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Aspects of cyclic myth in Chinese and Western literature Chen, Robert Shan-Mu 1977

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ASPECTS OF CYCLIC MYTH IN CHINESE AND WESTERN LITERATURE ROBERT SHAN-MU CHEN B.A., Soochow U n i v e r s i t y , 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Programme of Comparative L i t e r a t u r e  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF. BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 197? R o b e r t Shan-mu Chen, 1 9 7 7  i In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  available for  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  r e f e r e n c e and copying o f t h i s  It  i s understood that copying o r  thesis  permission.  R o b e r t Shan-mu Chen  Department of  Comparative L i t e r a t u r e  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  D a t p  O c t o b e r 20, 1977-  J  or  publication  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  that  study.  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  /ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s a comparative  s t u d y o f t h e h i s t o r y and l i t e r a r y  o f t h e c y c l i c myth i n C h i n e s e and Western European c u l t u r e .  The  form  cyclic  myth i s seen as a complex o f d i s c r e t e myths and r i t u a l s which t e n d t o i d e n t i f y man  w i t h t h e p e r i o d i c r e g e n e r a t i o n o f n a t u r e and c e l e s t i a l b o d i e s  i n o r d e r t o ensure p e r s o n a l d u r a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e f l u x o f t i m e .  By  comparing  t h e o r i g i n s and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e c y c l i c myth i n b o t h c u l t u r e s t h e e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between C h i n e s e and Western l i t e r a t u r e v e a l e d as b o t h c o s m o l o g i c a l and  w i l l be r e -  ontological.  In o r d e r t o b r i n g t h e C h i n e s e c y c l i c myth i n t o a c o h e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , e f f o r t s a r e devoted t o t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f f i f t e e n myths w h i c h c o n c e r n temporal c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  The o r i g i n a l  c y c l i c myth i s  then t r a c e d through i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n : r i t u a l , religion,  Chinese  natural  and f i n a l l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n , f o r each has been i n c o r -  p o r a t e d w i t h i n t h e c y c l i c m e n t a l i t y o f t h e homogeneous C h i n e s e  culture.  W i t h t h e a b s t r a c t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth b r o a d l y d e f i n e d , t h e  paper  t u r n s t o a h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f a r c h e t y p a l c y c l i c images and p a t t e r n s i n C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e , t o the C h i n e s e world-view.  A subsequent  c y c l i c myth i n Western l i t e r a t u r e ,  r e l a t i n g these i n s i g h t s  survey o f the s u r v i v a l o f the  d e s p i t e t h e dominant e s c h a t o l o g y o f  C h r i s t i a n i t y , s e r v e s as t h e f o c u s o f comparison  between E a s t and West.  By  a g e n e r a l d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth's t r a n s m u t a t i o n i n J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e , t h e paper proposes a b e t t e r discernment o f t h e c y c l i c schema as an i n f o n r t i n g s t r u c t u r e o f l i t e r a r y works o r an i n d e x o f c u l t u r e , and a f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c y c l i c myth as a whole.  ill CONTENTS I. II.  1  DTTRDDUCTION THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE CHINESE CYCLIC MYTH  11  A.  The Temporal Envisagement  12  B.  The C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e R i t u a l and  i n C h i n e s e Mythology Primitive  Religion C.  The C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y i. •i i .  Confucianism  iii.  Taoism  iv. D. III.  Y i n Yang S c h o o l  C h i n e s e Buddhism  Summary  THE CYCLIC MYTH IN CHINESE LITERATURE A.  The C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e P o e t r y i. ii.  B.  K u e i Ch'u L a i T z ' u  100  The C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e Drama i. ii.  C.  L i Sao  Mu Tan T ' i n g Han Tan C h i  The C y c l i c Myth i n t h e C h i n e s e N o v e l i. ii.  H s i Yu C h i Hung Lou Meng  106 108 118 124 125 137  D. Summary IV.  28 55 55 58 64 69 76 86 87 88  145  THE CYCLIC MYTH IN WESTERN LITERATURE  159  A.  Historical  160  B.  A B r i e f Survey o f t h e S u r v i v a l  Background  Myth i n Western V.  CONCLUSION  VI.  APPENDIXES Appendix  o f the C y c l i c  Literature  166 200 209  I:  A b b r e v i a t i o n o f T i t l e s o f Source Books o f C h i n e s e Mythology  Appendix I I :  210  Chronological Table o f Chinese C l a s s i c s and Legendary  Sources  211  IV  Appendix I I I : 1. ii. iii. iv.  C o n s t x u c t i o n o f Some C h i n e s e Myths  212  Myths o f C r e a t i o n  212 215 216  The Myth o f t h e C r e a t i o n o f Man The Myth o f t h e G r e a t Deluge The Myth o f P a r a d i s e R e b u i l t and the  v.  Golden Age  The Myth o f t h e S i l v e r Age  vi.  The Myth o f Passageways t o Heaven  vii.  The Myth o f t h e D i v i n e C o n f e r e n c e and t h e R e b e l l i o n o f C h ' i h Yu  viii.  228  The Myth o f D i s a s t e r s on E a r t h  229  A f t e r t h e Estrangement x.  The Myth o f t h e God o f Time and the  xi.  230  J o u r n e y o f t h e Sun  The Myth o f T i t a n P'eng Tsu's Sorrow Over t h e E p h e m e r a l i t y o f L i f e  xii.  The Myth o f T i t a n K'ua F u :  235' 236  The Myth o f t h e F l i g h t t o t h e Moon  239  xv.  The Myth o f t h e D i v i n e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  241  IV:  The E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n o f Poems  i. ii. iii. VTI.  One Who Shot  Down N i n e Suns xiv.  Appendix  The Myth o f Hou I :  234  One Who  Chased t h e Sun xiii.  224  The Myth o f t h e Estrangement o f E a r t h From Heaven  ix.  219 219 221  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Cited  249  L i Sao. T r . D a v i d Hawkes  249  The R e t u r n . T r . James R o b e r t Hightower  256  Homing. T r . L u c i e n M i l l e r  258 260  V  AC^OWLElX^EMEaSIT  I s h o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r G. Good, D i r e c t o r o f t h e Programme o f Comparative L i t e r a t u r e , and P r o f e s s o r s F l o r e n c e Chao and J a n W a l l s o f t h e Department o f A s i a n S t u d i e s , f o r t h e i r e n t h u s i a s t i c guidance throughout t h e r e s e a r c h programme and h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s  during the  preparation o f the t h e s i s . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended t o my f a m i l i e s f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u o u s encouragement o v e r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s ;  e s p e c i a l l y t o my  w i f e , L i s s a , f o r h e r l o v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g times. My g r e a t e s t d e b t i s r e c o r d e d  i n the dedication.  difficult  INTRODUCTION  2 Whether t h e s t u d y o f comparative comparison  l i t e r a t u r e i s regarded as  "the  o f l i t e r a t u r e w i t h o t h e r spheres o f human e x p r e s s i o n " o r as  "the s t u d y o f l i t e r a t u r e beyond t h e . c o n f i n e s o f one p a r t i c u l a r  country,"  1  a s t u d e n t comparing t h e l i t e r a t u r e s o f C h i n a and Western Europe i s i n evitably  doomed t o a s o l i t u d e  of uncertainty.  t h e two c u l t u r e s through h i s t o r y  The abysmal remoteness o f  tends t o magnify  any p e r c e i v e d c o r r e s -  pondence t o t h e p o i n t o f a s s u r e d c o n c l u s i o n s where o n l y rough may,  i n fact, exist.  I n t h e comparison  similarities  o f l i t e r a t u r e with other areas o f  knowledge t h e v e r y homogeneity o f C h i n e s e c u l t u r e poses a problem.  The  integration  and  o f p h i l o s o p h y and l i t e r a t u r e , t h e coherence o f r e l i g i o n  philosophy, the c o r r e l a t i o n  o f p h i l o s o p h y and p o l i t i c s , and t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s  o f v a r i o u s p h i l o s p h i c s c h o o l s , and a e s t h e t i c a l l y v e r s e and music, and p a i n t i n g and p o e t r y : front,  almost a b a r r i e r  the coalescence o f  lyric  t h e s e concerns p r e s e n t a u n i t e d  t o t h e i n q u i s i t i v e Western mind.  In the  comparison  o f one l i t e r a t u r e t o a n o t h e r , t h e s t u d e n t i s f a c e d w i t h d e c i d i n g w h i c h Chinese l i t e r a t u r e i s the area o f concern.  Thus t h e May-Fourth Movement,  a p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y became a c u l t u r a l r e f o r m a t i o n i n demarcates an i n t e g r a l t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e w i t h an independent o f more t h a n two thousand y e a r s from a heterogeneous  1919,  evolution  modern l i t e r a t u r e w i t h  an i n t r i c a t e and p e r v a s i v e Western i n f l u e n c e o r t h e b a r r e n n e s s o f  ideological  dogma. In t h e above p e r s p e c t i v e , a comparative especially  s t u d y o f l i t e r a r y theme,  t h a t o f a r c h e t y p a l image and p a t t e r n , t h a t which i s most funda-  mental and most beyond temporal and s p a t i a l b a r r i e r s ,  i s l i k e l y t o be  most u r g e n t and c o n s t r u c t i v e t a s k f o r t h e s t u d e n t comparing C h i n e s e Western l i t e r a t u r e .  As t h e u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f p s y c h i c t r u t h and  the  and the  most p r i m o r d i a l y e t autonomous form o f t h e human s p i r i t , t h e c y c l i c myth  3 as an a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n o f mythology n a t u r a l l y arouses one's a t t e n t i o n . Thus t h e t a s k o f t h i s paper i s t o t r a c e t h e o r i g i n s , f o r m a t i o n , and  pre-  s e n t a t i o n o f t h a t most p e r v a s i v e m e n t a l i t y o r schema known f o r ages i n C h i n e s e c u l t u r e as " T ' i e n J e n Ho I , " l i t e r a l l y t h e u n i t y o f man  and cosmos;  and f u r t h e r , t o engender i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c y c l i c myth as a whole by c o n t r a s t and comparison t o i t s Western c o u n t e r p a r t . cation of terminology—the r e n d e r e d as "the C h i n e s e  The  f i r s t step i s a  simplifi-  schema o f " T ' i e n J e n Ho I " i s h e r e a f t e r t o be  c y c l i c myth" which immediately  suggests t h e common  importance o f c y c l i c i t y t o b o t h c u l t u r e s w h i l e a l l o w i n g f o r more i n c l u s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n i n the r e l e v a n t areas o f  study.  Indeed, t h e uniqueness o f t h e independence o f C h i n e s e  literature  i t s remoteness t o Western assumptions o f f e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u t European-oriented  New  C r i t i c i s m t o a double t e s t .  and  the  And A r t h u r E. Kunst's  c o n c l u s i o n on t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t o f t h e comparative  study o f A s i a n  and  European l i t e r a t u r e s as "the c r e a t i o n o f a t r u l y comprehensive t h e o r y o f l i t e r a t u r e . . . b a s e d on a knowledge o f i n d e p e n d e n t l y e v o l v e d i m a g i n a t i v e 2 traditions"  s e r v e s as t h e b e s t s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h i s paper.  While  an ambitious  scope i s y e t beyond r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n a t t h i s time,  comparison w i l l h o p e f u l l y r e v e a l a r e a s o f f u r t h e r s t u d y as w e l l as a concept c e n t r a l t o b o t h  such our  illuminate  literatures.  D e s p i t e a l a b y r i n t h o f v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , most s c h o l a r s would agree w i t h M i r c e a E l i a d e t h a t myth i s a "complex system o f 3 a f f i r m a t i o n about t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y o f t h i n g s , "  coherent  a system w h i c h c o n s t i -  t u t e s a m e t a p h y s i c a l v a l i d a t i o n o f human e x i s t e n c e , o r a p r i m i t i v e  ontology  t h a t a s s e r t s an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between man  In i t s  and t h e cosmos.  s o c i o p o e i c a s p e c t , myth i s a d r a m a t i z a t i o n and a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e fundamental needs o f t h e s o c i e t y .  Here M a l i n o w s k i ' s  d e f i n i t i o n o f myth as  4 "a n a r r a t i v e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f a p r i m e v a l r e a l i t y , t o l d i n s a t i s f a c t i o n o f deep r e l i g i o u s wants, m o r a l c r a v i n g s , s o c i a l s u b m i s s i o n s ,  assertions,  4 even p r a c t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s " function i n primitive society.  s e r v e s as t h e b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t s v i t a l F i n a l l y i n i t s p s y c h o p o e i c a s p e c t we  t u r n t o t h e p i o n e e r i n g work o f C a r l Jung where "myths a r e o r i g i n a l r e v e l a t i o n s o f t h e p r e c o n s c i o u s psyche, i n v o l u n t a r y statements about psychic happenings." repressed wishes, unconscious,  unconscious  Here myth i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f i n s t i n c t u a l d r i v e s ,  5  f e a r s and c o n f l i c t s , and remnants o f t h e  collective  whether i n i t s mensopoeic, s o c i o p o e i c , o r p s y c h o p o e i c a s p e c t s ,  (and a l l a r e i n v o l v e d i n apprehending touchstone o f c u l t u r e .  t h e c y c l i c myth), myth i s t h e o r i g i n a l  We w i l l m a i n t a i n t h a t myth c i r c u m s c r i b e s a v e r b a l  u n i v e r s e i n which man's p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , and  philosophical  l i v e s a r e r e a l l y one i n t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n and s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e s t a g e o f gods, h e r o e s , and  man.  In the l a s t a n a l y s i s , with f u n c t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y i n regard t o soothing t h e psyche,  s t a b i l i z i n g t h e s o c i e t y , and promoting  cultural continuity,  we  w i l l n o t e n t e r i n t o t h e c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e primacy o f myth o r ritual.  M though myth connotes a way  o f e n v i s a g i n g , and r i t u a l , as a  temporal sequence o f a c t s , denotes a way  o f doing, t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n  i s b o t h i n e v i t i a b l e and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t .  L i l l i a n Feder b e s t renders  mutal dependence a s :  this  "myth c l a r i f i e d t h e p r e s c r i b e d a c t i o n o f r i t e s ,  r i t e s e n a c t e d m y t h i c a l n a r r a t i v e i n s t y l i z e d d r a m a t i c form.  and  We would t h u s  agree w i t h N o r t h r o p F r y e t h a t myth s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d as "the c e n t r a l i n f o r m i n g power t h a t g i v e s a r c h e t y p a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e r i t u a l , " w h i l e a  7 r i t u a l may  i n t u r n suggest t h e o r i g i n o f t h e n a r r a t i v e o f myth.  /Aside from r i t u a l , myth tends t o r e v e a l a body o f m e t a p h y s i c a l whose development may  be consequent  t o t h e o r i g i n a l myth.  thought  This process  was  5  suggested by Susanne Langer- "When the mythical mode i s exhausted, natural religion i s superseded by a discursive and more l i t e r a l form of thought, 8  namely philosophy,"  and amplified by Frye to include literature "which  inherits the fictional and metaphorical patterns that identify aspects of human personality with the natural environment."  In a sense, then, both  philosophy and literature merge inseparably with myth while literature especially inherits plots and characters, and themes and images which are complications (in Frye's terms, "displacements") of similar elements i n myth.  I t i s this universalizing tendency of myth which justifies the  mythopoeic subject of this study:  to investigate the origins of the  narrative of the cyclic myth i n rituals, to expound the abstraction of the cyclic mentality i n philosophy, and to study the presentation and function of the archetypal cyclic mythos i n literature. To begin with a brief account of the origins and functions of the cyclic myth i s to concern ourselves with the disparity between human and cosmic time.  Time i s the essential experience of human existence. I t  i s usually comprehended as a linear progression of succession which i s never experienced as a whole, for as soon as the future becomes the present, the present becomes the past. While the fact that things exist through time demands a second concept, that of permanence or duration. As an adequate description of time, duration must be understood as arising from the successive flux of time, yet conversely, only within the background of duration i s the emergence and the human awareness of succession possible.  Without  duration, time i s the mere succession of heterogeneous present moments; while without succession, duration i s but an all-inclusive and unchanging present.  Duration then becomes the sustaining quality of time and the  actual 'co-existence' of past, present, and future. The concept of duration  6  has  important  r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r consciousness,  f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a  s e l f - c e n t r e d form o f l i f e must endure b y o p p o s i n g t r a n s i t o r i n e s s i n time.  i t s permanency t o i t s  And t h e h i g h e s t s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  whether  t r a n s c e n d e n t a l o r m y t h i c a l , i s t h e awareness o f t h e ' c o - e x i s t e n c e ' o f p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e , o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f time as a whole. As one o f t h e most v i t a l a r c h e t y p e s myth i s i n e v i t a b l y t e m p o r a l l y c e n t r e d .  o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  the c y c l i c  I t i s a myth o f e t e r n a l r e t u r n , t h e  myth o f p e r i o d i c becoming and p e r p e t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n .  I t s themes r e p r e s e n t  man's e n v i s a g i n g and m a n i p u l a t i n g o f t h e unfathomable cosmic s e t t i n g o f h i s existence, e s p e c i a l l y t h e awful consciousness  of his biologically  death a g a i n s t t h e r e b i r t h o f t h e sun, moon, and t h e seasons. consciousness  irreversible  This  linear  o f t h e s e l f a g a i n s t n a t u r e would remain an imponderable  nightmare were i t n o t f o r man's rtYthmaking i m a g i n a t i o n which r e c o g n i z e s i n n a t u r e t h e permanent symbol and d i v i n e r u l e , and a s s i m i l a t e s h i m s e l f t o i t to  d e f i n e h i s l i f e and b e i n g .  I n essence,  t h e c y c l i c myth i d e n t i f i e s man  w i t h t h e p e r i o d i c becoming and r e g e n e r a t i o n i n n a t u r e , and guarantees p e r s o n a l d u r a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e f l u x o f time. I n t h e mythopoeic p e r s p e c t i v e , n a t u r e i s c y c l i c a l ; t h e r e i s everywhere a c o n c e p t o f t h e e n d and b e g i n n i n g o f a t e m p o r a l p e r i o d , and t h e r e a r e always i n s t a n t r e p e t i t i o n s o r images and o b v i o u s metaphors ready t o convey a dawning concept o f b e i n g .  I n h e a v e n l y motion, s o l a r a l t e r n a t i o n ,  lunar  r e g u l a r i t y , and s e a s o n a l r o t a t i o n , t h e r e appears a p a t t e r n o f c y c l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e which o f f e r s an o p t i m i s t i c view o f l i f e i n g e n e r a l . F r y e b e s t summarizes t h i s a s :  Northrop  "myth s e i z e s on t h e fundamental element o f  d e s i g n o f f e r e d b y n a t u r e - t h e c y c l i c , as we have i t d a i l y i n t h e sun and y e a r l y i n t h e seasons- and a s s i m i l a t e s i t t o t h e human c y c l e o f l i f e , and  re-birth". ^ 1  death  7  Above a l l the identity of human and natural cycle presents a conviction of the periodic regeneration of time which i n turn i s a revolt against the historical or linear time of succession.  Here we rely greatly on the re-  searches of Mircea Eliade, especially his Cosmos and History. to Eliade, the cyclic ontology makes the abolition  According  of historical linear  time possible through a reduction of events to categories, individuals to archetypes, space to the "centre", and time to the original time of creation. Then, through the repetition of meaningful paradigmatic acts or archetypal gestures, the linear time of succession i s suspended as man participates in the time of pure duration, the mythical time of infinite perpetuality.^  1  In this regard the cyclic myth can be seen as an identification of man with the cyclical structure of nature from which he derives a cyclic notion of time that makes his l i f e meaningful and his being harmonious with the cosmic setting of incessant regeneration which surrounds him. In literature the cyclic myth i s most evident i n thematic structure and symbolism which depicts the cyclic cosmogony within which the action of the work occurs, and i n the pattern of plot usually described as the cyclic "quest of the hero".  This latter pattern has been a frequent sub-  ject of literary theorists, receiving i t s broadest treatment i n Frye's Anatomy of Criticism, but i s also ably represented i n Robert Harrison's essay, 12 "Symbolism of the Cyclical Myth in 'Endymion' ". The following study i s naturally indebted to the work of Northrop Frye and Mircea Eliade who, despite the limited inclusiveness of their, theories, have provided the framework for studying the relationship between myth and literature.  In the following pages we w i l l trace the formation  of the cyclic mentality in archaic Chinese mythology by investigating i t s narrative origin i n the dramatic enactments of natural religion i n totemism,  8  manaism, and  a n c e s t r a l w o r s h i p , i n the C h i n e s e r i t u a l s o f s a c r i f i c e s  Heaven, E a r t h , and observances and schools  the cosmic mountain, and  the H a l l o f L i g h t .  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s  to  o f monthly  Next we w i l l a n a l y z e i n t h e major  o f C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h y , the p o s s i b l e e v o l u t i o n o f i t s o n t o l o g i c a l  a s s e r t i o n o f t h e u n i t y o r harmony o f man the p r e s e n t a t i o n  and  and  t h e cosmos, b e f o r e  f u n c t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth i n C h i n e s e  surveying  literature.  F i n a l l y , w i t h i n a b r i e f s u r v e y o f Western European l i t e r a t u r e we  will  de-  monstrate the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth by t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l c o n cerns of C h r i s t i a n i t y  and  i t s subsequent i n f l u e n c e on t h a t  literature.  1-1  »—•  .\-"«3<=.-i  W O T  ,  9. Fcxitnotes t o I n t r o d u c t i o n  1.  Henry H. Remak, "Comparative L i t e r a t u r e : I t s D e f i n i t i o n and F u n c t i o n " , i n Newton P. S t a l l k n e c h t and H o r s t F r e n z , ed., Comparative L i t e r a t u r e : Method and P e r s p e c t i v e (Carbondale and E d w a r d s v i l l e : Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v . P r e s s , 1971), p. 1.  2.  A r t h u r E . Kunst, " L i t e r a t u r e o f A s i a " , i n S t a l l k n e c h t , p .  3.  M i r c e a E l i a d e , Cosmos and H i s t o r y Harper Torchbooks, 1959), p. 3.  4.  B r o n i s l a w M a l i n o w s k i ; C i t e d by L i l l i a n F e d e r i n A n c i e n t Myth i n Modern P o e t r y ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1971), p. 6.  5.  C a r l Jung. C i t e d by F e d e r , i b i d . , p. 50  6.  F e d e r , i b i d . , p . 5.  7.  Northrop Frye, Fables o f I d e n t i t y and World, 1963), p. 15.  8.  Susanne Langer, P h i l o s o p h y i n a New Book, 1951), p. 172.  9.  N o r t h r o p F r y e , A Study o f E n g l i s h Romanticism House, 1968), pp. 4-5.  323.  (New York and E v a n s t o n :  (New York:  Key  Harcourt, Brace  (New Y o r k :  A  Mentor  (New York:  Random  10.  F r y e , F a b l e s o f I d e n t i t y , p. 32.  11.  E l i a d e , op. c i t . , pp. 35-36.  12.  R o b e r t H a r r i s o n , "Symbolism o f t h e C y c l i c Myth i n Endymion," i n John B. V i c k e r y , ed., Myth and L i t e r a t u r e : Contemporary Theory and P r a c t i c e ( L i n c o l n : U n i v . o f Nebraska P r e s s , 1966), p. 230.  g;  LEAF 10 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING.  II THE CDNSTRUCTION OF THE CHINESE CYCLIC MYTH  A.  The Temporal Envisagement  i n Chinese  Mythology  Perhaps more so i n C h i n a t h a n i n any o t h e r c u l t u r e o f  comparable  a n t i q u i t y , myth c i r c u m s c r i b e s a u n i v e r s e i n which man's p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l , and even p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i e s a r e c e n t r i p e t a l l y anchored i n a b s t r a c t i o n s o f c y c l i c renewal.  Using the  time honoured p r i n c i p l e s o f d i v i d e and conquer we must t r a c e t h r e e g r e a t r o o t s o f a n c i e n t C h i n e s e culture-";;mythology,ritual, and p h i l o s o p h y , t o d i s c e r n t h e i r f i n a l b l o s s o m i n g i n t o a c y c l i c myth w h i c h was of the foundations o f Chinese l i f e .  (and i s ) one  The t r e e i s immense, t h e branches  m a n i f o l d , and t h e r o o t s o f t e n fragmented by t h e s h e e r w e i g h t o f h i s t o r y . O b v i o u s l y much p r u n i n g w i l l be n e c e s s a r y , n o t so much as t o o b s c u r e t h e shape t h r o u g h modern c r i t i c a l f a s h i o n s b u t t o r e v e a l t h e t r u e o u t l i n e s as r e v e a l e d i n C h i n e s e c u l t u r e . Any s t u d y o f t h e e a r l i e s t C h i n e s e myths must acknowledge t h e i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s o f s o u r c e documents.  To m i n i m i z e t h e v a g a r i e s o f t h r e e  thousand y e a r s o f n a t u r a l u p h e a v a l i s t o maximize t h e human f a c t o r which i n t h e c a s e o f t h e infamous B u r n i n g o f t h e Books o f 220 disastrous.  B.C. was  I g n o r i n g t h e more f a n t a s t i c e v e n t s o f h i s t o r y , one  equally still  must d e a l w i t h t h e well-meaning d i s t o r t i o n s o f e u h e m e r i z i n g humanists, r a t i o n a l i s i n g n a t u r a l i s t s , and f a n a t i c r e l i g i o u s s e c t a r i a n s .  Fortunately  f o r o u r purposes we a r e more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s u s t a i n e d i n f l u e n c e o f t h e o v e r a l l fragmentary c o r p u s , and t h e reappearance o f e a r l i e r i d e a s i n l a t e r i r r e f u t a b l e documents tends t o c o n f i r m t h e a c c u r a c y o f o r i g i n a l models. Much remains t o be done i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g e a r l y C h i n e s e mythology, some o f t h e problems may  and  f i n d solutions i n future archaelogical discoveries.  To d i s c o v e r t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e C h i n e s e c y c l i c myth i s t o r e v e a l t h e e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n o f most p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s .  To b r i e f l y  restate  13  the general formation of the cyclic myth, i n the world there i s everywhere a revelation of recurrent rhythm- the periodic alternation of tide, of night and day, of the moon's wax and wane, and of the seasons. Against this cosmic rhythm i s placed the undeniable linearity of human consciousness.  To alleviate the intolerable tensions of this disparity  "myth seizes on the fundamental element of design offered by naturethe cycle, as we have i t daily i n the sun and yearly i n the seasonsand assimilates i t to the human cycle of l i f e , death, and (analogy again) 2  rebirth".  From the periodicity of nature primitive man derives a cyclical  notion of time subsumed i n a cyclic mythology.  I t i s through this pre-  mise that we trace the temporal sense as an essential experience of human existence through Chinese myth to i t s eventual dramatization i n the Myth of Divine Adniinistration. Only by emphasizing the process through which man reveals the tensions which compelled the formation of the original myth can we adequately explain the time-sense of early Chinese mythology.  What later becomes the  developed cosmogonic cyclic myth which underlies Chinese culture was once fragmented into separate myths of creation, rebellion, and reconciliation. The cyclic myth may be seen as the developed response to the tension which these earlier myths portrayed. Chinese mythology i n one aspect i s the continuous story of maturing temporal awareness- the harmony of time and i t s frustrations, the ripeness of time, and the urge toward rebellion against or reconciliation with time. In the Chinese myth of creation the cosmic cycles are but universal courses necessary for the great harmony. Light and darkness, seasons, and tides were no cause for concern for the earliest men i n myth for they were s t i l l in some sense, divine; that i s although separated by P'an Ku, heaven and  14 earth remained i n communication, and divine and mortal beings mingled freely.  The d i v i n e and human worlds further coincided through cosmic  mountains and cosmic trees which joined heaven and earth. conscious d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between god, man,  and nature.  There was no  Mankind enjoyed  the p a r a d i s i a l rewards o f a thousand-year l i f e s p a n which could be extended by partaking o f sacred f r u i t s and the waters along the pathways to heaven. Existence, i n a word, was eternal and i t was not u n t i l the estrangement 3  of earth from heaven that temporal tensions arose. In A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Shang and Chou Myths, Chang Kuang-chih suggests that the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the world o f god to the world of man was taken f o r granted throughout the Shang (1766-1123 B.C.) (1122-249 B.C.)  and the Chou  periods; but i n l a t e r periods i n some t r a d i t i o n a l versions 4  the communication between the two worlds was completely severed.  In  f a c t , the Myth o f Estrangement of Earth from Heaven had e a r l y appeared i n The Book of Documents, supposedly compiled i n the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 B.C.)  and was a t once available i n several important  c l a s s i c s of the period such as Remarks Concerning the States, The Bamboo Books, and The Mountain-Sea C l a s s i c .  5  The temporal harmony enjoyed by the man-gods during the Golden Age was soon shattered by the Myth of the Rebellion of Ch'ih Yu. Immediately evident are the p a r a l l e l s between the causes and e f f e c t s of Ch'ih Yu's r e b e l l i o n and the C h r i s t i a n myths of Satan's f a l l and Eve's disobedience.  Although both descents are based on the s i n of pride,  the separation of the worldly from the divine i s more pronounced i n the C h r i s t i a n view, and less  humanly directed i n the Chinese version.  Thus  the Titan, Ch'ih Yu, i s descended from Yen-Ti, one of the Sun-Gods, and possesses the f a n t a s t i c physical a t t r i b u t e s more t y p i c a l of the divine  than the profane.  We must agree w i t h T'ang Chun-i t h a t one o f t h e c h a r -  a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h i n e s e c u l t u r e i s t h e absence o f an a b y s s a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between human and d i v i n e b e i n g s , concept o f the c o n t i n u i n g  and t h i s i n time f u r t h e r s t h e emerging  (though d i m i n i s h e d ) u n i t y o f Heaven and  man.  The C h i n e s e myths s u p p o r t E l i a d e ' s t h e o r y t h a t p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s r e g a r d the  e x i s t e n c e o f man  i n t h e cosmos as a f a l l from a s p o n t a n e o u s l y con-  7 tinuous present.  To t h i s end C h ' i h Yu's r e b e l l i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e ex-  p e r i e n c e o f time as the s u p p o r t and l i m i t a t i o n o f e x i s t e n c e ; i t was  a  d e p r i v a t i o n o f i m m o r t a l i t y and a d e n i a l o f e t e r n i t y . The emergence o f t h e God o f Time a f t e r t h e estrangement  from  Heaven p e r f e c t l y u n d e r s c o r e s t h e temporal t e n s i o n s o f t h e e a r l i e s t C h i n e s e mythmakers, e s p e c i a l l y when we c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e god's name, " I Ming," connotes "a s i g h o f sorrow o r g r i e f " . emblem o f time was  The i d e n t i t y o f t h e sun as an  never more e x a c t ; no l o n g e r t h e f a m i l i a r sun t r a n s -  formed from P'an Ku's  l e f t eye n o r t h e g r a c i o u s god o f l i g h t and h e a t ,  i t becomes a b s t r a c t e d i n t o t e n suns, each s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d and  travelling  a c r o s s t h e sky t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s t a t i o n s t o i n d i c a t e t h e p e r i o d s o f t h e day, and each s t r i c t l y s u p e r v i s e d and f u l f i l l i n g through r o t a t i o n t h e d e c i m a l system o f d a t i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s much disagreement among C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s about the  p r i o r i t y o f t h e appearance o f t h e Myth o f t h e Ten Suns o v e r t h e  d e c i m a l d i v i s i o n o f time used i n t h e Shang p e r i o d  (1766-1123 B.C.), a l l  a g r e e t h a t t h e names o f t h e t e n suns and t h e d e c i m a l p o i n t s a r e i d e n t i c a l ; t h a t t h e myth o f t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e t e n suns appeared no l a t e r t h a n t h e Shang p e r i o d ; and t h a t t h e myth o f t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s appearance o f t e n suns appeared no l a t e r t h a n t h e end o f t h e S p r i n g and Autumn p e r i o d . (722-481 B.C.).  A t any r a t e t h e i m a g i n a t i v e b a s i s f o r t h e Myth o f t h e  Ten Suns can be seen as an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f time w i t h i t s f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n t o d i f f e r e n t modes o f e x p e r i e n c e r a n g i n g  16  from j o y t o sorrow.  L a t e r t h e appearance o f t h e a m b i v a l e n t gods o f t h e  f o u r s e a s o n s ^ and t h e Myth o f H s i He" forms t h e background t o t h e a n g u i s h o f 1  l i f e ' s e p h e m e r a l i t y i n t h e Myth o f T i t a n P'eng T s u . In  L i f e and I m m o r t a l i t y i n t h e Mind o f Han C h i n a , Yu Y i n g - s h i h  n o t e s t h a t i n t h e bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e Western Chou p e r i o d  (1122-  771 B.C.), p l e a s f o r l o n g e v i t y a r e t h e most p o p u l a r i n s c r i p t i o n s i n t h e p r a y e r s t o a n c e s t o r s o r Heaven.  B u t by t h e S p r i n g and Autumn p e r i o d  t h e r e emerged a c o n c e p t o f i m m o r t a l i t y which d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from its  t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t , and by t h e end o f t h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d  i t had become a w i d e s p r e a d c u l t . and "becoming immortal" inscriptions."'""'"  Such p h r a s e s as " r e t a r d i n g o l d age"  became p e r v a s i v e l i t e r a r y r e f e r e n c e s as w e l l as  The t r a n s i t i o n from d e s i r e f o r w o r l d l y l o n g e v i t y t o  otherworldly immortality i l l u s t r a t e s the continuing psychic stress o f the  t e m p o r a l sense.  Throughout t h e e a r l y m y t h i c l i t e r a t u r e we  find re-  f e r e n c e s t o remote c o u n t r i e s where d e a t h does n o t e x i s t , r e s i d e n c e o f t h e immortals, and t h e h e a l i n g h e r b s and f r u i t s o f l i f e on cosmic  mountains.  The time sense r e v e a l e d i n C h i n e s e myth has moved f u l l c i r c l e from p a r a d i s i a l enjoyment  t o profane d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t .  The r e c o r d s o f a n c i e n t C h i n e s e myth i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e temporal a n x i e t i e s o f e x i s t e n c e n a t u r a l l y gave r i s e t o c o n f l i c t i n g r e s p o n s e s - i n t h i s case, e i t h e r r e b e l l i o n o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . F u b e l o n g s t o t h e former. put  The Myth o f T i t a n  K'ua  H i s f u t i l e q u e s t t o c a p t u r e t h e sun and thus  an end t o time i s a remarkable statement o f man's r e v o l t a g a i n s t a l l -  consuming  time.  R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e God o f Hades, t h e God o f N i g h t , t h e  Abyss Yu as t h e n a d i r o f t h e sun's d e s c e n t , t h e G r e a t Marshes o f Chaos and L i f e , t h e peach T r e e o f I m m o r t a l i t y s u g g e s t a d i u r n a l  interpretation  12 of  t h e d e a t h and r e b i r t h o f t h e day.  Y e t t h e gargantuan t h i r s t o f  K'ua  Fu i s a powerful index o f the b i t t e r n e s s o f m o r t a l i t y inherent s i n c e the estrangement o f e a r t h from heaven.  Perhaps t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f h i s  s t a f f i n t o a peach f o r e s t s h o u l d be s e e n a s t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e w i l l to  r e v o l t ; i n o t h e r words a s e n s u a l balm t o a l l a y t h e d i s g u s t which  l i f e ' s t r a v e l l e r s f e e l toward i t s c e r t a i n end. Man's p e r s i s t e n c e a g a i n s t time even g a r n e r s t h e sympathies and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f c e r t a i n gods as t h e Myth o f Hou I and t h e Ten Suns illustrates.  We have a l r e a d y s t r e s s e d t h e importance o f t h e temporal  sense i n t h e o r i g i n a l Myth o f t h e Ten Suns o v e r and above i t s u s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a s a myth o f n a t u r a l c a l a m i t y and human s t r e n g t h . the  Both  i m p l i c i t c o n t r a s t between p a r a d i s i a l t i m e l e s s n e s s and consequent  p r o f a n e time, and t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e appearance o f t h e m u l t i p l e suns c a u s e d a l a c k o f water, t h e s o u r c e o f l i f e , terpretation. the  sun's  support a temporal i n -  Hou I ' s angry f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e t o t a l d o m i n a t i o n o f  (or time's) h o l d upon mankind evokes a d e s t r u c t i v e response  a g a i n s t time i t s e l f , and he i s p u n i s h e d s e v e r e l y f o r h i s r e b e l l i o n , however much mankind's f e e l i n g may be w i t h t h e a r c h e r - g o d . S i n c e no r e v o l t a g a i n s t time  (that i s ,  e l u d i n g death) c a n succeed,  i t f o l l o w s t h a t temporal t e n s i o n s s h o u l d be moderated b y t h e d e s i r e f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h time, a w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t f o r t h e t i m e l e s s s t a t e which was man's b e f o r e t h e estrangement.  The Myth o f t h e F l i g h t t o t h e  13 Moon i s o f t h i s t y p e .  Mount K'un Lun p r e s e n t s a s a c r e d zone,  s p i r a l r o a d becomes t h e passage from d e a t h t o l i f e , from t h e ephemeral t o t h e e t e r n a l .  and i t s  from man t o d i v i n i t y ,  B u t i t s a c c e s s i b l i t y i s beyond m o r t a l  a b i l i t y , and Chang O's d e s i r e f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o v e s t o o s t r o n g and r e s u l t s i n h e r e x i l e from e a r t h .  The u n d e r c u r r e n t o f f u t i l i t y  implies  t h a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h time i s impossible w i t h i n e a r t h l y e x i s t e n c e . banishment  t o t h e moon, t h a t a r c h e t y p e o f o t h e r l i f e  Her  , points out the  d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s c e n d i n g time on t h e p r o f a n e s o i l o f e a r t h . The t e m p o r a l r e s p o n s e o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s i n a sense t h e t y p i c a l  response o f myrhmaking, t h e i m a g i n a t i v e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e n a t u r a l ; and when t h e c y c l i c myth i s c o n s i d e r e d , t h e s p i r i t o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s a t once o r i g i n a l w i t h t h e myth.  C e r t a i n l y t h e cosmic rhythm w i t h i t s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e r i o d i c becoming p l a y e d an immense p a r t i n t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f c y c l i c concepts.  I t p r o v i d e d a c e r t a i n symbolic  form  and o p t i m i s t i c p a r a l l e l between t h e s o l a r , l u n a r , and s e a s o n a l c y c l e s , and t h e human o r g a n i c c y c l e .  Through t h e i n t e n s e n o s t a l g i a f o r t h e  p a r a d i s i a l a r c h e t y p e and t h e s e v e r e u r g e t o r e g e n e r a t e h i m s e l f , t h e p r i m i t i v e mythmaker chose t o a s s i m i l a t e . o r homogenize t h e human c y c l e o f l i f e and d e a t h t o t h e c y c l e o f n a t u r e and thus a s s i g n e q u a l o n t o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y t o time e x p e r i e n c e d b y assuming t h a t t h e o b s e r v e d laws o f n a t u r e were one w i t h t h e unobserved  laws o f d i v i n i t y .  Susanne Langer makes a s i m i l a r p o i n t : o f n a t u r e , t h e h e a v e n l y motions, e a r t h , t h e t i d e s o f t h e oceans,  "The e t e r n a l r e g u l a r i t i e s  t h e a l t e r n a t i o n s o f n i g h t and day on a r e t h e most o b v i o u s metaphors t o convey  t h e dawning c o n c e p t s o f l i f e - f u n c t i o n s - b i r t h , growth, decadence, and 14 death."  And M i r c e a E l i a d e :  "What i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t man has f e l t  t h e need t o r e p r o d u c e t h e cosmogony i n h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n s , whatever b e t h e i r n a t u r e ; t h a t t h i s r e p r o d u c t i o n made h i m contemporary w i t h t h e m y s t i c a l moment o f t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w o r l d and t h a t h e f e l t t h e need o f r e t u r n i n g t o t h e moment, a s o f t e n as p o s s i b l e , i n o r d e r t o r e g e n e r a t e himself."  1 5  B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e myths o f c r e a t i o n and heaven, and t h e consequent estrangement, we have seen t h e C h i n e s e temporal sense d e v e l o p  through  r e b e l l i o n t o r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and f i n a l l y acceptance o f t h e n a t u r a l c y c l e as t h e metaphor f o r t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n o f time and man.  As t h e b a s i s o f  a worldview which has e x i s t e d f o r t h r e e thousand y e a r s , t h e e v o l v i n g  c y c l i c myth must n o t be seen as one myth (as i n The F l i g h t t o t h e Moon) b u t as a p a t t e r n w i t h i n C h i n e s e mythography which d e s p i t e i t s m a l l e a b i l i t y c o n t r o l l e d t h e development  o f f u t u r e thought.  As a p a t t e r n o f mythopoesis  t h e c y c l i c myth engendered a f a n t a s t i c surge o f a b s t r a c t i o n .  Once t h e  r e s o l u t i o n o f t e m p o r a l t e n s i o n s became p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e u n i o n o f human and n a t u r a l c y c l e s , t h e a n c i e n t C h i n e s e c l a s s i c s a r e t e s t i m o n y t o t h e i n c r e d i b l e s y s t e m a t i s i n g o f correspondences t o ensure t h e i d e n t i t y o f man  and n a t u r e .  The d e s c r i p t i o n s and s t o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g gods o f  d i r e c t i o n s , elements, and seasons s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h such c l a s s i c s as The Mountain-Sea C l a s s i c , The Monthly Observances i n The S p r i n g and Autumn A n n a l s o f Lu', The Monthly O r d i n a n c e s i n The Book o f R i t e s , and i n The Book Huai-Nan T z u , a r e remarkable r e c o r d s o f t h i s tendency t o r a t i o n a l i z e a homogeneity  between b i o l o g i c a l and cosmic rhythms."