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The paleoecology of a raised bog and associated deltaic sediments of the Fraser River Delta Hebda, Richard Joseph 1977

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THE PALEOECOLOGY OF A RAISED BOG  AND  ASSOCIATED DELTAIC SEDIMENTS OF THE FRASER RIVER DELTA  by RICHARD JOSEPH HEBDA B.Sc., McMaster U n i v e r s i t y ,  1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as t o the r e q u i r e d  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February,  1977  (c) Richard Joseph Hebda, 1977  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the L i b r a r y  shall  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  permission  purposes  for  freely  may  financial  is  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  British  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  March 23, 1977  British  by  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  of  that  not  copying  or  for  that  study.  this  thesis  t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  understood  BOTANY of  of  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  available  permission.  Department  Date  it  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be al1 owed w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  In t h i s study,  three cores obtained  from Burns Bog  j u s t south o f  the  F r a s e r R i v e r i n D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia, were a n a l y z e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y . The  paleoecology  o f the bog was  r e c o n s t r u c t e d from the r e s u l t s o f  these  a n a l y s e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h data from v e g e t a t i o n s t u d i e s o f the bog, p o l l e n r a i n and  s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f s e l e c t e d wetland e n v i r o n -  ments, as w e l l as p o l l e n t e t r a d and p o l l e n p r o d u c t i v i t y s t u d i e s o f  bog  ericads. The  v e g e t a t i o n o f Burns Bog was  sampled by e s t i m a t i n g s p e c i e s cover i n  2 s e l e c t i v e l y p l a c e d 100 m  quadrats.  t i o n w i t h an a i r p h o t o g r a p h i c the a r e a .  mosaic t o map  data were used i n combina-  the e i g h t v e g e t a t i o n types  s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum s t u d i e s , were used  r e c o g n i z e analogous phases r e c o r d e d  p r o d u c t i v i t y data f o r bog  i n cores.  T e t r a d diameter and p o l l e n  ericads assisted i n recognizing ecologically  s i g n i f i c a n t e r i c a d s p e c i e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d wet The  of  The palynomorph " f i n g e r p r i n t s " o f s e l e c t e d wetland environments,  determined from p o l l e n r a i n and to  These f i e l d  study shows t h a t Burns Bog  has developed  and dry r a i s e d bog on F r a s e r R i v e r  phases.  deltaic  d e p o s i t s which appeared above sea l e v e l j u s t a f t e r 5,000 y e a r s BP.  The  seemingly synchronous emergence o f the t h r e e core s i t e s and a l o c a l i t y i n a d j a c e n t Boundary Bay t h i s time.  The  ages o f Pinus  i n d i c a t e a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i v e sea l e v e l decrease  s i l t y emergent sediments are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h  and P i c e a p o l l e n d e p o s i t e d by r i v e r water, and  p o l l e n from l o c a l S c i r p u s and Carex s t a n d s . sedges c o l o n i z e d the a r e a , forming aceae p o l l e n .  percent-  Cyperaceae  F o l l o w i n g t h i s emergence,  a sedge p e a t  A t the western end o f the bog,  at  c o n t a i n i n g abundant Cyper-  a s a l t marsh  developed  iii  (4,125 + 110 BP)  i n response  t o a marine advance.  T h i s was  possibly  caused  by a s h u t - o f f o f f r e s h - b r a c k i s h water from the F r a s e r R i v e r when the d e l t a reached P o i n t R o b e r t s .  In the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f the bog,  Panorama Ridge, the sedge phase was L y s i c h i t u m swamp developed,  o n l y transient.-  a t the f o o t o f  A Myrica-Spiraea-  remaining u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y .  phase i n the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the bog,  A f t e r the sedge  M y r i c a and S p i r a e a - t h i c k e t s appeared;  these were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d by Sphagnum bog a t 2,925 ± 85 y e a r s In the western Ledum.  end o f the bog,  sedges were r e p l a c e d by heaths,  A t the f o o t o f Panorama Ridge, Sphagnum a r r i v e d v e r y  P i n e s seem t o have i n v a d e d a l l s i t e s a t the 2.00 The AP p o l l e n spectrum ed unchanged throughout forests.  m  BP.  predominantly  recently.  level.  shows t h a t the r e g i o n a l upland v e g e t a t i o n remain-  the h i s t o r y o f Burns Bog u n t i l s e t t l e r s c l e a r e d the  On the d e l t a , however, f l u c t u a t i o n s i n a l d e r p o l l e n were p r o b a b l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l d e r c o l o n i z a t i o n o f l e v e e s and swamps near the c h a n n e l s . F i r e has p l a y e d an important r o l e i n bog e c o l o g y .  N a t u r a l Sphagnum  accumulation p r o c e s s e s are m o d i f i e d because f i r e d e s t r o y s the v e g e t a t i o n o f s l i g h t l y higher, dry s i t e s . o f peat accumulation. burned  Unburned wet  d e p r e s s i o n s then become c e n t e r s  These s i t e s e v e n t u a l l y r i s e above the s u r r o u n d i n g  a r e a s , which are c o n v e r t e d t o d e p r e s s i o n s .  A model f o r r a i s e d bog development i s proposed  f o r the F r a s e r Lowland.  The p r o g r a d i n g d e l t a - f r o n t i s c o l o n i z e d by emergent a q u a t i c s growing silts.  T h i s phase i s f o l l o w e d by the advent o f a sedge swamp perhaps  t a i n i n g some wetland b e g i n t o appear,  grasses.  on con-  E v e n t u a l l y , shrubs such as M y r i c a and S p i r a e a  accompanied i n the l a t e r s t a g e s by Ledum  groenlandicum.  I n c r e a s e d a c i d i t y o f the s u b s t r a t e due t o peat accumulation promotes  iv  Sphagnum, which e v e n t u a l l y r a i s e d bog  takes over and r e s u l t s i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  conditions.  T h i s study, the f i r s t d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e o f r a i s e d bog development i n western North America, p r o v i d e s a framework f o r f u r t h e r bogs i n the  area.  investigations  of  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1: The  CHAPTER 2:  INTRODUCTION  x xiv 1  Study A r e a P h y s i o l o g y and Geology Soils Climate Hydrology Regional Vegetation Previous Studies  3 3 7 7 8 9 10  THE VEGETATION OF BURNS BOG AND OBSERVATIONS ON PLANT ECOLOGY  12  Introduction The V e g e t a t i o n Types o f Burns Bog Methods Results Heathland P i n e Woodland B i r c h Woodland Spiraea Brushland Mixed C o n i f e r o u s Woodland Salmonberry Bushland A l d e r Woodland Unvegetated P e a t l a n d The O r i g i n a l V e g e t a t i o n o f t h e Burns Bog A r e a The Role o f F i r e i n Burns Bog The e f f e c t o f Sphagnum on Pine Growth Summary CHAPTER 3:  ix  BOG ERICACEAE: POLLEN TETRAD SIZE, POLLEN PRODUCTIVITY  T e t r a d Diameter o f Bog E r i c a c e a e and Empetrum nigrum Application of Results P o l l e n P r o d u c t i v i t y o f Bog E r i c a c e a e  12 12 12 15 15 21 22 22 23 25 26 27 28 32 36 38  39 39 43 44  vi  (Table o f Contents cont'd) PAGE CHAPTER, 4:. POLLEN DEPOSITION IN WETLAND ENVIRONMENTS OF THE FRASER RIVER DELTA Methods Modern P o l l e n R a i n S u r f a c e Samples Results S i t e s from the Southern P e r i p h e r y o f Burns Bog S i t e s from the I n t e r i o r o f Burns Bog C o a s t a l S i t e s from Boundary Bay F l u v i a l Environments Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s CHAPTER 5:  CORE CBB FROM CENTRAL BURNS BOG  Introduction Methods P o l l e n Diagrams R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n s Palynomorph and M a c r o f o s s i l f o r Core CBB Zone CBB - I Zone CBB - I I Zone CBB - I I I Zone CBB - IV Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s CHAPTER 6:  47 48 48 50 51 51 55 60 61 66 96 96 96 97 99  Zonation  CORE BBDC FROM WESTERN BURNS BOG  Introduction Methods Absolute P o l l e n Sediment A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n Stratigraphy Sedimentology A b s o l u t e P o l l e n : R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n Zone BBDC - I Zone BBDC - I I Zone BBDC - I I I Zone BBDC - IV Zone BBDC - V Zone BBDC - VI P o l l e n and M a c r o f o s s i l Z o n a t i o n Zone BBDC - I Zone BBDC - I I Zone BBDC - I I I  101 101 104 106 108 111 117 117 117 117 120 121 121 121 126 126 126 127 127 127 127 128 128 129 130  vii  (Table o f Contents cont'd)  PAGE Zone BBDC - IV Zone BBDC - V Zone BBDC - VI Summary CHAPTER 7:  130 131 132 134  CORE DNR FROM EASTERN BURNS BOG  141  Introduction Methods R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n S t r a t i g r a p h y and Radiocarbon D a t i n g P o l l e n and M a c r o f o s s i l Z o n a t i o n Zone DNR - I Zone DNR - I I Zone DNR - I I I Summary  141 143 143 143 143 145 146 148 149  CHAPTER 8:  SYNTHESIS, DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY  Introduction Synthesis The O r i g i n and Growth o f Burns Bog D e l t a - F r o n t Phase Shrub and Heathland Phase Sphagnum Bog Phase F i r e Horizons Burns Bog Development i n R e l a t i o n t o Other R a i s e d Bogs i n the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a A General Model f o r R a i s e d Bog Development i n the Fraser Delta C o l o n i z a t i o n Phase Sedge-Grass Phase Shrub Phase Sphagnum Bog Phase Discussion Comparison o f F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a R a i s e d Bog Development w i t h O t h e r R a i s e d Bog Sequences The Role o f the R a i s e d Bog i n F r a s e r River Delta Evolution The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f the Main P a l e o e c o l o g i c E v e n t s i n Burns Bog t o t h e Development o f the F r a s e r D e l t a Sea L e v e l Changes R i v e r Channel Changes  155 155 155 155 155 157 158 158 160 161 161 161 161 163  164 166  168 168 171  V l l l  (Table  o f Contents cont'd)  A p p l i c a t i o n o f the Study T h e s i s Summary REFERENCES APPENDIX 1:  S p e c i e s Composition o f t h e V e g e t a t i o n Types o f Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  APPENDIX 2:  Computer Programs Used t o C a l c u l a t e R e l a t i v e and A b s o l u t e P o l l e n V a l u e s f o r Computer P l o t t e d Diagrams \  2a - Program f o r C a l c u l a t i n g P o l l e n Frequencies  Relative  2b - Program f o r C a l c u l a t i n g A b s o l u t e P o l l e n Concentrations Per Cubic Centimeter APPENDIX 3:  S e l e c t e d Palynomorphs Recovered from Burns Bog Sediments  IX  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  PAGE  T e t r a d diameters o f major e r i c a d s p e c i e s i n Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  41  P o l l e n t e t r a d p r o d u c t i v i t y o f major bog E r i c a c e a e , Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  46  N o n - v a s c u l a r p l a n t palynomorphs from s u r f a c e samples c o l l e c t e d from w e t l a n d environments i n the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a .  95  S a n d : s i l t : c l a y r a t i o s , core BBDC, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  123  Average s p e c i e s c o v e r f o r t h e v e g e t a t i o n o f Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  186  types  •-•.X LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  PAGE Map showing the l o c a t i o n o f Burns Bog, D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia.  4  2.  S u r f i c i a l geology o f t h e Burns Bog study  6  3.  2 2 Arrangement o f t h e 100 m and 1 m q u a d r a t s used f o r v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s i n Burns Bog.  area.  4.  V e g e t a t i o n types o f Burns Bog, D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia  5.  Photographs i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e major v e g e t a t i o n  14 ( i n pocket a t back)  types o f Burns Bog.  16, 17  6.  O r i g i n a l v e g e t a t i o n o f the Burns Bog a r e a  7.  F i r e - i n d u c e d hummock-hollow c y c l i n g i n Burns Bog, D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia.  34  8.  R e l a t i o n s h i p o f p i n e growth t o Sphagnum hummock f o r m a t i o n .  37  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e t r a d s i z e s o f bog E r i c a c e a e and Empetrum nigrum.  42  L o c a t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e sample and core i n the F r a s e r D e l t a .  49  9.  10.  11.  12.  13.  14.  (1873)  30  sites  Diagrams f o r s i t e A, open B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s woodland w i t h P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m understorey; a) p o l l e n r a i n diagram b) s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum, c) s p e c i e s c o v e r  69 70  Diagrams f o r s i t e B, Ledum groenlandicum h e a t h l a n d i n Pinus c o n t o r t a woodland; a) p o l l e n r a i n diagram b) s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum, c) s p e c i e s cover  71 72  Diagrams f o r s i t e C, Ledum groenlandicum h e a t h l a n d i n Pinus c o n t o r t a woodland; a) p o l l e n r a i n diagram b) s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum, c) s p e c i e s cover  73 74  Diagrams f o r s i t e D, S p i r a e a d o u g l a s i i t h i c k e t s i n open B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s woodland; a) p o l l e n r a i n diagram b) s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum, c) s p e c i e s cover  75 76  xi  ( L i s t o f F i g u r e s cont'd) FIGURE 15.  PAGE Diagrams f o r s i t e H, Pinus c o n t o r t a woodland; a) p o l l e n r a i n diagram b) s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum, c) s p e c i e s cover  77 78  Diagrams f o r s i t e I , Sphagnum heathland; a) p o l l e n r a i n diagram b) s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum, c) s p e c i e s cover  79 80  17.  P o l l e n r a i n diagram f o r s i t e R, Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d .  81  18.  Diagrams f o r s i t e G, Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d c l e a r i n g i n Pinus c o n t o r t a woodland; a) p o l l e n r a i n diagram b) s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum, c) s p e c i e s cover  82 83  S u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum f o r s i t e NP, "Nuphar pond", i n Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d .  84  Diagrams f o r s i t e E , Chenopodiaceae s a l t marsh; a) p o l l e n r a i n diagram b) s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum, c) s p e c i e s cover  85 86  Diagrams f o r s i t e F, c o a s t a l g r a s s l a n d ; a) p o l l e n r a i n diagram b) s u r f a c e p o l l e n spectrum, c) s p e c i e s cover  87 88  S u r f a c e p o l l e n s p e c t r a o f r i v e r marsh s i t e s ; a) S i t e L - l , Menyanthes-Lysichitum-Gramineae b.) S i t e L-2, E q u i s e t u m - S c i r p u s - S a g i t t a r i a - A l i s m a c) S i t e L-3, S c i r p u s - S a g i t t a r i a - E q u i s e t u m  89 89 90  16.  19.  21.  22.  23.  24.  S u r f a c e p o l l e n s p e c t r a o f r i v e r swamp s i t e s ; a) S i t e L-4, r i v e r swamp: Typha-Equisetum b) S i t e L-4, r i v e r swamp: EquisetumLysichitum-Scirpus  91  25.  Vegetation  92  26.  S u r f a c e p o l l e n s p e c t r a from d e l t a - f r o n t marshes; DF 1, 2, 3 & 4; a) S i t e DF 1 & 2, S c i r p u s zone b) S i t e DF 3, Typha zone c) S i t e DF 4, C a r e x - P o t e n t i l l a zone  93 93 93  P o l l e n diagram o f major s p e c i e s i n s h o r t core DF—5, C a r e x - P o t e n t i l l a zone, i n t e r t i d a l d e l t a - f r o n t .  94  27.  zones o f t h e L u l u I s l a n d f o r e s h o r e .  91  X l l  (List o f Figures  cont'd)  FIGURE  PAGE  28.  S t r a t i g r a p h y and m a c r o f o s s i l s o f core CBB  100  29.  P o l l e n diagram f o r core CBB, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia  112  30.  A r b o r e a l p o l l e n diagram e x c l u d i n g p i n e f o r core CBB, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  113  31.  A r b o r e a l p o l l e n diagram f o r core CBB, D e l t a , B. C.  114  32.  N o n - a r b o r e a l p o l l e n diagram f o r core CBB, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  115  33.  Palynomorph diagram, core CBB.  116  34.  S t r a t i g r a p h y and m a c r o f o s s i l s o f core BBDC.  122  35.  S a n d : s i l t : c l a y r a t i o t r i a n g l e f o r s e l e c t e d samples from core BBDC A b s o l u t e p o l l e n and spore c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r core  123  BBDC, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  125  37.  P o l l e n diagram f o r core BBDC, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  135  38.  A r b o r e a l p o l l e n diagram e x c l u d i n g p i n e f o r core BBDC, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C. A r b o r e a l p o l l e n diagram f o r core BBDC, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  136  36.  39. 40.  41.  N o n - a r b o r e a l p o l l e n diagram f o r core BBDC, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C. S i z e range composition  o f e r i c a d spectrum,  137  138  core  BBDC, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  139  42.  Palynomorph diagram, core BBDC.  140  43.  V e r t i c a l s e c t i o n o f e a s t e r n Burns Bog (core DNR) showing s h a l l o w  b a s i n i n the f o o t o f Panorama Ridge.  142  44.  S t r a t i g r a p h y and m a c r o f o s s i l s o f core DNR.  144  45.  P o l l e n diagram f o r core DNR, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  151  X l l l  ( L i s t o f F i g u r e s cont'd) FIGURE 46.  47.  PAGE A r b o r e a l p o l l e n diagram f o r core DNR, D e l t a , B. C.  Burns  N o n - a r b o r e a l p o l l e n diagram f o r core  DNR,  Bog, 152  Burns Bog, D e l t a , B. C.  153  48.  Palynomorph  154  49.  C o r r e l a t i o n o f the t h r e e cores from Burns Bog.  156  50.  Proposed model f o r r a i s e d bog development i n the F r a s e r D e l t a .  162  51.  diagram, core DNR.  S e l e c t e d palynomorphs sediments.  r e c o v e r e d from Burns  Bog 201,  202  xiv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am i n d e d t e d t o many i n d i v i d u a l s who a s s i s t e d w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s work and gave o f t h e i r time f o r encouragement and d i s c u s sion. F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r o j e c t was p r o v i d e d by the N a t i o n a l  Research  C o u n c i l o f Canada through g r a n t s t o Dr. G. E. Rouse and t h r e e s c h o l a r s h i p s to  me. A l l e n Banner a s s i s t e d i n the f i e l d and i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y .  Joan  Miller  a l s o h e l p e d w i t h l a b o r a t o r y p r e p a r a t i o n s and drew some o f the f i g u r e s . Wayne G. B i g g s , c u r r e n t l y w i t h E n t e c h E n v i r o n m e n t a l  Consultants Limited,  was a welcome co-worker i n t h e study o f Burns Bog v e g e t a t i o n .  Thanks a r e  expressed t o Western Peat Moss L i m i t e d f o r a l l o w i n g a c c e s s t o t h e p a r t s o f the bog under t h e i r  control.  I would l i k e t o thank the many graduate  students o f t h e Botany  Depart-  ment o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia who t o l e r a t e d the r a v i n g s o f the "bog man" and p r o v i d e d welcome company i n t h e f i e l d . L e s l i e B o r l e s k e who typed t h e f i n a l  I wish a l s o t o thank  d r a f t o f the t h e s i s .  S p e c i a l thanks go t o t h e members o f my t h e s i s committee: T a y l o r , F. R. Ganders  (Botany  Department, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  D r s . R. L. Columbia),  W. H. Mathews (Geology Department, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia), and R. W. Mathewes ( B i o l o g y Department, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ) .  Dr. W. B.  S c h o f i e l d , a l s o a committee member, deserves p a r t i c u l a r thanks  for identify-  ing  the numerous bryophytes Finally,  brought  i n from t h e bog.  I am immeasurably g r a t e f u l t o my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. G. E . Rouse,  whose p a t i e n t d i s c u s s i o n , encouragement and i n s p i r a t i o n made my y e a r s as a graduate  s t u d e n t a most e x c i t i n g  experience.  1  THE  PALEOECOLOGY OF A RAISED BOG  AND  ASSOCIATED DELTAIC SEDIMENTS OF  THE  FRASER RIVER DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA  CHAPTER 1:  The  INTRODUCTION  c o a s t a l zone o f western North America c o n t a i n s  (ombrogenous) bogs. pean r a i s e d bogs  The  was  Anrep  Among the  (1928), who  Columbia.  p a l e o e c o l o g y o f t h e s e bogs, i n c o n t r a s t t o E u r o -  (Moore and Bellamy, 1973;  only s u p e r f i c i a l l y .  first  evaluated  L a t e r R i g g and  many r a i s e d  Godwin, 1975), has been  i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n western N o r t h America  peat reserves  Richardson  i n southwestern B r i t i s h  (1938) i n v e s t i g a t e d bog  p e a t s t r a t i g r a p h y i n some r a i s e d bogs on the west c o a s t . and Heusser  ecology  Hansen  and  (1947)  (1960) c a r r i e d out p a l y n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f bogs f o r the  purposes o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g r e g i o n a l f o r e s t h i s t o r y and U n t i l now,  studied  however, t h e r e has  current vegetation  been no  concerted  s t u d i e s and p a l y n o l o g i c  and  c l i m a t i c changes.  e f f o r t which combines b o t h s t r a t i g r a p h i c approaches to  e l u c i d a t e the development o f these bogs. The  main o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to p r o v i d e  o u t l i n e o f the p a l e o e c o l o g y o f one  the  f i r s t detailed  o f these r a i s e d bogs, Burns Bog,  the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a o f southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia  ( F i g . 1).  t h r u s t o f the p r e s e n t  other  study i s to apply p a l y n o l o g i c  techniques to r e c o n s t r u c t i n g l o c a l vegetation preting p o s t - g l a c i a l , regional The  Mathewes and  Rouse  t h i s study i n t e n d s  and  The  main  paleoecologic  h i s t o r y , r a t h e r than  f o r e s t succession  l a t t e r have a l r e a d y been c o n s i d e r e d  and  from  inter-  c l i m a t i c changes.  f o r the area by Mathewes (1973)  (1975), from s t u d i e s o f l a k e sediments.  and  In a d d i t i o n ,  to g i v e f a i r l y p r e c i s e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f lower mainland  2  p e a t l a n d and d e l t a i c environments.  These a r e based on m i c r o f o s s i l assem-  b l a g e s p r e s e r v e d i n t h r e e c o r e s from the bog  (Ch. 5-7) , as w e l l as on  o b t a i n e d from i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p o l l e n - v e g e t a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The  are based on s t u d i e s o f p o l l e n - r a i n and s u r f a c e samples o f what are s i d e r e d t o be modern analogous  communities  o f p l a n t assemblages w i t h i n the Burns Bog The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was Anrep  by Hansen  area  (1933) and Rigg and  Except  latter con-  analyses  (Ch. 2 ) .  i n i t i a t e d i n Burns Bog  (1928), Great D e l t a Bog o f O s v a l d  (1938)) f o r a number o f reasons.  (Ch. 4) t o g e t h e r w i t h  data  ( D e l t a Bog  of  Richardson  f o r one p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n  (1940) on a d j a c e n t L u l u I s l a n d , l i t t l e had been r e p o r t e d on  e c o l o g i c a l s u c c e s s i o n s w i t h i n bogs o f the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a .  the  Although  p a r t l y d i s t u r b e d , t h i s bog c o n t a i n s enough areas o f r e l a t i v e l y n a t u r a l p e a t l a n d t o s e r v e as a u s e f u l study a r e a . scope f o r a n a l y s i s o f v e g e t a t i o n - s e d i m e n t  T h i s p r o v i d e d i n i t i a l l y wide relations within a region of  complex d e p o s i t i o n , water c o n d i t i o n s , and d i v e r s e p l a n t assemblages. Finally,  f a c t o r s such as human p o p u l a t i o n growth, urban development,  p e a t e x p l o i t a t i o n have been i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the bog and r e s u l t i n g i n the d e s t r u c t i o n o f l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f the bog;  and  ecosystem  thus  informa-  t i o n from c e r t a i n areas had t o be o b t a i n e d b e f o r e s i t e s were permanently lost. I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Burns Bog p a l e o e c o l o g y c o u l d be expected t o l i g h t on a number o f o t h e r b a s i c problems.  shed  I n c l u d e d are those problems  r e l a t e d t o d e l t a f o r m a t i o n such as s e d i m e n t a t i o n , r a t e o f development,  age,  channel changes, and sea l e v e l changes, as w e l l as those r e l a t e d t o bog development such as the sequence, d u r a t i o n and n a t u r e o f p l a n t communities  3 i n v o l v e d i n r a i s e d bog fire.  Increased  formation,  the nature  o f t r a n s i t i o n s , and the r o l e  i n s i g h t i n t o these problems would be u s e f u l i n p r e d i c t i n g  the n a t u r a l development o f c u r r e n t v e g e t a t i o n i n the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a f o r e s e e i n g the e f f e c t o f d i s t u r b a n c e ecosystem.  I t would a l s o p r o v i d e  such as f i r e and  drainage  Burns Bog  vicinity.  Geology:  ( l a t i t u d e 49°08'N and  l o n g i t u d e 123°00'W) o c c u p i e s  mately 4,000 h e c t a r e s o f the southern Corporation  of Delta  (Fig. 1).  Region  (Luttmerding  and Sprout,  Burns Bog  c o n t a i n i n g Burns Bog  1969).  and the C o r p o r a t i o n o f D e l t a l i e  and the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a occupy the  i n g sediments a t l e a s t s i n c e the Upper Cretaceous surrounding  covered  (Roddick, 1965). by some 1,500  In the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e , the F r a s e r Lowland  late  was  D e g l a c i a t i o n o f the a r e a began about 13,000 y e a r s  (White Rock, B. C. B. C.  (Rouse e t e^L. , 1975). S i n c e  the u p l i f t o f the Coast Mountains i n the  (Mathews e t a l . , 1970), w i t h the Burns Bog  P o i n t Roberts,  t h a t has been r e c e i v -  m o f i c e d u r i n g the maximum o f the Vashon g l a c i a t i o n  (Mathews e t a l . , 1970).  12,600 BP  northeast-  a r e a has been s u b j e c t e d t o c o n s i d e r a b l e t e c t o n i c and  mountain b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y w i t h Tertiary  Physiographic  The western end o f the F r a s e r Low-  e r n c o r n e r o f Whatcom B a s i n , a l a r g e . s u b s i d i n g trough  then the  approxi-  h a l f o f the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a i n the  w i t h i n the F r a s e r Lowland s u b d i v i s i o n o f the C o a s t a l Trough  ago  bog  Study A r e a  Physiography and  land  on the  and  a h i s t o r i c a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l framework f o r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n the  The  of  12,625 ± 450,  12,600 ± 170,  r e g i o n i c e - f r e e by  about  IGSC6 (Walton e t a l . , 1961),  IGSC248 (Trautman and Walton, 1962)).  A f t e r i c e r e t r e a t and d u r i n g subsequent sea l e v e l readjustments from 10,0009,000 BP  (Blunden, 1975), the F r a s e r R i v e r began dumping sediments i n t o the  4  123^  VANCOUVER  BURNABY  5  area o c c u p i e d by the p r e s e n t f l o o d - p l a i n .  Around 10,000 BP the F r a s e r R i v e r  p e n e t r a t e d through the P o r t Mann gap t o the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a (Blunden, 1975).  Subsequently the a c t i v e F r a s e r R i v e r d e l t a - f r o n t advanced a t a r a t e  of  9 m p e r y e a r (Mathews and Shepard, 1962)  to  the p o i n t where the I s l a n d o f P o i n t Roberts was  (Blunden,  and d e l t a i c sediments b u i l t  j o i n e d t o the mainland  1975).  The s u r f i c i a l geology o f the Burns Bog by Armstrong (1956, 1957).  a r e a ( F i g , 2) has been mapped  The e a s t s i d e o f the bog i s b o r d e r e d by Panorama  Ridge, p a r t o f the S u r r e y Upland, r e a c h i n g e l e v a t i o n s o f 80 m. of  g l a c i a l l y d e r i v e d outwash sands and g r a v e l s  w e l l - s o r t e d pebble beaches the  (Armstrong, 1957).  c l a y s and sand, i n p l a c e s c o v e r e d by  (Luttmerding and Sprout, 1969).  The s a l t marshes and  1969).  S a l t marsh p e a t s exposed by e r o s i o n i n  Boundary Bay were r a d i o c a r b o n dated a t 4,350 ± 100 y e a r s BP Murray,  1969).  To the west o f the bog up t o 4 m o f s i l t y  ( K e l l e r h a l s and  deltaic  marine and non-marine o r i g i n , o v e r l i e f i n e t o medium sands.  d e p o s i t s e x h i b i t a g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g topography  sediments,  These  (Armstrong, 1956).  abandoned s l o u g h , C r e s c e n t Slough, d e f i n e s the western edge o f Burns (Luttmerding and S p r o u t , 1969).  r i v e r and the bog, s h a l l o w s i l t s b l a n k e t f i n e t o medium sand Blunden  silty  An Bog  North o f the bog, the South Arm o f the  F r a s e r R i v e r i s f l a n k e d by both n a t u r a l and a r t i f i c i a l l e v e e s .  1956).  On the  f l a t s o f Boundary Bay l i e d i r e c t l y t o the south o f these d e p o s i t s  ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray,  of  Extensive  (Luttmerding and S p r o u t , 1969).  south s i d e o f the bog, t h e r e are s i l t y shallow l a y e r s o f peat  I t consists  appear t o have formed a l o n g the bottom p o r t i o n o f  westward s l o p e o f Panorama Ridge  tidal  up  Between the  (Armstrong,  (1975) has suggested t h a t t h i s channel o f the F r a s e r R i v e r  i s o f r e c e n t o r i g i n and became e s t a b l i s h e d when the r i v e r broke through the  Figure  -  the Burns  2:  Surficial  Bog  study  geology * of  area.  t  (8m)  over  lit  (2m)  over pent  yey I ••I  clayey  silt (lm)  silt 1 S i l t (2m) o v e r fine-medium sand  1 y.C^  S i l t (4m) o v e r f i n e - m e d i u m sand  ;.•/.•;•„•.'•'I  Fine-medium Beach  gravel  Nicomekl — C o l e b r o o k S  HI P?.«*_jV|  u  r  r  e  sand  y  T  Newton Clay**  U  Silt/ Gravel*i 1  * *  Stoney  *Modif:led from Armstrong (1956,1957) . **Pleistocene deposits o f Panorama R i d g e .  N  K 3 km  7  large Greater Lulu Island-Delta years  (Burns Bog) p e a t bog sometime a f t e r 2,500  BP.  Soils: Most o f the d e l t a south o f the South Arm o f the F r a s e r R i v e r c o n t a i n s s o i l s o f the g l e y s o l i c and o r g a n i c o r d e r s (Luttmerding and Sprout, 1969). The p o o r l y d r a i n e d m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s have developed i n a complex p a t t e r n dominated  f o r the most p a r t by s a l i n e o r t h i c and s a l i n e rego g l e y s o l s o r  humic e l u v i a t e d g l e y s o l s .  I n the a r e a immediately around and i n c l u d i n g the  bog, the o r g a n i c s o i l s range from s p h a g n o - f i b r i s o l s t o t y p i c h u m i s o l s .  Climate: The c l i m a t e o f the a r e a can b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as a m o d i f i e d maritime type, o r a Csb Koeppen M e d i t e r r a n e a n type  (Hoos and Packman, 1974).  Winters  are u s u a l l y m i l d and r a i n y w i t h peak r a i n f a l l i n December, whereas summers are u s u a l l y warm and dry w i t h J u l y b e i n g the d r i e s t month. The n e a r e s t c l i m a t o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n t o Burns Bog i s l o c a t e d a t Ladner, 1 km s o u t h o f the study a r e a .  T h i s s t a t i o n r e c o r d s l o n g term normals o f  p r e c i p i t a t i o n , i n t e n s i t y o f r a i n f a l l and temperature. p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t Ladner i s 958 mm 37 cm.  The average annual  i n c l u d i n g an average annual s n o w f a l l o f  The annual average temperature i s 9.2°C; the J u l y mean 16.7°C  the January mean 2.2°C  ( B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,  The average number o f f r o s t - f r e e days i s 183  and  1971).  (Luttmerding and Sprout, 1969).  The p r e v a i l i n g winds blow from the s o u t h e a s t a t an average v e l o c i t y o f 12.9-16.4 km/hr (8-10 mph).  S t r o n g winds are not common, and are u s u a l l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the passage o f a c t i v e weather d i s t u r b a n c e s b l o w i n g from the s o u t h e a s t o r northwest.  The r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y remains h i g h throughout the  8  year,  r a r e l y dropping  meteorological  below 60%, w i t h r e a d i n g s  s t a t i o n a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t  15 km northwest o f t h e study b r i g h t sun p e r year The those  o f 80-90% common.  The  approximately  a r e a , r e c o r d s an average o f 1900 hours o f  (Hoos and Packman, 1974).  c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s o f Burns Bog a r e b e l i e v e d t o be s i m i l a r t o  recorded  a t t h e Ladner s t a t i o n .  R a i n f a l l i s probably  h i g h e r as a r e s u l t o f the i n c r e a s e d o r o g r a p h i c mountains  slightly  e f f e c t o f the c o a s t a l  (Hoos and Packman, 1974).  Hydrology: Topographic maps f o r t h e a r e a  (Department o f Energy, Mines and  Resources, 1970) i n d i c a t e t h a t Burns Bog i s a dome-shaped mass o f p e a t . The  c e n t r a l c u p o l a o f t h e bog reaches about 5-6 m above mean s e a l e v e l  ( a . s . l . ) , whereas the p e r i m e t e r peats  i s about 1-2 m a . s . l .  A t t h e e a s t e r n end,  onlap onto Panorama Ridge a t about 5-6 m a . s . l . The  o r i g i n a l drainage  o f drainage  p a t t e r n o f t h e bog i s unknown.  d i t c h e s and e x t e n s i v e  conversion  c u l t u r a l use e a r l y i n t h e 20th c e n t u r y  The t r e n c h i n g  o f p e r i p h e r a l areas  to agri-  (Anrep, 1928) have o b l i t e r a t e d many  o f the p e r i p h e r a l f e a t u r e s t h a t might have r e v e a l e d t h i s p a t t e r n . drainage  p a t t e r n s a r e governed by a r t i f i c i a l  Current  d i t c h e s and pump-stations  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i k i n g program o f t h e southern  Fraser River Delta.  G e n e r a l l y , most o f t h e n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the bog d r a i n s northward t o the F r a s e r R i v e r ; the northwestern c o r n e r d r a i n s westward i n t o C r e s c e n t which empties i n t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r .  I n t h e southern  Slough  p a r t , flow i s i n t o  the d i t c h e s t h a t empty i n t o Boundary Bay (Biggs, 1976).  Along the north-  e a s t e r n boundary, a t the f o o t o f Panorama Ridge, a s l u g g i s h stream p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d water northward i n t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r .  T h i s stream has now been  9  r e p l a c e d by a d i t c h t h a t f o l l o w s a r e c e n t l y i n s t a l l e d b u i l t more o r l e s s a l o n g the o l d stream s a t u r a t e the bog,  course.  (1974) t r u n k sewer,  D u r i n g s p r i n g , when r a i n s  water, presumably d r a i n i n g from the bog,  o f t e n accumulates  and moves s l o w l y i n S p i r a e a t h i c k e t s around the bog p e r i p h e r y .  Flow i s  commonly c o n c e n t r a t e d a l o n g c l e a r e d areas under B. C. Hydro power t r a n s miss i o n l i n e s .  In a way,  these seem t o f u n c t i o n as a l a g g .  Water l e v e l s i n the bog  can v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y .  water t a b l e f l u c t u a t e s no more than and the d r y summers.  .2 t o .5m  In the c u p o l a ,  between the wet  the  winters  In p e r i p h e r a l areas where l i t t l e Sphagnum grows, the  water t a b l e (based on o b s e r v a t i o n s i n s h a l l o w d i t c h e s ) drops by a t l e a s t a meter d u r i n g the l a t e summer dry  Regional The  spell.  Vegetation: F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a , on which Burns Bog  i s s i t u a t e d , l i e s w i t h i n the  Wetter Subzone o f the C o a s t a l D o u g l a s - F i r B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone o f B r i t i s h Columbia bog  ( K r a j i n a , 1969).  Panorama Ridge and o t h e r upland areas around the  are covered by v e g e t a t i o n more o r l e s s t y p i c a l o f t h i s zone.  Pseudo-  t s u g a m e n z i e s i i i s the dominant t r e e i n mesic h a b i t a t s , whereas Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a predominates i n s u b - h y g r i c s i t e s important  ( K r a j i n a , 1969).  t r e e s p e c i e s o f t h i s zone i n c l u d e : Thuja  plicata  Abies  grandis  Picea  sitchensis  Pinus m o n t i c o l a  (not p r e s e n t near Burns  Bog)  Arbutus m e n z i e s i i (not p r e s e n t near Burns Prunus  emarginata  Populus b a l s a m i f e r a subsp. t r i c h o c a r p a  Bog)  Other  10  Acer  macrophyllum  Acer c i r c i n a t u m . Alnus r u b r a grows i n d i s t u r b e d a r e a s ; as a r e s u l t o f man's d i s r u p t i v e tivity  i t i s now  ac-  a major component o f upland v e g e t a t i o n .  The edaphic c o n d i t i o n s o f the immediate d e l t a are not s u i t a b l e f o r the development o f d o u g l a s - f i r f o r e s t .  C u r r e n t l y , much o f t h i s a r e a i s c o v e r e d  by p e a t bog v e g e t a t i o n , farmland, and r i v e r o r e s t u a r i n e marshes and swamps. A narrow band o f s a l t marsh v e g e t a t i o n b o r d e r s Boundary Bay t o the south o f Burns Bog.  The v e g e t a t i o n o f Burns Bog i t s e l f i s t r e a t e d i n Chapter  2.  Previous Studies: The Anrep  f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Burns Bog d e p o s i t s seems t o be t h a t o f  (1928), who  produced  an i n v e n t o r y o f the e c o n o m i c a l l y v a l u a b l e p e a t  d e p o s i t s o f the lower mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia. of  He e s t a b l i s h e d a s e r i e s  t r a n s e c t s through the bog, and d r i l l e d h o l e s t o determine  Sphagnum o r humic Sphagnum p e a t . (3.3 m)  i n the c e n t e r o f the bog  He  the depth o f  found t h a t Sphagnum p e a t was  deepest  (approximately a t the p r e s e n t s i t e o f the  Ladner p l a n t o f the Western Peat Moss Ltd.) and t h a t i t g r a d u a l l y i n depth i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s from t h i s p o i n t .  decreased  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Anrep i n d i c a t e d  a l a r g e "Area under c u l t i v a t i o n o r b u r n t over" s u r r o u n d i n g the bog.  This  zone extended w e l l beyond the p r e s e n t bog l i m i t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the south. He a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t he was  p r o b a b l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g a r a i s e d bog  because:  "the p e a t moss l a y e r i s above sea l e v e l and can be d r a i n e d t o the F r a s e r River". Osvald  (1933) noted the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f Burns Bog,  the s i m i l a r i t y t o those i n L u l u I s l a n d Bog. been r e c l a i m e d i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t .  and  indicated  He noted t h a t the margins  O s v a l d d i d not comment on p e a t  had  11  stratigraphy. The  l a s t p u b l i s h e d , e a r l y examination o f Burns Bog p e a t d e p o s i t s  c a r r i e d out by Rigg and R i c h a r d s o n  (1938).  was  U s i n g a H i l l e r b o r e r , they ran  a s i n g l e t r a n s e c t from n o r t h t o south and p l o t t e d a p r o f i l e o f the  bog.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , these workers p l o t t e d the s u r f a c e o f the bog as i f i t were f l a t r a t h e r than domed.  The  resultant v e r t i c a l section distorted  strati-  g r a p h i c b o u n d a r i e s downward i n the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the bog so t h a t i t app e a r s t h a t i t formed i n a s h a l l o w d e p r e s s i o n . Richardson  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Rigg  (1938) knew t h a t they were i n a r a i s e d bog b u t had no way  and  of  c o r r e c t i n g f o r e l e v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s because the bog had not been s u r veyed. Most r e c e n t l y , i n a s y n t h e s i s o f d a t a from b o t h p u b l i s h e d and unpubl i s h e d s o u r c e s , Biggs  (1976)  ( n o t i n g problems i n peat c l a s s i f i c a t i o n )  duced a p e a t i s o p a c h model f o r Burns Bog. topography,  the depths  pro-  When compared w i t h s u r f a c e  i n d i c a t e t h a t the dome shape o f the bog  i s due  to  Sphagnum p e a t s , whereas the c o n t a c t between t h e s e , and d e p o s i t s below, i s horizontal.  