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Transient boating in the Strait of Georgia Cooke, Karen Ann 1977

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TRANSIENT BOATING IN THE STRAIT OF GEORGIA by KAREN ANN COOKE B.A. Simon Fraser University,197.3 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June,1977 (E) ,-KarennAnn Cooke, 1977 In p resent ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Ir^USfXij £{vjbd2A C^>C^0G& © ^ P f & v v i ' v l The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V5T 1W5 Date i i i ABSTRACT This thesis outlines a planning process f o r transient boating a c t i v i t y (defined here as overnight and vacation cruising) i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. Pleasure boat cruissmgg i s one of the largest components of recreational a c t i v i t y i n Georgia S t r a i t and recent trends i n boat ownership emphasize the need f o r a focus on t h i s a c t i v i t y i n recreation planning. From 1973 "to 1976 the population of pleasure c r a f t resident i n Georgia S t r a i t increased from 34,000 to 93,000 boats. This rapid growth has resulted i n problems such as inadequate f a c i l i t i e s and perceived overcrowding and environmental deterioration. Recognizing these pressures, t h i s thesis c o n t r i -butes to the development of policy f o r boating i n Georgia S t r a i t by ou t l i n i n g a "complete" planning process f o r app l i c a t i o n to transient boating at the regional and l o c a l l e v e l . The basic steps involved i n planning f o r the region were: a) estimating the nature of and d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s required by the projected transient boat population} b) i d e n t i f y i n g problems, associated with transient boating a c t i v i t y and developing regulations or programmes to deal with these; i v c) implementing the po l i c y plan appropriate to providing f a c i l i t i e s required at a given l o c a t i o n . The basic steps involved i n planning at a l o c a l l e v e l were: a) estimating s p e c i f i c services required by the present and future population of boaters using the s i t e ; b) i d e n t i f y i n g s i t e - s p e c i f i c problems associated with, transient boating a c t i v i t y ; c) developing programmes to deal with problems and to provide ad d i t i o n a l services within the s i t e . Time constraints prevented the completion of a l l these steps. Instead the methodology used i n the study focussed on the transient boaters' demand f o r such services as moorage, f u e l , water supply. The following steps were completed to contribute to the planning f o r the region: 1) an attempt to esta b l i s h t o t a l services required was based on a projection of the transient boat population using Georgia S t r a i t i n 1986 and 2000 and on the "average" demand fo r services obtained from the res u l t s of a questionnaire administered to boaters; 2) problems common to boating throughout the region were i d e n t i f i e d from the popular l i t e r a t u r e and from conversations V with R.C.M.P, Coast Guard, boaters, marina operators; 3) suggestions were made as to the means of implementing a regional p o l i c y plan f o r transient boating. The following steps were completed f o r the l o c a l planning process? 1) services required were estimated by means of a boater questionnaire that measured use of and s a t i s f a c t i o n with services available and by projecting l i k e l y increase i n demand f o r services at the s i t e s selected; 2) s i t e s p e c i f i c problems were i d e n t i f i e d by interviews with marina operators, by responses to mailback questionnaires from l o c a l residents and by re s u l t s of the boater questionnaire; 3) programmes to deal with problems and with provision of services were suggested according to appropriate l o c a l groups or agencies. F i n a l l y , recommendations dealt with suitable means of completing the steps i n the o v e r a l l planning process that were not included i n t h i s study. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS y j . 1.IST OF TABLES v 1 1 1 LIST OF FIGURES 1 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x I. AN OVERVIEW OF TRANSIENT BOATING IN GEORGIA STRAIT Problem Statement 1 Recreation Perspective 3 Geographical Perspective 1 1 Planning Perspective 12 Objectives of the Study 1 4 I I . METHODOLOGY The Ideal Planning Process 16 Planning f o r the Region Planning f o r the Local Level The Approach of the Study 25 Introduction Study Components Survey Techniques Sites Chosen f o r the F i e l d Study Methods of Analysis I I I . PLANNING FOR THE REGION Estimating Services Required 3 9 Introduction E x i s t i n g Transient Boats Resident i n Georgia S t r a i t Non-Resident Contribution Rented or Borrowed Boats The Total Transient Boat Population i n Georgia S t r a i t ; 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 8 6 , and 2000 The Influence of Socioeconomic Varaibles The Estimation of Total Demand Identifying E x t e r n a l i t i e s 58 Implementing the Policy Plan 5 9 Introduction The P o l i c i e s of Providers Alternatives f o r Dealing with Problems v i i IV. PLANNING FOR THE LOCAL LEVEL Estimating Services Required 70 Introduction Use of Non-Serviced Sites E x i s t i n g Services Estimating Services Demanded Matching Supply of and Demand f o r Services Identifying Site S p e c i f i c Problems 89 Boaters and Marina Operators Perceptions Local Resident Perceptions Developing Action Programmes 94 Pollut i o n ; Disruption of Resdents' L i f e s t y l e Hazardous Navigating V. CONCLUSIONS Introduction 98 The Typical Transient Boater 99 Completing the Planning Process 105 Estimating Services Required Identifying E x t e r n a l i t i e s Implementing the Policy Plan BIBLIOGRAPHY References Cited 109 Relevant Literature 112 APPENDIX A 114 Boater Questionnaire - Serviced Site 115 Boater Questionnaire - Marine Park 120 APPENDIX B - The Socioeconomic P r o f i l e of the Boater 125 APPENDIX C - Boating Experienced and A c t i v i t y 133 APPENDIX D - Crosstabulation Between Boat Type and Accommodation Sought 136 • • • vm LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE I Boat Ownership Rates 7 TABLE II Households Resident on Georgia S t r a i t 1976, 1986 and 2000 45 TABLE III Estimated Boat Population, S t r a i t of Georgia, 1986 and 2000 47 TABLE IV Transient Boat Population Crusing i n Georgia S t r a i t 50 TABLE V Boat Type by Percentage of Sample 5 2 TABLE VI Boat Length by Percentage of Sample 54 TABLE VII Frequency of S e r v i c e / F a c i l i t y Use 55 TABLE VIII F a c i l i t y Use Rates f o r Vacation Trips 56 TABLE IX Inventory of Services 75 TABLE X Expenditures on Services 84 TABLE XI Boater Reaction to "Unpleasant" Conditions 86 TABLE B-I Residence of Respondents 126 TABLE B-II Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of Boaters by Percentage of Sample 127 TABLE B-III Comparison of Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Familiesby Income Group 129 TABLE B-IV Educational Background of Boaters by Percentage 131 TABLE B-V Occupation of Respondents 132 i x LIST OF FIGURES PAGE F i g u r e 1. S t r a i t of G e o r g i a Study Region Map 2 2. Number of b o a t s b u i l t a n n u a l l y i n Canada 6 3. S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a map. 35 4. S e c r e t Cove a r e a map 73 5. S e c r e t Cove s t o r e and gas b a r g e . 74 6. The government f l o a t i n S e c r e t Cove. ?4 7. New f i n g e r s on the p r i v a t e S e c r e t Cove M a r i n a 74 8. B o a t s an c h o r e d i n Smugglers' Cove. 76 9. An a l t e r n a t i v e method of mooring. ?6 10. Pender Harbour a r e a map. 78 11. H o s p i t a l Bay, Pender Harbour 79 12. A commercial m a r i n a 79 C - l C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f y e a r s of b a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h age o f respondent 134 D - l C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f b o a t type w i t h accommodation sought. 137 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The assistance and advice of many individuals helped me to research and write t h i s t h e s i s . Professor Irvin g Fox, Tony Dorcey and Professor and f r i e n d William Rees provided valuable c r i t i c i s m and encouragement. Fellow student Jim Hughes spent many hours with me pa t i e n t l y explaining computer programmes. Friends Kathy and Paul Tanner, L i z Black, Mara Feeneyg and esp e c i a l l y Michael Lewis (whose ship Eridinus made the study possible) gave me moral support and assistance i n f i e l d work. F i n a l l y , my thanks goes to the many boaters, l o c a l residents on the Sechelt Peninsula, and others interested i n recreational boating whose cooperation made the study enjoyable. I. AN OVERVIEW OF TRANSIENT BOATING IN GEORGIA STRAIT PROBLEM STATEMENT This thesis develops a planning process f o r trans-ient boating a c t i v i t y (defined as overnight or vacation cruising) i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. In p a r t i c u l a r , the study investigates the transient boaters* demand f o r services such as moorage, f u e l , water and marine supplies. The nature of transient boating or c r u i s i n g requires consideration of the opportunities available through-out the entire S t r a i t of Georgia (see F l G . l ) . Boaters are very mobile and may u t i l i z e a great number of s i t e s at various locations i n the S t r a i t on any given c r u i s e . There-fore the primary focus of the study i s the development of an o v e r a l l planning approach applicable at a regional l e v e l . A secondary focus i s aimed at sel e c t l o c a l s ituations where a more s p e c i f i c approach to planning f o r recreational c r u i s i n g i s possible. The subject of the study i s timely because of recent controversy over the demands made by transient boaters at locations throughout the S t r a i t of Georgia 2 v FIGURE I STRAIT OF GEORGIA STUDY REGION (Sourcet Nelson, 1973 , page 8) 3 ( P a c i f i c Yachting, July 1976). The boaters themselves have complained of overcrowding, inadequate f a c i l i t i e s : l o c a l residents have expressed concern over the addi t i o n a l stress posed by t h i s peak season boating t r a f f i c . Non-resident ( p a r t i c u l a r l y U.S.) use of l o c a l c r u i s i n g waters has correspondingly become an issue. The o v e r a l l goal of the study then i s to develop and attempt to apply a planning framework f o r transient boating at a regional and l o c a l l e v e l . The next three sections of t h i s chapter develop the background to the objectives proposed f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s goal. RECREATIONAL PERSPECTIVE In terms of the use of "discretionary" or l e i s u r e time, outdoor recreation a c t i v i t y would appear to represent only one among inumerable options. Yet the t o t a l amount of outdoor recreation currently taking place i n North America i s known to be very s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i v e to other a c t i v i t i e s . S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s argue that the escalating pace of technological change has outstripped human capacity f o r psychological and s o c i a l adjustment and that, as a consequ-ence, "escape" to the outdoor world i s becoming increasingly a t t r a c t i v e (Johannis and B u l l , 1971). To the proponents of t h i s view, the recreation experience stands f o r anything from the a b i l i t y to exercise free choice to the opportunity to challenge oneself and achieve s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to deny that there may be therapeutic benefits involved i n outdoor recreation. However, research to support t h i s widely held view i s scant (Clawson and Knetsch, 1966, page 3D. Better documented i s the increase i n demand f o r outdoor recreation opportunities, a notable trend i n twent-i e t h century North America. I t i s generally agreed that four major factors are responsible f o r t h i s increase* populations are growing o v e r a l l and increasing i n density at urban centres; income le v e l s are r i s i n g and the proportion of disposable income available i s greater; l e i s u r e time i s increasing as work weeks are shortened; personal mobility i s greater due to the widespread ownership of automobiles (Clawson and Knetsch, 1966, page 5)» Ever increasing numbers of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s are enjoying the expanding supply of s i t e s and f a c i l i t i e s that have growmiin response to t h i s marked increase i n demand. The varied resources of coastal areasaplay a major part i n s a t i s f y i n g the recreation demands of adjacent popula-t i o n s . A marine environment may be a prerequisite f o r c e r t a i n forms of a c t i v i t y such as boating, f i s h i n g , skin diving and swimming; f o r others, such as sightseeing, picnick-5 ing or nature study, the coastal s e t t i n g enhances the experience. Water possesses unique a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s . It has been estimated that 44 percent of those engaged i n outdoor recreation prefer water-based a c t i v i t i e s (Ditton and Goodale, 1972, page 4). Of a l l water and land-based recreational pursuits, boating i s projected to undergo the greatest growth i n popu-l a r i t y i n the next decade. The U.S. Bureau of Outdoor Recre-a t i o n forecast that boating i n the nation would increase by 76 percent i n the period 1965 to 1980 while population i n the same period would increase only by 29 percent (Ketchum, 1972, page 85). Boating i s no less popular i n Canada. An analysis of the boat b u i l d i n g industry suggests that boating a c t i v i t y has been increasing (see Figure 30 . Expenditures by Canadians on boating equipment i n 1971 represented 24 percent of the t o t a l d o l l a r s spent i n the country on outdoor recreation equipment. ( T a r i f f Board, 1971). Twenty-five out of every 1000 people i n the country own a recreational boat; i n B r i t i s h Columbia 46 out of every 1000 people own a boat (see Table I ) . The popularity of recreational boating suggested by the foregoing figures i s evidenced i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s region make i t a FIGURE SU, BOATS BUILT ANNUALLY IN CANADA (Plus imports minus exports) > e o § 4 0 , 0 0 0 [ < o 03 30,000 T O T A L P O W E R B O A T S (BU ILT) N O N POWER (BU ILT ) I M P O R T S E X P O R T S S O U R C E - DOMINION B U R E A U OF S T A T I S T I C S . U. 20,000h O § 10,000 co <* o 8 I D CP) YEAR o IO CD (Source: Lea and A s s o c i a t e s , 1966, p. 5) TABLE I BOAT OWNERSHIP RATES Selected Area Boats per 1000 Population 1 Canada 25.0 . 2 United States 40.8 3 Ontario 35.0 4 New Brunswick 13.0 5 Nova Scotia 20.0 6 Quebec 10.0 7 California 16.5 8 Puget Sound 95.0 9 British Columbia 46^0 0 Gulf of "Georgia 53.0 (Sources Nelson, 1973. p. 8 ) . 8 highly a t t r a c t i v e hinterland f o r c r u i s i n g . The S t r a i t comprises a wealth of wilderness areas, islands, and shel-tered harbours, a l l possessing unique scenic q u a l i t i e s , a l l r e l a t i v e l y accessible. A moderate climate makes possible an annual boating season of 200 days, the longest i n Canada (Nelson, 1973t page 1 3 3 ) . Present use of the S t r a i t of Georgia by boaters att e s t s to these a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s . In 1973. 8 3 , 7 3 0 households (or 17.4 percent of the population) i n the Georgia S t r a i t region owned one or more pleasure c r a f t (Mos and Harrison, 1974, page 11). By 1976 there were estimated to be 93,000 boat-owning households i n the region. In addition, during the same year, use of the c r u i s i n g waters of Georgia S t r a i t was enjoyed by 10,000 non-resident boaters (the number who r e g i s -tered at ports of entry) and by 27»000 resident households who rented or borrowed boats (Meyer and Harrison, 1976, p. 10). These figures give some idea of the large number of pleasure c r a f t presently s a i l i n g the waters of the S t r a i t of Georgia. Pattern and i n t e n s i t y of boating a c t i v i t y must be b r i e f l y summarized to gain an understanding of the regional p i c t u r e . During the "off-season" from October through May, use of the S t r a i t i s l a r g e l y confined to resident boaters. Only 24 percent of t o t a l resident boating a c t i v i t y occurred 9 i n t h i s winter period during 1973 (Mos and Harrison, 197^, page 30). Day t r i p s f o r the purposes of f i s h i n g , racing or family outings are the r u l e . Boating a c t i v i t y thus tends to be concentrated near the place of residence i n the S t a i t region. During the peak summer season, on the other hand, use of the entire system of s i t e s and f a c i l i t i e s i n the region increases as both l o c a l s and non-residents engage i n more frequent day and overnight cruises as well as annual vacation c r u i s e s . U n t i l recently, t h i s seasonal i h f l u x s o f boat t r a f f i c has not had s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . Problems associated with excessive numbers of boaters are now begin-ning to develop, however. Both remote anchorages and ser-viced marina s i t e s experience peak season crowding. What are the future demands on the recreational resources of the S t r a i t of Georgia l i k e l y to be? Estimates of anticipated demand f o r recreation opportunities are never easy to make. However, a number of trends may be expected to contribute to r i s i n g pressure on e x i s t i n g boat-ing s i t e s and f a c i l i t i e s . The urbanization pattern i n B r i t i s h Columbia has tended i n the past to appear as con-centrations of population i n the southwestern coastal c i t i e s . Although the growth rate i n Vancouver has l e v e l l e d off i n the l a s t few years, smaller c i t i e s and towns on the S t r a i t continue to a t t r a c t new residents. The nature of the draw 10 that the coast exerts may r e l a t e i n large part to amenities; that i s climate, scenic beauty and the proximity of year-round recr e a t i o n a l opportunities. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the coastal population l i v i n g along the S t r a i t of Georgia then i s t h e i r propensity towards pursuing the recreational oppor-t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . Boating i s c e r t a i n l y one of the most a t t r a c t i v e of these opportunities. In a more speculative vein, a combination of changing l e i s u r e time increments and the f u e l c r i s i s may be responsible f o r a pronounced orientation to boating recrea-t i o n i n Georgia S t r a i t . Along with other North Americans, the patterns of l e i s u r e time of residents of t h i s region have been changing. People may have at t h e i r disposal longer weekends or perhaps more hours of free time i n each day. Rising f u e l costs, i n addition to reduced highway speeds, smaller automobiles and pronounced congestion on the roads may reduce the appeal of an automobile vacation. Instead, increasing numbers of Georgia S t r a i t residents may be attracted to the proximity of excellent opportunities f o r boating, e s p e c i a l l y s a i l i n g . (Though evidence i s not yet a v a i l a b l e , i t i s f e a s i b l e that s p i r a l l i n g f u e l prices could s h i f t boat sales toward c r a f t requiring l i m i t e d amounts of gas.) 11 GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE The physical s e t t i n g of recreation a c t i v i t y i n coastal areas imposes cert a i n l i m i t a t i o n s on the recreational planning process. Resource planners and policymakers i n B r i t i s h Columbia have only recently begun to regard the coastal zone as a spe c i a l e n t i t y . Increasingly i t i s recog-nized that the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s region defined by land-sea interface necessitate the application of i n t e -grated management p o l i c i e s . The peculiar biophysical a t t r i b u t e s of the coast on the one hand support invaluable ecosystems and provide nur^ series and feeding grounds f o r a diverse number of aquatic organisms, f i s h , mammals, and waterfowl. On the other hand, the geographical advantages of lo c a t i o n i n the region of land-sea interface have resulted i n the a t t r a c t i o n of several forms of human a c t i v i t y to the coast. Thus potential f o r c o n f l i c t between often mutually exclusive alternatives f o r conser-vation or development i s inherent i n coastal regions. For example, the construction of a marina to serve r e c r e a t i o n a l boaters i s preferable and less c o s t l y i n an estuarine area which also provides habitat f o r a vari e t y of aquatic l i f e . On another l e v e l , the administrative arrangements f o r the management of the coastal zone i n B r i t i s h Columbia 12 pose a multitude of problems. At present l e g a l matters pertaining to the coastal region are handled by dozens of agencies from a l l l e v e l s of government. Thus f a r , the oper-ations of these independent bodies working at odds with one another, have contributed to unplanned, piecemeal development throughout coastal areas. As more pressure i s exerted on the resources of the coastal zone from increasing development, problems associated with resource a l l o c a t i o n and j u r i s d i c t -i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l be magnified. The desirable goal of any coastal zone management program i s the integration of the a c t i v i t i e s of agencies involved to design long range strategies that w i l l balance human use with conservation of li m i t e d coastal resources. The geographical context of recreational c r u i s i n g then i s defined as a s p e c i a l resource area. To function e f f e c t i v e l y within the natural and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s t r i c t -ions of the coastal zone, recreational planning from t h i s point i n time on must adopt a regional, integrated perspect-i v e . PLANNING PERSPECTIVE Provision f o r water-oriented recreation w i l l c e r t a i n l y be a major objective i n the development of com-prehensive coastal zone management p o l i c i e s i n B r i t i s h 13 Columbia. The recreational p o t e n t i a l of the S t a i t of Georgia i n p a r t i c u l a r i s recognized by residents and t o u r i s t s a l i k e . Pleasure boating i s the largest component of recreational a c t i v i t y i n the S t a i t . Yet despite the marked growth i n the popularity of boating i n t h i s region and the consequent emergence of problems such as inadequate f a c i l i t i e s , perceived crowding and environmental degrada-t i o n , there has been no attempt to develop regional p o l i c y f o r recreational c r u i s i n g i n the S t a i t of Georgia. As the management of recreational boating i n the S t r a i t of Georgia w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n the study, i t w i l l s u f f i c e here to mention that there are f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal agencies as well as private developers that provide f a c i l i t i e s f o r or regulate boating a c t i v i t y . Up to now, providing f a c i l i t i e s f o r recreational c r u i s i n g has been l i m i t e d to i n d i v i d u a l agency or developer response to s p e c i f i c problems or issues. The lack of coordin-a t i o n between those involved has tended to r e s u l t i n duplic-a t i o n of e f f o r t i n c e r t a i n locations and persistent d e f i c i e n c i e s i n services and f a c i l i t i e s i n other locations. A second problem r e l a t i n g to the planning process i s the absence of a s u f f i c i e n t data base f o r the region. There i s considerable information now available on Lower Mainland boat ownership and moorage requirements due to lack of 14 berthing accommodation fo r a growing population of recrea t i o n a l c r a f t . Certain s i t e s p e c i f i c studies have also been performed. Wolferstan (1971) and Oliver (1975) dealt with the c r u i s i n g experience i n Desolation Sound and Clark (1972) with f a c i l i t y planning f o r boating i n the Gulf Islands, Studies completed by Environment Canada, including resident boat ownership i n the S t r a i t of Georgia (Mos and Harrison, 1974) and federal marina assistance p o l i c y (Meyer and Harrison, 1976) , are more broadly based. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s study, stated at the outset, i s to develop a planning process f o r transient boating a c t i v i t y . Research i s needed on the whole spectrum of water-oriented recreation i n B.C.'s coastal areas. However, i t i s herein assumed that the transient boater and his use of regional s i t e s and f a c i l i t i e s has been i d e n t i f i e d as a key element i n planning f o r coastal zone recreation. The s p e c i f i c objectives of the study are as follows: 1. to develop an " i d e a l " planning process f o r transient boating a c t i v i t y appropriate f o r both the regional and l o c a l l e v e l ; 2 i,to i l l u s t r a t e to the extent possible given time 15 constraints, the application of the regional approach i n Georgia S t r a i t ; 3. to i l l u s t r a t e the application of the l o c a l approach i n two s i t e s i n Georgia S t r a i t oriented to transient boating; 4. to suggest further research necessary to complete the " i d e a l " planning process. I I . METHODOLOGY THE IDEAL PLANNING PROCESS The planning framework for transient boating a c t i v i t y described below i s an " i d e a l " approach i n that performing alll?the steps necessary i s f a r beyond the scope of t h i s study. However, the framework includes the major components of an appropriate planning process and provides a comprehensive background to t h i s study. It i s acknowledged here that transient boating i s one of several water-oriented recreational a c t i v i t i e s taking place i n coastal areas f o r which i n t e r r e l a t e d planning e f f o r t s would be necessary. It i s also assumed that recrea-t i o n a l planning i n general would be integrated with planning and management of other uses of coastal resources. PLANNING FOR THE REGION ESTIMATING FACILITIES REQUIRED 1. Determining the supply of exis t i n g f a c i l i t i e s To estimate f a c i l i t i e s required f o r boaters i t i s necessary to investigate f i r s t the type, capacity and d i s -t r i b u t i o n of ex i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . There i s a wide range of opportunities available f o r the use of transient boaters i n Georgia S t r a i t . 17 a) There are 20 marine parks operated by the P r o v i n c i a l Parks Branch. These are protected anchorages throughout the S t r a i t which offe r minimal service (such as mooring buoys, water supply) at no cost to the boater. The l e a s t developed parks are accessible only by boat. Certain marine parks with campsites, picnic grounds and launching ramps are used by a wider class of boaters. b) The federal government, through the Ministry of Transport maintains ports of refuge along the coast. These are rudimentary f l o a t s without services, used free of charge, intended f o r shelter i n cases of emergency or poor weather. c) Federal government wharves, administered l a r g e l y by the Small Craft Harbours Branch, are located i n most coastal communities. Wharves range i n size and i n s e r v i c i n g from simple f l o a t s to large i n s t a l l a t i o n s where water supply and garbage c o l l e c t i o n are a v a i l a b l e . Wherever there i s a r e s i -dent wharfinger, a 2^/foot/night fee i s c o l l e c t e d from tran-sient boaters. Many public wharves are not supervised and are consequently free of charge. In a few cases, such as Westview Harbour i n Powell River, the Municipality has taken over the operation of the government wharf, upgrading s e r v i c -ing and r a i s i n g moorage fees to 50/foot/night. d) Commercial marinas are owned and operated by the private sector. They too range i n size and ser v i c i n g but 1 8 generally o f f e r a complete package of services from showers to grocery stores. Boaters can often phone ahead to these marinas and reserve accommodation. The current (1976) moorage fee averages at 200/foot/night. In addition to these four types of f a c i l i t i e s , transient boaters have the choice of mooring or anchoring i n any number of secluded bays and i n l e t s throughout Georgia S t r a i t . For example, numbers of Vancouver boaters u t i l i z e the log booms i n the bays of Gambier Island f o r moorage spots on weekend cruises (Alley and Ferguson, 1976). To t h i s date, a detailed, standardized inventory of the above types of f a c i l i t i e s has not been compiled. Marine atlases published f o r boaters are incomplete sources of information f o r the purposeodf measuring the adequacy of exi s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s to meet current and projected demands of boaters. A useful f i r s t step would be the mapping of a l l f a c i l i t i e s , by areas, i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. 2. Establishing the si z e of the exi s t i n g transient boat pop-ul a t i o n ! projecting the growth of t h i s boat population The "transient" boat population i s a subset (composed of resident owners, renters and non-residents,)@of the larger population of "recreational c r a f t " c r u i s i n g i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. Since no studies of thi s p a r t i c u l a r 19 group of boats have been done, i t i s necessary to est a b l i s h the size of the current transient boat population. A transient boat i s one that i s used f o r overnight and vacation c r u i s i n g : there i s a minimum length of boat capable of accommodating crew overnight. For resident owners and renters, a random sample of boats on cruises taken from locations on Georgia S t r a i t oriented to transient boating, could show the minimum siz e of c r a f t used f o r these purposes. Al t e r n a t e l y , a random sample of boat owners interviewed at port of o r i g i n could relate boat si z e to boating a c t i v i t y , which would also provide information on the minimum size of the "transient" category. A l l non-resident boats entering Georgia S t r a i t by sea would auto-matic a l l y be counted as transient. Growth projections of boat populations are conven-t i o n a l l y based on changes i n one or more variables such as population, income, boat ownership rates, age, or on the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between these variables. Surveys of transient boat-owners might establish a r e l a t i o n s h i p between transient boat ownership and, f o r example, age of boat owner. Projections of future boat population would then be based i n part on the size of given population cohorts at a future date. 20 3. Estimating the t o t a l f a c i l i t i e s / s e r v i c e s demanded by the boat population. The t o t a l number of transient boats using the S t r a i t of Georgia must be related to the "average" demand f o r f a c i l i t i e s or services. From a representative sample of these boat-owners i t would be necessary to determine how often i n a year they used the four types of f a c i l i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d as compared to how often they anchored; how much time they spent on the average, at each f a c i l i t y ; how often they used p a r t i c u l a r services (eg. water supply, f u e l , g r o c e r ies). Supplying services and f a c i l i t i e s to boaters on vacation cruises i s a problem of peak season demand, i n that most boating a c t i v i t y occurs between June and September. Therefore the t o t a l f a c i l i t i e s and services demanded (calcu-l a t e d by multiplying "average" demand by t o t a l boats) would have to be disaggregated to indicate the pressure f o r f a c i l i t i e s / s e r v i c e s exerted at a given time. Such inform-a t i o n could be derived by determining the average number of days spent c r u i s i n g i n a year and the proportion of cruises taken during, f o r example, July and August. It would then be possible to determine the number of boats out at a given time and, as a consequence, to estimate the t o t a l demand f o r 21 s e r v i c e s a t a g i v e n t i m e . 4. E s t i m a t i n g t h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f demand, knowing t h e t o t a l demand f o r s e r v i c e s by b o a t e r s a t a g i v e n t i m e i n t h e S t r a i t of G e o r g i a i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f demand would show where s e r v i c e s were needed. To o b t a i n an under-s t a n d i n g o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f demand, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s c o u l d p r o v i d e d a t a on m o t i v a t i o n s f o r c r u i s i n g ( i . e . what e x p e r i e n c e s b o a t e r s seek, what t y p e o f f a c i l i t i e s t h e y p l a n t h e i r t r i p s around) and on t r i p r o u t e s o r c r u i s i n g p a t t e r n s . Maps o r " d i a r i e s " i s s u e d t o a group of b o a t e r s a t p o r t s o f o r i g i n would be an i n t e r e s t i n g method o f p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l s s uch as t h e s e . S i n c e many b o a t e r s keep l o g s o f t h e i r c r u i s e s , i t might be p o s s i b l e t o use a d i a r y t y p e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 5. A s s e s s i n g s u p p l y o f s e r v i c e s i n l i g h t o f c u r r e n t and p r o j e c t e d demand. The p r e c e d i n g s t e p s s h o u l d e n a b l e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f models f o r G e o r g i a S t r a i t which would i n d i c a t e h e a v i l y -t r a v e l l e d c r u i s i n g r o u t e s and s i t e s where s t o p o v e r s were made. T h i s p r o c e s s would i d e n t i f y where f a c i l i t i e s were i n a d e q u a t e 22 or u n d e r - u t i l i z e d . Into the model, projections of the increased demand r e s u l t i n g from a growing transient boat population would have to he incorporated. Future programmes fo r providing new f a c i l i t i e s , upgrading e x i s t i n g ones or manipulating demand by advertising underutilized s i t e s could be developed at t h i s point. IDENTIFYING EXTERNALITIES Transient boating has posit i v e effects on the economy of many coastal communities. However, as seaspace i s a common resource and as mobility i s v i r t u a l l y unrestricted on the water, there are a number of negative effects that r e s u l t from boating a c t i v i t y . Potential problems or sources of c o n f l i c t need to be i d e n t i f i e d . P o l l u t i o n , hazardous navigating, disturbance to l o c a l residents, interference with f e r r i e s or commercial f i s h boats are problems already evident which may be exacerbated by increasing numbers of boaters. At present a number of agencies are responsible f o r the control of recreational boat t r a f f i c . A series of regu-l a t i o n s and programs to deal with perceived problems could be devised through collaboration by each responsible group. IMPLEMENTING THE POLICY PLAN The estimate of f a c i l i t i e s required would indicate the nature and location of changes that would have to be 23 made i n the system of f a c i l i t i e s . On the basis of t h i s estimate and on the basis of other considerations necessary to recreation planning i n the coastal zone (such as ecolo-g i c a l impacts of f a c i l i t i e s , competing demands f o r p o t e n t i a l s i t e s and so on) a p o l i c y plan f o r transient boating could be developed. Implementation of the plan would be shared by the four classes of providers of f a c i l i t i e s , namely: the federal government, the p r o v i n c i a l government, municipal governments ( i n some cases) and the private sector. A description of current p o l i c i e s and problems facing these groups would also be necessary to suggest the future r o l e that they would play as providers of f a c i l i t i e s to transient boaters. PLANNING FOR THE LOCAL LEVEL ESTIMATING SERVICES REQUIRED 1. Determining the range and capacity of e x i s t i n g services S i t e s p e c i f i c inventories of services available (eg. at a l l commercial marinas and government wharves) could be compiled by on-site observation. 2. Estimating services demanded A survey of transient boaters using a given s i t e w i l l determine the services used, the d o l l a r expenditure made 24 on these services, and the perceived inadequacies i n ser-v i c e s . Records could be kept over a summer period to show how many transient boaters made temporary (up to a few hours) stopovers f o r servicesj how many boaters stopped over per night and how long they stayed. Numbers of boats "anchored out" and numbers of boats turned away from marinas on busy occasions should also be recorded. Projected increases (or decreases) i n demand must be estim-ated on the basis of changes i n the size of the t o t a l tran-sient boat population and (from crusing patterns) the r e l a t i v e l e v e l of use the s i t e obtains compared to other s i t e s . IDENTIFYING SITE SPECIFIC PROBLEMS Certain e x t e r n a l i t i e s of beating a c t i v i t y apparent at the regional l e v e l may be experienced at a given l o c a t i o n . Recent contributions to the popular l i t e r a t u r e ( P a c i f i c Yachting, July 1976) have pointed out that inappro-pr i a t e behaviour by v i s i t i n g boaters i s a cause of concern to many of the residents of coastal communities. In order to i d e n t i f y which problems are s i g n i f i c a n t at a l o c a l l e v e l , i t would be necessary to s o l i c i t the opinions of l o c a l residents, operators of marinas or other businesses catering to boaters, 25 and of the boaters themselves. DEVELOPING PROGRAMMES TO REMEDY PROBLEMS AND PROVIDE  SERVICES REQUIRED At the l o c a l l e v e l , close cooperation between c i t i z e n s , regulatory agencies and l o c a l government would enable the development of po l i c y f o r transient boating a c t i v i t y i n the area. S p e c i f i c suggestions f o r remedying problems perceived and f o r providing services required would be made that were appropriate f o r implementation at the l o c a l l e v e l . THE APPROACH OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTION Given constraints of time, i t was not possible to complete a l l the suggested steps i n the preceding out-l i n e . Rather i n t h i s study, emphasis was placed on the aspect of the transient boaters demand, both at the regional and l o c a l l e v e l , f o r services such as moorage, water supply, f u e l , groceries, av a i l a b l e at commercial marinas and some government wharves. A b r i e f discussion of the concept of demand and of models used to evaluate demand follows. 26 THE CONCEPT OF DEMAND The focus i n t h i s study i s the component of demand f o r services. I t i s recognized that the i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of demand has caused considerable misunderstanding i n recreation planning (Seneca and C i c c h e t t i , 1969» page 238). In economic terms, demand i s defined as the t o t a l amount of a commodity that a l l households wish to purchase at a given price (Lipsey, Sparks and Steiner, 1973, page 72). Demand i n terms of recreation may be broadlyddefined as the desire of a population to "purchase" or "consume" c e r t a i n recreation opportunities again at a given "price" (which may be measured i n t r a v e l cost or time). Demand may be expressed or l a t e n t . Latent demand f o r a given recreation a c t i v i t y may be experienced by an i n d i v i d u a l who i s prevented from p a r t i c i p a t i n g due to personal constraints or imperfections i n the supply of opportunities. Given the removal of these r e s t r a i n t s or the addition of new s i t e s or f a c i l i t i e s f o r recreation, l a t e n t demand may be responsible f o r increasing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n recreational a c t i v i t i e s . 