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A remote sensing based multilevel rangeland classification for the Lac-Du-Bois rangelands, Kamloops,… Watson, Edward Kent 1977

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A REMOTE SENSING BASED MULTILEVEL RANGELAND CLASSIFICATION FOR THE LAC-DU-BOIS RANGELANDS, KAMLOOPS, BRITISH COLUMBIA by EDWARD KENT WATSON B. Sc., University of British Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF SOIL SCIENCES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1977 0 Edward Kent Watson, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e at the' U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t ten pe rm i ss i on . Depar tment o f S o u . S c , t o c . c The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date £*£p7~&n/2,uT/z So / 9 7 7 1 ABSTRACT With 1.2 m i l l i o n hectares of open grassland and 6 m i l l i o n hectares of forested rangeland i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Inventory system had to be developed f o r rangeland which could be compiled quickly, accurately, and on an annual basis with minimal time spent c o l l e c t i n g ground data. Remote sensing techniques provided the t o o l whereby large t r a c t s of land were c l a s s i f i e d , inventoried and monitored. The major obje c t i v e of t h i s study was to use mu l t i s c a l e and multidate remote sensor data to produce a rangeland c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and legend f o r the open grassland of the Lac-du-Bois range located north of Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia. A e r i a l photography, obtained at various scales and dates throughout the summers of 1975 and 1976, was used to produce a range inventory map of the Lac-du-Bois area. Landsat maps were prepared from September 1972, J u l y 1973 and J u l y 1975 imagery. The developed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n legend was based on an e c o l o g i c a l l y -based, remote-sensing legend and was expanded f o r the c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. The developed rangeland legend i s h i e r a r c h i c a l i n format, f l e x i b l e , expandable and adaptable to other rangeland areas. Six boundary t y p e - l i n e s were designed to separate (1) sharp d i s t i n c t changes i n vegetation types; (2) to i n d i c a t e a known t r a n s i t i o n or ecotone between v e r i f i e d types; (3) to denote interpreted boundaries between known types; (4) to map inte r p r e t e d vegetation areas; (5) to i n d i c a t e f e ncelines boundaries, and (6) to i n d i c a t e obscured land. - i i -Landsat maps produced from 1972, 1973 and 1975 imagery provided a broad overview of the major range types found on the Lac-du-Bois range. Landsat imagery combined with small scale, 1:63,000 colour and c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d photography provided the f i r s t step i n the inventory phase. 1:20,000 colour and c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d photography i s not recommended f o r d e t a i l e d range inventory mapping since the e n t i r e study area requires ground work. 1:10,000 colour and c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d o r i g i n a l d i a p o s i t i v e s provide the required d e t a i l to i d e n t i f y range types and the species present without spending unnecessary time i n the f i e l d . O r i g i n a l 1:10,000, colour and c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d d i a p o s i t i v e s must be employed for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n purposes. Paper p r i n t s are required f o r f i e l d work. Species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was possible on large s c a l e 1:4,000 o r i g i n a l c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d d i a p o s i t i v e s . The range c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was developed and a inventory map of the Lac-du-Bois range was produced which i l l u s t r a t e s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n legend and boundary types. - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES v i i LIST OF APPENDICES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2 1.1 Objective 3 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA: THE LAC-DU-BOIS RANGE 5 2.1 Geology 5 2.2 Landforms 5 2.3 Physiography. . . . 8 2.4 Soils 8 2.5 Climate 9 2.6 Vegetation 9 3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 16 3.1 Ranching History 16 3.2 Photo Interpretation Studies Related to Rangeland. . . .17 3.3 Classification Systems . 19 - iv -Page 4.0 METHODS 24 4.1 Aerial Photography and Satellite Data 24 4.2 Office Work: Interpretation 24 4.3 Field Work 25 5.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 27 5.1 Air Photos and Imagery Used 27 5.2 Interpretation of Air Photos 31 5.21 Normal Colour 31 5.22 Colour-Infrared 32 5.3 Interpretation of Landsat Imagery 33 5.4 Legend System 45 5.5 Boundaries • 57 5.6 Sagebrush Density 60 5.7 Map and Photographic Scales • • • • • 64 6.0 RECOMMENDATIONS 68 7.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 72 LITERATURE CITED 74 APPENDIX A 76 APPENDIX B 78 APPENDIX C 79 APPENDIX D 84 APPENDIX E 86" L n - v -Table LIST OF TABLES Page I Vegetation S i t e s , Grassland Zones and Great S o i l Groups of the Lac-du-Bois Range, Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia 11 II C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Levels and Data C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A f t e r Anderson et a l . 1976 22 III Imagery and a e r i a l photography used i n the Lac-du-Bois Range Study 28 IV Basic Remote Sensing C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Taken From Legge et a l . 1974 45 V Range C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Legend; Developed for the Lac-du-Bois Range, Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia 48 VI C r i t e r i a Used i n In t e r p r e t a t i o n of Rangeland Units from Normal Colour (NC), paper p r i n t s and O r i g i n a l P o s i t i v e Colour-Infrared Transparencies (OCIR) f o r June 9, 1975, 1:20,000 Scale Photographs 51 VII C r i t e r i a Used i n In t e r p r e t a t i o n of Homogeneous Units f o r the Three 1:150,000 Scale Landsat Maps Using Simulated Colour-Infrared Composites UNITS NAMED AFTER GROUND VERIFICATION 56 VIII Boundary Types and A p p l i c a t i o n 59 IX Sagebrush Density and Grass Asso c i a t i o n • 61 - v i -LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. a. Location of Study Area 6 b. Place Names and F l i g h t Lines of Study Area 6 2. Geology of the Lac-du-Bois Range 7 3. Legend f o r Climax Vegetation Zones, Lac-du-Bois Range, Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia 13 (Climax Vegetation Zones of the Lac-du-Bois Range) 14 4. Legend f o r J u l y 29, 1972, Landsat Map 35 (July 29, 1972, Landsat Map) 36 5. Legend for J u l y 23, 1975, Landsat Map 41 (July 23, 1975 Landsat Map) 42 6. Legend f o r September 16, 1973, Landsat Map 43 (September 16, 1973, Landsat Map) 44 7. Legend for Sagebrush Density. Lac-du-Bois Range, Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia 62 (Sagebrush Density Map, Lac-du-Bois Range, Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia) . . . . .63 - v i i -LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES Plate Page I Legend f o r Landsat False Colour-Infrared Composite f o r J u l y 29, 1972 37 II Legend f o r Landsat False Colour-Infrared Composite f o r J u l y 23, 1975 39 - v i i i -LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page A S c i e n t i f i c Names of Species Appearing i n the Text. . . 76 B C r i t e r i a f o r Evaluation "...Land-use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Schemes for Use with O r b i t a l and Other High A l t i t u d e Imagery '! 78 C Complete Remote Sensing Legend as Proposed by Legge et a l . 1974 79 D L i s t of Decreasers, Increasers and Invaders for the Lac-du-Bois Range S i t e s 84 E Range Inventory Map of the Lac-du-Bois Range 86 - ix -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding f o r t h i s p r o j e c t was provided by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada through an Extramural Research grant. The author extends s p e c i a l thanks and appreciation to Dr. A.R. Mack, S o i l Research I n s t i t u t e Ottawa, who i n i t i a t e d the funding. The author expresses sincere thanks to the s i s committee members Dr. P.A. Murtha, Faculty of Forestry and Department of S o i l Science, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, for h i s guidance, encouragement and support throughout the study; to Dr. R.M. Strang, F a c u l t i e s of Forestry and A g r i c u l t u r a l Sciences, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, for h i s help i n plant species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and range ecology; to Dr. L.M. Lavkulich, Department of S o i l Science, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, for h i s encouragement and assistance; and to Dr. A.L. Van Ryswyk, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada Res earch Station, Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s help and assistance i n introducing the author to B r i t i s h Columbia rangelands. Special thanks to Dr. M.D. P i t t , A g r i c u l t u r a l Sciences, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, along with Susan Hoyles f o r t h e i r time aiding the author i n the a r t of range species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; and f i n a l l y , to my wife Jo-Ann f o r her assistance i n the f i e l d , and her patience and encouragement throughout the study. - 1 -1.0 INTRODUCTION - 2 -1.0 INTRODUCTION The British Columbia Range Division^a unit of the British Columbia Forest Service,has to administer and manage 1.2 million hectares of open grassland and 6 million hectares of forest range-land. To do this, information on range condition and range readiness i s gathered by observation from light a i r c r a f t . Currently, the Range Division does not have enough trained staff available to administer such a large area adequately and, in some parts of the province, personnel s t i l l rely on "... 1932 range inventory maps..." (personal communication J. Hilton, 1977)* as a data base. The Range Division obtains the 1:20,000 maps and black and white aerial photographs currently supplied by the Forest Service. Frequently, the Forest Service does not have up to date maps or photography for range inventory and management purposes. The climax vegetation communities of the Lac-du-Bois rangeland, Kamloops, B.C. have been well documentated. However, the vegetation communities found on the grassland ranges today are not the same as the climax vegetation communities of the past. Overgrazing of the grassland ranges has resulted in reduction of climax vegetation, the increase of less desirable forage species and the invasion of undesirable weeds. Mr. J. Hilton, range inventory co-ordinator, B.C. Range Division, Williams Lake, B.C. - 3 ~ The rangelands, then, are in a ser i a l stage, and, with good management, could trend towards the former climax type. If the open grassland range can be brought into better condition, and managed properly and effectively, higher forage production may remove some of the limiting pressure, namely the shortage of early spring forage. To mar-age rangelands i t i s necessary to f i r s t classify, and second to inventory the EXISTING VEGETATION. Inventories must be carried out on a regular repeatable basis as the rangelands are i n constant use and the vegetation communities can change over short periods of time. To determine range trend and condition a monitoring system i s required. The cost of ground surveys i s disproportionate to the amount of information gained. The recent explosion of new remote sensing techniques and data sources provide a tool whereby inventories can be conducted over large tracks of the earth's surface. However, before inventories can be compiled, a classification system i s required. 