12  CHAPTER 2:  THE VEGETATION OF BURNS BOG AND OBSERVATIONS ON PLANT ECOLOGY  Introduction  F o r t h e purposes  o f t h i s p a l e o e c o l o g i c study, knowledge o f the v e g e t a -  t i o n o f Burns Bog and t h e f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g p l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e cons i d e r e d t o be c r i t i c a l  t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f o s s i l d e p o s i t s .  An  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e c o l o g y o f p l a n t s p e c i e s and c o m p o s i t i o n and dynamics of  p l a n t communities a s s o c i a t e d w i t h bog development makes p o s s i b l e much  more p r e c i s e p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e v e g e t a t i o n o f present-day Burns Bog, d i s c u s s e s t h e v e g e t a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e b e f o r e i t s a l t e r a t i o n by major d i s t u r b a n c e by immigrants o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e r o l e o f f i r e  and c o n t a i n s some  and Sphagnum growth on  bog v e g e t a t i o n .  The V e g e t a t i o n Types o f Burns Bog  S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have s t u d i e d the p l a n t assemblages o f Burns Bog (Osvald, 1933; Rigg and R i c h a r d s o n , 1938; Beamish, K r a j i n a and Bednar, 1968). To date, however, no d e t a i l e d account o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n has been p u b l i s h e d . As a r e s u l t i t was d e c i d e d t o map t h e v e g e t a t i o n and determine  the q u a n t i -  tative,  The i n f o r m a -  floristic  c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e major p l a n t communities.  t i o n p r e s e n t e d here i s a c o n d e n s a t i o n o f a study c a r r i e d o u t i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h W. G. B i g g s , P l a n t S c i e n c e Department, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  (Hebda and B i g g s , i n p r e p a r a t i o n ) .  Methods  The v e g e t a t i o n o f Burns Bog was i n v e s t i g a t e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d u r i n g t h e  13  summer o f 1975  as  follows:  A preliminary  base map,  showing the  generalized  p r e p a r e d from a c o n t r o l l e d a i r p h o t o g r a p h i c mosaic. was  c r e a t e d by P a c i f i c Surveys C o r p o r a t i o n  vegetation  units,  was  The  (1" =  800')  mosaic  f o r Western Peat Moss L t d .  from a e r i a l photography BC5588, flown on J u l y 12,  1974.  F i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the a r e a were i n i t i a t e d i n June, 1975.  A  total  2 o f 6,000 m  o f the bog  10 m x 10 m,  was  sampled q u a n t i t a t i v e l y by p l a c i n g s i x t y q u a d r a t s ,  at s e l e c t e d s i t e s .  S i n g l e quadrats or t r a n s e c t l i n e s  i n g a number o f q u a d r a t s , were l o c a t e d so t h a t the more e x t e n s i v e  containvegetation  types were w e l l sampled whereas l e s s i m p o r t a n t types were examined l e s s intensively. and  Transect  l i n e s were run  northern peripheries  toward the  from the  center  eastern,  s o u t h e r n , western  o f the bog.  Examination of a i r  photographs i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s t r a n s e c t l i n e placement would ensure thorough a sampling as p o s s i b l e o f the major v e g e t a t i o n time a v a i l a b l e . transects.  was  shrub s p e c i e s  bryophyte and i n s i d e the t i o n was  used.  names and MacBryde  (Mueller-Dombois and  Ellenberg,  1974).  c o l l e c t e d i n many areas where i t was  arranged  Additional vegetation considered  d e s i r a b l e to v e r i f y  i n the Herbarium o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. following description follow Taylor  (1977) f o r v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , Crum, S t e e r e and Anderson Hale and  informa-  Voucher specimens o f most s p e c i e s were c o l l e c t e d  a u t h o r i t i e s used i n the  mosses, and  Shrub, herb,  e s t i m a t e d i n f i v e p l o t s , 1 m x 1 m,  l a r g e q u a d r a t s as shown i n F i g . 3.  for deposit  changed r a p i d l y , a  W i t h i n each quadrat, cover e s t i m a t e s were made f o r  l i c h e n c o v e r was  c o m p o s i t i o n f o r the map.  i n the l i m i t e d  m i n t e r v a l s along  However, where the nature o f the v e g e t a t i o n  50 m s p a c i n g t r e e and  Quadrats were u s u a l l y spaced a t 100  units  as  Culberson  (1970) f o r l i c h e n s .  Species and  (1973) f o r  14  10 m  100 m  2  1 m  n F i g u r e 3,  "  r  Arrangement o f 100 var and 1 m  TRANSECT L I N E  ^  Quadrats  Used f o r V e g e t a t i o n A n a l y s i s i n Burns Bog,  I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e quadrats was t a b u l a t e d , w i t h t h e quadr a t s s u b j e c t i v e l y grouped a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n and c o v e r . R e v i s i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l base map were made f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s o f quadrat d a t a and examination  o f a i r photographs  (1" = 500') o f t h e a r e a made  a v a i l a b l e by t h e Land Assessment Department, Ladner,  B. C.  Vegetation  types were d e l i n e a t e d as b e i n g more o r l e s s homogenous assemblages o f p l a n t s , r e c o g n i z a b l e and mappable on t h e a i r p h o t o g r a p h i c  mosaic  (1" = 800').  V. '  15  Results  E i g h t v e g e t a t i o n types were r e c o g n i z a b l e i n Burns Bog, w i t h two subtypes w i t h i n the h e a t h l a n d 1.  type.  Heathland:  l a . wet lb.  (Sphagnum)  Dry (Ledum)  2.  P i n e Woodland  3.  B i r c h Woodland  4.  Spiraea Brushland  5.  Mixed C o n i f e r o u s Woodland  6.  Salmonberry . B u s h l a n d  7.  A l d e r Woodland  8.  Unvegetated  The q u a n t i t a t i v e  floristic  p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix - 1.  subtype  subtype  Peatland. c o m p o s i t i o n o f each v e g e t a t i o n type i s  The map o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n types o f Burns Bog  i s shown i n F i g . 4 ( i n pocket a t b a c k ) .  Photographs t y p i c a l o f each major  v e g e t a t i o n type a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d ( F i g . 5 ) .  1.  Heathland  (Fig. 5a)  Main f e a t u r e s : 1.  open c h a r a c t e r , w i t h s c r u b o r s m a l l P i n u s c o n t o r t a ;  2.  shrub s t o r e y dominated by heaths Ledum  3a. wet  ( E r i c a c e a e ) , mainly  groenlandicum;  (Sphagnum) subtype  o f Sphagnum spp.;  - numerous mats and hummocks  16  Figure 5: Photographs i l l u s t r a t i n g the major vegetation types of Burns Bog. a) Heathland (wet subtype i n foreground) b) Pine Woodland c) Birch Woodland (dense stands of young birch) d) Spiraea Brushland (shrubs i n foreground) e) Mixed Coniferous Woodland f) Alder Woodland (mixed with birch) The dense growth of Salmonberry Bushland made i t impossible to obtain a representative photograph. No photograph of Unvegetated Peatland i s included.  18  3b.  d r y (Ledum) subtype  - few hummocks o r mats  o f Sphagnum spp. Heathland  v e g e t a t i o n o c c u p i e s the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the bog ( F i g . 4)  and covers the g r e a t e s t a r e a o f a l l the v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s .  Outliers of  t h i s assemblage a r e a l s o found near t h e edges o f the bog as open i s l a n d s i n p i n e woodland. type  Sphagno-fibrisol s o i l s characterize this vegetation  (Luttmerding and Sprout, 1969).  Drainage  i s poor and t h e water t a b l e  i s never more than a few c e n t i m e t e r s below the s u r f a c e . Heathland  v e g e t a t i o n i s d i v i s i b l e i n t o two subtypes; wet (Sphagnum)  h e a t h l a n d and d r y h e a t h l a n d .  Most o f t h e wet, c e n t r a l a r e a o f the bog  f a l l s i n t o the Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d c a t e g o r y and r e p r e s e n t s t y p i c a l  raised  bog  Dry (Ledum)  c o n d i t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r o l i f i c growth o f Sphagnum spp.  h e a t h l a n d o c c u p i e s r e c e n t l y burned-over s i t e s w i t h i n and around t h e r a i s e d , c e n t r a l area.  E x t e n s i v e stands o f Ledum groenlandicum  these a r e a s , and l i t t l e Sphagnum cover i s p r e s e n t .  These two  cover subtypes  are r e c o g n i z a b l e l o c a l l y i n t h e f i e l d , b u t cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e a i r p h o t o g r a p h i c mosaic used t o map the v e g e t a t i o n , la.  Wet  (Sphagnum) h e a t h l a n d  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e e o v e r s t o r e y i n Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d . P i n u s c o n t o r t a w i t h growth r a t e s o f around 1 cm diameter abundant.  every 15 y e a r s i s -  O c c a s i o n a l dwarfed specimens o f Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a and B e t u l a  occidentalis The  Stunted  also occur.  shrub l a y e r c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y o f E r i c a c e a e .  and V a c c i n i u m  u l i g i n o s u m a r e t h e dominant s p e c i e s .  Ledum  groenlandicum  Ledum, o c c u p y i n g the  19  r e l a t i v e l y d r y s i t e s , i s t h e more abundant o f the two, whereas V. u l i g i n o s u m f a v o u r s w e t t e r s p o t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the t r a n s i t i o n a l h a b i t a t between Sphagnum hummocks and d e p r e s s i o n s .  V a c c i n i u m m y r t i l l o i d e s and G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n  f r e q u e n t l y t h r i v e i n d r y s i t e s under t a l l e r  (3-10 m) p i n e s .  m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. o c c i d e n t a l i s and Andromeda p o l i f o l i a conditions.  D u l i c h i u m arundinaceum.  sites.  i n h y g r i c d e p r e s s i o n s . Here, Rhyncho-  spora a l b a and s c a t t e r e d Eriophorum chamissonis  oxycoccos,  favour wetter  Empetrum nigrum grows i n a l l b u t the w e t t e s t  The herb l a y e r i s b e s t developed  Kalmia  t h r i v e , with sporadic  Sphagnum mats and hummocks support  Rubus chamaemorus and D r o s e r a r o t u n d i f o l i a .  Vaccinium  Tofieldia glutinosa  and D r o s e r a a n g l i c a grow i n a r e s t r i c t e d a r e a i n the c e n t r a l bog.  These  two t a x a were p r o b a b l y more widespread  b e f o r e d r a i n i n g and peat  a c t i v i t i e s decimated  Nuphar l u t e a o c c u p i e s p o o l s choked  by  the p o p u l a t i o n s .  mining  Sphagnum. The  ground cover c o n s i s t s p r i n c i p a l l y o f Sphagnum spp. w i t h  capillaceum predominating.  Sphagnum  T h i s moss t o l e r a t e s t h e d r i e s t c o n d i t i o n s o f a l l  the sphagna o f t h i s v e g e t a t i o n type and i s p r e s e n t l y a c t i v e l y advancing  into  dry h e a t h l a n d and P i n e Woodland a l o n g a l a r g e f r o n t i n t h e southern s e c t o r o f t h e bog.  Sphagnum fuscum f l o u r i s h e s b e s t under s l i g h t l y w e t t e r c o n d i -  t i o n s and combines w i t h S_. c a p i l l a c e u m t o form e x t e n s i v e mat-hummock complexes.  Sphagnum recurvum v a r . tenue f l o a t s a l o n g w i t h Nuphar l u t e a i n  d e p r e s s i o n s where s t a n d i n g water i s p r e s e n t throughout  the year.  f l a t - b o t t o m e d hollows t h a t d r y o u t i n summer and autumn, Sphagnum u s u a l l y forms a m o n o s p e c i f i c c a r p e t .  Sphagnum p a p i l l o s u m develops  In shallow, tenellum best  20  under a moisture  regime i n t e r m e d i a t e between t h a t p r e f e r r e d by S_.  laceum/S. fuscum and S_. recurvum/S. t e n e l l u m . hummock-forming s p e c i e s i n the c e n t r a l Other mosses o c c u r i n wet dry h e a t h l a n d .  Two  S_. p a p i l l o s u m i s a major  bog.  h e a t h l a n d , but are l e s s abundant than i n  P o l y t r i c h u m juniperinum,  Sphagnum hummocks.  capil-  however, o f t e n crowns the tops o f  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bog  l i v e r w o r t s , M y l i a anomala  and  Gymnocolea i n f l a t a , grow i n t e r s p e r s e d among the sphagna. L i c h e n s a r e a major element o f the ground cover type.  Two  lichen  s p e c i e s , C l a d i n a m i t i s and C l a d i n a r a n g i f e r i n a , t y p i c a l l y form cushions  on  hummock t o p s . lb.  Dry .(Ledum) h e a t h l a n d T h i s subtype can be b e s t e n v i s a g e d  landicum, and  which forms an almost  t h e r e by V a c c i n i u m  t i c o f wet  heathland  i s e i t h e r absent  as a monoculture o f Ledum  continuous  myrtilloides.  shrub  s t o r e y , i n t e r r u p t e d here  Most o f the o t h e r s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s -  are a l s o p r e s e n t but i n fewer numbers.  o f r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y by young s a p l i n g s .  Pinus  more humic and  reaches  the edges o f the bog,  brakes  and i n d i c a t e  both  s l i g h t l y drier conditions.  The herb stratum i s v e r y p o o r l y developed. abundance o f mosses and l i c h e n s . mats on d i s t u r b e d p e a t . The  contorta  Thickets of  S p i r a e a d o u g l a s i i and M y r i c a g a l e a long w i t h P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m grow where dry h e a t h l a n d  groen-  I n s t e a d t h e r e i s o f t e n an  Polytrichum juniperinum  forms e x t e n s i v e  Aulocomnium androgynum grows near r o t t i n g wood.  f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s form c o l o n i e s among heath Dicranum scopariuirt S t o k e s i e l l a oregana  stems and under P i n u s :  21  Hylocomium  splendens  Pleurozium  schreberi  Rhytidiadelphus loreus Rhytidiadelphus  triguetrus  L i c h e n s grow p r i m a r i l y on the dry s u r f a c e l a y e r o f heath p e a t often contains charcoal.  that  G l a d o n i a cenotea, C l a d o n i a c h l o r o p h a e a , C l a d o n i a  subsquamosa and C l a d o n i a transcendens t h r i v e under these c o n d i t i o n s .  2.  Pine  Woodland  (Fig.  5b)  Main f e a t u r e s : 1.  stands o f Pinus c o n t o r t a g r e a t e r than 4 m h i g h ;  2.  shrub l a y e r dominated Gaultheria  3.  by Ledum groenlandicum  and  shallon;  medium to w e l l developed bryophyte  cover.  Pine Woodland forms a band o f v e g e t a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g the c e n t r a l mass o f Heathland. Sprout, 1969).  T y p i c m e s i s o l s o i l s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  (Luttmerding and  The water t a b l e can v a r y as much as 1 m,  and drops w e l l  below the s u r f a c e i n l a t e summer. The  c l o s e d t o p a r t i a l l y open t r e e s t r a t u m i s composed o f Pinus c o n t o r -  t a , u s u a l l y much t a l l e r than 4 m. t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s , range  Growth r a t e s , as noted i n t r e e r i n g s  from 1-6  y e a r s f o r each c e n t i m e t e r o f diameter,  a r a t e much h i g h e r than i n Heathland. o c c i d e n t a l i s are p r e s e n t i n a few The  shrub l a y e r , dominated  from  Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a and B e t u l a  sites.  by Ledum and G a u l t h e r i a i s u s u a l l y w e l l  developed, whereas V a c c i n i u m m y r t i l l o i d e s i s l o c a l l y abundant.  Spiraea  d o u g l a s i i and P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m grow p r i m a r i l y i n the t r a n s i t i o n t o b i r c h woodland.  H e a t h l a n d s p e c i e s such as V a c c i n i u m u l i g i n o s u m , K a l m i a m i c r o p h y l l a ,  and V a c c i n i u m oxycoccos occupy advancing.  s i t e s where sphagnum mosses appear t o be  22  In wet  areas the herb l a y e r c o n s i s t s o f the same s p e c i e s as those  found i n wet h e a t h l a n d .  In s e v e r a l s i t e s T r i e n t a l i s europaea  subsp.  arctica,  Cornus u n a l a s c h k e n s i s and Garex l e n t i c u l a r i s o c c u r i n p a t c h e s . Sphagnum mosses  (:S. c a p i l l a c e u m , S_. p a p i l l o s u m ) are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  the t r a n s i t i o n t o wet h e a t h l a n d .  In the r e s t o f the Pine Woodland, mosses  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f dry h e a t h l a n d abound, a t times forming e x t e n s i v e c a r p e t s .  3.  Birch  Woodland  (Fig.  5c)  Main f e a t u r e s : 1.  dense stands o f mature B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s ;  2.  shrub s t o r e y o f S p i r a e a d o u g l a s i i ;  3.  p r o f u s e growth o f P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m .  B i r c h Woodland surrounds the bog p r o p e r , i n p l a c e s a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h Spiraea Brushland.  The p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l s , composed o f w e l l decomposed  o r g a n i c matter, are c l a s s i f i e d as t y p i c humisols  (Luttmerding and  Sprout,  1969) . B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s dominates the t r e e stratum, w i t h P i n u s c o n t o r t a and S a l i x h o o k e r i a n a o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t e r s p e r s e d . In the u n d e r s t o r e y , S p i r a e a and P t e r i d i u m grow i n g r e a t numbers. L o c a l l y G a u l t h e r i a sometimes dominates. cum  and M y r i c a g a l e appear  Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s , Ledum g r o e n l a n d i -  sporadically.  Carex r o s t r a t a , Carex l e n t i c u l a r i s , T r i e n t a l i s europaea  and Cornus  u n a l a s c h k e n s i s c o n s t i t u t e most o f the impoverished herb l a y e r .  The  same moss  s p e c i e s are p r e s e n t as i n P i n e Woodland, o f which P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m , P o l y t r i c h u m commune, and Isothecium s p i c u l i f e r u m are the most abundant.  4.  Spiraea  Brushland  Main f e a t u r e s :  (Fig.  5d)  23  1.  absence o f a t r e e  stratum;  2.  dense t h i c k e t s o f S p i r a e a  3.  s p a r s e herb-bryophyte  douglasii;  cover.  T h i s v e g e t a t i o n type surrounds most o f Burns Bog. l a n d , t h e s u b s t r a t e i s a t y p i c humisol  (Luttmerding  As i n B i r c h Wood-  and Sprout,  1969).  In t h i s zone, dense t h i c k e t s o f S p i r a e a predominate over a l l s p e c i e s . B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s and Malus f u s c a o c c u r as i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s .  In the  t r a n s i t i o n r e g i o n s i n t o bog v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s , G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n , Ledum groenlandicum and M y r i c a g a l e appear. grows i n t h e herb l a y e r . trichum juniperinum  Usually only T r i e n t a l i s  Moss growth i s a l s o suppressed,  r e a c h i n g a p p r e c i a b l e cover  This Spiraea Brushland of the F r a s e r River D e l t a .  europaea  with only Poly-  values.  v e g e t a t i o n type i s a l s o common on t h e wetlands Around t h e bog, i t seems t o occupy t h e p o s i t i o n  o f a p o o r l y d e f i n e d l a g g , a s i t u a t i o n a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a number o f o t h e r west c o a s t bogs (Rigg and R i c h a r d s o n ,  1938).  5.  5'e')  Mixed  Coniferous  Woodland  (Fig.  Main f e a t u r e s : 1.  a canopy o f Thuja p l i c a t a , P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s , Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a and, i n p l a c e s , Alnus  2.  rubra;  a shrub l a y e r dominated by G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n , Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s , and M e n z i e s i a f e r r u g i n e a ;  The  3.  abundant L y s i c h i t u m americanum;  4.  e x t e n s i v e bryophyte  cover.  Mixed C o n i f e r o u s Woodland i s b e s t developed  o f t h e bog a l o n g t h e f o o t o f Panorama Ridge.  i n the eastern s e c t i o n  Remnants o f t h i s  vegetation  24  type a l s o b o r d e r C r e s c e n t Slough. Sprout, 1969)  The humic m e s i s o l  (Luttmerding  and  s o i l i s u s u a l l y s a t u r a t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n swampy c o n d i t i o n s .  The upper s t o r e y c o n s i s t s mainly o f mature T h u j a p l i c a t a , P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s and Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a . measuring  80 cm i n diameter, was  One  r e c e n t l y f e l l e d P i c e a specimen,  determined  t o be 515 years o l d .  There  a l s o some l a r g e P i n u s c o n t o r t a t h a t are 30 cm i n diameter and up t o years o l d .  The most abundant, t a l l ,  Betula occidentalis.  tree/tall  125  t r e e s are A l n u s r u b r a and  A l n u s seems t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o s i t e s where t h e r e i s  a m i n e r a l h o r i z o n w i t h i n 1-2 a shrubby  deciduous  are  m o f the s u r f a c e .  In s e v e r a l areas t h e r e i s  shrub s t r a t u m i n c l u d i n g i n most cases Rhamnus p u r s h i a n u s ,  Acer c i r c i n a t u m , Cornus s e r i c e a and the o c c a s i o n a l Viburnum e d u l e . W i t h i n t h i s v e g e t a t i o n type t h e r e i s a dense shrub l a y e r ,  usually  dominated by G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n , w i t h l e s s e r numbers o f M e n z i e s i a , Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s , S p i r a e a d o u g l a s i i , V a c c i n i u m o v a l i f o l i u m and alaskaense.  Vaccinium  Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m i s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d to r o t t i n g  stumps.  The herb s t r a t u m o f Mixed C o n i f e r o u s Woodland i s dominated by 2 L y s i c h i t u m americanum, which reaches d e n s i t i e s o f 90 i n d i v i d u a l s p e r 100 m . Athyrium  f i l i x - f e m i n a and D r y o p t e r i s a s s i m i l i s sometimes o c c u r i n a s s o c i a -  t i o n with Lysichitum. Mosses and l i v e r w o r t s cover much o f the ground, l o g s and t r e e t r u n k s . The most common o f t h e s e a r e : Rhytidiadelphus loreus Stokesiella  oregana  Mnium g l a b r e s c e n s Isothecium  spiculiferum  Hylocomium  splendens  25  Frullania  tamarisci  P e l l i a 'neesiana Scapania b o l a n d e r i .  6.  Salmonberry Main  Bushland  features: 1.  I r r e g u l a r l y developed t r e e canopy;  2.  dense s m a l l t r e e / t a l l  shrub l a y e r , dominated by  Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s (Salmonberry); 3. The  w e l l developed bryophyte  removal o f l a r g e t r e e s by  i n the e a s t e r n p a r t o f the bog stands o f Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s .  logging  has The  carpet. from M i x e d ' C o n i f e r o u s Woodland  r e s u l t e d i n the growth o f r a t h e r dense s o i l i s a humic m e s i s o l , ( L u t t m e r d i n g  and  S p r o u t , 1969). The  common t r e e s p e c i e s  t h a t remained or c o l o n i z e d a f t e r l o g g i n g  include: Picea sitchensis Thuja p l i c a t a Tsuga  heterophylla  Alnus  rubra  Betula occidentalis Maius  fusca  Rhamnus p u r s h i a n u s Salix lasiandra. A l t h o u g h Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s dominates the shrub s p e c i e s a l s o p r e s e n t ,  including:  shrub s t o r e y , t h e r e  are  other  26  Cornus s e r i c e a Gaultheria shallon Lonicera involucrata Menziesia  ferruginea  Sambucus racemosa Spiraea douglasii Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m . L y s i c h i t u m americanum i s the most abundant member o f the p o o r l y herb stratum.  There are a l s o s c a t t e r e d p l a n t s o f Maianthemum d i l a t a t u m ,  Penanthe sarmentosa, S c u t e l l a r i a l a t e r i f l o r a and S t e l l a r i a The  developed  crispa.  l a r g e number o f o l d l o g s i n t h i s v e g e t a t i o n type has  to an e x t e n s i v e bryophyte cover.  The  s p e c i e s found are those  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Mixed C o n i f e r o u s  Woodland  (see p r e v i o u s  contributed t h a t are a l s o vegetation  type).  7.  Alder  Woodland  (Fig.  5f)  Main f e a t u r e s : 1.  an A l n u s r u b r a canopy;  2.  a shrub stratum  3.  s p a r s e l y developed herb and bryophyte  A l d e r Woodland has s m a l l creek  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ;  developed on a logged  f l o w i n g o f f Panorama Ridge.  were o r i g i n a l l y mapped as humic m e s i s o l s However, on f i e l d c h e c k i n g , m a t e r i a l , o f t e n w i t h i n a few organic  i n nature.  The  strata.  a l l u v i a l f a n , d e p o s i t e d by s o i l s under A l d e r Woodland .  (Luttmerding  and Sprout,  1969).  the s o i l s appear t o c o n t a i n abundant m i n e r a l centimeters  o f the s u r f a c e and  thus are  not  a  21 The  canopy i s composed c h i e f l y o f Alnus r u b r a , w i t h the  Salix lasiandra.  occasional  Other t r e e s p e c i e s o c c u r r i n g i n the assemblage  are:  Picea sitchensis Thuja p l i c a t a Acer  circinatum  Betula occidentalis Malus  fusca  Rhamnus p u r s h i a n u s . Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s i s the most common shrub.  The  f o l l o w i n g occur  sparsely: Lonicera Menziesia  involucrata ferruginea  Sambucus racemosa Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m Viburnum The  edule.  shaded c o n d i t i o n s r e s t r i c t the growth o f herbs, and  s i b i r i c a and  S t e l l a r i a c r i s p a provide  s t r a t u m i s s i m i l a r i n c o m p o s i t i o n but Coniferous  8.  any  appreciable  cover;  only  Claytonia  The  bryophyte  l e s s developed than t h a t o f Mixed  Woodland.  Unvegetated  Peatland  Peat has been e x t r a c t e d s i n c e e a r l y i n the b e i n g mined by  from a l a r g e a r e a  20th c e n t u r y  (Biggs,  1976).  i n the c e n t e r o f Burns Currently,  e i t h e r the h y d r a u l i c method o r the  l a r g e areas  " s c r a t c h i n g " method.  o f these p r a c t i c e s produce l a r g e expanses o f bare p e a t . the h y d r a u l i c method, l a r g e excavated p o o l s  Bog are Both  In a r e a s mined by  are l e f t b e h i n d w i t h r i d g e s  of  28  o r i g i n a l v e g e t a t i o n i n between.  The  s c r a t c h i n g method c o n s i s t s o f a n n u a l l y  removing the top 8 cm o f dry s u r f a c e p e a t from- e x t e n s i v e p l o t s t h a t remain vegetation-free.  When an area i s f i n a l l y abandoned, i t s l o w l y r e c o l o n i z e s  i n t o a t y p i c a l Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d , w i t h an assemblage i n i t i a l l y Polytrichum juniperinum,  The  Rubus chamaemorus and Rhynchospora a l b a .  O r i g i n a l V e g e t a t i o n o f the Burns Bog  Although  including  Area  the p l a n t assemblages o f the c e n t r a l bog  are p r o b a b l y  repre-  s e n t a t i v e o f the o r i g i n a l v e g e t a t i o n cover, the p e r i p h e r a l areas are b a d l y d i s t u r b e d as a r e s u l t o f c l e a r i n g , d r a i n i n g and b u r n i n g s i n c e European immigration.  Knowledge o f the o r i g i n a l v e g e t a t i o n can p r o v i d e c l u e s t o the  s u c c e s s i o n a l phases i n the development o f Burns Bog  as w e l l as  identifying  n e i g h b o u r i n g p o l l e n sources t h a t were p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t o r s t o the assemblages found i n c o r e s .  Data f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i n g p r e - d i s t u r b a n c e p l a n t  cover can be o b t a i n e d from e a r l y Land Survey Records Surveyors  palyno-  ( c f . Janssen,  1967).  mapping the F r a s e r D e l t a i n the e a r l y 1870's p r o v i d e d notes  the v e g e t a t i o n i n the a r e a around Burns Bog, w i t h i n the bog. i n t o a map  North and Teversham  although they d i d not  (1977) have s y n t h e s i z e d these  showing the o r i g i n a l v e g e t a t i o n .  on  survey data  D e s p i t e problems i n i n t e r p r e -  t a t i o n o f some o f the s u r v e y o r s ' terms f o r p l a n t s , North and Teversham were a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e 28 v e g e t a t i o n types based mainly on physiognomic characters.  In the map  the o c c u r r e n c e map  they p r e p a r e d ,  v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s were not o u t l i n e d ;  o f a v e g e t a t i o n type a t a l o c a l i t y was  simply denoted on a  o f the F r a s e r Lowland, by a l e t t e r d e s i g n a t e d to r e p r e s e n t t h a t type. F o r the purposes o f the p r e s e n t study, the map  o f North  and  Teversham, a l o n g w i t h some o f the o r i g i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n from an map  (Scott,  P i n d e r and C r i d g e , unpublished)  early  containing surveyors'  notes,  29  has been used t o produce a map Bog  o f the v e g e t a t i o n zones e x t a n t i n the Burns  a r e a i n 1873-1874 ( F i g . 6 ) .  Some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f  the d a t a are made here, so t h a t boundaries s i d e r e d v e r y approximate.  and d e s c r i p t i o n s must be  D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the v e g e t a t i o n types are  those used by North and Teversham  (1977), and come d i r e c t l y from  map: Nine v e g e t a t i o n types are r e c o g n i z e d f o r the Burns Bog a r e a  p l o t t e d on the 1.  and  map:  S a l t marsh - c o n t a i n i n g s a l t g r a s s , p r o b a b l y same as c u r r e n t s a l t marsh v e g e t a t i o n .  2.  Wet  g r a s s p r a i r i e - bunchgrasses,  rushes and reeds  s p e r s e d , p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n i n g sedges a l s o ;  interno  current equivalent. 3.  Red  t o p p r a i r i e - c o a s t a l g r a s s l a n d , may  have c o n t a i n e d  A g r o s t i s sp.; no known c u r r e n t e q u i v a l e n t . 4.  Grass, hardhack and w i l l o w .  5.  Grass w i t h shrubs - m a i n l y g r a s s w i t h patches o f w i l l o w , hardhack, c r a b a p p l e and  6.  rose.  Mixed s c r u b - hardhack, w i l l o w , c r a b a p p l e , r o s e ; common wetland  v e g e t a t i o n type i n the F r a s e r D e l t a ,  perhaps s i m i l a r t o S p i r a e a B r u s h l a n d 7.  (Ch. 2 ) .  Bog - s m a l l w i t h e r e d p i n e s , c r a n b e r r y bush, moss; l a b r a d o r t e a around the edges i n p l a c e s ; e q u i v a l e n t w i t h c u r r e n t Heathland  v e g e t a t i o n type  (Ch. 2 ) .  mostly  surveyors'  reports. The  con-  FIGURE  -  6:  Original  vegetation  of  the Burns  Bog  area  (1873). Pr^D  LEGEND peat  Bog ( 7 ) *  t  Marsh (1)  Grass  Top  ss  Prairie (3)  with  ss,  Prairie (2)  Shrubs (5)  Hardhack,  Willow  w  o mp F o r e s t - C e d a r , ( 8 ) uce, Hemlock, Alder ed S c r u b - H a r d h a c k , low, Crabapple (6) Spruce  Forest (9)  N  BOUNDARY BAY  *  Numbers r e f e r in the text.  todescriptions  31  8.  Swamp f o r e s t - cedar, spruce, hemlock, a l d e r , w i l l o w , c r a b a p p l e ; s i m i l a r t o Mixed C o n i f e r o u s F o r e s t (Ch. 2 ) .  9.  Spruce  f o r e s t - somewhat swampy; spruce, c r a b a p p l e , w i l l o w , a l d e r , b r i a r s , v i n e maple; s i m i l a r t o c u r r e n t r i v e r bank v e g e t a t i o n .  The map  r e v e a l s remarkable  v e g e t a t i o n o f the bog  d i f f e r e n c e s between the o r i g i n a l and the p r e s e n t  (Fig. 4).  A t the time o f the survey, P i n e Woodland  and B i r c h Woodland d i d not e x i s t .  The areas they now  a Heathland o r bog type v e g e t a t i o n .  occupy then  supported  T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the o b s e r v a -  t i o n t h a t no specimens o f Pinus c o n t o r t a w i t h i n the P i n e Woodland have been found t o be o v e r 70 y e a r s o l d .  A l s o w i t h i n a few c e n t i m e t e r s o f the s u r f a c e ,  t y p i c a l Sphagnum p e a t i s p r e s e n t under the P i n e Woodland and much o f the B i r c h Woodland. These two v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s have p r o b a b l y o r i g i n a t e d as a r e s u l t o f c l e a r i n g , b u r n i n g and d r a i n i n g .  Biggs  (1976) and O s v a l d  t o c l e a r i n g and b u r n i n g o f the southern p a r t s o f the The  (1933) both  bog.  farmland r e g i o n s t o the south o f the bog were covered by wet  l a n d c o n t a i n i n g bunchgrasses,  rushes and reeds.  and i t i s  p r o b a b l e t h a t s u r v e y o r s lumped sedges a l o n g w i t h g r a s s e s i n t h e i r To the e a s t , t h e r e was  grass-  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , no mention  i s made o f sedges here o r i n any o f the wetland environments  tions.  refer  good g r a s s p r a i r i e ,  top p r a i r i e v e g e t a t i o n type by N o r t h and Teversham  descrip-  c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the r e d (1977).  B o r d e r i n g the  bog on the west and n o r t h , shrubs were an important p a r t o f the v e g e t a t i o n , o c c u r r i n g i n clumps among g r a s s e s scrub).  Hardhack  (types 4 and 5) o r i n t h i c k e t s  (mixed  ( S p i r a e a d o u g l a s i i ) seems t o have been one o f the dominant  32  species involved.  Some spruce  f o r e s t grew a l o n g C r e s c e n t Slough.  Swamp  f o r e s t o c c u p i e d the banks of the F r a s e r R i v e r . In s h o r t , the a r e a was  a p p a r e n t l y covered l a r g e l y by bog  w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e zones o f wet shrubby t h i c k e t s . developed  g r a s s l a n d , i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a s s and  i n r e l a t i v e l y recent  Bog  (North and Teversham, 1977;  Osvald,  1933)  The two  a major f i r e i n the n o r t h e r n s e c t o r o f Burns Bog.  ecology  i s necessary  Fires  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g  are  o f the r o l e o f dia-  The  development f i r s t became apparent  d e p r e s s i o n were i d e n t i f i e d i n the bog.  One  type o f  The  de-  Sphagnum p a p i l l o s u m f l a n k s o f these "Nuphar ponds" which p e r s i s t s throughout  the y e a r .  are the t y p i c a l d e p r e s s i o n s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e many o f the bogs o f western B. C.  when  m deep and i s choked w i t h Nuphar l u t e a and Sphagnum  descend s t e e p l y i n t o the water  (Osvald, 1933)  and a r e p r o b a b l y  f l a t bottom.  These  south-  r e l a t e d t o normal r a i s e d  second type o f d e p r e s s i o n i s s h a l l o w  summer and has a f i r m of  1975,  f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g sections of p o l l e n  importance o f f i r e s i n bog  p r e s s i o n i s .5-1  growth.  century  e x p l a i n i n g some o f the c u r r e n t f e a t u r e s o f the v e g e t a t i o n .  types o f wet  recurvum.  s i n c e the l a t e 19th  . As r e c e n t l y as August  r e c o r d e d i n the c o r e s as c h a r c o a l h o r i z o n s .  grams and  and  times.  F i r e s have been documented i n Burns Bog  f i r e i n bog  shrubs  Both the B i r c h and P i n e Woodland zones appear t o have  The Role of F i r e i n Burns  t h e r e was  vegetation  (.2 m),  bog  d r i e s out i n the  I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f e e b l e c a r p e t  Sphagnum t e n e l l u m and e x t e n s i v e growth o f Rhynchospora a l b a .  The  s i d e s o f these "Rhynchospora lows" g r a d e _ g r a d u a l l y i n t o hummocks o f Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m and Sphagnum fuscum.  They a l s o o f t e n c o n t a i n p i n e  stumps.  Both types o f d e p r e s s i o n o c c u r w i t h i n a few yards o f each o t h e r .  33  .15 2 cm)  A s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f "Rhynchospora lows" i s t h a t w i t h i n the  top  m o f the s u r f a c e o f the bottom d e p o s i t s t h e r e i s always a t h i c k  (up t o  layer of charcoal.  Shallow p i t s dug  i n shrubby v e g e t a t i o n b e s i d e  these "Rhynchospora lows" d i d not r e v e a l a s i m i l a r c h a r c o a l l a y e r . r e s u l t , the,scheme o u t l i n e d i n F i g . 7 was  T h i s scheme  l a t e r c o n f i r m e d a f t e r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the a r e a burned i n August u n d i s t u r b e d bog  s u r f a c e i s a mosaic o f wet,  and dry, shrub-dominated p a t c h e s ; and dry  (Ledum) h e a t h l a n d .  l a n d are s u f f i c i e n t l y wet  of  was  1975.  Sphagnum-dominated  t h a t i s , a mosaic o f Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d  Many o f the d e p r e s s i o n s i n the Sphagnum heatht h a t they do not support any  shrubby v e g e t a t i o n o f the dry h e a t h l a n d , Ledum groenlandicum,  a  o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d as a p o s s i b l e  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the development o f "Rhynchospora lows".  The  As  i g n i t i o n and spread o f f i r e  The  dominated by Pinus c o n t o r t a and  seems p r e d i s p o s e d t o f i r e .  the P i n u s , w i t h many dead branches,  shrub growth.  The dense, low growth form  p r o v i d e s i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r the  (Rowe and S c o t t e r , 1973).  S i m i l a r l y , Ledum  seems i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r f i r e because i t produces g r e a t numbers o f  tinder-  l i k e stems and a l s o because o f i t s h i g h o i l c o n t e n t , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shared by many f i r e - a d a p t e d p l a n t s of  ( p y r o p h i l e s ) (Main, 1976).  d r y l e a v e s o f Ledum i n the l a b showed t h a t t h i s o i l would appear on  l e a f s u r f a c e and s i z z l e i n t o flame.  Ledum and many o t h e r shrubby  p l a n t s have e x t e n s i v e r o o t crown systems t h a t regenerate set  Burning  a e r i a l stems w i t h i n a s h o r t  the  bog  after fire,  and  time.  A f t e r a f i r e has burned over the bog  s u r f a c e , most o f the shrubby  v e g e t a t i o n i s d e s t r o y e d along w i t h any Sphagnum growing among the stems. However, the wet to  d e p r e s s i o n s are l e f t untouched because t h e r e are no  c a r r y the flames over.  Hence, a f t e r a f i r e ,  a desolate  wasteland,  shrubs  34  F I G U R E - 7: F i r e - i n d u c e d h u m m o c k - h o l l o w c y c l i n g  i n Burns Bog, D e l t a , 3.C  1  00&  high, dry ow, w e t  Sphagnum  charcoal previous  FRE  hummock  (from fire)  REGENERATION p o o r Sphagnum growth^  peat  rapid  sphagnum  peat  growth  . ...SELiBiji ,.„„„.r\  L A T E R S T A G E S OF R E G E N E R A T I O N high, dry  b u r i ed h o r i zon  .35  d o t t e d w i t h patches o f unburned Sphagnum; i s l e f t b e h i n d .  These Sphagnum  i s l a n d s then s e r v e as c e n t e r s o f Sphagnum expansion o v e r the s u r r o u n d i n g , charred surface.  They a l s o become t h e c e n t e r s o f Sphagnum p e a t  accumulation,  r e s u l t i n g i n t h e e l e v a t i o n o f these s i t e s above t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . In burned  c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , Sphagnum c o l o n i z a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e l y s u r f a c e i s slow.  disseminules quickly. of  flat,  A l t h o u g h s m a l l c u s h i o n s form from Sphagnum  (spores and p l a n t fragments), the c o l o n i e s do n o t spread  O b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t about  20 y e a r s a f t e r a f i r e ,  cushions  Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m and Sphagnum p a p i l l o s u m were o n l y s p a r s e l y s c a t t e r -  ed and o n l y 15-30 cm i n diameter. Initially, of  the burned  areas a r e q u i c k l y r e v e g e t a t e d from r o o t crowns  shrubs, o f which Vaccinium m y r t i l l o i d e s i s t h e f i r s t t o dominate,  ed by a massive  p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f Ledum.  the August 1975 f i r e ,  O b s e r v a t i o n s made one y e a r  followafter  i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l o n g w i t h these shrubs P o l y t r i c h u m  j u n i p e r i n u m , F u n a r i a h y g r o m e t r i c a , and Aulocomnium androgynum q u i c k l y c o l o n i z e d the burned  substrate.  times i n the bog, appeared  M a r c h a n t i a polymorpha, absent a t o t h e r  abundantly  i n v e r y wet s p o t s .  phase i s a common p o s t - f i r e phenomenon i n European bogs and i n t h e b o r e a l f o r e s t  This  bryophyte  (Froment, 1975)  (Rowe and S c o t t e r , 1973) .  