2? MODELS USED TO EVALUATE DEMAND In order to improve recreation planning, numerous attempts have been made to construct analytic economic models that explore the re l a t i o n s h i p between recreational demand and supply. Three major approaches to modelling the demand f o r outdoor recreation may be i d e n t i f i e d ( C i c c h e t t i , 1973). The essential difference among the three approaches i s the character of t h e i r respective data bases. A b r i e f description of these models i s necessary to demonstrate t h e i r r e l a t i v e u t i l i t y f o r the demand projections attempted i n th i s study. The " s i t e s p e c i f i c recreation area" model i s based on information concerning v i s i t o r s to a s p e c i f i c area, including v i s i t o r s residences or the points of o r i g i n of the t r i p . In order to obtain measures of the recreational benefits of a given f a c i l i t y , the model uses cost approxi-mations f o r p r i c e . The best known example of t h i s type of approach i s that developed by Hotelling, Clawson and Knetsch (1966). This t r a v e l cost approach states that the relevant measure f o r the price of services at a given recreation s i t e i s the costs incurred by an in d i v i d u a l or group i n getting to the s i t e (Smith, 1975t page 9 9 ) . Although t h i s approach i s developed f o r s p e c i f i c s i t e s i t was not considered 28 suitable f o r the evaluation of demand at the locations chosen f o r t h i s study. Though "price" of the services a v a i l a b l e to boaters at either of the s i t e s could be est-imated by t r a v e l costs, such measures are not relevant to the determination of user p r o f i l e , q u a l i t a t i v e and quanti-t a t i v e demand f o r services and user perception that were sought by means of questionnaire administration at the study locations. The second approach, the " s i t e s p e c i f i c user" model, gathers information from the users of a given s i t e with respect to t h e i r attitudes and s a t i s f a c t i o n with the services provided. The purpose of such studies i s to improve management on s i t e or to learn about the most valued c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t e . A good example of the user model i s the work of Stankey (1972) on wilderness users i n Montana. This model was chosen as the appropriate means of evaluating demand by transient boaters within a given s i t e . The t h i r d model i s the "population s p e c i f i c " one that i s based on information from a representative sample of households that includes both participants and nonparticipants i n given recreational a c t i v i t i e s . This approach, t y p i f i e d by nationwide surveys such as those performed by the United 29 States Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission ( i 9 6 0 , 1 9 6 2 ) , examines demand f o r a c t i v i t i e s rather than f o r p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s . The basic method involves estimating factors a f f e c t i n g the l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ce r t a i n recreation a c t i v i t i e s as a function of socioeconomic char-a c t e r i s t i c s and past experience of the respondents, a measure of available f a c i l i t i e s and numerous other f a c t o r s . The model then focuses on p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which i s the net r e s u l t of influences of both demand and supply (Seneca and C i c c h e t t i , 1 9 6 9 , page 2 3 8 ) . The "population s p e c i f i c " approach provided a framework f o r analyzing demand f o r services by transient boaters within the region. STUDY COMPONENTS At the regional l e v e l , i t was possible to complete a portion of the " i d e a l " process. Reference w i l l be made i n the conclusions to those steps not attempted by the author. At the l o c a l l e v e l i t was possible to adhere quite c l o s e l y to the suggested framework. PLANNING FOR THE REGION 1 . Estimating services required The current transient boat population was defined as a subset of the t o t a l population of recreational c r a f t i n 30 the S t r a i t . Boat ownership figures were derived from population s p e c i f i c surveys performed by Mos and Harrison (197^) and Meyer and Harrison (1976) i n which boat ownership rates were established f o r the Georgia S t r a i t region by a random survey of households. To the t o t a l transient c r a f t resident i n Georgia S t r a i t were added renters and non-resid-ent boats. Projections of the transient boat population to 1986 and 2000 were based on population growth. Total services demanded were estimated from the re s u l t s of a questionnaire administered to a representative sample of transient boaters. There was an attempt to d i s -aggregate the t o t a l into services demanded at a given time. 2. Identifying e x t e r n a l i t i e s associated with transient boating a c t i v i t y . From a review of the popular l i t e r a t u r e , the re s u l t s of communication withtthe RCMP and Coast Guard and from the s i t e s p e c i f i c studies, a number of "problems" were i d e n t i f i e d that characterized transient boating throughout the region. 3. Implementing the p o l i c y plan Since only a part of the planning process was attempted at the regional l e v e l , t h i s section was r e s t r i c t e d 31 to commenting on the p o l i c i e s of the four classes of providers as they might r e l a t e to the future provision of f a c i l i t i e s and suggesting a number of al t e r n a t i v e solutions to problems i d e n t i f i e d . PLANNING FOR THE LOCAL LEVEL 1. Estimating services required An inventory of services available at both s i t e s was compiled. Boaters* demand f o r services was measured by the r e s u l t s of a questionnaire administered on s i t e . 2. Identifying s i t e s p e c i f i c problems Boaters, marina operators and l o c a l residents were contacted to f i n d out t h e i r view of problems associated with transient boating i n the given s i t e . 3. Developing action programs. Since 1976 was an a t y p i c a l boating season, the estimate of services required could not be made. Therefore only suggestions on methods of dealing with problems were made, i n l i g h t of the future demands that could be made on the s i t e s . 32 SURVEY TECHNIQUES THE BOATER QUESTIONNAIRE A questionnaire administered to boaters at the three s i t e s chosen formed a s i g n i f i c a n t part of the study and provided a means of supplementing the general demand projection (described i n the next chapter) with a picture of the " t y p i c a l " boater on a weekend or vacation c r u i s e . Though time consuming and expensive, personal communication with respondents guaranteed cooperation and a high response rate. Mailback questionnaires were rejected as a method of obtaining information because i t i s recognized that those who do return these questionnaires may represent a group s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from non-respondents (Marans, 1975). Alternative methods could be useful f o r understanding tran-sient boating a c t i v i t y . Photographic records of boaters from the a i r or at a given s i t e would indicate t r a v e l and use patterns (Davis and Ayers, 1975). Time budgets or " d i a r i e s " kept by boaters could alsorprovide valuable information (Michelson and Reed, 1975). Questionnaire design was guided by four classes of information sought: general information on the socio-economic and "cruising experience" p r o f i l e of the boater; general t r i p information; s i t e s p e c i f i c information concerning 33 demand f o r services; boater perception of the adequacy of e x i s t i n g services. A p i l o t survey was carr i e d out i n July at Gibsons' Landing to test o r i g i n a l questionnaire design. The content of a l l questionnaires was i d e n t i c a l with the exception of the second and t h i r d page which d i f f e r e d i n those administered to the boaters i n the marine park s i t e (see Appendix A f o r copies of both questionnaires). MARINA OPERATOR INTERVIEWS The owners and/or operators of f i v e private marinas were interviewed i n Secret Coverand Pender Harbour. Information sought included: type and capacity of operation, demand expressed by boaters, problems experienced a$ present l e v e l s of use and future plans f o r expansion. RESIDENT QUESTIONNAIRE Transient boating may have both p o s i t i v e and negative consequences. The demands of boaters within given s i t e s must be constrained i n part by the desires of l o c a l residents, i f they are detrimentally affected by boating a c t i v i t y . To r e g i s t e r the opinion of residents a mailback questionnaire was sent to 40 people i n the Secret-Smugglers Cove area and 170 people i n the Pender Harbour area ' v.•>• 34 SITES CHOSEN FOR THE FIELD STUDY There are a number of s i t e s on the S t r a i t of Georgia oriented to marine recreation and to serving the transient boater i n p a r t i c u l a r . Smugglers Cove, Secret Cove and Pender Harbour, located within a 10 mile radius on the Sechelt Peninsula (see FIQ.3) were selected f o r the following reasons: a) they appear to be " t y p i c a l " of other s i t e s on the S t r a i t of Georgia that experience heavy use by transient boaters. b) they constitute a sub-region i n themselves because they o f f e r a cl u s t e r of a l t e r n a t i v e stopovers between Gibsons Landing-Sechelt and Powell River; i n other words there i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y that transient boaters w i l l stop at one of these s i t e s i f they are t r a v e l l i n g on the east side of the S t r a i t of Georgia; c) they are located close enough to Vancouver to provide easy access f o r f i e l d work and they are close to each other, enabling movement between them convenient by sea or by road; d) the two "serviced s i t e s " , Secret Cove and Pender Harbour, o f f e r a wide range of services and f a c i l i t i e s and 35 FIGURE 3 The Sechelt Peninsula Scale It 126,?20 1 inch = 2 miles (Source: Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources) 36 both private and public marinas (The t h i r d non-serviced s i t e , Smugglers Cove i s a p r o v i n c i a l marina park located very near Secret Cove. I t was included f o r the purpose of determining whether or not there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between users of serviced and non-serviced s i t e s . ) ; e ) a l l s i t e s are characterized by sizeable l o c a l popula-tions composed of both temporary and permanent residents. F i e l d work at the three s i t e s was c a r r i e d out between August 5th and Aggast 22nd, 1976, usually a period of heavy boating a c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g from predictably good summer weather i n the region. Respondents were approached at about 6*00 PM or as close to t h i s hour as possible. At t h i s time, boaters wanting to spend the night at the s i t e had arrived and t i e d up. E a r l i e r i n the afternoon many people were s t i l l c r u i s i n g or were on shore taking advantage of showers, laundry or stores. Later i n the evening boaters began s o c i a l i z i n g and were not interested i n f i l l i n g out a questionnaire. Mornings were also out of the question as many people were busy pre-paring to leave. In order to reduce bias from the sampling pro-cedure the following steps were taken. Sampling was done -every day except Monday (which was without exception a "slow" 37 day) f o r 8 days at each serviced s i t e and k days at the park. On the i n i t i a l day of sampling at each s i t e the t o t a l number of transient boats moored or anchored out was counted. T h i r t y percent of these and t h i r t y percent of the new a r r i v a l s each night thereafter were contacted. To randomize sampling, every 1st, 4th, 7th (and so forth) boat was contacted. If no one was onboard or i f the occupants refused to answer the questionnaire (which happened only twice) the next boat i n l i n e was contacted. In the case of boats "anchored out", i t was only possible to approximate a random s e l e c t i o n . The concentration on the measurement of demand fo r services and f a c i l i t i e s seemed l i k e l y to favour a cert a i n c l a s s of transient boaters. Therefore Smugglers* Cove Marine Park, a non-serviced s i t e close to a serviced area, was selected as a control to determine whether there were differences i n the users of the two types of s i t e s , (As Smugglers Cove i s about 15 minutes by boat from Secret Cove, i t was f e l t that people who stayed i n the former s i t e did so f o r a reason; that i s they could have bought supplies at the serviced area but they had an<option as to where they stayed overnight). There was also the p o s s i b i l i t y of bias i n the sampling i n that i t was not possible to administer questionnaires to the many people who came into the s i t e 38 only long enough to get gas or buy groceries. However, with only one f i e l d worker i t was not possible to keep a count on t h i s ^ t r a f f i c ( e s p e c i a l l y i n Pender Harbour as there i s a wide entrance channel and several destinations possible within the Harbour). The questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d with a verbal explanation and picked up again within l i l hours $ the rate of return was v i r t u a l l y 100 percent. Almost without except-ion the 205 respondents were pleasant, cooperative and interested i n the project. METHODS OF ANALYSIS The boater questionnaires were preceded f o r analysis by means of the SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences) computer program. Results of the question-naires were analyzed f i r s t as condescriptive and one way frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s to show the break down of responses within each question. Second, cross tabulations between selected variables (such as residence and services demanded) were performed. Tables are included where necessary. The small number of marina operator interviews (5) and of resident questionnaires returned (49 out of 210) enabled the author to examine these and determine o v e r a l l .trends by inspection. 39 I I I . PLANNING POR THE REGION ESTIMATING SERVICES REQUIRED INTRODUCTION The basic component i n the estimation of demand f o r services f o r the region i s the projection of the popula-t i o n of boats that can be classed "transient" or "cruisable". A number of techniques have been used i n the past to fore-cast the population of recreational c r a f t i n general f o r the S t r a i t of Georgia region. N.D. Lea (1966, page 44) forecast the number of boats that would be owned by r e s i d -ents i n the S t r a i t i n 1976 and 1986. Based on survey r e s u l t s , a r e l a t i o n s h i p was established between family income and boat ownership. Boat ownership was r e l a t e d to family income and forecasts were based on an increase i n population and an increase i n per capita disposable income. More recently Woods, Gordon and Co. Ltd. (1974, page 1) attempted to calculate present and future s i z e of the r e c r e a t i o n a l f l e e t f o r Metropolitan Vancouver and the province on the basis of outboard motor ownership. The number of motors was m u l t i p l i e d bytthe r a t i o (set on the basis of U.S.^studies as I .23 boats to 1 motor) of pleasure c r a f t to outboard motors. Clark (1969 page 34) proposed that the future boat population could be estimated by 4o multiplying the ex i s t i n g t o t a l by an "overall growth f a c t o r " (composed of population increase, population density l e v e l and personal income increase). The method used i n t h i s study to project the future number of transient boats using the region r e l i e s on population increase. The data used as the basis f o r the demand projection i n t h i s section are derived (unless other-wise stated) from Mos and Harrison ( 1 9 7 4 ) and Meyer and Harrison ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Therefore continual reference to these sources w i l l not be made. The f i r s t of these studies gathered data on the number, value and use of recreational boats i n Georgia S t r a i t . Surveyors divided the Georgia S t r a i t into 14 sampling regions and conducted successful telephone interviews with a random sample of over 3000 households. Those people who owned, rented or borrowed boats were contacted by mail. Some 700 questionnaires returned were then used to establish boat ownership rates, boat types and use, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of boat owners. The study done i n 1 976 updated boat population figures i n the S t r a i t of Georgia and includes information on non-resident use of the S t r a i t . The figures obtained from these sources are con-sidered f a i r l y accurate f o r the purposes of recreational kl boating planning. Data i s f i r s t hand, from a large representative sample, and i t i s quite recent. In addition, these studies are the only ones available on boating through-out the S t r a i t of Georgia region. In t h i s study, the projection of demand f o r services by transient boaters i n Georgia S t r a i t to 1986 and to 2000 i s developed through examining the following cate-gories of information: a) the present population of "cruisable" boats (capable of accommodating people overnight) resident i n the S t r a i t of Georgia; b) the non-resident c r u i s i n g boats using Georgia S t r a i t watersi c) the population of transient or cruisable boats rented f o r use i n the S t r a i t ; d) the application of a "growth rate" figure f o r popula-t i o n increase to determine the transient boating population that could be c r u i s i n g the S t r a i t i n 1986 and 2000; e) support f o r the projections made by r e f e r r i n g to the possible r e l a t i o n s h i p between socio-economic variables (including income levels) based on data from the sample survey and boat ownership; f) the estimation of t o t a l demand fo r services by 42 transient boaters i n a given period i n 1986 and 2000, based on frequency of demand and number of transient boats out of any given time. EXISTING TRANSIENT BOATS RESIDENT IN GEORGIA STRAIT The present population of primary recreational c r a f t i n the S t r a i t of Georgia i s approximately 93*300. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine what proportion of these boats i s used f o r c r u i s i n g on the basis of boat length alone. Personal observation suggests that c r a f t under 20 feet are not usually equipped f o r overnight t r i p s . To support t h i s view, 20 feet corresponds to the minimum length of the transient boats recorded i n t h i s study's sample group. At present some 14 percent of the S t r a i t ' s resident boat population i s 21 feet and over i n length. Yet there are 22,000 wet moored boats i n the S t r a i t which are an average length of 21 feet plus. This figure suggests that up to 24 per cent (22000/93300) of the resident c r a f t i n Georgia S t r a i t may be used f o r c r u i s i n g . However, the lower figure of 14 percent w i l l be used i n t h i s study as a conservative estimate. Therefore the approximate transient boat popula-t i o n i n Georgia S t r a i t i s (14% of 93300 =) 13,000 boats. 