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Transient boating in the Strait of Georgia Cooke, Karen Ann 1977

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TRANSIENT BOATING IN THE STRAIT OF GEORGIA by KAREN ANN COOKE B.A. Simon Fraser University,197.3  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The School of Community and Regional Planning  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June,1977  (E) ,-KarennAnn Cooke, 1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree  available for  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  r e f e r e n c e and copying o f t h i s  It  i s understood that copying or  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  or  publication  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my written  permission.  Department of  Ir^USfXij  £{vjbd2A  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V5T 1W5  Date  C^>C^0G& © ^ P f & v v i ' v l  iii  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s o u t l i n e s a p l a n n i n g process f o r t r a n s i e n t boating a c t i v i t y  ( d e f i n e d here as overnight and v a c a t i o n  c r u i s i n g ) i n the S t r a i t of Georgia.  Pleasure boat  cruissmgg  i s one of the l a r g e s t components of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n Georgia S t r a i t and r e c e n t trends i n boat ownership emphasize the need f o r a focus on t h i s a c t i v i t y i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . From 1973 "to 1976 the p o p u l a t i o n o f p l e a s u r e c r a f t r e s i d e n t i n Georgia S t r a i t i n c r e a s e d from 34,000 to 93,000 b o a t s . T h i s r a p i d growth has r e s u l t e d i n problems such as inadequate f a c i l i t i e s and p e r c e i v e d overcrowding  and environmental  deterioration. Recognizing these p r e s s u r e s , t h i s t h e s i s  contri-  butes t o the development of p o l i c y f o r b o a t i n g i n Georgia S t r a i t by o u t l i n i n g a "complete" p l a n n i n g process f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g a t the r e g i o n a l and l o c a l level.  The b a s i c steps i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r the r e g i o n  were: a) e s t i m a t i n g t h e nature of and d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d by the p r o j e c t e d t r a n s i e n t boat  population}  b) i d e n t i f y i n g problems, a s s o c i a t e d with t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y and d e v e l o p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s or programmes t o d e a l w i t h these;  iv  c) implementing the p o l i c y p l a n a p p r o p r i a t e t o p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s required at a given l o c a t i o n . The b a s i c steps i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g a t a l o c a l l e v e l were: a) e s t i m a t i n g s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by the present and f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n of b o a t e r s u s i n g the s i t e ; b) i d e n t i f y i n g s i t e - s p e c i f i c problems a s s o c i a t e d with, transient boating a c t i v i t y ; c) d e v e l o p i n g programmes t o d e a l w i t h problems and t o provide a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the s i t e . Time c o n s t r a i n t s prevented the completion these s t e p s .  of a l l  Instead the methodology used i n the study  f o c u s s e d on the t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s ' demand f o r such s e r v i c e s as moorage, f u e l , water supply.  The f o l l o w i n g steps were  completed t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the p l a n n i n g f o r the r e g i o n : 1) an attempt t o e s t a b l i s h t o t a l s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d was based on a p r o j e c t i o n of the t r a n s i e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n u s i n g Georgia S t r a i t i n 1986 and 2000 and on the "average"  demand  f o r s e r v i c e s obtained from the r e s u l t s of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e administered to boaters; 2) problems common t o b o a t i n g throughout  the r e g i o n were  i d e n t i f i e d from the popular l i t e r a t u r e and from c o n v e r s a t i o n s  V  w i t h R.C.M.P, Coast Guard, b o a t e r s , marina o p e r a t o r s ; 3)  suggestions were made as t o the means of  implementing  a r e g i o n a l p o l i c y plan f o r transient boating. The f o l l o w i n g steps were completed  f o r the l o c a l  p l a n n i n g process? 1) s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d were estimated by means o f a b o a t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t measured use of and s a t i s f a c t i o n  with  s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e and by p r o j e c t i n g l i k e l y i n c r e a s e i n demand f o r s e r v i c e s a t the s i t e s s e l e c t e d ; 2)  s i t e s p e c i f i c problems were i d e n t i f i e d by i n t e r v i e w s with  marina o p e r a t o r s , by responses  t o mailback q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  from l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and by r e s u l t s of the b o a t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; 3) programmes t o d e a l with problems and w i t h p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s were suggested  according to appropriate l o c a l  groups or a g e n c i e s . F i n a l l y , recommendations d e a l t with s u i t a b l e means of completing the steps i n the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g process t h a t were not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  study.  vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS  PAGE ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.IST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I.  AN OVERVIEW OF TRANSIENT BOATING IN GEORGIA STRAIT Problem Statement Recreation Perspective Geographical P e r s p e c t i v e Planning P e r s p e c t i v e O b j e c t i v e s of the Study  I I . METHODOLOGY The I d e a l P l a n n i n g Process Planning f o r the Region Planning f o r the L o c a l L e v e l The Approach of the Study Introduction Study Components Survey Techniques S i t e s Chosen f o r the F i e l d Study Methods of A n a l y s i s III.  PLANNING FOR THE REGION E s t i m a t i n g S e r v i c e s Required Introduction E x i s t i n g T r a n s i e n t Boats Resident i n Georgia S t r a i t Non-Resident C o n t r i b u t i o n Rented or Borrowed Boats The T o t a l T r a n s i e n t Boat P o p u l a t i o n i n Georgia S t r a i t ; 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 8 6 , and 2000 The I n f l u e n c e of Socioeconomic V a r a i b l e s The E s t i m a t i o n of T o t a l Demand Identifying Externalities Implementing the P o l i c y Plan Introduction The P o l i c i e s o f P r o v i d e r s A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r D e a l i n g w i t h Problems  i i i yj. v  1  1  1  1  X x  1 3 11 12 14 16 25  39  58 59  vii IV.  PLANNING FOR THE LOCAL LEVEL E s t i m a t i n g S e r v i c e s Required 70 Introduction Use of Non-Serviced S i t e s Existing Services E s t i m a t i n g S e r v i c e s Demanded Matching Supply of and Demand f o r S e r v i c e s I d e n t i f y i n g S i t e S p e c i f i c Problems 89 Boaters and Marina Operators P e r c e p t i o n s L o c a l Resident P e r c e p t i o n s Developing A c t i o n Programmes 94 P o l l u t i o n ; D i s r u p t i o n of Resdents' Lifestyle Hazardous N a v i g a t i n g  V. CONCLUSIONS Introduction The T y p i c a l T r a n s i e n t Boater Completing the P l a n n i n g Process E s t i m a t i n g S e r v i c e s Required Identifying Externalities Implementing the P o l i c y P l a n BIBLIOGRAPHY References C i t e d Relevant L i t e r a t u r e APPENDIX A Boater Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - S e r v i c e d S i t e Boater Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - Marine Park APPENDIX B - The Socioeconomic P r o f i l e of the Boater APPENDIX C - B o a t i n g Experienced and A c t i v i t y APPENDIX D - C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n Between Boat Type and Accommodation Sought  98 99 105  109 112 114 115 120 125 133 136  • • •  vm LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE I  Boat Ownership Rates  TABLE I I  Households 1986  7  Resident on Georgia S t r a i t  1976,  and 2000  45  TABLE I I I Estimated Boat P o p u l a t i o n , S t r a i t of Georgia, 1986 and 2000 TABLE IV  47  T r a n s i e n t Boat P o p u l a t i o n C r u s i n g i n Georgia S t r a i t  50  TABLE V  Boat Type by Percentage of Sample  5  TABLE VI  Boat Length by Percentage of Sample  54  2  TABLE VII Frequency of S e r v i c e / F a c i l i t y Use  55  TABLE V I I I F a c i l i t y Use Rates f o r V a c a t i o n T r i p s  56  TABLE IX  Inventory of S e r v i c e s  75  TABLE X  Expenditures on S e r v i c e s  84  TABLE XI  Boater R e a c t i o n t o "Unpleasant" C o n d i t i o n s  86 126  TABLE B-I Residence of Respondents  TABLE B-II Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of Boaters by Percentage of Sample 127 TABLE B - I I I Comparison of Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s b y Income Group 129 TABLE B-IV E d u c a t i o n a l Background Percentage TABLE B-V  of Boaters by  Occupation of Respondents  131 132  ix L I S T OF FIGURES PAGE F i g u r e 1.  o f G e o r g i a S t u d y R e g i o n Map  2  2.  Number o f b o a t s b u i l t a n n u a l l y i n C a n a d a  6  3.  S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a map.  35  4.  S e c r e t Cove a r e a map  73  5.  S e c r e t Cove s t o r e a n d g a s b a r g e .  74  6.  The g o v e r n m e n t f l o a t  ?4  7.  New f i n g e r s Marina  8.  B o a t s an c h o r e d i n S m u g g l e r s '  9.  An a l t e r n a t i v e method o f m o o r i n g .  ?6  10.  P e n d e r H a r b o u r a r e a map.  78  11.  H o s p i t a l Bay,  79  12.  A commercial marina  Strait  i n S e c r e t Cove.  on t h e p r i v a t e S e c r e t Cove Cove.  Pender Harbour  74 76  79  C-l  C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of years of b a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h age o f r e s p o n d e n t  134  D-l  C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of boat type w i t h accommodation sought.  137  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a s s i s t a n c e and advice of many i n d i v i d u a l s helped me t o r e s e a r c h and w r i t e t h i s t h e s i s . I r v i n g Fox,  Professor  Tony Dorcey and P r o f e s s o r and f r i e n d W i l l i a m  Rees p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m and encouragement. F e l l o w student J i m Hughes spent many hours with me p a t i e n t l y e x p l a i n i n g computer programmes. and  F r i e n d s Kathy  Paul Tanner, L i z B l a c k , Mara Feeneyg and e s p e c i a l l y  M i c h a e l Lewis (whose s h i p E r i d i n u s made the study p o s s i b l e ) gave me moral support and a s s i s t a n c e i n f i e l d work. F i n a l l y , my thanks goes t o the many b o a t e r s , l o c a l r e s i d e n t s on the S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a , and others i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g whose c o o p e r a t i o n made the study enjoyable.  I.  AN OVERVIEW  OF TRANSIENT BOATING IN GEORGIA STRAIT PROBLEM STATEMENT  T h i s t h e s i s develops a p l a n n i n g process f o r t r a n s ient boating a c t i v i t y  ( d e f i n e d as o v e r n i g h t or v a c a t i o n  c r u i s i n g ) i n the S t r a i t of Georgia.  In p a r t i c u l a r , the  study i n v e s t i g a t e s the t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s * demand f o r s e r v i c e s such as moorage, f u e l , water and marine s u p p l i e s . The nature of t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g or c r u i s i n g r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e out the e n t i r e S t r a i t of Georgia  (see F l G . l ) .  through-  Boaters a r e  v e r y mobile and may u t i l i z e a g r e a t number o f s i t e s a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n the S t r a i t on any g i v e n c r u i s e .  There-  f o r e the primary focus of the study i s the development of an o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g approach a p p l i c a b l e a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l . A secondary  focus i s aimed a t s e l e c t l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s where  a more s p e c i f i c  approach t o p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  cruising i s possible. The s u b j e c t of the study i s t i m e l y because of r e c e n t c o n t r o v e r s y over the demands made by t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s a t l o c a t i o n s throughout  the S t r a i t o f Georgia  2  v FIGURE I  STRAIT OF GEORGIA STUDY REGION  (Sourcet  Nelson, 1 9 7 3 , page 8)  3  ( P a c i f i c Y a c h t i n g , J u l y 1976).  The b o a t e r s themselves  have complained of overcrowding, inadequate  facilities:  l o c a l r e s i d e n t s have expressed concern over the a d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s posed by t h i s peak season b o a t i n g t r a f f i c .  Non-  r e s i d e n t ( p a r t i c u l a r l y U.S.)  waters  use of l o c a l c r u i s i n g  has c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y become an i s s u e . The o v e r a l l g o a l of the study then i s to develop and attempt to a p p l y a p l a n n i n g framework f o r t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g a t a r e g i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l .  The next t h r e e  s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter develop the background o b j e c t i v e s proposed f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s  t o the goal.  RECREATIONAL PERSPECTIVE In terms of the use of " d i s c r e t i o n a r y " or  leisure  time, outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y would appear t o r e p r e s e n t only one among inumerable o p t i o n s .  Yet the t o t a l amount of  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g p l a c e i n North America i s known t o be v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i v e t o other a c t i v i t i e s . Social  s c i e n t i s t s argue t h a t the e s c a l a t i n g  pace  of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change has o u t s t r i p p e d human c a p a c i t y f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l adjustment and t h a t , as a ence,  consequ-  "escape" t o the outdoor world i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y  attractive  (Johannis and B u l l , 1971).  To the proponents of  t h i s view, the r e c r e a t i o n experience stands f o r a n y t h i n g  from the a b i l i t y to e x e r c i s e f r e e c h o i c e to the to c h a l l e n g e difficult  o n e s e l f and  achieve  to deny t h a t there may  i n v o l v e d i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . support 1966,  t h i s widely  opportunity  self fulfillment.  It is  be t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s However, r e s e a r c h  h e l d view i s scant  (Clawson and  to Knetsch,  3D.  page  B e t t e r documented i s the i n c r e a s e i n demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a n o t a b l e i e t h century North America.  I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t  f o u r major f a c t o r s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s populations  are growing o v e r a l l and  urban c e n t r e s ; of d i s p o s a b l e  increase*  increasing i n density at  income l e v e l s are r i s i n g and income a v a i l a b l e i s g r e a t e r ;  i n c r e a s i n g as work weeks are shortened; i s g r e a t e r due  t r e n d i n twent-  the  proportion  l e i s u r e time i s  personal m o b i l i t y  to the widespread ownership of automobiles  (Clawson and Knetsch, 1966,  page 5)»  Ever i n c r e a s i n g numbers  of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s are e n j o y i n g the expanding supply and  of  sites  f a c i l i t i e s t h a t have growmiin response to t h i s marked  i n c r e a s e i n demand. The v a r i e d resources  of c o a s t a l a r e a s a p l a y  a major  p a r t i n s a t i s f y i n g the r e c r e a t i o n demands of a d j a c e n t tions.  A marine environment may  popula-  be a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r  c e r t a i n forms of a c t i v i t y such as b o a t i n g , f i s h i n g , s k i n d i v i n g and  swimming;  f o r o t h e r s , such as s i g h t s e e i n g , p i c n i c k -  5  i n g or nature study, the c o a s t a l s e t t i n g enhances the experience.  Water possesses unique a t t r a c t i v e  qualities.  I t has been estimated t h a t 44 percent of those engaged i n outdoor  r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r water-based a c t i v i t i e s  ( D i t t o n and  Goodale, 1972, page 4 ) . Of a l l water and land-based r e c r e a t i o n a l  pursuits,  b o a t i n g i s p r o j e c t e d t o undergo the g r e a t e s t growth i n popul a r i t y i n the next decade.  The U.S. Bureau of Outdoor  Recre-  a t i o n f o r e c a s t t h a t b o a t i n g i n the n a t i o n would i n c r e a s e by 76 percent i n the p e r i o d 1965 t o 1980 while p o p u l a t i o n i n the same p e r i o d would i n c r e a s e o n l y by 29 p e r c e n t (Ketchum, 1972,  page 8 5 ) . B o a t i n g i s no l e s s popular i n Canada.  An a n a l y s i s  of the boat b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y suggests t h a t b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y has been i n c r e a s i n g (see F i g u r e 30 .  Expenditures by Canadians  on b o a t i n g equipment i n 1971 r e p r e s e n t e d 24 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l d o l l a r s spent i n the country on outdoor  recreation  equipment. ( T a r i f f Board, 1971).  out of every  Twenty-five  1000 people i n the country own a r e c r e a t i o n a l boat;  in  B r i t i s h Columbia 46 out of every 1000 people own a boat (see Table I ) . The p o p u l a r i t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g  suggested  by the f o r e g o i n g f i g u r e s i s evidenced i n the S t r a i t of Georgia.  P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s r e g i o n make i t a  FIGURE SU, BOATS BUILT ANNUALLY IN CANADA ( P l u s i m p o r t s minus e x p o r t s )  TOTAL P O W E R B O A T S (BUILT) NON POWER (BUILT) IMPORTS EXPORTS  >  S O U R C E - DOMINION B U R E A U OF STATISTICS.  e o  §  40,000[  <  30,000  o  03  U. O  20,000h  §  10,000  co <* o  8  ID  CP)  YEAR  (Source:  o IO CD  L e a and A s s o c i a t e s , 1966, p. 5)  TABLE I BOAT OWNERSHIP RATES  Selected Area  Boats per 1000 Population  1  Canada  2  United States  40.8  3  Ontario  35.0  4  New Brunswick  13.0  5  Nova Scotia  20.0  6  Quebec  10.0  7  California  16.5  8  Puget Sound  95.0  9  B r i t i s h Columbia  46^0  0  Gulf of "Georgia  53.0  (Sources  25.0 .  Nelson,  1973. p. 8 ) .  8  highly attractive hinterland for cruising. comprises  a wealth  t e r e d harbours, relatively  Strait  of w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s , i s l a n d s , and  shel-  a l l p o s s e s s i n g unique s c e n i c q u a l i t i e s , a l l  accessible.  annual b o a t i n g season (Nelson, 1973t  The  A moderate c l i m a t e makes p o s s i b l e an of 200  days, the l o n g e s t i n Canada  133).  page  Present use of the S t r a i t of Georgia by a t t e s t s to these a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s . households (or 17.4  By 1976  83,730  percent of the p o p u l a t i o n ) i n the  Georgia S t r a i t r e g i o n owned one and H a r r i s o n , 1974,  In 1973.  boaters  or more p l e a s u r e c r a f t  (Mos  page 11).  t h e r e were estimated to be 93,000 boat-  owning households i n the r e g i o n .  In a d d i t i o n , d u r i n g the  same year, use of the c r u i s i n g waters of Georgia S t r a i t enjoyed by 10,000 n o n - r e s i d e n t b o a t e r s  (the number who  was regis-  t e r e d a t p o r t s of e n t r y ) and by 27»000 r e s i d e n t households who  r e n t e d or borrowed boats  (Meyer and H a r r i s o n , 1976,  p.  10).  These f i g u r e s g i v e some i d e a of the l a r g e number of p l e a s u r e c r a f t p r e s e n t l y s a i l i n g the waters of the S t r a i t Georgia.  P a t t e r n and  i n t e n s i t y of b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y must be  b r i e f l y summarized to g a i n an understanding picture. use  During the  of the S t r a i t  of  of the r e g i o n a l  " o f f - s e a s o n " from October  through  May,  i s l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to r e s i d e n t b o a t e r s .  Only 24 percent of t o t a l r e s i d e n t b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y  occurred  9  i n t h i s w i n t e r p e r i o d d u r i n g 1973 page 30).  Day  (Mos  t r i p s f o r the purposes  f a m i l y o u t i n g s are the r u l e .  197^,  and H a r r i s o n ,  of f i s h i n g , r a c i n g or  B o a t i n g a c t i v i t y thus tends t o  be c o n c e n t r a t e d near the p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e i n the S t a i t region.  During the peak summer season, on the other hand,  use of the e n t i r e system of s i t e s and f a c i l i t i e s  i n the  r e g i o n i n c r e a s e s as both l o c a l s and n o n - r e s i d e n t s engage i n more f r e q u e n t day and o v e r n i g h t c r u i s e s as w e l l as vacation cruises.  annual  U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h i s seasonal i h f l u x s o f  boat t r a f f i c has not had s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s .  Problems  a s s o c i a t e d with e x c e s s i v e numbers of boaters are now n i n g t o develop, however.  begin-  Both remote anchorages and s e r -  v i c e d marina s i t e s experience peak season  crowding.  What are the f u t u r e demands on the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s of the S t r a i t of Georgia l i k e l y t o be?  Estimates  of a n t i c i p a t e d demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e never easy t o make.  However, a number of trends may  be  expected t o c o n t r i b u t e t o r i s i n g p r e s s u r e on e x i s t i n g boati n g s i t e s and f a c i l i t i e s . B r i t i s h Columbia has tended  The u r b a n i z a t i o n p a t t e r n i n i n the p a s t to appear as  c e n t r a t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n i n the southwestern  con-  coastal  cities.  Although the growth r a t e i n Vancouver has l e v e l l e d o f f i n the l a s t few y e a r s , s m a l l e r c i t i e s and towns on the continue t o a t t r a c t new  residents.  Strait  The nature of the draw  10  t h a t the c o a s t e x e r t s may  r e l a t e i n large part to amenities;  t h a t i s c l i m a t e , s c e n i c beauty and the p r o x i m i t y of y e a r round r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  c o a s t a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g a l o n g the S t r a i t of Georgia then i s t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y towards p u r s u i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l tunities available.  oppor-  B o a t i n g i s c e r t a i n l y one of the most  a t t r a c t i v e of these o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In a more s p e c u l a t i v e v e i n , a combination of changing l e i s u r e time increments and the f u e l c r i s i s may r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a pronounced t i o n i n Georgia S t r a i t .  be  o r i e n t a t i o n to boating recrea-  Along w i t h other North  Americans,  the p a t t e r n s of l e i s u r e time of r e s i d e n t s of t h i s r e g i o n have been changing.  People may  have a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l l o n g e r  weekends or perhaps more hours of f r e e time i n each  day.  R i s i n g f u e l c o s t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o reduced highway speeds, s m a l l e r automobiles and pronounced may  c o n g e s t i o n on the roads  reduce the appeal of an automobile v a c a t i o n .  