Heath peat a c c u m u l a t i o n under these c o n d i t i o n s i s v e r y slow ( a p p r o x i mately  1 mm p e r y e a r based on one o b s e r v a t i o n ) because decomposition  almost t o keep pace w i t h heath l i t t e r d e p o s i t i o n . these f o r m e r l y shrubby growing,  The r e s u l t i s t h a t  areas become lower than t h e unburned, a c t i v e l y  Sphagnum i s l a n d s .  has burned  seems  Thus many s p o t s , e s p e c i a l l y those where t h e f i r e  i n t o t h e p e a t s u b s t r a t e , become s h a l l o w , w a t e r - f i l l e d d e p r e s s i o n s  w i t h a c h a r c o a l base.  These "lows"  a r e e v e n t u a l l y c o l o n i z e d by Rhyncho-  36  spora a l b a , Sphagnum t e n e l l u m and a l g a e .  In time a "Rhynchospora  low"  r e s u l t s ; because i t i s w e t t e r than the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a , i t e v e n t u a l l y c o n v e r t s t o a c e n t e r f o r Sphagnum growth and peat a c c u m u l a t i o n . c y c l e o f hummock-hollow a l t e r n a t i o n , a mechanism a t l e a s t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r a i s e d bog growth, i s c o n t i n u e d .  a) i t may  partially  I t i s questionable  whether t h i s c y c l i c p r o c e s s n e c e s s a r i l y speeds up peat because;  Thus a  accumulation,  remove c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts o f p r e v i o u s l y accumulated  peat; and b) burned-over  areas i n i t i a l l y accumulate  compared t o s i t e s w i t h a c t i v e Sphagnum growth. n a t u r a l Sphagnum c y c l i n g by f i r e may  peat v e r y s l o w l y  Thus, i n t e r r u p t i o n o f  s e v e r e l y r e t a r d normal p e a t  accumula-  tion. A f t e r the i n i t i a l P o l y t r i c h u m - s h r u b  s t a g e , but b e f o r e Sphagnum growth,  l i c h e n s o f the genus C l a d o n i a move i n and b l a n k e t e x t e n s i v e a r e a s . example, a s e c t i o n o f Burns Bog burned h i g h cover v a l u e s f o r C l a d o n i a spp.  around  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v e r y  T h i s i s a f e a t u r e a l s o commonly  s e r v e d i n the b o r e a l f o r e s t f o l l o w i n g f i r e s m a l l amount o f p e a t produced  1955  For  ob-  (Rowe and S c o t t e r , 1973).  The  by these has a s l i m y c h a r a c t e r and c o n t a i n s  many f u n g a l hyphae.  The E f f e c t o f Sphagnum on P i n e Growth  Pinus c o n t o r t a s e e d l i n g s sometimes emerge as e a r l y as one y e a r a f i r e , but the i n t e r v a l f o r t h e i r appearance i s u s u a l l y 2-5  after  y e a r s later...  Those P i n u s s e e d l i n g s t h a t have landed on unburned Sphagnum hummocks o r mats grow v e r y p o o r l y (1 cm diameter every 15 y e a r s ) , and develop a s t u n t e d stature  (.6m  high)  i f they are wet) appear normal  (Fig. 8).  Those t h a t germinate  grow r e l a t i v e l y w e l l  (4 m h i g h ) .  on burned  surfaces  (1 cm diameter every 1-6  years)  (even and  P i n u s s e e d l i n g s w i t h p a r t o f the r o o t systems  F I G U R E - 8: R e l a t i o n s h i p  o f p i n e g r o w t h t o Sphagnum hummock  formation.  Both t r e e s a r e 15 y e a r s o l d and s p r o u t e d a f t e r a f i r e t h a t d e s t r o y e d a l l s h r u b and p i n e g r o w t h , w h i l e b u r n i n g Sphagnum hummocks o n l y s l i g h t l y .  to  Sphagnum  fuscum/Sphagnum  Charcoal  capillaceum  estimated 60 - 80 vears o l d  38  covered  by an a c t i v e l y growing Sphagnum p a t c h e x h i b i t i n t e r m e d i a t e  w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e r e d u c t i o n o f r i n g growth on the s i d e o f the t r u n k f a c e s the advancing hummock. highly competitive capillaceum,  This pattern i s probably  features that  c o r r e l a t e d with  the  a b i l i t y o f hummock-forming mosses, such as Sphagnum  t o absorb n u t r i e n t s (Moore and Bellamy, 1974).  This hypothesis  may  also explain a s u r p r i s i n g p e r i o d i c i t y of  y e a r s i n r i n g growth found i n c e r t a i n b u r i e d Pinus  stumps.  10-20  Local increased  growth o f hummock-forming sphagnum mosses would r e s u l t i n a p e r i o d o f poor growth, whereas a decrease o r s t a n d s t i l l i n Sphagnum would r e s u l t i n improved growth.  Summary  In summary, the modern composition o f the bog vegetation.  and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the  appears t o r e l a t e t o changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d C l e a r i n g o f l a n d and  a l t e r a t i o n o f drainage  vegetation  i n the  original  p a t t e r n s have l e d  to the development o f Pine woodland and B i r c h Woodland on Sphagnum peats around the bog.  Wet  s u c c e s s i o n a l nature f i r e on the bog  g r a s s l a n d and were p r e s e n t  ecosystem was  shrubland  communities o f a p o s s i b l e  around the bog.  F i n a l l y the impact o f  d i s c u s s e d showing t h a t i t caused a sudden  change i n v e g e t a t i o n t h a t was  r e f l e c t e d i n sediments by  and  accumulation.  change i n n a t u r e  o f peat  a decrease i n r a t e  39  CHAPTER 3:  BOG  ERICACEAE:  POLLEN TETRAD SIZE, POLLEN PRODUCTIVITY  Members o f the E r i c a c e a e and Empetrum nigrum are important o f bog  v e g e t a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Burns Bog.  components  As such, i t would be  c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e t o know the r o l e e r i c a d s have p l a y e d  i n bog  of  development.  To g a i n as much i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e from p o l l e n diagrams, s t u d i e s were made o f :  The  1.  diameter ranges o f e r i c a d p o l l e n t e t r a d s ;  2.  t h e p o l l e n p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e s e bog  ericads.  r e s u l t s o f both s t u d i e s have been a p p l i e d t o the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  v e g e t a t i o n o f those  i n t e r v a l s c o n t a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t amounts o f  the  ericaceous  pollen.  1.  T e t r a d Diameter o f Bog E r i c a c e a e and Empetrum nigrum The  p o l l e n o f the E r i c a c e a e and Empetrum i s p r e s e r v e d  amounts i n bog  i n varying  d e p o s i t s , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y  v a r i o u s genera, and even more d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y the s p e c i e s 1959).  In the p r e s e n t  t e t r a d diameter was o f s p e c i e s i n Burns The  study,  a rudimentary, but q u i c k system  the  (Oldfield,  utilizing  developed to d i s t i n g u i s h e c o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t groups Bog.  e r i c a d s p e c i e s found abundantly i n Burns Bog Ledum groenlandicum Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a var. o c c i d e n t a l i s Andromeda  polifolia  Vaccinium m y r t i l l o i d e s V a c c i n i u m oxycoccos  are:  40  Vaccinium Gaultheria  uliginosum shallon  Empetrum nigrum. Diameter measurements (see O l d f i e l d , 1959) were made on 100 t e t r a d s taken from f l o w e r s i t i e s i n Burns Bog.  acetolyzed  c o l l e c t e d from numerous p l a n t s a t v a r i o u s  The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1  local-  and t h e s i z e  d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r each group i s p l o t t e d i n F i g . 9. Three diameter groups can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d : 1.  l e s s than 30 um - i n c l u d i n g most o f Ledum and Empetrum t e t r a d s ;  2.  30-36 um - i n c l u d i n g mainly Kalmia and  3.  microphylla  Vaccinium m y r t i l l o i d e s t e t r a d s ;  g r e a t e r than 36 um - i n c l u d i n g V a c c i n i u m oxycoccos, Vaccinium uliginosum,  Andromeda p o l i f o l i a , and  Gaultheria shallon tetrads. F o r t u i t o u s l y , these groups o f s p e c i e s have e c o l o g i c s i g n i f i c a n c e and can be used t o i n d i c a t e : Group 1.  - d r y (Ledum) h e a t h l a n d  Group 2.  - intermediate  Group 3.  - very wet  conditions;  t o wet c o n d i t i o n s ;  (Sphagnum) h e a t h l a n d  conditions.  Ledum groenlandicum o f Group 1 i s t h e prime i n d i c a t o r o f dry (Ledum) heathland conditions r e l a t i v e l y dry s i t e s .  i n t h e bog (see Ch. 2 ) , and f l o w e r s p r o f u s e l y i n these Empetrum nigrum, on the o t h e r hand, i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  an i n d i c a t o r o f d r y s i t u a t i o n s s i n c e i t can grow w e l l among Sphagnum hummocks. poorly  However, i n t h i s w e t t e r h a b i t a t i t has been observed t o f l o w e r ( c f . B i r k s , 1975).  Secondly, under c o n d i t i o n s o f i d e a l  preservation,  TABLE 1:  TETRAD DIAMETERS  Species  OF MAJOR ERICAD SPECIES IN BURNS BOG, DELTA, B.  Mean t e t r a d diameter  Range  Standard  Deviation  Ledum groenlandicum  27.20 ym*  24-30  Empetrum nigrum  26.15  22-31  32.54  28-37  1.75  Vaooinium myrtilloides  33.21  28-39  2.46  Vaccinium oxycoccos  38.63  33-44  2.24  Vaccinium uliginosum  41.78  36-48  2.83  Andromeda polifolia  43.29  38-51  2.64  Gaultheria  46.97  41-53  2.50  Kalmia  subsp.  microphylla  occidentalis  shallon  *A11 measurements a r e i n pm. was 100 t e t r a d s .  1.41  1.77  Sample s i z e f o r a l l s p e c i e s  FIGURE - 9: D i s t r i b u t i o n  of tetrad sizes of bog Ericaceae  and Etnpetrum nigrum. Group 3  Andromeda  pollfolia  N3  Vaccinium  TETRAD  DIAMETER  IN  MICROMETERS  Sample size for each species i s 100 tetrads. Broken lines are used for purposes of c l a r i t y i n presentation and have no other significance.  uliginosum  43  i t s t e t r a d s can be  distinguished morphologically  Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a Group 2.  i s the  i n d i c a t o r of intermediate  Vaccinium m y r t i l l o i d e s i s a problematic  the F r a s e r D e l t a , as i t s p o p u l a t i o n s the p i n e  conditions i n  s p e c i e s i n Burns Bog  f o r e s t s o f i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  Examination o f c o l l e c t e d  c l a r i f y whether V. m y r t i l l o i d e s  a r r i v e d i n the D e l t a a r e a r e c e n t l y , or i f i t has  grown here e v e r s i n c e  s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s became a v a i l a b l e i n these lowland bogs. and  and  are d i s j u n c t from the main range i n  m a t e r i a l from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s has n o t h e l p e d has  from those o f Ledum.  V i g o r o u s growth  f l o w e r i n g o f t h i s p l a n t are r e s t r i c t e d t o p o s t - f i r e s i t u a t i o n s on  deep  p e a t s where i t i s not choked out by Ledum. A l l t a x a o f Group 3, except G a u l t h e r i a are e x c e l l e n t i n d i c a t o r s o f wet  c o n d i t i o n s , and  a l s o o f a c t i v e Sphagnum growth.  s h a l l o n does not grow i n v e r y wet  Gaultheria  h a b i t a t s , a l t h o u g h i t i s sometimes  on the r e l a t i v e l y dry tops o f Sphagnum hummocks. under these c o n d i t i o n s and  In c o n t r a s t ,  very  I t does not u s u a l l y  present flower  f o r t h i s reason i t has been excluded from f u r t h e r  discussion.  Application of The  results:  information obtained  can be  the diameter o f t e t r a d s r e c o v e r e d o f t e t r a d s i n each s i z e - r a n g e  applied to paleoecology  from f o s s i l d e p o s i t s .  i s known, comparison w i t h  p e r m i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the e r i c a d component o f the One  assumption must be kept i n mind.  species present modern times. if  a t one  time i n the bog  may  by measuring  Once the surface  frequency  samples  vegetation.  I t i s possible that  ericaceous  not have s u r v i v e d through t o  Hence, c a u t i o n must be used i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y  t h e r e are m a c r o f o s s i l s i n d i c a t i n g such l o c a l l y e x t i n c t s p e c i e s , o r i f  t h e r e are o t h e r  good i n d i c a t o r s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l change.  Finally  the  44  ecology o f each s p e c i e s used needs t o be w e l l For Burns Bog, the s p e c i e s  understood.  c o m p o s i t i o n and t e t r a d diameters o f e r i c a d s  c o r r e l a t e w e l l enough t o g i v e a good model f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Although  a p p l i c a b l e i n t h i s case, i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t t h i s model w i l l work when extended t o o t h e r bogs, e s p e c i a l l y those w i t h d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s o f e r i c a d s o r d i f f e r e n t sedimentary regimes.  2.  P o l l e n P r o d u c t i v i t y o f Bog E r i c a c e a e To  cal  increase the usefulness  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , information  o f t h e t h r e e diameter groups i n p a l e o e c o l o g i on the comparative p o l l e n p r o d u c t i v i t y o f  the e r i c a d s p e c i e s was a l s o o b t a i n e d  by f i e l d sampling.  With these d a t a  the l e v e l s o f each e r i c a d group i n a f o s s i l p o l l e n sample can be compared, after correcting for differences i n productivity. The all  p o l l e n p r o d u c t i v i t y p e r square meter p e r y e a r was determined f o r  the species  i n T a b l e 1, except Empetrum nigrum and G a u l t h e r i a  shallon.  F o r each s p e c i e s , t e n q u a d r a t s , 10 cm by 10 cm, were chosen from a r e a s where the h i g h e s t provided  density o f flowers  a maximum p r o d u c t i v i t y v a l u e  of that species  seemed t o o c c u r .  under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s .  This  I n these  quadrats t h e number o f f l o w e r s was counted and the cover o f t h e s p e c i e s estimated. obtained  F o r each s p e c i e s , the average number o f stamens p e r f l o w e r was  from 10 f l o w e r s .  Then, t h e average number o f p o l l e n g r a i n s p e r  anther, from a sample o f 10 undehisced a n t h e r s , anthers were p l a c e d  was determined.  To do t h i s ,  i n a drop o f 10% KOH on a g l a s s s l i d e , squashed, and  the p o l l e n t e t r a d s d i s p e r s e d by c i r c u l a r motion o f a c o v e r s l i p . p o l l e n t e t r a d s i n t h e anther were counted.  A l l the  F i n a l l y , the maximum t e t r a d  p r o d u c t i v i t y p e r square meter p e r year was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each  species.  45  From T a b l e 2 i t can be noted t h a t Kalmia and Ledum are the most p r o l i f i c p o l l e n producers. and 3.3  x 10  8  t e t r a d s / m / y e a r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o the p o l l e n c r o p . x 10  8  tetrads/m  2  annually.  The  2  2.3  x 10  7  a t 5.57  x 10  7  tetrads/m /year; 2  x  10  8  myrtil-  remaining t h r e e s p e c i e s  r e l a t i v e l y poor p o l l e n p r o d u c e r s ; V. u l i g i n o s u m a t 7.15  m /year; V. oxycoccos at  V.  2  l o i d e s y i e l d s 1.82 are  Under o p t i m a l c o n d i t i o n s they c o n t r i b u t e 4.1  x 10  7  tetrads/  and Andromeda  polifolia  tetrads/m /year. 2  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h low p e r c e n t a g e s o f Group 3 t e t r a d s may  occur i n a f o s s i l  e r i c a d assemblage, they are n e v e r t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t  i n terms o f the o r i g i n a l v e g e t a t i o n cover, because duced by t h i s group.  In an a r e a dominated  o f t e n some Ledum (Group 1) and Kalmia  fewer t e t r a d s are p r o -  by Group 3 v e g e t a t i o n t h e r e are  (Group 2) p l a n t s .  On the b a s i s o f  t e t r a d p r o d u c t i v i t y , these l a s t two diameter c l a s s e s c o u l d dominate the e r i c a d spectrum.  However, as l o n g as a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f the  belonged t o the g r e a t e r than 36 ym group  ( f o r a r e a s o n a b l e sample  the wet h a b i t a t s p e c i e s p r o b a b l y predominated  spectrum size),  i n the heath c o v e r .  Also,  the r e s u l t s imply t h a t o v e r a l l p e r c e n t a g e s o f E r i c a c e a e must be expected t o be lower i n s p e c t r a from Group 3 assemblages than i n a r e a s dominated  by the  more p r o d u c t i v e Group 1 and Group 2 s p e c i e s . In  c o n c l u s i o n , t h r e e e c o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t groups o f e r i c a d s can be  r e c o g n i z e d i n Burns Bog on the b a s i s o f t e t r a d diameter.  When combined w i t h  the p o l l e n p r o d u c t i v i t y v a l u e s f o r the c o n s t i t u e n t s p e c i e s o f these  groups,  the p l o t t i n g o f t e t r a d s i z e s p r o v i d e s a p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l t o o l f o r r e c o g n i z i n g dry, i n t e r m e d i a t e and wet h e a t h l a n d v e g e t a t i o n types i n f o s s i l deposits.  TABLE 2:  POLLEN TETRAD PRODUCTIVITY OF MAJOR BOG ERICACEAE, BURNS BOG, DELTA, B. C. Flowers p e r 100 cm *  Species  2  Anthers p e r flower*  Tetrads per anther*  Mean  Range  73  43-90  10  317  129  97-180  10  Ledum groenlandicum  352  234-455  Vaccinium oxyooooos  54  Andromeda Kalmia subsp.  Vaccinium Vaccinium  polifolia  microphylla occidentalis  myrtilloides uliginosum  Mean  Range  Productivity in tetrads/ m„2*  Species cover*  277-428  2.3 x 10'  51%  3200  2915-4016  4.1 x 10 8  56%  7  1823  1500-2100  3.3 x 10°  95%  39-74  10  1031  881-1152  5.6 x 1 0  7  56%  452  401-500  10  402  264-480  1.8 x 1 0  8  91%  95  51-127  10  753  551-865  7.5 x 1 0  7  78%  *Means determined  f o r 10 v a l u e s .  47  CHAPTER 4:  POLLEN DEPOSITION IN WETLAND ENVIRONMENTS OF THE FRASER RIVER DELTA  Study o f s u r f a c e samples and p o l l e n r a i n forms an important Quaternary p a l y n o l o g y .  Wright  (1967) emphasized t h e v a l u e o f such  gations i n p r e v i o u s l y unstudied disturbed.  Cohen  samples p r o v i d e d  aspect o f investi-  r e g i o n s and a l s o where v e g e t a t i o n has been  (1973) demonstrated t h a t p o l l e n s p e c t r a o f s u r f a c e f i n g e r p r i n t s f o r wetland communities.  Such s t u d i e s  indi-  c a t e t h a t f o r e l u c i d a t i n g l o c a l v e g e t a t i o n changes, p o l l e n r a i n and s u r f a c e sample d a t a a r e i n d i s p e n s i b l e , p r o v i d i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o r e l a t e v e g e t a t i o n t o p o l l e n assemblages.  I n the p r e s e n t  study, many  s u r f a c e sample analogs and n e a r - a n a l o g s were found f o r zones r e c o g n i z e d i n cores.  T h i s chapter presents  t h e d a t a and c o n c l u s i o n s o b t a i n e d  from p a l y -  n o l o g i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f modern environments and forms the b a s i s f o r t h e interpretation of f o s s i l deposits.  The work was n o t i n t e n d e d  exhaustive,  as much c r i t i c a l  b u t was used t o p r o v i d e  to supplement t h e main p a l e o e c o l o g i c  t o be  i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e  research.  A p r e l i m i n a r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f core BBDC r e v e a l e d t h a t modern p o l l e n data from s a l t marsh, i n t e r t i d a l d e l t a - f r o n t , r i v e r marsh and bog e n v i r o n ments would be v a l u a b l e f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n a c c u r a t e p a l e o e c o l o g i c i n t e r p r e tation. 1.  To o b t a i n these  d a t a t h r e e d i f f e r e n t approaches were used:  P o l l e n r a i n was m o n i t o r e d a t s a l t marsh and bog s i t e s i n t h e  F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a d u r i n g t h e f l o w e r i n g seasons o f 1974 and p a r t o f 1976. 2.  Cover e s t i m a t e s  o f s p e c i e s i n t h e v e g e t a t i o n were made a t these  sites.. 3.  M u l t i p l e s u r f a c e samples from r e c e n t l y d e p o s i t e d sediments a t  48  these and o t h e r l o c a t i o n s were a n a l y z e d  f o r palynomorphs,  an e x t e n s i o n o f s u r f a c e sampling, was taken t o p r o v i d e  A short  core,  i n s i g h t i n t o the  developmental sequence a t a d e l t a ^ f r o n t s i t e .  Methods  S t a t i o n s from t h r e e areas were chosen f o r i n t e n s i v e study A t these  l o c a l i t i e s , p o l l e n r a i n was monitored, s u r f a c e samples  and v e g e t a t i o n e v a l u a t e d . Surface  ( F i g . 10).  A t s i t e R, o n l y p o l l e n r a i n d a t a were  analyzed obtained.  samples o n l y were c o l l e c t e d from s i t e NP, r i v e r marsh, and d e l t a -  f r o n t environments because c o n s t a n t l i n g d i s h e s and j a r s .  f l o o d i n g washed away p o l l e n r a i n samp-  A s h o r t core was o b t a i n e d  from a sedge community  j u s t o u t s i d e t h e d i k e , south o f the M i d d l e Arm o f the F r a s e r R i v e r on L u l u Island.  Modern P o l l e n Rain: Various  sampling methods f o r p o l l e n r a i n a r e a v a i l a b l e (Lewis and  Ogden, 1965).  Most a r e designed  r e g i s t e r m a t e r i a l dropping  t o t r a p p o l l e n above t h e ground and do n o t  d i r e c t l y t o the s u r f a c e from l o c a l  flowers.  T h i s l a t t e r component s u p p l i e s t h e most p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n t e r p r e t ing i n s i t u  vegetation.  In t h e p r e s e n t  study,  p o l l e n r a i n was c o l l e c t e d i n i t i a l l y on g l a s s  s l i d e s c o a t e d w i t h g l y c e r i n e j e l l y , and p l a c e d i n p e t r i d i s h e s .  Because o f  wash-out d u r i n g r a i n y p e r i o d s , the s i t e s had t o be v i s i t e d t o o f r e q u e n t l y , so t h e use o f 100 mm deep g l a s s j a r s c o n t a i n i n g g l y c e r i n and a few drops o f phenol was s u b s t i t u t e d .  Screens were a t t a c h e d over the mouths o f t h e j a r s  t o keep o u t i n s e c t s and v o l e s  (Sorex vagrans v a g r a n s ) .  c o l l e c t e d a t various i n t e r v a l s , ranging  J a r s and d i s h e s were  from weekly t o monthly, as time  S T R A I T OF GEORGIA  xE,F  BOUNDARY BAY  50  permitted. Contents poured through  o f j a r s and p e t r i d i s h e s were r i n s e d o u t w i t h h o t water and a coarse mesh s c r e e n i n t o 15 cc c o n i c a l c e n t r i f u g e tubes.  The m a t e r i a l was then p r o c e s s e d by a c e t o l y s i s , s t a i n e d and mounted i n g l y c e r i n j e l l y on g l a s s s l i d e s .  Two hundred p o l l e n g r a i n s and spores were  counted  a l o n g t r a n s e c t s on the s l i d e f o r each sample.  Surface  Samples:  To p r o v i d e the average p o l l e n and spore  composition  o f the sediments  below v a r i o u s v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s , 10-20 mm o f t h e s u r f a c e d e p o s i t s were sampled w i t h a 20 mm  diameter,  sharpened aluminum p i p e .  p o l l e n r a i n was a l s o b e i n g monitored, within  F o r s i t e s where  t h r e e such samples were taken, a l l  .5 m o f the c o l l e c t i n g j a r o r d i s h , and i n s i d e the 2 m x 2 m  evaluated f o r vegetation.  quadrat  T h i s was done t o keep the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s o f  s u r f a c e sample, c o l l e c t i n g j a r and p o l l e n p r o d u c i n g v e g e t a t i o n as c l o s e as possible.  S u r f a c e d e p o s i t s were p r o c e s s e d u s i n g a s t a n d a r d procedure  s i s t i n g o f HF treatment  (when n e c e s s a r y ) , b o i l i n g i n 5% potassium  a c e t o l y s i s , bleaching, screening r e s i d u e was passed  through  an a l c o h o l d e h y d r a t i o n s e r i e s i n t o  j u s t o u t s i d e the d i k e , a i m  s t e e l sampling  hyroxide,  (250 um) and s t a i n i n g w i t h s a f r a n i n .  b u t y l a l c o h o l and mounted i n s i l i c o n e o i l on g l a s s s l i d e s . front,  con-  tube i n t o the s i l t s .  The  tertiary-  On the d e l t a -  core was o b t a i n e d by p u s h i n g  a stainless  The samples from t h e core were p r o -  c e s s e d as above. In a l l c a s e s , p o l l e n g r a i n s and spores were i d e n t i f i e d and a l o n g t r a n s e c t s o f s l i d e s , t o a t o t a l o f 200.  counted  51  Results  The r e s u l t s o f p o l l e n r a i n , s u r f a c e sample and v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s e s are p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d t o g e t h e r f o r each s i t e .  A l l the f i g u r e s  (11-27)  and T a b l e 3 c o n t a i n i n g the r e s u l t s are l o c a t e d a t the end o f the  chapter  (PP-  S i t e s from the Southern 1.  2.  1.  (Site A).  Ledum groenlandicum  h e a t h l a n d i n open Pinus c o n t o r t a woodland  BSC).  3. (Site  Bog:  Open B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s woodland w i t h P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m  understorey  (Sites  P e r i p h e r y o f Burns  S p i r a e a d o u g l a s i i t h i c k e t s i n open B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s woodland  D).  Open B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s woodland w i t h P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m understorey The  (Site A).  s i t e i s covered w i t h t a l l P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m from June u n t i l  September.  I t a l s o c o n t a i n s immature specimens o f S p i r a e a d o u g l a s i i  Ledum groenlandicum  ( F i g . 11c).  mat  of Pteridium l i t t e r The  and  Stands o f B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s s u r r o u n d  a r e a , p r o v i d i n g a cover r a n g i n g from 20-100%. throughout  The  the  s u r f a c e i s covered by a  the y e a r .  s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f the p o l l e n r a i n  ( F i g . 11a)  are as f o l l o w s .  A l n u s , which i s p a r t o f the r e g i o n a l r a i n , dominates i n l a t e March and April.  mid-  early  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d f i r s t by a heavy r a i n o f B e t u l a i n m i d - A p r i l , and  next by a s m a l l peak i n c f . T h u j a . i n mid-June, produced  The Pinus c o n t o r t a p o l l e n r a i n i s heavy  mainly by the p i n e stands 200 m t o the n o r t h .  P i n u s phase i s t e r m i n a t e d by a g r a d u a l r i s e i n Gramineae p o l l e n t h a t  This appears  52  to  come from wetland  stands o f P h a l a r i s arundinacea  a g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d s t o the south. u n t i l mid-August.  and mixed g r a s s e s  Grass p o l l e n dominates the spectrum  During t h i s time, p o l l e n a t t r i b u t e d t o Rumex c f . a c e t o -  s e l l a and Chenopodiaceae a l s o o c c u r s , t r a n s p o r t e d i n t o t h e s i t e surrounding  from  f i e l d s and perhaps from s a l t marshes i n Boundary Bay.  douglasii pollen,  Spiraea  a p p a r e n t l y produced by a d j a c e n t t h i c k e t s , ranges from  l a t e J u l y t o October. a q u i l i n u m appear.  from  I n August-September, spores  from o n - s i t e P t e r i d i u m  F i n a l l y , when f e r n f r o n d s have d i e d down, B e t u l a p o l l e n  shows an abrupt i n c r e a s e i n September t h a t appears anomalous.  This i s  a t t r i b u t e d t o b i r c h p o l l e n t h a t has been s t i r r e d up from t h e d r y s u r f a c e by wind, o r has f a l l e n a l o n g w i t h dead l e a v e s , and d e p o s i t e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i n g jars. S u r f a c e samples from s i t e A ( F i g . l i b ) c o n t a i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y quantities  (15-20%) o f P i n u s , A l n u s , B e t u l a and P t e r i d i u m .  w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the p o l l e n r a i n . seem anomalous as they a r e absent tion.  equal  These types a r e  The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h E r i c a c e a e l e v e l s  from b o t h t h e p o l l e n r a i n and the vegeta-  P o s s i b l y , they d e r i v e d from the peat s u b s t r a t e on which b i r c h  woodland has developed.  Notable  common i n t h e summer p o l l e n r a i n . t h i s suggests  i s the low v a l u e o f Gramineae p o l l e n , so Together  w i t h t h e absence o f c f . Thuja  t h a t these r e l a t i v e l y t h i n w a l l e d g r a i n s do n o t s u r v i v e on the  dried-out fern l i t t e r  substrate.  T h i n w a l l e d P t e r i d i u m spores may be p r o -  t e c t e d i n s p o r a n g i a a t t a c h e d t o f r o n d fragments, as f e r n a n n u l i a r e p r e s e n t in  t h e s u r f a c e samples.  Abundant q u a n t i t i e s o f f u n g a l spores  G e l a s i n o s p o r a and Type-3 o f Van Geel  (see T a b l e 3 ) ,  (V.G. 3) (see Appendix 3, F i g . 5 1 c )  are p r o b a b l y i n d i c a t o r s o f h u m i f i e d l i t t e r  (Van G e e l , 1973).  53  2.  Ledum groenlandicum h e a t h l a n d woodland  (Sites  i n open Pinus  BSC).  S i t e s B and C are l o c a t e d 250 ( F i g . 10) tation. with  contorta  m and 450  m r e s p e c t i v e l y north of s i t e  i n open Ledum groenlandicum h e a t h l a n d  A  w i t h i n Pine Woodland vege-  Both l o c a l i t i e s are surrounded by dense Ledum ( F i g s . 12c,  13c),  s i g n i f i c a n t numbers o f V a c c i n i u m m y r t i l l o i d e s t h a t are f l o w e r i n g a t C,  but b a r e l y f l o w e r i n g a t B.  S i t e C has  s h a l l o n , which', f l o w e r s o n l y p o o r l y .  a considerable  cover o f G a u l t h e r i a  Pteridium aquilinum  occurs  a t both  localities. The  p o l l e n r a i n diagrams from both B and C s i t e s  reduced B e t u l a peaks compared to s i t e A.  The  B e t u l a stands.  away from b i r c h  o f the p o l l e n i s d e p o s i t e d w i t h i n the f i r s t The  13a)  show  marked d e c r e a s e s i n B e t u l a  through the s i t e sequence, A, B, C, p r o c e e d i n g i m p l i e s t h a t 75%  ( F i g s . 12a,  stands,  500  d i s p e r s a l d i s t a n c e seems i n o r d i n a t e l y s h o r t  m from  the  especially  because of the s t r o n g s o u t h e a s t e r l y winds t h a t blow d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Pinus p o l l e n l e v e l s are g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r a t s i t e s B and C than a t A throughout the summer, presumably because o f the p r o x i m i t y o f the source The  non-arboreal  (NAP)  trees.  component a t s i t e s B and C e x h i b i t s r e d u c t i o n s  i n p o l l e n o f Gramineae, Rumex c f . a c e t o s e l l a and the Chenopodiaceae d e r i v e d from farmlands.  Apparently  t h i s r e l a t e s t o the i n c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e o f  s t a t i o n s from the edge o f the bog. summer NAP.  Ericaceae  30-36 um  form a prominent p a r t o f  In J u l y t h e r e i s an i n f l u x o f t e t r a d s l e s s than 30 um  diameter t h a t are a s c r i b e d t o Ledum  (see Ch.  these  3).  the  in  A t s i t e C t e t r a d s i n the  range o r i g i n a t e from whole f l o w e r s and a n t h e r s ,  f a l l e n o r washed  from p l a n t s o f V a c c i n i u m m y r t i l l o i d e s hanging above the sampling j a r .  Low  l e v e l s o f S p i r a e a almost c e r t a i n l y t r a n s p o r t e d from p r o f u s e l y f l o w e r i n g t h i c k e t s around the bog p e r i p h e r y  ( c f . J a n s s e n , 1973)  are a l s o r e c o r d e d  at  54  t h i s time.  Fewer P t e r i d i u m spores are d e p o s i t e d than a t s i t e A,  reflecting  the d i m i n i s h e d r o l e o f t h i s s p e c i e s i n the v e g e t a t i o n . The 13b).  s u r f a c e s p e c t r a o f s i t e s B and C are dominated by Pinus E r i c a c e a e t e t r a d s , most o f which b e l o n g  l o c a l v e g e t a t i o n dominant.  A t s i t e C,  to Ledum, r e p r e s e n t  Alnus  Sphagnum spores  reaches  much h i g h e r l e v e l s  and  It is  a t s i t e C than at  B.  i n the s u r f a c e samples a t C i n d i c a t e t h a t the s i t e i s  s i t u a t e d on a Sphagnum p e a t Fungal  (25%)  12b,  the  s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s o f Alnus  Tsuga are c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t the r e g i o n a l p o l l e n component. u n c l e a r why  (Figs.  substrate.  m i c r o f o s s i l s from the s u r f a c e i n c l u d e V.G.  ceae a s c o c a r p s .  A s s u l i n a and  c f . Helicosporium  3, and M i c r o t h y r i a -  r h i z o p o d t e s t s are a l s o  present.  3.  S p i r a e a d o u g l a s i i t h i c k e t s i n open B e t u l a o c c i d e n t a l i s woodland  (Site  S i t e D was 150  D).  established i n extensive t h i c k e t s of Spiraea  m e a s t o f s i t e A.  Spiraea excludes  almost a l l o t h e r s p e c i e s , w i t h o n l y  Ledum o c c u r r i n g a l o n g w i t h i t ( F i g . 14c). Polytrichum  douglasii,  The  ground i s c a r p e t e d  with  juniperinum.  The p o l l e n - r a i n diagram f o r t h i s s i t e  ( F i g . 14a)  resembles t h a t o f  s i t e A, but d i f f e r s i n h a v i n g  a major S p i r a e a peak i n l a t e J u l y to September.  There i s no B e t u l a resurgence  i n l a t e September as a t s i t e A;  of  Spiraea probably  prevents  v i g o r o u s wind a c t i v i t y a t ground  P o l l e n a n a l y s i s o f s u r f a c e d e p o s i t s o f l e a f and (Fig.  14b)  c a n t l y , the  dense growth level.  twig l i t t e r  at s i t e  shows s u b s t a n t i a l numbers o f B e t u l a and S p i r a e a p o l l e n . first  Signifi-  sample c o l l e c t e d i n A p r i l c o n t a i n e d much more B e t u l a  p o l l e n than the two  obtained  later.  T h i s phenomenon was  D  a l s o observed  at  55  s i t e A, and i n d i c a t e s t h a t a number o f samples s h o u l d be taken the year t o a v o i d anomalies pollen production. Pinus  throughout  a r i s i n g from c o i n c i d e n t sampling time and  local  Alnus p e r c e n t a g e s are h i g h , e s p e c i a l l y i n comparison  (15%), even though  to  the p i n e p o l l e n source i s 200 m away, w h i l e the  Alnus p o l l e n source i s a t l e a s t 2 km d i s t a n t .  Such a sharp decrease i n  p i n e p o l l e n w i t h i n a s h o r t d i s t a n c e o f the p r o d u c i n g v e g e t a t i o n has been observed by Turner (Janssen, 1973). of oxidation.  (1964), and supports the e x p o n e n t i a l d r o p - o f f model S p i r a e a g r a i n s appear "melted", most l i k e l y as a r e s u l t  P o l l e n o f Nuphar l u t e a and Sphagnum spores have p r o b a b l y  been r e c y c l e d from d i s t u r b e d p e a t under the c u r r e n t v e g e t a t i o n .  As a t  s i t e s A, B and C, g r a s s and o t h e r herbaceous  although  they are abundant i n the p o l l e n r a i n .  s p e c i e s are absent,  G e l a s i n o s p o r a and t r a c e s o f Desmidi-  o s p o r a and A s s u l i n a are a l s o r e c o r d e d a t s i t e  S i t e s from the I n t e r i o r o f Burns  1.  D.  Bog:  1.  Pinus c o n t o r t a woodland  2.  Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d  3.  Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d c l e a r i n g i n Pinus c o n t o r t a woodland  4.  Nuphar l u t e a pond i n Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d  P i n u s c o n t o r t a woodland  ( S i t e H).  ( S i t e s I and R).  (Site  ( S i t e G).  NP).  ( S i t e H).  T h i s s t a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a dense s t a n d o f Pinus c o n t o r t a , cont a i n i n g an u n d e r s t o r e y o f Ledum groenlandicum (Fig.  and V a c c i n i u m u l i g i n o s u m  15c). Throughout  the y e a r , the p o l l e n r a i n i s c l e a r l y dominated  w i t h p e r c e n t a g e s r a r e l y d r o p p i n g below 50%  ( F i g . 15a).  Alnus  by P i n u s , reaches  a p p r e c i a b l e l e v e l s i n s p r i n g and autumn, when the l o c a l P i n u s component drops enough t o unmask the r e g i o n a l p o l l e n r a i n .  Ericaceae, including  56  tetrads of a l l size classes, f a l l  from the s u r r o u n d i n g bushes i n the summer.  The l a c k o f o t h e r p o l l e n types r e f l e c t s the overwhelming l o c a l P i n u s p r o d u c t i o n , and perhaps  a l s o a f i l t e r i n g e f f e c t from the crowns o f the t r e e s .  The s u r f a c e spectrum o f s i t e H c l e a r l y demonstrates d i l u t e s a l l o t h e r types  ( F i g . 15b).  that Pinus p o l l e n  Thus h i g h Pinus p e r c e n t a g e s would be  expected t o c h a r a c t e r i z e p i n e woodland v e g e t a t i o n i n f o s s i l d e p o s i t s . A l n u s and E r i c a c e a e (from p l a n t s on the s i t e ) c o n t r i b u t e  Only  significantly.  Most E r i c a c e a e t e t r a d s a r e o f the Ledum type a l t h o u g h some b e l o n g t o the g r e a t e r than 36 um s i z e c l a s s , r e f l e c t i n g l o c a l l y abundant V a c c i n i u m u l i g i n o s u m and G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n .  In a d d i t i o n t o p o l l e n , the samples  c o n t a i n numerous f u n g a l hyphae and brown, amorphous, o r g a n i c aggregates. One  A s s u l i n a t e s t was  2.  Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d  recorded.  ( S i t e s I and  R).  These s t a t i o n s are l o c a t e d about 100 m and 300 m r e s p e c t i v e l y , n o r t h o f the p i n e woods c o n t a i n i n g s i t e H.  A t s i t e I , the sampling j a r was  p l a c e d i n a s h a l l o w , Sphagnum-lined d e p r e s s i o n , o c c u p i e d by Andromeda p o l i f o l i a , V a c c i n i u m oxycoccos  and Vaccinium u l i g i n o s u m ( F i g . 1 6 c ) .  Shoots o f Rhynchospora a l b a are common a l t h o u g h they do n o t c o n s t i t u t e a h i g h cover v a l u e .  S t u n t e d Pinus c o n t o r t a t r e e s grow around the s i t e .  v e g e t a t i o n a t s i t e R i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t a t s i t e I , b u t w i t h more V. sum  The  uligino-  and l e s s Rhynchospora. In c o n t r a s t t o the s i t u a t i o n i n p i n e woodland, Pinus does n o t dominate  the p o l l e n r a i n diagrams e a r l y May,  o f s i t e s I and R  ( F i g s . 16a,  17).  In A p r i l  r e g i o n a l a r b o r e a l p o l l e n types such as c f . Thuj a, Tsuga,  tsuga, A l n u s and B e t u l a compose the p o l l e n r a i n .  and  Pseudo-  Large E r i c a c e a e t e t r a d s  shed by the heath s p e c i e s a t the s i t e s are p r e s e n t d u r i n g the y e a r .  At  57  s i t e I , c f . Rhynchospora  p o l l e n i s produced e a r l y i n August.  Much o f  the p o l l e n a r r i v i n g i n Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d d u r i n g the summer, e.g. Gramineae, is  d e r i v e d from s o u r c e s e x t e r n a l t o t h e bog.  o u s l y absent  Sphagnum spores a r e c o n s p i c u -  a l t h o u g h Sphagnum spp. completely b l a n k e t the ground around  s i t e I. The  s u r f a c e d e p o s i t s o f s i t e I ( F i g . 16b) r e v e a l t h a t much o f the p r e -  s e r v e d p o l l e n o r i g i n a t e d o u t s i d e the l o c a l a r e a . 45% o f the t o t a l . reaches  P i n u s , although  Alnus and Tsuga make up  i t produces l i t t l e  39% i n the c o l l e c t e d samples.  p o l l e n a t the s i t e ,  The E r i c a c e a e , which b l a n k e t t h e  ground around the s i t e , comprise o n l y 4% o f the p o l l e n spectrum, a case o f v e r y pronounced u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . than 30 ym i n diameter, range. in  and most f e l l  A l l o f t h e t e t r a d s were g r e a t e r i n t o the g r e a t e r than 36 ym s i z e  As has been shown i n Ch. 3, e r i c a d s p e c i e s p r o d u c i n g p o l l e n t e t r a d s  t h i s diameter  range a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low p o l l e n p r o d u c t i v i t y  values  and these s u r f a c e sample r e s u l t s c o n f i r m t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r t h e s e s p e c i e s growing a t the s i t e . The results.  absence o f Sphagnum spp. spores agrees w i t h the p o l l e n  rain  I r r e g u l a r Sphagnum spore p r o d u c t i v i t y has been observed  by o t h e r s  ( T i n s l e y and Smith, 1973) and seems t o be a f u n c t i o n o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s (Tallis,  1964).  Desmidiospora other indeterminate also present. stood.  i s p r e s e r v e d abundantly f u n g a l aggregates.  i n t h e Sphagnum p e a t s a l o n g w i t h  The r h i z o p o d c f . H e l i c o s p o r i u m i s  The e c o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Desmidiospora  S i n c e t h e o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n by T h a x t e r  (1891) o f  i s n o t underDesmidiospora  growing on ants under a r o t t i n g l o g , t h i s fungus has remained u n i n v e s t i g a t ed.  