4 3 NON-RESIDENT CONTRIBUTION Approximately 10,500 boats entered B.SC. waters by sea from the U.S.A. in 1976j they may a l l be assumed to belong to the "transient class" since they accommodate the crew overnight. A further 2,500 boats entered the province by t r a i l e r or cartop from the U.S. in 1976. For the purpose of this study these boats w i l l not be included in the "transient" category because they are usually removed from the water each evening. RENTED OR BORROWED BOATS Some 27,000 households in the Strait of Georgia rent or borrow recreational boats an average of 6 times per year. To avoid double counting of boats borrowed by friends, only renters (46 percent of these households or 12,420 households) w i l l be considered. To determine the number of rented boats that might belong to the "transient" category, reference is made to the results of the survey undertaken for this study: 4.2 percent (n = 190) of the respondents rented boats over 20 feet in length. If the sample can be assumed representative, then rented, boats contribute 4.2 percent of 12,420 rentals or 500 boats to the transient class. 44 THE TOTAL TRANSIENT BOAT POPULATION IN GEORGIA STRAIT: 1976, 1986 and 2000. In 1976 the t o t a l transient boat population that eould u t i l i z e the S t r a i t of Georgia i s estimated at 24,100 boats (including residents, non-residents and r e n t e r s ) . Population increase i s used as a basis f o r projecting t h i s population to 1986 and to 2000. Obviously there are other factors that could influence ownership of transient boats i n the future. However, such effects as changing patterns of l e i s u r e time, innovations i n boat b u i l d i n g technology, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of moorage near population centres are less predictable i n t h e i r impacts and less easy to quantify. RESIDENT POPULATION A growth rate f o r population centres on the S t r a i t of Georgia calculated by Meyer and Harrison (1976) forecasts population ( i n households) i n 1986 and 2000. The growth rates seem uniformly low but they do not d i f f e r greatly from the average annual growth rate of 3 percent set f o r the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (G.V.R.D. 1975 page 5). However, since the annual rate i s f i x e d i n the Meyer-Harrison data f o r a 24 year period, some inaccuracy may be expected. Table II indicates the number of households resident i n the Georgia S t r a i t i n 1976 and anticipated i n TABLE I I HOUSEHOLDS RESIDENT ON GEORGIA STRAIT 1976, 1986 and 2000 (Source: Unpublished data Fisheries and Environment) Area Households Growth Households Households 1976 Factor 1976-2000 Estim. 1986 Estim. 2000 Victoria 75,284 .019 90§875 118,272 Duncan 11,185 .014 12,853 15,615 Ladysmith 2,763 .014 3.175 3,857 Nanaimo 14,340 .019 16,987 21,696 Parksville 3,218 .019 3,884 5,056 Comox-Courtenay 7,870 .019 9,500 12,364 Campbell River 5,923 .019 7,150 9,305 Powell River 7,342 .013 8,354 10,010 Sechelt 1,658 .019 2.001 2,605 Gibsons 1,528 .019 1,844 2,400 Squamish 2,578 .019 3,112 4,050 North Shore 44,630 .02 54,404 71,785 Greater Vancouver 280,892 .02 342,406 451,797 Delta-Surrey Whiterock 49,087 .02 59,837 ' 78,953 46 1986 and 2000. To calculate the transient boat population owned by residents of the S t r a i t i n 1986 and 2000 the following "constant-porportion" formula was used: Total Resident Total House- Boat Established Transient Boats = holds Estim- Ownership - Percentage 1986 (2000) ated 1986 X Rate X Proportion of (2000) (constant) Transient Boats Based on the t o t a l boat populations i n Table I I I , the resident population of transient c r a f t i n 1986 may reach 15,000 boats; in.2000, 19,600 boats. NON-RESIDENT POPULATION Two le s s detailed methods were used to project the number of non-resident c r a f t i n 1986 and 2000. A growth rate applicable to American boats was derived from a Puget Sound study (State of Washington, 1968). Since the bulk of non-resident boaters c r u i s i n g the S t r a i t originate i n t h i s area, the figures contained i n t h i s report seemed appro-p r i a t e . Prom 1976 to 2000 an average percentage increase i n the number of boats was set at 1.58 percent, s i m i l a r to the growth f a c t o r set f o r S t r a i t of Georgia households (see Table I I ) . Multiplying the present population of 47 TABLE I I I ESTIMATED BOAT POPULATION, STRAIT OE GEORGIA, 1986 and 2000 Area Boat Ownership Rate " Households 1986 Boat Pop. 1986 Households 2000 Boat Poi 2000 Victoria 17.09 90,875 15,531 118,272 20,213 Duncan 32.42 12,853 4,167 15,615 5,062 Ladysmith 31.28 3,175 993 3,857 1,206 Nanaimo 28.79 16,987 4,891 21,696 6,246 Parksville 32.81 3,884 1,274 5,056 1,659 Comox-Courtenay 36.26 9,500 3,448 12,364 4,483 Campbell River 40.66 7.150 . 2,907 9,305 3,783 Powell River 45.12 8,354 - 3,769 10,010 4,517 Sechelt 41.48 2,001. 830 2,605 1,081 Gibsons • 40.21 1,844 74 l 2,400 963 Squamish 20.30 3,112 632 4,050 822 North Shore 23.46 54,404 12,763 71,785 16,841 Greater Vancouver 12.50 342,406 42,801 451,797 56,475 Delta-Surrey -Whiterock 20.63 59,837 12,344 78,953 16,288 TOTALS 616,382 107,091 807,765 139,639 48 American c r a f t entering the S t r a i t of Georgia by t h i s f i g u r e r e s u l t s i n a t o t a l of 16,600 boats i n 1986 and 26,200 i n 2000. A second technique was used to cross-check t h i s projection. In 1966, 6,607 American boats entered the S t r a i t (Lea and Assoc., 1966, page 22). Between 1966 and 1976 there was an increase of 3»893 boats. I t does not seem unreasonable to suggest that an increase of 6,500 boats might be experienced between 1976 and 1986. In f a c t the very high number of Americans (427 out of 689 boats) i n t e r -viewed i n the Desolation Sound Study (Wolferstan, 1971, page 70) indicates that increasing crowding i n less p r i s t i n e environments could force even higher numbers of Americans into Canadian waters i n years to come. RENTED BOATS In 1976 rented c r a f t i n the S t r a i t of Georgia contributed approximately 500 boats to the "transient" cate-gory. Since most renting i s centred i n Southern metropolitan centres, the growth rate f o r Vancouver C i t y (see Table II) i s applied to the 27,000 households who rented boats i n 1976. Therefore i n 1986 a t o t a l of 32,900 households may rent recreational boats? i n 2000 t h i s figure may reach 49 42,600 households. The present percentage of rented c r a f t that may he used f o r overnight and vacation c r u i s i n g i s estimated at 4.2 percent. Should t h i s percentage hold constant over time, rented boats may contribute 1,400 c r a f t to the transient category i n 1986 and 1,800 c r a f t i n 2000. However, a trend toward increased renting of large recrea-t i o n a l c r a f t could render these figures conservative est-imates. (Personal communication with s t a f f of J i b Set S a i l i n g School and Charters, February 1977). Table IV shows that the t o t a l transient boat population using the S t r a i t i n 1976 was 24,100, boats. By 1986 t h i s t o t a l may be 33,000 boats; by 2000, 47,600 boats. The proportion of the 1976 t o t a l that originated i n the U.S. i s (10,500 U.S. boats/24,100 t o t a l boats)=about 44 percent. This compares to survey re s u l t s i n t h i s study which indicated that 41 percent of the respondants (n = 192) were from the U.S. (see Appendix B f o r data pertaining to residence of boaters). THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC VARIABLES Assuming that the r e l a t i v e prices of boats to income remains more or less constant, there are a number of socio-economic variables that could influence boat ownership. 50 TABLE IV TRANSIENT BOAT POPULATION CRUISING IN GEORGIA STRAIT 1976 1986 2000 Resident 13,100 15,000 19,600 Non Resident 10,500 16,600 26,200 Renters 500 1,400. 1,800 TOTAL 24,100 33,000 47,600 51 For example, i t could be demonstrated that owners of boats large enough to be classed "transient" belong to the popula-t i o n cohort including people aged 45 to 60. Examination of changes i n the s i z e of population cohorts over the next several years may reveal that there w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the number of 45 to 60 year old i n d i v i d u a l s i n the population. P o t e n t i a l l y , then, boat ownership rates could r i s e . Income i s a second factor that could influence boat ownership. However, no socioeconomic variables were incorporated into the demand projection. (Questionnaire data on age, education, income and occupation are included i n Appendix B). THE ESTIMATION OF TOTAL DEMAND The "average" demand f o r services was deduced from a questionnaire survey of a representative group of transient boaters. Survey r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g to average demand are presented here. This type of information would be useful when planning f a c i l i t i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t classes of boats, since there are correlations between boat type and length and service use. BOAT TYPE AND LENGTH Table V summarizes boat type and compares the 52 TABLE V BOAT TYPE BY PERCENTAGE OP SAMPLE Type Sample Survey n = 186 Georgia Strait Survey* n. = 84,000 households Sailboat Outboard Inboard Inboard-Outboard Other 25.3 1.6 43.5 29.0 0 10.30 (includes boats without auxiliary power) 57.77 14.21 17.72 (*. Source: Mos and Harrison, 1974, p. 13) 53 survey r e s u l t s with boat type measured f o r the entire r e c r e a t i o n a l boat population i n Georgia S t r a i t (Mos and Harrison, 1974, page 13)• Average boat length i n the sample survey was 3° f e e t . Table VI shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of boat lengths as compared to those f o r a l l recreational c r a f t i n Georgia S t r a i t . (Mos and Harrison, 1974, page 14) and to those i n a survey of recreational boating on Howe Sound (Alley and Ferguson, 1976, page 17). FREQUENCY OF SERVICE/FACILITY USE The majority of services l i s t e d i n the questionnaire were used about every three to four days by half or more of the respondents (see Table VII). For each service or f a c i l i t y the largest percentage of users per time period i s underlined to indicate median rate of use. Studies of service use by transient boaters are l i m i t e d , however, Clark (1972) has compared peak day users of services located i n the Gulf Islands and obtained re s u l t s i n conformity with use patterns observed i n t h i s study (see Table VII I ) . One essential service not included on the questionnaire here was garbage c o l l e c t i o n , the absence of which can be an annoying problem. Several of the respondents commented on the inadequacy or lack of garbage disposal s i t e s f a r t h e r north i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. 54 TABLE VT BOAT LENGTH BY PERCENTAGE OF SAMPLE Length Sample Survey Howe Sound Survey* Georgia Strait* . n = 173 n = 72 Survey n = 84,000 hhs under 20' 0 16.7 20 - 24' 22.0 23.6 25-3929' 30.1 22.2 30 - 34' 22.0 13-9 35 - 39' 12.7 6.9 40 - 44' 6.9 12.5 45 - 50' 4.0" 4.2 50' plus 2.3 86.4 9.9 3.8 (* Sources: Alley and Ferguson, 1976, p. 17 Mos and Harrison, 1974, p. 14) Service n = 1. Wharfage for the night 184 2. Water 183 3. Groceries 183 4. Fuel 182 5. 5. Ice 158 6. Showers 137 7-7. Laundry 137 8. Liquor Store 115 9. Marine Supplies 105 10. Hotels, Pubs Restaurants 104 11. Bait, tackle 103 12. E l e c t r i c i t y hookups 85 13. Repairs 33 TABLE VII FREQUENCY OF SERVICE/FACILITY USE Percentage Percentage Percentage,. Using Using Daily Using Every 3-4 Days Weekly or Less Often 36.5 53^3. 11.4 19.7 62.3 18.0 18.0 66.7 15.3 23.6 58.2 18.1 21.5 69.6 8.9 10.2 69.3 20.4 35.8 62.8 1.5 4.3 27.0 68.7 10.5 46.7 42.9 5.8 40.4 53.8 27.2 37^9 35.0 31.8 4^5 24.7 9.1 15.2 75.8 56 TABLE VITI FACILITY USE RATES POR VACATION TRIPS (number of uses per vacation t r i p ) F a c i l i t y Boat tyr>e s a i l inboarc outboard gas and o i l 3.45 5.78 6.17 water 3.42 5.36 6.17 ' Ice 3.65 3.10 4.00 groceries 4.40 6.10 4.70 laundry 1.65 1.19 .85 showers 2.55 1.42 .85 restrooms 3.30 1.32 3.68 hotel & f a c i l . • .40 .81 2.34 restaurants 2.07 2.80 .50 entertainment .10 .17 .66 transportation .27 .26 .00 medical .07 .05 -33 ship yard o 05 .29 .00 boat launching .00 .00 .66 -marina moorage 3.78 3.48 2.16 private moorage 1.05 1.77 3.00 free moorage 2.10 4.00 .00 anchorage 7.16 6.15 3.18 marine parks (B.C.) 1.08 .70 .33 marine parks (VJn, ),.. . o79 ,40 -1.50 -p i c n i c s i t e s . . ,29 .23 .33 f i s h i n g . 4.15 4.44 8.84 water s k i i n g .10 .66 .33 swimming . . ^ 7.05 3.88 2.83 scuba diving 1.37 .00 1-00 1 (Sources Clark, 1969, p. 78) 57 CORRELATION BETWEEN SERVICE USE. TRIP LENGTH AND BOAT TYPE/  LENGTH Cross-tabulations showed a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between boat type and the frequency of use of services. Power-driven c r a f t tended to stop f o r se r v i c i n g more often than s a i l b o a t s . There was also a c o r r e l a t i o n between boat length and service use. Large c r a f t (40 f t . plus) used services less frequently. In addition, large c r a f t tended to make longer t r i p s . Next, to estimate services required, i t was nece-ssary to determine the t o t a l demand expressed by transient boaters c r u i s i n g i n a given period. That i s , t h i s exercise was intended to indicate how many stop-overs would be made throughout Georgia S t r a i t during, for example, August 1976 and therefore to suggest services required f o r the projected boat population. Unfortunately respondents misunderstood a question pertaining to the t o t a l number of cruises (3 nights plus) they had taken i n the l a s t year. The mean average number of cruises was a very high 28 (n = 161) or a minimum of 84 days! I t seems l i k e l y that respondents took number of "cruises" to mean number of "days". Without t h i s informa-t i o n i t was not possible to estimate t o t a l demand i n a given 58 time period. A t h i r d step that would be necessary i n establishing services required i s the estimation of the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of demand. Maps were included on the questionnaire and respondents were asked to draw i n t h e i r t r i p routes. Only some people f i l l e d i t i n and the map was not detailed enough to be u s e f u l . One would need to know i n addition what motivates boaters, what f a c i l i t i e s they plan t h e i r t r i p s around. A diary type of questionnaire would provide more information about c r u i s i n g patterns. IDENTIFYING EXTERNA LITIES As the population of transient boats crusing i n the S t r a i t of Georgia increases, so w i l l s a number of problems that r e s u l t from the a c t i v i t y . A r t i c l e s i n the popular l i t e r a t u r e ( P a c i f i c Yachting 1974 to 1976) and personal observation prompted the author to investigate further claims that "inappropriate" transient boater behaviour was becoming a source of concern. Conversations with members of the Coast Guard, the R.C.M.P., s a i l i n g schools as well as comments from the marina operators and residents at the case study£.sites substantiated t h i s point of view. Problems centred on p o l l u t i o n (garbage dumping and sewage disposal) 59 and hazardous navigating (speeding, lack of knowledge of tfrules of the road"), IMPLEMENTING THE POLICY PLAN INTRODUCTION Since/ the planning process described f o r the regional l e v e l i s not completed i n t h i s study, i t i s not possible to suggest here what type of f a c i l i t i e s i n which locations might be necessary to accommodate the projected increase i n the number of transient boaters. The " i d e a l " process outlined e a r l i e r b r i e f l y described the d i f f e r e n t types of f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . Here, the p o l i c i e s of the providers are outlined f i r s t so as to suggest how they might function i n the implementation of a po l i c y plan f o r transient boating i n the region. Second, al t e r n a t i v e means of dealing with "problems" i d e n t i f i e d are suggested, though further study would be necessary before any of them could be implemented. THE POLICIES OP PROVIDERS FEDERAL INVOLVEMENT Under the auspices of the federal government the Small Craft Harbours Branch a s s i s t i n the provision of 60 f a c i l i t i e s used by transient boaters i n two ways. F i r s t the Branch has operational r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the majority of government wharves scattered throughout Georgia S t r a i t . The wharves are maintained f o r the use of commercial f i s h e r -men and transient boaters. Since there are few harbours i n Georgia S t r a i t where a f u l l t i m e wharfinger i s employed to c o l l e c t fees (20/foot/night) from transient boaters, there i s l i m i t e d recovery of costs incurred i n the provision of these f a c i l i t i e s . I t could be claimed that l o c a l residents pay taxes and therefore support i n d i r e c t l y public f a c i l i t i e s . However, U.S. boaters who compose 40 percent of the t o t a l transient boating population use these f a c i l i t i e s completely free of charge. Another factor that w i l l have to be considered i f Small Craft Harbours intends to increase the number of government wharves available i s t h e i r role with respect to commercial f a c i l i t i e s . Survey results i n t h i s study show that transient boaters prefer commercial accommodation when they stopover f o r the night. Therefore i t i s conceivable that the federal government could play a complementary ro l e to the private sector and provide more rudimentary f a c i l i t i e s such as ports of refuge. 61 The second form of assistance provided through the Small Craft Harbours Branch i s the marina assistance programme whereby the federal government provides services " i n kind" i n the form of dredging, breakwater construction and s i m i l a r improvements on a matching d o l l a r basis with the private developer who i s responsible f o r expenditures on f l o a t s , p i l i n g s and shoreward f a c i l i t i e s . From 1970 to 1976 the government spent $3»5 m i l l i o n i n assistance to the private sector (Meyer and Harrison, 1976,page 3)« The target of these grants has been the provision of wet moorage to i n d i v i d u a l boat owning households (some 22,000 households i n Georgia S t r a i t ) . However, a large proportion of the recreational boating p u b l i c , including t r a i l e r - b o a t owners (70,000 households i n Georgia S t r a i t ) , small club boaters, resident renters and borrowers and transients are not b e n e f i t t i n g from the present marina assistance programme. The programme i s currently under review; i t i s anticipated that the federal government may become more involved i n the future i n providing f a c i l i t i e s to these l a t t e r groups. PROVINCIAL INVOLVEMENT The p r o v i n c i a l government provides f o r transient boating a c t i v i t y through the Parks Branch. There are 20 62 marine parks i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. Those accessible only by boat o f f e r minimal services; the ten "developed" parks, some of which may be reached by car, o f f e r a range of basic f a c i l i t i e s such as f l o a t s , water, t o i l e t s , camp-s i t e s . Marine parks therefore serve more than one class of r e c r e a t i o n i s t . The Coastal Planning D i v i s i o n i n the Parks Branch recognizes the need f o r parks closer to the urban centre where a wider segment of users can be served. But the pr o h i b i t i v e cost and li m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of fore-shore i n the Southern Coastal region w i l l r e s t r i c t opportun-i t i e s to create new parks (personal communication with Doug Ross, Coastal Planning, Feb. 1977). For transient boaters, the D i v i s i o n foresees a chain of parks from Desolation Sound north which would provide boaters with anchorages no more than a days* s a i l apart. Such a scheme i s p o t e n t i a l l y possible as the majority of foreshore i s Crown Land (Matheson, 1975, page 46). It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to determine, by a survey of boaters, the r e l a t i v e use of marine parks as compared to serviced s i t e s or secluded anchorages. U n t i l t h i s informa-t i o n i s avai l a b l e , the need f o r enlarging the system of marine parks i s not c l e a r . 