1.1 Obj ective The main purpose of this thesis i . ^ to develop a Range Classification for grasslands ranges of B.C. using remote sensor information as the primary data source. Included i n the classification development i s the evaluation of multiscale and multidate imagery to determine which scales, date and image or film types are best suited for interpretation of rangeland communities. - A -2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA: THE LAC-DU-BOIS RANGE - 5 -2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA: THE LAC-DU-BOIS RANGE 2.1 Geology The Lac-du-Bois range (Figure 1) i s underlain by f i v e bedrock units (Figure 2). The oldest u n i t , the Cache Creek Group, contains h i g h l y deformed Palaeozoic rocks which are Carboniferous and Permian i n age. The Mesozoic i s represented by rocks of the Upper T r i a s s i c , N i c o l a Group (Cockfield, 1947). The Cenozoic rocks are subdivided i n t o three u n i t s belonging to the Kamloops group. These rocks are of Miocene age or e a r l i e r . The Coldwater beds, are of sedimentary genesis, whereas unit four i s composed of rocks of v o l c a n i c o r i g i n . The sedimentary T r a n q u i l l e beds are the youngest rocks found on the Lac-du-Bois range (Cockfield, 1947). 2.2 Landforms The landforris of the Lac-du-Bois range were etched i n t o , and deposited on the landscape during the l a s t southward surge and wasting of the Pliestocene i c e sheet. T i l l p l a i n s and drumlinized t i l l p l a i n s found mainly on the midlands and uplands of the I n t e r i o r Plateau, are the dominant landforms covering the study area (Fulton, 1975). The midlands and uplands were the f i r s t areas to become i c e free when the Fraser advance waned. Esker, esker-kame complexes, kame terraces and miscellaneous gravel deposits were formed as melt water removed the s i l t s and c l a y s , which were subsequently deposited i n g l a c i a l lakes. Strandlines and outwash deltas i n d i c a t e ancient - 6 -Figure la. Location of« Study Area. 1 2 4 ° 118° Figure lb. Place Names and Flight Lines of Study Area. KAMLOOPS - 7 -F i g u r e 2. Geology of the Lac-du-Bois Range. {J~J CACHE CREEK GROUP NICOLA GROUP 3.«.5| KAMLOOPS GROUP COLDWATER BEDS | « | VOLCANICS A r g i l l i t e , q u a r t z i t e , hornstone, limestone, conglomerate, b r e c c i a , greenstone, serpentine. Greenstone, a n d e s i t e , b a s a l t , b r e c c i a , t u f f . Conglomerate, sandstone, s h a l e , c o a l . R h y o l i t e , a n d e s i t e , b a s a l t . TRANQUILLE BEDS Conglomerate, sandstone, s h a l e , c o a l . - 8 -water l e v e l s and lake p o s i t i o n s . Also during the downwasting period, crevasse f i l l i n g s were deposited at the northern and of the Lac-du-Bois range. Post g l a c i a l erosion has removed material from upland areas leaving exposed bedrock outcrops. Before vegetation establishment, winds removed s i l t s from dry, exposed, l a c u s t r i n e deposits and l a i d down a t h i n layer of loess over much of the area. 2.3 Physiography The Kamloops region l i e s within The I n t e r i o r Plateau (Dawson, 1895) of the I n t e r i o r System of the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a (Fulton, 1975). The I n t e r i o r Plateau has a mean el e v a t i o n of 1066 m, whereas the uplands a t t a i n elevations of 1220 to 2137 m and the v a l l e y f l o o r s l i e between 300 and 600 m. The Lac-du-Bois grasslands vary i n el e v a t i o n from 350 m to 1000 m, with the forested ranges found above 1000 m. 2.4 S o i l s The s o i l s of the Lac-du-Bois range are a function of climate, vegetation, parent m a t e r i a l , time and organisms. Generally s o i l / vegetation boundaries are thought to be complementary. Three s o i l great groups, the Brown, the Dark Brown and the Black Chernozems are found on the Lac-du-Bois range (Spilsbury and T i s d a l e , 1944; T i s d a l e , 1947; Van Ryswyk et a l . , 1966; McLean and Marchand, 1968; and The Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1971). - 9 -2.5 Clitnatf The Lac-du-Bois range l i e s within the i n t e r i o r dry b e l t and i s c l a s s i f i e d as dry steppe (Fulton, 1975). Over a 65-year period, the average p r e c i p i t a t i o n at Kamloops, was 26.2cm, approximately h a l f of which f a l l s between A p r i l and October (Tisdale and McLean, 1957). L o c a l climate i s influenced by topography and elevation with r a i n f a l l i ncreasing and temperature decreasing according to increases i n e l e v a t i o n (Van Ryswyk et a l . , 1966). McLean and Marchand (1968) gave annual r a i n f a l l f i g u r e s f o r the lower, middle and upper grassland zones as 23-24.5, 24.5-29 and 28-33 cm r e s p e c t i v e l y . E f f e c t i v e p r e c i p i t a t i o n determines the climax plant communities found on the Lac-du-Bois range. 2.6 Vegetation Before a remote sensing range c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system can begin, a knowledge of some terminology, climax vegetation and the r e a c t i o n of vegetation to grazing pressure i s required. The following terms and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s were taken from McLean and Marchand (1968).* Range s i t e " ... areas of rangeland that has a c e r t a i n p o t e n t i a l f o r growing forage." For a complete disc u s s i o n of the Lac-du-Bois range veget a t i and i t s r e a c t i o n to grazing pressure McLean and Marchand's (1968) p u b l i c a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e , on request, from the Information D i v i s i o n , Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Ottawa, K1A 0C7. - 10 -Range Condition " i s the state or health of a range i n r e l a t i o n to i t s p o t e n t i a l . " Climax Plant Community " i s one i n which the plant species have reached a state of e q u i l i b r i u m with the climate and s o i l . " Plant Succession " i s the replacement of one plant species or group of species by others." Range Plants "can be c l a s s i f i e d according to t h e i r response to grazing ... as ... decreasers, increasers and invaders." Decreasers "are species that decrease under prolonged, excessive grazing." These are u s u a l l y the dominant species of the climax community and, generally, are the most palatable f o r c a t t l e . Increasers "are species that increase with moderate overuse." These plants are generally subdominant species i n the climax community, and u s u a l l y have a lower n u t r i t i v e value. Since the more palatable and n u t r i t i v e species are removed, subdominant species i n the stand can compete e f f e c t i v e l y f o r moisture, space and l i g h t , and therefore they increase i n abundance and numbers. With complete removal of the decreasers, grazing pressure s h i f t s to the increasers and they, i n turn, begin to decrease allowing invading species to colonize the range s i t e . Invaders "are species that invade the plant community as the range de t e r i o r a t e s ... and they are not members of the climax community." Table 1 gives the climax vegetation s i t e s and t h e i r corresponding grassland zones and s o i l great groups. - 11 -Table I. Vegetation s i t e s , grassland zones and great s o i l groups of the Lac-du-Bois range, Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia. S i t e Grassland Zone S o i l s * Big Sagebrush/ Bluebunch Wheatgrass Lower grassland Brown Chernozems Bluebunch Wheatgrass/ Sandberg's Bluegrass Middle grassland Dark Brown Chernozems Bluebunch Wheatgrass/ Rough Fescue Upper grassland Black Chernozems Ponderosa Pine Middle and Upper grassland Dark Grey Chernozems See Appendix A - f o r s c i e n t i f i c names of plant species. - 12 -According to McLean and Marchand (1968) three d i s t i n c t climax vegetation communities occurred on the Lac-du-Bols range (Figure 3). (For McLean and Marchand's (1968) complete l i s t of decreasers, increasers and invaders f o r each s i t e r e f e r to Appendi D). - 13 -Figure 3. Legend for Climax Vegetation Zones Lac-du-Bois Range, Kamloops, British Columbia.* Elevation s\j§) 340 - 620m 620 - 800m 800 - 920m 920m + 620 - 920m Vegetation Zones  BIG SAGEBRUSH - BLUEBUNCH WHEATGRASS SITE Decreasers - Bluebunch wheatgrass. Increasers - Big sagebrush, dwarf pussytoes, needle-and-thread, rabbitbrush. BLUEBUNCH WHEATGRASS - SANDBERG'S BLUEGRASS SITE Decreasers - Bluebunch wheatgrass. Increasers - Needle-and-thread, dwarf pussytoes, rabbitbrush, Junegrass, pasture sage. BLUEBUNCH WHEATGRASS - ROUGH FESCUE SITE Decreasers - Bluebunch wheatgrass, rough fescue, Idaho fescue. Increasers - Kentucky bluegrass, Junegrass, dwarf pussytoes, timber milk-vetch, pasture sage. DOUGLAS FIR ZONE Decreasers - Pinegrass. PONDEROSA PINE SITE Decreasers - Bluebunch wheatgrass, rough fescue, Idaho fescue. Increasers - Balsamroot, big sagebrush, dwarf pussytoes, needle-and-thread, rabbitbrush, Junegrass. * Data taken from McLean and Marchand (1968). - 15 -3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW - 16 -3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 Ranching History As a result of poor management practices, much of the B.C. Interior grasslands are in poor condition. Tisdale (1947) stated that "there are few grassland areas where the vegetation has not been altered by overgrazing in the past." The first major influx of cattle into the Interior occurred during the Cariboo gold rush of 1858. After mining activity subsided, there was a l u l l in the cattle industry until completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the early 1900's, which provided cheap transportation to coastal markets, and by 1900 the cattle industry was permanently established. During the drought of the 1930's the Lac-du-Bois range was heavily overgrazed by horses and cattle (Van Ryswyk et al., 1966). Yearlong grazing was confined to the grasslands (McLean and Willis, 1961). Not until over-utilization of the grasslands forced the ranchers to use the forested rangelands in 1935, beginning with summer grazing of the Tranquille Forest (Tisdale and McLean, 1957), did the grasslands have some of the grazing pressure removed. Increased rainfall and spring and f a l l grazing by sheep from 1940 to 1965 had allowed some range recovery (McLean et al., 1966). From 1965 to 1974, yearlong grazing by cattle again caused the range condition to deteriorate (personal communication A. McLean, 1977)*. Grazing by cattle was halted by the Lands Branch in 1974 because the range Dr. A . McLean, Research Scientist, Agric. Can. Research Station, Kamloops, B.C. - 17 -was s t i l l being abused. During the 1976 field season cattle, in limited numbers, were permitted on the range for specific periods. This restriction of grazing and an abnormally wet summer in 1976 has permitted recovery in some areas. 