i n c r e a s i n g numbers of G e o r g i a S t r a i t r e s i d e n t s may  Instead, be  a t t r a c t e d t o the p r o x i m i t y of e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r boating, especially s a i l i n g .  (Though evidence i s not y e t  a v a i l a b l e , i t i s f e a s i b l e that s p i r a l l i n g f u e l prices could s h i f t boat s a l e s toward c r a f t r e q u i r i n g l i m i t e d amounts of gas.)  11  GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE The p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n c o a s t a l areas imposes c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s on the r e c r e a t i o n a l planning process.  Resource planners and policymakers i n  B r i t i s h Columbia have o n l y r e c e n t l y begun t o r e g a r d the c o a s t a l zone as a s p e c i a l e n t i t y . nized  Increasingly  i t i s recog-  t h a t the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s r e g i o n  by l a n d - s e a i n t e r f a c e n e c e s s i t a t e  defined  the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n t e -  g r a t e d management p o l i c i e s . The p e c u l i a r b i o p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the coast on the one hand support i n v a l u a b l e s e r i e s and f e e d i n g  ecosystems and p r o v i d e n u r ^  grounds f o r a d i v e r s e number of a q u a t i c  organisms, f i s h , mammals, and w a t e r f o w l .  On the other hand,  the g e o g r a p h i c a l advantages o f l o c a t i o n i n the r e g i o n sea  of l a n d -  i n t e r f a c e have r e s u l t e d i n the a t t r a c t i o n of s e v e r a l forms  of human a c t i v i t y t o the c o a s t .  Thus p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t  between o f t e n m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r conserv a t i o n or development i s i n h e r e n t example, the c o n s t r u c t i o n boaters i s preferable  i n coastal regions.  For  o f a marina t o serve r e c r e a t i o n a l  and l e s s c o s t l y i n an e s t u a r i n e  which a l s o p r o v i d e s h a b i t a t f o r a v a r i e t y of a q u a t i c On another l e v e l , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  area life.  arrangements  f o r the management of the c o a s t a l zone i n B r i t i s h Columbia  12  pose a m u l t i t u d e of problems.  At present l e g a l  matters  p e r t a i n i n g t o the c o a s t a l r e g i o n a r e handled by dozens of agencies from a l l l e v e l s of government.  Thus f a r , the oper-  a t i o n s of these independent bodies working a t odds w i t h one another, have c o n t r i b u t e d t o unplanned, piecemeal throughout  coastal areas.  development  As more p r e s s u r e i s exerted on  the r e s o u r c e s o f the c o a s t a l zone from i n c r e a s i n g development, problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l be m a g n i f i e d .  The d e s i r a b l e g o a l  of any c o a s t a l zone management program i s the i n t e g r a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s of agencies  i n v o l v e d t o d e s i g n l o n g range  s t r a t e g i e s t h a t w i l l balance human use w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n of l i m i t e d coastal resources. The g e o g r a p h i c a l context o f r e c r e a t i o n a l then i s d e f i n e d as a s p e c i a l resource a r e a .  cruising  To f u n c t i o n  e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n the n a t u r a l and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  restrict-  ions of the c o a s t a l zone, r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g from t h i s p o i n t i n time on must adopt a r e g i o n a l , i n t e g r a t e d p e r s p e c t ive. PLANNING PERSPECTIVE Provision f o r water-oriented r e c r e a t i o n w i l l c e r t a i n l y be a major o b j e c t i v e i n the development of comprehensive c o a s t a l zone  management p o l i c i e s i n B r i t i s h  13 Columbia.  The  r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l of the S t a i t of  Georgia i n p a r t i c u l a r i s r e c o g n i z e d by r e s i d e n t s tourists alike.  P l e a s u r e b o a t i n g i s the  of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n the S t a i t . marked growth i n the p o p u l a r i t y and  Yet  despite  of b o a t i n g i n t h i s  f a c i l i t i e s , p e r c e i v e d crowding and  for  l a r g e s t component  the consequent emergence of problems such as  t i o n , t h e r e has  and  the region  inadequate  environmental degrada-  been no attempt to develop r e g i o n a l  policy  r e c r e a t i o n a l c r u i s i n g i n the S t a i t of G e o r g i a .  As  the  management of r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g i n the S t r a i t of Georgia w i l l be  d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n the  study, i t w i l l  s u f f i c e here to mention t h a t there are f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and  m u n i c i p a l agencies as w e l l as p r i v a t e developers  p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s f o r or r e g u l a t e Up c r u i s i n g has  to now,  providing  that  boating a c t i v i t y .  f a c i l i t i e s for  recreational  been l i m i t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l agency or developer  response to s p e c i f i c problems or i s s u e s . a t i o n between those i n v o l v e d  has  l a c k of  facilities  persistent i n other  locations.  A second problem r e l a t i n g to the p l a n n i n g process i s absence of a s u f f i c i e n t data base f o r the r e g i o n . c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n now boat ownership and  coordin-  tended t o r e s u l t i n d u p l i c -  a t i o n of e f f o r t i n c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s and d e f i c i e n c i e s i n s e r v i c e s and  The  the  There i s  a v a i l a b l e on Lower Mainland  moorage requirements due  to l a c k  of  14  b e r t h i n g accommodation f o r a growing p o p u l a t i o n of recreational craft.  Certain site specific  a l s o been performed.  Wolferstan  s t u d i e s have  (1971) and O l i v e r  d e a l t with the c r u i s i n g experience  (1975)  i n D e s o l a t i o n Sound and  C l a r k (1972) w i t h f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g f o r b o a t i n g i n t h e G u l f Islands,  S t u d i e s completed by Environment Canada, i n c l u d i n g  r e s i d e n t boat ownership i n the S t r a i t of Georgia  (Mos and  H a r r i s o n , 1974) and f e d e r a l marina a s s i s t a n c e p o l i c y  (Meyer  and H a r r i s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) , a r e more b r o a d l y based. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The purpose o f t h i s study, s t a t e d a t the o u t s e t , i s t o develop a p l a n n i n g process f o r t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g activity.  Research i s needed on the whole spectrum of water-  o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n i n B.C.'s c o a s t a l a r e a s .  However, i t i s  h e r e i n assumed t h a t the t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r and h i s use of r e g i o n a l s i t e s and f a c i l i t i e s  has been i d e n t i f i e d as a key  element i n p l a n n i n g f o r c o a s t a l zone r e c r e a t i o n . The  specific  o b j e c t i v e s of the study a r e as  follows: 1. t o develop an " i d e a l " p l a n n i n g process f o r t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r both the r e g i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l ; 2 i , t o i l l u s t r a t e t o the extent p o s s i b l e g i v e n time  15  c o n s t r a i n t s , the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l  approach  i n Georgia S t r a i t ; 3. to i l l u s t r a t e the a p p l i c a t i o n of the l o c a l i n two  sites  i n Georgia S t r a i t o r i e n t e d to  approach transient  boating; 4 . to suggest f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h the  necessary to complete  " i d e a l " planning process.  I I . METHODOLOGY THE IDEAL PLANNING PROCESS The p l a n n i n g framework f o r t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y d e s c r i b e d below i s an " i d e a l " approach i n t h a t performing alll?the steps necessary of  t h i s study.  i s f a r beyond the scope  However, the framework i n c l u d e s the major  components of an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g process and p r o v i d e s a comprehensive background t o t h i s  study.  I t i s acknowledged here t h a t t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g i s one  of s e v e r a l w a t e r - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g  p l a c e i n c o a s t a l areas f o r which i n t e r r e l a t e d e f f o r t s would be necessary.  planning  I t i s a l s o assumed t h a t r e c r e a -  t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l would be i n t e g r a t e d with p l a n n i n g and management of other uses of c o a s t a l r e s o u r c e s . PLANNING FOR THE REGION ESTIMATING FACILITIES REQUIRED 1. Determining  the supply o f e x i s t i n g  facilities  To estimate f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r b o a t e r s i t i s necessary  t o i n v e s t i g a t e f i r s t the type, c a p a c i t y and d i s -  t r i b u t i o n of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  There i s a wide range of  o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r the use of t r a n s i e n t boaters i n Georgia  Strait.  17  a) There are 20 marine Parks Branch.  parks operated by the P r o v i n c i a l  These a r e p r o t e c t e d anchorages  throughout  the S t r a i t which o f f e r minimal s e r v i c e (such as  mooring  buoys, water supply) a t no c o s t to the b o a t e r .  The  developed parks a r e a c c e s s i b l e o n l y by boat. marine  least  Certain  parks with campsites, p i c n i c grounds and l a u n c h i n g  ramps are used by a wider c l a s s of b o a t e r s . b) The f e d e r a l government, through the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t maintains p o r t s of refuge a l o n g the c o a s t .  These  are rudimentary f l o a t s without s e r v i c e s , used f r e e of charge, intended f o r s h e l t e r i n cases of emergency or poor weather. c) F e d e r a l government wharves, a d m i n i s t e r e d l a r g e l y by the Small C r a f t Harbours communities.  Branch, are l o c a t e d i n most c o a s t a l  Wharves range i n s i z e and i n s e r v i c i n g from  simple f l o a t s t o l a r g e i n s t a l l a t i o n s where water supply and garbage c o l l e c t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e .  Wherever t h e r e i s a r e s i -  dent w h a r f i n g e r , a 2 ^ / f o o t / n i g h t f e e i s c o l l e c t e d from sient boaters.  tran-  Many p u b l i c wharves are not s u p e r v i s e d and  are consequently f r e e of charge.  In a few cases, such as  Westview Harbour i n Powell R i v e r , the M u n i c i p a l i t y has taken over the o p e r a t i o n of the government wharf, upgrading  servic-  i n g and r a i s i n g moorage f e e s to 5 0 / f o o t / n i g h t . d) Commercial marinas a r e owned and operated by the private sector.  They too range i n s i z e and s e r v i c i n g but  18  g e n e r a l l y o f f e r a complete showers t o g r o c e r y s t o r e s . to  package o f s e r v i c e s  Boaters can o f t e n phone ahead  these marinas and r e s e r v e accommodation.  (1976) moorage  from  The c u r r e n t  f e e averages a t 200/foot/night.  In a d d i t i o n t o these f o u r types o f f a c i l i t i e s , t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s have the c h o i c e of mooring o r a n c h o r i n g i n any number o f s e c l u d e d bays and i n l e t s throughout Strait.  Georgia  For example, numbers o f Vancouver b o a t e r s u t i l i z e  the l o g booms i n the bays o f Gambier I s l a n d f o r moorage spots on weekend c r u i s e s ( A l l e y and Ferguson,  1976).  To t h i s date, a d e t a i l e d , s t a n d a r d i z e d i n v e n t o r y of  the above types o f f a c i l i t i e s has not been compiled.  Marine a t l a s e s p u b l i s h e d f o r b o a t e r s are incomplete of  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the purposeodf  measuring  sources  the adequacy of  e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o meet c u r r e n t and p r o j e c t e d demands o f boaters.  A u s e f u l f i r s t s t e p would be the mapping o f a l l  f a c i l i t i e s , by a r e a s , i n the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a . 2.  E s t a b l i s h i n g the s i z e o f the e x i s t i n g t r a n s i e n t boat population! The  p r o j e c t i n g the growth o f t h i s boat p o p u l a t i o n " t r a n s i e n t " boat p o p u l a t i o n i s a subset  (composed o f r e s i d e n t owners, r e n t e r s and non-residents,)@of the l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n o f " r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t " c r u i s i n g i n the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a .  S i n c e no s t u d i e s o f t h i s  particular  19 group of boats have been done, i t i s necessary t o e s t a b l i s h the s i z e of the c u r r e n t t r a n s i e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n . A t r a n s i e n t boat i s one t h a t i s used f o r o v e r n i g h t and vacation cruising:  t h e r e i s a minimum l e n g t h of boat  capable of accommodating crew o v e r n i g h t .  For r e s i d e n t  owners and r e n t e r s , a random sample of boats on c r u i s e s taken from l o c a t i o n s on Georgia S t r a i t o r i e n t e d to t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g , c o u l d show the minimum s i z e of c r a f t used f o r these purposes.  A l t e r n a t e l y , a random sample of boat owners  i n t e r v i e w e d a t p o r t of o r i g i n c o u l d r e l a t e boat s i z e t o b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y , which would a l s o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the minimum s i z e of the " t r a n s i e n t " c a t e g o r y .  A l l non-  r e s i d e n t boats e n t e r i n g Georgia S t r a i t by sea would autom a t i c a l l y be counted as t r a n s i e n t . Growth p r o j e c t i o n s of boat p o p u l a t i o n s a r e convent i o n a l l y based on changes i n one or more v a r i a b l e s such as p o p u l a t i o n , income, boat ownership r a t e s , age, or on the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s .  Surveys of  t r a n s i e n t boat-owners might e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a n s i e n t boat ownership and, f o r example, age of boat owner. P r o j e c t i o n s of f u t u r e boat p o p u l a t i o n would then be based i n p a r t on the s i z e of g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n c o h o r t s a t a f u t u r e date.  20  3. E s t i m a t i n g the t o t a l f a c i l i t i e s / s e r v i c e s demanded by the boat p o p u l a t i o n . The t o t a l number of t r a n s i e n t boats u s i n g t h e Strait  of Georgia must be r e l a t e d t o the "average" demand  for f a c i l i t i e s  or s e r v i c e s .  From a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample  of these boat-owners i t would be necessary t o determine  how  o f t e n i n a year they used the f o u r types o f f a c i l i t i e s identified  as compared t o how o f t e n they anchored;  time they spent on the average, a t each f a c i l i t y ;  how much how o f t e n  they used p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e s ( e g . water supply, f u e l , groceries). S u p p l y i n g s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s t o b o a t e r s on v a c a t i o n c r u i s e s i s a problem of peak season demand, i n t h a t most b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y occurs between June and September. T h e r e f o r e the t o t a l f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s demanded ( c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g "average" demand by t o t a l boats) would have t o be d i s a g g r e g a t e d t o i n d i c a t e the p r e s s u r e f o r f a c i l i t i e s / s e r v i c e s exerted a t a g i v e n time.  Such i n f o r m -  a t i o n c o u l d be d e r i v e d by determining the average number o f days spent c r u i s i n g i n a year and the p r o p o r t i o n of c r u i s e s taken d u r i n g , f o r example, J u l y and August.  I t would then  be p o s s i b l e t o determine the number of boats out a t a g i v e n time and, as a consequence,  t o estimate the t o t a l demand f o r  21  services at a given  time.  4. E s t i m a t i n g t h e g e o g r a p h i c  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f demand, k n o w i n g  t h e t o t a l demand f o r s e r v i c e s b y b o a t e r s a t a g i v e n  time  i n the S t r a i t of Georgia i s not s u f f i c i e n t information for planning  purposes.  In a d d i t i o n , the geographic  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f demand  w o u l d show where s e r v i c e s w e r e n e e d e d .  To o b t a i n a n u n d e r -  s t a n d i n g o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f demand, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e of  t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s c o u l d p r o v i d e d a t a on m o t i v a t i o n s f o r  cruising  ( i . e . what e x p e r i e n c e s b o a t e r s s e e k , what t y p e o f  facilities  t h e y p l a n t h e i r t r i p s around) and on t r i p  or c r u i s i n g  patterns.  Maps o r " d i a r i e s " i s s u e d t o a g r o u p  o f b o a t e r s a t p o r t s o f o r i g i n w o u l d be a n i n t e r e s t i n g of  providing details  such as these.  logs of their cruises,  routes  method  S i n c e many b o a t e r s  i t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e t o u s e a  keep  diary  type of questionnaire. 5. A s s e s s i n g s u p p l y o f s e r v i c e s i n l i g h t o f c u r r e n t a n d projected The  demand. preceding steps should enable t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  of models f o r G e o r g i a S t r a i t which would i n d i c a t e travelled  cruising  heavily-  r o u t e s a n d s i t e s where s t o p o v e r s w e r e made.  T h i s p r o c e s s w o u l d i d e n t i f y where f a c i l i t i e s w e r e  inadequate  22  or u n d e r - u t i l i z e d . increased  of t h e  demand r e s u l t i n g from a growing t r a n s i e n t boat  population for  Into t h e model, p r o j e c t i o n s  would have t o he i n c o r p o r a t e d .  F u t u r e programmes  p r o v i d i n g new f a c i l i t i e s , upgrading e x i s t i n g ones o r  m a n i p u l a t i n g demand by a d v e r t i s i n g u n d e r u t i l i z e d s i t e s c o u l d be developed a t t h i s  point.  IDENTIFYING EXTERNALITIES Transient  b o a t i n g has p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on the  economy of many c o a s t a l communities.  However, as seaspace  i s a common resource and as m o b i l i t y i s v i r t u a l l y  unrestricted  on the water, there a r e a number o f n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s t h a t r e s u l t from b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y .  P o t e n t i a l problems or sources  of c o n f l i c t need t o be i d e n t i f i e d . navigating,  P o l l u t i o n , hazardous  disturbance to l o c a l residents,  interference  f e r r i e s or commercial f i s h boats a r e problems a l r e a d y  with  evident  which may be exacerbated by i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f b o a t e r s . At present a number of agencies a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  c o n t r o l of r e c r e a t i o n a l boat t r a f f i c .  l a t i o n s and programs t o d e a l with p e r c e i v e d be  A s e r i e s of reguproblems  d e v i s e d through c o l l a b o r a t i o n by each r e s p o n s i b l e  could group.  IMPLEMENTING THE POLICY PLAN The  estimate of f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d would i n d i c a t e  the nature and l o c a t i o n of changes t h a t would have t o be  23 made i n the system of f a c i l i t i e s . estimate and  on the b a s i s of other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  to r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g  be  so on)  necessary  i n the c o a s t a l zone (such as  g i c a l impacts of f a c i l i t i e s , s i t e s and  On the b a s i s of t h i s  ecolo-  competing demands f o r p o t e n t i a l  a p o l i c y plan f o r t r a n s i e n t boating  could  developed. Implementation of the p l a n would be shared by  f o u r c l a s s e s of p r o v i d e r s  of f a c i l i t i e s , namely:  government, the p r o v i n c i a l government, m u n i c i p a l (in  some cases) and  c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s and  the p r i v a t e s e c t o r .  the  the  federal  governments  A d e s c r i p t i o n of  problems f a c i n g these groups would a l s o  be necessary to suggest the f u t u r e r o l e t h a t they would p l a y as p r o v i d e r s  of f a c i l i t i e s  PLANNING FOR  THE  to t r a n s i e n t  boaters.  LOCAL LEVEL  ESTIMATING SERVICES REQUIRED 1. Determining the range and Site specific  c a p a c i t y of e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s  i n v e n t o r i e s of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e  (eg. a t a l l commercial marinas and be  compiled by o n - s i t e  2.  Estimating  government wharves) c o u l d  observation.  s e r v i c e s demanded  A survey of t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s u s i n g a given  site  w i l l determine the s e r v i c e s used, the d o l l a r expenditure made  24  on these s e r v i c e s , and the p e r c e i v e d inadequacies i n s e r vices.  Records c o u l d be kept over a summer p e r i o d t o show  how many t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s made temporary (up t o a few hours) stopovers f o r s e r v i c e s j  how many boaters  over per n i g h t and how l o n g they s t a y e d . "anchored  stopped  Numbers of boats  out" and numbers of boats turned away from  marinas on busy o c c a s i o n s should a l s o be r e c o r d e d . P r o j e c t e d i n c r e a s e s ( o r decreases) i n demand must be estima t e d on the b a s i s of changes i n the s i z e of the t o t a l  tran-  s i e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n and (from c r u s i n g p a t t e r n s ) the relative  l e v e l of use the s i t e o b t a i n s compared to other  sites. IDENTIFYING SITE SPECIFIC PROBLEMS C e r t a i n e x t e r n a l i t i e s of b e a t i n g a c t i v i t y apparent a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l may be experienced a t a g i v e n location. (Pacific  Recent c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the popular  literature  Y a c h t i n g , J u l y 1976) have p o i n t e d out t h a t inappro-  p r i a t e behaviour by v i s i t i n g boaters i s a cause of concern to many of the r e s i d e n t s of c o a s t a l communities. identify  which problems a r e s i g n i f i c a n t  In order t o  at a local level, i t  would be necessary to s o l i c i t the o p i n i o n s of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , o p e r a t o r s of marinas or other b u s i n e s s e s c a t e r i n g to b o a t e r s ,  25  and of the b o a t e r s  themselves.  DEVELOPING PROGRAMMES TO REMEDY PROBLEMS AND PROVIDE SERVICES REQUIRED At citizens,  the l o c a l l e v e l , c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n between  r e g u l a t o r y agencies and l o c a l government would  enable the development of p o l i c y f o r t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y i n the a r e a .  