T h i s spore type i s always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Sphagnum/heath p e a t s i n  58  Burns Bog and has been n o t i c e d i n the same h a b i t a t i n Camosum Bog, Vancouv e r , B r i t i s h Columbia  (R. J . Bandoni, p e r s o n a l  communication),  Van Geel  (1973), w h i l e i n c l u d i n g a photograph o f Desmidiospora, was unable t o make an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , nor a s s i g n t o i t s p e c i f i c e c o l o g i c  3.  conditions.  Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d c l e a r i n g i n Pinus c o n t o r t a woodland  ( S i t e G).  T h i s a r e a o f a c t i v e Sphagnum growth i s l o c a t e d i n a s m a l l  elongate  c l e a r i n g , 100 m south o f s i t e H, surrounded on a l l s i d e s by dense stands o f Pinus c o n t o r t a .  To t h e n o r t h  and south, Pine Woodland approaches  w i t h i n 25 m o f t h e s i t e ;  t o the e a s t and west t h e t r e e s a r e a t l e a s t 100 m  distant.  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by heaths  The v e g e t a t i o n  and between Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m low,  wet inter-hummock a r e a s .  hummocks.  ( F i g . 1 8 c ) , growing on  Sphagnum recurvum o c c u p i e s the  Two d r a i n a g e d i t c h e s o c c u r nearby,  some l o c a l a l t e r a t i o n o f the water t a b l e .  causing  Although t h i s s i t e i s c l o s e l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p i n e woods, the p o l l e n r a i n o f t h i s s t a t i o n ( F i g . 18a) shows d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s , r e s e m b l i n g t h e p a t t e r n s Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d .  o f s i t e s I and R i n  A pronounced peak i n Sphagnum spores o c c u r r i n g i n l a t e  J u l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e p o l l e n r a i n o f s i t e G from t h a t o f s i t e s I and R. The  surface  spectrum o f t h i s Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d c l e a r i n g ( F i g . 18b)  r e v e a l s t h a t Pinus p o l l e n o c c u r s a t a much lower p e r c e n t a g e than i n nearby pine  stands  ( s i t e H).  This observation  i n a p i n e m a t r i x c o u l d be r e c o g n i z a b l e tetrads f a l l microphylla  i m p l i e s t h a t even s m a l l i n the f o s s i l record.  clearings  Ericaceae  i n t h e 30-36 um group, and a r e p r o b a b l y those o f K a l m i a which grows abundantly a t the s i t e ( F i g . 3 2 - 1 8 c ) . There a r e many  Sphagnum s p o r e s p r e s e n t Sphagnum s i t e ,  I.  i n t h e s u r f a c e samples, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o t h e r  Desmidiospora, i n d e t e r m i n a t e  f u n g a l aggregates, A s s u l i n a ,  59  c f . H e l i c o s p o r i u m and A c t i n o p e l t i s abound i n the s u r f a c e d e p o s i t s .  4.  Nuphar l u t e a pond i n Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d Two  (Site  NP),  s u r f a c e samples were a n a l y z e d from s i t e NP  ( F i g , 19)  to  determine  whether Nuphar ponds c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y from o t h e r Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s . t r a l p o r t i o n o f Burns Bog  The pond sampled i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e cen-  ( F i g . 10).  Sphagnum recurvum  i s packed i n among  the Nuphar p l a n t s so t h a t i n the dry, l a t e summer the s i t e does n o t l o o k l i k e a pond.  T y p i c a l wet h a b i t a t heaths, such as Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a ,  Andromeda p o l i f o l i a , V a c c i n i u m oxycoccos, and V a c c i n i u m u l i g i n o s u m  approach  t o w i t h i n a meter o f the sampling s i t e , w h i l e Ledum and Pinus grow about 5 m away. Pinus p o l l e n from l o c a l s o u r c e s and Alnus from the r e g i o n a l component are the two most abundant types r e g i o n a l p o l l e n t y p e , Tsuga, Chenopodiaceae  (approximately 30% e a c h ) .  i s next i n abundance a t 12%.  p o l l e n , presumably  Another  Gramineae and  d e r i v e d from a g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d s  the bog a l s o o c c u r i n s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s .  around  E r i c a c e a e are v e r y p o o r l y  r e p r e s e n t e d as expected from p r o d u c t i v i t y s t u d i e s . Sphagnum s p o r e s , the two  arboreal  Nuphar p o l l e n  and  types r e f l e c t i n g the .in s i t u v e g e t a t i o n are r e c o r d -  ed i n extremely s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s .  T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n supports the p r i n c i p l e  t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p l a n t assemblage c o m p o s i t i o n cannot be made on the b a s i s o f abundance o f p o l l e n types  (Cohen, 1973).  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c palyno-  l o g i c f i n g e r p r i n t s f o r communities must be o b t a i n e d from the sediments  into  which they are i n c o r p o r a t e d . Desmidiospora  f u n g a l s p o r e s , c f . H e l i c o s p o r i u m r h i z o p o d t e s t s and Nuphar  l u t e a t r i c h o m e s were a l s o r e c o r d e d from the  sediments.  60  C o a s t a l S i t e s from Boundary  1.  Bay:  1.  Chenopodiaceae s a l t marsh  2.  Coastal grassland  (Site F ) .  Chenopodiaceae s a l t marsh S i t e E i s l o c a t e d 3 km  (Site E ) .  (Site E).  d i r e c t l y south o f Burns' Bog,  v e r y e x t e n s i v e , t i d a l - f l a t dominated, shallow bay  a t the edge o f a  ( F i g . 10).  t i o n around the s i t e i s composed o f S a l i c o r n i a v i r g i n i c a , s p i c a t a , P u c c i n n e l l i a g r a n d i s and Plantago grassland begins  maritima  30 m t o the n o r t h , whereas t i d a l  10 m i n the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s .  The  vegeta-  Distichlis  ( F i g . 21' c ) .  f l a t s extend  Coastal  to within  Waves, d r i v e n by storm winds, inundate  the  s a l t marsh p e r i o d i c a l l y . The p o l l e n r a i n diagram f o r s i t e E p o l l e n from d e l t a i c and Alnus  (60%)  grasses,  upland  ( F i g . 21a)  indicates that arboreal  t r e e s dominates d u r i n g the s p r i n g , w i t h  as the major component.  In May  f o l l o w e d by peaks i n P l a n t a g o  t h e r e i s an i n i t i a l peak i n  maritima  and T r i g l o c h i n maritimum.  Grass p o l l e n predominates i n J u l y , f o l l o w e d by h i g h numbers o f d e r i v e d chenopod p o l l e n , produced by S a l i c o r n i a and A t r i p l e x The  silty  locally  triangularis.  sands o f t h i s s i t e c o n t a i n moderately h i g h numbers o f p o l l e n  o f Chenopodiaceae  (30%), Gramineae  (22%)  and Alnus  (21%)  ( F i g . 21b).  c o n t r a s t , the l e v e l s o f Pinus p o l l e n and T r i g l o c h i n p o l l e n are low. the g r a i n s are b a d l y c o r r o d e d , i n the sediments.  r e f l e c t i n g the c o n s i d e r a b l e b i o l o g i c  C h i t i n o u s t e s t s o f m i c r o f o r a m i n i f e r a and  are abundant, and t h e r e i s a l o t o f f i n e l y d i s p e r s e d b l a c k  2.  Coastal grassland  In Many o f activity  hystrichospheres detritus.  (Site F).  A t t h i s l o c a l i t y , about 70 m n o r t h o f s i t e E and behind  a ridge of  61  d r i f t e d l o g s c o l o n i z e d by Elymus m o l l i s , g r a s s e s predominate  ( F i g . 22c)  w i t h A s t e r s u b s p i c a t u s and A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m as t h e o t h e r major components o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n . The p o l l e n r a i n diagram  ( F i g . 22a) resembles t h a t from t h e chenopod  s a l t marsh i n t h e s p r i n g , w i t h r e g i o n a l a r b o r e a l s p e c i e s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d . Peaks i n Rumex and T r i g l o c h i n o c c u r immediately r e s t o f t h e season, At t h i s s i t e ,  g r a s s p o l l e n comprises  afterward.  Throughout t h e  v i r t u a l l y a l l of the p o l l e n  chenopod p o l l e n never reaches  rain.  as h i g h v a l u e s as a t s i t e E ,  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e a b s o l u t e number o f g r a i n s t o reach s i t e F i s lower. the end o f t h e season,  At  p o l l e n produced by l o c a l l y growing Compositae i s  mixed w i t h t h a t o f t h e g r a s s e s . P o l l e n a n a l y s i s o f t h e sandy f i b r o u s s o i l t h e Chenopodiaceae i s t h e most common.  reveals that the p o l l e n o f  Grass p o l l e n o c c u r s i n s u r p r i s i n g l y  low q u a n t i t i e s i n s p i t e o f i t s h i g h l e v e l i n t h e p o l l e n - r a i n Many o f t h e g r a i n s a r e f o l d e d and c o r r o d e d .  ( F i g . 22b).  As i n bog sediments,  grass  p o l l e n i s a p p a r e n t l y s e l e c t i v e l y d e s t r o y e d because o f i t s t h i n e x i n e . percentage  o f Compositae p o l l e n r e f l e c t s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h i s group i n  the v e g e t a t i o n aggregates  The  ( F i g . 22c).  The s o i l c o n t a i n s numerous amorphous, o r g a n i c  a t t e s t i n g t o the p o s s i b l e l o s s o f p o l l e n through  F l u v i a l Environments - S u r f a c e  decomposition.  Samples:  1.  R i v e r marshes  ( S i t e s L - l , 2, & 3 ) .  2.  R i v e r swamps ( S i t e s L-4, 5 ) .  3.  D e l t a - f r o n t marshes  4.  D e l t a - f r o n t s h o r t core  ( S i t e s DF-1, 2, 3 & 4 ) . ( S i t e DF-5).  S u r f a c e samples were a n a l y z e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y from s e l e c t e d e n v i r o n ments a l o n g channels  and a t t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r  ( F i g . 10) t o  62  o b t a i n the p o l l e n and spore i n these  sites.  "fingerprints"  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the  In a d d i t i o n , a s h o r t core was  sediments  taken t o determine whether  the h o r i z o n t a l z o n a t i o n o f p l a n t assemblages on the emergent d e l t a - f r o n t was  r e c o r d e d as a s u c c e s s i o n a l sequence i n sediments j u s t o u t s i d e the d i k e .  1.  R i v e r marshes ( S i t e s L - l , 2, & 3 ) . Three samples o f o r g a n i c s i l t s were o b t a i n e d  t r e e - c o v e r e d banks S a l i x spp.,  from a marsh between the  (Alnus r u b r a , Populus b a l s a m i f e r a subsp. t r i c h o c a r p a ,  P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ) and the a c t i v e r i v e r channel.  Here the vege-  t a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f emergent a q u a t i c s , w i t h Menyanthes t r i f o l i a t a ,  Lysichitum  americanum, Carex sp. and Gramineae growing n e a r e s t t o the bank.  Dense  stands o f S c i r p u s sp., Equisetum sp. and sometimes Typha l a t i f o l i a l o c a t e d a t the edge o f the water, and A l i s m a p l a n t a g o - a q u a t i c a  are  and S a g i t t a r -  i a l a t i f o l i a grow among the stems o f these p l a n t s . In the AP  ( F i g . 23 a, b, c ) , Pinus  and Alnus predominate, w i t h  smaller  but s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f Tsuga heterophy11a and P i c e a a l s o p r e s e n t . of  the a r b o r e a l g r a i n s are c o n s i d e r a b l y corroded.  f e a t u r e s i n d i c a t e a r i v e r source The  Taken t o g e t h e r ,  n e a r e s t source o f p i n e i s Burns Bog probably  l o c a l vegetation.  5 km  away.  o r i g i n a t i n g from two  The NAP  i t seems t h a t  appears to r e f l e c t v e g e t a t i o n  varia-  from s i t e L - l , near  which L y s i c h i t u m and Gramineae grow, and i n F i g . 23c In a l l cases  r i v e r t r a n s p o r t and  abundant and  t i o n from s i t e to s i t e as demonstrated i n F i g . 23a  p a r t l y by Equisetum sp.  the  Cyperaceae p o l l e n c h a r a c t e r -  sources;  Undamaged g r a i n s are f a i r l y  these were produced l o c a l l y .  these  f o r a t l e a s t p a r t o f the a r b o r e a l component.  h i g h l e v e l s o f Pinus must be a t t r i b u t e d t o r i v e r t r a n s p o r t , as  i z e s the NAP,  Many  from s i t e L-3  surrounded  the p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o l l e n and  spore  63  types o f these s p e c i e s i s low i n comparison l o c a l vegetation.  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s the absence  p o l l e n a t L - l ( F i g . 23a) produced.  t o t h e i r major r o l e i n the  where the p l a n t grows w e l l and many seed pods are  Typha, o c c u p y i n g major areas o f the l o c a l v e g e t a t i o n , i s a l s o  p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d , as are S a g i t t a r i a and A l i s m a . v e r y few  o f Menyanthes  f l o w e r s were formed by these l a s t two  h a b i t a t s , produces  I t was  genera.  observed  that  Equisetum  l i m i t e d numbers o f spores i n s m a l l s t r o b i l i .  i n these  Fungal  spores are n o t abundant; o n l y a few c f . C u r v u l a r i a , c f . P e r i c o n i a  and  type 1 were found.  2.  R i v e r swamps ( S i t e s L-4, Samples from s i t e L-4  p a r t i a l l y natural levees.  & 5).  and L-5 were taken from a q u i e t backswamp, b e h i n d The same t r e e s p e c i e s as near s i t e s L - l t o L-3  surround the a r e a and S a l i x spp., Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s and Cornus s e r i c e a . appear t o be advancing i n t o the swamp. ed d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f h i g h water.  The  surface i s infrequently  The v e g e t a t i o n o f L-4  and L-5  inundat-  i s very  s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the r i v e r marshes, w i t h L y s i c h i t u m americanum, Typha latifolia,  Equisetum  sp. and S c i r p u s sp.  dominating.  S i m i l a r i t i e s a l s o o c c u r i n the p o l l e n s p e c t r a o f the r i v e r marshes ( F i g . 23a, b, c) and r i v e r swamp s i t e s predominating.  Tsuga i s a l s o p r e s e n t , whereas P i c e a i s absent.  c o l o n i e s o f Typha, Equisetum tion.  ( F i g . 24a, b ) , w i t h P i n u s and Alnus The  local  and L y s i c h i t u m are r e f l e c t e d i n the NAP  frac-  The d i s c o v e r y o f Sphagnum spores a t both L-4  as no Sphagnum grows anywhere i n the v i c i n i t y .  and L-5  seems unusual  The source o f these spores  appears t o be a d i t c h some 200 m e a s t o f the s i t e s which d r a i n s Burns about 1-2  km  t o the south.  I t a l s o seems l i k e l y t h a t d i t c h o u t p u t  p r o v i d e s some o f the p i n e p o l l e n .  Bog,  also  64  Fungal m i c r o f o s s i l s a r e a l s o p r e s e r v e d i n these backswamp sediments, including cf. Periconia, T i l l e t i a  3,  D e l t a - f r o n t marshes  and c f . D a c t y l a r i a ,  ( S i t e s DF-1,  2, 3, 4 ) .  S u r f a c e samples were a n a l y z e d from each o f t h r e e r e c o g n i z a b l e p l a n t assemblages  (zones) seaward o f t h e d i k e on the n o r t h e r n end o f L u l u  Island  (Fig.  C o n d i t i o n s here a r e b r a c k i s h from m i x i n g o f f r e s h water  from  the  10).  M i d d l e Arm o f the F r a s e r R i v e r w i t h s a l t water from the S t r a i t o f  Georgia. The emergent  p l a n t communities  by Forbes (1972).  ( F i g . 25).  A s u r f a c e sample was  two s i t e s ; one dominated by S_. americanus  S_. paludosus  described  S c i r p u s americanus and S c i r p u s paludosus form the f i r s t  emergent p l a n t assemblage of  o f the d e l t a - f r o n t have been  (DF-2) .  t a k e n from each  (DF-1), the o t h e r dominated  S i l t s were sampled i n the Typha l a t i f o l i a zone  by  (DF-3) ,  b o r d e r i n g the S c i r p u s spp. zone on the shoreward s i d e , and a l s o from the Carex l y n g b e y i - P o t e n t i l l a p a c i f i c a assemblage between the Typha zone and the d i k e .  (two samples)  T h i s l a s t assemblage,  (site  a l t h o u g h domin-  a t e d by sedges, a l s o c o n t a i n s c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers o f Penanthe The p o l l e n s p e c t r a f o r DF-1, all  sarmentosa.  2, 3, and 4 ( F i g . 26a, b, c, r e s p e c t i v e l y )  show h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s o f P i n u s and A l n u s and hence are comparable w i t h  s i t e s a l o n g the r i v e r .  I n the S c i r p u s spp. and C a r e x - P o t e n t i l l a zones,  Cyperaceae p o l l e n ranges from 40-50%. in  DF-4)  small q u a n t i t i e s  P o t e n t i l l a zone.  (2%)  P o t e n t i l l a p o l l e n , although present  ( F i g . 26c), i s p r o b a b l y d i a g n o s t i c o f the Carex-  In the Typha l a t i f o l i a s t a n d , Typha t e t r a d s r e a c h about  30%, whereas Cyperaceae f r e q u e n c i e s are reduced.  Gramineae p o l l e n i s s i g -  n i f i c a n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n a l l diagrams, r e f l e c t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l on shore.  fields  The p e r c e n t a g e s o f c f . Athyrium f e r n spores i s s u r p r i s i n g as no  65  f e r n s grow i n these marshes. observed river.  However, Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a has been  growing s p o r a d i c a l l y i n semi-open, swampy h a b i t a t s a l o n g T h i s f e r n produces tremendous q u a n t i t i e s o f spores  t h a t r e a d i l y break away from t h e i r attachment i n the s o r u s . gia  and  spores may  be  subsequently  the s i l t s o f the d e l t a - f r o n t .  the  i n sporangia Both  sporan-  f l o a t e d down the r i v e r and d e p o s i t e d i n  Reworked T e r t i a r y p o l l e n ( r e c o g n i z e d on  b a s i s o f amber c o l o u r ) seems s i m i l a r l y to be washed down the r i v e r deposited l i t o r a l l y , and  2.  as numerous reworked g r a i n s are r e c o v e r e d  f o r other large r i v e r s  A host of non-vascular sediments.  Two  sediments.  Large,  o c c u r i n g r e a t numbers i n  c l e a r , t h i c k - w a l l e d palynomorphs  (fungal  Other types encountered i n c l u d e D i p o r i s p o r i t e s Hammen  ( E l s i k , 1968)  and c h i t i n o u s t e s t s o f f o r a m i n i f e r a .  h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o r g a n i c fragments and  D e l t a - f r o n t s h o r t core A s h o r t core  community.  (1 m x .05 m diameter) was  Ninety  analyzed  r e v e a l s two  detritus.  o b t a i n e d by d r i v i n g a s t a i n l e s s  j u s t o f f the d i k e i n the C a r e x - P o t e n t i l l a  c e n t i m e t e r s were r e c o v e r e d ,  for pollen. stages.  fine black  d i v i d e d i n t o 15 cm  The p o l l e n diagram o f the major s p e c i e s  The bottom h a l f w i t h h i g h percentages  p o l l e n r e p r e s e n t s the S c i r p u s spp. o f Typha l a t i f o l i a  i n Cyperaceae p o l l e n .  There i s a  ( S i t e DF-5).  s t e e l tube i n t o the o r g a n i c s i l t s  frequency  deposi-  ' a l s o appear t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  emend E l s i k  and  DF-1  ( M u l l e r , 1959).  t y p e s , c f . P e r i c o n i a and Type 1  oogonia)  4.  from  p l a n t palynomorphs c h a r a c t e r i z e s d e l t a - f r o n t  these p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t a t s .  these  and  F l u v i a l t r a n s p o r t o f palynomorphs w i t h subsequent l i t t o r a l  t i o n has been noted  the  zone.  From about the  lengths, ( F i g . 27)  o f Cyperaceae .65 m l e v e l ,  i n c r e a s e s markedly, accompanied by a  the  decrease  T h i s change r e p r e s e n t s the development o f the Typha  66  l a t i f o l i a community shoreward o f the S c i r p u s spp, zone.  The s h i f t t o the  p r e s e n t C a r e x - P o t e n t i l l a assemblage has o c c u r r e d v e r y r e c e n t l y , as t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s the c o r e .  (such as d e c r e a s i n g Typha) i n the upper l e v e l s o f  Grass p o l l e n i s w e l l p r e s e r v e d ,  and c o a s t a l meadow d e p o s i t s .  i n marked c o n t r a s t t o both bog  One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e -  l y t h i n w a l l e d g r a s s p o l l e n p r e s e r v e s b e s t when d e p o s i t e d i n an environment t h a t i s o f t e n submerged, whereas grass p o l l e n d e p o s i t e d on s u r f a c e s t h a t d r y out i s r a p i d l y d e s t r o y e d , p o s s i b l y by o x i d a t i o n and microorganism  attack.  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s  The  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study o f p o l l e n r a i n , o f p o l l e n s p e c t r a o f s u r f a c e  samples,and o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f these t o v e g e t a t i o n , show t h a t  vegeta-  t i o n types i n t h e study area can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s o f palynomorph assemblages i n c l u d i n g m i c r o f o s s i l s o t h e r p o l l e n and s p o r e s .  However as Cohen  p l a n t assemblage c o m p o s i t i o n pollen  (1973) observed,  than  interpretation of  can n o t be made on t h e b a s i s o f abundance o f  types.  C u r r e n t l y forming bog d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f P i n u s , A l n u s , and E r i c a c e a e and sometimes o f Sphagnum spores.  Wet and d r y heath-  l a n d communities can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s o f t e t r a d  diameter  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e e r i c a d spectrum o f t h e s u r f a c e sediments.  Areas o f  b i r c h , S p i r a e a o r P t e r i d i u m c o n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y h i g h percentages species i n the surface deposits.  o f these  S a l t marsh and c o a s t a l g r a s s l a n d s e d i -  ments a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f chenopod and g r a s s p o l l e n . F l u v i a l sediments o f marshes and swamps c o n t a i n h i g h percentages a l o n g w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e P i c e a , Tsuga and A l n u s .  o f Pinus  Cyperaceae g r a i n s a l s o  67  o c c u r abundantly but o t h e r l o c a l l y dominant types such as Menyanthes and Equisetum sp. are u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d . the  d e l t a - f r o n t s i m i l a r l y c o n t a i n abundant q u a n t i t i e s o f P i n u s , P i c e a ,  Tsuga and A l n u s p o l l e n . of ica  Sediments o f the i n t e r t i d a l zone o f  Cyperaceae p o l l e n l e v e l s a r e h i g h i n the  silts  the S c i r p u s spp.-dominated zone and the Carex l y n g b e y i - P o t e n t i l l a zone.  The s i l t s below Typha stands c o n t a i n abundant Typha  The palynomorph  pacif-  tetrads.  assemblages o f the d i f f e r e n t w e t l a n d environments  examined p r o v i d e " f i n g e r p r i n t s "  f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n o f these environments  i n sediments o b t a i n e d from c o r e s .  68  Figures  11-27, T a b l e _3•  The  f o l l o w i n g pages c o n t a i n  the  f i g u r e s r e f e r r e d to i n Ch.  diagrams f o r each s i t e are grouped under one d i v i d e d as  pollen  b)  surface  pollen  spectrum,  c)  species  cover  (vegetation).  F i g . 25  f i g u r e number which i s sub-  rain,  (p. 92)  F i g . 27  s i t e DF-5.  depicts  (p. 94)  Table 3  the v e g e t a t i o n  zones o f the L u l u  i s the p o l l e n diagram f o r the  (p. 95)  summarizes the  short  Island  samples.  fore-  core taken a t  d i s t r i b u t i o n of non-vascular  p l a n t palynomorphs from wetland s i t e s i n v e s t i g a t e d by p o l l e n a n a l y s i s surface  The  follows:  a)  shore.  4.  of  69  Figure 11: Diagrams for site A, open Betula occidental is woodland with Pteridium aquilinum understorey; 11a) pollen rain diagram  O t h e r t y p e s ; Tsuga, Picea, Abies, Pseudotsuga, Acer macrophgllum, Ericaceae Hynca, C y p e r a c e a e , Plantago, L i l i a c e a e , C o n p o s i t a e , Typha, L e g u m i n o s a e , M o n o l e t e P o l y p o d i a c e a e , Sphagnum.  70  Figure 1lb,c: Diagrams for s i t e A continued; l i b ) surface pollen spectrum TOO -B 80  -S  WOODY PEAT  •a  |  40  J  £  20 - f  1  1 /  O t h e r t y p e s ; Picea(1%), Kbies(.5%) , Pseudotsuga(3%), C o m p o s i t a e ) ' l % J , Gramineae(2%) , a v e r a g e o f 3 s a m p l e s .  l i e ) species cover 100 - j 80 ce  -1  Spiraea(1%),  71  Figure 12: Diagrams for site B, Ledum groenlandicum.heathland i n Pinus contorta woodland; 12a) pollen rain diagram  M O t h e r t y p e s ; Tsuga, Picea, Abies, Pseudotsuga, Ilex, Salix, Acer macrophgllum, C y p e r a c e a e , C h e n o p o d i a c e a e , Plantago, Rumex, C o m p o s i t a e , U r a b e l l i f e r a e , M o n o l e t e P o l y p o d i a c e a e , Sphagnum.  72  figure ]2b c: y  Diagrams for s i t e B continued;  T2b) surface pollen spectrum  O t h e r t y p e s ; A b i e s (1%), Picea(2%) , of. Thuja  (1%), Betula(2%)  , Gramineae(2%),  Sphagnum(1%) , a v e r a g e jof 3 s a m p l e s . 12c) species cover \OO-t 60 A  um  Pseudotsuga(1%) C y p e r a c e a e (1%)  73  Figure 13: Diagrams for site C, Ledum groenlandicum heathland in Pinus contorta woodland; 13a) pollen rain diagram  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  0  O t h e r t y p e s ; Tsuga, Picea, Abies, Pseudotsuga, Acer macrophgHum, Salix, Spiraea, C y p e r a c e a e , Plantago, Rumex, Typha, L e g u m i n o s a e , U m b e l l i f e r a e .  74  Figure 13 b,c: Diagrams for site C continued; 13b) surface pollen spectrum 10Ow 80 •3  HEATH PEAT  z  POLL  UJ  TOT/  =!  60 -  1  40 20 _  1 /  Other types; Abies (IX), Picea(l%), Pseudotsuga(1%), cf.Thuja (IX), Betula(2%) , Umbelliferae(1%) , Grainineae(3%),Chenopodiaceae (1%), Compositae(1%), Pteridium(3%), average of 3 samples.  13c) species cover TOO 80  -  CC  j§ 60 >z  UJ  £ 40 -  1  20 0  v cf  75  .Figure 14: Diagrams for site D, Spiraea douglasii Betula occidentalis woodland;  thickets in open  14a) pollen rain diagram  O t h e r t y p e s ; T s u g a , Picea, Abies, Pseudotsuga, Acer rnacrophyllum, Sali C y p e r a c e a e , C h e n o p o d i a c e a e , Plantago, L i l i a c e a e , C o m p o s i t a e , Typha, Leguminosae, U m b e l l i f e r a e , Monolete P o l y p o d i a c e a e .  76  Figure 14b,c: Diagrams for site D continued; 14b) surface pollen spectrum 100-  1  JL  1 •S  O t h e r t y p e s ; Abies(lX), Picea(2%), Pseudotsuga(IX), cf.Thuja(1%), Acer macrophyllum(lX), Ericaceae(2%) ,Gramineae(4%), Chenopodiaceae (IX),Compositae(7%;, Typha latifolia(lX), C y p e r a c e a e ( 2 % ) , Nuphar (2%),Pteridium aqullinum(4%), Sphagnum(2X), a v e r a g e o f 3 s a m p l e s .  14c) species cover K>0 i 80  -I  cn LU  60 40 20 0  4  77  Figure 15: Diagrams for site H, Pinus contorta woodland;  15a) pollen rain diagram  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  O t h e r t y p e s ; T h u j a - t y p e , Tsuga, Abies, Pseudotsuga, Betula, ..Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, L e g u m i n o s a e , Sphagnum, Pteridium,  0 Typha, Polypodiaceae.  78  Figure 15 b,c: Diagrams for s i t e H continued; 15b) surface pollen spect rum co  100-a 80 -j HEATH PEAT 60  -I  20  Other t y p e s ; Abies(.5%), Gramineae(1%), average samples.  15c) species cover  80 S  60  g  40  -i  LU  c 20 0  •// / / / /  of  3  79  Figure  15: Diagrams for site I,  Sphagnum heathland;  15a) pollen rain diagram  Pinus  Thuja  ^^^^  / ^ s - ^ ^  Pseudotsuga s« in CVI -  m _  cr. • a Betula m  >••  Ericaceae  TJ -  u  ra Ci -  •u " c _ O o i- • Ci  Chenopodiaceae Gramineae  ^ ^ ^ ^  ^^^^  Polypodiaceae  _  ^.  -  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  0  O t h e r t y p e s ; T s u g a , Picea, Abies, Acer macrophyllum. Spiraea, Cyperaceae, Plantago, Rumex, C o m p o s i t a e , Typha, L e g u m i n o s a e , L i l i a c e a e , U m b e l l i f e r a e , Sphagnum.  80  Figure 16 b,c: Diagrams for site I continued; 16b) surface pollen spectrum 100 "> 80  I  60 40  1.1.  20 -I s  E  0  Chenopodiaceaea*;,Cyperaceaea*;, average o f 3 samples.  Typha<1%,, Sphagnwn(3%) j"""gnum j*;, (  16c) species cover lOO-i 80 H UJ >  8  60 H 40 20 0  1 o  > V  A ?  s  i  81  Figure 17: Pollen rain diagram for site R, Sphagnum heathland.  O t h e r t y p e s ; Picea,  Abies, Acer macrophyllum,  C y p e r a c e a e , Plantago, Rumex,  Typha, C o m p o s i t a e , L e g u m i n o s a e , P o l y p o d i a c e a e , Sphagnum.  82  Figure 18: Diagrams for site G, Sphagnum heathland clearing in in Pinus contorta woodland. 18a) pollen rain diagram  M  M  O t h e r t y p e s ; Picea, Abies, Acer macrophyllum, Salix, Myrica, Spiraea, Typha, Rhynchospora, C y p e r a c e a e , C h e n o p o d i a c e a e , C o m p o s i t a e , Plantago, Polygonum, Rumex, Nuphar, Leguminosae," Pteridium, Polypodiaceae.  83  Figure 18 b,c: Diagrams for site G continued; 18b) surface pollen spectrum tn  c= o c_  KO-  «! 80 . SPHAGNUM PEAT 3 60  o~  o 40 — t  & £  0  Other types; Abies(l%), Picea(.5%), Pseudotsuga (15), cf.Thuja (1%), Rubus chamaemorus(.5%), Gramineae(1%), average of 3 samples. 18c) species cover 1CO-* 80 - | 60 40 ~ f 20 - I 0  J .  /  /  v  A o  84  Fi gure 19: Surface pollen spectrum, s i t e  NP, Nuphar pond, i n  Sphagnum heathland. U4 lOO-i V)  ce s  80 -  LIVE SPHAGNUM 60  -I  s  40 o  &e  20 -  1  JL  /  JO cf  /  O t h e r t y p e s ; Abies(1%), Picea(.5%), Pseudotsuga(1%), cf.Thuja (2%), Betula(2%), Myrica(1%), Plantago(.5%), Uuphar(2%). Sphagnum(.5%), a v e r a g e o f 2 s a m p l e s .  85  Figure 21: Diagrams for site E, Chenopodiaceae s a l t marsh;  21a) pollen rain diagram  IPinus  Betula CM  Alnus  u S-  -  /  » 1 Gramineae  o  PJantago  >v  \  Triglochin  O t h e r t y p e s ; P s e u d o t s u g a , A c e r macrophyllum, Salix, Cuscuta, J u n c u s - t y p e , C o m p o s i t a e , P o l y p o d i a c e a e .  Rumex,  Spergularia,  86  Figure 21b,c: Diagrams for s i t e E continued; 21b) surface pollen spectrum 100 - f  O t h e r t y p e s ; Abies(.5%) , Picea(2%), Tsuga(2%), Pseudotsuga (2%) , c f . Thuja(1%), Plantago(2%), Compositaef2%; , Cyperaceae(1%), average o f 3 samples.  87  Figure 22: Diagrams for site F, coastal grassland;  22a) pollen rain diagram  Pinus  Thuja  -  •  Tsuga Abies Pseudotsuga  IT) •  CJ  to  Alnus  *l—  c:  o -  v>  '—-—"—  -  ^  Betula  rcent (ea ch di > •  >  <t>.  a.  Chenopodiaceae  / ^ V.^ ^^""^^^/ /  /  S s  /  Graminea^^^  1 |  ^^^^^^  ComposicaeTubuliflorae  Rumex Triglochin  ^•^^^  •  A  M  J  J  A  O t h e r t y p e s ; Acer macrophyllum, Salix, Cuscuta, Cyperaceae, U m b e l l i f e r a e , P o l y p o d i a c e a e .  S Plantago,  0 Galium,  Typha,  88  Figure 22 b.c: Diagrams for site F continued; 22b) surface pollen spectrum  DRY, PEATY SAND  O t h e r t y p e s ; Picea(.5%),  Tsuga(2%),  a v e r a g e o f 3 sample  22c) species cover 100-  eo H g  60 -]  |  40-| 20  A  /  /  / / *• /  0*  //  sy  89  Figure 23: Surface pollen spectra of river marsh s i t e s ; 23a). Site L - l , river marsh, Menyanthes-Lysichitum-Gramineae  s "80-1  ORGANIC SILTS  a 6o_|  £  I  40 -j  t- 2 0 - | cc  £  1  j—JL  UJ CJ  0  O t h e r .types; P s e u d o t s u g a f . 5 % , , B e t u l a f . 5 % , , E r i c a c e a e a * ; , Typha (3%), uisetum(3.5%), Monolete f e r n s ,3.5*;, S ^ h a g ^ u ^ ^ J ' Eq  23b) Site L-2, river marsh,  £2  Ejuise_tum-Scirpus-Sagittaria-AIisma  100-,  c:  £  1  |  ORGANIC SILTS 80 A H 60  -i  20  "i  I  • A  V.  • A  •  /  •  A  O t h e r t y p e s ; A b i e s ( . 5 % ) , Pseudotsuga(1%), c f . T h u j a ( 2 % ) , Betula(1%) SalixUZ), E r i c a c e a e ^ . 5 % ; , Chenopodiaceaef2%; , T y p h a f l . 5 % ; , ALisrca ^ . 5 , ; , E g u i s e t u / n n . 5 % ; , M o n o l e t e f e r n s f 4 % ; , Sphagnum(3.5%) .  90  Figure 23c) Surface pollen spectra of r i v e r marsh sites continued; Site L-3, Scirpus-Sagittaria-Equisetum. S3  WO-,  E  ORGANIC SILTS  CO 80 - i  3 o  60-|  °  20-1  £  0  Cc  I  £  •  <*  -  «?  I  I •  V  O t h e r t y p e s ; Abies(1%), Pseudotsuga(1.5%), cf.Thuja(.5%), (.5%), Salix(.5%), Myrica(.5%), Typha (2%) , M o n o l e t e f e r a s Sphagnum(1%).  Betula ;,  91  Figure 24: Surface pollen spectra of r i v e r swamp s i t e s , L-4, L-5; 24a)  site L-4, Typha-Equisetum w TOO-» e  «  80 -I  a  60  S I L T Y PEATS  o  H 40 - | 20 H  S  0  °J? ' ? r  y  6S;  (" J  5%;  Pseudotsuga c f .Thuja ^ ' "t^«'nr.5%;, L a b i a t a e C l * ; , Gramineae (2%) , C h e n o p o d i a c e a e f.5%), C o m p o s i t a e f .5*;, Lysichitum(1.5%) Sagittana(1.5%) , Equisetum(.5%), M o n o l e t e iems(l%) , Sphagnum (8%). 24b) site L-5,  C e a e  5  %  ;  ; 5 r c e  Equisetum-Lysichitum-Scirpus  loo-* 80  S I L T Y " PEATS  60 — i  o  40  1  20 0  V  CP  4  /  •Jo  O t h e r t y p e s ; A b i e s ( 1 . 5 % ) , Picea(3%), Pseudotsuga(1%), Betula (.5%), E r i c a c e a e ( 3 % ) , G r a m i n e a e (1.5%), C h e n o p o d i a c e a e f . 5 % ; , Malvaceae(.5%) , Typha(3%), Sagittariaf.5%), Sphagnum(13%).  92  FIGURE  25 VEGETATION ZONES OF THE LULU :  ISLAND FORESHORE* LEGEND  FRASER  RIVER  93  Figure 25: Surface pollen spectra from delta-front marshes, DF 1,2,3 26a) sites DF 1&2, Scirpus o  100 -  80  -  _J  —1 6 0 a.  -  < 40 ES  -  20  -  z  •i  o  zone  O t h e r t y p e s ; Abies(.5%), Pseudotsuga(.5%), Betula'.5%) , Salix( .5%) , Tilia(.5%) , Plant ago (1.5%)i', L i l l a c e a e (1.5%), Typha(2%), C h e n o p o d i a c e a e ( . 5 % ) , a v e r a g e o f 3 s a m p l e s .  CO  eS  & 4;  1  CC  Li  SANDY SILT  1 /  Qj  26b) site DF 3, Typha zone CO CC  £  100-W  O t h e r t y p e s ; Abies(1%), Salix(.5%), Myricaf.5%), Compositae(.5%).  •8  z  80  -f  Picea(5%), Tsuga(2%), Betula(1%) , G r a m i n e a e ( 3 % ) , L i l i a c e a e (1%),  £60-|  SILT  1-1  • l 1  6 20-1 CC  1  J?  /  o c-  26c) site DF 4, Carex-Potentilla zone CO ^  100-  co *  80  a  60  z  —J  J  O t h e r t y p e s ; P s e u d o t s u g a C2%; , cf.Thuja (1.5%) , Betul,a (1%) , Potentilia(2%), Umbelliferae(.5%), Chenopodiaceae(.5%; , CompositaeY.5%;, average o f 2 samples.  e  g'  PEATY SILT 40  J  1 I I  CC  0/ J"  /  o f  Figure 27: P o l l e n diagram of major species i n s h o r t core DF-5, C a r e x - P o t e n t i l l a zone, i n t e r t i d a l d e l t a - f r o n t .  Unshaded c u r v e s a r e expanded 10X  POLLEN FREQUENCIES  W •>] D M W PI Z M H  H  W H > I  cn o M o H > M cn cn ^  H  cn jo  3 cn  H  a  w  tn  H H  >-3 W Cn  D  O  M  cn  CO H 1-3 W tn  w w c n w c n c n c n c n c n H W •  M R ^  M M H  W Z  H H O  H  W M  H  t K  H  r O  H  i O  w H w  H  W C  M O  cn to *  K  (B CO <D  +  ft 3  z  * » +  Cn  Desmidiospora  +  +  +  +  M Z  » *  K  Z  o  § 3  + +  * +  +  rt *  + + + +  + *  Helicosporium  Tilletia cf.  Periconia  +  cf.  Dactylaria  +  cf.  Curvularia  Diporsporites  + *  Actinopeltis  Assulina  + + +  V.G. Type-3 (V.G.3) (Van Geel, 1973)  cf.  +  +  a w  Gelasincspcra  Type-1 (App. 3, Fig.51a)  * + +  o  +  T h i c k w a l l e d oogonia  +  Hystrichospheres Forams  D §  +  +  Fine black *  + + +  +  *  detritus  Fern a n n u l i Reworked T e r t i a r y pollen  S6  96  CHAPTER 5:  CORE CBB FROM CENTRAL BURNS BOG  Introduction  The  f o l l o w i n g three chapters  (5, 6, 7) c o n t a i n the r e s u l t s and d i s -  c u s s i o n s o f p a l y n o l o g i c a l and m a c r o f o s s i l a n a l y s e s o f t h e t h r e e c o r e s (CBB,  BBDC, DNR) examined i n d e t a i l .  The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from c o r e CBB  are p r e s e n t e d f i r s t because t h i s c o r e was taken a t a s i t e near t h e t o p o f the c e n t r a l c u p o l a o f Burns Bog ( F i g . 10), an a r e a l i k e l y t o c o n t a i n the most t y p i c a l and complete sequence o f r a i s e d bog development.  T h i s core  i s used as a r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e two subsequent c o r e s t h a t were taken  from  the edges o f t h e bog, where bog s u c c e s s i o n has been a f f e c t e d by v a r i o u s disruptive  factors.  Methods  The  c o r e was o b t a i n e d from a s h a l l o w , f l a t - b o t t o m e d , Sphagnum t e n e l l u m -  Rhynchospora a l b a d e p r e s s i o n .  The t o p 1.50 m o f t h e p r o f i l e was sampled  i n 5 cm i n t e r v a l s from the w a l l o f a p i t excavated  i n the peat because the  p o o r l y c o n s o l i d a t e d d e p o s i t s would n o t remain i n the sampling remaining  interval  long p i s t o n corer. immediately  tube.  The  (1.50-6.75. m) was c o r e d u s i n g a 5 cm diameter by 50 cm Extruded  c o r e s were d i v i d e d i n t o 10 cm samples,  p l a c e d i n t o p l a s t i c bags, and s t o r e d i n the l a b o r a t o r y a f t e r  a d d i t i o n o f a few drops o f phenol dating) t o p r e v e n t  (except t o samples f o r r a d i o c a r b o n  f u n g a l and b a c t e r i a l growth.  Samples f o r r a d i o c a r b o n  d a t i n g were o b t a i n e d a t 5.50-5.30 m and 2.10-2.00 m and l a t e r s e n t f o r p r o c e s s i n g t o Teledyne  I s o t o p e s , Westwood L a b o r a t o r i e s , Westwood, New J e r s e y .  97  1 cm  In the  laboratory,  x 1 cm  channel removed from the  analysis.  samples were s p l i t  This material  preparation  was  o u t l i n e i n Ch.  c e n t e r o f one  4,  and  screened f o r  spores were i d e n t i f i e d and  t a i n a t o t a l o f 400  standard p o l l e n  mounted i n s i l i c o n e o i l .  was  i f possible.  a  o f the h a l v e s f o r p o l l e n  p r o c e s s e d a c c o r d i n g to the  remaining unprocessed m a t e r i a l P o l l e n and  i n h a l f l e n g t h w i s e and  Part of  the  macrofossils,  counted a l o n g t r a n s e c t s  to  Monolete f e r n spores were counted a l o n g  w i t h o t h e r palynomorphs; however, they were e x c l u d e d from the  total  because t h e i r numbers were s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h to c o m p l e t e l y suppress other  ob-  the  species.  P o l l e n Diagrams  In r e c e n t  times p a l y n o l o g i s t s  have been t u r n i n g  i n c a l c u l a t i n g r e l a t i v e p o l l e n p e r c e n t a g e s and (Voorrips,  1973;  S q u i r e s and  H o l d e r , 1970).  p o l l e n diagrams i s much s h o r t e r , precise.  and  the  to computers t o a s s i s t  p l o t t i n g p o l l e n diagrams  The  time r e q u i r e d  r e s u l t a n t diagrams much more  In the p r e s e n t study c a l c u l a t i o n s o f a l l p o l l e n v a l u e s have been  made by u s i n g  a PDP11  D i g i t a l Data C o r p o r a t i o n Computer and  grams have been p l o t t e d by  a Calcomp p l o t t e r , b o t h w i t h i n  C e n t e r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. written tions  f o r c a l c u l a t i n g p o l l e n p e r c e n t a g e s and  (see Appendix-2), and  program  t o produce  (SPLOT L a u r i e n t e ,  unpublished) c o u l d be  d i r e c t l y by  e s s e n t i a l l y unaltered  form.  the B i o l o g y  Data  Programs were  absolute p o l l e n  concentra-  the r e s u l t s arranged so t h a t a canned p l o t t i n g  diagrams i n c l u d i n g a l l major s p e c i e s were p l o t t e d out  the p o l l e n d i a -  used.  pollen  were o b t a i n e d f o r each c o r e .  the Calcomp p l o t t e r , and To  Relative  improve p r e s e n t a t i o n  These  are p r e s e n t e d here i n o f data, as w e l l as  to  98  examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c e r t a i n groups o f p o l l e n  (e.g. AP,  P i n e ) , the program f o r c a l c u l a t i n g p o l l e n percentages  was  NAP,  f o r the groups o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , i n d e p e n d e n t l y  of others.  o f the  percentages  o f s p e c i e s can be v e r y time consuming and have u s u a l l y been  done t o the l e v e l o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f l u c t u a t i o n s w i t h i n r e g i o n a l and p o l l e n groups.  local  A l s o , some workers have s e p a r a t e d out groups t h a t they  thought were o f c l i m a t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , such as those i n d i c a t i n g wet  In  plot-  Manual o r c a l c u l a t o r - a s s i s t e d d e t e r m i n a t i o n s f o r many d i f f e r e n t  combinations  conditions  -  designed so t h a t  by removing o r adding s e t s o f d a t a c a r d s , s e p a r a t e diagrams c o u l d be ted  AP  (Sears and C l i s b y ,  1955).  the p r e s e n t study, v a r i o u s groups have been p l o t t e d  from the main p o l l e n diagram.  o r dry  independently  F i r s t , a l l o f the a r b o r e a l p o l l e n  e x c l u d i n g p i n e , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n one  diagram.  types,  These s p e c i e s do not appear  t o be major c o n s t i t u e n t s o f l o c a l s i t e environments  (except i n core  DNR).  In most cases they seem t o be d e r i v e d from r e g i o n a l o r i n some cases e x t r a l o c a l sources  (sensu Janssen,  p a r t o f l o c a l bog v e g e t a t i o n .  1973).  P i n e i s excluded because i t forms  Removal o f l o c a l  f l u c t u a t i o n s i n pine gives  a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f changes o c c u r r i n g i n o t h e r f o r e s t t y p e s . AP  A  separate  diagram i n c l u d i n g p i n e i s a l s o i n c l u d e d , s i n c e i n the lower s e c t i o n s o f  c o r e s , b e f o r e p i n e appears  l o c a l l y on the bog,  the r e g i o n a l p o l l e n component.  i t can be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f  A l l o t h e r p o l l e n and spore types  (excluding  monolete f e r n s , see above) are c o n s i d e r e d t o be l o c a l shrub and herb constituents  ( l o c a l NAP).  