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Emotional and behavioral responses of people to urban plazas : a case study of downtown Vancouver Joardar, Souro Dyuti 1977

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EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES OF PEOPLE TO URBAN PLAZASA Case Study o f Downtown Vancouver  by SOURO DYUTI JOARDAR M.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975  A THESIS. SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE -REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f P l a n t Science)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY 1977 Souro D y u t i J o a r d a r , 1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  I agree  that  r e f e r e n c e and study.  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  this  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain shall  not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS  Date  (JMJtfM  ' Columbia  ABSTRACT  D e s p i t e t h e i r u b i q u i t o u s presence i n the c e n t r e of the modern c i t y , m i c r o - s c a l e outdoor environments squares have remained  l i k e p l a z a s and  almost t o t a l l y f r e e o f any i n t e n s i v e r e -  search to suggest t o d e s i g n e r s :  what p h y s i c a l make-up would  render them p e r c e p t u a l l y good, what form and c o n f i g u r a t i o n would s u s t a i n p u b l i c use and what would r e p e l .  T h i s e m p i r i c a l study  uses concepts and methods of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s t o e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v i s u a l q u a l i t y and p h y s i c a l  configura-  t i o n of p l a z a s and human use and f e e l i n g s w i t h i n them t h a t  may  serve to suggest g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e i r d e s i g n s . The phenomenological  impacts of s e v e r a l open spaces of  the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t o f Vancouver,  B r i t i s h Columbia,  on  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s o f people were measured through people's r a t i n g s on v e r b a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c a l e s w i t h i n . t h e s e environments. The e x t e n t and nature of use of these spaces were observed over a p e r i o d o f seven months.  The number of persons u s i n g these spaces,  t h e i r o v e r t a c t i v i t i e s , p o s t u r e s , demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as p h y s i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s and p a r t s t h e r e o f were r e c o r d e d a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of time through time lapse photography  as w e l l as v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n supported by  b e h a v i o r a l mapping technique. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among nine p l a z a s i n terms o f t h e i r observed p o p u l a r i t y as w e l l as v e r b a l l y measured p l e a s a n t n e s s and d i v e r s i t y i n the v i s u a l environments. d i v e r s i t y i n the v i s u a l environment  Perceived  of p l a z a s accounted f o r 60%  of t h e i r p l e a s a n t n e s s and p o p u l a r i t y .  Season, weather c o n d i t i o n ,  time of the day and v o c a t i o n a l background d e s i g n e r or nondesigner)  of respondents ( i . e .  had i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the per-  c e p t u a l and emotional responses of people a c r o s s these p l a z a s . Across p l a z a s l o c a t e d i n the i n t e r i o r of the downtown, s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between t h e i r v e r b a l l y measured p l e a s a n t n e s s and d i v e r s i t y i n the environment (Average u n c e r t a i n t y ; Re:  and the v a r i e t y  Information Theory)  i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l f u r n i s h i n g elements.  as w e l l as d e n s i t y  Furthermore,  respondents'  comments i n d i c a t e d t h a t the amount and v a r i e t y i n t h e i r f u r n i s h i n g , the presence or absence  internal  of f o c a l a t t r a c t i o n s and the  c o l o u r of t h e i r pavements and e n c l o s i n g s u r f a c e s were the most popular reasons f o r people's p l e a s u r e - d i s p l e a s u r e and p e r c e p t i o n of d i v e r s i t y  (or the l a c k of i t ) a c r o s s these spaces.  Waterfront  p l a z a s were more p l e a s a n t , more d i v e r s e and more popular, p a r t i c u larly  i n Summer, than most p l a z a s i n the i n t e r i o r of the downtown.  Across these p l a z a s , however, the surrounding view r a t h e r than the i n t e r n a l landscape was  the determining f a c t o r i n peoples p l e a s u r e  and p e r c e p t i o n of d i v e r s i t y . P o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n p l a z a s suggested the g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y of s m a l l - s i z e d , densely f u r n i s h e d spaces with a r t i c u l a t e d edges and l i m i t e d and d e f i n e d p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n than e x t e n s i v e areas and expansive pavements. accumulate  on a r t i f a c t s , along edges, around  channels  A c t i v i t i e s tended to f o c a l elements  and  c l o s e to o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e open and undefined paved areas and f a c i l i t i e s remote from the area of p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n , view or movement channels were r a r e l y used.  iii  Pedestrian c i r c u l a t i o n s  took p l a c e along s h o r t e s t routes between s t r e e t s and b u i l d i n g s . S o l i t a r y persons and s m a l l groups were the predominant users o f p l a z a s .  The observed  use of f u r n i t u r e elements  illu-  s t r a t e d the g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y o f a r t i c u l a t e d shapes and arrangements t h a t i n t r i n s i c a l l y p r o v i d e d d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i e s and o r i e n t a t i o n a l c h o i c e f o r small-group expansive  users than n o n - a r t i c u l a t e d  forms and s t r a i g h t l i n e a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s of benches,  r a i l i n g s , p o o l s ' and p l a n t e r s ' edges. furthermore,  Diverse configurations,  p r o v i d e d n i c h e s f o r users o f d i f f e r e n t demographic  nature and supported  t h e i r co-existence within plazas.  The  e f f e c t s o f extraneous f a c t o r s l i k e time, weather c o n d i t i o n , season and landuse also  surrounding  p l a z a s on the use o f these spaces were  analyzed. The  f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the  p h y s i c a l environments across these small outdoors may c a n t l y a l t e r people's  f e e l i n g s w i t h i n them as w e l l as the nature-  and e x t e n t o f use o f these spaces. t h e i r v i s u a l contents  signifi-  Specifically, diversity in  and a r t i c u l a t i o n i n t h e i r  spatial  c o n f i g u r a t i o n and f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g are e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s to  render p l a z a s p l e a s a n t , popular as w e l l as s u p p o r t i v e o f  p e r s o n a l and b e h a v i o r a l freedom o f t h e i r  iv  users.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES  v i i  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  CHAPTERS I...  INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose o f the study  1  Scope o f the study  5  Hypotheses  21  II  STUDY AREAS  28  III  METHODOLOGY  40  Assessment o f emotion e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t i e s and v i s u a l ( c o l l a t i v e ) p r o p e r t i e s o f study areas .  40  Assessment o f p o p u l a r i t y and b e h a v i o r a l p r o f i l e of study areas  43  DISCUSSION ON FINDINGS  53  P e r c e p t i o n o f d i v e r s i t y and e m o t i o n - e l i c i t a t i o n across p l a z a environments  53  R e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and p s y c h o b e h a v i o r a l responses t o p l a z a s  67  B e h a v i o r a l maps o f l o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f use...  90  IV  Use o f f u r n i t u r e elements  10 3  Examples o f t e r r i t o r i a l  117  use o f p l a z a s  A note o f temporal, c l i m a t i c and landuse f a c t o r s i n plaza-use  128  A summary o f f i n d i n g s  140  v  page V  CONCLUSIONS AND  IMPLICATIONS  146  BIBLIOGRAPHY  171  APPENDICES  177  A. S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l  Measures o f E m o t i o n a l  B. S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l I n f o r m a t i o n Rate  Scales  Status.  177  Measuring 177  C. S u r v e y M e a s u r i n g E m o t i o n - e l i c i t y Q u a l i t i e s and Information Rates o f P l a z a Environments  178  D. D e b r i e f i n g  179  E.  Illustration Recording  F. D i s t r i b u t i o n  o f ia T y p i c a l P h o t o g r a p h i c Session  Observation or  (refer.  pp43-51)  180  of Observation  Sessions  I  G. O r t h o g o n a l l y R a t a t e d F a c t o r M a t r i x o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Component A n a l y s i s o f S c o r e s on I n f o r m a t i o n R a t e Scale H. I n t e r n a l F u r n i s h i n g E l e m e n t s o f P l a z a s  vi  1  I  8  8  4  5  8  6  i  LIST OF TABLES TABLES I.  PAGE A Breakdown o f Responses t o the Survey o f P s y c h o l o g i c a l A t t r i b u t e s o f Plazas  II. III.  Variance  54  on Scores on P s y c h o l o g i c a l S c a l e s  Mean Scores o f P l a z a s on the P s y c h o l o g i c a l Scales.  IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII.  Variance  57 on Scores on the D i v e r s i t y Scale  Variance on Number o f Users Recorded p e r Observation R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Average U n c e r t a i n t y F a c t o r s o f P l a z a Landscape and T h e i r P e r c e i v e d Measures Number o f User-groups Engaged i n D i f f e r e n t Activities  XV. XVI.  60 64 77 84  D e n s i t y o f User-groups on D i f f e r e n t F a c i l i t i e s o f B e n t a l l Two P l a z a  108  Number o f Lawn Users i n D i f f e r e n t Seasons  115  Distances Maintained house Square  116  by User-groups i n Court-  Plaza-wise Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Usergroups under D i f f e r e n t S i z e s  118  Number o f User-groups on D i f f e r e n t Bench-types i n G r a n v i l l e Square  123  Landuses  ( i n '000 s q . f t . ) w i t h i n 500ft.  from  Edges o f Plazas XIV.  56  130  D i f f e r e n c e Between S p r i n g and Summer Use Summary o f M u l t i p l e Regression on Peak-use of P l a z a s i n Summer D i f f e r e n c e i n Use Between Sunny and Shaded P a r t s i n Summer  vii  132 135 137  LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 1.  2.  PAGE A Diagrammatic E x p r e s s i o n o f the R e l a t i o n s h i p Between People and P l a z a Environments Hypothesized i n the Study Locations  23  o f Study Areas Within.Vancouver  Downtown  29  3.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f G r a n v i l l e Square ....  31  4.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Guiness P l a z a  32  5.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Baxter P l a z a  33  6.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f B e n t a l l Two P l a z a  ....  34  7.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f MacMillan B l o e d e l P l a z a  34  8.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f P a c i f i c Centre P l a z a . . .  35  9.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f I.B.M. P l a z a  35  10.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Courthouse Square  37  11.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Trounce A l l e y Square...  38  12.  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f V i c t o r y Square  38  13.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between and Pleasantness R e l a t i o n s h i p Between and the Observed  14. 15.  16. 17. 18.  V e r b a l l y Measured D i v e r s i t y of Plazas V e r b a l l y Measured D i v e r s i t y Popularity of Plazas  63 65  Reasons f o r P e r c e p t i o n o f P l e a s u r e - d i s p l e a s u r e and Variety-redundancy Across P l a z a s as Reported by Subjects  68  A Few I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the Surrounding View From G r a n v i l l e Square  70  I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Water-front View from Guiness and Baxter P l a z a s  71  Development o f Waterfront P l a z a s are Taking P l a c e E c c e n t r i c t o the P e d e s t r i a n Movement and Shopping A c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n Downtown....  74  viii  FIGURE 19.  20.  21.  22.  23.  24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.  PAGE P a c i f i c Centre P l a z a . I t s Barrenness and Monotony o f the Expansive D u l l Surface Were Unpleasant t o People  79  I n t e r n a l Landscape o f B e n t a l l Two. An Example of P l a z a F u r n i s h i n g With Many Things o f a Wide V a r i e t y w i t h i n a Small Area t h a t Appealed to People  80  Internal Furnishing An I l l u s t r a t i o n Redundant P l a z a Coverage by the Texture  82  o f MacMillan B l o e d e l P l a z a o f "Perceptually Landscape w i t h E x c e s s i v e Same Form, Colour or  Among M a t e r i a l s i n a Designer's P a l l e t , Moving Water, Perhaps has the Greatest P o t e n t i a l t o Generate Fun and Play  85  D i f f e r e n c e Between the E n c l o s i n g Masses o f B e n t a l l Two P l a z a and Those o f MacMillan B l o e d e l and P a c i f i c Centre P l a z a s . People Reported a F e e l i n g o f Domination by Skys c r a p e r s i n the L a t t e r Two Open Spaces...  88  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Observed Users i n G r a n v i l l e Square  92  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Observed Users Courthouse Square  93  Within  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Observed Users.. W i t h i n the C e n t r a l Paved Area .of Courthouse Square..  94  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Observed W i t h i n P a c i f i c Centre P l a z a  Users 95  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Observed W i t h i n Guiness P l a z a  Users  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Observed W i t h i n Baxter P l a z a  Users  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Observed W i t h i n B e n t a l l Two P l a z a  Users  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Observed Within Victory-Square  Users  96 96 97  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Observed Maximum Density and Area of Plazas  ix  97 99  FIGURE 33.  34. 35. 36.  37. 38. 39.  40. 41. 42. 43.  PAGE G r a n v i l l e Square - Absence of a P r o g r e s s i v e R e a l i z a t i o n of the View and Countera t t r a c t i o n s Leave the Large Waterfront Plaza I n e f f e c t i v e l y U t i l i z e d  102  Corners of R a i l i n g s are G r e a t e r U t i l i z e d than S t r a i g h t L i n e a r S e c t i o n s  105  On  Oblong P o o l s ' Edges, Use Up on Corners  Tends to  Build 106  An A r t i c u l a t e d Space with Small S i z e d S t r u c t u r e s and Angular V a r i e t y Tends .to Accommodate Greater Use than an Expansive Rectilinear Form. These Photographs of B e n t a l l Two P l a z a Were Taken a t the Same Time  109  D i s t r i b u t i o n P a t t e r n s of Seated Users on .. Benches of V i c t o r y Square  110  I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Use of Oblong Park Benches of V i c t o r y Square  112  A Comparison of Observed Maximum Summertime Use of D i f f e r e n t Forms of S e a t i n g Facilities .-  114  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of D i f f e r e n t Types of Users W i t h i n V i c t o r y Square  120  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Young and E l d e r l y Users Observed W i t h i n G r a n v i l l e Square..  124  L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Observed Users by Sex-groups W i t h i n B e n t a l l Two P l a z a . .  126  Temporal D i f f e r e n c e  i n the Observed Average  Number of Users of P l a z a s of Shadows on P a c i f i c Centre P l a z a .  129  44.  Position  45.  P o s i t i o n of Shadows on  46.  P o s i t i o n of Shadows on Guiness P l a z a  139  47.  P o s i t i o n of Shadows on Courthouse Square....  139  x  I.B.M. P l a z a  138 138  PAGE  FIGURE 48.  49..  50.  51.  A V a r i e t y o f Water Movement P a t t e r n s Have G r e a t e r P o t e n t i a l t o A t t r a c t Use Than Simple Cascades o r S t i l l Pools  151  The Use o f Rocks and Strubs i s an E x c e l l e n t Way t o Break the Monotony o f Large S t i l l Water Bodies  151  A S c u l p t u r e t h a t I n v i t e s E x p l o r a t i o n and Use i n V a r i o u s Ways is. B e t t e r Than a Mere Showpiece  152  The Presence o f Semiparmanent D i s p l a y s or E x h i b i t s i s One P o s s i b l e Way t o A t t r a c t Use i n E x i s t i n g Barren P l a z a s . .  154  52.  P a c i f i c Centre P l a z a - Merely a Concourse f o r Through C i r c u l a t i o n . A r t i c u l a t e d Edges May Provide A t t r a c t i v e S e a t i n g as W e l l as an E f f i c i e n t I n t e r n a l Space 157  53.  S e a t i n g Arrangement Along the Edge Should Provide Choice f o r Users t o Face Any Direction  158  V i c t o r y Square - Long Edges and a R i g i d Row S e a t i n g Dictate', Users' Choice. They Should be A r t i c u l a t e d t o P r o v i d e T e r r i t o r i e s as W e l l as P e r s o n a l Choice for Orientation  158  54.  55.  G r a n v i l l e Square - Use iTends to B u i l d Up on Corners Rather than S t r a i g h t S e c t i o n o f Railings. R a i l i n g s are Key Elements i n Waterfront P l a z a s and Should be a r t i c u l a t e d to P r o v i d e as Many C o r n e r s a s . P o s s i b l e as W e l l as A t t r a c t i v e Niches f o r the Many D i f f e r e n t Types o f People That Use the Space  i  56.  57.  Compact C l u s t e r i n g o f Small Movable Benches May P r o v i d e E f f i c i e n t S e a t i n g and Freedom f o r Users a t the Same Time MacMillan B l o e d e l P l a z a - A r t i c u l a t i o n o f T y p i c a l Oblong Pools B r i n g s i n Change-in S t i m u l i as W e l l as Provide E f f i c i e n t S e a t i n g and O r i e n t a t i o n a l and P o s t u r a l Choice f o r Users  xi  5  9  161  FIGURE 58.  59.  PAGE Expansive Grass Lawns are Wasted F a c i l i t i e s f o r Downtown P l a z a s . They Should be Avoided o r A r t i c u l a t e d  164  G r a n v i l l e Square - Large Open Spaces on W a t e r f r o n t L o c a t i o n s Would Need Counterbalances and a P r o g r e s s i v e R e a l i z a t i o n o f the View i n Order to be Effectively Utilized  166  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I t would have not been p o s s i b l e t o complete interdisciplinary  this  study without the a s s i s t a n c e and the a d v i c e  I r e c e i v e d from many sources.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , I wish t o express  my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. John W. N e i l l , my s u p e r v i s o r , f o r h i s guidance unfailing  and encouragements, t o Dr. John B . C o l l i n s enthusiasm,  criticisms,  for his  many suggestions and c o n s t r u c t i v e  and t o Dr. M i c h a e l Seeliggand Dr. W. W e l l i n g t o n  f o r t h e i r many i n s i g h t s and s u g g e s t i o n s . I am deeply  indebted  to Dr. V i c t o r C.Runeckles f o r h i s a i d s and advice on the v a r i o u s matters  concerning my study. I take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y  to thank the Government o f Canada f o r p r o v i d i n g me with a Commonwealth S c h o l a r s h i p .  xiii  T h i s r e p o r t i s d e d i c a t e d to my Anuradha S.D.J.  xiv  wife  1  /  CHAPTER I  •INTRODUCTION  Purpose  o f t h e Study  This behavioral  s t u d y was an e m p i r i c a l  and e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s  environments  known as p l a z a s and s q u a r e s . concepts  sciences  as p e r t a i n i n g  The a r e a l  concourses, popularly  i n the psychological  t o w a r d s t h e improvement o f t h e d e s i g n insights  of the perceptual  and b e h a v i o r a l n e e d s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f p e o p l e micro-environments  and t h e r e l a t e d  terms,was t o e s t a b l i s h  within  physical  such needs and p r e f e r e n c e s .  people's  based  t o t h e study, o f m a n - e n v i r o n m e n t  p l a n n i n g g p r o c e s s by p r o v i d i n g  and p h y s i c a l  focus  From a d e s i g n e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e u n d e r l y i n g  g o a l was d i r e c t e d  support  space  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  and methods d e v e l o p e d  interactions.  and  o f p e o p l e t o open  i n the heart of the c i t y .  was on m i c r o - s c a l e d e s i g n e d p u b l i c  on  investigation of  i n these  parameters  The p u r p o s e ,  to .  i n broad  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v i s u a l f e a t u r e s  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f p l a z a s and s q u a r e s and  feelings  as w e l l  as i n f o r m a l l e i s u r e  use p a t t e r n s  them t h a t w o u l d s e r v e t o s u g g e s t g u i d e l i n e s  for their  designs.  The the emerging  study d e r i v e d i t s source o f i n s p i r a t i o n premise  that  a n a l y s e s and r e s e a r c h i n t o  from human  2  perceptual basis The  and b e h a v i o r a l needs m i g h t  form t h e o n l y  f o r s u c c e s s f u l designs o f our day-to-day  paradigm  o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s i g n has been,  b a s e d on an i n t u i t i v e  process r e l y i n g  experiences o r perceptive s k i l l s inclined  individuals  physical  on t h e p e r s o n a l  The g r o w i n g  use o r r e a c t  quantity  predictive  to physical  t h e w i d e n i n g gap i n communi-  between d e s i g n e d environments such  tastes,  and c o m p l e x i t y o f o u r  c a t i o n between form-makers and u s e r - c l i e n t s  challenge  traditionally,  r a t h e r t h a n upon a s c i e n t i f i c  environmental problems,  poor f i t  environments.  of a set of aesthetically  k n o w l e d g e o f t h e ways p e o p l e w o u l d surroundings.  adequate  and e v i d e n c e s o f  and t h e i r u s e r s now  ' p r o f e s s i o n a l d e t e r m i n i s m ' based on  assumptions  on human  inputs  into  t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s i n a v a r i e t y o f ways and f o r  varied  types of environments  Rapoport,  1970; C r a i k ,  Michelson, current  response patterns  intuitive  1969; D e a s y ,  1974; e t c ) .  evidences of the profound  environments  psychological  ( A l e x a n d e r , 1964; Sommer, 1969;  The  i n a b e h a v i o r a l b a s i s o f d e s i g n has been  f u r t h e r e d w i t h growing of p h y s i c a l  users'  1970; S t u d e r and S t e a , 19 66;  1974; V i g i e r ,  interest  and c a l l e f o r  on p h y s i c a l  influence  a c t i v i t i e s and  s t a t e s o f p e o p l e and t h e c o n s i s t e n c y  i n ways  people p e r c e i v e environments o r respond t o s i t u a t i o n s well  as w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f t o o l s  both p h y s i c a l (Craik,  and human v a r i a b l e s  as  and t e c h n i q u e s t o measure i n the environment  1970; P r o s h a n s k y e t . a l . , 1970; L o w e n t h a l , 1967;  Mehrabien  and R u s s e l ,  1974; L y n c h , 19 59 a n d 19 61;  Vigier,  3  1969;  F i s k e and Maddi, 1961; Good e t . a l . , 1965; e t c ) .  An  e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y t o b u i l d up knowledge o f  human needs and p r e f e r e n c e s and the concomitant parameters t o support i n t e r p l a y between and  emotional  them i s t o e m p i r i c a l l y  existing  responses  Michelson,  examine the  p h y s i c a l systems and t h e b e h a v i o r a l  o f people  through  methods and assessments from people 1972;  spatial  both o b s e r v a t i o n a l  ( C r a i k , 19 70;  Sommer,  1974).  I believe, that the most relevant information wilt be discovered by evaluating existing projects rather than by asking people what they want. Certainly it is important to talk with potential users about a prospective park; it is also necessary to look at existing parks which are similar [Sommer, 1972). ifihe most commonly accepted unit for design purposes is 'human need'. Such a concept has relevance perhaps; what it lacks is empirical substance. That is, we cannot observe need, but we can only infer its existence through observation of its empirical counterpart, behaviour... Human behaviour appears to be more correct unit of analysis, it has characteristics, which are relevant, empirically verifiable and operationally definable (Studer, ±969). One appealing approach to the application of knowledge about behaviour in designed environments leads rather directly from observed patterns of behaviour to design decisions. A well conducted ecological analysis of an, [existing system) should convey a vivid sense of the^ spatial configuration of Its activity system, . . . com.ce the designer discovers the spatial parameters of activity systems... .he simply designs around them [Craik, 1970).  The  present  study  undertook such e m p i r i c a l examine  a t i o n of s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g p u b l i c o f the c i t y  open spaces i n the c e n t r e  and attempted t o d i s c o v e r any g e n e r a l i z e d  4 p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t might e x i s t between t h e i r p h y s i c a l make-up and  the emotional r e a c t i o n s as w e l l as the  a c t i v i t i e s of people w i t h i n them.  The  overt  importance of open  spaces f o r p u b l i c enjoyment i n the h e a r t of the c i t y been long r e c o g n i z e d Gutheim, 1963;  (zucker,  Highbee, 1960;  1953;  Clay,  1965;  has  Lynch,  Guggenheimer, 1963;  etc).  However, d e s p i t e t h e i r r a t i o n a l e and the a v a i l a b i l i t y c e n t u r i e s of design  day  p u b l i c open spaces  such phenomena, to a g r e a t extent, may  a t t r i b u t e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l determinism based on  and  1969;  Deasy, 1970; spaces are  Gans, 1957;  etc.).  R e v e l l e , 1967;  Gold,  (Jacobs, 1973;  ' c e n t r i f u g a l ' r a t h e r than ' c e n t r i p e t a l ; people 1  hand, the very  few  f i n d i n g s , provide  On the  t h e i r weakness to  some i n d i c a t i o n s of p a t t e r n s  people d i s t r i b u t e themselves, use  generalize  i n the  (Alexander e t a l , 19 70; 1974;  way  s p e c i f i c f u r n i t u r e elements  or p r e f e r c e r t a i n landscape f e a t u r e s or c o n f i g u r a t i o n s  and  other  s t u d i e s on man-environment r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i n open spaces, notwithstanding  Deasy, 1970  be  As Alexander summarizes, p u b l i c open  are d r i v e n away r a t h e r than a t t r a c t e d t o them.  others  are  value-loaded  and o f t e n erroneous assumptions on user-behaviour 1967  of  e x p e r i e n c e , evidences of underuse or  l a c k of a p p r e c i a t i o n of present not s c a r c e ; and  1961;  De Jonge, 19 67; L y l e ,  P r i e s e r , 1971;  etc.)  to 1970;  Such p a t t e r n s ,  once thoroughly e s t a b l i s h e d through f u t u r e researches,may have g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l than p r e c o n c e i v e d v i s u a l or f u n c t i o n a l design  p r i n c i p l e s t o shape open spaces i n f i t t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n  5  with t h e i r prospective users. In the p a s t , p l a z a s and squares i n the c e n t r e of the c i t y enjoyed the r i c h a s s o c i a t i o n of formal s o c i a l of a p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s or commercial  nature  1961;  Hirons,  H i l b e r s e i m e r , 1955;  G i e d i o n , 1962;  Zucker, 1953;  J e l l i c o e , 1975;  activities  (Mumford, 1956;  e t c . ) . G e n e r a l l y d e v o i d of  s o c i a l a t t r a c t i o n s , present-day p l a z a s and squares  may  p r i m a r i l y c a t e r to the b r i e f l e i s u r e - u s e and the a e s t h e t i c or p s y c h o l o g i c a l enjoyment of people w i t h i n the mundane b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t of the c i t y . may  be regarded as more by  Approach  t o these  environments  'choice' than compulsion  be i n the case of 'business' environments  or  (as may  'shelter').  S a t i s f a c t i o n of p e r c e p t u a l and emotional needs of people may  thus r e q u i r e a l l the more r e s e a r c h e f f o r t i n the context  o f today's p l a z a s and squares to render them e f f e c t i v e , u s e f u l s p a c e s i i n the c i t y .  Many open spaces i n the c e n t r e  of modern c i t i e s are piecemeal p r i v a t e ventures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m u l t i - s t o r e y developments where d e s i g n e r s a r e ,  presumably,  i n t e r e s t e d i n .meeting the demands" of 'their' "immediate'~ c l i e n t s :  rather  than the p s y c h o b e h a v i o r a l needs of the remote but  a c t u a l users of the open spaces. Scope of the  Study  The primary focus of t h i s study was make-up of p l a z a environments  on the p h y s i c a l  as they r e l a t e d to people's  6  f e e l i n g s as w e l l as use of these spaces.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the  o b j e c t i v e s were: o  to assess the phenomena logical impacts of these environments on the feelings on. emotional states of people and to Investigate how emotional reactions were related to their visual or perceptual attributes.  o  to assess the level of use and physical within these spaces and Investigate their ships with the visual attributes of these  o  to investigate how physical configurations and facility planning of plazas, i.e., the shapes, sizes and arrangements of their furniture elements, panXlcuZarly, seating facilitiess and the internal layouts of these spaces affected people's use, physical activities and distribution patterns within them.  activities relationenvironments.  Furthermore, i t was o f i n t e r e s t t o note the e f f e c t s of s e v e r a l extraneous f a c t o r s l i k e the time of the day, weather c o n d i t i o n s , seasons, surrounding landuses, etc., on people's use o f o r emotional r e a c t i o n s w i t h i n these open spaces. In a/general approach t o understanding man's i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s environments, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o i d e n t i f y those responses t h a t are immediate r e s u l t s o f stimulation  (Mehrabien and R u s s e l , 1974).  The  immediate  r e a c t i o n s t o v i s u a l s t i m u l i may be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i n the context o f p l a z a s and squares which are g e n e r a l l y experienced as b r i e f encounters over the day. How r e a c t i o n s be p a r s i m o n i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ?  can such  Can they be  7  measured?  To t h i s e x t e n t , t h i s study r e l i e d upon the r e c e n t  p o s t u l a t i o n i n environmental psychology  (op c i t ) t h a t  there  were a l i m i t e d s e t o f immediate and b a s i c emotional responses t h a t c u t across  a l l sense m o d a l i t i e s  and r e p r e s e n t e d the  common core o f human response t o a l l types o f environments. Based on works on s y n e s t h e s i a  or intermodality  associations,  p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses t o s t i m u l i and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , Mehrabien and Russel  (19 74)  proposed t h a t the three  states of "pleasure-displeasure",  emotional  " a r o u s a l - n o n a r o u s a l " and  "dominance-submissiveness" c o u l d p r o v i d e a comprehensive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n base t o d e s c r i b e situation.  one's f e e l i n g s i n any  T h i s was r e v a l i d a t e d through t h e i r own experiments.  A d d i t i o n a l terms d e s c r i b i n g a v a r i e t y o f r e a c t i o n s may be defined  i n terms of these three b a s i c emotions.  the f e e l i n g o f boredom'  For instance,  o r ' f a t i g u e ' may be d e s c r i b e d  t h a t i s low on 'pleasure*,  as one  ' a r o u s a l ' and f e e l i n g o f 'dominance';  while'excitement' may be d e f i n e d  i n terms o f a high s t a t e on  a l l the above b a s i c dimensions; 'anxiety' high on ' a r o u s a l ' but low on 'pleasure*  or s t r e s s may r a t e  and 'dominance' w h i l e  ' r e l a x a t i o n ' o r 'comfort' would c h a r a c t e r i z e low s t a t e on ' a r o u s a l ' b u t high on the o t h e r two; and so on.  Semantic-  d i f f e r e n t i a l scales c o n s t i t u t i n g sets of b i p o l a r  adjective  p a i r s were a l s o developed t o measure these b a s i c emotions (see Appendix-A) which, when r a t e d by a s u b j e c t  i n an  environment, would p r o v i d e measure o f h i s emotional i n the environment.  states  A t the same time, the averaged measures  8  obtained from the r a t i n g s of a sample p o p u l a t i o n i n environment may  be used as d e s c r i p t o r s  i n terms of i t s " e m o t i o n - e l i c i t i n g  of the  the  environment  q u a l i t y " and may  be  used  to compare d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s : The mean level of pleasure e l i c i t e d from a represent a t i v e sample, of people. In an znvln.onme.nt defined its 'pleasantness'. The mean level of arousal elicited In an environment defined Us 'arousing quality'. A s i m i l a r average dominance response defined i t s 'dominance-eliciting quality'. These emotion-defined c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ^ of environments provide a parsimonious means to describe and measure differences among situations [Ihehrabien and Russel, 1914, p.201).  The  present study measured these  emotion-eliciting  q u a l i t i e s of open space environments through the developed by  the  above r e s e a r c h and  scales  explored t h e i r  physical  antecedents by asking people reasons f o r t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n the  environment.  Such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n might p r o v i d e a  comprehensive assessment of how and  why  they f e e l so,  leading  people f e e l i n these spaces  t o p h y s i c a l design  implications.  However, are a l l these emotion-defined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s equally  important i n the  space?  Do  context of d e s i g n i n g a good urban open  they have s i m i l a r b e h a v i o r a l  implications  open spaces a t t r a c t i v e or popular p l a c e s ?  