S p e c i f i c suggestions f o r remedying  problems p e r c e i v e d and f o r p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d would be made t h a t were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r implementation a t the l o c a l  level. THE APPROACH OF THE STUDY  INTRODUCTION Given c o n s t r a i n t s o f time, i t was not p o s s i b l e to complete line.  a l l the suggested steps i n the p r e c e d i n g out-  Rather i n t h i s study, emphasis was p l a c e d on the  a s p e c t o f the t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s demand, both a t the r e g i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l , f o r s e r v i c e s such as moorage, water supply, f u e l , g r o c e r i e s , a v a i l a b l e a t commercial marinas and some government wharves.  A brief  d i s c u s s i o n of the concept of  demand and o f models used t o e v a l u a t e demand f o l l o w s .  26  THE  CONCEPT OF DEMAND The focus i n t h i s study i s the component of  demand f o r s e r v i c e s .  I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the  identifica-  t i o n of demand has caused c o n s i d e r a b l e misunderstanding r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g (Seneca and C i c c h e t t i ,  1969»  page  in  238).  In economic terms, demand i s d e f i n e d as the t o t a l amount of a commodity t h a t a l l households wish to purchase a t a given p r i c e ( L i p s e y , Sparks and S t e i n e r , 1973, i n terms of r e c r e a t i o n may  page 72).  Demand  be b r o a d l y d d e f i n e d as the d e s i r e  of a p o p u l a t i o n t o "purchase" or "consume" c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a g a i n a t a given " p r i c e " (which may  be measured  i n t r a v e l c o s t or t i m e ) . Demand may  be expressed  or l a t e n t .  f o r a g i v e n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y may i n d i v i d u a l who  i s prevented  L a t e n t demand  be experienced by  from p a r t i c i p a t i n g due  an  to  p e r s o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s or i m p e r f e c t i o n s i n the supply of opportunities.  Given the removal of these r e s t r a i n t s  the a d d i t i o n of new l a t e n t demand may  or  s i t e s or f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n ,  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n  in recreational activities.  2?  MODELS USED TO EVALUATE DEMAND In order t o improve r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , attempts have been made t o c o n s t r u c t  numerous  a n a l y t i c economic  models t h a t explore  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c r e a t i o n a l  demand and s u p p l y .  Three major approaches t o m o d e l l i n g  the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n may be i d e n t i f i e d ( C i c c h e t t i , 1973).  The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e among the  t h r e e approaches i s t h e c h a r a c t e r bases.  of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  data  A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of these models i s necessary t o  demonstrate t h e i r r e l a t i v e u t i l i t y f o r the demand p r o j e c t i o n s attempted i n t h i s study. The  " s i t e s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a r e a " model i s  based on i n f o r m a t i o n  concerning v i s i t o r s to a s p e c i f i c  i n c l u d i n g v i s i t o r s residences trip.  area,  or the p o i n t s of o r i g i n of the  In order t o o b t a i n measures of the r e c r e a t i o n a l  b e n e f i t s of a g i v e n f a c i l i t y , mations f o r p r i c e .  t h e model uses c o s t  approxi-  The b e s t known example of t h i s type o f  approach i s t h a t developed by H o t e l l i n g , Clawson and Knetsch (1966).  T h i s t r a v e l c o s t approach s t a t e s t h a t the r e l e v a n t  measure f o r the p r i c e o f s e r v i c e s a t a given r e c r e a t i o n i s the c o s t s t o the s i t e  site  i n c u r r e d by an i n d i v i d u a l or group i n g e t t i n g (Smith, 1975t page 9 9 ) .  Although t h i s approach  i s developed f o r s p e c i f i c s i t e s i t was not c o n s i d e r e d  28  s u i t a b l e f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of demand a t the l o c a t i o n s chosen f o r t h i s study.  Though " p r i c e " of the s e r v i c e s  a v a i l a b l e t o b o a t e r s a t e i t h e r of the s i t e s c o u l d be e s t imated by t r a v e l c o s t s , such measures a r e not r e l e v a n t t o the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of u s e r p r o f i l e , q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e demand f o r s e r v i c e s and user p e r c e p t i o n t h a t were sought by means of q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t the study l o c a t i o n s . The second approach, the " s i t e s p e c i f i c model, gathers  user"  i n f o r m a t i o n from the users of a g i v e n  site  w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n with the services provided.  The purpose of such s t u d i e s i s t o  improve management on s i t e or to l e a r n about the most v a l u e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t e .  A good example of the  user model i s the work of Stankey (1972) on w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i n Montana.  T h i s model was chosen as the a p p r o p r i a t e  means of e v a l u a t i n g demand by t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s w i t h i n a given  site. The t h i r d model i s the " p o p u l a t i o n s p e c i f i c " one  t h a t i s based on i n f o r m a t i o n from a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of households t h a t i n c l u d e s both p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n given r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . by nationwide  surveys  T h i s approach, t y p i f i e d  such as those performed by the U n i t e d  29  S t a t e s Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission (i960,  1962),  examines demand f o r a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than  for particular sites.  The b a s i c method i n v o l v e s e s t i m a t i n g  f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as a f u n c t i o n of socioeconomic a c t e r i s t i c s and past experience  char-  of the respondents, a  measure of a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s and numerous other f a c t o r s . The model then focuses on p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which i s the n e t r e s u l t o f i n f l u e n c e s o f both demand and supply C i c c h e t t i , 1 9 6 9 , page 2 3 8 ) .  The " p o p u l a t i o n  (Seneca and  specific"  approach p r o v i d e d a framework f o r a n a l y z i n g demand f o r s e r v i c e s by t r a n s i e n t boaters w i t h i n the r e g i o n . STUDY COMPONENTS At the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , i t was p o s s i b l e t o complete a p o r t i o n o f the " i d e a l " p r o c e s s . the c o n c l u s i o n s t o those  Reference w i l l be made i n  steps n o t attempted by the author.  A t the l o c a l l e v e l i t was p o s s i b l e t o adhere q u i t e c l o s e l y to the suggested framework. PLANNING FOR THE REGION 1.  Estimating services required The  as a subset  c u r r e n t t r a n s i e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n was d e f i n e d  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t i n  30  the S t r a i t . population  Boat ownership f i g u r e s were d e r i v e d from specific  surveys performed by Mos and H a r r i s o n  (197^) and Meyer and H a r r i s o n  (1976) i n which boat ownership  r a t e s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the Georgia S t r a i t r e g i o n by a random survey of households.  To the t o t a l t r a n s i e n t c r a f t  r e s i d e n t i n Georgia S t r a i t were added r e n t e r s and n o n - r e s i d ent b o a t s .  P r o j e c t i o n s of t h e t r a n s i e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n t o  1986 and 2000 were based on p o p u l a t i o n  growth.  T o t a l s e r v i c e s demanded were estimated from the r e s u l t s of a questionnaire  administered  sample of t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s .  to a representative  There was an attempt t o d i s -  aggregate the t o t a l i n t o s e r v i c e s demanded a t a g i v e n 2. I d e n t i f y i n g e x t e r n a l i t i e s boating  time.  a s s o c i a t e d with t r a n s i e n t  activity. From a review of the popular l i t e r a t u r e , the  r e s u l t s of communication w i t h t t h e from the s i t e s p e c i f i c  RCMP and Coast Guard and  s t u d i e s , a number of "problems" were  i d e n t i f i e d that characterized transient boating the 3.  throughout  region. Implementing the p o l i c y p l a n Since o n l y a p a r t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was  attempted a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , t h i s s e c t i o n was  restricted  31  t o commenting on the p o l i c i e s o f the f o u r c l a s s e s of p r o v i d e r s as they might r e l a t e t o the f u t u r e p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s and s u g g e s t i n g  a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s  t o problems i d e n t i f i e d . PLANNING FOR THE LOCAL LEVEL 1. E s t i m a t i n g s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d An  i n v e n t o r y of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e a t both s i t e s  was compiled.  Boaters*  demand f o r s e r v i c e s was measured by  the r e s u l t s of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t e r e d 2.  on s i t e .  I d e n t i f y i n g s i t e s p e c i f i c problems Boaters,  contacted  marina operators  and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s were  t o f i n d out t h e i r view of problems a s s o c i a t e d  t r a n s i e n t boating i n the given  with  site.  3. Developing a c t i o n programs. Since 1976 was an a t y p i c a l b o a t i n g season, the estimate  of s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d c o u l d not be made.  o n l y suggestions  Therefore  on methods of d e a l i n g with problems were  made, i n l i g h t of the f u t u r e demands t h a t c o u l d be made on the  sites.  32 SURVEY TECHNIQUES THE BOATER QUESTIONNAIRE A questionnaire administered  t o b o a t e r s a t the  t h r e e s i t e s chosen formed a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of t h e study and p r o v i d e d a means o f supplementing the g e n e r a l demand p r o j e c t i o n ( d e s c r i b e d i n the next chapter) with a p i c t u r e of the " t y p i c a l " boater on a weekend o r v a c a t i o n c r u i s e . Though time consuming and expensive,  p e r s o n a l communication  w i t h respondents guaranteed c o o p e r a t i o n and a high response rate.  Mailback  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e j e c t e d as a method  of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n because i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t  those  who do r e t u r n these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may r e p r e s e n t a group s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from non-respondents (Marans, 1975). A l t e r n a t i v e methods c o u l d be u s e f u l f o r understanding sient boating a c t i v i t y .  Photographic  tran-  r e c o r d s o f b o a t e r s from  the a i r or a t a g i v e n s i t e would i n d i c a t e t r a v e l and use p a t t e r n s (Davis and Ayers,  1975).  Time budgets o r " d i a r i e s "  kept by boaters c o u l d a l s o r p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n  (Michelson and Reed, 1975). Questionnaire i n f o r m a t i o n sought: and  design was guided by f o u r c l a s s e s o f  g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the  " c r u i s i n g e x p e r i e n c e " p r o f i l e o f t h e boater;  t r i p information;  s i t e s p e c i f i c information  socio-economic general  concerning  33  demand f o r s e r v i c e s ; of e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s .  b o a t e r p e r c e p t i o n of the adequacy A p i l o t survey was c a r r i e d out i n  J u l y a t Gibsons' Landing t o t e s t o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e design. The content o f a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was i d e n t i c a l w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the second and t h i r d page which d i f f e r e d i n those a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the boaters i n the marine park s i t e  (see Appendix A f o r c o p i e s o f both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ) .  MARINA OPERATOR INTERVIEWS The owners and/or o p e r a t o r s of f i v e  private  marinas were i n t e r v i e w e d i n S e c r e t Coverand Pender Harbour. I n f o r m a t i o n sought  included:  type and c a p a c i t y of o p e r a t i o n ,  demand expressed by b o a t e r s , problems experienced a$ present l e v e l s of use and f u t u r e plans f o r expansion. RESIDENT QUESTIONNAIRE T r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g may have both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e consequences.  The demands of b o a t e r s w i t h i n g i v e n  s i t e s must be c o n s t r a i n e d i n p a r t by the d e s i r e s o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , i f they a r e d e t r i m e n t a l l y a f f e c t e d by b o a t i n g activity.  To r e g i s t e r the o p i n i o n of r e s i d e n t s a mailback  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent t o 40 people i n the  Secret-Smugglers  Cove a r e a and 170 people i n the Pender Harbour a r e a  ' v.•>•  34  SITES CHOSEN FOR  THE FIELD STUDY  There are a number of s i t e s on the S t r a i t of Georgia o r i e n t e d to marine r e c r e a t i o n and to s e r v i n g the t r a n s i e n t boater i n p a r t i c u l a r .  Smugglers Cove, S e c r e t Cove  and Pender Harbour, l o c a t e d w i t h i n a 10 m i l e r a d i u s on the S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a (see FIQ.3) were s e l e c t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: a) they appear to be " t y p i c a l " of other s i t e s on the S t r a i t of Georgia t h a t experience heavy use by  transient  boaters. b) they c o n s t i t u t e a sub-region i n themselves  because they  o f f e r a c l u s t e r of a l t e r n a t i v e stopovers between Gibsons Landing-Sechelt and Powell R i v e r ;  i n other words t h e r e i s a  good p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s w i l l s t o p a t one of these s i t e s i f they are t r a v e l l i n g on the east s i d e of the S t r a i t of Georgia; c) they are l o c a t e d c l o s e enough to Vancouver t o p r o v i d e easy access f o r f i e l d work and they are c l o s e to each o t h e r , e n a b l i n g movement between them convenient by sea or by road; d) the two  " s e r v i c e d s i t e s " , S e c r e t Cove and Pender  Harbour, o f f e r a wide range of s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s  and  35  FIGURE 3 The S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a  S c a l e It 126,?20 1 inch = 2 miles  (Source:  Department of Lands, F o r e s t s and Water Resources)  36  both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c marinas  (The t h i r d n o n - s e r v i c e d  s i t e , Smugglers Cove i s a p r o v i n c i a l marina park l o c a t e d v e r y near S e c r e t Cove.  I t was i n c l u d e d f o r the purpose of  determining whether or n o t there were s i g n i f i c a n t ences between u s e r s of s e r v i c e d and n o n - s e r v i c e d  differsites.);  e ) a l l s i t e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s i z e a b l e l o c a l  popula-  t i o n s composed of both temporary and permanent r e s i d e n t s . F i e l d work a t the three s i t e s was c a r r i e d out between August 5 t h and Aggast 22nd, 1976, u s u a l l y a p e r i o d of heavy b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g from p r e d i c t a b l y good summer weather i n the r e g i o n . Respondents were approached a t about 6*00 PM or as c l o s e t o t h i s hour as p o s s i b l e .  A t t h i s time, b o a t e r s  wanting t o spend the n i g h t a t the s i t e had a r r i v e d and t i e d up.  E a r l i e r i n t h e a f t e r n o o n many people were s t i l l  cruising  or were on shore t a k i n g advantage of showers, l a u n d r y or stores.  L a t e r i n t h e evening b o a t e r s began s o c i a l i z i n g and  were n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n f i l l i n g out a q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Mornings  were a l s o out o f t h e q u e s t i o n as many people were busy p r e paring to leave. In order t o reduce b i a s from the sampling cedure the f o l l o w i n g steps were taken.  Sampling  pro-  was done  - e v e r y day except Monday (which was without e x c e p t i o n a "slow"  37 day) f o r 8 days a t each s e r v i c e d s i t e and k days a t the park.  On the i n i t i a l day of sampling a t each s i t e the  t o t a l number of t r a n s i e n t boats moored or anchored out counted. new  was  T h i r t y percent of these and t h i r t y percent of the  a r r i v a l s each n i g h t t h e r e a f t e r were c o n t a c t e d .  To  randomize sampling, every 1 s t , 4 t h , 7th (and so f o r t h ) boat was  contacted.  I f no one was  onboard  or i f the  occupants  r e f u s e d t o answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (which happened o n l y twice) the next boat i n l i n e was boats "anchored out", i t was  contacted.  In the case of  o n l y p o s s i b l e t o approximate  a  random s e l e c t i o n . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the measurement of demand f o r s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s  seemed l i k e l y t o f a v o u r a c e r t a i n  c l a s s of t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s .  T h e r e f o r e Smugglers*  Cove  Marine Park, a n o n - s e r v i c e d s i t e c l o s e t o a s e r v i c e d a r e a , was  s e l e c t e d as a c o n t r o l t o determine whether t h e r e were  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the u s e r s of the two types of s i t e s ,  (As  Smugglers Cove i s about 15 minutes by boat from S e c r e t Cove, i t was  f e l t t h a t people who  so f o r a reason; at  stayed i n the former s i t e d i d  t h a t i s they c o u l d have bought s u p p l i e s  the s e r v i c e d a r e a but they had an<option as t o where they  s t a y e d o v e r n i g h t ) . There was a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y of b i a s i n the sampling i n t h a t i t was not p o s s i b l e to a d m i n i s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o the many people who  came i n t o the s i t e  38  o n l y l o n g enough to get gas o n l y one  f i e l d worker i t was  on t h i s ^ t r a f f i c a wide entrance  or buy  groceries.  However, with  not p o s s i b l e to keep a count  ( e s p e c i a l l y i n Pender Harbour as there i s channel and  several destinations possible  w i t h i n the Harbour). The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h a v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n and p i c k e d up a g a i n w i t h i n l i l hours $ of r e t u r n was ion  the 205  virtually  100  percent.  the r a t e  Almost without  respondents were p l e a s a n t , c o o p e r a t i v e  except-  and  i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o j e c t . METHODS OF ANALYSIS The boater q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were preceded f o r a n a l y s i s by means of the SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences)  computer program.  R e s u l t s of the  n a i r e s were analyzed f i r s t as c o n d e s c r i p t i v e and frequency  question-  one  way  d i s t r i b u t i o n s t o show the break down of responses  w i t h i n each q u e s t i o n .  Second, c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s between  s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s (such as r e s i d e n c e and s e r v i c e s demanded) were performed. The and  Tables are i n c l u d e d where  s m a l l number of marina operator  of r e s i d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d  enabled  necessary.  (49  interviews  out of  210)  the author to examine these and determine o v e r a l l  .trends by i n s p e c t i o n .  (5)  39  III.  PLANNING POR  THE  REGION  ESTIMATING SERVICES REQUIRED INTRODUCTION The b a s i c component i n the e s t i m a t i o n  of demand  f o r s e r v i c e s f o r the r e g i o n i s the p r o j e c t i o n of the t i o n of boats t h a t can be c l a s s e d  popula-  " t r a n s i e n t " or " c r u i s a b l e " .  A number of techniques have been used i n the p a s t to f o r e c a s t the p o p u l a t i o n  of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t i n g e n e r a l  the S t r a i t of Georgia r e g i o n .  N.D.  (1966,  Lea  44)  page  f o r e c a s t the number of boats t h a t would be owned by ents i n the S t r a i t i n 1976  1986.  and  Based on  for  resid-  survey  r e s u l t s , a r e l a t i o n s h i p was  e s t a b l i s h e d between f a m i l y  income and boat ownership.  Boat ownership was  r e l a t e d to  f a m i l y income and f o r e c a s t s were based on an i n c r e a s e i n population  and  an i n c r e a s e  i n per c a p i t a d i s p o s a b l e  More r e c e n t l y Woods, Gordon and Co. L t d . attempted to c a l c u l a t e present  and  r e c r e a t i o n a l f l e e t f o r Metropolitan province  (1974,  income.  f u t u r e s i z e of  the  Vancouver and  the  on the b a s i s of outboard motor ownership.  number of motors was  1)  page  The  m u l t i p l i e d b y t t h e r a t i o ( s e t on  b a s i s of U.S.^studies as I.23 c r a f t t o outboard motors.  boats to 1 motor) of  C l a r k (1969  t h a t the f u t u r e boat p o p u l a t i o n  page 34)  c o u l d be  the  pleasure  proposed  estimated  by  4o  m u l t i p l y i n g the e x i s t i n g t o t a l by an " o v e r a l l growth f a c t o r " (composed o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y l e v e l and p e r s o n a l income i n c r e a s e ) . The method used i n t h i s study t o p r o j e c t t h e f u t u r e number o f t r a n s i e n t boats u s i n g the r e g i o n r e l i e s on p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e .  The data used as the b a s i s f o r t h e  demand p r o j e c t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e d e r i v e d ( u n l e s s o t h e r wise s t a t e d ) from Mos and H a r r i s o n ( 1 9 7 4 ) Harrison ( 1 9 7 6 ) .  and Meyer and  T h e r e f o r e c o n t i n u a l r e f e r e n c e t o these  sources w i l l not be made.  The f i r s t  o f these s t u d i e s  gathered data on the number, value and use of r e c r e a t i o n a l boats i n Georgia S t r a i t .  Surveyors d i v i d e d t h e G e o r g i a  S t r a i t i n t o 14 sampling r e g i o n s and conducted  successful  telephone i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a random sample of over households.  3000  Those people who owned, r e n t e d or borrowed  boats were c o n t a c t e d by m a i l .  Some 7 0 0 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  r e t u r n e d were then used t o e s t a b l i s h boat ownership r a t e s , boat types and use, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of boat owners.  The  study done i n 1 9 7 6 updated boat p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s i n t h e S t r a i t of Georgia and i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on n o n - r e s i d e n t use of the S t r a i t . The f i g u r e s obtained from these sources a r e cons i d e r e d f a i r l y a c c u r a t e f o r the purposes  of r e c r e a t i o n a l  kl  boating planning.  Data i s f i r s t hand, from a l a r g e  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample, and i t i s q u i t e r e c e n t .  