e s w h i c h can be p i l e d on t o p o f each o t h e r . A l l e n H i c k l i n g was h i r e d t o t e a c h t h e G.V.R.D. P l a n n e r s t h e S t r a t e g i c C h o i c e Method. I t i s used by them as an o r g a n i z e d , s i m p l i f i e d way t o t h i n k a b o u t complex r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . In g e n e r a l , he f o u n d t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s t e n d e d t o s h a r e t h e i r i d e a s i n m e e t i n g s as d r y r u n s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h were 11 e v e n t u a l l y i n t e n d e d f o r e x t e r n a l p e o p l e . I f t h e y used g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h , i t was a l m o s t a l w a y s a p e r s o n a l , p r i v a t e a p p r o a c h . A t t e m p t s t o g e t t h e p l a n n e r s t o s u b m i t t o a s t a n d a r d i z e d g r a p h i c method were u n s e c c e s s f u l . D o u g a l d McDonald, a p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s p e c i a l i z i n g i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l a n d use and a e s t h e t i c s , uses a s p e c i f i c g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e as a major w o r k i n g method. He s k e t c h e s p i c t u r e s i n p e r s p e c t i v e o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and o f h i s p r o p o s e d a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r a l t e r i n g t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s . He can e v a l u a t e h i s c o n c e p t s as t o t h e i r w o r k a b i l i t y and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T hese s k e t c h e s a r e t h e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s i d e a s t o t h e c l i e n t s . He f e e l s t h a t h i s d r a w i n g s e x p l a i n h i s c o n c e p t s more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n words. In f a c t , he f i n d s t h a t he u s u a l l y ends up " w i t h h i s p e n c i l i n hand" when d i s c u s s i n g p r o p o s a l s w i t h c l i e n t s . He w i l l o f t e n s k e t c h i d e a s s u g g e s t e d by t h e c l i e n t . In some i n s t a n c e s t h e c l i e n t w i l l r e a l i z e t h a t a r e q u e s t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e as he i s a b l e t o v i s u a l i z e i t s ' e f f e c t t h r o u g h th e s k e t c h e s . A n d r e a s Naumann, a n o t h e r c o n s u l t a n t s p e c i a l i z i n g i n l a n d use p l a n n i n g f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o j e c t s , works p r i m a r i l y w i t h maps. He f e e l s i t would be " v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e " t o do e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g w i t h o u t d e p i c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on maps. Most o f h i s work i s done as a member o f a team o f c o n s u l t a n t s a l l o f whom must r e c o r d d a t a on s t a n d a r d i z e d base maps. S i n c e e v e r y o n e on t h e team works a t t h e same s c a l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s o l i d a t e s e v e r a l t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o 12 one map o r t o o v e r l a y s e v e r a l maps on a l i g h t t a b l e . The p l a n n i n g team a l s o ,uses t a b l e s w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m a t s t o e x p r e s s d a t a i n ways w h i c h w i l l be r e a d i l y u s a b l e by t h e o t h e r s . S t a n K i n g , a n o t h e r o f t h e p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d , and an a r c h i t e c t by t r a i n i n g , has d e v e l o p e d a p l a n n e d m e t h o d o l o g y around h i s a b i l i t y t o do q u i c k p e r s p e c t i v e s k e t c h e s . A l t h o u g h S t a n K i n g has used f i n i s h e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s k e t c h e s o f t e n i n t h e p a s t , he i s now i n "a new p h a s e " where ;he i s no l o n g e r s a t i s f i e d w i t h c r e a t i n g images a l o n e . He wants t o c r e a t e s k e t c h images w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e i n a c o l l e c t i v e p r o c e s s . He u s e s h i s t e c h n i q u e a t " d e s i g n - i n s " t o e v o l v e a c o n c e p t f o r some p h y s i c a l change i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t such as a new s t r e e t s c a p e or a c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d . He t y p i c a l l y s t a r t s w i t h a b l a n k s h e e t o f paper on t h e w a l l . He a s k s f o r s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g some a s p e c t o f t h e d e s i g n . When one, member o f t h e group makes a s u g g e s t i o n , he u s e s "eye c o n t a c t " w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e group t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e i d e a i s a c c e p t a b l e t o them. He s e e s h i s r o l e as a s k i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s t h e n " p l a y i n g dumb" w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r " g r o u p a p p r o v a l " . He must draw s l o w l y and o n l y when a p p r o v a l has been g i v e n . I f he i s o v e r l y h a s t y , he must s t a r t a g a i n . - He a l s o s t a r t s a new ©ketch when t h e group c h a n g e s i t s mind as t h e image d e v e l o p s , s i n c e sometimes an e a r l y i d e a seems l e s s w o r k a b l e as a r e s u l t o f new d e c i s i o n s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e aim o f t h e p r o c e s s i s not t o p r o d u c e an image on p a p e r but t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e image i n t h e minds o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e g r o u p . He f e e l s t h a t h i s s k e t c h i n g 13 t a l e n t s have l i t t l e t o do w i t h t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h i s method. In f a c t , sometimes a bad a r t i s t does a b e t t e r j o b o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e m e n t a l images o f t h e group b e c a u s e t h e group members must work h a r d e r a t m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r i n t e r n a l image o f t h e d e s i g n . A t t h e end o f t h e p r o c e s s , t h e group f e e l s t h a t t h e y c r e a t e d t h e image. He has r e c e n t l y begun t o ask group members t o s i g n t h e s k e t c h which t h e y a l w a y s do r e a d i l y . I f t h e y ask him t o s i g n , i t i s o n l y as an a f t e r t h o u g h t . Once the image has been drawn, i t can be e x p r e s s e d i n words. These words, f o r w h i c h t h e d r a w i n g a c t s as "a c a t a l y s t " , seem t o be a b e t t e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e g r o u p ' s m e n t a l image t h a n t h e d r a w i n g i t s e l f . The " d e s i g n - i n " i s a c t u a l l y >only one s t e p i n a more c o m p l e t e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The f i r s t s t e p i s t o l o o k a t ex-i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The p r o p o s e d a c t i v i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d and t h e n e c e s s a r y e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e a c t i v i t y i s d e f i n e d . Then t h e " d e s i g n - i n " p r o v i d e s p r a g m a t i c i d e a s . However, t h e image f r o m t h e " d e s i g n - i n " r e p r e s e n t s an i d e a l . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o work o u t p r i o r i t i e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o l e g a l , f i s c a l , and g o v e r n m e n t a l r e a l i t i e s . A r e a l i s t i c d e s i g n d e c i s i o n can t h e n be made and c a r r i e d o u t . Simon S c o t t i s an a r c h i t e c t and g r a p h i c s s p e c i a l i s t i n a l a r g e a r c h i t e c t u r a l . f i r m w h i c h has a p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s he works w i t h o f t e n ask him t o p r e p a r e p h o t o g r a p h s and d r a w i n g s o f t h e a r e a s t h e y a r e s t u d y i n g f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . A t a l a t e r s t a g e , t h e s e p i c t u r e s may be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n g r a p h i c s . P l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s a r e o f t e n e x p r e s s e d i n g r a p h i c f o r m . A p o p u l a r method 14 i s t o draw, map, o r w r i t e i d e a s on l a r g e f i l e c a r d s w h i c h a r e mounted i n s t r i p s on t h e w a l l s and can be r e a r r a n g e d o r d i s -c a r d e d as needed d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g work. T h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o dels, w h i c h a r e o f t e n used f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n p u r p o s e s , have been a d a p t e d f o r such u s e s as s p a c e p l a n n i n g w i t h c l i e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s . P h i l i p A l d r i d g e , t h e manager, o f a f i r m w h i c h b u i l d s t o p o g r a p h i c m o d e l s , c o n f i r m s t h a t a number o f t h e models o r d e r e d f r o m him a r e i n t e n d e d as w o r k i n g t o o l s i n p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n most c a s e s , a model i s made o f t h e e x i s t i n g t o p o g r a p h y t o be used t o h e l p v i s u a l i z e a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r some p r o p o s e d p h y s i c a l change s u c h as g r a v e l p i t s o r t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e t o w e r s . The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f u s e s f o r g r a p h i c s i s t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i d e a s t o p e o p l e o u t s i d e o f t h e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . The g r a p h i c s p r e p a r e d f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s t e n d t o be more t i g h t l y s t r u c t u r e d and f o r m a l t h a n t h o s e used f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n among t h e p l a n n e r s t h e m s e l v e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y b r o u g h t i n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s e g r a p h i c s . Of t h e p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n who have p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r e -s e n t e d t o them, i t i s u s e f u l t o d i s t i n g u i s h two g r o u p s : t h e c l i e n t s who have d i r e c t l y r e q u e s t e d t h e work and t h e p u b l i c who i s t o be somehow a f f e c t e d by t h e p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . C l i e n t s i n t h i s s e n s e can be m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s o r o t h e r p o l i t i c a l b o d i e s , g o v e r n m e n t a l d e p a r t m e n t s , o r p r i v a t e p e o p l e s u c h as d e v e l o p e r s and o t h e r e n t r e p r e n e u r s . The p u b l i c may be o r g a n i z e d i n t o 15 c o m m i t t e e s s p o n s o r e d as p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s or i n t o p r i v a t e l y i n i t i a t e d i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , o r t h e y may be u n o r g a n i z e d . The O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n - o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D epartment a d d r e s s e s g r a p h i c s t o b o t h o f t h e s e g r o u p s : t o t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l and t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . F o r C o u n c i l , t h e main use o f g r a p h i c s , i n t h e view o f Ted D r o e t t b o o m , t h e D i v i s i o n ' s D i r e c t o r , i s i n c o n -j u n c t i o n w i t h o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . They s e r v e b o t h as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c r u t c h o r "mnemonic" d e v i c e f o r t h e p e r s o n g i v i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and t o e x p r e s s c o n c e p t s not s u i t e d t o words su c h as p o p u l a t i o n p y r a m i d s . The D i v i s i o n has r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d a major g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e newly i n s t a l l e d C o u n c i l w h i c h c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y o f a s l i d e show o f s e v e r a l hundred p h o t o g r a p h s shown i n tandem f r o m two p r o j e c t o r s and an i l l u s t r a t e d handbook i n a l o o s e l e a f b i n d e r . The s l i d e show was p r e p a r e d by f i v e members o f t h e D i v i s i o n w i t h o u t h e l p f r o m t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n o f t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . The s l i d e s were l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d a r o u n d a theme o f "one day i n V a n c o u v e r " and c o v e r e d a wide range o f i s s u e s f o c u s i n g on o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t what i s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e C i t y and a v o i d i n g making p l a n n i n g j u d g e m e n t s . The handbook was i n t e n d e d t o be a r e f e r e n c e manual f o r t h e A l d e r m e n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t r e q u i r e d a f l e x i b l e f o r m a t t o p e r m i t u p d a t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p e r i o d i c a l l y . Hence, t h e l o o s e l e a f b i n d e r s were c h o s e n ; F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p l a n n e r s f e l t i t s h o u l d be w e l l done t o e n c o u r a g e r e a d e r s h i p . They b e l i e v e d t h a t a p o l i s h e d l o o k would e n c o u r a g e t h e A l d e r m e n t o keep i t . 16 The G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n was a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r e p a r i n g t h e handbook. The O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n r e q u e s t e d t h a t one member o f th e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n be a s s i g n e d t o work on t h e p r o j e c t as a team member. However, t h i s p r o v e d i m p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e p o i n t o f view o f s c h e d u l i n g w i t h i n t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , G r a p h i c s e n t e r e d t h e p r o c e s s a f t e r t h e t e x t was f i n i s h e d and i d e a s f o r the l a y o u t and p o s s i b l e i l l u s t r a t i o n s has been e s t a b l i s h e d . However, t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n d i d not l i k e t h e g r a p h i c i d e a s s u g g e s t e d by t h e O v e r a l l p l a n n e r i n c h a r g e o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e handbook. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t was c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m what had been e n v i s i o n e d and much o f t h e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t seemed w a s t e d . Len T e n n a n t , one o f t h e p l a n n e r s i n t h e D i v i s i o n , f e l t t h a t t h e s e two p r o j e c t s r e p r e s e n t an e m e r g i n g i n t e r e s t i n g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e O v e r a l l Group. He f e e l s t h a t , w i t h t h e new C o u n c i l , t h e y have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t a r t t o do t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y , a l t h o u g h a few Aldermen t h o u g h t t h e i r r e c e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n was t o o c o s t l y . He hopes C o u n c i l members w i l l come t o e x p e c t g r a p h i c s i f t h e v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e P l a n n i n g Department b e g i n t o use v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s b e f o r e them. The C e n t r a l A r e a D i v i s i o n has been t h e o n l y group t o use p r e s e n t a t i o n g r a p h i c s c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h C o u n c i l . As f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c , t h e main g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n i s t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e Q u a r t e r l y Review. In t h e view o f t h e D i v i s i o n ' s D i r e c t o r , t h e g r a p h i c component o f t h e Review s e r v e s t h r e e f u n c t i o n s : t o a t t r a c t p e o p l e t o g e t them t o r e a d t h e a r t i c l e s , t o s e r v e 17 The Q u a t e r l y Review, V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , J a n u a r y 1977. 18 an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n by d i v i d i n g t h e m a t e r i a l i n t o a r t i c l e s , and s e c t i o n s , and t o e x p r e s s c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s b e s t s u i t e d t o a g r a p h i c f o r m a t s u c h as a map o r c h a r t . The Q u a r t e r l y Review i s p r o d u c e d j o i n t l y by t h e O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n and G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n . The a r t i c l e s a r e g i v e n t o t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s f o r l a y o u t and i l l u s t r a t i o n . Some o f t h e a u t h o r s - o f a r t i c l e s s u g g e s t p o s s i b l e i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e i r t e x t . In many c a s e s , however, t h e c h o i c e o f i l l u s t r a t i v e g r a p h i c s i s not s u c c e s s f u l f r o m t h e p o i n t o f view o f t h e a u t h o r . F o r example, a p h o t o g r a p h o f c o n v e r s i o n d w e l l i n g s i n th e West End was used t o i l l u s t r a t e an a r t i c l e on i l l e g a l s u i t e s i n s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a s . In a n o t h e r c a s e , a p h o t o g r a p h o f a b e e f s t e e r was p l a c e d i n a s e c t i o n o f an a r t i c l e w h ich d i s c u s s e d d a i r y f a r m i n g . Len T e n n a n t , who f r e q u e n t l y w r i t e s f o r t h e Review, had n e v e r been c o n s u l t e d by t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n s t a f f r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s s i b l e use o f g r a p h i c s t o s t r e n g t h e n weak p o i n t s i n an a r t i c l e . He f e e l s t h a t t h e g r a p h i c s p e o p l e a r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e l a y o u t o f t h e page. They do not t r y t o enhance t h e c o n t e n t . The A r e a P l a n n e r f o r R i l e y p a r k i n t e n d s t o use g r a p h i c s i n h i s r e p o r t s t o C i t y C o u n c i l . L a r r y B e a s l e y f e e l s t h a t t h e p u b l i c has r i g h t f u l l y c r i t i c i z e d p a s t f i n a l r e p o r t s t o C o u n c i l by A r e a P l a n n e r s w h i c h were w r i t t e n i n t h e u s u a l f o r m a t and b u r e a u c r a t i c l a n g u a g e o f most P l a n n i n g Department r e p o r t s and were, c o n s e q u e n t l y , d i f f i c u l t f o r members o f t h e p u b l i c t o e v a l u a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e v e n t s i n t h e a r e a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . He p r o p o s e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e major p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s 19 g r a p h i c a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t . He w i l l p r o b a b l y work o u t t h e rough s k e t c h e s f o r t h e s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s and g i v e them t o some-one i n t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n t o f i n a l i z e . W i t h t h i s a p p r o a c h , he hopes t h a t t h e p u b l i c w i l l f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e r e p o r t and t h a t C o u n c i l members w i l l s t i l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y e x p e c t . To d a t e , h i s major g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n t h e R i l e y Park n e i g h b o u r h o o d has been a s e r i e s o f f l y e r s a n n o u n c i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . F o r t h e s e l e a f l e t s , he d e v i s e d a c a r t o o n s t r i p c a l l e d "The L i f e o f R i l e y " . The p u r p o s e o f t h e c a r t o o n was t o b u i l d an i d e n t i t y f o r N e i g h b o u r -hood Improvement Program and t o r a i s e t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e p u b l i c enough t o b r i n g them t o t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . The c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e c a r t o o n were d e v e l p p e d t o have d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t i e s . They were t o l o o k as i f t h e y c o u l d be r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a . S i n c e t h e r e a r e many new i m m i g r a n t s i n t h e R i l e y P a r k n e i g h b o u r h o o d who speak E n g l i s h p o o r l y , t h e c h a r a c t e r s had-.-to e x p r e s s e n t h u s i a s m t h r o u g h body l a n g u a g e . The words were kept s i m p l e and " t r e a t e d as s e c o n d a r y " . He based h i s c o n c e p t s on h i s knowledge o f t h e l o c a l a r e a . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e s u l t a n t p r o d u c t would not be a p p r o p r i a t e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e C i t y . He a l s o has p l a n s f o r s e t t i n g up " d e s i g n -i n s " f o r members o f t h e p u b l i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . The p l a n n e r who c o o r d i n a t e s t h e C h a m p i a i n H e i g h t s d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s , a l t h o u g h k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t g r a p h i c s , does n o t f i n d much use f o r g r a p h i c ' t e c h n i q u e s when he p r e s e n t s 20 OU MEM MONET a m UP MY MOUSE ' M F '* U P 10 *>K> SUCK* * * • IN R1UV AMD MOfilE > SOT YOU "AVE TO COME O'JT A « D HELP VjHfcf TP &T T H E B'& y!frf'»-*5 ON 8IS* AT K 'LRY to &E y c o m e o u t to change vour community D E C E M B E R 8*i?f WEDNESDAY,7:30p~ R I L E Y P A R K C O M M U N I T Y CENTRE LOUNGE 466.0 Ontario St. fer mrx» t r a i l s , call L A R R Y B E a the Rtlrv Park Planning Of fin R B J E Y R 8 K M J O H P / ' | Ml NT PROGRAM L I F E OF RILEY. ( G r a p h i c s d e s i g n e d by L a r r y B e a s l e y . ) 21 i n f o r m a t i o n t o C o u n c i l . W h i l e he w i l l t a k e maps and a r c h i t e c t -u r a l p l a n s t o an o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n t o C o u n c i l , he does not use t h e d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e m a t e r i a l which i s p r e p a r e d by h i s c o n s u l t a n t s . In f a c t , he f e e l s t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h f a i l u r e r a t e f o r t h o s e r e l y i n g on more i n n o v a t i v e g r a p h i c s t o p r e s e n t t h e i r c o n c e p t s t o t h e A l d e r m e n . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l p r e p a r e d f o r d e v e l o p e r s and a r c h i t e c t s or f o r t h e p u b l i c would not be s u i t a b l e f o r C o u n c i l . He p r e f e r s t o use t h e s t a n d a r d r e p o r t f o r m a t w h i c h a l l c i v i c d e p a r t m e n t s use f o r C o u n c i l r e p o r t s . The g r a p h i c d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s a r e p r e p a r e d by t h e c o n s u l t a n t a r c h i t e c t s f o r t h e use o f d e v e l o p e r s and t h e i r a r c h i t e c t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y can be s u c c e s s f u l l y aimed a t a v i s u a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d a u d i e n c e . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s e x p o s e d t o o t h e r g r a p h i c methods: a s l i d e show which has been i n use f o r t h r e e y e a r s , t o p o g r a p h i c models w h i c h he b e l i e v e s t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n u n d e r s t a n d s b e t t e r t h a n p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l p l a n s , and n e w s l e t t e r s w h i c h a r e p r e p a r e d by a c o n s u l t a n t s p e c i a l i s t . K e i t h B e n n e t t , t h e head o f t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n w i t h -i n t h e V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g r o u p o f d r a u g h t s m e n and g r a p h i c a r t i s t s who p r o d u c e much o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s g r a p h i c a i d s f o r use w i t h b o t h t h e p o l i t i c i a n s and t h e p u b l i c . However, t h e r r a j o r i t y o f t h e i r work i s f o r use by t h e p u b l i c . They a r e r a r e l y c a n e d on t o p r o d u c e g r a p h i c s t o be used f o r C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s . The v i s u a l m a t e r i a l t h a t t h e y do p r e p a r e on a r e g u l a r b a s i s f o r C o u n c i l ' s use i s m o s t l y 22 i n map f o r m . F o r example, t h e y make c o l o u r e d z o n i n g maps o f e v e r y r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n i n a s t a n d a r d f o r m a t t o be used f o r a l l m e e t i n g s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s . S t a n d a r d , r e g u l a r l y r e p e a t e d j o b s c o n s t i t u t e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 85% o f t h e S e c t i o n ' s w o r k . l o a d . T h e s e t a s k s i n c l u d e u p d a t i n g z o n i n g maps, p r o d u c i n g maps f o r by-laws,- and p r e p a r i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s s u c h as n e w s l e t t e r s and t h e Q u a r t e r l y  Review. O n l y 15% o f t h e i r work i n v o l v e s o n e - o f f p r o j e c t s s u c h as r e p o r t l a y o u t s . Hence, t h e handbook f o r C o u n c i l i n i t i a t e d by t h e O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n r e p r e s e n t s an u n u s u a l a s s i g n m e n t f o r t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n . Ted R a s h l e i g h , who has< u n t i l r e c e n t l y c o o r d i n a t e d t h e use o f g r a p h i c s f o r t h e P l a n n i n g Department o f G.V.R.D., s t r e s s e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n g r a p h i c s as an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s b o t h t o p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s and t o t h e p u b l i c . He f e l t t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s a r e g e n e r a l l y f a i r l y h o s t i l e t o w a r d s t h e use o f g r a p h i c s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e g e n e r a t e d by c o m p u t e r s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s t e n d t o be v e r b a l p e o p l e and, t h e r e f o r e , t o d i s t r u s t v i s u a l media. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s b e s t t o s u b o r d i n a t e g r a p h i c s t o words i n an o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , and not t o use s l i c k v i s u a l m a t e r i a l w i t h p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s . As f o r p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s , he t h i n k s t h e r o l e o f g r a p h i c s must be d e t e r m i n e d a f t e r t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e m e e t i n g have been s e t . The g r a p h i c s w i l l t h e n be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c u r r e n t s t a g e o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e m e e t i n g i s m e r e l y t o p r o v i d e t h e p u b l i c w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n , a h i g h l y packaged g r a p h i c program s u c h as a s l i d e show w i t h a t a p e d n a r r a t i o n 23 c o u l d be u s e d . 'However, s i n c e most p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a r e a r r a n g e d t o o b t a i n f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e a u d i e n c e , a l e s s p l a n n e d and more i n t e r a c t i v e , r e s p o n s e - o r i e n t e d f o r m a t would be d e s i r a b l e . An o v e r h e a d p r o j e c t o r w i t h p r e p a r e d t r a n s p a r e n c i e s m i ght be a w o r k a b l e c h o i c e s i n c e t h e pace can be a l t e r e d t o s u i t t h e mood o f t h e a u d i e n c e and t h e amount o f m a t e r i a l can be made f l e x i b l e t o a d a p t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n l e v e l o f t h e g r o u p . The G.V.R.D. p r o v i d e s t h e p u b l i c w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a bout i t s a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h r e g u l a r n e w s l e t t e r s and p r e s s r e l e a s e s w h i c h a r e p r e p a r e d by Bud E l s i e , an e x t e r n a l c o n s u l t a n t . He a l s o p r o v i d e s a n e w s l e t t e r s e r v i c e f o r a number o f l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . He p r o d u c e s t h e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s w h ich a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y p h o t o g r a p h i c . He a l s o c h o o s e s t h e l a y o u t f o r t h e n e w s l e t t e r s based p r i m a r i l y on b u d g e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s . B u rnaby i s one o f t h e few l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o p r o d u c e i t s own n e w s l e t t e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o D e n n i s B e d g e l e y , t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l t h e g r a p h i c s f o r t h e Burnaby P l a n n i n g Department as w e l l as o t h e r Burnaby c i v i c d e p a r t m e n t s , t h e Burnaby P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r has put a h i g h p r i o r i t y on good g r a p h i c s f o r y e a r s . However, w h i l e many o f t h e r e p o r t s i n t e n d e d f o r t h e p u b l i c a r e g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e g r a p h i c a t t e n t i o n , v e r y l i t t l e g r a p h i c work i s p r e p a r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o C o u n c i l . U s u a l l y , each C o u n c i l member r e c e i v e s h i s o r her own copy o f a r e p o r t c o n -t a i n i n g a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T hese r e p o r t s c o n t a i n l i t t l e i n t h e way o f g r a p h i c s u n l e s s t h e y a r e a l s o t o be g i v e n t o t h e p u b l i c o r t o an e x t e r n a l g r o u p . 24 A p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t on a e s t h e t i c s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s who u s e s p e r s p e c t i v e s k e t c h e s r e g u l a r l y i n h i s work f e e l s t h a t h i s g r a p h i c s a r e s u c c e s s f u l when used f o r communicat-i n g c o n c e p t s t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . He f e e l s t h a t u n t r a i n e d p e o p l e who have t r o u b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g p l a n s can v i s u a l i z e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o p o s a l s f r o m h i s s k e t c h e s . However, he has been i n s t r u c t e d by s e v e r a l c l i e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s , not t o i n c l u d e d r a w i n g s , maps, o r o t h e r g r a p h i c s i n r e p o r t s . He f e e l s t h a t many p e o p l e i g n o r e g r a p h i c s i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e y a r e " c o s t l y e x t r a f r i l l s " w h i c h p r o v i d e no a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n beyond what i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e x t . A n d r e a s Naumann, a c o n s u l t a n t who p r e p a r e s t h e l a n d use p l a n n i n g components o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s as p a r t o f a p l a n n i n g team, f e e l s t h a t t h e g r a p h i c s i n h i s r e p o r t s , which a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y maps, a r e d e s i g n e d f o r use by t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s b o t h w i t h i n t h e c l i e n t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n r e -l a t e d government a g e n c i e s as t h e i r f i r s t p r i o r i t y . However, t h e maps a r e p r i n t e d i n s e v e r a l c o l o u r s . The c o l o u r s a r e i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a s i m p l e r l e v e l o f i n f o r m a t i o n s u i t a b l e f o r u n t e c h n i c a l p e o p l e - s i n c e a number o f coded t e c h n i c a l c a t e g o r i e s a r e g r o u ped t o g e t h e r by one c o l o u r . In a\ s e n s e , t h e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l p e o p l e u s u a l l y i s h i d d e n by t h e o v e r l a i d c o l o u r s i n t e n d e d f o r use by t h e p u b l i c . F o r example, t w e n t y t y p e s o f e c o l o g i c a l u n i t s i n c l u d e d i n a s e r i e s o f maps may be g r o u ped i n t h r e e c o l o u r c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h d e p i c t o n l y t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e p r o -posed i n t r u s i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d . S k e t c h e s and p h o t o g r a p h s a r e a l s o used i n r e p o r t s , i n l a r g e p a r t f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e 25 ROUTE SELECTION STUDY. 8(2)0 V o l t T r a n s m i s s i o n L i n e . N i c o l a , S e l k i r k , C r a n b r o o k . Phase 2. Ian Hayward and A s s o c i a t e s L t d . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. J u l y , 1976. ( G r a p h i c s by J a n e t L e e ) . 26 p u b l i c . T o p o g r a p h i c models have p r o v e n t o be t h e most u s e f u l g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e f o r c o n v e y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c a t m e e t i n g s . S t a n K i n g , t h e c o n s u l t a n t who p r e s e n t l y s p e c i a l i z e s i n d e v e l o p i n g s k e t c h e d images w i t h p u b l i c g r o u p s , c l e a r l y b e l i e v e s i n t h e e f f i c a c y o f h i s t e c h n i q u e w i t h t h a t t y p e o f g r o u p . H i s c l i e n t s , o f t e n i n p l a n n i n g o r o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a l d e p a r t m e n t s , h i r e him s p e c i f i c a l l y t o do g r a p h i c work w i t h t h e p u b l i c . However, he r a r e l y works w i t h images f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h u s i n g images b e f o r e p o l i t i c i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e f o r m o f s l i d e shows. He t h i n k s t h a t t h e main c o n c e r n o f p o l i t i c i a n s i s how t h e y can i n f l u e n c e t h e i r f e l l o w members. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e y need t o be c o n s t a n t l y w a t c h i n g each o t h e r and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y t r e a t a g r a p h i c d i s p l a y as an i n t r u s i o n . Simon S c o t t , t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t f o r a l a r g e a r c h i t e c t -u r e and p l a n n i n g f i r m , e x p l a i n e d t h a t most o f h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s work has an u r b a n d e s i g n o r i e n t a t i o n . In t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h i s work, t h e g r a p h i c s a r e not o n l y f o r t h e immediate c l i e n t but a l s o f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o c o n c e r n e d g o v e r n m e n t a l b o d i e s and t o t h e p u b l i c . T h e r e f o r e , b e c a u s e one p r e s e n t a t i o n i s u s u a l l y shown t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i r e c t i t ' s f o c u s t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f one g r o u p . E x c e p t i n t h e r a r e c a s e s where a p l a n n e r t a k e s r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o d u c i n g h i s o r h e r own g r a p h i c s , p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o p e o p l e e x t e r n a l t o t h e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e p r e p a r e d by s p e c i a l i s t s a t t h e r e q u e s t o f 27 p l a n n e r s . The methods used by p l a n n e r s t o communicate t h e i r i d e a s and needs t o t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s a r e c r u c i a l t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s . In t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e p l a n n e r s were asked t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p r e f e r r e d communica-t i o n methods w h i l e t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s were a l s o r e q u e s t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s by which t h e y come t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p l a n n e r s ' o b j e c t i v e s . The s t a g e o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s when the g r a p h i c a r t i s t i s f i r s t c o n s u l t e d i s an a s p e c t o f t h e method c o m m u n i c a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s . The amount o f a d v i c e s o u g h t from t h e a r t i s t by t h e p l a n n e r i s a n o t h e r v a l u a b l e i n d i c a t i o n . G r a p h i c a r t i s t s a r e g i v e n d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m t o use t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . The d e c i s i o n t o use a p a r t i c u l a r medium, t o a p p l y a c e r t a i n g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e , o r t o use a s p e c i f i c c o l o u r may be made e i t h e r by t h e p l a n n e r o r t h e a r t i s t s e p a r a t e l y o r i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r . In many p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e method f o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g between t h e p l a n n e r s and t h e g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s i s d i c t a t e d t o some e x t e n t by t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The amounts o f t i m e and money budg e t e d f o r g r a p h i c work by bo t h p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r s by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e major c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s which a r e p r o d u c e d . In t h e P l a n n i n g Department o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e b u l k o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l g r a p h i c s . Ted D r o e t t b o o m , t h e head o f t h e O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n i n t h e Department, d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s used i n c o m m u n i c a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s t o t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n 28 as " i t e r a t i v e " . U s u a l l y t h e p l a n n e r w i l l p r o v i d e G r a p h i c s w i t h a g e n e r a l i d e a t h r o u g h an i n f o r m a l v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n . The a r t i s t i n t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n i s t h e n g i v e n t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o p r e p a r e a d r a f t c o n c e p t . In t h e n e x t s t e p , t h e p l a n n e r r e v i e w s t h e d r a f t and may ask f o r c h a n g e s . U s u a l l y two i t e r a t i o n s a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o s a t i s f y t h e p l a n n e r , a l t h o u g h i n f r e q u e n t l y a s e c o n d d r a f t w i l l be r e q u e s t e d by t h e p l a n n e r f o r r e v i e w b e f o r e the g r a p h i c s a r e f i n a l i z e d . He f e e l s t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h p e r m i t s t h e p l a n n e r t o d e c i d e i f t h e g r a p h i c s w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e w i t h o u t n e e d i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s t o t h e g r a p h i c s s p e c i a l i s t i n d e t a i l . He b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s v e r y t i m e c o n s u m i n g t o b r i n g a g r a p h i c s s p e c i a l i s t i n t o an a w areness o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n a p r o j e c t . B a s i c a l l y , he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p l a n n e r and t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t have d i f f e r e n t c o n c e r n s . The p l a n n e r ' s g o a l i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i l e t h e g r a p h i c s s p e c i a l i s t ' s g o a l i s a e s t h e t i c b a l a n c e . The r e v i e w o f t h e g r a p h i c d r a f t by t h e p l a n n e r , t h e r e f o r e , s e r v e s t o p r o t e c t a g a i n s t t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t t o r e d e s i g n t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n t o meet g r a p h i c g o a l s . F o r most g r a p h i c j o b s , he f e e l s t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s i n t h e Department t e n d t o t r e a t t h e s t a f f o f t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n as t e c h n i c i a n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y a r e not u s u a l l y c o n s u l t e d u n t i l t h e end o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In t h e c a s e o f t h e r e c e n t s l i d e show by t h e O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n , he r e g r e t s t h e f a c t t h a t a member o f t h e G r a p h i c s group d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o a p l a n n e r i n t h e 29 D i v i s i o n , t h i s i d e a was v e t o e d by G r a p h i c s due t o s c h e d u l i n g c o n s t r a i n t s . In t h e f u t u r e , i f he has a n o t h e r c h a n c e t o do a s i m i l a r p r o j e c t , he would hope t o g e t a member o f t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n i n t o t h e w o r k i n g team f r o m th e s t a r t . In most c a s e s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n i s not c o n s u l t e d e a r l y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p l a n n e r c h o o s e s th e medium t o be u s e d . The p l a n n e r a l s o recommends t h e i d e a s f o r s p e c i f i c g r a p h i c p u r p o s e s . However, the g r a p h i c a r t i s t s u g g e s t s t e c h n i q u e s and- s t y l e s t h r o u g h t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f d r a f t s . K e i t h B e n n e t t , t h e head o f t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n i n t h e P l a n n i n g Department a g r e e s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e p l a n n e r s ask G r a p h i c s t o " p r e t t y - u p " t h e i r work once the c o n t e n t i s p r o d u c e d . He c o n c u r s t h a t p l a n n i n g i s b a s i c a l l y a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p r o c e s s . However, he t h i n k s t h a t , w h i l e p l a n n e r s p r o f e s s t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s t h e major p a r t o f p l a n n i n g , t h e y do not a l w a y s a c t on t h i s b e l i e f . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he t h i n k s t h a t t h e y n e g l e c t t h e use o f g r a p h i c s as a c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o o l . He i s d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n t methods t h e p l a n n e r s use t o e x p l a i n t h e i r needs t o h i s s t a f f . He b e l i e v e s t h e i r i d e a s a r e t o o c o n c r e t e when t h e y a p p r o a c h t h e members o f t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e y a r e u n w i l l i n g t o work w i t h t h e g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r s o r t o c o n s i d e r o t h e r g r a p h i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A major s o u r c e o f d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t many p l a n n e r s t h i n k t h a t t h e y a r e g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r s and, hence, do n o t r e s p e c t h i s s t a f f ' s e x p e r t i s e . He does f e e l , however, t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i s i m p r o v i n g . P r i m a r i l y a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n 30 o f G r a p h i c s , he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e P l a n n i n g D epartment i s t r y i n g t o i n v o l v e members o f h i s group a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e . The g r a p h i c s a r e b e i n g d e c i d e d i n t h e i n i t i a l phase o f a few c u r r e n t p r o j e c t s . He e x p e c t s t h i s change w i l l r e d u c e t h e t o t a l t i m e s p e n t by h i s s t a f f on t h e s e p r o j e c t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Ted D r o e t t b o o m , t h e r e i s a d e p a r t m e n t a l p o l i c y a g a i n s t h a v i n g g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s . He b e l i e v e s t h i s p a r t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t t o have t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l g r a p h i c s a p p e a r c o n s i s t e n t . The head o f t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n a g r e e s t h a t h i s group i s under p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e D i r e c t o r t o have an i n t e g r a t e d s t y l e f o r d e p a r t m e n t a l g r a p h i c s . • He f e e l s t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t s h o u l d be c a r r i e d even f u r t h e r and t h a t a l l t h e C i t y ' s d e p a r t m e n t s s h o u l d have a c e r t a i n g r a p h i c image. C o n s e q u e n t l y , he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n s h o u l d be removed f r o m th e P l a n n i n g D e partment and i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e P r i n t i n g Department as a s e p a r a t e G r a p h i c s Department w i t h i n C i t y H a l l . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , G r a p h i c s does d e s i g n work on an u n o f f i c i a l b a s i s f o r o t h e r C i t y D e p a r t m e n t s such as S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , F i n a n c e , and t h e C i t y C l e r k ' s O f f i c e . However, any work f o r t h e P l a n n i n g D e partment i s g i v e n p r i o r i t y o v e r t h e needs o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . In s p i t e o f t h i s f a c t , t h e p l a n n e r s i n t h e O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e y t e n d t o a v o i d w o r k i n g w i t h G r a p h i c s due t o r e c u r r i n g s c h e d u l i n g p r o b l e m s . The O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n and b u d g e t i n g o f a number o f g r a p h i c p r o j e c t s w hich a r e c o m p l e t e d by t h e G r a p h i c s s e c t i o n . F o r example, 31 t h e y p r e p a r e C i t y Land Use Maps wh i c h a r e p r i n t e d i n f o u r c o l o u r s . The G r a p h i c s group p r e p a r e s th e manual c o l o u r s e p a r a t i o n s f r o m rough i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t h e n by t h e O v e r a l l ' ' s t a f f . Over h a l f t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g t h e maps i n v o l v e s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n s . F o r a run o f 1000 c o p i e s , t h e t o t a l b u d g e t e d c o s t works out t o o v e r f i v e d o l l a r s f o r each map. Two r e c e n t r e p o r t s w i t h m i n i m a l g r a p h i c i n p u t ~. a v e r a g e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n d o l l a r s a copy f o r a s m a l l run o f 50 c o p i e s e a c h . F o r a t y p i c a l d e p a r t m e n t a l r e p o r t o f 100 p ages, a l a r g e run would r e d u c e th e c o s t t o t h r e e t o f i v e d o l l a r s p er c o p y . The g r a p h i c s i n v o l v e d would i n c l u d e a c o v e r d e s i g n and a few i n t e r n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s , p r o b a b l y maps. The Q u a r t e r l y Review c o s t s l e s s t h a n f i f t y c e n t s p e r copy o f w h i c h o n e - t h i r d i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e g r a p h i c s i n p u t ; T h i s c o s t does not i n c l u d e t h e t i m e s p e n t by d e p a r t m e n t a l p l a n n e r s i n w r i t i n g a r t i c l e s . The r e c e n t s l i d e show and handbook p r o d u c e d by t h e O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i v e r s i o n f r o m t h e u s u a l amount o f t i m e b u d g e t e d f o r g r a p h i c work w i t h i n t h a t g r o u p . F o u r p e o p l e worked a l m o s t f u l l t i m e f o r two months on t h e s e p r o j e c t s . Much of t h i s t i m e was devoted, t o t a k i n g and s o r t i n g s l i d e p h o t o g r a p h s and t o p l a n n i n g t h e g r a p h i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e handbook. Len Tennant, a p l a n n e r i n t h a t D i v i s i o n , s t a t e d t h a t t h e t i m e he s p e n t on g r a p h i c s p r i o r t o t h i s p r o j e c t was n e g l i g i b l e . However, he now b e l i e v e s t h a t g r a p h i c s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o g e t t i n g w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l r e a d and w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e a l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f h i s t i m e f o r p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s i n t h e f u t u r e . 32 I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine how much time and money i s spent on graphics i n the Planning Department s i n c e the s t a f f does not keep records of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s in these terms. However, as f a r as the f a i r l y formal graphics prepared by the Graphics S e c t i o n are concerned, they are assigned about 8% of the Department's t o t a l budget. Lar r y Beasley, the Area Planner f o r R i l e y Park works with the Graphics S e c t i o n at C i t y H a l l p r i m a r i l y f o r the graphics he needs which r e q u i r e p r i n t i n g . The f a c t that Graphics arranges f o r a l l p r i n t i n g f o r the Department i n s u r e s that they review h i s m a t e r i a l . For example, someone from Graphics pre-pared the f i n a l d r a f t of h i s " L i f e of R i l e y " cartoon announce-ment. Graphics w i l l a l s o do the layout and i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r the Area's n e w s l e t t e r s . To communicate h i s o b j e c t i v e s to a graphic a r t i s t , he u s u a l l y w i l l s t a r t with a sketch of h i s idea and w i l l supplement i t with a v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s i n t e n t i o n f o r the elements i n the sketch. He might, f o r i n s t a n c e , want a s p e c i f i c cartoon c h a r a c t e r to look e n t h u s i a s t i c or would, d e s c r i b e the housing s t y l e s that are t y p i c a l of the l o c a l neighbourhood. He f e e l s that i t i s important to d i s c u s s h i s ideas with the a r t i s t before they become too d e t a i l e d . He f i n d s that graphics people get annoyed i f they are not given the chance to use t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . The Graphics S e c t i o n members are not used to f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . He, t h e r e -f o r e , d i s c u s s e s h i s ideas with the a r t i s t to develop a mutually agreeable s o l u t i o n through a team approach. He b e l i e v e s he i s i n an unusually good p o s i t i o n to work with 33 G r a p h i c s and o b t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o d u c t . F o r one t h i n g , he f e e l s t h a t he u n d e r s t a n d s g r a p h i c c o n c e r n s and p r o b l e m s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e a r t i s t s r e s p e c t h i s g r a p h i c a b i l i t i e s and a r e l e s s a b l e t o i m p r e s s him w i t h s u p e r f i c i a l s o l u t i o n s . L a r r y B e a s l e y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e - o f t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n i s t o o c e n t r a l i z e d . He would recommend t h a t each d i v i s i o n o r s i t e o f f i c e s h o u l d have a g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t a s s i g n e d t o i t . T h i s s y s t e m would promote a "team f e e l i n g " w i t h i n each d i v i s i o n . The g r a p h i c a r t i s t would come t o know bot h t h e s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s and t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f . T h e r e would be a c o n s e q u e n t improvement i n t h e v a l u e and u s e - -f u l n e s s o f t h e g r a p h i c s . L a r r y B e a s l e y e s t i m a t e s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10% o f h i s t i m e i s s p e n t e i t h e r s u p e r v i s i n g o t h e r s who a r e d o i n g g r a p h i c work o r d e s i g n i n g p r e l i m i n a r y or w o r k i n g g r a p h i c s h i m s e l f . However, t h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r y i n h i s o f f i c e ' s b udget f o r g r a p h i c work as s u c h . N e w s l e t t e r s and l e a f l e t s a r e b u d g e t e d as s e p a r a t e i t e m s . He f e e l s t h a t w o r k i n g g r a p h i c s , as one t y p e o f p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e which can be s u b s t i t u t e d i n many i n s t a n c e s w i t h o t h e r methods by p l a n n e r s who a r e not s k i l l e d i n g r a p h i c s , c o u l d not be b u d g e t e d f o r e x p l i c i t l y . The j o b o f J i m Moodie, t h e p l a n n e r who c o o r d i n a t e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s , i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e P l a n n i n g Department and,,hence, he does not r e l y oh t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n f o r h i s g r a p h i c n e e d s . I n s t e a d , he uses a number o f o u t s i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o p r e p a r e h i s v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . A l t h o u g h he i s a g r a p h i c a r t i s t , he does not p r e p a r e s k e t c h e s t o 34 communicate h i s o b j e c t i v e s t o g r a p h i c a r t i s t s . He p r e f e r s t o r e l y on t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l j udgement. He f e e l s t h a t an a r t i s t s h o u l d be a b l e t o l i s t e n t o h i s v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s needs and come back w i t h good r e s u l t s . He w i l l t r y t o t e l l t h e a r t i s t what he i s a i m i n g a t . F o r example, he w i l l s u g g e s t a to n e t o be c o n v e y e d by t h e g r a p h i c s . He r e l i e s on t h e p r o -f e s s i o n a l t o know how t o a p p r o a c h an a u d i e n c e t o b e s t r e a c h i t . In t h e c a s e o f n e w s l e t t e r s , he c o n t a c t s t h e s p e c i a l i s t who p r e p a r e s s i m i l a r l e t t e r s f o r t h e G.V.R.D. and l o c a l m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e whole p r o d u c t i o n : w r i t i n g , p h o t o g r a p h y , and l a y o u t . He c o n t a c t s g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s b o t h t o d r e s s up p l a n n i n g work w h i c h has been c o m p l e t e d and t o become i n v o l v e d e a r l y on i n a p r o j e c t which depends h e a v i l y on g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n . However, t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t , even i n t h e c a s e o f e a r l y i n v o l v e m e n t , r e m a i n s a "weak member" o f t h e team. H i s budget e s t i m a t e f o r g r a p h i c s , based on a r e c e n t m a r k e t i n g p a c k a g e p r o j e c t , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10% o f t h e t o t a l sum a l l o t t e d . Ted R a s h l e i g h d e s c r i b e d t h e p r o c e s s by which p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s were communicated t o t h e g r a p h i c s s t a f f o f t h e G.V.R.D. P l a n n i n g Department w h i l e he worked t h e r e . S i n c e he f u n c t i o n e d b o t h as a p l a n n e r and as a g r a p h i c s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t , he u s u a l l y s e r v e d as t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k between t h e o t h e r s i n t h e s e two g r o u p s . He e x p l a i n s t h a t he t e n d e d t o be " a t t h e elbow" o f t h e g r a p h i c s u p p o r t s t a f f p r o v i d i n g s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s . He t r i e d t o keep t h e g r a p h i c s t a f f aware o f ch a n g e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e -ments. However, t h e r e s t o f t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f , he f e e l s , had 35 t r o u b l e t a l k i n g t o t h e g r a p h i c s s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c a s e o f one e s p e c i a l l y w e l l q u a l i f i e d a r t i s t who was w o r k i n g t h e r e f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s d i d not u s u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e g r a p h i c l i m i t a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s m edia and were not w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n t o an e x p e r t o p i n i o n . He b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o have one p e r s o n i n a p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n who knows both t h e p l a n n i n g and g r a p h i c s a p p r o a c h e s . The management a t t i t u d e a t t h e G.V.R.D. was t h a t a l l t h e s t a f f were t o be used f o r what t h e y were b e s t a t d o i n g . In h i s c a s e , he was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e human, c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . H i s g r a p h i c s a b i l i t i e s s u i t e d him t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e g r a p h i c work o f a g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r who p r o d u c e d t h e a r t i s t i c c o n c e p t s and o f a g r a p h i c s s p e c i a l i s t who had a p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f p r o d u c t i o n methods. He was a l s o i n a p o s i t i o n t o p l a n t h e g r a p h i c s f r o m the i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Gordon C l e a s b y , t h e g r a p h i c s s p e c i a l i s t i n t h e G.V.R.D.'s g r a p h i c s g r oup, e x p l a i n e d i n a t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t h i s r o l e i s t o g e t g r a p h i c s p r o d u c e d as he i s d i r e c t e d by t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f . The p l a n n e r s , t e n d t o ask f o r a s p e d i f i c p r o d u c t i n a m e d i a t h e y have a l r e a d y d e c i d e d upon. Most o f t h e work x> i s r e q u e s t e d a t t h e l a s t m i n u t e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p l a n n e r s do not e x p l a i n t h e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e i r r e q u e s t s . The t i m e and money budg e t e d f o r g r a p h i c s i n t h e G.V.R.D p r o v e d d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e f o r Ted R a s h l e i g h . He e s t i m a t e d t h a t between 5 and 10% o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l budget i s 36 s p e n t on p r e p a r i n g and r e p r o d u c i n g g r a p h i c s i n c l u d i n g computer t i m e f o r computer g r a p h i c s . However, t h i s e s t i m a t e does not i n c l u d e t h e t i m e s p e n t by t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f on p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e use o f g r a p h i c s such as s l i d e s o r o v e r h e a d t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . In c e r t a i n weeks, su c h work might a b s o r b 80 t o 90% o f t h e p l a n n e r ' s t i m e . I f t h e t i m e s p e n t by t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f were t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e e s t i m a t e d a v e r a g e f o r t h e d e p a r t m e n t , t h e f i g u r e m i ght be as h i g h as 25%. Bud E l s i e , t h e e x - j o u r n a l i s t who p r e p a r e s n e w s l e t t e r s f o r t h e G.v.R.D., C h a m p i a i n H e i g h t s , and a number o f l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , f e e l s t h a t he i s g i v e n t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o p r o -duce t h e s e n e w s l e t t e r s as he j u d g e s i s b e s t . In g e n e r a l , he i s not g i v e n d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s from t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l • o f f i c i a l s who h i r e him. The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r w r i t t e n p o r t i o n s o f t h e n e w s l e t t e r s comes from two major s o u r c e s : r e p o r t s and documents w h i c h were p r e p a r e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s s u c h as b o a r d or c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s o r d r a f t a r t i c l e s by d e p a r t m e n t a l s t a f f members which a r e r e q u e s t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e news-l e t t e r s . He e x p l a i n s t h a t he u s e s a newspaper s t y l e o f w r i t i n g . He a t t e m p t s t o be n o n - p o l i t i c a l . He does not m e n t i o n s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c i a n s by name i n t h e s t o r i e s . No a t t e m p t i s made t o i n f l u e n c e p e o p l e t o change t h e i r minds on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . W h i l e some p e o p l e f e e l he s h o u l d s t r e s s i d e a s o r c o n c e p t s , he f a v o u r s f a c t s . S e n i o r s t a f f i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l d e p a r t m e n t s r e v i e w a d r a f t o f t h e n e w s l e t t e r b e f o r e i t i s f i n a l i z e d and p r i n t e d . W h i l e a s t o r y i s removed from t i m e t o t i m e i f some 37 change i n i t s s t a t u s has o c c u r r e d o f which he i s unaware, he has n e v e r been a s k e d t o make changes i n a s t o r y t o a l t e r t h e e m p h a s i s . He a l s o makes i t h i s p o l i c y not t o w r i t e a n y t h i n g d e r o g a t o r y about a m u n i c i p a l i t y o r t h e G.V.R.D. i n any n e w s l e t t e r . The major g r a p h i c a s p e c t o f h i s work, a s i d e f r o m t h e l a y o u t f o r m a t , a r e p h o t o g r a p h s , most o f w h i c h he t a k e s h i m s e l f . The c l i e n t s r a r e l y s u p p l y him w i t h e i t h e r p h o t o g r a p h s o r o t h e r g r a p h i c s s u c h as s k e t c h e s , maps, o r c h a r t s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , he may r e q u e s t some g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l l i k e an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s k e t c h o f a new b u i l d i n g which i s t o be b u i l t i n t h e community. In g e n e r a l , t h e n e w s l e t t e r s and o t h e r b r o c h u r e s and p a m p h l e t s w h i c h Bud E l s i e p r e p a r e s f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s r e p r e s e n t a v e r y s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h e b u d g e t s a v a i l a b l e t o h i s c l i e n t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The t y p i c a l c h a r g e f o r t h e c o m p l e t e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a f o u r - p a g e n e w s l e t t e r w i t h an a v e r a g e o f s e v e n p h o t o g r a p h s i s under a t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s . P r i n t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n c o s t s a r e a d d i t i o n a l but h a r d l y p r o h i b i t i v e . D e n n i s B e d g e l e y , the g r a p h i c a r t i s t f o r t h e B u rnaby P l a n n i n g D epartment e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s i n t h e o f f i c e r e s p e c t h i s a r t i s t i c e x p e r t i s e . A t h i s i n i t i a t i o n , t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f has l e a r n e d t o c o n s u l t w i t h him v e r y e a r l y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . He wants t o g e t a f e e l f o r t h e g r a p h i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f r e p o r t s b e f o r e t h e y a r e c o m p l e t e d so t h a t he can s c h e d u l e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f maps, p h o t o g r a p h s , and o t h e r v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . Of h i s t i m e , he s p e n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f g r a p h i c s f o r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l and t h e r e m a i n d e r on o t h e r f o r m s o f g r a p h i c s s u c h as p r e s e n t a t i o n work. However, he d i d not know th e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l budget w h i c h i s d e v o t e d t o g r a p h i c s 38 D o u g a l d McDonald, t h e a e s t h e t i c s and l a n d use p l a n n e r who uses p e r s p e c t i v e s k e t c h e s e x t e n s i v e l y i n h i s work, does t h e b u l k o f h i s own g r a p h i c work i n c l u d i n g r e p o r t l a y o u t s and maps. He, t h e r e f o r e , d o e s ' n o t have t o communicate h i s p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s t o someone e l s e who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g r a p h i c s . He f e e l s t h a t g r a p h i c s a r e an e x p e n s i v e use o f h i s budget as a c o n s u l t a n t . However, t h e y a r e a q u i c k way t o c o n v e y c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e p o r t i o n o f h i s t i m e -w hich i s s p e n t on g r a p h i c s v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t . In f a c t , t h e g r a p h i c component o f h i s work has been as low as 5% o f h i s t i m e and as h i g h as 90$. The l a n d use s p e c i a l i s t f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s a l s o c o o r d i n a t e s t h e g r a p h i c a s p e c t s o f t h e work o f a l l t h e c o n s u l t a n t s on t h e team p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s e s t u d i e s . A n d r e a s Naumann s e r v e s as a l i a i s o n w i t h t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t who p r o d u c e s t h e f i n a l g r a p h i c s . T h i s g r a p h i c a r t i s t p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e team as' a s u b o r d i n a t e member from t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f a p r o j e c t . He c o n s u l t s w i t h t h e a r t i s t r e g a r d i n g d e c i s i o n s w hich a f f e c t t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e g r a p h i c s . F o r example, t h e y d i s c u s s t h e c h o i c e o f a base map o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e o r l e v e l o f d e t a i l and which e l e m e n t s on t h e map s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t o h e l p p e o p l e o r i e n t t h e m s e l v e s e a s i l y . They a l s o d i s c u s s how s e v e r a l t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n can be combined w h i l e s t i l l r e t a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y c l a r i t y and how p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s can be m i n i m i z e d . He f e e l s he i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e t y p e s o f d e c i s i o n s . However, t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t r e t a i n s t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n i t i a t i v e w i t h r e g a r d t o a e s t h e t i c m a t t e r s 39 l i k e t h e c h o i c e o f c o l o u r s , t y p e f a c e s , and s h a d i n g t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s c o n s u l t a n t b e l i e v e s t h a t f r o m 1/3 t o 1/2 o f t h e p a p e r volume i n an e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g o f f i c e i s c o m p r i s e d o f maps. T h i s dependence on maps i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r budget a l l o c a t i o n s . F o r w o r k i n g g r a p h i c s , t h e t y p i c a l c o n s u l t a n t w i l l spend between 20 and 40% o f h i s o r her b u d g e t e d t i m e w i t h maps. The p u r c h a s e o f a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s may a b s o r b as much as 1% o f t h e t o t a l budget o f a l a r g e p r o j e c t . P r e s e n t a t i o n g r a p h i c s t a k e about 20% o f t h e t o t a l b u d g e t . T h i s i s s p l i t a p p r o x i m a t e l y e v e n l y between p r i n t i n g c o s t s and g r a p h i c d e s i g n s e r v i c e s . However, t h e d e s i g n work a l o n e may r e p r e s e n t a l m o s t 20% o f t h e t i m e s p e n t on a p r o j e c t s i n c e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s r e c e i v e l o w e r h o u r l y wages- t h a n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . J a n e t Lee, a g r a p h i c a r t i s t who d e s i g n s f o r e n v i r o n -m e n t a l p l a n n e r s p r i m a r i l y but a l s o f o r o t h e r p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z -a t i o n s as t h e G.V.R.D., t h i n k s t h a t most p l a n n e r s t r e a t g r a p h i c s as "an addendum" t o t h e i r work. She p r e f e r s t o be b r o u g h t i n as a c o n c u l t a n t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f a p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t . Fewer m i s t a k e s w h i c h waste tim e and money a r e made i f t h e g r a p h i c s have been p l a n n e d f r o m th e beginning,;, I f she i s c o n s u l t e d as a p r o j e c t i s s t a r t i n g , she has an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e l l t h e p l a n n e r s on an a p p r o p r i a t e method and t o show them how g r a p h i c s can s e r v e as a t o o l i n t h e i r work. In some s i t u a t i o n s , she does become "a s u b o r d i n a t e member" of t h e p l a n n i n g g r o u p . The a p p r o a c h t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s t a k e t o communicate t h e i r needs v a r i e s w i t h t h e t i m i n g o f her g r a p h i c i n p u t . In 40 g e n e r a l , she f e e l s t h a t many g r a p h i c d e c i s i o n s a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by p l a n n i n g c r i t e r i a s uch as t h e l e v e l o f d e t a i l o f t h e a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e p r o j e c t ' s terms o f r e f e r e n c e . The more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s c a l l f o r more c o m p l i c a t e d g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s . She f i n d s t h a t p l a n n e r s o f t e n t h i n k t h a t t h e y a r e a r t i s t i c . They a l s o f r e q u e n t l y b e l i e v e t h a t g r a p h i c s a r e m e r e l y d e c o r a t i v e . Sometimes she i s g i v e n v e r y s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g e v e r y d e t a i l o f t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . O f t e n s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n s f a i l t o use g r a p h i c s e f f e c t i v e l y . She must be c a r e f u l not t o i m p l y t h a t a p l a n n e r i s wrong about g r a p h i c r e q u e s t s w h i l e she s u g g e s t s c h a n g es and i mprovements. As a g e n e r a l r u l e o f thumb, she recommends t h a t 10% o f t h e budget f o r a p l a n n i n g j o b s h o u l d be s p e n t on g r a p h i c s . The a c t u a l amount w i l l v a r y d e p e n d i n g on t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a p a r t o f t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e n more t h a n 10% m ight be a d v i s a b l e . In t h e c a s e o f a p r i n t e d r e p o r t , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1/3 o f t h e g r a p h i c s b udget would be s p e n t on d e s i g n work and p r e p a r a t i o n w h i l e t h e b a l a n c e would r e p r e s e n t p r i n t i n g c o s t s . P h i l i p A l d r i d g e , t h e manager o f a t o p o g r a p h i c a l model f i r m , f e e l s t h a t t h e c r u x o f h i s work on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s i n v o l v e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c l i e n t s ' p r o b l e m s and f i n d i n g a p a t h t o a s o l u t i o n . He t h i n k s t h a t v a r i o u s p r e d e t e r m i n e d c o n s t r a i n t s d e f i n e much o f what w i l l be d i s p l a y e d on a model. U n l e s s c l i e n t s have used h i s s e r v i c e s i n t h e p a s t , t h e y do not u s u a l l y ask f o r s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s . F r e q u e n t l y , on l a r g e p r o j e c t s , t h e c l i e n t r e q u e s t s a f o r m a l p r o p o s a l f r o m him which e x p l a i n s t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e s o l u t i o n w hich he has d e v i s e d . 