G e n e r a l l y , these r e f l e c t  changes t h a t accompany the p r o c e s s e s o f bog  the l o c a l s u c c e s s i o n a l  formation.  Most o f the  s p e c i e s have p r o b a b l y been s i g n i f i c a n t components o f i n s i t u r e c o r d e d i n the c o r e s . podiaceae  layer  local  communities  As i n the complete p o l l e n diagram, monolete P o l y -  have been e x c l u d e d from the NAP  sums.  99  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n s  S t r a t i g r a p h y and Radiocarbon  The  Dating  s t r a t i g r a p h y o f the bog  Basically,  the bottom 1.75  m  a t t h i s s i t e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 28.  (6.75-5.00 m)  sediment type from g r e y - b l u e , s i l t y  r e c o r d s a g r a d u a l change i n  sands t o grey s i l t s .  s t r e a k s are p r e s e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the lower p a r t s , w i t h amounts o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l towards the t o p . val,  5.10-5.30 m was  The next  .8 m  increasing  The upper p a r t o f t h i s  r a d i o c a r b o n dated a t 3960 ± 130 years BP  (5.0-4.20 m)  silts.  crumbly p e a t s w i t h woody fragments, m.  A t 4.20  m,  the f i r s t  2925 ± 85 y e a r s BP  silts  m the sediments become brown,  g r a d u a l l y changing  These c o n t i n u e up t o 3.00  m,  to s l i g h t l y  silty  g r a d i n g i n t o a 1.00  l o n g i n t e r v a l o f s l o p p y , woody p e a t s mixed w i t h sedge l e a v e s and A t 2.00  inter-  (1-9594).  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by grey-brown o r g a n i c  which change t o brown peaty  sedge p e a t s a t 3.75  Black organic  m  rhizomes.  r e d , f i b r o u s Sphagnum p e a t s were r a d i o c a r b o n dated a t  (1-9593).  These Sphagnum peats c o n t a i n s e v e r a l woody  phases; one o c c u r s j u s t b e f o r e 1.25  m,  f o l l o w e d by 2 cm o f c h a r c o a l .  From  .20 m t o .10 m t h e r e i s a l a y e r o f dense, dark-brown p e a t , a l s o c o n t a i n i n g charcoal lenses.  Above t h i s t h e r e i s .05 m o f c o a r s e , dark p e a t ,  Rhynchospora remains,capped by The  .03 m o f l i v i n g Sphagnum t e n e l l u m .  r a d i o c a r b o n date on the s t a r t o f Sphagnum bog  t h a t most o f the time  (3,000 years)  the Sphagnum bog phase. works out t o be 6.67 approximately  .02 m o f  r e p r e s e n t e d i n the core was  The p e a t accumulation  cm/100 y e a r s .  conditions indicates  rate during t h i s  taken up interval  T h i s v a l u e i s much lower than  82 cm/100 y e a r s determined  by  the  f o r a c t i v e l y growing hummocks o f  Sphagnum fuscum and Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m from a r e c e n t l y d i s t u r b e d a r e a i n  ICO Figure  28:  Stratigraphy  and m a c r o f o s s i 1 s  ZONES  CBB  IVb  of  Rhynchospora  sum  core  alba  CBB  achenes,  charcoal  r - e d d i s h , w e l l - p r e s e r v e d Sphagnum CBB  IVa —  phagnum fuscum, cf.Sphagnum capillaceum with e r i c a d c u t i c l e s c h a r c o a l , jRhynchospora alba achenes, Ledum groenlandicum  leaves  r e d d i s h , w e l l - p r e s e r v e d Sphagnum Sphagnum  2925:85  CBB  III  \2m-  /vvv /vv\l  peat  peat  papillosum  Pinus contorta stump i n d e t e r m i n a t e Sphagnum(?S.  fimbriatum)  cyperaceous remains  /VVVi  sloppy,woody  p e a t w i t h some s e d g e  peat  /VVVi  / vv\ v\ • vv\ • vv\  Mgrica  / V  t w i g s , sedge l e a v e s , crowns,  s m a l l t w i g s , sedge CBB  II  dark  brown s e d g e  remains  peat  14m  silt  3960^ 1 3 0 - I - ^ L T CBB  I blue-grey  s i l t w i t h sand  lenses  L—_:—! 6m  blue-grey, well sorted,fine with black organic streaks  silty  sand  rhizomes  101  Burns Bog  (Biggs, 1976).  The  o v e r a l l accumulation  l e s s than the minimum accumulation  The  almost  A p p a r e n t l y , the low, o v e r a l l  cm/100 y e a r s ) , i s a r e s u l t o f compaction,  Sphagnum growth, decomposition  slightly  r a t e (7 cm/100 years) i n a wet  b a r r e n d e p r e s s i o n a t the same s i t e . t i o n r a t e (6.67  r a t e i s even  intermittent  and b u r n i n g d u r i n g the h i s t o r y o f the  r a t e compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h a t o b t a i n e d f o r Jesmond Bog,  e r n B r i t i s h Columbia peatland  (7 cm/100 years)  (Nasmith  ejt a l . ,  (5 cm/100 y e a r s ) , i n v e s t i g a t e d by Heinselman  B r i t i s h p e a t bogs  accumula-  (2-8 cm/100 years)  (Walker,  1970).  1967), a  site.  southwestMinnesota  (1963), and f o r However, i t i s l e s s  than t h a t o b t a i n e d f o r c e r t a i n bogs i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s (10-20 cm/100 years)  (Cameron, 1970).  Palynomorph and M a c r o f o s s i l Z o n a t i o n f o r Core  The  complete diagram, showing the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 38 p o l l e n and  groups i n core CBB,  i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g . 29.  g u i s h a b l e i n the diagram zones,  CBB.  a and  ZONE CBB  (CBB  Four major zones are  I - I V ) , w i t h zone CBB  spore  distin-  IV d i v i d e d i n t o two  sub-  b.  - I,  (6.75-4.40  m):  T h i s i n t e r v a l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n s t a n t f e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Pinus.  Although  m a j o r i t y o f the p i n e p o l l e n belonged  h i g h percentages  of coni-  not i n d i c a t e d i n the diagram, the t o the Pinus c o n t o r t a type, w i t h o n l y  a few b e l o n g i n g t o the Pinus m o n t i c o l a t y p e .  P i c e a , Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a  and Pseudotsuga p o l l e n each r e p r e s e n t from 5-15%  o f the spectrum.  Many o f  the c o n i f e r g r a i n s have a b a t t e r e d appearance, i n d i c a t i v e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e transport. (Fig.  33)  A l s o p r e s e n t are numerous reworked, T e r t i a r y p o l l e n g r a i n s r e c o g n i z a b l e on the b a s i s o f t h e i r amber t o brown c o l o u r a t i o n  102  after safranin staining. o f n o n - T e r t i a r y p o l l e n and  S u r p r i s i n g l y t h e i r frequencies spores.  Reworked palynomorphs i n c l u d e :  c f . P i c e a , Tsuga, c f . Cedrus, A b i e s , Carya and J u g l a n s Cicatricosisporites.  O v e r a l l , the a r b o r e a l component  dominates the assemblage, a v e r a g i n g little  d e p o s i t i o n from l o c a l NAP  reach up t o  around 80%.  sources.  and (AP)  the  ( F i g . 31)  T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e  These f e a t u r e s o f the AP, v i z .  Zone CBB  NAP,  assemblage i n t h i s i n t e r v a l has been d e r i v e d  from the p o l l e n l o a d o f the waters o f the F r a s e r R i v e r as o c c u r s t i d a l d e l t a - f r o n t and  Pinus,  form-genus  h i g h P i n u s , b a t t e r e d g r a i n s , reworked T e r t i a r y palynomorphs, low i n d i c a t e t h a t much o f the AP  25%  e s t u a r i n e environments  (see Ch.  in inter-  4).  - I i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e s o f  Cyperaceae, Typha and Rosaceae p o l l e n .  Cyperaceae are most abundant  near the bottom, whereas Typha t e t r a d s reach r e l a t i v e l y h i g h v a l u e s i n the upper h a l f . appear t o b e l o n g  The  Rosaceae p o l l e n , r e a c h i n g 60%  o f the NAP  I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h i s r e p r e s e n t s  (10%)  ( F i g . 32),  t o P o t e n t i l l a , on the b a s i s o f the f i n e l y s t r i a t e  t a t i o n o f the e x i n e .  (30%)  ornamen-  Potentilla  a n s e r i n a subsp. p a c i f i c a , which i s common i n the upper i n t e r t i d a l marsh o f the d e l t a - f r o n t as w e l l as i n o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s a l o n g the c o a s t . pollen studies  Modern  (Ch. 4) i n d i c a t e t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e s o f Typha and  Potentilla  i n the diagrams can be expected i n v e g e t a t i o n dominated by e i t h e r s p e c i e s . Increases  i n both types  i n the core are accompanied by decreases i n Cyper-  aceae p o l l e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d i c a t o r s include:.  i n the upper p a r t o f the i n t e r v a l .  Malvaceae  (cf. S i d a l c e a hendersonii)  and  Other marsh Equisetum  as w e l l as Cyperaceae. A t the boundary between zone I and  zone I I , f e r n spores o c c u r  i n very  h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s , b e i n g up to 12 times as abundant as the t o t a l o f a l l  103  o t h e r p o l l e n and spores.  A l t h o u g h s u r f a c e samples from the delta-^-front  r e v e a l some c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f monolete f e r n spores numbers, t o g e t h e r w i t h many s p o r a n g i a  ( c f , Athyrium),  the high  and s c a l a r i f o r m t r a c h e i d s , s t r o n g l y  suggest t h a t Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a was growing a t o r near t h e core A c o n v i n c i n g analog  site.  f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n has n o t been observed; however,  s p a r s e l y d i s p e r s e d clumps o f t h i s f e r n grow i n S p i r a e a t h i c k e t s along the P i t t R i v e r , some 30 km n o r t h e a s t o f Burns Bog.  During  f e r n spore peak i n core CBB, S p i r a e a i s a l s o p r e s e n t . produces copious  q u a n t i t i e s o f spores.  a t l e a s t p a r t o f the I n a d d i t i o n , Athyrium  This i n d i c a t e s that only a small  number o f p l a n t s growing i n an a r e a i s r e q u i r e d t o achieve  h i g h spore  fre-  quencies i n the sediments. Other f e a t u r e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f CBB-I i n c l u d e t h e c f . P e r i c o n i a f u n gal  c o n i d i a and the c h i t i n o u s t e s t s o f m i c r o f o r a m i n i f e r a The  i d e n t i f i a b l e macrofossil record  ( F i g . 33),  ( F i g . 28) i s poor, w i t h  mostly  r u s h - l i k e and sedge l e a f and rhizome fragments i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the sediments. An  analog  f o r zone CBB~I can be found on t h e e x i s t i n g  marshes o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r d e l t a - f r o n t .  intertidal  In the S c i r p u s zone  (Forbes,  1972) , t i d a l a c t i v i t y i s most pronounced between s l i g h t l y e l e v a t e d o f S c i r p u s americanus and T r i g l o c h i n maritimum. sediments w h i l e  These t r a p t h e f i n e r  sand i s moved back and f o r t h i n the low spots by t i d a l  a c t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n the d e p o s i t i o n o f l e n s e s o f sand i n t h e s i l t s . organic content and  The  i s low, r e s t r i c t e d t o b u r i a l o f i n s i t u S c i r p u s americanus  Scirpus palludosus  remains by s i l t s and f i n e - g r a i n e d w e l l s o r t e d sands  d e r i v e d from t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . water s o u r c e s ,  tussocks  Typha l a t i f o l i a  such as near r i v e r channels  stands  o c c u r near f r e s h  ( F i g . 25); on t h e b a s i s o f  104  surface pollen spectra  even low p e r c e n t a g e s o f Typha p o l l e n  indicate  stands o f t h i s s p e c i e s nearby. In the p o l l e n s p e c t r a o f the sediments o f the F r a s e r R i v e r a n a l o g , Pinus and P i c e a from r i v e r waters predominate. t e r i z e d by Cyperaceae.  L o c a l NAP p o l l e n i s c h a r a c -  These d e p o s i t s form t h e base f o r any p l a n t s u c c e s -  s i o n t h a t o c c u r s as the a c t i v e l y growing d e l t a - f r o n t moves away from a site.  The upper p a r t o f CBB - I equates more c l o s e l y t o v e g e t a t i o n s h o r e -  ward o f t h e Typha zone Typha stands a r e absent  ( F i g . 25), o r shoreward o f t h e S c i r p u s zone where ( i . e . away from r i v e r channel mouths).  Carex  l y n g b e y i i s t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s w i t h many o t h e r emergent i c s v e r y abundant  (Forbes, 1972).  aquat-  P o t e n t i l l a a n s e r i n a subsp. p a c i f i c a  also  grows here, a l t h o u g h the p o l l e n ' p e r c e n t a g e ' p r e s e r v e d i s low.  ZONE CBB - II  (4.40-3.00  m) :  A t t h e t r a n s i t i o n from CBB - I t o CBB - I I P i n u s , P i c e a and Pseudot s u g a l e v e l s drop s h a r p l y , whereas Tsuga remains c o n s t a n t . p o l l e n o c c u r s i n t r a c e amounts. the i n t e r v a l .  Alnus l e v e l s g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e throughout  The sudden c o n i f e r drop i s accompanied  i n Cyperaceae p o l l e n t o 60-70%.  C f . Thuj a  by a l a r g e  increase  A peak i n S p i r a e a p o l l e n o c c u r s i n the  bottom h a l f o f t h e zone, w h i l e a t the same time monolete  f e r n spores ( c f .  Athyrium) r e a c h t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e s r e c o r d e d i n the c o r e . The a r b o r e a l diagram  ( F i g . 31) c l e a r l y shows t h a t t h e t r e e p o l l e n types  f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s .  P i c e a , Pseudotsuga and P i n u s drop markedly i n the  t r a n s i t i o n t o CBB - I I .  The second group o f Tsuga, c f . T h u j a , A b i e s and  Alnus e i t h e r r i s e s s h a r p l y o r s t a y s the same.  These f o u r a r e s p e c i e s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e i t h e r the d e l t a lowlands o r the nearby s u r r o u n d i n g uplands.  T h i s suggests t h a t i n t h i s zone, t h e a r b o r e a l p o l l e n b e i n g  105  deposited  was  derived  from r i v e r s o u r c e s . dominantly m i n e r a l CBB  - II.  The  from the r e g i o n a l , atmospheric p o l l e n r a i n , and T h i s c o i n c i d e s w i t h the change i n d e p o s i t i o n  sediments i n CBB  o v e r a l l drop i n the AP  a) decreased f l u v i a l  NAP  diagram  companied by  o f the  ( F i g . 32)  sediment; and b)  and  c l e a r l y shows domination by Cyperaceae .ac-  rhizome remains i n the m a c r o f o s s i l  sedge swamp c o n d i t i o n s .  The  record,  S p i r a e a peak a t the bottom close-by. have become  locally.  v e r y h i g h monolete f e r n spore v a l u e s  are s t i l l  associated with Spiraea.  suggest t h a t L o n i c e r a  i n v o l u c r a t a was  o f the a r e a , perhaps a l o n g  c o n t i n u e from the zone below,  Even though p r e s e n t  amounts, L o n i c e r a p o l l e n i n t h i s zone and  the  pollen  Cyperaceae.  F i n a l l y , near the top o f the zone i t appears t h a t g r a s s e s may  The  sediments i n  increased  i n t e r v a l i m p l i e s t h a t t h i c k e t s o f S p i r a e a were p r o b a b l y  established  from  i s probably a r e s u l t of:  pollen contributors, particularly  sedge l e a f and  strongly suggesting  ( F i g . 31)  i n p u t o f p o l l e n and  d e p o s i t i o n from l o c a l NAP The  ^ I t o dominantly o r g a n i c  not  i n trace  i n the upper p a r t o f CBB  growing i n the sedge marshes  - I (fens)  abandoned channels o r i n backwater h a b i t a t s  of  river. Reworked T e r t i a r y p o l l e n types  zone CBB  - II.  ( F i g . 33)  A t t h i s same h o r i z o n ,  d i s a p p e a r a t the b e g i n n i n g o f  c f . D a c t y l a r i a and  cf. Curvularia  f u n g a l m i c r o f o s s i l s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r i v e r i n e marshes, appear f o r the f i r s t time.  T r a c e q u a n t i t i e s o f m i c r o f o r a m i n i f e r a l t e s t s and  cf. Periconia  i n d i c a t e the l a s t time f o r i n t e r t i d a l d e l t a - f r o n t i n f l u e n c e i n the Diagnostic  macrofossils  ( F i g . 28)  are s c a r c e , w i t h the sedge l e a v e s  i n g t h a t the cyperaceous p o l l e n i s t h a t o f Carex. sediment appear t o resemble those o f S p i r a e a ,  Twiglets  core. suggest-  i n the same  although Spiraea p o l l e n occurs  106  i n r e l a t i v e l y low amounts (see Ch, 4 ) , V e g e t a t i o n o f zone CBB -•• I I i s n o t o b v i o u s l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t d e l t a , p r o b a b l y because t h e areas i t would occupy have been d i k e d and t u r n e d i n t o farmland.  However, t h e P i t t R i v e r D e l t a , which i s p r e s e n t l y b u i l d i n g  i n t o the s o u t h e r n end o f P i t t Lake serves as a l i k e l y a n a l o g . sedges  I n t h e wet meadows f l a n k i n g t h e P i t t R i v e r ,  (Carex r o s t r a t a ) and g r a s s e s  s i l t y peats  (G. A s h l e y , p e r s o n a l communication)  (Barnard, 1975).  (Calamagrostis canadensis)  grow on  When l a k e l e v e l s a r e h i g h , these fens a r e  f l o o d e d w i t h up t o .30 m o f water.  The degree o f f l o o d i n g decreases  with  d i s t a n c e from t h e l a k e and t h e r i v e r , w i t h the f o r m a t i o n o f clumps o f S p i r a e a d o u g l a s s i and M y r i c a g a l e .  At sites s t i l l  S p i r a e a and M y r i c a combine t o form continuous ed by Malus f u s c a and L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a In  s h o r t i t appears  f a r t h e r from the r i v e r ,  t h i c k e t s , sometimes accompani-  (Barnard, 1975).  t h a t zone CBB - I I r e c o r d s wet sedge fens which  show s i g n s near t h e t o p o f t h e zone o f d e v e l o p i n g shrubby v e g e t a t i o n .  ZONE CBB - I I I (3.0-2.0 In CBB  m) :  t h i s i n t e r v a l t h e l e v e l s o f a r b o r e a l p o l l e n change l i t t l e  - I I , except f o r i n c r e a s e s i n c f . T h u j a .  t u a t i o n s i n r e g i o n a l o r lowland CBB  forests.  from zone  T h i s i n d i c a t e s no major  fluc-  A t the t r a n s i t i o n from CBB - I I t o  - I I I , Cyperaceae p o l l e n l e v e l s drop suddenly,  f o l l o w e d by a g r a d u a l  i n c r e a s e t o r e a c h p r e v i o u s v a l u e s near t h e t o p o f the zone.  Most prominent  i n t h i s i n t e r v a l i s t h e 90% peak i n M y r i c a p o l l e n f o l l o w e d by a 10% peak i n Spiraea.  The overwhelming dominance o f M y r i c a p o l l e n a l o n g w i t h  stems, rhizomes and seeds Subsequently  (Fig. 28), c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s a Myrica  S p i r a e a t h i c k e t s r e c u r r e d w i t h Ledum groenlandicum  Myrica shrubland. (Ericaceae  107  t e t r a d s l e s s than 30 ym  i n diameter) a p p e a r i n g near the t o p o f the zone.  Cyperaceous p o l l e n a l s o becomes dominant a g a i n , a l o n g w i t h S p i r a e a grasses.  The  first  s i g n i f i c a n t Sphagnum spores, t o g e t h e r w i t h decomposed  Sphagnum l e a v e s o f the Sphagnum fimbriatum i n d i c a t e s Sphagnum c o l o n i z a t i o n i n t h i s C f . Van  and  Geel Type 55  (V.G.  55)  type near the top o f CBB  - III  area,  f u n g a l spores  r e s t r i c t e d to the upper end o f t h i s zone.  (Van G e e l , 1976a) are  G e l a s i n o s p o r a spores  indicate  h u m i f i c a t i o n d u r i n g the S p i r a e a peak. In g e n e r a l , then, zone CBB  - I I I was  deposited during a Myrica-  Spiraea-Ledum shrub phase c o n t a i n i n g areas o f sedges in- the e a r l y and o c c u p i e d by Sphagnum mosses i n the c l o s i n g  stages,  stages.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n the P i t t R i v e r wetlands t h e r e i s a v e r y v e g e t a t i o n assemblage i n the t r a n s i t i o n between the sedge-grass  similar wetlands,  analagous t o CBB  - I I , and  the v e g e t a t i o n o f a s m a l l a r e a o f r a i s e d  ( P i t t Lake Bog),  developed  on the lowlands  M y r i c a and S p i r a e a  appear w i t h i n the sedge-grass  numerous n e a r e r the bog. to CBB  t h i s i s a mesotrophic  tion) , i t s occurrence i n such h a b i t a t s . Ledum.  The  Islands of  marshes, becoming more  S i g n i f i c a n t l y i n terms o f a s i t u a t i o n  - I I I , Sphagnum fimbriatum  Although  (Barnard, 1975).  analogous  o c c u r s w i t h i n the M y r i c a - S p i r a e a  species  (W.  bog  B. S c h o f i e l d , p e r s o n a l  shrubland. communica-  i m p l i e s t h a t Sphagnum s p e c i e s can become e s t a b l i s h e d  Sphagnum p a l u s t r e a l s o o c c u r s , b u t i s more abundant w i t h  Sphagnum l e a v e s t h a t are p r e s e r v e d i n CBB  S p i r a e a appear t o be o f the Sphagnum fimbriatum be d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d .  - I I I with Myrica  type, a l t h o u g h they  A t the t r a n s i t i o n from CBB  - I I I t o CBB  and  cannot - IV,  Ledum t e t r a d s appear, a s i t u a t i o n q u i t e analogous t o the o c c u r r e n c e o f Ledum stands between M y r i c a - S p i r a e a s h r u b l a n d and Sphagnum bog P i t t Lake  Bog.  a t the edge o f  108  ZONE CBB - IV  (2..0-0.-0  m) ;  T h i s zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by assemblages dominated by p i n e and Sphagnum, t o g e t h e r w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t numbers o f E r i c a c e a e . are d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e :  subzone a) (1.9-.2 m)  Two subzones  w i t h more o r l e s s  constant  f r e q u e n c i e s o f Tsuga and o t h e r c o n i f e r s except p i n e ; and subzone b) (.20-^ 0.00 m) w i t h and  grass  s h a r p l y reduced c o n i f e r l e v e l s  (except p i n e ) , and sudden a l d e r  increases.  Subzone IVa shows an i n c r e a s e i n a r b o r e a l p o l l e n over t h a t o f CBB III.  T h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the jump i n p i n e , s u g g e s t i n g  c o n t o r t a had c o l o n i z e d the bog around t h e core s i t e . covered  that  Pinus  A p i n e stump was r e -  a t the 2.00 m level„at t h i s s i t e s u p p o r t i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n .  a r b o r e a l diagram  ( F i g . 31) shows t h i s i n c r e a s e i n p i n e as b e i n g  The  gradual.  Most o f the o t h e r a r b o r e a l s p e c i e s except c f . T h u j a a l s o seem t o i n c r e a s e d u r i n g i n t e r v a l CBB - IV, b u t a t d i f f e r e n t times.  These r e l a t i v e  rises  appear t o be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the d e c l i n e i n a l d e r and c f . T h u j a from higher values a t the beginning  o f the i n t e r v a l  ( F i g . 30).  Sphagnum i s c l e a r l y t h e dominant NAP palynomorph, i n d i c a t i n g t h e development o f Sphagnum bog c o n d i t i o n s f u r t h e r supported  ( F i g . 32).  This conclusion i s  by t h e v i r t u a l d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f Cyperaceae and t h e  presence o f n o t a b l e  amounts o f E r i c a c e a e , t e t r a d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e lower  p a r t s o f t h e zone.  Ledum-type t e t r a d s dominate i n the lower s e c t i o n .  These t e t r a d s a r e g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by those  l a r g e r than 30 um i n diameter,  i n d i c a t i n g t h e advent o f s p e c i e s t o l e r a n t o f w e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s such as Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a , Andromeda p o l i f o l i a , V a c c i n i u m oxycoccos and Vaccinium uliginosum.  A t h i c k c h a r c o a l l a y e r a t 1.20 m r e c o r d s a major f i r e  burned the p r e c e d i n g  heathland.  that  109  Subzone IVb r e p r e s e n t s a v e r y s h o r t i n t e r v a l where a sudden drop i n conifer pollen  (except pine)  both a l d e r and  grasses.  o f European man,  who  i s accompanied by a pronounced ..increase i n  T h i s i s almost  c e r t a i n l y the r e s u l t o f the  c l e a r e d and logged the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s .  i n p i n e , c f . Rhynchospora and P t e r i d i u m along w i t h a decrease  arrival  Increases i n Sphagnum  seem t o be the r e s u l t o f b u r n i n g and p a r t i a l d r a i n i n g o f the l o c a l bog T h i s was  accompanied by the development o f a Rhynchospora alba-Sphagnum  t e n e l l u m h o l l o w a t the core s i t e .  The  sudden r i s e i n g r a s s e s may  r e s u l t from r e l a t i v e l y good p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the v e r y wet  A h o s t o f new  f u n g a l and  r h i z o p o d types  ( F i g . 33)  - IV, the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e i n g Desmidiospora, Sphagnum.  Many o f the o t h e r s c o r r e s p o n d  (1973) from a r a i s e d bog  i n West Germany.  (see Ch.  4).  appears i n zone  CBB  a constant a s s o c i a t e of  t o those r e p o r t e d by Van C f . V.G.  also  c o n d i t i o n s a t the  s i t e , i n a d d i t i o n t o i n c r e a s e d grass growth on c l e a r e d l a n d  Geel  55 f u n g a l spores  v e r y abundant b u t o f unknown e c o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . V.G.  area.  Gelasinospora  are and  3 f u n g a l m i c r o f o s s i l s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i r e h o r i z o n s o r h u m i f i e d  l a y e r s , r e f l e c t i n g changes i n s o i l c o n d i t i o n s (Van.Geel, r e c o v e r y v a r i e s throughout,  zone CBB  - IV.  Macrofossil  w i t h b e s t p r e s e r v a t i o n and g r e a t e s t d i v e r s i t y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h a r c o a l and h u m i f i e d l a y e r s . Ledum, Sphagnum p e a t b e g i n s  1973).  R i g h t a f t e r the advent o f  t o accumulate i n the d e p o s i t s a t the base o f  Sphagnum m a c r o f o s s i l s a t t h i s l e v e l have been  identified  as v e r y p a p i l l o s e Sphagnum p a p i l l o s u m which i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s an o c e a n i c type, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the bogs o f the west c o a s t o f Vancouver Island  (W. B. S c h o f i e l d , p e r s o n a l communication).  Sphagnum p a p i l l o s u m o f  the v e r y p a p i l l o s e type i s not c u r r e n t l y gorwing i n Burns Bog, t h a t the h a b i t a t was  more o c e a n i c than a t p r e s e n t .  suggesting  Above the S_. p a p i l l o s u m  110  l a y e r , the p e a t s seemed t o have been formed from Sphagnum fuscum and Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m . At t h e edge o f P i t t Lake Bog, t h e t r a n s i t i o n from M y r i c a - S p i r a e a t h i c k e t s i n t o Sphagnum bog i s a l s o marked by t h e development o f Ledum. However t h e a t t e n d a n t Sphagnum s p e c i e s i n t h i s r e g i o n i s Sphagnum p a l u s t r e . With i n c r e a s i n g b o g i n e s s , Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m s t a r t s t o form hummocks. The  l a r g e P i n u s c o n t o r t a stump uncovered  a t t h e 2.00 m l e v e l i n  core- CBB e x h i b i t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c low growth r a t e s and o s c i l l a t i n g p o o r e r and b e t t e r growth expected ment (see Ch. 2 ) .  f o r an a r e a o f a c t i v e Sphagnum develop-  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n the P i t t Lake Bog,  Pinus c o n t o r t a does n o t grow o u t s i d e t h e Ledum-Sphagnum band around t h e bog periphery.  This implies that certain s o i l  c o n d i t i o n s perhaps r e l a t e d t o pH  and water c o n t e n t must be e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e p i n e w i l l  colonize (Birks,  1975) . The  two major f i r e h o r i z o n s i n CBB - IV a r e o f i n t e r e s t because they  support o b s e r v a t i o n s made on t h e e f f e c t o f f i r e i n the p r e s e n t bog e n v i r o n ment  (Ch. 2 ) .  I n b o t h cases, t h e f i r e h o r i z o n s a r e preceded  Ledum-type p o l l e n and are f o l l o w e d by sudden drops  by peaks i n  i n Sphagnum spores and  Ledum, a l o n g w i t h the f i r s t appearance o f Rhynchospora a l b a achenes. Abundant Rhynchospora i n d i c a t e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a shallow d e p r e s s i o n w i t h low accumulation  r a t e s u n t i l r e c o l o n i z e d by Sphagnum.  f i r e a t 1.22 m, a l l a r b o r e a l p o l l e n percentages a response  Immediately a f t e r the  r i s e suddenly,  apparently  t o the e l i m i n a t i o n o f l o c a l NAP.  Pinus r e c o v e r s somewhat l a t e r ,  t o l e v e l s t w i c e as h i g h as b e f o r e the f i r e ,  and then g r a d u a l l y decreases as  Sphagnum r e c o l o n i z e s the burned s u r f a c e and r e s t r i c t s n u t r i e n t uptake (see  Ill  Ch.  2).  The f i r e ( s ? )  i n the t o p .20 m have l e f t t h e s i t e w i t h the same  Rhynchospora dominated cover as j u s t a f t e r t h e f i r e  a t 1.22 m.  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s  The  c e n t r a l p a r t o f Burns Bog has formed on i n t e r t i d a l l y  s i l t s o f the Fraser River D e l t a .  deposited  As t h e d e l t a - f r o n t emerged more than  4,000 y e a r s ago, b r a c k i s h water c o n d i t i o n s s u p p o r t e d emergent a q u a t i c s such as S c i r p u s and Typha.  With decreased  i n f l u e n c e from the sea and the r i v e r ,  sedges became e s t a b l i s h e d i n p e r i o d i c a l l y f l o o d e d fens and o r g a n i c accumulat i o n replaced mineral deposition. shrubs such as M y r i c a and S p i r a e a .  T h i s phase was f o l l o w e d by the advent o f Once a s u i t a b l e s u b s t r a t e developed,  about 3,000 y e a r s ago, Sphagnum spp. and Ledum groenlandicum  took  l e a d i n g t o the e v e n t u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r a i s e d bog ecosystem.  over, The f i r e  h o r i z o n s r e c o r d e d by c h a r c o a l i n t h e c o r e were f o l l o w e d by temporary disappearance  o f Sphagnum and appearance o f Rhynchospora a l b a .  a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l AP, r e f l e c t i n g upland f o r e s t s , unchanged u n t i l t h e advent  The c o r e remained  o f immigrants a t t h e .20 m l e v e l , w i t h  i n c r e a s e s i n a l d e r and g r a s s e s and decreases  local  subsequent  i n a l l AP types except p i n e .  112  ZONES CBB IVb Minor Types Lycopodium  Rubus  chamaemorus  Drosera  Rubus  chamaemorus  Rubus  chamaemorus  Lonicera,  Lycopodium  Lonicera Lycopodium Lonicera  Lycopodi um Lonicera  |;"s-;y;:.il SAND  SEDGE PEAT  |~-Z-Z-j S I L T  | y y y ) WOODY PEAT  Unshaded curves a r e expanded 10X  SPHAGNUM PEAT Each  • " • » • • CHARCOAL  division  i s 50% Monolete Polypodiaceae  FIGURE 29 : POLLEN DIAGRAM FOR CORE CBB, BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA•  are excluded  from  the t o t a l .  113  E----H  S I L T  w  o  o  d  y  p  e  a  t  'CHARCOAL  Unshaded curves are expanded 10X  F  I  G  U  R  E  3  0  ; ARBOREAL POLLEN DIAGRAM EXCLUDING PINE FOR CORE CBB/ BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  114  PJQjjj  SILT  [y y y 1  WOODY PEAT  mini  CHARCOAL  Unshaded curves a r e expanded 10X FIGURE 3 1 : ARBOREAL POLLEN DIAGRAM FOR CORE CBB, BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  115 Minor Types Lycopodium Drosera  Rubus  chamaemorus  Drosera  Plantago  Drosera  Rubus  chamaemorus  Rubus  chamaemorus  Plantago  Lonicera  Lonicera  Loni cera  Lonicera,  Lycopodium  Lonicera,  Lycopodium  Lonicera Lycopodi um Lonicera  100 Each d i v i s i o n |ff:..;.,J SAND  )|| IHU  £13  \y,Y,y,\ WOODY PEAT  S I L T  SEDGE PEAT  Unshaded curves are expanded 10X  SPHAGNUM PEAT •  • CHARCOAL  FIGURE 32 ! NON-ARBOREAL POLLEN DIAGRAM FOR CORE CBB, BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  i s 50%  Monolete  200  300  Polypodiaceae are excluded  from t h e t o t a l .  us c  DEPTH IN METERS ON  s  n> U  l  . o  c o  t  o  CO CO  Gelasinospora Desmidiospora  V.G.  3  - o  •< 3  o 3  O  -J  Actinopeltis cf.Helicosporium cf.Mougeotea  V.G.  55  Microthyriaceae Tilletia Amphitrema  T3  0J  CQ -i 0>  3  o -5  O  o -s CD  O  ca Assulina cf.Periconia cf.Dactylaria cf.Curvularia  Forams Tertiary pollen Fine Black detritus Fern annuli  9TT  CO  117  CHAPTER 6:  CORE BBDC FROM WESTERN BURNS BOG  Introduction  Core BBDC was o b t a i n e d from t h e southwest c o r n e r o f Burns Bog a d j a c e n t t o t h e Vancouver S a n i t a r y L a n d f i l l S i t e  ( F i g . 1 0 ) . T h i s l o c a l i t y was  chosen because o f t h e n e c e s s i t y t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e western p a r t o f t h e bog f o r completeness and b e f o r e b u r i a l o f t h i s a r e a by l a n d f i l l . Dwarf Pinus  c o n t o r t a , Ledum groenlandicum  and Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m are t h e  major p l a n t s growing on t h e s i t e .  Methods  The  c o r e was o b t a i n e d i n t h e same manner as core CBB (see Ch. 5 ) . The  samples were p r e p a r e d  u s i n g a m o d i f i e d procedure  from t h a t employed f o r  core CBB and DNR, so t h a t a b s o l u t e p o l l e n v a l u e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d  from  b o t h the volume and t h e weight o f the sediment.  Absolute  pollen  In p a l y n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s , a b s o l u t e p o l l e n d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  can be made  t o o b t a i n v a l u e s o f t h e a c t u a l numbers o f p o l l e n g r a i n s p r e s e n t i n samples o f known volume and weight.  As such they a l s o r e c o r d the a c t u a l number o f  g r a i n s d i s p e r s e d by the v a r i o u s s p e c i e s d u r i n g a s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l o f time. I f r a d i o c a r b o n dates a r e o b t a i n e d a t v a r i o u s h o r i z o n s throughout the s e d i m e n t a t i o n corresponding  the c o r e ,  r a t e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s can be c a l c u l a t e d , and the  annual p o l l e n d e p o s i t i o n determined  (Davis, 1967).  The  a b s o l u t e p o l l e n d e t e r m i n a t i o n removes the problems i n h e r e n t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g r e l a t i v e p e r ce n t a g e s  i n p o l l e n diagrams.  118  I t i s apparent  t h a t f o r c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s , s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s must  be a c c u r a t e l y determined  by m u l t i p l e r a d i o c a r b o n dates on every c o r e ;  c o n s t a n t s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s a r e assumed between d a t e s . approximated  This condition i s  i n open l a k e s , where s e d i m e n t a t i o n i s dominated by a c o n s t a n t  v e r t i c a l component  ( f a l l i n g d e t r i t u s -*• g y t t j a ) and more o r l e s s  p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l t u r b a t i o n o f sediments. not e x i s t , assuming c o n s t a n t accumulation  uniform  Where such c o n d i t i o n s do  rates i s not a v a l i d  procedure.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r cases t h a t r e c o r d e d r a p i d l y changing ments such as those i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study.  environ-  Nevertheless absolute  p o l l e n d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were made f o r core BBDC t o d i s c o v e r t h e s o r t s o f palynomorph c o n c e n t r a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e environments r e p r e s e n t e d . The ing  samples were p r e p a r e d u s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d procedure  modifications.  First,  by t h e f o l l o w i n g method. a 50 c c graduatedat  7,100 rpm.  the tube. was  w i t h the f o l l o w -  the' i n i t i a l volume o f t h e sample was  determined  The sample was suspended i n water and p l a c e d i n  c o n i c a l c e n t r i f u g e tube and c e n t r i f u g e d f o r one minute  The volume o f sediment was read from the s c a l e on the s i d e o f  T h i s t e c h i n q u e , suggested by F a e g r i and I v e r s e n  (1965, p. 4 1 ) ,  used because e x t r a c t i n g f i x e d volumes by t h e " p l u g " method o f Mathewes  (1973) was p r e v e n t e d by t h e f i b r o u s n a t u r e o f the p e a t d e p o s i t s . volume d e t e r m i n a t i o n , t h e d r y weight was  also The  After  (oven d r y i n g a t 80°C) o f each sample  determined. e x o t i c p o l l e n method  (Benninghof,  1962) was chosen f o r a b s o l u t e  p o l l e n d e t e r m i n a t i o n because i t does n o t r e q u i r e t h e time-consuming of  s l i d e s , and c o u n t i n g a l l g r a i n s on a s l i d e as i n t h e "volume" method  (Mathewes, 1973). was  weighing  A standard s o l u t i o n o f S c i a d o p i t y s v e r t i c i l l a t a  employed as a source o f t h e e x o t i c g r a i n s .  pollen  S c i a d o p i t y s was used because  119  it  i s r e a s o n a b l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from n a t i v e p o l l e n and  available l o c a l l y i n large quantities. Sciadopitys  The  f o r one  minute w i t h a 1%  n e u t r a l i z e d w i t h a few  pollen,  s o l u t i o n o f methyl  g r a i n s o f K CC> , was 2  f i n a l wash b e f o r e mounting i n s i l i c o n e o i l .  Thus, the  concentration  o f the  e x o t i c p o l l e n s o l u t i o n , 7.62  was  determined by u s i n g a c o r p u s c l e  c o u n t i n g chamber  U l t r a P l a n e , S p o t l i t e C o u n t i n g Chamber, 1/400 s e r and  mm  x 10  Sciadopitys  6  colour.  g r a i n s per  ml,  (Improved Neubauer,  x .1 mm  2  in  used i n  3  g r a i n s were r e n d e r e d e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e by both morphology and The  is  of  e x o t i c g r a i n s were found t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r green c o l o u r  s i l i c o n e o i l i f TBA, the  confusion  p o l l e n w i t h s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r Tsiiga h e t e r o p h y l l a  the e x o t i c g r a i n s were s t a i n e d green.  To p r e v e n t any  spore types and  deep, C. A.  Haus-  Son).  A measured volume o f p o l l e n sample was e x o t i c g r a i n s o l u t i o n , and The  f o l l o w i n g formula was p o l l e n and  ]il o f  the  the e x o t i c g r a i n s were i d e n t i f i e d  and  mounted i n s i l i c o n e o i l .  f o s s i l palynomorphs and  counted t o a t o t a l o f 400  "doped" w i t h 100  p o l l e n and  spores whenever p o s s i b l e .  a p p l i e d t o determine the  absolute  the  concentration  of  spores f o r each sample.  A b s o l u t e p o l l e n and  spore c o n c e n t r a t i o n / c c  A b s o l u t e p o l l e n and  spore concentration/gm = R  where; R  Then  =  = Number o f f o s s i l grains/Number o f e x o t i c  x K/(R^  x  V )  x K/(R^  x  W)  Q  Q  grains  K • = C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e x o t i c s o l u t i o n x Volume o f e x o t i c s o l u t i o n used R  V  = Volume o f doped sub-sample*/Total volume o f o r i g i n a l p r e p a r e d sample  V  = Volume o f o r i g i n a l sediment sample a f t e r c e n t r i f u g i n g  ( i n cc)  120  W  q  = Dry weight o f o r i g i n a l sediment sample  ( i n grams)  * u s u a l l y o n l y p a r t o f the p o l l e n r e s i d u e p r e p a r e d from a sediment sample was  doped w i t h e x o t i c  pollen.  A b s o l u t e p o l l e n diagrams were p r e p a r e d u s i n g a computer w r i t t e n f o r the p a r t i c u l a r purpose  Sediment  program  (Appendix-2b).  analysis  Environments, as w e l l as b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m i c r o f o s s i l and macrof o s s i l assemblages, get  are a l s o i d e n t i f i a b l e by sedimentary c h a r a c t e r s .  To  an i d e a o f the n a t u r e o f the m i n e r a l sediments a t the bottom o f core  BBDC, and thus a b e t t e r i d e a o f the environments  i n which they were d e p o s i t -  ed, the s a n d : s i l t : c l a y r a t i o s were determined f o r s e l e c t e d The sand f r a c t i o n was  determined by wet  samples.  s i e v i n g , whereas the p e r c e n t -  ages o f the s i l t and c l a y f r a c t i o n s were o b t a i n e d by the p i p e t t e method (Folk, 1968).  Samples o f 40-50 grams were taken a t about  from the m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s c o m p r i s i n g the l a s t 3.00  .50 m  intervals  m o f core BBDC.  sediments were d i s a g g r e g a t e d and d i s p e r s e d i n d i s t i l l e d water. were w e t - s i e v e d a t 210 ym t o remove l a r g e p l a n t fragments. g r e a t e r than 210 ym was  found, the r e s i d u e was  washed, o v e n - d r i e d , and weighed. 210 ym mesh was  o v e n - d r i e d a t 110-130°C  Then they  I f any  sand  t r e a t e d w i t h H C> o v e r n i g h t , 2  2  The m a t e r i a l t h a t p a s s e d through the  s i m i l a r l y t r e a t e d w i t h ^ °2 2  then the g r a i n s g r e a t e r than 63 ym  The  a  n  d  s  i -  e  v  e  d  a g a i n a t 63  ym;  (sand f r a c t i o n , F o l k , 1968, p. 25) . were  and weighed.  The t o t a l weight o f the sand  c o n s i s t e d o f a l l m i n e r a l g r a i n s g r e a t e r than 63 ym i n s i z e .  The  fraction  fines  which p a s s e d through the 63 ym mesh were d i s p e r s e d i n a weak Calgon  solution,  checked f o r f l o c c u l a t i o n , and then a n a l y z e d by the p i p e t t e method f o r  121  silt  and c l a y f r a c t i o n s .  