In a d d i t i o n ,  these s t u d i e s a r e the o n l y ones a v a i l a b l e on b o a t i n g  through-  out the S t r a i t of Georgia r e g i o n . In t h i s study, t h e p r o j e c t i o n of demand f o r s e r v i c e s by t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s i n Georgia S t r a i t t o 1986 and to 2000 i s developed  through examining  the f o l l o w i n g c a t e -  g o r i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n : a) the present p o p u l a t i o n of " c r u i s a b l e " boats  (capable  of accommodating people o v e r n i g h t ) r e s i d e n t i n t h e S t r a i t of  Georgia; b) t h e n o n - r e s i d e n t c r u i s i n g boats u s i n g Georgia  Strait  watersi c) the p o p u l a t i o n of t r a n s i e n t or c r u i s a b l e boats r e n t e d f o r use i n the S t r a i t ; d) the a p p l i c a t i o n of a "growth r a t e " f i g u r e f o r population  i n c r e a s e t o determine  the t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n  t h a t c o u l d be c r u i s i n g the S t r a i t  i n 1986 and 2000;  e) support f o r the p r o j e c t i o n s made by r e f e r r i n g t o the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between socio-economic ( i n c l u d i n g income l e v e l s ) based survey and boat  variables  on data from the sample  ownership;  f ) the e s t i m a t i o n of t o t a l demand f o r s e r v i c e s by  42  t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s i n a g i v e n p e r i o d i n 1986 and 2000, based on frequency of demand and number of t r a n s i e n t boats out of any g i v e n time. EXISTING TRANSIENT BOATS RESIDENT IN GEORGIA STRAIT The present p o p u l a t i o n of primary r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t i n the S t r a i t of Georgia i s approximately 9 3 * 3 0 0 .  It  i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine what p r o p o r t i o n of these boats i s used f o r c r u i s i n g on the b a s i s of boat l e n g t h a l o n e . P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n suggests t h a t c r a f t under 20 f e e t a r e not u s u a l l y equipped f o r o v e r n i g h t t r i p s .  To support t h i s  view, 20 f e e t corresponds t o the minimum l e n g t h of the t r a n s i e n t boats recorded i n t h i s study's sample group.  At  p r e s e n t some 14 percent of the S t r a i t ' s r e s i d e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n i s 21 f e e t and over i n l e n g t h .  Yet t h e r e are  22,000 wet moored boats i n the S t r a i t which a r e an average l e n g t h of 21 f e e t p l u s .  T h i s f i g u r e suggests t h a t up t o  24 per cent (22000/93300) of the r e s i d e n t c r a f t i n Georgia S t r a i t may be used f o r c r u i s i n g .  However, the lower  figure  of 14 percent w i l l be used i n t h i s study as a c o n s e r v a t i v e estimate.  T h e r e f o r e the approximate  t r a n s i e n t boat popula-  t i o n i n Georgia S t r a i t i s (14% of 93300 =)  13,000 b o a t s .  4  3  NON-RESIDENT CONTRIBUTION Approximately 10,500 boats entered B. C. waters S  by sea from the U.S.A. i n 1976j  they may a l l be assumed to  belong to the "transient c l a s s " since they accommodate the crew overnight. A further 2,500 boats entered the province by t r a i l e r or cartop from the U.S. i n 1976.  For the purpose  of this study these boats w i l l not be included i n the "transient" category because they are usually removed from the water each evening. RENTED OR BORROWED BOATS Some 27,000 households i n the S t r a i t of Georgia rent or borrow recreational boats an average of 6 times per year.  To avoid double counting of boats borrowed by friends,  only renters (46 percent of these households or 12,420 households) w i l l be considered.  To determine the number of  rented boats that might belong to the "transient" category, reference i s made to the results of the survey undertaken for this study:  4.2 percent (n = 190) of the respondents  rented boats over 20 feet i n length.  I f the sample can be  assumed representative, then rented, boats contribute 4.2 percent of 12,420 rentals or 500 boats to the transient c l a s s .  44  THE  TOTAL TRANSIENT BOAT POPULATION IN GEORGIA STRAIT:  1976,  1986  and  2000.  In 1976  the t o t a l t r a n s i e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n  that  e o u l d u t i l i z e the S t r a i t of Georgia i s estimated a t 24,100 boats ( i n c l u d i n g r e s i d e n t s , non-residents  and  renters).  Population  i n c r e a s e i s used as a b a s i s f o r p r o j e c t i n g t h i s  population  t o 1986  and  to 2000.  Obviously  t h e r e are  other  f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e ownership of t r a n s i e n t boats i n the f u t u r e .  However, such e f f e c t s as changing  of l e i s u r e time, i n n o v a t i o n s  patterns  i n boat b u i l d i n g technology,  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of moorage near p o p u l a t i o n p r e d i c t a b l e i n t h e i r impacts and  c e n t r e s are l e s s  l e s s easy to  quantify.  RESIDENT POPULATION A growth r a t e f o r p o p u l a t i o n  centres  of Georgia c a l c u l a t e d by Meyer and  Harrison  population  and  ( i n households) i n 1986  r a t e s seem u n i f o r m l y  Strait  (1976) f o r e c a s t s  2000.  The  growth  low but they do not d i f f e r g r e a t l y from  the average annual growth r a t e of 3 percent Greater  on the  Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t  s e t f o r the  (G.V.R.D. 1975  page 5 ) .  However, s i n c e the annual r a t e i s f i x e d i n the MeyerH a r r i s o n data f o r a 24 year p e r i o d , some i n a c c u r a c y may expected.  be  Table I I i n d i c a t e s the number of households  r e s i d e n t i n the Georgia S t r a i t i n 1976  and  anticipated in  TABLE I I HOUSEHOLDS RESIDENT ON GEORGIA STRAIT 1976, 1986 and 2000 (Source: Unpublished data Fisheries and Environment) Area  Households Growth Households 1976 Factor 1976-2000 Estim. 1986  Households Estim. 2000  Victoria  75,284  .019  90§875  Duncan  11,185  .014  12,853  15,615  2,763  .014  3.175  3,857  14,340  .019  16,987  21,696  Parksville  3,218  .019  3,884  5,056  Comox-Courtenay  7,870  .019  9,500  12,364  Campbell River  5,923  .019  7,150  9,305  Powell River  7,342  .013  8,354  10,010  Sechelt  1,658  .019  2.001  2,605  Gibsons  1,528  .019  1,844  2,400  Squamish  2,578  .019  3,112  4,050  44,630  .02  54,404  71,785  280,892  .02  342,406  451,797  49,087  .02  Ladysmith Nanaimo  North Shore Greater Vancouver Delta-Surrey Whiterock  59,837 '  118,272  78,953  46  1986 and 2000. To c a l c u l a t e the t r a n s i e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n owned by r e s i d e n t s of the S t r a i t i n  1986  " c o n s t a n t - p o r p o r t i o n " formula was T o t a l Resident T r a n s i e n t Boats =  1986 (2000)  2000  and  the f o l l o w i n g  used:  T o t a l HouseBoat Established holds E s t i m Ownership - Percentage a t e d 1986 X Rate X P r o p o r t i o n of (2000) (constant) Transient Boats  Based on the t o t a l boat p o p u l a t i o n s i n Table I I I , the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n of t r a n s i e n t c r a f t i n 1986  15,000  boats;  may  reach  in.2000, 19,600 b o a t s .  NON-RESIDENT POPULATION Two  l e s s d e t a i l e d methods were used t o p r o j e c t the  number of n o n - r e s i d e n t c r a f t i n  1986  r a t e a p p l i c a b l e t o American boats was Sound study ( S t a t e of Washington,  and  2000.  A growth  d e r i v e d from a Puget  1968).  S i n c e the bulk of  n o n - r e s i d e n t b o a t e r s c r u i s i n g the S t r a i t o r i g i n a t e i n t h i s a r e a , the f i g u r e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s r e p o r t seemed appropriate.  Prom  1976  to  2000  i n the number of boats was  an average percentage i n c r e a s e s e t a t 1.58  percent, s i m i l a r to  t h e growth f a c t o r s e t f o r S t r a i t of Georgia  households  (see T a b l e I I ) . M u l t i p l y i n g the present p o p u l a t i o n of  47  TABLE I I I ESTIMATED BOAT POPULATION, STRAIT OE GEORGIA, Area  Boat Ownership Households Rate " 1986  1986  and 2000  Boat Pop. Households  Boat Poi  1986  2000  2000  Victoria  17.09  90,875  15,531  118,272  20,213  Duncan  32.42  12,853  4,167  15,615  5,062  Ladysmith  31.28  3,175  993  3,857  1,206  Nanaimo  28.79  16,987  4,891  21,696  Parksville  32.81  3,884  1,274  5,056  1,659  Comox-Courtenay  36.26  9,500  3,448  12,364  4,483  Campbell River  40.66  7.150 .  2,907  Powell River  45.12  8,354  Sechelt  41.48  Gibsons  9,305  6,246  3,783  3,769  10,010  4,517  2,001.  830  2,605  1,081  • 40.21  1,844  74l  2,400  963  Squamish  20.30  3,112  632  4,050  822  North Shore  23.46  54,404  12,763  71,785  16,841  Greater Vancouver 12.50  342,406  42,801  451,797  56,475  59,837  12,344  78,953  16,288  616,382  107,091  807,765  139,639  Delta-Surrey Whiterock TOTALS  20.63  -  48  American  c r a f t e n t e r i n g the S t r a i t of Georgia by  f i g u r e r e s u l t s i n a t o t a l of 26,200 i n  16,600  this  boats i n 1986  and  2000. A second technique was used t o cross-check t h i s  projection. Strait 1976  In  1966, 6,607  American boats entered the  (Lea and Assoc., 1966,  page 2 2 ) .  Between 1966  t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e of 3»893 b o a t s .  I t does not seem  unreasonable t o suggest t h a t an i n c r e a s e of might be experienced between 1976 v e r y h i g h number of Americans  and  6,500  and 1986.  boats  In f a c t the  (427 out of 689  boats)  inter-  viewed i n the D e s o l a t i o n Sound Study ( W o l f e r s t a n , 1971, 70)  i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n c r e a s i n g crowding i n l e s s  environments  page  pristine  c o u l d f o r c e even h i g h e r numbers of  Americans  i n t o Canadian waters i n years t o come. RENTED BOATS In 1976  r e n t e d c r a f t i n the S t r a i t of Georgia  c o n t r i b u t e d approximately 500 boats to the " t r a n s i e n t " c a t e gory.  S i n c e most r e n t i n g i s c e n t r e d i n Southern m e t r o p o l i t a n  c e n t r e s , the growth r a t e f o r Vancouver i s a p p l i e d t o the 1976.  27,000  households who  T h e r e f o r e i n 1986 a t o t a l of  r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l boats?  C i t y (see Table I I ) r e n t e d boats i n  32,900  households  i n 2000 t h i s f i g u r e may  may  reach  49  42,600 households.  The present percentage  of rented c r a f t  t h a t may he used f o r o v e r n i g h t and v a c a t i o n c r u i s i n g i s estimated a t 4.2 p e r c e n t .  Should t h i s percentage h o l d  constant over time, r e n t e d boats may c o n t r i b u t e 1,400 c r a f t to the t r a n s i e n t category i n 1986 and 1,800 c r a f t i n 2000. However, a t r e n d toward i n c r e a s e d r e n t i n g of l a r g e r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t c o u l d render these f i g u r e s c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t imates.  ( P e r s o n a l communication with s t a f f of J i b Set  S a i l i n g School and C h a r t e r s , February 1977). Table IV shows t h a t the t o t a l t r a n s i e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n u s i n g the S t r a i t i n 1976 was 24,100, b o a t s . 1986 t h i s t o t a l may be 33,000 boats;  By  by 2000, 47,600 b o a t s .  The p r o p o r t i o n of the 1976 t o t a l t h a t o r i g i n a t e d i n the U.S. is  (10,500 U.S. boats/24,100 t o t a l boats)=about  44 p e r c e n t .  T h i s compares t o survey r e s u l t s i n t h i s study which i n d i c a t e d t h a t 41 percent o f the respondants U.S.  (n = 192) were from the  (see Appendix B f o r data p e r t a i n i n g t o r e s i d e n c e of  boaters). THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC VARIABLES Assuming t h a t the r e l a t i v e p r i c e s of boats t o income remains more or l e s s constant, t h e r e a r e a number of socio-economic  v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e boat  ownership.  50 TABLE IV TRANSIENT BOAT POPULATION CRUISING IN GEORGIA STRAIT 1976  1986  2000  Resident  13,100  15,000  19,600  Non Resident  10,500  16,600  26,200  Renters TOTAL  500 24,100  1,400. 33,000  1,800 47,600  51  For  example, i t c o u l d be  demonstrated t h a t owners of boats  l a r g e enough t o be c l a s s e d t i o n cohort  " t r a n s i e n t " belong to the  i n c l u d i n g people aged 45  changes i n the s i z e of p o p u l a t i o n s e v e r a l years may  to 60.  cohorts  popula-  Examination of  over the next  r e v e a l t h a t there w i l l be a  significant  i n c r e a s e i n the number of 45 to 60 year o l d i n d i v i d u a l s i n the p o p u l a t i o n . could r i s e .  P o t e n t i a l l y , then, boat ownership r a t e s  Income i s a second f a c t o r t h a t c o u l d  boat ownership.  influence  However, no socioeconomic v a r i a b l e s were  incorporated  i n t o the demand p r o j e c t i o n .  data on age,  education,  income and  (Questionnaire  occupation  are  included  i n Appendix B ) . THE  ESTIMATION OF TOTAL DEMAND The  "average" demand f o r s e r v i c e s was  a questionnaire boaters.  deduced from  survey of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group of t r a n s i e n t  Survey r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g to average demand are  presented here. when p l a n n i n g  T h i s type of i n f o r m a t i o n  would be  f a c i l i t i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of b o a t s ,  s i n c e there are c o r r e l a t i o n s between boat type and and  service  BOAT TYPE AND  useful  length  use. LENGTH  Table V summarizes boat type and  compares  the  52 TABLE V BOAT TYPE BY PERCENTAGE OP SAMPLE  Type  Sailboat  Sample Survey n = 186  Georgia Strait Survey*  n  . = 84,000 households  25.3  10.30 (includes boats without auxiliary power)  Outboard  1.6  Inboard  43.5  InboardOutboard Other  57.77 14.21  29.0 0  (*. Source: Mos and Harrison, 1974, p. 13)  17.72  53  survey r e s u l t s w i t h boat type measured f o r the e n t i r e r e c r e a t i o n a l boat p o p u l a t i o n i n Georgia S t r a i t H a r r i s o n , 1974, survey was  page 13)•  3° f e e t .  (Mos  and  Average boat l e n g t h i n the sample  Table VI shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of boat  l e n g t h s as compared to those f o r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t i n Georgia S t r a i t .  (Mos and H a r r i s o n , 1974,  page 14) and to  those i n a survey of r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g on Howe Sound ( A l l e y and Ferguson,  1976,  page 17).  FREQUENCY OF SERVICE/FACILITY  USE  The m a j o r i t y of s e r v i c e s l i s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were used about every t h r e e t o f o u r days by h a l f or more of the respondents  (see Table V I I ) .  For each s e r v i c e or  f a c i l i t y the l a r g e s t percentage of u s e r s per time p e r i o d i s u n d e r l i n e d to i n d i c a t e median r a t e of use. S t u d i e s of s e r v i c e use by t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s are l i m i t e d , however, C l a r k (1972) has compared peak day u s e r s of s e r v i c e s l o c a t e d i n the Gulf I s l a n d s and obtained r e s u l t s i n c o n f o r m i t y with use p a t t e r n s observed i n t h i s study (see Table V I I I ) .  One  e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e not i n c l u d e d on the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e here was  garbage c o l l e c t i o n , the absence of  which can be an annoying problem. commented on the inadequacy  S e v e r a l of the  respondents  or l a c k of garbage d i s p o s a l  f a r t h e r n o r t h i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a .  sites  54  TABLE VT BOAT LENGTH BY PERCENTAGE OF SAMPLE  Length  Sample Survey n = 173  under 20'  20 -  24'  25-3929'  30 - 34' 35 - 39' 40 - 44'  0 22.0 30.1 22.0 12.7 6.9  45 - 50'  4.0"  50' plus  2.3  Howe Sound Survey* n = 72  16.7 23.6 22.2  Georgia S t r a i t * . Survey n = 84,000 hhs  86.4 9.9  13-9 6.9  12.5 4.2  (* Sources: Alley and Ferguson, 1976, p. 17 Mos and Harrison, 1974, p. 14)  3.8  TABLE VII FREQUENCY OF SERVICE/FACILITY USE Service  Percentage Using Every 3-4 Days  Percentage,. Using Weekly or Less Often  36.5  53^3.  11.4  19.7  62.3  18.0  18.0  66.7  15.3  23.6  58.2  18.1  158  21.5  69.6  8.9  n =  1. Wharfage f o r the night  184  2. Water  183  3. Groceries 4. Fuel 5. 5. Ice  183 182  Percentage Using Daily  6. Showers 77. Laundry  137  10.2  69.3  20.4  137  35.8  62.8  1.5  8. Liquor Store  115  4.3  27.0  68.7  9. Marine Supplies  105  10.5  46.7  42.9  10. Hotels, Pubs Restaurants  104  5.8  40.4  53.8  11. B a i t , tackle  103  27.2  37^9  35.0  12. E l e c t r i c i t y hookups  85  31.8  4^5  24.7  13. Repairs  33  9.1  15.2  75.8  56  TABLE VITI  FACILITY USE RATES POR VACATION TRIPS (number of uses p e r v a c a t i o n t r i p ) Boat tyr>e Facility  sail  gas and o i l water Ice groceries laundry showers restrooms hotel & f a c i l . • restaurants entertainment transportation medical ship yard  3.45 3.42 3.65 4.40 1.65 2.55 3.30 .40 2.07 .10  boat l a u n c h i n g marina moorage p r i v a t e moorage f r e e moorage anchorage  .00 3.78  marine parks marine parks picnic sites fishing. water s k i i n g swimming scuba d i v i n g  (Sources  (B.C.) (VJn, ),.. . .  inboarc  5.78 5.36 3.10 6.10 1.19 1.42 1.32 .81 2.80 .17  outboard  6.17 6.17 4.00 4.70 .85 .85 3.68 2.34  .50  .26 .05 .29  .66 .00 -33 .00  7.16  .00 3.48 1.77 4.00 6.15  .66 2.16 3.00 .00 3.18  1.08 . o79 ,29  .70 ,40 .23  .33 -1.50 .33  .27  .07 o  05  1.05 2.10  4.44 .66 3.88 .00  4.15 .10  . . ^  7.05  C l a r k , 1969,  p.  1.37  78)  '  8.84 .33 2.83 1 00  -  -  -1  57  CORRELATION BETWEEN SERVICE USE. TRIP LENGTH AND BOAT TYPE/ LENGTH C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  correlation  between boat type and the frequency of use of s e r v i c e s . Power-driven c r a f t tended t o stop f o r s e r v i c i n g more o f t e n than s a i l b o a t s .  There was a l s o a c o r r e l a t i o n between boat  l e n g t h and s e r v i c e u s e . services less frequently.  Large c r a f t (40 f t . p l u s ) used In a d d i t i o n , l a r g e c r a f t tended to  make l o n g e r t r i p s .  Next, t o estimate s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d , i t was neces s a r y t o determine the t o t a l demand expressed by t r a n s i e n t boaters c r u i s i n g i n a given period.  That i s , t h i s  exercise  was intended t o i n d i c a t e how many stop-overs would be made throughout Georgia S t r a i t d u r i n g , f o r example, August 1976 and t h e r e f o r e t o suggest s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d f o r the p r o j e c t e d boat p o p u l a t i o n .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y respondents misunderstood a  q u e s t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the t o t a l number of c r u i s e s (3 n i g h t s p l u s ) they had taken i n the l a s t y e a r .  The mean average  number of c r u i s e s was a v e r y h i g h 28 (n = 161) or a minimum of 84 days!  I t seems l i k e l y t h a t respondents took number o f  " c r u i s e s " t o mean number of "days".  Without t h i s informa-  t i o n i t was not p o s s i b l e to estimate t o t a l demand i n a g i v e n  58  time p e r i o d .  A t h i r d s t e p t h a t would be necessary i n  e s t a b l i s h i n g s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d i s the e s t i m a t i o n of the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of demand.  Maps were i n c l u d e d on  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and respondents were asked t o draw i n t h e i r t r i p routes.  Only some people f i l l e d  i t i n and the  map was not d e t a i l e d enough t o be u s e f u l . know i n a d d i t i o n what motivates they p l a n t h e i r t r i p s around.  One would need t o  b o a t e r s , what f a c i l i t i e s A d i a r y type of q u e s t i o n n a i r e  would p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n about c r u i s i n g  patterns.  IDENTIFYING EXTERNA LITIES As the p o p u l a t i o n o f t r a n s i e n t boats c r u s i n g i n the S t r a i t of Georgia  i n c r e a s e s , so w i l l s a number of problems  t h a t r e s u l t from the a c t i v i t y . literature  A r t i c l e s i n the popular  ( P a c i f i c Y a c h t i n g 1974 t o 1976)  and p e r s o n a l  o b s e r v a t i o n prompted the author t o i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r c l a i m s t h a t " i n a p p r o p r i a t e " t r a n s i e n t boater behaviour was becoming a source  of concern.  Conversations  with members of  the Coast Guard, the R.C.M.P., s a i l i n g s c h o o l s as w e l l as comments from the marina operators and r e s i d e n t s a t the case study£.sites s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h i s p o i n t of view.  Problems  c e n t r e d on p o l l u t i o n (garbage dumping and sewage d i s p o s a l )  59  and hazardous tfrules  of  n a v i g a t i n g (speeding, l a c k of knowledge of  the r o a d " ) , IMPLEMENTING THE POLICY PLAN  INTRODUCTION Since/ the p l a n n i n g process d e s c r i b e d f o r the r e g i o n a l l e v e l i s n o t completed  i n t h i s study, i t i s not  p o s s i b l e t o suggest here what type o f f a c i l i t i e s  i n which  l o c a t i o n s might be n e c e s s a r y t o accommodate the p r o j e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n the number of t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s .  The " i d e a l "  process o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d the d i f f e r e n t types of f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e .  Here, the p o l i c i e s o f the  p r o v i d e r s a r e o u t l i n e d f i r s t so as t o suggest how they might f u n c t i o n i n the implementation b o a t i n g i n the r e g i o n . w i t h "problems"  of a p o l i c y p l a n f o r t r a n s i e n t  Second, a l t e r n a t i v e means of d e a l i n g  i d e n t i f i e d a r e suggested, though f u r t h e r  study would be necessary b e f o r e any of them c o u l d be implemented. THE POLICIES OP PROVIDERS FEDERAL INVOLVEMENT Under the a u s p i c e s of the f e d e r a l government the S m a l l C r a f t Harbours Branch a s s i s t i n the p r o v i s i o n of  60  facilities  used by t r a n s i e n t boaters i n two  ways.  First  the Branch has o p e r a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the m a j o r i t y of  government wharves s c a t t e r e d throughout  The wharves are maintained men  Georgia  Strait.  f o r the use of commercial f i s h e r -  and t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s .  S i n c e t h e r e are few harbours  Georgia S t r a i t where a f u l l t i m e wharfinger  in  i s employed to  c o l l e c t f e e s ( 2 0 / f o o t / n i g h t ) from t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s , there i s l i m i t e d r e c o v e r y of c o s t s i n c u r r e d i n the p r o v i s i o n of these f a c i l i t i e s .  I t c o u l d be claimed t h a t l o c a l r e s i d e n t s  pay taxes and t h e r e f o r e support i n d i r e c t l y p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . However, U.S.  b o a t e r s who  compose 40 percent of the  t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n use these f a c i l i t i e s f r e e of  total  completely  charge. Another f a c t o r t h a t w i l l have to be c o n s i d e r e d i f  Small C r a f t Harbours i n t e n d s to i n c r e a s e the number of government wharves a v a i l a b l e i s t h e i r r o l e w i t h r e s p e c t to commercial f a c i l i t i e s .  Survey r e s u l t s i n t h i s study show  t h a t t r a n s i e n t boaters p r e f e r commercial accommodation when they stopover f o r the n i g h t .  Therefore i t i s conceivable  t h a t the f e d e r a l government c o u l d p l a y a complementary r o l e to  the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and p r o v i d e more rudimentary  such as p o r t s of r e f u g e .  facilities  61  The second form of a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d through the  Small C r a f t Harbours Branch i s the marina a s s i s t a n c e  programme whereby the f e d e r a l government p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e s " i n k i n d " i n the form of dredging, breakwater c o n s t r u c t i o n and s i m i l a r improvements p r i v a t e developer who  on a matching d o l l a r b a s i s w i t h the  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r expenditures on  f l o a t s , p i l i n g s and shoreward f a c i l i t i e s . 