63 REGIONAL DISTRICT OR MUNICIPAL INVOLVEMENT The Municipality of Powell River i s one of the few i n the S t r a i t of Georgia that i s involved i n serving trans-ient boaters. The "South" Marina i n Westview Harbour i s owned by the Small Craft Harbours Branch and leased to the Municipality f o r operational purposes. Both commercial fishermen and transient boaters use the marina which offers power, water supply and garbage c o l l e c t i o n . To meet these expenses, the municipality tacks on 30/foot/night to the moorage fee which re s u l t s i n a charge of oot/night to the transient boater (personal communication with Mr. Murray, Municipal Clerk, Powell River, March 1977). The r o l e that municipalities or Regional D i s t r i c t s may play i n the future with respect to services f o r transient boaters i s uncertain. I t may be desirable f o r Regional D i s t r i c t s to maintain federal public f a c i l i t i e s i n that such a step may upgrade s e r v i c i n g . However, i t i s assumed that l o c a l governments, r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r access to revenue sources, would not be interested i n constructing new f a c i l i t i e s since a marina operation brings only seasonal p r o f i t s . PRIVATE INVOLVEMENT At present there are a large number of viable commercial operations i n Georgia S t r a i t that cater to the 64 t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r . R e s u l t s from t h e s u r v e y a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t p r i v a t e , r a t h e r t h a n p u b l i c , f a c i l i t i e s w i l l r e m a i n t h e i m p o r t a n t component of t h e system of f a c i l i t i e s . F i r s t , 63 p e r c e n t (n = 193) o f t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s c o n t a c t e d p r e f e r r e d commercial accommoda-t i o n f o r r e a s o n s of " c o n v e n i e n c e " . S i n c e t h e o v e r a l l t r a n s -i e n t b o a t p o p u l a t i o n i s p r o j e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e m a r k e d l y , t h e number of b o a t e r s p r e f e r r i n g p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s w i l l l i k e l y i n c r e a s e as w e l l . Second, power b o a t s ( i n b o a r d s , o u t b o a r d s , and i n b o a r d - o u t b o a r d s ) c o m p r i s e d 75 p e r c e n t (n = 186) of t h e sample. As opposed t o s a i l b o a t s , power b o a t s use c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s more o f t e n and spend more money on s e r v i c e s . S i n c e f l e e t c o m p o s i t i o n by boat t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t i n G e o r g i a S t r a i t has n o t changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s ( L e a , 1966, page 35) i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e needs of t h e m a j o r i t y o f t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s c o n t i n u e t o be w e l l s e r v e d by t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . P r i v a t e m a r i n a development i s c o n s t r a i n e d by a number of f a c t o r s , l a r g e l y j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l . A d e v e l o p e r i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a m a r i n a must o b t a i n a l a n d use c o n t r a c t o r b u i l d i n g p e r m i t f o r the onshore f a c i l -i t i e s from t h e m u n i c i p a l government. Water l o t l e a s e s must be o b t a i n e d from e i t h e r t h e Harbours Branch ( i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d ) or from t h e p r o v i n c i a l Lands S e r v i c e ( j p e r s o n a l 65 communication: Workshop on Marina Development, Douglas College, October 1976). Besides the administrative mach-inery, the biggest problem encountered by developers i s the cost of debt financing (Sternlieb, 1969* Meyer and Harrison, 1976). Increased access to a t t r a c t i v e lending rates f o r developers seems to r e s u l t when marinas are part of a more comprehensive shoreline development. In the future such a p o l i c y , i f promoted by lending i n s t i t u t i o n s , could have serious effects on the provision of smaller "family" opera-tions along the S t r a i t designed to serve transient boaters. Such alternatives as the following could enable the private sector to become more a c t i v e l y involved i n providing f a c i l i t i e s ; a) A centralized data bank for developers, perhaps organized by consultants, could a i d s i t e design through information obtained by surveys such as t h i s study; namely, services used or desired, average d o l l a r expenditure by boaters i n a s i t e , problems perceived by boaters. The data bank could also provide information on the steps involved i n applying f o r a water l o t lease and foreshore property. b) Financing f o r the seasonal marina business w i l l doubtless continue to be a problem f o r the prospective developer. Incentives could be offered to lending i n s t i t u t i o n s or by p r o v i n c i a l organizations such as the B.C. Development 66 Corporation to support small family operations. In addition, i f the federal marina assistance p o l i c y i s main-tained, services i n kind could be replaced by d o l l a r loans, to prevent developers from overextending themselves i n order to get the developers share of t o t a l expenditure "increased up" to 50% "to match government expenditure (Meyer and Harrison, 1976, page 34). ALTERNATIVES POR DEALING WITH PROBLEMS POLLUTION Under the auspices of the pr o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n Control Branch or University research teams, a series of studies could be c a r r i e d out to determine the r e l a t i v e contamination of regional waters by the discharge of wastes and pollutants by recreational c r a f t . HAZARDOUS NAVIGATING Cooperation between insurance companies boat dealers and intere s t groups concerned with boater education could improve the l e v e l of navigational s k i l l of boat owners. At present there i s no "licence" needed to own and operate a boat. Inexperience causes innumerable problems f o r boaters. Volunteer groups such as the Canadian Power 67 Squadron conduct c o u r s e s i n e l e m e n t a r y b o a t i n g s k i l l s t h r o u g h o u t B.C.. A t t h e end o f each c o u r s e t h o s e who s u c c e s s f u l l y pass an exam a r e awarded c e r t i f i c a t e s . Ad-vanced c o u r s e s a r e c o n d u c t e d i n engine maintenance, n a v i g a -t i o n and o t h e r s u b j e c t s ( P e r s o n a l communication w i t h Mrs. J . B r a n d l m a y r , E x e c u t i v e , Burnaby Power Squadron, March, 1977) . A t p r e s e n t c e r t a i n i n s u r a n c e companies reduce t h e premium on boat i n s u r a n c e f o r c l i e n t s who a r e " e x p e r i e n c e d " b o a t e r s . To encourage i n e x p e r i e n c e d c l i e n t s t o reduce t h e i r premiums, i n s u r a n c e companies c o u l d acknowledge a c e r t i f i c a t e , s u c h as t h o s e i s s u e d by t h e Power Squadron, as p r o o f of s k i l l . B oat d e a l e r s c o u l d a l s o c o o p e r a t e i n e d u c a t i n g boat b u y e r s by p r o m o t i n g c o u r s e s or " t h r o w i n g i n " t h e c o s t of t h e c o u r s e ( $ 3 5 . O O / i n d i v i d u a l f o r Power Squadron t r a i n i n g ) w i t h th e b o at purchase p r i c e . U n t i l b o a t owners a r e r e q u i r e d by l a w t o o b t a i n a l i c e n c e by t e s t i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t r e q u i r e d f o r a u t o m o b i l e s , economic i n c e n t i v e s f o r i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n w i l l have t o be r e l i e d on. As a s h o r t term measure t o improve s a f e t y among b o a t e r s , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government c o u l d i n s t i t u t e a compul-s o r y b o a t l i c e n s i n g programme. A t p r e s e n t a l l e n g i n e s o v e r 10 H.P. a r e r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the f e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t . 68 I f a l l recreational c r a f t , with or without engines of a given size were licenced and were marked with a number, those boat owners i n f r i n g i n g regulations could be traced. Over the long run, the province could establish a compulsory programme, si m i l a r to that required to drive a motor veh i c l e , i n which the boat operator would be tested. Routine checks of boat licences would have to be made on the water to insure compliance with the regulations. The R.C.M.P. i s a pr o v i n c i a l police force funded by the federal government. The Marine Service of the R.C.M.P. enforces the safety rules i n the Small Vessel Regulations pursuant to the Canada Shipping Act (Nelson, 19?3» page 16?). However, the number of patrol c r a f t i s not s u f f i c i e n t to police ever-growing numbers of recreational boats. Two large boats run from the U.S. border to Jarvis I n l e t . Several smaller ones are based i n urban centres but a consid-erable proportion of pat r o l time of these boats i s spent on duties other than keeping an eye on r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . The Coast Guard i s a federal agency responsible, i n conjunction with tithe R.C.M.P., f o r the safety of c r a f t at sea. The numerous accidents and emergencies that the Coast Guard responds to might be curbed by more intensive p o l i c i n g by the R.C.M.P.. Joint f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l i n i t i a t i v e could 69 r e a l l o c a t e funds between the Coast Guard and the p o l i c e to enable stepped up supervision of speeding and navigation. IV. PLANNING FOR THE LOCAL LEVEL ESTIMATING SERVICES REQUIRED INTRODUCTION At the l o c a l l e v e l , demand i s interpreted s p e c i f i c -a l l y as the use of services and the desire f o r those not a v a i l a b l e . Data r e l a t i n g to s i t e s p e c i f i c demand were obtained from a section of the boater questionnaire. Since the boaters were assumed to be a representative sample, the questionnaire r e s u l t s are useful f o r two purposes. F i r s t , demand can be matched with the capacity and type of services available on s i t e , thereby supplying information to marina operators and anyone interested i n planning f o r boating at either l o c a t i o n . Second, an indicat i o n of the nature of demand expressed by transient boaters may be useful to private developers or public agencies i n other areas who provide f o r or manage transient boating services. USE OF NONSERVICED SITES Questionnaire r e s u l t s (196 cases) from the "serviced" s i t e s , Pender Harbour and Secret Cove, were analysed",^separ-a t e l y from those from the non serviced s i t e (9 cases), Smugglers' Cove Marine Park. The o r i g i n a l intent of sampling boaters i n the park was to determine whether park users exhibit c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the 71 users of serviced s i t e s , and therefore whether the sample contacted i n the serviced s i t e s was not t r u l y representative of the t o t a l population of transient boaters. Probably due to inclement weather, turnout at the park was very poor during the three days of sampling. An attempt to compare the r e s u l t s from both types of s i t e s i s obviously li m i t e d by the small number of responses i n the park. However, a b r i e f summary of these re s u l t s w i l l be made here. In almost a l l respects the park users showed s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the serviced-site users. The one exception was the use of cert a i n services: f u e l , laundry, and showers were used weekly rather than every three to four days. Perhaps i n support of the apparent s i m i l a r i t y of park users to serviced-site users were the responses concerning the reason f o r v i s i t i n g the park. "Obtaining protection from the weather" and "anchoring f o r the night" received the most mentions. Privacy and wilderness or scenic q u a l i t i e s received the fewest. Boaters seemed s a t i s f i e d with the few amenities (mooring buoys, log boom to t i e to) available i n Smugglers' Cove though "campgrounds" and "garbage disposal" were considered desirable additions by a few respondents. Further research to examine the use of and demand fo r marine parks would be valuable. Origin - destination 72 studies of boaters could be designed to show the t o t a l number of stops and t o t a l time spent i n parks as opposed to serviced s i t e s . EXISTING SERVICES Secret Cove, (see Figure 4) consists of three extensive arms. The Secret Cove Marina, operated by Mr. J . Buckridge i s located i n the north arm (see Table IX f o r an inventory of services of a l l marinas l i s t e d ) . Several private f l o a t s accommodate permanently-moored c r a f t as well as v i s i t i n boats; there i s a small government f l o a t . Though there are a number of homes along the waterfront, there i s no "community as such r i g h t i n Secret Cove. Buckridge l i s t e d his problems as economic ones. Seasonality of the marina business makes i t d i f f i c u l t to borrow funds. Wharf and f a c i l i t y expansion, once undertaken, i s very expensive. Nevertheless, there are plans to expand the marina by enlarging e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and re l o c a t i n g the government wharf. Some housing w i l l be constructed and permanent moorage increased (Personal communication, August 1 9 7 6 ) . Pender Harbour i s a well-known centre f o r sports f i s h i n g on the West Coast. I t i s an extensive resort area FIGURE f 73 SECRET COVE AREA Scale: 1: 24,326 Projection: Polyconic (Source: Canadian Nautical Chart #3509) 7 4 TABLE IX H m NTORY OF SERVICES Berths for Visiting Craft Sewage Pumpout Garbage Disposal Toilets, Showers Laundry Cabins, Motel Camping Car Park Launching Ramp Telephone ' Fuel Groceries Water Ice Marine Supplies Lounge, Pub Restaurant Bait, Tackle Repairs Electricity Hookup Post Office (nearby) Liquor Store (nearby) Secret Cove Marina X X X X X X X X X X X X Secret Cove Govt. Float X Fisherman's Resort X X X X X X X X X X Hospital Bay Govt. Float X X X Harbour Marina X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Garden Bay Marina X X X X X X X X X Pub Marina X X X X X X T X 76 FIGURE 8 Boats at anchor i n Smugglers Cove Marine Park. FIGURE 9 An a l t e r n a t i v e method of mooring: tying up to log booms near Gambler Island. 77 w i t h a number of small communities, s e v e r a l motels and marinas. For convenience i n que s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a c l u s t e r of marina f a c i l i t i e s was s e l e c t e d i n H o s p i t a l and Garden Bays which are separated by a narrow isthmus of l a n d , (see F igure 10) In H o s p i t a l Bay there i s a government wharf though there i s no r e s i d e n t wharfinger nor any s e r v i c e s at the wharf. However, s t o r e s are w i t h i n easy walking d i s t a n c e . The commercial marina operation i n H o s p i t a l Bay, Fishermans' Resort, has been run by the B e n j a f i e l d f a m i l y f o r the past 16 years. In the near f u t u r e they pl a n to expand moorage space. Across theppeninsula i n Garden Bay there are three commercial operations next to one another (see Migure i o ) . The f i r s t marina i s the Harbour Marina, a l a r g e complex which i n c l u d e s on shore a grocery s t o r e and boat r e n t a l s . Mr. L. Davis who operates the marina mentioned two problems. The f i r s t concerns very l a r g e (50 f e e t and up) c r a f t t y i n g up a t the marina. Boats t h i s s i z e are not pro-f i t a b l e f o r the operator t o accommodate because t h e i r demands f o r e l e c t r i c a l power cannot always be met and because they are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and b r i n g most s u p p l i e s w i t h them. A second problem concerns the use of Harbour Marina f a c i l i t i e s by boaters t y i n g up at no charge a t the H o s p i t a l Bay government 78 FIGURE 11 Hospital Bay, Pender Harbour, showing the government on the l e f t , a commercial marina on the right. 80 wharf. The second marina, i s a single f l o a t used by some transient boaters and also used by many l o c a l people who t i e up there while they are v i s i t i n g the pub on shore and next to the f l o a t . The pub i s the only one i n the immediate area; i t i s well used by v i s i t o r s though l o c a l s carry the business through the whole year. Adjacent to the pub there i s an informal restaurant, also the only one i n the area. The t h i r d commercial operation i s the Garden Bay Marina and i s operated by the Lapinski family. This marina serves l a r g e l y U.S. boaters i n the peak season. The operator confirmed the view that large c r a f t (40 feet plus) were not so " p r o f i t a b l e " as smaller ones i n that they spent less on services. ESTIMATING SERVICES DEMANDED Following i s a discussion of the res u l t s of the questionnaire d i s t r i b u t e d at Pender Harbour and Secret Cove. Respondents did not necessarily answer every question so the notation n = 186, f o r example means that 186 responses were recorded. REASON FOR VISITING AND LENGTH OF STAY The most frequently c i t e d reasons f o r v i s i t i n g 81 Pender Harbour and Secret Cove were "to spend the night i n a convenient l o c a t i o n " (125 responses) and "to obtain services" (103 responses). "Obtaining protection from the weather" and "meeting f r i e n d s " were the next most frequently c i t e d reasons. Respondents had been at the s i t e f o r an average of 3 days (n = 72) and planned to stay f o r an average of 3 more days (n = 95). A planned stay of 6 days suggests that, beyond obtaining services and spending the night, a considerable amount of time i s spent either moored at the dock s o c i a l i z i n g and relaxing or that boaters l i k e to return each night to the same spot f o r a period of several days. OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATION The majority of the respondents, 62.5 percent (n = 193) indicated that they would spend the night at a commercial marina. Some 2?.6 percent would stay at the government f l o a t and 8.3 percent would anchor out. A small private arm of the Secret Cove Marina reserved f o r a yacht club accounted f o r 1.6 percent of the respondent's choices. There was a co r r e l a t i o n between boat types and choice of moorage. More inboards and inboard-outboards preferred commercial accommodation; sailboats preferred public f l o a t s (see Appendix C). 82 There were few occasions i n August 1976 when any marina, either private or public, was f u l l to capacity (due to poor weather). Therefore i t appears that few of the boaters were "forced" to seek accommodation they did not desire. The second part of the question requested respond-ents to explain the reason f o r his/her choice of accommoda-t i o n . Some 28 of the respondents who stayed attvthe govern-ment f l o a t s gave reasons f o r t h e i r choice. Low cost was c i t e d by 44 percent^ "convenience" by 35 percent. (Charges fo r overnight stays at government wharves are minimal (20 a foot) or nonexistent where there are no wharfingers to c o l l e c t feesO "Convenience" undoubtedly refers to the f a c t that the public f l o a t s i n both s i t e s are very close to services s i m i l a r to those normally available at commercial marinas (where cost averages at 150 to 200 a foot/night). Some 21 percent of the responses stated that the government wharf was the "only space a v a i l a b l e " . Presumably then these boaters would have preferred to moor at commercial f l o a t s . The respondents (16) who anchored out did so l a r g e l y f o r reasons of privacy. Only 2 were forced to anchor out because a l l f l o a t s were f u l l . While 59 reasons were given f o r choosing the commercial marina accommodation, proximity to s p e c i f i c 83 services accounted f o r 46 percent of the answers. Commercial marinas usually run showers, laundry, f u e l , e l e c t r i c i t y hookups, phones, f i s h i n g supplies, garbage disposal and perhaps a store as an on-shore part of the operation. Often i t i s not necessary f o r the boater to walk more than a few yards. "Convenience" was a related response (24 percent of the answers) and included " f e e l i n g secure" and "a guaranteed spot" ( r e f e r r i n g to the f a c t that i t i s possible to phone ahead and reserve moorage space as well as to reserve i t during the day while absent crusing or f i s h i n g ) . Only 3 of the respondents stated that they used commercial f a c i l i t i e s because there was no space available at the government f l o a t . In summary, respondents preferred to use commercial marinas? boaters seem w i l l i n g to pay the extra cost f o r mooring at a well maintained f l o a t , where no one can " r a f t " ( t i e up) against them, and where they have access to a number of services and f a c i l i t i e s . USE OF AND EXPENDITURE ON SERVICES Table X shows the expenditures on selected s e r v i c e s / f a c i l i t i e s by respondents. The " e s s e n t i a l " services are most "heavily" used i n d o l l a r terms. Average d o l l a r expend-^ -i t u r e also conforms l a r g e l y with expectation based on necessity and unit cost. However there are two possible 84 TABLE X EXPENDITURES ON SERVICES CO CO +J 4J Cl 0. QJ O) T 3 T3 0) d a > O O ctf QJ Cu QJ a) tu co CO U U CO £) — aj 3 3 QJ i3 OJJ-> ptj * J +J ptf r-l O CJ -H QJ -H *H 3 +-> •rl H M-l M T3 TJ «W O >-H 060 cdd H fi O J2 T3 M cJ CJ M QJ ctjQJ QJ QJ cd • -H QJft -U ft • O CO h OCO > O !