There i s a  of evidence on the b e h a v i o r a l  of the  s t a t e of  implications  "dominance-submissiveness."  However, the  to render lack  emotional f e e l i n g of  dominance connotes freedom t o act i n a v a r i e t y of ways i n the environment. Thus freedom of c h o i c e f o r postural  relaxation, privacy,  activities,  t e r r i t o r i a l freedom e t c . ,  may  9  be f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h i s f e e l i n g Mehrabien and R u s s e l , 1974). eliciting  (Proshansky  e t a l . 1970;  To t h i s e x t e n t , "dominance-  q u a l i t y " may be a p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e f o r most  environments.  In a p u b l i c open space c o n t e x t , however,  i t s importance would depend on the nature o f use and the type o f user; i . e . t o the extent i n d i v i d u a l freedom might be r e q u i r e d .  An open space meant s o l e l y f o r s e l f - e n g a g i n g  a c t i v i t i e s o f s o l i t a r y persons entertainment,  conglomeration  and the one meant f o r mass o r o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n would  be two extreme examples i n t h i s r e g a r d . s t a t e v a r y i n g along a s i n g l e dimension excitement evidences  Arousal i s a feeling from s l e e p t o f r a n t i c  (Mehrabien and R u s s e l , op c i t p.18). suggest  t h a t w h i l e extremely  arousing  Psychological situations  may be d i f f i c u l t t o cope w i t h , low a r o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y avoided  (Bexton, Heron and S c o t t , 19 54;  Davis,  McCourt and Solomon, 1958); and, t h e r e f o r e , a moderate l e v e l of 'arousing q u a l i t y ' may be d e s i r a b l e . r e c r e a t i o n spaces, u n l i k e many o t h e r p u b l i c areas should n o t be h i g h l y arousing  for passive relaxation  might be one primary o b j e c t i v e o f u s e r s .  obvious  entertainment  ( p o s s i b l e exceptions  may be F a i r s o r e x h i b i t i o n grounds),  emotional dimensions,  Outdoor  Among these  " p l e a s u r e - d i s p l e a s u r e " has the most  e v a l u a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l appeal.  w i t h i n the p r e s e n t concept,'pleasure' an emotional  Although  has been d e f i n e d as  s t a t e d i s t i n c t from people's  l i k i n g or  p r e f e r e n c e f o r environments, p s y c h o l o g i c a l researches f o r  10  a variety of  of situations  a l l types,  such  indicate  that  'approach  as p h y s i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n  behaviour'  t o environments,  d e g r e e o f a t t e n t i o n , e x p l o r a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t s , and v e r b a l l y o r n o n - v e r b a l l y measured p r e f e r e n c e increase d i r e c t l y with 1970;  Griffit  the experience  their  'pleasantness' o f  ' g o o d n e s s ' a n d t o compare among t h e s e  physical  c o n t r i b u t e t o such 'pleasantness'  characteristics, emotion-defined  of these  to evaluate settings.  however, may  attributes,  particularly,  open s p a c e e n v i r o n m e n t s ? The  p l e a s u r e has a w e l l d e f i n e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s .  functional in  The r a t e d  (Griffit,  1967; S k i n n e r , 1971;  t h e r e f o r e , would p r o v i d e key c r i t e r i a  What  of  f o r environments  of pleasure  and V e i t c h , 1971; R o h l e s ,  Mehrabien and R u s s e l , 1974). plazas,  or liking  satisfaction  o f t h e b r a i n may be a m a j o r  o u r p l e a s u r e and a e s t h e t i c s a t i s f a c t i o n .  feeling The element  Thus, a t t h e  r o o t o f p l e a s u r e must l i e t h e same p r i n c i p l e s  t h a t govern  the n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s of our p e r c e p t i o n o f the v i s u a l environment interprete gestalts  (Piatt,  1961).  A tendency t o " c l o s u r e " , t o  i n f o r m a t i o n on g r o s s ,  simplified  patterns or  i s a t t h e c o r e o f human p e r c e p t i o n o f v i s u a l  e n v i r o n m e n t s . Such p a t t e r n s , however, a r e p e r c e i v e d a continuous  process  of selection,  through  scanningor a continuous  f l u x o f t h e n e r v o u s systemeand a. demand" f o r " c h a n g e - i n - s t i m u l i o r new i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e h i g h e r  organ.  11 ... If we say that the brain consumes and demands info motion, we are not using these words lightly. The nervous system oscillates fan. information, that is, for the variable, the contrasting and the least expected,.. .the requirements for aesthetic enjoyment are simply the requirements for perception Itself, raised to a higher degree.... and the essential thing In each case is to have patterns that contain.' the unexpected [Vlatt, 1961).  While the n e u r o - p h y s i c a l requirements f o r n o v e l t y and v a r i e t y i n v i s u a l environments have been w e l l argued by scientists  ( P i a t t , 1959-  P a r r , 1965  and 1966;  F i s k e and Maddi, 1961; Heron,  1957;  e t c ) , a h o s t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l experiments  t o date document the r o l e o f such v i s u a l p r o p e r t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o people's p r e f e r e n c e f o r , approach or avoidance and e x p l o r a t i o n of environments XBerlyne, 1960, Lawrence,  1964; Dey,  1966,  1963; B e r l y n e and  19 67 and 1968; W o h l w i l l ,  V i t z , 1966; L e c k a r t and Bekan, 1965; e t c ) . These  1968;  laboratory  f i n d i n g s , based on s u b j e c t s ' responses t o geometric p a t t e r n s , photographs e t c v a r y i n g along s t i m u l u s dimensions,suggest t h a t humans p r e f e r ambiguous and complex  p a t t e r n s i n the v i s u a l  f i e l d and i t seems t o be a fundamental p e r c e p t u a l p r e f e r e n c e .  The n o t i o n s o f s i m p l i c i t y and c l a r i t y have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y upheld i n the d e s i g n d i s c i p l i n e . However, the case f o r v a r i e t y , s u r p r i s e and even i n c o n g r u i t y i n our day-to-day environments has been argued from time t o time by d e s i g n t h e o r i s t s , e i t h e r e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y ( V e n t u r i , 1966; Jacobs, 1961; Van Eyck, 1962; C u l l e n , H a l p r i n , 1969).  1961;  In view of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , s u c h  12  a t t r i b u t e s o f our b u i l t environment may  no more be c o n s i d e r e d  as merely an i s s u e of a e s t h e t i c s , p e r s o n a l experiences o r credos of d e s i g n e r s .  B e h a v i o r a l l y i n c l i n e d d e s i g n e r s now  have  a s t r o n g f o o t i n g t o argue t h a t v a r i e t y and n o v e l t y are import a n t components o f a v i s u a l l y  'good' environment  because  they h e l p t o achieve an o p t i m a l p e r c e p t u a l r a t e which i s r e l a t e d t o r i c h n e s s and complexity of p e r c e p t u a l inputs. (Rapoport and Kantor, 1967),  However, d e s p i t e a c u r r e n t  t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n p e r c e p t u a l opulence as opposed to s i m p l i c i t y i n our designed environments, v e r y l i t t l e has been made to t e s t the emotional o r b e h a v i o r a l  attempt  significance  of  such a t t r i b u t e s of r e a l l i f e  urban s e t t i n g s o f any k i n d .  In  the open space c o n t e x t , b e h a v i o r a l s t u d i e s have been  minimal although they say: ...successfat recreation spaces have the generic attribute of diversity and accessibility...within they should be spatially diverse so that they will encourage a variety of uses [Alexander et. al., 1970).  The p r e s e n t study h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the r a t e d p l e a s a n t n e s s as w e l l as the observed p o p u l a r i t y of p l a z a s would be a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t e o f d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i r v i s u a l environments.  Small outdoor spaces l i k e p l a z a s and  squares are micros-environments i n our day-to-day experience o f the p h y s i c a l c i t y .  R e a l i s t i c a l l y speaking,  wide d i f f e r e n c e s i n v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may expected a c r o s s these s m a l l s e t t i n g s .  not be  However, do s m a l l  and s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s a c r o s s such micro-environments  13 mean anything The  i n r e l a t i o n , t o people's  f e e l i n g s and use?  crux o f t h i s study l a y on seeking answers t o t h i s  question. In l i n e w i t h v a r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on a r o u s a l and e x p l o r a t o r y behaviour  (Berlyne, 1960;  F i s k e and Maddi, 1961; Berlyne and McDonnell, 1965; Baker and Franken, 1967; L e c k a r t and Bekan, 1965; W o h l w i l l , 1968; etc) a hypothesized  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i s u a l  d i v e r s i t y and 'arousing q u a l i t y ' o f p l a z a s might be C u r i o s i t y and e x p l o r a t o r y d r i v e are primary  suggested.  i n s t i n c t s as b a s i c  as those o f hunger and sex and t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a r e q u i s i t e t o m a i n t a i n i n g a h e a l t h y a c t i v e being 1967).  (Koestler,  W i t h i n t h e mundane c e n t r a l working area o f t h e c i t y ,  p u b l i c p l a c e s supporting e x p l o r a t o r y behaviour  would have  t h e i r d e s i r a b l e r e c r e a t i v e q u a l i t y . In the open space context, such a q u a l i t y may be m a n i f e s t  i n various overt  activities  l i k e l o i t e r i n g , watching t h i n g s , p l a y i n g on o r around a r t i f a c t s , photographing, environment, complexity  etc.  V a r i e t y i n the v i s u a l  or ambiguity  i n the form o f a r t i f a c t s  f u r n i s h i n g these areas, i t might be hypothesized,  would have aa  s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e b e a r i n g on such r e c r e a t i v e q u a l i t y o f public plazas.  ' D o m i n a n c e - e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t y ' would p o s s i b l y  have more f u n c t i o n a l than v i s u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ; t h a t i s , i t might be dependent upon a p h y s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n supporting a v a r i e t y o f people  and a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r p e r s o n a l  space  14  and t e r r i t o r i a l requirements. message o f 'freedom o f c h o i c e  1  Nevertheless,  the v i s u a l  might e x i s t .  A diverse  p h y s i c a l configuration providing personal niches  freedom o r  f o r v a r i o u s types o f people o r a c t i v i t i e s ,  postural  c h o i c e etc. would o b v i o u s l y be v i s u a l l y d i v e r s e and have y  some i n i t i a l  impact on people's f e e l i n g s .  d i v e r s i t y , i t might be hypothesized,  Thus v i s u a l  would have a p o s i t i v e  e f f e c t a l s o on the ' d o m i n a n c e - e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t y ' o f p l a z a environments. To i n v e s t i g a t e the r o l e o f v i s u a l d i v e r s i t y i n people's f e e l i n g s w i t h i n o r use o f p l a z a s i t would be necessary,as a f i r s t  s t e p , t o develop a measure o f v i s u a l  d i v e r s i t y f o r these environments. variety, novelty,  Visual properties  s i m p l i c i t y , complexity,  like  u n i t y , e t c . are  molar p r o p e r t i e s which have been termed as " c o l l a t i v e " ones (Berlyne, 1964) s i n c e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s  depend upon  the comparison o r c o l l a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the environment.  The more the change i n  i n f o r m a t i o n o r s t i m u l i from the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s , the more i n t r i c a t e , complex o r u n c e r t a i n the t o t a l environment i s l i k e l y t o be. Uncertainty"  The concept o f "Information  Rate" o r "Average  has been p o s t u l a t e d t o p r o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l l y  v a l i d measure o f the c o l l a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f environments (Attneave,  1959; Garner, 1962; Mehrabien and R u s s e l ,  1974).  In mathematical terms, i n a g i v e n environment with a s e t o f  15  different  types o f elements, the u n c e r t a i n t y  associated  V w i t h each type xs l o g  P_. where, p^ i s the  or the r e l a t i v e occurrence of the i the Average U n c e r t a i n t y  t  h  type o f element;  and  (or Average I n f o r m a t i o n R a t e ) , U,  of the t o t a l environment i s E ^ P j l o g 2 r  i . e . , the  L  of  probability  sum  the weighted u n c e r t a i n t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each type o f  element.  The Average U n c e r t a i n t y o r I n f o r m a t i o n Rate  of the environment, t h e r e f o r e , i s expressed i n terms o f the r e l a t i v e occurrence or the p r o b a b i l i s t i c among d i f f e r e n t  relationship  types o f elements composing  the environment.  In p e r c e p t u a l terms, t h i s would make sense, f o r a landscape with p a t t e r n i n g o r e x c e s s i v e r e p e t i t i o n  o f one type o f  element i s v i s u a l l y simple or redundant r a t h e r than d i v e r s e . M a t h e m a t i c a l l y , such r e p e t i t i o n probability  means the i n c r e a s e o f  v a l u e o f the r e p e t i t i v e  element w i t h i n the  t o t a l number o f elements i n the landscape, which reduces the  v a l u e o f the Average I n f o r m a t i o n Rate.  Conversely,  an environment w i t h elements a l l h i g h l y e q u i p r o b a b l e i s extremely complex t e n d i n g towards chaos. ?zAha.pt> the. most fundamental concept of information theory ii, that of a continuum extending from extreme lawfulness or redundancy or regularity on one hand,_ to extreme disorder or unpredictability or uncertainty on the other. One end of the continuum is homogeneity, the other chaos [Attneave, 7 9 5 9 ) .  While the e x a c t mathematical s p e c i f i c a t i o n mation r a t e o f an urban space may  of i n f o r -  be q u i t e cumbersome, a  human response s c a l e has been developed t o measure i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e s o f s e t t i n g s o f a l l types (Mehrabien and R u s s e l ,  1974).  16  T h i s semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e c o n s t i t u t i n g a s e t of b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s corresponding to judgements o f h i g h e r and lower v a l u e s of i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e s may  be r a t e d by s u b j e c t s as t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l response  an environment. may  (see Appendix-B)  The averaged  r a t i n g of a sample p o p u l a t i o n  d e f i n e the i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e o f the environment  pp.88-95).  to  (ibid,  In t h i s study people's responses on t h i s  were used t o compare v i s u a l d i v e r s i t y a c r o s s p l a z a  scale  environments  and to r e l a t e such d i v e r s i t y measures w i t h the r a t e d e m o t i o n - e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t i e s and the observed across these environments.  popularity  At the same time, comments were  i n v i t e d from s u b j e c t s through which the  environmental  antecedents of people's p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o l l a t i v e i n these s e t t i n g s c o u l d be e x p l o r e d . of these environments,  properties  V a r i o u s components  such as t h e i r i n t e r n a l  landscapes,  surroundings o r people and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n these p l a c e s might c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r d i v e r s i t y different locations.  i n v a r y i n g degrees i n  By u s i n g v e r b a l s c a l e s , the peAcei-ved  d i v e r s i t y and people's own  judgements o f the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these v a r i o u s environmental and p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s c o u l d be assessed.  relative components  Visual  diversity  i n the i n t e r n a l designs o f p l a z a s might be f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d by u s i n g the mathematical  model o f i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e ( i n  terms o f v a r i e t y i n number and type of a r t i f a c t s o f d i f f e r e n t forms, c o l o u r s , t e x t u r e s , etc.) and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y o r emotion  elicitation  investigated.  17  While the above i n v e s t i g a t i o n would f o c u s , p r i m a r i l y , upon the p e r c e p t u a l or the v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p l a z a environments and e x p l o r e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e s i g n i n g e m o t i o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g and popular p l a z a s , o b s e r v a t i o n o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of people  and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n e x i s t i n g  open spaces would,hopefully,  i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e  use-  p o t e n t i a l s of d i f f e r e n t types of s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and  forms and arrangements of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s  and  thereby  explore f u n c t i o n a l s i t e design i m p l i c a t i o n s to support behaviour.  Any  c o n t r o l l e d experiment i n t h i s r e g a r d  beyond the scope o f t h i s study which r e l i e d on the range of c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g designed  userwas  limited  f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e across  settings.  Nevertheless,  within  l i m i t a t i o n s , some q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between use and space forms might be, h o p e f u l l y , d e r i v e d r e l e v a n t to future  design or improvement of p l a z a s and  squares.  O b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s of s m a l l p u b l i c open spaces have been minimal. p i l o t s t u d i e s and  However, a few c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , s t u d i e s on l a r g e - s c a l e parks  or non-urban outdoor areas r e p o r t e d i n d i c a t i o n s of p a t t e r n s i n the p h y s i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n of people p u b l i c spaces.  and a c t i v i t i e s  P r i e s e r ' s (1971) study based on one  across plaza  on a c o l l e g e campus r e p o r t e d t h a t a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r r e d e x c l u s i v e l y on or near p h y s i c a l a r t i f a c t s w h i l e  almost  physically  undefined o r u n s t r u c t u r e d l o c a t i o n s were b e h a v i o r a l l y " v o i d s . "  18  Stilitz  (1969 and 1970) u s u a l l y observed s t a t i o n a r y  groups  i n ' t h e v i c i n i t y o f p h y s i c a l e-Lements such as n i c h e s , edges and columns i n p u b l i c l o b b i e s .  corners,  Both these s t u d i e s  r e p o r t e d t h a t p e d e s t r i a n movements tended t o take routes o f l e a s t appearing e f f o r t s , i . e . d i r e c t paths between connectors. Barbara L i n d s a y ' s (1973)"^ o b s e r v a t i o n s c a r r i e d o u t i n a few small open spaces i n the l o c a l c o n t e x t p r o v i d e d s i m i l a r broad i n d i c a t i o n s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f people and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n spaces. Derk de Jonge like  (1968) found p h y s i c a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d  spaces  " f o c a l p o i n t s " , "edges" and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y bounded  t e r r i t o r i e s t o have high- ,• valences t o a t t r a c t people i n l a r g e non-urban park s e t t i n g s .  A r t i c u l a t e d edges and c e n t r a l  f o c a l elements have been advocated by Alexander et-:.al. (19 70). The p a r t i c u l a r p o t e n t i a l o f waterbodies as f o c a l elements has been c a s u a l l y noted by Whyte (1969) and L y l e ( 1 9 6 1 ) . Some c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t i  p o p u l a t i o n groups w i t h i n open spaces have a l s o been observed by a few o b s e r v e r s .  Lyle's  (1961) study on l a r g e urban  parks i n Europe and U.S.A., f o r example, r e p o r t e d d i s t i n c t p r e f e r e n c e s f o r c e n t r a l t o o u t e r o r remote zones between 1 L i n d s a y , B. outdoor  Methods of studying activities In.iurban  the effects of the, Surroundings on public places. Unpublished Masters  T h e s i s 'in Plant-Science,. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver, B.C., 1973.  Columbia  19  young and e l d e r l y users; Whyte (1969) found s i m i l a r l o c a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n use between female and male patrons o f urban plazas.  Derk de Jonge found c u l t u r a l l y determined p r e f e r -  ences, such as between manual and w h i t e - c o l l a r workers i n p i c k i n g s i t e s of varying  degrees o f c l o s e n e s s  or  remoteness  from e n t r a n c e s ; he a l s o found the high p o t e n t i a l o f c o n t r i v e d configurations,  such as bounded t e r r i t o r i e s l i k e  islands  or c l e a r i n g i n f o r e s t s t o support group a c t i v i t i e s .  Further-  more, a c t i v i t i e s or people themselves have been b e l i e v e d t o be strong  a t t r a c t o r s of use i n urban open spaces  (Deasy,19 70)  and l o c a t i o n s remote from main c i r c u l a t i o n r o u t e s or i s o l a t e d p l a c e s have been found t o be l i t t l e used i n one or two l a r g e park s e t t i n g s  ( L y l e , 1961).  Wide g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s would not be p o s s i b l e the above s t u d i e s .  from  In essence, however, most of them have  been s u g g e s t i v e o f the g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l o f a r t i c u l a t e d than n o n - a r t i c u l a t e d  s p a t i a l configurations,  busy o r c e n t r a l i z e d than l o o s e , space forms. ofspersonal space  s c a t t e r e d or i s o l a t e d  Furthermore, t e r r i t o r i a l freedom and p r o v i s i o n  space are e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s o f a good p u b l i c  ( H a l l , 1966;  informal  o f compact,  Sommer, 1969), p a r t i c u l a r l y , where  l e i s u r e behaviour o f v a r i o u s  might be a n t i c i p a t e d .  types o f people  Spaces c o n t r i v e d by a r t i f a c t s p r o v i d e  not only./ p o s t u r a l support but a l s o environmental c l u e s : f o r direction finding  ( P r i e s e r , 19 71) as w e l l as a p h y s i c a l  20  medium t o mark and defend a t e r r i t o r y i n which t o a c t . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the presence o f a l a r g e number and v a r i e t y o f p h y s i c a l elements, nooks and c o r n e r s , p h y s i c a l l y bounded areas, have c o n s i d e r a b l e  topographic v a r i e t y , e t c  p o s i t i v e e f f e c t i n supporting  a large  q u a n t i t y and a wide v a r i e t y o f use across p l a z a s . :  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f small d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l across  might  The b e h a v i o r a l  configurations  these micro-environments would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o note. S i z e , shape and arrangement o f i n d i v i d u a l a r t i -  f a c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , t o a great  extent,  s t r u c t u r e the o v e r a l l i n t e r n a l form o f open spaces.  These  f a c t o r s , i n t u r n , are c r u c i a l t o support the b e h a v i o r a l requirements o f u s e r s .  Furniture layouts of p u b l i c  Like l o b b i e s , lounges, l i b r a r i e s etc.; criticized and  as being  places,  have been o f t e n  r e f l e c t i v e of designers'  misconceptions  l a c k o f knowledge about the normal s i z e o f i n f o r m a l  s o c i a l groups and t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l  behaviour.  Self-gene-  r a t e d groups i n p u b l i c p l a c e s are g e n e r a l l y s m a l l :  solitary  i n d i v i d u a l s and dyads forming the major c o n s t i t u e n t o f the users.  Their t e r r i t o r i a l  segregation  i s likely  behaviour seeking  interpersonal  t o r e s u l t i n i n e f f i c i e n t use o f seats  meant t o accommodate a l a r g e number o f persons 1974;  Sommer, 1969).  In the context  (Deasy,  o f p u b l i c p l a z a s and  squares, t h e r e f o r e , the e f f i c i e n c y o f the t y p i c a l oblong park benches and the s t r a i g h t l i n e a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f  21  r a i l i n g s , p o o l s o r p l a n t e r s might be suspected.  I t might be  h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s m a l l s i z e s o f s e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and a r t i c u l a t i o n and angular v a r i e t y i n t h e i r forms and arrangements, p r o v i d i n g b u i l t - i n h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l and o r i e n t a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n among s o l i t a r y o r small-group u s e r s would be more e f f i c i e n t than expansive, n o n - a r t i c u l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s and oblong l i n e a r shapes.  Since f a c e - t o - f a c e  o r i e n t a t i o n among a c t o r s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t requirement t o s u s t a i n i n t e r a c t i v e behaviour o f v a r i o u s kinds  (Sommer,  1969; Mehrabien, 1969; Mehrabien and Diamond, 1971) t y p i c a l l i n e a r shapes o r arrangements o f s e a t i n g  facilities  might be c o n s i d e r e d i n e f f i c i e n t a l s o f o r l a r g e group activities.  Hypotheses The above d i s c u s s i o n would l e a d t o the c e n t r a l hypothesis o f the study t h a t , a c r o s s these s m a l l - s c a l e outdoor environments i n the h e a r t o f the c i t y , i . e . p l a z a s and squares, d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i r v i s u a l contents and a r t i c u l a t i o n i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l l a y o u t and form and arrangement o f f u r n i t u r e elements would have s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on people's f e e l i n g s as w e l l as t h e i r use o f these environments. The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c hypotheses, summarizing the scope o f t h i s study, p r o v i d e d foundation f o r the c o l l e c t i o n  22  of data and t h e i r subsequent a n a l y s e s .  The  framework o f the study i l l u s t r a t i n g these  analytical hypothesized  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between people and p l a z a environments, to be t e s t e d through e m p i r i c a l data, Figure  i s shown i n  1. 1.  As measured through v e r b a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c a l e s , the and  'pleasantness',  'arousing q u a l i t y  'dominance-eliciting q u a l i t y  1  of  1  plazas  would be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i r v i s u a l environments.  Various  physical  f e a t u r e s of the environment would c o n t r i b u t e , , i n v a r y i n g degrees, to people's emotions  and  judgements of c o l l a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s i n p l a z a s across d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . These would be r e v e a l e d through v e r b a l responses of people i n these p l a z a s . 2.  The  observed l e v e l of use o f p l a z a s , measured  i n terms of the average number of (excluding p e d e s t r i a n s  users  simply walking through)  wou'ld be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the v e r b a l l y measured d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i r v i s u a l environments. 3.  P l a z a s v a r y i n g along d i v e r s i t y dimension would d i s p l a y 'considerably d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y w i t h i n them.  Specifically, recreational  patterns  Keasured through s u b j e c t s ' r a t i n g s on psychological scales EMOTION-ELICITING QLTY. OF  FEELINGS  PLAZA  PLEASANTNESS  ENVIRONMENTAL ANTECEDENTS FOR SUBJECTS EMOTIONS ANO PERCEPTIONS IN PLAZA TO BE ANALYZED THROUGH SUBJECTS' COMMENTS HYPOTHESIS #1  . Measured through subjects' r a t i n g s on p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c a l e s  AROUSING QLTY DOMINANCE-ELICITING QLTY. TIME i hour of the day SEASON : summer/spring/falll WEATHER: sunny/cloudy moderate SURROUNDING IANDUSE! type;quantity(total covered space);day population POPULARITY-LEVEL OF  OF USE  PLAZA  COLLATIVE PROPERTIES-  •  LEVEL OF DIVERSITY IN T H E VISUAL  ENVIRONMENT  (variety,novelty, simplicity complexity, etc.)  CONFIGURATION-  LAY-OUT OF P L A Z A  HYPOTHESIS I 2  USE SHAPE SIZE AND ARRANGEMENT OF FURNISHING ELEMENTS  BEHAVIORAL PROFILE Measured through d i r e c t observation  OF  PLAZA  ACTIVITY PROFILE., .number of persons/ usergroups engaged in different activities  anJ pastures.  Figure  RELATIVE USE OF DIFFT,PARTS ...population , distribution across different locations within plajaf TYPE OF USERS'.••demographic characteristics and distribution of different population croups across the open space USE OF FACILITIES... frequency and density of use of different furniture elements, like benches, pool, planters,.etc.  HYPOTHESIS  HYPOTHESIS  3- i A. diagrammatic Expression o f the Relationship Between People and Plaza Environments Hypothesized i n the Study.  24  a c t i v i t i e s of e x p l o r a t o r y type t o p a s s i v e r e l a x a t i o n or  (as opposed  self-engaging  a c t i v i t i e s ) would be r e l a t i v e l y more frequent i n l o c a t i o n s with greater v i s u a l  diversity,  p a r t i c u l a r l y with the presence of complex man-made or n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n the 4.  A r t i c u l a t e d spaces l i k e nooks and areas  landscape.  corners,  c l o s e to p h y s i c a l a r t i f a c t s or c o n t r i v e d  or bounded by them would be observed to be more popular  or f r e q u e n t l y used than n o n - a r t i c u ^  l a t e d , p h y s i c a l l y undefined, Users would tend to  "open" areas.  agglomerate r a t h e r than  widely d i s p e r s e i n secluded l o c a t i o n s . 5.  S i t e l a y o u t s would a f f e c t the distribution.-.;, of users by demographic groups  (e.g. by  age  sex e t c ) . D i v e r s i t y i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n with v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l means o f s e g r e g a t i n g  users  wouldff a c i l i t a t e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n and the c o - e x i s t e n c e  support  of d i f f e r e n t demographic  groups. 6.  Forms and  arrangements of f u r n i t u r e elements  p r o v i d i n g d e f i n e d s e p a r a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n a l v a r i e t y , such as s m a l l s e a t s ,  stair-seats,  corners of f u r n i t u r e , benches having v a r i e t y i n shape, i n f o r m a l s e a t i n g  angular  25  arrangements, e t c . would be observed  t o be more  e f f i c i e n t i n terms of s u p p o r t i n g frequency, d e n s i t y , o r v a r i e t y o f users than l a r g e and n o n - a r t i c u l a t e d f u r n i t u r e elements l i k e oblong benches, l i n e a r p o o l and p l a n t e r s t r u c t u r e s , long r a i l i n g s or exp'knsive grass a r e a s . While  the above hypotheses  would summarize the  primary  o b j e c t i v e s of the study, the e f f e c t s of s e v e r a l extraneous f a c t o r s on the observed use or on the p e r c e p t u a l and emotione l i c i t i n g q u a l i t i e s of p l a z a s would a l s o be noted. and seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n s ' i n the use o f outdoor common. was  Temporal  spaces i s  In the c l i m a t i c c o n t e x t of Vancouver, where t h i s  study  u n d e r t a k e n , s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r plaza-use i n summer than  i n any o t h e r season.and j l n sunny than i n cloudy days might be hypothesized.  Seasonal d i f f e r e n c e s i n use, however, might  vary across open spaces;  f o r instance.? grass areas  and  shaded l o c a t i o n s might be more d i v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d than o t h e r l o c a t i o n s d u r i n g the c o l d season.  Furthermore,  seasonal  change i s a s s o c i a t e d with change i n atmospheric  quality,  blooming or f l o w e r i n g times of p l a n t m a t e r i a l s , e t c . Seasonal v a r i a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , m i g h t be h y p o t h e s i z e d t o have e f f e c t s on the p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y and pleasantness of p l a z a environments,  p a r t i c u l a r l y where deciduous  plant materials,  annuals, d i s t a n t scenery, e t c . , c o n s t i t u t e major v i s u a l elements.  Temporal p a t t e r n of use o f these open  spaces  might bear a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c t i v i t y programmes i n t h e i r surrounding landuses.  In l i n e with suggestions of a  few  26  observers  (Jacobs,  1961; Alexander e t a l , 1970), i t was  h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the presence o f mixed landuses i n the v i c i n i t y o f p l a z a s would have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on use. In summary, t h e r e f o r e , t h i s study attempted t o e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s and p h y s i c a l configurations of micro-scale plazas use  outdoor environments, i . e .  and squares i n the c e n t r e o f the c i t y and human  and f e e l i n g s w i t h i n them.  Despite  their  importance  f o r b r i e f l e i s u r e - u s e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r a e s t h e t i c enjoyment o f people w i t h i n the business d i s t r i c t o f the c i t y , these s m a l l p u b l i c s e t t i n g s have remained almost totally  f r e e o f any i n t e n s i v e , r e s e a r c h  t o suggest t o d e s i g n e r s ;  what p h y s i c a l make-up would render them e m o t i o n a l l y  satisfying,  a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e s , what form and c o n f i g u r a t i o n would s u s t a i n use and what would r e p e l .  By u s i n g concepts and ,  methods developed i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , t h i s study measured the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s as w e l l as the l e v e l o f use and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f people across explored  s e v e r a l p l a z a s and  the r e l a t e d p h y s i c a l parameters a f f e c t i n g people's  emotional s t a t e s and behaviour w i t h i n them.  