^  t h e major concerns was  One  of  the a b s t r a c t i o n o f seasonal r o t a t i o n i n t o p e r i o d i c  r e g e n e r a t i o n by means o f an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e gods o f d i r e c t i o n s w i t h t h e gods o f elements and seasons.  The c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e r a t i o n a l i z i n g  l a b o u r s may be seen i n s u r v i v i n g fragments o f t h e Myth o f D i v i n e Administration. Through s t u d y o f i n s c r i p t i o n s on e a r l y o r a c l e bones ( c i r c a 1300  B.C.)  i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t c o n c e p t s o f t h e gods o f d i r e c t i o n were y e t r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped- t h a t i s , no s p e c i f i c d i v i n e c h a r a c t e r had been a s s i g n e d t o each god.  By t h e end o f t h e F i f t h C e n t u r y B.C.  t h e s e gods had d e v e l o p e d  t h e n a t u r e s o f t h e C h i n e s e g e o g r a p h i c d i r e c t i o n s and t h e v i r t u e s o f t h e 17 f i v e elements.  These rudiments o f t h e Myth o f D i v i n e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  were f u r t h e r s y s t e m a t i z e d as t h e gods o f t h e seasons became t h e d i v i n e a s s i s t a n t s o f t h e o r i g i n a l f i v e gods o f d i r e c t i o n .  I n t h i s manner t h e  r e g e n e r a t i v e c y c l e o f n a t u r e became a s s i m i l a t e d more c o m p l e t e l y w i t h i n t h e  sphere o f human e x p e r i e n c e . O r i g i n a l l y thought t o be a " d i v i n e comedy" o f man's a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h n a t u r a l p e r i o d i c i t y , t h e Myth o f D i v i n e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u r v i v e s o n l y i n o c c a s i o n a l fragments i n t h e a n c i e n t c l a s s i c s .  Unfortunately  what remains a r e t h e m a t i c summaries r a t h e r t h a n d r a m a t i c p l o t s o r r e c o r d s o f mythopoeic  incidents.  E t y m o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s e n a b l e s us t o r e c a p t u r e much o f t h e v i t a l i t y of  t h i s major s t e p i n t h e development  o f t h e c y c l i c myth and t h e f o l l o w i n g  c h a r t o u t l i n e s t h e p a t t e r n o f analogy and correspondence which i s c e n t r a l t o t h e myth's importance. Chuan Hsu, t h e S o v e r e i g n God o f t h e N o r t h , denotes "a c a u t i o u s r e f r a i n i n g , " and i m p l i e s t h e a b s t e n t i o n o f e a r t h a f t e r a c o l d dew.  The  W i n t e r God's s a c r e d a n i m a l i s a b l a c k t o r t o i s e , symbol o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s s t a t e whereby t h e e a r t h r e t r e a t s beneath t h e h o a r f r o s t o f t h e n o r t h wind.  Yu C h ' i a n g , t h e a s s i s t a n t , i s t h e son o f t h e Pu Chou Wind which  d w e l l s i n t h e o b s c u r e snow-covered always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e a t h . of  Despite t h i s grim aspect, the connotation  "Yu C h ' i a n g " i s " a t ease w i t h power, i n harmony w i t h v i g o r , o r matched  with v i t a l i t y " . the  n o r t h w e s t o f t h e u n i v e r s e and i s  Thus Yu Ch'iang's  image  as t h e God o f t h e N o r t h Sea o r  God o f Water i s a f i s h c a p a b l e o f t r a n s f o r m i n g i t s e l f i n t o a g i g a n t i c  phoenix which f l i e s from t h e f r i g i d n o r t h b r i n g i n g t h e water o f l i f e f o r the  spring.  Yii C h ' i a n g i s a l s o c a l l e d "Yuan Meng", ( d e n o t i n g " o r i g i n i n  o c c u l t darkness o r c h a o s " ) , o r "Hsuan Meng", ( d e n o t i n g " l a t e n t p r o f u n d i t y and p e r s e v e r a n c e " ) .  To summarize, Chuan Hsu and h i s a s s i s t a n t , Y i i Ch'iang,  connote t h e l a t e n t v i t a l i t y o f darkness and chaos, t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r growth h i d d e n i n t h e d e e p e s t snows o f w i n t e r .  18  Through e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o t h e r gods and  their  21 assistants, the connotations of archaic names, and the symbolic reasoning behind certain sacred animals, the pattern of the Myth of Divine /Administration emerges. However fragmentary the o r i g i n a l sources, this myth embodies that tendency to abstract the human to the divine through the intermediary example of natural cycle.  DIRECTION COLOUR SEASON  ELEMENT  CYCLIC NATURE  THE SOVEREI GN GOD OF DIRECTION NAME  SACKED ANIMAL  DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION OF ITS NAME  DESCRIPTION AND ATTRIBUTION  -The Supremacy of the Universe  -four faces to oversee the four directions. -The Supreme God of a l l directions, a l l dimensions and a l l s p i r i t s . -The Soverign God of the Center, the f i f t h direction.  -The Omnipotent Supreme Being Cen cer  East  South  West  Yellow  Green  Red  White  Mid-Season  Spring  Summer  Autumn  Earth  Wood  Fire  Metal (or gold)  The Center  Birth (or rebirth)  Growth  Harvest  Huang Ti  T'ai Hao  Yen Ti  Shao Hao or Chin T'ien or Yuan Shen  The Yellow Dragon -symbol of the earth  The Green Dragon -symbol of the great s p i r i t of vigor and v i t a l i t y  The Red Sparrow -symbol of m u l t i plicity.  The White Tiger -symbol of the inexorable beast of prey.  -The great or high s p i r i t of vigor and v i t a l i t y (of the r i s i n g sun of the morning, or of the east wind dissipating the winter's severe cold.)  -a dragon body. -The God of the virtue of wood  -The burning heat and the b r i l l i a n t light (brought about by the south wind which follows grain-rain and encourages growth  -an ox body, -a great Sun-God. -The God of Agriculture. -The God of the Virtue of Fire  -The low or small s p i r i t of vigor and v i t a l i t y . -The s p i r i t which w i l l be dormant in the seed when the west wind brings forth sweet ripeness -The Golden sky of the autumn evening. -The God of Completion of the round sundown.  -a falcon body. -The God of the White Star -The God of the Sundown -The God of the Virture of Metal or Gold.  ;  i 1 | !  . , i  J i  i  i\  j -The cautious refraining. -The Abstention of Earth after the cold dew North  Black  Winter  Water  Storeage or (Hibernation)  Chuan Hsu  The Black Tortoise -symbol of the mystery of hibernation.  -a Unicorn body. -the great-grandson of the Supreme Being. -The God who executed the estrangement of Earth from Heaven. -The God of the Virtue of Water.  |' j j | ro'i •  M  THE ASSISTANT TO THE GOD OF DIRECTION NAME ATTRIBUTION DENOTATION A'iD CONNOTATION OF ITS NAME Hou T'u or (Ch'u* Lung)  -The God of Earth -The God of Hades  -The great Earth. -The horned dragon.  Chu Mang or (Ch'ung)  The God of Wood -The God of the Spring -The God of L i f e .  The bud and sprout (-symbol of l i f e and .the spring). -The repetition, multiplication and regeneracy.  Chu Jung  -The God of Fire -The God of the Summer -The God of Growth  -The persistent heat and l i g h t of f i r e •The climactic state of jubilant heat and l i g h t of the summer solstice which drives l i v i n g things to growth.  -The God of Metal or Gold. - The God of the Autumn. - The God of Harvest. •The God of Seed.) The God of Punishment  •The reaper of the rich roots of exuberant grass. •The collector of the beard. •The midwife for accouchment. •Completion and perfection, or necessity and destination. the red l i g h t of the sunset.  -The God of Water -The God of Wind -The God of North Sea -The God of the Winter -The God of Hibernation  -The latent v i t a l i t y of darkness and chaos. -The origin in the occult darkness or chaos. -At ease with power, harmony with vigor. -The latent profundity and perseverance in the fathomless darkness.  I Ju Shou or (Kai) or (Hung Kuang)  Yu Ch'iang or (Yuan M£ng) or (Hsu'an MeVig)  DESCRIPTION -a b u l l ' s body with a three'eyed tiger head ana two dragon horns. -holding a cord or rope-rule to regulate the four directions of the universe, - r i d i n g on two dragons.  -a square face and a bird body. -holding a pair of compasses to regulate the course of the spring. •riding on two dragons. -son of the Sovereign God of the West and brother of the God of the Autumn -a beast body. -holding a yoke or a beam to regulate the course of the summer. - riding on two dragons •son cf the great Sun-God, the Sovereign God of the South. •a tiger body with white'hair and with snakes nanging down from each ear. holding a square to regulate the course of the Autumn. riding on two dragons. ' S 2\? f £ ? 9 God of the West, brother of the God of Wood, the God of the Spring and the God of L i f e . H  S O V E R E I  N  -A bird body with a green snake hanging down from each ear. -A pair of huge wings which cause storms. -A f i s h body capable of transforming into a gigantic phoenix which brings along water of l i f e for the spring from the north. -Holding a weight to regulate the course of the winter. -Riding on two dragons. -Son of the Pu Chou Wind of the Chaos, which causes death.  24  The hierophany o f t h e gods o f d i r e c t i o n s v i v i d l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e n a s c e n t c y c l i c myth:  growth, c o m p l e t i o n , h i b e r n a t i o n  l a t e n c y ) , d e a t h , f o l l o w e d by t h e g l o r i o u s r e b i r t h .  ( a b s t e n t i o n and  The  divine  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the d i v i s i o n o f experience i n t o symmetrical quadrants, demonstrates an u r g e n t w i l l beneath t h e a b s t r a c t i o n .  I t i s an  attempt  under s e v e r e temporal t e n s i o n t o i d e n t i f y t h e d a r k s i d e o f d e a t h o r the  e p h e m e r a l i t y o f b e i n g w i t h d i u r n a l change, l u n a r c y c l e , and t h e  s e a s o n a l r o t a t i o n w h i c h promises l i f e t h r o u g h d e a t h .  I t i s also the  hope o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e from a l i f e o f f l e e t i n g b e i n g t o a l i f e o f e t e r n a l becoming. the  W i t h t h e g r e a t a f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e gods o f d i r e c t i o n s w i t h  gods o f elements and seasons, a p e r i o d i c r e g e n e r a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d  and a renewal o f l i f e i s o b t a i n e d by man  as a p a r t o f n a t u r e .  25 F o o t n o t e s t o t h e Temporal Envisagement  i n Chinese  Mythology  1.  To a v o i d t e x t u a l e r r o r s i n h e r e n t i n t h e fragmentary n a t u r e o f the e a r l i e s t s o u r c e documents, we have c o n f i n e d o u r s e l v e s t o r e c o g n i z e d C h i n e s e c l a s s i c s . Appendix I p r o v i d e s b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a f o r a l l s o u r c e s used i n r e n d e r i n g t h e myths p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix I I I . A l t h o u g h seven books s e l e c t e d d a t e from a f t e r 100 A.D., t h e y a r e e i t h e r r e c o r d s o f legends t a c i t i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n , o r books o f etymology and e n c y c l o p e d i a o f q u o t a t i o n s from a n c i e n t l o s t t e x t s . Furthermore, we l i m i t s o u r c e fragments t o t h o s e which a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h t r a c e s i n c l a s s i c s and w i t h l e g e n d a r y t e x t s b e l i e v e d t o have e x i s t e d . Appendix I I p r o v i d e s a c h r o n o l o g i c a l t a b l e o f v a r i o u s C h i n e s e c l a s s i c s and i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r supposed o r i g i n s o r l e g e n d a r y sources.  2.  F r y e , F a b l e s o f I d e n t i t y , p.  3.  The t e x t o f t h e myth o f c r e a t i o n and o t h e r myths i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e p r o v i d e d i n Appendix I I I .  4.  Chang Kuang-chih, "A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Shang and Chou Myths,'" B u l l e t i n o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f E t h n o l o g y , Academia S i n i c a , 14 (Autumn 1962, T a i p e i ) , 83.  5.  The Book o f Documents which c h i e f l y c o n s i s t s o f a d d r e s s e s t o and from t h e Throne, s u p p o s e d l y b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e p e r i o d o f t h e l e g e n d a r y Emperors Yao and Shun ( c i r c a 3000 B.C.) was f i r s t c o m p i l e d i n t h e S p r i n g and Autumn p e r i o d (722-481 B.C.) and t h e n was d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g t h e B u r n i n g o f t h e Books i n 220 B.C. I t was l a t e r r e s t o r e d and e d i t e d i n t h e Western Han d y n a s t y by K'ung An-kuo (156-74 B.C.). The Remarks C o n c e r n i n g t h e S t a t e o f Ch'u was c o m p i l e d c i r c a 400 B.C. The p r e s e n t v e r s i o n o f t h e Mountain-Sea c l a s s i c was n o t c o m p i l e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a , b u t i t c o n t a i n s myths and legends w h i c h had t h e i r o r i g i n s i n a t l e a s t t h e Chou d y n a s t y (1122-249 B.C.). S c h o l a r s b e l i e v e t h a t i t s o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n was c o m p i l e d i n t h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d , c i r c a 372 B.C. The Bamboo Books s u p p l y  32. mentioned  a condensed r e c o r d o f r e i g n s and e v e n t s supposedly from 2700 B.C. t o 300 B.C. and was d i s c o v e r e d i n 279 A.D. i n t h e g r a v e o f Duke H s i a n g o f Wei who d i e d i n 294 B.C. 6.  T'ang C h i i n - i , Chung Kuo Wen Hua C h i h C h i n g Shen C h i a C h i h (The S p i r i t u a l V a l u e o f C h i n e s e C u l t u r e ) ( T a i p e i : Cheng Chung P r e s s , 1972), pp. 22-24.  7.  M i r c e a E l i a d e , Cosmos and H i s t o r y , p.  8.  T z ' u H a i (Grand D i c t i o n a r y ) ( T a i p e i : Chung Hua P r e s s , 1972, d u p l i c a t i o n ) , pp. 626-29. A l s o c f . Morohashi T e t s u j i , D a i Kanwa J i t e n (Tokyo: baishukan Shuten, 1968), I I , 1120, 1159.  9.  75.  Kuan Tung-kuei, "A Study on t h e A n c i e n t C h i n e s e Myth o f t h e Ten Suns," B u l l e t i n o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f H i s t o r y and P h i l o l o g y , Academia S i n i c a , XXX I I I (1962, T a i p e i ) , pp. 289-317.  26 A  10.  Tu E r - w e i , The M y t h o l o g i c a l System o f t h e Mountain-Sea C l a s s i c ( T a i p e i : Hua Ming P r e s s , 1960), pp. 1-8. Tu s u g g e s t s t h a t an ambiguous c o n c e p t o f d i r e c t i o n s , s e a s o n s , and c o r r e s p o n d e n t c o l o r s u n d e r l i e s t h e Mountain-Sea C l a s s i c . He f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t t h e S o u t h e r n Mountain C l a s s i c d e s c r i b e s t h e summer moon, t h e Western Mountain C l a s s i c t h e autumn moon, the N o r t h e r n Mountain C l a s s i c t h e w i n t e r moon, and t h e E a s t e r n Mountain C l a s s i c t h e s p r i n g moon. W i t h r e g a r d t o d i r e c t i o n a l c o l o r t h e s o u t h i s u s u a l l y r e d , t h e west w h i t e , t h e n o r t h b l a c k , and t h e e a s t g r e e n .  11.  Yii Y i n g - s h i h , " L i f e and I m m o r t a l i t y i n t h e Mind o f Han C h i n a " , H a r v a r d J o u r n a l o f A s i a t i c S t u d i e s , 25, (1964-1965), pp. 87-90.  12.  c f . Wang H s i a o - l i e n , "K'ua F u Kao" ( S t u d i e s on K'ua F u ) , The C o n t i n e n t Magazine ( T a i p e i : The C o n t i n e n t Magazine, 1973), 46:2, 1-20.  13.  K'un Lun as a l u n a r o r cosmic mountain: c f . Tu E r - w e i , "The Meaning o f K'un Lun Myths", Contemporary Thought Q u a r t e r l y (1961, T a i p e i ) , 1:1.  14.  Susanne Langer, P h i l o s o p h y  15.  M i r c e a E l i a d e , Cosmos and H i s t o r y , pp.  16.  The S p r i n g and Autumn A n n a l s o f Lvi (Lii S h i h Ch'un Ch'iu) was compiled by s c h o l a r s assembled and p a t r o n i z e d by L u Pu-wei, a Prime M i n i s t e r d u r i n g t h e C h ' i n d y n a s t y , and was p u b l i s h e d i n 238 B.C. The c o n t e n t s o f i t s f i r s t t w e l v e s e c t i o n s (The Monthly Observances o r Yiieh Ling) a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r o y a l and b a r o n i a l b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s . I t s o r i g i n a l p r o d u c t i o n may be a s c r i b e d t o c o u r t d i v i n e r s and s c r i b e s f o r i t s r i t u a l was an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e , and t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e s t a t e depended upon t h e i r c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s ordinances.  i n A New  Key,  p.  164.  76-77.  The Book o f R i t e s ( L i C h i ) , a c o m p i l a t i o n o f r o y a l ceremonies and d u t i e s p r e s e r v e d by t h e c o u r t w r i t e r s o f t h e Chou d y n a s t y , was l o s t a f t e r t h e B u r n i n g o f t h e Books and was r e v i s e d c i r c a 100 B.C. The t i t l e and c o n t e n t s o f S e c t i o n IV o f t h e book a r e a l s o known as "the Yiieh L i n g " and many p o s t u l a t e a (common source f o r b o t h . Whether t h e "Monthly Observances" p r e s e n t an i d e a l o r f a c t u a l a c c o u n t o f t h e o r d i n a n c e s o f government and r i t u a l has been a s u b j e c t o f debate among C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s . I n e i t h e r c a s e t h e p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e s e observances have been embodied i n t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f k i n g s h i p u n t i l a l m o s t t h e p r e s e n t day, and as such, t h e work i s v a l u a b l e w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h i s paper.  27  17.  Chou He, Ch'un C h ' i u C h i L i Kao P i e n ( I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f R i t u a l s and Ceremonies o f t h e S p r i n g and Autumn P e r i o d ) ( T a i p e i : Chia H s i n C u l t u r a l F o u n d a t i o n , 1970), pp. 17-18.  18.  CHUAN HSU: SACRED ANIMAL: YU CH'IANG:  YUAN MENG:  HSUAN MENG:  Tz'u H a i , p . 3178. ., A l s o c f . Morohashi, op. c i t . , p . 291 (v. 1 2 ) . Tu, op. c i t . , pp. 71-72, 75-77. T z ' u H a i , pp. 1076,; 1088, .'1091. A l s o c f . Morohashi, op. c i t . , pp. 771 (v. 4 ) , 517 (v. 8) . T z ' u H a i , pp. 284, -360. A l s o c f . Morohashi, op. c i t . , pp. 973 (v. 1 ) , 130 (v. 2) . T z ' u H a i , pp. 360, 1904. A l s o c f . Morohashi, op. c i t . , pp. 765 (v. 7 ) , 775 (v. 7) .  B.  The  C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e R i t u a l and  Primitive  Religion  B e f o r e t u r n i n g t o the development o f t h e c y c l i c myth i n C h i n e s e r i t u a l , we  must d i s p e n s e w i t h a maze o f d e f i n i t i o n , f o r i f  Western c r i t i c s have debated "myth" i n t o a l a b y r i n t h , t h e n s u r e l y c e n t r a l m i n o t a u r must be t h e r e l a t i o n between "myth" and A t the o u t s e t we  the  "ritual".  must r e i t e r a t e t h a t p r e s c r i b i n g t h e primacy o f one  the o t h e r i s n o t r e a l l y t o t h e p o i n t o f t h i s study; we be d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r t h a n p r e s c r i p t i v e , and l e a d — " t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t one  or  would p r e f e r  to  f o l l o w C l y d e Kluckholm's  o f t h e primacy o f e i t h e r c a s e ,  but  t h a t o f an i n t r i c a t e m u t u a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , d i f f e r e n t l y s t r u c t u r e d different cultures." p r a c t i c e has  1  With respect  in  t o t h e c y c l i c myth, C h i n e s e r i t u a l  a common p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a s i s , and  offers a  formalized  statement o r s y m b o l i c d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e same needs. The "As  problem i s b e s t c o n c l u d e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e  t o P h i l l i p Wheelwright  the p r i m i t i v e p a r t i c i p a t e s i n n a t u r e , a l t e r n a t i o n s o f movement  r e s t as t h e r e may  be a r e soon a c c e n t u a t e d and d r a m a t i z e d by r i t u a l  t h a t the human t r a n s i t i o n may i n riteopoeic perspective  blend w i t h t h a t o f the  and so  cosmos...Nature,  as w e l l as mythopoeic p e r s p e c t i v e  is cyclical;  2 i t e x h i b i t s v i t a l l y p e r i o d i c becoming." An  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the c y c l i c b a s i s o f e a r l y Chinese r i t u a l begins  w i t h t h e most p r i m i t i v e forms o f totemism, a phenomenon b e l i e v e d  non-  e x i s t e n t i n C h i n a by Western s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s u n t i l s e v e r a l decades The  ago.  supposed absence o f totemism i n a n c i e n t C h i n a would seem t o p r e s e n t  grave problems t o t h o s e t h e o r i s t s who  b e l i e v e t h a t the  "totemic-era"  i s an i n e v i t a b l e c u l t u r a l p e r i o d o f the h i s t o r y o f mankind. the p i o n e e r i n g  work o f L i C h i and  Huang Wen-shan has  t o t e m i s t i c p r a c t i c e s o f Chinese s o c i e t y during  unveiled  Fortunately the  the Hsia dynasty (  2205-1766 B.C.) and d u r i n g t h e Lower P a l e o l i t h i c and N e o l i t h i c Ages. To c o n f i n e o u r s e l v e s  -3  t o a s p e c t s o f totemism i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f  t h e C h i n e s e c y c l i c myth, we owe much t o L i u C h i e h ' s s y s t e m a t i c and scrupulous study, H i s t o r y o f t h e Migrations  o f Ancient  C h i n e s e Gentes,  w h i c h a s s e r t s t h a t t h e l i z a r d , among t h e t h r e e e a r l i e s t  totemic  a n i m a l s , and t h e s u n and t h e moon were totems o f t h e c l a n s o f t h e Archer-God Hou I ' s o f f s p r i n g ; and t h a t t h e d e c i m a l names f o r t h e t e n suns and l a t e r t h a t o f t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g animals were a l s o t h e names  4 o f v a r i o u s p h r a t r i e s i n t h e H s i a dynasty.  The o r i g i n a l  character  f o r " l i z a r d " i s a p a r a d o x i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e sun and moon which e t y m o l o g i c a l l y connotes t h e l i z a r d ' s p r o t e c t i v e c o l o r a t i o n , t h a t i s , t o 5 change as o r w i t h t h e sun and moon.  A t any r a t e t h e mana o f t h i s  totem r e s i d e s i n t h e v i r t u e o f a d a p t a t i o n , and  t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e sun  t h e moon, o r t h e v i r t u e o f t h e e v e r r i s i n g sun and t h e e t e r n a l l y  becoming moon.*' Here, i n one o f t h e e a r l i e s t known C h i n e s e totems we d e t e c t t h e r e s t l e s s urge t o a l l e v i a t e t h a t temporal t e n s i o n w h i c h gave r i s e t o t h e myth o f t h e Archer-God i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e .  A g a i n t h e d e s i r e f o r harmony  with c y c l i c nature, the n o s t a l g i a f o r p e r i o d i c regeneration, i s e l u c i d a t e d and emphasized. I f t h e most a r c h a i c c l a s s i c s a r e any i n d i c a t i o n , t h e a n c i e n t C h i n e s e were e x t r e m e l y r i t u a l i s t i c , and numerous a r e t h e r e c o r d s o f s t r i c t and i n t r i c a t e r i t u a l s o f d a i l y , monthly, s e a s o n a l , sacrifices.  and y e a r l y  Among t h e s e t h e s a c r i f i c e s t o Heaven and E a r t h , t h e f o u r  d i r e c t i o n s , and t h e cosmic mountain a r e most i m p o r t a n t e i t h e r a s r e f l e c t i o n s o f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth. before  But  f u r t h e r study what must be s t r e s s e d h e r e a r e t h e Sun and t h e  30  Moon a s t h e images o f Heaven and E a r t h .  From t i m e immemorial  i t has  been b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e sun, b o r n i n t h e morning i n t h e e a s t a t t h e s p r i n g equinox, i s t h e essence o f Heaven which i n e v e r y a s p e c t i s luminous, a c t i v e , and d i f f u s i v e ; w h i l e t h e moon, b o r n i n t h e e v e n i n g i n the  west a t t h e autumn equinox, i s t h e e s s e n c e o f E a r t h which i n a l l 7  a s p e c t s i s nebulous, p a s s i v e , and accommodating. The s a c r i f i c e t o Heaven and E a r t h i s f i r s t r e c o r d e d i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s on o r a c l e bones and i s c a l l e d "Chiao," l i t e r a l l y sacrifice". the  " t h e suburban  As t h e g r e a t e s t s a c r i f i c e o f t h e y e a r , i t was o f f e r e d by  emperor a s t h e s o n o f Heaven and t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d f E a r t h .  r i t e o f C h i a o i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s a c r i f i c e s :  The  t h e E a r t h s a c r i f i c e must  be h e l d on t h e summer s o l s t i c e i n a s o u t h e r n marsh on a square mound; the  s a c r i f i c e t o Heaven must o c c u r on t h e w i n t e r s o l s t i c e on a n o r t h e r n  h i l l o n a round mound.  W h i l e t h e square and round mounds a r e s u p p o s e d l y  i m i t a t i v e o f E a r t h and Heaven r e s p e c t i v e l y , i t i s t h e temporal cons i d e r a t i o n s which a r e most r e v e a l i n g o f t h e c y c l i c c o n c e p t . The summer s o l s t i c e was b e l i e v e d t o be t h e day t h e moon of the  E a r t h ) was a t i t s extreme  (as t h e e s s e n c e  southerly position, the point o f r e v i v a l o f  powers o f dormancy, q u i e s c e n c e , and a b s t e n t i o n .  The w i n t e r s o l s t i c e  was t h e day t h e sun was most n o r t h e r l y , and t h e p o i n t o f r e v i v a l o f t h e powers o f v i t a l i t y ,  exuberance, and d i f f u s i o n .  A n c i e n t custom  dictated  t h a t n o t h i n g s h o u l d be attempted which might h i n d e r t h e s o l a r o r l u n a r r e t u r n on t h e s e two days.  Thus we r e a d :  "No f i r e s must be l i t i n t h e  s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e house l e s t t h e h e a t b e over-encouraged.  Doors and  g a t e s must be c l o s e d t o encourage t h e l i f e - f o r c e and t h e f r e e f l o w o f the  seasonal influence.  fast.  Men o f p o s i t i o n o r rank must keep v i g i l and  They must remain s e c l u d e d i n t h e i r house, a v o i d v i o l e n t e x e r t i o n ,  a b s t a i n from music and t h e b e a u t i f u l , a v o i d s e x u a l i n d u l g e n c e . . . "  S t r i c t obedience o f t h e s e customs would ensure t h e s e a s o n a l v i c t o r y of  t h e f o r c e s o f decay and darkness and p r e s e r v e t h e v e g e t a t i v e c y c l e . Regarding  t h e ascendancy o f t h e powers o f growth and l i g h t d u r i n g  t h e w i n t e r s o l s t i c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g customs were o b s e r v e d :  "In the  e l e v e n t h hour r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c e r s a r e commanded t o t a k e c a r e t h a t n o t h i n g c o v e r e d be thrown open, and t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no c a l l i n g up o f t h e masses.  No d w e l l i n g s s h o u l d be thrown open; no d i g g i n g s h o u l d  be done o r t h e h e a t o f t h e e a r t h would escape, o r be s t i r r e d t o u n s e a s o n a l 9 activity."  F o r t h e modern mind t h e r i t e s o f C h i a o must seem i n c r e d i b l y  n a i v e , even f o o l i s h , b u t t h e y occupy a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p ment o f t h e c y c l i c myth.  Here f o r t h e f i r s t time we s e e t h a t through  r i t e c o r r e s p o n d e n t t o t h e cosmic rhythm, t h e emperor a s t h e a n n o i n t e d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e w o r l d c o u l d ensure harmony between t h e human and n a t u r a l worlds.  The C h i a o i s a g r a p h i c example o f t h e consuming d e s i r e  of  t h e e a r l y C h i n e s e mind f o r p e r i o d i c r e g e n e r a t i o n , and t h e annulment  of  time. The round mound o f t h e f i r s t r i t e s o f C h i a o was t h e p r o t o t y p e o f  t h e f i n a l A l t a r t o Heaven i n P e k i n g , and t h e r i t u a l t h e o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n of  t h e emperor's r o l e i n C h i n e s e l i f e f o r s u c c e e d i n g c e n t u r i e s .  r i t e was l a s t performed  The  i n 1935 under Japanese o c c u p a t i o n and d e s p i t e  t h e u s e o f r a d i o b r o a d c a s t , r e c a p t u r e s much o f i t s o r i g i n a l power. A s i d e from t h e emperor's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e g u l a t e t h e myriads of  l i v i n g t h i n g s a l o n g t h e r i g h t e o u s c o u r s e o f t h e u n i v e r s e and t h e r e b y  m a i n t a i n harmony between man, Heaven and E a r t h , t h e f o u r d i r e c t i o n s r e c e i v e d no l e s s a t t e n t i o n i n a n c i e n t r i t e s . of  According t o Interpretation  R i t e s i n t h e Book o f R i t e s , s a c r i f i c e s s h o u l d be o f f e r e d a t t h e b e g i n -  n i n g o f each season t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g gods o f d i r e c t i o n s and seasons to  encourage t h e harmonious c o u r s e o f e a c h season.  S i x jade o f f e r i n g s  used  i n t h e s e ceremonies a r e v i v i d reminders o f t h e myth o f d i v i n e admini s t r a t i o n and t h e c y c l i c b a s i s o f t h e r i t e :  P i , a round g r e e n t a b l e t  i n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e p e r f e c t c y c l e o f t h e cosmic rhythm, was t o be o f f e r e d i n homage t o Heaven; Ts'ung,  (homage t o E a r t h ) , a square y e l l o w  t a b l e t , s y m b o l i z e d t h e " g r e a t ground"; K u e i , (homage t o t h e gods o f t h e E a s t and Spring) a g r e e n e q u i l a t e r a l - t r i a n g l e t a b l e t , i m i t a t e d t h e new growth o f s p r i n g ; Chang, (homage t o t h e gods o f t h e South and Summer), a r e d a c u t e - r i g h t - a n g l e t r i a n g l e t a b l e t , symbolized t h e h a l f - d e a t h o f t h e v i t a l i t y o f a l l summer t h i n g s ; Hu, (homage t o t h e gods o f t h e West and Autumn), a w h i t e t i g e r - s h a p e d t a b l e t , i l l u s t r a t e d t h e p r e y o f autumn's s e v e r i t y ; and f i n a l l y , Huang (homage t o t h e gods o f N o r t h and W i n t e r ) , a b l a c k s e m i - c i r c u l a r t a b l e t , s y m b o l i z e d t h e d e a t h - l i k e s t a t e o f dormancy and h i b e r n a t i o n i n w i n t e r .  1 1  A n o t h e r a n c i e n t r i t e , t h e m y s t e r i o u s Feng Shan S a c r i f i c e , t r a t e s t h e importance o f t h e moon i n e a r l y C h i n e s e r i t u a l . o r i g i n a l l y a s a c r i f i c e o f t h e emperor t o Mount T ' a i —  illus-  I t was  t h e cosmic  mountain upon which c e n t r e d t h e myths o f passageways t o Heaven, t h e myths o f d i v i n e s e c r e t abodes o f t h e Supremacy o f t h e U n i v e r s e and t h e S u p e r n a l Mother-Goddess, gardens.  and t h e myths o f t h e T r e e s o f L i f e i n v a r i o u s  Perhaps t h e m y t h i c l o c a t i o n and i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f Mount  K'un Lun and o t h e r cosmic mountains prompted T'ai i n their place.  t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f Mount  A t any r a t e u n t i l t h e Sung d y n a s t y  a l m o s t e v e r y emperor a f t e r enthronement  (960-1279 A.D.)  would o f f e r a t h a n k s g i v i n g  s a c r i f i c e on t h e h i l l o f Mount T ' a i . As a l u n a r homage t h e s a c r i f i c e r e c a l l s t h e myth o f Ch'ang O and h e r f l i g h t t o t h e moon.  B u t what i s  most i m p o r t a n t i s t h e m y t h i c u n d e r c u r r e n t , t h a t t h i s r i t e i s a l s o a r e t u r n t o t h e o r i g i n , a homage t o t h e moon t h r o u g h which might be o b t a i n e d .  12  immortality  To r e v i e w t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth i n t h e s e  earliest  C h i n e s e r i t u a l s i s t o u n d e r s c o r e t h e importance o f temporal  tensions  i n the c r e a t i o n o f these r i t e s . may  The most a r c h a i c sun-moon totemism  be viewed as a n o s t a l g i a f o r p e r i o d i c r e g e n e r a t i o n ; t h e  sacrifices  t o Heaven and E a r t h and t h e F o u r D i r e c t i o n s a r e attempts t o harmonize human l i f e w i t h t h e cosmic rhythm o f e t e r n a l r e t u r n , w h i l e t h e t h a n k s g i v i n g s a c r i f i c e t o t h e cosmic mountain t y p i f i e s t h a t d e s i r e t o r e t u r n to  the o r i g i n , o r g a i n immortality.  As t h e e a r l y myths became c o d i f i e d  and a b s t r a c t e d i n t o t h e complex myth o f d i v i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  the  r i t e o p o e i c aspect generated a b s t r a c t i o n s o f r i t u a l culminating i n the g r e a t i n s t i t u t i o n "Ming T'ang" — Any  the H a l l o f L i g h t .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f ancient Chinese r i t u a l i n v a r i a b l y leads t o  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f "Ming T'ang" —  literally  t h e H a l l o f L i g h t from  which s p r a n g C h i n a ' s astronomy, cosmology, r e l i g i o n , government, a g r i c u l t u r e and e t h i c s .  W h i l e we  have s u g g e s t e d t h e c o n c e p t u a l  frame-  work which gave r i s e t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , i t s a c t u a l o r i g i n i s shrouded i n conjecture.  The d e n o t a t i o n o f "Ming" f i r s t s u g g e s t s an  astronomical  o r i g i n o r a s s o c i a t i o n f o r "Ming" i s composed o f two p i c t o g r a p h s  f o r the  sun and t h e moon, and t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t which i s produced by two to  luminaries.  the  Most C h i n e s e c l a s s i c s s u g g e s t t h e o r i g i n o f Ming T'ang  be no more t h a n t h e t h a t c h e d h u t o f t h e t r i b a l magician-astronomer, o r  perhaps t h e s e c l u d e d sanctum used by t h e s a g e - r u l e r f o r  astronomical  13 observation. to  T r a d i t i o n a s s i g n s t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e f i r s t Ming T'ang  Shen Nung, t h e f i r s t l e g e n d a r y  r u l e r and t h e P a t r i a r c h o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,  (probably t h e euhemerized f i g u r e o f t h e g r e a t Sun-God o f t h e South) i n t h e shape o f t h e Pa Kua,  the octagonal  i n v e n t e d by F u H s i , t h e S o v e r e i g n God i t i s assured  form o f a s t r o n o m i c a l o f the East.  changes  Whatever i t s o r i g i n ,  t h a t d u r i n g t h e e x p a n s i o n from t r i b a l t o f e u d a l system, t h e  34 t h a t c h e d h u t became f i r s t f i v e rooms, and t h e n i n t h e Chou dynasty, n i n e h a l l s surmounted by an upper c i r c u l a r s t o r y s e t on t h e square 14 central h a l l . The s u n d i a l s t r u c t u r e o f Ming T'ang r e p r e s e n t s b o t h t h e t e r r e s t r i a l and c e l e s t i a l c e n t e r o f t h e C h i n e s e w o r l d .  The upper s t o r y o r  a s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r v a t o r y was a c c o r d e d t h e name "K'un Lun" (from t h e cosmic mountain) w h i l e t h e square below was s a i d t o be symbolic o f E a r t h i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e c i r c u l a r Heaven above.  Understood  as a  d i r e c t i o n a l and s e a s o n a l scheme, t h e f i v e o r n i n e h a l l s p r o v i d e a c l o c k w i s e p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e monthly s a c i r f i c e s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t o t h e end o f t h e y e a r .  Records show t h a t " i t was t h e d u t y o f t h e r u l e r a t  each new moon t o p r e p a r e h i m s e l f a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s r u l e s , b y a b l u t i o n s , by e a t i n g s p e c i a l foods v a r y i n g w i t h t h e seasons, b y w e a r i n g  t h e garments  o f t h e seasons, and p e r f o r m i n g variolas o t h e r d u t i e s r e q u i r e d o f him, t o 15 o f f e r t h e monthly mimetic s a c r i f i c e s " .  An improper  s a c r i f i c e would  n o t merely be i n e f f i c a c i o u s , b u t i n a u s p i c i o u s t o t h e p o i n t o f d i s j o i n i n g the course o f nature.  T h e r e f o r e t h e r u l e r , o r emperor, s h o u l d a c t i n  a c c o r d w i t h t h e scheme o f p r o g r e s s i o n and " m a i n t a i n i t i n world-wide e x a c t i t u d e i n o r d e r t o l i n k up t h e ways o f t h e t h r e e powers o f Heaven, E a r t h , and Man, and t o extend i t throughout powers and t h e f o u r seasons  t h e seasons,  f o r the three  form t h e seven e s s e n t i a l s , from w h i c h s p r i n g  t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s i n g e n e r a l and which, b y a i d i n g t h e i r development and n u r t u r e , complete t h a t w h i c h has a l r e a d y been ordained"."^  I n p r a c t i c e t h e emperor would p r o g r e s s i v e l y occupy a room  f a c i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d b y t h e month and p e r f o r m t h e r e q u i r e d c o s m o l o g i c a l , a s t r o n o m i c a l , s o c i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l r i t u a l s and ceremonies.  direction' season color element— month  direction season color element month hall  •north •winter •black •water •10-Novembe ll-Decembe 12 -J anuary  hall-  -10-left division 11- Somber H a l l K a i l of Darkness 12- right d i v i s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t — -black chariot black horse black banner black garment black jade ornament  west autumn white metal 7-August 8- September  direction season color element month  east spring green wood 1 -February 2- March 3- A p r i l hall 1-left division 2- H a l l of Azure-Sun H a l l of Rising-Sun 3- right d i v i s i o n requirement-green chariot green horse green banner green garment green jade ornament  9- 0 c t o b e r  7-left division 8- H a l l of Assembly H a l l of Decoration H a l l of U n i f i c a t i o n of Calendar 9- r i g h t d i v i s i o n requirement—white chariot white horse white banner white earment white jade ornament direction season color element month  the center midsummer yellow soil the day of the Saturn between July and August requirement—yellow chariot yellow horse yellow banner yellow garment yellow jade ornament  direction season color element month  south summer red fire k~ May 5- June 6- July hall 4-left division 5 - H a l l of Light H a l l of Sun-Banqueting 6- right d i v i s i o n requirement—red chariot red horse red banner red garment and jade ornament  U)  With t h e breakup o f t h e f e u d a l system o f t h e Chou d y n a s t y , Ming T'ang f e l l i n t o d e c l i n e and i t s f u n c t i o n s as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e were d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h t h e empire.  Y e t i t remained t h e Son o f Heaven's  g r e a t e s t temple f o r t h e need f o r t h e n a t i o n t o be l i n k e d i n harmony w i t h t h e realm o f nature  s t i l l remained, and f o r t h i s purpose t h e r u l e r  was s t i l l t h e one e s s e n t i a l nexus.  I n a l l o p e r a t i o n s t h e animated w o r l d  s t i l l depended upon h i s c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e t r i f o l d u n i o n o f Man, E a r t h , and Heaven; t h e Ming T'ang remained t h e n a t i o n ' s powerhouse f o r i t s e f f e c t s were p o l i t i c a l and e t h i c a l which, f o r t h e a n c i e n t C h i n e s e , were in  essence r e l i g i o u s . The  i n s t i t u t i o n o f Ming T'ang suggests t h e i n t e n s e  between man and cosmos w h i c h i s a h a l l m a r k  symbiosis  o f Chinese c u l t u r e .  William  E. S c o t h i l l ' s e x p l a n a t i o n p a r a l l e l s o u r e x p l a n a t i o n o f Ming T'ang as a c r u c i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e e v o l v i n g c y c l i c myth: and  symmetrical  "This u n i t a r y  system o f c e l e s t i a l p a l a c e s i s b u t a c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e  e x i s t e n c e o f an u n i v e r s a l law, a r e v e l a t i o n o f a c y c l i c c o n c e p t o f t h e u n i v e r s e , an awareness o f t h e d e s t i n y o r n e c e s s i t y o f man's p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  t h e due c o u r s e o f u n i v e r s a l harmony, and hence a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f  an a g e - o l d dream o f m a n i p u l a t i o n  o v e r i t through t h e s a g e - r u l e r o r t h e  emperor's knowledge o f , and t h e r e f o r e t h e power o v e r , t h e cosmic o r d e r  17 w i t h i t s a n n u a l c y c l e o f months and seasons."  As t h e b a s i s o f t h e  C h i n e s e c a l e n d a r and cosmology, t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f Ming T'ang p l a y e d a major r o l e i n t h e development o f t e t r a - s y m m e t r i c a l c o n c e p t s s o important  and p e n t a - c y c l i c a l  i n the e v o l u t i o n o f Chinese p h i l o s o p h y — a  philosophy  w h i c h would i n r e t u r n c o n t r i b u t e much t o t h e d e s i g n o f t h e c y c l i c p a t t e r n o f man i n t h e cosmos. The p r o g r e s s i v e a n t h r o p o c e n t r i s m  o f Chinese r i t u a l revealed i n  the  movement from t h e e a r l i e s t totemism,  through t h e r i t e s o f C h i a o ,  and f i n a l l y i n t h e d e v e l o p e d i n s t i t u t i o n o f Ming T'ang i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y l i n k e d t o i n c r e a s i n g a b s t r a c t i o n s o f n a t u r a l p e r i o d i c i t y , f o r o n l y as man  i s i n harmony w i t h c y c l i c n a t u r e does he approach t h e d i v i n e .  The  temporal t e n s i o n s m o t i v a t i n g t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n a r e a l s o v i s i b l e i n t h e s h i f t from p r i m i t i v e a n c e s t o r - w o r s h i p (as a means o f cxamtunig w i t h d i v i n i t y ) t o t h e c o n c e p t o f Te as t h e essence o f t h e Mandate o f Heaven, a c r u c i a l development i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f Ming T'ang. I n s c r i p t i o n s on more t h a n one hundred thousand fragments o f o r a c l e bones b e a r p o w e r f u l t e s t i m o n y t o t h e p o t e n c y o f a n c e s t o r w o r s h i p i n t h e Shang dynasty  (1766-1123 B.C.).  The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e a r e  r e c o r d s o f t h e Shang r u l e r s ' p l e a s , r e q u e s t s and c o n s u l t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a f f a i r s o f h a r v e s t , w a r f a r e , c a l a m i t y and g e n e r a l s o c i a l w e l f a r e .  What  i s most i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e s e i n v o c a t i o n s i s t h e u t t e r n e c e s s i t y o f i n t e r c e s s i o n by t h e g r e a t a n c e s t o r s i n communications w i t h t h e Supreme B e i n g , "Ti".  I t seems t h a t a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e d i v i n e w o r l d was  virtually  impossible but f o r the g r e a t ancestor o r forerunners o f the dynasty. 7Ancestor d e i f i c a t i o n i s perhaps t r a c e d t o t h e Shang b e l i e f t h a t d e a t h was  a n a t u r a l r e t u r n t o t h e o r i g i n and m y s t e r i o u s s t a t e o f i n c r e a s e d  s p i r i t u a l potency; t h e s e m i - d i v i n e d y n a s t i c founder t h u s d w e l t "on h i g h " , i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e Supreme B e i n g and was on b e h a l f o f the c o n s u l t i n g r u l e r .  able to intercede  The p e o p l e o f t h e Shang were more  i n c l i n e d t o s y n t h e s i z e t h e powers o f t h e Supreme B e i n g and t h e d e i f i e d a n c e s t o r , r a t h e r t h a n d i s t i n g u i s h between them. i s c o n f i r m e d by Wang Kuo-wei who  T h i s homogenization  c o n c l u d e s t h a t " T i " and t h e g r e a t  a n c e s t o r were b u t two f a c e s o f t h e same i d e n t i t y .  18  Etymological study r e i n f o r c e s t h i s c o n c l u s i o n :  the pictographic  38 character for "ancestor" takes the form of a p h a l l u s —  , while that  of "the Supreme Being" and "the sacrifices to great ancestors of the 19 dynasty" appears as a flower with ovary—  .  