1976  From 1970  the government spent $3»5 m i l l i o n i n a s s i s t a n c e to the  p r i v a t e s e c t o r (Meyer and H a r r i s o n , 1976,page 3)« of  to  The  target  these g r a n t s has been the p r o v i s i o n o f wet moorage t o  i n d i v i d u a l boat owning households (some 22,000 households i n Georgia S t r a i t ) .  However, a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the  r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g p u b l i c , i n c l u d i n g t r a i l e r - b o a t owners (70,000 households i n Georgia S t r a i t ) , s m a l l c l u b b o a t e r s , r e s i d e n t r e n t e r s and borrowers and t r a n s i e n t s a r e not b e n e f i t t i n g from the p r e s e n t marina a s s i s t a n c e programme. The programme i s c u r r e n t l y under review;  i t i s anticipated  t h a t the f e d e r a l government may become more i n v o l v e d i n the future i n providing f a c i l i t i e s  to these l a t t e r groups.  PROVINCIAL INVOLVEMENT The p r o v i n c i a l government p r o v i d e s f o r t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y through the Parks Branch.  There are 20  62  marine parks i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a . o n l y by boat o f f e r minimal s e r v i c e s ; parks, some of which may  Those a c c e s s i b l e the t e n "developed"  be reached by c a r , o f f e r a range  of b a s i c f a c i l i t i e s such as f l o a t s , water, t o i l e t s , campsites . Marine parks t h e r e f o r e serve more than one of r e c r e a t i o n i s t .  class  The C o a s t a l P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n i n the  Parks Branch r e c o g n i z e s the need f o r parks c l o s e r to the urban c e n t r e where a wider segment of u s e r s can be s e r v e d . But the p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t and l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of f o r e shore i n the Southern C o a s t a l r e g i o n w i l l r e s t r i c t i t i e s t o c r e a t e new  parks ( p e r s o n a l communication  Ross, C o a s t a l P l a n n i n g , Feb. 1977).  opportunwith Doug  For t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s ,  the D i v i s i o n f o r e s e e s a c h a i n of parks from D e s o l a t i o n Sound n o r t h which would p r o v i d e b o a t e r s with anchorages no more than a days* s a i l a p a r t .  Such a scheme i s p o t e n t i a l l y  as the m a j o r i t y of f o r e s h o r e i s Crown Land (Matheson,  possible 1975,  page 4 6 ) . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to determine, by a survey of b o a t e r s , the r e l a t i v e use of marine parks as compared to s e r v i c e d s i t e s or s e c l u d e d anchorages.  U n t i l t h i s informa-  t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e , the need f o r e n l a r g i n g the system of marine parks i s not c l e a r .  63  REGIONAL DISTRICT OR MUNICIPAL INVOLVEMENT The  M u n i c i p a l i t y of Powell R i v e r i s one  of the  i n the S t r a i t of Georgia t h a t i s i n v o l v e d i n s e r v i n g ient boaters.  The  M u n i c i p a l i t y f o r o p e r a t i o n a l purposes. t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s use  power, water supply  trans-  "South" Marina i n Westview Harbour i s  owned by the Small C r a f t Harbours Branch and  fishermen and  and  l e a s e d to  the marina which o f f e r s  garbage c o l l e c t i o n .  moorage f e e which r e s u l t s i n a charge of  To meet these to  the  oot/night  the t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r ( p e r s o n a l communication w i t h Mr.  to Murray,  C l e r k , Powell R i v e r , March 1977). The  may  the  Both commercial  expenses, the m u n i c i p a l i t y tacks on 3 0 / f o o t / n i g h t  Municipal  few  r o l e t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or Regional D i s t r i c t s  p l a y i n the f u t u r e w i t h r e s p e c t to s e r v i c e s f o r t r a n s i e n t  boaters i s uncertain.  I t may  be d e s i r a b l e f o r Regional  D i s t r i c t s to m a i n t a i n f e d e r a l p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s a step may  upgrade s e r v i c i n g .  i n t h a t such  However, i t i s assumed t h a t  l o c a l governments, r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r access to revenue sources,  would not be  i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g new  s i n c e a marina o p e r a t i o n b r i n g s only seasonal  facilities  profits.  PRIVATE INVOLVEMENT At present commercial operations  t h e r e are a l a r g e number of v i a b l e i n Georgia S t r a i t t h a t c a t e r to  the  64  transient boater. this  R e s u l t s from the survey a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r  study suggest that p r i v a t e , rather than  facilities  will  public,  r e m a i n t h e i m p o r t a n t component o f t h e  system of f a c i l i t i e s .  First,  63  p e r c e n t ( n = 193)  of  t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s c o n t a c t e d p r e f e r r e d c o m m e r c i a l accommodat i o n f o r reasons of "convenience".  Since the o v e r a l l  trans-  i e n t boat population i s projected t o increase markedly, number o f b o a t e r s p r e f e r r i n g p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s i n c r e a s e as w e l l . and  Second,  As opposed  facilities  likely  power b o a t s ( i n b o a r d s , o u t b o a r d s ,  i n b o a r d - o u t b o a r d s ) c o m p r i s e d 75  sample.  will  the  p e r c e n t ( n = 186)  t o s a i l b o a t s , power b o a t s u s e  more o f t e n a n d s p e n d more money on  of the  commercial  services.  S i n c e f l e e t c o m p o s i t i o n by boat type of r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t i n G e o r g i a S t r a i t has n o t changed years the  ( L e a , 1966,  page 35)  significantly  i n the l a s t  i t i s suggested t h a t the needs of  m a j o r i t y o f t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s c o n t i n u e t o be  s e r v e d by the p r i v a t e  well  sector.  P r i v a t e m a r i n a development number o f f a c t o r s , l a r g e l y  i s c o n s t r a i n e d by  a  j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l .  d e v e l o p e r i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a m a r i n a must o b t a i n l a n d use c o n t r a c t or b u i l d i n g p e r m i t f o r the onshore ities  ten  from t h e m u n i c i p a l government.  a  facil-  W a t e r l o t l e a s e s must  be o b t a i n e d f r o m e i t h e r t h e H a r b o u r s B r a n c h M a i n l a n d ) o r f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l Lands  A  ( i n t h e Lower  Service  (jpersonal  65  communication:  Workshop on Marina Development, Douglas  C o l l e g e , October 1976).  Besides  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mach-  i n e r y , the b i g g e s t problem encountered by developers c o s t of debt f i n a n c i n g ( S t e r n l i e b , 1969* 1976).  Increased  developers  access  Meyer and  i s the Harrison,  to a t t r a c t i v e l e n d i n g r a t e s f o r  seems to r e s u l t when marinas are p a r t of a more  comprehensive s h o r e l i n e development.  In the f u t u r e such a  p o l i c y , i f promoted by l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o u l d have s e r i o u s e f f e c t s on the p r o v i s i o n of s m a l l e r " f a m i l y " operat i o n s a l o n g the S t r a i t designed  to serve t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s .  Such a l t e r n a t i v e s as the f o l l o w i n g c o u l d enable the p r i v a t e s e c t o r to become more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g facilities; a) A c e n t r a l i z e d data bank f o r developers,  perhaps  organized  by c o n s u l t a n t s , c o u l d a i d s i t e design through i n f o r m a t i o n obtained by surveys  such as t h i s study;  namely, s e r v i c e s  used or d e s i r e d , average d o l l a r expenditure s i t e , problems p e r c e i v e d by b o a t e r s .  The  by b o a t e r s  in a  data bank c o u l d  a l s o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the steps i n v o l v e d i n a p p l y i n g for  a water l o t l e a s e and f o r e s h o r e  property.  b) F i n a n c i n g f o r the seasonal marina b u s i n e s s w i l l continue  to be a problem f o r the p r o s p e c t i v e  doubtless  developer.  I n c e n t i v e s c o u l d be o f f e r e d to l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s or by p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the B.C.  Development  66  C o r p o r a t i o n t o support s m a l l f a m i l y o p e r a t i o n s .  In  a d d i t i o n , i f t h e f e d e r a l marina a s s i s t a n c e p o l i c y i s maint a i n e d , s e r v i c e s i n k i n d c o u l d be r e p l a c e d by d o l l a r l o a n s , to prevent developers from overextending themselves  i n order  t o g e t the developers share of t o t a l expenditure " i n c r e a s e d up" t o 50% "to match government expenditure (Meyer and H a r r i s o n , 1976, page 34).  ALTERNATIVES POR DEALING WITH PROBLEMS POLLUTION Under the a u s p i c e s of the p r o v i n c i a l C o n t r o l Branch  Pollution  or U n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h teams, a s e r i e s of  s t u d i e s c o u l d be c a r r i e d out t o determine  the r e l a t i v e  contamination of r e g i o n a l waters by t h e d i s c h a r g e of wastes and p o l l u t a n t s by r e c r e a t i o n a l  craft.  HAZARDOUS NAVIGATING Cooperation between insurance companies boat d e a l e r s and i n t e r e s t groups concerned with b o a t e r education c o u l d improve the l e v e l o f n a v i g a t i o n a l s k i l l  of boat owners.  At p r e s e n t t h e r e i s no " l i c e n c e " needed t o own and operate a boat.  Inexperience causes innumerable  problems f o r b o a t e r s .  V o l u n t e e r groups such as the Canadian  Power  67  Squadron  conduct courses i n elementary b o a t i n g  t h r o u g h o u t B.C..  skills  A t t h e end o f each c o u r s e t h o s e  s u c c e s s f u l l y p a s s a n exam a r e a w a r d e d  who  certificates.  Ad-  vanced courses are conducted i n engine maintenance, t i o n and o t h e r s u b j e c t s J.  naviga-  (Personal communication w i t h  B r a n d l m a y r , E x e c u t i v e , B u r n a b y Power S q u a d r o n ,  Mrs.  March,  1977).  At  p r e s e n t c e r t a i n i n s u r a n c e companies  p r e m i u m on b o a t i n s u r a n c e f o r c l i e n t s who boaters.  To e n c o u r a g e  reduce the  are "experienced"  inexperienced c l i e n t s t o reduce  premiums, i n s u r a n c e companies  c o u l d acknowledge  a  their  certificate,  s u c h a s t h o s e i s s u e d b y t h e Power S q u a d r o n , a s p r o o f o f  skill.  Boat dealers could a l s o cooperate i n educating boat buyers by p r o m o t i n g c o u r s e s or " t h r o w i n g i n " the c o s t of t h e course the  ( $ 3 5 . O O / i n d i v i d u a l f o r Power S q u a d r o n t r a i n i n g )  boat purchase p r i c e .  U n t i l b o a t owners a r e r e q u i r e d  l a w t o o b t a i n a l i c e n c e by t e s t i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t for will  a u t o m o b i l e s , economic h a v e t o be r e l i e d  with by  required  incentives f o r increased education  on.  A s a s h o r t t e r m m e a s u r e t o i m p r o v e s a f e t y among b o a t e r s , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government c o u l d i n s t i t u t e a s o r y b o a t l i c e n s i n g programme. 10 H.P.  compul-  At present a l l engines over  are r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the f e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t .  68  I f a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t , with o r without engines of a g i v e n s i z e were l i c e n c e d and were marked w i t h a number, those boat owners i n f r i n g i n g r e g u l a t i o n s c o u l d be t r a c e d . Over the l o n g run, the p r o v i n c e c o u l d e s t a b l i s h a compulsory programme, s i m i l a r t o t h a t r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e a motor v e h i c l e , i n which the boat operator would be t e s t e d .  Routine  checks of boat l i c e n c e s would have t o be made on the water t o i n s u r e compliance with the r e g u l a t i o n s . The R.C.M.P. i s a p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c e f o r c e funded by the f e d e r a l government.  The Marine S e r v i c e of the R.C.M.P.  enforces the s a f e t y r u l e s i n the Small V e s s e l R e g u l a t i o n s pursuant t o the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t (Nelson, 19?3» page 16?). However, the number of p a t r o l c r a f t i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o p o l i c e ever-growing numbers of r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t s . l a r g e boats r u n from the U.S. border t o J a r v i s  Two  Inlet.  S e v e r a l s m a l l e r ones a r e based i n urban c e n t r e s b u t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of p a t r o l time of these boats i s spent on d u t i e s other than keeping an eye on r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . The Coast Guard i s a f e d e r a l agency r e s p o n s i b l e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n with sea.  tithe  R.C.M.P., f o r the s a f e t y of c r a f t a t  The numerous a c c i d e n t s and emergencies  Guard responds  t h a t the Coast  t o might be curbed by more i n t e n s i v e  policing  by the R.C.M.P.. J o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l i n i t i a t i v e c o u l d  69  r e a l l o c a t e funds between the Coast Guard and the p o l i c e to enable stepped up s u p e r v i s i o n of speeding and  navigation.  IV.  PLANNING FOR  THE LOCAL LEVEL  ESTIMATING SERVICES REQUIRED INTRODUCTION At the l o c a l l e v e l , demand i s i n t e r p r e t e d  specific-  a l l y as the use of s e r v i c e s and the d e s i r e f o r those not available.  Data r e l a t i n g t o s i t e s p e c i f i c demand were  o b t a i n e d from a s e c t i o n of the b o a t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Since  the b o a t e r s were assumed to be a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s are u s e f u l f o r two purposes.  First,  demand can be matched with the c a p a c i t y and type of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e on s i t e , thereby s u p p l y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o marina o p e r a t o r s and anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r b o a t i n g a t either location.  Second, an i n d i c a t i o n of the n a t u r e of  demand expressed by t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s may  be u s e f u l t o p r i v a t e  developers or p u b l i c agencies i n other areas who  provide f o r  or manage t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g s e r v i c e s . USE  OF NONSERVICED SITES Questionnaire r e s u l t s  (196 cases) from the  "serviced"  s i t e s , Pender Harbour and S e c r e t Cove, were analysed",^separa t e l y from those from the non s e r v i c e d s i t e Smugglers'  Cove Marine Park.  b o a t e r s i n the park was  (9 c a s e s ) ,  The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t of sampling  t o determine whether park users  e x h i b i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the  71  u s e r s of s e r v i c e d s i t e s , and t h e r e f o r e whether the sample c o n t a c t e d i n the s e r v i c e d s i t e s was not t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s .  Probably  t o inclement weather, t u r n o u t a t the park was d u r i n g the t h r e e days of sampling.  due  very poor  An attempt  t o compare  the r e s u l t s from both types of s i t e s i s o b v i o u s l y l i m i t e d by the s m a l l number of responses i n the park.  However, a  b r i e f summary of these r e s u l t s w i l l be made here. In almost a l l r e s p e c t s the park users showed s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the s e r v i c e d - s i t e u s e r s . e x c e p t i o n was  the use of c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s :  The  one  f u e l , laundry,  and showers were used weekly r a t h e r than every t h r e e t o f o u r days.  Perhaps  i n support of the apparent s i m i l a r i t y of park  u s e r s to s e r v i c e d - s i t e users were the responses c o n c e r n i n g the reason f o r v i s i t i n g the park. the weather" and mentions.  "Obtaining p r o t e c t i o n from  "anchoring f o r the n i g h t " r e c e i v e d the most  P r i v a c y and w i l d e r n e s s or s c e n i c  r e c e i v e d the fewest.  qualities  Boaters seemed s a t i s f i e d with the  few  a m e n i t i e s (mooring buoys, l o g boom t o t i e to) a v a i l a b l e i n Smugglers'  Cove though  "campgrounds" and  "garbage d i s p o s a l "  were c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e a d d i t i o n s by a few  respondents.  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h to examine the use of and demand f o r marine parks would be v a l u a b l e .  Origin - destination  72  s t u d i e s of b o a t e r s c o u l d be designed  to show the  total  number of stops and t o t a l time spent i n parks as opposed to serviced  sites.  EXISTING SERVICES S e c r e t Cove, (see F i g u r e 4) e x t e n s i v e arms. Buckridge  The  c o n s i s t s of t h r e e  S e c r e t Cove Marina, operated by Mr.  i s l o c a t e d i n the n o r t h arm  (see Table IX f o r an  i n v e n t o r y of s e r v i c e s of a l l marinas l i s t e d ) . floats boats;  J.  Several private  accommodate permanently-moored c r a f t as w e l l as v i s i t i n t h e r e i s a s m a l l government f l o a t .  Though there are  a number of homes a l o n g the w a t e r f r o n t , t h e r e i s no  "community  as such r i g h t i n S e c r e t Cove. Buckridge  l i s t e d h i s problems as economic ones.  S e a s o n a l i t y of the marina business makes i t d i f f i c u l t to borrow funds.  Wharf and f a c i l i t y expansion,  i s v e r y expensive.  Nevertheless,  once undertaken,  t h e r e are plans to expand  the marina by e n l a r g i n g e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and the government wharf.  relocating  Some housing w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d  and  permanent moorage i n c r e a s e d ( P e r s o n a l communication, August 1976).  Pender Harbour fishing  on the West Coast.  i s a well-known c e n t r e f o r s p o r t s I t i s an e x t e n s i v e r e s o r t  area  73  FIGURE f SECRET COVE AREA  (Source:  Scale: 1: 24,326 Projection: Polyconic  Canadian N a u t i c a l Chart # 3 5 0 9 )  74  S e c r e t Cove M a r i n a  Hospital  Harbour  Pub Bay Govt.  Marina  Garden Bay M a r i n a  Marina X  Float  Fisherman's R e s o r t X  Float  X X  X X  X X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X X X  X  X  X  X X  X X X  X X  X  X X  X X  X X  T  X  (nearby) Liquor Store (nearby)  Post Office  Electricity Hookup  Repairs  Bait, Tackle  Restaurant  Lounge, Pub  Marine Supplies  Ice  Water  Groceries  Fuel  Telephone  Launching Ramp  Car Park  Cabins, Motel Camping  Laundry  Garbage Disposal Toilets, Showers  Sewage Pumpout  m '  NTORY OF SERVICES  S e c r e t Cove Govt. Berths for Visiting Craft  TABLE IX  H  76  FIGURE 8 Boats a t anchor i n Smugglers  Cove Marine  Park.  FIGURE 9 An a l t e r n a t i v e method o f mooring: t y i n g up to l o g booms near Gambler  Island.  77  w i t h a number of s m a l l communities, s e v e r a l m o t e l s and marinas.  For convenience i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  a c l u s t e r of m a r i n a f a c i l i t i e s  was s e l e c t e d i n H o s p i t a l and  Garden Bays which a r e s e p a r a t e d by a narrow isthmus of l a n d , (see  F i g u r e 10)  I n H o s p i t a l Bay t h e r e i s a government wharf  though t h e r e i s no r e s i d e n t w h a r f i n g e r n o r any s e r v i c e s a t the  wharf.  However, s t o r e s a r e w i t h i n easy w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e . The commercial marina o p e r a t i o n i n H o s p i t a l Bay,  F i s h e r m a n s ' R e s o r t , has been r u n by t h e B e n j a f i e l d f a m i l y for  the p a s t 16 y e a r s .  I n the near f u t u r e t h e y p l a n t o  expand moorage space. A c r o s s t h e p p e n i n s u l a i n Garden Bay t h e r e a r e t h r e e commercial o p e r a t i o n s n e x t t o one a n o t h e r (see Migure i o ) . The f i r s t marina i s t h e Harbour M a r i n a , a l a r g e complex  which  i n c l u d e s on shore a g r o c e r y s t o r e and b o a t r e n t a l s . Mr. L. D a v i s who problems.  o p e r a t e s t h e m a r i n a mentioned  The f i r s t c o n c e r n s v e r y l a r g e (50  c r a f t t y i n g up a t the m a r i n a .  f e e t and  two  up)  Boats t h i s s i z e a r e n o t p r o -  f i t a b l e f o r t h e o p e r a t o r t o accommodate because t h e i r demands for  e l e c t r i c a l power cannot always be met and because t h e y a r e  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and b r i n g most s u p p l i e s w i t h them.  A second  problem concerns t h e use of Harbour M a r i n a f a c i l i t i e s  by  b o a t e r s t y i n g up a t no charge a t t h e H o s p i t a l Bay government  78  FIGURE 11 Hospital Bay, Pender Harbour, showing the government on the l e f t , a commercial marina on the r i g h t .  80  wharf. The second marina,  i s a s i n g l e f l o a t used by some  t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s and a l s o used by many l o c a l people who t i e up t h e r e w h i l e they a r e v i s i t i n g the pub on shore and next to the f l o a t . it  The pub i s the o n l y one i n the immediate area;  i s w e l l used by v i s i t o r s though l o c a l s c a r r y the b u s i n e s s  through the whole y e a r .  Adjacent t o the pub t h e r e i s an  i n f o r m a l r e s t a u r a n t , a l s o the o n l y one i n the a r e a . The t h i r d commercial  o p e r a t i o n i s the Garden Bay  Marina and i s operated by the L a p i n s k i f a m i l y . serves l a r g e l y U.S. b o a t e r s i n the peak season.  T h i s marina The operator  confirmed the view t h a t l a r g e c r a f t (40 f e e t p l u s ) were n o t so " p r o f i t a b l e " as s m a l l e r ones i n t h a t they spent l e s s on services. ESTIMATING SERVICES DEMANDED F o l l o w i n g i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t e d a t Pender Harbour and S e c r e t Cove. Respondents d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y answer every q u e s t i o n so the n o t a t i o n n = 186, f o r example means t h a t 186 responses were recorded. REASON FOR VISITING AND LENGTH OF STAY The most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d reasons f o r v i s i t i n g  81  Pender Harbour and S e c r e t Cove were "to spend t h e n i g h t i n a convenient l o c a t i o n " (125 responses) and "to o b t a i n s e r v i c e s " (103 r e s p o n s e s ) .  "Obtaining p r o t e c t i o n from the  weather" and "meeting f r i e n d s " were the next most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d reasons. Respondents had been a t the s i t e f o r an average of 3 days days  (n = 72) and planned t o s t a y f o r an average of 3 more  (n = 9 5 ) .  A planned s t a y of 6 days suggests t h a t , beyond  o b t a i n i n g s e r v i c e s and spending the n i g h t , a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of time i s spent e i t h e r moored a t the dock s o c i a l i z i n g and r e l a x i n g or t h a t b o a t e r s l i k e t o r e t u r n each n i g h t t o the same spot f o r a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l days. OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATION The m a j o r i t y of the respondents, 62.5 percent (n = 193) i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would spend the n i g h t a t a commercial marina.  Some 2 ? . 