I t also  observed the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f people and a c t i v i t i e s  across  the d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n p l a z a s t o assess the r e l a t i v e u s e - p o t e n t i a l s o f d i f f e r e n t types o f p h y s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and forms and arrangements o f physical f a c i l i t i e s .  The core h y p o t h e s i s o f the study was  27  t h a t , across these s m a l l - s c a l e outdoor environments h e a r t of the c i t y , d i v e r s i t y  in their visual  articulation in their internal arrangments o f f u r n i t u r e positive  contents and  l a y o u t s and forms and  elements would have s i g n i f i c a n t  e f f e c t on people's f e e l i n g s  these environments.  i n the  as w e l l as t h e i r use of  The open spaces s e l e c t e d as s e t t i n g s  f o r t h i s study are i n t r o d u c e d i n the _ forthcoming chapter.  Chapter I I I d e s c r i b e s the procedures  and analyses o f data w h i l e the subsequent the  findings.  for collection  chapter d i s c u s s e s  28  CHAPTER I I STUDY  AREAS  In view o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study,  relatively  a c t i v e open spaces i n the h e a r t o f the c i t y , a c c e s s i b l e t o p u b l i c and a p p a r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t i n g a f a i r range o f v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s i t e - l a y o u t s and form and arrangements o f f u r n i t u r e elements  were c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g study a r e a s .  The c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia  was the s e t t i n g f o r t h i s study.  Observational  p i l o t surveys y i e l d e d t e n open spaces t h a t a p p a r e n t l y met  these c r i t e r i a and c o n s t i t u t e d n e a r l y a l l the major  p l a z a s and squares o f Downtown Vancouver.  The l o c a t i o n s  of these study areas, i n the Downtown c o n t e x t , shown i n F i g u r e 2 . photographs  are  -r  The accompanying s i t e plans and  o f these open spaces p r o v i d e V i s u a l  i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e i r environments.  A l l these study areas  were w i t h i n c l o s e walking d i s t a n c e s from the mainstreams of p e d e s t r i a n n c i r c u l a t i o n i n Downtown Vancouver, i . e . from G r a n v i l l e * S t r e e t , Georgia S t r e e t , B u r r a r d S t r e e t ,  -  Pender.Street and Hastings S t r e e t . Three o f these p l a z a s ( G r a n v i l l e Square,  Guiness  p l a z a and Baxter plaza) were l o c a t e d on the edge o f Downtown o v e r l o o k i n g the sea (Burrard I n l e t ) and d i s t a n t  suburbs  d o t t i n g the North Shore mountains. P i v o t i n g around the  B U R  R  A  0  R  L.N.L B T  Cuir:  St.  C D  • •••••an'  St-  G e  TTT in nn nn  ° r g i st.  f  a  n  n n  n  r, TV e  1  IBM  Ge  ° r g i a St.'  f  2  iso e  a c  i  a rt <ft O  o  Figure  2  S Locations o f Study A r i a s within Vancouver Downtown. ' '  30  30-storey Canadian P a c i f i c Tower, the L - s h a p e d G r a n v i l l e 1  1  Square was an expansive paved t e r r a c e , f u r n i s h e d w i t h c l u s t e r s of square-shaped wooden s e a t s , many small p l a n t e r s , a few l a r g e  concrete  pools, a fountain,  a p a i r of l a r g e c i r c u l a r p l a n t e r s t r u c t u r e s and a r a t h e r n o v e l wood s c u l p t u r e , over a p a r k i n g Granville Mall  (see F i g u r e  garage a t the f o o t o f  3) . Located i n a r a t h e r  q u i e t o f f i c e area along West Hastings S t r e e t , the other water f r o n t p l a z a s : Guiness  (Figure  4 ) and Baxter  two  (Figure  5 )  were landscaped p r e c i n c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l h i g h - r i s e developments. These three p l a z a s , as w e l l as B e n t a l l Two, a densely f u r n i s h e d small open space l o c a t e d amidst a c l u s t e r o f o f f i c e towers and a bank b u i l d i n g on B u r r a r d and  Street  (Figure  6 )  the p l a z a o f MacMillan and B l o e d e l , a narrow, l i n e a r open  space d e c o r a t i n g  the massive exposed concrete  on West Georgia S t r e e t  o f f i c e tower  (Figure 1) were s l i g h t l y away from the  major shopping hubs of Downtown where the r e s t o f the study areas were l o c a t e d . P a c i f i c Centre  The r e l a t i v e l y sparse paved areas o f  (Figure  8  ) and I.B.M. p l a z a s  (Figure  9 )  were l o c a t e d on the b u s i e s t node o f Downtown. Only a block away from the above two was one o f the o l d e s t p u b l i c of the c i t y : the Courthouse Square. planted  This  places  extensively  symmetrical p l a z a , surrounded by a mix o f oTd and  modern a r c h i t e c t u r e , had a f o u n t a i n p o o l as i t s c e n t r a l f e a t u r e which ^ was programmed to;, produce sequences "of -Water- movement  32  West side of Guiness Tower  JL  Figure  4  ft  East side of Guiness Tower  : V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Guiness Plaza  33  Figure  5 :  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Baxter Plaza  34  Figure  6 : V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Bentall Two Plaza  Figure  8  : V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s of P a c i f i c Centre Plaza  Figure  9  : V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s of I.B.M. Plaza  36  patterns  (Figure 10 ).  These l a t t e r three open spaces were  s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the most i n t e n s i v e l y developed core o f the downtown and had  commercial  a v a r i e t y of p u b l i c uses i n c l u d i n g  s m a l l shops as w e l l as l a r g e departmental s t o r e s , commercial o f f i c e s , p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , h o t e l s and pubs and  restaurants  i n t h e i r immediate v i c i n i t i e s . Most p l a z a s were t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with one  or  more commercial o f f i c e towers, i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r e o r m u l t i - s t o r e y office-cum-shopping m a l l developments; w h i l e Trounce A l l e y and V i c t o r y Squares o f the shopping d i s t r i c t of Downtown were exceptions In c o n t r a s t with  older to t h i s  the suave, modern look o f most p l a z a s ,  oblong Trounce A l l e y Square of the Gastown shopping was  paved and  antiques  and was  r e s t a u r a n t s . I t was  pubs  of the p a s t  (Figure  11 ).  park benches along  c e n t r a l s l o p i n g lawn bounded by low  be  V i c t o r y Square,  green area surrounded by s t r e e t s was  rows o f standard  low-rise  and  l i k e an environment designed to  out i n the V i c t o r i a n s t y l e on a r o l l i n g  walkways.  area  surrounded by  o l d b r i c k a r c h i t e c t u r e s h e l t e r i n g boutiques,  extensive  the  f u r n i s h e d w i t h rough-cut g r a n i t e s , c a s t i r o n  g a s l i g h t l a n t e r n s and  reminiscent  rule.  an  laid  topography, w i t h  i t s edges f a c i n g a f e n c i n g and  Topographic change, hedges and  formal  t r e e s segregated  the r e a r park from the f r o n t a l paved c i r c u l a r arena b u i l t -around the World War  i  I memorial on H a s t i n g  Steet  (Figure 1 2 ) .  Figure  10  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Courthouse Square  39  T h i s open space,which was  o l d e r than a l l but Courthouse  sguare, had, however, a, unique s o c i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , . t h a t i s , as one study r e p o r t e d "the park was  found t o host  a number o f s o c i a l l y m a r g i n a l l i f e - s t y l e groups who,  as  powerless o u t c a s t s of "a wider a f f l u e n t society, c o e x i s t e d as a separate world" "(Hall, 1974) \  Patrons o f t h i s park,  who  were g e n e r a l l y r e g u l a r v i s i t o r s , c o n s i s t e d o f a p p a r e n t l y poor o l d and middle-aged persons, h i p p i e s and n a t i v e I n d i a n s . i i  #  A l c o h o l d r i n k x n g withxn the park was w i d e l y r e p o r t e d  (ibid).  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t user-groups a c r o s s i t s d i v e r s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n and the use of f u r n i t u r e elements, p a r t i c u l a r l y the standard park benches were observed i n t h i s study a r e a . However, due to i t s a t y p i c a l s o c i a l makeup, i t was  excluded  from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of people's p e r c e p t i o n s o r emotions i n the  environment.  I  1  Hall,Peter. Spatial  Behaviour  In  Victory  Square.  Unpublished Master's  I t h e s i s i n Geography, the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h ' Vancouver, B.C., 1974.  i  Columbia,  40  CHAPTER UJ, METHODOLOGY The  framework o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between people and  p l a z a environments  hypothesized i n t h i s study was examined  through e m p i r i c a l data on the s e l e c t e d p l a z a s and squares of Downtown Vancouver.  The e m o t i o n - e l i c i t i n g  qualities  and the c o l l a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s ( v a r i e t y , n o v e l t y , s i m i l a r i t y , c o n t r a s t , s i m p l i c i t y , complexity, etc.) of these open space environments  were assessed through a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  survey o f people's responses t o these s e t t i n g s on v e r b a l psychological scales.  The p o p u l a r i t y o f these  settings,  the p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s they generate and the r e l a t i v e uses o f d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n them were assessed through an o b s e r v a t i o n a l  •survey^employing-both  v i s u a l and photographic techniques o f r e c o r d i n g people and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n these spaces.  These two surveys o r  procedures f o r data c o l l e c t i o n have been s e p a r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : Assessment o f E m o t i o n - E l i c i t i n g Q u a l i t i e s and V i s u a l ( c o l l a t i v e ) P r o p e r t i e s o f Study Areas. The  f o u r d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f semantic  differential  s c a l e s t o measure emotion e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t i e s and i n f o r mation  rate  ( c o l l a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s ) o f environments  have  been a l r e a d y i n t r o d u c e d (see Appendix A and Appendix B ) .  41  I t was  f e l t t h a t va,l;Ld data on a,n environment's, impacts©  on f e e l i n g s and p e r c e p t i o n s  c o u l d be generated through  the s u b j e c t ' s presence i n the r e a l environment r a t h e r than through h i s i n d i r e c t experience of the environment presented through s i m u l a t i o n techniques.  A field  was,  t h e r e f o r e , c a r r i e d out between A p r i l and  1976  i n which a sample of 50 s u b j e c t s v i s i t e d the  study areas and  r a t e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s and  experiment  September of selected  perceptions  in  each p l a z a on the above s c a l e s . A s e t of f o u r o r f i v e  plazas,  randomly s e l e c t e d from amongst the nine study areas, assigned one  to each s u b j e c t who  by one,  was  i n s t r u c t e d to v i s i t  i n a randomly designed s e q u e n t i a l order  asked to s p e c i f y the date, time and weather  c o n d i t i o n of v i s i t t o each p l a z a as w e l l as h i s age on the response sheet c o n t a i n i n g the p s y c h o l o g i c a l (see Appendix - C ) .  On  r e q u i r e d to  s p e c i f i c reasons f o r h i s f e e l i n g s and on a separate d e b r i e f i n g form P a r t and  of d i s c i p l i n e s  ( i . e . Education,  (members o f  experiment.  scales  provide  perceptions  (see Appendix - D)  i n each, supplied  Language, Economics, Psychology,  Landscape H o r t i c u l t u r e ) of  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and  this  sex  f u l l time students of •aiwide v a r i e t y  A r c h i t e c t u r e and  architects  and  completion of h i s v i s i t s to a l l the  p r e s c r i b e d p l a z a s , a s u b j e c t was  Science,  per-  on the s c a l e s , b e f o r e proceeding to the next plaza..  Each s u b j e c t was  to him.  them, and  spend some time i n each to r a t e h i s / h e r f e e l i n g s and ceptions  was  eight l o c a l  the  landscape  the B.C.S.L.A. ) were s u b j e c t s  of  42  Ea,ch nine-point semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e was weighted w i t h scores ranging from +4 t o ^-4, corresponding t o a s u b j e c t ' s extreme p o s i t i v e t o extreme n e g a t i v e f o r the f e e l i n g  (or p e r c e p t u a l )  bipolar adjective pair. extremely " s a t i s f i e d "  response  dimension d e s c r i b e d by i t s  For i n s t a n c e , +4 was a s s i g n e d t o  ( i . e . a check on the blank nearest t o  the word) and -4 f o r extremely " u n s a t i s f i e d " . A s u b j e c t ' s emotional  state of 'pleasure-displeasure',  'arousal-non-  a r o u s a l ' o r 'dominance-submissiveness' i n a p l a z a environment was measured by the sum of h i s scores f o r the corresponding set of s i x scales  (Appendix - A ) .  S i m i l a r l y , h i s perception  of i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e o f the environment was c a l c u l a t e d by summing h i s scores on a l l the 14 s c a l e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n rate  (Appendix-B).  These scores on p l e a s u r e , a r o u s a l and  dominance s t a t e and p e r c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e f o r each s u b j e c t i n each p l a z a were t r a n s f e r r e d onto punch cards along w i t h the coded i n f o r m a t i o n on s u b j e c t ' s age, sex, v o c a t i o n a l background (designer/nondesigner)  and the temporal,  weather and seasonal  c o n d i t i o n s o f v i s i t to the p l a z a and analyzed  through the  SPSS Programme i n the IBM 370 computer o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  S u b j e c t s ' comments on the d e b r i e f i n g forms  r e f e r r i n g t o s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s of the open_spaces as seasons f o r t h e i r f e e l i n g and p e r c e p t i o n s were c a t e g o r i z e d and the f r e q u e n c i e s o f responses under the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of reasons were noted.  For each p l a z a , the mean scores o f a l l  43  v i s i t i n g s u b j e c t s on the four; d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s  provided,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , , the measures of i t s p l e a s a n t n e s s ,  arousing  q u a l i t y , d o m i n a n c e - e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t y and  information rate.  The v a l u e of each e m o t i o n - e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t y of a p l a z a , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d range anywhere between +24  and -24;  and,  s i m i l a r l y , i t s i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e c o u l d range anywhere between +56  and  -56. While composing each of the f o u r s c a l e s on  survey response sheet b i a s was  the  (Appendix - C ) , a s u b j e c t ' s response  c o n t r o l l e d by so a r r a n g i n g the a d j e c t i v e p a i r s  t h a t approximately  h a l f the time the a d j e c t i v e on the  corresponded t o h i g h e r value of emotional i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e ) and the r e v e r s e was h a l f of the i n s t a n c e s .  right  s t a t e (or  t r u e i n the  other  Moreover, a l l the 18 s c a l e s f o r the  t h r e e emotion f a c t o r s were presented  together  i n a random  sequence. Assessment of P o p u l a r i t y and  B e h a v i o r a l P r o f i l e of Study Areas  An o b s e r v a t i o n a l survey was  c a r r i e d out i n each  study  area i n order t o r e c o r d , at d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of time, the number of persons u s i n g the p l a z a , t h e i r demographic b e h a v i o r a l make-up as w e l l as t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n the space, based on which the nature  and  p a r t s and  f a c i l i t i e s t h e r e o f c o u l d be  across  the extent  use of the d i f f e r e n t study areas as w e l l as the compared.  and  of  different  44  In view of the o b j e c t i v e s of the study, the attempted to q u a n t i f y the f o l l o w i n g  survey  socio^behavioral  variables. I*Activities  of v a r i o u s nature,  such as:  • e x p l o r a t o r y types l i k e l o i t e r i n g watching s p e c i f i c or the surrounding of a r t i f a c t s  and  l o o k i n g about,  o b j e c t s o r d i s p l a y s on the  plaza  view, photography, p l a y f u l  l i k e c l i m b i n g , touching  use  artifacts,  s p l a s h i n g water, c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y on or around artifacts,  feeding b i r d s , etc.;  • s t a t i o n a r y p a s s i v e types - l i k e s l e e p i n g , and  r e l a x i n g , s i t t i n g and  contemplating or  lying looking  about, e t c . ; •self-engaging  types - l i k e e a t i n g , reading  books,  magazines, e t c . ; •social  i n t e r a c t i v e types - l i k e c o n v e r s a t i o n ,  group  play, etc.; •various other a c t i v i t i e s ; ' - " " 2.Postunej>  " '-•  - l i k e s i t t i n g , standing,  lying, squatting,  k n e e l i n g , l e a n i n g on or a g a i n s t something, e t c . ; 3.Size  of useA.-gtiou.ps—like  triads, A.OtheA.  solitary  persons, dyads,  group of f o u r , f i v e , e t c . ,  demographic characteAlstics  — l i k e apparent  (young/old or middle-aged), sex,  etc.  age  45 The number of persons  o r groups of, users found  under  d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f a c t i v i t i e s , p o s t u r e s , age, sex, group s|ze, e t c . w i t h i n a p l a z a , a c r o s s i t s d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s were recorded i n d i s c r e e t u n i t s o f r e c o r d i n g s e s s i o n o r "observ a t i o n " which were repeated a t d i f f e r e n t hours o f the day, under both c l e a r and cloudy s i t u a t i o n s and over months o r seasons. l i k e a 'snap-shot' type o f people  different  C o n c e p t u a l l y then, an " o b s e r v a t i o n " was or ' f r o z e n p i c t u r e ' o f the number and  and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a p l a z a , a c r o s s  d i f f e r e n t p a r t s t h e r e o f a t a g i v e n p o i n t of time and s e r i e s of such o b s e r v a t i o n s were 'time samples' o f behaviour plaza  i n the  (Olson and Cunninghum, 1934; A r r i n g t o n , 1939, 1943;  Hutt and Hutt, 19 70) a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t temporal, seasonal c o n d i t i o n s .  c l i m a t i c or  In r e a l i t y , however, the a c t u a l l e n g t h  or d u r a t i o n o f an o b s e r v a t i o n was determined  by the t o t a l  time r e q u i r e d t o capture o r r e c o r d the i n f o r m a t i o n . The o b s e r v a t i o n s were made o p e r a t i o n a l - t h r o u g h Super-8 time-lapse photographic  r e c o r d i n g o f p l a z a users and  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g peak use hours. l a p s e photography has been o f t e n used i n animal human s t u d i e s i n the environment has been r e c e n t l y advocated human behaviour 19 75).  Time-  as w e l l as  (Hutt and Hutt, 19 70) and  as an adequate t o o l to measure  i n our day-to-day s e t t i n g s (Davis and Ayers,  In the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , t h e prime advantage o f the  use o f camera over v i s u a l r e c o r d i n g was thought  t o be the  46 b r i s k n e s s and accuracy w^th which  the former t o o l c o u l d capture  the simultaneous occurrence of; many a c t i v i t i e s a c r o s s a g i v e n space a t a g i v e n p o i n t of time.  A t the same time, v a r i o u s  p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s l i k e the appearance,  d r e s s , cosmetic make-  up and p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s and, sometimes, t h e i r g e s t u r e s , g a i t , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , e t c . , c o u l d be recorded quickly.  T h i s proved t o be an advantage  i n understanding  people, t h e i r behaviour and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of the environment.  Furthermore,  g r a p h i c methods allow the r e s e a r c h e r to observe  photo-  activities  f i r s t and then q u i c k l y r e c o r d them f o r subsequent q u a n t i f i c a t i o n unlike  'paper and p e n c i l ' methods t h a t q u a n t i f y  predetermined c h e c k l i s t s of a c t i v i t i e s P r i e s e r , 1971;  I t t l e s o n e t . a l . , 1970).  ( f o r i n s t a n c e , see Such photographic  r e c o r d s become permanent ones reviewable time and a g a i n i n future. The set-up f o r photographic r e c o r d i n g was  decided  through t r i a l and e r r o r i n e m p i r i c a l p i l o t s t u d i e s of the selected plazas. movie/time-lapse  One  b a t t e r y operated Super-8 Nizo  camera  (Model S56  ) w i t h zoom l e n s and  automatic f o c u s s i n g , s h u t t e r t r i g g e r and exposure was  used.  Photographs  set-up  were taken as much as p o s s i b l e  u n o b s t r u s i v e l y and whenever p o s s i b l e r o o f s or windows of a d j a c a n t b u i l d i n g s were u t i l i z e d as o b s e r v a t i o n s t a t i o n s . Some of these were: the two corner windows on the f o u r t h f l o o r of the o l d Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l s t a t i o n b u i l d i n g  47  or the corner o f the upperstorey  r a i l i n g o f the p a r k i n g  garage on the c r o s s i n g o f G r a n v i l l e and Cordora S t r e e t s both o v e r l o o k i n g G r a n v i l l e Square; the f o u r t h s t o r e y window o f a b u i l d i n g on B u r r a r d S t r e e t f a c i n g B e n t a l l Two P l a z a , the r o o f o f Dominion b u i l d i n g on H a s t i n g S t r e e t f a c i n g V i c t o r y Square, the 11th s t o r e y windows o f I.B.M. Tower o v e r l o o k i n g both P a c i f i c Centre and I.B.M. p l a z a s  (Figure 2  ). A f i v e - s e c o n d s  time-lapse  or -frame i n t e r v a l was e m p i r i c a l l y s e l e c t e d through p i l o t photography o f d i f f e r e n t kinds o f a c t i v i t i e s i n p l a z a s and was c o n s t a n t l y used during--the survey.  The frame  i n t e r v a l was checked from time t o time d u r i n g the survey with the help o f a stop watch . I t was found necessary t o expose a s e t o f s u c c e s s i v e 2-5,  'close-up'  frames  (approximately,  depending on the s i t u a t i o n ) t o r e c o r d the a c t i v i t y  of each user group w i t h i n the p l a z a .  Such s u c c e s s i v e  frames c o u l d p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i t y t o understand  what  a c t i v i t y the user group was engaged i n . A c t i v i t i e s were expected  t o be predominantly  o f s t a t i o n a r y nature,  such as  s i t t i n g and l o o k i n g about, t a l k i n g , e a t i n g , r e a d i n g , e t c . For i n t e r p r e t i n g these recorded over a few s e t s o f s u c c e s s i v e frames, a very f a s t frame i n t e r v a l was not necessary.  On the other hand, a very slow frame i n t e r v a l  might l o s e the c o n t i n u i t y o f an event and miss many d e t a i l s or ' Actones' such as g e s t u r e s , p o s t u r e s ,  facial  expression.yetc.  A slow f r a m e - i n t e r v a l , moreover, would u n n e c e s s a r i l y prolong the t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n time t o r e c o r d  48  a l l user groups Qf the plaza,.  O c c a s i o n a l l y , however, the  camera was  t r i g g e r e d i n between the pre^-set  time-lapse  to  five-seconds  'snap-shot' a t r a n s i e n t actone  g e s t u r e or movement) of the user group being Such a d e t a i l could provide  (such as a photographed.  an important c l u e f o r l a t e r  inter-  p r e t a t i o n of the event, f o r i n s t a n c e , the r a i s i n g of a beer b o t t l e or a c o f f e e cup  to the mouth c o u l d c o n f i r m  p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y of  ' a l c o h o l d r i n k i n g ' or  of the person or the group. during  conversation,  the  'coffee drinking'  S i m i l a r l y , movement of hand  stopping  or bending of body d u r i n g  close  e x p l o r a t i o n of something,etc., were sometimes q u i c k l y recorded. Wide angle views taken at f i v e - s e c o n d s record pedestrian s t r e e t s and  frame i n t e r v a l  c i r c u l a t i o n through the space  adjacant  b u i l d i n g s ) as d i s t i n c t from  could  (between other  movements such as l o i t e r i n g , through the r e l a t i v e d i s p l a c e ments of moving persons recorded  over s u c c e s s i v e  frames,  t h e i r d i r e c t i o n s or channels of movement and other l i k e the o r i e n t a t i o n of body or f a c e . c i r c u l a t i o n without stopping  pedestrian  or l i n g e r i n g , i . e . people walking  through without d i s p l a y i n g any environment per  Direct  clues  o v e r t i n t e r e s t i n the  plaza  se were excluded from the measurement of  p o p u l a r i t y or l e v e l of  use.  A t y p i c a l photographic o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n began by c a p t u r i n g  or  recording  a wide angle view of the e n t i r e  p l a z a or a l a r g e p o r t i o n of i t (depending on how  much  was  49  clearly and  visible  through the lens  exposing a set of  3-4  f r o m one  s u c c e s s i v e frames  r e c o r d t h e number o f u s e r s , t h e i r activities.  Immediately  t h e zoom l e n s was t o f r a m e and  following  one  i t s own  by o n e ,  up  frames  w i t h i n the space. was  exposed  exposures,  t h e camera was  each  a specific  location  successive close-  event to record  the  activity,  p o s t u r e and p e r s o n a l d e t a i l s o f i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . adjustment vation  o f t h e camera was  except.to r o t a t e  n o t needed d u r i n g t h e  o f t h e zoom, d e p e n d i n g  c l o s e n e s s o r remoteness  immediately  c o u l d n o t be  As was  after  empirically  ten minutes'  events.  c a p t u r e d f r o m one  completion of recording determined  35 mm  t i m e was  adequate  notes t o supplement  photography  recording  the  relative Close-up  When t h e  station,  from  through p i l o t to complete  t h e most c r o w d e d c o n d i t i o n , o f t e n  writing  on  and  the  r e p e a t e d from a s u c c e s s i v e s t a t i o n  s e s s i o n o r p h o t o g r a p h i c o b s e r v a t i o n o f any during  obser-  o f e v e n t s from t h e camera.  v i e w s were t a k e n a l s o o f t h e l o i t e r i n g  a b o v e p r o c e d u r e was  Manual  i t by hand t o f r a m e e a c h e v e n t  o c c a s i o n a l . adjustment  entire plaza  rotated  stationary  A s e t o f 3-5  f o r each  to  the wide a n g l e  " e v e n t " , i . e . each u s e r group.'occupying of  station)  l o c a t i o n s and movement  s e t t o t e l e p h o t o and  photograph,  camera  first.  surveys,a such a  total  recording  study area  even  l e a v i n g room f o r  the photographic r e c o r d  o f the p l a z a scene.  t i m e d e p e n d e d on  the  The  actual  or f o r  photographic  t h e number o f p e o p l e and  activities  p r e s e n t i n t h e p l a z a a t t h e t i m e o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n . However,  50 f o r r e p e t i t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s on the game p l a z a , a constant i n t e r v a l o f 10 minutes was maintained of s u c c e s s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s , time, p l a c e  between the beginnings  A r e c o r d o f t h e date,  (study area) and weather  starting  (sunny/cloudy/moderate  sky; windy/not windy) was made f o r each o b s e r v a t i o n .  The  r e t r i e v a l o f photographic  data  recorded  on Super-8 Kodachrome movie f i l m s was c a r r i e d o u t through frame-by-frame a n a l y s i s o f f i l m s on t h e screen o f a Goko Dual-8 E d i t o r - V i e w e r  (Model A203).  F o r each o o b s e r v a t i o n ,  the data was t r a n s f e r r e d event by event, format on a l o g s h e e t  i n a quantifiable  (see Appendix-E). F o r each  event,  the number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ( s o l i t a r y p e r s o n / d y a d / t r i a d e t c ) , age,  sex, a c t i v i t y and posture were noted.  Thus, f o r each  o b s e r v a t i o n , the l e v e l o f use, i . e . the t o t a l number o f p l a z a users and f r e q u e n c i e s f o r the d i f f e r e n t age, sex, g r o u p - s i z e , a c t i v i t y and posture c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d be q u a n t i f i e d . Simultaneously,  a " b e h a v i o r a l map'  ( I t t l e s o n e t . a l . , 1970)  f ortthe observation', was prepared by p l o t t i n g the l o c a t i o n o f each event  (with a d o t f o r s t a t i o n a r y and an arrow f o r the  approximate movement route o f a l o i t e r i n g event) on the p l a n of the p l a z a .  P r i o r t o the survey, p l a n s f o r the d i f f e r e n t  study areas were prepared  t o - t h e - s c a l e showing a c c u r a t e l y  the e x i s t i n g l o c a t i o n s and dimensions of d i f f e r e n t  artifacts,  such as benches, p l a n t e r s , p o o l s , s c u l p t u r e s , r a i l i n g s ,  51  c o l u m n s , walls.; e t c , , f u r n i s h i n g other d e t a i l s  like  between b a l u s t e r s  the sizes  t o maps.  o f pavement t i l e s , d i s t a n c e  of a r a i l i n g ,  the survey t o f a c i l i t a t e on  these spaces. Various  e t c , , were m e a s u r e d b e f o r e  accurate p l o t t i n g  By s u p e r i m p o s i n g  the d i f f e r e n t  were c o d e d . into of  F o r each  benches o r o t h e r  p a r t s and f a c i l i t i e s  event  i t s locational  the logsheet, thereby q u a n t i f y i n g  different  users  numbered g r i d n e t w o r k on t h e  p l a n o r b y n u m b e r i n g pavement u n i t s , elements,  of plaza  parts of the plaza  o f each  code was e n t e r e d  the frequency o f use  i n each o b s e r v a t i o n .  observation  has b e e n i l l u s t r a t e d  photographs  o f recorded events  plaza  An  i n Appendix - E showing t h e  and t h e s u b s e q u e n t l y  retrieved  d a t a on l o g s h e e t and b e h a v i o r a l map.  Not made t h r o u g h  a l l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e s u r v e y , however, were time-lapse photographic recording.  r e c o r d i n g was c o n s i d e r e d a s r e d u n d a n t , consuming or  (for retrieval)  no a c t i v i t y m i g h t  observed.  I n such  with hand-written plaza i.e.  as w e l l f o r each  location  costly  Photographic  and t i m e -  f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s when v e r y  be e x p e c t e d  cases, v i s u a l  i n t h e study a r e a t o be o b s e r v a t i o n s were made  r e c o r d i n g o f events  a s on t h e l o g s h e e t .  little  on t h e map o f t h e  Procedure  was t h e same  o b s e r v a t i o n , n o t i n g down, one by o n e , t h e  o f each  e v e n t c o n t o t h e map o f t h e p l a z a  number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  age, s e x , group  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the event onto n e c e s s a r y , hand w r i t t e n  size  the l o g sheet.  and t h e  and a c t i v i t y Wherever  comments on t h e e v e n t were  added  52  to the above informa.tion.; t h e r e was  In the cage of o b s e r v a t i o n when  no user i n the p l a z a , a zero v a l u e f o r the  of use was  level  recorded.  The o b s e r v a t i o n a l survey of p l a z a s spread over a p e r i o d of s i x months between March and September of 19 76. Four p l a z a s , namely G r a n v i l l e square, Courthouse  square,  V i c t o r y square and P a c i f i c Centre p l a z a , were observed a l s o d u r i n g the F a l l  (mid-October  t o mid-December) of  19 75. Recording.-sessions' or o b s e r v a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out under both c l e a r and cloudy c o n d i t i o n s on weekdays between 10 a.m.  and 5 p.m. .-Several c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were, however  made d u r i n g weekends, Sundays or h o l i d a y s , b e f o r e 10 and a f t e r 5 p.m.  and d u r i n g r a i n y - p e r i o d .  a.m.  The number of  o b s e r v a t i o n s taken across the study areas have been l i s t e d i n Appendix - F. The o b s e r v a t i o n a l data recorded onto were subsequently through  logsheets  t r a n s f e r r e d onto punch cards f o r a n a l y s i s  SPSS Programme i n the Computer.  For each p l a z a ,  b e h a v i o r a l maps f o r d i f f e r e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s were superimposed t o study the r e l a t i v e use o f d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the space.  These b e h a v i o r a l data along w i t h the data on emotion-  e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t y and c o l l a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s of study areas, as d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , formed the b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n of f i n d i n g s i n the next  chapter.  53  CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION ON  FINDINGS  P e r c e p t i o n o f D i v e r s i t y and Emo t i o n - E 1 i c i t a t i o n Across P l a z a Environments. The  survey o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l responses across nine  p l a z a s of Downtown Vancouver generated 209 response  sheets  from 50 s u b j e c t s who v i s i t e d these areas t o rate, on v e r b a l s c a l e s , t h e i r emotions and p e r c e p t i o n s w i t h i n these A breakdown o f response s i z e s i s shown i n Table I.  environments. Approxi-  mately o n e - t h i r d of the responses were from students and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o f d e s i g n d i s c i p l i n e s w h i l e the r e s t came from s u b j e c t s having the humanities o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s as t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds.  The v i s i t s t o p l a z a s by the  responding s u b j e c t s were made a t d i f f e r e n t hours o f the day  (between 10 a.m.  and 5 p.m.)  although.cases o f forenoon  v i s i t were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l (24%) .  