The s i l t / c l a y boundary was s e t a t 2 ym  (Folk,  1968).  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n  Stratigraphy The  s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence f o r core BBDC ( F i g . 34) b e g i n s w i t h  grained s i l t y  sands.  fine-  G r a d u a l l y i n the i n t e r v a l 5.50-5.00 m, the sediments  change t o s i l t s w i t h o c c a s i o n a l sand l e n s e s and b l a c k o r g a n i c s t r e a k s . Silts  c o n t i n u e up t o about 4.20 m, where they a r e r e p l a c e d by p e a t s and  peaty s i l t s .  A t 3.75 m p e a t y s i l t s  and sands appear.  s h a r p l y a t 3.45 m, where they a r e o v e r l a i n by s i l t y  These t e r m i n a t e  sedge p e a t s .  The  sedge p e a t s c o n t i n u e t o 2.50 m, where they a r e succeeded by heath p e a t s . Sphagnum p e a t g r a d u a l l y takes o v e r from about 1.10 m and c o n t i n u e s t o t h e s u r f a c e , w i t h some woody p e a t l a y e r s i n the t o p .50 m. of  A pronounced  c h a r c o a l i n t e r r u p t s t h e Sphagnum p e a t s a t the .62 m l e v e l .  layer  Traces o f  c h a r c o a l a l s o appear i n t h e t o p .20 m.  Sedimentology The i n Table At of  s a n d : s i l t : c l a y r a t i o s o b t a i n e d from sediment 4',  and p l o t t e d i n F i g . 35.  t h e bottom o f t h e core t h e sediments  sands t o s i l t s .  At  a r e composed o f a 50:50 r a t i o  The p r o p o r t i o n o f sand decreases i n the i n t e r v a l 5.50-  4.50 m, w i t h a concomitant r i s e i n the s i l t above  analyses are presented  component.  The p e a t y d e p o s i t s  (at 4.50-4.60 m and 4.00-4.10 m) show a s i g n i f i c a n t c l a y  3.50-3.60 m t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s i l t  i n c r e a s e s markedly  fraction.  t o 95% whereas t h e  clay p a r t i c l e s disappear. The upward sequence o f d e c r e a s i n g sediment  s i z e resembles  t h e sediment-  .: , .122 Hgure  34:  Stratigraphy  macrofossi 1s  arid  Z O N E S  of  core  BBDC  |  BBDC  >charcoal, abundant Rhynchospora and cf.Rhynchospora leaves  Vlb  Sphagnum fuscum, BBDC  Via  Sphagnum  capillaceum  r e d d i s h , w e l l - p r e s e r v e d sphagnum  dm  Sphagnum fuscum.  seeds  Sphagnum  peat  capillaceum  t w i g s , b a d l y decomposed c f . Sphagnum fimbriatum cf.S.fimbriatum, BBDC  woody, heath ||2  m  c f . sedge l e a v e s and e r i c a d  Carex IV  peat  c f . sedge l e a v e s , e r i c a d  iyvi\y BBDC  ericad> l e a v e s  3m  cuticles,  achenes and c f . sedge l e a v e s  d a r k brown s e d g e Carex  cuticles  peat  achenes and c f . sedge l e a v e s  14125:110 BBDC  111  BBDC  II  peaty, sandy,  4m  Carex  silts  BBDC  K5m  I  Atripiex  seeds  achenes, c f . sedge l e a v e s  d a r k , d e n s e oenanthe-sedge Scirpus  4670:100  silt  peat  bristles  with traces of mica  Scirpus  bristles  Scirpus  stem  b l u e - g r e y s i l t s w i t h sand  lenses  4935-100 blue-grey, well-sorted, fine s i l t y containing black organic streaks  16m  sands  123  TABLE 4:  Sample No.  SAND:SILT:CLAY RATIOS, CORE BBDC, BURNS BOG, DELTA, B.C.  Sample Depth  (m)  Sediment  % Sand  % Silt  % Clay  1  3.50-3.60  silt  3.0  95.0  2.0  2  4.00-4.10  s i l t y peat  0.0  67.8  32.2  3  4.50-4.60  peaty s i l t  1.0  70.6  28.4  4  5.00-5.10  silt  5.2  78.6  16.2  5  5.50-5.60  sandy s i l t  38.2  53.4  8.4  6  6.00-6.10  s i l t y sand  53.0  46.0  4.0  7  6.50-6.60  s i l t y sand  50.0  50.0  0.0  sand - g r e a t e r than 63 ym silt  - 2-63 ym  c l a y - l e s s than 2 ym  Figure 35: Sand:Silt:Clay r a t i o t r i a n g l e f o r selected samples from core BBDC. SAND  CLAY  PERCENT  124  a r y changes t h a t can be observed the v e g e t a t e d dike  i n t r a v e r s i n g shoreward from t h e edge o f  i n t e r t i d a l b r a c k i s h water marshes o f the d e l t a - f r o n t t o t h e  ( F i g . 2 5 ) . About 1.5 km seaward o f t h e d i k e , t i d a l and wave a c t i v i t y  i s s t r o n g enough t o s o r t o u t f i n e sands from s i l t s are l e f t b e h i n d ,  and c l a y s .  and a r e d e p o s i t e d i n s m a l l t i d a l channels  clumps o f S c i r p u s americanus and T r i g l o c h i n maritimum. on the o t h e r hand, a r e t r a n s p o r t e d landward.  The sands  among s c a t t e r e d  The s i l t s  and c l a y s ,  Sand f r a c t i o n s o f sediments  on t h e seaward s i d e o f i n t e r t i d a l marshes o f t h e F r a s e r D e l t a a r e u s u a l l y around 50% (Luternauer  and Murray, 1973; D. G r i e v e , p e r s o n a l  T h i s sand l e v e l corresponds and  t o t h e c o n t e n t o f the i n t e r v a l s 6.50-6.40 m  6.00-6.10 m i n core BBDC.  shore,  The few d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r s i t e s c l o s e r t o  and w e l l w i t h i n the marsh, i n d i c a t e much lower percentages  (around  20%) (D. G r i e v e , p e r s o n a l communication).  w i t h the d e c r e a s e d  p r o p o r t i o n o f sand observed  from 5.50-5.60 m and 5.00-5.10 m. energy decreases  and s i l t s  c l o s e r t o shore,  o f sand  T h i s i s i n agreement  between t h e two samples  Thus, moving shoreward, wave and t i d a l  a r e d e p o s i t e d among S c i r p u s and Typha  Much l e s s sand gets t h i s c l o s e t o shore Still  communication).  stands.  and t h e r e a r e fewer t i d a l  f i n e s i l t s and c l a y s a r e d e p o s i t e d a l o n g  channels.  with  abundant o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l . As noted  i n t h e next s e c t i o n , t h i s s e d i m e n t o l o g i c  sequence p a r a l l e l s  c l o s e l y t h e p a l y n o l o g i c s u c c e s s i o n t h a t shows a t r a n s i t i o n s e r i e s from an assemblage o f mainly and  r i v e r - d e r i v e d palynomorphs through a zone o f b u l r u s h  c a t t a i l and f i n a l l y t o one dominated by sedges and u m b e l l i f e r s . The  h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s i l t s a t the 3.50-3.60 m l e v e l i n d i c a t e s a  major change i n the sedimentary environment.  I n t h i s i n t e r v a l , t h e r e was  i n c r e a s e d t r a n s p o r t i v e energy w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n a t e decrease  i n peat  125  F i g u r e 36: Absolute p o l l e n and spore c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r core BBDC, Burns Bog, D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia.  P o l l e n & spores per gram 0  5  x  1  0  5  4  X 10  Density  0  X 10  0  X 10  P o l l e n & spores per cc  gm/cc  5  10  stippled shading 3  unshaded  15  126  accumulation. From the r a d i o c a r b o n dates a t 5.45 a g a i n a t 4.97  m  (4,670 ± 100 BP,  this interval  i s .17  from 5.45-4.97 m, throughout a t 4,125  cm/year.  ± 110  BP,  (4,935 ± 100 BP,  The marked d i f f e r e n c e i n  shows t h a t t h i s r a t e was  not  constant  The next h i g h e r i n t e r v a l , 4.97-3.45 m,  terminating  Large v a r i a t i o n s i n r a t e p r o b a b l y a l s o  t e r i z e t h i s p e r i o d , as both p e a t s and s i l t s o f p e a t s i n t h i s core were accumulated  The  sand:silt;ratio  (1-7627), shows a c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r sediment accumula-  t i o n r a t e o f .29 cm/year.  Absolute P o l l e n :  1-7629) and  1-7628), the mean s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e f o r  however, c l e a r l y  the i n t e r v a l .  m  are p r e s e n t .  a t an average  The  charac-  upper 3.45  r a t e o f .08  m  cm/year.  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n  amount o f v a r i a t i o n i n sediment type and accumulation  r a t e i s so  g r e a t t h a t a b s o l u t e annual p o l l e n and spore s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s (Davis, 1967)  cannot be c a l c u l a t e d r e l i a b l y .  Consequently,  absolute p o l l e n  data  a r e d i s c u s s e d here o n l y i n terms o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o l l e n and spores p e r gram and p e r c u b i c c e n t i m e t e r , and  then r e l a t e d t o sediment d e n s i t y ( F i g .  36) . Zone BBDC - I/. low,  In t h i s zone, p o l l e n and spore c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are  r a n g i n g between 1,000  gm o f sediment. sandy s i l t s result  and 8,000 g r a i n s / c c and 1,000  and  These low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s c o u l d be expected  d e p o s i t e d i n d e l t a - f r o n t environments  extremely  10,000 g r a i n s / i n such dense,  ( M u l l e r , 1959).  from b o t h the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e (approx.  y e a r ) , and the r e l a t i v e l y low p o l l e n p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the sparse  They .17  cm/  local  vegetation. Zone BBDC - JEI: h i g h e r p o l l e n and  The p e a t s o v e r l y i n g the p r e v i o u s s i l t y spore c o n c e n t r a t i o n s than these s i l t s ,  deposits contain ranging  from  127  15,000 t o 40,000 g r a i n s / c c and These extremely  30,000 t o 440,000 grains/gm o f sediment.  h i g h v a l u e s p e r gram o f sediment o c c u r because o f the  light  weight o f the p e a t s , the h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f monolete f e r n spores-, p r o b a b l y because o f i n c r e a s e d c o n t r i b u t i o n from l o c a l v e g e t a t i o n . v a l u e s are comparable t o h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o b t a i n e d i n Orinoco backswamps  spores  River  The  s i l t y d e p o s i t s from 3.80-3.45 m c o n t a i n fewer p o l l e n  (8,000-13,000/cc, 30,000-100,000/gm) than the p e a t s below.  These d e c r e a s e d  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s r e f l e c t the r e t u r n t o m i n e r a l  Zone BBDC - IV:  The  sedimentation.  sedge p e a t s t h a t o c c u r i n t h i s i n t e r v a l e x h i b i t h i g h l y  v a r i a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p o l l e n and s p o r e s . t i o n s r i s e t o 22,000/cc and  390,000/gm.  In the lower p a r t , c o n c e n t r a -  However, i n the upper p a r t t h e r e  i s a marked d e c l i n e i n these l e v e l s t o 1,000/cc and for  These  ( M u l l e r , 1959).  Zone BBDC - I I I : and  and  20,000/gm.  The  reasons  such l a r g e changes i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h i n an a p p a r e n t l y u n i f o r m  type are not c l e a r .  Perhaps t h e r e were decreases  sedge s p e c i e s , o r perhaps p r e s e r v a t i o n was  peat  i n pollen productivity of  markedly p o o r e r i n t h i s upper  interval. Zone BBDC - V:  The  a b s o l u t e p o l l e n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the heath peats  are  much h i g h e r than i n the sedge p e a t s below, r a n g i n g up t o 23,000/cc  and  320,000/gram.  either  Peaks and troughs  do not seem t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  major sediment d e n s i t y changes o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e a t t y p e s . are d i f f i c u l t  The  increases  to e x p l a i n , o t h e r than as r e s u l t i n g from i n c r e a s e s i n l o c a l  p r o d u c t i v i t y and  changes i n p r e s e r v a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s .  Zone BBDC - VI_:  In t h i s Sphagnum peat i n t e r v a l ,  concentrations begin at  about the same l e v e l s as i n the p r e c e d i n g heath p e a t s , but i n c r e a s e substantially top  .20 m.  j u s t a f t e r f i r e h o r i z o n s , and a l s o i n the denser p e a t s o f the Peat accumulation  r a t e s a r e v e r y low  j u s t a f t e r the  fires,  128  e s p e c i a l l y i n "Rhynchospora lows"  (see Ch.  2).  P o l l e n p r e s e r v a t i o n appears  to be good and i s p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o d e p o s i t i o n i n s t a n d i n g , a c i d water. T h i s p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n s the marked i n c r e a s e a t the 0.60 top  .20 m.  m h o r i z o n and i n the  C o n c e n t r a t i o n s r e a c h 35,000/cc and 2,100,000/gm, and are compar-  a b l e t o those o b t a i n e d f o r l a k e g y t t j a by Mathewes  (1973).  In summary, p o l l e n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s change markedly throughout r e f l e c t i n g the v a r y i n g sediment types and accumulation  rates.  core BBDC,  Concentra-^  t i o n s were most a f f e c t e d by changes i n sediment type as r e f l e c t e d by d e n s i t y . The  dense, b a s a l , s i l t y  sands c o n t a i n v e r y low l e v e l s o f p o l l e n and  spores.  The numbers i n c r e a s e i n peaty sediments because o f the r e l a t i v e l y low i t y o f the p e a t and  from i n c r e a s e s i n l o c a l p o l l e n p r o d u c t i v i t y .  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are reached  dens-  Highest  i n the f i n e , dense, g y t t j a - l i k e sediments o f  s h a l l o w p o s t - f i r e d e p r e s s i o n s w i t h i n the Sphagnum p e a t s .  P o l l e n and M a c r o f o s s i l Z o n a t i o n  The p o l l e n diagrams f o r core BBDC ( F i g . 37; F i g . 38 39  (AP); F i g . 40  (NAP); F i g . 41  ( E r i c a c e a e ) ) have been d i v i d e d i n t o 6 zones  w i t h zone BBDC - VI s u b d i v i d e d i n t o subzones a and b. the f u n g a l spore and o t h e r palynomorph diagramt h i s chapter.  (6.10-4.40  The AP o f t h i s zone  ( F i g . 42)  and  are a t the end o f  m):  ( F i g . 39)  i s dominated by P i n u s , w i t h  P i c e a , Tsuga, c f . Thuja and A l n u s , and p o l l e n and spore sum.  The  significant  c o n s t i t u t e s 50-80% o f the  total  S a l i x peak a t the end o f the zone p r o b a b l y  records a l o c a l stand of willow. ( F i g . 40)  These diagrams  The m a c r o f o s s i l r e c o r d s are shown i n F i g . 34.  ZONE BBDC - I  NAP  (AP - p i n e ) ; F i g .  Cyperaceae p o l l e n makes up most o f the  and i s a s c r i b e d t o e i t h e r S c i r p u s americanus o r S c i r p u s  129  palludosus  on t h e b a s i s o f S c i r p u s  O t h e r emergent a q u a t i c hendersonii)  sp, b r i s t l e s i n the sediments  types i n c l u d e S a g i t t a r i a , Malvaceae  and Equisetum.  ( F i g . 34).  (cf. Sidalcea  Typha t e t r a d s r e a c h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s  near the t o p o f t h i s zone. The  p o l l e n and spore assemblage o f BBDC - I i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f  CBB - I and p r o b a b l y i n d i c a t e s a v e r y d e l t a - f r o n t environment.  similar i n t e r t i d a l to estuarine  Other palynomorphs u s u a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s  environment a r e a l s o p r e s e n t ,  i n c l u d i n g forams, h y s t r i c h o s p h e r e s ,  T e r t i a r y p o l l e n g r a i n s and both c f . P e r i c o n i a and c f . D a c t y l a r i a  reworked fungal  c o n i d i a , as w e l l as f i n e b l a c k d e t r i t u s ( F i g . 4 2 ) .  ZONE BBDC - II The  (4.40-3.80  m):  boundary between BBDC - I and BBDC - I I , as i n core CBB, i s p l a c e d  where t h e AP drops and t h e NAP r i s e s i n response.  T h i s change r e f l e c t s t h e  decrease i n importance o f r i v e r - d e r i v e d palynomorphs such as Pinus and Picea.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Tsuga does n o t d e c r e a s e , p r o b a b l y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more o f t h i s p o l l e n was d e r i v e d r a i n than e i t h e r Pinus o r P i c e a .  The AP diagram  the t o p o f t h e zone, Alnus i n c r e a s e s Thuja.  T h i s may r e p r e s e n t  from t h e atmospheric p o l l e n ( F i g . 39) shows t h a t , a t  a t the expense o f A b i e s ,  P i c e a and  the i n v a s i o n by A l n u s o f r i v e r banks near the  site. Based on t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f h i g h Cyperaceae f r e q u e n c i e s f o s s i l achenes  and abundant  ( e i t h e r Carex l y n g b e y i o r Carex obnupta), i t appears t h a t  sedges dominated t h e bottom p a r t o f BBDC - I I . sedges i n t h e upper p a r t o f the zone. of selected Umbelliferae Oenanthe sarmentosa  Studies  Umbelliferae  replaced  o f p o l l e n g r a i n morphology  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s p o l l e n was p r o b a b l y produced by  (see Appendix 3, Fig.51b).  Penanthe i s commonly a s s o c i -  130  ated w i t h Carex l y n g b e y i and P o t e n t i l l a a n s e r i n a subsp, p a c i f i c a i n a band o f v e g e t a t i o n a t the edge o f t h e i n t e r t i d a l zone o f the d e l t a - f r o n t landward o f the Typha l a t j f o l i a stands  just  (see Ch. 4 ) ,  As i n core CBB, monolete f e r n spores a r e numerous.  There a r e a l s o  h i g h numbers o f c f . P e r i c o n i a c o n i d i a w i t h l e s s e r amounts o f c f . D a c t y l a r i a , c f . C u r v u l a r i a and s p i n y S i g m o p o l l i s .  The s i l t y  sediments,  containing  reworked T e r t i a r y p o l l e n g r a i n s , i n d i c a t e t h a t some r i v e r - d e r i v e d p o l l e n was s t i l l  r e a c h i n g the s i t e .  T h i s zone p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s the high-water  limit of intertidal  delta-  f r o n t v e g e t a t i o n , and may be e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y c o r r e l a t i v e w i t h the upper p a r t o f CBB - I .  However, BBDC - I I e x h i b i t s a g r e a t e r degree o f p e a t  accumula-  t i o n and l e s s s i l t / c l a y s e d i m e n t a t i o n than the upper p a r t o f CBB - I .  ZONE BBDC - III  (3.80-3.45  m):  P o l l e n o f g r a s s e s and chenopods s u p p l a n t those o f Oenanthe and Carex i n zone BBDC - I I I .  Seeds o f A t r i p l e x t r i a n g u l a r i s a r e p r e s e n t a l o n g w i t h  chitinous tests of microforaminifera. presence  o f f i n e b l a c k d e t r i t u s and forams  environment 4,125  These f e a t u r e s , a l o n g w i t h the ( F i g . 41) i n d i c a t e a s a l t marsh  (see Ch. 4 ) , and thus a marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n j u s t b e f o r e  ± 110 BP.  been p r e v e n t e d  A t t h i s time, f r e s h water from the F r a s e r R i v e r must have from r e a c h i n g the s i t e , perhaps by a s h i f t i n r i v e r  In t h i s i n t e r v a l t h e AP changed o n l y s l i g h t l y  from t h a t below, w i t h  i n c r e a s e s i n P i n u s , P i c e a , A b i e s and a g r a d u a l decrease  ZONE BBDC - IV  (3.45-2.50  relative  i n Alnus.  m):  A t 3.45 m, f r e s h t o b r a c k i s h water c o n d i t i o n s suddenly site;  channels.  r e t u r n to the  as a t t h i s l e v e l t h e r e i s a sharp c o n t a c t between the sandy  silts  131  below and the o v e r l y i n g s i l t y p r o b a b l y Carex  sedge p e a t s .  (achenes - F i g . 34)  during t h i s i n t e r v a l .  High percentages  o f Cyperaceae,  i n d i c a t e t h a t a sedge swamp  Many o f the m i c r o f o s s i l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  developed o f the upper  p a r t of BBDC - I I r e t u r n b r i e f l y , e v e n t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r i n g midway BBDC -  IV.  In the AP, may  through  Tsuga r e p l a c e s Alnus  as the most abundant p o l l e n .  have c o l o n i z e d the swamp l o c a l l y o r  r i v e r may  Alnus  have been d e s t r o y e d by s h i f t i n g  ZONE BBDC The  V (2.50-1.10  transition  Tsuga  s i t e s on the banks o f the  channels.  m):  from BBDC - IV to BBDC - V i s c l e a r l y marked by  the  appearance o f l a r g e numbers o f e r i c a d t e t r a d s , mostly o f the Ledum type, t o g e t h e r w i t h some o f the Empetrum nigrum t y p e . aceae. p o l l e n v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r s . rence o f Sphagnum s p o r e s . cuticles  In the m a c r o f o s s i l r e c o r d , sedge l e a v e s and t w i g s .  p r e s e r v e d Ledum l e a v e s a t the base o f zone V.  c o n f i r m the  Pinus  and  A l s o t h e r e are w e l l  Branch l e a v e s o f the  identification.  ( F i g . 39).  the 1.90  m l e v e l , the AP  component doubles  by p i n e o f the s i t e .  ..from  T h i s r i s e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e c h i e f l y t o an i n c r e a s e i n  (compare F i g . 38 w i t h F i g . 39), and p r o b a b l y Alnus  reflects  the i n v a s i o n  i n c r e a s e s n o t i c e a b l y a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the  zone, accompanied by a drop i n Tsuga.  Again  as i n zone BBDC - I , t h i s  r e f l e c t the development o f f r e s h m i n e r a l s u b s t r a t e s a l o n g nearby channels.  occur-  type o c c u r , a l t h o u g h t h e r e are no stem l e a v e s t o  A t approximately 30-60%-  Cyper-  T h i s zone a l s o marks the f i r s t  are r e p l a c e d by e r i c a d c u t i c l e s  Sphagnum fimbriatum  At the same time  river  may  132  There were a l s o n o t a b l e changes i n t h e f u n g a l spore assemblage zone IV t o zone V ( F i g . 4 2 ) ,  The appearance o f Desmidiospora  from  i s particular-  l y d i a g n o s t i c , as i t i s known t o c h a r a c t e r i z e o n l y Sphagnum/heath e n v i r o n ments.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e appearance o f V.G. 55 i s unknown as i t has  not been r e c o v e r e d from modern s u r f a c e samples.  I t a l s o appears  r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e core t o Sphagnum/heath d e p o s i t s .  t o be  G e l a s i n o s p o r a and  V.G. 3 f u n g a l m i c r o f o s s i l s both i n d i c a t e some degree o f h u m i f i c a t i o n ; they do n o t appear u n t i l a f t e r P i n u s became l o c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . The  t r a n s i t i o n from sedge swamp t o bog c o n d i t i o n s i n core BBDC d i f f e r s  from t h a t i n core CBB.  In core CBB, t h e r e i s a S p i r a e a - M y r i c a shrub  stage  p r e c e d i n g a v e r y s h o r t Ledum i n t e r v a l , ( s e e F i g . 32; end o f CBB - I I I t o b e g i n n i n g o f CBB - I V ) .  In BBDC, however, t h e r e i s o n l y a s l i g h t  t i o n o f S p i r a e a - M y r i c a shrubland a t t h e bottom o f zone V.  indica-  The r e s t o f  BBDC - V seems t o r e p r e s e n t a Ledum h e a t h l a n d .  ZONE BBDC - VI  (1.10-0  m):  T h i s zone b e g i n s w i t h a sharp i n c r e a s e i n Sphagnum s p o r e s , accompanied by a drop i n E r i c a c e a e l e v e l s .  M a c r o f o s s i l examination  r e v e a l e d t h a t the  v i r t u a l l y pure Sphagnum p e a t c o n s i s t s o f Sphagnum fuscum and Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t these two had r e p l a c e d the Sphagnum type o f BBDC - V. wet  A n a l y s i s o f the e r i c a d spectrum  fimbriatum  ( F i g . 41) r e v e a l s t h a t  (Sphagnum) h e a t h l a n d s p e c i e s w i t h t e t r a d s g r e a t e r than 30 ym had r e -  p l a c e d those o f Ledum type. eda p o l i f o l i a , V a c c i n i u m p o l l e n producers  Inasmuch as the wet h e a t h l a n d s p e c i e s (Androm-  oxycoccos,  and Vaccinium  uliginosum)  a r e v e r y low  (Ch. 3 ) , t h e i r moderate f r e q u e n c i e s i n zone VI i n d i c a t e  t h a t these s p e c i e s were p r o b a b l y dominant i n t h e v e g e t a t i o n . A 2 cm-thick  c h a r c o a l h o r i z o n i n t e r r u p t s the Sphagnum p e a t sequence a t  133  .62 m.  B e f o r e t h i s f i r e , P i n u s r o s e t o v e r y h i g h l e v e l s and the Ledum type  dominated the e r i c a d spectrum.  T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e growth o f a shrubby,  p y r o p h i l i c assemblage o f Ledum groenlandicum C l o s e i n t e r v a l sampling  and Pinus c o n t o r t a a t the s i t e .  (2 cm) i n t h e i n t e r v a l a f t e r t h e f i r e d e t e c t e d the  b u r n - o f f o f Pinus and Ledum as w e l l as a sudden drop i n Sphagnum The  spores.  sharp drop i n Pinus i s accompanied by a r i s e i n the l e v e l o f r e g i o n a l  AP p o l l e n t y p e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y A l n u s .  The sudden disappearance  o f c f . Thuja  as w e l l as low o v e r a l l p o l l e n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e poor p r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h i n the c h a r c o a l l a y e r .  A f t e r the f i r e ,  there i s a f a s t  r e c o l o n i z a t i o n o f Sphagnum and E r i c a c e a e . Both t h i s f i r e h o r i z o n and the p o o r l y d e f i n e d f i r e h o r i z o n s a t about .20-.10 m a r e f o l l o w e d immediately  by Rhynchospora a l b a seeds and s e d g e - l i k e  remains, i n d i c a t i n g a p o s t - f i r e development s i m i l a r t o t h a t r e c o r d e d i n core CBB. Desmidiospora  f u n g a l s p o r e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d  c o n d i t i o n s , a r e abundant throughout  BBDC - V I . A l s o , G e l a s i n o s p o r a and  V.G. 3 f u n g a l m i c r o f o s s i l s o c c u r i n t y p i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the two f i r e horizons. Subzone BBDC - VIb i s d e l i m i t e d from BBDC - V i a by a marked drop i n AP except Alnus  and P i n u s .  f o r e s t s by s e t t l e r s .  As i n core CBB, t h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e c l e a r i n g o f  I n response  A l n u s , w i t h concomitant  decreases  t o c l e a r i n g t h e r e i s a sharp  increase i n  i n a l l c o n i f e r o u s types except p i n e .  The  B e t u l a i n c r e a s e can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e development o f a b i r c h woodland i n the p e r i p h e r a l bog r e g i o n , f o l l o w i n g c l e a r i n g and d r a i n i n g . i n c r e a s e s i n P t e r i d i u m and Cyperaceae a direct result of local f i r e s .  The NAP shows  ( c f . Rhynchospora), t h a t a r e p r o b a b l y  The i n c r e a s e i n grass p o l l e n i s from t h e  134  establishment o f a g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d s i n the v i c i n i t y .  Summary  Core BBDC r e c o r d s an i n t e r t i d a l d e l t a - f r o n t , o r e s t u a r i n e S c i r p u s marsh a t 4,900 BP.  By 4,500 BP, the s i t e had developed  Oenanthe f r e s h w a t e r marsh, p r o b a b l y  still  i n t o a Carex-  near t h e d e l t a - f r o n t .  A salt  marsh phase o c c u r r e d j u s t b e f o r e 4,100 BP, produced by c u t - o f f o f f r e s h water i n f l u e n c e and subsequent marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n . water sedge f e n suddenly level.  r e p l a c e d t h e s a l t m a r s h , l a s t i n g u n t i l t h e 2.5 m  The f e n was r e p l a c e d by a Ledum groenlandicum  t h i s heath  A t 4,100 BP a f r e s h  shrubland.  s h r u b l a n d phase, Pinus c o n t o r t a a r r i v e d a t t h e s i t e .  During In the  l a t e r stages o f t h e heath phase, Sphagnum appeared and t h e Sphagnum bog c o n d i t i o n s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e r i c a d s p e c i e s became e s t a b l i s h e d . 0.20 m shows the reduced quencies  c o n i f e r l e v e l s and s h a r p l y i n c r e a s e d Alnus  The t o p fre-  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f v e g e t a t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e produced by the a r r i v a l  of s e t t l e r s .  F i r e h o r i z o n s p r e s e r v e d i n the Sphagnum peats a r e c h a r a c t e r -  i z e d by the same "Rhynchospora lows" as i n core CBB. O v e r a l l , t h e r e i s t h e same sequence o f development as i n CBB i n c l u d i n g i n t e r t i d a l - d e l t a - f r o n t marshes, sedge swamps, s h r u b l a n d and Sphagnum bog. The main d i f f e r e n c e s a r e the o c c u r r e n c e replacement  o f the M y r i c a - S p i r a e a  groenlandicum  o f a s a l t marsh phase and t h e  s h r u b l a n d phase o f CBB by a Ledum  s h r u b l a n d phase i n BBDC.  135  / / / / /  /  /  y /  •  /  /  . / / / / / /  Minor Types Arceu thobium Arceuthobium Lycopodium  Rubus  chamaemorus  Arceuthobium Acer  macrophyllum  Lycopodium Drosera Acer macrophyllum,  Plantago  Plantago  Drosera  Arceuthobium Menyanthes  Leguminosae Leguminosae  Plantago  Leguminosae Leguminosae Leguminosae Arceuthobium, Menyanthes, Acer  Lycopodium,  Labiatae  Menyanthes  macrophyllum  Labiatae  Lycopodium  Lycopodi um  Lycopodium, Selaginella  Monolete Polypodiaceae SPHAGNUM PEAT  Unshaded curves are expanded 10X FIGURE 37 : POLLEN DIAGRAM FOR CORE BBDC. BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  are excluded  from t h e t o t a l .  136 cf  SAND SI  jggg^  "  SPHAGNUM PEAT  I  1  /  1 OENANTHE-SEDGE  I ..I  l/VV\< WOODY PEAT  PEAT  rnTTTI SEDGE  f ' ' '1  PEAT  Unshaded c u r v e s a r e expanded  Each d i v i s i o n  is  CHARCOAL 10X  FIGURE 3 8 : ARBOREAL POLLEN DIAGRAM EXCLUDING PINE FOR CORE BBDC, BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  50%  137  OENANTHE-SEDGE PEAT ----J  SILT SPHAGNUM PEAT  tlllHI SEDGE Unshaded  PEAT  WOODY PEAT ,  ,  Each d i v i s i o n  i s 50%  " » " CHARCOAL  c u r v e s are expanded  10X FIGURE 39 : ARBOREAL POLLEN DIAGRAM FOR CORE BBDC, BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH  COLUMBIA.  132>  r  /J*  J  -'Ericaceae —  •i  4  J *  /  OP Minor Types A r c e u thobium Arceuthobium Lycopodium  Rubus chamaemorus Arceuthobium Acer  macrop/iyllum  Lycopodium Drosera Acer  macrophyllum,  Plantago  Plantago  Drosera  Arceuthobium Menyanthes  Leguminosae Leguminosae  Plantago  Leguminosae Leguminosae Leguminosae Arceuthobium, Menyanthes, Acer  Lycopodium,  Menyanthes  Labiatae  macrophyllum  Labiatae  Lycopodium  Lycopodium  Lycopodium,  Each d i v i s i o n  Efti&l  SAND  t-Z-ZW SILT ££3=3  SPHAGNUM PEAT  |= llllllll  OENANTHE-SEDGEfryy y| WOODY PEAT PEAT SEDGE PEAT  Unshaded curves a r e expanded 10X  i s 50% Monolete  >•••••« CHARCOAL  FIGURE 40 : NON-ARBOREAL POLLEN DIAGRAM FOR CORE BBDC, BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  Selaginella  Polypodiaceae  are excluded  from  the total.  m.l.FN  FERCENTASI  FOR  EACH  TYPE!  COUNTED  -n c  DEPTH IN METERS  U3  -5 ft)  ro  Gelasinospora  -o  Desmidiospora V.G.  su  <<*  3  3  O 3 O  -rar  Actinopeltis V.G.  -5  55  CL  Microthyriaceae Tilletia  Cl  Sigmopollis cf.Spixogyra cf.Periconia cf.Dactylaria c£.Curvularia Forams Hystichospheres Tertiary pollen Fine black d e t r i t u s Fern annuli  < ro  H on  OPT  M  (a  bu dant  ON  < M  T)  H i-( (D •<! to  w 63 a n  Bl lO -5  3  m 3  rr  o ro  co co a o  141  CHAPTER 7:  CORE DNR FROM EASTERN BURNS BOG  Introduction  Core DNR was o b t a i n e d  t o e l u c i d a t e t h e developmental sequence from an  a r e a i n t h e e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f Burns Bog.  The e a s t e r n  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p a t c h e s o f Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d c o n i f e r o u s woodland.  v e g e t a t i o n w i t h i n mixed  The c o r i n g s i t e was l o c a t e d about 400 m west o f t h e  f o o t o f Panorama Ridge t h i s area  f l a n k o f the bog i s  ( F i g . 1 0 ) . A probe t r a n s e c t from e a s t t o west i n  ( F i g . 4 3 ) , c a r r i e d o u t t o determine p e a t depths, i n d i c a t e d t h a t  t h i s p a r t o f t h e bog has developed i n a s h a l l o w  basin with  the s t e e p l y  s l o p i n g e a s t e r n edge a b u t t i n g on the p e b b l e beach d e p o s i t s o f Panorama Ridge.  In c o n t r a s t , the western f l a n k i s marked by a low s u b s u r f a c e  containing blue-grey  s i l t s i n the upper p a r t .  From t h e s o i l s map ( L u t t e r -  merding and Sprout, 1969), t h e v e g e t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n additional f i e l d observations, extending  from an a l l u v i a l  the .mineral  fan deposited  ridge  ( F i g . 4 ) , and  r i d g e appears t o form an a r c  by the creek running  o f f Panorama  Ridge, northward t o s a l i n e rego g l e y s o l / r e g o g l e y s o l s o i l s i n the n o r t h e a s t ern c o r n e r o f Burns Bog. The  sampling s i t e l i e s i n a t r a n s i t i o n from Sphagnum h e a t h l a n d  t u r b e d Mixed C o n i f e r o u s Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a .  Woodland.  The l o c a l t r e e s a r e T h u j a p l i c a t a , and  Shrubs a t the s i t e i n c l u d e G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n , K a l m i a  m i c r o p h y l l a , Ledum groenlandicum and M y r i c a hollow  (Turesson,  to dis-  gale.  There i s a L y s i c h i t u m  1916) w i t h i n 2 m o f the s i t e and t h e ground cover c o n s i s t s  o f a l o o s e c a r p e t o f Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m . p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the e a s t , i s f a i r l y swampy.  Much o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  area,  Figure  43:  Vertical  s e c t i o n o f e a s t e r n B u r n s B o g ( c o r e DNR)  Of Panorama R i d g e .  Burns Bog  P r o f i l e follows vegetation  showing s h a l l o w b a s i n at  up to 1 meter of r e l i e f i s present  from  ridge  foot  sampling transect at eastern end of  (see Figure 4, i n pocket at back). Surface was  Distance  the  i n meters  assumed to be f l a t ,  although  143  Methods  A t o t a l o f 8.1 m o f d e p o s i t s was p e n e t r a t e d and sampled f o r a n a l y s i s . The  t o p .5m was o b t a i n e d from a w a l l o f a p i t dug a t the s i t e , whereas  the remainder  o f the c o r e was sampled w i t h a H i l l e r b o r e r .  p r e p a r e d by t h e s t a n d a r d procedure from t h e l a s t A sedgy s i l t at  a site  o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r 5.  Samples were Pollen  recovery  .6 m was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , and t h e r e s u l t s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d . sample from 6.90-7.00 m was o b t a i n e d f o r r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g  100 m t o the e a s t .  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n  S t r a t i g r a p h y and Radiocarbon  The  Dating  s t r a t i g r a p h y o f c o r e DNR i s summarized i n F i g . 44.  the b a s a l grey  sandy s i l t s  appear s i m i l a r i n c h a r a c t e r t o t h e d e p o s i t s a t  the bottom o f c o r e s BBDC and CBB. composition, u n t i l peats occur.  In general,  These g r a d u a l l y become more o r g a n i c i n  about t h e 5.20 m l e v e l where the f i r s t crumbly sedge  Organic  s i l t s o b t a i n e d from a depth o f 7.00-6.80 m, 100 m t o  the e a s t o f t h e core s i t e , were dated a t 5,085 ± 100 r a d i o c a r b o n y e a r s BP (1-9595).  There i s a l o n g sequence o f crumbly, amorphous  (5.20-.40 m) , c o n t a i n i n g sedge remains,  brown p e a t s  wood fragments and Menyanthes  In p l a c e s , these p e a t s appear t o be d e t r i t a l ;  seeds.  p o s s i b l y they formed i n a  s h a l l o w swamp through which a low stream p e r i o d i c a l l y flowed.  The upper  .40 m c o n s i s t s o f woody Sphagnum p e a t s c o n t a i n i n g l i v e L y s i c h i t u m r o o t s .  P o l l e n and M a c r o f o s s i l Z o n a t i o n The p o l l e n and m i c r o f o s s i l diagrams f o r core DNR  ( F i g . 45, complete  diagram; F i g . 46, AP; F i g . 47, NAP; F i g . 48, f u n g a l and o t h e r m i c r o f o s s i l s )  Figure  44:  ! 144  Stratigraphy  a d M  ZONES DNR  macrofossils  of  core  DNR  ;  Sphagnum p e a t , m o s t l y S. charcoal  III  5s*  capillaceum  Menyanthes twigs  trifoliata  with  Menyanthes  trifoliata  seeds  sedge  Myrica  crowns  vv c h a r c o a l , Myrica  t w i g s , sedges  sedge crowns, i n d e t e r m i n a t e Sphagnum DNR  II  3m  c r u m b l y , amorphous Of Myrica twigs  peats  containing  layers  'V VV > .V  vv ' v vv t v vv  Sedge crowns and t w i g s  c f . Carex  sitchensis  achene  wood, Myrica stems Sphagnum squarrosum Tsuga heterophylla needle Oenanthe sarmentosa f r u i t , woody detritus cf.  sedge l e a v e s  c r u m b l y , sedge  type  peats  earn Carex  Menyanthes  6m  DNR  I  achene, Menyanthes  seed  seed  silt  5085:100 7m b l u e - g r e y , sandy streaks  s i l t s with black  organic  145  are i n c l u d e d a t the end o f the chapter,  ZONE DNR-I The  (7.5-5.4  pages  m):  p o l l e n assemblages o f the lower p a r t o f zone DNR-I are dominated  by a r b o r e a l p o l l e n ( F i g . 45).  Pinus p o l l e n predominates, w i t h  h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s o f Tsuga and Pseudotsuga.  relatively  S i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s of Picea  are p r e s e n t but are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y lower than i n s i m i l a r d e p o s i t s  from  zones CBB-I and BBDC-I.  indicat-  ing  There are u n u s u a l l y  t h a t nearby Panorama Ridge was  c l i m a x Pseudotsuga f o r e s t . very l i t t l e  f o r Alnus,  covered by the r e g i o n a l l y  Alnus l e v e l s a l s o suggest t h a t t h e r e  deltaic sites.  drops, p r o b a b l y  of s i l t s t h a t normally The NAP  Near the t o p o f zone DNR-I, t h e  as a r e s u l t o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t  emergent a q u a t i c v e g e t a t i o n  ( c f . CBB-I, BBDC-I) and  c o n t a i n a h i g h AP  decreasing  l o c a l stands  achenes.  The  load.  The  o f Carex, j u d g i n g from the o c c u r r e n c e  p r e s e n c e o f p o l l e n , spores  of  deposition  i s dominated by Cyperaceae p o l l e n as i n the o t h e r two  represent  cores.  frequencies o f Carex  and m a c r o f o s s i l s o f o t h e r  such as Typha l a t i f o l i a , Malvaceae, Equisetum sp. and  trifoliata,  proportion  o f l o c a l stands  In the upper p a r t o f the zone, a t l e a s t , the h i g h cyperaceous  aquatics  was  o f the F r a s e r D e l t a emergent i n the v i c i n i t y , as Alnus grows  commonly on wet o f AP  Low  probably  low v a l u e s  emergent  Menyanthes  a l o n g w i t h Carex, i n d i c a t e s an emergent l a n d s u r f a c e .  non-vascular  p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l assemblage  ( F i g . 48), c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by abundant c f . P e r i c o n i a c o n i d i a , t r a c e s o f c f . D a c t y l a r i a c o n i d i a , forams, resembles t h a t o f zones CBB  - I and BBDC - I .  and  S i m i l a r l y , there  l a r g e numbers o f reworked T e r t i a r y p o l l e n g r a i n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a h i g h concentration of fine black  detritus.  are  146  I n summary, the h i s t o r y o f DNR as the e q u i v a l e n t  <- I appears to be e s s e n t i a l l y the same  i n t e r v a l s o f b o t h CBB  1 and BBDC - 1, r e p r e s e n t i n g  an  emergent i n t e r t i d a l d e l t a - f r o n t , b r a c k i s h t o f r e s h water environment.  ZONE DNE-II  (5.40-0.4  0  m):  In k e e p i n g w i t h z o n a t i o n DNR  - I and  occurs  DNR  - I I has  a t the s i l t  i n cores CBB  and BBDC, the boundary between  been p l a c e d a t the P i n u s - P i c e a  to peat t r a n s i t i o n .  Throughout t h i s l o n g  (DNR--- II) , Tsuga and Pseudotsuga remain the main AP Because these t r e e s m a i n t a i n t h a t the  d e c l i n e which  more o r l e s s c o n s t a n t  types  interval  ( F i g . 46) .  frequencies,  i t seems  f o r e s t on Panorama Ridge remained e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged.  initially  r i s e s t o h i g h l e v e l s a t 4.00  m and p r o b a b l y  indicates coloniza-  t i o n o f newly-emergent d e l t a i c environments near the s i t e . matured and  Alnus  As  swamps developed, P i c e a seems to have taken o v e r .  the  soils  Alnus  rubra  does not seem t o grow p r e s e n t l y on deep o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s below Panorama Ridge  (see Ch.  2 ) , whereas P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s t h r i v e s on these s i t e s .  the i n c r e a s e o f P i c e a may had  also i n d i c a t e that s u f f i c i e n t organic  accumulated i n the l o c a l swamp (2m)  Thuja,  a t s i t e DNR  which a l s o grows w e l l i n the p r e s e n t  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the lower p a r t o f zone DNR near the top.  T h i s may  swampy s i t e s , reaches i t s b e s t - I I , but  be a p r e s e r v a t i o n a l phenomenon.  i s a marked i n c r e a s e i n P i n u s p o l l e n t o 50%  a b l e t o two  factors:  c u r i o u s l y fades At the 2.00 AP,  likely  Pinus c o n t o r t a c o u l d have c o l o n i z e d l o c a l  s u b s t r a t e s , as i t does now;  s u r f a c e o f the a d j a c e n t  r a i s e d bog  wind e a s t e r l y i n t o the swampy  material  t o exclude a l d e r .  l e v e l there  organic  Hence,  o r p i n e may  out  m attribut-  drier  have invaded the mature  a t t h a t time, w i t h p o l l e n d i s p e r s a l by  areas.  147  The NAP diagram  ( F i g . 47) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e may have been two  l o c a l v e g e t a t i o n a l phases. sedges  (5.40-4.00 m).  The f i r s t  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g r a s s e s and  The second phase  (4.00-^0.40 m) c o n t a i n s shrubs  such  as M y r i c a and S p i r a e a , t o g e t h e r w i t h L y s i c h i t u m americanum and Menyanthes trifoliata.  