*! O i TI <t1W H W Z S h J 1. Groce r i e s 147 $19.50 (n-143) $2,789.00 0 2 . (on shore) Showers 82 $ 2.00 (n=74) $ 148.00 0 3 . (on shore) Restrooms 58 -4 . Gas & o i l 124 $46.00 (n=113) $5,198.00 0 5 . H o t e l rooms & f a c i l i t i e s 1 $ 6.00 (n=l) $ 6.00 3 6. Pubs, lounges 35 $ 9.00 (n=33) $ 297.00 14 7. B a i t & t a c k l e 61 $11.00 (n=54) $ 594.00 0 8. Water 104 -9. I ce 119 $ 4.00 (n=102) $ 408.00 0 10 . Boatworks, r e p a i r s 14 $31233000 (ns l2) $1,476.00 1 1 1 . Telephone 74 $ 4.50 (n=37) $ 166.50 0 12 . L i q u o r s t o r e 36 $31.00 (n=35) $1,085.00 21 13 . E l e c t r i c i t y hookups 51 $ 3.00 (n=35) $ 105.00 5 14. Mar ine Supp l i e s 26 $24.00 (n=23) $ 552.00 2 15 . Restaurants 38 $125.00 (n=35) $ 875.00 6 16 . Laundry 56 $ 3000 (n=50) $ 150.00 4 17 . Post o f f i c e 43 $ 1.50 (n=16) $ 24.00 3 85 Exceptions. It appears that many people make long distance telephone c a l l s along t h e i r routes (average cost per c a l l of $ 4 . 5 0 ) . Secondly, the average expenditure on "pubs and lounges" seems high, which could suggest a l u c r a t i v e enterprise f o r potential marina developers. In general, the boaters were s a t i s f i e d with the range of available services} li q u o r stores and pubs received the most mentions as desirable additions. Expenditure per boat averaged $70 .00 . Since boaters stop every 3 to 4 days f o r services, the t o t a l expenditure f o r a 20 day t r i p could reach $350 .00 . BOATER ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS The questionnaire attempted to determine how boat-ers responded to "unpleasant" conditions on s i t e which were la r g e l y related to crowding or inadequate services (see Table XI). The responses to these questions r e f l e c t e d the very poor boating season i n the summer of 1976. Extremely bad weather and reduced c r u i s i n g a c t i v i t y may also explain why the data does not support the hypothesis that excess demands made by heavy transient boating t r a f f i c could become a serious problem i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. A l l marina opera-tors and several boaters interviewed agreed that they could 86 TABLE XI BOATER REACTION TO "UNPLEASANT" CONDITIONS Condition Leaving Earlier Won't than Expected Return 1. Weather conditions 24 6 2. No moorage available 7 14 3. No space to anchor out 1 9 4. Too many other boaters "in sight" 4 3 5. Negative reaction of local r e s i -dents to non-resident boaters 1 8 6. Noise from other boaters 5 13 7. Services desired not available 2 9 8. Inconsiderate behaviour by other boaters 3 13 9. Polluted Conditions 2 10 10. Lineups for fuel , groceries 2 2 11. Other a) "holiday ended" 5 0 b) unspecified 9 0 8? not remember a summer where there was so l i t t l e boating a c t i v i t y . It rained f o r a t o t a l of 23 days i n July and August as compared to a normal average t o t a l of 14 days (Personal communication: Climatological Information, March 1977). Therefore "lack of space" conditions were not reported by many boaters. Interestingly, noise and incon-siderate behaviour from other boaters were s u f f i c i e n t l y i r r i t a t i n g to prevent several respondents from returning to the same loc a t i o n . The privacy of one's boat may not insure protection from either noise or inappropriate behaviour. MATCHING SUPPLY OF AND DEMAND FOR SERVICES THE BOATING SEASON IN 1976 It was hypothesized above that d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among boaters and disharmony with l o c a l residents could be connected to crowded conditions and inadequate services. This study found l i t t l e d i r e c t evidence f o r thi s premise. However, weather conditions i n July and August contributed to the poorest boating season within the memory of many boaters and l o c a l residents. Sunshine recorded f o r August was 142.7 hours as compared with a normal average 255.0 hours. August temperatures were the lowest on record (Personal communication with s t a f f of Climatological Information, 88 February, 1977)• Marina operators were i n agreement that the volume of business was f a r below normal. The owner of Harbour Marina stated that, throughout the summer, boaters who made reservations would not show. Empty spots were common on weekends, whereas i n a normal year up to 50 boats may be turned away on Friday or Saturday night (Personal communication March, 1977). Clearly 1976 was an at y p i c a l season f o r boating. The transient boaters' demand f o r and s a t i s f a c t i o n with services must therefore be considered i n l i g h t of the f a c t that capacity at both s i t e s was underutilized. Crowded conditions at either s i t e are more probable i n an average year. THE FUTURE SITUATION The general demand projections made f o r the region of Georgia S t r a i t suggest that there w i l l be an increase i n transient boating a c t i v i t y . There i s reason to suggest that s i t e s on the Sechelt Peninsula such as Secret Cove and Pender Harbour may bear a sizeable proportion of th i s increase i n demand that w i l l accompany higher numbers of boats. F i r s t , the Peninsula i s close enough to Vancouver to make weekend t r i p s possible. Second, crowding i n south coastal waters (already notable i n the Gulf Islands) may 89 force greater numbers of boaters to head north.. According to the maps f i l l e d i n by respondents, the Mainland coast from Gibsons north to Powell River i s heavily t r a v e l l e d by boaters. IDENTIFYING SITE SPECIFIC PROBLEMS BOATERS AND MARINA OPERATORS PERCEPTIONS Results of the boater questionnaire showed that noise and inappropriate behaviour by boaters were perceived as problems by fellow boaters. Several conversations the author entered into with respondents centred on the lack of s k i l l , knowledge or consideration demonstrated by some boaters both at sea and i n port. Marina operators contacted suggested that hazardous navigating, speeding and lack of consideration f o r the "rules of the road" were causing problems f o r boaters as well as producing c o n f l i c t between the re c r e a t i o n i s t s and commercial fishermen who use the area. Many references were made to inadequate p o l i c i n g of l o c a l waters. LOCAL RESIDENT. PERCEPTIONS People re s i d i n g i n or near areas that cater to transient boaters have mixed feelings about the impact of 90 seasonally heavy boat t r a f f i c . On the one hand, many coastal communities are economically dependent on the d o l l a r s generated by v i s i t i n g boat owners. On the other, residents who own waterfront property and/or operate t h e i r own boats have begun to express concern over the behaviour of v i s i t i n g boaters ( P a c i f i c Yachting July, 1976). Planning f o r future additions or changes to serviced s i t e s used by transient boaters must be sensitive to resident opinion and perception of problems. A t o t a l of 40 mailback questionnaires were di s -t r i b uted to residents i n the Secret Cove area; 9 were returned. From the 170 sent out i n the Pender Harbour area, 40 were returned. The r e l a t i v e l y high rate of return seems to indicate considerable interest i n the subject of recreational boating a c t i v i t y and i t s e f f e c t on the region. The r e s u l t s of both sets of questionnaires w i l l be presented together; s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n responses from either location cannot be substantiated with so few questionnaires. In addition, i t should be noted that the r e s u l t s represent the opinions of those residents who undoubtedly f e e l strongly one way or the other and therefore should not be interpreted as i n d i c a t i v e of the feelings of the whole community. 91 The majority (86 percent) of the respondents are permanent residents i n the area; only 7 people are summer residents. Por the most part respondents were "new" to the area ( l i v e d there less than 5 years) and had come to the Sechelt Peninsula mainly f o r retirement (17 responses) and "escape" from the c i t y (14 responses). About half the respondents were employed: i n business, c r a f t work or sea-related work such as f i s h i n g . Some 55 percent of the respondents owned water-front property. Almost a l l of these people indicated that they had experienced excessive wash from pleasure c r a f t that caused a safety hazard or damage to property (27 responses), discharges of o i l , sewage, and f l o a t i n g garbage (27 responses), and noise from vacationing boaters (24 responses). In parts of the Pender Harbour - Secret Cove area a boat i s a standard possession; 80 percent of the respondents owned boats, l a r g e l y outboards up to 25 feet. Most people used t h e i r boats f o r f i s h i n g and kept them moored or anchored i n front of t h e i r property. The l a s t question asked respondents to indicate whether they had experienced problems with transient boating a c t i v i t y and asked them to comment on the use of the area by non-resident boaters. There were an approximately equal 92 number of responses to such d i f f i c u l t i e s as "unable to moor at customary place" (13)t "shortages of supplies?, b a i t " (14) and "lineups f o r f u e l " (17). However "hazardous navigating by other boaters" was f e l t to be a problem by 31 respondents. Subjective comments from respondents on the use of the area ranged i n a t t i t u d e . About 6 people indicated that the coast belonged to everyone and that the l o c a l economy depended on t o u r i s t spending. An exerpt from one questionnaire expresses t h i s view* "... the long time residents ... have long been resent f u l of newcomers ... Their main complaint i s the way t o u r i s t s handle t h e i r boats (Some of them are maniacs!)... we don't mind t o u r i s t s at a l l and r e a l i z e the trade they bring to Pender Harbour..." However the majority of the comments expressed serious con-cern about p o l l u t i o n and about "problem" boating bahaviour. The following statements, reproduced without a l t e r a t i o n , are cl e a r indications of perceived problems: "... i t ' s a way of l i f e and many residents depend on t h i s summer trade. I t i s unfortunate that some people from the boats do not have a greater respect f o r privacy of residents and t h e i r pro-perty as lo o t i n g of flower and vegetable gardens i s a common occurence as i s the l e t t i n g loose of cooped up pets to do a l l t h e i r running and business on r e s i d e n t i a l properties - very annoying. There i s also a f a i r noise factor from marinas where holidaying boaters are having n i g h t l y p a r t i e s . " "everyone has a rig h t to use and enjoy our l o c a l waters. However the water now i s so polluted with so many boats dump-ing sewage into our enclosed harbour that swimming i s no longer possible. We have not been able to swim on the beach i n front of our house i n over 3 years. This abuse I strongly object to as we are not allowed to dump raw sewage into the harbour, so why should our v i s i t o r s ! " "Being a resident of B.C. f o r 56 years and spending most of i t working along the coast I have seen many changes mostly for the worse! As a l l overpopulated areas change the humans into somewhat of an aggressive nature so have boaters changed. Former (mostly) boaters had a better attitude to residents and t h e i r belongings, res-pecting private property etc. In my own instance I l i v e at the end of a private road. A large sign was put to say so, af t e r various times of people and dogs gunning about the house... It don't deter them! Due to more c i t y type people with f a s t boats and kids up fo r a weekend and going to enjoy themselves i f i t k i l l s everyone else, we have water skie r s , sight seers and just p l a i n fools going at f u l l speed about the Harbour ... Can't understand why people on a holiday looking over the Harbour have to go at f u l l speed instead of 5 mph so they can see something?... As with towns growing into c i t i e s people change and B.C. coast i s on i t s way to the c i t y status. Education by force seems the only way". 9k DEVELOPING ACTION PROGRAMMES Ideally, s i t e - s p e c i f i c programmes would be developed to provide services required and to remedy problems perceived. However, the f i r s t task cannot be attempted i n t h i s study since 1976 was not a "normal" boating season. Boaters who did v i s i t the s i t e s appeared to f i n d services adequate (though pubs, restaurants and liquo r stores were c i t e d as valuable additions). A survey conducted over a few years might indicate, on the average, whether the supply of services was adequate. Therefore actual methods of supplying services required are not out-l i n e d here. Rather there are two suggestions f o r dealing with s p e c i f i c complaints that r e s u l t from demand f o r services namely the u n p r o f i t a b i l i t y of large c r a f t and the misuse of private f a c i l i t i e s by users of the free government wharf i n Pender Harbour. • The i n s t i t u t i o n of a graduated rate f o r moorage and e l e c t r i c i t y could increase the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of large c r a f t (kO foot plus) and discourage them from lengthy stays at crowded marinas. At present a standard rate i s charged fo r moorage (about 2 0 0/foot/night) and f o r power ( $ 1 . 5 0/day). If these rates increased as boat length increased, owners of large boats, who spend less money on services on shore, could 95 be encouraged to "anchor out". • When conditions are crowded, large c r a f t staying longer than 2 days should be charged more for each addit i o n a l day. . • The recent transfer of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r federal government wharves to the Small Craft Harbours Branch could e n t a i l changes i n management po l i c y of these f a c i l i t i e s . However, u n t i l such changes are affected, the Regional D i s t r i c t , i n cooperation with Small Craft Harbours, could assign an attendant to the public f l o a t s i n Hospital Bay. The f l o a t s are i n reasonably good condition and i n a conven-ient l o c a t i o n . The Regional D i s t r i c t could upgrade the wharf by adding simplesservices such as a water supply and regular garbage disposal. A student hired f o r the summer could c o l l e c t minimal fees from boaters. (A moorage fee of 50/ft./ night would cover federal costs (20/ft./night) and pay service charges.) Such a step might discourage public f a c i l i t y users from crowding private serviced marinas. Since conditions were f a r from crowded i n 1976, i t i s expected that problems i d e n t i f i e d may grow worse as the boat population increases. Therefore the following alt e r n a t i v e s are suggested as possible ways of dealing with 96 these problems. The alternatives may be useful i n other locations i n Georgia S t r a i t where transient boat t r a f f i c i s heavy. POLLUTION; DISRUPTION OF RESIDENTS' LIFESTYLE •To influence the behaviour of transient boaters so as to protect l o c a l property and l i f e s t y l e , a group of concerned c i t i z e n s could put together an information brochure, d i s t r i b u t e d to boaters as they purchase gas or groceries. Such a brochure might l i s t the services and f a c i l i t i e s a v ailable i n the area, as well as provide a series of suggestions as to "appropriate" behaviour with regard to noise, garbage disposal, trespass. Certainly a type of pamphlet s i m i l a r to these d i s t r i b u t e d i n parks f o r the purpose of educating v i s i t o r s how to treat w i l d l i f e need not be offensive. • T r a i l s or open space could be designated by the Regional D i s t r i c t f o r boaters to go ashore and stretch t h e i r legs or walk t h e i r dogs. In a spot such as Secret Cove;r-where the only walkiis along a JOO yard gravel road up to the highway, the provision of t r a i l s might encourage boaters to avoid trespassing on private property. 