Both characters are  symbols of origin and regeneration; indeed the desire to return to the origin, to unite with the regenerative powers of the divine world may be seen as the psychological and ethical basis of ancestor worship. With the f a l l of the Shang dynasty, the Supreme Being, " T i " , was soon substituted by the "Omnipotence of T'ien" of the Chou rulers. This "T'ien" of the Chou was a far less "impersonal" omnipotence and associated as the "omnigoodness" and "omnijustice" of the universe. The rationalization of the Supreme Being was i n part due to the divine justification sought by the Chou rulers for their revolution.  Thus the  Chou claimed a "Mandate of Heaven", which favours no one but the virtuous, and appoints no eternal mandatary and promises no eternal blessing. The concept of "Te" or virtue i s central to the "personalization" of Heaven implied i n the Mandate of Heaven. "Te" must be understood not only i n the English sense of virtue, but as an expression of natural harmony—inwardly a spontaneity with this harmony, and outwardly as the sustaining constancy or the irresistable potency of the t r i f o l d unity of Heaven, Earth and Man.  I t was believed  that Heaven would withdraw i t s mandate from an unworthy occupant of the throne who stood between the transmission of "virtue" between the celestial high and the people.  The concept of Te then served to undercut the  transcendency of the celestial and innovate the immanent counterpoise of the terrestrial i n the cosmic harmony. Through the influence of "Te", the Mandate of Heaven became more rational and humanistic, and finally became identified with the "collective  39  w i l l " o f t h e p e o p l e upon t h e e x i l e o f t h e t y r a n n i c K i n g L i by t h e p e o p l e  20 o f Chou.  Through such v a g a r i e s o f h i s t o r y t h e "Mandate" became l e s s  a j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f k i n g s h i p and more an excuse, y e t t h e i n c r e a s i n g need f o r a m e l i o r a t i o n o f temporal t e n s i o n s through u n i o n w i t h t h e n a t u r a l c y c l e remained, and e v e n t u a l l y s t i m u l a t e d a more cosmogonic c o n c e p t o f " v i r t u e " , t h e Tao, o r t h e most b a s i c s t r a t u m o f C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h y . One  o f t h e c e n t r a l i d e a s o f C h i n e s e l i f e , Tao has been t h e s u b j e c t  o f i n t e n s e s c r u t i n y by C h i n e s e and o t h e r s c h o l a r s . s i n o l o g i s t s u g g e s t s t h a t " t a o " was  Granet, the French  originally a totemistic principle  comparable t o mana and Tu E r - w e i has r e f i n e d t h i s c o n c e p t t o t h e i d e n t i t y o f " t a o " as t h e e x a c t name and image f o r t h e i m p e r s o n a l power o f p e r i o d i c  21 change o f t h e moon. o f Tao as t h e way nature.  Both s u g g e s t i o n s a r e i m p l i e d i n an e a r l y meaning  o f nature o r the s u s t a i n i n g potency o f the course o f  By t h e l a t e r Chou p e r i o d i t had become a l l - e m b r a c i n g and y e t  somehow t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e a n c i e n t symbols,  f i n a l l y bearing a great r e -  semblance t o t h e Logos o f H e l l e n i s t i c and Graeco-Roman p h i l o s o p h e r s . I t became a t o t a l i s t i c c o n c e p t o f an i d e a l and u n i v e r s a l o r d e r , harmony, and p e r f e c t i o n — a n u l t i m a t e a s s e r t i o n o f man's oneness w i t h n a t u r e , b u t i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l e l a b o r a t i o n i s perhaps b e t t e r d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n t h e framevrork. o f t h a t s e m i n a l C h i n e s e work, t h e I C h i n g , o r The Book o f Changes. I t i s i n d e e d f i t t i n g t o summarize t h e importance o f t h e c y c l i c myth i n e a r l y C h i n e s e r i t u a l and r e l i g i o n w i t h a b r i e f s t u d y o f t h e I C h i n g , a work d e s c r i b e d by R i c h a r d W i l h e l m as a f o u n d a t i o n o f C h i n e s e l i f e — " N e a r l y a l l t h a t i s g r e a t e s t and most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h r e e thousand y e a r s o f C h i n e s e c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y has e i t h e r t a k e n i t s i n s p i r a t i o n  from  t h i s book, o r has e x e r t e d an i n f l u e n c e on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s t e x t . "  40  F o u t u n a t e l y f o r o u r p u r p o s e s , t h e E n g l i s h s i n o l o g i s t has t h e p i o n e e r i n g work o f Legge and W i l h e l m r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and numerous secondary s t u d i e s a l s o t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h ; we may  thus r e s t r i c t o u r s e l v e s  t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c y c l i c myth i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e I C h i n g . C o n c e r n i n g t h e e a r l i e s t h i s t o r y o f t h e I C h i n g , i t was  perhaps  a t f i r s t an u n o r g a n i z e d c o l l e c t i o n o f peasant omen-texts, t h e n d u r i n g t h e H s i a d y n a s t y t h e s e documents were combined w i t h d i v i n a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . Towards t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Chou d y n a s t y i t had assumed i t s p r e s e n t form o f t h e E i g h t T r i g r a m s and p r o b a b l y t h e p e r m u t a t i o n s o f t h e s i x t y f o u r hexagrams. c h r o n o l o g y , we  D e s p i t e t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g an a c c u r a t e can deduce from t h e development o f t h e I C h i n g t h e  importance  o f temporal t e n s i o n s and t h e d e s i r e f o r p e r i o d i c r e g e n e r a t i o n so t y p i c a l o f t h e mythology o f temporal awareness o u t l i n e d  earlier.  The e f f i c a c y o f d i v i n a t i o n i s a c e n t r a l c o n c e p t i n C h i n e s e h i s t o r y , and one t h a t extends i n t o remotest a n t i q u i t y .  O r i g i n a t i n g i n agricad-tural>  a u g u r i e s , t h e p r a c t i c e o f d i v i n a t i o n has always i m p l i e d a communication between m i c r o - and macrocosm, a b e l i e f i n t h e p a r a l l e l i s m between what i s w i t h o u t and what i s w i t h i n u s , t h a t t h e c o u r s e o f one may meaningful f o r the o t h e r .  a l s o be  W h i l e t h e p r o c e s s e s o f n a t u r a l change a r e t o o  v a r i o u s f o r immediate p e r c e p t i o n , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f change may  be p e r c e i v e d  through t h e use o f s a c r e d o b j e c t s w h i c h a r t as t h e medium between human a c t i o n and n a t u r a l law.  S i n c e t h e "estrangement  o f e a r t h from heaven,"  d i v i n a t i o n must a l s o be seen as t h e d e s i r e f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between human and n a t u r a l time, one e s s e n t i a l l y l i n e a r , t h e o t h e r c y c l i c . C o n n e c t i o n s between d i v i n a t i o n p r a c t i c e s and what would become t h e I C h i n g were e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e Shang d y n a s t y by t h e c o d i f i c a t i o n  of  their eight natural deities  (heaven, e a r t h , mountain, marsh, thunder,  f i r e , water, and wood) i n t o l i n e a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , t h e Pa Kua. of  Pa Kua was  Divination  accomplished through t h e use o f t h e t o r t o i s e - s h e l l of stalks of m i l f o i l .  and  the  arrangement  The t o r t o i s e i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y  the  sacred animal o f the north-winter, a h i b e r n a l animal capable o f  seemingly o c c u l t d e a t h and r e b i r t h , w h i l e t h e m i l f o i l was a s a c r e d p l a n t b e a r i n g t h r e e hundred  r e g a r d e d as  stems e v e r y thousand y e a r s and  i s connected w i t h t h e v i r t u e o f roundness o r p e r f e c t i o n .  This natural  symbolism f u r t h e r u n d e r s c o r e s t h e c y c l i c b a s i s o f d i v i n a t i o n ; i n b o t h media we can d i s c e r n t h e importance o f r e g e n e r a t i o n and c y c l i c  renewal.  The o r i g i n s o f t h e Pa Kua a r e c l o u d e d by t h e l a c k o f h i s t o r i c a l data. to  C h i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a t t r i b u t e s t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e e i g h t images  F u H s i , t h e S o v e r e i g n God o f t h e E a s t , and t h e f i r s t  emperor o f t h e t h i r d m i l l e n i u m B.C.  euhemerized  F u H s i a l l e g e d l y contemplated t h e  forms and p a t t e r n s e x h i b i t e d i n sky, e a r t h , and s e l f , and d e v i s e d t h e e i g h t l i n e a l f i g u r e s o f t h r e e l i n e s e a c h t o demonstrate t h e i n t e l l i g e n t o p e r a t i o n s o f n a t u r e and c l a s s i f y t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e myriads o f t h i n g s . F u H s i i s a l s o c r e d i t e d w i t h o r d e r i n g t h e Pa Kua i n t o t h e " P r i m a l A r r a n g e ment" which i s b a s i c a l l y a s y m b o l i c statement o f t h e e t e r n a l and b a l a n c e d completeness w i t h i n which t h e p r o c e s s o f dynamic b a l a n c e o p e r a t e s . the  P r i m a l Arrangement i s found t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n o f element,  In  season,  and d i r e c t i o n which t y p i f i e s the a b s t r a c t s y s t e m i z a t i o n o f t h e Myth o f D i v i n e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e C h i a o s a c r i f i c e , and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f Ming 23 T'ang.  42 S Ch'i«n  Spring  III III  E  Li  "It  \( /  1  X  Autumn w  K'an  >^ K*un N  Wlntw  The P r i m a l Arrangement o f Pa i n Pairs of Antitheses.  Kua  The r o o t s o f t h e I C h i n g a r e f u r t h e r grounded i n n a t u r a l c y c l e when t h e importance  of c e l e s t i a l objects i s considered.  " I " o r "Change"  i s w r i t t e n as a p i c t o g r a p h o f a sun p l a c e d o v e r t h e moon, and as i n t h e heavens, t h e sun i s r e p l a c e d by the moon, and t h e moon a g a i n by t h e so i s Change always p r o c e e d i n g i n t h e phenomena o f n a t u r e and t h e periences of society.  sun,  ex-  A c c o r d i n g t o R i c h a r d Wilhelm's a n n o t a t e d Ta Chuan,  "Owing t o changes o f t h e sun, moon and s t a r s , phenomena t a k e form i n t h e heavens.  These phenomena obey d e f i n i t e laws.  Bound up w i t h them, shapes  come i n t o b e i n g on e a r t h , i n accordance w i t h i d e n t i c a l laws. t h e p r o c e s s e s on e a r t h — b l o s s o m  Therefore  and f r u i t , growth and d e c a y — c a n  be  24 c a l c u l a t e d i f we know t h e laws o f time."  The premise  f o r such a  spe-  c u l a t i o n i s a b e l i e f i n t h e concept o f c o n s t a n c y evoked by t h e o r b i t o f heavenly b o d i e s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p o l a r i t i e s o f heaven and e a r t h , sun and moon, and t h e y i n and yang p r i n c i p l e s .  Obviously  t h e s e c e l e s t i a l phenomena have always been p r e s e n t and ready f o r a b s t r a c t i o n . I n due c o u r s e , images were r e c o g n i z e d , a t t r i b u t e s a s s i g n e d , and formed.  And  concepts  i t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e Shang were t h e f i r s t  to  d e v e l o p t h e c o n c e p t s o f p o l a r i t y between heaven and and  f e m i n i n e , and y i n and The  e i g h t trigrams  earth, masculine  yang. o f Pa Kua were o f c o u r s e n o t imnune t o  r a t i o n a l i z i n g complexities  o f t h e e a r l y C h i n e s e mind.  The  tensions  which compelled t h e a b s t r a c t i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , between man, and  the d i v i n e i n p r e v i o u s schemata  the e v o l v i n g Pa Kua.  The  accretion  (Ming T'ang, e t c . )  the  nature,  are a l s o behind  o f correspondences was  historically  r e i n f o r c e d by the f a l l o f the House o f Shang; r o y a l d i v i n e r s were e x i l e d and  f o r c e d t o e a r n a l i v i n g from d i v i n i n g among common c i t i z e n s .  meet t h e v a r i o u s  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f " t e r r e s t r i a l " l i f e , many more images  and a t t r i b u t e s were added t o t h e Pa Kua. in  To  The  following chart i s offered  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f symbols and a t t r i b u t e s .  TRIGRAM  55 55 55 cm un  —  NAME  IMAGE  ATTRIBUTE  TRAIT  DIRECTION AND SEASON PRIMAL ARRANGEMENT LATER HEAVEN SEQUENCE  SYMBOLIC ANIMAL  PART OF BODY  FAMILY RELATION  Ch'ien  Heaven  The Creative  Strong Firm Light  S Summer  NW  Dragon or Horse  Head -  Father  Chen  Thunder  The Arousing  Active Moving Arousing  NE .  E Spring  Dragon  Foot  F i r s t Son  K'an  Water (or moon)  The Abysmal  Enveloping Dangerous Difficult  W Autumn  N Winter  Pig  Ear  Second Son  Ken  Mountain  The Resting  Resting Stubborn Unmoving  NW  NE Dog  Hand  Youngest Son  K'un  Earth (or s o i l )  The Receptive  Yielding Weak Dark  N Winter  Mare or OX  Belly  Mother  Sun  Wood (or wind)  The Gentle  Gentle SW Penetrating Flexible  SE Bird  Thigh  F i r s t Daughter  Li  Fire (or sun)  The Clinging  Cl inging Depending Beautiful  E Spring  S Summer  Pheasant  Eye  Second Daughter  Lake Marsh Rain  The Joyous  Joyful Satisfied Complacent  SE  Sheep  Mouth  Youngest Daughter  Tui  ...  SW  w  Autumn  45 I n o r d e r f o r the c y c l i c n a t u r e o f change t o be i n t e l l i g i b l e i n such a l i n e a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n , i t must be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e two c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f a l l e x i s t e n c e a r e symbolized and  "The R e c e p t i v e " .  on homogeneity:  The  by t h e t r i g r a m s , "The  Creative"  two p r i n c i p l e s a r e u n i t e d by a r e l a t i o n b a s e d  t h e y do n o t combat b u t complement each o t h e r .  The  d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l c r e a t e s a p o t e n t i a l by v i r t u e o f w h i c h movement and l i v i n g e x p r e s s i o n o f energy become p o s s i b l e . s t i r s t h e c r e a t i v e f o r c e , Chen, symbolized  Out o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l  by thunder.  there  This e l e c t r i c a l  f o r c e forms c e n t r e s o f a c t i v a t i o n which a r e d i s c h a r g e d as l i g h t n i n g , Clinging, or L i . (or  Sun)  Now  t h e movement s h i f t s and thunder's o p p o s i t e , wind,  s e t s i n , t o be f o l l o w e d by r a i n ( K ' a n ) .  as t h e t r i g r a m s L i and K'an l i g h t n i n g and r a i n ) now in  Then t h e r e i s a new  appear i n t h e i r p r i m a r y  forms as sun and moon which  When t h e sun reaches  z e n i t h there i s heat,  r e p r e s e n t e d by T u i , t h e Joyous; when t h e moon reaches c o l d , r e p r e s e n t e d by Ken,  zenith there i s  t h e mountain o r K e e p i n g S t i l l .  i s o f mysterious  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r here,  The  trigram,  i n t h e seed, i n t h e  deep-hidden s t i l l n e s s , t h e end o f e v e r y t h i n g i s j o i n e d t o a new We  have t h e n i n t h e Pa Kua  shift  ( f o r m e r l y a c t i n g i n t h e i r secondary forms as  t u r n cause h e a t and c o l d .  Keeping S t i l l ,  The  the roots o f the f i r s t Chinese  beginning.  metaphysical  s p e c u l a t i o n w h i c h p r o c l a i m s t h a t from Tao emerged t h e g r e a t p r i m o r d i a l one;  the one e v o l v e d i n t o t h e two p o l a r i t i e s o f y i n and yang; t h e  produced t h e f o u r s e a s o n a l phenomena, o r heavenly  spheres,  two  o r phases o f  b e i n g ; and t h e f o u r i n t u r n produced t h e e i g h t t r i g r a m s which a r e symbols of  bio-cosmic  Pa Kua  transformation.  Above a l l i t must be emphasized t h a t t h e  a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h i n g s as such, b u t o f t h e i r  tendencies  i n movement, o r p r o c e s s e s o r phases i n n a t u r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h i n h e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s ; and as such, t h e Pa Kua, man  through d i v i n a t i o n ,  their offer  communication w i t h r e g e n e r a t i v e n a t u r e and r e l e a s e from temporal  46 limitations. The next stage i n the development of the I Ching, that of the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of the eight trigrams i n t o sixty-four hexagrams, may be seen as the <^lmination of the e f f o r t s of the e x i l e d Shang d i v i n e r s to universalize the Pa Kua.  Certainly there i s much h i s t o r i c a l evidence  that the f i n a l organization i s the work of King Wen, the founder of the Chou dynasty.  (1154-1122  B.C.)  I t i s generally believed that King Wen  was also responsible f o r the arrangement o f Pa Kua known as the "Sequence of Later Heaven," a "phenomenal" sequence which presents the Pa Kua i n the order i n which changes are experienced by man i n a yearly c y c l e .  K'on N The Sequence o f Later Heaven  The labours of King Wen  (and l a t e r , h i s son, the Duke of Chou) i n  creating the s i x t y - f o u r hexagrams provided a sophisticated system o f r e l a t i n g the complexities of human behavior to the processes o f change i n nature.  Arrangement of the hexagrams follows the pattern of natural  47  cycle; thus the second last hexagram, "After Completion," represents a gradual transition from ascent to standstill; while the last hexagram, "Before Completion," represents the transition from chaos to order. Its place at the end of the circular sequence points to the fact that every end contains a new beginning. The I Ching presents a complete image of heaven and earth, a microcosm of a l l possible relationships for the hexagrams and lines i n their movements and changes mysteriously reproduce the movements and changes of the macrocosm. Thus we read that the I Ching "contains the measure of heaven and earth; therefore i t enables us to comprehend the Tao of heaven 26  and earth and i t s order". Crucial to any understanding of the I Ching i s the concept of change. In the process of change, every component of the situation can reverse i t s e l f according to yin-yang theory and bring a new element into the situation as a whole; moreover, beyond the transformation of opposites, change i s also a cycle of phenomenal complexes which are themselves connected, such as day and night, summer and winter, and l i f e and death.  The  absence of change i s s t i l l movement, that i s , regression, not cessation of movement, for standstill and rest are also aspects of change. Above a l l , change f i l l s the category of time with content, from chaos to cosmos, that i s the underlying direction of man's desire to escape temporal limitation. Howe does the f i n a l formulation of the I Ching during the Chou dynasty ameliorate the tensions of human ephemerality, the prime motivation behind the systematising of early Chinese myth and ritual?  In the f i r s t  place change reveals an organic order, for the hexagrams provide complete images of conditions and relationships existing i n the world.  Because  48 human and t e r r e s t r i a l nature obey the same definite laws, and these principles are manifestations of the divine Tao, consistency returns to human l i f e .  Secondly, i m p l i c i t i n the concept of change i s man's position  at the centre of events. Change i s neither an intangible snare nor external fate, but an order corresponding to human nature, a guideline from which one can "read-off" events.  The c y c l i c nature of a l l movement  prevents the movement i t s e l f from dispersing beyond human understanding, and becomes, as i t were, a t the service of man. F i n a l l y , and what i s perhaps most c r u c i a l , the concept of change defines man's place and responsibility i n the cosmos and removes him from subjection to nature. According to the I Ching man i s i n a position to intervene i n the course of events considerably beyond h i s own sphere. When, i n accordance with the natural order, each thing i s i n i t s appropriate place, harmony i s established.  Now each situation demands the action  proper to i t , and i n every situation there i s a r i g h t and a wrong course of action; thus the individual comes to share i n shaping his fate, for his actions intervene as determining factors i n world events.  As the centre  of events, the individual who i s conscious of responsibility i s on a par with the cosmic forces of heaven and earth, and i n such a manner, can change be influenced.  In the f i n a l analysis we return to Richard Wilhelm  (as we once began) to summarize the metaphysical importance of the I Ching; " I t i s b u i l t on the premise that the cosmos and man...obey the same law; that man i s a microcosm and i s not separated from the macrocosm by any fixed barriers.  The very same laws rule for one as for the other, and  from the one a way leads into the other. The psyche and the cosmos are to each other l i k e the inner world and the outer world. Therefore, man participates by nature i n a l l cosmic events, and i s inwardly as w e l l as  outwardly interwoven w i t h them".* ' -  Through i t s r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e as o r g a n i c o r d e r and man's p o s i t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as the centre o f events, t h e I Ching serves as b o t h summary o f an s o l u t i o n t o t h e temporal t e n s i o n s w h i c h were t h e b a s i s o f C h i n e s e myth and r i t u a l .  As always, t i m e i s o f t h e e s s e n c e ,  and t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e d r e a d f u l l i n e a r i t y o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e f a c e o f n a t u r a l c y c l e and d i v i n e i m m o r t a l i t y must be a t e m p o r a l  solution.  U n l i k e t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n o f t h e C h r i s t i a n s , t h e Chinese embraced t h e e v e r - c y c l i c n a t u r a l w o r l d a s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e d i v i n e Tao, and t h r o u g h t h e g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n o f a c y c l i c myth r e g a i n e d a semblance o f t h e d i v i n i t y man once enjoyed.  The e a r l i e s t myths and  r i t u a l s r e v e a l t h e a n g u i s h o f human e p h e m e r a l i t y ; and t h e myth o f d i v i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e C h i a o s a c r i f i c e s , and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f M i n g T'ang suggest t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s o l u t i o n .  I t remained f o r t h e complex  a b s t r a c t i o n s o f t h e I C h i n g t o p r o v i d e a n o n g o i n g m e t a p h y s i c a l system which would s a t i s f y t h o s e e a r l i e s t l o n g i n g s .  Of c o u r s e , t h e I C h i n g  c o u l d n e v e r be t h e f i n a l s o l u t i o n , i f t h e r e c o u l d e v e r b e a " f i n a l to the l i m i t a t i o n s o f consciousness.  solution"  Rather The Book o f Changes was  a p l a t e a u o f s p e c u l a t i o n , o f f e r i n g a f i r m base f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l machinery which would soon be brought t o b e a r on t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f i t s c e n t r a l concepts.  As t h e most e x a c t f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth y e t  d e v e l o p e d , i t became t h e c r o s s r o a d s o f C h i n e s e c u l t u r e and t h e s o u r c e of  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r f u t u r e a r t i s t s and p h i l o s o p h e r s . B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e n e x t s t a g e o f t h e c y c l i c myth's  at  development  t h e hands o f C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s , we o f f e r t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r t b y  way o f summarizing  t h e e v o l u t i o n o f ideas d i s c u s s e d thus f a r .  Certainly  any attempt t o e n c a p s u l a t e t h r e e thousand y e a r s o f C h i n e s e c u l t u r e on a  50  single page i s doomed to ignominious defeat. Moreover our graphic history i s perhpas more conceptually accurate than chronologically exact, (especially considering the fragmentary nature of the e a r l i e s t Chinese works).  Yet despite these limitations, a v i s u a l presentation often  succeeds where pages of text cannot, and i t makes immediately apparent the importance of The Book of Changes as both past sunniary and future basis.  51  ANCESTOR, HEAVEN FATHOMLESS ANTIQUITY MYTHOLOGICAL EMPERORS P'AN KU FU HSI NU VA  SHEN NUNC HUANG T I (T'AI  HAO)  (YEN T I )  (SHAO HAO) CHUAN HSU  •Myth o f C r e a t i o n of U n i v e r s e •Myth o f C r e a t i o n o f Man •Myth o f U n i v e r s a l Destruction *Myth o f P a r a d i s e Rebuilt •Myth o f Golden Age •Myth o f Passageways to Heaven •Myth o f U n i v e r s a l Rebellion *Myth o f E s t r a n g e ment o f E a r t h from Heaven •Myth o f God o f Time *Myth of. B i r t h s o f Ten Suns and Twelve Moons •Myth o f T i t a n K' ua Fu's C h a s i n g the Sun| •Myth o f Death o f N i n e Suns •Hyth o f F l i g h t t o the Moon *Myth o f D i v i n e Administration  CORRESPONDENT RITE TO COSMOS  TAO. YN I7YANG,  MING T'ANC INSTITUTION  FIVE AGENTS  'INVENTOR OF MING T'ANG  DIVINATION I PA KUA  •INVENTOR OF PA KUA  •INVENTOR OF MING T'ANC •INVENTOR OF MING T'ANG  •ORIGIN OF FENG SHAN  THIRD MILLENNIUM B.C.  MING T'ANG - A THATCHED HUT OF TRIBAL MAGICIAN AND MEDICINE-MAN  LEGENDARY SAGE KINGS YAO . SHUN YU  MANA - TAO TAO - HOON LIZARD CLAN SIM-MOON CLAN CONCEPTS OF POLARITIES  2205 - 1766 B.C.  •CHIAO SACRIFICE  MING T'ANG - AN ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATION PLACE OF SAGE RULERS  ABOVE:BELOW HEAVEN:EARTH SUN:MOON LIGHT: DARKNE5S HEAT:COLD MALE:FEMALE  •DIVINATION •UNITED HILL ORIGINAL SYSTEM OF CHANGES •ORIGINAL PA KUA  CHIAO SACRIFICE & FENG CHAN & OTHER SACRIFICES  MINC T'ANG - THE CENTRE OF THE WORLD  CORRELATION Oi' FIVE DIRECTIONS & SEASONS COLORS & ELEMENTS  EIGHT TRIGRAMS SYMBOLS OF EIGHT NATURAL DEITIES •Reverting deposit o r i g i n a l system o f changes  HSIA DYNASTY -  1766  - 1123 B.C.  EMERGENCE OF FIRST PORTION OF MYTHS  SHANG DYNASTY 1300 B.C. E a r l i e s t d a t e o f O r a c l e Bone found 1154-1122 B.C. Win o f Chou  SHANG TI WORSHIP (SUPREME BEING) ANCESTOR WORSHIP GODS OF FIVE DIRECTIONS NATURAL CODS  King  1122 - 771 B.C. WESTERN CHOU DYNASTY  •Multiplication of Hex igrams EMERGENCE OF SECOND PORTION OF MYTHS  NON-ANTHROMORPHIC HEAVEN  MING T'ANG - A NINE HALL COSMIC TEMPLE  MANDATE OF HEAVEN  1122-1115 B.C. Duke o f Chou  YIN-YANG POLARITY FIVE AGENTS  •Multiplication 1 Hexlgrams  HEAVENLY TAO & TE  —  EIGHT TRIGRAMS CYCLE OF COSMIC CHANGES  THE BOOK OF CHANGES  771 - 279 B.C.  $m  EASTERN CHOU DYNASTY 722-481 B.C. S p r i n g 4 Autumn P e r i o d  403-221 B.C. Warrlng States Period  CONFUCIANISM - CONFUCIUS  TAOISM - LAO TZU (571 B.C. - ?)  TAO AND YIN-YANG COSMOGONY  j CHANG TZU (399-295 B.C.?) TAO AND YIN-YANG COSMOGONY  I  COSMOLOGY - CYCLIC, ORGANIC, HARMONIOUS  I  CYCLIC TIME  '  I  LINEAR TIME"OF HISTORY AND UTOPIAN AGE  I  CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MAN AND HEAVEN  I  221 - 207 B.C. CH'IN DYNASTY  P H I L O S O P H Y  CHOU I - EARLY PORTION OF BOOK OF CHANCES (770 B.C.)  HUNDRED SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY  I  EIGHT TRIGRAMS EIGHT NATURAL PHENOMENA  I  COSMOLOCY - CYCLIC, HARMONIOUS  ORCANIC,  I  .CYCLIC TIME  I  LINEAR TIME OF GOLDEN AGE  YIN-YANG SCHOOL - TSOU YE (305-240 B.C.) YIN-YANG AND FIVE ACENTS COSMOGONY I COSMOLOGY - CYLIC, ORGANIC, HARMONIOUS  I  CYCLIC TIME  I  CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MAN AND NATURE  CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MAN AND UNIVERSE  HARMONY AND UNITY OF MAN AND NATURE  UNIFICATION OF MAN AND UNIVERSE  UNITY OF MAN AND HEAVEN AND EARTH UNITY OF MAN AND COSMOS  I  (BUDDHISM)  I (OMNI-PRESENCE OF BUDDHA-NATURE)  I  (NIRVANA 6 ATTAINMENT OF BUDDHA-NATURE) • THE BURN1NC OF BOOKS  52  Fcx>tnotes t o t h e C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e R i t u a l and P r i n i i t i v e R e l i g i o n 1.  C l y d e Kluckholm, "Myth and R i t u a l : B. V i c k e r y , op. c i t . , p . 39.  A G e n e r a l Theory,"  2.  P h i l i p Wheelwright, "Notes on Mythopoeia," pp. 60, 64.  3.  L i C h i , Beginnings o f Chinese C i v i l i z a t i o n s Washington P r e s s , 1957), pp. 20-21.  i n John  i n Vickery, i b i d . ,  (University o f  Huang Weh-shan, "Totemism and t h e O r i g i n o f C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y , " B u l l e t i n o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f E t h n o l o g y , Academia S i n i c a , 9 (1960, T a i p e i ) , 52. 4.  L i u C h i e h , H i s t o r y o f t h e M i g r a t i o n s o f A n c i e n t C h i n e s e Gentes ( T a i p e i : Cheng Chung P r e s s , 1971), pp. 50-98.  5.  L i u , i b i d . , p . 88. Etymological Dictionary i b i d . , p. 53.  (Shuo Wen C h i e h Tzu) c i t e d by L i u ,  6.  S t a n z a from t h e C l a s s i c o f P o e t r y , c i t e d by L i u , i b i d . , p. 88.  7.  From v a r i o u s c l a s s i c s c i t e d , by T u John E r - w e i , The R e l i g i o u s System o f A n c i e n t C h i n a ( T a i p e i : Hua Ming P r e s s , 1951), pp. 126, 155 .  8.  L i C h i : Yiieh L i n g . C f . Wang Meng-ou, L i C h i C h i n g Chu C h i n g I ( T a i p e i : The Commercial P r e s s , 1971), pp. 214-19. A l s o c f . W i l l i a m E . S c o t h i l l , The H a l l o f L i g h t , (London: L u t t e r w o r t h P r e s s , 1951), 42-3.  9.  L i C h i : Yiieh L i n g . C f . Wang Meng-ou, i b i d . , pp. 232-41. A l s o c f . S c o t h i l l , op. c i t . , pp. 48-9.  10.  S c o t h i l l , op. c i t . , p . 189. The dethroned emperor, Hsiian T'ung, under Japanese p r e s s u r e r e t u r n e d t o h i s a n c e s t r a l Manchuria t o found a new dynasty. A new t r i c e n t r i c A l t a r d e s i g n e d i n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c P e k i n g a l t a r was e r e c t e d and t h e r i t e s performed as S o o t h i l l describes: "At t h e w i n t e r s o l s t i c e 1935, i n t h e darkness b e f o r e dawn he came i n t h e r i g h t f u l r o b e s , f o l l o w i n g t h e a n c i e n t r i t u a l , i f w i t h d i m i n i s h e d g l o r y , k n e l t under t h e f r o s t y s t a r s , f a c i n g t h e n o r t h ; and by r a d i o t h e w o r l d l i s t e n e d t o h i s t h i n s h a r p v o i c e as i t r o s e and f e l l w h i l e he o f f e r e d h i m s e l f t o t h e a n c e s t o r s and t h e powers above and o f n a t u r e — t h e Shang T i , and c r i e d a l o u d t h e a n c i e n t p r a y e r s f o r s u i t a b l e seasons f o r h i s new-old p e o p l e . H i s s a c r i f i c i a l p y r e s were s c a n t y compared w i t h t h e p a s t , h i s r e t i n u e s m a l l ; b u t some o f h i s s u p p o r t e r s may have hoped t h a t through t h e renewed r i t e s , t h e ' k i n g l y way' might come back t o e a r t h , and potency and  53 v i r t u e f l o w i n t o t h e s l i g h t robed f i g u r e l o o k i n g toward t h e north star, bearing himself with a pathetic dignity a f t e r the f a s h i o n o f the sovereigns o f a long, long p a s t . " 11.  T'a Ts'ung Po and a n n o t a t i o n by Cheng Hsuan; c i t e d by op. c i t . , p. 149.  Tu,  12.  See Chou L i Feng J e n , Ta T ' a i L i Pao F u Chu, and Han Shu Szu C h i n ; c i t e d by Tu, i b i d . , p . 129. A l s o C h i a o Szu C h i h ; c i t e d by Tu, i b i d . , pp. 129-147. A l s o A n n o t a t i o n by S h i h Ku; c i t e d by Tu, i b i d . , p. 129.  13.  S c o t h i l l , op. c i t . , pp. 67-68, 87. Our d i s c u s s i o n o f Ming T'ang i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y i n d e b t e d t o W i l l i a m E . S o o t h i l l ' s remarkably d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n The H a l l o f L i g h t . One o f t h e few p i o n e e r i n g works o f C h i n e s e scholarship a v a i l a b l e i n English, i t i s indispensable f o r s t u d e n t s o f e a r l y C h i n e s e h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y .  14.  The arrangement o f t h e rooms has been a m a t t e r f o r c o n t r o v e r s y among s c h o l a r s o f l a t e r t i m e s , and t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s v e r s i o n s o f t h e p l a n ( a l l o f c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a t e date) w h i c h a r e g i v e n below. ( A l s o o f . S c o t h i l l , op. c i t . , pp. 88-89).  Chiao  54  15.  Wang Meng-ou, L i C h i C h i n g Chu C h i n g I (Modern /Annotation and T r a n s l a t i o n o f The Book o f R i t e s ) ( T a i p e i : The Commercial P r e s s , 1971), pp. 201-43.  16.  Scothill,  op. c i t . , p.  17.  Scothill,  i b i d . , p.  18.  Kuo T i n g - t ' a n g , The Development o f t h e Concept o f Heaven i n the P r e - C h ' i n P e r i o d (Shanghai: The Commercial P r e s s , 1936) pp. 11-16.  19.  Wei Cheng-t'ung, A C r i t i c a l Approach t o t h e C h i n e s e C u l t u r e ( T a i p e i : B u f f a l o Book Co., 1969), p. 79. A l s o Chou He, op. c i t . , pp. 138-39.  20.  Yeh Yu'-lin, annotated, Kuo Yii (Remarks C o n c e r n i n g t h e S t a t e s ) ( T a i p e i : The Commercial P r e s s , 1970), pp. 10-13. A l s o c f . Wei Cheng-t'ung, A C r i t i c a l Approach t o t h e C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y and Thought ( T a i p e i : B u f f a l o Book Co., 1968), p. 17 A l s o c f . Kuo, op. c i t . , p. 33.  21.  C i t e d by Huang, TATOOCP, pp. 54-56. A l s o c f . Tu E r - w e i , The R e l i g i o u s System o f A n c i e n t C h i n a ( T a i p e i : Hua Ming P r e s s , 1951), pp. 1-15.  22.  R i c h a r d W i l h e l m and Cargy F. Baynes , t r . , The I C h i n g : Book o f Changes ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 3rd ed., 1967), p. x / v i i .  23.  K.A. Dhiegh's The E l e v e n t h Wing (New York: D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1973, pp. 81-92) o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e symb o l i c i n d i c a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e P r i m a l Arrangement. He notes t h a t : "Man's joyous temperament (Tui) i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e s o u t h e a s t o c t o g a n t wedge between L i and C h ' i e n . L i i s t h e n a t u r a l element o f f i r e . I t represents l i g h t , c l a r i t y , sun, eye, p e r c e p t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t i s s e t i n the east, a symbol o f r i s i n g , b e g i n n i n g , a s t a r t i n g p o i n t from where t h e r e i s ascendance. Above, i n t h e s o u t h , i s C h ' i e n (The O r i g i n a t i n g ) . C h ' i e n i s t h e s o u r c e o f a l l phenomena, p r o j e c t i v e , t h e r o o t o f power An i n f e r e n c e : Man e x p e r i e n c e s t h e joyous s t a t e when he p e r c e i v e s w i t h o u t a doubt t h a t he f u n c t i o n s as a r i s i n g e x p r e s s i o n o f heaven's power, and w i t h t h i s c o n v i c t i o n he has merged i n t o t h e w i l l o f heaven", (pp. 87-8)  24.  R i c h a r d Wilhelm,  25.  I b i d . , pp. 284-5.  26.  C i t e d by H e l l m u t Wilhelm, Chang: E i g h t L e c t u r e s on t h e I C h i n g (New York: Harper & Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1960), p. 69.  27.  R i c h a r d Wilhelm,The S e c r e t o f t h e Golden Flower: A Chinese Book o f L i f e (New York: A H e l e n and K u r t W o l f f Book, 1967) , p. 11.  70.  112.  TICBOC, p.  283.  C.  The C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y  I f we a c c e p t t h e view t h a t t h e I C h i n g i s t r u l y t h e c r o s s r o a d s of  C h i n e s e c u l t u r e we must a l s o admit t h a t i t i s a t r a n s i t i o n , a  c r o s s r o a d from t h e age o f myth and r i t u a l t o t h e e r a o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n , and y e t a convergence where t h e f o u r main s c h o o l s o f C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h y (Confucianism, Taoism, t h e Yin-Yang S c h o o l , and Buddhism) meet.  Throughout h i s t o r y t h e s e f o u r s c h o o l s have been p a r a l l e l i n g  and r e i n f o r c i n g each o t h e r t o t h e p o i n t where one c a n t r u l y s a y t h a t e v e r y C h i n e s e i s a C o n f u c i a n i n h i s s o c i a l and a c t i v e l i f e , i n h i s i n d i v i d u a l and p a s s i v e l i f e ,  a Taoist  and a T a o i s t o r B u d d h i s t i n h i s r e -  l i g i o u s l i f e , o r a Yin-Yang b e l i e v e r i n h i s s u p e r s t i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o E l i a d e " t h e symbol, t h e myth, t h e r i t e , e x p r e s s , on d i f f e r e n t phases and t h r o u g h means p r o p e r t o them, a complex system of  c o h e r e n t a f f i r m a t i o n s about t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y o f t h i n g s , a system  t h a t c a n be r e g a r d e d a s c o n s t i t u t i n g a m e t a p h y s i c " .  1  When t h e m y t h i c  mode i s exhausted, n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n i s soon superseded b y a more d i s c u r s i v e and l i t e r a l form o f thought, namely, p h i l o s o p h y ; t h e Yin-Yang s c h o o l o f thought o c c u p i e s t h i s m i d d l e ground between n a t u r a l  religion  and p h i l o s o p h y .  The Yin-Yang S c h o o l  No a s p e c t o f C h i n e s e c i v i l i z a t i o n h a s escaped t h e i m p r i n t o f t h e Yin-Yang s c h o o l ' s d o c t r i n e s .  T e a c h i n g t h a t a l l t h i n g s and e v e n t s a r e  p r o d u c t s o f y i n and yang, t h a t phenomena succeed one a n o t h e r i n r o t a t i o n a s t h e F i v e Elements t a k e t h e i r t u r n s , T s o u Yen (305-240 B.C.?) i s t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e o f t h e s c h o o l and i s u s u a l l y c r e d i t e d w i t h combining t h e  two c u r r e n t s i n t o one.  B r i e f l y t h e c o n c e p t s o f y i n - y a n g and t h e F i v e  Elements may be r e g a r d e d as e a r l y C h i n e s e attempts i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a m e t a p h y s i c a l cosmology of  f o r t h e former a s s a y s t h e o r i g i n  t h e u n i v e r s e , and t h e l a t t e r t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e u n i v e r s e . As we have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h e y i n - y a n g c o n c e p t a t some l e n g t h ,  we s h o u l d n o t e t h a t t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e F i v e Elements i s f i r s t  stressed  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e "Grand Norm" i n The Book o f iXx^uments and "Monthly Observances" i n The Book o f R i t e s . the  A t t r i b u t e d t o a speech b y  V i s c o u n t o f C h i o f t h e Shang d y n a s t y towards t h e end o f t h e t w e l f t h  c e n t u r y B.C., t h e Grand Norm p r o v i d e s n i n e c a t e g o r i e s t h r o u g h which t h e F i v e Elements may be seen t o o p e r a t e .  The f i r s t c a t e g o r y concerns b o t h  substance and n a t u r e o f each o f t h e elements:  Water, t o m o i s t e n and  descend; F i r e , t o flame and ascend; Wood, t o s t r a i g h t e n and t o be crooked; M e t a l , t o y i e l d and t o be m o d i f i e d ; and E a r t h , t o p r o v i d e f o r sowing and r e a p i n g .  When t h e s e f i v e i n each c a t e g o r y come f u l l y and i n  t h e i r r e g u l a r o r d e r , t h e m y r i a d o f l i v i n g t h i n g s w i l l be r i c h and l u x u r i a n t ; i f t h e r e i s extreme e x c e s s i n any one, d i s a s t e r w i l l f o l l o w . human and n a t u r a l w o r l d s were f u r t h e r l i n k e d : the  Thus t h e  good o r b a d conduct on  p a r t o f t h e s o v e r e i g n , f o r example, would r e s u l t i n t h e harmony o r  disturbance o f nature. "The Monthly Observances"  i s f i r s t found i n L i i ' s S p r i n g and Autumn  A n n a l s o f t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y B.C.  I t i s a s m a l l almanac a d v i s i n g what  s h o u l d be done month by month i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n harmony w i t h n a t u r e . Here t h e f o u r seasons were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f o u r compass p o i n t s and the  F i v e Elements;  (the i n t e r v a l between summer and autumn became a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h t h e " c e n t r e " as a d i r e c t i o n and E a r t h as t h e e l e m e n t ) .  Again  a n a l o g i e s were drawn between human conduct and n a t u r a l law and s e t down  57 as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f Ming T'ang, t h e H a l l o f L i g h t . I n A Source Book i n C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y Chan W i n g - t s i t n o t e s t h a t "by t h e time o f T s o u Yen, t h e two c o n c e p t s  (the y i n - y a n g p a i r and t h e  F i v e Elements) were thought o f t o g e t h e r ...When t h i s i n t e r e s t i n correspondence was extended t o t h e r e a l m o f p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , t h e r e emerged a c y c l i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y on t h e one hand and t h e mutual  2 i n f l u e n c e between man and Nature on t h e o t h e r " .  With r e g a r d t o t h e  c y c l i c a l concept o f h i s t o r y t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f d y n a s t i e s accords w i t h the n a t u r a l s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e elements.  Thus E a r t h , under whose power  t h e Y e l l o w Emperor r u l e d , was overcome b y t h e Wood o f t h e H s i a d y n a s t y . And t h e Wood o f t h i s d y n a s t y was overcome b y t h e M e t a l o f t h e Shang dynasty. The r o t a t i o n o f t h e d y n a s t i c c y c l e moved from t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e i n t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y B.C. a s t h e F i r s t Emperor o f t h e C h ' i n d y n a s t y b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s "Water" d y n a s t y must govern w i t h h a r s h n e s s and v i o l e n c e t o r e a c h a c c o r d w i t h t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e F i r e Powers. o f f i c i a l t i t l e o f t h e Emperor was s t i l l  A s l a t e as 1911 t h e  "Emperor through  Heaven and i n accordance w i t h t h e Movements (of t h e F i v e I f such was t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Yin-Yang  (the Mandate o f ) Powers)".  t e a c h i n g s on t h e r u l i n g  a u t h o r i t i e s , one c a n o n l y imagine i t s p e r v a s i v e n e s s a t a more p l e b i a n level. The y i n yang t h e o r y h a s a l s o p u t C h i n e s e e t h i c a l and s o c i a l t e a c h i n g s on a c o s m o l o g i c a l b a s i s .  I t has h e l p e d d e v e l o p t h e view t h a t t h i n g s a r e  r e l a t e d and t h a t r e a l i t y i s a p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  Philosophically,  i t r e s u l t e d n o t o n l y i n t h e concept o f a common law g o v e r n i n g b o t h Man and Nature b u t a l s o t h e c r u c i a l d o c t r i n e o f t h e u n i t y o f Man and N a t u r e . To sum up, t h e Y i n Yang s c h o o l m a i n t a i n e d t h a t m u l t i p l i c i t y a r o s e from t h e c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n o f y i n and yang, t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s a r e a l m  58 o f p e r p e t u a l c y c l i c s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e F i v e Elements which produce and overcome one a n o t h e r i n a f i x e d sequence, t h a t t h e r e i s mutual i n f l u e n c e between Man and N a t u r e , and t h a t h i s t o r y i s a c y c l e o f s u c c e s s i o n based on t h e c y c l e o f t h e F i v e  Elements.  Confucianism  I f one word c o u l d c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e h i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h y i t would b e t h e "humanism" t h a t p r o f e s s e s t h e u n i t y o f man and cosmos. Humanity i s t h e p i v o t a l i d e a o f t h e C o n f u c i a n system;  Confucius' c e n t r a l  concerns a r e t h e harmonious u n i v e r s e and t h e s u p e r i o r man.  Humanity,  i n C h i n e s e " j e n " , i s human n a t u r e and r i g h t e o u s n e s s , and t h e C o n f u c i a n " j e n " emphasizes t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f human h e a r t e d n e s s , and p a r t i c u l a r i t y i n terms o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s .  "Jen" i s n o t a c o n t e m p l a t i v e v i r t u e b u t a n  a c t i v e p r i n c i p l e t o be c a r r i e d o u t ; i t i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y a l l human beings but the universe i n i t s t o t a l i t y .  