These l a t t e r two s p e c i e s appear t o a l t e r n a t e , s u g g e s t i n g t h e r e  may have been s h a l l o w ponds a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h wet M y r i c a - S p i r a e a The NAP diagram f o r zone DNR - I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t g r a s s e s NAP) p r o b a b l y grew l o c a l l y , spores  a l o n g w i t h c f . Athyrium  (monolete Polypodiaceae)  thickets.  (up t o 60%  f i l i x - f e m i n a , whose  and s p o r a n g i a o c c u r i n g r e a t numbers.  Attempts were made t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e monocot l e a f m a c r o f o s s i l s i n the s e d i ments t o c o n f i r m t h a t g r a s s e s d i d indeed grow a t t h e s i t e . of  wet  some  the e p i d e r m a l p a t t e r n s were g r a s s - l i k e , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i -  ate them d e f i n i t i v e l y from Carex e p i d e r m a l p a t t e r n s . to  Although  The peat  corresponding  t h e g r a s s peak i s o f a crumbly n a t u r e , v e r y much l i k e t h a t forming i n g r a s s l a n d s today.  A l s o , many o f the g r a s s g r a i n s a r e f o l d e d and  crumpled, a f e a t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f wet g r a s s l a n d d e p o s i t s . a p p a r e n t l y s t a b l e upland v e g e t a t i o n o f Panorama Ridge Pseudotsuga l e v e l s ^  F i n a l l y , the  (based on c o n s t a n t  and h i g h , presumably l o w l a n d - d e r i v e d Alnus  pollen  l e v e l s ) suggest t h a t t h e r e p r o b a b l y was n o t any source o f g r a s s p o l l e n e x t e r n a l t o the s i t e .  Cyperaceae, p r o b a b l y Carex sp. and some Typha  f o l i a o c c u r r e d w i t h the g r a s s e s . found a t 5.10 m. ing  T h i s wetland  lati-  A l s o , an Penanthe sarmentosa seed was  u m b e l l i f e r grows today near s i t e DNR,  h a b i t a t s t h a t a r e p e r i o d i c a l l y submerged  the p o l l e n o c c u r s s p a r s e l y throughout  (e.g. swamp h o l l o w s ) .  favourPenan-  zone DNR - I I .  Between 4.50 and 4.00 m, the NAP g r a d u a l l y changes w i t h an i n f l u x o f L y s i c h i t u m americanum p o l l e n and p o l l e n from M y r i c a g a l e and S p i r a e a  148  douglasii.  T h i s change i s a l s o shown by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t w i g s ,  which belong  t o Myrica.  The o c c u r r e n c e  some o f  o f a f r u i t o f Carex s i t c h e n s i s  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s swamp sedge was a l s o p a r t o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n . Although (cf.  t h e r e i s l i t t l e p o l l e n o f Menyanthes p r e s e r v e d  Ch. 4 ) , h i g h numbers o f Menyanthes seeds i n t h e peat suggest  upper 2.20 m was d e p o s i t e d i n a s h a l l o w M e n y a n t h e s - f i 1 l e d p e r i o d o f Myrica  shrubland  that the  depression.  A  i n t e r r u p t e d t h e Menyanthes stage a t 2.40 m,  p o i n t i n g t o a b r i e f i n t e r v a l o f emergence. of  i n DNR - I I  There i s a l s o a prominent l a y e r  c h a r c o a l a t t h i s same h o r i z o n , i n d i c a t i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l f i r e d u r i n g t h e  b r i e f M y r i c a phase. Large numbers o f f e r n a n n u l i o c c u r throughout DNR - I I , c o n f i r m i n g i n s i t u growth o f a f e r n , p r o b a b l y A t h y r i u m f i l i x - f e m i n a , a common swamp species o f the region. A few f u n g a l spores DNR - I I . spores  and a l g a l m i c r o f o s s i l s were a l s o r e c o v e r e d  These i n c l u d e c f . C u r v u l a r i a f u n g a l s p o r e s , S p i r o g y r a sp. zygo-  (sensu Van G e e l , 1976b) and s p i n y S i g m o p o l l i s t y p e s .  spore p r o d u c t i o n suggests was  from  a feature of this s i t e  Algal  a g a i n t h a t p e r i o d i c submersion i n s h a l l o w  zygowater  (Van G e e l , 1976b) .  In s h o r t , t h e extended zone DNR - I I r e p r e s e n t s a f r e s h water swamp phase, w i t h a l t e r n a t i n g p e r i o d s o f emergence and submergence.  DNR -III  (0.40-0  m) :  Sphagnum peats bog  and Sphagnum spores  i n d i c a t e t h e v e r y r e c e n t advent o f  c o n d i t i o n s near t h e boundary o f zones DNR - I I and DNR-III.  beginning Alnus  o f t h e zone, t h e AP i s unchanged from DNR - I I .  r i s e s sharply,  At the  Soon a f t e r ,  whereas t h e c o n i f e r p o l l e n f r e q u e n c i e s drop.  are a l s o i n c r e a s e s i n P t e r i d i u m and S p i r a e a f r e q u e n c i e s d u r i n g t h i s  There time.  149  These events  s i g n a l t h e a r r i v a l o f European man, t o g e t h e r w i t h l o g g i n g o f  p a r t s o f t h e l o c a l swamp f o r e s t .  The o c c u r r e n c e o f E p i l o b i u m p o l l e n  con-  f i r m s l o c a l c l e a r i n g and r e f l e c t s t h e f i r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e c h a r c o a l h o r i z o n a t 0.30 m. plants.  The h i g h L y s i c h i t u m l e v e l s a r e produced  The f u n g a l spores and r h i z o p o d s o c c u r r i n g i n DNR  by nearby I I I a r e those  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Sphagnum bog h a b i t a t s . . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine  whether Sphagnum bog c o n d i t i o n s arose as  a r e s u l t o f d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e a r e a , o r as a consequence o f n a t u r a l s u c c e s s i o n a l events.  The v e g e t a t i o n map ( F i g . 4) shows t h a t bog c o n d i t i o n s may  have spread from t h e n o r t h , perhaps d e r i v e d from t h e c e n t r a l c u p o l a o f Burns Bog t o t h e west.  I f t h i s were t h e case, then t h e spread o f Sphagnum  had p r o b a b l y begun l o n g b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f European man, and o n l y r e c e n t l y has reached t h i s p a r t o f Burns Bog.  Both t o t h e e a s t and t o t h e  west o f s i t e DNR, i n mixed c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t , t h e r e appears evidence  f o r Sphagnum p e a t s near t h e s u r f a c e .  t o be no  A t p r e s e n t , s i t e DNR o c c u r s  i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n between swamp and b o g , v e g e t a t i o n .  T h i s suggests  that  u n l e s s t h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l f u r t h e r d i s t u r b a n c e s , t h e boggy p o r t i o n o f t h e e a s t e r n bog w i l l  continue  expanding.  Summary  Core DNR r e c o r d s t h e v e g e t a t i o n o f a s h a l l o w b a s i n a t t h e f o o t o f Panorama Ridge, ridge.  s e p a r a t e d from t h e r e s t o f Burns Bog by a s u b s u r f a c e m i n e r a l  S u c c e s s i o n began around 5,000 BP w i t h emergent a q u a t i c v e g e t a t i o n  dominated by Cyperaceae. l e v e l , a sedge-grass  As s i l t d e p o s i t i o n t a p e r e d o f f a t t h e 5.40 m  marsh became e s t a b l i s h e d .  T h i s was f o l l o w e d by a  150  swampy M y r i c a - S p i r a e a s h r u b l a n d c o n t a i n i n g L y s i c h i t u m . Alnus appeared t o c o l o n i z e lowland m i n e r a l s i t e s , b e i n g r e p l a c e d by P i c e a .  A t t h e same time subsequently  Near t h e upper end o f the swamp/marsh  Menyanthes t r i f o l i a t a grew abundantly  a t the s i t e .  Very r e c e n t l y (.40 m)  the c u r r e n t Sphagnum bog c o n d i t i o n s became e s t a b l i s h e d . and E p i l o b i u m p o l l e n accompanied by decreased i n c r e a s e d Alnus  reflect local  interval,  Charcoal  horizons  c o n i f e r f r e q u e n c i e s and  f i r e s and l o g g i n g  activity.  y 4*  ZONES  If  • Ericaceae-  7 J/ // /  151  / cr  v» »  ^ ^ o"  Minor Types Acer macrophyllum,  Acer  macrophyllum  Acer  circinatum  Epilobium  Cruciferae Epilobium  Cruciferae Epilobium  Nuphar  lutea  Cruciferae  Lonicera Lonicera  Cruciferae  Lonicera Sagittaria Lonicera  Lonicera Acer  macrophyllum  Selaginella  Nuphar  SILT llllllll  SEDGE PEAT  p—-7—1 CRUMBLY,  Each d i v i s i o n SPHAGNUM PEAT  fcvtfj  WOODY PEAT  Unshaded curves a r e expanded 10X  CHARCOAL • SAND  i s 50% Monolete Polypodiaceae  I ' A AMORPHOUS PEAT  FIGURE 45 : POLLEN DIAGRAM FOR CORE DNR, BURNS BOG/ DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA,  lutea  are excluded  from  the total.  152  Each d i v i s i o n h_-_--i SILT  llllllll  SEDGE PEAT  ..  y  CRUMBLY, AMORPHOUS PEAT  Evvd  WOODY PEAT  Unshaded curves are expanded 10X  i s 50%  E=^=3 SPHAGNUM PEAT mum  CHARCOAL  SAND  FIGURE 46 : ARBOREAL POLLEN DIAGRAM FOR CORE DNR/ BURNS BOG/ DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  153 ZONES DNR  III  Minor Types Acer  Acer  macrophyllum,  Epilobium  macrophyllum  Acer circinatum  Cruciferae Epilobium  Cruciferae Epilobium  Nuphar  lutea  Cruciferae DNR  II  Loni cera Lonicera  Cruciferae  Loni cera Sagittaria  '  Lonicera  Lonicera  ii' iff/ JtVSMwVm'ir,  Acer  DNR  macrophyllum  I Selaginella  5085=100 Nuphar  ---"J  CRUMBLY, AMORPHOUS PEAT  SILT SEDGE PEAT  Unshaded  curves  .  WOODY PEAT  a r e e x p a n d e d 10X  Each  SPHAGNUM PEAT •»"•"  CHARCOAL  *••'•••  SAND  FIGURE  4 7 : NON-ARBOREAL POLLEN DIAGRAM FOR CORE DNR, BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  division  i s 50%  Monolete  Polypodiaceae  are  lutea  excluded  from  the  total.  d  -S  co  DEPTH IN METERS  o 3 o -s  Gelasinospora  V.G.  3  T3  Actinopeltis  Microthyriaceae  Oi  CO  -s  Assulina  Oi  o o -s  Sig^opollis Spirogyra cf.Periconia  ; 0  ct.Dactglaria cf.Curvularia  Forams Tertiary  pollen  Fine black  detritus  Fern annuli  XI  H N: O  z  C/2  (a  c  af». 3 3  rt  vST  i-i  fD CO fD  3  rr  155  CHAPTER 8;  SYNTHESIS, DISCUSSION AND  SUMMARY  INTRODUCTION  This chapter (CBB, BBDC, DNR)  s y n t h e s i z e s the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d  from the t h r e e  i n t o a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f the o r i g i n o f Burns Bog  cores  starting  w i t h the f r e s h l y exposed d e l t a i c s u r f a c e and i t s development through sedge swamp and shrub phases t o the c u r r e n t r a i s e d Sphagnum bog. mental sequence i s compared  This  develop-  t o what i s known about o t h e r r a i s e d bogs i n the  a r e a and a model i s proposed f o r r a i s e d bog development on the F r a s e r Lowland.  The Burns Bog sequence i s compared w i t h the o r i g i n and growth o f  r a i s e d bogs i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and d e l t a i c r a i s e d bogs elsewhere. paleoecology southern  o f Burns Bog i s d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f the e v o l u t i o n o f the  F r a s e r D e l t a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f sea l e v e l and r i v e r channel  changes. cussed  The  The p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study  and the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f the t h e s i s are  are d i s -  summarized.  SYNTHESIS  The O r i g i n and Growth o f Burns Bog  A general  sequence o f events i n the development o f Burns Bog can be  s y n t h e s i z e d by comparing r e s u l t s and c o r r e l a t i n g zones o f the t h r e e along with observations  cores,  on bog s t r a t i g r a p h y from o t h e r exposed s e c t i o n s  ( F i g . 49). D e l t a - F r o n t Phase:  A t about 5,000 y e a r s BP, w e l l a f t e r the c u r r e n t r e g i o n -  a l f o r e s t s had become e s t a b l i s h e d (Mathewes, 1973), p i o n e e r i n g  vegetation  Figure  4 9 : C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e c o r e s from Burns Bog.  elevations are accurate to * .5 meter Position of Phases on delta-front  Core (elevation 3.6m) BBDC  Core (elevation 4.6m) CBB.  Core(elevation  5.3m)  III Bog Phase  2,925+85  Sedge Swamp Oenanthe / peat  A,125+1101  V  Heathland Phase  IV  Sedge Swamp Phase  \it\ • ISISIBIgESIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIigiB&a  Typha All t S c i r p u s ( s i l t y sand)  imiTi^oi i^ftUi J W i V h 1 111111  III  Shrub Phase  II  Sedge "---.^ Swamp Phase  II Swamp Phase -  BBSBS(BBBBBBBEBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBEBBBBBE|  "3,960±130  II -4,670 +100  -4,935 ± 100 Delta Front  Delta Front Phase  EBEEEBBEBflRBBBS I  I- 5,085-100  Phase 8  157  p r o b a b l y c o n s i s t i n g o f S c i r p u s spp, and o t h e r emergent a q u a t i c s began t o c o l o n i z e the b r a c k i s h , s i l t y delta-front.  sands o f the i n t e r t i d a l zone o f t h e p r o g r a d i n g  The change from the sand-dominated submerged environment t o  the s i l t / p e a t - d o m i n a t e d s u b - a e r i a l environment seems t o have been n e a r l y i s o c h r o n o u s a t t h e t h r e e s i t e s as shown by r a d i o c a r b o n dates i n core BBDC and DNR,  and an e x t r a p o l a t e d date f o r core CBB, based on a s e d i m e n t a t i o n  r a t e o f .17 cm p e r y e a r . Subsequently,  as o r g a n i c s e d i m e n t a t i o n r e p l a c e d s i l t  was a d i s t i n c t change t o sedge-dominated swamps. t i o n o c c u r r e d immediately  a f t e r 3,960 ± 130 BP.  d e p o s i t i o n , there  In core CBB, the t r a n s i In core BBDC, f o l l o w i n g  the development o f an Oenanthe sarmentosa wetland,  a marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n  t e m p o r a r i l y i n t e r r u p t e d the s u c c e s s i o n t o sedge swamps by i n t e r p o s i n g a s a l t marsh phase a t 4,125 ± 110 y e a r s BP.  The sedge swamp phase i n core  DNR has n o t been d e s i g n a t e d as a zone; r a t h e r i t i s c o n s i d e r e d as a s h o r t i n t e r v a l o f sedge-grass  dominance f o l l o w i n g t h e emergent d e l t a - f r o n t p e r i o d .  In a l l t h r e e c o r e s , t h e s w i t c h t o predominantly  organic  happened a t a depth v e r y c l o s e t o p r e s e n t s e a l e v e l  accumulation  ( g e o d e t i c datum).  At  t h i s p o i n t i n development, t h e r e was p e r i o d i c , weak f l o o d i n g , i n d i c a t e d by traces of s i l t . low  The a r e a , d u r i n g the sedge-swamp p e r i o d , was p r o b a b l y a  f l a t wetland,  covered w i t h many s h a l l o w p o o l s r e s u l t i n g from f l a t  ography and poor d r a i n a g e .  top-  Numerous o b s e r v a t i o n s o f p e a t d i g g i n g s , d r a i n -  age d i t c h e s , and H i l l e r b o r i n g s by Rigg and Richardson  (19 38), i n d i c a t e t h a t  the sedge-swamp d e p o s i t s u n d e r l i e much o f t h e bog. Shrub and Heathland  Phase:  The sedge-swamp phase i s f o l l o w e d by the d e v e l -  opment o f shrubby v e g e t a t i o n i n c o r e s CBB  (Myrica-Spiraea) and BBDC (Ledum).  T h i s shrub phase, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e accumulation have been widespread  throughout  o f woody peat, seems t o  t h e bog (Rigg and Richardson,  1938).  In  158  core DNR,  a swampy M y r i c a - S p i r a e a shrubland appears  t o have  developed;  swamp c o n d i t i o n s are i n d i c a t e d by t h e h i g h p o l l e n l e v e l s o f L y s i c h i t u m americanum.  Sphagnum Bog Phase: num l e a v e s  The shrubby phase marks the f i r s t  appearance o f Sphag-  (Sphagnum fimbriatum type) w i t h a few Sphagnum s p o r e s .  In both  c o r e s CBB and BBDC, t h e appearance o f t h i s moss i s f o l l o w e d by a Sphagnum bog phase, a p p a r e n t l y much l i k e the p r e s e n t v e g e t a t i o n o f Burns Bog. t r a n s i t i o n o c c u r s a t about the same h o r i z o n above sea l e v e l i n both  This cores.  It  i s t r a c e a b l e i n d r a i n a g e d i t c h e s and p e a t c u t t i n g s , and f o l l o w s a more  or  l e s s h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a c r o s s t h e bog.  w i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f Sphagnum peat depth this conclusion.  Comparison o f s u r f a c e e l e v a t i o n s (Anrep,  1928) f u r t h e r  supports  A r a d i o c a r b o n date on t h i s t r a n s i t i o n from shrubs t o  Sphagnum i n core CBB i n d i c a t e s t h a t r a i s e d bog c o n d i t i o n s developed s i t e a t about 2,925 ± 85 BP.  at this  Sphagnum bog c o n d i t i o n s a t core s i t e DNR d i d  n o t a r i s e u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , f o l l o w i n g an extended  shrubby t o open swamp  p e r i o d , p r o b a b l y m a i n t a i n e d by r u n - o f f from Panorama Ridge.  The Sphagnum  mosses presumably spread from the e x t e n s i v e areas o f Sphagnum i n Burns Bog to  t h e west. The  advent  o f Sphagnum bog c o n d i t i o n s i n Burns Bog i s accompanied by  a change i n the e r i c a d spectrum  from an a s s o c i a t i o n o f Ledum w i t h some  Empetrum, t o one c o n s i s t i n g most l i k e l y o f Andromeda p o l i f o l i a , m i c r o p h y l l a , V a c c i n i u m oxycoccos appears  and V a c c i n i u m  uliginosum.  Kalmia  Pinus c o n t o r t a  t o have a r r i v e d b e f o r e the f u l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Sphagnum  heathland vegetation. F i r e Horizons: horizons.  The Sphagnum p e a t s c o n t a i n a number o f d i s t i n c t c h a r c o a l  These a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant i n t h e upper few c e n t i m e t e r s .  159  There i s a c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z a b l e e f f e c t , from these f i r e s expressed the p o l l e n and m a c r o f o s s i l r e c o r d .  i n both  P i n e s appear t o be a f f e c t e d i n two  ways; where p i n e seemed t o grow w e l l (e.g. .62 m l e v e l core BBDC) f i r e r e s u l t e d i n a sharp decrease later.  of t h i s species with only a s l i g h t  Where i t grew r e l a t i v e l y p o o r l y  recovery  (1.25 m l e v e l , core CBB), b u r n i n g  produced a sharp i n c r e a s e , w i t h e v e n t u a l r e t u r n t o p r e - f i r e l e v e l s .  This  i n c r e a s e p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d because Sphagnum was d e s t r o y e d by t h e f i r e ,  per-  m i t t i n g v i g o r o u s growth o f p i n e s e e d l i n g s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e - f i r e situation.  To v e r i f y t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n more f i r e h o r i z o n s need t o be  examined i n d e t a i l .  The major f i r e s i n the Sphagnum phase appear t o have  t o t a l l y d e s t r o y e d t h e ground-cover v e g e t a t i o n .  A l l the major f i r e  i n c o r e s BBDC and CBB a r e f o l l o w e d by t h e sudden disappearance and pronounced r e d u c t i o n s i n Ericaceae.. whereas Sphagnum  horizons  o f Sphagnum  Ericaceae recovered q u i c k l y ,  (spores) showed a slower r a t e o f r e c o l o n i z i n g .  Fungal  m i c r o f o s s i l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h u m i f i c a t i o n became q u i t e abundant i n t h e f i r e h o r i z o n s , i n d i c a t i n g t e m p o r a r i l y stagnant e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Sphagnum.  D u r i n g t h e p o s t - f i r e p e r i o d , peat  s l o w l y , c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f heath l i t t e r , a l b a remains.  conditions p r i o r to r e accumulated  f u n g a l hyphae and Rhynchospora  These burned areas became wet d e p r e s s i o n s , w h i l e  unburned h o l l o w s  took over as s i t e s o f a c t i v e Sphagnum growth.  surrounding Eventually,  these unburned d e p r e s s i o n s became e x t e n s i v e hummock-mat complexes t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e growth o f t h e r a i s e d bog.  With time, Sphagnum r e -  o c c u p i e d t h e burned d e p r e s s i o n s , and c o n v e r t e d them t o a c t i v e sites.  accumulation  T h i s p r o c e s s was a c c e l e r a t e d i f new f i r e s r a z e d t h e a r e a w h i l e  d e p r e s s i o n s were s t i l l wet.  A model o f t h e f i r e  syndrome i s shown i n Ch. 2 ( F i g . 7 ) .  induced  hummock-hollow  these  160  An  i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l t o the f i r e * - i n d u c e d f o r m a t i o n o f  ("Rhynchospora lows") i n Burns Bog Georgia.  occurs  S t u d i e s o f p e a t petrography  i n the Okefenokee Swamp o f  and p a l e o e c o l o g y  i n d i c a t e t h a t major f i r e s o f t e n c o n v e r t e d  cypress  swamps t o water l i l y - d o m i n a t e d marshes and instrumental i n modifying  depressions  swamp v e g e t a t i o n .  by Cohen  (1974)  (Taxodium)-dominated  t h a t t h i s e f f e c t has  been  T h i s s o r t o f f i r e phenomenon,  a f f e c t i n g p e a t d e p o s i t s and p e a t l a n d v e g e t a t i o n , may  be more widespread,  but as f a r as i s known by the author, i t has not been p r e v i o u s l y r e c o g n i z e d i n Sphagnum bogs.  Burns Bog  Development i n R e l a t i o n t o Other R a i s e d Bogs  i n the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a  There i s one  core from the F r a s e r Lowland t o which the developmental  sequence of Burns Bog from L u l u I s l a n d Bog  can be compared.  Hansen  (1940) o b t a i n e d a 5 m  n o r t h o f Burns Bog w i t h the purpose o f  the r e g i o n a l f o r e s t h i s t o r y .  Although  c o r e , Pinus  determining  h i s sample i n t e r v a l was  sequence o b t a i n e d seems t o p a r a l l e l t h a t o f Burns Bog.  .5 m,  In the L u l u I s l a n d  In peat a t 2.5  m,  Typha t e t r a d s predominate and  Cyperaceae  p o l l e n appears i n s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s , i n c r e a s i n g t o very h i g h m.  Some chenopod and  marsh v e g e t a t i o n . -  The  sedge p e r i o d i s succeeded by  U n f o r t u n a t e l y no note was  Sphagnum was  frequencies  grass grains a l s o i n d i c a t e a t r a c e of  abundant E r i c a c e a e , v e r y s i m i l a r t o c o r r e s p o n d i n g BBDC.  the  and P i c e a are the dominant p o l l e n types i n the lower, sandy/  s i l t y deposits.  a t 2.0  core  f i b r o u s peat,  salt containing  l e v e l s i n cores CBB  made by Hansen o f Sphagnum s p o r e s ,  r e p o r t e d i n the s u r f a c e v e g e t a t i o n .  and although  161  A G e n e r a l Model f o r R a i s e d Bog Development i n the F r a s e r D e l t a ( F i g . 50)  A model can be c o n s t r u c t e d f o r r a i s e d bog development i n the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a based on r e s u l t s from Burns Bog,  L u l u I s l a n d Bog,  and  on  o b s e r v a t i o n s on P i t t Lake Bog v e g e t a t i o n (Barnard, 1975). C o l o n i z a t i o n Phase:  The  first  stage, " c o l o n i z a t i o n " , i s e q u i v a l e n t to that  p r e s e r v e d i n the b a s a l sediments  o f the t h r e e c o r e s i n t h i s study,  and  o c c u r s when p r o g r a d i n g d e l t a i c s u r f a c e s are c o l o n i z e d by a q u a t i c s , e.g. S c i r p u s and Carex.  I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by sandy s i l t s  grading to peaty  silts. Sedge-Grass Phase:  F o r f u r t h e r a c c u m u l a t i o n above the l o c a l water t a b l e ,  the c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r a p e a t - f o r m i n g template must be met and Bellamy,  (Moore  1973). Enough water must be r e t a i n e d a t the s i t e so t h a t  o r g a n i c decomposition  i s retarded.  In the F r a s e r D e l t a , p e r i o d i c  flooding  and l o c a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n combined w i t h poor lowland d r a i n a g e p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e m o i s t u r e regimes added by p e r i o d i c  so t h a t p e a t accumulation can o c c u r .  Traces of s i l t  flooding.  Under these c o n d i t i o n s - sedges t h r i v e , a l o n g w i t h wetland p r o d u c i n g the o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r peat f o r m a t i o n . stage i s p r e s e r v e d i n sediments I s l a n d Bog wetlands  (Hansen, 1940).  south o f P i t t Lake  Shrub Phase:  are  throughout  Burns Bog,  grasses, The  sedge  as w e l l as i n L u l u  A modern a n a l o g o f t h i s stage o c c u r s i n the (Barnard, 1975).  Shrub development f o l l o w s the accumulation o f sedge p e a t s ,  w i t h M y r i c a , S p i r a e a and l a t e r Ledum, r e p l a c i n g sedges and grasses.. change from sedge-grass wetlands  t o shrubs may  r e s u l t from;  The  a) o r g a n i c  a c i d accumulation, b) decreased n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y from the m i n e r a l  162  Figure 50: Proposed model f o r r a i s e d bog development i n t h e F r a s e r Delta,B.C. P O L L E N AND SPORES S T A G E S AND P R O C E S S E S SEDIMENTS 1  PINE SPHAGNUM ERICACEAE  SPHAGNUM BOG  SPHAGNUM P E A T  SPHAGNUM GROWTH  ERICACEAE  7  LEDUM HEATHLANDS  HEATH PEAT  MYRICA - SPIRAEA THICKETS  WOODY P E A T  SHRUB GROWTH  CYPERACEAE GRAMINEAE POLY P O D I A C E A E OENANTHE TYPHA  CYPERACEAE PINE SPRUCE REWORKED TERTIARY POLLEN  SEDGE - GRASS WETLANDS  t  z  SEDGE GROWTH  DELTA - FRONT  SEDGE PEAT  7 PEATY SILT  ESTUARY TYPHA - C A R E X OENANTHE  SILT  t  Z  SCIRPUS  t  COLONIZATION  UNDER  WATER  7  SANDY SAND  SILT  163  h o r i z o n b u r i e d under t h e sedge p e a t s ,  c) i n c r e a s e d e l e v a t i o n and d r y i n g as  a r e s u l t o f sedge p e a t a c c u m u l a t i o n .  Myrica  n i t r o g e n f i x e r under a n a e r o b i c 1973;  p. 127).  i s known t o be a p r o f i c i e n t  a c i d i c conditions  (Moore and Bellamy,  S p i r a e a must a l s o be adapted t o these c o n d i t i o n s , as i t i s  the dominant shrub o f p o o r l y d r a i n e d wetlands o f southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and o f t e n grows a t the edges o f bogs  (Osvald,  1933; Rigg and  R i c h a r d s o n , 1938). With f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n e l e v a t i o n from p e a t accumulation, and d e c r e a s e s i n the w a t e r - h o l d i n g  c a p a c i t y o f t h e c o a r s e , woody p e a t , d e s i c c a -  t i o n o f the s u r f a c e i s i n c r e a s e d .  This leads t o a c c e l e r a t e d  decomposition,  and presumably t o i n c r e a s e d a c i d i t y i n the upper p e a t l a y e r s . the  Eventually  s u b s t r a t e becomes s u i t a b l e f o r t h e growth o f those Sphagnum  (e.g. S_. fimbriatum) t o l e r a n t o f somewhat d r i e r  Sphagnum Bog Phase:  conditions.  Once Sphagnum mosses become e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e storage  c a p a c i t y o f t h e s i t e i n c r e a s e s markedly, r e f l e c t i n g the h i g h a b i l i t y o f the h y a l i n e c e l l s o f these mosses (Rigg, 1940). cells,  species  through c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n  The h y a l i n e  (Moore and Bellamy, 1973), d e l a y t h e o u t f l o w  o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n , t h e main source o f water f o r the system. a l s o decrease e v a p o r a t i o n ,  water-retention  Sphagnum may  a c t i n g as a s e a l over the s u r f a c e .  e f f e c t i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s t o r a g e  The n e t  c a p a c i t y o f t h e peat mass and a d d i t i o n -  a l peat accumulation. The  d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f S p i r a e a and M y r i c a  development.  i s associated with  Sphagnum has a h i g h exchange c a p a c i t y f o r c a t i o n s  1963),and p r o b a b l y  deprives  Myrica  and S p i r a e a o f n u t r i e n t s .  Sphagnum (Clymo,  Sphagnum  growth e v e n t u a l l y a l s o r e s t r i c t s the growth o f Ledum r e s u l t i n g i n the development o f t y p i c a l r a i s e d bog v e g e t a t i o n .  164  Although  the o r d e r o f p r o g r e s s i o n o f Sphagnum s p e c i e s i n bog  develop-  ment has not y e t been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the F r a s e r D e l t a , i t appears t h a t Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m p l a y s an important at  P i t t Lake Bog,  r o l e i n the p r o c e s s .  F o r example,  c a p i l l a c e u m i s the main b u i l d e r o f hummocks w i t h i n  the Ledum-dominated a r e a .  In southern  Burns Bog,  areas r e g e n e r a t i n g  after  e i t h e r f i r e o r c l e a r i n g ,are a c t i v e l y b e i n g covered by c o a l e s c i n g hummocks and mats o f Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m .  Sphagnum p a p i l l o s u m hummocks a l s o o c c u r  i n these r e g e n e r a t i n g a r e a s , but i n fewer numbers.  Once S_. c a p i l l a c e u m  becomes e s t a b l i s h e d , presumably t h e r e i s a p r o g r e s s i o n towards the ment o f a c l a s s i c r a i s e d Sphagnum The  bog.  g e n e r a l model f o r r a i s e d bog  development p r e s e n t e d  i n t e n d e d to r e p r e s e n t the sequence to be bog  develop-  found  here i s not  a t every l o c a l i t y i n every  i n the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a , nor can a l l the phases o f the sequence be  expected  t o o c c u r i n every c o r e .  composition  shrub phase v a r i e s i n d u r a t i o n  as i l l u s t r a t e d by core BBDC where Ledum dominates and  where M y r i c a and S p i r a e a dominate. r a i s e d bog  The  and  core  CBB  However, i t seems, t h a t i n g e n e r a l ,  development on the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a i n v o l v e s a sedge s t a g e ,  f o l l o w e d by some s o r t o f shrub s t a g e , e v e n t u a l l y l e a d i n g t o the Sphagnum stage. and  A d d i t i o n a l c o r e s from o t h e r bogs need to be a n a l y z e d  to confirm  r e f i n e t h i s model.  DISCUSSION  Comparison o f F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a R a i s e d Bog w i t h Other R a i s e d Bog  Rigg Coast  Development  Sequences  (1925) d i s c u s s e d Sphagnum bog  development o f the North P a c i f i c  o f N o r t h America on the b a s i s o f a f i e l d  study o f 78 bogs.  Although  165  he d i d not use p a l y n o l o g i c t e c h n i q u e s he was bogs the development sequence was  a b l e t o suggest t h a t i n many  from sedge t o shrub t o Sphagnum bog  phases.  He concluded t h a t i n most cases Sphagnum bog encroached on swamp e n v i r o n ments (shrubs) and thus t h a t "the bog a s s o c i a t i o n commonly f o l l o w s a swamp association".  These c o n c l u s i o n s are c l e a r l y c o n f i r m e d f o r the bogs o f the  F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a by t h i s Heusser  (1955, 1960)  study. d e s c r i b e d a number o f c o r e s from v a r i o u s bogs i n  the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , Vancouver I s l a n d and the west c o a s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Some o f these appear t o have developed w i t h o u t a l i m n i c b a s a l  p e a t , and to have produced r a i s e d bogs.  c o n s i d e r a b l e depths o f p e a t , and so appear t o be  D i r e c t comparison  Heusser's main o b j e c t i v e was it  o f these t o Burns Bog i s d i f f i c u l t  to obtain paleoclimatic information.  appears t h a t sedge p e a t s always  Bog.  However,  form the b a s a l o r g a n i c l a y e r _ a s i n Burns  Ligneous p e a t s f o l l o w , a l t h o u g h the n a t u r e o f these i s not  c l e a r , and they may  because  always  have been produced mainly by t r e e s i n s t e a d o f shrubs.  Heusser's p o l l e n p r o f i l e s do not i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y the presence o f shrubdominated  horizons.  o c c u r toward  Sphagnum p e a t s and h i g h numbers o f Sphagnum spores  the tops o f most o f these sequences.  Heusser  these l o c a l v e g e t a t i o n / p e a t changes t o c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s . i n Burns Bog,  i n bog development.  some o f the c l i m a t i c reasons g i v e n by Heusser  F o r example,  (1960; p. 128-130) f o r  d i s a p p e a r a n c e s and frequency changes i n s p e c i e s might  accounted f o r b e t t e r by s u c c e s s i o n a l Auer  From the r e s u l t s  i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t a t l e a s t some o f the changes are the  r e s u l t o f n a t u r a l s u c c e s s i o n a l phases  appearances,  a s c r i b e d most o f  be  changes.  (1930) c a r r i e d out an e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p e a t bogs i n  s o u t h e a s t e r n Canada.  In the case o f r a i s e d bogs, p a r t i c u l a r l y the  maritime  166  ones o f e a s t e r n Canada, he  found t h a t Carex peat r e s t e d on m i n e r a l  w i t h t r e e stumps seldom found i n the b a s a l Carex l a y e r s . t h a t p a l u d i f i c a t i o n o f the l a n d i n t o p e a t bogs was the spread sequently  o f Carex a s s o c i a t i o n s , and on t h i s s u b s t r a t e .  He  soil,  concluded  c h i e f l y the r e s u l t  of  t h a t Sphagnum peats developed sub-  In c o n t r a s t t o Burns Bo.g,  none o f  the  r a i s e d bog p r o f i l e s o f the e a s t c o a s t show a d e f i n i t e shrub s t a g e ,  although  Auer mentions the growth o f dwarf shrub p l a n t assemblages on Carex  peat.  Elsewhere i n the w o r l d , o n l y one bog  has been found f o r comparison.  s i m i l a r d e l t a i c or estuarine raised  T h i s i s Shopwick Heath, Somerset,  England, where Godwin (1975) d e s c r i b e s a r a i s e d bog estuarine clays.  The  sequence o f development i s :  t h a t developed  Phragmites-Cladium  (sedge-type p e a t ) , f o l l o w e d by a t h i n l a y e r o f woody p e a t a Calluna-Sphagnum stage and species composition  ( B e t u l a f e n wood);  f i n a l l y Molinia-Sphagnum p e a t s .  i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f Burns Bog,  marked s u c c e s s i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s sequence and the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a .  on  Although  the  there i s a  t h a t proposed f o r  In b o t h , emergence i s f o l l o w e d by open sedge f e n s ,  which presumably g i v e s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r the e v e n t u a l advent o f more acidophilous species  t y p i c a l o f r a i s e d bogs.  In g e n e r a l i t seems t h a t the Burns Bog  sequence b e a r s some s i m i l a r i t y  t o t h a t o f o t h e r r a i s e d bogs, most p a r t i c u l a r l y on the west c o a s t o f N o r t h America.  The b a s a l sedge phase seems to be e s p e c i a l l y  although  the development o f a shrub phase i s a p p a r e n t l y  characteristic, not shared  with  o t h e r bogs.  The  Role o f the R a i s e d Bog  i n Fraser River Delta Evolution  Another i n t e r e s t i n g aspect o f the r a i s e d bogs o f the F r a s e r D e l t a i s  167  t h a t these bogs seem t o form the main o r g a n i c phase o f the d e l t a a r y sequence.  evolution-  The backwaters and i n t e r d i s t r i b u t a r y areas o f many o t h e r  major r i v e r d e l t a s , e.g. M i s s i s s i p p i , O r i n o c o , are the s i t e s f o r major accumulation o f o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s because the c o n s t a n t l y wet c o n d i t i o n s s a t i s f y the requirements 1973).  f o r a p e a t - f o r m i n g template  (Moore and  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n the F r a s e r D e l t a , e x t e n s i v e  Bellamy,  tree-dominated  swamplands do n o t o c c u r , and t h a t the n a t u r a l o r g a n i c r e s e r v o i r seems t o be r a i s e d bogs. Anrep  A map  o f the peat r e s o u r c e s o f the F r a s e r Lowland p r e p a r e d  by  (1928) shows the c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t o f bog d e p o s i t s on the d e l t a  surface.  E i t h e r t h e r e are not t r e e s p e c i e s i n t h i s p a r t o f N o r t h  America  t h a t can be i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i c a c c u m u l a t i o n i n d e l t a swamps, o r the c o n d i t i o n s are more f a v o u r a b l e f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f r a i s e d bogs, so t h a t potential  swamp v e g e t a t i o n has no o p p o r t u n i t y t o become permanently  established.  P o s s i b l y w i t h s u i t a b l e v e r t i c a l growth o f these r a i s e d bogs, the crowns might become d r y enough t o s u p p o r t the growth o f f o r e s t t r e e s such as Tsuga (Rigg, 1925).  C u r r e n t l y i t seems t h a t the bogs are s t i l l  in:.the " y o u t h f u l "  a c t i v e growth s t a g e . An i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l i n the f o r m a t i o n o f r a i s e d , d e l t a i c , o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s can be found i n the compound d e l t a o f the K l a n g and Langat R i v e r s o f M a l a y s i a (Coleman e t al_. , 1970) .  Large mounds o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l  composed o f l o g s and limbs are a c c u m u l a t i n g i n the i n t e r d i s t r i b u t a r y a r e a s , t o l e v e l s above the impounding l e v e e s .  Q u i t e c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , the peat  a c c u m u l a t i o n i n one o f these " r a i s e d " o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s began a t 4,540 ± BP,  v e r y c l o s e t o the time o f i n i t i a l o r g a n i c accumulation  i n Burns  100  Bog.  The poor drainage i n these M a l a y s i a n o r g a n i c heaps, t o g e t h e r w i t h h i g h r a i n f a l l and d e c r e a s e d e v a p o r a t i o n  (Coleman e t a l . ,  1970)  appear t o account  168  f o r o r g a n i c accumulation above the water l e v e l ; t o t h a t i n the F r a s e r D e l t a . d e l t a i c areas t o determine  this i s a situation  similar  I t would be v a l u a b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e o t h e r  what c o n d i t i o n s are p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the  develop-  ment o f such " r a i s e d " o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s .  The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f the Main P a l e o e c o l o g i c Events i n Burns  Bog  t o the Development o f the F r a s e r D e l t a  The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h i s study o f Burns Bog p r o v i d e an  insight  i n t o the h i s t o r y o f the southern s e c t i o n o f the F r a s e r D e l t a . Sea L e v e l Changes:  The upper p a r t o f the i n t e r t i d a l d e l t a - f r o n t phase a t  the base o f the t h r e e c o r e s i n t h i s study corresponds e s s e n t i a l l y t o sea level  ( F i g . 49).  I t a l s o appears  t h a t a t the time o f the appearance o f  these s i t e s above water, j u s t a f t e r 5,000 BP,  sea l e v e l must have been v e r y  near what i t i s today, w i t h any d i f f e r e n c e p r o b a b l y b e i n g l e s s than a meter. In Boundary Bay,  s a l t marsh p e a t s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t sea l e v e l  datum) are dated a t 4,350 y e a r s BP  (geodetic  ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray, 1969).  These  p e a t s a p p a r e n t l y d i r e c t l y o v e r l i e s i l t s b e l o n g i n g t o the i n t e r t i d a l f r o n t phase  (Hebda, u n p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s ) .  delta-  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the emergence  o f the d e l t a s u r f a c e a t the Boundary Bay l o c a l i t y o c c u r r e d a t the same time as a t the t h r e e c o r e s i t e s i n Burns Bog. o f f o u r w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d l o c a l i t i e s may i n sea  s t u d i e s o f e u s t a t i c sea l e v e l changes i n the  P a c i f i c Ocean  ago  indicate a local relative  emergence decline  level.  Recent  Ocean  T h i s n e a r l y synchronous  (Bloom, 1970;  ( R e d f i e l d , 1967)  Curray e t a l . ,  1970)  southwestern  and the western  Atlantic  seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t between 4,000 and. 5,000 y e a r s  sea l e v e l s were p r o b a b l y s t i l l  r i s i n g , but t h a t the r a t e o f r i s e  had  169  decreased c o n s i d e r a b l y o v e r p r e v i o u s r a t e s .  I n a d d i t i o n , these workers  concluded t h a t sea l e v e l s i n these areas i n the Holocene the c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n a l t h o u g h they may  have approached  never  it.  surpassed  S t u d i e s from  S c a n d i n a v i a seem t o i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r though g r a d u a l l y d e c r e a s i n g r a t e o f sea l e v e l r i s e approached  (with o s c i l l a t i o n s ) , w i t h the c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n b e i n g  over the l a s t 4,000 y e a r s  (M5rner,  1971),  C l e a r l y the l o c a l emergence o f the southern F r a s e r D e l t a does not form t o the above p a t t e r n .  con-  The F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a i s b e i n g formed i n a  t e c t o n i c a l l y a c t i v e area with u p l i f t c u r r e n t l y o c c u r r i n g i n surrounding uplands  (Mathews e t a l . ,  1970).  Such t e c t o n i c a c t i v i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h  o t h e r movements such as earthquakes f o r the apparent  sea l e v e l drop.  seemingly  synchronous  change.  