97 HAZARDOUS NAVIGATING • The Regional D i s t r i c t could increase i n number speed l i m i t signs f o r boats along the foreshore. • P o l i c i n g of l o c a l waters could curb hazardous navigation and enforce p o l l u t i o n (eg. garbage dumping by-boaters) regulations. At present there i s on duty one R.C.M.P. boat that covers Gibson's Landing to Earl's Cove. (Personal communication; Constable Skinner, R.C.M.P. Sechelt, March 1977). This i s a considerable area f o r one boat to p a t r o l . I t i s suggested that, i f manpower permits, several small c r a f t based i n Halfmoon Bay and Pender Harbour could a i d i n enforcement during the peak boating season. V. CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION It i s evident from th i s study that planning for transient boating i s required to develop integrated manage-ment strategies f o r the coastal zone i n B.C. Overnight and vacation c r u i s i n g i s one of the largest components of recreational a c t i v i t y i n Georgia S t r a i t , Resident ownership and rental of transient boats i s projected to increase sub-s t a n t i a l l y . Non-resident use of l o c a l waters f o r c r u i s i n g i s likewise projected to increase. Not only i s the population of transient c r a f t growing, but i t i s recognized that the demand of these r e c r e a t i o n i s t s for services generates revenue for many coastal communities. On the other hand, the rapid growth i n the popularity of c r u i s i n g has resulted i n problems such as inadequate f a c i l i t i e s , perceived crowding and environ-mental deterioration. At the same time competing uses f o r coastal resources w i l l l i m i t theooption for future recreat-ional boating. Planning then i s mandatory to insure the preservation of opportunities for c r u i s i n g i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. This thesis attempted the f i r s t step i n planning for transient boating by developing a suitable planning 99 process for the a c t i v i t y . The conclusions r e s u l t i n g from the application of t h i s process at the regional and l o c a l l e v e l are presented here i n two parts. The f i r s t i s a scenario which i s intended to summarize ce r t a i n of the s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a d t e r i s t i c s and attitudes of transient boaters c r u i s i n g the S t r a i t of Georgia, i n the summer of 1976. The second suggests further steps and refinements to the research done i n t h i s thesis that would be necessary to complete the " i d e a l " planning process. THE TYPICAL TRANSIENT BOATER Stan, Marian and th e i r two teenage children leave the dock at Mosquito Creek i n North Vancouver on a f i n e mid-August day. They have been a n t i c i p a t i n g t h i s vacation cruise for several months and they are hoping for three weeks of sunny weather and calm seas. Stan has l i v e d most of his l i f e on the West Coast. He i s f a m i l i a r with boats and has owned several small runa-bouts since he was a c h i l d l i v i n g on Northern Vancouver Island. However, six years ago, he decided that he wanted a change; to experience l i f e i n the i n t e r i o r of the province he bought a cabin near 100 Mile House that could be used f o r winter s k i holidays and summer vacations. I n i t i a l l y , the family used the cabin regularly but the 300 mile drive began to seem 10Q longer on each t r i p . Reduced highway speeds r e a l l y did have an effect on t r i p length. Congestion, es p e c i a l l y on weekends and holidays, increased Stan's i r r i t a t i o n with d r i v i n g . Rising gasoline prices f i n a l l y convinced him that the cabin no longer represented a wise investment or an enjoyable vacation. In f a c t , automobile vacations in general l o s t t h e i r appeal to Stan and Marian and they decided that a f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e means of holidaying might be to purchase a large c r u i s e r . Now 4 5 , Stan i s employed as a manager i n the sales department of a major paper products company. His income enabled him to think about buying a boat larger than the 22 foot inboard that the family had been using on and off; that i s , one that would be comfortable f o r extended t r i p s both summer and winter. Stan and Marian do the majority of t h e i r c r u i s i n g i n the summer but they enjoy many day t r i p s and the occasional weekend away from the c i t y throughout the winter. Since he has been boating f o r 20 years though he's never pursued any formal navigational t r a i n i n g , Stan f e e l s confid-ent of handling more unpredictable winter weather on the sea. The boat they chose to purchase i s a 32 foot inboard that sleeps s i x . A complete galley, shower, ice box make the boat s e l f s u f f i c i e n t for long periods. However, 101 the family l i k e to make frequent stopovers to replenish supplies and stretch t h e i r legs on shore. Their plans f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r i p are defined only i n so f a r as they choose a northerly destination as Cortes Island. By habit and by preference they t r a v e l v i a the Mainland Coast. Off to a l e i s u r e l y s t a r t they decide to do some f i s h i n g and to spend the f i r s t night t i e d to a log boom i n Centre Bay on Gambier Island. Stan decides on the second day to head1 f o r Secret Cove where the family has been going f o r years. Although they don't r e a l l y need any supplies except f u e l , since t h e i r boat i s equipped f o r long t r i p s , they enjoy the "comforts" they experience by mooring instead of worrying about whether the anchor w i l l hold. They also i n e v i t a b l y run into friends at Secret Cove. Usually, they phone ahead to the marina and reserve a space but the weather i s cloudy and there are few boats around. Por the next several days the family i s based i n Secret Cove, leading i n the morning to f i s h and to make excursions to the sand beach at Buccaneer Bay nearby. On the fourth day the sun emerges and they decide to move on to Lasqueti Island, 15 miles north-west, and to anchor i n a small bay that few other boaters seem to have discovered. To t h e i r surprise they f e e l l i k e intruders as they aarrive 102 at Lasqueti and discover f i v e other c r a f t already anchored i n " t h e i r " spot. In f a c t , Stan judges that the bay i s better known merely by the noticable presence of f l o a t i n g garbage. He i s reluctant to c o l l e c t oysters, as they usually do, a f t e r seeing some small o i l s l i c k s on the surface water. Stan i s prompted to think about the minor controversy that has developed over holding tanks. He has read several a r t i c l e s s t a t i n g that sewage from boats has environmentally deteriorating e f f e c t s j several:others suggesting that, i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers, boats can f o u l enclosed bays. If f a c i l i t i e s f o r emptying holding tanks were available at his home moorage and at a number of con-veniently located ports i n the S t r a i t , Stan f e e l s that he would be w i l l i n g to pay the price to i n s t a l l one. In t h i s respect he i s of a d i f f e r e n t mind than many of his boat-owning fr i e n d s , who have not witnessed, as Stan has, the gradual aesthetic deterioration by sewage of some c r u i s i n g areas. Disappointed with the number of boaters at Las-queti, the family decide to continue north. T r a v e l l i n g back across the channel towards the Mainland coast, they witness what has become a predictable incident on any cruise t A large inboard, t r a v e l l i n g at excessive speed, cuts i n front 103 of them and i n turn, comes dangerously close to a small boat under s a i l that has no means of quickly changing course. Speeding and hazardous navigating are d i f f i c u l t to control i n open waters but, as Marian points out, such instances of inconsiderate behaviour are just as frequent i n port. She r e c a l l s a stopover the family made l a s t summer at Secret Cove. A f i s h i n g derby and exceptionally f i n e weather resulted i n a large crowd of boaters seeking overnight moorage. A number of boaters at the commercial marina decided to use t h e i r small outboard dingies to t r a v e l to a nearby i s l a n d f o r a party. Noise, dumped garbage and broken bottles were s u f f i c i e n t incentive to cause the property owner (usually tolerant of some trespass) to attempt to forcably ev;ict the v i s i t o r s . Somewhat inebriated, as they t r a v e l l e d back to t h e i r boats i n the dark they managed to nick the sides of several other boats at anchor i n the Cove. Complaints were made by l o c a l people and v i s i t i n g boaters a l i k e to the operator of the commercial marina but he had no p a r t i c u l a r r i g h t to i n t e r f e r e . The l o c a l R.C.M.P. detachment, without a pa t r o l boat that summer, were also powerless to get involved i n t h i s and many si m i l a r incidents. During the past several hours of the crossing, the sky has begun to darken and the wind pick up. Stan speeds up s l i g h t l y and heads f o r Pender Harbour. By the time they 104 a r r i v e at Garden Bay, the commercial marinas are overflowing; increasingly stormy weather drives additional boaters into the Harbour. They obtain one of the l a s t spacesftat the government f l o a t i n Hospital Bay; i n a few hours most boats on the f l o a t are doubled up, "rafted" side by side. Conscious of the good conditions of his boat and of a need f o r some privacy, Stan does not f e e l comfortable having other people using his boat to get to the dock. However t h e i r "neighbours" spend the evening with them, exchanging s t o r i e s . Bob and Madge are also Canadian, from V i c t o r i a . They are vocal i n t h e i r complaints about American boaters who, they claim, are l a r g e l y responsible f o r crowded conditions and f o r exploiting s h e l l f i s h beds north of Pender Harbour. Marian disagrees. She has read l e t t e r s to editors of l o c a l yachting magazines suggesting r e s t r i c t i o n on non-resident c r u i s i n g yet she f e e l s that any programmes aimed at non-resident use must recognize that Canadians do a l o t of t h e i r vacationing south of the border. She f e e l s that better management of f a c i l i t i e s and more stringent supervision of recreational boating would go a long way to solving the unpleasant aspects of crusing. The next day, the family move to the commercial marina where they are i n the habit of staying. The marina i s not f u l l , but there are a few very large boats t i e d up. 105 The marina operator confesses to Stan that he's a b i t concerned about the prolonged use of his marina by these c r a f t . As yet he imposes no l i m i t on length of stay, and he finds that these yachts consume tremendous quantities of e l e c t r i c i t y ( a l l boats pay the same rate per day) and use few of the services since t h e i r boats are equipped f o r long voyages, Stan sympathizes; even though his boat i s smaller, he knows there have been many times when he has spent lengthy periods at private f l o a t s just to s o c i a l i z e . Of course during a summer such as t h i s one, with frequent poor weather, corwding i s not a problem. The family decide to wait out the stormy weather i n Pender Harbour and plan to cruise north to J e r v i s Inlet on the next leg of t h e i r t r i p . COMPLETING THE PLANNING PROCESS The scenario of the t y p i c a l boater described above underlies a number of reasons for the necessity f o r planning f o r transient boating a c t i v i t y . Increasing demands f o r boating opportunity, crowding, c o n f l i c t s among boaters and residents are a few problems that suggest immediate concern f o r planning and management-The " i d e a l " planning process developed i n the study i s a f e a s i b l e method of beginning to plan f o r transient boat-ing a c t i v i t y , A number of the steps i n the process were not 1 0 6 attempted by the author; others could have been improved upon with better techniques. I d e n t i f i e d below under the t i t l e s of the i d e a l framework aressome further steps necessary and some refinements possible i n methods used. ESTIMATING SERVICES REQUIRED 1 . Complete an inventory of the four types of f a c i l i t i e s throughout the S t r a i t of Georgia. Include the capacity for moorage or anchoring and/or the range of services available within each s i t e . 2. Refine the d e f i n i t i o n of the exis t i n g population of trans-ient boats by surveying a random sample of boaters at points of o r i g i n i n Georgia S t r a i t and Washington. E s t a b l i s h from t h i s sample a re l a t i o n s h i p between boat size and crufeing a c t i v i t y . 3. Define techniques f o r projecting changes i n the siz e of the transient boat population by including i n the projection socioeconomic variables such as age and income of boat-owner. 4 . E s t a b l i s h the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of demand f o r services and f a c i l i t i e s by administering to transient boaters at points of o r i g i n a diary or log type of questionnaire (including maps) so as to determine c r u i s i n g patterns. Obtain informa-t i o n from boaters surveyed at various Georgia S t r a i t locations t h e i r motivations for c r u i s i n g , r e l a t i v e time spent i n 107 different types of sites and methods of t r i p planning. 5. Develop a model of demand by plotting crusing patterns and heavily used sites. Incorporate projected changes in the size of the transient boat population. 6. Compare demand and supply to identify where deficiencies exist in the system of services. IDENTIFYING EXTERNALITIES 1. Conduct interviews with a broad spectrum of people familiar with aspects of boating including RCMP and Coast Guard o f f i c i a l s , representatives of other resource using groups in the coastal zone (for example, the forest industry, ferry operators, commercial fishermen) and insurance companies. 2. Develop alternatives for remedying problems in addition to those suggested in this study. 3. Conduct test programmes of certain alternatives identified as the most appropriate. IMPLEMENTING THE POLICY PLAN 1. Using the model developed to show demand by boaters for services and f a c i l i t i e s , suggest where additions or expan-sions to existing f a c i l i t i e s might be needed. Explore the possibility of transferring demand to alternative sites. 2. Make information available concerning f a c i l i t i e s required to the providers (both public and private) of the f a c i l i t i e s . 108 Encourage collaboration to insure coordinated planning f o r transient boating at the l o c a l l e v e l . I t i s believed that the information generated by the planning process developed i n t h i s thesis should provide a s o l i d basis f o r investment by both public and private organ-izations and f o r the i n i t i a t i o n of steps to remedy perceived problems. In addition, t h i s information should be useful f o r integration with other recommendations concerning coastal zone a c t i v i t i e s i n B.C. F i n a l l y , i t i s hoped that the r e s u l t s of t h i s study may be of some benefit to transient boaters themselves by contributing to the preservation of opportunities f o r recreational boating i n Georgia S t r a i t . BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES CITED A l l e y , J . and A. Ferguson. Recreational Boating i n Howe Sound published f o r Islands Trust by the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s and Housing. V i c t o r i a , 1976. C i c c h e t t i , Charles J . Forecasting Recreation i n the United States. Lexington Books, Mass. USA, 1973. Clark, K.B. The formulation and application of a marine recreation planning methodology: a case study of the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands. MA i n Community and Regional Planning, UBC, 1969. Clawson, Marion. Land and Water fo r Recreation. Rand McNally and Co., Chicago, I 9 6 3 . Clawson, M. and J . Knetsch. Economics of Outdoor Recreation. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1966. Davis, G. and V. Ayers. Photographic Recording of Environ-mental Behaviour. In Behavioural Research Methods  i n Environmental DesignT edited by W. Michelson. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Inc., Pennsylvania, 1975. Ditton, Robert and Thomas Goodale. Marine Recreational Uses of Green Bay: A Study of Human Behaviour and Attitude Patterns. Technical Report #17. Univ. of Wisconsin See Grant Program, December 1972. Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . The Liveable Region Report Planning Dept., G.V.R.D., 1975. Johannis, T. and C. B u l l . Sociology of Leisure. Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1971. Ketchum, B.H. (editor) The Water's Edge: C r i t i c a l Problems of the Coastal Zone. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1972. Lea, N.D. and Associates. Analysis on Recreational Boating i n the S t r a i t of Georgia Area B.C. Vancouver 1966. 110 Lipsey, R., Sparks and P. Steiner. Economics, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1973. Marans, R.W. Survey Research. In Behavioural Research Methods  i n Environmental Design edited by W. Nichelson, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. Pennslyvania, 1975. Matheson, G. "Big Plans for Marine Park System" In P a c i f i c Yachting Magazine May 1975« Interpress Publications, Vancouver. Meyer, P.A. and M.C. Harrison. Marina Policy i n the Ti d a l Area of the P a c i f i c Coast. Environment Canada 1976, Vancouver. Michelson, W, and P. Reed. The Time Budget. In Behavioural Research Methods i n Environmental Design edited by W. Michelson. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Penn. 1975. Mos, Gerard J . and Mary C. Harrison. Resident Boating i n Georgia S t r a i t . Environment Canada, Fish e r i e s and Marine Service, Southern Operations Branch, 197^. Nelson, Christopher. Seaspace Use and Control: a case study i n the Gulf of Georgia M.A. i n Geography, UBC, 1973. Seneca, J , and C. C i c c h e t t i . "User Response i n Outdoor Recreation" In Journal of Leisure Research, Volume 1, No. 2 Spring 1969. State of Washington. Pleasure Boating Study - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission 1968. Smith, J . "Demand Methodologies" In Assessing Demand for Outdoor Recreation. National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 1975. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Income Distributions by size i n Canada. Ottawa, 1974. S t e r n l i e b , George. Leisure Market Studies. State University of New Jersey, 1969. I l l S t r i b l i n g , J.C. Factors Influencing Preferences f o r Water-Based Recreation i n Hardin County, Texas. M.Sc. Thesis, Oklahoma State Univ. 1969. Tarriff . Board. T a r i f f Board Report 1971. Queen's Printer, Ottawa. T a r i f f Board. Report by the T a r i f f Board Pleasure Craft Reference No. 1^9, Ottawa, 1976. The Province, "Soggy Weather Shrinking B.C. Income" Page One, August 2 1 s t , 1976. Wolferstan, W. Marine Recreation i n the Desolation Sound R egion of B.C. M.A. i n Geography S.F.U. 1971. » -Woods, Gordon and Co., Management Consultants. An Overview of Recreational Boating by Residents of Metropolitan Vancouver published for the Marine Trades Association, Vancouver 197^. 112 RELEVANT LITERATURE A t l a n t i c Unit - Water Planning and Operations Branch, Doe Coastal Zone A c t i v i t i e s of Doe, Ottawa, 19?2. Backstrom, Charles and G. Hursh. Survey Research. North-western University Press, Minneapolis, 1963. Barker, Mary L. Water Resources and Related Land Uses S t r a i t of Georgia-Puget Sound Basin. Geographical Paper #56 Environment Canada 1974. Bryan, Richard C. The Dimensions of a S a l t Water Sport Fishing T r i p or What do People Look f o r i n a Fishing T r i p besides Fish? Southern Operations Branch P a c i f i c Region Environment Canada, Fish e r i e s and Marine Service, 1974. C a l i f o r n i a Coastal Zone Conservation Commission. Prelimin-ary Coastal Plan Hearing Draft, C a l i f . 1975. Ditton, R.B. The future of boating on Lake Michigan. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Sea Grant Program 1971. Environment Canada. Coastal Zone: Proceedings of a Seminar held at Bedford I n s t i t . of Oceanography Dartmouth, N.S., March 1972. Vol. 1 Selected Background Papers. A t l a n t i c Unit, Water Management Service Ottawa, 1972. Festinger, Leon and Daniel Katz. Research Methods i n the Behavioural Sciences. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston (1966) Goldthorpe, John H. and Keith Hope. The So c i a l Eroding of Occupations; A New Approach and Scale. Clarendon Press Oxford, 1974. Gunn, Clare. Industry Fragmentation vs. Tourism Planning. Unpublished paper. Texas A. and M University 1976 Hyde, Brian. A Study of a Report bythe B.C. Prov. Parks Branch on OR Demand i n the Lower Mainland. Paper f o r Planning 521, A p r i l 1973. 113 Knetsch, Jack. "Assessing the Demand fo r Outdoor Recreation" In Journal of Leisure Research v o l . 1, No. 1. Winter 1969. Moser, C.A. and G. Kalton. Survey Methods i n So c i a l Invest-i g a t i o n . New York: Basic Books Inc. (1972) P.olakowski, Kenneth J . Shoreland Planning i n the Great Lakes Basin and Selected Coastal Zones i n the United States. Sea Grant Program 1970. Ramirez, Ruben D. Boating i n the Puget Sound Region - 1985. MA i n Urban Planning, Univ. of Washington, 1964. Sewell, W.R. Derrick and B l a i r T. Bower et a l . Forecasting the Demands fo r Water. Policy and Planning Branch, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, 1968. Sewell, W.R.D, Judy, R. and Ouellet, L. Water Management Research: So c i a l Science P r i o r i t i e s . Policy and Planning Branch, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa 1969. T a r i f f Board. "Those Prosperous Yachtsmen" In P a c i f i c Yachting, Sept. 1976, Interpress Publications, Vancouver. APPENDIX A BOATER QUESTIONNAIRES 115 Type Number Site Location Date Time Weather EOATER QUESTIONNAIRE Where do you live? Please indicate the number of people travelling on board your boat who f a l l into the following age brackets: a) up to 13 years .  