In t h i s connection "jen" i s  expanded t o t h e c o n c e p t o f one body w i t h t h e u n i v e r s e and t h e g e n e r a t i v e force o f a l l t h i n g s , the process o f production. The second c o n c e p t c r u c i a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C o n f u c i a n i s m i s t h a t o f Chung Yung, t h e Golden Mean.  The f u n c t i o n o f t h i s  certrality  i s t o a c h i e v e harmony, a l l d i f f e r e n c e s must be p r e s e n t i n t h e i r p r o p e r proportions.  Centrality i n the individual i s the state o f equilibrium  i n one's mind b e f o r e f e e l i n g s a r e aroused, and harmony i s t h e s t a t e t h e y a r e aroused.  I n s o c i e t y c e n t r a l i t y and harmony t o g e t h e r mean  a c c o r d i n human r e l a t i o n s .  after complete  U l t i m a t e l y through t h e m o r a l p r i n c i p l e o f  Tao, Heaven and E a r t h and man w i l l a t t a i n t h e i r p r o p e r o r d e r and a l l t h i n g s w i l l f l o u r i s h i n t h e harmonious u n i v e r s a l o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t r i n i t y . The c y c l i c a s p e c t s o f C o n f u c i a n i s m remained vague and u n s e t t l e d  59  u n t i l t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Yin-Yang  school.  Tung Chung-shu (176-104 B.C.)  combined t h e C o n f u c i a n d o c t r i n e s o f e t h i c s and h i s t o r y w i t h t h e i d e a s o f y i n and yang.  F o r Tung, man i s t h e microcosm and Nature t h e macrocosm.  Nature i n f l u e n c e s man because b o t h a r e governed by t h e same m a t e r i a l f o r c e s o f y i n and yang, b u t man a s a r e p l i c a o f Heaven, i s s u p e r i o r t o a l l other things o f the world.  He m o d i f i e d t h e t h e o r y o f d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n  t o a c y c l e o f "Three R e i g n s " — B l a c k , White and Red c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e H s i a , Shang, and Chou d y n a s t i e s .  H i s theory that a r u l e r r u l e s  through  t h e Mandate o f Heaven j u s t i f i e d t h e e x e r c i s e o f i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y and a t t h e same time s e t c e r t a i n l i m i t s on i t .  The C o n f u c i a n s urged t h e  c o n t i n u a l r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f i m p e r i a l r u l e t o e n s u r e t h a t n a t u r a l harmony was n o t u p s e t .  A f a s c i n a t i n g study c o u l d be made o f t h e e f f o r t s o f Tung's  C o n f u c i a n s t o l a y r e s t r a i n t s upon the.power o f an a b s o l u t e monarchy. The scheme o f correspondences o f t h e Yin-Yang C o n f u c i a n i s m o f Tung Chung-shu must have had u n u s u a l f a s c i n a t i o n f o r t h e m e d i e v a l C h i n e s e , f o r i t dominated  C h i n e s e thought f o r f i v e c e n t u r i e s .  found i t c o n g e n i a l because harmony.  Both T a o i s t s and C o n f u c i a n s  i t was a s y s t e m a t i z e d e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i d e a o f  N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e a l s p i r i t o f harmony, whether t h e c e n t r a l  harmony o f C o n f u c i a n i s m o r t h e i n n e r harmony o f t h e T a o i s t s , o r t h e harmony between man and n a t u r e as t a u g h t by b o t h s c h o o l s , was l o s t . o f correspondence  The d o c t r i n e  scon degenerated i n t o an i n t e l l e c t u a l s p o r t , a game o r  p u z z l e , and f i n a l l y , a s u p e r s t i t i o n ; and was soon r e p l a c e d b y t h e r a t i o n a 3 l x s t i c and n a t u r a l i s t i c Neo-Taoism. The n e x t g r e a t phase o r Neo-Confucianism  (960-1912 A.D.) marked a  r e t u r n t o t h e I Ching's p r i n c i p l e s o f human n a t u r e and d e s t i n y . c h i e f proponent o f Neo-Confucianism  The  was Chou T u n - i (1017-1073 A.D.).  E l a b o r a t i n g on t h e cosmogony o f The Book o f Changes, he m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i n  60 the e v o l u t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e  from t h e G r e a t U l t i m a t e  through the m a t e r i a l  f o r c e s o f y i n and yang and t h e F i v e Elements t o t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s , t h e F i v e Elements a r e t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f m a t t e r ; whereas y i n and yang c o n s t i t u t e t h e i r a c t u a l i t y . one.  The two f o r c e s a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y  C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e many a r e u l t i m a t e l y one and t h e many have t h e i r  own c o r r e c t s t a t e s o f b e i n g .  The n a t u r e and d e s t i n y o f man and t h i n g  w i l l be c o r r e c t i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t e i f t h e y a l l f o l l o w t h e same universal principle.  T h i s was t h e c e n t r a l t h e s i s o f Neo-Confucianism f o r  the next s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s .  4  Neo-Confucianism d e v e l o p e d i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s : t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c s c h o o l o f p r i n c i p l e i n t h e Sung p e r i o d i d e a l i s t i c s c h o o l o f mind i n t h e Ming p e r i o d school i n t h e Ch'ing p e r i o d  (1644-1912).  (960-1279); t h e  (1368-1644) and t h e e m p i r i c a l  We s h a l l r e s t r i c t o u r s e l v e s t o  the c y c l i c a s p e c t s o f t h e s e s c h o o l s o f thought. The  c e n t r a l f i g u r e s i n t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c movement were Ch'eng I  (1033-1107), who f o r m u l a t e d arguments, and Chu H s i  (1130-1107), who s y s t e m a t i z e d  i n t o a r a t i o n a l i s t i c whole. i n the universe  t h e major c o n c e p t s and p r o v i d e d  one,  Neo-Confucianism  To Ch'eng I , i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n  t h e p r o c e s s o f d a i l y renewal n e v e r c e a s e s .  p r i n c i p l e t o make a new t h i n g p o s s i b l e . c a l l e d the Great Ultimate.  and r e p r o d u c t i o n This i s a  B u t a l l p r i n c i p l e s a r e a t bottom  I t i s the cooperative  p r i n c i p l e and m a t e r i a l f o r c e t h a t makes t h e u n i v e r s e f u l l e s t r e a l i z a t i o n o f " c e n t r a l harmony".  the basic  functioning of  a cosmos and t h e  C e n t r a l i t y i s the order o f the  u n i v e r s e and harmony i s i t s u n a l t e r a b l e law. I n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f y i n and yang, and Heaven and E a r t h , t h e r e i s n o t a s i n g l e moment o f r e s t i n t h e i r r i s e and f a l l , nadir.  The c o n s t a n t  i n t h e i r z e n i t h and  s u c c e s s i o n may s u g g e s t t h a t appearance and d i s a p p e a r a n c e  61  f o l l o w a c y c l e , b u t t h i s c y c l e s h o u l d n o t be understood sense as a r e t u r n t o t h e o r i g i n .  i n the  Buddhist  The Neo-Confucian u n i v e r s e i s l i k e  a  v a s t f u r n a c e , and t h e r e i s no such t h i n g as m a t e r i a l f o r c e r e t u r n i n g t o i t s source.  E v e r y c r e a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e a new  i s p e r p e t u a l l y new.  c r e a t i o n , and t h e  universe  5  When p r i n c i p l e i s endowed i n man  i t becomes h i s n a t u r e — g o o d because  p r i n c i p l e i s t h e utmost s o u r c e o f a l l goodness.  Through m o r a l c u l t i v a t i o n  s e l f i s h d e s i r e s can be e l i m i n a t e d and t h e p r i n c i p l e o f n a t u r e  realized.  The c u l t i v a t i o n i s by i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i n g s , e x t e n s i o n o f knowledge, s i n c e r i t y o f t h e w i l l , c o r r e c t n e s s o f f e e l i n g , and c u l t i v a t i o n o f one's p e r s o n a l l i f e — w h e n t h i s i s done one w i l l have f u l l y developed and f u l f i l l e d one's d e s t i n y .  one's n a t u r e  T h i s development o f human n a t u r e ,  according  t o t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c C o n f u c i a n , does n o t s t o p w i t h p e r s o n a l p e r f e c t i o n but i n v o l v e s a l l t h i n g s ,  (and h e r e we  r e t u r n t o t h e concept  of "jen").  By  i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e word i n i t s pun o f "the seed o r growth j " t h e Neo-Confucian came td. understand t h e e a r l i e r concept The  " j e n " as t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f , as w e l l as o f humanity.  second o r i d e a l i s t i c phase d f Neo-Confucianism emphasized  o n l y t h e p r i n c i p l e and t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f phenomena.  The  rationalistic  Neo-Confucians r e g a r d e d mind as a f u n c t i o n o f man's n a t u r e w h i c h  was  i d e n t i c a l w i t h p r i n c i p l e ; b u t t o Lu Hsiang-shan,  central  f i g u r e o f t h i s phase, mind was  principle.  (1139-1193) t h e  The mind i s o r i g i n a l l y good  and endowed w i t h t h e i n n a t e knowledge o f t h e good and t h e i n n a t e t o do good.  ability  F i l l i n g t h e whole u n i v e r s e , through a l l ages and i n a l l  d i r e c t i o n s , t h e r e i s t h e same mind. t h e r e i s n o t h i n g o u t s i d e t h e way  I t i s i d e n t i c a l with a l l things, f o r  and t h e r e i s no way  outside things.  i n v e s t i g a t e phenomena i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e inind; s i n c e a l l p r i n c i p l e s  To are  62  complete and i n h e r e n t i n t h e mind, t h e r e i s no need t o l o o k o u t s i d e . L u advocated  a s i m p l e , easy and d i r e c t method o f r e c o v e r i n g one's o r i g i n a l l y  good n a t u r e . ^ A second p h i l o s o p h e r o f t h i s school,Wang Yang-ming,  (1472-1529)  agreed w i t h t h e L u i n t h e main, b u t emphasized t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m i n d — that i s , the w i l l . determined  T o him,  to realize i t .  a t h i n g (or a f f a i r ) was n o t h i n g b u t t h e mind Opposed t o t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c C o n f u c i a n ' s  con-  t e n t i o n t h a t a s t h i n g s a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d one's w i l l becomes s i n c e r e , Wang maintained  t h a t t h e s i n c e r i t y o f t h e w i l l must p r e c e d e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n  of things.  F o r t h e n e x t one and o n e - h a l f c e n t u r i e s t h e i d e a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y  o f Wang dominated C h i n e s e  thought, b u t from t h e Seventeenth  Century on,  C o n f u c i a n i s t s began t o demand t h e e v i d e n t , t h e c o n c r e t e , and t h e p r a c t i c a l and t h i s marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i n a l e m p i r i c a l phase o f C o n f u c i a n i s m . The advocated way  l a s t o u t s t a n d i n g p h i l o s p h e r o f t h e s c h o o l , T a i Chen (1723-1777) t h a t p r i n c i p l e i s nothing but the order o f things, that the  t o i n v e s t i g a t e p r i n c i p l e i s n o t through  i n t e l l e c t u a l speculation or  even i n t r o s p e c t i o n , b u t b y t h e c r i t i c a l , a n a l y t i c a l , and o b j e c t i v e s t u d y o f phenomena based o n o b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e .  D e s p i t e t h e "modern" s c i e n t i f i c  a p p e a l o f t h i s concept, T a i was v e r y much a t r a d i t i o n a l i s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s an u n c e a s i n g p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n . Disregarding the abstract d i s p a r i t i e s o f the various schools o f Confucianism,  i t s h o u l d be apparent  t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h y i s always a  humanism which p r o f e s s e s a harmonious u n i v e r s e , and t h e u n i t y o f man a n d t h e cosmos.  H i s s t r o n g f e e l i n g s towards humanity l e d C o n f u c i u s t o expand  the i d e a o f " j e n " t o i n c l u d e t h e universe i n t o t a l i t y .  He understood  "jen"  as t h e mind o f man, t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a l l goodness, and t h e s o u r c e o f a l l p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e u n i v e r s e ; and made i t p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e u n i t y o f man and the u n i v e r s e be based on moral p r i n c i p l e s :  the extension o f love, the  63 e l e v a t i o n o f t h e mind above t h e u s u a l d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e l f and others.  By p r c c l a j j n i n g man's conduct a s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e Tao and  t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s a l harmony, he p u t man i n s p i r e d b y " j e n " i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e cosmos w i t h h i s i n t e g r a l power t o form a t r i n i t y  with  Heaven and E a r t h . As a Yin-Yang C o n f u c i a n , Tung Chung-shu saw t h a t a l l t h i n g s had t h e i r complements i n y i n and yang which e x p r e s s themselves t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e F i v e Elements, p r o d u c i n g f i x e d sequence. of  and overcoming one another  A c c o r d i n g l y he l a i d t h e groundwork f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  t h e e l a b o r a t e correspondences o f t h e F i v e Elements w i t h  seasons, c o l o u r s , t o n e s , t a s t e s , and t h e l i k e t o u n d e r s c o r e  directions, t h e macrocosm.  H i s u n i v e r s e was a harmonious and o r g a n i c whole and t h e c o n s t a n t of  ina  t h e y i n and yang was i t s u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e .  succession  To him, man was microcosm  and n a t u r e a macrocosm; and t h e r e was a mutual i n f l u e n c e between t h e two. Man was s t i l l  i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e cosmos and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e  u n i v e r s a l harmony, even i n Tung's concept o f h i s t o r y a s a c o n s t a n t c y c l e of  the succession o f three reigns. Emerging from t h e g r e a t i n f u s i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y and Buddhism,  Neo-Confucians d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r i d e a s about t h e means t o form t h e u n i t y with the universe.  Some o f them,in u n d e r s t a n d i n g  that the p r i n c i p l e , the  law o f e x i s t e n c e o f a l l t h i n g s , was one and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s were many, i n s i s t e d t h a t t h i s u n i t y was based on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g phenomena t h r o u g h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i n g s .  Others,  o f t h e nature o f i n understanding  t h a t s i n c e a l l p r i n c i p l e s were i n h e r e n t and complete i n t h e mind, i n s i s t e d on a u n i t y o f man a n d cosmos t h r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e mind.  Another,  i n s e e i n g t h a t t h e w i l l was t h e c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n o f mind, p r o f e s s e d t h a t s i n c e r i t y o f w i l l must p r e c e d e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C o n f u c i a n s were i n a c c o r d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Nevertheless  a l l Neo-  t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e was a p e r p e t u a l  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a c o n s t a n t p r o c e s s o f u n c e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n , a s p i r a l o f p e r p e t u a l renewal; and t h a t harmony was  the  u n a l t e r a b l e law o f t h e u n i v e r s e . As a whole C o n f u c i a n i s m r e f l e c t s t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e  cyclic  myth i n i t s a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c c o n c e p t o f a harmonious and o r g a n i c u n i v e r s e ; w h i l e t h e e v e r p r e s e n t theme o f e t e r n a l r e t u r n o r t h e p e r i o d i c r e g e n e r a t i o n of  man  and cosmos i s never  clearer.  Taoism  Our t h i r d major p h i l o s o p h i c a l s c h o o l , Taoism, a r o s e i n response to  a p e r i o d o f p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l chaos caused by t h e c r u m b l i n g  f e u d a l i s m o f t h e Chou dynasty.  While C o n f u c i a n i s m emphasizes  o r d e r and an a c t i v e l i f e , and Taoism t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i f e and  social tranquility,  i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f Taoism on C h i n e s e l i f e move f a r beyond p e r s o n a l q u i e s c e n c e :  i n i t s d o c t r i n e s on government and p e r s o n a l  c u l t i v a t i o n i t i s f u l l y the equal o f Confucianism. O r i g i n a l l y a h e r m i t i c s c h o o l o f thought which, under Yang advocated t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f l i f e and avoidance o f i n j u r y  Chu,  through  "escape", through the work o f Lao T z u i t r a p i d l y e v o l v e d m e t a p h y s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as an attempt t o r e v e a l t h e laws u n d e r l y i n g phenomenal change.  As t h e s e laws remain unchanging,  i f one r e g u l a t e s one's a c t i o n s  i n accordance w i t h them an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i f e i s a s s u r e d .  A  third  phase o f Taoism c o n c e r n s t h e work o f Chuang T z u , and h i s d o c t r i n e o f s p i r i t u a l transcendence  as a s o l u t i o n t o t h e problems o f mundane l i f e .  The Taoism o f Lao T z u b e g i n s as one would e x p e c t w i t h t h e Tao, Way;  the  p r i o r t o and above a l l t h i n g s , i t i s t h e s o u r c e o f a l l phenomena  and t h e way  i n which a l l t h i n g s pursue t h e i r c o u r s e .  "Te" i s t h e  potency  or  v i r t u e o b t a i n e d from t h e u n i v e r s a l Tao by each i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g i n  t h e p r o c e s s o f becoming.  "Tao i s t h a t by which things'cx>me t o be,  and  7  A  Te i s t h a t by w h i c h t h i n g s a r e what t h e y a r e " .  When Tao i s p o s s e s s e d  by i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s , i t becomes t h e i r c h a r a c t e r o r v i r t u e .  The  i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e a l l i f e , s o c i e t y ' s i d e a l o r d e r , and even government's i d e a l c o u r s e a r e based on and g u i d e d by t h e  Tao.  The c e n t r a l concept o f Lao Tzu's Taoism, "wu-wei" o r n o n - a c t i o n , s h o u l d n o t be r e g a r d e d as n e g a t i v e o r q u i e t i s t i c , f o r t h e Tao i s n o t an escape of  from t h e l i n e a r i t y o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s so much as an embrace  the c y c l i c course o f nature.  "Wu-wei" i s n o t i n a c t i v i t y so much as  t a k i n g no a c t i o n t h a t i s c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r e .  The Way  is a life  of  s i m p l i c i t y , r e s t r i c t i n g a l l a c t i v i t i e s which are n e i t h e r necessary nor natural.  T h i s i d e a i s grounded i n t h e laws t h a t govern t h e changes o f  t h i n g s , f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e n o t i o n t h a t when a t h i n g r e a c h e s one  extreme,  i t r e v e r t s from i t .  I n accordance w i t h t h e law o f n a t u r e , e x c e s s i s  counter-productive.  7As t h e way  o f l i f e t h e n , Tao denotes  simplicity  s p o n t a n e i t y , t r a n q u i l i t y , weakness and n o n - a c t i o n . The second major f i g u r e o f Taoism, Chuang T z u be termed t h e p h i l o s o p h e r o f change.  (399-295 B.C.)  might  To him, Nature i s n o t o n l y spon-  t a n e i t y b u t a s t a t e o f c o n s t a n t f l u x ; i t i s a u n i v e r s a l p r o c e s s which b i n d s a l l t h i n g s i n t o one, e q u a l i z i n g a l l t i l i n g s and a l l o p i n i o n s .  In  t h i s l i f e o f change, t h i n g s t r a n s f o r m themselves by themselves,  for this  i s the nature o f t h i n g s .  l e a d us  to  A f r e e development o f o u r n a t u r e s may  a r e l a t i v e k i n d o f happiness, but absolute happiness i s achieved  through h i g h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s . Chuang Tzu's r e l i a n c e on c y c l i c p r o c e s s as t h e Way t r a t e d by h i s comments on h i s w i f e ' s d e a t h : she has d i e d .  "Now  i s best  illus-  by a f u r t h e r change,  The whole p r o c e s s i s l i k e t h e sequence o f t h e f o u r seasons,  s p r i n g , summer, autumn, and w i n t e r .  W h i l e she i s thus l y i n g i n t h e  g r e a t mansion o f t h e u n i v e r s e , f o r me t o go about weeping and w a i l i n g would be t o p r o c l a i m m y s e l f i g n o r a n t o f t h e n a t u r a l laws. g I stop."  Therefore  C l e a r l y , through h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r i o r i t y o f c y c l i c  p r o c e s s , t h e sage i s no l o n g e r a f f e c t e d by t h e changes o f t h e w o r l d . Thus Chuang T z u emphasizes t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s and man's somewhat f a t a l i s t i c a c q u i e s c e n c e t o them. Because t h e Tao embraces a l l t h i n g s and combines them i n t o a u n i t y , a b s o l u t e h a p p i n e s s i s a c h i e v e d through complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Tao and t h e i d e n t i t y o f man w i t h t h e u n i v e r s e .  I n o r d e r t o be one w i t h t h e  G r e a t One, one must t r a n s c e n d and f o r g e t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h i n g s d i s t i n c t i o n s such a s l i f e and d e a t h , me and non-me, t h i s and t h a t , and the l i k e .  As i s s a i d i n t h e Chuang Tzu:  a l l things.  "The u n i v e r s e i s t h e u n i t y o f  I f we a t t a i n t h i s u n i t y and i d e n t i f y o u r s e l v e s w i t h i t ,  t h e n t h e members o f o u r body a r e b u t s o much d u s t and d i r t , w h i l e  life  and d e a t h , end and b e g i n n i n g , a r e b u t as t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f day and n i g h t , 9 which cannot d i s t u r b o u r i n n e r peace."  To Chuang Tzu, t h i s i s t h e i d e a l  man, f o r he n o t o n l y t r a n s c e n d s t h e o r d i n a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s o f t h i n g s b u t a l s o t r a n s c e n d s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e l f and t h e w o r l d . In  Chuang Tzu, Taoism r e a c h e d a m y s t i c a l h e i g h t o f transcendence;  whereas Lao Tzu's way i s d i r e c t e d c h i e f l y t o h a n d l i n g human a f f a i r s , t h a t o f Chuang T z u aims c h i e f l y a t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e u n i v e r s e .  The former  g o a l i s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m , t h a t o f t h e l a t t e r i s transcendence of  t h e mundane w o r l d .  l i f e was i n e s t i m a b l e :  A l l i n a l l , Chuang Tzu's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o C h i n e s e a s p a r t o f Taoism h i s p h i l o s o p h y h e l p e d t o  t r a n s f o r m a n c i e n t and m e d i e v a l C o n f u c i a n i s m i n t o Neo-Confucianism,  and  he was a major i n f l u e n c e on t h e l a t e r development o f t h e Zen s c h o o l o f Buddhism.  Taoism remained i n f l u e n t i a l u n t i l t h e second c e n t u r y B.C. when i t s main t e n e t s were c o d i f i e d by L i u An i n The Huai-Nan T z u .  Here t h e Tao i s  c o n c r e t i z e d i n c o s m o l o g i c a l terms; Tao o r i g i n a t e d from v a c u i t y , and v a c u i t y produced t h e u n i v e r s e , which i n t u r n produced t h e m a t e r i a l f o r c e s o f y i n and yang.  I n a d d i t i o n , The Huai-Nan T z u s y n t h e s i z e d such  n o n - T a o i s t elements as t h e C o n f u c i a n emphasis on l e a r n i n g a s a method o f s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n , and t h e L e g a l i s t emphasis o n law i n government. T h i s s y n c r e t i c approach ensured t h e s u r v i v a l o f Taoism a t a time when C o n f u c i a n i s m was dominant i n government and o f f i c i a l thought. The n e x t g r e a t r e s u r g e n c e o f Taoism was a r e a c t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l chaos o f t h e waning Han d y n a s t y .  Continuous w a r f a r e ,  t h e d e g e n e r a t i o n o f C o n f u c i a n i s m i n t o a s c h o l a s t i c i s m b a s e d on m o r a l and s o c i a l dogma, and t h e r i s e o f o c c u l t i s m s u g g e s t e d a s p i r i t u a l  revolt.  I n t h e Wei-Chin p e r i o d , s c h o l a r s r e v i v e d t h e s t u d y o f t h e a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s and t h e f i r s t p o s i t i v e r e s u l t was t h e n o t i o n t h a t non-being ("wu") s h o u l d n o t be r e g a r d e d as t h e c o n t r a s t o f b e i n g , b u t a s t h e p u r e b e i n g i t s e l f , one and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d .  One f a c e t o f t h i s movement,  known a s t h e Pure C o n v e r s a t i o n s c h o o l , c o n c e n t r a t e d on a d e n i a l o f t h e mundane i n f a v o u r o f r o m a n t i c wandering, and c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e w i t and imagination.  The second f a c e t d e s e r v e s c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n .  A t t h i s time t h e dominant t r e n d i n Han thought was t h e c o r r e s pondence o f N a t u r e and man and t h e i r mutual i n f l u e n c e , b u t t h e Metap h y s i c a l S c h o o l s o f Wei-Chin moved beyond t h e s e phenomena t o a r e a l i t y beyond space and t i m e , t h e non-being o f Lao T z u and Chuang T z u .  These  Neo-Taoists a r e T a o i s t i c i n t h e i r metaphysics, b u t Confucian i n t h e i r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y .  A g a i n , beyond t h e C o n f u c i a n c o r r e s p o n -  dences t h e y s t r e s s e d t h e o v e r a l l p r i n c i p l e which u n i t e s and commands a l l p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t s and e v e n t s .  D e s p i t e T a o i s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e development o f t h e Zen s c h o o l of  Buddhism i n t h e s e v e n t h and e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s , and i t s i n f l u e n c e on  t h e Neo-Confucians  o f t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e C o n f u c i a n way  of  life  c o u l d n o t a b i d e t h e q u i e t i s m o f T a o i s t p h i l o s o p h y , and Taoism as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l system ceased t o e x i s t soon a f t e r t h e f i r s t m i l l e n i u m . g e n e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i s summarized by Chan:  "As a way  of l i f e ,  i t has never l o s t i t s h o l d on C h i n e s e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . of  Its  however,  Its spirit  harmony, s i m p l i c i t y , and peace has been e l o q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d i n  C h i n e s e landscape p a i n t i n g , landscape g a r d e n i n g , p o e t r y , t e a d r i n k i n g , etc.,  and i t s s p i r i t o f n a t u r a l i s m , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and freedom has  s t r o n g l y molded C h i n e s e  life."  We have s t r e s s e d how l i a t i o n o f man  1 0  very e a r l y i n Chinese h i s t o r y , the r e c o n c i -  and time became p o s s i b l e o n l y through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  l i n e a r consciousness with c y c l i c process.  The e n t i r e t h r u s t o f  has been t o l e n d t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e g i t i m a c y . Tzu d i s c e r n e d an unchanging life.  Tao beneath  Taoism Lao  the unceasing transformations o f  L i v i n g i n accordance w i t h t h e Tao, i n harmony w i t h n a t u r e , and  a v o i d i n g a l l e x c e s s would r e s u l t i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s , and h a p p i n e s s .  Chuang T z u p l a c e d even g r e a t e r s t r e s s o f c y c l i c i t y ,  i n t e r p r e t e d t h e u n i v e r s e as a g r e a t c u r r e n t o f c o n s t a n t change.  and  By  u n d e r s t a n d i n g Te as Tao i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s , he p r o f e s s e d a transcendence which i n i t s extreme form d e n i e d time a l t o g e t h e r and a more spontaneous view o f l i f e w h e r e i n one was own  a d v i s e d t o adapt one's  n a t u r e t o t h e u n i v e r s a l p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and become one  with the universe. F i n a l l y , although the Neo-Taoists d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r of  interpretations  p r i n c i p l e as t r a n s c e n d e n t beyond t h i n g s , o r as immanent i n t h i n g s , and  69 t h e i r consequent  emphasis on b e i n g o r non-being;  t h e y a l l agreed  t h e sage r o s e above a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , and i n t h e m i d s t o f human a f f a i r s and responded discrimination.  that  remained  t o a l l transformations without  I n t h i s manner t h e T a o i s t s p r o v i d e d a model o f man  whose  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Tao beneath c y c l i c change e n a b l e d h i s f r e e e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n the ever-transforming world.  C h i n e s e Buddhism  By t h e second c e n t u r y A.D.  Buddhism, t h e f o u r t h major p h i l o s o p h i c a l  s c h o o l , had become an i n f l u e n c e i n C h i n e s e thought. was  O r i g i n a l l y Buddhism  c o n s i d e r e d a r e l g i o n o f t h e o c c u l t a r t s , b u t by t h e t h i r d and  fourth  c e n t u r i e s as t h e more m e t a p h y s i c a l B u d d h i s t t e x t s e n t e r e d t r a n s l a t i o n , Buddhism was  r e g a r d e d a s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l Taoism; and t h e p r a c t i c e o f  a n a l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s continued u n t i l the f i f t h century.  No doubt t h e use  o f T a o i s t terminology t o express Buddhist ideas c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e two,  and l e d t o t h e p e c u l i a r l y C h i n e s e form o f Buddhism adumbrated  below. A l t h o u g h t h e r e appeared many s c h o o l s o f Buddhism i n C h i n a , most a r e u n i t e d i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f t h r e e c e n t r a l c o n c e p t s — K a r m a , Samsara, and N i r v a n a .  Because t h e u n i v e r s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l s e n t i e n t b e i n g i s t h e  m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h i s mind, and e v e r y mental e v e n t must produce no m a t t e r how t h i s i s Karma.  a result  f a r i n t h e f u t u r e , some r e t r i b u t i v e c o n c e p t i s n e c e s s a r y : I t i s t h e cause and i t s r e t r i b u t i o n i s t h e e f f e c t .  t h e b e i n g o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s composed o f a c h a i n o f causes and  Thus  effects.  Karma extends beyond ones p r e s e n t l i f e t i m e , and t h i s c h a i n o f c a u s a t i o n i s c a l l e d Samsara, t h e Wheel o f B r i t h and Death, t h e main s o u r c e o f man's suffering.  A b e i n g ' s e s s e n t i a l i g n o r a n c e o f t h e n a t u r e o f Samsara l e a d s  70 t o w o r l d l y attachments d e s p i t e t h e i r i l l u s o r y n a t u r e .  Through t h e  t e a c h i n g s o f t h e Buddha, and i n t h e c o u r s e o f many r e b i r t h s , t h e may  accumulate Karma which does n o t c r a v e attachment.  The  e m a n c i p a t i o n from t h e Wheel o f L i f e and Death, o r N i r v a n a . then, N i r v a n a  individual  result i s I n a word,  i s the r e a l i z a t i o n o r s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  o r i g i n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e U n i v e r s a l Mind. I n i t s e a r l i e s t s t a g e s i n C h i n a , Buddhism and Taoism were r a t h e r indistinguishable. 416)  expresses  Thus t h e Pure Land s c h o o l founded by H u i Yuan  t h e hope f o r r e b i r t h i n t h e Pure Land and i s an  extension  o f t h e T a o i s t s e a r c h f o r e v e r l a s t i n g l i f e on e a r t h ; t h e g o a l was t e r m i n a t i o n o f human e x i s t e n c e , b u t r a t h e r , i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n .  pervasiveness Buddhahood.  t h a t because o f t h e  o f t h e Dharma-body o f t h e Buddha, a l l t h i n g s can T h i s doctrine r e f l e c t s Confucian  not  the  A second  l i n e o f thought, t h e g o s p e l o f u n i v e r s a l s a l v a t i o n p r o f e s s e d by g r e a t monk, Tao Sheng (d. 434) , m a i n t a i n s  (334-  the  allattain  i n f l u e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y through  t h e o l d e r C h i n e s e n o t i o n t h a t a l l p e o p l e can became sages.  A t any  rate  by t h e time o f Tao Sheng Buddhism had d e v e l o p e d a t h e o r e t i c a l background w h i c h l e d t o t h e development o f t h r e e t r u l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l s c h o o l s : t'ai,  Hua-yen, and  f i n a l l y , t h e Ch'an o r Zen  Founded by C h i h I  T'ien-  school.  (538-597) o f T ' i e n - t ' a i Mountain, t h i s  first  t r u l y C h i n e s e s c h o o l o f Buddhism a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o t h e problems o f dharma, o r t h e laws o f e x i s t e n c e , and d i s t i n g u i s h e d a harmony o f Three Levels of Truth.  As e x p l a i n e d by Chan Wingi;tsit-, ".. . a l l ciharmas a r e  empty because t h e y have no n a t u r e o f t h e i r own t h e i r production.  b u t depend on causes f o r  T h i s i s t h e T r u t h o f Emptiness.  But dharmas a r e  produced and do p o s s e s s temporary and dependent e x i s t e n c e . Temporary T r u t h . dharmas.  This i s  B e i n g b o t h empty and temporary i s t h e v e r y n a t u r e  T h i s i s t h e T r u t h o f t h e Mean.  The  of  t h r e e i n v o l v e each o t h e r ,  71  f o r Emptiness r e n d e r s dharmas r e a l l y empty, dependent e x i s t e n c e makes them r e l a t i v e l y r e a l , and t h e Mean embraces b o t h . I '  11  A second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e T ' i e n - t ' a i s c h o o l i s a r a t i o n a l i z i n g approach t o t h e phenomenal w o r l d w h c i h f i n a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h r e e thousand worlds,  the t o t a l i t y o f manifested  reality.  Because each  "world"  i n t e r p e n e t r a t e s a l l o t h e r s , t h e y a r e immanent i n a s i n g l e thought; t h a t i s , a l l phenomena a r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e U n i v e r s a l Mind and each m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s t h e Mind i n i t s t o t a l i t y .  I n l i n e w i t h t h e s y n t h e t i c n a t u r e o f much  C h i n e s e thought, t h e T ' i e n - t ' a i s c h o o l o f f e r s a harmony o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e and immanence w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e Buddha-nature, and  leads t o the  next  g r e a t s c h o o l o f C h i n e s e Buddhism. The Hua-yen p h i l o s o p h y as expounded by F a Tsang  (643-712) resembles  t h a t o f t h e T ' i e n - t ' a i i n t h a t each dharma i s a t once one and a l l and w o r l d i s i n r e a l i t y a p e r f e c t harmony. a l l dharmas r i s e w i t h i t , r i s e s simultaneously.  The  the  C o n s e q u e n t l y when one dharma r i s e s ,  and v i c e v e r s a .  In short, the e n t i r e universe  c h i e f d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e harmony,  f o r i n t h e T ' i e n - t ' a i s c h o o l t h e Ten C h a r a c t e r s o f Thusness a r e  invoked  through m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t o produce t h e t h r e e thousand w o r l d s o f r e a l i t y ,  a  p r o c e s s w h i c h i s n o t o n l y awkward m e t a p h y s i c a l l y b u t depends on t h e mutual i n c l u s i o n o f a l l dharmas t h r o u g h correspondence and dependence.  The  Hua-  y e n s c h o o l s i m p l i f i e s t h e u n i t y o f dharmas t h r o u g h m u t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n ; they imply each o t h e r .  S i n c e dharmas have no substance  of their  own,  they a r e empty, and i t i s t h i s emptiness t h a t combines them t h r o u g h implication.  I n a r e a l sense, dharmas e x i s t o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o each  o t h e r and t o t h e e n t i r e u n i v e r s e , w h i c h i s a s e t o f  interrelationships.  D e s p i t e t h e g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e Hua-yen p h i l o s o p h y and r i s i n g t r e n d s o f Neo-Confucianism  ( e s p e c i a l l y i n regard t o the  and a l l - i s - o n e p h i l o s o p h y ) , t h e r e i s one  the  one-is-all  substantial difference.  The  72  dominant r a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e Neo-Confucians would n o t admit t h e B u d d h i s t n o t i o n t h a t a l l phenomena a r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e mind.  Furthermore,  through t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e "produces and r e p r o d u c e s , " t h e C o n f u c i a n s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s d a i l y renewed.  This creative  element i s l a c k i n g i n t h e U n i v e r s a l C a u s a t i o n o f t h e Hua-yen s c h o o l . T u r n i n g now or  t o the f i n a l  f l o w e r i n g o f Buddhism i n C h i n a , t h e Ch'an  Zen movement has been d e s c r i b e d by S u z u k i as a s c h o o l i n which  C h i n e s e mind c o m p l e t e l y a s s e r t e d i t s e l f , the  I n d i a n mind.  "the  i n a sense, i n o p p o s i t i o n t o  Zen c o u l d n o t f l o u r i s h i n any o t h e r l a n d o r among any  12 other people". did  /Although C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s agree t h a t t h e Bodhidharma  v i s i t C h i n a i n t h e e a r l y f i f t h c e n t u r y , Ch'an Buddhism d i d n o t e s -  t a b l i s h independent e x i s t e n c e u n t i l t h e work o f Hung J e n  (601-674).  By f o c u s s i n g on The Diamond S u t r a (or S c r i p t u r e ) , Hung J e n s h i f t e d t h e emphasis o f C h i n e s e Buddhism from t h e s t u d y o f U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y , o r t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f dharmas, t o t h e human mind  itself.  T h i s emphasis on m e d i t a t i o n d i d n o t so much r e f l e c t I n d i a n a s c e t i c i s m as i t d i d T a o i s t e n l i g h t e n m e n t t h r o u g h l i v i n g i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e Tao, the  way  o f nature.  Two  schools o f m e d i t a t i o n developed:  the Northern  school advocating g r a d u a l enlightenment through the a n n i h i l a t i o n o f thought, and t h e Southern s c h o o l which advocated sudden e n l i g h t e n m e n t , a n o t i o n based on t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e Buddha-mind t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t any o c c a s i o n o r any moment c o u l d s e r v e as a " s p r i n g - b o a r d " t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t . H i s t o r i c a l l y t h e Southern s c h o o l i s o f g r e a t e r importance, and many o f i t s i d e a s were t r a n s m i t t e d i n t o Japanese Zen Buddhism. of  spontaneous  e n l i g h t e n m e n t was  The l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n  t o d i i n i n i s h t h e importance o f such t y p i c a l l y  I n d i a n p u r s u i t s as a v o i d a n c e o f w o r l d l y i n v o l v e m e n t , embrace o f i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and t h e s e a r c h f o r u n i t y w i t h t h e I n f i n i t e .  I n a sense,  C h i n e s e m e d i t a t i o n w i t h i t s use o f e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e , i t s w o r l d l i n e s s ,  and  73  i t s emphasis on w i t and i n s i g h t i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l  impulse  t o s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n w i t h Time depended on involvement w i t h t h e w o r l d o f c y c l i c n a t u r e , and i n t h e Southern s c h o o l o f Zen Buddhism t h e o r i g i n a l impulse i s r e c a p t u r e d . Commenting on t h e h u m a n i s t i c t r e n d o f C h i n e s e m e d i t a t i o n , Chan n o t e s t h a t "the e f f e c t o f such s t r o n g emphasis on man C h i n e s e Buddhism.  has been tremendous on  B r i e f l y , i t has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s h i f t i n o u t l o o k  from o t h e r w o r l d l i n e s s t o t h i s w o r l d l i n e s s , i n o b j e c t i v e from  individual  s a l v a t i o n t o u n i v e r s a l s a l v a t i o n , i n p h i l o s o p h y , from extreme d o c t r i n e s t o s y n t h e s i s , i n methods o f freedom from r e l i g i o u s d i s c i p l i n e p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o p i e t i s m and p r a c t i c a l i n s i g h t a l s o t h i s s t r e s s on man  and It is  t h a t has e n a b l e d Buddhism t o j o i n w i t h C o n f u c i a n i s m  13 and Taoism  so t h a t t h e C h i n e s e can f o l l o w a l l o f them a t t h e same t i m e . "  I n r e t r o s p e c t , C h i n e s e Buddhism d i f f e r e d much from I n d i a n Buddhism i n i t s concept o f d h a r m a — as emptiness  and temporary,  f o r a l l phenomena  a r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e mind o f Buddha-nature, and each m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s t h e mind i n i t s t o t a l i t y ; t h u s , as one dharma r i s e s , a l l dharmas, t h e u n i v e r s e , r i s e w i t h i t and v i c e v e r s a .  A second d i f f e r e n c e  concerns  t h e i d e a o f h a r m o n y — f o r t h e w o r l d o f Buddha i s a P e r f e c t Harmony and i s n e i t h e r e x t e r n a l t o t h e Wheel o f B i r t h and Death n o r t h e phenomenal w o r l d , but i s here i n t h i s present world.  And  f i n a l l y , the Chinese concept o f  N i r v a n a d i f f e r s from t h e somewhat n i h i l i s t i c approach o f t h e I n d i a n r e l i g i o n , f o r N i r v a n a i s t h e g r a d u a l o r sudden i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e Buddha-nature which i s t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f a l l men  and a l l t h i n g s .  t h e C h i n e s e N i r v a n a i s f a r more i n tune w i t h t h e T a o i s t u n i t y o f man the u n i v e r s e . With r e g a r d t o t h e c y c l i c i t y o f t h e B u d d h i s t "Samsara", i t i s  Indeed and  74 tempting t o draw s e v e r a l p a r a l l e l s between t h e Wheel o f L i f e and Death and t h e e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e c y c l i c myth.  A t t h e most b a s i c  level  t h e c i r c l e i s an a r c h e t y p e o f common occurence; i t i s t h e impulse b e h i n d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a c y c l i c p a t t e r n which i s c r u c i a l t o o u r a n a l y s i s . I n d i a n B u d d h i s t impulse i s t o see man  The  e n s l a v e d by Samsara, t h e wheel i s  a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i l l u s o r y n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d , and l i b e r a t i o n i s t o escape from i t s c o n t r o l l i n g power.  I n C h i n e s e Buddhism, t h e  essentially  n e g a t i v e I n d i a n view i s subsumed w i t h i n a more a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c view w h i c h m a i n t a i n s t h a t l i b e r a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e w o r l d , even w i t h i n t h e wheel.  75  F o o t n o t e s t o t h e C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y  1.  E l i a d e , Cosmos and H i s t o r y , p. 3.  2.  Chan W i n g - t s i t , A Source Book i n C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1972), p . 245.  3.  Chan W i n g - t s i t , "The S t o r y o f C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y > " i n Chen C h a r l e s K.H., compiled, Neo-Confucianism, E t c . : E s s a y s by W i n g - t s i t Chan (New York: O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y , 1969), p. 331.  4.  Chan W i n g - t s i t , "Chinese P h i l o s o p h y , " i n Chen, i b i d . , p. 386.  5.  Chan W i n g - t s i t , "The S t o r y o f C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y , " i n Chen, i b i d . , pp. 342-43.  6.  Chang W i n g - t s i t , "Chinese P h i l o s o p h y , " i n Chen, i b i d . , pp. 39293.  7.  Fung Y u - l a n , A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y The F r e e P r e s s , 1966), p . 