41 He f e e l s t h a t most c l i e n t s b e l i e v e i n t h e i r d e s i g n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y r a r e l y r e q u e s t a p u r p o s e f u l d i s t o r t i o n i n a model. A l t h o u g h s m a l l d e f e c t s can be downplayed-, major d i s t o r t i o n s would be o b v i o u s t o t h e v i e w e r . T h e r e i s an un-spoken u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a model must be a e s t h e t i c a l l y p r e p a r e d . A model i s viewed b o t h as an a r t i s t i c work and as a r e p r e s e n t -a t i o n o f r e a l i t y . In one c a s e , he was a s k e d by a l a r g e d e v e l o p m e n t company t o l e a v e t h e c o u n t r y s i d e a round a p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t b a r e o f v e g e t a t i o n so as not emphasize t h e b e a u t y o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e which would n e c e s s a r i l y be harmed. However, t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a t t e m p t s a t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f a model's im p a c t a r e l i m i t e d s i n c e p h y s i c a l s h a p e s and s i t e d i m e n s i o n s c a n n o t be a l t e r e d . He f e e l s t h a t no one i n V a n c o u v e r i s s o p h i s t i c a t e d enough t o use c o l o u r f o r i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p a c t . The s t a g e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t which P h i l i p A l d r i d g e i s c o n t a c t e d v a r i e s w i t h t h e p u r p o s e i n t e n d e d f o r t h e model. I f a t o p o g r a p h i c model i s t o be used as a w o r k i n g t o o l i n a d e s i g n p r o c e s s , he w i l l be b r o u g h t i n e a r l y . However, most p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s a r e a t such s m a l l a s c a l e t h a t he i s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d o n l y t o " d o l l up" a d e s i g n f o r a p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n . He has, i n t h e p a s t , h e a r d c o m p l a i n t s f r o m p l a n n e r s a b o u t t h e c o s t o f t h e models h i s f i r m makes, a l t h o u g h t h e y r a r e l y e x c e e d 1% o f t h e t o t a l budget on a p r o j e c t . He b e l i e v e s , however, t h a t a t t i t u d e s a r e c h a n g i n g and t h a t more p l a n n e r s now r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l u e o f a model. S t a n King,who has r e c e n t l y been c o n c e n t r a t i n g on " d e s i g n - i n s " , i s u s u a l l y h i r e d by c l i e n t s who a r e a c q u a i n t e d 42 w i t h h i s methods. The d e s i g n p r o c e s s , d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , w h i c h he a d v o c a t e s i n v o l v e s an i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n , based on a s t u d y o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , about t h e d e s i r e d p l a n n i n g change. A r e c e n t p r o j e c t i n Quesnel: d e a l t w i t h c o n c e p t s f o r a c u l t u r a l c e n t r e . T h e " d e s i g n - i n " however, g e n e r a t e s s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n a r o u g h , g e n e r a l framework. In t h e Q u e s n e l c a s e , t h e r ange o f a c t i v i t i e s t o o c c u r i n t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e had not been d e t e r m i n e d , a l t h o u g h t h e i d e a o f a c u l t u r a l c e n t r e was c e r t a i n . T h e r e f o r e , o b j e c t i v e s a r e communicated t o him f r o m two s o u r c e s : g e n e r a l g o a l s f r o m t h e c l i e n t s and s p e c i f i c needs f r o m t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g p u b l i c . N e c e s s a r i l y , t h i s i n p u t must t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The f i n a n c i a l c o s t f o r a " d e s i g n - i n " i s u s u a l l y a r o u n d a t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s . The t i m e i n v o l v e d i s much g r e a t e r , however t h e p u b l i c and l o c a l a s s i s t a n t s do much o f - t h e work t h r o u g h t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a " d e s i g n - i n " 1 g e n e r a t e s a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r use i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t a t a v e r y s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f a t o t a l b u d g e t . Simon S c o t t , t h e g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r f o r a major a r c h i t e c t u r a l and p l a n n i n g f i r m , e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s i n t h e o f f i c e communicate t h e i r p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s t o him i n " f a i r d e t a i l " . He b e l i e v e s a m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g has d e v e l o p e d among them i n t h e c o u r s e o f w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r . I d e a l l y , he would l i k e t o be c o n s u l t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e work p r o c e s s . When he i s , a g r a d u a l meshing o f i d e a s e v o l v e s t h r o u g h t h e p r o j e c t . However, t h e p l a n n e r s u s u a l l y c o n t a c t him n e a r a p r o j e c t ' s d e a d l i n e . The p l a n n e r s i n h i s o f f i c e a r e not 43 g r a p h i c a l l y - m i n d e d nor a r e t h e y k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s . T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e t h e y s e t t h e o b j e c t i v e s , an i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s i s / needed t o make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g g r a p h i c ^ d e s i g n . Even t h e c o l o u r s and l a y o u t a r e m u t u a l l y a g r e e d on. The p o r t i o n o f t h e b udget f o r a p r o j e c t d e v o t e d t o g r a p h i c s v a r i e s g r e a t l y w i t h t h e t y p e o f a s s i g n m e n t . - D e s i g n o r i e n t e d p r o j e c t s may r e q u i r e 25% o f t h e budget f o r g r a p h i c s . In g e n e r a l , models and p h o t o g r a p h y a r e t h e domenant g r a p h i c d e v i c e s used by t h e i r o f f i c e . P r i n t e d g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l may be a b o u t 30% o f t h e o f f i c e ' s g r a p h i c o u t p u t . A l l t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d , b o t h p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s , d e s c r i b e d t h e i r knowledge o f g r a p h i c s and p l a n n i n g . They d i s c u s s e d t h e i r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e a r e a s as w e l l as t h e s o u r c e s o f any i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g . C e r t a i n o f t h e s e t y p e s o f knowledge had p r o v e d t o be more u s e f u l t o them t h a n o t h e r s . Many a l s o m e n t i o n e d t o p i c s which t h e y would e i t h e r l i k e t o s t u d y f o r m a l l y o r t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h i n f o r m a l l y . T h e i r own b a c k g r o u n d s and e x p e r i e n c e s n a t u r a l l y s u g g e s t e d i d e a s t o them a b o u t t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f v a r i o u s c o u r s e s o f s t u d y f o r p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t s . The f i r s t p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r i n t e r v i e w e d has a g r a d u a t e d e g r e e i n p l a n n i n g . However, he l e a r n e d v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t g r a p h i c s as p a r t o f h i s d e g r e e program. He d i d some g r a p h i c work as p a r t o f h i s f i r s t j o b i n t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d . A l t h o u g h he has l o o k e d a t some books on g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n , he f e e l s t h a t h i s own e v a l u a t i o n o f g r a p h i c s i s based on h i s 44 e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h what has seemed e f f e c t i v e i n t h e p a s t . One o f t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s he r e c o g n i z e s may o c c u r w i t h g r a p h i c s a r e t h a t s i m p l e p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s may be made more c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n t h e y need t o be i f complex g r a p h i c s t y l e s a r e employed. He b e l i e v e s t h a t p l a n n e r s s h o u l d have an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f g r a p h i c s but not t h e a b i l i t y t o do g r a p h i c s t h e m s e l v e s . He t h i n k s t h a t g r a p h i c s a r e not a p r o d u c t i v e use o f a p l a n n e r ' s t i m e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , p l a n n e r s s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s e s , t h e u s e s o f v a r i o u s media, and t h e p r o b l e m s which a r i s e w i t h v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s . One o f t h e o t h e r p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d had not s t u d i e d p l a n n i n g f o r m a l l y . He became a p l a n n e r t h r o u g h w o r k i n g a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g an u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e i n g e o g r a p h y a t U.B.C. As p a r t o f h i s g e o g r a p h y c o u r s e work, he l e a r n e d c a r t o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s . He f i n d s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e use i n h i s work. He r e f e r s t o s e v e r a l tex.ts p e r i o d i c a l l y w hich d e s c r i b e s u c h t e c h n i q u e s as how t o s e t up c i r c l e c h a r t s which a p p e a r t o be p r o p o r t i o n a l . He has o f f e r e d t h e s e books t o t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s who work w i t h him but f i n d s t h a t t h e y a r e not i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g t h e o r e t i c a l g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s . A p l a n n e r who i s a r e c e n t g r a d u a t e o f t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t U.B.C. e x p l a i n s t h a t he s t a r t e d h i s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n g r a p h i c s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e s c h o o l . He has a l s o t a k e n f i n e a r t s and urban g e o g r a p h y c o u r s e s d u r i n g fais u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s . Due t o h i s p r i o r t r a i n i n g , he used g r a p h i c s when p o s s i b l e i n h i s g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s . I n f o r m a l l y , he has a l w a y s been i n t e r e s t e d i n d r a w i n g and s k e t c h i n g . He has 45 a l s o worked as a d r a u g h t s m a n and g r a p h i c a r t i s t f o r e n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m s p r i o r t o becoming a p l a n n e r . He has s t u d i e d such t h i n g s as c o l o u r t h e o r y and a d v e r t i s i n g methods, b o t h i n s c h o o l and on h i s own.. He hopes t o -experiif);©nt w i t h v i d e o equipment f o r a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o j e c t i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . T h i s p l a n n e r f e e l s t h a t i t i s a " t r a g e d y " t h a t g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s were not t a u g h t t o t h o s e a t t e n d i n g p l a n n i n g s c h o o l w i t h him. A number o f p e o p l e d i d e x p e r i m e n t w i t h p h o t o g r a p h y w h i c h he f e e l s i s an e a s y medium f o r p e o p l e w i t h o u t a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e . However, he b e l i e v e s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s have l i m i t e d v a l u e f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s s i n c e t h e y r e c o r d o n l y p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s and c a n n o t e x p r e s s p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e f u t u r e . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h r e e s u b j e c t a r e a s s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n p l a n -n i n g s c h o o l s : p r - i n t i n g methods i n c l u d i n g s i m p l e t e c h n i q u e s t o p r e p a r e m a t e r i a l f o r p r i n t i n g ; " t h e s t r a t e g i c use o f g r a p h i c s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s " ; and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s s u c h as l e t t e r i n g , s k e t c h i n g t o be a b l e , a t l e a s t , t o r e c o r d s i t e i n s p e c t i o n i n - , f o r m a t i o n , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l d r a w i n g s . P l a n n e r s s h o u l d a t l e a s t be a b l e t o use g r a p h i c s as an e a s y means o f "compact n o t a t i o n " . F u r t h e r m o r e , he f e e l s t h a t g r a p h i c a r t i s t s who work w i t h p l a n n e r s do n o t need t o know g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r i e s . However, t h e y s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s t h e y work w i t h and t h e i r c o n c e r n s r e g a r d i n g p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t s . S i n c e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s i n f l u e n c e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o d u c t 46 o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e y s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a r e a w h i c h i s b e i n g s t u d i e d , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A n o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r i n t e r v i e w e d a l s o ob-t a i n e d h i s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g a t t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g where he s t r e s s e d urban p l a n n i n g and t o o k a number o f c o u r s e s i n t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e . H i s i n t e r e s t i n g r a p h i c s has a l w a y s been w i t h him. He draws i n h i s l e i s u r e t i m e . As an u n d e r g r a d u a t e , he m a j o r e d i n f i n e a r t s w i t h an emphasis on s t u d i o work. Due t o t h i s s t u d i o e m p h a s i s , he b e l i e v e s h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h c o l o u r t h e o r y o r o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s i s m i n i m a l . He has n e v e r s t u d i e d a d v e r t i s i n g . He s t a t e d t h a t he f e e l s p l a n n e r s s h o u l d o n l y s t u d y g r a p h i c s i f t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t . He c o n c e d e d , however, t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m e c h a n i c s s u c h as p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s e s o r t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s c o u l d be h e l p f u l . An e x p e r i e n c e d p l a n n e r who u n t i l r e c e n t l y worked a t t h e G.V.R.D. became a p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r t h r o u g h w o r k i n g r a t h e r t h a n f o r m a l t r a i n i n g . He has some f i n e a r t s c o u r s e s i n h i s b a c k g r o u n d but n e v e r s t u d i e d g r a p h i c s f o r m a l l y . He f e e l s he has l e a r n e d t h r o u g h p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e t o work w i t h p r e s e n t a t i o n g r a p h i c s . A t f i r s t , he f o u n d i t was d i f f i c u l t t o communicate h i s c o n c e p t s t o v i s u a l s p e c i a l i s t s . He had t o l e a r n g r a p h i c s as a "new l a n g u a g e " . He d e v e l o p e d a way t o w r i t e s c r i p t s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h e x p r e s s e d h i s i d e a s i n a way t h a t s u i t e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e g r a p h i c medium. He has 47 i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e on g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s and f i n d s t h a t t h e r e i s not much o f v a l u e f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s e x c e p t f o r some s t u d i e s o f methods t o e n c o u r a g e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He f e e l s t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t a t l e a s t one p l a n n e r i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be a b l e t o work c o m p e t e n t l y w i t h g r a p h i c s . G r a p h i c s s p e c i a l i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y ones t r a i n e d i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , t e n d t o ask p l a n n e r s what t h e y want t o say and o f f e r t o t r a n s l a t e i t i n t o a g r a p h i c medium w h i c h t h e y c h o o s e . They t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e message and i n t e r p r e t i n g i t t o t h e a u d i e n c e . However, s i n c e t h e y a r e laymen w i t h r e g a r d t o p l a n n i n g , t h e y t e n d t o l o s e t h e s u b t l e t y o f what t h e p l a n n e r s were t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s . T h e r e -f o r e , s u c h g r a p h i c s a r e i n d a n g e r o f becoming a c h a r i c a t u r e o f t h e p l a n n e r s * meaning. A t h i r d g r a d u a t e o f t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g was i n t e r v i e w e d . He p r e s e n t l y s p e c i a l i z e s i n a e s t h e t i c and l a n d use p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s . A l t h o u g h he u s e s g r a p h i c s , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e f o r m o f s k e t c h e s , on a r e g u l a r b a s i s i n h i s work, he has not s t u d i e d e i t h e r g r a p h i c s o r f i n e a r t s a s - p a r t o f h i s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . He has a l w a y s been i n t e r e s t e d i n d r a w i n g , a s k i l l w h i c h he d e v e l o p e d t o a i d him i n p e r s o n a l woodworking p r o j e c t s . He f e e l s t h a t he i s un-aware o f any o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s o f g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e . He i m p r o v e s h i s g r a p h i c s k i l l s by p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o good g r a p h i c work by o t h e r s b o t h w i t h i n and o u t s i d e t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d . He r e f l e c t s t h a t he was n e v e r e n c o u r a g e d t o use 48 g r a p h i c s w h i l e i n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . The p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e f r o m h i s c l i e n t s t o h i s g r a p h i c s w i l l , he f e e l s , l e a d him t o e x p e r i m e n t f u r t h e r . He hopes t o use f i l m i n t h e f u t u r e t o e x p l o r e p e o p l e ' s r e a c t i o n s t o changes i n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f l a n d s c a p e . One i n t e r v i e w was c o n d u c t e d w i t h an e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g and l a n d use s p e c i a l i s t who e n t e r e d t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d t h r o u g h work e x p e r i e n c e i n s t e a d o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . He has no f o r m a l g r a p h i c s t r a i n i n g e i t h e r , a l t h o u g h he has some p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f c r a f t work and f i n e a r t s . He has d e v e l o p e d h i s awareness o f t h e v a l u e and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f g r a p h i c s t h r o u g h h i s work. He f e e l s i t would be i m p o s s i b l e t o do e n v i r o n m e n t a l and l a n d use work w i t h o u t a h i g h l e v e l o f g r a p h i c e x p e r t i s e . P l a n n e r s need t o l e a r n a g r a p h i c v o c a b u l a r y , he b e l i e v e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f v a r i o u s media, a v a i l a b l e v a r i e t i e s o f t y p e f a c e s , page l a y o u t c o n c e p t s , p a p e r t y p e s , p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s e s , x e r o x methods, and t h e r e l a t i v e c o s t s o f d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s . Among t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s who were q u e s t i o n e d , one r e c e i v e d h i s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l e n g i n e e r i n g . He, t h e r e f o r e , l e a r n e d d r a u g h t i n g . The m a t e r i a l he s t u d i e d had a p a r t i a l p l a n n i n g e m p h a s i s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o s i t e a n a l y s i s . ' From d r a u g h t i n g i n e n g i n e e r i n g j o b s , he l e a r n e d how t o draw r e n d e r i n g s . He changed j o b s s e v e r a l t i m e s and e v e n t u a l l y became t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f a g r a p h i c s group w o r k i n g w i t h p l a n n e r s . He f e e l s t h a t h i s knowledge o f g r a p h i c s i s m o s t l y s e l f - t a u g h t , a l t h o u g h he has t a k e n some g r a p h i c s and f i n e a r t s c o u r s e s . He 49 r e a d s c o n s t a n t l y a b o u t g r a p h i c s on su c h t o p i c s as c o l o u r p r o c e s s e s and p r i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . He has not t a k e n any o f f i c i a l c o u r s e s i n p l a n n i n g , a l t h o u g h he f i n d s t h a t what he does know a b o u t p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s and t e r m i n o l o g y h e l p s him i n h i s j o b . H i s r e a d i n g s o f p l a n n i n g documents do not o f t e n r e l a t e p a r t i c u l a r l y t o p l a n n i n g i n a m u n i c i p a l s i t u a t i o n where l a n g -range p l a n n i n g i s d i f f i c u l t w i t h a c h a n g i n g C o u n c i l . He t r i e s t o t e a c h h i s s t a f f a f e e l i n g f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f p l a n n i n g so t h a t t h e y w i l l p r o d u c e g r a p h i c s w h i c h a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r i n t e n d e d p u r p o s e s . He a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t p l a n n e r s s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d enough a b o u t g r a p h i c methods t o have an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s . One o t h e r g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r w o r k i n g w i t h i n a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t was s u r v e y e d . He has a d e g r e e i n c o m m e r c i a l a r t f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l o f A r t . In a d d i t i o n t o h i s g r a p h i c e x p e r t i s e , he i s a p a i n t e r . He has not s t u d i e d p l a n n i n g e i t h e r f o r m a l l y o r i n f o r m a l l y b e l i e v i n g t h a t i t h e l p s him not t o be b i a s e d by a c a d e m i c p l a n n i n g n o t i o n s . He f i n d s t h a t h i s e d u c a t i o n and p a s t w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f i e l d o f a d v e r t i s i n g h e l p s him t o aim h i s g r a p h i c work a t t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e . He t h i n k s t h a t p l a n n e r s s h o u l d know about g r a p h i c s o n l y as p a r t o f a g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d i n ' t h e h u m a n i t i e s . A n o t h e r g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t d e v e l o p e d h i s p r e s e n t work o f p r e p a r i n g n e w s l e t t e r s , b r o c h u r e s , and o t h e r w r i t t e n and g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l f o r a number o f c l i e n t s i n c l u d i n g p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s o u t o f a c a r e e r i n newspaper j o u r n a l i s m . He t a u g h t 50 h i m s e l f p h o t o g r a p h y . He u s e s "newspaper s t y l e " p h o t o g r a p h s as t h e major s o u r c e o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r h i s g r a p h i c p r o d u c t s . H i s l a y o u t c o n c e p t s have^.evolved t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e . He t e s t s d r a f t s on t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d him t o see i f t h e i d e a s work. He u s e s o n l y a few c o l o u r s e x c l u s i v e l y which have p r o v e n t h e m s e l v e s t o be h i g h l y l e g i b l e . He has n e v e r s t u d i e d p l a n n i n g i n a f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n , however, he c o v e r e d t h e G.V.R.D., C i t y H a l l , and l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r y e a r s as a r e p o r t e r . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e has g i v e n him an i n f o r m e d p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e m a t e r i a l w i t h which he now d e a l s . One o f t h e g r a p h i c s c o n s u l t a n t s e x p l a i n s t h a t she t o o k a r a t h e r i n d i r e c t r o u t e t o her p r e s e n t c a r e e r . A l t h o u g h she t o o k some f i n e a r t s c o u r s e s as an u n d e r g r a d u a t e , she m a j o r e d i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . She d i d not s t u d y g r a p h i c s o r even d r a u g h t i n g . W h i l e she was i n s c h o o l , she worked as a c o m m e r c i a l s i l k s c r e e n e r and l e a r n e d c o m m e r c i a l a r t on t h e j o b . She was t h e n o f f e r e d a r t work f o r a p l a n n i n g f i r m . She f e e l s t h a t most jb,f her b e s t i n f o r m a t i o n has come f r o m p r i n t e r s d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h them r e g a r d i n g v a r i o u s methods f o r a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d e f f e c t s . She r e g u l a r l y r e a d s a b o u t c o m m e r c i a l g r a p h i c s and a r t t e c h n i q u e s . She b e l i e v e s t h a t c o l o u r s can be used t o i n f l u e n c e t h e a u d i e n c e f o r a g r a p h i c p r o d u c t . The p l a n n i n g t h e o r y she has l e a r n e d has come f r o m w o r k i n g w i t h p l a n n e r s o v e r a number o f y e a r s . However, she does not f e e l i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r her t o know^about p l a n n i n g t o do her work s u c c e s s f u l l y . 51 The manager o f t h e f i r m w hich p r o d u c e s t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l models a t t e n d e d t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a t U.B.C. He s t u d i e d f i n e a r t s as an u n d e r g r a d u a t e a l t h o u g h not i n t h e a r e a o f g r a p h i c s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t s a low p r i o r i t y i n p u t i n t o h i s p r e s e n t work, a l t h o u g h he c r e d i t s h i s a r c h i t e c t u r e t r a i n i n g w i t h p r o v i d i n g him w i t h v a l u a b l e e x p o s u r e t o a d e s i g n - o r i e n t e d e n v i r o n m e n t . He f i n d s g r a p h i c , a d v e r t i s i n g , , and p s y c h o l o g y t h e o r i e s o f no use i n h i s b u s i n e s s . The g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r f o r an a r c h i t e c t u r a l and p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t group s t u d i e d g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s a t t h e same t i m e as he s t u d i e d a r c h i t e c t u r e . He d i d not l e a r n t h e o r y o r a d v e r t i s i n g methods. H i s knowledge o f p l a n n i n g comes f r o m i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h j o i n t a r c h i t e c t u r e and p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s . He i m p r o v e s h i s o w n - g r a p h i c s by s t u d y i n g g r a p h i c s i n r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y E uropean m a g a z i n e s . He f e e l s t h a t g r a p h i c s i n V a n c o u v e r a r e g e n e r a l l y p o o r . The f i n a l ' g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r t o be m e n t i o n e d i s a l s o a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t and a p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t . He s t u d i e d g r a p h i c s k i l l s , e s p e c i a l l y s k e t c h i n g , i n a r c h i t e c t u r e s c h o o l . He has improved and expanded h i s t e c h n i q u e t h r o u g h h i s y e a r s o f p r a c t i c e i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l g r a p h i c s and p e r -s p e c t i v e s k e t c h e s f o r s a l e s p u r p o s e s . He d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s k e t c h e s c o u l d be " v e r y p o w e r f u l " p e r s u a s i v e t o o l s . In f a c t , he w o r r i e s t h a t an image may be t o o p o w e r f u l i n t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r o t h e r s t o c o u n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r own i d e a s . He d e v e l o p e d a method o f d e s i g n i n g by p r o d u c i n g a s e r i e s o f 52 q u i c k p e r s p e c t i v e s k e t c h e s f i r s t w h ich were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p l a n s l a t e r a f t e r c l i e n t a p p r o v a l had been g i v e n . He f o u n d t h a t o t h e r d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n a l s had d i f f i c u l t y w o r k i n g w i t h t h i s method. He came t o t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e i n V a n c o u v e r t o w r i t e h i s m a s t e r s t h e s i s on w o r k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . S i n c e t h a t t i m e , he has been w o r k i n g p r i m a r i l y w i t h image s k e t c h e s i n v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f d e t a i l d e p e n d e n t o f t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e b e i n g u s e d . He u s e s d r a w i n g s p r e d o m i n a n t l y b e c a u s e he can communicate v e r y q u i c k l y w i t h them t o most p e o p l e . He b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s " i m a g e s " communicate on t h e b a s i s o f p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s . In some c a s e s , w o r d s a r e needed t o a m p l i f y t h e " i m a g e s " . He recommends t h a t p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s s h o u l d use more images. P l a n n e r s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e m edia t h e y use on t h e p u b l i c . He f e e l s t h a t maps a r e d i f f i c u l t f o r most p e o p l e t o r e a d . Many p l a n n i n g maps a r e r e d u n d a n t , t h e y c o n t a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n i s n e c e s s a r y o r p e r t i n e n t . Good images a v o i d t h i s r e d u n d a n c y . M odels a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d d e c e p t i v e . They g i v e t h e f e e l i n g t h a t one can v i s u a l l y "walk" a r o u n d i n a model, but t h e e v e n t u a l b u i l t e f f e c t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t u r n s out v e r y d i f f e r e n t . The i n t e r v i e w s which have been d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e v e a l t h e w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t v i e w s h e l d by b o t h p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s r e g a r d i n g t h e u s e s o f g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r summarizes- and a n a l y z e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n t h e s e 53 i n t e r v i e w s . The t r e n d s i d e n t i f i e d f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f g r a p h i c s i n l o c a l p r a c t i c e can t h e n be compared and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r s 3 and 4 t o s u g g e s t p r a c t i c a l improvements t a i l o r e d t o t h e needs o f t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d . 