They were made under  v a r y i n g weather c o n d i t i o n s although most of the v i s i t s ( 8 9 % ) were under c l e a r  ("sunny and b r i g h t " o r "moderately b r i g h t " )  r a t h e r than cloudy and o v e r c a s t c o n d i t i o n .  Cases o f v i s i t s  d u r i n g the Summer were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than those made d u r i n g the S p r i n g .  The  scores on each s e t o f v e r b a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l  s c a l e s were analyzed through a M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e t o study the d i f f e r e n c e s i n response across the s e l e c t e d p l a z a s as w e l l as a c r o s s the d i f f e r e n t s e a s o n a l ,  TABLE I : A BREAKDOWN OF RESPONSES TO TEE SURVEY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF PLAZAS  T o t a l No. o f Cases  Trounce A l l e y Sq.  MacMillan Bloedel  Guiness Plaza  Baxter Plaza  TOTAL  18  14  19  21  21  209  13 72.2 5 27.8  8 57 1 6 42 q  11 57 9 8 42 1  12 57 1 9 42 9  10 47 6 11 52 4  132 63.2 77 ' 36.8  4 22.2 • 14 77.8  3 21 4 11 78 6  7 36 8 12 63 2  7 33 3 14 66 7  6 28 6 15 71 4  95 45.4 114 54.6  13 43.3 14 46.7 3 10.0  11 61.1 7 38.9 0 0.0  9 64 3 5 35 1 0 0.0  10 52 6 7 36 8 2 10 5  11 52 4 7 33 3 3 14 3  8 38 ± 11 52 4 2 9 5  99 47.4 88 42.1 22 10.5  3 12 0 11 44.0 44 0  7 23.3 12 40.0 36.7  4 22.2 7 38.9 38.9  1 7 1' 5 35 7 57 1  4 21.1 8 42 1 36 8  6 28 6 ' 10 47 6 23 8  5 23 8 10 47 6 28 6  44 21.1 8S 42.1 36.8  27 10.48 17 65  25 9 75 18 54  26 9.33 17 59  40 14.02 20 65  40 15 39 22 65  32 12 46 18 65  33 11 43 17 65  31 9 21 IS 54  30 12.21 17 65  18 60.0 12 40.0  15 60 0 10 40 0  17 56.7 13 43.3  10 55.6 8 44.4  7 50 0 7 50 0  11 57 9  12 57 1 9 42 9  13 61 9 8 38 1  CourtHouse So.  Pacific Centre  Granville Sq  Bentall Two  31  30  25  30  21 67 7 10 32 3  20 66.6 10 33.3  17 68 0 8 32 0  20 66.6 10 33.3  17 54 8 14 45 2  16 53.3 14 46.7  16 64 0 9 36 0  • 19 63.3 11 36.7  16 51 6 12 38 7 3 9 7  12 40.0 12 40.0 6 20.0  19 36 0 13 52 0 3 12 .0  7 22 6 15 48 4 29 0  7 23.3 10 33.3 43.3  30 13 43 17 65  18 58.1 13 41 9  I.B.M. Plaza  V o c a t i o n a l background Non-designers  % Designers  %  -  Season o f V i s i t Spring  (April-June)  - Summer (July-mid  %  September7.  Weather C o n d i t i o n o f V i s i t Sunny and b r i g h t X  Moderately  bright X  Cloudy X  ,  Time of V i s i t Morning  (10 a.m.-12 p.m.) X  Mid-afternoon  (12 p.m.-2 p  % Late a f t e r n o o n (2 p.m.-5 p m.) Resnondents  1  Age ( i n years)  Mean Stand. Dev. Minimum Maximum Respondents' Sex Male Fctnle  % %  c  42 1  121 57.9 83 42.1  55  temporal and weather c o n d i t i o n s o f v i s i t s and the v o c a t i o n a l background  o f respondents  (see Table I I ) .  The mean scores  of study areas on these s e t s of v e r b a l s c a l e s , i . e . t h e i r measures f o r the d i f f e r e n t e m o t i o n - e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t i e s p e r c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e , have been shown V a r i a n c e on r e s p o n d e n t s s c a l e s measuring  the f e e l i n g s o f  1  and  i n Table I I I .  scores on the s e t o f  'pleasure-displeasure'  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s e l e c t e d p l a z a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  differed  i n terms o f t h e i r  A Multiple  'pleasure-eliciting quality'.  Range t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t Guiness p l a z a and G r a n v i l l e  square,  the two areas l o c a t e d on the edge o f the downtown and  exposed  to panoramic  view were p e r c e i v e d as the most p l e a s a n t areas,  c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by B e n t a l l Two,  the s m a l l densely f u r n i s h e d  p l a z a on B u r r a r d s t r e e t and Trounce A l l e y square o f the Gastown shopping d i s t r i c t o f the downtown.  At the lowest  end o f the s c a l e were P a c i f i c c e n t r e , MacMillan and B l o e d e l and I.B.M. p l a z a s , w h i l e Courthouse occupied an i n t e r m e d i a t e range. of each p l a z a was p o s i t i v e  square and Baxter p l a z a  However, the mean score  (see Table I I I ) s u g g e s t i n g t h a t  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l , each open space was more p l e a s a n t than unpleasant t o the average  respondent.  P o s i t i v e scores ranged between 80 to 95% of the responses from Guiness p l a z a , G r a n v i l l e square, Courthouse B e n t a l l Two  square  p l a z a , 69-70% o f the responses from Trounce  and Alley  and Baxter p l a z a s and 45-56% o f the responses from P a c i f i c Centre, M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l and I.B.M. p l a z a s .  56  TABLE I I : VARIANCE ON SCORES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL  Sources o f V a r i a t i o n i n Each S c a l e  Sum o f Squares  D.F.  SCALES  Mean Square  F-Ratio  Prob.  PLEASURE-ELICITING QUALITY Plazas V o c a t i o n a l background o f respondents (non-designer) Weather c o n d i t i o n Season Time o f v i s i t Explained V a r i a t i o n  1540.42  8  192.57  2.64  0.009  89.72 129.91 3.41 27.83  1 2 1 2  89.72 64.95 3.41 13.92  1.23 0.89 0.05 0.19  0.269 0.412 0.829 0.826  1956.77  14  139.77  1.92  0.027  525.54  8  65.69  1.18  0.312  3.38 11.17 76.65 38.36  1 2 1 2  3.38 5.58 76.65 19.18  0.06 0.10 1.38 0.35  0.805 0.904 0.242 0.708.  632.98  14  45.21  0.81  0.654  216.25  8  27.03  0.81  0.597  13.07 28.75 89.28 38.96  1 2 1 2  13.07 14.37 89.28 19.48  0.38 0.43 2.67 0.58  0.533 0.652 0.104 0.560  473.94  14  33.85  1.01  0.445  2613.69  8  326.71  2.02  0.047  182.18 551.55 172.32 80.17  1 2 1 2  182.18 275.77 172.32 40.08  1.13 1.70 1.06 0.25  0.290 0.185 0.304 0.781  3590.98  14  256.50  1.59  0.087  AROUSING QUALITY Plazas V o c a t i o n a l background o f respondents Weather c o n d i t i o n Season Time o f v i s i t Explained  variation  DOMINANCE-ELICITING  QUALITY  Plazas V o c a t i o n a l background o f respondents Weather c o n d i t i o n Season Time o f v i s i t Explained  variation  PERCEIVED INFORMATION RATE Plazas V o c a t i o n a l background o f respondents Weather c o n d i t i o n Season Time o f v i s i t Explained  variation  TABLE I I I : MEAN SCORES OF PLAZAS ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SCALES  Study Areas  Pleasure-eliciting Quality  Arousing Quality  Dominance E l i c i t i n g Quality  Perceived Information Rate  Granville Square  8.32  2.57  1.40  5.93  Bentall Two  7.79  3.18  0.63  0.24  Courthouse Square  4.78  1.35  0.66  0.06  MacMillan-Bloedel  1.18  0.23  -0.99  -7.78  P a c i f i c Centre  0.99  1.91  -0.07  -0.35  Trounce A l l e y  7.12  2.07  2.70  -3.63  Guiness Plaza  8.19  -0.79  0.39  -4.05  Baxter Plaza  5.46  -2.28  0.15  -0.40  I.B.M. Plaza  3.09  2.46  1.93  -4.93  GRAND MEAN  5.18  1.33  0.78  -0.99  58  The study areas, however, had i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among themselves i n terms of the other eliciting qualities they were 'arousing'  two emotion-  (see Table I I ) , i . e . t o the extent o r t o the extent  that  t h a t they e l i c i t e d a  f e e l i n g o f 'dominance' i n the s u b j e c t s .  I t appeared fromaa  M u l t i p l e Range T e s t , however, t h a t l o c a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s across  these open spaces might have had some r o l e i n t h e i r  arousing  - non-arousing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For the small Baxter  p l a z a as w e l l as Guiness p l a z a , both l o c a t e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y quiet o f f i c e d i s t r i c t , w e r e perceived  as much l e s s  arousing  than most other open spaces l o c a t e d i n the hub o f the downtown. The study areas s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r v e r b a l l y measured i n f o r m a t i o n  rates  (see Table I I ) .  This  s e t o f s c a l e however, was composed of a l a r g e number (14) of a d j e c t i v e p a i r s r e f e r r i n g t o v a r i o u s dimensions o f the environment.  From t h i s l a r g e s e t , a few a d j e c t i v e p a i r s ,  namely, " n o v e l - f a m i l i a r " , "varied-redundant", " s u r p r i s i n g usual",  " s i m i l a r - c o n t r a s t i n g " and "rare-common" were f u r t h e r  chosen t o p r o v i d e perceptions  a semantically  d i r e c t measure o f s u b j e c t s '  of d i v e r s i t y or change-in-stimuli  environment unbiased o f v a r i a b l e s l i k e 'symmetry-asymmetry',  'size',  'crowding',  e t c . , t h a t composed the o v e r a l l s c a l e .  A l s o , the s u b j e c t s were asked t o provide for t h e i r perception  i n the v i s u a l  reasons  o f v a r i e t y and n o v e l t y  environments i n the survey  specifically  across  plaza  (see Appendix - D) where these  59 chosen a d j e c t i v e s were used.  Furthermore, a P r i n c i p a l -  Component f a c t o r a n a l y s i s w i t h orthogonal scores on the o v e r a l l s c a l e  r o t a t i o n o f the  (see Appendix - G) i n d i c a t e d  t h a t t h e above v a r i a b l e , i . e . , n o v e l t y , s u r p r i s e , r a r i t y , v a r i e t y and c o n t r a s t were c l o s e l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d h i g h l o a d i n g s on the f i r s t  factor.  p a i r s was then taken as an index  having  This s e t of f i v e a d j e c t i v e  t o measure s u b j e c t s '  p e r c e p t i o n o f d i v e r s i t y across the study  areas.  Subsequent a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on scores on t h i s set  i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the p l a z a s i n  p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i r v i s u a l environment  (Table I V ) .  A M u l t i p l e Range Test i n d i c a t e d t h a t G r a n v i l l e Square, f o l l o w e d by B e n t a l l Two and Trounce A l l e y were s u p e r i o r t o other areas p e r c e i v e d by respondents. Guiness p l a z a s occupied MacMillan  plazas  i n the l e v e l o f d i v e r s i t y  While Baxter,  an i n t e r m e d i a t e  Courthouse and range, P a c i f i c  and B l o e d e l and I.B.M. p l a z a s , t r a i l i n g  Centre,  the l i s t  with n e g a t i v e mean s c o r e s , were p e r c e i v e d as redundant and common environments by the average respondent. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n none o f the above p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures temporal,seasonal o f v i s i t s were s i g n i f i c a n t sources visits  under the cloudy  o r weather c o n d i t i o n s  of v a r i a t i o n .  Although  sky were meagre i n numbers, d i f f e r e n -  ces between sunny and b r i g h t weather and moderately b r i g h t  60  •TABLE IV ; VARIANCE ON SCORES ON THE DIVERSITY SCALE  SOURCES OF VARIATION  SUM OF SOURCES  D.F.  932.29  8  116.54  2.46  0.015  5.13  1  5.13  0.11  0.743  Weather Condition  89.94  2  44.97  0.95  0.389  Season  10.33  1 P  10.33  0.22  0.641  2.48  2-  1.24  0.03  0.964  75.82  1.60  0.083  Plazas Respondent type (Designers/ Nondesigner)  Time of V i s i t  Explained  Variation  1061.50-  MEAN SQUARE  14  PROB.  F-VALUE  MEAN SCORES OF PLAZAS: GRANVILLE SQ. = 5.21 BENTALL 'TWO = 2.02 COURTHOUSE SQ. = 0.17  MACMILLAN-BLOEDEL = 1.64 PACIFIC CENTRE = 1.06 TROUNCE ALLEY =1.74 GRAND MEAN =0.87  GUINESS PLAZA BAXTER PLAZA I.B.M. PLAZA  = 0.10 = 1.14 =1.42 1  weather had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on s u b j e c t s ' f e e l i n g s o r t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f d i v e r s i t y i n the v i s u a l environments o f plazas.  V o c a t i o n a l background o f s u b j e c t s , s i m i l a r l y , had  i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on response although d e s i g n e r s  appeared  to be s l i g h t l y more c r i t i c a l than non-designers i n r a t i n g these environments, as suggested by t h e i r lower mean scores on p l e a s u r e  (4.14) and I n f o r m a t i o n Rate (-1.49)  combining  \  61  a l l the p l a z a s , than those of the non-designers 0.89  respectively).  (5.80  and  D i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s or p e r c e p t u a l  p r e f e r e n c e s between environmental d e s i g n e r s or v i s u a l l y t r a i n e d persons and the laymen have been r e p o r t e d i n v a r i o u s contexts  (Appleyard, 1969;  i n Friedman  V i g i e r , 1969;  and Juhasz, 1974;  Rapoport  Stephen  Friedman  and Kantor,  1967).  In the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , however, f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s these open space :  environments  t h a t were a l i k e t o people of d i f f e r e n t  traits  or a t t i t u d e s . There were, however, a few s c a t t e r e d e x c e p t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o f some of these extraneous v a r i a b l e s i n a few study a r e a s .  Some of these s c a t t e r e d  examples would show t h a t the presence of s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s , l i k e panoramic  views o r ornamental  p l a n t m a t e r i a l s i n the landscape might b r i n g  visual  deciduous about  s i g n i f i c a n t temporal v a r i a t i o n i n the p e r c e p t u a l q u a l i t y of these open spaces.  In both G r a n v i l l e Square and  Guiness  p l a z a , f o r i n s t a n c e , the mean score on d i v e r s i t y was  signi-  f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n the Summer than i n the S p r i n g (F  G R A N V  .  = 3.529, a = .07; F  G U N >  = 5.315, a = .03). G r e a t e r  v i s i b i l i t y d u r i n g summer months renders the panoramic across these water f r o n t p l a z a s v i v i d and view was f e a t u r e of these open space environments. the e x t e n s i v e l y p l a n t e d Courthouse  view  a major  On the o t h e r hand,  Square was  perceived to  be d i v e r s e more i n the S p r i n g than i n the Summer (F=7.833,  62  a = .014), i e . , when the l a r g e number of c h e r r y t r e e s d o t t i n g its  landscape  were r i c h i n c o l o u r .  Also i n this  p l a z a , the mean score on d i v e r s i t y f o r t t h e l a t e visits for  (2 p.m.  - 5 p.m.)  the e a r l i e r v i s i t s  was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t  (F==7.173, a=.006) probably  the f o u n t a i n , a major landscape g e n e r a l l y operates  from a f t e r n o o n hours and people  Designers  redundancy than nondesigners of  Baxter  because  "feature of t h i s p l a z a ,  The m u l t i c o l o u r e d l i g h t i n g on water operates afternooon hours.  afternoon  from l a t e  p e r c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o n l y i n the s m a l l o f f i c e p l a z a  (F=4.68, a=.05) where they were c r i t i c a l  e x t e n s i v e r e p e t i t i o n of l a r g e planterboxes o f - s c a l e w i t h the s i z e of the p l a z a .  of the  apparently  significant  response.  The  p e r c e p t u a l l y d i v e r s e p l a z a environments were  a l s o the p l e a s a n t ones, as suggested  by the high  positive  r e l a t i o n s h i p between mean scores o f p l a z a s on these measures  out-  In no other i n s t a n c e s ,  however, d i d these extraneous f a c t o r s have any e f f e c t on  congregate.  (see F i g u r e 1?3) . I n d i v i d u a l s ' scores on  d i s p l e a s u r e a l s o c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r scores on d i v e r s i t y s c a l e (R=0.50, a=.00). view-point,  pleasurethe  From a p s y c h o p h y s i c a l  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p l e a s u r e and  d i v e r s i t y a c r o s s these open spaces would make sense, requirements  two  perceived f o r the  of a e s t h e t i c enjoyment are simply the r e q u i r e -  ments o f p e r c e p t i o n i t s e l f ;  the o r g a n i c b a s i s f o r p l e a s u r e  is  the  And,  functional satisfaction  since  of the b r a i n  "change-in-stimuli"  mation or novelty environments, they  are are  innate  and  demands f o r new  to perception  likely  to play  enjoyment.  (Piatt,  of  1961). inform-  visual  a major r o l e  in  ,  Granville  MEAN Figure 1 3 :  DIVERSITY  Relationship Between Verbally measured! Diversity and Pleasantness  Furthermore, the plazas  of plazas  o b s e r v a t i o n a l survey  r a t e d h i g h l y i n d i v e r s i t y were a l s o t h e  A M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s of Variance observed per  u n i t of recording  on  the  revealed popular  number o f  session or  I  users  "observation"  that ones.  64  i n d i c a t e d t h a t p l a z a s themselves were s i g n i f i c a n t sources o f v a r i a t i o n i n the average observed the times  p o p u l a t i o n independent o f  (hours o f the day), seasons  (Spring and Summer)  and weather c o n d i t i o n s ( c l e a r and cloudy sky) o f o b s e r v a t i o n (Table V ) .  The mean number o f users o f each p l a z a , a d j u s t e d  f o r v a r i a t i o n accounted f o r by a l l other f a c t o r s i n the a n a l y s i s i s shown i n Table V.  TABLE V: VARIANCE ON NUMBER OF USERS RECORDED PER  Sources o f Variation  Sum of Squares  Plazas  D.F.  Mean Square  OBSERVATION  F-Value  Prob  60308.37  8  6700.93  44.72  .001  Time (hourly differences between 10 am and 5 pm)  9820.41  6  1636.73  10.92  .001  Weather (clear and cloudy)  1412.52  1  1412.52  9.43  .002  Season (Spring:March,April May Summer: July,August, early September)  7007.96  1  7006.96  46.77  .001  16  4931.73  32.92  .001  Explained Variation  83839.5  MEAN UO. OF USERS OF PLAZAS GRANVILLE SQ. = 35.00 BENTALL TWO = 15?36 COURTHOUSE SQ.= 10.24  MMACMILLAN BLOEDEL =5.16 PACIFIC CENTRE = 5.49 TROUNCE ALLEY =4.07 GRANT MEAN = 10.80  GUINESS PLAZA = 5.55 BAXTER PLAZA = 2.52 I.B.M. PLAZA = 1.34  65  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these mean use l e v e l s o f p l a z a s and t h e i r mean scores on p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y i s ' , shown i n F i g u r e 14 .  f  MacMillan Bloedel  g  i MEAN Figure  Granvilie  2  3  DIVERSITY  14: Relationship between Verbally Measured D i v e r s i t y ' and the Observed Popularity o f Plazas "  66  In summary, t h e r e f o r e , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the seasonal and  or weather c o n d i t i o n s under which they were  regardless  design  perceived  of whether the p e r c e i v i n g s u b j e c t s had  previous  backgrounds, there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among  nine p l a z a s and  temporal,  i n terms o f t h e i r p l e a s u r e - e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t y  perceived  d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i r v i s u a l environments.  P e r c e p t u a l l y d i v e r s e environments a l s o appear to be as w e l l as p l e a s a n t  popular  t o everyone and under a l l c o n d i t i o n s .  Across a s e v e n - i n t e r v a l difference-:between the scores l e a s t and  the most d i v e r s e p l a z a , t h e s e  of  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were  not i n v e r t e d U-shaped i n nature as the scattergrams wouQid suggest  (see F i g u r e 13  and 14  )  r  which i s i n c o n t r a s t with  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between environmental complexity preference  or approach behaviour p o s t u l a t e d  p s y c h o l o g i c a l researches Miller,  1956;  ( S t r e n f o r t and  Kessen and Munsinger, 1967,  i n these r e s e a r c h e s i s the n o t i o n o f an rate  (Rapopart and  Kanter, 1967)  1  and  i n several  Schroeder,  1965;  etc.).  Inherent  optimal'information  t h a t an average person  can  cope w i t h .  The narrow and  range o f d i v e r s i t y s t u d i e d here was  the sample of environments s m a l l .  speaking, however, i t may  Realistically  be d i f f i c u l t to conceive of open  spaces l i k e parks and p l a z a s  to be so extremely v i s u a l l y  complex as to evoke d i s p l e a s u r e o r avoidance.  Although  s m a l l i n number, s e l e c t e d p l a z a s were apparently of what i s u b i q u i t o u s  possibly  i n our c i t i e s .  Findings  not a t y p i c a l suggest t h a t  67  across these t y p i c a l environments,  significant  differences  may be achieved i n t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l q u a l i t i e s . The more the d i v e r s i t y , the more p l e a s a n t and popular they are l i k e l y t o be. However, one might ask, why d i d these p l a z a s d i f f e r i n p e r c e p t u a l q u a l i t i e s ? What p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s make up f o r t h e i r p l e a s a n t n e s s and p e r c e i v e d v a r i e t y o r the l a c k o f these?  And, how does a d i v e r s e p h y s i c a l make-up support use? Respondents  1  comments on t h e i r f e e l i n g s p r o v i d e d  i n s i g h t s w h i c h were supplemented w i t h a landscape inventory of these open spaces.  Observed  behaviour p a t t e r n across these  s e t t i n g s and l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f people, s t u d i e d through b e h a v i o r a l maps o f these p l a z a s , p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r  insights.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P h y s i c a l Features and P s y c h o - b e h a v i o r a l Responses t o P l a z a s . The environmental antecedents o f s u b j e c t s * f e e l i n g s and p e r c e p t i o n s a c r o s s study areas were e x p l o r e d through t h e i r comments i n the survey.  A comparison  o f the g i v e n  reasons f o r d i s p l e a s u r e and p e r c e p t i o n o f redundancy i n the l o w - s c o r i n g p l a z a s l i k e MacMillan and B l o e d e l , P a c i f i c  Centre  and I.B.M. w i t h those f o r p l e a s u r e and p e r c e p t i o n o f v a r i e t y and n o v e l t y i n the other p l a z a s (see F i g u r e  15 ), would  i l l u s t r a t e how d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f these spaces accounted  f o r t h e i r phenomenological  impacts.  68  WATER  FRONT  INTERIOR  o  5 g  COf-'mtTS R t F E R I N G TO: Scenic v i e w  <  §  O  %  35.0 33.3  %  20.0 28.6  29.4  32.9'; -  -  23.5  23.7  19.1  11.8  10.1  4.S  17.7  19.2  Quietness,peace,escape from c i t y  PLEASURE  Openness,spaciousness Internal  .... %  9.5  furnishing  ar.d l a y o u t  %  P e o p l e and a c t i v i t i e s  2 0 . 0 19.1  .... %  10.0  Surrounding architecture... % Miscellaneous %  S.O  9.5  40.  31  TOTAL NQ. QF C f l l M L S  -  S c e n i c View. Internal  %  45.5 46.9  %  2 7 . 3 31.3  4.S  17.7  15.9  17  88  55.6  47.6  Surrounding buildings  %  -  33.3  4.9  5 7 . 1 34,S 5 0 . 0 10.3 20.0  11.1  4.8  17.2  28.6  31  29  10  3.1  50.0 3 5 . 0 10.0  38.2  °-  ' 8.3 20.9 2 0 . 0  15.7  °-  9  16.7 13.9  13.S  People.and a c t i v i t i e s  %  -  3.1  %  7.3  6.3  5.7  Greenness, openness, c o n t r a s t w i t h i?jr,ediate s u r r o u n d . . . %  3.6  3.6  2  r:o,0F COWENTS  55  32  18  -  8  '10b  30.0  8.9  3.3 23.3 1 0 , 0  15.7  .3  36  4.7  43  10  —  UJ  <  =3  •J o >— o u —  B a r r e n n e s s , o b v i o u s n e s s e t c . ........ %  LOW SCORING PLAZAS  REASONS PROVIDED  AND \ REDLaiBANCY  Redundant s u r f a c e  texture  5 colour  Monotonous space o r g a n i z a t i o n , s i m i l a r i t y , patterened e t c Dominant b u i l d i n g , s r c a l l typical  buildings  15  5.3  18.9  15.6  4.2  28.1  3.1  10.5  6.7  21.9  31.6  28.4  12.5  31.6  15.9  %  8.7  %  34.8  %  M0,OF COMMENTS  Reasons f o r p e r c e p t i o n and v a r i e t y - r e d u n d a n c y r e p o r t e d by s u b j e c t s .  37.5  °i  Miscellaneous  Figure  4.4  ...% 3 4 . 9  space,  N o i s e , t r a f f i c , crowd  TOTAL  70  9  INTERIOR  /DISPLEASURE  40.6  9.5  29.5  General renarks l i k e "novel",different", "unique"  TOTAL  6.9  25.7  f u r n i s h i n g and  layout  DIVERSITY  10.0  31.0 30.0  8.7 8.7 25  9.4  35  6.9  19  of pleasure-displeasure a c r o s s p l a z a s as  79  89  69 Among the l a t t e r areas,, however, a dichotomy the edge and the i n t e r i o r o f the downtown was the comments.  between  apparent through  In each w a t e r - f r o n t p l a z a , "view" was  the most  popular reason f o r s u b j e c t s ' p l e a s u r e as w e l l as p e r c e p t i o n of d i v e r s i t y .  The s u p e r i o r i t y of G r a n v i l l e square to a l l  o t h e r areas i n p l e a s u r e - e l i c i t a t i o n , p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y and observed p o p u l a r i t y may  be l a r g e l y e x p l a i n e d through i t s  l o c a t i o n commanding a wide panoramic depth, w i t h mountain  view.  Varied i n i t s  ranges dotted-.w-i.fch d i s t a n t  suburbs  p r o v i d i n g i t s backdrop, an expansive winding waterbody p r o v i d i n g i t s middle ground and view of the harbour, a c t i v i t i e s and the edge o f downtown composing the 270/panorama o f f e r e d by the edge of t h i s (Figure 16  ) . was  marine  i t s foreground, plaza  a contrasting experience i n i t s e l f  and  rendered c o n t r a s t to the u b i q u i t o u s b u i l t -environment of the downtown.  T h i s p l a z a was  never found empty i n any of  the 150 odd o b s e r v a t i o n s made d u r i n g the f a l l ,  spring  and  summer months, a t d i f f e r e n t hours of the day and under both c l e a r and cloudy sky.  During the Summer lunch hours, over 50  people were o f t e n observed a t a time along i t s r a i l i n g s o v e r l o o k i n g the B u r r a r d I n l e t . On the o t h e r hand, many open spaces amidst teeming shopping s t r e e t s o f the downtown were f r e q u e n t l y observed to be a b s o l u t e l y vacant.  The  panoramic  view a c r o s s the p l a z a , moreover, a t t r a c t e d a wide range 6f u s e r s : shoppers, t o u r i s t s  ( i n Summer), f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n ,  e l d e r l y r e t i r e d persons and, o c c a s i o n a l l y , l a r g e groups of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were a p p a r e n t l y p r e s e n t b e s i d e s the u s u a l  Figure 16 : A Few I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Surrounding View from G r a n v i l l e Square  Figure  17  :  I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Water-front View fromGuniess  and Baxter Plazas  72  lunch-time o f f i c e workers.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough the  a p p a r e n t l y r e t i r e d e l d e r l y people c o n s t i t u t e d , on the average, a meagre proportion:. (4.8%) of the observed  total  users a c r o s s p l a z a s i n the i n t e r i o r of the downtown; whereas, 23% of the users of G r a n v i l l e square were e l d e r l y persons watching  scenery f o r long hours.  T h i s group of  u s e r s c o n s t i t u t e d approximately 14% of the observed  total  p o p u l a t i o n across a l l w a t e r f r o n t p l a z a s . The p l e a s u r e - e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t y of the o t h e r two f r o n t p l a z a s o f the study was  water-  a l s o g r e a t e r than t h a t of most  open spaces i n the i n t e r i o r of the downtown  (see Table I I I ) .  The emotional responses of people a c r o s s these few open spaces would, no doubt, demonstrate  the p o t e n t i a l of water-  f r o n t l o c a t i o n s i n the h e a r t of the c i t y f o r p u b l i c enjoyment. Lynch's  study  (19 60) of Boston's C h a r l e s R i v e r s edge was  a  s i m i l a r i l l u s t r a t i o n of the emotional and p e r c e p t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of panoramic  view to people.  Such p s y c h o l o g i c a l  responses to 'breadth of v i s i o n ' , as Rene Dubos (1974) suggests, might be b i o l o g i c a l l y i n n a t e .  However, the sharp  d i f f e r e n c e i n the l e v e l of use between G r a n v i l l e square the o t h e r two w a t e r f r o n t p l a z a s i n the study would i l l u s t r a t e , at the same time,  how  and  (see T a b l e V)  such p u b l i c  r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l of w a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n s might be  lost  through piecemeal developments of p r i v a t e p r e c i n c t s i s o l a t e d from o t h e r p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t i e s or movements w i t h i n the downtown.  Downtown Vancouver i s an  illustration  73  of such l o s t o r u n e x p l o i t e d p o t e n t i a l s , f o r the t e r m i n i of populous s t r e e t s on the B u r r a r d I n l e t have been wasted w i t h p a r k i n g spaces, s t o r a g e s , warehouses, e t c . , w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l Commercial  o f f i c e p l a z a s have been d e v e l o p i n g along the  w a t e r f r o n t e c c e n t r i c t o the main s t r e e t s and shopping l i t i e s of the downtown (see F i g u r e 18  locar  ).  The presence of panoramic view w i t h c o n t r a s t i n g n a t u r a l and man-made f e a t u r e s , however, l a r g e l y  explains  people's responses o n l y a c r o s s a few study a r e a s . P l a z a s and squares l o c a t e d amidst s t r e e t s and b u i l d i n g s are g e n e r a l l y more t y p i c a l environments i n our downtown s e t t i n g s .  Why  than w a t e r f r o n t p l a z a s  d i d people's responses vary,  a c r o s s such t y p i c a l spaces i n the study? In c o n t r a s t w i t h the w a t e r f r o n t p l a z a s , s u b j e c t s ' reasons f o r p e r c e p t i o n of p l e a s u r e and d i v e r s i t y , i n the i n t e r i o r p l a z a s l i k e B e n t a l l Two p r i m a r i l y on what was  o r Courthouse square f o c u s s e d  on the.;plazas themselves. "People and  a c t i v i t i e s " were, no doubt, mentioned  as reasons f o r v a r i e t y  but r e f e r e n c e t o the m a t e r i a l environment w i t h i n these spaces were more popular (see F i g u r e 15 " I n t e r n a l landscape" was  ).  Although  r e f e r r e d to a l s o i n the w a t e r f r o n t  p l a z a s such comments were much l e s s i n numbers than those r e f e r r i n g to the o u t s i d e view.  These comments i n d i c a t e d  t h a t s u b j e c t s ' a t t e n t i o n s were d i r e c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l shing elements, such as f o u n t a i n s (Courthouse and  furni-  Bentall  U  R  R  A  R  D  1 N  L  ET  major pedestrian circulation Ce  °rgxa St,  9.  retail location  "^•j™ locations /Js  ISO  a  rt  vista of north-shore mountains  ioofl  Figure 1 8 : Development o f Waterfront Plazas are Taking Place l H v ^ . ^ f P ^ e s t r i a n Movement and Shopping A c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the Downtown. . C  H to  o  of waterfront places  C  t  0  75  Two),  sculpture  ( G r a n v i l l e and Trounce a l l e y ) , t r e e s , e x o t i c  shrubs, c o l o u r f u l annuals  ( B e n t a l l Two, Courthouse,  Guiness),  e t c . , as w e l l as t o the o v e r a l l c o l o u r scheme and b r i g h t n e s s ( B e n t a l l Two), v a r i e t y i n shapes and s i z e s o f a r t i f a c t s ( G r a n v i l l e Square), space a r t i c u l a t i o n , e.g., nooks and corners  o r changes i n l e v e l s  ( G r a n v i l l e , Guiness, Courthouse),  etc. Conversely,  i n the l o w - s c o r i n g  p l a z a s i n the i n t e r i o r  of the downtown, i . e . , i n I.B.M., P a c i f i c Centre and MacMillan and B l o e d e l p l a z a s , 5 4 % o f the r e p o r t e d  reasons  f o r d i s p l e a s u r e and p e r c e i v e d redundancy r e f e r r e d t o "barrenness" o r "obviousness", redundancy i n m a t e r i a l and  texture i . e . "excessive  colour  cement-concrete/paving", " l a c k  of c o l o u r c o n t r a s t " , " l a c k df.green" , e t c . , and monotony i n space o r g a n i z a t i o n , i . e . "patterned", o f t h e same type"  " c l u t t e r o f elements  and "no f o c a l p o i n t " .  In view o f t h i s popular  r e f e r e n c e t o the i n t e r n a l  f u r n i s h i n g o f these v o i d s , an a c t u a l count o f t h e number and  type o f form elements f u r n i s h i n g each p l a z a was made t o  a r r i v e a t an approximate measure o f d i v e r s i t y i n i t s p h y s i c a l landscape based on the mathematical model o f "Average U n c e r t a i n t y " chapter.  as d i s c u s s e d  i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y  The i n v e n t o r y counted t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t  form elements e x i s t i n g "on" t h e p l a z a w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o e i t h e r d i s t a n t landscapes o r immediate surrounds of p l a z a s ,  76 f o r the i d e a was t o determine,, t o what e x t e n t , p e r c e p t i o n of d i v e r s i t y was r e l a t e d t o the i n t e r n a l  configurations  manipulable by s i t e - p l a n n e r s o r landscape a r c h i t e c t s of such areas.  A l l major landscape f e a t u r e s l i k e waterbodies,  s c u l p t u r a l elements, s e a t s o r benches, p l a n t m a t e r i a l s and o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l o r f l o o r elements were c a t e g o r i z e d , a c c o r d i n g t o apparent d i f f e r e n c e s i n shape,colour, t e x t u r e o r s i z e i n t o d i f f e r e n t types o f elements and f o r each of these types the numbers present-in the landscape were noted. P l a n t m a t e r i a l s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms o f s p e c i e s o r phenotypes;  shrubs were counted as "masses"; waterbodies  were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms of s t i l l  and moving water, i . e .  f o u n t a i n and the l a t t e r were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f u r t h e r a c c o r d i n g to d i f f e r e n t movement programmes  (eg. Courthouse  Square).  A d e t a i l e d l i s t of elements t h a t make up the landscape of each p l a z a , the p r o b a b i l i t y v a l u e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each type n  i  (Pj_ = —  , where, n^ = the number of elements of the i t h  type and N = t o t a l number of elements) and the Average Uncertainty factor i s shown i n Appendix  (U =  - p^ l o g  2  ^ P i ) f o r each p l a z a  - H on the map of each p l a z a .  Photo-  graphs p r o v i d e complementary d e s c r i p t i o n s of these e n v i r o n ments . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Average U n c e r t a i n t y f a c t o r s of p l a z a s and t h e i r mean scores on p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y and p l e a s a n t n e s s i s shown below.  77  TABLE VI :  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AVERAGE UNCERTAINTY FACTORS OF PLAZA LANDSCAPE AND THEIR PERCEIVED MEASURES  PERCEIVED MEASURES  AVERAGE UNCERTAINTY IN Ei4.CH PLAZA LANDSCAPE Plazas in the Interior of Downtown  Mean Scores on Diversity Mean Scores on ['Pleasure-eliciting Quality  A l l Plazas  a  r* = 0.70 = .06  r = 0.31 a = .11  r = 0.75 a = .04  r = 0.65 a = .03  * Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient.  E v i d e n t l y , across these s i x open spaces i n the i n t e r i o r of the downtown, the r e l a t i v e presence o r absence o f a v a r i e t y of f u r n i s h i n g elements accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t of v a r i a n c e i n t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l a t t r i b u t e s .  