I f , as demonstrated  (Blunden, 1975)  could e a s i l y  account  Another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the  emergence r e l a t e s t o the r a t e o f e u s t a t i c sea f o r the western  P a c i f i c and A t l a n t i c ,  r a t e o f sea l e v e l r i s e decreased between 4,000-5,000 y e a r s BP,  level the  then the  r a t e o f d e l t a emergence ( p r o g r a d a t i o n ) would be expected t o i n c r e a s e , assuming the same r a t e o f sediment  input.  Only  s m a l l changes i n the  rela-  t i o n s h i p o f l a n d t o sea l e v e l are r e q u i r e d f o r l a r g e expanses o f d e l t a i c f l a t l a n d s t o become emergent. F o l l o w i n g t h i s l o c a l emergence, t h e r e i s a marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n , r e c o r d e d by s a l t marsh p e a t s i n core BBDC and Boundary Bay, b u t l y n o t i n c o r e s CBB  and DNR.  Normally,  such a t r a n s g r e s s i o n would imply  a r e l a t i v e r i s e i n sea l e v e l i n the western study a r e a .  A l t h o u g h t h i s may  and s o u t h e r n p a r t s o f the  be t r u e , t h e r e i s a t l e a s t one  explanation that should be'considered.  significant-  alternative  170  C u r r e n t l y i n Boundary Bay, s a l t marsh p e a t s form a t about the mean h i g h t i d e l e v e l which i s 0-1  m above mean sea l e v e l  Thus the s a l t marsh p e a t h o r i z o n s  ( g e o d e t i c datum).  (BBDC, Boundary Bay)  t i o n e q u i v a l e n t t o o r above the e l e v a t i o n o f f o r m a t i o n  formed a t an e l e v a ( '0-11 m) o f the  upper i n t e r t i d a l d e l t a - f r o n t s i l t y p e a t s which u n d e r l i e them.  T h i s means  t h a t no change i n sea l e v e l would have been n e c e s s a r y t o account f o r the e n v i r o n m e n t a l change from e s t u a r i n e marsh t o s a l t marsh BBDC - I I I ) .  (e.g. BBDC - I I t o  A s w i t c h from f r e s h - b r a c k i s h water i n f l u e n c e  s a l t water i n f l u e n c e  (estuary) t o  ( t i d a l f l a t s ) would be a l l t h a t was n e c e s s a r y f o r the  v e g e t a t i o n and sedimentary change. A t l e a s t two e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s c o n v e r s i o n a r e p o s s i b l e .  The main  channel o f the F r a s e r R i v e r may have moved northward, t h e r e b y s h a r p l y dec r e a s i n g f r e s h water and sediment s u p p l y t o t h i s p a r t o f the d e l t a . n a t i v e l y , the d e l t a may  Alter-  have b u i l t out f a r enough t o have j o i n e d P o i n t  Roberts to the mainland, thus p r e v e n t i n g f r e s h - b r a c k i s h e s t u a r i n e water from f l o w i n g south a l o n g the edge o f the d e l t a t o s i t e BBDC.  This i s  e x a c t l y what happens today, and i s the main r e a s o n . t h a t Boundary Bay water i s very s a l i n e .  Zone BBDC - I I r e p r e s e n t s a s i t u a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t i n g the  f i r s t permanently emergent h o r i z o n o f t h e d e l t a - f r o n t . the d e l t a - f r o n t  The a c t u a l edge o f  (-10 m l e v e l ) would be e x p e c t e d t o be l o c a t e d about 6 km  f u r t h e r o u t t o sea (Luternauer and Murray, 1973).  A t 4,400-4,100 BP  this  would mean t h a t the submerged d e l t a - f r o n t would have reached a t l e a s t the lower s l o p e s o f t h e P o i n t Roberts u p l a n d , j o i n i n g i t t o the d e l t a ,  likely  i n d i c a t i n g a n n e x a t i o n o f P o i n t Roberts a t t h i s time. C u t - o f f o f sediment supply accompanied by c o n t i n u i n g sediment s u b s i dence through n a t u r a l compaction, may gression.  a l s o have promoted a marine t r a n s -  Of course e u s t a t i c sea l e v e l changes, t e c t o n i c movements  171  (Mathews e t a l . , 1970)  and  earthquakes  (Blunden, 1975)  s h o u l d not be r u l e d  out as a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s f o r the s l i g h t r e l a t i v e r i s e i n sea The  abrupt  by sedge p e a t s ,  level.  t e r m i n a t i o n o f the s a l t marsh phase i n core BBDC, f o l l o w e d containing s l i g h t traces of s i l t ,  seems t o imply  either a  l o c a l sea l e v e l drop, o r renewed f l o o d i n g from the F r a s e r R i v e r , perhaps r e s u l t i n g from channel r e l o c a t i o n . marsh phase, t h e r e i s no evidence The  F o l l o w i n g the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the  o f marine readvance i n any  o f the  salt cores.  r e l a t i v e sea l e v e l changes suggested i n the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n  seem t o i n d i c a t e some m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o Blunden's sea l e v e l curve F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a , a t l e a s t f o r the southern as Blunden shows, r e l a t i v e sea l e v e l had between 4,000 and  5,000 BP.  above and not below p r e s e n t c o n t r a r y t o Blunden's curve,  Before  f o r the  p a r t o f the d e l t a .  First,  reached i t s c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n  t h i s time, i t may  p o s s i b l y have been  l e v e l s , as i n d i c a t e d by Blunden.  Second,  t h e r e seems t o be no c o n c l u s i v e evidence  that  sea l e v e l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y above those o f the p r e s e n t between 2,000 and 4,000  BP.  With the c u r r e n t l i m i t e d number o f r a d i o c a r b o n - d a t e d f o r the 5,000-2,000 BP  sea l e v e l  horizons  i n t e r v a l , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e a t any  c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g e x a c t sea l e v e l p o s i t i o n s , o r the causes and o f l o c a l sea l e v e l change.  effects  More dates need t o be o b t a i n e d on h o r i z o n s whose  exact o r i g i n a l e l e v a t i o n o f f o r m a t i o n R i v e r Channel Changes:  firm  The  i s known w i t h r e s p e c t to sea  r e s u l t s from Burns Bog  level.  a l s o have some b e a r i n g  on i n t e r p r e t i n g the p o s i t i o n o f the F r a s e r R i v e r channels i n the p a s t 5,000 years.  The  c o n t i n u i t y o f the d e p o s i t s a c r o s s Burns Bog  t h a t the F r a s e r R i v e r has years.  This i s opposite  seem t o i n d i c a t e  not passed through the area i n the l a s t 5,000 t o the view expressed  by K e l l e r h a l s and  Murray  172  (1969).  Channels would be  expected t o l e a v e some t r a c e i n s u b s u r f a c e  ography o r sediments t h a t s h o u l d be r e f l e c t e d by v e g e t a t i o n a l on the s u r f a c e Lulu Island  ( c f . the  ).  through  U n l e s s such evidence i s found, no  be made f o r southward flow o f the F r a s e r R i v e r 5,000  differences  f i l l e d - i n channel t h a t runs northwest  (Blunden, 1975)  top-  i n t o Boundary Bay  case  can  since  BP.  Blunden  (1975) has  i s very recent  suggested t h a t the South Arm  in origin  (post-2,500 BP).  the F r a s e r R i v e r , which was the G r e a t e r  o f the F r a s e r  According  t o him,  River  i t formed when  p r e v i o u s l y f l o w i n g t o the northwest, breached  L u l u I s l a n d Bog-Burns Bog  r a i s e d bog  complex, t a k i n g the p a t h  o f l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e t o the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a . Results event.  from the  cores  do not  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the s i t e s were too  affected  and  as t h i s p i o n e e r i n g  river.  and  BBDC.  avulsion occurred  the r i v e r water.  a regional increase  i n a l d e r would be  i n a l d e r do o c c u r a t the 2.5  Although s u g g e s t i v e ,  t h i s i s not  In view o f the  the r i v e r - b o g c o n t a c t  f a c t t h a t r a i s e d bog  the  that  faces.  development i s a n a t u r a l phase o f and  Burns  However, t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y seems remote i n  l i g h t o f the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n depth o f p e a t and o f the bogs, and  expect-  w i l l have t o come  d e l t a m a t u r a t i o n , i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t L u l u I s l a n d Bog developed i n d e p e n d e n t l y .  be  m l e v e l i n both  f i r m proof  a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r time; c o n f i r m a t i o n  from d e t a i l e d d r i l l i n g a l o n g  an  I f such a  t r e e c o l o n i z e d the newly e s t a b l i s h e d banks o f  S i g n i f i c a n t increases  cores CBB  i n d i c a t i o n o f such  f a r away from the r i v e r t o  t h a t l e v e e s would have c o n f i n e d  southerly d i v e r s i o n occurred, ed,  c l e a r l y show any  Bog the  s t r a t i g r a p h y , opposed p o s i t i o n  abrupt margins o f the p e a t bogs a g a i n s t the r i v e r  channel.  173  A p p l i c a t i o n o f the Study  The r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n have a number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s : 1.  F i r s t , t h e sequence o f development i n Burns Bog p r o v i d e s a b a s i c  work f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f F r a s e r Lowland r a i s e d bogs.  frame-  T h i s sequence  can a l s o be used as an example t o which the p a l e o e c o l o g y o f o t h e r r a i s e d bogs i n western 2.  North America  can be compared.  The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f wetland v e g e t a t i o n types u s i n g palynomorph  "fingerprints"  ( i n c l u d i n g m i c r o f o s s i l s o t h e r than p o l l e n and spores o f  v a s c u l a r p l a n t s ) from s u r f a c e samples o f modern analogs p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e t o o l f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the paleoecology o f d e p o s i t i o n a l s i t e s c o n t a i n i n g t e r r e s t r i a l peats. from wetland of 3.  I f more o f these k i n d s o f d a t a were t o be c o l l e c t e d  e n v i r o n m e n t s , p r e c i s e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f the l o c a l  histories  such s i t e s c o u l d be made. D u r i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f the bog, Sphagnum seems t o have r e c o l o n i z e d  q u i c k l y areas t h a t were d e s t r o y e d by f i r e , d i s t u r b e d areas today.  j u s t as i t r e c o l o n i z e s b a d l y  T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e p a r t s o f t h e bog abandoned  a f t e r p e a t mining can be expected t o r e t u r n t o v i a b l e r a i s e d bog c o n d i t i o n s i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f time still  (50 y e a r s ) .  T h i s means t h a t Burns Bog  r e t a i n s t h e a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n i t s e l f , and s h o u l d n o t be abandoned  as b e i n g beyond r e c o v e r y . 4.  The g r e a t c o n t r a s t i n p e a t accumulation r a t e f o r peat d e p o s i t s (6.67 cm  /100 years) and t h e Sphagnum hummock growth r a t e  (82 cm/100 years)  indicates  t h a t under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s a much g r e a t e r y i e l d o f Sphagnum may be o b t a i n e d . The peat c u t t i n g s i t e s i n Burns Bog seem t o be i d e a l f o r t h i s h i g h r a t e o f Sphagnum growth. filtration  I f t h e demand f o r raw, c l e a n Sphagnum i n c r e a s e d (e.g.  and a b s o r p t i o n o f heavy metal, contaminants  i n water) Sphagnum  for  174  c u l t u r e i n these 5.  The success  s i t e s would appear t o be a d i s t i n c t o f t h i s study  d e l t a - f r o n t phase  possibility,  i n r e c o g n i z i n g and d a t i n g the i n t e r t i d a l  ( i . e . sea l e v e l ) means t h a t a d d i t i o n a l r a d i o c a r b o n  o f t h i s h o r i z o n i n the F r a s e r D e l t a and o t h e r c o a s t a l s i t e s s h o u l d  dating  provide  an a c c u r a t e method f o r e l u c i d a t i n g the h i s t o r y o f d e l t a growth and sea l e v e l changes.  The advantage o f t h i s technique  autochthonous h o r i z o n s  i s t h a t dates  can be o b t a i n e d f o r  r a t h e r than on m a t e r i a l s such as l o g s and s h e l l s  which may be a l l o c h t h o n o u s ,  and p o s s i b l y n o t t h e same age as t h e m a t r i x  c o n t a i n i n g them. 6.  A r c h e o l o g i s t s w i l l be a b l e t o use the p a l e o e c o l o g i c sequence e s t a b l i s h -  ed t o i n t e r p r e t the h i s t o r y o f n e i g h b o u r i n g ( C a l v e r t , 1970) and Glenrose  s i t e s such as S t . Mungo Cannery  Cannery i n terms o f the e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s  a f f e c t i n g the c u l t u r e s . 7.  The computer program developed here p r o v i d e s  l a t i n g r e l a t i v e and a b s o l u t e p o l l e n v a l u e s .  a q u i c k method f o r c a l c u -  I t a l s o f a c i l i t a t e s t h e use  o f d i f f e r e n t combinations o f t a x a t o o b t a i n a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f changes i n c e r t a i n p a r t s o f the vegetation. 8.  Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u c c e s s i o n a l sequences s e t s  the stage  f o r p r e d i c t i n g n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n a l changes i n the wetlands o f  the F r a s e r Lowland, and p o s s i b l y o t h e r wetland s i t e s o f t h e n o r t h Coast.  In a d d i t i o n , i t p r o v i d e s  the opportunity  to forecase  Pacific  environmental  consequences t h a t might be expected where man d i s t u r b s t h e v e g e t a t i o n , o r drainage  o f r a i s e d bogs.  peat  175  THESIS SUMMARY  The  f o l l o w i n g main c o n c l u s i o n s have been reached from the  analyses  performed i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n : 1.  Burns Bog  developed on F r a s e r R i v e r d e l t a i c d e p o s i t s which appeared  above sea l e v e l j u s t a f t e r 5,000 y e a r s BP.  The  sequence, c o n t a i n i n g h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s o f Pinus  basal s i l t y  sand  and P i c e a p o l l e n as w e l l  as r e c y c l e d T e r t i a r y p o l l e n , i n d i c a t e s t h a t r i v e r t r a n s p o r t was important  i n the f o r m a t i o n  b a s a l sediments.  o f the palynomorph assemblages o f  L o c a l stands  a v a i l a b l e l a n d s u r f a c e and  very  these  o f S c i r p u s and Carex c o l o n i z e d the newly  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the h i g h Cyperaceae p o l l e n  levels. 2.  A f t e r the i n i t i a l  c o l o n i z a t i o n phase, the development o f the bog  sed through t h r e e major s t a g e s ; sedges  sedges, shrubs and Sphagnum.  (perhaps w i t h some grasses)  sedge p e a t s .  o c c u p i e d most o f the a r e a  E v e n t u a l l y , shrubs such as M y r i c a  and S p i r a e a  First producing appeared,  e i t h e r accompanied o r c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by Ledum groenlandicum. c e n t r a l p a r t o f the bog, 2,925 ± 125  BP)  these shrubs were subsequently  by Sphagnum bog  progres-  In  replaced  the  (at  c o n d i t i o n s t y p i c a l o f the p r e s e n t r a i s e d  bog. 3.  A t the western end o f the bog, ± 100  BP),  t h e r e was  a s h o r t s a l t marsh phase  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by chenopod and g r a s s p o l l e n .  T h i s was  (4,125 caused  p o s s i b l y by a s h u t - o f f of f r e s h / b r a c k i s h water from the F r a s e r R i v e r , r e s u l t i n g from j u n c t u r e o f the d e l t a to P o i n t 4.  In the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f the bog, sedge-grass phase was  Roberts.  a t the f o o t o f Panorama Ridge, the  only t r a n s i e n t .  I t was  c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by  a  176  Myrica-Spiraea-Lysichitum  swamp which l a s t e d u n t i l the o n s e t o f t r u e  Sphagnum bog c o n d i t i o n s i n v e r y r e c e n t 5.  F i r e s have p l a y e d an important bog.  times.  r o l e i n the ecology o f t h i s Sphagnum  P e r i o d i c a l l y t h e v e g e t a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , d r y s i t e s was  burned o f f , w h i l e wet d e p r e s s i o n s depressions maintained  remained untouched.  The unburned  l i v e Sphagnum and became c e n t e r s o f peat  accumu-  l a t i o n t h a t e v e n t u a l l y grew t o an e l e v a t i o n above the s u r r o u n d i n g burned a r e a s .  As a r e s u l t , many o f the burned s i t e s were c o n v e r t e d t o  depressions. 6.  The AP spectrum o f t h e t h r e e cores examined, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r e g i o n a l upland v e g e t a t i o n around t h e southern  F r a s e r D e l t a remained  t i a l l y unchanged throughout the h i s t o r y o f Burns Bog. proper,  7.  Recent l o g g i n g and c l e a r i n g o f upland decreases Alnus  8.  associated  channels.  and d e l t a s i t e s have r e s u l t e d i n  i n A b i e s , Tsuga, Pseudotsuga and P i c e a p o l l e n l e v e l s  while  and g r a s s p o l l e n f r e q u e n c i e s have i n c r e a s e d markedly.  Three groups o f e r i c a d t a x a , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t e t r a d d i a meter and p o l l e n p r o d u c t i v i t y , were found and wet Sphagnum bog h a b i t a t s . t i o n o f events  9.  On the d e l t a  however, f l u c t u a t i o n s i n a l d e r p o l l e n were p r o b a b l y  w i t h c o l o n i z a t i o n o f l e v e e s along s h i f t i n g r i v e r  essen-  t o r e f l e c t dry,  intermediate  I n t h i s way a more p r e c i s e i n t e r p r e t a -  i n t h e Sphagnum phase was p o s s i b l e .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p o l l e n t o the v e g e t a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d w e t l a n d environments was s t u d i e d by t h e use o f s u r f a c e samples.  The r e s u l t s  o b t a i n e d were a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n and peat development i n the c o r e s .  Although  s u r f a c e sample palynomorph  s p e c t r a do n o t g i v e a d i r e c t q u a n t i t a t i v e measure o f the v e g e t a t i o n ,  177  they do p r o v i d e  " f i n g e r p r i n t s " by which v e g e t a t i o n  types can be r e c o g -  n i z e d i n t h e sedimentary r e c o r d o f t h e bog. 10.  The major p a l e o e c o l o g i c changes i n d i c a t e d by p e a t and p o l l e n graphy,  r e s u l t mainly from s u c c e s s i o n a l p r o c e s s e s  observable  strati-  that are s t i l l  i n t h e F r a s e r Lowland, r a t h e r than from c l i m a t i c changes.  T h i s suggests t h a t more emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on u n d e r s t a n d i n g normal e c o l o g i c p r o c e s s e s  i n wetlands  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y bogs).  c l i m a t i c changes can p l a y an important p a r t i n v e g e t a t i o n may be s u b o r d i n a t e graphic  As bog  Although change, they  t o the e f f e c t s o f sedimentary p r o c e s s e s ,  changes and s u c c e s s i o n a l  physio-  trends.  f a r as t h e a u t h o r knows t h i s i s the f i r s t d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e o f r a i s e d  development i n western N o r t h America.  studies o f current vegetation  T h i s study demonstrates t h a t  and p o l l e n - v e g e t a t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be  combined w i t h p a l y n o l o g i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o r e c o n s t r u c t the h i s t o r y o f a r a i s e d bog.  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P a l y n o l . 2_: 321-330.  184  APPENDIX 1:  SPECIES COMPOSITION OF THE VEGETATION TYPES OF BURNS BOG, DELTA, BRITISH COLUMBIA  T h i s appendix c o n t a i n s the d a t a from which the v e g e t a t i o n type d e s c r i p t i o n s were made (Ch. 2) and from which the v e g e t a t i o n map produced.  The s p e c i e s cover data are p r e s e n t e d  cover e s t i m a t e  scale modified  ( F i g . 4) was  according to the f o l l o w i n g  from the Braun-Blanquet s c a l e  (Mueller-  Dombois and E l l e n b e r g , 1974): Percentage Range  Verbal Equivalent  Symbol  50-100  Dominant  DOM  25-50  Very common  VCM  5-25  Common  COM  1-5  Occasional  OCC if-  Less than 1 Absent The b r a c k e t e d numbers i n i t a l i c s table  t h a t f o l l o w cover d e s i g n a t i o n s i n the  are the a c t u a l average p e r c e n t a g e cover v a l u e s f o r v e g e t a t i o n  where f i v e o r more quadrats  were i n v e s t i g a t e d (averaging l e s s than 5 quad-  r a t s was c o n s i d e r e d n o t to g i v e a meaningful v a l u e ) . i n b r a c k e t s are s p e c i e s f r e q u e n c i e s t o t a l number o f quadrats  o f the v e g e t a t i o n t y p e ) .  l i c h e n s which were e s t i m a t e d  N o n - i t a l i c i z e d numbers  (number o f quadrats  average cover where p o s s i b l e ) i s used f o r herbs, and  types  containing species/  Frequency  (together w i t h  f e r n s , mosses, l i v e r w o r t s  i n 1 m x 1 m quadrats.  Frequency i s a  b e t t e r measure o f the r o l e o f these p l a n t s which are u b i q u i t o u s i n the  185  v e g e t a t i o n but have low c o v e r .  S o l i t a r y + s i g n s denote t h a t a s p e c i e s  i s p r e s e n t w i t h i n the v e g e t a t i o n type but was studied.  n o t encountered  i n quadrats  Of the 60 quadrats examined, 6 were judged t o be i n t e r m e d i a t e i n  nature between v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s . were e x c l u d e d from  averages.  The  cover v a l u e s o f these 6 quadrats  TABLE 5:  Species  AVERAGE SPECIES COVER FOR THE VEGETATION TYPES OF BURNS BOG,  Heathland  Pine Woodland  Birch Woodland  Spiraea Brushland  Mixed Coniferous Woodland  DELTA, B. C.  Salmonberry Bushland  Alder Woodland  Number o f 10 m x 10 m quadrats  20  11  Number o f 1 m x 1 m quadrats  100  55  15  15  40  30  15  +  +  +  COM (14)  0CC(4)  OCC  D0M(53)  +  o c c  OCC(5.5)  +  +  +  +  Gymnosperm Trees  Picea  sitchensis  Pinus  contorta  Taxus  VCM(38)  brevifoiia  oo  Thuja  plicata  +  VCM(36)  C0M(22)  OCC  Tsuga  heterophylla  +  C0M(15)  OCC(4)  +  Angiosperm T r e e s  Acer circinatum •  0CC(2.5)  Acer  macrophyllum  +  Alnus  rubra  OCC(2)  VCM(28)  DOM  COM(IO)  COM (12)  OCC  Betula  occidentalis  Crataegus Ilex  douglasii  aquifolium  Populus  tremuloides  Populus  balsamifera  subsp.  trichocarpa  +  0CC(3.5)  DOM  COM  OCC  +  + + +  +  +  +  +  CTI  Table  5 (Continued)  Species  Heathland  Angiosperm T r e e s  Pine Woodland  Birch Woodland  Spiraea Brushland  Mixed Coniferous Woodland  Salmonberry Bushland  Alder Woodland  (cont.)  OCC  0CC(6. 5)  C0M(23)  COM  OCC(2.5)  C0M(17)  COM  Malus fusca  OCC  Rhamnus purshianus  COM  Salix  hookeriana  OCC  +  Salix  lasiandra  OCC  OCC(2)  OCC  Sorbus  auouparia  +  +  +  +  Shrubs  Amelanchier Andromeda Cornus  oo  alnifolia polifolia  COM (5)  serioea ocaidentalis  subsp.  Empetrum nigrum Gaultheria shallon Kalmia miorophylla  oceidentalis  subsp.  Ledum groenlandicum Lonicera  involucrata  Menziesia  ferruginea  Myrica  gale  Ribes  lacustre  OCC(2.5)  COM(19)  COM  DOM (51)  C0M(9)  OCC  0CC(4)  + C0M(13) C0M(9) D0M(69)  VCM(45) OCC(1.5)  OCC -  D0M(62) COM + COM  +  VCM(25)  OCC  COM(ll)  OCC(3)  OCC  +  + +  +  188  c Co Co Co  Co o 1 Cco +  0  I  Co Co CO  Is  U  TS  u c "  S3  I—I  X  w  a  fti  vs.  Co  <U (ti  +  •+.  Co co co  8  •+•  PQ  S co  53  +  I  co  oo  Co Co Co  c? Co  r  w to —  0  -O M  LO  C  Ml  (ti  d ) M-l (D — iI X -0 H H SCO 0 8  00  co co CO  +  vs  1  c3 Co  s  §  CO CO  +  Co  Co CO  T3  « B C£>  «  (ti r-l  Ss X  M  a. co  +  cn  3 u  Ci X (ti O H  Co Co  Co  •H O CQ O  s  +  Co Co  i  Co  Ml  -a  s  t-s.  to  a) §  c  8  H  ft o o  Co  s  >0  a  1  I  LO i-S  CO  to Co  —.  (ti  iH  , C P (ti  +  SB  i  Co  CO CB CO CO  a  Ss o  •i-i  in  EH  s s K a  ft;  a  CO O CO  <3  ft;  O  CO CO  CO  3  ft;  e  CO  3  CO  « CO  s  s  ft;  s  CB O  +i  3 C  Ss 3  .CO  CO  CO  3  CJ  K co  o  O  CO CO  CO  3  3 f?  CO  3  (3 Ss 3  qn  •s CD i-H  • H O CD A W  P C 0 U  OS  u  W CD  OS  c  s  s  CJ CO  CO  3  0  CO  ft;  c|  CO CJ _ Cj>  o "CJ  CJ A? CO CJ ^  co o  (» CO  s  co T—i <B  ?s  Ss  a,  Cn  CO  3  CB  S  Cj  CB  g  o  o  co CO w  CO • ^»  co CO  in  T) C D  s  s  <o CO  CO co  CO CO  3  Table  5 ' (Continued)  Heathland  Species  Pine Woodland  Birch Woodland  Spiraea Brushland  Mixed Coniferous Woodland  Salmonberry Bushland  Alder Woodland  Herbs  Cardamine Carex  breweri  + (3)  lentioularis  Carex obnupta  +  Carex pauciflora  +  Carex pauperoula  +  Carex phyllomanica  +  Carex  rostrata  Ciroaea  alpina  Claytonia  +  sibiriaa  Cornus  0CC(21)  unalasahkensis  Drosera  anglioa  + (3)  Drosera  rotundifoHa  OCC (1,17)  DuHchium arundinaoevm  +  Epilobiwn angustifoliim Epilobiwn  minutum  Eriophomm  chamissonis  Galeopsis  tetrahit  Galium  +(8.5)  +(3.5)  aparine  + d)  + (13)  •+(31) + (33)  Table  5  (Continued)  Species  Herbs  Heathland  Pine Woodland  Birch Woodland  Spiraea Brushland  Mixed Coniferous Woodland  Salmonberry Bushland  Alder Woodland  (cont.)  Galium  ?triflorum  Glyceria  grandis  Holcus  lanatus  Junaus  effusus  Lycopus Lysichitum  + (3) + +  + (1) + (7)  + (12) +  uniflorus americanum  COM(14,20)  COM (13 20)  Maianthemum dilatatum  0CC(1,12.5)  0CC(2,5.5)  -  Myosotis  -  +  -  +  OCC(4. 5,  Lysimachia  1  thursiflora laxa  Nuphar lutea subsp.  polysepala  -Ml)  Oenanthe sarmentosa Phalaris  VCM (60)  20)  arundinacea  Phlewn pratense Rhynchospora  alba  + (5) OCC(2. 5, 28)  Rubus chamaemorus  -M38)  + (5.5)  Table  5 (Continued)  Species  Herbs  Heathland  Pine Woodland  Birch Woodland  Spiraea Brushland  Mixed Coniferous Woodland  Salmonberry Bushland  Alder Woodland  (cont.)  Rumex  acetosella  Scutellaria  lateriflora  -  +  cooleyae  Stellaria  crispa  Tiarella  glutinosa  Trientalis subsp.  europaea arctica  Tri folium  repens  Typha  latifolia  Vaccinium Viola  + + (10)  +  oxycoccos  + (7)  +  trifoliata  Tofieldia  OCC (1) +  Solarium dulcamara Stachys  +  +  + + (27) + + C0M(7,65)  +(14.5)  palustris  +  Ferns  Athyrium  filix-femina  Dryopteris  assimilis  Polypodium  glycyrrhiza  +  COM(6,25)  COM (6,53)  0CC(3,53)  C0M(7,15)  OCC(1,20)  OCC (1,20)  +  + (17)  +  Table  5  (Continued)  Species  Ferns  Spiraea Brushland  Mixed Coniferous Woodland  Pine Woodland  Birch Woodland  -  -  -  OCC(2,19)  COM(18,  COM(8,33) COM(19,  60)  57)  Heathland  Salmonberry Bushland  Alder Woodland  (cont.)  Polystichum Pteridium  rmnitum aquilinum  -  +(5)  OCC(2,23)  OCC(2,15)  -  +  + (7)  OCC{3,60)  Mosses  Antitriohia pendula  ourti-  + (7)  Aulaoomnium androgynum  +(4)  +(9)  +(33)  +  +  +(10)  Aulaaomnium palustre  +  +  -  +(7)  -  +  Brachythecium  -  +  -  -  -  +  +(7)  +  +(3)  + (7)  +  +  +  +  +(7)  +(3)  -  +  Claopodium folium  sp. arispi-  Dioranum fuscesoens  -(1)  +(4)  Dicranum sooparium  +(7)  0CC(4,35) +  -  Drepanocladus unainatus Fontinalis  + sp.  Homalotheoium fulgesaens Hylocomium splendens Hypnum oiroinale  _  _  +  _  _  _  +  +  + +  +(7) +  +(7)l +(7)  +(7) +  +(10) +  -  +(7)  OCC a, 30)  +(7)  +(13)  +(7)  193  o a  to  I  M fd  CD rH T j TJ 0  d«c o U  o  CO  TJ  CN  Co Co  ro co  r-•+•  Q  o  TJ  o  CM  +  IT) IT)  00  "2  ro ro  0)  8  CO  m  (0  8 +  Co Co <o  .—.  , ^  CN  CN  ro  + + +  +  +  to  tn 3  TJ  TJ  O C  '—V  RH (TJ  CO  0) 0 RH  .X  » »  ro  rH  MH TJ  '* '  •H -H 0 S Co Os  ' •»  + +  CO  u  in  TS  (Cd  CO  H  rH  •A  a,  CO  .-! 10  +  3  M m a  (TJ  CM  CN CN  •-  C c TJ r • H oH PH (TJ  CN  "—  +  «^—• ~H  ,—^  LO  '—'  CO  oo ro  TJ  S  hlc  s  + J (0 (1)  TJ  CD  Cl  •rH P c CO  in  •UrH  •s m  rH  <u CD  ft to  IM  Co co  cn  <_  o s  o  +  +  TJ  U  1  o  roC rH u TJ •H o0 « s Q)  ro rH  •p  c  0  u  CO CB •A  M  K CB  K CB S CO  a, CB O <a s CB  CB  S  «  CB A; _  CB  co  r-i  •A  •A •A CO CB  CN  •A  S  •A CO  CO  S CB  CB CO CB rH r Q  (35  CO  CB  3  1  •A  |  _  o s  aCO  •A  •A  -r-  -P  •§  rH  «3  CB  JH  o  K X  CO  <a  CO  _  Ss  CO  O K  +i  •A  •A  r^  o  OH  O CO CO •A M  CB  C32  ?H  CB  CB  •A  CB  ?H  Si  •A  O  •A  •A •A  S o o  s  •A  CB RH  CB  •A  Si  •A CO •A  RH  o  CO  s a, a, CB "  'XS 'A  Si Qq  co  CB  rn  «  CB  T_ cy  •A -A rH  ... S3 4i Qq  Table  5  (Continued)  Species Mosses  Heathland  Pine Woodland  Birch Woodland  Spiraea Brushland  Mixed Coniferous Woodland  Salmonberry Bushland  Alder Woodland  (cont.)  Sphagnum oapillaceum var. tenellum  C0M{12,  Sphagnum fuscum  OCC(1,8)  Sphagnum papillosum  OCC(1,10) +  -  Sphagnum reourvum  COM(1,21)  -f(13)  -M13)  Sphagnum squarrosum  -  +  -  Sphagnum tenellum  OCC(2,IS) +  Stokesiella  OCC(2,27)  C0M(8,36) +  -  +  59)  oregana  OCC(4)  COM(11,  -  OCC(4,  80)  Stokesiella Tetraphis  praelonga pellucida  -  -  -  +(2)  -  -  +(3)  -  +  -  -  +(3)  -  OCC(3,60)  COM(6,52)  COM(9,87) COM(6,80)  +(10)  0CC(1,63)  +  -  +  +(3)  -f(lO)  +  +  93)  -  -  +(20)  Liverworts  Frullania subsp.  tamarisci nisquallensis  (Sull.) Hatt.  Gymnooolea  inflata  (Huds.) Dum.  Table  5  (Continued)  Species  Heathland  Pine Woodland  Birch Woodland  Spiraea Brushland  Mixed Coniferous Woodland  Salmonberry Bushland  Alder Woodland  L i v e r w o r t s (cont.)  Mylia  anomala  (Hook.) S. Gray  Pellia  + (8)  neesiana  cf.  (Gott.) Limpr.  Porella  sp.  OCC(2,10)  OCC(1,10)  +  +(10)  Radula sp. Scapania  + (13)  bolanderi  Aust.  + (7)  Lichens  Cladina spp.  COM(10,  OCC(2,11)  55)  Cladonia spp.  C0M(5,62)  + (13)  + (20)  Hypogymnia spp.  + (83)  + (42)  + (7)  Platismatia Usnea sp.  +(27)  sp.  + (13) + (8)  + (11)  + (13)  + (7)  196  APPENDIX 2:  COMPUTER PROGRAMS USED TO CALCULATE RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE POLLEN VALUES FOR COMPUTER PLOTTED POLLEN DIAGRAMS  These programs c a l c u l a t e p e r c e n t a g e s o r a b s o l u t e v a l u e s f o r a l l speci e s a t one depth. one  The r e s u l t s a r e s t o r e d i n POLLEN and e v e n t u a l l y o u t p u t ,  s p e c i e s a t a time  (not one depth a t a time) i n t o the f i l e t h a t w i l l be  used by t h e p l o t t i n g program. be  The v a l u e s a r e output i n a format t h a t can  used by t h e g e n e r a l p l o t t i n g program SPLOT ( L a u r i e n t e , unpublished) t o  c r e a t e a s t a n d a r d p o l l e n diagram.  A s p e c i f i c example w i t h r e a l v a l u e s i s  used i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g the programs. Appendix 2a:  Program f o r c a l c u l a t i n g r e l a t i v e p o l l e n  Preliminary  frequencies.  cards  $JOB HEBDA[101,4). /TIME: 45; $RUN FORTRN  POLLEN DIAGRAM  *MAIN, LP : <BI: /OH/OP,: O/CK Main program 1 DIMENSION DEPTH(90),POLSTR(35),TOTALP(90),EXCLD1(90) C DEPTH, TOTALP, EXCLD1 must e q u a l t h e number o f samples + 2 C POLSTR( ) must be g r e a t e r than t h e number o f s p e c i e s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e percentage c a l c u l a t i o n s . 2 DIMENSION POLLEN(90,68) C POLLEN( , ) i s t h e a r r a y i n which v a l u e s a r e s t o r e d f o r e v e n t u a l o u t p u t . The second number (e.g. 68) must be t w i c e as l a r g e as the number o f s p e c i e s because room must be a v a i l a b l e f o r 10 x expanded v a l u e s . 3 IN=5 4 10=6 5 IND=0 6 J=0 7 L=l 8 M=l 9 SMPLES=84. C number o f samples + 2 10 SP=3000. , C number o f s p e c i e s x 100 , 11 1 READ(IN,100,END=2)DPTHIN C Reads i n a l l depths (1 p e r d a t a card) c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o samples i n c o r e . 12 100 FORMAT(1F5.0)  197  13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  22 23 24  2  3 C 101  C 25 26 27 28 29  10 C  30 C 31 C 32 33 34 35  7  11 C  36 37 38 C 39 40 41 42 43  50  C 44 45 46 C 47 48  DEPTH(L)=-DEPTHIN*.01 L=L+1 IF(L.GT. SMPLES)GO TO 2 GO TO 1 J=j+1 I F ( J . GT. SMPLES)GO TO 60 TOTAL=.l 1=1 READ(IN,101,END=90)POLCNT Reads i n p o l l e n counts (1 p e r d a t a card) f o r a l l s p e c i e s at one depth. FORMAT(1F5.0) POLSTR(I)=POLCNT TOTAL=TOTAL+POLSTR(I) T o t a l s a l l p o l l e n counts f o r a sample 1=1+1 IF(I.GT.SP/100)GO TO 10 GO TO 3 S=0.0 TOTALP(J)=(TOTAL/10.)+SP Outputs t o t a l f o r each sample so t h a t t h e number o f g r a i n s c o m p r i s i n g t h e sum can be graphed on t h e diagram. READ(IN, 101)FRNCNT Reads i n count f o r p o l l e n and spore types t o be e x c l u d e d from t h e t o t a l (e.g. f e r n s i n t h i s c a s e ) . EXCLD1(J)=SP+100.+(FRNCNT*100./TOTAL) C a l c u l a t e s e x c l u d e d counts as a p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l . I F (EXCLDl.(J) .GT. 3400. )EXCLD1(J) =3400. JK=1 K=l PCNT=(POLSTR(JK)*100/TOTAL)+S C a l c u l a t e s t h e p e r c e n t o f each s p e c i e s . POLLEN(J,K)=PCNT K=K+1 PCNTEX=(PCNT-S)*10+S C a l c u l a t e s t h e l O x expansion o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e . IF(PCNTEX.LT.100.+S)GO TO 50 PCNTEX=S+100 POLLEN(J,K)=PCNTEX K=K+1 S=S+100. Adding 100 t o S s e r v e s t o s h i f t t h e v a l u e s f o r t h e next s p e c i e s a l o n g t h e x a x i s i n t h e p o l l e n diagram. IF(S.GT.SP)GO TO 2 JK=JK+1 GO TO 11 START OF WRITING SEQUENCE - w r i t e s i n output v a l u e s a r r a n g e d i n c o r r e c t o r d e r and format f o r use by t h e p l o t t i n g program. N=l WRITE(10,102)POLLEN(N,M),DEPTH(N),IND  60 61  198  49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67  102  62  90 94  91 97  96  FORMAT(2F10.3,13) N=N+1 IF(N.GT.SMPLES)GO TO 62 GO TO 61 M=M+1 IF(M.GT.2*SP/100)GO TO 90 GO TO 60 KK=1 WRITE (10,102)TOTALP(KK),DEPTH(KK),IND KK=KK+1 IF(KK.GT.SMPLES)GO TO 91 GO TO 94 KK=1 WRITE(10,102)EXCLDl(KK),DEPTH(KK),IND KK=KK+1 IF(KK.LE.SMPLES)GO TO 97 IND=1 STOP END End o f main program  C $RUN LINK #MAIN,LP:/SH <MAIN/CC/B:50000,FTNLIB/E $KILL $UNIX RM MAIN. OBJ $UNIX LN /TMP/DATA TMP $ASSIGN SY:TMP,5 $ASSIGN SY:POLLEN,6 $RUN MAIN  Data cards a r e i n c l u d e d a f t e r t h e $RUN MAIN c a r d . Data c a r d s s h o u l d be arranged as f o l l o w s : S e t o f n c a r d s , one f o r each depth, c o n t a i n i n g depth v a l u e w i t h t h e f i r s t and l a s t depth r e p e a t e d twice (necessary t o o b t a i n s t a n d a r d l o o k i n g p o l l e n diagram). n s e t s c o n t a i n i n g m c a r d s , where m i s t h e number o f s p e c i e s , w i t h one p o l l e n count p e r c a r d . Species arrangement i n t h e d a t a deck ( c o n t a i n i n g m cards) s h o u l d be t h e same as i t would r e a d from l e f t t o r i g h t on t h e p o l l e n diagram. $ASSIGN $ASSIGN SY:POLLEN,l $RUN SPLOT SPLOT cards would f o l l o w .  199  Appendix 2b:  Program f o r c a l c u l a t i n g per cubic  Only  absolute p o l l e n  concentrations  centimeter.  the major d i f f e r e n c e s  from Appendix 2a a r e e x p l a i n e d .  P r e l i m i n a r y c a r d s same as i n Appendix 2a. Main program 1 2 C 3 4 5 6 C 7 8 9 10 11 12  13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32  C 1 C 100  2  3 101  DIMENSION DEPTH(42),EXOTIX(42),VOLSED(42),WGTSED(42), VOLSAM(42) DIMENSION VOLSSM(42),POLSTR(64),ABTOTV(42),ABSLTV(42,65) D i f f e r s from Appendix 2a by the i n c l u s i o n o f v a l u e s n e c e s s a r y f o r c a l c u l a t i n g and o u t p u t t i n g a b s o l u t e v a l u e s . IN=5 10=6 IND=0 CONSTX=762000. CONC. OF EXOTIC SOLUTION USED * VOL. OF SOLUTION ADDED M=l L=l J=0 SMPLES=40. SP=3100. NUMBER OF SPECIES BEING CALCULATED * 100. READ(IN,100,END=2)DPTHIN,EXTXIN,VSEDIN,WSEDIN,VSAMIN,VSSMIN A l o n g w i t h depth, t h i s command reads i n o t h e r v a l u e s necessary f o r c a l c u l a t i n g absolute p o l l e n concentrations. FORMAT(6F7.2) DEPTH(L)=DPTHIN*.01 EXOTIX(L)=EXTXIN VOLSED(L)=VSEDIN WGTSED(L)=WSEDIN VOLSAM(L)=VSAMIN VOLSSM(L)=VSSMIN L=L+1 IF(L.LE.SMPLES)GO TO 1 J=J+1 IF(J.GT.SMPLES)GO TO 60 RV=VOLS SM(J)/VOLSAM(J) TOTAL=.l 1=1 READ(IN,101,END=90)POLCNT FORMAT(1F5.0) POLSTR(I)=POLCNT T0TAL=T0TAL+P0LSTR(I) 1=1+1 IF(I.GT.SP/100^GO TO 10  200  33 34 35  10 C  36 37 38 39 40  11 C  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66  50  C 60 61 102  62  90 94  GO TO 3 S=0.0 ABTOT=(TOTAL*CONSTX/(EXOTIX(J)*1000.*RV*VOLSED(J))) C a l c u l a t e s absolute concentration o f t o t a l p o l l e n and spores. ABTOTV(J)=ABTOT/10.+SP K=l JK=1 RP=POLSTR(JK)/EXOTIX(J) ABSLT=(RP*CONSTX/(1 0000. * RV*VOLSED(J)))+S C a l c u l a t e s a b s o l u t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f each p o l l e n and spore t y p e . ABSLTV(J,K)=ABSLT K=K+1 ABSLTX=(ABSLT-S)*10.+S IF(ABSLTX.LT.100.+S)GO TO 50 ABSLTX=S+100. ABSLTV(J,K)=ABSLTX K=K+1 JK=JK+1 S=S+100IF(S.GT.SP)GO TO 2 GO TO 11 START OF WRITING SEQUENCE N=l WRITE(10,102)ABSLTV(N,M),DEPTH(N),IND FORMAT(2F10.3,I3) \ N=N+1 IF(N.LE.SMPLES)GO TO 61 M=M+1 I F (M. GT.2*SP/100)GO TO 90 GO TO 60 KK=1 WRITE(10,102)ABTOTV(KK),DEPTH(KK),IND KK=KK+1 IF(KK.LE.SMPLES)GO TO 94 IND=1 STOP END  End o f main program. F o r r e s t o f program, see Appendix 2a. Data cards a r e arranged as i n Appendix 2a, except t h a t t h e n cards c o n t a i n i n g depths a l s o c o n t a i n t h e p e r t i n e n t v a l u e s n e c e s s a r y f o r determining absolute p o l l e n concentrations.  201  Figure 51: Selected palynomorphs recovered from Burns Bog sediments. a) Type 1  (1,000X)  b) Oenanthe sarmentosa  (1,000X)  c) Van Geel type 3 (V.G. 3) d) cf.Periconia e) Desmidiospora  (1,000X) (1,000X)  (400X)  202  e  kO  1975 BURN  O-o  TTA A A A A A A A A A A A A 1 ^AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA " ^« AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA «J« A A AS\ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 'AAAASAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA' A A A A AJ\ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A H A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AV"«'A A / 5 o o * A A A A A A A A AAA  RIDGE  A  1  OoVAiiAA**^ \A AA A //O o of °l o °„ " ° -° ° „ CO? 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A AAA A A ^ A A A A A A A / \A ^AAAAA^ A/nA 5  A  A  A  AAAA  A A  % A  A  \AAAA A  A  ^A A A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  '3^ A A A A / A A A A A/ AA A A A / AAAAAA 1A A A A A A A A A A A A lAAAA A A AAAAAA AAAAAA ' A A A A A] A A A A A  3  A  A A  ^AAAAA  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  \A A J o "  M  "o  AAKA A  A  A  A A A A A A  3  A A A A A A A A A A  ^AAAAAAAAAAAA  S'<  o ob oo ^ o o  ' o oo ° o o •°--o-*o-°"b- -  AA o  , O  0  i  "o  1«J  FIGURE - 4: VEGETATION T Y P E S OF BURNS BOG, D E L T A , B R I T I S H COLUMBIA.* U A A  \AAA | A AAA  HEATHLAND PINE WOODLAND BIRCH WOODLAND S P I R A E A BRUSHLAND MIXED CONIFEROUS WOODLAND SALMONBERRY BUSHLAND ALDER WOODLAND UNVEGETATED PEATLAND  (AAAA  I AAAA | A A-A A VAAA  . A - „ o o >"-*iAV\ A ° o oOXA A A A „ o «o°o oo AAA . » O o o O O^AAAA\° O < o „ ° ° C o 0 o f A A A A A y o O '0  U A A  A A A . 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A A A A A A A A A A A A A A , v A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A ^ _ - ^ _ - f A A A A A ^ A A ACV>^_" o ^ J ? £ k A A A A A A A A A A A A . \ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A r T _ - " * ' A  A  roads  Single quadrats  A  Boundary o f v e g e t a t i o n d i f f e r i n g s l i g h t l y from map c a t e g o r y * * „.,.„.. Transect line Kanroad • •• ining quadrats  A  A A A A A A X V K A A A A A A A A A A A A A /? A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A[r^_-  \AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA* \AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA/»AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA,A \A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A&K A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A IA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A «A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - A Vi-4-A«AA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A/SA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A ' A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A £ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A /t^ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A /J A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A T * "^AAAAAAAAAAAAAA/IAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA KA A A A A A A A A A A A A / * A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A VAAA-A A A A A A A A A A AAA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A y ^ • ^ g V \ A A A A A A AAA/*/, A A AAA A A A A A A A A A A A A A AAA A A A A A A A V. A A A A //»JA.A A /*/, A A A A A A A A A A A' A / j j & ^ W * ^ A A A A A. A A A A, " , A A A A A A>-A A A A /JV' ' S X A A A A A A ^AAAAAAAAAAA  c o n t a  A  Pond Burns  Highway  499  T h i s map was p r e p a r e d f r o m a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y BC5588 f l o w n 12 J u n e , 1 9 7 4 a n d f i e l d d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n June-August, 1975. **The l a r g e a r e a i n w e s t - c e n t r a l B u r n s B o g i s r e g e n e r a t i n g from d i s t u r b a n c e b y p e a t m i n i n g and i s d o m i n a t e d b y t h e w e t (Sphagnum) s u b t y p e of Heathland ( c o n t a i n s few p i n e s ) . The s m a l l a r e a i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e bog c o n t a i n s n o t i c e a b l y t a l l e r ( 2 - 4 m) p i n e s t h a n u s u a l l y occur i n Heathland. ©  1976 R . J . H e b d a a n d W.G.Biggs  

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