100  8.  Fung, i b i d . , p . 108.  9.  I b i d . , pp. 114-15.  (New York:  10.  Chan W i n g - t s i t , "Taoism," i n Chen, op. c i t . , p. 416.  11.  Chan W i n g - t s i t , A Source Book i n C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y , p. 396.  12.  C i t e d by Chan, i b i d . , p. 425.  13.  Chan W i n g - t s i t , " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Buddhism i n C h i n a , " i n Chen, op. c i t . , p . 434.  76 D. Sunraary  From p r i m i t i v e man's f i r s t r e a l i z a t i o n o f temporal t e n s i o n s i n the  niyths o f C h i n e s e a n t i q u i t y , t o t h e mature p h i l o s o p h y o f Neo-  C o n f u c i a n i s m i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y A.D., i s a sweep o f h i s t o r y s o v a s t and deep t h a t any o v e r v i e w must i n d e e d be t e n t a t i v e .  Yet certain  p r i n c i p l e s c o n t i n u e t o appear, e v o l v e , and appear a g a i n ; t h e e v o l u t i o n of the  t h e c y c l i c myth i s an e l a s t i c c o n c e p t r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e temper o f time.  I m p e l l e d b y man's c o n t i n u i n g awareness o f t h e d i s p a r i t y  between l i n e a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t h e c y c l i c u n i v e r s e , t h e r e s o l v i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was f i r s t s u g g e s t e d t h r o u g h myth, r e i n f o r c e d and c o d i f i e d t h r o u g h r i t u a l , and f i n a l l y expanded and l e n t i n t e l l e c t u a l through p h i l o s o p h y .  legitimacy  A t no time i n t h i s l a b y r i n t h i n e p r o c e s s d i d t h e  C h i n e s e mind l o s e s i g h t o f t h e e s s e n t i a l a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c i t y o f t h e c y c l i c c o n s t r u c t ; and t h i s must be seen a s t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between C h i n e s e and J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e t h r o u g h t h e ages.  The  i n t e g r i t y o f t h e c y c l i c myth s h o u l d be e v i d e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g summary as we r e v i e w C h i n e s e cosmology,  c o n c e p t s o f time and h i s t o r y , and  f i n a l l y t h e c o - e x i s t e n c e and c o r r e l a t i o n o f c y c l i c and l i n e a r time i n Chinese In  civilization.  r e t r o s p e c t , t h e development  o f t h e c y c l i c c o n c e p t from myth  and r i t u a l t o p h i l o s o p h y i s mimetic w i t h t r a n s i t i o n s i n t h e c o n c e p t of  Tao—  from a mana, o r l u n a r symbol,  to  t h e A b s o l u t e T o t a l i t y , t h e u l t i m a t e a s s e r t i o n o f man's oneness w i t h  n a t u r e and cosmic r e g e n e r a t i o n .  t o t h e Way o f N a t u r e , and f i n a l l y  A s i m i l a r p o i n t i s made b y Nathan  S i v i n i n h i s C h i n e s e C o n c e p t i o n s o f Time: "Once t h e C h i n e s e r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e seemed t o be a Way o f N a t u r e h a r m o n i z i n g a l l t h e p u l s e s o f n a t u r a l phenomena, t h e y came t o t h i n k o f N a t u r e a s a g r e a t organism i t s e l f , w i t h a t o t a l l i f e rhythm g e n e r a t e d o u t o f t h e harmony o f a l l  77 i t s p a r t s , i n c l u d i n g man." or Taoists, f o r Tao)  C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s whether C o n f u c i a n s  (or even B u d d h i s t s w i t h t h e i r s u b s t i t u t i o n o f Buddha n a t u r e  a l l seem t o agree t h a t o n t o l o g i c a l l y Tao i s t h e i n f i n i t e  s t a n c e embracing  sub-  and u n i t i n g a l l b e i n g s , and i s a l s o t h e i n e v i t a b l e  destiny o f a l l beings t o return t o f o r a p e a c e f u l l i f e o f v i r t u o u s harmony. C o s m o g e n e t i c a l l y Tao i s t h e p r i m o r d i a l b e g e t t e r o f a l l t h i n g s ; and t h e immanent w o r l d o f b e i n g s , i n a s t a t e o f u r g e n t want, w i l l  resort  t o t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l w o r l d o f Tao, i n a sense, f o r t h e i n f u s i o n o f energy n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e performance  o f adequate  function.  This endless  Becoming i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e u n c e a s i n g i n t e r p l a y o f Y i n and Yang around which a l l t h e emblems and symbols a r e g a t h e r e d i n h i e r a r c h i a l order.  The i n t e r p l a y o f Y i n and Yang evokes and s y m b o l i z e s t h e c y c l i c  rhythm o f t h e cosmos and p o r t r a y s two c o t p l e m e n t a r y f a c e t s o f t h e Totality—  c o o p e r a t i o n and a l t e r n a t i o n .  these processes t o the d i a l e c t i c : never q u i t e r e a c h e d because w h i c h c a l l s f o r a new  /Amaury de R i e n c o u r t compares  "Tao i s a s y n t h e s i s , t h a t which i s  i t always t r a n s f o r m s i t s e l f i n t o a new  a n t i t h e s i s and promotes a f u r t h e r  thesis  synthesis—  2 and thus on and on, a never e n d i n g p r o c e s s o f development.  Thus a t  t h e c e n t r e o f t h e c y c l i c myth i s t h e c o n c e p t o f Tao, e v o l u t i o n  and  p e r p e t u a l change. S e v e r a l Western s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e l a c k a myth o f c r e a t i o n .  J o s e p h Campbell m a i n t a i n s t h a t "Chinese p h i l o s o p h y i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n t e n d i n g systems o f o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d i n b e i n g . 3 There a r e no myths o f c r e a t i o n " . Mote who  I n s u b s t a n t i a l agreement i s F r e d e r i c k  p r o f e s s e s t h a t "they have r e g a r d e d t h e w o r l d and man  as  un-  c r e a t e d , as c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e c e n t r a l f e a t u r e s o f a s p o n t a n e o u s l y  self-  g e n e r a t i n g cosmos h a v i n g no c r e a t o r , god, u l t i m a t e cause o r w i l l  external  78 to i t s e l f " .  4  While o n l y t h e P'an Ku l e g e n d c o u l d t r u l y be c a l l e d a  myth o f c r e a t i o n , i t s r e l a t i v e l y l a t e appearance i n t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y A.D. would t e n d t o c a s t doubt on i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y a s a r e c o r d o f t h e beliefs o f antiquity.  Y e t t h e f o l l o w i n g must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n :  the apparent r i s e o f r a t i o n a l i s m r e f l e c t e d  i n t h e e a r l y Chou p e r i o d  i n t h e emergence o f t h e non-anthropomorphic c o n c e p t o f Heaven o r N a t u r e which r e p l a c e d t h e anthropomorphic Being a millenium e a r l i e r ;  concept o f a G r e a t A n c e s t o r Sumpreme  t h e s t r o n g emphasis on humanity and t h e e a r l y  euhemerism o f C o n f u c i a n i s m and i t s l o n g d o m i n a t i o n o f C h i n e s e  culture;  t h e B u r n i n g o f t h e Books and t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C l a s s i c s by C o n f u c i a n s c h o l a r s ; and f i n a l l y t h e o r a l legends o f C r e a t i o n s t i l l e x i s t i n g among v a r i o u s a b o r i g i n e s throughout C h i n a :  a l l these matters  s h o u l d admit t h e r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f such b o l d d e n i a l s , a t l e a s t  until  more s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e has been g a t h e r e d . A t any r a t e , w h i l e t h e c r e a t i o n s t o r y o f P'an Ku remains d i s p u t a b l e , t h e r e c a n be no doubt t h a t C h i n e s e cosmology r e f l e c t s tremendous i n f l u e n c e o f a c y c l i c myth.  Whether a s t h e Yin-Yang  scholar's realm o f  p e r p e t u a l c y c l i c s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e F i v e Elements p r o d u c i n g and overccmiing one a n o t h e r i n a f i x e d sequence; o r a s t h e C o n f u c i a n i s t ' s c o n s t a n t p r o c e s s o f u n c e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n — a harmonious s p i r a l o f p e r p e t u a l renewal; o r a s t h e T a o i s t ' s c o n s t a n t f l u x o f r e v e r s a l ,  that  spontaneous c u r r e n t which i n f u s e s a l l t h i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r n a t u r e s ; o r f i n a l l y as t h e C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t ' s p e r f e c t o n e - i n - a l l and a l l - i n - o n e harmony o f t h e w o r l d o f Buddha; t h e C h i n e s e u n i v e r s e always remains  a  harmonious and o r g a n i c whole. The e s s e n t i a l l y non-mechanistic,  n o n - t e l e o l o g i c a l , and a n t i -  t h e i s t i c cosmology o f t h e C h i n e s e has i n f o r m e d a humanism w h i c h t o some  Western minds must seem r a t h e r n a i v e .  Indeed C h i n e s e cosmology n o t  o n l y r e l e a s e s man from m e c h a n i s t i c d o c t r i n e s o f f e a r and s i n because his  e r r o r s c a n n e i t h e r o f f e n d p e r s o n a l gods n o r t h r e a t e n h i s i n d i v i d u a l  e x i s t e n c e , b u t i t o f f e r s a most " u n t h r e a t e n i n g " p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to  t h e cosmos.  personified.  E v i l a s an a c t i v e f o r c e cannot e x i s t , n o r c a n i t be  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such a cosmology  t e n d t o make r e l i g i o n  s u p e r f l u o u s and t h e r e l i g i o u s f o r m a l i z a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r weak o r unimportant, s i n c e t h e r e i s no supreme power knowingly d i r e c t i n g t h e cosmos, and no supreme s p i r i t u a l e n t i t y t o be p r a y e d t o or  i m p l o r e d ; b u t i t makes a r e f i n e d form o f magic i m p e r a t i v e because  man has t o be i n c o n t r o l o f h i s e a r t h l y h a b i t a t . Mote o f f e r s a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n :  By way o f summary,  "The r i t u a l i z e d s o c i e t y o f C h i n a  can be a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f i t s own cosmology  engendering  from i t s c y c l i c c o n c e p t , and i t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t t h i s c y c l i c , and o r g a n i c cosmology  harmonious,  has somehow k e p t man's a t t e n t i o n on l i f e h e r e and  now and made C h i n e s e t h i n k e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r d a i n i n g t h e forms and patterns o f that It  life."  5  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e word f o r cosmos i n C h i n e s e i s  "Yu-Chou", which a s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e meaning o f space-time.  "Yu" denotes  a l l t h e space i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n w h i l e "Chou" connotes a l l t h e time t h a t i s y e t t o come and t h a t has p a s s e d s i n c e f u r t h e s t a n t i q u i t y . is  The cosmos  t h u s e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f t i m e and space, o r r a t h e r a s we s h a l l e x -  p l a i n f u r t h e r , i n terms o f man's awareness o f h i s p l a c e i n time and space. A t t a c k i n g a p o p u l a r Western n o t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i d e a o f time, Joseph Needham e x p l a i n s :  "The c u l t u r e o f C h i n a m a n i f e s t e d a v e r y  s e n s i t i v e consciousness o f time.  The C h i n e s e d i d n o t l i v e i n a t i m e l e s s  dream, f i x e d i n m e d i t a t i o n upon t h e noumenal w o r l d .  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  80  h i s t o r y was f o r them v e r y r e a l and more v i t a l t h a n any comparably a n c i e n t p e o p l e ; and whether t h e y c o n c e i v e d time t o c o n t a i n a p e r e n n i a l f a l l from a n c i e n t p e r f e c t i o n , o r t o pass i n c y c l e s o f g l o r y and c a t a s t r o p h e , o r t o t e s t i f y t o a slow b u t i n e v i t a b l e e v o l u t i o n and p r o g r e s s , time f o r them b r o u g h t r e a l and fundamental  change".  C h i n e s e temporal thought has always i n v o l v e d two seemingly opposed concepts:  t h e r e was a c y c l i c a l cosmic time w i t h o u t a b e g i n n i n g p o i n t ,  and t h e r e was a developmental l i n e a r time o f human h i s t o r y i n which man's c u m u l a t i v e c u l t u r a l achievement had i t s b e g i n n i n g .  The r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  o f t h i s l i n e a r h i s t o r i c a l time w i t h c y c l i c time was no doubt made p o s s i b l e by t h e unique s y n c r e t i s m o f C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h y . I n t r a c i n g t h e development  o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f Ming T'ang, we  have s u g g e s t e d t h e importance o f a c a l e n d a r which was b o t h a s t r o n o m i c a l l y a c c u r a t e and m e t a p h y s i c a l l y c e n t r a l t o t h e e a r l y c u l t u r e .  But according  t o t h e n a t u r e o f Tao, t h e cosmic c a l e n d a r (developed t h r o u g h d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s o l s t i c e s , t h e l e n g t h s o f day, month, and y e a r , t h e motions o f sun and moon and t h e p l a n e t a r y r e v o l u t i o n s ) was b u t one l i n k i n a g r e a t e r , o r an i n f i n i t e , c h a i n o f d u r a t i o n .  Moving beyond t h e b a s i c sun-moon  c y c l e s t h e C h i n e s e attempted t o b u i l d l o n g e r c y c l e s , l o n g e r rhythms, 7 i n e f f o r t s t o harmonize more and more o f t h e c e l e s t i a l m o t i o n s . F i n a l l y , about two thousand y e a r s ago, a t o t a l a s t r o n o m i c a l system was d e v i s e d , p r o d u c i n g a c y c l e o f t w e n t y - t h r e e m i l l i o n y e a r s , o r a World Age.  I n a sense, t h e y c o u l d e n v i s a g e time b e g i n n i n g anew e v e r y twenty-  t h r e e m i l l i o n y e a r s w i t h o u t compromising p h y s i c a l w o r l d was e t e r n a l .  t h e i r conviction that the  D e s p i t e t h e v a s t n e s s o f t h i s c y c l e , moments  a World Age a p a r t were f u n d a m e n t a l l y i d e n t i c a l , f o r t h e i r Tao i s t h e same; t h e y mark a unique combination o f c e l e s t i a l j u x - t a p o s i t i o n s and r e p r e s e n t t h e same b e a t i n t h e cosmic  rhythm.  81 W i t h i n the World Age were subsumed t h e major, t h e o r i e s o f d y n a s t i c change:  t h e Yin-Yang n a t u r a l i s t ' s h i s t o r y as a c y c l e o f c o n s t a n t s u c c e s s i o n  i n accordance  w i t h t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e F i v e Elements, and t h e Y i n -  Yang C o n f u c i a n i s t s h i s t o r y as a c y c l e o f c o n s t a n t s u c c e s s i o n o f t h r e e 1  r e i g n s symbolized by B l a c k , White, and Red.  Thus t o most C h i n e s e  i s t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f Tao whose i n c a r n a t i o n i s a c o n t i n u o u s e v e r renewed.  history  process,  Y e t h a v i n g p r o f e s s e d t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , we must d e a l  w i t h t h e concepts o f l i n e a r time as w e l l p r e s e n t e d by J o s e p h Needham i n h i s l e c t u r e , Time and E a s t e r n  Man.  Needham d i s c e r n s t h r e e major t r e n d s i n C h i n e s e thought w h i c h h i s emphasis on l i n e a r i t y o f temporal view:  support  the h i s t o r i c a l viewpoint  of  C o n f u c i a n humanism, t h e i m p l i c i t h i s t o r i c i s m i n c o n c e p t s o f t h e G o l d e n Age  and r e a l i s a b l e U t o p i a , and t h e r i s e i n C h i n e s e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f  "continuity history writing".  C l e a r l y i f a c y c l i c universe implies the  absence o f " p r o g r e s s " , o r a d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n t o become b e t t e r o r worse, t h e C o n f u c i a n d o c t r i n e o f t h e p e r f e c t a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l becomes r a t h e r unsupportable.  Thus t h e humanity o f C o n f u c i a n i s m  succeeded i n  e s t a b l i s h i n g a m o r a l code b a s e d on an e t h i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y . The temporal  thought o f a C o n f u c i a n would p e r f o r c e be more  w i t h l i n e a r l i m i t s o f human e x i s t e n c e .  concerned  Amaury de R i e n c o u r t  suggests  a s i m i l a r view i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t "the t r u e g o a l o f t h e h i g h e r o f C o n f u c i a n s was  type  n o t s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n through m y s t i c a l i n t r o s p e c t i o n ,  b u t t h e s e c u r i n g o f an honored p l a c e i n t h e harmonious p r o c e s s i o n o f 9 h i s t o r i c a l personages".  This notion of "right-txmeliness" underlies  t h e p o p u l a r Western i d e a o f t h e C o n f u c i a n as an  ancestor-worshipper.  E a r l y C h i n e s e a t t i t u d e s t o t h e development o f human s o c i e t y o f t e n assume c o n t r a s t i n g forms.  The more p r i m i t i v e n o t i o n was  o f a Golden  82  Age o f cotununalism o f Sage-Kings declined.  On t h e o t h e r hand we  from which  mankind had  steadily  f i n d the idea that these c u l t u r e -  heroes were p r o g e n i t o r s o f something much g r e a t e r t h a n themselves, t h a t e v e n t u a l l y a U t o p i a n Age o f t h e G r e a t T o g e t h e r n e s s and Harmony (Ta T'ung), o r t h e G r e a t Peace  ( T ' a i P'ing) would d e v e l o p .  Both  a r e u n i t e d i n t h e i r i m p l i e d o p p o s i t i o n t o f e u d a l s o c i e t y , and  views  their  c o n c e r n w i t h h i s t o r i c a l change, a l b e i t w i t h i n t h e v a s t m a t r i x o f t h e World AGe  cycle.  A t h i r d e s s e n t i a l l y l i n e a r development  i n C h i n e s e temporal  thought  i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by Needham i n t h e r i s e o f C h i n e s e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . " ^ As C o n f u c i a n h i s t o r i a n s p r o g r e s s e d beyond t h e u s u a l c o n c e r n s o f d y n a s t i c l e g i t i m a c y , t h e r e e v o l v e d v a r i o u s forms o f " c o n t i n u i t y h i s t o r y w r i t i n g " which d e a l t w i t h l o n g p e r i o d s o f time i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l d y n a s t i e s , and t h i s manner overcame t h e c o i t p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n o f time advocated by e a r l i e r Yin-Yang  scholars.  Of c o u r s e t h e s e l i n e a r a s p e c t s ' o f C h i n e s e temporal thought were always a f f e c t e d by  ( i f n o t subsumed w i t h i n ) a more c y c l i c v i e w p o i n t .  Indeed Needham's p o i n t i s n o t t h e primacy o f t h e l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e , b u t t h e development  o f h i s t o r i c i s m i n C h i n a , a development  seen n e c e s s a r y  by some t o make t h e l e a p between c i v i l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r e . Whatever t h e concerns o f C o n f u c i a n h i s t o r i a n s r e g a r d i n g i m p e r i a l r u l e , t h e r u l e r s themselves were governed by a c y c l i c a l world-view embodied i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f ^iLng T'ang.  Perhaps t h e most r e a s o n a b l e approach would  be t o m i n i m i z e t h e d i s p u t e as t o where C h i n e s e c u l t u r e s t o o d i n t h e c o n t r a s t between a l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e o f t i m e , and t h e myth o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e ; b u t t o r e a d i l y admit t h a t b o t h k i n d s o f time were and a r e c o - e x i s t e n t , o r a t l e a s t i m p o r t a n t on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s and i n d i f f e r e n t warp:  t h e former i n m o r a l , s o c i a l , and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e n t s , w h i l e t h e  l a t t e r i n s p i r i t u a l , a r t i s t i c , p h i l o s o p h i c a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . N a t u r a l l y , i t i s t h e a r t i s t i c and l i t e r a r y which w i l l be t h e f o c u s o f our next chapter. A q u o t a t i o n from a contemporary  C h i n e s e s c h o l a r , Thome H. Fang,  may s e r v e b y way o f summary o f t h e C h i n e s e c o n c e p t i o n o f t i m e :  "The q u e s t i o n i s , What i s time?  The essence o f time c o n -  s i s t s i n change; t h e o r d e r o f time proceeds w i t h c o n c a t e n a t i o n ; t h e e f f i c a c y o f time a b i d e s b y durance.  The r h y t h m i c p r o c e s s  o f e p o c h a l change i s w h e e l i n g round i n t o i n f i n i t u d e and p e r p e t u a l l y d o v e t a i l i n g t h e o l d and t h e new s o as t o i s s u e  into  i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n which i s c o n t i n u a n t d u r a t i o n i n c r e a t i v e  advance.  T h i s i s t h e way i n which time g e n e r a t e s i t s e l f b y i t s s y s t e m a t i c e n t r y i n t o a p e r v a s i v e u n i t y which c o n s t i t u t e s t h e r a t i o n a l order o f c r e a t i v i t y .  The dynamic sequence o f time, r i d d i n g  itself  o f t h e p e r i s h e d p a s t and ccariing b y t h e new i n t o p r e s e n t e x i s t e n c e , r e a l l y g a i n s something o v e r a l o s s .  So, t h e change i n time i s  b u t a s t e p t o a p p r o a c h i n g e t e r n i t y , which i s p e r e n n i a l durance, whereby, b e f o r e t h e bygone i s ended, t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e s u c c e e d i n g has come i n t o p r e s e n c e .  And t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s h e r e a l i n k a g e o f  being p r o j e c t i n g i t s e l f i n t o the prospect o f eternity.'-'  11  The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth t h r o u g h r i t u a l and p h i l o s o p h y must be seen as a triumph o v e r t i m e , a s a v i c t o r y o v e r t h e e a r l i e s t temporal t e n s i o n s o f p r i m i t i v e man.  I f myth f i r s t adumbrated t h e s e  t e n s i o n s , i f r i t u a l was t o ensure t h a t t h e rhythm o f man's l i f e on E a r t h was i n f u l l accordance w i t h t h e rhythm o f Heaven, i f p h i l o s o p h y l e n t i n t e l l e c t u a l l e g i t i m a c y t o t h e u n i t y o f man and t h e cosmos; t h e n  84 t h i s i s t h e Tao, complete and f u l l y understood. always been t o t r i u m p h o v e r t i m e .  " T h i s i s why  The m o t i v a t i o n has C o n f u c i a n s have c r a v e d  so much f o r t h e c o n t i n u a l l y c r e a t i v e potency o f t h e h e a v e n l y Tao i n t h e s h a p i n g o f t h e cosmic o r d e r as a whole.  T h i s i s why  the T a o i s t s  have w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y c h e r i s h e d t h e i d e a l o f n o t h i n g n e s s f o r i t s craming to the rescue o f a l l t h i n g s r e l a t i v e i n the realm o f Being. i s a l s o why  And  this  C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t s have vehemently s t r u g g l e d f o r t h e p a r t a k i n g  o f t h e Buddha-nature embedded i n t h e i n t e g r a l t r u t h o f t h e u l t i m a t e spiritual  12  Enlightenment.'!  Having e s t a b l i s h e d t h e h i s t o r i c a l background and b a s i s o f t h e c y c l i c myth, we may o f China.  now  philosophical  turn t o i t s s u r v i v a l i n the  literature  85  Fcxitnotes t o Summary o f t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e C y c l i c Myth  1.  Nathan S i v i n , "Chinese C o n c e p t i o n s o f Time," The Earlham Review, I ( F a l l , 1966), 86.  2.  Amaury de R i e n c o u r t , The S o u l o f C h i n a (New York: McCann I n c . , 1958), pp. 80-82.  3.  Joseph Campbell, The Masks o f God: O r i e n t a l Mythology York: V i k i n g P r e s s , 1959), p . 379.  4.  F r e d e r i c k Mote I n t e l l e c t u a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f C h i n a A l f r e d Knopf, 1971), pp. 17-18.  5.  I b i d . , pp. 26-27.  6.  Joseph Needham, Time and E a s t e r n Man (The Henry Myers L e c t u r e , 1964) R o y a l A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 21, (1965), p. 1.  7.  A c c o r d i n g t o S i v i n , "When t h e f i r s t complete system o f c y c l e s o f a l l f i v e o f t h e p l a n e t s was worked.out, about two thousand y e a r s ago, i t t u r n e d o u t t h a t t h e o v e r - a l l c y c l e was 23, 639, 040 years long. I t would t a k e t h a t l o n g f o r t h e b i g wheel which drove a l l o f t h e l i t t l e wheels t o r e v o l v e once and a new w o r l d age would be s t a r t i n g — when, on a New Y e a r ' s Day, which i s a l s o t h e f i r s t day o f t h e month, t h e sun, moon, and a l l t h e p l a n e t s were l i n e d up n e x t t o each o t h e r l i k e a s t r i n g o f pearls". S i v i n , op. c i t . , p. 88.  8.  Needham, op. c i t . , p . 12  9.  R i e n c o u r t , op. c i t . , p . 15.  Coward and  (New  (New York:  10.  Needham, op. c i t . , pp. 11-12.  11.  Fang Thome H., "The World and t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n C h i n e s e Metap h y s i c s , " i n C h a r l e s A. Moore, e d . , The C h i n e s e Mind (Honolulu: U n i v e r s i t y o f Hawaii P r e s s , 1967), p . 240.  12.  I b i d . , p . 259.  Ill THE CYCLIC MYTH IN CHINESE LITERATURE  A.  The C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e  Poetry  Myth, as a mode o f c o g n i t i o n o r a n a r r a t i v e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f unconscious  d r i v e s , wishes,  f e a r s and c o n f l i c t s , c i r c u m f l e c t s a v e r b a l  u n i v e r s e i n which man's p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , and even p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y a r e r e a l l y one i n t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e s t a g e s o f gods, h e r o e s , and men.  As r i t e s  two  and  Thus N o r t h r o p F r y e n o t e s t h a t " t h e r e a r e  s t r u c t u r e s i n a c u l t u r e which descend  which i n h e r i t s  and  degenerate,  myth merges i n s e p a r a b l y i n t o and w i t h l i t e r a t u r e , a r t , r e l i g i o n v a r i o u s o t h e r symbolic forms.  social  from mythology:  one i s l i t e r a t u r e  t h e f i c t i o n a l and m e t a p h o r i c a l p a t t e r n s o f mythology,  t h e o t h e r i s a body o f i n t e g r a t i n g o r c o h e r i n g i d e a s , a l s o m a i n l y i n r e l i g i o n , p h i l o s o p h y , and k i n d r e d d i s c i p l i n e s " .  1  and  fictional,  In our study o f  C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e i t i s t r u l y i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e c y c l i c myth and i t s developments from t h e works s t u d i e d . w i t h i n a homogeneous c u l t u r e such The h i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e f o u r t h c e n t u r y B.C.  a  Indeed, by  definition,  s e p a r a t i o n would be u n t h i n k a b l e .  l i t e r a t u r e p r o p e r l y begins i n the f i f t h  and  i n t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r and Yangtze r e g i o n s , t h e t w i n  c r a d l e s o f a n c i e n t Chinese c i v i l i z a t i o n . former a r e a , i t i s s a i d t h a t C o n f u c i u s  Concerning the poetry o f the  (551-479 B.C.)  s e l e c t e d seme  t h r e e hundred poems i n t o an a n t h o l o g y , The C l a s s i c Of P o e t r y . Composed m a i n l y o f b a l l a d s and f e s t a l songs, The C l a s s i c o f P o e t r y r i g h t l y  belongs  i n t h e company o f t h e Vedas, Homeric e p i c s , and Psalms, perhaps more so w i t h t h e l a t t e r because o f i t s i n t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e v o i c e and f e e l i n g s o f t h e common p e o p l e .  I t m a i n t a i n s a spontaneous c o n f i d e n c e  i n l i f e which l a t e r C h i n e s e p o e t r y never r e a l l y r e c a p t u r e s , and has s i n c e become t h e c o r e o f C o n f u c i a n  literature.  VJhereas C h i n e s e h i s t o r y had where we  i t s beginning  i n the northern  region  f i r s t f i n d r e f e r e n c e t o s a g e - k i n g s and d y n a s t i c r u l e r s o f  a n t i q u i t y , C h i n e s e mythology found a f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t e f o r development i n the s o u t h e r n  o r Yangtze a r e a .  Unlike the harsher northern  t h e f e r t i l e Yangtze r e g i o n e n a b l e d  surroundings,  i t s r e s i d e n t s t o l i v e i n comparative  ease, t o i n d u l g e i n dreams o f t h e r o m a n t i c and t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l .  These  t r a i t s gave r i s e t o a l i t e r a t u r e o f m e t r i c songs d i f f e r e n t from The o f P o e t r y i n t h e i r l y r i c n a t u r e and r o m a n t i c s p i r i t .  Indeed The  Classic  Songs  o f t h e South i s more s e n t i m e n t a l , even s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , and o f t e n evokes t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l and t h e o t h e r w o r l d l y .  T o g e t h e r t h e s e two  schools  con-  s t i t u t e t h e o r i g i n a l mainstream o f C h i n e s e p o e t r y .  Li  Sao  The g r e a t e s t s o l o v o i c e o f The (343-277 B.C.).  H i s " L i Sao"  n a r r a t i v e poem o f any  Songs o f t h e South was  (Encountering  length to survive.  Sorrow) i s t h e  Ch'ii Yuan earliest  A b r i e f biography r e v e a l s a  l i f e o f p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l and e x i l e w h i c h r i v a l s t h a t o f Dante. member o f t h e r u l i n g house o f t h e s t a t e o f Ch'u, c a r e e r was  l y r i c songs:  Encountering  t h e Cosmos.  B.C.  Sorrow, O u t p o u r i n g o f Sorrow, and  A second e x i l e i n 286  B.C.  1  f i n a l l y plundered  i n 278 B.C., C a p i t a l ; " and hope.  diplomatic  o c c a s i o n e d many o f h i s most b r i l l i a n t  S o u l , " " T h i n k i n g o f t h e F a i r One, " and was  a  shadowed by t h e j e a l o u s i n t r i g u e s o f h i s f e l l o w m i n i s t e r s .  H i s f i r s t banishment i n 305  o f Ch'u  his brilliant  As  Inquiry  Into  r e s u l t e d i n h i s "Summoning t h e "Crossing the R i v e r " .  and r u i n e d by t h e c o n q u e r i n g  The  capital  army o f  Ch'in  and a t t h e age o f s i x t y - s i x Ch'ii composed "Lament f o r t h e "Embracing t h e Sand/" e x p r e s s i o n s  According  of h i s rejection of p a t r i o t i c  t o legend, one y e a r l a t e r , on t h e f i f t h day o f t h e  moon he c o r c n i t t e d s u i c i d e by drowning.  fifth  89 As t h e f i r s t g r e a t p o e t o f C h i n a , Ch'u Yuan has been c a l l e d t h e f a t h e r o f C h i n e s e p o e t r y and has become a c u l t u r a l h e r o .  I n some  s o u t h e r n t e r r i t o r i e s he has even been worshipped as a w a t e r - d e i t y . At the  any r a t e , t h e day o f h i s d e a t h i s o f t e n d e s i g n a t e d as P o e t ' s Day,  and  Dragon Boat F e s t i v a l commemorates h i s drowning. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , " L i Sao" i s a l l e g o r i c and o f t e n a n a g o g i c .  I t c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s :  t h e t r i s t e s s e and t h e q u e s t , which D a v i d  2 Hawkes d e s i g n a t e s as t h e " t r i s t i a " and t h e " i t i n e r a r i a " .  The  tristia  e x p r e s s e s t h e p o e t ' s sorrow, c o m p l a i n t , and resentment a g a i n s t a m a l i c i o u s s o c i e t y which through s l a n d e r o u s m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has s e p a r a t e d him from t h e F a i r One he s e r v e s .  The i t i n e r a r i a d e s c r i b e s t h e p o e t ' s j o u r n e y  i n s e a r c h o f a new mate, perhaps a goddess o r l e g e n d a r y beauty,  and  f i n a l l y i t s end whereby s p i r i t u a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e triumphs o v e r e m b i t t e r e d d e s p a i r and anguished n o s t a l g i a . " L i Sao" b e g i n s w i t h t h e p o e t ' s d e c l a r a t i o n o f d i v i n e a n c e s t r y through Kao Yang, o r Chuan Hsu, t h e g r e a t grandson o f t h e S o v e r e i g n God of  t h e N o r t h who  had s u p e r v i s e d t h e Estrangement  o f E a r t h from Heaven.  T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n j u s t i f i e s t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e p o e t ' s o r a c u l a r names, 3 "True Examplar, ! 1  the  and " D i v i n e B a l a n c e " .  (I.i.)  I n t h e second s e c t i o n  p o e t c a t a l o g s h i s i n n a t e and c u l t i v a t e v i r t u e s , t h e n c l a i m s t h a t he  i s i n " f e a r f u l pursuit':".' o f Time.  The problem appears t o be one o f  r e c o n c i l i n g t h e d i u r n a l and s e a s o n a l c y c l e s w i t h which t h e p o e t c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e s , t o t h e l o n g e r c y c l e o f a human l i f e t i m e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e e p h e m e r a l i t y o f y o u t h and  love.  Using the n a r r a t i v e device o f d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n , the poet next r e c a l l s h i s encouragement o f t h e F a i r One examples o f l e g e n d a r y k i n g s who  t o f o l l o w him.  ( I . i i i . ) He  cites  a l s o f o l l o w e d a v i r t u o u s p a t h and so  preserved  t h e i r peace and beauty.  H i s speech i s a f a i l u r e ; the  One  remains i n c o n s t a n t , and t h e p o e t i s e x i l e d .  how  " l o y a l t y b r i n g s d i s a s t e r ; ' ; y e t i n v o l e s t h e n i n e f o l d heaven t o w i t n e s s  h i s enduring  C y n i c a l l y he  Fair  proclaims  loyalty.  I n r e s i g n a t i o n and as c o n s o l a t i o n , he d e v o t e s h i m s e l f t o t h e t i v a t i o n of flowers:  h i s garden i s as l a r g e as i t i s v a r i o u s .  cul-  (I. iv.)  A t t h i s p o i n t t h e blossom imagery b e g i n s t o s e r v e many purposes, f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n o f f l o w e r s i s l i n k e d t o t h e p e r s o n a l c u l t i v a t i o n n e c e s s a r y to achieve  l i b e r a t i o n from sorrow.  Moreover t h e r e i s a c o n s t a n c y w i t h i n  the v e g e t a t i v e c y c l e which t h e p o e t c o n t r a s t s t o t h e i n c o n s t a n c i e s the mundane w o r l d .  Through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h c y c l i c n a t u r e ,  b e l i e v e s h i s "mind can be t r u l y b e a u t i f u l . " f r a g r a n t f l o w e r s , he f o l l o w s t h e solemn way sage r e c l u s e , and attempts t o t r a n s c e n d  t h e ephemeral.  o f f e r s an a n g u i s h e d c o n t r a s t between h i s way generation  o f cunning a r t i f i c e r s " .  ness.  an  with  ancient  F i n a l l y , the poet  o f l i f e and t h a t o f a "  (I. v i i . )  endure i n s u l t s , b u t keep h i m s e l f pure and  the p o e t  By c l o t h i n g h i m s e l f o f P'eng H s i e n ,  of  He w i l l b e a r blame  and  s p o t l e s s and d i e i n r i g h t e o u s -  There f o l l o w s a moment o f v a c i l l a t i o n , b u t a g a i n t h e p o e t r e s o l v e s  t o continue  on h i s v i r t u o u s p a t h :  world gathering  f l o w e r s and  he: w i l l t r a v e l t h e f o u r q u a r t e r s o f  fragrances  to f u l f i l l h i s constant  beauty and n o u r i s h h i s immanent v i r t u e .  love f o r  Here Ch'ii Yuan makes e x p l i c i t  the T a o i s t n o t i o n t h a t l o v e o f n a t u r e l e a d s t o t r a n s c e n d e n c e o f m a t e r i a l world:  "Even i f my  memberment e v e r h u r t my  the  body were dismembered;/...how c o u l d  mind?"  An e n c o u n t e r w i t h Nu* Hsu,  the  dis-  (I. v i i i . ) Goddess o f Matchmaking,  f a i l s to  alter  the p o e t ' s c o u r s e as she warns t h a t the consequence o f p e r s i s t e n c e i s  o f t e n d e a t h , and a t t e n p t s t o b r i n g about a compromise between t h e p o e t and t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d w o r l d .  ( I . i x . ) I n •reply, h e a p p e a l s t o t h e a n c i e n t  s a g e - k i n g , Shun, f o r i n n e r guidance, and f o l l o w i n g an i n v e n t o r y o f t h e r i s e a n d ' f a l l o f d y n a s t i e s , c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e h i g h god i n Heaven knows no p a r t i a l i t y and a l l o w s o n l y t h e good and v i r t u o u s t o f l o u r i s h .  The p o e t  t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e s t o endure h i s i s o l a t i o n from t h e mundane w o r l d and h i s estrangement  from t h e F a i r One.  end o f t h e t r i s t i a ;  ( I . x.)  This confirmation signals the  i n a mood o f e m b i t t e r e d d e s p a i r t h e p o e t  completes  h i s a n x i o u s p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e c e l e s t i a l j o u r n e y t o come. The i t i n e r a r i a b e g i n s w i t h t h e p o e t ' s c e l e s t i a l j o u r n e y t o t h e 5 cosmic  mountain, K'un Lun.  I n C h i n e s e mythology, Mount K'un Lun i s  the abode o f p e r f e c t b l e s s e d n e s s and t h e passageway t o Heaven.  I t consists  o f f i v e c i r c u l a r l e v e l s a l o n g a s p i r a l p a t h b u t i s c o n s i d e r e d beyond mortal reach.  N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e wandering  p o e t q u i c k l y ascends t o t h e  Hanging Gardens, t h e uppermost c i r c l e - a n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s i n n a t e beauty and c u l t i v a t e d v i r t u e .  I t i s a s p i r i t u a l realm o f immortality,  and by a s c e n d i n g i t one may command t h e wind, t h e r a i n , and t h e l e s s e r gods and goddesses.  Perhaps rerninded o f mundane e p h e m e r a l i t y , t h e wanderer *  f i r s t command i s f o r Time t o s t o p . Lake o f P u r i t y ,  6  He waters h i s dragon-steeds a t t h e  and r e s t s under t h e cosmic t r e e , F u Sang,  7  before rushing  h i s g l i t t e r i n g t r a i n t o t h e g a t e s o f Heaven, t h e r e a l m o f pure  divinity.  Here h i s p r o g r e s s i s checked by t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e Nine Heavens, L u Wu. Through a n i g h t o f i n d e c i s i o n , t h e p o e t mends h i s o r c h i d garments and c r o s s e s t h e White Water, one o f t h e c o l o r f u l r i v e r s f l o w i n g o u t o f t h e Lake o f P u r i t y where H s i Wang Mu, t h e S u p e r n a l Goddess, d w e l l s .  He  ascends Mount C o o l Wind i n t h e f o u r t h c i r c l e , t h e r e a l m o f i m m o r t a l i t y ,  and d e s p a i r s f o r a g a i n t h e r e i s no f a i r l a d y .  (II. i i . )  Sending  one  o f h i s a t t e n d a n t gods i n s e a r c h o f a nymph, he remains i n t h e House o f S p r i n g where Ch'ung, t h e a s s i s t a n t t o t h e S o v e r e i g n God o f t h e E a s t and t h e grandson o f Chuan Hsu,  t h e p o e t ' s d i v i n e a n c e s t o r , i s t h e God  of  9 Sprxng and L i f e .  Despite the e f f o r t s o f the Patroness o f Marriage  as go-between, t h e nymph proves t o be a r a t h e r v a i n h e d o n i s t and v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o woo.  The p o e t r e s o l v e s t o seek elsewhere  f o r h i s mate.  (II. i i i . ) Our wanderer s c o u r s t h e heavens and t h e f o u r q u a r t e r s o f t h e e a r t h b e f o r e f i n d i n g t h e j a d e tower i n which C h i e n T i , a  legendary  beauty and l a t e r t h e a n c e s t r e s s o f t h e House o f Shang, i s c o n f i n e d by h e r f a t h e r , t h e L o r d o f Sung. a phoenix,  y e t f a i l s i n competition with h i s v i r t u o u s r i v a l , the  a n c e s t o r o f t h e House o f Shang. t o woo  As homage, t h e p o e t sends a magpie, t h e n  (II. iv.)  first  A t t h i s p o i n t the poet turns  t h e L o r d o f Yii's two p r i n c e s s e s , b u t t h e y l i v e i n v i r t u e and  t o marry P r i n c e Sao K'ang.  The wanderer laments t h e i n a c c e s s a b i l i t y o f  sage-kings and t h e i r daughters situation.  are  t h e w o r l d o v e r , and d e s p a i r s h i s p r e s e n t  ( I I . v.)  F o r c o n s o l a t i o n , t h e p o e t seeks o u t s a c r e d s t a l k s and approaches L i n g Fen f o r a d i v i n a t i o n .  An a u s p i c i o u s o r a c l e i s d i v i n e d :  i s always bound t o f i n d i t s mate./ without lovers?" seek elsewhere to  (II. vi.)  Who  t h a t was  "Beauty  t r u l y f a i r was  ever  F o l l o w i n g t h e d i v i n e r ' s encouragement t o  f o r a t r u l y f a i r lady, the poet takes t h i s opportunity  renew c r i t i c i s m o f t h e f o l l i e s o f t h e mundane w o r l d .  he c o n s u l t s t h e s p i r i t o f Wu  In i n d e c i s i o n  H s i e n , t h e c h i e f o f t h e shaman a n c e s t o r s .  A f t e r enumerating h i s t o r i c a l examples, Wu H s i e n a d d r e s s e s t h e p o e t i n oracular  style:  1 0  93 To and f r o i n t h e e a r t h you must everywhere wander, S e e k i n g f o r one whose thoughts a r e o f y o u r own measure As l o n g as y o u r s o u l w i t h i n i s b e a u t i f u l , What need have you o f a niatchmaker? Gather t h e f l o w e r o f y o u t h b e f o r e i t i s t o o l a t e , W h i l e t h e f a i r season i s s t i l l n o t y e t o v e r . " (II. v i i . )  In  r e t r o s p e c t t h e p o e t comes t o a b i t t e r r e a l i z a t i o n :  that the world  i s a d i s o r d e r e d t u m u l t o f c h a n g i n g and d r i f t s t o conform t o e v i l t h a t a l l f r a g r a n t f l o w e r s s u c h as o r c h i d s and peppers have been  counsel; trans-  formed i n t o w o r t h l e s s mugworts; a l l because t h e y have no p e r s i s t e n t c a r e f o r beauty.  With o n l y h i s g a r l a n d l e f t i n p r i s t i n e f r a g r a n c e , t h e p o e t  d e c i d e s t o f o l l o w L i n g Fen's a d v i c e and t r a n s c e n d t h e moribund w o r l d by c o n t i n u i n g h i s j o u r n e y i n q u e s t o f a mate.  (II. v i i i . )  In h i s j a d e and i v o r y c h a r i o t , accompanied by an i n c r e a s e d the  retinue,  p o e t d e p a r t s f o r Mount K'un Lun and w o r l d ' s w e s t e r n e x t r e m i t y .  In  C h i n e s e mythology, beyond t h e Dark Water l i e s t h e c r e s c e n t o f S i n k i n g Sand, t h e w e s t e r n boundary o f e a r t h and Heaven.  Beyond l i e t h e s a c r e d  mountains K'un Lun, Ch'ang L i u , and Yii, t h e abodes o f t h e Gods o f Completion and P e r f e c t i o n , t h e p l a c e o f s u n s e t and sundown.  I t i s t h e boundary  toward which T i t a n P'eng T s u a t t h e age o f e i g h t hundred t r a v e l s i n s e a r c h o f immortality. ''" 1  C r o s s i n g t h e b l o o d - r e d S i n k i n g Sand on a b r i d g e  o f dragons, t h e p o e t s o a r s t h r o u g h t h e N i n e Heavens and t h e N i n e Underworlds i n t h e poem's most f l o r i d l y d e s c r i p t i v e passage.  But a sudden g l i m p s e  o f h i s o l d home i n t h e d i s t a n c e c a u s e s b o t h groom and dragons t o r e f u s e t o go on.  The j o u r n e y i s b r o u g h t t o an a b r u p t end.  There remains o n l y an E n v o i ( I I . x.) i n which t h e p o e t r e a f f i r m s his  d e c i s i o n t o remain i n e x i l e , and vows t o c o n t i n u e a f t e r P'eng H s i e n ' s  e x a m p l e — t o q u e s t f o r s a c r e d p l a n t s and d i v i n e blossoms, and f i n a l l y ,  a  soul-mate.  The poem ends w i t h a triumphant r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e v a l u e o f  v i r t u o u s c u l t i v a t i o n and r e c l u s i v e n e s s as t h e p a t h t o t r a n s c e n d e n c e . B e f o r e e l u c i d a t i n g t h e c y c l i c a s p e c t s o f " L i Sao", i t i s n e c e s s a r y to  p r o v i d e some background  written.  t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l m i l i e u i n w h i c h i t was  The T h i r d C e n t u r y B.C. i n C h i n a was a t i m e o f d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , a time when magic, r i t u a l , and myth had n o t been superseded b y r a t i o n a l i s m and a b s t r a c t i o n . goddesses  Myths o f a n c i e n t gods and  existed simultaneously with the r i s i n g systematization o f  t h e Yin-Yang  s c h o o l , o r t h e a b s t r a c t i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f Taoism and  Confucianism a l i k e .  C e r t a i n l y , a n c e s t o r w o r s h i p and u s e o f Pa Kua, t h e  p r e c u r s o r t o t h e I C h i n g , i n d i v i n a t i o n and p h i l o s o p h y was s t i l l p o p u l a r . In  f a c t t h e u s e o f magic and r i t e s t i l l p r e v a i l e d i n t h e s o u t h e r n r e g i o n s ,  e s p e c i a l l y among t h e b a r b a r i c p e o p l e s where Ch'u Yuan was e x i l e d .  