b) 15 to 20 years c) 20 to 30 years d) 30 to 40 years e) 40 to 50 years . f) 50 years and up _____ Are you a family? of both? A group of friends? A mixture Eow long have you been cruising so far on this trip? day(s) How much longer do you plan to be cruising? day(s) Balow.is a l i s t of services and fac i l i t ies available throughout the Strait of Georgia to vacationing boaters. Please indicate h.3.r often you w i l l use or have used certain services on this  t r ip. Leave a blank beside those you haven't used or won't use. PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN TUIS AREA al llJtJ * Daily Every 3 to 4 days Weekly a) Wharfage for the night I b) Fuel c) Showers d) Marine. Supplies e) Hotels,pubs, restaurants i i) Groceries' 1 O Ice i • j h) Water ! j i) Laundry ! i> Eait, tackle • '.) Repairs 1) Liquor store i.) Electricity hookups r) Other (please specify) 1 IJ uu I II II I ~ *u v/JUU 31 o 53UU JXUU 116 PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA Why <!id you decide to come to t h i s spot? (Please check the appropriate reasons(s).) a) to spend the night i n a convenient l o c a t i o n ] b) to get protection from the weather c) to obtain services ( f u e l , g roceries, showers, etc.) d) to meet friends, other boaters e) to see what the area was l i k e f) to do repairs on boat, engine g) other (please specify) ' ' How long have you been here? hour(s) day(s) How much longer do you plan to spend here? day(s) If you're spending the night here w i l l you: a) t i e up at a government f l o a t ? b) t i e up at a commercial marina? c) anchor out? d) t i e up alongside another boat? e) other (please specify) hour(s) Please explain the reason for your choice. 9. The following l i s t of services and f a c i l i t i e s includes a wide ranse that could be required by the vacationing boater. In the f i r s t column please check those you have used or intend to use at this l o c a t i o n . In the second column please estimate your expenditure to the nearest d o l l a r on those items you have purchased. In the t h i r d column please check those services not evail£.ble t h i s l o c a t i o n that you would l i k e to be able to use here. Feel free to add to t h i s l i s t under , :other". S e r v i c e / F a c i l i t y Used D o l l a r s Spent I Would Like to Use a) groceries j j b) (on shore) showers i i c) (on shore) restrcoms j <5) gas and o i l j n) hotel rooms & f a c i l i t i e s ' f ) pubs, lciinftes | ?) bai t and tackle j a) writer i i ) i c e i ') toatworks, r e " a i r s ' t k) telephone j i X) l i q u c r store | ti) e l e c t r i c i t y hookups L) marine supplies o) rc.it jurarits 1 1 7>) laundry | a) post o f f i c e j r) other (plei.ee specify) i SkfJ U 11 a u u 11 u I&IJIJ kkjjij nijij itijij VJIJIJIJ < 117 10. Vacationing boaters often alter their planned length of stay in a particular location. Are you leaving here earlier than you expected for any of the following reasons? If so, please check those that apply, a) weather conditions no moorage available no space to anchor out too many other boats in sight negative reaction of local residents to non-resident boaters _ noise from other boaters _ services desired not available _ inconsiderate behaviour by other boaters _ polluted conditions _ lineups for fuel, groceries _ other (please specify) b) O d> e) f) 8) h> i ) j) k) PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA ifiJJU i#uu sfiJJU IJIJ Ut l IJI l IJIJ IJI I IJI~I iju Ou uu Ul I i i . Would any of the above listed reasons prevent you from returning to this location? No Yes ( i f so, please l i s t the letter(s) of the appropriate reasons(s)): Have you encountered any problems with deadheads or sawlog debris in the past 12 months? Deadheads Sawlogs Debris y e s no yes no y e s n o Number of hits by your boats in the past year: \%l I IJ "' U 'l h\U 118 1PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA 12. 13. How c_ny years have you been cruising in the Strait of Georgia? year(s) In the last 12 months approximately how many boating trips have you made in the following categories? a) one day outings b) overnight cruises (up to 2 nights) c) vacation cruises (3 nights plus) siijijn 14. 15. What percentage of your cruises of more than one night during the last 12 months took place: a) from June 1 to September 30 % b) from October 1 to May 31 iVJ/jQ Is the boat you're travelling on your own? Rented? Borrowed? Inboard Type: Sail Overall length: feet Outboard Inboard/Outboard q Horsepower: THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION (ALONG WITH ALL PREVIOUS ANSWERS) WILL BE KEPT STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL. 16. 17. What is the age of the head of the household? years d-JJIJ Please indicate your annual household income before taxes: a) up to $5,000 e) $12,000 to $15,0p0 f) $15,000 to $20,000 g) $20,000 to $25,000 h) $25,000 and up b) $5,000 to $3,000 c) $8,000 to $10,000 d) $10,000 to $12,000 18, Whet is the educational experience of the head of the household? a) elementary school b) some high school c) high school graduate d) some university, trade school e) university graduate f) post graduate 19. Is the head of the household currently a) employed? b) retired? c) unemployed? Please indicate occupation i f employed / jljl I kii/j/jn di/j <>VJ *>UU 20. On the map below please show the following: a) Mark the origin of your cruise with an "o" (if this location doesn't appear on the map write i t here ) b) Shov your route so far with a solid line (include arrows to indicate direction) and mark a l l overnight stopovers with an " X " c) If possible draw your intended route from here with a dotted line and nark your intended overnight stopovers with a "Y". Rive,. °-\ 0 \ 5<»« JuAiv I?-0- V f c W i * 1 2 0 Type Number S i t e Location Date Time Weather EOATER QUESTIONNAIRE I. Where do you l i v e ? Please i n d i c a t e the number of people t r a v e l l i n g on board your boat who f a l l into the following age brackets: a) up to 13 years b) 15 to 20 years c) 20 to 30 years d) 30 to 40 years e) 40 to 50 years f) 50 years and up Are you a family? of both? A group of friends? A mixture Eow long have you been c r u i s i n g so f a r on t h i s t r i p ? day(s) Eow much longer do you plan to be cruising? day(s) B_lot7.is a l i s t of services and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e throughout the S t r a i t of Georgia to vacationing boaters. Please i n d i c a t e often you w i l l use or have used c e r t a i n services on t h i s  t r i p . Leave a blank beside those you haven't used or won't use. D a i l y Every 3 to 4 days Weekly • a) Wharfage for the night I b) Fuel c) Showers d) Marine Supplies e) Hotels,pubs, restaurants ; i ) Groceries' 1 O Ice j — j !•») W3ter > ! j ;) Laundry ! ;> E a i t , tackle .) F.epairs i) Liquor store i.} E l e c t r i c i t y hookups r) Other (please specify) 1 PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA ,/ lljlj * I I rt uu IJIJIJ IJIJIJ TJO 3\U 53/JU &IJU 1 2 1 6. Why did you decide to come to this marine park? o) to get away from othor boaters b) to get protection from the weather c) to anchor for the nip.ht d) to enjoy the scenic quality e) to meet friends, oth .^r boaters f) to see what i t was like g) to stay in a "wilderness" setting where there is good access to services (e.g. at Secret Cove) h) other (please specify) 7. How long have you been here? hour(s) day (s) How much longer do you plan to spend here? day(s) hour(s) In the past 12 months how frequently have you visited any of the B.C. marine parks listed below? Discovery Island D'Arcy Island Newcastle Island Princess Margaret^ Beaumont Copeland Islands Garden Bay Plumper Cove Montague Harbour Smuggler Cove Thurston Bay Echo Bay Gibson (on Flores Island)_ Sidney Spit Desolation Sound Princess Louisa Pirates Cove Rebecca Spit Octopus Islands Mansons Landing How would you rate this park in comparison to others? 9. Marine parks in B.C. offer the following range of fac i l i t ies . Please check those you've used here and those you'd l ike to use that were not available here. a) campgrounds b) fresh water supply c) picnic grounds d) floats e) mooring buoys Dsed f ) garbage disposal g) road access routes h) boat launch ramps i ) Other (please specify) Would Like to Use PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA II n n 11 a u u IJ GsfJU IJIJ IJIJ 1-tjlJIJ 3UU J 1 2 2 10. i i . Vacationing boaters often alter their planned length of stay at a particular location. Are you leaving here earlier than you expected? If so, please check the appropriate reason. a) noise from other boaters b) weather conditions c) no space available to anchor d) facilities desired not available e) inconsiderate behaviour by other boaters f) pollution g) too many other boaters in site h) needed to buy fuel, groceries i) other (please specify) Would any of these reasons prevent you from returning to this park? No • Yes (If so, please list the letter(s) of the appropriate reason(s)). Have you encountered any problems with deadheads or sawlog debris in the past 12 months? Deadheads Sawlogs Debris yes yes no yes no Number of hits by your boats in the past year: Deadheads Sawlogs Debris PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA IJI i if nr nr i ir UL ui. iJI &u-11 O 3\/_l 11 11 s 123 PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA 12. How many years have you been cruising in the Strait of Georgia? year (a) 13. In the last 12 months approximately how many boating trips have you made in the following categories? a) one day outings b) overnight cruises (up to 2 nights) c) vacation cruises (3 nights plus) HJU VMJIJI I HUJIJTI HHIJI U~l 14. What percentage of your cruises of more than one night during the last 12 months took place: a) from June 1 to September 30 lk-3 11 11 I b) from October 1 to May 3 1 • • * $ ( 15. Is the boat you're travelling on your own? Rented? Borrowed? MJIJIJ Types S a i l Inboard Outboard Inboard/Outboard 4 Overall length: feet Horsepower: k\fjl IIJ THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION (ALONG WITH ALL PREVIOUS ANSWERS) WILL BE KEPT STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL. 1 6 . What is the age of the head of the household? years OS/JIJ 1 7 . Please indicate your annual household income before taxes: a) up to $ 5 , 0 0 0 e) $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 to $ 1 5 , 0 p 0 f) $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 to $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 g) $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 to $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 h) $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 and up b) $ 5 , 0 0 0 to $ 3 , 0 0 0 c) $ 8 , 0 0 0 to $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 d) $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 to $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 18, 1 9 . Wh£t is the educational experience of the head of the household? a) elementary school d) some university, b) some high school trade 6 c h o o l c) high school graduate e) university graduate f) post graduate Is the head of the household currently a) employed? b) retired? c) unemployed? Please indicate occupation i f employed CWJ dv 1 vj 124 20. On the map below please show the following: a) Mark the origin of your cruise with an "o" (if this location doesn't appear on the map write i t here ) b) Shov your route so far with a solid line (include arrows to indicate direction) and mark a l l overnight stopovers with an "X" c) If possible draw your intended route from here with a dotted line and mark your intended overnight stopovers with a "Y". 125 APPENDIX B THE SOCIOECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE BOATER An important point to be noted i n the following sections i s that, with the exception of Wolferstan (1971), other studies referred to here are based on entire popula-tions of recreational boaters, not merely on participants i n c r u i s i n g a c t i v i t y or "transient" boaters. RESIDENCE Table B-I shows the homes of the respondents. By f a r the majority of the Canadian boaters originated from points on the S t r a i t of Georgia, e s p e c i a l l y the Vancouver region. American boaters comprised 40.6 percent (n = 192) of a l l respondents. Some 62 percent of boaters interviewed by Wolfer-stan (1971, page 70) i n Desolation Sound came from the U.S. Even so, the proportion of Americans i n t h i s study seemed high considering that Secret Cove and Pender Harbour are places well known to and used by B r i t i s h Columbians. This high proportion of non-residents could be i n d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d to the unseasonal summer weather ("Soggy Weather Shrinking B.C. Income", The Province, Aug. 21, 1976) . I t i s possible that l o c a l people cancelled or postponed vacation cruises whereas v i s i t o r s from the south, not forewarned, 126 TABLE B-I RESIDENCE OF RESPONDENTS (n = 192) Area Percentage of Respondents 1. Georgia Strait Vancouver Island 1A MaiJTland Coast l o 0 Mainland Coast 1.0 North Shore 15.1 Greater Vancouver 31.3 Delta-Surrey 3.1 2» Inter 2. Interior B.C. 1.5 3. U.S.A. Washington 30.2 Oregon 5.7 California 2.1 Other States 2.6 127 s a i l e d into B.C. waters. AGE The mean age of the respondent was 47 years. This figure i s si m i l a r to the average age of boat owners i n general i n the S t r a i t of Georgia, that i s , 45 years (Mos and Harrison, 1974, page 75) and to an American study which set average age of boat owners at 40 to 49 years ( S t r i b l i n g , 1969, page 24). Di s t r i b u t i o n of ages of the respondents i s shown i n Table B-II and compared to age d i s t r i b u t i o n found by A l l e y and Ferguson (1976) i n t h e i r study of boaters i n Howe Sound. INCOME, In general, there appears to be a c o r r e l a t i o n between income and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n outdoor recreation; Clawson (1963, page 38) found that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate i n boating was four or f i v e times as great i n families earning over $10,000 than i n families earning less than $3,000. As shown i n Table B-III, i t i s evident that transient boaters are a high income group. EDUCATION It appears that participants i n boating a c t i v i t y TABLE B-II AGE DISTRIBUTION OF BOATERS BY PERCENTAGE OF SAMPLE Category Howe Sound Study* Survey Results (ri = 70) (n = 176) Under 20 1.4 0 20 - 29 8.4 7.6 30 - 39 24.8 26.6 40 - 49 25.7 20.2 50 - 59 22.6 27.7 60 and over 17-1 17-9 * Source: Alley and Ferguson 1976 page 20 129 TABLE B-III COMPARISON OF PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILIES BY INCOME GROUP 1974 1976 Income B.C. Survey Results Category Households* (n = 171) Under $5,000. 7-8 0 $5,000 - $8,000 11.0 . 0.6 $8,000 - $10,000 8.5 1.2 $10,000 - $12,000 8.8 1.2 $12,000 - $15,000 17.1 7.6 $15,000 - $20,000 22.5 13-5 $20,000 - $25,000 13.2 I8.I $25,000 and up 11.1 57.9 (* Source: Statistics Canada 1974 page 24) 130 have received more formal education than the average B r i t i s h Columbian. Table B-IV compares survey results from t h i s study and the Howe Sound Study (Alley and Ferguson, 19?6, page 21) to the p r o v i n c i a l average. EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATION The majority of respondents, some 86.3 percent (n = 183) were employed, 14.8 percent were r e t i r e d and 1.6 percent were not employed. Occupation categories represented were heavily weighed i n "service" and "trade". Table B-V shows these trends. 131 TABLE B-IV EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF BOATERS BY PERCENTAGE Category Sample . Survey (n=l82). Howe Sound Survey* (n=70) P r o v i n c i a l Average* Elementary School Some high school High School graduate Some univ. or trade Univ. graduate Post graduate 2.2 9.9 19-2 49.4 18.7' 0.5 19.2 2.9 9.9 21.6 42.9 12.8~ 9.9 22.7 18.0 31.0 22.0 21.0 7-0 (* Sources: A l l e y and Ferguson 1976 page 21 S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1973 ) 132 TABLE B-V OCCUPATION OP RESPONDENTS (n = 138) Category Percentage of Respondents 1. Forestry 1.4 2. Manufacturing 5.1 3. Construction 5.8 4. Transportation, coranunication and u t i l i t i e s 6.5 5. Trade 27.5 6. Finance, insurance and real estate 6.5 7. Community, business and professional service 37-0 8. Public adrunistration and defence 5.1 9. Unspecified other 5*1 133 APPENDIX C BOATING EXPERIENCE AND ACTIVITY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE The average number of years of boating experience i n the S t r a i t of Georgia was 9 years (n = 188) and ranged from 1 to 4-0 years. Figure C-I shows a co r r e l a t i o n between age of boat owner and years of boating experience. BOAT OWNERSHIP By f a r the majority, some cja.«a. percent (n = I8(? ) of the respondents owned the boats on which they were t r a v e l l i n g . Rented boats comprised percent of the sample and borrowed boats comprised 3.4> percent. CREW COMPOSITION Family groups represented by 74.8 percent of the respondents (n = 194)? 9*8 percent were a group of friends; 13.9 percent were a mixture of both; 1.5 percent were t r a v e l l i n g alone. These results confirm the findings of the T a r i f f Board (1976, page 50) who stated that some 70 to 85 percent of boat owners were married couples with children. TRIP LENGTH On the average respondents had been c r u i s i n g f o r AGE COUNT I ROW FCT I BOATING EXPERIENCE (IN YEARS) ROW CCL FCT I TOT PCT I 1-2 I 3-5 - 1 6-10 * 11-15 1 16-20 1 21-25 [ 26-30 1 30 plus TJTAL 20-29 I 7 • I 5 3.8 I .18.9 I " 4 2C.8 6.5 I 2 I 15.4 I 4.5 I 0 I I 0.0 I I 0.0 I 0 1 0.0 I 0.0 I 6 ' 0.0 0.0 I 6 I 0.0 I 0. 0 i 0 1 0.0 I 0.0 [ 12 [ 7 .5 1 4.0 I 2.3 1 1.1 I 0.0 I 0.0 I 0.0 I 0.0 I 0.0 30-39: I 13 I ' 2 8 o 9 I .35.1 I 7.5 I 13 28.9 27.7 7.5 I 13 I 28.9 I 29.5 I 7.5 I _ 2 I I 4.4 1 I 13.3 I I 1.1 I 2 I 4.4 I 12.5 I 1.1 I 1 2.2 12. 5 0.6 I 1 [ 2. 2 [ 25. J [ 0.6 I 0 1 I 0.0 I 0.0 1 I 0.0 45 [ 2 5.9 40-49 . I _ 8 I 22.9 I 21.6 I 4.6 I 14 _, 40.0. 29.8 8.0 I 5 I 14.3 I 11.4 I 2.9 I 2 1 I 5.7 1 I 13.3 I I 1.1 I 5 I 14.3 1 31.3 I 2.9 I 1 2 .9 12.5 0.6 I J I 0.0 [ 0.0 [ 0. 0 I 0 ] I ... o. 0 . I 0.0 ] I 0.0 1 35 t 20.1. 50-59 j 7 I 14.3 I 18.9 I 4.0 I 10 2C. 4 21.3 5.7 I 16 I 32.7 I 36.4 I 9.2 I b I I 12.2 I I 40.0 I I 3.4 I 5 I 10.2 I 31.3 I 2.9 I 3 6.1 37.5 1.7 [ 1 I 2.0 [ 25. J [ 0. 6 I 1 I 2.0 I 33.3 ] I 0.6 j [ 49 I 2 8.2 } 2 I 6 I 8 I 5 I 4 I 3 ] [ 2 I 2 1 32 60 and I 6.2 I 5.4 I 1.1 I 18.8 12.8 2.4 I 25.0 I 18. 2 I 4.6 I 15.6 I I 33.3 I I 2.9 I 12.5 I 25.0 I 2.3 1 9.4 37.5 1 1.7 I 6.2 5 0. J L 1. 1 I 6.2 1 I 66.7 1 I 1.1 I i 8.4 CCLUMN TC T £ L 3 7 21.3 47 27.0 44 25.3 15 8.6 16 9.2 8 4.6 4 2.3 3 1.7 1 74 1U0. 0 CHI SQUARE 4C .25566 VvlTh 26 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0627 NUMBER OF MS SING OBSERVATIONS = 22 FIGURE C-l CROSSTABULATION OF YEARS OF EXPERIENCE WITH AGE OF RESPONDENT 135 11.6 days (n = 193) an\d were planning to cruise another 8.8 days (n = 184) f o r a planned average cruise of 20.4 days. This compares with the average t r i p length of 23.2 days measured by Wolferstan (1971, page 70) among Desolation Sound boaters. NUMBER 0E BOATING TRIPS Respondents took an average of 23 (n = 127) one-day cruises i n the l a s t year, 10 (n = 136) overnight t r i p s and 28 (n = l 6 l ) t r i p s of three nights or more. 136 APPENDIX D CROSSTABULATION BETWEEN BOAT TYPE AND ACCOMMODATION SOUGHT BOAT TYPE C C L N T ROW P C T C O L P C T T C T P C T Sail Inboard Outboard Inboard/ Outboard C C L U K N T O T A L ACCOMMODATION ROW T O T A L I Public I Private I Anchor I Other I 2 1 I 18 I ~ 8 I 0 1 4 7 I 4 4 . 7 I 3 £ . 3 I 1 7 . 0 I 0 . 0 1 2 5 . 8 I 3 9 . 6 I 1 6 . 4 I 5 0 . 0 I 0 . 0 I I 1 1 . 5 I 9 . 9 I 4 . 4 I 0 . 0 1 I 19 I 50 I 6 I 3 I 78 I 2 4 . 4 I 6 4 . 1 I 7 . 7 I 3 . 8 1 4 2 . 9 I 3 5 . e I 4 5 . 5 I 3 7 . 5 I 1 0 0 . 0 1 I 1 0 . 4 I 2 7 . 5 I 3 . 3 I 1 . 6 1 I 1 I 3 I 0 I 0 1 3 I 3 3 . 3 I 6 6 . 7 I 0 . 0 I 0 . 0 1 1 . 6 I 1 . 9 I 0 . 0 I 0 . 0 ] I C . 5 I 1-fe I 0 . 0 I 0 . 0 I I 12 I 39 I 2 I 0 ] [ 5 3 • I 2 2 . 6 I 73 . 6 I 3 . 8 I 0 . 0 1 2 9 . 1 i I 2 2 . 6 I 3 5 . 5 I 1 2 . 5 I 0 . 0 1 I 6 . 6 I 2 1 . 4 I 1 . 1 I 0 . 0 1 5 3 2 9 . 1 1 10 6C . 4 16 8 . 8 3 1 .6 1 8 2 1 0 0 . 0 C H I S Q U A R E = 2 0 . 9 6 5 3 5 W I T H 12 D E G R E E S OF F R E E D O M S I G N I F I C A N C E = 0 . 0 5 0 9 N U M B E R OF P I S S I N G C B S E P V A T I C N S = 14 FIGURE D-l CROSSTABULATION OF BOAT TYPE WITH ACCOMMODATION SOUGHT V>> 

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