6 p e r c e n t would s t a y a t the  government f l o a t and 8 . 3 percent would anchor out.  A small  p r i v a t e arm of the S e c r e t Cove Marina r e s e r v e d f o r a yacht c l u b accounted f o r 1.6 percent of the respondent's  choices.  There was a c o r r e l a t i o n between boat types and c h o i c e of moorage.  More inboards and inboard-outboards p r e f e r r e d  commercial accommodation; (see Appendix C ) .  sailboats preferred public  floats  82  There were few o c c a s i o n s i n August 1976 marina, e i t h e r p r i v a t e or p u b l i c , was to  poor weather).  when any  f u l l to capacity  (due  T h e r e f o r e i t appears t h a t few of the  b o a t e r s were " f o r c e d " t o seek accommodation they d i d not desire.  The second p a r t of the q u e s t i o n requested respond-  ents t o e x p l a i n the reason f o r h i s / h e r c h o i c e of accommodation.  Some 28 of the respondents who  s t a y e d attvthe govern-  ment f l o a t s gave reasons f o r t h e i r c h o i c e . c i t e d by 44 p e r c e n t ^ for  Low c o s t  "convenience" by 35 p e r c e n t .  was (Charges  o v e r n i g h t stays a t government wharves a r e minimal (20  a  f o o t ) or n o n e x i s t e n t where t h e r e are no wharfingers t o collect  feesO  "Convenience" undoubtedly r e f e r s t o the f a c t  t h a t the p u b l i c f l o a t s i n both s i t e s are v e r y c l o s e t o s e r v i c e s s i m i l a r t o those n o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e a t commercial marinas  (where c o s t averages a t 150  t o 200  a foot/night).  Some 21 percent of the responses s t a t e d t h a t the government wharf was  the "only space a v a i l a b l e " .  Presumably  b o a t e r s would have p r e f e r r e d to moor a t commercial The respondents (16)  who  l a r g e l y f o r reasons of p r i v a c y . out  then these floats.  anchored out d i d so  Only 2 were f o r c e d t o anchor  because a l l f l o a t s were f u l l . While 59 reasons were g i v e n f o r choosing the  commercial marina accommodation, p r o x i m i t y t o s p e c i f i c  83  s e r v i c e s accounted f o r 46 percent of the answers. Commercial marinas u s u a l l y run showers, laundry, f u e l , e l e c t r i c i t y hookups, phones, f i s h i n g s u p p l i e s ,  garbage  d i s p o s a l and perhaps a s t o r e as an on-shore p a r t of the operation.  Often i t i s not n e c e s s a r y f o r the b o a t e r t o walk  more than a few y a r d s .  "Convenience" was a r e l a t e d response  (24 percent of the answers) and i n c l u d e d " f e e l i n g s e c u r e " and "a  guaranteed s p o t " ( r e f e r r i n g to the f a c t t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e  to  phone ahead and r e s e r v e moorage space as w e l l as t o r e s e r v e Only 3  i t d u r i n g the day w h i l e absent c r u s i n g or f i s h i n g ) . of  the respondents s t a t e d t h a t they used commercial  facilities  because t h e r e was no space a v a i l a b l e a t the government f l o a t . In  summary, respondents p r e f e r r e d t o use commercial marinas?  b o a t e r s seem w i l l i n g t o pay the e x t r a c o s t f o r mooring a t a w e l l m a i n t a i n e d f l o a t , where no one can " r a f t " ( t i e up) a g a i n s t them, and where they have access t o a number of s e r v i c e s and USE OF AND  facilities.  EXPENDITURE ON SERVICES Table X shows the expenditures on s e l e c t e d  facilities  by respondents.  services/  The " e s s e n t i a l " s e r v i c e s are  most " h e a v i l y " used i n d o l l a r terms.  Average d o l l a r  expend-^-  i t u r e a l s o conforms l a r g e l y with e x p e c t a t i o n based on n e c e s s i t y and u n i t c o s t .  However there a r e two  possible  84 TABLE X EXPENDITURES ON SERVICES  CO +J Cl QJ  CO 4J 0. O)  T3  T3  O Cu  CO  —  aj  OJJ->  147  2.  (on shore)  Showers  82  3.  (on shore)  Restrooms  58  4 . Gas & o i l  124  5 . H o t e l rooms & facilities 6. Pubs,  a)  U  U  3  *J  M-l 060 CJ • -H OCO  1. G r o c e r i e s  QJ  3  ptj  CJ -H •rl H >-H M cJ QJ cd CO h  0)  a >  d  1  +J  -H M T3 cdd M QJ QJft >  *H TJ H fi ctjQJ -U ft O !*!  QJ  <t1W  HW  O ctf QJ tu co CO £) QJ i3 ptf  r-l  O  3 +-> «W O O J2 T3 QJ •O Oi TI ZShJ  $19.50 (n-143)  $2,789.00  0  $ 2.00 (n=74)  $  148.00  0  $46.00 (n=113)  $5,198.00  0  $ 6.00 (n=l)  $  6.00  3  -  lounges  35  $ 9.00 (n=33)  $  297.00  14  7. B a i t & t a c k l e  61  $11.00 (n=54)  $  594.00  0  $  408.00  0  $1,476.00  1  8. Water  104  9. Ice  119  10. Boatworks,  repairs  $ 4 . 0 0 (n=102)  14  $31233000 ( n s l 2 )  1 1 . Telephone  74  $ 4 . 5 0 (n=37)  $  166.50  0  12. Liquor s t o r e  36  $31.00 (n=35)  $1,085.00  21  1 3 . E l e c t r i c i t y hookups  51  $ 3.00 (n=35)  $  105.00  5  14. M a r i n e S u p p l i e s  26  $24.00 (n=23)  $  552.00  2  15. Restaurants  38  $125.00 (n=35)  $  875.00  6  1 6 . Laundry  56  $ 3000 (n=50)  $  150.00  4  17. Post  43  $ 1.50 (n=16)  $  24.00  3  office  85  Exceptions. telephone  I t appears  t h a t many people make l o n g d i s t a n c e  c a l l s a l o n g t h e i r routes (average c o s t per  of $ 4 . 5 0 ) .  Secondly, the average  call  expenditure on "pubs  and lounges" seems h i g h , which c o u l d suggest a l u c r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e f o r p o t e n t i a l marina d e v e l o p e r s .  In g e n e r a l ,  the boaters were s a t i s f i e d with the range of a v a i l a b l e services}  l i q u o r s t o r e s and pubs r e c e i v e d the most mentions  as d e s i r a b l e a d d i t i o n s . Expenditure per boat averaged  $70.00.  Since  b o a t e r s stop every 3 to 4 days f o r s e r v i c e s , the  total  expenditure f o r a 20  day t r i p c o u l d reach $ 3 5 0 . 0 0 .  BOATER ATTITUDES AND  PERCEPTIONS  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e attempted ers responded  to determine  how  boat-  t o "unpleasant" c o n d i t i o n s on s i t e which were  l a r g e l y r e l a t e d t o crowding  or inadequate  s e r v i c e s (see  Table X I ) . The responses poor b o a t i n g season  to these q u e s t i o n s r e f l e c t e d the v e r y  i n the summer of 1976.  weather and reduced c r u i s i n g a c t i v i t y may  Extremely  bad  a l s o e x p l a i n why  the data does not support the hypothesis t h a t excess demands made by heavy t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g t r a f f i c c o u l d become a s e r i o u s problem i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a .  A l l marina  opera-  t o r s and s e v e r a l boaters i n t e r v i e w e d agreed t h a t they c o u l d  86  TABLE XI BOATER REACTION TO "UNPLEASANT" CONDITIONS  Condition  Leaving E a r l i e r than Expected  Won't Return  24  6  2. No moorage available  7  14  3. No space to anchor out  1  9  4. Too many other boaters " i n sight"  4  3  5. Negative reaction of l o c a l r e s i dents to non-resident boaters  1  8  6. Noise from other boaters  5  13  7. Services desired not available  2  9  3  13  2  10  10. Lineups for f u e l , groceries  2  2  11. Other a) "holiday ended" b) unspecified  5 9  0 0  1. Weather conditions  8. Inconsiderate behaviour by other boaters 9. Polluted Conditions  8?  not remember a summer where there was so l i t t l e activity.  boating  I t r a i n e d f o r a t o t a l of 23 days i n J u l y and  August as compared t o a normal average ( P e r s o n a l communication: March 1977).  t o t a l of 14 days  Climatological  Information,  T h e r e f o r e " l a c k of space" c o n d i t i o n s were not  r e p o r t e d by many b o a t e r s .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , n o i s e and i n c o n -  s i d e r a t e behaviour from other b o a t e r s were s u f f i c i e n t l y i r r i t a t i n g to prevent s e v e r a l respondents to  the same l o c a t i o n .  from r e t u r n i n g  The p r i v a c y of one's boat may not  i n s u r e p r o t e c t i o n from e i t h e r n o i s e or i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour. MATCHING SUPPLY OF AND DEMAND FOR SERVICES THE  BOATING SEASON IN 1976 It  was hypothesized above t h a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  among boaters and disharmony with l o c a l r e s i d e n t s c o u l d be connected  t o crowded c o n d i t i o n s and inadequate  T h i s study found l i t t l e  services.  d i r e c t evidence f o r t h i s  premise.  However, weather c o n d i t i o n s i n J u l y and August c o n t r i b u t e d to  the poorest b o a t i n g season w i t h i n the memory of many  b o a t e r s and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s .  Sunshine  recorded f o r August  was 142.7 hours as compared with a normal average August temperatures  255.0  were the lowest on r e c o r d ( P e r s o n a l  communication with s t a f f of C l i m a t o l o g i c a l  Information,  hours.  88  February,  1977)•  Marina operators  the volume o f business  were i n agreement t h a t  was f a r below normal.  The owner of  Harbour Marina s t a t e d t h a t , throughout the summer, boaters who  made r e s e r v a t i o n s would not show.  Empty spots were  common on weekends, whereas i n a normal year up t o 50 boats may  be turned away on F r i d a y or Saturday n i g h t  communication March,  1977).  C l e a r l y 1976 The  (Personal  transient boaters'  was an a t y p i c a l season f o r b o a t i n g . demand f o r and s a t i s f a c t i o n  s e r v i c e s must t h e r e f o r e be considered  with  i n l i g h t of the  t h a t c a p a c i t y a t both s i t e s was u n d e r u t i l i z e d .  fact  Crowded  c o n d i t i o n s a t e i t h e r s i t e are more probable i n an average year. THE  FUTURE SITUATION The  of Georgia  general  demand p r o j e c t i o n s made f o r the  region  S t r a i t suggest t h a t there w i l l be an i n c r e a s e i n  transient boating a c t i v i t y .  There i s reason t o suggest  t h a t s i t e s on the S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a  such as S e c r e t Cove and  Pender Harbour may bear a s i z e a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s i n c r e a s e i n demand t h a t w i l l accompany higher numbers o f boats.  F i r s t , the P e n i n s u l a  make weekend t r i p s p o s s i b l e .  i s c l o s e enough t o Vancouver t o Second, crowding i n south  c o a s t a l waters ( a l r e a d y n o t a b l e  i n the Gulf I s l a n d s ) may  89  f o r c e g r e a t e r numbers of boaters t o head n o r t h . . to the maps f i l l e d  i n by respondents,  the Mainland  According coast  from Gibsons n o r t h t o Powell R i v e r i s h e a v i l y t r a v e l l e d by boaters. IDENTIFYING SITE SPECIFIC PROBLEMS BOATERS AND MARINA OPERATORS PERCEPTIONS R e s u l t s of the boater q u e s t i o n n a i r e showed t h a t n o i s e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour as problems by f e l l o w b o a t e r s . author  by boaters were p e r c e i v e d  S e v e r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s the  entered i n t o with respondents c e n t r e d on the l a c k of  s k i l l , knowledge or c o n s i d e r a t i o n demonstrated by some b o a t e r s both a t sea and i n p o r t . Marina o p e r a t o r s contacted suggested  t h a t hazardous  n a v i g a t i n g , speeding and l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e " r u l e s of the road" were c a u s i n g problems f o r boaters as w e l l as producing  c o n f l i c t between the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and commercial  fishermen  who use the a r e a .  inadequate  Many r e f e r e n c e s were made t o  p o l i c i n g of l o c a l waters.  LOCAL RESIDENT. PERCEPTIONS People r e s i d i n g i n or near areas t h a t c a t e r t o t r a n s i e n t boaters have mixed f e e l i n g s about the impact of  90  s e a s o n a l l y heavy boat t r a f f i c .  On the one hand, many  c o a s t a l communities are economically  dependent on  the  d o l l a r s generated  by v i s i t i n g boat owners.  r e s i d e n t s who  w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y and/or operate  own  own  boats have begun to express concern  of v i s i t i n g boaters  On the  over the  other, their  behaviour  ( P a c i f i c Yachting J u l y , 1976).  Planning  f o r f u t u r e a d d i t i o n s or changes to s e r v i c e d s i t e s used by t r a n s i e n t boaters must be s e n s i t i v e to r e s i d e n t o p i n i o n and  p e r c e p t i o n of problems. A t o t a l of 40 mailback q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s -  t r i b u t e d to r e s i d e n t s i n the S e c r e t Cove area; returned.  From the 170  40 were r e t u r n e d .  The  9 were  sent out i n the Pender Harbour a r e a , r e l a t i v e l y high r a t e of r e t u r n seems  to i n d i c a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t of r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y and The  i t s e f f e c t on the r e g i o n .  r e s u l t s of both s e t s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be  together;  presented  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses from e i t h e r  l o c a t i o n cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d with so few  questionnaires.  In a d d i t i o n , i t should be noted t h a t the r e s u l t s the o p i n i o n s of those r e s i d e n t s who s t r o n g l y one way  represent  undoubtedly f e e l  or the other and t h e r e f o r e should not  i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i v e of the f e e l i n g s of the whole community.  be  91  The m a j o r i t y (86  percent) of the respondents  permanent r e s i d e n t s i n the area; residents.  are  only 7 people are summer  Por the most p a r t respondents  were "new"  to  the area ( l i v e d there l e s s than 5 years) and had come to the S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a mainly f o r r e t i r e m e n t (17 and  "escape"  respondents  from the c i t y were employed:  r e l a t e d work such as  (14 r e s p o n s e s ) .  About h a l f  they had  fishing.  caused  Almost a l l of these people  experienced  owned wateri n d i c a t e d that  e x c e s s i v e wash from p l e a s u r e c r a f t  a s a f e t y hazard  or damage to p r o p e r t y (27  and n o i s e from v a c a t i o n i n g boaters  (24 r e s p o n s e s ) .  of the Pender Harbour - S e c r e t Cove area a boat possession;  80 percent of the respondents  l a r g e l y outboards  up to 25 f e e t .  that  responses),  sewage, and f l o a t i n g garbage (27  d i s c h a r g e s of o i l ,  the  i n b u s i n e s s , c r a f t work or sea-  Some 55 percent of the respondents f r o n t property.  responses)  responses), In p a r t s  i s a standard  owned b o a t s ,  Most people used t h e i r  boats f o r f i s h i n g and kept them moored or anchored i n f r o n t of t h e i r p r o p e r t y . The  l a s t q u e s t i o n asked respondents  to i n d i c a t e  whether they had experienced problems with t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y and asked  them to comment on the use of the area by  non-resident boaters.  There were an approximately  equal  92  number of responses t o such d i f f i c u l t i e s as "unable t o moor a t customary p l a c e " ( 1 3 ) t "shortages o f s u p p l i e s ? , b a i t " (14) and " l i n e u p s f o r f u e l " ( 1 7 ) .  However  "hazardous  n a v i g a t i n g by other b o a t e r s " was f e l t t o be a problem by 31 respondents. S u b j e c t i v e comments from respondents on the use of the area ranged i n a t t i t u d e .  About 6 people i n d i c a t e d t h a t  the c o a s t belonged to everyone and t h a t the l o c a l economy depended on t o u r i s t spending. expresses t h i s  An exerpt from one q u e s t i o n n a i r e  view*  "... the l o n g time r e s i d e n t s ... have l o n g been r e s e n t f u l o f newcomers ... T h e i r main complaint i s the way t o u r i s t s handle t h e i r boats (Some of them a r e maniacs!)... we don't mind t o u r i s t s a t a l l and r e a l i z e the t r a d e they b r i n g to Pender Harbour..." However the m a j o r i t y of the comments expressed s e r i o u s conc e r n about p o l l u t i o n and about  "problem" b o a t i n g bahaviour.  The f o l l o w i n g statements, reproduced without a l t e r a t i o n , are c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s o f p e r c e i v e d problems: "... i t ' s a way of l i f e and many r e s i d e n t s depend on t h i s summer t r a d e . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t some people from the boats do not have a g r e a t e r r e s p e c t f o r p r i v a c y of r e s i d e n t s and t h e i r prop e r t y as l o o t i n g of f l o w e r and v e g e t a b l e gardens i s a common occurence as i s the l e t t i n g l o o s e of cooped up pets t o do a l l t h e i r r u n n i n g and b u s i n e s s on  r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s - very annoying. There i s a l s o a f a i r n o i s e f a c t o r from marinas where h o l i d a y i n g boaters a r e having n i g h t l y p a r t i e s . " "everyone has a r i g h t t o use and enjoy our l o c a l waters. However the water now i s so p o l l u t e d w i t h so many boats dumping sewage i n t o our enclosed harbour t h a t swimming i s no longer p o s s i b l e . We have n o t been a b l e t o swim on the beach i n f r o n t of our house i n over 3 y e a r s . T h i s abuse I s t r o n g l y o b j e c t t o as we a r e not allowed t o dump raw sewage i n t o the harbour, so why should our v i s i t o r s ! " "Being a r e s i d e n t of B.C. f o r 56 years and spending most of i t working a l o n g the c o a s t I have seen many changes mostly f o r the worse! As a l l overpopulated areas change the humans i n t o somewhat of an a g g r e s s i v e nature so have boaters changed. Former (mostly) b o a t e r s had a b e t t e r a t t i t u d e to r e s i d e n t s and t h e i r b e l o n g i n g s , r e s p e c t i n g p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y e t c . In my own i n s t a n c e I l i v e a t the end of a p r i v a t e road. A l a r g e s i g n was put t o say so, a f t e r v a r i o u s times of people and dogs gunning about t h e house... I t don't deter them! Due t o more c i t y type people with f a s t boats and k i d s up f o r a weekend and going to enjoy themselves i f i t k i l l s everyone e l s e , we have water s k i e r s , s i g h t seers and j u s t p l a i n f o o l s going a t f u l l speed about t h e Harbour ... Can't understand why people on a h o l i d a y l o o k i n g over the Harbour have t o go a t f u l l speed i n s t e a d of 5 mph so they can see something?... As w i t h towns growing i n t o c i t i e s people change and B.C. c o a s t i s on i t s way to the c i t y s t a t u s . E d u c a t i o n by f o r c e seems the only way".  9k  DEVELOPING ACTION  PROGRAMMES  I d e a l l y , s i t e - s p e c i f i c programmes would be developed  t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d and t o remedy  problems p e r c e i v e d . attempted  i n t h i s study s i n c e 1 9 7 6 was not a  b o a t i n g season. to  However, the f i r s t task cannot be "normal"  Boaters who d i d v i s i t the s i t e s  appeared  f i n d s e r v i c e s adequate (though pubs, r e s t a u r a n t s and  l i q u o r s t o r e s were c i t e d as v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n s ) . conducted  A survey  over a few years might i n d i c a t e , on the average,  whether the supply of s e r v i c e s was adequate.  Therefore  a c t u a l methods of s u p p l y i n g s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d a r e not outl i n e d here.  Rather t h e r e a r e two suggestions f o r d e a l i n g  w i t h s p e c i f i c complaints t h a t r e s u l t from demand f o r s e r v i c e s namely the u n p r o f i t a b i l i t y of l a r g e c r a f t and the misuse of private f a c i l i t i e s  by users of the f r e e government wharf i n  Pender Harbour. • The i n s t i t u t i o n of a graduated r a t e f o r moorage and  e l e c t r i c i t y c o u l d i n c r e a s e the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of l a r g e  craft at for  (kO f o o t p l u s ) and discourage them from l e n g t h y s t a y s  crowded marinas.  At present a standard r a t e i s charged  moorage (about 2 0 0 / f o o t / n i g h t ) and f o r power ( $ 1 . 5 0 / d a y ) .  I f these r a t e s i n c r e a s e d as boat l e n g t h i n c r e a s e d , owners of l a r g e boats, who spend l e s s money on s e r v i c e s on shore, c o u l d  95  be  encouraged to "anchor  out".  • When c o n d i t i o n s are crowded, l a r g e c r a f t  staying  l o n g e r than 2 days should be charged more f o r each a d d i t i o n a l day. . • The  r e c e n t t r a n s f e r of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f e d e r a l  government wharves to the Small C r a f t Harbours Branch c o u l d e n t a i l changes i n management p o l i c y of these  facilities.  However, u n t i l such changes are a f f e c t e d , the  Regional  District,  i n cooperation  a s s i g n an attendant The  with Small C r a f t Harbours, c o u l d  to the p u b l i c f l o a t s i n H o s p i t a l  f l o a t s are i n reasonably  ient location.  The  Regional  by adding s i m p l e s s e r v i c e s garbage d i s p o s a l .  good c o n d i t i o n and  i n a conven-  D i s t r i c t c o u l d upgrade the wharf  such as a water supply and  A student  regular  h i r e d f o r the summer c o u l d  c o l l e c t minimal f e e s from b o a t e r s .  (A moorage f e e of 5 0 / f t . /  n i g h t would cover f e d e r a l c o s t s ( 2 0 / f t . / n i g h t ) and s e r v i c e charges.)  Bay.  Such a step might discourage  pay  public  f a c i l i t y users from crowding p r i v a t e s e r v i c e d marinas.  Since c o n d i t i o n s were f a r from crowded i n it  i s expected t h a t problems i d e n t i f i e d may  the boat p o p u l a t i o n  increases.  Therefore  1976,  grow worse as  the f o l l o w i n g  a l t e r n a t i v e s are suggested as p o s s i b l e ways of d e a l i n g  with  96  these problems.  The a l t e r n a t i v e s may be u s e f u l i n other  l o c a t i o n s i n Georgia S t r a i t where t r a n s i e n t boat  traffic  i s heavy. POLLUTION;  DISRUPTION OF RESIDENTS' LIFESTYLE  •To  i n f l u e n c e the behaviour o f t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s so  as t o p r o t e c t l o c a l p r o p e r t y and l i f e s t y l e , concerned  a group of  c i t i z e n s c o u l d put together an i n f o r m a t i o n brochure,  d i s t r i b u t e d t o boaters as they purchase Such a brochure might l i s t  gas or g r o c e r i e s .  the s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s  a v a i l a b l e i n the a r e a , as w e l l as p r o v i d e a s e r i e s of suggestions as t o " a p p r o p r i a t e " behaviour with r e g a r d t o n o i s e , garbage d i s p o s a l , t r e s p a s s .  C e r t a i n l y a type of  pamphlet s i m i l a r t o these d i s t r i b u t e d i n parks f o r the purpose of educating v i s i t o r s how t o t r e a t w i l d l i f e need n o t be  offensive. • T r a i l s or open space c o u l d be designated by the  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t f o r boaters t o go ashore and s t r e t c h l e g s or walk t h e i r dogs.  their  In a spot such as S e c r e t Cove;r-  where the o n l y w a l k i i s a l o n g a JOO y a r d g r a v e l road up t o the highway, the p r o v i s i o n of t r a i l s might encourage boaters t o a v o i d t r e s p a s s i n g on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y .  97  HAZARDOUS NAVIGATING • The Regional  D i s t r i c t c o u l d i n c r e a s e i n number  speed l i m i t s i g n s f o r boats along the f o r e s h o r e . • P o l i c i n g of l o c a l waters c o u l d curb  hazardous  n a v i g a t i o n and enforce p o l l u t i o n ( e g . garbage dumping byboaters)  regulations.  A t present there i s on duty one  R.C.M.P. boat t h a t covers Gibson's Landing t o E a r l ' s Cove. ( P e r s o n a l communication; S e c h e l t , March 1977). boat t o p a t r o l .  Constable  Skinner, R.C.M.P.  T h i s i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e area f o r one  I t i s suggested t h a t , i f manpower  permits,  s e v e r a l s m a l l c r a f t based i n Halfmoon Bay and Pender Harbour c o u l d a i d i n enforcement d u r i n g the peak b o a t i n g  season.  