With  t h i s i n mind, i t i s no s u r p r i s e • t h a t t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e p o e t a s a. m y s t i c , a Yin-Yang d i s c i p l e , a C o n f u c i a n , o r a T a o i s t has been d i s p u t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s . It  i s o n l y r e c e n t l y t h a t s c h o l a r s have r e a c h e d c o n s e n t i e n t agreement on  12 t h e p r o f u s i o n and p r o f u n d i t y o f Ch'u Yuan's s o u r c e s .  Thus t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  b u r e a u c r a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f " L i Sao" has y i e l d e d t o t h e s t u d y o f sensus s p i r i t u a l i s . is  a condensed  " L i Sao" h o l d s a m i r r o r t o i t s t u r b u l e n t age, and  song o f t h e v a r i o u s s p e c u l a t i o n s o f t h e e r a .  S t r u c t u r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e t r i s t i a o f " L i Sao" c o n s i s t s o f a r e a l i z a t i o n and a d e c i s i o n which r e q u i r e t h e s e a r c h f o r f r a g r a n t  blossoms  and t h e q u e s t f o r a mate w h i c h i n t u r n c o n s t i t u t e s t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e itineraria.  T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n d e v e l o p s from t h e t r a g i c sense o f t h e p o e t ' s  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s upon h i s divorcement from t h e F a i r Lady, h i s s o l i t u d e in  t h e mundane w o r l d , and h i s estrangement  from t h e cosmos.  The n o t i o n  t h a t t h e p o e t i s i s o l a t e d i n time as w e l l as space i s r e i n f o r c e d by images  95  of  t h e " s w i f t s t e e d s " o f Time and t h e e p h e m e r a l i t y o f l i f e ,  manifested  i n the p e r i o d i c changes o f seasons and t h e i n c e s s a n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f the vegetable world.  T h i s c r u c i a l awareness c r e a t e s an e m b i t t e r e d n o s t a l g i a  and an anguished d e s i r e f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ; b o t h demand s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n and s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t through v e g e t a b l e adornment as a means o f o b t a i n i n g a u n i t y w i t h t h e Tao, p r o g r e s s o f t h e cosmic  f u l f i l l i n g t h e q u e s t f o r a mate, and e n s u r i n g t h e journey.  The C h i n e s e have always b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e i s mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p between man  and cosmos, and i t i s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t e v e r g r e e n  stalks,  b e a u t i f u l f l o w e r s , and f r a g r a n t blossoms a r e u n d e r s t o o d t o c o n c e i v e a s a c r e d q u a l i t y c a p a b l e o f bestowing p u r i t y , p e r f e c t i o n , and even, d i v i n i t y . The symbolism o f v e g e t a b l e adornment i n " L i Sao" has a shamanic o r i g i n from C h i u Ko  (The N i n e Songs), t h e e r o t i c l i t u r g y o f t h e s o u t h e r n  13 b a r b a r i a n which was  r e f i n e d and e d i t e d by Ch'u Yuan under r o y a l (command.  " L i Sao's" v e g e t a b l e w o r l d , as i n t h e l i t u r g y , i s one o f s h a r p c o n t r a s t between such rank weeds and p a l e f l o w e r s as mugwort and dogwood, s y m b o l i z i n g t h e s l a n d e r o u s and t h e p r o f a n e ; and such b e a u t i f u l and  fragrant  f l o w e r s as o r c h i d and pepper w h i c h s y m b o l i z e t h e v i r t u o u s and t h e d i v i n e . In  f o r m a t i v e t r o p e , t h e l a t t e r f l o w e r s become a c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e p o e t ' s  i n n a t e v i r t u e as a descendent  o f t h e God o f S p r i n g and Wood.  Moreover,  once t h e p o e t c o n f r o n t s h i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s awareness, t h e y become an emblem and a p l e d g e o f h i s p e r s i s t e n t s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n o f v i r t u e  and  i n c e s s a n t p u r s u i t o f u n i t y w i t h t h e " f a i r l a d y " and t h e c o u r s e .  Finally,  upon t h e d e f e a t o f t h e o r c h i d i n i t s a l l e g o r i c a l b a t t l e w i t h t h e weed, t h e emblem becomes t h e p r i m a r y m o t i f o f t h e amor q u e s t and cosmic W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i t i n e r a r i a we i t s e l f and t h e consequent s h a r e resemblances  journey.  f i n d two major themes, t h e q u e s t  "progress" w i t h i n the quest:  t o t h e myth o f Mount K'un  both  concepts  Lun, t h e Feng Shan  ritual,  96 and t h e p r a c t i c e s o f t h e Ming T'ang. i n s t i t u t e . A t t h e h e a r t o f t h e poem i s t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f temporal  tensions  (symbolic i n e x i l e ) through r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and u n i o n w i t h t h e d i v i n e , whether we  speak o f t h e emperor's ittLmetic cosmic  j o u r n e y through monthly,  d i r e c t i o n a l , and s e a s o n a l p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h e symmetrical n u c r c c o s m i c T'ang; o r h i s s a c r e d j o u r n e y and t h a n k s g i v i n g s a c r i f i c e t o Mount K'un  Ming Lun  o r t h e o t h e r cosmic mountains; o r t h e s o l a r and l u n a r symbols o f r e g e n e r a t i o n i n t h e Feng Shan r i t u a l ; each i s concerned w i t h r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a u n i t y w i t h t h e cosmos, t o re-harmonize Man  and p a r t a k e o f t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n .  t h e powers o f Heaven, E a r t h , and  S i m i l a r l y , i n " L i Sao",  the motivation  b e h i n d q u e s t and p r o g r e s s i s a c o s m o l o g i c a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o D a v i d Hawkes, t h e i d e a o f t h e p r o g r e s s i s m a g i c a l , f o r a complete and s u c c e s s f u l c i r c u i t o f t h e cosmos w i l l make one a l o r d o f  14 t h e u n i v e r s e , a b l e t o command any o f i t s powers a t w i l l .  Thus t h e p o e t ,  as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e e k i n g shaman o r emperor, undertakes  a ritual  journey  c o n s i s t i n g o f a s c e n t t o t h e hub o f t h e cosmos, then a c i r c u i t o f t h e v a r i o u s q u a r t e r s o f t h e m a n d a l a - l i k e u n i v e r s e , and f i n a l l y a r e t u r n t o t h e c e n t r e o f power.  The wanderer i s i n i t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , b u t t h e r e f u s a l o f Heaven's  g u a r d i a n t o admit t h e p o e t yet  (II. i . ) indicates that r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s not  p o s s i b l e , t h a t t h e c i r c u i t must be completed  w i t h i n the quest.  A g a i n , t h e symbolism o f beauty and t h e f e m i n i n e i n " L i Sao" much t o do w i t h p r i m i t i v e thought.  The m e t a p h o r i c  has  kenning o f flower t o  v i r t u o u s k i n g o r b e a u t i f u l goddess i s found i n The C l a s s i c o f P o e t r y and t h e l i t u r g i c a l r i t u a l o f C h i u Ko; w h i l e t h e moon-earth-woman c o n f i g u r a t i o n as t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e f e i n i n i n e r e q u i r i n g t h e m a s c u l i n e  complement f o r v i r t u o u s  u n i t y i s e v i d e n t i n some shamanic r i t u a l s and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e I C h i n g .  15  97  D e s p i t e s c h o l a r l y d i s p u t e as t o t h e s p e c i f i c a l l e g o r y o f t h e goddess o r beauty,  (whether as t h e goddess i n myth, t h e nymph i n shamanic l i t u r g y ,  o r t h e v i r t u o u s k i n g o r way o f humanity i n C o n f u c i a n  interpretation),  a common ground i s i n d i c a t e d by r e t u r n i n g t o t h e o r i g i n a l c y c l i c myth w i t h i t s impulse  t o temporal r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , and i t s emphasis on t h e  periodic a l t e r n a t i o n o f opposites. The  amor q u e s t i s undertaken i n t h e c o r r e c t c i r c u i t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  p r o g r e s s o f due d i r e c t i o n .  Although  t h e quest i s not f u l f i l l e d ,  the n e c e s s i t y o f t h e a l l e g o r y resembling  due t o  t h e p o e t ' s f u t i l e mundane p u r s u i t ,  t h e c i r c u i t p r o g r e s s has a s s u r e d h i m a harmony w i t h t h e cosmos and g r a n t e d him reascendance t o t h e hub o f t h e u n i v e r s e .  S p i r i t u a l success i s i n d i c a t e d  by h i s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l f l i g h t between t h e N i n Heavens and t h e N i n e E a r t h s , and i n t h e r e c e p t i o n o f t h e N i n e Heavenly Hymns and t h e N i n e D i v i n e Dances. W h i l e t h e p o e t ' s n o s t a l g i a f o r h i s a n c e s t r a l home i n t h e c a p i t a l o f Ch'u underscores  t h e i n e v i t a b l y u n s u c c e s s f u l q u e s t i n t h e amor a l l e g o r y , and  brings the t r a g i c f u t i l i t y o f h i s p i e t a s t o a climax, i t i n turn r e i n f o r c e s  16 t h e triumph o f s p i r i t u a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e and t h e way o f t h e sage r e c l u s e . M e t a p h o r i c a l l y speaking,  t h e p o e t i s never c l o s e r t o "home" than when he  i s s o a r i n g a t t h e w e s t e r n extreme o f t h e u n i v e r s e i n harmonious u n i t y w i t h t h e cosmos. I n a word, t h e p o e t i c amor and p i e t a s o f t h e romance f i n d  their  a l l e g o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n and f o r m a t i v e t r o p e s i n t h e mythos o f t h e q u e s t and p r o g r e s s ; each i n t u r n may be seen a s a b s t r a c t i o n s o f t h e c y c l i c myth, t h e p a r a d o x i c a l c e n t r e o f t h e poem.  E x i l e d from a l l t h a t he l o v e s , t h e p o e t  f o c u s e s on t h e decadent a s p e c t o f c y c l e w i t h r e g a r d t o s o c i e t y , and t h e i n c e s s a n t a s p e c t o f c y c l e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e time o f n a t u r a l s u c c e s s i o n . T h i s , i n t u r n , l e a d s h i m t o lament t h e l i n e a r a s p e c t o f human  life.  98 Paxadoxically i t i s t h e obverse c y c l i c aspects which provide h i s  liberation:  the r e - c r e a t i v e s i d e o f n a t u r a l c y c l e evident i n h i s concern f o r vegetable garments; and h i s use o f i n c e s s a n t change t o p r o v i d e b o t h t h e model f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d wanderings, and t h e c o n s t a n c y n e c e s s a r y t o a t r a n s c e n d e n t understanding  o f human l i f e i n t h e T a o i s t sense, and f i n a l l y h i s r e c o n -  c i l i a t i o n w i t h time and t h e cosmos. In f o r m a t i o n o f l i t e r a r y genre,  " L i Sao" has i n f l u e n c e d o t h e r  p o e t s a p p e a r i n g i n The Songs o f t h e South, and p o e t s i n s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s i n b o t h s t y l e and s p i r i t .  P r o s o d i c a l l y , i t s emblematic d e n s i t y  c o n t r i b u t e d much t o t h e development o f t h e "rhapsody" o f t h e Han dynasty.  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  T h e m a t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e cosmic p r o g r e s s and q u e s t  o f a goddess r e a p p e a r i n such p o e t i c works as "The Rhapsody o f t h e Goddess" by Sung Yu o f t h e W a r r i n g p e r i o d , "The C e l e s t i a l Journey o f t h e G r e a t Man" by S s u Ma H s i a n g J u o f t h e Western Han p e r i o d , "The Rhapsody o f t h e Nymph o f R i v e r L o " by Ts'ao C h i h o f t h e Three Kingdoms p e r i o d , and i n poems o f m y s t i c j o u r n e y s by Kuo P'u and h i s contemporaries  i n the  17 C h i n dynasty.  Hawkes has n o t e d m  h i s study o f the quest archetype i n  /Asian l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h e panoramic enumeration  o f cosmic p r o g r e s s i n  " L i Sao" and t h e l i t u r g y o f shamanism has i n due time become a c o s m o l o g i c a l approach  t o a r t and l i t e r a t u r e .  Thus i n t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y A.D., L u C h i ' s  "Rhapsody o f L i t e r a t u r e " d e s c r i b e s t h e c r e a t i v e w r i t e r as a p o e t - m a g i c i a n , an i t i n e r a n t m y s t i c who e x p l o r e s t h e u n i v e r s e t o a c q u i r e t h e powers o f literary  creation:  99  "Taking h i s p o s i t i o n a t t h e hub o f t h i n g s , t h e w r i t e r contemplates the m y s t e r y o f t h e u n i v e r s e . . . H i s s p i r i t g a l l o p s t o t h e e i g h t ends o f t h e u n i v e r s e ; H i s mind wanders a l o n g v a s t d i s t a n c e . I n t h e end, as h i s mood dawns c l e a r e r and c l e a r e r , object, C l e a n - c u t now i n o u t l i n e , shove one a n o t h e r forward. He s i p s the essence o f l e t t e r s ; he r i n s e s h i s mouth With the e x t r a c t o f the s i x a r t s . F l o a t i n g on a h e a v e n l y l a k e , he swims a l o n g ; P l u n g i n g i n t o t h e n e t h e r s p r i n g he immerses h i m s e l f . "  With regard t o the t r i s t i a ,  a l t h o u g h r e c e i v i n g no s i m i l a r g e n e r i c  development, t h r o u g h t h e p o e t r y o f Sung Yu o f "sorrow o v e r autumn."  i t has  received the  focus  Thus i n C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e the image o f  autumn has becmce n o t o n l y an a l l u s i o n t o t h e t r i s t i a o f " L i  Sao,"  b u t a symbol o f man's temporal awareness o f t h e e p h e m e r a l i t y o f o f h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s estrangement from t h e c y c l e o f e t e r n a l return.  being,  100  K u e i Ch'u  L a i Tz'u  S i m i l a r t o t h e W a r r i n g p e r i o d background o f " L i Sao,"  political  t u r m o i l , w a r f a r e and n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s o f t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s A.D.  form t h e background t o t h e n e x t p o e t under s t u d y , T'ao  Ch'ien.  I n d e s p e r a t i o n t h e C h i n e s e t u r n e d from t h e r o m a n t i c p o e t r y o f i t i n e r a n c y and t h e s t e a d i l y r e t r e a t i n g m y t h o l o g i c a l worldview  t o embrace t h a t  s y n c r e t i s t movement w h i c h saw t h e r i s e o f C h i n e s e Buddhism and t h e s y n t h e s i s o f C o n f u c i a n i s m and Taoism w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e u n i t y o f man The exemplary man who  and n a t u r e .  became t h e sage i n i n t i m a t e companionship w i t h n a t u r e ,  r i s e s above a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , b u t remains  m i d s t o f human a f f a i r s and responds without d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  i n the  t o a l l transformations spontaneously  In l i t e r a t u r e , the s p i r i t u a l r e c l u s i v e n e s s o f  " L i Sao" c o u p l e d w i t h t h e (diminution o f c o n f i d e n c e i n l i f e i n h e r i t e d The C l a s s i c o f P o e t r y engendered a r e a l m o f t r a n q u i l i t y a c c e s s i b l e t o earth-bound m o r t a l s .  A major p r e o c c u p a t i o n was  the attainment o f a  peace o f mind which e n a b l e one t o e n j o y contentment w i t h i n h i s meager existence.  T'ao C h ' i e n  (or T'ao Yuan-Ming, 365-427 A.D.)  lived  through  from  101 the t u r b u l e n t waning o f t h e C h i n dynasty, a h a l f - c e n t u r y o f r e v o l u t i o n , b a n d i t r y , and r e g i c i d e .  One  o f C h i n a ' s t r u l y g r e a t w r i t e r s , he  attempted t o use h i s e d u c a t i o n  i n s e r v i c e t o t h e s t a t e b u t was  initially unable t o  compromise h i s p r i n c i p l e s t o the c o r r u p t b u r e a u c r a c y o f t h e t i m e .  I n 405  he r e s i g n e d h i s m a g i s t e r i a l p o s t , t h e o c c a s i o n o f h i s "Rhapsody o f  the  A.D.,  20 Return,"  and embraced t h e l i f e o f the p e a s a n t .  c o u l d n o t c o n v i n c e him  Crop f a i l u r e s and  t o exchange r e l a t i v e p o v e r t y f o r the b a r r e n  o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , and h i s pcietry s u r v i v e s as a testament t o t h e o f l i v i n g i n s i m p l e iharmony w i t h n a t u r e . e x p r e s s e s the dilemma o f a man o f medieval China.  As  T'ao  Ch'ien's poetry  fires rewards  joys best  o f good w i l l b o r n i n t o the t r o u b l e d times  a p o e t and  r e c l u s e he does more t h a n g i v e meaning  t o a p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a o t i c p e r i o d o f C h i n e s e h i s t o r y ; he b e l o n g s t o t h a t s m a l l group o f p o e t s who  a r e p r o p e r l y c a l l e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l , who  crystallize  a t t i t u d e s toward l i f e t h a t a r e v a l i d i n o t h e r t i m e s and p l a c e s . l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d and  He  has  by C h i n e s e c r i t i c s as the master o f p o e t r y o f r e c l u s i o n  the f a t h e r o f C h i n e s e p a s t o r a l p o e t r y .  H i s unique p h i l o s o p h y  of natural  harmony and a s s i m i l a t i o n w i t h cosmic change i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d i n h i s 21 rhapsody o f t h e r e t u r n , "Homing". On one  l e v e l "Homing" i s t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e g r a d u a l  o f man's s p i r i t u a l q u e s t f o r e t e r n a l r e t u r n .  Perhaps r e c a l l i n g " L i Sao"  i t e x h i b i t s a b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e : the c a l l t o r e t u r n and Through s e v e r e s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n " L i Sao",  fulfillment  the r e t u r n  itself.  within a " t r i s t i a " similar to that of  the p o e t d i s c o v e r s t h i s s i t u a t i o n t o be t h a t o f a gardener o v e r -  come by t h e weeds o f e x i s t e n c e , an a l l u s i o n t o t h e wasted garden o f in  " L i Sao";  to return.  orchids  t h i s i s the immediate m o t i v e b e h i n d t h e p o e t ' s d e c i s i v e urge  The ruined garden for which the poet grieves may be seen as the corrupted mundane world whose attachments have bound the poet to this point i n his l i f e .  His bitter disillusionment has developed through  a lifetime of frustrations, and over the historical truths revealed by ancient sages and virtuous kings, and even over the Confucian doctrine of service and moral duty to mankind. The sense of homelessness which the poet feels i n bureaucratic service i s best expressed i n another of T'ao's works, the fourth of "Twenty Poems After Drinking Wine" through the image of the lost bird.  "Anxious and seeking, the bird lost from the flockThe sun declines, and s t i l l he f l i e s alone, Back and forth without a place to rest; From night to night, his cry becomes more sad, A piercing sound of yearning for the dawn, So far from home, with nothing for support..."  The plaintive sound of the bird's yearning for i t s nest i s echoed i n the poet's profound nostalgia for home. To the poet the homecoming c a l l demands reclusion from the sophisticated world:  "By mischance I f e l l into the dusty net And was' thirteen years away from home. The migrant bird longs for i t s native grove. 3 The fish i n the pond recalls i t s former depths". 2  What i s most important i s the direction of "home"; return does not point to Mount K'un Lun of mythology, nor to the archaic Golden Age, but to the present, to the family home i n the forest of the southern h i l l . is neither divine nor mythic, but human and existential.  The return  The miniutiae of  pastoral existence circumscribe the destiny and the immanent content of the  103 "return to nature".  While n a t u r e , as t h e p o e t and h i s contemporary  s y n c r e t i c metaphysicians  comprehend, i s a s t a t e o f s p o n t a n e i t y i n which  t h e myriads o f t h i n g s i n an i n c e s s a n t f l u x e x i s t and t r a n s f o r m a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own  immanent p r i n c i p l e s .  To l i f e o r e x i s t e n c e i s  t h e r e f o r e a t t r i b u t e d an e s s e n c e o f c o n s t a n t change. q u e s t f o r meaning i s a s s i g n e d t h e requirement plunge  themselves  To t h e r e t u r n o r  o f harmony w i t h n a t u r e , t o  i n t o t h e f l u x o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , f o r o n l y w i t h i n t h e f l u x can  man  u n i t e h i m s e l f w i t h t h e i n f i n i t e and e n j o y t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n o f e t e r n a l return.  I n o t h e r words, i t i s i n t h e p e r f e c t f u s i o n , t h e p r e - e x p e r i e n t i a l  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , o f t h e s e l f and n a t u r e t h a t e x i s t e n c e can become a m e a n i n g f u l oneness.  These i d e a s form t h e u n d e r c u r r e n t o f one o f T'ao's  most famous poems, t h e f i f t h o f "Twenty Poems A f t e r D r i n k i n g Wine":  "I b u i l t my c o t t a g e among t h e h a b i t a t i o n s o f men, Y e t t h e r e i s no clamor o f p a s s i n g c a r t s and h o r s e s . You would l i k e t o know how i t c o u l d be? W i t h t h e mind detached, one's p l a c e becomes remote. P i c k i n g chrysanthemums by t h e e a s t e r n hedge I catch s i g h t o f the d i s t a n t southern h i l l s : The mountain a i r i s l o v e l y as t h e sun s e t s And f l o c k s o f f l y i n g b i r d s r e t u r n t o g e t h e r . In t h e s e t h i n g s i s t h e fundamental t r u t h 24 I would l i k e t o t e l l , b u t l a c k t h e words".  The a b s o l u t e detachment o f t h e mind i s a s p i r i t u a l d e r i v e d from t h e s o u l ' s o r i e n t a t i o n t o n a t u r e .  discerment  I t not only t r a n s f e r s  t h e h u t i n t o remote d i s t a n c e and a b s o l v e s t h e p o e t from w o r l d l y c o r r u p t i o n , b u t e n a b l e s him t o p e r c e i v e t h e epiphany hill,  and  o f oneness between chrysanthemum,  self.  To r e t u r n , t h e n , t o t h e second p a r t o f "Homing", we may s e v e r a l stages i n the poet's r e i n t e g r a t i v e process:  distinguish  a l i n e a r progress  home, a r e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i t s s u r r o u d i n g s and t h e garden r e u n i o n , a harmony w i t h n a t u r e , and a s s i m i l a t i o n w i t h cosmic change.  Due  t o the  104 human and e x i s t e n t i a l s p i r i t o f t h e p a s t o r a l ,  (and i n c o n t r a s t t o " L i  Sao"), t h e l i n e a r p r o g r e s s a c q u i r e s no r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e beyond structural transition.  The rhythms o f r o c k i n g b o a t and w a f t i n g b r e e z e  cease w i t h t h e sudden appearance  o f home.  and i n t e r n a l l a n d s c a p e s become a l l i e d .  A n x i e t i e s end as e x t e r n a l  Next t h e a l l i a n c e i s extended  w i t h the thematic entrance o f domestic b l i s s .  A sense o f s p i r i t u a l  b e l o n g i n g and contentment- a combination o f a cup o f wine, a s i m p l e window sill,  and a l i t t l e room r e f l e c t s t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y and t h e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y  of  t h e garden.  T h i s i n t u r n l e a d s t h e p o e t t o w i l l i n g l y p r o c l a i m t h e end  of  d e s i r e and makes h i s f u r t h e r r e u n i o n w i t h t h e garden p o s s i b l e . W i t h i n t h e garden t h e p o e t s contentment 1  f o s t e r s an  w i t h t h e s i m p l i c i t y and t h e s p o n t a n e i t y o f n a t u r e .  (II. i.)  assimilation  This i s a world of  p e r p e t u a l motion- c l o u d s and b i r d s a l i k e s h a r e a "homing" impulse.  As  a microcosm o f t h e w o r l d o f change, t h e garden o f f e r s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f estrangement section  which the c o r r u p t s e c u l a r world c o u l d not.  ( I I . i v . ) t h e p o e t moves beyond h i s p e a c e f u l e n c l a v e t o d e l i g h t  i n t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f h i s new of  In the next  movement has come t o r e s t " .  found harmony w i t h n a t u r e - " s e n s i n g my  life  P a r a d o x i c a l l y the " r e s t " o f the poet i s  w i t h i n t h e c e n t r e o f an e v e r c h a n g i n g n a t u r e , f o r r e s t i s n o t q u i e s c e n c e b u t a c t i v e involvement and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h n a t u r a l c y c l e and return:  " n a t u r e ' s m y r i a d c r e a t u r e s f l o u r i s h i n g i n season".  eternal  Finally,  r e f l e c t i n g upon t h e mundane w o r l d and t h e s t a t e o f n a t u r e , t h e p o e t a c h i e v e s a transcendent l e v e l o f discernment. of  The new  consciousness i s a philosophy  s e l f - a s s i m i l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e G r e a t Change; i t i s a r e n u n c i a t i o n o f b o t h  w e a l t h and honour and t h e p a r a d i s i a l myths o f Mount K'un over death.  Lun, and a  Of most importance i s t h e promise o f a harmonious l i f e  triumph of  105 contentment f o r each i n d i v i d u a l w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . From a s t r u c t u r a l v i e w p o i n t ,  "Homing" p r e s e n t s t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  o f man and n a t u r e t h r o u g h s p a t i a l and temporal o r i e n t a t i o n .  Beginning  w i t h t h e s e l f ' s r e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h home i n a s i n g l e day, t h e poem expands i t s f o c u s t o a d a i l y r e u n i o n w i t h t h e garden,  t o a s e a s o n a l harmony  w i t h n a t u r e , and f i n a l l y t o t o t a l a s s i m i l a t i o n w i t h t h e i n c e s s a n t change of the i n f i n i t e .  As a p a s t o r a l a b s t r a c t i o n o f t h e m e n t a l i t y b e h i n d t h e  c y c l i c myth i n terms o f man's harmony w i t h n a t u r e a s spontaneous change and e x i s t e n c e a s an i n t e g r a l oneness, "Homing" o f f e r s an escape' from t h e t r a g i c sense o f randomness, estrangement, and f i n i t u d e w h i c h was unique i n C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e and e x t r e m e l y  influential.  The p a s t o r a l o f T'ao C h ' i e n w i t h i t s p r o f o u n d c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f l i f e and n a t u r e , and i t s d e p i c t i o n o f e p i p h a n i e s o f man's r e u n i o n w i t h home, garden,  and n a t u r e engendered t h e theme o f amor f o r n a t u r e i n t h e  new s o n g - s t y l e p o e t r y and i n t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f landscape p o e t r y which followed.  T h i s i n t u r n h e r a l d e d t h e f u s i o n o f C h i n e s e n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n  c u l t u r e s , and t h e subsequent r i c h n e s s o f t h e T'ang d y n a s t y - t h e second g r e a t f l o w e r i n g o f Chinese l i t e r a r y  culture.  106  B.  The C y c l i c Myth i n C h i n e s e Drama  As a mature a r t form C h i n e s e drama owes much t o t h e Mongol emperor, Yuan T a i - t s u n g , whose d i s t r u s t o f s c h o l a r s l e d t o t h e a b o l i t i o n o f academic examinations  f o r t h o s e s e e k i n g o f f i c i a l preferment.  As a r e s u l t ,  i n t h e l a t e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y many s c h o l a r s t u r n e d t o t h e t h e a t r e and r e p l a c e d t h e p l a y w r i g h t - a c t o r s as masters o f t h e most p o p u l a r a r t o f t h e time.  E v o l v i n g from such d i v e r s e s o u r c e s as m e d i u m i s t i c seances,  ritual  and c o u r t e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , m a r t i a l mask-dances, puppet shows and shadow p l a y s , and o f c o u r s e , c o l l o q u i a l s t o r y t e l l i n g , t h e " v a r i e t y p l a y " o f t h e Sung d y n a s t y  (960-1279 A.D.)  narrative structure.  had a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d a w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d  But f o r t h e most p a r t , t h e s e Sung p l a y s were t h e  c r e a t i o n s o f t h e Book G u i l d , a c t o r s , and f o l k w r i t e r s , and i t remained  for  t h e C o n f u c i a n s c h o l a r s , robbed o f c o u r t p o s i t i o n s by Yuan's d e c r e e , t o p e r f e c t t h e two mainstreams o f C h i n e s e t h e a t r e . The N o r t h e r n P l a y , p o p u l a r i n t h e c a p i t a l and o f t e n composed by p o e t s as an i n t e l l e c t u a l pastime, was duration.  a mature drama o f f o u r scenes'  U n f o r t u n a t e l y from a c r i t i c a l v i e w p o i n t , t h e s e e a r l y p l a y s were  judged n o t so much by p l o t a c t i o n o r c h a r a c t e r development as by l y r i c p o e t r y chanted by t h e two  lead roles.  P l a y , b u t d r a m a t i c a l l y more i n t e r e s t i n g was  Contemporary w i t h t h e N o r t h e r n t h e S o u t h e r n Show s c h o o l o f  Hang-Chou, t h e most p r o s p e r o u s c i t y o f t h e s o u t h e r n d i s t r i c t s . t o L i n Wen-keng, t h e Southern Show was  the  According  f u l l - f l e d g e d p l a y i n song and  d i a l o g u e w r i t t e n i n c o l l o q u i a l language;  s t r u c t u r a l l y , t h e d i a l o g u e advanced  d r a m a t i c a c t i o n , w h i l e t h e songs, a r r a n g e d i n sequence, v i v i d l y  expressed  25 t h e h e i g h t e n e d sentiments o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s .  By 1260 A.D.,  with the  u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Yuan empire t h e two d r a m a t i c forms had merged w i t h  107  the Southern Show c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y dominant. Ming d y n a s t y  With the r i s e o f  (1368-1644 A.D.), t h e Yuan drama was  "Ch'uan C h ' i " , l i t e r a l l y "legend o f t h e s t r a n g e " The  the  further refined into o r d r a m a t i c romance.  Ch'uan C h ' i i s perhaps t h e l e n g t h i e s t o f d r a m a t i c sub-genres,  composed o f f o r t y o r more scenes and  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by songs c h a n t e d i n  a l t e r n a t e s o l o o r i n chorus by s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s  i n the play.  The  greatest  d r a m a t i c achievement o f the Ch'uan C h ' i genre, and p r o b a b l y o f t h e e n t i r e Ming dynasty, were the  "Four Dream p l a y s " o f T'ang H s i e n - t s u  (1550-1616  A l t h o u g h contemporary w i t h Shakespeare, t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l m i l i e u o f Ming p e r i o d i s so u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e E l i z a b e t h a n , background may  not  be  A.D.)  the  that philosophical  i g n o r e d b e f o r e t u r n i n g t o the work o f t h e  dramatist  himself. In a very concrete  sense Ming thought o r i g i n a t e d i n an  experience  o f t h e s e l f and an a s p i r a t i o n t o sagehood, t o w h i c h t h e s i n g l e key was r a t i o n a l i s t i c Neo-Confucian d o c t r i n e t h a t man  i n h i s e s s e n t i a l nature i s  i d e n t i c a l w i t h a l l n a t u r e and o f t h e same s u b s t a n c e as a l l t h i n g s one body w i t h Heaven, E a r t h , and i s based on t h e e q u a t i o n o f " j e n "  a l l things.  forming  Theoretically this identity  (human-heartedness, humanity,  love)  w i t h l i f e i t s e l f f o r t h e fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e u n i v e r s e i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y o r c r e a t i v i t y , and man very essence.  is  t o o i s seen as c r e a t i v e i n h i s  They b e l i e v e d t h a t s e l f - t r a n s c e n d e n c e  p l a c i n g one's e t h i c a l and  the  c o u l d be a t t a i n e d  c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n with  by  the  c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s o f Heaven and E a r t h , and by a f f i r m i n g one's humanity w h e r e i n one's spontaneous d e s i r e was  n a t u r a l l y i n accordance w i t h Heaven.  Thus n o t o n l y d i d sagehood depend on one's s p e c u l a t i o n o f t h e mind n a t u r e o f man,  b u t man's b o d i l y s e l f and h i s m o r a l mind was  the c e n t r e o f c r e a t i o n , and  and  posited  t h e d i r e c t a t t a i n m e n t o f sagehood was  as  justified.  108 Of t h e many s c h o o l s o f Neo-Confucian thought, t h e i d e a l i s m o f Wang Yang-ming  (1472-1529) found an advocate  i n L o J u - f a n g , whose v i t a l i s t i c  and r e l a t i v e l y e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y was most a d a p t a b l e t o t h e r o m a n t i c , e m o t i o n a l , and s e n s u a l temper o f t h e t i m e , and s e r v e s as t h e b d s t metap h y s i c a l b a s i s o f T'angVs d r a m a t i c work. As a prOTiinent " e x i s t e n t i a l " C o n f u c i a n o f t h e L e f t Wing s c h o o l , Lo J u - f a n g  (1515-1589) r e g a r d s t h e p e r p e t u a l renewal o f l i f e as; a c e a s e l e s s  v i t a l i t y , i n t r i s i c a l l y good, and as t h e a n i m a t i n g p r i n c i p l e He equates  "sheng"  o f the universe.  ( l i f e o r v i t a l i t y ) w i t h " j e n " , and f u r t h e r  identifies  t h i s j e n w i t h " j e n " (man) i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e b i r t h o f a p e r s o n i s due t o t h e l a t e n t v i t a l i t y i m p l i c i t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n and i s a partaking  o f t h e j o y o f spontaneous c r e a t i v i t y .  and v i t a l i t y , Lo J u - f a n g has e x i s t e n t i a l l y  By e q u a t i n g man,  love,  i d e n t i f i e d human n a t u r e w i t h  t h e i n h e r e n t l y good v i t a l i t y o f l i f e , and a s s i m i l a t e d t h e s e l f t o t h e p e r p e t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e through humanity as an i n c e s s a n t . a n i m a t i n g power o f c r e a t i o n . o f c r e a t i o n , spontaneously nature.  I n h i s p h i l o s o p h y man i s t r u l y t h e c r o s s r o a d s  f r e e , b u t r e s p o n s i b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e way o f  T h i s v i t a l i s t i c s t r a i n o f Lo's thought  i s e v i d e n t i n t h e "Four  D r e a m s " — e s p e c i a l l y i n Mu Tan T l i n g Huan Hun C h i (The Return o f t h e S o u l t o t h e Peony P a v i l i o n ) ,  and Han Tan Meng C h i (The Dream on A p i l l o w i n  Han Tan I n n ) , t h e g r e a t dramas o f T'ang H s i e n - t s u , a s t u d e n t o f Lo and a l e a d i n g l i t e r a r y and i n t e l l e c t u a l f i g u r e i n t h e s i x t e e n t h ' century. C h i n a .  Mu Tan T ' i n g Huan Hun C h i  D e s p i t e a l i f e l o n g p a s s i o n f o r Yuan drama, T'ang H s i e n - t s u ' s l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s d i d n o t b e g i n u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t from a c o n t r o v e r s i a l magisterial career.  Settling  The Peony P a v i l i o n i n 1598.  i n L i n - c h ' u a n , h i s f a m i l y home, he  completed  I t i s a romance o f f i f t y - f i v e scenes w h i c h  109 demonstrates mastery o f b o t h c o l l o q u i a l and p o e t i c d i c t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o puns and a l l u s i o n s ) , and s k i l l f u l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n i t s dramatization  o f human c o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e f a n t a s y o f a dream a l l e g o r y .  As t h e p l a y i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n t r a n s l a t i o n , a b r i e f s y n o p s i s  will  s e r v e f o r purposes o f a n a l y s i s . Following  t h e seasonal  r o t a t i o n w h i c h i s one o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l  h a l l m a r k s o f t h e p l a y , t h e s p r i n g phase b e g i n s i n t e h Southern Sung d y n a s t y w i t h a p r o m i s i n g young s c h o l a r , L i u C h ' u n - c h ' i n g , l i t e r a l l y "Lover o f S p r i n g " .  As a g a r d e n e r i n Canton, L i u dreamed o f a b e a u t i f u l  maiden b e c k o n i n g h i m t o a l i f e o f v i r t u o u s p r o s p e r i t y from beneath a plum t r e e . success, Plum".  Obsessed b y h e r b e a u t y and h i s C o n f u c i a n d e s i r e s f o r o f f i c i a l  L i u adopts a new name, "Meng-mei", l i t e r a l l y  "Dreamer o f t h e  The dream-maiden i s T u L i - n i a n g o r F a i r B r i d e , t h e daughter o f  a s t e r n l y r a t i o n a l C o n f u c i a n , P r e f e c t Tu.  P e r c e i v i n g o n l y t h e importance  o f g r a c e and v i r t u e i n womanhood, T u m a i n t a i n s h i s daughter i n v i r t u a l s e c l u s i o n under the: t u t e l a g e o f Ch'en, an aged C o n f u c i a n pedant.  But  the r e t u r n o f s p r i n g has s t i r r e d t h e b l o o d o f y o u t h , and F a i r B r i d e undertakes a q u e s t o f t h e h e a r t i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e n a i v e t h e Golden Age, t h e f a v o r i t e s o f T u t o r Ch'en. handmaiden, Ch'un H s i a n g  (Spring Fragrance),  l o v e songs o f  Encouraged by h e r v i v a c i o u s F a i r B r i d e adorns h e r s e l f  i n s p r i n g f i n e r y and v i s i t s t h e f a m i l y ' s f o r b i d d e n garden.  Overcome b y  the emotions o f s p r i n g , she soon r e t u r n s t o h e r room and dreams o f a young s c h o l a r who l u r e s h e r i n t o t h e Peony P a v i l i o n w i t h a w i l l o w and e n d e a r i n g words. are i n e v i t a b l e .  twig  T h e i r dream-romance blossoms immediately b u t f a r e w e l l s  F a i r B r i d e awakes t o p r o f o u n d l o v e - s i c k n e s s , b u t on  r e t u r n i n g t o t h e garden P a v i l i o n she f i n d s o n l y a l a r g e plum t r e e . d e s p a i r she c o n s o l e s  In  h e r s e l f by b e l i e v i n g t h a t a f t e r d e a t h she c o u l d a t  110 l e a s t be b u r i e d under the plum t r e e so as t o be n e a r h e r dream l o v e . F a i r Bride's  lovesickness continues,  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h e r beauty i s f a d i n g . immortalize  h e r l o v e l i n e s s . Her  and  summer b r i n g s t h e  She p a i n t s a s e l f - p o r t r a i t  she blames f o r the  i t as a mere  "flu",  Stone F a i r y t o d i s p e l t h e e v i l s p i r i t s w h i c h  lovesickness.  As autumn b r i n g s t h e f a l l o f beauty, F a i r B r i d e ' worsens.  to  i l l n e s s i s , o f c o u r s e , a cause f o r  p a r e n t a l c o n c e r n b u t P r e f e c t Tu and T u t o r Ch'en r e g a r d w h i l e h e r mother employs Nun  shocking  On mid-autumn day,  t h e f e s t i v a l o f moon and  condition  l o v e r , she  i s buried  under the plum t r e e w h i l e h e r p o r t r a i t i s h i d d e n w i t h i n t h e Peony P a v i l i o n . Meanwhile P r e f e c t Tu has been a p p o i n t e d T r i b u n a t e  i n Yang-chou c i t y ,  but  b e f o r e h i s d e p a r t u r e he e s t a b l i s h e s a memorial c o n v e n t s u p e r i n t e n d e d by Nun  Stone F a i r y and T u t o r Ch'en. I n t h e w i n t e r phase the s o u l o f F a i r B r i d e descends i n t o Hades,  but  judgement i s suspended by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c i t i f i c a t i o n o f  t e n t h c i r c l e , and h e r s o u l remains i n Limbo. r e t u r n t o t h e p r o g r e s s o f young L i u .  Three w i n t e r s  p a s s , and  Ch'en and removed t o t h e Blossom Convent f o r r e c u p e r a t i o n . Bride  Tutor  Meanwhile  i s saved from an i n a u s p i c i o u s t r a n s m o g r i f i c a t i o n by t h e F l o w e r  Goddess o f the Peony P a v i l i o n who  intervenes  on h e r b e h a l f .  The  Goddess'  p l e a s o moves t h e Judge o f Metempsychosis t h a t he g r a n t s F a i r B r i d e a l i f e and  we  T r a v e l l i n g t o the c a p i t a l f o r h i s  academic e x a m i n a t i o n s , L i u s l i p s on r i v e r i c e b u t i s r e s c u e d by  Fair  the  new  r e t u r n t o t h e garden. S p r i n g r e t u r n s , and  the c o n v a l e s c i n g  s e l f - p o r t r a i t i n the P a v i l i o n . the image o f h i s dream-love, and  N a t u r a l l y he  L i u discovers F a i r Bride's soon r e a l i z e s t h a t t h i s i s  c a l l s f o r the p a i n t i n g t o become r e a l i t y .  T h a t n i g h t F a i r B r i d e r e j o i n s the upper w o r l d  (though i n g h o s t - l i k e form)  Ill and i n t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e n i g h t s she r e v e a l s t h e mystery o f h e r l o v e , death, and r e s u r r e c t i o n , b i d d i n g L i u t o exhume h e r body t h a t t h e y m i g h t e n j o y t h e f r u i t s o f c o r p o r e a l l o v e . L i u i n d u c e s Nun Stone F a i r y t o p e r f o r m t h e i l l e g a l deed w h i c h r e t u r n s l i f e t o F a i r B r i d e , and t h e e l d e r l y nun promptly m a r r i e s t h e two l o v e r s .  The t r i o s e t o u t f o r t h e c a p i t a l where  L i u i s t o w r i t e h i s examinations.  Summer i s a b l i s s f u l p e r i o d f o r t h e  newlyweds, b u t a r e b e l l i o n i n t h e s o u t h h a s d e l a y e d announcement o f t h e examination  results.  Autumn b r i n g s an o r d e r f o r T r i b u n a t e T u t o p a c i f y t h e r e b e l s ; he sends Madam T u and t h e household by r e b e l s i n Huai-an c i t y .  t o the c a p i t a l , but i s himself beseiged  Meanwhile T u t o r Ch'en, h u r r y i n g t o a l e r t t h e  e l d e r T u o f t h e s c a n d a l o u s exhumation, i s c a p t u r e d b y t h e r e b e l s and f r e e d on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t he convey t o T u f a l s e news o f t h e d e a t h o f Madam Tu and S p r i n g F r a g r a n c e .  The t r a g i c news p r o v i d e s T r i b u n a t e T u w i t h a  s t r a t e g y which r e s u l t s i n v i c t o r y f o r t h e i m p e r i a l f o r c e s .  The d e l i g h t e d  Emperor e l e v a t e s T u t o t h e p o s t o f Prime M i n s i t e r and a p p o i n t s Ch'en a s t h e P a l a c e Announcer.  The e x a m i n a t i o n  r e s u l t s confirm L i u as t h e f i r s t  ranked s c h o l a r , and t h e c a p i t a l i s p u z z l e d by t h e unknown whereabouts o f t h e new l i t e r a r y champion. I n t h e i n t e r i m L i u had r u s h e d t o t h e a i d o f t h e b e s e i g e d Tu, o n l y t o f i n d h i m s e l f a r r e s t e d a t t h e v i c t o r y banquet and c h a r g e d w i t h i l l e g a l exhumation; n a t u r a l l y t h e e v e r r a t i o n a l T u has r e j e c t e d t h e s t o r y o f r e s u r r e c t i o n and L i u ' s c l a i m s t o be h i s son-in-law.  Meanwhile Madam  Tu and S p r i n g F r a g r a n c e on t h e i r j o u r n e y t o t h e c a p i t a l have met upon F a i r B r i d e i n t h e d e s e r t e d house which she was s h a r i n g w i t h L i u . Oblivious t o t h i s ghostly reunion, Tribunate Tu extracted a confession from L i u and sentenced h i m t o death, b u t he i s soon r e s c u e d b y i m p e r i a l  112  o f f i c i a l s s e n t t o f i n d t h e newly famous s c h o l a r .  S t i l l f u r i o u s , Tu brings  t h e c r i m e t o t h e Emperor's a t t e n t i o n and a l l a r e summoned t o t h e c o u r t for  i m p e r i a l judgement.  F o r t u n a t e l y F a i r B r i d e and Madam T u appear i n  time t o d i s c l o s e t h e t r u t h o f t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n .  W i t h t h e a i d o f a magic  m i r r o r t h e Emperor d i s c e r n s t h a t F a i r B r i d e i s i n d e e d a l i v e a g a i n , and although his  t h e r a t i o n a l l y stubborn  ..rancour  Tu i s r e l u c t a n t t o accept the v e r d i c t ,  i s soon overcome b y h i s l o v e f o r F a i r B r i d e .  The p l a y c o n -  c l u d e s w i t h a joyous f a m i l y r e u n i o n and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f a l l p a r t i e s , 26 concerned.  