3.2 Photo Interpretation Studies related to Rangeland Several photo interpretation studies have been done on rangelands, but research was concentrated on terrain evaluation or species identification. For example, a rangeland photo interpretation study, using black and white photos at a scale of 1:52,800, was carried out for the Princeton Basin by Lord and McLean (1969) in which "... landscape units and sub units ..." were delineated and correlated with landforms, plant community and soil pattern. About the same time, Driscoll et al. (1970) used large scale, 1:600 and 1:4,200, 70 mm format colour and colour-infrared photographs for range species identification. It was found that identification of herbaceous and "shrubby" species was best done using large-scale colour-infrared photographs. However, there were some exceptions to this general rule since some species were more readily identified on normal colour film. Lewis et a l . (1975) used "... visual photo interpretation techniques ..." to map soil association boundaries from Landsat imagery in Nebraska and found rangeland vegetation, differences in topography and near surface hydrology are closely associated with soil pattern. It was concluded "... satellite imagery has applications in delineating soils associations at map scales of 1:100,000 to - 18 -1:300,000 in areas where vegetation and topography can be stratified on the imagery." Hironaka et al_. (1976) used a colour-additive viewer and 70 mm Landsat transparencies taken on four different dates "... to determine seasonal differences in the imagery of range types." It was reported that sagebrush types could be separated from wheatgrass and that mountain big sagebrush - Idaho fescue types were differentiated from basin big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass types. Hironaka et al. (1976) concluded that "... results indicate the capability of ERTS* imagery combined with small scale colour-infrared photos and ground the truth to provide timely information on...rangeland use, and classification of many major range types." Optical visual interpretation techniques have been successfully used to interpret LANDSAT data, and since these techniques had strong influences in the rangeland study, some of these studies are mentioned below. Murtha and Watson (1975) used sequential Landsat imagery to interpret and map forest clearcutting from two different map scales 2 on an I S Colour-Additive Viewer. The 70 mm entire - image scenes were used and four vegetation classes were recognized at a scale of 1:500,000. By employing, 70 mm portions cut from the 18.5 x 18.5 cm positive transparencies, a mapping scale of 1:150,000 was produced from which eight vegetation classes were recognized and mapped. Murtha and Watson (1975) concluded detailed mapping from Landsat imagery was "... limited by the capabilities of the mapping equipment" and not by low image resolution, and that items can be discriminated on the imagery but they are too small to map. * ERTS = official name for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite between 1972 and 1974, now call LANDSAT. - 19 -Murtha (1976) compared image types, scales and i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n equipment to determine which combination gave the best r e s u l t s f o r f o r e s t damage mapping. I t was suggested that "... a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o p t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n equipment and the photo product used during the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " e x i s t , and that "... (a) r e s u l t s from c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m be accepted before r e s u l t s from normal - colour f i l m , (b) r e s u l t s from o r i g i n a l material be accepted before r e s u l t s from d u p l i c a t e m a t e r i a l s , and (c) r e s u l t s from d i a p o s i t i v e s be accepted before paper p r i n t s . " 3.3 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Systems Many c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have been proposed to map rangelands. Probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t and most promising was derived i n i t i a l l y by Anderson (1971), p a r t i a l l y r e f i n e d by Poulton (1972) and fur t h e r expanded by Legge et a l . (1974). O r i g i n a l l y , Anderson (1971) proposed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r s a t e l l i t e and high l e v e l remote sensor data (Appendix B). These c r i t e r i a should be kept i n mind during any m u l t i l e v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n work using remote sensor data. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme was adaptable f o r use over a l a r g e area, at any season, and remained consistent during scale changes. Poulton (1972) put forward the r e f i n e d remote sensing legend i n which he defined the f i r s t two classes or l e v e l s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . Along with the legend d e s c r i p t i o n , which was designed to be compatible with remote sensor data, Poulton provided an exc e l l e n t review of the philosophy underlying the legend development. Greater dependence on remote sensing techniques over ground surveys has necessitated mapping legends be developed f o r imagery i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Remote sensor data was a v a i l a b l e from conventional - 20 -to very high a l t i t u d e a i r c r a f t and o r b i t i n g s a t e l l i t e s . Therefore, legend systems must be h i e r a r c h i c a l so that broad as w e l l as s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n could be obtained without changing the l o g i c of the system (Poulton, 1972). Also i t was important that the h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used i n the legend system be compatible with the image i d e n t i f i c a t i o n needs at each -lev e l of scale and r e s o l u t i o n . Subordinate classes should be subsets of a higher h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l i n the scheme (Poulton, 1972). Legge et^ a l . (1974), developed an e c o l o g i c a l l y based remote sensing legend. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n proceeded from general to s p e c i f i c , and extended, i n d e t a i l , Poulton's (1972) legend to T e r t i a r y and, i n some cases, to Quaternary classes (Appendix C). I t was suggested by Legge et a l . (1974) that scale and r e s o l u t i o n of a v a i l a b l e imagery and ultimate use or obj e c t i v e of the end products are f a c t o r s which determined the degree of i n t e r p r e t e d d e t a i l of the imagery. In the systems, the f i r s t three l e v e l s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f o r n a t u r a l vegetation, c l a s s 300, are based on physiognomic and s t r u c t u r a l components of the plant community whereas the Quaternary l e v e l i s f l o u r e s t i c a l l y determined. Anderson et a l . (1976) developed a land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system which could be used with m u l t i l e v e l remote sensor data. The f i r s t two l e v e l s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n were defined, with l e v e l s three and four l e f t open f o r development by user agencies. - 21 -A multilevel classification system was used because different sensors will provide data at a range of resolution dependent upon altitude and scale (Anderson et al. 1976). Also , resolution will be affected by "... how far the study image is removed in number of reproduction stages from the original record." Anderson ejt al. (1976) related their classification levels to the mode of data acquisition (Table II). Since the stated objective of this study was to develop a range classification for the grasslands of British Columbia using remote sensing information as the primary data source, i t was decided to proceed along the lines originally defined by Anderson (1971), Poulton (1972) and Legge et al. (1974). Therefore, the starting point of this study was the acceptance of 314, (grassland, steppe and prairie) (Appendix C), and consequently recognizing that whether satellite, aircraft or ground data was being examined, the Lac-du-Bois rangelands were in i t i a l l y categorized as 314 for the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of classification. The details of the study proceed from here. - 22 -Table II. Classification levels and data characteristics after Anderson et al. 1976. Classificatibri Levels Typical Data Characteristics I - earth resources orbiting satellite (LANDSAT) data scales 1:150,000 or smaller - High-altitude data at 12,000 m or above (scales 1:50,000 to 1:150,000) - Medium-altitude data taken between 3,100 and 12,400 m (1:20,000 to 1:50,000 scale) - Low-altitude data taken below 3,100 m. (larger than 1:20,000 scale) - 23 -4.0 METHODS - 24 -4.0 METHODS 4.1 A e r i a l photography and s a t e l l i t e data The Canada Centre f o r Remote Sensing (C.C.R.S.) was contracted to obtain colour and c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d photography during May, June, J u l y and September, 1975. Four scales were requested: 1:4,000, 1:8,000, 1:15,000 and 1:63,000. During 1976 two commercial contracts were requested. P a c i f i c Surveys L t d . (Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia) was contracted to obtain 1:4,000 scale c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d d i a p o s i t i v e s . A request f o r large, 1:600, scale photography was placed with Integrated Resources Photography (Vancouver). Focal length cameras requested f o r C.C.R.S., P a c i f i c Surveys Ltd. and Integrated Resources Photography were 152.4 mm, 304.8 mm and 152.4 mm r e s p e c t i v e l y . Landsat data was requested through C.C.R.S. f o r 1972, 1973 and 1975. 4.2 O f f i c e Work: In t e r p r e t a t i o n 2 Landsat imagery was interpreted using an I S Colour Additive Viewer. Transfer of the s a t e l l i t e maps to topographic maps was done using a K a i l R e f l e c t i n g Projector. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p o s i t i v e colour i n f r a r e d a e r i a l photography was conducted on a Bausch and Lomb Zoom 240 stereoscope mounted on a Richards Light Table. Paper p r i n t s were viewed using a 2 power pocket stereoscope i n the f i e l d and with an Old D e l f t stereoscope i n the o f f i c e . - 25 -Photo typing was done on the June 9, 1975 colour prints and the type lines were transferred to the base map using a Bausch and Loom Zoom Transfer scope.* 4.3 Field Work Preliminary f i e l d work was carried out during the last two weeks of August and during the second week of September 1975. To help bridge the gap between ground work and the 1:6,000 scale photography, 35 mm colour and colour infrared transparencies were taken from a fixed wing airc r a f t . Field work in the summer of 1976 continued through May, June and July. Field data was compiled on mylar overlays super-imposed on paper prints of the June 9, 1975, 1:20,000 normal colour photography. Field information was gathered along random transects across the range. Transects were selected to cross a l l range "communities". Species composition and traverse lines were recorded on the overlays along with ground photo stations. Loan of the Transfer scope for the duration of the study from the Forest Management Institute, Ottawa i s gratefully acknowledged. - 26 -RESULTS AND DISCUSSION - 27 -5.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.1 A i r Photos and Imagery Used Colour and c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l photography, obtained during the summer of 1975 and 1976, i s l i s t e d i n Table I I I . F l i g h t l i n e s appear on Figure 1. Examination of Table I I I reveals problems were encountered with image q u a l i t y and scales received. Sixty percent overlap, necessary f o r complete stereo coverage, was la c k i n g on some 1:20,000 scale photography. Some of the images were over-exposed but the c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p r i n t s of the rangelands were badly over-exposed. Of eight r o l l s of f i l m exposed during 1975, the expiry date had passed f o r f i v e r o l l s . However, C.C.R.S. has discovered that emulsion number i s the f a c t o r which determines whether f i l m l i f e has expired. Kodak produces two d i f f e r e n t Aerochrome Colour Infrared f i l m s numbered 2443 (personal communication, McLaren, 1977).