proportion  However, with  the i n c l u s i o n o f w a t e r f r o n t p l a z a s i n the above a n a l y s i s , the s t r e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d  diversity  and  plazas,  average u n c e r t a i n t y d e c l i n e d . Since w a t e r f r o n t  particularly.  Guiness and G r a n v i l l e , h a d g r e a t e r v a r i e t y  i n i n t e r n a l elements than many p l a z a s o f the i n t e r i o r , t h i s d e c l i n e may suggest, i n conformity with  subjects'  comments, t h a t the i n t e r n a l landscape p o s s i b l y had a minor  78 r o l e as compared to the surrounding view i n s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s across w a t e r f r o n t open spaces.  Waterfront  developments thus have the advantage over t y p i c a l downtown p l a z a s and squares  t h a t man-made e f f o r t s i n landscape  treatment might be l e s s c r i t i c a l t o ensure t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l , goodness. No r e l a t i o n s h i p was  found between the number o f  elements w i t h i n p l a z a s and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d measures a l though square  d e n s i t y , i . e . the number of elements per  f e e t of open space had s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  perceived d i v e r s i t y (r = 0.86, way  thousand  a = .01).  (r = 0.86,  a = .01)  and  pleasantness  Apparently, t h e r e f o r e , a p o t e n t i a l  t o c r e a t e p e r c e p t u a l l y a p p e a l i n g p u b l i c p l a z a s might  be to p r o v i d e s m a l l and compact open spaces  densely  f u r n i s h e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of s m a l l man-made and n a t u r a l elements.  Among the spaces s t u d i e d , B e n t a l l Two  and  P a c i f i c Centre might be two o p p o s i t e examples to i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t .  In c o n t r a s t w i t h the sparse 15,000 s q . f t . o f  paved area of the low-rated P a c i f i c Centre p l a z a (Figure  19  B e n t a l l Two  ) the p l e a s a n t and p e r c e p t u a l l y d i v e r s e was  a meagre 8000 s q . f t . of outdoor  area  studded w i t h many s m a l l elements o f e x c i t i n g v a r i e t y ,  such  as c o l o u r f u l annuals of d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t y , s e v e r a l s p e c i e s of e x o t i c shrubs, rock gardens i n p o o l and p l a n t e r , f u r n i t u r e of d i f f e r e n t shapes or s i z e s , s t i l l p o o l and one  sculptural  Figure  19 :  P a c i f i c Centre Plaza. I t s "barrenness and Montony of the Expansive D u l l Surface Were Unpleasant to People.  80  1 ( —~^^H  Figure  20 :  Internal Landscape of B e n t a l l Two. An example of Plaza Furnishing With Many Things of a Wide Variety within a Small Area that Appealed to People.  81 fountain  (Figure 20 ).  Both d e n s i t y and v a r i e t y as opposed  t o sparseness and r e p e t i t i o n appear t o be p e r c e p t u a l l y important.  Although p r e s e n t i n l a r g e numbers f u r n i s h i n g  elements were r e p e t i t i v e i n nature i n s e v e r a l low-rated plazas.  MacMillan and B l o e d e l , f o r i n s t a n c e , had many  t h i n g s ; but they were i n the form of r e p e t i t i o n of same p l a n t e r boxes w i t h s i m i l a r p l a n t m a t e r i a l s and sheets of shallow water c o v e r i n g approximately h a l f of i t s area I.B.M. p l a z a was  a s i m i l a r example of r e p e t i t i o n or  (Figure 21).  expansive  coverage by the same form, c o l o u r or t e x t u r e . Besides t h e i r sparseness or l a c k of v a r i e t y  and  c o n t r a s t i n the form, c o l o u r or t e x t u r e of f u r n i s h i n g elements,  l o w - s c o r i n g p l a z a s were, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ,  devoid of any p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e f o c a l p o i n t .  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of such an a t t r i b u t e f o r these open spaces  was  r e f l e c t e d i n both p e r c e p t u a l and b e h a v i o r a l responses of people.  The presence or absence of a t t r a c t i v e man-made  f e a t u r e s o r complex forms may  a l t e r the r e c r e a t i o n a l  quality  o f these s m a l l outdoors as the observed b e h a v i o r a l make-up across these p l a z a s would tend t o i n d i c a t e .  The  obser-  v a t i o n a l survey i n d i c a t e d that:"overt behaviour s u g g e s t i n g fun :  and amusement of people was.  deplorably' absent across most of the  these -spaces. They provided'-brief outdoor o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r young o f f i c e workers or clbseby,: shoppe-rs-for outdoor, lunch,reading' s t o r y books or magazines, g o s s i p i n g or simply p a s s i v e r e l a x a t i o n .  82  83 Overt a c t i v i t i e s were overwhelmingly p a s s i v e with d i s p l a y of any  little  e x p l o r a t o r y d r i v e (see Table V I I ) .  Waterfront  p l a z a s were exceptions where watching scenery  -  l e a n i n g on or l o i t e r i n g along r a i l i n g s - was  the most  popular  form of a c t i v i t y .  standing,  Courthouse square, however,  was  the s i n g l e p l a z a i n the i n t e r i o r of the downtown where most popular  form of o v e r t behaviour was  p l a y f u l i n nature  (Table VII)  and n e a r l y a l l of i t r e v o l v e d  around the f o u n t a i n , a s i n g l e landscape in  form  (Figure  pallet, for  22 ).  feature,complex  Among m a t e r i a l s i n a  moving water may  designer's  be more noteworthy than o t h e r s ,  p l a n t s change slowly and  little  exploratory or  s e a s o n a l l y and others  temporal or s p a t i a l change i n s t i m u l i , w h i l e  v a r i e t y i n the landscape of t h i s s m a l l open space achieved alone.  provide  through choreographic  5  may  across most study  areas.  The  however, such as the Courthouse f o u n t a i n , or the of G r a n v i l l e Square  (Figure  be  programming of water movement  Such s i n g u l a r elements with r i c h p e r c e p t u a l  were lamentably few  immense  inputs  exceptions, sculpture  3 ) or even an antique machine  p a r t i n Trounce A l l e y generated h i g h e r e x p l o r a t i o n or p l a y than any o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l f e a t u r e . Another common a t t r i b u t e of the landscape of  low-  r a t e d p l a z a s might be i n t e r e s t i n g to note, i . e . , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d u l l n e s s i n t h e i r s u r f a c e c o l o u r and MacMillan  texture.  and B l o e d e l , P a c i f i c Centre or I.B.M. P l a z a  n e i t h e r the  'greenness' or c o n t r a s t w i t h the  immediate  had  TABLE V I I :  Bentall Two  Activities  L o o k i n g about  Reading  Eating  Sleeping  Hatching Scenic  View  Loitering  Z  Photography/Watching s p e c i f i c  Childrens'  play  Feeding  birds  Alcohol  drinking  Group I n t e r a c t i v e  Miscellaneous  TOTAL  No. o f O b s e r v a t i o n s  elements  Z Z Z Z Z Z  Pacific Centre  Trounce Alley  Guiness Plaza  Baxter Plaza  CourtHouse  Victory Square  77 21.7  728 52.5 158 11.4  28 23.5  9 14.8  2 1.7  5 8.2  Granville Square  Total  216 17.4  1347 33.4  128 10.3  465 11.5  80 46.0  27 24.8  50 13.0  37 22.6  4 10.5  . 8 4.6  3 2.8  40 11.3  66 17.2  25 15.2  1 2.6  5 2.9  5 4.6  35 9.9  23 1.7  12 10.1  9 14.8  51 4.1  232 5.8  6 1.6  . 0 0.0  0 0.0  1 0.6  3 2.8  19 5.4  90 6.5  12 10.1  1 1.6  32 2.7  164 4.1  0 0.0  0 0.0  0 0.0  0 0.0  0 0.0  0 0.0  0 0.0  2 0.5  0 0.0  0 0.0  20 1.4  8 2.1  1 0.6  6 1.6  Z  Z  I.B.M. Plaza 12 31.6  155 40.4  Z  MacMillanBloedel 45 27.4  Z  Z  NUMBER OF USER-GROUPS ENGAGED I N DIFFERENT A C T I V I T I E S  20 16.8  12 19.7  433 34.9  465 11.5  12 10.1  7 11.5  149 12.0  239 5.9  8 14.5  18 16.5  23 6.5  4 10.5  10 5.8  16 14.7  72 20.3  2 0.1  4 3.4  5 8.2  20 1.6  142 3.5  1 0.6  2 52.  12 6.9  11 10.1  22 6.2  4 0.3  2 1.7  1 1.6  8 0.6  69 1.7  0 0.0  0 0.0  0 0.0  0 0.0  0 0.0  85 22.1  6 1.6  51 31.1  4 2.4  0 0.0  0 0.0  8 2.3  36 2.6  0 0.0  0 0.0  0 0.0  44 1.1  -0 0.0  0 0.0  2 1.8  0 0.0  64 4.6  5 4.2  0 0.0  12 1.0  83 2.1  9 23.7  46 26.4  20 18.4  18.4  20 16.8  11 18.0  4 2.3  4 3.7  7 0.5  2 1.7  1 1.6  4 10.5  '  384  164  38  174  51  42  48  50  109  47  53 14.9  6 11.7 355  31  256  1388  70  119  48  f l  52  188 15.1  5 0.4 1242  60  739 18.3  43 1.1 4032  499  03 0*.  Figure 2 2 : Among Materials i n a Designers P a l l e t , Moving Water, Perhaps has the Greatest P o t e n t i a l to Generate Fun and Play Across These Small Open Spaces i n the Heart of the C i t y .  CO  Figure  22  : (Continued)  87  surrounds t h a t Courthouse square had mentioned as reason  (a f e a t u r e p o p u l a r l y  f o r p e r c e p t i o n of v a r i e t y i n t h i s  environment) nor the b r i g h t n e s s of the white t e r r a z o treatment f o r pavements, f u r n i t u r e and Two  possessed  (Figure 20 ).  facades  that B e n t a l l  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , they  e x t e n s i v e coverage of both h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l  surfaces  w i t h m a t e r i a l s of low b r i g h t n e s s , i . e . grey exposed or brown stone or t i l e paving  had  concrete  (Figure ; 19,21).. Surface  colour  and t e x t u r e were p o p u l a r l y mentioned as reasons f o r s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of redundancy and d i s p l e a s u r e across these spaces  (see F i g u r e  15). Furthermore, only these  p a r t i c u l a r l y MacMillan  open  plazas,  and B l o e d e l i n v i t e d such comments as  "dominating b u i l d i n g " , " t y p i c a l towers", "small space", e t c . , quoted as reasons f o r d i s p l e a s u r e , whereas even s m a l l e r open spaces l o c a t e d amidst s k y s c r a p e r s , Two  e.g. B e n t a l l  or Baxter p l a z a d i d not i n v i t e such comments.  volume or l o s s of s c a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v o i d s surrounding  Improper and  masses i s t y p i c a l of piecemeal p r e s t i g e ; p l a z a s  which are cosmetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s may  to i n d i v i d u a l a r c h i t e c t u r e .  Scale  be c r i t i c a l more i n the i n t e r i o r of  downtown than i n the w a t e r f r o n t  l o c a t i o n where  the  extension  o f v i s i o n e n l a r g e s the p e r c e i v e d space. I t would seern, however, from the d i f f e r e n c e s i n response between B e n t a l l Two  and p l a z a s l i k e MacMillan  and B l o e d e l or P a c i f i c Centre  t h a t the s u r f a c e treatment of e n c l o s i n g masses might a l l e v i a t e or add  to c l a u s t r o p h o b i a .  Brightness  i n the  88  MacMillan Bloedel  P a c i f i c Centre  I Bentall  Two  Figure 2 3 : Difference Between the Enclosing Masses of Bentall Two Plaza and Those of MacMillan Bloedel and P a c i f i c Centre Plazas. People Reported a Feeling of Domination by Skyscrapers i n the Latter Two Open Spaces,  89  c o l o u r of pavement and e n c l o s i n g s u r f a c e s appear to be a p e r c e p t u a l l y d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e f o r these s m a l l outdoor spaces. P l a z a s and squares of Downtown Vancouver thus exemplify t h a t such s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the i n t e r n a l f u r n i s h i n g of these v o i d s may  considerably a l t e r their perceptual q u a l i t i e s  In summary, people's enjoyments w i t h i n these s m a l l outdoors i n the h e a r t t o f the c i t y may  be enhanced, to a g r e a t e x t e n t ,  through d i v e r s i t y i n " t h i n g s to see" w i t h i n or immediately surrounding these spaces. W a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n s - p r o v i d i n g c o n t r a s t i n g panoramic  view have, i n t r i n s i c a l l y ,  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l  immense  Man-made e f f o r t s i n landscape  treatment, however, might be c r i t i c a l  f o r the outdoor  spaces  t y p i c a l l y l o c a t e d amidst s t r e e t s and b u i l d i n g s of the downtown. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r t i c u l a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l landscape of these s m a l l open spaces i s apparent from the d i s c u s s i o n above. However, how a r t i c u l a t i o n o f these environments or e f f i c i e n t l y used p l a c e s ?  The  does  render them f u n c t i o n a l  functional  implications  of a r t i c u l a t i o n of the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of these s m a l l v o i d s was  apparent from the photographic and v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n a l  survey which i n d i c a t e d the l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s of people w i t h i n p l a z a s , t h e i r use of i n d i v i d u a l d e s i g n . f e a t u r e s or f u r n i t u r e elements' as w e l l as t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l w i t h i n these spaces, as d i s c u s s e d below.  behaviour  90  B e h a v i o r a l Maps of L o c a t i o n a l P a t t e r n of  Use  For each p l a z a the l o c a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n - of users recorded i n each o b s e r v a t i o n was map.  p l o t t e d onto i t s  Such mapped data f o r a l l o b s e r v a t i o n s were t r a n s -  f e r r e d onto one map. study areas  A s e t of such b e h a v i o r a l maps f o r s e v e r a l  (presented i n F i g u r e 24  through 31  .)  would i l l u s t r a t e the nature of d i s t r i b u t i o n of users w i t h i n these  spaces. These d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns of people w i t h i n open-spaces  i n d i c a t e d t h a t plaza-use was  g e n e r a l l y t i e d up w i t h p h y s i c a l  a r t i f a c t s ? r a r e l y d i d a c t i v i t i e s occur i n areas  undefined  by p h y s i c a l elements i . e . out i n the open pavements. Such a r t i f a c t s were not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n v e n t i o n a l s e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s alone edges),  (such as benches, p o o l s ' or p l a n t e r s '  f o r a v a r i e t y of f u r n i t u r e elements, such as  railings,  fences, parapet w a l l s , b u i l d i n g w a l l s  and  columns, s t a i r c a s e s , l i g h t or f l a g p o l e s , t r a s h c a n s , and s m a l l p l a n t e r boxes were observed  to generate  ashtrays  use.  These elements were u s e f u l i n the absence of c o n v e n t i o n a l s e a t s , such as i n Courthouse Square as w e l l as f o r p o s t u r a l relaxation, i . e . leaning. Only 0.5% users found  ( e x c l u d i n g l o i t e r e r s ) of the t o t a l 6300  across ten p l a z a s over approximately  550  o b s e r v a t i o n s c a r r i e d out a c t i v i t i e s on open pavements away from p h y s i c a l a r t i f a c t s .  Even l o i t e r i n g , l i n g e r i n g o r  91  s t a n d i n g were g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x p l o r a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c a r t i f a c t s l i k e fountain  (Courthouse, G r a n v i l l e ,  P a c i f i c , B e n t a l l Two),  (Granville,  sculpture  Trounce  A l l e y ) or shop windows ( G r a n v i l l e ) , w a t c h i n g s c e n i c view along the edges o f w a t e r - f r o n t p l a z a s o f f e e d i n g pegions ( V i c t o r y , Courthouse) w h i l e f o r m a l l y l a i d out paths, such as i n V i c t o r y Square, were r a r e l y used f o r simple p l e a s u r e walks. Furthermore, a c t i v i t i e s tended to agglomerate where o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s were, f o r l o c a t i o n s remote from the g e n e r a l areas o f p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , view o r major movement channels were r a r e l y used, i n s p i t e o f presence of f a c i l i t i e s .  In a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e space l i k e  Square t h i s p a t t e r n was  vivid.  The e n t i r e  south-western  s e c t i o n of t h i s p l a z a f a c i l i t a t e d w i t h benches, and r a i l i n g s  Granville  planters  (See F i g u r e 24) c o n s t i t u t e d no more than 3%  of the observed t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s even d u r i n g peak hours. I n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t even i n r e l a t i v e l y much s m a l l e r p l a z a s , l o c a t i o n s s l i g h t l y removed from view of o t h e r s o r the surrounds were r a r e l y used.  In Courthouse Square, f o r  example, the lawns f l a n k i n g the grand s t a i r c a s e of the Courthouse  (see F i g u r e  25) were l i t t l e  used.  The  thick  cypress hedges b o r d e r i n g the passage c o n n e c t i n g Hamilton and Howe S t r e e t s through t h i s space b l o c k e d e n t i r e l y the view o f the surrounding major s t r e e t or the r e s t o f the p l a z a to any user s q u a t t i n g on these lawns.  The  benches  92  93  HORNBY STREET  in O  i-  w  I vpi'tlkMlfcAi-sa r e a V ^ i t e =  O  •"l  1.1,1/  O P > o  "HiO.  \ Pool  M  O  ^Jgf  u o LU O  lawn  _o  a •  H O W E  Bus  stop  S T R E E T  Soft  © ®  Stationary  Users  Users-loitering/ exploring/photographing/ children's play, etc.  Figure  25 : L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f O b s e r v e d Users w i t h i n Courthouse Square (see f i g u r e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e C e n t r a l paved area)  §s  Pedestrian  circulation.  94  o 0  0  Courthouse Entrance  5E  O  Q O  J0X  o*  4L  <a  ....  5£  Passage  © Stationary  Users  -j^nUsers-loitering/exploring photographing children's play e t c .  F i g u r e 26 : L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f O b s e r v e d U s e r s W i t h i n t h e Central Paved A r e a o f Courthouse Square, ( s e e a l s o F i g u r e 25 ) •  G E O R G I A Figure  S T R E E T  27: Locational D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Observed Users Within P a c i f i c Centre Plaza  @  Stationary users  ©  Users l o i t e r i n g exploring/photographing etc.  lU  Pedestrian  circulation  B U R R A R D  I N L E T  DM | to garage  HASTINGS STREET  Figure 28  " p  25  O  Soft  : Locational D i s t r i b u t i o n of Observed Users Within Guiness Plaza  DN  Sculpt ure  LT  °2  DN  HASTINGS Figure  STREET  29: Locational D i s t r i b u t i o n of Observed Users Within Baxter Plaza"  ©  Stationary users  (I U s e r s - l o i t e r i n g looking about/ photographing etc.  97  L  BENTALL  TOWER TWO  ^  41  3.  4 9 8  9 3  Fountain p o o l e ^ 10  is—ay—  m  BURRARD  ^  12  ^,^#^= STREET  H A S T I N G S  jr A 2  1 »  F i g u r e 30 : L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f O b s e r v e d Users W i t h i n B e n t a l l Two P l a z a  Planter 9  o  Hit  @ Stationary Users © User Loitering/exploring Hd P e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n  S T R E E T  @  Stationary Users  ®  Users - L o i t e r i n g / Feeding Pegions Pedestrian  F i g u r e 31 : L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f O b s e r v e d U s e r s W i t h i n V i c t o r y Square.  circulation  98  and r a i l i n g s on the western end of Guiness p l a z a the west s i d e of Baxter p l a z a  (Figure  edge of the p l a n t e r i n P a c i f i c Centre s i m i l a r i l l u s t r a t i o n s of unused  29)  f  (Figure  28),  or the western  (Figure  27) were  facilities.  P e d e s t r i a n s having no o v e r t i n t e r e s t i n the open spaces themselves  tended to take the s h o r t e s t route through  between c o n n e c t i v e elements  i . e . , entrances and  exists  between b u i l d i n g s and s t r e e t s , a tendency observed a l s o i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s of movements i n p u b l i c spaces 1970," S t i l i t z , 1969  and  (Prieser,  1970).  T h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f space use with accumulation of  a c t i v i t i e s on a r t i f a c t s , around  f o c a l p o i n t s , along  edges and c l o s e t o o t h e r a c t i v i t e s and of c i r c u l a t i o n  taking  p l a c e on s h o r t e s t c o r r i d o r s would speak i n favour o f compact and f u r n i s h e d spaces w i t h developed edges and c e n t r a l a t t r a c t i o n s r a t h e r than e x t e n s i v e s i z e square)  (as i n G r a n v i l l e  or b a r r e n pavements l e f t open to movements (such  as P a c i f i c Centre or I.B.M. p l a z a s ) . of  The maximum d e n s i t y  p o p u l a t i o n ever observed across the study areas d u r i n g  the survey  (approximately 8-9  persons per 1000  sq. f t . of  p l a z a space) was,  a p p a r e n t l y , f a r below a l e v e l of  by any standard.  Furthermore,  of  focal  t h e r e was  'crowding'  some i n d i c a t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n the maximum d e n s i t y  observed  across s e v e r a l popular p l a z a s d u r i n g lunch hours w i t h the s i z e of these spaces  (see F i g u r e 32 ).  o n3  Bentall  to  Baxter  o 4-1  C o r r e l a t i o n (r) = -0.51 Prob. = .12  o •p o o  i—i o  U QJ u  4  t  vO  w  X  C o  Granville  in U  <L>  Cu  <U O  w  •  Courthouse  in o —q  2  1—i—i  1 -  4  15  8  10  — 4 —  2>0 AREA (In  Figure  4?  '000 Sq.ft)  : Relationship Between Observed Maximum Density and Area of Plazas  60  100 Apparently, t h e r e f o r e , a c r o s s these open spaces t y p i c a l l y s e r v i n g l o c a l o f f i c e and shopping complexes spread over the downtown, an e x t e n s i v e s i z e might be  redundant  from a, use p o i n t of view. Densely f u r n i s h e d outdoor as s m a l l as B e n t a l l Two thousand  plaza  ( i . e . of the o r d e r of  areas 8-10  s q . f t . ) appear t o be more e f f i c i e n t than e x t e n s i v e  areas l i k e G r a n v i l l e Square or even Courthouse  square.  f r o n t l o c a t i o n s a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s , shoppers, e l d e r l y persons, e t c . , over and above l o c a l o f f i c e  Water  retired  workers.  However, even f o r water f r o n t p l a c e s , a narrow; and l i n e a r shape might be more e f f i c i e n t than an e x t e n s i v e s i z e and a shape p e n e t r a t i n g deep i n t o the i n t e r i o r , as the observed d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n of users w i t h i n such p l a z a s tends t o i n d i c a t e .  In G r a n v i l l e square, f o r i n s t a n c e ^ 7 5 %  of the t o t a l observed users were found on r a i l i n g ,  benches,  p l a n t e r s or p o o l ' s edges along the w a t e r f r o n t edge and w i t h i n a d i s t a n c e of only 2 0 f t .  away from i t (see F i g u r e 24)•  In the w a t e r f r o n t p r e c i n t of Guiness and the n o r t h e r n r a i l i n g s  tower, the gazebo  (see F i g u r e 28 ) were . s i m i l a r l y  g r e a t e r used than the r e s t of the p l a z a .  However, the  tendency o f people to take a d i r e c t movement route between the entrance t o G r a n v i l l e Square and the remotest w a t e r f r o n t edge of t h i s p l a z a would suggest, a t the same time, t h a t drawbacks i n s i t e p l a n n i n g , i . e . , the absence  of any counter  a t t r a c t i o n or any p r o g r e s s i v e r e a l i z a t i o n of the s c e n i c to users might  view  l e a d to the i n e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of such  101  large plazas One  l o c a t e d on the w a t e r f r o n t  o f the l e a s t used p l a z a s i n the downtown,  P a c i f i c Centre would exemplify barren  (see Figure,33 ).  i n t e r i o r and  how  unstructured  an e x t e n s i v e  pavement,  edge might render  precious  open spaces l o c a t e d on the b u s i e s t node i n the Centre of the c i t y to mere concourses f o r p e d e s t r i a n T h i s p l a z a a t t r a c t e d people only during occasions  o f lunch-time c o n c e r t s  not need e x t e n s i v e  circulation.  the very  rare  i n summer. However, one  pavements even f o r such purposes.  oblong s t a i r c a s e o f t h i s p l a z a  may  The  (Figure 27) , f o r i n s t a n c e ,  took the crowd f a c i n g band p l a y e r s on a temporary wooden stage.  The  w e l l f u r n i s h e d , compact B e n t a l l Two  c o u l d a l s o e f f i c i e n t l y handle such o c c a s i o n a l i n v o l v i n g crowds.  These two  plaza  entertainments  p l a z a s were c o n t r a s t i n g  examples to i l l u s t r a t e the r o l e of developed edges i n e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of spaces w i t h i n . provided  s e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s on the edge f o r  as w e l l as c h a n n e l l e d and  While the  e x i t points  look-out  movements by c o n t r o l l i n g  (Figure 30  )  f  latter  entrances  i n the former p l a z a , not  p o t e n t i a l s e a t i n g areas were wasted but a l s o the c o n t r o l of entrance and e x i t s l y i n g along  lack of  a busy s i d e walk  generated random c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n as w e l l as  conflicts  i n the p e d e s t r i a n movements on the sidewalk near a busy crossing  (Figure 27  ).  only  102  Figure  :Granville  Square  - Absence o f a  Progressive  R e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e V i e w and C o u n t e r a t t r a c t i o n s Leave t h e Large W a t e r f r o n t P l a z a I n e f f e c t i v e l y Utilized.  103  These i l l u s t r a t i o n s , i n essence, tend t o suggest how s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e i r v o i d s might c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r the p o t e n t i a l of these outdoor facilities  i n the h e a r t o f the c i t y .  Compact f u r n i s h i n g ,  presence of f o c a l a t t r a c t i o n s , developed edges,  limited  and d e f i n e d p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n through the space as w e l l as avoidance o f e x t e n s i v e barrenness and areas s e c l u d e d from the view o f the surroundings o r presence o f o t h e r s appear t o be a few e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s t o render p l a z a s e f f i c i e n t public places.  While these i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  f u n c t i o n a l d e s i g n of p l a z a s were apparent from the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n of people w i t h i n them, the observed use o f a r t i f a c t s o f d i f f e r e n t shapes, s i z e s and  arrangements  demonstrated how a r t i c u l a t i o n might be important even a t the l e v e l o f d e s i g n and l a y o u t o f i n d i v i d u a l f u r n i t u r e  Use o f F u r n i t u r e  elements.  Elements.  The observed d i s p o s i t i o n o f people across s e a t i n g and l e a n i n g f a c i l i t i e s  o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s suggested the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f forms and arrangements  that  intrinsically  segregate s m a l l groups of users and p r o v i d e o r i e n t a t i o n a l c h o i c e f o r them.  S t r a i g h t l i n e a r f u r n i t u r e , such as r a i l i n g s ,  r e c t i l i n e a r p o o l s ' and p l a n t e r s ' edges and oblong t y p i c a l o f park and p l a z a landscapes,were  benches,  ubiquitious  across the study areas. On such f a c i l i t i e s ,  use tended t o  b u i l d up more on the c o r n e r s o r a t the end o f the l i n e  104 than i n the middle.  In G r a n v i l l e Square, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  47% o f the observed t o t a l users of the 260  feet r a i l i n g  o v e r l o o k i n g the B u r r a r d I n l e t concentrated  on the  15 f t . x 1 5 f t .  corner sections  (see F i g u r e 24  ).  two The  average d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n per ten f e e t l e n g t h of railing,  found over 16 peak hour o b s e r v a t i o n s , was  times g r e a t e r on the corner sections  (2.91) than on the  (0.99; T-value = 2.39;a=.04).  straight  In P a c i f i c  72% of the t o t a l observed users of p o o l s ' edge was on the two  three  Centre, found  extreme c o r n e r s , 39 f t long w h i l e the r e s t  was  found t h i n l y spread over the 55 f t . long middle s e c t i o n (see F i g u r e 27  ).  A l s o i n t h i s p l a z a , 44%  of the observed  p o p u l a t i o n onithe p l a n t e r ' s edge used only 2 0 f t i n one of the t o t a l 115  ft.  corner  long perimeter"*" of the s t r u c t u r e .  The  o v e r a l l shape of the p o o l ' s edge of Courthouse square  was  more a r t i c u l a t e d than those of other p l a z a s . However,  56%  of the observed t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s i t t i n g on t h i s  used i t s s i x corners  ( t o t a l 82ft.) w h i l e the r e s t used the  114ft. long s t r a i g h t and These pattens  s l i g h t l y convex s e c t i o n s ( s e e F i g u r e  of use o f l i n e a r edges suggest the g r e a t e r  p o t e n t i a l of 'angular'  than l i n e a r shapes.  and  to people's p e r s o n a l  facilities  linear  Such d e f i n e d or marked t e r r i t o r i e s probably  g r e a t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l support  26).  use-  Corners of  are more p h y s i c a l l y d e f i n e d l o c a t i o n s than s t r a i g h t sections.  facility  lend  space  t e r r i t o r i a l need w i t h i n the broader environment.  Moreover,  on an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t r a i g h t l i n e , i n t e r p e r s o n a l segregat i o n i s maintained 1 Leaving  only through p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e or gap  a s i d e the unused western edge.  '  105  Figure 34 : Corners of R a i l i n g s are Greater U t i l i z e d than Straight Sections.  Linear  107  r e s u l t i n g i n wastage of s e a t i n g space. corners  i n t r i n s i c a l l y provide  Angular shapes or  such s e g r e g a t i o n  change i n the body o r i e n t a t i o n of users and,  through  at the same  time, o f f e r c h o i c e f o r users to face d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . I t would appear, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a broken or contoured p r o f i l e f o r the t y p i c a l p o o l or p l a n t e r w i t h many corners might p r o v i d e  and  edges to face d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s  a more e f f i c i e n t s e a t i n g f a c i l i t y  expansive r e c t l i n e a r shape.  than an  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a number of  s t r u c t u r e s might more e f f i c i e n t l y r e p l a c e a l a r g e for  seating.  B e n t a l l Two  plaza provided  illustrate  further this point.  facilities  o f s i m i l a r shapes but v a r y i n g  w i t h i n a compact area. facilities  user-groups during  a s e t t i n g to  In t h i s p l a z a ,  seating  s i z e s were a v a i l a b l e  Although peak d e n s i t i e s on i n d i v i d u a l an  i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among  of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s i n the average d e n s i t y  of  (per f o o t - l e n g t h of s e a t i n g edge) observed  lunch hours  (see Table V I I I ) .  Evidently,  small  f a c i l i t i e s were being more e f f i c i e n t l y used than the ones.  small  structure  of the p l a z a d i d not occur simultaneously,  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e facilities  structures  larger  Presumably, the d i f f e r e n c e s i n means would have been  sharper had  the edge of the small and  the  middle-sized  p l a n t e r s been e q u a l l y broad as t h a t of the l a r g e p o o l .  108  TABLE V I I I ;  DENSITY OF USER-GROUPS ON DIFFERENT F A C I L I T I E S OF BENTALL TWO PLAZA.  FACILITIES  LARGE  MIN.  MAX.  0.05  0.02  0.12  0.08  0.02  0.22  0.14  0.03  0.38  : 30'x60' p o o l ' s edge 14 i n c h e s w i d e  MEDIUM  SMALL  MEAN DENSITY (per f e e t r u n )  : 10'x20' P l a n t e r s edge 8 i n c h w i d e  : 8'x8' P l a n t e r s edge 8 i n c h e s wide  F-Value =14.54  a =0.00  Furthermore, V i c t o r y Square, a p o p u l a r  park i n the  o older  s e c t i o n o f t h e downtown p r o v i d e d  observe 65  how t h e t y p i c a l o b l o n g  observations  distribution  on t h i s  o f seated people  (see F i g u r e 37 ) . differences  park,  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  p a r k b e n c h e s were u s e d . 16 d i f f e r e n t across  patterns of  a bench"*" were d i s c o v e r e d  An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  i n t h e mean f r e q u e n c y  indicated  o f occurrence  different  p a t t e r n s o f bench-use.  indicated  t h a t "one s o l i t a r y p e r s o n  Over  significant  o f these  A M u l t i p l e Range T e s t sitting  a t t h e end o f a  b e n c h " was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  i n frequency  than  F o r i n s t a n c e , more t h a n 30%  any o t h e r  single pattern.  o f occurrence  1 A l l b e n c h e s o f t h i s p a r k were 1 0 f t . l o n g w i t h and no arms.  backrests  109  Northern Portion of B e n t a l l Two  Southern Portion of Bentall Two  Plaza  Plaza  Figure 36 : An A r t i c u l a t e d Space with Small Sized Structures and Angular V a r i e t y Tends to Accommodate Greater Use than an Expansive RecrHinear Form. These Photographs of Bentall Two Plaza were Taken at the Same Time.  3)7?;;  FIGURE  110 DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF SEATED USERS ON BENCHES OF VICTORY SQUARE  PATTERN OF SEATING  DESCRIPTION  A  1  ©1  Solitary  B  \m  m  c .1  ©  D a  ©  1  |  i  F  |  .'®%M  G  ^  ®|  mm  i r~fe&i» i J  K  M  m&\  |  !©©:  ' © p  e ©©m  o ^dd^>  ©  i  30.26  Two s o l i t a r y persons a t two c o r n e r s  2.371  13.73  Solitary  2.221  12.88  0.591  3.65  Group o f 2 i n t h e middle  1.151  6.65  Group o f 2 on one end  1.221  7.08 •  A group o f two on one s i d e and a s o l i t a r y p e r s o n on another  1.521  8.79  1 S o l i t a r y person i n the middle, another a t one end  1.781  4.51  person i n t h e middle  Mean Squares D.F.  " 0.671  3.86  0.261  1.50  0.181  1.07  A group o f two i n t h e middle and a s o l i t a r y p e r s o n on a s i d e  0.371  2.15  Four s o l i t a r y persons e v e n l y spread  0.181  1.07  A group o f two and two s o l i t a r y persons e v e n l y s p r e a d  0.181  1.07 '  A group o f t h r e e and a s o l i t a r y person e v e n l y spread  0.181  1.07  Two groups o f two and a s o l i t a r y person e v e n l y spread  0.111  0.64  Two s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s s i t t i n g on one s i d e  Two groups o f 2 on e i t h e r  Prob.  = 0.00  closely  side  .  Frequency o c c u r r e n c e o f P a t t e r n Within Patterns  886.1257  520.3723  59.0750  1.2509  15  F-Ratio = 4 7 . 