As w i l l be shown, The Peony P a v i l i o n i s a r e v e l a t i o n o f man's u n i t y w i t h t h e p e r p e t u a l renewal o f t h e u n i v e r s e t h r o u g h t h e triumph o f l o v e o v e r l i f e and death, and t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f l o v e and p r o p r i e t y , o r r a t h e r t h e r e u n i o n o f r e a s o n and p a s s i o n , o f t h e r a t i o n a l and t h e a f f e c t i o n a l . The p l a y w r i g h t ' s o p e r a t i v e d e v i c e i s t h e h e o r i n e ' s  t o t a l devotion t o l o v e —  t h e s u b j e c t o f h e r q u e s t i n l i f e and dream, t h e cause o f h e r d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n , and t h e s u s t a i n i n g f o r c e o f h e r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e cosmos. T'ang a t t a c h e d supreme importance t o l o v e a s t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f human e x i s t e n c e , t h u s we r e a d i n t h e p r e f a c e t o The Peony P a v i l i o n :  "Of a l l t h e g i r l s i n t h i s w o r l d , who i s e v e r s o s t e a d f a s t and committed t o l o v e as F a i r B r i d e ? Once dreaming o f h e r l o v e , she f a l l s s i c k ; and h e r i l l n e s s becomes worse w i t h h e r e v e r deeper a t t a c h ment t o l o v e u n t i l she draws a s e l f - p o r t r a i t a s a l e g a c y t o t h e w o r l d and t h e n d i e s . Dead f o r t h r e e y e a r s , she c a n s t i l l i n h e r l i i r i b o - l i k e e x i s t e n c e seek h e r dream-lover and r e g a i n h e r l i f e . To be as F a i r B r i d e i s t r u l y t o be one t o t a l l y d e v o t e d to a f f e c t i o n . Love i s o f s o u r c e unknown; b u t r e m a i n i n g t r u e and t o t a l l y committed t o i t , one may d i e o f i t and a g a i n come t o l i f e b y i t s power. Love i s n o t l o v e a t i t s f u l l e s t i f one who l i v e s i s u n w i l l i n g t o d i e f o r i t , o r i f i t cannot r e s t o r e t o l i f e 'one who has s o d i e d . Love engendered i n a dream i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o be u n r e a l ; t h e r e i s no  113 l a c k o f such dreamers i n t h e w o r l d . O n l y f o r t h o s e whose l o v e must be f u l f i l l e d on t h e p i l l o w , and f o r whom a f f e c t i o n deepens o n l y a s o l d age drawns on, i t i s e n t i r e l y a c o r p o r e a l matter..."27  I n a sense, t h i s e l o q u e n t  statement o f T'ang's p h i l o s o p h y o f  l o v e echoes L o ' s e x i s t e n t i a l i s t i c d o c t r i n e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e mind with the generating  f o r c e o f l i f e and t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e s e l f  t h e i n c e s s a n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e cosmos.  with  The Peony P a v i l i o n i s t h e  p l a y w r i g h t ' s p o s t u l a t i o n o f l o v e a s t h e p r i m a r y and e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n o f l i f e , an a f f i r m a t i o n o f l i f e consonant w i t h L o ' s p h i l o s o p h y  that  senses and s e n t i m e n t s a r e as n a t u r a l a s t o b e a r t h e u l t i m a t e t r u t h o f t h e cosmos. to  T'ang p o s t u l a t e s h i s drama o f t r u e a f f e c t i o n i n o p p o s i t i o n  t h e decorous y e t f r i g i d l i f e o f t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c Ming  Confucians.  Thus he p e r c e i v e s t h e f u t i l i t y o f t h e r a t i o n a l mind i n a n a l y z i n g t h e depths o f human a f f a i r s :  " M a s , a f f a i r s o f t h e w o r l d a r e c e r t a i n l y beyond  m o r t a l man's f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . s t r i v e t o u s e 'reason'  W i t h no o m n i s c i e n c e , one c a n o n l y  as a guide t o h i s understanding;  and y e t what i s 28  without  i n 'reason'  i s n e v e r s u r e t o be n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h i n ' a f f e c t i o n ' .  He d i s c e r n s t h a t l o v e as t h e t r u e s t and most spontaneous o f human d e s i r e s i s a n e x p r e s s i o n o f t r u e s e l f h o o d and t h e c o r e o f t h e u n i v e r s e , one  enabling  t o i n d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e s e l f and t h i n g s , t o d i s c e r n r e a l i t y and  i l l u s i o n , even t o t r a n s c e n d  l i f e and d e a t h .  The Peony P a v i l i o n i s t h e n beyond doubt a d r a m a t i c  romance under-  s c o r e d by t h e c y c l i c myth w i t h t h e a f f e c t i o n a l s e l f a t t h e t h e m a t i c  centre.  I n s t r u c t u r e t h e p l a y i s c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e t o t h e temporal p r o g r e s s o f the seasonal c y c l e .  I t i s t h e time o f s p r i n g which provokes l o v e ' s  awakending i n h e r o and h e r o i n e .  While t h e conversion o f t h e hero's  name from " l o v e r o f s p r i n g " t o "dreamer o f t h e plum" i n d i c a t e s t h e r i s e  o f d e s i r e and a m b i t i o n  i n t h e p l a n t e r o f f l o w e r s and f r u i t s a f t e r h i s  o r a c u l a r dream, s p r i n g s t i r s i n t h e h e r o i n e a p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l awakening, a y e a r n i n g suppress.  f o r love which n e i t h e r reason nor p r o p r i e t y can  Her f o r a y i n t o t h e f o r b i d d e n garden, symbolic  w i t h n a t u r e , marks t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f man's  union  o f a search f o r selfhood i n contact  with  n a t u r e , sense, and s e n t i m e n t by means o f t h e q u e s t f o r l o v e c o m p e l l e d by h e r r e v e l a t o r y dream.  With t h e end o f s p r i n g h e r love i s u n f u l f i l l e d  i n r e a l i t y and p a r a l y z e d by decorum, and r e s u l t s i n h e r extreme l o v e sickness . W h i l e summer i s t h e time when we would e x p e c t l o v e t o a c h i e v e f r u i t i o n , F a i r B r i d e ' s r o m a n t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e a t e n s i o n between a c t u a l i t y and t h e s e a s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n .  This i s reflected i n her s e l f -  p o r t r a i t , a s t a t i c image o f l o v e , u n f u l f i l l e d y e t n e v e r changing. i s her legacy t o the world.  The t e n s i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d  when l o v e s h o u l d b e a r h a r v e s t .  It  t h r o u g h autumn  The d i s p a r i t y between t h e n a t u r a l p a t t e r n  o f l o v e which has been s y m b o l i c a l l y l i n k e d t o s e a s o n a l p r o g r e s s , and t h e b a r r e n r e a l i t y Of t h e h e r o i n e ' s  l o v e - s i c k n e s s i s u n d e r s c o r e d by h e r  d e c l i n i n g h e a l t h and e v e n t u a l l y , d e a t h . The d e s c e n t  o f F a i r B r i d e ' s s o u l i n t o Hades and i t s t h r e e year,  imprisonment i n Limbo i s o f c o u r s e t h e m a t i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f w i n t e r , t h e t i m e o f d e a t h and h i b e r n a t i o n . o f s p r i n g , l o v e and h e a l t h a r e r e b o r n i n h e r o and h e r o i n e . and r e u n i o n  With the r e t u r n Resurrection  l e a d t o m a r r i a g e , and a s l o v e i s g i v e n c o r p o r e a l i t y , t h e  p l a y ' s thematic  a c t i o n i s a g a i n i n harmony w i t h t h e s e a s o n a l c y c l e .  W i t h harmony r e - e s t a b l i s h e d , summer c o r r e s p o n d s t o m a r r i a g e and m a t u r i t y , and autumn i s a l l o w e d t o g e n e r a t e i t s h a r v e s t o f r e u n i o n s p r o g r e s s i n g from dream t o r e a l i t y .  Thus t h e mother-daughter r e u n i o n i s  undertaken through t h e former's g h o s t - l i k e s t a t e o f u n c e r t a i n t y and t h e  115 l a t t e r ' s d e a t h - l i k e s t a t u s o f f u g i t i v e from t h e s o u t h e r n r e b e l l i o n ; t h e ' d a u g h t e r - f a t h e r r e u n i o n i s f u l f i l l e d d u r i n g t h e former's d e a t h - l i k e f a i n t , w h i l e t h e f a t h e r - s o n - i n - l a w r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s completed  only after the  l a t t e r ' s l i t e r a r y s u c c e s s and a n i m p e r i a l v e r d i c t . Indeed,  t h e temporal p r o g r e s s and t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p l a y  a r e i n p e r f e c t accordance w i t h t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e C h i n e s e c y c l i c myth: s p r i n g - b i r t h o r r e s u r r e c t i o n , summer-growth o r attachment,  autumn- r i p e n e s s  o r h a r v e s t , and w i n t e r - d e a t h and t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y o f r e b i r t h . analogous Trigrams:  I t i s even  t o t h e s y m b o l i c forms o f t h e seasons i n K i n g Wen's E i g h t s p r i n g - t h e a r o u s i n g , summer- t h e c l i n g i n g , autumn- t h e j o y o u s ,  and w i n t e r - t h e abysmal. T h e m a t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e p l a y and t h e c y c l i c myth i s f u r t h e r e d by t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r transcendence  i n dream and d e a t h .  To r e c a l l t h a t a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e myth i s t h e r e l i e f o f temporal t e n s i o n s through u n i o n w i t h n a t u r a l c y c l e , i s a l s o t o suggest t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e u n i o n w i t h i n t h e l i n e a r c o n s t r u c t s o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  Whether dreams  a r e l i n e a r i n t h e sense o f r e c o l l e c t i o n , o r s p a t i a l and c y c l i c a l i n t h e sense o f Jung's " s y n c h r o n i c i t y " , t h e y c e r t a i n l y a l l o w freedom o f s y m b o l i c s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n u s u a l l y d e n i e d i n waking c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  The dream i n  The Peony P a v i l i o n a r e b o t h n a i v e and o r a c u l a r ; t h e y a r e engendered through t h e u n c o n s c i o u s w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e u n s a t i s f i e d s e l f and a r e immediately t h e ..motives f o r .t h e h e r o and h e r o i n e ' s i n c e s s a n t q u e s t s f o r l o v e .  The  t r a n s c e n d a b i l i t y o f dream o v e r b o t h t i m e a n d t h e s t r i c t decorum o f t h e c e n s o r i o u s ego f r e e s t h e h e r o i n e from a l l i n h i b i t i o n s and taboos t o exp e r i e n c e t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f l o v e which t h r o u g h t h e s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n o f dream i s t h e o n l y r e a l i t y beyond p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e . Death and d e a h - l i k e f a i n t s i n t h e p l a y a r e s i m i l a r l y  revelatory.  116 They are spontaneously s l e e p - l i k e deaths, circumscribed by the s e l f - d e s t i n y of the persistent w i l l o f the questing heroine.  Again the transcendability  of death over time, decorum, and the r a t i o n a l enables the heroine as "a sleeping beauty" t o be inanimate f o r three years y e t s p i r i t u a l l y t o roam the world i n qeust f o r her love.  Here death s i m p l i f i e s love i n t o true  humanity, and p u r i f i e s love t o an extreme absolute w i l l , a v i t a l i t y to d i e , t o resurrect, and t o r e c o n c i l e . While the resurrection o f F a i r Bride i s the material demonstration of the power o f love, i t i s above a l l the poetic truth o f Lo Ju-fang's equation o f love and humanity t o l i f e and v i t a l i t y .  The marriage i s not  only a union o f questing s e l f s but a f u l f i l l m e n t o f perfect selfhood through love as the truest a f f e c t i o n o r humanity and the essence o f the s e l f ' s unity with the perpetual regeneration o f the universe. From a philosophical standpoint the r e a l triumph o f The Peony P a v i l i o n i s the perfect embodiment o f the c o n f l i c t between the heroine and her father; i n other words the metaphysical dispute o f the primacy of "Ch:'ing" (as love, passion, affection) over " L i " r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s which govern human conduct). stern guardian o f Confucian morality.  (as reason or the  Prefect Tu i s a  His dedication t o reason i s a  block to spontaneous a f f e c t i o n and keeps him, as o f f i c i a l r e c t i f i e r o f the course o f spring and agriculture, remote from the actual s o i l the peasant t i l l s or the back garden where nature p r e v a i l s .  Although the  r i t u a l aspects o f the c y c l i c myth are so deeply engrained i n Chinese culture that even such a r a t i o n a l i s t as Tu i s o f f i c i a l l y responsible f o r maintaining the harmony o f Tao and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , i t i s t h i s same Confucian rationalism which negates the s p i r i t u a l nourishment t o be derived from such practices.  Incapable o f r e a l i z i n g the heroine's physical  and m e n t a l awakening and.amor d e d i c a t i o n , he r e f u s e s t o acknowledge h i s daughter's r e s u r r e c t i o n and m a r r i a g e u n t i l t h e v e r y l a s t scene o f reunion. F a i r B r i d e as t h e i n c a r n a t i o n o f l o v e i n i t i a l l y r e j e c t s " L i " which suppresses h e r awakening t o t r u e s e l f h o o d and d e n i e s h e r  subsequent  personal f u l f i l l m e n t .  E v e n t u a l l y she a s s e r t s h e r own  t h e supreme coranitment  t o l o v e i n t h e decorum-free s t a t e s o f dream and  death.  Her  conversion  i n c e s s a n t q u e s t f o r l o v e i s f i r s t rewarded by T u t o r Ch'en's from r a t i o n a l i s t pedant t o n a i v e i n t e r p r e t e r o f l o v e songs  i n The C l a s s i c o f Pcietry. The guardian  d e s i r e and makes  c o n v e r s i o n i s completed as he becomes t h e  o f t h e h e r o i n e ' s g r a v e and h e r champion a g a i n s t h e r  rigidity.  father's  But t h e u l t i m a t e r e v e l a t i o n o f l o v e ' s supremacy o v e r  occurs i n the great r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the f i n a l e .  Her  love  fulfilled  i n marriage s u s t a i n s d e s p i t e the l a c k o f p a t e r n a l approval u n t i l intransigence necessitates further action.  She  reason  Tu's  f a i n t s away i n d e s p e r a t i o n  o f e v e r a c h i e v i n g r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h h e r f a t h e r ; y e t i t i s p r e c i s e l y by t h e f o r c e o f a f f e c t i o n shown i n h e r d e a t h - l i k e f a i n t t h a t t h e  tyranny  o f t h e c o l d l y r a t i o n a l o v e r t h e spontaneous a f f e c t i o n o f thb h e a r t • i s overcome.  F i n a l l y h i s whole-hearted acceptance h e r a l d s a t r u e u n i t y o f  mind and h e a r t , a harmony o f t h e r a t i o n a l and t h e  affectional.  W h i l e t h e grarid r e u n i o n and r e t u r n t o s o c i a l harmony i s b u t t r a d i t i o n a l convention  a  f o r t h e comic mode o f t h e Ch'uan C h ' i s c h o o l o f  Ming t h e a t r e , i t must a l s o be admitted  t h a t the convention  i s the p e r f e c t  v e h i c l e f o r T'ang's e x i s t e n t i a l i s t i c c o n c e p t o f p l a c i n g man's b o d i l y s e l f and a f f e c t i o n a l h e a r t a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . The Peony P a v i l i o n he p r o c l a i m s t h a t t h e way lightenment  o f one's innermost n a t u r e ,  Through  t o sagehood l i e s i n t h e  en-  t h a t l o v e as t h e t r u e s t humanity  i s t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f one's t r u e s e l f h o o d and i s i n c o n t a c t w i t h a l l  senses and s e n t i m e n t s , and t h e n a t u r e o f a l l t h i n g s . H s i e n - t s u demonstrates culture.  The work o f T'ang  t h e i n f o r m i n g power o f t h e c y c l i c myth i n Ming  As a s t r u c t u r a l l y t h e m a t i c p a t t e r n w h i c h u n d e r l i e s t h e d r a m a t i c  action, i t f i r s t  e s t a b l i s h e s t h e t e n s i o n o f d i s p a r i t y between s e a s o n a l  e x p e c t a t i o n , t h e c y c l i c way  o f n a t u r e , and g r i m l y r a t i o n a l s o c i a l  and t h e n p r o v i d e s t h e t h e m a t i c framework as l o v e triumphs and dream.  through  reality, death  While t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t r u e s e l f h o o d i n T'ang's drama assumes  an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t i c f o c u s through t h e i n s i g h t o f Lo J u - f a n g , harmony-, w i t h n a t u r e i s t h e u l t i m a t e aim. r e g e n e r a t i o n o f man  Whether through " L i " o r "ChJing," t h e  through p e r p e t u a l renewal i s t h e unchanging  centre.  Han Tan Meng C h i  T u r n i n g now Tan C h i  t o t h e l a s t o f T'ang H s i e n - t s u ' s d r a m a t i c works,  (The Dream on A P i l l o w in. Han  Tan I n n ) , completed  i n 1601,  Han  we  f i n d h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n c e r n w i t h t h e achievement o f permanent contentment w i t h i n human t r a n s c i e n c e viewed  from a l e s s r o m a n t i c s t a n d p o i n t .  Indeed  i n Han Tan C h i t h e l i f e o f sentiments i s reduced t o a dream o f r e v e l a t i o n . The  f r a m i n g n a r r a t i v e o f t h e p l a y concerns L u Sheng, whose l i f e  i n terms o f achievement must be r e g a r d e d as a f a i l u r e .  Lu i s v i s i t e d  by  one o f t h e E i g h t T a o i s t Tjmiortals s e a r c h i n g f o r a m o r t a l whose mental detachment would r e n d e r him s u i t a b l e f o r m e n i a l t a s k s i n t h e Imrnortal's homeland, t h e m a g i c a l i s l a n d P e n g - l a i .  D i s s a t i s f i e d by Lu's  plaintive  c o n f e s s i o n o f f a i l u r e , t h e Immortal b i d s him t o r e s t h i s head on a magic pillow.  The p o r c e l a i n p i l l o w p r o v e s t o be an i n s t r u m e n t o f s e c u l a r w i s h -  f u l f i l l m e n t and much o f t h e p l a y concerns Lu's amazing adventures w h i l e i n t h e dream s t a t e .  The L u p f dream m a r r i e s i n t o w e a l t h , b r i b e s h i s way  to  119  bureaucratic  and academic s u c c e s s ,  c o n s t r u c t s a mighty c a n a l t h r o u g h  use o f magic, i s promoted t o V i c e Prime M i n i s t e r f o r q u e l l i n g a r e b e l l i o n , and  s e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h when i t i s d i s c o v e r e d  the r e b e l g e n e r a l .  t h a t he a c c e p t e d a b r i b e from  G r a n t e d a l a s t minute r e p r i e v e , t h e e x i l e d L u i s a l m o s t  k i l l e d by a t i g e r and  s e t upon by b a n d i t s ; he i s even devoured by a whale.  A f t e r t h r e e y e a r s o f e x i l e new  e v i d e n c e e x o n e r a t e s L u from  c h a r g e s , and he r e t u r n s t o t h e c a p i t a l a h e r o , and  previous  soon, Prime M i n i s t e r .  Twenty y e a r s o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d s e r v i c e p a s s , and L u r e t i r e s t o a r e g a l e s t a t e t o l i v e h i s remaining y e a r s i n l i c e n t i o u s ease.  His death i n  dream r e s u l t s i n h i s awakening, and upon t h e Immortal's d i s c l o s u r e t h a t his  dream-wife i s i n r e a l i t y a donkey, and h i s c h i l d r e n b u t dogs and  chickens,  Lu  •  replies:  "Reverend S i r , I , L u Sheng, am now awakened. Our l i f e and f a m i l y t i e s a r e b u t l i k e t h i s . How c o u l d t h e y p e r t a i n t o t h e r e a l m o f r e a l i t y ? I have now c o m p l e t e l y r e a l i z e d t h e n a t u r e o f l i f e and d e a t h , and the p r i n c i p l e l y i n g b e h i n d o u r ^ p r e o r d a i n e d g l o r y and d i s g r a c e , g a i n and loss."  F i n a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h Lu's  r e p l y , t h e Immortal w h i s k s t h e  enlightened  p e a s a n t t o the d i v i n e abode where t o sweep t h e f a l l e n p e t a l s from S a c r e d Peach T r e e he  i s g i v e n a broom e n s c r i b e d :  " t o sweep t i l l  the there  w i l l be no p e t a l s , no ground, and no broom t o become a sage t o j o i n ultimate  the  origin. Adpated from Shen C h i - c h i ' s  (d. 781 A.D.)  P i l l o w which i n t u r n o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e (403-444 A.D.), Han  The World I n s i d e  "Jade P i l l o w " s t o r y by L i u Y i - c h ' i n g  Tan C h i i s c e r t a i n l y a drama o f q u e s t and  Y e t the c e n t r a l n o t i o n o f The  the  enlightenment.  Peony P a v i l i o n , t h a t l o v e i s t h e most  intense  120 form o f e x i s t e n c e s u r p a s s i n g time and d e a t h , seems a t f i r s t t o be r e p u d i a t e d by t h e r e s i g n a t i o n and c y n i c i s m o f Han Tan C h i . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p l a y i s analogous t o C.G.  Jung's a r c h e t y p e o f t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , and t h e  a r c h e t y p e and i n i t i a t i o n i n myth and r i t u a l .  The i n i t i a l q u e s t , which  c o n t a i n s t h e phases o f t h e c a l l t o adventure, s u p e r n a t u r a l a i d , t h e c r o s s i n g of  t h e t h r e s h o l d , and t h e b e l l y o f the. whale, f i n d s i t s s a t i r i c d e v i c e s  i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l pathos o f L u Sheng, t h e C o n f u c i a n m a l c o n t e n t who  is  b a r e l y f r e e from s t a r v a t i o n y e t e a g e r l y s t r i v i n g f o r s u c c e s s and fame. No doubt t h e r e i s a l s o a p a t h e t i c element i n t h e q u e s t o f t h e T a o i s t Immortal,  L i i T u n - p i n , who  t r a v e l s the world without f i n d i n g h i s candidate  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by p e r f e c t mental detachment. u n t i l t h e two meet i n Han Tan Inn.  The q u e s t i a a l m o s t  futile  Commanding nearby s p i r i t s and animals  t o i n t r i g u e a dream o f a m a t e r i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l l i f e ,  t h e Immortal  lulls  L u i n t o h i s dream q u e s t . The p i l l o w i s h o l l o w , and t h e h o l e w i t h i n my be i d e n t i f i e d as t h e b i r t h p l a c e o f s u b c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e s , dream and death,' even t h e womb and rebirth.  L i f e i n t h e dream w o r l d o f t h e p i l l o w s u g g e s t s b o t h w i s h -  f u l f i l l m e n t and o r d e a l f o r L u Sheng completes a l i b i d i n a l m a r r i a g e t o Miss T s ' u i  (as t h e earth-mother image and t h e goddess o f w e a l t h and  and endures t h e t e s t s o f extreme s u f f e r i n g t y p i c a l o f an p r o t a g o n i s t b e f o r e e n j o y i n g t h e g r e a t accomplishments  fame),  initiating  o f the q u e s t i n g hero.  Indeed t h e dream c o n s i s t s o f extremes o f g l o r y and d i s g r a c e , b l e s s i n g and d i s a s t e r , and h a p p i n e s s and sorrow o v e r a span o f s i x t y y e a r s .  This  phase o f t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n ends w i t h t h e f i n a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f t h e h e r o and t h e emperor- t h e atonement o f t h e son w i t h t h e f a t h e r , w h i c h b r i n g s the  h e r o t o p e n u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s and g l o r y as a n o b l e and c o n t e n t e d l o r d .  121 The r e t u r n i s a g r e a t awakening. fame, and l o n g e v i t y , t h e h e r o l e a v e s t h e  Having e n j o y e d g r e a t w e a l t h , phantasmagoric  l i f e without  r e g r e t a t t h e age o f e i g h t y , o n l y t o awake i n t h i s w o r l d as a in  t o r n s h e e p s k i n j a c k e t i n Han Tan Inn.  farmer  The d i s p a r i t y between t h e  l i v e s i s t h e immediate cause o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t .  two  Having f u l f i l l e d h i s  d e s i r e s f o r s e n s u a l i t y , w e a l t h , and fame i n t h e t r a n s f i g u r a t i v e dream w o r l d , and r e a l i z i n g i n r e t r o s p e c t t h e n a t u r e and t h e t r u t h o f a l i f e o f s e n t i m e n t s , t h e h e r o i s r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e T a o i s t Immortal. of  t h e h e r o and t h e emperor ( r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f f a t h e r and sage images)  i s a l s o t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f t h e young man own  Atonement  character.  and sage elements o f Lu's  T h i s a p o t h e o s i s e n a b l e s t h e young man  t o become master  of  t h e two w o r l d s and bestows on him t h e freedom t o l i v e .  of  a C o n f u c i a n m a l c o n t e n t t o a wandering  The c o n v e r s i o n  T a o i s t symbolizes a  spiritual  transcendence, an i n c e s s a n t p u r s u i t , f o r pure b e i n g , and even t h e c u l t i v a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e harmonious u n i t y o f s e l f and cosmos. T h e m a t i c a l l y t h e dream i s a p o c a l y p t i c .  That t h e i n t r a n s i e n c e o f  l i f e i s a c e n t r a l m e t a p h o r i c a l c o n c e r n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e dream; d e s p i t e s i x t y years, o f extreme s u c c e s s and i m p e r i a l s e r v i c e i n dream-time, i n r e a l i t y t h e d u r a t i o n was a bowl o f m i l l e t p o r r i d g e .  o n l y t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o cook  T h i s phantasmal  n a t u r e b r i n g s about a d i s -  i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h l i f e whether i t i s r e g a r d e d as a f f e c t i o n a l o r r a t i o n a l . The dream's o r i g i n i n t h e Immortal's i n t r i g u e and t h e vagueness o f t h e h e r o ' s f r e e w i l l undermined by t h e Tjtimortal's looming d i c t a t o r i a l shadow s e r v e t o u n d e r c u t t h e h e r o as a l e g i t i m a t e s e e k e r o f s e l f  fulfillment.  The h e r o ' s dream l i f e t h e n must be viewed n o t as a paradigm o f t h e v i r t u o u s l i f e b u t as a means t o an end, t o b r i n g him t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e c o n t r a s t to  ensure e n l i g h t e n m e n t .  I t would appear t h a t t h e f u l l e r t h e dream l i f e ,  122 t h e g r e a t e r t h e contentment,  and t h e prompter t h e enlightenment; f o r  as T'ang w r i t e s , "where dream ends, awakening b e g i n s ; and when a f f e c t i o n  32 is  spent, enlightenment f o l l o w s " .  I t i s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t i t may  be s a i d t h a t T'ang H s i e n - t s u d i d n o t s u f f e r a r a d i c a l change o f a t t i t u d e which i n d u c e d him i n h i s l a s t p l a y t o l o o k down upon " l o v e " o r any o t h e r human attachment; of  n o r i s Han Tan C h i t o be r e g a r d e d as w o r l d l y r e n u n c i a t i o n  o r e s c a p i s m from t h e time-space w o r l d o f sentiment.  Rather, i n t h e  c o n t e x t t h a t t h e t r u e s t humanity i s t h e innermost a f f e c t i o n , t h e c o r e of  s e l f h o o d , Han Tan C h i i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d as a n o t h e r l e v e l o f T'ang's  m e t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n complementary t o t h a t o f The Peony P a v i l i o n . Here he p e r c e i v e s t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f pure b e i n g l i e s i n t h e t o t a l detachment of  t h e s e l f from t h e w o r l d o f sentiment consequent  t o the f u l l e s t  ex-  perience of that sentimental l i f e . W h i l e m e n t a l detachment and u n i t y o f t h e s e l f w i t h t h e u l t i m a t e o r i g i n b o t h r e q u i r e a t r u e s e l f h o o d d e f i n e d through T'ang's p h i l o s o p h y of  l o v e and b e i n g i n The Peony P a v i l i o n , t h e dream p a r a d o x i c a l l y s e r v e s  as b o t h t h e v e h i c l e f o r t h e f u l l e s t e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e l i f e o f s e n t i m e n t and a metaphor o f the t r a n s i e n c e and emptiness o f l i f e . of  A t the conclusion  t h e p l a y , v e h i c l e and metaphor combine as a h i g h e r s p i r i t u a l  r a t h e r than a r e n u n c i a t i o n o f l i f e .  realization  The p r o c e s s i s most analogous  to  t h e "sudden enlightenment" o f t h e Ch.'an o r Zen s c h o o l o f Buddhism w h i c h p r o f e s s e s t h e immediate and d i r e c t a t t a i n m e n t o f Buddhahood by anyone a t any time and any p l a c e . B u d d h i s t sense:  Perhaps t h e o r a c l e i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n a Ch'an  "to c u l t i v a t e  (sweep) t i l l  t h e r e w i l l be no t h i n g s o r  no o b j e c t (no p e t a l s ) , no s e l f and no s u b j e c t (ground), and no means and no c o n s c i o u s n e s s  (no broom) t o become a Buddha (a sage- one who  f i r s t w i t h and t h e n w i t h o u t s e l f h o o d ) t o j o i n t h e u l t i m a t e o r i g i n " .  is Thus  123 i t seems c l e a r t h a t any p e r c e p t i o n o f n e g a t i v i s m i s m d e r m i n e d by t h e playwright's Confucian  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t i c v i s i o n o f t h e f u s i o n o f T a o i s t myth, t h e  e t h i c o f sentiments,  and t h e Ch'an Buddhism o r a c l e .  I n comparing The Peony P a v i l i o n t o Han Tan C h i we have n o t e d t h a t t h e former demonstrates t h e p a t h t o t r u e s e l f h o o d w h i l e t h e l a t t e r t h e p a t h t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r Buddhahood once t r u e s e l f h o o d has been attained.  With r e g a r d t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth b o t h p l a y s  a r e u n i t e d i n t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r t h e t r a n s c e n d e n c e o f l i n e a r human c o n s ciousness.  Such temporal c o n c e r n s a r e i n d e e d t h e l i i n i t a t i o n o f t h e human  c o n d i t i o n and a p e r e n n i a l s u b j e c t i n C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e .  While the  s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n i n The Peony P a v i l i o n i s perhaps more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s u r v i v a l o f p e r i o d i c r e g e n e r a t i o n i n C h i n e s e drama, Han Tan C h i demonstrates an a f f i n i t y i n terms o f u l t i m a t e u n i t y .  Where t h e spontaneous  e x p r e s s i o n o f l o v e a s human n a t u r e n e c e s s i t a t e s a harmony w i t h n a t u r a l c y c l e , t h a t harmony i s i n t u r n t r a n s c e n d e d unity.  by t h e u l t i m a t e and o r i g i n a l  T h a t t h e drama o f T'ang H s i e n - t s u s h o u l d p r o v i d e s u c h a model  o f transcendence i n t h e human a f f a i r s o f l i t e r a t u r e i s one o f t h e g r e a t achievements o f Ming c u l t u r e .  124 C.  The  C y c l i c Myth i n t h e C h i n e s e N o v e l  O r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s o f  the  e a r l i e s t Chinese c l a s s i c s , Chinese f i c t i o n f i r s t f l o u r i s h e d i n the f o u r t h t o s i x t h c e n t u r i e s A.D.  W i t h the p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e  supernatural  t a l e s common t o T a o i s t and B u d d h i s t r e l i g i o n s , t h e s e s h o r t e r o f t e n f o c u s e d on myths, l e g e n d s , and although conversational  pieces  c e l e b r i t i e s were n o t unknown. (618-906 A.D.)  t a l e s o f the f a n t a s t i c ,  regarding But  i t was  a n c i e n t and  w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Ch'uan C h ' i genre t h a t  an e f f e c t i v e s t y l e b a s e d on t a l e s o f the m a r v e l l o u s .  i n t e r p o l a t i o n s and  The  the  evolved  l e s s adorned p r o s e and t h e f r e q u e n t  subject,  s t o r i e s o f t h e T'ang d y n a s t y paved the  t h e v a s t scope o f Sung f i c t i o n and  practitioners.  contemporary  n o t u n t i l t h e T'ang d y n a s t y  n a r r a t i v e form shed i t s p o e t i c e x c e s s e s and  for  narratives  I n t h e Sung d y n a s t y  t h e immense p o p u l a r i t y o f i t s  (960-1279 A.D.)  s t o r y t e l l i n g became  an a c c e p t e d p r o f e s s i o n , each b a r d s p e c i a l i z i n g i n one t a l e s o f c h i v a l r y ( o f t e n m i l i t a r y ) and  way  o f four areas:  l i t i g a t i o n ; the r e l i g i o u s s t o r y  p o p u l a r i n B u d d h i s t s e c t s ; t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e c i t a t i o n ; and  the  realistic  l o v e - s t o r y o f t e n coupled w i t h p r o f i c i e n c y i n t a l e s o f the  supernatural.  I n t h e hands o f Sung s t o r y t e l l e r s h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s  literary  and  fragments  were expanded i n t o complete s t o r i e s , r i c h i n d e t a i l and v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s o r a l t r a d i t i o n was i n t h e i r plays.  f u r t h e r r e f i n e d and  by t h e Yuan  dramatists  Thus t h e r e e v o l v e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f time immensely p o p u l a r  s t o r y c y c l e s which provided Chinese novels.  enriched  t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r many o f t h e  earliest  By t h e l a s t c e n t u r y o f t h e Ming d y n a s t y , f i c t i o n  become an e s t a b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y form among s c h o l a r s and c l a s s o f t h e g r e a t e r urban a r e a s .  had  the populous m i d d l e  With a s o p h i s t i c a t e d audience  the  c o l l o q u i a l s h o r t s t o r y r e a c h e d t h e peak o f i t s development w i t h  the  p u b l i c a t i o n o f numerous c o l l e c t i o n s i n the f i r s t decades o f t h e  seventeenth  125  century.  Meanwhile t h e Chinese n o v e l was e n t e r i n g i t s "golden age",  a p e r i o d extending i n t o the e a r l y twentieth century.  33  Of t h e b u l k o f C h i n e s e f i c t i o n i n t h e p a s t s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s , s i x n o v e l s s t a n d o u t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e " s t o r y c y c l e "  folk  t r a d i t i o n o r o f an i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r ' s c r e a t i v e  t h e s e works  genius  of  (The Romance o f t h e Three Kingdoms, The Water M a r g i n , The Gold-Vase Plum, The S c h o l a r s , The Journey t o t h e West, and The Dream o f t h e Red  Chamber)  t h e l a t t e r two a r e most i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e c y c l i c myth and worthy o f f u r t h e r r e g a r d .  H s i Yu C h i  The Journey t o t h e West  ( H s i Yu C h i ) known t o E n g l i s h r e a d e r s  as "Monkey" through A r t h u r Waley's a b r i d g e d t r a n s l a t i o n o f 1942, i s a combined p r o d u c t o f t h e l i t e r a r y c y c l e o f o r a l t r a d i t i o n , and t h e a u t h o r ' s creative imagination.  Through i t s f i v e hundred y e a r s o f e v o l u t i o n i t had  e x i s t e d as a crude c o l l o q u i a l s t o r y , a p o e t i c n o v e l l a , and a s i x - p a r t drama b e f o r e Wu Ch'eng-en  (1500-1582) r e f i n e d i t i n t o i t s p r e s e n t n o v e l i s t i c  34 form.  G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , The Journey t o t h e West c o n s i s t s o f f o u r  parts: (1)  a myth o f t h e d i v i n e b i r t h , q u e s t , and u l t i m a t e d e f e a t o f a s t o n e monkey;  (2)  a p s e u d o - h i s t o r i c a l account o f M o n k T r i p i t a k a s O e d i p u s - l i k e l i f e 1  s t o r y and f a m i l y r e u n i o n , b e f o r e h i s p i l g r i m a g e t o t h e H o l y Mountain o f Buddha; (3)  a j o u r n e y o f e i g h t - o n e o r d e a l s undertaken by T r i p i t a k a and h i s  126  three disciples- Monkey, Pigsy, (4)  arid Sandy;  the ultimate reconciliation of the pilgrims with the Infinite Buddha.  While the plot of the novel i s wondrously complex, a general understanding of major incidents i s prerequisite to understanding i t s structural basis within the cyclic myth. With this end i n mind, we offer the following summary. At the outset of the novel i t i s apparent that Monkey's miraculous birth has resulted i n an innate knowledge of cosmic harmony, for he springs to l i f e from the rock peak of the holy Mount Flower and Fruit which for centuries had received the spirits of Heaven and Earth, and sun and moon. Thus the hero's f i r s t action i s a reverential bow to each of the four quarters of the universe.  With his supernatural talents  and a b i l i t i e s Monkey became King of monkeys, gibbons, and baboons, and ruled for several hundred years i n the contentment of natural harmony. But a sudden awareness of l i f e ' s transience and death's inevitability compelled Monkey to search for Buddhahood, the enlightenment which denies the dark kingdom of death. Follwing an eight-year quest, Monkey arrives on the Western Continent and under the tutelage of a woodcutter is.accepted as a Buddhist novitiate, and given the religious name, "Aware-of-Vacuity".  Following seven years  of study, Monkey i s rewarded with the secrets of longevity and seventy-two magical transformations of which levitation over great distances proves to be the most inportant. Forbidden to mention his discipleship upon punishment of death, the hero leaves the Western Continent. Returning to his homeland i n time to free his subjects from the devastations of the Demon of Havoc, Monkey unites his "people" into an invincible army and i s declared the greatest king of the animal and demonic  worlds.  S e a r c h i n g f o r a weapon which b e f i t s h i s new s t a t u s , he o b t a i n s  from t h e Dragon K i n g o f t h e E a s t e r n Sea an i r o n b a r - "The G o l d e n - C l a s p e d Wishing S t a f f " .  The mighty weapon p o s s e s s e s c o s m o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e  as t h e l e v e l l e r o f ocean and r i v e r bottoms, and as t h e i n s t r u m e n t used t o f i x t h e c o u r s e o f t h e M i l k y Way.  W i t h t h i s m a g i c a l s t a f f a t hand  t h e h e r o a c c e p t s armor from r u l e r s o f t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e seas and r e t u r n s t o Mount F l o w e r and F r u i t . A f t e r a g r e a t banquet Monkey i s ( i n dream) c a r r i e d by demons t o t h e edge o f t h e C i t y o f Darkness, b u t he awakes and r e c k l e s s l y c o n f r o n t s t h e Ten Judges o f Death, demanding jects.  i m m o r t a l i t y f o r h i m s e l f and a l l h i s sub-  F e a r i n g t h a t t h e g r a n t i n g o f such a r e q u e s t would u p s e t t h e  harmony o f L i g h t and Dark, t h e Dragon K i n g and t h e F i r s t Judge a p p e a l t o t h e Supremacy o f Heaven t o a r r e s t Monkey.  This m i l i t a r y option i s d i s -  regarded; i n s t e a d Monkey i s o f f e r e d t h e immortal p o s t o f S u p e r v i s o r o f t h e C e l e s t i a l S t a b l e s which he v a i n l y a c c e p t s .  F i f t e e n years pass b e f o r e  he i s aware o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y low rank o f h i s p o s i t i o n , and i n a r a g e he r e t u r n s t o h i s t e r r e s t r i a l kingdom.  Thereupon a c e l e s t i a l army o f  s p i r i t s and gods was d i s p a t c h e d t o a r r e s t Monkey, b u t t h e y were t e r r i b l y defeated.  I n an e f f o r t t o r e s t o r e peace he i s o f f e r e d a new p o s t , t h a t  o f Great-Sage-In-Equal-Of-Heaven, which Monkey a c c e p t s and t h e n r e t u r n s t o the c e l e s t i a l realm. Our h e r o ' s appointment i n Heaven i s t y p i f i e d by s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s o f r e c k l e s s g r e e d ; g u a r d i n g t h e Peach T r e e s o f Immortal D i v i n i t y l e d him t o devour many o f t h e s a c r e d f r u i t s , and a f t e r i n t r i g u i n g h i s way  into  a c e l e s t i a l banquet, he consumed a l l t h e d i v i n e n e c t a r s and ambrosia l a i d o u t f o r t h e f e a s t . I n t o x i c a t e d on t h e f r u i t s o f h i s l a s t misdeed, Monkey e n t e r s t h e p a l a c e o f Lao T z u , and swallows a l l f i v e gourds o f t h e e l i x i r of l i f e .  R e a l i z i n g h i s g u i l t he f l e e s Heaven f o r t h e s e c u r i t i e s and  128 honours o f h i s lower w o r l d . Monkey's escapades s o enraged t h e Supremacy o f Heaven t h a t a l l t h e f o r c e s o f t h e u n i v e r s e were cxxnmanded a g a i n s t t h e m i s c h i e v o u s p r o t a g o n i s t , and he was f i n a l l y d e f e a t e d b y t h e Diamond Snare o f L a o T z u and s e n t e n c e d t o death.  Tjnmune t o t h e u s u a l weapons and t h u n d e r b o l t s , Monkey was  i m p r i s o n e d i n L a o Tzu's C r u c i b l e o f t h e E i g h t T r i g r a m s b u t he s u r v i v e d t h e a l c h e m i c f i r e s t h r o u g h h i s knowledge o f t h e n a t u r e and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e C r u c i b l e T r i g r a m , and escaped t o b a t t l e h i s way t o t h e v e r y d o o r s t e p o f t h e Supremacy o f Heaven.  F i n a l l y t h e Buddha h i m s e l f i n t e r v e n e s and  Monkey i s t r i c k e d i n t o a moment o f bewilderment, a moment which a l l o w s Buddha t o i m p r i s o n h i m under t h e cosmic mountain, Mount F i v e Elements, t o do penance u n t i l r e s c u e d . The u l t i m a t e d e f e a t o f Monkey c o n c l u d e s t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e n o e v e l , and t h e i n c i d e n t a l d e t a i l p r o v i d e d s u g g e s t t h e e n c y c l o p e d i c n a t u r e of i t s cosmological references.  Borrowing f r e e l y from t h e myths o f a n t i q u i t y ,  t h e r e l i g i o u s l o r e o f Buddhism and Taoism, and f o l k l o r e o f t h e o r i g i n a l "stone monkey" s t o r y c y c l e , Wu Ch eng-en has f a s h i o n e d a work which 1  e n t e r t a i n s a s pure adventure, and i n s t r u c t s a s r e l i g i o u s a l l e g o r y . t h i s c o s m o l o g i c a l framework i n mind, and f o r b r e v i t y ' s sake,  With  further  e v e n t s o f t h e n o e v e l may be t r e a t e d w i t h l e s s r e g a r d t o i n c i d e n t a l  detail.  The second major s e c t i o n o f The J o u r n e y t o t h e West concerns t h e O e d i p u s - l i k e b i o g r a p h y o f t h e monk, T r i p i t a k a .  Ch'enKuang-jui,  literary  champion o f t h e Academic E x a m i n a t i o n s , was rewarded b y an o f f i c i a l p o s t i n t h e d i s t a n t R i v e r P r o v i n c e and t h e hand o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s daughter. As t h e newlyweds were t r a v e l l i n g towards t h e i r new home, Ch'en-was murdered by a j e a l o u s ferryman, L i u , who t h e n posed a s t h e newly a p p o i n t e d governor and o b t a i n e d s i l e n c e from Lady Ch'en who was .anxious t o p r o t e c t h e r unborn child.  When a son was b o r n , o r a c u l a r a d v i c e prompted Lady Ch'en t o b r a n d  t h e i n f a n t and send him downstream on a wooden p l a n k w i t h a l e t t e r o f identification. temple,  The baby was  d i s c o v e r e d by an abbot and r a i s e d i n a B u d d h i s t  and a t age seventeen was  Obscurity".  named Hslian Tsang, l i t e r a l l y  "Great  S e t t i n g o f f i n q u e s t o f h i s o r i g i n , Hsuan Tsang e v e n t u a l l y  d i s c o v e r s t h e t r u t h o f h i s b i r t h and dethrones t h e impostor.  The  grand r e u n i o n i s completed w i t h t h e appearance o f h i s f a t h e r , Ch'en,who had been r e s u r r e c t e d through d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n . I n the neantime e v e n t s had o c c u r r e d t o s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e t h i r d section o f the novel. underworld,  P e r c e i v i n g the manifold s u f f e r i n g o f those i n the  and upon h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n , Emperor T ' a i Tsung has  appointed  Hsuan Tsang t o p r e s i d e o v e r an I m p e r i a l G e n e r a l Mass f o r t h e Dead. Meanwhile t h e B u d d h i s a t t v a o f Mercy has been s e a r c h i n g f o r a p i o u s b e l i e v e r t o d e l i v e r the S c r i p t u r e o f T r i p i t a k a  (by way  o f reformation) t o  t h e l u s t f u l and e v i l i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e Southern C o n t i n e n t .  Inspecting  t h e r o u t e t h e p i l g r i m w i l l t a k e , t h e B u d d h i s a t t v a c o n v e r t e d two monstrous incarnations t o Buddhism— "Pigsy"  "Sandy" ( i n r e l i g i o n " A w a r e - o f - P u r i t y " ) ; and  ( i n r e l i g i o n " A w a r e - o f - A b i l i t y " ) ; and b i d them; t o a s s i s t t h e  p i l g r i m ' s passage and o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e . pardon  I n a d d i t i o n she a r r a n g e d a  f o r t h e Dragon P r i n c e o f t h e Western Sea and t r a n s f o r m e d him  a w h i t e h o r s e t o b e a r t h e f u t u r e p i l g r i m ; and f i n a l l y , Monkey was t o Buddhism, re-named "Aware-of-Vacuity"  into  converted  and o r d e r e d t o a w a i t t h e p i l g r i m ' s  a r r i v a l when he would be r e l e a s e d from Mount F i v e Elements t o p r o t e c t t h e p i l g r i m ' s westward p r o g r e s s .  