* Therefore, C.C.R.S. now s e n s i t o m e t r i c a l l y t e s t s each r o l l before exposure to determine the corr e c t f i l t e r s required f o r constant exposure from r o l l to r o l l and from one scale to another. This procedure was not i n e f f e c t i n 1975. I t i s now p o s s i b l e to obtain co r r e c t colour-balance-1 i n f r a r e d photography. With regard to scale change "Airborne documentation shows, and p i l o t s r e c a l l , that on s e v e r a l f l i g h t s , i t was impossible to maintain the requested a l t i t u d e due to the presence of high c i r r u s cloud and/or A i r T r a f f i c Control r e s t r i c t i o n s . A i r T r a f f i c Control r e s t r i c t i o n s are o f ten encountered during project F l i g h t s and require f l i g h t s at N * E.J. McLaren, Head, Airborne Operations Section, Canada Centre For Remote Sensing. Table III. Imagery and a e r i a l photography used i n the Lac-du-Bois Range Study. Photo or Image Type Dates Scale Requested Scale Received Image"'" Quali t y Image Format 2 Coverage B-4 B-5 B-6 B-7 Landsat Ju l y 29/72 1:3,369,000 1:3,369,000 1 1 1 1 B&W Line 3 Jul y 29/72 Sept.16/73 1:1,000,000 1:1,000,000 1:1,000,000 1:1,000,000 3 3 2. 4b 2 2 2 2 P o s i t i v e Trans-parencies Line 3 Line 3 Jul y 23/75 1:1,000,000 1:1,000,000 3 2 1 1 Line 3 Kodak 2443 Aerochrome Infrared May 26/75 1:63,000 1:15,000 1:61,7603 1:16,670 NC 4b 4b CIR 2 3b Paper p r i n t s Line 3 Line 7 and June 9/75 1:63,000 1:65,475 2 2a Line 3 Kodak 2445 1:15,000 1:19,290 2 4a Lines 1,2,3,4,5 Aerocolour Negative 1:8,000 1:4,000 1:9,000 1:5,910 1 1 3f 2a Line 7 Line 7 Ju l y 23/75 1:63,000 1:68,620 2 3d Line 3 1:15,000 1:17,685 1 3c Line 7 Sept. 6/75 1:63,000 1:61,760 2 3e Line 3 1:4,000 1:8,350 3g 2a, 2b Line 7 June 9/76 1:600 1:600 — 4a Line 7 4 Sept. 1/76 1:63,000 not c a l c u l a t e d 1 1 Line 3 Table I I I . (Cont'd) Imagery and a e r i a l photography used i n the Lac-du-Bois Range Study. Photo or Image Type Scale Scale Image''' Image Dates Requested Received Q u a l i t y Format May 26/75 1:63,000 1:61,760 — 3a,4b O r i g i n a l 1:15,000 1:16,670 4b P o s i t i v e June 9/75 CIR 1:63,000 1:65,475 2a Trans-1:15,000 1:19,290 — 2a,3f parencies 1:8,000 1:9,000 — 2a,3f 1:4,000 1:5,910 2a J u l y 23/75 1:63,000 1:68,620 1 1:15,000 1:17,685 1 Sept. 6/75 1:63,000 1:61,760 2a 1:4,000 1:8,350 1 June 9/76 1:600 1:600 4a Ju l y 15/76 1:4,000 1:4,400 2c Coverage^ Kodak 2443 Aerochrome Infrared Line 3 Line 7 Line 3 Lines 1,2,3,4,: Line 7 Line 7 Line 3 Line 7 Line 3 Line 7 Line 7 4 Line 7"* Table I I I . (Cont'd) Imagery and a e r i a l photography used i n the Lac-du-Bois Range Study. Image Quality; 1 = Excellent 2 = Good 2a overexposed at hot spot, can be up to h of the frame 2b v i g n e t t i n g around edges 3 = F a i r 3a overexposed 3b \-\ of each frame overexposed 3c H~H of each frame underexposed 3d e n t i r e frame(s) underexposed 3e greater than of each frame overexposed ( 3f lower \ of grassland from Long Lake south, overexposed; w north of Long Lake i s good ° 3g overexposed at hot spot north of Long Lake, 1 t o t a l overexposure south of Long Lake. 4 = Poor 4a t o t a l overexposure of most or a l l of the frames 4b blurred or out of focus. 2 See Figure l b f o r f l i g h t l i n e l o c a t i o n . 3 Average scale measured at Long Lake. 4 Photography flown by Integrated Resources Photography Ltd. 5 Photography flown by P a c i f i c Surveys Ltd. - 31 -a l t e r n a t e a l t i t u d e s . " (personal communication, McLaren). 5.2 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of A i r Photos 5.21 Normal Colour Homogeneous vegetation u n i t s were mapped on the 1:63,000 scale photographs. Homogeneous u n i t s d i s p l a y a continuous tone, texture or vegetative composition as seen on the a e r i a l photography or Landsat imagery. Each map was d i f f e r e n t and i t was found that homogeneous u n i t s mapped from small scale remote sensor date, were best delineated on the Landsat imagery. However, the small scale colour and colour-i n f r a r e d photographs provided information on roads, lakes, topography, landforms and parent m a t e r i a l s . The J u l y 23, 1975 photographs were of excellent q u a l i t y . Colours were sharp and excel l e n t separation of vegetation from s o i l s was p o s s i b l e . A rainstorm the day p r i o r cleared the haze and dampened the s o i l which reduced the high s o i l s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e u s u a l l y present on open grasslands. Coverage f o r t h i s data was obtained f o r l i n e 3 only. Since the colour i n f r a r e d p r i n t s were over exposed, normal colour 1:20,000 June 9, 1975 photographs were employed throughout the mapping p r o j e c t . Some homogeneous u n i t s were pre-typed and f i e l d v e r i f i e d . However, many uni t s could be delineated only with use of large s c a l e photography or f i e l d work. Sagebrush density was mapped from t h i s photography. At the la r g e r scale of 1:6,000 and 1:9,000, photographs allowed i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of bluebunch wheatgrass, balsamroot, rabbitbrush, sagebrush and Kentucky bluegrass. - 32 -The September large scale colour photos confirmed interpretations made from the June photographs. 5.22 Colour-Infrared Table III indicates most colour infrared paper prints were over-exposed and so were of l i t t l e value in the field. The high albedo from the exposed rangeland soils and flying with a sun angle greater than 45° were suspected as being the primary factors contributing to over exposure. The original colour-infrared diapositives were borrowed from the National Air Photo Library* in March of 1977. Resolution and image quality was good. The remainder of this discussion refers to the original transparencies. The originals provided species data and boundary information not obtainable on the contact paper prints. The 1:6,000 and 1:9,000 scale originals provided rapid species identification. Subtle colour tones required to identify some species were lost with duplication to either prints or diapositives. Pacific Survey was contracted, to fly line 7 at a scale of 1:4,000. The originals, while slightLv under-exposed, were of good quality. Bluebunch wheatgrass associated with sagebrush plants could be identified. In an attempt to obtain better colour balance a colour-compensating magenta f i l t e r , (CC 10 M) was placed over one half of the camera lens. The filtered portion resulted in a more "normal" colour-infrared rendition than did the unfiltered portion. * Thanks are extended to the N.A.P.L.for the loan of these valuable photos. - 33 -The large scale 1:600 colour-infrared 70 mm. photographs allowed separation of individual bunchgrass plants from balsamroot . 5.3 Interpretation of Landsat Imagery Prior to field work, Landsat imagery was interpreted to delineate the grasslands of the Kamloops area (Table III). The purpose was to determine how much information could be obtained and mapped without the aid of a-priori knowledge and mapping was done on the July 29, 1972 imagery (Figure 4). The July 23, 1975 and September 16, 1973 maps were compiled after field work was completed. The 70 mm entire scene images were employed to produce the "colour composite map" (Plate 1). Besides the various points of interest indicated, two important features are evident. First, the forest, (340), can be easily separated from grasslands, (314), and second, distinct zones (A and B) can be seen within the grasslands. A closer look at area A was taken using 70 mm portions cut from the 18.5 x 18.5 cm. black and white positive Landsat transparencies (Plate II). The three zones that were mapped on the July 29, 1972 image, at a scale of 1:150,000, correspond in aerial distribution to the lower, middle and upper grassland zones as described by Van Ryswyk et al_. (1966), and McLean and Marchand (1968). ,In the July 23, 1975 Landsat map (Figure 5), units are similar to the July 29, 1972 map units except boundaries had fluctuated somewhat. - 34 -The September 16, 1973 Landsat map (Figure 6) was produced using bands four, six and seven, corresponding to the green (500-600 nm) and two infrared bands (700-800 nm and 800-1100 nm) respectively. The band five image (600-700 nm) received from Integrated Satellite Information Services, was of a different scale, blurred and not focussed correctly. Consequently, the band five image could not be superimposed on the remaining bands. Band five is of critical importance for vegetation mapping since along with the near infrared images i t helps to produce the best colour composites. Whereas the two July images provide an overview of the three climax vegetation zones, the September imagery provides an exceptional overview of six major vegetation units currently found on the range. - 35 -Figure 4. Legend f o r J u l y 29, 1972 Landsat map. 314.1 Bluebunch wheatgrass - Un d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 314.3 Needle-and-thread - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 314.4 Kentucky bluegrass - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 325.1 Sagebrush - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 341 Conifer f o r e s t s 910 Clouds Boundaries* Type I Boundary Type I I I Boundary Type VI Boundary See Section 5.5 f o r di s c u s s i o n of boundary types. v O ro a co S CO to -a c CO CM O N C M 3 OJ 60 » / / jx::\ X \ - 4 ? * $ ^ I 'm- ^ * \ & \ \ ^ ^ f c ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r>j'R""wy C -^ \r,^..\i^\~/\ /y i i i i i l i l i l j . l i I iii lil ,1,1,1.^/ vs. /~-C__> trK T t i t , r^_/0/ -MM1 1 1 iWlrW^ JWM' M 'S'hX's 1 1 1 'X ~ !!!i!!!!!!!!!i!i!i!i!!!i!i!!!i!!!!!i!i!i!l!!!i!i!i!J!!!!!!!i!W - 37 -Plate I. Legend for Landsat false colour-Infrared composite for July 29, 1972. 2 This image was produced on an I S Colour-Additive Viewer using binds 4, 5 and 7 with a blue, green and red fi l t e r respectively. Band 6 was not used. Original mapping scale was 1:500,000 and was produced from 70 mm entire scene images. Scale was computed by measuring comparable distances on the image and a topographic map of known scale. Legend 314 - Grasslands 340 - Forested Lands A - Thesis Study Area showing two grassland zones B - Distinct Grassland zones mapped in an unknown area C - Forested Rangeland a - Irrigated Fields b - Giant Soil Pits - Highland Valley Open Pit mines c - Craigmont Open Pit mine d - Power Line - 39 -Plate II. Legend forLandsat false colour-infrared composite for July 23, 1975. This image was produced using bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 with blue, green, red, red filters respectively. Original mapping scale was 1:150,000 and was produced using 70 mm portions cut from 18 x 18 cm positive transparencies. Legend 314 - Grasslands 314.3 - Needle-and-thread, undifferentiated 314.4 - Kentucky bluegrass, undifferentiated 3 2 5 . 1 - Big sagebrush, undifferentiated 3 2 5 . 