54 CHAPTER 2: ANALYSIS OF INTERVIEW MATERIAL The i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r was o b t a i n e d i n an e f f o r t t o d e f i n e t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on g r a p h i c s w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n f r o m s e v e r a l p o i n t s o f view. F i r s t , t h e s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f g r a p h i c s which t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s f e l t were o f o n g o i n g i m p o r t a n c e t o them were r e c o r d e d . The s i t u a t i o n s and a u d i e n c e s f o r w h i c h t h e s e g r a p h i c s seemed a p p r o p r i a t e were a:lso d i s c u s s e d . I f p l a n n e r s r e g u l a r l y make use o f c e r t a i n g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s i m p l y a b e l i e f i n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d . S e c o n d , t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d were asked t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y s t r e s s e d when d i s c u s s i n g g r a p h i c a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y e x p l a i n e d how p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s were communicated f r o m p l a n n e r s t o g r a p h i c a r t i s t s t o b o t h g r o u p s ' m u t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t would seem t h a t t h e methods d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e would n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n h e r e n t i n t h e use o f g r a p h i c s i n p l a n n i n g . A l s o , b o t h t h e p o s i t i o n s g i v e n t h e g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t i m e and money a l l o c a t e d t o g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d as f u r t h e r i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on g r a p h i c s i n g e n e r a l . Then, t h e amount o f t i m e and e n e r g y p e r s o n a l l y i n v e s t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r v i e w e d t o l e a r n a b o u t g r a p h i c s and p l a n n i n g t h e o r y , e i t h e r i n f o r m a l a c a d e m i c s e t t i n g s o r by i n d i v i d u a l s t u d y o f some s o r t , seemed t o be an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e v a l u e such i n f o r m a t i o n had f o r them i n t h e i r 55 c a r e e r s . They a l s o s p e c i f i e d w h i c h o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y had s t u d i e d r e g a r d i n g b o t h p l a n n i n g and g r a p h i c s have p r o v e d t o be o f r e g u l a r use t o them. F i n a l l y , t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i n s e v e r a l c a s e s , recommended s p e c i f i c g r a p h i c s u b j e c t a r e a s f o r s t u d y by s t u d e n t s i n g r a d u a t e p l a n n i n g p rograms. N a t u r a l l y , s u c h recommendations can be e x p e c t e d t o r e f l e c t t h o s e a s p e c t s o f g r a p h i c s which have p r o v e n t o be o f v a l u e t o p l a n n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . These i n d i c a t i o n s a r e d i s t i l l e d i n t o g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e ways i n w h i c h g r a p h i c methods a r e used i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a by p l a n n i n g and g r a p h i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s . G r a p h i c s used by i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s i n s i d e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s were seen g e n e r a l l y t o s t r e s s r e l a t i v e l y i n f o r m a l methods w h i c h d i d not o f t e n r e q u i r e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l g r a p h i c a r t i s t . I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c g r a p h i c u s e s were m e n t i o n e d by a few p l a n n e r s . V a r i o u s p e o p l e m e n t i o n e d u s i n g c h a r t s , d i a g r a m s i n c l u d i n g t h e S t r a t e g i c C h o i c e Method, i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n images s u c h as t h o s e used i n P a t t e r n Language, s k e t c h e s , and maps. The d e g r e e t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n e r r e s o r t s t o g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n s i n h i s o r her own p e r s o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y and seems g e n e r a l l y t o r e l a t e t o t h e amount o f e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r e s t t h e p l a n n e r has i n g r a p h i c s . B oth th e p l a n n e r s and t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s who work w i t h i n p l a n n i n g o f f i c e s spoke a b o u t g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s used as w o r k i n g t o o l s f o r a p l a n n i n g g r o u p . Many o f t h e s e r e p r e s e n t s l i g h t l y more s t r u c t u r e d v e r s i o n s o f t h e methods used i n d i v i d u a l l y . A number o f t h e g r a p h i c methods w h i c h s e r v e 56 p l a n n e r s as w o r k i n g t o o l s i n v o l v e m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n on l a r g e s h e e t s o f p a p e r , b l a c k b o a r d s , o r o t h e r s u r f a c e s which p e r m i t a l e g i b l e , l a r g e d i s p l a y f o r g r o u p s . P e o p l e w r i t e o u t l i s t s , c a l e n d a r s , o r s c h e d u l e s . They use d i a g r a m s t h a t d e s c r i b e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among i d e a s . F o r example, S t r a t e g i c C h o i c e Method as t a u g h t by A l l e n H i c k l i n g i s used a t b o t h t h e G.V.R.D. and t h e V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g Department i n group s e s s i o n s . Flow c h a r t s , c r i t i c a l p a t h s , and o t h e r c h a r t i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d . I d e a s a r e s k e t c h e d o r d i a g r a m e d s e p a r a t e l y on m a t e r i a l s such as f i l e c a r d s so t h a t t h e y can be p h y s i c a l l y m a n i p u l a t e d t o s u g g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a l t e r n a t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n s . P a t t e r n s i n s p i r e d by A l e x a n d e r ' s methods a r e one t y p e o f use f o r t h i s method. D e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s f o r urban d e s i g n p r o j e c t s a l s o can be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s group o f t e c h n i q u e s i n t h a t s p e c i f i c d e s i g n e l e m e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y w i t h examples which t h e g u i d e l i n e u s e r s a r e i n t e n d e d t o combine i n t o s u c c e s s f u l d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s . V a r i o u s maps a r e n a t u r a l l y i m p o r t a n t w o r k i n g t o o l s . O v e r l a y i n g maps, i n t h e manner p o p u l a r i z e d by Ian McHarg, was a t e c h n i q u e m e n t i o n e d by s e v e r a l p e o p l e . S k e t c h e s were used f o r a v a r i e t y o f p u r p o s e s i n c l u d i n g r e c o r d i n g s i t e i n -f o r m a t i o n , t e s t i n g t h e w o r k a b i l i t y o f d e s i g n i d e a s , and g e n e r -a t i n g images o f d e s i r e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e s i n t h e minds o f a g r o u p . P h o t o g r a p h s were used f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s . T r i a l r u n s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h g r a p h i c s i n t e n d e d f o r use w i t h p e o p l e e x t e r n a l t o t h e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n were o f t e n d e v e l o p e d and improved i n group s i t u a t i o n s . 57 The g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s used t o communicate p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e immediate c l i e n t s a r e not a l w a y s t h o s e used t o r e a c h t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . G r a p h i c a i d s to. o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e common t o bot h c l i e n t and p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . C h a r t s , maps, s k e t c h e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l p l a n s , t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m odels, and s l i d e shows a r e a l l f r e q u e n t l y employed f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s . T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t among t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s t o d i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e s . R a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f c o n s e n s u s on t h e s u b j e c t o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o p o l i t i c i a n s . Many p e o p l e s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were wary o f u s i n g g r a p h i c s e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s . D i s a g r e e m e n t i s more a p p a r e n t on w h i c h g r a p h i c methods a r e b e s t u n d e r s t o o d by t h e p u b l i c . S e v e r a l p l a n n e r s m e n t i o n e d t h a t members o f t h e p u b l i c o f t e n had t r o u b l e r e a d i n g maps. A r c h i t e c t u r a l p l a n s were a l s o c i t e d as t r o u b l e s o m e . M o dels were h i g h l y recommended by some w h i l e t h e y were c a l l e d d e c e p t i v e and m i s l e a d i n g by a n o t h e r . G e n e r a l l y , p e o p l e a g r e e t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e s k e t c h e s and p h o t o g r a p h s a r e a c c e p t a b l e g r a p h i c d e v i c e s . P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l w i t h g r a p h i c components d o m i n a t e s t h e g r a p h i c o u t p u t o f p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o t h e i r c l i e n t s and t h e p u b l i c . R e p o r t s a r e t h e major mode o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g p l a n n i n g r e s u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e immediate c l i e n t s . R e p o r t s may be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h c h a r t s , maps, s k e t c h e s , and p h o t o g r a p h s which c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n e s s e n t i a l t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t e x t . C o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t i s o f t e n a l s o i n v e s t e d i n a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t s o f r e p o r t s : l a y o u t , t y p e f a c e s , b o r d e r s , s e c t i o n 58 h e a d i n g s , c o v e r s , p a p e r c h o i c e . W h i l e t h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y t r e a t e d as m e r e l y d e c o r a t i v e d e v i c e s , i t was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e y o f t e n s e r v e b o t h t o e n t i c e and t o a i d r e a d e r s h i p . P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l p r e p a r e d f o r p u b l i c c o n s u m p t i o n t e n d s t o be i n t h e f o r m o f f l y e r s , n e w s l e t t e r s , and p a m p h l e t s w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l y b r i e f e r t h a n c l i e n t r e p o r t s and more i n -t e n s i v e l y g r a p h i c i n n a t u r e . The p u b l i c must be a t t r a c t e d t o t h e m a t e r i a l j u s t b e f o r e t h e y r e a d t h e t e x t . G r a p h i c s a r e r e l i e d on t o do t h i s j o b . A wide s p e c t r u m o f methods a r e used by p l a n n e r s t o communicate t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s t o t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s who w i l l p r o d u c e t h e i r g r a p h i c s . On one end o f t h e s p e c t r u m a r e t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s where t h e p l a n n e r has a v e r y s p e c i f i c i d e a o f how he o r she wants t h e g r a p h i c s t o l o o k . In s u c h c a s e s , t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t i s t r e a t e d as a t e c h n i c i a n who must m e r e l y p r o d u c e t h e r e s u l t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s . A s e c o n d method i n v o l v e s d a y - t o - d a y s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e a r t i s t ' s work by t h e p l a n n e r . In t h i s way, t h e p l a n n e r m o n i t o r s t h e p r o d u c t and can make a d j u s t m e n t s as needed t o b r i n g t h e g r a p h i c s i n t o c o n f o r m i t y w i t h h i s o r her o b j e c t i v e s . N a t u r a l l y , t h e p l a n n e r must know what he o r she i s s e e k i n g i n some d e t a i l . W i t h a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h , w h i c h has been d e s c r i b e d as i t e r a t i v e , t h e p l a n n e r d e s c r i b e s b o t h t h e d e s i r e d impact and s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e g r a p h i c s . The g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r t h e n works on t h e p r o j e c t b o t h m e e t i n g t h e s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t s and u s i n g i n i t i a t i v e i n o t h e r t e c h n i c a l a r e a s t o 59 achieve the necessary e f f e c t s . The graphic a r t i s t produces a d r a f t concept which the planner reviews i n l i g h t of the planning c r i t e r i a which have not been communicated to the a r t i s t . A v a r i a t i o n of t h i s method, which i s a p p l i c a b l e to the work of s e v e r a l of the graphic s p e c i a l i s t s i n t e r v i e w e d , occurs when a planner chooses a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l i s t because the s p e c i f i c graphic medium in which the s p e c i a l i s t works i s considered a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the planning o b j e c t i v e s . The other end of the spectrum i s represented by the planners who c o n s u l t with the graphics a r t i s t s about the graphics which are to be produced. In some cases, t h i s c o n s u l t a t i o n occurs at the i n i t i a l stage of the planning process, and, consequently, i n f l u e n c e s such important d e c i s i o n s as research and r e c o r d i n g methods. In those cases where the planners and the graphic d e s i g n e r s were employees of the same o r g a n i z a t i o n , the graphics people are considered as a separate and subordinate group. The graphic a r t i s t s may be c o n s u l t e d at v a r i o u s stages i n the planning process but they are r a r e l y viewed as members of the planning team. As an example of the v a r i e t y of o p i n i o n s on the question of departmental s t r u c t u r e , the views expressed by people i n the Vancouver Planning Department regarding the present form of the Graphics S e c t i o n are of i n t e r e s t . One planner p r e f e r r e d to keep the Graphics group separate but hoped to borrow Graphics people to work on s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s with members of h i s d i v i s i o n from time to tome. Another planner 60 f e l t t h a t t h e G r a p h i c s group s h o u l d be s p l i t up and one a r t i s t a s s i g n e d t o each d i v i s i o n and s i t e o f f i c e . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e head o f t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n d e s i r e d f u r t h e r c e n t r a l i z a t i o n : t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a G r a p h i c s Department t o be used by a l l t h e d i v i s i o n s i n C i t y H a l l . G r a p h i c s a r e bot h t i m e c o n s u m i n g and e x p e n s i v e . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , s t a r t l i n g t o n o t e t h a t none o f t h e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s had a t t e m p t e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r g r a p h i c work. Most o f t h e g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s who a r e h i r e d t o p r o d u c e s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f work s u c h as n e w s l e t t e r s , t o p o g r a p h i c m o d e l s , o r p u b l i c " d e s i g n - i n s " e s t i m a t e t h a t t h e i r e x p e n s e s r e g u l a r l y r e p r e s e n t l e s s t h a n 1% o f a t o t a l p l a n n i n g b u d g e t . G r a p h i c s done w i t h i n p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s by g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s were e s t i m a t e d t o r e p r e s e n t between 5% and 25% o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l budget w i t h t h e most f r e q u e n t e s t i m a t e b e i n g a r o u n d 10%. When t h e t i m e s p e n t by p l a n n e r s t o do i n f o r m a l g r a p h i c s was i n c l u d e d In t h e s e e s t i m a t e s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e s were n a t u r a l l y h i g h e r , i n t h e range o f 20 and 25%. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d s o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r -v i ewed i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s had s t u d i e d p l a n n i n g f o r m a l l y . However, not a l l o f t h e p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s had p l a n n i n g d e g r e e s . N a t u r a l l y , most p e o p l e s t a t e d t h a t t h e y l e a r n a b o u t p l a n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r work s i n c e t h e y a l l work i n t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , two g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s e x p r e s s e d no i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g a b o u t p l a n n i n g as a d i s c i p l i n e a l t h o u g h t h e y work f o r o r w i t h p l a n n e r s . Among t h e f o r m a l l y e d u c a t e d p l a n n e r s , few had l e a r n e d 61 a b o u t t h e use o f g r a p h i c s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s . S e v e r a l p l a n n e r s had, however, s t u d i e d g r a p h i c s o r r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s l i k e d r a w i n g and p a i n t i n g w h i l e a t u n i v e r s i t y , p r i m a r i l y as u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . The amount o f f o r m a l g r a p h i c s t r a i n i n g v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y among t h e g r a p h i c s p e o p l e as w e l l , f r o m no f o r m a l t r a i n i n g t o i n d e p t h s t u d y o f c o m m e r c i a l a r t . S e v e r a l g r a p h i c a r t i s t s had a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . E v e r y -one f e l t t h a t t h e y had some i n f o r m a l , w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h g r a p h i c s , a l t h o u g h t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y v a r i e d w i d e l y . In g e n e r a l , t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s f e l t t h a t knowing p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s was h e l p f u l but not e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . They were, however, i n t e n t on l e a r n i n g more a b o u t g r a p h i c s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n t h e i r a r e a s o f e x p e r t i s e . They u s u a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on t e c h n i q u e as opposed t o g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . O n l y a few o f t h e a r t i s t s f e l t t h a t t h e y used any t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s such as t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f c o l o u r s o r t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g y . W h i l e most o f the. p l a n n e r s b e l i e v e - t h a t t h e y s h o u l d know ab o u t g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s , o n l y a b o u t h a l f were i n t e r e s t e d i n d o i n g g r a p h i c s t h e m s e l v e s . The m a j o r i t y had no knowledge o f g r a p h i c t h e o r y , even among t h o s e who do p r o d u c e f a i r l y f o r m a l g r a p h i c s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . The a r e a s m e n t i o n e d by t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s as i m p o r t a n t f o r p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n and t e c h n i q u e a r e a s . They s u g g e s t a b a s i c know-l e d g e o f p r i n t i n g p r o c e s s e s . The u s e s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s m edia and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o s t s b o t h i n t i m e and money a r e t h e most o f t e n d i s c u s s e d t o p i c s . O t h e r s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d l e t t e r i n g , s k e t c h i n g , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l d r a w i n g s 62 and r e p o r t l a y o u t methods. None o f t h e p l a n n e r s recommended s t u d y i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a r e a s o f g r a p h i c s . The p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c s p e o p l e use a wide v a r i e t y o f g r a p h i c methods and m e d i a i n t h e i r work bo t h i n i n f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n s w i t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l group and i n more f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h c l i e n t s and t h e p u b l i c . T h e r e i s , however, c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s m e d i a and t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s t o d i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e s . The u n c e r t a i n t y r e v e a l e d r e g a r d i n g t h e c h o i c e o f g r a p h i c methods i s a l s o seen i n t h e v a r i o u s ad hoc a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h have been d e v i s e d f o r p l a n n e r s t o a c h i e v e t h e i r r a t h e r u n c e r t a i n g o a l s when t h e y must r e l y on g r a p h i c a r t i s t s . T h e s e v a r i o u s and un-s y s t e m a t i c methods have n e v e r been s u b j e c t e d t o a s t r u c t u r e d e v a l u a t i o n a l t h o u g h l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e s o f d e p a r t m e n t a l b u d g e t s a r e s p e n t on g r a p h i c work. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s r a r e l y s t u d y p l a n n i n g e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l l y o r on a p r o j e c t b a s i s t o improve t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n , w h i l e b o t h t h e p l a n n e r s and t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s a r e g e n e r a l l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e w hich m i g h t s u g g e s t improvements i n t h e v a l u e t h a t p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s have f o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s t o t h e i r i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e s . I n s p i t e o f t h e a p p a r e n t i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n t o t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g g r a p h i c s , t h e r e e x i s t s a body o f t h e o r e t i c a l m a t e r i a l w h i c h i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r o l e t h a t g r a p h i c , as opposed t o v e r b a l , e x p r e s s i o n p l a y s i n t h i n k i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . In t h e f o l l o w -i n g two c h a p t e r s , g r a p h i c s a r e c o n s i d e r e d as a " l a n g u a g e " w i t h 63 i t s own "grammar" which i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e way t o communicate c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . 64 CHAPTER 3: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON VISUAL LANGUAGE The t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h seems a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e use o f g r a p h i c s i n p l a n n i n g can be t h o u g h t o f i n two g r o u p s : the l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h makes a c a s e f o r t h e v a l u e o f g r a p h i c s as a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g o r e s s e n t i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n " l a n g u a g e " and t h e l i t e r a t u r e w hich d e a l s w i t h d e t a i l e d a s p e c t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h can be termed as "grammar". The "grammar" o f t h e v i s u a l l a n g u a g e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r f o l l o w i n g t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e " l a n g u a g e " c o n c e p t . Kenneth B o u l d i n g , i n h i s book The Image, d e v e l o p s h i s t h e s i s t h a t a l l t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s "image" o f t h e w o r l d . He p r e f e r s not t o use t h e word "knowledge" s i n c e " k n o w l e d g e 0 h a s an i m p l i c a t i o n o f v a l i d i t y , o f t r u t h " . 1 He i s t a l k i n g a b o u t b e l i e f s o r " s u b j e c t -2 i v e knowledge". An i n d i v i d u a l ' s " b e h a v i o u r depends on t h e 3 image". "The image i s b u i l t up as a r e s u l t o f a l l p a s t e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p o s s e s s o r o f t h e image. P a r t o f t h e image 4 i s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e image i t s e l f . " F o r each p e r s o n , " e v e r y t i m e a message r e a c h e s him h i s image i s l i k e l y t o be changed i n some d e g r e e by i t , and as h i s image i s changed h i s b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s w i l l be changed l i k e w i s e . The messages c o n s i s t o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y a r e s t r u c t u r e d e x p e r i e n c e s . The meaning o f a message i s t h e change w h i c h i t p r o d u c e s i n t h e 5 image." Most messages l e a v e t h e image u n a l t e r e d b e c a u s e t h e y do not c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e image. E v e n t s w h i c h do not f i t w i t h t h e image c a l l f o r a change w h i c h may be j u s t an a d d i t i o n o f new i n f o r m a t i o n o r may be a r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e image. 65 The e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s p e r s o n a l image has i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s on t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . A "message w h i c h comes t h r o u g h t h e s e n s e s i s i t s e l f m e d i a t e d t h r o u g h a v a l u e s y s t e m . We do not p e r c e i v e our s e n s e d a t a raw; t h e y a r e m e d i a t e d t h r o u g h a h i g h l y l e a r n e d p r o c e s s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e " . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t "what t h i s means i s t h a t f o r any i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i s m o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e a r e no s u c h t h i n g s as ' f a c t s * . T h e r e a r e o n l y messages f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h a c h a n g e a b l e v a l u e s y s t e m . . . . T h i s does not mean, however, t h a t t h e image o f t h e w o r l d p o s s e s s e d by an i n d i v i d u a l i s a p u r e l y p r i v a t e m a t t e r o r ' t h a t a l l know-l e d g e i s s i m p l y s u b j e c t i v e knowledge.... P a r t o f o u r image o f t h e w o r l d i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h i s image i s s h a r e d by o t h e r p e o p l e l i k e o u r s e l v e s who a l s o a r e p a r t o f o u r image o f t h e w o r l d . In common d a i l y i n t e r c o u r s e we a l l behave as i f we p o s s e s s r o u g h l y t h e same image o f t h e w o r l d " . 7 W h i l e t h e images o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who c o m p r i s e t h e p u b l i c e x h i b i t s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r l a p s , t h e y a r e n o n e t h e l e s s p r e d i c a t e d on w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d v a l u e s y s t e m s based on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s ' p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . To a c h i e v e p u b l i c c o n s e n s u s o r a d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e f u t u r e , t h e p u b l i c image must be u n d e r s t o o d . However, i t must a l s o be a l t e r e d i f o n l y t o accommodate new i n f o r m a t i o n . The p u b l i c image i s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . "The image not o n l y makes s o c i e t y , s o c i e t y c o n t i n u a l l y remakes t h e image. The b a s i c bond o f any s o c i e t y , c u l t u r e , s u b c u l t u r e , o r o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a ' p u b l i c image'....an enormous p a r t o f t h e a c t i v i t y o f each s o c i e t y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n and P p r o t e c t i o n o f i t s p u b l i c image." New i d e a s must a l t e r t h e 66 c u r r e n t p u b l i c image which s o c i e t y i s i n v o l v i n g i n p r o m o t i n g . " E v e r y p u b l i c image b e g i n s i n t h e mind o f some s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l 9 and o n l y becomes p u b l i c as i t i s t r a n s m i t t e d and s h a r e d . " New i d e a s must be communicated t o o t h e r s e f f e c t i v e l y i f t h e y a r e t o become i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g p u b l i c image. 7 B o u l d i n g r e g a r d s p o l i t i c s "as a p r o c e s s o f m u t u a l m o d i f i c a t i o n o f images t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s e s o f f e e d b a c k and communication"."'"^ He f e e l s t h a t h i s t h e o r y p u t s him a t odds w i t h t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l v i e w o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s . He s e e s " t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s " as " n o t t h a t o f t h e sum-m a t i o n o f f i x e d i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s " but as " t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e m u t u a l m o d i f i c a t i o n o f images b o t h r e l a t i o n a l and e v a l u a t i o n a l i n t h e c o u r s e o f m u t u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n , and d i s c o u r s e " . One o f t h e methods used i n t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s a " t r a n s c r i p t " w h i c h i s "a r e c o r d i n more o r l e s s permanent f o r m " 12 o f a p u b l i c image. "An e f f e c t i v e t r a n s c r i p t has a g r e a t e f f e c t i n c r e a t i n g a p u b l i c image, t h a t i s , i n e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e images o f t h e v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s who have a c c e s s t o t h e t r a n s -c r i p t a r e i d e n t i c a l o r n e a r l y so."13 H i s t o r i c a l l y , much o f t h i s t r a n s c r i p t has been i n w r i t t e n f o r m . R e c e n t l y , t h e "camera, t h e movie, t h e p h o n o g r a p h , and t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r " have p e r m i t t e d d i r e c t r e c o r d i n g f o r t h e t r a n s c r i p t . G r a p h i c s a l s o a r e needed f o r t r a n s c r i p t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e s t i l l l a r g e p a r t s o f t h e image, however, w h i c h can o n l y be 14 t r a n s c r i b e d i n s y m b o l i c f o r m . " As an example, he m e n t i o n s maps: The " s p a t i a l image can be t r a n s c r i b e d v e r y b r i e f l y and c o m m o d i o u s l y i n t h e f o r m o f a map. The map i t s e l f . . . . has a 1 5 p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on o u r s p a t i a l image." G r a p h i c s a r e complex 67 r e c o r d s . Hence, "even t h e map, which i s a p p a r e n t l y t h e most ' f a c t u a l ' o f a l l t r a n s c r i p t s , may have s t r o n g e l e m e n t s i n -"1 6 v o l v i n g o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e image." B o u l d i n g d i s c u s s e s s y m b o l i c images i n some d e t a i l . T h ese a r e o f t e n e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h g r a p h i c s . " S y m b o l i c images a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e summation and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f v a l u e images .... They c o n s i s t . . . . o f a ' p o s t u r e ' w h i c h i n a s e n s e summarizes an e x t r e m e l y complex network o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and s i t u a t i o n s . " 1 7 The a b i l i t y f o r s y m b o l i c images, and v i s u a l images i n g e n e r a l , t o summarize complex i d e a s i s , a c c o r d i n g t o B o u l d i n g an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n t h e t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s . "The s y m b o l i c image i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y as a p a r t o f t h e economy o f i m a g e - f o r m a t i o n . The human i m a g i n a t i o n can o n l y b e a r a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f c o m p l e x i t y . When t h e c o m p l e x i t y -0 becomes i n t o l e r a b l e , i t r e t r e a t s i n t o s y m b o l i c images."18 T h i s argument o f t h e e s s e n t i a l r o l e t h a t v i s u a l images p l a y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t complex m a t e r i a l s u g g e s t s t h a t g r a p h i c images, as a c o n c r e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f v i s u a l images, can be used t o f u r t h e r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c image o f complex i s s u e s . G r a p h i c s o f f e r what B o u l d i n g t e r m s an economic way t o h a n d l e complex i s s u e s . And 1 9 "my e c o n o m i z i n g o f l e a r n i n g . . . . i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e " . A n o t h e r t h e o r i s t , George G e r b n e r , e x p r e s s e s v i e w s on c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h r o u g h v a r i o u s m e d i a w h i c h c o i n c i d e t o an e x t e n t w i t h t h o s e o f B o u l d i n g . He d e f i n e s " c o m m u n i c a t i o n " as " t h e 20 exchange by means o f t h e s y m b o l i c e n v i r o n m e n t " . " C u l t u r e i t s e l f c an be r e g a r d e d b r o a d l y as a s y s t e m i n w h i c h messages 68 c u l t i v a t e and r e g u l a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s between p e o p l e . " "By m e s s a g e s " he means " f o r m a l l y coded s y m b o l i c o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l 22 p a t t e r n s o f some s h a r e d s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a c u l t u r e . " G r a p h i c m e d i a a r e a major p a r t o f t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . He s t a t e s t h a t " t h e most p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n can be f o u n d not i n making s a l e s , g e t t i n g v o t e s , i n f l u e n c i n g o p i n i o n s and c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s but i n t h e s e l e c t i v e m a i n t e n a n c e o f r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e s t r u c t u r e s o f images and a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t stem f r o m i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and p o l i c i e s and t h a t d e f i n e t h e common p e r s p e c t i v e s o f a s o c i e t y . " 2 3 T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s much i n t h e same view as B o u l d i n g ' s c o n c e p t o f a p u b l i c image w h i c h r e m a i n s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e due t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t o f s o c i e t y as i t i s p a r t i a l l y e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m e d i a i n c l u d i n g g r a p h i c s . He a l s o c o n c u r s and e l a b o r a t e s on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e complex messages i n g r a p h i c as w e l l as o t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n media: "One a l w a y s communicates more t h i n g s - o r o t h e r t h i n g s - t h a n one i s aware o f . I n -d e e d , t h e r e a r e no f a i l u r e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , o n l y f a i l u r e s o f i n t e n t i o n and o f u n d e r -s t a n d i n g what t h e message was i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . " 2 4 In t h e c a s e o f g r a p h i c s , among o t h e r modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e " s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n s a r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s t h a t f l o w . . . . r e -25 g a r d l e s s o f i n t e n t i o n s and p r e t e n t i o n s . " He recommends a n a l y s i s t o " o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t what t h e a c t u a l messages, r a t h e r t h a n t h e presumed messages, might be."26 Those messages w h i c h remain u n r e c o g n i z e d may work t o d e f e a t t h e i n t e n d e d f u n c t i o n o f t h e g r a p h i c s . 