2 2 6  i n middle  A l a r g e group o f 3 - 4 p e r s o n  Between P a t t e r n s o f Squares  % 0 F TOTAL BENCHES USED  5.961  V a r i a t i o n on t h e  Sum  s i t t i n g a t corner  Three s o l i t a r y persons - 1 and 2 on e i t h e r ends  E  HI  individual  MEAN FREQUENCY  416  T o t a l = 4 6 6 benches(100%)  Ill  of the t o t a l occupied benches observed d u r i n g the survey was  used by one person s i t t i n g a t one end.  Even when the  t o t a l benchepopulation was a t i t s . p e a k ( 5 6 p e r s o n s ) , 21% of the o c c u p i e d benches were used i n t h i s manner.  When a  second i n d i v i d u a l s a t on the same bench, t h e predominant p a t t e r n was t o use the o t h e r end o f the t e n - f e e t long bench; seldom d i d he s i t i n the middle o r on the same h a l f o c c u p i e d by the f i r s t person.  The t o t a l frequency o f occurrence  p a t t e r n s : G+I+K+L+N+O+P (18.65%) was much g r e a t e r than t h a t of patterns,: D+M (4.72%; see F i g u r e 37) .  In other words,  a d e n s i t y o f g r e a t e r than two persons p e r bench o c c u r r e d through the presence o f dyads o r t r i a d s r a t h e r than through the occupancy  by s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s .  Three o r more s o l i t a r y  i n d i v i d u a l s s i t t i n g on the same bench were r a r e o c c a s i o n s although cases when a s o l i t a r y person s i t t i n g i n the middle of a bench were f r e q u e n t l y observed  (Figure  37) , which might  be a p l o y t o preempt the e n t i r e bench. Such wastage o f s e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s as evidenced i n t h i s parkwwas a c l e a r  illustration  of d e s i g n e r ' s ignorance o f o r i n d i f f e r e n c e t o the normal  level  o f requirement f o r bench space as w e l l as the i m p l i c a t i o n o f t e r r i t o r i a l behaviour o f s o l i t a r y o r small-group users seeking interpersonal distances.  E v i d e n t l y , a much s m a l l e r amount  of t o t a l bench space i n t h e park as w e l l as s m a l l s i z e s f o r seats o r even oblong benches s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r u n i t s by arm-rests might have r e s u l t e d i n a g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y i n the f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g than what was observed.  Figure 38 : I l l u s t r a t i o n s of' Use of Oblong Park  Benches o f V i c t o r y Square  113 In c o n t r a s t w i t h t t h e  t y p i c a l l i n e a r i t y i n shapes  or arrangements of s e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s of most p l a z a s , benches o f G r a n v i l l e Square were f i v e - f o o t square arranged i n a r t i c u l a t e d c l u s t e r s and  o f t e n l a i d out i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n  w i t h s m a l l p l a n t e r s , l i g h t poles and  t r a s h cans.  c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o u l d i n t r i n s i c a l l y provide as w e l l as p o s t u r a l choice  Such a  more o r i e n t a t i o n  ( l y i n g on back or s i d e ,  l e a n i n g a g a i n s t something, etc.)  squatting,  f o r users than the oblong  p o o l or p l a n t e r ' s edges observed elsewhere.  However, due  to  the overwhelming number of benches as compared to patrons observed at any railings  time and due  to the primary a t t r a c t i o n o f  ( f o r o u t s i d e view), benches were r a r e l y veryddensely  used. Even then, a comparison of the observed maximum use during  summer time lunch-hours between an a r t i c u l a t e d s e a t i n g  area of G r a n v i l l e square and B l o e d e l or B e n t a l l Two square shapes and  the  f a c i l i t i e s of MacMillan  (see F i g u r e  39)  f  indicated that  i n f o r m a l c l u s t e r e d arrangements o f benches  could hold a greater density of population  as w e l l as a  wider v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and p o s t u r e s than the l i n e a r pool  typical  constructions.  In t h i s context, s i v e grass  areas was.  the use o f n o n - a r t i c u l a t e d expan-  a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note.  t r a s t w i t h paved p l a t f o r m s ,  lawns p r o v i d e d  In con-  postural relax-  a t i o n as w e l l as d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the hard-paved b u i l t environment. Although was  high,  and  the summer time - use of lawns  i n view of the p r e v a i l i n g wet c l i m a t e of  the  ?•  114 A p a i r o f young o f f i c e women d r i n k i n g c o f f e e ii t a l k i n g  Two very c a s u a l l y dressed (apparently not o f f i c e workers)young men s i t t i n g , r o l l i n g tobacco and t a l k i n g  —  A c a s u a l l y dressed middle-aged man s i t t i n g , reading paper —  A w e l l - d r e s s e d middle-aged man (appamtly officer) s i t t i n g reading newspaper  A c a s u a l l y dressed young man i n blue j e a n s , s l e e p i n g ~~ A l a r g e group o f young o f f i c e women s i t t i n g , l e a n i n g against p l a n t e r d r i n k i n g c o f f e e , t a l k i n g , l o o k i n g about e l d e r l y , r e t i r e d ma gossiping A middle-aged t o u r i s t i n straw-hat and fancy b u s h - s h i r t l o o k i n g about  £/~  A young o f f i c e woman squat legs s t r e t c h e d l e a n i n g against p l a n t e r reading a book A l a r g e group o f o f f i c e women squat i n c i r c l f a c i n g each other, g o s s i p i n g A' BENCH  CLUSTER  OF  GRANVILLE  SQUARE  Two young o f f i c e men s i t t i n g d r i n k i n g c o f f e e and t a l k i n g  One young o f f i c e woman s i t t i n g and e a t i n g lunch A middle-aged w e l l dressed man s i t t i n g and l o o k i n g about A middle-aged w e l l dressed woman drinking coffee A young man s i t t i n g and l o o k i n g about  i " =16'-0" Old woman(apparently shopper) l e a n i n g a g a i n s t and e a t i n g . lunch Young o f f i c e woman l o o k i n g about Young o f f i c e woman l e a n i n g against h i g h board.reading book  E3  Young o f f i c e woman s i t t i n g l o o k i n g about Young o f f i c e men, two s i t t i n g < -1 standing f a c i n g one another  Young o f f i c e couple talking  V Young o f f i c e won: e a t i n g lunch  Young o f f i c e women eating  —Two young o f f i c e woman talking halfway turned face-lo-lace  .Well dressed o l d man l o o k i n g about *» 1  Young o f f i c e women talking  Tool  3  '  to t 5  US Young o f f i c e women Teading  Young o f f i c e woman | irA p o o r l y dressed i l l h a l f - l y i n g and I Ukept o l d man l o o k i n g •"iabout l o o k i n g about w,.Young o f f i c e woman l o o k i n g about  ,Young o f f i c e men talking  Young man l o o k i n g about  Young o f f i c e women l e a n i n g against reading book t .., 1  A young couple w i t h :i child (apparently s h o p p e r ) t a l k i n g  Young o f f i c e men l e a n i n g against column, s i t t i n g , s t a n d i n g , t a l k i n g Young woman reading book  MACMILLAN AND BLOEDEL 1" = 20'-0"  Figure 39:  Young couple t a l k i n g  BP.NTALL TOO  1" = 16'-0"  A Comparison o f Observed Maximum Summertime Use o f D i f f e r e n t Form o f S e a t i n g F a c i l i t i e s  115  region the u t i l i t y questioned,  TABLE IX  o f expansive  as e v i d e n c e d  from  grass  the following observation.  : NUMBER OF LAWN USERS IN D I F F T . SEASONS  PLAZAS  FALL  VICTORY SQ. %total  No. users  Winter  most s e a s o n s ,  activities  non-articulated time  Square on  this  point.  tend t o spread  horizontal,  and F e b r u a r y )  use,in winter  thinly  over  w i t h i n Courthouse illustration  by i n d i v i d u a l  a p p e a r t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y than  on a r t i c u l a t e d  or orientational  user  higher  facilities  o r p o o l ' s edge t h a t i n t r i n s i c a l l y  vertical  expansive  A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e summer  The d i s t a n c e s m a i n t a i n e d  grass areas  staircases  users.  86 42.16  ( s e e T a b l e X) may p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g  expansive  like  even lower  types o f f a c i l i t i e s  g r o u p s between t h e m s e l v e s on  0 0.0  t h e p r o b l e m o f non-use d u r i n g  grass areas.  use o f d i f f e r e n t  245 21. 38  (December, J a n u a r y  were n o t made, b u t o n e may e x p e c t Besides  SUMMER  121 11.93  0 0.0  observations  i n the f a l l .  SPRING  2 0.45  COURTHOUSE SQ. No. % t o t a l users  than  a r e a s may be  provided  s e g r e g a t i o n between  116 TAHT.K. X : DISTANCES MAINTAINED BY USER GROUPS IN COURTHOUSE SQ.*  TOTAL NO. OF USER GROUPS  NO. OF GROUPS WITHIN DIFFERENT INTER-GROUP DISTANCE-RANGES  FACILITIES  Three to f i v e f i v e to ten feet apart feet apart  3ne to three feet apart LAWNS  0 0.0  STAIRCASE  0 0.0  POOL'S EDGE  7 29.2  15 62.5  24 100.0  8 40.0  6 30.0  6 30.0'  20 100.0  6 40.0  2 13.3  1 6.7  15 100.0  2 8.3  6 40.0  > ten f t apart.  I  CHI-SQUARE =32.17  D.F. = 6  a = 0.00  * Lunch hour observations T h e s e few i n s t a n c e s c l e a r l y defined for  territories,  small-group  users  segregation  i n d i c a t e t h e need f o r  as w e l l a s o r i e n t a t i o n c h o i c e  through a r t i c u l a t i o n  arrangement o f f a c i l i t i e s t h a t f u r n i s h these n e e d s become r e l e v a n t p a r t i c u l a r l y observed (See  indicated  XI). that  Group s i z e p r o f i l e s ' s o l i t a r y persons"  small voids.  Such  t o openspaces o f the k i n d  where l a r g e g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s  Table  i n t h e shapes and  appear t o be low. observed  i n ten plazas  ( l o o k i n g about, e a t i n g ,  reading,  sleeping, etc.) constitute; the single  of users  a c r o s s most p l a z a s .  Small  largest  group  g r o u p s i n v o l v i n g one  o r two p e r s o n s r a n g e d between 79.3% and 9 3.8%  of users  across  117  these p l a z a s .  T e r r i t o r i a l behaviour of such s m a l l "groups  r e s u l t s i n wastage of expansive n o n - a r t i c u l a t e d forms or s t r a i g h t l i n e a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s . On the other hand, a d i v e r s e p h y s i c a l make-up w i t h nooks and c o r n e r s , s t e p s , s m a l l seats and f u r n i t u r e w i t h angular v a r i e t y i n shape and l a y o u t t h a t i n t r i n s i c a l l y p r o v i d e h o r i z o n t a l or v e r t i c a l s e g r e g a t i o n and change i n body o r i e n t a t o n of users may  l e a d to e f f i c i e n t  u t i l i z a t i o n of these p u b l i c open spaces. I t may  be added i n t h i s context, however, t h a t  a wider i m p l i c a t i o n of t e r r i t o r i a l behaviour than designs of i n d i v i d u a l f u r n i t u r e was  apparent through o b s e r v a t i o n s .  Examples o f t e r r i t o r i a l use of spaces w i t h i n ^ s e v e r a l study areas suggested how  i n t e r n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s might p l a y an  important r o l e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o e x i s t e n c e of people of d i f f e r e n t demographic types.  Examples of T e r r i t o r a l Use of P l a z a s T e r r i t o r i a l use of spaces w i t h i n l a r g e  outdoor  r e c r e a t i o n areas have been r e p o r t e d i n a few o b s e r v a t i o n a l studies  (Derk de Jong,  1968;  L y l e , 1961).  d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n o f demographic groups  The  observed  (such as  age  o r sex groups) w i t h i n a few areas i n t h i s study suggest, i n essence, t h a t through d i v e r s i t y and a r t i c u l a t i o n i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l l a y o u t s , n i c h e s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r d i f f e r e n t types of people and a c t i v i t i e s t o c o e x i s t even with! h f  118  TABLE XI  :  PLAZA-WISE . PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF USERGROUPS UNDER DIFFERENT SIZES  STUDY AREAS  Solitary activities  VICTORY SQ.  72.4  19.0  5.6  3.0  1388  TROUNCE ALLEY SQ.  38.3  41.0  8.4  12.3  109  PACIFIC CENTRE  59.1  30.1  3.1  7.7  174  MACMILLAN-BLOEDEL  50.0  37.5  9.5  3.0  164  I.B.M. PLAZA  48.6  37.8  8.2  5.4  38  GRANVILLE SQ.  69.5  24.3  3.5  2.7  1242  GUINESS PLAZA  60.0  30.4  8.9  0.7  119  COURTHOUSE SQ.  49.5  35.5  8.5  6.5  355  BENTALL TWO  58.2  34.0  6.6  1.2  384  BAXTER PLAZA  50.0  39.4  9.6  1.0  61  T O T A L  68.8  24.1  5.1  2.0  4032  Two-person Three-person activities activities  Four or more TOTAL person no. of activities usergroups  119  s m a l l outdoor areas l i k e p l a z a s and squares i n the h e a r t o f the c i t y . In V i c t o r y Square, f o r i n s t a n c e , a s i x f e e t drop i n the e l e v a t i o n and the t h i c k s c r e e n i n g by c o n i f e r s and t a l l hedges between the s e m i - c i r c u l a r cenotaph area and the i n n e r park  (see F i g u r e 40) p r o v i d e d a dichotomy  i n the p h y s i c a l  c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the park t h a t blended harmoniously w i t h the dichotomized b e h a v i o r a l s t r u c t u r e observed a c r o s s t h i s study area.  The cenotaph area was a haven f o r o l d and  middle-aged men, p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  e l d e r l y r e t i r e d men d r e s s e d  i n the a t t i r e o f t r a d i t i o n a l r e s p e c t i b i l i t y , i . e . , s u i t s and fedora, who c o n s t i t u t e d 50% of - the observed , . t o t a l park u s e r s . sitting  •.-. .  They were, a p p a r e n t l y , r e g u l a r v i s i t o r s  f o r long hours i n the park e i t h e r p a s s i v e l y o r  g o s s i p i n g w i t h the p e e r s .  Some  .occassionally  l o i t e r e d and  fed pigeons, on the pavement around the World War I memorial, which was a pastime p e c u l i a r l y r e s t r i c t e d w i t h i n t h i s age group and t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area of the park.  The i n n e r park,  on the o t h e r hand, was a stage f o r many a c t o r s and many activities.  W i t h i n t h i s l a r g e area the d i f f e r e n t i a t e ' d  f a c i l i t i e s and l o c a t i o n s p r o v i d e d t e r r i t o r i e s d i f f e r e n t age o r l i f e - s t y l e groups  (Figure  f o r the  40). The c e n t r a l  lawns* which were w e l l d e f i n e d spaces, bounded by paths and low c h a i n fencing,were arenas predominantly f o r young h i p p i e s and n a t i v e I n d i a n s .  Sometimes s o l i t a r y but g e n e r a l l y  found i n l a r g e groups, they squat i n c i r c l e ,  gossiping,  120  Formally A t t i r e d E l d e r l y Users. Other Elderly Users. Poorly Dressed Middle Aged Users (Apparently Tramp/Alcholics) Casual Dressed Teenagers/Young Native Indians/Hinnies  1  H A S T I N G S  Other Y o u n g Users (Apparently Shoppers/ College Students/Office Goers etc.)  Figure .40 : Locational D i s t r i b u t i o n of Different Types of Users Within Victory Sq.  S  121  smoking, p l a y i n g cards or g u i t a r and o c c a s i o n a l l y d r i n k i n g . beer.  P o o r l y dressed middle-aged  persons  (apparently tramps)  l y i n g drunk i n c o r n e r s near the hedges, were not r a r e to find.  In warm a f t e r n o o n s , lawns a t t r a c t e d other.rgroups of  people a p a r t from the above major types of u s e r s , such as c a s u a l l y dressed young or middle-aged  persons  relaxing, looking  about or r e a d i n g newspaper, p a i r s of teen-age boys and  girls  (apparently students from the nearby V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e ) , e t e . In t o t a l , however, these lawn users were few as compared to the former types middle-aged low.  (see F i g u r e  40).  The use o f lawns by o l d or  persons, o t h e r than the tramps, were c o n s p i c u o u s l y  In warm a f t e r n o o n  r when the cenotaph  crowded the f o r m a l l y dressed e l d e r l y men  area had become  were the major  patrons of the sun-drenched e a s t - s i d e benches, a l o c a t i o n where young h i p p i e s , n a t i v e Indians o r the unkempt tramps were r a r e l y found  (Figure 40 ).  middle-aged  On no o c c a s i o n were  the e l d e r l y people found t o use the lawns even when they remained empty.  T r e s p a s s i n g o t h e r s ' t e r r i t o r y might have been  a g a i n s t a s o c i a l more; the formal design elements l i k e  grass  areas or f e n c e s , moreover, were probably g r e a t e r symbolic b a r r i e r s t o these people d w e l l i n g w i t h o l d world norms. The most f a v o u r i t e area f o r the., middle-aged  tramps  were the g e n e r a l l y l i t t l e used and shaded e a s t - s i d e benches on the southern edge of the park.  A l c o h o l d r i n k i n g , which  engaged 7% of the observed users i n t h i s park, r a r e l y o c c u r r e d on the cenotaph  a r e a ; i t c o n c e n t r a t e d towards the  south-  122  e a s t e r n and northwestern c o r n e r s s o f the i n n e r park across the c e n t r a l path t r a v e r s i n g the park  diagonally  (Figure 40) ,  i . e . i n l o c a t i o n s l e a s t v i s i b l e to the surrounding pedest r i a n s on Hastings and Pender S t r e e t s . In G r a n v i l l e Square, o l d or middle-aged  s i m i l a r l y , the young and the  persons showed d i s t i n c t p r e f e r e n c e s f o r  d i f f e r e n t types of bench l o c a t i o n s or s e c t i o n s of the failing  (Table XII and F i g u r e 41). Although the young people outnumbered the e l d e r l y i n  t h i s p l a z a the l a t t e r group d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e r command over the benches c l o s e to the o u t s i d e view, where over o n e - t h i r d of the e l d e r l y bench users c o n c e n t r a t e d .  E l d e r l y persons  similarly  showed g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e than young users f o r b e n c h e s i i n r e l a t i v e l y remote l o c a t i o n s  (Table X I I ) .  Benches t h a t l a y  .along the major movement channel between the entrance and the n o r t h e r n r a i l i n g were the l e a s t favoured ones f o r e i t h e r  age  group although young people made more use of these benches than the e l d e r l y  (Figure 41) w h i l e benches s l i g h t l y away from the  movement channel and y e t l o c a t e d i n the middle of p l a z a movement (Table XII) were favoured by a l l .  Sitting  facing  areas  c l o s e t o the main o f f i c e entrance, such as Bench Type 'V , 1  s c u l p t u r e , the columns or g l a s s facades of the b u i l d i n g , the c i r c u l a r p l a n t e r ' s edge (Figure  and  41) were predominantly  used by young o f f i c e workers d u r i n g lunch hours. t h e r e was  the  Apparently,  a g e n e r a l tendency of s e g r e g a t i o n of the age  groups  123  between the e a s t and the n o r t h r a i l i n g .  E l d e r l y persons were  found i n g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n on.the e a s t which was p a r t l y screened  w i t h s e v e r a l medium-sized s l e n d e r t r e e s than on the  north which was bare and open t o the view o f a l l . (see F i g u r e 41). The r a i l i n g  corners were a l s o dominated by the o l d  and middle aged u s e r s . TABLE XII : NUMBER OF USER-GROUPS ON DIFFERENT BENCH-TYPES IN GRANVILLE SQUARE. YOUNG USER-GROUPS  OLD/MIDDLEAGED USER GROUPS %tptal  Density per bench  61  33.7  6.78  49  27.1  3.77  BENCH-TYPES  NO.  Uotal  Density per bench  I:  50  21.6  5.55  33  14.2  2.53  29  12.5  4.83  7  IV: Benches away from movement channel but i n the middle of plaza (L,M §N of Fig. 41 )  83  35.8  6.38  53  V: Benches near o f f i c e entrance 0 § P of (Figure 41)  37  15.9  4.62  11  Close to outside r a i l i n g exposed to view. (A,B and C of Figure 41 )  II: Benches i n remote locations,corners § b u i l d i n g edge (D,E,F,G,H$I of Figure 41 ) III: Benches on the main movement channel (J § K of Figure 41 )  T O T A L  232  100.0  NO.  181  3.9  29.3  6.1  100.0  1.17  4.08  1.37  124  125  While the above two of  examples suggested  d e s i g n f e a t u r e s l i k e v e g e t a t i v e screens,  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  elevational  change, e t c . , as s u b d i v i d e r s of r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e urban p l a z a s to p r o v i d e niches f o r the d i f f e r e n t user-groups,  Bentall  Two  p l a z a i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t t h e c o e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n groups might be brought about even w i t h i n a very compact space through  the d e s i g n and arrangement of s e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s  In t h i s o f f i c e p l a z a , used predominantly  alone.  by young white-  c o l l a r o f f i c e workers, male and female -patrons, showed n o t i c e able p r e f e r e n c e s for f a c i l i t i e s of  area  (see F i g u r e 42).  of  the plaza?  spread over a meagre 5000 s q . f t .  Women c l e a r l y p r e f e r r e d the " i n s i d e "  i . e . the p o o l ' s and p l a n t e r ' s edges c l o s e r t o t  the o f f i c e b u i l d i n g than the s t r e e t l e a v i n g the edges t o the m a j o r i t y of the male u s e r s . s i m i l a r l y observed of  the i n t r o v e r t l o c a t i o n a l  female users of open spaces.  street-side  W i l l i a m Whyte(1969) characteristics  However, the d i f f e r e n c e  between the north and the south s i d e of the p l a z a would be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g to note.  On the r e l a t i v e l y  a r t i c u l a t e d n o r t h s i d e , f u r n i s h e d by an expansive s t r u c t u r e , the s e g r e g a t i o n between females heterogeneous users was  non-  rectilinear  and males or  ( i . e . couples or t r i a d s of male and  female)  d i s t i n c t ; whereas, on the south side,many s e a t i n g  edges of-,-small-,size as w e l l as o r i e n t a t i o n a l v a r i e t y -allowed the c o e x i s t e n c e of a g r e a t e r mix  of p o p u l a t i o n types.  a r t i c u l a t e d bench l a y o u t of G r a n v i l l e square was  The  a similar  example to demonstrate t h a t s m a l l s i z e and angular  variety  BENTALL TOWER TWO  Ashtr  Planter 19  DN B Figure  42  U  R  R A R D  S  T R iE T  Locational Distribution of Observed Users by Sex-Groups witbjnBentall Two Plaza  * o @ @  Females Males  ©  Heterogenous group  127  in  t h e shape a n d a r r a n g e m e n t o f s e a t i n g  supportive  of not only  of people  (see F i g u r e  A visually  f u r n i t u r e m i g h t be  a l a r g e number b u t a l s o a w i d e v a r i e t y 39).  a r t i c u l a t e d open s p a c e may be  good, p o p u l a r and e n j o y a b l e ,  as was n o t e d e a r l i e r .  however, h a s w i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e d e s i g n as  perceptually  o f open  t h e above e v i d e n c e s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n  their  u s e o f f u r n i t u r e e l e m e n t s and t h e i r  within used  plazas  small  o f people,  territorial  involving  'masses*  or  g r o u p s compose t h e u s e r s o f t h e s e s p a c e s who u s e them r e l a x i n g sojourns  away f r o m t h e c l o s e d  offices,  s h o p p i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s o r crowds o n t h e s t r e e t s . They h a v e i t o p e n w i t h t h e v i e w and t h e f e e l o f o t h e r s ' things  personal diverse  defined  freedom.  physical configuration with  among u s e r s  choice  i s likely  linearity  a  seating and p h y s i c a l l y  t o be more  than the expansive, n o n - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  stream-lined  landscapes.  activities  Large o r small,  small  o r i e n t a t i o n a l and p o s t u r a l  segregation  functional  l i k e to  i n t h e s u r r o u n d s and y e t t h e y n e e d t h e i r own ~  s p a c e and t e r r i t o r i a l  facilities,  or  behaviour  o r 'crowds' n o r a r e  f o r extremely p r i v a t e purposes. I n d i v i d u a l s  for brief  and  spaces  would t e n d t o suggest. These spaces a r e r a r e l y  for activities  they used  Variety,  platforms  t h a t make up much o f o u r p l a z a  128 A Note on Temporal, C l i m a t i c and Landuse F a c t o r s i n Hourly v a r i a t i o n s observed  (between 10 a.m.  Plaza-Use.  and 5 p.m.)in the  number of users i n each p l a z a are shown i n F i g u r e 43).  I n s u f f i c i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s were made b e f o r e 10 am or a f t e r 5 pm,  f o r c a s u a l p i l o t o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t these  were r a r e l y used i n those hours. between 5 and 6 pm  areas  A few o b s e r v a t i o n s made  d u r i n g the summer, months o f J u l y , August  and September, however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t w i t h the e x t e n s i o n of d a y l i g h t hours, were: V i c t o r y  s e v e r a l areas were used a f t e r 5pm. Square  (20-30 p e r s o n s ) , G r a n v i l l e Square  (12-16 p e r s o n s ) , Courthouse Square Centre plaza  Examples  (2-3 p e r s o n s ) , Guiness  (6-8 p e r s o n s ) ,  Pacific  p l a z a (5-7 p e r s o n s ) ,  (1-2 persons) and B e n t a l l Two  Baxter  (2-3 p e r s o n s ) .  Temporal v a r i a t i o n s i n use i n the d i f f e r e n t p l a z a s were not, however, e q u a l l y sharp. The e f f e c t of surrounding ments was  apparent  through  the d i f f e r e n c e s between  shopping  area p l a z a s and o f f i c e b u i l d i n g p l a z a s i n temporal use.  Landuse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the immediate  of p l a z a s are shown i n Table XVII. Two  Guiness,  develop-  p a t t e r n of  vicinity  Baxter,  Bentall  and M a c M i l l a n - B l o e d e l p l a z a s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t y p i c a l  o f f i c e d i s t r i c t s of Downtown contained very few of a p u b l i c nature, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r immediate surrounds.  activities  few r e t a i l s t o r e s i n  These p l a z a s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ,  show h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of use over the s h o r t lunch hour p e r i o d w h i l e only 40-50% of t h e i r t o t a l use -was  spread o v e r t t h e r e s t o f the day  daily  (Figure  43 .  129  ^ — G r a n v i l l e Sq. F - V a l u e = 4.2, a=.002, N=52  B e n t a l l Two F - V a l u e = 4;6, o=.001, N=51  _Guiness . " F - V a l u e = 7.6, a=.001, N=51 MacMillan Bloedel F - V a l u e - 5.7, a=.001, N=34 Baxter F - V a l u e = 9.8, ot=.001, N=39 Courthouse ' i' F - V a l u e = 1.9, a=.110, N=24 ^^/-Trounce Alley / F=2.8, a=.024, N=45 •I.B.M. P l a z a ' F=.423, a=.8S6, N=33  10-11 H O U R  11-12  12-15 OF  T H E  IV14  H-15  15-16  DAY  F i g u r e 45 ; T e m p o r a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e O b s e r v e d A v e r a g e Number o f U s e r s o f P l a z a s  16-1?  TABLE XIII:  LANDUSES (IN '000 SQ.FT.) WITHIN 500 FT. FROM EDGES OF PLAZAS  Commercial & Professional Offices & Banks  Plazas I.B.M. Plaza  Stores  Restaurant, Pubs & Entertainments  Hotels, Motels/ Rooming Houses  Other  Total  %  853.9 26.1  1183.2 36.2  28.1 0.9  1119.4 34.3  84.0 2.6  3267 100.0  %  812.7 34.3  1224.3 51.7  28.1 1.2  219.4 9.2  85.0 3.6  2369 100.0  %  1250.8 34.3  1157.9 31.8  25.8 0.7  1101.0 30.2  105.0 2.9  3641 100.0  MacMillan-Bloedel %  1601.8 46.7  134.4 3.9  38.2 1.1  1550.0 45.2  107.7 3.1  3432 100.0  Bentall Two %  1733.3 71.7  20.7 0.9  5.4 0.2  103.0 4.3  2418 100.0  %  958.8 88.6  5.3 0.5  10.8 1.0  62.4 5.7  46.0 4.2  1083 100.0  %  463.6 26.4  771.5 43.8  54.5 3.1  121; 1  6.9  350.0 19.9  1760 100.0  %  220.2 29.4  155.6 20.8  62.6 8.4  188.2 25.1  121.9 16.3  749 100.0  %  1001.4 97.1  0.8 0.1  29.0 2.8  1031 100.0  %  1232.2 82.7  1.4 0.1  1.0 0.1  1490 100.0  P a c i f i c Centre Courthouse Sq.  Granville Sq. Victory Sq.  Trounce A l l e y Guiness Plaza Baxter Plaza  556.0 23.0  _  _  -  -  11.5 0.7  245.0 16.4  131  Time had much l e s s e f f e c t  (as e v i d e n t from the  F - s t a t i s t i c s ) on use i n the cases o f p l a z a s c o n t a i n i n g high mix  of public a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y stores, i n t h e i r  immediate v i c i n i t i e s .  In P a c i f i c Centre,  I.B.M. and V i c t o r y  Squares, f o r i n s t a n c e , no d e f i n i t e temporal p a t t e r n o f use was apparent, d i f f e r e n c e over the day being h i g h l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . In V i c t o r y Square, however, t h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d a l s o t o the nature o f users, f o r many users here were r e g u l a r patrons of the park spending  long hours  ( H a l l , 1970).  Similarly, i n  Courthouse and Trounce A l l e y Squares, the two other with  areas  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s eg. retails-  i n s t i t u t i o n s , r e s t a u r a n t s and pubs i n t h e i r surrounds,  (around;Trounce A l l e y )  use was spread'over  o f f i c e building plazas.  longer hours than i n the  Mid-day " l u n c h - e a t i n g " was r a r e l y  found i n the shopping area p l a z a s l i k e P a c i f i c Centre and Trounce A l l e y . The  seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n use s i m i l a r l y  suggested  a dichotomy between o f f i c e p l a z a s and other^open spaces o f the downtown.  D i f f e r e n c e s between the s p r i n g (March, A p r i l  and May) and the summer ( J u l y , August and e a r l y September) months i n the l e v e l o f use o f the d i f f e r e n t p l a z a s i s shown i n Table  XIV.  F o r Courthouse Square, s p r i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s  were i n s i g n i f i c a n t t o c a l c u l a t e the F - s t a t i s t i c .  In four  areas, o b s e r v a t i o n s were made d u r i n g f a l l months  (October,  November and e a r l y December) which have been shown i n p a r e n t h e s i s i n the Table.  132  TABLE XIV : DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPRING & SUMMER USE  AVERAGE NO. OF USEIIS PER OBSERVATION PLAZAS  F-VALUE SPRING  SUMMER  PROB.  GRANVILLE SQ.  (6.25)  22.79  56.73  28.35  .001  VICTORY SQ.  (6.39)  24.97  45.70  17.83  .001  10.38  10.04  0.00  .943  MACMILLANBLOEDEL  6.17  7.18  0.12  .735  GUINESS PLAZA  2.39  8.90  9.24  .005  BAXTER PLAZA  1.43  4.44  6.85  .014  -  12.31  -  3.45  8.77  12.27  .002  I.B.M. PLAZA  0.00  6.61  19.12  .001  TROUNCE ALLEY  3.58  4.46  0.69  .412  BENTALL TWO  COURTHOUSE SQ.  (2.85)  PACIFIC CENTRE  (2.28)  -  The s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher.ruse d u r i n g the summer i n most plazas r e f l e c t s  the g e n e r a l r i s e i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s i n  the h e a r t o f the c i t y w i t h the g r e a t e r presence o f shoppers and t o u r i s t s .  In s p i t e o f t h e i r d i s t a n c e from shops and  s t o r e s , the use o f a l l w a t e r - f r o n t p l a z a s s h a r p l y rose the summer.  during  As noted e a r l i e r t h e p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y o f  these p l a z a s -was, a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n summer than i n s p r i n g , p o s s i b l y due t o b e t t e r v i s i b i l i t y  across the  133  B u r r a r d I n l e t w i t h c l e a r e r weather.  However, i n c o n t r a s t w i t h  o t h e r p l a z a s o f the i n t e r i o r o f t h e downtown the t y p i c a l plazas l i k e ^  office  B e n t a l l Two o r MacMillan and B l o e d e l , which were  p a t r o n i z e d predominantly  by c l o s e b y o f f i c e workers d u r i n g  midday, showed l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n use w i t h s e a s o n a l change (Table XIV) . I s o l a t e d from the major shopping hubs and devoid of environmental possessed,  f e a t u r e s o f the k i n d w a t e r - f r o n t p l a z a s  these open spaces had r e l a t i v e l y much l e s s p a r t  i n the r i s e i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n w i t h the coming o f the summer. The dichotomous s i t u a t i o n between o f f i c e p l a z a s and other open spaces would c l e a r l y suggest the p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e of mixed landuses, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s u s t a i n i n g the use o f open-spaces over the day. and p l e a s a n t open space  Apparently, a p e r c e p t u a l l y diverse  l i k e B e n t a l l Two p l a z a would have  s u s t a i n e d h i g h e r use throughout presence  the day w i t h the g r e a t e r  of other a t t r a c t i o n s i n i t s v i c i n i t y .  The same may be  s a i d about the p l e a s a n t w a t e r f r o n t p l a z a s o f Guiness and Baxter.  In t h i s context, however, the d i f f e r e n c e s among  these t y p i c a l o f f i c e p l a z a s might be i n t e r e s t i n g t o note. The h i g h e r peak hour use o f B e n t a l l Two than the o t h e r p l a z a s (see F i g . 4 3 ) would tend t o suggest t h a t , i n the absence o f l a r g e p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y ,  clustering of o f f i c e  b u i l d i n g s b e a r i n g upon common p l a z a s might l e a d t o l e s s wastage o f outdoor  f a c i l i t i e s than the t y p i c a l  piecemeal  development o f p r i v a t e p r e c i n t s l i k e MacMillan and B l o e d e l , Guiness o r Baxter plazav  134  Although the presence  o f p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s i n the  v i c i n i t y had a r o l e in s u s t a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s over the day, i n g e n e r a l , the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o p u l a r i t y across p l a z a s and squares o f downtown Vancouver appeared  t o be determined  more  by the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r i n t r i n s i c p h y s i c a l o r v i s u a l q u a l i t y than by the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r surrounding A M u l t i p l e Regression o f the average  landuses.  peak-hour (12-2pm)  use d u r i n g the summer across nine p l a z a s w i t h the measured p e r c e i v e d , d i v e r s i t y f a c t o r s o f these p l a z a s and t h e i r surrounding landuse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such a s  f  peak-hour  p e d e s t r i a n volumes and the amount o f p u b l i c and o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y , (see Table XV) i n d i c a t e d the overwhelming i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l q u a l i t y r a t h e r than surrounding landuse c h a r a c t e r s on the use o f these spaces. The  i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f the surrounding  landuse  v a r i a b l e s i n the above a n a l y s i s , however, might be due t o the confounding  f a c t t h a t the l e a s t d i v e r s e p l a z a s  like  P a c i f i c Centre and I.B.M. were l o c a t e d w i t h i n the b u s i e s t m i l i e u o f the downtown; whereas, the p e r c e p t u a l l y d i v e r s e waterfront  p l a z a o f G r a n v i l l e square had l i t t l e  a c t i v i t i e s i n i t s immediate v i c i n i t y .  