1 0 - Big sagebrush 341 - Conifer forests 610 - Residential - 41 -Legend for July 23, 1975 Landsat map. Needle-and-thread - Undifferentiated Kentucky Bluegrass - Undifferentiated Sagebrush - Undifferentiated Sagebrush Conifer forests Boundaries Type I Boundary Type III Boundary Legend for September 16, 1973 Landsat map. Balsamroot - Undifferentiated Bluebunch Wheatgrass - Undifferentiated Needle-and-thread - Undifferentiated Kentucky Bluegrass - Undifferentiated Sagebrush - Undifferentiated Sagebrush Conifer forests Boundaries Type I Boundary Type III Boundary - 44 -Figure 6. September 16, 1973, Landsat Map. - 45 -Without ii p r i o r i knowledge, homogeneous u n i t s could be delineated and mapped, but p o s i t i v e species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n requires f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n . The homogeneous un i t s were a function of d i f f e r e n t plant communities d i s p l a y i n g d i f f e r e n t s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e patterns. 5.4 Legend System The homogeneous u n i t s interpreted from the airphotos and Landsat imagery were assigned a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n number according to the following method: Primary (e.g. 300), Secondary (e.g. 310) and T e r t i a r y (e.g. 314) as suggested by Legge et_ a l . (1974). Table IV. Basic Remote Sensing C l a s s i f i c a t i o n taken from Legge et a l . 1974.* Primary Classes Secondary Classes T e r t i a r y Classes 300 - Natural Vegetation 310 - Herbaceous Types 313 - Forb Types 314 - Grassland, Steppe and P r a i r i e 320 - Shrub / Scrub Types 325 - Shrub Steppe 340 •- Forest Woodland Types 341 - Conifer Forests 342 - Broadleaf Forests Appendix C f o r complete legend. - 46 -500 - A g r i c u l t u r a l Production 540 - Pasture 600 - Urban I n d u s t r i a l and Transportation 610 - R e s i d e n t i a l 800 - Recreation and Open Space Related 880 - Destructive Use Areas The complete Remote Sensing Rangeland C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System as determined f o r the Lac-du-Bois range, Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia was expanded from Table IV to Quaternary (314.1), Quinary (314.11) and Hexad (314.111) c l a s s e s . (Table V). The dominant species i n any u n i t determines the Quaternary c l a s s . The following example w i l l amplify the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l o g i c . Levels determined with c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d o r i g i n a l d i a p o s i t i v e s . 314.1 - Bluebunch wheatgrass - u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d : dominated by bluebunch wheatgrass with p o s s i b i l i t y f o r furth e r s u b d i v i s i o n . Quaternary l e v e l determined by Landsat imagery and 1:63,000 and 1:20,000 scale photography. 314.10 - Bluebunch wheatgrass: a v i r t u a l l y pure stand of only bluebunch wheatgrass, determined by 1:4,000 to 1:10,000 scale photography. Quinary and Hexad u n i t s may have 15% i n c l u s i o n s of other types. 314.11 - Bluebunch wheatgrass: b i g sagebrush: a mixed stand of bluebunch wheatgrass and b i g sagebrush. 314.111 - Bluebunch wheatgrass: b i g sagebrush: needle-and-thread: Hexad clas s e s were determined by ground checking of airphotos. (If the Quaternary and Quinary species remain the same but are associated with Sandberg's bluegrass the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n becomes 314.112 - bluebunch wheatgrass: b i g sagebrush: Sandberg's bluegrass). - 47 -Only the f i r s t three dominant, codominant or associated species were cla s s i f i e d . CRITERIA FOR INTERPRETATION OF QUATERNARY UNITS FROM  AIRPHOTOS AND LANDSAT IMAGERY ARE LISTED ON TABLES VI AND VII  RESPECTIVELY. IN TABLE VII, ALL UNITS WERE DERIVED ON THE BASIS  OF HOMOGENITY BUT ALL UNITS WERE NAMED AFTER GROUND EXAMINATION. - 48 -Table V. Range Classification Legend; Developed for the Lac-du-Bois Range, Kamloops, British Columbia. PRIMARY CLASSES SECONDARY CLASSES TERTIARY CLASSES QUATERNARY CLASSES QUINARY CLASSES HEXAD CLASSES 300 - Natural vegetation 310 - Herbaceous types 313 - Forb types 313.1 - Balsamroot - undifferentiated 313.10 - Balsamroot 313.11 - Balsamroot/bluebunch wheatgrass 313.111 - Balsamroot/bluebunch wheatgrass/ needle-and-thread 313.12 - Balsamroot/needle-and-thread 313.13 - Balsamroot/Kentucky bluegrass 313.131 - Balsamroot/Kentucky bluegrass/ needle-and-thread 313.2 - Timber milk-vetch - undifferentiated 313.20 - Timber milk-vetch 313.21 - Timber milk-vetch/bluebunch wheatgrass 313.22 - Timber milk-vetch/rough fescue 313.23 - Timber milk-vetch/Kentucky bluegrass 313.3 - Dwarf pussytoes - undifferentiated 314 - Grassland, steppe, and prairie 314.1 - Bluebunch wheatgrass - undifferentiated 314.10 - Bluebunch wheatgrass 314.11 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/big sagebrush 314.111 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/big sagebrush/ needle-and-thread 314.12 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/Sandberg's bluegrass 314.13 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/rough fescue 314.131 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/rough fescue/ Kentucky bluegrass 314.132 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/rough fescue/ rabbitbrush - 49 -Table V. (Cont'd) 314.14 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/needle-and-thread 314.141 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/ needle-and-thread/ big sagebrush 314.15 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/Kentucky bluegrass 314.151 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/ Kentucky bluegrass/rough fescue 314.16 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/balsamroot 314.17 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/rabbitbrush 314.171 - Bluebunch wheatgrass/rabbitbrush/ rough fescue 314.2 - Rough fescue - undifferentiated 314.20 - Rough fescue 314.21 - Rough fescue/bluebunch wheatgrass 314.3 - Needle-and-thread - undifferentiated 314.30 - Needle-and-thread 314.31 - Needle-and-thread/bluebunch wheatgrass 314.32 - Needle-and-thread/Sandberg's bluegrass 314.33 - Needle-and-thread/big sagebrush 314.34 - Needle-and-thread/Kentucky bluegrass 314.341 - Needle-and-thread/Kentucky bluegrass bluebunch wheatgrass 314.35 - Needle-and-thread/balsamroot 314.4 - Kentucky bluegrass - undifferentiated 314.40 - Kentucky bluegrass 314.41 - Kentucky bluegrass/bluebunch wheatgrass 314.411 - Kentucky bluegrass/bluebunch wheatgrass/rough fescue 314.412 - Kentucky bluegrass/bluebunch wheatgrass/needle-and-thread 314.42 - Kentucky bluegrass/needle-and-thread 314.421 - Kentucky bluegrass/needle-and-thread timber milk vetch 314.43 - Kentucky bluegrass/timber milk-vetch 314.5 - Grant wild rye - undifferentiated 320 - Shrub/scrub types 325 - Shrub steppe 325.1 - Big sagebrush - undifferentiated 325.10 - Big sagebrush 325.11 - Big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass 325.111 - Big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass/ Junegrass 325.12 - Big sagebrush/needle-and-thread 325.121 - Big sagebrush/needle-and-thread/ bluebunch wheatgrass - 50 -T a b l e V. (Cont'd) 325.2 - R a b b i t b r u s h - u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 325.3 - P a s t u r e sage - u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 325.4 - Knapweed - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 340 - F o r e s t woodland t y p e s 341 - C o n i f e r f o r e s t s 341.1 - Ponderosa p i n e - u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 341.10 - Ponderosa p i n e 341.101 - Ponderosa p i n e / b l u e b u n c h wheatgrass 341.2 - Douglas f i r - u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 341.20 - Douglas f i r 341.201 - Douglas f i r / p i n e g r a s s 341.102 - Douglas f i r / t i m b e r m i l k - v e t c h 342 - B r o a d l e a f f o r e s t s 342.1 - Aspen - u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 342.10 - Aspen 342.101 - Aspen/Kentucky b l u e g r a s s 500 - A g r i c u l t u r e p r o d u c t i o n 540 - P a s t u r e 600 - Urban i n d u s t r i a l and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 610 - R e s i d e n t i a l 800 - R e c r e a t i o n and open space r e l a t e d 880 - D e s t r u c t i v e u s e a r e a s 881 - M o t o r c y c l e and a l l t e r r a i n v e h i c l e damage - 51 -Table VI. Criteria used in interpretation of rangeland units from Normal Colour (NC), paper prints and Original Positive Colour-Infrared Transparencies (OCIR) for June 9, 1975, 1:20,000 scale photographs. Also given as "(a)" minimum scale required to map type; as "(b)" required scale for species identification, and as "(c)" best date(s) of photography. Mapping Classification Criteria and Remarks 313.1 Balsamroot NC Appears dark green on photograph OCIR - Plants show as discernible clumps - Appears dark red on June photos - Appears white on September photos - On 1:10,000 scale are dark magenta in tone and are larger than bunchgrass - On 1:4,000 leaf shape can be distinguished - Prevalent on middle and upper grassland zones - Clumps on 1:20,000 look like bluebunch plants would appear on 1:10,000 scale photographs. (a) 1:20,000 CIR original diapositives (b) 1:10,000 CIR original diapositives (c) Mid June (a) 1:20,000 NC prints and CIR original diapositives (b) 1:10,000 NC prints and CIR original diapositives (c) - Mid June - Early September at scale of 1:60,000. 313.2 Timber milk-vetch NC - Very dark green - Confused with Kentucky bluegrass on June photos. OCIR Appears dark magenta tone on June photos Appears dark grey brown on September, 1976, 1:60,000 scale photography Forms dense vegetation cover. - 52 -Table VI. (Cont'd) 313.3 Dwarf pussytoes NC OCIR (a) (b) (c) 314.1 Bluebunch wheatgrass NC OCIR (a) (b) (c) 314.2 Rough Fescue NC OCIR (a) (b) (c) - Light blue to white tone - White tone 1:10,000 NC paper print? Ground work Mid June - Light green to light yellow depending on state of growth - Light pink tone to white i f desiccated - Type had a smooth texture; clumps not discernible; smooth texture implies that irregularities, i.e. clumps are not evident and that tone is continuous and unbroken for the type - Is possible in some cases using maximum magnification (30X) on Zoom 24( stereoscope to discern the clumping exhibited by bunches. 1:10,000 CIR original diapositives 1:4,000 CIR original diapositives Mid June - Appears same as bluebunch wheatgrass - Slightly darker green - Slightly darker magenta tone than bluebunch wheatgrass - Clumps occurring or North and West facing slopes in middle and upper grassland are usually rough fescue. 1:10,000 CIR original diapositives 1:4,000 CIR original diapositives Mid June - 53 -Table VI. (Cont'd) 314.3 Needle-and-thread NC OCIR (a) (b) (c) 314.4 Kentucky Bluegrass NC OCIR (a) (b) (c) 325.1 Big Sagebrush NC OCIR (a) (b) (c) - Light brown tone - Plants cover l i t t l e ground area therefore tone i s r e s u l t of s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e from exposed s o i l . - Blue tone i n d i c a t i v e of bare s o i l - A t h i n v e i l appears above the s o i l surface when maximum magnification (30X i s applied on 240 stereoscope and 1:4,000 OCIR photos - Needle-and-thread areas have very smooth texture. 1:4,000 CIR o r i g i n a l d i a p o s i t i v e s Ground work Mid June. - Dark green - Smooth even texture - Sodgrass - does not form clumps - Light pink or magenta - found on moist s i t e s - Forms dense homogeneous stands - Darker magenta tone than bunchgrass but s l i g h t l y l i g h t e r magenta than timber milk-vetch. 1:10,000 CIR o r i g i n a l d i a p o s i t i v e s 1:4,000 CIR o r i g i n a l d i a p o s i t i v e s Mid June. - Grey cone - Plants e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e at 1:20,000 Cue to s i z e and shape; plants a t t a i n average heights of 1 meter and have a round crown - Grey blue tone - E x c e l l e n t f o r sagebrush density mapping 1:20,000 CIR o r i g i n a l d i a p o s i t i v e s 1:10,000 CIR o r i g i n a l d i a p o s i t i v e s Mid June. - 54 -Table VI. (Cont'd) 325.2 Rabbitbrush NC OCIR (a) (b) (c) 325.3 Pasture Sage NC OCIR (a) (b) (c) 325.4 Knapweed NC OCIR (a) (b) (c) 341.1 Ponderosa Pine ND OCIR (a) (b) (c) - Light blue tone - Also found on rocky sitesjindividual shrubs can be identified by blue tone and smaller size (than big sagebrush) - Grey blue tone; same as sagebrush. 