69 R u d o l f A r n h e i m p u t s f o r w a r d h i s t h e o r y " t h a t p r o -d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g i n any a r e a o f c o g n i t i o n i s p e r c e p t u a l 27 t h i n k i n g " p r i m a r i l y i n a book e n t i t l e d V i s u a l T h i n k i n g . He s t a r t s f r o m h i s b a c k g r o u n d i n f i n e a r t s w h i c h had i n d i c a t e d t o - h i m " t h a t a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y i s a f o r m o f r e a s o n i n g , i n 28 w h i c h p e r c e i v i n g and t h i n k i n g a r e i n d i v i s i b l y i n t e r t w i n e d . " He b a s e s much o f h i s t h e o r y on h i s s t u d y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s . "A r e v i e w o f what i s known ab o u t p e r c e p t i o n " l e d him t o r e a l i z e " t h a t t h e r e m a r k a b l e mechanisms by w h i c h t h e s e n s e s u n d e r s t a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a r e a l l but i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d by t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h i n k i n g . I n v e r s e l y , t h e r e was much e v i d e n c e t h a t t r u l y p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g i n w h a t e v e r a r e a o f c o g n i t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e r e a l m o f i m a g e r y . " 2 9 He b e l i e v e s t h a t modern man m i s t r u s t s t h e s e n s e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l what he terms t h e " i n t e l l i g e n c e " o f p e r c e p t i o n . He d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n r e q u i r e s "an a c t i v e c o n c e r n o f t h e mind" i n w h i c h " t h e s e n s e o f s i g h t 30 o p e r a t e s s e l e c t i v e l y " u s i n g " v i s u a l c o n c e p t s . " He d e s c r i b e s 31 t h i s p r o c e s s as i n v o l v i n g " p r o b l e m s o l v i n g " . He d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t a b s t r a c t i o n , a complex c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n , i s e s s e n t i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l p e r c e p t i o n . He u s e s t h e p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s o f v i s u a l d a t a by c o m p u t e r s as an a n a l o g y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e human a b s t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v i s u a l c o n c e p t s may be used t o f i n d a n a l o g i e s w h i c h f o c u s on e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e s whereas t h e 32 c omputer c a n n o t b r e a k down images i n t h i s way. I f p r o d u c t i v e i f h i n k i n g does i n d e e d depend on v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , t h e n v i s u a l 70 a w a r e n e s s s h o u l d be v a l u e d h i g h l y as a t o o l f o r p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . A r n h e i m winds up h i s book w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t h i s t h e o r y 3 i m p l i e s a need f o r " s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g o f v i s u a l s e n s i t i v i t y " . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e " d i f f e r e n c e between, a p i c t u r e t h a t makes i t s p o i n t and one t h a t does not can be d i s c e r n e d by anybody whose n a t u r a l r e s p o n s e s t o p e r c e p t u a l f o r m have been c u l t i v a t e d r a t h e r t h a n s t i f l e d . " 3 4 I n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t , he s u g g e s t s t h a t , not o n l y does t h e c o n t e n t o f a g r a p h i c d i s p l a y r e v e a l i t s e l f t o t h e p e r c e p t u a l l y aware p e r s o n , but t h a t t h e f o r m a message t a k e s c a n n o t be s u c c e s s f u l l y 35 d i s s o c i a t e d f r o m t h e c o n t e n t . T a k i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a s t e p f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f an a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m f o r a g r a p h i c p r o d u c t n e c e s s i t a t e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t . I t would t h e n seem t h a t b o t h t h e c h o i c e o f m e d i a and t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e d e s i g n s h o u l d be d i c t a t e d t o some e x t e n t by t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . A r n h e i m d e v e l o p s a t h e o r y a b o u t how images e v o l v e t h r o u g h t i m e w h i c h , a l t h o u g h i t i s b o t h more c o m p l i c a t e d and l e s s o c o m p r e h e n s i v e t h a n B o u l d i n g ' s , does n o t r e a l l y c o n t r a d i c t h i s v iew. F o r A r n h e i m , t h e mind c o n t a i n s " a s t o r e h o u s e o f v i s u a l c o n c e p t s , some c l e a r -c u t and s i m p l e , some e l u s i v e and i n t a n g i b l e ....The images o f some t h i n g s a r e r i g i d l y s t e r e o t y p e d , o t h e r s r i c h i n v a r i a t i o n , and o f some we may p o s s e s s s e v e r a l images un-w i l l i n g t o f u s e i n t o one u n i t a r y c o n c e p t i o n . . . . A l l s o r t s o f c o n n e c t i o n t i e t h e s e images t o g e t h e r . A l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l c o n t e n t o f a p e r s o n ' s memory can h a r d l y be c a l l e d an i n t e g r a t e d whole, i t c o n t a i n s o r g a n i z e d c l u s t e r s o f s m a l l o r l a r g e r a n g e , f a m i l i e s o f c o n c e p t s bound t o g e t h e r by s i m i l a r i t y , a s s o c i a t i o n s o f a l l k i n d s . . . . I n n u m e r a b l e t h o u g h t o p e r a t i o n s have formed t h e s e p a t t e r n s . . . . and c o n t i n u e t o f o r m them."36 71 A r n h e i m i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r o l e o f s p e c i f i c images and t h e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g p r o c e s s e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . Hence, he f o c u s e s on t h e v a r i a t i o n s between images w h i l e B o u l d i n g c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , b o t h can be s a i d t o a g r e e on a p r i m a c y o f v i s u a l images w h i c h a r e t h e b a s i s f o r a c t i o n s and w h i c h a r e c o n s t a n t l y u n d e r g o i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h l e a r n i n g . A r n h e i m d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h r e e f u n c t i o n s o f images: They "can s e r v e as p i c t u r e s o r as s y m b o l s ; t h e y can a l s o be used 37 as s i g n s . " He p o i n t s o u t t h a t " t h e t h r e e terms - p i c t u r e , s y m bol, s i g n -do not s t a n d f o r k i n d s o f images. They r a t h e r d e s c r i b e t h r e e f u n c t i o n s . . . . A p a r t i c u l a r image may be used f o r each o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s and w i l l o f t e n s e r v e more t h a n one a t t h e same t i m e . As a r u l e , t h e image i t s e l f does not t e l l w h i c h f u n c t i o n i s i n t e n d e d . " 3 8 "An image s e r v e s m e r e l y as a s i g n t o t h e e x t e n t t o which i t s t a n d s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e n t w i t h o u t r e f l e c t i n g i t s 39 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v i s u a l l y . " "They o p e r a t e as mere r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e t h i n g s f o r w h i c h t h e y s t a n d . They a r e n o t a n a l o g u e s , and t h e r e f o r e t h e y c a n n o t be used as m edia f o r t h o u g h t i n t h e i r 40 own r i g h t . " Numerals and l e t t e r s a r e g i v e n as examples ; o f s i g n s . "Images a r e p i c t u r e s t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y p o r t r a y t h i n g s l o c a t e d a t l o w e r l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t n e s s t h a n t h e y a r e t h e m s e l v e s . They do t h e i r work by g r a s p i n g and r e n d e r i n g some r e l e v a n t q u a l i t i e s - s h a p e , c o l o r , movement - o f t h e o b j e c t s o r a c t i v i t i e s t h e y d e p i c t . P i c t u r e s c a n n o t be mere r e p l i c a s . . . . A b s t r a c t -n e s s i s a means by w h i c h t h e p i c t u r e i n t e r -p r e t s what i s p o r t r a y s . " 4 1 " I n o t h e r words, t h e p i c t o r i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e m p h a s i z e s t h e 42 g e n e r i c q u a l i t i e s w i t h w h i c h a l l t h i n k i n g i s c o n c e r n e d . " 72 F i n a l l y , "an image a c t s as a:symbol t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t p o r t r a y s t h i n g s w h i c h a r e a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t -n e s s t h a n t h e symbol i t s e l f . A symbol g i v e s p a r t i c u l a r shape > 4 3 t o t y p e s o f t h i n g s o r c o n s t e l l a t i o n s o f f o r c e s . " A r n h e i m ' s t h r e e f u n c t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e among l e v e l s o f u s e f u l n e s s f o r t h i n k i n g p u r p o s e s . However, h i s c a t e g o r i e s a l s o have v a l u e f o r c o n s i d e r i n g g r a p h i c methods, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e used f o r g e n e r a t i n g i d e a s . In t h i s c o n t e x t , " s i g n s " a r e u s e f u l t o t h e d e g r e e w h i c h a group a g r e e s t o t h e i r meaning. " P i c t u r e s " s h o u l d be c r e a t e d a t t h e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t n e s s n e c e s s a r y f o r them t o f u l f i l l t h e i r " g e n e r i c " 44 f u n c t i o n w h i c h i s l i m i t e d t o " s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s " . P i c t u r e s used as w o r k i n g t o o l s and a i d s t o t h i n k i n g need t o i n c l u d e t h e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o b l e m but s h o u l d not waste e f f o r t by b e i n g o v e r l y d e t a i l e d o r c o n c r e t e . "Symbols" a r e a key t o making v e r y a b s t r a c t i d e a s manageable. T h i s v i e w c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h B o u l d i n g ' s n o t i o n t h a t s y m b o l i c v i s u a l images summarize complex s i t u a t i o n s . They a l s o a r e o n l y s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e y r e p r e s e n t a s h a r e d group image. Y e t a n o t h e r t h e o r i s t who makes a s t r o n g c a s e f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f v i s u a l images t o t h e t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g f u n c t i o n s i s James L. Adams, a u t h o r o f C o n c e p t u a l B l o c k b u s t i f l g : A G u i d e t o B e t t e r I d e a s . He i s a p r o f e s s o r o f e n g i n e e r i n g d e s i g n who t e a c h e s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o h i s s t u d e n t s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t a v a r i e t y o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s w hich p e o p l e can l e a r n and p r a c t i c e . T hese t a c t i c s a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r some p r o b l e m s t h a n o t h e r s . So an 73 i n d i v i d u a l must not o n l y be aware o f t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s but must a l s o be a b l e t o c h o o s e an a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h t o each p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m . He f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e s a number o f " b l o c k s " which o p e r a t e t o l i m i t p e o p l e ' s a b i l i t y t o use v a r i o u s t h i n k i n g s t r a t e g i e s e f f e c t i v e l y . One o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s i s " v i s u a l t h i n k -45 i n g " . He s t a t e s t h a t " v i s u a l i z a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t t h i n k i n g mode whi c h i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s where s h a p e s , forms o r p a t t e r n s a r e c o n c e r n e d . " 4 6 He q u o t e s h i s c o l l e a g u e , Bob McKim, who t h e o r i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e " T h r e e k i n d s o f v i s u a l i m a g e r y t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y i n e f f e c t i v e v i s u a l t h i n k i n g . The f i r s t , p e r c e p t u a l i m a g e r y , i s s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d ; i t i s what one s e e s and r e c o r d s i n h i s b r a i n . The s e c o n d i s m e n t a l i m a g e r y , which i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e mind and u t i -l i z e s i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d f r o m p e r c e p t u a l ^ i m a g e r y . The t h i r d t y p e i s g r a p h i c i m a g e r y . T h i s i s imagery which i s s k e t c h e d , d o o d l e d , drawn, o r o t h e r w i s e put down i n a w r i t t e n communicable form, e i t h e r t o a i d i n one's own p r o c e s s o f t h i n k i n g or t o a i d i n com-m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . " 4 7 These d i v i s i o n s seem t o be v a l u a b l e . A l l i n v o l v e t h i n k i n g . However, o n l y g r a p h i c i magery p e r m i t s c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o o t h e r s . T h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s r o l e i s t h e key one f o r g r a p h i c s . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , i n o r d e r t o use g r a p h i c images e f f e c t i v e l y , one must a l s o m a s t e r p e r c e p t u a l and m e n t a l i m a g e r y . Adams a g r e e s w i t h A r n h e i m t h a t p e r c e p t i o n must be t r a i n e d t o promote improved t h i n k i n g . As Adams p u t s i t : "you can l e a r n t o see b e t t e r t h r o u g h c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t , e s p e c i a l l y i f you a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t 48 s e e i n g b e t t e r i s i m p o r t a n t t o y o u . " In h i s view, " v i s u a l i m a g i n g a b i l i t y i s complex, s i n c e i t depends not o n l y upon 74 one's a b i l i t y t o f o r m images, but a l s o upon t h e s u p p l y o f 49 p e r t i n e n t i m a g e r y s t o r e d i n t h e mind." N a t u r a l l y , t h e more e f f o r t d e v o t e d t o images, t h e more v i s u a l t h i n k i n g w i l l be i m p r o v e d . L o o k i n g a t g r a p h i c i m a g e r y i n more d e t a i l , Adams c o n c l u d e s t h a t " i n o r d e r t o t a k e f u l l a d v a n t a g e o f v i s u a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t y , d r a w i n g i s n e c e s s a r y . Drawing a l l o w s t h e r e c o r d i n g , s t o r a g e , m a n i p u l a t i o n , and c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f images t o augment t h e p i c t u r e s one can g e n e r a t e i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . " 5 0 He f i n d s t h a t i s i s " u s e f u l t o d i v i d e d r a w i n g i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : t h a t which i s done t o communicate w i t h o t h e r s , and t h a t w h i c h 5.1 i s done t o communicate w i t h o n e s e l f . " The f i r s t t y p e o f draw-i n g ( c o m m u n i c a t i v e ) r e c e i v e s a good b i t o f a t t e n t i o n e d u c a -t i o n a l l y , and one can l e a r n t o make such d r a w i n g s t h r o u g h f o r m a l c o u r s e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The s e c o n d t y p e ( t h i n k i n g s k e t c h e s ) r e c e i v e s f a r l e s s e m p h a s i s , y e t i t i s an i m p o r t a n t 52 a d j u n c t t o v i s u a l t h i n k i n g . He recommends t h a t a t t e n t i o n be g i v e n t o t h i n k i n g s k e t c h e s s i n c e he b e l i e v e s t h a t " v i s u a l i z a t i o n . . . . i s one o f t h e most b a s i c o f a l l t h i n k i n g modes and one which 53 i s i n v a l u a b l e i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . " A l t h o u g h Adams q u o t e s A r n h e i m i n s u p p o r t o f h i s v i e w s o f v i s u a l t h i n k i n g , he does not p l a c e t h e i m p o r t a n c e on v i s u a l t h i n k i n g t h a t A r n h e i m d o e s . F o r Adams, i t i s one t o o l w hich i s s u i t e d f o r s o l v i n g c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s . I t makes l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e , however, whether v i s u a l t h i n k i n g u n d e r l i e s a l l o r o n l y a p o r t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . I t i s enough t h a t v i s u a l t h i n k i n g i s v a l u a b l e i n d e a l i n g w i t h some t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s . 75 Adams d i s c u s s e s " i n t e l l e c t u a l b l o c k s " which " r e s u l t i n an i n e f f i c i e n t c h o i c e o f m e n t a l t a c t i c s o r a s h o r t a g e o f 54 i n t e l l e c t u a l a m m unition". A " b l o c k " may i n v o l v e " s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m u s i n g an i n c o r r e c t l a n g u a g e ( v e r b a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l v i s u a l ) - as i n t r y i n g t o s o l v e a p r o b l e m m a t h e m a t i c a l l y when 55 i t can more e a s i l y be a c c o m p l i s h e d v i s u a l l y " . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f a " l a n g u a g e " i s u s u a l l y made u n c o n s c i o u s l y and t h a t "most p e o p l e f o l l o w (a) h a b i t p a t t e r n i n p r o b l e m -56 s o l v i n g " . However, " i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a i d t h i s s t r a t e g y s e l e c t i o n by c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e s o f 57 t h o u g h t . " He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e " c h o i c e o f t h e p r o p e r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g l a n g u a g e i s d i f f i c u l t not o n l y b e c a u s e t h e c h o i c e i s u s u a l l y made u n c o n s c i o u s l y , but a l s o b e c a u s e o f t h e heavy emphasis on v e r b a l t h i n k i n g ( w i t h m a t h e m a t i c a l t h i n k i n g a poor s e c o n d ) i n our c u l t u r e " . 5 8 To h e l p i n making t h e s e c h o i c e s , Adams' t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h i n k i n g a r e o f use. H i s " t h r e e d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f t h i n k i n g " a r e " a n a l y s i s , judgement, and s y n t h e s i s .... In a n a l y s i s , t h e r e i s u s u a l l y a r i g h t answer....Judgement i s gen-e r a l l y used i n a p r o b l e m where t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l answers and one must be c h o s e n . . . . S y n t h e s i s i s even more o f a m u l t i - a n s w e r s i t u a t i o n . . . . a n d t h e r e a r e few r i g o r o u s t e c h n i q u e s t o h e l p i n d e c i d i n g between them."59 Most complex s i t u a t i o n s c o u l d be s a i d t o r e q u i r e s y n t h e s i s . O p p o r t u n i t i e s t o come up w i t h one r i g h t answer which e v e r y o n e w i l l r e c o g n i z e a r e r a r e . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l t e r n a t i v e s may u l t i m a t e l y r e q u i r e judgement and choice-, but t h i s s h o u l d f o l l o w a s y n t h e t i c phase which p r o d u c e s many i d e a s u s i n g a l l t h e p o s s i b l y a p p r o p r i a t e c o g n i t i v e l a n g u a g e s . 76 Adams' b e l i e f t h a t p e o p l e ' s t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s a r e o v e r l y d o m i n a t e d by t h e v e r b a l t h i n k i n g mode i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l t o t h e work o f M a r s h a l l McLuhan. McLuhan c o n t r a s t s modern man w i t h p e o p l e who have not been b r o u g h t up i n a l i t e r a t e s o c i e t y . He b e l i e v e s t h a t " l i t e r a c y c r e a t e s v e r y much s i m p l e r k i n d s o f p e o p l e t h a n t h o s e t h a t d e v e l o p i n t h e complex web o f o r d i n a r y 60 t r i b a l and o r a l s o c i e t i e s " . T h i s s i m p l i c i t y i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e l i n e a r n a t u r e o f v e r b a l c u l t u r e : " t h e w r i t t e n word s p e l l s o u t i n s e q u e n c e what i s q u i c k and i m p l i c i t i n t h e spoken word". The " G u t e n b e r g t e c h n o l o g y " has l e d t o "an age o f f r a g m e n t e d , l i n e a l a w a r e n e s s " . ^ 2 F u r t h e r m o r e , a " h a b i t o f s p e c i a l i s m . . . . q u i t e n a t u r a l l y d e r i v e s f r o m t y p o g r a p h i c c u l t u r e " . ^ T h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e s c i e n c e s who have "been, f r o m t h e i r o r i g i n s , u t t e r l y h a n d i c a p p e d by t h e 64 l a c k o f a d e q u a t e n o n v e r b a l means o f t r a n s m i t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n " . T h i s d o m i n a t i o n by t h e w r i t t e n word i s e n d i n g , a c c o r d -i n g t o McLuhan. "The s t e p f r o m t h e age o f T y p o g r a p h i c Man t o t h e age o f G r a p h i c Man was t a k e n w i t h t h e i n v e n t i o n o f 65 p h o t o g r a p h y " . The r e c e n t m edia p r o v i d e a new f r e e d o m from l i n e a r t h i n k i n g . "The i n s t a n t speed o f e l e c t r i c i t y , " 6 6 which 6 T he c o n s i d e r s t h e b a s i s o f " t h e e l e c t r i c age", now p e r m i t s " t h e i n s t a n t v i s i o n o f a complex p r o c e s s t h a t o r d i n a r i l y e x t e n d s 6 8 o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d " . "The mode o f s i m u l t a n e o u s a wareness o f a complex group o f c a u s e s and e f f e c t s . . . . i n an age o f . . . l i n e a l 69 a w a r e n e s s . . . . r e m a i n s q u i t e opaque". The a b i l i t y t o t h i n k a b o u t complex s i t u a t i o n s i s d i f f i c u l t i n a v e r b a l medium. I f McLuhan's arguments seem p e r s u a s i v e , t h e n p r o b l e m s o l v e r s 77 s h o u l d t r y t o work i n m edia s u i t e d t o t h e t a s k . The c o n -s e q u e n c e s o f t h e v e r b a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f our s o c i e t y a r e deep. "The e f f e c t s o f t e c h n o l o g y do not o c c u r a t t h e l e v e l o f o p i n i n s o r c o n c e p t s , but a l t e r s e n s e r a t i o s o r p a t t e r n s o f p e r c e p t i o n s t e a d i l y . A n i m b a i a n c e d dependence on t h e w r i t t e n word f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s , t h e r e f o r e , not o n l y l i m i t s i d e a s , i t l i m i t s t h e image o f t h e w o r l d i n i t s t r u e c o m p l e x i t y . I f " a l l m e d i a a r e a c t i v e m e t a p h o r s i n t h e i r power t o t r a n s l a t e ex-p e r i e n c e i n t o new forms'',^"'" t h e n v a r i o u s m edia s h o u l d be used f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o make more o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e w o r l d a v a i l a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t t h e o r i s t on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v i s u a l image i s E.H. G o m b r i c h . He i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e g r e e s t o w h i c h v i s u a l images a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . He d e a l s w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n s o f v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h o s e o f g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n s . He a s s e r t s t h a t " t h e v i s u a l image i s supreme i n i t s c a p a c i t y f o r a r o u s a l , t h a t i t s use f o r e x p r e s s i v e p u r p o s e s i s p r o b l e m a t i c , and t h a t u n a i d e d i t a l t o g e t h e r l a c k s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a t c h i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t f u n c t i o n o f l a n g u a g e " . 7 2 73 In o t h e r words, " s t a t e m e n t s c a n n o t be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o i m a g e s . " T h i s c o n t e n t i o n f i t s w e l l w i t h Adams' view t h a t c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e l a n g u a g e s a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s p e c i f i c t a s k s t h a n o t h e r s . F o r G o m b r i c h , " t h e r e a l v a l u e o f t h e i m a g e . . . . i s i t s c a p a c i t y 74 t o c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c a n n o t be coded i n any o t h e r way". r He d e s c r i b e s a " r a n g e " o f " i n f o r m a t i o n v a l u e " f o r " i m a g e s " based on " t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p r o t o t y p e t h a t 75 t h e y uncode". F i r s t , "where the i n f o r m a t i o n i s v i r t u a l l y 78 c o m p l e t e we speak o f a f a c s i m i l e o r r e p l i c a . " 7 6 A r e p l i c a "would not be c l a s s e d as an image i f i t s h a r e d w i t h i t s p r o t o -t y p e a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " 7 7 t h e r e f o r e "however f a i t h f u l an image....may be, t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n w i l l a l w a y s r e v e a l 78 t h e maker's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f what he c o n s i d e r s r e l e v a n t . " T h i s c o n t e n t i o n would i m p l y t h a t even r e a l i s t i c images a r e m o d i f i e d by t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s ' o b j e c t i v e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f the image i./aker must a l -79 ways be matched by t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e v i e w e r . " T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t a knowledge o f t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e i s e s s e n t i a l t o e f f e c t i v e g r a p h i c s . He c a l l s " t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n we make t o any r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s f r o m t h e s t o c k o f images i n our mind" t h e 80 " b e h o l d e r ' s s h a r e " . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e p l a y s a major r o l e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g g r a p h i c images. F o r example, i t has been d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t " i n t e r p r e t i n g p h o t o g r a p h s i s an i m p o r t a n t 81 s k i l l t h a t must be l e a r n e d . " S e c o n d , he i d e n t i f i e s images 82 w i t h " s e l e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " . Such images i n v o l v e "a c o d e " which " e n a b l e s t h e maker o f t h e image t o f i l t e r o u t c e r t a i n k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and t o uncode o n l y t h o s e f e a t u r e s 83 t h a t a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e r e c i p i e n t . " And " a s e l e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t i n d i c a t e s i t s own p r i n c i p l e s o f s e l e c t i o n 84 w i l l be more i n f o r m a t i v e t h a n t h e r e p l i c a . " The n e x t c a t e g o r y 8 5 i n h i s range i s " d i a g r a m m a t i c mapping." The i m p o r t a n t " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e map i s t h e a d d i t i o n o f a key t o t h e 8 6 s t a n d a r d i z e d c o d e . " Then, " i t i s o n l y a s m a l l s t e p f r o m th e a b s t r a c t i o n o f t h e map t o a c h a r t o r d i a g r a m showing r e l a t i o n s 87 t h a t a r e o r i g i n a l l y not v i s u a l but t e m p o r a l o r l o g i c a l . " F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s "a l a r g e group o f g r a p h i c symbols t h a t o c c u p y 79 V 8 8 t h e zone between t h e v i s u a l image and t h e w r i t t e n s i g n . " N a t u r a l l y , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l c o n t e n t o f symbols must be l e a r n e d and a g r e e d on. In t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f g r a p h i c s , i t would be w e l l t o c h o o s e the medium and s t y l e o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h G o m b r i c h ' s range i n mind, e s p e c i a l l y i f he i s c o r r e c t i n s a y i n g t h a t c o n d e n s a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n i n images have the a b i l i t y t o a r r e s t p e o p l e ' s a t t e n t i o n , c o n v e y a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a r o u s e t h e i r i n t e r e s t . P e r h a p s t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s i n G o m b r i c h ' s t h e o r y d e a l w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between images and words. B a s i c a l l y he f i n d s t h a t " j o i n t l y t h e m edia o f word and image 90 i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a c o r r e c t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n " . " T h i s m u t u a l s u p p o r t o f l a n g u a g e and image" has an e x p e r i m e n t a l 91 b a s i s . He, t h e r e f o r e , b e l i e v e s t h a t " t h e use o f two i n -92 d e p e n d e n t c h a n n e l s . . . . g u a r a n t e e s t h e ease o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n " . W i t h o u t t h e s u p p o r t o f words, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f an image r e l i e s h e a v i l y on t h e c o n t e x t . However, i t must be remembered t h a t " i n s u c h u s a g e s c o n t e x t must be s u p p o r t e d by p r i o r e x p e c t a t i o n s 93 b ased on t r a d i t i o n " . Even i f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e i n -t e n d e d a u d i e n c e a r e r e s p e c t e d by t h e maker o f t h e image, "The i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t e d f r o m an image can be q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t 94 o f t h e i n t e n t i o n o f i t s maker." T h i s depends on t h e needs and p u r p o s e s o f t h e v i e w e r . G o m b r i c h ' s i d e a s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n v a l u e o f images a r e s u p p o r t e d by c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h . The i m p l i c a t i o n s 80 f o r g r a p h i c s a r e s e v e r a l . F o r one, g r a p h i c s s h o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t e x t whenever p o s s i b l e . Images s h o u l d be r e i n f o r c e d by words when p o s s i b l e . I t , t h e r e f o r e , would seem l o g i c a l t h a t t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e x t and t h a t t h e a u t h o r o f t h e t h e t e x t s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e s u p p o r t o f f e r e d by t h e image. A l s o , t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t must t r y t o p r e p a r e images a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f s e l e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o a c h i e v e maximum impact and i n t e r e s t a r o u s a l . T h i s s e l e c t i v i t y r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n c e i v i n g t h e g r a p h i c image be aware o f two f a c t o r s . One f a c t o r i s t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e g r a p h i c which r e p r e s e n t t h e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e f i l t e r i n g o u t o f e x t r a n e o u s f e a t u r e s . The o t h e r f a c t o r i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e f o r t h e g r a p h i c s which d i c t a t e s t h e d e g r e e o f s y m b o l i s m and c o d i n g which can be u t i l i z e d . In summary, t h e t h e o r i s t s m e n t i o n e d a g r e e on a number o f p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l u e o f g r a p h i c " l a n g u a g e " . F o r one, B o u l d i n g d i s c u s s e d t h e r o l e o f g r a p h i c s y m b o l i s m i n a i d i n g p e o p l e t o t h i n k a b o u t complex i d e a s . G e r b n e r and Adams a l s o s t r e s s t h i s n o t i o n t h a t g r a p h i c messages a r e needed t o communi T c a t e c o m p l e x i t y . McLuhan f e e l s t h a t t h e l i n e a r t h i n k i n g which was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e " T y p o g r a p h i c " man c r e a t e d by t h e p r i n t i n g p r e s s has f r u s t r a t e d t h e a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h s i m u l t a n e o u s and complex i d e a s and t h a t t h e new m e d i a which has p r o d u c e d " G r a p h i c " man now p e r m i t s c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f c o m p l e x i t y . 