V.  CONCLUSIONS  INTRODUCTION It  i s evident from t h i s study t h a t p l a n n i n g f o r  transient boating  i s r e q u i r e d t o develop i n t e g r a t e d manage-  ment s t r a t e g i e s f o r the c o a s t a l zone i n B.C.  Overnight and  v a c a t i o n c r u i s i n g i s one of the l a r g e s t components of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n Georgia and  Strait,  Resident  ownership  r e n t a l of t r a n s i e n t boats i s p r o j e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e sub-  stantially.  Non-resident use of l o c a l waters f o r c r u i s i n g  is likewise projected to increase.  Not only i s the p o p u l a t i o n  of t r a n s i e n t c r a f t growing, but i t i s r e c o g n i z e d  t h a t the  demand of these r e c r e a t i o n i s t s f o r s e r v i c e s generates revenue for  many c o a s t a l communities.  On the other hand, the r a p i d  growth i n the p o p u l a r i t y of c r u i s i n g has r e s u l t e d i n problems such as inadequate f a c i l i t i e s , mental d e t e r i o r a t i o n . c o a s t a l resources ional boating.  p e r c e i v e d crowding and e n v i r o n -  At the same time competing uses f o r  w i l l l i m i t theooption  Planning  f o r future recreat-  then i s mandatory t o i n s u r e the  p r e s e r v a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c r u i s i n g i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. T h i s t h e s i s attempted the f i r s t for  t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g by developing  step i n p l a n n i n g  a s u i t a b l e planning  99  process f o r the a c t i v i t y .  The c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t i n g  the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s process a t the r e g i o n a l and l e v e l are presented here i n two p a r t s .  The f i r s t  from local  is a  s c e n a r i o which i s intended to summarize c e r t a i n of the s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a d t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s of t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s c r u i s i n g the S t r a i t of Georgia, i n the summer of 1976.  The  second  suggests f u r t h e r steps and  refinements  to  the r e s e a r c h done i n t h i s t h e s i s t h a t would be  to  complete the " i d e a l " p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . THE  necessary  TYPICAL TRANSIENT BOATER  Stan, Marian and t h e i r two  teenage c h i l d r e n l e a v e  the dock a t Mosquito Creek i n North Vancouver on a f i n e August day. for  They have been a n t i c i p a t i n g t h i s v a c a t i o n c r u i s e  s e v e r a l months and they are hoping f o r three weeks of  sunny weather and calm  seas.  Stan has l i v e d most of h i s l i f e He  mid-  on the West Coast.  i s f a m i l i a r with boats and has owned s e v e r a l s m a l l runa-  bouts s i n c e he was  a c h i l d l i v i n g on Northern Vancouver I s l a n d .  However, s i x years ago, he decided t h a t he wanted a change; to  experience l i f e  a c a b i n near 100  i n the i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e he bought  M i l e House t h a t c o u l d be used f o r winter s k i  h o l i d a y s and summer v a c a t i o n s .  I n i t i a l l y , the f a m i l y used  the c a b i n r e g u l a r l y but the 300 m i l e d r i v e began to seem  10Q  l o n g e r on each t r i p .  Reduced highway speeds r e a l l y d i d  have an e f f e c t on t r i p l e n g t h .  Congestion, e s p e c i a l l y  on  weekends and h o l i d a y s , i n c r e a s e d Stan's i r r i t a t i o n with driving.  R i s i n g g a s o l i n e p r i c e s f i n a l l y convinced him  the c a b i n no l o n g e r r e p r e s e n t e d a wise investment  that  or an  enjoyable v a c a t i o n . In f a c t , automobile v a c a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l l o s t  their  appeal to Stan and Marian and they decided t h a t a f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e means of h o l i d a y i n g might be to purchase cruiser.  Now  45,  a large  Stan i s employed as a manager i n the s a l e s  department of a major paper products company.  His income  enabled him t o t h i n k about buying a boat l a r g e r than the 22 f o o t inboard t h a t the f a m i l y had been u s i n g on and o f f ; is,  one t h a t would be comfortable f o r extended  summer and w i n t e r .  trips  that  both  Stan and Marian do the m a j o r i t y of t h e i r  c r u i s i n g i n the summer but they enjoy many day t r i p s and o c c a s i o n a l weekend away from the c i t y throughout  the  the w i n t e r .  S i n c e he has been b o a t i n g f o r 20 years though he's  never  pursued any formal n a v i g a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , Stan f e e l s  confid-  ent of h a n d l i n g more u n p r e d i c t a b l e w i n t e r weather on the sea. The boat they chose t o purchase inboard that sleeps s i x .  A complete  i s a 32 f o o t  g a l l e y , shower, i c e  box make the boat s e l f s u f f i c i e n t f o r l o n g p e r i o d s .  However,  101  the f a m i l y l i k e t o make f r e q u e n t stopovers t o r e p l e n i s h s u p p l i e s and s t r e t c h t h e i r legs on shore. T h e i r plans f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r i p a r e d e f i n e d only i n so f a r as they choose a n o r t h e r l y d e s t i n a t i o n as Cortes I s l a n d .  By h a b i t and by p r e f e r e n c e they t r a v e l v i a  the Mainland Coast.  O f f t o a l e i s u r e l y s t a r t they decide t o  do some f i s h i n g and t o spend the f i r s t n i g h t t i e d t o a l o g boom i n Centre Bay on Gambier I s l a n d .  Stan decides on the  second day t o head f o r S e c r e t Cove where the f a m i l y has been 1  going f o r y e a r s .  Although they don't r e a l l y need any  s u p p l i e s except f u e l , s i n c e t h e i r boat i s equipped f o r l o n g t r i p s , they enjoy the "comforts" they experience by mooring i n s t e a d of worrying about whether the anchor w i l l h o l d . a l s o i n e v i t a b l y r u n i n t o f r i e n d s a t S e c r e t Cove.  They  Usually,  they phone ahead t o t h e marina and r e s e r v e a space but t h e weather i s cloudy and t h e r e a r e few boats  around.  Por the next s e v e r a l days the f a m i l y i s based i n S e c r e t Cove, l e a d i n g i n the morning t o f i s h and t o make e x c u r s i o n s t o the sand beach a t Buccaneer  Bay nearby.  On  the f o u r t h day the sun emerges and they decide t o move on t o L a s q u e t i I s l a n d , 15 m i l e s north-west, and t o anchor  ina  s m a l l bay t h a t few other boaters seem t o have d i s c o v e r e d . To t h e i r s u r p r i s e they f e e l l i k e i n t r u d e r s as they a a r r i v e  102  at  L a s q u e t i and d i s c o v e r f i v e other c r a f t a l r e a d y anchored  in  " t h e i r " spot.  In f a c t , Stan judges t h a t the bay i s  b e t t e r known merely by the n o t i c a b l e presence of f l o a t i n g garbage.  He i s r e l u c t a n t t o c o l l e c t o y s t e r s , as they  u s u a l l y do, a f t e r s e e i n g some s m a l l o i l s l i c k s on the s u r f a c e water.  Stan i s prompted to t h i n k about the minor  c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t has developed over h o l d i n g t a n k s .  He  read s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s s t a t i n g t h a t sewage from boats environmentally d e t e r i o r a t i n g e f f e c t s j  If f a c i l i t i e s  has  several:others  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t , i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers, boats can e n c l o s e d bays.  has  f o r emptying  foul  h o l d i n g tanks  were a v a i l a b l e a t h i s home moorage and a t a number of conv e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d p o r t s i n the S t r a i t , Stan f e e l s t h a t would be w i l l i n g to pay the p r i c e to i n s t a l l  one.  he  In t h i s  r e s p e c t he i s of a d i f f e r e n t mind than many of h i s boatowning f r i e n d s , who  have not witnessed, as Stan has, the  g r a d u a l a e s t h e t i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n by sewage of some c r u i s i n g areas. D i s a p p o i n t e d with the number of b o a t e r s a t Lasq u e t i , the f a m i l y decide to continue n o r t h .  T r a v e l l i n g back  a c r o s s the channel towards the Mainland c o a s t , they witness what has become a p r e d i c t a b l e i n c i d e n t on any c r u i s e t  A  l a r g e i n b o a r d , t r a v e l l i n g a t e x c e s s i v e speed, c u t s i n f r o n t  103  of them and i n t u r n , comes dangerously c l o s e t o a s m a l l boat under s a i l t h a t has no means of q u i c k l y changing c o u r s e . Speeding and hazardous n a v i g a t i n g are d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l i n open waters but, as Marian p o i n t s out, such i n s t a n c e s of i n c o n s i d e r a t e behaviour a r e j u s t as f r e q u e n t i n p o r t .  She  r e c a l l s a stopover the f a m i l y made l a s t summer a t S e c r e t Cove. A f i s h i n g derby and e x c e p t i o n a l l y f i n e weather r e s u l t e d i n a l a r g e crowd of b o a t e r s s e e k i n g o v e r n i g h t moorage. of b o a t e r s a t the commercial marina decided t o use  A number their  s m a l l outboard d i n g i e s to t r a v e l to a nearby i s l a n d f o r a party.  Noise, dumped garbage and broken b o t t l e s were  s u f f i c i e n t i n c e n t i v e t o cause the p r o p e r t y owner ( u s u a l l y t o l e r a n t of some t r e s p a s s ) to attempt t o f o r c a b l y ev;ict the visitors.  Somewhat i n e b r i a t e d , as they t r a v e l l e d back t o  t h e i r boats i n the dark they managed t o n i c k the s i d e s of s e v e r a l other boats a t anchor i n the Cove.  Complaints were  made by l o c a l people and v i s i t i n g b o a t e r s a l i k e t o the o p e r a t o r of the commercial r i g h t to i n t e r f e r e .  marina but he had no  particular  The l o c a l R.C.M.P. detachment, without  a p a t r o l boat t h a t summer, were a l s o powerless t o get i n v o l v e d i n t h i s and many s i m i l a r  incidents.  During the past s e v e r a l hours of the c r o s s i n g , the sky has begun to darken and the wind p i c k up. s l i g h t l y and heads f o r Pender Harbour.  Stan speeds  By the time they  up  104  a r r i v e a t Garden Bay,  the commercial  marinas are o v e r f l o w i n g ;  i n c r e a s i n g l y stormy weather d r i v e s a d d i t i o n a l b o a t e r s the Harbour.  into  They o b t a i n one of the l a s t spacesftat the  government f l o a t i n H o s p i t a l Bay; on the f l o a t are doubled up,  i n a few hours most boats  " r a f t e d " s i d e by s i d e .  Conscious  of the good c o n d i t i o n s of h i s boat and of a need f o r some p r i v a c y , Stan does not f e e l comfortable having other people u s i n g h i s boat to get t o the dock.  However t h e i r  spend the evening with them, exchanging Madge are a l s o Canadian,  from V i c t o r i a .  stories.  "neighbours" Bob  and  They are v o c a l i n  t h e i r complaints about American boaters who,  they c l a i m , are  l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r crowded c o n d i t i o n s and f o r e x p l o i t i n g s h e l l f i s h beds n o r t h of Pender Harbour.  Marian d i s a g r e e s .  She has read l e t t e r s to e d i t o r s of l o c a l y a c h t i n g magazines s u g g e s t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n on n o n - r e s i d e n t c r u i s i n g y e t she  feels  t h a t any programmes aimed a t n o n - r e s i d e n t use must r e c o g n i z e t h a t Canadians border.  do a l o t of t h e i r v a c a t i o n i n g south of the  She f e e l s t h a t b e t t e r management of f a c i l i t i e s  and  more s t r i n g e n t s u p e r v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g would go a l o n g way  t o s o l v i n g the unpleasant aspects of c r u s i n g . The next day, the f a m i l y move to the  marina where they are i n the h a b i t of s t a y i n g .  commercial The  marina  i s not f u l l , but t h e r e are a few very l a r g e boats t i e d  up.  105  The marina  operator c o n f e s s e s t o Stan t h a t he's a b i t  concerned about the prolonged use of h i s marina by these craft.  As y e t he imposes no l i m i t on l e n g t h of s t a y , and he  f i n d s t h a t these yachts consume tremendous q u a n t i t i e s of electricity  ( a l l boats pay the same r a t e per day) and use  few of the s e r v i c e s s i n c e t h e i r boats a r e equipped f o r l o n g voyages,  Stan sympathizes;  even though h i s boat i s s m a l l e r ,  he knows there have been many times when he has spent l e n g t h y periods at private f l o a t s just to s o c i a l i z e .  Of course d u r i n g  a summer such as t h i s one, with f r e q u e n t poor weather, corwding  i s not a problem.  The f a m i l y decide t o wait out  the stormy weather i n Pender Harbour and p l a n to c r u i s e n o r t h to J e r v i s I n l e t on the next l e g of t h e i r  trip.  COMPLETING THE PLANNING PROCESS The s c e n a r i o of the t y p i c a l boater d e s c r i b e d above u n d e r l i e s a number of reasons f o r the n e c e s s i t y f o r p l a n n i n g for transient boating a c t i v i t y . b o a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y , crowding,  I n c r e a s i n g demands f o r c o n f l i c t s among b o a t e r s and  r e s i d e n t s a r e a few problems t h a t suggest immediate concern f o r p l a n n i n g and managementThe  " i d e a l " p l a n n i n g process developed  i n the study  i s a f e a s i b l e method of b e g i n n i n g t o p l a n f o r t r a n s i e n t ing a c t i v i t y ,  boat-  A number of the steps i n the process were not  106  attempted  by the author;  with better techniques. of  others c o u l d have been improved  upon  I d e n t i f i e d below under the t i t l e s  the i d e a l framework aressome f u r t h e r steps necessary and  some refinements p o s s i b l e i n methods used. ESTIMATING SERVICES REQUIRED 1.  Complete an i n v e n t o r y of the f o u r types of f a c i l i t i e s  throughout  the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a .  Include the c a p a c i t y f o r  moorage or anchoring and/or the range of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n each 2.  site.  R e f i n e the d e f i n i t i o n of the e x i s t i n g p o p u l a t i o n of t r a n s -  i e n t boats by s u r v e y i n g a random sample of b o a t e r s a t p o i n t s of  o r i g i n i n Georgia S t r a i t and Washington.  Establish  from  t h i s sample a r e l a t i o n s h i p between boat s i z e and crufeing activity. 3. Define techniques f o r p r o j e c t i n g changes i n the s i z e of the t r a n s i e n t boat p o p u l a t i o n by i n c l u d i n g i n the p r o j e c t i o n socioeconomic 4.  v a r i a b l e s such as age and income of boat-owner.  E s t a b l i s h the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of demand f o r s e r v i c e s  and f a c i l i t i e s by a d m i n i s t e r i n g t o t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s a t p o i n t s of  o r i g i n a d i a r y or l o g type of q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( i n c l u d i n g  maps) so as t o determine  cruising patterns.  Obtain informa-  t i o n from boaters surveyed a t v a r i o u s Georgia S t r a i t  locations  t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s f o r c r u i s i n g , r e l a t i v e time spent i n  107  d i f f e r e n t types of s i t e s and methods of t r i p planning. 5.  Develop a model of demand by p l o t t i n g crusing patterns and  heavily used s i t e s .  Incorporate projected changes i n the size  of the transient boat population. 6. Compare demand and supply to i d e n t i f y where deficiencies e x i s t i n the system of services. IDENTIFYING EXTERNALITIES 1. Conduct interviews with a broad spectrum of people f a m i l i a r with aspects of boating including RCMP and Coast Guard  officials,  representatives of other resource using groups i n the coastal zone (for example, the forest industry, f e r r y operators, commercial fishermen) and insurance companies. 2. Develop alternatives f o r remedying problems i n addition to those suggested i n t h i s study. 3. Conduct test programmes of c e r t a i n alternatives i d e n t i f i e d as the most appropriate. IMPLEMENTING THE POLICY PLAN 1. Using the model developed to show demand by boaters f o r services and f a c i l i t i e s , suggest where additions or expansions to e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s might be needed.  Explore the  p o s s i b i l i t y of t r a n s f e r r i n g demand to alternative s i t e s . 2. Make information available concerning f a c i l i t i e s required to the providers (both public and private) of the f a c i l i t i e s .  108  Encourage c o l l a b o r a t i o n to insure c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g f o r t r a n s i e n t b o a t i n g a t the It i s believed  local  level.  t h a t the  information  generated  by  the p l a n n i n g process developed i n t h i s t h e s i s should p r o v i d e a s o l i d b a s i s f o r investment by both p u b l i c and i z a t i o n s and problems.  f o r the  private  i n i t i a t i o n of steps t o remedy  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  s h o u l d be  perceived useful  f o r i n t e g r a t i o n with other recommendations c o n c e r n i n g zone a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s study may  i n B.C. be  organ-  F i n a l l y , i t i s hoped t h a t the  coastal results  of some b e n e f i t to t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s  themselves by c o n t r i b u t i n g to the p r e s e r v a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t i n g i n Georgia S t r a i t .  of  opportunities  BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES CITED A l l e y , J . and A. Ferguson. R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g i n Howe Sound p u b l i s h e d f o r Islands T r u s t by the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and Housing. V i c t o r i a , 1 9 7 6 . C i c c h e t t i , C h a r l e s J . F o r e c a s t i n g R e c r e a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Lexington Books, Mass. USA, 1 9 7 3 . C l a r k , K.B. The f o r m u l a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of a marine r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g methodology: a case study of the G u l f I s l a n d s and the San Juan I s l a n d s . MA i n Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , UBC, 1 9 6 9 . Clawson, Marion. Land and Water f o r R e c r e a t i o n . McNally and Co., Chicago, I 9 6 3 .  Rand  Clawson, M. and J . Knetsch. Economics of Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . Johns Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 6 6 . D a v i s , G. and V. Ayers. Photographic Recording of E n v i r o n mental Behaviour. In B e h a v i o u r a l Research Methods i n Environmental DesignT e d i t e d by W. M i c h e l s o n . Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Inc., Pennsylvania, 1 9 7 5 . D i t t o n , Robert and Thomas Goodale. Marine R e c r e a t i o n a l Uses of Green Bay: A Study of Human Behaviour and A t t i t u d e P a t t e r n s . T e c h n i c a l Report #17. Univ. of Wisconsin See Grant Program, December 1 9 7 2 . Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . The L i v e a b l e Region Report P l a n n i n g Dept., G.V.R.D., 1 9 7 5 . Johannis, T. and C. B u l l . S o c i o l o g y of L e i s u r e . P u b l i c a t i o n s , California, 1971.  Sage  Ketchum, B.H. ( e d i t o r ) The Water's Edge: C r i t i c a l Problems of the C o a s t a l Zone. MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, 1 9 7 2 . Lea, N.D. and A s s o c i a t e s . A n a l y s i s on R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g i n the S t r a i t of Georgia Area B.C. Vancouver 1 9 6 6 .  110  L i p s e y , R., Sparks and P. S t e i n e r . P u b l i s h e r s , New York, 1 9 7 3 .  Economics, Harper and Row  Marans, R.W. Survey Research. In B e h a v i o u r a l Research Methods i n Environmental Design e d i t e d by W. N i c h e l s o n , Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, I n c . P e n n s l y v a n i a , 1 9 7 5 . Matheson, G. " B i g Plans f o r Marine Park System" In P a c i f i c Y a c h t i n g Magazine May 1975« Interpress Publications, Vancouver. Meyer, P.A. and M.C. H a r r i s o n . Marina P o l i c y i n t h e T i d a l Area of t h e P a c i f i c Coast. Environment Canada 1 9 7 6 , Vancouver. M i c h e l s o n , W, and P. Reed. The Time Budget. In B e h a v i o u r a l Research Methods i n Environmental Design e d i t e d by W. M i c h e l s o n . Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, I n c . , Penn. 1 9 7 5 . Mos,  Gerard J . and Mary C. H a r r i s o n . Resident B o a t i n g i n Georgia S t r a i t . Environment Canada, F i s h e r i e s and Marine S e r v i c e , Southern Operations Branch, 1 9 7 ^ .  Nelson, C h r i s t o p h e r . Seaspace Use and C o n t r o l : a case study i n the G u l f of Georgia M.A. i n Geography, UBC, 1 9 7 3 . Seneca, J , and C. C i c c h e t t i . "User Response i n Outdoor Recreation" In J o u r n a l of L e i s u r e Research, Volume 1, No. 2 S p r i n g 1 9 6 9 . S t a t e of Washington. P l e a s u r e B o a t i n g Study - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters Washington S t a t e Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission 1 9 6 8 . Smith, J . "Demand Methodologies" In A s s e s s i n g Demand f o r Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , Washington, D.C. 1 9 7 5 . S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Income D i s t r i b u t i o n s by s i z e i n Canada. Ottawa, 1 9 7 4 . S t e r n l i e b , George. L e i s u r e Market S t u d i e s . of New J e r s e y , 1969.  State U n i v e r s i t y  Ill  S t r i b l i n g , J.C. F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Preferences f o r WaterBased R e c r e a t i o n i n Hardin County, Texas. M.Sc. T h e s i s , Oklahoma S t a t e Univ. 1969. T a r r i f f . Board. Ottawa.  T a r i f f Board Report  1971.  Queen's P r i n t e r ,  T a r i f f Board. Report by the T a r i f f Board P l e a s u r e Reference No. 1^9, Ottawa, 1976. The P r o v i n c e , "Soggy Weather S h r i n k i n g B.C. August 2 1 s t , 1976.  Income"  Craft Page  One,  W o l f e r s t a n , W. Marine R e c r e a t i o n i n the D e s o l a t i o n Sound R g i o n of B.C. M.A. i n Geography S.F.U. 1971. e  » -  Woods, Gordon and Co., Management C o n s u l t a n t s . An Overview of R e c r e a t i o n a l B o a t i n g by Residents of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver p u b l i s h e d f o r the Marine Trades A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver 197^.  112  RELEVANT LITERATURE A t l a n t i c U n i t - Water P l a n n i n g and Operations Branch, C o a s t a l Zone A c t i v i t i e s of Doe, Ottawa, 1 9 ? 2 .  Doe  Backstrom, C h a r l e s and G. Hursh. Survey Research. Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1963. Barker, Mary L. Water Resources and R e l a t e d Land Uses S t r a i t of Georgia-Puget Sound B a s i n . G e o g r a p h i c a l Paper #56 Environment Canada 1974. Bryan, R i c h a r d C. The Dimensions of a S a l t Water Sport F i s h i n g T r i p or What do People Look f o r i n a F i s h i n g T r i p besides Fish? Southern Operations Branch P a c i f i c Region Environment Canada, F i s h e r i e s and Marine S e r v i c e , 1974. C a l i f o r n i a C o a s t a l Zone C o n s e r v a t i o n Commission. Prelimina r y C o a s t a l P l a n Hearing D r a f t , C a l i f . 1975. D i t t o n , R.B. The f u t u r e of b o a t i n g on Lake Michigan. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Sea Grant Program 1971. Environment Canada. C o a s t a l Zone: Proceedings of a Seminar h e l d a t Bedford I n s t i t . of Oceanography Dartmouth, N.S., March 1972. V o l . 