1:10,000 NC paper prints 1:4,000 NC paper prints Mid June - Light blue tone - Occurs commonly with rabbitbrush and dwarf pussytoes - Grey blue tone 1:10,000 NC paper prints Ground work Mid June. - Light green tone - Mixture of Orange and Magenta tones 1:10,000 original CIR diapositives 1:4,000 original CIR diapositives End of July or early August. - Green - Trees open grown - Crown edge smooth and crown extends to ground, internally a coarse texture - Branches tufted and pointed upwards. - Heathy trees magenta tone - Branches tufted and pointed upwards. 1:15,000 NC and CIR original diapositives 1:10,000 NC and original CIR diapositives May through September. - 55 -Table VI. (Cont'd) 341.2 Douglas-fir NC - Dark green - Crown star shaped - Branches form 5 star spoke - Grass association - pinegrass OCIR - Magenta - Darker than Ponderosa Pine (a) 1:1:15,000 NC & CIR original diapositives (b) 1:1:10,000 NC & CIR original diapositives (c) May through September. - Usually in moist sites and draws - Grows in clumps OCIR - Light pink or magenta - Lighter than Douglas or Ponderosa Pine - Texture of crowns find to medium (a) 1:20,000 CIr & NC original diapositives (b) 1:10,000 CIr & NC original diapositives (c) June through August. 342.1 Aspen, trembling NC - Light green trees - 56 -Table VII. Criteria used in interpretation of homogeneous units for the three 1:150,000 scale Landsat maps using simulated colour-infrared composites. UNITS NAMED AFTER GROUND VERIFICATION. Mapping Classification 313.1 Balsamroot 314 Grassland 314.1 Bluebunch Wheatgrass -314.3 Needle-and-thread 314.4 Kentucky Bluegrass 325.1 Sagebrush undiffer. 325.10 Sagebrush Criteria and Remarks Separated by bright red tone on September imagery caused by high spectral reflectance from broadleaf balsamroot plants Balsamroot, on this unit, was prevalent on north moist slopes Associated species - Balsamroot, bluebunch wheatgrass, rough fescue and rabbitbrush Grasslands Yellow tones - easily separated from forests (red tones) Distinguished by reddish yellow tone similar to unit 313.1 but lighter Associated species - bluebunch wheatgrass and rabbitbrush Lightest tone on grasslands, was a result of high spectral reflectance from soil Light yellow Ground coverage by Needle-and-thread plants is small Darkest red grassland tone on July images but lighter than unit 313.1 as seen on September imagery Cannot distinguish balsamroot unit 313.1 from Kentucky bluegrass unit 314.4 on July imagery. Grey tone on imagery, generally on lower grassland Caused by low NIR spectral reflectance and contained r-hadows Associated species Bluebunch wheatgrass, needle-and-thread and the shrub rabbitbrush. Dark grey tone - Darker than unit 325.1 Ground check - dense sagebrush with l i t t l e grass association. 341 Conifer Forest - Dark red tones on imagery. - 57 -5.5 Boundaries Two important factors with regard to boundary placement must be remembered i n range inventory mapping. F i r s t , d i f f e r e n t rangeland species begin growth at d i f f e r e n t times of the year i n response to moisture, l i g h t , slope, aspect and ele v a t i o n . Grassland boundaries f l u c t u a t e through the growing season and, depending on the date of photography, d i f f e r e n t boundary placement i s very r e a l . Also, some species begin growth e a r l y i n the season and d i e a f t e r a very short l i f e c y c l e . Therefore, species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and type designation i s often dependent on the date of photography and the growing cycle of the p l a n t . One date of photography may not give a true p i c t u r e of what i s a c t u a l l y on the s i t e . The second consideration i s that major vegetation boundaries w i l l s h i f t depending on climate. The apparent boundaries between grassland types are dynamic, always f l u c t u a t i n g and depend on l o c a l environmental f a c t o r s . Therefore, boundaries mapped i n one year may have s h i f t e d a few years l a t e r , outdating the o r i g i n a l map. Only under rare conditions should s o l i d l i n e s be used f o r mapping grassland u n i t s . Rarely i n nature are vegetation types separated by sharp d i s t i n c t l i n e s . A t r a n s i t i o n a l zone or ecotone, which can be narrow or wide, commonly e x i s t s between u n i t s . Vegetation perimeters interpreted and mapped from a e r i a l photographs are e i t h e r sharp and e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e , e.g. f o r e s t vs. grassland, or are vague, i n d i s t i n c t , or disguised e.g. grassland types of s i m i l a r appearance. - 58 -Two situations arise concerning placement of ecotone boundaries. (1) The boundary between known vegetations types are verified in the field and placement is "accurate" for that point in time, or (2) the boundary is interpreted from the photos, between known types and is placed or extrapolated through the ecotones. The interpreter also maps and interprets areas which resemble known vegetation types, thus both are classified the same but one is known and the other has been "interpreted". Thus, another different boundary type designation is needed. Fenceline vegetative boundaries are conspicuous on aerial photographs, especially i f one side of the fence has been heavily grazed and the other has not. Treatment modifications may exist on either side of the fence. Consequently a fenceline appears to be a type line boundary. When the land surface is obscured by clouds or shadows on airphotos or satellite imagery then the land area cannot be mapped from the imagery. These areas are delineated with a new type line. A solid line on a map is often interpreted as being a sharp precise boundary in nature when i t is in fact a very different situation. To alleviate this problem and to separate the situations described above, six different type lines were employed in the mapping phase. The lines are applied in conjunction with one another with a type perimeter commonly composed of one or more type lines. (Table VIII). 59 -Table VIII. Boundary Types and Application. Type Symbol Application Type I Boundary (Solid line) boundary (1) Use for positive sharp breaks between major vegetation types (Forest vs. grassland). Field verification not required. (2) Use where aspect and slope changes affect changes in vegetation communities. Must be f i e l d checked. (3) Use for boundaries mappable from photography which have been f i e l d checked. Type II Boundary Ecotone boundary (1) Placed through f i e l d verified ecotone separating two known types. (2) Used for boundaries mappable from photograph which have not been f i e l d checked. Type III Boundary Interpreted boundary Type IV Boundary Interpreted area Type V Boundary Fenceline boundary Type VI Boundary Obscured land boundary )( )( X Interpreted and extrapolated through ecotones separating two known types. Boundary has not been f i e l d checked. Encompasses photo-interpreted area. Boundary must encompass entire type. Area has not been f i e l d checked. Only used when fence line forms boundary between two different vegetation types. Result of treatment differences. Employed when mapping from remote sensor data when ground surface i s obscured by clouds, shadows, over-exposure and underexposure of film, etc. - 60 -Five type lines appear on the 1:20,000 range inventory map, while only the interpreted and obscured boundaries appear on the 1:150,000 Landsat maps. The type lines, like the legend, can be used at any map scale and the line provides an indication of the "confidence of interpretation", the degree of reliable accuracy, and an indication of the amount of "field work" done. The term "field work" in quotes includes the use of large scale photography for species identification and more accurate boundary placement. The boundaries, as outlined, apply to the June 9, 1975, 1:20,000 scale normal-colour photographs. However, combined with interpretation, using the colour-infrared original positive transparencies, i t was possible to "upgrade" some boundary placement from a Type III to a Type II boundary. Application of larger scale photography allows for reliable species identification not possible on the 1:20,000 scale photography. Therefore, interpreted area boundaries may be replaced by a Type III or Type II boundary. 5.6 Sagebrush Density Sagebrush can be identified on 1:20,000 scale colour and colour-infrared photography. A density classification into very light, light, medium and heavy ground cover appears on Figure 7. It was possible from this classification to estimate understory grass composition and range condition. The following table provides a general classification of grass association. More specific information is provided in Figure 7. - 61 -Table IX. Sagebrush Density and Grass Association. Sagebrush Density Grass Association Very light - Variable, affected by aspect, slope and position with respect to climax vegetation sites. - Bluebunch wheatgrass/needle-and-thread. Light - Bluebunch wheatgrass lower grassland - Needle-and-thread middle grassland Medium - Needle-and-thread/bluebunch wheatgrass Heavy - Little understory grass present. Three broad density belts covering the lower and part of the middle grassland zones are shown in Figure 7. A light-density zone, dominated by bluebunch wheatgrass, is succeeded by a medium-density belt having predominantly a needle-and-thread plant association. This zone is followed by a second narrow light-density zone dominated by needle-and-thread. To the east of the latter zone is a very light density unit. The area north of the Kamloops Research station up to Pruden's Pass is covered by extremely dense sagebrush, a result of uncontrolled, abusive grazing practices. In July 1976, grass was virtually non-existent in this area. Sagebrush density was interpreted from 1:20,000 normal colour paper prints. Evaluation of the original positive colour-infrared transparencies, 1:20,000, showed the originals were superior to paper prints for mapping sagebrush density as better boundary placement and density interpretation was possible. Figure 7. Legend for Sagebrush Density. Lac-du-Bois Range, Kamloops, British Columbia. Heavy Density Indicates very heavy over grazing Little or no herbaceous understory associated with dense sagebrush stands. Medium Density Moderate to heavy grazing pressure Generally, needle-and-thread is the dominant understory component. Junegrass is present in some areas Bluebunch wheatgrass is found associated with needle-and-thread in some areas. Light Density - Within its natural habitat, the Lower grassland zone, light sagebrush density indicates light grazing pressure. Bluebunch wheatgrass is the dominant species - In the middle grasslands sagebrush has increased in response to moderate to heavy grazing pressure. Here, needle-and-thread is the dominant grass. Very Light Density - Scattered individuals and/or small patches of sagebrush present. None No sagebrush present; or in units too small to be mapped on 1:20,000 scale paper prints Exposed & Eroded Soil - These areas heavily damaged by motorcyclists. Sagebrush Density mapped from 1:20,000 normal color paper prints taken on June 9, 1975. - 63 -- 64 -5.7 MAP AND PHOTOGRAPHIC SCALES The final map scale governs the type, size and therefore, the level of generalization applied in