81 A n o t h e r major t o p i c i s t h e r o l e p l a y e d by v i s u a l images i n t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s . B o u l d i n g s t r e s s e s t h a t a l l knowledge i s c o m p r i s e d o f images which a r e c o n s t a n t l y s u b j e c t t o m o d i f i c a t i o n by p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e . The images which p e o p l e s h a r e c r e a t e t h e p u b l i c image. The p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s a m u t u a l e f f o r t t o a l t e r t h e p u b l i c image t o be c l o s e r t o i n d i v i d u a l images. G e r b n e r a l s o d i s c u s s e s v i s u a l images as messages w h i c h a r e e x changed t o promote a common p e r s p e c t i v e . A r n h e i m t a k e s p e r h a p s t h e most extreme s t a n d on t h e r o l e o f v i s u a l images i n t h i n k i n g . He b e l i e v e s t h a t a l l p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g i s based on p e r c e p t i o n and t h a t v i s u a l images a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g . Adams i s more m o d e r a t e . He c l a i m s t h a t v i s u a l t h i n k -i n g i s one o f s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t c o g n i t i v e l a n g u a g e s w h i c h s e r v e as p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , v i s u a l t h i n k i n g i s t h e key t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s . Those who seek t o be p r o b l e m - s o l v e r s s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f a p p l y i n g v i s u a l images i n t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n can be m a i n t a i n e d whether one a g r e e s w i t h A r n h e i m o r B o u l d i n g on t h e p r i m a c y o f t h e v i s u a l image o r w i t h Adams on t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f v i s u a l images t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n s . T h i r d l y , a number o f t h e s e t h e o r i s t s e m p h a s i z e t h a t p a s t e x p e r i e n c e a f f e c t s v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . In t h e c a s e o f B o u l d i n g , p e o p l e ' s images o f t h e w o r l d a r e d e r i v e d f r o m p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e i r s h a r e d p u b l i c image i s r e c o r d e d i n s y m b o l i c f o r m by s o c i e t y ' s " t r a n s c r i p t " . The v a l u e o f g r a p h i c messages 82 i s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o change images e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e p a s t and, t h e r e f o r e , change b e h a v i o u r i n t h e p r e s e n t . Gombrich d i s c u s s e s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r m s o f i t s e f f e c t on t h e a b i l i t y t o u n d e r -s t a n d g r a p h i c images, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e which i n v o l v e " s e l e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " . A r n h e i m and Adams both s t r e s s t h a t , t o use v i s u a l images t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s s u c c e s s f u l l y , one needs t o have p a s t e x p e r i e n c e t h i n k i n g i n a v i s u a l mode. They ^agree t h a t t h i s v i s u a l a c u i t y needed f o r v i s u a l t h i n k i n g can be t a u g h t . The c o n v e r s e i s a l s o t r u e : i t can be n e g l e c t e d . The i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e s e v e r a l . P r o b l e m s o l v e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d i n t h e use o f images. They s h o u l d a l s o u n d e r s t a n d p u b l i c images, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e s h a r e d by t h e i r i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l p e r m i t them t o use g r a p h i c s a t e f f e c t i v e l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t e n t . I t may a l s o h e l p them t o a n a l y z e g r a p h i c messages t o see more o f t h e i m p a c t s t h e y have on t h e i r v i e w e r s , as G e r n b e r s u g g e s t s . F i n a l l y , s e v e r a l o f t h e t h e o r i s t s have f o r m u l a t e d c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h t h e y f i n d u s e f u l i n d i s c u s s i n g g r a p h i c images. A r n h e i m s p e a k s o f p i c t u r e s , s y m b o l s , and s i g n s as t h r e e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h an image can s e r v e d e p e n d i n g on t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t . A " p i c t u r e " p o r t r a y s t h i n g s a t a low l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . T h i s c o n c e p t i s s i m i l a r t o G o m b r i c h ' s " r e p l i c a " and t o McKim's " p e r c e p t u a l i m a g e r y " . A " s y m b o l " p o r t r a y s t h i n g s a t a h i g h l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . Gombrich u s e s t h e term " s e l e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " f o r g r a p h i c images t h a t employ a b s t r a c t i o n t o make t h e i r p o i n t more e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . Adams d e s c r i b e s " m e n t a l i m a g e r y " as b e i n g u s e f u l f o r p r o b l e m -83 s o l v i n g i n t h a t i t f o c u s e s s e l e c t i v e l y on t h e r e l e v a n t f e a t u r e s o f a l e s s a b s t r a c t , p e r c e p t u a l image. B o u l d i n g a l s o t a l k s a t l e n g t h a b o u t t h e " s y m b o l i c " f u n c t i o n o f some images which p e r m i t them t o summarize and c o n d e n s e complex i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a manageable f o r m . F o r A r n h e i m , a " s i g n " r e f e r s t o an i d e a w i t h -o u t p o r t r a y i n g i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t must be a g r e e d on by t h e image maker and t h e e x p e c t e d a u d i e n c e . Gombrich a l s o e m p h a s i z e s t h e r o l e o f p a s t t r a i n i n g i n p e r m i t t i n g c e r t a i n o f what he t e r m s " g r a p h i c s y m b o l s " t o s e r v e t h e i r f u n c t i o n "between the 9 5 v i s u a l image and t h e w r i t t e n s i g n " . W h i l e t h e c h o i c e o f t e r m i n o l o g y can be c o n s i d e r e d a m a t t e r o f p r e f e r e n c e , t h e u n d e r -l y i n g c o n c e p t o f g r a p h i c images and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d by. t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f g r a p h i c s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e c h o i c e among v a r i o u s g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s p e c i f i c g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s . These may be c o n s i d e r e d t h e "grammar" f o r t h e l a n g u a g e o f v i s u a l t h i n k i n g w h i c h has been d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The t e c h n i q u e s d i s c u s s e d c o v e r t h o s e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s as w e l l as a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y o f a more t h e o r e t i c a l n a t u r e . 84 CHAPTER 3 - FOOTNOTES 1 Kenneth E. B o u l d i n g . The Image. U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s . Ann A r b o r , 1956. p. 5. 2 I b i d . P. 6. 3 I b i d . "P. 6. 4 I b i d . P. 6. 5 I b i d . P- 5. 6 I b i d . P. 14. 7 I b i d . P- 14. 8 I b i d . P- 64. 9 I b i d . P. 64. 10 I b i d . P. 102. 11 I b i d . P- 102 - 103. 12 I b i d . P- 64. 13 I b i d . P- 65. 14 I b i d . P. 65. 15 I b i d . P. 65. 16 I b i d . P. 67. 17 I b i d . P- 110. 18 I b i d . P. 111. 19 I b i d . P. 163. 20 George G e r b n e r . "Communication and S o c i a l E n v i r o n m e n t " . S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n . V o l . 227. S e p t . 1972. p. 153. 21 I b i d . p. 154. 22 I b i d . p. 153 - 154. 23 I b i d . p. 158. 24 I b i d . p. 158. 25 I b i d . p. 158. 26 I b i d . p. 158. 27 R u d o l f A r n h e i m . V i s u a l T h i n k i n g . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . B e r k e l e y , 1969. p. 296. 28 I b i d . p. 296. 29 I b i d . p. 296. 30 I b i d . p. 37. 31 I b i d . p. 37. 32 I b i d . p. 313. 33 I b i d . p. 315. 34 I b i d . p. 315. 35 R u d o l f A r n h e i m . Toward a P s y c h o l o g y o f A r t . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . B e r k e l e y , 1966. p. 16. 36 A r n h e i m . V i s u a l T h i n k i n g . op., c i t . p. 84. 37 I b i d . p. 135. 38 I b i d . p. 136. 39 I b i d . p. 136. 40 I b i d . p. 137. 41 I b i d . p. 137. 42 I b i d . p. 138. 43 I b i d . p. 138. 44 I b i d . p. 105. 45 James L. Adams. C o n c e p t u a l B l o c k b u s t i n g : A G u i d e t o B e t t e r  I d e a s . W.H. Freeman and Co. San F r a n c i s c o , 1974. p. 98. 46 I b i d . p. 98. 47 I b i d . p. 99. 48 I b i d . p. 99i 49 I b i d . p. 101. 50 I b i d . p. 102. 51 I b i d . p. 102. 86 52 I b i d . p. 103. 53 I b i d . p. 105. 54 I b i d . p. 63. 55 I b i d . p. 63. 56 I b i d . p. 64. 57 I b i d . p. 64. 58 . I b i d . p. 65. 59 I b i d . p. 56. 60 M a r s h a l l McLuhan. U n d e r s t a n d i n g M e d i a : The E x t e n s i o n s o f  Man. S i g n e t Books. T o r o n t o , 1966. p. 59. 61 I b i d . p. 82. 62 McLuhan. The G u t e n b e r g G a l a x y . Mentor Books. New Y o r k , 1969. p. 315. 63 McLuhan. U n d e r s t a n d M e d i a : The E x t e n s i o n s o f Man, op. c i t . p. 163. 64 I b i d . p. 173. 65 I b i d . p. 171. 66 I b i d . p. 39. 67 I b i d . p. 38. 68 I b i d . p. 38. 69 McLuhan. The G u t e n b e r g G a l a x y . op. c i t . p. 315. 70 McLuhan. U n d e r s t a n d i n g M e d i a : The E x t e n s i o n s o f Man, op. c i t . p. 33. 71 I b i d . p. 64. £2 E.H. G o m b r i c h . "The V i s u a l Image" S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n . V o l . 227, S e p t . 1972. p. 82. 73 I b i d . p. 82. 74 I b i d . p. 87. 75 I b i d . p. 88. 76 I b i d . p. 88. 77 I b i d . p. 88. 78 I b i d 79 I b i d 80 I b i d 81 I b i d 82 I b i d 83 I b i d 84 I b i d 85 I b i d 86 I b i d 87 I b i d 88 I b i d 89 I b i d 90 I b i d 91 I b i d 92 I b i d 93 I b i d 94 I b i d 95 I b i d p. 88 p. 88 p. 89 p. 89 p. 91 p. -i91 p. 91 p. 91 p. 91 p. 91 p. 92 p. 94 p. 86 p. 86 p. 86 p. 87 p. 87 p. 92 88 CHAPTER 4: THE GRAMMAR OF VISUAL LANGUAGE I f t h e t h e o r i e s o f v i s u a l " l a n g u a g e " p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r a r e c o n v i n c i n g , t h e n i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o s e ek t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h a t " l a n g u a g e " or i t s grammar. As S . I . Hayakawa e x p r e s s e s i t : "The l a n g u a g e o f v i s i o n d e t e r m i n e s , p e r h a p s even more s u b t l y and t h o r o u g h l y t h a n v e r b a l l a n g u a g e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o u r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . To see i n l i m i t e d modes o f v i s i o n i s not t o a t a l l - t o be bounded by the n a r r o w e s t p a r o c h i a l i s m s o f f e e l i n g . " 1 He commends Gy o r g y Kepes f o r " h i s a t t e m p t a t v i s u a l r e - e d u c a t i o n . . . . t o compel us t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e ' r e f r a c t i o n o f our i n h e r i t e d modes o f v i s i o n . . . . b y showing us 2 what goes i n t o v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . " He d e s c r i b e s t h i s as " t h e 'grammar' and t h e ' s y n t a x ' o f v i s i o n : what i n t e r p l a y s o f what f o r c e s i n t h e human n e r v o u s s y s t e m , and i n t h e w o r l d o u t s i d e , i t p r o d u c e s , what v i s u a l t e n s i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s o f t e n s i o n s ; what c o n f i r m a t i o n s o f v i s u a l e l e m e n t s r e s u l t i n what new o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e e l i n g ; what ' v i s u a l s t a t e m e n t s ' a p a r t f r o m ' l i t e r a r y ' o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c o n t e n t , can be made w i t h l i n e , c o l o u r , f o r m , t e x t u r e , and a r r a n g e m e n t . " 3 F o r p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f Hayakawa's s t a t e m e n t i s t h a t , g i v e n t h e "grammar" o f v i s u a l l a n g u a g e o f w hich he w r i t e s , a g r a p h i c d e s i g n communicates on many l e v e l s , n ot o n l y on t h e r a t i o n a l , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l e v e l . An u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e v i s u a l grammar, a s p e c t s o f w h i c h w i l l be d i s -c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , would t h e n p e r m i t g r a p h i c a r t i s t s w o r k i n g f o r p l a n n e r s t o p r e p a r e t h e i r p r o d u c t s t o have a more e f f e c t i v e i m p a c t . 89 N a t u r a l l y , the c o n t e n t i o n that graphics can communicate on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s at the same time r a i s e s questions about the e t h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of manipulating the components of a graphic image to o b t a i n a d e s i r e d e f f e c t . These questions have been at the core of the c r i t i c i s m s of a d v e r t i s i n g techniques f o r a long time. John Cataldo, w r i t i n g on t h i s s u b j e c t , claims t h a t : "Since a l l - communication - v e r b a l and nonverbal -has the c a p a c i t y to manipulate, persuade, t r a n s -form,- and educate the p u b l i c , i t f o l l o w s that graphic design i s a s o c i a l a r t and by t h i s d e f i n i t i o n must assume the moral and e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of p u b l i c s e r v i c e . " 4 Graphic d e s i g n e r s working f o r planning purposes should i d e a l l y understand and support the planning o b j e c t i v e s they are working to communicate. They would, t h e r e f o r e , avoid one of the e t h i c a l dilemmas of the graphics p r o f e s s i o n a l , that "graphic d e s i g n e r s . . . . are o f t e n f o r c e d i n t o the p o s i t i o n of p r e p a r i n g an elegant graphic mode f o r an a d v e r t i s e r ' s product which they know to be of comparatively low merit."5 Cataldo b e l i e v e s that "graphic d e s i g n e r s too o f t e n f a i l to recognize c e r t a i n a f f e c t i v e needs of human p e r s o n a l i t y -f o r example, the r o l e that p r i v a t e o p i n i o n , p e r c e p t u a l experience, and emotion play in the p u b l i c ' s r e a c t i o n to communication e f f o r t s . " 6 In h i s experience with the teaching of g r a p h i c s , he f i n d s t h a t , i n general, design students "are u s u a l l y w e l l q u a l i f i e d to d e a l with p r o f e s s i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c demands of v i s u a l communication, yet are unaware of or have chosen to ignore research in the s o c i a l and p e r c e p t u a l s c i e n c e s as i t a f f e c t s b e h a v i o u r a l r e s p o n s e . " 7 90 Both C a t a l d o and Kepes d i s c u s s t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n t h e a r e a o f p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g y i n t e r m s o f t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i m p a c t s o f g r a p h i c works. The G e s t a l t t h e o r i s t s s t u d i e d v i s u a l images as i n t e g r a t e d , f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s w h i c h c o u l d not be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r c o m p o s i t e p a r t s . A number o f t h e s e G e s t a l t t h e o r i e s seem p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o g r a p h i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n : f i g u r e / g r o u n d , s i m i l a r i t y , p r o x i m i t y , c o n t i n u a t i o n , c l o s u r e , e q u i l i b r i u m and rhythm. The c o n c e p t o f f i g u r e / g r o u n d i s u n d o u b t e d l y th e b e s t known G e s t a l t p r i n c i p l e . As A r n h e i m e x p l a i n s i t : " A l l c o n t o u r s s e p a r a t e two a d j o i n i n g a r e a s . In most c a s e s , one o f t h e a r e a s s e i z e s t h e c o n t o u r w h i l e t h e o t h e r , c o n t o u r l e s s a r e a i s seen as e x t e n d i n g u n d e r n e a t h t h e f i r s t . T h i s s p l i t s - t h e whole p a t t e r n i n t o two s p a t i a l p l a n e s , t h e f i r s t a r e a o c c u p y i n g t h e n e a r e r p l a n e and becom-i n g t h e ' f i g u r e ' , t h e s e c o n d o c c u p y i n g t h e f a r t h e r p l a n e s and becoming 'ground'.8 S p e c i f i c a l l y , " i n a f i g u r e - g r o u n d s i t u a t i o n . . . . t h e b r i g h t e r component t e n d s t o a d vance and become t h e f i g u r e , and 9 t h e one p l a c e d a t t h e bottom t e n d s t o do t h e same." As C a t a l d o p u t s i t : "The c o n t r a s t o r o p p o s i t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e f i g u r e - g r o u n d phenomenon i s f u n d a m e n t a l t o a l l v i s u a l j e x p e r i e n c e . . . . T o s e l e c t and p e r c e i v e o b j e c t s w i t h o u t d i s t o r t i o n i s a c r e a t i v e operation.""''^ In s p i t e o f t h e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f t h e f i g u r e / g r o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p , v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done on t h i s phenomenon s i n c e i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n . A r n h e i m c o n c l u d e s t h a t " t h e r e i s no r e a s o n why t h e t h e o r y o f f i g u r e and ground s h o u l d s t i l l be i n t h e s t a t e i n which Edgar R u b i n l e f t i t i n 1 9 1 5 . " 1 1 FIGURE/GROUND ( I ) " N e g a t i v e as w e l l as p o s i t i v e s p a c e can be d y n a m i c . " A l a n F l e t h e r , C o l i n F o r b e r , and Bob G i l l . G r a p h i c D e s i g n :  V i s u a l e o m p a r i s o n s . S t u d i o Books. London, 1963. p. 88. 92 F i g u r e / G r o u n d ( I I ) - G r a p h i c a r t i s t s can m a n i p u l a t e p e r c e p t u a l p r i n c i p l e s s u c h as f i g u r e / g r o u n d t o a c h i e v e humorous e f f e c t s . The New Y o r k e r . J une 2, 1975. p.36. F i g u r e / G r o u n d ( I I I ) M. C. E s h e r used ambiguous f i g u r e and ground r e l a t i o n s h i p s as t h e b a s i s o f many o f h i s g r a p h i c d e s i g n s . 94 The Law o f S i m i l a r i t y i n p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s 12 t h e t e n d e n c y o f l i k e p a r t s t o band t o g e t h e r . I t i s termed a "law" s i n c e t h e G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g i s t s f o u n d t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e was v a l i d and c o n s i s t e n t i n a l l c a s e s . " V i s u a l u n i t s w h i c h r e -semble each o t h e r i n s h a p e , s i z e , c o l o u r , and d i r e c t i o n w i l l 13 be seen t o g e t h e r as a homogeneous g r o u p i n g . " T h i s u n i f y i n g p r o p e r t y o f r e p e a t e d forms and hues makes " S i m i l a r i t y . . . . one 14 way by w h i c h g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y can be r e a c h e d " i n g r a p h i c s . The Laws o f S i m i l a r i t y and P r o x i m i t y a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , so much so t h a t when t h e G e s t a l t t h e o r i s t s f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t h e s e c o n c e p t s t h e y " f o r m u l a t e d . . . . a s i m i l a r i t y -. 15 p r o x i m i t y law". T h e r e f o r e , i t seems e x p e d i e n t t o d i s c u s s them t o g e t h e r . The Law o f P r o x i m i t y s t a t e s t h a t " p e r c e p t u a l 1 6 g r o u p i n g s a r e f a v o u r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n e a r n e s s o f p a r t s . " Or, put i n more dynamic terms by K o f f k a , a n o t e d G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g i s t , "two s i m i l a r o b j e c t s i n our f i e l d o f v i s i o n w i l l a t t r a c t each o t h e r w i t h a f o r c e d e c r e a s i n g w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e m . " 1 7 Hence, t h e Law o f P r o x i m i t y i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n c e p t o f s i m i l a r i t y , s i n c e "when two h e t e r o g e n e o u s p a r t s f o r m a group b e c a u s e o f p r o x i m i t y , t h e r e must be some a s -p e c t i n w h i c h t h e y a r e e q u a l and t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r . " 1 8 The " r o l e " o f p r o x i m i t y i n g r a p h i c s i s "as a . u n i f y i n g 19 f a c t o r . " "In v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n what i s c l o s e s t t o g e t h e r t e n d s 20 t o u n i t e . " A c c o r d i n g t o Kepes, " t h e p r o x i m i t y o f o p t i c a l u n i t s i s t h e s i m p l e s t c o n d i t i o n f o r a c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f u n i f i e d v i s u a l 'wholes'. We a r t i c u l a t e a p a i n t i n g , a t y p o g r a p h i c a l d e s i g n 95 f i r s t o f a l l by t h e law o f p r o x i m i t y . O p t i c a l u n i t s c l o s e t o each o t h e r on a p i c t u r e p l a n e t e n d t o be seen t o g e t h e r and, 21 c o n s e q u e n t l y , one can s t a b i l i z e them ,in c o h e r e n t f i g u r e s . " G r oups u n i f i e d by t h e Law o f S i m i l a r i t y a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be more homogeneous t h a n g r o u p s i n t e r r e l a t e d t h r o u g h 22 p r o x i m i t y . K o f f k a s u g g e s t s t h a t s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e v i s u a l f i e l d i s e s s e n t i a l t o any p e r c e p t i o n o f p r o x i m i t y . He f u r t h e r f i n d s t h a t " e q u a l i t y o f f o r m ( i s ) a s t r o n g e r f a c t o r 24 o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a n e q u a l i t y e f c o l o u r . " F u r t h e r m o r e , Kepes s t a t e s t h a t " P r o x i m i t y and s i m i l a r i t y , as f a c t o r s i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e , must be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r . F o r u n i t s formed by p r o x i m i t y can be b r o k e n up t h r o u g h t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i r e l e m e n t s w i t h o t h e r e l e m e n t s a t a d i s t a n c e , and u n i t s formed'by s i m i l a r i t y can be b r o k e n up by extreme p r o x i m i t y o f o u t s i d e e l e m e n t s . T h i s c o m p e t i t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p l a s t i c o r g a n i s m , f o r o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n can b r i n g a v i t a l t e n s i o n i n t o t h e p l a s t i c e x p e r i e n c e . " 2 5 Max W e r t h e i m e r f o r m u l a t e d t h e Law o f Good C o n t i n u a t i o n i n 1923. T h i s law s t a t e s b a s i c a l l y t h a t " o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , o c c u r i n s u c h a way t h a t a s t r a i g h t l i n e w i l l c o n t i n u e as a s t r a i g h t l i n e . . . . a n y c u r v e w i l l p r o c e e d i n i t s own n a t u r a l way, a c i r c l e as a c i r c l e , an e l l i p s e as an e l l i p s e , and so f o r t h . " E v e r y l i n e a r u n i t has k i n e t i c i n e r t i a . I t t e n d s t o be c o n t i n u e d i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n and w i t h t h e same movement." 2 7 The t e n d e n c y t o p e r c e i v e l i n e s c o n t i n u i n g i n s p a c e can be used t o s t r u c t u r e complex g r a p h i c images. As Kepes e x p l a i n s : 96 SIMILARITY ( I ) The p r i n c i p l e o f s i m i l a r i t y can be used t o o r g a n i z e a g r a p h i c image c o n t a i n i n g many s e p a r a t e f o r m s . I f some o f t h e f o r m s a r e s i m i l a r enough t o o t h e r f o r m s , t h i s image w i l l be s i m p l i f i e d as t h e y group t o g e t h e r v i s u a l l y . J o h n W. C a t a l d o . G r a p h i c D e s i g n and V i s u a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k Co. S c r a n t o n , Penn., 1966. p. 128. 97 SIMILARITY ( I I ) S i m i l a r f orms a r e p e r c e i v e d as g r o u p s even i f d i f f e r e n t f o r m s i n t e r v e n e . In t h i s c a s e , t h e two g r o u p s o f f o r m s e s -t a b l i s h a v i s u a l t e n s i o n w i t h i n t h e g r a p h i c image. John.W. C a t a l d o . G r a p h i c D e s i g n and V i s u a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n . . I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k Co. S c r a n t o n , Pa., 1966. p. 127. 98 PROXIMITY ( I ) Shapes w h i c h a r e n e a r each o t h e r a r e p e r c e i v e d i n g r o u p s . ( b a s e d on John W. C a t a l d o . G r a p h i c D e s i g n and V i s u a l  C o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k Co. S c r a n t o n , Penn., 1966. p. 125.) 99 PROXIMITY ( I I ) "An i l l u s t r a t i o n t a k e n f r o m K. K o f f k a c an e l u c i d a t e t h e law o f p r o x i m i t y . Two p a r a l l e l l i n e s a r e p e r c e i v e d as one u n i t i f t h e y a r e c l o s e enough t o g e t h e r . B e c a u s e t h e s p a c e between them i s e n c l o s e d , i t a p p e a r s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s p a c e . I f one adds two more p a r a l l e l s o u t s i d e o f t h e f i r s t two, t h e f i g u r e t h a t was made by t h e i n t e r v a l between them l o s e s i t s q u a l i t y as a c o h e r e n t whole, and s e r v e s o n l y as a b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e two new u n i t s . " G yorgy Kepes. Language o f V i s i o n . P a u l t h e o b a l d . C h i c a q o , 1944. p. 46. 100 ——\ s p a t i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n is the v i t a l f a c t o r in an o p t i c a l m e s s a g e sp a t i a l o r g a n i sat ionis t h e v i t a l fa c t o r i n an o p t i c a l m e s s a g e j s p a t i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n is t h e v i t a l fa c t o r i n a n o p t i c a l m e s s a g e 16 PROXIMITY ( I I I ) "We r e a d words as s e g r e g a t e d wholes b e c a u s e t h e i r l e t t e r s a r e c l o s e r t o one a n o t h e r t h a n a r e t h e l a s t and t h e f i r s t o f two words." Gyorgy Kepes. Language o f V i s i o n . P a u l T h e o b a l d . C h i c a g o , 1944. p.46. 101 "Such l i n e a r c o n t i n u a t i o n h e l p s t o f o r m t h e image by c r e a t i n g g r o u p s o f a s i m p l e o r d e r . I t i s a most p o t e n t d e v i c e i n b i n d i n g t o -g e t h e r h e t e r o g e n e o u s e l e m e n t s and t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e p i c t u r e - i m a g e t o t h e number o f u n i t s which can be f u l l y comprehended i n one a t t e n t i v e a c t . " 2 8 The G e s t a l t t h e o r i s t s r e l a t e t h e c o n c e p t o f c o n t i n u -a t i o n t o a r e a s as w e l l as l i n e s . In t h e c a s e o f a r e a s , t h e y 29 30 r e f e r t o "good f i g u r e " o r "good s h a p e " "Good c o n t i n u a t i o n and good shape ( a r e ) p o w e r f u l o r g a n i z i n g f a c t o r s . . . . a l i n e c a r r i e s i t s own law w i t h i n i t s e l f , and so does a shaped a r e a o r volume. V i o l a t i o n s o f t h i s law due t o e x t e r n a l f o r c e s a r e f e l t as v i o l a t i o n s ; t h e y c o n f l i c t w i t h our f e e l i n g o f t h e f i t , h u r t our s e n s e o f b e a u t y . " 3 1 Kepes b e l i e v e s t h a t "The Law o f C o n t i n u a n c e i s a l s o v a l i d f o r t h e g r a d a t i o n o r p r o g r e s s i o n o f hue, v a l u e and chroma. The eye moves a l o n g a d i r e c t i o n o f hue o r v a l u e g r a d a t i o n s i m i l a r t o 32 t h e way i t moves a l o n g a l i n e . " Even " e v e n t s have t h e i r 33 own s h a p e , w h i c h demands a p r o p e r c o n t i n u a t i o n . " The G e s t a l t P s y c h o l o g i s t s , p r i m a r i l y W o l f g a n g K o h l e r and Max W e r t h e i m e r p o s t u l a t e d t h e Law o f C l o s u r e as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t s i n p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e 1920's. They d i s c o v e r e d t h a t " c l o s e d a r e a s seem t o be s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g , 34 s t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s " w h i l e u n c l o s e d ones l a c k o r g a n i z a t i o n . In p e r c e p t i o n , " f r c e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n d r i v i n g toward s p a t i a l o r d e r , toward s t a b i l i t y , t e n d t o shape o p t i c a l u n i t s i n t o c l o s e d compact w h o l e s . C o n f r o n t e d w i t h a com-p l e x o p t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , t h e b e h o l d e r s e a r c h e s f o r t h e f o r m w i t h t h e most s t a b l e u n i t y , o r w i t h t h e l e a s t d i s t u r b e d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e n v i r o n -ment. "35 102 CONTINUATION ( I ) The p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u a t i o n a l l o w s one t o p r e d i c t t h a t anyone would a g r e e t h a t t h e arrow on t h e l e f t i s p o i n t i n g t o t h e c i r c l e . The arrow on t h e r i g h t , however, when c o n -t i n u e d m e n t a l l y , m i s s e s t h e c i r c l e c o m p l e t e l y . V 103 • • # • • j • immm— — ' 1 J CONTINUATION ( I I ) The p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u a t i o n can be used t o d e v e l o p a s e n s e o f movement. I n t h i s example, t h e c h a n g i n g p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c i r c l e s w i t h i n t h e f r a m e s i s viewed as one c i r c l e a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f a c o n t i n u o u s m o t i o n . 104 CONTINUATION ( I I I ) C o n t i n u a t i o n c an be used as an o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e . I f s e v e r a l f o r m s i n a g r a p h i c image i m p l y s i m i l a r c o n t i n u a t i o n s , t h e y a r e p e r c e i v e d as b e l o n g i n g t o g e t h e r . The New Y o r k e r . S e p t . 13, 1976. p. 93. 105 I f t h e a r e a s a r e u n c l o s e d , "a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f i l l i n g - o u t o f t h e i n t e r v a l s between t h e u n i t s o c c u r s , and one c o n s t r u c t s t h e l a t e n t c o n n e c t i o n s . " ^ ^ C l o s u r e , t h e r e f o r e , i s " a p r o p e r t y b e l o n g i n g t o t h e whole and not t o t h e p a r t s " . I t " p r e s u p p o s e s i n t e r a c t i o n be-37 tween t h e p a r t s " . " I f t h e u n i t - i s 'open' o r ' i n c o m p l e t e ' t h e n t h a t p a r t - o f t h e f i e l d w h ich c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e gap w i l l be a s e a t o f v e r y p a r t i c u l a r f o r c e s , f o r c e s w hich w i l l make t h e a r o u s a l o f p r o c e s s e s o f c l o s u r e e a s i e r t h a n t h e a r o u s a l o f any o t h e r s . The c l o s u r e w i l l , o f c o u r s e , be t h a t c l o s u r e w hich i s demanded by t h e r e s t o f t h e f i g u r e , a c l o s u r e o f good 38 39 c o n t i n u a t i o n . " C l o s u r e i s a "dynamic p r o c e s s " w hich r e q u i r e s t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e o b s e r v e r . G e s t a l t T h e o r y e x t r a p o l a t e s f r o m t h i s p e r c e p t u a l Law o f C l o s u r e t o o t h e r t y p e s o f human e x p e r i e n c e . Hence, K o h l e r ,j i s q u o t e d as a s s e r t i n g t h a t "The t e m p o r a l p o s i t i o n o f one e x p e r i e n c e as 'between' two o t h e r s i s f r e q u e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d 40 i n t h e same way t h a t s p a t i a l 'betweenness' i s . " T h i s p r o p e r t y o f c l o s u r e i s b a s i c t o t h e p e r c e i v e d c o n t i n u i t y o f m o t i o n p i c t u r e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e . G e s t a l t i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t " t o a c h i e v e c l o s u r e i n e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as p e r -41 c e p t i o n i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y r e w a r d i n g . " The f a c t o r o f e q u i l i b r i u m i n a v i s u a l f i e l d was f o r m u l a t e d i n t o a G e s t a l t p r i n c i p l e by W e r t h e i m e r who c a l l e d 42 i t t h e Law o f P r a g n a n z . The German t e r m "pr'agnanz" i s f r e q u e n t l y r e t a i n e d i n t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f G e s t a l t 106 CLOSURE ( I ) " C l o s u r e i m p l i e s a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y t o c l o s e gaps i n what i s p e r c e i v e d as an i n c o m p l e t e c o n f i g u r a t i o n . " J o h n W. C a t a l d o . G r a p h i c D e s i g n and V i s u a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k Co. S c r a n t o n , Penn. 1966. p.120. 107 CLOSURE ( I I ) "A g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e o f t h e e l e m e n t s on ( a u n i f o r m ) s u r f a c e shows c l e a r l y t h a t . . . . a s p a t i a l u n i t y can be m a i n t a i n e d . " G y o r g y Kepes. Language o f V i s i o n . P a u l T h e o b a l d . C h i c a g o , 1944. p. 51. 108 CLOSURE ( I I P " P r e d o m i n a n t l y not t h o s e v e r t i c a l l i n e s w h i c h a r e i n c l o s e r p r o x i m i t y f o r m t h e g r o u p s but t h o s e w h i c h e n c l o s e s p a c e , a l t h o u g h . . . . t h e i r d i s t a n c e i s t h r e e t i m e s as g r e a t , as t h a t o f t h e n e a r e r o n e s , t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e ends o f t h e s h o r t o b l i q u e l i n e s b e i n g e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e n e a r e r v e r t i c a l ones.' K u r t K o f f k a . P r i n c i p l e s o f G e s t a l t P s y c h o l o g y . H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , I n c . New Y o r k , 1963. p. 168. 109 CLOSURE (IV) An a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r B e l l T e l e p h o n e u t i l i z e s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c l o s u r e . The New Y o r k e r . June 9, 1975. p. 69. 4 110 t e x t s s i n c e i t s meaning i s f e l t t o i n c l u d e t h e c o n c e p t s o f "goodness o f f o r m " and " s i m p l i c i t y " as w e l l as o f " e q u i l i b r i u m " . The Law o f P r a g n a n z , b r i e f l y f o r m u l a t e d , i s t h a t " p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l a l w a y s be as 'good' as 43 t h e p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w . " The G e s t a l t t h e o r i s t s d e v e l o p e d t h e i r c o n c e p t o f p r a g n a n z f r o m t h e i r a w a reness o f c e r t a i n d i s c o v e r i e s w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c s . T h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r y p h y s i c i s t s " e m p h a s i z e d " 44 t h a t " p h y s i c a l s y s t e m s . . . . p r o g r e s s toward s t a t i o n a r y s t a t e s . " The G e s t a l t i s t s f o u n d many examples i n p h y s i c s o f " s p o n t a n e o u s l y 45 a r i s i n g e q u i l i b r i u m s t r u c t u r e s " such as t h e f a c t t h a t a l o o p o f t h r e a d on a f i l m o f soap w i l l i m m e d i a t e l y become a c i r c l e 46 when t h e f i l m i s p r i c k e d i n s i d e t h e l o o p . " A l l p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y - a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g e s t a l t i s t s - can be d e f i n e d as s t r i v i n g f o r b a l a n c e , e.g., t h e d r o p o f w a t e r rounds i t s e l f i n t o a s p h e r e ; t h e s t r e t c h e d f i l m or membrane c o n t r a c t s as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i n t o a. c i r c l e ; t h e a f t e r - i m a g e o f a s h a r p s q u a r e g r a d u a l l y becomes rounded i n t o a c i r c u l a r shape; m o l t e n m e t a l f o r m s i n t o a b a l l shape."47 Hence, t h e Law o f Pr a g n a n z i s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f v i s u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " a law o f e q u i l i b r i u m l i k e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e maximum o r minimum i n p h y s i c s . . . . When o r g a n i z a t i o n moves toward a minimum, i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d p h e n o m e n a l l y by th e s i m p l i c i t y o f u n i f o r m i t y ; when i t moves toward a maximum, 48 i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f p e r f e c t a r t i c u l a t i o n . " F o r K o f f k a , a f t e r - i m a g e e x p e r i m e n t s a r e examples o f t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f u n i f o r m i t y whereas good c o n t i n u a t i o n i s an example 49 o f p e r f e c t . a r t i c u l a t i o n . Thus H i l g a r d , " s a c r i f i c i n g a g r e a t 111 d e a l o f t h e p r e c i s i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n " s t a t e s t h a t " i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n e i t h e r as much o r as l i t t l e w i l l 50 happen as t h e p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t . " P r o x i m i t y , s i m i l a r i t y , c l o s u r e , and c o n t i n u a t i o n a r e a l l f a c t o r s w h i c h can be m a n i p u l a t e d t o a c h i e v e e q u i l i b r i u m i n t h e o p t i c a l f i e l d . P u r p o s e f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e key t o the a c h i e v e m e n t o f a dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m i n t h e p i c t u r e - p l a n e . As Kepes e x p l a i n s : "A random p l a c i n g o f s p a t i a l f o r c e s , p o i n t , l i n e a r e a , w i l l open t h e p i c t u r e - p l a n e , but b e c a u s e t h e s e f o r c e s a r e so h a p h a z a r d l y a r r a n g e d , t h e y w i l l n ot r e a c h a b a l a n c e d c o n s t e l l a t i o n . . . . The p i c t u r e s u r f a c e i s made h o l l o w ; t h e two-d i m e n s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e i n w h ich t h e s p a t i a l movements can be measured i s m i s s i n g . . . . I f t h e f o r c e s and t h e i r i n d u c e d f i e l d s a r e o f e q u a l o p t i c a l q u a l i t y and s p a t i a l s t r e n g t h , a b a l a n c e w i l l be r e a c h e d , b ut i t w i l l be w i t h o u t t e n s i o n , s t a t i c and l i f e l e s s . I f , however, one knows how t o e s t i m a t e t h e f o r c e s and t h e i r e n e r g y - f i e l d , he w i l l be a b l e t o use such o p p o s i n g f i e l d s so t h a t each w i l l b a l a n c e t h e o t h e r on t h e p i c t u r e - p l a n e . . . . T hese move-ments may be d i f f e r e n t i n terms o f t h e i r o p t i c a l measures and q u a l i t i e s . . . . b u t , i f t h e y a r e e q u a l i n s t r e n g t h i n terms o f t h e i r s p a t i a l f i e l d s , a dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m w i l l be r e a c h e d on t h e p i c t u r e s u r f a c e . " 5 1 A r n h e i m r e l a t e s " t h e c o n c e p t o f e q u i l i b r i u m " t o " t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e n t r o p y i n p h y s i c s " and t o " h o m e o s t a s i s i n p h y s i o l o g y " as 52 w e l l as t o G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y . He f e e l s t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t p r o m i s e s t o " p r o v i d e t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f a r t w i t h t h e f o u n d a t i o n 53 i t l a c k s . " F o r him, " b a l a n c e " has a " b r o a d o r g a n i c b a s e " s i n c e i t i s "assumed t o g o v e r n t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s o i — 54 g a n i z i n g t h e p r o c e s s e s o f v i s i o n i n t h e b r a i n . " F u r t h e r -more, he a s s e r t s t h a t " t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f m o t i v a t i o n i n t e r p r e t s 112 EQUILIBRIUM ( I ) E q u i l i b r i u m i s t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l s o u g h t by g r a p h i c a r t i s t s i n t h e i r works. Gyorgy Kepes. Language o f V i s i o n . P a u l T h e o b a l d . C h i c a g o . 