public  Nevertheless, plazas  and squares o f Downtown Vancouver c l e a r l y exemplify t h a t the presence  o f a l a r g e amount o f people and a c t i v i t i e s i n the  v i c i n i t y do not n e c e s s a r i l y generate open-space use. The q u a l i t y o f t h e i r i n t e r n a l landscape, o r the presence o r  135  TABLE XV : SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION ON PEAK-USE OF PLAZAS IN SUMMER  VARIABLES  Normalized Regression Coefficients(BETA) i n the equation  PERCEIVED DIVERSITY  F-values  1.00985  11.152 s i g n i f i c a n t at 5%  Pedestrian Volume i n the v i c i n i t y  1.04418  3.275 Insignificant at 20%  Public a c t i v i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y (in s q . f t . o f covered space f o r stores, restaurants, pubs, etc.  -0.93731  3.110 Insignificant at 20%  Office a c t i v i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y (in sq.ft.of covered space f o r commercial o f f i c e s , banks, etc.  -0.00018  0.000 Insignificant  SURROUNDING LANDUSE CHARACTERISTICS :  Multiple R = 0.82-  F-Value = 4.76  a = .07  absence o f s c e n i c view m i g h t - o v e r r i d e any i n f l u e n c e o f the surrounding landuse development i n determining the l e v e l o f use o f these spaces.  Landscape f e a t u r e s o r panoramic view  a p p a r e n t l y had a r o l e a l s o i r i ' s u s t a i h i n g a c t i v i t i e s over hours.  Casual o b s e r v a t i o n s i n G r a n v i l l e Square,  late  f o r instance,  136 found  t h e presencecdf over  30 p e o p l e  t h e o f f i c e s were c l o s e d .  i n summer l o n g  after  Among p l a z a s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f  .the Downtown, C o u r t h o u s e S q u a r e a t t r a c t e d u s e r s o v e r hours around i t s c o l o u r f u l Pacific  Centre  though  their  a n d I.B.M. p l a z a s l a y v a c a n t  adjacent  In t h i s  fountain pool while  shopping  context,  is  interesting  within but  p r i n c i p l e s with  hours,  of the climate  small outdoor  orientational  regard t o comfort  and s i t e  sunny o u t d o o r s  S q u a r e were a l m o s t  hours o f t h e day through relative the  conditions. In a cold to  are l i k e l y  and low a n n u a l t o be p o p u l a r .  summer months o f J u l y  Guiness  southern  sunny o v e r  the usable  o r e a s t e r n exposure.  Pacific  Shadow l i n e s  The during  and A u g u s t c o u l d b e compared w i t h i n Centre,  iE.BvM. , C o u r t h o u s e and  P l a z a s w h i c h remained, most o f t h e t i m e ,  shaded by t h e i r  of users  entirely  Square o r  p r e f e r e n c e b e t w e e n sunny and s h a d e d l o c a t i o n s  a few p l a z a s l i k e  spaces  planning  Many p o p u l a r p l a z a s l i k e B e n t a l l Two, G r a n v i l l e Victory  crowd.  suggestive o f the obvious,  temperate r e g i o n w i t h h i g h p r e c i p i t a t i o n sunshine  even  The l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f u s e r s  some p l a z a s were o v e r t l y  often overlooked,  i n t h e dark  the intervening e f f e c t  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f people w i t h i n these t o note.  a block yonder  m a l l s hummed w i t h  on  such, l a t e  partly-  s u r r o u n d i n g b u i l d i n g s and s k y s c r a p e r s .  ( s e e F i g u r e 44-4-7) a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g  locations  i n sunny and s h a d e d p a r t s were r e c o r d e d on maps  in  e a c h o f t h e s e v e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s between 11 am and 5pm  in  these p l a z a s .  The s i g n i f i c a n t l y  h i g h e r u s e o f sunny  137  rather than shaded p a r t s TABLE XVI ;  PLAZAS  was  i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  (Table X V I ) .  DIFFERENCE IN USE BETWEEN SUNNY AND SHADED PARTS IN SUMMER  AVERAGE NO. OF USERS Sunny portion Shaded portion  T-Value  Prob. No.of Observation  PACIFIC CENTRE  4.13  0.50  3420  .015  8  I.B.M. PLAZA  5.63  1.25  3.42  .011  .8  GUINESS  3.19  •1.13  2.28  .038  16  1.08  3.90  .002  12  COURTHOUSE SQ.  14.17  The d i s t i n c t l y lower p r e f e r e n c e  f o r shaded l o c a t i o n s  across these p a i r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s may suggest of  the redundancy  t y p i c a l Downtown p l a z a s l i k e I.B.M. o r P a c i f i c  t h a t remained shadowed by surrounding time.  These two p l a z a s presented  Centre  s k y s c r a p e r s most o f the  an i n t e r e s t i n g  situation  where not only the s u n - o r i e n t a t i o n and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v o i d s and surrounding  h e i g h t s were overlooked but  a l s o t h e r e was l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the shadow p r o f i l e s i n the l a y o u t o f f u r n i t u r e w i t h i n the space. the s e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s  For, half of  o f P a c i f i c Centre was p l a c e d i n the  most shaded and dark c o r n e r o f the p l a z a w h i l e the sunny edges were l e f t undeveloped, wide open t o random c i r c u l a t i o n , (see F i g u r e 4 4 ) .  In I.B.M. p l a z a the only s e a t i n g  facility  i n the middle o f the p l a z a , i . e . a stepped podium, was  138  F i g u r e 44 r P o s i t i o n s o f Shadows o n P a c i f i c C e n t r e P l a z a  F i g u r e 45 : P o s i t i o n s o f Shadows o n I.B.M. P l a z a  139  Figure Al : Positions of Shadows on Courthouse Square During July and August  140  p r e c i s e l y l o c a t e d i n the shadow o f the I.B.M. Tower w h i l e the only sunny s t r i p was  l e f t f o r a d i a g o n a l movement between  Georgia and Howe S t r e e t s . ( s e e F i g u r e  45).  There was  less  open space on the e a s t than west s i d e of Guiness tower although  the e a s t remained sunny d u r i n g lunch hours,  F i g u r e 46).  (see  In Courthouse Square the shadow p r o f i l e changed  s h a r p l y over the day.  T i l l midday, the pool's edge remained  shaded by the Toronto  Dominion Bank tower and the sunny west  lawn was  more p o p u l a r .  almost a l l over  During  lunch hour the p l a z a was  and h i g h l y used.  however, users concentrated  On the Grand S t a i r c a s e ,  on the e a s t s i d e f a c i n g the  w h i l e the shaded west s i d e was  sunny  sun  r a r e l y used.  A Summary of F i n d i n g s S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among nine p l a z a s o f Downtown Vancouver were found  i n terms of t h e i r r a t e d  p l e a s a n t n e s s , p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y and observed p o p u l a r i t y . High p o s i t i v e l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the above a t t r i b u t e s of  plazas indicated that perceived d i v e r s i t y i n v i s u a l  environments accounted f o r 60% o f t h e i r v a r i a n c e s i n terms of pleasantness  and.observed p o p u l a r i t y . There were i n s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s among these p l a z a s w i t h r e s p e c t to other emotione l i c i t i n g q u a l i t i e s , i . e . t o the extent t h a t they were a r o u s i n g or to the extent t h a t they e l i c i t e d a f e e l i n g o f dominance or submissiveness  i n people. P e r c e p t u a l l y d i v e r s e  environments were p l e a s a n t to anyone and under a l l c o n d i t i o n s ,  141  f o r extraneous f a c t o r s l i k e season, weather c o n d i t i o n , time or v o c a t i o n a l background  o f s u b j e c t s (designer or  non-designer) had i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the emotional responses a c r o s s the p l a z a s . Comments p r o v i d e d by s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  several  a t t r i b u t e s o f the e x t e r n a l landscape such as the amount and v a r i e t y i n f u r n i s h i n g elements,the presence or absence of f o c a l a t t r a c t i o n s and the c o l o u r o f pavements and  enclosing  s u r f a c e s were the most p o p u l a r reasons f o r people's p e r c e p t i o n of p l e a s u r e - d i s p l e a s u r e and d i v e r s i t y  (or the l a c k of i t )  across p l a z a s l o c a t e d i n the i n t e r i o r o f the downtown.  A  p h y s i c a l i n v e n t o r y o f the i n t e r n a l landscape of these open spaces, furthermore, r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e  relation-  s h i p between the v e r b a l l y measured d i v e r s i t y and p l e a s a n t n e s s of these environments  and the v a r i e t y  (Average U n c e r t a i n t y )  i n the form, c o l o u r , and t e x t u r e of t h e i r i n t e r n a l elements  as w e l l as the d e n s i t y o f such elements  area o f open s p a c e ) .  W a t e r f r o n t p l a z a s which had  furnishing  (per u n i t panoramic  views, however, d e t r a c t e d from these r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t e r n a l landscape and p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t i e s . w i t h subjects'comments  This, together  on p e r c e p t i o n s o f w a t e r f r o n t p l a z a s ,  suggested' t h a t i n t e r n a l f u r n i s h i n g s were p e r c e p t u a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t and"surrounding view" was  the major determining  f a c t o r o f p l e a s a n t n e s s and p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y i n these environments.  Waterfront p l a z a s , however, were found to be  142  more p l e a s a n t , more d i v e r s e and more popular,  particularly  i n summer, than most p l a z a s l o c a t e d i n the i n t e r i o r o f Downtown. Plazas were used predominantly f o r s t a t i o n a r y , p a s s i v e r e l a x a t i o n and s e l f - e n g a g i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  However, d i f f e r e n c e s  among l o c a t i o n s i n terms o f o v e r t a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the presence o f complex man-made f e a t u r e s o r scenery  i n the  landscape c o u l d respond t o the c u r i o s i t y and e x p l o r a t o r y d r i v e i n people and generated a c t i v i t i e s  l i k e l o i t e r i n g , watching  t h i n g s , photography, p l a y f u l use o f a r t i f a c t s , e t c .  The  presence o f a s i n g l e a t t r a c t i v e f o c a l p o i n t — . - a f o u n t a i n  —  generated a c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r amount o f such a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n i n Courthouse Square than any o t h e r p l a z a i n the h e a r t o f Downtown. The  observed p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n p l a z a s  i l l u s t r a t e d the g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y o f s m a l l s i z e d  densely  f u r n i s h e d s p a c e ! with a r t i c u l a t e d edges and d e f i n e d and l i m i t e d c i r c u l a t i o n channels than e x t e n s i v e areas pavements. F a c i l i t i e s  and expansive  l o c a t e d remote from areas o f p o p u l a t i o n  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , view o r major movement channels were r a r e l y used and very l i t t l e  a c t i v i t i e s occurred on open,  undefined  pavements. S t a t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s were t i e d up w i t h a v a r i e t y of s m a l l o r l a r g e a r t i f a c t s p r o v i d i n g p o s t u r a l  support.  L o i t e r i n g and l i n g e r i n g were a s s o c i a t e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h e x p l o r a t i o n o f the environment and took p l a c e around  focal  143  e l e m e n t s ( f o u n t a i n , s c u l p t u r e , shop windows, e t c . ) , along edges p r o v i d i n g , o u t s i d e view, o r f o r f e e d i n g pigeons- i n a few open spaces. C i r c u l a t i o n through p l a z a s took p l a c e along s h o r t e s t routes between b u i l d i n g s and s t r e e t s . meration o r l a r g e group a c t i v i t i e s were r a r e .  Mass congloWithin waterfront  p l a z a s f a c i l i t i e s remote form edges p r o v i d i n g the panoramic view were r a r e l y  used.  I n e f f i c i e n t use o f f u r n i t u r e elements was f r e q u e n t ! and r e f l e c t e d d e s i g n e r s ' misconceptions o f the normal  group  s i z e , the nature o f use, and the requirement o f p e r s o n a l space and t e r r i t o r i a l freedom o f u s e r s . Small  groups  i n v o l v i n g one o r two persons c o n s t i t u t e d over 80% o f the observed number o f u s e r groups a c r o s s p l a z a s and forms-.and arrangements p r o v i d i n g d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i e s and o r i e n t a t i o n a l c h o i c e f o r small-group users were more e f f i c i e n t l y used than expansive forms'and  s t r a i g h t l i n e a r f a c i l i t i e s . S t a n d a r d oblong  park benches were predominantly "used "by s o l i t a r y s i t t i n g a t ends.  individuals  On t y p i c a l l i n e a r p o o l and p l a n t e r  edges,  corners p r o v i d i n g angular v a r i e t y were more f r e q u e n t l y than the s t r a i g h t middle s e c t i o n s .  used  The d e n s i t y o f use was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the a n g u l a r than on the s t r a i g h t s e c t i o n s o f r a i l i n g s and on s m a l l than l a r g e p o o l / p l a n t e r boxes.  Expansive lawns, r a r e l y used except f o r summer,  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s densely used than p o o l ' s edges o r s t a i r c a s e s p r o v i d i n g b u i l t - i n h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l or  144 o r i e n t a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s to segregate  users.  Informal,  c l u s t e r e d arrangements of square-shaped benches supported  a  g r e a t e r d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as a wider mix .ofe.age, sex, posture  or a c t i v i t i e s than the t y p i c a l l i n e a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n  of pool constructions.  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t  age,  sex or l i f e s t y l e groups w i t h i n a few plazas i l l u s t r a t e d  that  d i v e r s i t y i n the p h y s i c a l - c o n f i g u r a t i o n brought about through v a r i o u s means, such as change i n l e v e l s , screens, d e f i n e d boundaries between p a r t s o r ,  vegetation  simply,  o r i e n t a t i o n a l v a r i e t y i n arrangements of s e a t i n g or l e a n i n g f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d p r o v i d e niches groups and The  support  their  f o r the d i f f e r e n t demographic  coexistence.  e f f e c t s of s e v e r a l extraneous f a c t o r s on  were i n t e r e s t i n g to no'te.  A M u l t i p l e Regression  plaza-use  analysis  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p e r c e i v e d d i v e r s i t y o f open space environments r a t h e r than t h e i r surrounding  landuse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  (such  as the p e d e s t r i a n volume or the amount of shopping or a c t i v i t i e s i n the immediate v i c i n i t i e s )  office  l a r g e l y accounted f o r  the observed d i f f e r e n c e s across these p l a z a s i n terms o f number of summertime peak-hour u s e r s .  However, the  the  temporal  p a t t e r n of use of p l a z a s suggested a dichotomous s i t u a t i o n between the shopping area p l a z a s and  the o f f i c e p l a z a s  of p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r v i c i n i t i e s . v a r i a t i o n i n the observed l e v e l of use 5 pm)  was  devoid  While.temporal  (between 10 am  s m a l l or i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n the former t y p e s ,  o f f i c e p l a z a s showed l a r g e c i r c u l a t i o n of use d u r i n g  and typical the  145  mid-afternoon  hours and some o f them were almost  spaces d u r i n g the post lunch hours.  'dead'  Among the l a t t e r  types,  however, a p l a z a l o c a t e d amidst a complex o f commercial o f f i c e towers was g r e a t e r u t i l i z e d than any o f the t y p i c a l landscaped  p r e c i n t s a s s o c i a t e d with i n d i v i d u a l  In most p l a z a s , the observed  high  rises.  l e v e l o f use was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n the summer than i n the s p r i n g . Furthermore, sunny p a r t s w i t h i n p l a z a s were  significantly  h i g h e r used than p a r t s shaded by b u i l d i n g s . Overhand above their  improper o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e arrangement o f f a c i l i t i e s  within several"plazas failed_to  c o n s i d e r such-users  preference  f o r the sun and d i s r e g a r d e d shadowlines c a s t on them by the  adjacent  skyscrapers.  146 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND  IMPLICATIONS  A few c e n t u r i e s back "there was a piazza for iv2.ftytkA.YiQ and everything in its piazza Nothing can be farther from the spirit of new technology than a place for everything and everything in its place" {McLuhan and Fiore, 1967).  small.  The  number of p l a z a s observed i n t h i s study  The  f i n d i n g s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , are s i g n i f i c a n t enough  to g e n e r a l i z e some of t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  was  design  and p l a n n i n g of these p u b l i c p l a c e s i n the h e a r t of city.  In essence the f i n d i n g s h i g h l i g h t  differencestin outdoors may  that subtle  the p h y s i c a l environment across these  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the f e e l i n g s  users as w e l l as the nature spaces.  the  small  of  their  and extent of use of  these  The primary c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can be drawn from  the study  i s that d i v e r s i t y  and  articulation  in visual  forms as w e l l as s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of these s m a l l open spaces are e s s e n t i a l  ingredients of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l  While p e r c e p t u a l opulence would render attractive  environments, a r t i c u l a t i o n  l a y o u t s and would render  success.  them p l e a s a n t in their  i n the form and arrangement o f  internal  facilities  them e f f i c i e n t , s u p p o r t i n g the  personal,  t e r r i t o r i a l and b e h a v i o r a l freedom of users. How  much p e r c e p t u a l d i v e r s i t y  these outdoor environments?  The  and  i s optimal f o r  r e c e n t arguments  1  in  147  favour o f p e r c e p t u a l opulence as opposed t o s i m p l i c i t y i n d e s i g n i n g our day-to-day environments have been based on p s y c h o l o g i c a l evidences,  the n e u r o - p h y s i c a l  basis of  human p e r c e p t i o n , as w e l l as p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n s and i n t u i t i o n s of designers.  In no i n s t a n c e s , so f a r , however,  the r e l a t i v e p o t e n t i a l s o f r e a l l i f e p u b l i c s e t t i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y micro-environments, v a r y i n g i n s t i m u l u s dimensions have been t e s t e d . t h i s study clarity  I t was not the i n t e n t i o n o f  t o d i s p u t e the importance o f harmony o r  i n design.  However, t h i s study  c o u l d not i n d i c a t e  how many t h i n g s o r how many d i f f e r e n t types o f t h i n g s t o see should be optimum f o r these environments t o a v o i d v i s u a l chaos and any p o s s i b l e d i s p l e a s u r e r e s u l t i n g from it.  S u r e l y , there shoulddbe an optimum as the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  p o s t u l a t i o n s tend t o suggest.  But are there p l a z a s and  squares so v i s u a l l y complex o r c h a o t i c as t o r e p e l '. use or evoke d i s p l e a s u r e ?  P o s s i b l y not; and  determination  o f such optimum may c a l l f o r experiments with h y p o t h e t i c a l r r a t h e r than r e a l l i f e  settings of this kind.  l i f e s e t t i n g s i n t h i s study  from r e a l  suggest t h a t p o s s i b l y there i s  enough room f o r v a r i e t y and complexity squares without  Evidences  i n our p l a z a s and  b e i n g apprehensive o f such c h a o t i c s i t u a t i o n s .  D i v e r s i t y may j u s t i f y t h e i r design t o render A harmony achieved  g r e a t e r emphasis than s i m p l i c i t y i n them a t t r a c t i v e and p l e a s a n t  spaces.  through the i n c l u s i o n o f the many o r a  c l a r i t y d i s c o v e r e d through p a r t i c i p a t i o n and f i n d i n g  148 r e s o l u t i o n i n complex p a t t e r n s be more enjoyable  and ambiguous forms would  and d e s i r a b l e than a harmony through  e x c l u s i o n o r a c l a r i t y through the presence o f simple, i d e n t i f i a b l e forms. What would make these small outdoors l o c a t e d w i t h i n the t y p i c a l b u i l t environment o f the c i t y d i v e r s e and, t h e r e f o r e , p l e a s a n t  and popular?  perceptually  Findings  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e p t u a l q u a l i t y o f p l a z a s may be brought about through f u r n i s h i n g o f t h e i r voids alone.  What s p e c i f i c  o f t h e i r i n t e r n a l f u r n i s h i n g are p e r c e p t u a l l y The  aspects  important?  a v a i l a b l e range o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as w e l l as the s i z e  of response t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l experiment, no doubt, imposed c o n s t r a i n t s on t h i s study f o r any r i g o r o u s comparison among landscape elements o r p a t t e r n s o r configurations thereof. Within perceptual  the c o n s t r a i n t , however,the  p o t e n t i a l o f a few general  a t t r i b u t e s f o r the  i n t e r n a l landscape o f p l a z a s was apparent, namely, 1. V a r i e t y i n the shape, s i z e , c o l o u r o r t e x t u r e of p l a n t m a t e r i a l s  and man-made a r t i f a c t s  f u r n i s h i n g the space, as opposed A t o e x c e s s i v e r e p e t i t i o n o f s i m i l a r forms or_expansive coverage by the same elements see F i g u r e 20,21) ;  (for instance,  149  2.  Density as  of artifacts,  opposed t o sparseness  pavements  3.  >  ( Figure  o f expansive  20,19) ;  The p r e s e n c e o f complex man-made  novel  sculptures  Brightness surfaces  Plazas interestingly  artifacts  f o c a l p o i n t s , s u c h tas m o v i n g w a t e r b o d i e s o r  as  4.  i . e . compact f u r n i s h i n g  ( F i g u r e 3,10,48,50); a n d  i n t h e c o l o u r o f pavements a n d  (for instance,  s e e F i g u r e 20,  a n d s q u a r e s o f Downtown V a n c o u v e r  exemplify  that perceptually diverse  s p a c e e n v i r o n m e n t s c a n be c r e a t e d  through simple  19/21)..i thus openand s u b t l e  ways t h a t a r e common i n t h e i n t u i t i o n - b a s e d c o d e b o o k s o f s i t e planners  o r landscape a r c h i t e c t s .  The v e r y  existence  of d i f f e r e n c e i n people's pleasure  and use a c r o s s  plazas  therefore,  l o c a t e d a few b l o c k s  designers'  ignorance  apart,  of not only  of t h e i r  simple  challenges  t h e need f o r v a r i e t y and  a r t i c u l a t i o n but also the perceptual s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these  these  and b e h a v i o r a l  a n d s u b t l e means o f l a n d s c a p i n g  voids.  In t h i s  context,  however, t h e r o l e o f c o m p l e x  man-made forms may be p a r t i c u l a r l y alternative  emphasized.  t o "many t h i n g s o f many d i f f e r e n t  approach t o landscape these  As an f o r m s " , an  s m a l l p u b l i c open s p a c e s  s i n g u l a r man-made f o c a l e l e m e n t s o f v e r y  complex a n d  with  150  ambiguous forms has  a d d i t i o n a l advantages. Complex elements  l i k e f o u n t a i n s or s c u l p t u r e s have g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l than other landscape f e a t u r e s to generate e x p l o r a t o r y type r e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n a mundane work environment o f the  of  city."  Open spaces f u r n i s h e d w i t h such s i n g u l a r complex f e a t u r e s i n v i t i n g observers in  the forms may  to p a r t i c i p a t e and  find resolution  a v o i d both monotony and v i s u a l chaos a t  the same time. Waterbodies and  s c u l p t u r e s have been f e a t u r e s  of the urban landscape f o r c e n t u r i e s . l i m i t e d v a r i e t y of such elements was  Although a very a v a i l a b l e across  the study areas, c e r t a i n forms appear to have g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l than others to a t t r a c t use.  T a l l j e t s of water,  v i s i b l e over a long d i s t a n c e to p e d e s t r i a n s a t t r a c t o r s of use w i t h i n these  are  greater  s m a l l spaces than s m a l l  f o u n t a i n s . A waterbody programmed to produce,  simultaneouly,  d i f f e r e n t movement p a t t e r n s or p a t t e r n s r a p i d l y changing w i t h time are g r e a t e r a t t r a c t o r s than s i n g l e p a t t e r n s water movement, such as cascades water bodies,  (see F i g u r e 48  ).  of  Among  s t i l l p o o l s appear to have the l e a s t percep-  t u a l p o t e n t i a l to generate p e d e s t r i a n use and e x p l o r a t i o n . The in  use o f rocks, pebbles,  plant materials that t h r i v e  water, e t c . , are more novel t o o l s than the  glazed t i l e s  (see F i g u r e  pools p e r c e p t u a l l y r i c h .  49)  to render  traditional  l a r g e s t i l l water  A s c u l p t u r e t h a t c o u l d be  not only v i s u a l l y but a l s o through k i n e s t h e t i c and senses may  explored tactile  be g r e a t e r a t t r a c t i o n s o f use than mere showpieces.  151  Figure 4 9 : The Use of Rocks and Shrubs i s an Excellent Way to Break the Monotony of Large S t i l l Water Bodies.  Figure  50 :  A Sculpture that Invites Exploration and Use i n Various Ways i s Better Than a Mere Showpiece  153  (see F i g u r e  5 0 ) . Unless  such showpieces are very  novel  i n t h e i r forms, such as many s c u l p t u r e s o f Henry Moore, t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s wane "with time. What s p e c i f i c aspects o f t h e i r space c o n f i g u r a t i o n s are important  t o render  these  e f f i c i e n t p u b l i c spaces? data o f t h i s study  s m a l l o u t d o o r s f u n c t i o n a l and  Both p e r c e p t u a l and b e h a v i o r a l  converged on the requirement f o r  a r t i c u l a t i o n i n the p h y s i c a l form o f the v o i d i t s e l f . d e s i r a b l e functional...modeldata o f t h i s study  emerging  A  .from-the~behavioral  speaks o f compact, densely  furnished  openspaces with developed edges, l i m i t e d and d e f i n e d p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n channels and.: a r t i c u l a t e d shapes and i  arrangements o f s e a t i n g and l e a n i n g f a c i l i t i e s  providing  d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i e s and o r i e n t a t i o n a l and p o s t u r a l c h o i c e f o r s m a l l group u s e r s .  Sparsely  f u r n i s h e d expansive paved  p l a z a s a r e not r a r e t o f i n d i n the h e a r t o f the c i t y . Such spaces are redundant from p u b l i c l e i s u r e Use p o i n t o f view and tend t o become mere concourses f o r p e d e s t r i a n through.  circulation  A few p o s s i b l e means t o generate p u b l i c use across  such e x i s t i n g p l a z a s may be t o stage  frequent  occurrence  of c o n c e r t s o r r a l l i e s , i n s t a l l semipermanent outdoor e x h i b i t s , d i s p l a y s , i n f o r m a t i o n k i o s k s , food s t a l l s , e t c . ( f o r i n s t a n c e , see F i g u r e  51 ).  P o s s i b l y no other aspect o f s i t e design o f these s m a l l spaces i s f u n c t i o n a l l y as important  as a r t i c u l a t i o n  154  Figure 51 : The Presence of Semipermanent Displays or E x h i b i t s i s One Possible Way to A t t r a c t Use i n E x i s t i n g Barren Plazas.  155  of t h e i r edges.  Developed edges can p l a y t t h e dual r o l e  of p r o v i d i n g s e a t i n g or l e a n i n g f a c i l i t i e s and c o n t r o l l i n g entrance and e x i t p o i n t s t o l i m i t and d e f i n e routes i n c r e a s i n g thereby use o f the i n t e r i o r .  pedestrian  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e f f i c i e n t  Edges r a t h e r than i n t e r i o r s are more  p o t e n t i a l areas f o r s e a t i n g , f o r through p e d e s t r i a n  circulation  i s a t y p i c a l a c t i v i t y w i t h i n p l a z a s . Although t h e i r  routes  should be l i m i t e d and d e f i n e d , the maintenance o f d i a g o n a l or long routes through;-may .;be ^ d e s i r a b l e t o generate use o f f a c i l i t i e s within.  Moreover, f o c a l elements, such as  f o u n t a i n s o r s c u l p t u r e s should be p r e f e r a b l y l o c a t e d i n the i n t e r i o r , c l o s e t o such p e d e s t r i a n s r o u t e s , a l l around and w i t h spaces around  visible  from  the a r t i f a c t s t o support  l o i t e r i n g , l i n g e r i n g , photographing, e t c .  Furthermore,  edges are t r a n s i t i o n zones o f f e r i n g view o f both i n s i d e and outside.  T h i s i n t e r e s t i n g aspect o f the edge should be  e x p l o i t e d through s e a t i n g .  Arrangements may suggest  " e x t r o v e r t " ( f a c i n g d i s t a n t landscapes o r c l o s e views o f p e d e s t r i a n movement on the adjacent  streets) or " i n t r o v e r t "  ( f a c i n g c e n t r a l f o c a l elements o r a c t i v i t y with p l a z a ) ; but, p r e f e r a b l y , should be a mixed k i n d with c h o i c e f o r users  t o face any d i r e c t i o n o r t o r e t r e a t from the surrounds  for self-engaging  activities.  Thus, a staggered  seating  or i n f o r m a l c l u s t e r s o f s m a l l seats may be p r e f e r a b l e r i g i d rows o r oblong s e a t s ; a complex perimeter and  to  with nooks  corners p r o v i d i n g d e f i n e d niches o r t e r r i t o r i e s may be  156  p r e f e r a b l e t o a stream-lined edge. (see F i g u r e  The few i l l u s t r a t i o n s  52 through 59)to support the d i s c u s s i o n are  examples o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  A r t i c u l a t i o n o f the perimeter  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i n the context o f w a t e r - f r o n t p l a z a s where m a j o r i t y o f the use may occur  along the  "outer edges f a c i n g the view. Since corners o f r a i l i n g support much g r e a t e r use than s t r a i g h t s e c t i o n s , p r o f i l e s o f w a t e r f r o n t p l a z a s should be. p'referably broken w i t h as many turns o r a n g l e s - a s - p o s s i b l e i n the r a i l i n g t o l e a n on ( f o r i n s t a n c e , see F i g u r e p l a z a s may support  55 ) . Furthermore,  these  a wider v a r i e t y o f people and g r e a t e r  presence o f e l d e r l y l e i s u r e seeker: than p l a z a s i n the i n t e r i o r of the downtown.  Thus, a d i v e r s e edge with p r o v i s i o n o f  nooks and c o r n e r s , p r o j e c t e d b a l c o n i e s , s m a l l decks, some e l e v a t i o n a l changes, p a r t i a l s c r e e n i n g by p l a n t m a t e r i a l s , etc.,  may not o n l y e n r i c h the v i s u a l and k i n e s t h e t i c  experience  o f l o i t e r e r s along the r a i l i n g b u t a l s o o f f e r  a t t r a c t i v e , d e f i n e d niches  f o r the d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n groups.  While r a i l i n g s are p a r t i c u l a r l y important along the w a t e r f r o n t  facilities  edge, a v a r i e t y o f other f u r n i t u r e  elements, such as benches, p o o l s , p l a n t e r s t r u c t u r e , s t a i r c a s e s , and grass lawns p r o v i d e p o s t u r a l support p l a z a s and squares.  f o r users  across  Since s e l f - e n g a g i n g a c t i v i t i e s and p a s s i v e  r e l a x a t i o n c a r r i e d out by s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s and s m a l l groups d i c t a t e the nature  o f use of these open spaces, the  157  Figure 52  Pacific Centre Plaza - Merely a Concourse for Throiigh Circulation. Articulated Edges May Provide' . Attractive Seating as' Well as an Efficient Internal Space.  4 ppesert  <|o  Gtanville Mall ,11  o  o  o o  V  O  —oemaict  O/K  cgo^  Improved  MWJOO^ p destrian Matching f S " * * ^ Occasional Entertainment e  Granville M i l l  Seating for Street Watchers  158  Sunken Deck r-y|j Sunken p r o j e c t e d decks  .1——\  Figure 55 : G r a n v i l l e Square - Use tenclsto b u i l d up on corners rather than s t r a i g h t sections o f r a i l i n g s . R a i l i n g s are key elements i n waterfront plazas and should be a r t i c u l a t e d to provide as many corners as [>ossible as w e l l as a t t r a c t i v e niches f o r the many d i f f e r e n t typos o f people that use the space.  159  S  T R  E E. T  LO  fr-t V5  Figure 53 : Seating Arrangement Along the Edge Should Provide Choice for User to Face Any Direction.  Break Qblong Edges to Provide Niches f o r Group Socialization  4 present  Linear Park Benches iwere Wasted F a c i l i t i e s  Figure 54 : Victory Square - Long Edges and a Rigid Row-seating Dictate. Users' Orientation. They Should be A r t i c u l a t e d to Provide T e r r i t o r i e s as Well as Personal Choice f o r Orientation  160  keynote f o r d e s i g n i n g these f u r n i t u r e elements should be the p r o v i s i o n o f p e r s o n a l space, o r i e n t a t i o n a l freedom and p o s t u r a l c h o i c e f o r small-group  users.  Such p r o v i s i o n s  can be made through angular v a r i e t y and s m a l l s i z e o r p h y s i c a l d i v i s i o n s i n the form and arrangements o f s e a t i n g  facilities.  E x t e n s i v e m o n o l i t h i c s t r u c t u r e s o f neat g e o m e t r i c a l  shape,  however economic they may be i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , do not l e a d t o economy i n use. benches observed  The g e n e r a l l y low l e v e l o f use of  across p l a z a s suggest  not need a l a r g e amount o f bench space.  t h a t p o s s i b l y we do However, benches  should be s m a l l w i t h l i n e a r dimensions accommodating no more than two o r three persons and p r e f e r a b l y movable i n - o r d e r t o l a y o u t i n d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s depending on u s e r s ' c h o i c e . A compact but a r t i c u l a t e d arrangement o f small seats ( f o r i n s t a n c e , see F i g u r e 56 ) may be more e f f i c i e n t as w e l l as a t t r a c t i v e ,to users than t h e standard oblong benches (9-10ft long) and a r i g i d  row-seating.  are c l e a r l y wasted f a c i l i t i e s .  Oblong park benches  Square-shaped benches provide  g r e a t e r o r i e n t a t i o n a l choice and freedom f o r u s e r s .  