classifying a type. The following general rules must be kept in mind when mapping at any particular scale: (1) Types should not be smaller than the symbol  required to represent i t , and (2) i t is desirable that the map  symbol f a l l within the designated unit. If units are consistently  too small, a larger map scale is required. The B.C. Forest Service, and consequently the Grazing Division, employs 1:20,000 scale maps and black and white photographs for inventory purposes. This "tradition" began in the 1930's and is continued to the present time. Larger-scale base maps of the Lac-du-Bois range, were not available from the Lands Branch, the Grazing Division or the Agriculture Canada, Research Station, Kamloops. Consequently, because of the availability of the 1:20,000 base-map, the final map scale was 1:20,000 (Appendix E), although a larger scale would have been more desirable. Even though a 1:20,000 scale may be adequate for forest mapping, grasses are much smaller than trees and large-scale photography is required for species identification and mapping. A developed, tested and proven map format or scale, adequate for one particular vegetation stratum, is not necessarily adequate for another. The objective in using remote sensor data is to complete the task quickly and accurately, without spending dollars unnecessarily on field work. Landsat imagery, at two scales, coupled with small scale, 1:63,000 photography provides the range manager with a broad - 65 -overview of range communities. Large tracts of land are covered at low cost. For example, for 13,000 square miles Landsat imagery obtained at a cost of forty dollars for the four spectral bands; and for eighteen nautical line miles, 1:63,000 colour, colour-infrared photography and thermal imagery was flown by C.C.R.S. for a total cost of four hundred and eleven dollars. As the first set of remote sensor data assemblage, the cost is very reasonable. The use of 1:20,000 scale colour and colour-infrared photography was limited for mapping purposes because ground verification was required over the entire range. Homogeneous units of different colours were delineated and mapped, however, grass species causing the differences could not be identified. For the detailed range classification, 1:10,000 colour and colour-infrared original diapositives were required for species identification and typing. Also, a good magnifying stereoscope and light table are required to take advantage of the subtle detail contained on the originals (Murtha, 1973). To extract comparable information from paper prints would require a scale of a least 1:5,000. However, the subtle colour tones required to identify some species are lost on paper prints and duplicate transparencies. Film type in order of preference and interpretive power are:* (1) a. Colour infrared original diapositives b. Normal colour original diapositives ( 2 ) a. Colour infrared duplicate diapositives b. Normal colour duplicate diapositives * This order supports Murtha 1973 and 1976. - 66 -(3) a. Colour Infrared paper prints b. Normal colour paper prints Typing on 1:10,000 scale photographs and transferring the type lines to a 1:20,000 scale map is self-defeating for two reasons. (1) The type symbol will not f i t within the type, and the map becomes difficult to read, and (2) the detailed information available at 1:10,000 is lost because generalization is required to f i t the new map scale. Therefore, final map scales for grassland inventory, using remote sensor data, should be equivalent to the photo scale used for interpretation. - 67 -RECOMMENDATIONS - 68 -6.0 RECOMMENDATIONS For future grassland range classification and mapping the following strategy is recommended. (1) Use Landsat Imagery for i n i t i a l grassland stratification. (i) For a broad overview of the grasslands begin with 70 mm entire frame images and separate grassland from forest and note any tonal changes 2 across the grasslands. Mapping scale on I S Additive Viewer is 1:500,000. (ii) Map the homogeneous units employing large scale Landsat Imagery 1:150,000 (70 mm chips taken from 18.5 x 18.5 cm. positive transparencies), ( i i i ) Determine, by field verification, the plant communities of each homogeneous unit to Quaternary class. ( 2 ) Aerial Photography - FILMS (i) Use (a) Aerochrome Infrared 2443, and (b) Ektachrome Aerographic 2448. (ii) Use original diapositives for office inter-pretation purposes, ( i i i ) Use colour and colour-infrared paper prints for field mapping. (Gather field data by walking and not by conducting "windshield" surveys). - 69 -Aerial Photography - SCALES (i) 1:63,000 coverage of entire study area provides data which supplements Landsat interpretation, ( i i ) For vegetation mapping, f l y area at a scale of 1:10,000 across vegetation units as determined above. ( i i i ) Plan 1:4,000 scale fightlines such that each homogeneous unit mapped on the Landsat 1:150,000 imagery i s covered at least once. Fly across the vegetation gradients and preferrably along the 1:10,000 f l i g h t lines. The 1:4,000 scale i s required for species identification, (iv) Rent a light aircraft and make an aerial reconnaissance of the area during the time of the photo mission. Take 35 mm. colour and colour-infrared slides to supplement the 1:4,000 scale photography. Compile f i n a l inventory maps at scale of 1:10,000. Recommended cameras and lenses for large-scale aerial photography for B.C. rangelands. (i) Two 9 x 9 format aerial cameras to be flown simul-taneously. ( i i ) For scales less than 1:10,000 six inch lens i s adequate. ( i i i ) For scales greater than 1:10,000 a 12-inch lens i s highly recommended, especially i n areas of high r e l i e f . - 70 -(iv) The use of a slow flying aircraft for large scale photography (Dakota DC-3) is superior to a jet aircraft when large scale, 1:4,000 and greater, photographs are required in B.C. (6) Time of year and day (i) Two dates were recommended; for the study area one in mid June and September. Each range area, depending on latitude and elevation, may require photography at different times. Photography should be coincident with maximum growth. The September flight need only be 1:40,000 to 1:60,000. (ii) Time of day; before noon and with a sun angle between 30-45 degrees. Over 45 degrees with a six-inch lens results in overexposure and development of hot spots, ( i i i ) Best result, both colour and colour-infrared, are obtained the day after a rain shower has cleared the air and dampened the soil. (iv) Finally, be in contact with flight crew during the photo mission. Good communications with pilot and crew will result in photographs which will better meet the survey requirements. - 71 -SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION - 72 -7.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION As a result of past grazing practices, much of the B.C. Interior grasslands are in poor condition. To manage rangelands effectively they must be ini t i a l l y classified and inventoried. A rangeland classification was developed for use with multidate -multiscale remote sensor data which included colour and colour-infrared prints, colour-infrared original diapositives and Landsat imagery. The classification was applied to produce a 1:20,000 range inventory map of the Lac-du-Bois range, Kamloops, British Columbia. The legend is flexible and expandable, and class-levels were determined by (1) photo and image scales, (2) film types, (3) photo interpretation equipment employed and (4) ground work. In conjunction with the legend, six boundary types were developed which are applicable to multistage remote sensing techniques. Landsat imagery and 1:63,000 aerial photography provided a broad overview of the Lac-du-Bois range communities. For detailed range mapping, 1:10,000 colour (Ektachrome Aerographic 2448) and colour-infrared (Aerochrome Infrared 2443) original diapositives taken in the second week of June provided the necessary detail required for range species identification and type mapping. It is suggested that future inventories should be modelled after the proven results of this study. - 73 -LITERATURE CITED - 74 -LITERATURE CITED Anderson, J.R. 1971. Land use classification schemes used in selected recent geographic applications of Remote Sensing. Photogramm. Eng. 37(4):379-387. Anderson, J.R., E.E. Hardy, J.T. Roach, and R.E. Witmer. 1976. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data. U.S. Geol. Sur. Prof. Paper 964. 28p. Canada Department of Agriculture. 1971. Interior Soils Map: Lac-du-Bois, Bachelor H i l l , Kamloops, British Columbia, Res. Sta., Agric. Can. Vancouver, British Columbia. Cockfield, W.E. 1947. Nicola: Kamloops and Yale Districts, British Columbia. Geol. Sur. Can. Map 886A. Dawson, G.M. 1894. Report on the area of the Kamloops Sheet B.C. Geol. Sur. Can. Annual Report Vol. VII, Part B. 427p. Driscoll, R.S., J.N. Reppert, R.C. Heller and D.M. Carneggie. 1970. Identification and measurement of herbland and shrubland vegetation from large scale aerial color photographs. Proc. XI Intemat. Grassland Congr. Univ. of Queensland Press. 95-98. Fulton, R.J. 1975. Quaternary geology and geomorphology of Nicola Vernon area B.C. Geol. Surv. Can., Mem. 380. 50p. Hironaka, M., E.W. Tisdale and M.A. Fosberb. 1976. Use of satellite imagery for classifying and monitoring rangelands in Southern Idaho. Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow. Idaho Bull. 9. 7p. Legge, A.H., D.R. Jaques, C.E. Poulton, C.L. Kirby and P. Van Eck. 1974. Development and application of an ecologically based remote sensing legend system for the Kan?maskis, Alberta, Remote Sensing Test Corridor (Subalpine Forest region). Environmental Sciences Centre Kananaskis, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 27p. Lewis, D.T., P.M. Seevers and J.V. Drew. 1975. Use of satellite imagery to delineate soil associations in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39(2):330-335. Lord, T.M. and A. McLean. 1969. Aerial photo interpretation of British Columbia rangelands. J. Range Manage. 22(1):3-9. - 75 -McLean, A. and L. Marchand. 1968. Grassland ranges in the Southern Interior of B.C. Can. Dept. Agri. Publ. 1319. 28p. McLean, A. and T.G. Willis. 1961. The range story of British Columbia. Agri. Inst. Rev. 5p. Murtha, P.A. 1973. "Thin ice to dead ducks" or the usefulness of duplicate transparencies for densitometry. Proc. Fourth Biennial Workshop on Aerial Colour Photography in the Plant Sciences. 157-164. 1976. Vegetation damage and remote sensing: principal problems and some recommendations. Photogrammetria 32:147-156. and E.K. Watson. 1975. Mapping of forest clearcutting, South Vancouver Island from Landsat Imagery. Proc. Third Can. Symp. Remote Sens. Can. Aeronautics and Space Inst. Ottawa, Can. 257-263. Poulton, C.E. 1972. A comprehensive remote sensing legend for the ecological characterisation and annotation of natural and altered landscapes. Proc. Eighth Internat. Symp. Remote Sens. Environ. 393-408. Spilsbury, R.H. and E.W. Tisdale. 1944. Soil-plant relationships and vertical zonation in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. Sci. Agr. 24(9):395-436. Tisdale, E.W. 1947. The grasslands of the Souther Interior of British Columbia. Ecology 28(4):346-382. Tisdale, E.W. and A. McLean. 1957. The Douglas-fir Zone of Southern British Columbia. Ecological Mono. 27:247-266. Van Ryswyk, A.L., A. McLean and L.S. Marchand. 1966. The climate natural vegetation, and soils of some grasslands at different elevations in British Columbia. Can. Plant Sci. Vol. 46. - 76 -Appendix A Scientific Names of Species Appearing in the Text Scientific Name Common Name 1. Achillea millefolium L. Western yarrow 2. Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Bluebunch wheatgrass S.&S. Var. inerme~Heller 3. Antennaria dimorpha (Nutt.) Dwarf pussytoes T.&G. 4. Artemisia frigida Willd. Pasture sage 5. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Big sagebrush 6. Astragalus miser Dougl. Timber milk-vetch ex. Hook var. serotinus (Gray) Barneby 7. Balsamorhiza sagittata Nutt. Balsamroot 8. Bromus tectorum L. Downy brome or cheat grass 9. Calamagrostis rubescens Buckl. Pinegrass 10. Centaurea spp L. Knapweed 11. Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall) Britt. Rabbitbrush 12. Erigeron compositus Pursh Compound fleabane 13. Festuca idahoensis Elmer Idaho fescue 14. Festuca octoflora Walt. Sixweeks fescue 15. Festuca scabrella Torr. Rough fescue 16. Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. June grass 17. Lupinus sericeus Pursh Silky lupine 18. Microsteris gracilis (Hook.) Greene Annual phlox - 77 -19. Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ponderosa pine 2 0 . Plancago potagonica Jacq. Woolly p l a n t a i n 21. Poa pratensis L. Kentucky bluegrass 22. Poa secunda P r e s l Sandberg's bluegrass 2 3 . Populus tremuloides Michx. Trembling aspen 24. Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i (Mirb.) Franco Douglas f i r 2 5 . S a l s o l a k a l i L. Russian t h i s t l e 26. Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr) A. Gray Sand dropseed 27. S t i p a columbiana Macoun Columbia needlegrass 28. S t i p a comata T r i n . & Rupr. Needle-and-thread 2 9 . Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Webbes Dandelion 3 0 . Verbascum chapsus L. Common mullein Addendum 31. Elymus condensatus P r e s l . Giant wild rye - 78 -Appendix B Criteria for Evaluation " ... Land-use Classification Schemes for use with Orbital and other High Altitude Imagery." (Taken from Anderson, 1971) 1. "A minimum level of accuracy of about 85 to 90 percent or better should be approached in the interpretation of the imagery being used. 2. "A well-balanced reliability of interpretation for the several categories included in the classification scheme be attained. 3. "Repeatable or repetitive results should be obtainable from one interpreter to another and from one time of sensing to another. 4. "The classification scheme should be usable or adaptable for use over an extensive area. 5. "The categorization used in the classification scheme should permit vegetation and other cover types to be used as surrogates for activity-oriented categories wherever possible. 6. "The classification scheme should be suitable for use with imagery taken at different times during the year. 7. "The classification scheme should permit effective use of sub-categories that can be obtained from ground surveys or from the use of imagery available at a larger scale or with the use of colour photography. 8. "A need to collapse the categories of the classification scheme into a smaller number of categories must be recognized. 9 . "Comparison with land use information compiled at earlier points in time and with data that will be collected in the future should definitely be possible. 10. "The classification scheme should recognize the multiple-use of land use whenever possible." Appendix C Complete Remote Sensing Legend as proposed by Legge et al. 1974 EARTH SURFACE AND LAND-USE FEATURES PRIMARY CLASSES 100 - BARREN LAND 200 - WATER RESOURCES 300 - NATURAL VEGETATION 400 - CULTURAL VEGETATION 500 - AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 600 - URBAN, INDUSTRIAL, TRANSPORTATION 700 - EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY, NATURAL DISASTERS 800 - RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE-RELATED 900 - OBSCURED LAND PRIMARY CLASSES SECONDARY CLASSES TERTIARY CLASSES QUATERNARY CLASSES 100 - BARREN LAND 110 - Playas, dry, or intermittent lake basins 120 - Aeolian barrens (other than beaches and beach sand) 121 - Dunes 122 - Sandplains 123 - Blowouts 130 - Rocklands 131 - Bedrock outcrops (intrusive & erosion-bared strata) 132 - Extrusive igneous (lava flows, pumice, cinder and ash) 133 - Gravels, stones, cobbles & boulders (usually transported) 134 - Scarps, talus and/or colluvium (system of outcropping strata) 135 - Patterned rockland (nets or stripes) 140 - Shorelines, beaches, tide flats, and river banks 150 - Badlands (barren silts and clays, related metamorphic rocks and erosional wastes) 160 - Slicks (saline, alkali, soil structural, non-playa barrens) 170 - Mass movement 190 - Undifferentiated complexes of barren lands - 80 -200 - WATER RESOURCES 210 - Ponds, lakes, and re s e r v o i r s 211 - Natural lakes and ponds 212 - Man-made r e s e r v o i r s and ponds 220 - Water courses 221 - Natural water courses 222 - Man-made water courses 230 - Seeps, springs and wells 231 - Seeps and springs 232 - Wells 240 - Lagoons and bayous 250 - Estuaries 260 - Bays and coves 270 - Oceans, seas, and g u l f s 280 - Snow and Ice 281 - Seasonal snow cover 282 - Permanent snow f i e l d and g l a c i e r s 290 - Un d i f f e r e n t i a t e d water resources 300 - NATURAL VEGETATION 310 - Herbaceous types 311 - Lichen, cryptogam, and re l a t e d communities 312 - Prominently annuals 313 - Forb types 314 - Grassland, steppe, and p r a i r i e 315 - Meadows 316 - Marshes 317 - Bogs and muskegs 319 - Un d i f f e r e n t i a t e d complexes of herbaceous type 320 - Shrub/Scrub Types 321 - Microphyllous, non-thorny scrub 322 - Microphyllous thorn scrub 323 - Succulent and cactus scrub 324 - Halophytic shrub 325 - Shrub steppe 326 - Sclerophyllous shrub 327 - Macrophyllous shrub 327.1 - Willow (Salix) Predominent Vegetation 327.2 - Bi r c h (Betula) Predominent Vegetation 327.3 - Alder (Alnus) Predominent Vegetation 327.4 - Mixed Shrub (Prunus/Symphoricarpos/Crataegus) 327.9 - Und i f f e r e n t i a t e d Shrub-Types 328 - Microphyllous dwarf shrub 328.1 - Spruce-Fir (Picea-Abies) Krummholz Types 328.2 - Mountain Heath Types (Vaccinium/Cassiope/Phyllodoce) 328.3 - Mountain Avens Types (Dryas) 328.4 - Juniper (Juniperus) - Bearberry (Arctostaphylos) Type 328.9 - Undiffer e n t i a t e d 329 - Un d i f f e r e n t i a t e d complexes of shrub/scrub types - 81 -330 - Savanna-like Types 331 - T a l l shrub/scrub over herb layer 332 - Broad-leaved tree over herb layer 333 - Coniferous tree over herb layer 334 - Mixed tree over herb layer 335 - Broad-leaved tree over low shrub layer 336 - Coniferous tree over low shrub layer 337 - Mixed tree over low shrub layer 339 - Undifferentiated complexes of savanna-like types 340 - Forest and Woodland Types 341 - Conifer forests 341.1 - Pine (Pinus) Prominent Vegetation 341.2 - Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga) Prominent 341.3 - Pine/Spruce (Pinus/Picea) 341.4 - Spruce (Picea) Prominent 341.5 - Spruce/Fir (Picea/Abies) 341.6 - Fir/Larch (Abies/Larix) 341.9 - Undifferentiated 342 - Broadleaf Forests 342.1 - Poplar (Populus) Prominent Vegetation 342.2 - Birch (Betula) Prominent Vegetation 343 - Conifer-broadleaf mixed forests and woodlands 343.1 - Pine/Poplar (Pinus/Populus) 343.2 - Spruce/Poplar (Picea/Populus) 343.3 - Douglas fir/Poplar (Pseudotsuga/Populus) 344 - Broadleaf-conifer mixed forests and woodlands 344.1 - Poplar/Pine (Populus/Pinus) 344.2 - Poplar/Spruce (Populus/Picea) 344.3 - Poplar/Douglas f i r (Populus/Pseudotsuga) 349 - Undifferentiated complexes of forest and woodland types 390 - Undifferentiated Natural Vegetation 400 - CULTURAL VEGETATION 410 - Cultural Herbaceous types 411-419 - Tertiary levels duplicate those of Natural Vegetation (30< 420 - Cultural shrub/scrub types 421-429 - Tertiary levels duplicate those of Natural Vegetation (301 430 - Cultural savanna-like types 431-437, 439 - Tertiary levels duplicate those of Natural Vegetatioi 440 - Cultural forest and woodland types 441-443, 449 - Tertiary levels duplicate those of Natural Vegetatioi 490 - Undifferentiated cultural vegetation types - 82 -500 - AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 510 - F i e l d crops 520 - Vegetable and truck crops 530 - Tree, shrub, and vine crops 540 - Pasture 550 - H o r t i c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l t i e s 560 - Non-producing fallow, t r a n s i t i o n a l , or i d l e land 570 - A g r i c u l t u r a l production f a c i l i t i e s 580 - Aquaculture 590 — U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l production URBAN. , INDUSTRIAL, AND TRANSPORTATION 610 - R e s i d e n t i a l 620 - Commercial and services 630 - I n s t i t u t i o n a l 640 - I n d u s t r i a l 650 - Transportation, communications and u t i l i t i e s 651 - Man and M a t e r i a l Transport 6 5 1 . 1 - R a i l 651 .2 - Motor Vehicle 6 5 1 . 3 - Water 6 5 1 . 4 - A i r 6 5 1 . 5 - T r a i l s , foot and animal 6 5 1 . 9 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 652 - U t i l i t i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n 653 - Power production 654 - Communication 655 - Sewer and s o l i d waste 659 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 670 - Vacant p l o t s and l o t s 690 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d urban 700 - EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY AND NATURAL DISASTERS 710 - Non-Renewable Resource E x t r a c t i o n 711 - Sand and Gravel 712 - Rock quarrie 713 - Petroleum E x t r a c t i o n - Gas and O i l F i e l d s 714 - O i l shale and sand ex t r a c t i o n 715 - Coal/peat 716 - Non-metalic, chemical, f e r t i l i z e r , e t c . 717 - M e t a l i c 719 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 720 - Renewable resource e x t r a c t i o n 721 - Forest harvest 7 2 1 . 1 - Clearcut Forest 7 2 1 . 2 - S e l e c t i v e Forest Cut 722 - F i s h e r i e s 729 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d - 83 -730 - Natural disasters 731 - Earth 732 - Air 734 - Water 735 - Disease 739 - Undifferentiated 800 - RECREATION AND OEPN SPACE RELATED 810 - Natural greenways, open space and buffer zones 820 - Preservation areas and natural museums 830 - Improved and developed open space 840 - Historical and archeological sites 850 - Scenic views 860 - Rock hounding, paleontological sites 870 - Recreation facilities 880 - Designated destructive use areas 890 - Undifferentiated 900 - OBSCURED LAND 910 - Clouds and fog 920 - Smoke and haze 930 - Dust and sand storms 940 - Smog 990 - Undifferentiated obscured land - 84 -Appendix D List of Decreasers, Increasers and Invaders for the Lac-du-Bois Range Sites (From McLean and Marchand 1968) Big Sagebrush - Bluebunch wheatgrass Site Decreasers Increasers Invaders Bluebunch wheatgrass Needle-and-thread (some soils) Big sagebrush Dwarf pussytoes Needle-and-thread Rabbitbrush Sand dropseed (sandy soils) Sandberg's bluegrass Tansy mustard Downy brome Russian thistle Bluebunch Wheatgrass - Sandberg's Bluegrass Site Decreasers Increasers Bluebunch wheatgrass Needle-and-thread (some soils) Invaders Dwarf pussytoes Junegrass Needle-and-thread Pasture sage Rabbitbrush Sand dropseed (sandy soils) Sandberg's bluegrass Downy brome Dandelion Sixweeks fescue Woolly plantain Bluebunch Wheatgrass - Rough Fescue Site Decreasers Bluebunch wheatgress Idaho fescue Rough fescue Increasers Columbia needlegrass Junegrass Kentucky bluegrass Pasture sage Sandberg's bluegrass Silky lupine Timber milk-vetch Western yarrow Invaders Downy brome Dandelion Common mullein Compound -Fleabane - 85 -Ponderosa Pine Site NATIVE VEGETATION Decreasers Increasers Invaders Bluebunch wheatgrass Balsamroot Annual phlox Idaho fescue Big sagebrush (some soils) Downy brome Needle-and-thread Dwarf pussytoes Dandelion (some soils) Needle-and-thread Rabbitbrush Sandberg's bluegrass Silky lupine Western yarrow 

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