1 S e l e c t e d Background Papers. A t l a n t i c U n i t , Water Management S e r v i c e Ottawa, 1972. F e s t i n g e r , Leon and D a n i e l K a t z . B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s . New Winston (1966)  Research Methods i n the York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and  Goldthorpe, John H. and K e i t h Hope. The S o c i a l E r o d i n g of Occupations; A New Approach and S c a l e . Clarendon Press Oxford, 1974. Gunn, C l a r e . I n d u s t r y Fragmentation v s . Tourism P l a n n i n g . Unpublished paper. Texas A. and M U n i v e r s i t y 1976 Hyde, B r i a n . A Study of a Report bythe B.C. Prov. Parks Branch on OR Demand i n the Lower Mainland. Paper f o r P l a n n i n g 5 2 1 , A p r i l 1973.  113  Knetsch, Jack. " A s s e s s i n g the Demand f o r Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n " In J o u r n a l of L e i s u r e Research v o l . 1, No. 1. Winter 1969.  Moser, C.A. and G. K a l t o n . Survey Methods i n S o c i a l i g a t i o n . New York: B a s i c Books Inc. (1972)  Invest-  P.olakowski, Kenneth J . Shoreland P l a n n i n g i n the Great Lakes B a s i n and S e l e c t e d C o a s t a l Zones i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Sea Grant Program 1970. Ramirez, Ruben D. B o a t i n g i n the Puget Sound Region - 1985. MA i n Urban P l a n n i n g , Univ. of Washington, 1964. S e w e l l , W.R. D e r r i c k and B l a i r T. Bower et a l . Forecasting the Demands f o r Water. P o l i c y and P l a n n i n g Branch, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, 1968. S e w e l l , W.R.D, Judy, R. and O u e l l e t , L. Water Management Research: S o c i a l Science P r i o r i t i e s . P o l i c y and P l a n n i n g Branch, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa 1 9 6 9 . T a r i f f Board. "Those Prosperous Yachtsmen" In P a c i f i c Y a c h t i n g , Sept. 1976, I n t e r p r e s s P u b l i c a t i o n s , Vancouver.  APPENDIX A BOATER  QUESTIONNAIRES  115 PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN TUIS AREA Type Number Site Location Date Time Weather  al llJtJ * IJ  uu  I II II I  ~ *u  EOATER QUESTIONNAIRE  v/JUU  Where do you live? Please indicate the number of people travelling on board your boat who f a l l into the following age brackets: a) up to 13 years . b) 15 to 20 years c) 20 to 30 years d) 30 to 40 years e) 40 to 50 years . f) 50 years and up _____ Are you a family? of both?  A group of friends?  A mixture  Eow long have you been cruising so far on this trip? How much longer do you plan to be cruising? day(s)  day(s)  I  Every 3 to 4 days Weekly  a) Wharfage for the night b) Fuel c) Showers d) Marine. Supplies e) Hotels,pubs, restaurants  i i) Groceries' 1 O  Ice  i • j! h) Water j i) Laundry ! i> Eait, tackle '.) Repairs 1) Liquor store i.) Electricity hookups r) Other (please specify) 1  53UU JXUU  Balow.is a l i s t of services and f a c i l i t i e s available throughout the Strait of Georgia to vacationing boaters. Please indicate h.3.r often you w i l l use or have used certain services on this trip. Leave a blank beside those you haven't used or won't use. Daily  31 o  •  116 PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA  Why <!id you d e c i d e t o come t o t h i s spot? (Please check the appropriate reasons(s).) a) to spend the n i g h t i n a c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n ] b) t o get p r o t e c t i o n from the weather c) t o o b t a i n s e r v i c e s ( f u e l , g r o c e r i e s , showers, e t c . ) d) t o meet f r i e n d s , o t h e r b o a t e r s e) t o see what the a r e a was l i k e f) t o do r e p a i r s on boat, engine g) other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) ' '  How l o n g have you been here?  hour(s)  How much l o n g e r do you p l a n t o spend day(s)  here?  day(s) hour(s)  SkfJ U  11 a u u 11 u  I&IJIJ  kkjjij nijij itijij  I f you're spending the n i g h t here w i l l y o u : a) t i e up a t a government f l o a t ? b) t i e up a t a commercial marina? c) anchor out? d) t i e up a l o n g s i d e another boat? e) o t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) P l e a s e e x p l a i n the r e a s o n f o r your c h o i c e .  9.  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e s a wide ranse t h a t c o u l d be r e q u i r e d by the v a c a t i o n i n g b o a t e r . I n the f i r s t column p l e a s e check those you have used or i n t e n d t o use a t t h i s l o c a t i o n . In the second column p l e a s e e s t i m a t e your e x p e n d i t u r e t o t h e n e a r e s t d o l l a r on those items you have purchased. In the t h i r d column p l e a s e check those s e r v i c e s not evail£.ble t h i s l o c a t i o n t h a t you would l i k e t o be a b l e to use h e r e . F e e l f r e e t o add t o t h i s l i s t under o t h e r " . ,:  Service/Facility  a) g r o c e r i e s  Used j  b) (on shore) showers  i  c) (on shore) restrcoms  i j  <5)  j  gas and o i l  D o l l a r s Spent  I Would L i k e t o Use  j  n) h o t e l rooms & f a c i l i t i e s ' f)  pubs, lciinftes  ?) b a i t and t a c k l e a) writer i)  ice  | j i  i  ') toatworks, r e " a i r s  ' t  k) telephone X) l i q u c r s t o r e  ji |  ti) e l e c t r i c i t y hookups L) marine s u p p l i e s o) rc.it jurarits  1  7>) laundry a) post o f f i c e  | j  r)  other (plei.ee specify)  1  i  VJIJIJIJ  <  117  PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA  10.  Vacationing boaters often alter their planned length of stay i n a particular location. Are you leaving here e a r l i e r than you expected for any of the following reasons? If so, please check those that apply, a) weather conditions b) no moorage available O no space to anchor out d> too many other boats in sight e) negative reaction of l o c a l residents to non-resident boaters _ f ) noise from other boaters _ 8) services desired not available _ h> inconsiderate behaviour by other boaters _ i ) polluted conditions _ j) lineups for fuel, groceries _ k) other (please specify)  ifiJJU  i#uu sfiJJU IJIJ Ut l IJI l IJIJ IJI I IJI~I  iju Ou uu Ul  ii.  Would any of the above l i s t e d reasons prevent you from returning to this location? No Yes ( i f so, please l i s t the letter(s) of the appropriate reasons(s)):  Have you encountered any problems with deadheads or sawlog debris i n the past 12 months? Deadheads  Sawlogs  y  yes  Debris  \%l e s  no  n  o  y e s  n o  Number of hits by your boats i n the past year:  IJ  U h\U  "' 'l  I  I  118  1  PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA 12. 13.  14.  15.  How c_ny years have you been cruising i n the S t r a i t of Georgia? year(s) In the last 12 months approximately how many boating t r i p s have you made i n the following categories? a) one day outings b) overnight cruises (up to 2 nights) c) vacation cruises (3 nights plus)  siijijn  What percentage of your cruises of more than one night during the last 12 months took place: a) from June 1 to September 30 % b) from October 1 to May 31 Is the boat you're t r a v e l l i n g on your own? Rented? Borrowed? Type: S a i l Inboard Outboard Inboard/Outboard Overall length: feet Horsepower:  iVJ/jQ  q  /  jljl I kii/j/jn  THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION (ALONG WITH ALL PREVIOUS ANSWERS) WILL BE KEPT STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL. 16.  What i s the age of the head of the household?  years  d-JJIJ  17.  Please indicate your annual household income before taxes: a) up to $5,000 e) $12,000 to $15,0p0 b) $5,000 to $3,000 f) $15,000 to $20,000 c) $8,000 to $10,000 g) $20,000 to $25,000 d) $10,000 to $12,000 h) $25,000 and up  18,  Whet i s the educational experience of the head of the household? a) elementary school d) some university, b) some high school trade school c) high school graduate e) university graduate f) post graduate  di/j  19.  Is the head of the household currently a) employed? b) retired? c) unemployed? Please indicate occupation i f employed  <>VJ *>UU  20. On the map below please show the following: a) Mark the origin of your cruise with an "o" (if this location doesn't appear on the map write i t here ) b) Shov your route so far with a solid line (include arrows to indicate direction) and mark a l l overnight stopovers with an " X " c) If possible draw your intended route from here with a dotted line and nark your intended overnight stopovers with a "Y".  Rive,. °-  \  0  \  5<»« JuAiv I?-  0-  VfcWi*  120 PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA  Type Number Site Location Date Time Weather  ,/ *  lljlj II  rt uu  IJIJIJ  EOATER QUESTIONNAIRE I.  IJIJIJ  Where do you l i v e ? P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h e number o f p e o p l e t r a v e l l i n g on board boat who f a l l i n t o the f o l l o w i n g age b r a c k e t s : a) up t o 13 y e a r s b) 15 t o 20 y e a r s c) 20 t o 30 y e a r s d) 30 t o 40 y e a r s e) 40 t o 50 y e a r s f) 50 y e a r s and up A r e you a f a m i l y ? of both?  A group o f f r i e n d s ?  A  Eow l o n g have you been c r u i s i n g so f a r on t h i s t r i p ? Eow much l o n g e r do you p l a n t o be c r u i s i n g ? day(s)  your  TJO  mixture  day(s)  B_lot7.is a l i s t o f s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e throughout the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a to v a c a t i o n i n g b o a t e r s . Please i n d i c a t e o f t e n you w i l l use o r have used c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s on t h i s trip. Leave a b l a n k b e s i d e those you haven't used o r won't use. Daily  • a) Wharfage f o r t h e n i g h t I b) F u e l c) Showers d) Marine S u p p l i e s e) Hotels,pubs,  restaurants  ; i ) Groceries'  1 O Ice j— j !•») W3ter ! >  j ;) Laundry ! ;> E a i t , t a c k l e .) F.epairs i) L i q u o r s t o r e i.}  E l e c t r i c i t y hookups  r)  Other ( p l e a s e specify)  1  Every  3 t o 4 days  Weekly  3\U 53/JU &IJU  121  PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA 6. Why did you decide to come to this marine park? o) to get away from othor boaters b) to get protection from the weather c) to anchor for the nip.ht d) to enjoy the scenic quality e) to meet friends, oth^.r boaters f) to see what i t was like g) to stay in a "wilderness" setting where there is good access to services (e.g. at Secret Cove) h) other (please specify)  II  n n 11  a u u IJ  7. How long have you been here?  hour(s)  How much longer do you plan to spend here? day(s)  day (s) hour(s)  In the past 12 months how frequently have you visited any of the B.C. marine parks listed below? Discovery Island Thurston Bay D'Arcy Island Echo Bay Newcastle Island Gibson (on Flores Island)_ Princess Margaret^ Sidney Spit Beaumont Desolation Sound Copeland Islands Princess Louisa Garden Bay Pirates Cove Plumper Cove Rebecca Spit Montague Harbour Octopus Islands Smuggler Cove Mansons Landing  GsfJU  IJIJ IJIJ 1-tjlJIJ  3UU  How would you rate this park in comparison to others?  9.  Marine parks in B.C. offer the following range of f a c i l i t i e s . Please check those you've used here and those you'd like to use that were not available here. Dsed  Would Like to Use  a) campgrounds b) fresh water supply c) picnic grounds d) floats e) mooring buoys f ) garbage disposal g) road access routes h) boat launch ramps i) Other (please specify)  J  122  PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA 10.  Vacationing boaters often alter their planned length of stay at a particular location. Are you leaving here earlier than you expected? If so, please check the appropriate reason. a) noise from other boaters b) weather conditions c) no space available to anchor d) facilities desired not available e) inconsiderate behaviour by other boaters f) pollution g) too many other boaters in site h) needed to buy fuel, groceries i) other (please specify)  IJI  i if nr nr i ir UL  ui. iJI  ii.  Would any of these reasons prevent you from returning to (If so, please list the reason(s)).  this park? No • Yes letter(s) of the appropriate  Have you encountered any problems with deadheads or sawlog debris in the past 12 months? Deadheads Sawlogs Debris  yes  yes no  yes no  &u11 O  Number of hits by your boats in the past year: Deadheads Sawlogs Debris  3\/_l 11 11  s  123  PLEASE MAKE NO MARKS IN THIS AREA  12. 13.  14.  How many years have you been cruising i n the Strait of Georgia? year (a)  HJU  In the last 12 months approximately how many boating t r i p s have you made i n the following categories? a) one day outings b) overnight cruises (up to 2 nights) c) vacation cruises (3 nights plus)  VMJIJI I HUJIJTI HHIJI U~l  What percentage of your cruises of more than one night during the last 12 months took place: a) from June 1 to September 30 lk-3 11 11 I b) from October 1 to May 3 1 • • * $ (MJIJIJ  15.  Is the boat you're t r a v e l l i n g on your own? Rented? Borrowed? Types l Inboard Outboard Inboard/Outboard Overall length: feet Horsepower: S  a  4  i  k\fjl  IIJ  THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION (ALONG WITH ALL PREVIOUS ANSWERS) WILL BE KEPT STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL. 16.  What i s the age of the head of the household?  17.  years  Please indicate your annual household income before taxes: a) b) c) d)  up to $ 5 , 0 0 0 $ 5 , 0 0 0 to $ 3 , 0 0 0 $ 8 , 0 0 0 to $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 to $ 1 2 , 0 0 0  e) f) g) h)  $12,000 $15,000 $20,000 $25,000  to $ 1 5 , 0 p 0 to $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 to $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 and up  18,  Wh£t i s the educational experience of the head of the household? a) elementary school d) some university, b) some high school trade 6 c h o o l c) high school graduate e) university graduate f ) post graduate  19.  Is the head of the household currently a) employed? b) retired? c)  unemployed?  Please indicate occupation i f employed  OS/JIJ  CWJ  dv 1  vj  124 20.  On the map below please show the following: a) Mark the origin of your cruise with an "o" ( i f this location doesn't appear on the map write i t here ) b) Shov your route so far with a solid l i n e (include arrows to indicate direction) and mark a l l overnight stopovers with an "X" c) I f possible draw your intended route from here with a dotted l i n e and mark your intended overnight stopovers with a "Y".  125  APPENDIX B THE  SOCIOECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE BOATER An  important  p o i n t to be noted  i n the f o l l o w i n g  s e c t i o n s i s t h a t , with the exception of W o l f e r s t a n  (1971),  other s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d to here are based on e n t i r e  popula-  t i o n s of r e c r e a t i o n a l b o a t e r s , not merely on p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c r u i s i n g a c t i v i t y or " t r a n s i e n t " b o a t e r s . RESIDENCE Table B-I  shows the homes of the respondents.  By  f a r the m a j o r i t y of the Canadian b o a t e r s o r i g i n a t e d from p o i n t s on the S t r a i t of Georgia, region.  e s p e c i a l l y the Vancouver  American b o a t e r s comprised 40.6  percent  (n =  192)  of a l l respondents. Some 62 percent of b o a t e r s s t a n ( 1 9 7 1 , page 70)  i n t e r v i e w e d by  Wolfer-  i n D e s o l a t i o n Sound came from the  U.S.  Even so, the p r o p o r t i o n of Americans i n t h i s study seemed h i g h c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t S e c r e t Cove and Pender Harbour are p l a c e s w e l l known to and used by B r i t i s h Columbians. h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - r e s i d e n t s a t t r i b u t e d to the unseasonal S h r i n k i n g B.C.  Income", The  p o s s i b l e t h a t l o c a l people  c o u l d be  This  indirectly  summer weather ("Soggy Weather P r o v i n c e , Aug.  21,  1976).  It i s  c a n c e l l e d or postponed v a c a t i o n  c r u i s e s whereas v i s i t o r s from the south, not forewarned,  126 TABLE B-I  RESIDENCE OF RESPONDENTS (n = 192)  Area  Percentage of Respondents  1. Georgia Strait Vancouver Island MaiJTland Coast Mainland Coast  1A lo 0 1.0  North Shore  15.1  Greater Vancouver  31.3  Delta-Surrey  3.1  2» Inter 2. Interior B.C.  1.5  3. U.S.A. Washington  30.2  Oregon  5.7  California  2.1  Other States  2.6  127  s a i l e d i n t o B.C. waters. AGE The mean age of the respondent was 47 y e a r s .  This  f i g u r e i s s i m i l a r t o t h e average age of boat owners i n g e n e r a l i n the S t r a i t of Georgia, t h a t i s , 45 years (Mos and H a r r i s o n , 1974, page 75) and t o an American s e t average age of boat owners a t 40 t o 49 y e a r s 1969,  study which (Stribling,  page 2 4 ) . D i s t r i b u t i o n of ages of the respondents i s shown  i n Table B - I I and compared t o age d i s t r i b u t i o n found by A l l e y and Ferguson  (1976) i n t h e i r study of b o a t e r s i n Howe  Sound. INCOME, In g e n e r a l , t h e r e appears t o be a c o r r e l a t i o n between income and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ; Clawson (1963, page 38) found t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i n b o a t i n g was f o u r or f i v e times as g r e a t i n f a m i l i e s e a r n i n g over $10,000 than i n f a m i l i e s e a r n i n g l e s s than $3,000. As shown i n Table B - I I I , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t r a n s i e n t b o a t e r s are a h i g h income group. EDUCATION I t appears t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n b o a t i n g a c t i v i t y  TABLE B-II AGE DISTRIBUTION OF BOATERS BY PERCENTAGE OF SAMPLE  Category  Howe Sound Study* (ri = 70)  Survey Results (n = 176)  Under 20  1.4  0  20 - 29  8.4  7.6  30 - 39  24.8  26.6  40 - 49  25.7  20.2  50 - 59  22.6  27.7  60 and over  17-1  17-9  * Source: Alley and Ferguson  1976 page 20  129 TABLE B-III COMPARISON OF PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILIES BY INCOME GROUP  1974  Income Category  Under  $5,000.  $5,000 - $8,000 $8,000 $10,000  $10,000  1976  B.C. Households*  Survey Results (n = 171)  7-8  0  11.0  .  0.6  8.5  1.2  8.8  1.2  -  $12,000  $12,000 -  $15,000  17.1  7.6  $15,000 -  $20,000  22.5  13-5  $20,000 -  $25,000  13.2  I8.I  11.1  57.9  $25,000 and  up  (* Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1974  page 24)  130  have r e c e i v e d more f o r m a l education than the average Columbian.  Table B-IV compares survey r e s u l t s from  British this  study and the Howe Sound Study ( A l l e y and Ferguson, 1 9 ? 6 , page 21) t o the p r o v i n c i a l  average.  EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATION The m a j o r i t y of respondents,  some 8 6 . 3 percent  (n = 183) were employed, 14.8 percent were r e t i r e d and 1.6 percent were not employed.  Occupation c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d  were h e a v i l y weighed i n " s e r v i c e " and " t r a d e " . shows these t r e n d s .  Table B-V  131 TABLE B-IV EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF BOATERS BY PERCENTAGE  Category  Sample . Survey  Howe Sound Survey*  (n=l82).  (n=70)  Provincial Average*  Elementary School  2.2  2.9  18.0  Some high school  9.9  9.9  31.0  High School graduate  19-2  21.6  22.0  Some univ. o r trade  49.4  42.9  21.0  Univ. graduate  18.7'  Post graduate  0.5  (* Sources:  A l l e y and Ferguson  12.8~ 22.7  19.2  9.9  1976  S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1973 )  page 21  7-0  132 TABLE B-V OCCUPATION OP RESPONDENTS (n = 138)  Category  Percentage of Respondents  1. Forestry  1.4  2. Manufacturing  5.1  3. Construction  5.8  4. Transportation, coranunication and u t i l i t i e s  6.5  5. Trade 6. Finance, insurance and r e a l estate 7. Community, business and professional service  27.5 6.5 37-0  8. Public adrunistration and defence  5.1  9. Unspecified other  5*1  133  APPENDIX C BOATING EXPERIENCE AND ACTIVITY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE The average number of years of b o a t i n g experience i n the S t r a i t of Georgia was 9 years (n = 188) and ranged from 1 t o 4-0 y e a r s . age  F i g u r e C-I shows a c o r r e l a t i o n between  of boat owner and years of b o a t i n g experience.  BOAT OWNERSHIP By f a r the m a j o r i t y , some cja.«a. percent (n = I8(? ) of the respondents travelling.  owned t h e boats on which they were  Rented boats comprised  sample and borrowed boats comprised  percent o f the 3.4>  percent.  CREW COMPOSITION F a m i l y groups r e p r e s e n t e d by 74.8 percent o f the respondents 13.9  (n = 194)?  9*8 percent were a group of f r i e n d s ;  percent were a mixture of both;  t r a v e l l i n g alone. T a r i f f Board  1.5 percent were  These r e s u l t s c o n f i r m the f i n d i n g s of the  (1976, page 50) who s t a t e d that some 70 t o 85  p e r c e n t of boat owners were married couples with c h i l d r e n . TRIP LENGTH On the average  respondents  had been c r u i s i n g f o r  COUNT ROW FCT CCL FCT TOT PCT AGE  I I I I  BOATING EXPERIENCE (IN YEARS)  ROW TJTAL 1-2  I  3-5  -  6-10  1  16-20  21-25  26-30  * 11-15  1  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  I I I I  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  1 I I I  0.0 0.0 0.0  I I I I  1  [  1  i 6 0.0 1 0. 0 I 0.0 I  30 plus  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  4 2C.8 6.5 2.3  I I I 1  2 15.4 4.5 1.1  I I I I  13 13 I 28.9 ' 2 8 o 9 I 30-39: I .35.1 I 27.7 7.5 7.5 I  I I I I  13 28.9 29.5 7.5  I I I I  _  2 4.4 13.3 1.1  I 1 I I  2 4.4 12.5 1.1  I I I I  1 2.2 12. 5 0.6  I [ [ [  1 2. 2 25. J 0.6  14 I 8 I _, 40.0. I 22.9 I 40-49 . I _ I 21.6 I 29.8 4.6 I 8.0 I  5 14.3 11.4 2.9  I I I I  2 5.7 13.3 1.1  1 1 I I  5 I 14.3 1 31.3 I 2.9 I  1 2 .9 12.5 0.6  I I [ [  J 0.0 0.0 0. 0  7 I 14.3 I 18.9 I 4.0 I  10 2C. 4 21.3 5.7  I I I I  16 32.7 36.4 9.2  I I I I  b I 12.2 I 40.0 I 3.4 I  5 I 10.2 I 31.3 I 2.9 I  3 6.1 37.5 1.7  [ I [ [  1 2.0 25. J 0. 6  I I I I  1 2.0 33.3 0.6  2 I 6.2 I 5.4 I 1.1 I  6 18.8 12.8 2.4  I I I I  8 25.0 18. 2 4.6  I I I I  5 I 15.6 I 33.3 I 2.9 I  4 12.5 25.0 2.3  3 ][ 2 9.4 I 6.2 5 0. J 37.5 1 1. 1 1.7 L  I I I I  2 6.2 66.7 1.1  20-29 I 1  50-59 j }  60 and I CCLUMN TC T £ L CHI SQUARE  7 • I" 5 3.8 I .18.9 I 4.0 I  37 21.3  47 27.0  44 25.3  4C .25566 VvlTh  15 8.6  I I I 1  16 9.2  8 4.6  26 DEGREES OF FREEDOM  NUMBER OF MS SING OBSERVATIONS =  22  FIGURE C-l  6  '  4 2.3  SIGNIFICANCE =  I I I I  [ [  12 7 .5  45 2 5.9  0 1 0.0 [ 0.0 1 0.0  I 0 I ... o. 0 I 0.0 I 0.0  3 1.7  ] 35 .t 20.1. ] 1  [  49 2 8.2  I  ]  j  32 i 8.4  1  1  1 I  1 74 1U0. 0  0.0627  CROSSTABULATION OF YEARS OF EXPERIENCE WITH AGE OF RESPONDENT  135  11.6 8.8  days (n = 193) n\d were p l a n n i n g to c r u i s e a  days (n = 184)  days.  another  f o r a planned average c r u i s e of  20.4  T h i s compares with the average t r i p l e n g t h of  days measured by W o l f e r s t a n  ( 1 9 7 1 , page 70)  23.2  among D e s o l a t i o n  Sound b o a t e r s . NUMBER 0E BOATING TRIPS Respondents took an average of 23 (n = 127) c r u i s e s i n the l a s t year, 10 (n = 136) (n = l 6 l )  one-day  o v e r n i g h t t r i p s and  t r i p s of three n i g h t s or more.  28  136  APPENDIX D CROSSTABULATION BETWEEN BOAT TYPE AND ACCOMMODATION SOUGHT  CCLNT ROW P C T COL PCT TCT PCT  BOAT TYPE Sail  Inboard  Outboard  Inboard/ Outboard CCLUKN TOTAL CHI  SQUARE  NUMBER  =  ACCOMMODATION ROW TOTAL  I Public  I Private  I Anchor  I Other  I I I I  21 44. 7 39.6 11.5  I I I I  18 3£.3 16.4 9 .9  I I I I  8 17.0 50.0 4.4  I I I I  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  1 1 I 1  47 25.8  I I  19 24.4  35. 10.4  50 6 4.1 45.5 27.5  I I I I  6 7.7 37. 5 3.3  I I I I  3 3.8 100.0 1.6  I 1 1 1  78 42.9  I I  I I I I  I I I I  1 33.3 1.9 C.5  I I  66.7  3  1-fe  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  I I I I  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  1 1 ] I  3 1.6  I  I I I I  I • I i I I  12 22.6 22.6 6.6  I I I I  39 73 . 6 35.5 21.4  I  2 3.8 12.5 1.1  I I I I  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  ][ 1 1 1  53 29. 1  e  53 29.1  20.96535  OF P I S S I N G  WITH  CBSEPVATICNS  ~  I I I  16 8.8  1 10 6C . 4 12 D E G R E E S =  3 1.6  OF FREEDOM  182 100.0 SIGNIFICANCE  =  0.0509  14  FIGURE D - l CROSSTABULATION OF BOAT TYPE WITH ACCOMMODATION SOUGHT V>>  

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