E v e n t u a l l y the Buddhisattva t r a v e l s  t o t h e s i t e o f t h e I m p e r i a l G e n e r a l Mass and i n v e s t s Hsuan Tsang as t h e bearer o f the Great V e h i c l e o f the S c r i p t u r e o f T r i p i t a k a ; henceforth Hsuan Tsang, t h e p i l g r i m , i s t o be known as " T r i p i t a k a " and t h e j o u r n e y begins.  130 Thus i n t h e n o v e l ' s t h i r d s e c t i o n T r i p i t a k a i s j o i n e d by Monkey, P i g s y , Sandy, and t h e Dragon Horse, b e s i d e s e n c o u n t e r i n g Zen M a s t e r CrowN e s t who  bestows upon them t h e s c r i p t u r e s o f t h e H e a r t S u t r a as a  companion on t h e i r j o u r n e y . hundred  F o r t h e n e x t f o u r t e e n y e a r s , through  spiritual one  and e i g h t thousand l e a g u e s o f t r a v e l , t h e f i v e p i l g r i m s endure  e i g h t y - o n e o r d e a l s o f t h e d i v i n e as w e l l as t h e demonic. c r o s s t h e S a c r e d Water s u r r o u n d i n g t h e H o l y Mountain  F i n a l l y they  and t h e Buddha o f t h e  I n f i n i t e rewards them w i t h t h e f i v e thousand and f o r t y - e i g h t s c r o l l s o f the Great V e h i c l e o f the True T r i p i t a k a .  The t r a v e l l e r s and s c r o l l s a r e  e s c o r t e d back t o C h i n a on a p u f f o f f r a g r a n t wind by t h e e i g h t V a j r a p a n i s (Diamond A n g e l s ) , and each i s rewarded  through v a r i o u s c e l e s t i a l  appointments  as Buddhas i n t h e c a s e s o f Monkey and T r i p i t a k a , o r as h o l y g u a r d i a n i n the c a s e s o f P i g s y , Sandy and Dragon Horse.  I n t h i s manner i s t h e f o u r t h  35 and f i n a l s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e d , and t h e g r e a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  fulfilled.  Quest and p r o g r e s s form t h e s t r u c t u r a l framework o f The Journey t o t h e West.  We  f i n d Monkey's u n i v e r s a l p u r s u i t o f i r t m o r t a l i t y and T r i p i t a k a ' s  p e r s i s t e n t s e a r c h f o r h i s o r i g i n s , b o t h s e c u l a r and d i v i n e ; moreover t h e j o u r n e y concerns s p a t i a l p r o g r e s s from t h e t e r r e s t r i a l t o t h e c e l e s t i a l , and temporal p r o g r e s s , ( i n terms suggested by E l i a d e i n Cosmos and H i s t o r y ) , from "profane time" t o " g r e a t t i m e " and f i n a l l y t o "no t i m e " , t h e time o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and t h e u n i o n o f t h e p i l g r i m s w i t h t h e I n f i n i t e .  In a  s p a t i a l sense t h e n o v e l i s a d i v i n e comedy between t h e Heaven o f c e l e s t i a l d e i t i e s under t h e Jade Emperor o f Taoism, t h e Western P a r a d i s e o f B u d d h i s t s a i n t s and a r h a t s headed by t h e Buddha o f t h e I n f i n i t e , t h e Underworld Darkness where g h o s t s and s o u l s a r e r u l e d by t h e Ten Judges o f Death,  of the  demonic w o r l d o f monsters and g o b l i n s , and l a s t l y , t h e t e r r e s t r i a l w o r l d o f earthbound m o r t a l s . T h e m a t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , whether t h e n o v e l i s r e g a r d e d as a r e l i g i o u s  131 o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l a l l e g o r y , o r as a mock e p i c , o r even as a  revolutionary  s a t i r e o f decadent b u r e a u c r a c y , a p o p u l a r v i e w among Communist s c h o l a r s , one  cannot escape t h e s u r v i v i n g t h r e a d s o f t h e c y c l i c myth w h i c h  t h e cosmogonic background and f i r s t place.  The  provide  t h e i n d i v i d u a l impulse t o q u e s t i n t h e  temporal t e n s i o n s w h i c h provoke Monkey's q u e s t a r e  d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e d by T i t a n K'ua  Fu s e v e r a l m i l l e n n i a  i n t h e time o f myth; what i s d i f f e r e n t i s Monkey's knowledge o f harmony, t h e p r o d u c t o f c e n t u r i e s o f a b s t r a c t i o n and e v o l u t i o n o f  no before  cosmological the  o r i g i n a l c y c l i c myth. As a r e l i g i o u s a l l e g o r y t h e e x p l i c i t l y B u d d h i s t r e f e r e n c e s n o v e l a r e tempered by the p r e v a i l i n g s y n c r e t i c s p i r i t o f C h i n e s e i t must be remembered t h a t The  Journey t o t h e West was  i n the philosophy;  composed from an  o r a l t r a d i t i o n o f s t o r y c y c l e i n a time when i d e a l i s t i c Neo-Confucianism was  dominant i n C h i n e s e l i f e .  t h a t the mind i s the u n i v e r s e  The  thought o f Wang Yang-ming, w h i c h m a i n t a i n s  i n t h a t t h i n g s a r e n o t h i n g b u t what the  mind determines t o r e a l i z e , and t h a t sagehood l i e s immediately a t t a i n a b l e w i t h i n one's own  n a t u r e , i n t e r p e n e t r a t e s t h a t o f t h e s c h o o l o f Mahayana  Buddhism so d e a r t o t h e p i l g r i m , Hsuan Tsang.  T h i s emphasis on the primacy  o f mind has been n o t e d i n s u c h t r a d i t i o n a l commentaries a s Ch!enYuan-chih's preface t o a sixteenth century  e d i t i o n o f the  novel:  "There was an o l d p r e f a c e which I r e a d t h r o u g h . . . I t h e l d t h a t Monkey was s y m b o l i z i n g t h e s p i r i t o f the mind, the h o r s e was s y m b o l i z i n g t h e c o u r s i n g o f t h e d e s i r e o r t h e w i l l , and P i g s y was equivalent t o the e i g h t p h y s i c a l d e s i r e s . . . A s t o monsters and demons, t h e y were o b s t r u c t i o n and i l l u s i o n c r e a t e d by mouth, e a r s , nose, tongue, body, mind, f e a r , d i s t o r t i o n and f a n t a s y . They were g i v e n b i r t h by t h e mind and were s u b m i s s i v e t o the rnind. Therefore, i n order t o r e t u r n t o the Ultimate O r i g i n where t h e mind y i e l d s t o no a l l u r e o r i l l u s i o n , one has t o r e g u l a t e t h e mind t o subdue monsters and  132 demons t o r e s t o r e  truth." " 0  Indeed t h e s y m b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n "Monkey o f t h e Mind and Horse o f t h e W i l l " r e c u r w i t h i n t h e system o f a l l u s i v e v e r s e c h a p t e r - h e a d i n g s and a t l a r g e as an a l l e g o r i c a l d e v i c e w i t h i n t h e t e x t .  O r i g i n a t i n g i n the  t r a n s l a t e d B u d d h i s t s u r r a s , Monkey and Horse s y m b o l i s e t h e i n d u l g e n t waywardness o f t h e human mind b e f o r e i t a t t a i n s t h e s t a t e o f q u i e t u d e and composure through B u d d h i s t d i s c i p l i n e s .  T h i s e x t e n s i v e though  f i c i a l metaphor i s subsumed w i t h i n t h e n o v e l ' s c e n t r a l symbolism-  superthat  of the Heart Sutra. As t h e c e n t r a l t e x t o f Mahayana Buddhism, t h e H e a r t S u t r a i s d u l y  37 r e c o r d e d i n Hsuan Tsang's own i s t h a t form i s emptiness  standard t r a n s l a t i o n .  and emptiness  I t s basic teaching  i s form, t h a t o n l y through t h e  utmost v a c u i t y o f t h e senses and s e n t i m e n t s i s i t p o s s i b l e f o r one t o access Nirvana. Crow-Nest, who  E a r l y on h i s j o u r n e y , T r i p i t a k a encounters Zen  Master  bestows on him t h e H e a r t S u t r a as a s p i r i t u a l companion t o  p r o t e c t him on h i s p e r i l o u s j o u r n e y .  But i n B u d d h i s t a l l e g o r y t h e H e a r t  S u t r a i s a f a r more i m p o r t a n t g u i d e f o r T r i p i t a k a t h a n h i s m o n s t e r - d i s c i p l e s ; a t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s t e a c h i n g s would a u t o m a t i c a l l y expose t h e i l l u s o r y n a t u r e o f h i s c a l a m i t i e s and hence reduce t h e temporal and s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e to Paradise.  I n f a c t such knowledge would r e n d e r unnecessary t h e s e r v i c e  o f h i s d i s c i p l e s f o r , as Monkey demonstrates,  a l l monsters and demons a r e  b o t h c r e a t e d by and s u b m i s s i v e t o t h e mind.  "When t h e monks d i s c u s s e d t h e t e n e t s o f Buddhism t h e purpose o f t h e p i l g r i m a g e . . . T r i p i t a k a remained s i l e n t , p o i n t i n g a t h i s h e a r t and nodding a g a i n and a g a i n . The monks d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d him and he said: " I t i s t h e mind t h a t g i v e s b i r t h t o monsters  133 o f e v e r y k i n d , and when t h e mind i s a t r e s t d i s a p p e a r . " 37  they  T r i p i t a k a i s t h e embodiment o f t h e f e a r f u l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f an everyman e n s l a v e d by t h e senses, by h u m a n i t a r i a n  a f f e c t i o n s , and  by  i l l u s o r y e x t e r n a l phenomena; he i s t o o o b s e s s e d w i t h t h e phenomenal b e i n g t o f u l l y p e r c e i v e t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l meaning o f t h e H e a r t  Sutra  and thus r o u t t h e t e r r o r s o f t h e senses o r d e t a c h h i m s e l f from d e l u s i o n . E v e r y c a l a m i t y which b e f a l l s him demonstrates anew h i s incomprehension o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s a t hand. V a c u i t y " ; he i s t h e o n l y one who and t h i s accounts  On t h e o t h e r hand Monkey i s "Aware-ofcomprehends t h e d o c t r i n e o f emptiness  f o r h i s f i r s t a c t i o n upon j o i n i n g T r i p i t a k a — t h e s l a y i n g  o f t h e s i x t h i e v e s o f Eye, E a r , Nose, Tongue, Mind, and Body, an.a l l e g o r i c a l e v e n t i n d i c a t i v e o f h i s s u p e r i o r s p i r i t u a l detachment.  With  h i s knowledge o f t h e H e a r t S u t r a , Monkey i s a b l e t o d i s c e r n v a r i o u s demonic d e l u s i o n s , i s c a p a b l e o f numerous t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , and f r e e t o roam t h e c e l e s t i a l and s u b - t e r r e s t r i a l realms.  He c o n t i n u a l l y reminds h i s master t o  heed t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e S u t r a :  "Old master, you have f o r g o t t e n t h e v e r s e , 'no eye, e a r , nose, tongue, body and mind'. Of a l l o f us who have f o r s a k e n t h e w o r l d , our eyes s h o u l d n o t see c o l o r , o u r e a r s s h o u l d n o t h e a r sound, o u r nose s h o u l d n o t s m e l l , our tongue s h o u l d n o t t a s t e , o u r body s h o u l d n o t f e e l c o l d and h e a t , and o u r mind s h o u l d n o t h a r b o r vain illusions: t h i s i s known as ' r o u t i n g t h e s i x t h i e v e s . Now your mind i s c o n s t a n t l y o c c u p i e d w i t h the task o f f e t c h i n g the s c r i p t u r e s , you are a f r a i d o f the monsters and u n w i l l i n g t o g i v e up y o u r body, you beg f o r f o o d and move y o u r tongue, you a r e f o n d o f sweet s m e l l s and provoke y o u r nose, you l i s t e n t o sounds and e x c i t e y o u r e a r , you see t h i n g s around y o u and s t r a i n y o u r p u p i l s . S i n c e y o u have welcomed t h e s e s i x t h i e v e s on y o u r own i n v i t a t i o n , how c o u l d you hope t o see t h e Buddha i n t h e Western P a r a d i s e ? " 39 1  134 The t h e m a t i c n e c e s s i t y o f a f u l l n a r r a t i o n o f eighty <3ie o r d e a l s m a i n t a i n s j  T r i p i t a k a s s p i r i t u a l b l i n d n e s s f o r much o f t h e n o v e l . 1  p o s s i b i l i t y o f immediate enlightenment  F o r t u n a t e l y the  i s one o f t h e c e n t r a l t e n e t s o f  Zen o r Ch'an Buddhism, and T r i p i t a k a i s e n l i g h t e n e d w h i l e c r o s s i n g t h e S a c r e d Water t o t h e Western P a r a d i s e .  S p i r i t u a l transcendence  i s further  i n d i c a t e d by t h e p i l g r i m s ' r a p i d and m a g i c a l r e t u r n t o t h e i r homeland.  " I n s p e a k i n g o f t h e r e t u r n t o homeland on a p u f f o f f r a g r a n t wind i t d e s c r i b e s t h e ease w i t h which t h e T r u e Way may be a t t a i n e d . I f men c o u l d w i t h t h e i r power o f s i g h t f i r s t see t h r o u g h t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e w o r l d , t h e n suppress t h e Monkey o f t h e Mind and t h e Horse o f t h e W i l l , and a g a i n w i t h wisdom govern t h e i r anger and subdue a l l e v i l s p i r i t s — ^ what d i f f i c u l t y would t h e r e be i n a t t a i n i n g t h e Way?"  C e r t a i n l y i t would be inadequate  t o propose t h a t The Journey  t o t h e West  i s m e r e l y a p h i l o s o p h i c a l iroimnentary on t h e H e a r t S u t r a , and w h i l e s e a r c h f o r N i r v a n a i s p e r f e c t l y analogous t o t h e transcendence tensions  (the o r i g i n a l motive o f t h e c y c l i c myth), we  c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h e n o v e l ' s a n a g o g i c a l and mythic  of  the temporal  s h a l l f i n d more complete  aspects.  In i t s anagogical aspect, the novel bears i n i t s food c o n c e i t a t e s t i m o n y t o the p r i m i t i v e view o f f o o d as mana, p o s s e s s i n g a  'spirit'  which connects t h e d i v i n e and t h e p r o f a n e , and c o n f e r s s p e c i a l powers upon t h e p a r t a k e r .  Such s a c r e d foods as t h e f r u i t s o f t h e Peach Garden,  and t h e v a r i o u s ambrosias and e l i x i r s o f P a r a d i s e seem t o be of  the r e g e n e r a t i v e f o r c e which d r i v e s the seasonal c y c l e s .  'distillations' I t i s no  a c c i d e n t t h a t i n h i s s e a r c h f o r i m m o r t a l i t y , many o f Monkey's pranks i n v o l v e t h e e a t i n g o f such f r u i t s and n e c t a r s . p l o t concerns  Much o f t h e n o v e l ' s  initiating  t h e r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r u n i v e r s a l harmony o f a mere t e r r e s t r i a l  135 g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o such p o t e n t  'mana .  To r e s t o r e t h e cosmic  1  balance  Monkey must be e x i l e d from Heaven, and h i s q u e s t f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e d i v i n e must b e g i n anew.  I n a more b i z a r r e sense, t h e p i l g r i m s  themselves, e s p e c i a l l y T r i p i t a k a , by v i r t u e o f t h e i r h i g h e r knowledge become 'mana' o b j e c t s t o t h e i r a g r e s s o r s .  T r i p i t a k a must endure p e r p e t u a l  c a n n i b a l i s t i c and s e x u a l a s s a u l t s by t h e male and female monsters  who  b e l i e v e t h a t t o e a t h i s f l e s h o r absorb h i s semen i s t o a c q u i r e t h e precious g i f t o f immortality.  The monsters'  f e r o c i o u s a g r e s s i o n upon  T r i p i t a k a , and Monkey's i n c e s s a n t f i g h t f o r t h e F r u i t d f L i f e i n t h i s view d e p i c t a v i g o r o u s q u e s t f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and u n i t y w i t h t h e e t e r n a l d i v i n i t y which has been t h e main theme o f t h e c y c l i c myth s i n c e t h e beginning o f time. I n i t s m y t h i c a l a s p e c t s , t h e n o v e l t r a n s c e n d s a narrow r e l i g i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n by t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n a l f u s i o n o f C o n f u c i a n i s m , Taoism, and Buddhism.  Not o n l y do we  f i n d i n Paradise geographical correlates to  t h e Heavens o f t h e t h r e e r e l i g i o u s s e c t s , b u t t h e H o l y Mountain o f Buddha i s no l e s s t h a n t h e Cosmic Mount K'un  Lun surrounded by c i r c l e s o f o b s t a c l e s  a c c o r d i n g t o a n c i e n t C h i n e s e mythology. t o the west  1  I n a m y t h i c sense t h e  'journey  seems t o be l e s s a B u d d h i s t p i l g r i m a g e t o I n d i a t h a n a m y t h i c  p r o g r e s s t o p a r a d i s e o r t h e cosmic mountain, i n o t h e r words a q u e s t f o r d i v i n i t y and u l t i m a t e o r i g i n .  S i m i l a r l y the canonization o f the p i l g r i m s  seems t o be l e s s a B u d d h i s t a p p r o v a l t h a n a h e a v e n l y s a n c t i o n o f t h e i r immortality. Furthermore  t h e p r e v i o u s s t a t e s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s as e x i l e d gods  and b a n i s h e d i m r o r t a l s i n penance on e a r t h r e i n f o r c e s a m y t h i c tation.  interpre-  On t h e one hand t h e y s u g g e s t such Western m y t h i c a l heroes  as  Prometheus, Oedipus, Moses, and F a u s t i n t h e i r d e f i a n c e o f a l l a u t h o r i t y  and t h e i r q u e s t f o r knowledge; on t h e o t h e r hand t h e y remind us o f such C h i n e s e m y t h i c a l f i g u r e s a s t h e T i t a n s C h ' i h Yu, K'ua F u , P'eng T s u , and even t h e A r c h e r God Hou I w i t h h i s s h o o t i n g down o f t h e n i n e suns, h i s e x i l e t o e a r t h , and h i s a s c e n t o f Mount K'un Lun i n s e a r c h of the P i l l o f D i v i n i t y .  I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h e t a l e o f Monkey's c o n -  s c i o u s upward s t r i v i n g from inanimate s t o n e t o a n i m a l shape w i t h human i n t e l l i g e n c e , t o t h e h i g h e s t s p i r i t u a l a t t a i n m e n t i s a t y p i c a l embodiment o f t h e fundamental s u b j e c t s o f t h e c y c l i c myth: awareness o f t h e e p h e m e r a l i t y o f l i f e ,  the mortal s e l f ' s b i t t e r  i t s incessant quest f o r iranortality  through r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t d i v i n i t y , and i t s e v e n t u a l compromise and due r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with the i n f i n i t e .  I n i t s mythic  implications the story  o f Monkey i s n o t f a r from t h e ceremony o f C h i a o as a r i t e  correspondent  t o t h e cosmic rhythm o f e t e r n a l r e t u r n , o f t h e Feng Shan r i t u a l o f t h e emperor's t h a n k s g i v i n g s a c r i f i c e t o t h e cosmic mountain as an i m p e r i a l j o u r n e y t o t h e u l t i m a t e o r i g i n , o r even t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f Ming T'ang as t e r r e s t r i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n t h e u n i v e r s a l harmony.  Whereas The Peony P a v i l i o n o f T'ang H s i e n - t s u emphasizes an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t i c approach t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t r u e s e l f h o o d t h r o u g h a  life  o f utmost sense and sentiment i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e phenomenal w o r l d ,  Wu  Ch'eng-en p r e f e r s a merry tone o f R a b e l a i s i a n mockery. o f t h e l i v e l i e s t s p i r i t o f detachment. above t h e c a n n i b a l i s m o f t h e monsters  Monkey i s t h e image  Wu Ch'eng-en v a l u e s t h i s  spirit  (an image o f t h e i n c e s s a n t c r a v i n g  f o r i m m o r t a l i t y ) , o r t h e a g o n i z i n g attachment o f P i g s y a s t h e image o f the grosser sensual l i f e ,  o r even t h e s p i r i t u a l b l i n d n e s s o f T r i p i t a k a  d e s p i t e h i s everyman q u a l i t y o f human compassion.  Monkey i s t h e comic  image o f man's i n t e l l i g e n c e , and t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l image o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f emptiness,  c a p a b l e o f v i e w i n g h i m s e l f and b o t h t e r r e s t r i a l and c e l e s t i a l  137  w o r l d s i n t h e humourous l i g h t o f h i s cosmic t r a n s c e n d e n c e .  I n a word,  a c c o r d i n g t o N o r t h r o p F r y e ' s t h e o r i e s , The J o u r n e y t o t h e West i s p e r f e c t l y 41  a  "comic s t o r y i n t h e m y t h i c mode."  Hung Lou Meng Our second n o v e l f o r s t u d y completes t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n t h e  development  o f t h e C h i n e s e n o v e l from c o l l e c t i v e t o i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r s h i p , and i s r e garded by many as t h e  oihTunation o f t h a t development.  Again r e f e r r i n g t o  F r y e ' s t h e o r i e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i f The Journey t o t h e West i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a comic s t o r y i n t h e m y t h i c mode, The Dream o f t h e Red Chamber i s t h e n a t r a g i c s t o r y i n t h e h i g h mimetic mode. ch'in  I t s a u t h o r , Ts'ao Hsueh-  (c. 1715-1763), has c r e a t e d a h i g h t r a g e d y o f a f f e c t i o n and  self-reali-  z a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e passage o f t h e h e r o from d e v o t e d attachment t o s e l f c o n s c i o u s g r i e f and e v e n t u a l l y t o b i t t e r e n l i g h t e n m e n t and transcendence,  spiritual  whether O r i e n t a l o r O c c i d e n t a l , few works a r e i t s p e e r s  i n t h e v a s t n e s s o f i t s l e n g t h o f one hundred and twenty c h a p t e r s , t h e v i v i d n e s s o f i t s n a r r a t i o n o v e r an e n c y c l o p e d i c range o f d e s c r i p t i o n c o v e r n i n g e v e r y a s p e c t o f C h i n e s e custom and c u l t u r e , and t h e s u b t l e t y o f i t s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e more t h a n f o u r hundred c h a r a c t e r s .  W h i l e t h e n o v e l ' s g r e a t l e n g t h and  c o m p l e x i t y p r o h i b i t a n a r r a t i v e summary, i t i s one o f t h e most p o p u l a r o f C h i n e s e n o v e l s i n t r a n s l a t i o n and we w i l l assume some f a m i l i a r i t y on t h e  42 p a r t o f our readers. To r e g a r d t h e n o v e l from t h e v i e w p o i n t o f mythopoesis  i s to discover  a s t r u c t u r e which r e c a l l s R o b e r t H a r r i s o n ' s "quest" p r o g r e s s i o n :  a  call  t o q u e s t , an a c c e p t a n c e and d e s c e n t t o t h e underworld o r t h e t i m e o f t r i a l s ,  138 and a f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e q u e s t and r e t u r n i n an a p o t h e o s i z e d s t a t e .  43  Given the novel's complexity, there are s e v e r a l p a r a l l e l " c a l l s t o quest" w h i c h o c c u r i n b o t h c e l e s t i a l and t e r r e s t r i a l r e a l m s . c o n s i s t s o f t h e S a c r e d Stone's  Celestially, i t  sorrow upon b e i n g r e j e c t e d as a c o n s t i t u e n t  o f t h e E t e r n a l Dome o f Heaven, and h i s acceptance o f a l i f e i n t h e t e r r e s t r i a l sphere.  The e a r t h l y c o u n t e r p a r t concerns t h e c o l l a p s e o f  Chen S h i h - y i n ' s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s i n d u l g e n c e i n domestic b l i s s , and C h i a Yu-ts'un's  e n t h u s i a s t i c p u r s u i t o f w o r l d l y fame and w e a l t h .  The  acceptance  o f t h e s e c a l l s t o q u e s t demands b o t h v e r t i c a l d e s c e n t and h o r i z o n t a l e x t e n s i o n as t h e a u t h o r weaves a j o u r n e y t o d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t through a t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e o f sense and s e n t i m e n t f o r a l l t h e d e s c e n d i n g s p i r i t s . H o r i z o n t a l l y , Ts'ao i n t r i g u e s f o r b o t h C h i a and Chen a p r o g r e s s t o u l t i m a t e enlightenment  through t h e f r a g i l i t y and t r a n s i e n c e o f i l l u s o r y fame,  w e a l t h , and h a p p i n e s s .  Continuing w i t h i n Harrison's structure, the  "descent" becomes t h e t r i a l s and o r d e a l s undergone by man and  immortal  a l i k e , w h i l e t h e " f u l f i l l m e n t " o f t h e q u e s t means a r e t u r n f o r t h e d e s c e n d i n g s p i r i t s and a s p i r i t u a l a s c e n t f o r t h e earth-bound m o r t a l s . "enlightenment"  Finally,  i s seen as d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h domestic b l i s s and fame o r  w e a l t h f o r Chen and C h i a r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e i t becomes t h e t r a n s c e n d e n c e o f sense and sentiment f o r t h e Stone and t h e a f f e c t i o n a l  spirits.  On one l e v e l The Dream o f t h e Red Chamber concerns t h e S a c r e d eventual r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  Stone's  w i t h d i v i n i t y through an o r d e a l o f a f f e c t i o n .  The  i n i t i a l r e j e c t i o n o f t h e Stone was caused by h i s e x c e s s i v e s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , a f a c t s u p p o r t e d by t h e " d i s c a r d " o f t h e Stone a t t h e f o o t o f Peak G r e e n s i c k n e s s — a n onomatopoeic pun f o r t h e peak o f " s e n t i m e n t a l s i c k n e s s " . As a consequence, t h e Stone was g r a n t e d t e r r e s t r i a l d e s c e n t t o be b o r n i n t h e Mansion o f t h e Duke o f G l o r y .  A t b i r t h , the miniature i n s c r i b e d  c r i m s o n j a d e i n h i s mouth seems t o symbolize h i s s p i r i t u a l essence o f  affection.  139  A group o f p a s s i o n a t e f a i r i e s and amorous s p i r i t s were a l s o g r a n t e d d e s c e n t to  be s i s t e r s and c o u s i n s t o t h i s most a f f e c t i o n a l h e r o , and l a t e r t o j o i n  him i n t h e Garden o f G r e a t Wonder t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e q u e s t f o r a l i f e true affection.  of  Much o f t h e n o v e l i s t h e n concerned w i t h p r o v i d i n g ex-  p e r i e n c e which would e n a b l e t h e Stone t o f r e e h i m s e l f from h i s o b s e s s i o n with a f f e c t i o n , t o p e r c e i v e the i l l u s o r y nature o f the l i f e o f the  senses  and s e n t i m e n t s , and f i n a l l y t o r e - a s c e n d t o t h e s p i r i t u a l w o r l d i n an apotheosized s t a t e . D i s c e r n i n g t h e symbolism o f j a d e i n t h e n o v e l has been a concern o f s c h o l a r s i n the p a s t c e n t u r i e s o f c r i t i c i s m , s c h o l a r s h i p i s now to  t r u l y awesome).  favorite  (and t h e amount o f  Wang Kuo-wei, t h e f i r s t C h i n e s e s c h o l a r  speculate t h a t jade represents the d e s i r e s o f the s e l f o r the w i l l o f  b e i n g , p r o f e s s e s t h a t The Dream o f t h e Red Chamber i s a p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t t h e s o u r c e o f t h e s u f f e r i n g o f l i f e i s t h e i n n a t e w i s h o r d e s i r e immanent i n human e x i s t e n c e and t h a t t h e o n l y way  t o s a l v a t i o n i s by  self-decisive  44 renouncement o f d e s i r e .  I n f a c t , t h e e l i r T i i n a t i o n o f d e s i r e and  l i b e r a t i o n from attachment  has always been a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f C h i n e s e  religious sects. 1912)  Furthermore  the  the E m p i r i c a l School o f Confucianism  m a i n t a i n e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f renouncement o f a f f e c t i o n through  a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e o f involvement.  (1644the  In the Chinese novel, t h i s empiricism  i n e v i t a b l y demanded g r e a t e r r e a l i s m — d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n and  descriptive  n a r r a t i o n o f everyman's domestic l i f e o f sense and sentiment i n a v i v i d psychological context.  I t i s t h i s r e a l i s t i c compulsion w h i c h urged Ts'ao  t o w r i t e o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n a s t r i k i n g c o n f e s s i o n a l tone t o c a p t u r e i t s most i n t i m a t e r e a l i t y . In it  o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e renouncement o f d e s i r e ,  i s most n a t u r a l t h a t t h e S a c r e d Stone s h o u l d descend t o t h e Mansion o f  140 t h e Duke o f Glory,' and Pao-yii t o t h e Garden o f G r e a t Wonder, f o r t h e y a r e t h e most s e n t i m e n t a l o f b e i n g s i n heaven and on e a r t h r e s p e c t i v e l y . In  a sense t h e i r mutual d e s c e n t s r e p r e s e n t t h e l o s s o f c e l e s t i a l p a r a d i s e  and t h e f a l l o f mankind, and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e o n l y through redemption  o f r e a l involvement i n l i f e .  The I l l u s i o n Land o f t h e G r e a t  V o i d and i t s c o u n t e r p a r t on e a r t h , t h e Garden o f G r e a t Wonder, a r e d e v i c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r i n t e g r a t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l a p p l i c a t i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n o f the novel's empiricism.  a  literary  thematic  I n t h e Garden, Pao-yii i s j u s t  t o o d e v o t e d and t o o a t t a c h e d t o comprehend t h e i n t i m a t i o n s o f t h e s y m b o l i c s c r o l l s and songs, o r t h e i l l u s o r y n a t u r e o f h i s s e x u a l i n i t i a t i o n w i t h Sweetheart,  t h e i n c a r n a t i o n o f a l l beauty i n t h e w o r l d .  Perhaps t h e  "fall"  i s a l l t o o w i l l i n g , t o o human; t h e s e d u c t i o n s i m p l y j u s t i f i e s t h e e m p i r i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t l i f e can o n l y be r e a l i z e d by p l u n g i n g i n t o t h e stream o f b e i n g w i t h f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and i m p l i e s a s e x u a l awakening i n t h e of  life  t h e h e r o ready f o r t h e l i f e o f t r u e a f f e c t i o n i n t h e p a r a d i s e o f b e a u t i e s .  The s e d u c t i o n i s t h e f i r s t n o t e i n t h e f a t e f u l symphony w h i c h w i l l expose t h e l i f e o f sense and s e n t i m e n t as an abyss o f i l l u s i o n . Pao-yii's g r e a t e s t w i s h i s t o l i b e r a t e h i s ' g a r d e n - g i r l s ' f r o m t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f a d u l t h o o d and m a r r i a g e by h i s e q u a l and enormous compassion and l o v e f o r one and a l l and t h e i d y l l i c l i f e i n t h e garden.  Naturally  t h i s w i s h i s s e v e r e l y u n d e r c u t by t h e s t r o n g i l l u s i o n a l i t y and of  t h e Garden o f G r e a t Wonder.  impermanency  The i l l u s i o n a l i t y r e s i d e s i n t h e analogy  and s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e I l l u s i o n Land o f t h e G r e a t V o i d , t h e dream l i f e o f t h e h e r o , t h e d w e l l i n g p l a c e o f t h e Goddess o f D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , t h e f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n o f t h e f a i r y g i r l s i n t h e garden. l i e s i n t h e s t e a d y encroachment o f t h e growth o f t h e garden's  inhabitants.  The  and  impermanency  ' r e a l ' o u t s i d e w o r l d and t h e i n e v i t a b l e  F i n a l l y t h e emergence o f t h e p o r n o g r a p h i c  141 embroidered p u r s e r e v e a l s t h e e n t r y o f l u s t i n t o t h e v i r g i n p a r a d i s e ,  and  p r e c i p i t a t e s t h e l o s s o f t h i s temporary Eden t h r o u g h t h e c a l a m i t i e s w h i c h follow.  The  s u f f e r i n g s o f t h e h e r o must be m a n i f o l d and m i s e r a b l e  he comes t o r e a l i z e t h e t r a n s i e n c e o f l i f e and s p i r i t u a l enlightenment  i s symbolized  indefinity of affection;  by t h e m y s t e r i o u s  loss of h i s i n -  s c r i b e d jade, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the d e s i r e s o f the s e l f . crimson  before  The  jade s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p l i e s a z e n i t h o f transcendence  by t h e n a d i r o f a f f e c t i o n a l i n s e n s i b i l i t y and i n d i f f e r e n t  loss of  the  illustrated  idiocy.  B e s e t w i t h m i s f o r t u n e s , Pao-yii's e v o l v i n g r e n u n c i a t i o n o f a f f e c t i o n i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e onomatopoeic a l l u s i o n s of  t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s ' names.  e x p l i c a t e d as t h e  A c c o r d i n g t o Tu S h i h - c h i e h ,  ' s t i r r i n g mind', 'Black Jade' as  'Pao-yii' may  be  ' p a s s i o n a t e d e s i r e ' and  t h e t u r m o i l o f t h e mind, and f i n a l l y t h e most s e n s i b l e and  sensuous  45 'Precious C l a s p ' as  'wisdom' o r m e n t a l t r a n q u i l i t y .  In t h i s  connection  t h e t r a v e s t y o f t h e h e r o ' s m a r r i a g e t o P r e c i o u s C l a s p i n s t e a d o f B l a c k Jade s i g n i f i e s a t i m e l y s u b s t i t u t i o n o f wisdom f o r a f f e c t i o n .  Furthermore t h e  d e a t h o f B l a c k Jade h e r a l d s t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f d e s i r e p r e s a g e d i n t h e of  t h e crimson  loss  jade.  D e p r i v e d o f t h e d e s i r e s o f l i f e y e t remote from t h e t r u t h o f b e i n g , Pao y u i s i r o n i c a l l y d y i n g o f t h e emptiness o f e x i s t e n c e , a n o t i o n r e i n f o r c e d by t h e c o n f i s c a t i o n o f t h e two mansions and f u r t h e r deaths i n t h e h o u s e h o l d . A t h i s l o w e s t ebb t h e h e r o i s r e s c u e d by t h e reappearance o f t h e monk, t h i s t i m e b e a r i n g t h e l o s t c r i m s o n  jade.  p o r t e d t o t h e B l i s s Land o f U l t i m a t e T r u t h ,  mysterious  I n dream Pao y i i i s t r a n s -  (significantly subtitled  D i s i l l u s i o n Land o f A f f e c t i o n ) , . where he i s informed  the  o f h i s mythic o r i g i n  as t h e S a c r e d Stone, r e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e  scrolls,  and e s c o r t e d t o t h e company o f t h e deceased B l a c k Jade and t h e e l e v a t e d  142 s p i r i t s o f t h e o t h e r f a i r y g i r l s from t h e r u i n e d Garden o f G r e a t Wonder. Such r e v e l a t i o n s compel t h e h e r o ' s r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i l l u s o r y n a t u r e o f l i f e and t h e a f f l i c t i v e n a t u r e o f a f f e c t i o n a l attachment. his to  enlightenment  i s s i g n i f i e d by h i s d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t h e c r i m s o n  jade  i t s sender, and h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s e v e r a l l human t i e s and t h u s r e -  l e a s e h i m s e l f from t h e o b s e s s i o n s o f s u f f e r i n g . to  Upon awakening,  A f t e r r e s t o r i n g t h e mansions  honor, w e a l t h , and power, and c o n f i r m i n g P r e c i o u s C l a s p ' s pregnancy, w i t h  a r e j o i c i n g song o f homecoming he r e t i r e s i n t o t h e w h i t e w i l d e r n e s s . The s u b - p l o t c o n c e r n i n g t h e p a r a l l e l q u e s t o f C h i a Y i i - t s ' u n i s s i m i l a r l y r e s o l v e d as C h i a , t h e i n c e s s a n t s e e k e r o f fame and w e a l t h once more d e p r i v e d o f o f f i c i a l rank and honor, e n c o u n t e r s h i s former p a t r o n , Chen S h i h - y i n , i n h i s a p o t h e o s i z e d s t a t e o f d i v i n e ferryman. to  Here C h i a i s a b l e  d i s c e r n t h e e p i p h a n i c meaning o f h i s encounters w i t h Chen, t h e  r e c l u s e and ferryman o f t r u e b e i n g .  lifelong  A t l a s t he p e r c e i v e s t h e t r u t h o f  life  r e v e a l e d by t h e d i v i n e r e c l u s e i n t h e myth o f t h e Stone and t h e drama o f t h e Garden o f G r e a t Wonder, and i s a b l e t o s l e e p s o u n d l y i n t h e l i t t l e by t h e  ferry. The e p i s o d e s o f t h e mansion's r e s t o r a t i o n as t h e l i n g e r i n g  of  hut  temptation  fame o r w e a l t h , and P r e c i o u s C l a s p ' s pregnancy as t h e u l t i m a t e a f f e c t i o n a l  s e d u c t i o n may  be seen as l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s w h i c h r e i n f o r c e t h e t e n s i o n o f  the t r a g i c pathos o f t h e h e r o ' s r e n u n c i a t i o n . s o p h i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t t h e utmost approach c a r d o f whatever means by w h i c h i t was  They a l s o i m p l y t h e p h i l o -  t o Nirvana i s the u l t i m a t e d i s -  brought f o r t h .  Thus e i t h e r as an  image o f sensuous beauty and m a r i t a l d e v o t i o n , o r as a metaphor o f wisdom (a means t o enlightenment)., P r e c i o u s C l a s p ' s f a t e o f d e s e r t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y and i n e v i t a b l e as an a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e hero's triumph o v e r w o r l d l y a t t a c h ments.  I t i s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t t h e Garden o f G r e a t Wonder may  be  143 r e g a r d e d as t h e m a t i c a l l y e q u a l  ( i n an o p e r a t i v e sense) t o T'ang H s i e n - t s u ' s  dream w o r l d i n s i d e t h e p i l l o w , and s i m i l a r l y t h a t t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f V a n i t a s to  Monk Amor as an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e n o v e l ' s theme i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f  Wu Ch'eng-en's H e a r t S u t r a which p r o f e s s e s t h a t o n l y i n t h e q u i e t u d e o f mind and h e a r t i s N i r v a n a a c c e s s i b l e . C e r t a i n l y t h e e p i l o g u e o f C h i a ' s enlightenment as an a l l e g o r y o f d i s enchantment w i t h t h e e p h e m e r a l i t y o f fame and w e a l t h i s b o t h a c o n t r a s t and a complement t o t h e m y t h i c drama o f t h e S a c r e d Stone as an a l l e g o r y o f d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h a f f e c t i o n a l attachment.  The t e s t i m o n y o f t h e s e e k e r  and t h e r e c l u s e i n t h e f i n a l e concerns n e i t h e r t h e i r p e r s o n a l v i c i s s i t u d e s nor t h o s e o f t h e Mansion o r t h e Garden; r a t h e r t h e s u b j e c t must be t h e and r e f l u x o f l i f e as a whole.  flux  The e p i l o g u e o f b i t t e r r e a l i z a t i o n and r e -  nouncement o f b e i n g i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y t h e p r o l o g u e o f t h e q u e s t f o r non-being and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e  infinite.  The Dream o f t h e Red Chamber r e f l e c t s a p a r t i c u l a r l y B u d d h i s t v i e w o f c o n c e p t s u n d e r l y i n g t h e c y c l i c myth.  One would e x p e c t t h a t a l i f e o f harmony  w i t h c y c l i c a l n a t u r e would be t h e aim o f l i f e w i t h i n t h e Garden o f G r e a t Wonder.  But o f c o u r s e t h e Garden i s e s t a b l i s h e d n o t so much as a metaphor o f  n a t u r a l harmony b u t as a dream w o r l d w h e r e i n Pao-yii may unchanging In  pursue h i s i d e a l o f  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a f f e c t i o n f a r from t h e e v e r c h a n g i n g mundane w o r l d .  as much as t h i s p r e c e p t i g n o r e s t h e c y c l i c a l impermanence o f r e a l i t y i t  i s doomed t o t r a g i c f a i l u r e .  The t r a n s c e n d e n t a l s o l u t i o n depends upon t h e  r e v e l a t i o n t h a t because r e a l i t y i s t r a n s i e n t and ephemeral, human concerns must r e f l e c t t h e Tao w h i c h u n d e r l i e s t h a t r e a l i t y . t h e s e l f w i t h t h e cosmos, must be consequent ephemerality.  Nirvana, o r the u n i t y o f  t o the r e v e l a t i o n o f  life's  Ts'ao Hsueh-Chlin's o b v i o u s fondness f o r h i s i m a g i n a t i v e  c r e a t i o n , t h e Garden d f G r e a t Wonder, i m p l i e s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e way  to  144 transcendence.  We would t h u s agree w i t h C. T. H s i a t h a t t h e a u t h o r o f  The Dream o f t h e Red Chamber i s "a t r a g i c a r t i s t caught between t h e n o s t a l g i a f o r , and t h e tormented d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o seek l i b e r a t i o n from, t h e w o r l d of red d u s t " . ^  145 D.  Summary  W i t h i n t h e range o f C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e  s e l e c t e d , whether as p o e t i c  contemplation, o r dramatic manipulation, o r n o v e l i s t i c tulation,  philosophical pos-  a s p e c t s o f t h e " c y c l i c " m e n t a l i t y c o n t i n u e t o appear i n an i n -  t e g r a t i n g f a s h i o n throughout t h e l i t e r a t u r e  o f China.  Concerning the  e v o l u t i o n o f t h e c y c l i c myth, a g e n e r a l p r o g r e s s i o n i s e v i d e n t : from t h e e a r l i e s t m y t h i c a l envisagement rationalization, expressions.  through r i t u a l a c t u a l i z a t i o n t o p h i l o s o p h i c a l  and f i n a l l y t h r o u g h v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y a p p l i c a t i o n s o r  G i v e n t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f C h i n e s e l i t e r a r y c u l t u r e and t h e  vagaries o f h i s t o r i c a l  s c h o l a r s h i p t h e above e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t t e r n s h o u l d n o t  be s t r i c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n e i t h e r a c a u s a l o r l i r n i t i n g temporal sense; r a t h e r the  p a t t e r n corresponds g e n e r a l l y t o t h e t r e n d o f i n c r e a s i n g  intellectuality  of Chinese c u l t u r e .  Our p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e c y c l i c myth has been a prime f a c t o r throughout C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e  integrating  i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e c o n t i n u a l reappea-  rance o f the f o l l o w i n g c y c l i c archetypes f i r s t  suggested i n t h e myths o f  antiquity. (  i)  The image o f t h e mountain K'un  a s t h e cosmic mountain, ;  Mount  Lun, t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l l i n k between d i v i n e and  mundane c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  Such mountain  images a s t h e  Southern H i l l , Mount-to-Heaven, M o u n t - F l o w e r - a n d - F r u i t , Mount H o l y T e r r a c e - t o - t h e - H e a r t , Mount F i v e Elements, t h e H o l y Mountain o f Buddha, and Mount Chaos a l l connote t h e symbolism o f Mount K'un Lun a s t h e cosmic mountain and the of  passageway t o Heaven.  As such i t i s t h e d e s t i n a t i o n  t h e i n i t i a t i n g p r o t a g o n i s t and t h e q u e s t i n g h e r o who  146 would o b t a i n r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h d i v i n i t y , cosmos, o r infinitude.  When t h e "mountain-quest" i s undertaken  i n bad f a i t h , punishment i s t y p i c a l l y an i n v e r s i o n o f the  above sequence, estrangement o r banishment.  Thus  Monkey i s e x i l e d beneath t h e mountain, i n t h i s c a s e Mount F i v e Elements. ( ii)  The image o f w a t e r as t h e cosmic w a t e r — t h e S i n k i n g Water o r t h e Lake o f P u r i t y . the  Such w a t e r images as  S i n k i n g Sand bounding E a r t h from Heaven, t h e S a c r e d  Water s u r r o u n d i n g t h e Western P a r a d i s e o f Buddha, t h e White Water, t h e B l a c k Water, t h e Red Water, t h e Lo R i v e r , t h e R i v e r - t o - H e a v e n , t h e E a s t e r n Sea, and t h e T r a n s m u t a t i o n Lake-for-Dragons a l l connote e i t h e r t h e S i n k i n g Water as t h e s a c r e d o b s t r u c t i o n t o t h e r e a l m of  i m m o r t a l i t y o r t h e Lake o f P u r i t y as t h e w a t e r o f  life  f o r t h e d i v i n e t h i r s t o r as t h e abode o f t h e S u p e r n a l  Mother Goddess.  The a t t r i b u t i o n s o f d e a t h , l i f e ,  p u r i f i c a t i o n , and i m m o r t a l i t y o f t h i s cosmic water a r e b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by T r i p i t a k a ' s e x u v i a t i o n i n t h e b o t t o m l e s s b o a t upon h i s c r o s s i n g t h e S a c r e d Water s u r r o u n d i n g t h e H o l y Mountain o f Buddha. (iii)  The image o f t h e garden as t h e garden o f t h e T r e e o f L i f e — t h e Hanging Garden.  Such images as t h e House o f  S p r i n g , t h e Garden o f t h e S a c r e d Peach, Mount F l o w e r a n d - F r u i t , t h e c u l t i v a t e d garden o f o r c h i d s , t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d farm on t h e S o u t h e r n H i l l , of  t h e garden  The Peony P a v i l i o n , t h e garden o f t h e T s ' u i , and t h e  Garden o f G r e a t Wonder a l l connote t h e o r i g i n a l Hanging  147 Garden w i t h i t s a t t r i b u t e s o f n a t u r a l beauty, i t s s a c r e d f r u i t s and d i v i n e boughs o f t h e v a r i o u s t r e e s o f its  n u b i l e goddesses  life,  and b e a u t i e s , l i f e - s u s t a i n i n g  f o o d s , p a s t o r a l h a p p i n e s s , and p a r a d i s i a l b l i s s .  Again,  t h e Hanging Garden i s t h e uppermost c i r c l e o f Mount  K'un  Lun and i s t h e s i t e o f t h e T r e e o f L i f e and t h e s o u r c e o f v a r i o u s d i v i n e ambrosias  and m a g i c a l n e c t a r s .  Thus  Monkey's r o l e as h e r o o f a cosmic q u e s t i s b e s t e x p l i c a t e d by t h e paradox o f h i s b e i n g b o t h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and t h e i n t r u d e r o f t h e Garden o f t h