1944. p. 40. 2  113 EQUILIBRIUM ( I I ) A b s t r a c t a r t depends h e a v i l y on e q u i l i b r i u m a s i t s p r i n c i p l e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The work o f P i e t M o n d r i a n i s o f t e n c i t e d i n t h i s r e g a r d . Hans L.C. J a f f e . P i e t M o n d r i a n . H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . New Y o r k , 1970. p. 141. 114 human s t r i v i n g as a need f o r b a l a n c e . " Hence, e q u i l i b r i u m 56 i s i n d e e d "an o v e r - a l l p r i n c i p l e . " The b a s i c p r o p e r t i e s o f p r o x i m i t y , s i m i l a r i t y , and -e q u i l i b r i u m can be used t o c r e a t e r h y t h m i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e v i s u a l f i e l d . The Law o f Good C o n t i n u a t i o n would d e f i n e t h e s u c c e s s o f an a t t e m p t a t s t r u c t u r i n g a r h y t h m i c o p t i c a l s e q u e n c e , s i n c e each r e p e a t e d f o r m t h e o r e t i c a l l y i m p l i e s i t s own. a p p r o p r i a t e rhythm. Kepes a r g u e s t h a t rhythm i n g r a p h i c s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s o f s e e i n g : "Unbroken a c t i v i t y b u r n s o u t n e r v o u s e n e r g i e s . The eye as i t works needs b o t h a c t i o n and r e p o s e . . . . The o r d e r l y r e p e t i t i o n o r r e g u l a r a l t e r a t i o n o f o p t i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s o r e q u a l i t i e s d i c t a t e s t h e rhythm o f t h e p l a s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . In r e c o g n i z i n g s u c h o r d e r one l e a r n s when t h e n e x t eye a c t i o n i s due and what p a r t i c u l a r n e u r o m u s c u l a r a d j u s t m e n t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o g r a s p t h e n e x t u n i t . To c o n s e r v e t h e a t t e n t i v e e n e r g i e s o f v i s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t h e p i c t u r e s u r f a c e must have a t e m p o r a l s t r u c t u r e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . " 5 7 " R h y t h m i c a l p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e p i c t u r e s u r f a c e can e x i s t on as many l e v e l s as t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s o f t h e v i s u a l f i e l d . I f a s u r f a c e p e r m i t s any s u b d i v i s i o n t h a t r e p e a t s i t s own shape o r s i z e i n a s m a l l e r f o r m , a s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c o r d e r i s a c h i e v e d . T h i s s u b d i v i s i o n i m p l i e s s i z e s , p o s i t i o n s , d i r e c t i o n s and i n t e r v a l s . When t h e o r d e r l y measure o f t h e o p t i c a l u n i t s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r v i r t u a l movement from and t o t h e p i c t u r e - p l a n e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f rhythm i s r e a c h e d . We have t h e n a rhythm o f t h e p l a s t i c f o r c e s , a r e g u l a r change o f s e n s a t i o n o f s p a t i a l movements o f c o l o r s and v a l u e s ; a d v a n c i n g , r e c e d i n g , e x p a n d i n g , c o n t r a c t i n g , moving up, down, l e f t and r i g h t . F i n a l l y we m i ght have o r d e r l y c h a n g e s o r r e p e t i t i o n o f more complex c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e ; r h y t h m i c o r d e r o f t e n s i o n and r e p o s e , c o n c e n t r a t i o n and r a r i f i c a t i o n , harmony and d i s c o r d . . . . Rhythms may c o r r e s p o n d w i t h and a m p l i f y each o t h e r , o r t h e y may oppose each o t h e r , c a u s i n g a h i g h e r l e v e l o f r h y t h m i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n . " 5 8 RHYTHM ( I ) Forms r e p e a t e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r v a l s p r o d u c e a s e n s e o f rhythm i n a g r a p h i c image. 116 RHYTHM(II) Rhythmic e v e n t s can be e x p r e s s e d i n a s t a t i c g r a p h i c image. GYORGY KEPES. Language o f V i s i o n . P a u l T h e o b a l d . C h i c a g o , 1944. p. 182. 117 The laws o f p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h have been d e s c r i b e d h e r e do not p r o v i d e t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t w i t h f o r m u l a e f o r p r o d u c i n g e f f e c t i v e d e s i g n s . I n s t e a d , t h e y s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as c r i t e r i a f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e v a l u a t i n g g r a p h i c s . Hence, t h e y a r e e q u a l l y v a l u a b l e t o t h e p l a n n e r as t o t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t , s i n c e t h e y p r o v i d e t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l w i t h means t o a s s e s s p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e y r e v e a l t h a t s u c c e s s f u l g r a p h i c images must not o n l y s a t i s f y t h e r a t i o n a l , o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s i n t e n d e d f o r them; but a l s o meet a e s t h e t i c and v i s u a l c r i t e r i a . As A r n h e i m s t a t e s i t : "Form must not be c o n s i d e r e d m e r e l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e a l i t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t s , whose images i t c r e a t e s ; i t has a r e a l i t y o f i t s own, a w o r l d g o v e r n e d by i t s own l a w s , namely, the, laws o f p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f o r m i s d o m i n a t e d by t h e t a s k o f c r e a t i n g a s t r u c t u r a l e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e m o d e l - o b j e c t . But, a p a r t f r o m i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i v e f u n c t i o n , w e l l -o r g a n i z e d f o r m has a v a l u e o f i t s own f o r t h e o r g a n i s m . " 5 9 I t may be a r g u e d t h a t t h e a e s t h e t i c f e a t u r e s o f g r a p h i c c o m p o s i t i o n , w h i l e d e s i r a b l e , a r e not i n d i s p e n s a b l e . However, g r a p h i c s w hich i g n o r e t h e laws w h i c h t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s have f o u n d t o be i n -h e r e n t t o human p e r c e p t i o n may d i s t u r b t h e i r v i e w e r s . Any s u c h d i s t u r b a n c e would be b e t t e r a v o i d e d i f p o s s i b l e . In t h e c a s e o f e q u i l i b r i u m , f o r example, A r n h e i m b e l i e v e s t h a t " i n a b a l a n c e d c o m p o s i t i o n . . . . t h e whole assumes t h e c h a r a c t e r o f ' n e c e s s i t y ' i n a l l i t s p a r t s . " 6 0 However, "an u n b a l a n c e d c o m p o s i t i o n l o o k s a c c i d e n t a l , t r a n s i t o r y , and t h e r e f o r e i n -v a l i d . " 6 1 C e r t a i n l y , t h e p l a n n e r would p r e f e r g r a p h i c s w hich i m p l y n e c e s s i t y i n s t e a d o f i n v a l i d i t y . A r n h e i m s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e laws o f p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e t h e key t o s u c h v i s u a l i m p a c t s . 118 A s e c o n d s u b j e c t w h i c h has a c o n s i d e r a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d t o o f f e r t o g r a p h i c s i s t h e use o f c o l o u r . C o l o u r s c a n be shown t o have e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s w hich a r e f a i r l y u n i f o r m among d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . Hence, the p e r c e p t i o n o f c o l o u r i s s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l laws s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d f o r images. A c c o r d i n g t o P a t r i c i a S l o a n e , t h e r e has r e c e n t l y been a " c h a n g i n g r o l e o f c o l o u r " w h i c h "has k e y n o t e d a g e n e r a l r e v o l u t i o n i n human t h i n k i n g , l e a d i n g t o a g r e a t e r r e s p e c t f o r t h e v i s u a l work, and f o r t h e modes and laws o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . Today, c o l o u r . . . . i s most o f t e n used f o r t h e d i r e c t p e r c e p t u a l s e n s a t i o n s i t can evoke. C o l o u r i s l e s s o f t e n used as symbol, and i s l e s s o f t e n used as i m i t a t i o n . " 6 2 From a p h y s i o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view, "The r e t i n a , i n i n f o r m i n g t h e b r a i n about c o l o u r , does not r e c o r d each o f t h e i n f i n i t e l y many sh a d e s and h u e s . . . . b u t l i m i t s i t s e l f t o a few f u n d a m e n t a l c o l o u r s , o r r a n g e o f c o l o u r , f r o m w h i c h a l l t h e ' 6 3 o t h e r s a r e d e r i v e d . " A r n h e i m t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s t h a t "even p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y v i s i o n imposes a c o n c e p t u a l o r d e r on t h 64 m a t e r i a l r e c o r d s . " S p e c i f i c a l l y , " c o l o u r p a t t e r n s a r e seen as e l a b o r a t i o n s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y , pure q u a l i t i e s o f y e l l o w , 65 r e d , b l u e . " Some " c o m b i n a t i o n s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e c i s e in^ t h e m s e l v e s t o f u n c t i o n as v i s u a l c o n c e p t s i n t h e i r own r i g h t , 6 6 eg. o r a n g e , g r e e n , o r p u r p l e . " F o r d e s i g n p u r p o s e s , "These s e c o n d a r y c o n c e p t s s e r v e as t r a n s i t i o n a l l i n k s between t h e „67 p r i m a r i e s . " 119 C o l o u r s have a v a r i e t y o f p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h can a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as p e r c e p t u a l l a w s . The example i s t h a t o f " c o l o u r 6 8 c o n t r a s t " . As A r n h e i m d e s c r i b e s t h i s phenomenon, " n e i g h b o r i n g c o l o r s s t r i v e t o r e l a t e . . . . c o l o r s w i l l change i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s i m p l e s t r e l a t i o n t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e o f f e r s . . . . t h e p a r t n e r s may change t h e i r own a p p e a r a n c e f o r t h e r e l a t i o n ' s s a k e . . . . T h e y may r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r own s i m p l i c i t y i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n among them. Under t h e p r e s s u r e t o w a r d s c o n t r a s t a pure r e d a d -j o i n i n g a pure y e l l o w may t u r n p u r p l i s h w h i l e t h e y e l l o w becomes g r e e n i s h . " 6 9 A s e c o n d example o f c o l o u r p r i n c i p l e i s t r a n s p a r e n c y . An i l l u s i o n o f t r a n s p a r e n c y i s c r e a t e d when an a r e a , w h i c h i s between two o t h e r a r e a s o f c o l o u r , i s a shade w h i c h i s "an a p p r o x i m a t e m i x t u r e o f t h e o t h e r two c o l o u r s . " 7 0 So " t h e mind r e s t r u c t u r e s t h e u n i t a r y c e n t r a l c o l o u r i n such a way t h a t a s u p e r p o s i t i o n o f two c o l o u r s i s seen where one c o l o u r would be s e e n otherwise." 7 "'' The v a r i o u s p r o p e r t i e s o f c o l o u r s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e work o f t h e g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r . F o r t h e p l a n n e r , however, the a f f e c t i v e i m p a c t o f c o l o u r s i s p r o b a b l y o f most i n t e r e s t . A p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n v i n c i n g work on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f c o l o u r s i s t h e C o l o r T e s t d e v i s e d by Dr. Max L'usoher. In t h e L'uscher t e s t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g t e s t e d i s a s k e d t o s t a t e h i s p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s f o r c e r t a i n c o l o u r s o v e r o t h e r c o l o u r s w i t h o u t r e l a t i n g them t o any p a r t i c u l a r use o r s e t t i n g . The c o m p l e t e t e s t r e q u i r e s f o r t y - t h r e e s e l e c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g a t o t a l o f s e v e n t y - t h r e e " c o l o r - p a t c h e s " . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s " a f f o r d s a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e 120 c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a r e a s o f p s y c h i c s t r e s s , t h e s t a t e o f g l a n d u l a r b a l a n c e o r im-72 b a l a n c e , and much p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . " From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f c e r t a i n c o l o u r s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s p e c i f i c c o l o u r s a r e d e r i v e d . Hence, r e d i s f o u n d t o be e m o t i o n a l l y e x c i t i n g as w e l l as t o have " a d e c i d e d l y s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t on t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m - b l o o d p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s , 73 r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e and h e a r t b e a t b o t h s p e e d up." On t h e o t h e r hand, " d a r k b l u e i s . . . . 'calming' i n i t s e f f e c t " w i t h an e f f e c t w h i c h i s t h e r e v e r s e o f r e d : " b l o o d p r e s s u r e f a l l s , h e a r t b e a t 74 and b r e a t h i n g b o t h s l o w down." C e r t a i n l y , i f c o l o u r s have c l e g t r l y p r o v e n c l i n i c a l e f f e c t s on b o t h t h e body and t h e mind, t h e n g r a p h i c s f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s s h o u l d employ c o l o u r s which a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e e f f e c t b e i n g s o u g h t , as d e t e r m i n e d by the p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . F i n a l l y , c o l o u r s become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n t h i n g s o r u s e s o v e r t i m e , t h r o u g h t h e c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g . G r a p h i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s s h o u l d r e s p e c t t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s . However, t h e y o f t e n do n o t . A r n h e i m d i s c u s s e s t h i s p r o b l e m as " a v o i d a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s " w h i c h " a r i s e f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e use o f 75 c o l o r s . " He c i t e s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s o f W.H. N a u l t who i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e use o f c o l o u r s on maps w i t h c h i l d r e n . He f o u n d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a s s o c i a t e d c h a n g e s i n hue w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n " q u a l i t y " and c h a n g e s i n v a l u e ( s h a d e s o f t h e same c o l o u r ) w i t h "change i n " q u a n t i t y , amount o r i n t e n s i t y . " Maps which 77 i g n o r e d t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s were " s p o n t a n e o u s l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . " 121 F o r example, t h e c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t o o d l i g h t b l u e as s h a l l o w w a t e r and d a r k b l u e as deep w a t e r , but m i s t o o k a r e d d i s h - b l u e 78 i n t e n d e d t o show t h e d e e p e s t w a t e r f o r i s l a n d s . A r n h e i m c o n c l u d e s t h a t " t h i s s o r t o f p r o b l e m c a l l s f o r t h e h e l p o f a r t i s t s , d e s i g n e r s , and p s y c h o l o g i s t s , a c q u a i n t e d w i t h . . . . 79 p e r c e p t u a l p r i n c i p l e s . " A t h i r d i m p o r t a n t a r e a o f t h e o r e t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r g r a p h i c d e s i g n i s t y p o g r a p h y . N a t u r a l l y , an e f f e c t i v e g r a p h i c a r t i s t w i l l have a wide knowledge o f t h e v a r i e t y o f t y p e f a c e s t y l e s w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e i n v a r i o u s f o r m s f r o m t y p e w r i t e r e l e m e n t s t o p r e s s - a p p l y l e t t e r s t o c a l l i g r a p h y . Many o f t h e p e r c e p t u a l laws a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d can be a p p l i e d t o t y p e l a y o u t c o n c e p t s . The use o f t y p o g r a p h y i s complex s i n c e i t must meet two major g o a l s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y : t o f o r m an a e s t h e t i c , b a l a n c e d c o m p o s i t i o n and t o e x p r e s s t h e c o n t e n t a p p r o p r i a t e l y and l e g i b l y . The c h o i c e o f t y p e f a c e s w h i c h a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c o n t e n t n e c e s s i t a t e s two k i n d s o f knowledge on t h e p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n making t h e d e c i s i o n : an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t i t s e l f and i t s p u r p o s e , and a knowledge o f t h e i m p a c t o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e -f a c e s . So, f o r example, an o l d - f a s h i o n e d t y p e f a c e l i k e O l d E n g l i s h would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a r e p o r t on t h e T u d o r s t y l e h o u s e s o f V a n c o u v e r . b u t not p e r h a p s f o r a s t u d y o f p r o j e c t e d t r a n s i t demands. The c h o i c e o f a l e g i b l e t y p e f a c e i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c a s e o f a l o n g t e x t . C a t a l d o p r e s e n t s a c o n c i s e summary o f t h e m a j o r f a c t o r s i n l e g i b i l i t y : 122 " L e g i b i l i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d i n l a r g e p a r t by t h e s p a c e ( l e a d i n g ) above and below l i n e s o f copy ....more s p a c e between t h e l i n e s i m p r o v e s l e g i b i l i t y . G e n e r a l l y , l e a d i n g f r o m 2 p o i n t s t o 4 p o i n t s w i l l r e s o l v e most l e g i b i l i t y p r o b l e m s . . . . A d d i t i o n a l l e a d i n g beyond 4 p o i n t s w i t h an 8 p o i n t o r 10 p o i n t ' b o d y t e x t may i n c r e a s e t h e ground ( o r w h i t e s p a c e ) so much, however t h a t t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e t e x t i s i n t e r r u p t e d , and l e g i b i l i t y i s l o s t . M e c h a n i c a l f a c t o r s s u c h as l i n e w i d t h , l e a d i n g , and body t e x t d e t e r m i n e e a s e o f l e g i b i l i t y . " 8 0 W i t h r e s p e c t t o body t e x t , p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s have d e m o n s t r a t e d a number o f u s e f u l p r i n c i p l e s , many o f w h i c h c o n f i r m e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s . F o r example, " i t a l i c s . . . . s t r a i n and d i s t u r b , f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e y a r e recommended w h e r e v e r t h e r e i s need f o r 81 e m p h a s i s . " And t h e use o f a l l c a p i t a l l e t t e r s w i l l " r e t a r d < 8 2 t h e s p e e d o f r e a d i n g t o a s t r i k i n g d e g r e e : 12 p e r c e n t . " I f t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t and p l a n n e r a r e aware o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t y p o g r a p h y , t h e y can use s u c h p r i n c i p l e s t o ease t h e s t r a i n on t h e r e a d e r , t o h i g h l i g h t i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s , and t o v a r y - r e a d i n g tempo f o r i n t e r e s t . The v a l u e o f symbols f o r g r a p h i c work has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t h e o r i e s o f B o u l d i n g , A r n h e i m and G o m b r i c h . Symbolism i s m e n t i o n e d a g a i n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F o r one t h i n g , s p e c i f i c s y m b o l s c a r r y d i s t i n c t messages w i t h b o t h r a t i o n a l and e m o t i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n s . T h e s e meanings a r e t a u g h t t o t h e members o f s o c i e t y t h r o u g h th e t h i n g s i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t and a r e , t h e r e -f o r e , g e n e r a l l y s h a r e d , p u b l i c images. The g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r must use symbols w i t h r e s p e c t f o r t h e v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h \ 123 ? them. An attempt to a l t e r or take symbols out of context leads to misunderstanding. Secondly, i n the l i m i t e d l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with graphics which has been produced by members of the planning p r o f e s s i o n , a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the e f f o r t has been d i r e c t e d at graphic symbols f o r i c o n i c s i g n s f o r such uses as t r a f f i c c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n ; and commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , and i n s t i t u t i o n -83 a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The symbols developed f o r these purposes are u s u a l l y t e s t e d f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s before use. They, t h e r e -f o r e , represent a source of i n f o r m a t i o n about the a p p r o p r i a t e -ness and c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y of images. They a l s o suggest a wide range of p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n other graphic s i t u a t i o n s and media than s i g n s . The l a s t area of graphic technique to be d i s c u s s e d i s the choice of media f o r graphic e x p r e s s i o n . As with s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o l o u r s , typography, and symbols, the medium chosen must be a p p r o p r i a t e to both the s u b j e c t matter and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the audience. In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e the range and v a r i e t y of graphic media, as d i s c u s s e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , i s so l a r g e , two f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d : the areas of a v a i l a b l e e x p e r t i s e of graphic d e s i g n e r s and the budgets of both time and money which are a l l o t t e d to the task. For example, i t i s p o i n t l e s s to decide to use a f i l m f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t i f nobody on the graphics s t a f f has f i l m experience and there i s no budget to h i r e a c o n s u l t a n t , even i f a movie seems the most a p p r o p r i a t e medium. 124 The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h l o c a l p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e v e a l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s media. None o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d had even u n d e r t a k e n a s t r u c t u r e d e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e g r a p h i c m e d i a t h e y use on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e a c a d e m i c l i t e r a t u r e w hich c o n f i r m s o r c o n t r a d i c t s t h e i r o p i n i o n s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l work t h a t has been done i s d e t a i l e d , s p e c i f i c , and, t h e r e f o r e , _ h a r d t o g e n e r a l i z e . N a t u r a l l y , i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o d e s i g n c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s o f g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s and t h e i r i m p a c t s s i n c e g r a p h i c images a r e complex, w i t h many f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g a t o n c e . P e r h a p s , f o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e o p i n i o n s o f g r a p h i c p r a c t i o n e r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e . As A r n h e i m e x p r e s s e s i t : " f o r e v e r y s o r t o f v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t e x t b o o k s , m o d e l s , c h a r t s , f i l m s . . . . c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f what t h e p e r s o n s e e s f o r whom t h e s e images a r e made a r e 84 i n d i s p e n s a b l e . " He f u r t h e r f e e l s t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l come f r o m t h o s e " a c q u a i n t e d " w i t h b o t h " t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and 85 p r a c t i c a l h a n d l i n g o f p e r c e p t u a l p r i n c i p l e s . " In summary, t h e n , i t seems t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s o f g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e w h i c h o f f e r v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p l a n n e r o r g r a p h i c a r t i s t f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s b o t h t o e x p r e s s p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and t o communicate t o an a u d i e n c e . These a r e a s a r e p e r c e p t u a l t h e o r y based on g e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y , c o l o u r t h e o r y , t y p o g r a p h y , t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f s y m b o l s , and t h e c h o i c e o f a p p r o p r i a t e media. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d when t h i s s p e c i f i c t h e o r e t i c a l m a t e r i a l , t h e "grammar" o f g r a p h i c s , and 125 t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r y c f v i s u a l " l a n g u a g e " f r o m C h a p t e r 3 i s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s h e l d . 126 CHAPTER 4: FOOTNOTES 1 S . J . Hayakawa, i n Kepes, Language o f V i s i o n . P a u l T h e o b a l d . C h i c a g o , 1944. p. 9. 2 I b i d . p. 9. 3 I b i d . p. 9. 4 John W. C a t a l d o . G r a p h i c D e s i g n : V i s u a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k Co. S c r a n t o n , Penn., 1966. p. 4. 5 I b i d . p. 13. 6 I b i d . p. 4. 7 I b i d . p. 4. 8 R u d o l f A r n h e i m . Toward A P s y c h o l o g y o f A r t . U. o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . B e r k e l e y , 1966. p. 99. 9 I b i d . p. 234. 10 C a t a l d o , op. c i t . , p. 110. 11 A r n h e i m , Toward A P s y c h o l o g y o f A r t , op. c i t . , p. 22. 12 Max W e r t h e i m e r . "Laws o f O r g a n i z a t i o n i n P e r c e p t u a l Forms". i n E l l i s ( e d . ) , A S o u r c e Book o f G e s t a l t P s y c h o l o g y . H u m a n i t i e s P r e s s . New Y o r k , 1967. p. 75. 13 C a t a l d o , op. c i t . , p. 127. 14 K u r t K o f f k a , P r i n c i p l e s o f G e s t a l t P s y c h o l o g y . H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , & W o r l d , I n c . New Y o r k , 1963. p. 600. 15 I b i d . p. 599. 16 C a t a l d o , op. c i t . , p. 125. 17 K o f f k a , op. c i t . , p. 315. 18 I b i d . p. 167. 19 I b i d . p. 481. 20 C a t a l d o , op. c i t . , p. 125 21 Kepes. Language o f V i s i o n , op. c i t . , p. 46. 22 I b i d . p. 47. 23 I b i d . p. 165. 127 24 K o f f k a . op. c i t . , p. 166. 25 Kepes, Language o f V i s i o n . op. c i t . , p. 47. 26 K o f f k a , op. c i t . , p. 153. 27 Kepes, Language o f V i s i o n , op. c i t . , p. 49. 28 I b i d . p. 49. 29 C a t a l d o , op. c i t . , p. 119. 30 K o f f k a , op. c i t . , p. 175. 31 I b i d . p. 175. 32 Kepes, Language o f V i s i o n , op. c i t . , p. 49. 33 K o f f k a , op. c i t . , p. 437. 34 I b i d . p. 151. 35 Kepes, Language o f V i s i o n , op. c i t . , p. 51. 36 I b i d . p. 51 37 K o f f k a , op. c i t . , p. 665. 38 I b i d . p. 449. 39 Bruno Petermann. The G e s t a l t T h e o r y and t h e P r o b l e m o f  C o n f i g u r a t i o n . Kegan P a u l T r e n c h , T r u b n e r & Co., L t d . London, 1932. p. 273. 40 I b i d . p. 112. 41 C a t a l d o , op. c i t . , p. 120. 42 K o f f k a , op. c i t . , p. 110. 43 I b i d . p. 110. 44 W o l f g a n g K o h l e r . " P h y s i c a l G e s t a l t e n " i n E l l i s ( e d . ) , op. c i t p. 54. 45 K o h l e r . "Some G e s t a l t P r i n c i p l e s " , i n E l l i s ( e d . ) , op. c i t . p. 64. 46 K o h l e r . " P h y s i c a l G e s t a l t e n " . op. c i t . , p. 54. 47 C a t a l d o , op. c i t . , p. 118. 128 48 I b i d . p. 118. 49 K o f f k a , op. c i t . , p. 171. 50 C a t a l d o . op. c i t . , p. 118. 51 Kepes,.Language o f V i s i o n , op. c i t . , p. 36. 52 A r n h e i m . Toward a P s y c h o l o g y o f A r t , op. c i t . , p. &1. 53 I b i d . p. 21. ^ 54 I b i d . p. 104. 55 I b i d . p. 103. 56 I b i d . p. 103. 57:, Kepes. Language o f V i s i o n , op. c i t . , p. 53. 58 I b i d . p. 54. 59 A r n h e i m . Toward a P s y c h o l o g y o f A r t , op. c i t . p.44. 60 I b i d . p. 76. 61 I b i d . p. 76. 62 P a t r i c i a S l o a n e . C o l o u r : B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s and New D i r e c t i o n s , S t u d i o V i s t a / R e i n h o l d A r t P a p e r b a c k . London, 1967. p. 37. 63 A r n h e i m , V i s u a l T h i n k i n g , op. c i t . , p. 21. 64 I b i d . p. 2*2 • 65 I b i d . p. 30. 66 I b i d . p. 30. 67 I b i d . p. 30. 68 I b i d . p. 60. 69 I b i d . p. 60. 70 I b i d . p. 35. 71 I b i d . p. 35. 72 Max L u s c h e r . The L u s c h e r C o l o r T e s t . P o c k e t 1971. p. 16-17. 129 73 I b i d . p. 12. 74 I b i d . p. 12. 75 A r n h e i m . V i s u a l T h i n k i n g , op. c i t . p. e l l . 76 I b i d . p. 311. 77 I b i d . p. 311. 78 I b i d . p. 811. 79 I b i d . p. 311. 80 C a t a l d o . op. c i t . , p. 186. 81 I b i d . p. 186. 82 I b i d . p. 186. 83 Rod M a l a y . G r a p h i c C o m m u n i c a t i o n ; Urban Complex. Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada. Ottawa, 1975. p. 19-96. 84 A r n h e i m , V i s u a l T h i n k i n g , op. c i t . p. 311. 85 I b i d . p. 311. 130 CONCLUSIONS C o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f g r a p h i c s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e s u g g e s t e d b o t h by t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ob-t a i n e d f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h l o c a l p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c a r t i s t s and by t h e l i t e r a t u r e on g r a p h i c t h e o r y and t e c h n i q u e . The q u e s t i o n s a s k e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s were d e s i g n e d t o r e v e a l s p e c i f i c c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s on t h e s e p r a c t i c e s . V a r i o u s q u e s t i o n t o p i c s r e l a t e t o s u b j e c t s t r e a t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Hence, t h e f o r m a t used i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s seems a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h r e s u l t f r o m c o m p a r i n g and c o n t r a s t i n g p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s . The p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e g r a p h i c methods w h i c h t h e y use on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . These methods have been c a t e g o r i z e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n p u r p o s e s i n t o two g r o u p s : i n f o r m a l g r a p h i c s used by an i n d i v i d u a l o r w i t h i n a p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r m a l g r a p h i c s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i d e a s t o c l i e n t s o r t h e p u b l i c . N a t u r a l l y , t h i s r e p r e s e n t s an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . In r e a l i t y , g r a p h i c methods s h o u l d be e n v i s i o n e d as c o m p l e t i n g a s p e c t r u m w h i c h r a n g e s f r o m c o n t e m p l a t i v e d o o d l e s a t one end t o p o l i s h e d m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u c t i o n s a t t h e o t h e r end. N e v e r t h e l e s s , by u s i n g two b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s , i t became c l e a r t h a t p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s g e n e r a l l y t e n d t o use r o u g h , q u i c k l y e x e c u t e d , s h o r t h a n d g r a p h i c s f o r t h e i r own p u r p o s e s and f o r e x p l a i n i n g c o n c e p t s t o c o l l e a g u e s and more s t r u c t u r e d , c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d g r a p h i c s w i t h p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h e p r o f e s s i o n . To an e x t e n t , t h i s t e n d e n c y i s l o g i c a l s i n c e p l a n n e r s u s u a l l y s h a r e a t t i t u d e s and knowledge among 131 t h e m s e l v e s t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n w i t h c l i e n t s o r t h e p u b l i c . K enneth B o u l d i n g ' s t h e o r y d e a l s w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s h a r e d b e l i e f s o r " i m a g e s " t o s u c c e s s f u l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S o c i e t y , B o u l d i n g b e l i e v e s , s h a r e s a p u b l i c image. The p u b l i c image r e p r e s e n t s t h e a r e a o f o v e r l a p o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l images o f a l l t h e members o f t h a t s o c i e t y . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t p l a n n e r s work t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s o f s o c i e t y , t h e y must work 'to u n d e r s t a n d t h i s p u b l i c image s i n c e i t b e s t r e f l e c t s t h e needs and a s -p i r a t i o n s o f s o c i e t y . N a t u r a l l y , i n d i v i d u a l images n e v e r o v e r l a p c o m p l e t e l y . P e o p l e d i s a g r e e , c o n s t a n t l y b e c a u s e t h e y have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t images o f t h e w o r l d . These d i f f e r e n c e s can be t h o u g h t o f as a r i s i n g f o r two r e a s o n s . In many c a s e s , p e o p l e d i s a g r e e b a c a u s e t h e y do not a l l d e r i v e t h e i r images f r o m th e same i n f o r m a t i o n . P l a n n e r s can h e l p t o r e s o l v e r s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s by p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c o r by f a c i l i t a t i n g an exchange o f i d e a s among i n d i v i d u a l s . G r a p h i c s a r e a u s e f u l t o o l f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s . In o t h e r c a s e s , p e o p l e d i f f e r b e c a u s e t h e i r o p i n i o n s r e f l e c t o p p o s i n g v a l u e s . P l a n n e r s can work t o d e m o n s t r a t e t o i n d i v i d u a l s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e v a l u e s t h e y h o l d on p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . P e o p l e may a l t e r t h e i r images when g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r b e l i e f s . However, t h e f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n o f v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s must o c c u r i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a . P l a n n e r s a r e a p a r t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s which B o u l d i n g d e s c r i b e s as c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g t h e p u b l i c image t h r o u g h c o m m u n i c a t i o n and f e e d b a c k o f new i d e a s . P l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s a r e u s u a l l y f i r s t s h a r e d by t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n 132 b e f o r e t h e y become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c image. G r a p h i c images can be c o n s i d e r e d as one o f t h e t o o l s used by p l a n n e r s t o communicate t h e s e c h a n g i n g c o n c e p t s t o s o c i e t y . And R u d o l f A r n h e i m has p o i n t e d out t h a t g r a p h i c images which a r e s i m p l i f i e d t h r o u g h a b s t r a c t i o n a r e o n l y s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e y r e p r e s e n t a c o n c e p t s h a r e d by t h e group w i t h whom t h e y a r e u s e d . Hence, s i m p l e , a b s t r a c t images, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e u s i n g symbols o r s i g n s , a r e p r o b a b l y b e s t s u i t e d f o r p l a n n e r s t o communicate w i t h o t h e r p l a n n e r s u n l e s s t h e s e symbols o r s i g n s a r e p a r t o f s o c i e t y ' s p u b l i c i m a g e r y . T h e r e f o r e , g r a p h i c images must be s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l a n a t o r y o r p i c t o r i a l f o r t h e a u d i e n c e which i s t o be r e a c h e d by them. S i n c e images can f u n c t i o n a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c e r t a i n a u d i e n c e s and i n -a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o t h e r s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h o o s i n g a g r a p h i c image u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f i t s i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e . In t h i s way t h e image can be d e s i g n e d a t a s u i t a b l e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . A r n h e i m f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n t e n t s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e g r a p h i c d e s i g n . The message and t h e c o n t e x t c a n n o t be d i s s o c i a t e d . F o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s , t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e c h o i c e s o f medium (and t e c h n i q u e . As Gombrich i n d i c a t e s , t h e p e r s o n making s u c h c h o i c e s s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , u n d e r s t a n d enough a b o u t t h e p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s and o b j e c t i v e s b e h i n d t h e r e q u i r e d g r a p h i c d e s i g n t o be s e n s i t i v e t o what e l e m e n t s o f t h e g r a p h i c c o n t e n t a r e im-p o r t a n t and must be e m p h a s i z e d and t o what o t h e r f e a t u r e s can be downplayed o r even e l i m i n a t e d w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e o v e r a l l 133 i m p a c t . I t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r a g r a p h i c a r t i s t t o e x e r c i s e s u c h s e l e c t i v i t y w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . Gombrich a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e image and t h e word p r o v i d i n g m u t u a l s u p p o r t t o s u c c e s s f u l l y communicate an i d e a . When g r a p h i c s a r e used t o complement a t e x t , as was seen t o be t h e most common use among t h o s e i n t e r -v i e w e d , t h e g r a p h i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o u l d have a knowledge o f t h e c o n t e n t and meaning o f t h a t t e x t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a number o f i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d t h a t g r a p h i c s were p r e p a r e d t o i l l u s t r a t e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l by a r t i s t s who had not even r e a d t h e c o n t e n t . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t g r a p h i c images o f a l l t y p e s , f r o m p i c t u r e s t o d i a g r a m s t o s y m b o l s , s u p p o r t and complement w r i t t e n p l a n n i n g . ' m a t e r i a l , a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y and number o f p e o p l e can u n d e r s t a n d what i s b e i n g communicated. P e o p l e w i t h i n a d e q u a t e v e r b a l s k i l l s have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e i r r e a d i n g by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e g r a p h i c s . V i s u a l l y o r i e n t e d p e o p l e a r e l i k e l y t o use r e p o r t g r a p h i c s t o a s s e s s c o n t e n t . In t h e s e c a s e s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e g r a p h i c s r e p r e s e n t an a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . G r a p h i c s , s i n c e t h e y a r e w e l l s u i t e d t o e x p r e s s i n g complex i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a d i v e r s i t y o f f a c t o r s , a r e e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n a i d i n g r e a d e r s t o v i s u a l i z e p r o j e c t m e t h o d o l o g y o r t o summarize t h e r e s u l t a n t recommendat i o n s . D e c i s i o n s s u c h as t h e c h o i c e o f a l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n o r o f an a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e t o e x p r e s s t h e s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g c o n t e n t a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e g r a p h i c s . 134 Good g r a p h i c s a r e d e s i r a b l e , however, n o t o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y promote c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s t o o t h e r s . R u d o l f A r n h e i m b e l i e v e s t h a t v i s u a l images a r e t h e key t o any c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s and e s p e c i a l l y t o p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . G r a p h i c s can be t h o u g h t o f as a method f o r e x p r e s s i n g m e n t a l v i s u a l images i n a c o n c r e t e f o r m . Images a r e u s e f u l i n p r o b l e m s o l v i n g b e c a u s e t h e y have t h e a b i l i t y t o summarize and r e p r e s e n t complex i d e a s i n a compact f o r m . As M a r s h a l l McLuhan e x p l a i n s , words a r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h i n k i n g a b o u t c o m p l e x i t y due t o t h e i r l i n e a r n a t u r e . S i n c e p l a n n e r s must c o n s t a n t l y work t o s o l v e complex p r o b l e m s i n v o l v i n g t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s i n t e r a c t i o n o f many f a c t o r s , v i s u a l t h i n k i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t a b i l i t y t o a c q u i r e and use. John Adams s u g g e s t s t h a t v i s u a l t h i n k i n g i s not t h e o n l y b a i l a b l e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s t r a t e g y . However, he does e x p l a i n c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t v i s u a l images must be used t o r e s o l v e c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s . He d i s c u s s e s how t h e g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n s o f s u c h v i s u a l images can be u t i l i z e d b o t h t o communicate i d e a s t o o t h e r s and t o t h i n k a b o u t p r o b l e m s o n e s e l f . In t h e l i g h t o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s , i t seems e x t r e m e l y s u p e r f i c i a l t o t h i n k t h a t p l a n n e r s need not t a k e an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e use o f g r a p h i c s w i t h i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . The p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c a r t i s t s i n t e r v i e w e d • m e n t i o n e d a wide v a r i e t y o f s p e c i f i c g r a p h i c methods. They a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h e s i t u a t i o n s and a u d i e n c e s t o w h i c h t h e y f e l t t h e i r methods were s u i t e d . In some c a s e s , t h e g r a p h i c methods w h i c h p l a n n e r s used as t h i n k i n g a i d s , o r r e s e a r c h t o o l s were t h e s o u r c e s f o r more s t r u c t u r e d g r a p h i c s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n p u r p o s e s . A t o t h e r 135 t i m e s , g r a p h i c s were p r e p a r e d a f t e r t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was c o m p l e t e d t o communicate t h e f i n a l c o n c e p t s t o a c e r t a i n a u d i e n c e o r t o a range o f a u d i e n c e s . T h e r e was no c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f s p e c i f i c methods f o r p a r t i c u l a r a u d i e n c e s . However, f r o m a t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t o f view, i t can p r o b a b l y be s a f e l y s t a t e d t h a t g r a p h i c s w h i c h p r o v e d u s e f u l d u r i n g t h e s t a g e s o f t h e a c t u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , s i n c e t h e y a r e d e v e l o p e d by t h e p l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h a t p r o c e s s , p r o v i d e a l o g i c a l l y good s o u r c e f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l . I f t h e s e images a i d e d t h e p l a n n e r s t o t h i n k a b o u t t h e complex f a c t o r s w i t h w h i c h t h e y were w o r k i n g , t h e y would p r o b a b l y h e l p t o communicate t o o t h e r s once put i n t o a more c o m p l e t e and s t r u c t u r e d f o r m . However, no c o n c l u s i o n s can be made f r o m t h e a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f images d e v i s e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o e x t e r n a l g r o u p s . In c o n t r a s t , as has been n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d c o n c u r r e d t o a s u r p r i s i n g e x t e n t on t h e s u b j e c t o f g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o p o l i t i c i a n s : m o s t f e l t r e l u c t a n t t o use images b e f o r e p o l i t i c a l b o d i e s . P e r h a p s t h i s r e l u c t a n c e r e v e a l s an u n d e r l y i n g d i s t r u s t o f p o l i t i c i a n s by p l a n n e r s o r an e f f o r t by p l a n n e r s t o m a n i p u l a t e p o l i t i c i a n s by p r o v i d i n g o n l y p a r t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . However, i f t h e t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l u e o f v i s u a l i m a g e r y f o r u n d e r -s t a n d i n g and c o m m u n i c a t i o n seem v a l i d and i f p l a n n e r s do want t o communicate t h e i r r ecommendations t o t h e d e c i s i o n makers, t h e n ways must be f o u n d t o d e v e l o p a p p r o p r i a t e g r a p h i c f o r m s f o r use b e f o r e p o l i t i c i a n s . T h i s can b e s t be a c c o m p l i s h e d 136 t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f m u t u a l t r a i n i n g . P l a n n e r s must e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f g r a p h i c methods t o c o n v e y u s e f u l v i s u a l images t o p o l i t i c i a n s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e p o l i t i c i a n s c o u l d p r o v i d e p l a n n e r s w i t h f e e d b a c k on t h e v a l u e o f v a r i o u s images t o them. I t seems e v i d e n t t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a p p r o p r i a t e methods would b e n e f i t b o t h g r o u p s . The s e c o n d major t o p i c a r e a c o v e r e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s c o n c e r n e d t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p l a n n i n g g r a p h i c s between p l a n n e r s and t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s c h a r g e d w i t h p r o d u c i n g t h o s e g r a p h i c s . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e a r e a wide v a r i e t y o f a p p r o a c h e s i n use. One a s p e c t w h i c h v a r i e s c o n s i d e r -a b l y i s t h e s t a g e o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d u r i n g w h i c h a g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t i s f i r s t i n c l u d e d . On one hand, g r a p h i c a r t i s t s were b r o u g h t i n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and t r e a t e d as a member o f t h e p l a n n i n g team. However, t h i s a p p r o a c h , a l t h o u g h p r e f e r r e d by a number o f p e o p l e , was r e l a t i v e l y r a r e . On t h e o t h e r hand, g r a p h i c a r t i s t s were sometimes b r o u g h t i n t o t h e p r o c e s s a t t h e end t o d e v e l o p p r e s e n t a t i o n - q u a l i t y images. A n o t h e r v a r i a b l e i s t h e v a l u e g i v e n by t h e p l a n n e r s t o t h e e x p e r t i s e o f t h e g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h whom t h e y work. T h i s v a r i a b l e i s i n t e r c o n n e c t e d w i t h a n o t h e r : t h e l e v e l s o f g r a p h i c s k i l l p o s s e s s e d by t h e p l a n n e r s t h e m s e l v e s . I t was seen t h a t , i n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s a r e t r e a t e d as t e c h n i c i a n s who p r e p a r e images a c c o r d i n g t o d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h i s t y p e o f a p p r o a c h r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s know enough a b o u t t h e i r g r a p h i c r e q u i r e m e n t s and how t o a c h i e v e them t o g i v e t h e n e c e s s a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s who must 137 p r o d u c e them. In o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s a r e c o n s u l t e d f o r t h e i r a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g g r a p h i c r e q u i r e m e n t s and a p p r o p r i a t e g r a p h i c methods. Or t h e g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s may be g i v e n t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o d e v e l o p t h e g r a p h i c s f r o m an ex-p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p l a n n e r s ' o b j e c t i v e s . The p l a n n e r s who do not have an a d e q u a t e knowledge o f g r a p h i c s have no c h o i c e but t o r e l y on g r a p h i c a r t i s t s t o p r e p a r e t h e i r g r a p h i c s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i f p l a n n e r s do not f e e l c o n f i d e n t o f t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r s w i t h whom t h e y work t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s and t o p r o d u c e a p p r o p r i a t e images, t h e y may c h o o s e not t o employ g r a p h i c s i f t h e y can be a v o i d e d . C l e a r l y , i t i s d n d e s i r a b l e t o l o s e t h e v a l u e g r a p h i c images o f f e r f o r com-m u n i c a t i n g p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s due t o a breakdown i n t h e com-m u n i c a t i o n s between p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c a r t i s t s . T h e r e a r e a number o f s t e p s w h i c h can be recommended t o r e d u c e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a breakdown i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n between p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c a r t i s t s . F o r one t h i n g , i t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o have t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t an e a r l y s t a g e . In t h i s way, t h e y w i l l l e a r n a b o u t t h e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s as t h e p r o j e c t p r o g r e s s e s . The g r a p h i c s s p e c i a l i s t s w i l l t h e n have the n e c e s s a r y knowledge e i t h e r t o p r o v i d e t h e p l a n n e r s w i t h good, i n f o r m e d a d v i c e o r t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o p r o d u c e a p p r o p r i a t e v i s u a l images. I f knowledge-a b l e g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r s a r e d e s i r a b l e , i t a l s o f o l l o w s t h a t t h e more t h e g r a p h i c s p e o p l e know ab o u t t h e p l a n n i n g f i e l d as i t r e l a t e s t o p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t s t h e b e t t e r w i l l be t h e i r i n p u t and p r o d u c t s . P l a n n e r s s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e uses and l i m i t a t i o n s 138 o f g r a p h i c s as w e l l . Those p l a n n e r s who a r e c a p a b l e o f p r o -d u c i n g g r a p h i c s t h e m s e l v e s a r e b e s t e q u i p p e d t o d i s c u s s g r a p h i c s w i t h a r t i s t s . However, i t s u f f i c e s t h a t p l a n n e r s a p p r e c i a t e g r a p h i c s * p o t e n t i a l s and a r e w i l l i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e i r g o a l s t o g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r s . A t t i t u d e s toward t h e r o l e o f g r a p h i c s i n p l a n n i n g become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n t h e way p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e t up t h e i r g r a p h i c s s t a f f . Some p l a n n i n g g r o u p s have s e p a r a t e g r a p h i c s s e c t i o n s . T h i s t e n d s t o e n c o u r a g e p l a n n e r s t o f i n i s h t h e i r p r o j e c t s and t h e n t o send them, o u t t o a n o t h e r p l a c e t o have g r a p h i c s p r e p a r e d f o r them. Such a s t r u c t u r e makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o have a g r a p h i c a r t i s t s e r v e as a member o f a p l a n n i n g team f o r a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t f r o m i t s i n i t i a t i o n . O t h e r p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s had t h e i r g r a p h i c s p e c i a l i s t s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f . T h i s s y s t e m t e n d s t o e n c o u r a g e p l a n n e r s t o c o n s u l t w i t h a r t i s t s t h r o u g h o u t a p r o j e c t . I t a l s o p e r m i t s t h e g r a p h i c s s t a f f members t o watch t h e p r o g r e s s o f p r o j e c t s w i t h which t h e y a r e i n v o l v e d s i n c e t h e y a r e not s e p a r a t e d s p a t i a l l y f r o m t h e p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s I t seems p r e f e r e a b l e , t h e r e f o r e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n t o p e r m i t t h e p l a n n e r s and t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s t o have o n g o i n g a c c e s s t o one a n o t h e r . T h i r d l y , a l l t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d were a s k e d t o e s t i m a t e how much t i m e and budget were d e v o t e d t o g r a p h i c s e i t h e r i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r j o b o r i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i n c e e s t i m a t e s r a n g e d as h i g h as 25% o f t o t a l s t a f f t i m e o r o f p r o j e c t b u d g e t s , i t seems t h a t g r a p h i c s a r e f a r t o o c o s t l y t o 139 be n e g l e c t e d by p l a n n i n g t h e o r y as has been t h e c a s e . I f p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e d e v o t i n g up t o one f o u r t h o f t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o u s i n g g r a p h i c s i n a l l t h e f o r m s and f u n c t i o n s w h i c h were m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s , i t would be u s e f u l f o r them t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r r e g u l a r p r a c t i v e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c u r r e n t methods. However, as has been n o t e d , none o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d had been i n v o l v e d i n a s y s t e m a t i c a t t e m p t t.o e v a l u a t e g r a p h i c s . S i n c e t h e p o t e n t i a l s a v i n g s f r o m e l i m i n a t i n g i n e f f e c t i v e g r a p h i c p r a c t i c e s a r e l a r g e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e e s t i m a t e s , i t seems j u s t i f i a b l e t o i n v e s t some s t a f f t i m e and budget t o e v a l u a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c methods. U n l e s s a t t e m p t s a r e made t o a s s e s s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f v a r i o u s w i d e l y used methods, t h e r e w i l l fee no c o n c r e t e b a s i s upon w h i c h c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e im p a c t o f d i f f e r e n t methods on d i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e s . The i n t e r v i e w s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t b o t h p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o l d many c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f v a r i o u s g r a p h i c methods. P e o p l e r e c e i v i n g p r i n t e d g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l o r a t t e n d i n g p r e s e n t -a t i o n s w i t h g r a p h i c a s p e c t s c o u l d be s u r v e y e d w i t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Even a b r i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u l d y i e l d u s e f u l r e s u l t s w h i c h m i g h t s u g g e s t improvements i n t h e t y p e o f g r a p h i c s s u b j e c t e d t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n . D a t a s h o u l d be c o l l e c t e d on t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f s p e c i f i c g r a p h i c f o r m s t o d i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e s , on t h e b e s t g r a p h i c f o r m s t o e x p r e s s v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s , and on t h e r e l a t i v e improvements p r o v i d e d by t h e more e x p e n s i v e g r a p h i c methods w i t h r e s p e c t t o a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s . 140 F i n a l l y , e v e r y o n e was a s k e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s t o de-s c r i b e h i s o r her s t u d i e s o f b o t h p l a n n i n g and g r a p h i c s and t o s p e c i f y w h i c h has p r o v e d v a l u a b l e i n p r a c t i c e . T hese c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l e d t o recommendations r e g a r d i n g w o r t h w h i l e s t u d i e s f o r s t u d e n t s i n t e n d i n g t o e n t e r t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n . Few p e o p l e f e l t t h a t g r a p h i c a r t i s t s w o r k i n g f o r p l a n n e r s s h o u l d s t u d y p l a n n i n g t h e o r y . Both t h e p l a n n e r s and t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s c o n c e n t r a t e d on d i s c u s s i n g g r a p h i c methods as s k i l l s w h i c h can. be b e t t e r a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t h r o u g h f o r m a l s t u d i e s . And most o f t h e recommended s t u d i e s r e v o l v e d a r o u n d s p e c i f i c s k i l l s as w e l l . O n l y a m i n o r i t y o f t h e g r a p h i c a r t i s t s had s t u d i e d any o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g y , c o l o u r , t y p o g r a p h y , o r s y m b o l s . W h i l e t h e s e a r t i s t s had g e n e r a l l y f o u n d t h e s e s t u d i e s i n t e r e s t i n g , t h e y d i d not recommend them t o p l a n n e r s . Nobody knew o f any a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h which was a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e c h o i c e o f a p p r o p r i a t e m e d i a ' f o r s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s o r a u d i e n c e s . I t can be c o n c l u d e d f r o m t a l k i n g w i t h t h e l o c a l p l a n n e r s and g r a p h i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t t h e o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n i n g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s i n v o l v i n g t h e use o f v a r i o u s m e d i a . L i t t l e v a l u e i s u s u a l l y p l a c e d on t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s p a t t e r n i s i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h a n o t h e r i s s u e : t o what e x t e n t t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e e f f e c t i v e g r a p h i c s i s r e l a t e d t o s k i l l s w h i c h can be t a u g h t and l e a r n e d as opposed t o a r t i s t i c t a l e n t w h i c h may o r may not be p r e s e n t i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . A number o f t h e 141 t h e o r i s t s who make a c a s e f o r t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f v i s u a l l a n g u a g e , e s p e c i a l l y A r n h e i m and Adams, were seen t o b e l i e v e t h a t v i s u a l a w a r e n e s s can be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e . In f a c t , t h e y g e n e r a l l y f e e l t h a t , by n e g l e c t i n g s u c h v i s u a l l e a r n i n g , p e o p l e l i m i t t h e i r a b i l i t i e s ,as p r o b l e m s o l v e r s . In t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f a v a i l a b l e t h e o r i e s w h i c h t r e a t e l e m e n t s o f t h e v i s u a l l a n g u a g e o r i t s grammar, i t became e v i d e n t t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h can be shown t h r o u g h e x p e r i m e n t s t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o e v e r y o n e . The p e r c e p t u a l c o n c e p t s f r o m t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o l o g y were termed laws s i n c e t h e y o p e r a t e i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n w i t h anyone. B e c a u s e i t was p o s s i b l e t o f i n d s u c h o b j e c t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l g r a p h i c p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i t seems c l e a r t h a t g r a p h i c s can be s t u d i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e o r y , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y . Hence, even p l a n n e r s who do n o t f e e l t h e y p o s s e s s t h e a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s t o p r e p a r e g r a p h i c s t h e m s e l v e s can b e n e f i t f r o m . a s t u d y o f how o b j e c t i v e g r a p h i c p r o p e r t i e s a f f e c t t h e v a l u e o f g r a p h i c s p r e p a r e d f o r them i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . In o u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , g r a p h i c a r t i s t s r e l y h e a v i l y on t h e i r a e s t h e t i c judgement t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r g r a p h i c p r o d u c t s . Many o f t h e p l a n n e r s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e g r a p h i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i t h whom t h e y work put t o o much emphasis on a e s t h e t i c c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s and t o o l i t t l e on c o n t e n t . G r a p h i c a r t i s t s , however, t e n d t o d i s t r u s t t h e o r y when i t comes t o g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n . A r n h e i m d i s c u s s e s t h i s t e n s i o n between i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a i n a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e : "The f e a r t h a t f o r m u l a e might i n t e r f e r e w i t h th e f r e e d o m o f t h e eye d i d not come up as l o n g as 142 t h e eye was s t r o n g . O n l y when t h e r e was s u s p i c i o n t h a t c a l c u l a t i o n , i n s t e a d o f th e eye, was b e i n g used f o r t a s k s t h a t r e q u i r e d c o n s t a n t and f i n a l v i s u a l c o n t r o l , d i d i n t e l l e c t and i n t u i t i o n come t o be viewed as a n t a g o n i s t s . " 1 C l e a r l y , good g r a p h i c s w i l l a l w a y s r e q u i r e i n t u i t i v e , a e s t h e t i c j udgement. T h i s f a c t c a n n o t h o w e v e r , be an e x c u s e f o r p l a n n e r s t o a s s i g n a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g r a p h i c s t o a r t i s t s . P l a n n e r s c a n , a t l e a s t , l e a r n how g r a p h i c s a f f e c t t h e i r v i e w e r s and then use t h i s knowledge t o e v a l u a t e g r a p h i c s p r e p a r e d by o t h e r s i n th e l i g h t o f t h e i r p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , p l a n n e r s s h o u l d l e a r n a b o u t a v a i l a b l e g r a p h i c t h e o r i e s which s u g g e s t c r i t e r i a f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f g r a p h i c s . N a t u r a l l y , p l a n n e r s w i l l a l s o be b e n e f i t e d by t r a i n i n g i n v i s u a l l a n g u a g e as a p r o b l e m s o l v i n g and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s method. The a b i l i t y t o use v i s u a l l a n g u a g e as a t h i n k i n g and e x p l a n a n t o r y s t r a t e g y w i l l be enhanced by any p r a c t i c a l g r a p h i c s k i l l s w h i c h a p l a n n e r a c q u i r e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , knowledge about p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s w i l l g i v e p l a n n e r s an improved p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e v a l u e s and l i m i t -a t i o n s o f t h o s e methods as w e l l as i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y t o communicate e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h g r a p h i c a r t i s t s , t o a c h i e v e a f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t which i s bot h a e s t h e t i c and o p t i m a l l y e f f e c t i v e f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . I t has been seen t h a t g r a p h i c s communicate complex messages.. As G e r b n e r p o i n t e d o u t , a l t h o u g h many a s p e c t s o f a g r a p h i c message a r e u s u a l l y u n c o n s i d e r e d , t h r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e s more e l e m e n t s i n a g r a p h i c image can be c o n t r o l l e d t o a c h i e v e a p u r p o s e f u l impact on t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e . 143 CONCLUSIONS: FOOTNOTES 1 R u d o l f A r n h e i m i n G y o r y g Kepes (ed.) Module, P r o p o r t i o n , Symmetry, Rhythm. George B r a z i l l e r . New Y o r k , 1966. p. 224. 144 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, James L. C o n c e p t u a l B l o c k b u s t i n g : A G u i d e t o B e t t e r I d e a s . W.H. Freeman and Company. San F r a n c i s c o , 1974. A l b e r s , J o s e f . I n t e r a c t i o n o f C o l o r . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . New Haven, 1971. A l e x a n d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r ; S a r a I s h i k a w a ; and Murray S i l v e r s t e i n . 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C a m b r i d g e , 1972. 149 APPENDIX INTERVIEWS P l a n n i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l s L a r r y B e a s l e y Ted D r o e t t b o o m S t a n K i n g D o u g a l d McDonald J i m Moodie A n d r e a s Naumann Ted R a s h l e i g h Len T e n n a n t G r a p h i c S p e c i a l i s t s P h i l i p A l d r i d g e D e n n i s B e d g e l e y K e i t h B e n n e t t Gordon C l e a s b y Bud E l s i e J a n e t Lee R i l e y Park N.I.P. A r e a P l a n n e r f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r D i r e c t o r o f t h e O v e r a l l P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g Department W i l l i a m Graham and A s s o c i a t e s , P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t s Edwin, R e i d and A s s o c i a t e s , C o n s u l t a n t C o - o r d i n a t o r o f t h e C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s D evelopment f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P r o j e c t C o - o r d i n a t o r , I an Hayward and A s s o c i a t e s , C o n s u l t i n g E n g i n e e r s P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s , D epartment o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P l a n n e r , O v e r a l l D i v i s i o n , V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D epartment P a r t n e r , T o p o g r a p h i e s L t d . • G r a p h i c A r t i s t , B urnaby P l a n n i n g Department S u p e r v i s o r o f t h e G r a p h i c s S e c t i o n , V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g Department ( t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n ) G r a p h i c s s u p e r v i s o r , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , P l a n n i n g Department P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s C o n s u l t a n t G r a p h i c C o n s u l t a n t Simon S c o t t G r a p h i c s s p e c i a l i s t , A r t h u r E r i c k s o n A r c h i t e c t s 

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