Asso-  c i a t i o n o f benches with s m a l l f u r n i t u r e elements, such as p l a n t e r s , l i g h t p o l e s , f l a g p o l e s , t r a s h c a n s , e t c . , may facilitate  r e l a x i n g postures  (Figure 56 ).  161  S i m i l a r l y , the edge o f e x t e n s i v e l i n e a r p o o l o r p l a n t e r s t r u c t u r e s should be broken down. streamlined  The t y p i c a l  l i n e a r i t y i n shapes o f p o o l c o n t a i n e r s  strictly  conform t o the o v e r a l l formal shape o f the s m a l l open spaces and t h e i r surrounding  architecture.  s m a l l plazas , some complexity 7  However, even w i t h i n  i n the p r o f i l e o f these  s t r u c t u r e s , a l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the l e v e l o f t h e i r etc.,  ( f o r i n s t a n c e see F i g u r e 57) may n o t o n l y p r o v i d e a  f u n c t i o n a l s e a t i n g but a l s o e n r i c h the v i s u a l users. is  floors  experience o f  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the a t t r a c t i v e element, i.^e. water,  always a t the back o f users o f t y p i c a l l i n e a r p o o l s t r u c t u r e s .  Angular  v a r i e t y i n shape may p r o v i d e c l e a r view and g r e a t e r  162  Royal Centre  Figure 5? : MacMillan Bloedel P l a z a A r t i c u l a t i o n of T y p i c a l Oblong Pool Bring i n Change-in-stimuli as w e l l as Provide E f f i c i e n t Seating and O r i e n t a t i o n a l and Postural Choice f o r Users  163  i n t e r a c t i o n " - w i t h the element than what i s o f f e r e d by the p r e s e n t day oblong containers.Extensive g r a s s lawns are wasted  facilities  f o r downtown p l a z a s and squares, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  local  c l i m a t i c context.  An e f f i c i e n t a l t e r n a t i v e t o p r o v i d e some  experience of the t u r f d u r i n g the summer may  be t o p r o v i d e  s m a l l g r a s s mounds on the ground or i n r a i s e d c o n t a i n e r s . Mounds i n t r i n s i c a l l y p r o v i d e g r e a t e r s e g r e g a t i o n between u s e r s than e x t e n s i v e n o n - a r t i c u l a t e d lawns. E x i s t i n g grass areas of e x t e n s i v e s i z e may  be a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h s h r u b b e r i e s t o  p r o v i d e d e f i n e d n i c h e s or t e r r i t o r i e s f f o r users  (see F i g u r e  58).  These means of a r t i c u l a t i o n of f u r n i t u r e elements are simple and subtle-.  Yet  they are l i k e l y t o generate  a more e f f i c i e n t  s e a t i n g and a g r e a t e r freedom f o r users than what i s . o f f e r e d by the expansive  form and steamlined l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e s  f u r n i s h i n g most e x i s t i n g p l a z a s and  squares.  A t y p i c a l problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a z a s i n the l o c a l c l i m a t e Is  shade, f o r locations-'shaded by the h i g h r i s e s  remain unused even d u r i n g the summer.  Although  certain  f a c t o r s , such as the o r i e n t a t i o n of p l a z a s o r the h e i g h t s of surrounding masses are o f t e n beyond c o n t r o l o f the l a n d scape a r c h i t e c t , p r o v i d i n g s e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n the sunny rrathe.r than the shaded p a r t s of p l a z a s i s not. The use o f these t y p i c a l open spaces may  be c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d i i f  c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s taken about the shadow l i n e s c a s t by surrounding s k y s c r a p e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the  164  Figure 58  Users Tend to Spread Thinly.on Non-articulated Grass Areas  :  Expansive Grass Lawns Wasted F a c i l i t i e s f o r Downtown Plazas. They should be Avoided or Articulated  Low Mounds Segregate Users: They May E f f i c i e n t l y Offer Some Experience o f Turf i n Small PlsviS.  Low Shrubs and Ground Covers (Approx. 1 to l ' - 6 " high) Well Below Eye-level While Squatting  \  Small Screens o f Shrubs (Approx. 2'-6" - 3'-0" high)  improved ^  A r t i c u l a t i o n o f Expansive Lawns with Shrubberies May Provide Niches f o r Users as Well as Visual Variety .  165  peak-use hours.  Some ways o f u t i l i z i n g shaded p a r t s may  be t o p r o v i d e p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e o r n o v e l f e a t u r e s t h a t c o u l d generate Wherever.appropriate,  t r a n s i e n t l o i t e r i n g o r l i n g e r i n g around. facilities  l i k e food s t a l l s ,  lottery  t i c k e t s e l l i n g , e t c . , may l o c a t e themselves i n the shade while sunny areas are used f o r s e a t i n g . a l t e r n a t i v e l y , may be t o t a l l y  Shaded l o c a t i o n s ,  landscaped w i t h p l a n t m a t e r i a l s  t h a t t h r i v e i n the shadow o f b u i l d i n g s . An i n t e r e s t i n g p i e c e o f data o f t h i s study i s the p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l of waterfront plazas. Althought  i t s implication-may  not be u n i v e r s a l , i t i s  r e l e v a n t i n the context o f Downtown Vancouver o r such o t h e r c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s where p o s s i b i l i t i e s may e x i s t t o p r o v i d e such p u b l i c outdoors sceniciview.  f o r the enjoyment o f  As was e v i d e n t i n the present study,  waterfront  p l a z a s a t t r a c t a wide v a r i e t y o f people, o f f e r r e t r e a t f o r e l d e r l y users and may r e q u i r e l e s s s i t e design e f f o r t s  than  other spaces t o ensure t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . A few aspects o f t h e i r design, however,,may be important  t o note.  Besides,  a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e i r edges, an o v e r a l l narrow and l i n e a r shape i s l i k e l y t o be more e f f i c i e n t than a l a r g e area p e n e t r a t i n g deep i n t o the i n t e r i o r .  Extensive waterfront  p l a z a s should, p r e f e r a b l y , have counter a t t r a c t i o n s and a p r o g r e s s i v e r e a l i z a t i o n o f the panoramic view t o users i n order t o be e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d  ( f o r i n s t a n c e see F i g u r e 59).  The p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f the w a t e r f r o n t i n the h.eart o f the c i t y may be e f f i c i e n t l y . e x p l o i t e d ' i f such  viewing  166  Area remote from the view would need strong man-made f o c a l element to a t t r a c t use.  Devise a c i r c u i t o u s movement route aound a r t i f a c t s between the entrance and the waterfront edge.  Burrard Inlet  Screens may provide a progressive r e a l i z a t i o n se^ing^eas!  "  » " "  M  t  Burrard Inlet Figure 59 :  4 present  Burrard Inlet Railway Station The wide open scenery d i r e c t l y p u l l s uses f o r the very entrance to the remotest waterfront edge; r e l e g a t i o n of a r t i f a c t s towards the side leaves a straight movement route open. .  G r a n v i l l e square: large open space on waterfront l o c a t i o n s would need counterbalances and a progressive r e a l i z a t i o n o f the view i n order to be e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d .  167  decks are v i s i b l e from and c l o s e to the mainstreams of p e d e s t r i a n movement w i t h i n the Downtown. These few  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i t h regard to the  design and s i t e p l a n n i n g of p l a z a s and  squares may  visual render  them p e r c e p t u a l l y p l e a s a n t as w e l l as e f f i c i e n t p u b l i c p l a c e s . The  e x p l o r a t o r y nature  leave q u e s t i o n s  of t h i s study,  however, would  and r a i s e i s s u e s t h a t are to be  r e s o l v e d through f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e s .  Although a  clearly few  g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r the i n t e r n a l landscape of p l a z a s be o u t l i n e d i n the p r e s e n t  study,  could  a r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s of  the p e r c e p t u a l p o t e n t i a l s of v a r i o u s types or combinations of form, c o l o u r o r t e x t u r e s of landscape elements s u i t a b l e f o r these  spaces c o u l d not be made.  scape of these  Since i n t e r n a l  s m a l l spaces can s i g n i f i c a n t l y  people's p e r c e p t i o n s  and  alter  f e e l i n g of p l e a s u r e , a l a r g e -  s c a l e comparison among d i f f e r e n t types o f n a t u r a l or made m a t e r i a l s may  land-  man-  be of i n t e r e s t i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . Such  comparisons of the p e r c e p t u a l p o t e n t i a l s o f d i f f e r e n t forms be made through people's responses to simulated  environments.  Furthermore, the r o l e of the p h y s i c a l environment o f p l a z a s on people's arousal-nonarousal of dominance-submissiveness was  or the  feeling  not r e v e a l e d i n t h i s  Is arousing q u a l i t y a d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e f o r these To what extent? The  and,  study. spaces?  what are i t s p h y s i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ?  s m a l l s i z e of samples and  may  l a c k of s u b j e c t s ' comments on  t h e i r f e e l i n g were impediments f o r a r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s i n  168 this  regard.  Although  the p e r c e p t u a l data of t h i s  d i d not throw s u f f i c i e n t elicitation  light  spaces  and  t h e i r , use  suggested  that orientational  space  territorial  o f these environments in  their  and p o s t u r a l  the  visual quality  and  c o u l d be  choice, personal  supported  through  i n the form  diversity and  facilities.  f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y was and  elements  f r e e d o m are i m p o r t a n t needs o f u s e r s  arrangement o f s e a t i n g  few  of furniture  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and. a r t i c u l a t i o n  While  dominance-  across p l a z a s , the observed d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n  of people w i t h i n  and  on p e o p l e ' s  study  configuration  f i n d i n g s would r a i s e  primarily  on  the  o f spaces t h e m s e l v e s  i s sues; p e r t a i n i n g  to the  a  overall  open s p a c e p l a n n i n g i n t h e downtown c o n t e x t t h a t n e e d be  resolved  space  through  itself  use.  can  further  studies.  significantly  Even then, the g e n e r a l l y  i n most p l a z a s may p u b l i c open s p a c e  raise  doubt  facilities  The  design of  a l t e r people's  the  feeling  low  l e v e l o f use  about  the u t i l i t y  i n the h e a r t t o f  to  the  and  observed of extensive city.  C o n c o m i t a n t w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f g r o s s quantum, t h e q u e s t i o n of  size  and  distribution  o f t h e s e s p a c e s may  B o t h p e r c e p t u a l and b e h a v i o r a l d a t a ©f on  t h e m e r i t o f s m a l l and  extensive  sparsely  space development i n the^ h e a r t o f the c i t y  may  a public a g a i n ask,  recreational how  use p o i n t  converged  rather  Apparently  a decentralized r a t h e r than a c e n t r a l i z e d  from  raised.  the study  compact open s p a c e s  furnished plazas.  be  than  , therefore,  p a t t e r n o f open w o u l d be  o f view.  much d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ? And  desirable  However, what a r e  one the  169  other planning implications?  Furthermore,  this  study  p o i n t s out the m e r i t o f mixed landuse development from the p o i n t o f view o f s u s t a i n i n g the use o f open spaces over the day. I t a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t i n the o f f i c e d i s t r i c t o f t h e Downtown, i n t e g r a t i n g commercial  highrise  developments around common p l a z a s may l e a d t o g r e a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f these outdoor f a c i l i t i e s than what i s p o s s i b l e through the t y p i c a l piecemeal development o f precincts a s s o c i a t e d with i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e towers.  These  i s s u e s along w i t h the problem o f shade and wind t u r b u l a n c e commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h downtown p l a z a s would, i n essence, h i g h l i g h t t h e need f o r an i n t e g r a t e d approach t o p u b l i c open space p l a n n i n g i n the c e n t r e o f the c i t y and a c o - o r d i n a t e d c o n t r o l o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between masses and v o i d s as opposed t o the piecemeal p r i v a t e a c t i o n  that  c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d e the m a j o r i t y o f p u b l i c open spaces w i t h i n the Downtown. While some o f these q u e s t i o n s and i s s u e s may, hopefully,  i n s p i r e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h an a r r a y o f simple but  r e a l i s t i c means t o support human needs and p r e f e r e n c e s has been l a i d out by t h i s study i n f r o n t o f d e s i g n e r s of p u b l i c p l a z a s and squares.  The substance o f t h i s study  l a y not merely i n t h e f i n d i n g s themselves but i n i t s demonstration t h a t a systemic e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o human emotional and b e h a v i o r a l responses t o e x i s t i n g  settingsdmay  p r o v i d e modest y e t potent ways o f d e s i g n i n g them b e t t e r .  170  T h e o r e t i c a l p o s t u l a t i o n s on human p e r c e p t u a l p r e f e r e n c e s and b e h a v i o r a l needs developed by t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s w e r e - t r a n s l a t e d . i n t o .physical terms i n the context o f a s e t o f very common day-to-day s e t t i n g s . . These s e t t i n g s i n the c e n t r e of" the m o d e r n c i t y are s t e r i l e 1  counterparts  of the s o c i a l l y r i c h p l a z a s and squares o f the past; and v  the s t e r i l i t y i n t h e i r s o c i a l makeup demands t h a t t h e i r p h y s i c a l make-up should be a t t r a c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t enough to render  them u s e f u l spaces i n the c i t y . Yet, p o s s i b l y  i n no o t h e r i n s t a n c e s o f our day-to-day s e t t i n g s has o b j e c t i v e r e s e a r c h i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p h y s i c a l environment and human f e e l i n g s and behaviour been so l a c k i n g as i n the case o f Downtown p l a z a s and squares.  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"Amount o f Stimulus E x p l o r a t i o n and P r e f e r e n c e as D i f f e r e n t i a l F u n c t i o n s of Stimulus Complexity", PERCEPTION AND PSYCHOPHYSICS, 4, 307-312. Zisman. 1967. "Open Spaces i n Urban Growth" i n Taming M e g a l o p o l i s , H.W. Eldredge (ed.), N.Y., Doubleday. Zucker, P a u l . 1959. Town and Square, N.Y. Press.  Colombia  University  177 Semantic  APPENDIX - A .  D i f f e r e n t i a l Measures  of  Emotional.States.  Pleasure Happy  Unhappy  Pleased  Annoyed  Satisfied  Unsatisified  Contented  Melancholic  Hopeful  Despairing  Relaxed  Bored  Arousal Stimulated  Relaxed  Excited  Calm  Frenzied  Sluggish  Jittery  Dull  Wide-awake  Sleepy  Aroused  Unaroused  Dominance Controlling-  Controlled  Influential-  Influenced  In  Cared  Control -  Important  -  Awed  Dominant Autonomous  for  Submissive -  Guided  APPENDIX-B Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales o f an e n v i r o n m e n t .  Measuring Information  Crowded  :  :  :  :  :  : ——:  Homogeneous  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  Rate  : Uncrowded  :  :  heterogeneous  VAried  :  :  :  .:  :  :  :  :  redundant  Similar  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  contrasting  •-—:  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  large-scale  Simple  :  :  :——:  :  :  :  :  complex  Surprising  s  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  usual  Novel  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  familiar  Sparse  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  dense  Intermittent  :  :  :  :—  .—  Common  s  :  :  :  :—  t—r—:  Asymmetrical  :  :  s  :  !  :  !  Distant  :  :  :  :  :  :  :— :  Random  »  J  s  i  s  :  :  Small-scale  .  continuous :  rare  :  symmetrical immediate  :  patterned  A p p e n d i x C - S u r v e y M e a s u r i n g E m o t i o n - e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t i e s and I n f o r m a t i o n R a t e s o f P l a z a E n v i r o n m e n t s environment around you w h i l e you ore u s l n c t h i s plaza/oquare  (to be f i l l e d out l a  .  -ine  -  (consider*  o i l t o c o t h c r whatever t h i n g s you ses w h i l e u s i n g t h i s a r e a ) . Each  of the f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v o p a i r s helps d e f i n o the environment which i s v i s i b l e t o p e o p l e u s i n g t h i s a r e a . F o r e a c h p a i r , p u t a c h e c k mark  X. T o u r - f e e l i n g s " I n t h e  c l o s e t o tho a d j e c t i v e which you b o l i c v o t o d e s c r i b e t h i s  setting  e n v i r o n m e n t b e t t e r . The E a c h s e t t i n g e l i c i t s I m p r e s s i o n s and f e e l i n g s I n o u r m i n i s . w o u l d l i k e t o know what k i n d o f f e e l i n g s you g e t I n t h i s s e t t i n g where you a r e to  j u s t now.  f e e l more one  way  put y o u r c h e c k mark t o i t .  P l e a s e use t h e a d j e c t i v e p a i r s b e l o w  t h a n t h e o t h e r . S o , f o r each p a i r , p u t a  c h e c k n a r k ( e x a m p l e : — : - ^ — - ) c l o s e t o a d j e c t i v e w h i c h you d e s c r i b e y o u r f e e l i n g s b e t t e r . The  seems,the e l o s e r you s h o u l d  c l o s e r you  plaza/square  r a t e y o u r f e e l i n g s . Some o f t h e p a i r s might seem u n u s u a l , b u t y o u ' l l  probably to  We  visual  moro a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t a d j e c t i v e seems,the  believe  more a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t a d j e c t i v e  put y o u r c h e c k marks t o i t .  crowded  uncrowded  homogenooufl  heterogeneous  varied  redundant  similar  contrasting  small-scale  large-scale  olmplo  complex  surprising  usual  sleepy  wide-awake  novel  satisfied  unsatisfied  fanlliar  sparse  ln-eontrol  cared-for  dense  controlled  controlling  int»n-lttent oommon  rare  bored  r e l a x e d ..  Jittery  dull  asymmetrical distant  Immediate  random  patterned  annoyed  pleased  vnaroused  aroused  hopeful  dlspalrlng  frenzied  sluggish  unhappy  happy  3. A p p r o x i m a t e l y  continuous symmetrical  how  many t i m e s have you b e e n l a t h i s  d u r i n g the past year?  dominant  submissive  contented  melaneholle  4.  plaza/square  ( P l o a o e m e n t i o n t h e number)  P l e a s e supply the f o l l o w i n g I n f o r m a t i o n ! ft) D a t e o f t h i s v i s i t  •  awed  Important autonomous  b) l i m e o f t h i s v i s i t  stimulated  relaxed  lnfluenclal  Influenced  e) W o a t h o r c o n d i t i o n d u r i n g y o u r s t a y I n t h i s p l a z a / s q u a r e t h o a p p r o p r i a t e boxes b e l o w ) i  calm  excited  Bow  1 ) s u n n y and  use the f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e p a i r * t o deeerlbe the  c l e a r oky •  c l o u d y and  setting  visual  11) not windy a Aj  T o u r ago  .  _________  guided  2. " A r o e a r a n c e " o f t h e  00  ; nodorotely b r i g h t weather O  poor l i g h t c o n d i t i o n • (windy  j  •  8 y o u r BOX  .  (cheek  ;verjr  APPENDIX  - D  Te would l i k e t e taow "Why" you f e l t more one nay than another i n  each of the plaza/square *nvirennents you v i s i t e d . ?ire statements on personal impressions are given Below. Por each plaza/square you v i s i t e d and f o r each statement check( } "yes" I f the statement agrees with your feelings and impressions i n that environment and "no" i f i t disagrees,and then,state briefly.why i.e what aspects/features of the environment you think might he responsible for your feeling or impression. Personal impressions  First Plaza/square  Second Plaza/square'- ..  Third Plaza/square ,.,  Pourth, Plaza/square  F i f t h Plaza/square  I.I f e l t more pleased end yes n happy than displeased i n the Why: plaza/square environment  ! no •  yes 0 Why:  ; no Q  yes • ; no • Why:  yes • Why:  1 no O  yes O Whyr  ; so O  2. I f e l t more stimulated and excited than Bored i n the plaza/square environment  yes • Why  t no •  yes D Why:  j no D  yes a Why:  ; no a  yes • 5 no • Why:  yes • Say:  ; no C  3.1 f e l t more autonomous and in-contfol than guided and cared-for i n the plaza/ square environment  yes • Why  1 no Q  yes D Why:  j no n  yes • Why:  j no a  yes 0 J n o • Why:  yes n ; no D Why:  4.1 found the v i s u a l environ- yes n -ment more varied than redun- Whys -dant  ; no •  yes O Why:  ; no P  yes • Why:  j no •  yes Q ; no n Why:  yes • Why:  | no D  5.1 found the v i s u a l environ- yes Q -ment more, surprising and Whys novel than usual and familiar  ; no •  yes O Why:  ; no •  yes • • :. . . . Why:  : no •  yes • Why:  yes • Why:  j no n  1 no •  -  180 APPENDIX - E ILLUSTRATION OF A TYPICAL PHOTOGRAPHIC OBSERVATION OR RECORDING SESSION (Refer, pp 43-51) Log Sheet LOG  S X Z S T ]««L_  . r:s.y. xo. oii.sza.  S-v-»i  ?>_A1A CATS  7<.y.z  UillaikJiJa. • alisi£i_i£i. 13 to  S ; y , O G 3 A ? r i I C CH.| Aj£  5cA  M  Cloudr c a r d s ' ,  A C T I  RSMARK.a t ; ; s a T ) : oil aifiv plass.  n  PZS'JlSUi  g-  53 LI 7*??  S i rtiruj -pool's  R  su»»y  <rl-»jfci. - i n *  I3IO.  CSSV.  'LTOCATIOM  Gray?  Very  E  A  R ~X " 5  c J ^ e . . ---e a » J . «JJ  •- .  a3  ».2 I ^ «  —  ,  1  BO*, tii-51.  t- J.^i ij:-st.  A OH  p^>u r«.;  13  M  *\ .... J>f;-0  -is-  y  r-  icUT»«Y  ~ ' Li •  p^-^-^  ~TTJ  1  ^jOaiL^''  -  ^. 1TV\*~/ -MUsl. ^jCi  ^wMw  i'nc^.  ,  182  183 Frame Nos.  APPENDIX F DISTRIBUTION OF OBSERVATION SESSIONS C o n d i t i o n s of Observations  Granville Sq.  Bentall Two  CourtHouse Sq.  Pacific Centre  STUDY AREAS I.B.M. Plaza  SEASON Spring % total Summer % total  43 65.2 23 34.8  38 58.5 27 41.5  WEATHER CONDITION Clear % total Cloudy % total Wet % total  41 62.1 19 28.8 4 6.1  43 66.2 15 23.1 7 10.8  .18 51.4 12 34.3 5 14.3  35 68.6 11 21.6 5 9.8  TIME OF THE DAY Before 10 a.m. % total 10-11 a.m. % total 11-12 p.m. % total 12-1 p.m. % total 1-2 p.m. % total 2-3 p.m. % total 3-4 p.m. % total 4-5 p.m. % total A f t e r 5 p.m. % total  3 4.5 6 9.1 7 10.6 12 18.2 8 12.1 8 12.1 10 15.2 7 10.6 5 7.6  2 3.1 5 7.7 8 12.3 11 16.9 14 21.5 5 7.7 7 10.8 9 13.8 4 6.2  2 5.7 3 8.6 4 11.4 7 20.0 5 14.3 3 8.6 3 8.6 5 14.3 3 8.6  2 3.9 3 5.9 5 9.8 8 15.7 9 17.6 7 13.7 ' 8 15.7 5 9.8 4 7.8  65 100.0  35 100.0  T O T A L  15 42.9 ' 20 57.1  29 56.9 22 43.1  30 61.2 19 38.8  Trounce A l l e y Sq.  27 52.9 24 47.1  • Victory Sq.  41 58.6 29 41.4 •  MacMillan Bloedel  Guiness Plaza  31 73.8 13 31.0  30 57.7 22 42.3  30 57.7 22 42.3  Baxter Plaza  •  66 10Q.0  51 100.0  30 61.2 13 26.5 6 12.2  40 78.4 11 21.6 0 0.0  56 80.0 13 18.6 1 1.4  26 61.9 9 •21.4 6 14.3  36 69.2 10 19.2 6 11.5  37 71.2 9 17.3 6 11.5  2 4.1 5 10.2 7 14.3 • 9 18.4 7 14.3 7 14.3 4 8.2 6 12.2 2 4.1  2 3.9 4 7.8 5 9.8 8 15.7 6 11.8 7 13.7 9 17.6 7 13.7 3 5.9  4 5.7 6 8.6 5 7.1 . 12 7.1 10 14.3 8 11.4 12 17.1 6 8.6 7 10.0  2 4.8 5 11.9 5 11.9 9 21.4 8 19.0 6 14.3 4 9.5 2 4.8 1 2.4  2 3.8 4 7.6 7 13.5 12 23.1 7 13.5 8 15.4 5 9.6 4 7.6 3 5.8  2 3.8 5 9.6 5 9.6 3 15.4 10 19.2 7 13.5 6 11.5 6 11.5 3 5.8  49 100.0  51 100.0  42 100.0  52 100.0  70 100.0  52 100.0  APPENDIX G ORTHOGONALLY ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX OF THE PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF SCORES ON INFORMATION RATE SCALE Factor 1 (3.675)  Factor 2 (1.849)  Factor 3 (1.599)  Factor 4 (1.239)  Factor 5 (1.019)  0.84708  0.09191  0.13129  0.05979  0.05822  2. Common - rare  0.78081  -0.02984  -0.10559  0.15697  0.11330  3. Novel - familiar  0.75695  0.02770  0.16800  0.12743  -0.14522  4.  0.68422  0.06875  0.06099  0.31377  0.10253  5. Variety - redundant  0.65024  0.096C7  0.02926  0.49496  .-0.06853  6. Asymmetrical - symmetrical  0.25546  -0.00028  0.71224  0.06992  0.07529  7.  0.16808  0.50174  0.10148  0.54012  0.05822  8. Distant - immediate  0.16785  0.33763  -0.35045  0.13326  -0.61186  9.  Sparse - dense  0.13300  0.79478  -0.14561  0.24030  -0.09772  10.  Homogeneous - heterogeneous  0.10009  -0.00636  0.25923  0.81233  0-00827  11.  Small scale - large scale  0.06542  0.08089 ' -0.05096  0.11234  0.84941  12.  Random - patterned  -0.03020  0.13859  0.74949  0.21119  0.07015  13.  Intermittent - continuous  -0.03453  -0.23817  0.50447  0.49537 . -0.15245  14.  Crowded - uncrowded  -0.06841  0.81917  0.1994,0  •  1.  Surprising - usual  Similar - contrasting  Simple - complex  -0.21989  0.01811  186  APPENDIX H  :  INTERNAL FURNISHING OF PLAZAS.  ELEMENTS  •187 Provincial  Courthouse  g  pi rt H  GEORGIA  STREET  COURTHOUSE SQUARE ELEMENT TYPES  SCULPTURAL ELEMENTS  PROB.  1. A b s t r a c t s t o n e s c u l p t u r e i n the centre o f p o o l 2.  WATER BODY  FREQ.  L i o n s on g r a n d to Courthouse  0.008  0.016  3. S t i l l p o o l w i t h m u l t i coloured ceramic t i l e floor  0.008  0.008  6. S e t o f j e t s f o r m i n g low a r c h i n g c i r c u l a r r i n g s on e i t h e r s i d e 7. Above j e t s f o r m i n g ration individual verticals  0.016  8. Large r e c t a n g u l a r f l o w e r beds Rectangular Shrub-bed'  10.  Cherry  11".  Shrub mass e d g i n g on lawns  trees  0.016  13, S m a l l hedge w a l l s o n Central court.  0.062  OTHER  2  0.016  16. M e d . s i z e Shrub masses along b u i l d i n g wall  2  0.016  17. S l o p i n g bank p l a n t i n g a l o n g Howe S t r e e t sidewalk  ]  0.00S  1  0.008  Cone-planter  0.031  20. Monumental Grand Staircase  0.008  21. S m a l l  0.047  stair-seats  0.016 22.  Ramps  0.016  1  0.008  23. S t a i r  IS  0.117  24. F l a g P o l e s  0.047  25. Commemorative T a b l e t  0.008  Rails  0.062  0.016 26. S m a l l  pillars  27. D e c o r a t i v e AVERAGE UNCERTAINTY (U) » 4.171 AREA APPROX.  3.016  I S . Large C o n i f e r o u s t r e e s  19. Round 0.141  PROB. (P^/N)  12. S m a l l p a r t e r e s  POOL PLANTER 18. A r t i c u l a t e d P o o l STRUCTURE container  slow 18  FREQ.  14. Long Hedge w a l l s a l o n g passage  0.008  5. Low f o r c e f u l j e t s a t the base o f p o o l sculphere  9.  PLANT MATERIALS  entrance  4. T a l l j e t f o u n t a i n i n the centre o f pool  PLANT MATERIALS  ELEMENT TYPES  = 28,000 S q . F t .  28. L i g h t P o l e s  12  Railings  0.094 0.016  18  0.141  29. M e t a l b i n s  0.016  30. G r a s s Lawns  0.016  N=128  188 BENTALL 1 ,  TOVIER . i  TWO  •plaia  1?  B U R  R A R D  T  S T R E E .  BENTALL TWO PLAZA FROB, ( p ^ i  iREMENT IYPi.3 SCULPTURE  l.  1  0.023  WATER BODY  2. L a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r p o o l  1  0.023  3. F o u n t a i n o f o n e f o r m o f vatermovement  1  0.023  4. 8 f t . w h i t e t e r r a z o f i n i s h e d concrete bench  2  0.046  5. S m a l l t r e e s i n r o u n d p l a n t e r s  4  0.093  6. F l o w e r m a s s ( T y p e A )  1  0.023  7. F l o w e r m a s s ( T y p e B )  1  0.023  8. F l o w e r m a s s ( T y p e C)  1  0.023  9. F l o w e r m a s s ( T y p e D)  4  0.093  SEATS  PLANT MATERIALS  One f o r m - t y p e  10. Shrub mass  (Type A)  6  0.139  1 1 . Shrub mass  (Type B)  1  0.023  1 2 . A clump o f e x o t i c s h r u b s  1  0.029  13. Shrub  2  0.046  2  0.046  1  0.023  4  0.093  1  0.023  2  0.046  1 •  0.023  3  0.069  2  0.046  1  0.023  ( t y p e D)  POOL/PLASTER 1 4 . 1 0 ' x 2 0 ' W h i t e t e r r a z o f i n i s h e d STRUCTURES concrete boxes 15. 8 f t . sq.above f i n i s h e d b o x 16. 4 f t . round above f i n i s h e d  boxes  17. L a r g e 30'x60' above f i n i s h e d container OTHER  18  Rock c l u s t e r s i n p o o l  19. R o d - d u s t e r 20. F l a g  i nplanters  poles  21. Concrete  astrays  22. S i g n  pool  H-46 AVERAGE UNCERTAINTY APPROX. AREA  (U) » 4.163 - 7,700 Sq,.fe.  189 MACMILLAN AND  BLOEDEL  G E O R G I A  S T R E E T  ELEMENT TYPES  FREQ. PROB. n. Pi = n /N •' ±  WATER BODY  1. Shallow pools with green ceramic tiles floor  PLANT MAT.  2. Shrubby ground covers  6  0.130  3. Flower masses  6  0.130  4. Shrub masses  2  0.043  5. Small trees in container  6  0.130  6. Conifers in row along west wall  2  0.043  7. Hedgerow on east wall  2  0.043  POOL/PINT. STRUCTURES  8. Square concrete planters 9. Oblong low pools edge  OTHER  0.043  13  0.283 .  2  0.043  10. Stairs  1  0.022  11. Parapet walls  2  0.043  12. Concrete railing  2  0.043  13. Sign  1_  0.022  N=46  MACKLLLAN-BLOEDEL PLAZA AV. UNCERTAINTY FACTOR (U) = 3.248 AREA ...10,800 Sq.ft. approx.  ' 190-  STREET  G R A N V 1 L L E P A C I F I C CENTRE PLAZ*  FREQ. (ni)  ELEMENT TYPES  PROB. ( = /N) P i  n i  SCULPTURAL ELEMENTS  1. A t a l l a b s t r a c t m e t a l  1  0.036  WATER BODY  2. O b l o n g S t i l l p o o l  1  0.036  3. F o u n t a i n ( o n e S h e e t o f w a t e r (one form)  1  0.036  4; M e d . s i z e d d e c i d u o u s t r e e s Eaton's wall  3  0.107  5. S h r u b mass A .  1  0.036  6. S h r u b mass B.  1  0.036  POOL § PLANTER STRUCTURES  7. One o b l o n g p o o l c o n t a i n e r  1  0.036  8. T r a p i z o i d a l p l a n t e r  1  0.036  OTHER  9. Wide s t a i r s  1  0.036  10. Narrow s t a i r s  5'  0.173  11. S t a i r h a n d r a i l s  5  0.173  12. Small C y l i n d r i c a l a s h t r a y s  6  0.214  13. S i g n  1  0.036  PLANT MATERIALS  along  N =28 AVERAGE UNCERTAINTY (U) APROX. AREA  = 3.313 = 14,500 S q . f t .  .191 Four Seasons Hotel  G E O R G I A  I.B.M. PLAZA ELEMENT TYPES  FREQ.  •OH).SCULPTURAL ELEMENTS  PLANT MATERIALS  PLANTER STRUCTURES  OTHER  PROB C = /N) Pi  ni  S 3  0.073  2. Small round c o n c r e t e p l a t f o r m  1  0.024  3. Fan-shaped stone stepped platform  1  0.024  4. C o n i f e r o u s shrub masses on large planters  2  0.049  5. Flower beds on s m a l l p l a n t e r s  6  0.146  6. Shrub mass on a l a r g e c i r c u l a r planter 1  0.024  i 7. Med.sized t r e e s on l a r g e planters  6  0.146  8. Small t r e e s on s m a l l p l a n t e r s  6  0.146  9. Small c i r c u l a r low p l a n t e r s  6  0.146  10..Large c i r c u l a r p l a n t e r  1  0.024  11. Large oblong p l a n t e r s  2  0.049  12. C y l i n d r i c a l Cone.Ashtrays  6  0.146  1. Concrete C y l i n d e r s h o l l o w  N = 41 AVERAGE UNCERTAINTY (U) = 3.256 APR0X. AREA = 11,700 s q . f t .  SHOPPING  ARCADE  I IH  OUNCE  \  J  ALLEY  TROUNCE ALLEY SQUARE  FREQ. PROB. (Pi-ni/H) 0.014 1. Antique machine part(wheel) 1  SCULPTURAL ELEMENT PLANTER STRUCTURES  PLANT . MATERIALS  2. Small circular con.drums with v e r t i c a l poles  6  0.084  3. Square Stone Planters  7  0.098  4. Loading platform  1  0.014  5. Articulated Planter on East edge  1  0.014  6. Juniperous Strub masses  8  0.113  7  0.098  7. Sleder deciduous med.  trees on square planter  -.  FREQ. (h^ 8. Protruding staircase Typo A 2  PROB (Pi-n^K) 0.028  9. Protruding staircase Type B l  0.014  ELEMENT TYPES  •ELEMENT TYPES  OTHER  10. Small steps  3  0.042  11. Ramps (small)  5  0.070  12. Decorative lights  5  0.070  13. Decorative bins  5  0.070  14. Small p i l l e r s IS. Large Garbage enclosure 16. Lantern posts  15 1 • 3 N-71  0.211 ' 0.014 0.042  AVERAGE UNCERTAINTY (U) - 3.566 AREA APPROX. » 9,700 0^.ft.  •  15  10  BAXTER TOWER  • 10  ^  1  ^ij-fV  —1  —  H A S T I N G S  S T R E E T  BAXTER PLAZA ELEMENT TYPES SCULPTURE  WATER-BODY  FREQ. PROB CPi==n Cn^  1. M e t a l S c u l p t u r e  A  1  .018  2. M e t a l S c u l p t u r e  B  1  .018  3. M e t a l S c u l p t u r e  C  1  .018  4. M e t a l S c u l p t u r e  D  1  ,018  pool 1  .018  2  .037  A  20  .370  8. S h r u b m a s s e s B  5  .092  9. S h r u b m a s s e s  5  .092  5  - .092  5. S h a l l o w c i r c u l a r s t i l l 6. Low s l o p p i n g j e t  PLANT MATERIALS  7. S h r u b m a s s e s  C  10. S m a l l d e c i d u o u s t r e e s POOL PLANTER  11. Low c i r c u l a r p o o l  STRUCTURES  12. S q u a r e Cone. P l a n t b o x e s  5  .092  OTHER  13. R a i l i n g s  6  .111  container 1  N=54 AVERAGE UNCERTAINTY (U) = 3 . 1 9 8 APROX.AREA  = 5,800 s q . f t .  .018  1  194  B U R R A R D  a  I N L E T  _n  n ,  o.  n  GUINESS TOWER  D  •Tl  Q  H A S T I N G S  S T E E E T  GUNIESS PLAZA  ELEMENT TYPES  FREQ.  PROB.  Cn ) 4  SEATS  1. Round concrete seats i n Gazebo  6  .061  16  .163  2  .020  4. Flower annuals i n c y l i n d r i c a l p l a n t e r s 1  .010  2. Square wooden benches PLANT MATERIALS  3.  Large t r e e s i n Gazebo  s.  Coniferous planters  6.  Confierous shrubs i n s q . p l a n t e r s on benches  7.  8.  Flower annuals i n s q . p l a n t e r on benches (Type B)  5  .051  S n a i l trees i n s q . p l a n t e r s on benches  4  .041  9.  S  .051  7  .071  Flower annuals i n s q . p l a n t e r s on benches (Type A) 4  .041  10. Coniferous Gazebo  PLANTER STRUCTURES  OTHER  shrub i n c y l i n d r i c a l  shrub masses i n C e n t r a l 4  .  .041  11. Rhododendron Shrubs on r e c t a n g u l a r beds on West s i d e p l a z a  6  .061  12.  One  1  .010  13.  C y l i n d r i c a l Concrete P l a n t e r s  4  .041  14.  l a r g e c i r c u l a r p l a n t e r i n Gazebo  Square small cone.plants on benches  15.  .153  IS. Small s t a i r c a s e s ( r e c t a n g u l a r plan)  7  .071  16.  Small s t a i r c a s e ( c u r v i l i n e a r )  1  .010  17.  Signs  2  ,020  18.  Straight r a i l i n g  7  .071  19.  C i r c u l a r r a i l i n g i n Gazebo  1  .010  N =98 AVERAGE UNCERTAINTY (U) = 3.839 APROX. AREA  + 10,000 S q . f t .  GRANVILLE SQUARE ELEMENT TYPES  FREQ. PROB. (.n ) (Pi^/N  ELEMENT TYPES  FREQ. fai)  t  SCULPTURE  WATER BODY  1. A large Complex form composed of large wood cubes  1  0.004  2. S t i l l Pool (Circular)  2  0.009  3. Revolving spray j e t of abstract shape i n the centre of pool PLANT MATERIALS  4. Slender Small:decid.trees Type A 5. Slender small:decid.trees Type B  1  0.023  53  0.241  6. Shrub mass: Type A  2  0.009  7. Shrub mass:  B  2  0.009  8. Shrub mass:  C  2  0.009  4  0.018  1  0.004  10. Flowering shrubs along railing  15.Square wooden low seats i n Combination:B  068  9  .041  16.Square wooden low seats i n Combination C 14  .064  17.Square wooden low seats i n Combination D 10  .045  18.Square wooden low seats i n Combination E  4.  .018  3  .014  20. Light poles  18  .082  21. Wooden b^ns  6  .027  22. R a i l i n g  7  .032  23.Stair wall  2  .009  19. Flag poles  N = 220 10. Large c i r c u l a r low pool and planter structure  3  0.014  UNCERTAINTY (U) = 3.508  11. Small c i r c u l a r pool s t r .  1  0.009  APPROX.AREA  12. Small round cone-planter boxes  53  0.241  2  0.009  13. Small square planter  O  0.009  5  9. Coniferous hedge  POOL/PLANTER STRUCTURES  14.Square wooden low seats i n Combination:A 15  PROB. (Pi^i  60,000 Sq.Ft.  196  

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